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Community centres and their leadership : a study of British Columbia McKenzie, Kathleen Elizabeth 1947

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L £~ 3 # 7 11 HI m t i . { COMMUNITY CENTRES AND THEIR LEADERSHIP  A STUDY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA by Kathleen E l i z a b e t h MoKenzie A A A A A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of SOCIAL WORK £ A X £ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia September, 1947» A b s t r a c t The purpose of t h i s study i s to d e s c r i b e community centres i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t o evaluate them, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to l e a d e r s h i p * What appears to the author as the best of current thought on the purposes and l e a d e r s h i p of community centres i s set f o r t h , ©n the b a s i s of t h i s c r i t e r i a f o r the evalua-t i o n of community centres are evolved* Twenty nine community centres i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , concern-i n g which i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , are d e s c r i b e d . F i n a l l y , the community centre developments, so d e s c r i b e d , are evaluated i n terms of the c r i t e r i a . I n o u t l i n i n g the standards, by which i t i s proposed that the community centres described should be judged, r e f e r -ence i s made to the o r i g i n s of community centres* Their growth i s a t t r i b u t e d to the l e i s u r e - t i m e needs a r i s i n g out of urban-i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l developments i n the United Kingdom, the United S t a t e s and Canada are o u t l i n e d . There has evolved the conception of the community centre as an i n s t i t u t i o n which enables a f e e l i n g of u n i t y and democratic expression f o r the community* I f such ends are to be served, the p l a n n i n g f o r the community centre must be done i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with other or-ga n i z a t i o n s of the community* For t h i s purpose a c o - o r d i n a t i n g , II planning council must be organized. Suoh a council should become a permanent part of a community, for the pooling of re-sources can meet other needs. The Community Centre must be related to suoh a group. Buildings are a means to an end and efforts should be made not only to provide new ones but to adapt existing ones to serve the objectives of the centre. Program and the organization of the membership of the Centre must serve the primary objectives of meeting human needs and establishing such a pattern of social relationships as w i l l make possible the growth of individuals as social beings. Effective leadership can be provided only by those who understand these things. Training must equip leaders with a knowledge of community l i f e , an understanding of human needs and behaviour, recreational, supervisory, administrative and other s k i l l s . Professional leadership, so trained and equipp-ed, is essential. The description of the twenty-nine community centres is prefaced by an outline of the work of several public and private provincial agencies. The community centres of eight dis t r i c t s of the City of Vancouver are described. There f o l l -ow three important centres in municipalities adjoining Van-couver. Developments in seventeen other communities of the Province are then outlined. In evaluating developments, i t is pointed out that I l l requests f o r help addressed t o p r o v i n c i a l agencies c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e a widespread need f o r more r e c r e a t i o n a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s * The f a c t that many communities are organ-i z i n g to meet t h e i r own needs suggests they see i n the comm-u n i t y centre a d e s i r a b l e agency f o r t h e i r community* The developments i n the v a r i o u s communities and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the presence or l a c k of l e a d e r s are o u t l i n e d . Few of the areas w i t h i n the scope of the study have the s e r v i c e s of t r a i n e d l e a d e r s * The c a p a c i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f these leaders are r e f l e c t e d i n the c o n s t i -t u t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g , the suocesses and f a i l u r e s of t h e i r s e v e r a l centres* The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the value of the l e a d e r -ship and i t s f i n a n c i a l cost i s . pointed out* For smaller communities i t i s suggested that more extensive use of t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p would be p o s s i b l e i f oosts and s e r v i c e s were shared* More t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l would a c c e l e r a t e community centre developments through-out the p r o v i n c e . Community Centres and Their Leadership A Study of British Columbia TABLE 01* CONTENTS Part I The Community Centre - A Nascent Institution Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4 : Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Origins Social conditions and needs, the devel-opment of organizations. Characteristics Definition and objectives, joint plan-ning, the building, the program, the organization of the membership, the importance of volunteers. Leadership • The type of leadership, knowledge of community l i f e , understanding of human needs and behaviour, knowledge of recr-eation, knowledge of the art of super-vision, knowledge of administration, the training of leaders. Part II British Columbia in Page 18 Recreation and Leisure-Time Services British Columbia Department of Provincial Recreation and Physioal Education, Department of Univ-ersity Extension, the B r i t i s h Columbia Oommunity Centre Association, National Film Board Services, provincial services of private agencies, community centres. Vancouver • Colllngwood, K i t a i l a n o , Xerrisdale, Marpole, Grandview, the West End, Fairview-Mount Pleasant and West Point Grey. 25 35 Adjacent Municipalities .., West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby• 53 Page Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Larger C i t i e s and Towns 69 P o r t a l b e r n i and A l b e r n i , P r i n c e Rupert, Kamloops, C h i l l i w a c k , Cranbrook, Summer-l a n d , Nelson. Small Communities 82 Invermere, Sooke, Youbou, F u l f o r d Har-bour', M i l l Bay, A s h c r o f t , Dawson C i t y , MoBride. P a r t I I I Conclusions E v a l u a t i o n • • 90 Recent growth, c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s , the b u i l d i n g , democratic s t r u c t u r e , program, v o l u n t e e r s , t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , the f u t u r e . Appendix: The Questionnaire, i t s c o m p i l a t i o n and use. 103 B i b l i o g r a p h y : • •• 110 Chapter 9: Community Centres and Their l e a d e r s h i p  A Study of B r i t i s h Columbia P a r t I The Community Centre -A Nascent I n s t i t u t i o n .Chapter One - O r i g i n s S o o i a l Conditions and Heeds "Cur i n a b i l i t y t o provide at once the ap p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r our c i v i l i z a t i o n should be no cause f o r permanent discouragement. Most of the f o r c e s t h a t work benignly toward the cooperation and communion of peoples are young; most of the f o r c e s t h a t work against suoh i n t e r c o u r s e are old and deeply i n g r a i n e d i n i n s t i t u i o r i -1 a l h a b i t s and i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . " Such a statement might w e l l be i l l u s t r a t e d by a study of the growth and development of community c e n t r e s . This growth has been a sporadic one, and i t appears t o have been most r a p i d when democracy i s threatened. During the ' f i r s t and second great war periods and duri n g the present post-war p e r i o d , there has been a w i d e l y expressed d e s i r e on the part of communities themselves f o r the establishment o f community centres. Since we l i v e i n an age of m a t e r i a l i s m , t h i s d e s i r e u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a c t i v i t y d i r e c t e d toward the e r e c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g , which w i l l - serve as a meeting p l a c e f o r the members of the community. There i s r a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r m u l a t i o n of the purposes of suoh a centre and no a r t i c u l a t e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the e r e c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g i s but a means to an end. 1. l e w i s Mumford, Culture of P i t i e s , Harcourt, Braoe & Co., N.Y., 1938, P. "552 2. There are s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s which have c o n t r i b u t e d to the demand f o r oommunity c e n t r e s . The i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n of l a r g e s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n has r e -s u l t e d i n an increase i n l e i s u r e time* The need f o r l e a r n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s and c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n became widespread. These c o n d i t i o n s were h i g h l i g h t e d and accentuated by the de-p r e s s i o n and war years, when the needs of youth became obvious and acute. I t i s now an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t i n h i s l e i s u r e 1 time the i n d i v i d u a l seeks c e r t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n s . They i n c l u d e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , f e l l o w s h i p , the joy of cr e a t i o n , , new exper-i e n c e s , the sense of achievement, a f e e l i n g of p h y s i c a l w e l l -being, the use of mental powers, the enjoyment of beauty, the rendering of s e r v i c e and r e l a x a t i o n . The shock of the recent war p e r i o d f o r c e d people of democratic coun t r i e s to take s t o c k of t h e i r s o c i e t y . The nec-e s s i t y f o r m o b i l i z a t i o n of resources during the war and the th r e a t t o a way of l i f e f o rced communities to oreate new organ l z a t i o n s whereby t h e i r needs might be met. The tasks were commonplace ones: the c o l l e c t i o n of aluminum, the r e c r u i t i n g of v o l u n t e e r s to r e l e a s e personnel f o r more e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s the c o l l e c t i o n of s u p p l i e s and t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the Red Cross, the work of a i r r a i d wardens. A l l of these c o n t r i b u t e d t o a more widespread awareness of the broader community, i n which eaoh person and f a m i l y l i v e d . I n these a c t i v i t i e s people found s a t i s f a c t i o n and confidence. Democracy became a l i v e and meaningful. Old pa t t e r n s of i s o l a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i were f o r g o t t e n and or g a n i z a t i o n s sought ways of working t o -gether f o r the common o b j e c t i v e s . "The o e n t r a l purpose of a p o s i t i v e freedom -- seeks to organize oppo r t u n i t i e s , ' w h i c h harmonize the i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i a l purpose. I t i s thus seeking t o create the environment i n which the emerging of an i n t e g r a t e d person-1 a l i t y becomes p o s s i b l e f o r a mass of the c i t i z e n s . " On t h i s b a s i s permanent methods f o r democratic, f r e e and co-operative l i v i n g have t o be worked out. Agencies which b r i n g people together, which recognize t h a t the w e l f a r e of the whole i s dependent on the i n t e g r a t i o n of i t s s o c i a l u n i t s , have to be crea t e d . At present our s o c i e t y i s h i g h l y s p e c i a l -i z e d , and there are many or g a n i z a t i o n s i n each community which are concerned with a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t or s u b j e c t . There i s need f o r these t o be i n t e g r a t e d , so tha t problems and needs common t o a l l may be d e a l t w i t h . A community has been described as a group of people l i v i n g near t o one another who, because they have developed a sense of u n i t y , are o a r r y i n g on c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r . Suoh a sense of u n i t y i s demonstrated i n times of p h y s i c a l or emotional s t r e s s . When i t i s a c t i v e , there i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , co-operation and concern f o r the welfar e of the community by i t s members. Reco g n i t i o n t h a t such p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community l i f e b r i n g s s a t i s f a c t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned, and hastens the s o l v i n g of problems and the -meeting of needs, has 1. Harold I i a s k l , R e f l e c t i o n s " on"the R e v o l u t i o n of Our Times V i k i n g P r e s s , II.Y. l y A ^ . p. 408 made many communities anxious t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s he oreated t h a t w i l l f o s t e r the sense of u n i t y on a permanent b a s i s . The Development of Organizations Many new agencies have been oreated and many o l d e r or g a n i z a t i o n s have adapted t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s t o meet the need f o r r e c r e a t i o n . The governments of the Un i t e d S t a t e s , Great B r i t a i n and Canada have oreated agencies t o meet them. I n the Unit e d S t a t e s p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n has developed at a l l three l e v e l s of government. The Federal Government has e s t a b l i s h e d and maintains suoh agencies as the 0 N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e , the U.S. Fo r e s t S e r v i c e and from 1933 t o 1 9 3 9 , through the L e i s u r e Time D i v i s i o n of the Works Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , gave r e o r e -a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l * S t a t e s have been concerned w i t h the development of parks and playgrounds. Departments of education and a g r i c u l -t u r e have given l e a d e r s h i p i n r u r a l areas and have sponsored r e c r e a t i o n a l and ed u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s , a t the muni c i p a l l e v e l , park, r e c r e a t i o n and school departments, l i b r a r i e s , museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s p r ovide r e c r e a t i o n a l programs of d i v e r s e s o r t s . I n Canada and Great B r i t a i n s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s are op-erated. I n B r i t a i n the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l Education l o t of 1944 r e q u i r e s l o c a l school a u t h o r i t i e s t o provide p h y s i c a l education programs t o supplement the school programs, provides f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r youth s e r v i c e programs and f o r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s * I n Canada, the.Federal Government, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e , has e s t a b l i s h e d suoh agencies as the N a t i o n a l Fifcm Board, the N a t i o n a l Museum and A r t G a l l -e r y . A system of grants was e s t a b l i s h e d t o a s s i s t p r o v i n c i a l governments i n p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n * The development of t h i s has depended on the i n i t i a t i v e of the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments i n t a k i n g advantage of the scheme* The f e d e r a l govern-ment has a l s o o f f e r e d grants to a s s i s t p r o v i n c i a l schemes des-igned as youth t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s * These were d i s c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g the war, but have si n c e been resumed and are.planned by p r o v i n c i a l agenoies to give r u r a l youth educational and r e c r e -a t i o n a l s k i l l s , which Qoan be used t o advantage i n t h e i r l o c a l communities* P r i v a t e agencies were a c t i v e l o n g before the p u b l i o agencies and, as t h e i r s e r v i c e s became p u b l i o concerns, went on to p l a n ways of meeting other needs* The settlement move-ment was a c t i v e i n a l l three c o u n t r i e s and conducted success-f u l experiments i n the f i e l d of c r e a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n * The Y.W.C.i. and the Y.M.C.A. and the Boy Scout and G i r l Guide movements and many others planned ways of meeting the r e c r e a -t i o n a l needs of youth* As r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s became more common and a v a i l a b l e , these agenoies began to experiment i n the f i e l d of "oharaoter education 1 1* I t has been as a r e s u l t of t h i s experimentation t h a t methods f o r meeting the need f o r democratic expression and planning on a community b a s i s , have been evolved* I n a l l of ' the three c o u n t r i e s , used as examples above, settlement houses, 6. e s t a b l i s h e d i n the h e a v i l y populated areas of l a r g e c i t i e s , experimented w i t h ways of c r e a t i n g nighborhood c e n t r e s , where a oommunity s p i r i t could be expressed and where r e c r e a t i o n a l and educational needs could be met. I n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s Y.W.C.A.'s and Y.M.O.A.'s on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l recognized the need and demand f o r community-centred r e c r e a t i o n , and i n communities, where there was an expressed d e s i r e f o r i t , they recommended d e o e n t r a l i z a t i o n t o the l o c a l agencies. Councils of S o c i a l Agencies, through the establishment of group work s e c t i o n s , gave l e a d e r s h i p i n h e l p i n g both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies t o p l a n c o o p e r a t i v e l y . I n Canada the Canadian S o c i a l Welfare C o u n c i l began t o serve as a resource and p l a n n i n g ag-ency on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The Adu l t Education A s s o c i a t i o n and the Canadian C o u n c i l of Education f o r C i t i z e n s h i p , through t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s and conferences both on a n a t i o n a l and a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , gave guidance and l e a d e r s h i p t o communities w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l and educ a t i o n a l problems. I n England the p r i v a t e agencies organized t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies i n 1919 f o r the purpose of promoting community a c t i v i t i e s of a r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l nature. By 1939 t h i s C o u n c i l was engaged a c t i v e l y i n promoting the estab-lishment of oommunity c e n t r e s . I n t h i s endeavour i t had the a i d of both government and Carnegie grants. Through i t s l e a d -e r s h i p there developed a w e l l rounded conception o f a community cen t r e . This conception plaoed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the man-agement of the oentre on the community, and t o serve t h i s pur-pose oommunity a s s o c i a t i o n s developed. I n 1945 the Government recognized the p l a c e of suoh centres i n the s o c i a l l i f e of comm-u n i t i e s and passed l e g i s l a t i o n s e t t i n g up a system of grants t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r development, t o be administered by the Board of Education and the housing a u t h o r i t i e s * - D e f i n i t e standards were formulated* F i n a n c i a l r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance of the centre i s p l a c e d i n the hands of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , on which the membership o f the centre i s represented, w h i l e the management of the, centre i s l e f t l a r g e l y t o those who use i t . P r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i s de-c l a r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l i f the centre i s to become a permanent p a r t of the community, and recommendations regarding the nature and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t a f f have been formulated. Recomm-endations are a l s o made regarding the procedures f o r s e t t i n g up cen t r e s . These emphasize the importance of c o n s u l t a t i o n s and j o i n t p l a n n i n g w i t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the oommunity, the need f o r s u r v e y i n g the area t o be served, the type of f a c i l i -t i e s most p r a c t i c a l , methods of f i n a n c i n g the c e n t r e , and the pl a c e of youth groups i n a oommunity centre* She Canadian and American Governments have a l s o ex-perimented i n the f i e l d of oommunity centres* I n Canada def-i n i t e steps were taken t o encourage t h e i r development, through the establishment of Wartime Housing l i m i t e d . T h i s p r o j e o t included the appointment of a n a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r and a s t a f f of Community Counsellors who were concerned w i t h the development of good tenant r e l a t i o n s h i p s * Community centres were developed as a part of the program i n many wartime housing areas* I n the United States d u r i n g the depression era the N a t i o n a l Housing 8. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d community centres i n a number o f i t s housing p r o j e o t s . She Wartime Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n continued t o experiment. I n both c o u n t r i e s these programs were d i s c o n t i n -ued a f t e r the war. Even more important i n the United S t a t e s d u r i n g the war p e r i o d were the developments i n the f i e l d of oommunity or-g a n i z a t i o n . Both on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , through the experiences of the Un i t e d S e r v i c e s O r g a n i z a t i o n , and l o c a l l y , under the l e a d e r s h i p of the O f f i c e of C i v i l i a n Defence, communities were drawn together f o r the purposes of defence and the m o b i l i z a t i o n of resources t o meet m a t e r i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. However, i n c o n t r a s t t o England, where these developments and plans r e -s u l t e d i n permanent l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the establishment of oommun-i t y centres and f o r the encouragement of oommunity o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n Canada and the U n i t e d States they were emergency measures and no permanent s t r u c t u r e has been created at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Chapter Two - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s D e f i n i t i o n and Ob j e c t i v e s i s a r e s u l t o f these experiments the conception has emerged that a oommunity centre i s a means of meeting the r e -c r e a t i o n a l needs of a community and i s an organ through which a -oommunity can gain u n i t y and democratic expression. The Br i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Education have adopted the conception ev-olved by the n a t i o n a l Council of S o c i a l S e r v i c e . The Commun-1 i t y Centres " e x i s t so t h a t neighbors can come together on an equal f o o t i n g t o enjoy s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i v e and educational opp-o r t u n i t i e s e i t h e r as members of groups f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t s and p u r s u i t s or on the b a s i s of t h e i r common needs and i n t e r e s t s as human beings i n the same l o c a l i t y . " T h e i r aim i s defined as "the f o s t e r i n g of a sense of community through the s e r v i c e of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l needs of a neighborhood* 1. S t e i n e r , an American a u t h o r i t y , d e f i n e s a community 2 centre as "a pl a c e where people l i v i n g nearby can come toge-t h e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i -v i t i e s and b u i l d up a democratic o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w i l l m i n i s t e r to the needs of the community"• I f these two d e f i n i t i o n s are combined the f u n c t i o n of a oommunity centre f o r the purpose of t h i s study may be defined as: 1. H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London "Oommunity Centres" (1945) p. 6 2. Jesse S t e i n e r "Oommunity Centres" Encyclopaedia of S o c i a l Sciences. Edited oy jji.tt.A. seiigman, The MacMillan Co., New York, 193l» V o l . 4 . P. 105. 1 0 , 1. To provide a plaoe where neighbors oan come together on an equal f o o t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . 2. To f o s t e r a sense of oommunity by the c r e a t i o n of a demo-c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n through which the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l needs of a community oan be met. 3« To s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n and to provide f a c i l i t i e s f o r the wise and enjoyable use of l e i s u r e . There oan be no b l u e p r i n t or set of r u l e s through which a community centre can reach these o b j e c t i v e s , f o r a cen-t r e takes form and character from the oommunity i t serves. How-ever, there are c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s or elements which must be present or i t w i l l f a i l i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s and become j u s t another o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i n g a s e l e c t group of people. J o i n t P l a n n i n g P l a n n i n g f o r a oommunity centre must be done on a oo-operative b a s i s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the other o r g a n i z a -t i o n s of a community. By t h i s method r e a l knowledge of the needs of the community and of the f a o i l i t i e s a lready i n e x i s t -1 enoe-for meeting them can be obtained. " I n our complex s o c i -ety where the ve r y s p i r i t of democratic freedom i n thought and a o t i o n n a t u r a l l y leads to the development of many s p e c i a l i z e d programs, i t i s recognized that an o v e r a l l p o i n t of view i s necessary i n plan n i n g f o r the t o t a l program of community s e r v i c e s ' 1 , s i n c e human needs are c o n s t a n t l y changing and new 1. V i o l e t S i e d e r , O v e r a l l P l a n n i n g , Canadian Welfare, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, Canada, V o l . X X I I , Ho. 3 (P. 3) n . ways of meeting them are being evolved, i t i s necessary t h a t a oommunity centre be always r e l a t e d t o such a p l a n n i n g group o r c o u n c i l . Such an o r g a n i z a t i o n , made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the educational and s o c i a l agenoies of a community, w i l l be able t o work towards the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s and programs, t o e l i m i n a t e d u p l i c a t i o n , t o p u b l i c i z e the needs and resources of the oommunity and to di s c u s s prob-lems t h a t concern a l l . P l a n n i n g done by suoh groups has a l s o the advantage of g a i n i n g from the p r a c t i c a l experience of those who know the community i n 0 a s p e c i a l i z e d way and i n tha t l a r g e r numbers i n the community w i l l have an understanding o f new pro-j e c t s and a concern f o r t h e i r success. F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n suoh a c o u n c i l and i t s p r o j e c t s w i l l enable members t o be-oome "oommunity minded" r a t h e r than " o r g a n i z a t i o n minded", t o l e a r n t o p l a n on a oo-operative b a s i s r a t h e r than on a competi-t i v e one and t o l e a r n t h a t the we l f a r e of each s e c t i o n or p a r t of the oommunity i s dependent on the welfare o f the t o t a l oomm-u n i t y . B u i l d i n g This p r i n c i p l e i s basio both i n the pla n n i n g of the oommunity centre b u i l d i n g s and i n the p l a n n i n g of i t s program* I f people are to l i v e c o - o p e r a t i v e l y and d e m o c r a t i c a l l y they must have f a c i l i t i e s of equal access to a l l f o r meeting t o -gether, planning together and doing together* I t does not f o l l o w , however, t h a t a new b u i l d i n g must be erected i n every 12* community. In many i f not a l l communities buildings exist whioh could be adapted for this purpose* The wide use i n the United States and i n Britain of school, buildings and the increasing opinion that these structures i f properly planned are ideally designed for community centre purposes, indicates that good planning may prevent the erection of extra buildings, while others go unoccupied during a large part of the day* Such planning involves the co-operation of a l l * A survey of the oommunity should be conducted so that needs oan be determined and the potential use of existing f a c i l i t i e s studied* Finally, the location of the oent re and i t s construction require spec-ialized knowledge and specialists should be consulted. The Program The creation of program also requires joint planning* The program of a community oentre i s dependent on the needs of the members of the community and of the resources already i n ex-istence for meeting them* The oentre i s only one means of pro-viding recreation* The home, the church, the school and v a r i -ous kinds of organizations provide different experiences for various individuals* It may well be that certain needs oan be met by the strengthening of a program already functioning, rather than by the creation of a new one* A oommunity reorea-1 tlon survey of Grand Junction, Ohio, includes c r i t e r i a for a 1* Oommunity Recreation Survey. Grand Junction, Ohio, Recreation Commission Inc. (1945) P. 5^ 13. total recreation program and points out that suoh a program should: 1*. Provide equal opportunity for a l l * 2* Provide a wide range of Individual ohoioes i n different types of ac t i v i t i e s * 3* Continue throughout the year* 4* Provide equally for tooth sexes* 5* Serve a l l ages* 6* Encourage family recreation* 7* U t i l i z e f u l l y a l l existing f a c i l i t i e s . 8* Include passive as well as active forms of recreation* 9* Provide ac t i v i t i e s for different periods of free time* 10** Be related to other programs i n the city * 11. Carry over leisure-time s k i l l s and interests developed in the school* 12* Provide ac t i v i t i e s of a progressive nature* 13* Include ac t i v i t i e s that w i l l persist at an adult level* 14* Offer po s s i b i l i t i e s for varying degrees of s k i l l s , aptitudes and capacities* 1^* Encourage individuals and groups to provide their own a c t i v i t i e s . l 6 . Furnish outlets for the satisfaction of the desire for sooial relationships* 17* Recognize the different tastes and Interests of the individual* 18. Give people who participate a share i n the planning and i n control. 19* Place recreational opportunities within the financial a b i l i t i e s of a l l people* 20. Make possible the wisest use of available funds* 21* Provide outlets for creative expression. 22* Assure safe and healthful conditions for creative ac t i v i t i e s . 23* Afford opportunity for the development of good c i t -izenship* 24. Be based on the speoifie interests and needs of the community* 25. Be sensitive to changing conditions or needs* These c r i t e r i a should be an excellent measuring de-vice for assessing the total recreation program of a oommunity* On the basis of i t s deficiencies so shown, and the basis of the needs and desires of i t s membership a sound oommunity centre program could be created* The Organization of the Membership The structure of a oommunity oentre must be based on i t s objectives* If these are the ones enumerated above there must be channels created, through which the needs and interests of members oan be expressed* I f the members are enoouraged and given the opportunity of planning ways of meeting these needs there w i l l be more enthusiastic participation i n the program that results* This planning must necessarily go on at various levels* Councils or Committees, representative of age groups 1 5 . • and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , problem-centred groups r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the groups concerned, and a group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t o t a l membership must be created. Through suoh channels members share - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the o r e a t i o n of the p o l i c y , the pro-gram and i n the management of the centre* Organized along these l i n e s and r e l a t e d t o other o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the commun-i t y , the centre can become an agency through whioh i t s members oan become an a c t i v e f o r c e f o r the welfare of t h e i r community. 1 "The sueoess of a democracy, on the other hand, r e s t s upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and v o l -untary group l i f e * Democracy i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n whioh only developed a d u l t s oan p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y . A democracy, i n any country, t h e r e f o r e i s p o s s i b l e only to the degree t h a t the ma t u r i t y o f i t s e i t i z e n s h i p p e r m i t s . C h i l d i s h dependence, ambitions, s e l f - e e n t r e d n e s s , — — make eo-operative e f f o r t and group i n t e g r a t i o n w e l l n i g h i m p o s s i b l e * A c c o r d i n g l y educa-t i o n i n a democraotic p l a n of l i f e has two major f u n c t i o n s t o perform. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , i t must d i r e c t the o r d e r l y and wholesome development of the human p e r s o n a l i t y . I t s second major duty i s t o develop those d i s p o s i t i o n s of man's nature that make him desirous and eapable of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a pro-g r e s s i v e and e v o l v i n g s o c i e t y . n Such a purpose i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o those of a oomm-u n i t y c e n t r e , and the development of a community oentre i s 1* S . R . Slavson, " C r e a t i v e Croup Education", A s s o c i a t i o n Press H.Y. (1937) 2 * 6 . 16. dependent on t h i s k i n d of c i t i z e n s h i p * Thus the two are i n t e r -dependent, f o r the community centre i s a n a t u r a l environment f o r t h i s k i n d of education; provided the s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n e d above i s present to provide demooratic experiences f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s and provided there i s l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e d t o make these experiences meaningful* P s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s and educators have estab-l i s h e d c e r t a i n f a c t s about the growth o f i n d i v i d u a l s * From i n -fancy t o death every person i s a member of groups, and h i s a b i l i t y to l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y depends on h i s a b i l i t y t o l i v e , work and p l a y i n di v e r s e groups* I n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n through groups* The c l o s e s t and most i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t e s w i t h whom a person has acceptance and stat u s are the most powerful i n -f l u e n c e s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s a t t i t u d e s and p a t t e r n s o f behaviour* Thus oo-operative behaviour i s learned through group experience, f o r a group which has a f e e l i n g of u n i t y , o f belonging f o r eaoh member, gi v e s s e c u r i t y t o i t s members, so tha t eaoh i s f r e e t o recognize the importance of c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by the others and i s st i m u l a t e d to make h i s own c o n t r i b u -t i o n * The p r i n c i p l e of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s learned when f i n a l d e c i s i o n s are the wish of the m a j o r i t y and through the process of c a r r y i n g them out the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s share of the a c t i v i t i e s * Many p r i v a t e agenoies are re n d e r i n g v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e by the promotion of v o l u n t a r y f r i e n d s h i p groups f o r young people* These i n c l u d e such agenoies as the Y.w.C.A*, Y.M.C.A., Scouts, Guides* Y e t , as the s t a t i s t i c s i n chapter f o u r 17-i n d i c a t e , they are able to serve only a small p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . Such groups should a l s o be p a r t of a oommun-i t y c e n t r e . Then the members have experiences of even greater v a l u e : they not only p a r t i c i p a t e i n small groups of f r i e n d s or o f people of l i k e i n t e r e s t s , they a s s o c i a t e w i t h people of i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own and they a l s o l e a r n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between groups. They l e a r n of the need of o t h e r s , of common needs, and t h a t through co-operative p l a n n i n g and democratic a o t i o n communities oan meet many of t h e i r own needs. The Importance of Volunteers A democraey needs l e a d e r s h i p . I f a oommunity ce n t r e has a democratic s t r u c t u r e , there w i l l be o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n a t u r a l l e a d e r s t o develop. I n a d d i t i o n , o p p o r t u n i t i e s should be provided f o r c i t i z e n s to give of t h e i r experience and s k i l l s t o o thers. There are many people i n every oommunity who have knowledge and understanding, from which o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y younger people, would b e n e f i t . Many rfould f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c o n t r i b u t i n g i n t h i s way toward the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s . The oommunity centre which a t t r a c t s l a r g e numbers should seek t o d i s c o v e r i n d i v i d u a l s who have s k i l l and understanding. I t should provide the o r g a n i z a t i o n , through which they oan aoritd* hufee t o the oommunity and g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n i n doing so, as l e a d e r s , a d v i s o r s , committee members, and as a s s i s t a n t s i n the o f f i c e * Suoh v o l u n t e e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e the a c t i v i t i e s and pro-grams t h a t the oentre oan o f f e r * 18 .Chapter Three - Leadership I n a Community Oentre Type of Leadership The term l e a d e r s h i p i s w i d e l y used and i t has v a r i o u s connotations* Members of a democratic s o c i e t y s e l e c t t h e i r own leade r s and as a p a r t of t h i s s o c i e t y members of a oommunity centre should s e l e c t t h e i r l eaders on a democratic b a s i s * Both the members of the oentre and the le a d e r s s e l e c t e d by them seek to serve the o b j e c t i v e s of the oentre. I n order t h a t they may do so a s t r u c t u r e must be developed through which they oan f u n c t i o n * This i s a t a s k f o r s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p * The e s s e n t i a l elements of community centres are n e i t h e r the b u i l d i n g s or the program, f o r these are the r e s u l t s ; r a t h e r they are processes i n v o l v i n g s o o i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s * Mem-bers are r e l a t e d to groups, groups t o one another, t o the whole and the whole to the oommunity. A s t r u c t u r e provides the means through which such r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be formed and i t i s through them t h a t o b j e c t i v e s are set* The development of t h i s process i s n e i t h e r obvious nor r a p i d , r a t h e r i t i s a l o n g range 1 . process, c o n s t a n t l y changing and w i t h many i m p l i c a t i o n s * "The lea d e r of a democratic s o c i e t y must be thought of as a guide, not as a d i c t a t o r of the thoughts and act s o f i n d i v i d u a l s • " The r e l a t i o n s h i p s and processes i n a community centre r e q u i r e 1* Baxter & Gassidy Group Experience, The Democratic Way, Harper & Br o t h e r s , A.X. iy43. J- "~- " 19. t h i s kind of l e a d e r s h i p i f they are t o have d i r e c t i o n and v a l u e . There must he people w i t h an understanding o f the f u n c t i o n of a community c e n t r e , and the s k i l l s which w i l l enable i t t o d e v e l -op, who are ab l e t o devote a l l t h e i r energies t o the t a s k . The experiences of r e c r e a t i o n a l and p r i v a t e agencies give d e f i n i t e i n d i o a t i o n s of the k i n d of s k i l l s necessary f o r l e a d e r s h i p I n the development of a democratic o r g a n i z a t i o n . Knowledge of Community L i f e I f the oommunity oentre i s t o be a f u n c t i o n i n g p a r t of s o c i e t y i t s l e a d e r s must have knowledge of the s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . The f o r c e s whioh are l a b e l l e d "world f o r c e s " seem, remote from everyday l i v i n g but i n r e a l i t y they are the ones that create the c o n d i t i o n s under whioh the oommunity operates* World economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a f f -ect t h e needs of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n * The war created c e r t a i n needs, the depression p e r i o d created d i f f e r e n t ones and: the post war p e r i o d has produced i t s own v a r i e t y * I f a l e a d e r i s , to act as a guide f o r a oommunity seeking t o organize t o meet i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs he must have some understand-i n g of the f o r c e s that produce these needs. Knowledge of the oommunity and the s k i l l o f knowing how t o acquire t h i s knowledge i s necessary. The l e a d e r or lead e r s of a community oentre need t o know the resources i n or ' a v a i l a b l e t o the oommunity* I t i s necessary t o know the c o n d i -t i o n s i n the oommunity that create c e r t a i n needs and i n t e r e s t s , 20. f o r r e c r e a t i o n needs are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the nature of a community. Programs needed i n i n d u s t r i a l areas are d i f f e r e n t from those needed i n r u r a l areas. N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , c l i m a t e , t e r r a i n , are f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the heeds o f people, w h i l e suoh f a c t o r s as t r a d i t i o n and custom w i l l a l s o have t h e i r e f f e c t . Understanding of Human Needs and Behaviour Oommunity centres are concerned w i t h communities and w i t h human beings. The understanding of human behaviour has become a science and t h e r e i s knowledge which enables l e a d e r s t o analyse s c i e n t i f i c a l l y human behaviour, needs and s o c i a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s so t h a t these oan be guided i n t o areas and a c t i v i -t i e s which all o w the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned t o make t h e i r c o n t r i -b u t i o n and t o gain s a t i s f a c t i o n i n doing so. Such knowledge should be a part of the resources a leader i n a community centre possesses. The welfare of a oommunity centre i s dependent on the i n d i v i d u a l members which i t serves. The leaders must reoognize the worth of eaoh of these i n d i v i d u a l s . He must have understa-nding of the experiences which make f o r the growth of an i n d i -v i d u a l and oonfidenoe i n h i s a b i l i t y t o grow. Suoh growth I s dependent l a r g e l y on s a t i s f a c t o r y group experiences. The r o l e of the leader i n a group i s a s k i l l f u l one and the development and d i r e c t i o n of the group and the i n d i v i d u a l s i n i t are a r e -s u l t of the lead e r ' s knowledge and s k i l l i n assuming the proper 21. r o l e at the r i g h t time. A oommunity oentre i s made up of i n d i -v i d u a l s i n groups and i t i s important that the l e a d e r s know the p r i n c i p l e s and methods of work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and of group l e a d e r s h i p and t h a t they have s k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s and methods. Knowledge of R e c r e a t i o n One of the o b j e c t i v e s of a community oentre i s t h a t i t serve the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of i t s members. The l e a d e r s , t h e r e f o r e , must have an understanding of the way these are ex-pressed and they r e q u i r e knowledge of and s k i l l i n the a c t i v i -t i e s whioh w i l l serve them and the i n t e r e s t s of the members* I n t e r e s t and enthusiasm must he aroused and .they must he main-t a i n e d . The i n t e r e s t i n g of the many d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of a oommunity i n the development and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a oentre and i n i t s program r e q u i r e s both s k i l l i n the a r t s of p u b l i c i t y and understanding of people and t h e i r needs. The maintenance of t h i s i n t e r e s t , once aroused, i s dependent on the le a d e r ' s a b i l -i t y to make the o r g a n i z a t i o n meaningful to those who attend i t s programs. Knowledge of the aot of S u p e r v i s i o n Every leader should have some r e c r e a t i v e s k i l l s but no one person can have a l l of them. Many programs i n a comm-u n i t y centre r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h s p e c i a l s k i l l s . For 22. these jobs p a r t time workers or v o l u n t e e r s oan he used and i n every oommunity there are people who would f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e i r s k i l l and knowledge to the w e l f a r e of others. Volunteers are e s p e c i a l l y important i n a oommunity oentre. They can serve i n many d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s . The ab-i l i t y of the leader i n a community oentre t o use t h e i r s e r v i c e s e f f i c i e n t l y and i n such a way t h a t the v o l u n t e e r s w i l l g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n through new experiences, the development of more s o c i a l understanding of and confidence i n the worth of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n and i n the knowing of t h e i r oommunity i s import-ant. Suoh a b i l i t y l i e s i n the a c q u i r i n g of s k i l l and knowledge i n the a r t of s u p e r v i s i o n and leaders i f they are t o have s a t -i s f a c t o r y and u s e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s both w i t h p a i d s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s w i l l r e q u i r e i t . Knowledge of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f i n a l l y , the oommunity centre must have an e f f i o i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . There must be ways of o b t a i n i n g money f o r the running o f the centre and budgets must be compiled f o r the spending of i t . This i n v o l v e s good business p r a c t i c e s , sound planning and an e f f i c i e n t o f f i c e s t a f f . I n a community centre the development of these are i n v o l v e d , f o r board, s t a f f and membership are concerned. I f these elements are not present the program and a c t i v i t i e s of the oentre w i l l be hampered and f r u s t r a t e d by the l a c k of a good foundation on which they can operate. The l e a d e r s h i p then must have understanding and 23. knowledge of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes i n v o l v e d i n the d e v e l -opment and operation of a centre. The T r a i n i n g of Leaders There are q u a l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n a l l people and there i s no doubt t h a t various members of a community would have some p r o p o r t i o n of the s k i l l s o u t l i n e d . There i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of people possessing a l l o f them f o r they r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . The demand f o r l e a d e r s h i p w i t h these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s has r e s u l t e d i n the development of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g courses. Short term courses to introduoe s t a f f already employed to new s k i l l s are sponsored by C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies, P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n Department, N a t i o n a l Agencies and U n i v e r s i t y Exten-s i o n Departments and are a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . These have been designed t o meet immediate and p r e s s i n g needs f o r l e a d e r s h i p . More important from the l o n g range p o i n t of view i s the d e v e l -opment of U n i v e r s i t y Departments and Graduate Schools concerned w i t h the t e a c h i n g of the knowledge and s k i l l s o u t l i n e d above* I n these schools graduate students w i t h Bachelor of A r t s degrees and who d e s i r e t o g i v e demooratio l e a d e r s h i p i n the f i e l d of r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i a l w e l f a r e are assured of the opportunity of o b t a i n i n g the necessary knowledge and s k i l l . A c t u a l experience i s provided i n group l e a d e r s h i p and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n under olose s u p e r v i s i o n so t h a t students oan g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own strengths and weaknesses. I f the n e c e s s i t y f o r such t r a i n i n g and experience i s recognized by communities and these t r a i n e d leaders are given o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o make t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n , the oommunity oentre movement should g a i n s t r e n g t h and permanence. P a r t I I -B r i t i s h Oolumhia 25. Chapter flour - R e c r e a t i o n a l and L e i s u r e Time  S e r v i c e s , Department of P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n and P h y s i c a l Education There are numerous r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies which are a c t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Most are p r i v a t e agencies which f u n c t i o n wherever i n t e r e s t and c o n v i c t i o n i n t h e i r purpose warrant them. P u b l i o r e c r e a t i o n on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s i s o r -ganized under the R e c r e a t i o n a l and P h y s i c a l Education Branch of the Department of Education. The h i s t o r y of t h i s o r g a n i z a -. 1 t i o n dates back t o 1934* I n 1947 i t s s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d l e a d -e r s h i p t r a i n i n g courses, advice and d i r e c t i o n on oommunity r e -c r e a t i o n , p u b l i o r e c r e a t i o n c l a s s e s i n 202 centres throughout the province w i t h an attendance from A p r i l 1, 1946 t o March 31, 1947, numbering 128,794 a n d programs sponsored i n co-operation w i t h other agencies. To t h i s Department, t o o , have come many requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the development of oommunity cen-t r e s and as much help as the budget would a l l o w has been g i v e n . C o n t r i b u t i o n s to the s a l a r i e s of the d i r e o t o r s of eleven oomm-u n i t y centres have been made, advice and d i r e c t i o n have been given on the formation of community r e c r e a t i o n a l c o u n c i l s , b u i l d i n g s , maintenance and the s e l e c t i o n of s t a f f . The Depart-ment recognizes t h a t i t s f u n c t i o n i s t o strengthen the oommunity 1. Annual Report, D i r e o t o r Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and Physio a l Education. 26. centred, r e c r e a t i o n program ao tha t a w e l l rounded r e c r e a t i o n a l program which, uses the "pro r e c " s e r v i c e s , and adds others on the b a s i s of the i n t e r e s t s and needs of the community, oan dev-elop on a permanent b a s i s . Department o f U n i v e r s i t y Extension I n many communities and i n the development of commun-i t y centres the work of the Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n i s important. I n 1945*46 the a c t i v i t i e s of the department were used by over 1200 o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n 35° communities i n the prov-i n c e . These s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d evening c l a s s e s i n Vancouver, C l o v e r d a l e , Haney, Langley, North Vancouver, V i c t o r i a ; the supplying of m a t e r i a l and d i r e c t i o n s f o r study groups, C i t i z e n Forum and Farm Forum r a d i o l i s t e n i n g groups, drama groups, the ope r a t i o n of an Extension L i b r a r y S e r v i c e , a phonograph re c o r d l o a n s e r v i c e and v i s u a l i n s t r u c t i o n s e r v i c e . These s e r v i c e s are b eing w i d e l y used as the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the year 1945-46 show and oould be used t o greater advantage i f communities were b e t t e r organized t o use them. U n i v e r s i t y Extension Dept.  S t a t i s t i o a l Summary (1945-46.) Outside l e c t u r e s given by Members of U n i v e r s i t y S t a f f Number 330 Attendance 39,518 Evening Classes Number 26 Attendance 1,709 I n s t i t u t e s , Conferences, Short Courses Number 6 R e g i s t r a t i o n 600 Summer Courses Number 6 R e g i s t r a t i o n 335 D i s c u s s i o n Croup No. of r e g i s t e r e d Croups a n d - I n d i v i d u a l s , 271 Radio No. of Farm Forum Croups and I n d i v i d u a l s , 50 C i t i z e n n . n « » P o u l t r y Sohool of the A i r . 163 Extension L i b r a r y C i r c u l a t i o n Books 5,689 P l a y s 4,364 Phonograph Record Loan S e r v i c e No. of R e g i s t e r e d Groups 115 C i r c u l a t i o n 3,887 Drama No. of Regis t e r e d Groups 115 V i s u a l I n s t r u c t i o n S e r v i c e s C i r c u l a t i o n : Motion P i c t u r e F i l m s ( r e e l s ) 9 ,204 Sets of F i l m S l i d e s 2,305 Sets of Lantern S l i d e s 84 Attendance at Motion P i c t u r e Showings 460,170 No. of Organizations u s i n g the s e r v i c e 727 No. of Towns and Communities i n whioh m a t e r i a l was used 3°0 1. Annual Report, Dept. of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , Sept. 1, 1945 - August 31, 1946 28. She B r i t i s h Columbia Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y Extension Department has a l s o given l e a d e r s h i p i n the development of Community Centres. I n January, 1946, as a r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s i n g number of requests f o r i n -formation and advice on community oen t r e s , a Community Centres I n s t i t u t e was sponsored j o i n t l y by the departments of Extension and S o c i a l Work. One hundred and t e n people r e p r e s e n t i n g about t h i r t y communities attended. She I n s t i t u t e devoted i t s a t t e n -t i o n t o the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of community centre o r g a n i z a t i o n and the i n t e r e s t and concern of those a t t e n d i n g r e s u l t e d i n the e l e c t i o n o f an i n t e r i m committee to a s s i s t the sponsors of the I n s t i t u t e i n planning a longer summer conference. Shis confer-ence took place i n June, and i n a d d i t i o n to the S o c i a l Work and Extension Department's l e a d e r s h i p was given by the S e c r e t a r y of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Greater Vancouver Welfare Coun-c i l and the F r o v i n o i a l D i r e c t o r of P h y s i c a l Education and Reo-r e a t i o n Department of B r i t i s h Columbia. She conference p r o v i d -ed an opportunity f o r those who attended to g a i n p r a c t i c a l a i d and i n d i c a t e d the need of an o r g a n i z a t i o n which would enable j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n and a c t i o n f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n oommunity ce n t r e s . As'a r e s u l t the B.C. Community Centres-Association was 1 formed w i t h the stated o b j e c t i v e "So promote the establishment and development of oommunity oentres and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose aim i s t o provide l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s i n B.C.; t o 1. " C o n s t i t u t i o n " , B.C. Oommunity Centres A s s o c i a t i o n 29. oo-operate at the l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and dominion l e v e l s w i t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n s having s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s ; t o sponsor conferences, conventions or i n s t i t u t e s and any other a c t i v i t i e s t o a t t a i n these o b j e c t i v e s . " N a t i o n a l F i l m Board S e r v i c e s There are other s e r v i c e s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i v e use of. l e i s u r e time a v a i l a b l e t o communities. T r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r i e s operate through many areas. The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e pro-v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p i n the promotion of olubs f o r young people I n -t e r e s t e d i n the v a r i o u s aspects of farming and the Department of Education o f f e r s a s s i s t a n c e f o r those who would eontinue w i t h t h e i r education. The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board S e r v i c e s , opera-ted under the auspices of the Dominion Government are a v a i l a b l e t o communities and w i d e l y used. The s t a t i s t i c s f o r A p r i l , 1947, f o r B.C. l n d i o a t e the i n t e r e s t i n t h i s type of r e c r e a t i o n . 1 Audience Type No. of Shows Attendance R u r a l Oommunity 191 11.413" R u r a l Sohool 157 17,121 Urban Community 251 15.811 . Urban School 180 21,652 S p e c i a l 25 1,108 Lab our and Mana geme nt •5 189 i n d u s t r i a l 113 4,458 Trade Union 4 258 R e t a i l and Wholesale 3 285 1. N a t i o n a l F i l m Board; S t a t i s t l o a l B u l l e t i n , S t a t i s t i c s and Reoord D i v i s i o n s , Ottawa, A p r i l , iy4Y " 3°*. P r o v i n c i a l S e r v i c e s of P r i v a t e Agencies P r i v a t e agencies have a l s o extended t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o many areas throughout the p r o v i n c e * Suoh o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, Y.W.C.a*, and the U n i t e d Churches have found that the demands f o r t h e i r programs were s u f f i c i e n t -l y widespread t o warrant the establishment of p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s so t h a t a s s i s t a n c e and l e a d e r s h i p can he given t o r u r a l areas• The s t a t i s t i c s which show the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these programs and the areas where they are l o c a t e d i n d i c a t e the i n t e r e s t i n and demand f o r them. 1 Boy Scouts D i s t r i c t Mo* of Groups T o t a l Membership October 5 1 t 1946 Burnaby 6 339 Centre Okanagan 4 136 Duncan-Cowlchan 11 334 Kamloops 4 110 l a n g l e y 2 53 Nelson 8 279 New Westminster 2 62 North Okanagan 4 167 P o w e l l R i v e r 4 180 South Okanagan 3 201 T r a i l - R o s s l a n d 12 434 Upper Vancouver I s l a n d 3 156 Tl The Boy Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n , 194^ Reports, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l D i s t r i c t (cont Td) Greater Vancouver Greater V i c t o r i a T o t a l Groups not i n d i s t r i c t s Lone Scouts T o t a l s Ho* of Groups 62 28 42 195 31. T o t a l Membership 3189 1142 1294 34 8110 D l s t r l o t Vancouver Oentre Po i n t Grey-West Vancouver and North Vancouver Burnaby Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y G i r l Guides  No. of Groups 23 33 Saanioh C e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d Cowiohan Area South Okanagan North Okanagan West Eootenay East Eootenay Caribou Unattached Areas 9 6 Greater V i c t o r i a area 31 15 13, 13 6 21 21 14 14 24 1. No. of Leaders 36 42 21 11 41 24 15 23 33 35 36 23 22 40 Membership 473 770 284 387 109 .582 211 232 292 I84 426 448 267 295 515 S t a t i s t i c s s u p p l i e d by the P r o v i n c i a l O f f i c e of the G i r l Guide A s s o c i a t i o n * Other Guide groups are sponsored by the S a l v a t i o n Army, which are not l i s t e d here. United Ohuroh Youth Groups 32. G i r l s Boys Vancouver 30 3 2 Hew Westminster and Burnaby 8 8 North Vancouver 4 2 West Vancouver 1 L u l u I s l a n d and Richmond 3 1 V i c t o r i a 8 3 Vancouver I s l a n d 9 5 Skeena and Hazelton area 20 5 Zootenay 17 9 Caribou 4 2 Okanagan 17 11 D i s t r i c t s South of New Westminster 20 16 B r i t a n n i a Beaoh 1 1 Pioneer Mines 1 1 Powell R i v e r 1 Westview 1 G i r l s * Hi-Y The Vancouver Y.W.C.A. sponsors groups throughout the o i t y and the southern s e c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c e . At the present time groups are a c t i v e i n schools i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i c t s — K e r r i s d a l e , Grandview, West End, Dunbar, South Vancouver, South 1 S t a t i s t i c s s u p p l i e d by P r o v i n c i a l O f f i c e s of the United Church 33. and North Barnaby, West and North Vancouver, New Westminster, Surrey, 01 overdale, Maple Ridge, Ooquitlam, O h i l l i w a c k and Nanaimo* The V i c t o r i a Y.W.C.A* sponsors groups i n V i c t o r i a and the surrounding area* There i s no c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency f o r these p r o v i n o i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s * I n Vancouver through thei&noup Work S e c t i o n of the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agenoies, r e o r e a t i o n a l agenoies do have opportunity f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g and there i s i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e r v i c e s and needs i n the v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s * A Reoreation Council has been organized to serve as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g and p l a n n i n g agenoy f o r V i c t o r i a and surrounding d i s t r i c t s * There i s no s i m i l a r group opera t i n g on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s and i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r r u r a l communities t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about j u s t what s e r v i c e s are* a v a i l a b l e to them or f o r p r o v i n c i a l or-g a n i z a t i o n s t o d i s c o v e r where the areas of greatest need are* Community Centres There i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e about Community Centres i n B r i t i s h Columbia* There i s a Vancouver Community A s s o c i a t i o n t o which many Community Oentre A s s o c i a t i o n members belong* I t was organized i n 1934 t o promote and p l a n s p e c i a l events - i . e . , Vancouver's J u b i l e e * More r e c e n t l y i t became concerned about the Community Centre developments i n v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s and presented a b r i e f t o the Government aski n g f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and suggesting a p l a n through which the F e d e r a l , P r o v i n o i a l and M u n i c i p a l governments could provide 34. f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the establishment and o p e r a t i o n of Community Centres* The p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o r e p o r t i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n the development of Community Centres* I n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g framework, e f f o r t s have been made t o meet these demands, but r e s u l t i n g developments are l a r g e l y unknown* I n an e f f o r t to a s c e r t a i n what they were, a ques t i o n n a i r e was submitted t o 110 communities whioh had i n d i o a t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the "B.C. 1. Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n " . The ques t i o n n a i r e was de-signed to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the communities, the r e c r e -a t i o n a l programs e x i s t i n g at the present time, the use of p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p and community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thirty-one areas sent i n i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r communities, others i n d i c a t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t but i n a b i l i t y t o do so. 1. Copy attached. Appendix P. 102 35-Chapter' Five - Vancouver Vancouver i s Canada's third largest city and i t i s 1 a rapidly growing one* In 1941 i t s population was 275,351. It has a wealth of natural recreational resources* In addition to the Extension Department and the Pro-vincial Recreation Department, the services of which were out-lined in the previous chapter, two oivio agencies, the Van-couver Parks Board and the Vancouver School Board, are concer-ned with the provision of leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . To date these agenoies have operated independently* The Parks Board i s developing an excellent parks system. The School Board has a night school program offering a wide choice i n hoth praoti-oal and cultural subjects* Recently a Cultural Arts Council has been formed with a view to co-ordination of the ac t i v i t i e s of suoh agencies as the Art Gallery, the Public Library Asso-ciation, the Extension Department of the University of Brit i s h Columbia and the Vancouver Symphony Society* There are thirteen private agenoies conducting l e i s -ure-time activities in Greater Vancouver through the financial aid of the Community Chest* These include the Boy Scouts, the " Girl Guides, Alexandra Neighborhood House, the Vancouver Boys' Olub Association, Gordon House, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., ^ orth Shore Neighbourhood House, Alexandra Fresh Air Camp, Fi r s t United Fresh Air Camp, the Sailors' Home, the Seamen's Institute and the North Shore Seamen's Institute* 1* Dominion Bureau of Statistics and the Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Canada Year Book, Ottawa, 1945 36. Through the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Welfare Coun-c i l , some s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n i s done* However, there i s l i t t l e o o - o r d i n a t i o n or j o i n t p l a n n i n g between the p u b l i c agencies, the Chest-supported agencies and the indepen-dent o r g a n i z a t i o n s * The needs of the v a r i o u s areas of Vancouver and the s e r v i c e s of the Chest-supported agencies were surveyed i n the 1 H o r r i e Report. However, the s o c i a l a r e a s , upon which t h i s survey was based, have no r e l a t i o n to the d i s t r i c t s p o p u l a r l y known by the names used i n the f o l l o w i n g pages, d i s t r i c t s which the Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n s described seek t o serve* Collingwood Collingwood i s an urban r e s i d e n t i a l area of predomin-a n t l y the lower income group* P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , j u v e n i l e delinquency and t r a n s i e n c y are not h i g h . T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s approximately 2 0 , 0 0 0 , while elementary sohool p o p u l a t i o n i s about l 6 0 0 and the h i g h school p o p u l a t i o n i s s m a l l . Although t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are good, the distances i n v o l v e d are too great f o r adequate use of the c e n t r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l resouroes of the C i t y * Commercial r e o r e a t i o n i n Collingwood c o n s i s t s of one 1. I.E. U o r r i e and David P. DeMarohe; Survey Report of Group  Work and Reoreation i n Greater Vancouver, 1945. The Comm-u n i t y Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Vancouver. 37-t h e a t r e and one pool h a l l . Parks and playgrounds operated by the Vancouver Parks Board, i n c l u d e Horquay C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y -ground and Collingwood Park whioh have p l a y equipment and have f a c i l i t i e s and equipment f o r t e n n i s , S o f t b a l l and h a r d b a l l * K l l l a r n e y Park has p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e but at the present time i s undeveloped* According t o the U o r r i e Report from 2*94 percent t o 1. 2.20 percent of the three s o c i a l d i s t r i c t s which make up Collingwood are served by the Croup Work and R e c r e a t i o n a l Agen-c i e s supported by the Community Chest. Groups sponsored by the Guide A s s o c i a t i o n and Scouts are l o c a t e d i n the neighbourhood and are popular. I n a d d i t i o n the c e n t r a l Y*W.C*A* has over 200 members i n these areas w h i l e the Y.M.C.A. has approximately 150. There are a l s o ohuroh groups. The C a t h o l i c Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n i s a c t i v e at St* Mary's Church w h i l e Collingwood U n i t e d has a Young People's group, O.G.I.T., and T u x i s . The Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n formed i n January, 1946, ^ s a membership of 150. Fees are one d o l l a r per person or three d o l l a r s per f a m i l y and the A s s o o i a t i o n i s financed by i t s fees* O f f i c e r s are eleoted at the annual meeting* The ob-j e c t i v e s a r e , "(1) The e r e c t i o n and development of a l o c a l comm-u n i t y oentre w i t h a l l needed equipment and the e r e c t i o n of a l o c a l l i b r a r y . (2) The general promotion of community w e l f a r e -s o c i a l , e d u o a t l o n a l , c u l t u r a l and a t h l e t i c . " Undoubtedly the f a c t t h a t there i s only one h a l l 1. I b i d . P. 24 38, a v a i l a b l e i n the d i s t r i c t has focussed t h e a t t e n t i o n of those ooncerned on the need f o r f a c i l i t i e s . The second o b j e c t i v e i s a l o n g range one and should be the. main o b j e c t i v e w i t h the f i r s t and other immediate aims developing from i t as the need a r i s e s . The o f f i c e r s although they are elected on the b a s i s of t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the Community Oentre A s s o c i a t i o n are a f f -i l i a t e d w i t h other v a r i e d community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Such a r e -l a t i o n s h i p i s based on coincidence r a t h e r than on a permanent s t r u o t u r e . There i s need f o r the c r e a t i o n of an o r g a n i z a t i o n which would provide a method through which a l l groups — educa-t i o n a l , s o c i a l and s e r v i c e clubs could meet together to d i s c u s s the needs of the area and ways of meeting them. When suoh a c o u n c i l or committee e x i s t s the Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l have more guidance as to most immediate needs. The need f o r a l i b r a r y might be met i f arrangements . could be made f o r the establishment of a branoh l i b r a r y by the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y s i m i l a r t o those i n K i t s i l a n o , the West End and Grandview. The p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g school or church b u i l d i n g s f o r a temporary p e r i o d oould be explored. There are few a c t i v i t i e s i n the oommunity t o whioh people can go. Some program oould be i n i t i a t e d . T h i s would develop I n t e r e s t i n the ob j e c t i v e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n and gain wider p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t . A c t i v i t i e s f o r r a i s i n g money oould be sponsored. I f the premise t h a t a oommunity oentre i s s u c c e s s f u l t o the degree that t h e r e i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t and t h a t i t s a c t i v i t i e s are based on community needs and i n t e r e s t s i s accepted, then these 39. are e a r l y steps on whioh the development of the oentre should he based. K i t s l l a n o K i t s i l a m ) i s an urban r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , w i t h l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l and commercial areas s c a t t e r e d throughout. The p o p u l a t i o n i s predominantly of the lower middle income group, although there are a l s o some upper middle and lower income areas. P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s h i g h , but t r a n s i e n c y i s not marked. The elementary school p o p u l a t i o n i s 1951* the h i g h school p o p u l a t i o n 1750. Oommeroial r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f two t h e a t r e s , a bowling a l l e y and a pool h a l l . The Vancouver Parks Board op-erates f o u r parks i n the area with f a c i l i t i e s and equipment f o r b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l , t e n n i s and c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . There i s playground s u p e r v i s i o n , and v o l u n t e e r s are used to a s s i s t i n the o p e r a t i o n of competitive games. The northern s e c t i o n of the d i s t r i c t i s served by Alexandra Neighbourhood House which has over three hundred members* In a d d i t i o n , organized r e o r e a t i o n i s sponsored i n the area by the P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Dept., the G i r l Guide and Boy Scout A s s o c i a t i o n s . There are numerous churches of v a r i o u s den-ominations. There i s a branch l i b r a r y and the s e r v i c e s of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board are used by s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n 1945, and incorporated i n 1947* I t s o f f i c e r s are e l e c t e d at the annual meeting* Membership i n the a s s o c i a t i o n t o t a l s s i x t y * I t i s financed by membership fees of one d o l l a r * She o b j e c t i v e of the a s s o c i a t i o n i s - To erect and operate a community centre f o r the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and educa-t i o n a l uses of o i t i z e n s and c h i l d r e n * Toward t h i s end i t has set a f i n a n c i a l o b j e c t i v e of $200,000 and t o date has r a i s e d $39,000. On the executive of the a s s o c i a t i o n are members of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, l i o n s Club, Ratepayers and Canadian Legion* There are other a o t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the oommunity* Again no c o u n c i l or committee e x i s t s through which j o i n t p l a n n i n g can be done* ' There i s at l e a s t one churoh b u i l d i n g equipped and a v a i l a b l e f o r oommunity r e o r e a t i o n . However, the use of i t i s not o u t l i n e d , and t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t other p o s s i b i l i -t i e s , such as schools and park f a o i l i t i e s , where program could begin to operate, have been explored* K e r r i s d a l e K e r r i s d a l e i s an urban r e s i d e n t i a l area having few i n d u s t r i a l and commercial b u i l d i n g s * Although the d i s t r i c t i s w e l l populated, j u v e n i l e delinquency i s low* I t s p o p u l a t i o n i s almost wholly of the upper middle income group, w i t h some of the upper inoome group* The school p o p u l a t i o n of the'area i s : elementary, 1211; j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , 1225; h i g h sohool, 867. K e r r i s d a l e has very l i t t l e commercial r e c r e a t i o n * 4 1 . There i s one park i n the area w i t h f a o i l i t i e s f o r s o f t h a l l , b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l , bowling and t e n n i s * The J u n i o r Board of Trade sponsors an organized b a s e b a l l league f o r intermediate boys* The G i r l Guide and Boy Soout a s s o c i a t i o n s have groups i n t h i s area, and a l a r g e number of young people p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Y.M.C.i. and Y.W.C.A. The Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n has a membership of 100* I t was formed i n 1942 and incorporated i n 1943* Fees are two d o l l a r s per annum* O f f i c e r s a r e . e l e c t e d annually* The o b j e c t i v e of the a s s o c i a t i o n i s "to provide s o c i a l and r e c r e a -t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , not only f o r the members, but f o r the whole community*" The a s s o o i a t i o n has concentrated i n the area on f u n d - r a i s i n g , and has not made any e f f o r t s t o organize the oommunity, or t o evaluate i t s resources and needs* Marpole Marpole i s a lower middle inoome group r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t on the slope above the F r a s e r R i v e r , Vancouver's s o u t h e r l y boundary* Along the F r a s e r and on the i s l a n d s of i t s d e l t a there i s considerable i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t , p r i n c i p a l l y woodworking* P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s low* Vancouver's c e n t r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l resources are remote* The po p u l a t i o n i s approximately ten thousand. Commercial r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a po o l h a l l , thea-t r e and dance h a l l * The Vancouver Parks Board operates Oak Park, w i t h f a o i l i t i e s f o r lawn bowling, b a s e b a l l , t e n n i s and f o o t b a l l , and there i s some c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y equipment* 1. -The H o r r i e Report i n d i c a t e s that from 2*66 percent to 3»79 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s area i s served by agenoies supported by the Community Chest* Of th e s e , the pro-grams of the Boy Soouts and G i r l Guides are oommunity centred* The United Church sponsors Boys' Brigade, L i f e Boys and C.G.I.T. and the P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Department uses the A n g l i c a n Church f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s program* The Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h a membership of twelve hundred, was formed i n January, 1944, & n d i n c o r p o r a -ted i n the same year* I t s executive i s e l e c t e d at the annual meeting, and o f f i c e r s belong t o suoh o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the P.T.A., the Rotary Club, the Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, Vancouver Commun-i t y A s s o c i a t i o n and the B.C. Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n , There are v a r i o u s committees and groups, t o which r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y i s delegated, suoh as the Executive Committee, the Women's A u x i l i a r y and the A t h l e t i c Club* The o b j e c t i v e of the A s s o c i a -t i o n i s "to promote the e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , o u l t u r a l and a t h -l e t i c endeavours o f the community"* Fees are one d o l l a r per year. A d d i t i o n a l funds are r a i s e d through s u b s c r i p t i o n s , s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and c a r n i v a l s * .A l a r g e p o r t i o n of these are designated f o r the b u i l d i n g fund. Funds i n hand t o t a l $19,412.53. The A s s o c i a t i o n i s u s i n g a house, "Marpole House", where i t sponsors programs* The f a o i l i t i e s i n c l u d e an assembly 1. I b i d P* 24 43-h a l l , whioh w i l l accommodate e i g h t y , a stage and k i t c h e n . The program i n c l u d e s whist d r i v e s , p a r t i e s , teen c l u b dances, the meetings o f v a r i o u s committees and i n the morning a k i n d e r g a r t -en* Community p r o j e c t s are discussed and planned by the Marpole Community A s s o c i a t i o n * Represented on i t are the Scouts, Guides, Boys 1 Brigade, P.H.A* and Marpole Bowling H a l l * P r o j -ects sponsored by t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e a oommunity g a l a day, s p o r t s day and band concerts* The a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s area i n d i c a t e a good community s p i r i t and a c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t v o l u n t e e r workers* The l a y l e a d e r s h i p has a sound conception of the f u n c t i o n o f a oommun-i t y oentre,and i s b u i l d i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n which should have permanence and v i t a l i t y * With the guidance and a i d of p r o f e -s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p the a c t i v i t i e s already i n i t i a t e d could be expanded and d i r e c t e d i n t o the development o f a demooraotio framework* through which members and or g a n i z a t i o n s could work toward the o b j e c t i v e s stated by the A s s o c i a t i o n * Grandview Grandview i s a lower income group r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t -r i o t * I t i s bounded on the north by Burrard I n l e t and on the west by F a l s e Creek* Along the i n l e t are p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and lumber m i l l s , while the f i l l e d - i n Creek bed i s a growing oen-t r e of l i g h t i n d u s t r y * P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s not h i g h , but j u v e n i l e delinquency i s high i n comparison w i t h other low 44. income d i s t r i c t s of s i m i l a r d e n s i t y * There i s more commercial r e o r e a t i o n i n Grandview than i n most r e s i d e n t i a l areas. There are f o u r t h e a t r e s , two bowling a l l e y s , one pool h a l l and four dance h a l l s . The Van-couver Parks Board operates three parks - B u f f a l o , Woodland and Grandview. B u f f a l o Park has f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e n n i s and rugby, while Woodland Park has an open b a l l f i e l d * Grandview Park has f a o i l i t i e s f o r t e n n i s and good c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y equip-ment and i n the summer i t i s supervised i n the afternoon and evening* i I n a d d i t i o n to the a o t i v i t i e s organized under the Parks Board, t h e r e are a lawn bowling o l u b , Pro-Rec c l a s s e s , G i r l Guides, Boy Scouts, a o t i v i t i e s sponsored by the churches and those sponsored by the Vancouver East Oommunity,Y. The Vancouver East Oommunity Y serves as a community centre f o r the Grandview d i s t r i c t . I t i s sponsored by the Y.W.C.i. and Y.M.o.A. and finanoed by a membership fee o f two d o l l a r s a year and the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the Oommunity Chest. The o b j e c t i v e s of the oentre are those of the Y.W.C.a. and the Y.M.O.A. The Board of D i r e c t o r s i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Y.M.c.A. and the Y.w.C.a. M e t r o p o l i t a n Boards* Co n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g " given t o the method by whioh the Board i s e l e c t e d * F a c i l i t i e s of the Vancouver East Community Y i n c l u d e an assembly h a l l which seats one hundred, a committee room, two olub'rooms, a k i t c h e n , coke bar and o f f i c e equipment* There i s equipment f o r s o f t b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , badminton, leatherwork, p l a s t i c s and s h e l l - c r a f t . There i s a l s o a c h i l d r e n ' s branch of 45-the Vancouver L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . Other f a c i l i t i e s used by the centre i n c l u d e two church gymnasiums, a school auditorium, home basements, school and park grounds. The program o o n s i s t s of s p o r t s , i n t e r e s t groups, mass a c t i v i t i e s and f r i e n d s h i p groups• The membership i s l a r g e l y s e l f - g o v e r n i n g . Eaoh sec-t i o n has a oommittee or c o u n c i l by which programs and a c t i v i -t i e s are planned. Such plans are subject t o the approval o f the Board. The s t a f f i n c l u d e s an executive s e c r e t a r y , a s s i s t a n t executive s e c r e t a r y , a Y.W.C.A. s e c r e t a r y , a s s i s t a n t Y.W.C.A. se c r e t a r y and nursery school teacher. Volunteers are used as lead e r s of j u n i o r and c r a f t c l u b s , teen age programs and on policy-making and advisory committees. The development of program, the use of oommunity r e -sources, the b u i l d i n g of a l a r g e l y s e l f - g o v e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and the encouragement of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a democratic org a n i z -a t i o n i n d i o a t e the presence of p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . However, the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d does not i n d i c a t e what the contemplated r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Board w i l l mean. H O T does i t show how the agency i s r e l a t e d t o other agencies and or g a n i z a t i o n s of t h e community. The use of oommunity f a c i l i t i e s and resources would i n d i c a t e t h a t suoh r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t or have e x i s t e d i n the p a s t . 46. The West End The West End l i e s between the commercial cent r e o f the c i t y and two of Vancouver's most noted r e c r e a t i o n a l r e -sources, E n g l i s h Bay and Sta n l e y Park. I t was Vancouver's e a r l i e s t h i g h inoome group r e s i d e n t i a l area. How i t i s a con-gested, low income group r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , p r e s e n t i n g most of the e v i l s o f a rooming house d i s t r i c t . I t should he noted that many f i n e apartment b u i l d i n g s have been b u i l t i n t h i s area. I f present trends continue t h i s w i l l become predomin-a n t l y an apartment house area of the high inoome group. At present, however, the dominant o h a r a o t e r i s t i c s of the d i s t r i c t are b l i g h t , deoay and congestion. P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s the highest of a l l Vancouver r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Although the apartment house p o p u l a t i o n i s s t a b l e , the rooming house popu-l a t i o n i s l a r g e l y t r a n s i e n t . Elementary school p o p u l a t i o n i s 1341 a n a h i g h sohool p o p u l a t i o n 530. T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s 4 4 , 0 0 0 . The d i s t r i c t i s olose t o the oentre of the C i t y and thus has access to every k i n d of commercial r e c r e a t i o n . The r e s i d e n t s have a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l the resouroes of S t a n l e y Park. They have a l s o other playgrounds - Denman and Ceperley Parks which are w e l l equipped f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of c h i l d r e n and have the s e r v i c e s of two r e c r e a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r s . The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y provides a r t c l a s s e s and other o u l t u r a l programs. The c e n t r a l Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A.'s are l o c a t e d on the f r i n g e of the area and a t t r a c t l a r g e numbers of young people. I n 47. a d d i t i o n there are Guides, Scouts, and s i x e s t a b l i s h e d churches with r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t should be noted that w h i l e Denman and Ceperley P a r k s , and some of the commercial r e c -r e a t i o n a l f a o i l i t i e s serve mainly r e s i d e n t s of the d i s t r i c t , S t a n l e y Park, the a r t G a l l e r y , the Y.M.C.A, and the Y.w.C.A. serve the c i t y g e n e r a l l y . Gordon House serves as a Community Oentre f o r the area.. I t i s managed by the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s Committee and financed by the Community Chest, a small c i t y grant and the i n t e r e s t on an endownment fund. I t s f a c i l i t i e s c o n s i s t o f a gymnasium which i s used both as a gym and an assembly h a l l , two houses w i t h a combined t o t a l of approximately f o r t y rooms' o f v a r i o u s s i z e s . S p e c i a l rooms i n c l u d e - music room, workshop, a r t room, nursery s c h o o l , sewing, oard room, rea d i n g room, two k i t c h e n s , coke bar and l i b r a r y . There i s equipment f o r badminton, b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l and v o l l e y b a l l . I n a d d i t i o n Gordon House uses the neighbouring school grounds, the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool and the Stanley Park p l a y i n g f i e l d s and t e n n i s courts f o r i t s a o t i v i t i e s . Membership i n Gordon House i s open t o young and old and t o t a l s 1400. There i s a membership fee of one d o l l a r . I t was founded i n 1942 and i s one of three a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by the Alexandra Communities A c t i v i t i e s Committee, t r u s t e e s of the endownment fund. There i s a Gordon House Board which i s app-ointed by the Alexandra Communities Committee and i s ooncerned with t h e d e t a i l s of management and p o l i c y making. Members are asked t o serve on t h i s Board and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Board 4 8 . serve on the Alexandra A o t i v l t i e s Committee* Each of the two houses - J u n i o r and Senior - has an a d v i s o r y committee and they are represented on the Board* At the present time there i s no statement of the o b j e c t i v e s of Gordon House. However the impor-tance and need of these, i f the work of the centre i s t o have d i r e c t i o n , has been recognized and they are i n the process of f o r m u l a t i o n . She membership of Gordon House i s organized on a dem-o c r a t i c b a s i s so t h a t the i n t e r e s t s , needs and suggestions of the members oan be presented t o the Board. Each s e c t i o n has a p l a n n i n g c o u n c i l . In the Junior House there are p l a n n i n g comm-i t t e e s f o r j u n i o r s , s e n i o r s and intermediates* I n the Senior House there i s a Young Adult Committee and a House Council which i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l the groups and sends r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the Gordon House Board* Such a s t r u c t u r e i s a complicated one and r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l guidance. Unless there i s good l e a d e r s h i p there i s a danger of groups becoming possessive and o p e r a t i n g on a compet-i t i v e b a s i s r a t h e r than f o r the welfare of the whole. There i s a l s o danger of the a d m i n i s t e r i n g and polioy-making groups becom-i n g s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g and removed from the a c t u a l membership* She operation of a Centre when i t s maintenance i s c o n t r o l l e d by suoh r e g u l a t i o n s as those whioh govern the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s Committee makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r members t o f e e l t h a t they oan i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y or create an agency t h a t i s t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r community. For these reasons a s t r u c -t u r e must be developed so t h a t there can be channels t o the 4 9 . f i n a l a u t h o r i t y and i t w i l l r e q u i r e constant adjustment to meet the needs of the membership and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' s o t h a t the s t r u c t u r e w i l l he used as a means of membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n . There i s program f o r everyone at Gordon House* a t t e n -dance t o t a l l e d 120,000 f o r 1946. A o t i v i t i e s inolude a Nursery Sohool f o r c h i l d r e n of ages two t o f o u r , s p o r t s , i n t e r e s t and hobby groups f o r c h i l d r e n , young a d u l t s and a d u l t s * The l a r g e numbers going t o the centre make i t necessary to sponsor a c t i v i -t i e s f o r l a r g e numbers, however e f f o r t s are being made to d e v e l -op small club groups so t h a t as many members as p o s s i b l e can p a r t i c i p a t e i n them and through them become a p a r t of the centre. In a d d i t i o n other agencies use Gordon House t o make t h e i r s e r -v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the community. There i s a branch of the P u b l i c L i b r a r y , a Ohild Health Oentre sponsored by the Metropol-i t a n Health Committee, night sohool c l a s s e s and pro-reo c l a s s e s . There i s a monthly showing of N a t i o n a l F i l m Board f i l m s . The Canadian Legion has taken over the basement of the Senior House and i t s headquarters are s t a t i o n e d t h e r e . The West End i s p e c u l i a r l y l a c k i n g i n s e r v i c e c l u b s . In a d d i t i o n t o the churches there are branches of the P.T.A., the I.O.D.E. and the Canadian Legion. The other s e r v i c e olubs i n the area serve not only the West End but Vancouver C i t y . A l l the o i t y . S o c i a l Welfare Agencies give s e r v i c e i n the d i s t -r i c t . These inc l u d e the Family Welfare, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Foster Bay Care A s s o c i a t i o n , V.O.N, e t c . The West End Community Ser v i c e s Committee i s an organ-i z a t i o n , which i s concerned wi t h oommunity p l a n n i n g and 50. c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . I t s membership i n c l u d e s representa-t i v e s of churches, s c h o o l s , C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y , Family Wel-f a r e S e r v i c e s , C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Gord-on House, Dawson E.T.A., Canadian Legi o n , I.O.D.E., and Metrop-o l i t a n Health Committee. I t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s are to provide a means by which the work of the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g the West End Community may be oo-ordinated and f o r greater v i g -i l a n c e and e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n on neighbourhood problems. S p e o i f i o problems and needs w i t h which i t has d e a l t i n c l u d e the estab-lishment of a branch l i b r a r y , c o n t r o l and treatment of moral p e r v e r t s (Stanley Park and beaches), co-operative a c t i o n by group work and oase work ;agencies i n problem cases, co-ordina-t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s , the p r e v e n t i o n of the overlapping of the programs of the group work agenoies, housing problems and a survey of the West End. She development of a s t r u c t u r e , through which members oan p a r t i c i p a t e i n the democratic prooess of a oommunity c e n t r e , the c r e a t i o n of a program which w i l l meet the needs of the mem-bers and the r e l a t i o n of the agency to others s e r v i n g the same area r e q u i r e s t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p . I n f a c t , the degree to which these can develop i s l a r g e l y dependent on the understanding and s k i l l of the p r o f e s s i o n a l employed l e a d e r s h i p . Gordon House has an executive d i r e c t o r , t r a i n e d i n the S o c i a l Work School of Toronto, w i t h many y e a r s 1 experience i n case work, group work and oommunity o r g a n i z a t i o n . An a s s i s t -ant to her, who has a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience and s k i l l as w e l l as t r a i n i n g and experience i n the f i e l d of education, i s 51. employed. There i s a d i r e c t o r f o r each House. Each has had t r a i n i n g and experience i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l group work. Other workers i n both Houses are r e s p o n s i b l e t o them and have s p e o i a l r e o r e a t i o n s k i l l s . These i n c l u d e four f u l l - t i m e work-ers and a small v a r y i n g number of part-time workers. The Nur-sery Sohool has a w e l l q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g a d i r e c t o r and two a s s i s t a n t teachers. To handle o f f i c e work and admin-i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s , two f u l l - t i m e and one part-time o f f i c e work-ers are employed. Two f u l l - t i m e and one part-time j a n i t o r s • look a f t e r the housekeeping and care o f the b u i l d i n g s * The work of the p r o f e s s i o n a l workers i s supplemented by that of the v o l u n t e e r s . These number approximately f i f t y , and they serve as r e o e p t i o n i s t s , olub and c r a f t l e a d e r s . They a l s o give c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and help i n the Nursery School* The v o l u n t e e r s 1 knowledge and understanding of the community and the r o l e of the oentre i n i t s l i f e i s f o s t e r e d by a program of s u p e r v i s i o n and t r a i n i n g . Fairview-Mount Pleasant and West P o i n t Grey Palrview-Mount Pleasant i s a lower income r e s i d e n t i a l area of marked s o c i a l need, west P o i n t Grey i s of the upper middle income group. L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning community 1 centres i n these d i s t r i c t s was a v a i l a b l e . In Pairview-Mount Pleasant the Y.M.C.A. sponsors a oommunity Y program. T h i s agency i s i n process of o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1. See Appendix. i t present i t sponsors sport leagues, teen age dances and c l u b s * Other resources i n the area i n c l u d e Douglas Park, w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y equipment, f a o i l i t i e s f o r s o f t b a l l , t e n n i s and rugby, Pro-Rec c l a s s e s , Soouts, Guides, v a r i o u s church groups and a younger teen age dance program sponsored by the P.T.A. The West P o i n t Grey Community Oentre A s s o c i a t i o n owns a community h a l l , whioh has a l a r g e assembly room* 53 Chapter S i x - Adjacent M u n i c i p a l i t i e s West Yanobuver West Vancouver i s a r e l a t i v e l y new r e s i d e n t i a l area almost devoid of i n d u s t r y . The p o p u l a t i o n , t o t a l l i n g 1 1 , 0 0 0 , i s s c a t t e r e d over a wide area and i s predominantly of the upper middle inoome group. The d i s t r i c t i s s i t u a t e d on a mountain h i l l s i d e by the sea. There i s l i t t l e need f o r commercial r e c r e a t i o n . Two g o l f c l u b s , a bowling a l l e y and a t h e a t r e are o p e r a t i n g at the present time. There are two parks managed by the M u n i c i -p a l i t y . Ambleside Park has f a c i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l and sooe-e r . Memorial Park has bowling greens, merry-go-round swings, bars and s l i d e s . Organized r e c r e a t i o n i s centred around the West Van-couver Community Centre. There are 997 p a r t i c i p a n t s , aged four to t h i r t y y e a r s , seven paid leaders and 129 v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s . The average number of meetings per week i s e i g h t y -s i x . I n a d d i t i o n t o s p o r t s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t programs, mass a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s i o n and c u l t u r a l groups, a l a r g e number of f r i e n d s h i p groups are being developed. These t o t a l twenty-f i v e , t h i r t e e n g i r l s ' groups and twelve boys' groups. They are l e d by v o l u n t e e r s , supervised by the s t a f f . The meetings are held i n homes c o n v e n i e n t l y s i t u a t e d . The v a l u e of the West Vancouver Community Centre f a c i l i t i e s i s estimated at $11,500. There i s an assembly h a l l , I 54. having a c a p a c i t y o f f i v e hundred. I t has a p o r t a b l e stage. There are s i x olub rooms of v a r i o u s s i z e s , equipment f o r base-b a l l and b a s k e t b a l l , a k i t c h e n , a ooke bar and o f f i c e s . The A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o uses other community f a c i l i t i e s . These i n -clude the West Vancouver High School, Ambleside Park, the U n i t e d and A n g l i c a n Churoh h a l l s and homes s c a t t e r e d through-out the area. The West Vancouver Oommunity Centre A s s o c i a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1943 a n d incorporated i n 1946.. I t s c o n s t i t u -t i o n s t a t e s that i t s o b j e c t i v e s are "to e n l i s t the r e s i d e n t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver i n a u n i t e d f e l l o w s h i p f o r the purpose of b e t t e r i n g t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l , s p i r i t u a l and s o o i a l w e l l being". There are 427 members, i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n , boys, g i r l s , youth and a d u l t s . There are s i x t e e n members on the Board of D i r e o t o r s and they are e l e c t e d by the members. The work of the Centre i s financed by the Community Chest. Other revenues are membership fees and the donations of the M u n i c i p a l i t y , and s e r v i c e c l u b s . Employed l e a d e r s h i p c o n s i s t s of a boys 1 worker, a g i r l s ' worker and a youth worker, a l l p a i d by the Community Chest and r e s p o n s i b l e to the Board. These leaders have had previous experience i n youth work and one has had p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . S a l a r i e s f o r the Executive D i r e c t o r , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Membership S e c r e t a r y and the worker i n charge of f a o i l i -t i e s are paid by the M u n i c i p a l i t y . Suoh a f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s complicated. The 55-c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the M u n i c i p a l i t y and the s e r v i c e clubs are on a y e a r l y b a s i s o n l y , and no permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p has been created as yet between the Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n and these o r g a n i z a t i o n s * A s t r u c t u r e has been oreated, through which the mem-bership plans the program f o r the Centre* Eaoh s e c t i o n has a pla n n i n g c o u n c i l * Representatives of these serve on the pro-gram committee, which i s concerned w i t h the t o t a l program of the centre* She chairman of t h i s committee i s appointed by the Board and the oommittee i s represented on the Board* There are many s e r v i c e , community and s p e c i a l i n t e r -est o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n West Vancouver* These in c l u d e the Chamb-er of Commerce, Army and Navy Veterans, A*0*T*S*, Canadian L e g i o n , Bahai Group, Boys' Band A u x i l i a r y , Canadian Red Cross, B a p t i s t Young People's S o c i e t y , Brownie Pack, Capilano R i d i n g Club, West Vancouver Amateur Mum Club, C i v i c A c t i o n Group, Kinsmen, Knights of P y t h i a s , L i o n s Club, Lady L a u r i e r Club, West Vancouver Bowling Club and L i t t l e Theatre* S o c i a l wel-f a r e agencies i n the community are the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Branoh ( P r o v i n o i a l Welfare Depart-ment) , Family Welfare Bureau and the West Vancouver Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n * A c r o s s - s e c t i o n of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s are represen-ted on a oo - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l * Those represented i n c l u d e the West Vancouver Reg i s t e r e d Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n , the V*0*N*, I.O.D.E., the Kinsmen Club, the West Vancouver Community 56. A s s o c i a t i o n , the Canadian L e g i o n , the S.P.C.A., the Holly b u r n P.T.A., the Lady L a u r i e r Club, the United Church Women's Au x i -l i a r y , the B a p t i s t Young A d u l t F e l l o w s h i p , S t* Stephen's Church, the Primrose Club, the Family Welfare Bureau, the Bahai Group, the West Vancouver Tennis Club and the P a u l i n e * Johnson P.T.A. The o b j e c t i v e s of the Council are "to deal w i t h oommunity matters a f f e c t i n g the people w i t h i n the bounds of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver." The p r o j e c t s i t has been or i s concerned w i t h include a l i b r a r y , a Red Cross Blood Donor S e r v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e t o handicapped and a community sur-vey. Suoh a c o u n c i l should prove of r e a l value i n co-ordina-t i n g s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s , i n d i c a t i n g needs, and i n the fo r m u l a t i o n of plans t o meet them. North Vancouver North Vancouver, a r e s i d e n t i a l area a d j o i n i n g West Vancouver, had a r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l growth during the war years. S h i p b u i l d i n g , although not continued on the s c a l e of those years, remains an important i n d u s t r y , and a p r i n c i p a l one f o r the port and heavy i n d u s t r i a l area ranged along the w a t e r f r o n t . North Vancouver has developed more urban c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than West Vancouver. The p o p u l a t i o n i s predominantly o f the lower income group, and t o t a l s 21 ,000. I t s elementary and j u n i o r h i g h sohool p o p u l a t i o n i s 2,789 and i t s h i g h sohool p o p u l a t i o n i s 561. Commercial r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of two t h e a t r e s , a 57-bowling alley, a r o l l e r skating rink and two pool halls* The City of North Vancouver operates six parks, a l l well-equipped for sports and two of them for children's play* It also mana-ges two picnic grounds* Swedish Park, with f a c i l i t i e s for Sof-t b a l l , swimming and dancing, i s managed by the Swedish Society. There are. nine playgrounds adjacent to schools with f a c i l i t i e s for sports, managed by the School Board* There are also numerous halls throughout the City and d i s t r i c t . The Scout Hall i s used as a small gymnasium* The Horticultural Hall has an assembly ha l l with a capacity of 450, a stage, dressing rooms, a banquet room and a kitchen* There i s also a d r i l l h a l l with a capacity of one thousand* There are store rooms, an officers' mess, f a c i l i t i e s for var-ious sports and a kitchen* Chesterfield School, a private school, has a small gymnasium and swimming pool. There is a Legion H a l l . In addition, there are centres i n the various d i s t r i c t s , Hendry Community Centre, Beep Cave Community Hall, Lynmour Library, St. Agnes Parish Hall, Capllano Community Club, North Shore Neighbourhood House and Beep Cove Legion Ha l l . Reoreational programs are varied* There are three Anglican Churches which have Young People's Associations* A sports planning committee plans the sports conducted i n the various parks and playgrounds. There are Boy Soouts , G i r l Guides, a Y.W.C.A.-sponsored Gir l s ' Hi-Y, a Y.M.C.A. sponsored Boys' Hi-Y and C.G.I.T* groups sponsored by the United Ohuroh* 58. She P r o v i u e i a l R e c r e a t i o n Department conducts c l a s s e s i n the E l k s H a l l , the Heywobd Community Centre, Lynn V a l l e y and Cap-i l a n o . She Water Board sponsors J u n i o r F i r e Wardens-. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e are s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t c l u b s , men's and women's bowling c l u b s , the North Shore R i f l e Club, the Olympic A t h l e t -i c Club and the K i t Eat Seen Age Dance Club. She N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, through the F i l m C o u n c i l , sponsors about t h i r t y f i l m showings a month* S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d on i n the Capilano, Lynn V a l l e y , Deep Cove and Lynmour Community Centres. She North Vancouver Memorial Centre S o c i e t y sponsors many a o t i v i t i e s and uses v a r i o u s community f a c i l i t i e s . Night school courses sponsored by i t are held i n the High Sohool and a t t r a c t approximately three hundred people. I t sponsors a dramatic group, the Community P l a y e r s , a t e n n i s c l u b , badmin-ton and the Pro-Reo courses i n the North Vancouver Centre. Shese a c t i v i t i e s are held i n the D r i l l and Soout H a l l s . North Vancouver Seen Sown, embracing a membership of between two hundred and four hundred, use the f a c i l i t i e s of the C i t y H a l l , and the Legion and H o r t i c u l t u r a l H a l l s . I t i s sponsored by th e . S o c i e t y . I n the summer of 1947 the North Vancouver Memor-i a l Community Centre, the North Vancouver Neighbourhood House and the Heywood Community Centre j o i n t l y planned and operated a Summer Fun Club. A c t i v i t i e s were conducted i n Lynn V a l l e y , the Scout H a l l , North Vanoouver Neighbourhood House and Hey-wood. She North Vanoouver Memorial Community Oentre S o c i e t y 59. was founded i n 1944 and incorporated i n 1946. I t s s t a t e d ob-j e c t i v e s are: "3Jo promote and develop v a r i e d e d u c a t i o n a l , a t h l e t i c , .dramatic, s o c i a l , c i v i c and neighbourhood programs i n order t o develop community ne i g h b o u r l i n e s s and good c i t i z -enship; To promote the advancement o f the general i n t e r e s t s of m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s ; To promote any or a l l objects of a nat-i o n a l , p a t r i o t i c , p h i l a n t h r o p i c , c h a r i t a b l e , s c i e n t i f i c , a r t -i s t i c , s o c i a l , p r o v i n c i a l or s p o r t i n g c h a r a c t e r " • The b u i l d i n g or c a p i t a l funds of the S o c i e t y have been subscribed by i n d i v i d u a l s and s e r v i c e c l u b s . The K i n -smen donated $4,000. f o r o p e r a t i o n a l expenses f o r 1946. The S o c i e t y hopes to have an income from the Community Cheat, as w e l l as donations and membership f e e s . There i s a s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g fund o f approximately $100,000., w i t h which the S o c i e t y plans t o b u i l d a gymnasium-auditorium u n i t adjacent t o the North Vancouver High School. Membership t o t a l s 850. This included two hundred v o t i n g members, who pay a one d o l l a r membership fee o n l y , approximately two hundred p a r t i c i p a t i n g members, who pay e x t r a fees f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and two hundred Teen Town members, who are a f f i l i a t e d with the S o c i e t y . The Board of D i r e c t o r s o o n s i s t s of not more than s i x t y and not l e s s than twenty members. Not l e s s than twelve of these d i r e c t o r s are e l e c t e d at the annual general meeting. The North Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l may appoint two, the N o r t h 6o. Vancouver District Council or Commissioner may appoint two, the School Board of District 44 may appoint two and the Board of Directors may request certain "oommunity minded" organiza-tions to appoint or elect one director, according to the pro-cedure outlined in the Constitution of the Society. That doc-ument provides for the appointment of several standing comm-ittees by the officers of the Society: program, advisory, publio relations, building and grounds, finance, trustees and membership* In addition, the Program Committee i s instructed to appoint and prescribe the duties of further committees on such matters as gymnasium, auditorium, swimming, social, music and games* .Professional leadership of the Society consists of one director* He has had five years 1 experience i n group work and recreation and has a B.A. degree and a diploma in Associa-tion Science* One stenographer i s employed by the Society. The work of planning committees and interest group leadership is oarried on by 120 volunteer workers. The development of a constitution providing for the relating of the Society to oivic and education authorities and community organizations, the oreation of a program which is so well attended, the use of oommunity resources and the financial contributions thus far coming from the community indicate that the North Vancouver Community Centre Society i s meeting con-scious needs and that i t has direction. So numerous are the members and a c t i v i t i e s that one professional leader cannot develop a l l to ideal objectives. The program is designed to meet the needs of l a r g e numbers of people and the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the S o c i e t y i s designed to enable a wide degree of p a r t i c i -p a t i o n of community minded c i t i z e n s • The use of h a l l s and community resources means t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are being b u i l t w i t h other community agencies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s * There i s need f o r the development of more s m a l l f r i e n d s h i p groups, which would enable members t o form primary r e l a t i o n s h i p s and make t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the whole more consoious and p u r p o s e f u l * Representative c o u n c i l s and commi-t t e e s f o r the various seotions and age groups are being deve-loped. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of these i s s i m i l a r to that used by the West Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n . There i s a program committee, w i t h a chairman appointed by the Board. The c o u n c i l s and oomm i t t e e s send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the program committee and t h e l a t t e r i s represented on the Board. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s complicated i n North Van-couver. Over n i n e t y known community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h r e e s o c i a l welfare agencies are l i s t e d . The North Vancouver Wel-f a r e C o u n c i l i s the oommunity c o - o r d i n a t i n g group. I t s ob-j e c t i v e i s t o co-ordinate w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l work i n North Vancouver. At the present time i t i s working on a o h i l d welfare survey and four sub-oommittees are working on h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , c h i l d delinquency, group work and c h i l d pro-t e c t i o n . The group has not been strong d u r i n g the past f i v e years and e f f o r t s are being made to r e l a t e a l l groups to i t , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y throggh the Neighbourhood C o u n c i l s . S u c n a n arrangement would seem p r a c t i c a l f o r such 6 2 . an a r e a , f o r i t would a l l o w f o r group p l a n n i n g on a neighbour-hood b a s i s . There are f i v e d i s t r i o t s which already have some ki n d of community oentre or a s s o c i a t i o n . These would stand t o b e n e f i t from j o i n t p l a n n i n g and the s h a r i n g o f r e s o u r c e s . One of the most obvious needs i s l e a d e r s h i p , and through such a c o u n c i l arrangements could be worked out, so that the cost and use of t h i s s e r v i c e could be shared. North Shore Neighbourhood House provides a centre f o r one d i s t r i c t . I t i s financed by the Community Chest and from membership f e e s . I t i s managed by a Board of D i r e c t o r s . Membership t o t a l s t w e n t y - f i v e . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are "welfare, s e r v i c e " . I t s f a c i l i t i e s c o n s i s t of a house, wi t h one.large room accommodating f o r t y , and other smaller rooms f o r olub meetings and i n t e r e s t groups. Program includes a nursery sohool and suoh i n t e r e s t groups as woodwork, sewing and dancing. J u n i o r Forest Wardens, sponsored by the Canadian F o r e s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n , meet i n the house. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the program i s c a r r i e d out by an executive d i r e c t o r , who has had a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e experience and t r a i n i n g . There i s a l s o a d i r e c t o r of the nursery sohool and an a s s i s t a n t t o her. Volunteers l e a d the sewing, woodworking and dancing c l a s s e s . The area served by North Shore Neighbourhood House i s but one o f s e v e r a l s i m i l a r areas i n North Vanoouver. I t would seem t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i n these areas could be eo-ordinated w i t h t h a t o f the c e n t r a l area. The framework i n the process of 63. development there o o n s i s t s of the c r e a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-tween educational and o i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s and other oommunity or-g a n i z a t i o n s . Program and a c t i v i t i e s i n the surrounding d i s t -r i c t s oould he drawn i n t o t h i s p r o j e c t through the o r e a t i o n of neighbourhood c o u n c i l s . Such an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s l e a d e r -s h i p , s k i l l e d i n the f i e l d of oommunity o r g a n i z a t i o n and the as s i s t a n c e of others w i t h group work and s p e c i a l s k i l l s . How-ever, i t would be economioal f o r i t would mean t h a t t h e s m a l l -er areas would have the b e n e f i t of a v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s . Heywood i s a wartime housing area i n North Vancouver, which might a l s o be drawn i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o u t l i n e d above. At the present time i t has a community oentre managed by the Cen t r a l Mortgage and Housing Co r p o r a t i o n , w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r r e s p o n s i b l e to the Corporation. P o p u l a t i o n of the area i s two thousand, while t h e r e are 360 elementary school students. There i s an elementary sohool and the Corporation manages a playground• The Community Centre has an assembly h a l l w i t h a cap-a c i t y of two hundred, stage, c r a f t room, committee room, k i t -chen, o f f i c e , s t o r e room and equipment f o r badminton and t a b l e t e n n i s . The Heywood Playground has a b a s e b a l l diamond, swings and b a r s . R e c r e a t i o n f o r the d i s t r i c t i s centred i n the Commun-i t y H a l l . There are a k i n d e r g a r t e n , sponsored by a Co-opera-t i v e Kindergarten Mothers 1 Club, a Well Baby C l i n i c , sponsored by the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee, Brownies, sponsored by 6A. the S a l v a t i o n Army, Cuts, sponsored by the Cubs Parent Commi-t t e e and J u n i o r Forest Wardens, sponsored by the Canadian For-e s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n . A Youth Advisory Committee, appointed by the Commun-i t y C o u n c i l , sponsors a c t i v i t i e s f o r boys and g i r l s . These i n -clude f i v e f r i e n d s h i p groups, a boys' sports c l u b , i n co-opera-t i o n with the P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Department, p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n c l a s s e s for boys and g i r l s and a o r a f t t e a c h e r s 1 c l a s s i n co-operation w i t h the Extension Department of the U n i v e r s i t y . The Community C o u n c i l sponsors an i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g c l u b , a senior badminton olub, a women's s e r v i c e group, a women's hand-i c r a f t group, a k i n d e r g a r t e n mothers' c l u b , the c l u b parent committee, the youth a d v i s o r y board and movies f o r c h i l d r e n . These a c t i v i t i e s show that there i s much p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the Centre. Through the Community C o u n c i l the commun-i t y i s p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i n g i t s own a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the C o u n s e l l o r , who has had t r a i n i n g i n group work. Also some f o r t y - f i v e volunteer workers serve as group le a d e r s and a s s i s t a n t s i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n . The t r a i n i n g and use of the s k i l l s of so many i s a l s o I n d i c a t i v e of the oommun-i t y support of the oentre and assures the continuance of t h a t support. Burnaby Burnaby i s a m u n i c i p a l i t y s i m i l a r t o Horth Vancouver, i n t h a t i t i s spread over a l a r g e area and contains s e v e r a l 65. d i f f e r e n t l a r g e l y independent d i s t r i c t s * U n t i l r e c e n t l y laok of good roads and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s hindered the deve-lopment o f u n i t y w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y * I t i s l a r g e l y a r e s i d e n t i a l area of the lower inoome group* There a r e a l s o i n d u s t r i a l and commercial s e c t i o n s * Industry i s centred main-l y along the F r a s e r R i v e r , which hounds the m u n i c i p a l i t y on the south, and Burrard I n l e t , whioh hounds i t on the north* The P a c i f i c Highway, p a s s i n g through the southern s e c t i o n , i s the centre of a growing commercial area. Information a v a i l a b l e touches only two o f Burnaby's d i s t r i c t s ; namely, North Burnaby and the Burnaby lake-Douglas Road d i s t r i c t . North Burnaby i s one of the p r i n c i p a l d i s t r i c t s , having a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 1 6 , 0 0 0 , an elementary school pop-u l a t i o n of 2,000 and a high school p o p u l a t i o n o f 450. Commer-c i a l r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a theatre and a pool h a l l * The M u n i c i p a l i t y operates Confederation Park, w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l , s o f t b a l l , l a c r o s s e , horseshoes and t r a c k . and f i e l d s p o r t s . Organized r e c r e a t i o n a l groups in c l u d e the Norburn Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n , a church boys 1 group and c l a s s e s sponsored by the Department of P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n . The Community Centres a s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n 1945 and incorporated i n 1946* 'Membership i s on an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s i s , and a t present there are twenty-two member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e s o o i a l , p o l i t i c a l , s p p r t s , P.T.A., church and other groups. The Executive and Board of D i r e c t o r s are eleoted 66. by the membership at the annual meeting. The A s s o c i a t i o n i s financed by i t s membership f e e s , donations and t h e proceeds of danoes. I t s o b j e c t i v e s are the " b u i l d i n g of a oommunity oentre and the f o s t e r i n g of community r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s " . At present the A s s o c i a t i o n has the use of Burnaby North High School f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s . The Norburn Youth Or-g a n i z a t i o n , a member of the A s s o c i a t i o n , a l s o uses the High School. T h i s b u i l d i n g has an assembly h a l l w i t h a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y of e i g h t hundred, stage, c a f e t e r i a , s e v e r a l meeting rooms, gymnasium, k i t c h e n and coke bar. The use of the h i g h sohool b u i l d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t , although the School Board i s not represented on the Oommunity Oentre A s s o c i a t i o n , i t i s w i l l i n g t o support i t s a c t i v i t i e s and a working r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t . I n North Vancouver c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n f o r suoh a r e l a t i o n s h i p has been made. I f t h a t precedent were f o l l o w e d i n Burnaby, a c o - o r d i -n a t i n g body f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y could be developed. Suoh a body could encourage the development of neighbourhood planning groups, the u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and the p o o l i n g of f i n a n c i a l resouroes f o r the procurement of l e a d e r s h i p . Burnaby Lake-Douglas Road D i s t r i c t l i e s i n c e n t r a l Burnaby. The p o p u l a t i o n of the area i s between 2,500 and 3 , 0 0 0 . The elementary school p o p u l a t i o n i s 350. There i s no commer-c i a l r e o r e a t i o n i n the a r e a . Two parks are being developed. The C e n t r a l Burnaby Ratepayers and C i t i z e n s A s s o c i a t i o n i s developing Harwood Park and the Burnaby Lake Men's Community 67. S e r v i c e Olub i n developing Deer l a k e ^ a r k . The Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n A p r i l , 1947* Membership i s on an o r g a n i z a t i o n b a s i s and three o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a c t i v e at the present t i m e , the Burn-aby Lake Men's Community S e r v i c e Club, the C e n t r a l Burnaby Ratepayers and C i t i z e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n and the Women's Community Club. The c o n s t i t u t i o n i s under consideration.. The a f f a i r s < of the A s s o c i a t i o n are conducted by a c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l , made up of two e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from eaoh of the three a f f i l i a t e d . o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s a r e : "to co-ordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the e r e c t i o n , equipping, maintenance and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a community centre t o be b u i l t on the Grandview Highway, and t o provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n suoh a b u i l d i n g and elsewhere^ i n the oommunity f o r the wholesome r e c r e a t i o n , education, o i v i o and other l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s of the community". F a c i l i t i e s already e x i s t i n g i n the area i n c l u d e the V a l l e y View Community Centre which i s managed by the V a l l e y View Co-ordinating C o u n c i l , Church H a l l s and Douglas Road School. A l l l a o k equipment and have accommodation f o r l i t t l e more than small group a c t i v i t i e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the area sponsor some r e c r e a t -i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The Burnaby Lake Men's Community S e r v i c e Club sponsors a.Teen Town i n the United Church H a l l , and a Choral S o c i e t y which meets at Douglas Road School. Guides and Brownies are sponsored by the Guide A s s o c i a t i o n s , and meet i n the school and two of the churches. Cubs al s o meet i n the 68. sohool and are sponsored by the C e n t r a l Burnaby Ratepayers and C i t i z e n s A s s o c i a t i o n and there are a number of church groups* A. t o t a l of nine v o l u n t e e r leaders meet with these v a r i o u s groups. N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings are h e l d onoe or tw i c e a month. She c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l has been designed t o meet a need f o r j o i n t p lanning and f o r the p o o l i n g of resources. I t has been i n existence f o r only a few months but i t should serve as an o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e i n the community. However, s i n c e the resources of the area are l i m i t e d , i t would seem t h a t f u r -t h e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n and j o i n t p l a n n i n g w i t h other d i s t r i c t s i n Burnaby seeking the same ends would be p r a c t i c a l . 69. Chapter Seven r l a r g e r C i t i e s and Towns P o r t A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i A l b e r n i i s a r a p i d l y growing and t h r i v i n g i n d u s t r i a l town on the west coast of Vanoouver I s l a n d . The main i n d u s t r y i s lumbering. P o p u l a t i o n t o t a l s twelve thousand. The elemen-t a r y school p o p u l a t i o n i s 2 ,500, high school i s 650. Commer-c i a l r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of three t h e a t r e s , a bowling a l l e y , two pool h a l l s and one r o l l e r s k a t i n g r i n k . There are two parks. The A l b e r n i R e c r e a t i o n Park, which i s managed by the A l b e r n i A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , has f a c -i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l and s o f t b a l l . The Po r t A l b e r n i Reorea-t i o n Park i s managed by the Reoreation D i r e c t o r . I t has two grandstands, f a o i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l , s o f t b a l l , soccer and t e n n i s , and such p l a y equipment as s l i d e s , swings, p o o l , r i n g s , b a r s , ladders* A c t i v i t i e s are supervised by t e a c h e r s , a c t i n g i n a volunteer c a p a c i t y under the d i r e c t i o n of the Reo-r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r * -Organized r e o r e a t i o n i s co-ordinated and sponsored by the community oentre a s s o c i a t i o n and forty-two organiza-t i o n s and cl u b s r e l a t e d t o i t . These i n c l u d e such o r g a n i z -a t i o n s as the Kinsmen's Club, the Rotary,Club, E l k s , P.T.A*, A l b e r n i A t h l e t i c Club, Board of Trade, Carpenter's Union, Rebeccas, and Knights of P y t h i a s * I n a d d i t i o n t o suoh s e r -v i c e c l u b s , the Memorial Centre Boxing Club, Teen Town, Women's Keep-Pit c l a s s e s , and other s i m i l a r groups p a r t i c i p a t e . ( 70. Eaoh of the forty-two o r g a n i z a t i o n s sends r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the A l b e r n l Memorial D i s t r i c t Centre Community Committee, which governs the a o t i v i t i e s of the Centre, and c o n t r i b u t e s f i n a n c i a l l y to i t s maintenance. Further c o n t r i b u t i o n s were made by the C i t y of A l b e r n i , The C i t y of P o r t A l b e r n i , the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Reoreation and the Empire Stevedoring Company du r i n g the year 1945~4-6« Information was a v a i l a b l e as t o whether these l a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s are represented on the committee or not. The c o n s t i t u t i o n has not been formulated as yet. The o b j e c t i v e s are: "To sponsor and develop wholesome r e c r e a t i o n and to provide f a c i l i t i e s and l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h i s program". S p e c i a l p r o j e c t s of the A s s o c i a t i o n are the c r e a t i o n of the park grandstands, o i v i c arena, j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , c i v i c oentre, c h i l d r e n ' s p a r k s . The Committee aots as sponsor f o r a l a r g e s p o r t s program, c o n c e r t s , d i s c u s s i o n groups, boys'and g i r l s ' work and a teen town. These are s e l f - g o v e r n i n g groups w i t h representa-t i o n on the committee. The teen town, whioh numbers three hun-dred, i s a s o c i a l c l u b as w e l l as a s e r v i c e c l u b . I t e l e c t s i t s own c o u n c i l and the c o u n c i l appoints the a d v i s o r f o r the teen town. At the present time the Reoreation D i r e o t o r aots i n t h i s c a p a c i t y at the request of the c o u n c i l . Other organized r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e s Boy Scouts and G i r l Guides, sponsored by the Scout and Guide A s s o c i a t i o n s , Women's Keep F i t C l a s s e s , sponsored by the P r o v i n c i a l Reorea-t i o n Department, drama and music by the schools and s p e c i a l 71. dances, c a r n i v a l s and the f a l l f a i r sponsored by the s e r v i c e c l u b s . F a c i l i t i e s at the present time i n c l u d e R.O.O.M.Q. H a l l , whioh has an assembly h a l l w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f two thous-and. S e a t i n g accommodation o o n s i s t s of benches w i t h backs. There are a c a f e t e r i a , two olub rooms, k i t o h e n , coke bar, o f f i c e and stage i n t h i s b u i l d i n g . Other army huts have been adapted f o r s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ; i . e . , teen town, a r c h e r y , games room, danoe f l o o r , model c r a f t . The employed l e a d e r s h i p o o n s i s t s o f a Reoreation D i r e c t o r , who has had t r a i n i n g i n the Y . M . Q . ^ , a n a seven years' experience, and a f u l l time p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c -t o r w ith teacher t r a i n i n g . Both are p a i d by and r e s p o n s i b l e t o the A s s o c i a t i o n . There i s a l s o a part-time women's p h y s i o a l eduoation i n s t r u c t o r who has teacher's t r a i n i n g and experience and who i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the A s s o c i a t i o n , but p a i d by the P r o v i n c i a l Reoreation Department. About 75 v o l u n t e e r s , super-v i s e d by the d i r e c t o r , g i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n c l u b s , i n t e r e s t groups and mass programs. The r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n A l b e r n i i n d i c a t e a good community s p i r i t and demonstrate that A l b e r n i r e s i d e n t s are a c t i v e l y concerned t o develop program and f a c i l i t i e s t o meet the needs of the oommunity. A temporary s t r u c t u r e has been set up through which groups widely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the oommunity are o o - o r d i n a t i n g program and resources and: develop-i n g new ones. I t a l s o provides opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the program to p l a n and to create p o l i c y . 72. A permanent s t r u c t u r e , p l a c i n g the oentre on a sound f i n a n c i a l b a s i s , p r o v i d i n g f o r a maximum of self-government and r e l a t e d to a c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l , has s t i l l t o be d e v e l -oped • The government of the oentre by a c o u n c i l represen-t a t i v e of suoh w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups seems t o i n d i c a t e confusion as t o the o b j e c t i v e s of the c e n t r e . I t would seem t h a t the oentre i s a n a t u r a l u n i t and should be developed as suoh. I f a s t r u c t u r e s u i t e d t o t h i s purpose were pro v i d e d , the t o t a l u n i t could be r e l a t e d t o the C o u n c i l and the f i n a n c i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and programatio as-pects of the centre's growth oould proceed along more c l e a r l y d efined l i n e s . P r i n c e Rupert P r i n c e Rupert i s B.C.'s most n o r t h e r l y seaport. The c h i e f i n d u s t r i e s are f i s h i n g and l o g g i n g . I t has a p o p u l a t i o n of 8 ,100, and elementary school p o p u l a t i o n of 675 a n d a high school p o p u l a t i o n of 443. Commercial r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a t h e a t r e , a bowling a l l e y , a r o l l e r s k a t i n g r i n k and two pool h a l l s . Mt. Clymount Park, which i s managed by the C i v i c Centre A s s o c i a t i o n and the Gyro Club, was e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l years ago. I t has equipment f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y , outdoor sports and p i c n i c s . There are two other parks w i t h s i m i l a r equipment. Two r e o r e a t i o n workers, and v o l u n t e e r s supervise 73. a c t i v i t i e s i n these p a r k s . Recreation programs are l a r g e l y centred i n the C i v i c Centre. There are 480 a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Pro Reo pro-grams sponsored by the C i v i c Centre a s s o c i a t i o n . Other pro-grams sponsored by the A s s o c i a t i o n Include: the L i t t l e The-a t r e , the C i v i c Band, a Symphony, and a b a s k e t b a l l a s s o c i a t i o n . Membership i n these groups approximates two hundred. Churches sponsor scouts and Guides, which meet i n church h a l l s and have a membership of 155* N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings are h e l d weekly, and there are a Radio Forum group, a d i s c u s s i o n group and a dramatic group. The C i v i c Centre b u i l d i n g was opened-in 1946 and i s valued at $200,000. There i s an assembly h a l l w i t h a c a p a c i t y of 720. There i s a well-equipped stage, l a d i e s 1 lounge, games room, two committee rooms, three o f f i c e s , p u b l i c l i b r a r y , ad-u l t lounge, a hobby room, camera club dark room,solarium, showers, k i t c h e n , coke bar and c a f e t e r i a . There I s equipment a v a i l a b l e f o r b a s k e t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , badminton. *n a d d i t i o n t o the main auditorium there i s a separate well-equipped gym-nasium. This has a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y of 75° f ° r ®iah sports as b a s k e t b a l l , and of 1,100 f o r w r e s t l i n g or boxing matches. The a s s o c i a t i o n a l s o owns and operates the Roosevelt Gym, which i s s i x blocks away from the C i v i c Centre. I t has f l o o r space f o r games 120 f e e t l o n g and s i x t y f e e t wide, and s e a t i n g f o r 1500. The A s s o c i a t i o n employs a s t a f f of f i v e . There i s a managing s e c r e t a r y who has s i x t e e n y e a r s 1 business experience, a r e c r e a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r who has had t r a i n i n g and experience i n 74. p h y s i c a l education, an o f f i c e worker and a j a n i t o r . Approxi-mately f i f t y v o l u n t e e r s a s s i s t the s t a f f . The O i v i c Centre A s s o c i a t i o n was formed and i n c o r -porated i n 1941. I t has a membership of eleven hundred. Off-i c e r s are e l e c t e d a t the annual meeting. They are p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y , t r e a s u r e r and s i x committee c h a i r -men. No i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e as t o how program and p o l i c y f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n i s evolved. The l a r g e membership and numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program suggest that a some-what complioated o r g a n i z a t i o n would be necessary i f members are to have the opportunity of expressing t h e i r needs and i n -t e r e s t s . The C i v i c Centre A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o serves as a comm-u n i t y p l a n n i n g group. Such s e r v i c e clubs as the Kinsmen's Club, the Gyro Club, the J u n i o r Board o f Trade, the Co-opera-t i v e Welfare and Education Group and the C i t y C o u n c i l are rep-resented. I t s o b j e c t i v e s are the development of oommunity r e c r e a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n has been concerned w i t h the f i n -ancing and operating of the C i v i c Centre and now i s making plans t o ereot a swimming pool and bowling a l l e y . Again no i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e as to how these funds are r a i s e d and administered. Nor was i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e as t o the manner i n i n which the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the A s s o o i a t i o n i s adapted to i t s dual f u n c t i o n s . 75-Kami oops 1 Kamioops i s s i t u a t e d at the j u n c t i o n of North and South Thompson R i v e r s . I t i s a r a i l r o a d d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t f o r both the C.N, and C P . r a i l r o a d s and the commercial oentre f o r a l a r g e ranching and farming area. P o p u l a t i o n t o t a l s e i g h t thousand. The elementary school p o p u l a t i o n i s 1250, and the h i g h school 75°• Commercial r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of one thea-t r e , a howling a l l e y , two p o o l h a l l s , a r o l l e r r i n k and an i c e s k a t i n g r i n k * The c i t y Parks Board operates R i v e r s i d e Park. I t has f a c i l i t i e s f o r s o f t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l and swimming, and suoh play equipment as swings, and merry-go-rounds. Organ-i z e d r e c r e a t i o n i s centred around the park* There are f o u r p a i d i n s t r u c t o r s and approximately s i x t e e n hundred p a r t i c i -pants i n the v a r i o u s s p o r t s programs* ' R e c r e a t i o n a l programs are l a r g e l y i n the f i e l d of s p o r t s . There are: a Kami oops A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , which employs a f u l l - t i m e sports d i r e c t o r , Box Lacrosse A s s o c i a t i o n , S o f t b a l l A s s o c a t i o n , Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n there i s a L i t t l e Theatre Croup and the Kamloops A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n sponsors N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings monthly* F a o i l i t i e s i n c l u d e the Kamloops A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n H a l l which i s managed by that A s s o c i a t i o n , the E l k s H a l l , which has an auditorium w i t h c a p a c i t y f o r 650. There i s a l s o a 1* See Appendix. 76. spacious basement room w i t h a stage and a k i t c h e n . Both b u i l d -ings are equipped f o r indoor s p o r t s . The Eamloops and D i s t r i c t Memorial S o c i e t y was or-ganized and incorporated i n 1944* I t has a membership of s i x hundred. Pees are one d o l l a r per year. O f f i c e r s are e l e c t e d annually and have a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h suoh o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the E l k s , Kinsmen. Rotary, L e g i o n . School Board, the C i t y of Kam-l o o p s , and the Students 1 C o u n c i l , but do not aot i n a r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e c a p a c i t y . The o b j e c t i v e o f the s o c i e t y i s "to pro-mote sport and oommunity l i f e " . Towards these o b j e c t i v e s the Soc i e t y has r a i s e d $190,000 f o r the e r e c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g . Kamloops has already developed a sports program i n which l a r g e numbers are p a r t i c i p a t i n g , as a r e s u l t of t h i s the S o c i e t y has support f o r i t s b u i l d i n g fund. I n t h i s area i n t e r e s t has alr e a d y been aroused. C l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community would d i s c l o s e other needs and i n t e r e s t s . I f a group were developed f o r t h i s pur-pose p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e oould proceed along broader l i n e s and more concrete short range o b j e c t i v e s could be evolved. These would c o n t r i b u t e t o the lon g range o b j e c t i v e stated by the S o c i e t y . C h i l l i w a c k O h i l l i w a c k i s the l a r g e s t c i t y i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y area. I t i s the oentre of a f e r t i l e farming area and has a pop u l a t i o n of twenty thousand. The elementary sohool 77. p o p u l a t i o n i s twenty-four hundred, the h i g h school one thous-and. Commercial r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a t h e a t r e , two howl-i n g a l l e y s , f i v e pool h a l l s and a r o l l e r s k a t i n g r i n k . The a g r i c u l t u r a l grounds, managed by the C i t y and Mun-i c i p a l i t y of C h i l l i w a c k , serve as a park area, Here there are f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l f i e l d s p o r t s . There i s no c h i l d r e n 1 s p l a y equipment and no s t a f f . There are other f i e l d s at Yarrow and i t o h e l i t z , whioh are kept up by those i n t e r e s t e d . The sohool grounds a l s o provide f i e l d accommodation. A park at Cultus Lake, a r e s o r t olose t o C h i l l i w a c k , has some c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y f a c i l i t i e s . Organized r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s mostly o f a t h l e t i c c l u b s . There are numerous small h a l l s i n the O h i l l i w a o k area. The a g r i c u l t u r a l H a l l i n O h i l l i w a o k has c a p a c i t y f o r a thousand. I t has a stage, d r e s s i n g rooms, showers and k i t -chen. I n C h i l l i w a c k there are a l s o two church h a l l s and a school gymnasium. There are oommunity h a l l s i n S a r d i s (cap-a c i t y seven hundred), Cheam (three hundred), F a i r f i e l d (three hundred) , a o h e l i t z (seven hundred), and Ryder Lake. There i s s e a t i n g accommodation i n a l l h a l l s and games are played w i t h the equipment provided by the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . There i s no oommunity centre a s s o c i a t i o n i n C h i l l i -wack. However, a group has r e c e n t l y been organized f o r the purpose of b u i l d i n g a oommunity centre. 78. Cranbrook Cranbrook, i n the southeast s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e , i s a d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t f o r the K e t t l e V a l l e y Branch o f the Can-adian P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d . Lumbering i s an important i n d u s t r y . The p o p u l a t i o n i s 3 » 3 0 0 » the elementary school p o p u l a t i o n being s i x hundred. Commercial r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of one t h e a t r e , a bowling a l l e y , an i c e r i n k and two pool h a l l s . Baker Park i s managed by the c i t y and has f a c i l i t i e s f o r base-b a l l and s o f t b a l l and a swimming p o o l . Two l i f e g u a r d s are employed i n the swimming season. There i s a l s o a Rotary C h i l d r e n ' s Park. There i s no community centre a s s o c i a t i o n or oentre i n Cranbrook. Organized r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f Scouts, Guides, Brownies, a boys 1 band and a g i r l s ' bugle band. There i s an East Kootenay Fine A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , an A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , a Texas Ranger Group, a d i s c u s s i o n group, a dramatic club and three sports c l u b s . F a c i l i t i e s f o r r e o r e a t i o n i n c l u d e an auditorium man-aged by the t h e a t r e p r o p r i e t o r . I t has a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r f o u r hundred, stage, d r e s s i n g rooms and k i t c h e n . There are f o u r other h a l l s — Knights of P y t h i a s H a l l , Masonic H a l l , Armouries, High School Auditorium and An g l i c a n Church H a l l . There i s no s o c i a l p l a n n i n g group f o r the community. A c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are: the Women's I n s t i t u t e , the Board o f Trade, Rotary, Gyro, the Knights of P y t h i a s , S t a g e t t e s , Scand-i n a v i a n Club, C.P.R. S o c i a l Club, I.O.D.E., I.0.0 .P., Canadian 79. L e g i o n , and the Farmer's I n s t i t u t e . Summerland Summerland i s s i t u a t e d i n the Okanagan V a l l e y near P e n t i c t o n . F r u i t growing i s the main i n d u s t r y o f the oommunity and p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l s 3 » 5 ° ° . Commercial r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a t h e a t r e , bowling a l l e y , pool h a l l and. two i c e s k a t i n g r i n k s . The Memorial A s s o c i a t i o n Parks Committee e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1946 now manages the Summerland Memorial Park and P l a y i n g F i e l d . There are f a c i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l , s o f t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , f i e l d s p o r t s , i o e hookey, r o l l e r s k a t i n g , chequers and there i s a wading pool f o r o h i l d r e n . Organized r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a l a r g e number of sports c l u b s . These i n c l u d e badminton and t e n n i s clubs , bas-k e t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , g o l f , bowling, s k i i n g . The A.O.T.S* spon-sor hockey and b a s e b a l l f o r boys ages t e n t o f i f t e e n , and there are one hundred and f i f t y . p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s program* There i s a N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showing monthly* The oommunity i a a l s o served by a t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r y * B u i l d i n g s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e E l l i s o n H a l l , which i s managed by the Canadian Legion, and which has an assembly h a l l w i t h a c a p a c i t y of four hundred, stage, k i t -chen and r i f e range i n the basement; and Oddfellows H a l l ; and a Legion H a l l * 8 0 . Nelson • 1 Nelson i s the p r i n c i p a l c i t y of the Kootenay area. I t i s the commercial centre of an important mining d i s t r i c t . I t s p o p u l a t i o n i s approximately 7 . 6 0 0 . Commercial r e o r e a t i o n o o n s i s t s o f two t h e a t r e s , two howling a l l e y s , three pool h a l l s and an i c e r i n k . There are th r e e parks managed hy the C i t y o f Nelson, the C i v i c Reoreation Grounds, Lakeside Park and Gyro Club. They have f a o i l i t i e s and equipment f o r s o f t b a l l , t e n n i s , b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l , t r a c k sports and c r i c k e t . C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y equipment c o n s i s t s of swings, t e e t e r t o t t e r s , s l i d e s , merry-go-rounds. A o t i v i t i e s are supervised by a c i t y a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of a swimming i n s t r u c t o r , a l i f e g u a r d and three v o l u n t e e r s . The f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n Nelson seem t o be adequate. The Nelson C i v i c Centre i s valued at $350,000 and i s managed by the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r . I t has an a u d i t o r i u m with s e a t i n g f o r 860 and w i t h t h e a t r e ohairs , stage, l i b r a r y , k i t c h e n , coke bar, o f f i c e , and s p e c i a l rooms f o r photography and c r a f t s . There i s equipment f o r gymnastics, b a s k e t b a l l , l a c r o s s e , hookey and t r a o k and f i e l d s p o r t s . Other f a o i l i t i e s i n the c i t y i n c l u d e a c i v i c stadium, two t e n n i s c o u r t s , two playgrounds, a swimming pool and a wading p o o l . 1. See Appendix Page 102 81, The l a r g e s t r e o r e a t i o n program i s sponsored "by the Reoreation Commission of the o i t y of Nelson, I t has f i v e thousand p a r t i c i p a n t s , ages three to f i f t y , and i s supervised by the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r , a s s i s t e d by e i g h t v o l u n t e e r s . The P r o v i n c i a l Reoreation Department sponsors programs whioh have f i v e hundred p a r t i c i p a n t s , ages three t o f i f t y , and whioh are organized by an employed l e a d e r . There are S c o u t s , Guides and v a r i o u s church groups, a study group and a dramatic group are a o t i v e and use the resources of the U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Department. The two main r e o r e a t i o n programs are mass programs and w e l l attended. No i n f o r m a t i o n was available about the or-g a n i z a t i o n o f the Centre or i t s management* 82. Chapter Sight - Small Communities Invermere Invermere, which i s s i t u a t e d i n the Windermere V a l l e y , has a l a r g e t o u r i s t trade d u r i n g the summer months. I t s o h i e f i n d u s t r i e s are lumbering and farming. I t has a pop-u l a t i o n of f i f t e e n hundred, an elementary sohool p o p u l a t i o n of 160, and a high school p o p u l a t i o n of f o r t y . The only form of commercial r e o r e a t i o n i s an i c e s k a t i n g r i n k , i t h a l m e r , about a m i l e away from Invermere, has f a c i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l and f o o t b a l l . The grounds are managed by the Windermere D i s t -r i c t Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Organized r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e s a Boy Scout group which meets i n the H o t e l Invermere H a l l , Guides and Brownies and a H o s p i t a l L a d i e s ' A i d , whioh meet i n homes, the Women's I n s t i t u t e which meets i n the Ho t e l h a l l and s e v e r a l church groups. The Invermere Memorial Committee was formed i n 1940 f o r the purpose of r a i s i n g funds f o r the e r e c t i o n of a memorial community centre. These funds were r a i s e d by p u b l i c donations, movies and dances. A Centre valued at $15,000 was completed t h i s summer. The present c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s an assembly h a l l which w i l l accommodate f o u r hundred, a temporary stage, committee rooms, o f f i c e , banquet room, oheok room, d r e s s i n g rooms, coke bar and k i t c h e n . The second u n i t which i s t o be constructed l a t e r , w i l l i n c l u d e a t h e a t r e with a permanent 83. stage, l i b r a r y , l a r g e r banquet room, o f f i c e and committee rooms. When the f i r s t u n i t i s completed a meeting of a oommunity oentre a s s o c i a t i o n i s to be c a l l e d , o f f i c e r s are to. be elee t e d . T h i s group i s to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the manage-ment and operation of the b u i l d i n g . I t s o b j e c t i v e s are t o be those of the committee; namely: "To f o s t e r and develop such communal a c t i v i t i e s i n the d i s t r i c t as they may from time t o time consider would be of advantage t o the community"• There was no in f o r m a t i o n regarding proposed^program or l e a d e r s h i p . Apparently t h i s i s to be the work of the a s s o c i a t i o n . The use of a committee t o ereot a oentre and t o e n l i s t p u b l i c support and i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t and the t u r n i n g over of the p r o j -ect t o those i n t e r e s t e d has proved a s u c c e s s f u l method f o r the development of a c e n t r e . Sooke Sooke, a small oommunity with a p o p u l a t i o n of e i g h t -een hundred, i s s i t u a t e d on the southwest corner of Vancouver I s l a n d . The c h i e f i n d u s t r i e s are f i s h i n g and l o g g i n g . Comm-e r c i a l r e o r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a pool h a l l . There i s a b a l l park which i s managed by the Sooke A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n . Organized programs f o r c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t of Scouts and Wolf Cubs sponsored by the Canadian Legion and held i n the Community H a l l and Guides and Brownies sponsored by the Women's I n s t i t u t e and he l d i n the hi g h s c h o o l . For a d u l t s there are 84. A t h l e t i c , Badminton and R i f l e Clubs. N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings are held twioe monthly i n the Community H a l l . Other oommunity or g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d e a Women's I n s t i t u t e , a Farmer's I n s t i t u t e , a Canadian Legion and a Parent-Teachers 1 A s s o c i a t i o n . There i s a oommunity oentre o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was founded and incorporated i n 1935* I*s o b j e c t i v e i s "Community Betterment". Towards t h i s end i n 1936 i t erected a community h a l l which has an assembly h a l l w i t h s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r e i g h t hundred, a stage, a d i n i n g room and k i t c h e n . There i s s p o r t s equipment f o r b a s k e t b a l l and badminton, at the present time the a s s o c i a t i o n has a membership of 250. The a s s o c i a t i o n i s financed by i t s fees which are one d o l l a r a y e a r , r e n t a l o f the h a l l and the proceeds from v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s . I t i s gov-erned by nine d i r e c t o r s who are e l e c t e d at the annual meeting. Youbou Youbou, s i t u a t e d on Cowiohan Lake i n o e n t r a l Van-oouver I s l a n d , has a p o p u l a t i o n of f o u r t e e n hundred, an elem-entary sohool p o p u l a t i o n of two hundred, hig h school popula-t i o n of one hundred. Lumbering i s the c h i e f i n d u s t r y . Youbou i s l a r g e l y a company town. There i s a l s o an unorganized p r i v -a t e l y owned s e c t i o n . The only commercial r e o r e a t i o n i s the t h e a t r e . A park was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1945* Here there are f a o i l i t i e s f o r b a s e b a l l , s o f t b a l l , t r a c k and f i e l d s p o r t s , and swings, r i n g s , ladders and t e e t e r t o t t e r s . There i s a D i r e c t o r of R e c r e a t i o n 85. who supervises a c t i v i t i e s , the teachers and other v o l u n t e e r s who a s s i s t w i t h the program. The r e o r e a t i o n of the oommunity i s sponsored by the Department o f P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n and the Community A s s o c i a -t i o n * There are Keep F i t c l a s s e s , b o x i n g , w r e s t l i n g and s e l f defense c l a s s e s , hobby groups, a dramatic group, s o f t b a l l teams and monthly N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings* The Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n has 850 members* I t i s s e l f - g o v e r n i n g and the seven o f f i c e r s are e l e c t e d by b a l l o t annually* The fees i n the A s s o c i a t i o n are p a i d by an employee wage deduction system* The A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o has some inoome from h a l l r e n t a l s * The Community H a i l i s managed by the A s s o c i a t i o n * I t has an assembly h a l l , w i t h c a p a c i t y f o r one thousand, stage, d i n i n g room, k i t c h e n and o f f i c e . There i s equipment f o r bas-k e t b a l l , badminton, v o l l e y b a l l , f l o o r hookey, tumbling, gym-n a s t i c s * The D i r e c t o r of Reoreation i s i n oharge o f r e o r e a t i o n f o r the whole community* He i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o and p a i d by the Department of P r o v i n c i a l Reoreation and the Community Assooia-t i o n . The other o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e i n the community are the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers of America Union and i t s a u x i l i a r y , Technocrats, and three women's s e r v i c e c l u b s * Youbou i s the only small town whioh i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t employs a r e o r e a t i o n worker* The a c t i v i t i e s o u t l i n e d , and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the A s s o c i a t i o n , show that the community has had guidance i n the development of a r e o r e a t i o n a l program* 86. F u l f o r d Harbour F u l f o r d Harbour I s sm a l l e r than Sooke and i s s i t u a -ted on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . There i s one small playground f o r c h i l d r e n equipped w i t h swings. Organized r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a Badminton 01ub, S o f t b a l l Team and Women's I n s t i t u t e . There are o c c a s i o n a l N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings and the oommunity has the s e r v i c e s of a t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r y . The F u l f o r d Community H i l a s s o c i a t i o n has a l o n g h i s t o r y . I t b u i l t a oommunity h a l l i n 1925. This b u i l d i n g has a l a r g e assembly h a l l , a d i n i n g room and k i t o h e n . There i s equipment f o r b a s k e t b a l l and badminton. O f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n number seven and they are e l e c t e d every two years. Funds, t e n percent of whioh go i n t o a S i n k i n g Fund, are r a i s e d by s u b s c r i p t i o n s and dances. M i l l Bay M i l l Bay, s i t u a t e d on the southern end of Vancouver I s l a n d , has a p o p u l a t i o n of 397» an elementary sohool popula-0 t i o n of twent y - f i v e and high sohool p o p u l a t i o n of seven. I t s c h i e f i n d u s t r y i s a cement works. There i s a N a t i o n a l F i l m Board monthly and a JTXnion l i b r a r y . The or g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e i n the community are. the Women's I n s t i t u t e , Farmer's I n s t i t u t e , Board of Trade, F i s h and Game A s s o c i a t i o n and the Women's Aux-i l i a r y . The Masonic H a l l i s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purpos-es on a r e n t a l b a s i s . I t has an assembly h a l l and k i t c h e n . 87-The Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n , founded i n 1945, has a membership of f i f t y - s e v e n . I t s purpose i s "the advance-ment of a l l matters o f community i n t e r e s t f o r the w e l f a r e of a l l " . Towards t h i s end i t has s t a r t e d a b u i l d i n g fund. There, i s a membership fee of one d o l l a r and other funds are r a i s e d by means of c o n c e r t s , card p a r t i e s and bazaars. The o f f i c e r s , a p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r , and executive committee are e l e c t e d by b a l l o t at the annual meeting. Ashoroft Ashoroft i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l town s i t u a t e d on the Thompson R i v e r , west of Kamloops. I t has a p o p u l a t i o n of 75°, a n& a n elemen-t a r y school p o p u l a t i o n o f 110 and high school p o p u l a t i o n of twenty. Commercial r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a t h e a t r e and two pool h a l l s . There are no parks or playgrounds but p r i v a t e l y Owned vacant land i s used f o r b a s e b a l l and t e n n i s . There are f i v e s p orts clubs - J u n i o r and S e n i o r Badminton Clubs, and b a s k e t b a l l , b a s e b a l l and t e n n i s c l u b s * N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showings are held monthly and there i s a t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r y * The oommunity h a l l , v a l u e $2,500, i s managed by the Ashoroft School Board* I t has an assembly h a l l , lodgeroom, k i t c h e n and washroom f a c i l i t i e s * There i s equipment f o r b a s k e t b a l l and badminton* There i s no oommunity oentre a s s o c i a t i o n i n e x i s t -ence at the present,, but one i s being organized f o r the pur-pose of b u i l d i n g a swimming p o o l * The oommunity o r g a n i z a t i o n s 88. are the Board of Trade, Canadian L e g i o n , E l k s , Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Club and the I.O.G.P. Dawson C i t y Dawson C i t y i s s i t u a t e d i n the Yukon ( T e r r i t o r y . The p r i n c i p a l occupation i s gold mining. I t has a sohool popula-t i o n of 121. There i s one p l a y i n g f i e l d i n the area and a swimming p o o l whioh i s managed by a business men's committee and kept up by the power p l a n t workers on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . There i s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of organized groups i n the community. There are boys' c l u b s , the Dawson Youth C o r p o r a t i o n , a C u r l i n g Club, s o f t b a l l teams of both men and g i r l s and a s k i c l u b . Volunteer leaders work w i t h most of these groups* There i s a N a t i o n a l F i l m Board showing once a week* The oommunity h a l l i s valued at $5,000.. and i s man-aged by a c o r p o r a t i o n of shareholders. I t has an assembly h a l l w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f f o u r hundred, stage, cloak room and d i n i n g room, d r e s s i n g rooms and a p r o j e c t i n g ' room. There i s equipment f o r b a s k e t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l and badminton. The o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are a c t i v e i n the community are the I.O.D.E., Chamber of Mines, Dawson Youth Corporation and the Dawson M i n e r s 1 Union. 89. MoBride MoBride, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 237, i s s i t u a t e d on the main l i n e of the C.E.R. cl o s e t o the A l b e r t a border. The c h i e f i n d u s t r i e s are lo g g i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e . Commercial r e c -r e a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a t h e a t r e , pool h a l l and i c e s k a t i n g r i n k . There i s a b a l l park managed by the E l k s and the c i v i c admini-s t r a t i o n . The E l k s give s u p e r v i s i o n f o r some of the a c t i v i t i e s Organized r e o r e a t i o n Includes T r a i l Rangers, a Jun-i o r A t h l e t i c Club and a g i r l s ' c l u b . S p e o i a l community pro-grams are sponsored by the E l k s on V i c t o r i a Day and J u l y 1 s t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e i n the oommunity are the Women's I n -s t i t u t e , the Board of Trade and the E l k s . The church h a l l and the E l k s ' H a l l are a v a i l a b l e as meeting places f o r the commun-i t y . P a r t I I I Conclusions Chapter Nine - E v a l u a t i o n 90. Recent Growth Members of and groups i n communities are o r g a n i z i n g to meet conscious needs. There has been no e f f o r t to stimu-l a t e t h i s movement* I t has oome from the people themselves. The most commonly expressed need i s f o r more r e c r e a t i o n . The i n c r e a s i n g use and demand f o r the s e r v i c e s of the p r o v i n c i a l agencies i s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s need* A l l of these agencies report increased demands, the need f o r more s t a f f and i n c r e a s -ed enrolment of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups u s i n g the s e r v i c e s o f f -ered by them* I t i s f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g more r e o r e a t i o n t h a t communities, or groups w i t h i n them, have organized t o r a i s e funds f o r the e r e c t i o n of community oentre b u i l d i n g s * Much has been accomplished* Several communities have acquired new b u i l d i n g s . Others have accumulated l a r g e b u i l d i n g funds. I n the f a c t t h a t these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been created on a v o l u n t a r y , democratic b a s i s , and i n the f a c t t h a t members of the community are f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n i n them l i e s the proof that communities are seeking agencies, through which they oan organize t o meet t h e i r own ends. The concern f o r the f u t u r e l i e s i n whether the oomm-u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n process of development w i l l serve the r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs of the community and f o s t e r a sense of oommunity by the c r e a t i o n of a democratic organiza-91. t i o n , through which these needs oan he met. C r i t e r i a C e r t a i n general c r i t e r i a were evolved i n P a r t I , on the b a s i s of which;.the development of community oentres oould he evaluated. These can be summarized as f o l l o w s • A community centre's planning should be shared by the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and agenoies which f u n c t i o n i n the community, so t h a t plans based on knowledge of the t o t a l needs and resources can be formulat-ed. For t h i s purpose an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l community must be created and the community centre must be r e l a t e d to i t . The e r e c t i o n of new f a c i l i t i e s and the use of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s should be the r e s u l t of t h i s k i n d of planning and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . These f a c i l i t i e s should be adapt-ed t o the purposes of a community c e n t r e . The program and a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by the centre should be based on the knowledge of the e x i s t i n g resources and needs of the community. The development of t h i s program t o meet broader i n t e r e s t s and t o provide new experiences f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s dependent on the s k i l l of t r a i n e d s t a f f and the use of v o l u n t e e r s . F i n -a l l y , a s t r u c t u r e must' be created so that as many of the memb-ers as d e s i r e can, through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s m a l l groups, c o u n c i l s and committees, have a p a r t i n plan n i n g program and fo r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y . The development of any o r g a n i z a t i o n along these l i n e s r e q u i r e s l e a d e r s h i p with s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and knowledge of the oommunity, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l group work and r e o r e a t i o n . Co-Ordinating Councils Some of the community oentre a s s o c i a t i o n s described are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s or groups whioh are d i s t i n c t from the s e v e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e the West End, North Vancouver and West Vancouver. There has been a s i n g l e committee i n Invermere. Now i t has completed i t s o r i g i n a l t a s k , the e r e c t i o n of the oentre b u i l d i n g and i t i n -tends t o set up a separate body charged wi t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the oentre. a l b e r n i , North Burnaby and Burnaby Lake-Douglas Road have the f o l l o w i n g system: there i s a s i n g l e c o u n c i l or committee whioh has two f u n c t i o n s , the c o - o r d i n a t -i n g of the work of the s e v e r a l agencies of the oommunity and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the centre. The establishment of a s i n g l e committee, representa-t i v e of the v a r i o u s agencies, having as i t s p r i n c i p a l and most immediate t a s k the e r e c t i o n of the oentre b u i l d i n g i s a natur-a l development. Such an arrangement should not continue inde-f i n i t e l y . I t does not lend i t s e l f t o adequate p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t of the groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the oentre program. There should be a separate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body of the centre and i t should be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of these groups. On the other hand, the l a r g e r committee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the v a r i o u s agen-c i e s should be preserved. Suoh a body can so co-ordinate the 93* work of the v a r i o u s agenoies as to employ the t o t a l resources of the oommunity more economically. Through a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h such a body the oommunity centre a s s o c i a t i o n oan o b t a i n v a l u a -b l e advice and support. The B u i l d i n g A number of the a s s o c i a t i o n s are concerned p r i m a r i l y with the e r e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s and have l i m i t e d there a c t i v i -t i e s t o t h i s area. These inc l u d e the a s s o c i a t i o n s i n O o l l i n g -wood, K i t s i l a n o , K e r r i s d a l e , Kamloops, C h i l l i w a c k , Invermere and M i l l Bay. There i s danger i n t h i s procedure. Once the b u i l d i n g i s erected the a s s o c i a t i o n may f e e l i t s t a s k i s done „and l o s e i t s v i t a l i t y . Invermere i s attempting to avoid t h i s by the d i s s o l u t i o n of the group created to erect a b u i l d i n g and by p l a c i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the development of the oentre i n the hands of a new organiza-t i o n . C e r t a i n areas have erected b u i l d i n g s . These are West "Vancouver, Burnaby Lake-Douglas Road, P r i n c e Rupert, Nelson, Youbou, Sooke and F u l f o r d Harbour. Others, suoh as Marpole, the West End, Grandview, North Vancouver, North Burn-aby, and A l b e r n i , are u s i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s u n t i l new ones oan be provided. I n these areas b u i l d i n g s are needed and i t has r e q u i r e d i n g e n u i t y on the p a r t of the a s s o c i a t i o n s t o f i n d housing f o r t h e i r ' a c t i v i t i e s . However, the development of aot-i v i t i e s at an e a r l y stage and the use of e x i s t i n g resources 94* i n d i c a t e s a r e c o g n i t i o n that the development o f a oommunity centre i s not t o t a l l y dependent on the e r e o t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g . The a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the West End, Grandview, North Vancouver and a l b e r n i have employed l e a d e r s h i p . Democratic S t r u c t u r e The a s s o c i a t i o n s which have l e a d e r s h i p w i t h s k i l l i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l group work have been most s u c c e s s f u l i n the development of a democratic s t r u c t u r e . I n the West Van-oouver and North Vanoouver a s s o c i a t i o n s , the Grandview Comm-u n i t y Y, Gordon House i n the West End, and the A l b e r n i assoc-i a t i o n , the membership i s so organized t h a t each s e c t i o n has o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program p l a n n i n g and p o l -i c y f o r m u l a t i n g groups. I n the Youbou, P r i n c e Rupert and Nelson A s s o c i a t i o n s where l e a d e r s have s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n the area of program, the p l a n n i n g of program and the f o r -mulation of p o l i c y i s apparently based not so much on j o i n t p lanning as on the p o p u l a r i t y of the a c t i v i t i e s as i n d i c a t e d by the attendance. The Marpole A s s o c i a t i o n , without the ben-e f i t o f employed l e a d e r s h i p , i s developing a s t r u c t u r e whioh provides f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i t s members. Here respons-i b i l i t y i s delegated t o the organized groups. There are i n -d i c a t i o n s of s i m i l a r , p a t t e r n s developing i n thexNorth Burnaby and Burnaby Lake-Douglas Road A s s o c i a t i o n s . The other assoc-i a t i o n s are organized on a simple democratic b a s i s whioh pro-v i d e s f o r the e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s annually and democratic 95-business procedures* Program The programs of the a s s o c i a t i o n which have the s e r -v i c e s of leaders are v a r i e d and have a l a r g e attendance* Gordon House, the Grandview Y, North Vancouver, West Vancouver o f f e r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of every type* I n a d d i t i o n other oommunity s e r v i c e s are made a v a i l a b l e * These a s s o c i a -t i o n s are a l s o developing small group a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r program* Nelson, Youbou and P r i n c e Rupert are developing a v a r i e t y of programs w i t h a l a r g e membership p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p o r t s , i n t e r e s t groups and mass programs. However, the dev-elopment of small s e l f - g o v e r n i n g groups has not been marked. Here the d i f f e r e n c e i n the t r a i n i n g and s k i l l of the l e a d e r s i s i n d i c a t e d . Some of the other a s s o c i a t i o n s are sponsoring pro-gram. The Marpole A s s o c i a t i o n has a v a r i e d program, small s e l f - g o v e r n i n g groups and has made s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the community. The a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Burnaby have begun t o a s s i s t i n the development of a oommunity r e c r e a t i o n program. I n these areas, and i n Marpole to some ex t e n t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s p e c i f i c program i s delegated t o a s e r v i c e c l u b or some other oommunity o r g a n i z a t i o n r e l a t e d to the a s s o c i a t i o n . Volunteers Wherever there i s program volunteers are a c t i v e * 9 6 . Pew a s s o c i a t i o n s gave a c t u a l numbers. Burnaby Lake-Douglas Road l i s t e d nine v o l u n t e e r s ; Gordon House - f i f t y ; a l b e r n i -s e v e n t y - f i v e ; P r i n c e Rupert - f i f t y ; West Vanoouver - 129; North Vanoouver - 120. The advantages of s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance of volunteers'by s t a f f with s k i l l i n s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance i s i n d i c a t e d by the development of program and a c t i v -i t i e s i n the v a r i o u s areas. Trained Leadership When the oommunity oentre i s evaluated on the b a s i s of these c r i t e r i a , t here i s c l e a r l y a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the resources of i t s leaders and i t s developments. I n those areas where l e a d e r s w i t h p u r e l y r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s have been em-ployed, program whioh a t t r a c t s l a r g e numbers has r e s u l t e d . I n those areas where l e a d e r s have been employed with s k i l l s i n r e o r e a t i o n , and i n the f i e l d s of group work and oommunity o r-g a n i z a t i o n , the centre i s developing as a democratic o r g a n i z -a t i o n s e r v i n g the r e o r e a t i o n needs of the community, i n most areas where there i s no t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , the oonoern of the a s s o c i a t i o n with m a t e r i a l needs i n d i c a t e s i t s l a c k of d i r e c t -i o n i n terms of long-range o b j e c t i v e s . Among the described a s s o c i a t i o n s which have no employed l e a d e r s h i p only Marpole i s developing on the b a s i s of the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d , w h i l e the two Burnaby Assooations seem t o have r e a l i z e d some of the f a c t -ors i n v o l v e d . R e c o g n i t i o n of the value and importance of p r o f -e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p s t i l l remains to be achieved. The develop-97. merits i n those areas where t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p i s b e i n g used should serve t h i s purpose. There i s a l s o the problem of f i n -ancing i t * I n the l a r g e r communities where a r e c r e a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r and a s s i s t a n t s can serve l a r g e numbers, i f plans oan be made f o r the f i n a n c i n g of a community oentre, t h i s s e r v i c e should be included* For sm a l l e r communities i t i s more d i f f i c u l t * Here t h e r e i s need f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f d i s t r i c t s or areas* U n i t s which could be served by lead e r s could be developed* Smaller areas would b e n e f i t from a pro-p o r t i o n of a le a d e r ' s time and they could share i n the cost of t h i s s e r v i c e * The proposed c r e a t i o n of neighbourhood coun-c i l s i n North Vancouver i l l u s t r a t e s how such an area might be organized* With a s s i s t a n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the oe n t r e , the development of program and s u p e r v i s i o n by a t r a i n e d l e a d e r , the number of volu n t e e r s could be i n c r e a s e d , so that the num-ber and v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s would be g r e a t l y enlarged* One of the most obvious and immediate needs i s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of l e a d e r s h i p at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l * The r e -guests received by the Department of P r o v i n c i a l Reoreation and the Extension Department f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about oommunity cen-t r e s shows t h a t communities,would welcome a s s i s t a n c e and d i r -e c t i o n * They have o b j e c t i v e s i n mind and d e s i r e help as r e -gards the methods of working toward them* I n many oases the advice sought concerns methods of s t a r t i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the d i r e c t i o n i t should take i n order that members o f the oommunity may d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t and i n order that i t m a y e v e n t u a l l y serve the needs o f the t o t a l community* I t i s 98. a i f f i o u . l t to give guidance unless d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n about the oommunity i s a v a i l a b l e * However, e f f o r t s have been made by both the Department of P r o v i n o i a l Reoreation and the Univ-e r s i t y Extension Department to meet these requests* I n a d d i -t i o n s p e c i a l conferences and l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s have been o f f e r e d * There i s , however, need f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s area* Much s p e c i f i c advice, i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o v i n o i a l s e r v i c e s and general d i r e c t i o n oould be made a v a i l a b l e , i f p r o v i s i o n were made f o r a t r a i n e d worker* Such a worker could c o l l e c t the m a t e r i a l already a v a i l a b l e and new m a t e r i a l and oould serve as a consultant f o r committees seeking such s e r v i c e s * •Co-ordination of p r o v i n o i a l s e r v i c e s could be begun i f the r e q u i s i t e l e a d e r s h i p were a v a i l a b l e * There oould be a p o o l i n g of the in f o r m a t i o n about communities possessed by p r o v i n o i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g i n them* Such a sh a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n would make p o s s i b l e a b e t t e r understanding of needs and the fo r m u l a t i o n of j o i n t p l a n s * The B.C. Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n seeks t o serve as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g group f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s already func-t i o n i n g . At present i t l a c k s d i r e c t i o n and resources. With l e a d e r s h i p i t could serve as a medium, through which problems oould be shared and plans f o r the f u t u r e made. There i s much that could be done on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , so t h a t the develop-ment of community oentres could be a l e s s p a i n f u l t r i a l - a n d -e r r o r process. To t h a t end the p r o v i s i o n of l e a d e r s h i p i s nec-essary. 99. .The Future Although the development of oommunity oentres i s the r e s u l t of t r i a l and e r r o r , much has been accomplished. New p a t t e r n s , o h a r a o t e r i s t i c of the communities where they are being oreated, are being evolved. Groups i n the oomm-u n i t y are beginning to t h i n k i n new p a t t e r n s and t o r e a l i z e t h a t the w e l f a r e of the t o t a l oommunity i s dependent on the wel f a r e o f eaoh p a r t . P r e j u d i c e s are being overcome and d i v -erse groups are l e a r n i n g to work togeth e r . For the most p a r t , oommunity centres have had t h e i r v beginnings i n a war p e r i o d and many see i n them a f i t t i n g mem-o r i a l t o the courage and i d e a l i s m of youth i n war. i s such they are a symbol o f many o f the i d e a l s o f a democratic soc-i e t y . The need t o r e a l i z e the i d e a l s of our s o o i e t y i s a p r e s s i n g one. There i s a growing r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the t r a n s i -t i o n from theory t o p r a c t i c e must happen i n our communities and i n our neighbourhoods, i f i t i s to happen i n our n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l communities. T h i s study r e v e a l s one oommunity oentre i n B r i t i s h Columbia which, without t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , has observed the standard of good p r a c t i c e set f o r t h i n these pages. G e n e r a l l y , however, the best p r a c t i c e i s to be found where there i s t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p . The p r o v i s i o n of t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , t h e r e f o r e , i s e s s e n t i a l t o the continued and r a p i d development of community oentres. With such l e a d e r s h i p these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have i t w i t h i n t h e i r power t o c o n t r i b u t e to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l s of our democratic s o c i e t y . A p p e n d i x 101. Appendix The Questionnaire, I t s Compilation and Use The questionnaire was c a r e f u l l y designed to o b t a i n as muoh i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e about the h i s t o r y , o r ganiza-t i o n and development of community oentre a s s o c i a t i o n s , the communities i n whioh they seek t o serve, the r e c r e a t i o n pro-grams operating a t the present time, the vo l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v e i n the community and the use of p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . The o b j e c t i v e s of the questionnaire and i t s contents were d i s -cussed w i t h members of the B.C. Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n at the P r o v i n c i a l Conference of t h a t A s s o c i a t i o n i n A p r i l , 1947. The questionnaire was sent t o a hundred and ten i n -d i v i d u a l s throughout the P r o v i n c e . These names were s e l e c t e d from the m a i l i n g l i s t of the B. C. Community Centres A s s o c i a -t i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the s t a f f of the U n i v e r s i t y Extension Department. A l l had i n d i c a t e d at some time t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the development of community oentres and t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a s p e c i f i c a s s o c a t i o n . Thirty-one r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d . Two were submitted from the area around Langley. However, the overlapping of d i s -t r i c t s made the i n f o r m a t i o n confusing. I t was noted t h a t a survey had been done of t h i s area by the Department of P r o v i n -o i a l R e c r e a t i o n . E f f o r t s were made to obtain t h i s but t o date i t has not been a v a i l a b l e . 102, Information was a l s o submitted from V i c t o r i a . How-ever, again the number of d i s t r i o t s and the laok of s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n made i t impossible t o describe developments. Fur t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was requested from North Van-couver, A l b e r n i , P r i n c e Rupert, K e l s o n , C h i l l i w a c k and Kami-l o o p s . R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from North Vanoouver and A l -b e r n i , •The author c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h Mr. Robert Torrance i n the c i r c u l a t i o n of the que s t i o n n a i r e and the c o m p i l a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . 103. SURVEY OP COMMUNITY CENTRES AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES Name of Community Major I n d u s t r y P o p u l a t i o n Elementary School P o p u l a t i o n High School P o p u l a t i o n 1* I s t h e r e a Community Centres A s s o c i a t i o n or s i m i l a r organ-i z a t i o n i n your oommunity? •  2* Does i t own or manage a b u i l d i n g ? I f owns, what value now? Date When E s t a b l i s h e d I f n o t, does i t propose t o e s t a b l i s h one? • For How Much? When t o B u i l d ? : 1 3 . L i s t b u i l d i n g s used or a v a i l a b l e i n your oommunity f o r rec r e a t i o n a l purposes* (Give d e t a i l s on next sheet*) r Community H a l l ..*, Others 4* L i s t other r e o r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i f any* O r g a n i z a t i o n P r i n o l p a l A c t i v i t i e s ' (1) - • -. (2) (3) (4) e t c * 5* P r i n c i p a l Commercial Reoreation ( i n d i c a t e number) Theatre ' Bowling A l l e y S k a t i n g Rink ( r o l l e r ) P o o l H a l l ' (ice ) _• Others 104. BUILDINGS AND FAOILITIES AVAILABLE FOR RECREATIONAL PURPOSES Name of B u i l d i n g , Value Now? . Date When E s t a b l i s h e d Managed by . . L i s t f a o i l i t i e s as f o l l o w s : Assembly H a l l Type of s e a t i n g accommodation Capacity of H a l l •  (estimated) " Stage ' , For what games or sports i s • equipment a v a i l a b l e ' S p e c i f y Other rooms O f f i c e equipment, e.g. type-w r i t e r Refreshment f a c i l i t i e s D u p l i c a t o r K i t c h e n . Handicrafts" Cokebar Other Other Other f a c i l i t i e s used: I f more than one b u i l d i n g a v a i l a b l e , use separate sheets t o d e s c r i b e . r J LOCAL PARKS OR PLAYGROUNDS Name of park or playground ' Value now? Managed by Date when e s t a b l i s h e d L i s t f a o i l i t i e s as f o l l o w s : Sports whioh can be played .... Type o f S u p e r v i s i o n _ i . e . t e n n i s , b a s e b a l l Groundsmen 105. Employed r e c r e a t i o n a l workers Volunteers C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y Equipment Playground s u p e r v i s i o n Other Equipment Other personnel N..B. i f more than one park or playground i s a v a i l a b l e use sep arate sheets t o d e s c r i b e . C O M M U N I T Y P R O G R A M Describe the r e c r e a t i o n a l programs i n your area under the f o l l o w i n g headings. (Note: Spon-sors would Include - Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n ; P r i v a t e Agencies suoh as Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, e t c . ; P r o v i n c i a l Reoreation S e r v i c e s ; Schools; Churches; S e r v i c e Clubs; Sports Clubs; C u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s , etc.) Program Sponsor Where i s No. of i t held? p a r t i c -i p a n t s Range No. of P a i d Leaders or I n s t r u c t o r s No. of V o l - No. of T o t a l unteer leaders c l a s s e s Expense or I n s t r u c t o r s or meet- (Cost) ings per week Other A c t i v i t i e s : - Does your oommunity use the servioes of: Na t i o n a l F i l m Board How ofte n i s there a f i l m showing Where i s i t held • [ - • - .  Extension Department, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. e.g. I s there a r a d i o l i s t e n i n g group D i s c u s s i o n group ' . Dramatic group e t c . T r a v e l l i n g L i b r a r y O COMMUNITY OENTRES ASSOCIATION or " s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n Number of members i n the A s s o c i a t i o n Kinds 107, I s i t incorporated under the " S o c i e t i e s A c t " . Date Date the A s s o c i a t i o n was formed Does i t have a c o n s t i t u t i o n ' What are i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s What o f f i c e r s does i t have How are they e l e c t e d _ • To what other or g a n i z a t i o n s do they belong How i s the A s s o c i a t i o n financed or from where does i t gets i t s funds? _. , i '  What funds are "earmarked" f o r s p e c i a l purposes? ' ' I s the membership of the Oentre s e l f - g o v e r n i n g What are the f e e s , and f o r what purposes _____ I f so, l i s t the r e s p o n s i b l e groups or t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or dut i e s Responsible Group R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or Duties i • e • Membership Gouncil Teen Council I f p o s s i b l e , and convenient, a t t a c h copy of 1944, I945i 1946 f i n a n c i a l statements. 108.. Does the Oommunity Oentre A s s o c i a t i o n work wi t h other agencies sponsoring r e o r e a t i o n programs i n the oommunity What clubs or or g a n i z a t i o n s are a c t i v e i n your community: Orga n i z a t i o n Purpose  e.g. Women's I n s t i t u t e Board of Trade others ....... What S o c i a l Welfare Agencies operate i n your community I s there a community p l a n n i n g or c o - o r d i n a t i n g group or c o u n c i l i n your area I f so, l i s t o r ganizations represnnted on i t "  What are i t s o b j e c t i v e s l i s t problems or p r o j e c t s w i t h which i t has been or i s concerned C O M M U N I T Y O E N T R E S T A F F or S t a f f of S i m i l a r O r ganization Describe s t a f f employed under the f o l l o w i n g headings:-P o s i t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Experience T r a i n i n g S k i l l s S a l a r y Sex Respons- Paid i b l e t o by ' ' whom whom i i | f t 1 | Are v o l u n t e e r workers used? L i s t jobs i n which they are used I f so, s p e c i f y the number n o . B i b l i o g r a p h y A r t i c l e s P a r r a , Kathryn, Neighborhood C o u n c i l s , Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference ox s o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 7 P r e s s , New York, N.Y., 1940. Johnson, Art i en, The Obstacle of L i m i t e d P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n L o o a l  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , .proceedings or tne N a t i o n a l Conference of s o c i a l work, uoiumbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, N.Y. 1940. S i e d e r , V i o l e t , O v e r a l l P l a n n i n g , Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, Canada, V o l . XXII,-No. 3 , 1947. Stei'ner, J e s s e , Community Centres, Encyclopaedia o f S o c i a l S ciences, waited Dy J S . K . A . seligman, the M a c M i l l a n Co., New York, Volume 4 , 1931. Books Adeney, M,, S c o t t , L., F i f e , G., Conrad, W.H., Community  Centres i n Canada, The Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 1945. Amerioan A s s o c i a t i o n of Group Workers, Towards P r o f e s s i o n a l  Standards, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, N.Y. iy47 American Youth Commission, Youth and the F u t u r e , Amerioan Youth Commission, C o u n c i l on Jiiaucation, Washington, B.C., 1942. Baxter, Bernice and Gassidy, R o s a l i n d , Group Experience, the Democratic Way, Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York and London, ~ Busoh, Henry M., Leadership i n Group Work, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, N.Y., iy38.— * B u t l e r , G.R., I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Community Reoreation, McGfiaw H i l l Book. Co., Jwew loric ana- London, 194 u * ~" Canadian Youth Commission, Youth and R e c r e a t i o n , The Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, Canada, -C o l c o r d , J.C., Your Community, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, New York., 1959. " de Huszar, George B., P r a o t i o a l A p p l i c a t i o n s of Democracy, Harper and B r o t h e r s , J>iew xorK ana iionaon, 1^45. " 111. B i b l i o g r a p h y Continued Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and Department of Trade and Commerce, Canada Year Book, Zing's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, Canada, 19T5* " L a s k i , H a r o l d , R e f l e c t i o n s on the Re v o l u t i o n of Our Times, V i k i n g P r e s s , .Hew York, JM.v,., IbJAj. : " Lundberg, G., Zornorsky, M.", Molnery, M.A., l e i s u r e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Hew York, H.Y., 1934. " M c M i l l a n , Ardee Wayne, Community Organization f o r S o o l a l Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y or onioago P r e s s , Chicago, i y 4 4 Mumford, l e w i s , Culture of C i t i e s , Harcourt, Brace and Co., Hew York, fl.Y., 19j8 ~ S l a v s o n , S.R., Character Education i n a Democracy, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , Hew York, i y 3 9 "~~ ~ Slavson, S.R., Cr e a t i v e Group Education, Assocation P r e s s , . . Hew York, ~ ~ Stei'ner, Jesse, The American Community i n A c t i o n , Henry H o l t and Co.,Hew Y o r k , JSI.Y., iyj>8. — Tead, Ordway, The Ar t of l e a d e r s h i p , McGraw H i l l Book Co., Hew York, H.Y., - i y ^ . r-r-T Treoker, H a r l e i g h , Group Process i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Women's Pr e s s , Hew YorkT T T u t l e , George, Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada, prepared f o r the Canadian Youtn committee, Tne Kyerson * r e s s , Toronto, 1946 Pamphlets Zidd.jJohn R., Community ^ Centres, Canadian C o u n c i l of Education f o r C i t i z e n s n i p , 166 manoorough Ave., Ottawa, Canada, 1945. l a s s e r r e , Fred'and Lunan, Gordon, Community Centres, Canadian A f f a i r s , V o l . I I , Ho. 17, Canadian i n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , Ottawa, Canada. M i n i s t r y of Education, Community Centres, H.M. S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , London, 1 9 ^ " n a t i o n a l Reoreation A s s o c i a t i o n , 316 Fourth Avenue, Hew York, H.Y., 1935f The Conduct of Community Centres. 112. B i b l i o g r a p h y Continued N a t i o n a l Reoreation A s s o c i a t i o n , 315 Fourth Avenue, New York, Y.Y., 1935, R e c r e a t i o n , A Major Oommunity Problem. N a t i o n a l Reoreation A s s o c i a t i o n , 315 Fourth Avenue, New York, N.Y., Schedule f o r the A p p r a i s a l of Oommunity R e c r e a t i o n . N a t i o n a l Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n , 315 Fourth Avenue, New York, N.Y., 1938, Standards of T r a i n i n g , Experience and  0ompen3atioh"Tn" community tteoreation Work. r x Ross, Murray G-., Community C o u n c i l s , Canadian Co u n c i l o f Edu-c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s n i p , 166 Marlborough Ave., Ottawa, Canada, 1945* S i l l s , Dorothy H., Volunteers I n S o c i a l S e r v i c e , N a t i o n a l T r a v e l e r s ' A i d A s s o c i a t i o n , f o u r t h Ave., New York N.Y. S t e i n e r , J . , and Babe00k, C , Reoreation and Morale, N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D.C, 1^4^ Surveys and Reports Boy Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n , Annual Report, mimeographed, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n o i a l C o u n c i l , 1946. Community Surveys A s s o c i a t e d , under auspices of Community Chests and C o u n c i l s , I n c . , and the Welfare Council and Fed e r a t i o n of Los Angeles, R e c r e a t i o n f o r Everybody, a survey, 1946., ~ '• '• ; ~" C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agenoies, 340 Seventh Ave.,W., Calgary, A l b e r t a , P u b l i o Reoreation i n Calgary. Counoil of S o c i a l Agencies of I n d i a n a p o l i s and Marian County, L e i s u r e Time Ser v i c e s f o r Youth i n South I n d i a n a p o l i s , a survey, 1^46. ' " Department of Reoreation and P h y s i c a l Education, Annual Report, mimeographed, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1946. Department of U n i v e r s i t y E xtension, Annual Report, mimeographed, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1946. " ' ~" Department of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , Report of Oommunity Centres Conference, June, 1946, U n i v e r s i t y of J B r i t i s h coiumoia, TSQol : : " N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, S t a t i s t i c a l B u l l e t i n , S t a t i s t i c s and Record D i v i s i o n s , vutawa, A p r i l , 1347• 113. Blbl1ography 0oht inued N o r r i e , L.E. and l e Marche, D.F., Survey Report of Group Work  and Reoreation i n Greater Vancouver, tne oommunity unest ana weixare uouncn or greater V a n c o u v e r , 1945* Post War Re c o n s t r u c t i o n Committee of the Government of Mani-toba, Oommunity Centres, 1946. Reoreation Commission, Oommunity Reoreation Survey, Reoreation Commission, I n c . , urana J u n c t i o n , umo,. 1945. Vancouver Town Plan n i n g Commission, P a r k s , R e c r e a t i o n , Sohools, A P r e l i m i n a r y Report prepared by Hariana ±sarcnoiomew ana As s o c i a t e s , Town P l a n n i n g Consultants, S t . L o u i s M i s s o u r i , 1946. 

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