UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ethical values and political theory Jampolsky, Lyman 1950

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b E T H I C A L VALUES AND P O L I T I C A L THEORY b y Lyman J a m p o l s k y A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f A r t s I n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P h i l o s o p h y u n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l , 1 9 5 0 . ABSTRACT E T H I C A L V A L U E S AND P O L I T I C A L THEORY l i t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , we h a v e a r g u e d t h a t l i b e r t y -f r e e d o m - i s n o t o n l y g o o d b u t e s s e n t i a l t o w h a t we r e g a r d a c i v i l i z e d l i f e . We b e g a n w i t h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f b o t h t h e a b s o l u t i s t i c a n d r e l a t i v i s t i c a s p e c t s o f e t h i c a l d o c t r i n e . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e e x p e d i e n c y o f a c c e p t i n g j u d g e m e n t s b a s e d o n s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n r a t h e r t h a n j u d g e m e n t s made i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e s , a s g u i d e s t o human c o n d u c t . I n a c c e p t i n g t h e r e l a t i v i s t i c d o c t r i n e o f v a l u e we i l l u s t r a t e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e many v a l u e - s y s t e m s , a n d t h a t t h e v a l u e - s y s t e m we a c c e p t i s b a s i c t o o u r way o f l i f e . A c c e p t a n c e i s s t r i c t l y a m a t t e r o f p r e f e r e n c e . We c o n c l u d e d o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f e t h i c a l t h e o r y b y e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o u r g e n e r i c e n d o f a c t i o n **the g r e a t e s t amount o f h a p p i n e s s f o r t h e g r e a t e s t number o f p e o p l e " . T h i s e n d o f a c t i o n we d e s i g n a t e d t o mean a s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h i c h we make o u r e v a l u a t i o n s . T h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s become t h e p o s t u l a t e s o f o u r v a l u e - s y s t e m : g ood a n d e v i l a r e o n l y m e a n i n g f u l when j u d g e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h them. F u r t h e r m o r e , we f o u n d t h a t t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s a r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e m o c r a c y . - 2 -O v e r t h e l o n g s t r e t c h o f f i v e t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f human h i s t o r y , d e m o c r a c y , a s we know i t , h a s p r e v a i l e d f o r o n l y a c e n t u r y o r t w o , a n d t h a t b r i e f s p a n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f c a p i t a l i s t d e v e l o p m e n t . L o g i c s u g g e s t s t h a t d e m o c r a c y a n d i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m a r e c l o s e l y b o und up w i t h c a p i t a l i s m , a t l e a s t i n i t s e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t b e f o r e e c o n o m i c c o n t r o l becomes t o o h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d . B u t t h e f r e e d o m we h a v e a c h i e v e d i s n o t due e n t i r e l y t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e C a p i t a l i s m . E v e n a C a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i n i t s s i m p l e f o r m , w i t h r e a s o n a b l e e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y , c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e a l l t h e f r e e d o m t h a t we e n j o y . S i n c e i t w o u l d o p e r a t e w i t h o u t a n y g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t w o u l d t o some e x t e n t be g o v e r n e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e t o o t h a n d f a n g , a n d t h e weak w o u l d s u f f e r a t t h e h a n d s o f t h e s t r o n g . C o s e q u e n t l y , d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h a n d t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s i n t e r v e n e d more a n d more t o p r o t e c t t h e weak a n d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e . A l t h o u g h i n so d o i n g i t h a s e n l a r g e d t h e sum t o t a l o f human f r e e d o m , s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o some e x t e n t a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e c a p i t a l i s m . I n a r g u i n g t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f d e m o c r a c y a r e n e c e s s a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a j u s t s o c i a l o r d e r , we i l l u s t r a t e d how p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y can be achie v e d , as i n a C a p i t a l i s t i c o r d e r , and s o c i a l j u s t i c e remain as f a r away as e v e r . I n t h i s case, one type o f p r i v i l e g e (economic) has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r another ( p o l i t i c a l ) . We a l s o found i t p e r f e c t l y f e a s i b l e t o assume t h a t some people may p r e f e r e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth to p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y . But here again, as i n the case o f Marxian S o c i a l i s m , economic e q u a l i t y i s gained by s a c r i f i c i n g p o l i t i c a l democracy. Thus, we endeavoured to achieve s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , w i t h i n the same system, both p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , o r e q u a l i t y . To achieve t h i s end, we advocated a g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n from C a p i t a l i s m to Democratic S o c i a l i s m . "Your sheep that were wont to be so meek and tame, and so small eaters, now, as I hear say, be become so great devourers and so wild, that they eat up and swallow the very men* themselves. They consume, destroy, and devour whole f i e l d s , houses, and c i t i e s •••• And though the number of sheep increase never so tfast, yet the price f a l l e t h not one mite, because there be so few sellers. Por they be almost a l l come into a few r i c h men1s hands, whom no need forceth to s e l l before they lust (wish), and they lust not be-fore they may s e l l as dear as they lust". Sir Thomas More, "Utopia" CONTENTS P a g e I n t r o d u c t i o n I P a r t I N a t u r e o f t h e E t h i c a l P r o b l e m 2 C h a p t e r l M e a n i n g o f V a l u e : . N a t u r e o f t h e "Good' 1 5 C h a p t e r I I A b s o l u t e V a l u e s i n V a l u e t h e o r y . . 8 C h a p t e r I I I R e l a t i v e V a l u e s i n V a l u e T h e o r y ...17 C h a p t e r I V "Means - E n d s " P r o b l e m .25 C h a p t e r V E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s 27 ( 1 ) L i b e r t y 27 ( 2 ) P o l i t i c a l D e m o c r a c y 43 P a r t I I A n A p p r a i s a l o f C a p i t a l i s m : A s R e l a t i v e t o E c o n o m i c D e m o c r a c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7 C h a p t e r V I C a p i t a l i s m : i t s A s s u m p t i o n s a n d P r o f i t - M o t i v e 61 ( 1 ) R a t i o n a l S e l f - i n t e r e s t . . 6 2 ( 2 ) S u r v i v a l o f t h e F i t t e s t . 6 5 ( 3 ) A s s o c i a t i o n o f W e a l t h w i t h S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . . . 6 6 ( 4 ) M a r k e t P r i c e s a s a S a t i s f a c t o r y I n d i c a t o r f o r P r o d u c t i o n . . . 68 C h a p t e r V I I C r i t i c i s m o f C o m p e t i t i v e A s p e c t s 69 C h a p t e r V I I I P r o s and Cons o f t h e P u r s u i t f o r W e a l t h 71 CONTENTS, c o n t i n u e d . C h a p t e r I X W a s t e s i n t h e C a p i t a l i s t S y s t e m 73 ( 1 ) N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s 73 ( 2 ) B u s i n e s s F a i l u r e s . , . 7 3 ( 3 ) A d v e r t i s i n g and S a l e s m a n s h i p ,.74 ( 4 ) D u p l i c a t i o n o f P l a n t s and S e r v i c e s . . 78 ( 5 ) D e p r e s s i o n s : . - Unemployment ..78 ( 6 ) I m p e r i a l i s m . , . . . . . . . . . 7 9 C h a p t e r X V i r t u e s o f C a p i t a l i s m . . . . . . 8 7 ( 1 ) P r o d u c t i v i t y . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 ( 2 ) A s R e l a t i v e t o F r e e d o m a nd Democ-r a c y 87 P a r t I I I A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s : The D e v e l o p m e n t O f S o c i a l i s t D o c t r i n e 9 1 C h a p t e r X I V a r i e t i e s o f S o c i a l i s t i c •""> O p i n i o n ....94 O h a p t e r X I I M a r x i a n S o c i a l i s m . . . . . . . . .96 ( 1 ) E v o l u t i o n a r y poftnt ~ o f V i e w . . . . . . 96 ( 2 ) E c o n o m i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H i s t o r y . .97 ( 3 ) D o c t r i n e o f S u r p l u s • V a l u e . . . 99 ( 4 ) D o c t r i n e o f t h e C l a s s S t r u g g l e .101 C h a p t e r X I I I R e v i s i o n i s m a n d -S y n d i c a l i s m 108 CONTENTS, c o n t i n u e d . P a r t I V D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s m . .. I l l C h a p t e r X I V A s s u m p t i o n s a nd P r o p o s a l s . 112 ( 1 ) C o l l e c t i v e . . O w n e r s h i p and Management o f I n d u s t r y 1 1 3 ( 2 ) E q u a l i t y o f O p p o r t u n i t y 116 ( 3 ) I n d i v i d u a l M o t i v a t i o n u n d e r . . S o c i a l i s m 117 ( 4 ) T r a n s i t i o n t o * S o c i a l i s m . . . . . . 1 1 8 ( 5 ) S o c i a l i s m a n d S e l f i s h n e s s . . . . 1 1 9 ( 6 ) S o c i a l i s m a n d i n d i v i d u a l F r e e d o m 1 2 1 p a r t V C o n c l u s i o n : The E x i s t i n g T r e n d t o w a r d S o c i a l i s m . .124 APPENDIX i - v i i B IBLIOGRAPHY v i i - x INTRODUCTION In this thesis we propose to discuss those elements of ethical theory whioh are necessary to| and are at the basis of, both p o l i t i c a l and economic democracy* Our task shall be to describe the ethical principles i n accordance with which we choose to l i v e , and having arrived at these fundamentals, our task, w i l l be the formulation of a p o l i t i c a l system consistent with them. Open the book of the story of mankind anywhere and you w i l l find the question being asked over and over again: What i s good and what i s evil? This has been, without doubt, one of the most persistent problems of philosophers throughout the ages. Answers have been given i n abundance, answers which appeared to the particular philosopher giving the particular answer — to solve the problem for a l l times, but i n a very few years the problem has arisen again i n the thinking of others. And so, throughout the history of man's thought we discover the problem of good and e v i l (whioh we speak of as "ethics* or "the ethical problem") persistently challenging each philosopher. PART I NATURE OP THE ETHICAL PROBLEM In recent years interest has revived i n the relation between the p o l i t i c a l sciences and ethics. It i s not d i f f i c u l t to see that the recent war has robbed large classes of men of their f a i t h i n certain accepted institutions. Religious dogmatism i s being, questioned: consequently, new standards are sought. A solution to this problem bears directly upon our ideals of democracy, i t being essential that the average individual know what i s right and what i s wrong, and that he possess the requisite powers of self direction* We associate good i n everyday l i f e with behaviour i n concrete situationsj with the facts and interrelations constituting our physical and socio-economic world* In order to know whether men are virtuous or otherwise, we must consult results, not mere protestations of belief or motive. Though under special circumstances a motive may outweigh consequences, and the wrong-doer forgiven accordingly, the average of results i s nevertheless decisive* - 3 -The conventional subjective virtues have ceased to command respect. To say that f a i t h i s the highest good, or that wisdom or justice, or mercy are supreme virtues, makes virtue immune to sc i e n t i f i c testing. There i s no way of proving a man e v i l by these definitions. Thereforej Mas long as people seek transcendent truths, or sources of knowledge of good and e v i l , that are not empirically verifiable, so long science can have I no place i n ethics*'. If we reduce moral precepts to a categorical imperative i t would not be d i f f i c u l t to separate science from a study of morality. The two would be worlds apart, and the question of relation dispensed with. If a sense of duty, or virtue for i t s own sake, or purity of motive constitute the whole of ethics,scientists w i l l automatically be debarred from a discussion of ethics; they cannot then trace i t s roots nor resolve i t into principles. I. Bouoke* "The Relation .of Ethics to Social Science", International Journal of Ethics. Vol. 33, p« I f the empirical basis of ethics I s granted, what w i l l matter c h i e f l y i s a statement defining the "good". F i r s t , What i s good? then, Who i s good? The former represents the type of things held moral or immoral; the l a t t e r i s the instance judged by that type. Class and i n d i v i d u a l are thus co-ordinated* Each contributes something to the understanding of the other* Chapter I MEANING OF VALUE: NATURE OF THE "GOOD" Views on the definition of the "good* range from definability to indefinability. One extreme, as expressed by G.$. Moore, i s that the "good* i s indefinable: "good* i s a simple notion, just as I "yellow" i s a simple notion. The other extreme Is expressed by D.0. Williams, who states that "slnoe the sole essential nature of a definition of a word Is that It conveys information about how the word i s used, and since no word can become part of a conventional language unless persons are able to agree upon and communicate concerning i t s application^ I t i s ld^ l e to talk of the indefinability, i n any s t r i c t sense, of a word 2 such as "goodness". A l l words a r e definable." We are now In a position to examine some of the definitions offered by contemporary philosophers of both the r e l a t i v i s t i c and absolutistic schools. I. Moore, G.E., Prinoipla Ethica. New York. Macmillan Co., 1903, p. 7. 2. Williams, D.C, Meaning of the Good, Philosophical Review. 1937, p. 416. G. Santayana defined "good" i n terms of reference to psychological processes such as 1, desire, preference, or l i k i n g . G.E. Moore refutes these moral systems by stating that the advocates had f a l l e n into the "naturalistic fallacy." This fallacy had been committed because they had not discerned that the "good" i s really a simple and unanalysable quality, whioh characterizes objects i n t r i n s i c a l l y , that i s , independent of human feelings, desires, and other natural processes. If this were so, then the good would tie l i k e nothing ever experienced by the human mind. B» Savery c a l l s this f a l l i n g into the non-naturalistic fallacy. The alleged simplicity of the "good" i s a matter of question depending upon the definition one employs. Perry defined value as "any object 2 of interest." Thus, i f one takes relation to interest as definitive of value, one could raise the question whether or not the objects of value 1. Santayana, G., Winds of Doctrine, london, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1926. p. 9. 2. Perry, R.B., General Theory of Value. Hew York. Longmans, Green, I92b. p. 115. are a c t u a l l y simple. Since the great majority of objects we designate as being valuable are not simple, t h i s theory regarding the s i m p l i c i t y of the "good" may be rejected. I f by defining the "good" we mean a descr i p t i o n of the es s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s , we would have to assert that there i s a conceivable way of determining the es s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of a thing. I t seems obvious that judgement purporting to set f o r t h the ess e n t i a l properties of a thing vary with the knowledge, the i n t e r e s t s , and purposes of the definer. I f some s e l e c t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s or properties i s made by an i n d i v i d u a l thinker, who then asserts that the properties he has selected are c o n s t i t u t i v e of the t h i n g i n question, what i s the f a c t which corresponds to, which v e r i f i e s , t h i s assertion. A philosopher of t h i s nature would be fo r c i n g upon us the d e f i n i t i o n of a word as a "neeessary t r u t h " about some portion of r e a l i t y . /8-uhapter I I ABSOLUTE VALUES IN VALUE THEOKY " A b s o l u t i s m i n e t h i c s Is the d o c t r i n e t h a t - i n t r i n s i c goodness ( i n t r i n s i c p o s i t i v e -value) has one and on l y one v a l i d meaning. Absolutists d i s a g r e e as t o the p r e c i s e meaning o f goodness, but they agree t h a t whatever i t s , meaning, there i s but one c o r r e c t meaning. I f t h i s absolute meaning were d i s c o v e r e d then a l l v a l u e judgements would be made In terms o f i t 1 i f t r u t h i n value t h e o r y were to be achieved." Thus, i f the "good" i s a b s o l u t e , there i s o n l y one c o r r e c t meaning f o r goodness. Then, the one t a s k o f e t h i c s becomes the d i s c o v e r y of a d e f i n i t i o n o f the "good" i n terms o f i t s -meaning". The d e f i n i t i o n of the "good" would then a c t * as a u n i v e r s a l standard a p p l i c a b l e to a l l persons a t a l l times In a l l p l a c e s . To a l l those who accept the a b s o l u t i s t i c view, r !value i s something w h o l l y independent o f our f e e l i n g s , something p e r t a i n i n g to v a l u a b l e o b j e e t s , i n a d e f i n i t e amount and degree, q u i t e independently o f the way i n which we ne&ct e m o t i o n a l l y to them, and to whether 2 anyone acknowledges tne value or not." 1. " R e l a t i v i t y v e r s u s A b s o l u t i s m " i n Value Theory", J o u r n a l o f P h i l o s o p h y t . 1 9 4 1 , p . 155. 2. S c h l i c k , Problems o f E t h i c s . New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1939, p . 100. We are' now prepared to examine a few of the definitions offered by the absolutistic schools. The Hedonistic definition of value i s that the "good i s pleasure". I t i s evidently impossible from an examination of this form of words to ascertain whether this i s a definition expressing an intention to apply the term "good" to every instance of pleasure, thus connecting a name in discourse with a feeling discriminated i n e x P ~ eriencfe, or whether i t i s a judgement purporting to assert a fact. I f the words "good i s pleasure" are taken to be a description of fact, then what i s the fact being described which would verify the proposition? Por in that oase, i t would not be a definition but a proposition, and hence, either true or false. I f we try to interpret i t as a proposition, then the meaning of the subject and predicate must be independently specifiable, that i s in order significantly to assert the "good" i s pleasure", i t i s obviously necessary to know, prior to the assertion — what the terms "good" and pleasure" mean, or what we are going to mean by them in this particular proposition. - 10 -But i f we do know what "good" and "pleasure" mean before combining them as subject and predicate in a given proposition, t nen i t i s not this proposition which defines the "good"; that i s to say, It i s not a definition but a proposition. Furthermore, i f we assume that ••good" i s "pleasure" i s a hedonistic definition of "good" , how are 1re to know that "pleasure" i s identical with the real nature of the "good"? In this case of interpreting "good i s pleasure" as a definition, "good" does not, by < hypothesis, have an independent meaning. It also follows that|in such a. case, we have only the feeling conventionally called "pleasure" and the name **good" thus, "there i s no real nature to unfold, and no chance for truth or error, but only the decision to apply the name "good" to psychological states I called "pleasure". I t i s admitted that the valuable produces feelings of pleasure i n the observer, but this fact has nothing to do with the essence of value. AnoHier theory which f a i l s to ascertain i t s validity i n the light of empirical fact, i s the "theory of objective values." I t proclaims the existence of a system of values, I. Reid, J.R., A Theory of Value. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938. p. 9. - II -".... which like the Platonic ideas, constitute a realm independent of actuality, and i n which i s exhibited an essential order of such a nature that the values compose a hierarchy arranged according to higher and lower, and i t s relation to re a l i t y i s only established by the moral command which runs approximately, "act so that the events of things produced by your actions are as valuable as possible" .1 The question that immediately arises i s , How am I to know that I am acting in a manner which w i l l result i n the things ^ produced being as Valuable as possible? Furthermore, how does one know when things are as valuable as possible? The f u t i l i t y of this type of moral command becomes f u l l y apparent when one is asked, "What does the word value mean?, which comes to the same thing, "What i s the meaning of an assertion which ascribes a certain value to an object?" One must state exactly under what empirical conditions the proposition "This object i s valuable" i s true, and under what conditions i t i s false. I f one cannot state these conditions, then the proposition i s a meaningless combination of words".2 1. Schlick, Problems of Ethics, p. 101. 2. Schlick, Problems of Ethics, p. 101. - 12 -However, i t i s n a t u r a l t o want t o gi v e an o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n f o r o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s , thus one a s s e r t s , f o r example: "Whatever c o n t r i b u t e s to the c r e a t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s i s v a l u a b l e . But what s h a l l pass f o r the s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s can o n l y be determined by comparison w i t h some sta n d a r d . I t cannot i t s e l f determine the st a n d a r d . I f i n o r d e r to escape the c i r c l e , one a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e s what sho u l d be understood by s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s , t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n would be a r b i t r a r y ; a t best one would have produced the d e f i n i t i o n o f a concept based upon o p i n i o n , whioh one d e c i d e s t o c a l l v a l u e : but t h i s would not o f f e r a c r i t e r i o n f f o r t h a t which we a l l mean when we use the word v a l u e . " 1 Thus, we can go a l o n g w i t h S c h l i c k i n r e j e c t i n g " t h e t h e o r y o f o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s " . "A fundamental e r r o r l i e s i n the b a s i s o f the whole attempt: i t c o n s i s t s i n seeking v a l u e d i s t i n c t -i o n s i n the o b j e c t i v e f a c t s them-s e l v e s without r e f e r e n c e to the a c t s o f p r e f e r e n c e and s e l e c t i o n , through which alone v a l u e s come i n t o the w o r l d " . 2 I . S c S I i e k , Problems o f E t h i c s . p . 104. 2. I b i d . , p. 104. " - 13 / Let us for arguement's sake assume that there i s a hierarchy of objective values wholly independ ent of our feelings. Value w i l l become a property of objects, qualifying them i n various forms (for example, beautiful, good, sublime, and so forth) and i n different degrees. A l l these properties would form a system of values, i n each case occupying a specific object. The only interest which could be taken in a realm of this sort would be s c i e n t i f i c . , I t would be interesting to know that things contain in addition to other properties, those subscribed by the various absolutistic theories as criterions of value. But i f asked, what their objective values mean?, one could only reply that they constitute guiding lines of conduct. I f the question were pursued by asking, what would happen I f one does not comply?, the only conceivable reply would be that one i s not acting in an orthodox manner and there-fore i s not a good man. Since the "absolute good" i s independent of our desires, feelings, etc., i t follows that even i f i t made one extremely unhappy to follow the doctrine of the absolutists,' they would s t i l l have to i n s i s t that one should obey those selfsame doctrines. - 1 4 -I m m a n u e l K a n t , i n h i s C r i t i q u e o f P r a c t i c a l R e a s o n , d e f i n e s t h a t w h i c h h e c a l l s t h e " a b s o l u t e I o u g h t " . I n t h a t d i s s e r t a t i o n h e s t a t e d t h a t a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y i n t h e w o r l d o f m o r a l i t y i s c o n c e i v a b l e o n l y i n t e r m s o f t h e " g o o d w i l l " w h i o h i s d e t e r m i n e d n o t c a u s a l l y b y p a r t i c u l a r d e s i r e s b u t a u t o n o m o u s l y b y a l a w o f r e a s o n w h i c h i s u n i v e r s a l l y b i n d i n g . T h i s l a w K a n t c a l l s t h e m o r a l l a w . I t e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m o f a " c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a t i v e " : a c t i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e m a x i m o f t h y w i l l m a y b e a c c e p t e d a s t h e 2 p r i n c i p l e o f u n i v e r s a l l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e s o l e m o t i v e t o m o r a l a c t i o n i s t h e s e n s e o f d u t y w h i c h i s t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; o f o b l i g a t i o n t o a o t f r o m r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e m o r a l l a w . R e v e r e n c e f o r t h e m o r a l l a w , h o w e v e r , ,1s n o t a n e m p i r i c a l f e e l i n g , b u t a f e e l i n g whioh haB a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s o u r c e , a n d i s t h e o n l y f e e l i n g w h i c h c a n b e k n o w n "a p r i o r i " a n d t h e r e f o r e a s n e c e s s a r y * T h e s e m o r a l p r e c e p t s h a v e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f d e m a n d s a n d e a c h a p p e a r s t o u s a s a n . " o u g h t s • T h i s m e a n i n g " I o u g h t t o d o s o m e t h i n g * p r e s u p p o s e s " s o m e o n e w a n t s m e t o d o i t . " T h e r e f o r e i t i s o f t h e e s s e n c e o f 1 . G r e e n e , M . G . , K a n t S e l e c t i o n s , N e w Y o r k , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r » s S o n s , 1 9 2 9 . p . 3 3 8 . 2 . I b i d . , p . 3 3 8 . - 15 -the Imperative to be "hypothetical". Perhaps Kant in wishing to avoid the hypothetical, explained that the "ought" proceeded from no "other"; that i t i s an absolute ought, and the ethical command i s a categorical, not a conditional, imperative. But we have seen that a relation to a power which expresses i t s desires is essential to the concept of the "ought", just as essential as the relationship to some conditions (sanctions) i s for the concept of the imperative. Thus, for example, the concept "father" i s defined as relative to children; an absolute father would be,nonsense. On that basis we are quite j u s t i f i e d in disregarding the concept of the absolute ought". "Thus we conclude*, i f there were values which were absolute" in the sense that they had nothing to do with our feelings, they would con-stitute an independent realm which would enter into the world of our vo l i t i o n and action at no point; for i t would be as i f an impenetrable wall shut them off from us. Li f e would proceed as i f they did not exist; and for ethios they would not exist. But i f the values, in addition to and without injuring their absolute existence, also had the power of influencing our feelings, then they would enter into our world; but only in so far as they thus affected us. Hence values also exist for ethics only to the extent that they make themselvewrfelt, that i s are relative to us. And i f a p h i l -osopher says, "Of course, "but they also have an absolute existence, "then we know that their words add nothing new to the verifiable facts, and therefore they are empty, and their assertion meaningless. 1 The absolutist may now say, " I f there are no absolute values in accordance with which we make value judgements,:' then what are the standards i n accordance with which judgements are made?" Answering this query necessitates taking certain factors into consideration. I. Schlick, Problems of Ethics, p. 119. - 17 / Chapter I I I RELATIVE VALUES IN VALUE THEORY I t i s undisputed that men have desires, i n t e r e s t s , hopes, admirations; and that they make choices. Whether the assorted objects of such i n t e r e s t s and admirations should be ca l l e d values, may be la r g e l y a question of terminology; but i t i s clear that the question at issue i n discussions of value i s not reached u n t i l one asks whether some objects of desire are better than others. Perry approaches t h i s problem by asking whether there are relevant reasons f o r choosing some objects of i n t e r e s t rather than others. He asserts that any discussion, opinion, or even s o l i t a r y speculation employs, to a greater or lesser degree, r e l a t i v e reasons and s u f f i c i e n t reason. "Though i t Is impossible to define "relevant reasons*, t h i s concept i s not peculiar to value theory but i s basic i n l o g i c 1 and the theory of knowledge." One finds that d i s t i n c t i o n s are continually being made between reasons which are relevant to the matter i n hand, and those which are i r r e l e v a n t . 1. Perry, C. M.,"The Ar b i t r a r y as Basis f o r Rational Morality", International journal of E t h i c s . 1933, p. 130. -18/ Although obtuseness i n regard to what constitutes relevant or s u f f i c i e n t reason i s not uncommon, s t i l l one cannot affirm a complete ignorance of these concepts. " I f the problem of value i s posed by asking whether i t i s possible to f i n d relevant and s u f f i c i e n t reasons for making choices, then there i s no doubt that an affirmative answer must be given*! 1 Further development of t h i s trend s h a l l s u f f i c e as i l l u s t r a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n between judgements based on s u f f i c i e n t reason, and judge-ments made i n accordance with ultimate p r i n c i p l e s . The Ten Commandments of the ancient Hebrews i s a code of conduct which i s believed by many to have been handed down from the seat of divine authority and has authority at a l l times and i n a l l places. In opposition to t h i s a b s o l u t i s t i c view, the r e l a t i v i s t s believe that igod,d and e v i l are r e l a t i v e to the conditions of the time and place, and that an act which i s good i n one place and time w i l l be e v i l i n another. For example, a maniac i s chasing a man with the intent to k i l l him. The man passes us and turns to the r i g h t 1. Perry,"The A r b i t r a r y as Basis f o r Rational M o r a l i t y " , p. 100. - 1 9 / d i s s a p p e a r i n g . Then the maniac comes up and asks which way h i s intended v i c t i m e went. We would say t h a t he tunned l e f t , and thereby save the l i f e o f an innocent man. No matter what problem i s proposed a normal human mind w i l l a r r i v e at some c o n c l u s i o n . Sometimes the c o n c l u s i o n may be t h a t the person i s unable to s e t t l e the problem w i t h the evidence a t hand. But t h i s i n i t s e l f i s a c o n c l u s i o n ; and l e a d s to another c o n c l u s i o n , such as t h a t more evidence should be o b t a i n e d o r t h a t the problem sh o u l d be put a s i d e f o r the time b e i n g . The m a j o r i t y o f w r i t e r s upon value have assumed t h a t a t h e o r y o f value must a r r i v e a t p r i n c i p l e s o f v a l u a t i o n which should be accepted by a l l reasonable human beings, that v a l u e or good should be the same f o r everyone. I n t h i s manner va l u e t h e o r y has aimed at d i s c o v e r i n g reasons which would be r e l e v a n t and s u f f i c i e n t to a r a t i o n a l human b e i n g who f o r the time being d i s c a r d e d a l l h i s p r e j u d i c e s and b e l i e f s . The proper d i s t i n c t i o n i s between a r b i t r a r y judgements and judgements based on s u f f i c i e n t reason. I f the problem o f value i s t o f i n d reasons f o r c h o i c e , and i f the f i n d i n g o f such reasons i s dependent upon the e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n b e l i e f s -20-and pnrposes, then i t ife e v i d e n t t h a t what c o n s t i t u t e s a good reason f o r one p e r s o n to choose i n one way might be i r r e l e v a n t to the choice of another person, or a reason why he should make some qu i t e d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e . D e s p i t e the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s encouraged by modern c u l t u r e s , i t i s q u i t e u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l people should have the same d e s i r e s and moral p r i n c i p l e s . Consequently, there i s no gaurantee t h a t d i f f e r e n t people w i l l agree i n t h e i r v a l u e judgements. Though i t i s assumed t h a t r a t i o n a l judgements must agree, t h i s b e l i e f a p p l i e s o n l y to the extent t h a t the judgements are the r e s u l t o f a common purpose. Thus, the r e l a t i v i s t , i n e t h i c a l t h e o r y , demon-s t r a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l the meanings which are a t t r i b u t e d to, being the exact meaning o f the "•good" are r e a l l y o n l y s p e c i e s of a common genus. "We i d e n t i f y goodness w i t h t h i s .common genus and show that as v a r i o u s systems o f geometry are to the g e n e r i c meaning o f geometry, so a l s o are the v a r i o u s meanings of goodness(value-systems) to the meaning o f g e n e r i c goodness.^' 1. a a v e r y , B . , " R e l a t i v i t y v e r s u s A b s o l u t i s m i n V a l u e - T h e o r y " . . J o u r n a l o f P h i l o s o p h y , 1941, p. 157, -21-'i'o the r e l a t i v i s t , t h i s common genus t o which the meanings o f the e m p i r i c a l a b s o l u t i s t s belong 1 i s the g e n e r i c p r o p e r t y " b e i n g an end o f a c t i o n " . T h i s end o f a c t i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d t o mean, *• t h a t p r o p e r t y or s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s which i s the 2 standard i n terms o f which we make our evaluations'*. T h i s does not mean t h a t one's l i f e cannot be measured by v a r y i n g value-systems. A value-sytern i s a way oifi l i f e , and there a re many ways, "The value-system used w i l l depend on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l i v i n g being and the task a t hand.. The task a t hand depends upon what the person would be doing i f he were d o i n g what he r e a l l y wanted t o do, and h i s knowledge o f the means o f a c h i e v i n g i t . * 3 An a n a l y s i s o f contemporary s o c i e t i e s w i l l serve as grounds f o r our acceptance o f value r e l a t i v i t y . L e t us i l l u s t r a t e . I f we b e l i e v e i n due process o f law, we cannot p r a c t i c e our b e l i e f v e r y w e l l when most o f our neighbors see nothing wrong i n l y n c h law. I f we t h i n k the e q u a l i t y o f sexes i d e a l , we cannot go ve r y f a r toward our i d e a l when members o f the opposite sex are u n w i l l i n g to be t r e a t e d as e q u a l s . The e x i s t e n c e o f moral disagreements, t h e r e f o r e r a i s e s a v e r y s e r i o u s p r a c t i c a l problem. 1. Savery, B . , " R e l a t i v i t y vs Ab s o l u t i s m i n Value-Theory", p. 156. 2. I b i d . , p. 156. 3. I b i d . , p. 157. - 22 -Our mores' are the customs o f which we are conscious and whose v i o l a t i o n we r e s e n t . What our conscience t e l l s us to do, depends upon what s o c i a l group we belong t o . Our sense o f v a l u e s i s d i r e c t e d by childhood t r a i n i n g and by the p r e s s u r e s t h a t were brought upon us to conform to the ways o f the group. Evidence of the r e l a t i v i t y o f moral n o t i o n s may be found i n an e n d l e s s v a r i e t y o f moral- codes. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l surveys show us t h a t e v e r y human group has a unique p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g some sex problem. We t h i n k i t wrong f o r example, i f a man m a r r i e s h i s mother, h i s s i s t e r , h i s aunt, h i s daughter, or ( i n some i n s t a n c e s ) h i s f i r s t c o u s i n . Each o f these p o s s i b l e matches has been approved somewhere at some time. On the o t h e r hand, persons whom we would c o n s i d e r e l i g i b l e commit a s o c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d crime by attempting marriage i n the w i l d s o f A u s t r a l i a t o an a b o r i g i n a l , where d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s are i n e l i g i b l e . N e a r l y h a l f of the p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s a l l o w e i t h e r husband o r w i f e to o b t a i n a d i v o r c e ; about one f o u r t h give the p r i v i l i g e e x c l u s i v e l y to the husband; a few make i t the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the w i f e ; the r e s t 23 do not a l l o w d i v o r c e at a l l , o r o n l y under 1 e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s . There are many o t h e r c h a o t i c disagreements on quest i o n s o f sex. Amongst some groups o f Eskimos the r u l e s o f hos-p i t a l i t y have r e q u i r e d a host to l e t guests s l e e p w i t h h i s w i f e ; i f the o f f e r was r e f u s e d , the guest was suspected o f i l l w i l l . Amongst the North American I n d i a n s homosexuality i s 2 accepted. I f we are amazed and shocked by these strange customs, our ways are j u s t as d i s g u s t i n g t o those who j a r our s e n s i b i l i t i e s . I n some p a r t s o f I n d i a , o n l y a loo s e woman w i l l shake hands w i t h a man who i s not her husband. I n many p a r t s o f the o r i e n t , k i s s i n g i s d i s g r a c e f u l . The i d e a o f young people's demanding t o choose t h e i r own mates i s r e j e c t e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l f r a c t i o n o f humanity as 3 i n s u f f e r a b l y i m p e r t i n e n t . The Pueblos would r e c o i l i n contempt from our p r a c t i c e o f a l l o w i n g menst-4 r u a t i n g women to a s s o c i a t e with o t h e r people. 1. Hobhouse, M o r a l s i n E v o l u t i o n . Henry H o l t & Co.*, 1928, p. 152. 2. B e n e d i c t , Ruth, P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e , Mentor Books, 1948, p. 243. 3. P e l , Peasant L i f e i n China , New York, M a c m i l l a n Co., 1945, p. 42. 4. B e n e d i c t , P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e , p. 110. - 24 -T h e v a r i a t i o n o f m o r a l i d e a s i s e x t r e m e ; b u t t h e v a r i a t i o n i s b e t w e e n g r o u p s a n d n o t w i t h i n g r o u p s . W i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y , t h e v i o l a t i o n o f c u s t o m a n d d i s s e n t f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s t h e e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e r u l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , h u n d r e d s o f c a r e f u l l y c h e c k e d f i e l d s t u d i e s c o n v i n c e t h e a n t h r o p o l i g i s t t h a t t h e m e m b e r s o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y a s s i n c e r e a s we a r e i n t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e -t w e e n g o o d a n d b a d . T h e a b s o l u t i s t w i s h e s t o m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e r e i s o n e a n d o n l y o n e s y s t e m o f v a l u e t h a t , i s b e s t . H e f a i l s t o r e a l i z e t h a t b e t t e r i s a c o m p a r a t i v e , v a l i d o n l y i n t e r m s o f r t h e p r e m i s e s o f eac^h s y s t e m . T o a r g u e t h a t o n e s y s t e m o f y a l u e z-s . b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r s y s t e m I s m e a n i n g l e s s . D e s i r e s v a r y w i t h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n a g i v e n a r e a , a n d s o m u c h m o r e s o b e -t w e e n I n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . T h e s y s t e m o f v a l u e we a c c e p t i s b a s i c t o o u r . l i v e s . A c c e p t a n c e i s a m a t t e r o f p r e f e r e n c e . - 25 -CHAPTER T7 "MEANS - ENDS" PROBLEM Before establishing the postulates of a system compatible with our way of l i f e , we may eliminate further d i f f i c u l t y by making an analysis of the "means" "ends" problem. That men have values means that men strive i n a certain direction, they so orient their conduct as to achieve their aims. Now, effort arises because man has to over-come d i f f i c u l t i e s , choice arises when there are alternate goals. Between the phenomena of ehoice and the attainment of ends, l i e the tasks that constitute the means. The relation of means and ends i s fundamental in ethical theory. While we aim at certain ends, the means is something we choose because of the results i t w i l l y i e l d . But we do not ordinarily evaluate means s imply in terms of whether they w i l l achieve a proposed goal, but also how well they w i l l do so. This involves comparing the; original end i n mind, with ends implioit in the means. Furthermore, the end must also be estim-ated i n teims of the values i n the predicted consequences of i t s achievement. I t i s not enough that we want something and can get i t ; we must - 26 -consider the effects of our having i t upon.our lives and the livew of others. The end, then, is evaluated in terms of the consequences to which i t leads. The old controversy engendered by the maxim "The end justifies 1 the means'* is worthy of consideration at this point. Obviously this depends on the end, the price needed to attain the desired end, and the consequences which will result from the attainment of the desired end. In many a European country under Nazi subjection men were compelled: to use any and every device In order to further their national liberation. For they realized that with such liberation most of the values to which they held would be permanently out of reach. On the other hand, in our society, the means they employed to achieve their ends would be condemned as unlawful and unethical i f employed in everyday association with our neighbors. Clearly questions of the justification of means and ends have to be considered concretely in the light of ends held and means available, in order that the evaluation may be of the total activity and its consequences. - 2 7 -CHAPTER 7 ESTABLISHMENT OP FIRST PRINCIPLES I . The generic end which we aim to achieve in our western democracies i s founded on the U t i l i t a r i a n principle of "the greatest amount of happiness for.the greatest number of people". Many things can contribute to the happiness of us a l l . Wealth can contribute to i t . A rising standard of l i v i n g w i l l increase leisure, reduce the physical fatigue of labour, bring comfort and health to a growing proportion of our fellow human beings. Wealth, properly distributed, can tear down the slums, drive back the diseases of malnutrition, open a new realm to those who now lack these elementary necessities. Social equality could certainly increase our joy in l i v i n g . I t would rob wealth of i t s guilt, and take away the sense of shame that must haunt those of us who are rich enough to enjoy l i f e i n the present social order - the shame that arises from the thought that so many are denied, through poverty, an access to the means of happiness that - 28 we possess. A sense of justice i s necessary to a l l our happiness i n society. In the disoussion whioh follows, as advocates of Democratic Socialism, we shall strive towards those ends which guarantee the greatest amount of social justice that can be made possible within our means. During the recent war, one of the most commonly heard slogans wan "Give me liberty or give me death'*, The American Declaration of Independence states that people are entitled to l i f e , liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. British Constitutional History reveals a continual struggle for individual liberty. What do men mean when they declare liber ty their object? To a large degree the concept of liberty i s negative i n character: removal of obstacles or restraints. Yet., the idea of restraint implies a direction of striving, a positive goal which men struggle to eliminate. Thus a positive concept i s contained implicitly in a negative idea. - 2 9 -The negative aspect of liberty i s found on hist o r i c a l analysis to be basic to most revolution-ary struggles. The American War of Independence was provoked by arbitrary British taxation. The French Revolution aimed at liberty from a host of feudal and semi-feudal restrictions. The Communist Manifesto calls upon workers to unite — "The I proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains**. Every age has witnessed the attempts of men to eliminate those obstacles which prevent the satis-faction of basic needs. The obstacles were either rigors of the physical enviornment or social arrangements which,caused undue suffering. The removal of such impediments formed the specific content of struggles for liberty. On the other hand, the positive aspect of liberty refers to the conditions which make the achievment of desired goals possible. To the American Negro liberty means equal opportunities for employment and the right to a standard of li v i n g the equivalent of his white neighbors. I. Laski, H.J"., Communist Manifesto. London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1948, p. 168. - 30 -The Russian peasant i n 1917 was interested primarily in land-ownership free from Tsarist burdens. In the Frendh Revolution the peasant requested s o i l unburdened by forced levies; the poor of Paris wanted bread and work; the middle class desired freedom to buy and s e l l on the open market. The various restraints imposed by society on human action have led men;' to seek a formula which would suffice as a guide toward rightful conduct. Such a formula would constitute a principle of general social l i b e r t y . John Stuart M i l l expressed the formula as "the greatest happiness of the greatest number*. M i l l poses the general problem as "the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the I individual". His account i s worthy of consider-ation for two reasons. F i r s t l y , i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y important for the impetus i t gave liberating move-ments; and secondly, It provides a l i b e r a l frame-work of approach to problems of social legislation. I. M i l l , J.Sv, On Liberty. London, Longmans, Green, and Co., -1931. p. 6, - 31 -M i l l ' s p r i n c i p l e may be regarded as a g e n e r a l c r i t e r i o n o f f e r e d t o l e g i s l a t o r s , e d u c a t o r s , to be invoked when they are about to frame laws o r e x e r c i s e o t h e r s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t any a c t i v i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r group. I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the essay "On L i b e r t y " , M i l l c l e a r l y o u t l i n e s the ends which he b e l i e v e s s o c i e t y i s s t r u g g l i n g t o a c h i e v e . Thus: "The o b j e c t o f t h i s Essay i s t o a s s e r t one v e r y simple p r i n c i p l e , as e n t i t l e d t o govern a b s o l u t e l y the d e a l i n g s o f s o c i e t y w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l i n the way o f compulsion and c o n t r o l , whether the means used be p h y s i c a l f o r c e i n the form o f l e g a l p e n a l t i e s , o r the moral c o e r c i o n o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . That p r i n c i p l e i s , t h a t the s o l e end f o r which mankind are warranted, i n d i v i d -u a l l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y , i n i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the l i b e r t y o f a c t i o n o f any o f t h e i r number, i s s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n . T hat the o n l y purpose f o r which power can be r i g h t f u l l y e x e r c i s e d over any member o f a c i v i l i z e d community, a g a i n s t h i s w i l l , i s t o prevent harm to o t h e r s . H i s own good, w i t h e r p h y s i c a l o r moral, i s not a s u f f i c i e n t w arrant. He cannot r i g h t f u l l y be compelled to do o r f o r e b e a r beoause i t w i l l be b e t t e r f o r him to do so, because i t w i l l make him h a p p i e r , because, i n the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s , to do so would be wise, o r even r i g h t . These are good reasons f o r remon-s t r a t i n g with him, o r r e a s o n i n g w i t h him, o r persuading him, o r e n t r e a t i n g him, but not f o r c o m p e l l i n g him, or - 32 -vi s i t i n g him with any e v i l i n ease he do otherwise. To justify that, the conduct from which i t i s desired to deter him, must be calculated to produce e v i l to some one else. The only part of the conduct of any one, for whioh he i s amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence i s , of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and min§, the individual i s sovereign" . In applying his theory, M i l l i s consistent i n placing the burden of proof on the accusers -whether individual or government - who urge interference with man's actions. Thus, according to M i l l , a man has economic libe r t y , liberty of thought, speech, p o l i t i c a l liberty, action in any direction he may desire, subject only to someone else's justifiable complaint. The state i s destined to legislate according to experience; thus, thos^e questions which give rise to complaints are to be dealt witb|in the limitations of the "greatest good for the greatest number". I. M i l l , tl.S., On Liberty, p. 6. - 33 -However, conduct i s not to be judged a r b i t r a r i l y . M i l l says: "There are many who consider as an injury to themselves any conduct which they have distaste for, and resent i t as an outrage to their feelings; as a religious bigot, when qharged with disregarding the feelings of others, has been known to retort that they disregard his feelings, by insisting in their abomin-able worship or creed". 1 On these grounds M i l l argues against a l l wholesale prohibitions. Puritans, "have endeavoured with considerable success, to put down a l l public, and nearly a l l private amusements .... How w i l l the remaining portion of the community like to have amusements that shall be permitted to them regulated by the religious and moral sentiments of the st r i c t e r Calvinists and Methodists? Would they not, with considerable disgust desire these intru-sively pious members of society to mind their own business? This i s precisely what should be said to every government and every public, who have the pretension that no person shall enjoy any pleasure 2 they think wrong"? 1. Ibid, p. 49. 2. M i l l , J.S., On Liberty, p. 51. - 3 4 On these grounds, M i l l argues, i f you oan offer sufficient proof that a man who spends flagrantly on intoxicants i s depriving his family of necessities, and that consequently they are undergoing undue hardship, i t i s not an infringement of individual liberty to prohibit his drinking. But otherwise, the choice of whether, or not to consume liquor, i s any man's own. On the other hand, M i l l recognized offenses against decency as adequate grounds for restraint; further, many actions, not i n themselves condemnable are objectionable i f performed in public. M i l l demands absolute liberty i n thought and discussion. To silence expression of opinion i s to rob posterity. The opinion under attack may be true, to suppress i t i s , therefore, an unwarranted assump-tion of i n f a l l i b i l i t y , i t i s one thing to act on probabilities - because action i s necessary - and quite another to suppress an opposing view because one's own appears probably true. Man was not destined to have complete truth and therefore, i t s best chance for development l i e s in conflict with opposing ideas. - 35 -On the o t h e r hand, even when one i s t o t a l l y convinced t h a t the o p i n i o n one i s tempted to suppress i s f a l s e , i t does not f o l l o w t h a t i t s s u p p r e s s i o n i s j u s t i f i e d . The d i s c u s s i o n s o f a l l o p i n i o n s , t r u e o r otherwise, make us c o n s c i o u s o f the reasons f o r the views we h o l d . F i n a l l y , i f c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n s are suppressed, b e l i e f s w i l l tend to be h e l d as dogma and o p i n i o n s w i l l tend t o become s e c t a r i a n . M i l l r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the same reasons which make l i b e r t y o f thought and d i s c u s s i o n so v a l u a b l e p o i n t t o the l i b e r t y of a c t i o n . As a p a r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e he urges the widest d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power c o n s i s t e n t with e f f i c i e n c y , but he a l s o urges t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n be gathered from a c e n t r a l source, s i n c e c o r r e l a t i o n o f knowledge i s necessary f o r i t s r a p i d advance. We must not assume t h a t M i l l * s p r i n c i p l e s are immune from a t t a c k . There I s a fundamental weakness i n M i l l * s c o n c e p t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l . He t r e a t s man as an i s o l a t e d e n t i t y r a t h e r t h a n a product o f h i s s o c i e t y . He seemingly f a i l s t o a p p r e c i a t e the r o l e of the i n t e r r a c t i o n of men i n the molding o f the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s p r o c e s s i s e s s e n t i a l i n e s t a b -l i s h i n g the very i n t e r e s t s and d e s i r e s whose s a t i s -f a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e h a p p i n e s s . Once t h i s f a c t i s - 36 r e c o g n i z e d , l a r g e s c a l e remolding o f men's c h a r a c t e r tlntrough s o c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d means becomes p o s s i b l e . However, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h e v a l u e s which M i l l was s t r i v i n g t o secure can be maintained by a system o p e r a t i n g *-V« i n accordance w i t h h i s funda-I mental p r i n c i p l e s . Although he r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the s e l f i s h p u r s u i t o f one's ends may b r i n g i n j u r y t o ofchers, he denies t h a t d i s s a p o i n t e d competitors have any l e g a l o r mo r a l r i g h t t o immunity f r o m such s u f f e r i n g u n l e s s there has been f r a u d , t r e a c h e r y , o r f o r c e . Thus M i l l advocates Free-Trade. But immediately a f t e r w a r d he says trade I s a s o c i a l a c t , thus removing i t from t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s l i b e r t y p r i n c i p l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he takes i t f o r granted t h a t "both the cheapness and the good q u a l i t y o f commodities are most . e f f e c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r by l e a v i n g the producers and s e l l e r s p e r f e c t l y f r e e , under t h e sole check .of equal freedom t o the buyers 2 f o r s u p p l y i n g themselves elsewhere", and he a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s view r e s t s on grounds d i f f e r e n t from, "though e q u a l l y s o l i d w i t h , the p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y " . 3 1. M i l l , J.S., On L i b e r t y , p. 56. 2. I b i d , p. 56. 3. M i l l , J . S., p. 65. - 37 -Economic Liberty, in M i l l * s sense, the right to buy what one chooses, s e l l what one chooses, and to compete i n buying and selling, i s possessed by very few people today. At this very date there are four hundred thousand unemployed In Canada. They are at liberty to sell their labour at a l i v i n g wage, but with no buyers at that price, their liberty has l i t t l e meaning. Unemployment insurance has been attacked on the ground t hatjliberty has been sacrificed for the sake of security. However, existing evidence disposes o f t his argument, for the withholding of interference by the governmert may mean liberty f o r the employer, but on the other hand, the case of the employee i s precisely the opposite. This leads us to the problem of Unionism. Unionism means the restriction of certain powers of the employer — such as the right to dismiss employees arbit r a r i l y , or to work his employees long hours. The unions are continually undergoing attack on the grounds that they c u r t a i l economic liberty. The defenders of unionism declare that the growth of labour unions points in the direction of equalizing bargaining power and so gives workers in their organizations a greater share of economic liberty. - 38 -Economic liberty i s thus redefined in terms of the dominant values of most men in their economic activity. Employment means earning power which in turn provides the necessities of l i f e . The obstacles which impede this achievment become of prime import-ance, and their removal i s an advancement i n economic liberty. These obstacles arise out of decreased production, insufficient bargaining power, end other factors in close association with the two mentioned. Hence steps taken by the government to remedy these situations are liberating rather than restrictive, and should properly be referred to as supplements of economic liberty. Should the government tolerate freedom <f speech and press regardless of what position they may take? For example, should a press that publishes and advo-cates propoganda contradictory to the principles we uphold, be allowed f u l l freedom? We may suggest that the danger l i e s in restricting, for the suppres-sion of intermediate groups, then of a l l l i b e r a l -opinion, and f i n a l l y a l l p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t i e s dissappear. For the growth of a minority view i s usually indicative of serious social dislocations rather than too much liberty of expression. We may suggest that the suppression of c i v i l liberties 39 -defeats i t s own purpose, and therefore, attention should be directed against the evils out of whioh this dissension arises. We may readily agree with the view presented by M i l l : thus; " I f c i v i l i z a t i o n has got the better of barbarism when barbarism had the world to i t s e l f , i t i s too much to profess to be afraid lest barbarism, after having been f a i r l y got under, should revive and conquer c i v i l i z -ation that can t>hus succumb to i t s vanquished enemy, must have f i r s t • become so degenerate, that neither i t s appointed priests and teachers, nor anybody else, has the capacity, or w i l l .take the trouble to stand up for i t . I f this be so, the sooner such a c i v i l i z a t i o n receives notice to quit, the better". 1 Limitations of freedom of speech are, of course, necessary where there i s immediate danger. During the course of a war, freedom of speech does not include the right to broadcast information valuable to the enemy, nor to .spread capriscious rumours favourable to the promotion of str i f e and internal disorder. Such acts would be punishable as seditious. We may readily appreciate the necessity of laws forbidding sedition and l i b e l , but those accusations coming under those concepts must be well f o u n d e d , otherwise they can be extended to include a l l opposition to those In authority. I. M i l l , J.S., On Liber ty. p. 55. - 40 -Perhaps the most fundamental a s p e c t o f l i b e r t y -i s i t s economic b a s i s . The r e a l i z a t i o n of the need f o r economic s e c u r i t y has p e r s i s t e d throughout h i s t o r y . A r i s t o t l e w r i t e s : "no man can l i v e w e l l , o r indeed l i v e a t a l l , u n l e s s he i s p r o v i d e d w i t h I n e c e s s i t i e s " . P r e s i d e n t R o o s v e l t ' s c e l e b r a t e d F o u r Freedoms i n c l u d e freedom from want, and tba A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r o f August 14, 1941, speaks o f "the f u l l e s t c o l l a b o r a t i o n between a l l n a t i o n s i n the economic f i e l d with the o b j e c t o f s e c u r i n g , f o r a l l , improved l a b o u r standards, economic adjustment and s o c i a l 2 . s e c u r i t y " . ,i Economic s e c u r i t y i s o n l y one o f the a s p e c t s of g e n e r a l s o c i a l l i b e r t y . The n e c e s s i t y o f c o n d i t i o n s conducive to h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d by a l l major n a t i o n s o f the world. The U n i t e d N a t i o n s , r e a l i z i n g the urgent n e c e s s i t y f o r m e d i c a l a i d throughout the w o r l d , made i t one o f i t s prime o b j e c t i v e s to encourage the accumulation and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge i n t h i s f i e l d . I n d us-t r i a l i s t s having r e a l i z e d t h a t h e a l t h i s i n d i s p e n s i b l e to a p r o d u c t i v e economy and have improved working 1. McKeon, R i c h a r d , I n t r o d u c t i o n to A r i s t o t l e . New York, Modern L i b r a r y , 1947, p. 558. 2. A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r . London, H i s M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , March 9, 1944. - 41 -c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, v a c a t i o n s , moderate hours o f lab o u r , parks, m e d i c a l s e r v i c e , s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e , a l l belong t o the concept o f l i b e r t y . S i m i l a r l y , education i s a prime n e c e s s i t y o f a h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s has made p r o v i s i o n s f o r the advancement o f the sci e n c e s and human knowledge i n g e n e r a l . R u s s i a lagged f a r behind her European neighbors i n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n m a i n l y because the v a s t m a j o r i t y of h e r c i t i z e n s were uneducated. The government o f I n d i a i s f i n d i n g i t e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o apply h e r newly won freedom because o f the ignorance which p r e v a i l s throughout her t e r r i t o r i e s . Thus, p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l r i g h t s are o n l y two o f the a s p e c t s o f l i b e r t y . We have found l i b e r t y to be a complex whole which i s n e c e s s a r i l y dependent on eaoh o f i t s p a r t s . L i b e r t y then, i s d e s i r e d f o r the b e n e f i t s t o -ward which i t i s i n s t r u m e n t a l . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , i t i s a necessary end. whether one votes o r n o t , the r i g h t to vote i s r e c o g n i z e d as a v a l u a b l e p o s s e s s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , whether o r n o t people take advantage o f t h e i r l i b e r t y t o cross i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l boundaries a t w i l l , t h i s freedom o f movement i s g r e a t l y c h e r i s h e d . - 42 -Now, i f we take p o s i t i v e l i b e r t y as the p r o v i s o r o f n ecessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r l e a d i n g a good l i f e , these c o n d i t i o n s w i l l beoome i n c o r p o r t a t e d as ends. We s h a l l argue h e r e i n , t h a t the o n l y con-c e i v a b l e route to our d e s i r e d s o c i a l o r d e r l i e s i n the pathway o f demooraey, and t h a t the p o l i t i c a l method o f democratic government i s an e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e o f any s o c i e t y i n which a maximum o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e can be a c h i e v e d . 2. A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s necessary t o make d e a r the sense i n which the term democracy s h a l l be used. I n p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n democracy i s usually-used q u i t e ambiguously, I t i s o f t e n used i n such a way as to make ifc synonymous w i t h the phrase " t h e j u s t s o c i e t y " . B e f o r e any such persons w i l l c a l l any s o c i e t y a democracy, i t must be completely f r e e from s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s and economic i n s e c u r i t y . By u s i n g the word i n t h i s way i t i s p o s s i b l e to .> say, thatjwe have n o t got "democracy 1* i n B r i t a i n , o r America. I n none o f these c o u n t r i e s has i n e q u a l i t y , o r i n s e c u t i t y , passed w h o l l y away. 43 -Demooracy in i t s Utopian sense, does not exist with-in these nations. They only possess c a p i t a l i s t i c democracy or p o l i t i c a l democracy. They do not possess economic democracy. It is obvious that the institution of p o l i t i c a l democracy exists in some r e a l sense since i t i s possible to distingquish "capitalist democracies'1 from " capitalist dictatorships" . There must be therefore some souse i n which democracy 'is compat-ible with capitalism and consequently with economic i n e q u a l i t y . It..is-with this limited form of p o l i t i c a l democracy, i t s meaning and value, that we are here concerned. Democracy in this sense consists of certain definite characteristics and institutions. Ihe f i r s t of these characteristics i s the a b i l i t y of the people to choose a government. Incorporated within this affirmation is an appraisal of the value of human personality. Disagreement between individuals i s of the very essence of human beings. As long as we are different persons, tBDerd w i l l be some of us who like certain things and some who do not; some who desire one order of society and some another, some who believe justice to be realized i n one set ojf circumstances and some who disagree with that judgement. - 4 4 -Now the course of action taken at any moment, and the form of society thus brought slowly into existence, are determined largely by the govern-ment. Thei government has i t s hands upon the controls, and i s therefore the immediate authority determining social policy. The nature of the decisions taken by the government w i l l depend on the character of the persons forming i t . Consequently there oan be no control of the form of society by us, the masses, unless i t i s possible to change the personnel of the government whenever necessary. This i s the f i r s t and most obvious characteristic of p o l i t i c a l democracy - the exist-ence of a government resposible to the people; and the dependence of i t and the membership of the legislative assembly upon the free vote of the people . Modern history has taught us in at the essential thing to attain and preserve i s the power of the people to dismiss a government from o f f i c e . This negative power i s in r e a l i t y an important positive power, because ordinary men?;' and women are moved more deeply by the dissaproval of measures they dislike - 45 -i n p ractice, than "by t h e i r l e s s d e f i n i t e ideas of , what they desire i n the future. By the slow t e s t i n g of ideas and i n s t i t u t i o n s , by r e j e c t i n g a l l that which Is disapproved of and insisting upon the gradual extension of things found suitable by experience, an i n t e l l i g e n t electorate unconsciously constructs a society compatible, with I t s wishes. We may f i n d i t advantageous to stress the f a c t that the negative power to destroy a government i s part of the broader r i g h t to choose a government, and i s perhaps a " p r i n c i p l e of sustainence" c o n s t i t u t i n g the sub-stratum, a necessary and fundamental component o f democracy. Ihe right to choose a government implies a second e s s e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n . I f l i b e r t y i s to e x i s t , i f there i s to be an actual dependence of government upon the w i l l of the people, the l a t t e r must always have a choice. This implies the constant maintenance of a c r i t i c a l and e s s e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n that of freedom to oppose the government of the day. I t i s then e s s e n t i a l f o r the electorate to have more than one possible government before it,more than one p o l i t i c a l party able to place i t s views before - 46 -the voters, with the opposition free to prepare i t s e l f to take over power, and the government w i l l i n g to surrender i t peacefully a f t e r an e l e c t o r a l decision against i t . The absurdity,of e l e c t o r a l practices i n modern dic t a t o r s h i p s , such as those experienced i n H i t l e r i a n Germany and F a s c i s t I t a l y , becomes most apparent. They copied the device of the General E l e c t i o n , but t h e i r s was a sordid, p i t i f u l and s i l l y l i m i t a t i o n . What was the choice before German or I t a l i a n electorate'? There was only one party i n the e l e c t i o n and therefore the possible formation of only one government.1 There may be a choice of i n d i v i d u a l s , but there was c e r t a i n l y no choice of party, no choice of government, and consequently no choice of p o l i c y . The alternative before the German people was between Fuhrer H i t l e r and Fuhrer H i t l e r . Thus the acid test of democracy may be defined as the t o l e r a t i o n of opposition. In so far as alte r n a t i v e governments are tolerated and allowed to come into existence, we believe democracy to be present. Gn the other hand, when an opposition i s I. Appendix I 47 -persecuted, rendered i l l e g a l , or stamped out of existence, democracy is not present. Howeyer, there are varying degrees of freedom permitted those i n opposition to the government. The Canadian government extends complete legal freedom to parties in opposition to the government. Their rights in .politics are the same as those of the government in o f f i c e . From this extreme there i s an i n f i n i t e gradation of liberty, through mild dictatorships, to the ruthless insistence upon uniformity that characterizes Germany and Russia. There i s no precise l i n e , in our estimation, at which i t i s possible to say that a l l communities on this side of i t are democracies, and a l l on the other side are dictatorships. But the test i s nevertheless valid. The suppression of opposition is one of the foremost and basic proofs of dictatorial ambition. There i s also another characteristic neessary to the existence of p o l i t i c a l democracy. Both previous characteristics - responsible government and legal opposition - are the definitive properties of democracy, but they are not the causes of democracy. - 48 -When they are present, we acknowledge tne existence of democracy, when absent we are not able to speak of the presence of democracy in any significant manner. But they do not cause democracy to become present; they simply define democracy. Then, what is the substantial sooial condition guaranteeing existence. We may suggest that mutual toleration is|the key to democracy. L e A t us imagine for a moment that this condition is not f u l f i l l e d . Le'H us suppose that the Liberal Party, has reason to believe that the 0.0.jr. opposition has never accepted, or does not now accept, the obligations of this informal compact of toleration. The government has,reason to think that, i f and when the O.U.F. party comes to power, i t w i l l use that power not merely to carry out i t s programme, but to break up and destroy the Liberal party as a p o l i t i c a l organization, and to stamp out by persecution, Liberalism as an idea. That i s , i t i s the known intention of the O.C.F. Party - as i t i s the known intention of the w a z i and Fascist parties - to use the power vested in them as the government, to liquidate the parties i n opposition to them. - 49 -We suggest that i f such he the case, the continuance of democracy under these circumstances i s inconceiv-able. Furthermore, i t i s dubious whether the party so threatened w i l l surrender power peacefully. To hand over the reigns of government to an opposition of the alrove designated calibre i s to court p o l i t i c a l death. People are not apt to arm those who are t h e i r would-be assassins. Indeed, i t may very well be the duty of a p o l i t i c a l leader not to hand over the control of government v o l u n t a r i l y to a persecutor. The leaders of the L i b e r a l Party, i n t h i s hypothetical case, are the responsible leaders of the major section of the community. They have been entrusted with c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s and c e r t a i n ideas. I t may be t h e i r duty not t> give way, even i n the face of popular w i l l , to give place of power to persecutors and tormentors. This judgement applies, we believe, to Germany i n 1932. - In the November ele c t i o n of that year, the p a r t i e s that ultimately combined to support H i t l e r ' s Chancellorship obtained 44.3$ of the I votes cast. The Communists obtained 17 .295. I . Appendix I - 50 -We suggest that had the leaders of the democratic minority, or of the :anti-Hitier majority, hot permitted him to obtain power peacefully, i t may have been better for them, and for the rest of the world. Thus democracy requires the peaceful alternation of Parties in government. This i s impossible i f the government believes that the opposition intends to liquidate them i f and when, they, thejopposition, obtain power. I t i s not l i k e l y that the government would surrender power w i l l i n g l y under such conditions. I f they did, democracy would nevertheless cease to exist, since the victorious opposition would proceed, by the persecution of those who disagreed with them, to the destruction of the democratic principles i n themselves. P o l i t i c a l democracy depends then-, upon mutual toleration between opposing parties. History has shown us that no person or group can be trusted to execut^e the popular w i l l , unless they are responsible to i t . However noble the principle of the regime may be - whether monarchy or theocracy, the moment the majority of people are able to express their opinions - i n - 5 1 -Reform B i l l a gitation or C i v i l War - the irresponsible group i n power f i n d themselves with the majority of people against them. On those grounds we argue that responsible government i s the only c e r t a i n method of securing the society that ordinary men and women desire. Many dictatorships have claimed themselves to be popular d i c t a t o r s h i p s . I f popular, why cannot opposition be tolerated? I f opposition eould be v i c t o r i o u s i n a free general e l e c t i o n , i n what sense i s the absolute government popular? We suggest that there can be no v a l i d i t y i n the claim that a i-t regime incapable of permitting i t s fate to be decided by free voting i s r e a l l y executing the w i l l of the voters. Another main argument states that t o l e r a t i o n of opposition within the-nation isjthe only method by which r e a l unity can be secured. That t h i s should be the case i s paradoxical, since one of the basic p r i n c i p l e s of the democratic method l i e s i n the t o l e r a t i o n and protection, of disagreement within the nation. As we have seen, democracy i s based upon the t o l e r a t i o n of the opposition. The law a c t i v e l y protects the r i g h t to disagree. - 52 -We have, in this country, developed this principle to i t s logical conclusions. We now pay people to denounce and c r i t i c i z e the government. I f the C. C F . Party i s victorious at the next general , election, Mr. St. Laurent as leader of the opposi-tion would be paid a substantial salary. We recognize the significance of founding our p o l i t i c a l l i f e on the principle of duality in p o l i t i c s , upon the principle of discussion between the organized parties to the debate - parties who have equal rights to be heard, and who do not fear liquidation with the alternation of power. Yet i f we examine the^ broad division of the nations of the1 world into democratic and author-itarian states previous to 1945 - Canada, Britain, • United States, on the one side, Russia, Germany, and Italy on the other - i t i s surely obvious that the deeply divided nations are the dictatorships and not the democracies. For in those dicator-ships the divisions were so deep that vast numbers of secret police, punishment without t r i a l , imprisonment, torture, exile, and murder of hundreds of thousands, complemented the governing - 53 -o f t h e s t a t e . A l l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x c e p t ; one a r e i l l e g a l . O p e n d i s a g r e e m e n t i s s u i c i d e . A n d y e t t h e y w e r e d i v i d e d , s o d e e p l y d i v i d e d , t h a t t h e s e c r e t p o l i c e w e r e m a i n t a i n e d i n g r e a t f o r c e , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p s w e r e c o n t i n u a l l y e n l a r g e d , t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f l i f e w a s c a r r i e d o n w i t h a l l r u t h l e s s n e s s . M e a n w h i l e , t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e d e m o c r a c i e s p a y s a l a r i e s t o t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n s . D e m o c r a c y , a s a m e t h o d , s e r v e s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n , t h a t o f c o m p r o m i s i n g a n d r e c o n c i l i n g c o n -f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . W h e n i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s d i s a g r e e ( n a t i o n s , c l a s s e s , a n d p a r t i e s w i t h i n t h e s t a t e a r e i n c l u d e d ) , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s n o t w h a t t h e y d i s a g r e e a b o u t , b u t t h e m e t h o d o r m e t h o d s b y w h i c h t h e i r d i s p u t e s c a n b e r e s o l v e d . I f f o r c e i s t o b e u s e d i n r e n d e r i n g a d e c i s i o n , c h a o s a n d s u f f e r i n g w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t . C i v i l i z a t i o n c a n n o t b e b u i l t o n d e s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e e v i l s w h i c h accop&any i t . ' i h e v i t a l q u e s t i o n i s t h a t o f m e t h o d f o r i t i s t h e m e a n s t h a t w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e e n d s . - 54 -T h i s c o n c l u s i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y draw one toward p a c i f i s m . We do not contend t h a t i t i s the duty o f any man to s u r r e n d e r h i s own purposes simply because o t h e r persons or groups use f o r c e . That appears to be n o n s e n s i c a l . I t may very w e l l be our duty to r e p e l f o r c e w i t h f o r c e , and t o see that - once the peace i s broken - the group to which we owe our l o y a l t y i s v i c t o r i o u s i n the ensuing s t r u g g l e . We may suggest the use o f compromise i n s t e a d o f f o r c e o r p a c i f i s m . I t would then be our supreme s o c i a l duty to persuade contending groups to agree to a b s t a i n from u s i n g f o r c e i n the s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r d i s p u t e s . To .set the maintenance o f such agreements f i r s t i n the sequence o f our s o c i a l v a l u e s would become a primary o b l i g a t i o n . We must not f o r g e t t h a t a t a l l times, and i n a l l p a r t s o f the world, there are m i n o r i t y groups w i t h i n the n a t i o n , and a m i n o r i t y of n a t i o n s w i t h -i n the s o c i e t y o f n a t i o n s , who w i l l not accept the agreement t o use p e a c e f u l methods - who a d v e r t i s e and a c t upon the i n t e n t i o n t o a l t e r the world i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r d e s i r e s , and pursue what - 55 -they regard as t h e i r r i g h t s , by the use of the whole of the force at t h e i r command. As a consequence, the agreement not to use force must be protected by force; the agressive minority must be restrained by force; law must be enforced by the p o l i c e , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l order protected by c o l l e c t i v e methods. Here we have s u f f i c i e n t reason fo r the establishment of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l police force. I t might be argued that p o l i t i c a l democracy i s only one of the neoessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a just s o c i a l order, and therefore no more fundamental than any other: f o r example, the existence of a just d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth. I t i s p e r f e c t l y feasible to assume that some people may prefer equality i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth to p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y . Sueh a programme, i t i s our bias, does not touch the problem of constructing a just society. Economic equality can be f u l l y achieved, and s o c i a l j u s t i c e remain as f a r away as ever, because one type of p r i v i l e g e ( p o l i t i c a l ) has been substituted for another (eoonomio). The problem of a just society Is not the single problem o f economic equality, but the much more complex one of - 56 a c h i e v i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n one s o c i e t y both l i b e r t y and e w u a l i t y . Gur c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h a t q f the Western World, i s founded upon the C a p i t a l i s t i c system. S i n c e 1945 the government o f Great B r i t a i n has been i n the p r o c e s s o f i n t r o d u c i n g Democratic S o c i a l i s m t o h e r p e o p l e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada have r e t a i n e d the C a p i t a l i s t i c system. Both systems are based on p o l i t i c a l democracy, but i t i s b e i n g argued t h a t o n l y under S o c i a l i s m can economic democracy be s e c u r e d . Before a f a i r a p p r a i s a l can be made, o r a v a l i d judgement passed, I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to weigh the c r i t i c i s m s of both a g a i n s t t h e i r c o r -responding v a l u e s . - 5 7 PART I I AM APPRAISAL OF CAPITALISMS AS RELATIVE TO ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY Under the c a p i t a l i s t system, the primary struggle i s between the owners and c o n t r o l l e r s of industry, and the workers by hand and brain who have l i t t l e or no share i n i t s ownership. U n t i l the middle of the l a s t century, the id e a l of security and plenty for the masses was an unrealizable dream. Men s t i l l worked with hand t o o l s . The average man could not produce more than a bare l i v i n g . In T s a r i s t Russia eighty per cent of the population were never ablelto produce enough food f o r the bare subsistence of themselves 1 and the other twenty percent of the people. Even i f the product of industry had been equitably d i s t r i b u t e d , thejmass of workers would s t i l l have had to l i v e i n comparative poverty. Under these circumstanoes, there was l i t t l e material foundation fo r the dreams and hopes of the s o c i a l prophets of the past. During the l a s t few generations, however, the s i t u a t i o n has been revolutionized. The mammoth machines now found i n our industries; harnessed to Selsam, Howard, Socialism and E t h i c s , New York * I nternational Publishers, 1943, p. 1 5 . I . Pares, S i r , Bernard, A History of Russia. New York, A l f r e d A . Knopf, 1947, p. 391 - 408 . - 58 -steam and el e c t r i c a l power, "have placed millions of tireless slaves at the command of our productive forces and for the f i r s t time in c i v i l i z a t i o n have made i t possible to abolish poverty and to bring leisure and abundance to a l l who do their share of the oommon task**.-*" 'ihe problem of ethies as stated by Howard Selsam i s "not whether capitalism has been a good or bad system, but whether i t i s - as a result of i t s own operation, -accomplishments and limitations - the best system we oan have now for ordering human economic relations". The plausability of raising the above question i s substantiated by empirical fact: "We i n America now have at our disposal forty times the amount of physical energy per capita as aelek had our forefathers of a hundred years ago. With our increased power of production, as Dean Dexter S. Kimball de-clares, " i f poverty and indust-r i a l distress s t i l l exist, i t is because of our Inability to keep our industrial machinery in operation and to distribute equitably the resulting products. • I 1. Laidler, H.W., Socializing our Democracy. Harper & Bros., New York, 1935, p. 2. 2. Selsam, H. Socialism and Ethics, p. 17. - 59 -I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o produce a b u n d a n t l y ; we must be a b l e t o d i s t r i b u t e i n t e l l i g e n t l y . " T h e C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y Commision on E c o n o m i c R e c o n s t r u c t i o n t a k e s a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . " I t i s c l e a r " , t h e R e p o r t o f - t h e Commission d e c l a r e s , " t h a t i f o u r s o c i e t y c o u l d c o n t i n u a l l y u t i l i z e t o the f u l l t h e p r o -d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y w h i c h i s a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e i t c o u l d t h e r e b y overoome the e v i l s o f p o v e r t y and unemployment, a s s u m i n g a n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i n c o m e . " " W h i l e , a c c o r d i n g t o R a l p h E . F l a n d e r s , - former v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y o f m e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r s , e v e r y e n g i n e e r knows t h a t , w i t h p r o p e r s o c i a l d i r e c t i o n , e n g i n e e r s c a n p r o v i d e " r a w m a t e r i a l , m a c h i n e r y and t r a i n e d l a b o u r s u f f i c i e n t t o f l o o d , b u r y a n d smother the p o p u l a t i o n i n s u c h an a v a l a n c h e o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r , l u x u r i e s and t h e m a t e r i a l r e f i n e m e n t s as no U t o p i a n dreamer i n h i s b u s i e s t s l u m b e r s h a s e v e r a c h i e v e d " . x R e g a r d l e s s o f a l l t h e m a r v e l s of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , w i t h i t s accompaniement of m i g h t y m a c h i n e s and v a s t m i n e r a l a n d power r e s o u r c e s , we have f a i l e d t o a b o l i s h p o v e r t y . E x t r e m e i n e q u a l i t y , u n e m p l o y -ment and m i s e r y , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f v a s t powers i n the hands o f a few, p o l i t i c a l i n c o m p e t e n c y and c o r r u p t i o n , i m p e r i a l i s t i c p o l i c i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n I . L a i d l e r , S o c i a l i z i n g o u r D e m o c r a c y , p . 2. - 60 -the seeds o f war and p e s t i l e n c e , are a l l s t i l l p r e s e n t , and perhaps are i n c r e a s i n g . C a p i t a l i s m has f a i l e d t o cope adequately w i t h these problems; t h e r e f o r e , i n our a p p r a i s a l o f c a p i t a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e we s h a l l t r y to determine i t s i n h e r e n t weaknesses. - 6 1 -CHAPTER J F CAPITALISM: ITS ASSUMPTIONS AND PROFIT - MOTIVE John S t u a r t M i l l , whose assumptions are i m p l i c i t l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n C a p i t a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e , s t a t e d that p o l i t i c a l economy r e s t s on grounds d i f f e r e n t from, "though e q u a l l y s o l i d w t t h , the p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y " . 1 These assumptions as enunciated by M i l l are: 1 1.... both the cheapness and the good q u a l i t y o f commodities are most e f f e c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r by l e a v i n g the producers and s e l l e r s p e r f e c t l y f r e e , under the s o l e check o f equal freedom t o the buyers f o r s u p p l y i n g themselves elsewhere. T h i s i s the s o - c a l l e d d o c t r i n e s o f Free-Trade .... the i n d i v i d u a l i s no t accountable t o s o c i e t y f o r h i s a c t i o n s , i n s o f e r as these concern the i n t e r e s t s o f no person but him-s e l f . .. . whoever succeeds i n an overcrowded p r o f e s s i o n ; o r i n a competitive examination; wherever i s p r e f e r r e d t o another i n any contest f o r an o b j e c t which both d e s i r e , reaps b e n e f i t from the l o s s o f o t h e r s , from t h e i r wasted ex-e r t i o n and t h e i r d i s s a p o i n t m e n t . But i t i s , by common admission, b e t t e r f o r the g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t o f mankind, t h a t persons s h o u l d pursue t h e i r o b j e c t s undeterred by t h i s s o r t o f consequences" . 2 1. John S t u a r t M i l l , On L i b e r t y , p. 56. 2. Ibed,* ~- 62 -.By "developing these assumptions to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s we d e r i v e t h e b a s i s o f our p r e s e n t c a p i t a l i s t i c economy. These are enumerated by Henry 0. C l a y . He l i s t s f o u r assumptions: "That i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r economic r e l a t i o n s can be r e l i e d on to pursue t h e i r own i n t e r e s t , and t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n w i l l be r a t i o n a l and i n f o r m e d ^ t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n In i n d u s t r y w i l l r e s u l t i n the s u r v i v a l , o f the s o c i a l l y f i t t e s t ; t h a t as a r u l e p r i v a t e wealth o r p r o p e r t y w i l l be ac q u i r e d o n l y by s e r v i c e and, c o n v e r s e l y , t h a t s e r v i c e s w i l l be induced by the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c q u i r i n g p r i v a t e wealth, so t h a t i t w i l l be the p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t o f some-one to supply e v e r y s e r v i c e i n which th e r e i s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ; and, t h a t market v a l u e s correspond rou g h l y w i t h s o c i a l v a l u e s , and are an adeq uate i n d i c a t i o n o f need f o r p r o d u o t i o n to f o l l o w " . 1 I . The f i r s t i s an assumption o f r a t i o n a l s e l f -i n t e r e s t . Thus c a p i t a l i s m operates on the the o r y t h a t s e l f i s h n e s s i s the most r e l i a b l e human motive. Economists defend t h i s r e l i a n c e on s e l f i s h n e s s by arguing t h a t we know our own i n t e r e s t s b e t t e r than anyone e l s e does, and b e t t e r than we know the i n t e r e s t o f o t h e r s , andjthat t h e r e f o r e s e l f - i n t e r e s t w i l l I . C l a y , Henry, Economics f o r the G e n e r a l Reader. London, M a c m i l l a n s , 1928, p. 395. - 63 -p r o v i d e f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l b e t t e r t h a n a n y o t h e r s y s t e m , a n d w i t h a s m a l l e r e x p e n d i t u r e o f h u m a n e n e r g y . T h e b i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h i s q u e s t i o n m a y b e s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t . H e r e i t i s a r g u e d t h a t s e l f -i n t e r e s t i s c o n d u c i v e t o , a n d i s a n a c c o m p a n i e m e n t o f , t h e p r o c e s s o f s u r v i v a l . I t i s a l s o e s t a b -l i s h e d t h a t a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d c a p a c i t y f o r c o -o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n m u s t l i k e w i s e b e p r e s e n t i n t h e f o r m s o f a n i m a l l i f e , b e c a u s e m o n k e y s f o r e x a m p l e , a r e h i g h l y g r e g a r i o u s a n d w o r k t o g e t h e r f o r c o m m o n e n d s . A t a n y r a t e , m o s t d e f e n d e r s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s t h e o n l y r e l i a b l e m o t i v e o n w h i c h t o b a s e a n e c o n o m i c s y s t e m , w h e r e a s s o c i a l i s t s h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t m a n i s c a p a b l e ? o f r e s p o n s e t o o t h e r m o t i v e s . T h e y d o n o t d e n y t h a t m e n , a s a t p r e s e n t c o n s i t u t e d , a r e m o v e d l a r g e l y b y s e l f - i n t e r e s t ; b u t t h e y i n s i s t t h a t t h i s i s m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e e n v i o r n m e n t i n w h i o h m e n h a v e b e e n r e a r e d , a n d i f t h e y h a d b e e n r e a r e d i n a n e n v i o r n m e n t i n w h i c h s e l f - i n t e r e s t w a s s t r e s s e d l e s s a n d t h e g e n e r a l g o o d m o r e , t h e y w o u l d b e u n s e l f i s h e n o u g h t o r e s p o n d t o i n c e n t i v e s o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f p e r s o n a l g a i n . S o c i a l i s m , C o m m u n i s m , - 64 -and Fascism a l l rely to some extent on other motives than self-interest. The socialists as stated before, preach the good of the many as opposed to the few, the Communists advocate the , equality of all men (a classless society), and the Fascists subordinate the rights and freedom of the indivdual to the glory and greatness of the state. If capitalism is to work sucessfully, self-interest must be rational and informed. The fact is tha-tjcapitalism does not always provide goods of satisfactory quality and reasonable prices, nor is the average consumer rational or informed.* In , the first place, many are either naturally averse to the mental effort necessary to make choices or, the neeessary information iis far vaster than the average person can obtain and retain for constant reference. In the second place, powerful ad-vertising and selling agencies are dedicated to the task of building up various types of irrationality 2 in buyers. Furthermore, much of our productive energy is devoted to making and selling things which contribute little to human welfare. 1. Appendix S , % 2 . Appendix II - ©5 -There i s waste'in working at cross-purposes, i n advertising and salesmanship, i n cudgelling and battering the consumer with appeals f o r consider-ation of d i s t i n c t i v e flavours, q u a l i t i e s , and styles whose dis t i n c t i v e n e s s i s l a r g e l y a mirage. Yet,, with a l l the waste o f productive energy, the c a p i t a l i s t system has worked, has perhaps s a t i s f i e d people's wants better than any other system that has yet been t r i e d . 2 . The assumption that competition i n industry w i l l r e s u l t i n the " s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t " may be c r i t i c i z e d on various grounds. I f " f i t " i s used i n the sense that the " f i t t e s t " are those who can accumulate money, by producing wealth, or i n other ways, not always the most legitimate, they can be c a l l e d the f i t t e s t : ".... only i f the end of man i s the production o f material wealth. The d i s t i n c t i v e feature of man Is that he i s a moral being; he can choose h i s end, and judge h i s f i t -ness by reference to that end. To j u s t i f y free competition on the ground that i t gives p o s i t i o n and influence to the " f i t t e s t " i s therefore to choose the production of wealth as the chief end of man. - 66 I f any o t h e r end he chosen, f o r in s t a n c e a r t , the r e l i g i o u s l i f e o r the s e r v i c e o f o t h e r s , then f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n w i l l stand condemned, because the s u r v i v o r s o f the economic s t r u g g l e are not conspicuous f o r lov e o f beauty, p i e t y o r d i s i n t e r e s t e d p h i l a n -t h r o p y . A S t . F r a n c i s o r a Stevenson s u r v i v e s by reason o f h i s v e r y u n f i t n e s s to make money; the c a t h e d r a l s o f the t h i r t e e n t h c e ntury are a g r e a t achievement j u s t because t h e i r b u i l d e r s d i d not adopt the methods t h a t b r i n g _ wealth i n a competitive s o c i e t y " . Another assumption o f c a p i t a l i s m i s t h a t o f an a s s o c i a t i o n between wealth and s o c i a l s e r v i c e . I n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y p r o d u c t i o n i s l e f t t o the p r i v a t e entrepreneur on the assumption t h a t as a r u l e they can a c q u i r e wealth f o r themselves only by re n d e r i n g a u s e f u l s o c i a l s e r v i c e . I n some f i e l d s o f human endeavour, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f i n a n c i a l rewards are o f t e n i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o the q u a l i t y o f the p r o d u c t i v e work, And the " f i t t e s t " - those who are most generously rewarded p e c u n i a r i l y -may be the ones who are w i l l i n g to do shoddy work of no enduring m e r i t . Many c a r t o o n i s t s are p a i d more than Walt Whitman o r Edgar A l l a n Poe e v e r dreamed o f r e c e i v i n g , o r a c t u a l l y e v e r r e c e i v e d . I . Glay, Economics f o r the Ge n e r a l Reader, p. 375 - 3 7 6 . - 67 -This i s not altogether a fault of capitalism, however, but rather a fault of human beings, as Hartlet Whithers says: "Under capitalism the value of our work, like that of everything else, i s what i t w i l l fetch — that i s , what we can. get for i t out of our fellows. I f they are vulgar, tasteless and stupid, we can s e l l them rubbish and grow fat on them, i f we happen to be greedy rogues". 1 Aside from the fact that the public taste for some rubbish has been developed by profit minded advertisers who would not be at work in a socialist economy, i t seems l i k e l y that the wants of the people would not be very different, and that they would demand and get somewhat the same kind of goods and services as they have now. The only way to avoid this would be to turn to some form of autocracy wherein the people would be obliged to content themselves with something really better than they really wanted; but there Is no certainty that an autocrat would provide something better.. I. Withers, Hartley. The Case for Capitalism. London, Eveleigh Nash Company, 1920, p. 35 - 36. - 68 -4. As mentioned earlier, the capitalist assumes the market price to be a satisfactory indicator for production. The point can be vigorously contested on factual grounds. To the extent that there i s competition and e q u a l i t y of incomes, the assumption has great validity; but to the extent that these two conditions are absent, the market price indicator i s ineffective. Furthermore, because of economic inequality the goods produced do not afford the greatest possible total satisfaction, for the rich with their large incomes can appropriate for themselves goods which would satisfy f a r keener wants for people with small incomes. - 69 -CHAPTER 711 CRITICISM OF CQMPETITIYE ASPECTS Many people assume t h a t c a p i t a l i s m i n i t s c o m p e t i t i v e a s p e c t s i s a type of game i n which the a b l e s t c o n t e s t a n t s are l i a b l e t o win. I n r e f e r e n c e to the e t h i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s o r t o f game, Frank K n i g h t says: "However favourable an o p i n i o n one may h o l d o f the busi n e s s game, he must be very I l l i b e r a l not t o concede that o t h e r s have a r i g h t to a d i f f e r e n t view and t h a t l a r g e numbersof admirable people do n o t l i k e the game a t a l l . I t i s then j u s t i f i a b l e a t l e a s t to regard as un f o r t u n a t e the dominance o f the business game over l i f e , the v i r t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l l i v i n g w i t h i t , t o the ex t e n t t h a t has i tome t o pass i n the modern world". The game may be f u n f o r most o f the l e a d e r s , those who are equipped t o p l a y i t and hope to w i n , and perhaps f o r those who l a c k the c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s o r q u a l i t i e s to p l a y any other type o f game; but f o r many ot h e r s i t i s a b o r i n g and drudged s o r t o f game. I n a f a i r r a c e the c o n t e s t a n t s a l l s t a r t from s c r a t c h . To secure a p e r f e c t l y f a i r race i n busin e s s we should have to e l i m i n a t e a l l i n e q u a l i t i e s environment and t r a i n i n g ; and t h i s would l e a v e l i t t l e o f c a p i t a l i s m as the game i s p l a y e d . I . K n i g h t , Frank Hyneman, The E t h i cs of Compe t i t i n n ;v New York, Harper & Bros., 1935, p. 66. "Thus"we appear to search i n v a i n f o r any r e a l e t h i c a l b a s i s o f a p p r o v a l f o r compet-i t i o n as a b a s i s f o r a n y i d e a l type o f human r e l a t i o n s , o r as a motive to a c t i o n . I t f a i l s to harmonize e i t h e r w i t h the Pagan i d e a l of s o c i e t y as a community o f f r i e n d s o r the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l o f s p i r i t u a l f e l l o w s h i p . I t s o n l y j u s t -i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s e f f e c t i v e i n g e t t i n g t h i n g s done; but any candid answer to the q u e s t i o n , "What t h i n g s " ? , compels the admission t h a t they l e a v e much to be d e s i r e d . Whether f o r good or bad, i t s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l s are not such as command the ap p r o v a l o f the most competent judges, and as f o r the s p i r i t u a l i t y , commer-c i a l i s m i s In a f a i r way t o make t h a t term incomprehensible to l i v i n g men. The motive i t -s e l f has been g e n e r a l l y condemned by the l e s t s p i r i t s o f the rac e " A John S t u a r t M i l l , was s i m i l a r l y c r i t i c a l o f the comp e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e : " I confess I am not a t a l l charmed by the i d e a l o f l i f e h e l d out by those who t h i n k t h a t the normal s t a t e o f human beings i s t h a t o f s t r u g g l i n g to get on; t h a t the t r a m p l i n g , o r u s h i n g , elbowing, and t r e a d i n g on each o t h e r ' s h e e l s , which form the e x i s t i n g type o f human l i f e , are the most d e s i r a b l e l o t o f mankind, o r a n y t h i n g but the d i s a g r e e a b l e symptoms o f one o f t h e phases o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s " . 2 1. K n i g h t , E t h i c s o f Competition, p. 74. 2 . M i l l , J.S., On L i b e r t y , p. 74. - 71 -CHAPTER V I l T PROS AND CONS OF THE PURSUIT FOR WEALTH The main motive o f economic a c t i v i t y i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i s a c q u i s i t i o n i n terms o f money. S u c c e s s f u l businessmen have the outward appearances necessary f o r r e p u t a b i l i t y - l a r g e homes, s t r e a m l i n e d c a r s , expensive rai^onent, i n other words, t h a t comfort and power t h a t makes l i f e p l e a s a n t . Since so much t h a t i s p l e a s a n t goes with business s u c c e s s , many businessmen become so l o s t i n the p u r s u i t o f money - which should be the means to a good l i f e , r a t h e r than the end - t h a t they f o r g e t t h e end i t s e l f . There are no absolute l i m i t s t o the a c q u i s i -t i o n o f wealth. The expansive c h a r a c t e r o f c a p i t a l i s m has indeed brought us g r e a t m a t e r i a l wealth on which we have b u i l t a c i v i l i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l comfort t h a t has served as the b a s i s o f more kindness and humanity than the w o r l d ever knew b e f o r e . On the o t h e r hand, the supremacy o f business i n t e r e s t s o v e r a l l other v a l u e s has meant, i n some r e s p e c t s , low c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s . - 72 -Many c r i t i c s p o i n t t o the v u l g a r i t y of the c a p i t a l i s t i c s p i r i t as i t appears i n the a d v e r t i s i n g b u s i n e s s . Our newspapers and most o f our magazines are more a medium f o r s e l l i n g goods than f o r purv e y i n g news. To reach and s e l l to the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e number o f buyers, a d v e r t i s i n g appeals t o the r e l a t i v e l y numerous but u n t u t o r e d masses. F i n e r t h i n g s - books, f o r i n s t a n c e , and good music - are seldom a d v e r t i s e d t o t h e same e x t e n t as the Lever Bros, soap p r o d u c t s . Another important aspect i s the i n c r e a s i n g tendency f o r e m u l a t i o n of those i n the. h i g h e r income b r a c k e t s . We are more anxious t o SEEM than t o BE. We s t r i v e f o r wardrobes and shins than c a r s , r a t h e r for/\contentment, fundamental c u l t u r e , and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e a l beauty. Not knowing how t o spend o u r t i m e , we take what s a t i s f a c t i o n we can i n spending o u r money. - 73 -CHAPTER TK WASTES IN THE CAPITALIST SX'STEM . I.' The waste of resources i s a vice natural to capitalism, for in their exploitation there i s no identity of private and social interests-.-- Natural resources: timber, o i l , natural gas, furs, ?the s o i l i t s e l f , have been flagrantly wasted* -For this reason we may maintain that natural resources! should be publicly owned, and this i s one of the respects in which socialism is definitely superior to capitalism. The competition essential to capitalism,is In i t s e l f wasteful i n various ways. Many men who have not the necessary qualities enter the various competitive businesses and as a eonsequence lose their savings, within, a very short time l Such waste as this i s inevitable in an economy of free enter-prise. I f men are free to choose their own work, some w i l l inevitably f a i l ; but i t may be well that those who lack the qualities in a business should f a i l , for i f they did not, many of our enterprises would be inef f i c i e n t l y operated. This need not . necessarily be the case. In a socialist economy - 74 -where those e n t e r i n g b u s i n e s s e s would need t o meet c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , there would be fewer f a i l u r e s presumably, a l t h o u g h managers might be l e s s e f f i c i e n t and there may be l e s s freedom i n the choice o f o c c u p a t i o n s . 3. There i s a l s o a g r e a t d e a l of waste due t o I extravagant a d v e r t i s i n g and salesmanship. I n the words o f S t u a r t Ghase: "The a d v e r t i s i n g i n d u s t r y , viewed from an aeroplane would be seen to c o n s i s t o f some 600,000 workers - w r i t i n g copy, canva s s i n g f o r c l i e n t s , d e s i g n i n g l a y -o u t s , p a i n t i n g p i c t u r e s , e n g i n e e r i n g campaigns; supported by p r i n t e r s , compositors, paper makers, chemical workers, lumber j a c k s , r a i l r o a d men, c a r p e n t e r s , s i g n p a i n t e r s , e l e c t r i c i a n s , l i t h o g r a p h e r s , b i l l p o s t e r s , wood workers, p a i n t makers, m a i l c l e r k s , l e t t e r c a r r i e r s , telephone o p e r a t o r s , stenographers, bookkeepers, psycholog-i s t s , and e f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t s - t o name o n l y a few. A d v e r t i s i n g keeps the whole 600,000 busy. I f they l i v e d i n Denmark - where a d v e r t i s i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d -* they would have to t u r n t o some p r o d u c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n . I n o t h e r words, the i n d u s t r y reaches down i n t o the ranks o f the g a i n f u l l y employed, p i c k s up a h a l f m i l l i o n odd workers, and says t o them "Now s h o u t i and f u r n i s h * t h e paper, i n k and p a i n t f o r shouting*."— 1. Appendix I T 2. Chase, Waste, p. 112 - 75 -The t o t a l amount spent f o r a d v e r t i s i n g i s twice the I t o t a l income o f a l l o u r c o l l e g e s - and u n i v e r s i t i e s . As S t u a r t Chase s a y s , " I n America one d o l l a r i s spent t o educate oonsumers i n what they may o r may n o t want to buy f o r every seventy cents t h a t i s s p e n t i n a l l o t h e r k i n d s o f e d u c a t i o n - primary, 2 secondary, h i g h s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y . The f u n c t i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g , as we see i t , l i e s i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f news about coming even t s , new i n v e n t i o n s , new p r o d u c t s . H a t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g for the education o f the consumer , I f conducted by some i m p a r t i a l and s c i e n t i f i c body, might conceivably* provide a g r e a t channel f o r e l i m i n a t i n g w a s t e s , i n a d v e r t i s i n g . H B u t n i n e -t e n t h s and more o f a d v e r t i s i n g i s l a r g e l y competitive w r a n g l i n g as t o the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f two u n d i s t i n -guished and o f t e n i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e compounds - soap, t o o t h powders, motor c a r s , snappy s u i t s , b r e a k f a s t 3 foods, patent medioines, c i g a r e t t e s " . I f a l l the v a r i o u s brands r e p r e s e n t e d r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f goods, the h i g h cost o f marketing them a l l would be compensated t o some extent by the e x t r a - o r d i n a r y wide s e l e c t i o n made availaT3e to the 1. Appendix T T T & TT 2 . Ghase, S t u a r t , Ihe Tragddy o f waste, p. 124. 3. I b i d , p. 113. - 76 -consumers, but the number o f r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s and q u a l i t i e s c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y a f r a c t i o n I o f the t o t a l number o f brands. As regards a d v e r t i s i n g , the Canadian economists Logan and Inman s t a t e : " A d v e r t i s e r s have defended non-f a c t u a l a d v e r t i s i n g i n v a r i o u s ways: they speak o f the a r t o f " g r a c e f u l " l i v i n g as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h l i v i n g by the c a l c u l u s m e n t a l i t y . There i s a s p i r i t u a l e x a l t a t i o n j u s t i n buying - i n shopping among the unknowns. What i f our o r i e n t a l r u g never saw the handworkers o f Ispahan, what o f i t ? Our enjoyment o f such t h i n g s c o n s i s t s In what we t h i n k they a r e . Shopping where e v e r y t h i n g i s known and measured would be no more fun than poker p l a y i n g w i t h a marked deck. Others a g a i n have pleaded the case f o r c o l o r f u l a d v e r t i s i n g i n terms o f i t s i n d i r e c t compen-s a t i o n s . I t b r i g h t e n s and cheapens.our magazines and news-papers, p r o v i d e s us w i t h r a d i o programmes, e t c . Without a d v e r t i s i n g a l l these goods and s e r v i c e s would c o s t us much more than they do. The judgement stands, however, that most competitive a d v e r t i s i n g o f i d e n t i c a l goods b r i n g s no g a i n whatever to t h e consumer o f these goods and t h a t exaggerated r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y tend t o confuse and l e a d the buyer away from the most i n t e l l i g e n t use o f h i s funds. 1. Appendix I T 2. Logan, H.A., and Inman, Mark K., A s o c i a l Approach  t o Economics, Toronto, The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 . - 7 7 -The a d v e r t i s e r " p u l l s s t r i n g s " through v a r i o u s d e v i c e s o t h e r than the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i n f o r m -a t i o n . He employs v a r i o u s techniques which are i n d i c a t i v e of the a d v e r t i s e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o p r a c t i c a l I psychology. Thus a d v e r t i s i n g i s used to promote s t y l e changes and to make people d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h what they have, i t i s worse than wast*; i t i s l a r g e l y d e s t r u c t i v e . S t y l e changes p e r s i s t e n t l y d e s t r o y the value of mudh of the women's e l o t h i n g , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t men's c l o t h e s . We may conclude t h a t p e r s u a s i v e salew methods t are o f some e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . The m u l t i t u d e o f competing o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o spend which are o f f e r e d consumers tend to make some buyers more c a r e f u l i n t h e i r purchases - a few perhaps become t o t a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t to t h © pleas of se l l e r s . A d v e r t i s i n g wars between i n d u s t r i e s competing f o r the consumer's d o l l a r s may produce a few f a c t s about each. On the o t h e r hand, the s o - c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l work may be designed merely to s t i m u l a t e conspicuous consumption, such as the c o r r e c t s u i t f o r e v e r y o c c a s i o n , o r a s t y l e change f o r each hour o f the day. Consumers are goaded to m a i n t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l appearances at the expense o f more fundamental needs. I . Appendix I I - 78 -4. A capatilist economy evidences great waste in thejduplicaion of plants and services. In Canada I there are 49,271 r e t a i l stores selling goods that could probably be sold much cheaper by half as many. Groceries, milk, and other commodities are delivered by several trucks whereas one could handle a l l deliveries much more cheaply; In many towns and c i t i e s several taxis representing different companies meet every incoming train, although there may be enough passengers for on&y one car. 5 . The capitalist economy i s subjeot to periodic depressions and to consequent unemployment of men and capital which represents a tremendous waste^ of productive power. In 1932 approximately one-third S of Canada1s total labour force was unemployed. Some of these workers were unemployed for four or five years or even longer, and in so extended a period of unemployment many of them lost their health, s p i r i t , and hope, and were no longer good workmen when they f i n a l l y didjfind jobs. 1. Canada Year Book, Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . 1948 - 49, p. 814. 2. Appendix ][ - 7 9 -Losses from unemployment u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t a l l s e c t i o n s o f our,economy, but to the worker upon whom the bjurden f a l l s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , they come as a d i r e c t i n f r i n g e m e n t upon h i s standard o f l i v i n g and even as a c h a l l e n g e t o l i f e i t s e l f , except as i t I r e s t s on a b a s i s o f c h a r i t y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y as w e l l as m a t e r i a l l y , the e f f e c t i s d e m o r a l i z i n g . The r e g u l a r h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y are broken, and the sense o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e as a c o n t r i b u t i n g member o f s o c i e t y , a p p r e c i a t e d as such, i s weakened. To people who have been s e l f - r e l i a n t and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d by means o f the s e r v i c e s they have been s e l l i n g t o s o c i e t y , to be l a i d o f f and d e n i e d the r i g h t t o work, o r even to l i v e i n f e a r o f b e i n g l a i d o f f , i s t o reduce the s a t i s f a c t i o n from the goods they do consume. To be thrown upon a c t u a l c h a t t y i s t o t u r n t h e i r bread t o b i t t e r n e s s . S o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y , the r e s u l t s are to be d e p l o r e d . 6 . On o f the v i c e s commonly a t t r i b u t e d to c a p i t a l i s m i s i m p e r i a l i s m . L i k e C a p i t a l i s m i t s e l f ; the n a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l i s m i s a r a t h e r complicated buncle o f concepts, i t changes from one stage o f development t o another; and f o r a l l these reasons i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to d e f i n e p r e c i s e l y . I n what i s c a l l e d p o l i t i c a l i m p e r i a l i s m , Appendix VI - 80 -the e x p l o i t a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on f o r n a t i o n a l aggrandizement; wheSeas i n what i s c a l l e d economic i m p e r i a l i s m the e x p l o i t a t i o n i s assumed to be c a r r i e d on f o r economic g a i n , through t r a d e and investment. The l a t t e r i s a p o l i c y which seeks economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f o u t l y i n g t e r r i t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f s o - c a l l e d back-ward peoples: as a p l a c e to i n v e s t c a p i t a l , o r as a source o f raw m a t e r i a l s . Economic i m p e r i a l i s m became most hideous i n B r i t a i n ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f I n d i a ' s r e s o u r c e s , and the abuse o f the bulk o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . Bri$J§h c a p i t a l i s t s b u i l t r a i l r o a d s and a few other i n d u s t r i e s i n I n d i a , but t h e i r g e n e r a l p o l i c y was to p r e v e n t any i n d u s t r i e s t h a t would compete w i t h those o f England; indeedj soon a f t e r the o c c u p a t i o n o f f n d i a the B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t e d v a r i o u s measures to d e s t r o y h e r world famous c o t t a g e - i n d u s t r i e s . I n d i a n i n d u s t r i e s were held;down f o r more than a .century: ana when t h i s p o l i c y was changed, e a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y , to a p o l i c y encouraging i n d u s t r i a l development, I n d i a ' s new i n d u s t r i e s I were l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by B r i t i s h c a p i t a l i s t s . I . Nehru, J a w a h r a l a l , Glimpses o f World H i s t o r y , p. 418 * 419, 671, 672. . \ - 81-I t may be w e l l to i n c l u d e a snort account o f the b r u t a l i t y o f i m p e r i a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n ; f o r i t has not been t h e m a c h i n a t i o n o f heathens, but on the c o n t r a r y , the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s o - c a l l e d c i v i l i z e d w h i t e s . F o r more than a century A f r i c a was a s l a v e h u n t i n g ground f o r some o f the n a t i o n s o f Europe, as w e l l as f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s . S l a v e t r a d e r s rounded up m i l l i o n s o f b l a c k s , drove them to the c o a s t , chained t o g e t h e r l i k e oxen,crammed them i n t o the h o l d of s a i l i n g v e s s e l s so t h i c k l y t h a t they had to l i e on t h e i r s i d e s throughout a t r i p whioh l a s t e d f o r f i v e weeks o r more, and then s o l d them a t a h i g h p r o f i t t o p l a n t a t i o n owners i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e world. Perhaps B r i t a i n has behaved no worse than France, Belgium, H o l l a n d , I t a l y , Germany, o r Japan. Indeed we may r i g h t f u l l y argue t h a t B r i t a i n s p e a r -headed the a b o l i t i o n o f s l a v e r y . E n g l i s h p o l i t i c i a n s such as W i l b e r f o r c e devoted t h e i r l i v e s t o the a b o l i t i o n o f t h i s u t t e r l y b a r b a r i c treatment o f the c o l o u r e d peoples. Yet when the B r i t i s h crushedthe I n d i a n r e b e l l i o n of 1857, a c c o r d i n g to Nehrur, the B r i t i s h "spread t e r r o r everywhere. V a s t numbers - 82 -were shot down i n cold "blood; l a r g e numbers were shot to p i e c e s from the mouth of cannon, thousands were hanged from wayside t r e e s . An E n g l i s h g e n e r a l , W e i l l , who marched from A l l a h a b a d to Cawnapore, i s s a i d to have hanged people a l l along the way, t i l l h a r d l y a t r e e remained by the wayside which had not I been converted i n t o a g i b b e t " . Up t o the present time, n a t i o n s have developed no e f f e c t i v e codes o f m o r a l conduct l i k e those that govern the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e i r prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been s e l f i s h n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . Nehru, expresses t h i s tendency i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : "With the growth of n a t i o n a l i s m , the i d e a o f "my country r i g h t o r wrong" developed, and n a t i o n s g l o r i e d i n d o i n g t h i n g s which, i n the case o f i n d i v i d u a l s , were c o n s i d e r e d bad and immoral. Thus a strange c o n t r a s t grew between the m o r a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h a t o f n a t i o n s . There was a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e between, the .two, and the very v i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s became the v i r t u e s o f n a t i o n s . S e l f i s h n e s s , greed, arrogance, v a u l g a r i t y were c o n s i d e r e d u t t e r l y bad and not t o l e r a b l e i n the case o f i n d i v i d u a l men and women. But i n the case o f l a r g e groups, o f n a t i o n s , they are p r a i s e d and encouraged, under the noble c l o a k o f p a t r i o t i s m and l o v e o f c o u n t r y . I . Nehru, J a w a h a r l a l , Glimpses o f World H i s t o r y . New York, John Day Company, 1942, p. 471 - 8 3 -Even murder and k i l l i n g become praiseworthy i f l a r g e groups o f n a t i o n s undertake i t a g a i n s t one another. Arecent author has t o l d u s , and he i s p e r f e c t l y r i g h t , t h a t " c i v i l i z a t i o n has become a d e v i c e f o r d e l e g a t i n g the v i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o T l a r g e r and l a r g e r communities". The i m p e r i a l i s t ambitions of powerful c a p i t a l i s t i n t e r e s t , backed g e n e r a l l y by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e I governments, have been the cause of many wars. The f i r s t World War was i m p e r i a l i s t on a grand s c a l e . Germany wanted t o expand h e r dominion eastward a l o n g the Danube to t 1B B l a c k Sea and the B o s p o r u s ; France sought to r e t a i n ther r i c h m a t e r i a l d e p o s i t s of A l s a c e and L o r r a i n e ; Great B r i t a i n hoped t o r e t a i n her c o n t r o l o f the seas and to g a i n a d d i t i o n a l c o l o n i e s ; R u s s i a coveted p a r t i c u l a r l y C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and the waterway from t h e B l a c k t o the Aegean Sea; Austria-Hungary hoped t o absorb S e r b i a , and a d d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y i n t h e Balkans; I t a l y wanted to enlarge her empire by adding the t e r r i t o r y around the A d r i a t i c Sea and.other c o l o n i e s elsewhere. None o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s wanted war; but t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l ambitions, s e c r e t t r e a t i e s , sand v a s t m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d e d the munitions dump which needed o n l y the l i g h t e d match to b r i n g on the e x p l o s i o n . I . I b i d , p. 415. S. Appendix V I I - 84 -I n -tfoe V e r s a i l l e s T r e a t y which concluded the F i r s t World War, G r e a t B r i t a i n g o t most o f the German c o l o n i e s ; France got the r e s t , and a p a r t o f A l s a c e and L o r r a i n e ; because she was weak, I t a l y got l i t t l e ot what she was promised; A u s t r i a -Hungary was dismembered and a group of s m a l l s t a t e s were c r e a t e d . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n went t o t h i s conference w i t h hopes o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a j u s t peace and a League of N a t i o n s t o administer;' i t ; but he had pleaded i n v a i n . The American people, i t now appeared, ftad been f i g h t i n g n o t f o r democracy but to t u r n v i c t o r y f r o m one group o f i m p e r i a l i s t powers to another. The second World War;; was to a gre a t extent a war o f " i d e o l o g i e s ' * , y e t the post war world r e v e a l s t h a t i t was n o t a l t o g e t h e r a war a g a i n s t the b r u t a l and barbarous p r i n c i p l e s o f Fascism and N a z i i s m , but i n some degree an i m p e r i a l i s t s t r u g g l e f o r c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , markets, and raw m a t e r i a l s . When M u s s o l i n i andllater H i t l e r , with the h e l p o f i n d u s t r i a l i s t and army o f f i c e r s , proceeded t o wipe out la b o u r u n i o n s , k i l l o r i m p r i s o n s o c i a l i s t s and communists, and reduce the masses to subord-i n a t i o n , the a r i s t o c r a t i c Tory government of G r e a t B r i t a i n was a t f i r s t r a t h e r f r i e n d l y t o them, as i - 85 -were c e r t a i n b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s i n France and other c o u n t r i e s . But when i t p r e s e n t l y appeared that M u s s o l i n i and H i t l e r were aiming not o n l y a t the unions and democracy but a t the conquest o f the o t h e r European powers and t h e i r empires, B r e a t B r i t a i n and France were o b l i g e d to f i g h t . They d i d not f i g h t because F a s c i s m was undemocratic, but because I t threatened t h e i r c o l o n i e s and, indeed, t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e as n a t i o n s . So too the U n i t e d S t a t e s had made no e f f o r t to stop the Japanese i n v a s i o n o f China and had s o l d Japan the i r o n and s t e e l and o i l w i t h whefth t o wage war; but when Japan s t r u c k at P e a r l Harbour, they were f o r c e d to f i g h t - a f t e r h a v i n g t o arm h e r f o r the war a g a i n s t them. Although the governments o f Great B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , and the U n i t e d S t a t e s had shown no p a r t i c u l a r h o s t i l i t y t o Fascism, they would defend t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s . Thus i m p e r i a l i s m has been an important f a c t o r In many wars. C a p i t a l i s m , i s s t r o n g l y e x p a n s i v e . Modern i n d u s t y i s v a s t l y p r o d u c t i v e , and f o r e i g n markets are demanded f o r the goods produce*; g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t combinations are p r o f i t a b l e and f o r e i g n - 86 -investments are needed f o r s u r p l u s s a v i n g s ; i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u o t i o n c a l l s for v a s t amounts o f raw mater i a l s , I and f o r e i g n s u p p l i e s o f them may be r e q u i r e d . C a p i t a l i s t s i n e v i t a b l y c l a s h i n t h e i r quest f o r f o r e i g n markets, investments, and raw m a t e r i a l s ; and s i n c e they are u s u a l l y backed by t h e i r governments, wars r e s u l t . I . Appendix V I I I - 87 -CHAPTER X VIRTUES OP CAPITALISM I . The most important v i r t u e o f c a p i t a l i s m i s perhaps t h a t i t has been enormously p r o d u c t i v e . The e r a o f c a p i t a l i s t expansion - roughly the p a s t t h r e e hundred years - c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the machine age, has been a p e r i o d o f amazing i n c r e a s e i n wealth. T h i s v a s t i n c r e a s e , i n c l u d i n g the machines t h a t produced the w e a l t h , has been the o f f s p r i n g o f c a p i t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y . The r e l i a n c e on s e l f -i n t e r e s t , on the p r o f i t m otive, has brought powerful p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s i n t o o p e r a t i o n . 2. From a broad h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t o f view, p e r s o n a l freedom and democracy, appear to be i n c o n s i d e r a b l e measure the f r u i t s o f c a p i t a l i s m . Throughout most o f the world's pa s t h i s t o r y , and i n n e a r l y every country, the u s u a l c o n d i t i o n was government auto-c r a c y , w i t h v i r t u a l s l a v e r y o r serfdom fo r the masses. Over tie l o n g s t r e t c h o f f i v e thousand y e a r s o f human h i s t o r y , democracy, somewhat as we now inow i t , has p r e v a i l e d f o r o n l y a century or two, and t h a t b r i e f span c o i n c i d e s w i t h the p e r i o d o f c a p i t a l i s t development. - 88 -The above suggests t h a t democracy and i n d i v i d u a l freedom are r e l a t e d to c a p i t a l i s m . T r u l y , c a p i t a l i s m c a l l s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e ; i t i n v o l v e s the assumption t h a t men, l e f t f r e e to work out t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s , w i l l p r o f i t i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n ; i t assumes c o m p e t i t i o n , which can operate s a t i s f a c t o r i l y o n l y when competitors e n t e r the f i e l d on something l i k e even terms; a l l t h i s demands a measure o f economic democracy. C a p i t a l i s m assumes t h a t the r i g h t o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i s " f a i r l y s e cure; but that r i g h t cannot be v e r y secure i f the government i s h i g h l y a u t o c r a t i c . C a p i t a l i s m i n t h i s form demands a democratic form of government, wi t h a minimum o f government i n t e r f e r e n c e ; i t i s t h e r e f o r e , i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p o l i t i c a l a u t o c r a c y . On the o t h e r hand, i t was argued by Ruskin and C a r l y l e , thatjthe i n d i v i d u a l freedom a f f o r d e d by c a p i t a l i s m i s o f no g r e a t b e n e f i t ~tfy l a b o u r e r s , who are compelled to work f o r whatever tjhey can get, f e e i ^ G d r i v e n by hunger* I f C a r l y l e was w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s might he n o t ask, How much b e t t e r o f f are the common l a b o u r e r s who must l i v e i n slum tenements, p i c k i n g up whatever jobs they can get, never c e r t a i n how l o n g t h e i r jobs w i l l l a s t o r i f they l o s e them t h a t I . C a r l y l e , P a s t and Paaeent. - 89 -they can get o t h e r s , w i t h no r e s e r v e funds f o r I s i c k n e s s or emergencies,, p e r i o d i c a l l y unemployed, perhaps f o r weeks or months, while t h e i r f a m i l i e s l a c k food - how much b e t t e r o f f are they than s l a v e s , Gurth the swineherd? How r e a l i s p o l i t i c a l democracy t o those thousands who had no r e c o u r s e but to c h a r i t y o r r e l i e f camps d u r i n g the l a s t d e p r e s s i o n ? Freedom has l i t t l e meaning f o r t h e unemployed; even though they may be r e c e i v i n g unemployment b e n e f i t s , men who are j o b l e s s and hopeless o f f i n d i n g work are g e n e r a l l y w i l l i n g t o s u r r e n d e r t h e i r freedom for jobs and s e c u r i t y . T h i s i s proved;- by the a c t i o n of the unemployed i n I t a l y and Germany a t the o f the F a s c i s t r e v o l u t i o n . Although F a s c i s m puts l a b o u r , . a l o n g w i t h most o t h e r c l a s s e s , i n a p o s i t i o n s c a r c e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from s l a v e r y , many o f the unemployed welcomed the F a s c i s t regime and were p r o b a b l y h a p p i e r under i t , b e f o r e the war, than they had been under c a p i t a l i s m . Had the d e p r e s s i o n o f 1929 - 1939 l a s t e d much l o n g e r , we may v e r y w e l l belie 1© t h a t the unemployed, i f g i v e n the chance, would very l i k e l y have turned t o Communism o r F a s c i s m o r any o t h e r p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y t h a t would g i v e them jobs and economic s e c u r i t y . I . H o s p i t a l insurance a p p l i e s t o a v e r y s m a l l percentage. - 9 0 -We had e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s concluded t h a t p o l i t i c a l democracy i s a must, or a necessary p r e - r e q u i s i t e o f , the p o l i t i c a l system we s e l e c t as b e i n g compatible w i t h our way o f l i f e . I t then becomes apparent t h a t the s o l u t i o n to our economic problems l i e s i n the f u s i o n o f economic democracy w i t h p o l i t i c a l democracy. T h i s we b e l i e v e can be achieved through democratic s o c i a l i s m ; but before we d e a l w i t h t h a t t o p i c , we w i l l f i n d i t o f value t o t r a c e the development of s o c i a l i s t i c i d e o l o g y . - 9 1 -PART I I I A CLASSIFICATION OF ATTITUDES: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIALIST DOCTRINE I n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward economic systems and economic change i n g e n e r a l , people may be c l a s s i f i e d i n v a r i o u s ways. Thus they are o f t e n c l a s s e d as r e a c t i o n a r i e s , c o n s e r v a t i v e s , l i b e r a l s , p r o g r e s s i v e s , o r r a d i c a l s . R e a c t i o n a r i e s want t o go back to some e a r l i e r s i t u a t i o n which they regard as b e t t e r than p r e s e n t ; they are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n e l i m i n a t i n g most o f the government's i n t e r f e r e n c e i n b u s i n e s s . C o n s e r v a t i v e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y want to go back, but they are opposed t o f u r t h e r changes. They may not disapprove o f the p r e v a i l i n g government i n t e r v e n t i o n but w i l l oppose any f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s o f i t . L i b e r a l s , as t h i s term i s o f t e n used, have no s t r o n g b i a s o r pr e c o n c e p t i o n s e i t h e r way, but are w i l l i n g t o approach questions w i t h an open mind. R a d i c a l s want changes t o be both e x t e n s i v e and r a p i d . I n the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d , one o f the most fundamental q u e s t i o n s , as we have a l r e a d y w i t n e s s e d , r e l a t e s t o the exte n t o f government i n t e r v e n t i o n . 6 n t h i s q u e s t i o n we have the a n a r c h i s t s who want no government whatever, to the Communists who f a v o u r government c o n t r o l o f both p r o d u c t i o n and consumption. - 92 -B e t w e e n t h e s e e x t r e m e s a r e t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s who a r e o p p o s e d t o a n y e x t e n s i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t y , a n d t h e s o c i a l i s t s who f a v o u r g o v e r n m e n t o w n e r s h i p a n d o p e r a t i o n o f i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t i v e c a p i t a l , b u t n o t g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l o f c o n s u m p t i o n . C a p i t a l i s m , a s r e v e a l e d b y o u r a n a l y s i s , i m p l i e s a minimum o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r f e r e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s much l e f t i n A m e r i c a o f t h e o l d " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " c a p i t a l i s m , o u r e c o n o m i c s y s t e m h a s some d e f i n i t e l y s o c i a l i s t i c e l e m e n t s , s u c h a s t h e m u n i c i p a l o w n e r s h i p a n d o p e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , a n d some e l e m e n t s t h a t e v e n a p p r o a c h communism, a s i n o u r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . The common a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t one p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i s d e f i n i t e l y a n d e n t i r e l y g o od o r b a d , o r e v e n d e f i n i t e l y b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r . E v e r y s y s t e m h a s i t s m e r i t s a n d i t s v i c e s when r e v i e w e d i n r e l a t i o n t o e c o n o m i c a nd o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , r a c e , t r a d i t i o n s , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y e n d s a n d i d e a l s ; a n d no s y s t e m i s n e c e s s a r i l y g o o d f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a n d p e o p l e s i n a l l p o s s i b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The p r i n c i p l e o f r e l a t i v i t y a p p l i e s h e r e a s i n a l l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s . I f o u r i d e a l i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w e a l t h , we may r e a d i l y a c c e p t c a p i t a l i s m ; b u t i f o u r i d e a l i s c o n t e n t m e n t , i t m i g h t n o t r a t e so h i g h , - 93 -and i n the waging o f war i t seems q u i t e i n f e r i o r t o Fascism. S o c i a l i s m , i n one form o r another, i s one o f the most potent i n f l u e n c e s i n the p o l i t i c a l and economic l i f e o f the world. S i n c e ¥/orld War I , moderate S o c i a l i s t s have served at i n t e r v a l s as P r e s i d e n t s o f Premiers o f many important c o u n t r i e s o f Europe — E l b e r t i n Germany, A d l e r i n A u s t r i a , Macdonald i n Great B r i t a i n , A t t l e e i n Great B r i t a i n , S tauning i n Denmark, and B r a n t i n g i n Sweden. S o c i a l i s t s o f the L e f t , or more t r u l y Communists, nov/ occupy the c h i e f o f f i c e s i n R u s s i a , c o n c e r n i n g o n e - s i x t h o f the t e r r i t o r y o f the globe, w h i l e i n many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s S o c i a l i s m has become a v i t a l p a r l i a m e n t r y f o r c e . Under these circumstances, as w e l l as t h a t o f an impending World V/ar I I I , i t i s more than o f academic importance t h a t the major aspects o f S o c i a l i s m should be thoroughly understood. - 94 -CHAPTER ! g VARIETIES OF SOCIALISTIC OPINION S o c i a l i s m has taken many forms, f o r a l t h o u g h S o c i a l i s t s agree i n a d v o c a t i n g i n c r e a s e d government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n economic a c t i v i t y , they d i f f e r as to i t s e x t e n t , as to the r a t e at which government should take over p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s , as t o the as t o the processes by which i t should assume c o n t r o l o f economic f u n c t i o n s , and as to the g e n e r a l s p i r i t i n which i t should c a r r y on i t s f u n c t i o n s . Some S o c i a l i s t s c a l l f o r government ownership and o p e r a t i o n o f a l l e n t e r p r i s e s , i n c l u d i n g such s m a l l businesses as r e t a i l i n g and farming, whereas o t h e r s f a v o u r p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n o f s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s . Some i n s i s t on the immediate adoption o f the S o c i a l i s t program; ot h e r s f a v o u r a more g r a d u a l procedure, or assume that S o c i a l i s m i s i n e v i t a b l e and t h e r e f o r e any great a g i t a t i o n or propoganda i s unnecessary. Some b e l i e v e that i t can be achieved by Democratic p r o c e s s e s , by persuading people to vote f o r i t ; o t h e r s — I K a r l Marx - was among them — assume t h a t t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e and t h a t except perhaps i n England and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the S o c i a l i s t s t a t e can be achieved o n l y by v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n and the f o r c i b l e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y owners. A g r e a t many I . K a r l Marx and F r e d r i c k E n g e l s , M a n i f e s t o o f  the Communist P a r t y , Vancouver, Whitehead E s t a t e , 1919, p. 28-41. - 9 5 -a d v o c a t e S o c i a l i s m i n a s p i r i t o f s y m p a t h y f o r t h e c l a s s e s t h a t h a v e f a c e d i l l u n d e r C a p i t a l i s m ; h u t o t h e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e t h e M a r x i a n s , a l t h o u g h moved t o some e x t e n t b y s y m p a t h y f o r t h e u n d e r - p r i v i l i g e d , a r e a l s o moved b y a f i e r c e r a g e a t w h a t t h e y c a l l " t h e e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s " a n d b y a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o d e a l h a r s h l y w i t h i t when t h e r e v o l u t i o n comes. - 96 -CHAPTER X I I MARXIAN S O C I A L I S M M o d e r n S o c i a l i s m s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be d a t e d f r o m K a r l M a r x , who, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h F r e d e r i c h E n g e l s , P u b l i s h e d t h e COMMUNIST MANIFESTO i n 1 8 4 8 , a n d h i s m o n u m e n t a l w o r k DAS K A P I T A L i n 1 8 6 7 . A l t h o u g h M a r x i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d a s a Com m u n i s t r a t h e r t h a n a S o c i a l i s t , h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e S o c i a l i s t movement i s s o g r e a t t h a t he m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . 1. One o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f M a r x i s t o be s e e n i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n a r y p o i n t o f v i e w . The e c o n o m i s t s who p r e c e d e d h i m t h o u g h t o f e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a s u n c h a n g i n g a nd a n a l y z e d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m as i t e x i s t e d i n t h e i r t i m e , g i v i n g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h w e r e e v e n t h e n t a k i n g p l a c e , o r i t s p r o b a b l e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . M a r x , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , v i e w e d human I n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m a s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . M a r x a d o p t e d t h e H e g e l i a n D i a l e c t i c w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t he " t u r n e d t h e d i a l e c t i c r i g h t s i d e up a n d i n t e r p r e t e d I i t m a t e r i a l i s t i c a l l y . The e s s e n c e o f t h e l o g i c he f o r m u l a t e d was t h e d i a l e c t i c . H e g e l ' s d i a l e c t i c 1. S a b i n e , G e o r g e , H., A H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y . New Y o r k , H e n r y H o l t a n d Company, 1 9 4 6 , p. 6 9 1 . - 97 -m e t h o d c o n c e i v e d t h a t c h a n g e t o o k p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e s t r u g g l e o f a n t a g o n i s t i c e l e m e n t s , a n d t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t o r y e l e m e n t s i n t o a s y n t h e s i s , t h e f i r s t two e l e m e n t s f o r m i n g a new and h i g h e r c o n c e p t b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r u n i o n . T hus I t r e s o l v e d i t s e l f p o l i t i c a l l y i n t h i s f a s h i o n : " A s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e r i s i n g p r o l e t a r i a t — t h e a n t i t h e s i s — and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y — t h e t h e s i s — we m i g h t e x p e c t t o s e e t h e e m e r g e n c e T o f a new f o r m o f s o c i e t y — a s y n t h e s i s * . 2. B e f o r e t h e t i m e o f M a r x , and e v e n u n t i l now, m o s t h i s t o r i e s h a v e b e e n t h e r e c o r d s o f p o l i t i c a l a n d m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , w i t h l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e t o u n d e r l y i n g e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . M a r x t u r n e d away f r o m t h e t h e o r y i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " l e g a l r e l a t i o n s a s w e l l a s f o r m s o f s t a t e c o u l d n e i t h e r be u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e m s e l v e s , n o r e x p l a i n e d b y t h e s o - c a l l e d g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s o f t h e human m i n d , b u t a r e r o o t e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e . . . . The mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n m a t e r i a l l i f e d e t e r m i n e s t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d s p i r i t u a l p r o c e s s e s o f l i f e " . 2 1. L a i d l e r , H. W., A H i s t o r y o f S o c i a l i s t T h o u g h t , New Y o r k , Thomas Y C r o m w e l l Company, 1 9 2 7 , p. 1 5 1 . 2. I b i d , p . 2 0 1 - 9 8 -I n c h a n g i n g t h e modes o f p r o d u c t i o n , m a n k i n d c h a n g e s a l l i t s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s : "The h a n d m i l l c r e a t e s a s o c i e t y w i t h t h e f e u d a l l o r d ; t h e s t e a m m i l l a s o c i e t y w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t c a p i t a l i s t . The same men who e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e i r m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a l s o c r e a t e p r i n c i p l e s , i d e a s a n d c a t e g o r i e s i n I c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s " . "What e l s e " , w r o t e M a r x , i n t h e C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o , i T d o e s t h e h i s t o r y o f i d e a s d e m o n s t r a t e e x c e p t t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n c h a n g e s i t s c h a r a c t e r i n p r o p o r t i o n w i t h t h e c h a n g e s i n m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . The g o v e r n i n g i d e a s o f e a c h p e r i o d a r e a l w a y s t h e i d e a 2 o f i t s g o v e r n i n g c l a s s . " M a r x ' s e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y i s o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f o r i t t h r o w s a r e v e a l i n g l i g h t o n many h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . M o s t o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , s e c u r i n g t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s b y h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , a h d f o o d - g a t h e r i n g , h e l d t o communism i n l a n d o w n e r s h i p b e c a u s e i t was a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r e c o n o m i c l i f e ; e v e n t h e i r i d e a o f h e a v e n - a " h a p p y h u n t i n g g r o u n d " - may be s a i d t o r e f l e c t t h e i r mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n m a t e r i a l l i r e . T h o s e who a r e d i s t u r b e d b y t h e r i s i n g t i d e o f r a d i c a l i s m may f i n d a n i m p o r t a n t c a u s e f o r i t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f g r e a t f a c t o r i e s w i t h l a r g e n u m b e r s o f p r o p e r t y - i e s s 1 . L a i d l e r , H. W.. A H i s t o r y o f S o c i a l i s t T h o u g h t , p . 2 0 1 . 2. L a s k i , H. J . , Communism, L o n d o n , T h o r n t o n B u t t e r w o r t h , 1 9 3 6 , p. 64. 99 -workers, and the gradual separation of labourers from their means of earning a l i v i n g . Our ris i n g divorce rate i s the result not so much of changing moral standards as of the economic emancipation of women, or better opportunities of making their own l i v i n g . 3« The essence of Marxian value theory was expounded by Adam Smith who stated in his Wealth of Nations: "In that early and rude state of society which precedes both the accumulation of stock (capital) and the appropriation of land, the proportion between the quantities of labour necessary for acquiring different objects seems to be the only circumstance which can afford any rule for exchanging them for one another. I f among a nation of hunters, for example, i t usually costs twice the labour to k i l l a beaver than which i t does to k i l l a deer, one beaver should naturally exchange for, or be worth, two deer".j The essential element in Capitalism, according to Marx, i s the exploitation of labour by capital; and the basic conception i n the Marxist interpretation i s i t s concept of value. According to Marx a l l value i s an expression of human labour — not, how ever, of any labour, only of that kind and amount 2 of labour whioh i s socially necessary.;.^;.::, 1. Smith. Adam. Wealth of Nations, A / ^ / * * * , /V*A£<*/ 2. Venable, Vernon, Human Nature: The Marxian view Mew York, Alfred A. Knoff, 1946, p. 49. - 1 0 0 y E v e r y commodity has a c e r t a i n v a l u e which r e p r e s e n t s the s o c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y l a b o u r which must be devoted t o i t s p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s v a l u e w i l l u s u a l l y be l a r g e r than the v a l u e which has been meanwhile consumed by the l a b o u r e r s , s i n c e i t I s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f human l a b o u r t h a t i t c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s e s the wealth owned by s o c i e t y . Under the c a p i t a l i s t system, however, the workers who create wealth do not r e c e i v e back, i n wages, the f u l l e q u i v a l e n t of what they have c r e a t e d . The c a p i t a l i s t , owing to the ownership o f h i s means o f p r o d u c t i o n and to the e x i s t e n c e of a , r e s e r v e army o f unemployed, i s able t o pay h i s workers o n l y what i s necessary to m a i n t a i n t h e i r s t r e n g t h and e f f i c i e n c y , w h i l e the remainder o f the value which they c r e a t e , the " s u r p l u s v a l u e " , he , r e t a i n s f o r h i m s e l f . S u r p l u s value r e p r e s e n t s the d i f f e r e n c e between the wages p a i d to l a b o u r and the value o f the products c r e a t e d by l a b o u r . "Through t h e i r ownership o f the means o f p r o d u c t i o n the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s I s i n a p o s i t i o n t o compel the l a b o u r e r to produce beyond the value o f h i s wage, the d i f f e r e n c e g o i n g to the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s as# a s u r p l u s v a l u e o f p r o f i t . T h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l a b o u r a t the p o i n t o f p r o d u c t i o n g i v e s r i s e to the c l a s s s t r u g g l e — a c o n f l i c t o v e r w i t h e l d wages o f s u r p l u s v a l u e " . j I . W i l l i a m s , M., The s o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H i s t o r y New York, S o t e r y P u b l i s h i n g , .1921. p. 89. - 101 -4. Fundamental t o Marx's g e n e r a l theory i s t h e d o c t r i n e o f the c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Marx and E n g l e s b e g i n t h e i r M a n i f e s t o with t h e r i n g i n g pronounce' ment: "The h i s t o r y o f a l l h i t h e r t o e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y i s the c l a s s s t r u g g l e s . Freeman and s l a v e , p a t r i c i a n a n d p l e b i a n , l o r d and s e r f , g u i l d m a s t e r and journeyman, i n a word, oppres-s o r and oppressed, stood i n constant o p p o s i t i o n t o one another, c a r r y i n g on an u n i n -t e r r u p t e d , now hidden, now open f i g h t , a f i g h t t h a t each time ended e i t h e r i n a r e v o l u -t i o n a r y r e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , o r i n the common r u i n o f the contending c l a s s e s . I n t he e a r l i e r epochs o f h i s t o r y we f i n d almost e v e r y -where a complicated arrange-ment o f s o c i e t y i n t o v a r i o u s r u l e r s , a m a n i f o l d g r a d u a t i o n o f s o c i a l rank. I n a n c i e n t Rome We have p a t r i c i a n s , k n i g h t s , p l e b e i a n s , s l a v e s ; i n the middle ages, f e u d a l l o r d s , v a s s a l s , g u i l d -masters, journeymen, appren-t i c e s , s e r f s ; i n almost a l l o f -these c l a s s e s , again, subordinate g r a d u a t i o n s . The modern bou r g e o i s ( c a p i t a l i s t ) s o c i e t y t h a t has s p r o u t e d from the r u i n s o f f e u d a l s o c i e t y has not done away w i t h c l a s s antagonisms. I t has e s t a b l i s h e d new c l a s s e s , new c o n d i t i o n s o f o p p r e s s i o n , new forms o f s t r u g g l e i n the p l a c e o f o l d ones. - 102-^ Our epoch, the epoch o f b o u r g e o i s i e , p o s s e s s e s , how-ever, t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e ; i t has s i m p l i f i e d the c l a s s antagonisms. S o c i e t y as a whole i s more and more s p l i t t i n g up i n t o two great h o s t i l e camps, i n t o two g r e a t c l a s s e s d i r e c t l y f a c i n g each o t h e r : B o u r g e o i s i e and P r o l e t a r i a t " . j Thus a c c o r d i n g to Marx, there are o n l y two important c l a s s e s . The b o u r g e o i s i e s t e a d i l y grow r i c h e r w h ile as he puts i t i n the m a n i f e s t o , the modern lateourer .... i n s t e a d o f r i s i n g w i t h t h e progress o f i n d u s t r y , s i n k s deeper and deeper below the c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e o f h i s own c l a s s : "The lower s t r a t a o f the middle c l a s s — the s m a l l t r a d e s p e o p l e , shopkeepers, and r e t i r e d t r a d e s men g e n e r a l l y , the h a n d i c r a f t s m e n and peasants - a l l these s i n k g r a d u a l l y i n t o the p r o l e t a r i a t , p a r t l y because t h e i r d i m i n u t i v e c a p i t a l does n o t s u f f i c e f o r the s c a l e i n which Modern I n d u s t r y I s c a r r i e d on, and i s swamped i n the c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e l a r g e c a p i t -a l i s t s , p a r t l y because t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l i s rendered w o r t h l e s s by new methods o f p r o d u c t i o n . Thus the p r o l e t a r i a t i s r e c r u i t e d from a l l c l a s s e s o f population 1* .2 Marx, and l&vjft&a, M a n i f e s t o o f the Communist P a r t y . Vancouver, Whitehead E s t a t e , 1919, p. 10, I I 2 » Ibad, p. 21. - 103 -But the c o n d i t i o n s d e v e l o p i n g w i t h c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n are i n c r e a s i n g l y unfavourable to the r u l e o f the b o u r g e o i s i e ; f o r as more people are f o r c e d i n t o the p r o l e t a r i a n c l a s s and as i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f l a b o u r e r s a r e brought t o g e t h e r i n the g r e a t i n d u s t r i e s the workmen l e a r n t o o r g a n i z e and co-operate. I n the e n s u i n g s t r u g g l e s between the p r o l e t a r i a t and the b o u r g e o i s i e , the b o u r g e o i s i e i s u s u a l l y v i c t o r i o u s a t f i r s t ; but f i n a l l y the workers win, overthrow the b o u r g e o i s i e , and open the way for the "sway o f the p r o l e t a r i a t " "ffltie development of Modern i n d u s t r y , t h e r e f o r e , cuts from under i t s f e e t the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n on which the b o u r g e o i s i e produces and a p p r o p r i a t e s p r o d u c t s . What the b o u r g e o i s i e t h e r e -f o r e produces, above a l l , are i t w own " g r a v e d i g g e r s " . I t s f a l l and. the v i c t o r y o f the p r o l e t a r i a t are e q u a l l y i n e v i t a b l e " . 2 T h i s v i c t o r y i s to be world-wide, not l i m i t e d t o n a t i o n a l boundaries, because "the w o r k i n g c l a s s have 3 no c o u n t r y " . 1. Marx and E n g e l s , Communist M a n i f e s t o , p. 26. 2. I b i d , p. 28. 3 . I b i d , p. 36. - 104 -T h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n t h a t the "workingmen have no country" i s one reason why Marxian S o c i a l i s t s have been s u b j e c t to much c r i t i c i s m , S o c i a l i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t the r e a l enemies cf t h e masses are the b o u r g e o i s i e o f t h e i r own country, not the masses o f another country, and t h a t the r e a l w a r i s thus a c l a s s war, n o t a war between n a t i o n s . I n examining the v a l i d i t y of Marx's views o n the c l a s s s t r u g g l e we f i n d h i s a r g u m e n t s q ^ l t e sound. What Marx c a l l s the " e x p l o i t e d c l a s s e s 8 have not always s t r u g g l e d v e r y v a l i a n t l y , f o r i n e a r l i e r h i s t o r i c a l eras t h e c l a s s e s that w4re r e a l l y e x p l o i t e d r u t h l e s s l y were s i n g u l a r l y d o c i l e and r e s i g n e d . Although there were some u p r i s i n g s - the S p a r t a c a n R e v o l u t i o n i n Rome, The Peasants R e v o l u t i o n i n c e n t r a l Europe, t h e Wat T y l e r I n s u r r e c t i o n i n England, the French R e v o l u t i o n , and the widespread labour,; r e v o l u t i o n o f 1848 - the m i s e r a b l e s l a v e s o f Roman times and the s e r f s o f the M i d d l e Ages: accepted t h e i r l o t without v i o l e n t p r o t e s t , p r o b a b l y i n the b e l i e f t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d the n a t u r a l order o f events. P l a t o seems to have taken s l a v e r y as a matter o f f a c t i n s t i t u t i o n , but the f a c t t h a t they accepted t h e i r l o t i n a l l h u m i l i t y and complete s u b o r d i n a t i o n i s a matter o f q u e s t i o n . I n our contemporary world the p r o l e t a r i a n c l a s s has shown great c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y - 1G5 -the labour c l a s s which as Marx says, i s the o n l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y c l a s s . "Marx made two p r e d i c t i o n s : ( l ) c a p i t a l i s m must soon c o l l a p s e ; ( 2 ) there can be no so s o c i a l p rogress as l o n g as C a p i t a l i s m e x i s t s . What are the f a c t s ? C a p i t a l i s m has not c o l l a p s e d ; there has been s o c i a l p r o g r e s s under C a p i t a l i s m . . . . S o c i a l p r o g r e s s has stood s t i l l s i n c e Marx'. N o t h i n g has happened i n the past h a l f c e n t u r y t h a t could i n any way i n d i c a t e how C a p i t a l i s m would be a b o l i s h e d " , 1 Many people s t r o n g l y r e s e n t the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t there i s a n y t h i n g v a l i d i n Marxism o r t h a t there are r e a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n America. They i n s i s t t h a t we are one happy f a m i l y , d e m o c r a t i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d and governed, and t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f a l l are the same. I t appears,however, t h a t t h i s i d e n t i t y o f i n t e r e s t s works o n l y one way. What i s good f o r business l e a d e r s i s presumed to be good f o r labour; but th e r e i s no assumption t h a t what i s good f o r l a b o u r i s good f o r b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s . I t i s v e r y o bvious, e s p e s c i a l l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t when a p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o l l o w s the wishes o f our entrepeneurs and c a p i t a l i s t s , t h e r e are - o r should be - no c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s ; 1. W i l l i a m s , M a u r i c e , The S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  H i s t o r y , p. 90-91. - 1G6 -but when Congress enacts l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l e d f o r by labour; the happy f a m i l y i s promptly d i s r u p t e d -by the very men who i n s i s t t h a t i t i s a happy f a m i l y and who o b j e c t to the i d e a o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . Furthermore, although l a b o u r and c a p i t a l have an i d e n t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n of i n d u s t r y , f o r n e i t h e r can p r o s p e r i f t h i s i s l a c k i n g , d i v e r s i t y o f i n t e r e s t appears as soon as they b e g i n to d i v i d e the gross p r o f i t s . Can u n q u a l i f i e d assent be g i v e n to the d o c t r i n e o f the C l a s s S t r u g g l e ? I n d i v i d i n g the people i n t o b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t , and i n g i v i n g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the middle c l a s s , Marx made the matter too simple. The**ruling c l a s s " i s u s u a l l y p r e t t y w e l l u n i f i e d , but the r e s t o f the people cannot be dumped t o g e t h e r as p r o l e t a r i a n s . Marx under-estimated the importance o f the middle c l a s s and g r e a t l y exaggerated the r a p i d i t y w i t h which i t would f a l l i n t o the c l a s s o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . The tendency o f C a p i t a l i s m seems to i n c l i n e towards a r e d u c t i o n o f importance o f the middle c l a s s ; i n f a c t , i t s d e c l i n e has p r o b a b l y been going on i n America f o r some time, f o r more and more i n d i v i d u a l r e t a i l e r s have been d r i v e n out by the c h a i n s t o r e s , whereas the number of wage workers I has i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y . On the other hand, t h e r e I . Appendix V and XI - 107 -has been a marked i n c r e a s e i n the number and p r o p o r t i o n o f workers i n the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l , and most o f them should be r a t e d as b e l o n g i n g to the middle c l a s s . Marx seems to have been too p e s s i m i s t i c about the f u t u r e o f the middle c l a s s , and he made h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i e t y too simple. There are great numbers o f c l a s s e s , shading from the w e a l t h i e s t c a p i t a l i s t s t o the poorest o f l a y l a b o u r e r s , from the p r o f e s s i o n a l men w i t h comfortable incomes to r u r a l t e a c h e r s who b a r e l y manage to l i v e , from salesmen who earn a comfortable l i v i n g t o hawkers who make o n l y enough f o r a m i s e r a b l e e x i s t e n c e , from h i g h l y s k i l l e d craftsmen to the u n s k i l l e d and c a s u a l l a b o u r e r s who must go on r e l i e f when jobs are s c a r c e . Even the l a b o u r e r s themselves are not o f an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o l e t a r i a t , f o r the ranks o f labour are a l s o s p l i t as Is e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d i n an a n a l y s i s o f American trade unionism. - 1 0 8 -CHAPTER X I I I REVISIONISM AND SYNDICALISM Even while Mars was working f o r h i s " i n e v i t a b l e r e v o l u t i o n " , the r e v i s i o n i s t movement, a more moderate s o c i a l i s t movement, was d e v e l o p i n g i n Germany; and t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r "Das K a p i t a l " was p u b l i s h e d , Edward B e r n s t e i n the l e a d e r o f the R e v i s i o n i s t s , p o i n t e d out some cf the more obvious e r r o r s i n Marxian d o c t r i n e . "He denies t h a t there i s an imminent p r o s p e c t of the breakdown o f b o u r g e o i s i e s o c i e t y ; he a s s e r t s t h a t i n the working o r C a p i t a l i s m there i s n o t a d e c r e a s i n g , number o f C a p i t l i s t s , a l l / o f them l a r g e , but there i s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f C a p i t a l i s t ; he r e j e c t s the dogma t h a t i n every d e p a r t -ment o f i n d u s t r y concentra-t i o n i s p r o c e e d i n g with e qua l r a p i d i t y , and he ch a l l e n g e s t h i s with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to a g r i c u l t u r e . . . . . Mr. B e r n s t e i n a l s o m o d i f i e s the Marxian view of the m a t e r i -a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y and of the economic n e c e s s i t y , o f the c l a s s war and o f v a l u e . And he does t h i s w h i l s t c o n t i n u i n g to p r o c l a i m h i m s e l f a S o c i a l i s t , because he takes the t r u e s c i e n t i f i c view t h a t every dogma and every t h e o r y i s s u b j e c t t o the law o f e v o l u t i o n as w e l l as s o c i e t y i t s e l f " . 1 I . L a i d l e r , A H i s t o r y o f S o c i a l i s t Thought, New York, Thomas Y. Cromwell Company, 1927, p. 297. i - 109 -Marx was wrong i n emphasizing the f i n a l end o f the e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s . B e r n s t e i n emphasized the n e c e s s i t y of steady advance without much regard t o the f i n a l endjifco be a c h i e v e d , f o r t h i s he c o u l d n o t T c l e a r l y foresee.-L a r g e l y because o f the pressure o f working s c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f a c t o r y l e g i l a t i o n and the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f l o c a l government, many o f the s o c i a l e v i l s d e s c r i b e d by Marx have been g r e a t l y reduced. When Marx wrote, there was l i t t l e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a b o u r ; but between 1867, when "Das K a p i t a l " was p u b l i s h e d , and 1899, when B e r n s t e i n p u b l i s h e d h i s " E v o l u -t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m " , t h e r e was a g r e a t advance i n such l e g i s l a t i o n . The S o c i a l i s m B e r n s t e i n . a d v o c a t e s Is d e f i n i t e l y more a p p e a l i n g than t h a t o u t l i n e d by Marx. One o f the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c forms o f R a d i c a l i s m grew up i n France and i s known as S y n d i c a l i s m . They b e l i e v e i n the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , any form o f d i r e c t p r e s s u r e , s t r i k e s , b o y c o t t , and sabotage. They a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t the u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n should be the t r a d e union. I . Macdonald, 0. Ramsay, The So o i a i i s t Movement. London, W i l l i a m and Norgate, \no date\ p. 312-13. - no / T h i s movement d i d n o t g a i n much s t r e n g t h . "When i n v i t e d to an I t a l i a n S y n d i c a l i s t Congress i n December, 1910; M. S o r e l 1 r e p l i e d t h a t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , " s y n d i c a l i s m had not r e a l i z e d what was expected from i t " . 2 1. George S o r e l , Ed. B e r t h , Leone, L a b r i o l a , were the f o u n d e r s o f t te S y n d y c a l i s t movement. 2. Simkhovitch, V l a d i m i r , G . , Marxism v e r s u s  S o c i a l i s m . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923, p. 293. - I l l -PART IV DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM I n our d i s c u s s i o n of e t h i c a l theory, we e s t a b l i s h e d as o u r g e n e r i c end o f a c t i o n , " t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f happiness f o r the g r e a t e s t number o f p e o p l e " . T h i s end o f a c t i o n we d e s i g n a t e d to mean a s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s i n accordance with which we make our e v a l u a t i o n s . Furthermore, we found t h a t these p r o p e r t i e s are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f p o l i t i c a l and economic democracy. I n a r g u i n g t h a t both the p o l t i c a l and economic a s p e c t s o f democracy are necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a j u s t s o c i a l o r d e r , we i l l u s t r a t e d how p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y can be achieved, as i m a c a p i t a l i s t i c o r d e r , and s o c i a l j u s t i c e remain as f a r away as ev e r . I n t h i s case, one type o f p r i v i l e g e (economic) has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r another ( p o l i t i c a l ) . We a l s o found i t p e r f e c t l y feasilfle t o assume that some people may p r e f e r e q u a l i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth t o p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y . But here a g i n , as i n the case o f Marxian S o c i a l i s m , economic e q u a l i t y i s gained by s a c r i f i c i n g p o l i t i c a l democracy. Thus, i n f o r m u l a t i n g a p o l i t i c a l system c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s we e s t a b l i s h e d as necessary, we s h a l l endeavour t o achieve simultane-o u s l y , w i t h i n the same system, both p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y and s o c i a l e q u a l i t y . We s h a l l argue h e r e i n , that t h i s f e a t may be accomplished through the medium o f Democratic S o c i a l i s m . - 112 -CHAPTER XIV ASSUMPTIONS AND PROPOSALS OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM I n Amerioa, most democratic s o c i a l i s t s advocate tte p u b l i c ownership and o p e r a t i o n , i n accordance w i t h democratic p r i n c i p l e s o f the s o c i a l l y important p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . J . Ramsay Macdonald s t a t e s t h a t S o c i a l i s m : , i s the creed o f those who, r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t the community e x i s t s f o r the improvement o f the i n d i v i d u a l and for the maintenance o f l i b e r t y , and t h a t the c o n t r o l of the economic circumstances o f l i f e means the c o n t r o l o f l i f e i t s e l f , seek t o b u i l d up a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which w i l l i n c l u d e i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s the management o f those economic instruments such as l a n d and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l t h a t cannot be l e f t s a f e l y i n the hands o f i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s i s S o c i a l i s m . I t i s an a p p l i c -a t i o n o f . mutual a i d t o p o l i t i c s and economics. And the S o c i a l i s t end i s l i b e r t y , the l i b e r t y o f which Kant thought when he pro c l a i m e d t h a t every man i s an end i n h i m s e l f and not as a means to another man's end. The means and the end cannot be s e p a r a t e d . S o c i a l i s m proposes a change i n s o c i a l mechanism, but j u s t i f i e s i t as a means o f extending human l i b e r t y . S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the c o n d i t i o n , not the a n t i t h e s i s , o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y " . 1 I t then becomes ap p a r e n t . t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o our economic problems l i e s i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f I . Macdonald, J . Ramsay, The S o c i a l i s t Movement, New York, Henry H o l t & Go., p. I I - 1 1 3 -democratic s o c i a l i s m . We have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d to the p r o d u c t i v e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f c a p i t a l i s m , r e s u l t i n g from i t s waste o f n a t u r a l and human r e s o u r c e s . Most of a l l we have s t r e s s e d the i n j u s t i c e s t h a t permeate our system. We s h a l l t he r e f ore endeavour to formulate a system more i n k e e p i n g w i t h o u r i d e a l s o f s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g . By t h i s change we may hope to b r i n g wealth i n t o c l o s e r c a u s a l re l a t i o n with p o p u l a r w e l l - b e i n g and to e s t a b l i s h a c o n d i t i o n approaching e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y for a l l people. We may hope, furthermore, to d e v e l o p a higher e f f i c i e n c y based upon a more whole-hearted g e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n economic a c t i v i t y and a conscious d i r e c t i o n o f energy toward the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f human wants. These ends, we b e l i e v e , m a y b e a c h i e v e d by the f o l l o w i n g procedure. I . The f i r s t step would be to l i m i t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p r i v a t e ownership o f wealth. A d i s t i n c t i v e l i n e should be drawn between producer's wealth and consumer's wealth. As f a r as the l a t t e r i s concerned, p r i v a t e ownership and c o n t r o l are d e s i r a b l e . I t i s a type o f wealth which i s for use and one should have - 114 -the r i g h t w i t h i n the l i m i t s of h i s income t o aca/^uire what goods he chooses and to use them as he sees f i t . Under S o c i a l i s m , t h e r e f o r e , o u r c l o t h i n g , homes, and automobiles would be ours t o e n j o y under the same guarantees o f e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s as we have today, s i g n i f i c a n t p r o d u c e r 1 s wealth, land as w e l l as other c a p i t a l goods, would be owned §ollectively. T h i s a p p l i e s t o t h e ownership o f f a c t o r i e s , r a i l w a y s , mines, p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , a n d l a r g e merchandising e s t a b -l i s h m e n t s . The l a t t e r r e f e r to the l a r g e p r o d u c t i v e u n i t s o f l a n d and c a p i t a l - those i n v o l v i n g employment of o t h e r s and a complex b a s i s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n - would be taken o v e r i n t o the new p r o p e r t y system. The people who worked i n them would, be employed by the government, o r o t h e r agent o f s o c i e t y , and a l l r e t u r n s from them a f t e r wages were p a i d would redound to t h e common b e n e f i t . i h e democfcactie s o c i a l i s t s s t a t e t hat change w i l l be a f f e c t e d by purchasing i n d u s t r i e s at t h e i r f u l l v a l u e . I t has a l s o been suggested t h a t the r i g h t t o bequest s h o u l d be taken away, thus r e v e r t i n g a l l such wealth to t h e s t a t e on the death o f the p r e s e n t owners. - 1 1 5 -A l o n g w i t h c o l l e c t i v e ownership the s o c i a l i s t s would have the c o l l e d t i v e management o f Industry,, I n t h i s c o n n ection, the purpose o f i n d u s t r y i s t o be d i f f e r e n t fromWhat i t now i s : p r o d u c t i o n I s to be planned i n accordance with human wants and n o t the p r o f i t - m o t i v e , Questions o f importance a r i s e r e g a r d i n g wage and p r i c e schedules, the q u a l i t y of the goods to be produced, how much o f s o c i e t y ' s s a v i n g s should be turned to t h i s i n d u s t r y as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t , and more fundamental than these a g a i n , how much sho u l d be made a c c e s s i b l e to the people f o r t h e i r enjoyment i n the form o f consumer 1 s goods as c o n t r a s t e d with the p r o p o r t i o n t h a t should be c a r r i e d back i n t o i n d u s t r y f o r the maintenace and e x t e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . These q u e s t i o n s , cannot be answered a r b i t r a r i l y , f o r Democratic S o c i a l i s m contemplates an economic system which i s c o n s t a n t l y concerned w i t h keeping the expenditure o f p r o d u c t i v e energy r e l a t e d always to the f u l l e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n o f wants. The c o l l e c t i v e ownership o f producer's wealth c a r r i e s w i t h i t the r i g h t t o r e c e i v e the r e t u r n s from i t . Under the C a p i t a l i s t i c system there are incomes from p r o p e r t y as w e l l as wages, f e e s , and s a l a r i e s . I n t h i s manner, those who have p r o p e r t y have t h i s l e v e r a g e over those who have'nt. - 116 -L a n d o w n e r s r e c e i v e r e n t , w h i l e o t h e r s g e t i n t e r e s t s and p r o f i t s . S o c i a l i s m w o u l d sweep away t h e s e '' i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a d v a n t a g e s . A l l p e o p l e w i l l be r e w a r d e d a l i k e f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e w o r t h o f t h e i r s e r v i c e , o r t h e i r n e e d s , o r a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e t w o . The a i m o f m o d e r n s o c i a l i s t s i s n o t e q u a l i t y , b u t e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . A l l p e r s o n s a r e t o s t a n d a l i k e a s wage w o r k e r s w i t h e q u a l a c c e s s t o t h e s o c i a l l y owned c a p i t a l . 2 . A s a l r e a d y s t a t e d , s o c i a l i s t s s t r e s s t h e i n j u s t i c e s o f o u r s y s t e m a n d i n s i s t u p o n a s c l o s e a n a p p r o a c h a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e y make c o l l e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g e v e r y o n e e m p l o y e d . T h i s w o u l d be a n a s p e c t o f p r o d u c t i v e p l a n n i n g . M o s t i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r , i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i s a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n . S o c i a l i s t s h a v e l o n g s t r e s s e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n . I n s h o r t , t h e y a d v o c a t e m a k i n g e d u c a t i o n synonymous w i t h t h e w h o l e s o c i a l enviaronment s u r r o u n d i n g a c h i l d f r o m i t s e a r l i e s t - 117 -y e a r s , a n d w o u l d p l a c e u p o n s o c i e t y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g h i s t a l e n t s i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . E d u c a t i o n w o u l d t h e n s e r v e a s a means t o h e l p man e s c a p e f r o m t h e s h o r t - c o m i n g s o f t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s t h a t h a v e d e v e l o p e d i n o u r p r o f i t - s e e k i n g s o c i e t y . S o c i a l i s t s f e e l t h a t men f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a i n i n g , o f w h i c h e d u c a t i o n i s a g r e a t p a r t . The p r o b l e m may be p o s i t e d i n a f o r m s i m i l a r t o t h i s , "How w o u l d be p e o p l e a c t i f t h e y knew a l l t h e f a c t s a b o u t t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e ? " I t i s o u r b i a s t h a t t h e y -mvtlfL a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r e c e p t " t h e g r e a t e s t g o o d f o r t h e g r e a t e s t number ". 3. S o c i a l i s t s d i s c l a i m e n t i r e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h e c a p i t a l i s t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s e l f - i n t e r e s t , p r o f i t - m o t i v e , w h i c h , a s we h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , i s t h e d y n a m i c p r i n c i p l e o f o u r b u s i n e s s s y s t e m , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r c a l l i n g f o r t h a n d s u s t a i n i n g t h e b e s t p r o d u c t i v e e f f o r t . We may v a l i d l y a r g u e t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t c o n d u c i v e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new m o t i v e s w i l l b r i n g a b o u t s u c h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n m e n 1 s m i n d s t h a t t h e y w i l l r e s p o n d t o o t h e r t h a n p u r e l y - 118 -s e l f i s h i n f l u e n c e s ; a n d s o c i e t y w o u l d t h e n e n t e r n o t o n l y i n t o b e n e f i t s o f g r e a t e r ( e f f i c i e n c y b u t i n t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h a t w h i c h go w i t h a s e n s e o f d i g n i t y a n d a f i n e r p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s we may r i g h t l y f e e l i s a f a r c r y f r o m t h e e l e v a t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n and p r o f i t m a k i n g t o t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e i n o u r e c o n o m i c s y s t e m and r e l y i n g o n t h e m t o f u r n i s h u s w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y g o o d s and s e r v i c e s * 4 . D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s t s a r e f a i r l y w e l l a g r e e d t h a t t h e change t o s o c i a l i s m i s t o be a c h i e v e d b y d e m o c r a t i c m e a n s , b y c o n v i n c i n g a m a j o r i t y o f t h e v o t e r s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y a n d t h a t t h e s o c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r i e s w i l l b e o p e r a t e d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y , a n d n o t b y a n i r r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t d i c t a t o r -s h i p . The F a b i a n S o c i a l i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i a l i s m w i l l come g r a d u a l l y , and i n e v i t a b l y . The F a b i a n d o c t r i n e o f g r a d u a l n e s s i s a c c e p t e d b y m o s t c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l i s t s ; b u t t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y d o e s n o t seem as i n e v i t a b l e a s i t o n c e d i d . A l t h o u g h t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f e v e r y c a p i t a l i s t i c c o u n t r y h a s s t e a d i l y e x p a n d e d i t s f u n c t i o n s , m o s t s u c h g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e r e a c h e d o n l y t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e g r e a t a r e a o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e - 119 an d t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o : d o u b t t h a t o u r L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , a t a n y r a t e , w i l l t a k e o v e r t h e v a s t f i e l d o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e a t a n y f u t u r e d a t e t h a t c a n be c l e a r l y f o r e s e e n . 5. I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t S o c i a l i s m w o u l d be v e r y f i n e i f p e o p l e w e r e f i n e , b u t t h a t p e o p l e a r e t o o s e l f i s h t o r e s p o n d t o t h e i d e a l i s m o f t h e s o c i a l i s t * s y s t e m . S o c i a l i s m d o e s i n d e e d assume a l e s s a c q u i s i t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n i n human b e i n g s t h a n o u r p r e s e n t s y s t e m d o e s . O u r g r o t e s q u e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n w e a l t h a n d i n c o m e - i f t h e y h a v e a n y l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n a t a l l - r e s t o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t o n l y b y o f f e r i n g f a b u l o u s s a l a r i e s c a n we i n d u c e c a p a b l e b u s i n e s s m e n t o do t h e i r i m p o r t a n t w o r k o f m a n a g i n g a nd d i r e c t i n g p r o d u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . No s u c h s a l a r i e s w o u l d be o f f e r e d i n a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e , f o r a s we h a v e s e e n , t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l i s m i s s t r o n g l y e q u a l i t a r i a n . S o c i a l i s t s a r e i n c l i n e d t o a r g u e t h a t i f p e o p l e a r e c o n c e d e d t o be e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f i s h , t h e y a r e so p a r t l y o r l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t r a d i t i o n , b e c a u s e f r o m t h e c r a d l e t o t h e g r a v e t h e y a r e made c o n s t a n t l y aware o f t h e h e a v y e m p h a s i s - 1 2 0 on money a s a m e a s u r e o f r e p u t a b i l i t y ; a n d t h e y i n s i s t t h a t i f e n v i r o n m e n t a nd t r a i n i n g s t r e s s e d o t h e r i d e a l s , p e o p l e w o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h e m a l m o s t a s w e l l i f n o t q u i t e a s e n e r g e t i c a l l y a s t o t h e l o v e f o r money. T h e r e i s much t r u t h i n t h i s v i e w . Many t e a c h e r s c o u l d e a r n f a r more i n b u s i n e s s , b u t p r e f e r t o t a k e t h e i r c o m p e n s a t i o n p a r t l y i n f o r m s o t h e r t h a n money. O f f i c e h o l f l i n g i n t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e m i g h t c a r r y w i t h i t s o much h o n o u r a nd d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t a b l e men w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o s e r v e f o r m o d e s t s a l a r i e s . W h e t h e r human b e i n g s c o u l d e v e r be so r e a r e d a n d e d u c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d l a r g e l y l o s e t h e i r s e l f i s h d e s i r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i o n a n d p e r s o n a l g a i n , w h e t h e r t h e y c o u l d e v e r be t r a i n e d t o f i n d i n c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p a n d g a i n somewhat t h e same s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t t h e y now f i n d i n p e r s o n a l o w n e r s h i p a nd g a i n , i s q u i t e a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . The d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n i s d e e p l y r o o t e d . Y e t we m u s t c o n c e d e t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l o w n e r s h i p a r e d e c l i n i n g anyhow, and t h a t man i s a p p a r e n t l y a d j u s t i n g h i m s e l f t o a w o r l d i n w h i c h f e w e r a n d f e w e r p e o p l e t h i n k o f i t a s e s s e n t i a l . - 121 -S e l f i s h n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n t s e l f i s h n e s s , w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y make S o c i a l i s m i m p r a c t i c a b l e . I f S o c i a l i s m i s r e a l l y a more e f f i c i e n t f o r m o f e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n t s e l f i s h n e s s s h o u l d l e a d m o s t p e o p l e t o f a v o u r i t . T h o s e who h a v e p r o f i t e d h a n d s o m e l y u n d e r t h e c a p i t a l i s t r e g i m e w o u l d o f c o u r s e be h o s t i l e , b u t t h e y c c o n s t i t u t e o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . M o d e r a t e D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s m , w h i c h d i d n o t i n c l u d e f a r m s and s m a l l r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h -m e n t s w o u l d d e p r i v e o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o amass f o r t u n e s . 6 . A s e r i o u s a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t s o c i a l i s m r e l a t e s t o i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m . A s we n o t e d , human f r e e d o m a s we know i t came w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a p i t a l i s m , a n d t h e r e i s a c l e a r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may l a r g e l y d i s a p p e a r i f c a p i t a l i s m i s a b a n d o n e d . H o w e v e r , many o f t h e l o w e r a n d m i d d l e c l a s s e s -l a b o u r e r s , c l e r k s , s a l e s p e o p l e , s t e n o g r a p h e r s a n d t h e l i k e - p r o b a b l y h a v e l e s s f r e e d o m t h a n t h e y r e a l i z e , f o r t h e i r d a i l y r o u t i n e i s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d f o r them. We may s u g g e s t t h a t i f a p e o p l e h a v e a d e e p l o v e o f f r e e d o m , a n d m o s t p e o p l e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a nada h a v e , i f t h e y - 122 -d e v e l o p t h e s o c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e n e e d e d i n a S o c i a l i s t r e g i m e , t h e m a s s e s m i g h t w e l l h a v e more f r e e d o m u n d e r a S o c i a l i s t s y s t e m t h a n t h e y do i n a C a p i t a l i s t economy. - 124 -PART 7 CONCLUSION E X I S T I N G TREND TOWARD SO C I A L I S M We may p o i n t o u t t h a t o u r economy i s a l r e a d y s o c i a l i z e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , a n d t h a t t h e t r e n d t o w a r d f u r t h e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s v e r y s t r o n g . S i n c e W o r l d War I I , a n d e v e n b e f o r e I t s b e g i n n i n g , t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n c r e a s e d i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n . The D o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t h a s become a c t i v e i n h o s p i t a l , u n e m p l o y m e n t , a n d c r o p i n s u r a n c e . The o l d age scheme h a s b e e n a l t e r e d ~ & h d p r o v i s i o n s h a v e b e e n made f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s a h d l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . I n many o t h e r t e n d e n c i e s we c a n s e e t h e s t e a d y g r o w t h o f g o v e r n m e n t f u n c t i o n s . The r a i l r o a d s a r e c l o s e l y r e g u l a t e d a s t o w a g e s , r a t e s , a n d s e r v i c e s r e n e d e r e d ; n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; r o a d s , p a r k s , a n d m o s t u t i l i t i e s a r e g o v e r n m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d ; l i t t l e I s l e f t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a n d p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e i n t h e s e f i e l d s . I n a l m o s t e v e r y f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s r e a c h i n g o u t f u r t h e r w i t h e a c h c o m i n g d e c a d e ; a t t h e same t i m e i t i s t a k i n g a n i n c r e a s i n g s h a r e o f t h e r e t u r n s o f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y t h r o u g h h e a v i e r a n d h e a v i e r t a x a t i o n . - 1 2 5 -The t r e n d i s s t r o n g l y t o w a r d S o c i a l i s m , a n d t h e r e i s l i t t l e b a s i s f o r h o p i n g t h a t i t c a n be r e v e r s e d . We s h a l l a l w a y s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e S t a t e ' was made f o r man, a n d n o t man f o r t h e S t a t e . I n t h e s e r v i c e of* t h e S t a t e g r e a t h a p p i n e s s may be f o u n d , b u t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e S t a t e c a n be u s e d t o p r e s e r v e l M ; l i f e , and s e c u r e t h e h a p p i n e s s , o f i t s h u m b l e s t members. T h a t , i n o u r v i e w , w i l l a l w a y s be t h e d e s i r a b l e e n d o f s o c i a l a c t i o n - t h e h a p p i n e s s o f o r d i n a r y men a n d women. The c o n c e p t i o n o f a b e t t e r s o c i e t y , b y w h i c h t h e e n d s we a s p i r e t o a c h i e v e c a n b e s t be i n s t i t u t e d , ' i s t h e r e f o r e o f a s p e c i f i c k i n d , fie n e e d n o t be c o n t e n t w i t h a n y t h i n g l e s s , n o r n e e d we a s k f o r m o r e , t h a n a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h p r o p e r t y a s a s o u r c e o f s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i s g r a d u a l l y made t o w h i t h e r away, i n w h i c h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r a t i o n a l c e n t r a l b o a r d h a s r e s t o r e d e x p a n s i o n and h a s c r e a t e d e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y , i n w h i c h p o l i t i c a l d e m o c r a c y i s p r e s e r v e d a n d p e r f e c t e d a s a m e t h o d o f g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s i s w h a t we mean b y a m o r e j u s t s o c i e t y . One i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n may g r o w , f r e e f r o m f e a r , i n t o a s o c i a b l e a n d h a p p y m a t u r i t y . A n i m p o r t a n t , i n d e e d a n e s s e n t i a l , p a r t o f i t i s t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p r i n c i p l e o f S o c i a l i s m . i . APPENDIX I . On the 88th, o f February, H i t l e r i s s u e d a — decree " f o r the p r o t e c t i o n os S t a t e and People" .... A l l l i b e r t i e s o f the Weimar r e p u b l i c were suspended .... On March 2 1 s t . the death p e n a l t y was imposed f o r a l l s o r t s o f p o l i c t i c a l crimes, and s p e c i a l c o u r t s were i n s t i t u t e d t o d e a l w i t h the O p p o s i t i o n . .... I n t h i s p a n i c the R e i c h -s t a g E l e c t i o n s o f March 5 t h . were h e l d . The L e f t o p p o s i t i o n P a r t i e s were wi t h o u t a P r e s s and under t e r r o r . The N a z i s were i n p o s s e s s i o n o f the most e f f e c t i v e means o f propoganda, the P r e s s and the Radio, and had the o n l y e f f e c t i v e e l e c t i o n machine. Y e t , i n s p i t e o f t h i s , they d i d not g a i n an a b s o l u t e m a j o r i t y . The f i g u r e s were: The R a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s were s t i l l , a p p a r e n t l y , dependent on t h e i r a l l i e s the N a t i o n a l i s t s , f o r a m a j o r i t y . But the H a z i methods were simple. The Communists were e i t h e r i n p r i s o n o r v i r t u a l l y o u t -lawed. Thus they had t h e i r m a j o r i t y . And even without a m a j o r i t y , the p r e s s u r e foaaa beneath, the T e r r o r o f the Storm T r o o p e r s , was s u f f i c i e n t t o bend o t h e r P a r t i e s t o t h e i r wishes. From the moment o f H i t l e r ' s a c c e s s i o n to power the R e i c h s t a g , as the symbol-of democracy, and as an e x e c u t i v e body, ceases to have any power. N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s S o c i a l - Democrates Communists 288 ISO 81 73 52 Centre German N a t i o n a l i s t s P a s c a l , Roy, The Naad. D i c t a t o r s h i p . London, George Routledge & Sons, L t d . 1934, p. 131 - 132. i i . APPENDIX I I . S t u a r t Chase, The Tragedy o f Waste. Grosset & Dunlap, 1925, p. 119. An a n a l y s i s o f the 45 advertisements i n a New York e l e v a t e d c a r on October, 1923, the 116 advertisements i n H earst's I n t e r n a t i o n a l Magazine f o r November, 1923, and the 82 advertisements i n the Smart Set Magazine f o r November, 1923, g i v e t h i s r e s u l t : ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT TOTAL ANALYSIS BY APPEAL TOTAL Correspondence Courses, Books..44 Beauty and Cosmetics...........43 Jewelry. 28 Automobiles and N o v e l t i e s 22 P a t e n t M e d i c i n e s and L o s t v i g o r I 9 M u s i c , movies, e t c 16 Food 12 C l o t h i n g . . ..12 "E a r n More Monej" . I I Investments.................... 7 L a x a t i v e s 6 S h e l t e r 2 Tobacco. 6 Gum.......... ... 2 M i s c e l l a n e o u s .15 Appeal to v a n i t y . . . . 3 9 Appeal t o shame.....22 Appeal t o s e x . . . . . . . j n e u r i o u s i t y Appeal to c u p i d i t y . . I 7 Appeal to f e a r . . . . . . 8 P a l p a b l y f a l s e . . . . • . 4 4 Harmful p r o d u c t s (not) i n c l u d i n g tobacco...28 T o t a l Advertisements 244 Of the 244 advertis e m e n t s , 233 had to do w i t h competitive p r o d u c t s , while 5 announced a g e n u i n e l y new product, and 6 c a r r i e d genuine news v a l u e . I t cannot be ma i n t a i n e d t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s passes i n any f i n a l way upon the a d v e r t i s i n g reviewed. I t i s merely one i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s r e a c t i o n . I t does, however give a rough c r o s s s e c t i o n o f what one f i n d s about him i n the day - by - day run o f advertisement. I i i APPENDIX I I I . DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS -EDUCATION STATISTICS BRANCH Annual income of Universities and Colleges in Canada, 1946. From Endowment Gov't Grants Student Fees Miscellaneous Total $2,420,117 #7,771,358 $9,733,093 $5,609,252 $25, 533,820 APPENDIX IT DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND COMMERCE Merchandising and Services Statistics: Total h i l l i n g s of 57 advertising agencies of the type which contract for space, radio or other advertising media and which place advertising for clients on a commission or fee basis amounted to 852J69.461. Advertising agencies in 1946 provided employment for 1,816 persons who received 85^05.265 in salaries. i v APPENDIX 1 DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS -'GENERAL STATISTICS BRANOH E s t i m a t e s o f T o t a l Number o f Wage - Ea r n e r s i n Employment and Unemployed. November T o t a l e s t i m a t e d number o f wage-Es t i m a t e d number o f wage-earners E s t i m a t e d number earne r s ( i n i n employment ( i n unemployed thousands) thousands) thousands) 1938 2,744 2,346 - 398 1937 2,795 2,502 291 1936 2,645 2,267 378 1935 2,577 2,154 423 1934 2,530 2,057 493 1933 2,527 1,943 584 1932 2,436 1,764 672 1931 2,561 2,051 510 1930 2,620 2,230 390 1929 2,621 2,443 178 1928 2,462 2,391 71 Summary S t a t i s t i c s R e s u l t i n g from the Labour Force Surveys November 1945, to Feb r u a r y 1948. Employed Unemployed Nov. 17 4,326,000 172,000 Feb. 23 4,312,000 213,000 Jun. I 4,702,000 126,000 Aug. 31 4,860,000 117,000 Nov. 9 4,733,000 115,000 Mar. I 4,565,000 141,000 May. 31 4,821,000 91,000 AUg. 16 5,008,000 73,000 Nov. 8 4,847,000 87,000 Feb. 21 4,669,000 156,000 v. A P P E N D I X Tl P E R S O N S D R A W I N G B E N E F I T A N D B E N E F I T DAYS P A I D D U R I N G 1946. C L A S S I F I E D by D A I L Y R A T E O F B E N E F I T D A I L Y R A T E O F B E N E F I T P E R S O N S D A Y S Under #0.60 -#2.40 T o t a l 351,476 23,860,678 A P P E N D I X V l T " L i n c o l n S t e f f e n s t e l l s a s t o r y which passed around i n P a r i s among correspondents at t h e t ime o f the V e r s a i l l e s Peace Conference. Whether t r u e o r no t , the s t o r y f o r c e -f u l l y p r e s e n t s the c o n f l i c t between the moving f o r c e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and the d e s i r e f o r w o r l d t r a d e and brotherhood. One morning, the story goes, Clemenceau suddenly exclaimed to L l o y d George and Woodrow Wilson? "One moment, gentlemen, I d e s i r e before we go any f u r t h e r t o be made c l e a r on one p o i n t " . They asked him what i t was. He s a i d t h a t he had heard t a l k about a permanent peace, a peace t o end war f o r e v e r , and he asked them: "Do you r e a l l y mean t h a t - do you, Mr. P r e s i d e n t r e a l l y mean what you say?" W i l s o n s a i d he d i d . "And you, Mr. L l o y d George?" L l o y d George s a i d he meant i t r f Then Clemenceau continued, "Very important, v e r y important. We'can do t h i s : we can remove a l l the causes of war. But have you counted the c o s t o f such a peace?" The o t h e r s h e s i t a t e d . "What c o s t s ? " they asked. " W e l l , we must gi v e up a l l our empires and hopes o f empires. You, L l o y d George, you E n g l i s h w i l l have t o come out of I n d i a , we French out o f North A f r i c a , you Americans out o f the P h i l l i p i n e s and Puerto R i c o , and leave Cuba and Mexico alone . We must give up our tr a d e r o u t e s and our spheres o f i n f l u e n c e . And ye s , we s h a l l have t o t e a r down our t a r i f f w a l l s and e s t a b l i s h f r e e trade i n a l l the w o r l d . T h i s i s the cost o f permanent peace; th e r e are oth e r s a c r i f i e c e s . I t i s ve r y expensive t h i s peace. Are you w i l l i n g t o pay the p r i c e , a l l these c o s t s o f no more war i n the world?" They p r o t e s t e d t h a t they d i d not mean a l l t h i s . "Then", Clemenceau i s r e p o r t e d t o have shouted, "you don't mean peace. You mean war**. Selsam, Howard, S o c i a l i s m and Ethic3, New York, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1943, p. 30. v i Year General Gene r a l e x p o r t e d Net Imports E x p o r t s E x p o r t s Imports 1901 - 5 $2,637 #1,787 $ 342 $2,295 1906 - 10 3 ,066 2,374 . 440 2 ,626 1911 - 15 3,628 2,719 503 3,125 1916 - 20 6,022 3,642 498 5,524 1921 - 25 5,131 3,890 555 4,576 1926 6,038 3,777 610 5,428 APPENDIX VlTT FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM BY PERIODS (000,000) omitted . Re-Domestic E x p o r t s $1,445 1,934 2,216 3,145 3,335 3,167 APPENDIX TT News Comment. Ottawa, V o l . IX. wo. 12, p.5. L i f e Insurance Terminated i n Canada D u r i n g 1947. Insurance Term- Increase i n Insurance Term- I n c r e a s e i n i n a t e d n a t u r a l l y N a r u r a l term- Inated by s u r - T e r m i n a t i o n s (death, annuity) i n a t i o n s , 1947 render l a p s e i n By surrender over 1946. 1947. Lapse, 1947 over 1946. Gan. Comp. f78,577,847 8,484,329 297,485,254 75,449,844 Br . Comp. #2,709,989 536,200 11,164,232 3,544,364 F o r . Comp. #63,416,919 3,043,555 II6.,250,450 14,504,553 T o t a l $144.704.755 10.991.684 424,899.956 95.498.761 The amount o f l i f e i n s urance f o r a l l companies i n Canada terminated by surrender o f l a p s e , when people "could no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o pay, was n e a r l y three times the amount terminat ed n a t u r a l l y by death o f the p o l i c y h o l d e r , payment o f a n n u i t i e s o r whatever the p o l i c y c a l l e d f o r . (When p o l i c i e s l a p s e o r are surrendered i t i s u s u a l l y w i t h heavy p e n a l t i e s to the p o l i c y h o l d e r ) . APPENDIX T P u b l i s h e d by C.C.F. p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , 510 K e r r B l d g . , Regina Sasic WILL YOUR LIFE INSURANCE BE SAFE WITH C.C.F. IN POWER? The s t a t e o f Massachusetts has a publicly-owned l i f e i nsurance o r g a n i z a t i o n which, o f course, i s b i t t e r l y fought by the l i n e companies. Dur i n g the t e n y e a r s p e r i o d from 1929, one s t r a i g h t l i f e p o l i c y o f |l000 at the age o f 38, the average y e a r l y n e t costs.have been: v i i APPENDIX X, c o n t i n u e d . The Massachusetts publicly-owned companies per flOOO 2.74 Canada L i f e . 9620 Sun l i f e 7*42 Dominion L i f e IG .24 Lowest Can. Co. Mutual L i f e 4.79 - o r almost double t h a t o f publicly-owned Massachussets o r g a n i z a t i o n s . APPENDIX XI Commercial F a i l u r e s , Canada Year Book, 1948-49, p. 854. YEAR TOTAL 1938 1,219 1939 1,392 1940 1,173 1941 1,008 1942 737 1943 314 1944 260 1945 272 1946 278 1947 545 v i i i BIBLIOGRAPHY A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r . London, H i s M a j e s t y * s S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , March 9, 1944. B e n e d i c t , Ruth, P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e , New York, New American L i b r a r y o f World L i t e r a t u r e , 1948. 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