UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Seeking placement permanency for foster children : an analysis of a portion of a year's cases in non-metropolitan… Proven, Nettie Isobel 1954

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1954_A5 P7 S4.pdf [ 8.56MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106509.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106509-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106509-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106509-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106509-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106509-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106509-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106509-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106509.ris

Full Text

SEEKING PLACEMENT PERMANENCY FOR FOSTER CHILDREN An Analysis of a Portion of a Year's Cases inr Non-Metropolitan British Columbia, 1948 - 1953. by NETTIE ISOBEL PROVEN Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work 19 5 4 The University of British Columbia Abstract In this study an attempt i s made to examine what might be considered a self-evident premise, namely, that the ultimate quality of the casework achieved i n foster home placement work (or i n any other area of social work) i s related i n a very real way to the extent to which basic social work philosophy and concepts, along with good casework method and techniques are put into practice by the social workers doing the jobo To an extent, this study was undertaken i n an attempt to assess whether or not there i s v a l i d i t y to the impression which some-times i s gained that, with the recent increase i n the demand for social services, a lack may develop i n workers' appreciation of the fundamental concepts of the profession because of the many pressures involved i n "getting the job done©" Through detailed analysis of thirty-two place-ment cases an effort i s made i n this thesis to demonstrate the practi-c a l i t y of " i d e a l i s t i c " social work philosophy and concepts and the essential need for these being as clearly understood and as well u t i l i z e d as the casework method and techniques employed i n the perform-ance of a day to day social work job© The information recorded i n the thirty-two cases studied was read with an appreciation of the limitations of such subjective material but on the basis of the material available i t was found that the records revealed that i n general the workers handling the cases studied seemed to have a reasonable degree of understanding of most of the basic p h i l -osophy and concepts of their profession. The area of general weakness observed i n the small group of cases examined, was i n the use of those principles which involve diagnostic understanding and s k i l l . The study also revealed some evidence of lacks in inter-agency relationships in the cases analyzed and seemed to indicate some need for better co-ordination of agency programmese Throughout the piece of evaluative analysis which was attempted in this thesis, the need for child placement work being founded on a secure base of knowledge, understanding and application of the fundamental professional philosophy and concepts along with competent training and developed s k i l l in sound casework method and techniques was demonstrated* Based on this foundation, i t seemed that the permanency and security desired in long term foster home placements could be achieved* Acknowledgements I would l i k e to convey my sincere a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the members of the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Welfare Branch who have been so h e l p f u l i n making a v a i l a b l e the case m a t e r i a l necessary t o complete t h i s study. I n p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a s s i s t a n c e given by Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, Mr. Vern Dallamore, Pro-t e c t i o n S upervisor, and Mr. W i l l i a m McFarland, F o s t e r Home Placement Supervisor i n the D i v i s i o n at that time. I would a l s o l i k e to thank Miss Jeanne Tinevez, head of the record and s t a t i s t i c a l s e c t i o n of the D i v i s i o n , who was immeasure-a b l y h e l p f u l i n checking the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n I gathered and making the records r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r my use. My s i n c e r e thanks a l s o to Mrs. Helen Exner and Mrs. J . Grant, members of the s t a f f of the Department of S o c i a l Work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the valuable a s s i s t a n c e they provided. Most e x p e c i a l l y do I thank Dr. L.C. Marsh f o r h i s s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t and h e lp i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . Table of Contents Chapter I . B a s i c Placement Co n s i d e r a t i o n s Core of placement p r a c t i c e ? Reason f o r study; L i m i t a t i o n s of study; C r i t e r i a of q u a l i t y casework; B a s i c s o c i a l work philosophy and concepts; B a s i c casework method and techniques; Method of s e l e c t i o n of cases f o r study; Method of case a n a l y s i s ; P o s s i b l e value of study. Chapter I I . Pre-Placement Casework - The Foundation of the  Placement P l a n Primary pre-placement concept; H i s t o r i c a l beginnings of " f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d " placement work; Present-day placement concepts; R a t i n g of sample cases according to success of placements; R a t i n g according to use of b a s i c s o c i a l work philosophy and concepts; Sources of r e f e r r a l ; Reasons f o r r e f e r r a l ; Duration of pre-placement work; Pre-placement r e h a b i l i t a t i v e r esources. Chapter I I I . A c t u a l Placement Casework - The E f f e c t of the  Placement P l a n Primary concepts during a c t u a l placement; Pre-p a r a t i o n f o r placement; P r e p a r a t i o n of parents; P r e p a r a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ; General placement t h e o r i e s ; Rating of sample cases according to use of b a s i c s o c i a l work philosophy and concepts; R a t i n g according t o the use of good casexrork method and techniques; R a t i n g of movement during f i v e - y e a r placement p e r i o d ; T e s t i n g of premise of t h e s i s . Chapter IV. Future Placement Considerations - The Achievement  of Placement Permanency Re-statement of the b a s i c premise; Value of s o c i a l r esearch; Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the b a s i c premise; Major f i n d i n g s of the t h e s i s ; Minor f i n d i n g s of the t h e s i s ; Future goals i n c h i l d placement work. Appendices A - Spot-Check Chart I showing rating of pre-placement casework with parents and children in the thirty-two cases studied according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used in the thesis as basic criteria for good casework. Spot-Check Chart II showing rating of actual placement casework with parents and children in the thirty-two cases studied, according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used in the thesis as basic c r i -' teria for good casework. Spot-Check Chart III showing rating of thirty-two cases studied, according to evident use of the five basic steps in casework method used in the thesis as criteria of good casework. Spot-Check Chart IV showing the correlation of the ratings arrived at from the three above-mentioned spot-check charts. B - Bibliography G - Map showing regional divisions of the Province of British Columbia under the Provincial Social Welfare Branch of the British Columbia Department of Health and Welfare. Tables in Text Table I An Evaluation of the Success of the Thirty-two Place-ments Studied based on an assessment of the degree of permanency and apparent happiness and security i t pro-vided the child, and related to the age of the child at the time of the i n i t i a l request for placement Table II Rating of Pre-Placement Casework according to use basic social work philosophy and concepts of Table III Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used in Pre-Placement Casework with parents and children Table IV Summary Table of Number of Times Basic Social Work Prin-ciples were used in Pre-Placement Casework with parents and children Table V Distribution of uources of Referral according to rating of quality of casework, assessed on basis of use of basic social work principles Table VI Distribution of the Reason for Referral according to basic rating of quality of casework Table VIE Length of Time case Known to Agency in relation to rating of pre-placement casework, as shown in years Table VEE Pre-Placement Resources used and their relationship to ... the quality of the casework with parents and children Table IX Rating of Casework during the actual placement according to use of basic social work philosophy and concepts Table X "Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used in Placement Casework with parents and children Table XI Rating of Case Handling in the i"otal Placement Process according to the use of good casework method and techniques Table XII Number of Times Good Casework Method and Techniques were . used in the Total Placement Process in casework with parents and children Table XET Table XIV Table XV Rating of Movement in total placement casework with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 Scale of Movement in Placement Work with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 as measured by the use of the six basic social work principles Page 29 31 33 34 37 41 42 44 55 57 61 62 65 66 Correlation between degree of Success of Total -Placement Plan and good use of basic social work principles, together with sound casework method and techniques. 68 SEEKING PLACEMENT PERMANENCY  FOR FOSTER CHILDREN An Analysis of a Portion of a Year's Cases i n Non-Metropolitan Brit i s h Columbia,.1948-1953. CHATTER I BASIC PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS Core of Placement Practice Transplanting a child from the environment of his own home to that of a foster home is one of the most difficult tasks faced by social workers in their professional practice. It is hard to provide permanency and security for a child away from his own parents under almost a l l cir-cumstances j i t is practically impossible to accomplish this task success-fully unless i t is carried out with a f u l l understanding of basic social work philosophy and concepts, and a competent use of sound casework methods and techniques. Although the importance of the fundamental philosophy and con-cepts of social work has been recognized since the beginnings of the profession, only recently has i t been increasingly emphasized that in order for high standards of performance to be maintained in a l l fields of the profession, the day to day work of each practising social worker must reflect a f u l l understanding of the basic professional beliefs and concepts as well as a competent use of good technical casework methods and skills. In fact, i t is now clearly recognized that unless the fund-amental "idealistic" philosophy of the profession is put into "practical" use, the mere skillful use of techniques and methods accomplishes relatively l i t t l e that is of lasting value to the client or the community. As one philosopher has stated, "A philosophic understanding of life's problems can contribute the gift of insight, of generosity, of human - 2 -sympathy, necessary i f social work is to be genuinely and humanly fruit-(1) ful, not pointlessly and deceptively efficient." Reason for Study On occasion the impression is gained that, with the recent increase in the demand for social services and the resulting rapid development of techniques ttto get the job done." "the peculiar viciousness (2) of a divorce between principles and practice," which was deplored by that outstanding pioneer social worker, Mary Richmond, has developed to some extent in modern social work performance and hinders the best service being rendered by the profession. In order to test whether this impression is valid in the area of foster home placement, this study has been under-taken. Here, an attempt is being made, through an analysis and evaluation of the quality of casework done with a small group of parents and children both before and during foster home placement, to examine the extent to which a relationship exists between the use of basic social work philos-ophy and concepts along with sound casework method in this part of place-ment practise, and the ultimate results of the placement. In other words, an attempt is being made to examine in the placement process with children and their own parents whether "idealistic" social work philosophies and concepts have "practical" value and when used in conjunction with sound technical casework skills, do bring about greater security and permanency for the children who require placement, and a more satisfactory resolution of the feelings of the parents involved. 1. Edman, Irwin, "Contribution of the Humanities and the Professional Schools," Social Work As Human Relations. Anniversary Papers of the New York School of Social Work and the Community Service Society of New York, New York, Columbia University Press, 1949, P- 99-100 2. Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1930, p. 97 - 3 -Limitations of the Study It i s recognized that i n addition to work with the parents and children, work with the foster parents, both before and during placement, i s an essential part of the "placement process". Indeed, unless there i s this three-fold aspect to placement work, the process cannot be considered as complete or successful. Foster home finding, selecting, preparing the chosen foster parents for the placement of a child i n their home, and assisting and enabling the foster parents during the time they have a child, are a l l areas of recognized importance which demand a high degree of s k i l l and interest from any worker who i s involved i n arranging care for a child away from his own parents. In this thesis, however, mainly because the Child Welfare Division records used did not contain sufficient information about the work that was done by the d i s t r i c t social workers with foster parents, the focus of attention of necessity has been confined to a study of the work with the parents and the children. To have been able to gain adequate information about the work with the foster parents, i t would have been necessary to have read the foster home records i n the d i s t r i c t offices throughout the province and this would have been impossible to accomplish i n the time alotted for the completion of the thesis. By way of explanation, i t should be mentioned that the reason why the f i l e s i n the Child Welfare Division do not contain details about the foster home finding or the work with foster parents either before or during placement i s that, since 194-6, when decentralization of the work took place within the Provincial Social Welfare Branch, the responsi-b i l i t y for this aspect of the child welfare programme f e l l almost entirely upon the f i e l d supervisors and workers i n the d i s t r i c t offices. This - 4 -means that there was a cessation of supervision from central or divisional offices and a beginning of supervision in the operational district offices. Since 1946, therefore, i t has no longer been considered necessary for de-tailed foster home studies to be sent to the Child Welfare Division and the only record of foster parents in the divisional office is the agree-ment form which is a signed agreement between the foster parents and the Superintendent of Child Welfare. Only in unusual cases where consultative help from the Division is desired, or in the cases of subsidized or receiving homes, where, because of the additional responsibility the foster parents are assuming, a special agreement must be drawn up between the Superintendent of Child Welfare and the foster parents, and/or where special foster home rates are paid, do studies of foster homes come to the Child Welfare Division. On the whole, the decentralized system has worked out well, for the field supervisors and workers have assumed the responsibility for home finding and working with foster parents in a helpful way. This is apparent from the reports on f i l e in the Division concerning the children placed in the homes, which usually convey some picture of the foster parents and the atmosphere in the home and this i s , in most cases, sufficient for the work of the divisional supervisor. However, for the purpose of an analysis such as was undertaken for this thesis, the information contained on the divisional records about the foster parents was too limited and i t was, therefore, decided to concentrate only on the work which was done with the parents and the children. Even in these areas, i t was not always possible to gain a definitive picture of the total situation from the material on the record, but i t was thought that sufficient details were obtained to make the study of value. Criteria of Evaluation of Casework In the examination of the partial placement experience of the thirty-two children whose records were analyzed for this thesis, the basic social work philosophy and concepts, which are generally regarded as the fundamental principles underlying a l l social work practice, were used as the criteria for assessing the quality of casework done with both parents and children in each individual case. In conjunction with these basic principles, certain fundamental casework techniques and methods were looked for in the examination of the case records, for i t was recognized that in order to put the basic philosophy and concepts into operation, a certain standard of technical s k i l l is necessary. Basic Social Work Philosophy and Concepts The f i r s t criteria applied to the cases under analysis was the fundamental philosophy of a democratic society, the belief in the personal  worth of the individual and his basic right to achieve in his own way the maximum development and fulfillment of his capabilities. This democratic ideal is the acornerstone philosophy" of social work and from i t many important social work concepts have evolved. Among these is the concept of respecting the right of the client to be different and recognizing that each individual is unique and special. Believing this, the social worker, in approaching and working with a client, makes every effort to gain an understanding of him as a person and a knowledge of how he views himself and his situation. It is interesting, in passing, to note that as early as 1869, the rights of the individual and the need for individualization of clients needs were recognized by social work leaders of that day. One of those - 6 -leaders, Octavia H i l l , laid the foundation of distinguishing the in-dividual client and his needs from his economic environment when she said, "By knowledge of character more is meant than whether a man is a drunkard or a woman is dishonest; i t means knowledge of the passions, hopes, and history of people; where the temptation will touch them, what is the l i t t l e scheme they have made of their lives, or would make, i f they had encouragement; what training long past phases of their lives may have afforded; how to move, touch, teach them. Our memories and our hopes (1) are more truly factors of our lives than we often remember.11 In 1922, Mary Richmond underlined this individual approach in her definition of social work as "those processes which develop personality through adjust-ments consciously effected, individual by individual, between men and (2) their social environment." Today, many modern professional writers have expanded on this basic philosophy and have evolved as essential to the casework process such important concepts as the right of the individual to be happy and to have an opportunity to use his strengths effectively; his right to an equal opportunity for education, employment and pleasure; his right to express his needs and to feel comfortable about them; his right to make decisions and to determine for himself the course of action he wishes to take, that i s , his right to work out his own destiny and to participate in the solution of his problems in a manner acceptable to himself and to society. 1. Richmond, Mary E., Social Diagnosis. Russell Sage Foundation, Philadelphia, 1917, p.30 2. Richmond, Mary E., What is Social Casework? Russell Sage Foundation, Philadelphia, 1922, p. 98 - 7 -The second c r i t e r i a to be used was the basic social work belief i n the possibility of development, growth and change i n an i n - dividual . I t was recognized that out of this philosophy also have grown certain concepts which are valuable i n the practice of social casework. For example, there i s the concept that i n order to help a client change, a social worker needs to assess what the problem means to the client. This approach prevents the application of rules when a particular problem arises, for as Mary Richmond stated, "rules i n the r e l i e f of human souls, since no two human needs are ever exactly alike, are dangerous but a few simple principles are absolutely necessary, - principles are the same (1) everywhere, but methods vary.1* Since Mary Richmond's time, this premise has been bu i l t upon and today such leaders as Gordon Hamilton teach that helping a client involves an assessment of the client's total person-a l i t y , keeping i n mind some of the underlying personality dynamics and, with this understanding, making an effort to ease stress, both inner and outer, i n order to bring about a change i n such a way as to help the (2) client grow. Closely a l l i e d with the belief i n the possibility of growth i n individuals i s another basic social work philosophy, namely, the belief that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful, that i s , that the principle of cause and effect i s valid. This was used as the third c r i t e r i a i n the evaluation of the quality of casework achieved i n the placement cases analyzed for this study. From this philosophy has evolved the social work concept of the multiplicity of social causation and the recognition of the interacting phenomenon of the whole psychosocial situation. 1. Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, p. 95 2. Hamilton, Gordon, The Theory and Practice of Social Work. Columbia University Press, New York, New York. 1951, pp. 8-22. 8 Similarily, there has arisen the concept that behaviour is caused by man's individual needs which arise in part from his past experiences. To help the client, a social worker needs a knowledge of causal relation-ships and an understanding of the dynamics of human behaviour involving such things as defense mechanisms and unconscious motivations. Here, social workers need to draw on the knowledge of the profession of psychiatry in order to broaden their understanding of human behaviour and thus be in a position to offer more effective psychosocial help to clients. A corollary of this understanding that behaviour is purposeful and meaningful is the understanding of another basic social work philos-ophy which postulates the right of every individual to personal freedom  and personal growth. This, of course, is related closely to the philos-ophy of the worth of the individual but can be differentiated from i t in that the concepts arising from i t are somewhat different. One of these concepts is that emancipation is common to a l l human beings and people have within themselves unique and valuable capacities, i f they are free to use them. Social workers have faith in human personality and try, through a freeing and healing relationship, to support strengths and to relieve inner and outer stress in order to set the individual's powers free. This concept is at the base of the social worker's attempts to strengthen the client's ability to be independent and to recognize the essential need for independence in others. At the same time that social workers attempt to help the client to be independent and to build upon his individual strengths, the basic social work philosophy of the inter-relatedness of individuals in society i s not overlooked, for i t is a fundamental social work belief that in-- 9 -dividuals are part of a group, of a culture and of society as a whole. That i s , that society with its political, economic and cultural con-ditions form the background of the individual's problems. Because the individual is a part of society, he has responsibility not only for himself but toward the society in which he lives. Conversely, i t is part of social work philosophy that society has a responsibility for the individuals within i t . From this philosophy has arisen the concept that social workers need to understand cultural mores and need to keep in touch with external forces, such as world political and social conditions, which have an effect on the individuals they are helping. They need to understand the individual's relationship to his culture and to other in-dividuals in i t . The concept of awareness of culture implies self-awareness and awareness by the social worker of his own cultural patterns. Anthropologists, such as Margaret Meade, who have studied the social mores of various cultures, have contributed much that is helpful to those in the human relations professions. The social worker can learn from this research in order to understand more fully that an individual responds sensitively to intergroup relationships within his culture. Gordon Hamilton speaks of the "interrelatedness of the personality with the environment" which makes treatment to be in "the mutual interest of the client and the community" and this concept is an important one for social workers to keep in mind. In considering this f i f t h philosophical principle as a criteria for assessing the casework done in the placement cases under examination, i t was seen that the concept of interaction between individuals and groups can be carried over to the area of interrelationships in professional teamwork. It was recognized that in the overall assessment of the quality of casework services offered to the client, this would be an important area - 10 -to evaluate. Mary Richmond was one of the fi r s t to realize this point, when she stressed interrelationship between individual work with families in their own homes and efforts in improving community conditions. In the latter connection, she envisaged better co-ordination of a l l social services and community resources. She believed that "the legitimate charitable enterprises of a community should hang together and the success (1) of one is the success of a l l ; the failure of one is the failure of all.'* She adroitly stated that "nothing so quickly k i l l s prejudice, replacing i t (2) by a spirit of helpfulness and co-operation, as personal acquaintance," and she suggested sound principles for the developing of co-operative relation-ships which are s t i l l valid. Her suggestions were as followsj "Know the agency, its functions, and its strengths? trust the agency to do their (3) job; and teach them to trust you by doing what you have agreed to do." Finally, associated with the belief in the interdependency of individuals within cultures and society as a whole, there is the basic social work philosophy that, the family is the primary and the most dynamic  unit of society. In any assessment of casework with parents and children involved in the placement process, this is unquestionably a criteria of major importance. From this belief has evolved the concept that social workers need to understand the dynamics of interfamilial relationships and need to see the individual in relation to other members of the family, in order to assess the interpersonal relationships. From this concept arises the understanding, fundamental to a l l foster home placement work, of the traumatic effect of separation of the child from his own family 1. Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, p. 96 2. Ibid, p. 96 3. Ibid, p. 96 - 11 -and the recognition of the need for further study in ways of preserving the family. Mary Richmond defined the family as "love under bond to (1) carry safely the world's fate,® and she was convinced, as are social workers today, that the protection and strengthening of family l i f e should be a major concern of a l l in the profession. The six fundamental social work philosophies and their accom-panying concepts outlined in the preceding paragraphs were the underlying professional standards against which the casework practiced in the place-ments studied were evaluated as carefully as was possible on the basis of the material that was available on the Placement Records of the Child Welfare Division. Basic Casework Method and Techniques In addition to these essential philosophical ingredients of sound social work practice, certain necessary casework method and tech-niques were looked for in the cases under analysis. For the purposes of this study, the casework method was reduced to five simple steps. These successive steps were as follows; A. gathering information; B. social  diagnosis; C. treatment plan; D. implementation of plan; E. evaluation  and re-evaluation of the plan. Through this entire process runs the continuity of participation by the client at his own pace. It is interesting to note that the f i r s t attempt to formulate a method distinctive to social casework, was made by Mary Richmond in 1917. She advocated an intensive enquiry into the background of the problem, a formulation of a tentative social diagnosis and a plan as to how to proceed in order to be helpful to the client. In 1951, in her book The Theory and 1. Richmond, The Long View, p. 97 12 -Practice of Social Work, Gordon Hamilton, synthesized the changes that have occurred in methodology in social work since 1917. Like other leaders, such as Charlotte Towle, Lucille Austin and Florence Hollis, she underlined the importance of sound diagnostic s k i l l on the part of social workers. As G.L. Bibring noted, Hamilton emphasized that "diagnostic statements are tentative, not final truths and conscious formulation, reformulation, testing and re-testing of hypotheses con-(1; stitute the core of any scientific method in casework." To carry out the steps in the casework method, many casework techniques are utilized. The most basic of these is the establishing of a helping relationship which has been described as "the soul of casework. Relationship, which has in i t the qualities of mutual confidence, respect and freedom, has been defined as "the dynamic interaction of feelings and attitudes between the caseworker and the client, with the purpose of helping the client to achieve a better adjustment between himself and his (2) environment.'.1 Within this relationship, the client is provided with an opportunity to express his feelings freely, both negative and positive. The worker responds sensitively to the client's feelings and warmly accepts him with a non-judgmental attitude. Understanding that he is accepted often encourages the client to take the fi r s t step in solving his problems, and within reality limits, to make his own decisions and choices. Within the casework relationship, other techniques come into play, for example, timing is an important tool. The necessary delicate 1. Bibring, G.L., "Psychiatry and Casework," Social Casework. October, 1946, p. 2 26 2. Biestek, Felix, "Analysis of the Casework Relationship," Social  Casework. February, 1954-, p. 49 13 -sense of timing is achieved by the worker training himself to listen to the "feeling tones" in addition to the words the client speaks. A sensi-tivity to timing makes i t possible for the worker to start where the client is and to go at his speed. Other techniques used within the case-work relationship include the offering of support, acceptance. understanding. clarification and verbalization in such a way as to ease the inner and outer stresses which are creating difficulty for the client. Thus the client may be enabled to "understand himself and his situation so that he can manage l i f e more realistically with less anxiety and hostility and (1) less use of destructive defense mechanisms." To be able to use casework techniques effectively, the worker must have an understanding of the policies and structure of the agency in which he works and must also have a wide knowledge of the resources of his community. The basic social work philosophies and concepts, and the funda-mental casework method and techniques which have been enumerated in the preceding paragraphs were used in this study to assess the quality of casework evident in the cases under analysis. Because these criteria are not definitive, this study is not a conclusive, definite piece of research, but rather is a descriptive evaluation based on an objective analysis of essentially subjective material concerning the partial placement experience of a group of children. Method of Selection of Cases In the area of foster home placement, a matter of great concern to social workers is that of creating permanency and happiness for children who require long term placement away from their own parents. In the opening 1. Hollis, Florence, "Techniques of Casework," Social Casework, June, 194.9, p.223 - 14 -paragraph of this study the premise was stated that this difficult task can only be successfully achieved when there is a sound application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts, as well as good casework r techniques. In order to examine whether or not there is a relationship between successful permanent placements and the use of the basic principles and techniques, a number of children placed in non-metropolitan areas were selected for study from the group who were committed as wards of the Superintendent of Child welfare in British Columbia during 1948 and who at March 31, 1953, were s t i l l in the care of the Superintendent in foster homes under supervision of social workers of the Social Welfare Branch throughout the Province. A survey of the Child Welfare Division records revealed that in 1948, ninety-three children were committed as wards of the Superintendent, eighty-six under the Protection of Children Act of British Columbia and seven under the Federal Juvenile Delinquent's Act. A child may be committed as a "ward" of the Superintendent of Child Welfare or of a private children's aid society under the Protection of Children Act of British Columbia for a variety of reasons. Section Seven and its sub-sections defines "children in need of protection" and sets out the reasons for committal which are acceptable. Under this Act, a child can be committed to the Superintendent or a children's aid society who is "found begging in any street, house, or place of public resort;" who is "deserted by his parents" or found "guilty of petty crimes" or found "wandering about at late hours and not having any home or settled place of abode or proper guardianship;" who is "incorrigible or who cannot be controlled by his parents;" or who is blind, deaf, feeble-minded or physically disabled in a way that ]is likely to make him a - 15 -public charge; who is "habitually truant from school;" or who is " i l l -treated so as to be in peril in respect of l i f e , health, or morality by continued personal injury. B These are some of the twelve reasons for which a child may be apprehended and removed from the care of his parents under the Protection of Children Act. The Section most commonly used by social agencies, however, is Section 7, Subsection K, which reads "whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty, or depravity is an unfit place for the child, or who has no proper guardianship, or who has no parent cap-(1) able of exercising proper parental control." In the group of children studied, the majority were committed under this Section of the Act. Committal under the Protection of Children Act is only used as a last resort when every effort to rehabilitate the family has failed or when the situation in the home is so extreme that rehabilitation is im-possible and rapid action to protect the child's safety i s necessary. In either case, the action is only completed when i t appears relatively , certain that foster home care will be needed over an extended period of time. This being the case, i t is recognized at the time of committal that an essentially "permanent" placement resource is what is required for committed children. When a child is committed under the Federal Juvenile Delinquent's Act, the situation is somewhat different in that the opportunity to work with the parents and child prior to committal is often limited and the order for the custody of the child to be transferred from the parents to the Superintendent or Agency is made by the Court, sometimes without prior reference to the new guardian, that i s , the Superintendent of Child Welfare 1. "Protection of Children Act, , r Provincial Statutes of British Columbia. Chapter 47, 1943, C,5, SI. Victoria, B.C. Queen's Printer. - 16 -or a children's aid society. Because the number of children committed under this Act is small and because the implications of guardianship are somewhat different and can be terminated at the Court's discretion at any time, only the records of children committed under the Protection of Children Act were used for-the purpose of this study. Out of the ninety^-three children committed to the care of the Superintendent in 19A8, sixty-four were s t i l l in care at March 31, 1953. The twenty-nine who were discharged prior to that date, left the care of the Superintendent for a variety of reasons; adoption was completed for nine; five reached their majority at which age, except in very unusual circumstances, they are automatically discharged; seven were discharged to their own parents, their homes having been sufficiently rehabilitated; one was married; five were discharged to the care of private children's aid societies because their foster parents moved permanently into the supervision areas under the jurisdiction of these agencies; and two, who had been committed under the Juvenile Delinquent's Act, were automatically discharged from the care of the Superintendent upon their conviction on another delinquency charge. Of the sixty-four children remaining as wards over the five-year period chosen for analysis in this thesis, thirty-two children, re-presenting twenty families, were selected for intensive study. The basis (1) of selection was according to regional distribution, age and sex. The group f e l l into an equal number of boys and girls and, with the exception of Region II, included cases from each of the six regions into which the Province Is divided for servicing by the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare of the Government of British Columbia. 1. See Appendix — Map showing regional divisions of the Province. 17 Region II was omitted because i t was desired that the study be concerned only with placements in distinctly rural settings, and this Region, in the main, supervises the large urban centres of the province, such as Vancouver, North and West Vancouver, New Westminster, Burnaby, Coquitlam, Richmond, etc. For the same reason, although cases were chosen from Region I, which covers Vancouver Island, none were selected from the Greater Victoria area. Because of the manner of selection of the cases, the distribution in the regions used is not particularly equitable. How-ever, i t is felt that i t is sufficiently widely spread to give a reasonably representative picture of placement practice throughout the rural area covered by the provincial Social Welfare Branch. Method of Case Analysis The basic social work philosophy and concepts, as well as the casework method and techniques, which were used as the criteria in evalu-ating the quality of the casework practiced in the placement cases selected for study, have already been discussed in some detail. The actual method of case analysis used was that of reading each case record carefully and recording, as fully as the material on the Child Welfare Division f i l e permitted, details of the pre-placement casework which was done with the parents and the child and the work which continued with them during the five-year placement period under observation. In this way, an effort was made to gain an overall picture of the continuity and consistency of the handling of the case as a whole, which ie important in any long term case-work process. In analyzing the records, a separate work sheet was kept for each child and a formula was followed as closely as possible in order to obtain certain standard information from each record and thus create a - 18 valid basis for comparison of the cases. For each case, tabulated in-formation was gathered under a section headed "Pre-Placement Data" and another section headed "Placement Data" and these were further subdivided into headings for information about "parent," "child," "foster home," and "community." Under the f i r s t heading, such information as the names, ages, sex, education, nationality, religion, intelligence and employment was recorded for each member of the family. The agency or agencies to whom the family had been previously known; the district office supervising; the date of the f i r s t social welfare branch contact with the family; the source of referral; marital status of the parents, marriage date, separation date, divorce date; financial position; reason for request for placement; date of f i r s t placement; and date of committal, were also recorded under the heading of "Pre-Placement Data." In other words, as complete a picture as possible was gained of the family situation in total as i t appeared at the beginning of the pre-placement work. Under the "Placement Data" heading, information about the numbers of placements, reasons for moves; degree of relationship between child and parents; extent of casework with parents after placement and extent of direct casework between child and social worker; number of changes in case-workers; financial aspects, that i s , whether or not a court order was made against the parent to contribute toward the support of the child and whether any contribution, total or partial, was ever made; special rates, i f any, paid to the foster parents, and reasons for same. The importance of work with foster parents and community was recognized and sub-headings for information about these were included i n i t i a l l y under the headings "Pre-Placement" and "Placement Data." How-ever, i t was found that there was insufficient information about these - 19 -aspects of the work on the Child Welfare Division records. The lack of this information meant that these important components of the placement process could not be directly assessed for this study but they were taken into consideration as the major variants in the final analysis. In addition to the above specific pieces of information, an attempt was made to obtain more qualitative data from the records con-cerning the parent-child relationships, and the extent to which the parents and children understood, accepted and participated in the plan for place-ment prior to placement as well as the extent to which their attitudes were carried over into the placement period itself. It was in this quali-tative section of the record analysis that most of the evaluation of the given casework services was made, according to whether or not i t appeared that there appeared to have been a sound understanding of the basic social work philosophy and concepts, and a good application of casework method and techniques. It should be clearly stated here that this evaluation was made with a f u l l understanding of the limitations of re-corded casework data and with a very real appreciation of the variety of interpretations and assessments which are possible with such material. After the material was gathered and recorded on individual sheets for each of the thirty-two children, i t was analyzed carefully. To begin with, the overall results of the work and planning were graded under the headings "unsuccessful,M "partially successful," and "successful." This i n i t i a l rating was made on the basis of an objective assessment of the total case handling over the f u l l five-year period which was studied. In other words, the total impression of the case based on the story re-vealed in the recorded material was the basis of the ratings "unsuccessful," "partially successful," "successful." The "unsuccessful" cases were those which left the impression of a history of many hasty, emergency, or i l l -20 considered placements with resulting disturbance to the child. Unsuccess-ful placements also generally were those where the parents1 conflicts were unresolved and as a result there was unhelpful interference by the parents or a continuing, neurotic tie between the child and parent, either real or phantasied. The "partially successful" placements were those where a fair degree of permanency and happiness for the child had been achieved and there was evidence that the parents' problems had also been resolved to a degree. That i s , the partially successful cases were those where there were fewer than three placements during the five years studied and where there was recorded evidence that the child was beginning to show some signs of gaining a sense of belonging in the foster family and in the community. The partially successful cases, however, s t i l l showed a con-siderable degree of inconsistency in the overall case-handling and the general impression created by the recorded material was that some un-certainty existed as to the possible ultimate outcome of the case* In the "successful" cases, the material recorded indicated that there had been a good understanding by the caseworker of both the parents and children with the result that suitable plans were made early in the casework process and as a result both the children and parents showed a good degree of under-standing and acceptance of their respective situations. After the i n i t i a l grading of the overall impression of the recorded material was given to each of the thirty-two cases studied, a (1) spot check was made of the use of the basic social work philosophies and concepts in the pre-placement and placement work with the parents and children, and on the basis of this check, the quality of casework evident (2) was evaluated under the headings "poor," "fair," and "good.8 A spot check 1. See appendix)f-pp. 82,83,84.85, 86, 87 2. See appendix, pp. 88-,89,90 - 21-of the use of good casework method and techniques was also made on the basis of the overall case handling and the gradings "inadequate," "fairly-adequate," and "adequate" were used. After these evaluations were made of the overall results of the placement process; the use of basic philos-ophy and concepts in the pre-placement and actual placement casework; and the overall use of good casework method and techniques, an effort was made to see what the relationship was between the three aspects of the total placement process. In other words, an effort was made to examine whether or not a "successful" placement had been achieved through a "good" under-standing of basic social work philosophy and concepts and an "adequate" use of sound casework method and techniques* Possible Value of Such a SStudy It i s realized that a qualitative, objective evaluation of subjective case material such as was examined for this thesis, especially when carried out on such a small group, cannot be definitive or conclusive in its results. However, perhaps the value of this and similar small pieces of descriptive, qualitative research may l i e in the contribution they make in indicating the endless possibilities which exist for research into the components of "quality casework" and the relationship between such casework and the ultimate results of the service which i s offered to clients,, CHAPTER II  PRE-PLACEMENT CASEWORK The Foundation of the Placement Plan Primary Pre-Placement Concept Modern child welfare work has a rich and interesting historical background which such writers as H.N. Thurston, the Abbots and the de Schwinitz1 have described in vivid word pictures in their many historical volumes. Because i t is not the purpose of this thesis to dwell on the historical aspects of child welfare work, readers of this thesis are referred to these valuable sources for material concerning the historical backdrop against which modern child welfare work becomes most clearly delineated. Through the works of the historical writers i t is possible to trace the beginnings of the recognition of the special needs of children (and the aged and infirm) to the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Century when the effect of the Poor Law of 1601 on family l i f e began slowly to be recognized. From these early beginnings there developed a gradual appreciation of the needs of individuals and the unique nature of the problems of every human being. The early sociologists of the Nineteenth Century began to study the exact nature of these individual problems and their studies led them to postulate the theory of the vital importance of the family in society. The fundamental nature of this theory was recog-nized by social workers and today i t is accepted in the area of child welfare work, where the need for placement of a child away from his own - 23 -parents sometimes arises, that i t is important that underlying the use of good placement techniques and skills there be a f u l l appreciation and application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts and especially of the one which postulates that the family i s the primary and most dynamic unit of society. A belief in this fundamental social work philosophy is most essential in the part of the placement process which i s usually designated as the "pre-placementn work, for i t is during this important i n i t i a l period that every preventive and healing resource to keep and build positive family relationships should be brought to bear on the situation. It is at this time that there should be the clearest realization that i t is the basic birth-right of every child to grow up with his own family (1) group and to have an opportunity to experience parental love, i f not from his own biological parents, then from suitable foster parents. Present-day Placement Concepts It has now come to be accepted that a child's own family setting, unless pathological, is the natural and best setting for him to develop and grow both physically and emotionally. As one modern social worker, Fern Lowry, has said, "the home is the co-ordinating and integrating force - (2) In the child's experience," and the opportunity for every child to know fully what this experience means should be safeguarded as far as i s humanly possible. To test this new thinking, many studies have been con-ducted and many reports compiled. During the war years in England, for example, the importance of family l i f e to children was studied and the 1. Bowley, A., The"Psychology of the Unwanted Child. Edinburgh, E.S. Livingstone Ltd., 194-7, p. 18 2. Lowry, Fern, Readings in Social Casework. 1920 - 1938. Columbia University Press, New York, 1939, p. 595 - 24 -findings clearly pointed up the validity of the concept. Anna Freud in her book War and Children, graphically illustrated the family's signifi-cance for the child when she stated, "The war acquires comparatively l i t t l e significance for children so long as i t only threatens their lives, disturbs their material comfort or cuts their food rations; i t becomes enormously significant the moment i t breaks up family l i f e and uproots (1) the emotional attachment of the child in the family group." Similarily, the Report of the Care of Children, which was com-piled by the Curtis Committee in England in 1946, underlined the vital importance of family l i f e and parental love to children1. In this Report, the greatest need of a child was defined as "the need for sustained per-(2) sonal affection from at least one parent-figure." In addition, i t was stated that a child needs to be consistently shown appreciation and recognition so that he receives assurance that he himself is good, worthy, lovable and wanted. It was stressed that i t is important for the child's emotional development that he should have this assurance to offset the unconscious fears of badness, unworthiness, unlovableness and fear of rejection which modern psychiatrists believe l i e deeply buried in the minds of most children. The World Health Organization publication, Maternal Care and  Mental Health, released in 1952, is one of the most recent studies on the effects of early deprivation which also demonstrates the importance to the child of family relationships. After extensive research on the "needs of homeless children (in England and the European Continent) ... that i s , 1. Freud, Anna and Burlingham, Dorothy, War and Children. International University Press, New York, N.Y., 1947, p. 21 2. "Report of the Care of Children Committee," Curtis Committee, 1946, H.M. Stationery Office, London, England. - 25 -children who were orphaned or separated from their families for other reasons and needed care in foster homes, institutions or other types of care," the author, John Bowlby, reduced his findings to a simple statement to the effect that "what is most essential for mental health is that the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother in which both find satisfaction and enjoy-(1) ment." Because the study concerned mainly very young children, the emphasis was on the particular importance of the child's relationship with his mother. Had "parental1* deprivation rather than "maternal" deprivation been the subject of the research i t seems entirely likely that the state-ment about the essential ingredient for mental health would have been altered only to the extent that the word "mother" would have been changed to "parents" and "both" changed to " a l l . " These studies and many more have served to establish the modern basic child welfare principle that "the family nucleus is the best ehviron-(2) ment for the growing child." They have served to prove conclusively that "the family is the most important single force in moulding the personality of a child, (and) ... the influence of the family on the child is funda-mental whether, in terms of usual community standards, the family is happy ( 3 ) or unhappy, good or bad, rich or poor.*1 Along with this conviction has slowly grown the recognition that while personal relationships and social conditions in a family may, by accepted standards, be anything but ideal, i t is s t i l l the primary factor in the l i f e of the child and consequently 1. Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health. World Health Organization, Palais Des Nations, Geneva, 1952, p. 11 2. Bowley, A.H., The Psychology of. the Unwanted Child, p. 4 3. Burns, Phyllis, "Goals in Family and Children's Services," Canadian Welfare Council Publication. Ottawa, 1949 - p. 57 i t s effect cannot be over-estimated. In other words, i t is now under-stood that "everything a person experiences in l i f e is colored and inter-preted through the medium of his or her (early) experiences in living within a family group." . Most Recent Placement Concept This conviction about the importance of a child's family experience to his future development has brought many present-day child welfare workers to the place where they now consider that there is no complete substitute for a child's own home, nor is there any way to fully compensate the child for the loss of his own parents. This does not mini-mize the important part played by foster parents in any successful child placement programme, for i t i s , of course, realized that the contribution of foster parents to the welfare of a child who cannot remain with his own parents is of inestimable value. However, i t is suggested by many social workers that foster parents should not be regarded as "substitute" parents but rather as "supplementary" parents with a special and unique function. This is to offer their home, their love and understanding to a child during the time the child's own home is being rehabilitated or during the time his parents are receiving active and intensive help toward relinquish-ing the child for adoption, i f rehabilitation of their home is completely unfeasible. Although not fully accepted by some caseworkers, i t i s considered by others that the concept of "no substitute for own parents" is the logical outgrowth of a complete acceptance and practical application of the essential social work philosophy and concepts concerning the basic place of 1. Heckels, Enid, Safeguarding Child Placement, (thesis) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1951, p. 7 - 27 -the family in society. A -full understanding of this concept leads to a recognition that the loss of the innate value of the child's own home is not compensated for by placement in a "superior" home. This belief in the paramount importance of the family has led to the present-day conviction among social workers that good child welfare is good family work. Fostering sound family l i f e and buttressing the family against the onslaught of unfavourable conditions within and without its circle, should be points of crucial concern to a l l involved in child welfare work. These underlying placement concepts were kept foremost in the mind of the writer as an attempt was made to assess the relationship between the use of basic social work principles, the quality of casework evident in the placement work with the children and parents, and the u l t i -mate results of the thirty-two placements which were studied. The impor-tance of the "other side" of the placement process, that i s , work with the foster parents, was kept in mind throughout the study even though i t could not be accurately assessed from the records studied. Rating According to Degree of Success of Placement First of a l l , in considering the relationship between the u l t i -mate results of the placement plan and the philosophical and conceptual components of the pre-placement casework, an assessment was made of what the general outcome of the plan for placement appeared to be at the end of the five-year period covered by the study. This i n i t i a l assessment resulted in a grading of the cases under the headings "unsuccessful," "partially successful,'* and "successful.™ This overall evaluation of the results of the placement plan was the basic evaluation against which an attempt was made later to compare the results of the other evaluations - 23 -made in the study, in order to determine whether or not there was a relationship between the success of the placement plan and the application of basic social work principles and good casework techniques. The criteria for this i n i t i a l assessment was simply a subjective evaluation by the writer of the apparent degree of happiness and security which the placement plan had achieved for each child involved. This was judged on the basis of the degree of permanency that the placements had given the children, the relationships the children had been able to form and the degree of acceptance and stability they enjoyed in their foster homes and in the communities in which they were placed. These things were assessed by noting the number of placements, where more than one occurred, the reasons for the moves, the relationship of the child to each member of the foster family and the family as a unit, and the extent of participation of the foster child in the activities of the foster family and in community, church and school groups. Because the information recorded on the Child Welfare Division records was brief, i t was sometimes only possible to gain a slight impression about some of these factors, but in each case, i t was felt that sufficient information was gleaned on which to base a valid judgment of the overall outcome of the placement plan. Perhaps i t should be explained why a purely subjective evaluation was done on each individual case rather than an assessment based on a set l i s t of clearly defined criteria. The former method was used because i t became apparent that an exact l i s t of the components of a "successful" or "unsuccessful'1 placement could not be accurately drawn up. To illustrate, when this method was tried originally, i t was thought that one of the criteria of a "successful 0 long term placement would be one foster home placement during the period of time under observation. It was found, however, that in at least two of the most "unsuccessful" cases in the group - 29 -studied, the children had remained in the f i r s t home in which they had been placed and consequently, i t was realized that this factor could not be used as a criteria of success in placement. In other words, moving i s usually a sign of failure but staying is not always a sign of success. Sirailarily, a number of other features, such as placement of members of the same family in one foster home, or withdrawal of the parents from the situation, which were at fi r s t thought of as criteria by which the success or failure of a placement could be assessed, were found to be equally unre-liable unless considered on an individual basis In conjunction with the total history of each separate case. The following table gives a picture of how the thirty-two cases were distributed within the rating scale of "unsuccessful,'* "partially successful,1* and "successful," which was used and the figures are related to the age of the child at the time of the i n i t i a l request for placement. T&ELE I - An Evaluation of the Success of the Thirty-two Placements Studied - based on an assessment of the degree of permanency and apparent happiness and security i t provided the child, and related to the age of the child at the time of the i n i t i a l request for placement. Rating Scale Pre-School Total Grade School Tota: Adolescents Total Total D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Unsuccessful 1 2 2 1 6 1 1 7 Partially Successful 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 4 8 Successful 6 1 1 1 2 11 1 1 2 4 I 1 1 2 17 Total 8 4 2 1 4 1 20 1 2 2 1 6 |L 1 3 1 6 32 Table I shows that twenty, or more than half, of the thirty-two cases were originally referred when the children were five years or less and that eleven of those twenty were "successfully" placed. Although i t - 30 -is realized that age at the time of the i n i t i a l contact is only one of the many factors which have a bearing on the ultimate outcome of a placement, the results of the thirty-two cases studied seemed to an extent to indicate that success is sometimes more possible i f placement work starts when the child requiring placement is relatively young. At the same time, the fact that the ultimate placements of slightly less than one-third of the pre-school children were rated "unsuccessful" indicates that the requirements of young children need careful study for i t is known that the trauma of separation, especially between the ages of three months and three years can be very severe. Rating According to Use of Basic Social Work Principles After the i n i t i a l grading was done of the cases according to the success of the placement, the cases were re-graded. This time, the head-ings, "poor," " f a i r , 0 and "good" were used to rate the quality of pre-placement casework and these ratings were arrived at by an assessment of the extent to which i t was evident that the basic social work philosophy and concepts had been applied in the pre-placement work with the parents and in the pre-placement work with the children. The rating was obtained (1) through the use of a spot check chart upon which was noted the use of each of the six basic social work principles in each individual case. After the spot check had been completed an arbitrary rating scale was set up and those cases which showed evidence of the use of only two or less of the six principles being applied in the pre-placement casework were rated "poorj" the "fair" cases showed a use of either three or four principles; and the "good"cases were those where there was evidence that a l l the basic principles, or five of the six, were reasonably well applied. 1. Appendix - p.p. 82,83,84 - 31 -The following table, which i s a summary of the spot check chart, shows how the thirty-two cases were distributed within the ratings which were used to assess the application of the basic principles in the pre-placement work with both parents and children. TABLE II - Rating of Pre-Placement Casework according to use of basic social work philosophy and concepts. 1 Case and Treatment Poor Fair Good Total Pre-Placement Work with Parents 11 6 15 32 Pre-Placement Work with Children 11 8 13 32 An analysis of this table indicates that in the thirty-two cases studied there was a good degree of consistency in the approach of workers to both the parents and the children in their pre-placement work. Out of the thirty-two cases studied, the spot check chart showed that the rating for the work with the parents and children was the same in twenty-two cases; better with the parents in six cases; and better with the children in four cases. These figures are significant for pre-placement casework. It is sound that there should be somewhat more stress on the work with the parents, since the emphasis at that point in the placement process should be on building up the strengths of the parents and, where constructively possible, on trying to preserve the unity of the family so that long-term placement outside the home would become unnecessary. It is also interesting to compare the distribution in Tables I and II. From this comparison, i t is seen that there are slightly more - 32 -"successful" cases in Table I than there are "good cases in Table II. This would seem to indicate that in the thirty-two cases studied there was not an exact correlation between the use of the six basic social work principles and the outcome of the placement. This is to be ex-pected, since there are other variables in the situation which would have a bearing on the success or failure of the placement plan. The group of cases studied did, therefore, seem to show that although the casework with the parents and the children may not be "good," the placements in a certain number of cases, may work out to be "successful" because of the other variables in the situation. These variables could be such things as the innate (or environ-mentally developed) ability of the child to adjust to his situation in spite of a lack of outside help; and also, the contribution of good foster parents, (not assessed in this thesis because of. insufficient recorded material in the files used) which would enter in an important way, into the success or failure of the placement. After obtaining the general distribution as set out in Table (1) II, a further analysis of the spot check chart.was made and Table III below was drawn up to show in summary form the number of times each of the six basic social work principles were used in the "poor," "fair," and "good ratings of the pre-placement casework with both the parents and with the children. 1. See appendix pp. 82,83,84 TABLE III - Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used In Pre-Placement Casework with parents and children. Principles Pre-Placement Casework Poor Fair Good Total I with parents 4 6 15 25 with children 10 8 13 28 II with parents 0 3 7 10 with children 0 5 12 17 III with parents 0 0 12 12 with children 0 3 8 H IV with parents 5 5 15 25 with children 5 8 13 26 V with parents 0 3 15 18 with children 0 2 13 15 VI with parents 4 3 13 20 with children 4 5 13 22 TOTAL 32 51 U9 232 KEY - I - Belief in the personal worth of the individual II - Belief in the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual III - Belief that behaviour is purposeful and meaningful IV - Belief in the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth ^ V - Belief in the inter-relatedness of individuals in Society VI - Belief in the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society. This table shows that out of the possible 384 times that the six basic principles could have been applied in the work with parents and children in the thirty-two cases studied, they were used 232 times. A - 34 -further analysis of this table resulted in a summary table, Table IV. TABLE IV - Summary Table of Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used in Pre-Placement casework with parents and children. Pre-Placement Casework 8 Poor Fair Good Total 1 with parents 13 20 77 110 with children 19 31 72 122 Total 32 51 149 232 Table IV shows that the basic principles were used 110 times in the work with parents and 122 times in the work with children, that i s , 67.956 and 75.3$ of the possible times. These figures would seem to in-dicate that in the thirty-two cases studied there was a fairly high level of general use of the important basic social work principles on the part of social workers in the Social Welfare Branch who did the pre-placement work in these cases. In particular, i t will be noted that there was in this group of cases an indication of a good understanding of Principles I and IV. Principle I involves a recognition of "the fundamental worth of  the individual and of his right to an opportunity to achieve in his own way the maximum development and fulfillment of his capabilities," while Principle IV postulates "the right of every individual to personal freedom  and personal growth." In a l l but the poorest of the "poor" cases, an appreciation and practical use of these basic beliefs was evident to some degree in the material on the file s read. This finding i s significant for i t indicates that the attitudes which are fundamental to the practice of good casework, and which might be considered as inherent rather than - 35 -learned attitudes, were generally evident in the cases which were analyzed for this thesis. The fact that these two principles were judged to be used in 100% of the cases where the quality of casework was rated "good1' would indicate that they may validly be regarded as the necessary founda-tion for any attempts to achieve good casework in the pre-placement period. k further analysis of Table III reveals that Principles V and VI were also used over 50% of the times possible in the pre-placement work with parents and children. These principles also make an important con-tribution to the quality of casework that is achieved in any situation for they involve an understanding of "the inter-relatedness of individuals in  society.1* and an appreciation of "the family as the primary and most dynamic  unit of society." That there was evidence in the case data studied of an understanding and use of these basic principles is encouraging and again, i t was noted that the relationship between the use of these principles and the rating given the casework in the pre-placement process was close. In Principles V and VI, the basic attitudes of the workers enter in but i t seems probable that, in these areas, the influence of formal training would be greater than with Principles I and II. It is significant also that in the thirty-two cases examined, the greatest weakness in the use of the six important social work principles appeared to be in the use of Principles II and III for i t is in these areas that the diagnostic understanding and s k i l l of the worker enters in to the greatest extent. The use of Principle II involves a diagnostic assessment of "the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual" and Principle III requires a diagnostic understanding of the belief that "behaviour is purposeful and meaningful." Table III shows lack of appli-cation of these principles according to the rating scales laid down (discussed on p. 31 of this chapter). The °fairw cases showed a slightly greater use of these principles but even in the Bgoodn cases there was a decided weakness in their application. It is interesting to note that in the work with parents, there i s apparently less ability to assess the possibility of growth and change than there is to understand the meaning of the parent's behaviour. In the casework with children, this situation i s reversed and there appears to be a greater understanding of the possi-b i l i t y of development and growth than there is of the purpose and meaning of the children's behaviour. An equal and good understanding of both these principles would seem to be needed i f the best casework, and there-fore the best placement results are to be achieved. In order to round out the assessment of the quality of the case-work evident in the pre-placement process, and its relationship to the use of sound social work principles and the ultimate results of the placement 8 plan, a further analysis of some of the other factors in the pre-placement process was attempted. Sources of Referral The pre-placement process starts with the original referral or request for help and ends at the point where a decision to place a child outside his own home has been conclusively reached and a placement resource suitable to the child's individual requirements is being chosen. The source of referral sometimes has an interesting effect on the pre-placement casework and therefore, i s a factor worthy of consideration in any assess-ment of the quality of casework achieved in the placement process. In the cases of the thirty-two children studied,, i t was found that there were eight main sources of referral. These f e l l into three main groups, namely: A. "community,w under which police, and community and - 37 -church groups were listed; B. "professions," which included school, hospital and doctors, public health authorities, and other social agencies; C. "family," that i s , relatives and the immediate family. The notations regarding referral sources made on the original work sheets which were kept for each of the thirty-two cases studied were tabulated and revealed that in twenty-one cases there was only one source of referral and in eleven cases there were two or more sources of referral. The following table shows the distribution of the referral sources according to the rating which was given the casework with parents and children. TABLE V - Distribution of Sources of Referral according to rating of quality of casework, assessed on basis of use of basic social work principles. Referral Source Pre-Placement Casework Poor Fair Good Total Community with parents 2 4 16 22 with children 3 3 16 22 Professions with parents 8 1 9 18 with children 7 4 7 18 • F « T T H 1 v with parents 4 1 5 X a.1111 XJf with children 4 1 5 TOTAL 28 14 •38 90 I Several points of interest come to light in Table V. Possibly the most interesting is the evidence of some lack of co-ordination between professional agencies in the matter of referrals. It will be noted that In the "poor" cases, at least half the referrals came from either the school, hospital, public health agency or another social agency. This - 38 high proportion of poor cases where the original referral came from another professional agency is perhaps somewhat surprising since i t might be thought that when a referral is made from such sources, the chances for the subsequent work being successful would be greater than in other cases, for sensitivity to timing and appropriateness of referral might be expected to be keener with professionally trained persons, whether a member of the social work profession or another profession. Although they cannot be construed as conclusive, the results of this small study would seem to in-dicate a need for improvement in the area of inter-agency referrals and for greater inter-professional understanding of respective areas of compe-tency. In this connection, the basic social work principle concerning "the inter-relatedne3s of individuals in society" could be applied with good effect. It is admitted that distance, shortage of time and the problem of often having to depend on written communication only, are hin-drances which can impede entirely smooth referrals, but ways of overcoming these obstacles should be found. A beginning might be a more conscious use of Mary Richmond's simple formula} "Know the agency, its functions, it s strengths; trust the agency to do their job; and teach them to trust (1) you by doing what you have agreed to do." The fact that a number of pro-fessional referrals are to be found under the "good" rating indicates that this formula is already being effectively used but the need for greater application seems apparent. Another interesting point which this table shows i s that out of the thirty-two cases studied, only five requests for placement were received from the child's own parents. This could mean a number of things. It could indicate that because of cultural demands, many parents are unable to 1. Richmond, The Long View, p. 96 - 39' face the fact that they are having difficulties in caring for their children and because of their feelings, are unable to initiate a request for help. It could also mean that the agency is not making its services readily available and in a form most helpful to troubled parents. Never-theless, whatever the reason for the relatively small number of a s e l f -referrals," the fact that four of the five parent-referred cases f e l l into the "poor" group is s t i l l rather surprising for i t is generally thought that when a parent does initiate the request for placement, i t is easier to establish a helpful relationship and do better work than is sometimes possible when the referral comes from an outside source. An analysis of the four ttpoorM cases revealed that out of the six basic con-cepts, evidence of the use of only one could usually be noted in the in-dividual records. Because of the apparent absence of sometimes even the most fundamental attitudes of acceptance and understanding of. the worth and rights of the parents as individual, a helpful relationship was not established at the time of the i n i t i a l request. Probably because they sensed that they were not understood or accepted, the parents in each of these cases, attempted to make their own private placement arrangements which later proved to be unsuccessful. By the time the second referral was made, this time through other social agencies, i t was evidently not possible to retrieve the relationship which originally had been so help-f u l . As a result, the work with the parents remained poor throughout the pre-placement contact, and later in the actual placement period as well. These cases revealed a general lack of acceptance and understanding of how to apply the basic social work principles, particularly Principles I, II, III and VI. Without the use of these fundamental principles, i t was im-possible for the worker to be helpful to the troubled parents who came - AO -f i r s t at a time when they most needed assistance. In the thirty-two cases studied, the unsatisfactory results of the contact would appear to va l i -date the premise of this thesis that to carry out the difficult task of arranging placement of a child away from his own parents, an understanding use of basic social work philosophy and concepts is essential. Table V also shows that, in the thirty-two cases studied, in the "fair" and "good" cases, the majority of referrals come from "community" sources. It i s especially interesting to note that in the "good" cases, sixteen referrals out of twenty-five come from either the police or com-munity and church groups. This would seem to indicate that community relationships in the rural areas are generally on a sound basis and that the child welfare programme of the Social Welfare Branch is sufficiently well interpreted and accepted in the communities, that referrals are made early enough and in a manner that makes possible some measure of success in the pre-placement work. The one apparent lack in interpretation is that which would enable parents to make use of the programme for themselves, and make i t easier for them to turn to the local social welfare offices for help before i t becomes necessary for community groups or some outside authority to enter the situation and make a referral. Reasons for Referral In the pre-placement process, the next point of interest after the source of referral, is the reason for the referral or the request for placement. In the files studied i t was found that seven main reasons for referral were recorded. An attempt was made to group these under three general headings, namely, "emotional neglect." "physical neglect" and "request for adoption." It was realized that some elements of "emotional neglect" would likely underly "neglect" of any sort and sometimes a request - 41 -for adoption as well, and therefore, the divisions were not thought of as definite or conclusive but were used merely in an attempt to create a l i t t l e additional clarity in the picture being presented. A tabulation of the notations on the work sheets revealed that out of the thirty-two cases studied, twenty-four were referred for one main reason, while in the remain-ing eight cases there were two or more "reasons." The following table shows the distribution of reasons for referral according to the rating scale of the quality of casework which had been worked out. TABLE VI - Distribution of the Reason for Referral according to basic rating of quality of casework. Reason for Referral Pre-Placement Casework Poor Fair Good Total Emotional with parents 7 4 5 16 Neglect with children 6 3 I 7 16 Physical with parents 7 1 11 19 Neglect with children 7 3 9 19 Request- for with parents 2 1 2 5 Adoption with children 3 2 5 TOTAL 32 14 34 80 Most apparent from the above table is the fact that the reasons for referral are almost evenly divided between the more severe emotional neglect situations and those where the physical or more "surface" aspects of neglect seemed more evident. This table also showed that there were fewer "good™ cases where the main reason for referral was "emotional neglect" which bears out the theory that the more subtle forms of neglect are the hardest to treat, possibly because at present they are less under-stood and less acceptable to workers. In this area, diagnostic s k i l l and - 42 -sound training in the dynamics of human behaviour as an aid in understand-ing the meaning of the behaviour, would be especially important. Duration of Pre-Placement Work Another important factor to consider in assessing the quality of casework in the pre-placement period is the length of time over which the work of this period extends. In the cases studied, the length of time that the family situation was known to the agency before action to commit the child or children to the care of the Superintendent was anywhere from one month to twelve years. The table below shows how the time distribution f e l l in relation to the rating given the quality of casework with both parents and children. TABLE VII - Length of Time Case Known to Agency in relation to rating of pre-placement casework, as shown in years. Years Pre-Placement Casework Poor Fair Good Total 0 with parents 1 3 3 7 with children 1 5 1 7 1 with parents 4 4 with children 4 4 2 with parents 2 4 6 with children 1 2 3 : 6 with parents 2 2 j with children 1 1 2 / with parents 3 1 i 3 with children 3 3 6 with parents 5 5 \J with children 5 5 Q with parents 1 1 2 s with children 1 1 2 12 with parents 3 3 with children 3 3 TOTAL 22 14 28 64 Because of the small number of cases used in this study and the wide spread of time covered in the pre-placement work, i t is not really possible to suggest what valid conclusions, i f any, could be drawn about the relationship which exists between the length of time pre-placement work was carried on and the quality of the casework achieved, and its effect on the ultimate results of the placement plan. Table VTI seems to suggest that with the group of cases studied an extended pre-placement period is not necessary in order to achieve "good" casework. It would seem reasonable to surmise that the use of the six basic social work principles would facilitate movement in the case and would result in an accurate diag-nosis and suitable treatment plan being worked out in a reasonably short period of time. This does not mean that supportive casework help on a long-term basis would be eliminated but i t does mean that such long term help would only be given in cases where i t has been accurately diagnosed that this was the type of help and treatment needed and not because the case was allowed to "drift." Pre-Placement Rehabilitative Resources Finally, any consideration of the quality of the pre-placement casework and its effect on the results of the total placement process must include an examination of the pre-placement rehabilitative resource that was used during the i n i t i a l period of assessment. & survey of the records revealed that eleven different pre-placement resources were used in the cases analyzed. There were four cases in which committal and placement occurred without the use of any pre-placement resource because the situa-tion was emergent at the point of committal. In the remaining twenty-eight cases, a tabulation of the material on the work sheets revealed that there was an average of 3.20 resources used per case. The following table shows the distribution of the resources used in relation to the basic "poor,9 "fair 1* and "good" rating of the cases. TABLE VIII - Pre-Placement Resources used and their relationship to the quality of the casework with parents and children. ll - Ii I I M I Resources Pre-Placement Casework Poor Fair Good Total No Resource with parents 2 2 4 with children 1 3 4 Financial with parents 5 2 8 15 Assistance with children 5 1 9 15 Non-ward with parents 11 3 13 27 Care with children 10 4 13 27 Employment with parents 1 1 Assistance with children 1 1 Community with parents 4 2 8 14 Interpretation with children 4 10 14 Legal Aid with parents 1 1 with children 1 1 Health with parents 1 5 6 Services with children 1 5 6 High Foster with parents 1 1 Home Rates with children 1 1 Child with parents 1 2 3 Guidance with children 1 1 1 3 Visiting with parents 3 3 Homemaker with children * 3 3 Intensive with parents 3 2 10 15 Casework with children 3 12 15 Hospital Care with parents 1 1 2 For Child with children 1 1 2 TOTAL 49 27 108 184 - 45 -This table reveals that in the "good" cases, considerably greater use was made of pre-placement resources than in the "fair" or "poor" cases. There were 3.40 resources used in the work with parents which was rated "good" and 4.30 resources used in the same category for children. In the "fair" cases 2.66 resources were utilized in work with parents and 1.47 in work with children, while the "poor" cases showed a use of 2.20 resources with parents and 2.27 with children. The fact that the "poor" cases with children showed a higher use of resources than the "fair" cases, Is not a contradiction of the findings in the "good" cases, but rather indicates that the mere mechanical application of external aids does not compensate for the lack of good attitudes, understanding and com-petence. The above breakdown in the use of resources shows that in the "good" cases there was a higher number of resources used than the average for the total group studied. This fact seems to indicate that, when used in conjunction with a good quality of casework, the skillful and imagina-tive use of resources does have a real bearing on the ultimate result of the placement plan. It is also interesting to note from Table VIII that the resource of non-ward care (which in reality involves placement but on a temporary basis as an aid to the preventive work that is attempted before the decision is made to commit the child to the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare) was the most frequently used. This shows the readiness on the part of the child welfare authorities in the provincial Social Welfare Branch to give concrete help in relieving stress and strain within families for a temporary period. It is noted, however, that there is a much lesser use of "intensive family casework," "homemaker services," "financial assist-ance," and "employment assistance," the resources which would make i t possible for a greater measure of family unity to be preserved, even while the problems existing within the total family situation are re-ceiving treatment. Of the four above-mentioned resources, the one that has particularly good possibilities for tiding a family over a temporary difficulty, depending on the diagnosis of the total family circumstances, is the visiting homemaker service. This resource is beginning to be used in British Columbia but here, as in most places in Canada, i t s t i l l seems more possible to obtain funds for foster home care of a child away from his own parents than for placing a visiting homemaker into the home, even though this would in many cases, offer the family a greater degree of protection against total breakdown. Part of the problem in this connection would seem to be lack of public understanding and i t is an area where ad-ditional interpretation to the community is indicated. In the three cases in the study in which a visiting homemaker was used, i t was noted from the records that considerable time was spent in interpreting the value of the plan to the community, with the result that funds were made available and a suitable ,,homemaker,, was found. In these cases, the use of the homemaker did not prevent the ultimate need for removing the children from their own homes but i t did make i t possible for the move to be less traumatic for them and the successful results of their placements can probably be attrib-uted, at least in part, to the use of this most helpful resource. In passing, i t should be mentioned that Table VIII does not show when the resource was used and in this matter, timing is a factor of importance. It was observed in the records several times that the resource was brought into the situation rather late and i t was thought that this fact had an important bearing on the ultimate result of the work that was attempted. This seemed to underline the general weakness in diagnostic s k i l l which had been noted in connection with the use of the basic social - 47 -work principles, for this s k i l l has a real bearing on workers1 ability to assess the appropriate time at which to utilize a pre-placement resource. To summarize the analysis thus far, i t would seem possible to suggest at this point that in the thirty-two cases used in this study there seemed to be at least a degree of validity to the proposed thesis that in pre-placement casework a positive relationship does exist between a "good" application of basic social work philosophy and concepts and the "successful" outcome of the placement. It remains to be seen i f an analy-sis of the post-placement casework indicates a similar trend. CHAPTER III  ACTUAL PLACEMENT CASEWORK The Effectiveness of the Placement Plan Primary Placement Concepts It is recognized that parental rights are not absolute but are contingent upon the parents* ability and willingness to discharge their duties to the benefit of their children. However, as has already been stressed, i t is firmly believed by present-day child welfare workers, that i t is the f i r s t right of every child to have an opportunity of experiencing parental love and a chance for normal growth, where possible from and with his own parents. This being believed, the trend has been toward the develop-ment of preventive casework and resources that will assist the family to find helpful and realistic solutions to their problems. These resources, enumerated in detail at the close of the previous chapter, include such things as good family casework, social allowance, non-ward care, etc. It i s clear that casework, sometimes with the aid of one or more of these resources, should enable workers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the family as a family and to diagnostically determine whether or not the parents can be helped, and the important parent-child relationship pre-served. It has often been demonstrated that good casework, whether accom-panied by a skillful and imaginative use of these resources or not, can do much to rehabilitate permanently a disintegrating family* On the other hand, i t has also been demonstrated that there are some situations where casework and the available resources f a i l , for many reasons, to bring or keep a family together, and i t may finally be necessary to make a permanent plan for a child away from his own parents through court committal to a child welfare author!ty8 % the time this legal action is taken, i t should have been definitely shown that long-term care of the child away from his own parents i s absolutely necessary. This having been proved, every effort should then be bent toward providing the child with either the security of adoption or, i f this is not possible, with as much security as possible through the selection of a suitable, permanent foster home. In addition, there should also be sincere efforts to help parents with their feelings as much as possibleo In this connection a diagnostic assessment should be made as to whether or not the parents should retain an interest in the child and visiting should be arranged, or whether the separation should be complete© Preparation for Placement Once the decision to commit has been arrived at, wherever possible with the f u l l co-operation and understanding of the parents and the child, the next step in the placement process is the careful preparation of both the parents and the child for the actual separation and a l l that this will mean to them* It miglit perhaps be considered that the preparation for placement should have been discussed in the preceding chapter since i t does occur before placement and therefore, i s not actually part of the actual placement activity per se. However, i t was thought that since this aspect of place-ment work occurs after a l l the early preventive work has been tried and after the final decision has been reached to place the child away from his own parents, i t was decided that this aspect of the work more logically f e l l in the chapter concerning the actual placement caseworke In effect, - 50 -the preparational work which is done just prior to placement, forms a large part of the base upon which the placement work is built. Preparation of Parents The areas requiring primary consideration in the immediate prepara-tional work for placement are those which concern the inner feelings of parents and children when they eventually face long-term separation from each other. To be able to help with these feelings, workers must have an understanding of them. To begin with, i t is necessary to understand that within most cultures there is the concept that parents should be able to care for their children and keep them with them during their growing years. When parents find themselves unable to meet this cultural standard of be-haviour, i t is natural that they experience some sense of failure, discour-agement, guilt, humiliation, loneliness, grief and frustation about the limitations of themselves and their situation. The degree of these feelings will vary with the degree to which the parents, because of a l l that has already happened to them in l i f e , are able to feel and express emotions. However, i t is safe to assume that a l l parents, even "neglectful," "incapable" parents, experience these feelings to some degree. It is realized that with some parents these feelings are minimal, for example, the very narcissistic or self-seeking child-parent (emotionally), those too immature to accept children, the punitive, hostile parent, and those who project the rejection they themselves have known on the child. With these parents the worker must not only accept the neglect and incapability but must also accept whatever rejection of parenthood and of the child is present, and help the parent from that point. Workers who appreciate these possible parental attitudes are better able to ease the parents' suffering and thus create a sounder base for carrying out the plan to place the child away from the parents. - 51 -Because of their inner feelings, and also because of the worker's feelings in regard to parenthood, i t i s often particularly hard for parents to form a relationship with a worker. To preserve their own self-respect, even rejecting parents often at f i r s t project the causes of their situation on to circumstances beyond their control and their response to offers of help i s frequently hostile and angry. It i s necessary for these feelings to be understood and as far as i s possible, resolved and a working relationship established before the parents can receive the help they need i n facing long-term separation from their child or children. This relationship can only be b u i l t up through a consistent demonstration of interest and an ac-ceptance of them as they are and through sufficient time being taken to really get to know the parents. In this whole area, self-awareness on the part of the worker i s especially important, as the worker's own attitudes concerning parents and parenthood might be projected into the client's s i t u -ation. In order to avoid this p i t f a l l an individualistic casework approach i s needed so that the needs of a l l parents, whether they are wholly or par-t i a l l y rejective or neglectful through ignorance and circumstance, may be met. Preparation of Children In a similar way, i t i s necessary to assist a child who i s facing the traumatic experience of separation from his parents. To be helpful to a child, i t i s necessary to attempt to gain an understanding of this experi-ence "from the child's viewpoint." As Leontine Young has stated, "There i s only one source from which we can actually learn to know and understand the (1) feelings of any child, and that i s from the child himself." This i s true 1. Young, Leontine, "Placement from the Child's Viewpoint," Social  Casework. June, 1950, p. 251 also of parents. Their feelings are not always what a worker lacking diag-nostic s k i l l and self-awareness might need to believe they f e e l . Workers involved i n child placement work need to know how to observe and how to l i s t e n to the children (and parents) with whom they are working, i f they are to be able to understand what the child i s feeling and how to help him. Again, this requires time, patience and sensitivity. It involves the "artistry" to which Leontine Young referred i n an Institute on Placement given under the sponsorship of the Vancouver Island Canadian Association of Social Workers i n Victoria, B.C. i n August, 1952. This art i s t r y enables the worker to understand the many "small" and "great" inner feelings of any child who faces separation from his parents. Among these inner feelings i s fear of the unknown which most children experience to a degree from time to time in the process of growing up but which i s known by the child faced with the prospect of losing his own parents, i n a way far beyond the "usual." There i s also the child's acute feeling of being different from others which every child experiences when he cannot be cared for by his own parents. This feeling i s often constantly underlined for the placed child by the chance remarks of those around him and by the many questions of his friends and playmates about his own family and about "why" he i s not with them. Often, too, the community at large emphasizes the child's feeling of difference. This creates within the child feelings of unworthiness and unlovableness which, i f not resolved, w i l l have a profound effect on the development of his personality. It has been demonstrated often that a child who i s not helped effectively at the beginning of his experience with placement by an under-standing casework relationship, through which he receives support and c l a r i -fication, w i l l not be able to adjust to the situation i n which he finds himself. In his misery and loneliness, he remembers within himself the - 53 -"rejection" of his parents and because of these memories, which arouse fears of another rejection, his behaviour often regresses and he acts in such a way that he brings down on his head the very thing he fears. All too often children cover up their feelings with withdrawal or seeming indifference or they may "over-accept" the foster home and fantasy that i t is a place which magically gives a l l a child could wish. Whatever the child's way of attempt-ing to make an adjustment, he needs understanding and help for otherwise without sound casework help and a foster home suitable to his needs, he will repeat this pattern over and over again. The child who goes through the experience of repeated placements (rejections to him), may gradually learn to protect himself by a persistent refusal to love anyone. One who is deeply hurt may finally make the decision never to trust or love anyone again. When this decision, which might be called a decision against l i f e , is made, a door closes and from then on he may go through l i f e exploiting everyone he meets and be incapable of giving or receiving love. Good pre-placement and good preparational casework prior to permanent placement can do much to avert this tragedy, especially i f the choice and preparation of the foster home is good. The degree to which good preparational work was done with the parents and the children in the cases studied for this thesis could only be estimated through an assessment of the casework which was evident in the total placement period. The method of analyzing the placement casework was on the same pattern as the analysis of the preventive pre-placement work. Again, the quality of casework was rated "poor," "fair," and "good," accord-ing to the apparent use that was made of the six basic social work principles and to do this rating, the same type of spot check chart \ms used and the same type of tables were drawn up to show the results. - 54 -Placement Theories After the preparational work has been done, and the placement achieved, in the placement period which follows, there should be continued work with both the parents and the children, although the focus of the work naturally changes somewhat. Wherever possible, the parents should receive continued casework help in order that they may co-operate in the continuing plan (visits, letters, etc.) and be reassured and continue to accept and feel happy about the long-range plan which has been arrived at preferably with their agreement for their children. Often, too, they need help, in the actual-'-placement period, with their own personal problems, quite apart from their children, so that they may re-establish their own lives with some degree of satisfaction and sense of usefulness and worth. This kind of help is given when the worker sees clearly the worth of the parent as an indi-vidual and puts this basic social v/ork philosophy into practical use with the casework service he offers. With children, the placement work has the two-fold focus of help-ing the child to adjust to his new home and, continuing to assist him with his feelings about being separated from his own parents. Both these areas of placement work with children have a continuous aspect, for as long as the child is growing, adjusting, and thinking, he will be wondering about himself in relation to his foster parents and his own parents. He needs constant help with his thoughts about these things and, therefore, a con-tinuous relationship with someone to whom he can talk freely about them is essential i f the placement is to be given the best possible chance of u l t i -mately working out satisfactorily. The child also needs assurance that his ambitions and plans for the future are considered important and that he will receive every help in carrying them out. In other words, he needs the under-pinning and reassurance that any growing child needs, plus a special under-- 55 -standing because of his loss of his parents. These theories about the content of good placement casework were kept in mind as an attempt was made to assess the quality of the casework which was evident in the placement period of work with the parents and children studied. It was observed that the "theories" were merely a prac-tical application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts which had been set up as criteria for good casework in both the preventive and the placement periods. Rating According to Use of Basic Social Work Principles Just as in the analysis of the pre-placement casework, the thirty-two cases under study were graded in the post-placement analysis as "poor," "fair," and "good," according to the extent to which i t was apparent that the basic social philosophy and concepts had been applied in the work with parents and children. Again, the rating was arrived at through the use of (1) a spot check chart upon which was noted the use of each of the six basic social work principles in each individual case, and again, the same stand-ards of performance were used to arrive at the ratings. The following table, which is a summary of the spot check chart, shows how the thirty-tv/o cases were distributed within the ratings which were used to assess the application of the basic principles in the placement work with both parents and children. TABLE IX - Rating of Casework during the actual placement according to use of basic social work philosophy and concepts. Casework during Placement Poor Fair Good Total With Parents 14 13 5 32 With Children 9 8 15 32 1. See appendix^ pp. 85,86,87 - 56 -An analysis of this table indicates that there is a much lower number of "good" cases in factual' -placement work with parents than there is in the work with children. A comparison of this table with Table II on page thirty-one of the Second Chapter, serves to emphasize this fact s t i l l more. In contrast with the pre-placement work where a good degree of con-sistency in work with both parents and children was observed, in the actual placement work only ten cases had the same rating for the work with the parents and the children, while five had a better rating for the work with parents, and seventeen had a better rating for the work with children. It is to be expected that during the actual placement period, less consistent work with the parents would be possible than with the children, for the very realistic reason that the parents can and do move around a great deal and are often hard to locate and keep in touch with, while with the children this is seldom a problem. Nevertheless, i t is wondered i f , in the casework with parents, there was a greater appreciation of the basic social work philosophy and concepts, there might be fewer "lost" or "unresponsive" parents. Reality factors of disappearance, prison sentences, or general instability which causes constant moving, do enter into the work with parents. It appears, however, that after a child is committed and placed in a foster home, the recognition of the needs of the parents, both personal and in relation to their child or children in care, may be lost by the worker in his effort to concentrate on settling the child happily in his new home. This seeming loss of focus in the work with the parents can endanger the whole placement plan and therefore is worthy of note. A comparison of Table IX and Table I on page twenty-nine of Chapter Two shows that there are seventeen "successful" cases in Table I but only five "good" cases with parents and fifteen "good" cases with parents in Table IX. This bears out the observation made in the comparison of Tables I - 57 -and II that there is not an exact correlation between the use of the six basic social work concepts and the results of the placement. In the case of the actual -placement work, the contrasts are somewhat sharper in the work * with parents where i t has already been noted there was a distinct drop in the "good" cases. Some of the variables, which would have a bearing on this situation have already been mentioned. In addition, here there would be some different variables. Depending on the unity of the family and the child's belonging, work with the family might affect the placement or con-stitute a separate "case." After obtaining the general distribution as set out in Table IX, a further analysis of the spot check chart was made and Table X below was drawn up to indicate the number of times each of the six basic social work principles was used in the "poor," "fair," and "good" ratings of the actual placement casework which was done with both the parents and the children. TABLE X - Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used in Placement Casework v/ith parents and children. Principles Placement Casework Poor Fair Good Total I with parents 3 12 5 20 with children 6 8 15 29 II with parents 0 2 3 5 with children 0 4 1 15 19 III with parents 0 0 5 5 with children 0 0 13 13 IV with parents 9 13 5 27 with children 4 8 15 27 V . with parents 0 9 5 14 with children 0 4 13 17 VI with parents 6 13 4 23 with children 2 6 15 23 TOTAL 30 79 113 222 NOTE: See Key on following page. - 58 -KEY - I - Belief in the personal worth of the individual II - Belief in the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual III - Belief that behaviour is purposeful and meaningful IV - Belief in the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth V - Belief in the inter-relatedness of individuals in Society VI - Belief in the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society. This table shows that out of the possible 384 times that the six basic principles could have been applied in the thirty-two cases, they were used a total of 222 times, that is, ninety-four times in the work with par-ents and 128 times in the work with children, or 58.02$ and 79.01$ of the possible times. These figures would seem to indicate that the quality of casework in the actual-5.placement period was definitely better in the work with the children than i t was with the parents. Again, these figures are read with an appreciation of the realistic problem that exists in keeping in touch with parents after the committal of their child has occurred and they no longer have actual responsibility for his care. Nevertheless, i t seems that some of the reason for the drop in the quality of the casework with parents may exist in the attitudes of workers and their approach to parents both before and after the plan for long-term placement has been effected. In other words, i t would seem that sometimes the help offered parents is not offered for themselves but only regarding their children. It would seem that in /actual -placement work with parents there is less application of the basic social work principles, even of such a fundamental one as Principle I which involves a recognition of the worth of the parents as individuals and their right to achieve (and this implies their right to be helped to achieve) the maximum development and fulfillment of their capabilities. Here again, there is need for self-awareness on the - 59 -part of the worker so that non-acceptance of parents who cannot be a true parent may be avoided. In the work with children, Principle I is much more helpfully applied, which would seem to indicate a greater ability on the part of the workers to accept and work with the children as individuals than is apparent in their work with parents. Principle IV which recognizes "the right of every individual to  personal freedom and personal growth." showed a high percentage of appli-cation, even in the work with the parents but i t was wondered i f the apparent use of this principle was really a conscientious use or merely an apparent use which in reality *ra,s an allowing of the client a "freedom" through a lack of interest or a lack of understanding of his problems. It was only possible to surmise about this point. Both in the preventive pre-placement and the actual placement work with parents and children, in a l l but the "poor" cases, Principle V, which involves an under-standing of "the inter-relatedness of the individual in society." and Prin-ciple VI, which calls for an appreciation of "the family as the primary and  most dynamic unit of society." were used to a fairly good degree. Here again, i t was observed that the relationship between the use of these prin-ciples and the rating given the quality of casework in the placement process was close. In the analysis of the use of the fundamental social work princi-ples in placement casework, i t was seen that there was the same weakness in the use of Principles II and III that had been noticeable in the analysis of the quality of the pre-placement casework. This would seem to indicate that there is evidence of a consistently lower degree of s k i l l throughout the casework of the total placement process in applying these two diagnostic principles than there is in the application of the other four. That i s , there would seem to be a general weakness in workers' ability to skillfully - 60 -assess "the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual" and to diagnostically understand that "behaviour is purposeful and meaning- ful." As in the pre-placement casework, there appeared to be in the later placement work a definite lack of application of these fundamental principles in the cases where the quality of the casework was rated "poor." Again, the "fair" cases showed a slightly greater use of these principles but even in the "good" cases the application was not consistent. The ability of workers in their work with parents to assess the possibility of growth and change was again slightly better than their ability to understand the meaning of the parents' behaviour. In the casework with children, this situation was again reversed, as i t had been in the pre-placement work. Rating According to the Use of Good Casework  Methods and Techniques The analysis having been done of the extent to which the six basic casework principles had been used in the pre-placement and the placement -work, i t was next desired to attempt to rate the casework in the group of placement cases studied according to the use vrhich was made of good casework method and techniques. It was discovered that this could not be broken into two sections, pre-placement and placement, for the method and techniques flowed In-a continuous stream throughout the whole placement process and i t was impossible to assess them separately for the two periods of the process. A glance at the criteria used in assessing method and techniques will make this apparent. For the purposes of this thesis, the casework method was divided into five parts as follows; A. gathering information; B. social  diagnosis; C. treatment plan; D. implementation of plan; E. evaluation  and re-evaluation of plan. Because method and techniques seemed to have to be considered as a whole, a procedure much the same as xras used in the i n i t i a l "unsuccessful," - 61 -"partially successful," and "successful" grading of the outcome of the placement was followed, and the total case handling was graded as "inade-quate," "fairly adequate," and "adequate" on the basis of the extent to which i t was evident that the method and technical criteria were used. A (1) spot check chart.was made of the method and techniques used in the total placement process with both the parents and the children, and a tabulation was made of the ratings of the cases under these three headings. The scale of rating was as follows; "inadequate," - evidence of none or only one of the criteria; "fairly adequate," - evidence of two or three, and "adequate" showed the use of four, or a l l of the steps in the casework method' and the accompanying techniques. The table below shows the distribution which resulted. TABLE XI - Rating of Case Handling in the Total Placement Process according to the use of good casework method and techniques. Method and Technique Inadequate Fairly Adequate Adequate Total Casework With Parents 8 13 11 32 Casework With Children 11 8 13 32 It is interesting to compare this table with Table II on page 33 and Table VIII on page 44 of Chapter Two. In the case of the work with parents, both with reference to the application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts and the use of good casework method and techniques, there is a variety of results in each instance. In the casework with the children, however, there is a constancy, for the results in each of the three ratings is very much the same. It would appear from this that there 1. See «p p a n d l x , P | . 8 | 8 9 | 9 0 - 62 -i s greater s k i l l on the part of workers i n using the basic s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s and good casework techniques i n t h e i r work with ch i l d r e n than there i s i n t h e i r work with parents. Since i n c h i l d placement work the major emphasis should be on working toward creating the greatest possible degree of s e c u r i t y and happiness f o r c h i l d r e n who must be placed away from t h e i r parents on a long-term b a s i s , t h i s r e s u l t i s perhaps as i t should be. However, since the work with parents i s u l t i m a t e l y r e f l e c t e d , at l e a s t i n many cases, i n the f i n a l outcome of the placement, i t seemed from the group of cases studied that with an improvement i n the work with the parents, the permanency and s e c u r i t y of an even greater number of placements could be safeguarded. A f t e r obtaining the general d i s t r i b u t i o n of the use of good method and techniques as set out i n Table XI, a f u r t h e r analysis of the spot check chart was made and Table XII was drawn up to indicate the number of times each of the f i v e steps i n casework method and technique were used i n the "inadequate," " f a i r l y adequate," and "adequate" groups. TABLE XII - Number of Times Good Casework Method and Techniques were used i n  the T o t a l Placement Process i n casework with parents and chi l d r e n . Method and Technique Casework In-adequate F a i r l y Adequate Adequate T o t a l Gathering with parents 3 13 11 27 Information with c h i l d r e n 2 6 13 21 with parents 0 3 5 8 S o c i a l Diagnosis with c h i l d r e n 0 2 11 13 with parents 2 8 11 21 XX Wet. U l l l f c )Li \ J X X e v i l with c h i l d r e n 8 8 13 2? Implementation with parents 2 8 11 21 of Plan with c h i l d r e n 9 8 13 30 Evaluation and Re- with parents 0 5 8 13 evaluation of Plan with c h i l d r e n 1 0 7 8 TOTAL 27 61 103 191 - 63 -This table shows that out of the possible 160 times the steps in method and techniques could have been applied in the thirty-two cases, they were used ninety times in the work with parents and 106 times in the work with children, that i s , 56.2% and 66.2$ of the possible times. These figures would seem to indicate a passable degree of the use of good casework method and techniques in the total case handling of the placement process but in • the small group of cases studied certain areas of casework method and tech-nique show a decided weakness. The most noticeable areas of weakness are again in the parts of the casework method which require diagnostic s k i l l , that i s , in "B" and "E" - the "social diagnosis" and the "evaluation and  re-evaluation of the plan." Method "C" - the "treatment plan" also shows a tendency to.be less skillfully used and this is to be expected in view of the seeming general weakness in diagnostic s k i l l . This finding is consistent with earlier findings in connection with the application of the six basic social work principles where in the cases analyzed a weakness was also evi-dent in the use of the principles which demanded the greatest degree of diagnostic ability. This would seem to demonstrate a need for the develop-ment of ways to improve and strengthen the diagnostic s k i l l of workers in-volved in the placement process so that planning would be based on sound diagnosis. It will be readily recognized that this ability is of fundamental importance throughout a l l parts of the placement process, but perhaps especially at the level of pre-placement casework. Here, is required astute assessment of the situation which calls for acute diagnostic s k i l l . Assessment of Movement in Cases during Five-Year Placement Period Following the i n i t i a l rating of the cases according to the degree of success in the outcome of the placement plan; the rating of the quality of the pre-placement and the actual placement casework according to the - 64 -extent of the application of the six basic social work principles, and the rating of the case handling in the total placement process according to the adequacy of the use of good casework methods and techniques, an attempt was made to determine whether there was any way in which movement in the cases over the five-year period studied could be measured. It was realized that since the i n i t i a l rating of the cases according to the outcome of the place-ment plan, as i t appeared at the end of the five year period studied, was made on the basis of the apparent end result as recorded on the f i l e , no time factor was involved and therefore movement could not be measured. The same was true of the rating of the adequacy of the use of casework method and techniques because the assessment was made on the basis of the case handling of the part of the placement process with parents and children which was analyzed. With the rating of the cases according to the use of the basic social work principles, however, the time factor did enter in, and therefore, a rating of the movement in this aspect of the placement process seemed possible. Again, using the basic spot check charts, a comparison was made of the rating given the work with parents in the pre-placement phase and that given in the actual placement phase of the case - the total period covering a five-year period. A similar comparison was made for the work with children. These comparisons revealed that in the group of cases studied, the ratings of some cases stayed the same throughout the placement process. Some had the same grade and the same rating but the use of the principles varied; some had the same rating but a lower grading; some had the same rating but a higher grading; some showed a radical change from "good" to "bad" and some vice versa; some changed only slightly, that i s , from "good" to "fair," "fair" to "good," "fair" to "poor" or "poor" to "fair." After this preliminary survey, i t was seen that these changes - 65 -could be grouped into three main headings} "no movement" (stable), "movement down" (regressed) and "movement up" (progressed). The findings of this analysis were tabulated and the results of the rating of the movement in the casework with parents and children involved in the part placement process which was analyzed in thirty-two cases over the period 1948 to 1953 are shown on the following table. TABLE XIII - Rating of Movement in total placement casework with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 Rating of Movement No Movement Movement Down Movement Up Total With Parents 14 13 5 32 With Children 16 8 8 32 This table indicates that in slightly less than half the cases in the work with parents and in slightly more than half the cases in the work with children, no improvement and no regression was apparent in the overall case handling throughout the part of the placement process which was studied. The breakdown for the "no movement" rating for parents was as follows} "poor" - 7, "fair" - 3, and "good" - 4} and for children} "poor" - 4, "fair" -2, and "good" - 10. (see Table XIV) In the work with parents twelve cases showed a movement down the scale and in the case of work with children there were eight cases where this movement was also apparent. The cases in which improvement, or movement up the scale of rating was evident, were fewer than in the other two categories, with the work with parents again showing a decided lack of progress over the five-year period studied. Having gained the general picture of assessable movement in the case handling over the five-year placement period studied, some of the above supplementary findings of the detailed analysis of the scale of movement - 66 -were tabulated. These showed the rate of movement in relation to the rating given the cases according to the extent to which the casework indicated a use of the six basic social work principles. The table below gives the results of this tabulation. TABLE XIV - Scale of Movement in Placement Work with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 as measured by the use of the six basic social work principles. Evidence of Movement Casework Poor Fair Good Total iwith parents 7 3 A 14 No Movement with children 4 2 10 16 with parents 1 1 11 13 Movement Down with children 2 4 2 8 with parents 3 2 0 5 Movement Up with children 5 2 1 8 TOTAL 22 14 28 64 A point of interest which was noted from this table was the fact that three "poor" cases in the work with parents and five "poor" cases in the work with children showed movement up. From among the thirty-two cases studied one of the parent cases showed a radical improvement from "poor" to "good" and the other showed a smaller improvement from "poor" to "fair." In the children's cases two improved from "poor" to "good" and three from "poor" to "fair." Since this assessment of movement covers a five-year period, the findings indicate that i t takes a long time to improve a situa-tion which is poorly handled in the beginning and this would seem to empha-size the importance of the i n i t i a l work that is done in a case for its effect is felt over a long period of time. The need for sustained effort and consistency in handling is seen also by a glance at the thirteen cases under the rating "good" which showed - 67 -a movement down over the five-year period. In five of these cases the rating dropped from "good" to "poor"; in six cases i t went from "good" to "fair" and in one case, i t went from "fair" to "poor". Some of the "good-to-poor" cases were those in which the parents became lost and i t is real-ized that reducing the rating of the casevrork because contact became impos-sible may not be considered to be just, for i t can be argued that the disappearance of a parent may possibly be an indication that his feelings about his child have been satisfactorily resolved and he has been helped to move away with some renewed confidence and hope about himself. On the other hand, the disappearance could mean that the parent was unable to endure the suffering of the experience of losing his child and withdrawal may be his way of escaping the painful reality of his situation. In this latter case, i t could be that the parent did not receive sufficient help and understand-ing and therefore, the casework used might validly be rated "poor." In the former case, i t was also finally decided that a "poor" rating should be given in those cases where the parent became "lost" for i t was thought that this also indicated inadequate help had been given the parent, since a parent who had a clear understanding of the total placement process would realize that because of future complications which might arise with refer-ence to the care of his child, he should at least keep the supervising office advised of his whereabouts. Table XIV also bore out the trend, which earlier tables had also shown, that there is greater consistency of the total case handling in the work with children than there is in the work with parents. Even bearing in mind the greater number of variables at work in the case of parents, this trend would seem to indicate that generally speaking, more work with the parents could be beneficially attempted. - 68 Testing the Premise of the Thesis In the final analysis of the placement process, i t now remained to be seen the extent to which, in the thirty-two cases studied, i t could be shown that "successful" placements were achieved through a "good" appli-cation of basic social work philosophy and concepts and an "adequate" use of sound casework method and techniques. In order to gain a "total" picture, and to keep the method of (1) analysis consistent, another spot check chart was drawn up showing the situation for a l l the cases as i t existed at March 31, 1953, the end of the five-year placement period under study. This new spot check chart was com-piled on the basis of the earlier spot check charts which had been worked out and i t was from these charts that the compilation of ratings was made. The i n i t i a l "success" rating was noted for each case, also the placement rating for work with parents and child, according to use of principles and concepts, and finally, the total case handling rating according to use of method and techniques, were charted in detail. For the sake of clarity, the new "total" chart was divided into three sections. Section I dealt with the positives in the placement process and had the headings, "successful," "good" (with parents and children) and "adequate," (with parents and children); Section II covered the "partially successful" cases, the "fair" and the "fairly adequate;" while Section III had the headings "unsuccessful," "poor," and "inadequate." To assess the correlation between the "successful" outcome of the placement plan and the "good" use of basic social work principles, plus the "adequate" application of sound casework method and techniques, a rating scale within Section I was set up. The rating "successful" was the constant 1. See appendix p>«9i- 92 - 69 -factor and by means of the rating scale the correlation between this constant and the two other variables was assessed. A "poor" rating was given those cases in which no correlation existed between the three factors. Those cases which showed a correlation of one or two of the variables were rated "fair" and those where three or four of the variables were correlated were rated "good." The same method of rating correlation was used for Section II and Section III of the spot check chart. Finally, the results of these three ratings were brought together in one table and the result was as follows: TABLE XV - Correlation between Degree of Success of total placement plan  and good use of basic social work principles, together with  sound casework method and techniques. Correlation Rating Poor Fair Good Total Unsuccessful Placement 5 0 7 12 Partially Successful Placement 1 5 2 8 Successful Placement 10 2 2 14 TOTAL 16 7 11 34 This final table would seem to indicate that there may be some validity to the basic premise of the thesis that there was, in the cases studied, a correlation between the ultimate success of a placement and the use of basic social work principles and a competent application of sound casework method and techniques. Out of the seventeen placements rated "successful" from the thirty-two studied for this thesis, ten showed a "good" degree of correlation between the ultimate outcome of the placement and the principles and method employed by the caseworker to obtain the favourable results. That is, there was a correlation between a l l these - 70 -aspects of the case to the extent of 59$. From this, i t may be deduced that since in this thesis only the casework with the parents and children was analyzed, that is two-thirds of the total placement process, which in actuality is a three-fold process and includes work with the foster parents as well, the 59$ correlation is in fact, 59$ of the 66.67$ of the part placement process which was studied. This would mean that the correlation between the "successful," "good" and "adequate," works out to 92.04$ in the two areas of the placement process analyzed. The fact that Table XV shows that in four of the "successful" cases there was "poor" correlation and in three of the cases there was only "fair" correlation is consistent with the earlier tables which also indicated that the correlation was not complete. This is to be expected, for there would always be individual variables in cases which would occasionally make i t possible for a placement to work out successfully even though the casework did not shov a good use of basic principles or adequate methods. In these few cases, such variables as the innate strengths of the parents and children, certain favourable circum-stances in their immediate environment, and good community influences, could result in the placement being successful, in spite of the handicap of poor placement work being done. In this chapter, the indications of correlation between the actual placement and the use of basic principles and sound techniques which were indicated in the earlier analysis of the pre-placement work were further demonstrated. CHAPTER IV  FUTURE PLACEMENT CASEWORK The Achievement of Placement Permanency Re-statement of the Basic Premise It was stated at the beginning of this thesis that to improve the standard of practice in a l l fields of the profession, social workers must consciously apply in their day to day work, the fundamental professional beliefs and concepts, as well as use good technical casework methods and skills. In the analysis which followed the placement process covering work with parents and children in thirty-two cases, the validity of this state-ment was indicated. The end result of this study has shown a significant correlation between the ultimate results of the placement process and the extent to which the basic social work principles and sound casework method and techniques were applied during the course of the process. The impli-cations of this finding are important in the practice of social casework in any of the fields of the profession, but perhaps they are of special signif-icance in the dynamic area of child welfare. In this thesis, through the use of the device of spot check charts and analytical tables, a consistent pattern of evaluation was built up and i t was eventually possible to indicate that in the portion of the placement process that was studied in thirty-two cases, "successful" placements in general do show a "good" use of philosophy and concepts and an "adequate" application of sound casework method and techniques. Of special interest - 72 -in the study are the movement and the correlation rating scales which evolved during the final stages of the analysis. These are of interest not only because of their value to this study, but because of their significance in any area of professional research, for examination into the components of social casework, in relation to the results i t achieves, is vitally needed at this point in the development of the profession. Value of Social Research Because of the underlying reason for any research in social work is the improvement of professional service, the focus of a l l research projects should be on the needs of the client. In this thesis, in an effort to keep this focus, constant reference was made to the case history notes which were taken from the records of the thirty-two children whose placement experiences were studied. In this way, the study was kept alive and vital and the theoretical observations were kept as closely related as possible to the realities of actual day-to-day placement work. Throughout the analysis, i t was remembered that the tables and statistics which were drawn up represented the lives and stories of thirty-two children. A con-stant reviewing of these stories kept the individuals concerned from be-coming for the writer mere statistics on a chart or terms in a formula. The vitality of any social research project comes from the case material used and therefore, to underline the significance of the findings of this thesis, there is no more effective way than to illustrate, by case example, what i t means in terms of the lives of the children studied. The following two illustrations show, through graphic contrast, the high corre-lation that exists between the use or lack of use of basic social work philosophy and concepts and sound casework method and techniques, and the ultimate happy or unhappy results of the placement. The first case i l l u s -- 73 -trates a "poor" use of principles and techniques in the i n i t i a l stages of the work and an improved use later on, but with the overall result of the placement s t i l l being "unsuccessful." In the second illustration, there is a "good" use of basic social work philosophy and casework techniques and the "successful" outcome of the placement bears this out. J Case Illustrations of the Basic Premise Mary S. was a young unmarried mother who requested adoption place-ment of her child and was referred by the hospital authorities to the dis-trict social worker for help in making the necessary arrangements. From the beginning, the worker's method seemed to indicate a basic lack of appreciation of the girl's worth as an individual, and she appeared to over-identify with the maternal grandmother, who showed no understanding of her daughter's problems. The worker's poor attitudes toward the mother carried over into her planning for the child. Here, although medical opinion was obtained and adoption placement was recommended, the worker, because of her own personal prejudices, felt such a plan would be unsatisfactory. She therefore, arranged to have the child committed and an over-order was made against the mother at that time. In everything that was done, the worker revealed a lack of knowl-edge and understanding of the basic social work principles, nor was there any evidence that she was better able to apply casework techniques in a helpful way. Shortly after the baby came into care, the mother became "lost" and no effort was made to locate her or to determine whether or not she was in need of help. An inability, or perhaps lack of attempt, on the part of the supervisor to change the worker's poor attitudes, or at least protect the client from them, was a significant feature of this case. It was not until a number of years later, when her consent to the - 74 -adoption of her child was desired, that any effort was made to find the mother. By this time, there was a new worker and a new supervisor, whose grasp of basic principles and techniques were in sharp contrast to those of the former team. Upon being located, the mother, who had evidently under-stood her child had already been adopted, refused to give her consent and requested help in working out some arrangement whereby she could have her child with her. The second worker did intensive work with the mother and she re-sponded to a considerable degree and did receive much help from her contact with the worker. However, i t appeared that the helpful approach came too late to make i t possible to retrieve the damaged ability of the mother to form a truly satisfactory working relationship and eventually, the work with the mother terminated abruptly when she disappeared without having resolved her conflict about her child. The child is s t i l l in the foster home in which she was first placed and although her adjustment is not totally satisfactory, i t is likely that her adoption will eventually proceed without the mother's consent because of the length of time she has been in the home. It seemed apparent from reviewing the f i l e that had there been good casework with the mother in the i n i t i a l stages of the case, many years of anxiety could have been avoided for the mother, the foster parents and the child, whose shyness and over-dependence on the foster mother are possible indications that she has sensed the lack of security in her position in the foster home and has been anxious about i t . Whether the choice of home and preparation of the foster parents also lacked understanding and s k i l l could not be ascertained from the record but i t was recognized that these factors also would have an important bearing on the situation. In sharp contrast to this case which shows the results of the poor - 75 -use of basic principles and techniques, is the second illustration which demonstrates the success which can be achieved when these essentials of good social work practice are utilized. The situation which resulted in David B. and his sister Anne coming into the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare was one where the children's mother had permitted an immoral situation to exist between her common-law husband and her eleven year old daughter. The circumstances in the home became known in the tiny community in which the family lived, and there was extreme agitation and hostility against both the mother and the man involved. The police had already^laid a charge of contributing to juvenile delinquency against the man when the referral was made to the dis-trict social worker. The worker realized that the situation was one which needed prompt attention but also recognized that because the children were extremely upset by a l l that was happening, they should not be removed from their own home without careful preparation. The man involved having left the home tem-porarily, the worker left the children with their mother until she had an opportunity to get to know them better and to prepare them for the possi-b i l i t y of separation from their mother. This action drew some criticism from people in the community but the worker handled this successfully and was able to interpret to these people the value to the children of not being moved abruptly from their home. During this time, work was also going on with the mother and she was given the opportunity to decide whether or not she wished to continue to keep her children with her. She voluntarily chose to relinquish the children permanently in favour of her common-law husband who was acquitted on the charge because of insufficient evidence. While a l l this work was going on, the worker was busy selecting - 76 -and preparing a suitable foster home in another community and finally, after careful preparation and with the f u l l co-operation and help of the mother, the children were moved. On the whole, the placement has been successful and much of its success can be attributed to the good use of basic social work principles and sound casework techniques which were applied by the worker. In analyzing this case, i t seemed apparent that the worker had a fundamental appreciation of the rights of the individual and was able to withstand considerable community pressure in order to uphold her belief. There was evidence too of good diagnostic s k i l l , for the assessments which were made of the degree of the children's upset and the need to move slowly with them were accurate and based on good judgment and keen observation and sensitivity. Similarily, the worker's assessment of the mother's capacity to change was sound, and recognizing the essentially weak tie which existed between the mother and her children, the worker supported her in her decision to give the children up. She understood the meaning of the mother's be-haviour in the light of information she gathered about the mother's past experiences and this aided her in arriving at a sound social diagnosis and formulating a valid treatment plan. In carrying out the plan, the worker's assessment of the foster home and its potential suitability for these children would need to show similar sound diagnosis as to potential parent-child relationships and ability to carry out the formulated treatment plan. Major Findings of the Thesis These cases have been very briefly sketched and they are only two of many which could have been described in order to demonstrate the basic premise which has been proved in this thesis. However, i t is now perhaps sufficient to conclude with a short recapitulation of the findings of this - 77 -evaluative analysis. As the cases and the tables in earlier chapters graphi-cally showed, the use of Principles I and 17, is fundamental to the success-ful practice of social casework in the placement process. The thirty-two cases studied showed indications of these principles, which involve an acceptance of the worth of the individual and of his right to personal  freedom and personal growth, were applied in a high percentage of the cases* Throughout the records, the practical application of these principles was seen in the workers' and supervisors' obvious concern for the individual needs of the clients and in their sincere interest in helping the client to work out the best possible solution to his problems. Since these two prin-ciples involve inherent attitudes rather than learned responses, i t is especially important that a l l who come to the profession bring these quali-ties with them. These are the qualities which are at the base of the code  of ethics of the profession and unless they are a part of the personal philosophy of the individual members of the profession, there can in effect be no code of ethics. This observation implies the need for careful selec-tion of social work personnel, for i t will be recognized that although i t is possible to teach the technical skills of the profession, the attitudes most basic to its successful practice cannot be taught or inculcated by the time a person reaches the age of entering a professional career. Neverthe-less, although these attitudes cannot be taught, their basic importance should be constantly underlined in the professional training period in order that when a worker enters the field he will automatically put the "idealistic" philosophy and concepts of his profession into practical use in his day to day work. In addition to indicating the importance of the application of the inherent philosophical attitudes, the analysis of the placement process showed the fundamental importance of workers being able to use the basic - 78 -social work principles which involve diagnostic understanding and s k i l l . In this area, i t was seen that a distinct weakness existed in the placement cases studied and this fact appeared to be largely responsible for the "unsuccessful" outcome of a number of the placements. These are areas in which sound training and adequate supervision are of the utmost importance. Formal training concerning the dynamics of human behaviour and causal re-lationships enable a worker to begin his job with a sound background of information. Later, a major responsibility rests with the supervisor to continue the worker's "training" so that as he gains experience, he will be able to make a deeper use of the basic principles involving an understanding of the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual, of  the purpose and meaning of behaviour, and of the inter-relatedness of in- dividuals within families and society as a whole, and the worker's use of  self in a helping relationship with the client. Minor Findings of the Thesis During the course of the analysis of the placement process several smaller points of interest came up. One of these was the evident weakness in inter-agency referral techniques. It was noted that in the "poor" cases in the pre-placement period, at least half of the referral sources were other professional groups or other social agencies. This situation, i f general, (and since the sample of cases in this study is small, i t cannot be said that i t is) indicates that there is certainly a need for steps being taken to alter It. The fact that such a condition may be a factor in causing a poor placement seems inexcusable. From the cases observed in this study, a weakness in inter-agency referrals which was frequently noticed was the technical one of timing. It appeared that the referral was seldom made at an appropriate time but was generally left until an emergency existed. This - 79 -one fact alone often had a noticeable bearing on the result of the placement process. In the area of inter-agency relationships, i t would appear that a greater application of the basic social work principle concerning the inter- relatedness of individuals would do much to bring about a better co-ordinatdon of agency programmes and a better degree of inter-agency co-operation. Also needed would be a respect for the rights and abilities of others and diag-nostic understanding. Another point of general interest which was noted from the analysis of the thirty-two placement cases, was that in the preventive resources there was a greater use of those resources which took the child out of his own home than there was of the ones which would have enabled him to stay with his family. Such resources as intensive family casework, visiting homemaker services, financial assistance, and assistance in obtaining employment were used to a lesser degree than the resources of non-ward care and special foster home rates. The study indicated a need for greater interpretation to the community at large concerning the value in many cases of spending money on the resources which keep the family together, rather than on providing "preventive" resources which would result in separation of members of the family. Another finding of the study was the fact that in the cases analyzed there was a distinct reduction in the casework which was attempted with the parents after the committal and placement of the child had occurred. In the pre-placement period, i t appeared that there was a slightly greater emphasis on the work with parents, (although i t was noted that in the cases where the parents themselves initiated the request for placement there was a weakness in the work) and i t was thought that this was a good indication. However, in the post-placement period, the emphasis changed and i t appeared in the situations analyzed that in most cases a l l work with the parents - 80 -ceased after the committal occurred. That this situation is unsound was demonstrated clearly in Chapter III and i t was implied that ways of altering this unsatisfactory situation should be found. Future Goals in Child Placement Work To recapitulate, the findings of this thesis have demonstrated clearly the vital importance of child placement work being founded on a secure base of knowledge, understanding and application of the fundamental professional philosophy and concepts, along with competent training and developed s k i l l in sound casework method and techniques. Upon this solid foundation, successful child placement programmes can be built and permanency and happiness can be furnished for the children who are in need of long-term care away from their own parents. In addition, this solid foundation makes i t possible for parents who are unable to provide for their children to be relieved of some of their sense of failure and loss, and enables them to regain a feeling of personal worth and hope for the future. - 81 -Appendix A - 82 -SPOT-CHECK CHART I - Showing rating of pre-placement casework with parents and children in the thirty-two cases studied according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used In this thesis as basic criteria for good casework. CASES Pre-Placement Basic Concents * Total Rating Casework I II III IV V VI 1 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good 2 with parents X X X X X X 6 Good with children X X X X A Fair with parents | 0 Poor j with children I 0 Poor L with parents X X X X "'A "' Fair *r with children X X X X X X 6 Good with parents X X X X X 5 . Good J with children X X X X X X 6 : Good 6 with parents X X X X X 5 ' Good with children X X X X X X 6 Good 7 with parents X X X X X 5 Good i with children X X X X X X 6 Good with parents I L x X X X X 5 Good o with children | .X X X X X X 6 | Good Q with parents | X X X X X 5 Good 7 with children X X X X X X Good 1 0 with parents X X • 2 Poor with children | X X | : 2 Poor 11 with parents | X X X X X 1 5 Good XJL with children | X X X I 3 Fair 12 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X X X x ; X 5 ' Good 13 with parents X X X X X | 5 ! Good with children X X X X X 5 1 Good IA with parents X X 2 Poor with children X 1 Poor Continued on next page. - 83 CASES Pre-Placement Basic Concepts T n t a l # " Rating Casework I II III IV V VI •L \J UCLX 1*5 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X 2 Poor 1 r\ with parents § X X 2 Poor -LO with children 1 x X 2 Poor T7 with parents X X 2 Poor J./ with children X X 2 Poor with parents | X X X X X 5 Good l o with children X X X 3 Fair with parents X. 1 Poor •Ly with children X X 2 Poor on with parents 1 X X 2 Poor with children j 1 x X 2 Poor 0~\ with parents 1 x X 2 Poor with children 1 x X 2 Poor OO with parents | 0 Poor with children 1 x X X X 4 Fair 01 with parents § o Poor with children 1 X ' X X X 4 Fair OI with parents 1 X X X X X X 6 Good with children L X X X X 4 Fair ?*> with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X X 4 Fair 26 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X X 4 Fair 27 with parents X X X 3 Fair <£ ' with children ] X X 2 Poor ort with parents j X X X X 4 Fair with children I x X X X 4 Fair 29 with parents j X X X X X 5 Good with children 1 x X 2 Poor 30 with parents I x X X X X 5 Good with children 1 x X X X X 5 Good Continued on next page. - 84 -CASES Pre-Placement Basic Concepts Total Rating Casework I II III 17 V VI 31 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children x X X X X 5 Good 32 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X X X X 5 Good Basic Concepts - I II III IV V -VI -Belief in the personal worth of the individual Belief in the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual Belief that behaviour is purposeful and meaningful Belief in the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth Belief in the inter-relatedness of individuals in Society Belief in the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society. Rating Scale - Poor - 0, 1, 2 Fair - 3, 4 Good - 5, 6 - 85 SPOT-CHECK CHART II - Showing rating of actual placement casework with parents and children in the thirty-two cases studied, according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used in this thesis as basic criteria for good casework. CASE Actual Placement Basic Concepts Total Rating Casework I II III IV V VI 1 with parents X X X 3 Fair X with children X X X X X X 6 Good O with parents X X X X X X 6 Good with children X X X X X X 6 Good 3 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X xa X X X 5 Good 4 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X X . X 6 Good 5 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good 6 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good 7 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good 8 with parents x X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good 9 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good 10 with parents X 1 Poor with children 0 Poor with parents X 1 Poor 11 with children X X X X X 5 Good 12 with parents X 1 Poor with children X X X X X 5 Good 13 with parents X 1 Poor with children X X X X X 5 Good 14 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X X X X 6 Good Continued on,next page. - 86 CASE Actual Placement Casework Basic Concepts '* Total Rating I II III- IV V VI 15 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X X X 4 Fair 16 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X X X 4 Fair 17 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X X X 4 Fair 18 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X 2 Poor 19 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X 2 Poor 20 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X 2 Poor 21 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X 2 Poor . 22 1 with parents 0 Poor with children X X X 3 Fair 23 with parents 0 Poor with children X X X 3 Fair 24 with parents X X X X X X 6 Good with children 0 Poor Poor 25 with parents X 1 with children X X X X X X 6 Good 26 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X 4 Fair 27 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X 2 Poor 28 with parents X X X X 4 Fair with children X X X X 4 Fair 29 with parents X 1 Poor with children 0 Poor 30 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X X X X X X 6 Good Continued on next page - 87 -CASE Actual Placement L Basic Concepts Total * Rating Casework I II III IV V VI 31 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X X X X 4 Fair 32 with parents X X 2 Poor with children * X 2 Poor * Basic Concepts - I - Belief in the personal worth of the individual II - Belief in the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual III - Belief that behaviour is purposeful and mean-ingful IV - Belief in the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth V - Belief in the inter-relatedness of individuals in Society VI.- Belief in the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society. » Rating Scale - Poor - 0, 1, 2 Fair - 3, 4 Good - 5, 6 - 88 ~ SPOT-CHECK CHART III - Showing rating of thirty-two cases studied, according to evident use of five basic steps in casework method used in this thesis as criteria of good casework. CASE Casework Method and Technj —*" .aue Total Rating A B C D E 1 with parents X X X X 4 Good with children X X X X 4 Good 2 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X X X X X 5 Good 3. with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X 2 Poor 4 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X X X X 5 Good 5 -with parents X X X X 4 Good with children X X X X X 5 Good 6 with parents X X X X U Good with children X X X X X 5 Good % with parents X X X X 4 Good with children X X X X X 5 Good 8 with parents X X X X 4 Good with children X X X X X 5 Good Q with parents X X X X 4 Good 7 with children X X X X X 5 Good 1 0 with parents X 1 Poor with children : 0 Poor 11 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X 3 Fair 12 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X 3 Fair 13 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X 3 Fair -14 with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X 2 Poor Continued on next page 89 CASE Method and Technique Total Rating k | B c D E 15 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X •2 Poor with parents x X X 3 Fair with children X X 2 Poor 17 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X 2 Poor 18 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X 2 Poor 19 with parents 0 Poor with children X X 2 Poor on with parents X 1 Poor d\> with children X X 2 Poor oi with parents X 1 Poor with children X X 2 Poor OO with parents 0 Poor <.<. with children X X X ; 3 • r. Fair 0"i with parents 0 Poor <-J with children X X X 3 Fair 01 with parents X X X X X 5 Good <A- with children X X X X 4 Good OK with parents X X 2 Poor with children X X X X 4 Good 26 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X 3 Fair 27 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X 3 Fair 28 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X X X 3 Fair 29 with parents X X X X 4 Good with children X X X X 4 Good 3 0 with parents X X X X X 5 Good with children X X X X 4 Good Continued on next page.... - 90 CASE Casework Method and Technique* Total Rating A B C D E 31 with parents X X X X 4 I Good with children X X X X 4 Good 32 with parents X X X 3 Fair with children X J X 2 | Poor * Method and Technique - A - Gathering information B - Social Diagnosis C - Treatment Plan D - Implementation of Plan E - Evaluation and re-evaluation of Plan. * Rating Scale - Poor Fair Good - 8, 1 - 2, 3 - 4, 5 - 91 -SPOT-CHECK CHART IV - Showing the correlation of the ratings arrived at in Charts I, II, and III. CASES 1 S. P.S. F. | P.A. u. p. I. P c p c P | 'c P c p c P c 1 1 x X X X X 2 X X X X X 3 X X X X U I x X X X X 5 J x X X X X 6 | x X X X X 7 | x X X X X 8 1 x X X X X 9 X X X X X 10 X X X X X 11 X X X X X 12 X X X X .: x 13 X X X X X H X X X X X 15 X X X X X 16 X X X X X 17 X X X X X 18 X X X X X 19 X X X X X 20 1 x I *|a| X X X X Continued on next page - 92 -CASES S G. A. P.S. F. F.A. . T T p. I-P* c* P c P c P c u • P c P c 21 X X X X X; 22 X X X X X 23 X X X X 24 X X X X X 26 X X X X X 26 X X X X X 27 X X X X X 28 X X X X X 29 X X X X X 30 X X X X X 31 X X X X X 32 X X X 1 X 1 X O v e r a l l _ H a n d l i n g Use o f B a s i c Concepts Use of Method and t e c h n i q u e s S. - S u c c e s s f u l P.S- P a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l U..- U n s u c c e s s f u l G. - Good F. - F a i r P. - Poor A. - Adequate F.A- F a i r l y Adequate I . - Inadequate * p. - p a r e n t s * c. - c h i l d r e n - 9 3 -A p p e n d i x B BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health. Palais des Nations, Geneva, World Health Organization Monograph Series, 1952 Bowley, A.H., Problems of Family Life, Edinburgh, E.S. Livingstone Limited, 1948 Bowley, A.H., The Psychology of the Unwanted Child. Edinburgh, E.S. Livingstone Limited, 1947 Curtis, Myra, Report on the Care of Children Committee, London, England, H.M. Stationery, 1946 Fink, A.E., The Field of Social Work, New York, N.Y., Henry Hold, Co. Inc., 1942 Freud, Anna & Burlingham, Dorothy, War and Children, New York, N.Y., International University Press, 1944 Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy in Child Guidance, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1947 Hamilton, Gordon, The Theory and Practice of Social Casework, Nev; York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1940 Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1948 Josselyn, I., The Adolescent and His World, New York, N.Y., Family Service Association of America, 1948 Josselyn, I., Psycho-Social Development of Child, New York, N.Y., Family Service Association of America, 1948 Lowry, Fern, Readings in Social Casework. 1920-1938, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1939 Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, New York, N.Y., Russell Sage Foundation, 1930 Richmond, Mary E., Social Diagnosis, Philadelphia, Russell Sage Foundation, 1917 Richmond, Mary E., What is Social Casework?, Philadelphia, Russell Sage Foundation, 1922 Robinson, Virginia, The Dynamics of Supervision, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, 1949 Robinson, Virginia, Supervision in Social Casework, A Problem in Professional Education, New York, N.Y., University of North Carolina Press, 1936 Thurston, H.N., The Dependent Child. A Story of Changing Aims and Methods in the Care of Dependent Children, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1930 PERIODICALS' Bibring, G.L., '"Casework and Psychotherapy," Social Casework. October, 1946 Biestek, Felix, "Analysis of the Casework Relationship," Social  Casework, February, 1954 Bowers, Swithum, "The Nature and Definition of Social Casework,'* Family Service Association of America, New York, N.Y., 1949 B urns, Phyllis, "Goals in Family andChildren's Services," Western  Goals in Social Welfare, Victoria, B.C., Second Biennial Western Regional Conference on Social Work, Acme Press, 1949 Clothier, Florence, "The Problem of Frequent Placement of the Young Dependent Child,'8 Mental Hygiene, October, 1947 "Children in the Community," Children's Bureau Publication, 317, Washington, D.C, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946 Davies, S. "Science and Practice in Human Relations," Social Work as  Human Relations. Anniversary Papers of the New York School of Social Work and the Community Service Society of New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1949 Dula, John E., "The Child A.way from Home," Social Casework, April, 1948 Dula, John E., "Future Directions in Foster Care for Children,1" The Social Welfare Forum, Official Proceedings, National Conference of Social Work, Chicago, Illinois, May 25-30, 1952, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1952 - .96 -Edman, Irwin, "Contribution of the Humanities and the Professional Schools, Social Work as Human Relations. Anniversary Papers of the New Y ork School of Social Work and the Community Society of New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1949 Epperson, Jane, "Some Basic Principles of Direct Work with Children," Child Welfare. July, 1952 "Foster Home Care of Dependent Children,'* Children's Bureau Publica-tion, No. 136, (Revised), Washington, D.C, United States Government Printing Office, 1929 Fraiberg, Selma, "Some Aspects of Casework with Children," Social  Casework. November and December, 1952 Garrett, Annette, "The Professional Base of Social Casework," Social  Casework. July, 1946 Hamilton, G., "The Underlying Philosophy of Social Casework," Social  Casework. July, 1941 Hamilton, G., "Helping People, The Growth of a Profession," Social  Casework. October, 1946 Heckels, E., "Safeguarding Child Placement," A Study of the work of the screened intake committee in St. Paul, Minnesota, U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C., 1951 Hollis, Florence, "Techniques of Casework," Social Casework. June, 1949 Hochwald, H.L., "The Use of Case Records in Research," Social Case- work. February, 1952 Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Parent-Child Relationship as a Factor in Child Placement," The Family. April, 1946 Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Request for Placement Has Meaning," Social  Casework, June, 1944 Lane, Lionel C, "Aggressive Approach in Preventive Casework," Social Casework, February, 1952 Lippman, H., "Newer Trends in Child Placement," The Family, February, 1941 Maeder, LeR., M.A. "Diagnostic Criteria, The Concept of Normal and Abnormal," Social Casework, October, 1941 Nicholson, H.B., "Knowledge Basic to Practice in Children's Field," Child Welfare. March, 1951 Pray, R.L.M., "A Re-statement of the Generic Principles of Social Casework Practice,'8 Social Casework, October, 1947 Proven, Nettie I., "Can We Create Greater Permanency for the Child in Need of Placement?" Concerning Families and Children, Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Welfare Council, Vol. 2, No. 7, March, 1954 Rich, Mary, "MaryE. Richmond," 1861-1928," Social Casework. November, 1952 Sytz, M., "The Development of Method in Social Casework," Social Casework, March, 1948 Sterba, Editha, "Emotional Problems of Displaced Children," Social  Casework, May, 1949 Stone, Sarah, "Children Without Roots," Social Service Review, June, 1953, Vol. 27, No. 2, Chicago, 111., University Chicago Press Stone, Sarah, "What Keeps Us From Giving Children What We Know They Need?" Social Service Review, June, 1953, Vol. 27, No. 2, Chicago, 111., University of Chicago Press "The Training of Child Welfare Workers for Placement Responsibilities A Report of a Sub-Committee of the Citizens Committee on Adoption of Children in California, United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Social Service Administration Children's Bureau, Washington, 1953 Weisenburger, Ruth, "Direct Casework with the Child in Foster Home Placement," Child Welfare, April, 1951 Wires, E., "Long-term Care in a Public Child Placement Agency," Social Casework, May, 1951 Young, Leontine, "Placement from the Child's Viewpoint," Social  Casework, June, 1950 - 9 8 -Appendix C 134° 132* 128° 124° 122° 60° 58* 56* 54' 52* SO* j-A.TL.M-s [LAKE yay iCAUAL n ft. ae Fort C r e e k 8^  i0' Lakes flower /. ot'latulL, hhe. 5 u Me s i I,- 0. \ n Y-J 7^ . t l_p A l y a n s W / CedaVvale<; Rosawood) (SMITHERSi TV DIXON ENTRANCE i PRINCE RUPERT 9 O n > w a y v^ i SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH DEPT. OF HEALTH e WELFARE P R O V I N C E OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REGIONS - DISTRICT OFFICES -MUNICIPAL OFFICES L E C T E N D -® REGIONAL ^ADQUARTERS O MUNICIPAL OFFICES (ANO DISTRICT OFFlCE> ( A M A L G A M A T E D ) • DISTRICT O F F I C E S MUNICIPAL OFFICES ^ £U5k Terraceip^copper ft 1 aJelkwa Trembleur ii. Burns Lawe Francois  1 V/iitesall L. i Bu l eda l e 1 b w a n s o n B a y SAzureL-Murphy Qi>et UEEN $6 \CharloUe L • .?/ M t . \ Totla •Jv- LoKff J \ ^ / TatloyoHo W ' LaUe J w V- \ U LAK£ Sr<W L. •a oBay 5 t . A l i c e l ^ <^  Saywar^ \ J g _ R E G 1 0 N _ _ l 4> R E G I O N 2 POWELL RIVER COURTENAY j £ > v ^ t ^ f / W l ^ o NANAIMO ^ j r r ^ '^ U RNAB 1 *v-\ [SHUSWA% R E G I O N ^ A ^ S ^ R N O N , CITY R I O I I P E N T I CTON ?r.TY OF MHTt CTON 00' ^ : R A N B R O C X J ,port) d 'P.\ene 4<T 134° 130° 128' 124° 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106509/manifest

Comment

Related Items