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A regional study of southeastern Vancouver Island, B.C. Farley, Albert Leonard 1949

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"A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND, B.C." - by -ALBERT LEONARD FARLEY A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF - MASTER OF ARTS -IN THE DEPARTMENT - of -GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY ,THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1949 A REGIONAL STUDY OP SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND, B. C. by ALBERT LEONARD FARLEY ABSTRACT OP A THESIS SUBMITTED. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, I949. 1 V Vancouver Island forms one of the border ranges of the North American a Cordillera, and i s separated from the mainland of British Columbia by, submerged depression, the Strait of Georgia. In extent^ Vancouver. Island is some 280 miles long and 50 to 80 miles wide, with an estimated area of 13,000 square miles. A central, strongly dissected mountainous backbone comprises most of the Island and forms i t s main axis, lying in a N.W. — S.B. direction. On the east, the backbone is bordered by a relatively narrow coastal plain which slopes gently to the Strait of Georgia. Southeastern Vancouver Island as considered in this study, i s that portion of the Island lying south and \! east of a line from the mouth of Muir CreeB to the southern end of Saanich ^ Inlet, thence following the Inlet to the northern tip of Saanich Peninsula. Southeastern Vancouver Island presents a varied picture to the geographer. The upland topography of the west and southwest, on the one hand, i s character-ized by forest industryywith attendant sparse population and relatively few roads. Inland, scattered areas of suitable soils are occupied by general farms, while along the coast, the many bays and harbours are centres pf fishing activity. On the other hand, extensive areas of modified glacial t i l l s in the central and northern portions are widely developed for a variety of agri-cultural pursuits. Population i s concentrated here and transportation routes <? show a dense, rectangular pattern. An urban area has developed in response to the natural harbour and i t s agricultural hinterland. The present day hinter-land of this urban area extends far beyond the regional boundaries so that i t now includes most of Vancouver Island. Though not well endowed with metallic minerals, the region has extensive reserves of non-mettalics in the form of sands, gravels and clays. These glacial deposits are being exploited for use in local construction. Fishing i s well developed along the ocean l i t t o r a l and exploits several fishes of which the Pacific salmon^ are the most important. The most v a l u a b l e primary i n d u s t r i e s are a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y . A g r i c u l t u r e i s ^ l T ^ a d a p t e ^ ^ c r duTlong f r o e t i e s s season, absence of extreme temperatures, and dry, r e l a t i v e l y sunny summers. Berry c u l t u r e , bulb and seed production are t h r i v i n g operations on the g l a c i a l l y derived s o i l s , F o r e s t r y u t i l i z e s the steep slopes and non-arable s o i l s of the maturely d i s s e c t e d upland area i n the west" and southwest. Though ouch of the f o r e s t a r e a ^ h ^ s ^ ^ , been out over, c l i m a t i c and edaphlc c o n d i t i o n s are optimum for^Douglas f i r , the most valuable s p e c i e s . Secondary i n d u s t r y i n Southeastern Vanoouvor I s l a n d i e favored by presence of f o r e s t and s o i l resources and a ready source of l a b o u r , but i s hindered by l i m i t e d markets and energy s u p p l i e s . At present, manufacturing &fce~ragi-on i s r e s t r i c t e d to simple processing* A great v a r i e t y of t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s centred i n the urban area of V i c t o r i a serve the l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l zone. Tourism i s one of these i n d u s t r i e s which has been p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l , c a p i t a l i z i n g the l o c a l c l i m a t e and scenery, the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and " B r i t i s h " atmosphere. The region's g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l r e s t s on i t s s o i l and f o r e s t resources. U l t i m a t e l y , the c u l t i v a t e d land c o u l d be approximately doubled. The non-arable s o i l s and upland areas now supporting Various stages of second growtTi, are; w e l l s u i t e d to sustained y i e l d f o r e s t r y . The expansion of l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n and secondary i n d u s t r i e s would probably p a r a l l e l increased development of tbe«« b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s , thereby adding c o n s i d e r a b l y to the r e g i o n a l wealth. G r a t e f u l acknowledgment i s extended to a l l those who have helped the" w r i t e r i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n i s due t o Dr. J . L. Robinson and Mr. J . Chapman of the Department of Geology and Geography a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f the manuscript. The w r i t e r i s a l s o indebted to the many P r o v i n c i a l Government s t a f f members who have ai d e d him i n s e c u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ... ft 1. AREA AND LOCATION 1 Geomatic L o c a t i o n and Extent 1 Geographic P o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1 Geographic P o s i t i o n i n Canada 3 2. GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND 3 Geologic H i s t o r y 3 A r e a ! Geology V S u p e r f i c i a l Geology 9 3. GEOMORPHOLOGY ' 12 Present Landfo.rms and Drainage 12 Broad E f f e c t s of Physiography on Land Use i n the Region 19 4. CLIMATE 21 C l i m a t i c C o n t r o l s . 21 D e t a i l e d Climate o f the Region 24 Some E f f e c t s o f Climate i n the Region 40 5. SOILS 44 D e r i v a t i o n 44 S o i l C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n 46 A. S o i l s Derived From Coarse Textured T i l l . 47 1. Shawnigan Stony Sandy Loam. 47 2. K e a t i n g Stody Loam 48 B. S o i l s Derived From L a c u s t r i n e Deposits 49 1. Cowichan C l a y Loam and C l a y 49 C. S o i l s Derived From S t r a t i f i e d D r i f t 50 1. Qualieum Stony Sand 51 2. Qualicum Loamy.o.Sand 51 D. S o i l s of M i s c e l l a n e o u s O r i g i n 52 1. Tolmie Sandy C l a y Loam 52 2. D e l t a S o i l s 53 3. Peats 54 4. Mixed P r o f i l e s 54 Summary o f S o i l Resources o f the Region 55 6. NATURAL VEGETATION AND PLANT AND ANIMAL ECOLOGY... 57 N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n and Settlement 57 Slope, S o i l , Water.and V e g e t a t i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p s 60 Animal L i f e and Settlement 63 7. HITMAN GEOGRAPHY 0¥ THE REGION 66 H i s t o r y of E x p l o r a t i o n and Settlement 66 Present P o p u l a t i o n 71 (a) D i s t r i b u t i o n 71 (b) D e n s i t y 72 (c) Growth o f P o p u l a t i o n 74 4d) Composition 75 8. INDUSTRIES ; 79 A. Primary I n d u s t r i e s 79 Mining 79 Fishing..'. 85 F o r e s t r y 86 A g r i c u l t u r e 90 (a) Small F r u i t Farming 90 (h) S p e c i a l t y Crop Farming.... 94 (c) D a i r y i n g . . L 96 (d) Truck Farming 98 (e) P o u l t r y Farming 99 ( f ) General Farming 101 (g) Tree F r u i t Farming 102 (h) Sheep and p a r t - t i m e Farms. 103 B. Secondary I n d u s t r i e s 104 C. T e r t i a r y I n d u s t r i e s 110 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 112 C i t i e s 115 9. LAND UTILIZATION 119 A g r i c u l t u r e 119 F o r e s t r y 121 Other Land Uses 122 10. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 124 ' BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 PLATES PREFACE The o b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s i s to p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e of the geographic p a t t e r n i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h a view to understanding i t s p r e s e n t development and i t s f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n some r e s p e c t s i t i s a p i o n e e r study, s i n c e v e r y l i t t l e has y e t been done toward a geographic a n a l y s i s of any p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e . There i s a p r e s s i n g need f o r geographic s t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n order t h a t s u i t a b l e long-term measures concerning the u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s may be f o r m u l a t e d . Up to the p r e s e n t , the g e n e r a l programme of i n d u s t r y i n the p r o v i n c e has been one of r a p i d e x p l o i t a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r than p l a n n i n g on a permanent b a s i s . I n d u s t r y has n o t o n l y been l a r g e l y e x p l o i t a t i v e but has shown a l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n of resources - most of our wealth i s based upon the export of raw or semi-processed m a t e r i a l s from f o r e s t , mine and sea. F u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g of these raw m a t e r i a l s , through the development of secondary and a s s o c i a t e d t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia , w i l l make more work and income a v a i l a b l e t o the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f these I n d u s t r i e s and the n e c e s s a r y long-term p l a n n i n g r e g a r d i n g the use of r e s o u r c e s are not simple matters. Amount and a v a i l a b i l i t y of raw m a t e r i a l s , energy s o u r c e s , labour and markets a l l must be c o n s i d e r e d . Land use s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of l a n d f o r permanent f o r e s t , a g r i c u l t u r e , r e c r e a t i o n or commercial development w i l l be necessary. While the scope of t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d , i t i s hoped t h a t i t w i l l convey a f a i r l y complete r e g i o n a l p i c t u r e of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d - the p h y s i c a l background, the re s o u r c e s , present u t i l i z a t i o n of these r e s o u r c e s and some sug g e s t i o n as to t h e i r f u t u r e use. The m a t e r i a l has been organized w i t h t h i s view i n mind, the f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h the p h y s i c a l s i d e of the r e g i o n , the second w i t h the c u l t u r a l s i d e , and wherever p o s s i b l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these two phases have been i n d i c a t e d . Since l i t t l e geographic work has been done i n B r i t i s h Columbia, most of the source m a t e r i a l was gleaned from works i n other f i e l d s . G e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s , n o t a b l y those of C. H. Clapp and M. A. Peacock were found v e r y h e l p f u l , w h i l e H. S. Bostock's r e c e n t work on the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a was a l s o u s e f u l . C e r t a i n s e c t i o n s i n the geographic study of the P a c i f i c Northwest e d i t e d by 0. P. Freeman and H. H. M a r t i n formed g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l and a i d e d o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t h e s i s . I n the c l i m a t i c s e c t i o n , A. J . Connor's " F r o s t -Free Season i n B r i t i s h Columbia" was w i d e l y used, w h i l e h i s sequence of maps and graphs i n "The Climate of Manitoba" was o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o . Most of the other source m a t e r i a l was i n the form of numerous Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l Government p u b l i c a t i o n s and maps. In a d d i t i o n t o the p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , s e v e r a l unpublished manuscripts and r e p o r t s from government sources were c o n s u l t e d . Among these, R. H. S p i l s b u r y f s s o i l survey of e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d was p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o c o n s u l t i n g w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l , e x t e n s i v e f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out i n the r e g i o n , checking data and adding new m a t e r i a l wherever p o s s i b l e . I MA REGIONAL STUDY OF SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND, B . C . " INTRODUCTION: Vancouver Island l i e s close to the mainland of Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, between latitudes 48°N. and 51°N. and longitudes 12f W. and 129°W. The Island forms one of the border ranges of the North American Cord i l l e ra , and i s separated from the mainland by a submerged depression, the S t ra i t of Georgia. In extent, Vancouver Island is some 280 miles long and 50 to 80 miles wide, with an estimated area of 1 3 , 0 0 0 square miles. A central, strongly dissected, mountainous backbone comprises most of the Island and forms i t s main axis , lying i n a N.W.-S.E. d i rec t ion. This backbone i s flanked on the west by a rugged and deeply fiorded coast bordering the Pacif ic Ocean. On the east, the backbone i s bordered by a long and re la t ive ly narrow coastal p la in which slopes gently to the S t ra i t of Georgia. This S t ra i t , i n turn, i s bordered to the east, by the steep, rugged, west flank of the Coast Range of B r i t i s h Columbia. Southeastern Vancouver Island, as considered i n this study, is that portion of the Island lying south and east of a l ine from the mouth of Muir Creek to the southern end of Saanich Inlet , thence continuing northward along the eastern shore of the Inlet , as far as the northern t ip of Saanich Peninsula. Thus, i n a broad sense, the region consists of Sooke Basin and the Saanich Peninsula. The map II showing land recording d i s t r i c t s on Vancouver Island, reveals that the region chosen coincides with the area l y i n g southeast of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway land grant. However, the regional boundary i s physical as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l . In f i r s t determining the western boundary of the region, i t was decided to follow the southern edge of the Vancouver Island Range, but since t h i s range i s very much dissected i n the southeast, i t s southern extremity i s d i f f i c u l t to trace. A close inspection of a topographic map of the area, shows that a ridge of high land extends between the mouth of Muir Creek and the southern end of Saanich Arm, but this ridge expands i n an eastward curving arc which has a very i n d e f i n i t e boundary north and northeast of Sooke Basin. In addition, the ridge i s deeply indented by the valleys of Sooke and Goldstream r i v e r s , making the natural boundary between lowland and upland more d i f f i c u l t to define. Considering these d i f f i c u l t i e s i n delineating the topographic boundary i n the western part of the region, one wonders i f the area has geographic continuity. From the standpoint of economics, transportation pattern, sequent occupance and land u t i l i z a t i o n , the western and southwestern portions of the region are closely k n i t with the remainder. C l i m a t i c a l l y too, there are d e f i n i t e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the western and eastern parts, though differences do e x i s t , IT See B.C. DeptT of Lands, Map 2 A, 1938, scale 4 miles per inch. 2. See: Dominion Dept. of M:Lnes and Resources, National Topographic Series, Sheets 92W and 92Sw (parts o f ) , 1941, scale 2 mi. per inch, or: Geographical Section, General S t a f f , Dept. of National Defence, 1935, Sooke Bay (1180), Goldstream (3286), and Metchosin (2971) sheets, scale 1:25,000. . •• ~ I l l as shown i n a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . The c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s , i n t u r n , are r e f l e c t e d i n the s o i l s of the r e g i o n , but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the western p o r t i o n , s o i l s are more c l o s e l y t i e d t o topography than to c l i m a t e , and hence they are of l i t t l e use i n an exact d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the western r e g i o n a l boundary. G e o l o g i c a l l y , n e i t h e r s t r u c t u r e nor s u p e r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s are r e l a t e d c l o s e l y enough t o the other geographic f a c t o r s t o a i d i n determining the boundary. C o n s i d e r i n g a l l the geographic f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r , i t i s apparent t h a t though the r e g i o n as a whole has d e f i n i t e u n i t y , the exact d e l i n e a t i o n of i t s western boundary i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y . Thus i t was deci d e d t o choose as the r e g i o n a l boundary, the p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n l a i d down by the Esqu i m a l t and Wanaimo Railway Land Grant. T h i s boundary, except f o r the p o r t i o n between Sooke and Goldstream r i v e r s , c l o s e l y corresponds w i t h the topographic boundary. I n t h a t p o r t i o n between the two r i v e r s , i t i s a r b i t r a r y o n l y because the geographic boundary i t s e l f i s here d i f f i c u l t to determine. The remaining boundaries of the r e g i o n of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d are e a s i l y d e f i n e d , s i n c e they c o n s i s t of the waters o f Sa a n i c h I n l e t on the northwest, S a t e l l i t e Channel on the n o r t h , Haro S t r a i t on the e a s t and Juan de Fuca S t r a i t on the south and s o u t h e a s t . R e f e r r i n g to the map showing land r e c o r d i n g d i s t r i c t s , i t can be seen t h a t the r e g i o n c o n s i s t s o f the d i s t r i c t s of O t t e r , Sooke, Metchosin, Goldstream, E s q u i m a l t , H i g h l a n d , V i c t o r i a , Lake, South Saanich and North S a a n i c h . Those of V i c t o r i a , Lake and South S a a n i c h together form the ar e a of g r e a t e r V i c t o r i a , the urban c e n t r e f o r the r e g i o n , and the P r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l . 1 1. AREA AND LOCATION Geomatic L o c a t i o n and E x t e n t . The r e g i o n o f S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d l i e s between the l a t i t u d e s of 48°l8'N. and 48°42'N., and between 123°l6'W. and 123°52'W. Very i r r e g u l a r i n o u t l i n e , the r e g i o n i s some 28 m i l e s i n north-south extent and i t averages 8 m i l e s wide. The approximate t o t a l area i s 200 square m i l e s , forming o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the 13,000 square mile area of Vancouver I s l a n d . Geographic P o s i t i o n i n B.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , the r e g i o n l i e s i n the "populated p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, forming a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h a t southwest corner which i s the geographic h e a r t of the p r o v i n c e . One o f the reasons f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e which Southe a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d p l a y s i n the economy of B.C., i s t h a t the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h i s r e g i o n forms an important p o r t i o n of the e a s t coast lowland of Vancouver I s l a n d . T h i s e a s t coast lowland, together w i t h the n e i g h b o r i n g F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y , forms one of the few e x t e n s i v e lowland areas i n the p r o v i n c e . Not o n l y t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , but a l s o from the p o i n t of view of c l i m a t e , the r e g i o n forms one of the most f a v o r a b l e p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. The m i l d w i n t e r s , moderate p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and long f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d , i n c o n t r a s t to c l i m a t i c f e a t u r e s throughout most of B.C., are conducive to the development of a g r i c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when combined w i t h the s u i t a b l e s o i l s which the area possesses. Even w i t h i n the l i m i t e d area of Vancouver I s l a n d , i t s s o u t h e a s t e r n 2 portion displays a longer frostless season, warmer summers and a greater total sunshine than most of the remainder. The economic importance of the region i s reflected i n the concentration of population within i t . Approximately 100,000^ people, or ten percent of British Columbia's one million population, live i n this southeast tip of the Island. The concentration of population indicates a similar concentration of industry. Not only agriculture., the basic local industry, but also the processing of forest products, fishing and the associated tertiary industries, make up an important share of the wealth of the region, as well as a significant part of the wealth of B.C. The position of Southeastern Vancouver Island has been a determining factor in the establishment of these industries, particularly the commercial, forest and fishing industries. Located as i t i s , Vancouver Island provides a barrier between the ports of Puget Sound and the lower B.C. coast, and the open waters of the Pacific. Its southeastern t i p , therefore, i s in a sheltered position, protected from storms by the bulk of the Island, but at the same time tapping both coastwise and deep sea shipping lanes. With the exception of Port Alberni, Victoria is closer to the Pacific Ocean shipping routes than is any other major port on the lower B.C. coast and Puget Sound. In addition to deep sea trade, the region i s important in providing an operating centre for small craft engaged i n fishing or rafting logs, or coastal trade i n the area of Juan de Fuca Strait, Haro * 1 "Vital Statistics of the Province of British Columbia", 75th report, for the year 194-6, Provincial Board of Health, King's Printer, Victoria, 194-8. 3 S t r a i t and the southern part of Georgia S t r a i t . Geographic P o s i t i o n i n Canada. Located w e l l to the south of the 49th p a r a l l e l , t h is region l i e s roughly equidistant from Vancouver and Seattle. Consequently V i c t o r i a i s a natural port of c a l l f o r northbound shipping into western Canadian waters, and also i s e a s i l y accessible to American t o u r i s t s . This a c c e s s i b i l i t y , combined with the favorable climate which •fee region possesses, makes tourism an important industry. The f a c t that V i c t o r i a has the largest per capita t o u r i s t trade of any Canadian c i t y 1 serves to i l l u s t r a t e the l a t t e r statement. The geographic factors have also combined to make the region one of Canada's centres of early vegetable, s m a l l . f r u i t and seed production. 2: GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND Geologic History Southeastern Vancouver Island i s made up of a narrow coastal p l a i n and the southeastern edge of the Vancouver Island Ranges, the mountains which constitute the bulk of the Island. Bordered on the west by the Vancouver Island Ranges, and on the east by the S t r a i t s of Juan de Fuca and Georgia, the region lar g e l y represents an emerged portion of the P a c i f i c Coast Downfold. This Downfold extends from the Gulf of C a l i f o r n i a north into Alaska, and while above sea l e v e l i n C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon and Washington, i t i s submerged at i t s northern and southern ends. I t i s flanked on either side by great mountain ranges, those of B.C. being the Coast Range to I~"Facts About V i c t o r i a " , Victoria~and Island P u b l i c i t y Bureau, Colonist Presses., V i c t o r i a , B.C. p.2. 50 " N . R E G I O N O F SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND S0°N. cp p - 4 9 N VANCOUVER ISLAND AND THE LOWER " B.C. COAST S c a l e - 3 1 - 5 6 m i l e s i i n c h I Z<o w . T T L t 4 the east, and Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Island ranges to the west. Geologically, Southeastern Vancouver Island i s part of a young, f o l d mountain area. The following inferred development of the coastland of B r i t i s h Columbia i s based upon considerable geological evidence and embodies the research of such men as G.M.Dawson, CH.Clapp, J.A.Bancroft, S.J.Schofield and others. The accompanying map of physical d i v i s i o n s w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e the argument as i t applies to the region under discussion. During the end of the Jurassic or the beginning of the Cretaceous Period, the western belt of the present Co r d i l l e r a n region was folded by pressure from the northeast, and intruded by d i o r i t i c type magmas. The region was thus bent into an outward curving arc with a pronounced long i t u d i n a l grain. At the same time, a system of tension and shear fractures developed. A great downfold or v a l l e y was also produced, dividing the present "Island Ranges" from those of the mainland. Bostock refers to t h i s as the Coastal Though.1 Near the 49th p a r a l l e l a smaller transverse v a l l e y was also produced, now occupied by the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca. By the end of the Mesozoic, the region had been subdued by erosion, and was again folded i n the early ©enozoic. The compression caused a new set of shear fractures obliquely to the former set. Again, prolonged stream erosion following the folding i n the early Cenozoic, reduced the surface to one of maturity at the end of the Miocene. In Southeastern 1 Bostock ? H.S.? Physiography of the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a . Geol. Survey of Canada, Mem. 247, 1948., p.88. 5 Vancouver I s l a n d , t h i s T e r t i a r y e r o s i o n s u r f a c e was pene p l a i n e d , and o n l y a few, rounded h i l l s remained above the g e n e r a l l e v e l . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , an unequal r e g i o n a l u p l i f t o f 3 ,000 t o 5,000 f e e t o c c u r r e d i n the P l i o c e n e . 2 T h i s upwarp was g r e a t e r i n the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d than i t 3 was i n the south, where, a c c o r d i n g to Clapp the T e r t i a r y p e n e p l a i n i s now l e s s than 1 ,500 f e e t a t the c o a s t . The up-l i f t e d s u r f a c e caused r e j u v e n a t i o n of the advanced p r e c e d i n g e r o s i o n c y c l e , and the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of the present drainage i s b e l i e v e d t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s time. Transverse r i v e r s with l a r g e subsequent t r i b u t a r i e s maturely d i s s e c t e d the u p l i f t e d s u r f a c e , and along the e a s t e r n shore o f southern Vancouver I s l a n d , the u n d e r l y i n g sedimentary rocks were even f u r t h e r reduced, producing a new p e n e p l a i n s e v e r a l hundred f e e t below the T e r t i a r y p e n e p l a i n . T h i s s u r f a c e i s now some two to three hundred f e e t above sea l e v e l and i s surmounted by s m a l l rounded monadnocks. A l s o , o f f the west coa s t o f SouthernVancouver I s l a n d , a c o a s t a l p l a i n , which had been b u i l t i n T e r t i a r y time and l a t e r u p l i f t e d w i t h the r e s t o f the I s l a n d , was eroded almost t o b a s e l e v e l i n t h i s p r e - g l a c i a l c y c l e . T h i s e r o s i o n exposed the mountainous slope a g a i n s t which the sediments had been d e p o s i t e d , and the marine 1 Clapp. C.H.. Southern Vancouver I s l a n d . G e o l . Survey of Canada, Memoir 13, 1912, p.16 2 Peacock, M.A., The F i o r d l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia. G.S.A. B u l l . 46, 1935, p.687. 3 Clapp, C.H., Southern Vancouver I s l a n d f G e o l . Survey of Canada, Memoir 13, 1912, p.17. 4 I b i d . , p. 19. platform so produced now exists, as with the southeastern 1 section, some 200 feet above the sea. p Clapp states that at some time following mature dissection of the uplifted peneplain, part of southern Vancouver Island was depressed, forming the drowned coastline of that part of the Island. The amount of subsidence is not stated, though judging from his account of the formation of the southeastern and southwestern coastal plains, (See foot -note 4, p.5, footnote 1, p.6) i t was not great. If this i s the case, i t would seem d i f f i c u l t to reconcile with Peacock's account involving a late Pleistocene or early post-glacial regional subsidence of about 1,600 feet.3 Deposits and glacial striae indicate that a Pleistocene ice sheet crossed the Coast Range, formed large piedmont glaciers, and f i l l e d the Gulf of Georgia with an ice stream. Glaciers also flowed laterally away from the higher elevations of the Vancouver Island ranges, which at this time, were covered by ice up to an altitude of about 4 4,000 feet. The Seymour Arch, (at the widest part of Vancouver Island), appears to have formed a divide which deflected the ice to Queen Charlotte Strait on the northwest, and the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca on the southeast. This glaciation smoothed and rounded a l l the mountains under 4,000 feet high, and l e f t a mantle of d r i f t deposits of varied 1 Clapp, Southern Vancouver Island^ p.24. 2 Ibid., p.18. 3 Peacock, M.A., The Fiordland of Bri t i s h Columbia, G.S.A. Bull.46, 1935, p.692. 4 Clapp, loc. c i t . t h i c k n e s s e s . On r e t r e a t of the f i r s t , and l a r g e s t g l a c i e r s , the land stood some 200 - 400 f e e t lower than a t p r e s e n t , 1 and on the p r e - g l a c i a l p e n e p l a i n , sediments, both marine and g l a c i o - f l u v i a l , were l a i d down. F o l l o w i n g r e t r e a t of the f i r s t widespread i c e sheet, a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e v a l l e y g l a c i a t i o n s e t i n , d u r i n g which the i c e s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d e x i s t i n g drainage c h a n n e l s . 2 Thus many of the westward f l o w i n g v a l l e y s were converted i n t o f i o r d s and s e v e r a l of the i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s were deepened i n t o l a r g e l a k e b a s i n s . I n a d d i t i o n , the d r i f t d e p o s i t e d by the f i r s t g l a c i a t i o n was p a r t i a l l y eroded. Soon a f t e r , or p o s s i b l y b e f o r e , r e t r e a t of the second g l a c i a t i o n , an u p l i f t o f some 250 feet3 caused a p a r t i a l r e c o v e r y from the former d e p r e s s i o n . With t h i s u p l i f t , the p r e s e n t marine e r o s i o n c y c l e commenced. The d r i f t d e p o s i t s have been r e t r o g r a d e d t o form steep c l i f f s about 250 f e e t h i g h , w h i l e the unmantled p o r t i o n s of the coas t p r e s e n t the i n i t i a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the drowned s u r f a c e . The southwestern c o a s t l i n e o f the I s l a n d a l s o e x h i b i t s the r e s u l t of strong wave e r o s i o n . The remnants of the west coast lowland, formed i n the p r e - g l a c i a l c y c l e have been cut back so that they now present smooth s h o r e l i n e s between f o r e l a n d s of more r e s i s t a n t r o c k s . A r e a l Geology S t r u c t u r a l l y , Vancouver I s l a n d , i n c o n t r a s t t o 1 Clapp. Southern Vancouver Island,, p.151 2 Peacock, The F l o r d L a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia, p.681. 3 Clapp, C.H., V i c t o r i a and Saanich Map Areas. G e o l . Survey of Canada, Memoir 36, 1913, p.9 . 8 the Coast Range of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s l a r g e l y composed of o l d e r , deformed sedimentary and metamorphic r o c k s , r a t h e r than younger i n t r u s i v e s . Thus the Vancouver I s l a n d ranges are s i m i l a r i n nature and r e l a t e d to the Olympic Range and the Coast Ranges of Oregon and Washington. The a n c i e n t sedimentaries and v o l c a n i c s were invaded and replaced', i n the l a t e J u r a s s i c and e a r l y Cretaceous, by i r r e g u l a r bodies of g r a n i t i c r o c k s ; while both coasts of the I s l a n d are f r i n g e d w i t h f r a g m e n t a l sediments r e s t i n g on the o l d e r r o c k s . C o v e r i n g the hard rocks t o v a r i o u s depths i s a mantle of p a r t i a l l y s t r a t i f i e d g l a c i a l d e t r i t u s . Though the d e t a i l e d geology of the r e g i o n of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s complicated, the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s rock types can be seen from the accompanying map. In the n o r t h e a s t , a narrow b e l t of sedimentary rocks of upper Cretaceous age, conglomerate sandstone and s h a l e , forms the t i p of S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a . Bordering t h i s to the south, i s an e x t e n s i v e area of acidic i n t r u s i v e r o c k s , c h i e f l y g r a n o d i o r i t e and. q u a r t z d i o r i t e , and termed by C l a p p 1 , the Saanich G r a n o d i o r i t e s . On the south, these upper J u r a s s i c rocks border on a narrow band of upper T r i a s s i c sedimentaries and v o l c a n i c s , the Vancouver V o l c a n i c s , s t r e t c h i n g from the area of Tod I n l e t t o Cordova Bay. Another narrow s t r i p , s i m i l a r t o the Saanich G r a n o d i o r i t e s , but named by Clapp, the C o l q u i t z Quartz D i o r i t e G n e i s s , p a r a l l e l s the Vancouver V o l c a n i c s . The C o l q u i t z rocks border on the south, 1 Clapp, C.H., V i c t o r i a and Saanich Map Areas. G e o l . Survey of Canada, Memoir 3 6 , 1 9 1 3 . 8 a A R E A L G E LEGEND ( c d n ^ = t o n e n h t i J K - » I ^ 1 W o r k L i t W o a - d ' o r i ' U C r t e i s s c^»o^ pl»Kly ffiii kif\^ feed rt,ck) K/7 LeccK R i v e r F o r t A l U n C r i H O J i o r l f c P a 42°3<>'sJ. 9 a l a r g e and r a t h e r i r r e g u l a r mass of b a s i c r o c k s . These b a s i c rocks are l a r g e l y i n t r u s i v e s of upper J u r a s s i c age and are c h i e f l y gabbros and d i o r i t e s . In the east c e n t r a l p a r t of t h i s b a s i c mass are s m a l l e r areas of the C o l q u i t z type. S t r e t c h i n g from Oak Bay t o the Beacon H i l l area i s a s m a l l a r c of Vancouver V o l c a n i c s , (upper T r i a s s i c ) , while another area of the same type rocks forms the p e r i p h e r y of Esq u i m a l t Harbour. Around and to the south of the end of Saanich I n l e t , a zone of Carboniferous and l a t e r sedimentary and v o l c a n i c rocks, extends as f a r south as the Colwood d e l t a . This d e l t a i s an h e a v i l y d r i f t - c o v e r e d , r o u g h l y t r i a n g u l a r area which extends i n l a n d from a base l y i n g between A l b e r t Head-and the mouth of Esqu i m a l t Harbour. Most of the remaining area of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s made up of Eocene v o l c a n i c s . These are the Metchosin V o l c a n i c s , made up of b a s a l t s , t u f f s and the l i k e . Smaller zones of i n t r u s i v e s and sedimentaries make up the remainder — i n the west c e n t r a l , southwest, Sooke P e n i n s u l a and Rocky P o i n t areas, are b a s i c rocks of T e r t i a r y age, l a r g e l y 1 i n t r u s i v e ; w h i l e b o r d e r i n g the western shore of Sooke Harbour and i n the extreme southwestern corner of the r e g i o n , are Eocene or l a t e r sedimentary r o c k s . S u p e r f i c i a l Geology The s u p e r f i c i a l geology of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i l l u s t r a t e s some of the important e f f e c t s which g l a c i a t i o n has had upon topography, economic geology, s o i l s , and drainage. The i c e scoured the upland and removed the s o i l from the lowland. By q u a r r y i n g the b e l t s of weaker rocks and s c o u r i n g some of the e x i s t i n g v a l l e y s , l a k e b a s i n s , f i o r d s 10 and harbours were produced. The d r i f t mantle l e f t a f t e r g l a c i a t i o n d i s r u p t e d d r a i n a g e , formed v a l u a b l e n o n - m e t a l l i c d e p o s i t s , and i n many i n s t a n c e s , has weathered t o f e r t i l e s o i l s . Though the e f f e c t s of g l a c i a t i o n have been of paramount importance i n man's o c c u p a t i o n o f the area, the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the r e g i o n i s ^ o f subdued, drowned r e l i e f , developed i n the p r e - g l a c i a l c y c l e . The t i l l l e f t by g l a c i a t i o n i s v a r i e d i n c h a r a c t e r . That l e f t by the f i r s t g l a c i e r i s l a r g e l y unmodified i n the upland a r e a s , though s l i d i n g and r a i n wash on the steeper s l o p e s have caused some change. During r e t r e a t of the f i r s t , ( A d m i r a l t y ) , g l a c i e r s , the A d m i r a l t y t i l l i n the l a r g e r v a l l e y s and on the c o a s t a l lowlands, was reworked by the agencies of r i v e r s , l a k e s and oceans, causing s t r a t i - f i c a t i o n . These s t r a t i f i e d d e p o s i t s are of two main types --those formed i n e s t u a r i e s and l a k e s , and those formed i n r i v e r s and d e l t a s . S i n c e the land at t h i s time was c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than a t present, (as proven by marine f o s s i l s ) , many e s t u a r i e s e x i s t e d . In the comparatively s t i l l waters of the e s t u a r i e s , f i n e r sediments were d e p o s i t e d . These have been c a l l e d the Maywood c l a y s , and c o n s i s t l a r g e l y of s t r a t i f i e d c l a y , sand and g r a v e l , with i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d b o u l d e r s , ( b e l i e v e d dropped from m e l t i n g i c e f l o e s ) . Since most of these d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n marine f o s s i l s , t h e i r mode of o r i g i n i s a s c e r t a i n e d , though some s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s , l a c k i n g marine f o s s i l s , are b e l i e v e d t o have formed i n p o s t - g l a c i a l l a k e s . The s t r a t i f i e d d e p o s i t s formed i n r i v e r s and 1. Cut bank i n the Cordova sands and gravels, near Cordova Bay, Lenses of sand can be seen interspersed i n the gravels. S t r a t i f i c a t i o n of these reworked Admiralty t i l l s i s apparent, A superincumbent layer, (3 to 4 feet t h i c k ) , of l a r g e l y u n s t r a t i f i e d Vashon t i l l can be discerned above the sands and gravels. 2. Truck farm near Mt, Douglas, The tree-covered, esker-like ridge of Cordova sands and gravels which extends south from the monadnock, forms the background. 11 d e l t a s d u r i n g the P u y a l l u p i n t e r g l a c i a l are of coarser m a t e r i a l than the e s t u a r i n e and lake d e p o s i t s . They are made up mostly of s t r a t i f i e d sand and g r a v e l , and i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t e i t h e r shallower water p r e v a i l e d or e l s e the r i v e r s and streams i s s u i n g from the i c e f r o n t were more h e a v i l y loaded w i t h c o a r s e r d e t r i t u s . These d e p o s i t s are known as the Cordova sands and g r a v e l s . The P u y a l l u p i n t e r g l a c i a l ended wi t h the Vashon g l a c i a l epoch, and the Vashon d r i f t was d e p o s i t e d a t t h i s time. C o i n c i d e n t w i t h , or immediately a f t e r t h i s g l a c i a t i o n , the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned 200 to 4-00 f o o t u p l i f t o c c u r r e d . Most of the Vashon d r i f t was d e p o s i t e d through the agency of i c e alone, but some of i t i s s l i g h t l y s t r a t i f i e d , i n d i c a t i n g the work of streams f l o w i n g under the g l a c i e r , or i s s u i n g from i t . As mentioned, this second p e r i o d of g l a c i a t i o n was l e s s i n t e n s e than that of the A d m i r a l t y epoch, f o r i t s d r i f t d e p o s i t s , i n the lowlands at l e a s t , always r e s t on those o r i g i n a t i n g from the A d m i r a l t y t i l l , and do not r e s t on bedrock. However, the Vashon g l a c i e r s eroded p o r t i o n s of the former d e p o s i t s , c h i e f l y the Cordova sands and g r a v e l s , l e a v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e areas of f l a t l a n d u n d e r l a i n by the Maywood c l a y s . I n some p l a c e s , the sands and g r a v e l s were p r o t e c t e d by monadnocks, and thus formed e s k e r - l i k e r i d g e s behind the l a t t e r . I t i s b e l i e v e d that the r e c e s s i o n of the Vashon g l a c i e r s was r a p i d , because of the absence of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s such as moraines and e s k e r s , formed of Vashon d r i f t . However, a l a r g e d e l t a , the Colwood p l a i n or d e l t a , was formed at t h i s time i n f r o n t of the r e c e d i n g i c e . Apparently i t was I la SUPERFICIAL GEOLOGY O F T H E VICTORIA - SAANICH AREA S c a l e - m i I e s to i inch >25*30W. LEGEND Beach alluvium Valley and Swamp _^,Colwoo4 sands, and I I - A V C I S (stije of glacial retreat) V a s h o n d r i f t (stage of ^ Ucial occupation) C o r d o v a sands a n d gravel Majwo od clajs AdmiraUy t i l l (not SVIOV*TI an map} R o c K o u t c r o p s C h f e f ] ^ r » c k o u t c r o p s b u t s o m e d r i f t . 12 l a i d down a t l e a s t p a r t l y i n s a l t water, by a h e a v i l y loaded stream f l o w i n g from a l a r g e v a l l e y g l a c i e r occupying the Goldstream-Leech r i v e r v a l l e y . These d e p o s i t s have been c a l l e d the Colwood sands and g r a v e l * . In p o s t - g l a c i a l times d e l t a and r i v e r d e p o s i t s have been l e f t by r i v e r s e x i s t i n g to-day, w h i l e s e v e r a l s m a l l e r l a k e s , sloughs and ponds have become f i l l e d w i t h a l l u v i u m s . The accompanying map of s u p e r f i c i a l geology I n d i c a t e s the preponderance o f Haywood c l a y s I n the d r i f t d e p o s i t s 1 . 3. GEOMORPHOLOGY The g e n e r a l map, (Pl a t e I I ) , and the accompanying s m a l l s c a l e topographic map w i l l a i d i n l o c a t i n g the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s mentioned i n t h i s chapter. Present Landforms and Drainage The g r e a t e r p a r t of So u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver Islan d c o n s i s t s of the lowland s u r f a c e developed d u r i n g the p r e - g l a c i a l c y c l e . T h i s lowland, now averaging 200 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n , i s surmounted by numerous, but r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , rounded monadnocks, one of the most prominent of which, Mt. Newton, i s 1,025 f e e t above the sea. I n the west and southwest, the lowland grades i n t o a maturely d i s s e c t e d upland area, r e f e r r e d to i n the s e c t i o n under g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y as a p o r t i o n o f the 1 Map adapted from map contained i n Clapp's r e p o r t , on the V i c t o r i a and Saanich a r e a s . The boundaries of each type of d e p o s i t are approximate. They have been drawn o n l y where the d e p o s i t concerned reaches an a p p r e c i a b l e t h i c k n e s s and i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d . No map of s u p e r f i c i a l geology f o r the southwestern p a r t of the r e g i o n i s a t present a v a i l a b l e . I Z a TOPOGRAPHY SOUTHEASTERN! VANCOUVER ISLAND S c a l e - ^ mi 1 * s t o | ! ncVi . 13 u p l i f t e d T e r t i a r y p e n e p l a i n . This upland i s a c t u a l l y a p a r t of the Vancouver I s l a n d ranges, and s i n c e i t has been g l a c i a t e d , the e l e v a t i o n s have smooth, rounded o u t l i n e s . The sc o u r i n g a c t i o n o f the g l a c i e r s i s a l s o evidenced i n a s m a l l f i o r d forming p a r t of Saanich I n l e t , and i n the drowned, g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y s forming the harbours o f V i c t o r i a , E s q u i m a l t and Sooke. The lowland s u r f a c e i s not f l a t , but i n the areas where there i s l i t t l e or no d r i f t mantle, many s m a l l , i r r e g u l a r v a l l e y s e x i s t , which f o l l o w zones of weaker r o c k s . Numerous hollows i n the mantle of the d r i f t covered areas have g i v e n r i s e to shallow l a k e s , such as E l k Lake, North of V i c t o r i a and Langford Lake i n the Colwood area. Others, however, were formed i n deepend rock basins as e x e m p l i f i e d by Prospect Lake, west of E l k Lake, and T h e t i s Lake, near Esquimalt Harbour. E l k Lake, the l a r g e s t w i t h i n the r e g i o n , was the former centre of water supply f o r V i c t o r i a c i t y . Some of the monadnocks, n o t a b l y Mt. Douglas and Mt. Tolmie, bath near V i c t o r i a , have presented bulwarks to e r o s i o n by the Vashon g l a c i e r s , and hence d r i f t t r a i n s extend south from them. That of Mount Douglas or, as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , Cedar H i l l , i s n e a r l y a m i l e long and about 90 f e e t h i g h . The d r i f t mantle forms a wide f l a t p l a i n i n the c e n t r a l p a r t of the r e g i o n , known as Colwood p l a i n or d e l t a . T h i s f l a t area forms the mouth of a wide v a l l e y which extends f o r many mi l e s a c r o s s southern Vancouver I s l a n d i n a roughly east-west d i r e c t i o n . R e l a t i v e l y few streams t r a v e r s e the lowland i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the r e g i o n , and 14 those which do are l a r g e l y d i s c o n t i n u o u s . C o l q u i t z R i v e r , d r a i n i n g from E l k Lake i n t o Portage I n l e t , i s a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n . The upland i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the r e g i o n i s almost w h o l l y r e s t r i c t e d to the area south of Tod I n l e t , n o r t h of Langford Lake, and west of T h e t i s and Prospect Lakes. Thus i t forms a l a r g e b l o c k northwest of V i c t o r i a , and i s known as the Highland D i s t r i c t . T h i s s e c t i o n of the southern upland o f Vancouver I s l a n d has been maturely d i s s e c t e d by s e v e r a l s m a l l streams, so t h a t i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by numerous h i l l s . The h i g h e s t of these i s Mt. Work, wit h an e l e v a t i o n of 1,400 f e e t . The streams are adjus t e d to the zones of weaker r o c k s , and as a r e s u l t , the v a l l e y s have a. g e n e r a l n o r t h - s o u t h t r e n d . The g l a c i a l movement having been g e n e r a l l y i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n , has c o n s i d e r a b l y deepened the v a l l e y s ; and i n scoured rock b a s i n s , many s m a l l l a k e s were formed, such as P r o s p e c t Lake i n the east, and F i z z l e Lake i n the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n . I t would appear t h a t the s i x s m a l l l a k e s s k i r t i n g the base of Mt.Work, Durrance, H e a l , K i l l a r n e y , Fork, T h i r d and Pease l a k e s , were formed as a r e s u l t of s c o u r i n g by a g l a c i e r d e f l e c t e d by t h a t monadnock. I n a d d i t i o n to s c o u r i n g a c t i o n o f the g l a c i e r s , s c a t t e r e d d r i f t d e p o s i t s were l a i d down i n the v a l l e y s . Another evidence of g l a c i a t i o n i s the s m a l l i n l e t - Tod I n l e t - which i s somewhat f i o r d - l i k e i n c h a r a c t e r . The s h e l t e r e d waters of t h i s i n l e t , combined w i t h the adjacent d e p o s i t of Sutton l i m e s t o n e , were the c h i e f determining f a c t o r s i n the esta b l i s h m e n t o f a former cement manufacturing p l a n t here. The western boundary of the upland i s a t y p i c a l f i o r d forming the southern p a r t o f 15 Saanich I n l e t and comprised of S q u a l l y Reach and F l n l a y s o n Arm. The c o a s t l i n e of the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the r e g i o n i s q u i t e i r r e g u l a r i n o u t l i n e — t h e r e s u l t of d e p r e s s i o n of the reduced s u r f a c e , g l a c i a t i o n , and p a r t i a l r e c o v e r y . The main i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , Saanich I n l e t , E squimalt Harbour and V i c t o r i a Harbour, have been mentioned as drowned, g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y s . That of V i c t o r i a Harbour extends n o r t h w e s t e r l y and forms a p e c u l i a r l y shaped body of water known as Portage I n l e t , j o i n e d to V i c t o r i a ' s outer harbour by V i c t o r i a Arm, S e l k i r k Water, Inner Harbour and the mouth of James Bay. The e a s t e r n s h o r e l i n e of the r e g i o n d i p s under the waters of Haro S t r a i t . Numerous r i d g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s i s t a n t p r o t r u s i o n s , (monadnocks), on the P a c i f i c Coast Downfold, appear o f f s h o r e as i s l a n d s . At l e a s t two of the o f f - l y i n g i s l a n d s , however, r e p r e s e n t w h o l l y or i n p a r t , r i d g e s of g l a c i a l d r i f t . These are James and Sidney i s l a n d s . Moderate marine e r o s i o n has r e t r o g r a d e d the d r i f t d e p o s i t s which o v e r l y most of the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the r e g i o n , forming steep sea c l i f f s , and i n some p l a c e s , sand s p i t s and boulder beaches. These f e a t u r e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y evidenced i n the areas of Saanichton Bay and at the seaward edge of Colwood d e l t a , where a long s p i t , Coburg P e n i n s u l a , almost i s o l a t e s Esquimalt Lagoon. A l a r g e p o r t i o n of the c o a s t , however, prese n t s r e s i s t a n t , rocks to the sea, forming a y o u t h f u l s h o r e l i n e i n c o n t r a s t to those of the r e t r o g r a d e d areas. Here, the i n i t i a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the g l a c i a t e d , depressed s u r f a c e have s u r v i v e d , and minor f e a t u r e s such as coves and wave chasms, have developed i n the weaker r o c k s . 1 5 a Looking north along Coburg Peninsula. Esquimalt Lagoon i s v i s i b l e on the l e f t , and the entrance to Esquimalt Harbour i s i n the righ t background. The monadnock of Mt. Douglas can be seen above the entrance to the harbour. Coburg Peninsula i s believed to have been b u i l t by northward setting longshore currents carrying eroded materials from the Colwood d e l t a . 16 Often, the hard rocks form headlands between areas of r e t r o g r a d e d d r i f t d e p o s i t s . In the southern h a l f of S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d , the lowland areas are much more l i m i t e d and s c a t t e r e d , l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the narrow c o a s t a l p l a i n and the r i v e r v a l l e y s . The lowland of the southwest c o a s t forms the remnants of the once e x t e n s i v e west co a s t lowland. I n t h i s area, wave a c t i o n has been s t r o n g , and the sediments d e p o s i t e d a g a i n s t the c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the o v e r l y i n g d r i f t , have been l a r g e l y removed, l e a v i n g s c a t t e r e d remnants of the p l a i n between p r o t e c t i n g headlands of the c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s . These remnants are of no great e x t e n t , being o n l y one to f i v e m i l e s long and one q u a r t e r to three m i l e s wide, as shown by those e x i s t i n g between the headlands of East Sooke P e n i n s u l a , O t t e r P o i n t , and Sheringham P o i n t . The lowland i s d r i f t covered and f o r the most p a r t , presents l i t t l e r e l i e f . In the Metchosin and Esquimalt D i s t r i c t s , the c o a s t a l lowland i s more e x t e n s i v e , though s t r i c t l y speaking, i t might be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of the east r a t h e r than west, coast lowland. P a r t of the reason f o r i t s g r e a t e r extent i n the e a s t , i s t h a t i t has not undergone the severe wave e r o s i o n t h a t i s experienced along the c o a s t of Sooke and O t t e r D i s t r i c t s . The e a s t e r n h a l f of the p e n i n s u l a south of Pedder I n l e t forms a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e p a r t of the c o a s t a l lowland. North of t h i s , from the area of P a r r y Bay to that of Langford Lake, the lowland i s broken by only two s i g n i f i c a n t e l e v a t i o n s —Mount Metchosin and T r i a n g u l a r Mountain. 17 In i t s western p a r t , the lowland i s d r a i n e d by southward f l o w i n g streams, and s i n c e i t has been u p l i f t e d , the streams have been reju v e n a t e d and have c u t r e l a t i v e l y narrow gorges to the coast. Tugwell Creek, i n the extreme western p a r t of the r e g i o n i s t y p i c a l of these. Sooke R i v e r i s the l a r g e s t stream c r o s s i n g the lowland, and i s the l a r g e s t stream i n the r e g i o n . With i t s southern most t r i b u t a r y , DeMamiel Creek, i t d r a i n s a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e p a r t of the lowland n o r t h of Sooke Harbour. Being of c o n s i d e r a b l e volume, Sooke R i v e r has cut the sediments of the lowland to grade, so t h a t i n i t s southern course, i t meanders over a f l o o d p l a i n . This f l o o d p l a i n , along w i t h the o v e r l y i n g g l a c i a l d r i f t , has been t e r r a c e d . I n a d d i t i o n the r i v e r has extended a d e l t a which now almost separates Sooke Harbour from the l a r g e r Sooke B a s i n . The upland areas i n the southern h a l f of the r e g i o n r e p r e s e n t , as i n the Highland D i s t r i c t , the mature d i s s e c t i o n of the u p l i f t e d T e r t i a r y p e n e p l a i n . The d i s s e c t i o n has been accomplished by a number of s m a l l , g e n e r a l l y southward f l o w i n g streams, a d j u s t e d t o the weaker r o c k s , and l i k e the Highland D i s t r i c t , the v a l l e y s trend g e n e r a l l y n o r t h - south. N e a r l y a l l these v a l l e y s have been s t r o n g l y g l a c i a t e d , producing smooth s i d e s and f a i r l y wide, u s u a l l y d r i f t covered, f l o o r s . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the l a r g e r v a l l e y s , n o t a b l y that of Sooke R i v e r . In some cases the v a l l e y s have been deepened to form s m a l l lake b a s i n s , such as t h a t of Lake Matheson, southeast of Sooke B a s i n . More u s u a l l y , the v a l l e y s are d r i f t f i l l e d , and s m a l l hollows i n these d r i f t d e p o s i t s give r i s e t o s m a l l lakes and ponds. In the c e n t r a l p a r t of the r e g i o n , a 17* Looking upstream from the mouth of Sooke River. The r i v e r has terraced i t s flood p l a i n i n the lower reaches. The terrace on the ri g h t i s planted to potatoes. Hydro-electric transmission l i n e s bringing power from the Jordan River plant to V i c t o r i a , appear i n the centre of the photograph. 18 v a l l e y now p a r t i a l l y occupied by Goldstream R i v e r , has been f i l l e d w i t h d r i f t which widens eastward i n t o Colwood d e l t a . Shallow hollows i n the d r i f t are occupied by F l o r e n c e , G l e n and Langford l a k e s . These d r a i n northward i n t o Goldstream R i v e r , which i n t u r n flows n o r t h i n t o S a a n i c h I n l e t . T h i s r i v e r , which forms a p a r t of the p r e s e n t water supply system f o r V i c t o r i a , has cut a narrow gorge through the g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s t o the u n d e r l y i n g bedrock. The h i l l s o f the upland area south of Goldstream R i v e r , i n c r e a s e i n h e i g h t from the coast i n l a n d . Thus near the c o a s t , Mt. Metchosin, Mt. B l i n k h o r n and G a r i b a l d i H i l l , r i s e t o e l e v a t i o n s of from 600 to 800 f e e t , w h i le t o the northwest, Mt. McDonald, Mt. Helmcken, Mt. R e d f l a g , Mt.Matheson and Broom H i l l r e a c h from 900 to 1400 f e e t above the sea. Along the boundary w i t h the main p o r t i o n of the Vancouver I s l a n d ranges, Mt. Shepherd ( a l s o named Mt. Manuel Quimper), Ragged Mountain and Braden Mountain range from 1,500 to n e a r l y 1,900 f e e t h i g h . The s h o r e l i n e of the southwestern p a r t of the r e g i o n i s , l i k e t h a t of the V i c t o r i a — E s q u i m a l t area, formed by the drowning of wide, but r a t h e r shallow v a l l e y s i n the g r e a t l y reduced s u r f a c e . Thus broad, s h a l l o w bays separated low headlands, with o f f l y i n g by w i d e , A r o c k y i s l a n d s c h a r a c t e r i z e the c o a s t from A l b e r t Head to Sooke Harbour. The drowning of t h i s area has been so complete, t h a t a p a r t i a l l y inundated g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y extending from Roche Cove i n Sooke B a s i n , through Matheson Lake to Pedder I n l e t , v e r y n e a r l y separates the e a s t Sooke and South Metchosin areas from the mainland of Vancouver I s l a n d . 19 The s h o r e l i n e i s l a r g e l y composed of r e s i s t a n t r o c k s , and weaker areas w i t h i n them, such as shear zones and j o i n t s , have been eroded forming s m a l l coves and wave chasms. On the other hand, p a r t s of the c o a s t p a r t i c u l a r l y along P a r r y Bay and the n o r t h shore of Sooke Harbour have been cut i n g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s , producing c l i f f s s i m i l a r to those of e a s t Saanich and Colwood d e l t a . In the n o r t h e r n p a r t of P a r r y Bay, long -shore c u r r e n t s have b u i l t a s p i t composed of the eroded t i l l and t h i s s p i t a l l but i s o l a t e s Metchosin Lagoon from the r e s t of the Bay. Another, s i m i l a r l y b u i l t s p i t , W h i f f i n S p i t , n e a r l y c l o s e s the entrance to Sooke Harbour. West of Sooke Harbour, the shore l i n e i s f a i r l y r e g u l a r , and as p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o , presents c r e s c e n t shaped bays between p r o t e c t i n g headlands of c r y s t a l l i n e rock. Between these promontories, the sedimentary rocks t o g e t h e r w i t h any o v e r l y i n g d r i f t , have been cut back t o form steep c l i f f s , d i s s e c t e d by southward f l o w i n g streams, and s k i r t e d on the seaward s i d e by narrow boulder beaches. Broad E f f e c t s of Physiography on Land Use i n the Region The e f f e c t which physiography has had upon the u t i l i z a t i o n of the r e g i o n i s apparent i n s e v e r a l ways. The farm lands i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the n o r t h e a s t , f o r here the land i s comparatively l e v e l i n c o n t r a s t to t h a t of the west and southwest. I n a d d i t i o n , g l a c i a l deposition., has r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n of good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s , a g a i n , ! p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the n o r t h e a s t . Thus, from the suburbs of Looking east along the shores of Sooke Bay near Otter Point, showing r e s i s t a n t forelands of Sooke gabbros between crescent—shaped gravel and boulder beaches of eroded s u p e r f i c i a l deposits. The s u p e r f i c i a l deposits o v e r l i e scattered remnants of the west coast lowland, b u i l t of T e r t i a r y sedimentary rocks. 20 V i c t o r i a to the no r t h e r n t i p of the Saanich P e n i n s u l a , s t r e t c h "most of the farm lands w i t h i n the r e g i o n . While the s o i l s i n the n o r t h e a s t are sandy loams and s i l t loams, those i n the c e n t r a l and southwest vary from c l a y s to sandy and g r a v e l l y s o i l s . The s o i l s of the former area have been e x t e n s i v e l y developed f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of s m a l l f r u i t s as w e l l as e a r l y market peas and potatoes, bulbs and seed crops. In the southwest, however, land use v a r i e s from d a i r y i n g and mixed farming on the h e a v i e r t e x t u r e d s o i l s , t o p o u l t r y r a i s i n g and sheep ranching on the g r a v e l l y and stony s o i l s . Physiography has a l s o had an e f f e c t on the m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y i n the a r e a . Minor d e p o s i t s of m e t a l l i e s h a v e been d i s c o v e r e d i n the g l a c i a l l y scoured uplands, n o t a b l y i n the west c e n t r a l and southwestern s e c t i o n s . However, of f a r g r e a t e r importance l o c a l l y , are the s c a t t e r e d n o n - m e t a l l i c d e p o s i t s o f c l a y s and g r a v e l s of g l a c i a l o r i g i n , which, p a s t and present, have formed an important p a r t i n the economy of the r e g i o n . The ocean l i t t o r a l , i n as much as i t i s a phase of the physiography and hydrography of the r e g i o n , f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t of p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l on i n d u s t r y i n the r e g i o n . Being surrounded by water on n e a r l y a l l s i d e s , the r e g i o n i s w e l l s i t u a t e d to the development of a l o c a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , the many bays and harbours p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r and op e r a t i n g c e n t r e s f o r sm a l l c r a f t , and the comparatively shallow adjacent waters forming f e e d i n g grounds f o r s e v e r a l s p e c i e s of f i s h . The l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y a l s o u t i l i z e s the numerous c o a s t a l i n d e n t a t i o n s f o r booming grounds, w h i l e the 21 harbours of V i c t o r i a , Esquimalt and Sooke are important to coastwise and deepsea t r a d e . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t evidences oX p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l i s the i n f l u e n c e of physiography upon c l i m a t e . I n i t s broader aspect, S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d i s seen t o l i e to the leeward of the Vancouver I s l a n d ranges, and t h e r e f o r e i t experiences c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s r a i n f a l l than adjacent areas of Marine West Coast type. A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s shows f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n — a g a i n , a p h y s i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l . .' " ' 4. CLIMATE C l i m a t i c C o n t r o l s The climate of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d has e x e r c i s e d a profound c o n t r o l over the n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , physiography, a g r i c u l t u r e and h a b i t a b i l i t y of the r e g i o n . The complex of f a c t o r s which make up the c l i m a t e are so c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d as t o make t h e i r enumeration d i f f i c u l t , but among them ar e : l a t i t u d e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l a n d and water masses, ocean c u r r e n t s , topography, pressure systems and p r e v a i l i n g winds. These c o n t r o l s , a c t i n g through and upon each o t h e r , produce a g r e a t v a r i e t y of m i c r o c l i m a t e s w i t h i n the broad c l i m a t i c r e g i o n o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the Marine West Coast. The l a t t e r term i m p l i e s a general" l o c a t i o n i n the m i d - l a t i t u d e s on the western s i d e of a c o n t i n e n t . Marine West Coast a l s o connotes the g e n e r a l c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m i l d w i n t e r s , c o o l summers, abundant p r e c i p i t a t i o n most of which f a l l s i n w i n t e r , a long growing season and a s m a l l d i u r n a l and annual 22 temperature range. To serve as a background f o r a more d e t a i l e d treatment of the r e g i o n of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , i t might be u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r the broad r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the Marine West Coast c l i m a t i c type. Since these c l i m a t e s occupy m i d - l a t i t u d e s on the windward coasts of c o n t i n e n t s , they are g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the maritime a i r masses which move i n a g e n e r a l west t o east d i r e c t i o n . Consequently the coasts tend to assume the temperature c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these a i r masses, which themselves r e f l e c t the temperature of the ocean over which they move. F o r t h i s reason, Marine West Coast s t a t i o n s are warm f o r t h e i r l a t i t u d e i n winter and c o o l f o r t h e i r l a t i t u d e i n summer. Adding to t h i s temperature anoilmaly, are the poleward moving ocean c u r r e n t s , which impart to the on-shore winds, some of the temperature c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the warmer l a t i t u d e s from which they have come. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s e f f e c t , mean January temperatures f o r a few s c a t t e r e d i n l a n d and c o a s t a l s t a t i o n s may be con s i d e r e d . Vamcouver, i n l a t i t u d e 49°N. has a January mean of 36°F - approximately the same as that f o r Venice ( l a t . 4 5 ° N ) , Teheran ( l a t . 3 6 ° N ) , A m a r i l l o , Texas ( l a t . 3 5 ° N . ) , and L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky, ( l a t . 38°N). J u l y mean temperatures f o r the same s t a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t i v e order a r e : 6 3 0 , 75°, 77°, 77°, and 79°. Another e f f e c t of the ocean on the landward moving a i r masses i s t o r a i s e t h e i r water vapour content. This a c t s as a f u r t h e r temperature m o d i f i e r , s i n c e i t has the double a c t i o n of red u c i n g 1 S t a t i s t i c s obtained from: Climate and Man, Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e , U.S. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Washington, D.C, ' 1941. 23 incoming i n s o l a t i o n , thereby r e t a r d i n g heat g a i n , and a l s o absorbs outgoing r a d i a t i o n , thereby reducing heat l o s s . In consequence, d i u r n a l temperature range, e i t h e r w i n t e r or summer, i s s m a l l . Marine West Coast s t a t i o n s are found i n the "zone" of Westerly winds and thus i n the paths of m i d - l a t i t u d e d e p r e s s i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f a l l and winter months, these s t a t i o n s are under the i n f l u e n c e of c o n s t a n t l y v a r y i n g p r e s s u r e systems, b r i n g i n g a s s o c i a t e d weather v a r i a b i l i t y . These depressions r e s u l t from the i n t e r p l a y of a i r masses which have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Even so, the a i r masses, i n t r a v e l l i n g over the ocean, r e g a r d l e s s of t r a j e c t o r y , are mo d i f i e d by i t , and the temperature c o n t r a s t s between them are not as str o n g as, f o r example, those between T r o p i c a l G u l f and P o l a r C o n t i n e n t a l a i r masses. This i s not to imply t h a t the pressure systems are weak, f o r the r e s u l t a n t winds make winter gples common, but temperatures are never very low. The c o n t r a s t i n g , r a p i d l y converging a i r masses, having a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h moisture content, b r i n g abundant p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the form of f r o n t a l r a i n , w h i le heavy c l o u d cover and f o g are common. O c c a s i o n a l l y i n the w i n t e r months, a westward moving, s t a b l e , c o n t i n e n t a l a i r mass w i l l invade the west c o a s t a l area, b r i n g i n g c o l d c l e a r weather which may p e r s i s t f o r s e v e r a l days. U s u a l l y , however, the c l e a r weather i s l i m i t e d to the s h o r t p e r i o d s between d e p r e s s i o n s ; and w i t h these, the temperatures, though p o s s i b l y f r e e z i n g , are not as c o l d as those experienced under the cP " c o l d s p e l l s " . 24 In marked c o n t r a s t to the w i n t e r s , summers at Marine West Coast s t a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y sunny, and dry, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the equatorward margin of the c l i m a t i c t y pe. However, these marine c l i m a t e s have cloudy summers i n comparison to other temperate c l i m a t e s . The reason f o r the s e a s o n a l change i s the poleward m i g r a t i o n of the P a c i f i c High i n the summer months. A c c o r d i n g l y , m i d - l a t i t u d e depressions are weak or l a c k i n g and the s t a b l e atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s give these s t a t i o n s t h e i r most f a v o r a b l e season. Topography, as would be expected, a l t e r s the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of Marine West Coast c l i m a t e . Not o n l y l o c a l topography, producing a v a r i e t y of m i c r o - c l i m a t e s w i t h i n s m a l l areas, but a l s o l a r g e r f e a t u r e s l i m i t the area and modify the e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s c l i m a t i c type. Where mountains r i s e d i r e c t l y behind the coast, as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the marine cli m a t e i s l i m i t e d t o a narrow s t r i p along i t . While the mountains p r o v i d e a b a r r i e r t o the e x t e n s i o n of the marine climate eastward, they a l s o tend to prevent c o n t i n e n t a l a i r masses from f l o w i n g westward. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n w i n t e r , a broad e f f e c t of topography on the c o a s t a l c l i m a t e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d . During w i n t e r , c o l d a i r from the mountain v a l l e y s moves westward, p r o v i d i n g a c o l d , upslope s u r f a c e over which the landward moving maritime a i r mass g l i d e s , thereby c o o l i n g and p r e c i p i t a t i n g most of i t s m o i s t u r e . D e t a i l e d Climate of the Region The c l i m a t e of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from adjacent areas of Marine West Coast 25 type. Lying to leeward of a large part of the Vancouver Island ranges, i t experiences less precipitation than areas on the windward side of them, and also less precipitation than neighboring areas on the mainland. This "rain shadow" effect has further implications in that the Victoria—Saanich area has some of the highest values for recorded sunshine in Canada. The sheltered -position of the region—Olympic Mts. to the south and southwest, Vancouver Island ranges to the west and northwest, and Coast Range to the north and east—also has an effect in reducing wind velocities particularly those from the north and north west. The sheltered position is also insular. Consequently, while the region is largely protected from the violent winter storms which are experienced on the "west coast", sea breezes from Juan de Fuca Strait during the summer months, ensure protection from the hot weather so commonly experienced at interior stations. The insular position of Southeastern Vancouver Island also reduces incidence of frost during the winter months, well illustrated by Victoria's average frost free period of 254- days, one of the longest in Canada.1 In addition, the position of the region, separated from the mainland by Georgia Strait, appears to affect the amount of Cordilleran air which spreads to the area in the winter months. This insular position, in combination with the local topography of the region, strongly affects wind direction. 1 This value, obtained from a table of jTempeTatureT Precipitation and Sunshine at Selected Stations in Canada. Met. Division, Dept. of Transport, Canada; is based upon the number of days experiencing a minimum temp, above 32°F recorded in a screen 4*jj- feet above the ground. 26 Thus, w h i l e the frequency o f e a s t e r l y winds a t V i c t o r i a i n the months October to March i n c l u s i v e , averages 13 percent, and s o u t h e a s t e r l y winds average 1 0 percent, n o r t h e a s t e r l y , n o r t h e r l y , w e s t e r l y and southwesterly winds f o r the same p e r i o d , average 14, 27> 1 5 and 1 0 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y . Vancouver, f o r the same p e r i o d , has e a s t e r l y winds i n 3 5 p e r c e n t frequency, s o u t h e a s t e r l y 17 p e r c e n t , n o r t h e a s t e r l y 1 7 p e r c e n t , n o r t h e r l y 2 p e r c e n t , w e s t e r l y 8 p e r c e n t , and southwesterly 5 p e r c e n t . I t i s apparent then, that Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d experiences a c l i m a t e c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from the "average" Marine West Coast type. C o n s i d e r i n g the annual averages of mean d a i l y temperature; V i c t o r i e s mean of 50°F., may be compared w i t h Vancouver's 4 9 ° , Winnipeg's 35 ° , S t . C a t h a r i n e s ' 4 8 ° , Montreal's 4 3 , and th a t f o r H a l i f a x , 4 4 ° . 1 However, mean annual temperature has l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c l i m a t e , s i n c e i t does not i n d i c a t e s e a s o n a l i t y of temperature. Of g r e a t e r importance i s mean monthly temperature. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , l i s t i n g mean monthly temperatures w i l l g i v e some i d e a of the s e a s o n a l i t y , (and c o n t i n e n t a l i t y ) f o r the s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE J F M A M J J A s 0 N D MEAN ANNUAL RANGE VICTORIA 3? 40 4 4 4 8 53 57 6 0 6 0 56 51 4 5 41 21 VANCOUVER 3 9 148" 55 6 0 6 4 63 57 50 43. 39 28 WINNIPEG 2 16 ~W 52 6 2 6 7 6 4 54 41 22 6 70 ST.CATHARINES 26 2 5 3 3 4 4 55 66 7 1 6 9 6 3 52 40 2 9 4 6 MONTREAL 14 1 5 26 42 ?6 6 5 70 6 7 59 47 33 2 0 56 HALIFAX 24 23 3 0 3 9 4 9 58 6 5 6 5 59 4 9 3 9 28 42 ! 1 Values obtained from a t a b l e of Temperature. P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Sunshine a t S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s i n Canada., Met . D i v i s i o n , Dept. of T r a n s p o r t , Canada. 2 I b i d . , passim. 26a. JANUARY ISOTHERMS CF-) ^ey I s land rot- rnS 4 ^ 3 ^ (4 ctff r i a. 27 The mean annual range shown i n the l a s t column of the preceding table w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s the ameliorating effect of the ocean on temperature—keeping winter temperatures mild and summer temperatures cool—reducing the amount of seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n . The accompanying maps1 of January and July isotherms w i l l convey some impression of the l o c a l seasonal temperature differences within the region. Since monthly mean temperatures can be misleading i n that they may be composed of a number of very low and very high temperatures, the following graph of monthly averages of d a i l y maximum and minimum temperature may form a useful v i s u a l comparison of the selected s t a t i o n s . 2 Probably one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t facts i l l u s t r a t e d by the graph i s that, while V i c t o r i a ' s minima are greater than the maxima for Moose Jaw and St.Catherines i n the three coldest months, the l a t t e r c i t y has the highest minima for June, J u l y , August and September. This i s an important factor i n the types of crops which can be successfully grown i n the area of' St.Catharines, as compared with that of V i c t o r i a . Quick maturing but heat loving plants could w e l l be grown near the former centre, whereas V i c t o r i a ' s temperature regime i s suited to tender perennials which do not require a great deal of summer heat.- On the other hand, the 1 S t a t i s t i c s obtained from: 1. Climate of B.C.T Reports for 1937 and 194-7, Dept. of Agriculture, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 2. Climatic Summaries for Selected Meteorological Stations i n the Dominion of Canada, v o l . 1, Met. D i v i s i o n , Dept. of Transport, Toronto, Canada. 2. S t a t i s t i c s obtained from Climatic Summaries, vol.1, Dept. of Transport, Toronto, Canada. IT a. 9o — i — eo YK N o J± z TO l a : Of >-111 J < ft to V A M C O O V w \ 3 EXTREME H H ES-MONTH ET- K - A Y TEMP S5 1 J 1 / 1 I-4 * 1 1 1 1 \ A 1 •v. 1 1 \ •> 4 i 1 -\ 1 t s 1 < > 0 0 ' 0 > t • \ I 3 3 2 • •< 2 \ Q 1 4 ; • \ Q 1 \ 1 1 A, 1 1 1 » 1 1 J H < • H < 1 H b i 1 > > i c i -c c / ^•^ <: — <: fTi x —i i 0 75 A 9 0 1 . "": J k * j j X) ! j t\ X) t\ f <£ El EM E ERA TU RI B.ST 28 u n i f o r m i t y and mildness of temperature throughout the year a t V i c t o r i a c o n t r i b u t e to i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y as a p l a c e i n which to l i v e . T e n t a t i v e l y r e g a r d i n g V i c t o r i a as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e g i o n as a whole, the accompanying comparison between V i c t o r i a and Vancouver w i l l g i v e some i d e a of the extreme temperatures l i k e l y to be encountered i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d as compared w i t h the south coast of the mainland. The average, (over a p e r i o d of 45 years f o r V i c t o r i a and 38 years f o r Vancouver), of the extreme h i g h e s t and extreme lowest temperature recorded i n each month of the year i s shown i n the g r a p h . 1 Though i t i n d i c a t e s the l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t i n g between the extreme maxima a t the two s t a t i o n s , i t a l s o shows the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the extreme minima—importent i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l e n g t h of f r o s t - f r e e season and l e n g t h of growing season. On the b a s i s of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , a number of tender p l a n t s which do not t h r i v e i n the Vancouver a r e a , can be s u c c e s s f u l l y grown near V i c t o r i a . I t i s t h e r e f o r e a major f a c t o r i n the success of the n u r s e r y and greenhouse establishments i n the r e g i o n . An examination of the monthly average of d a i l y maximum temperature, (over a 10 year p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n ) , f o r s t a t i o n s w i t h i n the r e g i o n of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , shows very s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s between them. The f o l l o w i n g graph w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s f o r both the maximum and minimum 1 S t a t i s t i c s from: C l i m a t i c Summaries, v o l . 1, Met. D i v i s i o n , Dept. of T r a n s p o r t , Toronto, pp .34 and 35. 29 1 values d u r i n g the 10 year p e r i o d . While the d i f f e r e n c e s between s t a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the maximum temperatures, t h e r e i s a r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the minimum v a l u e s . A c l o s e examination of the s i t e of each of the s t a t i o n s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the f a c t o r of topography and a i r drainage i s o p e r a t i v e i n causing the d i s c r e p a n c y . The s t a t i o n a t Sidney (Experimental S t a t i o n ) i s 100 f e e t above the sea, while that of Sooke i s 125 f e e t , and V i c t o r i a ' s a t Gonzales Observatory i s 228 f e e t . From the Sidney s t a t i o n , a very g e n t l e slope extends t o Haro S t r a i t , about one h a l f m i l e to the eastward. The f l a t t i l l p l a i n extends northward and southward, but immediately west of the s t a t i o n stands the monadnock of Mt. Newton. The V i c t o r i a s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d near the top of the much s m a l l e r monadnock, Gonzales H i l l . T h i s h i l l i s the h i g h e s t e l e v a t i o n w i t h i n a r a d i u s of 2jjr m i l e s , and I t slopes s t e e p l y on three s i d e s to the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca. Sooke s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d on a r e l a t i v e l y narrow p l a i n , about one q u a r t e r of a m i l e from the steep c l i f f s which form the northwest s i d e of Sooke Harbour. To the west and southwest of the s t a t i o n l i e s Broom H i l l , (925 f e e t ) , n e a r l y as h i g h and as l a r g e as Mt. Newton. To the n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t i s the h i l l y topography of the upland. E a s t l i e s Sooke B a s i n , surrounded by h i l l s . I t seems then, that i n p e r i o d s of calm, c l e a r , c o l d weather duri n g w i n t e r , c o l d a i r , d r a i n i n g down Sooke 1 S t a t i s t i c s from: Climate of B.C.. Report f o r 19^9. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e - , V i c t o r i a , Table 2. 30 R i v e r V a l l e y and from the surrounding upland of the Sooke area, f i l l s Sooke B a s i n , flows through t o Sooke Harbour, and out i n t o Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . In the meantime, c o l d a i r f l o w i n g from the r a p i d l y c o o l i n g slopes of Broom H i l l moves out onto the p l a i n and i n t o the Harbour. In time, an a p p r e c i a b l e t h i c k n e s s of c o l d a i r w i l l b u i l d up above the water s u r f a c e of Sooke Harbour and B a s i n , u n t i l i t i s deep enough to f l o w over the lowland at the mouth of the harbour. The c o l d a i r f l o w i n g from Broom H i l l and Sooke R i v e r v a l l e y w i l l have, by t h i s time, because of the reduced g r a d i e n t , tended to stagnate over the p l a i n , before spreading g r a d u a l l y out to the S t r a i t . Thus minimum temperatures recorded a t the s t a t i o n w i l l be low i n comparison to those of h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . At Sidney, under s i m i l a r atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s , c o l d a i r from the l i m i t e d "upland" formed by the e a s t s l o p e of Mt. Newton, w i l l f l o w downslope, over the very g e n t l y s l o p i n g t i l l p l a i n , and out to Haro S t r a i t . However, the descending c o l d a i r , on r e a c h i n g the f o o t of the monadnock, will*move more s l o w l y because of the g e n t l e g r a d i e n t from there to the sea, and i t w i l l tend t o b u i l d up an a p p r e c i a b l e t h i c k n e s s near the f o o t of the h i l l , because of the sudden checking of the g r a d i e n t . T h e r e f o r e , minimum temperatures, while not as low as those f o r the Sooke s t a t i o n , w i l l be lower than those f o r V i c t o r i a . Here, the e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n of the s t a t i o n p r ecludes the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o l d a i r f l o w i n g to i t while a t the same time, w i t h the i n v e r s i o n of temperature a s s o c i a t e d w i t h calms d u r i n g c o l d , c l e a r weather, the 30 a View from the east slope of Mt* Newton, a prominent monadnock on Saanich Peninsula, As shown i n the centre background, the lower slopes support a dense stand of co n i f e r s , mostly Douglas f i r . A i r drainage from t h i s slope has a l o c a l e f f e c t i n reducing the length of the f r o s t l e s s season recorded at Sidney, (Dominion Experimental Farm), located near i t s base. 31 temperature at the station w i l l be higher than that of the adjacent p la in . On the other hand, the Gonzales station w i l l have lower than average summer maximum temperatures, because of the elevation, and the exposure to sea bree-zes fromaJuan de Fuca. The foregoing considerations lead to a discussion of the frost-free season. Connor l i s t s values for the continuously frost-free period at several stations within the region, as shown i n the following table. STATION ELEV. NO.YR. OBS. AV.DATE LAST SPRING FROST NO.YR. OBS. AV.DATE FIRST FALL FROST AV.FROST FREE PERIOD (DAYS) ! SOOKE j 125 36 A p r i l 21st 35 Oct.28 190 1 METCHOSIN 80 22 A p r i l 4th 23 Nov. 7 217 | ESQUIMALT 45 19 A p r i l 14th 18 Nov.10 210 VICTORIA (Govt.St.) 58 17 A p r i l 3rd 16 Nov.24 236 VICTORIA (Gonzales Obsy 1228 32 March 4th 33 Dec. 4 275 LAKE HILL 100 . 1 May 18th 1 Oct.17 152 LITTLE SAANICH MT. (Obsy) 730 30 Feb.26th 30 Nov.27 274 j SIDNEY (Exp. Stn.) 100 33 Mar. 29th 33 Nov.16 232 PATRICIA BAY (Airport) 55 6 A p r i l 4th 7 Nov. 3 213 While there is not a direct correlation for a l l stations, between altitude alone and frost-free period, this correlation does appear i h the case of Metchosin, Gonzales, L i t t l e Saanich, and Sidney. There i s some poss ib i l i ty that 1 Connor, A . J . , The Frost-Free Season i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Met. Divis ion, Dept. of Transport, Toronto, 1949. 31a FPOST- FREE PERIOD (DAYS) 32 the readings from the V i c t o r i a Government S t r e e t S t a t i o n , ( d i s c o n t i n u e d s i n c e 1914)» have been rendered s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than "normal" by c o n v e c t i o n over the c i t y . Thus duri n g s t i l l , c o l d weather the ' c o n v e c t i o n a l ' c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r over the c i t y would o f f s e t any tendency f o r an i n v e r s i o n t o develop i n t h a t a r e a . In any case, the topographic l o c a t i o n of the s t a t i o n was such t h a t a i r drainage would not have been a p a r t i c u l a r l y important f a c t o r i n causing low minimum temper - a t u r e s . The value for Lake H i l l , based upon only one year of o b s e r v a t i o n s , would not seem to be of much worth. The "mean" f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d f o r the nine s t a t i o n s i s 222 days, though t h i s f i g u r e i s probably s l i g h t l y lower than the true average, s i n c e the Lake H i l l v a lue has been i n c l u d e d . The accompanying map of f r o s t - f r e e season f o r the r e g i o n , shows the approximate p o s i t i o n of the i s o p l e t h s , based upon the f i g u r e s f o r preceding s t a t i o n s and the l o c a l topography."1" For comparison, the average f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d f o r a few Canadian c i t i e s i s l i s t e d on the next page. 2 Note that the v a l u e g i v e n f o r V i c t o r i a i s the mean of the Gonzales and Government S t r e e t r e a d i n g s . 1 Values from: Connor, A.J..'The F r o s t - F r e e Season i n B.C.. Met. D i v . , Dept. of Transport, Toronto, 1949. 2 Values from: Temperature. P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Sunshine at S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s , Met. Div., Dept. of Transport, Canada. 33 TABLE OF FROST-FREE PERIOD FOR SELECTED STATIONS IN CANADA STATION AVERAGE DATE OFHtOST"? AVERAGE FROST-FREE PERIOD (days) CHARLOTTETOWN. P .E. I , LAST SPRING FIRST AUTUMN May 13 Oct.22 Oct.14 162 HALIFAX, N.S. May 11 156 FREDERICTON, N.B. May 20 Sept.24 127 MONTREAL, P.Q. A p r i l 28 Oct.17 172 LONDON, ONT. May 16 Oct. 1 H 8 ST.CATHARINES, ONT. May 7 Oct.20 166 TORONTO, ONT. May 2 Oct.14 165 WINNIPEG, MAN. May 27 Sept.14 110 SASKATOON, SASK. May 26 ; Sept. 9 I 106 CALGARY, ALTA. June 1 Sept. 6 97 KAMLOOPS, B.C. Apr. 25 Oct. 8 166 PENTICTON, B.C. May 7 Oct. 3 149 VANCOUVER, B.C. Apr 3 Nov. 4 215 VICTORIA, B.C. Mar. 18 Nov. 27 254 REGION OF S.E. VANCOUVER ISLAND —average— 222 @ These dates refer to the occurrence of a minimum temperature of 32 F . or lower i n a screen 4^ - feet above the ground. Since the frost-free season for Southeastern Vancouver Island is long, the growing season is also long. Taking a mean dai ly temperature of 43° as sufficient for vegetative growth, at least for the hardy plants, the region has a growing season of about eight months—from March to December. This i s a most important reason for the success of early market vegetable production i n the area. Certain seed bearing crops which require a. long growing season to mature their f r u i t , are also wel l suited to the region. At the latitude of the region, (average about 48°, 3 0 ' N . ) , the duration of summer sunlight is also long. A nomogram shows that for the lat i tude, A p r i l has from 12f to 14^ - hours sunlight each day, May has 14-^ - to 15| hours, June, 15| to 16, July, 16 to 15, August, 15 to 13 -^, and September, 13^ to 12^. Thus 34 the months A p r i l t o September i n c l u s i v e , together average 15 hours s u n l i g h t each day. This i s a f a c t o r In the growth of p l a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those which r e q u i r e long summer days i n t h e i r l i f e c y c l e . C o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t o r of s u n l i g h t , the importance of topographic c o n t r o l becomes apparent. Because of i t s s h e l t e r e d p o s i t i o n to leeward of the Vancouver I s l a n d ranges and the northwest spur of the Olympic P e n i n s u l a , the r e g i o n l i e s i n the "shadow" of r a i n bearing winds. Though f r o n t a l r a i n s are common i n w i n t e r , they are u s u a l l y combined w i t h o r o g r a p h i c i n f l u e n c e s . Consequently windward slopes r e c e i v e the g r e a t e s t p r e c i p i t a t i o n while leeward slopes are d r i e r . Reduced c l o u d cover i s a l i k e l y c o r o l l a r y though not n e c e s s a r i l y so. By f a r the maximum amount of b r i g h t sunshine i n r e c e i v e d i n the summer time, when the P a c i f i c High Pr e s s u r e C e l l moves northward and b r i n g s s t a b l e atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s to the r e g i o n . While the maximum b r i g h t sunshine Is r e c e i v e d i n the summer months, the annual t o t a l i s h i g h , as the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows. STATION AVERAGE ANNEAL DURATION OF BRIGHT SUNSHINE ( HOURS ) CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. 18^7 HALIFAX, N.S. MONTREAL 1803 TORONTO 2048 WINNIPEG 2124 CALGARY 2245 KAMLOOPS 2178 PRINCE RUPERT 10 ^ VANCOUVER I83? VICDRIA 2207 1 S t a t i s t i c s from: Temperature, P r e c i p i t a t i o n , and Sunshine  C a i i l d i e C t e d s t a t i o n s < M e t * D i v i s i o n , Dept. of T r a n s p o r t , 3 5 The Sidney average, as l i s t e d i n the "Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia" 1 i s 2 , 0 5 1 hours. The s e a s o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of sunshine f o r a few r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t i o n s i s shown i n the 2 accompanying graph. As mentioned, Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d l i e s i n a r a i n shadow, and t h e r e f o r e p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h i n i t i s l e s s than f o r adjacent a r e a s . In annual t o t a l V i c t o r i a ' s 27 inches i s about h a l f t h a t f o r Vancouver, one-quarter t h a t f o r Clayoquot, B.C., three times t h a t f o r Kamloops, a l i t t l e more than Winnipeg's and the same as t h a t f o r S t . C a t h a r i n e s . An examination of the s e a s o n a l r e c e i p t of these annual t o t a l s shows t h a t again, pronounced d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . The f o l l o w i n g graph w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s s e a s o n a l i t y . 3 While a number of p l a n t s , n o t a b l y those of Mediterranean o r i g i n and those which are wind p o l l i n a t e d , such as our n a t i v e c o n i f e r s , r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n p e r i o d of drought to complete t h e i r l i f e c y c l e , most p l a n t s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e moisture d u r i n g the growing season. G e n e r a l l y speaking, i t i s assumed t h a t one t e n t h of an i n c h of e q u i v a l e n t r a i n f a l l i s necessary each day f o r a c t i v e growth of p l a n t s . O b v i o u s l y s t o r e d s o i l moisture w i l l provide a c e r t a i n " c a r r y - o v e r " , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the h e a v i e r t e x t u r e d s o i l s . A ccording t o L i v i n g s t o n and S h r e v e , 4 the l i m i t s of a drought are w i t h i n any 1 Climate of B.C.. Report f o r 194-5, Table 3, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1946 2 Dept. of Transport, op. c i t . 3 S t a t i s t i c s from: Temperature. P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Sunshine at  S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s , Met. D i v i s i o n , Dept. of T r a n s p o r t , Canada. 4 L i v i n g s t o n , B.E. and Shreve, P., The D i s t r i b u t i o n of  V e g e t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as R e l a t e d to C l i m a t i c  C o n d i t i o n s . Carnegie I n s t i t u t e , Washington, P u b l i c a t i o n 2^4, 1921. 36 f i v e day p e r i o d having a t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 0.5 inches or g r e a t e r . Consequently, V i c t o r i a experiences a d e f i n i t e summer drought, and f o r c e r t a i n crops to be grown i n the area, i r r i g a t i o n and s o i l moisture conserving p r a c t i c e s must be a p p l i e d . Winnipeg, on the other hand, though r e c e i v i n g l e s s t o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , has a much more d e s i r a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n , as f a r as most p l a n t growth i s concerned. Besides the l i m i t e d summer r a i n f a l l r e c e i v e d a t V i c t o r i a , there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n from year to year. While the graph i s based on average v a l u e s , V i c t o r i a has recorded a drought of 63 days. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , which occurred i n 1926, from June 13th to August 16th, no measurable p r e c i p i t a t i o n f e l l ; ! W i t h i n the r e g i o n , there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , though the p e r i o d i c i t y i s much the same as f o r V i c t o r i a . Because of the m i l d w i n t e r temperatures most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n throughout the r e g i o n f a l l s as r a i n , though there i s some snow, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the uplands i n the western p o r t i o n . Goldstream Lake, f o r example, (outside the r e g i o n , about two and a h a l f m i l e s northwest of the t i p of F i n l a y s o n Arm), records seventy inches of snow each year, while V i c t o r i a r e c o r d s e l e v e n inches and James I s l a n d , • ten and a h a l f i n c h e s . With t h i s l i m i t e d f a l l , snow seldom remains on the ground f o r more than one week a t a time, and t h e r e f o r e , there i s no chance f o r the accumulation of snow over the winter season. The accompanying graph shows the seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s w i t h i n the r e g i o n , and the map shows the i s o h y e t s of I Data h e l d i n the Dept. of T r a n s p o r t M e t e o r o l o g i c a l O f f i c e , Gonzales Observatory, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 3 C b ANNUAL PRECIPITATION CINCHES) I o i 1 3 4 5 S t a l e . - 4 m i l e s t o t i n c h » 2.3 "30' 1*. 3 7 i average annual precipitat ion for Southeastern Vancouver Island. The average monthly and annual number of days with measurable precipitat ion of any sort, shows approximately the same pattern as the seasonal dis t r ibut ion and is shown i n the following table for a few representative stations. STATION YRS. OBS. Io j F M A M J J A s 0 N D YR. ! LONDON,ONT. 18" 17.' 16 12 " 12" 11 i o " 9 n 1 3 19 _163 . WINNIPEG 10 12 11 9 9 10 12 10 10 _ 9 6 9 11 118 CALGARY 10 7 8 10" 8~ 11 12 10 10 ' 8 . 7 _ 5 _ 101 VICTORIA 10 1 8 14 1 5 10 10 8 6 5 8 17 | 20 144 PATRICIA BAY 5 16 14 12 1 3 14 8 4 5 8 14 1 7 L5L_ T4T As might be expected, the relat ive humidity follows somewhat the same seasonal dis t r ibut ion as the precipi tat ion. The table below shows a longtime average of relative humidity for Prince Rupert, V i c t o r i a , and Kamloops. STATION J F ! M A M J J A s 0 N D YEAR PR.RUPERT 8 5 j 8 1 ; 8 4 81 8 0 8 3 8 5 8 6 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 6 8 4 VICTORIA 8 6 8 2 ; 7 7 7 4 7 4 7 3 7 4 7 7 7 9 8 4 8 8 8 8 8 0 KAMLOOPS 7 8 7 6 ! 7 0 5 8 5 7 5 8 5 5 5 9 6 4 7 1 7 7 7 8 6 7 Fogs are not frequent over the region, and those which occur are usually experienced i n the f a l l months. It has been seen that the region receives the greatest percentage of i t s annual precipi tat ion i n the winter s ix months—January, February, March, and October, November, December. The single months having the greatest proportionate r a i n f a l l are December and January. Winds for each month of the year at Pa t r i c ia Bay (airport) and Vic to r i a , (the only two stations within the region for which s ta t i s t ics are available) , 1 S ta t i s t ics from: Climate of Br i t i sh Columbia. Reports for 1937, 1939, and 1947, Dept.of Agriculture, V ic to r i a , B.C. 2 S ta t i s t ics from: Climatic Summaries, vo l . 1 , Met.Division, Dept. of Transport, Toronto, Cauda. 3 Sta t i s t ics from: Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia<• Report for 1937? Dept. of Agriculture, Victoria7 B . C . , Table 5. 3 8 aBe as l i s t e d below. 1 PERCENTAGE WIND FREQUENCY BY DIRECTIONS STAT. DIR'N J F M A j M J ! J ! A-• •-' r * — 1 — s j 0 ; N D P A T R i I C I A . N ~TT7ET~ 5 ~9~ 5 7 2 " 8 2 8"" 2 11 " 2 i 1 | 2 8 ; 9 110 • 2 9 i 2 i 4 : 3 6 T" s r~6 : E . 2 4 • 3 . v 7 ;11 1 14 11 8 4 J ? S.E. ir/ 24 27 31 136 •31 26 25 . 21 • 20 S. ! 6 6 5 , 6 3 ! 3 : ? ' 4 7 7 ; 5 s. w. !ij 14 2 0 " 20 14 14 ! 9 ! 8 11 13 14 17 w. !2b 22 15 13 11 10 i 11 17 20 22 , 21 N.W. ~ 18 vn 18 T5 18- 18 12 :11 12 13 16 i 21 BAY CALM , 4 6 1? 4 5 6 9 ;' 10 8 6 4 ! 5 AV.WIN SPEED 5 D IN .5 M.P.H, 5.3 5.8 • 5.4 4.8 4.9 6 . r - 1 1 1 • • ! 5.1 i4.6 4 5 4.3 14 _ _4:7_ ?4 5.4 5.4 V I C T N. HC7Er~ 30 31 19 : 14 10 31 28 tC8_ lb ro-r 9 6 4 4 ! 5 10 J 12 U 5 — - ]4. E. 14 I2T1 10 8 6 4 4 t 5 8 11 14 14 - S T E l — 11 nr - 1 8 i 6 1 4 • 2 2 2 4 8 1Q__ 14 0 R I A S. V 7 - 1 9 io | 13 15 16 i17 15 1 21 .12 12 . 8 9 STt. i r . - ~ ~w.w:~~ ~ C £ L T " 7 " 8 22 i 29 34 ;40 |37 7 7 11 14 24 28 30 33 .29 26 24 17 12 _12 _ J L _ . 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 ! — 1 1 2 1 1 1 , i 1 1 i 1 2 3 2 1 AvTWIND SPEED IN 12.4 M.P .H. 11.6 i 11.6 111.7 12.0 i i i i i 12.3 in.9J10.6 8.7 8.9 10.7 12.8 From the t a b l e , there appears to be l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between wind . d i r e c t i o n and monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the r e g i o n es a whole. In January, the most frequent wind d i r e c t i o n at P a t r i c i a Bay i s W., fo l l o w e d by N.W.- and S.E. At V i c t o r i a f o r the same month, N. i s by f a r the most f r e q u e n t , f o l l o w e d by N.E. and E. In December, the'most frequent winds a t P a t r i c i a Bay are W. and N.W., while at V i c t o r i a they are N. and N.E. P o s s i b l y a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g predominant wind d i r e c t i o n on days d u r i n g which r a i n f e l l , would give a b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n . However, the v a r i e d topography and 1 S t a t i s t i c s from: C l i m a t i c Summaries, v o l . 2, Dept. of Tra n s p o r t , Toronto, Canada. 1 1 39 i r r e g u l a r shape of the landmass of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d would make a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . Never - t h e l e s s , the t a b l e does show the p r e v a l e n c e of sea breezes a t both s t a t i o n s i n summer months. From A p r i l t o August i n c l u s i v e , the predominant wind d i r e c t i o n i s S.E., f o l l o w e d by N.W. i n j u s t over h a l f the frequency of the former. Though not shown i n the t a b l e , the N.W. winds a l s o r e c o r d o n l y h a l f the v e l o c i t y of those from the S.E. A p p a r e n t l y then, d u r i n g the summer w i t h i n t e n s e h e a t i n g of the la n d s u r f a c e of the southern p a r t of the I s l a n d , winds from the c o o l e r s u r f a c e of Georgia S t r a i t blow from the S.E., over Saanich P e n i n s u l a and the I n l e t t o the l a r g e r l a n d s u r f a c e . With l e s s i n t e n s e and more l o c a l i z e d h e a t i n g of the P e n i n s u l a i t s e l f , weaker N.W. winds from Saanich I n l e t blow toward the l a n d , while at the same time, i f s t a t i s t i c s f o r Sidney were a v a i l a b l e , they would , probably i n d i c a t e E. or S.E. winds. Under s i m i l a r summer heat i n g of the land s u r f a c e near V i c t o r i a , S.W. and W e s t e r l y winds are r e c o r d e d , S.W. being s l i g h t l y more f r e q u e n t , and of s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r v e l o c i t y than those from the West; and both e t n e a r l y double the speed of P a t r i c i a Bay's S.E. winds. The g r e a t e r v e l o c i t y of winds throughout the year a t V i c t o r i a as compared wi t h P a t r i c i a Bay i s p a r t l y a r e s u l t of the e l e v a t i o n of the s t a t i o n and i t s exposed l o c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , there may be some e f f e c t of f u n n e l l i n g of gorge winds up Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . However, a d e f i n i t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y w i l l probably have t o w a i t u n t i l there are complete m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i s t i c s f o r the Sooke a r e a . 40 Some E f f e c t s of Climate i n the Region Probably the most obvious e f f e c t o f the c l i m a t e of the r e g i o n l i e s i n the c h a r a c t e r of the v e g e t a t i o n developed under i t . While Vancouver I s l a n d and the adjacent mainland coast as a whole, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by heavy stands of co n i f e r o u s f o r e s t , Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , though supporting an abundance of c o n i f e r s , i s marked by the presence of Garry oaks and Arbutus, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the cbler a r e a s . These t r e e s have, i n a d d i t i o n to e x t e n s i v e r o o t systems, l e a f adaptations which cut down the water l o s s through t r a n s p i r a t i o n , e n a b l i n g them t o make best use of the a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e . Man, however, through a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , has been able t o s e t up a r t i f i c i a l c o n d i t i o n s under which more mesophytic p l a n t s may be grown. Such p r a c t i c e s as d r y farming, are designed to lower e v a p o r a t i o n l o s s e s and conserve s o i l moisture. This i s not to suggest t h a t crops cannot be grown i n the r e g i o n without summer i r r i g a t i o n . Even without d r y farming techniques, woody p l a n t s with deep and e x t e n s i v e r o o t systems f l o u r i s h , s i n c e they are able t o draw on s t o r e d ground water and a l s o t o i n t e r c e p t most of the l i m i t e d summer r a i n s . Grasses and a s s o c i a t e d herbaceous p l a n t s which make t h e i r v e g e t a t i v e growth i n l a t e winter and s p r i n g , w i l l a l s o t h r i v e under the n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the r e g i o n . These are able to make t h e i r v e g e t a t i v e growth when moisture i s s t i l l abundant, and r i p e n t h e i r seed i n e a r l y summer. Consequently, use of the l a n d f o r hay or f o r seed growing i s one of the common a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . The summer drought, however, 41 does r e s t r i c t hay p r o d u c t i o n and summer past u r e d u r i n g dry years. Such crops as the common vegetables r e q u i r e i r r i g a t i o n i n the summer, though i n some l o c a t i o n s , such as bottom l a n d s , • l i t t l e water i s r e q u i r e d f o r h e a l t h y growth. A combination of c l i m a t i c and p h y s i o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s i n the r e g i o n have e x e r c i s e d an important e f f e c t on i t s development. The r e g i o n , f o r the most p a r t , i s w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h water. S c a t t e r e d lakes dot the r e g i o n , and though no s i g n i f i c a n t h y d r o - e l e c t r i c s i t e s are l o c a t e d w i t h i n i t , there i s abundant water supply f o r the urban area of V i c t o r i a . A l a r g e p a r t of the p r e s e n t supply, however, l i e s o u t s i d e the r e g i o n a l boundaries. The n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the r e g i o n i s an exc e p t i o n , i n that i t i s p o o r l y s u p p l i e d w i t h s u r f a c e waters. Though domestic water i s abundant, being p a r t l y s u p p l i e d by the V i c t o r i a system, there i s a l i m i t i n the amount a v a i l a b l e f o r i r r i g a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l purposes. T h i s shortage i s p a r t i c u l a r l y acute i n the summer months when the water t a b l e drops, and many of the i r r i g a t i o n w e l l s and sp r i n g s are thereby rendered u s e l e s s . Some of these w e l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those l o c a t e d a t the bottom of slopes where c o a r s e r m a t e r i a l , such as Vashon d r i f t , forms a t h i c k superincumbent l a y e r on Maywood c l a y s , y i e l d a steady water supply. These of course, are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y . This shortage has a f f e c t e d i n d u s t r y i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the r e g i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g V i c t o r i a ' s c l i m a t e as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , the f o l l o w i n g p o l y g o n a l graphs w i l l g ive some i d e a of the b i o t l c worth of the r e g i o n a l 42 c l i m a t e . 1 These p o l y g o n a l graphs embody e i g h t separate c l i m a t i c v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a b l e s a r e , commencing at the "top" of the graph and r e a d i n g c l o c k w i s e : number of hours b r i g h t sunshine d u r i n g the f r o s t l e s s season (F.S. Sun), t o t a l number of days i n the f r o s t l e s s season (F.S. Da.), summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n of thermal e f f i c i e n c y (S.C. T-E), annual thermal e f f i c i e n c y ( I 1 ) , annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( I ) , t o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n (P), p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the f r o s t l e s s season (F.S. P-E), and Longest drought i n the f r o s t l e s s season (F.S. L . D r . ) . The v a l u e s f o r I and I 1 p are based d i r e c t l y on C.W.Thornthwaite 1s formulae . The l e n g t h of the l o n g e s t drought i n the f r o s t l e s s season i s determined on the b a s i s of L i v i n g s t o n and Shreve's d e f i n i t i o n of a drought.3 Other values are obtained from c o n s u l t a t i o n 4 of v a r i o u s t a b l e s of c l i m a t i c s t a t i s t i c s . Though a c t u a l 1 B a s i c scheme f o r p o l y g o n a l graphing of c l i m a t i c d a t a was obtained d u r i n g a course of l e c t u r e s i n the Department of B i o l o g y and Botany, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. 2 Thornthwaite, C.W. The Climates of North America  A c c o r d i n g to a New C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Geog. Revlew, v o l . 21, 1931,-PP. 613^55. 3 L i v i n g s t o n , B.E. and Shreve, F.. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of V e g e t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as R e l a t e d to C l i m a t i c  C o n d i t i o n s , Carnegie I n s t i t u t e , Washington, P u b l i c a t i o n 284, 1921 4 (1) Temperature. P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Sunshine a t S e l e c t e d  S t a t i o n s i n the Dominion of Canada. Met. D i v i s i o n , Dept. £ T r a n s p o r t , Canada. _ (2) Data h e l d i n Dominion M e t e o r o l o g i c a l O f f i c e a t Gonzales Observatory, V i c t o r i a . 4-2 a. V I C T O R I A 4 2 b 4 2 c F S . S u n . I 42. d 4 3 values of the c l i m a t i c v a r i a b l e s are i n d i c a t e d on the graph, they are p l o t t e d as square r o o t v a l u e s . Thi s procedure has been f o l l o w e d s i n c e the b i o t i c worth of the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s has been found to v a r y e q u a l l y as t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e square r o o t s . (In p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s , one can c o n s i d e r the b i o t i c e f f e c t of a v a r i a t i o n of 5 inches i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t two s t a t i o n s , one r e c e i v i n g an average of 15 i n c h e s , and the other averaging 100 i n c h e s — o b v i o u s l y the b i o t i c worth of 5 inches of p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i e s w i t h the t o t a l amount r e c e i v e d . ) The t h r e e annular "zones" r e p r e s e n t hypo, meso and hyper v a l u e s , the last mentioned occupying the outermost r i n g . Extreme values are p l o t t e d o u t s i d e the graph, as i s the case w i t h annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s at P r i n c e Rupert. The polygon |or each s t a t i o n presents a f a i r l y c o n c i s e p i c t u r e of t h a t s t a t i o n ' s v alue as f a r as p l a n t growth i s concerned. From the p o i n t of view of human h a b i t a t i o n , the cl i m a t e of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s almost i d e a l , as shown by a comparison of the f o l l o w i n g h y t h e r g r a p h s . 1 Each year, t h i s equable c l i m a t e has brought thousands of t o u r i s t s and v a c a t i o n i s t s to the r e g i o n , and thus has meant a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l income. The c l i m a t e has a l s o , a t l e a s t to some degree, c o n t r i b u t e d to r e s i d e n t i a l r a t h e r than i n d u s t r i a l development of the urban c e n t r e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note i n p a s s i n g , t h a t the 1 S t a t i s t i c s from: (1) C l i m a t i c Summaries, v o l . 2, Dept. of T r a n s p o r t , Canada. (2) Climate of B.C.. Report f o r 1937, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Hythergraph a f t e r T a y l o r , T.G., Environment, Race and M i g r a t i o n , p. 286 4-3a A V E R A G E M O M T H U V m r " l (w» 1 K *> >-r f-L 1 1 > Of ! A V A. i \ 1 >- . A • A N y M « 7i L c c } L-— H A L I F A : hi PS • i R E : c i •A N i l r t C A T E S i r C O M F O I T u r t l e " A T E W H t T E S . | C A T E S •- A T T ) K E i H K E S M O U I C P '1 V B r i E T A -o— UJ -4X -eo 50 ^ p. -id l _ f c _ Z 0 £ 4-3 -a© to 44 e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Dominion A s t r o p h y s i c a l Observatory upon L i t t l e S a anich Mountain, one of the monadnocks i n the r e g i o n , c l e a r s k i e s , was a d i r e c t response t o c l i m a t e . R e l a t i v e l y ^ u n i f o r m i t y of temperature;.; o l o o r okioq. and a steady atmosphere are primary c l i m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a s t r o p h y s i c a l work. However, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the summer drought does impose c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s on i n d u s t r i a l development i n p a r t s of the r e g i o n . 5- SOILS D e r i v a t i o n ' The s o i l s of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d w hile d e r i v e d from the country rock of the I s l a n d , have been mixed and t r a n s p o r t e d though the agencies of g l a c i e r s and streams. There i s then, a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between bedrock for m a t i o n s , the s o i l s d e r i v e d from these, and the manner of d e p o s i t i o n . The p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s o i l s has been l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of g l a c i a t i o n , and thus the s o i l s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y , both i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and i n depth, w i t h i n s m a l l areas. As the g l a c i e r s r e t r e a t e d , the d e t r i t u s was l a i d down as ground moraine, e s t u a r i n e , l a k e , o r f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . i The ground moraines, though not a l l a l i k e , c o n s i s t of unsorted m a t e r i a l s . The e s t u a r i n e and lake d e p o s i t s , on the other hand, having been d e p o s i t e d i n calm water, g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t of f i n e r m a t e r i a l s — c l a y s and s i l t s . The r i v e r d e p o s i t s are u s u a l l y coarse t e x t u r e d , and have not evolved i n t o good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s . In the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l s o i l s , 45 those d e r i v e d from t i l l s of the same rock o r i g i n , t e x t u r e and mode of d e p o s i t i o n have been grouped t o g e t h e r . Some of the s o i l s have been mixed, n e c e s s i t a t i n g a separate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , while peat s o i l s and r e c e n t l y d e r i v e d f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s are a l s o c l a s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The f o l l o w i n g names have been used to de s i g n a t e the s o i l groups and the s o i l f a m i l i e s d e r i v e d from them. 1 Coarse t e x t u r e d g l a c i a l t i l l s - 1. Shawnigan ( a n d e s i t i c and g r a n i t i c o r i g i n ) 2. K e a t i n g (gneissic-o r i g i n ) L a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s - 1. Cowichan S t r a t i f i e d d r i f t - 1. Qualicum M i s c e l l a n e o u s - 1. Tolmie ( a c o n s i s t e n t and e x t e n s i v e mixture) 2. Unnamed; i n c l u d e s d e l t a s , mixtures and peat. S i n c e t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n i n the P l e i s t o c e n e , a number of f a c t o r s have acted upon and a l t e r e d the b a s i c s o i l f a m i l i e s . The s o i l s have been weathered through the agencies of c l i m a t e and n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , p r o d u c t i n g a f e r t i l e s u r f a c e upon the i n e r t and u n a l t e r e d s u b s o i l . The o r g a n i c matter r e t u r n e d t o the s o i l by the predominantly c o n i f e r o u s ° v e g e t a t i o n , i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , c o n s i s t i n g of a s l o w l y decomposing f i b r o u s m a t — a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of the s o i l s along the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. T h i s l i t t e r i s not h i g h i n b a s i c elements such as calcium, and hence i t does l i t t l e to 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o b t a i n e d from: S p i l s b u r y , R.H., S o i l  Survey of the Southeast P o r t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d , 1944 ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . 46 n e u t r a l i z e the a c i d nature of the s o i l s . I n t h i s a c i d i c humus l a y e r , s o i l organisms f u n c t i o n to produce s o l u b l e compounds of great importance to p l a n t growth. Much of these s o l u b l e compounds and other p l a n t foods are unfortunately leached from the s o i l d u r i n g the heavy w i n t e r r a i n s , w i t h r e s u l t a n t decreased f e r t i l i t y . Where drainage i s r e s t r i c t e d , as i n v a l l e y bottoms and marshes, the d i s s o l v e d m a t e r i a l tends to co n c e n t r a t e , producing a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n those a r e a s . Often, where drainage i s v e r y poor, the organic matter which accumulates t h e r e , develops i n t o v a r i o u s grades of peat or muck s o i l s . The many s o i l a s s o c i a t e s developed from the broad s o i l f a m i l i e s as a r e s u l t of the f o r e g o i n g m o d i f y i n g f a c t o r s , are themselves f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d . By c l e a r i n g , d r a i n i n g and c u l t i v a t i o n , man a l t e r s the e n t i r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o i l , a i r and water, as w e l l as the chemical, p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Thus the presen t s o i l s of the r e g i o n , w hile r e f l e c t i n g the b a s i c raw m i n e r a l s o i l s which were l a i d down d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e , are a l s o the product of a gr e a t many p h y s i c a l , chemical and b i o l o g i c a l processes which m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l . S o i l C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n S u b j e c t t o the m u l t i p l e v a r i a t i o n s mentioned above, each s o i l f a m i l y has g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i d e n t i f y i t . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t s o i l s l i s t e d below are intended to g i v e some i d e a of the appearance and v 47 economic worth of each. 1 The accompanying s o i l map (Plate I), 2 indicates the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s o i l s within the region. A comparison between t h i s map and the map of s u p e r f i c i a l geology reveals the close r e l a t i o n s h i p existing between surface s o i l s and underlying g l a c i a l deposits. The s o i l s showing the closest r e l a t i o n s h i p to the underlying deposits are those of the Cowichan family—having been derived from Maywood clays. In a detailed comparison of the s o i l and geological maps, i t must be borne i n mind that the l a t t e r not only represents a much older survey, but indicates the boundaries of the deposits only where they a t t a i n a s i g n i f i c a n t thickness and are e a s i l y recognized. A. S o i l s Derived From Coarse Textured T i l l 1. Shawnigan Stony Sandy Loam This coarse textured s o i l i s limited i n i t s occurence within the region. I t extends from the lowland into the r o l l i n g topography at the edge of the upland. Steep slopes are common, and i n only rare instances can l e v e l areas of any extent be found. The s o i l i s f a i r l y uniform, consisting of a t h i n organic mat covering a grey brown sandy loam. The grey brown sandy loam grades downward through porous horizons of much the same nature, to the impervious, underlying t i l l at approximately two f e e t . Numerous boulders and gravel occur 1 The detailed characterization of each s o i l was obtained from: Spilsbury, R.H., S o i l Survey of Southeast** Portion Vancouver Island, 1944, (unpublished). 2 Adapted from Map Sheets 9 - 14 i n c l u s i v e , accompanying Sp i l s b u r y 1 s s o i l report. 48 throughout the p r o f i l e , making up at l e a s t h a l f the s o i l mass. Because of the impervious nature of the t i l l , peaty s o i l s develop i n even s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n s . Because of the stony nature of the Shawnigan s o i l s , they are not s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use. 2. K e a t i n g Sandy Loam This i s a coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l d e r i v e d from g n e i s s i c r o c k and l i m i t e d t o the S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a . Topo - g r a p h i c a l l y , i t v a r i e s from u n d u l a t i n g to h i l l y i n the v i c i n i t y of the upland a r e a s . The main d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and the Shawnigan stony sandy loam, i s t h a t the l a t t e r , as i t s name suggests, i s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h much g r a v e l and f r e q u e n t b o u l d e r s . The Keating sandy loam, however, while unsorted and l i g h t i n t e x t u r e , contains v e r y l i t t l e g r a v e l or b o u l d e r s . A shallow b l a c k to dark brown s u r f a c e l a y e r , h i g h i n o r g a n i c matter o v e r l i e s a red brown, e a s i l y f r i a b l e sandy loam. This red brown l a y e r extends through s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g phases to a depth of about two f e e t , where i t grades i n t o the v e r y dense, cemented, grey c o l o r e d t i l l . The t h i c k n e s s of the t i l l layer v a r i e s , or may be absent, i n which case the sandy loam s u r f a c e s o i l o v e r l i e s e i t h e r the s t r a t i f i e d sands and g r a v e l s of the Qualicum s o i l f a m i l y , or the h e a v i e r Cowichan c l a y s . Obviously, the d e t a i l e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the K e a t i n g s o i l s w i l l depend upon which of these types they o v e r l a y . This i s a l s o of importance i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y i n these s o i l s . 49 The K e a t i n g s o i l s have been w e l l developed f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use wherever topography i s f a v o r a b l e . The l i g h t t e x t u r e d , f r i a b l e nature of the s o i l makes i t i d e a l f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s , while r a s p b e r r i e s , e a r l y market peas and potatoes and bulbs are a l s o w e l l adapted to i t . The low moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of t h i s s o i l , however, imposes a l i m i t i n g factor on i t s use. Summer drought prevents p a s t u r e , hay and g r a i n crops from being r a i s e d w i t h any success, and e a r l y maturing crops must be r e l i e d upon. B. S o i l s D e r i v e d From L a c u s t r i n e D e p o s i t s 1. Cowichan Clay Loam and C l a y These s o i l s have been d e r i v e d from f i n e r s o i l p a r t i c l e s d e p o s i t e d i n p r o - g l a c i a l lakes and shallow e s t u a r i e s . They r e p r e s e n t the most important and e x t e n s i v e of the s o i l f a m i l i e s i n the r e g i o n . T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y they are u s u a l l y g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g , though i n p l a c e s , streams have somewhat d i s s e c t e d them. Because there are few steep s l o p e s on these s o i l s , most areas can be c u l t i v a t e d . The b e t t e r d r a i n e d p o r t i o n s are grouped as c l a y loams, while those which are p o o r l y d r a i n e d are c l a y s . On the b e t t e r d r a i n e d c l a y loams, a s h a l l o w dark brown l a y e r of o r g a n i c matter o v e r l i e s a t h i n k , ashy, c l a y loam. T h i s grades i n t o a red brown c l a y loam which i n t u r n , grades i n t o c l a y a t about 15" depth. The grey brown c l a y extends to the dense, impervious parent m a t e r i a l found at about two f e e t . The drainage on these s o i l s i s moderately good, and cracks i n the s u b s o i l together w i t h the h i g h moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of the s u r f a c e s o i l reduce the 49a Strawberries (foreground), and loganberries ( l e f t background), on a mixture of Cowichan clays and Keating sandy loams. 50 amount of s u r f a c e r u n o f f . The Cowichan c l a y s have a d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e t o the "clay loams. While the t h i n s u r f a c e l a y e r i n each case i s the same, the c l a y s have an u n d e r l y i n g h o r i z o n of b l a c k , g r a n u l a r c l a y which extends to a y e l l o w c l a y , reached at about one f o o t depth. This extends to a tough, g r e y - b l u e , heavy c l a y o v e r l y i n g the dense laminated c l a y s u b s o i l , found at about two f e e t . Both the Cowichan c l a y s and c l a y loams are f r e e of stones except i n the Sooke andSaanich areas, and i n these areas, except f o r o c c a s i o n a l b o u l d e r s , the stones are not numerous enough,to r e s t r i c t c u l t i v a t i o n . The w e l l d r a i n e d c l a y loams are the b e t t e r of the two s o i l s , s i n c e they are f r i a b l e and have no tendency to bake. In a d d i t i o n , the moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y i s h i g h , and i n consequence a wide v a r i e t y of crops, such as f o r a g e crops, g r a i n , and r o o t crops, can be grown. Small f r u i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l o g a n b e r r i e s , and bulbs are e x t e n s i v e l y grown on these c l a y loams. The Cowichan c l a y s are g e n e r a l l y l e s s d e s i r a b l e s i n c e they tend to bake and are l a t e s o i l s . Though underdrainage i s f r e q u e n t l y necessary, hay, g r a i n , and r o o t crops d o v e r y w e l l , w i t h s t a n d i n g the summer drought b e t t e r than s i m i l a r crops p l a n t e d on the clay lchams. C. S o i l s D e r i v e d From S t r a t i f i e d D r i f t These s o i l s have o r i g i n a t e d from stream s o r t e d d e p o s i t s , and hence they v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t e x t u r e . They 50a 51 a l l consist of rather coarse material however, and have been classed as Qualicum stony sand and QuaIleum loamy sand. The former consists mostly of sand, gravel and stones while the l a t t e r i s stone free. 1. Qualicum Stony Sand This s o i l i s found near the apex of fan deposits where g l a c i a l streams issued from the upland, well i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Colwood delt a . Consequently the topography i s a series of terraces, often marked by ke t t l e holes. Qualicum stony sand consists of s t r a t i f i e d layers of coarse sand, gravel and stone, with occasional pans forming perched water tables. Where the pans are close to the surface, sedge and cedar swamps may occur, though at greater depth and within the root zone of forest trees, they may cause a sparse, stunted treecover. Generally speaking, the s o i l has no value f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use, since i t i s stony and has low f e r t i l i t y and low water holding capacity. 2• Qualicum Loamy Sand This sibil occurs i n terraces, as with the stony sand, though i t may occur i n uniform slopes extending from the flanks of the upland to the coast l i n e . Generally speaking the s o i l has excessive drainage, but occasionally where pans develop or where i t t h i n l y overlies denser Cowichan s o i l s , r e s t r i c t e d drainage causes a d e f i n i t e change i n p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In general, the p r o f i l e may be described as having a thi n dark brown organic mat overlying a shallow horizon of grey loamy sand which i n turn, grades into a l i g h t 52 brown loamy sand extending to about one f o o t depth. Beyond t h i s , l i g h t c'olored sand occurs u n t i l the parent m a t e r i a l I s reached. The c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o f i l e between the u n r e s t r i c t e d and r e s t r i c t e d drainage types i s t h a t , i n the former, the s u b - s o i l i s l o o s e and porous, while i n the l a t t e r i t i s dense and almost impervious. The moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of the Qualicum s o i l s i s the lowest of a l l the s o i l types i n the r e g i o n . Because of t h i s . l a c k of drought r e s i s t a n c e and the low i n h e r e n t f e r t i l i t y , even the loamy sands cannot produce a l i g h t crop of hay. In cases where they have r e s t r i c t e d d rainage, there i s a chance f o r marginal a g r i c u l t u r e . D. S o i l s of M i s c e l l a n e o u s O r i g i n These s o i l s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , are of l o c a l occurence o n l y , and are very l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t . The e x c e p t i o n i s the Tolmie sandy c l a y loam, which i s f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e i n the V i c t o r i a — G o r d o n Head a r e a . 1. Tolmie Sandy C l a y Loam These s o i l s are an i n t i m a t e mixture of Qualicum sands and Cowichan c l a y s , whereas other mixtures of these two s o i l f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t of one p r o f i l e superimposed upon the other. T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y they are uniform and f a i r l y l e v e l , w i t h a tendency to d e p r e s s i o n . The Tolmie s o i l s have a r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k , (6"), b l a c k s u r f a c e l a y e r of sandy clay loam, o v e r l y i n g a more dense l i g h t grey, sandy c l a y loam. This grades i n t o a tough, more dense, l a y e r of the same m a t e r i a l . A t a depth of about two 53 f e e t , the l a t t e r grades i n t o the impervious c l a y (Cowichan), parent m a t e r i a l . The p r o p o r t i o n of sand to c l a y v a r i e s , so that the t e x t u r e may range from sandy loam to sandy c l a y . In each case, the water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y remains h i g h . These s o i l s are almost e n t i r e l y c u l t i v a t e d , and are e x t e n s i v e l y used f o r s m a l l f r u i t s , n o t a b l y l o g a n b e r r i e s and c u r r a n t s , together w i t h seed crops and b u l b s . The urban area of V i c t o r i a has now expanded over a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the Tolmie s o i l s . 2. D e l t a S o i l s D e l t a s o i l s are shallow s o i l s of r e c e n t o r i g i n and are found a t the mouths of the l a r g e streams i n the r e g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r i y i n the Sooke area. Because they are f e d by seepage from surrounding h i g h e r l a n d , d e l t a s o i l s are more u n i f o r m l y s u p p l i e d w i t h moisture d u r i n g the summer drought than i s . a n y other type. Since they r e p r e s e n t eroded m a t e r i a l from any of the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s o i l f a m i l i e s , they vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , and have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of t e x t u r e . The f i n e t e x t u r e d group, i n s p i t e of the shallowness, have w e l l developed, mature p r o f i l e s , p a r t i a l l y due to heavy herbaceous and deciduous cover which they support. A g r i c u l t u r a l l y the f i n e t e x t u r e d d e l t a s o i l s are of great v a l u e . They possess a. h i g h degree of f e r t i l i t y , f r i a b l e s t r u c t u r e , and moisture content, and while s u b j e c t to p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g , they are w e l l s u i t e d to p r a c t i c a l l y a l l crops grown i n the r e g i o n , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t r e e f m i t s . The coarse t e x t u r e d d e l t a s o i l s i n c l u d e sandy 54 t i d a l f l a t s , and g r a v e l l y r i v e r b a r s . Since they c o n s i s t of coarse sand and g r a v e l , they have no a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e . 3. Peats Most of these s o i l s are l e s s than twenty acres i n e xtent, and re p r e s e n t o l d shallow lake beds, or other topographic d e p r e s s i o n s . G e n e r a l l y speaking, w i t h drainage these s o i l s can be made very p r o d u c t i v e and are w i d e l y used f o r t ruck farming, p a r t i c u l a r l y near the urban c e n t r e s . 4. Mixed P r o f i l e s These s o i l s are l i m i t e d i n extent, and extremely v a r i e d , c o n s i s t i n g of a s u r f a c e s o i l o f one f a m i l y and a s u b s o i l of another f a m i l y . Among the combinations a r e : Qualicum loamy sand over Snawnigan t i l l , Shawnigan t i l l over Cowichan c l a y and K e a t i n g t i l l over Cowichan c l a y . Two of these mixed p r o f i l e s j l i k e the Tolmie sandy c l a y loam, are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Cowichan s o i l s , and because they are a r a b l e they w i l l be b r i e f l y mentioned. The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of a stony sandy loam s u r f a c e over a Cowichan c l a y s u b s o i l . The s u r f a c e has become mixed with the c l a y producing a sandy to c l a y loam, the depth of which v a r i e s from a few inches to n e a r l y two f e e t . Because of the c l a y s u b s o i l , t h i s mixed s o i l i s g e n e r a l l y p o o r l y d r a i n e d . I t occurs mainly around the base of Mt. Newton, and a l a r g e p o r t i o n of i t has not y e t been c u l t i v a t e d . The second mixture i s somewhat s i m i l a r to the f i r s t . I t i s made up of a stony sandy loam s u r f a c e over a Cowichan c l a y s u b s o i l . The c l a y s u b s o i l v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s 55 and where t h i n , i t has l i t t l e e f f e c t i n forming a loam w i t h the sandy s u r f a c e s o i l . In depressed areas i t o f t e n develops a s u i t a b l e mixture, but i t i s g e n e r a l l y p o o r l y ' d r a i n e d . With drainage, t h i s s o i l can be made p r o d u c t i v e . This mixture occurs mainly i n the O t t e r d i s t r i c t , and i t has not been f u l l y developed. Summary of S o i l Resources of the Region Soon a f t e r the settlement of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d s t a r t e d i n the 1840's, s m a l l farming communities were e s t a b l i s h e d a t Sooke, V i c t o r i a and S a a n i c h . These communities grew i n p r o p o r t i o n to the expansion o f V i c t o r i a , and today, most of the a r a b l e acreage has been, or i s at p r e s e n t , c u l t i v a t e d . While there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e non-arable upland, and numerous outcrops of bed-rock occur, there i s a l s o much land s u i t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e . The most e x t e n s i v e and important of the s o i l s w i t h i n the r e g i o n are those of the Cowichan f a m i l y — c l a y loams and c l a y s . They were among the f i r s t s o i l s to be c u l t i v a t e d . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h these are the Tolmie sandy c l a y loam and the two mixed types p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. The Tolmie s o i l s have long been c u l t i v a t e d and r e p r e s e n t some of the b e s t s o i l s i n the r e g i o n , w h i l e the two mixed types r e p r e s e n t p a r t of the acreage s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l expansion. The Keating sandy loam i s l i m i t e d to the Saanich area and has been e x t e n s i v e l y developed f o r strawberry and bulb growing, U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a c o n s i d e r a b l e 56 acreage of the K e a t i n g s o i l s i s non-arable because of topography, s i n c e they mantle much of the upland a r e a . On the s o i l map, pockets of t h i s s o i l type o c c u r i n g w i t h rock outcrops remain u n c l a s s i f i e d . The Qualicum stony sands occur l a r g e l y i n the Colwood d e l t a and are non-arable. A number of s m a l l h o l d i n g s have been developed on them, however, due to the p r o x i m i t y of V i c t o r i a . Because of the expansion of V i c t o r i a , there i s an i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r development of some of these Qualicum s o i l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e s t r i c t e d drainage phases that c e n t r e . l y i n g near V i c t o r i a . The main u t i l i z a t i o n of these s o i l s i s i n mining. The Qualicum stony sands are the c h i e f source of sand and g r a v e l i n the r e g i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e 1 r e p r e s e n t s an acreage summary of s o i l f a m i l i e s i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d : ACRES Shawnigan stony sandy loam 5,920 K e a t i n g sandy loam 7,335 Cowichan c l a y 21,155 Cowichan c l a y loam 5,695 Qualicum stony sand 4,480 Qualicum loamy sand 2,120 Qualicum loamy sand ( r e s t r i c t e d drainage) 380 Tolmie sandy c l a y loam 7,165 D e l t a stony sand 320 (continued)  1 S p i l s b u r y , R.H., S o i l Survey of Vancouver I s l a n d , 1944, (unpublished), p. 55a 57 D e l t a s o i l s 640 Peat 1,240 Mixed p r o f i l e s ( u n r e s t r i c t e d d rainage) 1,760 Mixed p r o f i l e s ( r e s t r i c t e d drainage) 3,885 Rock outcrop and water 17,605 TOTAL 79,700 6. NATURAL VEGETATION AND PLANT AND ANIMAL ECOLOGY N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n and Settlement When the f i r s t white r e s i d e n t s moved i n t o the r e g i o n of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , they c l e a r e d l a n d which was covered, f o r the most p a r t , by a f i n e stand o f c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t . This f o r e s t was an a s s e t which was u t i l i z e d f o r many c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes. Hand hewn and hand sawn lumber were the o n l y b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The a l t e r n a t i v e was i m p o r t a t i o n of these m a t e r i a l s v i a a long and expensive sea r o u t e . The Douglas f i r was w i d e l y used, s i n c e i t was both strong and d u r a b l e , The n a t i v e cedars were a l s o e x t e n s i v e l y used, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r r o o f i n g and f e n c e s . The Douglas f i r was the most a b u n d a n t o f the f o r e s t t r e e s , w h ile both western hemlock and western red cedar were common. These c o n i f e r s , w h ile g e n e r a l l y abundant, formed t h e i r h e a v i e s t stands where moisture was most a v a i l a b l e . Thus the O t t e r , Sooke, Goldstream and Highland d i s t r i c t s — u p l a n d a r e a s — w e r e very h e a v i l y timbered. The s e t t l e r s were quick to take advantage of these f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s , and s m a l l sawmills sprang 5?a Looking from Sooke road to the N.W. shoulder of Redflag Mountain. Dry pasture i n the foreground i s bordered with alder and f i r i n the near background. Slopes of the mountain are well clothed with Douglas f i r second growth. Bare rock outcrop can be seen on the upper slopes. 58 up to meet the l o c a l demand f o r lumber. One of the f i r s t of these was e s t a b l i s h e d at Sooke as e a r l y as 1850. F o r e s t s remain today one of the r e g i o n ' s major r e s o u r c e s . The d r i e r e a s t e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s of the r e g i o n w i t h i n what has been termed the Madrona—Oak t r a n s i t i o n , 1 supported g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r t r e e s , but i n g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s . The deciduous s p e c i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y were found here, i n groves, or i n t e r s p e r s e d among the c o n i f e r s . One of the most n o t i c e a b l e of these deciduous t r e e s , the Garry oak, ( Quercus Garryana ), f a v o r e d the d r i e r a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the v i c i n i t y of rock o u t c r o p s . The arbutus, (Arbutus Menzies ), an evergreen s p e c i e s a l s o t h r i v i n g i n the d r i e r areas of the r e g i o n , formed a sharp c o n t r a s t w i t h the c o n i f e r s . N either i t nor the oak was u t i l i z e d t o any extent f o r s t r u c t u r a l purposes. T h e i r former abundance i s a t t e s t e d by the areas named a f t e r them, Oak Bay and Arbutus Cove being two o f i t h e b e t t e r known of these p l a c e names. Broad l e a v e d maples and red a l d e r were l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o stream banks, lake shores or other l o c a l i z e d areas too wet f o r the c o n i f e r s . In a d d i t i o n t o the t r e e s p e c i e s , a p r o f u s i o n of shrubs and herbs occupied p l a c e s where the s o i l was t h i n or where winter r a i n s caused p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g . Though the f o r e s t was r e c o g n i z e d as an a s s e t , the heavy t r e e cover was a l s o a problem. C l e a r i n g methods were slow and l a b o r i o u s , and farms a few acres i n extent 1 H a l l i d a y , W.E.D., A F o r e s t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. F o r e s t S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n 89, Dept. of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1937. 58a Mixed coyer near Mt. Douglas. Spiraea aid willow are prominent i n the shrub layer, while arbutus (Arbutus M e n z i e s i i t , and Douglas f i r form the tree l a y e r . 59 meant years of t o i l . Land was f i r s t c l e a r e d i n the areas of l i g h t e r cover, and g r a d u a l l y expanded u n t i l a l l the b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the v i c i n i t y of the settlements was under p r o d u c t i o n . In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d , a g r i c u l t u r a l s ettlement continued to spread p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the V i c t o r i a - - S a a n i c h a r e a , where the most e x t e n s i v e acreages of good l a n d were found. The expansion of settlement had i t s r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t upon n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n . As the l a n d was c l e a r e d , a new s u c c e s s i o n of p l a n t communities appeared i n the cut over and burnt over areas. T r a c t s of a l d e r and w i l l o w grew up where f i r and hemlock had stood, and the c o n i f e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s p r e v a l e n t except i n the upland areas. Not only were new p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n s o r i g i n a t e d , but e x o t i c s p e c i e s were i n t r o d u c e d , some of which invaded the r e g i o n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e success. One of these, the u b i q u i t o u s broom, ( C y t i s u s s c o p a r i u s )., was imported to the r e g i o n by W i l l i a m Grant, the f i r s t s e t t l e r i n the Sooke a r e a . I n some cases t h i s p l a n t has become a p e s t , and has r u i n e d acreages of former rough p a s t u r e . However, s i n c e i t f a v o u r s dry, rocky l o c a t i o n s , i t does not r e a d i l y spread to a r a b l e l a n d . Of g r e a t e r s e r i o u s n e s s t o the farmer are the Canada t h i s t l e , ( C i r s i u m arvense), and quackgrass or couch (Agropyron repens). Both these e x o t i c species- have t h r i v e n i n the r e g i o n . Of the l a t t e r , Kephart has s a i d : "With the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of the Canada t h i s t l e , quackgrass i s the most 59a Looking east from East Sooke Road near Metchosin. Dry pasture f i l l s the foreground. The dark mass extending from centre to right in the near background i s yellow broom, (Cytisus scoparius). It has invaded the pasture seen in the centre of the photograph. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), in the seed bearing stage. Borne on plants averaging 3% feet high, the downy seed i s easily carried by the wind from infested areas to neighbouring cultivated lands. Once established, the weed is d i f f i c u l t to eradicate. 60 n o t o r i o u s o f a l l weeds and probably causes a g r e a t e r monetary l o s s than any other s i n g l e s p e c i e s of p l a n t . " 1 The v a r i o u s lower p l a n t forms, s p e c i f i e a b l y the pla n t d i s e a s e s , which have been i n t r o d u c e d t o the r e g i o n , while not as conspicuous as the h i g h e r forms, probably cause a g r e a t e r annual l o s s t o a g r i c u l t u r e . Such d i s e a s e s as scab of apples and pears, ( V e n t u r i a i n a e q u a l i s ) , l a t e b l i g h t of potatoes, (Phytophthora I n f e s t q n s ) , and c l u b r o o t of C r u c i f e r s (Plasmodiphora b r a s s i c a e ) , cause c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s e s . Some pl a n t d i s e a s e s are presen t i n other areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, but are c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from South e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . Among those are " L i t t l e Cherry" and F i r e b l i g h t of pears and a p p l e s . ^ The f o r e g o i n g p l a n t d i s e a s e s are of minor importance, however, unless drought and wi n t e r i n j u r y are i n c l u d e d * While winter i n j u r y i s l i m i t e d because of the long f r o s t l e s s season, summer drought i s the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r of crop p r o d u c t i o n i n n o n - i r r i g a t e d a r e a s . Slope. S o i l , Water and V e g e t a t i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p s . In any of ear t h ' s r e g i o n s , a d e l i c a t e balance e x i s t s between s o i l , water and v e g e t a t i o n . Each of these f a c t o r s a c t s upon the o t h e r s , and any change i n one f a c t o r , must a f f e c t the balance of the whole. This balance e x i s t s both i n the broad aspect of the r e g i o n as a u n i t and a l s o i n 1 Kephart, L.W., c i t e d i n Grass, The Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e . 1^48, United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1948, p. 728 2 F o s t e r , W.R., ( P r o v i n c i a l P l a n t P a t h o l o g i s t ) , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , 29th J u l y , 1949-61 the s m a l l e r s u b s i d i a r y u n i t s comprising the r e g i o n . Thus the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n one area are r e f l e c t e d by a stand of c o n i f e r s , i n another by a sedge meadow, and i n another by an a l d e r grove. To man, probably the most important of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are those d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g s o i l and a g r i c u l t u r e . Since G l a c i a l time, a s u c c e s s i o n of p l a n t communities has converted the raw m i n e r a l t i l l s i n t o a v a r i e t y of immature and mature s o i l s , the p r o f i l e s of which r e f l e c t a l l the f a c t o r s of s l o p e , water, and v e g e t a t i o n . The s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s developed respond to the nature of the v e g e t a t i v e cover, forming an a c i d i c f i b r o u s mat under the c o n i f e r s . Because of the a c i d i t y , the s o i l organisms which cause decomposition of the org a n i c matter are f u n g i , r a t h e r than b a c t e r i a . These m y c o r r h i z a l f u n g i perform an important f u n c t i o n i n the s o i l by producing s o l u b l e o r g a n i c compounds which are d i s t r i b u t e d through the s o i l and thereby made a v a i l a b l e to p l a n t s . The a c i d i t y , however, v a r i e s from f a i r l y h i g h under the Douglas f i r - h e m l o c k cover i n the upland areas, to l e s s a c i d under the deciduous t r e e s and n e u t r a l i n the d r i e r p a r k - l i k e areas near the c o a s t . Not only w i t h i n the r e g i o n , but on the I s l a n d as a whole, a c i d i t y v a r i e s . I n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n heavy r a i n s and the t h i c k hemlock-spruce cover combine t o produce the most a c i d of the I s l a n d s o i l s . In Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , the l i g h t e r r a i n s and more open cover develop more n e u t r a l s o i l s . 6 2 The p e r c o l a t i o n of groundwater v a r i e s w i t h the slope and the p o r o s i t y of the s o i l , but i t tends to c o l l e c t i n v a l l e y s and low l y i n g a reas. T h i s produces temporary water t a b l e s , important to some crops, p a r t i c u l a r l y summer p a s t u r e . The change i n water r e l a t i o n s h i p s produced by these temporary water t a b l e s i s u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d by a l u x u r i a n t cover of swordferns, mosses and deciduous t r e e s such as red a l d e r and broad-leaved maple - i n c o n t r a s t t o the c o n i f e r s . This v e g e t a t i v e type produces a b l a c k , g r a n u l a r humus i n s t e a d of the fibr-ous mat under the cone-bearers. I n some cases, where the s o i l i s c o n t i n u a l l y water-soaked, the orga n i c matter accumulates forming peat and muck d e p o s i t s , or p o s s i b l y sedge meadows. Should the v e g e t a t i o n be removed from a l a r g e area, the balance i s d i s r u p t e d , o f t e n to the detriment of the area as a whole. The o r g a n i c l a y e r becomes d e p l e t e d , s o i l becomes compacted and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n areas with c o n s i d e r a b l e s l o p e , r u n o f f becomes s e r i o u s . Water t a b l e s drop and streams become i n t e r m i t t e n t . G e n e r a l l y speaking, however, c l e a r i n g of v e g e t a t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d has been r e s t r i c t e d to the f l a t t e r areas f o r the development of farm l a n d s . The upland a r e a s , though logged a t v a r i o u s times, have not been completely s t r i p p e d of t h e i r cover. Thus, while the s o i l , water and v e g e t a t i o n r e l a t i o n - s h i p s have been changed, they have not combined to form a s e r i o u s e r o s i o n problem w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The numerous 6 3 s m a l l peat bogs found s c a t t e r e d through the r e g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s n o r t h e r n h a l f , are of gre a t importance i n t h e i r c o n t r o l of moisture r e l a t i o n s h i p s . During p e r i o d s of heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n they are capable of absorbing and r e t a i n i n g a great volume of water which i s g r a d u a l l y r e l e a s e d as seepage to groundwater, or to s m a l l streams. This seepage i s consequently of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to i r r i g a t i o n w e l l s . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t the problem of decr e a s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y of s p r i n g s and w e l l s i n the North S a a n i c h D i s t r i c t has r e s u l t e d from the d r a i n i n g of bogs and the almost complete c l e a r i n g of the t r e e cover. Animal L i f e and Settlement The f i r s t white s e t t l e r s i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d found an abundance of game to supplement t h e i r d i e t . Deer, grouse, and w i l d f o w l were common i n a l l a r e a s , and remain so today, though they are most abundant i n the l e s s developed southern and southwestern p o r t i o n s of the r e g i o n . Here, the w i l d l i f e r esources a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s and urban r e s i d e n t s a l i k e , and thereby make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the l o c a l income. Few l a r g e p r e d a t o r s f i n d h a b i t a t i n the r e g i o n except i n the west and southwest, where cougar o c c a s i o n a l l y become a problem to l o c a l farmers, p a r t i c u l a r l y to sheep r a i s e r s . Among the animal r e s o u r c e s of the r e g i o n are the v a r i o u s f r e s h and s a l t water f i s h e s , important a l i k e t o sportsmen and to i n d u s t r y . Of the f i s h e s , salmon are the most v a l u a b l e , and form the b a s i s of one of the most important i n d u s t r i e s . Though these f i s h are m i g r a t o r y s p e c i e s , they 64 are common along the ocean l i t t o r a l d u r i n g the s p r i n g and f a l l months. The P a c i f i c salmon (genus Oncorhynchus), spend v a r y i n g lengths of time, depending on the s p e c i e s , i n f r e s h water a f t e r h a t c h i n g . A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d they descend to the sea where most of t h e i r growth i s a t t a i n e d . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s descent to the ocean occurs d u r i n g the s p r i n g months. The a d u l t salmon r e t u r n from the ocean i n the f a l l months to spawn and d i e i n the streams whence they came. The f a l l 'run" i s h e a v i e s t , and forms the o b j e c t of i n t e n s i v e f i s h i n g . Salmon are caught commercially i n g r e a t numbers i n the Sooke and Juan de Fuca areas, while s p o r t f i s h e r m e n crowd the waters of Saanich I n l e t to take a s m a l l share of the annual, c a t c h . V a r i o u s s p e c i e s of cod, h a l i b u t , h e r r i n g , tuna and p i l c h a r d s are a l s o important commercial f i s h e s l o c a l l y taken. Of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the geographic p a t t e r n of the r e g i o n are the lower forms i n the animal kingdom. Because of the g r e a t v a r i e t y of p l a n t s which can be grown, (a response to c l i m a t e ) , a g r e a t v a r i e t y of animal pests p a r a s i t i c on these p l a n t s , are a l s o to be found. The hemlock l o o p e r , the black-headed b.udworm, and the Douglas F i r tussock moth cause c o n s i d e r a b l e annual l o s s e s to f o r e s t r y . The oak l o o p e r , (Lamodina s o m n i a r i a ) , w h i l e not a p a r a s i t e of commercial timber s p e c i e s , has caused e x t e n s i v e damage, ( d e f o l i a t i o n ) , i n the v i c i n i t y of g r e a t e r V i c t o r i a . Other p a r a s i t i c i n s e c t s a t t a c k c u l t i v a t e d c r o p s . The Western t e n - l i n e d June b e e t l e i s a most important p e s t of s t r a w b e r r i e s , l o g a n b e r r i e s and t r e e f r u i t s e e d l i n g s . In some p a r t s of the 64a Oak loopers (Lamodina somniaria), and their effect on foliage* In the past three years the loopers hare cause extensive damage to local stands of Garry oaks* This animal is similar to the hemlock looper which has seriously afftcted some forest stands on Vancouver Island. 65 region, this insect has forced growers to discontinue strawberries on l ight and medium textured s o i l s , where as high as 70% losses have occurred. 1 Root weevils, the Western raspberry fruitworm and the leafhopper are other species causing considerable damage. The leafhopper, (Typhlocyba tenerrima), a serious pest i n Europe, appeared i n the region as late as 1947- The European apply sawfly, though not known to occur anywhere else i n Canada, was f i r s t recorded i n the region i n 194-0, and has become a major pest of apples on Vancouver Island. During World War I I , when vegetable seed production developed as an important phase of agriculture i n the region, the cabbage seedpod weevil became, and remains, a major hazard to turnip and cabbage seed production. Nearly a l l the agricultural insect pests found i n Southeastern Vancouver Island are introduced species. They are usually from Europe, the climate and agriculture being largely similar to those of the western part of that continent. Most of these pests are without their natural parasites, and as a result they often assume epidemic proportions. In addition to chemical controls, efforts have been made to introduce their respective parasites and some of these have been f a i r l y successful. Those parasit ic upon the pea moth and the European earwig are among the more successful. Nothing definite is known of the mode of introduction of any of these pests, but the fact that their f i r s t appearance was near the coast would indicate that they were brought by ship. 1 Andison, H . , (Provincial Entomologist), interview with the wri ter , 25th Ju ly , 1949. 66 Some undoubtedly migrated up the c o a s t a l p l a i n from Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a , but few i f any, have crossed the R o c k i e s . 7. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY OF THE REGION H i s t o r y of E x p l o r a t i o n and Settlement"*" to S outheastern Vancouver I s l a n d , s a i l e d i n t o Esquimalt harbour, he found the r e g i o n peopled w i t h I n d i a n s . Those i n the E s q u i m a l t — V i c t o r i a area comprised the Songhees t r i b e , w hile the Saanich and Soke" t r i b e s occupied the Saanich and Sooke areas r e s p e c t i v e l y . These t r i b e s were members of the Cowichan group, and t h e r e f o r e were of S a l i s h o r i g i n , o b t a i n i n g t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d c h i e f l y from c o a s t a l areas, and p r a c t i c i n g l i t t l e or no c u l t i v a t i o n . S i n c e food was always p l e n t i f u l i n the r e g i o n , the Indians were r e l a t i v e l y numerous be f o r e the advent of white men. Today l i t t l e remains of the Indian c u l t u r e , though t h e i r d e s c r i p t i v e p l a c e names s u r v i v e i n "Esquimalt" --"Is-whoy-malth" (place of s h o a l i n g w a t e r s ) , and "Cowichan" (basking i n the sun). Sooke has d e r i v e d i t s name from the Soke Indians f o r m e r l y i n h a b i t i n g the a r e a . The names "Metchosin" and "Saanich" are other i n h e r i t a n c e s from the former c u l t u r e . The few n p t i v e Indians now l i v i n g i n the r e g i o n occupy a s m a l l number of t y p i c a l l y s q u a l i d r e s e r v a t i o n s i n the Sooke, Metchosin and Saanich d i s t r i c t s . 1 The s p e c i f i c dates used i n the h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e were gleaned from s e v e r a l sources, n o t a b l y the f o l l o w i n g : -(1) B a n c r o f t , H.H., H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The H i s t o r y Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 1890. (2) Howay, Sage, Angus, B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Toronto, Ryerson, 194-2. (3) Robinson, L.B., E s q u i m a l t . Q u a l i t y P r e s s , V i c t o r i a , 194-7. When Don Manuel Quimper, the f i r s t white v i s i t o r 67 Quimper i n h i s s l o o p , " P r i n c e s s a R e a l " , (the " P r i n c e s s R o y a l " of Nootka fame), found t h a t the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, up which he s a i l e d , opened to the northeastward forming .a wide roadstead. Thus the n a t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the r e g i o n ' s southern h a l f lea'd him d i r e c t l y to Esquimalt Harbour, where he anchored i n 1790. The harbour of Sooke was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d by Quimper. Because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s near the entrance to the S t r a i t , i t seems n a t u r a l that these two harbours should be the f i r s t t o have been d i s c o v e r e d i n the Juan de Fuca area. In 1791 two other Spanish ships from Nootka a r r i v e d at E s q u i m a l t , or as Quimper had named i t , Puerto de Cordova. Jose Narvaez, i n command of one of these s h i p s , l a t e r s a i l e d up what i s now G e o r g i a S t r a i t c a r r y i n g out a survey of the c o a s t . He was the f i r s t white man to d i s c o v e r Vancouver harbour. Don G a l i a n o and Don Valdes i n two s m a l l survey v e s s e l s , detached from MalaspinaVs e x p l o r i n g e x p e d i t i o n , were the l a s t Spaniards t o v i s i t S outheastern Vancouver I s l a n d . A c c o r d i n g to h i s j o u r n a l , G a l i a n o was impressed by what he saw of the h i n t e r l a n d of Esquimalt, but the Spaniards made no attempt to s e t t l e the r e g i o n . Today, the S p a n i a r d s , l i k e the Indians before them, are more remembered f o r t h e i r p l a c e names than f o r t h e i r development of the r e g i o n ' s r e s o u r c e s . C a p t a i n George Vancouver i n 1792 had met Valdes and G a l i a n o o f f Vancouver harbour, and had proceeded w i t h them to survey the waters of Georgia S t r a i t . F o l l o w i n g h i s 68 v i s i t to Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d and the "Nootka Convention", signed i n 1795? no white development took p l a c e i n the r e g i o n f o r some f i f t y y e a r s . During these f i f t y y e a r s , the Oregon boundary d i s p u t e had a r i s e n between the s o v e r e i g n t y of the Hudson's Bay Company and American s e t t l e r s i n the "Oregon Country". As hope f o r a s e t t l e m e n t of the boundary a t the Columbia R i v e r faded, Company o f f i c i a l s d ecided to r e p l a c e F o r t Vancouver by a new t r a d i n g p o s t f u r t h e r n o r t h , i n undisputed t e r r i t o r y . In consequence, James Douglas, the C h i e f F a c t o r , made a c a r e f u l survey of the south coast of Vancouver I s l a n d i n the Company's s l o o p , "Cadboro". S i n c e he regarded the southwest co a s t of the I s l a n d as too exposed, he c a r e f u l l y examined the harbours of Sooke, Esquimalt and V i c t o r i a . Douglas was i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a Conpany f o r t which had to be s e l f s upporting i n order to f u n c t i o n . Consequently he d i s c a r d e d the b e t t e r harbours at Sooke and Esquimalt f o r t h a t of V i c t o r i a , or "Camosack" as i t was known to the I n d i a n s . This I n d i a n p l a c e name has some s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Douglas' c h o i c e . In the l a t t e r ' s r e p o r t , he f a v o r a b l y d e s c r i b e s a l a r g e t r a c t of c l e a r land a d j a c e n t to the proposed f o r t s i t e . T h i s t r a c t had a p p a r e n t l y been c l e a r e d by the Indians i n t h e i r search f o r Camass r o o t . Camass i s a herb of the l i l y f a m i l y , the bulb of which was a f a v o r i t e food of I n d i a n s . The d i s t r i c t around the harbour of Camosack was named by them "Camosun" or "Place f o r Gathering Camass". The a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of V i c t o r i a ' s h i n t e r l a n d was thus e a r l y e x h i b i t e d as a f a c t o r i n the s e t t l e m e n t of the r e g i o n . 69 Not long a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the f o r t , t r a n s f e r of headquarters of the Western Department, Hudson's Bay Company, was made from F o r t Vancouver (Washington) to F o r t V i c t o r i a . James Douglas, now i n charge of the Western Department, moved w i t h h i s f a m i l y to V i c t o r i a i n 1849. I n the same year a l l of "Vancouver's I s l a n d " was leased to the Hudson's Bay Company. The l e a s e was granted on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the Company should commence sett l e m e n t of the I s l a n d . A l s o i n 1849, Vancouver I s l a n d became a Crown Colony, w i t h the appointment of a Governor. Douglas became the second Governor, as w e l l as r e t a i n i n g h i s p o s i t i o n of C h i e f F a c t o r . Under h i s able d i r e c t i o n farm lands spread r a p i d l y i n the v i c i n i t y of V i c t o r i a . While the f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n the r e g i o n took up l a n d i n v a l l e y s or i n the b e t t e r watered p o r t i o n s , c u l t i v a t e d l a n d soon occupied a l a r g e p a r t of the a r a b l e a r e a . In the meantime, as a r e s u l t of the Boundary D i s p u t e , and l a t e r , the Crimean War, E squimalt Harbour developed as a n a v a l base. Lacking V i c t o r i a ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d , few farms were c l e a r e d and E squimalt became i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d as an o u t f i t t i n g and r e p a i r base f o r s h i p s , both merchant and n a v a l . The R o y a l Navy and the Company cooperated very c l o s e l y , the Navy l e n d i n g much needed a s s i s t a n c e i n b u i l d i n g roads, c l e a r i n g land and suppressing o c c a s i o n a l I n d i a n d i s p u t e s . A g r e a t s t i m u l u s to the spread of settlement i n the r e g i o n came i n 1858 when the Cariboo g o l d rush began. In a few months, F o r t V i c t o r i a changed from an i s o l a t e d t r a d i n g post to a boom town of s e v e r a l thousand people. The Hudson's 70 Bay Company soon ceased to be the o n l y business concern, and a commercial d i s t r i c t grew up, r e s u l t i n g i n the post's i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n 1862. Another impetus to development occurred i n 1868. At t h i s time, Vancouver I s l a n d and the mainland t e r r i t o r y were u n i t e d as the crown colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, s h o r t l y a f t e r which, V i c t o r i a became the c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l . The p e r i o d of r a p i d expansion f o r Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d ended s h o r t l y a f t e r the establishment of the Canadian P a c i f i c N a v i g a t i o n Company i n V i c t o r i a . A f t e r the f i r s t Canadian P a c i f i c t r a i n a r r i v e d at Vancouver i n 1886, the former c i t y ' s commercial domination was l o s t to Vancouver and S e a t t l e . By t h i s time, however, V i c t o r i a ' s h i n t e r l a n d was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . In the same year t h a t the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y was completed, the opening of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo r a i l w a y made a v a i l a b l e a new area of the I s l a n d ' s f o r e s t and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . This r a i l w a y was l a t e r extended to A l b e r n i and Courtenay. S h o r t l y a f t e r the founding of F o r t V i c t o r i a , settlement had a l s o s t a r t e d a t Sooke and l a t e r at Sidney. W i l l i a m Colquhon Grant, i n 1850, c l e a r e d the f i r s t farm i n Sooke, and the venture was so s u c c e s s f u l that s e v e r a l o t h e r S c o t t i s h f a m i l i e s moved to the area., s e t t l i n g the shores of Sooke Harbour. S i n c e the f i r s t i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s , growth has been slow, f o r the amount of good a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s l i m i t e d . I t soon became apparent t h a t the immediate h i n t e r l a n d of V i c t o r i a h e l d the g r e a t e r promise f o r development, si n c e here l a y the g r e a t e s t acreage of a r a b l e l a n d . Never-71 theless, the forest resources of the Sooke area have made i t one of the major regional centres for logging. The Saanich area, on the other hand, was or ig ina l ly settled i n the l860 ' s by two Scots — Cariboo gold miners who had bought land i n the area. I t is probably indici ' tative of the hardy pioneer s p i r i t of the Scottish people, that prac t ica l ly a l l the f i r s t settlers i n South -eastern Vancouver Island were Scott ish, or of Scots parentage. A wagon road was bu i l t between North Saanich and Vic to r i a , and in the 1870's another road was bu i l t further to the east. The roads opened up the most f e r t i l e lands i n the region for settlement, and cul t ivat ion expanded steadily. In 1894- a railway was b u i l t , l inking the town of Sidney with V i c t o r i a . While i t aided i n the agricul tural and indus t r ia l expansion of the Saanich Peninsula, this railway, affectionately known as the "Cordwood Limited", ceased operation i n 1919 • I t could not face the competition of modern highways. Present Population 1 (a) Distr ibut ion The present dis t r ibut ion of population i n the 1 The population figures, unless otherwise indicated, are estimates for 194-9, and are based on information obtained from the following sources:-(1) B r i t i s h Columbia Facts and S t a t i s t i c s , v o l . I I , Dept. of Trade and Industry, V ic to r i a , 1949. ( 2 ) Regional Industrial Index of B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a , 194F. (3) Estimated Population of School D i s t r i c t s , Dec. 1947, Dept. of Health, Divis ion of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , V ic to r i a , B. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION OF SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND 4Q°30H_ o o o2» o o Q o O CD o o KEY URBAN AREA (ESTIMATED POPULATION 100 ,500) 2,S00 P E O P L E Z5 0 PEOPLE 72 r e g i o n l a r g e l y r e f l e c t s the u n d e r l y i n g p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l s . The lowland areas are g e n e r a l l y w e l l populated while the upland p o r t i o n s have a sparse p o p u l a t i o n . Consequently the V i c t o r i a -Saanich area i s h e a v i l y peopled i n c o n t r a s t to the Sooke a r e a . The former area i s l a r g e l y a t i l i - c o v e r e d lowland. Here, s o i l s are g e n e r a l l y f e r t i l e and a g r i c u l t u r e i s the primary occupation. Since a g r i c u l t u r e employs a l a r g e number of people i n comparison to other, primary i n d u s t r i e s , i t follows, t h a t the V i c t o r i a — S a a n i c h area should be w e l l populated on the b a s i s of a g r i c u l t u r e . The western and southwestern p o r t i o n s of the r e g i o n possess f o r e s t and m i n e r a l resources but r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l acreages of a r a b l e s o i l . These r e s o u r c e s of f o r e s t and mine r e q u i r e a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n . Because of her a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d combined wit h a harbour and other s i t e f a c t o r s , V i c t o r i a e a r l y developed as the commercial and i n d u s t r i a l centre f o r the r e g i o n . Here the secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d . These i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r e g r e a t numbers of workers. Thus V i c t o r i a and i t s suburbs make up the great bulk of the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . Other, much s m a l l e r centres such as Sidney, Metchosin and Sooke, f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n . They are t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o l l e c t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g centres which form the n u c l e i of p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e i r surrounding a r e a s . The accompanying p o p u l a t i o n map w i l l show the g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e ' r e g i o n . (b) D e n s i t y The p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n of Southeastern Vancouver 73 I s l a n d i s approximately 110 ,000, or over two-thirds t h a t of the whole I s l a n d , and about t e n percent of the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g V i c t o r i a and the m u n i c i p a l ! t e s of Oak Bay and Esquimalt as c o n s t i t u t i n g the urban area, 70% of the p o p u l a t i o n i s urban. A l a r g e p a r t of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i s a g r i c u l t u r a l , o b t a i n i n g a l l or p a r t of the f a m i l y income from farming. Most of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s concentrated i n Saanich P e n i n s u l a , as shown by the accompanying map. The average p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n the r e g i o n as a whole i s 550 per square m i l e , while the d e n s i t y e x c l u d i n g the urban area, i s about I63 persons per square m i l e . However, when one c o n s i d e r s the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n terms of a r a b l e l a n d , i t i s much h i g h e r , amounting to 430 per square m i l e , or one person f o r every one and a h a l f acres of a r a b l e l a n d . Since p a r t of the " r u r a l " p o p u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Saanich d i s t r i c t s and on the o u t s k i r t s of the urban a r e a , d e r i v e a l l . or p a r t of t h e i r income from sources other than farming, these f i g u r e s tend to be m i s l e a d i n g . I n d i v i d u a l farms, from which the o p e r a t o r d e r i v e s h i s t o t a l income are much l a r g e r than the s t a t i s t i c s would suggest, though they vary a c c o r d i n g to the type of farm. Besides t h i s , the i n t e n s i v e nature of most of the a g r i c u l t u r e c a r r i e d on means h i g h r e t u r n s from r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l acreages and hence c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . The urban area a c c o r d i n g to the 1941 census, was seven and one q u a r t e r square m i l e s , and maintained 74 a density of 6,078 persons per square mile."1" (c) Growth of Population While the population of the region has shown a slow but steady increase from 1871 to 1931? there has been a marked increase i n the decade 1931 to 1941. This recent increase, while resulting i n part^ from the influx of service and technical personnel during World War I I , has been greatest i n Saanich Municipality - a ru ra l area. The increase i n Inner Saanich population appears to have largely resulted from migration from other parts of Canada, notably the prair ie provinces, whence many "retired" farmers have recently moved to the coastal area. Most of these immigrated to the region i n response to the equable climate and the ideal l i v i n g conditions i n the Vic tor ia area. A considerable number of them take up small holdings sufficient to provide fresh vegetables and maintain a few chickens or possibly, a dairy cow. The gain i n population since 1921 i n the V i c t o r i a -Saanich area, and the estimated population i n the unorganized 1 Population. 1871 - 1941. (Reprint, pages 1 - 176 of v o l . 2), King's Printer , Ottawa, 1944. p .9. The urban area here refers to the c i ty of Vic tor ia proper, (exclusive of the municipali t ies) , and does not include the settlements at Sidney and Sooke. 75 t e r r i t o r y of Sooke, Colwood and Langford i s shown i n the following table. Increase over 1941 1921 1931 1941 1947 No. % Esquimalt D i s t r i c t Municipality 3,458 3,274 3,737 • 4,500 763 20.4 Oak Bay D i s t r i c t Municipality 4,159 5,892 9,240 11,500 2,260 24.5 Saanich D i s t r i c t Municipality _ 1 , 1 1 -10,534 12,968 20,535 26,000 5,465 26.6 Saanich (Inner)^ i ; 15,062 22,000 6 L9.3.8 46.1 V i c t o r i a ( c i t y proper) _38,727 39,082 44,068 61,400 17,332 39.3 Unorganized t e r r i t . of Sooke, Colwood and Langford 4.500 @ Inner Saanich (included i n the "Saanich" figure) refers to - the inner wards of Saanich, voz. wards 1, 2, 3 4, and 7. In general terms, these wards l i e south of a li n e drawn from the south end of Prospect Lkke to the north end of Blenkinsop (Lost) Lake, thence northeasterly to Cordova Bay. (d) Composition Similar to the Canadian average, the larg'e majority of the regional population i s made up of B r i t i s h "Isles stock. Of this national group, English comprise the greatest number, followed by Scottish and I r i s h . Of the remaining national groups, Chinese and Scandinavians form the greatest percentages, and 2% respectively. The;-w percentage of A s i a t i c s , while about equivalent to the 1 S t a t i s t i c s from: (1) Population, 1871 - 1941 (Reprint, pages 1 - 176 of v o l . a) King's f r i n t e r , uttawa, 1944, p. 144. (2) Estimated Population of School D i s t r i c t s ^ December, 1947, Dept. of Health and Welfare, Div. of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a . The figures i n the table exclude native Indian population. (3) What the Household Controllers of  Health i n the Saanich and South Vancouver Island Health  Unit T e r r i t o r y Know About Their Local Public Health Unit Tmimeographed reportJ-Div. of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. of Health and Welfare, Parliament Bldgs.," V i c t o r i a . B.C. Jan. 1Q4Q. P O P U L A T I O N BY N A T I O N A L O R I G I N P E R C E N T $ Jj> . ; : n UL 2£ & 3£ 4£ — ^ — 1 A G E 4-S EL B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A — 4-VICTORI A - f ANAI 76 B r i t i s h Columbia average, c o n t r a s t s w i t h th@t:c f o r Canada, where t o t a l A s i a t i c s average l e s s than 1%. Among the reasons f o r the h i g h e r percentage of A s i a t i c s on the coast and i n the r e g i o n A i n f l u x from C a l i f o r n i a . During the g o l d r u s h days i n B.C., a number of Chinese migrated northward from the C a l i f o r n i a f i e l d s . Many of these became a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u c k gardeners, near the urban c e n t r e s . The long f r o s t f r e e season i n the r e g i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d to t h i s form of a g r i c u l t u r e . Hence there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of Chinese engaged i n t h i s p u r s u i t i n the V i c t o r i a a r e a . Another i n f l u x of A s i a t i c s came to B.C. as l a b o u r e r s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y . Besides these reasons, the r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y of the B.C. c o a s t a l area to the O r i e n t has added to the percentage of O r i e n t a l s h e r e . Though s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the r e g i o n as a u n i t , those f o r g r e a t e r V i c t o r i a 1 are p r o b a b l y 2 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The accompanying bar graphs compare the 1 Greater V i c t o r i a i s t h a t p o r t i o n of the r e g i o n made up by V i c t o r i a c i t y proper and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of E s q u i m a l t , Oak Bay and S a a n i c h . 2 S t a t i s t i c s f o r the year 194-1, obtained from: (1) The Canada Year Book. 1946. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1946 (2) P o p u l a t i o n Tables A-4 and A-13 (mimeographed), Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, Canada. 77 p o p u l a t i o n by n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a . In 1941, 58% of V i c t o r i a ' s ( c i t y ) p o p u l a t i o n was Canadian born, while over 31% was B r i t i s h born ( o u t s i d e of Canada), and 11% was f o r e i g n b o r n . 1 T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from the Canadian average, which l i s t s , f o r . t h e same year, 82% Canadian born, 9% B r i t i s h born ( o u t s i d e of Canada), and 9% f o r e i g n born. One of the reasons f o r the h i g h percentage of B r i t i s h born i s the number of s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l of B r i t i s h b i r t h , who have r e t i r e d i n V i c t o r i a . The b i r t h r a t e f o r V i c t o r i a , ( c i t y p r o p e r ) , i n 1941 was 18 per thousand, while those f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and f o r Canada i n the same year were 18 and 22 r e s p e c t i v e l y . These f i g u r e s may be compared wi t h 42 b i r t h s per thousand i n Costa R i c a (1944), 38 per thousand i n Egypt (1942), 18 per thousand i n England and Wales (1944) and 15 per thousand i n 4 France and Belgium, (1939). I f b i r t h r a t e may be regarded as a c r i t e r i o n of l i v i n g standard, the r e l a t i v e l y low r a t e f o r V i c t o r i a would i n d i c a t e a. c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y high standard of l i v i n g . The death r a t e i n 1941 was 13 persons per thousand 1 Canada Year Book, 1946, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1946. p. 2. Ibid., p. 108 3. I b i d . , pp. 141 and 144 4. I b i d . , p. 142. 78 for V i c t o r i a , 10 per thousand for B r i t i s h Columbia and 10 per thousand for Canada.1 Comparative figures for foreign countries are 9 deaths per thousand i n the Netherlands (1939), 10 per thousand in New Zealand (1944), 11 per thousand i n the United States (1944), 12 per thousand i n England and Wales (1944), 15 per thousand i n France (1939), and 29 per thousand i n Egypt. (1942)2 According to a recent survey,-^ the occupations of "heads of households" i n the region, shows the following proportions: Occupation of Head of Household Percentage of the Regional Population Labourer 16 Sk i l l ed 48 Professional 12.3 Retired 23.7 The survey also tabulates the estimated income of the regional population i n three groups as shown below.4" Income Group Percentage of Regional Population Under Average Less than $l500/yr 21.7 Average $1500 - $2500/yr. 61.3 Over Average More than $2500/yr 17.0 Within the region, North Saanich has 37$ of i t s 1 Canada Year Book. 1946. King's Pr inter , Ottawa, 1946,pp.155 and 157 2 I b i d . , p. 156 3 What the Household Controllers of Health in the Saanich and  South Vancouver Island Health Unit Territory Know About  Their Local Public Health Unit7 (mimeographedT,.Division of V i t a l S ta t i s t i c s , Dept.' of Health and Welfare, Parliament Bldg . , V ic to r i a , B . C . , Jan. , 1949, p. 28. 4 Ib id . , p. 24 79 p o p u l a t i o n i n the "under average" group, L a k e h i l l has l e s s than 10% and Sooke has l e s s than 20% i n t h i s c l a s s . The l a r g e percentage of people i n the $1500 - $2500 income group would i n d i c a t e a h i g h standard of l i v i n g i n the r e g i o n . 8. INDUSTRIES The use of the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d has been f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e . Although f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e , ! a g r i c u l t u r e appears to be the most v a l u a b l e primary i n d u s t r y , f o l l o w e d by f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g . A g r i c u l t u r e , as would be expected, has i t s g r e a t e s t concen - t r a t i o n on the Saanich P e n i n s u l a , w h i l e f o r e s t r y i s concentrated i n the upland topography of the southwest. Ne a r l y a l l the secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s are centered i n the urban area of V i c t o r i a . A. Primary I n d u s t r i e s Mining Though n o n - m e t a l l i c d e p o s i t s c o n s t i t u t e the c h i e f m i n e r a l wealth of the r e g i o n , some g o l d , copper and i r o n d e p o s i t s are known to e x i s t . Gold occurs i n many of the streams i n the western p a r t of Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , but o n l y i n minor 1 Most p u b l i s h e d f i g u r e s i n c l u d e a l l of Vancouver I s l a n d and the G u l f I s l a n d s as a u n i t . Some unpublished m a t e r i a l was obtained, breaking s t a t i s t i c s down i n t o census d i v i s i o n s , but except f o r the m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y no i n f o r m a t i o n as to p r o d u c t i o n , number of persons employed, or r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of p r o d u c t i o n , was a v a i l a b l e to the w r i t e r , f o r the i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n . 80 q u a n t i t i e s . Goldstream R i v e r , i n the west d e n t r a l p a r t of the r e g i o n was so named from the g o l d b e a r i n g g r a v e l s worked there i n the e a r l y days, though r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e g o l d was ever taken from the a r e a . Hardrock mining f o r g o l d was c a r r i e d on f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d a t S k i r t Mountain, near the southern end of Saanich I n l e t . A c t i v e mining operations were c a r r i e d on from 1898 u n t i l 1902, when work was suspended, and not resumed u n t i l the f a l l of 1924 1 S i n c e then some development work has taken p l a c e , but i n r e c e n t years the claims have not been c o n s i d e r e d e c o n o m i c a l l y workable. Copper d e p o s i t s i n the r e g i o n are more or l e s s c l o s e l y connected w i t h the upper J u r a s s i c i n t r u s i v e s . Shear zone d e p o s i t s o c c u r r i n g i n the Sooke gabbros of e a s t Sooke area i n the v i c i n i t y of Mount Maguire have been prospected, 'but no mining has been c a r r i e d on. Though admirably s u i t e d w i t h r e l a t i o n to road or water transportetion f a c i l i t i e s , and producing ore of approximately 5% copper, the d e p o s i t s , a f t e r a f l u r r y of p r o s p e c t i n g i n the p e r i o d 1915-19182, f e l l i n t o d i s u s e . I t would appear t h a t there i s some p o s s i b i l i t y of f u t u r e copper mining i n t h i s area, though under p r e s e n t economic c o n d i t i o n s the d e p o s i t s are not e x t e n s i v e enough to warrant f u r t h e r development. I r o n ore does occur along w i t h copper i n the Sooke gabbros, but i t i s a p p a r e n t l y of no commercial v a l u e , 1 Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, f o r the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1924, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1925, PP. 253-255 2 Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines. B.C., f o r the years 1904,'07,'08,'15,'16,'17,II8,«25,»28,'29,'31. 81 being too l i m i t e d i n extent and of low i r o n content. A l s o i n the same area, near Young Lake along DeMamiel Creek, i s an impure i r o n d e p o s i t i n the form of ochreous c l a y . T h i s d e p o s i t does have some commercial s i g n i f i c a n c e as a p o s s i b l e source of base f o r coloured p a i n t s . The n o n - m e t a l l i c d e p o s i t s i n the r e g i o n o f Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , a r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the ochreous c l a y , c h i e f l y sand and g r a v e l , c l a y s , c r y s t a l l i n e limestones and b u i l d i n g stone. The sands, g r a v e l s and c l a y s are obt a i n e d from the s t r a t i f i e d g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s and thus they are w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d i n the ar e a . As would be expected, the sand and g r a v e l d e p o s i t s have been q u a r r i e d near the roads and r a i l w a y s f o r f i l l i n g and grading purposes. In a d d i t i o n they have been used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r s t r u c t u r a l purposes, n o t a b l y i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the V i c t o r i a breakwater, and they are s t i l l w i d e l y used as i n g r e d i e n t s i n c o n c r e t e . The sand and g r a v e l d e p o s i t s which are most e x t e n s i v e l y used, are those l a i d down during the Vashon r e c e s s i o n i n the Colwood d e l t a , near A l b e r t Head. Here, ease i n qua r r y i n g and a v a i l a b i l i t y of water t r a n s p o r t cut o p e r a t i n g c o s t s to a minimum. The c l a y s of the s t r a t i f i e d d r i f t d e p o s i t s (Haywood c l a y s ) , are a l s o w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d i n the r e g i o n . At v a r i o u s times these have been used f o r making b r i c k s and d r a i n t i l e s , p o t t e r y , and i n the manufacturing of P o r t l a n d cement. One c l a y p i t near S e l k i r k Water i n west c e n t r a l s e c t i o n of V i c t o r i a , i s s t i l l being used f o r b r i c k and t i l e . Another f o r m e r l y used d e p o s i t i s l o c a t e d a t Bazan Bay on the Sa a n i c h P e n i n s u l a . 2.Bazan Bay brick and t i l e works. Cowichan, (Maywood^, clays are scooped by t r a c t o r from " p i t s " , ( partly shown i n centre foreground), then conveyed to the moulds and k i l n , (background). • S t r a t i f i e d super-f i c i a l deposits near Tugwell Creek. The prominent bedding planes indicate fore-set beds. The deposits are here used for road construction and maintenance. 82 Limestone d e p o s i t s , occur as the S u t t o n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h i n a l i m i t e d area i n the c e n t r a l p a r t of the r e g i o n west of Esquimalt Harbour, and a l s o at Tod I n l e t . These areas were f o r m e r l y e x p l o i t e d f o r the manufacture of cement, f l u x and burnt l i m e . Probably the most u t i l i z e d d e p o s i t was that on Tod I n l e t , taken up by the Vancouver P o r t l a n d Cement Company. Rosebank and Parsons B r i d g e were s i t e s of former p l a n t s i n the Esquimalt area, u t i l i z i n g the S u t t o n limestones f o r burnt lime and s i l i c a b r i c k r e s p e c t i v e l y . None of these p l a n t s i s j now i n o p e r a t i o n . An e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y of crushed stone, a g r e y i s h -green b a s a l t , i s obtained from the Metchosin v o l c a n i c s a t A l b e r t Head, but the f r a c t u r e d and sheared nature of the rocks throughout the r e g i o n makes them u n f i t f o r b u i l d i n g stone. North of Esquimalt Harbour, a d e p o s i t of diatomaceous e a r t h i s known to occur i n the v a l l e y of Tod Creek, d r a i n i n g Prospect Lake, but up to the p r e s e n t , i t has not been u t i l i z e d . The p r e s e n t l y e x p l o i t e d m i n e r a l s i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d are, e n t i r e l y n o n - m e t a l l i c , c o n s i s t i n g of c l a y , sand and g r a v e l . These m a t e r i a l s are q u a r r i e d l a r g e l y f o r l o c a l use, and consequently the m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y i s a minor one. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s the value of c l a y products and of sand and g r a v e l i n the region.3-Value of M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d C lay products 1947 1948 1 $10^.548 $108,422 Sand and g r a v e l by commercial producers $321,715 $332,533 1 Pearson, H., Mining S t a t i s t i c i a n , (Dept. of Trade and I n d u s t r y ) , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , 28th J u l y , 1949. 83 The c h i e f areas of p r o d u c t i o n are near A l b e r t Head and Cordova Bay (sand and g r a v e l ) , and a t V i c t o r i a and Bazan Bay ( c l a y ) . Most of the c l a y produced i s used I n the manufacture of b r i c k s and d r a i n t i l e s . S i n c e the r e s e r v e s of these m a t e r i a l s are v e r y e x t e n s i v e , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a g r a d u a l expansion of t h i s phase of the m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y w i l l be c o i n c i d e n t w i t h urban expansion. F i s h i n g Commercial f i s h i n g occupies the ocean l i t t o r a l from the t i p of Saanich p e n i n s u l a to the southwest e x t r e m i t y of the r e g i o n . Saanich I n l e t i s s e t a s i d e as a f i s h i n g preserve open only to s p o r t fishermen. The c h i e f f i s h e s caught are salmon, cod, h a l i b u t and tuna. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w i l l give some i d e a of the r e l a t i v e amounts of the v a r i o u s s p e c i e s caught. (See next page f o r t a b l e ) 1 F i g u r e s obtained from F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. 1944, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, 1946, t a b l e 31."" The f i g u r e s are l i s t e d f o r a D i s t r i c t No. 3 s u b d i v i s i o n t i t l e d : "Shoal Harbour to Sombrio P o i n t i n c l u d i n g V i c t o r i a Harbour." Shoal Harbour i s at the N.E. t i p of Saanich P e n i n s u l a , and Sombrio P t . i s on Vancouver I s l a n d ' s S.W. coast between Jordan R i v e r and P o r t San Juan. 84 Fish Caught ail Landed Totals for Shoal Harbour to Sombrio Pt. Totals for B.C. Species Quantity (cwt.) Quantity (cwt.) Value ($) Salmon 17,228 1,075,719 7,255,524 Ling cod 6.161 84,250 830,828 Tuna 3.188 4,636 79,6.76 Halibut 3,362 131,671 2,231,794 Cod (sic) 2,226 9,414 52,260 Soles 2,086 11,826 166,824 Grayfish (dogfish) 1,462 22,339 25,606 Flounders 1,452 20,889 .63,777 Red cod 597 31,637 141,592 Bass 447 607 1,923 Blackcod 437 22,325 266,938 Herring 367 1,871,038 1,391,980 ! Skate 124 818 4,153 Pilchards L _ _ 4 j 1,182,325 1,063,577 SHELLFISH Quantity (cwt.) Quantity (cwt.) Value ($) Clams 6,383 28,366 58,869 Oysters 170 (bbTs.) 19,883 129,644 Crabs 155 7,204 44,095 Shrimps 26 388 7,937 While most of the f i s h are caught well offshore, a considerable percentage of the salmon are caught i n traps at Sooke. A large proportion of the oyster catch i s centred at Sooke Basin while most of the clams are caught and processed i n the Saanich area. There are both f u l l time and part time f i s h i n g operations carried on i n the region. The f u l l time fishermen often own their equipment,though occasionally they operate c r a f t owned by the larger companies. Usually they are equipped to catch either ground fishes or surface feeding species, depending on the season. Some of these f u l l time fishermen have small but sturdy boats and f i s h the inshore waters. 85 They supply the urban demand f o r f r e s h f i s h . " F u l l time" fishermen experience s e v e r a l p e r i o d s d u r i n g the year when they are not a c t i v e l y engaged. Termination of f i s h i n g seasons and bad weather are the major "breaks" i n t h e i r r o u t i n e . During these periods equipment i s overhauled but no o u t s i d e occupations are engaged i n . P a r t time fishermen c o n s i d e r a b l y outnumber those engaged f u l l time. These men take employment as l o g g e r s , m i l l w o r k e r s or s i m i l a r j o b s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Sooke area, many of them own s m a l l farms. During the f i s h i n g season, e s p e c i a l l y when salmon are "running", they engage i n a s h o r t , i n t e n s i v e p e r i o d of f i s h i n g . They employ the same methods as those used throughout the G u l f a r e a — c h i e f l y t r o l l i n g , along w i t h g i l l n e t t i n g and s e i n i n g . Though many of these men own t h e i r equipment, many others operate company owned c r a f t on a commission b a s i s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of the f i s h c a t c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y salmon, i s exported, both to other p a r t s of Canada and overseas. Some of the clam and o y s t e r c a t c h i s exported, but most of the s h e l l f i s h and g r o u n d f i s h are consumed w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The p r o d u c t i o n of f i s h and f i s h products w i l l probably remain f a i r l y c o n s t a n t . There i s room f o r some expansion i n the c u l t i v a t i o n of s h e l l f i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y o y s t e r s , but the c a t c h of the f i n n e d f i s h e s v a r i e s l i t t l e from year to year. U n t i l r e s e a r c h makes more i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g the c y c l e s and l i f e h a b i t s of the v a r i o u s commercial s p e c i e s , l i t t l e expansion i s l i k e l y to o c c u r . 86 F o r e s t r y F o r e s t r y along w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , makes up the bulk of the value of primary p r o d u c t i o n i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . F o r e s t r y began i n the r e g i o n as e a r l y as the 1840's when s m a l l sawmills were s e t up at Sooke and a t V i c t o r i a . Lumber export s t a r t e d i n the l860's and though expansion was slow a t f i r s t , the opening of the Panama Canal i n 1914 presented new markets and boosted p r o d u c t i o n . Lumber i s , today, probably the major s i n g l e export commodity of the r e g i o n . Most of the export goes to the Un i t e d S t a t e s and t o the U n i t e d Kingdom, while n e a r l y a l l of the remainder goes to other Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s . Though the f i g u r e s have p r o b a b l y changed c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e 1937, the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e 1 w i l l g i v e some i d e a of the timber resources i n the r e g i o n - - f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t a c r e s . Drainage B a s i n Merchantable Timber ? i n l a y s o n Arm Sooke T o t a l , Vancouver I s . 26,000 44,700 3,487,700 Immature Timber 36,800 4,000 401.400 Not Restocked Logged 1,800 300 128,600 Logged and Burned 1,300 2,200 144.100 Burned 1,000 6,000 48.000 ' T o t a l not Restocked 4,100 8,500 120,700 T o t a l P r o d u c t i v e F o r e s t Land 66,900 57,200 4,211,800 Non P r o d u c t i v e Barren 3,000 1,009,600 Scrub 101,000 22,300 2,573,000 Swamp and Water 2,500 700 179,400 T o t a l Non-Productive 103,500 26,000 3,762,000 A g r i c u l t u r e C u l t i v a t e d 4,000 700 46,700 T o t a l Area 174,400 83,900 8,020,500 1 M u l h o l l a n d , F.D., The F o r e s t Resources of B r i t i s h _ C o l u m b i a , King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1937, Table p.81 and map p.91 -. - 87 The F i n l a y s o n Arm s u b d i v i s i o n as g i v e n i n Mulholland's r e p o r t , extends south and e a s t a t a l i n e drawn from the head of Sooke B a s i n around the n o r t h e r n end of Sooke Lake thence northeastward to Cowichan Bay. The Sooke sub-d i v i s i o n l i e s adjacent to the former. I t s n o r t h e r n boundary curves westward around the n o r t h e r n end of Sooke Lake, thence almost due south to O t t e r P o i n t . Consequently, only about two-thirds of the area of the F i n l a y s o n Arm s u b d i v i s i o n and about o n e - f i f t h of the area of the Sooke s u b d i v i s i o n , l i e w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l boundaries. Because of the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of c l e a r e d l a n d i n the V i c t o r i a - S a a n i c h - S o o k e area, approximately o n e - t h i r d of the merchantable resources of the former sub - d i v i s i o n and o n e - s i x t h of the r e s o u r c e s of the Sooke sub - d i v i s i o n l i e w i t h i n the r e g i o n . Nearly a l l of the annual cut IS softwood, c h i e f l y Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a ) , western hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) and western r e d cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) . The hardwoods, l a r g e l y maple (Acer macrophyllum) and a l d e r (Alnus r u b r a ) , are used i n f u r n i t u r e manufacturing. Most of the cut goes i n t o the p r o d u c t i o n of sawn lumber f o r export, w h i l e a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n i s used l o c a l l y i n the manufacture of sash and doors, s h i n g l e s , f u r n i t u r e and boxes. There are no pulp or paper m i l l s i n the r e g i o n . High lead l o g g i n g i s the u s u a l method of e x p l o i t a t i o n , though there i s an i n c r e a s i n g tendency toward the use of c a t e r p i l l a r t r a c t o r s and arches, y a r d i n g d i r e c t t o l o g g i n g roads. T h i s i s a more f l e x i b l e method of l o g g i n g 88 and leads to b e t t e r f o r e s t c o n s e r v a t i o n through s e l e c t i v e or st£p l o g g i n g r a t h e r than c l e a r c u t t i n g . A f t e r f e l l i n g , the logs are loaded on t r a i l e r trucks or l o g g i n g r a i l c a r s and t r a n s p o r t e d to the booming grounds, or sometimes, d i r e c t to the m i l l . Because of the i r r e g u l a r shape of the r e g i o n and the much indented c o a s t l i n e , s h e l t e r e d hays and coves s u i t a b l e f o r temporary storage of logs are numerous. Here the logs are made up i n t o v a r i o u s types of r a f t s or booms and towed t o the m i l l s at convenient i n t e r v a l s . Though there are a few s c a t t e r e d sawmills i n the Sooke, Langford and Highland areas, the l a r g e permanent m i l l s each w i t h a c a p a c i t y of about 40,000 f.b.m./day, are l o c a t e d along VictorJa's w a t e r f r o n t . There i s a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of m i l l s along the shores of the Inner Harbour and S e l k i r k Water, where logs can be r a f t e d d i r e c t from the booming grounds at Sooke and Saanich. The sawn lumber i s then a v a i l a b l e , by means of a s h o r t motor t r u c k or scow h a u l , f o r l o a d i n g on deepsea s h i p s at Ogden P o i n t p i e r s . The m i l l s at V i c t o r i a handle timber which has been cut f a r o u t s i d e of the r e g i o n a l boundaries, as w e l l as t h a t cut w i t h i n the r e g i o n i t s e l f . Perhaps 5/6 of the l o g s handled at V i c t o r i a are cut o u t s i d e the r e g i o n . Some of the m i l l s are owned by l a r g e l o g g i n g concerns, others handle logs s o l d to them by v a r i o u s companies. The average annual timber cut i n the Vancouver Log booms i n Cooper Cove, Sooke Basin. Part of a sawmill operation can be seen on Boodridge Peninsula, (centre background.) 89 F o r e s t D i s t r i c t i s about 2,000 m i l l i o n board f e e t . 1 As planks and sawn lumber t h i s c u t would y i e l d approximately 100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Between one h a l f and two-thirds of t h i s p r o d u c t i o n comes from Vancouver I s l a n d , but only a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the I s l a n d cut i s produced w i t h i n the r e g i o n . A c c o r d i n g to 2 the V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s R e g i s t r a t i o n D i s t r i c t Returns f o r 194-6, the f o l l o w i n g annual p a y r o l l s were a t t r i b u t e d to f o r e s t r y : D e s c r i p t i o n P a y r o l l (1946)® Logging and Log Hauling Sawmills, P l a n i n g M i l l s and Box Factories S h i n g l e M i l l s Sash and Door and Veneer Mfg. T o t a l 223,835 1,181,357 155,013 346,971 1,907,176 @ 1946 i s the most r e c e n t year f o r which f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e . P o s s i b l e expansion of f o r e s t r y i n S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d would be along the l i n e s of g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g stands and s p e c i e s r a t h e r t h a n o r e a l expansion. At p r e s e n t , a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y seem f a i r l y w e l l a d j u s t e d — f o r e s t r y occupying s t e e p e r slopes and s o i l s too poor f o r g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e . As w i t h most a c c e s s i b l e f o r e s t areas of B.C., there has been s e r i o u s o v e r c u t t l n g i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . Hence a l a r g e part of the 1 Mulholland, F.D., The F o r e s t Resources of B.C.. King's P r i n t e r , Victoria,.1937, P. 71. . The Vancouver F o r e s t D i s t r i c t i s made up of Vancouver I s l a n d and the adjacent mainland. In t h i s d i s t r i c t , Vancouver I s l a n d comprises from % to 2/3 of the annual c u t . 2 Grouped p a y r o l l f i g u r e s covering some phases of i n d u s t r y were made a v a i l a b l e through the c o u r t e s y of Mr. J.R.Meredith, Research S t a t i s t i c i a n , R e g i o n a l Development D i v i s i o n , Dept. of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 90 f o r e s t area i s i n second growth not yet merchantable. With s u s t a i n e d y i e l d management of t h i s second growth, f o r e s t r y should continue to supply a l a r g e p a r t of the primary income i n the r e g i o n . A g r i c u l t u r e A g r i c u l t u r e i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by great d i v e r s i t y . The choice of the p a r t i c u l a r type of farming engaged i n depends upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of both n a t u r a l and human f a c t o r s . The n a t u r a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e water supply, topography, s o i l and d i s t a n c e from markets. Among the c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s are p r i c e , both of land and crops, marketing f a c i l i t i e s , taxes and d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s expressed i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s are not always easy to d e f i n e and once d e f i n e d , they are not constant, s i n c e the c u l t u r a l landscape i s i n a c o n t i n u a l s t a t e of f l u x , (a) Small F r u i t Farming S m a l l f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n i s probably the most important a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t i n the r e g i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l farms are s m a l l , u s u a l l y three to f i f t e e n acres i n e x t e n t , though not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l the acreage i s i n f r u i t . T h i s i s a b i g advantage i n r e g i o n s where n a t u r a l cover i s heavy and expensive to c l e a r . Probably the most important c o n t r o l i n determining the farm s i z e i s the g r e a t amount of hand labour r e q u i r e d . In a d d i t i o n , these farms must be l o c a t e d on good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and r e l a t i v e l y near the consuming c e n t r e s , s i n c e r a p i d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s v i t a l a t 91 the peak of the b e r r y season. S m a l l f r u i t s r e q u i r e a f e r t i l e , w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l , long f r o s t l e s s season and low summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n . However, a l a r g e p a r t of the grower's success i s h i s a b i l i t y to keep a b r e a s t of changing markets, a thorough knowledge of f r u i t c u l t u r e , and a v a i l a b i l i t y of a nearby labour supply i n the p i c k i n g season. S i n c e the h a r v e s t season l a s t s o n l y a few weeks, l a r g e markets must be found. O u t l e t s are sought i n the l o c a l urban market, o u t s i d e markets, and l o c a l f r e e z i n g and p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s , ( f o r canned f r u i t s , jams and wines). The l o c a t i o n of the p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s i s f a i r l y important, s i n c e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f r u i t s should be a v a i l a b l e i f o p e r a t i o n s are to. be economical. Small f r u i t s are r e l a t i v e l y a very v a l u a b l e crop. Wheat, f o r example, may y i e l d o n l y f i f t e e n or twenty d o l l a r s t o the acre, while an acre of b e r r i e s may y i e l d s e v e r a l hundred d o l l a r s . ^ " Most of the s m a l l f r u i t crop i s made up of l o g a n b e r r i e s and s t r a w b e r r i e s . S t r a w b e r r i e s are grown on the g e n t l y to s t r o n g l y s l o p i n g l a n d , p r e f e r r i n g a w e l l - d r a i n e d , sandy loam u n d e r l a i n by a f i r m e r s u b s o i l . Thus, the K e a t i n g Sandy Loams are i d e a l f o r strawberry p r o d u c t i o n . The cane f r u i t s — l o g a n b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , b l a c k b e r r i e s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s — a r e g e n e r a l l y grown on the more l e v e l areas and bottom lands, r e q u i r i n g f e r t i l e s o i l , s l i g h t l y more moisture than s t r a w b e r r i e s , and absence of very hot 1 Strawberries and r a s p b e r r i e s average one and t h r e e - q u a r t e r '''''''tons'per acre, logans n e a r l y two, and b l a c k b e r r i e s , about three and a h a l f tons to the acre. One ton of f r u i t would be roug h l y e q u i v a l e n t to 1,000 q u a r t s . A loganberry plantation on an area of mixed Cowichan — Keating so i l s . 92 weather. The Tolmie s o i l s are w i d e l y used f o r the cane f r u i t s as w e l l as f o r bush f r u i t s - - c u r r a n t s and g o o s e b e r r i e s . Though the . l o n g f r o s t l e s s season of the r e g i o n i s i d e a l f o r c r a n b e r r i e s , the s o i l s do not appear a c i d enough to warrant t h e i r commercial p r o d u c t i o n . Grapes of the Concord type are grown, but seem to l a c k the sweetness found i n those grown i n the C a l i f o r n i a a r e a . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e 1 l i s t s b e r r y acreage i n the r e g i o n by d i s t r i c t : (See t a b l e on next page) 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Vancouver I s l a n d B e r r y Acreage - 194-6, (unpub l i s h e d ) . 93 BERRY ACREAGE 1946 D i s t r i c t and Nc . of Growers 56 17 172 14 259 Gordon Head, Royal Oak, E l k Lake, Colwood T o t a l s Mt.Tolmie, C o l q u i t z , K e ating Metcho- a l l Cordova Bay Lake H i l l . S a a n i c h - s i n D i s t r i c t s ton Sooke STRAWBERRIES* T o t a l 8-5/8 1 114-1/8 •2* 1264 ! 1946 4-5/8 3/8 47 I f : 1945 3 3/8 40-7/8 i i ' Pre-1945 1 X 4 264 RASPBERRIES 1 T o t a l 1-7/8 2± 214 & .-1 28-7/8 1946 • ; 7/8 — — r „. 1945 1 3/8 Pre-1945 ! 5/8 I 6 | BLACKBERRIES ! * 24 1 'i T o t a l 24 i f 20-1/8 - 24-1/8 1946 - 3/8 _ 1945 - i f f 1 " i . Pre-1945 _ 19 1 - 1 LOGANBERRIES ' 1 i ••— •• -1 i T o t a l 32-13/16 6 198^ i 1-3/16 238£ 1946 ' — 1 22 1945 6 .T 38-I/8 _ Pre-1945 31-1/16 1 138-3/8 1-3/16 ; 1 RED CURRANTS 1 1 1 t T o t a l lh • 1 - 1/8 1-5/8 1 1946 4 i - . ! ' ~ ' ( " • 1 1945 -1 ! ! -: Pre-1945 14 i - 1/8 1 -! BLACK CURRANTS 1 t 1 j n?8~~~ 11F"""" 1 T o t a l 10* ' f 1/8 i 1946 - -1945 1 * - -1 j Pre-1945 n i - 1/8 11/8- 1 _ 1 ! GOOSEBERRIES i i ' i i T o t a l 2-5/8 i '11 1 1 1/16 ; 1/16 0.3. j. 1946,. - - -i 1945 - - t~ -i Pre-1945 2-5/8 - "~T7l6 < 1/16 • < RHUBARB j 1 1 T o t a l | 2-7/8 "Tf L 1 - 5 Z 8 . i 1946 1 • 19i5 Pre-1945 1 ~ _ 2-778"" 9 4 (b) S p e c i a l t y Crop, Farming S p e c i a l t y crop farms l i k e the b e r r y farms, are s m a l l , but i n t e n s i v e l y c u l t i v a t e d . S k i l l and experience . i n p r o d u c t i o n , adequate storage and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and a v a i l a b l e markets are probably as important as s o i l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . C e r t i f i e d v egetable and f l o w e r seed p r o d u c t i o n i s a phase of s p e c i a l t y farming which developed i n the r e g i o n dur i n g World War I I . While demand f o r seed i n s u r e s a steady market, the i n d u s t r y i s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d , s i n c e some f l o w e r s and vegetables w i l l s e t abundant v i a b l e seed under optimum c o n d i t i o n s only. T u r n i p , cabbage, garden pea, c a r r o t and sweet pea seed are among these. A c o n s i d e r a b l e percentage of the B.C. vegetable and f l o w e r seed p r o d u c t i o n i s grown w i t h i n the r e g i o n . A f a v o r a b l e aspect of the summer drought i n the r e g i o n i s that seed crops mature and can be s u c c e s s f u l l y h arvested b e f o r e f a l l r a i n s commence. Potatoes and p o t a t o seed are a l s o produced as s p e c i a l t y c rops. The l a t t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i s a r e c e n t l y developed and l u c r a t i v e o p e r a t i o n . Potatoes are s u b j e c t to a number of pests and d i s e a s e s , i n c l u d i n g the d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l tuber f l e a b e e t l e , a rece n t immigrant from Colorado. Consequently, e l a b o r a t e r o t a t i o n s are p r a c t i c e d to prevent i n f e s t a t i o n of the s o i l . C l o v e r f o r two y e a r s — p o t a t o e s f o r one y e a r — p e a s or beans one y e a r — p o t a t o e s f o r one year; i s a t y p i c a l r o t a t i o n . Bulb farming i n Southe a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d accounts f o r over o n e - t h i r d of the B r i t i s h Columbia p r o d u c t i o n . Leek seed production on a Cowichan _ Keating s o i l mixture at the Dominion Experimental Farm, Sidney. The seed has begun to mature. 95 Though bulbs have been grown f o r many years i n the r e g i o n there was gre a t stimulus d u r i n g World War I I . The main o u t l e t i s to the Canadian t r a d e . Besides the bulbs themselves, l a r g e shipments of cut blooms of n a r c i s s i and t u l i p s are expressed as f a r e a s t as Winnipeg. Modern a i r t r a n s p o r t has c o n s i d e r a b l y f a c i l i t a t e d these shipments. Though acreage i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , a v a l u a b l e crop may y i e l d from one to two thousand d o l l a r s per a c r e . The Tolmie sandy c l a y loams and Cowichan c l a y loams found e x t e n s i v e l y i n the V i c t o r i a — S a a n i c h area are i d e a l l y s u i t e d to bulb c u l t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s the approximate bulb acreage i n the r e g i o n . BULB SURVEY "VICTORIA" (i n c l u d e s Saanich area) TOTAL B.C. ACREAGE QUANTITY (approx.) ACREAGE QUANTITY (approx.) NARCISSI 9lf r 9,350,155 229 22,908,605 TULIPS 87-1/8 8,715,990 ' 146-1/8 14,601,170 HYACINTHS 0* 61,016 145,916 GLADIOLI 6 607,000 106 10,.5.94,2 50 . 1 IRIS (bulbous) 18 5,702,160 I ' 41 6,480,910 t IRIS (others) £ 5,200 ! LILIES 68,000 T8-7/8 467,955 1 DAHLIAS 1/8 500 4-5/8 18,500 \ PEONIES 45,000 I T o t a l acreage a l l bulbs (194-7): 559-5/8 acres J Greenhouses and n u r s e r i e s form another phase of s p e c i a l t y crop farming i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . H i g h l y t r a i n e d management and labo u r , nearness to the urban area and s u i t a b l e s o i l s are v i t a l l y important. Because of 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , B u l b s Z - 1947. ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . 96 the mild winters and high percentage of sunshine experienced i n the region, over half of B r i t i s h Columbia's greenhouse acreage is located here. Usually, each nursery has a considerable area under glass, and a great variety of ornamental and nursery stock can be grown. Nurseries supply most of the tree and berry f ru i t stock used by local growers. Among other ornamentals hol ly is supplied and i t s production has bu i l t up a favorable export trade. Though no detailed figures on nursery acreage is available, the following table l i s t s the area under g l a s s . 1 The table gives the area for Vancouver Island as a whole, but nearly a l l of this is located within the region. GREENHOUSE SURVEYS 1923 - 1947 ! D i s t r i c t Vancouver I . ! (whites) 1923 1929 1935 . 1941 888.277 (160 growers) 1947 1.047,562 (179 growers) 570,930 (51 growers) 746,324 (110 growers) 868,299 (155 growers) Vancouver I . (orientals) 382,382 (9 growers) 1,018,024 (22 growers) 1,545,234 (45 growers) 1,779,360 (48 grower^ 1,593,438 (35 growers) Total B.C. 1,905,180 (120 growers) 3,385,681 (260 growers) 4,612.787 (515 growers) 5,152,998 (577 growers) 5,066,950 (552 growers) (c) Dairying Dairy farms are well distributed through the region, small farms re ta i l ing milk to the loca l settlements. In addition there i s a concentration of dairy herds near 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of Agriculture, Greenhouse Surveys 1923 - 1947 (unpublished) f l.Looking southeast over the coastal p l a i n from the top of Mt. Douglas, with Cadboro Point and Discovery Island i n the l e f t background. Several green-houses are v i s i b l e i n the centre of the photograph. 2.Part of a nursery located on Cowichan s o i l s . Roses show in the foreground, while a v a r i e t y of ornamental trees form the background. Posts, (centre and r i g h t ) , support water pipes which operate the s p r i n k l i n g system. 97 V i c t o r i a , to supply the l a r g e demand f o r f r e s h m i l k . Vancouver I s l a n d r e c e i v e s l a r g e d a i l y shipments of f r e s h m i l k from the Vancouver a r e a . Though Sa a n i c h P e n i n s u l a s u p p l i e s p a r t of the r e g i o n a l demand, Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s not s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n t h i s commodity. D a i r y farms are u s u a l l y found i n the l o w - l y i n g areas, where groundwater seepage makes up f o r the low summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Farms range from f i f t e e n to over s i x t y a c r e s ; a l a r g e p a r t of which i s u s u a l l y i n rough p a s t u r e . Though the minimum s a t i s f a c t o r y s i z e f o r a d a i r y farm i s about f o r t y a c r e s , numerous s m a l l operators depend on rented acreage f o r a d d i t i o n a l hay and pasture. S m a l l orchards and gardens are common a d j u n c t s . Many o p e r a t o r s , not c l a s s e d as dairymen, do keep s m a l l herds i n combination w i t h p o u l t r y , f r u i t growing and g e n e r a l farming. Dairymen i n the r e g i o n c a t e r to the urban demand f o r f r e s h m i l k . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e expansion of the d a i r y i n d u s t r y i s p o s s i b l e . Summer drought remains a problem because i t l i m i t s summer p a s t u r e . The a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of the farm i s i n f l u e n c e d by many f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g q u a l i t y of p a s t u r e , c o m p e t i t i o n with other e n t e r p r i s e s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of f e e d and p r o x i m i t y to market. Since c o s t of f e e d i s a major expense, farm grown s u p p l i e s must p r o v i d e a l a r g e share. C l o v e r and timothy are u s u a l l y grown together and used f o r hay and pasture, occupying about one-quarter of the farm area. Oats and thousand-headed k a l e are used f o r green f e e d , w h i l e f e e d corn, peas and v e t c h are grown f o r e n s i l a g e . Sugar beets and mangels are f r e q u e n t l y grown to p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e item of w i n t e r f e e d . Other than 97a I n t e r i o r of one of the larger dairy barns i n the region. About 90 cows can be accommodated i n the s t a l l s , ( l e f t and r i g h t ) . 98 f a m i l y gardens, the remainder of the farm i s u s u a l l y comprised of woodlot or stumpy pasture w i t h low c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . Animals kept are s e l e c t e d grade or purebred J e r s e y s , Guernseys, and H o l s t e i n s . The annual y i e l d from a good cow i s approximately s i x hundred g a l l o n s . Farm p r a c t i c e s are adjusted so that the m i l k p r o d u c t i o n i s steady. About h a l f the herd i s freshened d u r i n g the winter months and the other h a l f d u r i n g the summer months. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the d a i r y p r o d u c t i o n i s i n the form of f r e s h m i l k f o r the urban market. Some b u t t e r , i c e -cream and a s m a l l amount of cheese are a l s o produced by the l a r g e r creameries, but l i t t l e i f any l i q u i d milk i s processed to evaporated or condensed m i l k . The work on d a i r y farms i s c o n s t a n t l y t y i n g but the income i s h i g h and steady. G e n e r a l l y speaking, a d a i r y farm p r o v i d e s a s u r e r income than other types of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the r e g i o n , (d) Truck Farming Truck farming i s c a r r i e d on i n t e n s i v e l y near the urban markets, p a r t i c u l a r l y by Chinese growers. Aided by a long f r o s t l e s s season, growers can p l a c e e a r l y v e g e t a b l e s on the l o c a l market before adjacent areas can compete. Thus y i e l d s are h i g h i n v a l u e , though l a r g e amounts of p a i n s t a k i n g hand labour are r e q u i r e d . Onions, l e t t u c e , asparagus, c a u l i f l o w e r , c e l e r y , beans, squash, — i n s h o r t a l l kinds of v e g e t a b l e s — f l o u r i s h i n the r e g i o n . R e l a t i v e l y c o o l summers are r e q u i s i t e , and the long growing season permits s e v e r a l crops. This farm Truck farm near Mt. Douglas. Tomato plants occupy the foreground, with beans ( r i g h t ) , and p i c k l i n g peppers, ( l e f t ) . This farm i s one of many near the urban market, operated by Chinese. 99 type i s found i n lower l y i n g areas where the water t a b l e i s not f a r from the s u r f a c e . Peat s o i l s , w i t h drainage, are e x c e l l e n t f o r v e g e t a b l e s , s i n c e they are r i c h i n s o i l n u t r i e n t s and organic matter, have a h i g h moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , and have abundant groundwater s u p p l i e s . T y p i c a l y i e l d s v a r y from 12 to 14 tons per acre f o r c a r r o t s and beets, 15 to 30 tons per acre f o r cabbage., 6 to 8 tons per acre f o r beans and 3 to 6 tons per acre f o r peas. Because of the m i l d w i n t e r s , h a r d i e r vegetables can be grown almost on a year round b a s i s . Cash income from t r u c k farming, acre f o r acre, p a r a l l e l s that from s m a l l f r u i t f arming. (e) P o u l t r y . F a rming This i s another h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d type of a g r i c u l t u r e which has shown c o n s i d e r a b l e growth i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Though p o u l t r y farms cover o n l y a few acres the p r i c e of land must be low, consequently those i n the r e g i o n are l o c a t e d on the poorer or non-arable s o i l s . Qualicum stony sand and Qualicum loamy sand are w e l l s u i t e d , s i n c e they are w e l l d r a i n e d and p r o v i d e " g r i t " — a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t of p o u l t r y d i e t . The long f r o s t l e s s season i n the r e g i o n i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e advantage i n producing f r e s h eggs during w i n t e r , when p r i c e s are h i g h e r . On the other hand a pronounced disadvantage e x i s t s i n t h a t l i t t l e g r a i n f e e d i s l o c a l l y produced and cost of feed i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h . Most p o u l t r y farms i n S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver e Holland turkeys on a poultry farm near the urban centre. 100 Island depend on the production and sale of eggs as the chief source of income. The bes| suited birds f o r this purpose are Single Comb White Leghorns and New Hampshires. The "average" hen lays 150 eggs per year. A c a p i t a l investment of between $4.50 and $5.00 per b i r d and a f l o c k of 700 to 1,200 birds i s necessary to produce commercial eggs as a sole means of l i v e l i h o o d . ^ Some breeders, located close to the urban market, specialize i n crossbred table birds. The New Hampshire-Cornish cross i s mainly used for this market. Other poultrymen specialize i n breeding stock or baby chicks for the general trade. Turkeys are well adapted to the climate of the region. The long dry summers and the cool autumns which encourage early feathering, are p a r t i c u l a r l y favorable. Turkey poults are very susceptible to dampness and the gravelly s o i l s i n the c e n t r a l and south central portions are e s p e c i a l l y well suited to them. The Broad Breasted Bronze, Black, and White Holland are the popular breeds. Turkeys are sold for meat, the largest sale being to the holiday trade. Poultry farmers often have a kitchen garden and perhaps a f r u i t orchard, but as flocks demand constant attention, l i t t l e time i s l e f t for other phases of agriculture. Income from poultry farming varies considerably with changing prices and markets. Under adverse economic conditions, many small operators are forced out of business. 1 Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands, B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of Agriculture, A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement Series, C i r c u l a r No. 2, V i c t o r i a , 1946, p.17. 101 ( f ) G e n e r a l Farming G e n e r a l farming r e p r e s e n t s a combination of s e v e r a l crop and l i v e s t o c k e n t e r p r i s e s , and though r e t u r n s are not as h i g h as with most s p e c i a l t y crops, income i s l e s s v a r i a b l e . Thus a s i n g l e farm may grow o a t s , c l o v e r and v e t c h , keep a few d a i r y cows, p i g s and p o u l t r y , and an acre or two of v e getables along w i t h t r e e or bush f r u i t s . A few m i l k cows are p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r a b l e , s i n c e i n a d d i t i o n to income from the s a l e of m i l k , any s u r p l u s can be used to f e e d p i g s and c h i c k e n s . Consequently mixed or g e n e r a l farms are l a r g e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n food and always have something which can be s o l d to meet expenses. Many g e n e r a l farms a l s o have a woodlot, p r o v i d i n g f u e l and f e n c i n g , or p o s s i b l y , a s m a l l cash income. Since t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and nearness to urban markets i s not e s s e n t i a l , these farms are more g e n e r a l l y found i n the o u t l y i n g areas of Sooke and Saanich. Farm s i z e v a r i e s depending upon how much land the i n d i v i d u a l operator can look a f t e r and the q u a l i t y of the farm s i t e . The p a r t i c u l a r type of crops r a i s e d f o r s a l e can be v a r i e d from year to year i n accordance w i t h the demand. Vegetables u s u a l l y occupy an important p l a c e i n the mixed farm and a wide v a r i e t y i s grown - l e t t u c e , c a r r o t s , potatoes, cabbage, squash, corn, tomatoes and the l i k e . An orchard containing a. few apple, c h e r r y , pear and plum t r e e s i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s type of farm. Walnuts and f i l b e r t s are sometimes grown and f i n d a ready market. 101a One of the scattered arable areas i n the broken topography west of Metchosin. Various cover types can be seen. Garry oaks (ftuercus Garryana) centre, and mixed alder, maple and f i r (left background), can be seen. 102 One or two horses are sometimes kept f o r use as draught.animals and a s m a l l f l o c k of sheep i s an o c c a s i o n a l adjunct p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the south c e n t r a l and southwestern areas. Home a p i a r i e s are a l s o f r e q u e n t l y found on the g e n e r a l farms, though l i t t l e more than home requirements i s produced. Bees have been found to w i n t e r w e l l i n the r e g i o n . The p r i n c i p a l n e c t a r - b e a r i n g n a t i v e f l o r a are the Dutch c l o v e r , f i r e w e e d , madrona, s a l a l , snowberry, t h i s t l e and Oregon grape. (g) Tree F r u i t Farming There are a number of commercial apple and ch e r r y orchards i n the r e g i o n . Most of these were p l a n t e d many years ago. Today, p l a n t i n g of t r e e f r u i t s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of c h e r r i e s , i s not recommended except f o r home o r c h a r d s . 1 Apples, plums and pears are grown i n s m a l l orchards, and some of the plum and pear crop i s canned l o c a l l y . C h e r r i e s do reasonably w e l l . Because of the c o o l n i g h t s , maturation i s slow, producing a f l e s h y c h e r r y of good e a t i n g q u a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the summer drought i s a f a v o r a b l e f a c t o r i n p r e v e n t i n g s p l i t t i n g of the f r u i t . Walnuts and f i l b e r t s grow s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , but p l a n t i n g s are very l i m i t e d . G e n e r a l l y speaking, none of the t r e e f r u i t s grown i n the r e g i o n can s u c c e s s f u l l y compete with those from the Okanagan. 1 Vancouver I s l a n d and G u l f I s l a n d s . B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement S e r i e s , C i r c u l a r No. 2, V i c t o r i a , 194-6, p. 10. 102a F i l b e r t trees (right foreground), on Keating sandy loam. 103 (h) Sheep and Part-Time Farms v Though beef c a t t l e are not r a i s e d i n Southe a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d because of the l i m i t e d range, o c c a s i o n a l sheep farms occupy l a r g e t r a c t s of land too dr y , too stony or too rough f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . About three t o f i v e acres i s r e q u i r e d to support one sheep, and consequently c o n s i d e r a b l e area i s needed f o r a l a r g e f l o c k . F o r t h i s reason, and because they make good use of rough p a s t u r e , sheep ranches are most common i n the o u t l y i n g Metchosin, Sooke and O t t e r d i s t r i c t s . Pasture i s f r e q u e n t l y l e a s e d from the government or from l o g g i n g companies. Only a l i m i t e d amount of hay i s r e q u i r e d f o r winter f e e d , s i n c e the animals can graze almost year round. R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e labour Is r e q u i r e d on a sheep ranch as compared wi t h most other farming o p e r a t i o n s . The g r e a t e s t amount of h i r e d h elp i s needed dur i n g the s p r i n g lambing and s h e a r i n g . Some lambs, born i n the f a l l , are marketed from January t o March as "hothouse lamb". Lambs are u s u a l l y s o l d f o r meat when about f i v e months o l d , weighing from seventy t o n i n e t y pounds each. G e n e r a l l y speaking, income from meat s a l e i s about twice t h a t from wool. Fur farming i s another type of l i v e s t o c k or animal s p e c i a l t y farming c a r r i e d on i n the r e g i o n . A few f u r farms are i n s c a t t e r e d l o c a t i o n s on the Saanich P e n i n s u l a . Among the f a v o r a b l e f a c t o r s to the f u r i n d u s t r y are the u n i f o r m i t y of temperature and the r e l a t i v e l y moist atmosphere — p r o d u c i n g a b e t t e r q u a l i t y p e l t . A v a i l a b i l i t y of f i s h f e e d i s another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Horsemeat i s imported 104 from the P r a i r i e s by c a r l o a d l o t s and h e l d i n r e f r i g e r a t i o n u n t i l r e q u i r e d . Lack of r e f r i g e r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a t Sooke tend to prevent expansion of the f u r i n d u s t r y i n t h a t a r e a . The major unfavorable f a c t o r appears t o be the o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d by neighbouring farmers, and v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . S i l v e r f o x and mink are the two important f u r - b e a r e r s r a i s e d . P art-time farms are found near the urban a r e a . The o p e r a t o r s of these farms d e r i v e a p o r t i o n of t h e i r income from other sources, but o b t a i n p a r t of t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from the farm. These h o l d i n g s are u s u a l l y s m a l l - from 5 to 10 acres - and are o f t e n owned by r e t i r e d people and p e n s i o n e r s . A few p a r t time farms i n the c e n t r a l and southwestern p a r t of the r e g i o n are operated by loggers or fishermen. B Secondary (Manufacturing) I n d u s t r i e s S e v e r a l f a c t o r s are r e q u i r e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a manufacturing i n d u s t r y - raw m a t e r i a l s from primary p r o d u c t i o n , power and water sources, l a b o u r , c a p i t a l and a market. Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d has r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amounts of c e r t a i n raw m a t e r i a l s and a dependable labou r supply, but power sources and markets are l i m i t e d . To some extent, water s u p p l i e s are a l s o l i m i t e d . In the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the r e g i o n , l a c k of water has r e s t r i c t e d i n d u s t r y . V i c t o r i a has a p l e n t i f u l water supply f o r present needs. Such an e s t a b l i s h m e n t as a s u l p h i t e p l a n t , however, r e q u i r i n g 105 l a r g e amounts o f f r e s h water, would have d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t s upply. The c h i e f form of power used i n the area i s hydro e l e c t r i c . This i s a v a i l a b l e from a p l a n t a t Jo r d a n i R i v e r , some e i g h t miles northwest of Muir Creek, and t h e r e f o r e beyond the r e g i o n a l boundary. The combined output of t h i s hydro development and a s m a l l a u x i l i a r y steam p l a n t l o c a t e d a t Brentwood, amounts to onl y 55.000 H.P. These p l a n t s supply power to domestic and commercial users not only w i t h i n the r e g i o n , but as f a r nor t h as Nanaimo. Ob v i o u s l y , there i s l i t t l e power a v a i l a b l e f o r added i n d u s t r i a l u s e r s . W i t h i n the pas t two y e a r s , however, the development of the B.C. Power Commission plant; at Campbell R i v e r , has meant new s u p p l i e s f o r up-Island centres and consequently l e s s " l o a d on the Jordan R i v e r P l a n t . Besides t h i s , the Campbell R i v e r development, when complete, w i l l d e l i v e r some 150,000 H.P. and power l i n e s are being e r e c t e d to b r i n g some of t h i s energy to the V i c t o r i a area. J u s t how much w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o commercial users i s i n d e f i n i t e , but the b o l s t e r i n g o f energy s u p p l i e s should make p o s s i b l e a c o n s i d e r a b l e expansion of i n d u s t r y i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . The a d d i t i o n . o f e l e c t r i c a l power i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t when other energy sources are con s i d e r e d . The nearest commercial c o a l d e p o s i t s are l o c a t e d i n the Nanaimo area which has an output of about 230,000 tons a n n u a l l y . 1 1 Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines T King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 194&7 p. 204. 106 While t h i s c o a l i s s u i t a b l e f o r commercial use, i t i s l i m i t e d i n amount, being e q u i v a l e n t to about 40,000 E.p} Besides t h i s , the c o a l r e s e r v e s a t Nanaimo are almost d e p l e t e d , and i t i s d o u b t f u l i f s i g n i f i c a n t p r o d u c t i o n w i l l continue a f t e r 1952. There are r e s e r v e s of s u i t a b l e commercial c o a l a t Comox, which should l a s t approximately t h i r t y y e a r s , but a g a i n , p r o d u c t i o n i s very l i m i t e d . A l b e r t a c o a l can be imported a t a c o m p e t i t i v e p r i c e with I s l a n d c o a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s or other forms of energy can compete i n the r e g i o n w i t h h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power a v a i l a b l e at about the same c o s t . The other major problem to manufacturing i n the r e g i o n i s one of markets. The r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n comprises the bulk of that on Yancouver I s l a n d - a l i m i t e d market. While most of B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the southwest, Vancouver p r e s e n t s overwhelming c o m p e t i t i o n i n manufactured goods. S e a t t l e and other c i t i e s i n the Northwest prevent an o u t l e t i n that d i r e c t i o n . With Vancouver I s l a n d p r o v i d i n g a l i m i t e d l o c a l market, the a l t e r n a t i v e s , i f manufacturing i s to expand, i s through v e r y competitive overseas e x p o r t , or p r o d u c t i o n of s p e c i a l t y a r t i c l e s . I t i s l i k e l y then, that on the b a s i s of markets, expansion of i n d u s t r y i n the r e g i o n w i l l be slow, p a r a l l e l l i n g r e g i o n a l and I s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n expansion. The manufacture of s p e c i a l t y a r t i c l e s i s a p o s s i b i l i t y which has not yet been proven. 1 The f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s i o n f i g u r e appears on p.282 of the Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r the year 1933, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. "For the purpose of comparison i t may be s t a t e d t h a t one developed horse-power per year i s e q u i v a l e n t £0 the power value of 6 tons of c o a l . " 107 The p r i n c i p a l raw m a t e r i a l s of the r e g i o n are l o g s , f r u i t and vegetables and f i s h . Sawmills, packing p l a n t s and canneries convert these raw m a t e r i a l s , but g e n e r a l l y speaking, the manufacturing i s r e s t r i c t e d to simple p r o c e s s i n g . Consequently, much of the value of secondary i n d u s t r y i s l o s t to the r e g i o n . In r e c e n t years, however, there has been a trend toward g r e a t e r use of the raw m a t e r i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r e s t p r o d u c t s . A few p l a n t s produce window sashes and doors, wooden boxes and b a r r e l s . At l e a s t one p l a n t makes f u r n i t u r e from l o c a l hard and softwoods, though i t has been found necessary to import hardwoods, n o t a b l y from A u s t r a l i a and C e n t r a l America, to o b t a i n s u i t a b l e veneers. Of the l o c a l hardwoods, Red A l d e r i s the most important t o f u r n i t u r e manufacture, s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s e x c e l l e n t core stock over which veneer i s l a i d . Most of the wood products are marketed i n southern Vancouver I s l a n d . Because of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e woods and the numerous marine a c t i v i t i e s i n the r e g i o n , boat b u i l d i n g i s a s m a l l , but w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r y . A l l types of s m a l l p l e a s u r e and work c r a f t are c o n s t r u c t e d a t some f o u r t e e n d i f f e r e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , most of them i n V i c t o r i a . A match f a c t o r y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to more complete use of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . With more energy becoming a v a i l a b l e i t would seem that the manufacture of such m a t e r i a l s as plywood, p r e - f a b r i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e s and wooden p a n e l l i n g might be p o s s i b l e s u b s i d i a r i e s of e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s . Again, markets seem to be the main problem. The h i g h i n i t i a l c o s t 108 i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p l a n t s of t h i s type would r e q u i r e assured markets f o r the manufactured goods. Another economic f a c t o r i s the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t i n g l o g s . At p r e s e n t , i n s h e l t e r e d waters, a l o g tow of 20 miles i s but l i t t l e more expensive than a tow of 50 m i l e s . Consequently, the best grade l o g s , ("peeler l o g s " ) , r e q u i r e d i n the plywood i n d u s t r y , are towed d i r e c t to Vancouver. That c i t y has the advantage of e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n t s , and a much l a r g e r l o c a l market. The a g r i c u l t u r a l and f i s h r esources o f the r e g i o n p r e s e n t l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s to further u t i l i z a t i o n other than f o r e x t r a c t i v e commodities. While there are s e v e r a l c o l d storage p l a n t s , o n l y one es t a b l i s h m e n t i s designed to process f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s . This p l a n t and an adjacent winery handle most of the s u r p l u s s m a l l f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n of the Saanich P e n i n s u l a . The p l a n t cannot operate a t a reasonable margin of p r o f i t u n t i l the l o c a l and export demand f o r f r e s h f r u i t has been s a t i s f i e d . The expansion of the small f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n the r e g i o n i s l a r g e l y l i m i t e d by markets. Unless b e r r y acreage i s c o n s i d e r a b l y expanded, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t there w i l l be any need f o r f u r t h e r development of f r u i t p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s . One f i s h cannery i s l o c a t e d on E s q u i m a l t Harbour and there are a few c o l d storage and f i s h c u r i n g p l a n t s i n V i c t o r i a . A clam cannery operates a t Sidney. The Esquimalt p l a n t has f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x t r a c t i n g f i s h o i l from the o f f a l . The p a r t i c u l a r process i n v o l v e d i s a chemical one. This does not permit f i s h meal and f e r t i l i z e r to be produced along 109 with the fish oil. The offal from the curing and processing plants at Victoria is not in sufficient amounts to warrant a by-product plant. It is taken by barge to the Vancouver fish oil and fertilizer plants. Further expansion of fish processing plants in the region will probably depend upon expansion of the associated primary industry, and at present, this seems unlikely. The following table1 feives group payroll figures for most of the agricultural and fish processing plants in the region. Description of Industry 1946 Payroll ($.) 1 Canning and packing fruits, vegetables, flour milling and cold storage 34,540 2 Canning and packing fish, fish wholesaling, fish oil and fertilizer manufacture. 358,966 Heavy industry is limited by lack of raw material and energy sources in Southeastern Vancouver Island. No metallics are produced within the region, and no coal suitable for coking is available on the Island. Shipbuilding, using imported steel, is the only heavy industry. Its existence in the region seems largely dependent upon two factors - skilled workmen and shipyard facilities. A Dominion Government drydock, one of the largest in existence, was completed at Esquimalt in 1926. This dock is fully equipped to handle the largest ships afloat, and has been a considerable stimulus to ship building and ship repairing in the region. 1 Figures made available through the courtesy of Mr. J.R. Meredith, Regional Development Division, Dept. of Trade and Industry, Victoria, B.6. Esquimalt has long been an o u t f i t t i n g and r e p a i r base f o r n a v a l s h i p s , and s i n c e t h i s work i s l i m i t e d , but steady, a nucleus of equipment and t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i s a v a i l a b l e f o r s h i p c o n s t r u c t i o n . Two well-equipped yards, one a t Esquimalt and one at V i c t o r i a , have f a c i l i t i e s f o r b u i l d i n g s h i p s up to a s i z e of about 12,000 tons g r o s s . During World War I I , merchant v e s s e l s , n a v a l s h i p s and a v a r i e t y of s m a l l e r c r a f t were b u i l t . S h o r t l y a f t e r the war, c o n t r a c t s were reduced, and other than f o r o c c a s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n j o b s , most work i s l i m i t e d to r e p a i r i n g and r e f i t t i n g . The Esquimalt yards c a t e r to n a v a l c o n t r a c t s and r e p a i r work i n connection w i t h the l a r g e g r a v i n g dock. The V i c t o r i a p l a n t s handle s m a l l e r ' c r a f t such as tugs, harbour c r a f t and the l i k e . A number of s m a l l e r secondary i n d u s t r i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e the i n d u s t r i a l p o r t i o n of the r e g i o n . A p a i n t manufacturing p l a n t , a r o o f i n g company, a few f l o u r and feed m i l l s , a brewery, a t e x t i l e p l a n t and s i m i l a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s have been b u i l t i n V i c t o r i a to supply the l o c a l demand. Most of the raw m a t e r i a l s used i n these i n d u s t r i e s are imported. In these cases, p o s i t i o n of the i n d u s t r i e s w i t h r e l a t i o n to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and markets, i s more important than l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . • c « T e r t i a r y I n d u s t r i e s As w i t h a l l c i t i e s , a g r e a t v a r i e t y of t e r t i a r y or s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s c a t e r t o the p u b l i c demand i n the urban centres of the r e g i o n . L a u n d r i e s , f u e l y a r d s , t r u c k i n g s e r v i c e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n companies, s e r v i c e and r e p a i r s t a t i o n s I l l machine shops and a host of r e t a i l stores together contribute a large share of the income i n the region. The following tab le 1 l i s t s 1946 payrolls for some of the ter t iary industries. DESCRIPTION OF INDUSTRY 1946 PAYROLL ($) 1. Reta i l stores 3,618,295 2. Municipal corporations, school boards, l ibrary boards, parks boards, etc. 2,961,183 3. Building construction, not exceeding four storeys, structural carpentry, masonry, roofing, ins ta l l a t ion and removal of machinery, ornamental i ron works, etc. 1,286,426 4. Repair and service stations (approximate) 1,258,000 j 5. Fuel yards, r e t a i l lumber yards and builders supplies, cartage and warehousing and domestic ice plants. 977,383 6. Hotels and restaurants (approximate) • ^ 232,000 7. Pr in t ing , lithographing, and engraving 805,867 8. Power laundry, cleaning and dyeing 641,76'J 9. Wholesaling 623,501 10. Lathing, painting, plastering, window cleaning and insulation of buildings 429,909 Tourism also contributes an important share of the income from ter t iary industry. Though detailed s ta t i s t i c s are d i f f i c u l t to obtain, t r a f f i c counts show that from Jan. 1st to Aug. 1st, 1949, a to ta l of 22,530 foreign licensed cars, carrying 63,954 passengers entered V i c t o r i a . In addition, 4,765 v i s i t i ng Canadian cars carrying 13,893 passengers, entered the region.^ Many resorts, hotels and 1 Figures made available through the courtesy of Mr. J .R . Meredith, Regional Development Div is ion , Dept. of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 2 Figures obtained from Vic to r i a and Island Publ ic i ty Bureau, (G.I.Warren, Commissioner), V ic to r i a , B.C. 3 loc . c i t . 112 auto courts s c a t t e r e d throughout the r e g i o n c a t e r to the t o u r i s t t r a d e , c a p i t a l i z i n g on the l o c a l c l i m a t e and scenery and " B r i t i s h " atmosphere. The long summer days and the a s s o c i a t e d dry, r e l a t i v e l y sunny weather are the f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t i c f e a t u r e s . The upland topography of the west and southwest o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s c e n i c d r i v e s . Besides t h i s , the f i n e roads s e r v i n g the Saanich P e n i n s u l a provide t o u r i s t s w ith an o p p o r t u n i t y to see the a g r i c u l t u r a l s i d e of the r e g i o n . F a c i l i t i e s f o r sp o r t f i s h i n g , y a c h t i n g , g o l f i n g and r i d i n g are a l s o major a t t r a c t i o n s . The view of the Olympic Range and Mt. Baker from V i c t o r i a w a t e r f r o n t i s a w e l l a d v e r t i s e d f a c t o r of the l o c a l environment. I t i s o f t e n s a i d that some Americans come to V i c t o r i a to see t h e i r own mountains. Many a t t r a c t i v e r e t a i l s t o r e s c a t e r e s p e c i a l l y to the American t o u r i s t s . Some of these s t o r e s d i s p l a y f i n e B r i t i s h woolens and chinaware. Others a d v e r t i s e c u r i o s and a n t i q u e s , while numerous " t e a " shops add to the " o l d country" atmosphere. Auto courts and t o u r i s t h o t e l s are s c a t t e r e d through the r e g i o n but have t h e i r g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of V i c t o r i a . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication p a t t e r n , another phase of t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y , developed f i r s t as sea r o u t e s . The Hudson's Bay Company v e s s e l s , and l a t e r , i n t e r c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , formed the f i r s t connections between V i c t o r i a and the o u t l y i n g p a r t s of the r e g i o n . Today, 113 Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d i s w e l l served w i t h roads, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s , as w e l l as r a i l w a y s , airways and steamship s e r v i c e s . L o c a t i o n of the routes s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t s l o c a l topography, and the r o u t e s , i n t urn, have made an i m p r i n t on the economic and c u l t u r a l development of the r e g i o n . The g e n e r a l map, (Plate I I ) , i n d i c a t e s the main transportation r o u t e s i n the r e g i o n . A c l a s s I highway extends from V i c t o r i a to Campbell R i v e r , with branch l i n e s to Sayward, P o r t A l b e r n i , Cowichan Lake, Shawnigan Lake and Sooke Lake. Another c l a s s I road connects Jordan R i v e r w i t h V i c t o r i a while a branch route extends from Colwood to E a s t Sooke. These highways have numerous c l a s s I I I s i d e r o a d connections which serve the O t t e r , Sooke, Metchosin and Esquimalt l a n d d i s t r i c t s . The V i c t o r i a — S a a n i c h area i s very w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h c l a s s I and I I highways assuming, with t h e i r t r i b u t a r y roads, a r e c t a n g u l a r p a t t e r n i n c o n t r a s t to the s e r p e n t i n e route of those i n the south and west. The Highland D i s t r i c t i s p o o r l y served with roads, and those which do e x i s t r e f l e c t topography i n t h e i r sinuous p a t t e r n l i k e the roads of the Metchosin --Sooke area. The Esquimalt and Nanimo Railway o f f e r i n g passenger and f r e i g h t s e r v i c e , extends from V i c t o r i a t o Courtenay, (140 m i l e s ) , w i t h branches to Cowichan Lake and P o r t A l b e r n i . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway has a l i n e from V i c t o r i a through Metchosin and Sooke, along Sooke R i v e r , Sooke Lake and Shawnigan Lake to Cowichan l a k e . T h i s l i n e 114 maintains a passenger-car s e r v i c e , but i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h f r e i g h t . Another C.N.R. l i n e connects P a t r i c i a Bay and V i c t o r i a . I t was designed to shorten the r a i l - b a r g e h a u l from Vancouver as w e l l as t o serve the Saanich area, but i s now seldom used. Present-day planners are attempting to purchase the righ t - o f - w a y i n order to c o n s t r u c t a speed highway between V i c t o r i a and the P a t r i c i a Bay a i r p o r t . The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway operates a twice - d a i l y s h i p s e r v i c e between V i c t o r i a , S e a t t l e and Vancouver. Less f r e q u e n t C.P.R. c o a s t i n g s e r v i c e s connect V i c t o r i a w i t h the west and e a s t coasts of the I s l a n d and G u l f I s l a n d p o r t s . The Puget Sound N a v i g a t i o n Company operates a car and passenger s e r v i c e between V i c t o r i a and Port Angeles, while s e v e r a l deepsea l i n e s connect V i c t o r i a w i t h the American west coast and other foreign p o r t s . Trans Canada. A i r l i n e s m a i n t a i n s e r v i c e s between V i c t o r i a and other Canadian c i t i e s , and a r e g u l a r a i r s e r v i c e operates between V i c t o r i a and S e a t t l e . S t r i c t l y speaking, the a i r s e r v i c e i s to P a t r i c i a Bay, near Sidney, some eig h t e e n miles from V i c t o r i a . Here, a . s u i t a b l e t r a c t of f l a t land w e l l away from the urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . A f a v o r a b l e s i t e f o r an adjacent seaplane base was a l s o a determining f a c t o r i n I t s c h o i c e . A i r l i n e buses complete the s e r v i c e t o V i c t o r i a . Chartered plane s e r v i c e s to a l l p a r t s of Vancouver I s l a n d and c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o operate from P a t r i c i a Bay and from the seaplane base a t View Royal i n Esquimalt Harbour. The t r a n s p o r a t i o n p a t t e r n i n the r e g i o n s t r o n g l y 115 r e f l e c t s b a s i c topographic c o n t r o l . . The road p a t t e r n forms a r e c t a n g u l a r p a t t e r n i n the V i c t o r i a — S a a n i c h area, but has a s e r p e n t i n e appearance i n the more broken country of the west and southwest. Because of i t s l o c a t i o n with r e s p e c t to the remainder of the r e g i o n , the V i c t o r i a area has a. r a d i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n . Roads extend west, northwest, and n o r t h , while sea routes r a d i a t e southwest, south and southeast from V i c t o r i a . North of V i c t o r i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the S a a n i c h t o n and Sidney areas, the g r e a t e s t continuous extent of f l a t topography i n the r e g i o n i s found. Here the road p a t t e r n i s t y p i c a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r . The sinuous nature of the road p a t t e r n i n the west and southwest i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to topography. Besides t h i s i t shows i n d i r e c t topographic c o n t r o l . In these a r e a s , a g r i c u l t u r e i s l i m i t e d and p o p u l a t i o n i s s p a r s e . Consequently, roads are few and .poor The r a i l w a y routes a l s o conform to physiography. Wherever p o s s i b l e they f o l l o w f l a t -bottomed, g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y s , or the d r i f t covered lowland. C i t i e s V i c t o r i a i s the terminus f o r most of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication routes i n southern Vancouver I s l a n d and i s the commercial centre f o r the r e g i o n . The l i m i t s of V i c t o r i a ' s h i n t e r l a n d are d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e , but the c i t y ' s wholesale d i s t r i b u t i n g area has a. r a d i u s of some s i x t y 1 1 6 m i l e s . 1 Generally speaking, the whole Island represents the hinterland from which Vic tor ia can draw resources. Though Vic tor ia lost her commercial supremacy to Vancouver with the completion of the transcontinental railway, the early start and strategic location have remained favorable factors i n her commercial development. Port f a c i l i t i e s are l imi ted , but are designed to handle a l l types of cargo. While James Bay and the Inner Harbour have f a c i l i t i e s for industr ia l craft and coastal steamships, the Outer Wharves and the Ogden Point piers handle deepsea t r a f f i c . The la t te r , bu i l t at an approximate cost of $5,000,000 have adequate berthing for five ships and are connected with a grain elevator of 1,000,000 bushels capacity, a lumber yard and a large cold storage plant. Most of the foreign trade from the port involves extractive commodities, lumber, f i sh and f i sh products and a minor amount of agricul tural products. The imports are mostly manufactured ar t ic les and food products. As is any port i n Canada, the great proportion of the foreign trade, both imports and exports, is with the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries and the United States. It should be noted that the domestic and intercoastal trade with the region is larger and i n greater variety of products than the foreign trade. Because her hinterland i s l imited, Vic to r i a ' s surplus of goods for foreign export i s re la t ive ly small. The port is of very minor importance in world trade. On the other hand there is considerable loca l trade between Vic tor ia and the other Island ports, as well as between Vic tor ia and 1 Hatcher, G.T. , (Director, Bureau of Economics~and S ta t i s t i c s , V ic to r i a ) , interview with the wri ter , 23rd July, 194-9. 117 Vancouver. The trade with the l a t t e r centre i s p a r t i c u l a r l y -important. V i c t o r i a . e x p o r t s some goods - c h i e f l y a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t products to Vancouver. The r e t u r n trade i s f a r g r e a t e r , however. Not o n l y food p r o d u c t s , such as f l u i d m i l k , but a l s o a host of consumer goods are imported v i a Vancouver and the lower mainland. V i c t o r i a i s the p o l i t i c a l centre f o r the p r o v i n c e and the m i l i t a r y and c u l t u r a l centre f o r Vancouver I s l a n d . The P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g s and a s s o c i a t e d government o f f i c e s occupy an important p l a c e i n the c i t y and i n the l i f e of i t s people. The c i t y i s a l s o a centre f o r the Canadian armed f o r c e s . Naval and m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s are l o c a t e d i n Esquimalt, while the a i r f o r c e maintains a j o i n t land and seaplane base at P a t r i c i a Bay. I n a d d i t i o n to j u n i o r c o l l e g e s i n the r e g i o n , V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, o f f e r s the f i r s t two years of U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . teacher t r a i n i n g . S e v e r a l business s c h o o l s , trade s c h o o l s and a r t schools a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to V i c t o r i a ' s c u l t u r a l atmosphere. the t i p of Saanich P e n i n s u l a i s the l o c a l centre f o r North Saanich. A p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 1,200 g a i n t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d c h i e f l y from a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h i n g , r e t a i l b u s i n e s s and tourism. The town has p o r t f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o a s t a l steamers In a d d i t i o n to being a commercial c e n t r e , The adjacent P r o v i n c i a l Normal Scho o l o f f e r s Sidney, on the east coast o f the r e g i o n near 118 and a C.P.R. s e r v i c e operates from Sidney to S t e v e s t o n (near Vancouver), while another f e r r y operates between Sidney and Anacortes. The r e c e n t l y b u i l t a i r p o r t a t P a t r i c i a Bay has been a g r e a t stimulus to Sidney's growth, p a r t i c u l a r l y w ith regard t o r e t a i l b usiness and t o u r i s m . This town was the former l o c a t i o n of the Sidney Roofing and Paper Company. Lack of adequate water s u p p l i e s f o r c e d the i n d u s t r y to move out of North Saanich to the V i c t o r i a a r e a . The s e t t l e m e n t at Sooke on the west s i d e of Sooke Harbour, about twenty-three miles from V i c t o r i a , forms the l o c a l c o l l e c t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e f o r O t t e r and Sooke land d i s t r i c t s . With a p o p u l a t i o n of about 7 0 0 , i t i s the c e n t r e of an a g r i c u l t u r a l , f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g a r e a . In the p a s t f i f t y years, Sooke has shown a steady, but o n l y very slow expansion. Lack of l a r g e adjacent areas of a g r i c u l t u r a l land has been one of the main l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . F o r e s t r y i s the major l o c a l i n d u s t r y , supplemented by g e n e r a l farming and f i s h i n g . Many of the i n h a b i t a n t s are p a r t - t i m e employees i n the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y . During the s l a c k seasons, these men o f t e n operate s m a l l farms or engage i n f i s h i n g . In a d d i t i o n to the main p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s i n the r e g i o n , there are a number of minor settlements s e r v i n g the r u r a l a r e a s . These u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of a post o f f i c e , a few s t o r e s and perhaps a s c h o o l . Saanichton, Brentwood, Prospect Lake, Cordova Bay and Royal Oak i n the Saanich P e n i n s u l a , and Langford, Colwood, Luxton, Metchosin and East Sooke i n the c e n t r a l and southwestern p o r t i o n s , are the most important of these. 1 1 9 9. LAND UTILIZATION The dominant uses of land i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d are a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y . These two primary i n d u s t r i e s occupy n e a r l y a l l of the r e g i o n a l a r e a . Urban development i s expanding but i s l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the east c e n t r a l p o r t i o n . I t i s r e s i d e n t i a l r a t h e r than i n d u s t r i a l . Parks, other r e c r e a t i o n a l areas and I n d i a n r e s e r v e s make up most of the remainder. A g r i c u l t u r e The a g r i c u l t u r a l use of the land i s concentrated n o r t h of V i c t o r i a on the Saanich P e n i n s u l a . S c a t t e r e d pockets of c u l t i v a t e d land extend through the ^ c e n t r a l and southwestern p o r t i o n s of the r e g i o n . S m a l l f r u i t c u l t u r e i s probably the most important s i n g l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t . This i n d u s t r y occupies sandy loam and s i l t loam s o i l s on h i l l s i d e s as w e l l as more l e v e l areas. B e r r y farms are s m a l l but r e t u r n s from them are h i g h . Most, but not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l of the farm i s i n f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n . F a r the g r e a t e s t acreage i s i n l o g a n b e r r i e s . Loganberry growing has expanded, but the expansion has been r e s t r i c t e d to c e n t r a l Saanich. Strawberry acreage i s about h a l f as g r e a t as t h a t devoted to l o g a n b e r r i e s , w h i l e r a s p b e r r i e s and b l a c k b e r r i e s together cover l e s s than h a l f as l a r g e an area as the strawberry l a n d s . Strawberry growing has spread i n a l l p a r t s of the P e n i n s u l a , but the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e has been i n the c e n t r a l p a r t . Raspberry c u l t u r e has shown a s m a l l but steady growth i n r e c e n t y e a r s , but b l a c k b e r r y growing has remained almost co n s t a n t . 120 S t r a w b e r r i e s are a major a g r i c u l t u r a l e xport crop. About twenty c a r l o a d s are exported each year, c h i e f l y to p r a i r i e markets. Most of the l o g a n b e r r y crop i s consumed l o c a l l y or processed i n t o jams and wines. Some of the jam i s l a t e r exported, p r i m a r i l y to overseas markets. S p e c i a l t y crop'farming i s another important phase of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Saanich P e n i n s u l a . Again, farms are s m a l l and i n t e n s i v e l y c u l t i v a t e d , and r e t u r n s are h i g h . Bulbs, e s p e c i a l l y n a r c i s s u s and t u l i p v a r i e t i e s , are probably the most v a l u a b l e of the s p e c i a l t y c r o p s . Bulb farming i s concentrated n o r t h of V i c t o r i a i n the Mount Tolmie - Gordon Head area. Though the t o t a l area i n v o l v e d i s only about 560 a c r e s , bulbs and associated, cut f l o w e r s form a c o n s i d e r a b l e export item. Most of the export i s to p r a i r i e markets. Flower and v e g e t a b l e seed p r o d u c t i o n , n u r s e r i e s and greenhouse c u l t u r e are other phases of s p e c i a l t y a g r i c u l t u r e . Vegetable seed p r o d u c t i o n i s a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n which has proven very s u c c e s s f u l . W e l l over h a l f the greenhouse acreage i s . o p e r a t e d by o r i e n t a l s . D a i r y farms are w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d through the region,' but t h e r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n near the l a r g e urban market a t V i c t o r i a . Farms must be a t l e a s t 40 acres i n extent to f u n c t i o n w e l l . Many operators keep s m a l l herds i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other phases of a g r i c u l t u r e . A l l the m i l k produced f i n d s a ready market f o r S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d i s not s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n t h i s product. Most of the d a i r y output i s consumed as l i q u i d m i l k . 121 Truck farming i s w e l l developed near the urban centre of V i c t o r i a . Peat s o i l s and bottom, lands are f a v o r e d l o c a t i o n s f o r these farms. E a r l y market crops are grown f o r l o c a l consumption and command h i g h p r i c e s . A g r e a t v a r i e t y of vegetables are c u l t i v a t e d . S e v e r a l crops of some of these are produced i n one season. P o u l t r y farms occupy s c a t t e r e d l o c a t i o n s r e l a t i v e l y near the c i t y market. There i s some c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the sandy and g r a v e l l y s o i l s of the Langford-Metehosin area. Most of the c h i c k e n farms g a i n t h e i r income from the s a l e of f r e s h eggs. Turkey farmers supply meat c h i e f l y t o the h o l i d a y t r a d e . The p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y has expanded i n re c e n t years but to the presen t has not a t t a i n e d p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e . G eneral farms are w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the r e g i o n , though they are more common i n the o u t l y i n g areas. In the Sooke area p a r t i c u l a r l y , a s m a l l f l o c k of sheep i s an o c c a s i o n a l a d j u n c t . These farms are p r a c t i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n f o o d . Although i n d i v i d u a l l y they s u p p l y only s m a l l amounts of market produce, c o l l e c t i v e l y they r e p r e s e n t a major phase of l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r e . Tree f r u i t farming, sheep r a i s i n g , f u r farming and part-time farming make up most of the remaining a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. I n d i v i d u a l l y , none of these o p e r a t i o n s at present c o n t r i b u t e s very s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the income of the r e g i o n . F o r e s t r y F o r e s t r y , the second major i n d u s t r y of Southeastern 122 I s l a n d l a r g e l y occupies the rugged t e r r a i n of the west and southwest. Some a r a b l e or p a r t i a l l y a r a b l e acreages at present support f o r e s t , and some of t h i s comprises farm woodlots. Most of the r e g i o n ' s f o r e s t area has been cut over, so that a preponderance i s now i n v a r i o u s stages of second growth, not y e t merchantable. The annual f o r e s t cut i s e s s e n t i a l l y softwood — D o u g l a s f i r , western hemlock and western red cedar. A s m a l l amount of hardwoods, mostly broad-leaved maple and r e d a l d e r , are a l s o c u t and are used i n l o c a l f u r n i t u r e manufacture. The softwood cut goes i n t o sawn lumber f o r export, sash and doors, s h i n g l e s , f u r n i t u r e and boxes. Sawn lumber i s f a r the most important of these. I t i s used l o c a l l y as w e l l as exported. Lumber export, which began i n the l860's, has expanded s t e a d i l y and i s probably the most important s i n g l e export from the r e g i o n today. Much of t h i s export, however, i s l o c a l l y processed from logs cut w e l l o u t s i d e the r e g i o n a l boundaries. Other Land Uses. Mining occupies only a few s c a t t e r e d l o c a t i o n s i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . I t i s r e s t r i c t e d to non-m e t a l l i c s — sands, g r a v e l s and c l a y s . The main centres of sand and g r a v e l q u a r r y i n g are i n the Colwood d e l t a and i n the Cordova Bay a r e a . C l a y i s dug from p i t s at V i c t o r i a and a t Bazan Bay. Though the r e s e r v e s of these m a t e r i a l s are h i g h , the use i s p u r e l y l o c a l f o r v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes. The c l a y goes i n t o the p r o d u c t i o n of b r i c k s and d r a i n t i l e s . 123 G e n e r a l l y speaking, the l a n d used i n these operations i s u n f i t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use. Other than f o r the ocean l i t t o r a l , f i s h i n g i n the r e g i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t . T h i s use centres around the numerous smal l streams and lakes i n the western and southwestern p o r t i o n s . Small n a t u r a l parks a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to r e c r e a t i o n a l use of the l a n d . One of these l i e s adjacent to the r e g i o n a l boundary n o r t h e a s t of Sooke R i v e r i n the O t t e r D i s t r i c t . Another park i s l o c a t e d l a r g e l y w i t h i n the Highland D i s t r i c t and centres around T h e t i s Lake. I n d i a n r e s e r v e s are s e t a s i d e a t Sooke, Esquimalt and Saanich. T n o s e i n Saanich occupy the l a r g e s t acreages. The g e n e r a l map ( P l a t e I I ) shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these r e s e r v e s . Some c o n t a i n poorer s o i l s and rock outcrops. The South Saanich and E a s t Saanich r e s e r v a t i o n s , on the o t h e r hand, i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a b l e acreages of good ar a b l e l a n d — Cowichan c l a y s and c l a y loams and K e a t i n g sandy loams. V i c t o r i a ' s urban zone has expanded over an extensive area of Cowichan and Tolmie s o i l s . Most of t h i s expansion i n v o l v e s r e s i d e n t i a l land use. The immediate v i c i n i t y of the harbour i s used f o r a v a r i e t y of i n d u s t r i a l purposes, p r i m a r i l y simple p r o c e s s i n g of r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . A few of these i n d u s t r i e s u t i l i z e imported m a t e r i a l s , producing goods f o r l o c a l markets. With the e x c e p t i o n of s a w m i l l i n g , no l a r g e s i n g l e i n d u s t r y dominates the i n d u s t r i a l a r e a. While V i c t o r i a i s not a competitive i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e , income from secondary i n d u s t r y i s l o c a l l y important. T n e 124 g r e a t v a r i e t y o f t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s — r e t a i l i n g , s e r v i c i n g , tourism, and the l i k e , p r o v i d e f a r the l a r g e s t percentage of r e g i o n a l income. They a l s o o f f e r employment f o r most of the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . 10. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d presents a v a r i e d p i c t u r e to the geographer. The upland topography of the west and southwest, on the one hand, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , w i t h attendant sparse p o p u l a t i o n and r e l a t i v e l y few roads. I n l a n d , s c a t t e r e d areas of s u i t a b l e s o i l s are oc c u p i e d by g e n e r a l farms, while along the coast the many bays and harbours are centres of f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y . On the other hand, ext e n s i v e areas of modified g l a c i a l t i l l s i n the c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s are w i d e l y developed f o r a v a r i e t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . P o p u l a t i o n i s concentrated here, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes show a dense, r e c t a n g u l a r p a t t e r n . An urban area has developed i n response t o the n a t u r a l harbour and i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . The pr e s e n t day h i n t e r l a n d of t h i s urban area extends f a r beyond the r e g i o n a l boundaries so t h a t i t now i n c l u d e s most of Vancouver I s l a n d . The v a f i o u s types of rocks u n d e r l y i n g the r e g i o n have not y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of m i n e r a l o r e s . Some p o t e n t i a l copper d e p o s i t s have been prospected but have not been 125 e x p l o i t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , g l a c i a t i o n has l e f t a t i l l mantle which has y i e l d e d abundant s u p p l i e s of n o n - m e t a l l i c s . Besides t h i s , the weathering of the t i l l s has produced a v a r i e t y o f widely developed s o i l s . Cowichan c l a y s and c l a y loams, K e a t i n g sandy loams and the Tolmie s o i l s form the most important of th e s e . P h y s i o g r a p h i c h i s t o r y of the r e g i o n has a l s o determined the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these s o i l s . The r e l a t i v e l y f l a t c o a s t a l p l a i n i n the V i c t o r i a - Saanich area has been l a r g e l y covered by d r i f t and contains the g r e a t e s t areas of a r a b l e land w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The s t e e p l y s l o p i n g and maturely d i s s e c t e d upland of the west and southwest i s t h i n l y covered w i t h d r i f t and i n mapy p l a c e s , e x t e n s i v e outcrops of bedrock occur. Consequently, a g r i c u l t u r e i n these areas i s l i m i t e d t o s c a t t e r e d pockets and v a l l e y bottoms. A f u b t h e r consequence to physiogmphic h i s t o r y i s the drowned c o a s t l i n e w i t h abundant n a t u r a l harbours. S e v e r a l s p e c i e s of f i s h I n h a b i t the c o a s t a l waters. The presence of these, combined wi t h the numerous harbours has d i r e c t e d the a c t i v i t i e s of p a r t of the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n t o f i s h i n g and s e a f a r i n g . Climate has imposed d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s on Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , y e t has provided one of i t s g r e a t e s t r e s o u r c e s . The long summer drought has r e s t r i c t e d some phases of a g r i c u l t u r e such as d a i r y i n g , but has been an advantage to seed p r o d u c t i o n and p o u l t r y f a r m i n g . The long f r o s t l e s s season has a l s o been a stimulus to a g r i c u l t u r e , p e r m i t t i n g year round growth of hardy v e g e t a b l e s . The r e l a t i v e l y sunny days and moderate temperatures of the summer months have f a v o r e d t o u r i s m 126 w h i l e m i l d w i n t e r temperatures and low t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n add to the reg i o n ' s appeal as a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n has responded to c l i m a t e and s o i l s . Most of the r e g i o n supports dense c o n i f e r o u s cover, w i t h the broad-leaved species more prominent i n bottom lands o r i n the d r i e r e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s . C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are optimum f o r the growth of Douglas f i r , while hemjLock and cedar a l s o f l o u r i s h . A g r i c u l t u r e i s w e l l adapted t o the c l i m a t e and to the edaphic c o n d i t i o n s . Small f r u i t c u l t u r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y important phase of t h i s i n d u s t r y . Acreages of s u i t a b l e s o i l s , p r i n c i p a l l y K eating sandy loams and Cowichan c l a y loams p r o v i d e the r e q u i s i t e s o i l conditions. These combine with the m i l d w i n t e r temperatures, long growing season and low summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o form optimum c o n d i t i o n s f o r ber r y p r o d u c t i o n . U n u s u a l l y dry seasons and i n s e c t pests are problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the l i g h t e r t e x t u r e d s o i l s . Bulbs and other s p e c i a l t y crops are a l s o w e l l adapted to c l i m a t i c and s o i l a u d i t i o n s . Seed p r o d u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i s s u i t e d t o the summer drought and long f r o s t l e s s season, while Tolmie s o i l s are very f a v o r a b l e to bulb growing. Again, the long f r o s t - f r e e season and the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amount of summer sunshine favour the greenhouse and nurserjr i n d u s t r i e s . D a i r y farms are favoured by the m i l d w i n t e r s and long growing season, but are hindered by the summer drought. In bottom lands and other areas where there i s a continuous water t a b l e c l o s e to the s u r f a c e , summer pasture remains l u s h , and d a i r y farms 127 have done w e l l . The l i m i t a t i o n of summer pasture has meant i n s u f f i c i e n t m i l k s u p p l i e s t o meet l o c a l demands. Consequently m i l k must be imported. Truck farms, many of which are operated by o r i e n t a l s , are w e l l adapted t o the s c a t t e r e d peat s o i l s near the urban market. These s o i l s have a h i g h moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and h i g h o r g a n i c content. Besides t h i s , the l o c a t i o n of peats, i n low l y i n g areas, ensures a water t a b l e c l o s e to the s u r f a c e . L i t t l e i r r i g a t i o n i s t h e r e f p r e r e q u i r e d d u r i n g the dry summer p e r i o d . P o u l t r y farming i s f a v o r e d by the long f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d and the c o o l Autumns. Turkey r a i s i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l adapted to the climate and to the coarse t e x t u r e d Qualicum s o i l s . C o o l Autumns encourage e a r l y f e a t h e r i n g and the porous nature of these s o i l s combined wi t h summer drought, are conducive t o h e a l t h y p o u l t s . The h i g h cost of importing feed remains an unfavourable aspect of both p o u l t r y and d a i r y farming i n the r e g i o n . The g e n e r a l farm i s probably one of the most s u c c e s s f u l forms of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . A v a r i e t y of crops are grown, a l l a d j u s t e d to l o c a l c l i m a t i c and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Vegetables can be r a i s e d i n the bottom lands and on the h e a v i e r s o i l s , while sheep can be grazed i n areas of non-ar a b l e s o i l s and rock o u t c r o p s . Besides t h i s , the non-arable areas can be devoted to f a r m woodlots to p r o v i d e f u e l and f e n c i n g . In a d d i t i o n to a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y i s a major primary i n d u s t r y . The f a c t o r s o f the n a t u r a l environment. 128 advantageous t o t h i s i n d u s t r y , are the l u x u r i a n t growth of co n i f e r o u s v e g e t a t i o n and the numerous c o a s t a l i n d e n t a t i o n s which p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r water t r a n s p o r t . While n a t u r a l growth favours heavy stands, s e r i o u s o v e r c u t t i n g , f i r e s and • i n s e c t p e s t s have de p l e t e d some areas. In the past s i x t y y e a r s , most of the r e g i o n has been logged, so t h a t second growth has not yet formed merchantable timber. Some well-developed stands s t i l l e x i s t i n the Sooke and Goldstream d i s t r i c t s . Mining c o n t r i b u t e s to complete u t i l i z a t i o n o f res o u r c e s , e x p l o i t i n g the Colwood sands and g r a v e l s , the Cordova sands and g r a v e l s and the Maywood c l a y s - a l l a r e s u l t of g l a c i a l d e p o s i t i o n . Mining, however, i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the r e g i o n . F i s h i n g i s i n value, the t h i r d primary i n d u s t r y , f o l l o w i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y . A v a r i e t y o f f i s h e s i s taken, the P a c i f i c salmons being the most important. F i s h i n g , l i k e f o r e s t r y , has u t i l i z e d the drowned c o a s t l i n e f o r the numerous s h e l t e r e d bays and harbours which i t p r o v i d e s . Resources o f f o r e s t , s o i l and ocean, together w i t h a ready labour supply, c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of secondary i n d u s t r y i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . Yet t h i s i n d u s t r y i s hindered by l i m i t e d markets and energy s u p p l i e s . The c h i e f form of power i s h y d r o - e l e c t r i c . The r e c e n t development at Campbell R i v e r has meant a c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l i n c r e a s e which favours i n d u s t r i a l expansion. Because the consuming p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n and i t s h i n t e r l a n d i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , l o c a l markets are l i m i t e d . 129 Markets i n the Canadian P r a i r i e s and i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s are o u t l e t s f o r some of the a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t r y p r o d u c t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l raw m a t e r i a l s are l o g s , f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s , and f i s h . Sawmills and p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s convert these raw m a t e r i a l s , but most of the manufacturing stops at simple p r o c e s s i n g . T e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y i s w e l l developed i n the r e g i o n . S e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , r e t a i l s t o r e s , and s i m i l a r establishments c a t e r to the r e s i d e n t i a l and the t o u r i s t p o p u l a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications are w e l l developed and assume p a t t e r n s which r e f l e c t the b a s i c topographic c o n t r o l s . Sinuous, r a t h e r poor roads are the r u l e i n the upland areas of the west and southwest, w h i l e s t r a i g h t , w e l l - s u r f a c t e d roads serve the more l e v e l V i c t o r i a - S a a n i c h a r e a . There i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r expansion of some phases of i n d u s t r y i n Southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d . F i s h i n g i s perhaps, an e x c e p t i o n . L i t t l e i n c r e a s e i s l i k e l y i n the annual c a t c h . At present t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n t y of i n c r e a s e d catches i n the f u t u r e , though b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has opened p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s l i n e . W i t h i n the r e g i o n , secondary i n d u s t r y based on f i s h i n g i s l i m i t e d to canning and c u r i n g . Though some f i s h o i l i s e x t r a c t e d from the o f f a l , there i s not enough of t h i s waste product a v a i l a b l e from the f i s h p r o c e s s i n g to warrant f u r t h e r expansion. This phase remains a p o t e n t i a l i f the a s s o c i a t e d primary i n d u s t r y can be augmented. Mining i s l i m i t e d to sand, g r a v e l and c l a y p r o d u c t i o n . Resources of these m a t e r i a l s are large. S i n c e they are e x p l o i t e d 130 f o r the l o c a l demand, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n c r e a s e d q u a r r y i n g w i l l keep pace w i t h urban development and c o n s t r u c t b n . The r e g i o n ' s g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l r e s t s on i t s s o i l and f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . Adapting b a s i c f i g u r e s contained i n S p i l s b u r y ' s s o i l r e p o r t , 1 there are approximately 4 0 , 0 0 0 acres of known a r a b l e s o i l s i n the r e g i o n . Roughly 1 0 , 0 0 0 a d d i t i o n a l acres c o n t a i n a r a b l e f r a c t i o n s or are c u l t i v a b l e under s p e c i a l p r a c t i c e s . An estimated 1 0 2 , 0 0 0 acres i s non-arable, containing u n s u i t a b l e s o i l s , rock outcrops and steep s l o p e s . While the areas of more rugged topography, p a r t i c u l a r l y along watersheds, stream banks, bchuffs, e t c . , should be l e f t i n permanent f o r e s t , the great m a j o r i t y of t h i s group now supports t r e e growth and could w e l l be put to s u s t a i n e d y i e l d f o r e s t r y . Most of the area i s a c c e s s i b l e and i n a c o n s e r v a t i v e estimate, 7 8 , 0 0 0 acres o f the non-arable acreage could be used f o r t h i s purpose. F o r e s t p r a c t i c e s i n v o l v i n g s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g and r e f o r e s t a t i o n of burned or c l e a r cut timber would ensure continuous y i e l d s of about 1 6 J m i l l i o n f.b.m. per year. 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , p a r t of t h i s 1 S p i l s b u r y , R.H., S o i l Survey of ..the Southeastern P o r t i o n of Vancouver Island:. 1 9 4 4 , 1 unpublished), p.3T5a. 2 This f i g u r e was a r r i v e d at by a p p l y i n g a value o b t a i n e d from the t a b l e of mean annual increment i n immature stands shown on p.50 of Mulholland's "Forest Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia", to the estimated 7 8 , 0 0 0 acres a v a i l a b l e f o r s u s t a i n e d y i e l d f o r e s t r y . 1 3 1 p o t e n t i a l f o r e s t land i s p r i v a t e l y owned. A programme of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n designed to i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of such land, and to promote c o - o p e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l owners, would tend to o f f s e t t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . Roughly one h a l f of the 40 , 0 0 0 acres i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l group i s now c u l t i v a t e d . U l t i m a t e l y then, the crop area could be approximately doubled. Not a l l the p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e s o i l i s a v a i l a b l e f o r new s e t t l e m e n t however, s i n c e , l i k e the f o r e s t r y group, much of i t r e p r e s e n t s p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d . Assuming t h a t 5 , 0 0 0 acres of the p o t e n t i a l are a v a i l a b l e , and an average farm s i z e of 50 a c r e s , about 100 new farms could be e s t a b l i s h e d . I f t h i s s e t t l e m e n t were accomplished, probably p a r t of the p r e s e n t l y owned undeveloped land would be made p r o d u c t i v e . Over a p e r i o d of f i f t e e n or twenty y e a r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a gradual i n c r e a s e i n the urban market and l o c a l p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s would p a r a l l e l the a g r i c u l t u r a l expansion. The 1 0 , 0 0 0 acres of p a r t i a l l y a r a b l e s o i l s would l i k e l y not be r e q u i r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e u n t i l the a r a b l e area were s e t t l e d . U l t i m a t e l y t h i s acreage would probably be s u i t e d to g e n e r a l farming, s i n c e the c u l t i v a b l e f r a c t i o n s would y i e l d a crop while the non-arable p o r t i o n s would be s u i t e d to farm woodlots. U n t i l r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t , i t could be used f o r f o r e s t r y . S u i t a b l e p o r t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n t e r m e d i a t e and f o r e s t r y c l a s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r two, should be a v a i l a b l e for" parks, t o u r i s t c entres and other r e c r e a t i o n a l uses, i n d u s t r i a l 132 and commercial s i t e s . The areas i n v o l v e d i n these p o t e n t i a l useages are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , and the r e t u r n s from them would be h i g h . Though changing economic c o n d i t i o n s and markets a f f e c t i n d u s t r y , people w i l l continue to be a t t r a c t e d to the r e g i o n by i t s f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e , i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and i t s scenery. 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Daly, R. A . , Geology of the North American Cordi l lera at the forty-ninth pa ra l l e l , Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 38, Ottawa, King's Pr inter , 1912. Dawson, G. M . , Report on a, geological examination of the northern part of Vancouver Island and adjacent coasts, Geological Survey of Canada, Annual Report - part B, Ottawa, King's Pr inter , 1886. Freeman, 0. P. and Martin, H. H . , The Paci f ic Northwest. New York, Wiley, 1942. Hall iday, W. E . D. , A forest c lass i f ica t ion for Canada, Forest Service Bu l l e t i n 89, Ottawa, King's Pr inter , 1937. Howay, S. W., Sage, W. H . , and Angus, H. S. , B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States, Toronto, Ryerson, 1942. Klages, K. H. W., Ecological crop geography. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1947. Livingston, B . E. and Shreve, F . , The dis t r ibut ion of vegetation i n the United States as related to climatic conditions, Publication 284, Washington, Carnegie Inst i tute, 1921. 135 M u l h o l l a n d , F. D., The f o r e s t resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1937. Peacock, M. A., The f i o r d l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia, G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, B u l l e t i n 46, Washington, 1935. Robinson, L . B., Esquimalt, V i c t o r i a , Q u a l i t y P r e s s , 194-7. R o u n s e f e l l , G. A., and K e l e z , G. B., The salmon and salmon f i s h e r i e s of S w i f t s u r e Bank, Puget Sound, and the F r a s e r R i v e r . , Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s , B u l l e t i n 27, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1938. S p i l s b u r y , R. H. and Smith, D. S., F o r e s t S i t e types of the P a c i f i c Northwest, B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t Sewixje, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1947. T a y l o r , T. G., Canada, London, Methuen and Company, 1947. T a y l o r , T. G., Environment. Race and M i g r a t i o n , Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1937- • Trewartha, G. T., An I n t r o d u c t i o n to weather and, c l i m a t e , New York, McGraw-Hill, 1943. YEAR BOOKS AND PERIODICALS B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t f o r the year 1947. V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1948. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, r e p o r t s f o r the years 1937, 1939, 194? 1947, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual r e p o r t of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r the years 1904, 1907, 1908, 1915, 1916, 136 1917, 1918, 1924, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1933, 194-8, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Trade and Industry, Report, for the year 1948, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1949-B r i t i s h Columbia, P r d v i n c i a l Board of Health, V i t a l s t a t i s t i c s of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, report f o r the year 1946, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1948. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Canada Yea r Book, 1946 Ottawa, King's Pr i n t e r , 1946. McCurdy, A. W., "Factors which modify the climate of V i c t o r i a , " National Geographic Magazine,' v o l . 18, pp. 345 - 349, May, 1907. Schofield, S. J . , "Cascadia", American Journal of Science, v o l . 239, pp. 701 - 714, 1941. Thornthwaite, C. W., "The Climate of North America according to a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , Geographical Review, v o l . 21, PP. 633 - 655, 1931. United States, Department of Agriculture, Climat e and man, yearbook of a g r i c u l t u r e , Washington, United States, Goverraient Pri n t i n g O f f i c e , 1941. United States, Department of Agriculture, Grass, yearbook of agriculture, Washington, United States Government Printing O f f i c e , 1948. 137 PAMPHLET MATERIAL B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of a g r i c u l t u r e , Vancouver I s l a n d and G u l f I s l a n d s . A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement S e r i e s , c i r c u l a r number 2, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 194-6. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Trade and I n d u s t r y , B r i t i s h Columbia, f a c t s and s t a t i s t i c s , 194-8, v o l . 2, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 194-9 Canada, Department of T r a n s p o r t , Temperature. p r e c i p i t a t i o n and sunshine at s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s i n Canada, Toronto. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , P o p u l a t i o n t a b l e A-4 and P o p u l a t i o n t a b l e A-13, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . H a l l i d a y , W. E. D., The d i s t r i b u t i o n of some important f o r e s t t r e e s I n Canasta, r e p r i n t e d from Ecology, v o l . 24-, number 3, J u l y , 1943. V i c t o r i a and I s l a n d P u b l i c i t y Bureau, F a c t s about V i c t o r i a . V i c t o r i a , C o l o n i s t P r e s s e s . UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B r i t i s h Columbia bulb survey, 1947? V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Greenhouse surveys 1923 -1947. V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Vancouver I s l a n d berry. acreage, 1946, V i c t o r i a . 138 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, Estimated population of school d i s t r i c t s , December, 1947. V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, What the household controllers of health i n the Saanich  and South Vancouver Island health unit territory- know about their l o c a l public health.unit, Victoria., 1949. Spilsbury, R. H., S o i l Survey of the southeast portion of Vancouver Island, (with accompanying maps,) V i c t o r i a , 1944. PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Andison, H. (Provincial Entomologist), interview with the writer, 25th July, 1949. Foster, W. R., (Provincial Plant Pathologist.), l e t t e r to the writer, 29th July, 1949. Hatcher, G. T. (Director, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a ) , interview with the writer, 23rd July, 1949. Meredith, J . R. (Research s t a t i s t i c i a n ) , Regional Development Div i s i o n , Department of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a ) series of personal interviews with the writer, July, 1949. 139 Pearson, H . , (Mining s t a t i s t i c i an , Department of Trade and Industry, Victoria), le t ter to the writer , 2 8 t h July, 194-9. MAPS B r i t i s h Qolumbia, Department of Lands, Ai r Survey Divis ion , Air Photos of the following f l igh t l ines : B.C.248, 249, 587 , 588, 8 0 5 , 806 , and 808. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands, B r i t i s h Columbia, (commercial map), 'scale 31.56 m i / i n . , 1923• B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands, Vancouver Island, (map 2 A ) , scale 4 m i / i n . , 1938 . Canada, Department of Mines and Resources, Geological map of Br i t i sh Columbia.(map 923 A) , scale .20 m i / i n . , 1948. Canada, Department of Mines and Resources, V ic to r i a , National topographic series, sheets 92pW and 92sw» fcarts of), 2 m i / i n . , 194-1. Canada, Department of Mines and Resources, Vic tor ia - Vancouver and Nootka - Nanaimo sheets, National topographic series, scale 8 mi / in , 1947. Canada, Department of National Defence, (Geographic Section, General Staff) , Sooke Bay (1180), Goldstream ( 3 2 8 6 ) , Metchpjin (2971), Malahat ( 3 3 9 6 ) , Vic tor ia (5178) Saanich ( 5 3 9 3 ) , and Sidney ( 5 5 0 8 ) , scale 1 : 2 5 , 0 0 0 , 1 9 3 5 . 140 Canada, Department of Nat ional Defence, (Geographic Sect ion , General S t a f f ) , V i c t o r i a and Saanich sheets, scale l m i / i n , 1945. PLATE 1 SOILS OF SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND K E V A R A B L E S O I L S M I S C ELL L A N EOU5 S O I L S C O W I C H A N C L A Y LOAM C O W I C H A N C L A Y T O L M i E S A N D Y C L A Y L O A M K E A T I N G C A N D Y L O A M D E L T A S A N D Y L O A M DELTA L O A M D E L T A C L A Y g - c L J PEAT [ M I X E D P R O F I L E S C S U R F A C E A N D S U & S Q I L F A M I L Y r r ^ T l N A M E S I N D I C A T E D A b S - C ) Q - C , K-rC , E T C . T*T—\ M I X E D P R O F I L E S C R E 5 T R I C J E D PRAINAGE} 1 f P - L I L ° * | SELECTED F R A C T I O N S A R A B L E Q U A L I C U M L O A M Y S A N D ^ R E S T R I C T E D D R A I N A G E ) E J ^ _ J N G N - A R A L E S#1LS S h A W N l G A N S T O N Y S A N D Y L O A M Q U A L I C U M S T O N Y 5 A N D Q U A U C U M L O A M Y S A N D D E L T A o V D N Y S A N D M O S T L Y R O C K O R R O C K O U T C R O P Cadtbani Ft. GENERAL MAP OF SE. VANCOUVER' ISLAND REF C R E N C E B O U N D A R Y : mlernaV'fonal 1n4»an r t i e f v e m u n i c \ pa ( i t\j . U n d d<s\r,c* R f l l L w A V , S i f \ ^ l * t r a c K f  R A I L W A Y R O A D ' . C L f t S S I , t r u n k V i i j ^ w a J i 2.} S€Co v»«.4ar «f r i t ^ h v u a ^ -£1&CT*| -<C P C W E K L l f c c * i i i i A A A i l AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS B. C, 249, photographs 12, 18, 25 (plates 3, 4 and 5), were taken i n J uly, 1946 at an elevation of 15,000 feet. The natural scale i s 1:20,000. B. C. 587, photograph 43, (plate 6) and B. C. 588, photographs 9 and 39, (plates 7 A N D 8), were taken i n June, 1948 at;5,000 f e e t . The approximate natural scale i s 1:10,250. The remaining photographs were taken i n May, 1949, at 5,100 f e e t . The natural scale on these photographs i s approsimately 1:10,250. 1 PLATE III (B, C. 24^:12) Sooke Bay with Broom H i l l , upper centre, and part of' the settlement at Sooke i n the upper r i g h t . Retrogression of recent sediments and d r i f t i s evidenced by the wave cut c l i f f s i n the centre and lower r i g h t . PLATE IV (B. C. 249:18) Whiffin S p i t at the entrance to Sooke Harbour (upper l e f t ) , and Mt. Maguire (upper r i g h t ) . Deposits of chalcopyrites have been prospected i n t h i s area. A f i s h weir i s c l e a r l y seen above Possession Point, j l e f t centre)» The hard rocks, being r e s i s t a n t to wave action, tend to r e t a i n the i n i t i a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the drowned surface, except where marine erosion has produced wave chasms in the weaker zones, such as shear fr a c t u r e s . PLATE V (B. C. 249:25) Bentinck Island (lower centre), Pedder Inlet and William Head* The settlement near Rocky Point, on one of the scattered "pockets" of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the southern part of the region, i s seen i n the l e f t centre* A tug with a log boom i n tow, i s v i s i b l e , (upper r i g h t ) , proceeding to V i c t o r i a . PLATE VI {B. C. 587:43) V i c t o r i a Harbour, and part of V i c t o r i a c i t y , looking east. The Breakwater, Ogden Point P i e r s , (with grain elevator and cold storage p l a n t ) , and Outer Wharves are seen i n the cBntre foreground. One of V i c t o r i a ' s ship yards appears above the ship berthed on Outer Wharf. Several log booms awaiting de l i v e r y to the lumber m i l l s can be seen i n the l e f t foreground. V i c t o r i a ' s i n d u s t r i a l area l i n e s the waterfront of the Outer Harbour, (through which the vessel i s steaming), James Bay and Inner Harbour ( l e f t centre) . Part of the i n d u s t r i a l area l i n e s S e l k irk Water, (out of the picture to the toft.) Fort V i c t o r i a was located to the ri g h t of the c a n t i l e v e r bridge, (toward the centre of the photograph). Beacon H i l l Park, (right 6entre), and Cadboro Bay, (upper l e f t , ) , are also v i s i b l e PLATE VII (B. C. 588:9) Looking W.S.W. from Cadboro Bay and Yacht Club (centre foreground). The mor^dnock of Mt, Tolmie can be distinguished toward the centre of the photograph, to the r i g h t of the race track oval. The f l a t coastal p l a i n over which the c i t y has spread i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , with the more broken topography of the western and southwestern portions of the region in the background, Sooke Basin i s just v i s i b l e i n the l e f t background beyond Esquimalt Harbour. v : 1 PLATE VIII (B. C. 588»30) Looking S.W. from V i c t o r i a Arm, (centre foreground), and Portage I n l e t , (right foreground), Esquimalt Harbour i s i n the l e f t centre, with part of the naval base and the Dominion Government drydock shown. Esquimalt Lagoon, almost sealed by Coburg Peninsula, i s seen beyond the harbour mouth, with Sooke Basin and Harbour and the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca i n the l e f t background. Mount Finlayson i s the knob-like monadnock i n the near background, (right) . T i l l PLATE *|X {B. c. 805:73) Looking toward Sooke Basin from the Colwood d e l t a . Sand and g r a v e l q u a r r i e s are prominent i n the centre foreground. The t r a n s p o r t i n g a c t i o n of the northward s e t t i n g , longshore currents i s evidenced i n the r i g h t foreground. The settlement of Metchosin ( l e f t c e n t r e ) , and Happy V a l l e y and Luxton ( r i g h t c e n t r e ) , show as sc a t t e r e d "patches" i n the more broken topography. IX PLATE X (B. c . 805:79) Upper portion of the Colwood d e l t a , looking west. M i l l H i l l occupies the r i g h t foreground, while Glen, Langford and Florence lakes, (centre), can be seen. S k i r t Mountain, l o c a t i o n of several gold claims, i s shown flanked by Langford and Florence lakes, (centre r i g h t ) . A long, transverse v a l l e y , p a r t i a l l y occupied by Goldstream River, can be traced from the v i c i n i t y of Langford Lakd into the centre background of the photograph. PLATE XI (B. C. 805:86) Looking W. across the Highland D i s t r i c t from the v i c i n i t y of Scafe H i l l , toward Mt. Finlayson, ( l e f t centre). Fiord of Saanich In l e t extends from behind Mt. Finlayson, out of the photograph to the r i g h t . F i z z l e Lake can be seen (centre r i g h t ) , along with Teenook and Matson lakes, p a r t i a l l y obscured by smoke, ( l e f t c entre). The hydro-electric transmission l i n e from the Campbell River development to V i c t o r i a w i l l follow the swath c l e a r l y seen extending from the l e f t foreground to the centre background. PLATE XII (B. C. 8 0 6:84) Looking W. from Sidney, across North Saanich to P a t r i c i a Bay. The ai r p o r t i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n the l e f t centre. The u p l i f t e d T e r t i a r y erosion surface of southern Vancouver Island i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the con-cordance of summit l e v e l s i n the fare background. X i l PLATE XIII (B. C. 806:95) View from the Keating area, west to Brentwood Bay and Tod I n l e t . The Keating sandy loams and Cowichan c l a y loams are well developed for agri c u l t u r e , while the t h i n , g r a v e l l y s o i l s of the Highland D i s t r i c t , ( l e f t background), remain undeveloped. XIII PLATE XIV (B. C. 8 0 8 : 3 2 ) Looking east from Christmas (Lake) H i l l , across Gordon Head and San Juan Island to Mt, Baker, (far background). Swan Lake shows i n the right foreground and Blenkinsop (Lost) £,ake i n the l e f t centre, both occup-ing eroded hollows i n the d r i f t mantle. The monadnock of Mt. Douglas, ( l e f t centre), with the tree covered d r i f t t r a i n extending south from i t , i s seen beyond Lost Lake, Cadboro Bay, Oak Bay, Chatham and Discovery Islands appear i n the upper r i g h t . This photograph indicates the r u r a l — urban t r a n s i t i o n . 

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