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Some effects of coal mining upon the development of the Nanaimo area Matheson, Marion Henderson 1950

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c. SOME EFFECTS OF GOAL MINING- UPON TEE DEVELOPMENT OF THE M A I M ) AREA A T h e s i s P r e s e n t e d t o the F a c u l t y of the Department of G-eology and Geography U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t Of the Requirements f o r the Degree Master of A r t s "by Marion Henderson Mat he son October, 1950 ^ ^ x j $ . ABSTRACT Some E f f e c t s of Coal-min i n g on the Development o f t h e IManaimo a r e a . The p h y s i c a l environment of t h e Nanaimo area, i n l a n d forms, c l i m a t e , s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n , i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f the e a s t e r n c o a s t a l p l a i n r e g i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d . Two r e s o u r c e s have/influenced the oocupance p a r t i c u l a r l y : c o a l d e p o s i t s and l o c a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i n g economy made p o s s i b l e by l o c a t i o n i s s t i l l d e v e l o p i n g , but the economy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o a l - m i n i n g has l o s t i t s former dominance. The e f f e c t s which c o a l - m i n i n g , and a d a p t a t i o n to i t s d e c l i n e , have had upon the economic l i f e , the c u l t u r a l landscape and the p o p u l a t i o n can be s t u d i e d as a phase i n a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n between man and h i s environment. P h y s i c a l f a c t o r s have p l a c e d l i m i t a t i o r s upon the de v e l o p -ment of l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s . L o c a t i o n , which both f o s t e r e d and hind e r e d t h e p r o g r e s s of c o a l - m i n i n g , i s becoming a n i n c r e a s -i n g l y important a s s e t . G e o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s proved d i s -advantageous to the p r o s p e r i t y o f mining and l i m i t e d the span of i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . Topography, s o i l and drainage r e s t r i c t e d the scope o f a g r i c u l t u r e . The volume of l o c a l timber r e s e r v e s c o n f i n e s t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n to s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s , but the l a r g e r e s e r v e s i n surrounding areas form the b a s i s of the whole r e g i o n a l economy. F i s h i n g makes i t s g r e a t e s t economic c o n t r i b u t i o n i n -d i r e c t l y . C o a l - m i n i n g expanded s l o w l y from 1852 u n t i l the 1880's. The t h i r t y years f o l l o w i n g 1890 marked the p e r i o d o f g r e a t e s t employment and p r o d u c t i v i t y , but i t was i n t e r r u p t e d by r e -ce s s i o n s due to the c o m p e t i t i o n of other f u e l s and to labour d i f f i c u l t i e s . D e c l i n e s i n c e 1923 has been r a p i d and steady. The c o a l r e s o u r c e s are now e x p l o i t e d on a c o n t i n u o u s l y de-c l i n i n g s c a l e . 2. Other economic a c t i v i t i e s have been f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r changing r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o c o a l - m i n i n g . Because of i t s e a r l y s t a r t , a g r i c u l t u r e has n e a r l y reached the l i m i t s of i t s a r e a l expansion, p a r t - t i m e f a r m i n g , b y which l a n d i s used l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y , has a l s o been encouraged by the mining i n d u s t r y * The d e p l e t i o n of timber r e s e r v e s i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the demands o f the c o a l - m i n i n g economy. C e r t a i n manufactur-ing i n d u s t r i e s developed t o serve t h e mining community, have disappeared, but o t h e r s have expanded s l i g h t l y * O n l y those dependent upon r e s o u r c e s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the a r e a a r e l i k e l y to develop s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s of the c o a l -mining p e r i o d formed t h e n u c l e u s of the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i n g economy. Favoured by l o c a t i o n , they have become the mainstay of the a r e a and have p o s s i b i l i t i e s of f u r t h e r expansion. The f e a t u r e s of the c u l t u r a l landscape which o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g the c o a l - m i n i n g p e r i o d are s t i l l d i s c e r n i b l e , but are being obscured by those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g economy. The p r e s e n t complex p a t t e r n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n has been determined by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l c l a s s e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s to c o a l - m i n i n g . Zones of i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e n s i v e u t i l i z a t i o n , c e n t r e d on lanaimo, may be d e v e l o p i n g . S e t t l e m e n t s , f o r m e r l y l o c a t e d near the o u t c r o p p i n g seams, are becoming i n v o l v e d i n a g e n e r a l tendency toward r a d i a l development. Three types of s t r e e t p a t t e r n s have been developed i n the c i t y and i t s v i c i n -i t y . Elsewhere, the compact s t r e e t p a t t e r n s of t h e mining p e r i o d are becoming more l i n e a r . D i s t i n c t i v e miners' homes remain i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s . The growth of p o p u l a t i o n , f o r m e r l y r e l a t e d to c o a l - m i n i n g , has not yet s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d , but p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b -u t i o n i s changing. Movements i n accordance w i t h mining develop-ments have ceased, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s becoming n o t i c e a b l y dense near lanaimo. M i n i n g has been r e p l a c e d as t h e dominant o c c u p a t i o n by the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s . The n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n the a r e a s t i l l r e p r e s e n t those a t t r a c t e d by the mining i n -d u s t r y . A t t i t u d e s engendered d u r i n g the m i n i n g p e r i o d s t i l l p e r s i s t and may have v a r y i n g e f f e c t s on f u t u r e p r o g r e s s . The present economic s t r u c t u r e i s based upon a pr i m a r y r e -source, lumber, which must compete i n the w o r l d market. A l -though t h e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the a r e a could be improved, the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n toward f u t u r e development would be the maintenance o f the r e g i o n a l timber r e s o u r c e s . TABLE OF CD STENTS CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM I I THE NAN AIM) AREA IN ITS PHYSICAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING I I I PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE NANAIMO AREA L o c a t i o n E x t e n t and boundaries Geology a. h i s t o r i c a l b. d e s c r i p t i o n of f o r m a t i o n s c. s t r u c t u r a l d. economic Topography and drainage a. g e n e r a l b. l o c a l C l i m a t e a. p r e c i p i t a t i o n i . temperature c. f r o s t f r e e S o i l s V e g e t a t i o n IV ?"> THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY P r o d u c t i o n Markets M i n i n g Methods Numbers Employed C o a l mining today V OTHER INDUSTRIES IN THE EGOEOMY OF THE HANAIMO AREA P r i m a r y I n d u s t r i e s a. a g r i c u l t ur e b. l o g g i n g c. f i s h i n g d. mining- ( o t h e r than c o a l - m i n i n g ) Secondary I n d u s t r i e s T e r t i a r y I n d u s t r i e s a. r e t a i l s e l l i n g b. w h o l e s a l i n g c. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE P r i m a r y Land Use a. a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use b. f o r e s t l a n d use c. land u t i l i z a t i o n f o r other p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s Settlement P a t t e r n S t r e e t P a t t e r n s a. Nanaimo b. other urban c e n t r e s F u n c t i o n a l Areas a, Nanaimo b. other s e t t l e m e n t s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P a t t e r n s House Types a. home s b. other houses POPULATION growth D i s t r i b u t i o n Occupations N a t i o n a l O r i g i n s S o c i a l C o n d i t i o n s a. l i v i n g condit ions b. w ork i n g c ond i t io ns c. r e c r e a t i o n The E f f e c t s o f C o a l - m i n i n g on Community Th i n k i n g Iv V I I I TEE COAL MINING INDUSTRY AS A FAGTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NANAIMG AREA I n f l u e n c e upon Present L o c a l Development a. economic u t i l i z a t i o n o f the a r e a b. community p r o g r e s s I n f l u e n c e upon the r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n F u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the a r e a a. a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y b. manufacturing c. the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s d. dependence upon f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Reserves o f Kanaimo arid Comox C o a l F i e l d s 48 I I . A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use i n Upper Vancouver I s l a n d 69 I I I . F o r e s t Reserves of the IT anaimo A r e a 73 IV. S a l e s of L o c a l l y Grown Vegetables i n Eanaimo and B r i t i s h Columbia 103 V. Landings i n t h e IIanaimo Fishing-Area, 1949 109 VI. Value o f V e s s e l s and t h e i r Gear L i c e n s e d t o F i s h i n the I anaimo F i s h i n g Area, 1949 111 V I I . Sawmills o f the lanaimo Area 116 V I I I . Shipments of Lumber from the Assembly. 'Wharf - N anaimo 118 ' IX. R e t a i l O u t l e t s i n some Vancouver I s l a n d C e n t r e s , 1947 122 X. R e t a i l Sales of C e r t a i n I n c o r p o r a t e d Centres of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1941 123 XI. R e t a i l S a l es o f IIanaimo and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931, 1941, 1948 124 X I I . Movement of F o r e i g n Shipments through B r i t i s h Columbia P o r t s 131 X I I I . F o r e i g n Cargoes loaded and unloaded i n the port of Kanaimo, 1947 131A XIV. Cargoes of c e r t a i n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s loaded f o r F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s at Vancouver I s l a n d P o r t s 131C (TABLE XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. I. Dates of School B u i l d i n g s i n the lanaimo x^rea B u i l d i n g P e r m i t s Issued i n the Nanaimo Regulated Area Average Number of Persons and F a m i l i e s or Households per occupied D w e l l i n g 1881 t o 1941 Values o f Owner-Occupied Homes i n Some B r i t i s h Columbia c i t i e s Comparison of Percentages of c e r t a i n Modern Conveniences i n Four Communities, 1941 Employment of Male Workers i n Three Vancouver I s l a n d Communities, 1941 Emplo yment o f Female Worker s i n T hr ee Van c ouver I s i and Communities, 1941 PAGE 179 182 216 218 220 222 224 XXII. Land Assessment Values i n the Nanaimo Area, 1937-38 and 1947-48 Appendix A. LIST 01 FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Boundaries and p l a c e names 8 2 S t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n of Banaimo 23 3 Geology 25 4 W e l l i n g t o n Seam 40 5 Douglas Seam 41 6 P h y s i o g r a p h i c D i v i s i o n s of South-western B r i t i s h Columbia 51 7 Topography 53A 8 Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n 59 9 Eanaimo - Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n 61 10 Departure Bay " " " 62 11 F r o s t Free P e r i o d of Southeastern Vancouver i s l a n d 64 12 Average Date of L a s t Spring F r o s t 65 13 Average Date o f F i r s t i ' a l l F r o s t 66 14 S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 70 15 Output o f Kanaimo Coal F i e l d 77 16 Hanaimo Coal s o l d i n Canada and U.S.A. 81 17 lanaimo - 1862 85 18 Employment i n the Hanaimo Coal F i e l d 90 19 Land Use i n a S e c t i o n o f the k i l l s t o n e V a i l e y 100 20 F o r e i g n Bound Cargoes "loaded at hanaimo 131 B FIGURE ' PAGE E l l a n d Use p a t t e r n 136 22 E x t e n s i o n 142 23 Goal Seams and Mi n i n g T i l l a g e s 143 24 The T i p p l e - Cassidy 146 25 C a s s i d y 147 26 O r i g i n a l Topography of Nanaimo 149 27 S t r e e t p a t t e r n s 151 28 Nanaimo, 1875 152 29 hanaimo, about 1890 154 30 W e l l i n g t o n , B.C. 157 31 E x t e n s i o n , B.C. 158 32 Cedar, B.C. 159 33 The Nanaimo Regulated Area and the C i t y 161 34 Nanaimo Today 164 35 F u n c t i o n a l P a t t e r n s 172 • 36 Home of the Mining P e r i o d - W e l l i n g t o n 174 37 Home o f the M i n i n g p e r i o d - E x t e n s i o n 175 38 F i n n i s h Home - Chase R i v e r 178 39 B u i l d i n g Permits I s m ed by the O f f i c e of t h e C i t y Engineer 181 40 Approximate P o p u l a t i o n Growth 185 41 P r o p o r t i o n o f Mine Employees to t o t a l P o p u l a t i on of Ianaimo 189 • I G U R E PAGE 42 Populat i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n - 1891 192 45 Populat Ion D i s t r i b u t i o n - 1923 195 44 P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n - 1948 197 45 . Occupations - 1923 and 1948 199 46 Occupations - 1923 203 47 Occupations - 1948 205 48 N a t i o n a l o r i g i n s of Cumberland, Nanaimo and Urban Vancouver I s l a n d 212 49 P r o p o r t i o n of Urban Vancouver I s l a n d N a t i o n a l Groups r e s i d e n t i n Nanaimo 1941 214 50 Land Use i n a S e c t i o n o f the M i l l s t o n e V a l l e y Appendix B CHAP TEE I STATEMENT OJ1 THE PRO BUM for seventy years coal mining dominated a l l phases of l i f e i n the Nanaimo area. Today, less than t h i r t y years after the industry attained i t s peak, coal mining has nearly reached extinction. The patterns which were established during the period of greatest mining ac t i v i t y , and the adjustments whieh have had to be made following the decline of the industry s t i l l strongly influence l i f e in the commun-i t y . In this study, an attempt w i l l be made to analyse and evaluate the effects which coal mining has had upon the development of the area. The Nanaimo area has been occupied by Europeans for nearly one hundred years. In that time, the continuing interaction of man and the environment has produced adapt-ations which are of special interest to a geographer. If any true understanding of the character of the Nanaimo area i s to be achieved, these adaptations must be examined, the reason for their existence determined and their consequences weighed. 2 Analysis of the processes of continuing interaction between man and the environment form one of the most import-ant fields of research in modern geography. This study of such processes as they have occurred in one area may make some contribution to the body of knowledge regarding these phenomena. Some of the terms used in the study require definition of the exact meanings assigned to them. Part-time farming - farming which does not occupy a l l the working time of the operator, nor supply the main source of his income is considered to be on a part-time basis. In the f i e l d , a farm was considered to be part-time when i t was less than ten acres in extent or had less than ten acres cleared when there were no evidences of specialized practices. Skilled miner - The men who do the actual cutting of the coal are eons idered, in the industry, to he skilled workers. Other skilled men include the men who supervise the firing of explosives, and those who are responsible for mainten-ance of safe working conditions. Unskilled workers i n -clude those men engaged in loading coal, and in the handling of it at the tipple and washery. 3 Tipple - A tipple is a structure at the pit-head to which the coal is elevated and from which it is discharged into railway oars. Small mine - A small mine is one in which the owners take an active part in its operations. Uo arbitrary limit is placed on the size of the production or labour force of a small mine. Specialty crops - livestock reared or plants cultivated to supply products giving comparatively high cash returns are considered to be specialty crops. Tertiary industries - A l l occupations which are not pro-ductive of goods are classed as tertiary industries. They include not only the transportation, wholesale and retail industries, but also those which provide services. Cultural landscape - The cultural landscape includes a l l the features which man has placed upon the earth's surface and which, are at present in existence. Urban - Settlements, the majority of whose inhabitants are not farmers, are considered to be urban in character. House types - A l l buildings erected are considered to be "houses", irrespective of their purpose. Geological terms will be explained as they are introduced. 4. In the f i r s t part of the study the "background of the Nanaimo area, from both the hist o r i c a l and the geographical point of Tiew , i s examined. The progress of coal-mining i t s e l f i s also examined. In the latter part of the study, an inquiry is made into the effects which coal mining has had upon the economic l i f e , the cultural landscape and the population. Some conclusions are made regarding the value of these effects and regarding future p o s s i b i l i t i e s for the L i t t l e geographical material has been written concern ing the lanaimo area i t s e l f . In 1914, a memoir on the coal f i e l d was published by CH. Clapp of the Geological Survey. A revision and extension of this work was contained i n the paper published by A.f. Buckham of the Geological Survey i n 19^7. Much information has been obtained from these sources Other papers on coal mining have been presented to the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy from time to time. These have also proved valuable. One of the seetions covered by the unpublished Soil Survey of the British Columbia Forest Service extended from lanoose Bay to Ladysmith Harbour. This source i s the only available one having a section dealing sp e c i f i c a l l y with the agriculture of this area. 5. A Surrey of the E. aid N. land Grant made hy t he Forest Service in 1938 contains the only detailed study of local forest resources as yet available. Other sources which were of wider scope but which con-tained information on local activities included the Reports of the Minister of Minxes for British Columbia, the Reports of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and works, and The Climate of British Columbia, published annually by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. Considerable use was made of the British Columbia Directories for various years from 1882-83 on. Sources consulted in the Library of the University of British Columbia included the Reports of the Minister of Mines beginning in the year 1874, as well as many other government publications. In Victoria, the Soil Survey and the Survey of Forest Resources were consulted. Soirees used in Nanaimo included the fil e s of the lanaimo Free press and various compilations of local data made by the lanaimo offiee of the British Columbia Forest Service. Information on building permits and zoning regulations was obtained from the files in the office of the Nanaimo City Engineer, where old maps of the city were also consulted. Information was obtained from business people, private citizens and government officials in interviews and through correspondence. The "base map used in the f i e l d was the advance sheet Number 6 of the Soi l Survey on a scale of 40 chains to the inch, issued hy the forest Service i n 1943. Upon this was plotted the cleared and cultivated land as mapped hy the Forest Service in 1937. This information was checked and revised in the f i e l d . Detailed land use was mapped in parts of the two main agricultural d i s t r i c t s , hut the chief distinction was drawn between part-time and commercial farming i n the pre-paration of the land use map. Other features noted i n the f i e l d included the extent of settled areas, and the d i s -tribution of industrial and commercial organizations. Detailed maps were made of some of the villages i n the area. The Assembly Wharf, coal mines and the premises of other industrial firms were v i s i t e d . Data for many of the maps were obtained from a variety of published sources and from interviews. The source of information for each map i s noted on i t s f l y - l e a f . CHAPTER II THE IA1AIM0 AREA IS ITS PHYSICAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING The city of Nanaimo and i t s surrounding districts lie in a physical setting typical of the southeast coastal plain of Vancouver Island. Along its whole extent the eoastal plain exhibits few important variations of topography, climate, soi l or vegetation. It extends only a ^.ort dis-tance inland and few parts of the plain lie above the 500 foot contour. For these reasons, there are no profound differences resulting from either latitude or altitude throughout the region. However, there are many local variations in topography which produce slight climatic and other changes. In detail, therefore, the coastal plain ex-hibits a variety of landscapes which, added to the attract-iveness of the climate, makes the region a pleasant place in which to live. The Ianaimo area is dominated by the peak of Mt. Benson which rises rather abruptly behind the city. (See Figure 1 ) . Near .the coast are found two lesser uplands, the Woodley Range at the head of ladysmith Harbour, and Cottle H i l l which crowns the ridge lying between lanoose Bay and Departure Bay. Figure 1. The Kauai mo Area - Place Eames Base map: B.C. Forest Service, 1937. Topographical boundary of the coastal p l a i n . Advance Sheet Ho. 6, S o i l Survey of southeastern Vancouver Island, 1943. l i m i t s of settlement based on BoCo Forest Service Hap, 1937„ Areas of workable coal seams-, adapted from Paper 47-22, Geological Survey of Canada0 by A.F. Buckhamo . L A N T 2 V I L L E NANOOSe BAY ,I14"|00' TWH NANAIMO AREA BOUNDARIES AND PLACE NAMES (2J* 50' E N T R A N C E I, 4q "10 M T B E N S O N L I M I T S OF A R E A S U N D E R L A I N BY W O R K A B L E C O A L S E A M S . T O P O G R A P H I C A L L I M I T S OF THE C O A S T A L P L A I N . L I M I T S OF S E T T L E M E N T . .BOUNDARY OF STUDY A R E A . 9 Between Mt. Benson and Cottle H i l l l i e s the drainage basin of the Millstone River, The stream receives the waters of numerous creeks on the mountain slopes and drains Brannen, Long, Diver and Westwood Lakes, on the southern flanks of Mt. Benson, the small streams f a l l into Chase River and into the sea near the delta of the Nanaimo River. Other small river include the unnamed creek which drains Richard Lake, those comprising the Quennel-Holden drainage system to the east and that draining Michael Lake. The two large rivers of the area are the Nanaimo River and Haslam Creek. The latter flows into the main stream i n the v i c i n i t y of Cassidy. The indented nature of the coast-line and the prevalence of off-shore islands gives rise to a series of small connecting channels and arms of the sea. Only three of the settlements i n the area are located on the coasts Nanaimo and i t s surrounding districts of Brechin, Harewood and Chase River, Lantzville on Nanoose Bay and Departure Bay. Inland, from north to south, are found Wellington, Northfield, Bast Wellington, South Wellington, Cedar and Cassidy, The prevalence of numerous agglomerated settlements in the area indicates a f a i r l y intense u t i l i z a t i o n of non-agrialtural resources, although a high proportion of the surface i s tree-covered. 10. The earliest European settlement was founded at lanaimo in 185E when the coal seams were f i r s t exploited. For many years thereafter, the history of the town and of the industry were one. The town and i t s tributary area enjoyed frrosp#2fity or suffered (depression with the industry. Disasters in the mines were tragedies to the whole community. Strikes and violence disrupted community l i f e equally as much as they did coal-mining. Only i n recent years has the progress of the industry been of minor importance to the area, or have major developments i n the community occurred which were disassociated from coal-mining. The existence of coal at lanaimo was f i r s t made known to the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1850, but i t was not u n t i l 1852, with the opening up of a Pacific coast market for coal that mining operations were commenced. The f i r s t shipment from the f i e l d was one of f i f t y tons raised during an inspection tr i p by Governor Douglas i n August, 1852. In the same month, Joseph McKay, the company servant who f i r s t made the discovery of coal, was sent to the f i e l d to supervise operations. A short time later the miners who had been employed i n an unsuccessful coal-mining venture at Fort Eupert were transferred to the workings at lanaimo• 1 MCKelvie, B.A., "The founding of lanaimo," B.C. Historical Quarterly, Vol. 8, l o . 3, 1944, p. 170 2 i b i d . , p. 173 3 i b i d . , p. 176 11. The Hudson's Bay Company, through the N anaimo Coal Company, continued to operate the mines u n t i l 1861. Workers fo r the mines during the ea r l y period were r e c r u i t e d i n the B r i t i s h Isles. The f i r s t group of these to a r r i v e was com-posed of twenty-two Staffordshire miners who, with their wives and fa m i l i e s , made the sea voyage v i a Cape Horn i n 1854, 1 These were joined at various times by others as the operations expanded. From the beginning, the population of the town has been of predominantly B r i t i s h o r i g i n . The scope of the industry and the s i z e of the town were both r e s t r i c t e d . In 1856, no coal was sold at a l l . Mining operations were confined to the immediate waterfront v i c i n i t y and to Newcastle Island. The town occupied part of the narrow peninsula which today forms the present commercial d i s t r i c t . From 1852 to 1861, the t o t a l coal production amounted to only 55,408 long tons. In 1861, the mines, the area held as coal lands, the townsite and the business/establishments of the town were sold to the Vancouver Coal Company. This firm extended operations into the South F i e l d , i n the v i c i n i t y of Chase Hiver. Production and employment showed considerable r e l a t i v e increase but the actual increase was small. The 1 i b i d . , p7l87 2 B.C. Archives, Mem. IV, -House of Assembly Correspond-ence Book, p. 28, l e t t e r from Governor Douglas to the House, 8th June, 1857. 3 Williams, O f f i c i a l B.C. Directory, 1893, p. 51. IE. fi r s t ' great expansion i n the industry occurred i n 1869, with the discovery, "by Robert Dunsmuir, of coal at Wellington. The Wellington mines .commenced operations 1871. Three years later, the city of lanaimo was incorporated. The Robert Dunsmuir firm and the Vancouver Coal Company and their successors have been the chief operators i n the Nanaimo f i e l d throughout i t s entire period of productivity. Both companies have undergone several changes of organization during their period of operation.1 In 1889 the older company became known as the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company. It was again reorganized i n 1908 as the Western Fuel Company, becoming in 1918 the Canadian Western Fuel Company Limited and in 1921 the Western fuel Corporation of Canada, Limited. This Company was bought by the Dunsmuir firm in 1928, but continued to operate u n t i l the last of i t s mines was exhausted i n 1939. The Wellington firm was organ-ized i n 1871 as Dunsmuir, Diggle & Company. In 1883, the firm became known as R. Dunsmuir & Sons and in 1899 as the Wellington Colliery Company Limited. In 1910, the firm was reorganized as the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Limited, under which name it s t i l l operates. Some of these changes were no doubt made i n response to changing economic conditions, but many appear to have been associated with changes i n internal administrative policies* of the companies concerned. 1 l.F . Buckham, Paper 47-22 (map), "Nanaimo Coalfield, British Columbia," G.S.C. , 1947. 13. Settlement i n the Hanaimo area was, at f i r s t , closely a l l i e d to the expansion of the coal-mining Industry. The earliest community of any size beyond Nanaimo i t s e l f was Wellington, although some few settlers had probably settled at an earlier date at Chase Hirer. Departure Bay was established as the shipping point for the Wellington mines and a residential community developed along the shore. By 1876, the voters l i s t showed a few farmers resident i n Cranberry, Cedar, Mountain and Wellington land d i s t r i c t s , as well as on Gabriola Island and at Departure Bay. Coal-mining activity provided the market f o r the farm produce of the t ime. Irom 1880 to 1890, areal expansion of the industry led to the establishment of further settlement at Chase Eiver, and to the development of a community at Eorthfield, both Vancouver Coal Company mine si t e s . Dunsmulr & Diggle began mining i n the Millstone Valley i n 1881. i n 1882 a smaller firm began mining in the same vi c i n i t y at East Wellington. The next development of settlement occurred about 1900 when the Wellington mines were exhausted. A new section of the f i e l d was opened up at Extension; that mining village and, later, ladysmith, being established as a result. Mining was commenced at South Wellington in 1895, by the Dunsmulr firm and by another firm i n 1907,1 but full-scale 1 Clapp, CH., Geology of the Nanaimo Map Area, Mem.51, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 1914, p. 5. 14. development at South Wellington came with the period of activity during World War I. The last coal-mining settlements were established during World War I. Cassidy was founded as the company town of the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company in 1917.1 Lentzvilie was also established as the Compaay town of the Nanoose Wellington Colliery Company in that year. Settlement at Cedar was less definitely associated with coal-mining but increased through time as the population of the whole area expanded. The decade from 1880 to 1890 marked the period of greatest development i n the Nanaimo f i e l d , due i n part to the growing importance of the whole Pacific Coast region. In 1886, the Esquimault and Nanaimo BaL lway was built by the Dunsmuir Company to provide access to the Victoria market. During the same year the transcontinental railway line came into operation and the city of Vancouver was founded. These two developments made possible the establishment of a market which became increasingly significant to the Nanaimo f i e l d . Mining expansion during 12iis period was reflected in an increase i n population i n Nanaimo and i t s surrounding d i s -t r i c t s . Schools and roads were built to accommodate the growing population beyond the c i t y . Neither the community nor -the industry, however, experienced progressive development and continued well-being. £ British Columbia, Report of Minister of Mines, 1917. 15. She d i f f i c u l t i e s of mining operations and the defici encies of prevailing equipment and methods led to many serious disasters. The worst of these was the explosion at lumber One mine of the Vancouver Coal Company on May 3rd, 1887, in which 150 lives were lost. Such disastrous explosions occurred at various times during the early years. Later on, the greatest danger was caused by flooding, when neighbouring operations broke through into abandoned p i t s . The necessity of working i n such hazardous conditions must have had incalculable sociological effects upon the community. From 1890 u n t i l World War I economic in s t a b i l i t y and labour trouble beset both industry and population. Daring the early 1890's, the competition of coal from Australia aid Britain reduced the demand for Hanaimo coal. A depression ensured from which recovery was not made u n t i l 1894.1 Periods of depression and boom were experienced in the f i r s t decade of the twentieth century, probably associated with the f i r s t encroachment upon the coal market by fuel o i l . The most serious disruptions of the period were caused by discontent among the employees. In 1907, a strike which had been called i n an attempt to oust Chinese labourers from underground workings was settled through the efforts of W.l. HcXenz ie King, then Deputy Minister of Labour in the Federal C i v i l Service.2 1 Begg, Alexander, History of Br i t i s h Columbia, William Briggs, Toronto, 1894, p. 461. ~ ~ 2 Vancouver Daily Province. July 24, 1950. 16. The most serious strike was, however, that which began in the autumn of 1912 and was not f i n a l l y settled u n t i l after the outbreak of war in Europe. The strike broke out i n September, 1912 in the Cumberland mines of the Dunsmuir firm and spread almost immediately to the company's Extension c o l l i e r i e s .1 in May, 1913, the United Mine Workers of America joined the strike affecting a l l other operations in the Nanaimo f i e l d . Agreements were reached with the other companies i n September, 1913, but i t was not u n t i l October, 1914, that the Extension mine was re-opened. Much bitter feeling was engendered by the strike; several outbreaks of violence occurred, and the m i l i t i a was called i n to maintain order. Greek strike-breakers were employed. Other European immigrant workers employed in the mine, however, supported the strikers. Vivid memories of those tense times s t i l l remain in the minds of the people who witnessed the events. Apart from any other considerations, the economic results of the strike were most serious. When the strike began, the market was absorbing a l l coal produced quite readily. When the source of coal was cut off, and i t s future restoration appeared remote, many consumers turned to pabroleum from California as an alternative f u e l . This 1 Newton, John, Inspector, of Ming s, Nanaimo in Report of Minister of Mines, 1913. ^ ^ " l Eeport of Minister of Mines, 1914. 17. competing fuel which had been gaining i n popularity was thus able to secure a position on the market which i t never after-ward completely relinquished. Collieries operating on a part-time schedule with reduced staffs were easily capable of supplying the demand for coal at the beginning of 1914. One mine, the Brechin workings of the Western Fuel Company, was entirely abandoned as a result of the strike. The effect on local business firms was severe. Some of those merchants who attempted to extend credit to the strikers and their families were forced into bankruptcy as a result. Decreased community purchasing power affected a l l commercial activity i n the area. The recession caused by the strike was, perhaps, dis -pelled more rapidly than might have been expected by the stimulus of World War I. By 1916, production had returned to i t s previous l e v e l , although employment was s t i l l less than i n 1912. The abnormal industrial activity of the war years was only temporary i n effect, however, and only obscured the inroads upon the market being made by petroleum from California. The last pBriod of mining prosperity i n the f i e l d began during the war and continued until 1923. After that year, a decline in employment and production began which has con-tinued intermittently u n t i l the* present day. This decline in employment and production was occasioned not merely by 18. adverse market conditions, "but by the approaching exhaustion of the Nanaimo seams. Even before the depression, the effects of declining prosperity were f e l t in the area. The depression merely accelerated a process which was already well begun. In 1930, a small Nanaimo mine was closed, and development work on the Reserve mine of the Western Fuel Corporation was suspended. In 1931, Canadian Collieries Extension mines were abandoned. The following year the Granby mine at Cassidy, whose operations had been decreasing, was f i n a l l y elosed. Mining activity was con-fined to the South Wellington mine, Number One mine on the Esplanade (which increased i t s staff) and the small mines being operated in the abandoned workings of the larger companies. The effects on the population were severe. Alternative employment was limited, and many turned subsistence farming to aid in maintaining their families. The population of Nanaimo in 1931 had not yet showed a decline, perhaps due to the employment given in the old waterfront mine, but there appears to have been a decline i n population through-out the remainder of the Nanaimo area. Coal-mining never again regained i t s former local importance. As improved economic conditions followed the depression, the industry revived slightly. Three new mines 19. of limited reserve were opened, but employment did not greatly increase. When World War II broke out, a labour shortage developed which prevented any sizeable increase i n operations. At present rates of production, MacKay for sees the cessation of large scale operati ons between 1956 and 1960, after which time only small mines w i l l be i n operation. 1 During the war, the importance of Ianaimo as a d i s -tributing centre came into real prominence. An army canp was established on the slopes behind the town. Commercial activity received considerable stimulation and, following the war, many of the men who had been stationed in the camp established permanent residence in the area. The surge of activity i n Vancouver Island produced by the war, especially in the lumber industry, gave rise to the necessity for a trading, servicing and distributing centre. Because of i t s location, th® Kanaimo area f u l f i l l e d this need. The expansion of business a c t i v i t y and population during and following the war has, for the f i r s t time, been unrelated to the progress of coal-mining. Mine workers now form a small proportion of the total ]ahour force. Two communities s t i l l depend upon mining, but a l l the others have turned to other forms of activity for which they possess some natural advantage. One resource, the coal seams, has now been nearly ex-hausted, in the Kanaimo area. Increasing use i s being 1 MacKay, B.E., Coal Reserves of Canada, G.S.C., Ottawa reprint of Chap.l and App.A of Report of Royal Commission on Coal, 1946, p. 53 EO. made of another resource, location. Although mining i s now of insignificant importance, the effects seem l i k e l y to influence the future of the area in i t s new role for a longer period than the duration of the industry i t s e l f . CHAPTER III PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE 1A1AIMO AREA Certain factors of physical geography made possible the development of the lanaimo area as a coal-mining d i s t r i c t , thus setting i t apart from other parts of the east coast plain of Vancouver Island. In general, however, the geo-graphical environment is similar to that of the whole region. I Location The lanaimo area l i e s on the coastal plain nearly due west of Vancouver, thirty-six miles across the Strait of Georgia. In relation to the rest of the Pacific Coast, the location of the city and i t s tributary area has proved to be of varying strategic importance according to different times and circumstances. With respect to the more immediate region, i t s locati on has proved to be of steadily increas-ing importance. During i t s early history, the location of the coal-f i e l d near tide-water gave i t access to the Pacific coast market, and particularly to the port of San Francisco, i n spite of the fact that it was not on the main trade routes, the area had sufficient resources to attract shipping from the southerly sea-routes to the port of lanaimo. 22. In later years it s relative accessibility to San Francisco proved to be a disadvantage. She water-routes which had made possible the cheap shipment of coal later made possible a reverse flow of fuel o i l from the California f i e l d s . The Nanaimo coal-field not only lost part of Its bunkering sales to petroleum but also suffered invasion of it s local market in the province of B r i t i s h Columbia to the competing f u e l . More recently, the location of Uanaimo with respect to Pacific Ocean trade routes has again proved to be an asset. Ships calling at Vancouver find i t easy to make the short tr i p to H anaimo to load lumber at the Assembly wharf. Uanaimo has become one of the lesser ports which share in the activity of shipping attracted to the great port of Vancouver. loca l l y , the strategic location of Uanaimo is more pronounced. It is the closest shipping point on Vancouver Island to Vancouver, and the densely populated lower main-land region. This fact of i t s e l f would not re cessarily pro-duce an important distributing point. The deciding factor has been the location of Kanaimo in relation to the populated area of Vancouver Island. Banaimo is seventy-two miles from Victoria, f i f t y four from Alberni, sixty eight from Courtney and ninety-nine from Campbell River. (See Figure 2). The location of the coal-field was advaatageous during the period F i g u r e 2. S t r a t e g i c L o c a t i o n From; B r i t i s h Columbia, D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n , estimated as at Decembe 1945, map issued by Bureau of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a . # 2500 i n organized t e r r i t o r y • 250 i n organized t e r r i t o r y 0 250 i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y . T o t a l populations of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a given as a whole. 24. of g r e a t e s t c o a l - m i n i n g a c t i v i t y . The l o c a t i o n of the p o r t and i t s f a c i l i t i e s has been the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e f a c t o r i n p e r m i t t i n g renewed development s i n c e mining has d e c l i n e d . II EXTENT AMD BOUNDARIES OF TEE AREA The lanaimo area of t h i s study i s l i m i t e d t o t h a t p a r t of the c o a s t a l p l a i n which has been dependent upon the Nanaimo c o a l - f i e l d f o r i t s p r o s p e r i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i n c l u d e s o n l y those d i s t r i c t s which today form t h e immediate h i n t e r l a n d of t h e town. This i s the a r e a from which the l o c a l labour f o r c e i s drawn, and I n which l o c a l l y c e n t r e d i n d u s t r y o p e r a t e s . I t i s the a r e a i n which the c i t y i t s e l f i s the main shopping and f u n c t i o n a l centre f o r the p o p u l a t i o n . The exact boundaries of t h e a r e a were determined on a b a s i s of s e v e r a l g e o g r a p h i c a l and economic f a c t o r s . The boundary between the c o a s t a l p l a i n and the i n t e r i o r mountains i s not always obvious, s i n c e the " p l a i n " i t s e l f i s a r e g i o n of rough topography. The s o i l Survey of 1944 has drawn t h i s boundary through the zone where i n c r e a s i n g slope and the presence of rock outcrops i n d i c a t e s the margin of t h e p l a i n . From the point of view of topography a l o n e , t h i s boundary i s v a l i d . (See F i g u r e 1, p.8). W i t h i n the c o a s t a l p l a i n , the extent of workable c o a l seams forms the nucleus of the Hanaimo a r e a s . (See F i g u r e 3 ) . The d i s t r i c t s where mining o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d on 25. Figure 3 . Geology Prom Paper: 47-22, Geological Survey of Canada "Kanaimo Coalfield, British Columhis," by A.F. Buckham, 1947. r - l •P CD •H O I H a <s ( D O •p o >a O co a -p oS crJ a EH / 1 J / \ \ y / Y 26. are confined to the seaward portions of the area underlaid by Cretaceous sediments. The extent of the area beyond this geological core has been determined upon the basis of human use. Permanent settlement i n the v i c i n i t y of Hanaimo is stabilized in regard to its/inland l i m i t s . In 1937, the British Columbia Forest Service prepared a map showing, among other things, the land cleared for settlement and cultivation at that date. Changes have occurred within the limits of the settled area but i t s westward margin remains essentially the same to day. The extent of the Nanaimo area along the coastal plain has been determined on the basis of past participation i n coal-mining, coupled with present function in the distribut-ing economy of today. The area included in this category extends from Lantzville on the south shore of lanoose Bay. It excludes ladysmith which, although founded as a point for shipping coal, today pursues an existence completely divorced from the activity of the hanaimo area. The southern boundary of the area thus passes through the junction of two roads which mark the southern extent of the area dependent upon Hanaimo for i t s prime necessities. It follows the northern boundary of the Indian Reserve on Kulleet Bay, whose inhabit-ants have had l i t t l e i f any association with Hanaimo i t s e l f . 27. The Nanaimo a r e a i n c l u d e s o n l y those o f f - s h o r e i s l a n d s , P r o t e c t i o n and Newcastle, where a c t i v e mining o p e r a t i o n s were pursued. The Nanaimo a r e a so d e f i n e d extends f o r about 18 m i l e s northwest-southeast and v a r i e s i n w i d t h from about two to seven miles. The t o t a l a r e a of the d i s t r i c t i s about one hundred square m i l e s . I l l GEOLOGY G e o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s have imposed d i f f i c u l t i e s upon the c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y o f the Nanaimo f i e l d . While the f i e l d c o u l d not have been regarded as a marg i n a l producer during i t s most p r o d u c t i v e years, i t d i d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s u f f e r from disadvantageous p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s i n i t s com-p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r coal-mining a r e a s . E x t e n s i v e work on t h e geology o f the Nanaimo c o a l f i e l d has been done by C h a r l e s '£. Clapp and, more r e c e n t l y , by A.F. Buckham, both of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey. The f o l l o w i n g passages a r e a summarization of the memoir by Clapp, p u b l i s h e d i n 1914 and of a paper by Buckham p u b l i s h e d i n 1947. inform-a t i o n was a l s o obtained from the map o f the f i e l d prepared by the l a t t e r and p u b l i s h e d by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n 1947. The g r e a t e r p a r t of Vancouver I s l a n d i s made up of a core of r e s i s t a n t c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s . Along both c o a s t s , but more 1 "The Nanaimo Coal F i e l d , " Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Mining and M e t a l l u r g y , T r a n s a c t i o n s , v o l . 27, 1947, p. 460. 28. extensively developed on the east coast are the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which l i e above the crystalline rocks and contain coal measures. These sedimentary rocks known as the Nanaimo series occur in five basins; the Suquash, Albemi, Comox, Nanaimo and Cowichan basins. Only the lower formations of the series are found i n the Cowichan, a l l formations are found in the Nanaimo and only the upper formations in the Comox basin. It is in these last two basins alone that the eoal deposits are of commercial value.1 The Nanaimo basin is separated from the Cowichan basin to the south and the Comox basin to the north by axes of crystalline rocks. It has a length of about thirty miles on Vancouver Island. Its width varies greatly, the average being about nine miles. A. Historical Geology The oldest rocks on Vancouver Island date from the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic, but those in the vicinity of Nanaimo date from the later time only. In the 3?riassio and Jurassic periods, extensive vulcanism in the region of Southern Vancouver Island produced the andesitic and basaltic lavas known as the Vancouver volcanics. Some sedimentation occurred also, resulting i n the formation of the Sicker series. The Vancouver volcanics and the Sicker series, greatly deformed and metamorphosed, comprise part of the 1 MacKay, Coal Reserves of Canada, p. 52. 29. Vancouver group. They are exposed i n the r i d g e n o r t h of Departure Bay, i n Mount Benson, and i n Mount Hayes which r i s e s southwest o f t h e lanaimo a r e a . Together these r o c k s form the "basement*' upon which the c o a l - b e a r i n g f o r m a t i o n s were d e p o s i t e d . During the l a t e J u r a s s i c and e a r l y Cretaceous, p r o b a b l y concomitant w i t h the i r r u p t i o n of t he Coast Range b a t h o l i t h , the Vancouver group was deformed and i n t r u d e d by g r a n i t i c r o c k s . F o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g were g e n e r a l along t h e B r i t i s h Columbia coast. The Georgia d e p r e s s i o n was f i r s t down-warped and t h e I s l a n d Ranges were f i r s t u p l i f t e d . A p e r i o d of e r o s i o n f o l l o w e d , when the s u r f a c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l i e f was developed which u n d e r l i e s t h e sedimentary s t r a t a i n the lanaimo a r e a . In the Upper Cretaceous, Vancouver I s l a n d subsided i n r e l a t i o n to sea l e v e l ; but r a p i d e r o s i o n continued i n the unsubmerged p o r t i o n s , and by the end o f the p e r i o d , the J u r a -Cretaceous mountains were g r e a t l y reduced i n e l e v a t i o n . The sediments from t h e higher a r e a were deposited on the lower, submerged f l a n k s o f t h e ranges. These are the sediments com-p r i s i n g the lanaimo s e r i e s i n which t h e c o a l seams are found. The s h o r e - l i n e ofthe Cretaceous sea was not statL onary. The s t r a t a of the s e r i e s i n t h e v a r i o u s b a s i n s e x h i b i t a g r a d a t i o n which proves a g e n e r a l northward advance of t h e n o r t h s h o r e . 1 l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s o c c u r r e d a l s o . D e p o s i t i o n 1 Buckham, A.F., "The lanaimo Coal F i e l d " , T r a n s a c t i o n s CI.M.H. , v o l . 5 0 , 1947, p.462. 30. was so rapid that i t sometimes overbalanced the effects of the subsidence and the strata were formed under marine, estuarine or even t err est i a l conditions. "Onus the rapid vertical and horizontal gradation of the sediments was pro-duced which has formed one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of mining i n the f i e l d . A further serious disadvantage accrues from the fact that the formation of the Upper Cretaceous coal seams took place in off-shore lagoons.1 Conditions at the time of deposition limited the quantity of the reserves and also impaired the quality of the coal contained i n the seams. The period of erosion and sedimentation was brought to an end i n the early Eocene by mountain building and igneous Intrusion.. The whole Brit i s h Columbia coast was subjected to compression and faulting.2 m the Nanaimo basin, the disturbance caused movement on previously existing fractures. Uplifting in Eocene time resulted i n a period of intense erosion throughout much of the Tertiary during: which the mountains were greatly reduced. In the late Pliocene, wide-spread u p l i f t took place i n the Cordillera region, the lands near the coast being elevated about 2000 feet. The succeed-ing cycle of f l u v i a l erosion had advanced only to an immature state by the time of Pleistocene glaciation.3 1 i b i d . , p. 470. 2 Peacock, M.A., "The F i o r d land of British Columbia", Bu l l . G.S.A., vol. 46, 1935, p. 680. 3 i b i d . , p. 686. 31. At the end of the Pliocene, the underlying crystalline rocks were parti a l l y exposed. The softer sedimentary rocks were eroded into subsequent valleys, and the more resistant strata were l e f t as upstanding euesta-like ridges,1 Two periods of Pleistocene glaciation occurred in the Nanaimo area. During the f i r s t , or Admiralty epoch, the area was severely glaciated. Few deposits of that time are found in the Nanaimo area. Although the general subsidence of the coast is placed by Peacock at the end of or following the Pleistocene glaciation,^ some earlier sinking must have taken place in the Nanaimo area, for the Puyallup inter-glacial deposits are partly of marine or i g i n .3 These deposits were eroded in some places by the second, or Yashon, glacial advance when two glaciers flowed into the sea in the Nanaimo area. These last glaciers retreated rapidly, and a large delta was formed at the shore-line of that time. Along the British Columbia coast, great subsidence near the end of the Pleistocene time has been followed by partial 4 recovery i n the Recent period. in spite of the u p l i f t , the coastline in the vi c i n i t y of Nanaimo s t i l l presents a drowned appearance. The elevation of the pro-glacial delta, about 1 Clapp, C.H., in "Coal Fields of British Columbia", D.B. Bowling i d . , Mem.,69, G.S.C. , 1915, p. 94. 2 Peacd<»k,p. 691. 3 C l a p p , p. 92. 4 Peacock, op.cit., 691 32. four hundred feet, indicates up l i f t i n the area of at least that amount. This movement has rejuvenated the rivers causing them to terrace the glacial deposits and cut canyons in the underlying sedimentary rocks. On Protection and lewcastle Islands rock debris mantles the country rock. A local shale formation has weathered to form a moderately f e r t i l e s o i l on the mainland of Vancouver Island.1 Recent deltaic and swamp deposits have also been fo rmed. B. Description of Formations The basement rocks underlying the Hanaimo series are com-posed of the Vancouver group and the later intrusive rocks. The former is represented in the lanaimo area by meta-andesites (Vancouver Volcanics) and the eherty and slaty rocks of the 2 Sicker series. The intrusives i n the basement rocks include gabbro-diorite, Saanich granodiorite and Sicker gabbro or gabbro porphyrite. It was chiefly from these rocks that the sediments composing the Nanaimo series were derived. Almost every formation i n the lanaimo series exhibits considerable variation in character throughout i t s area. Only those formations in immediate contact with the seams have had much influence upon the coal-mining industry since their variations affect the character of the floors and roofs of the seams. 1 Spilsbury, R.E., Soil Survey of Vancouver island, B.C. Forest Service, 1944, p. 47. 2 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 38. 33. The t h r e e commercial seams of the lanaimo f i e l d are found i n the lowest t h i r d of the s e r i e s . The f i r s t , the W e l l i n g t o n seam, l i e s o n l y about 700 f e e t above the base o f the s e r i e s . About 1000 f e e t over the W e l l i n g t o n l i e s the Newcastle seam. The Douglas seam l i e s s i x t y f e e t above the l a t t e r . The t o t a l t h i c k n e s s of the formations o v e r l y i n g t h e Douglas seam amounts to n e a r l y 5000 f e e t (See F i g u r e 3 ) . E r o s i o n has removed the g r e a t e r p a r t of the s t r a t a . At the i n l a n d margins of t h e f i e l d the seams commonly r e a c h the s u r f a c e , and c o a l was u s u a l l y mined a t a depth o f l e s s than 1000 f e e t below t h e s u r f a c e . Below the W e l l i n g t o n seam l i e t h e Benson b a s a l conglom-erate and the Haslam f o r m a t i o n , the l a t t e r a f a i r l y t h i c k d e p o s i t o f marine s h a l e . The f l o o r o f the seam i s formed by the E a s t W e l l i n g t o n sandstone. T h i s r o c k i s u s u a l l y f i r m , forming a f a i r l y s t a b l e f l o o r f o r the seam, i n a few p l a c e s , however, a bed o f s h a l e one f o o t t h i c k may l i e below the 1 coal. The E x t e n s i o n f o r m a t i o n composes the r o o f o f the W e l l i n g -t o n seam. The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r o c k of t h i s f o r m a t i o n i s a f a i r l y s t r o n g conglomerate. The r o o f o f the seam i s l e s s uniform than t h e f l o o r , however, f o r i n p l a c e s i t may be formed of sandstone or sandy s h a l e . O v e r l y i n g the E x t e n s i o n form-a t i o n , and f o r m i n g the f l o o r o f the Newcastle seam, i s the 1 Buckham, l p . c i t . , p. 468. 34» Cranberry f o r m a t i o n . I n many p l a c e s , t h i s i s a thin-bedded sandstone, but i n others i t may be a s h a l y sandstone. The r o o f of the Newcastle seam i s the Newcastle f o r m a t i o n i n which the Douglas seam i s found. The Douglas seam i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e t h r e e t o occur i n the middle of a f o r m a t i o n . The Newcastle formation which forms both i t s r o o f and f l o o r i s v e r y v a r i a b l e . Most common of the Newcastle r o c k s i s t h e g r i t which i s exposed a t Nanaimo. At South W e l l i n g t o n , the same f o r m a t i o n i s composed of sandy sha l e s and s h a l y s a n d s t o n e s . 1 Both r o o f and f l o o r of the Douglas seam, t h e r e f o r e , are o f v a r i a b l e c h a r a c t e r . Although some o f the s t r a i a overl y i n g the Newcastle form-a t i o n c o n t a i n t h i n i n t e r b e d s ot c o a l , no seam i s of commercial t h i c k n e s s . The P r o t e c t i o n f o r m a t i o n , composed c h i e f l y o f sandstone, contains s e v e r a l t h i n seams. T h i s f o r m a t i o n i s the e q u i v a l e n t of t h e one i n which c o a l i s found i n the Cumber-land f i e l d , but t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s of the seams i n 2 the two f i e l d s do not correspond. The remaining formations a r e , i n ascending o r d e r , the Cedar D i s t r i c t s h a l e s , the De Courcs^ sandstone, the Northumber-l a n d s h a l e s and sandstone and the G a b r i o l a sandstone. The two last-named outcrop most e x t e n s i v e l y i n the o f f - s h o r e i s l a n d s . 1 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 6 1 . 2 Buckham, op. c i t . , p. 468. 3 5 . C. S t r u c t u r a l Geology The f a u l t system o f the Nanaimo c o a l f i e l d i s t h e most important s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e to a f f e c t t h e c o a l seams. T h i s system forms p a r t of a major f a u l t zone which extends f o r about 70 m i l e s along t h e e a s t e r n coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d . 1 T h i s zone, i n t u r n , i s o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f the f a u l t system along the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. The f i r s t p e r i o d of widespread d i s t u r b a n c e and f a u l t i n g o c c u r r e d i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e l o n g p e r i o d of J u r a -Cretaceous i n t r u s i o n and m o u n t a i n - b u i l d i n g . I n response "to pressure from the n o r t h e a s t , a l o n g i t u d i n a l f r a c t u r e system concordant w i t h the present c o a s t l i n e was developed. Although t h e r e i s mo d i r e c t evidence, the Nanaimo f a u l t s are c o n s i d e r e d to form p a r t o f the s ystem. 3 (See F i g u r e 3, p. 25), The second p e r i o d o f major d i s t u r b a n c e occurred i n -the e a r l y Eocene. At that time, n e a r l y equal f o r c e s are thought to have e x e r t e d p r e s s u r e from b o t h the n o r t h e a s t and south-4 west. In the Nanaimo ar e a , movement was renewed on the f a u l t s which a l r e a d y e x i s t e d , and because the c o a l bearing sedimentary s t r a t a had been d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l , the measures were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e . In t h e lower s t r a t a of the Nanaimo f i e l d , the s t r e s s o f 1 Buckham, op. c i t . , p. 463. 2 Peacock, op. c i t . , p. 683. 3 Buckham, op. c i t . , p. 466. 4 Peacock, op. c i t . , p. 685. 56. tae disturbance was released by fracturing. Farther up, sharp r o l l s were formed and near the surface, the strata were gently folded. As coal i s a soft rock, much of the shearing and slipping took place within the beds themselves, so that some of the coal deposits are slickensided. The strike of the r o l l s and fazlts varies, but i s generally northwest. Folding and faulting, and their resultant consequences, are more pro-nounced in the south and west parts of the f i e l d , where the faults are more closely spaced. Folding i s evidenced by tire pinches and swells common in tie seams of the faield.1 The good coal has migrated along the limbs of the fold to points where pressure was less, leaving o concentration of rash i n the pinches. Where the stress was not released by fracturing, the residual stress remaining in the folds is believed to have been responsible for the occurrences of "blow-outs"3 which hampered mining operations 4 particularly in the Douglas seam. 1 Buckham, op.,cit., 471 2 "Rash" i s the local name for the d i r t y , slickensided coal in the pinched parts of the seams. Its ash content i s about 55 per cent. 3 When mining operations release some of the pressure on the seams, outbursts of gas and finely divided coal occur, which are locally known as "blow-outs". 4 Buckham, loc. c i t . 37. 33. Economic Geology The original conditions of deposition of the coal-measures, in shallow lagoons along the coast, have probably had more profound effects upon the c o a l - f i e l d than has any other geological factor. The area of the coal-field in i t s original form was thus quite limited, since the coastal lagoons did not attain the size of the vast inland swamps in which many cceL-fields were deposited. On Vancouver island as a whole, mining experience has taught that the best coal i s found close to the outcropping of the seams.1 The coal-measures deteriorate seaward as the outer limits of the Cretaceous lagoons are approached. Buckham postulates similar deterioration landward, and, taking into consideration the seaward extent of the workable seams and the distance inland of the Vancouver Island Range, concludes that about half of the original deposits have been lost in post-Upper Cretaceous .erosion.2 The original reserve i s thus known to have been limited and the present reserve to be approaching exhaustion. The extent of workable coal within the limits of the f i e l d has also been restricted by original depositional con-ditions. Peat could form in reasonable thickness only when the shoreline remained stationary for a considerable period of time.3 1 Buckham, op. c i t . , p. 472. 2 loc. c i t . 3 loc. c i t . 38. The rarity of a stable Upper Cretaceous shoreline is attested by the fact that i n 7000 feet of sediments the total thickness of mineable coal averages less than twenty feet. These variations are attributed to the original lagoon con-ditions. The lagoons fozmed in bays, but not on straight stretches of coast or in front of headlands.1 Headlands, wave action and the action of streams discharging from the uplands are thought to account for the areas of dirty coal, whereas areas of good coal are thought to have been deposited in the lee of the headlands. The prevalent partings of shale or "wants",2 are also thought to have originated with the conditions prevailing in the lagoons. The sand-bars protecting the lagoons from the sea are thought to have been broken by violent storms, permitting the invasion of muddy sea water and the consequent s i l t i n g of the lagoon fl o o r s ,3 The Wellington coal seam, lowest of the three seams mined, has proved workable i n an area twelve miles long and about one mile wide, from Wellington to Extension. Its thick-ness i s extremely variable "from vi r t u a l l y nothing to nearly thirty feet", but i t s average thickness i s from four to seven 1 Buckham, op. c i t . , p. 470. 2 "Wants" are thick intercede, or "parting^', of shale. In places, they entirely displace the coal, so that the inter-val between the floor and roof of the seam is completely f i l l e d with rock. 3 Buckham, loc. c i t . 39» f e e t . The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are caused hy f o l d s or "bends i n the r o o f , (see F i g u r e 4) the E a s t W e l l i n g t o n sandstone f l o o r being f a i r l y r e g u l a r . There are few p e r s i s t e n t p a r t i n g s i n the seans near East W e l l i n g t o n but near E x t e n s i o n the seam c o n t a i n s -three f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t "benches"! separated by " r a s h " or s h a l e . There a r e s e v e r a l minor seams o v e r l y i n g the main W e l l i n g t o n seam which have o c c a s i o n a l l y been mined i n con/junction w i t h the l a r g e r one. The main seam has been mined at W e l l i n g t o n , N o r t h f i e l d , E a s t W e l l i n g t o n , Wakesiah (behind the c i t y of lanaimo), E x t e n s i o n and White Rapids. The middle seam, known as the Newcastle, i s the l e a s t e x tensive of the t h r e e . I t has proved workable i n an a r e a two m i l e s long by one and one h a l f wide under Newcastle and P r o t e c t i o n I s l a n d s . I t i s the most r e g u l a r seam, v a r y i n g where worked, from 20 inches to 80 inches, and c o n t a i n s few p a r t i n g s . The Newcastle seam has been mined at B r e c h i n mine ( N o r t h f i e l d Number 4) and, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Douglas seam, a t the Esplanade mine i n Nanaimo. The Douglas seam has proved workable i n an area nine and one h a l f miles long by one and three q u a r t e r s wide. I t s t h i c k -ness i s at l e a s t as v a r i a b l e as t h a t of the W e l l i n g t o n seam, and averages about f i v e f e e t . V a r i a t i o n s i n t h i s seam are commonly caused by u n d u l a t i o n s i n t h e f l o o r . (See F i g u r e 5 ) . 1 "Benches" i s the name giv e n to s e c t i o n s of the seam whioh a r e separated by p e r s i s t e n t i n t e r b e d s of s h a l e . 40. Figure 4C a. and b 0 Sections of the Wellington seam near East Wellington, shoeing r o l l s . (From F i g . 5, p. 106, Clapp) c. Sections of the Wellington seam near Extension; shewing v a r i a t i o n i n thickness and q u a l i t y . Sections 1 and £ are 200 f e e t apart and se c t i o n s 2 and 3 are 500 feet a p a r t . (From F i g . 6, p. 107, Clapp) 41. f i g u r e 5 . a. and b. Sections of the Douglas seam, showing r o l l s . (From F i g o 7, p. 112, Clapp) c. Se c t i o n of the Douglas seam, showing a p a r t i n g of carbonaceous s h a l e , a "want" due to s i l t i n g . (From J i g . 8. p. 113, Clar>p)o 42. Like the Wellington seam, i t is most irregular in the southern part of the f i e l d , where the seams have been greatly sheared. The coal contains much "rash", as well as rock partings and "wants".1 The Douglas seam has been mined at Eanaimo, on Protection Island, on the Indian Reserve at the mouth of the Hanaimo River, at South Wellington and at Gassidy. The operators of the coal mines in the Nanaimo area have had to contend with many unfavorable conditions resulting from the geological character of the f i e l d . These have included high costs of mining and handling, dissatisfaction of con-sumers and dealers, and dissatisfaction among mine employees. In almost a l l cases, these d i f f i c u l t i e s originate in the irregularity of the seams. The irregular. areal distribution of good coal was particularly disadvantageous to exploratory vrork. The evid-ence obtained by d r i l l i n g bore-holes was frequently very unreliable, and led to many false starts in developmental 2 work. The irregularity within the seams themselves, resulting from pinches and rolls , caused much necessary inefficient operation, hew areas within the mine were commonly concealed by r o l l s and faults, so that development work was costly and time-consuming. In many cases, i t was impossible to use machinery for cutting. The instability of the seams prevented 1 Buckham, op. c i t . , p. 469. £ Graham, Chas. , "The Problems o f the Vancouver Island Coal Industry", C.I.M.M., Trans., vol. £7, 1947, p. 460. 43. in places, the use of electrical equipment or explosives. The pinched areas of "rash" were obviously worthless and the clean coal in the swells could not be completely utilized either, since it was impossible to hold the ribs in the high soft coal.'"" So numerous were the rolls in the Cassidy mine i n the disturbed southemsection, that i t has been estimated that hardly EO percent of the tonnage removed was coal. The frequency of "wants" and shale partings also proved a major source of d i f f i c u l t y . Because the presence of ro ck among the coal increased the costs of preparation and hand-lin g , and because i t s presence i n the marketed product was detrimental to the reputation for clean coal upon which sales depended, the operators encouraged the miners to remove the 2 rock at the coal face. Nevertheless, a great deal of rock did make its way to the tipples and washeries. A yardage rate had to be paid to the mire rs for handling the shale. The costs of the extra work of hauling and washing the coal were estimated to amount to seventy-five cents per ton of coal mined.3 The following table indicates the d i f f i c u l t y of the Extension operations i n comparison to those of Comox in the year ending June 30, 1923.4 1 Campbell, C. M. , "Cassidy and the Douglas Seam," C.I.M.M., Trans., vol. 1924, p. 480. 2 Report of Royal Commission on Labour, British Columbia, 1914, p. M TT. 3 Graham, op. c i t . , p. 473. 4. Graham, loc. c i t . 44 Tipple Commercial lost in Washing Yardage paid i n Production Coal Amt. % addition to regular tonnage (tons) (tons) (tons) rate. Comox Was hery 543,330 294,863 48,467 14.1 $137,120 ladysmith Washery 504,653 240,796 63,857 20.9 $267,000 The methods used in handling the shale in the coal raised dissatisfaction among the mine employees. The miners were expected to remove as much rock as possible when loading the coal onto cars at the face. At the tipple, cars contain-ing over a certain amount of rock, specified by the company, were diverted and dumped and the miner was docked a certain amount of pay. In excess of certain specified amounts, the car would be confiscated. If the amount of rock i n the car were considered to be overly excessive, and i f the miner were proved to have acted deliberately, he was liable to dismissal. The popularity of this system can be judged by i t s t i t l e of the "court house" system.1 Furthermore, the mirB rs working on contract were paid according to the d i f f i c u l t y of mining the coal. They had thus no certainty regarding the exact amount of their wages, and this also led to dissatisfaction.2 The "blow-outs" caused by* the unreleased stress in d i s -turbed a earns also slowed up mining operations. The daager 1 Report on Royal Commission on Coal, 1914, p. 9 2 Report of Royal Commission on Labour, 1914, p. M18. 45. of a c c i d e n t s and f i r e n e c e s s i t a t e d the t a k i n g o f p r e c a u t i o n s , while damage and f o u l i n g of the a i r f o l l o w i n g these o u t b u r s t s 1 slowed r e c o v e r y of mine r o u t i n e a f t e r such a c c i d e n t s . Although many of the c o n d i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above were more s e r i o u s i n the southern p a r t o f the f i e l d , where development came l a s t , the f i e l d as a whole always s u f f e r e d from them, i n the e a r l y days, t h i s disadvantage was overcome by the d i s t a n c e o f t h e market from competing sources of f u e l , but t h i s p r o -t e c t i o n was l o s t e a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h century. The c o a l s of t h e Hanaimo f i e l d are of h i g h v o l a t i l e "A" bituminous rank a c c o r d i n g to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the American 2 S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g M a t e r i a l s . That i s , t h e y c o n t a i n l e s s than 69% o f f i x e d carbon c a l c u l a t e d on a dry a s h - f r e e b a s i s , but i n the ''moist" s t a t e i n which t h e y come from the mine, t h e i r c a l o r i f i c value i s over 14000 B r i t i s h thermal u n i t s per pound. Their c a l o r i f i c value i s 'thus lower t h a n t h a t of l o w - v o l a t i l e bituminus or of a n t h r a c i t e c o a l s . They p r o -duce con s i d e r a b l e smoke and soot when h a n d - f i r e d , owing to l a c k of ciambustion of t h e i r v o l a t i l e components. These f a c t o r s m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e i r appeal to household consumers. T h e i r value t o i n d u s t r y depends to a g r e a t e r extent on t h e i r cost to consumers. T h e i r average ash content, 10.7 per cent, i s f a i r l y high among Canadian c o a l s . 1 Report o f M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1921 2 MacKay, B.R., Coal Reserves of Canada, p. 53 46. W i t h i n the f i e l d i t s e l f , t h e q u a l i t y o f c o a l from d i f f e r e n t seams v a r i e s . The W e l l i n g t o n seam appears to produce the b e s t c o k i n g c o a l of the t h r e e , 1 while the Newcastle seam cokes l e s s r e a d i l y than the o t h e r s . The c o a l from the Douglas seam i s of intermediate q u a l i t y , but t h a t from the s o u t h end of the seam appears to be of h i g h e r q u a l i t y than t h a t from the n o r t h end. I t was i n t h i s d i s t r i c t t h a t the C a s s i d y mine was worked, 4he o n l y one i n the f i e l d which produced p r i m a r i l y as a source o f coking c o a l . The r e s e r v e s of the Nanaimo f i e l d are now known to be approaching exhaustion, but f o r many yaars s e r i o u s miscon-c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the magnitude of the f i e l d were commonly h e l d . The great v a r i a b i l i t y of the seams preclud e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c c u r a t e l y e s t i m a t i n g t h e r e s e r v e s o f the f i e l d . Moreover, the d i s t a n c e to which the measures extended under the sea was unknown. Clapp r e a l i z e d , however, that t h i s d i s t a n c e could not be g r e a t , s i n c e the d e p o s i t i o n took p l a c e i n c o a s t a l lagoons. The b a s i s upon which Clapp made h i s estimate was s i m i l a r to t h a t employed by Dr. D.B. Dowling i n e s t i m a t i n g the Canadian r e s e r v e s i n 1913; that i s , i t i n c l u d e d a l l c o a l d e p o s i t s over one f o o t i n t h i c k n e s s to a depth o f 4000 f e e t . The probable a r e a of workable seams was estimated to be about 65 square m i l e s , and t h e t o t a l area, i n c l u d i n g p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n s , t o be about 181 square m i l e s . Tba volume 1 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 108. 2 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 114. 47. o f r e s e r v e s so estimated by Clapp amounted to 1,340,000,000 long t o n s . 1 In p r e p a r i n g h i s estimates of the Canadian r e s e r v e s of mineable c o a l , MacKay has c o n s i d e r e d o n l y those seams which have proved mineable i n p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , These v a r y from f i e l d to f i e l d a c r o s s Canada w i t h v a r y i n g market c o n d i t i o n s and the q u a l i t y of t h e c o a l . For such f i e l d s as the Nanaimo, estimated r e s e r v e s are taken to i n c l u d e "seams" not l e s s than t h r e e f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s and w i t h a maximum depth of cover o f 2500 f e e t . Only those d e p o s i t s having a w e l l determined extent are i n c l u d e d i n "probable" r e s e r v e s . " P o s s i b l e " r e s e r v e s a r e those about which complete i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g . Only 50 per cent of t h e mineable r e s e r v e i s co n s i d e r e d to be r e c o v e r a b l e by p r e s e n t mining p r a c t i c e , The extent of t he remaining c o a l r e s e r v e s of the Hanaimo f i e l d , as of 1946, are shown i n a t a b l e adapted from MacKay's r e p o r t . (See Table I ) . For comparison, the t o t a l r e s e r v e s o f the Comox f i e l d (Cumberland and i s a b l e R i v e r ) are i n c l u d e d . The probable r e c o v e r a b l e r e s e r v e o f t h e Nanaimo f i e l d was, i n 1946, about 1,030,000 long t o n s . I n 1947 and 1948, a t o t a l of 57 0 , 37 9 long tons was produced. MacZay considered t h a t o p e r a t i o n s would continue u n t i l 1956 or l a t e r 4 but i t seems probable that, a t t h i s r a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n , u n l e s s some o f the 1 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 101. 2 MacKay, op. c i t . , p. 14. 3 Report o f Minister o f Mines, 1947 and 1948. 4 MacZay, op. c i t . , p, 53. TABLE I RESERVES OP HANAIMO Al© COMOZ COALFIELDS 1 (Thousands of Short Tons) 1— i Probable P o s s i b l e ( a d d i t i o n a l ) —t '-1 " . i Recoverable "f Thickness Thickness i i used ( i n Area used ( i n Area ' Pro- Poss-Seam ' • f e e t ) (acres ) Tonnage ' f e e t ) ( a c r e s ) Tonnag ? e! T bab'le i b l e Eanaimo C o a l f i e l d Lumber 10 Douglas 6. 0 93 976 - - 488 -South of Granby Douglas 6.0 50 526 6.0 150 1574 263 787 Cedar Douglas - - - 5.0 6592 57680 - 28840 Chase H i r e r iiewcastle - - - 2.0 70 246 - 123 Departure Bay We l l i n g t o n - - - 2.0 177 620 - 310 L i t t l e Ash Newcastle 2 5.0 4 34 - - 17 -White Rapids Newcastle^ 3.0 138 724 - - 362 -White Rapids L e w e a s t l e 2 2.5 11 48 2.6 85 372 24 186 To t a l 2308 60492 1154 30246 Coraox C o a l f i e l d Cumberland 25896 59240 12948 89620 I1 sable raver 14542 61754 7271 30877 Other 9946 168350 4973 84175 x'otal 50384 289344 24192 144672 1 • iilacKay, .J.B. Coal reserves of Canada, pp. 102, 103 2. Should read "Wellington". 49. p o s s i b l e r e s e r v e s a r e proved more d e f i n i t e l y , l a r g e s e a l s operations w i l l cease b e f o r e t h a t date. Although the p o s s i b l e r e s e r v e i s n e a r l y 60 m i l l i o n t o n s , f u r t h e r l a r g e s c a l e develop-ment, b a r r i n g unforeseen demands, may be c o n f i n e d to the Comox f i e l d where r e s e r v e s a re l a r g e r and where mining oper-a t i o n s are l e s s hampered by n a t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n o f the lanaimo f i e l d from 1852 t o 1948 was 46,240,036 long t o n s , e x c l u s i v e o f those years when complete r e t u r n s were not p u b l i s h e d . I f the approximate t o t a l be taken as 50 m i l l i o n tons the o r i g i n a l r e s e r v e , now mined, would be 100 m i l l i o n tons. When the p o s s i b l e r e s e r v e i s added, the t o t a l , 210 m i l l i o n tons, w i l l be seen to be f a r below Clapp's estimate. The s o c i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of e a r l y unfounded p u b l i c optimism f o l l o w e d by d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t must have fo rmed an i n c a l c u l a b l e f a c t o r i n the a t t i t u d e of the people of the lanaimo area. 17 TOPOGRAPHY A. Gen e r a l The Canadian C o r d i l l e r a i s d i v i d e d i n t o three great s y s -tems, the E a s t e r n , the I n t e r i o r and the Western systems. 1 The l a s t o f these i n c l u d e s the Coast Mountain area, the outer Mountain area, and the C o a s t a l Trough between the two former. The Coast Mountain a r e a comprises the Coast and Cascade 1 Bostock, H.S., The physiography o f t h e Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the are a north o f "the f i f t y - f i f t h p a r a l l e l , Mam. 247, G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada. 1948. 50. Ranges; the Outer a r e a the c o a s t a l i s l a n d s of B r i t i s h Columbia and A l a s k a , and the S t . B l i a s Mountains. The Canadian i s l a n d s , c h i e f l y Vancouver and the Queen C h a r l o t t e s , form the s u b d i v i s i o n which Bostock has named the I n s u l a r Mountains. The C o a s t a l Trough i s t h e submerged s t r u c t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n which separates the i s l a n d s from the mainland of B r i t i s h C o l -umbia. (See F i g u r e 6). The Vancouver Range composes the g r e a t e r p a r t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . These mountains having a g e n e r a l northwest t r e n d are the maturely d i s s e c t e d remnants o f an u p l i f t e d e r o s i o n surface, e x h i b i t i n g today a general concordance of summit l e v e l s , i n the south, where e r o s i o n was more i n t e n s i v e , the present e l e v a t i o n i s about 1500 f e e t . F a r t h e r n o r t h , r e l i e f and e l e -v a t i o n p r e v i o u s t o the u p l i f t were g r e a t e r . The g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n today i s about 4000 f e e t , w i t h r e s i d u a l peaks of over 7000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n . Uorth of Quatsino Sound, the i s l a n d i s made up of "patches of p l a i n separated by low r o l l i n g ranges of h i l l s " , 1 The C o a s t a l Trough has been s u b d i v i d e d by Bostock i n t o the Hecate D e p r e s s i o n , l y i n g between the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and the mainland, the Seymour Arch, a p a r t l y submerged "isthmus" c o n n e c t i n g Vancouver I s l a n d w i t h t h e mainland, and the Georgia Depression which separates lower Vancouver I s l a n d 1 Bostock, op. c i t . , p. 91. F i g u r e 6. P h y s i o g r a p h i c D i v i s i o n s Af t e r ' map accompanying Bostock, H.S., The physiography of t h e Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , G . S . C , Mem. 247, Ottawa, 1948 0 52. from the mainland. Clapp c o n s i d e r s the S t r a i t of Juan de f u c a to be a s m a l l e r t r a n s v e r s e d o w n f o l d . 1 The d e p r e s s i o n i s about 25 m i l e s wide and i s almost completely submerged. The p o r t i o n s above water i n c l u d e the i s l a n d s o f the S t r a i t o f Georgia, a s m a l l c o a s t a l lowland on the mainland, and the east coast lowland of Vancouver I s l a n d . The Kanaimo a r e a , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y p a r t o f the G e o r g i a Depression. (See F i g u r e 6, p. 51). The east coast p l a i n o f Vancouver I s l a n d l i e s between the f r o n t o f the Vancouver I s l a n d mountains and the sea. I t runs from the southernmost end of the i s l a n d n o r t h u n t i l i t merges with t h e Seymour Arch, a d i s t a n c e of some 200 m i l e s . In p l a c e s the p l a i n i s almost pinched out, but i t s average w i d t h i s eight m i l e s . l i t t l e of the lowland l i e s above 500 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , and, as Bostock remarks, "much of i t . s l o p e s from the sea to the mountains, but i n the northern p a r t some 2 shallow v a l l e y s p a r a l l e l the coast." B. L o c a l The c o a s t a l p l a i n i n the v i c i n i t y of Eanaimo e x h i b i t s many o f t h e f e a t u r e s common to t h e r e g i o n as a whole. The f r o n t of the i n t e r i o r mountain range i s f a i r l y abrupt, and from i t the/Land slopes u n i f o r m l y but w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l i e f f o r such an ar e a . Furthermore, the w i d t h of t h e lowland v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n t h i s l o c a l i t y j u s t as i t does i n the l a r g e r r e g i o n . 1 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 18. 2. Bostock, op. c i t . , p. 89. 53. U n d e r l y i n g t h e Nanaimo d i s t r i c t and surrounding i t on three s i d e s a r e the c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s of t h e Vancouver Hange. The mountains to the west o f the area are t y p i c a l o f c e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d . They a t t a i n an e l e v a t i o n of about 5000 f e e t , and are g r e a t l y d i s s e c t e d by stream and g l a c i a l e r o s i o n . They are l e s s rugged, however, than those o f the Coast Range batho-l i t h a cross the S t r a i t o f Georgia. A r i d g e n o r t h of Departure Bay i s the o n l y p a r t of the a r e a where c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s are exposed at the s u r f a c e . As might be expected, i t s topography i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n t h e r e s t of the area. U n l i k e the o t h e r uplands i n the v i c i n i t y , i t has a g e n e r a l east-west t r e n d , a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e summit a r e a and i s much broader i n p r o p o r t i o n to i t s l e n g t h . The r i d g e has been q u i t e s e v e r e l y g l a c i a t e d ; the n o r t h s l o p e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , having been steepened and smoothed by the probable passage o f a g l a c i e r down Uanoose Harbour to the S t r a i t . 1 (See F i g u r e 7). One of the peaks of the Vancouver Range, Mount Benson, does not l i e w i t h i n the a r e a o f t h i s study, but i t has import-ant e f f e c t s on l o c a l topography. One shoulder r i s e s a b r u p t l y behind Hanaimo. In g e n e r a l the slope from mountain to sea-coast i s steeper i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f t h e c i t y than at any other p l a c e i n the area. One of t h e most n o t a b l e p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c o a s t a l p l a i n w i t h i n the Nanaimo ar e a i s the northwest-1 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 89. S3* A . F i g u r e 7 Topography Base map and contours above 500" B .C.-o'.^. map, 1937, (Scale 1 i n c h t o | mi. } East of 124° V7 - Topographic survey, 1912, ( s c a l e 1 i n c h to 1 m i l e ) . T/est o f 124° \v. - lanaimo sheet, Dept. of National Defence, 1941, ( s c a l e 1:25000) 54. southeast alignment o f the s u r f a e e f e a t u r e s . T h i s i s an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e p r e v a i l i n g g r a i n o f the c o a s t a l r e g i o n r e -s u l t i n g from the p e r i o d o f Jura-Cretaceous d i s t u r b a n c e . 1 T h i s t r e n d i s seen i n the c o a s t - l i n e i t s e l f , i n the p r e v a l e n c e of c u e s t a - l i k e r i d g e s and rock outcrops, i n the development of subsequent v a l l e y s and i n the d i r e c t i o n of the small r i v e r s which f l o w i n them. Some of the l i n e a r l a k e s i n areas of rock outcrop a l s o t r e n d northwest-southeast. The two l a r g e s t r i v e r s o f the area, t h e Nanaimo R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r y , Haslam Creek, appear to be l e s s completely governed by s t r u c t u r e . These r i v e r s were v i g o r o u s enough to continue down-cutting d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f recent u p l i f t . Both have now cut eanyons a c r o s s the sedimentary s t r a t a and do not f o l l o w subsequent v a l l e y s as do the smaller streams i n the area. The canyon of t i e Hanaimo R i v e r occurs i n the area o f t h i s study, but the canyon of Haslan Creek i s cut i n the marine s h a l e s west of the a r e a . Below th e confluence of the two, however, the Nanaimo r i v e r t u r n s northwestward, f o l l o w i n g the course of a r a t h e r broad subsequent v a l l e y . The Nanaimo r i v e r has been a b l e to t e r r a c e the d e p o s i t s of t h e p r o - g l a c i a l d e l t a through which i t flows. Owing, probably, t o i t s decrease i n volume s i n c e the g l a c i a l p e r i o d and to i t s decrease i n v e l o c i t y as i t e n t e r s the c o a s t a l p l a i n , Haslam Creek becomes overloaded i n i t s passage through these d e p o s i t s and meanders 1 Peacock, op. cit.,p.89. 65. throughout most o f i t s course to i t s GO influence with the Nanaimo H i r e r . Two o f the subsequent v a l l e y s dominate th e topography of the area. The l a r g e r i s the one i n which the Nanaimo R i v e r f l o w s , t h e second t h e v a l l e y o f the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r . The lower Nanaimo v a l l e y extends from t h e head of Ladysmith Har-bour t o t h e mouth of the Nanaimo R i v e r . I t i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y broad and, because i t i s f l o o r e d by l e s s r e s i s t a n t s t r a t a , c o n t a i n s none of the cuestas seen i n other p a r t s . D e l t a i c d e p o s i t s and s o i l formed by weathering of Cedar D i s t r i c t s h a l e s have made i t a good a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t . The M i l l s t o n e R i v e r r i s e s i n Brannen Lake, a p p a r e n t l y formed i n a d e p r e s s i o n i n the g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s . The v a l l e y f l o o r i s g e n t l y s l o p i n g , but i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by a c u e s t a -r i d g e i n i t s middle reaches. In i t s lower reaches, the r i v e r changes i t s course s l i g h t l y and i s c u t t i n g through the s t r a t a i n i t s bed. The middle and upper v a l l e y forms a good, though s m a l l , a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t . Two minor drainage systems are those o f tbs Chase R i v e r , which d r a i n s the southeast f l a n k of Mount Benson, and t i e Quennell Lake system of branching, l i n e a r l a k e s d r a i n e d by s m a l l subsequent streams. L o c a l drainage v a r i e s w i d e l y w i t h i n s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . On rock outcrops and the g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s , i t I s u s u a l l y e x c e s s i v e . In the small subsequent valleys', l a c k of g r a d i e n t commonly 56. causes restricted drainage and the formation of swamps. Only i n the two main agricultural valleys, are adequate drainage conditions found i n areas of any extent. Ground water supplies are used extensively in the area beyond the city i t s e l f . The outlying settlements are not connected -either to water or sewage systems. In these commun-it i e s many homes have their own well and septic tank or out-house, presenting the possibility of water pollution. The ground water supply is already inadequate during dry summers. The Nanaimo sulphate pulp m i l l also obtains i t s supply from underground wells near the confluence of Nanaimo River and Haslam Creek. It remains to be seen whether the water supply i n the shallow wells of the surrounding dis t r i c t s w i l l be adversely affected. Topography has restricted the disposition and extent of arable land. In addition, i t has to some extent affected the transportation pattern and the settlement pattern. Although topography has not been the main factor govern-ing the lofcation of railway lin e s , they have followed the courses of some of the subsequent valleys i n order to have more le v e l grades. The side roads in outlying districts some-times run along f l a t - l y i n g rock outcrops, since these provide a firm natural pavement free from mud. At the height of coal-mining activity the irregularities of the drowned coast-line permitted the development of small harbours for the shipping of coal. 57. The E x t e n s i o n f o r m a t i o n which o v e r l i e s the W e l l i n g t o n seam u s u a l l y forms c u e s t a s . I r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the l e w o a s t l e form-a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g t h e Douglas seam, i f a t shallow depths, may f i n d s u r f a c e e x p r e s s i o n i n s m a l l cuestas w i t h steep f r o n t s l o p e s and g e n t l e hack s l o p e s . 1 For t h i s r e a s on many of the o r i g i n a l mining s e t t l e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g Nanaimo i t s e l f , are l o c a t e d near s u c h f o r m a t i o n s . Topography has been a s t r o n g , i n some cases, a dominating i n f l u e n c e on the development of $ h e i r urban p a t t e r r e . Y. CLIMATE The c l i m a t e of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast i s t y p i c a l o f temperate Marine West Coasts. In w i n t e r , i t i s dominated by the d e p r e s s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e A l e u t i a n Low. These great systems draw i n masses of a i r of e i t h e r maritime t r o p i c a l or maritime p o l a r o r i g i n . I n t h e i r u s u a l passage across the P a c i f i c the extreme temperatures of t h e source regions are modified, and when the a i r masses r e a c h the coast they b r i n g no great extremes of temperature. F r o n t a l r a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the storms i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the orographic b a r r i e r of the c o a s t a l mountains, thus the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs i n the winter h a l f year. In summer, the extended i n -f l u e n c e of t h e s u b - t r o p i c a l High i n the Nort h P a c i f i c approach-es the coast. Summers on the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast are u s u a l l y d r y arid sunny, but temperatures are kept moderate by the i n f l u e n c e of t h e ocean. 1 Clapp, op. c i t . , p. 113. 58. Along t h e e a s t coast o f Vancouver i s l a n d , the c l i m a t e v a r i e s from t h a t of the mainland and outer c o a s t s . The r e g i o n l i e s i n the rain-shadow of the Vancouver i s l a n d Range, and lower p r e c i p i t a t i o n f i g u r e s than at other c o a s t a l p o i n t s a r e g e n e r a l . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , however, w i t h nearness to the mountains, and s t a t i o n s hacked by steep s l o p e s experience more r a i n f a l l than those on wider p a r t s o f the p l a i n . The v a r i a t i o n between the p r e c i p i t a t i o n f i g u r e s of Hanaimo and Ladysmith t y p i f i e s t h i s tendency. (See f i g u r e 8 ) , I n g e n e r a l , p r e c i p i t a t i o n on t h e east coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d i n c r e a s e s northward. Thus Hanaimo, which occupies a p o s i t i o n mid-way between V i c t o r i a and Courtenay, has an i n t e r m e d i a t e r a i n f a l l a l s o . V i c t o r i a 26.65" per annum Hanaimo 36.60" per annum Courtanay 53.19" per annum 1 Only two s t a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a and i t s v i c i n i t y , Hanaimo and Departure Bay, r e c o r d m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data. l a d y s m i t h ceased r e c o r d i n g them i n 1923, and Hanoose Bay i n 1940. The s t a t i s t i c s used to show the p a t t e r n o f temperature and p r e -c i p i t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n are those o f four s t a t i o n s , Hanoose Bay, Departure Bay, Hanaimo and ladysmith f o r the years 1919, 1920, 1921 and 1923; the o n l y years f o r which data f o r the f o u r are a v a i l a b l e . F i g u r e s used i n the c l i m a t i c c h a r t s of 1 Climate o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Dent, of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1947. Figure 8 Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n Base map; Southerly p o r t i o n , Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. of lands and F o r e s t s , 1938. Data from "Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia," B.C» Department of Agriculture,, 60. Nanaimo and Departure Bay represent the cumulative averages, In 1947, for 46 and 32 years, respectively. A. Precipitation Precipitation i n the v i c i n i t y of Nanaimo i s not evenly distributed (see figure 8, p. 59t)» ladysmith, owing to i t s situation at the foot of steep slopes, receives more pre-cipitation than the other stations. Nanoose Bay receives less, perhaps because i t is pa r t i a l l y protected from rati-bearing south-east gales. Precipitation is proportionately high at ladysmith in winter and low at Nanoose Bay, which further strengthens this theory. Departure Bay has slightly less r a i n f a l l than Nanaimo. (See figures 9 and 10). However the former has a slightly higher proportion of summer r a i n f a l l than has the l a t t e r . "This may again be due to topography. Nanaimo may receive a higher proportion of winter r a i n f a l l because Mount Benson presents a barrier to storms from the south-east, thus intensifying the precipitati on associated with depressions. B. Temperature There are no great differences of temperature in the vicinity of Nanaimo. (See figure 8, p. 59). Nanoose Bay and Ladysmith are slightly cooler than Departure Bay and Nanaimo. In July, Departure Bay is an average of one degree warmer than Nanaimo. A more d is tine t' pat tern of temperatures would 61 0 Figure 9. Banal mo From "Climate of B r i t i s h . Columbia, " B.C. Dept. of a g r i c u l t u r e (Report f o r 1947) 6 2 . Figure 10. Departure Bay From "Climate of British Columbia", 3.0. Dept. of Agriculture, fReport f o r 1947 ). 63. p r o b a b l y emerge i f r e c o r d i n g s -were a v a i l a b l e f o r p o i n t s i n -l a n d from'fche coast. C. F r o s t - F r e e P e r i o d She moderating i n f l u e n c e o f tne G u l f of Georgia may be seen i n the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of t h e f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d f o r s o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . (See f i g u r e 11). D i s r e g a r d -i n g l o c a l f a c t o r s , t o p o g r a p h i c a l or otherwise, i t may be s a i d t h a t the more exposed an area i s to the open waters of the G u l f , the longer w i l l be i t s f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d . She most o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e p a t t e r n of the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i n the lanaimo a r e a and v i c i n i t y i s i t s steep g r a d i e n t i n l a n d . Entrance I s l a n d enjoys more f r o s t -f r e e days than any other s t a t i o n r e c o r d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia (298 days), p r o b a b l y due to the extremely sm a l l s i z e of t h e i s l a n d . Although the e f f e c t s o f l o c a l topo-graphy upon a i r drainage must be c o n s i d e r e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s s u f f i c i e n t evidence appears t o e x i s t t h a t the western p a r t o f t h e a r e a has i t s l a s t s p r i n g f r o s t two weeks l a t e r than the e a s t e r n p a r t (see f i g u r e 12), and i t s f a l l f r o s t two weeks e a r l i e r . (See f i g u r e 13). She f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i n the two a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s i s about 170 to 190 days. Mining i s perhaps l e s s s u b j e c t to c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s than i s any other primary i n d u s t r y . While t h e c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y has been l i t t l e a f f o o t e d by the c l i n a t e of the area, the mining p o p u l a t i o n may. have been p a r t l y a t t r a c t e d F i g u r e 11. F r o s t Free South-east Vancouver I s l a n d Data from A.J. Connor, e t . a l . , The f r o s t f r e e season i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of T r a n s p o r t . FROST-FR£E PERIOD OF SOUTHEASTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND |14° Figure 12. Date o f l a s t bp r i n g f r o s t . Base map: Southerly p o r t i o n , Vancouver I s l a n d , B.C. l»ept. of l a n d s , 19 38. Data from "The f r o s t free season i n B r i t Columbia," hy A.J. Connor. 66. Figure 13. Date o f f i r s t F a l l f r o s t Base ma-o: Southerly p o r t i o n , Vancouver I s l a n d , B . ° . Dept.. of Lands, 1938. Data-from "The f r o s t f r e e season i n B r i t i s h Columbia," by A.J. Connor. 67. by the climate. The increasing precipitation with altitude, ardthe decrees ing length of the frost-free period, among other factors, may have discouraged the spread of settlement to the newer mining areas in the western section. On the other hand, ladysmith is, in this respect, probably no more attractive as a residential area than is Extension. Climatic conditions are more important to the distribut-ing economy than they were to the mining economy. The lumber-ing industry, upon which the present activity is based, has arisen because large coniferous trees grow well in this climate. Logging i s , in i t s e l f , extremely sensitive to weather conditions. The attractiveness of the coast climate, and of i t s local variant, is an important factor i n the i n -creasing u t i l i z a t i o n of the Nanaimo area as a residential d i s -t r i c t . YI SOILS The soils of southeastern Vancouver Island are extremely complex in distribution. The original parent materials have imposed some slight differentiation, hut the most important factor has been their mode of deposition. Most of the soils of the region are of varied gla c i a l origin; moraines or t i l l s , f l u v i a l , deltaic or lacustrine deposits. Diversity of topo-graphy and drainage has produced further local variations. The interaction of soils and vegetation i s a continuing cause 68. of s o i l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . W i t h i n the Hanaimo area, nine s o i l f a m i l i e s and f o u r l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s have been r e c o g n i z e d . 1 These have a l s o been c l a s s i f i e d as non-arable, p a r t l y a r a b l e ( c o n t a i n i n g some a r a b l e areas) and a r a b l e . The r e s o u r c e s o f arable s o i l i n the Hanaimo ar e a are not o n l y l e s s e x t e n s i v e than i n some oth e r d i s t r i c t s o f c e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d but, s i n c e those a v a i l a b l e are more c l o s e l y u t i l i z e d than i n o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s (see Table I I ) there i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f expanding the l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l i n -d u s t r y . Only 75 per cent of the Hanaimo ar e a has any s o i l cover, and of t h a t p r o p o r t i o n o n l y one t h i r d i s a r a b l e . The non-productive s o i l s are, however, regarded as e x c e l l e n t f o r e s t s i t e s . The a r a b l e s o i l s are most common i n the two a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s , w i t h s c a t t e r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s m a l l v a l l e y s throughout the a r e a . (See F i g u r e 14). A r a b l e s o i l types i n the area i n c l u d e the c l a y and c l a y loam of g l a c i o - l a c u s t r i n e o r i g i n , f i n e - t e x t u r e d d e l t a s o i l s , and d r a i n e d patches of b l a c k swamp muck. 2 Farming has been e i t h e r a f u l l - t i m e i n -d u s t r y t r i b u t a r y toother p r e v a i l i n g i n d u s t r i e s , or an a l t e r -n a t i v e f o l l o w i n g upon l o c a l e x h a u s t i o n of c o a l seams. Many 1 S p i l s b u r y , R.E., S o i l Survey o f Vancouver I s l a n d , 1944, unpublished. £ i b i d . , p. 14. TABLE I I A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use i n Upper Vancouver I s l a n d Percentage o f Area A r a b l e ! M a r g i n a l 1 I o n - a r a b l e 1 C u l t i v a t e d 1 arable l a n d (acres) (acres) ( a c r e s ) (acres) c u l t i v a t e d Salmon River V a l l e y 8,000 500 2,000 970 12.1% Menzies Bay 7,388 2,720 10,533 300 ' 4.0 Court enay 33,536 26,844 81,451 17,100 6.0,9 Union Bay - Bowser 1,994 3,495 23,531 1,150 57.6 Qualicum - P a r k s v i l l e 11,210 9,406 45,104 4,700 41.9 A l b e r n i 6,374 10,328 29,187 4,515 70.8 KANAIMO - LADYSMITH 12,293 10,428 46,697 17,155 139.5 Duncan 39,931 4,699 73,033 23,560 59.0 T o t a l 117,726 68,420 314,536 65,220 (120,726 s i c ) (311,536 s i c . ) (69,450 s i c . ) 57.5^ . S p i l s b u r y , R.H., "Land u t i l i z a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d , " F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e , v o l . 19, Sept. 1943, Ho. 3, p. 166. F i g u r e 14. S o i l C l a s s i f i e a t i on From A d v a n c e Sheet Ho. 6 , S o i l Survey of southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , 1943. 71. of t h e s c a t t e r e d a r a b l e f r a c t i o n s have been u t i l i z e d on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other occupations. 711 VEGETATION The n a t u r a l f o r e s t cover of southeast Vancouver I s l a n d i s c h i e f l y c o n i f e r o u s . Up to about 2000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , the dominant s p e c i e s are Douglas f i r (pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a ) and Western Red Cedar ( t h u j a p l i c a t a ) . Above that, the a s s o c i a t i o n i s composed c h i e f l y of cedar and Western hemlock (tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) . Red cedar, more t o l e r a n t of moisture, predominates i n lowland swamps. H a l l i d a y f u r t h e r subdivides the f o r e s t zone on t h e b a s i s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n of the madrona (arbutus m e n z i e s i i ) and Of Garry oak (querous garryana). These s p e c i e s are f o u n d c l o s e to the s h o r e - l i n e of the east coast."" The Nanaimo a r e a has been occupied so l o n g t h a t l i t t l e of t h e o r i g i n a l cover remains. I n logged-over areas, young c o n i f e r s , r e d a l d e r (alnus r u b r a ) , and broad-leaved maple (acer macrophyllum) are found. In moist areas, t h e e a r l y dominance o f the deciduous s p e c i e s g i v e s way l e s s r a p i d l y rz to tlaat of c o n i f e r s . Among the c o n i f e r s , hemlock regener-x 1 Mulholland, F.D., F o r e s t Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1937, Dept. of l a n d s , B.C.F.S., pp. 17-19 and Whitford, H.N. and C r a i g , R.D., F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Committee of Conservation, Ottawa, 1918, pp. 57 -60. 2 H a l l i d a y , W.E.D., A F o r e s t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada, Dept. of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, F o r e s t S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n 89, 1937 , p. 26. 3 S p i l s b u r y , op. c i t . , p. 3. 7£. ates more s u c c e s s f u l l y than does Douglas f i r . I n a d d i t i o n , the dry summers enable drought-res 1st ant weeds to e s t a b l i s h themselves, thus degenerating the v e g e t a t i o n cover. E a r l y l o g g i n g i n t h e Hanaimo a r e a d i d not employ c l e a r -cut t i n g methods, Ibmt l e f t non-merchantable t r e e s standing. These a c t e d as sources o f seed i n r e g e n e r a t i n g the stands. f o l l o w i n g t h i s c l e a r i n g , the l a n d was put under c u l t i v -a t i o n , u t i l i z e d as rough p a s t u r e , or p e r m i t t e d to remain un-touched. When World War I I i n c r e a s e d the demand f o r lumber, many o f these l a s t areas were logged a second time. Only s m a l l " o u t f i t s " operated w i t h i n the c o a s t a l p l a i n , and once again, c l e a r c u t t i n g was not employed. Many of these stands appear to have made a s u c c e s s f u l beginning of a second r e -g e n e r a t i o n . She l a s t p u b l i s h e d survey of the f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s of the a r e a was made i n 1938. 1 The r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y , c l a s s i f i e d by drainage b a s i n s , g i v e the area of the resources i n acres according to present cover. (See Table I I I ) , The high p r o p o r t i o n of immature timber i n t h e M i l l s t o n e and Ohase R i v e r v a l l e y s i n d i c a t e s the extent to which the f o r e s t r e -sources of t h e two basins had been u t i l i z e d i n the years p r e -ceding t h e survey. The area of the survey embraces the whole Hanaimo b a s i n to the headwaters beyond the a r e a of t h i s study, furthermore 1 McMullen, D.I., A Survey of the E. & H. Railway Grant, 1938, Dept. of l a n d s , B.C.f.S. TABLE I I I Fo r e s t Reserves of the Hanaimo A r e a 1 ( i n acres Drainage B a s i n Mature Immature hot w e l l H o t s u i t a b l e N o n -stocked f o r f o r e s t s p r o d u c t i v e T o t a l Hanaimo River M i l l s t o n e and Chase River Quennell Lake 102,315 23,145 7,375 1,655 14,245 745 20,875 9,895 2,280 5,825 7,395 1,080 64,315 12,135 2,960 216,475 51,045 8,720 111,345 38,135 33,050 14,300 79,410 276,240 1 McMullen, D.L. , A survey o f the E . & H. Railway grant, Department of Lands, B.C.F.S. , 1938 , pp. 76, 77, 79. 74. i t was made be f o r e the renewed logging a c t i v i t y d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g World War I I . Although i t s f i n d i n g s are not completely a p p l i c a b l e to the Hanaimo area, they do i n d i c a t e s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n of a re s o u r c e from whieh the Hanaimo area d e r i v e s d i r e c t , and a l a r g e i n d i r e c t , income. CHAPTER IT THE COAL-MINING INDUSTRY The p a s t century has seen t h e he g i n n i n g , the r i s e and s w i f t d e c l i n e of t h e coal-mining i n d u s t r y o f Nanaimo. From 1852 u n t i l 1948, the Nanaimo f i e l d produced about 50 m i l l i o n l o n g tons of c o a l . D u r i n g most o f t h a t time, the i n d u s t r y employed more people than any other i n t h e a r e a and most o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t from i t . Today the i n d u s t r y i s nearing exhaustion o f i t s r e s e r v e s and while coal-mining s t i l l employs t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e group i n the area, o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the t o t a l working p o p u l a t i o n is thus employed. I t i s probable t h a t mining w i l l never a g a i n become predominant i n t h e area, but w i l l c o ntinue f o r a number of years, d e c l i n i n g s l o w l y to e x t i n c t i o n . Tho course of the i n d u s t r y can be reviewed now as a process t h a t has reached p r a c t i c a l completion, although i t s secondary e f f e c t s may continue t o be important f o r some time to come. I PRODUCTION For the f i r s t e i g h t years of p r o d u c t i o n , 1852 to 1859 i n -c l u s i v e , separate f i g u r e s f o r each year are not a v a i l a b l e , i n t h a t time, however, a t o t a l o f about 27,000 tons was produced, which would average between t h r e e and f o u r thousand tons per year. During the l a s t f u l l year o f o p e r a t i o n preceding the 76. the s a l e of t h e mines by the Hudson's Bay Company, 1 8 6 0 , about 1 4 , 0 0 0 tons were produeed. W i t h i n two years a f t e r t h e mines were s o l d to the Vancouver C o a l Company i n 1 8 6 1 , p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d by h a l f , and i n 1 8 6 4 i t was double t h a t of 1 8 6 0 . Output continued to in c r e a s e s l o w l y u n t i l 1 8 7 1 , when the Dunsmulr mines a t W e l l i n g t o n came i n t o p r o d u c t i o n . I n 1 8 7 4 , the new mines began to make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the output, and the e a r l y p e r i o d of mining had come t o a c l o s e . A f t e r 1 8 7 4 , p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y . By 1 8 7 9 , over 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 tons were being produced i n a year. (See Fig u r e 1 5 ) . A s l i g h t decrease i n 1 8 8 2 r e s u l t e d from a mine f i r e , a s t r i k e and slackness i n the c o a l t r a d e . 1 Although t h e annual output o f t h e mines n e a r l y doubled i n the years 1 8 8 0 to 1 8 9 0 , market c o n d i t i o n s i n some years caused f a i r l y s e r i o u s r e c e s s i o n s i n the i n d u s t r y . From 1 8 9 0 u n t i l the end of t h e cen t u r y the t r e n d of annual p r o d u c t i o n rose, but at a decreasing r a t e . In some years, sharp d e c l i n e s i n output occurred. While t h i s was due i n p a r t to market c o n d i t i o n s , i t was pr o b a b l y a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the approaching exhaustion o f the W e l l i n g t o n mines. When these mines c l o s e d i n 1 9 0 0 , t h e operations o f the Dunsmulr Company were t r a n s f e r r e d t o the E x t e n s i o n mines i n the southwestern d i s t r i c t of the f i e l d . 1 Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1 8 8 1 . Figure 15. Output. Data from Reports of M i n i s t e r of Mines VANCOUVER ISLAND O U T P U T N A N A I M O O U T P U T 1870 1880 (890 IS00 1S10 IS20 ItJO 1940 O U T P U T OF N A N A I M O COALFIELD , 1874 T O iRAfl FIG. 15 78. I n the yea±s 1900 and 1901, annual p r o d u c t i o n f i r s t exceeded one m i l l i o n tons, but t h i s r a t e was not a p p a r e n t l y maintained. From 1902 t o 1906, i n c l u s i v e l y , r e t u r n s from some or a l l of t h e mines i n the lanaimo f i e l d were r e f u s e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , but some i n d i c a t i o n of t h e volume produced can be gained from the r e t u r n s for the whole Vancouver i s l a n d d i s t r i c t . Between 1902 and 1906, annual p r o d u c t i o n i n Vancouver I s l a n d f e l l as low as 800,000 tons, i n c l u d i n g the output of the Cumberland f i e l d . From 1906 u n t i l 1912, the output was maintained at or above one m i l l i o n tons per annum. In 1913, owing to the s t r i k e , i t d e c l i n e d below h a l f t h a t amount and the former l e v e l was not a t t a i n e d a g a i n u n t i l 1916. Although the h i g h p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l o f the World War I reached i t s peak i n the mines o f Washington s t a t e i n 1918, the high l e v e l of p r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia was maintained. In the Nanaimo f i e l d 1923 was the peak year. Market c o n d i t i o n s were i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e c l i n e i n demand a f t e r 1925, h i t i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s the o p i n i o n of some t h a t g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n was more s e r i o u s l y hampered by the d i f f i c u l t i e s of mining and the l i m i t e d r e -resources of the lanaimo f i e l d . 2 1 Dart, John, "The geography of the Eoslyn-Cle-Elum Coal F i e l d , " uppublished t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1948, p. 14. 2 Campbell, CM., "Cassidy and the Douglas seam," CIMM, Trans., 1924, p. 483. 79. The gradual d e c l i n e which began a f t e r 1923 was hastened by the world economic c o l l a p s e i n 1929. P r o d u c t i o n was a l -ready below normal i n t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h e y e a r ^ 1 and the annual p r o d u c t i o n from the lanaimo f i e l d never again exceed-ed one m i l l i o n t o n s . The r a p i d d e c l i n e i n p r o d u c t i o n i n i t i a t e d i n 1929 was t e m p o r a r i l y slowed i n 1934 by the re-opening o f the Western F u e l Company's Reserve mine. However, by 1939, a l l mines operated by t h i s company were c l o s e d and p r o d u c t i o n was a g a i n d e c l i n i n g . During World War II some s l i g h t improvement f o l l o w e d the development of two new mines i n the f i e l d , but shortage of labour c u r t a i l e d p r o d u c t i o n i n the l a t t e r years of the war. Since the end of the war annual p r o d u c t i o n has remained between 250,000 and 300,000 tons, about the same as i t was during the years 1880 to 1886. II MARKETS The marketing of Hanaimo c o a l has passed through three phases. The f i r s t was dominated by the American demand, the second by the i n c r e a s i n g importance, o f the Canadian demand, and the t h i r d by the d e c l i n e of both, due f i r s t to the competition of other f u e l s and l a t e r to the exhaustion o f the c o a l r e s e r v e s . 1 Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1929, 2 Reports of M i n i s t e r o f Mines, 1942 to 1945. 80. As has been s t a t e d , the c o a l f i e l d was f i r s t e x p l o i t e d as a r e s u l t of the demand f o r o o a l i n the p o r t o f San F r a n c i s c o . T h i s market continued t o absorb an i n c r e a s i n g amount u n t i l the 1890 ,s. Minor r e c e s s i o n s had p r e v i o u s l y o c c u r r e d , but -those of that p e r i o d were more s e r i o u s . The c a i s e of the d e c l i n i n g de-mand was a g l u t on the San F r a n c i s c o market due to the competi-i t i o n of A u s t r a l i a n and E n g l i s h c o a l . In the l a t e r years of the 1890 ,s, the p e r i o d of sharp d e c l i n e i n exports to the U n i t e d S t a t e s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n annual p r o d u c t i o n of Washington mines from about one m i l l i o n to about two and one-half m i l l i o n tons. N e v e r t h e l e s s , so dependent was the i n d u s t r y upon the C a l i f o r n i a market t h a t t h e San F r a n c i s c o earthquake r e s u l t e d i n the c l o s i n g o f one o f t h e Nanaimo mines far f i v e months. A s h o r t - l i v e d boom i n the metal i n d u s t r y o f the U n i t e d States during 1906 and the f i r s t h a l f of 1907, r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d demand f o r c o a l f o r s m e l t i n g , but t h i s o n l y served to obscure the s e r i o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n of f u e l - o i l . The C a l i f o r n i a market which bought about 900,000 tons o f the Vancouver I s l a n d output i n 1902 (75$ of s a l e s ) , by 1905 took o n l y 400,000 tons (50$ of s a l e s ) . From t h i s p e r i o d on, the domestic market consumed t i e g r e a t e r p a r t o f the p r o d u c t i o n of t h e Nanaimo f i e l d . (See F i g u r e 16). 1 Report o f M i n i s t e r o f Mines, 1892. 2 Dart, op. c i t . , graph p.-15. 3 Report of M i n i s t e r o f Mines, 1906 81. F i g u r e 16. Sold i n Canada and United States Data from Reports of M i n i s t e r o f Mines \aso i 8 s o i^oo iq\o 1120 1330 H 40 N A N A I M O COAL SOLD IN CANADA AND U.S.A. ,1874 TO H48 F I G . \(o 8£. Although, i n the years 1900 t o 1910, petroleum was com-p e t i n g s t r o n g l y as a f u e l i n the P a c i f i c Coast market, i n -dust r y , b o t h i n Canada ard t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , was expanding so rapidly t h a t the combined s u p p l y o f b o t h f u e l s was absorbed. P r i c e s of lanaimo coa l were high, and i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t they would remain high f o r some t i m e . 1 I n 1911, one t o n of c o a l s o l d f o r $4.00 t o $4.75, while f o u r b a r r e l s of crude o i l , an e q u i v a l e n t amount o f f u e l , s o l d f o r about $3.00. A l -though many of t h e c o a s t a l steamships had a l r e a d y converted to o i l - b u r n i n g engines, the i n c r e a s i n g c o a l p r o d u c t i o n was s t i l l unable to s a t i s f y the demand for f u e l . 2 These w&v% the market c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g when the c o a l miners' s t r i k e o ccurred i n September, 191£. As the s t r i k e dragged on, the a v a i l a b l e stocks of c o a l were exhausted and t h e i r f u t u r e replenishment appeared un-c e r t a i n . This l a c k caused many consumers to t u r n to f u e l o i l . By the end o f 1913, the s t r i k e b e i n g s t i l l i n progress i n some p i t s , the mines whieh were o p e r a t i n g were a b l e to s u p p l y the demand f o r coal although t h e y were not i n f u l l - t i m e o p e r a t i o n . 3 In 1913, the d e c l i n i n g American demand and the i n c r e a s i n g domestic demand both dropped s h a r p l y . 1 Report of M i n i s t e r o f Mines, 1910 £ Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1911 3 Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1913 83. The s t i m u l a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l and s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t y by World War I helped t o hasten r e c o v e r y from the s t r i k e and de-l a y e d the e f f e c t s of t h e l o s s o f markets to petroleum. The d e c l i n i n g t r e n d o f t h e demand f o r c o a l r e t u r n e d -with the r e s t o r a t i o n o f more normal business c o n d i t i o n s . While the de-mand f o r coal throughout the p r o v i n c e remained h i g h u n t i l the d e p r e s s i o n , the Hanaimo f i e l d , i n common wit h other P a c i f i c Coast f i e l d s , began t o s u f f e r from the c o m p e t i t i o n of cheap and a c c e s s i b l e crude o i l soon a f t e r 1920. During t h i s p e r i o d , the s a l e s of Hanaimo coal on the American market began the slow, steady d e c l i n e which has continued without major i n t e r r u p t i o n u n t i l the p r e s e n t day. The growth of B r i t i s h Columbia, ard p a r t i c u l a r l y of Vancouver, can be t r a c e d i n the e a r l y t r e n d o f the domestic market f o r Hanaimo c o a l . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the domestic demand occurred a f t e r the completion o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to Vancouver i n 1886. However, i t was not u n t i l the f i r s t decade o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y that the r e a l expansion of t h e Canadian demand took p l a c e . A l -though the domestic market was invaded by f u e l o i l more s l o w l y t h a n was the American, the same p a t t e r n o f d e c l i n e owing to the s t r i k e , i n c r e a s e owing t o t h e war and f i n a l d e c l i n e owing to the i n v a s i o n by f u e l o i l and to exhaustion of the seams i s repeated. Sales o f Hanaimo coal t o c o u n t r i e s other than Canada and the United S t a t e s have always been e r r a t i c i n occurrence and 84. never l a r g e i n volume. In those years when such s a l e s were made, they f r e q u e n t l y amounted to l e s s than 10,000 tons, lanaimo c o a l found i t s way t o w i d e l y se p a r a t e d p a r t s o f the P a c i f i c b a s i n : A l a s k a , R u s s i a , Mexico and Hawaii. I t was hoped to develop a s u b s t a n t i a l export to China and Japan,''" but t h i s never m a t e r i a l i z e d . The sea-board p o s i t i o n of the f i e l d s which enabled such exports to be made was an advantage also enjoyed by A u s t r a l i a n c o a l . In a d d i t i o n to the n a t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f mining i n the Nanaimo f i e l d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e mire o p e r a t o r s have had to compete w i t h B r i t i s h , A u s t r a l i a n and domestic c o a l on the American market, and w i t h B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n c o a l i n the P a c i f i c market. The Canadian market, l i k e t h e American, has been s t r o n g l y invaded by C a l i f o r n i a crude o i l and a l s o , i n l a t e r years, by h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. Ill MINING- METHODS During the period of o p e r a t i o n by 1he Hudson's Bay Company, coal-mining methods were p r i m i t i v e . The c o a l was h o i s t e d to the s u r f a c e on a hand winch operated by I n d i a n s . 2 A l l the mines were c l o s e t o the water's edge, so no great o u t l a y was needed to t r a n s p o r t the c o a l , and l i t t l e was expended upon harbour and s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s . (See F i g u r e 17). In those days, a s h i p l o a d i n g c a a l might be f o r c e d to l i e i n the har-bour f o r t h r e e or f o u r weeks. 3 1 Report of M i n i s t e r o f Mines, 1886. 2 McKelvie, "The Pounding o f Nanaimo," p. 179. 3 Mayne, R.C., Pour years i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , John Murray, 1862, p. 35. Figure 17. Nanaimo, 186£ S a i l i n g ships l o a d i n g coal at Commercial I n l e t . The stockade and Watergate surround the hudson's Bay Company s t o r e . Ihe gangway t o the p i e r leads from one of the e a r l y mines. Pho t o . Pro v inc i a l A r c h i v e s . 86. The i n c r e a s e d output produced by the l a r g e coal-mining f i r m s i n the area was o n l y obtained t h r o u g h the expenditure of l a r g e sums of money f o r underground and s u r f a c e p l a n t s , washing, handling and l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The Vancouver Coal Company, l a t e r t h e Western F u e l C o r p o r a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d a t i p p l e , washery and wharves a t lanaimo and a t Pimbury P o i n t . The Dunsmuir f i r m f i r s t shipped c o a l from the W e l l i n g t o n mines to Departure Bay, the c o a l from the l a t e r E x t e n s i o n mines being shipped from Ladysmith. S e v e r a l small f i r m s made use of s h i p p i n g wharves a t L a n t z v i l l e and other p o i n t s on Hanoose Bay. The P a c i f i c Coast Coal Mines shipped from i t s F i d d i c k Mine a t South W e l l i n g t o n and from i t s Morden mine by way of Boat Harbour. Many r a i l r o a d s were co n s t r u c t e d be-tween the mines and shipping p o i n t s , most o f which have now been removed. The extreme i r r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e Hanaimo seams imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s on the methods employed i n a c t u a l c u t t i n g o f t h e c o a l . Mechanization was rendered impossible i n many cases."1" The general p r a c t i c e i n t h e f i e l d was to employ the p i l l a r - a r i d -s t a l l method of c u t t i n g i n the t h i c k seams, while t h e t h i n seams were mined by the l o n g w a l l method. The e f f i c i e n c y of 1 Campbell, CM., "Cassidy and the Douglas Seam", C.I.M.M, Trans., J u l y , 1924, V o l . 27, p. 482. 2" Strachan, "Coal Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia" C.I.M.M. Trans., V o l . 26, 1923, p. 78. 87. the Vancouver I s l a n d employees as measured by average annual p r o d u c t i o n per worker, was never so h i g h as i n Washington State or even i n the c o a l mires o f the E a s t Eootenay f i e l d . T h i s f i g u r e v a r i e d g r e a t l y from year t o year w i t h v a r y i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , but t h e f i g u r e s f o r the years 1909 and 1910 n e v e r t h e l e s s i n d i c a t e t h e t r e n d . The i n h e r e n t d i f f i -Per C a p i t a annual p r o d u c t i o n o f three d i s t r i c t s - from Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1910. 1909 1910 Coast 370 382 E a s t Kootenay 380 439 Washington S t a t e , 560 590 c u l t i e s of mining t h e Nanaimo c o a l d i d not prevent, and i n many cases n e c e s s i t a t e d , t h e development by the op e r a t o r s o f new methods in c o a l mining p r a c t i c e . Some o f thes e i n c l u d e d new methods i n c o a l - c l e a n i n g p l a n t s , and the e a r l y use o f e l e c t r i c i t y i n underground h a u l a g e . 1 Some f i r m s o p e r a t i n g w i t h lower c a p i t a l have played a changing p a r t i n l o c a l c o a l - m i n i n g , when the f i e l d as a whole was being e x p l o r e d , some of these s m a l l companies d i d the e a r l y developmental work f o r s e v e r a l mines. When c o a l was proved t o be present i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y f o r l a r g e 1 Cray, E.W., "Coal Mining and Geology i n Canada,'" C.I.M.M., Trans., v o l . 51, 1948, p. 65 88. s c a l e e x t r a c t i o n , these companies were f r e q u e n t l y bought out by the l a r g e r f i r m s which were b e t t e r a b l e to f i n a n c e the necessary development. About the t i m e t h a t coal-mining reached i t s peak, t h i s t r e n d was r e v e r s e d . In l a t t e r years, the s m a l l companies o b t a i n e d the r i g h t s t o r e t r i e v e the c o a l remaining i n t he mines when the l a r g e r f i r m s abandoned t h e i r operati oris.. IV HUMBBRS EMPLOYED Du r i n g t h e years from 185£ u n t i l 19££ or 19£3, fee p o p u l a t i o n of t h e Hanaimo a r e a was predominantly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mining i n d u s t r y , i n consequence, the tr e n d o f em-ployment requirements o f t h e i n d u s t r y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the growth of t h e whole area, w hile the annual f l u c t u a t i o n s i n employment a f f e c t e d i t s p r o s p e r i t y . The p e r i o d o f steady d e c l i n e i n mining employment marks the time when the are a s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y from the l o s s o f i t s main i n d u s t r y , u n t i l i n recent years, new o p p o r t u n i t i e s have enabled the m a j o r i t y of the people t o turn from coal-mining to other forms o f employment. Three d i s t i n c t phases i n the employment requirements of the Hanaimo f i e l d are n o t i c e a b l e ; the p e r i o d o f f a i r l y steady r a p i d i n c r e a s e , the p e r i o d of e q u a l l y steady and r a p i d d e c l i n e , and the i n t e r v e n i n g years when employment, though g e n e r a l l y high, f l u c t u a t e d g r e a t l y from year t o year. By 1874, when annual returns .were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d , em-ployment i n the Hanaimo f i e l d had reached o n l y about 400, 89. although mining had a l r e a d y b een e s t a b l i s h e d f o r twenty-two years. U n t i l 1882, t h i s trend o f c o n t i n u i n g , but slow, ex-pa n s i o n continued. (See f i g u r e 18). The p e r i o d o f g r e a t e s t increase i n the i n d u s t r y from the point o f view of employment as w e l l as o f p r o d u c t i o n , occurred i n the years 1882 u n t i l the e a r l y peak year o f 1891. The f i e l d i t s e l f was expanding, markets were expanding, and t h e co m p e t i t i o n o f other c o a l s and f u e l s had not reached great p r o p o r t i o n s . In the opening anddevelopment o f new mines, i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f men were employed. During the pe r i o d 1891 to 1923, the f a c t o r governing mining employment was not so much the o p e r a t i o n a l requirements of the i n d u s t r y as t h e c o n d i t i o n of the market f o r c o a l . P e r i o d s of slackness i n t h e t r a d e , d u r i n g which s t o c k s of c o a l accumulated, i n i t i a t e d p e r i o d s o f decreased employment which l a s t e d u n t i l the excess c o a l on hand was reduced and the market c o u l d absorb more t h a n was being produced by the smaller labour f o r c e employed. Complete r e t u r n s a r e u n a v a i l -able f o r many of these years, but the annual v a r i a t i o n ; i n numbers employed appears to have been g r e a t , f o r example, employment dropped from about two thousand e i g h t hundred i n 1900 to about two thousand one hundred i n 1901, or 25 per cent, while i t r o s e from about one thousand nine hundred i n 1906 to about two thousand s i x hundred i n 1907, an i n c r e a s e of over 35 per cent. The decrease r e s u l t e d from a d e c l i n e Figure 18. Employment Data from Reports of minister of Mines 91. i n demand 1 and t h e i n c r e a s e as a r e s u l t o f the "boom i n m e t a l smelting p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. I t was i n t h i s t h i r t y year p e r i o d t h a t t h e c o m p e t i t i o n from e t h e r sources of c o a l , the l o s s o f markets occasioned by the l o n g s t r i k e , and the boom years a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the World War I a l l a f f e c t e d the market for c o a l . In t u r n , the demand f o r l a b o u r f l u c t u a t e d w i d e l y . The d e c l i n i n g p e r i o d of employment ciammenced a f t e r 1923. When the d e p r e s s i o n began i n 1929, employment i n the Nanaimo f i e l d had a l r e a d y f a l l e n from 3,400 t o 2,000, a d e c l i n e of about 40 per cent i n s i x years. T h i s drop i n employment has continued i n t e r m i t t e n t l y u n t i l the present day. The decreas-ing demand f o r c o a l has no doubt been an important f a c t o r , but the d e c l i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e f i e l d has been the fundamental cause of t h e drop i n employment. As the l a r g e r mines were exhausted, the mine workers were not absorbed by new mines, although a few were employed by the s m a l l f i r m s r e t r i e v i n g c o a l l e f t i n the workings. Many miners and t h e i r f a m i l i e s l e f t the area a l t o g e t h e r , and others e v e n t u a l l y obtained employment i n other i n d u s t r i e s . Only i n recent years have r e c o r d s been c o n s i s t e n t l y kept of the number o f days each mine was i n o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g the year. Thus the employment f i g u r e s alone do not i n d i c a t e the p r o p o r t i o n of men who worked f o r p a r t o f the year only, or a l l year on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . 1 Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1902. 92. 7 COAL -MINING- TODAY There are today i n the Nanaimo a r e a one f a i r l y l a r g e mine and a v a r y i n g number of s m a l l mines i n o p e r a t i o n . The f i r s t i s operated by the Canadian C o l l i e r i e s (Dunsmuir) Li m i t e d , and the others a r e worked by s m a l l groups o f p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . The l a r g e s t mine now working, Number Ten, South W e l l i n g -ton, appears to be f a i r l y prosperous. I t employs some 200 men, and produces about 170,000 short tons per annum. MacEay p l a c e s i t s probable r e c o v e r a b l e r e s e r v e a t somewhat l e s s than 500,0C0tons, so i t appears t h a t o p e r a t i o n s cannot l a s t i n d e f i n i t e l y . This mine, r e c o v e r i n g c o a l from the Douglas seam i s , however, expected to produce f o r some years y e t . A s m a l l e r mine, White Rapids, c l o s e d during the summer of 1950. T h i s mine reached one of t h e W e l l i n g t o n seams, 1 by means of a s l o p e , but unusual mining c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l e d . The f l o o r , u s u a l l y of East W e l l i n g t o n sandstone, was composed of r o c k harder t h a n the r o o f , u s u a l l y the E x t e n s i o n con-glomerate. This hard f l o o r meant that two inches of the a l r e a d y t h i n seam (30" i n t h i c k n e s s ) had to be s a c r i f i c e d i n u n d e r c u t t i n g the measures. The s m a l l body of r e c o v e r a b l e c o a l at any one p l a c e n e c e s s i t a t e d the frequent moving of machinery and timbering, so t h a t much of t h e labour i n v o l v e d 1 MacEay's t a b l e (pp. 102,103) shows, erroneously, Y/hite Rapids and another mine ( L i t t l e Ash) to be o p e r a t i n g i n the Newcastle seam. T h i s would be an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . 93. was unproductive of c o a l . The mine had been o p e r a t i n g at a l o s s f o r some time p r e v i o u s to i t s c l o s u r e . The South W e l l i n g t o n mine uses r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to move i t s c o a l to t i d e water, as i t i s adjacent to the main l i n e of the E. & S. r a i l w a y . Since the mine has t i p p l e and washery f a c i l i t i e s at the p i t - h e a d , the o l d b u i l d i n g s on the lanaimo waterfront have been demolished. Loading f a c i l i t i e s are r e t a i n e d ; chutes f o r l o a d i n g bunkers and a hatch f o r lo a d i n g scows. Most of t h e c o a l i s shipped v i a Hanaimo, although some goes by r a i l to o t h e r i s l a n d p o i n t s . The c l o s u r e of White Rapids p r e s e n t s the problem of r e -employment of the miners. Many of the men who were employed i n the mine are over f i f t y years of age,"1' Men .of t h i s age-group are not e a s i l y absorbed i n t o other i n d u s t r i e s , and the s k i l l s which they possess are not r e a d i l y adaptable t o other uses. One o u t l e t for t h i s labour s u r p l u s would be i n the o p e r a t i o n of s m a l l - s c a l e mines. Mining s k i l l c o u l d be put to d i r e c t use, but some c a p i t a l would be r e q u i r e d . However, the labour requirements of these mines are extremely s m a l l , and i t Is u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e group as a whole can be absorbed i n t h i s manner. The combined operations of the smal l mines form a com-p a r a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of mining i n the Hanaimo area today. In 1948, eight such mines employed fewer than ten men each, and produced fewer than 3000 tons o f c o a l each during 1 Vancouver D a l l y P r o v i n c e , May 20, 195 0. 94. the year. A c t u a l mining i s u s u a l l y done by the o p e r a t o r s them-s e l v e s , o f t e n on a co o p e r a t i v e b a s i s , and c a p i t a l o u t l a y Is kept t o a minimum. The mines are worked i n abandoned s l o p e s , or i n areas where remaining c o a l p i l l a r s are s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e t o the s u r f a c e t o be reached by the d r i v i n g o f a s l o p e . Mine haulage i s done by winches or by draught animals. The c o a l i s t r a n s p o r t e d by t r u c k r a t h e r than by r a i l , w h i l e the present workings are so shallow t h a t n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t . The r e s e r v e of ooal a c c e s s i b l e to s m a l l - s c a l e mining methods i s o b v i o u s l y l i m i t e d and so, i n t u r n , i s the p o s s i b l e scope of t h i s phase of coal - m i n i n g . In r e t r o s p e c t , although coal-mining i n the N anaimo f i e l d has been the b a s i s f o r much o f the settlement and develop-ment i n the lanaimo a r e a , i t has had many harmful e f f e c t s on the area as w e l l . The a l t e r n a t i n g e f f e c t s o f boom and de-p r e s s i o n were pr o b a b l y f e l t most k e e n l y by the mining ' f a m i l i e s . The f l u c t u a t i o n i n communit y pur chasing power, however, a f f e c t e d business a c t i v i t y i n the d i s t r i c t , and a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s i n g e n e r a l . The adverse s o c i o l o g i c a l and m a t e r i a l r e s u l t s of t h e mining i n d u s t r y have, however, been p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t by other e f f e c t s which have proved bene- I i f i c i a l . Developments during the coal-mining p e r i o d have, to some ex t e n t , a s s i s t e d the a r e a i n i t s adjustment to i t s new r o l e as d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e r v i c e centre f o r upper Vancouver I s l a n d . I CHAPTER V OTHER INDUSTRIES IN THE ECONOMY Of THE NANAIMO AREA Present and p a s t oocupance o f t h e Nanaimo a r e a d i f f e r s from t h a t of t h e r e s t of the c o a s t a l p l a i n no more t h a n does the n a t u r a l environment o f t h e d i s t r i c t from that of the r e g i o n as a whole. The g e n e r a l u n i f o r m i t y of environment throughout the r e g i o n has gi v e n r i s e to a g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t y of occupance. Va r y i n g emphasis on c e r t a i n phases o f the occupance from s e c t i o n to s e c t i o n has developed through the ad a p t a t i o n o f the i n h a b i t a n t s to minor v a r i a t i o n s i n the n a t u r a l environment. I n the Nanaimo a r e a , p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y i s now of l e s s importance than i n the r e g i o n as a whole, due to t h e l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by environmental f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r o f l o c a t i o n , however, has enabled the i n h a b i t a n t s of the d i s t r i c t to place a g r e a t e r emphasis on t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y . The present s t r u c t u r e of t h e l o c a l economy has evolved from a changing r e l a t i o n s h i p to the coal-mining i n d u s t r y . Many a c t i v i t i e s were i n i t i a l l y s t i m u l a t e d to supply the needs of the mining i n d u s t r y and the mining p o p u l a t i o n , and supply-ing the needs o f t h i s i n d u s t r y s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s a minor p a r t of the f u n c t i o n of some i n d u s t r i e s . C e r t a i n o f the primary i n d u s t r i e s were developed to supplement the a c t i v i t i e s o f the mining p o p u l a t i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s are s t i l l pursued by 96. some miners, "but they are now c h i e f l y c a r r i e d on i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other t y p e s o f employment. As the coal resources were dep l e t e d , o t h e r forms o f a c t i v i t y succeeded mining as the e h i e f o c c u p a t i o n . These succeeding i n d u s t r i e s v a r y i n c h a r a c t e r throughout the va r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s i n the area, depending upon l o c a l f a c t o r s of environment and economic o p p o r t u n i t y . I PRIMARY INDUSTRIES A. A g r i c u l t u r e In common w i t h the other p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s , the scope o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n the lanaimo a r e a i s n a t u r a l l y l i m i t e d . The t e r r a i n i s rough, w i t h p r e v a l e n t rock outcrops and many steep slopes. D e p o s i t s of sand and g r a v e l , l a i d down i n ground moraines or on the P l e i s t o c e n e d e l t a , are more e x t e n s i v e than are t h e f e r t i l e a l l u v i a l s i l t s . E x c e s s i v e l y d r a i n e d s l o p s a l t e r n a t e w i t h p o o r l y d r a i n e d swamps. A l l these f a c t o r s p r o -h i b i t a g r i c u l t u r e from a t t a i n i n g much r e l a t i v e or a c t u a l importance i n t h e a r e a . Owing to t h e i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l s e t t l e -ment, most of the food supply f o r t h e pioneer community had to be obtained i n the v i c i n i t y . 1 There was thus created at an 2 e a r l y date a demand f o r produce from l o c a l farms. By 1876 1~ McKelvie, "The founding o f hanaimo," p. 187. 2 Pearse, B.W. , General r e p o r t on the country round Hanaimo, Copy of r e p o r t made to W i l l i a m A.G. Young, a c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , V i c t o r i a , 30 May, 1860. ] 97. t h e r e were farmers e s t a b l i s h e d i n Cedar, Cranberry, W e l l i n g t o n and/Other d i s t r i c t s , as w e l l as on G a b r i o l a I s l a n d and at Eanoose Bay. The c o a l companies themselves operated farms to prov i d e f e e d f o r the draught animals used i n h a u l a g e . 1 The main market f o r l o c a l produce has always been t h a t o f the surrounding p o p u l a t i o n , a l t h a g h the immediate sources d e c l i n e d i n importance as s u p p l i e r s of t h a t market. The r a p i d popu-l a t i o n i n c r e a s e of t h e 1880's made necessary t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f f o o d - s u p p l i e s from ou t s i d e p o i n t s which now c o n s t i t u t e s the major source o f f o o d - s t u f f s f o r the a r e a . While f u l l - t i m e farming was s t i l l f u n c t i o n i n g as a con-t r i b u t o r y i n d u s t r y to coal-mining, a new phase o f farming a c t i v i t y was developed i n the a r e a . The e x i g e n c i e s of mining r e s u l t e d i n v a r y i n g p e r i o d s of s l a c k employment o r unemploy-ment and many miners found i t n e c e s s a r y to t u r n to p a r t - t i m e farming to supplement t h e i r incomes and food s u p p l i e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e Vancouver Coal Company made i t a p o l i c y to e s t a b l i s h many of i t s employees on f i v e acres farms immediate-l y west of t h e town. T h i s p o l i c y achieved i t s d e s i r e d end o f s t a b i l i z i n g the mining p o p u l a t i o n and f u r t h e r strengthened the tendency toward a phase of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y which i s common throughout the c o a s t a l p l a i n r e g i o n . T h i s supplementary . . 1 B.C. D i r e c t o r y , 1882-83, p. 176 ( p u b l i s h e r s R.T. Williams.) 1 98. f u n c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the c o a l - m i n i n g p e r i o d i s s t i l l important i n t h e lanaimo area. Wherever s o i l and topographic c o n d i t i o n s were f a v o u r -a b l e , f u l l - t i m e commercial farming became l o c a l l y important f o l l o w i n g t h e exhaustion of the c o a l seams. T h i s change has been most n o t i c e a b l e a t W e l l i n g t o n and l a s t W e l l i n g t o n , and i s t a k i n g p l a c e t o a somewhat l e s s e r extent at C a s s i d y and E x t e n s i o n . Cedar i s the o n l y community where f u l l - t i m e farming has been a major a c t i v i t y throughout the whole p e r i o d of i t s development. The a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y of today operates under many economic disadvantages. As e a r l y as 1862 i t was remarked that the drainage n e c e s s a r y f o r o p e r a t i o n o f some bottom la n d s was not f e a s i b l e owing t o the coat o f l a b o u r . 1 The demands of the mining i n d u s t r y and o f succeeding: i n d u s t r i e s f o r u n s k i l l e d labour have almost always c o n s t i t u t e d s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . In a d d i t i o n , land c o s t s are h i g h , owing both to p o p u l a t i o n pressure and to the s c a r c i t y of good s o i l . N e a r l y a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l equipment and s u p p l i e s are imported from the mainland, so t h a t t h e i r cost i s g r e a t e r t h a n i n such areas as the E r a s e r V a l l e y . Throughout Vancouver I s l a n d , c a p i t a l o u t l a y i n 1 R a t t r a y , Alexander, Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, London, Smith, E l d e r Co., 1862, p. 60 1 99. f a r m i n g i s high, w h i l e r e t u r n s a r e comparatively low. 1 Since r a i l f r e i g h t r a t e s a r e now c a l c u l a t e d from Hanaimo as a d i s t r i b u t i n g p o i n t , however, a g r i c u l t u r e i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f t h e c i t y may enjoy a s l i g h t economic advantage over t h a t i n other l o c a l i t i e s . In common w i t h a l l farming d i s t r i c t s on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, the mainstay of l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r e i s the p r o -d u c t i o n of hay, oats and p a s t u r e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l i v e -s t ock, p a r t i c u l a r l y d a i r y c a t t l e . This i s the type of farming a c t i v i t y which predominates i n the c o a s t a l r e g i o n s 2 of b o t h B r i t i s h Columbia and the P a c i f i c Horthwest S t a t e s . f e r t i l e f l a t l a n d s are u t i l i z e d f o r improved p a s t u r e s or f o r g r a i n hay and t h e l e s s v a l u a b l e s o i l s are u s u a l l y l e f t f o r unimproved rough pasture. The a g r i c u l t u r a l land use p a t t e r n o f t h e M i l l s t o n e V a l l e y t y p i f i e s the g e n e r a l development o f t h e area. (See f i g u r e 19). Upon the s o i l s o f d e l t a i c o r i g i n i n the narrow f l o o d p l a i n are found f i e l d s o f hay and oats and p a s t u r e s f o r d a i r y herds. The p a r t i a l l y arable s o i l s on the sl o p e s southwest o f the r i v e r are used f o r rough p a s t u r e . (See page 102) • The c o n f i n e -ment of farmin g a c t i v i t y on the l e f t bank by the p e r s i s t e n t cuesta f o r m a t i o n i s a common phenomena, throughout the area as a whole. 1 Pope, W.H., Inspector, P o u l t r y Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , August 8, 1949. £ Baker, O l i v e r E., " A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , p a r t IX, the Horth P a c i f i c hay and pasture r e g i o n , " Economic Geography, v o l . 7., 1931, p. 1£9. F i g u r e 19. Land Use i n the M i l l s t o n e V a l l e Base map: lanaimo sheet, Dept. N a t i o n a l Defence, 1941. LAND USE IN A SECTION OF THE MILLSTONE VALLEY 0 '/j 1/2 mi. LEGflN D RougW pasture [& - - I Oah I - - ft Improved pasture Uncleared land (mosHy n i f t r o u s cover) Hay H o m e s i t e s and ddrde r\s Winn,, }| T u r k e y Fdrm D d i r y fdrm M i n e dump • T F i r e M l m i • F Post O f f i c e ft S c K o o i i See Appendix B 10E. Although Hanaimo l i e s w e l l w i t h i n the milk-shea of t h e c i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1 the f l u i d m i l k produced i n the ar e a i s consumed l o c a l l y . The area i s , i n f a c t , f o r c e d to import m i l k from the mainland. Other l i v e s t o c k products o f t h e Hanaimo a r e a i n c l u d e v e a l and some beef, and a few sheep, bot h f o r mutton and a l i t t l e wool. A few hogs are r e a r e d , u s u a l l y f o r p r i v a t e use. i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e hay and p a s t u r e complex, c e r t a i n s p e c i a l t i e s are produced as cash crops. Pockets o f f e r t i l e bottom l a n d a r e u t i l i z e d to grow potatoes both f o r seed and f o r the l o c a l market. Other vegetables are p r o -duced, but t h e i r annual q u a n t i t y f l u c t u a t e s g r e a t l y a c c o r d -in g to t h e p r e v a i l i n g p r i c e s and t h e i n c l i n a t i o n of the growers. (See Sable I V ) . A l a t e s p r i n g a l s o c u r t a i l s v egetable and potato p r o d u c t i o n , s i n c e the swamp muck does not d r y out i n time to permit e a r l y crops to mature. Small f r u i t s are not of g r e a t importance. Gentle sl o p e s are o c c a s i o n a l l y u t i l i z e d f o r growing sirawberries f o r the l o c a l market. Less p e r i s h a b l e f r u i t s , however, cannot compete with those from areas having economic or c l i m a t i c advantages for f r u i t growing. Steep southward-f a c i n g s l o p e s of g l a c i a l t i l l are u t i l i z e d f o r the s i n g l e commercial v i n e y a r d . 2 The w e l l - d r a i n e d l i g h t s o i l warms 1 Van Home, H.B. and Maxwell, J.O., A g r i c u l t u r e i n C e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d , 1946, Canada, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e 194$, p. 10. E G i r a r d , B.L., i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , Oct. 3, 1949. I TABLE IV SALES OF LOCALLY GROWN VEGETABLES IN NANAIMO AND BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1945 t o 1948 ( i n Tons) Potatoes Other Roots 1945 1946 1947 1948 Nanaimo 1 E50 440 871 261 P r o v i n c e 2 81,700 120,650 106,900 111,350 Nanaimo 1 17 2 38 6 P r o v i n c e 2 19,550 19,950 19,550 18,374 1. F i g u r e s s u p p l i e d to w r i t e r by B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board. 2. From A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s Report, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of H A g r i c u l t u r e , 1948. " § 104. e a r l y i n s p r i n g and holds i t s warmth ov e r n i g h t . Maximum sun-shine and a i r drainage are o b t a i n e d , and minimum summer tem-p e r a t u r e s permit continuous growth. E a r l y f a l l f r o s t s may k i l l the l e a v e s o f t h e v i n e s , but the high sugar content of the grapes themselves prevents damage to the f r u i t . The grapes ( h y b r i d v a r i e t i e s of the Y i n i f e r a and l a b r u s c e types) are s o l d i n Vancouver f o r t a b l e purposes or as g r a p e - j u i c e which i s made on the premises. F u r t h e r expansion of t h i s a c t i v i t y would be l i m i t e d by marketing c o n d i t i o n s and by the s c a r c i t y of steep t i l l s l o p e s . P o u l t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y turkeys, i s a l s o a s p e c i a l t y product o f the Hanaimo a r e a . The l o c a l area i s w e l l s u i t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n of good grass s u i t a b l e f o r ranging turkeys while the dry summers and w e l l - d r a i n e d s l o p e s permit h e a l t h y growth of the birds." 1" Owing to the m i l d winter temperatures the b i r d s commence l a y i n g i n January, and eggs are shipped 2 to the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s f o r e a r l y h a t c h i n g . This i n d u s t r y has been s t i m u l a t e d by the r e s t r i c t i o n on i m p o r t a t i o n of American p o u l t s and eggs i n an e f f o r t to conserve exchange and i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt to prevent the e n t r y of Newcastle d i s e a s e . An annual supply of about one-half m i l l i o n eggs and p o u l t s from the U n i t e d States into western Canada having been removed, Vancouver I s l a n d breeders have s e i z e d upon the 1 Pope, I.E., i n t e r v i e w , .1949. 2 Savage, A. B u c k e r f i e l d s l t d . , i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , J u l y 21, 1949. 105. o p p o r t u n i t y a f f o r d e d them. L o o a l b r e e d i n g stock i s a c q u i r i n g a r e p u t a t i o n f o r homogeneity and q u a l i t y . Although the meat-producing aspect of the i n d u s t r y may not s u r v i v e the l i f t i n g of import r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the demand f o r hatching eggs and b r e e d i n g stock w i l l remain s t e a d y . 1 A l o c a l epidemic o f Newcastle d i s e a s e may r e s t r i c t t h i s branch of the i n d u s t r y . Two t r e n d s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e are evident i n the Nanaimo area; p a r t i a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f cash c r o p s , and t h e p u r s u i t of part-time farming i n su ch a manner as t o amount to v i r t u a l abandonment o f the l a n d . Both are phases of a d a p t a t i o n to t h e economic disadvantages of farming. While some farmers f i n d i t necessary to produce a h i g h value crop, o t h e r s t u r n t h e i r main a t t e n t i o n s to other occupations, u t i l i z i n g t h e i r land, perhaps, o n l y f o r the g r a z i n g of a cow t o s u p p l y f a m i l y requirements. Both trends are found throughout the g r e a t e r r e g i o n and the urban p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i e s now predominating i n the Nanaimo area p a r t i -c u l a r l y encourage t h e i r l o c a l development. B. Logging With proper management methods, the p r e v a l e n t f o r e s t s o i l s of t h e Nanaimo a r e a could be considered an a s s e t . The a r e a has been logged over i n the course of i t s h i s t o r y , but i n s p i t e of some s e c t i o n s having s u f f e r e d degradation of t h e 1 Pope, W.H. , i n t e r v i e w , 1949. 106. v e g e t a t i o n cover, a f a i r l y l a r g e a r e a has been l e f t which i s a g a i n growing a merchantable crop of timber. U t i l i z a t i o n of t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s f o r b u i l d i n g s and f o r mine tim b e r i n g commenced immediately upon the e s t a b l i s h -ment of coal-mining i n t h e a r e a . 1 During the coal-mining p e r i o d the output was almost e n t i r e l y consumed l o c a l l y . However, when the best o f the .timber which was a c c e s s i b l e to e a r l y l o g g i n g operations had been consumed, s u p p l i e s , f o r m i l l i n g purposes were obtained 2 i n the f i n e stands of the Sayward d i s t r i c t and i n J e r v i s 3 I n l e t . l o c a l u t i l i z a t i o n o f the f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s was con-t i n u e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , u n t i l the v i r g i n stands i n the a r e a had completely disappeared. Logging was thus an important c o n t r i b u t o r y i n d u s t r y to c o a l - m i n i n g . P i t props and con-s t r u c t i o n a l lumber f o r present c o a l - m i n i n g are s u p p l i e d l o c a l l y . Dependent as i t was upon the l o c a l market, l o g g i n g never formed an important supplementary source o f income to mining, s i n c e p e r i o d s of s l a c k n e s s i n the c o a l i n d u s t r y would c o i n c i d e w i t h s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s i n the market f o r lumber and p i t props. 1 1 McKelvie, op. c i t . , p. 182. 2 Timber Inspector's Report, i n Report of Commissioner o f Lands and Works, B.C. 1898. 3 Cowie, John, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , June 9, 1950. 107. A c c e s s i b i l i t y to l a r g e r continuous stands o f lumber has determined the importance o f l o g g i n g as a succeeding i n -d u s t r y to mining. Logging i s thus a major a c t i v i t y i n the p e r i p h e r a l l o c a l i t i e s only, such as L a n t z v i l l e , Cassidy and E x t e n s i o n . Present l o g g i n g operations i n the Hanaimo area d i f f e r from t h o s e on Vancouver I s l a n d as a whole w i t h r e g a r d t o the s i z e of the concerns. Approximately seventy b l o c k s of l a n d are l e a s e d t o s m a l l f i r m s u t i l i z i n g the s c a t t e r e d stands which are i n e x i s t e n c e . The l o g s are s o l d on the open mar-ket, or by c o n t r a c t to t h e l o c a l m i l l s . R a i l r o a d t i e s , t e l e -phone p o l e s and p i t props are a l s o produced. Present a c t i v i t y i n t h i s i n d u s t r y i s due to t h e unprecedented demand f o r lumber, s i n c e u t i l i z a t i o n of the second growth i s now economically p o s s i b l e . S e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of t h e cut i n the Hanaimo a r e a i s t h i r d grade Douglas F i r , the remainder being of Western Hemlock. 1 The f u t u r e o f t h i s i n d u s t r y i n the area i s dependent upon world market c o n d i t i o n s f o r lumber. At present, t h e l o c a l i n d u s t r y appears to be i n a f a i r l y good p o s i t i o n . C. F i s h i n g Owing to the l a c k o f l a r g e salmon r i v e r s on Vancouver I s l a n d , commercial salmon f i s h i n g ' i n the immediate c o a s t a l 1 S c a l i n g and R o y a l t y Reports, 1948, B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Hanaimo O f f i c e , 108. v i c i n i t y has never been so important as along the mainland coast, and the i n d u s t r y has brought l i t t l e d i r e c t b e n e f i t to the lanaimo a r e a . The D i r e c t o r y f o r 1893 l i s t s seven men as fishermen, a l l r e s i d e n t a t Departure Bay. The 1948 D i r e c t o r y l i s t s e i g h t l i v i n g i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the d i s t r i c t . These f i g u r e s , t y p i c a l of most ye a r s , i n d i c a t e the scope o f the i n d u s t r y as an o c c u p a t i o n . While the salmon f i s h e r y i n t h i s v i c i n i t y i s o f secondary importance, the r e s o u r c e s o f h e r r i n g a re of con-s i d e r a b l e v a l u e . Schools o f h e r r i n g appear o f f - s h o r e d u r i n g the autumn months, and extremely good catches have been made i n the waters near the town. I n some years the quota o f h e r r i n g f o r the Lower East Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d Sub-d i s t r i c t (40,000 tons p e r annum 1) has been ob t a i n e d i n a f ew waeks. lanaimo i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre for a f i s h i n g d i s t r i c t extending from French Creek i n t h e north to Shoal Harbour, near Sidney, i n the south. Throughout t h a t d i s -t r i c t , the r e l a t i v e importance of the h e r r i n g catch p r e -v a i l s . (See Table V ) . There are th r e e buying s t a t i o n s , branches o f l a r g e r f i r m s , l o c a t e d on the Nanaimo waterfront. The g r e a t e r pro-p o r t i o n of the l o c a l c a t c h i s never landed t h e r e , however, 1 Dominion Department of F i s h e r i e s , S p e c i a l F i s h e r y R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949, p. 13. 109. TABLE V LANDINGS Ih THE HAMIMO F I S H I I G AREA, 1 9 4 9 .1 Salmon 21,305 cwts. H e r r i ng 807,279 n o o a 4,800 rt Soles 177 n Perch 59 tt Octopus 22 n Olams 3,500 it Grahs 6 tt Shrimps 137 rt Oysters (shucked) 15,000 g a l l o n s 1. Data s u p p l i e d by Hanaimo o f f i c e , Dominion Dept. o f F i s h e r i e s . 110. "but i s snipped t o p l a n t s a t Vancouver or on the f r a s e r R i v e r ; the salmon f o r canning, the h e r r i n g f o r r e d u c t i o n i n t o meal or o i l . The r e a l importance of hanaimo t o the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i s i n the s e r v i c i n g , r e p a i r i n g , and s u p p l y i n g o f f i s h i n g v e s s e l s . The number and value o f t h e s e v e s s e l s l i c e n s e d to f i s h i n the Nanaimo s u b - d i s t r i c t , and the value of the f i s h i n g gear employed, i n d i c a t e s the t r u e importance of f i s h i n g to the Eanaimo area today. (See Table V I ) . The B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n of t h e f e d e r a l Department o f f i s h e r i e s , l o c a t e d at Departure Bay, p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r i n -d i r e c t b e n e f i t from the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y to the economy of the area, i n 1948 t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n had one of the l a r g e s t s i n g l e p a y r o l l s i n the Nanaimo d i s t r i c t . 1 D. Mining (other than coal-mining) T h i s p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y , c o n f i n e d e n t i r e l y to n o n - m e t a l l i e s i s l e a s t important of a l l . Small q u a n t i t i e s of s o - c a l l e d " f i r e -c l a y " were a t times mined w i t h the c o a l . L o c a l sandstones have been q u a r r i e d f o r b u i l d i n g purposes and f o r p u l p - m i l l g r i n d s t o n e s . While l o c a l shale i s a t present used i n a b r i c k - p l a n t on G a b r i o l a i s l a n d , none o f these other products i s a t p r e s e n t u t i l i z e d . Sand and g r a v e l are taken from g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s and from the bed of the Eanaimo R i v e r 1 R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia Regi o n a l Development D i v i s i o n , Department of Trade and Industry, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949 e d i t i o n . 111. TABLE VI VALUE OF VESSELS AND THEIR GEAR LICENSED TO FISH IN THE NANAIMO FISHING AREA, 1949.1 Eype No. Value ground fish, dr aggers 22 | 340,000 h e r r i n g s e i n e r s 49 2,549,000 salmon s e i n e r s 48 882,000 salmon t r o l l e r s 406 730,800 c o d f i s h hoats 80 160,000 g r a y f i s h boats 95 190,000 crab boats 1 1,200 Value of f i s h i n g gear used 1,080,450 Total value # 5,933,450 1. Data su p p l i e d by Nanaimo o f f i c e , Dominion Department of F i s h e r i e s . 112. for use in road building and general construction. II SECONDARY INDUSTRIES like the primary industries, the secondary industries have played a varying part i n the Nanaimo economy, dominated as i t was by coal-mining. Two distinct types of demand were created by the mining industry; that arising from the needs of the industry i t s e l f , and that arising from the requirements of the mining population. Although some of the industries stimulated by such demands were of a temporary nature, others have survived the decline of the industry which led to their i n i t i a l development and have expanded to supply new and wider markets. This expansion and diversification i s the real basis of the community's changing function, since few entirely new industries have been located within the area following the decline of coal-mining. This statement applies, perhaps, even more accurately to the tertiary industries than to the secondary, because manufacturing in the Nanaimo area s t i l l does not employ many people. Most c i t i e s support the manufacture of certain items which are either highly perishable or which have a purely local value. During the nineteenth century, many more goods were considered perishable than today. Owing to advances in shipping methods and to the increasing dominance of Vancouver many of these items, previously manufactured locally, are now wholly or partially imported. The city s t i l l supports bakeries, 113. ice-cream p l a n t s , s o f t - d r i n k p l a n t s and small s c a l e candy manu-f a c t u r i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , competing products are now imported i n great q u a n t i t i e s . B u t t e r , cheese, tobacco products and beer, f o r m e r l y manufactured l o c a l l y , are now imported. Those i n d u s t r i e s which c a t e r e d t o s p e c i a l i z e d requirements o f t h e coal - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and I t s employees have g e n e r a l l y disappeared. A ta n n e r y and shoe f a c t o r y f o r m e r l y supplied/the l o c a l demand f o r heavy footwear. For many years a powder p l a n t l o c a t e d near Departure Bay produced b l a s t i n g powder f o r mining o p e r a t i o n s . Both have disappeared w i t h the d e c l i n e i n c o a l -mining. Because coal-mining produced both the f u e l supply and the demand f o r e l e c t r i c a l energy, a power p l a n t was loc ated on the banks o f the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r at l e a s t as e a r l y as 1892. 1 T h i s p l a n t , near the s i t e o f the o l d Hudson's Bay water wheel, produced e l e c t r i c i t y from steam w i t h a h y d r o - e l e c t r i c a u x i l -l a r y p l a n t . L a t e r , power was generated from^he water-supply i n ffestwood Lake a t a p l a n t f a r t h e r up the v a l l e y . Modern h y d r o - e l e c t r i c developments caused t h e discontinuance o f l o c a l power g e n e r a t i o n . The a r e a i s now s u p p l i e d w i t h e l e c t r i c a l energy from the John Hart p r o j e c t administered by the B.C. Power Commission. 1 B. C. D i r e c t o r y , 1892, p. 322. 2 Cowie, John, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , June 9, 1950 114. Manufacturing which supplied the general requirements of both mining industry and population has survived the decline in coal production hut it i s s t i l l modest i n scope, although i t may find in the evolving economy an opportunity for steady, i f small scale, development. From the point of view of employment, the most important secondary industry i n the area i s , at present, sawmilling. Shis industry also owes i t s i n i t i a l development to the stimu-lus of coal-mining, "but i t s present expansion is due to other factor s.. She sawmill established at Nanaimo by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1853 was one of six operating on Vancouver Island in 1866. Its daily capacity was then 15,000 board feet.1 By 1882, a mill was operated in Nanaimo as well as one at 2 Wellington to supply the c o l l i e r y at the latter point. m 3 1886, the Nanaimo mill changed hands, and, under i t s new 4 owners, i t s daily capacity was expanded to 70,000 board feet, and included a planing mill and a sash and door factory. In the latter years of the nineteenth century this mill was one of the largest in operation i n the province. By 1895 a second 5 sawmill was in operation at Nanaimo, and the number was i n -1 Lamb, W. Kaye, "Early lumbering on Vancouver Island," reprinted from B.C. Historical Quarterly, A p r i l , 1938, p.112-116. 2 B.C. Directory, 1882-83, p. 156. 3 Nanaimo Free Press, 50th Anniversary number, April 15, 1924, p.2. (Item dated Feb. 20, 1886.) 4 Report of Simber Commissioner, 1888. 5 B.C. Directory, 1895. 115. creased by s e v e r a l i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the lanaimo a r e a during the succeeding years. Throughout a l l t h i s time, the m i l l i n g i n d u s t r y f u n c t i o n e d to s u p p l y the demands o f coal-mining and i t s dependent p o p u l a t i o n . Sawmilling was l a r g e l y dependent upon mining, and the number o f m i l l s appears t o have d e c l i n e d w i t h the decrease i n the major i n d u s t r y . In 1936 t h e r e was only one sawmill o p e r a t -- i n g i n the lanaimo a r e a . 1 i n 1941, there was s t i l l o n l y one m i l l i n the Nanaimo a r e a produeting over one m i l l i o n board f e e t of lumber per annum. The resurgence o f m i l l i n g a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the war and post-war years has been g e n e r a l throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e v i v a l of t h i s i n d u s t r y i n the Nanaimo a r e a i s a l o c a l phase of t h i s development, but has also been sti m u l a t e d by the presence of s u i t a b l e wharf f a c i l i t i e s f o r l o a d i n g lumber on the Nanaimo w a t e r f r o n t . None of the m i l l s at present i n o p e r a t i o n cuts more than f i v e m i l l i o n board f e e t o f lumber per annum. (See Table V I I ) . The s m a l l e r m i l l s i n the a r e a u s u a l l y o b t a i n t h e i r l o g s by c o n t r a c t w i t h the o p e r a t o r s of small l e a s e d areas i n the v i c i n i t y . Several o f t h e l a r g e r m i l l s o b t a i n t h e i r l o g s by purchase on t h e open p a r k e t . The main product i s lumber, but r a i l r o a d t i e s , hog f u e l , sawdust and some pulpwood are a l s o s o l d . % 5 c l ^ i X n T " S u r v e . y o f the E.&N. Land Grant, B.C.E.S. , 1936. g Dept. o f Mines and Resources, Sawmills o f western Canada, map, 1941. TABLE VII SAWMILLS OE THE HANAIMO AREA 1 Size of cut Type of m i l l Power equipment Type sawn Sources of logs Less than 100,00 b d . f t . ner annum 1. 2. 3. nortable d i e s e l , gas engine(s) Douglas f i r gas engine(s) " purchase and contr r a c t . from own and leased l i m i t s puroh. & cnntractt 100,000 to 199,000 bd. f t . per annum ; 1. porta b l e 2. 3. d i e s e l engine(s) a l d e r , maple, D . f i r purchase gas engines) D. f i r , hemlock, cedar purch.& contract maple, D . f i r , a l d e r , cedar (purchase and 200,000 to 499,00 bd. f t . p er annum ^ •' , 1. n n D - f i r , alder hemlock pur chase 2. it tt from own or leased l i m i t s 500,000 to 999,000 bd. f t . per annum D. f i r , hemlock, 1. s t a t i o n a r y cedar, spruce, Western yellow pine purchase 1,000,000 to 4,999,000 bd. f t . per annum. 1. tt s t e a m , e l e c t r i c motors D. f i r , hemlock, cedar, spruce pur da ase 2. n e l e c t r i c motors D. f i r , hemlock, spruce pur chase 3. ii i ii D . f i r , hemlock, cedar, white pine purch. and from leased l i m i t s 1. Compiled from L i s t of Canadian Sawmills, Canada, Dept. of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Industry, Forest Products S t a t i s t i c s , 1948. (from operations f o r the calendar year, 1946.) 117. The s m a l l s c a l e o f m i l l i n g operations i s commensurate with t h e magnitude o f t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s of t h e area. An i n c r e a s e i n purchase o f l o g s fromoutside p o i n t s c o u l d enable the l a r g e r w a t e r f r o n t m i l l s to expand t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . Much o f the lumber produced l o c a l l y i s consumed l o c a l l y , but an excess now reaches the world lumber markets. The f i g u r e s f o r annual shipments v i a t h e Assembly Wharf i n c l u d e - q u a n t i t i e s from m i l l s beyond the lanaimo area, and r e f l e c t the importance of lanaimo as a s h i p p i n g r a t h e r than as a m i l l -i n g c e n t r e . (See Table T i l l ) . The manufacturing of wood pulp i s a new f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y i n the lanaimo area. A m i l l has been e s t a b l i s h e d a t Harmac on Northumberland channel because o f i t s c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l o g g i n g camps, sawmills and p l y -wood p l a n t s of the operating c o n c e r n . 1 These p l a n t s w i l l s upply the chips forming the raw m a t e r i a l from which the s u l -phate ( k r a f t ) pulp w i l l be produced. A b l e a c h i n g p l a n t i s t o be added i n t h e f u t u r e . Power i s obtained from the John Hart p r o j e c t and water v i a a pipe l i n e from "Ranney Water C o l l e c t o r s " i n s t a l l e d near the j u n c t i o n of t h e lanaimo R i v e r and Haslam Creek. P r o d u c t i o n i s expected to r e a c h 225 tons o f pulp per day. The expected employment w i l l t o t a l about 225 persons, ard the m i l l w i l l thus have one of t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e p a y r o l l s i n the area. 1 C r i s p i n , C. Manager, lanaimo Sulphate Pulp L t d . , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , dated August 15, 1949. 118. TABUS YI I I SHIPMENTS OP LUMBER PROM THE ASSEMBLY WHARF, NANAIMO Deep Sea* R a i l 0 T o t a l 54,681,744 EBM 9,341,202 EBM 64,022,946 PBM 53,168,673 » 11,457,930 " 64,626,603 " 49,001,216 " 8,716,233 " 57,717,449 " 1947 1948 1949 1. Prom f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by Johnston N a t i o n a l Storage L t d . , o p erators o f the Assembly Wharf, Nanaimo. 2. Cargoes of lumber loaded on deep-sea s h i p s f o r export. 3. Shipments loaded onto r a i l oars (C.P.R. & C.N.R. ) at the wharf f o r Canadian and U n i t e d States r a i l p o i n t s . The cars are switched onto car barges at the r e s p e c t i v e f e r r y s l i p s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o mainland r a i l l i n e s . 119. Tae a l l i e d metal-working t r a d e s have maintained a small hut c o n s i s t e n t importance throughout the development of the Hanaimo a r e a . The f i r s t group o f miners sent to the Hanaimo a r e a i n c l u d e d a b l a c k s m i t h . 1 Since t h a t time, there have always been metal-workers o f some type i n Hanaimo. By 1891, there were three b l a c k s m i t h s , a c a r r i a g e and waggon maker, and a foundry and machine shop i n the c i t y . Besides the independ-ent e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , many s k i l l e d metal-workers were employed by the mining companies, thus p r o v i d i n g a nucleus of employees f o r t h e i n d u s t r y . At the present time there are i n Hanaimo about e i g h t metal-working establishments, apart from those s e r v i c i n g and r e p a i r i n g automotive equipment. Much of t h e output o f t h e present metal-working f i r m s i s taken up i n s u p p l y i n g t h e o r d i n a r y demands of the p o p u l a t i o n . However, they a l s o do a great d e a l o f work f o r i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s . Some r e p a i r s to l o g g i n g and farm machinery ean be done l o c a l l y , as w e l l as r e p a i r s to pr o p e l l o r s and other i n -s t a l l a t i o n s f o r fis h i n g ' b o a t s . One f i r m has s u p p l i e d s p e c i a l l y designed equipment f o r the B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n a t Departure Bay. In keeping w i t h the new f u n c t i o n of the a r e a as a d i s -t r i b u t i n g centre, a l a r g e volume o f the work done i n Hanaimo i s a s s o c i a t e d with the maintenance of automotive v e h i c l e s . In a d d i t i o n t o the f i r m s which s p e c i a l i z e i n machine and metal work, n e a r l y a l l the many l o c a l garages and s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s 1 McKelvie, op. c i t . , p. 176. 120. employ mechanics s k i l l e d i n automotive r e p a i r . The e s t a b l i s h -ment at lanaimo of a s c h o o l f o r t r a i n i n g automotive mechanics and d i e s e l maintenance men 1 s h o u l d ensure a continuing l o c a l s k i l l e d labour f o r c e . Some o f the metal-working p l a n t s i n the a r e a are s t i l l housed i n the same b u i l d i n g s i n which t h e y were e s t a b l i s h e d during t h e coal-mining p e r i o d , but t h e i r improved f a c i l i t i e s enable them to meet present day r e q u i r e -ment s. Secondary i n d u s t r y i n t h e ITanaimo a r e a i s s t i l l de-pendent upon the p r o s p e r i t y of t h e p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s and i s not l i k e l y to assume independent importance i n t h e f o r e s e e -able f u t u r e . I I I . THE TERTIARY MDUSTRIES The t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s comprise t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of a l l economic a c t i v i t y i n the lanaimo a r e a today. These i n -d u s t r i e s are concerned w i t h the r e t a i l and wholesale d i s -t r i b u t i o n arid t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r a t h e r than the p r o d u c t i o n , of goods. With them are grouped the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s which provide a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , p e r s o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p u b l i c . Such a c t i v i t i e s can support a g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n than can p r i m a r y or even secondary i n d u s t r i e s , but an economy based upon non-productive occupations i s i n a more v u l n e r a b l e economic p o s i t i o n i n times of depression. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Report o f Department o f Education, 1948-1949, p. n. 114. Without i t s c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to other Vancouver I s l a n d communities and to Vancouver, Hanaimo might not have a t t a i n e d i t s present s t a t u s as a d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e r v i c e p o i n t . The f a c i l i t i e s upon which the present t e r t i a r y economy depends were, i n great measure, developed to supply the needs of the mining community. A. R e t a i l S e l l i n g The r e t a i l i n g of goods became a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s d u r i n g the coal-mining p e r i o d . The s a l e made by the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1861 i n c l u d e d the s i n g l e s t o r e oper-ated by t h e Company. By 1882-83, when the p o p u l a t i o n of t i e a r e a was o n l y about 2,000 there were f i f t y - o n e r e t a i l o u t l e t s i n t h e town. In 1901 these had i n c r e a s e d o n l y b y t e n . I n 1947, " t r a d e " establishments i n the Hanaimo area numbered o n l y s i x t y - e i g h t . 1 The number o f r e t a i l establishments o p e r a t i n g during the mining p e r i o d i n Hanaimo would s t i l l outrank those of any other Vancouver I s l a n d centre except g r e a t e r V i c t o r i a . R e t a i l s e l l i n g i n the Hanaimo ar e a of today i s second o n l y to V i c t o r i a i n numbers o f establishments, and i n the s i z e of i t s p a y r o l l . (See Table IX). The volume of r e t a i l s a l e s i n Hanaimo was, i n 1941, the f o u r t h l a r g e s t i n the p r o v i n c e , b e i n g exceeded o n l y by those i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a 2 and Hew Westminster. (See Tables X and X I ) . 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Regional i n d u s t r i a l Index, 1949, p. 196. 2 i b i d . , 1948. . TABLE 12 RETAIL OUTLETS IN SOME VAKCOUTER -. ISLAND CENTRES - 1947 Ho. Percentage of t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l establishments P a y r o l l s Percentage of t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l Average p a y r o l l s P a y r o l l Greater V i c t o r i a 381 Nanaimo area 68 A l b e r n i area 48 Duncan area 42 Courtenay area 25 Ladysmith area 16 27.2^ 20.2 18.8 17.2 18.0 26.2 | 5,819,095 680,096 274,963 263,820 160,819 74,048 18.8$ 11.3 2.7 7.5 7.6 3.4 I 5,728.39 10,001.41 5,728,39 6,281.43 6,452,76 4,628.00 1. Adapted from Regional I n d u s t r i a l Index, 1949 e d i t i o n H ro 125. TABLE X RETAIL SALES OF CERTAIN INCORPORATED CENTRES OP BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1941 1 4k Tan c o w e r 145,205,000 V i c t o r i a 36,761,000 New Westminster 13,064,000 NANAIMO 5,858,000 T r a i l 5,117,000 Nel so n 4,189,000 P r i n c e Rupert 4,187,000 Kamloops 3,839,000 Vernon 3,705,000 C h i l l i w a c k 3,606,000 North. Vancouver 2,885,000 Courtenay 2,579,000 Duncan 2,511,000 Po r t A l t e r a ! 2,341,000 Cranbrook 1,938,000 P r i n c e George 1,577,000 M i s s i o n 1,511,000 Rossland 1,109,000 Revelstoke 1,073,000 1. R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Index, Regio n a l Development D i v i s i o n , Dept. of Trade and Industry, p. 178. TABLE XI R e t a i l Sales o f lanaimo and B r i t i s h Columbia 1931, 1941, 1948. Year T o t a l - B r i t i s h Columbia lanaimo °/0 o f t o t a l 1951 207,578,0001 4,526,000 1 2.0 1941 509,575,000! 5,858,400! 1.8 1948 751,420,000 3 7,000,000 £ ( e s t . ) 1.0 (approx) 1. "Census of Canada," Ottawa, Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s 2. Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 3. " R e t a i l Trade," Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa 1. Information s u p p l i e d by Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. ro 125. B. Wholesale The wholesale i n d u s t r y i n the lanaimo a r e a i s s t i l l i n process of expansion. The o l d e r wholesale businesses are those h a n d l i n g g r o c e r i e s , b a k e r y p r o d u c t s , tobacco and other s u p p l i e s . Wholesale f i r m s have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f e l e c t r i c a l equipment, o p t i c a l goods, automotive p a r t s and a c c e s s o r i e s . Much o f the wholesale b u s i n e s s i n the area i s s t i l l done through agencies of f i r m s whose head-q u a r t e r s or branches are l o c a t e d i n Vancouver. These agencies are u s u a l l y operated i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . There are few warehouses as yet i n lanaimo, and those at p r e -sent i n t h e c i t y handle such items as f l o u r and feed, g r o c e r -i e s and s i m i l a r products. I t i s p o s s i b l e that a warehouse d i s t r i c t may develop i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e steamship termin-a l , where s i t e s a c c e s s i b l e to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e . 0. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been an important i n d u s t r y i n the lanaimo a r e a throughout i t s h i s t o r y . E x t e n s i v e f a c i l i t i e s were developed to handle the movement o f c o a l from the mires and at the present time economic a c t i v i t y r e v o l v e s around the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of goods. The e a r l y r e p o r t s of the C h i e f Commissioner of lands and Works i n d i c a t e t h e processes of e s t a b l i s h i n g l o c a l land 126. r o u t e s , l o a d s were "built out from Nanaimo to mining areas, such as Harewood mine, and to s h i p p i n g p o i n t s such as Depart-T> 1 ure Bay. The road p a t t e r n of the c o a s t a l p l a i n r e g i o n was developed through the l i n k i n g o f thes e e a r l y l o c a l p r o j e c t s . Much work has had to be done ir/succeeding years t o s t r a i g h t e n many of t h e roads so e s t a b l i s h e d . Railway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d was estab-l i s h e d as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of co a l - m i n i n g . The vexed que s t i o n o f the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, which had l e d to t h r e a t s of s e c e s s i o n from C o n f e d e r a t i o n b y B r i t i s h Columbia, 2 was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d when Robert Dunsmuir undertook c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e l i n e . 3 The waterfront s i t e at Nanaimo was occupied by the l i n e s and l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s of the Vancouver C o a l Company, and Dunsmuir was e q u a l l y as anxious to r e a c h the shipping-f a c i l i t i e s as t h e market o f V i c t o r i a . During Dunsmuir's owner-s h i p , the l i n e was b u i l t t o Nanaimo i n 1886, and to W e l l i n g t o n i n 1887. E x t e n s i o n to P o r t A l b e r n i , C r o f t o n , Courtenay and other p o i n t s took p l a c e a f t e r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway assumed ownership of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, i n 1905. Since W e l l i n g t o n was f o r many years at the end of 1 Report o f C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and works, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1876. 2 A r a i l w a y on Vancouver I s l a n d was to form part of the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e which was to be b u i l t i n f u l f i l l m e n t of the terms under which B r i t i s h Columbia j o i n e d Confederation i n 1871. 3 Cowie , A.P., E a r l y h i s t o r y o f the Esquimalt and and Nanaimo Railway, unpublished address, p. 3. 127. s t e e l , roundhouse f a c i l i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e which s t i l l e x i s t . The r a i l r o a d i s an important source o f employ-ment i n W e l l i n g t o n today. Coal-mining a o t i v i t y was p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t a t e of development o f the harbour f a c i l i t i e s i n the Hanaimo area. The l a r g e r f i r m s operated f l e e t s of t h e i r own s h i p s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g accommodation f o r other v e s s e l s . The Vancouver Coal Company dominated/the Hanaimo wa t e r f r o n t , f o r by 1913 the whole w a t e r f r o n t from Commercial I n l e t southward was o c c u p i e d by Company i n s t a l l a t i o n s . Other p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s were l o c a t e d to the n o r t h . On Departure Bay the Company had fur ther f a c i l i t i e s f o r the Bechin mine. A s m a l l e r mining company had a p i e r i n Townsite, where i t s r a i l w a y l i n e from East W e l l i n g t o n reached t i d e w a t e r . 1 Smaller mining companies operated l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s at Boat Harbour and on Hanoose Bay. The present w a t e r f r o n t r a i l t r a n s f e r p o i n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of c o a l mining. Western F u e l b u i l t a car f e r r y s l i p which s t i l l handles f r e i g h t car barges for the Canadian n a t i o n a l Railway Company. The E. & H., excluded from the Hanaimo w a t e r f r o n t , had b u i l t a f e r r y s l i p at Ladysmith, where l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s of the Dunsmuir Company were l o c a t e d , i n 1899. In 1921, a g r e a t e r f l o w of t r a f f i c n e c e s s i t a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n by the C.P.R. of the s l i p a t Jayem on Hanoose Bay. 1 Canada, Dept. of Marine and F i s h e r i e s , P o r t Directory., 1913 and 1914, Ottawa. 2 Cowie, op. c i t . , p. 5. 128. The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y today has a new purpose; new f a c i l i t i e s have been b u i l t and a changing t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n i s emerging. The Kanaimo area i s the c e n t r a l r a i l d i s t r i b u t i n g point f o r Vancouver I s l a n d . 1 N e c e s s i t y f o r e f f i c i e n t h a n d l i n g i s l e a d i n g to p r o g r e s s i v e l y g r e a t e r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Commercial r o a d t r a f f i c i s handled by busses and t r u c k s .on both a l o c a l and r e g i o n a l b a s i s . l o c a l passenger t r a f f i c i s handled by c i t y and d i s t r i c t bus l i n e s r a d i a t i n g from p the t e r m i n a l on the harbour. R e g i o n a l bus l i n e s operate from the same p o i n t . l o c a l t r u c k i n g f i r m s comprise the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n the town. The A l b e r n i area supports 32 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f i r m s having an average p a y r o l l of $13,000. and the Nanaimo a r e a has 28, but average p a y r o l l s are o n l y about $9,000. per annum. Since s e v e r a l l a r g e f i r m s are i n -cluded i n the f i g u r e f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , i t i s obvious that many s m a l l f i r m s are i n v o l v e d a l s o . R e g i o n a l t r u c k l i n e s r a d i a t e from Nanaimo over a wide area. F r e i g h t r a t e s from Vancouver are the same t o V i c t o r i a as to Nanaimo, while the d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t of r a t e e q u a l i z a t i o n f o r l a r g e r shipments by t r u c k i s at the midway p o i n t o f Duncan. 3 1 G l o v e r , M.H.A. , Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. o f Trade and Industry, l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , August 23, 19SO. 2 Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , "New Bus Run scheduled f o r Nanaimo," May, 1950, p. 17. 3 Seoul ar,J.Manager, I s l a n d F r e i g h t S e r v i c e l t d . , l e t t e r to t h e w r i t e r , June 8, 1949. 1£9. The t r u c k i n g l i n e s which operate from lanaimo compete w i t h scow and barge f i r m s . However, they are abl e to p r o -v i d e a more fre q u e n t s e r v i c e . Two t r i p s a day are made by t r u c k s to P o r t A l b e r n i , whereas water-borne cargoes on l y r e a c h t h a t c i t y three times a month. One of t h e two r e g i o n a l t r u c k i n g l i n e s has f a c i l i t i e s i n the wa t e r f r o n t t e r m i n a l . The importance of r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e f u n c t i o n -ing of t h e lanaimo a r e a as a d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t i s hampered by the c o n t i n u i n g p a t t e r n of f a c i l i t i e s developed d u r i n g the coal-mining p e r i o d . Shipments c a r r i e d over Canadian p a c i f i c Railway l i n e s are taken by scow to la d y s m i t h or lanoose Bay and are t r a n s f e r r e d to the Esquimalt and lanaimo l i n e t h e r e , r a t h e r than a t lanaimo. However, the r a i l w a y may move these f a c i l i t i e s to the t e r m i n a l , together w i t h i t s s t a t i o n and roundhouse and shops which are now l o c a t e d at Wellington."'" Some c o a l i s at present shipped to other i s l a n d p o i n t s v i a r a i l , but most i s c a r r i e d by water. The r a t e s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n J u l y , 1949, should c e n t r a l i z e r a i l f r e i g h t movements on lanaimo r a t h e r than on T i c t o r i a. The p r o v i s i o n o f new harbour f a c i l i t i e s has made p o s s i b l e t h e expansion o f the l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y . Both f o r e i g n and domestic cargoes are handled at the Assembly Wharf and t h e smaller wharves, but no cumulative records a r e kept of the l a t t e r movements. Domestic t r a f f i c between 1 1950 Jo u r n a l of Commerce Yearbook, Supplement, 17th Annual E d i t i o n , p. 252. 1 3 0 . Vancouver, Nanaimo, and other c o a s t a l p o i n t s i s , however, of g r e a t e r volume than f o r e i g n shipments. Comparison of the tonnages handled by B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s can o n l y be made on the b a s i s of f o r e i g n shipments. Although these g i y e some i n d i c a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y of the p o r t of Hanaimo, they do n o t present a true p i c t u r e of the scope of l o c a l o p e r a t i o n s . (See Table X I I ) . While many c o a s t a l p o r t s export v a s t q u a n t i t i e s of s p e c i a l i z e d products, those o f Hanaimo c o n t a i n a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of goods. Both c o a l and lumber products are important exports (see Table X I I I P. 1 3 1 A . ) The p r o p o r t i o n of these exports from Hanaimo i s undergoing a change. As c o a l exports d e c l i n e , the volume of o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r e s t p r oducts, i s i n c r e a s i n g (see f i g u r e 2 0 ) . The exact p r o p o r t i o n of these tonnages which comprise lumber products cannot be determined, because f i g u r e s on such shipments are i s s u e d on the b a s i s o f board f e e t . The average annual shipment o f lumber f o r export from Hanaimo i s about 60 m i l l i o n board f e e t Csee Table V I I I , p. 1 1 8 ) . Compari-son of t h e exports of f o r e s t pro d i e t s from Vancouver I s l a n d p o i n t s i n 1 9 4 7 i n d i c a t e s t h a t Hanaimo, l e a s t important as a lumber e x p o r t e r , l e a d s i n the export o f unmanufactured f o r e s t p r o d u c t s . (See Table XIV). T h i s r e f l e c t s the scope o f second-a r y f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n the area. Other wood products, and the by-products of wood p r o c e s s i n g , exported from other c e n t r e s , formed no p a r t of the exports from Hanaimo. TABLE X I I MOVEMENT OP FOREIGN SHIPMENTS _ THROUGH BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS ( i n s h o r t tons) T o t a l Inward -Vancouver, 1948 Hew Westminster, 1948 4,339,118 2,307,240 796,313 26,663 P o r t A l b e r n i , 1947 268,139 6 V i c t o r i a , 1948 256,247 25,995 Chemainus, 1947 211,659 438 NANAIMO, 1947 195,143 Power R i v e r , 1947 166,341 33,134 -Ocean F a l l s , 1947 89,341 56,652 Quatsino, 1947 66,761 20,917 63,245 P r i n c e Rupert, 1947 17,789 Outward (3) (3) (5) 2,031,878 769,650 268,133 230,252 211,221 192,791 133,755 32,689 3,516 3,128 (2) (2) (2) (4) 1. From Regional I n d u s t r i a l Index, 1949 e d i t i o n . 2. C h i e f l y lumber products 5. C h i e f l y petroleum and petroleum products 4. C h i e f l y newsprint 5. C h i e f l y f i s h H H I1 ABIE X I I I FOREIGN CARGOES IOADBD AND UNLOADED IN 'TEE PORT OE NANAIMO, 1947. 1 Short Tone OUTWARD: INWARD; lumber, timber, box, c r a t e , cooperage m a t e r i a l 81,458 l o g s , p o s t s , p o l e s , p i t - p r o p s , p i l i n g 76,£79 c o a l , bituminous 34,301 f i s h , f r e s h , f r o z e n , cured 55£ a l l other f r e i g h t £01 T o t a l 19£,791 g a s o l i n e 1,814 a l l other f r e i g h t £7£ c a s t i n g s and machinery 15£ petroleum, crude 114 T o t a l 2,352 1. Prom Regional I n d u s t r i a l Index, 1949 e d i t i o n , p. 195. Figure 20. Foreign-bound Cargoes, 1938-47 Coal-, from r e p o r t s of Minister of Mines T o t a l volumes; from f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. of Trade and I n d u s t r y , V i c t o r i a . 250,000 TONS-200,000 150.000 100,0 00 50,000 1138 t<?3<1 1140 |q4l 1942 1143 l<?47 FOREIGN-BOUND CARGOES LOADED A T NANAIMO, 1938 TO 1W FIG.20 131.0 TABLE XIV Cargoes of c e r t a i n f o r e s t products loaded for f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s at Vancouver I s l a n d p o r t s . ( i n tons) Lumber, timber, jLogs, posts, p o l e s , box, c r a t e , {pit-props, p i l i n g . cooperage m a t e r i a l I P o r t A l b e r n i (1947) 198,835 1,648 Chemainus (1947) 185,841 17,985 V i c t o r i a (1948) 175,349 8,770 lanaimo (1947) 81,458 76,279 2 1. Prom Regiona l i n d u s t r i a l Index, 1949 e d i t i o n . £. Comprised l a r g e l y of telephone p o l e s , e t c . (Source, S c a l i n g and R o y a l t y Reports, Nanaimo o f f i c e , B.C.I'.S. ) 132. Petroleum, a r i l petroleum p r o d u c t s comprise the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e f o r e i g n cargoes landed a t hanaimo (see Table X I I I p. 131A. ) This i s true i n many B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s . At Quatsino, second l a r g e s t i m p o r t i n g p o i n t i n the pr o v i n c e , (see Table X I I , p, 131)such p r o d u c t s form about 80 per cent of the imports. The volume o f t h i s t r a f f i c r e s u l t s from the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t h e l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y as f o r e s t r e s e r v e s are consumed. Development o f t h i s trend could remove much of the d i s t r i b u t i n g i n d u s t r y from the Banaimo a r e a . D. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P a r t o f t h e l o c a l t e r t i a r y and s e r v i c i n g i n d u s t r y Is concerned w i t h the f u n c t i o n i n g of upper Vancouver I s l a n d ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . lanaimo i s the scene of a l l A s s i z e and Supreme Court t r i a l s from Duncan no r t h . lanaimo i s the head-quarters of the Vancouver I s l a n d Union l i b r a r y s e r v i n g the area from M i l l Bay, Shawnigan l a k e and Cowichan Lake, to Campbell R i v e r and the A l b e r n i s . other headquarters i n c l u d e those o f t h e Upper Vancouver I s l a n d P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t , and the R e g i o n a l o f f i c e for the f e d e r a l Department o f f i s h e r i e s , a d m i n i s t e r i n g an a r e a between t h e I s l a n d and t h e mainland from Howe Sound nor t h t o Cape Caution. Another unorganized r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n centred i n lanaimo i s r e c r e a t i o n . The l o c a l i c e - r i n k , the onl y one n o r t h of V i c t o r i a , a t t r a c t s patrons from a wide area. As might be expected, no o f f i c i a l of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e i s s t a t i o n e d i n 133. the c i t y , w h i l e the headquarters of the P r o v i n c i a l Inspector of mines has now been t r a n s f e r r e d to Cumberland. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s i s a l s o being c e n t r a l i z e d In Hanaimo 1; a l r e a d y the main maintenance garage, t i c k e t o f f i c e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c i l i t i e s of the r e g i o n a l bus l i n e have been moved from V i c t o r i a to the c i t y t e r m i n a l . Economic a c t i v i t y i n the Hanaimo area which had de-c l i n e d as c o a l - m i n i n g d e c l i n e d , i s now e n t e r i n g a new p e r i o d of development. What new f u n c t i o n s w i l l accrue to the Hanaimo a r e a , and the extent to which present f u n c t i o n s w i l l be maintained and expanded w i l l depend l e s s upon environmental and other f a c t o r s w i t h i n the a r e a than upon happenings of world-wide s i g n i f i c a n c e as t h e y a f f e c t t h e market £>r lumber, and the general p r o s p e r i t y of Vancouver I s l a n d . 1 1950 Journal of Commerce Yearbook, Supplement, Seventeenth Annual E d i t i o n , p. 252. CHAPTER 71 THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OP THE NANAIMO AREA Th© c u l t u r a l landscape comprises a l l the changes upon the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e brought about by the i n t e r a c t i o n of man and h i s environment. The d i r e c t evidence of coal-mining i n i t s i n f l u e n c e upon the c u l t u r a l landscape o f the lanaimo area i s not, today, of major importance. I n d i r e c t l y , however, the i n d u s t r y has a f f e c t e d many of the c u l t u r a l landscape f e a t u r e s , s i n c e they have evolved as the l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n to a c o a l -mining economy. The p a t t e r n s developed during the coal-mining e r a are being o v e r - l a i d by new p a t t e r n s e v o l v i n g from the changed occupance of t h e a r e a and the new i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e i n g brought i n t o p l a y . I PRIMARY LAND USE The amount of l a n d a t present being used f o r mining i n the Nanaimo ar e a i s not v e r y e x t e n s i v e , but the i n f l u e n c e o f mining upon the use of l a n d by other primary i n d u s t r i e s has been very important. Both the p a t t e r n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t l a n d use were developed i n accordance w i t h the v a r y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these i n d u s t r i e s and the dominant mining i n d u s t r y . 135. A. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d used f o r farming i n the lanaimo a r e a i s governed p r i m a r i l y by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a r a b l e l a n d , farms are t h e r e f o r e concentrated i n t o two c h i e f d i s t r i c t s i the v a l l e y of t h e M i l l s t o n e E i v e r from Brannen Lake t o the o u t s k i r t s o f t h e c i t y , and the broad v a l l e y from lanaimo Harbour to Ladysmith Harbour. (See f i g u r e 21). In n e i t h e r of these d i s t r i c t s are l a r g e contiguous farming areas found. Rock outcrops and s t r e t c h e s of poor s o i l i n t e r v e n e , l i m i t i n g the extent o f c l e a r e d and c u l t i v a t e d l a n d . I n these two d i s t r i c t s farming i s c a r r i e d on i n a patchy p a t t e r n which becomes more compact i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of la k e s and streams. These are the areas where the most extensive d e p o s i t s of d e l t a i c and l a c u s t r i n e s o i l s have been l a i d down, i n the v i c i n i t y o f Cedar,, much of t h e c u l t i -vated l a n d i n c l u d e s areas of r e s i d u a l s h a l y s o i l which can be c u l t i v a t e d because i t i s mixed w i t h the a d j o i n i n g d e p o s i t s of more f e r t i l e s o i l s . Elsewhere, farm lands form an even more s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n . Smaller farming d i s t r i c t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a l l e y s occupied by creeks and small l a k e s , or i n swamps where b l a c k muck d e p o s i t s have formed. The E x t e n s i o n v a l l e y f l o o r i s occupied by such a l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t . Through-out the whole a r e a , small patches* of swamp have been c l e a r e d and drained f o r farming although they may be surrounded by f a i r l y e xtensive t r a c t s of f o r e s t e d l a n d . Figure 21 Land Use Base map: B.C. Forest S e r v i c e , 19 3?. Land leased l o r l o g g i n g : from Management Sheets, lanaimo O f f i c e , B.C. Forest Service 137. Even though the form o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use p a t t e r n owes nothing to coal-mining, i t s extent i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n d u s t r y . The d i s t r i c t s around lanaimo have been s e t t l e d f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d , because of t h e i r e a r l y development as coal-mining areas. "Due to t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t has been s e t t l e d f o r so l o n g and has been so c a r e f u l l y p i c k e d over f o r t i l l a b l e s o i l s , there a r e no areas a v a i l a b l e f o r new farm settlement a s i d e from small h o l d i n g s . There i s a l s o l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c r e a s i n g the c u l t i -v ated acreage on e x i s t i n g farms f o r i n most cases c l e a r i n g has been c a r r i e d to the extreme edges of the t i l l a b l e s o i l . " l Of a l l the upper Vancouver I s l a n d areas where the s o i l survey was made, t h e Hanaimo-Ladysmith d i s t r i c t was the onl y one i n which c u l t i v a t e d acreage exceeded the are a o f a r a b l e s o i l . (See Table I I , p. 69). l o t every acre o f arable s o i l i s under c u l t i v a t i o n , nor i s every c u l t i v a t e d acre a r a b l e s o i l . However, the process of t r i a l and e r r o r by which the d i s t i n c t i o n s be-tween ar a b l e and non-arable s o i l were for m e r l y made has been c a r r i e d on l o n g enough to make the d i s t r i b u t i o n of arable s o i l and o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d c o n s p i c u o u s l y s i m i l a r . There i s l i t t l e evidence of zo n a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o types of farm produce throughout the area. A l l p a r t s of the area are f a i r l y t o e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the main ce n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n . The governing f a c t o r i n d e c i d i n g the types o f product i n an area i s the extent of a r a b l e l a n d a v a i l a b l e . Thus, while there are three d a i r i e s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of lanaimo, there are others near W e l l i n g t o n , l a n t z v i l l e , 1 S a l i s b u r y , R.H., S o i l Survey o f Vancouver I s l a n d , B.C.E.S., 1944, - p. 62. 138. Cedar, Cassidy, and i n the M i l l s t o n e V a l l e y . She l o c a l f l o r i s t s have t h e i r n u r s e r i e s i n and near the o i t y i t s e l f , hut most o f t h e l o c a l l y grown vegetables are produced i n market gardens at c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s from the town. The more d i s t a n t farms tend t o have l a r g e r f i e l d s of hay than do those c l o s e r to t h e c i t y , yet f a i r l y l a r g e hay f i e l d s are found i n the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a imne d i a t e l y west of the c i t y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t - t i m e farming a r e a s has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h coal-mining a c t i v i t y and i s now r e l a t e d to the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of such areas to the c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n and employment. Part-time farming became more important i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver Coal Company o p e r a t i o n s t h a n i n the v i c i n i t y of Dunsmuir mines. Harewood, N o r t h f i e l d and Chase R i v e r have part-time farms which appear to have been i n oper-a t i o n some con s i d e r a b l e time. Bear E x t e n s i o n , W e l l i n g t o n and SOuth "Wellington commercial, r a t h e r than p a r t - t i m e , farms p r e -dominate. Many p a r t - t i m e farms are now being operated i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r i e s of t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g complex, so that newly c l e a r e d part-time farms are i n evidence at Cedar, Chase R i v e r , h o r t h f i e l d and W e l l i n g t o n . Part-time farming, however, seems t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t l y - a r a b l e s o i l . Good s o i l i s i n demand f o r more i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n ^ non-arable s o i l s do not give adequate r e t u r n s f o r the labour and money i n v o l v e d . 139 . The more c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n now e v o l y i n g i n the area may give r i s e t o a more s t r o n g l y zoned p a t t e r n o f a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d use. The demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l space may push f u l l - t i m e farming operations to the p e r i p h e r y while aajentuating the developing p a t t e r n of p a r t - t i m e farming on the o u t s k i r t s of s e t t l e d a r e a s . B. F o r e s t Land Use The p a t t e r n of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n f o r l o g g i n g i n the lanaimo a r e a i s not s t a b i l i z e d w i t h r e g a r d e i t h e r t o i t s form or to i t s extent. A l l the l a n d w i t h i n t h e lanaimo area has a l r e a d y been logged-over and most o f the a r a b l e s o i l has been brought under c u l t i v a t i o n , so there a r e few areas o f any great extent now covered by l a r g e stands of merchantable timber. Both the above-mentioned f a c t o r s stem from the development of t h e area i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o a l - m i n i n g . Small f i r m s lease b l o c k s of land f o r l o g g i n g purposes i n the v i c i n i t y . Those l e a s e d i n 1948 g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of the p a t t e r n of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n f o r f o r e s t purposes i n the area. (See F i g u r e E l , p. 136). Logging l a n d s occupy the i n t e r -s t i t i a l spaces between the farming areas, where r o c k outcrops and non-arable s o i l s prevent p r o f i t a b l e c u l t i v a t i o n . The se blocks of l a n d are c l e a r e d w i t h i n a few years, when new areas are l e a s e d . The a c t u a l extent of l a n d l e a s e d f o r l o g g i n g thus f l u c t u a t e s c o n s t a n t l y , but the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n remains the sane. 140. I n some p a r t s o f t h e a r e a , the l a n d i s used n e i t h e r f o r l o g g i n g nor f o r farming. Some o f these t r a c t s have r e c e n t l y been logged, w h i l e others have not yet been logged. Much l a n d i s covered w i t h immature timber. Hear the confluence o f Haslam Creek and the lanaimo River,' the s o i l i s so stony that i t has not produced a merchantable crop i n the p e r i o d s i n c e i t was f i r s t cut over. ^  Toward t h e western margin o f the area, t r a c t s l e a s e d f o r l o g g i n g become more extensive and more n e a r l y contiguous. T h i s r e f l e c t s the l a c k of a r a b l e s o i l . Greater slope and more common outcroppings o f rock together w i t h the g r e a t e r pre -yalence of f o r e s t s o i l s have dis c o u r a g e d the development of a g r i c u l t u r e . These l e a s e d areas, although near t h e t r a c t s i n the mountainous i n t e r i o r l e a s e d by the l a r g e l o g g i n g f i r m s , are i n logged-over stands and are being operated by the s m a l l e r l o c a l f i r m s which are t y p i c a l of t h e Hanaimo l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y . C. Land U t i l i z a t i o n f o r Other Primary i n d u s t r i e s . The l a n d used by the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n the Hanaimo area i s f o r commercial and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes, r a t h e r than f o r f i s h i n g i n i t s e l f as a pr i m a r y i n d u s t r y . Coal-mining does not occupy a great a r e a l e x t e n t of land a t the present time. Evidence o f the g r e a t e r p r e v i o u s use o f land f o r mining i s to be. seen i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of dumps of mine r e f u s e throughout the area. Hear Ext e n s i o n , 1 S p i l s b u r y , l o c . c i t . , p. 41 141, at l e a s t , these dumps encroach upon the l i m i t e d acreage of f e r t i l e l a n d . (See F i g u r e 2 2 ) . The o n l y other mining a c t i v i t y , the p r o d u c t i o n of g r a v e l , makes l i m i t e d use of the land i n s c a t t e r e d l o c a l i t i e s . The p i t s are near L a n t z v i l l e , East W e l l i n g t o n , C a s s i d y and North-f i e l d . (See F i g u r e 2 1 , p. 1 3 6 ) . R e c e n t l y , g r a v e l has been r e -covered from the bed of the Nanaimo R i v e r near Cedar, numerous small g r a v e l p i t s have been used from time t o time throughout the whole area. I I SETTLEMENT PATTERN One of t h e b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f the c u l t u r a l landscape i s the p a t t e r n developed b y set t l e m e n t s . Settlement p a t t e r n s are of two types, agglommerated and d i s p e r s e d , of which the former predominates i n the Nanaimo a r e a . Settlement p a t t e r n s are c l e a r l y the r e s u l t of e a r l y c o a l -mining a c t i v i t y , although a new settlement p a t t e r n i s being superimposed upon the o l d . During the p e r i o d of coal- m i n i n g a c t i v i t y , c l u s t e r e d s e t t l e m e n t s arose wherever c o a l c o u l d most e a s i l y be reached. For t h i s reason, a zone of mining s e t t l e -ments was e s t a b l i s h e d near the western margin o f the workable seams. (See F i g u r e 2 3 ) . In t h i s v i c i n i t y , a c t u a l c o a l outcrops occurred, or d r i l l i n g proved t h a t the c o a l h o r i z o n s were a c c e s s i b l e . Mining development f o l l o w e d and the establishment of s e t t l e m e n t s . F i g u r e 2 2 . E x t e n s i o n This mine dump at Extension, about 100 f e e t i n height, encroaches on f e r t i l e bottom l a n d of the v a l l e y f l o o r . 143. Figu r e 23. Coal Seam arid Mining V i l l a g e s Base map: B.C. Forest S e r v i c e , 1937 Co a l seams; Paper 47-22, G.S.C., by A.F. Buckham. F i g u r e 23 144. The v i l l a g e s o f South W e l l i n g t o n and E x t e n s i o n and the o r i g i n a l settlement at W e l l i n g t o n were e s t a b l i s h e d by the Dunsmuir f i r m . lanaimo and N o r t h f i e l d were founded by the Vancouver Goal Company. C a s s i d y was o r i g i n a l l y the model townsite f o r the Granby mine, and East W e l l i n g t o n and L a n t z -v i l l e were developed by the East W e l l i n g t o n Coal Company and the Vancouver-Banaimo C o a l Company r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p o l i d es of these f i r m s had much to do w i t h the development o f the v i l l a g e s . The Vancouver Coal Company encouraged i t s workers t o become permanent r e s i d e n t s , but many workers f o r the Duns-muir f i r m were, i n the e a r l y years, t r a n s i e n t immigrant l a b o u r e r s . Settlements developed d u r i n g the c o a l mining p e r i o d i n a l i n e a r p a t t e r n near the western edge o f the f i e l d . The settlements themselves u s u a l l y had compact p a t t e r n s . The change i n occupance of t h e Nanaimo area i s imposing a r a d i a l settlement p a t t e r n upon the l i n e a r p a t t e r n a l r e a d y developed. Settlement i s spreading outward from Nanaimo along the main highways l e a d i n g from the town, almost l i n k i n g the e a r l i e r communities. Near the town, the r a d i a l s k e l e t o n i s being f i l l e d i n . While the more remote settlements are not so d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s phenomenon, l i n e a r p a t t e r n s are being imposed upon them i n keeping w i t h the growing r a d i a l settlement p a t t e r n throughout the area. 145. One e f f e c t o f t h e change from a mining to d i s t r i b u t i n g economy has been t h e m i g r a t i o n o f the settlements o f W e l l i n g -ton and Cassidy. The mining communities were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the best l o c a t i o n s f o r r e a c h i n g the c o a l seams. When l a r g e -s c a l e mining ceased, the settlements migrated toward the ad-jacent highways and developed l i n e a r p a t t e r n s a l o n g these roads. In the case of W e l l i n g t o n , the newer p a r t o f the community, which had been l a i d out as a r e s i d e n t i a l area l o c a t e d on the Is l a n d Highway, s u r v i v e d while the o l d e r p a r t of t h e s e t t l e -ment disappeared. C a s s i d y i s now i n a completely new l o c a t i o n . The o l d s i t e i s de s e r t e d . (See F i g u r e s 24 and 25), I I I STREET PATTERNS OF THE HANAIMO AREA W i t h i n the general p a t t e r n o f settlement i n the area o f t h i s study, more d e t a i l e d urban p a t t e r n s a r e d i s c e r n i b l e . S t r e e t p a t t e r n s are responging to t h e same i n f l u e n c e s which a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l settlement p a t t e r n . D u r i n g the coal-mining p e r i o d compact s t r e e t plans, o f t e n a r t i f i c i a l , were developed to s u i t the n e c e s s i t i e s of coal-mining. Since the decline i n the i n d u s t r y the n e c e s s i t y f o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o highways and the modern i n c r e a s e i n the p r i v a t e automobile ownership has encouraged the development of more l i n e a r urban development. A. The S t r e e t P a t t e r n s of Nanaimo Nanaimo, a It hough, founded as a coal-mining centre, has been l e s s completely dominated by the i n d u s t r y than some o f the smaller settlements have been. The o r i g i n a l town was l a i d out F i g u r e £4. The T i p p l e , C a s s i d y . The abandoned t i p p l e of the Granby C o l l i e r y dominates the deserted townsite. Figure 25. C a s s i d y Two concrete b u i l d i n g s on the former townsite of Cassidy. The one on the l e f t i s the o n l y i n h a b i t e d b u i l d i n g i n the v i c i n i t y . 148. by the Vancouver Coal Company but i t has always performed a g r e a t e r variety of f u n c t i o n s than have the s m a l l e r c e n t r e s . An important f a c t o r i n determining the a c t u a l p a t t e r n o f the s t r e e t s has been that of l o c a l topography. The present c i t y centre was o r i g i n a l l y a p e n i n s u l a , d i v i d e d from the mainland by an arm of the sea extending from the head of Commercial I n l e t toward the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r . (See f i g u r e 26). South of Commercial I n l e t the l a n d r o s e r a t h e r a b r u p t l y from the sea w i t h s m a l l r o c k y i s l a n d s l y i n g o f f - s h o r e . Prom t h e former i n l e t the ground s l o p e s up s h a r p l y to a r i d g e , i n p l a c e s over 200 f e e t above s e a - l e v e l , about one-half mile ihand from the shore i n a f o r m a t i o n r o u g h l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f an amphitheatre. To the south, the r i m of the amphitheatre merges w i t h a r o c k y upland along the eoast, and to the n o r t h i t d i p s to the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r . Steep s l o p e s r u n to the r i v e r and t h e sea i n t h a t p a r t of the c i t y l y i n g north o f M i l l s t o n e . Immediately behind the c i t y the ground drops sharp-l y to a s t r e t c h of land i n which some f e r t i l e s o i l i s found, f h i s d i s t r i c t i s about one mile wide. Behind i t a g a i n the ground r i s e s r a t h e r u n i f o r m l y to t h e east f l a n k of Mount Benson. V a r i e d adaptations to s u r f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n have had to be made which, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r o g r e s s i n g development of the c i t y , have g i v e n r i s e t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t "towns" w i t h i n the c i t y and i t s e n v i r o n s . Figure 26. O r i g i n a l .topography of Hanaimo Base map and contours; Hanaimo Sheet, Bent, of N a t i o n a l Defence, 1941. Shor e l i n e ; map i n o f f i c e of C i t y Engineer, Hanaimo, dated 1891 and undated mape i n the B a s t i o n Museum, Hanaimo. 150. The f i r s t o f these towns i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t r e e t p a t t e r n o f t h e present commercial c en t i e o f the c i t y . (See F i g u r e 27). The pioneer community was seen by Mayne, an o f f i c e r i n the Royal Havy, who d e s c r i b e d i t as f o l l o w s ; "The town, such as i t i s , stands upon a s i n g u l a r promontory .... Along the shores are the c o l l i e r y b u i l d i n g s and about a dozen remarkably sooty houses, i n h a b i t e d by t h e miners and the few Hudson ( s i c ) Bay Company o f f i c e r s here. There i s a r e s i d e n t doctor i n the p l a c e , who i n h a b i t s one of these houses, and to the l e f t o f them stands the Company's old b a s t i o n . . . . " 1 The town was centred on Commercial I n l e t where one o f the mines was l o c a t e d and where s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s had been developed. (See Fig u r e 17, p. 85). A road l a t e r l e d toward W e l l i n g t o n . As the town grew, a causeway was b u i l t connecting the southern end of the promontory w i t h the mainland and the i n l e t was e v e n t u a l l y f i l l e d i n w i t h r e f u s e by the mine company. The congested p a t t e r n of curving s t r e e t s i n the c i t y centre s t i l l o u t l i n e s the p a t t e r n of the o l d p e n i n s u l a . (See F i g u r e 28. ) Soon a f t e r the sa l e of the town to the Vancouver C o a l Company, settlement began to spread up the slopes beyond the i n l e t . The f i r s t l a r g e home i n the community was b u i l t i n 2 t h i s l o c a l i t y i n 1862. When a number of houses had been b u i l t , the company undertook to l a y out a p l a n f o r the s t r e e t p a t t e r n of t h e settlement. ' The n e c e s s i t y of adapting a 1 Mayne, R.C., Four years i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , London, John Murray, 1862, p. 35. 2 Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , May 20, 1950. 3 B r i t i e h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r y , 1891, p. 37. 4 Hanaimo Free P r e s s , Jan. 29, 1891. 151. F i g u r e 27. S t r e e t P atterns From Nanaimo Sheet, Dent, o f N a t i o n a l Defence, 1941. A. Pioneer Community B. Coal-mining Community C. Present Community F i g u r e 28. Banaimo - 1875 General, view o f Nanaimo i n 1875. The causeway .between the Ravine ani Commercial I n l e t l e a d s t o Commercial S t r e e t . 'The b u i l d i n g immediately eas t of t h e Ravine b r i d g e i s the present c i t y h a l l . Photograph: P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s 153. s t r e e t l a y o u t to s u r f a c e conformation l e d to t&e a d o p t i o n of the r a d i a l p l a n evident throughout much of t h e c i t y . T h i s p a t t e r n o f r a d i a t i n g main s t r e e t s c r o s s i n g t h e contours and c o n c e n t r i c e r o s s - s t r e e t s f o l l o w i n g the t r e n d o f the contours covers most of the ground enclosed by the b a s i n - l i k e f o r m a t i o n . By 1890, the p a t t e r n of t h i s most e x t e n s i v e s e c t i o n o f the c i t y proper was w e l l - d e v e l o p e d . The r a d i a t i n g s t r e e t s extended as f a r as the c i t y l i m i t s of that time. (See Figure 29). The Ravine had not as yet been f i l l e d i n , but the causeway had been b u i l t . Settlement had not spread much up the steep s l o p e s o f t h e town, a l t h o u g h i t had spread across the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r to the newly opened r e s i d e n t i a l area known as Newcastle T o w n s i t e . 1 Immediately west o f t h e town the f l a t t e r l a n d had been d i v i d e d i n t o f o r t y a c r e b l o c k s and s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e acre l o t s f o r the settlement of company employees upon smal l farms. This l a n d was " l e a s e d w i t h o p t i o n to buy". The t h i r d town, that of t h e present day, extends beyond the present c i t y l i m i t s t o the north and west. I t i n c l u d e s , as w e l l as Townsite, the Harewood or F i v e Acres d i s t r i c t , where the miners s e t t l e d , and B r e c h i n d i s t r i c t n orth o f Townsite. B r e c h i n mine on Pimbury Point came in t o p r o d u c t i o n i n 1904. By 191£ o n l y a few houses had been b u i l t i n connection w i t h the mine.^ This mine was c l o s e d , owing to the s t r i k e , i n 1914, but 1 hanaimo Free Press, March 6, 1891. 2 G.S.G. , Topographic map of the Nanaimo map-area, 1912. 154 Figure £9. lanaimo about 1890 Base map, s t r e e t pattern, w a t e r f r o n t , coal company . p r o p e r t i e s , from map I n o f f i c e of C i t y Engineer, Nanaimo, dated 18 91. F u n c t i o n a l areas from W i l l i a m ' s V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo C i t i e s ' D i r e c t o r y , 1890. I n d u s t r i a l s i t e s on M i l l s t o n e River from sketch map drawn by John Cowie. Legend 1. Hew Vancouver Coal Company's farm. £. " " • park 3. " " " " reserve 4. c r i c k e t ground (land donated by c o a l company) 5. cemetery ( " n " " ) 6. land leased by c o a l company to employees w i t h option to our chase. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. J . K. L. M. N. 0. Hew Vancouver Coal Company's b a l l a s t l o a d i n g It IT II II II Tl H H harf II n n II it f e r r y s l i p weigh house i t Power House Plan i n g m i l l Sawmill Tannery Brewery Foundry Sawmill (new s i t e ) N.H. Nanaimo h o s p i t a l (land donated by coal C.T. Chinese s e c t i o n + Church . o . . l i m i t s of r e s i d e n t i a l area l i m i t s of commercial area -. . . . c i t y boundary company, The dotted area shows the d i s t r i c t inhabited most densely by mining f a m i l i e s . 155. i t p r o v i d e d the nucleus of t h e p r e s e n t e x t e n s i o n of urban development. She s t r e e t p a t t e r n s o f these newer areas conform more c l o s e l y to the c o n v e n t i o n a l b l o c k p a t t e r n of most North American c i t i e s . I n Rarewood the roads and s t r e e t s f o l l o w the boundaries of the o l d f o r t y acre and f i v e a c r e s u b d i v i s i o n s . Owing to the more moderate s l o p e o f the ground i n t h i s v i c i n i t y i t i s f a i r l y w e l l adapted to the needs of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . In Townsite and B r e c h i n the a r b i t r a r y s t r e e t p a t t e r n i s not a l -ways w e l l adapted t o t h e rougher nature of the topography. The r a d i a l p a t t e r n of the second town extends through the newer r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the form of the main road systems. In F i v e Acres, the road toward t h e o l d Harewood mine cuts a c r o s s the r e g u l a r b l o c k p a t t e r n . I n B r e c h i n the Departure Bay r o a d i s such a r a d i a t i n g highway. Settlement i s - s p r e a d i n g a l o n g these highways i n the two areas, and along Comox Road (the I s l a n d Highway) beyond the c i t y l i m i t s . B. The S t r e e t p a t t e r n s of other Urban Centres The s t r e e t p a t t e r n s of the s m a l l e r urban centres were u s u a l l y planned by t h e mining companies o p e r a t i n g i n the v i c i n i t y . These p a t t e r n s are i n a sense a r t i f i c i a l but served the needs of the communities. During the coal-mining p e r i o d the purpose of the communities was to p r o v i d e a l o c a t i o n for the homes of most of the mine employees, compact enough f o r easy access to the mine and f o r p r o v i s i o n of some s o c i a l l i f e i n these more i s o l a t e d s ettlements. 156. I n W e l l i n g t o n n e a r l y a l l t r a c e s of t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e -ment, along what i s now a side road, have disappeared, along w i t h a l l t r a c e s of a c t u a l mining o p e r a t i o n s . (See F i g u r e 30). The newer townsite i s almost b i s e c t e d by the i s l a n d Highway. The settlement i s c o n f i n e d by the r a i l w a y , two l a k e s and some higher r i d g e s of ground. I t s present day p a t t e r n i s t h a t which was l a i d out when t h e community was a town of some s i z e . E x t e n s i o n i s another former t>oal-mining community having an a r t i f i c i a l s t r e e t p a t t e r n . Topographic i n f l u e n c e s are much st r o n g e r i n t h i s a r e a , s i n c e the settlement l i e s between two inward-facing cuestas i n a v a l l e y f l o o r w i t h s m a l l lakes, creeks and swampy l a n d . (See f i g u r e 21). The complex s t r e e t p a t t e r n of t h e sett l e m e n t o n l y i n t e n s i f i e s the congest-ing e f f e c t s of topography. Since most o f thes e s t r e e t s are, i n a c t u a l i t y , r o u g h l y g r a v e l l e d roads betweensthe houses the p o i n t l e s s p l a n of t h e s t r e e t p a t t e r n adds nothing t o the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the l o c a t i o n . Whereas many of t h e mining communities have been con-s c i o u s l y l a i d out, the settlement of Cedar has developed without any type o f r e g u l a t i o n or r e s t r i c t i o n . I t s attenuated l i n e a r p a t t e r n i s more t y p i c a l of the p a t t e r n of s m a l l s e t t l e -ments throughout the c o a s t a l p l a i n of Vancouver I s l a n d . (See f i g u r e 3 £ ) . The community has developed g r a d u a l l y as a r e s i d e n t i a l area w i t h an upsurge i n i t s p o p u l a t i o n o c c u r r i n g sin c e the end of World War I I . Before the war, the commurjity was a l o o s e l y k n i t settlement of homes i n t e r r u p t e d by areas 157. F i g u r e 30. Wellington Base map; Nanaimo sheet, Dept. of n a t i o n a l Defence, 1941. WELLINGTON,B.C. 0 ® Ra/'lrodd station • F Wafer tower • B Diesel oil pump • H Round house •Sf SM Sawmill «C School •+• Fire hall a Railway gj Island Highway */s mi. farm Cemmerc < al Bakery Hotel Store Garage Criurc h Home Cemefe ry Secondary roads 156. F i g u r e .31. E x t e n s i o n Base map: Nanaimo sheet, Dept. o f N a t i o n a l Defence, 1941» 159. F i g u r e 31. Cedar Base map; B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1937. LEGEND • AC Auto court • 6 Gdrage 1 Post Office • B Blacksmith shop • u Hotel I School • D Dairy farm • St Store ® Building erected World W a r 1 • F Mixed farm • T Taxi stand — Paved road • FWPre. Hall t Church Gravelled road 160. devoted t o f u l l time and part-time farming. Since then, new houses have tended t o f i l l up the e x i s t i n g spaces and have a l s o been b u i l t along the road to the pulp m i l l which j o i n s the highway i n the centre of the settlement. Cassidy, i n i t s new l o c a t i o n , and South W e l l i n g t o n have developed on this p a t t e r n a l s o , but are perhaps even l e s s compact than Cedar. S i n c e Departure Bay has been developed as a r e s o r t and r e s i d e n t i a l area, i t s p a t t e r n i s l i n e a r along the c u r v i n g shore of the bay. IV MOTIONAL AREAS F u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the c u l t u r a l landscape i s made by the grouping of c e r t a i n aspects of community l i f e , e i t h e r n a t u r a l l y or by r e g u l a t i o n , i n t o d e f i n i t e zones. These f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p a t t e r n o f the f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i n g the community, form the f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n . W i t h i n the c i t y o f Nanaimo, zoning r e g u l a t i o n s were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n 1936. S i m i l a r r e s t r i c t i o n s were imposed upon an area beyond the c i t y l i m i t s i n 1948 w i t h the f o r m a t i o n of t h e Nanaimo Regulated Area i n 1948. (See F i g u r e 33). Because zoning r e g u l a t i o n s were e f f e c t e d f o l l o w i n g long-p e r i o d s o f previous development, c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v i a t i o n from the zoning p a t t e r n occurs. Furthermore, the schedules pro-v i d e f o r areas c l a s s i f i e d as r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n -d u s t r i a l , i n t h a t order. No d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between 161. Figure 33.. Banaimo Regulated Area From map prepared by Regional Planning D i v i s i o n , Dept. of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , 1949. 162. manufacturing and l i g h t i n d u s t r y . 'The laws exclude the l a t t e r types o f development from the area devoted t o the p r e -vious types, hut do not exclude the f i r s t types from areas devoted to the l a t t e r . Residences can he b u i l t i n both commercial and i n d u s t r i a l areas. Io r e g u l a t i o n s p r o h i b i t the r e s i d e n t i a l use of land i n farming areas. Before the enforce ment of zoning lews, the n a t u r a l advantages of c e r t a i n s i t e s had l e d to the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a l l i e d forms of a c t i v i t y i n f a i r l y w e l l d e f i n e d areas w i t h i n the c i t y . A. Banaimo By 1890 the p a t t e r n of the f u n c t i o n a l areas i n Banaimo was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the general zonation which i t e x h i b i t s today. (See F i g u r e 29, p. 154). Manufacturing was concentrated along t h e south bank of the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r . A few manufacturing establishments had s e t t l e d i n s c a t t e r e d l o c a t i o n s throughout the c i t y , where some of them are s t i l l found. The w a t e r f r o n t from Commercial I n l e t south was f u l l y occupied by the mine, o f f i c e s , r a i l w a y yards and s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s o f the New Vancouver C o a l Mining and l a n d Company. Immediately north were the wharves of l o c a l s h i p p i n g and merchandising f i r m s . At that time few commercial or l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s had been a t t r a c t e d to the v i c i n i t y of the r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n , s i n c e the f r e i g h t car f e r r y s l i p s at Lady-smith had not yet been e s t a b l i s h e d . Commercial f i r m s were concentrated at the southern end o f the p e n i n s u l a and on the 163. opposite shore. S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were found throughout the c i t y but were more common i n and around the commercial d i s t r i c t . Mining employees l i v e d i n a l l t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s of the c i t y , but t h e i r homes were more common immediately west of the c o a l company's w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t i e s where the m a j o r i t y were employed. The w a t e r f r o n t s t r e e t known as Esplanade was • the s i t e of l a r g e homes belonging to some of the mine e x e c u t i v e s . Many prominent c i t i z e n s had homes on the slopes immed-i a t e l y above t h e r a v i n e , a l t h o u g h i n d u s t r i a l and commercial f i r m s were l o c a t e d there as w e l l . Newcastle- Townsite was, i n p a r t , i n h a b i t t ed by lo g g e r s , farmers and employees o f the nearby sawmill. The present p a t t e r n of f u n c t i o n a l areas i n Nanaimo i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as i n 1894. The most important changes have r e s u l t e d from the f i l l i n g i n of the r a v i n e and the b u i l d -i n g up of the w a t e r f r o n t a r e a , both of which p r o j e c t s were undertaken by the mining company. The w a t e r f r o n t has a l s o been r a i s e d d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Assembly Wharf and o f the Canadian P a c i f i c t e r m i n a l . The f u n c t i o n a l areas s t i l l occupy zones centred on the w a t e r f r o n t . (See F i g u r e 34). The p l a n t s now on the south bank of the M i l l s t o n e are mainly those of metal working f i r m s , w i t h ship-yards on the adjacent s e a - f r o n t . South of Commercial I n l e t are the Assembly wharf, the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l and two sawmills. 164. Figure 34. Nanaimo Today Base map: Nanaimo sheet, Dept. of N a t i o n a l Defence, 1941. Legend. 1. o i l docks £. C."?.h. Wharf 3. c o a l docks 4. Assembly Wharf 5. f r e i g h t car f e r r y s l i p (G.N.R. ) 6. s m a l l boat wharves 7. s h i p y a r d r e s i d e n t i a l areas commercial areas l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l areas i n d u s t r i a l areas • s c hools 0 h o s p i t a l s CR c i t y r e s e r v o i r 165. The Ravine, or Terminal Avenue, i s zoned o n l y f o r commercial f i r m s and so i s occupied "by i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s which were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e before 1936. I t i s f e l t that t h i s s i t e might w e l l be made a v a i l a b l e to l i g h t i n d u s t r y s i n c e i t p r o-v i d e s l e v e l space a c c e s s i b l e t o the waterfront i n a s i t u a t i o n which i s not otherwise v e r y a t t r a c t i v e . Future a c t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y depend on the r o u t e chosen f o r the a r t e r i a l highway through the town. No p r o v i s i o n apart from commercial zoning i s at present made f o r the l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y l o c a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. I n Nanaimo, the concerns which have been e s t a b l i s h e d near the r a i l r o a d i n c l u d e bakeries,- an ice-cream p l a n t and f i r m s d e a l -ing i n f l o u r and feed. These companies depend upon b u l k y low cost raw m a t e r i a l s which are not u s u a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d by r a i l i f water-borne t r a n s p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e . In t h i s l o c a l i t y , however, r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s used only to convey the s u p p l i e s from the f e r r y s l i p s at Nanoose Bay and Ladysmith. Here, again, f u t u r e zoning a c t i o n may be governed by developments which may be undertaken by the r a i l w a y . S c a t t e r e d manufactur-ing a c t i v i t y throughout the c i t y has continued on the s i t e s where p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . The present commercial zone i n c l u d e s the former p e n i n -s u l a , the r e c l a i m e d i n l e t , and the lower slopes beyond. (See Fi g u r e 34, p. 164). In a d d i t i o n , the commercial zone extends from the middle o f the town at the point where the r a v i n e i s bridge d . 166. The heart o f the shopping d i s t r i c t i s Commercial S t r e e t which formed t h e main thoroughfare on the p e n i n s u l a . Ground f l o o r premises are occupied by s t o r e s and other b u s i n e s s e s , the upper f l o o r s of the b u i l d i n g s housing the o f f i c e s o f pro-f e s s i o n a l people, i n d u s t r i a l and f i n a n c i a l f i r m s and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The s i d e s t r e e t s are s i m i l a r l y occupied, ex-cept that here the ground f l o o r s a l s o may be used f o r o f f i c e space. In t h i s a r e a , too, are those a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies which cannot be housed i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e governmental b u i l d -i n g s. On the p e r i p h e r y of the commercial d i s t r i c t are those f i r m s r e q u i r i n g more space f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , such as garage and automobile d e a l e r s , or those having a lower turnover o f s a l e s ; second-hand d e a l e r s , f o r example. The p e r i p h e r a l commercial d i s t r i c t also c o n t a i n s the premises of manufacturers agents d e a l i n g i n s p e c i a l i z e d goods whose customers w i l l seek out t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Various s m a l l commercial c e n t r e s , c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l areas, have been p r o v i d e d i n the zoning p l a n , but there are many bus i n e s s e s , e s t a b l i s h e d before 1936, which do not conform to t h i s p a t t e r n . Most o f these are smal l c o n f e c t i o n e r i e s and "corner s t o r e s " but t h e r e are a l s o some l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d f i r m s which do a s u b s t a n t i a l b u s i n e s s . These are found along the main s t r e e t s , r a d i a t ing from the c i t y c e ntre. 167. The r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o c c u p i e s the remainder of the c i t y , and as has been seen, c o n s i d e r a b l y beyond. W i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f , t h e r e are few vacant l o t s now a v a i l a b l e . The e f f e c t o f t h e mining economy on the r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n r e -mains f o r the southeast p a r t of the c i t y s t i l l has many smal l homes on narrow l o t s . l a r g e f i r s t - c l a s s homes are now concen-t r a t e d i n Townsite, a c r o s s the r i v e r , but new f i r s t - c l a s s r e s i d •. e n t i a l areas are g e n e r a l l y being developed outside the c i t y l i m i t s . Most o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i s occupied by second-c l a s s homes of middle-income group f a m i l i e s . Many-of the f o r -mer l a r g e homes i n the c i t y have now been converted into m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s . Older r e s i d e n c e s o f a l l types e x i s t i n the zones now c l a s s i f i e d as i n d u s t r i a l or commercial areas. Numerous s m a l l parks are l o c a t e d i n the c i t y but most of them are c h i l d r e n ' s playgrounds. A l l area f u n c t i o n i n g as r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e s w i t h t h e exception of s p o r t s grounds, l i e o u tside the c i t y . Bowen Park, on the M i l l s t o n e , i s most a c c e s s i b l e . (See f i g u r e 34, p. 164). Beaches i n the immediate v i c i n i t y are u n a t t r a c t i v e and the r e s i d e n t s go to t h e beaches at Departure Bay or on Newcastle I s l a n d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n Nanaimo are c e n t r a l i z e d , t o some extent, on Front S t r e e t , i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t of the commercial d i s t r i c t . The Court House, c o n t a i n i n g some of the P r o v i n c i a l Government agencies, and t h e Post O f f i c e B u i l d i n g , housing many of the f e d e r a l o f f i c e s a r e b o t h l o c a t e d t h e r e . ' forthcoming expansion i s planned f o r both c e n t r e s . The new 168. C i t y H a l l w i l l be l o c a t e d j u s t o f f Wallace S t r e e t , on the slope beyond the r a v i n e . She m a j o r i t y of t h e s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s of Nanaimo are l o c a t e d i n the o l d e s t sections of the town; near the c i t y c e n t r e and i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n d i s t r i c t . In t h a t area are most o f t h e churches and l i c e n s e d h o t e l s , and the premises of the many s e r v i c e c l u b s . The f m n c t i o n a l areas of Nanaimo are undergoing a process of r e o r i e n t a t i o n . With the opening of t h e new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l , much of t h e a c t i v i t y i n the town i s c e n t r e d at the south, r a t h e r than t h e n o r t h end o f t h e commercial d i s t r i c t . T r a f f i c r o u t e s have changed, as have the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l areas and concerns to t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , and the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f h o t e l s t o the incoming' t o u r i s t t r a d e . Any changes which r e s u l t from t h i s s h i f t i n a c t i v i t y w i l l p r o b a b l y be more i n the nature of m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the f u n c t i o n a l zones, s i n c e the new l o c a t i o n s t i l l occupies a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the c i t y i t s e l f and t o the area i n g e n e r a l . B. Other Settlements The f u n c t i o n a l zones of t h e remainder of t h e Nanaimo area are l e s s d i v e r s e i n scope and are elementary i n develop-ment. L i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l zones*. The laws enforced i n the Nanaimo r e g u l a t e d area should, through time, produce a more d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n . 169. Commercial establishments are usually scattered along the main highways in the same manner as the residential areas. The Regulated Area plan calls for the formation of a central-ized commercial core in each community of the Area. Industrial zones are provided beside the railway roundhouses at Welling-ton and along the waterfront in Brechin. A small saw-mill is at present located near the Wellington industrial area. The waterfront s i t e , i n Brechin, i s occupied by the storage tanks, offices and docks of several petroleum companies, wharves and floats for fishing vessels, and sawmills. Small manufactur-ing plants include, apart from small sawmills, a brick plant, small boat works and a hand-loom weaving studio. The pulp-mill settlement of Harmac should become a major manufacturing centre in the area. The pattern of the functional zones i n the Nanaimo area has not yet altered greatly since the decline in coal-mining. V . TRANSPORTATION P A T T E R N S Nanaimo owes much of i t s present importance to i t s location at thejincture of two routes; the land transportation route which runs along the eastern coastal plain of Vancouver Island, and the water route to Vancouver and to some of the main trade routes of the world. The chief land routes within the Nanaimo area are thus really linear in character but, owing to the local configuration of the coast l i n e , they appear to radiate from the city. In practice, the trans-1 7 0 . p o r t a t i o n routes o f Upper Vancouver I s l a n d do form a nodal p a t t e r n at Nanaimo, but t h e narrowness of the C o a s t a l p l a i n l i m i t s the westward e x t e n s i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . The sea-route o f most importance t o t h e Nanaimo .area i s t h a t a c r o s s the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a t o Vancouver. I t was over t h i s r o u t e t h a t the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of c o a l has been sent s i n c e e a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h century. T h i s i s the r o u t e over which flows the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t y of goods and the o n l y s e a -r o u t e by which passengers r e a c h the p o r t . The export of lumber from Nanaimo to the world market i s a l s o made p o s s i b l e by t h i s route, s i n c e s h i p s c a l l a t Nanaimo while i n the Vancouver vie i n i t y . The c o a s t a l movement of goods i n c l u d e s , as w e l l as that between Vancouver and the p o r t , t h a t which moves n o r t h and south from Nanaimo. C o a l , logs and petroleum probably comprise the bulk of t h i s t r a f f i c . The movement o f goods over l o c a l sea-routes probably accounts f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t of the goods p a s s i n g through the p o r t of Nanaimo. 1 Road p a t t e r n s are perhaps the best example of the t r u e nature of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes i n the Nanaimo area. The I s l a n d Highway converges on Nanaimo from n o r t h and south and passes along the main commercial s t r e e t s of the c i t y . l o c a l road p a t t e r n s show an even p l a i n e r nodal development. Most 1 Ho stati. s t i e s on' the c o a s t a l movement of goods are a v a i l a b l e . Logs and petroleum comprise the g r e a t e s t p a r t of t h i s movement along t h e B r i t i s h Columbia coast. To these would be added, i n the case of Nanaimo, the cargoes of c o a l moved by barge and scow from the p o r t . 171. of tae l o c a l l y d i v e r g e n t roads were o r i g i n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d to o u t l y i n g c o a l - f i e l d s . These i n c l u d e the s e c t i o n of the i s l a n d Highway which l e a d s to W e l l i n g t o n , the J i n g l e Pot Road to E a s t W e l l i n g t o n , and the Harewood Road. (See F i g u r e 27, p. 151). The highway through Cedar D i s t r i c t was a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d from Nanaimo because of t h e e a r l y farming development i n the v i c i n i t y . Topography has governed the d e t a i l e d course of roads i n the Hanaimo ar e a , but the p a t t e r n of converging r o u t e s on Hanaimo i s v i s i b l e throughout, even i n l o c a l i t i e s which are c l o s e r to Ladysmith than t o Hanaimo. (See F i g a r e 35). The Hanaimo area has a i r route connections w i t h Van-couver and V i c t o r i a . The a i r p o r t i s near C a s s i d y . (See F i g u r e 55.) The Assembly Wharf and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway t e r m i n a l form the nucleus of t h e present t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n . The wharf handles outgoing lumber and incoming heavy f r e i g h t . The Terminal c e n t r a l i z e s a l l l a a d r o u t e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e r a i l w a y . I f r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s should be l o c a t e d there, a l l forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n upper Van-couver I s l a n d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of coastwise s h i p p i n g and a i r t r a f f i c , would have c e n t r a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s i n Hanaimo. VI HOUSE TYPES The houses i n the Hanaimo d i s t r i c t are not, i n g e n e r a l , g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of any other p a r t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. There i s , however, a decreasing p r o p o r t i o n 172. f i g u r e 35. f u n c t i o n a l P a t t e r n s Base map: B.C. F o r e s t Service, 1937. 173. of b u i l d i n g s which i s t y p i c a l of t h e Hanaimo area, and o f the coal-mining p e r i o d i n p a r t i c u l a r . A. Homes The homes o f the former mine employees can s t i l l be i d e n t i f i e d i n the same l o c a l i t i e s . In those communities where homes were e r e c t e d by t h e mining companies, such as l a n t z v i l l e , rows o f i d e n t i c a l d w e l l i n g s may s t i l l be found. In other communities the houses are not un i f o r m but are a l l of v e r y s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e s u l t i n g from t h e s i m i l a r economic circumstances of t h e i r owners. The homes of the mine l a b o u r e r s a r e unmistakable but the owner-built homes of t h e middle-income employees and t h e mine e x e c u t i v e s are not d i s t i n g u i s h -a b l e from those b u i l t by s i m i l a r income groups i n any other i n d u s t r y . The homes b u i l t by t h e former mine l a b o u r e r s form the only d i s t i n c t house type i n the Nanaimo area. The miners co u l d o n l y a f f o r d to b u i l d t h e s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e houses which would s h e l t e r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . (See f i g u r e s 36 and 37). The main p a r t of the one-storey houses i s about t en by twenty f e e t , u s u a l l y c o n t a i n i n g two rooms. At the back i s a l e a n - t o k i t c h e n u s u a l l y not running the f u l l length o f the house, c o n t a i n i n g a window on the s i d e w a l l and the back door. The houses are of wood c o n s t r u c t i o n , and many have stove-pipe chimneys. In some of the o u t l y i n g communities, these houses are b u i l t on small a d j o i n i n g l o t s each w i t h i t s w e l l and outhouse. Groups .figure 36. Home o f the mining p e r i o d , Wellington. 175. rigure 37. Home b u i l t during the mining p e r i o d - I n t e n s i o n . 176. o f houses o f t h i s type are to he found i n the Bunsmuir s e t t l e -ments o f W e l l i n g t o n , South W e l l i n g t o n and Ex t e n s i o n , while a few s c a t t e r e d examples are to he found i n H o r t h f i e l d , Bast W e l l i n g t o n , Chase R i v e r and Nanaimo i t s e l f . A few of these miners' homes have been renovated i n re c e n t years. Some have been p a i n t e d , some have had as many as two a d d i t i o n a l l e a n - t o s b u i l t behind the o r i g i n a l k i t c h e n , or have had porches added i n f r o n t . Most of such homes, however, are s t i l l i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l p l a i n unpainted c o n d i t i o n . They were probably b u i l t by the low p a i d immigrant workers. Other types o f homes dating from the mining e r a are much l e s s d i s t i n c t i v e . The census of 1921 l i s t s 501 dwellings i n Nanaimo and suburbs, n e a r l y 25 per cent of t h e t o t a l , as being i n connected rows or t e r r a c e s . 1 Today t h e r e i s no t r a c e of these homes. Before World War I I , the mining d i s t r i c t of Nanaimo c o n t a i n e d many homes t h a t were i n poor r e p a i r and i n need of p a i n t i n g . Short rows o f i d e n t i c a l houses, b u i l t f o r r e n t i n g t o mining f a m i l i e s , were a l s o common. Since the war, many o f t h e s e homes have been r e p l a c e d by small modern houses, or have been completely renovated and pai n t e d . Post-war im-provement i n the xipkeep of homes i s most n o t i c e a b l e throughout the' c i t y and t h e ar e a as a whole. The homes b u i l t by the various n a t i o n a l i t i e s among the mining people exhib i t c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t tendencies, but cannot be c l a s s e d as separate types. The neat, p l a i n homes o f the 1 Census o f Canada, 1921, v o l . 3, p. 11. 177. F i n n i s h people of Chase R i v e r give an a i r of p r o s p e r i t y t o the community. The "sauna" or steam bath-house, which f o r m e r l y was seen i n almost every yard has n e a r l y disappeared s i n c e the i n s t a l l a t i o n of household water systems. (See F i g u r e 38). The homes o f I t a l i a n people are d i s t i n g u i s h e d l e s s by the type of houses t h a n by the e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e i r gardens. B. Other Houses Throughout the Hanaimo a r e a b u i l d i n g s of a l l kinds have one f e a t u r e i n common: many of them are at l e a s t twenty years o l d or date from the r e c e n t post-war p e r i o d . The e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s i n the h i s t o r y of the coal-mining i n d u s t r y . The d e c l i n e i n p r o d u c t i o n , and the depression, so a f f e c t e d the p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e whole community t h a t the c i t i z e n s could not a f f o r d to b u i l d new homes, business f i r m s could not r e p l a c e or modern-i z e t h e i r premises, and t h e c i t y could not a f f o r d to r e p l a c e o l d b u i l d i n g s . The present C i t y H a l l was b u i l t as the Mechanics I n s t i t u t e H a l l i n 1864, 1(See F i g u r e 17, p. 85), but a new b u i l d i n g i s under c o n s t r u c t i o n . The same c o n d i t i o n a p p l i e s t o the schools i n the area. (See Table XV ). • Many of the r u r a l schools were b u i l t w i t h p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the 1920's but none at l a t e r dates, probably a r e f l e c t i o n o f the d e c l i n i n g r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth. However, w i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f no new schools were b u i l t from 1900 to 1947. Since then, f o u r new schools have been co n s t r u c t e d i n the c i t y 1 McKelvie, B.A., Vancouver D a i l y Province, May 21, 1949. 178. I igure 38. F i n n i s h home, Chase reiver. The "sauna", or steam bath stands to the l e f t of t h e house at the r e a r . TABLE XV 179* DATES OP SCHOOL BUILDINGS I I THE NANAIMO AREA Date Middle Ward (Nanaimo) 1680 North Ward (Nanaimo) 1896 South Ward (Nanaimo) 1896 John Shaw Senior High School (Nanaimo) 1898 Mountain (East W e l l i n g t o n ) 189S N o r t h f i e l d 1911 Harewood ( E i v e Acres) 1914 ( a d d i t i o n South W e l l i n g t o n 1919 1923) John Shaw Ju n i o r High School r e b u i l t 1921 L a n t z v i l l e 1921 North Cedar 1922 B r e c h i n 1927 Nanaimo Bay (so u t h of Nanaimo) 1929 P a u l i n e Haarer (Nanaimo) 1948 p r i n c e s s Royal (Nanaimo) 1949 In process of c o n s t r u c t i o n , 1950 1. Information s u p p l i e d 'by o f f i c e of Inspector o f Schools, Nanaimo. 180. and i t s suburbs and two i n the surrounding d i s t r i c t s . A l a r g e new hig h s c h o o l u n i t i s to be b u i l t to serve the whole area. S e v e r a l r u r a l schools have been c l o s e d i n connection w i t h the o p e r a t i o n o f the l o c a l c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The decrease of b u i l d i n g operations over the readjustment p e r i o d i s p a r t l y evident from the value of aanual permits i s s u e d by the C i t y Engineers o f f i c e from 1921 to 1949. (See F i g u r e 39). The remarkable i n c r e a s e i n b u i l d i n g i n the p o s t -war years i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the renewed a c t i v i t y o f the d i s t r i c t . The va l u e of b u i l d i n g p e rmits i s s u e d i n the hanaimo Regulated Area from March 12., 1949 to December 31, 1949 t o t a l l e d n e a r l y one and one quarter m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 1 (See Table Z Y I ) • From t h e types/of b u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d , the importance o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y can a l s o be judged. D i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , coal-mining has had a profound e f f e c t upon t h e c u l t u r a l landscape o f t h e Nanaimo area. Many of t h e man-made f e a t u r e s which a r e d i s t i n c t i v e of the area are i n some way r e l a t e d to the coal-mining i n d u s t r y . F e a t u r e s on the c u l t u r a l landscape d i r e c t l y concerned with coal-mining are few and r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r i n g . The l a n d -scape p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the coal-mining era are s t i l l v i s i b l e , however', and exert a c o n t i n u i n g strong i n f l u e n c e upon community l i f e . 1 Hanaimo Free Press, Feb. 8, 1950. 181. f i g u r e 3 9. Building Permits From f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d b y o f f i c e of C i t y Engineer, lanaimo. I 1,100,000 1,00 0,0 00 900,000 800.000 700,000 W 0,0 00 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,0 00 I oopoo D W E L L I N G S [U O T H E R • U N C L A S S I F I E D B U I L D I N G P E R M I T S I S S U E D B Y T H E O E E I C E O F T H E C I T Y E N G I N E E R riG.3<l T A B L E XVI 182. BUILDING PERMITS ISSUED IH THE HAHAIMO REGULATED AREA, March 12, 1949 to December 31, 1949. Type Humber T o t a l value P r i v a t e : homes garages workshops 175 72 7 $ 996,900 27,075 4,850 T o t a l 254 1,028,825 P u b l i c -o f f i c e s t o u r i s t camps t o u r i s t camps ( a d d i t i o n s ) st o r e s bowling a l l e y greenhouse s e r v i c e s t a t i o n d r i v e - i n t h e a t r e 2 2 5 3 1 1 1 1 3,200 25,000 28 ,000 9,500 6,000 10,000 8,000 70,000 T o t a l 16 $ .159,700 Grand T o t a l 270 | 1,188,525 1. Hanaimo Free Press, febo 8, 1950, p. 1. CHAPTER T i l POPULATION The mining i n d u s t r y has deeply a f f e c t e d t h e l i v e s of the people i n the lanaimo area. I t s expansion f i r s t a t t r a c t e d many of them to the d i s t r i c t , "but i t s v i c i s s i t u d e s caused some to l e a v e . The i n d u s t r y c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r m a t e r i a l p r o s -p e r i t y and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and i n t a n g i b l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r t h i n k i n g . Ever s i n c e i t s d e c l i n e i n importance, c o a l - m i n i n g has m o d i f i e d the a d a p t a t i o n of the people to t h e new eoonomy which has succeeded i t . I POPULATION GROWTH The progress of p o p u l a t i o n growth has been l i k e that of the p r o g r e s s of the coal-mining i n d u s t r y i t s e l f . A slow be-g i n n i n g was f o l l o w e d by a short p e r i o d of r a p i d growth. A f t e r t h i s came a pe r i o d of near s t a g n a t i o n ; a longer span o f years during which p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d more s l o w l y and f i n a l l y de-c l i n e d . This d e c l i n i n g t r e n d has not continued, however, but has begun an upward swing which may prove to be the s t a r t of a second p e r i o d o f r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth. T h i s l a s t p e r i o d of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e c o i n c i d e s w i t h the time when the community turned away from coal-mining to f i n d new r e s o u r c e s f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n . 184. Ho a c c u r a t e f i g u r e s o f a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n can be g i v e n f o r tne lanaimo a r e a . Tne Canadian Census g i v e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y i t s e l f and t h a t of t h e suburbs, Chase R i v e r , Hare-wood, B r e c h i n and Departure Bay, f o r some years. Estimates o f p o p u l a t i o n i n the s m a l l e r communities have been made from time to time i n the B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r i e s . Beginning with these f i g u r e s as a b a s i s , and checking w i t h the number of miners employed i n v a r i o u s p i t s , an estimate of p o p u l a t i o n growth has been made. (See F i g u r e 40). I t s v a l u e more p r o -b a b l y l i e s i n the r e l a t i v e t o t a l s o f p o p u l a t i o n at v a r i o u s times r a t h e r t h a n i n the a c t u a l q u a n t i t y of t h e t o t a l s them-s e l v e s . The s i z e of the p o p u l a t i o n of Hanaimo d u r i n g the p e r i o d of o p e r a t i o n by the Hudson's Bay Company was commensurate with the scope o f i t s mining a c t i v i t y . Increases i n p o p u l a t i o n p r o b a b l y occurred i n two spurts during the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s , i n 1861 and t h e r e a f t e r , when the Hltnaimo mines expanded, and about 1871, when the W e l l i n g t o n mines commenced p r o d u c t i o n . Even so, the f i r s t census taken i n the a r e a r e p o r t e d fewer than 3000 people i n the "Hanaimo - Hoonas Bay" area.-1-The decade 1881 to 1891 was one of r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , i n keeping with the i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n and employment, and w i t h the expansion of operations i n t o new f i e l d s . Hot even i n the r e c e n t post-war p e r i o d has such a r a p i d r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth obtained. 1 Census o f Canada, D i s t r i c t 91 a., 1880-81. F i g u r e 40. Data from census d i r e c t o r i e s . I 8 6 0 1870 I 8 6 0 1890 1900 I 9 I O 1 9 2 0 N 3 0 \<140 A P P R O X I M A T E P O P U L A T I O N G R O W T H O F N A N A I I Y A O A R E A — \854 T O 1 9 4 8 FIG. 40 186. The d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered "by the i n d u s t r y i n t h e years f o l l o w i n g 1891 are r e f l e c t e d i n the r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . Ho immediate d e c l i n e ensued, hut the r a t e of i n -crease c o n s t a n t l y slowed down. The apparent decrease from 1901 to 1911 was a c t u a l l y due t o the movement of t h e miners employed i n the E x t e n s i o n p i t s to l a d y s m i t h . The c i t y of Ladysmith was e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e s h i p p i n g poi n t f o r t h e E x t e n s i o n f i e l d which commenced p r o d u c t i o n i n 1898. By 1902, i t had a l s o become the r e s i d e n t i a l centre for the E x t e n s i o n miners and was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1904, The c i t y f u n c t i o n e d as p a r t o f t h e Hanaimo area as a s h i p p i n g p o i n t , r e s i d e n t i a l area and t r a n s f e r p o i n t between r a i l and water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . As a r e s u l t of decreasing employment i n the E x t e n s i o n mines^nd the development of new f i e l d s , the p o p u l a t i o n of Ladysmith d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y before the census year of 1921. When, i n 1929 , the E x t e n s i o n mine c l o s e d , i t s connection w i t h the mining i n d u s t r y v i r t u a l l y ceased. L u r i n g the time, p r i o r to 1929, when the p o p u l a t i o n of the Hanaimo area was dropping, the p o p u l a t i o n of Ladysmith had begun once more to i n c r e a s e . Logging was beginning to r e p l a c e mining as the main concern of the people. Some years before World. War I I , Ladysmith became a l o g g i n g centre f o r a l a r g e lumber m i l l i n g f i r m . 'The economic e x i s t e n c e of Ladysmith i s now almost completely divorc'ed from that of the Hanaimo area. I t s l a s t f u n c t i o n a l l i n k w i t h the area, the f r e i g h t car 187. t r a n s f e r p o i n t , i s a c t u a l l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of g e o g r a p h i c a l i n e r t i a . The p o p u l a t i o n of the lanaimo area, which had remained f a i r l y s t a b l e d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s t h i r t y years, was not able to r e s i s t t h e steady downward tr e n d i n coal-mining a f t e r 1923. For t h e f i r s t time, s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f people l e f t the area to cause an a c t u a l d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n . The g e n e r a l economic r e c o v e r y of the l a t e 1930's, coupled w i t h a p a r t i a l r e v i v a l i n the c o a l i n d u s t r y i t s e l f , changed t h i s t r e n d w i t h i n a few years. I t was, however, pro-bably the i n c r e a s i n g a c t i v i t y of the d i s t r i b u t i n g and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s which prevented the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e from b e i n g merely temporary. These i n d u s t r i e s were g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by developments during the war and post-war years, r e s u l t i n g i n an i r e r e a s i n g r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth. T h i s change i n p o p u l a t i o n was, f o r the f i r s t time, not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h developments i n the c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . The Hanaimo a r e a thus e n t e r e d a new phase/6f i t s e x i s t e n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n growth and mining a c t i v i t y can best be seen i n the case of Hanaimo i t s e l f . The mines o p e r a t i n g wi t h i n the c i t y and i n i t s immediate environs have a l l been those of the Western F u e l C o r p o r a t i o n and i t s predecessors (Vancouver C o a l Company, e t c . ) . The employees of t h i s company f i r s t s e t t l e d the communities o f Harewood, H o r t h f i e l d and B r e c h i n . Because of the company p o l i c y of 188. t r a n s p o r t i n g many of i t s men from the c i t y t o o u t l y i n g mines, however, i t s employees have formed the major p a r t o f the mining p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c i t y . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the numbers of Western f u e l C o r p o r a t i o n employees l i v i n g o u t s i d e the c i t y has been somewhat o f f s e t by those of o t h e r companies l i v i n g w i t h i n i t . The t o t a l number of Western F u e l C o r p o r a t i o n employees, t h e r e f o r e , should be f a i r l y i n d i c a t i v e of the number of people l i v i n g i n Nanaimo who have been d i r e c t l y engaged i n mining. In order to show, approximately, the r e s i d e n t mining p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r than the annual f l u c t u a t i o n s i n employment, the number of miners f o r each census year has been takem as the average f o r the preceding t e n years. Where complete f i g u r e s are l a c k i n g , the f i g u r e used has been the average number employed d u r i n g those years f o r which s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i l a b l e . (See F i g u r e 41). When mining f i r s t commenced i n t h e Nanaimo f i e l d the m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s were connected w i t h the i n d u s t r y . I n the years 1881 to 1891 the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o u t s t r i p p e d the i n c r e a s e i n mining employment. With the re -establishment o f a more s t a b l e r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth, mining aga i n came to employ about 20 per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y . This p r o p o r t i o n was maintained u n t i l s h o r t l y b e f o r e the c e s s a t i o n of company ope r a t i o n s i n 1959. N e i t h e r the p o p u l a t i o n o f Nanaimo nor employment by Western F u e l C o r p o r a t i o n d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y a f t e r 1923 as they Figure 41 Mine Employees to Tota l P o p u l a t i o n From Census of Canada and Reports of M i n i s t e r o f Mines, B r i t i s h Columbia. 7 0 0 0 , 6 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 r op or Hon of mine employees to total population of Nanaimo Fig. 41 190. d i d i n the area as a whole. Work was suspended or abandoned i n the company's o u t l y i n g mines i n 1929 and 1930, but employ-ment i n lumber One mine on the Esplanade was maintained and even i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g some of t h e d e p r e s s i o n years. As ex-h a u s t i o n of t h e mine approached, employment d e c l i n e d and the p r o p o r t i o n of mine employees i n the o i t y dropped even more s h a r p l y t h a n d i d t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . The agreement between tren d s i n t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e c i t y and i n mining employment, as w e l l as the f a i r l y constant p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n engaged i n mining c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Were more accurate f i g u r e s on the p o p u l a t i o n of the smaller c e n t r e s a v a i l a b l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p might prove even c l o s e r , s i n c e these communities o f f e r e d fewer a l t e r n a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I I B0BULATI01 DISTRIBUTION Du r i n g the coal-mining p e r i o d , the p a t t e r n o f p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o m was governed by the l o c a t i o n of g r e a t e s t mining a c t i v i t y . Because o f t h e g e o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f the lanaimo c o a l - f i e l d few of t h e mines i n the a r e a l a s t e d f o r any l e n g t h of time. As long as there were s t i l l e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e r e s e r v e s , however, new mines were opened up to r e p l a c e d e p l e t e d p i t s . In consequence, the mining p o p u l a t i o n was comparatively mobile w i t h i n the a r e a of the f i e l d . The Vancouver Goal Company, which had s e t t l e d i t s employees i n and around lanaimo, t r a n s p o r t e d i t s workers to o u t l y i n g mines by t r a i n , 191. or f e r r y , "but i t s operations were more l o c a l i z e d than those o f o t h e r companies. A major s h i f t i n mining a c t i v i t y by the Dunsmuir company r e s u l t e d i n a corresponding s h i f t i n p o p u l -a t i o n . Movement o f minor s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the operations o f small companies was f a i r l y f r e quent. In l a t e r years the use o f automotive t r a n s p o r t l e s s e n e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r moving communities to the l o c a t i o n of new p i t s . Even so, some of the former mining f a m i l i e s c a n r e c a l l l i v i n g i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t communities i n the Hanaimo a r e a . Since the d e c l i n e i n coal-mining, the f a c t o r s m o t i v a t i n g the choice of home-sites have completely changed. In response to new r e l a t i o n s h i p s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n has a l t e r e d . It seems probable, a l s o , t h a t the present d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be imjeh more s t a b l e than i n e a r l i e r years. U n t i l the c l o s i n g years of the n i n e t e e n t h century mining a c t i v i t y was c h i e f l y c o n f i n e d to the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n of the Hanaimo f i e l d . The l a r g e s t mines were i n Hanaimo i t s e l f and at I f e l l i n g t o n , where the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n e x i s t e d . (See F i g u r e 4 2 ) . A small mine, employing few men, was operated by t h e Esquimalt and Hanaimo r a i l w a y i n the v i c i n i t y of what i s now South W e l l i n g t o n . Although the o r i g i n a l company was mining i n t i e South F i e l d , near Chase R i v e r , most of i t s employees r e s i d e d i n and near Hanaimo. This company was a l s o mining at• H o r t h f i e l d , w hile the Dunsmuir f i r m and a smaller company were operating i n the M i l l s t o n e V a l l e y i n the g e n e r a l v i c i n i t y of East W e l l i n g t o n . The scant Figure 42. P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1891. Base map: B.C. F o r e s t Service, 1937 Each u n i t r e p r e s e n t s 100 persons. Figure 42. 193. p o p u l a t i o n of t h e southern s e c t i o n was composed of i s o l a t e d farming f a m i l i e s . At the beginning of t h i s c e n t u r y the p o p u l a t i o n of the o u t l y i n g areas underwent a major change i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . The movement from W e l l i n g t o n to E x t e n s i o n began the t r e n d toward the southward s h i f t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . W e l l i n g t o n , which had been an i n c o r p o r a t e d town o f 3000, l o s t most o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n immediately. Many of the people from the d i s t r i c t moved t o E x t e n s i o n which was r e p o r t e d i n 1901 t o have a p o p u l a t i o n of 2500. 1 In t h i s year the p o p u l a t i o n o f Ladysmith, the newly-e s t a b l i s h e d shipping p o i n t , was about 750. The expanded op e r a t i o n s o f the A l e x a n d r i a mine at South 'Wellington by the Dunsmuir Company f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the southern s e c t i o n as a major coal-mining a r e a . The p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n of 1901 was, however, o n l y temporary. The i s o l a t e d community o f E x t e n s i o n proved l e s s a t t r a c t i v e t h a n Ladysmith and by 1902 many of the miners had moved t o the c o a s t a l town. Ladysmith was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1904 and by 1911 i t was the home of over 2500 people. A new mine i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d at Pimbury Point i n 1904. However by 1911 o n l y a few people were s e t t l e d i n tte B r e c h i n d i s t r i c t immediately n o r t h of Townsite. Beyond Hanaimo i t s e l f , p o p u l a t i o n was s t i l l con-c e n t r a t e d i n the southern h a l f of the area. In 1923, when c o a l - m i n i n g - a c t i v i t y was at i t s height, mines were operating throughout most of the area, but the l a r g e s t c e n t r e s were s t i l l 1 B.C. D i r e c t o r y 194. i n Hanaimo and the f i e l d to the south. (See F i g u r e 43). The South W e l l i n g t o n , E x t e n s i o n and Hanaimo mines were s t i l l p r o -ducing as b e f o r e . Two new c e n t r e s of mining and mine p o p u l a t i o n had developed. In the north, the s m a l l company town of l a n t z -v i l l e had been e s t a b l i s h e d on the s o u t h shore of Hanoose Bay. However, most of t h e ©mployees of t h i s mine were t r a n s p o r t e d to work from hanaimo. The new C a s s i d y mine was one of t h e l a r g e s t i n the a r e a , and i n 1923 C a s s i d y was the l a r g e s t of the o u t l y i n g communities. (See F i g u r e 43). D u r i n g a l l these y e a r s , the s c a t t e r e d farming p o p u l a t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g , but none of t h e non-mining communities had pro-duced v i l l a g e s of any s i z e . She v i l l a g e s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the coal-mining p e r i o d form the b a s i s of the present p a t t e r n of p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i -b u t i o n , but t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n has undergone change. T h i s change a r i s e s from the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the economy. When the main a c t i v i t y -was coal-mining, the p o p u l a t i o n was s i t u a t e d where th e c o a l could be mined, r e g a r d l e s s of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s or a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the l o c a t i o n . Today the main concern i s the a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r e d i n t h e c i t y . By p r e f e r e n c e and through lack of space w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the people employed i n the c i t y l i v e beyond i t s boundaries.^" They have b u i l t a t t r a c t i v e homes and many keep a few l i v e s t o c k . For 1 The present p o p u l a t i o n .of the Hanaimo area i s estimated to be about 14,000 of which 7,200 are people r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s and' 4,200 are people l i v i n g i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the c i t y . F i g u r e 43. P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1923 Base map: B.O. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 19 Each u n i t r e p r e s e n t s 100 persons. 196. these reasons, those who l i v e i n the o u t l y i n g communities look f o r l o c a t i o n s a c c e s s i b l e t o Banainio which a r e a t t r a c t i v e and have a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The demand far r e s i d e n t i a l space i s p r e s s i n g on the l a n d i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of Hanaimo. Those who use the l a n d f o r crops, l o g g e r s and farmers, a r e f o r c e d t o the p e r i p h e r y of the a r e a . There i s thus a z o n a l tendency toward sparse s e t t l e -ment o f the p e r i p h e r y . P o p u l a t i o n has p a r t i a l l y : s h i f t e d to the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n once more. (See F i g u r e 44). W e l l i n g t o n i s a g a i n the l a r g e s t centre beyond Hanaimo, w h i l e H o r t h f i e l d , Chase h i v e r and De-p a r t u r e Bay have a l s o i n c r e a s e d i n s i z e . South W e l l i r g ton, s t i l l a mining centre, has decreased to a l e s s e r extent than have E x t e n s i o n and C a s s i d y . W i t h i n the southern h a l f of the area, p o p u l a t i o n has s h i f t e d away from the mining communities to the v i l l a g e of Cedar. The most immediately a c c e s s i b l e d i s -t r i c t s , B r e c h i n and Harewood, or F i v e Acres, have become l a r g e l y r e s i d e n t i a l i n c h a r a c t e r . In Harewood, t h i s was accomplished through the s u b d i v i s i o n of a great many of the f i v e acre l o t s . Some of the most a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n s i n the a r e a , such as l a n t z v i l l e and Yellow P o i n t , more remote from Hanaimo have developed as t o u r i s t c e n t r es. The same n a t u r a l f a c t o r s which have governed the develop-ment o f the a r e a have a l s o governed t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n which was f o r m e r l y i n -f l u e n c e d s t r o n g l y by geology i s now p a r t l y determined by the Figure 4 4 . P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1948. Base map; B.C. Forest S e r v i c e , 19 Bach u n i t represents 100 persons. WELLINGTON NORTUFIELD EAST WELLINGTO NANAIMO EXTENSION 198. r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of v i l l a g e s t o the main c e n t r e , Hanaimo. I l l OCCUPATIONS I t i s obvious t h a t coal-mining has been the dominant occu p a t i o n d u r i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the h i s t o r y of the Hanaimo area but c e r t a i n other occupations were pursued d u r i n g the coal-mining p e r i o d , n o t a b l y those, as has been seen, that complemented or supported the dominant industry. Since c o a l -mining has d e c l i n e d other i n d u s t r i e s have r i s e n t o prominence. The e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s have expanded and new i n d u s t r i e s have made a b e g i n n i n g i n the d i s t r i c t . The peak year of coal-mining employment, 1923, may be taken as t h e one i n which coal-mining was most d i s t i n c t l y dominant among l o c a l i n d u s t r y . When the f i g u r e s f o r t h a t year a r e compared w i t h those o f 1948, the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the change may be judged. As might be expected, c o a l - m i n i n g i t s e l f was the l e a d -ing i n d u s t r y i n 1923 1 (See F i g u r e 45). In t h a t year 59 per cent o f t h e people were employed by t h e coal-mining companies. (See F i g u r e 45). These people, of course, represented a con-s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y of t r a d e s but a l l were d i r e c t l y supported by the i n d u s t r y . The other i n d u s t r i e s were developed according to t h e i r importance to the co a l - m i n i n g economy. The i n d u s t r y of secondary importance t h e r e f o r e , was the non-productive 1 The f i g u r e s f o r the f o l l o w i n g graphs have been ob-t a i n e d fromthe B.C. Director/is f o r the years concerned. A l - — though these sources may be i n a c c u r a t e i n d e t a i l , i t i s f e l t t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n a l v a l u e s of occupations l i s t e d are a good i n d i c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l composition. 199. F i g u r e 45. Occupat ions. From B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r i e s , 1983 anTT!9TB5. 80% 70% t O % 50% 40% 50% 2 0 % 1 0 % T X cr RETIRED & OTHER A T E R T I A R Y I N D U S T R I E S MILLING METAL WORKING LOGGING FARMING MINING oo < to cr Z o < a D o O U . 2 0 0 . group of s e r v i c e and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s , employing 54 per cent of the working p o p u l a t i o n . M i l l i n g was o f very s m a l l import-ance, as was the metal-working i n d u s t r y . Many workers i n the l a t t e r i n d u s t r y were d i r e c t l y employed hy the mining companies. The o n l y primary i n d u s t r y of any consequence was farming which, however, engaged the energy of o n l y f o u r per cent of the t o t a l working f o r c e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l complex tw e n t y - f i v e years l a t e r were the d e c l i n e of c o a l mining, the i n c r e a s e of t h e t e r t i a r y group of I n d u s t r i e s , and the modest i n c r e a s e i n some of t h e primary and secondary i n d u s t r i e s . (See F i g u r e 45, p. 199). In 1948 coal-mining s t i l l employed 12 per cent of the working p o p u l a t i o n , with the prospect of f u r t h e r d e c l i n e i n t h i s p r o p o r t i o n . The s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , on the other hand, employed. 65 per cent of those g a i n f u l l y employed, a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n t h a n d i d coal-mining a t t h e peak of i t s importance. Farming employed seven percent of the workers and m i l l i n g two per cent. Although the importance o f l o g g i n g as an occupation may d e c l i n e somewhat, employment hy the pulp m i l l should f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e the labour f o r c e employed i n f o r e s t manufacturing. The metal working i n d u s t r i e s , although s t i l l not employing a l a r g e number o f workers, had doubled the p r o p o r t i o n o f I t s employees I n r e l a t i o n to the whole. R e t i r e -ment i s not s t r i c t l y an "occupation", but by 1948 the pro-p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d as " r e t i r e d " formed a s m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t group i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l complex. 201. The p o p u l a t i o n of the Nanaimo a r e a i n 1923 was c h i e f l y concerned with primary p r o d u c t i o n . Today, the area i s devoted i n g r e a t degree to the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s . Occupational types i n the Hanaimo area Primary Secondary T e r t i a r y R e t i r e d 1923 63% 3% 34% 1948 26% 7% 65% 2% The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t i s that i n 1923 two-thirds of t h e labour f o r c e was employed i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of goods. At the present time o n l y o n e - t h i r d of t h e working p o p u l a t i o n i s p r o d u c t i v e . The remainder i s d i r e c t l y dependent upon incomes or i n d i r e c t l y dependent upon the p r o d u c t i v e e f f o r t s of o t h e r people. Since the major p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the Hanaimo area i s concentrated i n t h e c i t y and i t s suburbs, the p r o -p o r t i o n s of occupations r e p r e s e n t e d i n these d i s t r i c t s are s i m i l a r t o those of t h e a r e a as a whole. In 1923, the p r o -p o r t i o n of the labour f o r c e engaged i n mining was s l i g h t l y lower than i n the a r e a as a whole. The d e f i c i e n c y was more than balanced by the g r e a t e r percentage engaged i n the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s , while the other primary i n d u s t r i e s were l e s s im-p o r t a n t . In 1948 the same complex p r e v a i l e d ; mining engaged a s l i g h t l y lower p r o p o r t i o n of the people than i n the area at l a r g e , while the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s employed a c o n s i d e r a b l y higher p r o p o r t i o n . At both times the p r o p o r t i o n of metal 202. workers i n the o i t y and suburbs was the same as i n the g r e a t e r area, w h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n of m i l l - w o r k e r s was lower. This l a t t e r f a c t i s p r o b a b l y due to the l o c a t i o n of saw-mills i n the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s . Ho f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e regarding the number of r e t i r e d people l i v i n g i n and around the c i t y , but i t seems probable that t h e r e are a number of s u c h people i n the v i c i n i t y. The o c c u p a t i o n a l complex of each of the communities, both during t h e coal-mining e r a and s i n c e , d i f f e r s from t h a t o f the area as a whole. The d i f f e r e n c e s can be t r a c e d to the a v a i l -able r e s o u r c e s of the community and to i t s l o c a t i o n . In 1923 there were four communities which were engaged i n coal-mining almost to the e x c l u s i o n of other a c t i v i t i e s , L a n t z -v i l l e , C a s s i d y , South V/el l i n g t o n and E x t e n s i o n , ho s t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g the p o p u l a t i o n o f l a n t z v i l l e are a v a i l a b l e . As a "company town" of 26 houses"1" i t s small p o p u l a t i o n was presum-able supported e n t i r e l y by mining. Extension, South W e l l i n g t o n and Cassidy each had a mining p o p u l a t i o n comprising approxim-a t e l y 90 per cent o f t h e working p o p u l a t i o n . (See f i g u r e 46). In E x t e n s i o n ard South W e l l i n g t o n , s m a l l numbers engaged i n the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s formed the second o c c u p a t i o n a l group. A few farmers l i v e d at South W e l l i n g t o n , and E x t e n s i o n was the home o f a few l o g g e r s . In Cassidy, a l l s e r v i c e workers were employed by the Granby Company, and the o n l y other occupation represented was a l i t t l e farming. 1 Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1920. £03. Figure 46. Occupations, 19£3 Base map; B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1937. Each i i n i t r e p r e s e n t s 10% of the g a i n f u l l y employed p o p u l a t i o n . 1 O C C U P A T I O N S IS 23 [J DEPARTURE BAY U B NORTHFIELD, \\ L • EAST ^WELLINGTON CD T E R T I A P Y I N D U S T R I E S • C O A L M I N I N G H F A R M I N G M L O G G I N G 11 S A W M I L L I N G 1 CEDAR ^ \ 0 SOUTH WELLINGTON • CASSIDY 4. I l g u r 46 £04. The adjustment made by these communities has v a r i e d w i t h t h e i r environment. Mining on a l a r g e s c a l e has completely disappeared from J j a n t z v i l l e and Cassidy, although a few people are s t i l l employed by the i n d u s t r y . (See F i g u r e 47). Both communities are comparatively c l o s e to l a r g e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s beyond the Hanaimo area, and are i n d i s t r i c t s l e a s e d for s m a l l -scale logging, l o g g i n g and m i l l i n g are important t o l a n t z -v i l l e ; l o g g i n g and farming support the m a j o r i t y of the Cassidy r e s i d e n t s . The s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , r e p r e s e n t e d i n both l o c a l -i t i e s , are most important i n the sea-side v i l l a g e of l a n t z -v i l l e . M ining i s s t i l l the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y i n South W e l l i n g t o n and E x t e n s i o n , the communities most a c c e s s i b l e to the l a r g e -s c a l e mines i n recent o p e r a t i o n . In both cases decrease i n mining employment has been o f f s e t by t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n of people engaged i n l o g g i n g and farming. South W e l l i n g t o n i s near the more extensive farming .areas, but E x t e n s i o n has access t o some f e r t i l e bottom l a n d s . M i l l i n g and the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s s l i g h t l y . Two adjacent communities, East W e l l i n g t o n and H o r t h f i e l d , have d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r adjustment t o the d e c l i n e o f c o a l -mining. In 19£3 mining was the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y i n both p l a c e s , but l e s s dominant than i n the above examples, i n East W e l l i n g -ton, on the M i l l s t o n e R i v e r , farming formed the second l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l category, although l o g g i n g , m i l l i n g , metal-working and the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s were a l s o f a i r l y w e l l represented. £05. F i g u r e 47. Occupations, 1948 Base map; B . C . Forest S e r v i c e , 1937. Each u n i t r e p r e s e n t s 10% of the g a i n f u l l y employed p o p u l a t i o n . Figure 47 206. I n N o r t h f i e l d , which i s more a c c e s s i b l e to hanaimo, the s e r v i c e workers formed the second l a r g e s t group. Farming was s l i g h t l y -l e s s important, and the o n l y other occupation, metal-working, engaged on l y a few people. By 1948, farming had a s s e r t e d i t -s e l f as the l e a d i n g o c c u p a t i o n i n E a s t W e l l i n g t o n , the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s were second and the p r o p o r t i o n of workers engaged i n the other i n d u s t r i e s was l i t t l e changed. In N o r t h f i e l d , the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s employed n e a r l y 45 per cent of the working-p o p u l a t i o n . Owing to the requirements o f the s m a l l mines, coal-mining was t h e second i n d u s t r y i n importance. Farming had d e c l i n e d i n importance, hut t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n o f m i l l and metal-workers p o i n t e d to the growing importance of the community as a r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e f o r those employed i n the c i t y . I a ithree communities, farming was the most important oc c u p a t i o n i n 1923; Y/ellington, Cedar and Departure Bay. (See F i g u r e 46, p. 203). The l a t t e r , u n l i k e t h e two former, i s not l o c a t e d i n an a r e a of extensive arable s o i l s and the farming group was p a r t i a l l y comprised of market gardeners. In a l l three communities t h e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s employed the second l a r g e s t group, although t h e mining p o p u l a t i o n of Cedar was o f s i m i l a r s i z e . The r e s i d e n t i a l c haracter o f Departure Bay can be judged from the p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t i r e d people, mill-workers and metal workers who a l s o r e s i d e d there. The o c c u p a t i o n a l complex of Departure Bay has undergone co n s i d e r a b l e change with i t s growing importance as a r e s i d e n t i a l centre. Farming £07. has d e c l i n e d g r e a t l y , and the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s now employ 70 per cent of i t s working p o p u l a t i o n . A l l t h e o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s of the a r e a , with t h e e x c e p t i o n o f metal-working, are r e p r e s e n t -ed hy s m a l l groups o f the labour f o r c e o f t h e oommunity. In W e l l i n g t o n , a l s o , t h e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s have d i s p l a c e d farm-i n g as the l e a d i n g occupation, although to a l e s s e r extent. R e t i r e d people form n e a r l y 20 per cent of t h e whole s e l f -supporting group. Otherwise, o n l y minor changes have occurred i n the p r o p o r t i o n s o f workers engaged i n the other i n d u s t r i e s . The o c c u p a t i o n a l complex of Cedar has changed remarkably l i t t l e . The p r o p o r t i o n s o f s e r v i c e workers and r e t i r e d people have i n c r e a s e d u n t i l they exceed mining i n s i z e . Mining and farming have both d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y , but t h e other p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s have i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y . The l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t change r e f l e c t s the progress of a community where l e s s a d j u s t -ment to the l o s s of coal-mining has had t o be made, and where the impact o f the s p r e a d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas has not yet been f u l l y experienced. The i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y i n employment i n 1923 as com-pared to 1948, n o t i c e a b l e i n the s m a l l e r communities, does not o b t a i n i n Hanaimo i t s e l f . Coal mining was the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y i n 192 3, w i t h the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s i n second place. How these p o s i t i o n s are r e v e r s e d , witth the non-productive i n d u s t -r i e s being even more predominant than was coal-mining, s i n c e the p o p u l a t i o n o f Hanaimo and i t s suburbs r e p r e s e n t s the 208. m a j o r i t y o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h e l a c k of balance which s t i l l e x i s t s i n the economy. IV RATIONAL ORIGINS The c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y has s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the composition of t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s . The l a b o u r market a t t r a c t e d varying n a t i o n a l i t i e s throughout the l i f e of the Nanaimo f i e l d . The h i s t o r y of n a t i o n a l im-m i g r a t i o n s t o the a r e a has d i f f e r e d from t h a t o f the p r o v i n c e as a whole, and the present complex of n a t i o n a l i t i e s d i f f e r s from that of t h e average Vancouver/island c i t y . The p r o p o r t i o n of d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s r e s i d e n t i n the Nanaimo area has a l t e r e d o n l y i n d e t a i l s i n c e the f i r s t census was taken i n 1880-81. 1 At t h a t time the p o p u l a t i o n was p r e -dominantly B r i t i s h i n o r i g i n , although to a l e s s e r degree than i n l a t e r y e ars. People of c o n t i n e n t a l European and A s i a t i c o r i g i n formed a comparatively s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n as t h e y have ever s i n c e . A high p r o p o r t i o n o f people were of "unknown" o r i g i n and there was a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y o f nations represented than a t subsequent p e r i o d s . These two f a c t s may 1 Owing t o the v a r i a b i l i t y of census d i s t r i c t s i n various years, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to give n a t i o n a l i t i e s by a c t u a l num-bers. The percentages f o r the a p p l i c a b l e census d i v i s i o n s have been c a l c u l a t e d i n s t e a d . S t a t i s t i c s on n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s have been g i v e n f o r the f o l l o w i n g census d i v i s i o n s ; 1880-81 Nanaimo-Noonas Bay 1911, 1921 Nanaimo and suburbs 1901, 1931, 1941 Nanaimo c i t y The census f o r 1891 i s u n a v a i l a b l e . 23 9. perhaps he due t o the i n c l u s i o n of seamen i n port."*" Changes i n the p o p u l a t i o n composition s i n c e 1881 have been changes i n d e t a i l o n l y o f t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of United Kingdom, c o n t i n e n t a l European and A s i a t i c people. She t h r e e groups have p l a y e d separate r o l e s i n the c o a l -mining i n d u s t r y . The f i r s t immigrant miners were experienced men from the B r i t i s h p i t s . She Reports o f the M i n i s t e r o f Mines give the names and occupations o f those who were k i l l e d or i n j u r e d i n mining a c c i d e n t s , and from these i t appears that men of B r i t i s h o r i g i n predominated among the s k i l l e d workers, from t h i s source, a l s o , i t would appear t h a t c o n t i n e n t a l European and Chinese were employed o r i g i n a l l y as u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . The Chinese workers became l e s s important i n the i n d u s t r y i n l a t e r y e a r s . Mining, before the days of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , was done on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s . The s k i l l e d miner would c o n t r a c t to cut c o a l f o r the company and would employ and pay h i s own h e l p e r s . Most miners employed Chinese, s i n c e they would accept lower wages than other l a b o u r e r s . I t became the g e n e r a l o p i n i o n , however, t h a t the Chinese d i d not take the necessar y p r e c a u t i o n s when employed i n an underground c a p a c i t y . This b e l i e f i s commonly h e l d even today. Because the Chinese worked f o r such low wages, moreover, they tended to deprive other n a t i o n a l i t i e s 1 Two v e s s e l s were l i s t e d as "temporary dwellings 1 1 by the census. 2 B r i t i s h Columhi a, Report o f Royal Commission on Coal In B r i t i s h Columbia, 1914, p. 11. 3 Report of M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1902. 210. of the u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i n g j o b s . In any event, the European miners a g i t a t e d to have them removed from underground workings, and i n 1907 were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r attempts. Since then the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n of the a r e a , comprising the greatest part of the A s i a t i c group, has d e c l i n e d i n p r o p o r t i o n to the whole. The p o l i c y of the Vancouver Company, o f b r i n g i n g i n B r i t i s h immigrant- workers, was not so c l o s e l y followed by the V/el l i n g ton f i r m . The Wellington mines had a f a i r l y large t u r n -over of personnel and the town a more t r a n s i e n t popula t i on. In a d d i t i o n , the p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t i n e n t a l Europeans appears to have been h i g h e r . As e a r l y as 1875, a l i s t of 24 f a t a l -i t i e s i n a s i n g l e Wellington d i s a s t e r Includes the names of seven men of I t a l i a n o r i g i n .2 Numerous I t a l i a n immigrants came t o the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a l mines and today people of I t a l i a n o r i g i n farm the l a r g e s t s i n g l e n a t i o n a l group among c o n t i n e n t a l Europeans i n the area, if ere f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e to show the n a t i o n a l complex o f the o u t l y i n g copnunities where the Dunsmuir f i r m operated i t seems probable th a t people of c e n t r a l , southern and eastern European o r i g i n s would comprise a f a i r l y high p r o p o r t i o n o f the whole. The i n i t i a l predominance o f B r i t i s h coal-mining people has been maintained i n s p i t e of a decrease i n t h e i r numbers f o l l o w i n g upon the d e c l i n e i n the i n d u s t r y . The above average 1 Williams O f f i c i a l B.C. ..Directory, 1893, p. 248. 2 Report, M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1875. 3 P o e r s t e r , R.E., The I t a l i a n Emigration of our t i m e , v o l . 20, Harvard Economic S t u d i e s , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y press, 1919, p. 350. £ 1 1 . proportion of other Europeans reflects their increasing association with the industry and their a b i l i t y to adapt them-selves to the demands of new occupations. The below average proportion of Asiatics reflects, in part, the tendency of the Chinese to leave the area when the demand for their unskilled labour declined in the coal-field. Among the continental Europeans, the greater proportion are those people whose origins were in central and southern Europe; people of Italian, Czecho-Slovakian, Hungarian, Roumanian and Austrian descent. The census category "other European" probably includes those of Yugoslavian origin as well. Together, these people comprise nearly seven percent of the whole population. (See Figure 48). Nearly five per cent of the population is composed of western Europeans, while the Scandinavian and Finnish people, usually associated with the logging and fishing industries, comprise only two per cent. The complex of national origins i n lanaimo is intermed-iate between the pattern of the average Vancouver island com-munity and Cumberland. The latter Is a small mining town (1941 population, 885) in the Comox f i e l d , where operations of the Dunsmuir firm began in 1889.^ Cumberland is almost completely devoted to coal-mining. Its high proportion of central and southern Europeans (nearly £5 per cent) and Its low proportion of northern Europeans reflects i t s later develop-1 Graham, Chas. , "The problems of the Vancouver Island coal industry," Trans. , C.I^ M.M. , July, 1924, p. 456. F i g u r e 48. n a t i o n a l O r i g i n s of Cumberland, Hanaimo and Urban Vancouver I s l a n d . Data from Census o f Canada, 1941. Cumberland Nanaimo 100% 10% 80% 707Q \ir<oan V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d Other Northern European Western European Asiatic Central and S o u t h e r n European United Kingdom NATIONAL ORIGINS OF CUMBERLAND, NANAIMO AND URBAN VANCOUVER ISLAND FIG. 48 213. ment as a mining centre and i t s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with, the i n d u s t r y . The p r o p o r t i o n s of n a t i o n a l i t i e s w i t h i n the "broader groups have a l s o "been i n f l u e n c e d hy c o a l - m i n i n g . About t e n per cent of t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n of the i s l a n d l i v e s i n Nanaimo. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n of each n a t i o n a l i t y should r e s i d e t h e r e a l s o . However, c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l s are of g r e a t e r or lower i n c i d e n c e i n Nanaimo than i s u s u a l . Thus there a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more S c o t t i s h and Welsh people than E n g l i s h or I r i s h ; more B e l g i a n and German than French. (See F i g u r e 49). Among western European and B r i t i s h groups, a t l e a s t , a t r a d i -t i o n a l coal-mining a s s o c i a t i o n may have i n f l u e n c e d m i g r a t i o n to the Nanaimo f i e l d . I t a l i a n n a t i o n a l s comprise the l a r g e s t European group, i n Nanaimo and Cumberland, i n keeping w i t h the g e n e r a l m i g r a t i o n of these people i n t o the coal-mining i n d u s t r y 1 of North America. The same predominance o f B r i t i s h and southern and ea s t e r n European n a t i o n a l s found i n Nanaimo e x i s t s a l s o i n the Roslyn-Cle-Blum f i e l d of Washington.2 Y SOCIAL CONDITIONS Coal-mining dominated the l i f e of the Nanaimo area t o such a degree that i t deeply a f f e c t e d the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s . Some of the more m a t e r i a l e f f e c t s have a l r e a d y been l o s t , while others are q u i c k l y d i s a p p e a r i n g . Some o f the i n t a n g i b l e e f f e c t s have had no l e s s powerful r e s u l t s on the community and may, perhaps, be more l a s t i n g . 1 F o e r s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 350. 2 Dart, op. c i t . , p. 60. Figure 49. p r o p o r t i o n of Urban Vancouver Island n a t i o n a l Groups r e s i d e n t i n Nanaimo, 1941. Data from Census of Canada, 1941. 30% 25% 2 0 % 1 5 % To|-<3l p r o p a r h ' o n 1 0 % 5% i n N a n a i m o ran r> d CL 5 PROPORTION OF URBAN VANCOUVER I S L A N D N A T I O N A L G R O U P S R E S I D E N T IN NANAIMO,l<MI F I G . 49 £15, A» L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s The development o f t h e c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y brought about an e a r l y c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the are a which was demse In ©omparison with that i n many other p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e . The d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n i n the whole lanaimo a r e a i s today about 150 persons per square m i l e . Since n e a r l y two-thirds o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a i s found w i t h i n the c i t y and the immediate d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e e x i s t s c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e upon the land f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. In the smaller commun-i t i e s surrounding lanaimo, new houses are being b u i l t on l o t s which are sometimes n e a r l y as cramped as In the o r i g i n a l mining v i l l a g e s. W i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f p o p u l a t i o n pressure i s extremely high. In 1941, f o l l o w i n g the d e c l i n e o f the depression years and preceding the i n c r e a s e of the war and post-war years, p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y w i t h i n the c i t y n e v e r t h e l e s s amounted to 5871.68 persons per square mil e . T h i s f i g u r e was exceeded i n B r i t i s h Columbia o n l y by t h a t of Cranbrook. 1 While t h i s d e n s i t y was achieved p a r t l y by the c l o s e spacing of homes and the b u i l d i n g of "rows" i t was also made p o s s i b l e by the b u i l d -i n g , during the mining p e r i o d , of l a r g e boarding houses and other m u l t i p l e dwellings. The average number of people per occupied house increased through most of the mining p e r i o d and has d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y i n the p e r i o d s i n c e t h a t time. (See Table XVII. ) In the years s i n c e 1941 p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y has 1 Census of Canada, 1941, v o l . A. 4. • 216. TABLE XYII AVERAGE NUMBER OE PERSONS AND FAMILIES OR HOUSEHOLDS PER -OCCUPIED DWELLING, 1881 to 1941. 1 Persons per F a m i l i e s or households occupied per occupied Year d w e l l i n g d w e l l i n g 1881 4.2 1.00 1901 4.8 1.01 1911 4.85 s 1.03 2 1921 4.4 2 1.05 2 1941 3.7 1.04 1. The f i g u r e s have been obtained from the census f o r those years which provide the necessary data. T o t a l numbers of p o p u l a t i o n and occupied d w e l l i n g s have been omitted because o f the v a r y i n g b a s i s of t h e f i g u r e s . 2. Averages f o r "Nanaimo and suburbs". £17. been i n c r e a s e d by t h e b u i l d i n g of new one-family homes on vacant l o t s and by the c o n v e r s i o n of some o f the l a r g e o l d homes i n t o m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s . While the mining i n d u s t r y g e n e r a l l y accounted f o r the con-s t r u c t i o n o f many low-value homes a l l through the area, the p o l i c y of the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company enabled many people to become home-owners. The p r o p o r t i o n of owner occupied homes compares w e l l w i t h the p r o p o r t i o n i n many other c i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, the l e g a c y of the mining i n d u s t r y can be seen i n the prevalence o f low-value homes. (See Table ZVIII) With the renewed p r o s p e r i t y of r e c e n t years, however, so much r e n o v a t i o n and new c o n s t r u c t i o n has been undertaken t h a t the appearance of the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s -t r i c t s i s r a p i d l y improving. In time Hanaimo should compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h other towns i n r e s p e c t to the value o f i t s homes as w e l l . The p r o v i s i o n of water and sewage f a c i l i t i e s i n the Hanaimo a r e a i s l i m i t e d by the s u p p l i e s of water a v a i l a b l e . Hanaimo c i t y waterworks are s u p p l i e d by a dam s i t u a t e d on the South Pork of t h e Hanaimo R i v e r . The system s u p p l i e s the c i t y and p a r t s of the immediate v i c i n i t y . Beyond t h i s a r e a water s u p p l i e s and s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s must be provided by the i n d i v i d u a l home-owner. Expansion of the c i t y f a c i l i t i e s depends upon p r o v i s i o n o f an extended d i s t r i b u t i o n system, s i n c e t h e s u p p l y obtainable from the present source i s adequate £18. TABLE XVIII VALUES OP OWHER-OCCUPIBD HOMES I I SOME BRITISH COLUMBIA CITIES Percentage of Median value of owner T o t a l Occupied Dwellings Home s Kamloops 44.0% | 2,920 T r a i l 49.4 2,650 Kel s o n 55.3 2,480 lew Westminster 58.3 2,380 Kelowna 59.1 2,210 Kort h Vancouver 60.3 1,990 P r i n c e Rupert 41.9 1,950 HANAIMO 59.8 1,810 Vernon 54.7 1,750 1. Adapted from Table 11, V o l . 5, Census of Canada, 1941. 219. to meet i n c r e a s e d demands. She f o r m a t i o n of a Greater Hanaimo Water Board has been under d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a view to s o l u t i o n 1 of the problem. At the present time the l a c k of an adequate water supply i s h i n d e r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development i n such 2 communities as H o r t h f i e l d . Most of the o u t l y i n g communities d e r i v e t h e i r water supply from the ground water resources and these appear to be re a c h i n g the l i m i t of t h e i r development. E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , both r u r a l and urban, i s w e l l advanced. The B.O. Power Commission s u p p l i e s a l l but the more remote r u r a l areas. The c i t y i s w e l l - s u p p l i e d with telephone s e r v i c e , although s e r v i c e to r u r a l areas i s s t i l l l i m i t e d by shortages of equipment and s u p p l i e s . The homes o f Hanaimo c o n t a i n many of the household amenities, and t h i s s i t u a t i o n seems f a i r l y common i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e Hanaimo area. A comparison from the census r e t u r n s of 1941, of Hanaimo and P o r t A l b e r n i , a Vancouver I s l a n d town of s i m i l a r s i z e , w i t h two coal-mining centres of Hova S c o t i a , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia communities have a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of modern equipment i n the homes o f the people, and tha t Hanaimo i s b e t t e r s u p p l i e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t than i s Port A l b e r n i . (See Table xil) . The g r e a t e r prevalence o f vacuum cleaners i n the B.C. towns may be due to the g r e a t e r a v a i l -a b i l i t y of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power, and th a t of automobiles to the g r e a t e r i s o l a t i o n of these two towns. However, the p r o p o r t i o n 1 Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , " B i g water system mooted," Sept. 30, 1949. 2 i b i d . , "Water supply urged," May 3, 1950. TABLE X L X COMPARISON OE PERCENTAGE OE CERTAIN MODERN CONVENIENCES IN POUR COMMUNITIES - 1941" Radios Automobiles Telephones Vacuum Cleaners A l l pour NANAIMO Port Alberni North Sydney-Sydney Mines 85.9 82.9 84.6 87.9 »5 37.2 33.8 10.1 74.3 68.2 39.0 12 • 1 44.5 31.0 18.7 6.0 21.0 18.6 8.9 .7 1. Census of Canada, 1941, Vol. 9, Table 31. to to o 221. of a l l f a o i l i t i e s enjoyed by Hanaimo c i t i z e n s i n d i c a t e s a f a i r l y comfortable mode of l i v i n g . B. Working C o n d i t i o n s D u r i n g the coal-mining a c t i v i t y , working c o n d i t i o n s were not always a t t r a c t i v e . C o a l mining was d i f f i c u l t and dangerous, and most of the former miners are s a t i s f i e d to be out of the p i t s . Only at Cassidy, where the p r o v i s i o n of e x c e l l e n t l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s was p a r t of company p o l i c y , i s there any r e g r e t f o r the p a s s i n g o f c o a l - m i n i n g . Working c o n d i t i o n s i n some i n d u s t r i e s are s t i l l hazardous, p a r t i c u l a r l y l o g g i n g and m i l l i n g . Once again , however, the area supports, i n the pulp p l a n t , an i n d u s t r y which attempts to p r o v i d e good working c o n d i t i o n s . The Hanaimo a r e a had not completely emerged from the r e -adjustment p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the d e c l i n e i n coal-mining when the census o f 1941 was taken. I t was not u n t i l a f t e r 1941 that the f u l l s t i m u l a t i o n of wartime a c t i v i t y upon business c o n d i t i o n s was experienced on the P a c i f i c Coast. In 1941 the average male workers of Hanaimo r e c e i v e d lower annual r e t u r n s than d i d those of e i t h e r Ladysmith or P o r t A l b e r n i . Employment was l e s s steady i n Hanaimo than i n the other two c e n t r e s , i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t both were predominantly dependent upon f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s to employ t h e i r c i t i z e n s . (See Table XX). , . The employment c o n d i t i o n s f o r women were much more favour-TABLE IX EMPLOYMENT OE MALE WORKERS IH THREE VANCOUVER ISLAND COMMUHITIES - 1941 1 Percentage Average Average Average T o t a l wage of labour annual weeks weekly earners f o r c e earnings employed earnings Ladysmith 491 88% f 1,225 40.52 | 30.23 Port A l b e r n i 1,60 9 8 6 1,17 8 41.02 28 . 72 HANAIMO 2,096 78 982 39.52 24.81 1. Census o f Canada, 1941, v o l . 6, Table 2. 223, able. The average female worker i n lanaimo was employed f o r a longer p e r i o d of t h e year than were e i t h e r male or female workers i n any of the t h r e e towns. (See Table H I ) . Women formed a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l labour f o r c e than i n the o t h e r two towns and had higher a nnual and weeHy wage r e -turns than i n Port A l b e r n i and Ladysmith. I t appears probable that a " p a r a s i t e " labour f o r c e developed d u r i n g the c o a l -mining p e r i o d . That i s , the female members of mining f a m i l i e s , who could not work i n the mines, formed a labour s u p p l y from which the l o c a l r e t a i l and s e r v i c e establishments drew t h e i r employees. L u r i n g the readjustment p e r i o d these i n d u s t r i e s were l e s s disrupted than the heavier i n d u s t r i e s and i n the r e c e n t p e r i o d of community importance as a d i s t r i b u t i n g centre the women workers of Nanaimo have formed a v a l u a b l e asset t o the community. In c o n t r a s t to the era of l a r g e companies employing thousands of men, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n p e r i o d has seen a great i n -crease i n the number o f small p r i v a t e l y operated concerns. The t r e n d i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n s m a l l coal-mining, l o g g i n g and saw-m i l l i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and i t s a l l i e d t rades, and i n the t r u c k -ing i n d u s t r y . Many o f the s m a l l f i r m s have been s t a r t e d by new-comers and are, i n many i n s t a n c e s , w e l l s u i t e d to the r e q u i r e -ments of the d i s t r i c t . I t i s perhaps due a l s o to the d i s t r u s t engendered by the c o l l a p s e of coal-mining. Many of the people f e e l g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y i n owning and operating t h e i r own business than i n being employed by a l a r g e f i r m . Whether t h i s sense of TABLE XXI EMPLOYMENT OE FEMALE WORKERS IH THREE YAH COWER ISLAHD COMMUNITIES - 1941 ToTal wage earners Percentage of labour f o r c e Average annual earnings Average weeks employed Average weekly earnings HAHAIMO Port A l b e r n i Ladysmith 455 230 59 22% 14 12 f> 575 500 390 41.37 36.63 35.66 $ 13.91 13.64 10.93 1. Census of Canada, 1941, v o l . 6, Table 2. 225. s e c u r i t y i s j u s t i f i e d w i l l depend on the f u t u r e of i n d u s t r i a l p r o s p e r i t y i n the prov i n c e and co u n t r y as a whole. 0. R e c r e a t i o n lanaimo i s adequately s u p p l i e d w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y o f commercial and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t has a r e p u t a t i o n as a 11 sports-minded" town. However, a changing a t t i t u d e toward r e c r e a t i o n i s n o t i c e a b l e w h i c h i s p a r t l y the l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a wide-spread phenomenon but i s a l s o the r e s u l t of the changing community outlook. The mining p o p u l a t i o n of Hanaimo was, at i t o f t e n i s everywhere, keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t i v e forms of r e c r e a t i o n . Track and f i e l d s p o r t s and w r e s t l i n g aroused great l o c a l i n t e r e s t . Teams from the Hanaimo a r e a twice won the Dominion soccer championship,^ and Hanaimo was/Included i n the i t i n e r a r y of t o u r i n g B r i t i s h soccer teams. The main i n t e r e s t was i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sp o r t and i n the development o f l o c a l a t h l e t e s . Perhaps due to the l o s s o f a common ecnnojnic and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t w i t h i n a l a r g e group o f t h e people, i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sp o r t s has n e a r l y disappeared. Whereas many of the p o p u l a t i o n f o r m e r l y f e l t i n common t h e need and the d e s i r e f o r vigorous open-air a c t i v i t y , there i s now a l a c k of a common meet ing-ground and l e s s n e c e s s i t y f o r a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f the people p r e f e r t o watch others perform. The l o c a l High School t r a c k meet i s now t h e only one of i t s kind i n |i 1 Ramsden, B r i c k , "Hanaimo c i t y of ' f i r s t s ' , " Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , Magazine, Saturday, May 21, 1949, p. 9. 2 2 6 . the area. In winter t h e hookey team arouses g r e a t e s t enthus-iasm, hut i t i s c h i e f l y composed of p l a y e r s from o u t s i d e areas. Lacrosse and s of t h a i 1 are staged i n minor p r o v i n c i a l or l o c a l leagues, hut n e i t h e r p r o v i d e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r many people. The c h i e f l o c a l I n t e r e s t s are now i n y a c h t i n g , howl-i n g and other forms of s p o r t which engage comparatively s m a l l groups of people. The g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n " s p e c t a t o r s p o r t s " i s common i n North American today, hut i s more than u s u a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e Nanaimo a r e a because o f i t s greater con-t r a s t w i t h past a c t i v i t y . 71 THE EFFECTS Off COAL-MINING ON COMMUNITY THINKING The c o n d i t i o n s of the coal-mining i n d u s t r y p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d the people engaged i n i t . Some r e s u l t s of t h i s d i r e c t impact of the i n d u s t r y are s t i l l apparent. The v i c i s s i t u d e s of the i n d u s t r y , however, had an i n d i r e c t but more widespread impact upon the t h i n k i n g of the whole community. I t i s p r o -bable t h a t t h i s l a t t e r , a f f e c t i n g as i t does a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y and number o f people, w i l l be more l a s t i n g i n i t s consequences. Many aspects of the mining i n d u s t r y l e d t o a f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y among the miners. The work was hard and uncongenial; r e t u r n s i n wages were f r e q u e n t l y u n c e r t a i n ; s t r i k e s and mining market c o n d i t i o n s , beyond the c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l , always made f u t u r e unemployment a p o s s i b i l i t y ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y years, frequent mine d i s a s t e r s made l i f e i t s e l f u n c e r t a i n . 227. The r e a c t i o n o f t h e workers t o these c o n d i t i o n s was, i n many ways, s i m i l a r t o those o f the people i n a Hew South Wales coal-mining community.-'- In t h e face of sueh f u t u r e u n c e r t a i n t y , the miners wished t o make the most o f t h e prese n t on such 2 l u x u r i e s as t h e times a f f o r d e d , r a t h e r t h a n on houses. Great i n t e r e s t was shown i n lodges and other group a c t i v i t i e s . In 3 1901, Hanaimo supported 24 such s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r branches. In the same year there were 20 l i c e n s e d h o t e l s i n Hanaimo and and 12 i n the a r e a beyond. The town had always been considered a h a r d - d r i n k i n g one, both i n the Hudson's Bay days when " l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of s p i r i t u o u s l i q u o r s " ^ were consumed and i n l a t e r years when Commercial s t r e e t was a " s t r i n g of s a l o o n s " . 5 The l i c e n s e d h o t e l s of today a l l date from the mining p e r i o d , when the men sought an escape from t h e i r problems i n d r i n k i n g . Among the o l d e r people, the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the mining p e r i o d are s t i l l remembered v i v i d l y . Among those s t i l l work-in g , a s has been seen, they have produced a strong d e s i r e f o r independence. Those people not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h coal-mining have 1 Walker, Alan, Coaltown, A s o c i a l survey of Cessnock, Hew South Wales, Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 2 i b i d . , p. 15. 3 B.C. D i r e c t o r y , 1901. 4 B r i t i s h Columbia, Mem. IV, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, House of Assembly, Correspondence Book, Aug. 17, 1858, p. 69 5 Duncan, E r i c , i I f t y - s e v e n years i n the Comox V a l l e y , Comox Argus Co., L t d . , 1934, p. 28. 228. d e r i v e d from i t s progress, on the other hand, a p r e v a i l i n g sense of optimism. World and l o c a l events always occurred which rescued the i n d u s t r y and the a r e a from d e p r e s s i o n . The opening of new mines or the r e v i v a l of market c o n d i t i o n s "brought the i n d u s t r y out of temporary r e c e s s i o n s . The s t r i k e o f 1912-14 was f o l l o w e d hy the a c t i v i t y of World War I and the years f o l l o w i n g . Even a f t e r most of the c o a l seams were ex-hausted, the development o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g i n d u s t r y rescued the c i t y and the area from the d e p r e s s i o n i t had s u f f e r e d . P u b l i c sentiment thus tends to r e g a r d the f u t u r e w i t h optimism, without remembering that r e v i v a l has come from outside sources and without c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n upon which f u t u r e economic p r o s p e r i t y i s to be based. CHAPTER V I I I THE COAL-MINING INDUSTRY AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NANAIMO AREA The f a c t o r s which make the Nanaimo a r e a l o c a l l y d i s t i n c t -i v e from other p a r t s of the tipper Vancouver i s l a n d r e g i o n can n e a r l y a l l he t r a c e d d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to i t s former clos e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h coal-mining. The present r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Nanaimo area and the g r e a t e r r e g i o n owes l i t t l e , d i r e c t l y , to c o a l - m i n i n g , but i t has been founded upon the b a s i s of the e x i s t i n g development yd t h i n the area. In the f u t u r e i t seems probable t h a t t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f the d i s t r i c t w i l l depend i n c r e a s i n g l y upon r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s which can be l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by the a c t i o n s of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . Future e f f o r t s of the people might w e l l be d i r e c t e d toward the maintenance and improvement of the Nanaimo area i n i t s p o s i t i o n as an important f u n c t i o n a l u n i t w i t h i n the g r e a t e r r e g i o n . I THE INFLUENCE OF COAL-MINING UPON PRESENT LOCAL DEVELOPMENT One of the most fundamental phenomena i n l o c a l develop-ment, -although perhaps not immediately obvious, i s the nature of the o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e Nanaimo area. I t i s , more than most p a r t s of Vancouver I s l a n d , c o n f i n e d to and dependent upon the £ 3 0 . c o a s t a l p l a i n . By i t s n a t u r e , coal-mining was r e s t r i c t e d to the g e o l o g i c a l l i m i t s of t h e p l a i n . The extent of t h e p l a i n i n the v i c i n i t y of hanaimo which made coal-mining e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , however, made the f o r e s t resources of the mountain-ous i n t e r i o r more d i f f i c u l t o f access from the sea. f u r t h e r -more, during the years when many other communities were becom-in g e s t a b l i s h e d as l o g g i n g a i d m i l l i n g c e n t r e s , the energies of the people and the f a c i l i t i e s of t h e a r e a were s t i l l i n great measure devoted to the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the c o a l seams. Although mining i s now of r e l a t i v e unimportance, the community i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y c o a s t a l i n i t s outlook, l o c a l a c t i v i t y i s s t i l l c o n f i n e d to the p l a i n , w h i l e the complex of d i s -t r i b u t i o n and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s i s based upon the convergence of water-borne trade r o u t e s w i t h the main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e along the c o a s t a l margin of the i s l a n d . A.- I n f l u e n c e upon Economic U t i l i z a t i o n of t h e Area As might be expected, the e f f e c t s o f the coal-mining economy have most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the development o f p u r e l y l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l and commercial a c t i v i t y . The i n f l u e n c e upon a g r i c u l t u r e has been to strengthen a r e g i o n a l t r e n d i n t h a t i n d u s t r y . Part-time farming has been found to be an economically s u c c e s s f u l i n d u s t r y i n other p a r t s of Vancouver I s l a n d . 1 i n the hanaimo area, t h e mining 1 Van Home and Maxwel 1, A g r i c u l t u r e i n C e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d , 1946. 231. i n d u s t r y p e r m i t t e d and even n e c e s s i t a t e d the development o f part-time farming as a s u b s i d i a r y occupation. This i n d u s t r y aided many people i n the p e r i o d o f adjustment which f o l l o w e d the d e c l i n e of the c o a l i n d u s t r y , and has c o n t i n u e d t o he adaptable to the present economic a c t i v i t y of the community. Owing to the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of s o i l and topography i t i s the o n l y form of a g r i c u l t u r a l development p o s s i b l e i n many d i s t r i c t s o f t h e a r e a . Mining brought s e t t l e r s t o the l o c a l i t y at an e a r l y date. Farming has long been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the area and so c u l t i v a t i o n has been extended more n e a r l y to the l i m i t s o f the a r a b l e s o i l a v a i l a b l e than i n many p a r t s o f Vaneouv er Is land. Goal mining has thus i n d i r e c t l y pushed a g r i c u l t u r e n e a r l y to the l i m i t s of i t s a r e a l expansion. W i t h i n the t r a c t s o f ar a b l e land, however, the market of the coal-mining community encouraged the development of t be hay and pasture farming t y p i c a l of the P a c i f i c Northwest. The development of s p e c i a l -i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the are a has been i n response t o the comparatively h i g h c o s t s of f a m i n g i n the r e g i o n r a t h e r than to the l o c a l i n f l u e n c e of the coal-mining i n d u s t r y . In n e a r l y a l l other forms of l o c a l economic a c t i v i t y the outstanding development i s the prevalence of s m a l l - s c a l e i n -d u s t r y f i n a n c e d by l o c a l c a p i t a l . " T h i s tendency may have r e -1 S p i l s b u r y , S o i l Survey, p. 62. 252. s u i t e d from a d i s t r u s t of f u r t h e r employment w i t h l a r g e i n -d u s t r i a l f i r m s . I t was c e r t a i n l y , i n p a r t , a necessery response to the d e c l i n i n g p o s i t i o n of coa l - m i n i n g . The present importance of s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r y i s made p o s s i b l e by the p r e v a i l i n g high l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y but i s also w e l l s u i t e d to the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the Hanaimo area. In coal-mining i t s e l f , although the mine operated by the Canadian C o l l i e r i e s produces the g r e a t e s t p a r t of the c o a l a i d g i v e s the g r e a t e s t employment, there are many sm a l l firms l o c a l l y owned and operated. Almost a l l l o g g i n g and m i l l i n g w i t h i n the lanaimo a r e a i s s i m i l a r l y c o n t r o l l e d . The t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , r e t a i l s e l l i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and l i g h t manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s are a l s o dominated, i n numbers at l e a s t , by small independent o r g a n i z a t i o n s . This t r e n d i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t of many other Vancouver I s l a n d communities where the economic l i f e o f the town i s dominated by one phase of t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l c o r p o r a t i o n . B. Influence upon Community Progress The o p t i m i s t i c outlook which i s a t y p i c a l p u b l i c s e n t i -ment i n the hanaimo area i s hampered i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to commun-i t y p r ogress by a concomitant r e s u l t o f the coal-mining i n d u s t r y ; the development of l o c a l l o y a l t i e s . The mining p o p u l a t i o n of each community was i n t e n s e l y l o y a l t o the l o c a l centre and the l o c a l group. Hanaimo i t s e l f was s i m i l a r i n t h i s r e s p e c t t o the smaller c e n t r e s . This tendency has remained w i t h i n each o f the 2 3 3 . communities i n t h i s a r e a . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , beyond the c i t y l i m i t s , the surrounding t e r r i t o r y i s unorganized. L o c a l r a t e p a y e r s r a s s o c i a t i o n s are numerous, and the p r e v a i l i n g d e s i r e appears to be, as i n the case of L a n t z v i l l e , f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n as v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ' 5 " r a t h e r than f o r m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the whole a r e a . The l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n between l o c a l commun i t i e s appears to be making the problem of o r g a n i z i n g a water board and o f extending the c i t y l i m i t s more d i f f i c u l t o f s o l u t i o n . A step towards g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n between communities has been taken by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Hanaimo Regulated Area. I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t t h i s development i s c o n f i n e d to the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n where p o p u l a t i o n is now more dense and where compact, r a t h e r than l i n e a r , settlement p a t t e r n s p r e v a i l . Another f a c t o r h i n d e r i n g the p r o g r e s s of community development has been the r e c e s s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e c l i n e i n coal-mining. B e i t her p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , commercial f i r m s nor the c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were f i n a n c i a l l y capable of main-t a i n i n g or improving b u i l d i n g s of a l l kinds, roads and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . The g r e a t improvment i n t h e appearance o f a l l s e c t i o n s of the hanaimo a r e a i n r e c e n t years t e s t i f i e s t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of poor r e p a i r p r e v i o u s l y g e n e r a l i n the a r e a were due to a l a c k of funds r a t h e r t h a n t o a l a c k of i n i t i a t i v e or 1 Vancouver D a i l y Province, Feb. 2, 1950. 2 3 4 . of c i v i c p r i d e . How that money f o r needed r e p a i r s and ex-p a n s i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i t i s being f r e e l y spent. The r i v a l r y between communities which has f r e q u e n t l y handicapped commun-i t y p r o g r e s s , may i n t h i s i n s t a n c e g i v e i t c o n s i d e r a b l e im-petus. I I THE IHfLUEICl 02? THE COAL-Mil, I NO Oh THE REG I OH AL EUHCTIOH OE THE AREA ^ _ The c o a l - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y d i d not o f i t s e l f make the Hanaimo a r e a important as a d i s t r i b u t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n centre, but i t provided the f o u n d a t i o n upon which t h i s develop-ment was b u i l t . Some l o c a l i t y on the c e n t r a l east coast of Vancouver i s l a n d would c e r t a i n l y have developed as the d i s t r i b u t i n g p o i n t f o r the r e g i o n . I t was the harbour and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , developed during the coal-mining era, which a t t r a c t e d t h i s a c t i v i t y to the s i t e o f Hanaimo i n p a r t i c u l a r . Although t h e p a t t e r n o f r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s was somewhat de-c e n t r a l i z e d as a r e s u l t of mining developments, the advantages of the general v i c i n i t y were great enough to overcome the d i f f i c u l t y . Access to the Island Highway system was easy. Most important of a l l , the r e c l a m a t i o n of t h e harbour areas by the Hanaimo mining company provided, i n l a t e r years, a s i t e f o r the Assembly Wharf and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l which be-came necessary f o r the handling, of passengers and f r e i g h t . 235. At a time when many c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were emerg-ing from the pioneer stage, and before many were even founded, Hanaimo was already a busy community. In time of mining p r o s -p e r i t y , l a r g e p a y r o l l s were p e r i o d i c a l l y spent w i t h i n the town. A g r e a t v a r i e t y of r e t a i l and s e r v i c e establishments were developed i n response t o t h i s source of income. Although the long s t r i k e and the d e p r e s s i o n caused many f i r m s t o c l o s e down, the r e were s t i l l a g r e a t number o f commercial e n t e r p r i s e s i n the c i t y . Owing to i t s e a r l y s t a r t i t was n a t u r a l t h a t the c i t y a t t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n of dominance i n the r e t a i l business of the upper i s l a n d , and t h a t t h i s business should develop In keeping w i t h expansion i n f h e wide area i t served. The number of urban settlements i n the v i c i n i t y p r ovided a labor f o r c e o f both sexes to s t a f f these r e t a i l and s e r v i c e e n t e r p r i s e s . Hanaimo has l o s t what a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n f o r c o a l -mining i t f o r m e r l y possessed, but i s g a i n i n g i n c r e a s i n g domin-ance as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r other p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In some i n s t a n c e s , however, the s i t e has been chosen independently by the o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned (as, f o r example, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Dominion f i s h e r i e s Depart-ment on the c e n t r a l east coast o f Vancouver/ I s l a n d ). In other cases, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s have followed t h e g e n e r a l development of t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g aid s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y . The d i r e c t e f f e c t of coal-mining on t h i s phase o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l development of the area has been n e g l i g i b l e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , 236. the tendency f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s to c e n t r e in/the area may prove to be an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to u l t i m a t e l o c a l development. I l l M U R E POSSIBILITIES OP THE HANAIMO AREA The course of f u t u r e development i n the Hanaimo a r e a w i l l be governed by a great v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s . Many of these w i l l not be geographic i n c h a r a c t e r , and w i l l be completely beyond the c o n t r o l of the people i n the area. Nevertheless, by t a k i n g known f a c t o r s i n t o account, some i n s i g h t may be gained i n t o the p o s s i b l e t r e n d of f u t u r e events, and some suggestions f o r fu t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n may be advanced. A. A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y w i t h i n the Nanaimo Area The f o l l o w i n g statement o f C D . Orchard might have been made wit h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the Nanaimo area; " I t i s axiomatic that mankind l i v e s by v i r t u e of n a t u r a l resources and nothing e l s e . A people can prosper by s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d other people c u l t i v a t e the n a t u r a l resources and supply them w i t h food and raw m a t e r i a l , but i t i s a h i g h l y competitive and dangerous business.""'" Increasing emphasis i s being p l a c e d , i n the area, on the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than on the p r o d u c t i o n of goods. Although n a t u r a l f a c t o r s impose l i m i t a t i o n s on the u l t i m a t e p r o d u c t i o n of primary products i n the d i s t r i c t , much might be 1 quoted by S p i l s b u r y , R.H. i n "Land u t i l i z a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d , " F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e , v o l . 19, 1943, No. 3, p. 162. 237. done to secure the maximum r e t u r n s from the re s o u r c e s of s o i l and c l i m a t e which are present. The p r e s e n t p a t t e r n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i n the d i s -t r i c t s surrounding lanaimo would he e a s i l y adaptable to a programme of interdependent a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n . C u l t i v a t i o n i s now n e a r l y c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the extent of a r a b l e s o i l s . In the v a l l e y s c l e a r i n g i s extensive a n d f u l l - t i m e farming p r e v a i l s . Elsewhere, the a v a i l a b l e pockets of a r a b l e s o i l have been sought out and c u l t i v a t e d , while the f o r e s t s o i l s have f r e q u e n t l y been l e f t t o grow t r e e s . In these l o c a l i t i e s , farming i s o f t e n o n l y a part-time occupation. This p a t t e r n c o u l d be u t i l i z e d " t o make every n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l acre a p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t . " 1 &t p r e s e n t , the p r a c t i c e of using non-arable s o i l f o r rough pasture Is the c h i e f hindrance to the attainment of t h i s i d e a l . The pasture so p r o v i d e d i s of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , w h ile t h e g r a z i n g of t h e l i v e s t o c k r u i n s t h e v e g e t a t i o n cover f o r p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t purposes. An e f f o r t to p r o v i d e areas o f improved pasture, at the same time u t i l i z -i n g the remaining t r e e cover on a su s t a i n e d y i e l d b a s i s , would r e s u l t i n more s a t i s f a c t o r y r e t u r n s of both types of product. f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the lanaimo a r e a would, of n e c e s s i t y , be i n c l o s e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f arable s o i l r a t h e r than i n a r e a l expansion. The produce of hay-pasture farming should continue t o f i n d a l o c a l market, and some s p e c i a l t y products are being marketed beyond the area i n competition with 1 S p i l s b u r y , S o i l Survey, p. 76. 238. the produce of other p l a c e s . The f u t u r e of hoth types o f farming a c t i v i t y i s , of course, l i n k e d w i t h the g e n e r a l development and p r o s p e r i t y of the p r o v i n c e as a whole. As long as the present b r i s k demand f o r lumber obtains, i t i s probable that the l o c a l saw-mills w i l l continue to ab-sorb the amounts cut i n the lanaimo area. Should the demand subside, l o g g i n g might be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d . The l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n p r o v i d e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e market f o r f u e l , some p i t -props, r a i l w a y t i e s and lumber, but much of the present cut of timber i s exported as lumber. Future d e p l e t i o n of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s throughout the p r o v i n c e might enhance the value of the l o c a l r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f f o r e s t management p r a c t i c e s were f o l l o w e d i n the i n t e r v a l . At the present time, wood chips f o r t h e pulp m i l l are s u p p l i e d from o u t s i d e oper-a t i o n s o f the op e r a t i n g company, not from l o c a l s o urces. The use of l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important. Although some a r a b l e s o i l i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of lanaimo i s used for h o m e r s i t e s , 2 many new homes i n the o u t l y i n g areas are being b u i l t on small h o l d i n g s c l e a r e d from the f o r e s t , present r e g u l a t i o n s do not prevent the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l land f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes, although t h i s may become necessary i n the future. 1 C r i s p i n , 0. , Manager, hanaimo Sulphate Pulp l t d . , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , Aug. 15, 1949. 2 S p l l s b u r y , S o i l Survey, p. 80. 239. B. Manufac tur ing I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t manufacturing i n the Hanaimo area w i l l ever expand much beyond i t s 'present modest scope. The l a r g e p l a n t s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver and other centres possess i n i t i a l advantages which l o c a l manufacturing could not a t t a i n . The c h i e f source of the necessary energy, t h e John Hart p r o j e c t , i s e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to other areas. Small expansion maybe p o s s i b l e through e x p l o i t a t i o n of the f a c t o r of p r o x i m i t y to the p o i n t o f demand. Expansion of s a w m i l l i n g i s p r o b a b l y l i m i t e d by the extent of l o c a l f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s and other a c c e s s i b l e timber areas l i e w i t h i n the working c i r c l e s o f t h e l a r g e f o r e s t products f i r m s . The pulp m i l l was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the a r e a becamse of i t s r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n to the other o p e r a t i o n s ©f one of the l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i t s f u t u r e development w i l l be depend-ent upon the operations of t h e parent f i r m . The l o c a t i o n of hanaimo w i t h r e s p e c t to l o g g i n g and f i s h -ing areas p r o v i d e s some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the r e p a i r and s e r v i c -ing of equipment. Provided that competitive c o s t s can be met, work which i s done i n Hanaimo saves the time and s h i p p i n g c o s t s of sending the equipment to Vancouver. However, the g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s of the l a r g e r p l a n t s enable them t o uxd er-take p r o j e c t s beyond the scope of l o c a l p l a n t s , while the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s which these f i r m s must themselves bear does not permit low cost o p e r a t i o n . £40. C. The T e r t i a r y I n d u s t r i e s I t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate the extent to which the present t e r t i a r y and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s may expand. Local commercial a c t i v i t y of a l l types i s at a high l e v e l , hut much of i t r e s u l t s from the demands of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n i t s e l f . The r e a l basis of the Industry i s i n i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the r e g i o n beyond the immediate v i c i n i t y . Here again, although operating c o s t s are h i g h , greater p r o x i m i t y to the areas served proves advantageous to the i n d u s t r y i n hanaimo. An opportunity f o r expansion l i e s i n the wholesaling i n d u s t r y . Although wholesale firms are moving branches to Hanaimo, much b u l k i s s t i l l broken i n Vancouver. Development of t h i s aspect of the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s would be encouraged by the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s and by the p r o -v i s i o n of access to s i t e s i n the port area. Future trends i n l o c a l wholesale business are thus dependent upon the f u t u r e a c t i o n s of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c company. Study of the requirements of the areas and i n d u s t r i e s served would a i d i n the p r o v i s i o n of more e f f i c i e n t s ervices by the Nanaimo a r e a . Because the i n d u s t r y i s so c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i t i s obvious t h a t t h e maintenance of good highway and bridge connections i s e s s e n t i a l a l s o . C e n t r a l i z a t i on and improvement of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s provides an opportunity f o r increased t o u r i s t t r a f f i c to the area. Continued expansion and improvement of accommodation and the dissemination of information regard-2 4 1 . i n g l o c a l a t t r a c t i o n s i s i n c r e a s i n g the importance of t h i s i n d u s t r y . D. Dependence upon the F o r e s t Resources of the Region The most fundamental f a c t r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e development i n the Hanaimo a r e a i s t h a t i t i s u l t i m a t e l y dependent upon the f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s of t h e r e g i o n and the p r o s p e r i t y of the f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y throughout the province as a whole. Hanaimo and i t s surrounding t e r r i t o r y i s thus s t i l l dependent upon a primary i n d u s t r y whose products must f i n d t h e i r p l a c e i n a h i g h l y competitive world market. The s i t u a t i o n resembles i n these r e s p e c t s t h a t which p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g the coal-mining e r a , w i t h one d i f f e r e n c e ; the resource i s , i n t h i s case, renew-able. from t h e p o i n t of view o f immediate economic advantage as w e l l as from t h e i r p r e v i o u s experience w i t h t h e d e p l e t i o n o f a r e s o u r c e , the people of Hanaimo area are, or should be, deeply concerned w i t h the whole problem of f o r e s t c o n s e r v a t i o n . P o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r e s t d e p l e t i o n poses a more profound t h r e a t to t h e f u t u r e of the community than i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . The present advantage of Hanaimo l i e s i n i t s l o c a t i o n . T h i s advantage does not stem from i t s r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y to Vancouver, s i n c e i t i s cheaper to t r a n s p o r t goods by sea than by l a n d , but from i t s c e n t r a l i z e d p o s i t i o n w i t h regard to the lumbering communities t o the south*, west and n o r t h . As the most a c c e s s i b l e stands are cut, but inadequately restocked, 242. l o g g i n g operations move to more i n a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s . A l -ready these o p e r a t i o n s have, i n some i n s t a n c e s , moves do f a r north o r west t h a t t h e y are no l o n g e r s u p p l i e d by way o f Nanaimo. Should t h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t lanaimo w i l l l o s e a l l i t s l o c a t i o n a l advantages. The whole d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d u s t r y and i t s a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s would c o l l a p s e , and the Nanaimo area would become dependent upon the l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y i t possesses. T h i s would mean not a temporary r e c e s s i o n , but the complete d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the present economic s t r u c t u r e of t h e area. Future development i n the Hanaimo ar e a w i l l be completely d i v o r c e d from the coal-mining i n d u s t r y . The community has entered upon a new phase of i t s ' e x i s t e n c e , e x p l o i t i n g other r e s o u r c e s with i n c r e a s e d emphasis and being motivated by a whole new economy. I n s o f a r as f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s are depend-ent upon the f a c t o r s present i n the area i t s e l f , coal-mining has n l a y e d a not i n c o n s i d e r a b l e part i n a s s u r i n g the f u t u r e . j welfare of the community and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . 1 £43. REFERENCES A. BOOKS Begg, Alexander, H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1894, 568 pp. B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y , (years 188£-83 t o 1948). Duncan, E r i c , F i f t y - s e v e n years i n the Comox V a l l e y , Cour-lteoay Comox Argus Co. ItdT , 1934, 61 pp. F o e r s t e r , R.F. , The I t a l i a n emigration o f our times, Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y f r e s s , 1919 (Harvard Economic S t u d i e s , v o l . £0) 556 pp. Harvey, Arthur , compiler, A s t a t i s t i c a l account of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, G.E. 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PERIODICALS Baker, O l i v e r E., " A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s of North America, P a r t IX, the north P a c i f i c hay and pasture r e g i o n , " Economic Oeography, v o l . 7, no. 2., 1931, pp. 109-153. Campbell, CM. , "Cassidy and the Douglas seam," T r a n s a c t i o n s , Canadian I n s t i t u t e o f Mining and M e t a l l u r g y , v o l . 27 , 1924, pp. 478-483. Graham, Charles, "The problems of the Vancouver I s l a n d coal i n d u s t r y , " T r a n s a c t i o n s , Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Mining and M e t a l l u r g y , v o l . 27, 1924, pp. 456-477. Gray, F.W.,"Coal mining and geology i n Canada," Tr a n s a c t i o n s , Candadian I n s t i t u t e of M ining and M e t a l l u r g y , v o l . 51, 1948, Journal of Commerce Yearbook, 1950, supplement seventeenth annaml e d i t i o n , Garden C i t y P r e s s , Ste. Anne de B e l l e v u e , Montreal, 1950. Lamb, W.K. , E a r l y lumbering on Vancouver I s l a n d , 1844-1866. (Reprinted from B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , January, 1938 McKelvie, l . A . , "The founding of Hanaimo," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 8, 1944, pp. 169-188. 247. Peacock, M.A., " F i o r d - l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia," B u l l e t i n , G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, v o l . 46, 1935, p-o. 633 to 69 6. S p i l s b u r y , R.H. , " l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d , " F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e , v o l . 19, I o . 3, September, 1943, pp. 160-168. Strachan, Robert, "Coal mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Trans-a c t i o n s , Canadian I n s t i t u t e of M i ning aikd M e t a l -l u r g y , v o l . 26, 1923, pp. 70-132. Wilson, R.R., "The Granby C o n s o l i d a t e d Mining, Smelting and Power Company's c o l l i e r y at Cassidy, Vancouver, I s l a n d , " T r a n s a c t i o n s , Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Mining and M e t a l l u r g y , v o l . 23, 1920, pp. 190-195. D. IEWSPAPERS Hanaimo Free Pr e s s , 1890 and 1924 Vancouver B a l l y P r o v i n c e , 1949 and 1950 Vancouver Sun, 1949 and 1950 E. UHPUBIISHBD MATERIALS Cargoes loaded f o r f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s and unloaded from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s at the port of Hanalmo~7~T938-194?. [Table s u p p l i e d by Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a . ) Cowie, A.J., E a r l y h i s t o r y of the Esquimalt and Hanaimo R a i l -way , V i c t o r i a , 1948. Dart, John, The geography of the Roslyn-Cle-Elum c o a l f i e l d , u npublished master's t h e s i s i n geography, S e a t t l e U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1948. Distance t a b l e s between Port Mann and Vancouver I s l a n d p o i n t s , b e f o r e and a f t e r J u l y 28, 19497 ["Table s u p p l i e d by Bureau~of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept.- of Trade Industry, V i c t o r i a . ) D i s t r i b u t i n g c l a s s r a t e s from Hanaimo aftd V i c t o r i a to s t a t i o n s on Vancouver I s l a n d , ("Table suppXTed by Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s ) . G i r a r d , E.L., Hotes on grape-growing and wine trade, 1940. 248 Management Sheets, 1948, lanaimo o f f i c e , B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . MeMailen, D.I., Esquimalt and hanaimo Hallway l a n d Grant, survey and recommendations f o r improved f o r e s t p r a c t i c e , B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a , 1938. Mileages from Vancouver to I s l a n d p o i n t s on the Esquimalt and Hanaimo Railway "before and a f t e r J u l y 1 s t , 1949. Hanaimo Chamber of Commerce, Hanaimo a r e a , Region f i v e , Hanai-mo, 1949. A. Area data, B. M u n i c i p a l data. Pearse, B . V . , General r e p o r t on the country round Hanaimo, (Copy of r e p o r t made to V/illiam A.G. Young, a c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , V i c t o r i a , March 30, 1860). Reg u l a t i o n s made pursuant to P a r t I I I o f the'Town Planning A c t r as amended, Hanaimo o f f i c e , R e g i o n a l Planning D i v i s i o n , Dept. of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . R e t a i l s a l e s of Nanaimo and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931, 1941,1948, (Table s u p p l i e d by Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a . ) S a l e s , Hanaimo, 1945 to 1948, (Table s u p p l i e d by B.C. Coast Vegetable Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n , s a l e s agency f o r B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board). S c a l i n g and R o y a l t y r e p o r t s , 1948, Hanaimo, B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e . S p i l s b u r y , R.H., S o i l Survey of t h e south-east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Economics D i v i s i o n , V i c t o r i a , 1944. Zoning R e g u l a t i o n s , C i t y of Hanaimo, o f f i c e o f C i t y Engineer, Hanaimo. F. PERSONAL COMMUNIST IONS Brusk, Stephen, Johnston N a t i o n a l Storage L t d . , Nanaimo, Interview w i t h the w r i t e r , October, 13, 1949. , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , J u l y 31, 1950. Cowle, John, Cowie Machine Co. Ltd. , Nanaimo, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , June 9, 194-9, C r i s p i n , C. , Manager, Hanaimo Sulphate Pulp L t d . , Vancouver, l e t t e r to the w r i t e r August 15, 1949. 249 o S i r a r d , B.L., i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , October 3, 1949. Glo v e r , Maurice h.A., Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. of Trade and Industry, V i c t o r i a , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , August 23, 19 50. l i i c h o l , R i c h a r d , Mine Rescue S t a t i o n , lanaimo, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , June 28, 1950. , l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r , J u l y 27, 1950. Pope, Vv.H. , P o u l t r y Inspector, Dept. of Agriculture, V i c t o r i a , i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , hanaimo, August 8, 1949. Savage, A. B u e k e r f i e l d s Ltd. , Nanaimo, i n t e r v i e w with the w r i t e r , J u l y 21, 194 9. Se c u l a r , J.M. Manager, I s l a n d F r e i g h t S e r v i c e L t d . , V i c t o r i a , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , June 8, 1949. Interviews w e ® h e l d on v a r i o u s occasions with the p e r s o n n e l of the f ollcwi ng government o f f i c e s ; B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Nanaimo Dominion Dept. of F i s h e r i e s , Nanaimo P r o v i n c i a l A s s essor and C o l l e c t o r , Nanaimo P r o v i n c i a l Inspector of Mire s, Nanaimo P r o v i n c i a l P u b l i c Works Dept., Nanaimo Reg i o n a l Planning D i v i s i o n , Dept. of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a . APPENDIX A TABLE XXII LAND ASSESSMENT VALUES IN THE NANAIMO AREA, 1937-38 and 1947-48. 1 1937-38 1947-48 No. o f p a r c e l s on tax r o l l s 6,078 13,006 Farm land #5,112,399 4,932,320 2 Improved l a n d 4,881,294 6,485,796 Wild Land 239,607 338,883 Coa l Land (A) 79,250 30,900 Coal Land (B) 75,508 60,002 Timber l a n d ^ 3,210,432 8,524,179 T o t a l assessed v a l u e o f l a n d |13,598,490 #20,372,080 1. Prom f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by the o f f i c e of t h e P r o v i n c i a l Assessor, Nanaimo. 2. U s u a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l improvement. 3. Land becoming t a x a b l e as i t i s s o l d by the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. A. Land used f o r a c t u a l mining operations. B. Land c l a s s e d as " c o a l l a n d " but not the scene of mining o p e r a t i o n s . Appendix B. Figure 50. Land Use i n a s e c t i o n of the - i l l s t o n e V a l l e y . V e r t i c a l exaggeration. S o i l - Advance Sheet Ho0 6 S o i l Survey of southeastern Vancouver I s l a n d , 1943. Geology' - paper 47-22, G. S. G. , by A. P. Buckham. Base map; lanaimo sheet, Department of National Defence, 1941. 

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