UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Seeking placement permanency for foster children : an analysis of a portion of a year's cases in non-metropolitan… Proven, Nettie Isobel 1954

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SEEKING PLACEMENT PERMANENCY FOR FOSTER CHILDREN  An Analysis of a Portion of a Year's Cases i n r Non-Metropolitan British Columbia, 1948 - 1953.  by  NETTIE ISOBEL PROVEN Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work  19 5 4 The University of British Columbia  Abstract  In t h i s study an attempt i s made to examine what might be considered a self-evident premise, namely, that the ultimate q u a l i t y of the casework achieved i n f o s t e r home placement work (or i n any other area  of s o c i a l work) i s related i n a very r e a l way to the  extent to which basic s o c i a l work philosophy and concepts, along with good casework method and techniques are put into practice by the s o c i a l workers  doing the jobo To an extent, t h i s study was undertaken i n an attempt t o  assess  whether or not there i s v a l i d i t y to the impression which some-  times i s gained that, with the recent increase i n the demand f o r s o c i a l services, a lack may develop i n workers' appreciation of the fundamental concepts of the profession because of the many pressures involved i n "getting the job done©"  Through d e t a i l e d analysis of thirty-two place-  ment cases an e f f o r t i s made i n t h i s thesis to demonstrate  the p r a c t i -  c a l i t y of " i d e a l i s t i c " s o c i a l work philosophy and concepts and the essential  need  f o r these being as c l e a r l y understood and as well  u t i l i z e d as the casework method and techniques employed i n the performance o f a day to day s o c i a l work job© The information recorded i n the thirty-two cases studied was read with an appreciation of the l i m i t a t i o n s of such subjective material but on the basis of the material available i t was found that the records revealed that i n general the workers handling the cases studied seemed to have a reasonable degree of understanding of most of the basic p h i l osophy and concepts of t h e i r profession.  The area  of general weakness  observed i n the small group of cases examined, was i n the use of those p r i n c i p l e s which involve diagnostic understanding and s k i l l .  The study  also revealed some evidence of lacks i n inter-agency relationships i n the cases analyzed and seemed to indicate some need for better coordination of agency programmes  e  Throughout the piece of evaluative analysis which was attempted i n this thesis, the need for child placement work being founded on a secure base of knowledge, understanding and application of the fundamental professional philosophy and concepts along with competent training and developed s k i l l i n sound casework method and techniques was demonstrated* Based on this foundation, i t seemed that the permanency and security desired i n long term foster home placements could be achieved*  Acknowledgements  I would l i k e t o convey my  sincere  appreciation  the members o f the C h i l d W e l f a r e D i v i s i o n o f the  to  British  Columbia S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch who  have been so h e l p f u l i n  making a v a i l a b l e the  n e c e s s a r y t o complete  case m a t e r i a l  t h i s study.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s  appreciation  o f the a s s i s t a n c e  g i v e n by M i s s Ruby McKay,  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of C h i l d W e l f a r e , Mr. t e c t i o n S u p e r v i s o r , and Mr.  my  Vern Dallamore, Pro-  W i l l i a m M c F a r l a n d , F o s t e r Home  Placement S u p e r v i s o r i n the D i v i s i o n a t t h a t t i m e .  I would  a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k M i s s Jeanne T i n e v e z , head of the  record  and  s t a t i s t i c a l s e c t i o n o f the D i v i s i o n , who  a b l y h e l p f u l i n c h e c k i n g the g a t h e r e d and My  assistance  sincere  s t a t i s t i c a l information I  t h a n k s a l s o t o Mrs.  they provided.  use.  H e l e n E x n e r and  s t a f f o f the Department o f  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Marsh f o r h i s s i n c e r e and  immeasure-  making the r e c o r d s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r my  J . G r a n t , members o f the Work a t t h e  was  Columbia, f o r the  Social valuable  Most e x p e c i a l l y do I thank Dr.  i n t e r e s t and  w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s .  h e l p i n the  Mrs.  preparation  L.C.  Table of  Chapter I .  Contents  B a s i c Placement C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  Core o f placement p r a c t i c e ? Reason f o r s t u d y ; L i m i t a t i o n s o f s t u d y ; C r i t e r i a o f q u a l i t y casework; B a s i c s o c i a l work p h i l o s o p h y and c o n c e p t s ; B a s i c casework method and t e c h n i q u e s ; Method o f s e l e c t i o n o f cases f o r s t u d y ; Method o f case a n a l y s i s ; P o s s i b l e v a l u e o f s t u d y . C h a p t e r I I . P r e - P l a c e m e n t Casework - The F o u n d a t i o n o f the Placement P l a n P r i m a r y pre-placement concept; H i s t o r i c a l beginnings o f " f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d " placement work; P r e s e n t - d a y placement c o n c e p t s ; R a t i n g o f sample cases a c c o r d i n g t o s u c c e s s o f placements; R a t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o use o f b a s i c s o c i a l work p h i l o s o p h y and c o n c e p t s ; Sources o f r e f e r r a l ; Reasons f o r r e f e r r a l ; D u r a t i o n o f pre-placement work; P r e - p l a c e m e n t r e h a b i l i t a t i v e resources. Chapter I I I .  A c t u a l Placement Casework - The E f f e c t o f the Placement P l a n  P r i m a r y concepts d u r i n g a c t u a l placement; P r e p a r a t i o n f o r placement; P r e p a r a t i o n of parents; P r e p a r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ; G e n e r a l placement t h e o r i e s ; R a t i n g o f sample cases a c c o r d i n g t o use o f b a s i c s o c i a l work p h i l o s o p h y and c o n c e p t s ; R a t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o the use o f good casexrork method and t e c h n i q u e s ; R a t i n g o f movement d u r i n g f i v e - y e a r placement p e r i o d ; T e s t i n g of premise o f t h e s i s . Chapter IV.  F u t u r e Placement C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - The o f Placement Permanency  Achievement  Re-statement o f the b a s i c premise; Value o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h ; Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the b a s i c p r e m i s e ; Major f i n d i n g s o f t h e t h e s i s ; Minor f i n d i n g s o f the t h e s i s ; Future g o a l s i n c h i l d placement work.  Appendices  A -  Spot-Check Chart I showing rating of pre-placement casework with parents and children i n the thirty-two cases studied according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used i n the thesis as basic criteria for good casework.  Spot-Check Chart II showing rating of actual placement casework with parents and children in the thirty-two cases studied, according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used i n the thesis as basic c r i ' teria for good casework. Spot-Check Chart III showing rating of thirty-two cases studied, according to evident use of the five basic steps in casework method used i n the thesis as criteria of good casework. Spot-Check Chart IV showing the correlation of the ratings arrived at from the three above-mentioned spot-check charts. B - Bibliography G - Map showing regional divisions of the Province of British Columbia under the Provincial Social Welfare Branch of the British Columbia Department of Health and Welfare.  Tables i n Text  Table I  Table II  An Evaluation of the Success of the Thirty-two Placements Studied based on an assessment of the degree of permanency and apparent happiness and security i t provided the child, and related to the age of the child at the time of the i n i t i a l request for placement Rating of Pre-Placement Casework according to use basic social work philosophy and concepts  Table V  Table VI  29  of  Table III Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used i n Pre-Placement Casework with parents and children Table IV  Page  31 33  Summary Table of Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used i n Pre-Placement Casework with parents and children  34  Distribution of ources of Referral according to rating of quality of casework, assessed on basis of use of basic social work principles  37  u  Distribution of the Reason for Referral according to basic rating of quality of casework  41  Table VIE Length of Time ase K own to Agency i n relation to rating of pre-placement casework, as shown i n years  42  Table VEE Pre-Placement Resources used and their relationship to ... the quality of the casework with parents and children  44  c  n  Table IX Table X Table XI  Rating of Casework during the actual placement according to use of basic social work philosophy and concepts  55  "Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used i n Placement Casework with parents and children  57  Rating of Case Handling i n the i"otal Placement Process according to the use of good casework method and techniques  61  Table XII Number of Times Good Casework Method and Techniques were . used i n the Total Placement Process i n casework with parents and children  62  Table XET Rating of Movement i n total placement casework with parents and children between 1948 and 1953  65  Table XIV  Table XV  Scale of Movement i n Placement Work with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 as measured by the use of the six basic social work principles  66  Correlation between degree of Success of Total -Placement Plan and good use of basic social work principles, together with sound casework method and techniques.  68  SEEKING PLACEMENT PERMANENCY FOR FOSTER CHILDREN An Analysis of a Portion of a Year's Cases i n Non-Metropolitan B r i t i s h Columbia,.1948-1953.  CHATTER I BASIC PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS  Core of Placement Practice Transplanting a child from the environment of his own home to that of a foster home i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t tasks faced by social workers i n their professional practice.  It i s hard to provide permanency  and security for a child away from his own parents under almost a l l c i r cumstances j i t i s practically impossible to accomplish this task successf u l l y unless i t i s carried out with a f u l l understanding of basic social work philosophy and concepts, and a competent use of sound casework methods and techniques. Although the importance of the fundamental philosophy and concepts of social work has been recognized since the beginnings of the profession, only recently has i t been increasingly emphasized that i n order for high standards of performance to be maintained i n a l l fields of the profession, the day to day work of each practising social worker must reflect a f u l l understanding of the basic professional beliefs and concepts as well as a competent use of good technical casework methods and s k i l l s .  In fact, i t i s now clearly recognized that unless the fund-  amental "idealistic" philosophy of the profession i s put into "practical" use, the mere s k i l l f u l use of techniques and methods accomplishes relatively l i t t l e that i s of lasting value to the client or the community. As one philosopher has stated, "A philosophic understanding of l i f e ' s problems can contribute the gift of insight, of generosity, of human  -  2  -  sympathy, necessary i f social work i s to be genuinely and humanly f r u i t (1) f u l , not pointlessly and deceptively efficient." Reason for Study On occasion the impression i s gained that, with the recent increase i n the demand for social services and the resulting rapid development of techniques to get the job done." "the peculiar viciousness (2) tt  of a divorce between principles and practice," which was deplored by that outstanding pioneer social worker, Mary Richmond, has developed to some extent i n modern social work performance and hinders the best service being rendered by the profession. In order to test whether this impression i s valid i n the area of foster home placement, this study has been undertaken.  Here, an attempt i s being made, through an analysis and evaluation  of the quality of casework done with a small group of parents and children both before and during foster home placement, to examine the extent to which a relationship exists between the use of basic social work philosophy and concepts along with sound casework method i n this part of placement practise, and the ultimate results of the placement. In other words, an attempt i s being made to examine i n the placement process with children and their own parents whether " i d e a l i s t i c " social work philosophies and concepts have "practical" value and when used i n conjunction with sound technical casework s k i l l s , do bring about greater security and permanency for the children who require placement, and a more satisfactory resolution of the feelings of the parents involved. 1.  Edman, Irwin, "Contribution of the Humanities and the Professional Schools," Social Work As Human Relations. Anniversary Papers of the New York School of Social Work and the Community Service Society of New York, New York, Columbia University Press, 1949, P- 99-100  2.  Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1930, p. 97  -  3  -  Limitations of the Study I t i s recognized that i n addition to work with the parents and children, work with the f o s t e r parents, both before and during placement, i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the "placement process".  Indeed, unless there i s  t h i s three-fold aspect to placement work, the process cannot be considered as complete or successful. Foster home f i n d i n g , selecting, preparing the chosen f o s t e r parents f o r the placement of a c h i l d i n t h e i r home, and a s s i s t i n g and enabling the f o s t e r parents during the time they have a c h i l d , are a l l areas of recognized importance which demand a high degree of  s k i l l and i n t e r e s t from any worker who i s involved i n arranging care  f o r a c h i l d away from h i s own parents.  In t h i s t h e s i s , however, mainly  because the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n records used did not contain s u f f i c i e n t information about the work that was done by the d i s t r i c t s o c i a l workers with f o s t e r parents, the focus of attention of necessity has been confined to a study of the work with the parents and the children.  To have been  able t o gain adequate information about the work with the f o s t e r parents, i t would have been necessary to have read the f o s t e r home records i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s throughout the province and t h i s would have been impossible to accomplish i n the time alotted f o r the completion of the thesis. By way of explanation, i t should be mentioned that the reason why the f i l e s i n the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n do not contain d e t a i l s about the f o s t e r home f i n d i n g or the work with f o s t e r parents e i t h e r before or during placement i s that, since  194-6,  when decentralization of the work  took place within the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Branch, the responsib i l i t y f o r t h i s aspect of the c h i l d welfare programme f e l l almost e n t i r e l y upon the f i e l d supervisors and workers i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s .  This  -  4  -  means that there was a cessation of supervision from central or divisional offices and a beginning of supervision i n the operational d i s t r i c t offices. Since 1946, therefore, i t has no longer been considered necessary for detailed foster home studies to be sent to the Child Welfare Division and the only record of foster parents i n the divisional office i s the agreement form which i s a signed agreement between the foster parents and the Superintendent of Child Welfare.  Only i n unusual cases where consultative  help from the Division i s desired, or in the cases of subsidized or receiving homes, where, because of the additional responsibility the foster parents are assuming, a special agreement must be drawn up between the Superintendent of Child Welfare and the foster parents, and/or where special foster home rates are paid, do studies of foster homes come to the Child Welfare Division. On the whole, the decentralized system has worked out well, for the f i e l d supervisors and workers have assumed the responsibility for home finding and working with foster parents i n a helpful way.  This i s apparent  from the reports on f i l e i n the Division concerning the children placed i n the homes, which usually convey some picture of the foster parents and the atmosphere in the home and this i s , i n most cases, sufficient for the work of the divisional supervisor.  However, for the purpose of an analysis  such as was undertaken for this thesis, the information contained on the divisional records about the foster parents was too limited and i t was, therefore, decided to concentrate only on the work which was done with the parents and the children. Even i n these areas, i t was not always possible to gain a definitive picture of the total situation from the material on the record, but i t was thought that sufficient details were obtained to make the study of value.  Criteria of Evaluation of Casework In the examination of the partial placement experience of the thirty-two children whose records were analyzed for this thesis, the basic social work philosophy and concepts, which are generally regarded as the fundamental principles underlying a l l social work practice, were used as the criteria for assessing the quality of casework done with both parents and children i n each individual case.  In conjunction with  these basic principles, certain fundamental casework techniques and methods were looked for i n the examination of the case records, for i t was recognized that i n order to put the basic philosophy and concepts into operation, a certain standard of technical s k i l l i s necessary. Basic Social Work Philosophy and Concepts The f i r s t criteria applied to the cases under analysis was the fundamental philosophy of a democratic society, the belief i n the personal worth of the individual and his basic right to achieve i n his own way the maximum development and fulfillment of his capabilities.  This democratic  ideal i s the cornerstone philosophy" of social work and from i t many a  important social work concepts have evolved. Among these i s the concept of respecting the right of the client to be different and recognizing that each individual i s unique and special.  Believing this, the social worker,  in approaching and working with a client, makes every effort to gain an understanding of him as a person and a knowledge of how he views himself and his situation. It i s interesting, i n passing, to note that as early as 1869, the rights of the individual and the need for individualization of clients needs were recognized by social work leaders of that day.  One of those  -  6 -  leaders, Octavia H i l l , laid the foundation of distinguishing the i n dividual client and his needs from his economic environment when she said, "By knowledge of character more i s meant than whether a man i s a drunkard or a woman i s dishonest; i t means knowledge of the passions, hopes, and history of people; where the temptation w i l l touch them, what i s the l i t t l e scheme they have made of their lives, or would make, i f they had encouragement; what training long past phases of their lives may have afforded; how to move, touch, teach them.  Our memories and our hopes (1)  are more truly factors of our lives than we often remember.  11  In 1922,  Mary Richmond underlined this individual approach i n her definition of social work as "those processes which develop personality through adjustments consciously effected, individual by individual, between men and (2) their social environment." Today, many modern professional writers have expanded on this basic philosophy and have evolved as essential to the casework process such important concepts as the right of the individual to be happy and to have an opportunity to use his strengths effectively; his right to an equal opportunity for education, employment and pleasure; his right to express his needs and to feel comfortable about them; his right to make decisions and to determine for himself the course of action he wishes to take, that i s , his right to work out his own destiny and to participate i n the solution of his problems i n a manner acceptable to himself and to society. 1. Richmond, Mary E., Social Diagnosis. Russell Sage Foundation, Philadelphia, 1917, p.30 2. Richmond, Mary E., What i s Social Casework? Russell Sage Foundation, Philadelphia, 1922, p. 98  -  7  -  The second c r i t e r i a to be used was the basic social work belief i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of development, growth and change i n an i n dividual . I t was recognized that out of this philosophy also have grown certain concepts which are valuable i n the practice of social casework. For example, there i s the concept that i n order to help a c l i e n t change, a social worker needs to assess what the problem means to the c l i e n t .  This  approach prevents the application of rules when a particular problem arises, f o r as Mary Richmond stated, "rules i n the r e l i e f of human souls, since no two human needs are ever exactly a l i k e , are dangerous but a few simple principles are absolutely necessary, - principles are the same (1) everywhere, but methods vary. * 1  Since Mary Richmond's time, t h i s premise  has been b u i l t upon and today such leaders as Gordon Hamilton teach that helping a c l i e n t involves an assessment of the client's t o t a l persona l i t y , keeping i n mind some of the underlying personality dynamics and, with this understanding, making an effort to ease stress, both inner and outer, i n order to bring about a change i n such a way as to help the (2)  c l i e n t grow. Closely a l l i e d with the belief i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of growth i n individuals i s another basic social work philosophy, namely, the belief that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful, that i s , that the principle of cause and effect i s v a l i d .  This was used as the third c r i t e r i a i n the  evaluation of the quality of casework achieved i n the placement cases analyzed f o r t h i s study. From t h i s philosophy has evolved the social work concept of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of social causation and the recognition of the interacting phenomenon of the whole psychosocial situation. 1. Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, p. 95 2.  Hamilton, Gordon, The Theory and Practice of Social Work. Columbia University Press, New York, New York. 1951, p p . 8 - 2 2 .  8 Similarily, there has arisen the concept that behaviour i s caused by man's individual needs which arise i n part from his past experiences. To help the client, a social worker needs a knowledge of causal relationships and an understanding of the dynamics of human behaviour involving such things as defense mechanisms and unconscious motivations. Here, social workers need to draw on the knowledge of the profession of psychiatry i n order to broaden their understanding of human behaviour and thus be i n a position to offer more effective psychosocial help to clients. A corollary of this understanding that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful i s the understanding of another basic social work philosophy which postulates the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth. This, of course, i s related closely to the philosophy of the worth of the individual but can be differentiated from i t i n that the concepts arising from i t are somewhat different.  One of these  concepts i s that emancipation i s common to a l l human beings and people have within themselves unique and valuable capacities, i f they are free to use them. Social workers have faith i n human personality and try, through a freeing and healing relationship, to support strengths and to relieve inner and outer stress i n order to set the individual's powers free.  This concept i s at the base of the social worker's attempts to  strengthen the client's a b i l i t y to be independent and to recognize the essential need for independence i n others. At the same time that social workers attempt to help the client to be independent and to build upon his individual strengths, the basic social work philosophy of the inter-relatedness of individuals i n society i s not overlooked, for i t i s a fundamental social work belief that i n -  -  9  -  dividuals are part of a group, of a culture and of society as a whole. That i s , that society with i t s p o l i t i c a l , economic and cultural conditions form the background of the individual's problems. Because the individual i s a part of society, he has responsibility not only for himself but toward the society i n which he l i v e s .  Conversely, i t i s  part of social work philosophy that society has a responsibility for the individuals within i t .  From this philosophy has arisen the concept that  social workers need to understand cultural mores and need to keep i n touch with external forces, such as world p o l i t i c a l and social conditions, which have an effect on the individuals they are helping.  They need to  understand the individual's relationship to his culture and to other i n dividuals i n i t .  The concept of awareness of culture implies self-  awareness and awareness by the social worker of his own cultural patterns. Anthropologists,  such as Margaret Meade, who have studied the social mores  of various cultures, have contributed much that i s helpful to those i n the human relations professions.  The social worker can learn from this  research in order to understand more f u l l y that an individual responds sensitively to intergroup relationships within his culture.  Gordon  Hamilton speaks of the "interrelatedness of the personality with the environment" which makes treatment to be i n "the mutual interest of the client and the community" and this concept i s an important one for social workers to keep i n mind. In considering this f i f t h philosophical principle as a criteria for assessing the casework done i n the placement cases under examination, i t was seen that the concept of interaction between individuals and groups can be carried over to the area of interrelationships i n professional teamwork. It was recognized that in the overall assessment of the quality of casework services offered to the client, this would be an important area  -  10  -  to evaluate. Mary Richmond was one of the f i r s t to realize this point, when she stressed interrelationship between individual work with families in their own homes and efforts i n improving community conditions.  In the  latter connection, she envisaged better co-ordination of a l l social services and community resources. She believed that "the legitimate charitable enterprises of a community should hang together and the success  (1) of one i s the success of a l l ; the failure of one i s the failure of all.'* She adroitly stated that "nothing so quickly k i l l s prejudice, replacing i t  (2) by a s p i r i t of helpfulness and co-operation, as personal acquaintance," and she suggested sound principles for the developing of co-operative relationships which are s t i l l valid.  Her suggestions were as followsj "Know the  agency, i t s functions, and i t s strengths? trust the agency to do their  (3) job;  and teach them to trust you by doing what you have agreed to do." Finally, associated with the belief i n the interdependency of  individuals within cultures and society as a whole, there i s the basic social work philosophy that, the family i s the primary and the most dynamic unit of society.  In any assessment of casework with parents and children  involved i n the placement process, this i s unquestionably a criteria of major importance.  From this belief has evolved the concept that social  workers need to understand the dynamics of interfamilial relationships and need to see the individual i n relation to other members of the family, in order to assess the interpersonal relationships.  From this concept  arises the understanding, fundamental to a l l foster home placement work, of the traumatic effect of separation of the child from his own family 1.  Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, p. 96  2.  Ibid, p. 96  3.  Ibid, p. 96  -  11  -  and the recognition of the need for further study i n ways of preserving the family.  Mary Richmond defined the family as "love under bond to (1)  carry safely the world's fate,®  and she was convinced, as are social  workers today, that the protection and strengthening of family l i f e should be a major concern of a l l i n the profession. The six fundamental social work philosophies and their accompanying concepts outlined in the preceding paragraphs were the underlying professional standards against which the casework practiced i n the placements studied were evaluated as carefully as was possible on the basis of the material that was available on the Placement Records of the Child Welfare Division. Basic Casework Method and Techniques In addition to these essential philosophical ingredients of sound social work practice, certain necessary casework method and techniques were looked for in the cases under analysis. For the purposes of this study, the casework method was reduced to five simple steps. successive steps were as follows; diagnosis;  C. treatment plan;  and re-evaluation of the plan.  A. gathering information;  D. implementation of plan;  These  B. social E. evaluation  Through this entire process runs the  continuity of participation by the client at his own pace. It i s interesting to note that the f i r s t attempt to formulate a method distinctive to social casework, was made by Mary Richmond i n 1917. She advocated an intensive enquiry into the background of the problem, a formulation of a tentative social diagnosis and a plan as to how to proceed in order to be helpful to the client. 1.  Richmond, The Long View, p. 97  In 1951, i n her book The Theory and  12 Practice of Social Work, Gordon Hamilton, synthesized the changes that have occurred i n methodology in social work since 1917.  Like other  leaders, such as Charlotte Towle, Lucille Austin and Florence Hollis, she underlined the importance of sound diagnostic s k i l l on the part of social workers. As G.L. Bibring noted, Hamilton emphasized that "diagnostic statements are tentative, not f i n a l truths and conscious formulation, reformulation, testing and re-testing of hypotheses con(1; stitute the core of any scientific method i n casework." To carry out the steps in the casework method, many casework techniques are utilized.  The most basic of these i s the establishing of  a helping relationship which has been described as "the soul of casework. Relationship, which has i n i t the qualities of mutual confidence, respect and freedom, has been defined as "the dynamic interaction of feelings and attitudes between the caseworker and the client, with the purpose of helping the client to achieve a better adjustment between himself and his (2) environment.'.  1  Within this relationship, the client i s provided with an  opportunity to express his feelings freely, both negative and positive. The worker responds sensitively to the client's feelings and warmly accepts him with a non-judgmental attitude. Understanding that he i s accepted often encourages the client to take the f i r s t step i n solving his problems, and within reality limits, to make his own decisions and choices. Within the casework relationship, other techniques come into play, for example, timing i s an important tool.  The necessary delicate  1.  Bibring, G.L., "Psychiatry and Casework," Social Casework. October, 1946, p. 2 26  2.  Biestek, Felix, "Analysis of the Casework Relationship," Social Casework. February, 1954-, p. 49  13  -  sense of timing i s achieved by the worker training himself to listen to the "feeling tones" in addition to the words the client speaks.  A sensi-  t i v i t y to timing makes i t possible for the worker to start where the client i s and to go at his speed.  Other techniques used within the case-  work relationship include the offering of support, acceptance. understanding. clarification and verbalization i n such a way as to ease the inner and outer stresses which are creating d i f f i c u l t y for the client.  Thus the  client may be enabled to "understand himself and his situation so that he can manage l i f e more r e a l i s t i c a l l y with less anxiety and hostility and (1) less use of destructive defense mechanisms."  To be able to use casework  techniques effectively, the worker must have an understanding of the policies and structure of the agency i n which he works and must also have a wide knowledge of the resources of his community. The basic social work philosophies and concepts, and the fundamental casework method and techniques which have been enumerated i n the preceding paragraphs were used i n this study to assess the quality of casework evident i n the cases under analysis.  Because these criteria are  not definitive, this study i s not a conclusive, definite piece of research, but rather i s a descriptive evaluation based on an objective analysis of essentially subjective material concerning the partial placement experience of a group of children. Method of Selection of Cases In the area of foster home placement, a matter of great concern to social workers i s that of creating permanency and happiness for children who require long term placement away from their own parents. In the opening 1.  Hollis, Florence, "Techniques of Casework," June, 194.9, p.223  Social Casework,  -  14  -  paragraph of this study the premise was stated that this d i f f i c u l t task can only be successfully achieved when there i s a sound application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts, as well as good casework r  techniques. In order to examine whether or not there i s a relationship between successful permanent placements and the use of the basic principles and techniques, a number of children placed i n non-metropolitan areas were selected for study from the group who were committed as wards of the Superintendent of Child welfare i n British Columbia during 1948 and who at March 31, 1953, were s t i l l i n the care of the Superintendent i n foster homes under supervision of social workers of the Social Welfare Branch throughout the Province. A survey of the Child Welfare Division records revealed that i n 1948, ninety-three children were committed as wards of the Superintendent, eighty-six under the Protection of Children Act of British Columbia and seven under the Federal Juvenile Delinquent's Act. A child may be committed as a "ward" of the Superintendent of Child Welfare or of a private children's aid society under the Protection of Children Act of British Columbia for a variety of reasons. Section Seven and i t s sub-sections defines "children i n need of protection" and sets out the reasons for committal which are acceptable. Under this Act, a child can be committed to the Superintendent or a children's aid society who i s "found begging i n any street, house, or place of public resort;" who i s "deserted by his parents" or found "guilty of petty crimes" or found "wandering about at late hours and not having any home or settled place of abode or proper guardianship;" who i s "incorrigible or who cannot be controlled by his parents;" or who i s blind, deaf, feeble-minded or physically disabled i n a way t h a t i s l i k e l y to make him a ]  -  15  -  public charge; who i s "habitually truant from school;" or who i s " i l l treated so as to be i n peril i n respect of l i f e , health, or morality by continued personal injury.  B  These are some of the twelve reasons for  which a child may be apprehended and removed from the care of his parents under the Protection of Children Act.  The Section most commonly used by  social agencies, however, i s Section 7, Subsection K, which reads "whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty, or depravity i s an unfit place for the child, or who has no proper guardianship, or who has no parent cap(1) able of exercising proper parental control."  In the group of children  studied, the majority were committed under this Section of the Act. Committal under the Protection of Children Act i s only used as a last resort when every effort to rehabilitate the family has failed or when the situation i n the home i s so extreme that rehabilitation i s impossible and rapid action to protect the child's safety i s necessary. either case, the action i s only completed when i t appears relatively  In ,  certain that foster home care w i l l be needed over an extended period of time.  This being the case, i t i s recognized at the time of committal  that an essentially "permanent" placement resource i s what i s required for committed children. When a child i s committed under the Federal Juvenile Delinquent's Act, the situation i s somewhat different in that the opportunity to work with the parents and child prior to committal i s often limited and the order for the custody of the child to be transferred from the parents to the Superintendent or Agency i s made by the Court, sometimes without prior reference to the new guardian, that i s , the Superintendent of Child Welfare 1. "Protection of Children Act, Provincial Statutes of British Columbia. Chapter 47, 1943, C,5, SI. Victoria, B.C. Queen's Printer. ,r  or a children's aid society.  16 -  Because the number of children committed  under this Act i s small and because the implications of guardianship are somewhat different and can be terminated at the Court's discretion at any time, only the records of children committed under the Protection of Children Act were used for-the purpose of this study. Out of the ninety^-three children committed to the care of the Superintendent i n 19A8, sixty-four were s t i l l i n care at March 31, 1953. The twenty-nine who were discharged prior to that date, l e f t the care of the Superintendent for a variety of reasons; adoption was completed for nine; five reached their majority at which age, except i n very unusual circumstances, they are automatically discharged; seven were discharged to their own parents, their homes having been sufficiently rehabilitated; one was married; five were discharged to the care of private children's aid societies because their foster parents moved permanently into the supervision areas under the jurisdiction of these agencies; and two, who had been committed under the Juvenile Delinquent's Act, were automatically discharged from the care of the Superintendent upon their conviction on another delinquency charge. Of the sixty-four children remaining as wards over the fiveyear period chosen for analysis i n this thesis, thirty-two children, representing twenty families, were selected for intensive study. (1) of selection was according to regional distribution,  The basis  age and sex. The  group f e l l into an equal number of boys and girls and, with the exception of Region II, included cases from each of the six regions into which the Province Is divided for servicing by the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare of the Government of British Columbia. 1.  See Appendix — Map showing regional divisions of the Province.  17 Region II was omitted because i t was desired that the study be concerned only with placements i n distinctly rural settings, and this Region, i n the main, supervises the large urban centres of the province, such as Vancouver, North and West Vancouver, New Westminster, Burnaby, Coquitlam, Richmond, etc. For the same reason, although cases were chosen from Region I, which covers Vancouver Island, none were selected from the Greater Victoria area. Because of the manner of selection of the cases, the distribution i n the regions used i s not particularly equitable. However, i t i s f e l t that i t i s sufficiently widely spread to give a reasonably representative picture of placement practice throughout the rural area covered by the provincial Social Welfare Branch. Method of Case Analysis The basic social work philosophy and concepts, as well as the casework method and techniques, which were used as the criteria i n evaluating the quality of the casework practiced i n the placement cases selected for study, have already been discussed i n some detail.  The actual method  of case analysis used was that of reading each case record carefully and recording, as f u l l y as the material on the Child Welfare Division f i l e permitted, details of the pre-placement casework which was done with the parents and the child and the work which continued with them during the five-year placement period under observation. In this way, an effort was made to gain an overall picture of the continuity and consistency of the handling of the case as a whole, which i e important i n any long term casework process. In analyzing the records, a separate work sheet was kept for each child and a formula was followed as closely as possible i n order to obtain certain standard information from each record and thus create a  - 18 valid basis for comparison of the cases. For each case, tabulated i n formation was gathered under a section headed "Pre-Placement Data" and another section headed "Placement Data" and these were further subdivided into headings for information about "parent," "child," "foster home," and "community." Under the f i r s t heading, such information as the names, ages, sex,  education, nationality, religion, intelligence and employment was  recorded for each member of the family.  The agency or agencies to whom  the family had been previously known; the d i s t r i c t office supervising; the date of the f i r s t social welfare branch contact with the family; the source of referral; marital status of the parents, marriage date, separation date, divorce date; financial position; reason for request for placement; date of f i r s t placement; and date of committal, were also recorded under the heading of "Pre-Placement Data."  In other words, as complete a picture as  possible was gained of the family situation i n total as i t appeared at the beginning of the pre-placement work. Under the "Placement Data" heading, information about the numbers of placements, reasons for moves; degree of relationship between child and parents; extent of casework with parents after placement and extent of direct casework between child and social worker; number of changes i n caseworkers; financial aspects, that i s , whether or not a court order was made against the parent to contribute toward the support of the child and whether any contribution, total or partial, was ever made; special rates, i f any, paid to the foster parents, and reasons for same. The importance of work with foster parents and community was recognized and sub-headings for information about these were included i n i t i a l l y under the headings "Pre-Placement" and "Placement Data." However, i t was found that there was insufficient information about these  -  19 -  aspects of the work on the Child Welfare Division records.  The lack of  this information meant that these important components of the placement process could not be directly assessed for this study but they were taken into consideration as the major variants i n the f i n a l analysis. In addition to the above specific pieces of information, an attempt was made to obtain more qualitative data from the records concerning the parent-child relationships, and the extent to which the parents and children understood, accepted and participated in the plan for placement prior to placement as well as the extent to which their attitudes were carried over into the placement period i t s e l f .  It was in this quali-  tative section of the record analysis that most of the evaluation of the given casework services was made, according to whether or not i t appeared that there appeared to have been a sound understanding of the basic social work philosophy and concepts, and a good application of casework method and techniques.  I t should be clearly stated here that this  evaluation was made with a f u l l understanding of the limitations of recorded casework data and with a very real appreciation of the variety of interpretations and assessments which are possible with such material. After the material was gathered and recorded on individual sheets for each of the thirty-two children, i t was analyzed carefully. To begin with, the overall results of the work and planning were graded under the headings "unsuccessful,  M  "partially successful," and "successful."  This i n i t i a l rating was made on the basis of an objective assessment of the total case handling over the f u l l five-year period which was studied. In other words, the total impression of the case based on the story revealed i n the recorded material was the basis of the ratings "unsuccessful," "partially successful," "successful."  The "unsuccessful" cases were those  which l e f t the impression of a history of many hasty, emergency, or i l l -  20 considered placements with resulting disturbance to the child. f u l placements also generally were those where the parents  Unsuccess-  conflicts  1  were unresolved and as a result there was unhelpful interference by the parents or a continuing, neurotic t i e between the child and parent, either real or phantasied.  The "partially successful" placements were those  where a f a i r degree of permanency and happiness for the child had been achieved and there was evidence that the parents' problems had also been resolved to a degree. That i s , the partially successful cases were those where there were fewer than three placements during the five years studied and where there was recorded evidence that the child was beginning to show some signs of gaining a sense of belonging i n the foster family and i n the community.  The partially successful cases, however, s t i l l showed a con-  siderable degree of inconsistency i n the overall case-handling and the general impression created by the recorded material was that some uncertainty existed as to the possible ultimate outcome of the case*  In the  "successful" cases, the material recorded indicated that there had been a good understanding by the caseworker of both the parents and children with the result that suitable plans were made early i n the casework process and as a result both the children and parents showed a good degree of understanding and acceptance of their respective situations. After the i n i t i a l grading of the overall impression of the recorded material was given to each of the thirty-two cases studied, a  (1) spot check was made of the use of the basic social work philosophies and concepts i n the pre-placement and placement work with the parents and children, and on the basis of this check, the quality of casework evident (2) was evaluated under the headings "poor," " f a i r , " and "good. A spot check 8  1. See appendix -pp. 8 2 , 8 3 , 8 4 . 8 5 , 86, 87 2. See a p p e n d i x , pp. 88-,89,90 )f  - 21of the use of good casework method and techniques was also made on the basis of the overall case handling and the gradings "inadequate," "fairlyadequate,"  and "adequate" were used. After these  evaluations were made  of the overall results of the placement process; the use of basic philosophy and concepts i n the pre-placement and actual placement casework; and the overall use  of good casework method and techniques, an effort was made  to see what the relationship was between the three aspects of the total placement process.  In other words, an effort was made to examine whether  or not a "successful" placement had been achieved through a "good" understanding of basic social work philosophy and concepts and an "adequate" use of sound casework method and techniques* Possible Value of Such a SStudy It i s realized that a qualitative, objective evaluation of subjective case material such as was examined for this thesis, especially when carried out on such a small group, cannot be definitive or conclusive in i t s results.  However, perhaps the value of this and similar small  pieces of descriptive, qualitative  research may l i e i n the  contribution  they make i n indicating the endless possibilities which exist for research into the components of "quality casework" and the relationship between such casework and the ultimate  results of the service which i s offered to clients,,  CHAPTER II PRE-PLACEMENT CASEWORK The Foundation of the Placement Plan  Primary Pre-Placement  Concept  Modern child welfare work has a rich and interesting historical background which such writers as H.N. Thurston, the Abbots and the de Schwinitz have described i n vivid word pictures i n their many historical 1  volumes. Because i t i s not the purpose of this thesis to dwell on the historical aspects of child welfare work, readers of this thesis are referred to these valuable sources for material concerning the historical backdrop against which modern child welfare work becomes most clearly delineated.  Through the works of the historical writers i t i s possible to  trace the beginnings of the recognition of the special needs of children (and the aged and infirm) to the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Century when the effect of the Poor Law of 1601 on family l i f e began slowly to be recognized. From these early beginnings there developed a gradual appreciation of the needs of individuals and the unique nature of the problems of every human being. The early sociologists of the Nineteenth Century began to study the exact nature of these individual problems and their studies led them to postulate the theory of the v i t a l importance of the family i n society.  The fundamental nature of this theory was recog-  nized by social workers and today i t i s accepted i n the area of child welfare work, where the need for placement of a child away from his own  - 23 parents sometimes arises, that i t i s important that underlying the use of good placement techniques and s k i l l s there be a f u l l appreciation and application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts and especially of the one which postulates that the family i s the primary and most dynamic unit of society. A belief i n this fundamental social work philosophy i s most essential i n the part of the placement process which i s usually designated as the "pre-placement  n  work, for i t i s during this important i n i t i a l  period that every preventive and healing resource to keep and build positive family relationships should be brought to bear on the situation. It i s at this time that there should be the clearest realization that i t i s the basic birth-right of every child to grow up with his own family (1) group and to have an opportunity to experience parental love, i f not from his own biological parents, then from suitable foster parents. Present-day Placement Concepts It has now come to be accepted that a child's own family setting, unless pathological, i s the natural and best setting for him to develop and grow both physically and emotionally. As one modern social worker, Fern Lowry, has said, "the home i s the co-ordinating and integrating force - (2) In the child's experience,"  and the opportunity for every child to know  f u l l y what this experience means should be safeguarded as far as i s humanly possible.  To test this new thinking, many studies have been con-  ducted and many reports compiled.  During the war years i n England, for  example, the importance of family l i f e to children was studied and the 1.  Bowley, A., The"Psychology of the Unwanted Child. Edinburgh, E.S. Livingstone Ltd., 194-7, p. 18  2.  Lowry, Fern, Readings i n Social Casework. 1920 - 1938. Columbia University Press, New York, 1939, p. 595  - 24  -  findings clearly pointed up the validity of the concept. Anna Freud i n her book War and Children, graphically illustrated the family's s i g n i f i cance for the child when she stated, "The war acquires  comparatively  l i t t l e significance for children so long as i t only threatens their lives, disturbs their material comfort or cuts their food rations; i t becomes enormously significant the moment i t breaks up family l i f e and uproots (1) the emotional attachment of the child i n the family group." Similarily, the Report of the Care of Children, which was compiled by the Curtis Committee i n England i n 1946, underlined the v i t a l importance of family l i f e and parental love to children . In this Report, 1  the greatest need of a child was defined as "the need for sustained per(2) sonal affection from at least one parent-figure."  In addition, i t was  stated that a child needs to be consistently shown appreciation and recognition so that he receives assurance that he himself i s good, worthy, lovable and wanted. It was stressed that i t i s important for the child's emotional development that he should have this assurance to offset the unconscious fears of badness, unworthiness, unlovableness and fear of rejection which modern psychiatrists believe l i e deeply buried i n the minds of most children. The World Health Organization publication, Maternal Care and Mental Health, released i n 1952, i s one of the most recent studies on the effects of early deprivation which also demonstrates the importance to the child of family relationships. After extensive research on the "needs of homeless children (in England and the European Continent) ... that i s , 1. Freud, Anna and Burlingham, Dorothy, War and Children. International University Press, New York, N.Y., 1947, p. 21 2.  "Report of the Care of Children Committee," H.M. Stationery Office, London, England.  Curtis Committee, 1946,  - 25 children who were orphaned or separated from their families for other reasons and needed care i n foster homes, institutions or other types of care," the author, John Bowlby, reduced his findings to a simple statement to the effect that "what i s most essential for mental health i s that the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother i n which both find satisfaction and enjoy(1) ment."  Because the study concerned mainly very young children, the  emphasis was on the particular importance of the child's relationship with his mother. Had "parental * deprivation rather than "maternal" deprivation 1  been the subject of the research i t seems entirely l i k e l y that the statement about the essential ingredient for mental health would have been altered only to the extent that the word "mother" would have been changed to "parents" and "both" changed to " a l l . " These studies and many more have served to establish the modern basic child welfare principle that "the family nucleus i s the best ehviron(2) ment for the growing child."  They have served to prove conclusively that  "the family i s the most important single force i n moulding the personality of a child, (and) ... the influence of the family on the child i s fundamental whether, i n terms of usual community standards, the family i s happy (3) or unhappy, good or bad, rich or poor.*  1  Along with this conviction has  slowly grown the recognition that while personal relationships and social conditions i n a family may, by accepted standards, be anything but ideal, i t i s s t i l l the primary factor i n the l i f e of the child and consequently 1. Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health. World Health Organization, Palais Des Nations, Geneva, 1952, p. 11 2. Bowley, A.H., The Psychology of. the Unwanted Child, p. 4 3.  Burns, Phyllis, "Goals i n Family and Children's Services," Canadian Welfare Council Publication. Ottawa, 1949 - p. 57  i t s effect cannot be over-estimated.  In other words, i t i s now under-  stood that "everything a person experiences i n l i f e i s colored and interpreted through the medium of his or her (early) experiences i n living within a family group." . Most Recent Placement Concept This conviction about the importance of a child's family experience to his future development has brought many present-day child welfare workers to the place where they now consider that there i s no complete substitute for a child's own home, nor i s there any way to f u l l y compensate the child for the loss of his own parents.  This does not mini-  mize the important part played by foster parents i n any successful child placement programme, for i t i s , of course, realized that the contribution of foster parents to the welfare of a child who cannot remain with his own parents i s of inestimable value. However, i t i s suggested by many social workers that foster parents should not be regarded as "substitute" parents but rather as "supplementary" parents with a special and unique function. This i s to offer their home, their love and understanding to a child during the time the child's own home i s being rehabilitated or during the time his parents are receiving active and intensive help toward relinquishing the child for adoption, i f rehabilitation of their home i s completely unfeasible. Although not f u l l y accepted by some caseworkers, i t i s considered by others that the concept of "no substitute for own parents" i s the logical outgrowth of a complete acceptance and practical application of the essential social work philosophy and concepts concerning the basic place of 1. Heckels, Enid, Safeguarding Child Placement, (thesis) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1951, p. 7  - 27 the family i n society. A -full understanding of this concept leads to a recognition that the loss of the innate value of the child's own home i s not compensated for by placement in a "superior" home. This belief i n the paramount importance of the family has led to the present-day conviction among social workers that good child welfare i s good family work. Fostering sound family l i f e and buttressing the family against the onslaught of unfavourable conditions within and without i t s circle, should be points of crucial concern to a l l involved i n child welfare work. These underlying placement concepts were kept foremost i n the mind of the writer as an attempt was made to assess the relationship between the use of basic social work principles, the quality of casework evident i n the placement work with the children and parents, and the u l t i mate results of the thirty-two placements which were studied.  The impor-  tance of the "other side" of the placement process, that i s , work with the foster parents, was kept i n mind throughout the study even though i t could not be accurately assessed from the records studied. Rating According to Degree of Success of Placement F i r s t of a l l , in considering the relationship between the u l t i mate results of the placement plan and the philosophical and conceptual components of the pre-placement casework, an assessment was made of what the general outcome of the plan for placement appeared to be at the end of the five-year period covered by the study. This i n i t i a l assessment resulted in a grading of the cases under the headings "unsuccessful," "partially successful,'* and "successful.™  This overall evaluation of the  results of the placement plan was the basic evaluation against which an attempt was made later to compare the results of the other evaluations  - 23 made i n the study, i n order to determine whether or not there was a relationship between the success of the placement plan and the application of basic social work principles and good casework techniques. The criteria for this i n i t i a l assessment was simply a subjective evaluation by the writer of the apparent degree of happiness and security which the placement plan had achieved for each child involved. This was judged on the basis of the degree of permanency that the placements had given the children, the relationships the children had been able to form and the degree of acceptance and stability they enjoyed i n their foster homes and i n the communities i n which they were placed.  These things were  assessed by noting the number of placements, where more than one occurred, the reasons for the moves, the relationship of the child to each member of the foster family and the family as a unit, and the extent of participation of the foster child in the activities of the foster family and in community, church and school groups. Because the information recorded on the Child Welfare Division records was brief, i t was sometimes only possible to gain a slight impression about some of these factors, but i n each case, i t was f e l t that sufficient information was gleaned on which to base a valid judgment of the overall outcome of the placement plan. Perhaps i t should be explained why a purely subjective evaluation was done on each individual case rather than an assessment based on a set l i s t of clearly defined c r i t e r i a .  The former method was used because i t  became apparent that an exact l i s t of the components of a "successful" or "unsuccessful' placement could not be accurately drawn up. 1  To illustrate,  when this method was tried originally, i t was thought that one of the criteria of a "successful long term placement would be one foster home 0  placement during the period of time under observation.  It was found,  however, that i n at least two of the most "unsuccessful" cases i n the group  - 29 studied, the children had remained i n the f i r s t home i n which they had been placed and consequently, i t was realized that this factor could not be used as a criteria of success i n placement.  In other words, moving i s  usually a sign of failure but staying i s not always a sign of success. Sirailarily, a number of other features, such as placement of members of the same family i n one foster home, or withdrawal of the parents from the situation, which were at f i r s t thought of as criteria by which the success or failure of a placement could be assessed, were found to be equally unreliable unless considered on an individual basis In conjunction with the total history of each separate case. The following table gives a picture of how the thirty-two cases were distributed within the rating scale of "unsuccessful,'* "partially successful, * and "successful," which was used and the figures are related 1  to the age of the child at the time of the i n i t i a l request for placement. T&ELE I - An Evaluation of the Success of the Thirty-two Placements Studied - based on an assessment of the degree of permanency and apparent happiness and security i t provided the child, and related to the age of the child at the time of the i n i t i a l request for placement. Rating Scale Pre-School Total Grade School Tota: Adolescents Total D  6 7 8 9 10 11  12 3 4 5  Unsuccessful 1 2  2 1  6  1  Partially Successful  11 1  Successful  61 1 1 2  11  1 1 2  Total  84 2 1 4 1  20  1 2 2  3  12 13 14 15 16 1 1  1  1  Total  7 1  2 1  4  8  4 I  1 1  2  17  6 |L  1 3 1  6  32  Table I shows that twenty, or more than half, of the thirty-two cases were originally referred when the children were five years or less and that eleven of those twenty were "successfully" placed. Although i t  - 30 i s realized that age at the time of the i n i t i a l contact i s only one of the many factors which have a bearing on the ultimate outcome of a placement, the results of the thirty-two cases studied seemed to an extent to indicate that success i s sometimes more possible i f placement work starts when the child requiring placement i s relatively young. At the same time, the fact that the ultimate placements of slightly less than one-third of the preschool children were rated "unsuccessful" indicates that the requirements of young children need careful study for i t i s known that the trauma of separation, especially between the ages of three months and three years can be very severe. Rating According to Use of Basic Social Work Principles After the i n i t i a l grading was done of the cases according to the success of the placement, the cases were re-graded. ings, "poor," " f a i r ,  0  This time, the head-  and "good" were used to rate the quality of pre-  placement casework and these ratings were arrived at by an assessment of the extent to which i t was evident that the basic social work philosophy and concepts had been applied i n the pre-placement work with the parents and i n the pre-placement work with the children.  The rating was obtained  (1) through the use of a spot check chart upon which was noted the use of each of the six basic social work principles i n each individual case.  After  the spot check had been completed an arbitrary rating scale was set up and those cases which showed evidence of the use of only two or less of the six principles being applied i n the pre-placement casework were rated "poorj" the " f a i r " cases showed a use of either three or four principles; and the "good"cases were those where there was evidence that a l l the basic principles, or five of the six, were reasonably well applied. 1.  Appendix - p.p. 8 2 , 8 3 , 8 4  -  31  -  The following table, which i s a summary of the spot check chart, shows how the thirty-two cases were distributed within the ratings which were used to assess the application of the basic principles i n the preplacement work with both parents and children. TABLE II - Rating of Pre-Placement Casework according to use of basic social work philosophy and concepts.  1 Case and Treatment  Poor  Pre-Placement Work with Parents  11  Pre-Placement Work with Children  11  Good  Total  6  15  32  8  13  32  Fair  An analysis of this table indicates that i n the thirty-two cases studied there was a good degree of consistency i n the approach of workers to both the parents and the children i n their pre-placement work. Out of the thirty-two cases studied, the spot check chart showed that the rating for the work with the parents and children was the same i n twenty-two cases; better with the parents i n six cases; and better with the children i n four cases.  These figures are significant for pre-placement casework.  It i s sound that there should be somewhat more stress on the work with the parents, since the emphasis at that point i n the placement process should be on building up the strengths of the parents and, where constructively possible, on trying to preserve the unity of the family so that long-term placement outside the home would become unnecessary. It i s also interesting to compare the distribution i n Tables I and I I . From this comparison, i t i s seen that there are slightly more  - 32 -  "successful" cases i n Table I than there are "good cases i n Table I I . This would seem to indicate that i n the thirty-two cases studied there was not an exact correlation between the use of the six basic social work principles and the outcome of the placement. This i s to be expected, since there are other variables i n the situation which would have a bearing on the success or failure of the placement plan. The group of cases studied did, therefore, seem to show that although the casework with the parents and the children may not be "good," the placements i n a certain number of cases, may work out to be "successful" because of the other variables i n the situation. These variables could be such things as the innate (or environmentally developed) a b i l i t y of the child to adjust to his situation i n spite of a lack of outside help; and also, the contribution of good foster parents, (not assessed i n this thesis because of. insufficient recorded material i n the f i l e s used) which would enter i n an important way, into the success or failure of the placement. After obtaining the general distribution as set out i n Table (1) II, a further analysis of the spot check chart.was made and Table III below was drawn up to show i n summary form the number of times each of the six basic social work principles were used i n the "poor," " f a i r , " and "good ratings of the pre-placement casework with both the parents and with the children. 1. See appendix  pp. 82,83,84  TABLE III - Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used In Pre-Placement Casework with parents and children.  Principles  Pre-Placement Casework  III  IV  V  VI  Good  Total  6  15  25  10  8  13  28  with parents  0  3  7  10  with children  0  5  12  17  with parents  0  0  12  12  with children  0  3  8  with parents  5  5  15  25  with children  5  8  13  26  with parents  0  3  15  18  with children  0  2  13  15  with parents  4  3  13  20  with children  4  5  13  22  32  51  with children II  Fair  4  with parents  I  Poor  TOTAL  U9  H  232  KEY -  ^  I - Belief i n the personal worth of the individual II - Belief i n the possibility of development, growth and change i n an individual III - Belief that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful IV - Belief i n the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth V - Belief i n the inter-relatedness of individuals i n Society VI - Belief i n the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society.  This table shows that out of the possible 384 times that the six basic principles could have been applied i n the work with parents and children i n the thirty-two cases studied, they were used 232 times. A  -  34  -  further analysis of this table resulted i n a summary table, Table IV. TABLE IV - Summary Table of Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used i n Pre-Placement casework with parents and children.  Pre-Placement Casework 8 Poor  Fair  Good  Total 1  with parents  13  20  77  110  with children  19  31  72  122  Total  32  51  149  232  Table IV shows that the basic principles were used 110 times i n the work with parents and 122 times i n the work with children, that i s , 67.956 and 75.3$ of the possible times.  These figures would seem to i n -  dicate that i n the thirty-two cases studied there was a f a i r l y high level of general use of the important basic social work principles on the part of social workers i n the Social Welfare Branch who did the pre-placement work i n these cases.  In particular, i t w i l l be noted that there was i n  this group of cases an indication of a good understanding of Principles I and IV. Principle I involves a recognition of "the fundamental worth of the individual and of his right to an opportunity to achieve i n his own way the maximum development and fulfillment of his capabilities," while Principle IV postulates "the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth."  In a l l but the poorest of the "poor" cases, an  appreciation and practical use of these basic beliefs was evident to some degree i n the material on the f i l e s read.  This finding i s significant for  i t indicates that the attitudes which are fundamental to the practice of good casework, and which might be considered as inherent rather than  -  35  -  learned attitudes, were generally evident i n the cases which were analyzed for this thesis. The fact that these two principles were judged to be used i n 100% of the cases where the quality of casework was rated "good ' 1  would indicate that they may validly be regarded as the necessary foundation for any attempts to achieve good casework i n the pre-placement period. k further analysis of Table III reveals that Principles V and VI were also used over 50% of the times possible i n the pre-placement work with parents and children. These principles also make an important contribution to the quality of casework that i s achieved i n any situation for they involve an understanding of "the inter-relatedness of individuals i n society. * and an appreciation of "the family as the primary and most dynamic 1  unit of society."  That there was evidence i n the case data studied of an  understanding and use of these basic principles i s encouraging and again, i t was noted that the relationship between the use of these principles and the rating given the casework i n the pre-placement process was close. In Principles V and VI, the basic attitudes of the workers enter i n but i t seems probable that, i n these areas, the influence of formal training would be greater than with Principles I and I I . It i s significant also that i n the thirty-two cases examined, the greatest weakness i n the use of the six important social work principles appeared to be i n the use of Principles II and III for i t i s i n these areas that the diagnostic understanding and s k i l l of the worker enters i n to the greatest extent. The use of Principle II involves a diagnostic assessment of "the possibility of development, growth and change i n an individual" and Principle III requires a diagnostic understanding of the belief that "behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful."  Table III shows lack of appli-  cation of these principles according to the rating scales laid down  (discussed on p. 31 of this chapter). The °fair cases showed a slightly w  greater use of these principles but even i n the good B  decided weakness i n their application.  n  cases there was a  It i s interesting to note that i n  the work with parents, there i s apparently less a b i l i t y to assess the possibility of growth and change than there i s to understand the meaning of the parent's behaviour.  In the casework with children, this situation  i s reversed and there appears to be a greater understanding of the possib i l i t y of development and growth than there i s of the purpose and meaning of the children's behaviour.  An equal and good understanding of both  these principles would seem to be needed i f the best casework, and therefore the best placement results are to be achieved. In order to round out the assessment of the quality of the casework evident i n the pre-placement process, and i t s relationship to the use of sound social work principles and the ultimate results of the placement  8  plan, a further analysis of some of the other factors i n the pre-placement process was attempted. Sources of Referral The pre-placement process starts with the original referral or request for help and ends at the point where a decision to place a child outside his own home has been conclusively reached and a placement resource suitable to the child's individual requirements i s being chosen.  The  source of referral sometimes has an interesting effect on the pre-placement casework and therefore, i s a factor worthy of consideration i n any assessment of the quality of casework achieved i n the placement process. In the cases of the thirty-two children studied,, i t was found that there were eight main sources of referral.  These f e l l into three  main groups, namely: A. "community, under which police, and community and w  church groups were listed;  37 -  B. "professions," which included school,  hospital and doctors, public health authorities, and other social agencies;  C. "family," that i s , relatives and the immediate family.  The notations regarding referral sources made on the original work sheets which were kept for each of the thirty-two cases studied were tabulated and revealed that i n twenty-one cases there was only one source of referral and i n eleven cases there were two or more sources of referral. The following table shows the distribution of the referral sources according to the rating which was given the casework with parents and children. TABLE V - Distribution of Sources of Referral according to rating of quality of casework, assessed on basis of use of basic social work principles.  Referral Source  Pre-Placement Casework  Community  with parents  2  4  16  22  with children  3  3  16  22  with parents  8  1  9  18  with children  7  4  7  18  with parents  4  1  5  with children  4  1  5  28  14  Professions  •F«TTH 1 v X a.1111 XJf  TOTAL  Poor  Fair  Good  •38  Total  90  I  Several points of interest come to light i n Table V. Possibly the most interesting i s the evidence of some lack of co-ordination between professional agencies i n the matter of referrals.  I t w i l l be noted that  In the "poor" cases, at least half the referrals came from either the school, hospital, public health agency or another social agency. This  -  38  high proportion of poor cases where the original referral came from another professional agency i s perhaps somewhat surprising since i t might be thought that when a referral i s made from such sources, the chances for the subsequent work being successful would be greater than i n other cases, for sensitivity to timing and appropriateness of referral might be expected to be keener with professionally trained persons, whether a member of the social work profession or another profession.  Although they cannot be  construed as conclusive, the results of this small study would seem to i n dicate a need for improvement i n the area of inter-agency referrals and for greater inter-professional understanding of respective areas of competency.  In this connection, the basic social work principle concerning  "the inter-relatedne3s of individuals i n society" could be applied with good effect.  It i s admitted that distance, shortage of time and the  problem of often having to depend on written communication only, are hindrances which can impede entirely smooth referrals, but ways of overcoming these obstacles should be found.  A beginning might be a more conscious  use of Mary Richmond's simple formula} "Know the agency, i t s functions, i t s strengths; trust the agency to do their job; and teach them to trust (1)  you by doing what you have agreed to do."  The fact that a number of pro-  fessional referrals are to be found under the "good" rating indicates that this formula i s already being effectively used but the need for greater application seems apparent. Another interesting point which this table shows i s that out of the thirty-two cases studied, only five requests for placement were received from the child's own parents.  This could mean a number of things. It  could indicate that because of cultural demands, many parents are unable to 1.  Richmond,  The Long View, p. 96  - 39' face the fact that they are having d i f f i c u l t i e s i n caring for their children and because of their feelings, are unable to initiate a request for help. It could also mean that the agency i s not making i t s services readily available and i n a form most helpful to troubled parents. Nevertheless, whatever the reason for the relatively small number of s e l f a  referrals," the fact that four of the five parent-referred cases f e l l into the "poor" group i s s t i l l rather surprising for i t i s generally thought that when a parent does initiate the request for placement, i t i s easier to establish a helpful relationship and do better work than i s sometimes possible when the referral comes from an outside source.  An  analysis of the four poor cases revealed that out of the six basic contt  M  cepts, evidence of the use of only one could usually be noted i n the i n dividual records. Because of the apparent absence of sometimes even the most fundamental attitudes of acceptance and understanding of. the worth and rights of the parents as individual, a helpful relationship was not established at the time of the i n i t i a l request. Probably because they sensed that they were not understood or accepted, the parents i n each of these cases, attempted to make their own private placement arrangements which later proved to be unsuccessful. By the time the second referral was made, this time through other social agencies, i t was evidently not possible to retrieve the relationship which originally had been so helpful.  As a result, the work with the parents remained poor throughout the  pre-placement contact, and later i n the actual placement period as well. These cases revealed a general lack of acceptance and understanding of how to apply the basic social work principles, particularly Principles I, II, III and VI. Without the use of these fundamental principles, i t was impossible for the worker to be helpful to the troubled parents who came  -  AO  -  f i r s t at a time when they most needed assistance.  In the thirty-two cases  studied, the unsatisfactory results of the contact would appear to v a l i date the premise of this thesis that to carry out the d i f f i c u l t task of arranging placement of a child away from his own parents, an understanding use of basic social work philosophy and concepts i s essential. Table V also shows that, i n the thirty-two cases studied, i n the " f a i r " and "good" cases, the majority of referrals come from "community" sources.  It i s especially interesting to note that i n the "good" cases,  sixteen referrals out of twenty-five come from either the police or community and church groups.  This would seem to indicate that community  relationships i n the rural areas are generally on a sound basis and that the child welfare programme of the Social Welfare Branch i s sufficiently well interpreted and accepted i n the communities, that referrals are made early enough and i n a manner that makes possible some measure of success i n the pre-placement work. The one apparent lack i n interpretation i s that which would enable parents to make use of the programme for themselves, and make i t easier for them to turn to the local social welfare offices for help before i t becomes necessary f o r community groups or some outside authority to enter the situation and make a referral. Reasons for Referral In the pre-placement process, the next point of interest after the source of referral, i s the reason for the referral or the request for placement.  In the f i l e s studied i t was found that seven main reasons for  referral were recorded. An attempt was made to group these under three general headings, namely, "emotional neglect." "physical neglect" and "request for adoption."  It was realized that some elements of "emotional  neglect" would l i k e l y underly "neglect" of any sort and sometimes a request  - 41 for adoption as well, and therefore, the divisions were not thought of as definite or conclusive but were used merely i n an attempt to create a l i t t l e additional clarity i n the picture being presented.  A tabulation of  the notations on the work sheets revealed that out of the thirty-two cases studied, twenty-four were referred for one main reason, while i n the remaining eight cases there were two or more "reasons."  The following table shows  the distribution of reasons for referral according to the rating scale of the quality of casework which had been worked out. TABLE VI - Distribution of the Reason for Referral according to basic rating of quality of casework.  Reason for Referral  Pre-Placement Casework  Emotional Neglect  Poor  Fair  Good  with parents  7  4  5  16  with children  6  3  I 7  16  Physical Neglect  with parents  7  1  11  19  with children  7  3  9  19  Request- for Adoption  with parents  2  1  2  5  with children  3  2  32  14  TOTAL  Total  5 34  80  Most apparent from the above table i s the fact that the reasons for referral are almost evenly divided between the more severe emotional neglect situations and those where the physical or more "surface" aspects of neglect seemed more evident. This table also showed that there were fewer "good™ cases where the main reason for referral was "emotional neglect" which bears out the theory that the more subtle forms of neglect are the hardest to treat, possibly because at present they are less understood and less acceptable to workers.  In this area, diagnostic s k i l l and  -  42  -  sound training i n the dynamics of human behaviour as an aid i n understanding the meaning of the behaviour, would be especially important. Duration of Pre-Placement Work Another important factor to consider i n assessing the quality of casework i n the pre-placement period i s the length of time over which the work of this period extends.  In the cases studied, the length of time that  the family situation was known to the agency before action to commit the child or children to the care of the Superintendent was anywhere from one month to twelve years.  The table below shows how the time distribution  f e l l i n relation to the rating given the quality of casework with both parents and children. TABLE VII - Length of Time Case Known to Agency i n relation to rating of pre-placement casework, as shown i n years. Years  Pre-Placement Casework  Poor  Fair  0  with parents with children  1 1  1  with parents with children  4 4  2  with parents with children  2 1  2 2 1  j  with parents with children  1  /  with parents with children  3 3  6 \J  with parents with children  Q s  12  with parents  1  with children  1  22  Total  3 1  7 7  3 5  4 4 4 3  :  6  3 3  i  5  5  5  5 2  1  14  6 2 2  1  with parents with children TOTAL  Good  1  2  3 3  3 3  28  64  Because of the small number of cases used i n this study and the wide spread of time covered i n the pre-placement work, i t i s not really possible to suggest what valid conclusions, i f any, could be drawn about the relationship which exists between the length of time pre-placement work was carried on and the quality of the casework achieved, and i t s effect on the ultimate results of the placement plan. Table VTI seems to suggest that with the group of cases studied an extended pre-placement period i s not necessary i n order to achieve "good" casework. It would seem reasonable to surmise that the use of the six basic social work principles would facilitate movement i n the case and would result i n an accurate diagnosis and suitable treatment plan being worked out i n a reasonably short period of time.  This does not mean that supportive casework help on a  long-term basis would be eliminated but i t does mean that such long term help would only be given i n cases where i t has been accurately diagnosed that this was the type of help and treatment needed and not because the case was allowed to " d r i f t . " Pre-Placement Rehabilitative Resources Finally, any consideration of the quality of the pre-placement casework and i t s effect on the results of the total placement process must include an examination of the pre-placement rehabilitative resource that was used during the i n i t i a l period of assessment.  & survey of the records  revealed that eleven different pre-placement resources were used i n the cases analyzed. There were four cases i n which committal and placement occurred without the use of any pre-placement resource because the situation was emergent at the point of committal.  In the remaining twenty-  eight cases, a tabulation of the material on the work sheets revealed that there was an average of 3.20 resources used per case.  The following table  shows the distribution of the resources used i n relation to the basic "poor, "fair * and "good" rating of the cases. 9  1  TABLE VIII - Pre-Placement Resources used and their relationship to the quality of the casework with parents and children. ll  -  Resources  Pre-Placement Casework  No Resource  with parents with children  Financial Assistance  with parents with children  Non-ward Care Employment Assistance  with parents  Community Interpretation  with parents with children  Legal Aid  Ii  I  Poor  I  M  I  Fair  Good  Total  2  2  4 4  8  1  3  5 5  2 1  9  15 15  with parents  11  3  13  27  with children  10  4  13  27 1  1  with children 2  4 4  1  1  8 10  14 14  with parents  1  1  with children  1  1 5 5  6 6  1  1 1  1  2  3  1  1  3  3  3  3  3  10  15 15  1 1  Health Services  with parents with children  High Foster Home Rates  with parents with children  1  Child Guidance  with parents  Visiting Homemaker  with parents with children  Intensive Casework  with parents with children  Hospital Care For Child  with parents with children  with children  TOTAL  1 *  3  2  12  3  49  1 1  1 1  2 2  27  108  184  -  45  -  This table reveals that i n the "good" cases, considerably greater use was made of pre-placement resources than i n the " f a i r " or "poor" cases.  There were 3.40 resources used i n the work with parents  which was rated "good" and 4.30 resources used i n the same category for children.  In the " f a i r " cases 2.66 resources were utilized i n work with  parents and 1.47 i n work with children, while the "poor" cases showed a use of 2.20 resources with parents and 2.27 with children.  The fact that the  "poor" cases with children showed a higher use of resources than the " f a i r " cases, Is not a contradiction of the findings i n the "good" cases, but rather indicates that the mere mechanical application of external aids does not compensate for the lack of good attitudes, understanding and competence. The above breakdown i n the use of resources shows that i n the "good" cases there was a higher number of resources used than the average for the total group studied. This fact seems to indicate that, when used i n conjunction with a good quality of casework, the s k i l l f u l and imaginative use of resources does have a real bearing on the ultimate result of the placement plan. It i s also interesting to note from Table VIII that the resource of non-ward care (which i n reality involves placement but on a temporary basis as an aid to the preventive work that i s attempted before the decision i s made to commit the child to the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare) was the most frequently used.  This shows the readiness on the  part of the child welfare authorities i n the provincial Social Welfare Branch to give concrete help i n relieving stress and strain within families for a temporary period. It i s noted, however, that there i s a much lesser use of "intensive family casework," "homemaker services," "financial assistance," and "employment assistance," the resources which would make i t  possible for a greater measure of family unity to be preserved, even while the problems existing within the total family situation are receiving treatment.  Of the four above-mentioned resources, the one that  has particularly good possibilities for tiding a family over a temporary d i f f i c u l t y , depending on the diagnosis of the total family circumstances, i s the visiting homemaker service.  This resource i s beginning to be used  in British Columbia but here, as i n most places i n Canada, i t s t i l l seems more possible to obtain funds for foster home care of a child away from his own parents than for placing a visiting homemaker into the home, even though this would i n many cases, offer the family a greater degree of protection against total breakdown. Part of the problem i n this connection would seem to be lack of public understanding and i t i s an area where additional interpretation to the community i s indicated.  In the three cases  in the study i n which a visiting homemaker was used, i t was noted from the records that considerable time was spent i n interpreting the value of the plan to the community, with the result that funds were made available and a suitable homemaker was found. ,,  ,,  In these cases, the use of the homemaker  did not prevent the ultimate need for removing the children from their own homes but i t did make i t possible for the move to be less traumatic for them and the successful results of their placements can probably be attributed, at least i n part, to the use of this most helpful resource. In passing, i t should be mentioned that Table VIII does not show when the resource was used and i n this matter, timing i s a factor of importance.  It was observed i n the records several times that the resource  was brought into the situation rather late and i t was thought that this fact had an important bearing on the ultimate result of the work that was attempted.  This seemed to underline the general weakness i n diagnostic  s k i l l which had been noted i n connection with the use of the basic social  -  47  -  work principles, for this s k i l l has a real bearing on workers  1  ability  to assess the appropriate time at which to utilize a pre-placement resource. To summarize the analysis thus far, i t would seem possible to suggest at this point that i n the thirty-two cases used i n this study there seemed to be at least a degree of validity to the proposed thesis that i n pre-placement casework a positive relationship does exist between a "good" application of basic social work philosophy and concepts and the "successful" outcome of the placement.  It remains to be seen i f an analy-  sis of the post-placement casework indicates a similar trend.  CHAPTER III ACTUAL PLACEMENT CASEWORK The Effectiveness of the Placement Plan  Primary Placement Concepts It i s recognized that parental rights are not absolute but are contingent upon the parents* a b i l i t y and willingness to discharge their duties to the benefit of their children.  However, as has already been  stressed, i t i s firmly believed by present-day child welfare workers, that i t i s the f i r s t right of every child to have an opportunity of experiencing parental love and a chance for normal growth, where possible from and with his own parents.  This being believed, the trend has been toward the develop-  ment of preventive casework and resources that w i l l assist the family to find helpful and r e a l i s t i c enumerated  solutions to their problems.  i n detail at the close of the  These resources,  previous chapter, include such  things as good family casework, social allowance, non-ward care, etc. It i s clear that casework, sometimes with the aid of one or more of these resources, should enable workers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the family as a family and to  diagnostically determine whether or not  the parents can be helped, and the important parent-child relationship preserved.  It has often been demonstrated that good casework, whether accom-  panied by a s k i l l f u l and imaginative use of these resources or not, can do much to rehabilitate permanently a disintegrating family* On the other hand, i t has also been demonstrated that there are  some situations where casework and the available resources f a i l , for many reasons, to bring or keep a family together, and i t may finally be necessary to make a permanent plan for a child away from his own parents through court committal to a child welfare author!ty  8  %  the time this legal action i s  taken, i t should have been definitely shown that long-term care of the child away from his own parents i s absolutely necessary.  This having been proved,  every effort should then be bent toward providing the child with either the security of adoption or, i f this i s not possible, with as much security as possible through the selection of a suitable, permanent foster home. In addition, there should also be sincere efforts to help parents with their feelings as much as possibleo  In this connection a diagnostic assessment  should be made as to whether or not the parents should retain an interest i n the child and visiting should be arranged, or whether the separation should be complete© Preparation for Placement Once the decision to commit has been arrived at, wherever possible with the f u l l co-operation and understanding of the parents and the child, the next step i n the placement process i s the careful preparation of both the parents and the child for the actual separation and a l l that this w i l l mean to them* It miglit perhaps be considered that the preparation for placement should have been discussed i n the preceding chapter since i t does occur before placement and therefore, i s not actually part of the actual placement activity per se.  However, i t was thought that since this aspect of place-  ment work occurs after a l l the early preventive work has been tried and after the f i n a l decision has been reached to place the child away from his own parents, i t was decided that this aspect of the work more logically f e l l i n the chapter concerning the actual placement casework  e  In effect,  - 50 the preparational work which i s done just prior to placement, forms a large part of the base upon which the placement work i s built. Preparation of Parents The areas requiring primary consideration i n the immediate preparational work for placement are those which concern the inner feelings of parents and children when they eventually face long-term separation from each other. To be able to help with these feelings, workers must have an understanding of them. To begin with, i t i s necessary to understand that within most cultures there i s the concept that parents should be able to care for their children and keep them with them during their growing years. When parents find themselves unable to meet this cultural standard of behaviour, i t i s natural that they experience some sense of failure, discouragement, guilt, humiliation, loneliness, grief and frustation about the limitations of themselves and their situation.  The degree of these feelings  w i l l vary with the degree to which the parents, because of a l l that has already happened to them i n l i f e , are able to feel and express emotions. However, i t i s safe to assume that a l l parents, even "neglectful," "incapable" parents, experience these feelings to some degree.  It i s realized that with  some parents these feelings are minimal, for example, the very narcissistic or self-seeking child-parent (emotionally), those too immature to accept children, the punitive, hostile parent, and those who project the rejection they themselves have known on the child. not only accept the  With these parents the worker must  neglect and incapability but must also accept whatever  rejection of parenthood and of the child i s present, and help the parent from that point. Workers who appreciate these possible parental attitudes are better able to ease the parents' suffering and thus create a sounder base for carrying out the plan to place the child away from the parents.  -  51 -  Because of t h e i r inner f e e l i n g s , and also because of the worker's feelings i n regard to parenthood, i t i s often p a r t i c u l a r l y hard f o r parents to form a r e l a t i o n s h i p with a worker.  To preserve t h e i r own self-respect, even  r e j e c t i n g parents often at f i r s t project the causes of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n on to circumstances beyond t h e i r control and t h e i r response to offers of help i s frequently h o s t i l e and angry.  I t i s necessary f o r these feelings to be  understood and as f a r as i s possible, resolved and a working r e l a t i o n s h i p established before the parents can receive the help they need i n facing long-term separation from t h e i r c h i l d or children.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p can  only be b u i l t up through a consistent demonstration of i n t e r e s t and an acceptance of them as they are and through s u f f i c i e n t time being taken t o r e a l l y get to know the parents.  In t h i s whole area, self-awareness on the  part of the worker i s e s p e c i a l l y important, as the worker's own attitudes concerning parents and parenthood might be projected into the c l i e n t ' s s i t u ation.  In order to avoid t h i s p i t f a l l an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c casework approach  i s needed so that the needs of a l l parents, whether they are wholly or part i a l l y r e j e c t i v e or neglectful through ignorance and circumstance, may be met.  Preparation of Children In a s i m i l a r way, i t i s necessary to a s s i s t a c h i l d who i s facing the traumatic experience of separation from h i s parents.  To be helpful to  a c h i l d , i t i s necessary to attempt to gain an understanding of this experience "from the child's viewpoint."  As Leontine Young has stated, "There i s  only one source from which we can a c t u a l l y l e a r n to know and understand the  (1) f e e l i n g s of any c h i l d , and that i s from the c h i l d himself."  This i s true  1.  Social  Young, Leontine, "Placement from the Child's Viewpoint," Casework. June, 1950, p. 251  also of parents. Their feelings are not always what a worker lacking diagnostic s k i l l and self-awareness might need to believe they f e e l . Workers involved i n child placement work need to know how to observe and how to l i s t e n to the children (and parents) with whom they are working, i f they are to be able to understand what the child i s feeling and how to help him. Again, t h i s requires time, patience and s e n s i t i v i t y .  I t involves the  " a r t i s t r y " to which Leontine Young referred i n an Institute on Placement given under the sponsorship of the Vancouver Island Canadian Association of Social Workers i n V i c t o r i a , B.C. i n August, 1952.  This a r t i s t r y enables the  worker to understand the many "small" and "great" inner feelings of any child who faces separation from his parents. Among these inner feelings i s fear of the unknown which most children experience to a degree from time to time i n the process of growing up but which i s known by the child faced with the prospect of losing his own parents, i n a way f a r beyond the "usual." There i s also the child's acute feeling of being different from others which every child experiences when he cannot be cared for by his own parents. This feeling i s often constantly underlined for the placed child by the chance remarks of those around him and by the many questions of his friends and playmates about his own family and about "why" he i s not with them. Often, too, the community at large emphasizes the child's feeling of difference.  This creates within the child feelings of unworthiness and  unlovableness which, i f not resolved, w i l l have a profound effect on the development of his personality. I t has been demonstrated often that a child who i s not helped effectively at the beginning of his experience with placement by an understanding casework relationship, through which he receives support and c l a r i f i c a t i o n , w i l l not be able to adjust to the situation i n which he finds himself.  In his misery and loneliness, he remembers within himself the  - 53 "rejection" of his parents and because of these memories, which arouse fears of another rejection, his behaviour often regresses and he acts in such a way that he brings down on his head the very thing he fears. A l l too often children cover up their feelings with withdrawal or seeming indifference or they may "over-accept" the foster home and fantasy that i t i s a place which magically gives a l l a child could wish. Whatever the child's way of attempting to make an adjustment, he needs understanding and help for otherwise without sound casework help and a foster home suitable to his needs, he w i l l repeat this pattern over and over again. The child who goes through the experience of repeated placements (rejections to him), may gradually learn to protect himself by a persistent refusal to love anyone. One who i s deeply hurt may f i n a l l y make the decision never to trust or love anyone again.  When this decision, which might be  called a decision against l i f e , i s made, a door closes and from then on he may go through l i f e exploiting everyone he meets and be incapable of giving or receiving love.  Good pre-placement and good preparational casework prior  to permanent placement can do much to avert this tragedy, especially i f the choice and preparation of the foster home i s good. The degree to which good preparational work was done with the parents and the children in the cases studied for this thesis could only be estimated through an assessment of the casework which was evident in the total placement period.  The method of analyzing the placement casework was  on the same pattern as the analysis of the preventive pre-placement work. Again, the quality of casework was rated "poor," " f a i r , " and "good," according  to the apparent use that was made of the six basic social work principles  and to do this rating, the same type of spot check chart \ms used and the same type of tables were drawn up to show the results.  -  54  -  Placement Theories After the preparational work has been done, and the placement achieved, i n the placement period which follows, there should be continued work with both the parents and the children, although the focus of the work naturally changes somewhat. Wherever possible, the parents should receive continued casework help i n order that they may co-operate i n the continuing plan (visits, letters, etc.) and be reassured and continue to accept and feel happy about the long-range plan which has been arrived at preferably with their agreement for their children.  Often, too, they need help, i n the  actual-'-placement period, with their own personal problems, quite apart from their children, so that they may re-establish their own lives with some degree of satisfaction and sense of usefulness and worth. This kind of help i s given when the worker sees clearly the worth of the parent as an individual and puts this basic social v/ork philosophy into practical use with the casework service he offers. With children, the placement work has the two-fold focus of helping the child to adjust to his new home and, continuing to assist him with his feelings about being separated from his own parents.  Both these areas  of placement work with children have a continuous aspect, for as long as the child i s growing, adjusting, and thinking, he w i l l be wondering about himself i n relation to his foster parents and his own parents.  He needs  constant help with his thoughts about these things and, therefore, a continuous relationship with someone to whom he can talk freely about them i s essential i f the placement i s to be given the best possible chance of u l t i mately working out satisfactorily.  The child also needs assurance that his  ambitions and plans for the future are considered important and that he w i l l receive every help i n carrying them out.  In other words, he needs the under-  pinning and reassurance that any growing child needs, plus a special under-  -  55  -  standing because of his loss of his parents. These theories about the content of good placement casework were kept i n mind as an attempt was made to assess the quality of the casework which was evident i n the placement period of work with the parents and children studied. It was observed that the "theories" were merely a pract i c a l application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts which had been set up as criteria for good casework in both the preventive and the placement periods. Rating According to Use of Basic Social Work Principles Just as i n the analysis of the pre-placement casework, the thirtytwo cases under study were graded i n the post-placement analysis as "poor," " f a i r , " and "good," according to the extent to which i t was apparent that the basic social philosophy and concepts had been applied in the work with parents and children. (1)  Again, the rating was arrived at through the use of  a spot check chart upon which was noted the use of each of the six basic social work principles i n each individual case, and again, the same standards of performance were used to arrive at the ratings. The following table, which i s a summary of the spot check chart, shows how the thirty-tv/o cases were distributed within the ratings which were used to assess the application of the basic principles i n the placement work with both parents and children. TABLE IX - Rating of Casework during the actual placement according to use of basic social work philosophy and concepts. Casework during Placement  1.  Poor  Fair  With Parents  14  13  5  32  With Children  9  8  15  32  See appendix^ pp. 85,86,87  Good  Total  -  56 -  An analysis of this table indicates that there i s a much lower number of "good" cases i n factual' -placement work with parents than there i s i n the work with children.  A comparison of this table with Table II on  page thirty-one of the Second Chapter, serves to emphasize this fact s t i l l more. In contrast with the pre-placement work where a good degree of consistency i n work with both parents and children was observed, i n the actual placement work only ten cases had the same rating for the work with the parents and the children, while five had a better rating for the work with parents, and seventeen had a better rating for the work with children. It i s to be expected that during the actual placement period, less consistent work with the parents would be possible than with the children, for the very r e a l i s t i c reason that the parents can and do move around a great deal and are often hard to locate and keep i n touch with, while with the children this i s seldom a problem.  Nevertheless, i t i s wondered i f , i n the casework  with parents, there was a greater appreciation of the basic social work philosophy and concepts, there might be fewer "lost" or "unresponsive" parents. Reality factors of disappearance, prison sentences, or general instability which causes constant moving, do enter into the work with parents.  It appears, however, that after a child i s committed and placed  in a foster home, the recognition of the needs of the parents, both personal and i n relation to their child or children i n care, may be lost by the worker i n his effort to concentrate on settling the child happily i n his new home. This seeming loss of focus i n the work with the parents can endanger the whole placement plan and therefore i s worthy of note. A comparison of Table IX and Table I on page twenty-nine of Chapter Two shows that there are seventeen "successful" cases i n Table I but only five "good" cases with parents and fifteen "good" cases with parents i n Table IX. This bears out the observation made i n the comparison of Tables I  -  57  -  and II that there i s not an exact correlation between the use of the six basic social work concepts and the results of the placement.  In the case of  the actual -placement work, the contrasts are somewhat sharper i n the work * with parents where i t has already been noted there was a distinct drop i n the "good" cases.  Some of the variables, which would have a bearing on this  situation have already been mentioned. some different variables.  In addition, here there would be  Depending on the unity of the family and the  child's belonging, work with the family might affect the placement or constitute a separate "case." After obtaining the general distribution as set out in Table IX, a further analysis of the spot check chart was made and Table X below was drawn up to indicate the number of times each of the six basic social work principles was used i n the "poor," " f a i r , " and "good" ratings of the actual placement casework which was done with both the parents and the children. TABLE X - Number of Times Basic Social Work Principles were used i n Placement Casework v/ith parents and children. Principles  Placement Casework  Poor  Fair  Good  Total  I  with parents with children  3 6  12 8  5 15  20 29  II  with parents with children  0 0  2  4  3 15  5 19  III  with parents with children  0  0  5  0  0  5 13  with with with with  9 4 0 0  13 8 9 4  5 15 5 13  with parents  6  13  4  23  with children  2  6  15  23  30  79  113  222  IV V . VI  parents children parents children  TOTAL NOTE: See Key on following page.  1  13 27 27 14 17  -  58 -  KEY - I - Belief i n the personal worth of the individual II - Belief i n the possibility of development, growth and change i n an individual III - Belief that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful IV - Belief i n the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth V - Belief i n the inter-relatedness of individuals in Society VI - Belief i n the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society. This table shows that out of the possible 384 times that the six basic principles could have been applied i n the thirty-two cases, they were used a total of 222 times, that i s , ninety-four times i n the work with parents and 128 times i n the work with children, or 58.02$ and 79.01$ of the possible times.  These figures would seem to indicate that the quality of  casework in the actual- .placement period was definitely better i n the work with 5  the children than i t was with the parents. Again, these figures are read with an appreciation of the realistic problem that exists i n keeping i n touch with parents after the committal of their child has occurred and they no longer have actual responsibility for his care. Nevertheless, i t seems that some of the reason for the drop i n the quality of the casework with parents may exist i n the attitudes of workers and their approach to parents both before and after the plan for long-term placement has been effected. In other words, i t would seem that sometimes the help offered parents i s not offered for themselves but only regarding their children. It would seem that i n /actual -placement work with parents there i s less application of the basic social work principles, even of such a fundamental one as Principle I which involves a recognition of the worth of the parents as individuals and their right to achieve (and this implies their right to be helped to achieve) the maximum development and fulfillment of their capabilities.  Here again, there i s need for self-awareness on the  -  59  -  part of the worker so that non-acceptance of parents who cannot be a true parent may be avoided. In the work with children, Principle I i s much more helpfully applied, which would seem to indicate a greater a b i l i t y on the part of the workers to accept and work with the children as individuals than i s apparent in their work with parents. Principle IV which recognizes "the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth." showed a high percentage of application, even i n the work with the parents but i t was wondered i f the apparent use of this principle was really a conscientious use or merely an apparent use which i n reality *ra,s an allowing of the client a "freedom" through a lack of interest or a lack of understanding of his problems. It was only possible to surmise about this point.  Both i n the  preventive pre-placement and the actual placement work with parents and children, i n a l l but the "poor" cases, Principle V, which involves an understanding of "the inter-relatedness of the individual i n society." and Principle VI, which calls for an appreciation of "the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society." were used to a f a i r l y good degree. Here again, i t was observed that the relationship between the use of these principles and the rating given the quality of casework i n the placement process was close. In the analysis of the use of the fundamental social work principles i n placement casework, i t was seen that there was the same weakness i n the use of Principles II and III that had been noticeable i n the analysis of the quality of the pre-placement casework.  This would seem to indicate  that there i s evidence of a consistently lower degree of s k i l l throughout the casework of the total placement process i n applying these two diagnostic principles than there i s i n the application of the other four.  That i s ,  there would seem to be a general weakness i n workers' a b i l i t y to s k i l l f u l l y  -  60  -  assess "the possibility of development, growth and change i n an individual" and to diagnostically understand that "behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful."  As i n the pre-placement casework, there appeared to be i n the later  placement work a definite lack of application of these fundamental principles in the cases where the quality of the casework was rated "poor."  Again, the  " f a i r " cases showed a slightly greater use of these principles but even i n the "good" cases the application was not consistent.  The a b i l i t y of workers  in their work with parents to assess the possibility of growth and change was again slightly better than their a b i l i t y to understand the meaning of the parents' behaviour.  In the casework with children, this situation was  again reversed, as i t had been i n the pre-placement work. Rating According to the Use of Good Casework Methods and Techniques The analysis having been done of the extent to which the six basic casework principles had been used i n the pre-placement and the placement  -  work, i t was next desired to attempt to rate the casework i n the group of placement cases studied according to the use vrhich was made of good casework method and techniques. It was discovered that this could not be broken into two sections, pre-placement and placement, for the method and techniques flowed In-a continuous stream throughout the whole placement process and i t was impossible to assess them separately for the two periods of the process. A glance at the criteria used i n assessing method and techniques w i l l make this apparent.  For the purposes of this thesis, the casework method was  divided into five parts as follows; diagnosis;  A. gathering information;  B. social  C. treatment plan; D. implementation of plan; E. evaluation  and re-evaluation of plan. Because method and techniques seemed to have to be considered as a whole, a procedure much the same as xras used i n the i n i t i a l "unsuccessful,"  -  61 -  "partially successful," and "successful" grading of the outcome of the placement was followed, and the total case handling was graded as "inadequate," " f a i r l y adequate," and "adequate" on the basis of the extent to which i t was evident that the method and technical criteria were used. A (1) spot check chart.was made of the method and techniques used i n the total placement process with both the parents and the children, and a tabulation was made of the ratings of the cases under these three headings.  The scale  of rating was as follows; "inadequate," - evidence of none or only one of the criteria; " f a i r l y adequate," - evidence of two or three, and "adequate" showed the use of four, or a l l of the steps i n the casework method' and the accompanying techniques.  The table below shows the distribution which  resulted. TABLE XI - Rating of Case Handling i n the Total Placement Process according to the use of good casework method and techniques. Method and Technique  Inadequate  Fairly Adequate  Adequate  Total  Casework With Parents  8  13  11  32  Casework With Children  11  8  13  32  It i s interesting to compare this table with Table II on page 33 and Table VIII on page 44 of Chapter Two. In the case of the work with parents, both with reference to the application of the basic social work philosophy and concepts and the use of good casework method and techniques, there i s a variety of results i n each instance. In the casework with the children, however, there i s a constancy, for the results i n each of the three ratings i s very much the same. It would appear from this that there  1.  See « p p a n d l x , P | . | | 8  8 9  9 0  -  i s greater s k i l l  62  -  on the p a r t o f workers i n u s i n g the b a s i c s o c i a l work  p r i n c i p l e s and good casework t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r work w i t h c h i l d r e n t h e r e i s i n t h e i r work w i t h p a r e n t s .  than  S i n c e i n c h i l d placement work the  major emphasis should be on working toward c r e a t i n g the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e degree o f s e c u r i t y and happiness  f o r c h i l d r e n who  must be p l a c e d away from  t h e i r p a r e n t s on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s , t h i s r e s u l t i s perhaps as i t should  be.  However, s i n c e the work w i t h p a r e n t s i s u l t i m a t e l y r e f l e c t e d , a t l e a s t i n many c a s e s , i n the f i n a l of  outcome o f the placement, i t seemed from the group  cases s t u d i e d t h a t w i t h an improvement i n the work w i t h the p a r e n t s , the  permanency and  s e c u r i t y o f an even g r e a t e r number o f placements c o u l d be  safeguarded. A f t e r o b t a i n i n g the g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the use o f good method and t e c h n i q u e s as s e t out i n T a b l e X I , a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the spot check c h a r t was  made and T a b l e X I I was  drawn up t o i n d i c a t e the number o f times  each o f the f i v e s t e p s i n casework method and technique were used "inadequate,"  " f a i r l y adequate," and  "adequate"  i n the  groups.  TABLE X I I - Number o f Times Good Casework Method and Techniques were used i n the T o t a l Placement P r o c e s s i n casework w i t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n .  Method and Technique  Casework  Gathering Information S o c i a l Diagnosis XX Wet. U l l l f c ) L i \ J  XXevil  Implementation of  Plan  E v a l u a t i o n and  Re-  e v a l u a t i o n of Plan  Inadequate  Fairly Adequate Adequate  Total  with  parents  3  13  11  27  with  children  2  6  13  21  with  parents  8  children  3 2  5  with  0 0  11  13  with  parents  2  8  11  21 2?  with  children  8  8  with with  parents children  2  8  13 11  9  8  13  21 30  with with  parents children  0 1  5  8  13  0  7  8  27  61  103  191  TOTAL  -  63  -  This table shows that out of the possible 160 times the steps in method and techniques could have been applied in the thirty-two cases, they were used ninety times in the work with parents and 106 times in the work with children, that i s , 56.2%  and 66.2$ of the possible times.  These figures  would seem to indicate a passable degree of the use of good casework method and techniques in the total case handling of the placement process but i n • the small group of cases studied certain areas of casework method and technique show a decided weakness. The most noticeable areas of weakness are again i n the parts of the casework method which require diagnostic s k i l l , that i s , in "B" and "E" - the "social diagnosis" and the "evaluation and re-evaluation of the plan."  Method "C" - the "treatment plan" also shows a  tendency to.be less s k i l l f u l l y used and this i s to be expected in view of the seeming general weakness in diagnostic s k i l l .  This finding i s consistent  with earlier findings in connection with the application of the six basic social work principles where i n the cases analyzed a weakness was also evident i n the use of the principles which demanded the greatest degree of diagnostic a b i l i t y .  This would seem to demonstrate a need for the develop-  ment of ways to improve and strengthen the diagnostic s k i l l of workers i n volved in the placement process so that planning would be based on sound diagnosis.  It w i l l be readily recognized that this ability i s of fundamental  importance throughout a l l parts of the placement process, but perhaps especially at the level of pre-placement casework. Here, i s required astute assessment of the situation which calls for acute diagnostic s k i l l . Assessment of Movement in Cases during Five-Year Placement Period Following the i n i t i a l rating of the cases according to the degree of success in the outcome of the placement plan; the rating of the quality of the pre-placement and the actual placement casework according to the  -  64  -  extent of the application of the six basic social work principles, and the rating of the case handling i n the total placement process according to the adequacy of the use of good casework methods and techniques, an attempt was made to determine whether there was any way in which movement i n the cases over the five-year period studied could be measured. It was realized that since the i n i t i a l rating of the cases according to the outcome of the placement plan, as i t appeared at the end of the five year period studied, was made on the basis of the apparent end result as recorded on the f i l e , no time factor was involved and therefore movement could not be measured. The same was true of the rating of the adequacy of the use of casework method and techniques because the assessment was made on the basis of the case handling of the part of the placement process with parents and children which was analyzed.  With the rating of the cases according to the use of  the basic social work principles, however, the time factor did enter in, and therefore, a rating of the movement i n this aspect of the placement process seemed possible. Again, using the basic spot check charts, a comparison was made of the rating given the work with parents i n the pre-placement phase and that given i n the actual placement phase of the case - the total period covering a five-year period.  A similar comparison was made for the work  with children. These comparisons revealed that in the group of cases studied, the ratings of some cases stayed the same throughout the placement process.  Some had the same grade and the same rating but the use of the  principles varied; some had the same rating but a lower grading; some had the same rating but a higher grading; some showed a radical change from "good" to "bad" and some vice versa; some changed only slightly, that i s , from "good" to " f a i r , " " f a i r " to "good," " f a i r " to "poor" or "poor" to "fair."  After this preliminary survey, i t was seen that these changes  -  65  -  could be grouped into three main headings} "no movement" (stable), "movement down" (regressed) and "movement up" (progressed). The findings of this analysis were tabulated and the results of the rating of the movement i n the casework with parents and children involved in the part placement process which was analyzed i n thirty-two cases over the period 1948 to 1953 are shown on the following table. TABLE XIII - Rating of Movement i n total placement casework with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 Rating of Movement  No Movement  Movement Down  Movement Up  Total  With Parents  14  13  5  32  With Children  16  8  8  32  This table indicates that i n slightly less than half the cases i n the work with parents and i n slightly more than half the cases i n the work with children, no improvement and no regression was apparent in the overall case handling throughout the part of the placement process which was studied. The breakdown for the "no movement" rating for parents was as follows} "poor" - 7, " f a i r " - 3, and "good" - 4} and for children} "poor" - 4, " f a i r " - 2 , and "good" - 10.  (see Table XIV)  In the work with parents twelve  cases showed a movement down the scale and i n the case of work with children there were eight cases where this movement was also apparent.  The cases in  which improvement, or movement up the scale of rating was evident, were fewer than i n the other two categories, with the work with parents again showing a decided lack of progress over the five-year period studied. Having gained the general picture of assessable movement in the case handling over the five-year placement period studied, some of the above supplementary findings of the detailed analysis of the scale of movement  -  66  -  were tabulated. These showed the rate of movement i n relation to the rating given the cases according to the extent to which the casework indicated a use of the six basic social work principles.  The table below gives the  results of this tabulation. TABLE XIV - Scale of Movement i n Placement Work with parents and children between 1948 and 1953 as measured by the use of the six basic social work principles.  Evidence of Movement No Movement Movement Down Movement Up  Casework  Poor  Fair  Good  Total  iwith parents with children  7 4  3 2  10  A  14 16  with parents with children  1 2  1 4  11 2  13 8  with parents  3  2  0  with children  5  2  1  5 8  22  14  28  64  TOTAL  A point of interest which was noted from this table was the fact that three "poor" cases i n the work with parents and five "poor" cases i n the work with children showed movement up.  From among the thirty-two cases  studied one of the parent cases showed a radical improvement from "poor" to "good" and the other showed a smaller improvement from "poor" to " f a i r . " In the children's cases two improved from "poor" to "good" and three from "poor" to " f a i r . "  Since this assessment of movement covers a five-year  period, the findings indicate that i t takes a long time to improve a situation which i s poorly handled i n the beginning and this would seem to emphasize the importance of the i n i t i a l work that i s done i n a case for i t s effect i s f e l t over a long period of time. The need for sustained effort and consistency i n handling i s seen also by a glance at the thirteen cases under the rating "good" which showed  -  67  -  a movement down over the five-year period. In five of these cases the rating dropped from "good" to "poor"; i n six cases i t went from "good" to " f a i r " and i n one case, i t went from "fair" to "poor".  Some of the "good-  to-poor" cases were those i n which the parents became lost and i t i s realized that reducing the rating of the casevrork because contact became impossible may not be considered to be just, for i t can be argued that the disappearance of a parent may possibly be an indication that his feelings about his child have been satisfactorily resolved and he has been helped to move away with some renewed confidence and hope about himself. On the other hand, the disappearance could mean that the parent was unable to endure the suffering of the experience of losing his child and withdrawal may be his way of escaping the painful reality of his situation.  In this latter case,  i t could be that the parent did not receive sufficient help and understanding and therefore, the casework used might validly be rated "poor."  In the  former case, i t was also f i n a l l y decided that a "poor" rating should be given i n those cases where the parent became "lost" for i t was thought that this also indicated inadequate help had been given the parent, since a parent who had a clear understanding of the total placement process would realize that because of future complications which might arise with reference to the care of his child, he should at least keep the supervising office advised of his whereabouts. Table XIV also bore out the trend, which earlier tables had also shown, that there i s greater consistency of the total case handling i n the work with children than there i s i n the work with parents. Even bearing i n mind the greater number of variables at work i n the case of parents, this trend would seem to indicate that generally speaking, more work with the parents could be beneficially attempted.  -  68  Testing the Premise of the Thesis In the f i n a l analysis of the placement process, i t now remained to be seen the extent to which, i n the thirty-two cases studied, i t could be shown that "successful" placements were achieved through a "good" application of basic social work philosophy and concepts and an "adequate" use of sound casework method and techniques. In order to gain a "total" picture, and to keep the method of (1) analysis consistent, another spot check chart was drawn up showing the situation for a l l the cases as i t existed at March 31, 1953, the end of the five-year placement period under study.  This new spot check chart was com-  piled on the basis of the earlier spot check charts which had been worked out and i t was from these charts that the compilation of ratings was made. The i n i t i a l "success" rating was noted for each case, also the placement rating for work with parents and child, according to use of principles and concepts, and f i n a l l y , the total case handling rating according to use of method and techniques, were charted in detail. For the sake of clarity, the new "total" chart was divided into three sections. Section I dealt with the positives i n the placement process and had the headings, "successful," "good" (with parents and children) and "adequate," (with parents and children); Section II covered the "partially successful" cases, the " f a i r " and the " f a i r l y adequate;" while Section III had the headings "unsuccessful," "poor," and "inadequate." To assess the correlation between the "successful" outcome of the placement plan and the "good" use of basic social work principles, plus the "adequate" application of sound casework method and techniques, a rating scale within Section I was set up. 1.  See appendix p>«9i- 92  The rating "successful" was the constant  -  69  -  factor and by means of the rating scale the correlation between this constant and the two other variables was assessed.  A "poor" rating was given those  cases in which no correlation existed between the three factors.  Those cases  which showed a correlation of one or two of the variables were rated "fair" and those where three or four of the variables were correlated were rated "good."  The same method of rating correlation was used for Section II and  Section III of the spot check chart.  Finally, the results of these three  ratings were brought together in one table and the result was as follows: TABLE XV - Correlation between Degree of Success of total placement plan and good use of basic social work principles, together with sound casework method and techniques.  Correlation Rating  Poor  Fair  Good  Total  Unsuccessful Placement  5  0  7  12  Partially Successful Placement  1  5  2  8  Successful Placement  10  2  2  14  TOTAL  16  7  11  34  This final table would seem to indicate that there may be some validity to the basic premise of the thesis that there was,  in the cases  studied, a correlation between the ultimate success of a placement and the use of basic social work principles and a competent application of sound casework method and techniques. Out of the seventeen placements rated "successful" from the thirty-two studied for this thesis, ten showed a "good" degree of correlation between the ultimate outcome of the placement and the principles and method employed by the caseworker to obtain the favourable results. That i s , there was a correlation between a l l these  -  70 -  aspects of the case to the extent of 59$.  From this, i t may be deduced  that since in this thesis only the casework with the parents and children was analyzed, that i s two-thirds of the total placement process, which in actuality i s a three-fold process and includes work with the foster parents as well, the 59$ correlation i s in fact, 59$ of the 66.67$ of the part placement process which was studied.  This would mean that the correlation  between the "successful," "good" and "adequate," works out to 92.04$ in the two areas of the placement process analyzed.  The fact that Table XV shows  that i n four of the "successful" cases there was "poor" correlation and i n three of the cases there was only " f a i r " correlation i s consistent with the earlier tables which also indicated that the correlation was not complete. This i s to be expected, for there would always be individual variables i n cases which would occasionally make i t possible for a placement to work out successfully even though the casework did not shov a good use of basic principles or adequate methods. In these few cases, such variables as the innate strengths of the parents and children, certain favourable circumstances in their immediate environment, and good community influences, could result in the placement being successful, i n spite of the handicap of poor placement work being done. In this chapter, the indications of correlation between the actual placement and the use of basic principles and sound techniques which were indicated in the earlier analysis of the pre-placement work were further demonstrated.  CHAPTER IV FUTURE PLACEMENT CASEWORK The Achievement of Placement Permanency  Re-statement of the Basic Premise It was stated at the beginning of this thesis that to improve the standard of practice i n a l l fields of the profession, social workers must consciously apply i n their day to day work, the fundamental professional beliefs and concepts, as well as use good technical casework methods and skills.  In the analysis which followed the placement process covering work  with parents and children i n thirty-two cases, the validity of this statement was indicated.  The end result of this study has shown a significant  correlation between the ultimate results of the placement process and the extent to which the basic social work principles and sound casework method and techniques were applied during the course of the process.  The impli-  cations of this finding are important in the practice of social casework i n any of the fields of the profession, but perhaps they are of special significance i n the dynamic area of child welfare. In this thesis, through the use of the device of spot check charts and analytical tables, a consistent pattern of evaluation was built up and i t was eventually possible to indicate that i n the portion of the placement process that was studied in thirty-two cases, "successful" placements i n general do show a "good" use of philosophy and concepts and an "adequate" application of sound casework method and techniques.  Of special interest  -  72  -  in the study are the movement and the correlation rating scales which evolved during the f i n a l stages of the analysis.  These are of interest not only  because of their value to this study, but because of their significance in any area of professional research, for examination into the components of social casework, in relation to the results i t achieves, i s v i t a l l y needed at this point in the development of the profession. Value of Social Research Because of the underlying reason for any research in social work i s the improvement of professional service, the focus of a l l research projects should be on the needs of the client.  In this thesis, in an  effort to keep this focus, constant reference was made to the case history notes which were taken from the records of the thirty-two children whose placement experiences were studied.  In this way,  the study was kept alive  and v i t a l and the theoretical observations were kept as closely related as possible to the realities of actual day-to-day placement work. Throughout the analysis, i t was remembered that the tables and statistics which were drawn up represented the lives and stories of thirty-two children. A constant reviewing of these stories kept the individuals concerned from becoming for the writer mere statistics on a chart or terms in a formula. The v i t a l i t y of any social research project comes from the case material used and therefore, to underline the significance of the findings of this thesis, there i s no more effective way than to illustrate, by case example, what i t means i n terms of the lives of the children studied.  The  following two illustrations show, through graphic contrast, the high correlation that exists between the use or lack of use of basic social work philosophy and concepts and sound casework method and techniques, and the ultimate happy or unhappy results of the placement. The f i r s t case i l l u s -  -  73  -  trates a "poor" use of principles and techniques in the i n i t i a l stages of the work and an improved use later on, but with the overall result of the placement s t i l l being "unsuccessful." In the second illustration, there i s a "good" use of basic social work philosophy and casework techniques and the "successful" outcome of the placement bears this out. J Case Illustrations of the Basic Premise Mary S. was a young unmarried mother who requested adoption placement of her child and was referred by the hospital authorities to the dist r i c t social worker for help i n making the necessary arrangements. From the beginning, the worker's method seemed to indicate a basic lack of appreciation of the girl's worth as an individual, and she appeared to over-identify with the maternal grandmother, who showed no understanding of her daughter's problems.  The worker's poor attitudes toward the mother  carried over into her planning for the child.  Here, although medical opinion  was obtained and adoption placement was recommended, the worker, because of her own personal prejudices, f e l t such a plan would be unsatisfactory.  She  therefore, arranged to have the child committed and an over-order was made against the mother at that time. In everything that was done, the worker revealed a lack of knowledge and understanding of the basic social work principles, nor was there any evidence that she was better able to apply casework techniques i n a helpful way.  Shortly after the baby came into care, the mother became "lost"  and no effort was made to locate her or to determine whether or not she was in need of help. An inability, or perhaps lack of attempt, on the part of the supervisor to change the worker's poor attitudes, or at least protect the client from them, was a significant feature of this case. It was not until a number of years later, when her consent to the  -  74  -  adoption of her child was desired, that any effort was made to find the mother. By this time, there was a new worker and a new supervisor, whose grasp of basic principles and techniques were in sharp contrast to those of the former team. Upon being located, the mother, who had evidently understood her child had already been adopted, refused to give her consent and requested help in working out some arrangement whereby she could have her child with her. The second worker did intensive work with the mother and she responded to a considerable degree and did receive much help from her contact with the worker. However, i t appeared that the helpful approach came too late to make i t possible to retrieve the damaged ability of the mother to form a truly satisfactory working relationship and eventually, the work with the mother terminated abruptly when she disappeared without having resolved her conflict about her child. The child i s s t i l l i n the foster home in which she was f i r s t placed and although her adjustment i s not totally satisfactory, i t i s l i k e l y that her adoption w i l l eventually proceed without the mother's consent because of the length of time she has been in the home. It seemed apparent from reviewing the f i l e that had there been good casework with the mother in the i n i t i a l stages of the case, many years of anxiety could have been avoided for the mother, the foster parents and the child, whose shyness and overdependence on the foster mother are possible indications that she has sensed the lack of security in her position in the foster home and has been anxious about i t .  Whether the choice of home and preparation of the foster parents  also lacked understanding and s k i l l could not be ascertained from the record but i t was recognized that these factors also would have an important bearing on the situation. In sharp contrast to this case which shows the results of the poor  - 75 use of basic principles and techniques, i s the second illustration which demonstrates the success which can be achieved when these essentials of good social work practice are utilized. The situation which resulted i n David B. and his sister Anne coming into the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare was one where the children's mother had permitted an immoral situation to exist between her common-law husband and her eleven year old daughter.  The circumstances  in the home became known i n the tiny community i n which the family lived, and there was extreme agitation and hostility against both the mother and the man involved.  The police had already^laid a charge of contributing to  juvenile delinquency against the man when the referral was made to the dist r i c t social worker. The worker realized that the situation was one which needed prompt attention but also recognized that because the children were extremely upset by a l l that was happening, they should not be removed from their own home without careful preparation. The man involved having l e f t the home temporarily, the worker l e f t the children with their mother until she had an opportunity to get to know them better and to prepare them for the possib i l i t y of separation from their mother. This action drew some criticism from people i n the community but the worker handled this successfully and was able to interpret to these people the value to the children of not being moved abruptly from their home. During this time, work was also going on with the mother and she was given the opportunity to decide whether or not she wished to continue to keep her children with her.  She voluntarily chose to relinquish the  children permanently i n favour of her common-law husband who was acquitted on the charge because of insufficient evidence. While a l l this work was going on, the worker was busy selecting  -  76 -  and preparing a suitable foster home in another community and finally, after careful preparation and with the f u l l co-operation and help of the mother, the children were moved. On the whole, the placement has been successful and much of i t s success can be attributed to the good use of basic social work principles and sound casework techniques which were applied by the worker. In analyzing this case, i t seemed apparent that the worker had a fundamental appreciation of the rights of the individual and was able to withstand considerable community pressure i n order to uphold her belief. There was evidence too of good diagnostic s k i l l , for the assessments which were made of the degree of the children's upset and the need to move slowly with them were accurate and based on good judgment and keen observation and sensitivity.  Similarily, the worker's assessment of the mother's capacity  to change was sound, and recognizing the essentially weak tie which existed between the mother and her children, the worker supported her i n her decision to give the children up.  She understood the meaning of the mother's be-  haviour i n the light of information she gathered about the mother's past experiences and this aided her i n arriving at a sound social diagnosis and formulating a valid treatment plan.  In carrying out the plan, the worker's  assessment of the foster home and i t s potential suitability for these children would need to show similar sound diagnosis as to potential parentchild relationships and a b i l i t y to carry out the formulated treatment plan. Major Findings of the Thesis These cases have been very briefly sketched and they are only two of many which could have been described i n order to demonstrate the basic premise which has been proved i n this thesis.  However, i t i s now perhaps  sufficient to conclude with a short recapitulation of the findings of this  -  77 -  evaluative analysis. As the cases and the tables i n earlier chapters graphically showed, the use of Principles I and 17, i s fundamental to the successf u l practice of social casework i n the placement process.  The thirty-two  cases studied showed indications of these principles, which involve an acceptance of the worth of the individual and of his right to personal freedom and personal growth, were applied i n a high percentage of the cases* Throughout the records, the practical application of these principles was seen i n the workers' and supervisors' obvious concern for the individual needs of the clients and i n their sincere interest i n helping the client to work out the best possible solution to his problems. Since these two principles involve inherent attitudes rather than learned responses, i t i s especially important that a l l who come to the profession bring these qualities with them. These are the qualities which are at the base of the code of ethics of the profession and unless they are a part of the personal philosophy of the individual members of the profession, there can i n effect be no code of ethics. This observation implies the need for careful selection of social work personnel, for i t w i l l be recognized that although i t i s possible to teach the technical s k i l l s of the profession, the attitudes most basic to i t s successful practice cannot be taught or inculcated by the time a person reaches the age of entering a professional career.  Neverthe-  less, although these attitudes cannot be taught, their basic importance should be constantly underlined i n the professional training period i n order that when a worker enters the f i e l d he w i l l automatically put the "idealistic" philosophy and concepts of his profession into practical use i n his day to day work. In addition to indicating the importance of the application of the inherent philosophical attitudes, the analysis of the placement process showed the fundamental importance of workers being able to use the basic  -  78 -  social work principles which involve diagnostic understanding and s k i l l . In this area, i t was seen that a distinct weakness existed in the placement cases studied and this fact appeared to be largely responsible for the "unsuccessful" outcome of a number of the placements.  These are areas i n  which sound training and adequate supervision are of the utmost importance. Formal training concerning the dynamics of human behaviour and causal relationships enable a worker to begin his job with a sound background of information.  Later, a major responsibility rests with the supervisor to  continue the worker's "training" so that as he gains experience, he w i l l be able to make a deeper use of the basic principles involving an understanding of the possibility of development, growth and change in an individual, of the purpose and meaning of behaviour, and of the inter-relatedness of i n dividuals within families and society as a whole, and the worker's use of self in a helping relationship with the client. Minor Findings of the Thesis During the course of the analysis of the placement process several smaller points of interest came up. One of these was the evident weakness in inter-agency referral techniques.  It was noted that in the "poor" cases  in the pre-placement period, at least half of the referral sources were other professional groups or other social agencies.  This situation, i f  general, (and since the sample of cases in this study i s small, i t cannot be said that i t i s ) indicates that there i s certainly a need for steps being taken to alter I t . The fact that such a condition may be a factor in causing a poor placement seems inexcusable.  From the cases observed in this study,  a weakness i n inter-agency referrals which was frequently noticed was the technical one of timing.  It appeared that the referral was seldom made at  an appropriate time but was generally l e f t until an emergency existed.  This  -  79  -  one fact alone often had a noticeable bearing on the result of the placement process.  In the area of inter-agency relationships, i t would appear that a  greater application of the basic social work principle concerning the interrelatedness of individuals would do much to bring about a better co-ordinatdon of agency programmes and a better degree of inter-agency co-operation. Also needed would be a respect for the rights and a b i l i t i e s of others and diagnostic understanding. Another point of general interest which was noted from the analysis of the thirty-two placement cases, was that i n the preventive resources there was a greater use of those resources which took the child out of his own home than there was of the ones which would have enabled him to stay with his family. Such resources as intensive family casework, visiting homemaker services, financial assistance, and assistance i n obtaining employment were used to a lesser degree than the resources of non-ward care and special foster home rates. The study indicated a need for greater interpretation to the community at large concerning the value i n many cases of spending money on the resources which keep the family together, rather than on providing "preventive" resources which would result i n separation of members of the family. Another finding of the study was the fact that i n the cases analyzed there was a distinct reduction i n the casework which was attempted with the parents after the committal and placement of the child had occurred. In the pre-placement period, i t appeared that there was a slightly greater emphasis on the work with parents, (although i t was noted that i n the cases where the parents themselves initiated the request for placement there was a weakness i n the work) and i t was thought that this was a good indication. However, i n the post-placement  period, the emphasis changed and i t appeared  in the situations analyzed that i n most cases a l l work with the parents  -  80  ceased after the committal occurred.  That this situation i s unsound was  demonstrated clearly i n Chapter III and i t was implied that ways of altering this unsatisfactory  situation should be found.  Future Goals in Child Placement Work To recapitulate, the findings of this thesis have demonstrated clearly the v i t a l importance of child placement work being founded on a secure base of knowledge, understanding and application of the fundamental professional philosophy and concepts, along with competent training and developed s k i l l i n sound casework method and techniques.  Upon this solid  foundation, successful child placement programmes can be built and permanency and happiness can be furnished for the children who are i n need of long-term care away from their own parents.  In addition, this solid foundation makes  i t possible for parents who are unable to provide for their children to be relieved of some of their sense of failure and loss, and enables them to regain a feeling of personal worth and hope for the future.  - 81 -  Appendix A  -  82  -  SPOT-CHECK CHART I - Showing rating of pre-placement casework with parents and children i n the thirty-two cases studied according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used In this thesis as basic criteria for good casework.  CASES 1 2  j  Pre-Placement Casework  I  with parents  X  X  with children  X  X  X  X  X  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents with children with parents  X  with children  X  with parents with children  X  J  X  with parents  X  with children  X  with parents  X  with children  X  6 7  i  o  Q 7  Total  Rating  3  Fair  X  6  Good  X  6  Good  X  A  Fair  0 0  Poor Poor  "'A "'  Fair  X  X  | I  *r  L  Basic Concents * II III IV V VI  with parents  IL  with children  |  .X  with parents  |  X  with children  X  X  X  X  x  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  6  Good  X  X  X  X  5 .  X  X  X  X  6 :  Good Good  X  X  X  X  5 '  Good  X  X  X  X  6  Good  X  X  X  X  5  Good  X  X  X  X  6  Good  X  X  X  X  5  Good  X  X  X  X  6  | Good  X  X  X  X  5  Good  X  X  X  X  with parents with children  |  X  with parents with children  | |  X  X  X  XJL  X  X  X  12  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  x;  X  X  X  X  1 0  11  13  IA  X  X  with parents with children  X  with parents  X  with children  X  X  X  X  X X X  X X  X  X  X  X  Good •2 | : 2  Poor Poor  15 I 3  Good Fair  5 5 '  Good Good  |  5 5  ! Good  2  Poor  1  Poor  1 Good  Continued on next page.  - 83  CASES  1*5  1 r\ -LO T7  J./ lo  •Ly  on  Pre-Placement Casework with parents with parents  01  OI  ?*>  26 27  <£ '  ort 29  30  X  §  X  1  with children  x  with parents  X  with children with parents with children  X  |  X  X.  with children  X  1  with parents with parents  j  1 1 1  with parents with children  |  with parents with children  §  with parents with children with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  with parents  with children OO  X  with children  with children 0~\  I  Basic Concepts II III IV V  X  2  Poor  X  2  Poor  X  2  Poor  X  2  Poor  X  2  Poor  X  5 3 1  Good Fair  2  Poor  2  Poor  2  Poor  2  Poor  2  Poor  0  Poor  4 o  Fair Poor  4  Fair  6  Good Fair  X X  x  X  x  X  1 ' X  L  Poor  X  x  1  2  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Fair Fair  X  3  Fair  4  Fair  X  3  Fair  2  Poor Fair Fair  X X  X  with parents  X  X  with children  X  with parents  X  X  X X  X  Poor  4 3 4  X  X X  •L \J U C L X  # " Rating  X  X  x  1  VI  Tntal  X  X  X  with children  ]  X  X  with parents with children  j  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents with children  j X  X  X  X  4 4 5  X  2  Poor  with parents with children  I  1 I 1  x  X  x x x  X X  Good  X  X  X  5  Good  X  X  X  5  Good  Continued on next page.  -  CASES 31 32  84  -  Pre-Placement Casework  I  Basic Concepts II III 17 V  with parents  X  X  with children  x  X  with parents  X  X  with children  X  X  I II  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  Total  Rating  5  Good  X  5  Good Good  X  5 5  VI  Good  Basic Concepts -  Belief i n the personal worth of the individual Belief i n the possibility of development, growth and change i n an individual III Belief that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful IV Belief i n the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth V - Belief i n the inter-relatedness of individuals i n Society VI - Belief i n the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society.  Rating Scale  Poor - 0, 1, 2 Fair - 3, 4 Good - 5, 6  -  - 85 SPOT-CHECK CHART II - Showing rating of actual placement casework with parents and children i n the thirty-two cases studied, according to the evident use of the six social work concepts used i n this thesis as basic criteria for good casework.  CASE  Actual Placement Casework  I  Basic Concepts III IV V II  Total  Rating  3 6  Fair  6 6  Good  5 5  Good Good  4 6  Fair  4 6  Fair  4 6  Fair  4 6  Fair  4 6  Fair  4 6  Fair  1 0  Poor  X  1 5  Poor Good  X  1 5  Poor Good Poor  X  1 5 3 6  Fair  VI  with parents  X  with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents  X  X  X  X  X  X  with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents  X  with children  X  with parents  X  with children  X  6  with parents with children  X  7  with parents with children  X  with parents  x  with children  X  with parents  X  with children  X  1  X  O  3 4 5  8 9 10  X  X  X  xa X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents  X  X  X  X  X  X  X.  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  with children  11  with parents with children  12  with parents with children  13  with parents with children  X  with parents  X  with children  X  14  X  X X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  Good Good  Good Good Good Good Good Good Poor  Good Good  Continued on,next page.  -  CASE  Actual Placement Casework  15  with parents with children  16  with parents with children  17 18 19 20 21 . 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  86  I  Basic Concepts '* VI II III- IV V  Total  Rating  X  X  2  Poor  X  X  4  Fair  X  X  2  X  4  Poor Fair  X  2  Poor  X  X  X  X  with parents with children  X  X X  with parents  X  X  X  4  Fair  X  X  X  3  Fair  X  2  Poor  X  4 2  Fair  2  Poor  2  Poor  2  Poor  2 0  Poor  3  Fair  0  Poor  3  Fair  6  Good  0  Poor  X  1  Poor  X  6  Good  X  4  Fair  X  4  Fair  X  4  Fair  X  2  Poor  with children  X  with parents  X  X  with children  X  X  with parents  X  with children  X  with parents  X  with children  X  X  X X X X  1 with parents with children  X  X  X  with parents with children  X  X  with parents  X  X  X X  X  X  X  with children with parents  Poor  Poor  with children  X  X  with parents with children  X  X  X  with parents  X  with children  X  with parents  X  X  X  X  4  Fair  with children  X  X  X  X  4  Fair  1 0  Poor  5  Good  6  Good  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  with parents with children  X  with parents  X  X  X  X  X  with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  Poor  Continued on next page  -  CASE 31 32  Actual Placement Casework  LI  87  -  Basic Concepts II III IV V  *  Total  Rating  X  5  Good  X  4  Fair  VI  with parents  X  with children  X  with parents  X  X  2  Poor  with children  *  X  2  Poor  * Basic Concepts -  » Rating Scale -  X X  X X  X  I - Belief in the personal worth of the individual II - Belief i n the possibility of development, growth and change i n an individual III - Belief that behaviour i s purposeful and meaningful IV - Belief i n the right of every individual to personal freedom and personal growth V - Belief in the inter-relatedness of individuals in Society VI.- Belief i n the family as the primary and most dynamic unit of society.  Poor - 0, 1, 2 Fair - 3, 4 Good - 5, 6  -  88  ~  SPOT-CHECK CHART III - Showing rating of thirty-two cases studied, according to evident use of five basic steps i n casework method used i n this thesis as criteria of good casework.  —*"  CASE  Total  Rating  with parents  X  X  X  X  4  Good  with children  X  X  X  X  4  Good  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  5 5  Good Good  with parents  X  X  2  Poor  with children  X  X  2  Poor  4  with parents with children  X  X  2  X  X  X  5  Poor Good  5  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  4  Good  X  X  X  5  Good  with parents  X  X  X  X  U  Good  with children  X  X  X  X  5  Good  with parents  X  X  X  X  4  Good  with children  X  X  X  X  5  Good  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  4  X  X  X  5  Good Good  with parents  X  X  X  X  4  Good  with children  X  X  X  X  5  Good  with parents with children  X  1  :0  Poor Poor  with parents  X  X  X  3  Fair  with children  X  X  X  3  Fair  with parents  X  X  X  3  Fair  with children  X  X  X  3  Fair  with parents  X  X  X  3  Fair  with children  X  X  X  3  Fair  with parents  X  X  2  Poor  with children  X  X  2  Poor  1 2 3.  -  6 % 8 Q 7  10  11 12 13  -  Casework  Method and Technj.aue D B C A E  14  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Continued on next page  89  Method and Technique D k | B c E  CASE 15  with parents  X  X  18  with parents with children  X  19  oi  with parents with children  X  0"i  <-J  01 <A-  OK  Fair  3 2  Fair  3 2  Fair  0  Poor  2  Poor  1  Poor  X  2  Poor  X  1 2  Poor Poor  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  OO  3 2  X  with children with parents with children  <.<.  Poor  with parents  d\>  on  •2  X X  X  with parents with children  Fair  X  with children 17  3  X X  x  Rating  X  with children with parents  Total  X  X  with parents with children  X  Poor Poor Poor  Poor 3 • r. Fair 0 Poor 0  X  X  X  X  X  X  ;  with parents with children with parents  X  X  X  X  with children  X  X  X  X  with parents with children  X  with parents  X  X  3  Fair  5  Good  4  Good  2  Poor Good  X  X  4  X  X  X  Fair  with children  X  X  X  3 3  27  with parents with children  X  X  X  Fair  X  X  X  3 3  28  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  3 3  Fair Fair  with parents  X  X  X  X  4  Good  with children  X  X  X  X  4  Good  with parents  X  X  X  X  5  Good  with children  X  X  X  X  4  Good  26  29 30  X  X  X  Fair Fair  Continued on next page....  - 90  Method and Technique* A D B C E  CASE  Casework  31  with parents with children  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  with parents  X  X  X  3  with children  X  X  2  32  * Method and Technique - A B C D E  J  Total  Rating  4 4  Good  I  Good Fair  |  Poor  - Gathering information - Social Diagnosis - Treatment Plan - Implementation of Plan - Evaluation and re-evaluation of Plan.  * Rating Scale - Poor - 8, 1 Fair - 2, 3 Good - 4, 5  -  91  -  SPOT-CHECK CHART IV - Showing the correlation of the ratings arrived at i n Charts I, II, and III.  CASES 1 S. P 1  1  2 3 U  x X  I  F.  P.S.  X  c  p  c  X  X  X  X  X  X  P | 'c P  c  X  x  p  c  X  X  X  X  J  x  X  X  X  X  6  | x  X  X  X  X  7  | x  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  1  I.  p.  u.  P  c  X  X  X  5  8  P.A.  |  X  x  9  X  10  X  X  11  X  X  X  X  X  12  X  X  X  X  .: x  13  X  X  X  X  X  H  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  15  X  X  X  X  X  16  X  X  X  X  X  17  X  X  X  X  X  18  X  X  19  X  X  20  1  x  I  *|a|  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Continued on next page  -  CASES  S  G. P*  92 -  A.  c*  P  c  P.S.  F.A. .  F. c  P  P  c  21  X  22  X  X  X  23  X  X  X  24  X  26  X X  X X  26  X  27 X  30  X  X  31  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  32  P  c  P  c  X  X  X  X;  X X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  Overall_ Handling  S. - S u c c e s s f u l P.S- P a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l U..- U n s u c c e s s f u l  Use o f B a s i c Concepts  G. - Good F. - F a i r P. - P o o r  Use o f M e t h o d and t e c h n i q u e s  A. - A d e q u a t e F.A- F a i r l y A d e q u a t e I . - Inadequate  * p. - p a r e n t s * c. - c h i l d r e n  I-  X  X  X  29  u•  X  X  28  p. TT  X 1 1  X  -  93  -  Appendix B  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS  Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health. Palais des Nations, Geneva, World Health Organization Monograph Series, 1952 Bowley, A.H., Problems of Family Life, Edinburgh, E.S. Livingstone Limited, 1948 Bowley, A.H., The Psychology of the Unwanted Child. Edinburgh, E.S. Livingstone Limited, 1947 Curtis, Myra, Report on the Care of Children Committee, London, England, H.M. Stationery, 1946 Fink, A.E., The Field of Social Work, New York, N.Y., Henry Hold, Co. Inc., 1942 Freud, Anna & Burlingham, Dorothy, War and Children, New York, N.Y., International University Press, 1944 Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy in Child Guidance, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1947 Hamilton, Gordon, The Theory and Practice of Social Casework, Nev; York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1940 Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1948 Josselyn, I., The Adolescent and His World, New York, N.Y., Family Service Association of America, 1948 Josselyn, I., Psycho-Social Development of Child, New York, N.Y., Family Service Association of America, 1948 Lowry, Fern, Readings i n Social Casework. 1920-1938, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1939 Richmond, Mary E., The Long View, New York, N.Y., Russell Sage Foundation, 1930  Richmond, Mary E., Social Diagnosis, Philadelphia, Russell Sage Foundation, 1917 Richmond, Mary E., What i s Social Casework?, Philadelphia, Russell Sage Foundation, 1922 Robinson, Virginia, The Dynamics of Supervision, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, 1949 Robinson, Virginia, Supervision in Social Casework, A Problem in Professional Education, New York, N.Y., University of North Carolina Press, 1936 Thurston, H.N., The Dependent Child. A Story of Changing Aims and Methods in the Care of Dependent Children, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1930  PERIODICALS' Bibring, G.L., '"Casework and Psychotherapy," Social Casework. October, 1946 Biestek, Felix, "Analysis of the Casework Relationship," Casework, February, 1954  Social  Bowers, Swithum, "The Nature and Definition of Social Casework,'* Family Service Association of America, New York, N.Y., 1949 B urns, Phyllis, "Goals i n Family andChildren's Services," Western Goals i n Social Welfare, Victoria, B.C., Second Biennial Western Regional Conference on Social Work, Acme Press, 1949 Clothier, Florence, "The Problem of Frequent Placement of the Young Dependent Child,' Mental Hygiene, October, 1947 8  "Children in the Community," Children's Bureau Publication, 317, Washington, D.C, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946 Davies, S. "Science and Practice in Human Relations," Social Work as Human Relations. Anniversary Papers of the New York School of Social Work and the Community Service Society of New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1949 Dula, John E., "The Child A.way from Home," Social Casework, April, 1948 Dula, John E., "Future Directions in Foster Care for Children, " The Social Welfare Forum, Official Proceedings, National Conference of Social Work, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , May 25-30, 1952, New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1952 1  - .96 Edman, Irwin, "Contribution of the Humanities and the Professional Schools, Social Work as Human Relations. Anniversary Papers of the New Y ork School of Social Work and the Community Society of New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1949 Epperson, Jane, "Some Basic Principles of Direct Work with Children," Child Welfare. July, 1952 "Foster Home Care of Dependent Children,'* Children's Bureau Publication, No. 136, (Revised), Washington, D.C, United States Government Printing Office, 1929 Fraiberg, Selma, "Some Aspects of Casework with Children," Social Casework. November and December, 1952 Garrett, Annette, "The Professional Base of Social Casework," Social Casework. July, 1946 Hamilton, G., "The Underlying Philosophy of Social Casework," Social Casework. July, 1941 Hamilton, G., "Helping People, The Growth of a Profession," Social Casework. October, 1946 Heckels, E., "Safeguarding Child Placement," A Study of the work of the screened intake committee in St. Paul, Minnesota, U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C., 1951 Hollis, Florence, "Techniques of Casework," Social Casework. June, 1949 Hochwald, H.L., "The Use of Case Records i n Research," Social Casework. February, 1952 Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Parent-Child Relationship as a Factor in Child Placement," The Family. April, 1946 Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Request for Placement Has Meaning," Social Casework, June, 1944 Lane, Lionel C , "Aggressive Approach i n Preventive Casework," Social Casework, February, 1952 Lippman, H., "Newer Trends in Child Placement," The Family, February, 1941 Maeder, LeR., M.A. "Diagnostic Criteria, The Concept of Normal and Abnormal," Social Casework, October, 1941 Nicholson, H.B., "Knowledge Basic to Practice i n Children's Field," Child Welfare. March, 1951  Pray, R.L.M., "A Re-statement of the Generic Principles of Social Casework Practice,' Social Casework, October, 1947 8  Proven, Nettie I., "Can We Create Greater Permanency for the Child in Need of Placement?" Concerning Families and Children, Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Welfare Council, Vol. 2, No. 7, March, 1954 Rich, Mary, "MaryE. Richmond," 1861-1928," Social Casework. November, 1952 Sytz, M., "The Development of Method i n Social Casework," Social Casework, March, 1948 Sterba, Editha, "Emotional Problems of Displaced Children," Social Casework, May, 1949 Stone, Sarah, "Children Without Roots," Social Service Review, June, 1953, Vol. 27, No. 2, Chicago, 111., University Chicago Press Stone, Sarah, "What Keeps Us From Giving Children What We Know They Need?" Social Service Review, June, 1953, Vol. 27, No. 2, Chicago, 111., University of Chicago Press "The Training of Child Welfare Workers for Placement Responsibilities A Report of a Sub-Committee of the Citizens Committee on Adoption of Children i n California, United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Social Service Administration Children's Bureau, Washington, 1953 Weisenburger, Ruth, "Direct Casework with the Child i n Foster Home Placement," Child Welfare, April, 1951 Wires, E., "Long-term Care i n a Public Child Placement Agency," Social Casework, May, 1951 Young, Leontine, "Placement from the Child's Viewpoint," Social Casework, June, 1950  -98-  Appendix C  128°  132*  134°  124°  122°  60°  j-A.TL.M-s [LAKE  yay  Fort  ae  n  ft.  iCAUAL  58*  Lakes  Creek  ot'latulL, hhe.  Me  flower /.  5u  s i I,0. \ n Y-J  56*  8^ i0' ^7 . t l_p AlyansW /  CedaVvale<;  Trembleur  ii. (SMITHERSi  Rosawood)  aJelkwa  ^£ DIXON  ENTRANCE  U5k  Terraceip^copper  i  ft  1  PRINCE RUPERT  9  54'  Burns Lawe  Francois  TV  1  n V/iitesall  O  iBuledale  L.  1  bwansonBay S ureLAz  > way  52*  Murphy  v^i  \CharloUe  L•  \  Totla LoKff  •Jv-  J  Qi>  et  ^ / W'  UEEN .?/  SOCIAL WELFARE SO*  •a  J w  Sr<W L.  V- \  Mt.  [ HUSWA%  U LAK£  $6  BRANCH  \ TatloyoHo LaUe  S  REGION^ oBay  DEPT. OF HEALTH e WELFARE  t . A l i c e l ^ <^  REGION  A ^ S ^ R N O N ,  2  5  Saywar^ ^ : R A N B  \Jg_REG10N__l  P R O V I N C E O F BRITISH COLUMBIA  CITY  POWELL RIVER  4>  1  *v-\  ?r.TY OF MHTt R  COURTENAY j £ > v ^ t ^ f / W l  REGIONS - DISTRICT OFFICES MUNICIPAL OFFICES  IOI IPENTI  ^  R  O C  CTON  4<T  CTON  o  NANAIMO^jrr^'^ RNAB U  L E C T E N D -  ® •  REGIONAL ^ADQUARTERS (ANO DISTRICT OFFlCE>  DISTRICT O F F I C E S  O  MUNICIPAL OFFICES (AMALGAMATED)  XJ  00'  MUNICIPAL O F F I C E S  ,port)  d  134°  130°  128'  124°  'P.\ene  

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