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The community services of First United Church : a case-study of the relation of the ministry of the church,… Morrow, Henry McFarlane 1948

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3? THE COMMUNITY SERVICES OF FIRST UNITED CHURCH A case-study of the relation of the ministry of the church, social work, and neighborhood rehabilitation. Henry McFarlane Morrow Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK Department of Social Work 19W University of British Columbia ABSTRACT The Protestant Church has a tradition of active participation in the life of the community. This tradition comes from a conviction that the church has a responsibility to work for the well-being of society. The United Church of Canada is active in the field of social action. It has also assumed responsibility for the operation of some social services. During the past twenty-five years the profession of social work has made tremendous strides and is now taking its place as one of the major professions. Many services, formerly offered by the church, are now included in distinctive social work agencies. The relationship between the church and these social work agencies is one that interests the writer. There are some within the church who would advocate a Protestant bloc of social services in the community, others feel the church's contri-bution must be indirect through the participation of its leaders.and members in the work of the. social agencies, and a few would restrict the church to a centre for worship and religious teaching. The secularism of the modern age has impelled many to•consider the Protestant Church's relationship to education and social -welfare. One of the principal home mission agencies of the Protestant church is the institutional church, a centre for a religious and social service ministry. These churches a re situated in deteriorated parts of the city. Some would advocate an extension of this programme into the transitional areas of the city. This thesis has sought to examine the place of the church in social -welfare programmes and to relate this to the study of an institutional church. First United Church is located on the periphery of a deteriorated area.and is also adjacent to a transitional area in the city. Its programme has been studied in the light of its service to these specific areas. Finally, the Demonstra-tion Housing Survey of the University of British Columbia is recommending that the Strathcona district be replanned and that a low-rent housing project be erected in this section of the city. Consideration has been given to the possible modification of services i/tfiich would be indicated and the new opportunities for community service which would be presented i f this project proceeds. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project -was made possible through the interest of the late Rev. Andrew Roddan. He was conscious of the changing nature of the work at First Church and encouraged the writer to undertake this study. The deteriorating physical environment was a source of concern to him and he welcomed the possibility of a low-rent housing project being proposed for the area adjacent to First Church. He was part-icularly anxious that the church be prepared to participate in plans for rehousing and neighbourhood rehabilitation. The writer is appreciative of the cooperation he received from Dr. Roddan and the members of his staff. Dr. L. C. Marsh of the Department of Social Work, University of British Columbia has made available the material from the Demonstra-tion Housing Survey and through his interest and kindly counsel has bs0n most helpful. The writer would also like to thank those men and women, in the church and social work agencies, who gave freely of their time to discuss various aspects of the topics studied in this thesis. Their interest, suggestions and criticisms have been invaluable. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page IV V VI VII VIII The Church and Social Work. Social Welfare. Some Approaches to Church Social Work. The Protestant Church's Dilemma. United Church of Canada and Social.Work. 1 First United Church an Institutional Church. The Institutional Church. Policy of United Church of Canada. History of F i r s t United Church. The Vancouver Community House. First Church Today 1 5 The Environment. "The Square Mile of Vice". Social Welfare Problem. Housing. Recreation. The Strathcona Area. Income of Principal Residential Groups. Rents Paid by Tenants. Housing Conditions. Distance from home to work. Parks and Play Spaces.. Economic and Social Costs. Area North of Hastings Street. 2k The Church Serves Individuals. Religious Minority. The Sunday School.. The Counsellor. Relationship of Minister and Social Worker. Some Experiments i n Cooperation. i j l The Church and Social Assistance. Social Assistance. Welfare Industries. Goodwill Industries of America Inc. F i r s t Church and Goodwill Industries. £6 The Church Provides a Community House. Community Centres. Group Work. Church Programs of Midweek Activities. F i r s t Church's Club Program. Community House. The Christian Neighborhood House. Seven-Days-A-Week Recreation Program. Church and Community Centre. F i r s t Church and Recreation. * 6 ? Other Community Activities. Camping.. Camp Fircom — Program, F a c i l i t i e s , Finance. Social Action. 93 Rehousing, Neighbourhood Planning, and some Conclusions. "j "4 Rehousing the Strathcona Area. Community. Some Parallel Experiences. Conclusions. 2.0k Appendices: A. B. Method Bibliography 117 CMPTER I THE CHURCH AND S O C I A L WORK Sixty-two years ago when Vancourer was incorporated, people had a very limited concept of social welfare,, Canada was s t i l l the land of frontiers and like most frontier communities the acts of ra ighborliness served to meet many social needs. Gradually the population has increased, and with industrial and commercial development, large centres have arisen 0 Neighborliness has not been adequate to meet human needs and many groups . have become concerned with the welfare of the community. Today many pro-fessional and non-professional agencies suoh as public health departments, v i s i t i n g nurses, private social work agencies, public welfare departments, probation services, recreational agencies, social action groups concerned with social reform, p o l i t i c a l parties, churches and others are interested i n varying aspeots of the f i e l d of sooial welfare. No one group i s able to say that they serve the total f i e l d . The twentieth century has also seen the growth of a new profession, Social Work. This new profession has now taken a leading place i n the l i f e of the community. Social work has developed as those who ware en-gaged in working with people, i n children's agencies, charity organization societies, and other welfare agencies sought to understand human behaviour better and to evolve techniques of work which helped the client to respond to the professional worker i n such a way that he would be assisted i n working out a solution to his own problem. Today there are four main phases of social work: case work, group work, community organization and social research. Case work i s concerned with a professional relationship between a worker and client so that the latter i s able to make a more satisfying and socially acceptable adjustment to l i f e . Case work i s practised i n many settings, i n agencies devoted to oa3e -work services exclusively and also as a department i n agencies whose main task i s i n another f i e l d of endeavour as i n schools, hospitals, ohurohes and industry It i s a form of counselling i n which the client i s helped to make his own decision, rather than receive advice* Group work has been defined by Miss Grace Coyle as "an educational process aiming at the development and social adjustment of individuals through voluntary group association."1 Group work requires a trained worker to be leader of the groups and i t i s through the s k i l l of this leader that the "group work prooess" takes place This branch of social work i s s t i l l comparatively young and i t i s only in recent years that i t has been recognized as having a distinot body of knowledge and experience. Group work i s being practised increasingly in community centres, neighbourhood houses, Y's and other recreational agencies. Group work i s changing recreational activities from "busy work" to purposeful activities based on individual needs. "Community organiza-tion" seeks through a coordinated program to meet the social needs of the community. There i s an increasing understanding that i n this age of specialization there i s a seed for working together i n community service. Through organized community action the needs of the community can be best met. Social research i s concerned with a study of social problems i n the community and serves as the factual basis for social action and for the improvement of standards and services to the people. Therefore i t w i l l be seen that social work i s now a many-sided profession reaching out into the community, serving the needs of people, and influencing the thinking and action of daily l i f e . 1.- Frank J . Bruno, "Trends i n Social Work as Reflected i n the Proceedings  of' the National Conference of Social~Work, "16"74-1946," Columbia University Press, New York, 1948, P. 274. - 3 -The technique of "knowing a person" developed by social work form the body of knowledge of the profession. It i s closely connected with the pro-fession of psychiatry and there exists a.cordial relationshipbetween the two. Social work in North_America has drawn heavily upon this a l l i e d f i e l d for i t s understanding of_ personality, .and workers lean upon this profession for oounsel and help i n meeting many of the situations found i n the practice of their profession. In other professions, as i n medicine, where the approach i s somewhat different, the relationship has been entered into with more reluctance. Gradually social work i s becoming recognized by this profession. In s t i l l others, where there is a deep philosophical basis, such as found i n the ministry, the relationship has been one of armed neutrality. Each group approaches the same problem from a different base and so each has mental reservations concerning the other. This i s unfortunate as the church i s above a l l an institution with which the objectives of social work i s i n closest agreement. Mr. Bruno comments: "As i t happens, the one institution with whioh the objectives of social work i s i n closest agreement . i s the church, and yet the give-and-take between the two has been less significant than between the other professions and social-work. This i s probably be-cause of the absolute character of the philosophy of the church whioh finds the pragmatism of social work an uneasy yoke-fellow. The church aocepts social workers, but largely that i t may promote i t s own ob-jectives by the professional methods of the newer vocation. Social work, on the other hand, has not been influenced particularly, as to method, by the church. I t would take more wisdom than i s available at the present time to explain this f a t a l diohtomy between two such a l l i e d institutions as the church and social work. A l l that can be safely asserted i s that there i s much the church could contribute, i n : method to social work, out of i t s age long experience i n human relations; but as yet the way to i t s u t i l i z -ation has not been found."2 2.- Ibid, p. 281. « 4 » There i s no denying the truth of Mr, Bruno's statement that these two professions have had l i t t l e significant give and take between them. How-ever i t does not seem that the differences are irreconcilable. There are . signs that the social work profession and leaders amongst the ministry are anxious that working relationships between these two professions might be strengthened. A Conference was sponsored by the Canadian Council of Churches between social workers and church leaders i n Ontario, at which the whole question of the relationship between the two fields was discussed, and while no reports of this meeting were issued, the views expressed proved that a l l f e l t the need of a closer relationship.3 Many of the functions now performed by social work-were onoe carried on through the Christian ohurohes. In the early stages of i t s development, men and women trained i n the ohurohes provided a considerable portion of the professional and executive leadership of social agencies. In i t s beginnings much of the social work was sectarian, and some sectarian work continues i n the modern community. The Roman Catholio, Jewish, Lutheran and Salvation Army groups maintain a program of social work. Most of the other churches perform some social work funotions or operate agencies within the community. It i s significant that the non-sectarian agencies are frequently referred to as the Protestant agencies i n the community. Social agencies and churches are so intimately concerned with the well-being of individuals and of society that neither should be satisfied with a relationship that does not intertwine. The churoh, beoause i t i s the church, must always have an interest i n social work either through the sectarian agency or i n coopera-tion with the community agencies. Some have chosen one approach,, some another, others are seeking a solution to this question of the relationship of the churoh to social work. 3.-Personal letter from Dr. W. J , Gallagher, Secretary Canadian Council of "Churches. ' Some Approaohes to Church Social Work Of a l l ohurohes, the Roman Catholic Church takes a particularly com-prehensive view of l i f e , and believes that i t i s important to inolude education and social work as a part of the church's ministry rather than as an aspect of community l i f e conducted by some other agency* Hence we find i n every c i t y of any consequence a group of Catholic Charities, operating under the authority of the Bishop, and designed to render service i n the fields of family counselling and child welfare. There appear to be three principal factors influencing this attitude of the Catholic Church to social work. F i r s t , the churoh regards oharity as one of the great virtues and the giving of charity as a Christian obligation, therefore the Catholic charity has i n mind not only the reoipient but the welfare of the giver, who through such contributions i s helped to practice the greatest of a l l virtues. In Christianity and Social Adventuring, William J . Kerby express-es i t as follows: "It would seem more i n keeping with the instincts of the Catholic Churoh to speak of the charities of the Catholic Church rather than of i t s sooial work. The authentic eminence given by Christ to charity as the greatest of the virtues has never fa i l e d to exert powerful influenoe i n Catholic l i f e . Love of God and of neighbor i s fundamental i n the divine plan. Charity as a spiritual bond i n the Christian l i f e leads to service as an obligation i n that l i f e . " * A second consideration i s the responsibility which the Church assumes for the interpretation of the moral law. Dr. Kerby writes, i n Christianity and Sooial Adventuring, "The supremacy of the moral law as interpreted by the church from both natural and supernatural stand-points i s recognized as a primary factor i n shaping 4.-Jerome Davis Ed., Christianity and Sooial Adventuring, - The Century Company, New York, 1927, P. 119 a l l policies of service to the poor. Every measure of r e l i e f , every plan that deals with the dependent family must meet the approval of the moral law before i t i s incorporated into Gatholio practioe."5 Finally, the church's conviction i s that the parish i s the canonical, spiritual and social unit i n the l i f e of the church. The social agenoy i s a resource which the parish priest might use i n meeting the needs of his parishioners. As a result of these convictions the Catholio church feels bound to continue i t s own social welfare institutions. Jewish Social Work Wherever there, i s concentration of Jewish population, there the Jewish community provides welfare services for i t s own people. The Hebrew r e l i -gious traditions have always emphasized charity. Within their oommunity there has been a sharing of resources to asist the needy, and they have tended to become a self-oontained group. This exolusiveness has been a protection i n times of persecutions yet has also been the focal point of attaok on this minority group. Today most Jewish communities have well-developed welfare programs, • many with very high standards of praotioe, which seek to serve the needs of their own communities. Jewish agenoies have pioneered i n certain forms of professional work. This i s especially true of the group work f i e l d , where they have made an outstanding contri-bution. In this modern day when the fear of persecution i s s t i l l a reality, and when the cultural and religious traditions of the Hebrew peoples are not f u l l y understood or appreciated by Gentiles, i t would seem l i k e l y that the Jewish people w i l l continue to feel a need to organize. 5.- Ibid, pp. 127-128 The Protestant Churches' Dilemma The Protestant Churches have no established policy i n regard to sooial work. In a letter, from the Pathfinding Service for the Churches i n New York, David Barry, the researoh director writes* j "...there i s not too much agreement among the various religious groups as to what the social service function of. the church should be, and there i s even disagreement within particular communions* It i s a topic discussed frequently by Home Mission Boards when they are allocat-ing budget funds, but the range of opinion varies from the Catholio groups, who consider a l l social work to be preferably under church supervision to the premillenar-ians who seem to think that any sooial amelioration merely postpones the second coming*"6 In 1946, the Church Conference of Social Work meeting i n Buffalo discussed the role of the ohuroh i n social work.7 A great variety of opinions were expressed at this meeting. In his presidential address, James A. Crain emphasized the need for a philosophy and adequate goal for churoh sooial work. He suggested that there were two dominant attitudes today, which may be illustrated by the following examplej In the f i r s t case, a neighbourhood house had been established by a church. Gradually as the work of this centre expanded, community funds were contributed and the work became more and more a community venture. When the time came for the ereotion of new buildings the church board deeded the property to the agency board and withdrew from the management of the centre, A ohuroh venture had come to be accepted as a community responsibility and at this point the churoh withdrew, having f u l f i l l e d i t s 6. - Quoted from a letter received from David Barry, Researoh Director of the Pathfinding Service for the Churches i n New York. 7. -The following pages contain several quotations from the Proceedings of the Churoh Conference of Sooial Work, Buffalo, New York, 1946. The addresses are recorded i n mimeographed form and may be obtained from the office of the Secretary of the Conference. function of pioneering the establishment of the community house. A different attitude i s revealed i n idle second type of situation. Here church groups enter the f i e l d of social service both for the purpose of oarrying out the Christian imperative of serving needy humanity and for purposes of denominational or sectarian prestige. The church i n this case would continue to operate the centre, because of the obvious differences i n philosophy between this la t t e r group and the former church group. Mr. Crain f e l t that there i s a real need for an answer to the question, "What i s churoh social work?" At this conference. Dr. F. Ernest Johnson of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ i n Amerioa, reminded those present that the traditional pattern of Protestant social work i n North Amerioa has minimized the opera-tion and control of agencies by ohurches or religious groups and .has maxi-mized Protestant participation i n non-sectarian agencies. Protestant Ohurohes have stressed the sense of Christian vocation i n community service. Their people have been encouraged to give leadership i n community agencies. Through this leadership the churoh sought to bring i t s influenoe to bear on the many social agenoies operating i n the community. Today, i n the face of increasing secularism and the Protestant church's diminishing influenoe i n community l i f e , many church leaders are questioning this traditional policy. Some have suggested a Protestant bloc of social agencies, compare able to the Catholic bloo and the Jewish group. If such a plan were seriously attempted social work would become a battleground fcrr sectarian agenoies, with duplication of services and a resulting failure to meet the total needs of the community. A few denominations have adopted a national sooial work policy. In the United States the Lutheran Churoh has established i t s own sooial • agencies. Speaking on the "Philosophy and Pattern of Lutheran Welfare," Henry J. Whiting sayst "As a ohuroh we are committed to serve men i n the name of God who reveals Himself i n Christ. A 3 a church we must be about Our Father 1s business. We have no.alternative. Hence the Lutheran Churoh has now and w i l l continue to build and strengthen i t s services to people. Whether the services offer-ed today such as child^welfare, health, care of the aged, etc. w i l l s t i l l be offered i n the years ahead, we cannot say. That w i l l be dependent upon the needs as well as the nature and content of sooial agencies available i n the future. But the church as a church w i l l be serving and meeting human need."8 In many centres, as i n Seattle, the Lutheran group maintain their own Chest, and conduct an annual campaign for the support of their own charities. Such social work i s of course sectarian, and i f other denomin-ations were to pursue such a policy there would be duplication of services with lessening of efficiency and increase of cost to the community. Most other Protestant ohurohes have rejected such a plan. The Salvation Army has a dual function — that of ohuroh and social agency. They believe that the "ultimate objective of both i s the same....the salva* tion the power of the Holy Spirit combined with the influence of human ingenuity, energy and love Thus today the Salvation Army operates a variety of social services i n a religious setting with Christ-ian motivation and goals."9 Speaking to the Church Conference of Social Work at Buffalo, Major Jane E. Wrieden thus summed the experience of The Salvation Armyj "The Salvation Army i s finding that becoming a qualified agency, like becoming a qualified per-son i s a continuing process. Thus, the changing pattern of sooial work i n The Salvation Army i s a daily challenge, to those representatives of the agency who give themselves f u l l y to the job of offering professional services i n a dynamic r e l i -gious setting. What are some of the challenges 8 P r o c e e d i n g s of the Church Conference of Social Work, Buffalo* 1946. 9.- Ibid. •. The Salvation Army i s facing — challenges we would like to share with other ohurohes? . We must continue to maintain the high standards of professional practise demanded of competent practi-tioners, even to the point of leadership i n setting standards. These standards must be a means to .an end — . ....We must continue to .relate the pattern of sooial work within The Salvation Army to the pattern of social work i n general, and to the total stream of l i f e i n the community and in the world, »not i n sub-jection to but i n relation to' other groups....This w i l l mean that workers must be willing to sink them-selves i n something bigger than themselves..«.the agency, and that the agency must be willing to sink i t s e l f i n something bigger than i t s e l f — the commun-i t y and service to others. , ...We must engage i n researoh, especially i n the area .of the consbious use of an effective religious approach to problems. We must above a i l learn to integrate the knowledge and s k i l l of dynamic psychology and social case work with our religious insights and goals...."i° . " Here we have a leader i n The Salvation Army who i s coming to grips with this problem of integrating a high standard of professional social work practise with the dynamic of religious l i v i n g . The writer agrees with Major Wrieden that church social workers must learn "to integrate the know-ledge and s k i l l of dynamic psychology and social work" with their "religious insights and goals." If other religious groups are to ju s t i f y their social service program they would do well to consider these challenges set forth . by her. Religious social work should have a qualitative distinctness. Most denominations find- themselves responsible for the administration of social agencies, and for the carrying out of certain social work funotions as a part of their churoh program. Some churches, such as the Congregational Church, feel that their function i s social action and they 10.- Ibid. - 10 -should not operate social agencies. Yet they find themselves operating neighbourhood houses and other social agencies. Many of the denominations are confused. They are looking for some c r i t e r i a by which they can estab-l i s h a policy i n regard to social work. The types of social work carried on by Protestant Churohes inoludej ohild welfare services, hospitals, homes for the aged, city mission societies, seamen's agencies, maternity homes, neighbourhood houses, and summer camps. Many of these activities are restricted because the Mission Boards allocating the funds are not sure of the church's role i n maintaining these services, John L, Mixon has expressed the situation very well, "Social work functions are in-a sort of voluntary relationship i n the Protestant Churohes neither wholly within our f i e l d of responsibility and there-by elevated to a place of respect and adequate support nor completely eliminated because our Christian con-sciences somehow w i l l not permit us to l e t go,"!* united Churoh of Canada The United Church of Canada has given some consideration to the ques-tion of the relationship of the ohuroh to sooial agencies. In 1938 the Commission on Urban problems presented a report to the General Council, one section of which dealt with this subject. The report recognizes that i n the past f i f t y years there have been great developments i n the f i e l d of sooial welfare and that servioes once sponsored by a ohuroh are now the responsibility of specialized agenoies. The development of sooial work i8 recognized as an evolving pattern. Study of the work of the church and i t s local congregations and i n s t i -tutions reveals involvement i n an extensive pattern of social work. There are services to families whioh are i n poverty or destitute such as through 11;- Ibid. - 11 -the sooial assistance funds of the congregations; varied services to child-ren, such as the EarIscourt Children's Home i n ,Toronto; service to unmarried mothers through institutions like the United Churoh Home for Girls i n Vancouver} provision for recreational services through Community Houses attached to institutional churches like F i r s t Churoh i n Vancouver; and counselling servioe where family relationships are strained. In his daily task the churoh worker comes face to face with social problems and social need. The United Church of Canada commission suggested certain principles which they thought should be kept i n mind i n dealing with this problem of the relation of the church to social servioe organizations. "Social Service activities carried on by the church show the connection between f a i t h and practice and give an immediate expression to the servioe motive ... emphasized in Christian teaching. ••..any work oarried on by the churoh should be on the newer and more effectual lines, and not carried on i n the old ways, by methods elsewhere discarded., ...Sooial work oarried on by the church should com-mand the respect of the community. There i s quite a large constituency known to the ohuroh, which does not come to the attention of the social welfare agencies of the community. These families may not be r e l i e f cases, but do require ad-vice from someone whom they can trust, and often they go to their minister for this form of help. It i s important that he should be i n a position to give sound advice. Some churoh representatives should also have know-ledge of the community resources i n mental hygiene, recreation, social care of dependents, education, etc "l2 These statements are reasonable. It i s proper to expect that the church should give competent service i n i t s ministry to people. Too often the social work of the church i s not keeping pace with modern developments 12.- Report of the Urban Problems (3omridssionijt United Church of Canada, as submitted to the General Council, 1938. 12 -i n the f i e l d , the church i s lagging. Frequently ministers are well trained i n theology but receive l i t t l e or no training i n the art of counselling,, Parishioners have a right to expect more than good intuition when they go to their minister for help with a problem. The minister should know where he can learn of the welfare resources i n his community, many are lost i n the maize of modern- welfare agencies. The United Church-would do well to follow out these four principles enunciated i n the report of the Commission on Urban Problems. The report continuesi "The individual church should recognize i t s e l f as one factor i n an immensely complex situation, and should be ready to cooperate with social agencies at work i n the d i s t r i c t . . . The great movement of the various welfare services i n certain centres makes i t necessary for the church to l i m i t i t s responsibility i n this f i e l d . The multi-plication i n denominational lines, of various services i n the community may be wasteful and ineff i c i e n t . The faot that a great deal of the social welfare work of the oommunity i s organized under private agenoies or through public departments, does not mean that they cease to be a ooncern of the ohurch. For their success-f u l operation they must have large numbers of interest-ed citizens serving on governing boards, committees, as volunteers, and on paid staffs. w13 The ohurch must face this faot that i n modern l i f e i t i s one of many agenoies i n the community. The cooperation of a l l is necessary for the f u l l e s t service to the individual. The minister through his work i n the parish can encourage his lay people to participate i n the activities of the numerous sooial agencies and i f he has made himself acquainted with the numerous services offered i n the oommunity can s k i l f u l l y refer people to the appropriate agency. The church oan become a v i t a l faotor i n effecting the maximum service to the individuals within the parish. 13.- Ibid. - 13 -At Buffalo i n 1946, Dr. Johnson argued that the traditional Protestant attitude towards sooial work was one of indirect participation through the sense of Christian vocation of individual members of the church. This report implies the general acceptance of this position by the United Churoh of Canada. It makes no claim that the churoh should be responsible for social welfare and reoognizes that the church i s one of several agenoies working i n the community. This report i s quiok to remind the church that cooperative effort gives the finest community service and makes no sugges-tion that the church should establish services for i t s own members. The Commission suggested that the churoh might give careful consider-ation to i t s responsibility i n providing leisure time a c t i v i t i e s . They appeared to feel that at the time of making their report (1938) that development in' this f i e l d was such that the church must continue a pioneer-ing job. This raises the question as to whether the role of the churoh should include that of Initiator of new programs. One of the leaders of the United Church Department of Evangelism and Sooial Service has suggest-ed that the-church should be so sensitive to human needs that they would recognize unmet problems and provide services to meet these needs. He further believes that the churoh should provide these services only until they are sufficiently recognized and demanded by the community that non-sectarian groups w i l l take responsibility for providing them. Thus he would relinquish services to a public or private agency when the demand for them overflows from the ohurch constituency into the f u l l e r community. Such a policy i s not accepted practice i n the United Church and there are many who would disagree with such an attitude but i t does merit serious consideration as a legitimate function of the Christian Church The report of the Commission on Urban Problems has the distinction of - 14 -being an attempt by a major denomination to state their position i n regard to social -work. Many questions remain unanswered but i t w i l l serve as an excellent basis for further discussion. Many seek a pattern of Protestant Welfare work. Mr. John L. Mixon, former Tfelfare Direotor of the Los Angeles Council of Churohes suggests that: "What i s needed today i n Protestant welfare i s not a"pattern" so much as an understanding of what  social work i s and to use social work methods and s k i l l s i n working out our relationship and responsi-b i l i t i e s as Protestants i n meeting human needs."I 4 As one who has training i n the ohuroh and i n social work, the writer would agree with Mr. Mixon. The two approaches are not irreooncilable and each has a contribution. The churoh i n i t s social institutions can lead the way i n helping the two professions to work together for the welfare of the-individuals seeking help. 14.- John L. Mixon, Proceedings Church Conference of Sooial Work, Buffalo, 1946. CHAPTER II FIRST UNITED CHURCH, AN INSTITUTIONAL CHURCH North American cities^ have developed very rapidly and with this devel-opment have come great changes i n population. Areas which were once good residential areas are now v i r t u a l slums. As the city expands, the commer-c i a l and industrial enterprises invade the older residential seotionsj those residents who can do so move out to the newer sections on the perim-eter of the oity, leaving the older homes for lower income families. Many of the dwellings are converted into rooming houses and i t i s common to find two or more families living i n a single house. Here i n overcrowded condi-tions, sooial conditions fester and decay sets inj morally and socially the area declines u n t i l i t would seem that a l l sense of oommunity has disappeared. Churches which were once proud self-supporting congregations find that their membership gradually declines as their members move out to the newer d i s t r i c t s . Frequently, the homes of the former.residents are occu-pied by two or more families and the older d i s t r i c t becomes a blighted area with a high mobility of population.. The traditional church program f a i l s to attract many of the newer residents, and they do not participate i n ohurch l i f e to the same extent as the families who are moving to other parts of the oity. Many congregartions i n the United States and Canada have had to decide whether to adapt their program to meet the changed conditions i n their community or move to a d i s t r i o t where many of their members have already settled. Some have moved out to the suburbs, some have tr i e d to oarry on i n the old location without any adaptation and have gradually disappeared, others have boldly adapted their program to - 16 -meet the needs of their own constituency and have given excellent service as Christian centres i n the sore spots of the modern c i t y . No two communities are identical; differences i n the educational and occupational status of the residents, their raoial backgrounds, oultural and religious traditions, a l l make variations i n the community. So i t i s that no two congregations face the same problems* The manner i n which a congregation f i t s into the l i f e of a community and meets the needs of the inhabitants determines the effectiveness of i t s ministry. Of course there are degrees of adaptation* The churoh which combines a social service and religious ministry i s known as an institutional church. Frequently this kind of church i s located i n the oentre of the ci t y amidst the wretched, overcrowded slums whioh are found i n many c i t i e s * Many institutional churches were organized i n non-Anglo-Saxon communities i n an effort to provide wholesome leadership for the European immigrants who flocked to Canada, a generation ago, and found themselves i n a strange land, not knowing the language or the customs of the people* Through these institutions the churoh sought to extend the hand of friendship to the stranger at their door. The Institutional Church The institutional churoh emphasizes the religious ministry. It i s not a sooial agency. It might have an excellent counselling servioe, provide a good community house, operate an excellent summer camp, maintain "goodwill industries," give sooial assistance to needy families not able to receive public assistance, end perform many other social work functions: yet basically i t i s a church. Graham Taylor, who was for many years Professor of Sociology at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago - 17 -and who was one of the founders of i t s School of Social Service Adminis-tration, has told of his work at Fourth Congregartional Churoh i n Hartford. x When he went to this congregation towards the end of the last century he found only the shell of a onoe great churoh. There were less than one hundred active members. A large proportion of the neighborhood population was neither interested i n nor influenoed by the church. Mind-fu l of social needs, Taylor developed an institutional church program, not forgetting that this was fundamentally a ohurch, u n t i l .Fourth Congregational Church became a thriving centre, under his leadership religion and the social movement joined forces to serve the needs of men and women. Since Graham Taylor's day there have been many institutional churohes organized i n the c i t i e s of this continent. Some have been successful and have made an impression on the oommunity i n which they were looated. Others have-failed to be effective either as centres of a sooial ministry or as centres for religious teaching. Many f e e l that as the institutional ohuroh becomes more a sooial agency than a churoh i t loses i t s effective-ness. They suggest that the institutional church must provide i t s sooial ministry as part of the Christian imperative to serve and keep foremost i t s religious purposes. It i s a church f i r s t and a social agency second. Others feel that the two funotions are irreconcilable and that the church should solely concern i t s e l f with spiritual matters and l e t welfare agencies provide the sooial ministry. The United Churoh of Canada maintains some fifteen Institutional "Churches. Some were opened i n the early years of this century when the flood of immigrants from Europe.was at i t s peak. They offered social and. religious servioes to these .strangers within the Dominion, and sought to prepare them for l i f e i n the land of their adoption. Others have grown 15.- Graham Taylor, Pioneering on Sooial Frontiers,University of Chicago Press, Chicago. - 18 -out of the needs of slum and near-slum areas. Self-supporting congregations have come under the O&re of the Board of Home Missions and a social servioe ministry has been added to the religious program. Today there are centres i n the main c i t i e s of Canada, extending from Vancouver to Sidney, The church i s committed to the oontinuanoe of this type of ministry. History of the F i r s t United Churoh F i r s t United Churoh i n Vanoouver i s one of this group of Institutional Churches maintained by the Board, of Home Missions, As i t s name implies i t was;the f i r s t church of the denomination i n Vanoouver, The congregation belonged to the Presbyterian Church before church union i n 1925, and was originally established through the ef0orts;of the Presbyterian Church; i n Bburne, now a suburb of Vanoouver, When the C.P.R. f i r s t oame to Vancouver services were started and a small churoh was erected on Cordova Street, . This building was destroyed i n the great f i r e whioh swept the city i n . 1886, It was replaced by a larger building whioh s t i l l stands on Cordova-Street near Main, Some years later the present building at Gore Avenue and Hastings Street was ereoted. This church auditorium w i l l seat approx-imately seven hundred and f i f t y people. The attaohed Sunday School room i s suitable for smaller meetings, banquets, etc., and the young people have played badminton i n this room. In the early days this was one of the most representative and influential congregations i n the c i t y . With the expansion of the c i t y and the opening of new residential areas the original inhabitants moved away from the area adjacent to the churoh and their homes were taken over by newcomers of many nationalities. The industrial area began to encroach on the residential d i s t r i c t , rooming houses became more common, and gradually the area changed from a middle - 19 -class community to the near-slum i t i s today. The church was affected by this transition. Many- members moved away and became active i n the ohurches nearer their new homes. The new arrivals were not responsive to the traditional churoh organization. The old:First Church found i t s e l f faoed with a c r i t i c a l problem, which oame to a c r i s i s i n 1916. Finances were strained, and the congregation had to consider whether to continue i n the present location. While the congregation was considering this problem the Home Mission Board of the Presbyterian Church offered to assist, them ; to continue their work,-by undertaking to supply .the minister for the church. The succeeding five years saw two ministers occupy the pulpit of this pioneer congregation. In this period the Vancouver Community House was organized as a branch of F i r s t Church.. In 1921 the Home Mission Board decided to c a l l a man specially qualified for dealing with a cosmopolitan -congregation. Reverend J . Richmond Craig was appointed, and continued as minister and superintendent u n t i l 1929 when he was called to Graoe Church i n Winnipeg. Reverend Andrew Roddan began his ministry at F i r s t Churoh i n January 1930, and oontinued u n t i l his death i n May of this year. During his ministry the ohurch has had to meet many ca l l s for assistance, has fre -quently taken the i n i t i a t i v e i n speaking for the underprivileged, and often the voice of Fi r s t Church through i t s minister has cried out against degrading conditions. Tinder his leadership the church dared to serve. The present minister. Reverend R. A. Redman has only oommenoed his ministry i n this pioneer church. The Vancouver Community House The Presbyterian Churoh in Canada was one of the pioneers i n the 20 -settlement movement i n Canada. Under the leadership of Dr. John Shearer, Superintendent of the Social Servioe Department of the Presbyterian Church from 1910 to 1917, the f i r s t of the ohurch settlements* St. Christopher House i n Toronto was opened i n 1912j i n the same year Chalmers' House was opened i n Montreal, and thus began a movement that was ultimately to include seven centres* The settlement houses were governed by a local board appointed by the Presbytery. This board was responsible for providing the building and equipment for the centre* The central budget of the ohurch undertook to provide,the staff and meet the operating costs* The settlement was related to the Presbytery i n a similar relationship to a congregation but for a l l practical purposes the local board was the.governing body. Before.the University of Toronto opened a School of Social Work, St, Christopher House initiated an intensive in-service training program requiring twelve months . of residence and supervised f i e l d work. This program was planned as the training centre for a l l the churoh settlements. In 1918 when F i r s t Church was reorganizing i t s work i n order to serve i t s environment, the Vancouver Community House was organized. Even i n those days. F i r s t Church was located on the oorner of the d i s t r i c t i t sought to serve, Mrs, Van Munster came out from St. Christopher House to direct the new settlement. Arriving i n Vancouver, she found accommodation suitable for developing a settlement program had not been secured. The looal o f f i c i a l s expeoted her to use the school rooms of the churoh. Mrs. Van Munster delivered an ultimatum to the local boards; either they would pro-vide her with proper accommodation or she would return to Toronto. Within three months she was installed i n two adjoining store buildings with a residence overhead. The buildings were well located (at 905 East Georgia - 21 -Street)* The work developed very quiokly, and soon the Vanoouver Community House was a thriving social centre. From i t s inception Vanoouver Community House was oonneoted with the work of F i r s t Churoh and never beoame a settlement house as some of the other settlements which had their beginnings i n churoh home mission programs. Its program was really one of church sponsored oommunity recreation* With-out a strong board the Community House did not have any group to speak for i t i n the oounoils of the churoh and to interpret i t s purpose and work to the community* Lacking' this leadership the Community House was hampered i n i t s struggle for adequate financial support and i t s leadership beoame increasingly inter-related with the church leadership. In 1921* a new building was i n prospeot but unfortunately ohurch finances began to f e e l the pinoh, those who had l i t t l e sympathy with settlement-work olamored for reductions i n this area. Hot having laymen able to defend and fight for the continuance and expansion of the Community House, the former group pre-vailed and the centre had to oarry on i n the stores. Mrs. Van Munster re-signed i n 1921 and was replaoed by Miss Grace Atkey. Gradually policy ohanged and i n the latter years of the Community House's existence the deaconess and g i r l s worker with assistance from the theological students and volunteers carried on the leadership of the a c t i v i t i e s . In 1931, the depression struck Canada, church budgets had to be drastically curtailed, and the Vancouver (immunity House closed i t s doors. Once again the "non-essentials" were being reduced. , , Study of the annual report for 1930 reveals' that a varied program was i n operation. The kindergarten had a total enrollment of sixty-four, with an average attendance of forty-five children. Twenty nationalities were represented i n the sohoolo There were a number of boys' and g i r l s ' clubs, 22 -varying i n size from eight to sixteen members, meeting i n the community house. A mother's club, the White Shield Club, met each week with an attendance of almost forty members. Story Hours were held on Wednesdays arid Saturdays and appear to have been exceptionally well attended. An average of one hundred children attended the Wednesday hour. A mission ' band and an adult Bible Class met regularly at the Community House. There i s no record of any men's clubs using the premises and the White Shield Club appears to have been the only women's olub so that, apparently, the main program emphasis was directed towards boys' and g i r l s ' work, - After the closing of the Community House an attempt was made to con-tinue many of these clubs and activities i n the churoh building at Gore Avenue and Hastings Street, The annual reports for the years succeeding 19S1 show a large increase i n the club work oarried on at F i r s t Church, The kindergarten was discontinued, but an attempt was made to develop a' strong program of boys' and g i r l s ' work as a part of the mid-week program of the Sunday School. In 1939, the Women's Missionary Society of the United Churoh were persuaded to open a kindergarten house i n the Seymour School d i s t r i c t . At that time the area close to the church was about ninety percent Oriental and a l l the denominations had kindergartens for Oriental children. The area around the Seymour School had no kindergarten or club house and the younger children could not come as far as F i r s t Church, A small house was rented across the street from the Seymour Sohool, and a kindergarten was organized. This school met Monday to Friday from nine to twelve, A mother's olub was organized and met regularly at the house, "Explorer Groups" for boys and g i r l s , ages six to eleven, were established and met one afternoon a week. One senior g i r l s olub whioh had previously met at 23 -the churoh used the house as i t s meeting place, since this location was more central for the members*, The kindergarten house continued to serve this d i s t r i c t u n t i l after the evacuation, of the Japanese population i n 1943. When the Japanese people with their minister were evaouated from the Coast, F i r s t United Church took over the property of the United Churoh Japanese Mission. This mission property included a ohuroh building, and a fine community building with gymnasium and club rooms. A l l the club work and the kindergarten were transferred to this oentre at the corner of . Powell and Dunlevy Streets. F i r s t Church Today Today, F i r s t Church looks back over a history which parallels the history of Vancouver. The church has seen i t s environment change drasti-oally i n the l a s t sixty years. The onoe proud F i r s t Church i s now a mission churoh, the onoe fine residential d i s t r i c t i s now v i r t u a l l y a slum, but the churoh s t i l l stands near one of the city's main crossroads and strives to be a l i v i n g witness of Him who said "the greatest would be the servant of a l l . " The,church has a staff which includes a deaconess, g i r l ' s worker and kindergarten teacher, office secretary, superintendent and staff of the wel-fare industries and the minister-superintendent. This s t a f f offers a great variety of servioe through counselling, the oommunity house and club program, the camp, the "welfare industries", and through many forms of assistance to the homeless and needy. Succeeding chapters w i l l review the work of the ,ohurch, but f i r s t i t i s necessary to look at the environment in which the work i s carried on and to appreciate the conditions under whioh many of the people l i v e . The work can only be properly understood i n the light of the environment which forms the parish. CHAPTER III THE ENVIRONMENT Fir s t Bnited Church i s located on the fringe of three distinct areas of population. (1) West from the church, towards Cambie Street and extend-ing from the waterfront to False Creek, i s an area of cheap hotels and rooming houses. When a committee of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, whioh had been studying social health conditions i n this area, released their reportl^the newspapers entitled i t "Vancouver's Square Mile of Vice." (2) North of Hastings towards the waterfront and bounded by Gore Avenue and Glen Drive i s a residential d i s t r i c t whioh i s gradually being transformed into an industrial and commercial area. While no specific study has been made of this d i s t r i c t i n reoent years, i t is a matter of agreement that the housing conditions i n this area are worse than those i n the d i s t r i c t south of Hastings. (3) A third area which oan be dis-tinguished i s located south of Hastings, extending from Gore Avenue to Raymur Avenue and south to the False Creek Flats. Within the last year this l a t t e r area has been the scene of an inten-sive survey under the auspioes of the University of British Columbia and Vancouver agencies interested i n housing. A special study i s being devel-oped to demonstrate the economic and social oosts of a blighted area and the need for low rental housing projects. Working from the actual facts of the area, i t i s proceeding to a complete replanning and neighborhood rehabili-tation project i n a l l the "blueprint" detail. Considerable reliable infor-16.- Survey of Social and Health Conditions i n a special area of downtown Vancouver, prepared by a Committee of the Health and Auxiliary Div- . ision, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, April 1947. (mimeographed). - 2 5 -mation i s therefore available about this area.* 7 Some of the survey fin d -ings w i l l be reproduced i n detail, so that the environment of one group of residents dwelling adjacent to F i r s t Churoh w i l l be understood* It i s obvious that i f a low rextal housing projeot could be erected i n this area the environment w i l l be radically ohanged. Main Street was onoe one of the principal business streets of Vancouv-er* F i r s t Church faced the main business d i s t r i c t and the area east of the churoh formed a good residential section* As the ci t y developed and newer dis t r i c t s were opened up the commercial centre of the oity moved westward towards Granville Street and the residents of the East End, or rather those who could afford i t , moved to the newer residential d i s t r i c t s * The rooming house became a charaoteristio of the area and two or more families came to l i v e i n houses whioh were originally b u i l t only as single family dwellings* Small scale industry and commercial warehouses also began their invasion, and the process of decay which started then i s now the outstanding feature of the area* Today the area west of the ohuroh i s the focal point for the': most serious social problems - immorality, drunkenness, delinquency are rooted i n this d i s t r i c t * East of the churoh and extending to Glen Drive i s a d i s t r i c t whioh s t i l l retains some good features and has a l l the character-i s t i c s of a mixed and transitional area. areas As there i s such a marked contrast between the/east and west of the ohuroh, i t seems best to desoribe them separately so that the reader w i l l be able to appreciate the environmental problems faoing F i r s t Church. 17.- The writer i s indebted to Dr. L. C. Marsh, director of the survey, for advance information on the parts of the survey u t i l i z e d i n this chapter. --26 "The Square Mile of Vice" • The eastern or "downtown" area consists of small commercial buildings over the most of whioh are lodging houses* There are 139 licensed lodging houses containing a total of 6,008 rooms with an estimated population of between 9,000 and 10,000 people. 1 8 There i s evidence of a high degree of transiency within this area, which includes the central part of Chinatown and the "skLdroad" - a d i s t r i c t which caters to loggers, miners and seamen,, A high proportion of the population i s composed of single men and women, but there i s ss reason to suspect that a relatively high number of families oocupy rooms i n this part of the c i t y . The Community Chest survey, which included the area from Gore to Abbott, recorded 234 children who attended the elementary schools from this area. Sooial Welfare Problems Sooial workers report that persons who might be termed drifters, and who are frequently i n trouble with the authorities, take rooms i n this area. This "square mile" i s a verdant f i e l d for male and female prostitution and sexual perversion s During 1946, approximately 60 percent of the lodging houses i n this d i s t r i c t were reported to the Division of V. D. Control as a place of meeting or exposure resulting i n the spread of V. D. These premises were reported 644 times and were responsible for nearly 55 percent of the total reports oonoerning specific lodging houses i n the whole of Vancouver for 1946«, There are 29 beer parlours i n this area, representing 46 percent of the total for the c i t y . They were responsible for two-thirds of the beer parlour pick-ups i n the city, according to the 1946 stat i s t i c s of the Division of V.D. control. Likewise, of the numerous cafes scattered 18.- Survey of Social and Health Conditions, p.c. - 27 throughout the oity, 57 were reported as " f a c i l i t a t i o n " and of this number 23 were located i n the surrey area. During the same year, 148 charges were l a i d i n the Police Court against women keeping a disorderly house. More than 86 percent of these establishments were located i n this area. In short, this area i s the socialocess-pool of the oity. As might be expected, the area has a high incidence of juvenile delinquency. The report comments* "Lodging houses provide havens for delinquents and pre-delinquents for a night or longer with no questions asked. Almost every runaway from home, foster home, or institution finds his or her way to this part of town, and from example or opportunity, frequently becomes involved i n some act causing his or her appre-hension by the police," These are strong words, but they are written by people who know this prob-lem a l l too well i n their daily work. The oentre for the i l l i c i t narcotic t r a f f i c of Vancouver i s located squarely i n this area. Drug addicts, alooholics, those addicted to "canned heat," flavoring extracts, shaving lotion and other perversions which debase personality, a l l congregate here. Many elderly people, l i v i n g on social assistance, li v e i n the survey area to the West of Main Street, Here under deplorable housing conditions they are unable to properly care for themselves and the usual complaints -associated with old age are aggravated. As a result of poor housing condi-tions many of the sooial assistance cases i n this area have recurrent admissions to hospital. Many adults and children from this looality report to hospitals suffering from scabies or infested with vermin. The baths and frequent changes of linen which are a part of the treatment, are, of course not available i n their lodging houses, , - 28 -Hoosing ' Sanitation, and overcrowding are ever present problems i n this area. The following are a few of the comments made by the committeeJ "Long dark corridors branch out, with rooms open-ing off on either side. Sometimes i t i s necessary to light matches to pick out the room number de-sired. Doors and walls are flimsy and permit sounds and smells to escape into the halls. Bathrooms and toilets are dark, cramped and dis-colored looking - a far cry from the spick and span t i l e d bathrooms of the modern apartment or hotel. One would hesitate to bathe a child i n most of the rusty-looking tubs." It i s the same old story of inadequate and inferior l i v i n g conditions. In some instances three or four people occupy one single room, resulting i n pressure on plumbing f a c i l i t i e s which were not very adequate• at any time. There are plenty of instances of large rooms being subdivided, and of people having to depend on a r t i f i c i a l light at a l l times. Many of the available rooms are found i n lodging houses which were not intended for housekeeping purposes and the result i s that nearly a l l the occupants of the locality exist on meals cooked on electric plates or eat i n the cheap-est restaurants to be found i n the v i c i n i t y . In many cases there i s no water i n the room and a common sink i s used by a l l . In some instances the only heat i s provided by a common stove i n the hal l and the tenants have to leave their doors open i n order to benefit by the heat. Recreation The main branch of the Public Library i s located at Main and Hastings Street and there i s a potential playground with some equipment i n the 500-block Carrall Street. These f a c i l i t i e s oomprise the non-commercial recreation within the area of the Community Chest survey. There are - 29 -several card clubs, a bowling alley, pool halls, theatres, and beer parlours i n this square mile. The Chinese "Y" i s just outside the area, = on Pender Street east of Gore Avenue. First United Churoh, St. James Anglican Church and the Salvation Army Citadel are on the fringe of the area, and a l l face on to Gore Avenue. There are a number of evangelical missions i n the area,but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess their contribution to the social l i f e . The Community Chest survey concludes •? "It oan be seen that though the d i s t r i c t i s a colour-f u l and exciting one, i t i s completely lacking i n wholesome outlets for every age group and type of resident and indeed, i s actively unwholesome, espec-i a l l y for children and young people. I t would be impossible for such young people to develop acceptable habit patterns i n these surroundings. Such i s the environment which faces First Churoh as i t looks East .towards the oity centre. The church i s a lonely citadel amidst an environment whioh depresses the personality of a l l those who gather there. The Strathoona Area This second d i s t r i c t coincides with the University Housing survey area and extends south and east from the church. , This section of the city was laid out when i t was thought i t might be a good residential d i s t r i c t . The large number of single dwellings i n this area i s i n marked oontrast to the hotel and lodging house area west of the church. Many general statements have been made about this area. It has been referred to as an area of transients, or as a "Chinese" or "foreign-born" area. The survey data show that i t would not be correct to refer to i t either as a solely "Chinese" or "foreign-born" area since more than a quarter of the people i n the area have British or American backgrounds. Its varied racial pattern 19.- Survey of Social and Health Conditions, previously cited. s 30 -of population i s well known, however, to those who work i n the area. First United Church for example, report that they have had contact i n one year with more than thirty-five nationalities. While no detailed measurement of race and nationality was attempted the housing survey secured sufficient information to define the main thnic stocks. "Families with a continental European background form a very large group i n the d i s t r i c t (38 to 40 per-cent)o The Slavic races are especially important; Ukranians, Russians, Poles, Serbs, a l l have their own distinctive clubs or associations; and Italians are well represented. Scandinavians are most numerous amongst the Western European immigrants. Most of the Chinese l i v e i n the area west of the church and probably only about 28 percent of the population l i v i n g east of First Church to Raymur Avenue i s Chinese. There i s a small colony of negroes, representing about 3 percent of the total population, residing in the south-east corner of the survey area." While i t i s true that this i s an area of high mobility, about 30 per-cent of the population represents new and possibly mobile population) there i s also a large stable population li v i n g i n the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . The survey showed that about 25 percent of the families had lived i n the dis-t r i c t for periods of five to ten years, and another 18 percent for more than ten years. Many single men live i n this part of Vancouver. The hous-ing survey estimates their numbers as well over 2,000. Many of them work i n loggin camps, on boats or i n other occupations whioh take them away from home for long periods of time. These men use some of the boarding houses as their permanent address. Many others are i n receipt of small pensions, old age pensions or social allowance. Very few single women liv e i n this section of the c i t y . The Strathcona d i s t r i c t s t i l l remains much more an area of families - 31 -and children than i s often supposed,' In a sample of six hundred houses recorded i n detail about three-quarters were confined to a single family without any boarders or sub-tenants. Families of a l l kinds account for 63 percent of the total population of the area. Well over half of these families have one or more children. The proportion of married couples with no children i s noticeably high, particularly among the tenants^ There also appears to be a f a i r l y large percentage of broken families, • Of the fami-lies l i v i n g i n the area, 62 percent li v e i n single houses while not necess-sarily occupying the whole housej 20 percent live i n apartments, 11 per-cent i n boarding houses and the remaining 7 percent are the worst housed group of a l l , l i v i n g i n cabins. Income of Principal Residential Groups The families l i v i n g i n this area are amongst the lower income groups. The constant calls the ohurch receives for assistance have given the workers the impression that many families have a marginal income, whioh i s unable to meet any emergency situation. The information, received by the interviewers i n the housing survey, gives plenty of support to this view. Fir s t Churoh receives numerous appeals from single men for clothing and other forms of assistance. Many are too old to work, others appear to be unemployables. The housing study revealed a noticeably large number of single men living on inadequate inoomes and this fact helps to explain the reason for the large number of appeals received by the ohurch from older single men. A sample based on more than six hundred single men l i v i n g in the Strathcona dis t r i o t showed that more than half of them lived on either a pension or assistance income. The single men who had gainful employment, were a good deal better off though the medium income at the time of the survey did not rise to more than $1,320, - 32 -Rents Paid by Tenant Families The Strathcona District i s clearly a low rent area. The median rent for families l i v i n g i n single houses, i n $21, compared to $20 for those i n apartments and $17 for families l i v i n g i n rooming houses and cabins. The median rent for families i n a l l groups i s $19 for unfurnished accommodation and $22 for furnished quarters., Single men who are boarders or lodgers pay a median rent of $5 per month for unfurnished rooms and $9.50 per month for furnished rooms. The adequacy of housing accommodation received for these small rents i s of course a another story. Housing Conditions Dr. Roddan, i n his annual report for 1946, deplored the housing con-ditions i n the v i c i n i t y of Fir s t United Church. In common with other workers, he felt.; that overcrowded and inadequate housing is a contribut-ing factor to the social and moral decay of the area. A study of social agenoies and welfare institutions serving the Strathcona d i s t r i c t was i n -cluded i n the housing survey. Many of .the workers interviewed had strong opinions about the housing conditions i n this sector of Vancouver. One of the workers of the Children's Aid Society i s quoted as follows: "Housing i s a contributing factor to the problem parents have, but not the primary one. A great number would do better i f they had a proper home and given a chance i n a residential d i s t r i c t where there would be no adjacent beer parlours. So many times i n a neglect oase the f i r s t thing people f l i n g at you i s *If you would find us a decent place to l i v e 1 . Many have come from the prairies i n search of a better way of l i f e . They :became submerged by the d i s t r i c t and degenerated." A Family Welfare Bureau worker made a similar oomment: "People's standards take a nose dive i n these qqualid conditions, particularly people - 33 from the prairies." And the Metropolitan Health Unit record reports that - "It is significant that the public health nurse in this district has the heaviest case load in the whole unit. It is daily brought home to the nurse how difficult i t is for families living in this area to have the kind of wholesome family life, materially and spiritually, which a more residen-tial area would help them to create for themselves." These are a few of the opinions of those who work with the people liv-ing in this area. What are the housing conditions? A walk through the-parish area reveals an area of older houses. -Some of them have been kept in good repair, but many others have been allowed to deteriorate and pre-.sent ah unprepossessing appearance. The overall impression is that of a "run down" district. The assessment of the structural state and interior conditions of the housing in the Strathcona survey gives ample confirmation. The following statement is from the report of District Nurse of the Metropolitan Health Committee to a survey visitor of the University of British Columbia, Demonstration Housing Survey. "There are at least a hundred and more probably one hundred and twenty-five, houses in whioh the rental unit is by the room. Only about half of them have any adaptation or improvements for the purpose. A high proportion of the smaller apart-ment suites are also converted dwellings, some with dark stairs, small rooms and very limited facilities." Over one-quarter of the single houses, one-half of the apartments and practically all of the cabins are disfigured by clumsily built shacks, woodsheds and lean-to's. Another symbol of 2 0 . - "It is not uncommon to find children attending school whose skins are marked with the scars of bed bug bites —scars iihich become septic. The incidence of skin troubles of many kinds among these children is quite noticeable, and observers feel that this is at least partly related to housing conditions." - 34 -deterioration i s the vacant lot,.overgrown with weeds and i n many cases littered with refuse; hardly a street i s without one or two of such lots. Walls were rated"defective" only i f they had not seen paint for several years, were leaning, or showing cracks, but 18'percent of the rooming houses and 44 percent of.the cabins showed these defects. Defeots i n the interior of the houses were much more common i n apartments and rooming houses and worst of a l l in the cabins. Adequate cooking f a c i l i t i e s and food storage accommodation i s essential i f people are to enjoy a balanced diet. Fifteen peroent of the dwelling units i n the apartment buildings and rooming houses had no proper f a c i l i -ties for cooking. Half of the single houses depended on a crude oupboard or a window box for.the storage of food. More than one-fifth of the room-ing houses had no provision at a l l for keeping food. With such inadequa-cies i t i s l i t t l e wonder that there are so many complaints about the house-keeping habits of those living i n this area. Again, more than one v i s i t o r has remarked on the plumbing smells which greet a person on entering many of the rooming houses and apartments i n this d i s t r i c t . It i s hard for many to realize that those,who are doomed to live i n much of the housing of this d i s t r i c t must tolerate disreputable bathing and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s . The survey comments that "taking a l l the. multiple units together, the s i t -uation for a prospective tenant i n this area, not able to find or afford a. house, i s that not one out of any two could be counted on to offer satis-factory washing, bathing and t o i l e t equipment." A former oase worker with the John Howard Society commented that "The ourse of being poor i s everyone i s i n everyone else's pocket, so much so that private functions cannot be performed i n privacy." These remarks are very apt i n view of the faot that overcrowding i s one of the outstanding facts revealed i n the material of the survey. Forced to live i n buildings made unsightly by outhouses, with.leaking roofs, dark dingy rooms, inadequate sanitary conveniences and improper f a c i l i t i e s for the preparation and storage of food, the spirits of men and women become dulled and the environment works i t s subtle influence. In such housing conditions the inadequate are submerged, while only the strong survive. Distance from Home to Work Dr, Roddan was able to say from his acquaintance with many within the area that i t was one of i t s advantages that people could live near their work. He suggested that many families do not wish to move from this area because of i t s central location. The survey confirmed this view for i t revealed that only 21 percent of those interviewed expressed a preference to move on to another d i s t r i c t and almost 40 percent definitely preferred to continue li v i n g i n the survey area. Other facts show that a high pro-portion of the workers l i v i n g i n this d i s t r i c t find their employment i n the parts of the c i t y nearest to the area. Parks and Play Spaces The survey area covers approximately one hundred and sixty/three acres. There i s only one playground, MacLean Park, located within the area. This park i s largely d i r t surfaced, with a few swings and a wading pool. The school ground at Strathcona School i s available as a play space but this ground is already overcrowded with extra school buildings. South of the area l i e the False Creek flats.. A portion of this ground i s being developed for industrial use. These f l a t s are used by the city as a gar-bage dump, which i s an excellent breeding place for rats and does not enhance the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . Plans have been prepared for the creation - 36 -of a large park on the "Flats".adjaoent to the Strathcona d i s t r i c t but i t appears this project i s s t i l l for the future. Powell Street grounds are located i n the area north of Hastings Street but are used largely for adults and baseball and soooer league games. There i s no park with lawns and gardens close to the area. Many of the ohildren have to play on the streets and alleys of the d i s t r i c t . Economic and Social Costs The area covered by the Housing Survey, oontains approximately 2 per-oent of the population of Vancouver, yet i t accounts for at least 3.5 per-cent of the total servioes recorded through the Social Service Index. Persons depending on pensions and social assistance are heavily represented i n this area. A large amount of publicly and privately supported medical care i s directed annually to this area. A high proportion of the active tuberculosis cases are to be found i n this d i s t r i c t . V i s i ts to this area account for 3 percent of the total work of the Victorian Order of Nurses. V i s i t s per case which averaged, i n 1946, 4.46 for the city as a whole, amounted to 12.95 for this section of the c i t y . "The fact that about 7 percent of 1946 arrests for drunkenness and almost 17 percent of the arrests on vagrancy charges were made within or near the d i s t r i c t , i f nothing more, indicates the environment to which the children and adolescents of the area are subjected.'.1 Traffic accidents are extremely high. " I t i s true that they are produced by the outer streets of the survey area, but heavily used streets crisscross the whole :distriot. Almost 16 percent of a l l accidents i n 1946 occurred within and on the perimeter of the area. Fire calls have been very light but the potential f i r e hazards are very widespread. Casual observationJreveals the need for sanitary inspections, particularly for problems of rats, vermin, garbage disposal and plumbing, i n this sector of the city,". Area North of Hastings Street The area north of Hastings Street extending from Gore Avenue east to Glen Drive i s much more an area i n transition than the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . The commercial and industrial oompanies are invading this area and even now dwellings find themselves sandwiched between warehouses, factories or junk yards, A superficial examination of this part of the city would seem to indicate that housing conditions are poorer here than i n the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . There are some instances on Powell Street of families l i v i n g i n stores,and many other completely sub-standard habitations. It would appear'that this d i s t r i c t w i l l continue to deteriorate as a residen-t i a l area and that eventually i t w i l l become f i l l e d with commercial build-ings. Proximity to the waterfront, to the C.P.R. and National Harbour Railway are factors whioh enoourage this trend, Powell Street grounds i s the only park or playing f i e l d north of ; Hastings Street, This i s a d i r t f i e l d and is used mainly for organized sports. The Family Welfare Bureau has a heavier, case load i n this d i s t r i c t than i n the Strathcona area. The western section presents some of the problems found i n the downtown area and the eastern part compares more closely to the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . The city-wide case-work and health agencies a l l have heavy case loads i n the parish area composed of these three districts which have been dis-cussed. The only group work agency within the area i s the "Chinese Y," 21,-Demonstration Housing Survey, Interim Report, July 1947, University of Bri t i s h Columbia, (mimeographed) The Strathcona Day Nursery has been located i n the Community House of First United Church, which i s located at Powell and Jackson Avenue. This agency has now moved to a new location on Powell Street. The Junior-G Club, a boy's club sponsored by the Vanoouver Boys' Club Association, i s located i n the 600 block Verrion Drive, a block or two beyond the eastern boundary of the area. The Junior-G Club has had the use of Fi r s t United Church Gymnasium for basketball and other indoor sports. Four national societies have halls within the area.' The Association of United Ukranian Canadians, the Federation of Russian Canadians, the Croatian Educational Home,' and the Serbian Educational Home conduct pro-grams which, among other things, perpetuate the music and crafts of -their homelands. Some have a recreation program for their members. Bedause of their base i t i s not possible for them to become community centres, and i n some oases the society only serves a part of the national group they repre sent. These organizations draw their membership from the entire c i t y . There are a large number of churches i n the area or adjacent to i t . Five Chinese congregations and missions are supported by the Anglioan, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic and United Churohes. A l l of these missions operate kindergartens. The United Churoh Kindergarten has recent l y admitted Occidental children, and reports indicate that Oriental arid Occidental children get along well together i n the school. These missions also maintain some group activities for boys and g i r l s and young people. There i s a Russian Orthodox Church on Campbell Avenue, but there are i n d i -cations that this church i s poorly attended and that the priest works at a secular occupation. Many of the Slavic peoples l i v i n g i n the area have been members of the Orthodox church, yet they do not respond to i t i n Canada. The Roman Catholic Church has a large parish church and a separ-ate school i n this d i s t r i c t . The Italian Community and some of the other 39 European groups are well represented i n the congregation. The Salvation Army Citadel i s located at Gore Avenue and Hastings Street, opposite F i r s t United Church. They carry on their traditional program embracing a relir, gious and social servioe ministry. Few of their members reside i n the area. Jackson Avenue Baptist Church was once a self-supporting congrega-tion, but for more than twenty years has been a cit y mission supported by the Baptist Convention of British Columbia. They have a kindergarten and maintain a number of boys' and g i r l s ' and young people's activities as a part of the mid-week program of their Sunday School. They aim to provide .a program of church centred community service. St. James Church i s the mother church for the Anglican denomination i n Vancouver. Following the tradition of the "high church" they have remained i n their original location, even though their congregation now lives i n a l l parts of the c i t y . The present modern church building i s the third edifice to be erected on this s i t e . St. James Church has a strong influence i n the East End of Vancouver. A sense of social responsibility i s evident i n the clergy, and i n many quiet ways they have made the church a part of the l i f e of the deteriorated area i n whioh they are looated. They have old people's homes on Cordova Street next to the Parish House, and operate a row of cabins on Glen Drive, Here Old Age pensioners are able to receive clean ^accommodation for six dollars a month. The church operates a kindergarten ijfive mornings a week. The Scout and Guide program is followed and a large -number of the children from the area north of Hastings Street participate i n these a c t i v i t i e s , St. James Churoh has found that Hastings Street i s a major dividing line and that very few boys and g i r l s cross Hastings Street to attend Sunday School or olub a c t i v i t i e s . Workers at. F i r s t United Church have had the same experience. - 40 -The original Jewish synagogue i s located at 700 East Pender but with the opening of the new synagogue on Oak Street services and activities i n this building have been discontinued. People of a l l ages and racial backgrounds, many with limited incomes, l i v e i n this blighted area of the cit y . Housing conditions are poor with much overcrowding and inadequate accommodation, there are few proper play spaces, and the general environment i s not conducive to normal l i v i n g . In such a setting, several churches are seeking to give some extra service to the people l i v i n g around them. Unfortunately, many are grouped i n .one small section of the area while there are large sections without club activities of any kind. A l l of the city-wide case work agencies are busy i n this sector of the cityj but group work and recreational activity i s limited, the Chinese Y and the Junior-G Club being the only agencies serving these people," It may well be asked: where does the church f i t i t ? CHAPTER IV THE CHURCH SERVES INDIVIDUALS The ohuroh stands in the oity streets surrounded by an environment that degrades men and women. The needs of the oity and i t s people rest heavily on the heart of the churoh. " i t sees the city throngs mobile and transient, i t s family l i f e disintegrating, i t s home l i f e decaying. It sees the busy pleasure seekers trying, to find re-lease and t h r i l l s , and knows a i l too well the prob-lems of delinquency w i l l arise. I t sees men and women at work with a multiplicity of vooations which thwart their creative instincts and turn l i f e into a mechanical prooess. It knows the cry of the unem-ployed. I t sees the crowd of Non-Anglo-Saxons try-ing, too often i n van, to make adjustments to a new world. The sound of foreign tongues i s not strange to the church for i t began with men speaking i n foreign tongues. To a l l the cries of the oity streets, the ohurch lends a listening ear, for i t i s of the streets and of the city i t s e l f . " Wherever men l i v e i n the city, the church i s there. The church is the custodian of a changeless message. I t i s a citadel of hope. Believing that Christianity does mean a common brotherhood, that fellowship and encouragement should be offered "even unto the least", the church adapts i t s e l f to many forms of service. Traditionally the ohuroh has been concerned with the wellbeing of individuals. For two thousand years, i t has performed an inclusive ministry to a l l who were i n need. The sick, the lonely, the bereaved, the troubled, the hungry, the homeless, have found the church a place of refuge. Fi r s t United Church tries to continue this tradition and offers an inclusive ministry. 1 22.- Forster, H.G., The Churoh i n the City Streets, The Committee on Missionary Education, the United Church of Canada, Toronto, 1942, p. 164 - 42 Religious Ministry First one foremost the churoh has sought to provide a religious ministry, which has been the force behind all forms of service offered by the congregation. The minsters of First Church have been forceful preachers, and through the years have made the pulpit of this churoh influential in the life of Vancouver, In recent years i t has been in-creasingly difficult to attraot large congregations to the regular services© Enough evidence has already been given that the environment and housing conditions hinder the reoeptiveness of the people to any community activity, as they are dulled by the drabness of their lives, A large number of the congregation travel some distance to the church, and as these resign their membership they are not being replaoed. Faced with such a problem, the ohurch has had to depend to a great extent on the transient. A minister who can attract the transient to the church performs a very real task. These people are attracted by sensational topics and special features. From week to week they change and i t is extremely diffi-cult to mold such a group into a congregation. Today First Church is faced with declining attendance at the church services. Table 1 shows a decline in churoh attendance each year from the peak attendance _pf 1931 (the morn-ing attendance in 1942 and the evening attendance in 1944 were slightly improved over the previous year but the trend is clear). The Sunday School shows the same general decline. If churoh attendance is a measuring stick of the response of the community to the religious ministry of the churoh, fhen i t would seem that the district served by First Churoh is i ss recep-tive to the church today than i t was fifteen or sixteen years ago. Throughout the years of his ministry in Vancouver, Drc Roddan broad-oasted at least one service each Sunday. In this way the voice of First Churoh has spread into the far corners of the province. This radio ministry has always been self-supporting, as contributions from listeners have met the expenses of broadcasting. This would indicate an interested listening group It has extended the influence of F i r s t Churoh beyond the parish area and through i t many cal l s for help have come to the minister 0 The radio has proven invaluable on those occasions when Dr, Roddan was making an appeal on behalf of one or other of the many projects fathered by him, during his eighteen years i n Vancouver, Through pulpit and radio, F i r s t Churoh i s influential i n the l i f e of the c i t y . Many look to i t for the formal services of the church. In 1946 the minister performed 200 marriages and officiated at 75 funerals* Only one other United Church i n the c i t y of Vancouver reported more marriages performed, and only two other ministers reported of f i c i a t i n g at more funerals that year, A glance through the registers reveals that these calls came from a l l parts of the city. They show something of the place of the church i n the l i f e of the city and reveal that, while attendance at services declined, a large number of families look to this centre as their churoh. The Sunday School Undoubtedly there are many reasons for the serious decline i n Sunday School attendance. The neighborhood i s less receptive, parents do not see that their children attend Sunday School, and leadership i s needed for the School; these are perhaps the most obvious causes. In suoh a d i f f i o u l t environment there i s a need for exceptional leadership, yet tragioally, by the very nature of the congregation, the leadership is not present. Without an adequate number of volunteer- teachers a Sunday School can not be successful. The stable middle class congregation, as i s to be found i n - 44 -Trends in Churoh Servioe Attendance First United Churoh, 1930-46 (Average for each year) Year Morning Service Evening Servioe 1930' 289 1 838 1931 400 1012 1934 - 294 686 1936 171 412 1937 184 266 1939 173 195 1940 172 181 1942 190 179 1944 151 189 | 1946 130 160 Sources Compiled from the Annual Reports of First United Church 1930 - 1946 - 45 -the better residential distriots of the city, is constantly recruiting teachers from its membership. That group of people is declining in First Church, More and more of the families lack the ability to give leadership or are so pressed down by their circumstances that they are not ready to accept such responsibility, Graham Taylor foresaw this very problem when he was in Hartford, He felt that the effectiveness of the institutional church depended on its remaining a congregation with members able to accept responsibility for leadership; so that the less able would be a&r-* ried by the more aggressive members. He feared the day when the ohurch membership would all be of the mission group. Under such circumstances there would be few strengths to l i f t these people needing lifting into something bigger than their own problems. This would seem to be the di-lemma which is facing the Sunday School at First Church. The Counsellor Traditionally, the pastor has been a counsellor* In a simpler sooiety, the minister, the doctor and the lawyer were the confidants of the family. As life grew more complex others have entered the counselling field. In a modern city such as Vancouver there are many agencies and groups interested in helping people meet their problems. There was a time when the City Social Service Department was only concerned with the relief of destitution,, helping people with their other problems was not oonsidered a part of the function of a relief office. This situation has changed; today, the city social service department has a large number of social workers on its staff. It is a part of their job to help those receiving social assistance to meet other situations, which might be a more basic need than the obtrious economic one. There is every liklihood that this counselling service will inorease. Some case workers feel that workers from the public department .- 46 -should continue their contacts with people who are constantly on and off public assistant r o l l s , • Private social agencies provide valuable counselling services. People faced with emotional, economic, family, or any other type of person-al problem may apply to the Family Welfare Bureau for help. Through a case work relationship,, many of those in need are helped to understand their situation and to make some adjustments i n their li v e s . The Children's Aid Society i s concerned with the welfare of children and i s constantly work-ing with families as well as with individual boys and g i r l s . .They too offer a counselling service. Other specialized agencies such as the John Howard Society, which only works with men and women who have been convicted i n the courts; and the Rotary Counselling Service, which offers vocational guidance to young men between seventeen and fiwenty-four, share the coun-sellor role. In our modern society the trend appears to be toward more services for the individual. The courts are now interested i n using trained oase workers as probation officers, the schools are moving towards more inten-sive counselling programs, industry has almost universally employed' personnel officers, who try to f i t the man to the job and to help him with his employment problems so that he w i l l becomeia more efficient employee. Many share with the minister the role of counsellor, yet large numbers of ' people continue to look to the minister for help with their varied prob-lems. Through the years thousands of people have climbed the narrow stairs that lead'to the minister's stufly at First Church, and there i n the quiet-ness and privacy of that room have poured out their troubles. In numerous ways, the minister has been able to help them. A man of wide experience i n meeting people learns intuitively how to help them with some of their problems. The Counselling servioe i s one of the important services offer-ed by an institutional church. Today, there i s a new recognition that counselling i s a skilled task. In the past twenty-five years, through the understanding of human behaviour learned from modern dynamic psychology, professional techniques have been developed. The counsellor trained i n indirect counselling, the social case worker and the pastoral counsellor a l l depend on this same basic body of knowledge. In discussing the large number of agenoies offering counselling services with a prominent leader of the United Church, he commented on the increasing need for more counselling services i n the community, and said that the churoh must remember i t w i l l always have a role to f i l l i n provid-ing competent counsel. He f e l t that there was a need for trained counsel-lors within the church. Such people would help the churoh meet individual needs. The American church has some ministers who are highly trained i n dynamic psychology. A few like Rollo May, Russell Dicks and Otis Rice are really lay analysts. In the Canadian church, there are very few ministers trained i n modern counselling methods. In a centre like First United Churoh there i s a great need for highly sk i l l e d counsellors. Workers must be able to help people with a l l kinds of problems. I t would seem desirable that there should be a close liason between the church workers and the social workers active i n the d i s t r i c t , flor there w i l l be many problems coming to the attention of the church which can be worked out easiest by referring the individual concerned to the agency best able to serve him. In the past, First Church has referred' families and individuals to specialized agencies and to the public depart-ments for assistance. However, i t would seem that there could be more referrals and for a greater variety of reasons. Records are not available 48 -but the writer suspects that a large percentage of referrals have centred in eoohomic or health services requiring a direct concrete service, rather than in assistance in meeting behaviour problems; or in solving family tensions either between parent and child or between parents. There are some who would question such a policy, but i t does seem that the minister or ohurch worker should be able to differentiate between the problems which should be their concern and those which should be re-ferred to-a social agency. Assuming the presence in the community of a competent agency to which referrals could be made, it.would seem that some sort of referral policy could be evolved. The pastoral counsellor is con-cerned with attitudes and philosophy of life; because of his role he will always give advice onmoral and spiritual issues, which in their broadest, interpretationpinclude.all social relationships. He represents a philosophy of life ishich he believes to be the most satisfactory for daily living. The writer believes that the church has a. responsibility to help normal people think through their problems and attitudes towards life. The church will always be concerned in family relationships. When people are concerned with'perplexities which are basically moral or religious-prob-lems the pastoral'counsellor can be of great service. Often people have other problems which come to the attention of a church worker, frequently a specialized worker is better able to help men and women work towards a solution^ Deep seated emotional problems require patient counselling and psychiatric consultation or examination. Such problems would probably be better referred to a case work agency. There will always be a measure of overlapping but i t would seem that i f they so desire an institutional church and a social agency could cooperate in meeting the total social heeds of the community. Each must recognize that the good of the commun-ity is the end and that they are but the means, as all work together the 49 -individual i s served best. Relationship of Minister and Social Worker Frequently, Protestant Ministers who intellectually recognize the place of the public and private agencies i n the f i e l d of social work f a i l to use the services which are available within the community. Personal problems, minor emotional disturbances and marital problems are discussed with parishioners without any consideration of using social agencies save as resources for r e l i e f , to provide care for a neglected child, or to pro-vide medical treatment. The agency i s a resource. The converse i s also true. Social agencies may easily forget to consider the strength of the minister's relationship to the olient and do not take him into their confidence as they take school teachers, nurses, and dootors. So frequent l y , the two professions parallel each other. An observer might ask inhethe or not each profession accepted the other. The relationships between minister and parishioner, case worker and olient are not identical. The minister i s the recognized leader of a ohurch and i s essentially a propagandist. He has a conviction about l i f e to which he i s constantly seeking to win others. Many regard him as one of authority; i n some churches he i s a priest, as i n the Anglican Churdh, a mediator between man and God; i n other churches, as i n the reformed group, he has not this office yet many set him apart because he alone i s able to dispense the sacraments and officiate at weddings. The minister has three tasks - preacher, leader and pastor. As a minister seeks to lead his parishioners to a greater understanding of Christianity, i t i s inevitable that he w i l l come close to them The social worker i s trained to understand personality problems and assist people to make a proper adjustment to l i f e . Working i n a social agency^the worker offers a specific service to the community. The worker seeks to help the client meet his problems i n socially accepted ways through a relationship i n whioh the client himself i s changed by his increasing awareness of himself. The social worker i s dependent on psy-chiatry for much of his understanding and techniques, deepseated problems are treated under the direction of a psychiatrist. The case worker works with those who come for help and beoause of the singleness of his role i s able to work much more intensively with individuals than a minister who has a more varied role i n the community. Some.Experiments i n Cooperation In some centres, the case work agencies have endeavoured to develop oooperation with the ministers i n helping to provide good counselling service for the parishioners. In New York, the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, division for the churches was established i n 1938, with a threefold function*. "To assist in.the coordination of social services under church auspices and to give guidance to clergy i n relating church social service programs and inter-ests to the programs of other social agencies i n the community. . To give asiistance to the minister, who wants i t , i n his role of counsellor to people i n trouble, as well as to aid him i n the selection of appropriate social services resources when these could be ut i l i z e d to give greater service to parishioners. To give social agencies more extensive knowledge of the f a c i l i t i e s and resources within the church, which could . be used effectively, either alone or in collaboration with the social worker, to help people i n "difficulty. " 2^ 23.- McGabe, Alice R.,"Pastoral Counseling and Case Work," The Family, Vol. xxiv, No. 7, November, 1943, p. 256 51 -At the end of five years, a study was made to discover how ministers used the, social agencies. It revealed that while one thousand churches be-longed to the federation,- only two hundred and eighty-five churches used the bureau each year. Fifty percent of the requests in the five year period were for financial help and employment, and 15 percent of the re-ferrals involved the need for some adjustment with the public welfare agency. Other referrals concerned the institutional oare of the aged, placement of children, and marital disturbances requiring-court action. In all but a few of the referrals, immediacy and aouteness of the need were striking factors. When difficulties in family relationships were involved, an almost negligible group of families were disoussed with sooial agenoies before rather marked emotional or psychological breakdown had occurred. The New York experiment does not appear to have been a happy on? . A similar study was made in St. Louis in 1945 and refleots a different approach to the problem of ministers and social workers cooperating to-gether. One staff group of the Family and Children's Servioe sought to bring about a closer relationship between itself and the ministers in the part of the city served by the district office. Meetings were arranged with five ministers serving, a deprived neighborhood, two ministers on the district committee, the chairman of the committee and a staff members. The purpose of the meetings was to team about the problems coming to the ministers and to show how the agency might help. At first the ministers felt case work was superfluous. The had confidence that they were able to judge accurately the needs of character of the people coming to them. It was most revealing to the ministers to learn of the complexity of some of these problems as seen by the case worker and to learn her method of helping. Over a period of three years the district committee planned and - 52 -carried through a number of other meetings to which all the clergy were invited. Some aspeot of agency work: care of children, of employed women, , finanoial needs of people, vocational counselling or other service was disoussed. Case material was used to make real the particular problem, policy or prooedure being discussed. Over this same period there were 71 referrals by 32 men representing 14 denominations. Twenty of the referrals were by 2-ministers who had been connected with the district committee for 2 years or longer. The 71 referrals were divided as follows: 17 were for financial assistance, 13 concerned family relationships, 7 had medical problems, 11 needed employment and vocational counselling, 9 requested planning-for children (2 of which'were requests for plaoement of i l l e g i t i -mate children and 7 were concerned with over aggressive behaviour of child-ren), 7 were for exploration of a problem whioh the ministers knew needed attention but about which they could not be specific. Interestingly enough, one-third of the referrals grew out of the discussion of other cases, ' Concurrently the oase workers asked the help of the ministersin 33' oases, • He either brought the need of the client to the generosity of the giving group, or was able to give support and encouragement to lonely and dependent people. Frequently, the minister was able to put these people in coifc act with a parishioner who was ready to give them the warm, friendly, strong interest they needed. In cases of conflict about religion, he was able to advise the case worker regarding the religious aspects of the problem. Miss Brown concludes her report: • "In general, the minister does tend to see tangible problems that can be treated in pretty matter-of-fact terms. He sees the social worker as sympathetically giving direction to specific resources and opportunities within the community. He tends to question the social worker's use of psychiatric concepts even'while seeing a need for that kind of understanding. •m 53 -. - "Workers should, however, be able to find ways of drawing i l l the clergymen i n those areas where -the combined service i s effective and acceptable to him Only as his concept and ours broaden can we hope for the increasingly greater acceptance of each other's function which w i l l result i n the larger service to the client and the community for which both groups are striving."24 This experiment seems to indicate that the approach to a cooperative rela-tionship can only be based on an understanding of each otherls function. It i s significant that the men who knew most about the work of the agency referred most cases. The d i s t r i c t committee seems an excellent way to come to understand each profession's approach to a problem, and to work out the role of each i n helping with i t s solution. Minister and social worker each have a role i n this f i e l d of counsell-ing, Neither must minimize the place of the other. Undoubtedly the theo-logical colleges w i l l provide more adequate training i n counselling; so that the minister of the future w i l l be able to help parishioners more effectively. Through exchange of information and other tokens of mutual recognition, and through common discussion, as i n the d i s t r i c t meetings, the place of each w i l l be olar i f i e d . In Toronto, the relationship between the churohes and the Neighbor-hood Workers Association i s a good example of effective cooperation. The Neighborhood Workers Association program i s organized on a d i s t r i c t basis, with offices i n a number of local centres. Dr. J , R. Mutchmorifeels that i f other parts of the social welfare organization become more decentral-ized, then local churches w i l l work more effectively with the social agencies concerned.^ 24. -Baldwin, Ruth M.,= "The Minister and the Social Worker," The Family, Vol. xxvi, June 1945, p.154 25. -Dr. Mutchmor i s the Secretary of the Board of Evangelism and Social Service i n the United Churoh of Canada. This opinion was expressed i n a letter to the author. - 54 -Social work i s not decentralized i n Vancouver, but i t i s interesting to note that one agency has a d i s t r i c t office and committee i n North Vancouver, which has been able to establish a good relationship with the churches. The ministers, as yet, do not refer people to the agency but show an interest i n i t s work and one man participates on the agency board. Problems have been referred to two of the ministers, and the ministers have cooperated very well, when helped to understand the problem and the contribution they or their churches could make in i t s solution. There i s hope on the part of the agency workers that, as .the ministers gain more confidence i n the work of the social agency and greater insight into the work i t is doing, they w i l l feel free to discuss problems with the case workers and refer some behaviour problems for treatment. This appears to be the way i n which minister and social worker w i l l learn to work together, each giving his contribution, so that the total needs of the community may best be served. I t would seem that i n the F i r s t Churoh area there i s an excellent opportunity for churches and social agencies to cooperate in serving i n d i -viduals. This i s an area of great sooial need. No person could be so bold as to suggest that one agency or church could meet a l l the needs of the people l i v i n g i n this part of the c i t y . I t would appear to be a case of helping the clients find the service which w i l l most adequately meet their need. A church whioh i s a part of the community w i l l receive many requests for assistance and for advice. The writer believes that the ohurch should have workers trained i n modern counselling methods, who are well acquainted with the services available i n the community. Such counsellors, considerate of the best interests of the olient, would know whether to refer him or to work with him i n the ohurch. This i s a highly skilled task. An opportunity for such service i s presented to the church which i s situated, as F i r s t - 55 -Church i s , i n the heart of a deteriorated area. The churoh can be like an admitting ward of a hospital, ( i f such a program were possible, a l l social agencies and the church would have to c l a r i f y their purposes and policies)* It i s also reasonable to expect that, i f the church were providing a pro-fessional counselling service, referrals would be made to them by social agencies. The churoh has an obligation to provide able counsel to those who seek help, and should mean providing people for the job who are trained i n modem counselling methods. This service to individuals i s of v i t a l importanceffl CHAPTER V THE CHURCH AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE Many calls for assistance oome to Fi r s t Church i n the course of the year. The churoh does not grant assistance to families or individuals who would normally be cared for by one of the established public or private agencies. However, assistance i s given to many transients, to the home-less, and to meet many emergency situations. The churoh seeks to meet some of the unusual problems. Clothing and furniture i s supplied through the "Welfare Industries." Transportation vouchers are granted to help people travel to a place of employment or to return home i f they become stranded i n the oity. Eaoh Christmas many families are helped through the work of the Christmas Cheer Fund, Almost 500 families and single men receive hampers or vouchers to augment their limited inoomes for the Christ-mas holiday. A l l names are cleared through the Social Service Index so that there i s no duplication with other agencies. In the past, F i r s t Church has tried to meet emergency situations to the limit of i t s resources. In the 1930's the f u l l effect of the depres-sion was f e l t on the Pacific Coast, Thousands of single men who were dis-missed from employment and various work projects drifted to the Coast, The federal, provincial and municipal governments had no adequate plan for them, i n their extremity these men bu i l t "jungles" for themselves along the water-front and at the city dump off Prior Street and Campbell Avenue, The Presbytery of Vancouver, under the direction of F i r s t Church, arranged for the men to be fed i n Fi r s t Church and at St. Andrew's-Wesley Church, and every day for many months over a thousand men a day were taken care of i n this way. The work was extended to the "jungles" themselves and each day for seven months the trucks of F i r s t Church went to the oity dump with - 57 -loads of food, to be distributed amongst the thousands of men l i v i n g there. Money and supplies poured i n and enabled the churoh to continue this work. An emergency situation was met with social assistance. One other incident w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the assistance program. During a very cold snap i n Vanoouver there was much suffering among the poor. The r e l i e f issue for fuel was |3.75 a month, whioh was an inadequate sum to maintain a f i r e i n the midst of a long cold s p e l l . Dr. Roddan appealed for five hundred sacks of coal to meet an emergency situation. The response exceeded a l l expectations, and three thousand sacks of coal were,contri-buted, by:the oitizens of Vancouver, to augment the inadequate fuel allow-ance. • During this past, winter the church has been faced with the problem of the transient unemployed and the problem of the unemployed'employables, who are not eligible for public assistance. In their hour of adversity, many look to the church for help. Others have been referred to the church by social agencies and by the City Social Servioe Department, Many of these have received grocery orders which have helped tide over the emergency. The minister and staff have- questioned the wisdom of accepting these referrals from the ci t y department,, They feel that, i f the public a s s i s t -ance people recognize legitimate cases of need, they should be able to- help rather than refer such families to the church. Unfortunately, the public agencies are bound by rules and regulations and are not free to grant assistance to any save those covered by their regulations. The F i r s t Church Staff have, a d i f f i c u l t choice: w i l l they help most by accepting referrals from a public agency or can they by their refusal help to force the public department to ohange their regulations? As governments accept responsi-b i l i t y for the unemployed, the need for assistance decreases; yet there continues to be the unusual situation not covered by general regulations. 58 The churoh w i l l , need to continue helping these people. Many families and single people receive assistance from the Welfare Industries. People applying for assistance receive an order from the ohurch which they present to the sales clerk at the Welfare Industries shop. In this way, a l l assistance i s granted through the church office, and articles donated are oharged to the social service account of the church. (The Welfare Industries are discussed later i n this chapter). Camp Fircom, First Church's Camp on Gambier Island, (see 6hapter v i i ) , i s a fresh air camp. Each year a number of families, who are not able to pay the f u l l fee, go there for a ten day holiday. It is the policy of Firs t Church to have everyone pay something towards the period i n camp. Frequently, this i s a very small contribution which i s decided i n discus-sion with the family concerned. The' balance i s charged to the camp apcount. The salaries of the staff at First Church are paid by the Board of Home Missions. A l l money raised by the congregation and contributed by the many friends of the church i s spent direotly i n the ministry of service. The social assistance work i s largely possible through the con-tributions which are received each year i n response to the Christmas Cheer and other appeals which are made to the citizens of Vancouver and the lower mainland. It is important that, i n granting assistance, consideration be given to the welfare of the individual; so that he does not become dependent through the help he receives. Under the request for material assistance may be the need for counselling services or referral to an agency for help with a more permanent plan. The Family Welfare Bureau has arned that many requests for case work services have come from families whose original contact with the agency had been through an application for assistance from the Dependents Board of Trustees. The office secretary at First Church* interviews many of the applicants for assistance. She has had some exper-ience i n a group work agency and has a keen interest i n people but i s neither a trained deaooness or social worker. Her secretarial duties are quite onerous. It might be possible to arrange that applications for assist-ance be channelled through one worker who was a trained counsellor, pre-, ferably a case-worker, who might have the liason with the sooial agencies in the community and be able to take the time necessary to help these . families i n the best manner. During the war years, five major denominations united with the New York City Mission Society i n the administration and financing of an inter-denominational religious and social service program i n the Navy Yard -.. Fort Greene area of Brjooklyn, An institutional church was established and a f u l l time staff of three members provided. These consisted of a minister,, a social worker and a director of religious education. This i s i n marked contrast to the policy i n many institutional churches, where duties are divided according to sex and age. The social worker on the ohurch staff was- responsible for community contacts, and for referring families to social agencies. This approach, within the church, increased the service to the parishioners. This social worker worked with a l l social agencies and was accepted by them. The writer has discussed the po s s i b i l i t y of such a staff relationship with the deaconess at Fi r s t Church and she feels that there i s much to commend such a rearrangement of staff responsibilities. Instead of one worker doing g i r l s ' work and another women's work each would become a specialist i n a f i e l d of service, social work or Christian educa-tion, and would be able to give more competent leadership i n the more specialized f i e l d . If such a rearrangement were possible then the social worker on the church staff could assume responsibility for administering the assistance program established by the ohurch board. - 60 -The Welfare Industries The Welfare Industries of Fi r s t United Churoh were started by the Rev. Richmond Craig during his ministry at Fi r s t Church. Under Dr. Roddan's leadership, they developed and expanded their services to the community. The Welfare Industries gather donations of clothing, furniture, bedding, stoves, etc., as well as a l l manner of salvage. Contributions are received from a l l parts of the oity and the lower mainland. In the past year the Welfare Industries..have cooperated with local churohes i n the Fraser Valley by returning to them a share of the prooeeds from any salvage they contribute. The churches have salvage drivds and assemble the material at a common point; from which F i r s t Church trucks are able to oollect i t and bring i t to the c i t y . .For many years the Welfare Industries solicited regularly from door to door but i n the past, year this has been discontinued^ and the response from the general public continues to be very good. Once oollected, the material i s taken to the warehouse and sorted. Paper, rags and other materials that are only good for salvage are bundled up and sold to the industries which can use this material. Clothing, boots and shoes, etc., are taken to the shop, and there the dressmakers, t a i l o r or shoemaker make the repairs needed to make the donated articles service-able. Furniture, stoves, etc., are taken to the workshop and repaired by tradesmen so that they w i l l be of value to those needing such articles© These goods, which are serviceable, are then offered for sale i n the stores of the Welfare Industries. The clothing and other articles offered for sale i s priced very nominally. It i s expected that the price received for the art i c l e w i l l cover the cost of repairs, collection and sale 0 How-ever, even this very nominal price is not f i n a l , and i f a family cannot pay the price asked i t may be reduced. If a person i s seeking a donation from the Welfare Industries, they must go to the church office and secure - 61 -an order. The value of the articles contributed i s then charged to the social service account of the church. Use i s made of "opportunity labor" and "test labor". Sometimes people w i l l apply to the ohurch for assistance and rather than make a grant they w i l l be offered a day's work at the Welfare. The reoeive the minimum wage for this work and are thus given an opportunity of earning the money they need for some specific purpose. This i s "opportunity labor." The church sooial service fund pays the f i r s t day's labor, but i f the Welfare should c a l l them back for a second day's work they pay the wages. "Test labor" i s often used when men or women come seeking a donation of clothing or furniture. The agency does not believe that i t i s good to make an out-right g i f t , and i n most oases they feel the client should make some contri-bution for the articles he receives. Frequently, when an application for a donation i s made the church w i l l require a period of service i n return for the desired materials. This work i s credited at the prevailing wage rates, so that i n a sense the client earns the articles he desires. The present superintendent, Mr. J. Hayward, has been with the organiz-ation since 1932 and has been superintendent since 1933. When he took charge of the work there were 12 employees earning about $70 a week. In those- depression days the wages were very low. Today there are 32 employees and the weekly wage b i l l i s approximately $700. As w i l l be mentioned later, many goodwill industries provide employment for handicapped persons but Fi r s t Church has not followed this policy. The great expansion of this work took place during the depression and the employees were recruited from people who received "opportunity labor" and others \^io came to "the ohurch seeking financial help. This staff has proved to be very loyal and Mr. Hayward has a small turnover of labor. Two employees have been with this department of the church for more than 17 years. - 62 -In 1947, thirty five thousand people were assisted through the welfare industries. Thare was a turnover of some $48,000; sale of clothing, utensils and furnishings amounted to $32,000 and the revenue from salvage sales were $15,000. More than $33,000 was paid out in wages, and the balance was spent in the purchase of a new truck, supplies and rent. It is the policy to operate retail outlets in various parts of the city. A store has been operated on Kingsway near Broadvray but had to be closed during the war. Another outlet was operated on Abbott Street near Cordova but had to be closed as the hotel proprietor required the spaoe for a restaurant. Outlets have also been operated on Richards Street. A retail store is operated at the main warehouse which has been in the old Turner Institute at Pender Street and Dunlevy Avenue« This property has been sold and the industries moved into the old Japanese'church at Powell Street and Jackson Avenue. Here the floor spaoe is hardly adequate for the work carried on, A lot was purchased in 1947 at 4th Avenue and Alberta Street, where it was proposed to build a proper warehouse. Tie re has been some difficulty about financing such a project. This venture is not underwritten by the United Church of Canada and all financial uid ertakings have been uiierwritten by the minister. Unl er Mr, Hayward's administration no subsidy has been required, as the opera-tions have covered their cost. In 1947, the Welfare Industries of First , United Churoh were incorporated under the Societies Act and a Board of five established. The property on 4th Avenue is OWZB d by this Board. This Board is composed entirely of people directly oonnected with the work of the department, the minister, the superintendent of the welfare industries, the churoh secretary and two employees of the department. Welfare industries are often criticized by a group within the church •shp would question the desirability of a church operating 3uch an enter--63 prise. These same people c r i t i c i z e any venture that i s not specifically "religious." Since this i s a servioe provided in the community, to assist the most needy economic group. The service i s to a l l , but i t represents a very tangible evidence to the community that a Protestant church cares for the welfare of less fortunate people© It is conceivable that the need w i l l disappear when the new order is ushered i n and there i s opportunity for a l l . There i s no denying that the existence of such service i s a condemnation of our social conscience, but the fact remains that last year thirty-five thousand people were assisted through this work. Mr. Hayward feels that there are two advantages in having the welfare industries sponsored by a ohurch. F i r s t , the agenoy has a status i n the community and hence i s able to work through the other churohes i n collecting materials. They have an outreach into the ci t y and surrounding municipalities which i s essential i f adequate supplies are to be obtained. The other advantage i s , that hav-ing such a ^ department te lps people outside of the church to see a specific 1 job the church i s doing. Goodwill Industries of America The Welfare Industries are a part of a network of Goodwill Industries which operate i n 93 communities i n the United States and Canada, They began i n 1902 i n the slums of Boston, where Dr, Edgar J . Helms, a Methodist minister, gave handicapped people "not charity but a chance." Eighty-five of these autonomous goodwill industries are members of the national organ-ization, Goodwill Industries of Amerioa, The program presented by that national organization is to provide jobs, job training, rehabilitation services and opportunities for personal growth for the handioapped and disabled. In the early days of the movement the economically handicapped were assisted but today they have been replaced i n most centres by persons - 64 -with physical, mental or social handicaps. "The extent to which the reconversion to an emphasis * on aid to handicapped persons has been accomplished > i s refleoted i n the fact that eighty-three percent of the persons employed by a l l Goodwill Industries at the time of their last annual reports were handi-capped people. Thirty-six percent of them suffered orthopedic, organic or health l i a b i l i t i e s . Twenty-four percent sought the help of Goodwill Industries because of age or infirmity handicaps. Mentally, emotionally or socially handicapped totaled fourteen percent of a l l employees. The blind or persons with defective vision four percent of a l l employees. The remaining five percent were men and women deaf, hard of hearing, or suffering from speech handicaps," Individuals are encouraged and helped to make the quickest possible readjustment to the demads of normal l i v i n g while they are i n the employ of a- Goodwill Industry, Some take a long time to readjust while others need only a l i t t l e assistance, a l i t t l e training, and a l i t t l e encourage-ment to achieve a triumph over their d i s a b i l i t i e s . It i s recognized that the job i s of great value i n the therapeutic treatment of disabled persons. Some who come to the Industries have never known what i t i s to earn, others have earned well up u n t i l the time of their d i s a b i l i t y , to such people the job i s the key to self-respeot, i t i s the f i r s t step i n their rehabilita-tion. The goodwill way offers these jobs by providing a varied industrial program i n each community i n whioh the Goodwill Industries ope rate, Basic i s the collection of household discards, clothing, furniture, utensils, any articles with enough usefulness l e f t to provide job opportunitues. Gleaning, renovating and repairing these discards, or preparing them for salvage, provides the jobs that bring the funds to provide wages for handioapped persons. Disposition of these products i s made through the several hundred 26.-John P, Hein, The Goodwill Way, Reprint from Journal of Rehabilitation, National Rehabilitation Association Inc., February 1947, Goodwill Institute of America Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Goodwill Industries* stores. These sales realize about 80 percent of the t o t a l income of Goodwill Industries each year. The average subsidy required i s about 20 percent of the budget of the looal industries. This provides for the non-income producing rehabilitation services which could not i n any oase be taken legitimately from the productive efforts of the handioapp-ed workers. The rehabilitation objectives of Goodwill Industries require careful attention to putting the handicapped person into a job suitable to his di s a b i l i t y , "There i s no standard pattern for placement within the local Goodwill Industries. Even where physical handi-caps are similar, physiologioal, psychological and sociological faotors vary so widely that the case study method of placement has been adopted, by most of the more progressive Goodwill Industries. Personnel coun-selling, medical examination and aptitude and many other techniques of social services are used with varying emphasis and varying effectiveness i n the looal Good- * w i l l Industries a l l over Amerioa."27 Mr. Hein continues: . "Where expert social services i n counselling, placement and rehabilitation are available through agencies i n a community other than the Goodwill Industries, such services are used. Many of the Goodwill Industries' employees i n suoh cases are referred to the Goodwill Industries plant by other agencies. There i s a cooper-ative exchange of information and services,"^ 8 The second phase of the Goodwill Industries program i s training. Through job-training men and women may learn a useful occupation and have the satisfaction of a productive experience. Training, l i k e placement, i s very much of an individual matter. Several Goodwill Industries have been pioneering i n pre-training work with severely handicapped persons. Work i s provided for homebound handicapped people — rehabilitation i s the purpose in this work, 27. - Ibid 28. - Ibid — 66 -Employment, training and rehabilitation services are three principle phases of the Goodwill way. The goal, according to Executive Secretary Oliver A, Friedman is to assist handicapped and disabled persons, "to attain the fullest physical, mental, moral, emotional, social, oultural, spiritual, vocational, and economic development of which they are capable,"^ In other words the program aims at the return of the "whole man," To attain this they seek to provide something more than a job through training and therapeutic work, ."Goodwill Industries provide opportunities for personal growth by helping even the most severely handicapped person to enjoy normal social inter-course, individual and group recreational activi-ties, self expression both on and off the job, and religious inspiration," 3 0 They oandidly recognize religion as a part of the total rehabilitation program. They encourage each person to find in the church of his own choice the moral strength and inspiration needed for daily living. These services are available to all regardless of race or creed. The national organization was reorganized in 1944 and has a statement of purpose and polioies to govern its activities. The Goodwill Industries of Amerioa work in close oooperation with the Department of Goodwill Industries of the Methodist Church, The executive in charge of both organ-izations is M r , Oliver A, Friedman, Accepted qualifications for leadership in this organization are very general and no specific prefessional training is required. It would appear that this national organization is feeling its way forward in the field of service to handicapped persons. The nation-al officers admit that there is a very wide variation in standards and services throughout the eighty-five member agencies. All, however, appear 29, -pFrom Statement of Purpose and Policies for the Organization, Operation Service and Development of Goodwill Industries (Revised April 1944) , • Part 1 - Purpose. 30, -Hein, op.oit. - 67 -to be moving towards a more professional approaoh i n their service to this group of people. F i r s t Church and Goodwill Industries The Yfelfare Industries of First United Church are not a f f i l i a t e d with the Goodwill Industries of America, The Superintendent, Mr, Hayward, keeps contact with the superintendent of the Seattle Industries and there i s a mutual exchange of information, trends, etc. First Church have not made i t a policy to use the industries as a means of serving handicapped persons. The economically handicapped have been assisted and these have tended to become regular employees. The Vancouver Agency has no subsidy of any kind and hence, must of necessity finance as economically as possible. With a loyal staff i t has been possible to make this enterprise self-supporting. Consideration might be given to re-orienting the policy of this department towards assisting handicapped persons i n their, rehabili-tation, • If suoh a policy were undertaken, a subsidy would undoubtedly be required and consideration would have to be given to a possible source of financial support. In Vancouver, there are many efforts on behalf of the handicapped and there wnuld need to be close cooperation with the council for the guidance of the handioapped to ensure that there was no duplication of services already offered i n the community. Many of the services spon-sored by the Goodwill Industries of America are already being performed by other agencies i n the city. There i s no apparent need for the Goodwill Industries to undertake a recreational policy or a counselling, service. The actual economic situation seems to be one area where they can s erve. Should the policy become one of assisting the handicappedpersons, a close liason with a l l social agencies would be necessary so that the job undertak-en by the Welfare Industries would become a part of the total services i n - 68 •-the community. There i s no doubt that at the present time there i s an efficient and loyal organization whioh would help the Welfare Industries make a forward step i n service. The Goodwill Industries emphasize the place of religion i n the total rehabilitation servcies. An industry connected with the work of an institutional church makes for & good relationship. People employed i n the industry can come to know the church workers i n such a way that they feel free to seek their help i n making a connection with the church activities. It seems an excellent indirect method of contaot. There i s no doubt that a goodwill industry attached to an institution-a l church or other recognized agency i n the community gains a status which makes i t s work easier. It would be expected that a board under church nomination-would also be certain to keep the service ideal doremost and to see that this enterprise never be a business for p r o f i t . The present policy of routing a l l donations to clients through the church office Is undoubtedly a good one. The work of the Welfare Industries becomes i n fact a part of the social assistance department of the churoh. It i s questionable whether at this stage of their development the Welfare Industries i n Vancouver could support a trained person able to interview and help those seeking assistance. It i s reasonable to suggest however, that consideration might be given to having a social worker, well aware of a l l the community services, attached to the church. In this way a l l who seek assistanoe, either through the ohurch or Welfare Industries would have a much better chance of finding the most adequate help for their total problem. CHAPTER VI THE CHURCH PROVIDES A COMMUNITY HOUSE The need for play, for recreation, for opportunities of self expres-sion and new experiences i s "basic to mankind. Those activities which a man carries on over and above his work, may be called recreational. Recognition of the value of recreation grows continually. The key, in the development of personal character and of culture, i s found in a people's use of leisure time. I t i s an art and a v i t a l part of the educa-tional process. Once i t was considered Incbnsequentiallactivity but now there i s an increasing awareness that i t i s a social foroe of tremendous consequence. Historically, organized religion has viewed recreation from more than one viewpoint. In the f i r s t place, religion claims to deal with the whole of l i f e . Hence, the churches are concerned with recreation as one phase of experience to be integrated into the good l i f e i n accordance with religious principles. In the next plaoe, people who have something i n common, whether i t be i n school, business or p o l i t i c s , wish to join i n recreation together. The same holds true for religious a f f i l i a t i o n . Recreation thus finds a place i n church l i f e , regardless of any conscious purpose i t might serve. Thirdly, leisure time activities and clubs are recognized as a means through which religious training i s expressed and integrated into daily l i v i n g , Churoh leaders plan these leisure time activities as a part of their total program. Community Centres During the recent war there was considerable discussion i n favor of the erection of useful war memorials. Many communities recognizing the - 70 -value of recreation suggested the building of a community centre as a 1 suitable memorial. Often the advocates of such a plan had a hazy concep-tion of the program which should be provided in such a centre. They did however, have an appreciation of the place of recreation in the life of -the.people. Some think of the community centre in terms of buildings, some of sports pavilions and playgrounds, some of a common hall, others' of an arts and crafts centre, and still others of friendship houses with an active club program. The writer feels that community centres should provide facilities for health, recreation, informal education, cultural participation and above all for the opportunity of group all. classes, races and groups of people. " Ideally the community centre should provide a unified base for community life. The community council, which represents all groups active in the district ani includes interested citizens, who are anxious to promote community spirit, canmost adequately provide the centre. Such councils are more active in the stable communities where the average family owns their own home and where community organizations are comparatively strong. It is interesting to note that in the Kerrisdale district of Vancouver, where several of the churches have strong recreational programs and,where numerous other cultural and recreational groups are active, a money by-law has been passed, to provide funds for the erection of the first unit in a community centre project. In areas of overcrowded housing, where living conditions are inadequate and the population is relatively mobile, there is little community spirit. Often the potential leadership is crushed down by the environment so that there is little possibility of the inhabitants providing a community centre on their own initiative. The Strathcona dis-triots is such anarea. If community centre facilities are to be provided, some group must assume the responsibility for providing them as a - 71 community service. There are many groups interested i n providing service i n transitional or slum areas. Traditionally the settlement house has sought to help the stranger., the frustrated, the, poor, and the outcast to find themselves. The story of the settlement movement i s the record of men and women of. culture going to liv e amongst the underprivileged and taking to them the opportunity of enjoying the better things of l i f e . "While the patronizing attitude has had to be guarded against, nevertheless, many of the settle-ments have succeeded to a remarkable degree i n identifying with the com-munity and become i n fact community centres. The settlement has helped people to express themselves and has encouraged wholesome recreation. These early settlements were provided by people from outside of the com-munity. Today, the settlement and the neighborhood house carry on the tradition of the pioneers and seek to provide a community house where a l l are welcome. While settlements have always tried to serve a l l residents of a d i s t r i c t , regardless of race, creed or class, they have i n the main been sponsored,by two types of organization. F i r s t , the non-sectarian group maintained by socially interested citizens of a l l creeds or none and secondly, the sectarian settlement sponsored by a religious, group. This latter type of house provides an inclusive service but usually the staff must be members of the denomination sponsoring the settlement. In Canada the settlement movement has been developed by groups representing these two traditions. It has already been noted that the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, one of the churches which helped form the united Church, maintained seven settlements. The settlement or neighborhood house can serve such areas as the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . - 72 -The Y. M. C A . and Y. W. C. A. are now developing their programs i n neighborhood branches; In meeting the needs of specific areas, they are of necessity caught i n the dilemma as to whether they ought to serve as a community centre seeking to serve the whole community, or whether they should follow their institutional pattern. I f the "Y" has a distinctive contri-bution to make, then i t would seem that they must f u l f i l l their primary purpose even at the expense of not being a l l things to a l l people. If the "Y" i s to be a Y.M.C.A., they can, at best, only serve a section of the community. . . " . The church is always found i n the needy areas of the c i t y . Amongst those li v i n g within the inner c i r c l e of the c i t y , i n the midst of ware-houses and factories, i n dilapidated, inadequate housing, often over- -crowded with several families occupying one house, -which was bu i l t for a single family dwelling, the church carries on.. Many of the city churches have institutionalized their program and provide recreational activities to meet the varied needs of their constituency. Seven days a week, the : church h a l l is busy providing a centre for the community. I t is interest-ing to note that most of the former settlements of the Presbyterian Churoh are now attached to c i t y churches and have developed as recreational centres connected with a congregation, rather than maintain their autonomy as settlements. St. Christopher House i n Toronto i s , the only remaining settlement, supported by the United Church of Canada. This settlement i s also i n receipt of a grant from the United Welfare Chest of Toronto. The Community Houses, attached to the City Missions across Canada, are really a part.of the congregational activities. They may seek to provide an inclusive program and may attract many non-members as participants. As the "Ys" have d i f f i c u l t y i n f u l f i l l i n g their purpose and concurrently providing a community centre, so the problem i s much greater for the churches. - 73 -Other groups provide some community service. The Boys' Clubs pro-vide recreational f a c i l i t i e s for boys of a l l ages. Cultural and racial groups provide clubs for their own people. In an area, such as that served by F i r s t Church, i t would seem that total recreation needs w i l l only be served i f some group or groups take the i n i t i a t i v e . Group Work The settlement, the "Y", and the churoh are a l l interested i n meeting what i s recognized as a fundamental need. Reoent years have witnessed the development of a new branch of Social Work which is concerned with working with groups of people. This i s called Social Group Work, Miss Graoe Coyle has defined social group work as "a type of educational process carried on i n voluntary groups during leisure time with the assistance of the group leader aiming at the growth and;development of the individual through group experience and the use of the group by i t s members for purposes which they consider social-l y valuable." 31 This new profession i s helping to develop community recreation so that the needs of the individual are met through his group act i v i t i e s . Once the program was the important consideration but today, with the help of modern developments i n the study of psychology, group workers are coming to a fu l l e r awareness of individual needs and a deeper understanding of human behaviour. No longer can the program be considered an aid. It i s merely the means of helping people find satisfactions and to grow as social beingso There i s a new awareness of the importance of trained leadership, so that leisure time activity i s more than busy wofck. - 74 In a l l areas of a oity, i t i s important that competent leadership be protridedf:for! the J leisure time programs. In a section, such as the Strath-cona District, where the environment i s so unfavorable, where there i s a high incidence of family breakdown, and where the changing economic condi-tions are very quickly reflected, the need for adequately trained reorea-tional leadership i s urgent. The professional group worker, with his understanding of human behaviour, and his basic belief that the person i s more important than the program, can make a valuable contribution to the leisure time activities of settlement, "YM or churoh. In skilled hands, leisure time activities oan become recreational i n the highest meaning of that word. In the Strathoona area there i s need for more group work ac t i v i t i e s . The Norrie report on recreation and group work in Greater Vancouver pointed to this d i s t r i c t as one amongst others which was i n need of new centres. I t i s important that each group participating i n a recreational program should understand Its place i n the total community and have i t s purposes clear. Working together, the several agencies interested in serving the recreational needs of the community w i l l most adequately serve the total population. Church Programs of Midweek Activities I t i s interesting to observe that the Canadian Churches have empha-sized a mid-week program as an essential part of their Christian education-a l syllabus. There has been a recognition, on the part of the leaders of 32.- Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater Vancouver, 1945, Survey Director, L. E. Norrie, Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver. the youth programs,, that the leisure time informal groups are powerful instruments for education i n living,, The Canadian Council of Churches promotes the .Trail Ranger and Tuxis program for hoys and the C.G.I.T. movement for g i r l s . Both of these, emphasize spiritual, mental, social and physical growth. They lend themselves to adaptation to meet the i n d i -vidual needs of the participants. Tuxis and C.G.I.T. are essentially democratic programs and achieve their best results where the leaders have some knowledge of the basic principles of group work. These boys and g i r l s programs are o f f i c i a l l y endorsed by the United. Church of Canada. -The boys program began in-the Y.M;C.A., about 1912. Originally i t _ consisted, of a series of tests known as the Canadian Standard Efficiency Tests which the boys were required to pass. Upon reaching a required standard, they were given a bronze medallion. In the early years of the Fi r s t World War, i n response to an expressed need for a leisure time prp-gram for boys, this movement spread from the Y.M.C.A. into the churches and .became known as the Trail Ranger and Tuxis movement. Soon groups had been organized i n a l l sections of the country. In the early years, the Y.M.C.Ac provided the paid leadership for the National and Provincial .committees.. In most cases the groups were formed from Sunday School classes and met during the week as a club group. Within the program, there i s room for variation according to the interests and. needs of the individuals i n the group. In recent years the national and provincial leadership has been weak. Without aggressive leadership at the top the program has not maintained i t s e l f as one of the more popular time a c t i v i -ties of .'teenage boys, . Simultaneous with the development of the distinctive boys' program i n the churches, the Canadian Girls in Training Movement sought to provide - 76 -a mid-week program.of informal education and recreation for teen age g i r l s e In 1915, the f i r s t national advisory committee for cooperation i n g i r l s * work was established. Through the succeeding years the g i r l s have had strong national and provincial leadership. Today the G.G.I.T. movement in Canada includes some forty thousand g i r l s i n i t s membership. The purpose of leaders in this movement has been set out i n these words: "Our task as leaders i n Christian education i s to help g i r l s grow into conscious fellowship with God leading to an awareness of responsibility to God and His world. We seek to provide within the ohurch the opportunity for gi r l s to see the Christian way of l i f e and commit themselves to i t . We believe our purposes can be achieved by the process of group participation i n a program where the g i r l learns 1. to worship 2. to study, acoording to her particular needs at each successive stage in l i f e • 3. togive herself i n service to people and causes and to be able to ' „„ 4. enter into fellowship with a l l people." The church also sponsors a young people's program which seeks to empha-size the development of a f u l l l i f e , and to help the youth of the church integrate their religious knowledge and convictions with other aspects of li v i n g . In seeking to achieve this purpose the democratic participation of the membership i s encouraged. The women's organizations i n the churches have always stressed the friendship group.. The ladies form "circles" which undertake some form of service and provide companionship. Many congregations have an active A.O.T.S. (As One That Serves) Club where the men meet together and under-take service projects on behalf of worthy causes. In one sense a l l of these club programs are a form of Christian edu-cation. They are also programs of gtoup participation. Through activities 33.- From Statement published i n Manual of Christian Education Advance. — 77 and group interaction the youth of the church might learn to integrate their understanding of religious and ethical teaching into daily l i v i n g . These clubs vary i n quality. Some are rigid i n seeking to follow a set program, others are f l u i d and seek to follow interests and meet the needs of the group members. The churches i n Canada have taken a leading part in the development of leisure time activities for their members. I t would seem that i f they are to maintain the leading role they have earned that they must avail themselves of the s k i l l s and knowledge found i n this new branch of sooial work which i s so v i t a l l y interested i n group activity. With leaders trained i n social group work, these programs have unlimited possi-b i l i t i e s as aotive forces for self-development. Fir s t Church's. Club Program For many years, Fi r s t Church has sought to provide a program of club activites. Subsequent to the closing of the Community House on Georgia Street, the club work was transferred to the church at Gore Avenue and Hastings Street. Here the clubs were organized i n accordance with the• general program of the United Church for midweek club work. The G.I.G.T. program, was introduced and a boys program was developed which included religious instruction and recreation. This program did not follow the Trail Ranger e r Tuxis movement but was bu i l t around the personality of the volunteer boys' worker, who had an unusual a b i l i t y to attract boys.. By modern group work standards the boys activities could be severely ori t i c i z e d . However, i t should be noted that through this program almost one hundred-boys participated, each year, i n the many projects sponsored by the boys' leader and teams were entered i n a l l divisions of the Sunday School Athlet-i c Association, In August of 1947, the boys' leader resigned and during the past winter the boys program has been vir t u a l l y non-existent. The Young People have always followed the o f f i c i a l church program and p a r t i c i -pated i n the many activites sponsored by the Vanoouver Presbytery Young People* s Union,, During the latter years of the 1930's, there was an average attendance of sisty-five g i r l s at the C.G.I.T, meetings. The g i r l s were organized i n a department with the professional g i r l s ' worker as Superintendent. This large department was divided into small groups of eight to ten members with a volunteer leader i n charge of each group. Each of these sections had i t s own president and other officers, there was a departmental president and secretary and these together with the officers of the groups formed the executive of the C.G.I.T. They worked with the leaders i n planning pro-gram. Departmental projeots were undertaken and the smaller groups also had individual projects. During the war years, the attendance of the g i r l s f e l l and the present workers have not been able to reverse the trend. In those years i t was easy for teenagers to secure employment, and as they went to work the g i r l s drifted away from the clubs. At this c r i t i c a l time, there were changes in volunteer and professional leadership, and this was a contributing factor to the declining attendance. This past year there have been two small C.G.I.T, groups with a total enrollment of not more than twenty g i r l s The explorer program was organized for the nine to eleven year old group. They met for a time at the church and later at the Kindergarten House on Georgia Street, The attendance increased considerably when the meetings were moved to the latter location. There are a few g i r l s meet-ing at the Community House i n an explorer group. The youth program has been democratically organized and the young people determined their own program, A student from Union Theological College has usually been attabhed to the club as counsellor or group 3e ader. r. 79 -This has been a small club for many years. Unfortunately, the boys' work-er did not encourage the boys tp participate i n the young people's program and this hampered the coordinated development of the youth a c t i v i t i e s . During the war years, this group diminished i n size and has not functioned during the past winter. . . . . One problem, which has increasingly worried workers at F i r s t Church, i s that of the distances members of the group have to travel to attend meetings. As the population of this central d i s t r i c t is constantly chang-ing, so i t seems that boys and girls and young people are traveling greater distances to the church. A former g i r l s ' worker has hazarded a guess of the distances the g i r l s , attending clubs at First Church i n 1940, lived from the church building. She intimates that 5 percent lived within two or three blocks, 25-30 percent within 6 to 10 blocks, the largest per-centage SO percent or more lived i n the Tempieton School d i s t r i c t , Grand-view and about 15 blocks east of the church on East Hastings Street.and north towards the waterfront, about 10 percent came twenty-five blocks or more, and the remaining 5-10 peroent lived i n the Main Street d i s t r i c t between Third Avenue and Broadway. About half of, the children participat-ing i n the younger clubs, were from other denominations or unchurched families.. Unfortunately, there are no comparable figures available for the boys program. The Young People's Society was a small group for many years, and drew i t s membership, from a l l parts of the city. At the time the writer was connected with this group, half of the young people lived i n the area east of the ohurch; very few lived within easy walking distance. The deaconess and children's worker have provided the addresses of families, known to them as being, active i n one of the clubs, i n the -church. A very small number of families l i v e within the Strathcona area, , - 80 -or north of Hastings Street between Main Street and Glen Drive.. The prob-lem of meeting the needs of the people, l i v i n g adjacent to the church, i s occupying the minds of the staff. Community House Following the dispersal of the Japanese people, First Churoh took over the former Japanese Mission and reopened i t as a community house. The kindergarten, which had been meeting i n the Seymour School d i s t r i c t , was moved into the rs w oentre and the clubs, which had formerly used the ohurch h a l l , moved to the community house. The Board of Home Missions provided a small budget ($2500) to meet the expenses of taxes and maintenance. Aside from a grant of $200 for a part time student, there was no provision for an addition to the staff of First United Church. The present program at the community house includes the kindergarten, which meets five mornings a week and has an average attendance of 26 children. The Strathoona Day Nursery, operated by the Alexandra Community Acti v i t i e s , met i n the community house u n t i l recently. During the past winter, there was no boys' program active i n the house. C.G.I.T. and explorers met regu-l a r l y but the attendance was small. One of the Mother's Clubs, led by the deaconess has met i n the community house regularly. These few activities sum up the regulafc program of the house. F a c i l i t i e s here are comparatively good. There i s an excellent gymnas-ium and a number of small rooms suitable for games and olub rooms. Adjacent to the house i s Powell Street Grounds, which provide ample playing space for athletic activity. There i s no lounge or common room where people might come for the sake of companionship. The functions of the neighbor-hood house or community centre are not performed by this centre. I t i s understandable that with the present staff i t would not be possible to pro-• a real community house program. Such a project would involve a .- 81 ~ considerably higher bidget then the present $2500. It has already been observed that the Ndrrie report showed, the need for more recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n this area. I t would seem that Fi r s t Churoh must consider whether i t has a responsibility to meet that need, at least i n part. The name community house i s misleading. Are these f a c i l i t i e s . t o be used for the.mid-week program of the church, i n the same way as any church ha l l i s used, or should the church provide a wider service to the community? In seeking an answer to this question, i t i s well for the church to consider carefully i t s relationship to the neighborhood house movement and to the community centre movement. The Christian Neighborhood House In deciding the future of the Community House, the church must consider the future role of the Christian Neighborhood House i n an area such as that served by First Church. Consideration must also be given possible relation-ships between the church and the community centre - should one be establish-ed i n the community. The Board of. National Missions, the Presbyterian Church i n the U.S.A._ is responsible for the administration of a number of Christian Neighbor-hood Houses. A survey of the work performed by these houses was made in ;1943 by the rev. K. D. Miller of the Mission City Society of New York. This report i s an excellent study of the place of the Christian Neighbor- . hood House i n the community. Dr. Miller points out that the neighborhood house maintains a seven day a week program of friendly service to the people of the community. In common with a l l neighborhood houses, many of the activities of the house are of a recreational, educational or social service nature. Throughout a l l of these activities i s implied a deep religious purpose. Dr. Mi l l e r comments: - 82 -"Not a l l of the neighborhood houses have a regu-l a r l y organized ohurch, but a l l of them give a central place to religious education and worship. Although the approach i s informal and unconven-tional, the neighborhood house i s the church reach-ing out i n a ministry of understanding, sympathetic understanding and love. I t may emphasize services rendered rather than services held, but i t i s never-theless the church standing i n the midst of our neediest humanity as one who serveth." ** In the opening decades of this century, when cities and industrial centres were being flooded with immigrants from south-east Europe, the neighborhood house as a home mission agency came into being i n the United States. I t was born of a desire to serve these people i n the name and s p i r i t of Christ. Through the years, one of the chief values of the neighborhood house movement has been i t s freedom from traditional re-straints and eoclesiastical red tape, and i t s a b i l i t y to adapt i t s e l f quickly to new conditions. These houses are for the most part located i n crowded and deteriorated residential d i s t r i c t s . They are i n a strategic position to render outstanding service to their constituents, the church and the nation. In the f i r s t place the neighborhood house has a chance to identify i t s e l f with the people i t serves. People without resources fe e l most keenly the need for constructive social change. Yet they feel unable to express -themselves adequately. There are those who *ould li k e to exploit these people for selfish ends; there are those who would continue to make paupers of the poor by their g i f t s ; and there are others who de-plore the lack of community amongst_these people but make no constructive effort to help them. The Neighborhood House and especially a Christian Neighborhood House has an opportunity of identifying with these people, 34,- Kenneth D.'Miller, She Christian Neighborhood House, Board of Nation-al Missions, Presbyterian Church i n U.S.A. New York", 1943 page 5. helping them to become vocal about their own interests and concerns, assist-ing them to express themselves and help them to discover themselves and a pride i n their own achievement. In a word, the neighborhood house worker has an opportunity to teach the real patterns of dempprary by accepting people as individuals, asking nothing of them, but ready to give to them a helpinghhand i n discovering democracy at work i n their own neighborhood. Secondly, the neighborhood house workers have an opportunity of going out into the neighborhood and performing institutionally unselfish leadership. If the neighborhood house has a genuine desire to serve the area i n which i t i s located, there are any number of community projects for which i t might supply the leadership. The neighborhood house requires a large budget and this must be secured either from mission boards or community chest funds. Most neighborhood houses, being located i n the inner city or i n one of the transitional areas of the city, have a constituency of working people who have a marginal i n -come. This fact, coupled with the transiency of such areas, makes i t imp-erative that i f these agencies are to be maintained that they be supported by outside funds. The returns i n the form of added church members or ad-herents are rather meagre. I t i s not surprising that many attack expendi-tures of large sums i n predominantly Jewish and Roman Catholic areas when opportunities are presenting themsdlves i n newer communities for work amongst Protestants. . After studying the situation facing the presbyterian Church i n the U.S.A., Dr. Miller recommended: "As some radical adjustments i n the neighborhood house program are equally called for. But anyone who knows these areas of our cit i e s must say that the situation here calls not for less work of the sort carried on by neighborhood houses, but more. , - 84 -"This i s not to say that more neighborhood houses as such should be started or even that th the present neighborhood houses should have their programs and budgets enlarged. But there,are many churches situated i n these areas which should introduce the neighborhood house type of program; namely a seven day program of services, designed to meet the most urgent needs of the community in the name and i n the s p i r i t of the Christ. The neighborhood houses came into being beoause of the failure of the conven-tional churches to minister to the foreign col-onies of our c i t i e s . Now that the colonies are no longer foreign, a church which happens to be favorably situated as to location and plant, has a much better opportunity to serve the community effectively, than was true a generation ago. However, However, such a church cannot be effective i f , in i t s program and i n i t s conception of i t s mission, i t remains stereotyped and convential. But a sufficient number of ohurches are carrying on an effective program i n downtown deteriorated and foreign communities to assure us that given the right leadership, a moderate budget, and a broad-gauged and libe r a l o f f i c i a l board, a churoh can be as effective as a neighborhood house i n such a community." 35 Seven-Days-a-Week Churoh Recreation Program Dr. M i l l e r 1 s conclusions seem to favor the institutional church pro-gram as distinct from the neighborhood house supported by a denomination. The difference between these two programs has already been noted, the former i s basically a church and the latter i s basically a social agency. In giv-ing consideration to the development of community work, the church should be conscious of the,difference i n function between these organizations. As Dr. Miller has pointed out - given good leadership and a moderate budget, churches can do an effective piece of work. They can provide a social centre for the community. I t may be that the time has come for the churches to withdraw from the Neighborhood House work. Perhaps this should be carried on by the non-sectarian social agency financed by Community Chest or other community funds. The church hovvever has a responsibility for the 35.- Ibid - p. 5 - 85 -recreation <3f the community, and must see that in areas of need that ade-quate wholesome and constructive recreation i s available. The reports of the Canadian Youth Commission show that many young people look to the churches as one of the main recreational centres. The needs of this group can be served effectively i n a seven day a week program. The convential church program i s Ineffective i n meeting many groups. Mr. Don F. Pielstiok, of the Home Missions Council of North American, reviewed the efforts of churches to minister to the mobile war worker. In his report,, he deplored the fact that many churches were unable to adapt themselves to the needs of the immigrants and put this down to the need for the personal touch. "(A) secondary group relationship has not proved dynamic enough to reach the lonely .stranger i n a hurried, restless community of war workers. Churoh after church printed posters, leaflets, established a welcome desk, or ran newspaper advertisements. In no place where this was the only approach do I know of a rewarding response. But report after report has come i n where friend-ship was established with the awcomers, a club grew up and i n this pe rsonal relationship church contacts were made." 36 . . If the United Church i s to reach out to meet the people of -the Strath-cona Di s t r i c t , serious consideration should be given to a program which provides opportunities for friendship and group activity. It i s recognized that to extend the service of the Community House would involve a consider-able 'expenditure, yet the fact remains that the conventional church services are not reaching the residents as one would l i k e . In his studies of urban churches, Dr. Paull Douglass has emphasized that the successful church adapts i t s program to meet the peculiar needs of i t s environment. Under present circumstances, the church seems oalled to do more in the Community House. 36,- Don F. Pielstiok, Wartime Facts and Peacetime Responsibilities p. 4 (mimeographed report). - 86 -Churoh and Community Centre Everyone should keep olearly i n mind that a Community House i s not a community centre. The present community house might perform many of the functions of a community centre, yet i t i s fundamentally a Church recrea-tional centre. I t i s an institution provided by one group i n the oom-munity, and i t s ideals and purposes are stated in relation to the philoso-phy which guides a l l the activities of that group. The community centre growsn out of the looal Community Council or Association and ideally should include a l l groups within the community, Itshould provide f a c i l i -ties for each group and also be the common meeting place for the sharing of differences, i n order that the understanding of each other's point of view might increase. Here a l l people of a l l races and creeds may come together in a common purpose. Should a community centre be erected i n the Fi r s t Church area, the church would have to give careful consideration to i t s relationship to the centre. The Community Centre movement i s more advanced i n Great Britain than i t i s on this continent and there the churches have had to face up to their responsibility i n the establishment of community centres. The Nation-al Council of ;Social Service has published a report which suggests the possible relationships which may be followed in any community. This report is of particular importance as i t has the commendation of the Archbishop of' Canterbury, the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, the Moderator of the Free Church Federal Council and the Deputy for the Chief Rabbi, The second part of the pamphlet i s of particular interest. I t reviews the historic part played by the churches in the development of the social l i f e of the' oommunity and emphasizes that, because of this tradition, i t i s d i f f i c u l t for them to stand aside from the community centre movement. The report makes clear the principles on which their interest i n the matter rests: - 87 -"Christians and Jews are required on the one hand to embody their own understanding of human personality in appropriate forms of community l i f e , and on the other hand to see that, as far as they can help i t , the general character of the community l i f e of the world as a whole i s not adverse to the best interests of personality The endeavour to live in right re-lationships with other people i n every human activity i s , for them, an essential part of religion.". 3? The authors of this brief suggest therefore, that the churches have a responsibility to their own members to give them regular occasions for meeting and acting together for social a c t i v i t i e s . " They continue: "However good the moral character of the wider environ-ment, the churches w i l l need to see that their young people spend part of their leisure in an environment where behaviour are not only practised but are directly related to their ultimate source i n God." 3 8 This brief emphasizes, that beyond this interest in the group ac t i v i t i e of their own members, the churches more than any other community institution are bound to identify themselves w i t h t h e l i f e of the community i n , i t s many phases and try to see that every important human need i s met. The Canadian churches and especially the United Church of Canada have accepted this premise. The Trail Ranger, Tuxis and C.G.I.T. programs are designed primarily to provide a protected group experience for-boys and g i r l s , so that i n leisure time groups they might learn to integrate their religious philosophy into daily l i v i n g . Beyond this, the churches have accepted a measure of responsibility for the welfare of the community. Their interest i n social problems i s one expression, The s p i r i t which gave rise to the Church Settlements i s another expression of this same interest i n community welfare. The United Church in' planning their work i n Vancouver 37. - The Churches Part i n the Provision of New Centres of Community Life, National Council of Social Service, 26 Bedford Square, London, W.C.I, July 1947 - page 5 38. - Ibid - p.5 .- 88 -must keep this distinction clear. They have a -responsibility to provide groups which will help-their people integrate religion and l i f e , and they have a responsibility for the total tecreational needs of the districts in which they work. While both, i f they are to be of a high standard, will follow the basic principles of group work, the former must be consideredd as a part of the church's educational program, while the latter must be regarded as a community service. It is always good for community groups to determine their purposes clearly, then they will be better able to see their place in the total community. For the sake of a l l , the churches have to insist upon man's need to obey the moral law. Each in its own way seeks to bring man into a vital relationship with God, Each feels a responsibility to speak for God in the community and to act in His name in community service. This is a responsibility which no other bodies can share with them. They f u l f i l l i t in part by their teaching and vrorship, and in part by their traditional leadership in the life of the nation and of every community within the nation. Likewise the community associations or Community Centres have an essential service to perform, At one time the church was the community centre. Modem society is a complex sooial organism with many groups active in the community, No one church, or group of churches, is acceptable as the obvious centre of all the diverse elements in the oommunity. Under such circumstances, the only way of achieving the sense of freedom and equal association is by setting up some common centre by mutual consent. The British pamphlet wisely suggests: "The basis for free association is lost unless all feel that they have as good a right to be there and to determine what goes on there as any of the neigh-bors When the common centre cannot be donimated at the outset by a religious view of life .(the churches) must accept i t and do what they can to gain currency for such a view i n the give and take of free association," 39 The community association performs a function i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the free association of a l l groups within the community. It i s desirable that people should meet with their neighbors, • no matter what may be their respective identities or differences, under circumstances which require a l l to treat one another as equals, and on a variety of matters to strive to come to a common mind. No community association can help people do thi s . Through such participation democracy i s practised i n the community. The churoh cannot f u l f i l l the function of a community association. It can, participate i n the community association and through the give and take of democracy make i t s influence f e l t i n the larger community. Ideally, the churches and the community centre associations should be al l i e s i n the provision of services to the community. Through misunder-standing or selfishness on either side, they can f a i l to aohieve this partnership. The churches may not be ready to let any other body f i l l a role they once f i l l e d , or they may be so wrapped up i n their own plans that they do not see the opportunities presented in the community centre move-ment. The Community Associations 1through suspicion of the churches, or by f a i l i n g to allow the churches1 representatives to p u l l their weight i n the common councils, or because they f a i l to consider the interests and conven-ience of the churches i n their common planning, may frustrate the churches i n theifc desire to participate i n the community association. A basic principle of the community centre i s that i t should supplement and not supersede or interfere with the f u l l exercise of the distinctive functions of other bodies. The churches need to be free to judge the extent to which they w i l l use the common centre, but they are bound to admit i n 3 9 , - The Churches Part in the Provision of New Centres of"Community Life, National Council of Sac i a l Service, London, 1947 pp 6 & 7. - 90 -principle the v a l i d i t y of the ideals of the community center. It i s up to both to decide whether they w i l l cooperate to make the community centre l i v e . • > First Churoh and Recreation The First United Church i s located i n one of the deteriorated areas of the city, one i n which there i s great need for wholesome recreational out-le t s . The reports of the Urban Problems Commission of the United Churoh and of the Canadian Youth Commission indicate a conviction that the church has a responsibility for providing community reoreation. The United Church has accepted the need for group activity as an essential part of their program, and through the work of the institutional churches has shown some recognition of the need for providing reoreation and group activity as a community service. In the Strathcona area, First Church Community House might enlarge i t s program and become a neighborhood house. This would involve considerable expense and necessitate a large budget. The emphasis would be of necessity be on the total community, through such a program the United Church would stretch out the hand of friendship to a l l . This program would involve the establishment of a social agency and the minimizing of the church emphasis i n the program. It has been noted that Dr.. Miller i n his study of the Neighborhood Houses of the Presbyterian Church did not encourage such a policy, but suggested that churches should provide a seven-days-a-week program of recreation. Sheuld the Community House provide such a program the emphasis would be as a trhurch reaching out "to serve. The type of activity would be very similar to that of the neigh-borhood house but the focus would be different, being a church recreation program rather than a social agency. In a l l probability such a program would make a less general appeal, but through group activity the church would serve the community, and by keeping i t s purposes clear would be free - 91 - -to promote a more (distinctive program; than;if - i t attempted, to-be- the- com-munity centre. The writer believes that Fi r s t United Church should pursue this latter policy and offer a recreational program offered as a part of the total service of the church to the community. A Protestant Church cannot expect to become the community centre i n this area, but i t i s possible for i t to provide real leadership as one agency working for the community. In developing program care must ve' taken to see that there i s no competition but that the various churches and agencies offering service complement eaoh other, so that there is the maximum service to the people. Should such a plan be followed, i t i s important that the church i n s i s t on a high quality of leadership. Consideration should be given to the appoint-ment of a director who i s trained i n social group -work. Of a l l agencies working with men and women, the churoh should be concerned with presenting a qualitative program which enables people to grow and learn to work and play together. Under existing circumstances there seems l i t t l e liklihoo'd of a commun-i t y association developing'in the Strathcona area. Such districts tend to lose their potential leaders and the deteriorated and oveccrowded housing conditions depress the inhabitants so that there i s l i t t l e evidence of community feeling. I t would appa ar that, so long as present housing condi-tions exist, the neighborhood w i l l have- to depend on agencies and organiza-tions to provide many-of the functions of the community centrel However, should there be a rehousing project, which i s the central purpose of the Demoistration Housing Survey of 1947 and i t s forthcoming report, First United Church would have to reconsider their recreational program and Community House policy. I t i s possible that i n such an event the church would only wish to retain those groups and clubs which are an integral part of their Christian - 92 -eduoation program, and would be ready to contribute leadership to the community centre to which many of the activities of the Community House might be transferred. Such a policy would require a high calibre of leadership, and i t would c a l l for statesmanship i n both churoh and com-munity centre. Mr. L. E. White has written i n Tenement Tougn, the record of an experiment i n community liv i n g in a British housing estate, of his efforts to develop both a community centre and a church. Out of the efforts of Mr. White an Eis colleagues a distinctive place was discovered for each i n the community. As members of the same team began to develop each organization, they learned the importance of joint planning; they also came to understand the advantages to both community centre and church when the leadership of each participated i n the work of the other. The need for recreation i s basic. F i r s t United Church has had a tradi-tion of community service i n this f i e l d . There appears to be a continuing need. Perhaps other agencies w i l l come to do the more general job, but so long as the c hurch i s concerned with human relationships i t w i l l have a legitimate place i n this f i e l d of work. Two opportunities seem to present themselves to the church, the f i r s t i s the provision of a seven-days-a-week program of leisrue time activities; the second i s to develop a program of friendship groups, under strong professional leadership. I f i t follows out these opportunities First Church can meet a very real need i n the East End of Vancouver. Chapter SII OTHER COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Camping can be one of the most creative experiences in the life of a boy or girl. Living together amidst the beauties of nature, participating in a wide variety of activities, learning the give and take of group experience, young people discover the art of living to-gether. As a part of their ministry of service, First Church operate Camp Fircom. Facilities This camp is situated at Fircom Point on Gambier Island, where the church owns a campsite of fifty acres. This property fronts on almost half a mile of waterfront and contains three beaches. There is no community adjacent to the camp, and at the present time campers have hundreds of acres in which to hike and play. A Roman Catholic group have purchased property west of Camp Fircom and plan to develop a campsite. Should this or other developments proceed, there does not appear to be any danger that Camp Fircom will be crowded for play space. The long stretch of waterfront provides adequate swimming and bathing facilities, and there is an abundance of vacant land to the north of the campsite through which the boys and girls and adults may hike and pursue other camp activities. This campsite was acquired in 1921 and has been used each succeed-ing summer as a fresh air camp for mothers and children, and boys and girls. The beginnings of this camp were very humble but through the years there has been a consistent effort to improve the facilities until today i t is one of the best equipped camps in British Columbia. During - 9k -the golden jubilee year of First Church, Br. Roddan spent much time in organizing the equipment at Camp Fircom. Through the generosity of Vancouver business men, materials were provided for the erection of a new dining room and assembly hall at the camp. Largely through the volunteer services of carpenters and other interested people, the present dining hall vas erected. There is a fine fireplace, of ELphin-stone granite, in the dining hall. The kitchen is well planned and provides adequate washing and cooking facilities in a room that is bright and easy to keep clean. The basement contains storage rooms and sleeping accommodation for the staff. Previous to the erection of this dining hall, cabins had been'provided for the campers. Today, Camp Fircom is a well equipped camp. Adequate water supplies are provided through a series of wells. A diesel electric light plant has been installed, providing light in the campers' cabins, the dining hall and kitchen. The kitchen is well equipped with two large camp stoves, an electric mixer, sinks and storage rooms. There are eight campers' cabins, a cottage built especially for the use of older women attending camp with the mothers' parties, a leaders1 cabin and a cabin for the director. A small hospital is provided as a sick bay. Adjacent to the camp proper is a cottage, for the use of the minister, and a log cabin, which is used during the season as a visitors' cabin and during the winter as the home of the caretaker. The camp owns row-boats, which are provided.for the use of campers and has two power boats, which are used as camp tenders. There is a good playing field adequate for all types of field sports. The space in front of the dining hall is planted in lawn and serves as a courtyard around miiich. the campers' cabins are spaced. Each cabin accommodates twelve people. Considera-tion might be given to providing more cabins for campers so that the number sleeping in each would be reduced. This would provide more air space per camper, and a smaller group in each cabin would probably form a more satisfactory unit. There has also been a suggestion that the cabins might be moved so as to provide more space between each cabin. There is much to commend this suggestion. The campers using this facility often live in overcrowded conditions at home and here where there is an abundance of space i t would be good to allow them to feel the satisfaction of having ample living space. There is no question but that this camp enjoys a very scenic location. The outdoor chapel looks out over the water towards Bowen Island and provides a beautiful setting for worship. There are numerous places provided on the camp property for people to sit and enjoy the beauty of nature. Many visitors have commented on the peace which they find amidst such surroundings. Camp Fircom is not a port of call for any of the public trans-portation systems. Campers are transported to and from camp by chartered boats. The camp tender makes a daily trip to Horseshoe Bay (about forty minutes travel from camp) for perishable supplies and mail. It has been felt that the camp was better without a public wharf as through the present arrangements the camp remains a private resort and there is no problem of unexpected visitors, etc. - 9 6 -Program Camp Fircom operates during July and August each year. One hundred campers can be accommodated in one party, and in the average year almost six hundred mothers and children enjoy a ten day holiday on Gambier Island. Parties for mothers and children, for senior girls, senior boys, junior girls and junior boys make up the six groups attend-ing during a season. The minister has been superintendent of the camp, and each party has been in charge of the church worker responsible for working with the same age group or sex in the winter program of the church. The deaconess has charge of the mothers and children, the girls' worker and boys' worker are each in charge of their respective camp groups. Program varies with the individual director. Worship, handi-crafts, games, swimming, and campfires have been the foundation upon which the activities have been built. The church has always emphasized the need for adequate. and satis-fying meals, and provision for the physical comfort and safety of the campers. It has been reported that this camp has one of the most thorough waterfront safety programs of any camp operating in the Vancouver area. There are no records of the program activities of the camps and as the writer has not had the privilege' of visiting Camp Fircom while campers were in session he does not feel competent ±o discuss program activities. First Church is fortunate in the location and facilities available at camp: this provides a tremendous opportunity for building a program which vail do more than provide a good time for ten days. The mass approach to camping has disappeared: the camp of high standards seeks to understand the individual camper and to give all campers an opportunity - 9 7 -of living in concrenial eroims. °amping is more than giving city young-sters a chance to spend a week or ten days in the country — i t seeks to help individuals through a group experience to become socialized. The modern camp has a fourfold objective. First, the camp is concerned with the health of the camper and with his education for health. Good health habits are encouraged. Physical skills are developed and emphasis is given to building the health of the camper so that he is better able to resist fatigue and disease. Safety education is stressed. On land, he learns to take proper precautions with axes, knives j etc., to bs careful in the use of water from unknown streams and to adequately care for his own health. In the water, life saving instruction is emphasized and campers are instructed in the use of small boats. Health and education for health are emphasized. The modern camp is concerned, in the second place, with education for leisure. Efforts are made to develop interest and skill in activities that campers may participate in on the adult level. It is important to develop within the camper resources for active self-propelled leisure , time enterprises and to stimulate the creative expression of the campers. Another objective of modern camping is to seek to make a contribu-tion to the personality and social adjustment of the camper. It should provide experiences that make'for "whole" living. It is known that the needs for social acceptance, for a new experience, for security and a sense of belonging are fundamental to all people. Camp can help to satisfy these needs. It can help people to grow emotionally, andean provide an opportun-ity for the practice of desirable habits of social participation — unself-ishness, cooperation, etc. The individual and his need must be written large in the program of the camp. - 9 8 -Finally, the camp.must be a centre of education for community living. It may be a laboratory for practice in democratic living. All camps can encourage the development of a philosophy of life based upon the recognition of the supreme worth of persons and on ideals of social responsibility. The degree, to which this fourfold objective will be realized, depends on the skill of the program leadership. It is commonly recog-nized that, under highly skilled leadership, more can be achieved in tend ays at camp than in a season of weekly contacts. Social group work provides people with knowledge of personality and of human needs, and with the techniques which can build the most vital program to meet the individual needs of the campers. The camp setting provides the group worker with his greatest opportunity for effective work. Because of the vital importance of the camp experience, many groups have developed camping programs. Here in the Vancouver area, trade union groups, the "Y's", the Alexandra Community Activities, and virtually all of the religious groups have developed camping programs. Standards vary from camp to camp but all recognize the opportunity presented through the camp experience. There is a place for a variety of camps. The church camps f i l l a very important place in providing a recreational and educational experi-ence for their young people, there there is trained leadership, group work techniques are followed. The church camps emphasize Bible Study and worship. There is a place for a less intensely religious program in camping. The "Y" camps.provide a wholesome group experience, which includes regular chapel periods but has not the intense religious educa-- 99 -tion program of the churches. The fresh air camps have a different clientele from either of these two types of camp (even though the fresh air camp might be, operated by a church, as is the case with Camp Fircom). The program of such a camp must be built around the needs of the campers, meeting them where they are in their social and religious development. Under skillful leadership, such a program will help people to understand and experience richer living. A church fresh air camp presents an opportunity, to d evelop program based on the highest social work standards plus the insights of a positive religious conviction., This is the opportunity presented to First Church. Finance The First United Church Fresh Air Camp entered the Welfare Federa--tion of Vancouver in 1931, the year after Dr. Roddan began his ministry in Vancouver. They have continued through the succeeding years to receive a grant from the Community Chest. The camp is financed through this grant, donations from the interested friends and camp fees. It is interesting to note that the grant from the Community Chest has declined since 1937, while the total camp budget has increased. The grant for I9k& was only #877 as compared with $2,lt02 in 1936. This is due in part to the fact that the church has reduced their request for assistance from the community fund. In the same ten year period the amount collected in camp fees has almost tripled. This is due in large part to the changed economic conditions caused by the war and post-war employment conditions. In I936, only a little mors than 20 per cent of the camp budget was met through fees but ten years later more than k3 per cent of the budget was provided through fees paid by the campers. Donations continue to provide - 100 -a large portion of the budget. First Church reported a total expenditure of $6,1*21 in I9I46. The Community Chest grant only provided for about 13.5 per cent of the camp costs. First United Church Fresh Air Camp is ready to serve the whole community. They have a very generous intake policy. A small percentage of the campers are members of the church, the balance come from other churches or are referred by social agencies or make personal application to the church office. Financial arrangements are worked out with each applicant according to his ability to pay. In so far as possible, they desire to take those most needing a rest or camp experience. Mr. Norrie, in his survey of Group Work and Recreation in Greater Vancouver, prepared a table showing the distribution of campers of four chest-supported agencies. (Adults and pre-school children were omitted from the table, hence the First Church figures are not completely accurate). It is interesting to observe that campers attended Camp Fircom from all but 1*0 two of the city's twenty census areas. These two represent West Point Grey and the district south of Forty-First Avenue between Granville and Camosun Streets, i t is hardly to be expected that families from this part of the city would be represented at a Fresh Air Camp. Census area three has the highest number of campers attending Fircom. As this is a community service provided by First Church, it would seem reasonable to expect that the Community Chest should provide a larger portion of the 1*0. Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater Vancouver, 1?I*5, published by the Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver. P. E. Norrie, Director, p. 3JL4.. - 101 -camp budget. This is not a sectarian service, though First Church keeps foremost the desire to help people use the camp period for inspiration as well as physical recreation. Camping is an accepted part of church programs and the fresh air camp is a part of the city mission work of the United Church of Canada in all the major centres of population. Camping will continue to be a major enterprise of First Church. With adequate budget, the splendid facilities of Camp Fircom, and a strong progressive program policy, this phase of the work can make a very positive contribution to the recreational services offered in the community. SOCIAL ACTION Throughout the years, First Church has been in the vanguard in the fight for social justice. The ministers of this congregation have been men with a dominating personality and they have never hesitated to turn their efforts towards crusading for a cause in which they believed. Throughout his ministry at First Church Dr. Roddan campaigned "in season and out" against the ravages of the liquor trade. In the lane behind the church it is a common sight to see disfigured, unkept men and women drinking "canned heat"; in the immediate vicinity of the church one sees evidence of the terrible toll taken through excessive drinking; these and other similar problems weighed heavily on his mind and he took a leading part in seeking to a rouse public opinion against such conditions. The story of First Church's service to the men of the jungles has been told in the chapter on social assistance. A heroic effort was made to provide food for these unemployed men but the effort did not stop there. First Church, through its minister, labored to arouse the public conscience so that more adequate provision was provided for their maintenance. - 102 -Dr. Roddan performed many services of which none but his most intimate friends know. He tells of one service which was quietly but effectively performed: "One day a group of Orientals came to see me. The Provincial Government of the day had decreed that under the new relief laws no Oriental was to be assisted. What were they to do? There was no work; they had families to feed. They had been born in British Columbia. Naturally, they felt this was discrimination of the meanest kind. It happened that the Canadian Minister to the Orient was at the Hotel Vancouver. I called him and told him the story. He made a trip to Victoria and when he returned the law was changed and the Orientals were allowed relief. " JUl The church has a place in the field of social action. There are some who would restrict the activities of the church and would make an artificial distinction between things religious and things secular. The modern churchman cannot accept such a distinction: life is a unity. In his report to the annual meeting of the Board of Evangelism and Social Service of the United Church of Canada for the year 19U6, the Secretary, Dr. J. R. Mutchmor wrote: "... .Whatever views the United Church may hold, and some are quite divergent, no sane believer will contend that any major issue ~ moral or social — can be by-passed." lj.2 . . This has been the policy of this board of the church and according to his understanding of social problems the minister of First Church has followed such a policy on the congregational level. The largest Protestant denom-ination in Canada has no alternative if i t is to be true to its Lord. I4I. Andrew Roddan. The Church in the Modern City, First United Church, Vancouver, 1945, p. 39 1+2. Twenty-Second Annual Report, The Board of Evangelism and Social Service, The United Church of Canada, Toronto, 191+7. - 103 -In this work of social action the church is able to cooperate with all who are like minded. The church realizes that effective social action comes from the coordinated efforts of many groups. Uh--fortunately, the coordination of effort for social action has not always been practiced in Vancouver. Frequently the United Church group have planned and made their representations entirely on their own rather than as a part of the efforts of the Welfare Council. But church and social agencies need each other's help in this field of action which is s t i l l far from full development and coordination. It seems that this is one area of social effort where cooperation could first be achieved. Chapter VIII REHOUSING, NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING, AND SOME CONCLUSIONS  The Strathcona d i s t r i c t is one of the most marked examples of a deteriorated residential area i n Vancouver, and the results of the Demonstration Housing Survey make i t abundantly clear that this sector of the c i t y contains a high percentage of unsatisfactory housing. Yet with a l l this, i t i s a d i s t r i c t which contains a high percentage of families. Industry has not made as great inroads into this d i s t r i c t as into the adjacent territory and this i s s t i l l basically a residential d i s t r i c t . Many families l i v i n g in the area have expressed a preference to continue residing i n this section of the c i t y because of the close proximity to work and to the c i t y centre. It i s therefore proposed as the f i r s t area i n Vancouver to be scheduled for slum clearance operations and properly planned as a public low-rent housing project. Subsidized public housing estates are a part of the established social pattern i n Great Britain and the United States. A similar policy adapted to Canadian conditions has been urged and the f i r s t steps have been taken in at least one city (Toronto). Vancouver i s beginning i n community replanning not only because of the dangers of blight, but because of the extent to which i t is already suffering from°excessive decentralization. A policy which encourages the expansion of the ci t y out a greater distance from the centre, while the core of the city k3. The writer i s indebted to Dr. L. C. Marsh, Director of the Housing Survey, for the information regarding the proposed housing and re-habilitation plans which follows. deteriorates, cannot continue indefinitely. Vancouver i s l i t t l e more than sixty years old but a slum of twenty or even ten years standing can be intolerable. Pressures of low income, housing shortage, and since the mr, high cost of l i v i n g have forced more and more people to li v e i n then-Lighted and sub-standard areas as they cannot afford the rents demanded for more adequate l i v i n g accommodation. But i n such an environment, people become apathetic and community feeling disappears. The relationship betweenpoor housing and barren social l i f e i s undesir-able. Rehousing Strathcona Area The plan proposed by the housing survey would completely replace a large portion of the dwellings and buildings i n the area extending from Gore Avenue to Raymur Avenue and from the lane south of Hastings Street to the False Greek Flats. A few institutional buildings and the Strathcona School would remain in the area. The whole d i s t r i c t would also be replanned so as to make the most eff i c i e n t use of the space available. The grid plan of the streets would disappear; only one thoroughfare would intersect, the project instead of the present half dozen t r a f f i c streets and the #1016 would become- two neighbourhoods or communities. The east-west arteries would skirt the housing project completely so that there would be a minimum of danger from t r a f f i c . The Strathvons School would form, the centre of one neighbourhood area and a'new.primary school pro-posed f o r t he second area would be the centre's hub. Provision i s made for parks, play space, and a shopping centre, and a community centre building for the whole d i s t r i c t open to the cooperative use of a l l agencies, i n -cluding the churches. Several churches would be located along the periphery of the project on Pender Street and provision is made for the - io6 -erection of a. new church on the southern border of the project, as at least one church building calls for demolition. . The l i v i n g accommodation •mould include suites of varying sizes to house families and single people. It i s proposed, to construct at least three types of accommodation, apartment blocks, houses with four and five bedrooms for large families, and small suites as well as two large hostel building for single men and women. The completed project would provide housing for at least the present population and probably more. Should such a project proceed the environment i n the East End of Vancouver would of course be radically changed. It i s not probable that the people l i v i n g i n the d i s t r i c t now would be identical with the popu-lation of the new estate. A large number of the current residents would move into the new housing estate, but there would be room for some coming in from,other areag of inadequate housing, while some of the present residents of the Strathcona d i s t r i c t (including some compensated for their present property) would choose to move away. In addition to the somewhat different personnel of the population the s p i r i t would be con-siderably different.. .It is not too much to expect a new feeling of optimism amongst people who had a decent place i n which to l i v e . One would expect too that the possibility of doing effective work with these people i n their new environment would be many fo l d greater than i n their former squalid conditions. Many of the problems which worry workers in the East End of Vancouver would disappear, and public, private and voluntary agencies would be presented with an opportunity of re-orienting themselves to new and stimulating types of service. - 107 -Community Modern housing projects involve f a r more than merely rehousing the people. In planning these projects every effort i s made to make provision for those f a c i l i t i e s which w i l l assist the growth of community within the project. The project managers, for example, must be more than business managers. They must be able to assist agencies to work effect-ively i n the project, to help the people adjust themselves to tiieir new l i f e , and practice democracy i n the common l i f e of the estate. The manager, must be a person of warmth and understanding i f he is to f u l f i l the functions required of him, for he serves as li a i s o n between residents and professional agencies anxious to serve the people of the estate. The editor of a pamphlet, -Community Activities i n Public Housing, published by the United States Housing Authority writes: "It i s this aspect of public housing that is unique i n an urban environment that has lost many of the values of the old time neighbor-hood. But what i s equally important, experiences indicate that commun-i t y activities benefit both tenants and management alike. From one viewpoint, they contribute to the development of healthy family l i f e . But they provide i n addition, a basis for sympathetic and cordial re-lationships between tenants and management; .... Thus nursery schools, consumer services, health services, l i b r a r i e s , home making programs, forums, recreation associations, and other community activities play a very important role i n progressive and sound housing management." Uk It i s apparent that housing management involves far more than the mere business of caring for the f a c i l i t i e s and providing l i v i n g space for families. Management i s concerned with community service to the residents. The American Housing Authority has prepared an outline of the mutual functions and responsibilities of housing authorities and kh. Community Activities i n Public Housing, Federal Works Agency, United States Housing Authority, Washington, May, 19ijl. - 108 -and community agencies i n providing community services to project residents. This outline l i s t s a l l conceivable types of agencies and under each major grouping l i s t s management's responsibility to the agency, the agency's responsibility to management, the management's responsibility to the resident and the agency's responsibility to the resident. It is a comprehensive statement and shows management's concern with the community. In Vancouver, the report of the Demonstration Housing Survey i s recommending that at least one and preferably two social workers (male and female) be senior members of the management staff. They would be chiefly concerned with the development of community s p i r i t . Should such a project, as is being proposed i n the Strathcona area come to completion, the project manager w i l l need the assistance of a l l the welfare groups, active i n the community, i n helping the new residents develop a community sp i r i t . . A Local Community Association would probably grow out of the desire of the people to use a community centre, to the best advantage. In the meantime, some recreational agency w i l l have to provide a program of recreation for the community. Community growth i s a slow process at best. People who have been depressed by their l i v i n g conditions w i l l take some time to learn to use their gifts of leadership and to move out into participation i n the common l i f e of the housing project. Mr. L. E. White has written in - Tenement  Town a report of the work of a team of conscientious objectors who chose alternative war service. He t e l l s of his disappointments and even dispair at times as he t r i e d toe stablish a community association i n a one-class housing estate i n Great Britain. A l l of the residents had come from the slums and he and his colleaugues found them very d i f f i c u l t to work with. - 109 -They seem to have had any leadership qualities repressed through their l i f e i n the slums of London. He advocated a modern type of settlement which might help to provide community leadership u n t i l such time as the people were ready to assume responsibility themselves. Fortunately, the proposed project for Vancouver w i l l not be restricted to the lowest income group but w i l l have a f a i r income range with some of the lesser paid white collar workers being encouraged to l i v e on the project. Nevertheless, should a housing estate be developed in the Strathcona area i t i s obvious that consideration w i l l need to be given to providing ,the kind of leadership -which w i l l help t he people to create their own social institutions. Some Parallel Experiences The writer has discussed the settlement suggestion with the secretary of the Seattle Council of Churches and his observations of the problems presented i n the public housing projects i n that c i t y show that such an idea i s well worthy of consideration. The church could not provide the leadership for such a settlement as that intended to precede a community a ssociation, as i t represents only a part of the community. It could, however, share i n providing community leadership u n t i l such time as the people are ready to assume their own leadership. There are many dangers i n such a plan and i t may be that they outweigh i t s advantages Perhaps, the agencies must restrain themselves and patiently wait for the development of a community association and community centre as the people learn to meet some of the emergencies which present themselves i n the community. If such a policy were followed, the church leaders would have an excellent opportunity to take the i n i t i a t i v e i n organizing the estate to meet specific problems. - 110 -Mention has already been made of the inter-denominational religious and social service program i n the Navy Yard - Fort Greene area of Brooklyn. The d i s t r i c t surrounding the Navy Yard has long been a deteriorated area. The development i n r ecent years of two housing projects has materially altered the nature of the d i s t r i c t . This new housing was ut i l i z e d during the war years to accommodate Navy and c i v i l i a n personnel of the Navy Yard. One small project was occupied by 200 Navy families and the Fort Greene houses accommodated 3,500 families, most of them workers in the Navy Yard. This interdenominational effort i s the only Protestant church i n the neighbourhood. A program of religious education has been pursued with a good response and 375 Protestant families have been contacted by the church. The social service worker on thes taff works, in cooperation with the social agencies operat-ing i n the area. Shortly after her appointment a conference was called to discuss a possible project f o r the church to carry out. "It was agreed aiatheemeeting that the most pressing need was that of. additional recreational f a c i l i t i e s for the young people of the housing-project and the area outside. Accordingly the Navy-Fort Greene Recreation Committee was organized which proceeded to canvass the s i t -uation and to institute a recreational program. With the cooperation of the Housing Authorities and the Tenants1 Association, rooms were allotted and• equipment secured for a Teen Canteen for young people. About 13>0 young people have found this Teen Canteen a bright spot i n their lives and have made of i t also a demonstration that young people of different races can have good times together. This committee i s , of course, inter-f a i t h and with f u l l representation of. other church groups as -well as social agencies, but i t i s satisfying to know that the guiding s p i r i t of t h i s community enterprise has come from the Protestant forces." ij5 1|5. Report of Interdenominational Project i n Brooklyn, previously cited. - I l l -Church leaders could provide similar leadership i n the Strathcona Housing project. Consideration might be given to a policy whereby only one Protestant church niinistered to the housing area. In d i f f i c u l t situa-tions this appears most effective. However, as several churches are already established i n the area adjacent to the proposed housing project, i t i s doubtful i f i t would be possible to have one community church. During the var years, the American churches evolved a plan for working in the wartime housing projects which were being erected. In some instances one deonomination accepted the responsibility for working with a l l the people of an estate, i n other cases the work was undertaken by a Council of Churches and was interdenominational i n i t s nature, and i n others service to housing projects was organized on a State level. From their experience i n this work the church found reaffirmation time and again for these, among other things: (1) The value of stimulating i n i t i a t i v e i n people to accept responsibility to meet their own needs. (2) That i n times of great stress the rendering of purely Social Service such as helping people to .find l i v i n g quarters, furnishing meals or nurseries, etc., opens the door for the Christian Gospel. (3) The importance of taking the responsibility to ca l l together for discussion and understanding the opposing sides of social tensions. U6 Such jobs w i l l need doing i n the early months of the l i f e of a housing estate. The church has a duty to be concerned with social relationships. 4 6 . War-time Facts and Peacetime Responsibilities by Don F. Pielstick, Field Representative, Home Missions Council of North America. - 112 -Should a housing project be constructed, Fi r s t United Church would be strategically located at one corner of the proposed estate. This would involve considerable change i n the program of the church and consideration would have to be given as to which functions the church would , which should be discontinued, and inhich might be performed either by the church or another agency. The families moving into this new estate would be of limited financial means. Possibly, they would own old furniture needing repair so as to make i t serviceable f o r the new modern l i v i n g accommodation. The Welfare Industries of F i r s t Church might be able to provide materials which would help the family to repair their belongings. This might con-ceivably be a very much appreciated service to the community. In a "letter to the writer, Mr. Friedman, the Executive Secretary of the Goodwill Industries of America, stated that such a plan had not yet been attempted but that he considered i t had merit. Through the services of i t s members, the church might assist i n the organization of the Community Association. United Church congrega-tions are democratically"organized and people learn to practice democracy i n church work. This might be carried over into the community. It i s interesting to note that i n a report of a study of Watling, twenty years after the establishment of a housing estate, one criticism of the church members i n the community was that "(they) have not played, nor indeed tr i e d to play a leading part i n the more specifically c i v i c sides of hi the l i f e of the estate." Church members have a contribution to make to the communal l i f e . witling Revisited, Planning, a broadsheet issued by PEP (Po l i t i c a l and Economic Planning), Vol. XIV, No.270, August l£, 192*7, St. Clements Press, London. - 113 -There i s always a danger that a housing estate might become se l f -contained. It i s conceivable that people would be satisfied with the activities of the community association and centre and would make l i t t l e effort to form outside contacts. This was a real problem at V/atling. Neither the residents of the estate nor the surrounding community seemed anxious to mix. The report concluded: "The churches seem to make better bridge organizations than the community association and they have very much emphasized the social side of their work." Fi r s t Church, with i t s larger community contacts, can help to keep the residents of the estate from that isolationism which i s so dangerous. Camp Fircom would be a resource of inestimable value i n helping to meet the recreational needs of the thousands of people l i v i n g on the housing project. By offering the use of this f a c i l i t y , the ehurch can render real community service to the people l i v i n g near i t s doors. It i s conceivable, should a housing project be erected, that the church might be able to close- the community house. The church wi l l always want to have a program of group activity for the boys and g i r l s of the Sunday School, but i t is possible that with the erection of a community centre building, the church w i l l only feel obligated to follow the traditional church program and leave the special groups and provision for mass recreational activities to the community association. If there is sympathetic leadership i n both church and community centre then the two can complement each other providing a richer program for the total community. . U8. Ibid - nu -The church i s a religious fellowship but i t i s also a social institution. If i t realizes that i t i s one of many social institutions and bends i t s efforts to assisting i n bringing about effective coopera-tion with a l l the social institutions serving the community, i t w i l l increase the quality of service to a l l . The erection of a housing project on the sight of this deteriorated residential area would present an opportunity to church and school and social agency to work together for the common weal. This depends on each recognizing the other as a partner. The project w i l l go ahead in stages. There w i l l be time for agencies, including schools, welfare agencites and churches, to develop plans before the third and fourth stages (which include the community centre) come to completion. Perhaps a coordinated approach w i l l be ready by this time. Conclusions The church, because i t is the Christian church, w i l l always be concerned with the welfare of the individual and of society. In i t s concern for social l i v i n g , i t w i l l always be active i n the f i e l d of social action. The Christian fa i t h and before i t the Hebrew prophetic school, has struggled with problems of social injustice and man's inhumanity to man.. This i s a continuing function of the church. Religion has also influenced the development of many of the services to humanity which are now a part of Western society. Schools, hospitals, and a large portion of the social welfare program have grown from religious ideas and practice. It i s important that social work and the church try to under-stand each other's approach and learn each other's techniques i n working with people. - i£$ -The church w i l l undoubtedly continue to perform many social work functions as a part of i t s ministry. It may veil be that the operation of social agencies is passing from sectarian auspices. Social work w i l l be used i n the church as i t s s k i l l s and services are used i n schools, hospitals and i n institutions. Like these other groups, the church must perform i t s social work functions according to the standards of the social work profession. Some leaders feel that the religious groups have an opportunity to develop a distinctive approach by combin-ing the s k i l l s of social work with the insights of v i t a l religion. In an area such as that served by Fi r s t Church there i s a con-tinuing need for the services offered by this congregation. If the present deteriorating environment continues, there i s every reason to believe that there w i l l be increasing demands for community service. Many look to the religious institutions for help with their problems. Overcrowded, inadequate housing does depress, aid people l i v i n g under such conditions lose interest in community activity. With other agencies, the church suffers from neglect. In the face of the present environment there is bound to be an increasing need for social services in this section of the city. Counselling, assistance programmes, camp and community house can make a valuable contribution to the l i f e of this district... I f the neighborhood rehabilitation and rehousing plans should go forward, the problems and the opportunities facing the church w i l l be changed. There i s every indication that coordinated community services w i l l be provided for the residents of the project. The church would be free to make i t s distinctive contribution as a church, to provide services - 116 -for i t s own members and to share with others i n working for community-welfare. Together, church and social agency can provide a comprehensive service to meet the needs- of individual men and women. APPENDICES Appendix A This study of the community services of F i r s t United Church has involved three areas of study. F i r s t , some consideration has been given to the social work function of the church and the relationship of the church to social agencies operating i n the community. Secondly, a study of the present environment of Fi r s t Church and the program offered i n an effort to serve this present constituency. Thirdly, con-sideration has been given to the p o s s i b i l i t y of the building of a low-rental housing project i n the area adjacent to the church. Such a project would present new problems and new opportunities to a community minded church. Since Christianity and Social Adventuring was published i n 1927 there has been l i t t l e material published dealing with the question of the church and social work. Most of the material for this study has been secured through correspondence and personal interviews. Material has been secured from the following groups: Goodwill Industries of America Inc.; Home Missions Council of North America; Church Conference of Social Work, Federal Council of the Churches of Christ i n America Inc.; The Pathfinding Service of the Churches, New York; Canadian Council of Churches; Board of Evangelism and Social Service, United Church of Canada; American Camping Association; Federal Public Housing Authority, Washington, B.C.; Director of Housing of the London County Council, and National Council of Social Service i n England. Information obtained through the Housing Survey conducted in the Strathcona area i n June, 19kl has been made available to the writer. F i r s t United Church have made available a l l reports and records which has assisted the writer in gaining an understanding of the breadth of the work carried on by this church. - 118 -This study has sought to point up the problems faced by Fi r s t Church, which are common to many other congregations, particularly to other institutional churches. Some attempt has been made to evaluate the social service function of the church and to discover the peculiar role of the church in helping to meet the problems presented by this community. Appendix B. - 119 -Bibliography 1. General Bruno, Frank J., Trends i n Social Work, as Reflected i n the  Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work  1878-19^ Columbia University Press, New York, 19Ub\ Colcord. Joanna C., Your Community, itfi Provision for Health,. Education. Safety. Welfare. revised by Donald S. Howard, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1947. Davis, Jerome Ed., Christianity and Social Adventuring, The Century Company, New York and London, J.y^ Y. Dimock, Hedley S. and Statten Taylor, Talks to Counsellors, Association Press, New York, 19l*7. Dimock, Hedley S. and Hendry, Charles E., Camping and Character, Association Press, New York, 1939. Douglas, H. Paul, How to Study 1he City Church, Doubleday, Doran and Company Inc., Garden City, New lork, 1928. Leiffer, Murray H., City and Church i n Transition, Willett, Clark and Company, Chicago and New lork, 193d. Marks of Good Camping, or Synthesis of Current Standards, American ~ Camping Association. Committee on Standards (192*0), Association Press, New York, 191*1. Ogburn, William F., Social Characteristics of Cities, International City Managers Association, Chicago, 1937. Strauss, Nathan. The Seven Myths of Housing, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, I944. Taylor, Graham, Pioneering on Social Frontiers, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1930. ^ White, L. E., Tenement Town, Jason Press, London, I9I4.6. Youth and Recreation, Canadian-Youth Commission, Ryerson Press. Toronto, 191*6. ' * Young Canada and Religion, Canadian Youth Commission, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1945. Youth Organizations i n Canada. Canadian Youth Commission, Ryerson rress, Toronto, 191*6. ' J - 120 -Youth, Marriage and the Family, Canadian Youth Commission, Ryerson Press, Toronto, i^uY. 2. Pamphlets and Magazine Articles Baldwin, Ruth M., "The Minister and the Social Worker", The Family, Volume XXVI, June, 19U5. The Churches' Part in the Provision of New Centres of Community Life, ' The National Council of Social Service, London, <July, 19U7. Community Activities in Public Housing, United States Housing Authority, Washington, May, 3 . 9 I 4 I . Hall, M. P., Community Centres and Associations i n Manchester, a survey made i n 19h5 by Manchester and Salford Council of Social Service, Manchester, 1946. Harris, E. Sewell, Community Centres and Associations, National Council of Social Service, London. Hein, John P., "The Goodwill Way", reprint from the Journal of  Rehabilitation, National Rehabilitation Association Inc., February, I94Y. McCabe, Alice R., "Pastoral Counselling and Case Work", The Family, Volume XXIV, November, I9I+3. *Miller, Kenneth P., Report, The Navy Yard Interdenondnational Project Auspices Inter-^hurch Committee on the Wavy lard-i'ort Greene Area, New York, l9h$ --•Miller, Kenneth D., Report, The Christian Neighborhood House. The Board of National Missions, Presbyterian Church i n the U.S.A., New York, 191+3. *Pielstick, Don F., War-time Facts aid Peacetime Responsibilities, Home Missions Council of.North America. Planning, Watling Revisited, A broadsheet issued by PEP (Poli t i c a l and Economic Planning), Volume XIV, August 15, 19hl Parker, Mrs. G. Cameron, "Canadian Settlements", an address before the National Settlement Conference, Toronto, 1921+, (unpublished) •* i n succeeding sections of this bibliography indicates that the particular publication is mimeographed. - 121 -Roddan, Andrew, The Church i n the Modern City, F i r s t United Church, Vancouver, 1945 Roddan, Sam, "Report from the Slums", Canadian Forum, Volume XXV, February, 1946. The Time of Healing, Twenty-second annual report, The Board of Evangelism and Social Service, the United Church of Canada, Toronto, 1947. 3. Reports and Surveys ^Demonstration Housing Survey, University of British Columbia, Progress Report, 31 July 1947 -^Demonstration Housing Survey, University of British Columbia, Interim Report, 30 July 1947 Demonstration Housing Survey, University of British Columbia, Sections on the Residential Pattern and Housing Conditions, (Provisional manuscript), 1947 ^-Annual Reports of F i r s t United Church, 1925-1946 inclusive. The Goodwill Way, Annual Report of Goodwill Industries of America, 1946, Milwaukee, 1947. •js-The Housing Situation i n Vancouver, January 19)48, Vancouver Housing " Association, Vancouver, 194b" .^Information about Goodwill Industries, Furnished by Goodwill industries of America inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin •frInstitutional Churches, Budgets and Financial Statements, 19U7, " Board of Home Missions, United Church of Canada, J-'oronto, 1947. •^Mutual Functions and Responsibilities - Housing Authorities and  Community Agencies i n Providing Community Services to Project  Residents, United States Housing Authority, Washington -^•Proceedings oi the Church Conference of Social Work, Buffalo, New York, May 20-22, 1946, Department of ^hurch Social Work. Federal Council of Churches of Christ i n America, Inc., New York Report of the Commission on Urban Problems, as presented to the General Council of the United Church of Canada, I938, Proceedings of the General Council, I938, United Church Publishing House, Toronto, I938 - 122 -S^tatement of Purpose and Policies for the Organization, Operation,  Service and development of Goodwill Industries (Revised. April 19kh) Goodwill industries of America inc.,.Milwaukee, 1944 Survey Report of Group Work.and Recreation of Greater Vancouver,1945, survey lixrector, L. E. Nome, Community Cnest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, 1945 Survey of Social and Health Conditions in a Downtown Area, Prepared by a committee of the Health and Auxiliary Division, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, April 1947 Correspondence The writer has had considerable correspondence with people in Canada, United States and Great Britain who had experience with one or more phases of the problem studied in this thesis. Where a letter has been quoted directly reference is made in a footnote. 


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