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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ethical values and political theory Jampolsky, Lyman 1950

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b  E T H I C A L V A L U E S AND  POLITICAL  THEORY  by Lyman  Jampolsky  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l of  the Requirements  f o r t h e Degree  Master  In  the Department  university  Fulfilment  of Arts  of Philosophy  of British April,  Columbia  1950.  of  ABSTRACT ETHICAL lit this freedom we  aspects  life.  the expediency  o f value  we  a r e many v a l u e - s y s t e m s , we  accept  is  strictly  of  happiness f o r the greatest  properties  we the  that  good and  i n accordance w i t h  that  these  properties  framework o f p o l i t i c a l  there  Acceptance concluded  greatest  amount  people".  t o mean a s e t o f  i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h i c h we m a k e  our value-system:  found  relativistic  establishing  number o f  designated  as  value-system  We  by  e n d o f a c t i o n **the  e v a l u a t i o n s . These e v a l u a t i o n s  when judged  the  of l i f e .  theory  our generic  e n d o f a c t i o n we  judgements  the fact  of preference.  as  of  judgements  and that the  discussion of ethical  This  relativistic  ultimate principles,  i s b a s i c t o o u r way a matter  an  examination  of accepting  illustrated  liberty  t o what  and  t o human c o n d u c t . I n a c c e p t i n g  doctrine  that  began w i t h  reason rather than  made i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  our  We  doctrine. This  on s u f f i c i e n t  guides  argued  of both the a b s o l u t i s t i c  of ethical  revealed  have  THEORY  good but e s s e n t i a l  a civilized  examination  POLITICAL  d i s s e r t a t i o n , we  - i s not only  regard  based  V A L U E S AND  become t h e evil  postulates  are only  them.  our  meaningful  Furthermore,  are contained  and economic  within  democracy.  -  - 2 -  Over the long human h i s t o r y , for  only  with  stretch  of five  of  d e m o c r a c y , a s we k n o w i t , h a s p r e v a i l e d  a century  o r two, and t h a t b r i e f  the period of c a p i t a l i s t  suggests  thousand years  t h a t democracy  closely  bound up w i t h  earlier  stages  span  development.  and i n d i v i d u a l  capitalism,  Logic  freedom are  at least  o f development before  coincides  i ni t s  economic  control  becomes t o o h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d . B u t t h e f r e e d o m have achieved  i s n o t due e n t i r e l y  of the laws o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e Capitalist  economic e q u a l i t y , t h a t we  enjoy.  government  to the operation  C a p i t a l i s m . Even  system i n i t s simple  form,  could not provide  Since  with  i twould  reasonable  without  t o some  suffer  Cosequently, centuries  any  extent  governed by the l a w o f t h e t o o t h and fang, weak w o u l d  a  a l l the freedom  i twould operate  intervention,  we  and t h e  a t t h e hands o f t h e s t r o n g .  during the nineteenth  and t w e n t i e t h  t h e government h a s i n t e r v e n e d more and more  to  p r o t e c t t h e weak a n d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e . A l t h o u g h  so  doing  i thas enlarged  freedom,  such  aspects of a  arguing  social  i s t o some  are necessary  o r d e r , we  i n  o f human  extent  of laissez-faire  that the p o l i t i c a l  o f democracy  just  t h e sum t o t a l  legislation  from t h e p r i n c i p l e s In  be  a  departure  capitalism.  and economic characteristics  illustrated  how  political  equality and  c a n be a c h i e v e d ,  substituted  o f p r i v i l e g e (economic) has been  f o r another  ( p o l i t i c a l ) . We  p e r f e c t l y f e a s i b l e t o assume t h a t  may p r e f e r  equality  to p o l i t i c a l of Marxian by  order,  s o c i a l j u s t i c e r e m a i n as f a r away a s e v e r . I n t h i s  c a s e , one t y p e  it  as i n a C a p i t a l i s t i c  some  Socialism,  economic e q u a l i t y  political  i s gained  democracy. simultaneously,  within  t h e same s y s t e m , b o t h p o l i t i c a l  social  s e c u r i t y , o r e q u a l i t y . To a c h i e v e  to Democratic  people  a g a i n , a s i n t h e case  T h u s , we e n d e a v o u r e d t o a c h i e v e  we a d v o c a t e d  found  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth  l i b e r t y . But here  sacrificing  also  a g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n from Socialism.  l i b e r t y and t h i s end, Capitalism  "Your sheep that were wont to be so meek and tame, and so small eaters, now, as I hear say, be become so great devourers and so wild, that they eat up and swallow the very men* themselves. They consume, destroy, and devour whole f i e l d s , houses, and c i t i e s •••• And though the number of sheep increase never so tfast, yet the price f a l l e t h not one mite, because there be so few s e l l e r s . Por they be almost a l l come into a few r i c h men s hands, whom no need forceth to s e l l before they l u s t (wish), and they l u s t not before they may s e l l as dear as they l u s t " . 1  S i r Thomas More, "Utopia"  CONTENTS Page I  Introduction Part Nature  I  of the E t h i c a l Problem  2  Chapterl Meaning of Value: . N a t u r e o f t h e "Good' Chapter I I Absolute Values Value theory.. Chapter  I I I Relative Value  Chapter  in 8  Values  i n  Theory  ...17  I V "Means - E n d s "  Chapter V  5  1  Problem  Establishment of  First  Principles  27  (1) L i b e r t y  27  (2) P o l i t i c a l Part An  Appraisal  .25  Democracy  43  I I  of Capitalism:  As  Relative  t o Economic Democracy................57 Chapter VI Capitalism: i t s Assumptions and P r o f i t - M o t i v e 61 (1) R a t i o n a l S e l f - i n t e r e s t . . 6 2 (2) S u r v i v a l o f the (3) A s s o c i a t i o n with  of  Fittest.65 Wealth  Social Services...66  (4) Market P r i c e s as a Satisfactory Indicator for Production... Chapter V I I C r i t i c i s m Chapter  VIII  P r o s and Pursuit  68  of Competitive Aspects  69  Cons o f the f o r Wealth  71  CONTENTS,  continued.  Chapter I X Wastes  i n the C a p i t a l i s t System  (1)  Natural  (2)  Business  (3)  A d v e r t i s i n g and Salesmanship  (4)  Resources  73  Failures.,.73  ,.74  Duplication of Plants and S e r v i c e s . .  (5) .  73  78  Depressions: -  (6)  Unemployment  ..78  Imperialism.,.........79  Chapter X V i r t u e s  of  Capitalism......87  (1)  Productivity...........87  (2)  A s FR re el ea dt oi mv e atn o d Democracy 87  Part  III  A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s : The Development Of S o c i a l i s t D o c t r i n e 91 Chapter X I V a r i e t i e s o f S o c i a l i s t i c •""> Opinion ....94 O h a p t e r X I I M a r x i a n S o c i a l i s m . . . . . . . . .96 (1) E v o l u t i o n a r y poftnt of View......  ~ 96  (2) Economic I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of History. .97 (3) (4)  Doctrine o f Surplus Value...  • 99  Doctrine o f the Class Struggle .101  Chapter X I I I R e v i s i o n i s m and Syndicalism  108  CONTENTS,  continued. Part  Democratic Socialism.  IV  ..  I l l  Chapter X I V Assumptions and Proposals. (1) C o l l e c t i v e . . Ownership and Management o f Industry (2)  Equality of Opportunity  BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  Individual Motivation under.. Socialism 117  (4)  Transition to Socialism......118  (5)  S o c i a l i s m and Selfishness....119  (6)  S o c i a l i s m and individual Freedom  *  121  V  The E x i s t i n g T r e n d  toward  Socialism.  APPENDIX  113  (3)  part Conclusion:  112  .124  i - v i i v i i -x  INTRODUCTION In t h i s t h e s i s we propose to discuss those elements of e t h i c a l theory whioh are necessary to| and are a t the basis of, both p o l i t i c a l and economic democracy*  Our task s h a l l be to describe  the e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n accordance with which we choose t o l i v e , and having a r r i v e d at these fundamentals, our task, w i l l be the formulation of a p o l i t i c a l system consistent with them. Open the book of the story of mankind anywhere and you w i l l f i n d the question being asked over and over again:  What i s good  and what i s e v i l ?  This  has been, without doubt, one of the most persistent problems of philosophers throughout the ages. Answers have been given i n abundance, answers which appeared to the p a r t i c u l a r philosopher giving the p a r t i c u l a r answer —  to solve the problem f o r a l l  times, but i n a very few years the problem has arisen again i n the thinking of others. And so, throughout the h i s t o r y of man's thought we discover the problem of good and e v i l (whioh we speak of as "ethics* or "the e t h i c a l problem") p e r s i s t e n t l y challenging each philosopher.  PART I NATURE OP THE ETHICAL PROBLEM In recent years i n t e r e s t has revived i n the r e l a t i o n between the p o l i t i c a l sciences and e t h i c s . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see that the recent war has robbed large classes of men of t h e i r f a i t h i n c e r t a i n accepted i n s t i t u t i o n s . i s being, questioned: are sought.  Religious dogmatism  consequently, new standards  A solution to t h i s problem bears  d i r e c t l y upon our i d e a l s of democracy, i t being essential that the average i n d i v i d u a l know what i s r i g h t and what i s wrong, and that he possess the r e q u i s i t e powers of s e l f d i r e c t i o n * We associate good i n everyday l i f e with behaviour i n concrete  s i t u a t i o n s j with the f a c t s  and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t i n g our physical and socio-economic world*  In order t o know whether  men are virtuous or otherwise, we must consult r e s u l t s , not mere protestations of b e l i e f or motive.  Though under s p e c i a l circumstances a  motive may outweigh consequences, and the wrongdoer forgiven accordingly, the average of r e s u l t s i s nevertheless decisive*  - 3-  The conventional subjective v i r t u e s have ceased to command respect.  To say that f a i t h i s  the highest good, or that wisdom or j u s t i c e , or mercy are supreme v i r t u e s , makes v i r t u e immune to s c i e n t i f i c t e s t i n g .  There i s no way of proving  a man e v i l by these d e f i n i t i o n s .  Thereforej a s M  long as people seek transcendent truths, or sources of knowledge of good and e v i l , that are not empirically v e r i f i a b l e , so long science can have I no place i n ethics*'. I f we reduce moral precepts t o a categorical imperative i t would not be d i f f i c u l t to separate science from a study of morality.  The two would  be worlds apart, and the question of r e l a t i o n dispensed with.  I f a sense of duty, or v i r t u e  f o r i t s own sake, or p u r i t y of motive constitute the whole of e t h i c s , s c i e n t i s t s w i l l automatically be debarred from a discussion of ethics; they cannot then trace i t s roots nor resolve i t i n t o principles.  I.  Bouoke* "The Relation .of E t h i c s to Social Science", International Journal of E t h i c s . V o l . 33, p«  I f the e m p i r i c a l b a s i s o f e t h i c s I s granted, what w i l l matter c h i e f l y i s a statement the "good". good?  defining  F i r s t , What i s good? then, Who  is  The former r e p r e s e n t s t h e t y p e o f t h i n g s  h e l d moral o r immoral; judged by t h a t t y p e . co-ordinated*  the l a t t e r i s the i n s t a n c e C l a s s and i n d i v i d u a l a r e thus  Each c o n t r i b u t e s something  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the other*  t o the  Chapter I MEANING OF VALUE:  NATURE OF THE "GOOD"  Views on the d e f i n i t i o n of the "good* range from d e f i n a b i l i t y to i n d e f i n a b i l i t y .  One extreme,  as expressed by G.$. Moore, i s that the "good* i s indefinable:  "good* i s a simple notion, just as  I "yellow" i s a simple notion.  The other extreme  Is expressed by D.0. Williams, who  states that  "slnoe the sole e s s e n t i a l nature of a d e f i n i t i o n of a word Is that I t conveys information about  how  the word i s used, and since no word can become part of a conventional language unless persons are able t o agree upon and communicate concerning i t s application^ I t i s l d ^ l e  to t a l k of the  i n d e f i n a b i l i t y , i n any s t r i c t sense, of a word 2 such as "goodness".  A l l words a r e definable."  We are now In a p o s i t i o n to examine some of the d e f i n i t i o n s offered by contemporary philosophers of both the r e l a t i v i s t i c and a b s o l u t i s t i c schools. I.  Moore, G.E., P r i n o i p l a E t h i c a . New Macmillan Co., 1903, p. 7.  York.  2. Williams, D.C, Meaning of the Good, Philosophical Review. 1937, p. 416.  G. Santayana defined "good" i n terms of reference to psychological processes such as  1, desire, preference, or l i k i n g .  G.E. Moore  refutes these moral systems by stating that the advocates had f a l l e n i n t o the " n a t u r a l i s t i c fallacy."  This f a l l a c y had been committed  because they had not discerned that the "good" i s r e a l l y a simple and unanalysable  quality,  whioh characterizes objects i n t r i n s i c a l l y , that i s , independent of human f e e l i n g s , desires, and other natural processes.  I f t h i s were so, then  the good would tie l i k e nothing ever experienced by the human mind.  B» Savery c a l l s t h i s f a l l i n g  into the non-naturalistic f a l l a c y . The alleged s i m p l i c i t y of the "good" i s a matter of question depending upon the d e f i n i t i o n one employs. Perry defined value as "any object 2 of i n t e r e s t . "  Thus, i f one takes r e l a t i o n to  i n t e r e s t as d e f i n i t i v e of value, one could r a i s e the question whether or not the objects of value 1.  Santayana, G., Winds of Doctrine, london, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1926. p. 9.  2.  Perry, R.B., General Theory of Value. Hew York. Longmans, Green, I92b. p. 115.  a r e a c t u a l l y simple.  Since the g r e a t m a j o r i t y  of o b j e c t s we designate a s b e i n g v a l u a b l e a r e not simple, t h i s t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g the s i m p l i c i t y of t h e "good" may be r e j e c t e d . I f by d e f i n i n g t h e "good" we  mean  a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s , we would have t o a s s e r t t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n c e i v a b l e way o f determining the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s o f a t h i n g . I t seems obvious t h a t judgement p u r p o r t i n g t o s e t f o r t h the e s s e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s of a t h i n g vary with the knowledge, the i n t e r e s t s , and purposes o f the definer. properties  I f some s e l e c t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s o r i s made by an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k e r , who  then a s s e r t s t h a t t h e p r o p e r t i e s he has s e l e c t e d are c o n s t i t u t i v e o f t h e t h i n g i n q u e s t i o n , what i s the f a c t which corresponds assertion.  t o , which v e r i f i e s ,  this  A p h i l o s o p h e r o f t h i s nature would be  f o r c i n g upon us the d e f i n i t i o n of a word as a "neeessary t r u t h " about some p o r t i o n o f r e a l i t y .  /8-  uhapter  II  ABSOLUTE VALUES IN VALUE THEOKY "Absolutism i n e t h i c s Is the d o c t r i n e t h a t - i n t r i n s i c goodness ( i n t r i n s i c p o s i t i v e v a l u e ) has one and o n l y one v a l i d m e a n i n g . A b s o l u t i s t s d i s a g r e e as t o the p r e c i s e meaning o f goodness, but they agree t h a t whatever i t s , m e a n i n g , t h e r e i s b u t one c o r r e c t m e a n i n g . I f t h i s a b s o l u t e m e a n i n g were d i s c o v e r e d t h e n a l l v a l u e judgements w o u l d be made I n t e r m s o f i t 1 i f t r u t h i n v a l u e t h e o r y were t o be a c h i e v e d . " T h u s , i f t h e "good" one  c o r r e c t meaning  i s absolute, there  f o r goodness. Then,  i s only  t h e one  o f e t h i c s becomes t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a d e f i n i t i o n the "good" of  i n terms o f i t s - m e a n i n g " .  t h e "good" w o u l d t h e n  applicable  r !  value  who  accept  of  definition  a c t * as a u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d  to a l l persons  To a l l t h o s e  The  task  a t a l l times  In a l l places.  the a b s o l u t i s t i c  i s something w h o l l y  view,  independent o f our  something p e r t a i n i n g t o v a l u a b l e o b j e e t s , i n a amount and d e g r e e , q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y  feelings, definite  o f t h e way  in  w h i c h we anyone  n e & c t e m o t i o n a l l y t o them, and t o w h e t h e r 2 acknowledges tne v a l u e o r n o t . "  1. " R e l a t i v i t y v e r s u s Journal  Absolutism"in Value  of P h i l o s o p h y . 1 9 4 1 , p . t  Theory",  155.  2. S c h l i c k , P r o b l e m s o f E t h i c s . New H a l l , 1939, p . 100.  York, P r e n t i c e  We are' now prepared to examine a few o f the d e f i n i t i o n s offered by the a b s o l u t i s t i c schools. The Hedonistic d e f i n i t i o n of value i s that the  "good i s pleasure".  I t i s evidently impossible  from an examination of t h i s form o f words to ascertain whether t h i s i s a d e f i n i t i o n expressing an intention to apply the term "good" to every instance of pleasure, thus connecting a name i n discourse with a f e e l i n g discriminated i n P ~ e x  eriencfe, or whether i t i s a judgement purporting to assert a f a c t .  I f the words "good i s pleasure"  are taken to be a description of f a c t , then what i s the fact being described which would v e r i f y the proposition?  Por i n that oase, i t would not be a  d e f i n i t i o n but a proposition, and hence, e i t h e r true or f a l s e .  I f we t r y to interpret i t as a  proposition, then the meaning of the subject and predicate must be independently  s p e c i f i a b l e , that  i s i n order s i g n i f i c a n t l y to assert the "good" i s pleasure", i t i s obviously necessary to know, p r i o r to the assertion —  what the terms "good" and  pleasure" mean, or what we are going to mean by them i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r proposition.  - 10 -  But i f we do know what "good" and "pleasure" mean before combining them as subject and predicate i n a given proposition, t e n i t i s not t h i s proposition n  which defines the "good";  that i s to say, I t i s not  a d e f i n i t i o n but a proposition.  Furthermore, i f we  assume that ••good" i s "pleasure" i s a hedonistic d e f i n i t i o n of "good" , how are 1re to know that "pleasure" i s i d e n t i c a l with t h e r e a l nature o f the "good"?  I n t h i s case of i n t e r p r e t i n g "good i s  pleasure" as a d e f i n i t i o n , "good" does not, by < hypothesis, have an independent meaning.  I t also  follows that|in such a. case, we have only the f e e l i n g conventionally called "pleasure" and the name **good" thus, "there i s no r e a l nature to unfold, and no chance f o r truth or e r r o r , but only the decision to apply the name "good" to psychological states I called "pleasure".  I t i s admitted  that the  valuable produces f e e l i n g s of pleasure i n the observer, but t h i s fact has nothing to do with the essence o f value. AnoHier theory which f a i l s to ascertain i t s v a l i d i t y i n the l i g h t o f empirical f a c t , i s the "theory o f objective values."  I t proclaims the  existence of a system o f values, I.  Reid, J.R., A Theory of Value. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938. p. 9.  - II -  ".... which l i k e the P l a t o n i c ideas, constitute a realm independent of a c t u a l i t y , and i n which i s exhibited an e s s e n t i a l order o f such a nature that the values compose a hierarchy arranged according to higher and lower, and i t s relation to r e a l i t y i s only established by the moral command which runs approximately, "act so that the events o f things produced by your actions are as valuable as possible" .1 The  question that immediately a r i s e s i s , How am I  to know that I am acting i n a manner which w i l l r e s u l t i n the things ^produced being as Valuable as possible?  Furthermore, how does one know when  things are as valuable as possible?  The f u t i l i t y  of t h i s type of moral command becomes f u l l y apparent when one i s asked, "What does the word value mean?, which comes to the same thing, "What i s the meaning of an assertion which ascribes a certain value to an object?" One must state exactly under what empirical conditions the proposition "This object i s valuable" i s true, and under what conditions i t i s f a l s e . I f one cannot state these conditions, then the proposition i s a meaningless combination of words". 2  1. 2.  S c h l i c k , Problems of E t h i c s , p. 101. S c h l i c k , Problems o f E t h i c s , p. 101.  - 12 -  H o w e v e r , i t i s n a t u r a l t o want objective  criterion  asserts,for  t o g i v e an  f o r o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s , t h u s one  example:  "Whatever c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e creation o f s p i r i t u a l possessions i s v a l u a b l e . B u t what s h a l l p a s s f o r the s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s can o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h some s t a n d a r d . I t cannot i t s e l f determine the standard. I f i n o r d e r t o escape the c i r c l e , one a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e s what s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d b y s p i r i t u a l possessions, that determination w o u l d be a r b i t r a r y ; a t b e s t one would have produced the d e f i n i t i o n o f a concept based upon o p i n i o n , whioh one d e c i d e s t o c a l l v a l u e : but t h i s would n o t o f f e r a c r i t e r i o n f f o r t h a t w h i c h we a l l mean when we u s e t h e word v a l u e . " 1  T h u s , we "the  c a n go a l o n g w i t h S c h l i c k  i n rejecting  theory o f objective values". "A f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r l i e s i n t h e b a s i s o f t h e whole a t t e m p t : i t consists i n seeking value d i s t i n c t i o n s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e f a c t s themselves without r e f e r e n c e to the a c t s o f p r e f e r e n c e and s e l e c t i o n , t h r o u g h w h i c h a l o n e v a l u e s come into the w o r l d " . 2  I . S c S I i e k , Problems o f E t h i c s . p . 104. 2. I b i d . , p. 104. "  - 13 /  Let us f o r arguement's sake assume that there i s a hierarchy of objective values wholly independ ent of our f e e l i n g s .  Value w i l l become a property  of objects, qualifying them i n various forms ( f o r example, b e a u t i f u l , good, sublime, and so forth) and i n d i f f e r e n t degrees.  A l l these properties  would form a system o f values, i n each case occupying a s p e c i f i c object.  The only interest  which could be taken i n a realm of t h i s sort would be s c i e n t i f i c . , I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know that things contain i n addition to other properties, those subscribed by the various a b s o l u t i s t i c theories as c r i t e r i o n s of value. But i f asked, what t h e i r objective values mean?, one could only reply that they constitute guiding l i n e s of conduct.  I f the question were pursued  by asking, what would happen I f one does not comply?, the only conceivable reply would be that one i s not acting i n an orthodox manner and therefore i s not a good man.  Since the "absolute good"  i s independent of our d e s i r e s , f e e l i n g s , etc., i t follows that even i f i t made one extremely unhappy to follow the doctrine of the absolutists,' they would s t i l l have to i n s i s t that one should obey those selfsame doctrines.  1 4  -  Immanuel Reason,  Kant,  defines  in  that  his  which  -  Critique  of  he  the  c a l l s  P r a c t i c a l "absolute  I ought".  In  absolute  but  dissertation  authority  conceivable i s  that  only  determined  in  in  not  autonomously  by  binding.  moral  I t  terms  a  of  expresses  thy  w i l l  morality  "good  i s  w i l l "  whioh  desires  reason  which  i s  law Kant  calls  the  act  may  that  particular  i t s e l f  the  stated  of  the  by  This  imperative":  of  of  law  "categorical maxim  world  causally  universally law.  the  he  be  in i n  the  form  such  accepted  a  of  way  as  a  that  the  2  principle  of  motive  to  moral  i s  consciousness  the  reverence moral but  a  and  i s  universal  the  precepts appears  and  us  to  do  me  do  i t . "  1 .  Greene, Charles  2.  Ibid.,  as  an  an  which  as  3 3 8 .  of to  i t  duty aot  from  empirical  feeling,  can  of  Selections, Sons, 1 9 2 9 .  the  source,  be k n o w n These  demands This  i s  which  for  necessary* of  sole  Reverence  presupposes  Therefore  The  i n t e l l e c t u a l  an."oughts •  M.G., Kant Scribner»s p.  law.  character  something*  sense  obligation  feeling  the  the  not  ,1s  therefore  ought to  of  whioh haB  only  have to  ;  is  moral  however,  feeling  p r i o r i "  action  for the  law,  l e g i s l a t i o n .  and  meaning  "a moral each " I  "someone the  wants  essence  New Y o r k , p. 3 3 8 .  of  - 15 -  the Imperative to be "hypothetical".  Perhaps  Kant i n wishing to avoid the hypothetical, explained that the "ought" proceeded from no "other"; that i t i s an absolute ought, and the e t h i c a l command i s a categorical, not a conditional, imperative. But we have seen that a r e l a t i o n to a power which expresses i t s desires i s e s s e n t i a l to the concept o f the "ought",  just  as essential as the relationship to some conditions (sanctions) i s for the concept of the imperative. Thus, f o r example, the concept "father" i s defined as r e l a t i v e to children; an absolute father would be,nonsense.  On that basis we are quite j u s t i f i e d  i n disregarding the concept o f the absolute ought". "Thus we conclude*, i f there were values which were absolute" i n the sense that they had nothing to do with our f e e l i n g s , they would cons t i t u t e an independent realm which would enter into the world o f our v o l i t i o n and a c t i o n at no point; f o r i t would be as i f an impenetrable wall shut them o f f from us. L i f e would proceed as i f they did not e x i s t ; and for ethios they would not e x i s t . But i f the values, i n addition to and without i n j u r i n g t h e i r absolute existence, also had the power o f influencing our f e e l i n g s , then they would enter into our world; but only i n so f a r as they thus affected us.  Hence values also exist f o r e t h i c s only to the extent that they make themselvewrfelt, that i s are r e l a t i v e to us. And i f a p h i l osopher says, "Of course, "but they also have an absolute existence, "then we know that t h e i r words add nothing new to the v e r i f i a b l e f a c t s , and therefore they are empty, and t h e i r assertion meaningless. 1  The absolutist may now say, " I f there are no absolute values i n accordance with which we make value judgements,:' then what are the standards i n accordance with which judgements are made?" Answering t h i s query necessitates taking certain factors into consideration.  I.  Schlick, Problems o f E t h i c s , p. 119.  - 17 /  Chapter I I I RELATIVE VALUES IN VALUE THEORY I t i s undisputed t h a t men have d e s i r e s , i n t e r e s t s , hopes, admirations; c h o i c e s . Whether the a s s o r t e d and  admirations should  l a r g e l y a question t h a t the question  and t h a t they make o b j e c t s o f such i n t e r e s t s  be c a l l e d v a l u e s , may be  o f terminology; but i t i s c l e a r a t i s s u e i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f value  i s not reached u n t i l one asks whether some o b j e c t s o f d e s i r e are b e t t e r than  others.  P e r r y approaches t h i s problem by a s k i n g whether there  are r e l e v a n t reasons f o r choosing some o b j e c t s  o f i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than o t h e r s . He a s s e r t s that any  d i s c u s s i o n , o p i n i o n , o r even s o l i t a r y  speculation  employs, t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree, r e l a t i v e reasons and s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n . "Though i t Is impossible to d e f i n e " r e l e v a n t r e a s o n s * , t h i s concept i s not p e c u l i a r to value and the theory  t h e o r y but i s b a s i c i n l o g i c 1  o f knowledge."  One f i n d s t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g made between reasons which are r e l e v a n t t o the matter i n hand, and those which are i r r e l e v a n t . 1. P e r r y , C. M.,"The A r b i t r a r y as B a s i s f o r R a t i o n a l M o r a l i t y " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f E t h i c s . 1933, p. 130.  -18/  Although obtuseness i n regard to what c o n s t i t u t e s r e l e v a n t or s u f f i c i e n t reason i s not uncommon, s t i l l one cannot a f f i r m a complete ignorance of these concepts. " I f the problem o f value i s posed by asking whether i t i s possible to f i n d relevant and s u f f i c i e n t reasons f o r making choices, then there i s no doubt that an a f f i r m a t i v e answer must be given*! 1  Further development o f t h i s trend s h a l l s u f f i c e as i l l u s t r a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n between judgements based on s u f f i c i e n t reason, and judgements made i n accordance w i t h u l t i m a t e  principles.  The Ten Commandments o f the ancient Hebrews i s a code of conduct which i s b e l i e v e d by many to have been handed down from the seat of d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y and has a u t h o r i t y a t a l l times and i n a l l places. I n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s  absolutistic  view, the r e l a t i v i s t s believe that igod,d and e v i l are r e l a t i v e to the conditions o f the time and p l a c e , and that an act which i s good i n one place and time w i l l be e v i l i n another. For example, a maniac i s chasing a man with the i n t e n t t o k i l l him. The man passes us and turns t o the r i g h t 1. Perry,"The A r b i t r a r y as Basis f o r R a t i o n a l M o r a l i t y " , p. 100.  -19/  dissappearing. w h i c h way t h a t he an  h i s intended  tunned l e f t ,  innocent No  Then t h e  is  unable  at  h a n d . But  leads  and  thereby  should  arrive  at  some  c o n c l u s i o n may  to s e t t l e this  should  be  The  put  the  the  problem w i t h  the  be  be  time  human b e i n g s ,  at  accepted  that value  have  assumed  principles by a l l  o r good  should  same f o r e v e r y o n e . I n t h i s manner v a l u e  relevant  and  who  f o r the  and  beliefs.  s u f f i c i e n t to a r a t i o n a l time b e i n g  proper  discarded  distinction  i s between  j u d g e m e n t s b a s e d on  reason.  problem o f value  I f the  c h o i c e , and  i f the  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  human  a l l his  j u d g e m e n t s and  for  problem  being.  must a r r i v e be  and  t h a t more  o r t h a t the  f o r the  of value  evidence  aimed a t d i s c o v e r i n g r e a s o n s w h i c h would  The  of  person  i s a conclusion;  obtained  of v a l u a t i o n which should  has  life  conclusion. that  in itself  aside  a theory  the  say  a normal  m a j o r i t y o f w r i t e r s upon v a l u e  reasonable  asks  would  save the  t o a n o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n , s u c h as  evidence  and  v i c t i m e went. We  m a t t e r what p r o b l e m i s p r o p o s e d  S o m e t i m e s the  be  comes up  man.  human m i n d w i l l  that  maniac  finding  existence  of  theory  be being  prejudices  arbitrary  sufficient  i s to  find  reasons  o f such reasons i s certain  beliefs  -20-  and  pnrposes,  then  a good r e a s o n m i g h t be person,  f o r one  irrelevant  person  to the  o r a r e a s o n why  different  t o choose  choice of  he  choice. Despite  encouraged that  i t ife e v i d e n t t h a t what  that different  another  i t i s quite  Consequently,  people  will  agree  t h e r e i s no in their  j u d g e m e n t s must a g r e e ,  this  to  the e x t e n t  judgements are  of  a common  purpose.  Thus, the  relativist,  strates  unlikely  same d e s i r e s and  j u d g e m e n t s . T h o u g h i t i s assumed t h a t  t h a t the  way  the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s  s h o u l d have t h e  moral p r i n c i p l e s .  i n one  s h o u l d make some q u i t e  by modern c u l t u r e s ,  a l l people  constitutes  gaurantee  value  rational  b e l i e f applies only  in ethical  the  result  theory,  demon-  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l the meanings which  are a t t r i b u t e d  to, b e i n g t h e  e x a c t meaning o f  the  "•good" a r e r e a l l y o n l y s p e c i e s o f a common g e n u s . "We i d e n t i f y goodness w i t h t h i s .common genus and show t h a t a s v a r i o u s systems o f geometry are to the g e n e r i c m e a n i n g o f g e o m e t r y , so a l s o a r e t h e v a r i o u s meanings o f g o o d n e s s ( v a l u e systems) t o the meaning o f g e n e r i c goodness.^'  1. a a v e r y , B . , " R e l a t i v i t y v e r s u s A b s o l u t i s m i n V a l u e - T h e o r y " . . J o u r n a l o f P h i l o s o p h y , 1941, p .  157,  -21-  'i'o t h e r e l a t i v i s t ,  this  common g e n u s t o w h i c h  the meanings o f t h e e m p i r i c a l a b s o l u t i s t s is  the g e n e r i c p r o p e r t y " b e i n g  belong  an e n d o f a c t i o n " .  T h i s end o f a c t i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d  1  t o mean, *• t h a t  property o r s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s which i s the 2 standard  i n t e r m s o f w h i c h we make o u r e v a l u a t i o n s ' * .  T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t o n e ' s l i f e measured by v a r y i n g v a l u e - s y s t e m s . is  c a n n o t be  A value-sytern  a way oifi l i f e , and t h e r e a r e many ways, "The v a l u e - s y s t e m u s e d w i l l depend on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l i v i n g b e i n g a n d t h e t a s k a t hand.. The t a s k a t h a n d depends upon what t h e p e r s o n w o u l d be d o i n g i f he were d o i n g what he r e a l l y w a n t e d t o do, and h i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g i t . * 3  An as Let of  a n a l y s i s o f contemporary s o c i e t i e s w i l l  grounds f o r our acceptance us i l l u s t r a t e . l a w , we  o f value  relativity.  I f we b e l i e v e i n due  cannot p r a c t i c e  when most o f o u r n e i g h b o r s  our b e l i e f  process  very  well  see n o t h i n g wrong i n  l y n c h l a w . I f we t h i n k t h e e q u a l i t y o f s e x e s we  cannot  go v e r y f a r t o w a r d  members o f t h e o p p o s i t e  serve  our i d e a l  ideal,  when  s e x a r e u n w i l l i n g t o be  t r e a t e d a s e q u a l s . The e x i s t e n c e o f m o r a l disagreements, practical 1. p. 2. 3.  therefore raises  a very  serious  problem.  Savery, B . , " R e l a t i v i t y 156. I b i d . , p. 156. I b i d . , p . 157.  vs Absolutism  in  Value-Theory",  - 22  and  -  Our m o r e s ' a r e t h e  c u s t o m s o f w h i c h we  whose v i o l a t i o n we  r e s e n t . What o u r  t e l l s us belong  t o do,  t o . Our  childhood  training  and  by  the  conscious  conscience  d e p e n d s upon what s o c i a l sense o f v a l u e s  b r o u g h t upon us  are  group  i s directed pressures  we  by  t h a t were  t o c o n f o r m t o t h e ways o f  the  group.  may  Evidence  o f the  be  i n an e n d l e s s  found  Anthropological g r o u p has  surveys  r e g a r d i n g some  human  sex  t h i n k i t wrong f o r example, i f a  o r ( i n some i n s t a n c e s  cousin. Each o f these  ) his  whom we  first  the  would consider  commit a s o c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d  crime  by  relatives  Nearly half  o f the  are  been  other  eligible attempting  i n t h e w i l d s o f A u s t r a l i a t o an  where d i s t a n t  man  his  p o s s i b l e matches has  somewhere a t some t i m e . On  hand, p e r s o n s  marriage  o f moral- codes.  h i s mother, h i s s i s t e r , h i s aunt,  daughter,  approved  variety  notions  show us t h a t e v e r y  a unique p o l i c y  p r o b l e m . We marries  r e l a t i v i t y of moral  aboriginal,  ineligible.  primitive  tribes  allow  husband o r w i f e  to o b t a i n a d i v o r c e ; about  f o u r t h give the  privilige  exclusively  one  to the  a few make i t t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e w i f e ;  either  husband;  the  rest  23  do  not allow divorce at a l l , 1  extraordinary  conditions.  chaotic disagreements Amongst  o r only  under  T h e r e a r e many  other  on questions o f s e x .  some g r o u p s o f E s k i m o s t h e r u l e s  p i t a l i t y have r e q u i r e d a h o s t  o f hos-  t o l e t guests  s l e e p w i t h h i s w i f e ; i f t h e o f f e r was r e f u s e d , t h e g u e s t was s u s p e c t e d o f i l l w i l l . Amongst the North American I n d i a n s homosexuality i s 2 accepted. I f we a r e amazed a n d s h o c k e d  by t h e s e  strange  c u s t o m s , o u r ways a r e j u s t  as d i s g u s t i n g t o those  who j a r o u r s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  I n some p a r t s o f I n d i a ,  o n l y a l o o s e woman w i l l  s h a k e hands w i t h  a man  who i s n o t h e r h u s b a n d . I n many p a r t s o f t h e o r i e n t , kissing  i s d i s g r a c e f u l . The i d e a o f young  people's  d e m a n d i n g t o c h o o s e t h e i r own m a t e s i s r e j e c t e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l f r a c t i o n  o f humanity as 3  insufferably in  impertinent.  contempt f r o m  The P u e b l o s  would  recoil  our practice  o f a l l o w i n g menst4 r u a t i n g women t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . 1. H o b h o u s e , M o r a l s i n E v o l u t i o n . H e n r y H o l t & Co.*, 1928, p . 152. 2. B e n e d i c t , R u t h , P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e , M e n t o r B o o k s , 1948, p . 2 4 3 . 3. P e l , P e a s a n t L i f e i n C h i n a , New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n Co., 1945, p . 4 2 . 4. B e n e d i c t , P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e , p . 110.  - 24  -  The v a r i a t i o n o f m o r a l i d e a s but the  v a r i a t i o n i s between  within groups. violation of morality  is  and  W i t h i n a community,  the  from  convince  the  sincere  a s we a r e  tween good and  is  He f a i l s  comparative, premises  that  are  wishes  the  approximately  to maintain  to r e a l i z e  o f eac^h s y s t e m .  that  system o f value that  v a l i d only i n terms  of  To argue  that,  better  is  within a given tween  area,  Individuals  The system o f lives.  Desiresvary with  that  one  Acceptance  a n d so m u c h m o r e s o  we a c c e p t  Is  each i n d i v i d u a l  living in different  value  a  the  r  s y s t e m o f yaluez-s.be t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r s y s t e m meaningless.  field  i n their discrimination be-  i s one and o n l y one  best.  rule.  bad.  The a b s o l u t i s t there  traditional  checked  anthropoligist  members o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s as  not  exception r a t h e r than the  Furthermore, hundreds o f c a r e f u l l y studies  extreme;  groups  custom and d i s s e n t the  is  is  is a matter of  basic  be-  cultures. to  our.  preference.  - 25  -  CHAPTER T7 "MEANS - ENDS" PROBLEM Before e s t a b l i s h i n g the postulates o f a system compatible with our way o f l i f e , we may eliminate further d i f f i c u l t y by making an analysis of the "means" "ends" problem.  That men have  values means that men s t r i v e i n a certain d i r e c t i o n , they so orient t h e i r conduct as to achieve t h e i r aims.  Now, e f f o r t arises because man has to over-  come d i f f i c u l t i e s , choice arises when there are alternate goals.  Between the phenomena of ehoice  and the attainment of ends, l i e the tasks that constitute the means. The r e l a t i o n o f means and ends i s fundamental i n e t h i c a l theory.  While we aim a t certain ends,  the means i s something we choose because o f the results i t w i l l yield.  But we do not o r d i n a r i l y  evaluate means s imply i n terms o f whether they w i l l achieve a proposed goal, but also how well they w i l l do so. This involves comparing the; o r i g i n a l end i n mind, with ends implioit i n the means.  Furthermore, the end must also be estim-  ated i n teims of the values i n the predicted consequences o f i t s achievement.  I t i s not enough  that we want something and can get i t ; we must  -  26  -  consider the effects of our having i t upon.our lives and the  livew of others.  The end, then,  is evaluated in terms of the consequences to which i t leads. The old controversy engendered by the maxim "The end justifies the means'* is worthy of 1  consideration at this point. Obviously this depends on the end, the price needed to attain the desired end, and the consequences which will result from the attainment of the desired end. In many a European country under Nazi subjection men were compelled: to use any and every device In order to further their national liberation. For they realized that with such liberation most of the values to which they held would be permanently out of reach. On the other hand, in our society, the means they employed to achieve their ends would be condemned as unlawful and unethical i f employed in everyday association with our neighbors.  Clearly questions of the justification  of means and ends have to be considered concretely in the light of ends held and means available, in order that the evaluation may be of the total activity and i t s consequences.  -  27  -  CHAPTER 7 ESTABLISHMENT OP FIRST PRINCIPLES I.  The generic end which we aim to achieve i n our western democracies i s founded on the U t i l i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e of "the greatest amount of happiness for.the greatest number o f people". Many things can contribute to the happiness of us a l l . Wealth can contribute to i t . A r i s i n g standard o f l i v i n g w i l l increase l e i s u r e , reduce the physical fatigue o f labour, bring comfort and health to a growing proportion of our fellow human beings.  Wealth, properly  d i s t r i b u t e d , can tear down the slums, drive back the diseases o f malnutrition, open a new realm to those who now lack these elementary n e c e s s i t i e s . S o c i a l equality could c e r t a i n l y increase our joy in living.  I t would rob wealth o f i t s g u i l t , and  take away the sense o f shame that must haunt those of us who are r i c h enough to enjoy l i f e i n the present s o c i a l order  - the shame that arises from  the thought that so many are denied, through poverty, an access to the means of happiness that  -  we possess.  28  A sense of j u s t i c e i s necessary to  a l l our happiness i n society.  In the disoussion whioh follows, as advocates of Democratic Socialism, we  s h a l l s t r i v e towards  those ends which guarantee the greatest amount of s o c i a l j u s t i c e that can be made possible within our means.  During the recent war,  one o f the most commonly  heard slogans wan "Give me l i b e r t y or give me death'*, The American Declaration of Independence states that people are e n t i t l e d to l i f e , liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.  B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n a l History  reveals a continual struggle f o r i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y . What do men mean when they declare liber ty t h e i r object? To a large degree the concept of l i b e r t y i s negative i n character: restraints.  removal of obstacles or  Yet., the idea of r e s t r a i n t implies a  d i r e c t i o n o f s t r i v i n g , a p o s i t i v e goal which struggle to eliminate.  men  Thus a p o s i t i v e concept i s  contained i m p l i c i t l y i n a negative  idea.  -  29  -  The negative aspect o f l i b e r t y i s found on h i s t o r i c a l analysis to be basic to most revolutionary struggles. The American War o f Independence was provoked by a r b i t r a r y B r i t i s h taxation. The French Revolution aimed at l i b e r t y from a host of feudal and semi-feudal r e s t r i c t i o n s .  The Communist  Manifesto c a l l s upon workers to unite — "The I  proletarians have nothing to lose but t h e i r chains**. Every age has witnessed the attempts o f men to eliminate those obstacles which prevent the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f basic needs.  The obstacles were either  r i g o r s o f the p h y s i c a l enviornment o r s o c i a l arrangements which,caused undue s u f f e r i n g . The removal o f such impediments formed the s p e c i f i c content o f struggles f o r l i b e r t y . On the other hand, the p o s i t i v e aspect o f l i b e r t y refers to the conditions which make the achievment o f desired goals possible.  To the  American Negro l i b e r t y means equal opportunities f o r employment and the r i g h t t o a standard of l i v i n g the equivalent o f h i s white neighbors.  I.  L a s k i , H.J"., Communist Manifesto. London, George A l l e n & Unwin Ltd., 1948, p. 168.  -  30  -  The Russian peasant i n 1917 was interested p r i m a r i l y i n land-ownership free from T s a r i s t burdens.  I n the Frendh Revolution the peasant  requested s o i l unburdened by forced levies; the poor of Paris wanted bread and work; the middle class desired freedom to buy and s e l l on the open market. The various r e s t r a i n t s imposed by society on human action have l e d men;' to seek a formula which would s u f f i c e as a guide toward r i g h t f u l conduct.  Such a formula would constitute a  p r i n c i p l e o f general s o c i a l l i b e r t y .  John Stuart  M i l l expressed the formula as "the greatest happiness o f the greatest number*. M i l l poses the general problem as "the nature and l i m i t s of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the I individual".  H i s account i s worthy of consider-  ation f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y important for the impetus i t gave l i b e r a t i n g movements; and secondly, I t provides a l i b e r a l framework o f approach to problems o f s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I.  M i l l , J.Sv, On L i b e r t y . London, Longmans, Green, and Co., -1931. p. 6,  -  M i l l ' s p r i n c i p l e may criterion offered be  be  31  -  regarded  to legislators,  i n v o k e d when t h e y  are about  as a g e n e r a l educators,  to  t o frame l a w s  or  e x e r c i s e o t h e r s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t any of  an i n d i v i d u a l o r In  Mill  group.  h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e e s s a y "On  clearly  activity  Liberty",  o u t l i n e s t h e e n d s w h i c h he b e l i e v e s  society i s struggling to achieve.  Thus:  "The o b j e c t o f t h i s E s s a y i s t o a s s e r t one v e r y s i m p l e p r i n c i p l e , as e n t i t l e d to govern a b s o l u t e l y the d e a l i n g s o f s o c i e t y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e way o f c o m p u l s i o n and c o n t r o l , w h e t h e r the means u s e d be p h y s i c a l f o r c e i n t h e form o f l e g a l p e n a l t i e s , o r the moral coercion of public opinion. That p r i n c i p l e i s , t h a t the s o l e end f o r w h i c h mankind a r e w a r r a n t e d , i n d i v i d u a l l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y , i n i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e l i b e r t y o f a c t i o n o f any o f t h e i r number, i s s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n . T h a t t h e o n l y p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h power c a n be r i g h t f u l l y e x e r c i s e d o v e r any member o f a c i v i l i z e d community, a g a i n s t h i s w i l l , i s t o p r e v e n t harm t o o t h e r s . H i s own g o o d , w i t h e r p h y s i c a l o r moral, i s not a s u f f i c i e n t warrant. He c a n n o t r i g h t f u l l y be c o m p e l l e d t o do o r f o r e b e a r b e o a u s e i t w i l l be b e t t e r f o r h i m t o do s o , b e c a u s e i t w i l l make h i m h a p p i e r , because, i n the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s , to do so w o u l d be w i s e , o r e v e n r i g h t . T h e s e a r e good r e a s o n s f o r remonstrating with him, o r r e a s o n i n g w i t h him, o r p e r s u a d i n g h i m , o r e n t r e a t i n g him, but n o t f o r c o m p e l l i n g him, o r  - 32 -  v i s i t i n g him with any e v i l i n ease he do otherwise. To j u s t i f y that, the conduct from which i t i s desired to deter him, must be calculated to produce e v i l to some one e l s e . The only part of the conduct o f any one, f o r whioh he i s amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns himself, h i s independence i s , o f r i g h t , absolute. Over himself, over h i s own body and min§, the i n d i v i d u a l i s sovereign" . In applying h i s theory, M i l l i s consistent i n p l a c i n g the burden o f proof on the accusers whether i n d i v i d u a l o r government - who urge interference with man's actions.  Thus, according  to M i l l , a man has economic l i b e r t y , l i b e r t y o f thought, speech, p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y , action i n any d i r e c t i o n he may d e s i r e , subject only to someone else's j u s t i f i a b l e complaint.  The state i s  destined to l e g i s l a t e according to experience; thus, thos^e  questions which give r i s e to  complaints are to be dealt witb|in the l i m i t a t i o n s of the "greatest good f o r the greatest number".  I.  M i l l , tl.S., On L i b e r t y , p. 6 .  - 33  -  However, conduct i s not to be judged a r b i t r a r i l y . M i l l says:  "There are many who consider as an i n j u r y  to themselves any conduct which they have distaste f o r , and resent i t as an outrage to t h e i r feelings; as a r e l i g i o u s bigot, when qharged with disregarding the f e e l i n g s o f others, has been known to retort that they disregard h i s f e e l i n g s , by i n s i s t i n g i n t h e i r abominable worship or creed".  1  On these grounds M i l l  against a l l wholesale p r o h i b i t i o n s .  argues  Puritans, "have  endeavoured w i t h considerable success, to put down a l l p u b l i c , and nearly a l l private amusements .... How w i l l the remaining portion o f the community l i k e to have amusements that s h a l l be permitted t o them regulated by the r e l i g i o u s and moral sentiments of the s t r i c t e r C a l v i n i s t s and Methodists?  Would they  not, with considerable disgust desire these i n t r u s i v e l y pious members o f society to mind t h e i r own business?  This i s precisely what should be said to  every government and every p u b l i c , who have the pretension that no person s h a l l enjoy any pleasure 2 they think wrong"?  1.  Ibid, p. 49.  2.  M i l l , J.S., On L i b e r t y, p. 51.  -  34  On t h e s e grounds, M i l l argues, i f you oan o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t proof that a man who spends f l a g r a n t l y on intoxicants i s depriving h i s family o f n e c e s s i t i e s , and that consequently they are undergoing undue hardship, i t i s not an infringement of i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y to p r o h i b i t h i s drinking.  But otherwise,  the choice o f whether, o r not to consume l i q u o r , i s any man's own.  On the other  hand, M i l l  recognized  offenses against decency as adequate grounds f o r r e s t r a i n t ; further, many actions, not i n themselves condemnable are objectionable i f performed i n p u b l i c . M i l l demands absolute l i b e r t y i n thought and discussion.  To silence expression of opinion i s to  rob p o s t e r i t y .  The opinion under attack may be true,  to suppress i t i s , therefore, an unwarranted assumpt i o n of i n f a l l i b i l i t y ,  i t i s one thing to act on  p r o b a b i l i t i e s - because action i s necessary - and quite another to suppress an opposing view because one's own appears probably true.  Man was not  destined to have complete truth and therefore, i t s best chance f o r development l i e s i n c o n f l i c t with opposing ideas.  - 35  On  the  o t h e r h a n d , e v e n when one  convinced that is  false,  the  opinion  i t does n o t  justified.  The  hold.  opinions Mill  tend  recognized  liberty of the  l i b e r t y of  he  urges the  tend  the  t o be  opinions  the  the  are  dogma  d i s c u s s i o n so v a l u a b l e  action.  gathered  as  or  same r e a s o n s w h i c h make  As  point  a paractical principle  widest d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f  be  true  reasons f o r  held  is  t o become s e c t a r i a n .  consistent with e f f i c i e n c y , information  suppress  of a l l opinions,  i f contrary  that  t h o u g h t and  to  totally  i s tempted t o  conscious of  Finally,  will  is  follow that i t s suppression  suppressed, b e l i e f s w i l l and  one  discussions  o t h e r w i s e , make u s v i e w s we  -  but  he  power  also urges  that  from a c e n t r a l s o u r c e ,  c o r r e l a t i o n o f knowledge i s n e c e s s a r y  since  f o r i t s rapid  advance. We immune  must not  from a t t a c k .  in Mill*s  conception  man  as  his  society.  r o l e of the  assume t h a t M i l l * s p r i n c i p l e s a r e T h e r e I s a f u n d a m e n t a l weakness o f the  individual.  He  treats  an i s o l a t e d e n t i t y r a t h e r t h a n a p r o d u c t  the  He  seemingly f a i l s  i n t e r r a c t i o n of men  individual. very  to appreciate  lishing  the  i n t e r e s t s and  faction  constitute happiness.  the  i n the molding  This process i s e s s e n t i a l i n d e s i r e s whose Once t h i s  fact  of  of estab-  satisis  - 36  recognized, large scale remolding  o f men's  c h a r a c t e r tlntrough s o c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d means becomes p o s s i b l e . However, i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h e v a l u e s Mill  was s t r i v i n g  t o secure  c a n be m a i n t a i n e d  s y s t e m o p e r a t i n g *-V« i n a c c o r d a n c e  which  by a  with h i s funda-  I mental p r i n c i p l e s . selfish  pursuit  that dissapointed competitors  l e g a l o r m o r a l r i g h t t o immunity f r o m  suffering unless force.  Thus M i l l  immediately thus  he r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e  o f o n e ' s e n d s may b r i n g i n j u r y t o  o f c h e r s , he d e n i e s any  Although  such  t h e r e h a s been f r a u d , t r e a c h e r y , o r advocates  Free-Trade.  a f t e r w a r d he s a y s  trade  But  Is a social act,  removing i t from t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s  principle. that "both  have  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he t a k e s  liberty  i t f o r granted  t h e c h e a p n e s s and t h e g o o d q u a l i t y o f  commodities a r e most . e f f e c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r by leaving  the producers  under t h e sole  and s e l l e r s  c h e c k .of e q u a l  perfectly  free,  freedom t o the buyers  2 for that  s u p p l y i n g themselves  a n d he a s s e r t s  t h i s v i e w r e s t s on g r o u n d s d i f f e r e n t  "though e q u a l l y s o l i d i n d i v i d u a l liberty". 1. 2. 3.  elsewhere",  from,  with, the p r i n c i p l e o f  3  M i l l , J . S . , On L i b e r t y , p . 56. I b i d , p . 56. M i l l , J . S., p . 6 5 .  - 37 -  Economic Liberty, i n M i l l * s sense, the right to buy what one chooses, s e l l what one chooses, and to compete i n buying and s e l l i n g , i s possessed by very few people today.  At t h i s very date there are  four hundred thousand unemployed In Canada. are  They  at l i b e r t y to s e l l t h e i r labour at a l i v i n g  wage, but with no buyers at that price, t h e i r l i b e r t y has l i t t l e meaning.  Unemployment insurance  has been attacked on the ground t hatjliberty has been s a c r i f i c e d f o r the sake of s e c u r i t y .  However,  e x i s t i n g evidence disposes o f t h i s argument, f o r the  withholding o f interference by the governmert  may mean l i b e r t y f o r the employer, but on the other hand, the case of the employee i s p r e c i s e l y the opposite. This leads us to the problem of Unionism. Unionism means the r e s t r i c t i o n o f c e r t a i n powers of the  employer —  such as the right to dismiss employees  a r b i t r a r i l y , o r to work h i s employees long hours.  The  unions are continually undergoing attack on the grounds that they c u r t a i l economic l i b e r t y .  The defenders o f  unionism declare that the growth o f labour unions points i n the d i r e c t i o n o f equalizing bargaining power and so gives workers i n t h e i r organizations a greater share of economic l i b e r t y .  - 38  -  Economic l i b e r t y i s thus redefined i n terms of  the dominant values of most men  activity.  i n t h e i r economic  Employment means earning power which i n  turn provides the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e .  The obstacles  which impede t h i s achievment become of prime importance, and t h e i r removal i s an advancement i n economic liberty.  These obstacles arise out of decreased  production, i n s u f f i c i e n t bargaining power, end other factors i n close association with the two mentioned. Hence steps taken by the government to remedy these situations are l i b e r a t i n g rather than r e s t r i c t i v e , and should properly be referred t o as supplements of economic l i b e r t y . Should the government tolerate freedom <f speech and press regardless of what p o s i t i o n they may  take?  For example, should a press that publishes and advocates propoganda contradictory to the p r i n c i p l e s we uphold, be allowed f u l l freedom?  We may  suggest  that the danger l i e s i n r e s t r i c t i n g , f o r the suppression of intermediate groups, then of a l l l i b e r a l opinion, and f i n a l l y a l l p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t i e s dissappear.  For the growth of a minority view i s  usually i n d i c a t i v e of serious s o c i a l dislocations rather than too much l i b e r t y of expression. may  suggest that the suppression o f c i v i l  We  liberties  39  -  defeats i t s own purpose, and therefore, attention should be directed against the e v i l s out of whioh t h i s dissension a r i s e s . We may r e a d i l y agree with the view presented by M i l l :  thus;  " I f c i v i l i z a t i o n has got the b e t t e r of barbarism when barbarism had the world to i t s e l f , i t i s too much to profess to be a f r a i d l e s t barbarism, a f t e r having been f a i r l y got under, should revive and conquer c i v i l i z ation that can t>hus succumb to i t s vanquished enemy, must have f i r s t • become so degenerate, that neither i t s appointed p r i e s t s and teachers, nor anybody e l s e , has the capacity, or w i l l .take the trouble to stand up f o r i t . I f this be so, the sooner such a c i v i l i z a t i o n receives notice to quit, the b e t t e r " . 1  Limitations of freedom o f speech are, o f course, necessary where there i s immediate danger.  During  the course of a war, freedom o f speech does not include the r i g h t to broadcast information  valuable  to the enemy, nor to .spread capriscious rumours favourable  to t h e promotion o f s t r i f e and i n t e r n a l  disorder.  Such acts would be punishable as  seditious.  We may r e a d i l y appreciate  the necessity  of laws forbidding s e d i t i o n and l i b e l , but those accusations  coming under those concepts must be  well f o u n d e d , otherwise they can be extended to include a l l opposition to those In authority. I.  M i l l , J.S., On Liber ty. p. 55.  - 40  Perhaps is for  -  the most fundamental a s p e c t  i t s economic b a s i s .  The  economic s e c u r i t y has  realization  Aristotle writes:  or indeed  l i v e a t a l l , u n l e s s he I  "no  man  i s provided  President Roosvelt's  o f August 14,  of the  can l i v e  1941,  tba  with  with  fullest  economic  the o b j e c t o f s e c u r i n g , f o r a l l ,  labour standards, 2  well,  Atlantic  speaks o f "the  c o l l a b o r a t i o n between a l l n a t i o n s i n t h e field  need  celebrated Four  F r e e d o m s i n c l u d e f r e e d o m f r o m w a n t , and Charter  liberty-  p e r s i s t e d throughout  history.  necessities".  of  e c o n o m i c a d j u s t m e n t and .  improved  social  security". ,i  Economic s e c u r i t y  general  social liberty.  conducive by  to h e a l t h f u l  a l l major n a t i o n s  Nations, aid  i s o n l y one The living  i s widely  urgent  The  recognized United  necessity f o r medical  t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d , made i t one  objectives  o f i t s prime  to e n c o u r a g e t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge i n t h i s f i e l d . trialists to  having  a productive  realized  of  necessity of conditions  o f the w o r l d .  r e a l i z i n g the  o f the a s p e c t s  and Indus-  that health i s indispensible  economy and  have i m p r o v e d  working  1.  McKeon, R i c h a r d , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r i s t o t l e . New Y o r k , M o d e r n L i b r a r y , 1947, p . 558.  2.  A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r . London, H i s M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , M a r c h 9, 1944.  - 41 -  conditions.  Thus, v a c a t i o n s , moderate hours o f  labour, parks, medical all  belong  service,  t o the concept  Similarly,  education  a highly industrialized  social  insurance,  of liberty. i s a prime n e c e s s i t y o f  society.  The U n i t e d  Nations  h a s made p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e advancement o f t h e sciences lagged  and human k n o w l e d g e i n g e n e r a l .  f a r behind  h e r European neighbors i n  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n mainly of  because the v a s t m a j o r i t y  h e r c i t i z e n s were u n e d u c a t e d .  India i s finding  Russia  The g o v e r n m e n t o f  i t exceedingly d i f f i c u l t  t o apply  h e r n e w l y won f r e e d o m b e c a u s e o f t h e i g n o r a n c e prevails  throughout  or s o c i a l rights liberty.  her territories.  which  Thus, p o l i t i c a l  a r e o n l y two o f t h e a s p e c t s o f  We have f o u n d  l i b e r t y t o be a complex w h o l e  w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r i l y d e p e n d e n t on eaoh o f i t s p a r t s . L i b e r t y then,  i s desired f o r the benefits t o -  ward w h i c h i t i s i n s t r u m e n t a l . is  a necessary  right  t o vote  end.  w h e t h e r one v o t e s  i s recognized  at  liberty  will,  this  instance,i t o r not, the  as a v a l u a b l e  S i m i l a r l y , whether o r n o t people their  In this  take  possession.  advantage o f  t o cross i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l  boundaries  f r e e d o m o f movement i s g r e a t l y c h e r i s h e d .  - 42 -  Now, i f we t a k e p o s i t i v e l i b e r t y a s t h e p r o v i s o r of necessary conditions these  conditions  ends.  We  ceivable in  will  f o r leading  a good  life,  beoome i n c o r p o r t a t e d a s  s h a l l argue h e r e i n , route t o our d e s i r e d  that  the only  social  t h e pathway o f d e m o o r a e y , a n d t h a t  order  conlies  the p o l i t i c a l  method o f d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n m e n t i s a n e s s e n t i a l principle social  o f any s o c i e t y i n which  justice  a maximum o f  c a n be a c h i e v e d .  2. At the  this point  sense  used.  i n which  In political  used q u i t e way  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make  dear  t h e t e r m d e m o c r a c y s h a l l be d i s c u s s i o n democracy i s usually-  ambiguously,  I t i s o f t e n used  i n such a  a s t o make ifc synonymous w i t h t h e p h r a s e " t h e  just society".  B e f o r e any such p e r s o n s w i l l  call  any s o c i e t y a d e m o c r a c y , i t must be c o m p l e t e l y f r e e from s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s and economic By u s i n g say,  insecurity.  t h e word i n t h i s way i t i s p o s s i b l e  thatjwe have n o t g o t "democracy *  or America.  1  to . >  i n Britain,  I n none o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s h a s  i n e q u a l i t y , o r i n s e c u t i t y , p a s s e d w h o l l y away.  43 -  Demooracy i n i t s Utopian sense, does not exist withi n these nations.  They only possess c a p i t a l i s t i c  democracy or p o l i t i c a l democracy.  They do not  possess economic democracy. I t i s obvious that the i n s t i t u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l democracy e x i s t s i n some r e a l sense since i t i s possible to distingquish " c a p i t a l i s t from " c a p i t a l i s t dictatorships" . therefore  some souse  democracies'  1  There must be  i n which democracy 'is compat-  ible with capitalism and consequently with economic inequality.  It..is-with t h i s l i m i t e d form o f  p o l i t i c a l democracy, i t s meaning and value, that we are here concerned. Democracy i n t h i s sense consists of c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Ihe f i r s t o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s the a b i l i t y of the people to choose a government. Incorporated within t h i s affirmation i s an appraisal o f the value of human personality.  Disagreement between  individuals i s of the very essence o f human beings. As long as we are d i f f e r e n t persons, tBDerd w i l l be some of us who l i k e c e r t a i n things and some who do not; some who desire one order o f society and some another, some who believe justice t o be r e a l i z e d i n one set ojf circumstances and some who disagree with that judgement.  -  4 4  -  Now the course o f action taken at any moment, and the form of society thus brought slowly into existence, are determined l a r g e l y by the government.  Thei government has i t s hands upon the  controls, and i s therefore the immediate authority determining s o c i a l p o l i c y .  The nature o f the  decisions taken by the government w i l l depend on the character of the persons forming i t . Consequently there oan be no control of the form of society by us, the masses, unless i t i s possible to change the personnel o f the government whenever necessary.  This i s the f i r s t and most obvious  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p o l i t i c a l democracy - the e x i s t ence of a government resposible to t h e people; and the dependence o f i t and the membership o f the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly upon the free vote o f the people . Modern history has taught us in a t the e s s e n t i a l thing to a t t a i n and preserve i s the power of the people to dismiss a government from o f f i c e .  This  negative power i s i n r e a l i t y an important positive power, because ordinary men?;' and women are moved more deeply by the dissaproval o f measures they d i s l i k e  - 45 -  i n p r a c t i c e , than "by t h e i r l e s s d e f i n i t e i d e a s o f , what they d e s i r e i n t h e f u t u r e .  By  the slow t e s t i n g  o f i d e a s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , by r e j e c t i n g a l l t h a t which I s disapproved  o f and  i n s i s t i n g upon the  g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h i n g s found s u i t a b l e  by  e x p e r i e n c e , an i n t e l l i g e n t e l e c t o r a t e u n c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t s a s o c i e t y compatible, w i t h I t s w i s h e s . We may  f i n d i t advantageous t o s t r e s s the  fact  t h a t the negative power to d e s t r o y a government i s p a r t o f the broader r i g h t to choose a government, and  i s perhaps a " p r i n c i p l e o f sustainence"  c o n s t i t u t i n g the sub-stratum,  a necessary  and  fundamental component o f democracy. Ihe r i g h t to choose a government i m p l i e s a second e s s e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n .  I f liberty  i s to e x i s t , i f there i s t o be an a c t u a l dependence of government upon the w i l l of the p e o p l e , the must always have a c h o i c e .  T h i s i m p l i e s the  latter  constant  maintenance o f a c r i t i c a l and e s s e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t o f freedom t o oppose the government of day.  the  I t i s then e s s e n t i a l f o r the e l e c t o r a t e t o have  more than one p o s s i b l e government b e f o r e it,more  than  one p o l i t i c a l p a r t y a b l e t o p l a c e i t s views b e f o r e  - 46  -  the v o t e r s , w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n f r e e to prepare i t s e l f t o take over power, and the government w i l l i n g to surrender i t p e a c e f u l l y a f t e r an e l e c t o r a l d e c i s i o n against i t . The a b s u r d i t y , o f e l e c t o r a l p r a c t i c e s i n modern d i c t a t o r s h i p s , such as those experienced i n H i t l e r i a n Germany and F a s c i s t I t a l y , becomes most apparent. They copied the device o f the General E l e c t i o n , but t h e i r s was a s o r d i d , p i t i f u l and s i l l y l i m i t a t i o n . What was the choice before German or I t a l i a n electorate'?  There was only one p a r t y i n the e l e c t i o n  and therefore the p o s s i b l e formation of only one government.  1  There may be a choice o f i n d i v i d u a l s ,  but there was c e r t a i n l y no choice o f p a r t y , no choice o f government, and consequently no choice o f p o l i c y . The a l t e r n a t i v e before the German people was between Fuhrer H i t l e r and Fuhrer H i t l e r . Thus the a c i d t e s t of democracy may be defined as the t o l e r a t i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n . I n so f a r as a l t e r n a t i v e governments are t o l e r a t e d and allowed t o come i n t o e x i s t e n c e , we b e l i e v e democracy t o be present.  I.  Gn the other hand, when an o p p o s i t i o n i s  Appendix I  47  -  persecuted, rendered i l l e g a l , or stamped out of existence, democracy i s not  present.  Howeyer, there are varying degrees of freedom permitted  those i n opposition to the government.  The Canadian government extends complete l e g a l freedom to parties i n opposition to the government. Their r i g h t s i n . p o l i t i c s are the same as those of the government i n o f f i c e .  From t h i s extreme there  i s an i n f i n i t e gradation of l i b e r t y , through mild dictatorships, to the ruthless insistence upon uniformity that characterizes Germany and  Russia.  There i s no precise l i n e , i n our estimation, at which i t i s possible to say that a l l communities on t h i s side of i t are democracies, and a l l on the other side are d i c t a t o r s h i p s . But the test i s nevertheless v a l i d .  The suppression  of opposition  i s one o f the foremost and basic proofs of d i c t a t o r i a l ambition. There i s also another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c neessary to the existence of p o l i t i c a l democracy.  Both  previous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - responsible government and l e g a l opposition - are the d e f i n i t i v e properties of democracy, but they are not the causes of democracy.  - 48 -  When they are present, we acknowledge tne existence of democracy, when absent we are not able to speak of the presence of democracy i n any s i g n i f i c a n t manner.  But they do not cause democracy to become  present; they simply define democracy.  Then, what  i s the substantial sooial condition guaranteeing existence.  We may suggest that mutual t o l e r a t i o n  is|the key to democracy. Le t A  us imagine f o r a moment that t h i s condition  i s not f u l f i l l e d .  Le'H us suppose that the L i b e r a l  Party, has reason to believe that the 0.0.jr. opposition has never accepted, or does not now  accept,  the obligations o f this informal compact of t o l e r a t i o n . The government has,reason to think that, i f and when the O.U.F. party comes to power, i t w i l l use that power not merely to carry out i t s programme, but to break up and destroy the L i b e r a l party as a p o l i t i c a l organization, and to stamp out by persecution, Liberalism as an idea.  That i s , i t i s the known  intention of the O.C.F. Party - as i t i s the known intention of the w a z i and F a s c i s t parties - to use the power vested i n them as the government, to liquidate the p a r t i e s i n opposition to them.  - 49 -  We  suggest t h a t i f such he the case, the continuance  o f democracy under these circumstances i s i n c o n c e i v able.  Furthermore, i t i s dubious whether the p a r t y  so t h r e a t e n e d  will  s u r r e n d e r power p e a c e f u l l y .  To  hand o v e r the r e i g n s o f government t o an o p p o s i t i o n o f the alrove d e s i g n a t e d p o l i t i c a l death.  c a l i b r e i s t o court  People are not apt t o arm those  who a r e t h e i r would-be  assassins.  Indeed, i t may v e r y w e l l be the duty o f a p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r n o t to hand over the c o n t r o l o f government v o l u n t a r i l y to a p e r s e c u t o r . l e a d e r s o f the L i b e r a l P a r t y , i n t h i s  The  hypothetical  case, are the r e s p o n s i b l e l e a d e r s o f the major s e c t i o n o f the community. with  They have been e n t r u s t e d  c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s and c e r t a i n i d e a s .  I t may be  t h e i r duty not t> g i v e way, even i n the f a c e o f popular w i l l , t o g i v e p l a c e o f power t o p e r s e c u t o r s and  tormentors.  T h i s judgement a p p l i e s , we b e l i e v e ,  to Germany i n 1932. - I n the November e l e c t i o n o f t h a t y e a r , the p a r t i e s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y combined t o support H i t l e r ' s C h a n c e l l o r s h i p o b t a i n e d  votes  I.  cast.  The Communists o b t a i n e d  Appendix I  44.3$ o f the I  17.295.  -  50  -  We suggest that had the leaders of the democratic minority, or of the a n t i - H i t i e r majority, hot :  permitted him to obtain power peacefully, i t may have been better for them, and f o r the rest of the world. Thus democracy requires the peaceful alternation of Parties i n government. This i s impossible i f the government believes that the opposition intends to liquidate them i f and when, they, thejopposition, obtain power. I t i s not l i k e l y that the government would surrender power w i l l i n g l y under such conditions. I f they d i d , democracy would nevertheless cease to e x i s t , since the victorious opposition would proceed, by the persecution of those who disagreed with them, to the destruction of the democratic principles i n themselves. P o l i t i c a l democracy depends then-, upon mutual t o l e r a t i o n between opposing p a r t i e s . History has shown us that no person or group can be trusted to execut^e the popular w i l l , unless they are responsible to i t . However noble the principle of the regime may be - whether monarchy or theocracy, the moment the majority of people are able to express t h e i r opinions - i n  51  -  -  Reform B i l l a g i t a t i o n o r C i v i l War i r r e s p o n s i b l e group i n power f i n d  - the themselves  w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f people a g a i n s t those grounds we  them.  argue t h a t r e s p o n s i b l e  On  government  i s the o n l y c e r t a i n method o f s e c u r i n g the s o c i e t y t h a t o r d i n a r y men  and women d e s i r e .  Many d i c t a t o r s h i p s have claimed be p o p u l a r d i c t a t o r s h i p s . o p p o s i t i o n be t o l e r a t e d ?  themselves t o  I f p o p u l a r , why  cannot  I f o p p o s i t i o n eould  be  v i c t o r i o u s i n a f r e e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , i n what sense i s the absolute suggest t h a t there  government p o p u l a r ?  can be no v a l i d i t y i n the  that a i- regime incapable t  to be decided  by  the w i l l o f the  We  of permitting  free voting i s r e a l l y  claim  i t s fate executing  voters.  Another main argument s t a t e s t h a t t o l e r a t i o n o f opposition within the-nation which r e a l u n i t y can be be the  isjthe o n l y method  secured.  That t h i s  case i s p a r a d o x i c a l , s i n c e one  o f the  by  should basic  p r i n c i p l e s o f the democratic method l i e s i n the toleration the n a t i o n .  and p r o t e c t i o n , o f disagreement w i t h i n As we  have seen, democracy i s based  upon the t o l e r a t i o n of the o p p o s i t i o n . a c t i v e l y p r o t e c t s the r i g h t to  The  disagree.  law  - 52 -  We have, i n t h i s country, developed t h i s p r i n c i p l e to i t s l o g i c a l conclusions. We now pay people to denounce and c r i t i c i z e the government.  I f the C.  C F . Party i s v i c t o r i o u s at the next general  ,  e l e c t i o n , Mr. S t . Laurent as leader of the opposit i o n would be paid a substantial salary.  We  recognize the significance of founding our p o l i t i c a l l i f e on the p r i n c i p l e of d u a l i t y i n p o l i t i c s , upon the p r i n c i p l e of discussion between the organized parties to the debate - p a r t i e s who have equal r i g h t s to be heard, and who do not fear l i q u i d a t i o n with the a l t e r n a t i o n of power. Yet i f we examine the^ broad d i v i s i o n of the nations of the world 1  into democratic and author-  i t a r i a n states previous to 1945 - Canada, B r i t a i n , •• United States, on the one side, Russia, Germany, and I t a l y on the other - i t i s surely obvious that the deeply divided nations are the dictatorships and not the democracies.  For i n those d i c a t o r -  ships the d i v i s i o n s were so deep that vast numbers of secret p o l i c e , punishment without t r i a l , imprisonment, torture, e x i l e , and murder o f hundreds of thousands, complemented the governing  - 53 -  of  the  state.  A l l  p o l i t i c a l  one  are  i l l e g a l .  Open  And  yet  they  divided,  that  the  force,  secret  the  enlarged, with of  a l l  the  their  were  police  democracies  pay  that  as of  (nations,  are  what  methods  divided,  of  were  in  great  continually  l i f e  was  carried  Meanwhile,  the  Governments  the  leaders  salaries  they  to  is  and  to  evils that  of  determine  used  suffering cannot  which  about,  for  in  on  of  ends.  the  can  a  on  i t .  within  the  the  question or  resolved. decision,  result.  destruction 'ihe  con-  groups  method  be  inevitably  i s  or  parties  but  important  reconciling  rendering  built  i t  another  important  disputes  w i l l be  and  and  most  accop&any  method the  the  t h e i r  be  serves  individuals  classes,  disagree  by w h i c h  force  When  included),  C i v i l i z a t i o n  is  camps  compromising  disagree  the  deeply  ;  suicide.  maintained  a method,  interests.  chaos  i s  except  oppositions.  f l i c t i n g  I f  were  ruthlessness.  function,  not  so  annihilation  Democracy,  state  disagreement  concentration the  organizations  v i t a l  means  that  and  question w i l l  i s  - 54 -  This  conclusion  toward p a c i f i s m . duty o f simply  any man  We  because o t h e r  our  that  not  n e c e s s a r i l y draw  contend  that  h i s own  w h i c h we ensuing We  owe  peace  I t may  i s broken - the  our l o y a l t y  may  suggest the  very  to abstain  to  see  the  use  o f compromise  from u s i n g  our  instead supreme  contending groups to  force  i n the  agree  settlement  their disputes.  To .set t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f  agreements f i r s t  i n the  all  well  group to  i s victorious in  I t w o u l d t h e n be  s o c i a l duty to persuade  We  force.  struggle.  or pacifism.  values  the  purposes  p e r s o n s or groups use  nonsensical.  one  i t is  d u t y t o r e p e l f o r c e w i t h f o r c e , and  - once the  force  do  to surrender  T h a t a p p e a r s t o be be  does not  sequence o f o u r  of  such  social  w o u l d become a p r i m a r y o b l i g a t i o n . must n o t  parts  o f the  forget  that  world, there  within  the  nation,  and  i n the  society of nations,  a t a l l t i m e s , and are m i n o r i t y  a minority who  groups  of nations  w i l l not  a g r e e m e n t t o use  p e a c e f u l methods - who  and  a c t upon t h e  intention to alter  the  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r d e s i r e s , and  in  with-  accept  the  advertise  the w o r l d  in  p u r s u e what  of  -  55  -  they regard as t h e i r r i g h t s , by the use of the whole of the force at t h e i r command. As a consequence, the agreement not to use force must be protected by f o r c e ; the agressive m i n o r i t y must be r e s t r a i n e d by f o r c e ; law must be enforced by p o l i c e , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l order protected c o l l e c t i v e methods.  the  by  Here we have s u f f i c i e n t reason  f o r the establishment of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c e force. I t might be argued that p o l i t i c a l democracy i s only one of the neoessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a j u s t s o c i a l order, and therefore no more fundamental than any other:  f o r example, the existence of a  j u s t d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth.  I t i s perfectly  f e a s i b l e to assume that some people may  prefer  e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth to p o l i t i c a l liberty.  Sueh a programme, i t i s our b i a s , does  not touch the problem o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a j u s t society.  Economic e q u a l i t y can be f u l l y achieved,  and s o c i a l j u s t i c e remain as f a r away as ever, because one type o f p r i v i l e g e ( p o l i t i c a l ) has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r another (eoonomio).  The  problem  of a j u s t s o c i e t y Is not the s i n g l e problem o f economic e q u a l i t y , but the much more complex one  of  -  achieving and  56  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n one  q f the Western W o r l d , i s  f o u n d e d upon t h e C a p i t a l i s t i c government  system.  o f Great B r i t a i n  Since  people.  The U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d Canada h a v e  Capitalistic  system.  1945  has been i n t h e  process o f introducing Democratic Socialism  the  liberty  ewuality. Gur c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h a t  the  society both  to her retained  B o t h systems a r e b a s e d on  p o l i t i c a l democracy, but i t i s b e i n g argued  that  o n l y under S o c i a l i s m  be  secured. valid  Before  can economic democracy  a f a i r appraisal  c a n be made, o r a  judgement p a s s e d , I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o  weigh the c r i t i c i s m s responding  values.  of both a g a i n s t t h e i r  cor-  -  57  PART I  I  AM APPRAISAL OF CAPITALISMS AS RELATIVE TO ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY Under the c a p i t a l i s t  system, the p r i m a r y  s t r u g g l e i s between the owners and c o n t r o l l e r s of  industry, and the workers by hand and b r a i n who  have l i t t l e  o r no share i n i t s ownership.  U n t i l the middle o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y , the i d e a l o f s e c u r i t y and p l e n t y f o r the masses was an u n r e a l i z a b l e dream. tools.  Men s t i l l worked w i t h hand  The average man c o u l d not produce more  than a bare l i v i n g .  I n T s a r i s t R u s s i a e i g h t y per  cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n were never ablelto  produce  enough food f o r the bare s u b s i s t e n c e o f themselves 1  and the o t h e r twenty p e r c e n t o f the p e o p l e .  Even  i f the product o f i n d u s t r y had been e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d , thejmass o f workers would s t i l l have had t o l i v e i n comparative  poverty.  Under these  circumstanoes, there was l i t t l e m a t e r i a l f o u n d a t i o n for  the dreams and hopes o f the s o c i a l prophets o f  the p a s t .  D u r i n g the l a s t few g e n e r a t i o n s , however,  the s i t u a t i o n has been r e v o l u t i o n i z e d .  The mammoth  machines now found i n o u r i n d u s t r i e s ; harnessed t o Selsam, Howard, S o c i a l i s m and E t h i c s , New York * I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1943, p. 1 5 . I. Pares, S i r , Bernard, A H i s t o r y of R u s s i a . New York, A l f r e d A . Knopf, 1 9 4 7 , p . 391 - 4 0 8 .  - 58 -  steam and e l e c t r i c a l power, "have placed m i l l i o n s of t i r e l e s s slaves at the command of our productive forces and for the f i r s t time i n c i v i l i z a t i o n have made i t possible to abolish poverty and to bring l e i s u r e and abundance to a l l who do t h e i r share o f the oommon task**. *" -  'ihe problem o f ethies as stated by Howard Selsam i s "not whether capitalism has been a good or bad system, but whether i t i s - as a r e s u l t of i t s own operation, -accomplishments and l i m i t a t i o n s - the best system we oan have now f o r ordering human economic  relations".  The p l a u s a b i l i t y of r a i s i n g the above question i s substantiated by empirical f a c t : "We i n America now have at our disposal forty times the amount of physical energy per capita as aelek had our forefathers of a hundred years ago. With our increased power o f production, as Dean Dexter S. Kimball declares, " i f poverty and industr i a l distress s t i l l exist, i t i s because of our I n a b i l i t y to keep our i n d u s t r i a l machinery i n operation and to d i s t r i b u t e equitably the r e s u l t i n g products.  •I  1.  L a i d l e r , H.W., S o c i a l i z i n g our Democracy. Harper & Bros., New York, 1935, p. 2.  2.  Selsam, H. Socialism and E t h i c s , p. 17.  - 59  -  I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o produce a b u n d a n t l y ; we m u s t be a b l e t o distribute intelligently. "The Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Commision on E c o n o m i c R e c o n s t r u c t i o n t a k e s a similar position. "It is c l e a r " , the Report o f - t h e Commission d e c l a r e s , " t h a t i f our s o c i e t y could c o n t i n u a l l y u t i l i z e t o the f u l l the p r o d u c t i v e capacity which i s actually available i t could t h e r e b y overoome t h e e v i l s o f p o v e r t y and u n e m p l o y m e n t , assuming an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t i o n a l income." "While, according to Ralph E . F l a n d e r s , - former v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the American s o c i e t y o f mechanical Engineers, every e n g i n e e r knows t h a t , w i t h p r o p e r s o c i a l d i r e c t i o n , engineers can provide "raw m a t e r i a l , machinery and t r a i n e d l a b o u r s u f f i c i e n t t o f l o o d , bury and smother the p o p u l a t i o n i n such an a v a l a n c h e of food, clothing, shelter, l u x u r i e s and t h e m a t e r i a l r e f i n e m e n t s a s no U t o p i a n dreamer i n h i s b u s i e s t s l u m b e r s has ever a c h i e v e d " . x  Regardless century,  o f a l l the marvels  with i t s  of t h e  accompaniement  of m i g h t y  a n d v a s t m i n e r a l a n d power r e s o u r c e s , to  abolish poverty.  ment and m i s e r y , in  the  we have  inequality,  concentration  machines  imperialistic policies  of vast  which  L a i d l e r , S o c i a l i z i n g our Democracy,  failed  unemploypowers  h a n d s o f a few, p o l i t i c a l i n c o m p e t e n c y  corruption,  I.  the  Extreme  twentieth  and  contain  p.  2.  - 60  the  s e e d s o f war  p r e s e n t , and has  failed  therefore, we  shall  to  and  -  pestilence,  perhaps are  are  a l l still  increasing.  Capitalism  cope a d e q u a t e l y w i t h t h e s e  i n our  t r y to  appraisal  of  problems;  capitalistic  determine i t s inherent  doctrine  weaknesses.  -  61  CHAPTER  -  J F  CAPITALISM: I T S ASSUMPTIONS AND P R O F I T - MOTIVE  J o h n S t u a r t M i l l , whose a s s u m p t i o n s a r e implicitly  contained within C a p i t a l i s t i c  stated that p o l i t i c a l  economy r e s t s on  different  from, "though e q u a l l y  principle  of individual  solid  liberty".  1  doctrine,  grounds  wtth, the  These  a s s u m p t i o n s a s e n u n c i a t e d by M i l l a r e :  .... both t h e cheapness and the good q u a l i t y o f c o m m o d i t i e s a r e m o s t e f f e c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r by l e a v i n g t h e p r o d u c e r s and s e l l e r s p e r f e c t l y f r e e , under the s o l e check o f e q u a l freedom t o the b u y e r s f o r supplying themselves elsewhere. This i s the so-called doctrines of F r e e - T r a d e .... t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s not accountable t o society f o r h i s a c t i o n s , i n s o f e r as these concern t h e i n t e r e s t s o f no p e r s o n b u t h i m s e l f . .. . w h o e v e r s u c c e e d s i n a n overcrowded p r o f e s s i o n ; o r i n a competitive examination; wherever i s p r e f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r i n any contest f o r an o b j e c t which both d e s i r e , r e a p s b e n e f i t from the l o s s o f o t h e r s , from t h e i r wasted exe r t i o n and t h e i r d i s s a p o i n t m e n t . B u t i t i s , b y common a d m i s s i o n , b e t t e r f o r the general i n t e r e s t o f mankind, t h a t persons s h o u l d pursue t h e i r o b j e c t s u n d e t e r r e d by t h i s s o r t o f consequences" .  1 1  2  1.  John S t u a r t M i l l ,  2.  Ibed,*  On L i b e r t y , p . 5 6 .  ~- 62 -  .By  "developing t h e s e assumptions  conclusions  we d e r i v e t h e b a s i s  capitalistic 0. C l a y .  economy.  He l i s t s  four  to t h e i r  logical  o f our present  These a r e enumerated by Henry assumptions:  "That i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r economic r e l a t i o n s c a n be r e l i e d on t o p u r s u e t h e i r own i n t e r e s t , and t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n w i l l be r a t i o n a l a n d i n f o r m e d ^ that competition In industry w i l l r e s u l t i n the s u r v i v a l , o f the s o c i a l l y f i t t e s t ; t h a t as a r u l e p r i v a t e wealth o r p r o p e r t y w i l l be a c q u i r e d o n l y b y s e r v i c e and, c o n v e r s e l y , t h a t s e r v i c e s w i l l be i n d u c e d b y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c q u i r i n g p r i v a t e wealth, so that i t w i l l be t h e p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t o f someone t o s u p p l y e v e r y s e r v i c e i n w h i c h t h e r e i s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ; and, t h a t market values correspond roughly w i t h s o c i a l v a l u e s , and a r e an adeq uate i n d i c a t i o n o f need f o r p r o d u o t i o n t o follow".1  I. The  first  interest. that  i s an assumption o f r a t i o n a l  Thus c a p i t a l i s m  selfishness  self-  o p e r a t e s on the t h e o r y  i s t h e m o s t r e l i a b l e human m o t i v e .  E c o n o m i s t s d e f e n d t h i s r e l i a n c e on s e l f i s h n e s s b y arguing that anyone e l s e of others,  I.  we know o u r own i n t e r e s t s b e t t e r d o e s , and b e t t e r  andjthat t h e r e f o r e  than  t h a n we know t h e i n t e r e s t self-interest will  Clay, Henry, Economics f o r the G e n e r a l Reader. London, M a c m i l l a n s , 1928, p. 395.  - 63  provide  f o r the  other system, human  interests  -  of  a l l better  different.  interest  conducive  the  lished  is  process of that  operative  Here i t to,  q u e s t i o n may  is argued  and i s an  survival.  It  a well-developed  a c t i o n must  this  is  also  capacity  likewise  be p r e s e n t  are highly  and work t o g e t h e r  ends.  At  system have  assumed that  reliable motive whereas  socialists  response  have  largely  base  by s e l f - i n t e r e s t ;  i s mainly because  of the  been r e a r e d , and i f  and the  general  example,  for  the is  the  common  capitalist the  only  an economic  They do not  consituted, but they  are  system, capable?  deny  moved  insist  that  this  e n v i o r n m e n t i n w h i o h men they had been reared  an enviornment i n which s e l f - i n t e r e s t less  in  assumed t h a t man i s  to other motives.  that men, as at p r e s e n t  of  self-interest  on which to  co-  monkeys f o r  any r a t e , most defenders  self-  estab-  for  because  gregarious  that  accompaniement  forms o f a n i m a l l i f e ,  have  of  energy.  be somewhat  of  any  and with a smaller expenditure  The b i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o  of,  than  was  good more, they w o u l d  unselfish  enough to  respond to incentives  than that  of personal gain.  in  stressed be other  S o c i a l i s m , Communism,  -  64  -  and Fascism a l l rely to some extent on other motives than self-interest. The socialists as stated before, preach the good of the many as opposed to the few, the Communists advocate the , equality of a l l men (a classless society), and the Fascists subordinate the rights and freedom of the indivdual to the glory and greatness of the state. If capitalism is to work sucessfully, selfinterest must be rational and informed. The fact is tha-tjcapitalism does not always provide goods of satisfactory quality and reasonable prices, nor i s the average consumer rational or informed.* In , the first place, many are either naturally averse to the mental effort necessary to make choices or, the neeessary information iis far vaster than the average person can obtain and retain for constant reference. In the second place, powerful advertising and selling agencies are dedicated to the task of building up various types of irrationality 2  in buyers.  Furthermore, much of our productive  energy is devoted to making and selling things which contribute l i t t l e to human welfare. 1. Appendix S , % 2.  Appendix II  -  ©5  -  There i s w a s t e ' i n working a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s , i n a d v e r t i s i n g and salesmanship, i n c u d g e l l i n g and b a t t e r i n g the consumer w i t h appeals f o r c o n s i d e r ation of distinctive  f l a v o u r s , q u a l i t i e s , and  whose d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i s l a r g e l y a mirage.  styles  Yet,,  w i t h a l l the waste o f p r o d u c t i v e energy, the c a p i t a l i s t system has worked, has perhaps s a t i s f i e d people's wants b e t t e r t h a n any other system t h a t has y e t been t r i e d . 2.  The assumption t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n i n i n d u s t r y w i l l r e s u l t i n the " s u r v i v a l o f the f i t t e s t " be c r i t i c i z e d on v a r i o u s grounds.  may  If " f i t " is  used i n the sense t h a t the " f i t t e s t "  are t h o s e who  can accumulate money, by p r o d u c i n g w e a l t h , o r i n o t h e r ways, not always the most l e g i t i m a t e , they can be c a l l e d the  fittest:  ".... o n l y i f the end o f man i s the p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l w e a l t h . The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f man I s t h a t he i s a moral b e i n g ; he can choose h i s end, and judge h i s f i t ness by r e f e r e n c e t o that end. To j u s t i f y f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n on the ground t h a t i t g i v e s p o s i t i o n and i n f l u e n c e t o the " f i t t e s t " i s t h e r e f o r e to choose the p r o d u c t i o n of w e a l t h as the c h i e f end o f man.  -  66  I f a n y o t h e r e n d he c h o s e n , f o r instance a r t , the r e l i g i o u s l i f e o r the service o f others, then f r e e competition w i l l stand condemned, b e c a u s e t h e s u r v i v o r s o f t h e economic s t r u g g l e a r e n o t conspicuous f o r love o f beauty, piety or disinterested philanthropy. A St. Francis or a S t e v e n s o n s u r v i v e s by r e a s o n o f h i s v e r y u n f i t n e s s t o make money; the c a t h e d r a l s o f the t h i r t e e n t h century a r e a great achievement j u s t because t h e i r b u i l d e r s d i d not adopt t h e methods t h a t b r i n g _ wealth i n a competitive society".  Another  assumption o f c a p i t a l i s m i s t h a t  a s s o c i a t i o n between w e a l t h a  capitalist  private rule  and s o c i a l  society production i s l e f t  can a c q u i r e  rendering a u s e f u l  wealth  social  rewards a r e o f t e n  service.  inversely  t o the  I n some  as a  fields  r e l a t e d t o the q u a l i t y - those  who a r e m o s t g e n e r o u s l y r e w a r d e d p e c u n i a r i l y may be t h e o n e s who a r e w i l l i n g  -  t o do s h o d d y work  Many c a r t o o n i s t s  are paid  more t h a n W a l t Whitman o r E d g a r A l l a n Poe e v e r dreamed o f r e c e i v i n g , o r a c t u a l l y e v e r  I.  by  financial  t h e p r o d u c t i v e work, And t h e " f i t t e s t "  o f no e n d u r i n g m e r i t .  In  f o r themselves only  o f human e n d e a v o u r , u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  of  service.  e n t r e p r e n e u r on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  they  o f an  received.  Glay, Economics f o r the G e n e r a l Reader, p. 375 - 3 7 6 .  - 67 -  This i s not altogether a f a u l t of capitalism, however, but rather a fault of human beings, as Hartlet Whithers says: "Under capitalism the value of our work, l i k e that o f everything e l s e , i s what i t w i l l fetch — that i s , what we can. get for i t out of our fellows. I f they are vulgar, t a s t e l e s s and stupid, we can s e l l them rubbish and grow f a t on them, i f we happen to be greedy rogues". 1  Aside from the fact that the public taste f o r some rubbish has been developed by p r o f i t minded advertisers who  would not be at work i n a s o c i a l i s t  economy, i t seems l i k e l y that the wants o f the people would not be very d i f f e r e n t , and that they would demand and get somewhat the same kind of goods and services as they have now.  The only  way  to avoid this would be to turn to some form of autocracy  wherein the people would be obliged to  content themselves with something r e a l l y better than they r e a l l y wanted; but there Is no c e r t a i n t y that an autocrat would provide something better..  I.  Withers, Hartley. The Case f o r Capitalism. London, Eveleigh Nash Company, 1920, p. 35 - 36.  -  68  -  4. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the c a p i t a l i s t assumes the market p r i c e to be a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n d i c a t o r for production.  The point can be vigorously  contested on f a c t u a l grounds.  To the extent  that there i s competition and e q u a l i t y of incomes, the assumption has great v a l i d i t y ; but to the extent t h a t these two conditions are absent, the market price indicator i s i n e f f e c t i v e . Furthermore, because of economic inequality the goods produced do not afford the greatest possible t o t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , for the r i c h with t h e i r large incomes can appropriate f o r themselves goods which would s a t i s f y f a r keener wants f o r people with small incomes.  - 69 CHAPTER 7 1 1  ASPECTS  CRITICISM OF CQMPETITIYE Many p e o p l e  assume t h a t c a p i t a l i s m i n i t s  competitive aspects the a b l e s t reference of  i s a type  o f game i n w h i c h  contestants are l i a b l e  t o win.  In  t o the e t h i c a l v a l i d i t y  o f this  sort  game, F r a n k K n i g h t  says:  "However f a v o u r a b l e a n o p i n i o n one may h o l d o f t h e b u s i n e s s game, h e must be v e r y I l l i b e r a l not t o concede t h a t o t h e r s have a r i g h t t o a d i f f e r e n t v i e w and t h a t l a r g e numbersof admirable p e o p l e do n o t l i k e t h e game a t all. I t i s then j u s t i f i a b l e a t l e a s t t o r e g a r d as u n f o r t u n a t e t h e dominance o f t h e b u s i n e s s game o v e r l i f e , t h e v i r t u a l identification of social living w i t h i t , t o the e x t e n t t h a t has i tome t o p a s s i n t h e m o d e r n w o r l d " . The  game may be f u n f o r m o s t o f t h e l e a d e r s , t h o s e  who a r e e q u i p p e d perhaps f o r those or  qualities  for of  t o p l a y i t and hope t o w i n , a n d who l a c k t h e c u l t u r a l  t o p l a y any o t h e r  game.  In a fair  scratch.  b u s i n e s s we  race  To s e c u r e  sort  the contestants a l l s t a r t a perfectly  f a i r race i n  should have t o e l i m i n a t e a l l i n e q u a l i t i e s  environment and t r a i n i n g ;  I.  o f game; b u t  many o t h e r s i t i s a b o r i n g a n d d r u d g e d  from  of  type  interests  and t h i s would l e a v e  little  c a p i t a l i s m a s t h e game i s p l a y e d . K n i g h t , F r a n k Hyneman, The E t h i cs o f Compe t i t i n n ; New Y o r k , H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1935, p . 66.  v  "Thus"we a p p e a r t o s e a r c h i n v a i n f o r any r e a l e t h i c a l b a s i s o f a p p r o v a l f o r competi t i o n as a b a s i s f o r a n y i d e a l t y p e o f human r e l a t i o n s , o r as a m o t i v e t o a c t i o n . I t f a i l s t o harmonize e i t h e r w i t h the Pagan i d e a l o f s o c i e t y a s a community o f f r i e n d s o r t h e Christian ideal of spiritual fellowship. I t sonly j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s that i t i s effective i n getting things done; b u t a n y c a n d i d a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "What t h i n g s " ? , compels t h e a d m i s s i o n t h a t t h e y l e a v e much t o be d e s i r e d . W h e t h e r f o r good o r b a d , i t s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l s are n o t such a s command t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e most competent j u d g e s , and a s f o r t h e s p i r i t u a l i t y , commerc i a l i s m i s I n a f a i r way t o make t h a t t e r m i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o l i v i n g men. The m o t i v e i t s e l f h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y condemned by t h e l e s t s p i r i t s o f t h e r a c e " A John S t u a r t M i l l , competitive  was s i m i l a r l y  critical  struggle:  " I c o n f e s s I am n o t a t a l l charmed by t h e i d e a l o f l i f e h e l d o u t b y t h o s e who t h i n k t h a t t h e n o r m a l s t a t e o f human b e i n g s i s t h a t o f s t r u g g l i n g t o g e t on; t h a t t h e trampling, orushing, elbowing, and t r e a d i n g o n e a c h o t h e r ' s h e e l s , which form the e x i s t i n g type o f human l i f e , a r e t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e l o t o f mankind, o r anything but the d i s a g r e e a b l e symptoms o f one o f t h e phases o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s " . 2  1.  K n i g h t , E t h i c s o f C o m p e t i t i o n , p . 74.  2.  Mill,  J . S . , On L i b e r t y , p . 74.  o f the  - 71 -  CHAPTER V I l T PROS AND  The  main motive o f economic a c t i v i t y  capitalist money.  CONS OF THE PURSUIT FOR WEALTH  s o c i e t y i s a c q u i s i t i o n i n terms o f  S u c c e s s f u l businessmen have t h e outward  appearances necessary  forreputability  homes, s t r e a m l i n e d c a r s , e x p e n s i v e other words, t h a t comfort life  pleasant.  Since  goes w i t h b u s i n e s s become  so l o s t  and power t h a t makes  so much t h a t i s p l e a s a n t  s u c c e s s , many  i n the p u r s u i t  the end - t h a t t h e y  businessmen  o f money - w h i c h rather  than  f o r g e t t h e end i t s e l f .  T h e r e a r e no a b s o l u t e l i m i t s t i o n o f wealth.  - large  rai^onent, i n  s h o u l d be t h e means t o a good l i f e ,  The e x p a n s i v e  c a p i t a l i s m has indeed wealth  in a  t o the a c q u i s i -  character of  brought  us g r e a t m a t e r i a l  o n w h i c h we h a v e b u i l t  a civilization of  physical  comfort  t h a t h a s s e r v e d as the b a s i s o f  more k i n d n e s s  and h u m a n i t y t h a n  the w o r l d  knew b e f o r e .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s u p r e m a c y o f  b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s o v e r a l l other in  some r e s p e c t s , l o w c u l t u r a l  ever  v a l u e s h a s meant,  standards.  -  Many c r i t i c s p o i n t capitalistic business.  spirit  72  -  t o t h e v u l g a r i t y of t h e  as i t appears  i n the advertising  Our newspapers and most o f o u r magazines  a r e more a medium f o r s e l l i n g p u r v e y i n g news.  goods t h a n f o r  To r e a c h and s e l l  p o s s i b l e number o f b u y e r s ,  to the greatest  a d v e r t i s i n g appeals t o  t h e r e l a t i v e l y numerous but u n t u t o r e d m a s s e s . Finer  t h i n g s - books,  music  - a r e seldom  as t h e Lever Bros, Another tendency  f o r i n s t a n c e , and good  advertised soap  products.  important aspect i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g  f o r e m u l a t i o n of those  income b r a c k e t s .  i n the. h i g h e r  We a r e more a n x i o u s t o SEEM  t h a n t o BE.  We  cars, rather  for/\contentment,  and  t o t h e same e x t e n t  s t r i v e f o r wardrobes and than fundamental  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e a l beauty.  to  spend o u r t i m e , we  in  s p e n d i n g o u r money.  shins culture,  Not knowing  how  t a k e what s a t i s f a c t i o n we c a n  - 73 -  CHAPTER TK WASTES IN THE CAPITALIST SX'STEM . I.' The waste o f resources i s a vice natural to capitalism, f o r i n t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n there i s no i d e n t i t y o f private and s o c i a l interests-.-- Natural resources:  timber, o i l , natural gas, f u r s , t h e ?  s o i l i t s e l f , have been f l a g r a n t l y wasted* -For this reason we may maintain that natural resources! should be p u b l i c l y owned, and t h i s i s one o f the respects  i n which socialism i s d e f i n i t e l y superior  to capitalism.  The competition e s s e n t i a l to capitalism,is In i t s e l f wasteful i n various ways. Many men who have not the necessary q u a l i t i e s enter the various competitive businesses and as a eonsequence lose t h e i r savings, within, a very short time l  Such waste  as t h i s i s inevitable i n an economy of free prise.  enter-  I f men are free to choose t h e i r own work,  some w i l l i n e v i t a b l y f a i l ; but i t may be w e l l that those who lack the q u a l i t i e s i n a business should f a i l , f o r i f they did not, many o f our enterprises would be i n e f f i c i e n t l y operated. necessarily be the case.  This need not .  In a s o c i a l i s t economy  - 74  -  where t h o s e e n t e r i n g b u s i n e s s e s certain  qualifications,  w o u l d n e e d t o meet  t h e r e w o u l d be  fewer  f a i l u r e s presumably, a l t h o u g h managers m i g h t less e f f i c i e n t the  choice o f  and  t h e r e may  be  less  be  freedom i n  occupations.  3. T h e r e i s a l s o a g r e a t d e a l o f w a s t e due t o I e x t r a v a g a n t a d v e r t i s i n g and s a l e s m a n s h i p . I n the w o r d s o f S t u a r t Ghase: "The a d v e r t i s i n g i n d u s t r y , v i e w e d f r o m a n a e r o p l a n e w o u l d be s e e n t o c o n s i s t o f some 600,000 w o r k e r s - w r i t i n g c o p y , canvassing f o r c l i e n t s , designing l a y outs, p a i n t i n g pictures, engineering c a m p a i g n s ; s u p p o r t e d by p r i n t e r s , compositors, paper makers, chemical w o r k e r s , lumber j a c k s , r a i l r o a d men, carpenters, sign painters, e l e c t r i c i a n s , l i t h o g r a p h e r s , b i l l p o s t e r s , wood workers, p a i n t makers, m a i l c l e r k s , l e t t e r c a r r i e r s , telephone operators, stenographers, bookkeepers, psychologi s t s , and e f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t s - t o name o n l y a few. A d v e r t i s i n g keeps the w h o l e 600,000 b u s y . I f they l i v e d i n Denmark - where a d v e r t i s i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d -* t h e y w o u l d have t o t u r n t o some productive occupation. I n o t h e r words, t h e i n d u s t r y r e a c h e s down i n t o t h e r a n k s o f t h e g a i n f u l l y e m p l o y e d , p i c k s up a h a l f m i l l i o n odd w o r k e r s , and s a y s t o them "Now shouti and f u r n i s h * t h e p a p e r , i n k and p a i n t f o r s h o u t i n g * . " —  1.  Appendix  IT  2.  Chase, Waste, p.  112  - 75  The  t o t a l amount s p e n t  total As  -  f o r a d v e r t i s i n g i s twice  income o f a l l o u r  c o l l e g e s - and  universities.  S t u a r t Chase s a y s , " I n A m e r i c a one  spent  to educate  the I  dollar i s  oonsumers i n what t h e y may  or  may  n o t want t o buy f o r e v e r y s e v e n t y c e n t s t h a t i s spent i n a l l other kinds o f education - primary, 2 secondary, The lies  high school, university.  function of advertising,  i n the  e v e n t s , new  might  by  i n v e n t i o n s , new the  o f the  some i m p a r t i a l and  eliminating wastes,in  coming Hational  consumer , I f  scientific  a great  channel  advertising.  H  But  as t o  and  ninecompetitive  t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f two  often indistinguishable  foods, patent medioines,  undistin-  compounds -  t o o t h powders, m o t o r c a r s , snappy s u i t s , 3  If  body, for  and more o f a d v e r t i s i n g i s l a r g e l y  wrangling guished  products.  education  conceivably* p r o v i d e  tenths  see i t ,  d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f news a b o u t  a d v e r t i s i n g for conducted  as we  soap,  breakfast  cigarettes".  a l l the  various brands represented  really  different kinds  o f goods, the h i g h c o s t o f  marketing  them a l l w o u l d be  c o m p e n s a t e d t o some e x t e n t  by  e x t r a - o r d i n a r y wide s e l e c t i o n made availaT3e t o 1. 2. 3.  A p p e n d i x T T T & TT Ghase, S t u a r t , Ihe I b i d , p . 113.  Tragddy o f waste, p.  the the  124.  - 76 -  consumers, but varieties  and  of the t o t a l As  t h e number o f r e a l l y qualities  number o f  constitutes I  different only a  fraction  brands.  regards a d v e r t i s i n g ,  the Canadian  economists  L o g a n and Inman s t a t e : " A d v e r t i s e r s have defended nonfactual advertising in various ways: t h e y speak o f the a r t o f " g r a c e f u l " l i v i n g as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h l i v i n g by t h e c a l c u l u s mentality. There i s a s p i r i t u a l exaltation just i n buying - i n s h o p p i n g among t h e unknowns. What i f o u r o r i e n t a l r u g n e v e r saw t h e h a n d w o r k e r s o f I s p a h a n , what o f i t ? O u r e n j o y m e n t o f s u c h t h i n g s c o n s i s t s I n what we think they are. S h o p p i n g where e v e r y t h i n g i s known and m e a s u r e d w o u l d be no more f u n t h a n p o k e r p l a y i n g w i t h a marked deck. O t h e r s a g a i n have p l e a d e d the case f o r c o l o r f u l a d v e r t i s i n g i n terms o f i t s i n d i r e c t compensations. I t b r i g h t e n s and c h e a p e n s . o u r m a g a z i n e s and newsp a p e r s , p r o v i d e s us w i t h r a d i o programmes, e t c . Without a d v e r t i s i n g a l l t h e s e goods and s e r v i c e s w o u l d c o s t u s much more t h a n t h e y do. The judgement s t a n d s , however, that most competitive advertising of i d e n t i c a l g o o d s b r i n g s no g a i n w h a t e v e r t o t h e consumer o f t h e s e goods and t h a t e x a g g e r a t e d representations generally tend to c o n f u s e and l e a d t h e b u y e r away f r o m the m o s t i n t e l l i g e n t u s e o f h i s funds.  1. 2.  Appendix I T L o g a n , H.A., and Inman, M a r k K., A s o c i a l t o E c o n o m i c s , T o r o n t o , The U n i v e r s i t y of Press,1948.  Approach Toronto  7 7  -  The  advertiser "pulls  -  strings"  through various  d e v i c e s o t h e r t h a n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i n f o r m ation.  He  indicative  employs  v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s which  of the a d v e r t i s e r ' s a t t e n t i o n I  are  to practical  psychology.  Thus a d v e r t i s i n g i s u s e d t o p r o m o t e  style  and t o make p e o p l e d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h  changes  what t h e y h a v e , destructive.  i t i s worse  Style  changes  t h a n wast*; i t i s l a r g e l y persistently  destroy  the  value of mudh of t h e women's e l o t h i n g , a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t men's We  may  clothes. c o n c l u d e t h a t p e r s u a s i v e s a l e w methods  a r e o f some e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e .  t  The m u l t i t u d e o f  competing o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o spend which a r e  offered  c o n s u m e r s t e n d t o make some b u y e r s more c a r e f u l i n t h e i r p u r c h a s e s - a few p e r h a p s become  to  indifferent  th©  pleas o f s e l l e r s .  w a r s between i n d u s t r i e s d o l l a r s may  produce  competing  a few f a c t s  o t h e r hand, the s o - c a l l e d  style  suit  f o r t h e consumer's  about e a c h .  conspicuous  On  expense  I.  Appendix  o f more f u n d a m e n t a l  II  be  consumption,  Consumers  t o m a i n t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l appearances  the  the  f o r every occasion, or a  change f o r e a c h h o u r o f t h e d a y .  a r e goaded  Advertising  e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k may  designed merely to stimulate s u c h as the c o r r e c t  totally  needs.  at  - 78 -  4. A c a p a t i l i s t economy evidences great waste i n thejduplicaion of plants and s e r v i c e s . I there are 49,271  In Canada  r e t a i l stores s e l l i n g goods that  could probably be sold much cheaper by h a l f as many. Groceries, milk, and other commodities are delivered by several trucks whereas one could handle a l l d e l i v e r i e s much more cheaply; In many towns and c i t i e s several t a x i s representing d i f f e r e n t  companies  meet every incoming t r a i n , although there may enough passengers f o r on&y one  be  car.  5.  The c a p i t a l i s t economy i s subjeot to periodic depressions and to consequent unemployment o f  men  and c a p i t a l which represents a tremendous waste^ of productive power.  In 1932  approximately one-third S  of Canada s t o t a l labour force was 1  unemployed.  Some o f these workers were unemployed f o r four or f i v e years or even longer, and i n so extended a period of unemployment many o f them l o s t t h e i r health, s p i r i t , and hope, and were no longer good workmen when they f i n a l l y didjfind  jobs.  1.  Canada Year Book, Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . 1948 - 49, p. 814.  2.  Appendix ][  79  -  -  L o s s e s f r o m unemployment u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t a l l s e c t i o n s o f our,economy, b u t the  bjurden f a l l s  a direct e v e n as  i n the  infringement a challenge  r e s t s on  t o t h e w o r k e r u p o n whom  first  instance,  they  upon h i s s t a n d a r d  to l i f e  itself, I  a basis of charity.  come  of living  except  Psychologically  as  i s demoralizing.  regular habits  broken, and  o f personal  value  appreciated  as  i n d u s t r y are as  been s e l f - r e l i a n t  and  laid  o f f and  live  i n fear o f being  satisfaction  the r i g h t  sense society,  p e o p l e who  have  laid  to s o c i e t y , to  be  t o work, o r e v e n  to  o f f , i s to  the be  t h r o w n upon a c t u a l c h a t t y i s t o t u r n t h e i r b r e a d  to  are  t o be  Socially  goods t h e y do  reduce  the  To  bitterness.  from the  To  The  s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d by means o f  s e r v i c e s t h e y have been s e l l i n g denied  the  a c o n t r i b u t i n g member o f  s u c h , i s weakened.  and  as i t  w e l l as m a t e r i a l l y , t h e e f f e c t of  as  and  consume.  politically,  the  results  deplored. 6.  On is  o f the  imperialism.  imperialism it and  v i c e s commonly a t t r i b u t e d t o c a p i t a l i s m Like Capitalism i t s e l f ;  i s a rather  changes f r o m one  complicated  the  buncle  stage o f development t o  f o r a l l these reasons i t i s impossible  precisely. Appendix  VI  I n what i s c a l l e d  political  nation  of  concepts,  another; to  of  define  imperialism,  - 80  the  exploitation  -  i s c a r r i e d on  for  national  a g g r a n d i z e m e n t ; wheSeas i n what i s c a l l e d e c o n o m i c imperialism carried  on  the  exploitation  f o r economic g a i n ,  investment.  The  e c o n o m i c and  political  territory,  latter  as  control  a place  a s o u r c e o f raw  imperialism  to  of  of  the  built but  a few  other  t h e i r g e n e r a l p o l i c y was that  would  indeedj  f n d i a the  British  destroy her  capital,  or  Economic  i t s inhabitants.  r a i l r o a d s and  England;  back-  became m o s t h i d e o u s i n B r i t a i n ' s  bulk o f  industries  seeks  so-called  invest  materials.  and  outlying  exploitation of India's resources, of  be  through trade  i s a p o l i c y which  p a r t i c u l a r l y that  ward p e o p l e s : as  i s assumed t o  world  and  the  Bri$J§h c a p i t a l i s t s industries  to prevent  compete w i t h  soon a f t e r the  abuse  those  in  any of  occupation  of  i n s t i t u t e d v a r i o u s measures famous  in  the  ana  when t h i s p o l i c y was  t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y , to  industrial  I.  by  changed,  a policy  d e v e l o p m e n t , I n d i a ' s new  were l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d  to  cottage-industries.  I n d i a n i n d u s t r i e s were h e l d ; d o w n f o r m o r e t h a n .century:  India,  British  a  early  encouraging  industries I capitalists.  Nehru, J a w a h r a l a l , Glimpses o f World H i s t o r y , p . 418 * 419, 671, 672. . \  -  I t may  be w e l l  81-  to i n c l u d e a snort account  the  brutality of  imperialist  has  n o t been t h e m a c h i n a t i o n  the  c o n t r a r y , the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f  c i v i l i z e d whites. was  F o r more t h a n  as w e l l  but  on  so-called a century  Africa nations  as f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  t r a d e r s r o u n d e d up m i l l i o n s  into  o f heathens,  for i t  a s l a v e h u n t i n g g r o u n d f o r some o f t h e  o f Europe,  the  exploitation;  Slave  o f b l a c k s , drove  them t o  c o a s t , c h a i n e d t o g e t h e r l i k e oxen,crammed the h o l d of  t h e y had  s a i l i n g v e s s e l s so t h i c k l y  t o l i e on  whioh l a s t e d  of  t h e i r s i d e s throughout  that  a  f o r f i v e weeks o r m o r e , and  them  trip  then  sold  them a t a h i g h p r o f i t t o p l a n t a t i o n owners i n various parts of the  world.  P e r h a p s B r i t a i n h a s b e h a v e d no worse France,  Belgium,  H o l l a n d , I t a l y , Germany, o r  Indeed  we may  headed  the a b o l i t i o n  such  r i g h t f u l l y argue  that B r i t a i n  of slavery.  as W i l b e r f o r c e d e v o t e d  abolition  than  their  English  spear-  politicians  l i v e s to  the  o f t h i s u t t e r l y b a r b a r i c treatment  coloured peoples. Indian rebellion B r i t i s h "spread  Y e t when the B r i t i s h o f 1857,  terror  Japan.  of  the  crushedthe  a c c o r d i n g t o Nehrur, t h e  everywhere.  Vast  numbers  - 82  -  were s h o t down i n c o l d "blood; l a r g e numbers were shot  t o p i e c e s from  were hanged W e i l l , who said  t h e mouth o f cannon,  from wayside  trees.  thousands  An E n g l i s h g e n e r a l ,  marched from A l l a h a b a d t o Cawnapore, i s  to have h a n g e d p e o p l e  h a r d l y a t r e e remained  by  a l l a l o n g t h e way, the wayside  till  which had  not  I been c o n v e r t e d i n t o Up  t o the p r e s e n t t i m e , n a t i o n s h a v e  no e f f e c t i v e govern prime  a gibbet".  codes  o f moral  conduct  like  developed those  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s . c o n s i d e r a t i o n has  interest.  been s e l f i s h  Nehru, e x p r e s s e s  that Their  national  t h i s tendency  i n the  following quotation: " W i t h t h e g r o w t h of n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e i d e a o f "my c o u n t r y r i g h t o r wrong" d e v e l o p e d , and n a t i o n s g l o r i e d i n doing things which, i n t h e c a s e o f i n d i v i d u a l s , were c o n s i d e r e d bad and i m m o r a l . Thus a s t r a n g e c o n t r a s t grew b e t w e e n the m o r a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h a t o f n a t i o n s . T h e r e was a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e between, t h e .two, and the very v i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s became the v i r t u e s o f n a t i o n s . S e l f i s h n e s s , greed, arrogance, v a u l g a r i t y were c o n s i d e r e d u t t e r l y bad and n o t t o l e r a b l e i n t h e c a s e o f i n d i v i d u a l men and women. But i n the case o f l a r g e groups, o f n a t i o n s , t h e y a r e p r a i s e d and encouraged, u n d e r the noble c l o a k o f p a t r i o t i s m and l o v e o f c o u n t r y .  I.  Nehru, J a w a h a r l a l , Glimpses o f World New Y o r k , J o h n Day Company, 1942, p .  History. 471  -  -  83  E v e n m u r d e r and k i l l i n g become praiseworthy i f large groups of n a t i o n s undertake i t a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r . A r e c e n t a u t h o r h a s t o l d u s , and he i s p e r f e c t l y right, that " c i v i l i z a t i o n has become a d e v i c e f o r d e l e g a t i n g the v i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o l a r g e r and l a r g e r c o m m u n i t i e s " . T  The  imperialist  i n t e r e s t , backed  ambitions of powerful  g e n e r a l l y by t h e i r  capitalist  respective  I governments,  h a v e b e e n t h e cause  f i r s t W o r l d War  was  imperialist  Germany w a n t e d t o e x p a n d the  Danube t o t 1B  on  a grand  her dominion  B l a c k Sea a n d  eastward  along  the B o s p o r u s ;  to r e t a i n  Alsace  and L o r r a i n e ; G r e a t B r i t a i n h o p e d t o  c o n t r o l o f the  The  scale.  sought  her  ther  o f many w a r s .  France  r i c h m a t e r i a l d e p o s i t s of  s e a s and  to g a i n  retain  additional  colonies; Russia coveted p a r t i c u l a r l y Constantinople and  the waterway f r o m t h e B l a c k t o the Aegean  A u s t r i a - H u n g a r y hoped t o absorb S e r b i a , additional territory to the of  e n l a r g e h e r empire  colonies elsewhere.  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w a n t e d war; secret  wanted  adding the t e r r i t o r y  A d r i a t i c Sea and.other  ambitions,  and  i n the Balkans; I t a l y by  but t h e i r  t r e a t i e s , sand v a s t  Sea;  around None  territorial  military  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d e d t h e m u n i t i o n s dump w h i c h needed  o n l y the l i g h t e d match  I.  I b i d , p.  415.  S.  Appendix  VII  t o b r i n g on  the  explosion.  -  84  -  I n -tfoe V e r s a i l l e s T r e a t y w h i c h  concluded t h e  F i r s t W o r l d War, G r e a t B r i t a i n g o t m o s t o f t h e German  colonies; France  got the r e s t ,  o f A l s a c e and L o r r a i n e ; because got  little  and a p a r t  s h e was weak, I t a l y  ot w h a t s h e was p r o m i s e d ;  Austria-  Hungary w a s dismembered and a group o f s m a l l were c r e a t e d .  states  P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n went t o t h i s  conference w i t h hopes o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a j u s t  peace  and  a League of N a t i o n s t o a d m i n i s t e r ; ' i t ;  b u t he  had  pleaded  i t now  i n vain.  The A m e r i c a n p e o p l e ,  appeared, ftad b e e n f i g h t i n g n o t f o r d e m o c r a c y b u t to  turn victory from  one g r o u p o f i m p e r i a l i s t  powers to a n o t h e r . The war that  s e c o n d W o r l d War;; was t o a g r e a t e x t e n t a  o f " i d e o l o g i e s ' * , y e t t h e p o s t war w o r l d r e v e a l s i t was n o t a l t o g e t h e r a w a r a g a i n s t t h e b r u t a l  and  barbarous  p r i n c i p l e s o f Fascism  but  i n some d e g r e e  an i m p e r i a l i s t  and N a z i i s m ,  struggle f o r  c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , m a r k e t s , a n d raw m a t e r i a l s . When M u s s o l i n i a n d l l a t e r H i t l e r , of industrialist  and army o f f i c e r s , p r o c e e d e d t o  wipe o u t l a b o u r u n i o n s , k i l l and  communists, a n d r e d u c e  o r imprison  B r i t a i n was a t f i r s t  socialists  t h e masses t o s u b o r d -  i n a t i o n , the a r i s t o c r a t i c Tory i  with t h e help  g o v e r n m e n t of G r e a t  rather friendly  t o them, a s  - 85 were c e r t a i n b u s i n e s s countries. Mussolini unions  leaders i n France  and other  B u t when i t p r e s e n t l y a p p e a r e d and H i t l e r were a i m i n g  not only a t the  and democracy b u t a t t h e conquest  o f the  o t h e r E u r o p e a n p o w e r s and t h e i r e m p i r e s , B r i t a i n and France  because I t t h r e a t e n e d  indeed,  t h e i r very  was  They  undemocratic,  t h e i r c o l o n i e s and,  e x i s t e n c e as n a t i o n s .  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d made no e f f o r t Japanese i n v a s i o n o f China i r o n and s t e e l  Breat  were o b l i g e d t o f i g h t .  d i d n o t f i g h t because F a s c i s m but  that  So t o o  to stop the  and had s o l d Japan t h e  a n d o i l w i t h whefth t o wage w a r ; b u t  when J a p a n s t r u c k a t P e a r l H a r b o u r , t h e y w e r e forced war  to fight  - a f t e r having  a g a i n s t them.  Great  Although  B r i t a i n , France,  t h e governments o f  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d  shown no p a r t i c u l a r h o s t i l i t y would defend  their  to Fascism,  they  possessions.  Thus i m p e r i a l i s m h a s b e e n I n many w a r s .  t o arm h e r f o r t h e  an i m p o r t a n t  Capitalism, i s strongly  factor  expansive.  M o d e r n i n d u s t y i s v a s t l y p r o d u c t i v e , and f o r e i g n m a r k e t s a r e demanded f o r t h e g o o d s produce*; capitalist  combinations  are profitable  great  and f o r e i g n  - 86 -  investments are needed produotion c a l l s  f o r surplus  for v a s t  savings;  industrial  amounts o f raw mater i a l s ,  I and f o r e i g n s u p p l i e s Capitalists  o f them may  wars  I.  required.  inevitably clash i n their  f o r e i g n markets, investments, since  be  and raw m a t e r i a l s ;  t h e y are u s u a l l y backed by t h e i r result.  Appendix  VIII  quest f o r and  governments,  -  87  CHAPTER VIRTUES OP  -  X  CAPITALISM  I. The  most  important  perhaps t h a t i t has The  era of  has  of capitalism i s  been enormously  capitalist  t h r e e hundred years age,  virtue  expansion  productive.  - roughly  - c o i n c i d i n g with  the  the machine  been a p e r i o d o f amazing i n c r e a s e  T h i s v a s t i n c r e a s e , i n c l u d i n g the machines produced the w e a l t h , capitalist  philosophy.  i n t e r e s t , on productive  has  the  been t h e o f f s p r i n g The  r e l i a n c e on  p r o f i t m o t i v e , has  forces into  past  in  wealth.  that of  self-  brought  powerful  p o i n t o f view,  personal  operation.  2. From a broad  historical  f r e e d o m and  d e m o c r a c y , a p p e a r t o be  measure the  f r u i t s of  of  the w o r l d ' s p a s t h i s t o r y ,  country,  the u s u a l  cracy, with masses. years now  Over  tie  Throughout most  i n nearly government  long stretch of five  every autothe  thousand  d e m o c r a c y , somewhat a s  p r e v a i l e d for only a century  that b r i e f  capitalist  considerable  s l a v e r y o r serfdom for  o f human h i s t o r y ,  and  and  c o n d i t i o n was  virtual  i n o w i t , has  two, of  capitalism.  in  span c o i n c i d e s w i t h  development.  the  we or  period  - 88  The  above s u g g e s t s t h a t  freedom are calls  related  to  democracy and  capitalism.  for individual initiative;  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t men,  left  destinies, will profit contribution; operate the  -  free  demands a m e a s u r e o f  secure;  the  but  i t involves  to w o r k out  autocratic. f o r m of  Carlyle, capitalism are  very  driven  by  m i g h t he labourers up  who  ask,  Capitalism  they  t h e i r jobs w i l l  Carlyle, Past  in  i t is  and  and  by  get, or  this  o f f are  the  Paaeent.  thesis common  picking  never c e r t a i n  i f they lose  who  get,feei^G  writing  i n slum tenements,  last  a  therefore,  b e n e f i t ~tfy l a b o u r e r s ,  much b e t t e r  can  this  a r g u e d by R u s k i n  I f C a r l y l e was How  the  government, w i t h  f o r w h a t e v e r tjhey can  must l i v e  whatever jobs  long  I.  not  great  to work  hunger*  secure i f  i n d i v i d u a l freedom a f f o r d e d  i s o f no  compelled  Capitalism  autocracy.  o t h e r h a n d , i t was  thatjthe  enter  property is " f a i r l y  minimum o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r f e r e n c e ; incompatible with p o l i t i c a l  can  even terms; a l l t h i s  c a n n o t be  f o r m demands a d e m o c r a t i c  own  to t h e i r s o c i a l  when c o m p e t i t o r s  right of private  that r i g h t  the  the  their  economic democracy.  government i s h i g h l y  On  capitalism  i t assumes c o m p e t i t i o n , which  something l i k e  assumes t h a t  Truly,  i n proportion  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y only  f i e l d on  individual  them  how that  - 89  they  -  c a n g e t o t h e r s , w i t h no I  s i c k n e s s o r emergencies,,  r e s e r v e funds  periodically  p e r h a p s f o r weeks o r m o n t h s , w h i l e l a c k f o o d - how Gurth to  has  How  t h o s e t h o u s a n d s who  their  families  real  had  no  is political recourse  camps d u r i n g the l a s t  but  democracy to  depression?  be  hopeless o f  w i l l i n g to surrender  Fascist revolution.  and  by  for j o b s  and  the a c t i o n of  the  Germany a t t h e o f  Although  a l o n g w i t h most o t h e r c l a s s e s ,  welcomed t h e F a s c i s t  regime  capitalism.  Had  may  unemployed  than  they had  -  1939  v e r y w e l l belie © t h a t  h a v e t u r n e d t o Communism o r F a s c i s m  economic  I.  happier  been under  1  unemployed, i f g i v e n the chance, would v e r y  political  scarcely  and were p r o b a b l y  t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f 1929  l a s t e d much l o n g e r , we  labour, .  i n a position  s l a v e r y , many o f t h e  t h e war,  the  Fascism puts  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from  before  o r any  other and  security.  applies to a very  the  likely  i d e o l o g y t h a t w o u l d g i v e them j o b s  H o s p i t a l insurance percentage.  who  f i n d i n g work a r e g e n e r a l l y  t h e i r freedom  T h i s i s proved;-  unemployed i n I t a l y  under i t ,  though  r e c e i v i n g unemployment b e n e f i t s , men  j o b l e s s and  security.  charity Freedom  l i t t l e meaning f o r t h e unemployed; even  t h e y may are  unemployed,  much b e t t e r o f f a r e t h e y t h a n s l a v e s ,  the swineherd?  or r e l i e f  for  small  -  We  had  political  earlier  90  in this  thesis  concluded  democracy i s a must, or a  pre-requisite  o f , the p o l i t i c a l  as b e i n g c o m p a t i b l e becomes a p p a r e n t problems l i e s with  -  political  t h a t the  i n the  of l i f e .  s o l u t i o n to our  f u s i o n o f economic  d e m o c r a c y . T h i s we  achieved through  necessary  s y s t e m we  w i t h o u r way  democratic  select It  then  economic  democracy  b e l i e v e can  socialism; will  that  find  but  we  d e a l w i t h t h a t t o p i c , we  i t of  to  t r a c e the development o f s o c i a l i s t i c  be  before value  ideology.  - 91 -  PART I I I A CLASSIFICATION  OF  ATTITUDES:  THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIALIST DOCTRINE In their attitude  toward economic systems and  e c o n o m i c change i n g e n e r a l , p e o p l e in  v a r i o u s ways. Thus t h e y  reactionaries,  conservatives, l i b e r a l s ,  they  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  progressives,  t o go b a c k t o some  s i t u a t i o n which they regard  present;  classified  a r e o f t e n c l a s s e d as  o r r a d i c a l s . R e a c t i o n a r i e s want earlier  may be  as b e t t e r  than  interested i n  e l i m i n a t i n g most o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e in  business. Conservatives  to  go b a c k , b u t t h e y  a r e opposed t o f u r t h e r changes.  T h e y may n o t d i s a p p r o v e i n t e r v e n t i o n but w i l l of i t . no  Liberals,  do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y want  o f the p r e v a i l i n g  oppose a n y f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s  as t h i s  t e r m i s o f t e n u s e d , have  strong bias or preconceptions  are w i l l i n g  e i t h e r way, b u t  t o approach questions with  R a d i c a l s want  government  c h a n g e s t o be b o t h  a n open m i n d .  e x t e n s i v e and  rapid. In the p o l i t i c a l  field,  one o f t h e most  f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s , a s we have a l r e a d y  witnessed,  relates  t o the extent  o f government i n t e r v e n t i o n .  6n this  q u e s t i o n we h a v e t h e a n a r c h i s t s who  no government w h a t e v e r , t o t h e Communists government  c o n t r o l o f both  production  want  who  favour  and c o n s u m p t i o n .  -  92  -  Between these extremes are opposed  t o any e x t e n s i o n o f government  and  the s o c i a l i s t s  and  operation  revealed  government left  who f a v o u r g o v e r n m e n t  of important productive  n o t government as  are the conservatives  implies  activity,  ownership  capital, but  c o n t r o l o f consumption.  by o u r a n a l y s i s ,  who  Capitalism,  a minimum o f  i n t e r f e r e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s much  i n America  of the o l d "laissez-faire"  capitalism,  o u r economic  socialistic  elements, such as the m u n i c i p a l ownership  and  operation o f public  that  even  school  approach  system  h a s some  utilities,  definitely  a n d some  elements  communism, a s i n o u r p u b l i c  system.  The system  common a s s u m p t i o n i sdefinitely  or even  definitely  i s that  one  and e n t i r e l y  better  political  good o r b a d ,  than another. Every  s y s t e m h a s i t s m e r i t s a n d i t s v i c e s when r e v i e w e d in  relation  race,  t o economic  traditions,  and o t h e r  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  and  no system  i s necessarily  and  peoples i n a l lpossible  good  of relativity  political  systems. I f our i d e a l  our  ideal  ends and f o ra l l  a p p l i e s here  readily  i s contentment,  ideals;  individuals  c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The  principle  o f w e a l t h , we m a y  conditions,  accept  as i n a l l  i s the production capitalism;  i t might  not rate  b u ti f so  high,  - 93 -  and to  i n t h e w a g i n g o f war i t seems q u i t e  inferior  Fascism. Socialism,  i n one f o r m  t h e most p o t e n t economic l i f e  o r another,  i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l and  o f t h e w o r l d . S i n c e ¥/orld War I ,  m o d e r a t e S o c i a l i s t s have s e r v e d Presidents o f Premiers o f Europe  —  Elbert  Macdonald i n Great Stauning  i s one o f  a t i n t e r v a l s as  o f many i m p o r t a n t  countries  i n Germany, A d l e r i n A u s t r i a , Britain, Attlee  i n Great  Britain,  i n Denmark, and B r a n t i n g i n Sweden.  Socialists  o f t h e L e f t , o r more t r u l y  nov/ o c c u p y t h e c h i e f o f f i c e s  Communists,  i n Russia,  concerning  one-sixth o f the t e r r i t o r y o f the globe, while i n many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s S o c i a l i s m h a s become a p a r l i a m e n t r y f o r c e . Under these well  vital  circumstances, as  a s t h a t o f a n i m p e n d i n g W o r l d V/ar I I I , i t i s  more t h a n o f a c a d e m i c i m p o r t a n c e  t h a t the major  a s p e c t s o f S o c i a l i s m s h o u l d be t h o r o u g h l y  understood.  -  94  -  !g  CHAPTER V A R I E T I E S OF S o c i a l i s m has Socialists  should take  of  as t o  processes  call  as  c a r r y on  t o the  private on t h e  farming,  as  government the  assume  control  general  spirit  f o r g o v e r n m e n t o w n e r s h i p and  and  such  small  operation  businesses  whereas o t h e r s  favour  o p e r a t i o n o f s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s . Some i n s i s t immediate a d o p t i o n  others favour  o f the S o c i a l i s t  a more g r a d u a l p r o c e d u r e ,  that S o c i a l i s m i s i n e v i t a b l e  and  i t can  be  a c h i e v e d by D e m o c r a t i c  by p e r s u a d i n g p e o p l e t o v o t e I K a r l M a r x - was among them — i m p o s s i b l e and  t h a t except  assume  processes, —  assume t h a t t h i s  perhaps i n England  r e v o l u t i o n and  s t a t e can  the  great  Some b e l i e v e  for i t ; others  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the S o c i a l i s t o n l y by v i o l e n t  or  program;  t h e r e f o r e any  a g i t a t i o n or propoganda i s unnecessary. that  differ  i t s f u n c t i o n s . Some  a l l enterprises, including  as r e t a i l i n g  government  as t o  by w h i c h i t s h o u l d  e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s , and  Socialists  they  r a t e at which  over p r i v a t e business,  i n which i t should  of  the  although  increased  i n economic a c t i v i t y ,  i t s extent,  as t o t h e  t a k e n many f o r m s , f o r  agree i n a d v o c a t i n g  intervention to  S O C I A L I S T I C OPINION  be  is and achieved  forcible  e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y o w n e r s . A g r e a t many I . K a r l M a r x and F r e d r i c k E n g e l s , M a n i f e s t o o f t h e Communist P a r t y , V a n c o u v e r , W h i t e h e a d E s t a t e , 1919, p . 28-41.  - 95-  advocate  Socialism  i n a spirit  classes  that  others,  f o r instance  to  have faced  some e x t e n t  are  o f sympathy f o rt h e  i l lunder C a p i t a l i s m ;  the Marxians,  although  hut  moved  by sympathy f o r t h e u n d e r - p r i v i l i g e d ,  a l s o moved by a f i e r c e  rage a t what  they  "the  e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s " and by a determination  deal  harshly  with  i t when t h e r e v o l u t i o n  call to  comes.  - 96 -  CHAPTER X I I MARXIAN Modern S o c i a l i s m K a r l M a r x , who, Engels, and  SOCIALISM  should  p r o b a b l y be d a t e d  i n collaboration with  Published  from  Frederich  t h e COMMUNIST M A N I F E S T O i n 1 8 4 8 ,  h i s m o n u m e n t a l w o r k DAS K A P I T A L i n 1 8 6 7 .  Although Marx i s usually  regarded  rather  h i s significance i n the  than a S o c i a l i s t ,  S o c i a l i s t movement i s so g r e a t considered  as a Communist  that  he must  be  here. 1.  One  o f t h e most important  contributions of  M a r x i s t o be s e e n i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l point  evolutionary  o f v i e w . T h e e c o n o m i s t s who p r e c e d e d h i m  thought analyzed  o f economic  institutions  the operation  o f t h e economic  time,  s y s t e m as  it  existed  to  t h e changes which were even then t a k i n g  or  i t s probable  other  i n their  as unchanging and  future  giving little  h a n d , v i e w e d human  Hegelian  "turned  Dialectic  the dialectic  place,  development. Marx, on the Institutions,  economic system as c o n s t a n t l y the  attention  with right  including the  changing. Marx  the exception side  adopted  that  he  up a n d i n t e r p r e t e d  I it  materialistically.  he  formulated  The e s s e n c e o f t h e  was t h e d i a l e c t i c . H e g e l ' s  logic  dialectic  1. S a b i n e , G e o r g e , H., A H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y . New Y o r k , H e n r y H o l t a n d Company, 1 9 4 6 , p . 6 9 1 .  - 97 -  method  conceived  that  change took p l a c e  struggle  of antagonistic  of  contradictory  the  these first  elements, and t h e r e s o l u t i o n  elements  two e l e m e n t s  into a  synthesis,  f o r m i n g a new and  concept by v i r t u e o f t h e i r  union.  itself  fashion:  politically  through the  i n this  higher  Thus I t r e s o l v e d  "As a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the r i s i n g p r o l e t a r i a t — t h e antithesis — and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y — t h e t h e s i s — we m i g h t e x p e c t t o s e e the e m e r g e n c e o f a new f o r m o f s o c i e t y a synthesis* . T  —  2. Before  the time  o f M a r x , and even u n t i l  most h i s t o r i e s have been t h e r e c o r d s and  military  underlying  leaders,  economic  from the theory  with  little  of  political  reference  conditions. Marx turned  i n h i s conclusion  now,  to away  that  " l e g a l r e l a t i o n s as w e l l as forms o f s t a t e c o u l d n e i t h e r be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e m s e l v e s , n o r e x p l a i n e d b y t h e so-called general progress of the human m i n d , b u t are rooted i n the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e . . . . T h e mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n m a t e r i a l l i f e determines the general character of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l processes o f l i f e " . 2  1 . L a i d l e r , H . W., A H i s t o r y o f S o c i a l i s t T h o u g h t , New Y o r k , Thomas Y C r o m w e l l Company, 1 9 2 7 , p . 1 5 1 . 2.  Ibid,  p. 201  - 98 -  In  c h a n g i n g t h e modes o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  changes a l l i t s s o c i a l  mankind  relations:  "The h a n d m i l l c r e a t e s a s o c i e t y w i t h the f e u d a l l o r d ; t h e steam m i l l a s o c i e t y w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l i s t c a p i t a l i s t . T h e same m e n who e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l relations i n conformity with t h e i r material production also create p r i n c i p l e s , ideas and c a t e g o r i e s i n I conformity with their social relations". "What e l s e " , w r o t e M a r x , i T  does t h e h i s t o r y o f i d e a s  intellectual  production  proportion with The of  governing  i t sgoverning Marx's  of  great  light  to  Those  who  may f i n d  are always the idea  developments. Most  f o rinstance, securing  by hunting,  to their  - a "happy  reflect  production.  f o r i t throws a r e v e a l i n g  fishing,  t o communism i n l a n d  of heaven  i nmaterial  interpretationof history i s  o n many h i s t o r i c a l  appropriate  i t s character i n  o f each period 2  significance;  livelihoods held  changes  that  class."  economic  American Indians,  Manifesto,  demonstrate except  the changes  ideas  i n t h e Communist  ahd  hunting  life;  food-gathering,  even t h e i r  idea  g r o u n d " - may be s a i d  t h e i r mode o f p r o d u c t i o n  an important  their  o w n e r s h i p b e c a u s e i t was  economic  are disturbed  of the  i nmaterial  by the r i s i n g  tide  lire.  of radicalism  cause f o r i t i n the development  o f g r e a t f a c t o r i e s w i t h l a r g e numbers o f p r o p e r t y - i e s s 1 . L a i d l e r , H . W.. A H i s t o r y o f S o c i a l i s t T h o u g h t , p . 2 0 1 . 2. L a s k i , H. J . , Communism, L o n d o n , T h o r n t o n 1936, p. 64.  Butterworth,  99 -  workers, and the gradual separation o f labourers from t h e i r means of earning a l i v i n g .  Our r i s i n g divorce  rate i s the r e s u l t not so much o f changing moral standards as of the economic emancipation of women, or  better opportunities o f making t h e i r own l i v i n g . 3«  The essence o f Marxian value theory was expounded by Adam Smith who stated i n h i s Wealth of Nations: "In that e a r l y and rude state of society which precedes both the accumulation o f stock (capital) and the appropriation o f land, the proportion between the quantities o f labour necessary for acquiring d i f f e r e n t objects seems to be the only circumstance which can afford any rule f o r exchanging them f o r one another. I f among a nation o f hunters, f o r example, i t usually costs twice the labour to k i l l a beaver than which i t does to k i l l a deer, one beaver should n a t u r a l l y exchange for, or be worth, two deer".j The e s s e n t i a l element i n Capitalism, according to Marx, i s the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f labour by c a p i t a l ; and the basic conception i n the Marxist i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i t s concept o f value.  According to Marx a l l  value i s an expression o f human labour —  not, how  ever, o f any labour, only of that kind and amount 2  of  labour whioh i s s o c i a l l y necessary.;.^;.::,  1.  Smith. Adam. Wealth o f Nations, A / ^ / * * * , /V*A£<*  2.  Venable, Vernon, Human Nature: The Marxian view Mew York, A l f r e d A. Knoff, 1946, p. 49.  /  y  -100  Every the to  a certain value  s o c i a l l y necessary i t s production.  than the  commodity h a s  which  l a b o u r w h i c h m u s t be  that i t constantly increases society.  Under the  h o w e v e r , t h e w o r k e r s who b a c k , i n wages, t h e created.  The  reserve  the  o f human  system,  c r e a t e w e a l t h do n o t  capitalist,  what t h e y  t o pay  to maintain  strength  the r e m a i n d e r  efficiency, while create,  retains f o r himself. difference value  of  their of  t h e " s u r p l u s v a l u e " , he  Surplus value  represents  b e t w e e n t h e wages p a i d t o l a b o u r  the products  of  his  workers o n l y what i s n e c e s s a r y  value which they  have  to t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a ,  army o f u n e m p l o y e d , i s a b l e  and  receive  owing t o t h e ownership  and  by  wealth  capitalist  f u l l e q u i v a l e n t of  h i s means o f p r o d u c t i o n  larger  b e e n m e a n w h i l e consumed  labourers, since i t Is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  owned by  devoted  T h i s v a l u e w i l l u s u a l l y be  the v a l u e w h i c h has  labour  represents  created  by  and  the ,  the the  labour.  "Through t h e i r ownership o f the means o f p r o d u c t i o n t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s I s i n a p o s i t i o n t o compel the l a b o u r e r t o produce beyond t h e v a l u e o f h i s wage, the d i f f e r e n c e g o i n g t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s as# a surplus value o f p r o f i t . This e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l a b o u r a t the p o i n t o f p r o d u c t i o n g i v e s r i s e to the class struggle — a c o n f l i c t over w i t h e l d wages o f s u r p l u s v a l u e " . j  I.  W i l l i a m s , M., The s o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H i s t o r y New Y o r k , S o t e r y P u b l i s h i n g , .1921. p . 89.  - 101 4. Fundamental t o Marx's g e n e r a l doctrine begin  o f the class  struggle.  theory i s  the  Marx a n d E n g l e s  t h e i r M a n i f e s t o w i t h t h e r i n g i n g pronounce'  ment: "The h i s t o r y o f a l l h i t h e r t o e x i s t i n g society i s the class struggles. Freeman a n d s l a v e , patrician and plebian, lord and s e r f , g u i l d m a s t e r and j o u r n e y m a n , i n a word, o p p r e s s o r and o p p r e s s e d , s t o o d i n c o n s t a n t o p p o s i t i o n t o one a n o t h e r , c a r r y i n g o n an u n i n t e r r u p t e d , now h i d d e n , now open f i g h t , a f i g h t t h a t e a c h t i m e ended e i t h e r i n a r e v o l u tionary reconstitution o f society at large, o r i n the common r u i n o f t h e c o n t e n d i n g classes. I n t h e e a r l i e r epochs o f h i s t o r y we f i n d a l m o s t e v e r y where a c o m p l i c a t e d a r r a n g e ment o f s o c i e t y i n t o v a r i o u s r u l e r s , a manifold graduation o f s o c i a l rank. I n ancient Rome We h a v e p a t r i c i a n s , knights, plebeians, slaves; i n the middle ages, f e u d a l lords, vassals, g u i l d m a s t e r s , journeymen, a p p r e n t i c e s , s e r f s ; i n almost a l l o f -these c l a s s e s , a g a i n , subordinate graduations. The modern b o u r g e o i s (capitalist) society that has s p r o u t e d from t h e r u i n s o f f e u d a l s o c i e t y h a s not done away w i t h c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m s . I t h a s e s t a b l i s h e d new c l a s s e s , new c o n d i t i o n s o f o p p r e s s i o n , new f o r m s o f s t r u g g l e i n t h e place o f o l d ones.  -  102-^  Our e p o c h , t h e e p o c h o f b o u r g e o i s i e , p o s s e s s e s , however, t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e feature; i t has s i m p l i f i e d t h e c l a s s antagonisms. S o c i e t y as a whole i s more and more s p l i t t i n g up i n t o two g r e a t h o s t i l e camps, i n t o two g r e a t c l a s s e s d i r e c t l y f a c i n g each other: Bourgeoisie and P r o l e t a r i a t " . j  Thus a c c o r d i n g classes. as he ....  puts  The  to Marx,  there  bourgeoisie  a r e o n l y two  steadily  i t i n the m a n i f e s t o ,  instead o f r i s i n g with t h e  s i n k s d e e p e r and  grow r i c h e r  while  t h e modern lateourer progress  deeper b e l o w the  e x i s t e n c e o f h i s own  important  of  industry,  c o n d i t i o n s of  class:  "The l o w e r s t r a t a o f t h e m i d d l e class — the small tradespeople, shopkeepers, and r e t i r e d t r a d e s men g e n e r a l l y , t h e handicraftsmen and p e a s a n t s - a l l t h e s e s i n k g r a d u a l l y i n t o the p r o l e t a r i a t , p a r t l y because t h e i r d i m i n u t i v e c a p i t a l does n o t s u f f i c e f o r t h e s c a l e i n w h i c h Modern I n d u s t r y I s c a r r i e d on, and i s swamped i n t h e competition with t h e large c a p i t a l i s t s , p a r t l y because t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l i s rendered w o r t h l e s s b y new m e t h o d s o f production. Thus t h e p r o l e t a r i a t i s r e c r u i t e d from a l l c l a s s e s o f p o p u l a t i o n * .2 1  Marx, and l&vjft&a, M a n i f e s t o o f t h e Communist P a r t y . V a n c o u v e r , Whitehead E s t a t e , 1919, p. 10, 2»  Ibad, p.  21.  II  - 103  But production of the the  are  conditions developing  f o r a s more p e o p l e  p r o l e t a r i a n c l a s s and  as  to the are  rule  forced into  i n the  great i n d u s t r i e s In  s t r u g g l e s between t h e p r o l e t a r i a t and  the  but  the  bourgeoisie  finally  bourgeoisie,  and  and  of  co-operate.  bourgeoisie, first;  capitalist  i n c r e a s i n g numbers  brought t o g e t h e r  workmen l e a r n t o o r g a n i z e  ensuing  with  i n c r e a s i n g l y unfavourable  bourgeoisie;  labourers are the  the  -  i s usually victorious at  the workers win,  o p e n t h e way  the  for  overthrow  the "sway o f  the the  proletariat" "ffltie d e v e l o p m e n t o f M o d e r n i n d u s t r y , t h e r e f o r e , cuts f r o m u n d e r i t s f e e t the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n on which the b o u r g e o i s i e produces and a p p r o p r i a t e s p r o d u c t s . What the b o u r g e o i s i e t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c e s , above a l l , a r e i t w own "gravediggers". I t s f a l l and. t h e v i c t o r y o f the p r o l e t a r i a t are e q u a l l y inevitable" . 2  This v i c t o r y national  i s t o be  boundaries,  world-wide, not because " t h e  limited  to  w o r k i n g c l a s s have  3 no  country".  1. 2. 3.  M a r x and E n g e l s , I b i d , p. 28. I b i d , p. 36.  Communist M a n i f e s t o ,  p.  26.  - 104  -  T h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n t h a t the country"  i s one  reason  why  "workingmen h a v e  Marxian  Socialists  h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t t o much c r i t i c i s m , believe  t h a t the  bourgeoisie o f another war,  real  country, and  n o t a war  class  sound. not  country, not  t h a t the  r e a l war  the " e x p l o i t e d  always s t r u g g l e d v e r y v a l i a n t l y , eras the  classes  for in  docile  and  exploited  Spartacan  Peasants  c e n t r a l E u r o p e , t h e Wat  Tyler Insurrection i n  o f 1848  times  and  their  l o t without  belief  Revolution i n  the w i d e s p r e a d  - the m i s e r a b l e  s e r f s o f the Middle violent  accepted  i n s t i t u t i o n , but  Ages:  accepted i n the  s l a v e r y as  the  fact  t h e i r l o t i n a l l h u m i l i t y and  subordination i s a matter I n our has  s l a v e s o f Roman  t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d the n a t u r a l o r d e r  of fact  class  that  of a they  complete  of question.  contemporary world  shown g r e a t  England,  labour,;  protest, probably  e v e n t s . P l a t o seems t o h a v e t a k e n matter  have  8  earlier  R e v o l u t i o n i n Rome, The  t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , and  on  resigned.  t h e r e were some u p r i s i n g s - t h e  the  class  q^lte  c l a s s e s t h a t w4re r e a l l y  r u t h l e s s l y were s i n g u l a r l y  revolution  of  i s thus a  find h i s arguments  What M a r x c a l l s  Although  the masses  t h e v a l i d i t y of M a r x ' s v i e w s  s t r u g g l e we  historical  the  between n a t i o n s .  I n examining the  Socialists  enemies cf t h e m a s s e s a r e  t h e i r own  no  the p r o l e t a r i a n  consciousness,  class  particularly  - 1G5  the  labour  -  c l a s s which as Marx  revolutionary  says,  i s the  only  class.  "Marx made two p r e d i c t i o n s : ( l ) c a p i t a l i s m must soon c o l l a p s e ; ( 2 ) t h e r e can be no so s o c i a l p r o g r e s s a s l o n g a s C a p i t a l i s m e x i s t s . What a r e t h e f a c t s ? C a p i t a l i s m has not c o l l a p s e d ; t h e r e has been s o c i a l p r o g r e s s under C a p i t a l i s m . . . . S o c i a l progress h a s s t o o d s t i l l s i n c e Marx'. N o t h i n g has happened i n t h e p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y t h a t c o u l d i n any way i n d i c a t e how C a p i t a l i s m w o u l d be a b o l i s h e d " , 1  Many p e o p l e that  there  there  i s anything  are r e a l  insist  t h a t we  constituted of  strongly  resent  valid  the  suggestion  i n Marxism o r  that  c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n A m e r i c a . They a r e one h a p p y f a m i l y ,  and g o v e r n e d , a n d t h a t  democratically  the i n t e r e s t s  a l l a r e t h e same. I t a p p e a r s , h o w e v e r , t h a t  t h i s i d e n t i t y o f i n t e r e s t s works o n l y What i s good f o r b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s be good f o r l a b o u r ; t h a t what  i s good f o r l a b o u r  leaders. I t i s very United  States  follows there  but there  one  way.  i s presumed t o  i s no a s s u m p t i o n i s good f o r b u s i n e s s  obvious, e s p e s c i a l l y i n the  t h a t when a p o l i t i c a l  administration  t h e w i s h e s o f o u r e n t r e p e n e u r s and  are - o r should  be - no  capitalists,  class differences;  1. W i l l i a m s , M a u r i c e , The S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H i s t o r y , p . 90-91.  -  but  -  1G6  when C o n g r e s s e n a c t s l e g i s l a t i o n  by  l a b o u r ; the  by  the  and  who  happy f a m i l y  v e r y men object  who to  insist the  idea  called  for  i s promptly d i s r u p t e d that of  i t i s a happy  class  F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h l a b o u r and  family  differences.  c a p i t a l have  an  identical  i n t e r e s t i n the  profitable operation  industry,  for neither  prosper i f t h i s i s  diversity  of  to divide  the  Can of  the  Class  attention too  gross  a s s e n t be  Struggle? In and  to  u n i f i e d , but  the  d i v i d i n g the  rest of  class of  Capitalism  a reduction  of  doctrine  people  in giving  the  into  little matter  pretty cannot  p r o l e t a r i a n s . Marx  under-  o f the  middle  class  r a p i d i t y with which the  proletariat.  seems t o  importance o f has  the  and i t would  The  i n c l i n e towards middle  in  fact, i t s decline  in  A m e r i c a f o r some t i m e , f o r more and  chain  begin  people  importance  tendency o f  individual  the  class" i s usually  g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d the i n t o the  lacking,  they  m i d d l e c l a s s , M a r x made t h e  dumped t o g e t h e r as  fall  given to  p r o l e t a r i a t , and  the  e s t i m a t e d the  s o o n as  of  profits.  simple. The**ruling  well be  i n t e r e s t a p p e a r s as  unqualified  bourgeoisie  can  -  class;  p r o b a b l y been g o i n g  r e t a i l e r s have b e e n d r i v e n  on  more out  by  the  s t o r e s , w h e r e a s the number o f wage w o r k e r s I has i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e I . A p p e n d i x V and X I  - 107  has  b e e n a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e number a n d  o f workers i n the clerical be  -  and  various occupations,  professional,  particularly  and m o s t o f them  r a t e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e m i d d l e  proportion  should  class.  M a r x seems t o have b e e n t o o p e s s i m i s t i c a b o u t the  f u t u r e o f the middle  classification  class,  o f s o c i e t y too  and  simple. There  g r e a t numbers o f c l a s s e s , s h a d i n g capitalists the  to the  poorest  p r o f e s s i o n a l men  r u r a l t e a c h e r s who s a l e s m e n who who  earn  with  he made h i s are  from the w e a l t h i e s t  o f l a y l a b o u r e r s , from comfortable  incomes  b a r e l y manage t o l i v e , a comfortable  l i v i n g to  make o n l y e n o u g h f o r a m i s e r a b l e  from hawkers  existence,  from h i g h l y s k i l l e d  craftsmen  c a s u a l l a b o u r e r s who  must go  are  l a b o u r e r s themselves are  s c a r c e . Even the  t o the u n s k i l l e d on  r e l i e f when  o f an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o l e t a r i a t , of labour are a l s o s p l i t  as  f o r the  Is e a s i l y  i n an a n a l y s i s o f American t r a d e  to  and  jobs not  ranks  recognized  unionism.  -  108  -  CHAPTER  XIII  REVISIONISM AND SYNDICALISM E v e n w h i l e M a r s was w o r k i n g f o r h i s " i n e v i t a b l e r e v o l u t i o n " , t h e r e v i s i o n i s t movement, a more m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t movement, was d e v e l o p i n g i n Germany; and t h i r t y y e a r s  a f t e r "Das K a p i t a l "  was  p u b l i s h e d , Edward B e r n s t e i n t h e l e a d e r o f t h e R e v i s i o n i s t s , p o i n t e d o u t some c f t h e more errors  obvious  i n Marxian doctrine. "He d e n i e s t h a t t h e r e i s an imminent p r o s p e c t of t h e breakdown o f b o u r g e o i s i e s o c i e t y ; he a s s e r t s t h a t i n the working o r C a p i t a l i s m there i s n o t a decreasing , number o f C a p i t l i s t s , a l l / o f them l a r g e , b u t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f C a p i t a l i s t ; he r e j e c t s t h e dogma t h a t i n e v e r y d e p a r t ment o f i n d u s t r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s proceeding with e qual r a p i d i t y , a n d he c h a l l e n g e s t h i s with s p e c i a l reference to a g r i c u l t u r e . . . . . Mr. Bernstein also modifies the M a r x i a n v i e w of t h e m a t e r i a l i s t conception of h i s t o r y a n d of t h e e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y , o f the c l a s s war a n d o f v a l u e . And he d o e s t h i s w h i l s t continuing to proclaim himself a S o c i a l i s t , b e c a u s e he t a k e s the true s c i e n t i f i c view t h a t e v e r y dogma and e v e r y t h e o r y i s subject t o the law o f e v o l u t i o n a s w e l l as s o c i e t y itself". 1  I.  L a i d l e r , A H i s t o r y o f S o c i a l i s t T h o u g h t , New Thomas Y. C r o m w e l l Company, 1 9 2 7 , p . 2 9 7 . i  York,  - 109  M a r x was  wrong i n e m p h a s i z i n g t h e  the e v o l u t i o n a r y process. n e c e s s i t y of the  final  -  steady  endjifco be  f i n a l end  of  B e r n s t e i n emphasized  advance w i t h o u t achieved,  the  much r e g a r d  f o r t h i s he  could  to not  T  clearly  foresee.-  L a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f the class organizations, democratization  of local  between 1867, 1899,  K a p i t a l " was  when B e r n s t e i n p u b l i s h e d  The  the the  little  protection o f labour;  t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m " , t h e r e was  Is  and  by M a r x h a v e b e e n g r e a t l y  when "Das  such l e g i s l a t i o n .  working  government, many o f  When M a r x w r o t e , t h e r e was  legislation for the  and  of  factory l e g i l a t i o n  social e v i l s described  reduced.  pressure s  d e f i n i t e l y more a p p e a l i n g  published,  his  a great  Socialism  but  "Evoluadvance i n  Bernstein.advocates  than t h a t o u t l i n e d  by  Marx. One  of  Radicalism  the m o s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c grew up  Syndicalism. any  pressure,  of  i s known  as  class struggle,  strikes,  They a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t  o r g a n i z a t i o n should be  I.  and  They b e l i e v e i n the  form o f d i r e c t  sabotage.  i n France  forms  the trade  the  boycott, u n i t of  and social  union.  M a c d o n a l d , 0. Ramsay, The So o i a i i s t Movement. L o n d o n , W i l l i a m and N o r g a t e , \no d a t e \ p . 312-13.  - no / T h i s movement d i d n o t g a i n much  strength.  "When i n v i t e d t o a n I t a l i a n S y n d i c a l i s t Congress i n December, 1 9 1 0 ; M. S o r e l replied that, i n h i s opinion, " s y n d i c a l i s m had not r e a l i z e d what was e x p e c t e d f r o m i t " . 1  2  1.  George S o r e l , E d . B e r t h , Leone, L a b r i o l a , were t h e f o u n d e r s o f t te S y n d y c a l i s t movement.  2.  Simkhovitch, V l a d i m i r , G . , Marxism versus S o c i a l i s m . New Y o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923, p . 293.  - I l l PART I V DEMOCRATIC In  SOCIALISM  our discussion of e t h i c a l  established  as o u r g e n e r i c end o f a c t i o n , " t h e  g r e a t e s t amount o f h a p p i n e s s number o f p e o p l e " . to  t h e o r y , we  f o r the greatest  T h i s e n d o f a c t i o n we  designated  mean a s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e  with which  we make o u r e v a l u a t i o n s .  Furthermore,  we  found  that  t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s a r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e framework of  political  both  and e c o n o m i c d e m o c r a c y .  characteristics  i l l u s t r a t e d how  political  as i m  a c a p i t a l i s t i c order,  remain  a s f a r away a s e v e r .  of  privilege  another  But  of a j u s t equality  (political).  We  also found  order,  achieved,  justice  c a s e , one t y p e  i t perfectly  some p e o p l e may p r e f e r  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth here  c a n be  and s o c i a l In this  social  (economic) h a s been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r  feasilfle t o assume t h a t in  that  t h e p o l t i c a l a n d economic a s p e c t s o f democracy  are necessary we  I n arguing  to p o l i t i c a l  equality  liberty.  a g i n , as i n t h e case o f M a r x i a n S o c i a l i s m ,  economic e q u a l i t y democracy.  i s g a i n e d by s a c r i f i c i n g  political  Thus, i n f o r m u l a t i n g a p o l i t i c a l  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s we  system  established  a s n e c e s s a r y , we s h a l l e n d e a v o u r t o a c h i e v e  simultane-  o u s l y , w i t h i n t h e same s y s t e m ,  both p o l i t i c a l  and  argue  social equality.  We  f e a t may be a c c o m p l i s h e d  shall  through  liberty  h e r e i n , that  this  t h e medium o f D e m o c r a t i c Socialism.  - 112 CHAPTER X I V ASSUMPTIONS AND PROPOSALS OF DEMOCRATIC  SOCIALISM  I n Amerioa, most d e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l i s t s tte  p u b l i c ownership  with  and o p e r a t i o n ,  advocate  i n accordance  democratic p r i n c i p l e s o f the s o c i a l l y important  productive  industries.  that Socialism:  J . Ramsay M a c d o n a l d  states  ,  i s t h e c r e e d o f those who, r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t t h e community e x i s t s f o r the i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f l i b e r t y , and t h a t t h e c o n t r o l of t h e e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f l i f e means t h e c o n t r o l o f l i f e i t s e l f , seek t o b u i l d up a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which w i l l i n c l u d e i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s t h e management o f those economic i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h a s l a n d and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l t h a t c a n n o t be l e f t s a f e l y i n the hands o f i n d i v i d u a l s . This is Socialism. I t i s an a p p l i c a t i o n of . mutual a i d t o p o l i t i c s and e c o n o m i c s . And t h e S o c i a l i s t end i s l i b e r t y , t h e l i b e r t y o f w h i c h K a n t t h o u g h t when he p r o c l a i m e d t h a t e v e r y man i s a n e n d i n h i m s e l f a n d n o t as a means t o a n o t h e r man's e n d . The means a n d t h e e n d c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d . S o c i a l i s m p r o p o s e s a change i n s o c i a l mechanism, but j u s t i f i e s i t a s a means o f e x t e n d i n g human liberty. Social organization i s the c o n d i t i o n , n o t t h e a n t i t h e s i s , of individual l i b e r t y " . 1  It  t h e n becomes a p p a r e n t . t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o o u r  economic I.  problems l i e s  i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f  M a c d o n a l d , J . Ramsay, The S o c i a l i s t Movement, New Y o r k , H e n r y H o l t & Go., p . I I  - 113  democratic We  socialism.  h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d t o the p r o d u c t i v e  inefficiency  o f c a p i t a l i s m , r e s u l t i n g from i t s  waste o f n a t u r a l we  -  have  and human r e s o u r c e s .  s t r e s s e d the  system.  We  injustices  s h a l l t he r e f o r e  Most of a l l  t h a t permeate  endeavour to formulate  a s y s t e m more i n k e e p i n g w i t h o u r i d e a l s satisfactory  living.  to b r i n g wealth  By t h i s  into  closer  p o p u l a r w e l l - b e i n g and  our  of  change we may  hope  causal relation  to e s t a b l i s h  a  with  condition  approaching e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y for a l l people. We  may  hope, f u r t h e r m o r e ,  to d e v e l o p  a  higher  e f f i c i e n c y b a s e d u p o n a more w h o l e - h e a r t e d participation  i n economic  d i r e c t i o n o f energy human w a n t s .  toward  These ends,  by t h e f o l l o w i n g  activity  and a  general conscious  the s a t i s f a c t i o n  we  believe, maybe  of achieved  procedure. I.  The o f the line  first  s t e p would  p r i v a t e ownership  s h o u l d be  ownership  type of wealth  o f wealth.  the A  application  distinctive  drawn between p r o d u c e r ' s w e a l t h  consumer's w e a l t h . private  be t o l i m i t  As and  and  f a r as t h e l a t t e r i s  concerned,  c o n t r o l are d e s i r a b l e .  It is a  which i s f o r u s e and one s h o u l d h a v e  - 114  -  t h e r i g h t w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f h i s income t o a c a / ^ u i r e what g o o d s he as he  sees f i t .  chooses  and  to use  them  Under S o c i a l i s m , t h e r e f o r e ,  our  c l o t h i n g , homes, and a u t o m o b i l e s w o u l d be o u r s enjoy under the rights  as we  have  wealth, land would  same g u a r a n t e e s today,  as w e l l  as o t h e r  lishments.  The  latter  capital  to  large merchandising estabrefer  to the  large  capital -  i n v o l v i n g employment o f o t h e r s and  a  those  complex  b a s i s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n - would  be  t h e new  p e o p l e who  p r o p e r t y system.  them would, be  s  railways, mines,  p r o d u c t i v e u n i t s o f l a n d and  in  1  goods,  This applies  o f factories,  public u t i l i t i e s , and  exclusive  s i g n i f i c a n t producer  be owned § o l l e c t i v e l y .  t h e ownership  of  to  employed  The by  o t h e r a g e n t o f s o c i e t y , and  taken over  into  worked  t h e government,  or  a l l returns from  them a f t e r wages were p a i d w o u l d r e d o u n d  to the  common b e n e f i t . i h e democfcactie s o c i a l i s t s will  be  full  value.  state t hat  a f f e c t e d by purchasing i n d u s t r i e s I t has  r i g h t t o bequest reverting a l l  a l s o been  s h o u l d be  such w e a l t h  change at  suggested t h a t  t a k e n away, t h u s to the state  d e a t h o f the p r e s e n t owners.  on  the  their the  115  -  Along with would have the  -  c o l l e c t i v e ownership the colledtive  socialists  management o f Industry,,  In  t h i s connection, the purpose o f i n d u s t r y i s t o  be  different  be p l a n n e d  fromWhat  i t now  i n accordance  the p r o f i t - m o t i v e ,  Questions  contrasted with these  o f importance  schedules, the  p r o d u c e d , how  s a v i n g s s h o u l d be  p r o d u c t i o n I s to  w i t h human w a n t s and  r e g a r d i n g wage and p r i c e t h e g o o d s t o be  is:  i n d u s t r y as  much s h o u l d be made  the people  enjoyment i n the  of  consumer s goods a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h 1  carried  i n d u s t r y f o r the maintenace  and  back  form  the into  extension  of  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . These q u e s t i o n s , cannot answered a r b i t r a r i l y , f o r Democratic contemplates concerned  an  than  accessible  to  p r o p o r t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be  of  much o f s o c i e t y ' s  turned to t h i s  for their  arise  quality  t h a t , and more f u n d a m e n t a l  a g a i n , how  not  be  Socialism  economic system which i s c o n s t a n t l y  with keeping  p r o d u c t i v e energy  the  related  expenditure  of  always to the  fullest  s a t i s f a c t i o n o f wants. The  collective  carries with from  and  i t the r i g h t  i t . Under t h e  incomes from  ownership o f producer's t o r e c e i v e the  wealth  returns  C a p i t a l i s t i c system t h e r e  are  p r o p e r t y as w e l l a s wages, f e e s ,  s a l a r i e s . I n t h i s m a n n e r , t h o s e who  p r o p e r t y have t h i s  have  l e v e r a g e o v e r t h o s e who  have'nt.  - 116  Landowners r e c e i v e and  profits.  rewarded a l i k e  or  a  rent, while  S o c i a l i s m would  individualistic  w i t h the  -  get i n t e r e s t s  sweep away t h e s e  advantages. A l l people w i l l for their  worth of  their  services i n s e r v i c e , or  compromise between the  modern s o c i a l i s t s i s not of  opportunity.  as  wage w o r k e r s w i t h  owned  others  two.  aim  e q u a l i t y , but  A l l persons equal  are  to  access  be  accordance their  The  ''  needs, of  equality  stand  alike  to the  socially  capital. 2.  As  already  injustices close of  an  of  stated, socialists stress our  s y s t e m and  a p p r o a c h as  opportunity.  collective  In  i n s i s t upon  possible to  this  Most of  the  authority responsible  equality  they  for an  as  make  keeping aspect  of  planning.  important,  equality of  education.  the  connection  e v e r y o n e e m p l o y e d . T h i s w o u l d be productive  the  however, i n the opportunity  Socialists  significance  of  making education  i s access  have l o n g  education.  In  a  stressed  to the  short, they  synonymous w i t h  enviaronment s u r r o u n d i n g  achievement  child  the  whole  advocate social  from i t s e a r l i e s t  - 117 -  years,  and would p l a c e upon s o c i e t y t h e  responsibility  of developing h i s talents  best  interests  o f t h e community. E d u c a t i o n  then  serve  the  a s a means t o h e l p man  short-comings  developed feel  o f thought  t h a t men  function training,  a  The p r o b l e m  form if  similar to this,  o f which  act  they l i v e ? "  good  Socialists  education i s  "How w o u l d b e p e o p l e a c t about  the world i n -mvtlfL  I t i s our bias that they  i n accordance  have  may be p o s i t e d i n a  t h e y knew a l l t h e f a c t s  which  from  that  society.  would  according to their  environmental great part.  escape  processes  i n our profit-seeking  i nthe  with the precept " the greatest  f o r t h e g r e a t e s t number ".  3. Socialists the  capitalist  disclaim entirely, therefore, assumption  profit-motive, which,  that the s e l f - i n t e r e s t ,  a s we h a v e  pointed out,  is  t h e dynamic p r i n c i p l e  of our business  is  necessary  forth  the that  best productive effort. the provision  conducive will  f o rcalling  and  We m a y  of a social  such  minds that they w i l l  sustaining validly  argue  environment  t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new  b r i n g about  system,  motives  a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n men s 1  respond  t o other than  purely  selfish  -  118  -  influences;  and  society would  not  only  but  i n t o the  a  sense  into benefits  of  d i g n i t y and  may  of  competition  to  rightly  i n our  feel and  with  that which  go  with  philosophy.  This  f a r cry  profit  economic  f u r n i s h us  of  a finer  i s a  from the  making to  s y s t e m and  the  enter  greater (efficiency  satisfaction  we  place  of  then  necessary  elevation  the  highest  r e l y i n g on g o o d s and  them services*  4.  Democratic S o c i a l i s t s that by  the  change t o  voters  that  i t i s necessary  industries will  and  an  ship. will  by  The  Fabian Socialists  of  seem as  Although  the has  and  socialists;  does not  country  a majority  and  of  that  operated  believe  of  the democratically,  that  i n e v i t a b l y . The  but  the  i n e v i t a b l e as  government of  i t once  every  s t e a d i l y expanded  the  great  area of  socialism Fabian  most  inevitability did.  capitalistic  i t s  most such governments have reached fringes  achieved  g r a d u a l n e s s i s a c c e p t e d by  contemporary  agreed  i r r e s p o n s i b l e government d i c t a t o r -  come g r a d u a l l y ,  doctrine  be  well  be  convincing  socialized not  fairly  s o c i a l i s m i s to  d e m o c r a t i c means, by  the  are  functions, only  private  the  enterprise  -  and  119  t h e r e i s reason to: doubt  government, a t any r a t e , field that  of private  that  will  enterprise  our Liberal  take over the vast  a t any f u t u r e  date  c a n be c l e a r l y f o r e s e e n .  5. It fine  i soften  said  i f people were  selfish  t o respond  system. S o c i a l i s m acquisitive present in  that Socialism fine, but that  to the idealism  disposition  system does.  capable  be o f f e r e d  socialism  are so  conceded partly  tradition, they  enterprise. i n a  t o argue  t o be e s s e n t i a l l y  because  induce  socialist  equalitarian.  are inclined  or largely  c a n we  seen, t h e philosophy o f  i s strongly  Socialists  that  important work o f  No  f o r a s we h a v e  any l o g i c a l  on t h e assumption  t o do t h e i r  would  less  inequalities  - i ft h e y have  productive  state,  o f the socialist*  fabulous salaries  businessmen  salaries  aretoo  Our grotesque  managing and d i r e c t i n g such  people  i n human b e i n g s t h a n o u r  foundation at a l l- rest by o f f e r i n g  be v e r y  does i n d e e d assume a  w e a l t h and income  only  would  because  from  a r e made c o n s t a n t l y  that  selfish,  i f people  they are  o f environment  the cradle  and  t o the grave  aware o f t h e heavy  emphasis  -  120  on money a s a m e a s u r e o f r e p u t a b i l i t y ; insist other  that  i d e a l s , people would  as w e l l love  i f environment  i f not quite  prefer  socialist  could  t o take  forms other  willing  earn their  state might  t o serve  carry with  ownership desire  rooted.  that  i nthe  i t s o much men w o u l d  their  be  Whether and educated  selfish  and p e r s o n a l  desire  gain,  e v e r be t r a i n e d t o f i n d i n s o m e w h a t t h e same  t h e y now f i n d i s quite  f o rpersonal  Y e t we m u s t c o n c e d e ownership  i n personal  another  possession that  question.  i s deeply  the opportunities  a r e d e c l i n i n g anyhow,  t h a t man i s a p p a r e n t l y  a world  able  largely lose  and g a i n ,  for personal  of  that  ownership and g a i n  satisfaction  holfling  e v e r be so r e a r e d  could  view.  compensation p a r t l y i n  i n d i v i d u a l possession  collective  and  almost  business,  f o r modest s a l a r i e s .  could  they would  whether they  The  t o them  f a r more i n  t h a n money. O f f i c e  human b e i n g s  for  respond  as e n e r g e t i c a l l y as t o the  honour and d i s t i n c t i o n  that  and t r a i n i n g s t r e s s e d  f o r money. T h e r e i s much t r u t h i n t h i s  Many t e a c h e r s but  and they  adjusting himself  i n which fewer and fewer people  i tas e s s e n t i a l .  to  think  -  Selfishness, not  121  -  intelligent  s e l f i s h n e s s , would  n e c e s s a r i l y make S o c i a l i s m i m p r a c t i c a b l e .  Socialism  i s really  a more e f f i c i e n t  economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n t should  lead most people  to  favour  c o u r s e be  constitute  a  only  small  of  selfishness i t . Those  have p r o f i t e d handsomely under the regime would of  form  hostile,  proportion  not  include  f a r m s and  ments would deprive the  people  of  the  only  small  but  they  of  c  the which  retail establish-  a small  opportunity  who  capitalist  population. Moderate Democratic Socialism, did  I f  to  percentage amass  of  fortunes.  6. A  serious  to  individual  as  we  argument a g a i n s t freedom. As  know i t came w i t h  c a p i t a l i s m , and it  may  labourers, like  realize,  the  clerks,  determined  freedom  of  clear possibility  i f capitalism i s middle  daily  States  and  routine may of  that  abandoned.  classes  stenographers  have l e s s freedom t h a n  f o r t h e m . We  the United  development  l o w e r and  people have a deep l o v e of  n o t e d , human  salespeople,  - probably for their  the  is a  l a r g e l y disappear  H o w e v e r , many o f  the  there  we  socialism relates  and  they  i s largely  suggest  that  f r e e d o m , and  i f a most  Canada have, i f t h e y  people  -  develop  the social  Socialist more do  122  -  intelligence  needed  regime, the masses might w e l l  freedom under  i n a Capitalist  a Socialist economy.  i n a have  system than they  - 124 -  PART 7 CONCLUSION EXISTING  TREND TOWARD  SOCIALISM  We m a y p o i n t o u t t h a t o u r e c o n o m y i s a l r e a d y socialized toward  to a great  further  Since World the  e x t e n t , and t h a t the t r e n d  socialization  i svery  War I I , a n d e v e n b e f o r e  government  strong. I t s beginning,  increased i t s intervention.  The D o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t h a s become a c t i v e i n hospital, old  b e e n made f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n leisure In  time  growth o f government  closely  are governmentally  prise  fields.  are controlled  p a r k s , and most u t i l i t i e s little  Is left of  property and p r i v a t e I n almost  t h e government  private  an i n c r e a s i n g  railroads  r a t e s , and  every  i s reaching out further  share  industry through  enter-  field of  w i t h e a c h c o m i n g d e c a d e ; a t t h e same t i m e taking  services  can see the  f u n c t i o n s . The  controlled;  of private  i n these  activity  we  n a t u r a l resources  by t h e government; r o a d s ,  concept  o f medical  r e g u l a t e d as t o wages,  services renedered;  the  i n s u r a n c e . The  activities.  many o t h e r t e n d e n c i e s  steady are  and crop  a g e scheme h a s b e e n a l t e r e d ~ & h d p r o v i s i o n s  have ahd  unemployment,  i t i s  of the returns of  heavier and heavier  taxation.  -  The there  trend  i sstrongly  i slittle  reversed.  We  125 -  basis  shall  toward S o c i a l i s m , and  f o r hoping that  always believe  i tc a n be  that  the State'  was  made f o r m a n , a n d n o t man f o r t h e S t a t e . I n  the  service  of* t h e S t a t e  found, but only preserve of  the State  and secure  always be t h e d e s i r a b l e  action  c a n be u s e d t o  the happiness, i n our view,  end o f s o c i a l  - the happiness o f ordinary  The  'is  l M ; l i f e ,  h a p p i n e s s may be  i t s h u m b l e s t members. T h a t ,  will  the  because  great  conception  of a better  e n d s we a s p i r e therefore  content with  t o achieve  of a specific anything  society, by which can best  be  l e s s , n o r n e e d we a s k f o r property  as a  inequality i s gradually  w h i t h e r away, i n w h i c h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t rational has  c e n t r a l board has restored  created  economic  stability,  government. T h i s  made t o of a  e x p a n s i o n and  i nwhich  democracy i s p r e s e r v e d and p e r f e c t e d of  instituted,  k i n d , fie n e e d n o t b e  more, than a s o c i e t y i n which source o f s o c i a l  men a n d women.  political  a s a method  i s w h a t we m e a n b y a m o r e  s o c i e t y . One i n w h i c h  c h i l d r e n may g r o w , f r e e  fear,  and happy m a t u r i t y .  into a sociable  important, the  indeed  constituent  an e s s e n t i a l ,  principle  part  just from  An  of i t i s  o f Socialism.  i. APPENDIX I . On t h e 8 8 t h , o f F e b r u a r y , H i t l e r i s s u e d a — d e c r e e " f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o s S t a t e and P e o p l e " .... A l l l i b e r t i e s o f t h e Weimar r e p u b l i c were s u s p e n d e d .... On M a r c h 2 1 s t . t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y was i m p o s e d f o r a l l s o r t s o f p o l i c t i c a l c r i m e s , and s p e c i a l c o u r t s were i n s t i t u t e d t o d e a l w i t h the Opposition. .... I n t h i s p a n i c t h e R e i c h s t a g E l e c t i o n s o f M a r c h 5 t h . were h e l d . The L e f t o p p o s i t i o n P a r t i e s were w i t h o u t a P r e s s and u n d e r terror. The N a z i s were i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e means o f p r o p o g a n d a , t h e P r e s s and t h e R a d i o , and had t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e e l e c t i o n m a c h i n e . Y e t , i n s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e y d i d n o t g a i n an a b s o l u t e majority. The f i g u r e s w e r e : National Socialists S o c i a l - Democrates Communists Centre German N a t i o n a l i s t s  288 ISO 81 73 52  The R a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s were s t i l l , a p p a r e n t l y , d e p e n d e n t on t h e i r a l l i e s t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s , f o r a majority. But t h e H a z i methods were s i m p l e . The Communists were e i t h e r i n p r i s o n o r v i r t u a l l y o u t lawed. Thus t h e y h a d t h e i r m a j o r i t y . And e v e n w i t h o u t a m a j o r i t y , t h e p r e s s u r e foaaa b e n e a t h , t h e T e r r o r o f t h e S t o r m T r o o p e r s , was s u f f i c i e n t t o b e n d other P a r t i e s t o t h e i r wishes. F r o m t h e moment o f H i t l e r ' s a c c e s s i o n t o power t h e R e i c h s t a g , as t h e s y m b o l - o f d e m o c r a c y , and as a n e x e c u t i v e b o d y , c e a s e s t o h a v e any p o w e r . P a s c a l , Roy, The Naad. D i c t a t o r s h i p . London, George R o u t l e d g e & Sons, L t d . 1934, p . 131 - 1 3 2 .  ii. APPENDIX I I . Stuart  C h a s e , The T r a g e d y o f W a s t e . G r o s s e t & D u n l a p , 1925, p . 1 1 9 .  A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e 4 5 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n a New Y o r k e l e v a t e d c a r o n O c t o b e r , 1 9 2 3 , t h e 116 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n H e a r s t ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a g a z i n e f o r November, 1 9 2 3 , a n d t h e 82 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e Smart S e t M a g a z i n e f o r November, 1923, g i v e t h i s r e s u l t : ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT  TOTAL  Correspondence Courses, Books..44 Beauty and C o s m e t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 Jewelry. 28 A u t o m o b i l e s and N o v e l t i e s 22 P a t e n t M e d i c i n e s and L o s t v i g o r I 9 Music, movies, e t c 16 Food 12 Clothing.. ..12 " E a r n More M o n e j " .II Investments.................... 7 Laxatives 6 Shelter 2 Tobacco. 6 Gum.......... ... 2 Miscellaneous .15 Total Advertisements  ANALYSIS BY APPEAL  TOTAL  Appeal to vanity....39 A p p e a l t o shame.....22 Appeal t o sex.......jn euriousity Appeal t o c u p i d i t y . . I 7 Appeal t o f e a r . . . . . . 8 Palpably false....•.44 Harmful products (not) i n c l u d i n g tobacco...28  244  O f t h e 2 4 4 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , 233 h a d t o do w i t h c o m p e t i t i v e p r o d u c t s , w h i l e 5 announced a g e n u i n e l y new p r o d u c t , a n d 6 c a r r i e d g e n u i n e news v a l u e . I t c a n n o t be m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s p a s s e s i n any f i n a l way u p o n t h e a d v e r t i s i n g r e v i e w e d . I t is m e r e l y one i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s r e a c t i o n . I t does, however g i v e a r o u g h c r o s s s e c t i o n o f what one f i n d s a b o u t him i n t h e d a y - b y - d a y r u n o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t .  Iii  APPENDIX I I I .  DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS -EDUCATION STATISTICS BRANCH  Annual income o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges i n Canada, 1946. From Endowment Gov't Grants Student Fees Miscellaneous T o t a l $2,420,117  #7,771,358  $9,733,093  $5,609,252 $25, 533,820  APPENDIX I T DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND COMMERCE Merchandising and Services S t a t i s t i c s : Total h i l l i n g s of 57 advertising agencies o f the type which contract f o r space, radio or other advertising media and which place advertising for c l i e n t s on a commission or fee basis amounted to 852J69.461. Advertising agencies i n 1946 provided employment f o r 1,816 persons who received 85^05.265 in salaries.  iv  APPENDIX  1  DOMINION BUREAU OF S T A T I S T I C S -'GENERAL S T A T I S T I C S BRANOH E s t i m a t e s o f T o t a l Number o f Wage - E a r n e r s and U n e m p l o y e d . November T o t a l e s t i m a t e d number o f wageearne r s ( i n thousands) 1938 2,744 2,795 1937 2,645 1936 1935 2,577 2,530 1934 1933 2,527 2,436 1932 1931 2,561 1930 2,620 2,621 1929 1928 2,462  i n Employment  E s t i m a t e d number E s t i m a t e d number o f wage-earners i n employment ( i n u n e m p l o y e d thousands) thousands) 2,346 398 2,502 291 2,267 378 2,154 423 2,057 493 1,943 584 1,764 672 2,051 510 2,230 390 2,443 178 2,391 71  Summary S t a t i s t i c s R e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e L a b o u r F o r c e S u r v e y s November 1 9 4 5 , t o F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 8 . Employed Nov. Feb. Jun. Aug. Nov. Mar. May.  17 23 I 31 9 I 31 AUg. 16 Nov. 8 F e b . 21  4,326,000 4,312,000 4,702,000 4,860,000 4,733,000 4,565,000 4,821,000 5,008,000 4,847,000 4,669,000  Unemployed 172,000 213,000 126,000 117,000 115,000 141,000 91,000 73,000 87,000 156,000  v.  APPENDIX  Tl  P E R S O N S D R A W I N G B E N E F I T A N D B E N E F I T DAYS P A I D D U R I N G 1946. CLASSIFIED DAILY RATE O F BENEFIT  by D A I L Y  RATE O F B E N E F I T  PERSONS  DAYS  U n d e r #0.60 #2.40 Total  351,476 APPENDIX  23,860,678 VlT  " L i n c o l n S t e f f e n s t e l l s a s t o r y which passed around i n P a r i s among c o r r e s p o n d e n t s a t t h e t ime o f t h e V e r s a i l l e s Peace C o n f e r e n c e . Whether t r u e o r n o t , t h e s t o r y f o r c e f u l l y p r e s e n t s t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e moving f o r c e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and t h e d e s i r e f o r w o r l d t r a d e and brotherhood. One m o r n i n g , t h e s t o r y g o e s , C l e m e n c e a u s u d d e n l y e x c l a i m e d t o L l o y d G e o r g e a n d Woodrow W i l s o n ? "One moment, g e n t l e m e n , I d e s i r e b e f o r e we go a n y f u r t h e r t o b e made c l e a r o n one p o i n t " . They a s k e d h i m what i t was. He s a i d t h a t he h a d h e a r d t a l k a b o u t a p e r m a n e n t p e a c e , a p e a c e t o e n d war f o r e v e r , a n d he a s k e d them: "Do y o u r e a l l y mean t h a t - do y o u , M r . P r e s i d e n t really mean what y o u s a y ? " W i l s o n s a i d he d i d . "And y o u , M r . L l o y d George?" L l o y d G e o r g e s a i d he meant i t Then Clemenceau c o n t i n u e d , " V e r y i m p o r t a n t , v e r y i m p o r t a n t . We'can do t h i s : we c a n remove a l l t h e c a u s e s o f w a r . B u t have y o u c o u n t e d t h e c o s t o f s u c h a p e a c e ? " The others hesitated. "What c o s t s ? " t h e y a s k e d . " W e l l , we must g i v e up a l l o u r e m p i r e s a n d h o p e s o f e m p i r e s . Y o u , L l o y d G e o r g e , y o u E n g l i s h w i l l h a v e t o come o u t o f I n d i a , we F r e n c h o u t o f N o r t h A f r i c a , y o u A m e r i c a n s o u t o f t h e P h i l l i p i n e s a n d P u e r t o R i c o , a n d l e a v e Cuba a n d M e x i c o alone. We must g i v e up o u r t r a d e r o u t e s a n d o u r s p h e r e s of influence. And y e s , we s h a l l h a v e t o t e a r down o u r t a r i f f w a l l s and e s t a b l i s h f r e e trade i n a l l the w o r l d . T h i s i s t h e c o s t o f permanent peace; t h e r e a r e o t h e r sacrifieces. I t i s very expensive t h i s peace. Are you w i l l i n g t o p a y t h e p r i c e , a l l t h e s e c o s t s o f no more war i n t h e w o r l d ? " They p r o t e s t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t mean a l l t h i s . "Then", Clemenceau i s r e p o r t e d t o have s h o u t e d , " y o u d o n ' t mean p e a c e . You mean war**. r f  S e l s a m , Howard, S o c i a l i s m and E t h i c 3 , New Y o r k , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 4 3 , p . 3 0 .  vi  APPENDIX VlTT FOREIGN T R A D E OF T H E UNITED KINGDOM BY PERIODS (000,000) o m i t t e d . ReYear General Gene r a l e x p o r t e d Net Domestic Imports Exports Exports Imports Exports 1901 1906 1911 1916 1921 1926  - 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 25  $2,637 3 ,066 3,628 6,022 5,131 6,038  #1,787 2,374 2,719 3,642 3,890 3,777  $ 342 . 440 503 498 555 610  APPENDIX  $2,295 2 ,626 3,125 5,524 4,576 5,428  $1,445 1,934 2,216 3,145 3,335 3,167  TT  News Comment. O t t a w a , V o l . I X . wo. 12, p . 5 . L i f e Insurance  Terminated  i n Canada D u r i n g  1947.  I n s u r a n c e Term- I n c r e a s e i n I n s u r a n c e Termi n a t e d n a t u r a l l y Narural termI n a t e d by s u r ( d e a t h , a n n u i t y ) i n a t i o n s , 1947 r e n d e r l a p s e i n o v e r 1946. 1947. Gan. Comp. Br. Comp. F o r . Comp. Total  Increase i n Terminations By s u r r e n d e r L a p s e , 1947 over 1946.  f78,577,847 #2,709,989 #63,416,919  8,484,329 536,200 3,043,555  297,485,254 11,164,232 II6.,250,450  75,449,844 3,544,364 14,504,553  $144.704.755  10.991.684  424,899.956  95.498.761  The amount o f l i f e i n s u r a n c e f o r a l l c o m p a n i e s i n C a n a d a t e r m i n a t e d b y s u r r e n d e r o f l a p s e , when p e o p l e " c o u l d no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o p a y , was n e a r l y t h r e e times t h e amount t e r m i n a t e d n a t u r a l l y b y d e a t h o f t h e p o l i c y h o l d e r , payment o f a n n u i t i e s o r w h a t e v e r t h e p o l i c y c a l l e d f o r . (When p o l i c i e s l a p s e o r a r e s u r r e n d e r e d i t i s u s u a l l y w i t h heavy p e n a l t i e s t o the p o l i c y h o l d e r ) . APPENDIX T P u b l i s h e d by C.C.F. p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , 510 K e r r B l d g . , R e g i n a  Sasic  WILL YOUR L I F E INSURANCE BE SAFE WITH C.C.F. I N POWER? The s t a t e o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s h a s a p u b l i c l y - o w n e d l i f e insurance o r g a n i z a t i o n which, o f course, i s b i t t e r l y f o u g h t by t h e l i n e c o m p a n i e s . During the ten years p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 2 9 , one s t r a i g h t l i f e p o l i c y o f | l 0 0 0 a t t h e age o f 3 8 , t h e a v e r a g e y e a r l y n e t c o s t s . h a v e been:  vii APPENDIX X,  continued.  The M a s s a c h u s e t t s p u b l i c l y - o w n e d companies per flOOO 2.74 Canada L i f e . 9620 Sun l i f e 7*42 Dominion L i f e I G .24 L o w e s t C a n . Co. M u t u a l L i f e 4.79 - o r a l m o s t d o u b l e t h a t o f publicly-owned Massachussets organizations. APPENDIX X I C o m m e r c i a l F a i l u r e s , C a n a d a Y e a r Book, 1 9 4 8 - 4 9 , p . 854.  YEAR  TOTAL  1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947  1,219 1,392 1,173 1,008 737 314 260 272 278 545  viii BIBLIOGRAPHY A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r . London, H i s M a j e s t y * s S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , M a r c h 9, 1944. B e n e d i c t , R u t h , P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e , New Y o r k , A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y o f W o r l d L i t e r a t u r e , 1948.  New  B o u c k e , "The R e l a t i o n o f E t h i c s t o S 6 c i a l S c i e n c e , " i n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f E t h i c s ! V o l . 33. 1  Canada Y e a r Book. B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1948. Chase« S t u a r t , The T r a g e d y o f W a s t e . New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n Co., 1 9 2 5 . C l a y , Henry, Economics M a c m i l l a n s , 1928.  for the General Reader,  Eucken, R u d o l f , S o c i a l i s m : L t d . , L o n d o n , 1921. E v e r e t t , W.G.,  G r e e n e , M.G., Sons, 1929.  An A n a l y s i s . T. 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