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Adjustment of the adolescent in rural foster homes : a pioneer study of the problems in giving service… McLaren, Henry Moncrieff 1954

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ADJUSTMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT IK RURAL FOSTER HOMES A Pioneer Study of the Problems i n Giving Service to Adolescent Boys and Girls, and the Di f f i c u l t i e s This Age Group Has in Adjustment to Foster Homes i n the Rural Community. "by HENRY MONCRIEFF McLAREN Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social fork School of Social Work 195^ The University of British Columbia ABSTRACT This i s the f i r s t study of the adjustment of adolescent children placed i n foster homes i n the rural community i n British Columbia. As the writer i s familiar with Kamloops d i s t r i c t , this area i s used to show an average rural community i n British Colum-bia. The services given children by the Social Welfare Branch have been described as well as the development of present child welfare services. In the children studied, some of the fdifty-two have now been discharged from care, while others are s t i l l in foster homes. Twelve illustrations have been selected to show the problems the adolescent has in adjustment in a foster home, as well as the problems.the social workers may have i n giving service. There are both failures and successes in the adjustment of the children studied. There i s evidence that further evalua-tion of the present services to adolescent children i n foster care i s needed. There seems to be a need as well to review the type of care most suited to this age group. Children who have been in care for a long period before they have reached the transition from childhood to adulthood seem to adjust easier. However, there appears to be need to re-evaluate these placements periodically, as there i s evidence that problems often arise during this time. The child who comes into care either just before the period of transition ox during i t , i s the one who most often shows that he can not relate to adults. There i s real necessity for further study of this group of children. Although there are definite problems i n the adjustment of the adolescent, i t i s gratifying to note that the number of replacements i n the rural community i s small. It i s speculated that the frequency with which a child i s moved i s much less than i n urban centres. In conclusion, i t i s f e l t that there i s a need for review of services given this age group by d i s t r i c t offices. This study only touches on the multitude of problems involved in foster place-ment of adolescent boys and g i r l s . It i s hoped that the study may act as an incentive to others interested i n this problem to evaluate further the adjustment of this age group i n foster homes and the present program i n operation. iv. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer would l i k e to take t h i s opportunity to thank a l l those who gave of t h e i r time and energy to help i n completion of t h i s project. The following deserve s p e c i a l thanks f o r t h e i r guidance and counseling: The executive s t a f f of the Soc i a l Welfare Branch f o r t h e i r agreeing to make the records of the Kamloops S o c i a l Welfare Branch ava i l a b l e . Miss W.M.Urquhart, D i s t r i c t Supervisor of the Kamloops Social Welfare Branch who gave her time and experience to help the writer organize the material available. Special thanks are given to Dr.Leonard 0.Marsh for h i 8 suggestions and guidance i n the planning of the text during the school year. The writer especially acknowledges the further guidance given by Professor Wm.Dixon who c a r e f u l l y read the text and revised i t . Further thanks are also due to Miss Helen K.Exner who was most h e l p f u l i n making suggestiond as to content. Thanks are also given to a l l those who have helped In the typing, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mrs.R. Strudwick who has been most patient and conscientious. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Adolescent i n Modern Society The adolescent period i n general. Emotional components of the transition to adulthood. The community's concern for the child. Recreational services available. The school and i t s place in the adolescent's l i f e . Ado-lescent problems i n U.S.A. compared to British Columbia. Method used i n the project Chapter 2. Present Ohild Welfare Services in British Columbia Services given in the early years. Development on a provincial level through the years. Amalgamation of servi-ces. Responsibilities of Child Welfare Division: Protection of Children, Foster Home Placement, Adoptions, Children of Unmarried Parents. Industrial schools for boys and g i r l s . Services given by di s t r i c t offices. Kamloops d i s t r i c t . Super-vision i n the d i s t r i c t office. Staff development. The role of a l l i e d professions: school teachers, public health, clergy, medical, police 20 Chapter 3. Illustrative Examples of Problems i n Foster Home  Placement of Adolescents General placement problems. Process of evaluation. Illustrations of adolescent problems: Joan B., Fred.B., John C., Rita Z., Mildred, Alma, and Ron T., Eddie D., Doug and Frank 0., Helen J. , Dave S. , Marion K. , Alice V. . • 4-6 Chapter $. Progress i n Treatment of Selected Cases Review of developments i n progress of Joan B., Fred B., John C., Rita Z., Mildred, Alma and Ron T., Eddie D., Doug and Frank 0. , Helen J. , Dave S. , Marion K., Alice V 93 Chapter 5 . Problems of Giving Services in Rural Community The adolescent foster child and his problems. The Social Welfare Branch foster home program. The need for diagnostic thinking. Problems arising i n placements. The improvement of services to the adolescent child 103 Appendices: A. Definition of services given by Kamloops office B. Definition of Child Welfare terms. Page 1. i i i Table of Contents (continued) Page C. Sta t i s t i c a l tables (i) Summary of case statistics 19*4-8 and 1953 ( i i ) Number of placements of children D. Map of di s t r i c t E. Bibliography. CHARTS Fig. 1. Structural chart of Child Welfare Division 2 6 ADJUSTMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT IN RURAL FOSTER HOMES. CHAPTER 1 The Adolescent i n Modern Society In the study of the adjustment of a p a r t i c u l a r group of adolescent children, i t i s f i r s t necessary to gain some understan-ding of the normal adolescent and h i s problems. Adolescence can best be described as a period of t r a n s i t i o n from childhood to adulthood. To gain t h i s status of adulthood, one of the major struggles i s to become emancipated from parental control, while at the same time maintaining a happy re l a t i o n s h i p with parents. Through the f i r s t h a l f of the t r a n s i t i o n period, there are many phy s i c a l changes taking place i n the i n d i v i d u a l . During t h i s period of change, g i r l s are usually ahead of boys by two years, i n i n t e l l e c t u a l development, as well as i n physical and emotional progress. However, by the middle of the t r a n s i t i o n , the masculine sex i s slowly catching up, and they are soon on an equal basis i n respect to t h i s growth. Different physical changes taking place i n the body during t h i s period are both i n t e r n a l and external. For instanoe, changes are seen i n various sizes of parts of the body, and t h i s growth as well as s t r u c t u r a l changes are apparent i n both sexes. 1 The organs of the body commence to show signs of maturation, and a c t i v i t y of the sex glands i s becoming more pronounced. This t r a n s i t i o n a l period i s t r y i n g f o r most children, and how boys and g i r l s react to i t , i s dependent to a great degree on the care and understanding they received through the developmental years from b i r t h . During the early stages of t r a n s i t i o n , the boy 1. FARNHAM, Marjorie F. "The Adolescents 1! Hew York, Harper and Brothers, 1951. Chapter 2 w i l l r e a l i z e there i s a change occuring i n h i s voice, nocturnal omissions w i l l commence, and unless he Is properly prepared for these changes at an e a r l i e r stage, they w i l l be very upsetting to him. S i m i l a r l y , the g i r l , when she reaches t h i s p e r i o d l w i l l also f i n d her body i s changing, both externally and i n t e r n a l l y . Unless she i6 prepared f o r these changes that occur, she also w i l l be frightened. Co-ordination of muscles i n boys i s p a r t i c u l a r l y poor at t h i s time, and they must be given a l l the support possible during t h i s period of re-establishment of equilibrium of the muscular system. Emotional Component In Adolescence: Through t h i s period of development, the adolescent i s s t r i v i n g to gain emotional maturity, and there are many d i f f i c u l -t i e s that a r i s e . Many of these problems can be traced back to unresolved c o n f l i c t s during the development period, p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i o r to the sixth; year. The importance of experiences, r e l a t i o n -ship of parents and c h i l d , as well as treatment received during the formative years, cannot be overstressed. The more security and happiness possessed by the c h i l d at t h i s e a r l i e r age, the easier the t r a n s i t i o n w i l l be to adulthood^ Often the adolescent w i l l show a great degree of ambiva-lence, at one point he may be aggressive, and at the next moment he may be kind and understanding. This attitude towards h i s family i s usually caused by h i s r e a l i z a t i o n that he must give up h i s c h i l d i s h love towards h i s parents for a more mature kind of love.. However, there are times when the development may become (i> IBID CHAPTER 2 & 3 so d i f f i c u l t that he may become f e a r f u l and regress to an earlier-stage which i n the past has brought him love and understanding. This period of regression, as a r u l e , i s only temporary and soon again he w i l l set out to s t r i v e f o r independence. The adolescent w i l l need a great deal of understanding. For adults to be able to advise the boy and g i r l , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s age group to t h e i r parents must be strong, and t h i s can only be accomplished through a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p being developed from babyhood. The adolescent has a great need to experiment as well as to gain knowledge, and although he i s experimenting i n many new experiences, he u s u a l l y has some doubts about h i s a b i l i t y to handle a new s i t u a t i o n . It i s most important for him to gain experience i n handling himself, h i s friends, and the opposite sex. The c o n f l i c t s that the adolescent must cope with have been e f f e c -t i v e l y summed up i n the following words: "Before there can be rebuilding, there i n e v i t a b l y w i l l be a period of emotional dismantling and destruction, expres-sed i n swings from adult to c h i l d i s h behaviour. Quite apart from whatever the world expects from a c h i l d , h i s growing up i s complicated by both physical and psycholo-g i c a l changes within himself. A new content i s given to sex, a l l emotional drives are i n t e n s i f i e d , aggressive imp-ulses are increased and these changes occur when the per-sonality i s not yet sure of i t s own a b i l i t y to deal with them."1 Of course, there are also p o s i t i v e factors i n the growing up process: i n t e l l e c t u a l development becomes more noticed, there are d e f i n i t e signs of better judgement and reasoning a b i l i t y . The span of concentration becomes longer, the thinking of the boy and g i r l becomes more precise, and there i s an attempt to associate 1 INGLE, D.A., "Family Casework Services for Adolescents" Journal of Soolal Casework. November 19^7, Vol.28; No.9, PP 3^9 -35^ experience to thinking. In dealing with the adolescent, adult, persons must have great patience, be willing to l i s t e n to many immature ppinions, and be careful not to ridicule the boy or g i r l . Both must be given the freedom to think their ideas through, and although ideas may change, they are learning to set up concepts and ideals that are important i n the attaining of maturity and adulthood. The adolescent must be allowed to grow on his own. There is' no set pattern, and many of the ways of l i f e must be found out by him alone. Parents cannot do the growing up for the child but they can be prepared to provide counsel, and support when i t i s sought. As the period of change progresses, the adolescent becomes less restricted i n what the adult world w i l l allow him to do. His knowledge w i l l broaden, his understanding of the environment w i l l improve, and his general outlook w i l l be one of a more mature nature. The adolescent gradually becomes more suee of his a b i l i t y , he i s more interested i n groups, and this can be an advantage i n guiding him to learn more about adult ways of l i f e . Although his stay i n such groups may be short and he may "try out" many of them, he i s seeking ideals and a better understanding through the process of experimentation. During this period^, many an adolescent w i l l become very attached to an adult of the same sex who i s usually one who meets the ideals that the adolescent i s trying to set up for himself. The friendships made by both boys and g i r l s at this time are of great importance. Parents may often be quite upset, as they may 5-not approve of these friends. However, the more outward opposi-tion shown by the parents, the more attaohed the adolescent w i l l become to these persons. If the adolescent i s l e f t alone, and not opposed more than necessary, he w i l l usually drop these undesirable friends. Many adolescents are fearful of making an adjustment to society, as they are often under pressure at home as well as i n the community and, as a result, external and internal conflicts may result. Sometimes the adolescent may want to do things which are not beneficial to him, and parents may be fearful of the effects of setting limits for him. However, i t has been found that i n this kind of situation, the adolescent may be testing the parents, to see i f they love him enough to really protect him i n such situations. The relationships of the boy and g i r l to their family i s of most importance, for the f i n a l attainment of maturity i s f i r s t reached i n the family group, and, as previously stressed, there i s an i n i t i a l need for the individual to assert his wish for freedom from control and domination of the family. Indications of this assertion can be seen often i n the wish of the adolescent boy and g i r l to buy and choose clothing. They may also appear evasive and w i l l show rebellion i n a l l that they are asked to do, whether i t be much or l i t t l e . It i s during adolescence that boys and g i r l s show real interest i n each other, particularly on the American continent. "Dating"commences, and the type of reaction of parents w i l l show the real understanding that they have of this age group. This 6. transitional period i s one of straightening out emotions and, as already stated, the early development period cannot be overem-phasized. The greater the problem l e f t unsolved during these earlier years, the more d i f f i c u l t the adolescent period i s . As the adolescent moves through the transition, parents must be able to relinquish more and more control, while recognizing that the a b i l i t y of the child to handle his own l i f e must be given consi-deration. Adolescence can best be described as a period of com-promise, for both adult and adolescent. The Concern of the Community. More than ever before, most members of the community real-ize that they have a responsibility to the adolescent boy and g i r l . The concern of the community can be seen i n various examples: labour laws that have been drawn up to protect the growing youth from exploitation, to assure the child of at least a minimum of education, and other statutes that have been enacted to protect the growing boy and g i r l from taking responsibilities for which they are not prepared. At this time the adolescent shows a new interest i n commu-nity affairs, and the development of a new future citizen can be seen. Although a more adult outlook i s developing, the boy and g i r l , in most cases wi l l need a degree of protection because of lack of wise judgement. The need to be independent can often be met by the giving of more responsibility in the home, or through the child taking jobs after school or during summer holiday periods. In the community to-day, there appears to be some break-7. -down of elose family t i e s . One factor i n the urban centres may be the a v a i l a b i l i t y of commercialized a c t i v i t y . However, i t i s probably true that the family group remains more closely knit i n the r u r a l community. Sexual impulses play a dominant r o l e i n adolescence and are a normal part of the growing up process. Most adolescents w i l l approach these new impulses with a degree of temerity. These feeli n g s can usually be traced to inner resistance r e s u l t i n g from patental attitudes surrounding sexual desires. Often the adoles-cent does not rush into r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and h i s f i r s t contact with the opposite sex may be due to s o c i a l pressure more than any other: factor. Usually, the f i r s t experience i n t h i s f i e l d i s dating for companionship, the second, that of "going steady" appears as a r u l e at a much l a t e r date. I t i s acknowledged that t r a i n i n g for mature masculinity and femininity s t a r t s at b i r t h . However, the way the adolescent reacts w i l l depend to some degree on the c u l t u r a l outlook of the area i n which he l i v e s . Teaching of sex i s a continuous process, answering the c h i l d with the information asked for. As already stressed, r e l a t i o n s h i p of parents to children i s most important during adolescence, as often the boy or g i r l w i l l need sound, active help from an adult person. The more understanding the adult i s , and the more w i l l i n g he i s to share h i s thoughts, the greater the p o s s i b i l i t y for prudence and d i s c r e t i o n i n the c h i l d . The c h i l d may be helped through t h i s period of c o n f l i c t by learning to sublimate h i s sexual desires by turning to more s o c i a l l y acceptable g. a c t i v i t i e s , and i f these problems of sexual adjustment are handled i n a sensible way, they are resolved without great d i f f i c u l t y . Recreational Services for A l l Ages. To-day, most adults and children are able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n more l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s than ever before. On reviewing the services offered a l l age groups, there are numerous a c t i v i t i e s i n the large urban centres. For instance, i n the Greater Vancouver area there are the following group agencies: Young Men's Christiana Association, Young Women's Ch r i s t i a n Association, Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, and Community Centres. These are only a few of the agen-cies operating to give services to both adults and children of a l l age groups i n t h i s area. Some of these agencies are geared to straight physioal f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s , while other groups offer more varied type programs for people who attend these agencies. Since the end of World War 2, there has been a branching out by many groups agencies into more d i v e r s i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s . For example, special programs have been set up to meet the needs of teen-age boys and g i r l s . Both Young Men's and Young Women's Chris-t i a n Associations are featuring programs f o r teen-agers which i n -clude mixed programs for both boys and g i r l s . One agency which s t i l l seems to a t t r a c t many boys i n t h e i r early adolescent period i s the Boy Scout movement. As wel l as t h i s there has sprung up numerous teen-town groups which seem to p a r t l y f u l f i l the needs of some adolescents. S i m i l a r l y , the G i r l Guides Association carries out a s i m i l a r type of program for g i r l s . Most of these Boy Scout and G i r l Guide a c t i v i t i e s usually are attaohed to both protestant 9. and c a t h o l i c churches. Many churches also carry out group a c t i v i -t i e s such as Canadian G i r l s i n Training, Young Peoples* Unions, as well as other a c t i v i t i e s for both children and adults. Up u n t i l 1952, the Department of Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, sponsored a P r o v i n c i a l Program f o r Recreation throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. In the main,it was financed and ad-ministered e n t i r e l y by the p r o v i n c i a l government. When the present government came into o f f i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1952, the f o r -mer P r o v i n c i a l Recreation program was scrapped and, i n i t s place the Community Programmes Branch was established within the Depart-ment of Education. The new focus was to encourage l o c a l responsi-b i l i t y f o r recreation rather than providing d i r e c t service to the community. The services given by t h i s Branch are summarized as follows: (1) "The Branch w i l l a s s i s t , i n an advisory capacity, public bodies interested i n recreation. To do t h i s , i t main-tains a s t a f f of nine Regional Consultants who are a v a i -l a b l e to a s s i s t i n t h i s way. (2) A programme of leadership training: f o r voluntary recrea-t i o n leaders i s provided i n order to a s s i s t l o c a l areas i n obtaining i n s t r u c t o r s and organizers for t h e i r pro-grammes. (3) As a means of encouraging and a s s i s t i n g School Boards i n the operation of recreational classes through regu-l a r l y organized night-schools, grants-in-aid w i l l be p a i d on the same basis as those which apply i n the case of other non-vocational night-school courses. These are grants toward the salary of i n s t r u c t o r s . (h) In order to a s s i s t i n the organization and co-ordination of public recreation, other than those phases which can best be conducted i n school buildings by means of night-schools, the Community Programmes Branch w i l l make grants-i n - a i d on behalf of l o c a l Recreation Commissions. These are grants toward the s a l a r i e s of those organi-zing and co-ordinating l o c a l public recreation. 1 0 . As a prerequisite to the payment of such grants, the Municipal or other Council i s required to esta b l i s h a l o c a l Recreation Commission as i t s governing body i n . matters of pu b l i c recreation. In unorganized areas, Recreation Commissions are to be appointed by pu b l i c meetings c a l l e d f o r t h i s purpose, a f t e r notice of such in t e n t i o n has been f i l e d with the Regional Consultant i n charge of the d i s t r i c t . Grants-in-aid to Recreation Commissions are paid on a basis of two schedules. "Schedule A" covers the pay-ments on behalf of the salary of Recreation Directors employed by such Commissions. This i s a granr of $50 per month and i s paid on behalf of a f u l l - t i m e Commu-ni t y Recreation Director i n charge of the organization and administration of p u b l i c recreation f o r the whole area f o r which he i s appointed. In the case of areas with a population l e s s than 1 0 , 0 0 0 , a part-time Direc-t o r may be appointed. In t h i s case a smaller grant i s paid. Grants under "Schedule B" are for assistants to the Director, s p e c i a l i s t s i n various f i e l d s of recreation, or persons employed i n connection with l o c a l leader-ship t r a i n i n g programmes. Grants under Schedule B vary with the population of a p a r t i c u l a r area. Under both schedules, approval by the Community Pro-grammes Branch of the programme to be adopted i s r e -quired. The amount of the grant i s i n no case greater than one-third the actual sum paid to the employee by the Recreation Commission. In the case of areas with a population of l e s s than 1 0 , 0 0 0 , however, i t i s pro-vided that a grant toward expenses may be made i f no paid help i s employed i n connection with public r e -creation." 1 On examination of the above aims and services offered, i t i s seen that there i s a d e f i n i t e attempt to stimulate l o c a l commu-n i t i e s to take advantage of the opportunity to sponser a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s noted that i n organization of group programmes i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , the Department of Education points out that Regional Consultants are ava i l a b l e to a s s i s t communities i n establishing group programs on an advisory basis. The job of these s p e c i a l i s t s -in t h i s work i s not one of i n i t i a t i n g programs but to give advice 1. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, "/The Community Programmes Branch". Queen's Printer, Victoria,B. C. "page 3 11. to those persons who are w i l l i n g to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r operation of programs. U n t i l the inception of t h i s program, there was very l i t t l e i n the way of group a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to persons i n the more i s o l a t e d parts of the Province. The only major a c t i v i t y f©r grow-ing boys and g i r l s was the establishment of "H-H" Farm Clubs by the Department of Agriculture. The programs offered by t h i s Department are of a high c a l i b r e , but not every c h i l d wanted to take advantage of t h i s type of a c t i v i t y . It i s f e l t that i f the new Community Programmes Branch i s interpreted i n the r i g h t way to communities i t can be quite b e n e f i c i a l to the people i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , as i t does not set down an o v e r - a l l pattern, nor does i t take away the independence of the community. Services Given by the Schools to Adolescent Ohildren. To-day the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia are o f f e r i n g more extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s to high school students than ever be-fore. Education to-day not only includes the learning process but includes as well the preparation of the growing boy and g i r l to take t h e i r place as competent c i t i z e n s i n the community. Throughout B r i t i s h Columbia there has been a move toward establishment of Consolidated Schools. I t was f e l t that a better job could be done with the older c h i l d i f he was to experience a period i n a larger type of school, where i t would also be possible to a t t r a c t a better standard of teacher. In most large centres to-day, high schools off e r counseling servioes to the adolescent student which include advice i n choice 12. of vocations as well as help i n working out personal problems. I f the school counselor f e e l s that the problem i s too deep seated to handle., he i s able to c a l l upon the services of the D i s t r i c t Health Nurse i f the problem i s medical, or the d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker i f i t has s o c i a l implications. In summing up the present services given the adolescent c h i l d i n school, there are s t i l l many lags, however, i t seems that school a u t h o r i t i e s are becoming more aware of the needs of boys and g i r l s . They are attempting to help them to make as sa t i s f a c t o r y an adjustment as possible when they are ready to take t h e i r places In the world. The only point that must be remembered i n giving these services i s that the basic learning process needed to equip the boy and g i r l to take responsible jobs i n the community must not be e n t i r e l y forgotten. Many c i t i z e n s do f e e l that there i s a tendency to overlook the important task of preparing the c h i l d to know enough to be able to handle a job s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . I t i s most impor-tant that t h i s not be forgotten, f o r i f the c h i l d does not have enough basic education, and cannot be successful at h i s job, then the end r e s u l t i s l i a b l e to be poor s o c i a l adjustment. Comparison of Adolescent Problems Found Locally, to Those i n U.S.A. In explaining the problem of adolescence, i t was considered worthwhile to see how problems of adolescent behaviour d i f f e r l o c a l l y from those found i n parts of the U.S.A. For t h i s purpose, the study "ElmtownsYouth" by August B.Hollinghead, has been used to provide comparative material. One of the f i r s t points noted i s that the author attributed 13. many of the problems of adolescents to strong class d i s t i n c t i o n i n the Elmtown Community.1 Hollingshead divided the s o c i a l structure of the community into four separate groups. Class 1 included those residents who had wealth and lineage. This group of residents i s s t a b i l i z e d from one generation to another i n most cases. Class 2 included a l l those residents who got where they are through t h e i r own e f f o r t s . This makes up approximately one h a l f of t h i s group while the remainder have i n h e r i t e d t h e i r status i n l i f e . This class i s p a r t i c u l a r l y active i n the a f f a i r s of the community such as c i v i c leadership and service clubs. Most of t h i s group receive t h e i r income from the man of the family p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some large independent profession, or i s active i n some l o c a l business, perhaps operated by class 1 families. Class 3: Most of the people i n class 3 have got where they are i n l i f e by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , and they made th e i r l i v i n g either by operating small businesses, farms, or are independent professional people. Many wives i n t h i s group supple-ment the family income themselves by working. Class h. This group comprises those c i t i z e n s who always seem to be poor, but are honest people who are the labourers and man the f a c t o r i e s and m i l l s A l l ethnic elements are found i n t h i s group. Most of the groups i n t h i s class system are i n c l i n e d to stay quite separate from one another, although there i s some close-ness between class 2 and class 3. As pointed out i n the Elmtown study, t h i s class d i s t i n c t i o n has a great deal of bearing on the c o n f l i c t s that can take place i n the period of adolescence. From childhood through l i f e , these boys and g i r l s are i n s t i l l e d with the? 1 HOLLINGSHEAD. August B. "Elmtown'?Youth" . Hew York. John Wiley & Sons vTe _ i n c . , 19^9 2 I b i d pages glJ- - 120 IK difference there i s between each s o c i a l class. From the study, i t would appear that t h i s class consciousness seems to be present to some degree i n high school, and there i s a tendency for the students to segregate themselves into groups as to the class structure men-tioned. G i r l s and boys who deviate from t h i s , and decide to be f r i e n d l y with someone i n one of the other groups, usually have pro-blems with those children of th e i r own s o c i a l s t r a t a . This class d i s t i n c t i o n , as explained i n the study, i s also c a r r i e d over to the school teachers, and i t would seem that there i s fear on the part of school a u t h o r i t i e s that they are l i a b l e to lose t h e i r p o s i t i o n i f they are hard on the r i c h man's c h i l d . As a r e s u l t , the children i n group 3 and 4- are often treated more roughly than they might be i f t h i s f e a r was not present. In respect to the adolescent i n the community, the study points out that: "Elmtown's culture does not provide any community-wide procedures to help the adolescent define himself as an adolescent i n the t r a n s i t i o n from c h i l d to adult" (1) The author does not f e e l that the adolescent i s helped to any degree to reach maturity by the high school which i s the p r i n -c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n the culture of t h i s town. Instead, i t seems that the school often prolongs dependency on the family, p a r t i c u l a r -l y within the three upper class groups. In t h i s town i t seems that the i n s t i t u t i o n s such as church, school, as well as commercial enter-tainment, often operate at cross purposes i n planning a f f a i r s f or teen-agers, rather than co-operating and attempting to give the best services p o s s i b l e . ^ (1) Ibi d page 1^8 (2) B 1^9 15. The author discusses cliques, dating, religion and religious behaviour. This part of the adolescent transition appears to be similar to other parts of the United States. There i s definite » grouping of children, particularly, i n the upper three classes. With regard to "dating'1, there i s a tendenoy for more adolescent boys and g i r l s to-day to participate i n "petting", as well as indulging i n sexual relationships. However, i t was recognized that the male sex has a tendency to boast about sexual conquests, and It i s speculated that there i s possibly less sexual practices i n this age group than thought. In the matter of religion, most children of the upper three classes have been steeped i n religion either through Sunday school, or, i f of the Catholic faith, through religious ceremonies. However, most teen-age children i n Elmtown seem to have d i f f i c u l t y i n working out feelings surrounding religious beliefs. Teen-age children i n any oommunity need money to pay for recreational needs. As a result, many children In Elmtown, particu-l a r l y i n the third and fourth social classes, find work either i n shops, mills, or other types of labouring jobs, on Saturdays and on holidays. The children i n the two higher classes may not be so i n -terested i n such jobs, as i n most cases the parents are so well fixed that they do not have to work, and their parents may also feel that employment of the child i s below their status. The children of the lowest class i n Elmtown usually leave school at an early date, and unless they have the incentive to improve their position i n l i f e , they w i l l carry on i n similar labouring jobs as their parents. In this study i t . i s indicated that there appears to be definite preju-dice against children of poorer families on the part of other children, 16. as well as school authorities, which seems to cause many children to leave school earlier than they otherwise would. As far as leisure time acti v i t i e s are concerned, i t seems from the study, that most children sever the ties with formal organi-zed groups when the adolescent makes the transition from pupil to young adult. When a youth withdraws from school, i t seems that he withdraws from most formal a c t i v i t i e s which often include Scouting a c t i v i t i e s and church groups. It i s indicated that leaders i n charge of these group acti v i t i e s do not appear too concerned about; this situation. Because of this situation, the adolescents often seem to get into the wrong type of recreation, and i t i s during this period that he or she may learn the habit of drinking intoxicating liquors, and the practice of unhealthy sexual habits. The Local Scene. An attempt has been made to give some idea of the problems that can arise i n a small community such as Elmtown, i n the transi-tion period of adolescents. This i s only one example of a community i n the United States where there seems to be many problems due to pressures of the community.in general. No doubt many communities i n the United States suffer from similar problems. In British Columbia these problems are present i n the l i f e of the adolescent but they may vary i n degree of intensity. It i s l i k e l y that the four classes of social structure outlined i n the study are applicable to the social structure i n the larger c i t i e s of this Province, such as Vancouver and Victoria. They may also be applicable to some of the towns such as Nanaimo, 17. Kamloops, Nelson and other towns. However, In the smaller v i l l a g e s of the outlying areas there seems to be more s o l i d a r i t y of the people. This, of course, varies when there are minority groups such as In-dian or part-Indians residing* It seems that perhaps more i s being done by community and school to break t h i s f e e l i n g i n the smaller towns. I t appears there i s l e s s fear by school authorities of being i n t e r f e r e d with by the wealthy parents and therefore treatment ap-pears to be on a more even basis for most children. At present there are adequate f a c i l i t i e s for the growing boy or g i r l to obtain recreation i n the large c i t i e s . These seem to meet the needs of classes 1, 2 and 3« However, some adolescents of class 3, as well as many of class k i n the s o c i a l structure, seem to get into d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n the large c i t i e s because of the need to f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n through the wrong kind of l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s such as frequen-t i n g undesirable places and indulging i n gang behavior. The adolescent i n t h i s province have tended i n the l a s t years to seek employment during holidays and on Saturdays. Children of the three top s o c i a l classes seem to think t h i s i s the accepted thing to do and children from seventeen years and up, or younger, seem able to f i n d part-time jobs f o r holidays and Saturdays. Jobs include construction work for boys, and waitress work for g i r l s , as well as numerous other seasonable jobs on farms, i n canneries etc. In the farming communities and labouring families there i s s t i l l a tendency f o r children to attend school only u n t i l they reach f i f t e e n , the l e g a l age for leaving. The reasons for children l e a -ving__school at t h i s age seem to be mainly because of economic problems, IS. or because of the lack of a b i l i t y to undertake more d i f f i c u l t work. There do not seem to be too many cases where children leave school because of the way they are treated by the school teachers. Some-times childr e n have been known to quit who are i n a minority r a c i a l group because of the treatment they receive from other children. In regards to sexual problems, i t appears that i n the larger c i t i e s and towns these problems are very s i m i l a r to those found i n the United States. Although l i q u o r laws are s t r i c t i n t h i s Province, the older adolescent c h i l d seems to be able to procure alcohol through devious methods i f he-wishes to. In the large c i t i e s and larger towns the adolescent boy and g i r l frequent cheap dance h a l l s quite often and i t i s i n such places that many adolescents seem to get into d i f f i c u l t i e s . In summing up, i t i s f e l t that the adolescent boy and g i r l i n t h i s Province are confronted by many pressures that the communi-ty i t s e l f brings about, either consciously or unconsciously. I t i s f e l t that there i s more conservatism i n Canada than i n the United States, and therefore the adolescent behaviour may not be so extreme. Method. This study deals primarily with the adjustment of the ado-lescent boy and g i r l i n the r u r a l foster home. The Kamloops area was chosen as being i n d i c a t i v e of r u r a l settings throughout the province. Before completing analysis of problems of adolescent foster ohildren, the history of C h i l d Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s reviewed i n a descriptive manner to show how the present program has developed. Present services given by the Kamloops Branch i n 19. respect to children, are described, and evaluated to some extent. Relationship of the d i s t r i c t to Ohild Welfare D i v i s i o n i s also described. In the analysis of the problems of adolescent foster c h i l -dren, the records of fifty-two children are reviewed. These c h i l -dren came into care from l$kO to 1953« Some are s t i l l i n care while others are now discharged. Some of these children came into care when young babies, while others d i d so before adolescence or during the t r a n s i t i o n period t t s e l f . Although fift y - t w o children are studied, the number of case i l l u s t r a t i o n s are only twelve. However, i t i s f e l t that these i l l u s t r a t i o n s show most of the problems from the c h i l d ' s point of view as well as that of the s o c i a l workers. These case i l l u s t r a t i o n s have been supplemented by some s t a t i s t i c a l tables to show more c l e a r l y the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n placement of t h i s age group i n the r u r a l community. Where information i s lacking i n records, personal i n t e r -views have been arranged with s t a f f members and the D i s t r i c t Supervisor of the Kamloops Social Welfare Branoh to f i l l i n the needed material. Chapter 2 Present Child Welfare Services i n B r i t i s h Columbia In any discussion of present services given children i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s important to review developments that have taken place since 1911. It was i n that year that the f i r s t c h i l d welfare l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted. The statute was e n t i t l e d the Infants Act, and provided for the l e g a l transfer of orphaned and neglected children to the state. Provisions were also made for the establishment of Children's Aid Societies to give needed care to such children. In 1919, the f i r s t Superintendent of Neglected C h i l -dren was appointed and her tasks included inspection of children's i n s t i t u t i o n s coming under the Infant's Act, as well as supervising the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School, and being responsible for administra-t i o n of the Mother's Pension Act. It should be stressed that a l l children who came into care . including those from unorganized t e r r i t o r y ^ 1 ) were placed with one of the Children's A id Societies. At t h i s early stage of development, c i t i e s and municipalities were e n t i r e l y responsible f o r investiga-t i n g charges of neglect, and the Superintendent was not l e g a l l y required to act u n t i l the c h i l d was proved to be neglected, by the l o c a l court. I f no Children's A id Society existed i n the municipa-l i t y where the c h i l d l i v e d , then the Superintendent was responsible for placement of the c h i l d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , usually one of the two Children's Aid Societies i n Vancouver. In the year 1927, a survey of c h i l d welfare was sponsored by the service clubs i n Vancouver. This survey was ca r r i e d out by--(l) see Appendix A for d e f i n i t i o n of unorganized t e r r i t o r y 21. the Canadian Welfare Council under the d i r e c t i o n of Charlotte Whitton. The resu l t of t h i s survey was the implementing of r a d i c a l reforms, which included the complete reorganization of the Children's Aid Societies i n Vancouver. A number of trained s o c i a l workers from Eastern Canada were also brought i n at t h i s time to reorganize e x i s t i n g programs. In 1931, there was some reorganization at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l when the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for existing programs was given to the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. A Superintendent of Welfare was appointed who was to be responsible f o r the care of neglected children as well as other s o c i a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s within the province. At the same time, a Deputy Superintendent of Bteglected Children was named and she was to be responsible f o r the mass of d e t a i l involved i n carrying out C h i l d Welfare l e g i s l a t i o n i n the province. In 1935, the Children's D i v i s i o n , as i t was then named, was established as a separate sec-tion, to be c a l l e d Child Welfare Branch with a Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent, both i n Vancouver. The Mother's Pension V i s i t o r s i n the four outlying d i s t r i c t s were used by the Children's Branch to gather s o c i a l information and take s o c i a l action as deemed necessary by the Superintendent. One of the important re s u l t s of the 1927 survey was the establishing of an adequate foster home program for the care of children by the Vancouver Children's A id Society. In addition, standards of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n B r i t i s h Columbia were being care-f u l l y examined, and by 1936 nearly a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n the province was replaced by sat i s f a c t o r y foster home programs. During t h i s era of change, an important p o l i c y , which i s s t i l l i n force 22. to-day, was established. This polioy l a i d down that no further Children's Aid Societies were to be established unless they could appoint an o f f i c i a l who was trained i n children's work to administer t h e i r program^ 1). Development Through the Years In 1939, the Infant's Act was amended to allow more preven-t i v e work to be done, i n the hope of cutting down the number of c h i l d r e n taken into the care of the Superintendent. In 19^3> the Infant's Act was replaced by the Protection of Children Act, which l a i d stress upon the more p o s i t i v e aspects of work with neglected children. Under t h i s new l e g i s l a t i o n , the t i t l e of the Superinten-dent was changed to that of Superintendent of Child Welfare. In 19^0, for the f i r s t time, an attempt was made to promote the establishment of foster homes i n r u r a l areas. Up to t h i s time v i r t u a l l y a l l children placed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government were sent f o r placement to the two Children's Aid Societies i n Vancouver. At f i r s t , a few homes were established i n the Okanagan Valley. The movement was aided by an urgent need fo r homes for children to be evacuated from B r i t a i n . Between d i s t r i c t workers and Children's Aid Societies, f i f t e e n hundred homes were approved. The d i s t r i c t s com-menced to make t h e i r own placements and at the same time took back many children who had previously been sent to the Vancouver Societies. Additional developments were taking place. A closer r e l a -tionship was established between C h i l d Welfare Branch and the Indus-t r i a l Schools. Experimentation was carried out i n placement i n f o s -ter homes of children discharged from these i n s t i t u t i o n s , This was (1) Protection of Children's Act . King's Pri n t e r , Chapter k-1 sec. 21-2^. 23. done where the natural home of the o h i l d proved unsatisfactory for him to return to. Post discharge services were established and carried out by the f i e l d s t a f f to r e h a b i l i t a t e the c h i l d . Juvenile Courts became aware of the services of the f i e l d and the s t a f f began to be n o t i f i e d of any delinquent cases to be brought up i n c o u r t . ^ Amalgamation of Services. In October 194-2, the f i r s t step i n amalgamation of the ser-vices took place. The Unemployment R e l i e f Branch, Welfare F i e l d Service, and administration of Old Age Pensions were brought together under the Department of P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, which resulted i n the amalgamation of the f i e l d s t a f f of the Unemployment R e l i e f Branch and Welfare Services. The province was divided into f i v e regions, with a regional supervisor to be i n charge of each region. An Assistant Director of Welfare was appointed with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to expedite generalized service. This was the groundwork for a general family service program to be given the people of the province by a competent s t a f f of s o c i a l workers. An attempt to unify a l l welfare p o l i c y was also started at t h i s time. D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s were reorganized and workers were as-signed s p e c i f i c d i s t r i c t s where they were responsible to give a l l services offered by the Branch. The Branch also received a new t i t l e , that of the Social Assistance Branch. Although these changes took place, supervision continued to be given thiough correspon-dence with D i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e s . This proved to be an unsatisfactory arrangement as there was great delay i n writing from the f i e l d to (l) Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, King's Printer, V i c t o r i a , March 31, 19^-g. pp.11-13 2»k the divisional offices and awaiting replies. Work injf the f i e l d was naturally slowed vlown and this proved a major problem, p a r t i -cularly i n child welfare. On October 6, 19^6, a new department to be known as the Department of Health and Welfare was established by the provincial government. It was divided into two separate branches: Health, and W e l f a r e.^ A Deputy Minister was appointed for each. With the establishment of a separate Welfare Branch, i t was hoped that more unity could be given to the overall program, while at the same time more power to act could be given over to the regional and d i s t r i c t level, instead of a l l decisions being made by the central office at Victoria. To enable this plan to be put into action, case su-pervisors were placed strategically throughout the province i n d i s t r i c t offices. As a result, i t was no longer necessary for du-plicate records to be kept both i n d i s t r i c t offioes and Victoria. Case records became more adequate i n the d i s t r i c t offices and a more (2) up-to-date method of recording could be used. v ' When the Branch received Departmental status i n 19^6, the t i t l e of "regional supervisor" was changed to "regional administra-tor". The five administrators were to be responsible for adminis-tering each region, with the exoeption of child welfare and other specialized services which were to remain i n the hands of divisional offices. Responsibilities of Child Welfare Division. The Child Welfare Division, located i n Victoria, i s respon-sible for the administration of three Provincial Child Welfare Acts: (1) Since 1946 a third Branch has been added, that of Hospital Insurance Services. (2) Previous to 19^-6, f i l e s consisted mainly of correspondence to and from Central office. 25. Protection of Children, Adoption, and Children of Unmarried Parents^1} As can be seen on Chart One, there i s a Superintendent of Child Welfare, who i s responsible for the overall administration of the three Provincial Acts as they affect the Social Welfare Field staff, as well as the two children's agencies i n Vancouver and i n Victoria. The Superintendent i s assisted by a Deputy Superintendent. The Division i s further divided into a Protection, Adoption, Foster Placement and Children of Unmarried Parents Section. Each of the sections i s staffed by a case supervisor, who usually has one or two persons assisting him. In administering these Acts, the Child Wel-fare Division i s responsible for giving consultation to the f i e l d staff when asked, as well as to the three private child placing agencies i n the province. Protection of Children In cases of Protection, where i t i s fe l t necessary by f i e l d staff of the Social Welfare Branch to remove a child from his parents, a report setting down the reasons for removal being considered, must be submitted to the Protection Section of Divisional office. If the Protection Supervisor and Superintendent are satisfied that such action i s i n the best interest of the child, then written au-thority i s issued to the d i s t r i c t worker, and he may go ahead with court procedure and removal of the child. In the case of an emer-(2) gency situation arising when a child must be apprehended^ 'because of neglect or having run away from home, the social worker, i n agreement with the District Supervisor, w i l l contact the Superin-tendent either by telegram or telephone. The Superintendent w i l l (1) Policy Manual, Social Welfare Branch, 195^, P-4-0 (2) Definition of "apprehend" - see appendix B 2 6 . CHART 1. STRUCTURAL CHART OF CHILD WELFARE DIVISION - PROVINCE OF B.C. -SUPERINTENDENT OF CHILD WELFARE DEPUTY SUPERINTENDENT OF CHILD WELFARE PROTECTION 1 ADOPTIONS 35 FOSTER PLACEMENT PLACEMENT AFTER PLACEMENT 1 REGION 1 DISTRICT OFFICES REGION 21 REGION 111 REGION Vf REGION V CHILDREN OF UN/ MARRIED PARENTS ai STRICT OFFICES DISTRICT OFFICES DISTRICT OFFICES DISTRICT, OFFICES^ 27. . telegraph emergency authority to hold the c h i l d to the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , Whether further action i s necessary or the complaint i s withdrawn, a written report covering the s i t u a t i o n must be forwarded to D i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e . I f the reason for apprehension i s because of an older c h i l d running away, the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e or private agency where the c h i l d resides i s contacted and arrangements are made for the c h i l d to return to h i s own d i s t r i c t i f t h i s i s the best plan. In most of these cases the c h i l d x i s returned to h i s home area p r i o r to the end of the seven day period when a c h i l d must be presented before a magistrate.^ 1) From the foregoing, i t can be seen that apart from court j u r i s d i c t i o n , the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n has f i n a l authority i n administration of the Protection of Children Act, and must be given f u l l knowledge of the reasons f o r a c h i l d being brought into care. The reason for t h i s i s that the Ac£ lays down that the s o c i a l wor-ker i s acting on behalf of the Superintendent and therefore the decision must be i n agreement. U n t i l such time as the Act may be amended, t h i s i s the p o l i c y c a r r i e d out. The Protection of Children Act i s applicable to a l l children i n B r i t i s h Columbia, regardless of race, creed or colour. The only modification of the Act i s i n dealing with Indian children, at which time i t i s p o l i c y to consult the l o c a l Indian Superintendent and work i n co-operation with him. Unless i n an extreme emergency, the s o c i a l worker i s not to go to the reservation without f i r s t discus-sing the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n with the Indian Superintendent. However, i t i s emphasized that Indian children are not to be set apart and (2) must be treated as other children. (1) Protection of Children*' Act, King's Printer, Chapter 4-7, Sec.g (2) Only other method of bringing a c h i l d into foster care i s by non-ward care which w i l l be discussed i n D i s t r i c t Services. 2g. Foster Home Placement The Foster Home Placement Section of Child Welfare Division i s concerned with children who are d i f f i c u l t to place. This Section i s particularly concerned with placements of children who may have been i n either the Boys1 or Gi r l s ' Industrial School. The work of this Section also includes mechanical processes of seeing that fos-ter home agreements are signed by foster parents, and the Superinten-dent, as well as seeing that placement slips are sent i n when a child i s placed or moved from a foster home. This Section i s also respon-sible for seeing that Family Allowance payments are transferred to the Superintendent when a child cames into care. Where a dist r i c t office i s having d i f f i c u l t y i n placement, the Placement Section can be called upon for consultive services. Adoptions The Adoption Section i s divided into two offices. The Adop-tion Section i n Vancouver i s responsible for selection of homes for children available for placement. A l l adoption homes have stu-dies done by the Social Welfare Branch and the approved ones are forwarded to this office. Similarly, a l l studies of unmarried mo-thers wishing rnto place their children i n adoption homes are for-warded to this office. From these reports, selections are made for placement of children to be adopted^. The other part of the Adoption Section i s i n Victoria where a l l arrangements for legal completion of adoption are carried out. Court reports submitted by d i s t r i c t offices are reviewed and, i f necessary, corrected or rewritten before presentation at Court. Private placement of children and step-parent adoptions are usually (1) The three private agencies handle their own placements but work in conjunction with the Adoption Section who may use these agencies for a source of children. 29. referred to this office by lawyers on behalf of the adopting parents. This Section, i n turn, asks that the usual study be completed by the di s t r i c t s involved. The Children of unmarried Parents Section i s also located i n the central office i n Victoria. In reality, i t i s the respon-s i b i l i t y of the d i s t r i c t office to carry an unmarried parent's case i n i t s entirety when both parents are i n the same d i s t r i c t . If the putative father i s residing i n another d i s t r i c t , then the case may be jointly shared with the other office where the man i s residing. Where the putative father i s i n another province or country, then the d i s t r i c t office must work through the divisional office who would communicate with the appropriate agency.^ A l l births of children born out of wedlock are reported to Child Welfare Division by the Department of Vital Statistics, and the d i s t r i c t office where the mother resides i s notified so that services may be offered. However, i f she does not wish the services, they are not forced upon her. The main job of divisional offices seems to be one of referral of cases and disbursement of funds collected under this Act. If a putative father acknowledges paternity, the d i s t r i c t social worker w i l l have agreements signed i n t r i p l i c a t e by the mother and the father of the child. These are then forwarded to the Superin-tendent of Child Welfare for her s i g n a t u r e ^ . These agreements are usually signed i f the mother plans to keep her child and i s asking for medical expenses as well as maintenance for the child. Summary of Child Welfare Responsibilities. In summarizing the functions of Child Welfare Division, i t i d ) p 7 M . (2) Ibid p. 74-i t i s seen that by law they are responsible for action taken i n a l l matters of Child Welfare i n British Columbia. Therefore, i t i s most necessary that they see that d i s t r i c t offices are carrying out p o l i -cy as l a i d down. With fulle r growth and development of the Branch, perhaps more authority may be designated to regional and di s t r i c t levels. However, this can only be done with proper staff who are responsible to carry out the administration. Even though this were to take place, there would s t i l l be need for a small divisional of-fice to take care of situations such as planning for children who are wards of another province or a children's aid society. There are also many mechanical processes that would s t i l l have to be handled by such a central office. Although authority to apprehend children i s only given by the Superintendent of Child Welfare, the social worker i s free to plan for the children i n his d i s t r i c t within the policy l a i d down. Industrial Schools. Another part of the Social Welfare Branch that deals with children are the Boys' and Gi r l s ' Industrial Schools. At present, the administration of these schools i s under a Director of Indus-t r i a l Schools. Each school also has a superintendent i n charge. An attempt to develop treatment services i n both schools i s being undertaken at the present time. The schools work closely with probation officers of the Attorney-General's Department i n planning for a child on his discharge from school. Where there i s no pro-bation officer in a d i s t r i c t , then the social worker i s asked to help plan for rehabilitation of the child. A new Boys' Industrial 31-School i s now being constructed and i t i s f e l t that, with better physical f a c i l i t i e s , the schools may be able to develop better treat ment services. Services Given by the District Office. Up u n t i l 1952, British Columbia was divided into five wel-fare regions! Region 1, Vancouver Island; Region 11, Vancouver Lower Mainland; Coastal area to Ocean Falls and East to Boston Bar; Region 111, Okanagan Valley, Kamloops District and lest to Lytton d i s t r i c t ; Region IV, Eastern British Columbia, including the East and West Kootenays; Region V, the vast Northland of the Province. In 1952 a sixth region was added. This region encompasses the eas-tern part of the Fraser Valley from Surrey and Haney area East to Boston Bar. The main reason for this new region being established was because of the heavy concentration of population and at the same time, lightening the load of the administrator strategically placed at the most central point. Throughout wach region, there are districts' offices with a supervisor supervising from one to three offices depending on the size and caseload of each office. Authority for granting and payment of Social Allowance i s made either by the di s t r i c t supervisor or Regional Administrator. Family service cases are carried by the workers and guidance i n treatment i s given by the supervisor. Mothers* Allowance decisions are made by Family Division, Victoria, based on recommendations of the f i e l d staff. Decisions i n granting of Old Age Assistance, Bonus and Health Service, are made by a central Pension Board at Vancouver. 32. The geography of the Province of British Columbia has had a great bearing on the development of the present Welfare Program and this can be particularly seen i n the regional plan now i n opera* tion. This province i s 366,255 sq.miles i n area and most of this consists of heavily folded mountain ranges which run almost conti-nuously north and south from the United States to Alaska. Mountain ranges also extend inward from the coast to the Alberta border, with the pattern broken by numerous rivers, lakes, valleys and plateaux. In British Columbia the usual municipal forms of govern-ment are lacking mainly because of the lack of concentration of population i n many areas, which make i t impossible for a great many di s t r i c t s to support municipal institutions and services. As a result, the provincial level of government has had»to absorb ju-ris d i c t i o n and provide many services that would not be their res-ponsibility i n a more thickly concentrated area. In this Province, the population i s unevenly spread. As a result, approximately half the total population i s concentrated i n the Lower Mainland around Vancouver, and in the Victoria d i s t r i c t of Vancouver I s l a n d ^ Kamloops District. As the present study deals mainly with adjustment ot the adolescent child placed in foster homes in Kamloops City and sur-rounding d i s t r i c t , i t i s important to know something about this area and the District Social Welfare Branch. Kamloops i s two hun-dred eighty-four miles east of Vancouver, and the city i t s e l f has a population of approximately 2,500 people. Two railways pass through the town and these railways are important as Kamloops i s a Divisional point for both of them. (1) HILL, Ernest, The Regional Administration of Public Welfare i n British Columbia, 1950, M.S.W.Thesis, University of British Columbia chapter 1 The town i t s e l f i s also a centre for ranching, farming, as well as logging operations. Kamloops i s i n the heart of the dry belt d i s t r i c t , but north of Kamloops and surrounding area, both east and west, the terrain becomes more mountainous and heavily wooded. The city i s also becoming more important as an industrial area because of an o i l pipeline from Alberta going thfiough Kamloops to the coastal d i s t r i c t . In conjunction with this pipeline, an o i l refinery i s now i n the process of being completed. Kamloops Social Welfare District office comes under the jurisdiction of Region 111 with headquarters at Vernon i n the Oka-nagan Valley. The staff at present consists of a Supervisor and five workers, two men and three women. There i s also an office staff consisting of a clerk-stenographer and three stenographers. The supervisor i s only responsible for supervision of Kamloops Branch. It should be mentioned that Kamloops City has one Social Worker who i s responsible for administration of Social Assistance Act, Mother's Allowance Act and Old Age Legislation. The District office i s responsible for a l l other services given i n Kamloops City. The services given i n town are only a small percentage of services given. Like most District offices of the Social Welfare Branch, the workers give a generalized family service to the commu-nity and surrounding d i s t r i c t . The area of this d i s t r i c t office i s immense. As can be seen on the attached ma£Va great, deal of the country covered by the worker i s mountainous, and because of the distances, most of the workers are usually away from three to five days at a time i n the d i s t r i c t . (l) see Appendix D 3*. The job of the di s t r i c t social worker i s a challenging one. Every day he i s meeting new situations with which he must cope. As already stated, the worker i s giving a generalized service i n a l l areas of social work, and thus the d i s t r i c t worker must be a very versatile person. He must be able to administer numerous provincial acts, give casework services, be a foster home finder, strengthen relationships i n the community, as well as f u l f i l many other respon-s i b i l i t i e s . This indeed i s a large task and, without the necessary support and encouragement, new workers can easily experience d i f f i -culty i n meeting such a large responsibility. The importance of acceptance of the worker cannot be overstressed. How the worker acts, the services he gives, his acceptance of the people, w i l l bring acceptance, not only of the worker, but the Social Welfare Branch as a whole. Ohild Welfare i s only a portion of the daily job, but must be handled with particular care and understanding. The social wor-ker, i n taking responsibility for foster placement, must find suita-ble homes for children of a l l age groups. The social worker i s mainly concerned with the child, while the secondary focus i s the foster parents. In many ways, the worker i s almost a parent him-self, for he must see that the physical and emotional needs of the foster child are being taken care of. If there are medical pro-blems present, he must make sure that the foster parents have these attended to. The worker must also see that the child i s clothed as other children. More than this, the main task of the worker i s to help a foster child adjust i n his htome and develop as well as 35-possible i n his substitute home. The social worker i s responsible for giving services to a l l children, and he i n turn i s responsible to Child Welfare Division. It i s f e l t that often i n dealing with the Division, there i s a lack of understanding between District and Victoria i n planning r e a l i s t i c a l l y for children. It appears that, because of distance of most d i s t r i c t offices, many situations become too impersonal!zed and, i f there was more personal contact, the thinking of both Division and di s t r i c t would become more c l a r i f i e d i n working out. plans for a l l children. In reviewing the growth of Child Welfare services between 19^ -g and 1951}-, there seems to be l i t t l e , i f any, change i n the number of children placed i n adoption homes. However, the number of c h i l -dren placed i n foster homes has almost trippled between 19k& and the end of 1953* It i s also noted that the number of foster homes ap-proved for placement doubled over the same period. This seems to show that more attention i s being given to the needs of children, and the possible lack found i n natural h o m e s F r o m the statistics of the di s t r i c t office, i t i s apparent that the Kamloops di s t r i c t office has been able to develop many more increased foster home resources, From 194-2 to 1953 the major development of services i n this d i s t r i c t seems to have been i n the area of Social Assistance, Old Age Services, and Child Welfare. The services given i n other categories as seen i n the statis t i c s i s shown to be comparatively small i n numbers. In reality, there i s a large increase in the number of Family Service cases being carried by the Kamloops office. The (l) see Appendix C. Statistics of Kamloops District for 194-g and 1953- Tables 1(a), 1(b), 2(a), 2(b). 36. major reasons for this increase i s probably due to: an increase i n the number of unskilled transient workers with families where there often appears to be more chance of family breakdown because of the stresses i n social and economic areas. The second reason for the increase i n cases of a family nature may be due to a greater r e a l i -sation by staff members of the needs of the people i n the community. However, upon closer examination this may not be so, and from discus-sion with the District Supervisor, i t i s f e l t that there i s a possi-b i l i t y that the d i s t r i c t i s just receiving more enquiries from agen-cies such as Family Allowance, Department of Veterans' Affairs, as well as requests from outside the province, i n relation to family problems. In January 1952, Old Age Assistance legislation became effective and those persons i n receipt of Social Allowance between sixty-five and seventy years became eligible for this allowance. It i s logical that the number of Social Allowance cases should have decreased, but i n reality there was very l i t t l e change i n the number of recipients of this Allowance. This gives some indication of many problems arising, such as desertion by husbands, unemployabi-l i t y and so on. An examination of the amount of services given by each staff member i n Kamloops office has been made for a six months period for 194-S and 1953. I Q 19^3, there were three social workers, and the average numbers of cases active for each worker from July to Decem-ber i n 19k& was one hundred and seven. From Table 1(a) i n the appen-dix ^ there appears to have been a great deal of time spent working (1) Ibid see appendix 0, Tables 1(a), 1(b), 2(a), 2(b). 37. with social allowance cases and ©Id age pensioners. It should also be mentioned that although the number of cases active on an average was one hundred and seven per worker, some of these cases may have been visited more than once, perhaps at least three or four times during the month. On reviewing the total caseloads for each member of the staff for the same period, they each carried on an average of two hundred eighty-nine cases per month. These figures were not nece-ssarily static as they would vary with some cases being closed and others opened. Also some workers' loads may have been smaller or larger depending on the size of the d i s t r i c t s . As already mentioned, the loads were heavily weighted with social allowance cases and old age pensions. Upon averaging out the number of Child Welfare cases carried i n 19*J-g, i t appears that each worker carried approximately forty-nine. Again some workers may have carried fewer and others more. During this six month period, there seems to have been about thirty-five cases active i n a l l child welfare categories. Workers appear to have been making f a i r l y regular v i s i t s to their child welfare cases. However, i t must be remembered that i n some months there might be more cases active and the number would not be static for each month. It i s now necessary to look at the work done i n 1953« Again July to December has been reviewed. During this period there were five workers on staff and the average number of cases carried per month was two hundred f i f t y - f i v e . Actually one caseload was smaller than the other four. This di s t r i c t was made by decreasing the areas covered by two of the other workers. During this period, 3&. the number of Social Assistance and Old Age cases was large; How-ever, the statistics are somewhat misleading because i t i s not necessary to make as many v i s i t s tp persons i n receipt of Old Age Security and provincial Bonus due to change i n policy regarding annual reporting. Upon examination of child welfare categories, there seems to have been an increase and the average number of cases carried by each worker from July to December was f o r t y - n i n e ^ . Again some staff members may have been carrying more than forty-nine and others fewer. The major increase i n services seems to have been mainly i n Ohildren i n Foster Homes. The number od cases of a child welfare nature active on an average during this same period were forty-eight per worker. Again this i s not a true picture, as there was a change i n staff i n September and two members of ataff were away taking In Service training course during October. It i s f e l t that due to change i n pension regulations, as already outlined, the workers were able to give more time to child welfare and other specialized services. Supervision i n the District Office. In the Kamloops Social Welfare Branch there i s a full-time supervisor who carries both administrative and casework supervision responsibilities. In any supervisory conference i t i s important that the supervisor and worker be able to establish a two-way pa r t i -cipating relationship, just as i t i s necessary in the casework process. Social workers must be willing to share problems that arise i n the caseload with the supervisor i f he i s going to give the best services possible to a l l clients. -In the Kamloops Social Welfare Branch,- a l l - records, are .. . (1) Ibid see appendix 0, tables 1(a), 2(a), 1(b), 2(b). ~ 39. reviewed by the supervisor regularly. If the worker has not come for guidance on a case and the supervisor feels i t i s needed, then she w i l l come to the worker and discuss the record with him. Super-vision i s available for each worker regularly, i f he desires to take advantage of i t . The more experienced staff members who have reached a point of being able to take more responsibility may have super-vision on a more consultive basis. It i s believed from experience that the staff i n this office do need more encouragement to seek help earlier than they do, so that serious problems i n the l i f e of the adolescent client and others may be minimized. It i s also f e l t that perhaps some workers may be helped more to recognize symptoms of problems at an earlier stage than they do. As well as this, there i s some feeling on the part of the supervisor that a few workers may have d i f f i c u l t y i n appreciating the ordinary problems that must be met by the child i n the growing up process. In the same manner sometimes workers may feel d i f f i c u l t y i n appreciating problems with which the child may be confronted by being away from his own parents 1  Staff Development i n District Office. This leads into the process of staff development on the job. Through experience, individual supervision, and group meetings, staff members should be helped to give better services to their clients Staff development i n Kamloops i s carried on adequately from a super-visory point of view. However, there has been some unwillingness on the part of staff to take time for staff meetings. af the Super-visor wishes to c a l l a staff meeting to discuss matters pertaining to policy, the workers have no alternative but to attend. However, (1) Information from d i s t r i c t supervisor i n notes received July 1,195^ to. when an attempt i s made to arrange staff meetings for educational purposes, then d i f f i c u l t i e s seem to arise. From experience, workers i n the past have had the feeling that they have not had time to prepare material when asked ahead of time. If they do prepare mate-r i a l i t i s usually with great r e l u c t a n c e . In the spring and summer of 1953» staff meetings were held once a month and each staff member took a turn acting as chairman of the meeting. . The group ohose their own topic for each meeting and discussions included foster home placement, adoptions, social allowance, as well as other topics. Some members found i t d i f f i c u l t to participate i n the discussions; even when drawn out by the chairman, this was s t i l l a problem. The Role of A l l i e d Professions In working with a l l children including the adolescent, both i n urban setting and rural setting, i t i s most important that the social worker not only work with the child and-foster parents but also help the child i n his adjustment in a l l areas that he comes i n contact with during this most important period of development. One of the foremost influences on the development of the adolescent i n the d i s t r i c t i s the school he attends. It i s believed that social workers often forget the force that school may have on the develop-ment of children, particularly the adolescent. Children who are under care of the Branch are usually byjlaw, wards of the Superinten-dent of Child Welfare of British Columbia. She i s the legal guardian of these children under the terms of the Protection of Children Act. Often the social worker is described as a "parent" of his foster children because i t is his responsibility to see that each child i s taken care of i n his total environment. It i s important that a >1. child not only he helped i n his home adjustment but also i n his total social adjustment, and a l l social workers must be willing to work with other professions whom the child meets i n his every day l i f e . In the rural community these a l l i e d professions include school teachers, public health nurses, doctors, ministers, and sometimes police officers. The School The role that the school plays i n the l i f e of the adolescent must be examined. In the Kamloops dis t r i c t there are very few l e i -sure time group activities for children. Therefore, the place where socialization commences outside the home i s i n the school. It is i n this setting that the adolescent boy and g i r l w i l l shape his way of l i v i n g by testing and rejecting new ideas as he mixes with children of his own age group. From experience i n the rural area, i t i s firmly believed that a l l social workers must have a working relationship with school principals and teachers. It i s important, not only because foster children may be in attendance, but also be-cause there may be children with behaviour problems which can be traced to some social problem in the home. The social worker, i f doing a proper job, can be compared to a vi s i t i n g teacher, a type of social worker sometimes attached to an urban school. It i s f e l t that even i f there are no problems present i n a school, i t i s beneficial to make regular v i s i t s , i f they only amount to courtesy calls. The question that now arises i s how much should a principal or teacher be told about a foster child. This question arises i n relation to a teen-age foster child who has just been placed i n a foster home i n a small rural community. Soon after the placement >2. i s made, most of the community w i l l "be aware that there w i l l be a new child l i v i n g with a familj i n the d i s t r i c t . It i s important for the worker to see the school and help them understand the back-ground of the child. If the child needs help, either i n academic s k i l l or i n social adjustment, the school should be given guidance on how to aid the child. If the social worker shows a genuine con-tinuing interest i n the child, then the school w i l l take more of a personal interest in him. To gain co-operation of the school, the social worker must give the school authorities support and help i n what they are doing. The amount of information discussed with teachers w i l l depend on a number of factors. First i t i s important: to know the teacher well enough to be assured that any information given w i l l be used constructively to help the child. It i s also important to know the teacher to decide whether the information given w i l l be held i n strictest confidence. The amount of informa-tion discussed w i l l depend on the social adjustment and stability off each child individually The Public Health Nurse Another profession which plays an important role i n the l i f e of the adolescent child i s the public health nurse. Included i n the many duties of the nurse i s her responsibility for the health of a l l school ohildren. The nurse comes i n contact with school children regularly and teachers often w i l l go to her with problems concerning behaviour of some children. In this Province, the public health nurse i s equipped to some degree to advise parents and children when such requests arise. (l) Material derived from experience over a three year period i n a rural d i s t r i c t . However, i f the social worker i s going to give the "best services possible, he must have a working relationship with the nursing staff of the local Health Unit. The social worker must be willing to refer problems of health nature to the nurse, and i f he can work along with her, she w i l l gain confidence i n the worker and she w i l l refer children and families for casework services when the need arises. In placement of adolescent children and those younger, i t i s sound practice to at least inform the nurse that a child has been placed i n her d i s t r i c t i n a foster home. If this i s not done the nurse i s l e f t i n ignorance and i t could prove embarrassing i f the nurse was to question the child about his background. Secondly, i f the nurse i s aware that the adolescent or younger child i s a foster child, and she finds a medical problem, she w i l l of course notify the foster parents but w i l l also discuss the problem with the social worker. If the child i s to be treated as a whole person there needs to be a proper ^working relationship between these two a l l i e d pro-fessions. The Clergy In reviewing the role the local minister may play i n giving services to children i n foster care, a great deal w i l l depend on the participation of the foster parents i n church a c t i v i t i e s . In most rural communities i t seems that^fhere i s a church i n existance many of the families are active to some degree at least, and the denomination of the church does not appear to be too important. If the minister i s the type of person who i s interested i n children, then often he can be helpful i n the child's adjustment. In disclo-sing information about a child to a minister, the use he w i l l make of this information must be evaluated, as well as the actual help he can be to the child. Because of the interest of the Catholic church i n their ado-lescents i t i s often wise to establish a relationship with the priest. He i s most interested i n the children as a rule, and can be a great help. The priest i s also a resource to the worker in finding suita-ble catholic foster homes The Medical Profession In giving services to children whatever the age, the social worker must see that the child i s i n the best physical health possi-ble. Because many of the doctors are practising i n Kamloops City, children may not come i n contact with them except for medical exa-mination, or when they are i l l . It i s important that the social worker have a working relationship with local representatives of the medical profession. When there are emotional problems present, some physicians can be of great help to workers i n suggesting plans for the treatment of a child. It i s f e l t that the medical profes-sion could be classed as part of a treatment team i n the rural dis-t r i c t . Other professions who are i n reality part of this team include the school teacher, public health nurse and social worker. It i s also f e l t that i f a worker has a strong working relationship with the medical profession!, i t i s more l i k e l y that a doctor w i l l take a personal interest i f a child should become i l l . The Police Al a l l times the worker should be on good terms with the local police i n the area i n which he i s working. In most parts of (l) Personal experience i n Kamloops d i s t r i c t . the province, other than Vancouver and Victoria,, the R.CM.P.are responsible for law and order. Although the worker may have no reason to discuss a foster child with the police, i t i s most impor-tant that the social worker have the confidence and co-operation of the police i f d i f f i c u l t i e s should arise. Thus, i t can be seen that there are many d i f f i c u l t i e s that can arise i n the practice of social work i n the rural community. Not only must the social worker be able to give casework services, but he must also be acoepted, and the people must be able to look to him as an example of good livi n g . Resources i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t are not ple n t i f u l . Nevertheless, i t i s important that the social worker make use of those resources present, whether governmental or otherwise, i f he i s going to give the best service to both adults and children. Chapter 3- Illustrative Examples of Problems in Foster Homes Placement of Adolescents General Placement Problems One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s in placement of children in the Kamloops d i s t r i c t , i s the placement of adolescent children. Whether a child comes into care when of pre-school age or older, i t seems that the child has a most d i f f i c u l t period of adjustment i n adolescence, even though he may have been in a foster home pla-cement for many years. It i s a real task to find suitable foster parents who are desirous of taking an adolescent child into their home. For foster parents to be suitable for adolescent children, i t i s necessary that they be understanding and patient, while at the same time able to take a firm stand with the boy or g i r l when need arises. It has been found that in some cases, foster parents who have had a child i n care during his earlier l i f e may not be able to f u l f i l the needs of the child when he reaches adolescence, or cope with problems that may be present. When a child i s in his natural home during his adolescent period, i t i s usually a time of confusion, experimenting, and testing. Dhen the adolescent is in a foster home the period seems to be most d i f f i c u l t because of con-fusion over past and present l i f e experiences. As a result, unless foster parents are endowed with a great deal of strength, and recei-ve the necessary support and encouragement from the social worker, they cannot help but feel defeated i n their task. Process of Evaluation To evaluate more.adequately the adjustment of adolescent 4-7, foster children placed i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t from 194-0 to 1953, records of fifty-two children have "been examined. As noted i n table 3 ^ the age of children coming into care i s varied; however, the greatest percentage of these children seem to come after their tenth birthday. It i s noted that the older a child i s when he comes into care, the more need there i s for placement i n a number of foster homes before he i s able to make an adequate adjustment. There are many problems that must be met by the.child, foster parents, and social worker, i n adolescent placements. To ascertain the problems i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t , twelve illustrations have been selected to show the d i f f i c u l t i e s that can arise from all.points of view. These illustrations include one or more children of a family group that have been placed i n foster homes. Illustrations of Adolescent Problems. 4  Joan B. Background Leading up to Ohild Coming Into, Care. Joan B. was the third eldest of a family of five children, a l l born out of wedlock. She was bom i n February 1935* Her mo-ther was part Indian, and she had been made a ward of the Catholic Children's Aid Society i n 1925 when she was eighteen year*-of age. At the age of twenty-one she was discharged from care, and imme-diately returned to the Cariboo d i s t r i c t i n which she had been brought up. In 1931 Mrs.B.gave birth to her f i r s t child, and from then u n t i l 194-0 she gave birth to a total of five children a l l born cut of wedlock. By 194-0, numerous oomplaints were received sugges-ting that Mrs.B.was being promiscuous and not giving her children proper care. Attempts were made by the di s t r i c t welfare visitor TIT See appendix*Table 3 at this time to help Mrs.B. realize that she had to give her children more attention. However, complaints continued to be received from relatives as well as from the Roman Catholic priest i n the distBict. Although many v i s i t s were made, which included encouragement as well as warnings of possible removal, the care of the children did not improve. The local welfare representative was i n correspondence continuously with the Superintendent of Child Welfare about this family and i t was f i n a l l y agreed by both that, because of Mrs.B.'s low mentality, she was unable to give her children the proper care, and therefore plans would have to be made for their care. Placement History. As a result, these five children were committed to the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare during the month of October 194-1. At this time the Social Welfare Branch was making more of an attempt to place i n the d i s t r i c t rather than sending children to Vancouver. Thus foster homes for these five children were located i n their home d i s t r i c t . It i s impossible to conclude what attempt was made to prepare these children for placement and removal from their mother, particularly i n respect to the three eldest children who were a l l over five years of age and must have been upset over the reasons for their separation. Joan and her older sister were f i r s t placed in a part-Indian home. However, this placement did not work out and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to give the exact reasons, but i t i s thought that the standards of the home may not have been much better than their natural home. The recording during the early years Joan was in care i s somewhat incomplete, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain a proper view of the pro-4-9. blems that may have arisen. The second placement of Joan and her sister was i n the home of an old Indian couple where they remained u n t i l 194-g. Recording indicated that Joan had d i f f i c u l t y i n doing her work at school and progress was very slow. Adjustment at home was not too good, disciplining was inconsistent, and Joan did not get along too well. Because the placements up u n t i l this time had been unsatisfactory, a new attempt was made to find a suitable home for Joan, and i n September 1 9 4 8 a farm home was located for her i n another part of the d i s t r i c t . This family was not Indian. From personal contact with these foster parents and infor-mation contained i n the home study i t was f e l t that this would make a good home for Joan. The foster parents were i n their late forties and were well-to-do sheep ranchers. They had ten children of their own, some grown up and others attending school. They were of the Roman Catholic religion, the same as Joan. When thirteen years of age, Joan was moved to this placement, and seemed to be quite happy. It i s presumed that some interpretation was given to her about the move. A few months later after Joan was placed, a second child, the same age as Joan, was placed i n this home. She was entirely a different type of g i r l ; her temperament was the opposite, she was outgoing, very talkative and a g i r l of high intelligence. Joan was actually the quieter of these two g i r l s and i t was f e l t that she was less of a problem both at home and at school as she conformed to what was expected of her, and never verbally complai-ned about being asked to do chores or anything. It i s important to note that when Joan f i r s t came to this home, although thirteen 50. years of age, she was only i n grade four at school and did not pass her school year. It i s also indicated i n the recording that the foster parents had brought up their own children quite s t r i c t l y , and i t i s wondered i f they may have been too st r i c t with Joan, as she had received l i t t l e i f any discipline in her previous placements, or in the home of her mother. It i s thought that placing of extreme limitations could have broken her s p i r i t and been somewhat upsetting to her. Although Joan and the other foster child seemed to relate well, there may have been some resentment because of Joan's inab i l i t y to do as well at school. It i s not known whether any conparision was made verbally i n front of the g i r l s . By 1950, Joan reached grade five at school. Recording at this time stated that she was unhappy and homesick for her family and friends. As a result, i t was arranged for Joan to v i s i t with a younger brother and sister for a few days i n their foster home. It i s thought that she saw her mother and other members of the family while i n the d i s t r i c t . When she returned, Joan seemed happier and more content. It i s f e l t that perhaps any feelings Joan had about the family previous to her v i s i t may have been overlooked during her two years in this home. From the time Joan returned'from her v i s i t , entries i n her record seemed short, and i t was f e l t that she was happy enough, but slow at school. About this time there was a change of staff i n the Kamloops office and Joan had four different workers from 195O to 1954-. It i s thought that one of the weaknesses i n evaluating this situation before 1950 and after, was that a l l workers appeared con-vinced that this was a good home, and there was no reason why Joan should not be happy. Perhaps i f more time had been spent with Joan, 51. the workers might have had a better understanding of her feelings around placement. Although the other, g i r l who had been placed with Joan had been moved i n 1950 to attend high school i n Kamloops, Joan did not change very much. Her school work was s t i l l below average and by 1953 she had only progressed to grade seven at school. By this time Joan was eighteen years old, and i t was f e l t that she had reached her limit in learning. Thus i t was f e l t advisable for her to be moved from school and be placed i n suitable employment. The foster parents and social worker both f e l t that this was best, but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess how much interpretation of this plan was given to Joan. The social worker and foster parents helped her find sui-table employment i n Kamloops as kitchen help i n an institution operated by the provincial government. She began to work but seemed unhappy, and did not get along too well with other staff. Not long after, Joan quit her job without notice, and immediately sought out her older sister who was i n care and having a d i f f i c u l t time herself. It i s l i k e l y that her previously-expressed need to be near her fami-ly may have precipated her wish to seek her sister. Joan found her i n Kamloops city and stayed with her i n very cramped quarters. The worker attempted to locate her but she did a l l i n her power to avoid him. The next word that the Branch had was that Joan had been charged with two other g i r l s for breaking and entering a laundry i i i Kamloops. When Joan was brought before the local magistrate, bail was set at one thousand dollars, and i t i s noted that her former foster parents put up this bond on the understanding that they would 52. be responsible for her u n t i l her case came before court. She was discharged by the magistrate to their care where she remained one night and then ran away, thus imperilling their bond. However, she was located and the court hearing was brought forward to an earlier date. It i s interesting to note that Mrs.B. got word of the d i f f i -culties her daughter was in and appeared for the court hearing. After a plea was made for Joan by two social workers, she was given a suspended sentence and put i n the care and custody of the Branch. No permanent plan could be made for her, and she was simply allowed to return with her mother to her home i n the Cariboo d i s t r i c t . Reasons for Problems i n Placement. It i s f e l t that there are many reasons for Joan f i n a l l y rebelling as she did,, and getting into d i f f i c u l t y with the law. In looking at her history from a diagnostic point of view, i t i s wondered how much better off Joan was i n care, as the f i r s t two homes i n which she was placed were not much better than her own. It i s also wondered what placement really meant to her, and whether i t had ever been discussed with her at any length previous to lSk-6. A child such as Joan w i l l have formed parental images and i d e n t i f i -cation, and these cannot be blocked out by the child. It i s most important to work with a l l children who are old enough to understand, to relieve any feelings about parents, and i f necessary let the cfeild v i s i t or help them to understand why this i s impossible^. In the case of Joan this was done a l i t t l e , but this g i r l had real concern about her family and placement. Diagnostic understanding i s also needed to avoid the error of overplacement. It i s established fact that this placement was (1) HUTCHINSON, Dorothy, "The Placement Worker and the Child's Own Parents", Social Casework July 195^, Vol.35 No.7, PP-292 - 296 , 5 3 . i n too high a family. It i s probable that i n the face of the family standards and intelligence, and the intelligence of the other g t r l , Joan f e l t inferior and as i f she did not belong to the family, and turned to her mother. In regard to Joan, i t i s thought, that because of the foster parents' reputation, staff members may have f e l t that they actually needed l i t t l e help with Joan. On summing up the situation, i t i s f e l t there were definite contributory factors to this f i n a l rebellion of Joan. These would seem to be: (1) Possible lack of interpretation to Joan at time of commital; (2) Poor placement at time of original committal; (3) Lack of talking and personal contact with Joan; talking out her problems and helping her participate i n plans. (4) Lack of diagnostic thinking on the part of the workers, around Joan's feelings toward her family, and problems of overpla-cement and feelings of not belonging where standards and schooling are beyong her level. (5) Pressure of generalized caseloads of a large size sometimes does not give workers the time they need to offer concen-trated services to foster children who need i t . (6) Cultural factors also enter this situation i n that Joan was moved into a completely different type of environment from what she had ever known. Fred B. ' Background Leading to Ohild Coming into Care Fred was born October 19, 1939- He i s Joan's younger brother. 5*. Mrs.B.'s background has already been discussed and i t i s f e l t that this gives an adequate picture of the situation. It w i l l be recalled that Mrs.B. was unable to give these children the proper care and they were a l l made wards, i n October, 194l. History While i n Pare. Fred, one year old, and his sister Irene, who was three years older, were placed with Mr.& Mrs.Jones when they came into care. This couple was part-Indian, had no children of their own, and were i n their early t h i r t i e s when they took Fred and Irene. The f i r s t entry i n Fred's record after supervisors were appointed to the dis-t r i c t , was late i n 19^7 • From the recording i t seems that both these children made f a i r l y adequate adjustments i n this home. Fred seemed of average intelligence, although slow at school. His sister Irene i s shy and has always had d i f f i c u l t y i n relating to the other children of her own age group. Visits seem to have been made regularly when the worker was i n the d i s t r i c t , which was approximately every two months. In comparison Fred seemed to be much easier to handle than Irene as the foster parents found Irene stubborn and d i f f i c u l t to handle. However i t i s thought that she has a real l i k i n g for her foster parents. In 1 9 5 O Irene suffered a bad f a l l while horseback riding, and there were signs of petit mal seizures after this. These sei-zures were a concern both to the foster parents and the worker. As a result, a great deal of attention was focussed on Irene. On the surface there were no problems as far as Fred was concerned. Ma Most interviews were carried on with Irene and the foster parents, leaving Fred out a great deal of the time. 55-In February 1953, the worker was contacted by the local R. 0.M.P. constable where Fred lived. Three boys, including Fred, had taken eighty dollars from the funds of the school student council. The Police were informed of the theft, and although the money was returned, the local constable l a i d a charge, and as a result a court hearing was held before the social worker was contacted. The constable has been unaware of the status of Fred and had not been told by the foster parents. Because this was the f i r s t offence for each child involved, the magistrate was quite lenient. However, Fred was put on probation for a four month period and was to report to the magistrate each week during this time. The foster parents were asked to contact the worker immediately i f any similar problem should arise i n the futuee. On April 25, 1953 > the worker received a telephone c a l l from the foster father that Fred and three other boys had been charged with breaking and entering the root cellar of a local cafe and had taken some vegetables and f r u i t . The worker contacted the R. CM.P. and discussed the situation with the constable. Although the theft was minor, the worker was concerned as this was a second offence for Fred, and there would be a possibility of the boy being sent to the Boys' Industrial School i f the case went before the magistrate. As a result, an emergency tri p was made by the worker to the village where Fred lived, on the same day. The offence was discussed with the R. CM.P. as well as the foster parents and Fred. A compromise was made with the R. CM.P. and i t was agreed that the worker and constable should see a l l the children involved and the children's parents. The boys were asked to repay what they had stolen by wor-5 6 \ king a- few hours each fler the cafe owner, and the worker discussed the seriousness of the offence with each hoy. Fred was upset about this incident and was handled in a s i -milar manner. However, because of this being a second offence for him, i t was agreed by the constable, foster parents, and social wor-ker that certain limitations should be placed upom him. It was explained to the boy by the worker that for a month he was to be deprived of going to the weekly show i n the village, and for a l i t t l e while longer he was to remain i n his yard after school and during the evenings. It i s possible that i n some areas this would appear to be a poor plan. However, because of the size of the community, most children were made aware of the seriousness of what these c h i l -dren had done, and rather than engaging i n ridicule, they were sorry for Fred. Gradually the restrictions were removed and i t was f e l t that the method of disciplining here was effective because Fred nee-ded more attention which he had missed because of the concern for Irene. Perhaps also Fred was a l i t t l e immature for his years and he may have been more comfortable i n having limitations set, for fear his impulses would lead him into further d i f f i c u l t i e s . It i s possi-ble also that consciously or unconsciously Fred may have been testing both his foster parents and social worker i n this behaviour to see i f they really loved him enough to protect him when he did get into d i f f i c u l t y . Reasons for Problems Arising. This i l l u s t r a t i o n , i t i s f e l t , shows a number of problems that a d i s t r i c t worker may have to watch; for, in working with an 57. adolescent and foster parents: (1) Equal concentration i s needed on a l l children i n the same foster home; (2) Rural social workers must have a stromg relationship with a l l local o f f i c i a l s i n a d i s t r i c t ; (3) There i s need for diagnostic thinking and understanding when suggesting discipline. If needed, i t should be care-f u l l y planned to meet the needs of each individual child. In this case, i t i s noted that the mother of these children lived i n the d i s t r i c t , and they did have some contact with her. There were no problems i n this area as there were with their older sister Joan. John 0. Background Leading up to Child Coming Into Care. John was born out of wedlock i n April 19*K). Although the putative father admitted paternity, he was financially unable to contribute towards the maintenance of this child. Miss C., mother of John, wished to place him i n an adoption home. However, because of a history of asthma i n the family, i t was believed inadvisable to place the child, and very l i t t l e help was given to the mother i n making plans. She went to l i v e with a Mrs.Flint who was to care for John while his mother went out to work. Mrs.Flint and her husband had previously made application to the Kamloops Branch to adopt a child, but their application was refused because of a background of heavy drinking. Miss C. l e f t the home of Mrs.Flint;. but John remained there because of the insistence of Mrs.Flint. Although this child remained continuously with this couple, they made no 5*. attempt to complete legal adoption. For approximately two years Miss 0. maintained an interest i n John and showed concern about the behaviour of Mr.& Mrs.Flint, but did nothing to improve the situa-_ tion. In 1944 Mrs.Flint became pregnant and gave birth to a son of her own. In 194-6 Mrs.Flint and her husband moved to a small tailway town one hundred miles north of Kamloops but s t i l l i n the area covered by this d i s t r i c t office. By 194-S, complaints were received by the di s t r i c t worker about Mrs.Flint's behaviour. The complaints cen-tered around the heavy drinking of both parents and the resulting lack of care of John and her own son. No real evidence of neglect could be established, but v i s i t s every four months were maintained i n an effort to better the total home situation. In 1951, Mr.Flint was moved by the railway to a small town i n Alberta. Soon after he went to this area, Mrs.Flint and the two children joined him. During the spring of 1952, Mrs.Flint and the children returned to the Kamloops d i s t r i c t and took up residence with her mother who was quite old and i n receipt of Social Allowance. On her return to British Columbia, Mrs.Flint applied for allowance on behalf of her-self and the two children. However, she had not established r e s i -dence and therefore was not eligible. She indicated to the Branch that her husband had l e f t her and the children to go to the United States. An attempt was made to locate him by the Divisional Office i n Victoria through contact with social agencies i n the State of Washington where he was thought to be. Mrs.Flint xstaaxaBd was able to get part-time work where she was, and seemed to be drinking off and on. 59. In May 1952, soon after Mrs.Flint returned to B.C., her own child was drowned i n a m i l l pond near where they lived. She was able to contact her husband who came for the funeral. An attempt was made to interview Mr.Flint concerning his wife, but the man kept completely away from the worker. Soon after, Mr.Flint l e f t the area and Mrs.Flint seemed to deteriorate. Her drinking habits became worse and she became a real problem. She would often leave John two or three days at a time with her mother, and go to Kamloops where she was seen reeling down the s t B e e t more than once by the worker. It was most unsatisfactory for John to be l e f t with the mother, as she was a woman of sixty-nine years, and suffered from a cardiac condition. During this period, Mrs.Flint was made aware that she must give better care to John i f she intended to keep him. In early June of 1953, Mrs.Flint decided to go to Washington State i n an attempt to locate her husband and bring about a recon-c i l i a t i o n . She informed the worker that she did not intend to be away more than a week. The worker was dubious about this t r i p becau-se of the past behaviour of this woman, and also he did not feel that i t was a very satisfactory plan leaving the child with her mo-ther who was anything but well. Three weeks went by and there was no word from Mrs.Flint. Her mother could not give John proper care, and Ohild Welfare Divi-sion was asked to give authority to remove the child. On June 27, 1953, John was taken from the home by the d i s t r i c t worker. The reasons for John leaving were discussed with him, but i t i s felt that John knew no different care from that which he had received, and he was bitter about his removal. The worker was able to 6 0 . contact his natural mother and discuss plans for him as she was s t i l l his legal guardian. She would have liked to have John with her, but she was now married, with one son, and was fearful that by bringing John into the family, her marriage would be damaged. As a result, the only remaining plan that seemed to be i n the boy's best interest was to ask for committal of this child to the care of the Superin-tendent of Ohild Welfare. Mrs.Flint returned to Kamloops district during July 1953 and was upset about the removal of the child. However, i t was f e l t advisable to proceed with committal, which took place i n Kamloops i n the month of August 1953« History of Placements. When John came into care he was thirteen years of age. There were many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n finding a suitable placement for him, and the only plan that could be worked out was a temporary placement on the outskirts of Kamloops city. Before John was placed i n this home, the worker had talked to him about the reasons for him going to a new home, and told him about the foster family. This boy was quite withdrawn, and seemed to be apprehensive about his future. There were two other children in the home, one older and the other younger, both natural children of the foster parents. While he remained here John's behaviour was quite d i f f i c u l t and he would not accept any limitations placed upon him. It i s possible that this lad may have been indirectly expressing his wish to return to the home of Mrs. Fli n t , or he may have had no experience with parental limitations, having been largely "on his own" except for the indulgences and whims of an alcoholic. John remained i n this foster home for 6 i . approximately three weeks, while an effort was made to find a more permanent placement. During this period his outlook did not improve; he smoked i n "bed, was late for meals, and generally appeared to be attempting to show his annoyance at being taken axray from Mrs.Flint, as well as reflecting her way of l i f e . The boy was seen frequently during this period by the worker and i t was most d i f f i c u l t to esta-blish relationship because of John's resistance towards him. It was undesirable to place John in the same area i n which Mrs.Flint r e s i -ded for fear of interference from her, thus making i t d i f f i c u l t to find a home. However, a new foster home has been opened up in anoth-er d i s t r i c t , and after some discussion bet?;een staff members, i t was f e l t that this.home might f u l f i l the needs of this boy. Actually there was no other home suitable, and as a result, after the home was described to John, he was placed there. He was taken to his new home by the d i s t r i c t social worker and the boy seemed to accept this plan. The placement only lasted a short time because the foster parents did not seem to realize that John needed a great deal of help and guidance. They continued to make a great many demands upon him and expected him to comply with a l l they asked. As a result, two weeks after placement was made, the foster parents asked that he be removed immediately on the same day. John was placed again tempo-r a r i l y i n Kamloops city i n a home where the foster mother was sepa-rated from her husband. She had two small children of her own and did have previous experience with older children placed by the Kam-loops Branch. John was s t i l l resisting placement, but i t i s f e l t that less demands were made upon him. and the home, like Mrs.Flint's, 6 2 . lacked an adult male as authority and r i v a l . As a result, he found i t easier to adjust. In.the meantime, a permanent placement became available east'of Kamloops and both the foster parents as well as John were prepared for going to this home in the early autumn of 1953. Reasons for Problems i n Placement. In reviewing the history of John, i t is felt that i f proper services had been given to his mother when he was born, plans could have been made for him i n 194-0. In accordance with present thin-king, a good adoption placement could, and should, have been made. Emphasis i s now on agency responsibility to aid children in acquiring good adoptive parents. It is believed that adoptive applicants who can offer love, parental guidance, and a stable home, have a right to take a chance on such factors as asthma i n the family, i f they wish. Unfortunately this was not done, and as a result John remained with Mrs.Flint, which was a grave mistake. As i t was, Mrs.Flint was alcoholic and was having marital problems through the years,, which she naver seemed to be able td> discuss with the social workers who visited her. At the time of the mother's desertion, again, John could have been apprehended as without proper guardianship, and bet-ter plans made for him. It i s definitely thought that an attempt was made by the workers to try to help John, but due to heavy loads they may not have been able to spend the time needed to improve his general adjustment. This i l l u s t r a t i o n does point out the lack of fost-er home resources for older children, and i t seems that there are very few families that are willing to give homes to children who come into care over ten years of age. In summary, i t i s f e l t that the problems present in this 6 3 . illustrations may be due to the following reasons: (1) Poor handling of this case in 194-0 when i t was f i r s t known to the Branch; ( 2 ) John spent his f i r s t thirteen years i n the midst of drunken quarrelling, followed by livin g alone with an alcoholic "foster" mother. Certainly he could receive l i t t l e normal training or guidance, and could not be expected to develop normally i n this setting. (3) The need for replacements may have been due partly to a lack of understanding by some of the foster parents, of this child's needs; (4-) Case loads may be heavy for workers to give the needed time to this type of case. (5) There i s need for some type of care for children i n a group setting where they w i l l not be expected to relate on too personal a basis, and where the group standards would aid the acceptance of rules and reasonable behaviour. Since John had had l i t t l e experience sharing with other children, the group might also have meant a different adjustment. Rita Z. Background Leading up to Child's Coming into Care. Rita was born in January 1 9 3 9 , She had one brother twenty-nine years of age, separated from his wife, as well as two older sisters both married. A younger brother was born in 194-0. Her mother was Indian, while her father was of Italian o r i -gin. As in many Indian families i n this area, the standards of li v i n g were very low. Mrs.Z. was i n poor health and died in 1953 6H-. as a result of advanced tuberculosis. Before her death she showed l i t t l e interest i n her children and the young ones could not be kept i n hand at a l l . Mr.Z. did not provide well for the family and took l i t t l e interest i n the children, even after the death of his wife. Rita was not attending school regularly and most of her time was spent walking the streets i n a town nearby. It was f e l t by thd police and members of the community that she was promiscuous and was willing to take up with any man. Rita was shy, spoke l i t t l e , and only answer-ed direct questions. In January 1953, this g i r l gave birth to a child born out of wedlock. After her confinement, the baby was taken into care by the Kamloops Branch while Rita returned home and went back to her old habit of walking the streets. She and her young brother received very l i t t l e care, although an older sister was supposed to be looking after them. As the situation did not improve, steps were taken to make planB for the children, and they were committed to the care of the Superintendent of Ohild Welfare i n the autumn of 1953' Placement History. When these children were taken into care, the boy was sent to the Preventorium i n Vancouver for observation and treatment as i t was feared that he might have tuberculosis. When he i s well enough, he w i l l return to the Kamloops d i s t r i c t and be placed i n a foster home. When Rita came into care she was f i r s t placed on a free# home basis near Kamloops. At this time she had d i f f i c u l t y i n deciding whether she wanted to keep her baby or have i t placed i n an adoption home. This f i r s t placement did not work out well, possibly due to 6 5 . the lack og guidance and understanding of the foster parents. In her second placement Rita settled down better and there appear to be signs of her being able to relate better. She has now decided that she would li k e to have her child, and plans are being made for i t s return i n the very near future. Remarks This i l l u s t r a t i o n shows the policy of the Social Welfare Branch concerning services given children regardless of origin. The Branch makes no difference i n giving services i n respect to race, creed or religion. It i s thought that the presentation shows that children may be brought into care not only because of neglect, but because of the absence of a parent, or for medical reasons. Although i t was not recorded i n the f i l e , i t i s known that a great amount of work was done with the Indian Superintendent i n searching for a home, by the worker, before making placement plans for these children. Again i t i s seen that placements for adolescent children are not easy to locate, especially when the adolescent has shown socially unacceptable behaviour. However, i t i s f e l t that the plans made for Rita seem to f u l f i l her needs at this time. Mildred. Alma and Ron T. Background Leading up to Children Coming Into Care. This family was f i r s t known to the Kamloops office when Mr.T. deserted his wife and three children. Mrs.T. was l e f t comple-tely without funds, and i t was necessary to grant her Social Allow-ance. Mrs.T. was i n poor health, and she died i n the spring of 1950, as a result of cancer. The problem was now to plan for the three c h i l -dren: Ron, born in 1936; Mildred in 193^; and Alma in 194-0. It i s 66. noted from the recording that Mrs.T. had been married once before, and there was one grown son from this f i r s t marriage, When Mrs.T. died, this son f e l t a great responsibility toxmrds his half brother Ronald and his two sisters. The young couple insisted that these three children be placed in their home rather than in a foster home. Reasons for Ohildren Coming Into Care . There was real concern on the part of the District Super-visor and Regional Consultant for fear that this would be too much of a responsibility for this young couple who were only twenty-five years old. They thought that this marriage was not too strong, and the extra responsibility of these three children might be too much for this couple. The Consultant and District Supervisor were cor-rect i n their thinking. However, the social workers who worked with this family did not seem to see this, or accept the possibility. As a rule, when a situation such as that of a relative caring for a child occurs, the usual policy i s to pay Social Allowance on behalf of the child i f needed, rather than the Superintendent of Child Welfare assuming legal guardianship. However, i n the case of Ron, Mildred and Alma, i t was f e l t advisable to have more control over these children, so that the Branch; could act quickly i f necessary. As a result of these feelings, these children were made wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare i n June 1 9 5 0 -History While i n Care. A foster home study was completed on this home, but there i s scant evidence of diagnostic thinking i n the recording. Conti-nuous problems seemed to arise after placement of these children. 67. Ron, the eldest, appeared most unhappy and had d i f f i c u l t y i n his overall adjustment. There were d i f f i c u l t i e s also with Mildred and Alma. There was a problem of enurisis, both had trouble accepting limitations, and there was continual bickering between the g i r l s . There i s very l i t t l e i n the recording to give any indication of the relationship of the foster parents, but i t i s thought that they were having marital d i f f i c u l t i e s , and i t i s possible that some arguing may have taken place i n front of the children. If this i s the case, i t i s f e l t that this could be very upsetting to: these three children, particularly because of the experience they under-went i n their own home before placement. The death of the mother, and the earlier desertion of the father of these children were pro-bably s t i l l fresh i n their minds, and made the present placement a most unsatisfactory experience for them. The worker did the best he could to try and help this couple with the children, and v i s i t s were made nearly every week. In the spring of 1951, the young foster mother l e f t her husband and the foster children. It i s believed that this desertion of the foster mother had a great bearing on future adjustments of these children, particularly the g i r l s . Before this placement ended i n this manner, Ron had been s^real problem. He was unhappy, and f e l t that he was not liked by his foster parents. In February, 1951, he ran away with another foster child and was located quite a distance from Kamloops on his way to the Cariboo. At this point Ron had very definite feelings concerning his foster parents, and he would give no consideration to returning to them. He could not be persuaded to change his mind, and -it was f e l t that the more insistance he received from adults 6S. the more antagonistic he would "become. A temporary placement was found for Ron in Kamloops, hut he would not return' to school and, because of his age (fifteen years), i t was not f e l t advisable to push him ianthis matter. As Ron could not accept too much personal direction no attempt was made by the worker to interfere with his plans, but.only to direct him when i t was thought to be absolutely necessary. In the spring, he found a job on a ranch close to Kamloops and seemed to get on f a i r l y well at f i r s t . However, due to his in a b i l i t y to do what his employer asked, his job did not last for more than two months. To return to the situation of the two g i r l s , Mildred and Alma, i t was necessary that plans be made for these g i r l s because of the desertion of their foster mother. TKey were moved to a fami-l y where they remained t i l l October 1 9 5 1 - From the recording i t seems that these foster parents lacked understanding of the needs of these children, and also had d i f f i c u l t y in accepting them as they were. For. example, the foster mother complained of their personal hygiene as well as the poor training they had received. In October 1 9 5 1 , the g i r l s were placed i n their third foster home i n the Kam-loops area. The foster mother appeared to have d i f f i c u l t y in rela-ting to Mildred. This child was very upset, and the enuretic pro-blem continued. It i s li k e l y that this enuresis may have been a result of the fear and resentment caused by the repeated loss of parents which she was unable to verbalize. The g i r l s remained i n this home u n t i l the end of October when a more permanent placement was located for them in a home outside the Kamloops di s t r i c t . 69. Reasons for D i f f i c u l t i e s Arising. In reviewing the problems arising i n these placements, i t i s f e l t that there was a lack of diagnostic thinking i n the original planning for these children. Admittedly, proper precautions were taken i n case the placement with the half brother of the children dd>d not work out. However, there seemed l i t t l e i f any awareness of the shakiness of this marriage u n t i l i t was too late to do any-thing about i t . In fact, the addition of three halfgrown children would be a hazard to any new marriage. It i s fe l t that this place-ment was only more upsetting to these three children , and the lack of experience of the foster parents with children, made the total situation worse. It i s probable that without his unsatisfactory experience i n this home, Ron would s t i l l have had a d i f f i c u l t ado-lescent period because of his past l i f e experiences, but that his di f f i c u l t y was increased by his feeling unwanted due to the lack of experience and unity of the foster parents. In summing up, i t i s f e l t that the placement of these c h i l -dren illustrates the following: (1) The need for social workers to be completely trained people who are able to guide foster parents in handling the adoles-cent or pre-adolescent groups of children i n care; (2) It i s fe l t that there i s need for a l l social workers to be able to think from a diagnostic point of view and be aware of what can happen in multiple placements such as that of Ron, Mildred and Alma, with inexperienced young foster parents. (3) There appears to have been a lack of experience and unders--standing on the part of the foster parents i n these f i r s t two placements, particularly i n respect to the two g i r l s . (4) It i s f e l t that this i l l u s t r a t i o n shows the inab i l i t y of manji children who are placed in foster homes to relate to adults because of l i f e experiences previous to placement, which are not talked through with the social worker i n pre-paration for placement. Such problems are made worse by lack of understanding i n the foster parents. (5) This i l l u s t r a t i o n also shows the need for more suitable foster placements for the adolescent group of children. Eddie D." Background Leading to Child Coming Into Care. Eddie D. was born Jul$ 21, 1937- His sister Ann was born August g, 1938. The parents of these children were divorced and Mr.D. had remarried. The mother of the children took no responsi-b i l i t y for them, and Mr.D. and his second wife had both the children with them. From information available i t seems that the second wife showed l i t t l e understanding of, or liking for the children. The family f i r s t became known to the Branch when Mr.D. applied for Social Allowance. There was concern i n the community, as i t was thought that Eddie and his sister were having sexual relationship with one another. In 194-9, these two children were brought into court on a charge of burning down a vacant house. Although i t was not proved that they had done this, these children were committed to the care of nthe Superintendent of Child Welfare under the Juvenile Delinquents Act. 71. History of Placements. Temporary placement of the children was made i n their home town, although i t was thought advisable to place them separately in another d i s t r i c t because of their past experiences together, to avoid interference from their father, and because of feelings of the community. There was great d i f f i c u l t y i n finding suitable pla-cements, but Ann was fi n a l l y placed i n a home in Region 3. Kamloops was eventually able to offer a home that seemed suitable for Eddie. The home suggested was a farm placement where there was a natural son of the same age as Eddie, and a daughter who was eight years old. There were also two other sons livin g i n the home, but they had completed school and were out working. It appears that the foster mother was the dominant figure in this family, and that per-haps the foster father was not too strong a person. Eddie was met by his new worker i n the di s t r i c t and taken to his new home, where he seemed to settle down f a i r l y well. He was bright at school but seemed immature for his age. Perhaps this may have been his way of getting, the attention he needed. The foster mother showed a good understanding of this boy and helped him a great deal. However, when the foster father was at home, there were d i f f i c u l t i e s arising between him and Eddie. Visits were made to this home every.six to eight weeks, sometimes oftener i f the need arose. During this placement Eddie maintained a continued interest i n his sister Ann, and they wrote regularly and exchanged gift s at Christmas and on their birthdays. Eddie never heard from his father, even though the di s t r i c t office where the latte r lived t r i e d to gain his co-operation while the children were away from him. 72. This boy, as already mentioned, seemed to have a need for recognition. He seemed to gain a great satisfaction out of day-dreaming, and did t e l l stories not completely true. This bothered the foster parents, and through discussions with the foster parents and Eddie, he seemed to relate better. School adjustment was good. When Eddie came to the d i s t r i c t he was i n grade seven at school and his work gradually improved. In thjfe spring of 1952, Eddie nearly had a finger torn off when a horse bolted. Because of the condition of the finger i t was necessary for Eddie to be placed i n a temporary foster home in Kam-loops where he remained four weeks. It was hoped that the finger would not have to be amputated, but i t was f i n a l l y necessary to remove about two inches of the finger. Eddie returned to the foster, home in which he was placed i n 1950. He seemed to be as happy, and the only reservation that the worker had was- that perhaps the foster parents expected him to do too much work. In 1953> during the month of August, arrangements were made for Eddie to v i s i t his sister i n her foster home i n the Okanagan, and he appeared to benefit from his vacation. Remarks. In presenting this case i t i s fe l t that i t shows that i f there are the proper type of homes available for the adolescent age group, some are able to relate and be happy. However, no foster home can be a perfect substitute for the natural home of a child. Perhaps i f Eddie had had more individual attention from his foster parents, this need for recognition may not have been so pronounced. It i s not f e l t that any child the age of Eddie wopld have necessarily adjusted as well as he did, and in placement of adolescent children 7 3 -i t i s recognized that there i s need for careful evaluation before placement. Doug and Frank 0. Background Leading to Children Coming Into Pare. Doug and Frank are brothers. Doug was born in 1935 and Frank i n 193&- Mr.O., father of the boys, was married in 1 9 2 9 , and as his wife was Roman Catholic, he became a member of that faith. As well as the two boys', there are two older ones and two younger g i r l s . Mr.6,'s marriage was not happy. He seemed to have trouble i n maintaining a position for any length of time. His employment consisted mainly of orderly work i n hospitals. In 193& he entered the Provincial Mental Hospital as a voluntary patient, but soon after his admittance he gave the hospital five days notice of his intention to discontinue treatment. Mr.O. returned to his wife and attempted to hold the marriage together. However, their marital relationships did not improve, and in 194-5, this couple f i n a l l y separated. Mr.O. l e f t , taking the two eldest boys and Doug with him. This was an unsatisfactory arrangement for the father and the three boys, as he was trying to hold down a position, while at the same time trying to care for the boys. He took the boys to Kamloops where he found employment as an orderly i n a hospital. In November of 194-5 Mr.O. learned that his wife was living with another man, and as a result he returned to the coast and took Erank from her, leaving the two gi r l s who were i n a Roman Catholic Convent. In January 194-6m Mr.O. placed Doug and Frank in a private home in the Kamloops d i s t r i c t , the two older boys remaining with Mr.O. This arrangement continued u n t i l 194-3. However, as Mr.O. was having d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping up 74-. payments for the care of the children, the foster parents contacted the Kamloops Branch and i t was agreed that both Doug and Frank should be taken into non-ward c a r e ^ . Mr.O. was to remain guardian of the children, while the Branch would take care of the boys u n t i l Mr.O. was able to make more permanent plans. Placement History. The children were made non-wards i n 1 9 4 8 . Mr.O. had agreed to pay maintenance when possible and look after the payment of Hos-p i t a l Insurance premiums. A further study of the foster home was completed and this home was placed on the approved l i s t of foster homes i n the Kamloops di s t r i c t . Since 1 9 4 8 Mr.O. has maintained a continual interest i n the boys, but due to his in a b i l i t y to stay on one job for any length of time, maintenance payments for the boys have been irregular. After responsibility for these boys was taken over by the Social Welfare Branch, the foster mother moved into Kamloops city to l i v e . The household i n this family included, as well as the foster boys and the foster mother, her daughter who was younger than the boys, and the aged mother of the foster mother. The foster mother's mother was i n poor health and inclined to be cranky and i r r i t a b l e . From 1 9 4 9 there was no father person in this home, but i t was s t i l l f e l t to be satisfactory for these children and a move would have been upsetting to the boys. It must be re-membered also that the boys were i n contact with their own father. As Doug reached the adolescent period, and after the foster father's death, the foster mother seemed to become overconcerned about Doug, and she tried to place too many limits upon him. As a result, and (l) Non-ward care, see appendix J$ for definition 75-possibly i n reaction to the loss of the foster father also, this brought out a great deal of adolescent rebellion. There also seemed to be some conflict between the boys and the mother of the foster mother. This was kept under control as much as possible, neverthe-less, i t was almost continuously present, which brought more confu-sion and antagonism from Doug. In 1950? when Doug was fifteen years old, he insisted on leaving school. However, i t was f e l t by the social worker and foster mother that this was unwise, and the boy was persuaded to return for at least another year. This was not a good plan, as i t only led to more antagonism from Doug towards adults. During the winter months the foster mother found i t more d i f f i c u l t to control Doug. She seemed to find i t trying to accept his need for more independence and attempted to control his act i v i t i e s more by directing his every move. As a result, Doug ran away during February 1951 with another foster child. The social worker was able to locate him, he was agreeable to return to his foster home, but this lasted only a short time. He l e f t again and found accommodation i n one of the less desi-rable sections of Kamloops. He would not consider returning to school, and i t was thought advisable not to push this at this time. During the spring and summer of 195 1, this lad worked at numerous jobs i n and around Kamloops and f i n a l l y settled down to work as a bellhop at one of the local hotels i n the city. He seemed contented enough at the job, but i n August, 1951 he quit. It i s probable that Doug was trying to find out why he could not have a home lik e other children. The relationship of Doug to his social worker was poor at this time and he was resistant to any attempt to 76. help him. Mr.O., father of Doug, was notified of the d i f f i c u l t i e s this lad was having, and as a result, he visited and tried to help him. However, Doug s t i l l needed to go his own way. Soon after, he went to stay with a man who was about thirty-five years of age. The relationship of this man to Doug was questionable, but he seemed to have a genuine interest i n the boy and was able to help him somewhat. Through him, Doug became interested in the Salvation Army and this a f f i l i a t i o n did seem to be a strength to him at this time. In July 1 9 5 2 , Mr.O. again visited Kamloops and i t was thought advisable to discharge Doug from care to his father. Doug returned to the prairies with his father. During this period, he and his father did a great deal of travelling, as both had numerous jobs. However, in late November 1952? Doug returned on his own to Kamloops and immediately went to his foster mother. Any previous d i f f i c u l t i e s seemed to be forgotten and he decided to settle down i n the town, and has held numerous labouring jobs since his return. L i t t l e has been aaid about Frank; largely because there were not many problems which appeared through this period. This lad was seen regularly and an attempt was made to give him as much guidance as possible. Problems Arising i n Placement. The f i r s t question that comes to mind is whether i t may have been better to take Doug and Frank into care i n 194-81. This might have given these boys more security, and certainly would not have destroyed any contact that they might have had with their family. Even i f this had been done, the same adolescent problems would pro-77. -bably s t i l l have arisen. The real d i f f i c u l t y seems to have arisen when the foster father died i n 194-3, and these boys, as well as the foster mother, were l e f t without a male figure to help guide them during a time when Doug particularly needed someone to pattern him-self after. The fears aroused by the death must also be considered. The question i n such a situation i s whether i t i s more harmful to leave a child i n such a situation, or should the existing ties be broken.. It i s suggested that more thought be given to each i n d i v i -dual situation such as this; from the child's viewpoint as well as a re-evaluation of the capabilities of the foster mother to cope with future problems. If this had been done, the staff might have had a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of this total situation. Probably a l l those who had contact with Doug in 1950 tried to control him too much, and i f this was the case, then there could be no other reaction but the resulting adolescent rebel-li o n . It i s interesting to note that after Doug had come face to face witb l i f e from the spring of 195O to the f a l l of 1952, he re-turned to his foster mother. This shows that he had a strong under-lying relationship with her. Helen J. Background Leading UP to Ohild Coming Into Care. Helen J. was born i n August 193^ > o n a n Indian reserve i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t . She was born out of wedlock and i s part-Indian. Her mother died when Helen was young, and up to 194-1 her father attempted to look after her. In 194-1, Mr. J. placed Helen privately in a home i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t . He tried to make payments for her care, but these were irregular. This situation was reported to 72. Kamloops Branch office, and by 194-2 the Branch was giving conside-ration to committing Helen to the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare; but nothing was done about this. As Helen grew older her father seems to have been trying to direct her l i f e through the letters that he wrote. Relationships between this g i r l and her fa-ther became poor as she resisted his attempts to interfere with her. The over-all situation did not improve, and i n December 1948 commit-ta l of this g i r l to the care of the Superintendent was completed. Problems in Placement. Helen had been with the same family since 194-1 and as she seemed happy, i t was f e l t i t was best for her to remain there. From the time this g i r l came into care u n t i l 195° t n e recording was sket-chy, and v i s i t s were few and far between. In 195°> Helen was unset-tled, and thought was given to moving her to another home. However, an attempt was made to work out the problem with Helen and the foster mother, rather than moving her. There seems to have been some diag-nostic thinking on the part of staff, and i t was thought that the foster mother lacked understanding of the child's need to be like other g i r l s of her age. At the same time, i t was recognized that there was some attachment between the foster parents and Helen. Since 1950, Helen had become very active i n the local United Church, as well as school and community actovities. As she grew older, she was able to locate jobs during school holidays and Saturdays i n the local shops i n Kamloops, and proved her abi l i t y in such positions. In 1950, Helen showed some concern about her Indian background, and at one point she expressed a desire to l i v e 79. with an aunt who was Indian. She may have f e l t that her foster parents had let her down, and she would be better off with her rela-tives. However, after a v i s i t to her aunt on two separate occasions she seems to have changed her mind. From 195° to 1952> Helen was helped by the social worker who visited regularly at least every two weeks. In 1952 she completed grade twelve at school and for the next year she was employed as clerk in an office and did well at her work. In March 1953 i t was f i n a l l y necessary to move Helen from her foster home because of the foster mother's continual interference i n the way she behaved. In the period previous to this, Helen's future had not been forgotten. It was her wish to become a nurse and, as she had the intelligence to go futther, the Branch and Ohild Welfare Division were willing to assist her i n this plan. Therefore the Kamloops Branch helped her to enroll i n a hospital for the course. Because of the continued interference of the foster mother, who even went so far as to t e l l the minister of the Church that Helen's be-haviour was so bad that she should not be president of the Young People's Union, i t was agreed that i t would be best that this g i r l should take training away from Kamloops. The Branch was very gene-rous i n the plans made. As Helen was to commence training in Sep-tember, she was asked to pay the registration fee of f i f t y dollars, while Child Welfare Division agreed to pay the remaining fees, as well as supply her with uniforms and pay her a spending allowance of fifteen dollars per month. Helen entered her course i n 1953-By this time she had matured enough to be able to accept her father, 80. and relationship between them improved considerably. Remarks. It i s thought that i f more attempt had been made to assess? the total situation when Helen was made a ward of the Superintendent of Ohild Welfare, there might have been more awareness of the pro-blems that could arise. Although the child was not moved when this situation became a problem, i t i s f e l t that staff showed s k i l l i n keeping things as comfortable as they were for this child i n that home. However, this case again points out the need for more diag-nostic thinking at the time children are brought into care. Dave S. Background Leading up to Ohild Coming; Into Care. Dave S. was born June 2 , 194-1. He was the second of four boys, the oldest being one year older than Dave. The father of these boys died i n 1 9 4 8 , the cause of death not being known. In the fami-l y history, i t i s noted that Mrs.S. i s described as being selfish, boastful, and not very interested in her children. Before the c h i l -dren came into care Mrs.S. was employed as a waitress i n numerous cafes. It i s noted that Mrs.S. has a history of epileptic seizures. Shortly after the death of Mr.S., Mrs.S. commenced l i v i n g with ano-ther man reputed to be a bootlegger. She was not giving the c h i l -dren the proper care, and the children were committed to the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare in 1 9 4 8 . Placement History. Dave i s described as being t a l l , slender, with blue eyes. The recording indicated he was untruthful, unable to concentrate g l . for any length of time, and defensive toward adults. In 194-9, Dave was seen at Ohild Guidance Clinic, Vancouver, and the report ind i -cated that he was suffering from a lack of security, and he might adjust i f his home l i f e was stabilized. This was followed by place-ment i n a foster home close to Vancouver. However, because of his behaviour at school, he was expelled, and further feelings of rejec-tion resulted. For a period of time Dave was placed i n a receiving home i n the Fraser Valley where his adjustment seemed better. After a period of four months this boy went to a foster home i n the Valley. Unfortunately, his adjustment i n the home and at school was poor and i t was necessary to return him to the receiving home where he remained f a i r l y happy. During 1950 Dave was placed in a foster home by the Children'sAid Society. Because of his behaviour he upset this home and as a result he was placed temporarily in the Vancouver Detention Home. On October 3, 1950, this lad was again returned to the recei-ving home in the Fraser Valley. The recording gives no indication of what interpretation was given to Dave before placement was made in these homes. During the last period in the receiving home, he was seen quite frequently by a doctor at Children's Hospital i n Vancouver, who was able to help him in his adjustment toward other children and adults. There were s t i l l problems in school. He s t i l l talked out i n class and generally upset the routine. As Dave had been in the receiving home off and on from 1950 to 1952> i t was f e l t i t would be best i f a suitable foster home could be found for this boy. During the rest of his stay i n the receiving home Dave remained 32. quite dependent and was unable to accept much i n the way of responsi-b i l i t y . In the summer of 1952 a request was made to the Kamloops Branch of the Social Welfare for a foster home for him.. At the end of Aagust 1952, one was located, and although he remained very dependent, he seemed to settle into the home very well. The foster parents had three l i t t l e g i r l s , one just starting school and the other two of pre-school age. It should also be noted that the foster father in this family i s a veteran of the Second World War, and lost both his legs i n the service. This man has made a remarkable adjustment and is able to do most jobs around the farm with a r t i f i c i a l limbs. Dave was made aware of the total home situation and i t i s f e l t that, -for once, he f e l t that perhaps he was wanted and needed. Dave was given some chores to do in this home and was very proud of himself when allowed to drive the tractor on the farm. This, more than anything else, seemed to give this lad recognition and confidence in himself. Although there were many ups and downs through the f i r s t yearxDave was i n this home, his foster mother and father seemed to be able to cope with the problems as they arose. The main d i f f i c u l -ty i n placement was school adjustment. His behaviour did not improve much and the teacher had a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y i n managing him. Close contact was maintained by both the foster mother and social worker, but the teacher s t i l l seemed to have d i f f i c u l t i e s with the boy. The home situation remained satisfactory, and although Dave threatened to run away i n previous placements, there was no mention of this i n this home. In the spring of 1953 &n incident arose 23. when he took eight dollars out of a Junior Red Cross donation box in the school. However, the foster parents found out about this, and they were able to make him return the money on his own. During the same year i t was arranged with Child Welfare Division to have them help purchase a show calf for Dave out of his Family Allowance Trust Account. He took a great pride i n this animal and prepared i t for the f a l l stock show held i n the late autumn of every year. Because of the continuous d i f f i c u l t i e s at school, a conference was held with the local school Inspector and a decision was reached that i t was best iff Dave attended a larger school where he could receive more attention and help. The f i r s t few months things seemed to go better for Dave. As this lad was settling down nioely i n his htome, thought was given to placing a second child there. The child con-sidered was two years older, well adjusted, and quite intelligent. After surveying the whole situation very carefully i t was thought that perhaps this boy, i f placed, might help Dave settle down and adjust better i n school. Placement was made and these boys have got along very well. Remarks. In using this i l l u s t r a t i o n i t i s f e l t that i t shows the following: (1) The need for individual attention, as well as encouraging the child to realize that he could take some responsibility i n helping other people. (2) The use of a treatment centre or receiving home for a period of adjustment of a child who i s emotionally disturbed. S4-. (3) The importance of social workers working with school autho-r i t i e s as well as other professions and community as a whole when giving services to foster children. (4-) The use of certain types of homes to suit: the needs of each individual child, such as in the case of Dave, to help him feel needed, accept responsibility and develop self-confidence. Marion K. Background Leading up to Ohild Coming Into Care. Marion K. i s the youngest of a part-Indian family. She was born i n December 1 9 3 6 . She has four older brothers, one of whom was born out of wedlock. The eldest was born i n January 1 9 3 2 , the next i n December 1 9 3 2 , the third was born in January 1934- and the fourth in August 1 9 3 5 . This family has been known to the Kam-loops office since 194-0 when they applied for social assistance. Mr.K. was then suffering from chronic asthma and allowance was gran-ted. From 194-0 to 194-3 Mrs.K. was out of the home a great part of the time-, wandering around Kamloops city and frequenting the local beer parlours. There was criticism that family allowance was not being used for the children; however, nothing was done about this yet. It i s noted that i n April 194-6 Mrs.K. was giving consideration to leaving her husband and children, but aseemed to change her mind again. In 1 9 4 - 6 , because social allowance and family allowance were not being used properly, i t was agreed that both these allowances should be administered by the Kamloops Branch, and this method pf payment of both allowances was continued u n t i l 1 9 5 0 - Because of the disinterest of Mrs.K., and because of the inadequacy of the 85. father, i t was thought that perhaps these children should he made wards of the Superintendent of Ohild Welfare. But, because of lack of Catholic foster homes i t was impossible to make plans of such nature. Mr.K. did not improve i n health, and i n 194-8 he went to stay i n the Provincial Home for men i n Kamloops. A few months later he returned home and died. Even after this, Mrs.k. paid l i t t l e attention to the children and they were l e f t most of the time to manage on their own. During the period from 194-8 to 1950, the Branch gave close supervision! to the children i n this home. In 194-9 the boys began to wander, piok-ing up seasonable work where they could. School attendance was very spotty and the family seemed to be splitting up. In 1950 Mrs.K. took Marion, came to Kamloops, and found a room i n the less desi-rable part of the town. Marion was not attending school regularly, and Mrs.K. continued to spend most of her time frequenting the beer parlours with different men. Social allowance was paid to Mrs.k. on behalf of Marion and herself. However, this was paid carefully and not too much at one time. By this time the four boys had l e f t home and had gone their own ways. By November 1950 Marion was most unhappy, and agreed to go and stay with a cousin and her husband who lived i n a logging camp in the mountains behind Kamloops. This cousin asked that social allowance be paid to her on behalf of Marion. She was having her own d i f f i c u l t i e s with her husband, and the suggested plan was looked upon with some doubt by the Kamloops staff. However, the allowance was paid, but i n February 1951 she and her husband s p l i t up. Marion had become friendly with another family i n this logging camp and i n 36. r e a l i t y found her own foster home. She appeared happy with this family, and after some discussion and thought i t was agreed that a foster home study should be completed. Although the standards of this home were not of the highest calibre i t seemed to meet the needs of Marion. Thus authority was requested from Child Welfare Division to take this g i r l into care, and she was apprehended on February 27 , 1 9 5 1 , and committal to the Superintendent of Child Welfare was completed a month later. History of Placement. Soon after Child Welfare Division undertook the care of this child, the family she was with moved to another part of the Kamloops d i s t r i c t and Marion went with them. She was now attending school quite regularly and did pass both her grade four and five work i n 1951 . Marion seemed to be happy i n this home, but the wor-ker was not able to make vi s i t s more than three or four times i n the year due to weather as well as other pressures on his caseload. There seemed to be l i t t l e of a problem nature, and even though Mrs.K. spent much time between Vancouver and Kamloops, Marion was not par-tic u l a r l y interested i n her. Her brothers did v i s i t Marion on d i f -ferent occasions which seemed to make her happy as she did sometimes worry about them. Marion remained here u n t i l the summer of 1953 when she rea-ched grade seven at school. At this time she became interested i n a boy older than herself who forced her to accept an engagement ring. She seemed to be very confused about the whole idea of marrying him. As this g i r l did not wish to return to school, and i t was recognized 27-that she did not have the a b i l i t y to go further, Marion found a po-siti o n as a chambermaid i n a motel just outside Kamloops and seemed to settle down. However, she seemed very confused, suffered from nightmares, and therefore l e f t her position. Soon after this she found another job as domestic help near Kamloops. Remarks. . . In presenting this case i t shows a number of problems. There has always been a lack of Catholic foster homes i n the Kamloops dis-t r i c t , and this situation i s s t i l l prevalent. Perhaps a drive for such homes with the co-operation of the local parishes would be help-f u l . To gain a further understanding of this total situation, i t should be known that the boy of the family closest to Marion i n age has continued to be a problem. Although this lad was not taken into care, close contact has been kept with him. During the winter months i n 1952, this lad needed help; i t was f e l t by the Kamloops staff that he would not relate i n a foster home. However, because there was no other way help could be given, he was apprehended and placed i n a foster home. He had one meal, and rather than sleep the night with these people, he slept i n a railway station. He would not re-turn to the home, and eventually a job was found for him. This points out the need for more f l e x i b i l i t y on the part of Child Welfare Divi-sion in planning for children who cannot relate i n a foster home. It i s definitely felt: that there i s a need for some type of group l i v i n g plan i n this d i s t r i c t for this typat of child. In reviewing the history of Marion, i t i s f e l t that i f there had been more use of summaries, including observations, impressions gg. and plan, in the recording, there would have been more possibility of refocussing. Perhaps the staff would have gained a better undere* standing of the total family situation and might have planned d i f f e -rently. In the v i s i t i n g of Marion i n her foster home, i t was also f e l t that i f caseloads had been smaller, the worker might have been able to give more time to this child, established a relationship with her before her involvement with the boy, and been able to help her talk through her confusion. There i s a probability that reac-tions to her mother's relations with men were a basic part of Marion's confusion and that Marion had needed to express her fears before. Alice V.' Background Leading up to Ohild Coming Into Care. Alice was born i n July 1935- S n e was the f i f t h youngest of seven children i n the family. The father l e f t Mrs. V. in 19M-5 and the family has been known since that time to the Branch in Kam-loops. In 194-6 Alice and her two younger brothers were taken into non-ward care, the agreed plan being that they would be returned to Mrs.K. when she was able to look after them. Placement History. The children were f i r s t placed i n a foster home in the mining town i n which they lived, but i n August 194-7 a n e w placement was necessary as the foster parents were leaving the area and could not take the children with them. The younger children were placed sepa-rately, while Alice was placed i n a foster home i n Kamloops, where the foster parents were of the Catholic religion, the same as Alice and her family. At this age, Alice appeared to be a b r i g h t , i n t e l l i -S9. -gent child. Her f i r s t placement was temporary, and she was soon placed i n what was hoped to be a more permanent home. However, Alice found i t d i f f i c u l t to relate to these parents and had to be moved again. In November, 19^7, she was placed i n a farm home where there were several children. The foster parents were i n their late t h i r t i e s and well-to-do sheep ranchers. During this period Alice adjusted quite well, her work habits and school work improved a great deal. In 1950, i t was necessary that she plan to move into Kam-loops for Junior and Senior High. Alice had become very attached to her foster parents and this move into Kamloops was quite upsetting to her. A temporary placement was located with a young couple, but Alice did not relate well i n this home and another move was nece-ssary. A f a i r l y good home Roman Catholic placement was located for her i n Kamloops where she remained from the summer of 1950 u n t i l November 1951. During this period she attended Catholic day school in Kamloops where she did very well. The adjustment of Alice i n her foster home was only f a i r . Her foster parents had three young c h i l -dren of their own and i t i s believed that there was a tendency on their part to expect too much work from this g i r l . In November 1951> the placement f i n a l l y broke down because the foster parents expected too much. This resulted in insecurity as well as rebellion to some degree on her part. Because of the lack of Roman Catholic foster homes in Kam-loops, her former foster parents were contacted and they suggested one home i n Kamloops. The worker .saw this couple and a plan was 90. worked out with Alice and them. The foster mother was a nurse employed during the day at the local hospital. Her husband was also employed in Kamloops and they wished a g i r l to do small chores and get lunch for their two sons each day. In return they would give Alice free board, room, and ten dollars spending money each month. Alice was quite pleased with this plan and i t was fe l t that the pla-cement would be quite good. This home worked out very well u n t i l September 1952 when the foster parents decided to move to Vancouver.-It should be pointed <&ut that during Alice's stay in this home, she had d i f f i c u l t y with the Sisters at the Catholic school, and in the spring of 1952 she l e f t this school on her own and transferred to the High School. The worker did not know about this u n t i l after Alice had discussed i t with her priest, and i t was a l i t t l e late to suggest that she finish her year, and then change schools. Because of her change at this time, i t was necessary for her to write the government examinations, She did very well and passed with high marks into grade eleven. As already mentioned, Alice was moved again to another home in September 1 9 5 2 « She had a chum, the same religion as she was, who was anxious to have her in her home. The parents were seen and Alice was placed i n this home with some hesitation. The placement did not work out and another move was necessary. The Catholic Priest was contacted but neither he or the social worker were able to find a suitable home for the g i r l . As a result he was quite willing for her to be placed i n a Protestant home, as he f e l t that she was old enoughto take respon-s i b i l i t y for attending church regularly. Alice was placed i n a c 9 1 . Protestant home on a boarding home basis where she related well to the foster parents and kept her interest in her religion. During the past summer Alice has been employed in a department store in Kamloops and has done very well, at this job. She seems happy in her present home and i s now i n grade twelve at school. She has the potentialities to go further, and she wants to be either a stenogra-pher or a teacher. She has shown interest periodically in her fami-l y but has not wished to be with them. With proper guidance over the next year this child should do very well i n l i f e . Remarks. In presenting this i l l u s t r a t i o n i t i s thought that i t shows d i f f i c u l t i e s that can arise i n finding suitable placement when a child comes into care. It also points out the lack of educational f a c i l i -ties in some parts of Kamloops dis t r i c t for high school students, and the need for change of placement sometimes because of this. In reviewing the placements of Alice, i t i s f e l t that perhaps the placement with the sheep ranchers may have been too s t r i c t , as there were signs of adolescent rebellion when she was moved to, Kamloops, or this could have been due to her wish to remain i n her foster home. When Alice was receiving free board i t is f e l t that perhaps when given more freedom, she was inclined to take advantage of the situation, and certainly needed more guidance. Perhaps i f more guidance had been forthcoming for both Alice and the foster parents, she might have been helped. In the total contact with Alice up u n t i l 1 9 5 3 this g i r l always had a male worker. This brings up a problem of whether i t would have been better for 92. this child to have had a woman worker. In theory i t i s f e l t that i n most cases an adolescent g i r l could relate more easily to a female worker, but i t must be remembered that in a small office there may not be a woman staff member. Also i f a child lives some distance from the office i t i s not practical for another worker to be sent out to a di s t r i c t already covered by another worker. However, i n the case of Alice, i t i s possible that i f she had had a female worker in Kamloops she might have related better. It i s also f e l t that perhaps the number of homes Alice has been i n may have some bearing on her being somewhat d i f f i c u l t to manage. She was. i n a total of eight foster homes, which i s not a satisfactory arrange-ment for any child. Perhaps i f there had been more attempt to find a more permanent home it-would have been better. However, this again goes back to the lack of Catholic homes in most dist r i c t s . Chapter 4 Progress i n Treatment of Selected Cases Twelve children of the fifty-two adolescent group of foster boys and g i r l s given services from 194-0 to 1953 hy the Kamloops Social Welfare Branch have been examined from the follow-ing points of view: Family background, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n foster home placement, and general over-all social adjustments. To complete the review, i t i s necessary to look at the progress of these children to the present time. It appears that i n many placements there seems to be a degree of success, while at the same time there i s failure in helping the adolescent to make a satisfactory adjustment to l i f e . Joan B. On reviewing the cases i t i s f i r s t important to' examine the progress of Joan B. In 1953> Joan retruned to her mother for a two month period. Mrs.B. had married in 19^5 and had two c h i l -dren by this union.- It i s f e l t that as Joan had l i t t l e attachment to this family group she became restless, and this i s her reason for drifting back to Kamloops. While Joan had been away, some attempt was made to locate suitable employment for her. However, the proper type of placement was not found. When Joan returned i t was f e l t that she was relating better and was able to discuss future plans more easily with her social worker. This g i r l became restless i n Kamloops and she was able to obtain some employment and make enough money to go to Alberta where she remained for a 93. short period. Later i n the spring of 1954- she returned to Kamloops at which time she was much more settled and was able to discuss her problems i n a franker manner than ever before. It i s unders-tood that Joan i s interested i n a Ohinese-Oanadian boy and i s most anxious to marry him. When the record was last seen, Joan was asking for permission to marry. However, before the Superintendent of Child Welfare could give her consent i t was necessary to evaluate the total situation to make sure that this would be the best plan. In summary, i t i s f e l t that Joan has had a most d i f f i c u l t time over the past two years. If there had been more awareness of the real feelings of this g i r l through the earlier years in care, perhaps many of the problems that had to be dealt with more recen-t l y could have been averted. It i s also thought that the staff members i n the Kamloops office may not have been able to give Joan as much attention as they should because of large caseloads which did not allow them to v i s i t her as often or spend as much time with her as she needed. Although Joan did go through a most d i f f i c u l t period she seems to have worker through many of her problems herself, nevertheless she may always have some d i f f i c u l t y i n her inability to relate to other persons. Joan seems to be adjusting as well now as i s possible for her to do in.her total envoronment. Fred B. Since Fred has had d i f f i c u l t i e s with the police during 1953, he has settled down well. It i s thought that he i s receiving more encouragement and recognition from both his foster parents and social worker. Fred i s slow at school and i t i s questionable whether 9*k he has the a b i l i t y to go further than the eighth grade. This lad is now i n grade six at school and i s fifteen years old. Although i t i s improbable that he w i l l seek higher education, he does have potentialities for making a good citizen, and with proper guidance and understanding he should be able to find satisfactory employment and take his place i n the community. In comparing Fred's history of placement with that of his sister Joan's, the presentation of these two illustrations seems to show that when a child i s placed i n a good and suitable foster home as a baby, the child appears to have a better chance to make a more satisfactory adjustment, and his adolescent period seems to be less trying. There were recent problems in Fred's adjustment, but these are traceable mainly to lack of encouragement and recognition. Another reason for the d i f f i c u l t y arising i n 1953 may also be due to lack of community activities for children in outlying districts. From experience i t definitely seems that there i s a need for'more community activ i t i e s i n the rural communities, but unless there i s a proper person to give leadership there i s l i t t l e hope of impro-ving such situations. John C. In the f a l l of 1953 John was placed i n a foster home i n the country which had previously proved to be one of the better foster homes i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t . The placement was in a rural com-munity similar to the type of community in which this boy had pre-viously lived. John had been aware for the past three years that ' 95-his natural mother lived i n Kamloops city but he was never able tp verbalize any feelings he may have had about her. The-placement now seems to be excellent mainly because John, for the f i r s t time, has a strong male figure to pattern himself after who accepts him, and as a result, his total attitude toward l i f e seems to have imp-roved. Previous to this placement this lad was very quiet, and only answered when directly questioned. He i s now able to talk more freely to his foster parents and other members of the community. It i s hoped that this w i l l be a permanent home for John, and i f he continues to adjust as well as he has, he wil}. probably remain with his peesent foster parents u n t i l he i s able to become independent and go out into the world. Although he does not see Mrs.Flint often, some contact i s maintained as she sends gifts to him through the Kamloops office. Although John i s not too i n t e l -ligent a boy, he w i l l probably continue school to at least grade nine. It i s d i f f i c u l t to know what type of work he w i l l decide to do when older, but i t i s thought that his interest may l i e i n farming. Rita Z. In reviewing Rita's Placements, this g i r l has only been in care a comparatively short period of time. Her adjustment i n her second placement seems to have been much better, and the last information i s that she was happy, and consideration was being given to returning her baby to her. This i l l u s t r a t i o n shows some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that can arise i n placement of an older g i r l who.has been accustomed to . 96 . ' very low standards and a very different culture. It w i l l be inter-esting to watch Rita's progress over the remainder of her period in care. From experience i t has been found that many children of Indian background revert to the earlier culture that they have known. This can be.seen i n other illustrations presented as well as i n the records of many Indian or part-Indian children who have been known to the Kamloops Branch over a period of years. Mildred, Alma and Ron T. Since Mildred and Alma were moved from the Kamloops dis t r i c t they have remained i n one foster home. There have been many pro-blems to work out since these g i r l s were placed i n their present home. However, there seems to be a more satisfactory relationship between the g i r l s and their present foster parents. Since the g i r l s were placed i n this home their foster parents moved to another part of the Okanagan Valley and the g i r l s went with them. It i s noted that i n the spring of 1954-, the foster mother was pregnant and she seemed to be having some d i f f i c u l t y i n controlling Mildred and Alma. There i s some discussion that i t may be necessary to move the g i r l s at the end of the school term i f their behaviour does not improve. Mildred and Alma have had a. most d i f f i c u l t period since their mother died. It i s unfortunate that the placement with the relatives was not evaluated more carefully when the children were originally taken into care. It i s also f e l t that there should have been more awareness by the; staff of the problems that were develop-i n g in the young couple*s marriage because of the responsibility . 97. of having these ohildren. It i s possible that i f the f i r s t placement of these children had been more stable many of the behaviour pro-blems that had to be dealt with later might have been averted. As far as Ron i s concerned, he has moved from job to job throughout the d i s t r i c t . Although i t has not been easy, staff have been able to keep contact with him, and maintain a relationship with him on an objective basis. Ron seems to have a better unders-tanding of himself and^life, and this has been gained through finding out "the hard way" by t r i a l and error. On last report, this lad's relationship with the social worker i s quite good, and i t i s f e l t that he i s making better adjustment to people than ever before. It i s d i f f i c u l t to know what the future holds for this boy. However, i t i s very l i k e l y that he w i l l do no other work than unskilled l a -bour jobs or be a handy man on a ranch or farm. Eddie D. Eddie has remained i n his present foster home and he seems to be f a i r l y happy and i s s t i l l anxious to obtain more schooling. He i s s t i l l immature for his age, however, he i s slowly starting to grow up. It has always been f e l t that his foster mother has shown a good understanding of this lad, but, the foster father has been a problem as he has very l i t t l e patience with the boy. As Eddie grows older i t may be necessary to move him as i t i s fe l t the foster parents may have some d i f f i c u l t y i n managing him. Eddie s t i l l continues to have strong attachment for his sister. He writes regularly to her and has recently visited her i n her foster home. It i s f e l t that, although Mr.D. has l e t Eddie Qownin not 9&. • keeping contact with the boy, there i s some emotional attachment and i t i s thought that when Eddie comes of age he w i l l return to his home town and c l a r i f y his feelings towards his father. With proper guidance and understanding i t i s f e l t that Eddie has the a b i l i t y to complete f u l l or part university training i f this i s his wish. Doug and Frank 0. Since Doug 0. returned to Kamloops, he has remained with his foster mother. He has held numerous jobs which include working on a ranch, i n mills, as well as on the o i l pipeline. He has v i s i -ted his mother at the coast and always seems quite happy to return to Kamloops. He i s no longer i n care; however, the social worker hera regularly about how he i s getting along, from his foster mo-ther. Doug has potentialities to go further i n school and i t was hAped that he might return after he spent a period of time working. However, this has not happened and such thoughts are probably the last thing in this lad's mind. Since he returned to Kamloops, the foster mother's home was destroyed by f i r e and Doug has been a real strength to her through this trying time. As far as Frank i s concerned, i t i s f e l t that he may not have the same d i f f i c u l t time as Doug had, mainly because the foster mother has accepted employment which takes her out of the home part of the day. It i s f e l t that by working she w i l l be more occupied and she w i l l not have the need to try and control Frank as much as she did Doug. In reviewing the d i f f i c u l t i e s that Doug has had with his 99. foster mother, i t i s f e l t that this experience with him w i l l probably give her a more positive outlook as Frank goes through the adoles-cent phase. Frank has potentialities to complete grade twelve at school, and with proper direction i t i s f e l t that he w i l l be able to make a satisfactory adjustment to l i f e . Helen J. Since Helen l e f t Kamloops i n 1953 nursing school, d i f f i -culties have arisen. Soon after she began her course, she was bothered with pain i n her back. Upon medical examination i t has been found that there i s a congenital injury present, which may mean that Helen w i l l have to give up her course. If this proves necessary, she i s interested in becoming a laboratory technician. She continues to receive supervision from the child placing agency in Victoria where she has been taking training. It i s unfortunate that this back injury was not discovered before she commenced her training. However, the trouble did not show up when the necessary medical examination was completed at the time of her acceptance. It i s f e l t that this i l l u s t r a t i o n shows the type of help the Super-intendent of Child Welfare i s willing to provide for foster children who show the a b i l i t y to undertake further professional training. Dave S. Dave i s s t i l l i n the same foster home i n which he was placed in 1952. Although i t has been a d i f f i c u l t struggle for the foster parents, they have had unbounded patience with this boy. There have been many ups and downs i n Dave's adjustment, but,he does seem happier than ever before. Unfortunately his school adjustment 1 0 0 . remains poor. Dave was moved to a larger school in the f a l l of 1 9 5 3 out his behaviour has not changed. He has been so much of a problem that the School Board i n this d i s t r i c t does not wish him to attend any school any longer. He seems to continue to need extra attention from the teacher and, i f he does not receive this, he becomes a nuisance by speaking out and making many attempts to become the centre of attention. Dave's intelligence i s poor, and he w i l l not go far i n school. He i s now thirteen years of age and only i n grade five. There are definite strengths i n his foster home, and i t i s thought that the social worker w i l l attempt to work with the school authorities to make, things easier for a l l concerned for the remaining time he has at school. It i s thought that Dave w i l l need concentrated help over the next few years from his foster parents and social worker. Marion K. This i s another example of a part-Indian child taken into care when fifteen years of age. Marion settled down well in her foster home, and there appears to have been no real problem until, she became emotionally involved with a young man. It i s thought that Marion's confusion may have resulted from her reflection on the unhappiness of her mother's marriage, and her own l i f e as a child. If the worker had been able to give more time to discussing this g i r l ' s feelings about her past l i f e experiences, perhaps she could have been helped to work out this problem. Instead, Marion l e f t Kamloops on her own, probably i n an attempt to work out these 101. problems herself. It i s unfortunate that because her foster home was not i n the main part of the di s t r i c t , home vis i t s were not made as regularly as they might have been. If more time could hace been spent with her during the earlier period of placement, the total adjustment of this g i r l might have been more satisfactory. Alice V." Alice remained i n her present foster home and i t was fe l t that her adjustment was quite good. She was treated as one of the family and her foster parents took her with them on any trip they made away from Kamloops. On one trip to Vancouver she was able to v i s i t her mother and older sister which seems to have satisfied any feelings she had concerning her family. She was able to discuss this v i s i t with her worker and she evidently felt that her relatives had no real interest i n her. For the last year Alice has had a bon friend, and although this may be only an adolescent crush, i t i s f e l t that perhaps the high school counselors did not take this romance seriously enough. Because of her confusion about her boy friend, Alice quit school two months before the end of the term this year. Staff of the Social Welfare Branch f e l t that perhaps counselors at the school missed this situation, and i f they had contacted the local Branch concer-ning this problem i t might have been met more helpfully. From last report, Alice i s not married but has been very d i f f i c u l t to handle. She i s a non-ward, and therefore actually a legal responsibility of her mother's. It i s not known whether she has been discharged from care. The intelligence of this g i r l i s above average, and i t 102. i s unfortunate that she did not complete her year at school. Until this year Alice had planned to be either a teacher or a stenographer. Perhaps with some thought on her part as well as understanding and guidance, she may be helped to return to school, as she certainly has the a b i l i t y to have professional training. Chapter 5 The Problems i n Giving Services i n the Rural Community In evaluating the adjustment of adolescent children placed i n foster homes, i t must be remembered that as a rule, most ado-lescent boys and g i r l s are faced with inner conflicts as well as fear of the adult world. Therefore i t i s logical to assume that children who are placed in foster homes, particularly when they are older, w i l l have a more stormy transition to adulthood than the child who i s i n his natural family group. Because of past l i f e experien-ces with parents and the world i n general, foster children who are placed beyond early infancy, usually enter placement with some fear and apprehension. Although their father or mother may have been very unkind, or completely disinterested, the child has taken on an image of the parents, which he needs to feel i s positive. Because of the child's need to feel his origin and source are good, and his need to belong, and because his parents are the primary source of support and of standards he knows, he tends to magnify the better part of the parents. Therefore i t can be seen that how a child i s prepared for placement, and.the warmth and understanding shown by the social worker are most important. Children cannot be completely cut off i n their thoughts from parents, and i f there i s any possi-b i l i t y of some contact being maintained without damage to the child, then i t i s wise to do so. If this i s impossible, then i t i s impor-104. tant that the social worker remember that the child w i l l have cer-tain feelings about his parents, and these should be brought out in the open rather than letting them l i e dormant without some expla-nation, especially i n understanding of their inadequacies. The Social Welfare Branch Foster Home Problem . The present day foster program offered by the Social Welfare Branch has grown considerably in the last fifteen year period. This growth i s normal and i s due i n many respects to the complexity of modern day li v i n g , and growth i n population throughout British Colum-bia. With the changes that have taken place over the years, there i s no longer the interdependence found in families that was present in the 1 9 3 0 s and earlier years. Although there i s more awareness of family breakdown, i t must be pointed out that foster care in the di s t r i c t office of the Branch i n most areas i s s t i l l i n the pioneer-ingstage of development. This i s very true, particularly i n the area served by the Kamloops Branch. It i s only since 1 9 4 6 that a real foster home program has developed there and, although there are many weaknesses s t i l l present, the work done i n the di s t r i c t i s commendable. Weather conditions, bad roads, and heavy caseloads make the work of the worker very demanding. Moreover, because of the geographical make-up of the province, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make any attempt to give services except by the present method of gene-ralized caseloads being carried by a l l workers. Through the years, the Social Welfare Branch has attempted to strengthen services by placing as many skilled workers as possible in d i s t r i c t offices. However, l i k e other agencies both i n Canada 1 0 5 , and the United States, there are problems in obtaining the necessary trained staff. To counteract this, i t has been necessary to set up an "In Service Training" program to teach suitable people the basis s k i l l s needed i n soeial work. More time has latterly been given to teaching basic s k i l l s in social work, and, as a rule, in-service personnel are given closer supervision than the staff who have had the benefit of professional training. Need for Diagnostic Thinking. In spite of the increasing emphasis on care work s k i l l s , there seems to be a lack of diagnostic thinking, and a failure on the part of workers to see the problems that may be burried i n the secret thinking of the foster child. Although the Kamloops staff i a a mixture of both graduates and in-service staff, this has been a problem with many workers through the years. This lack of diag-nostic thinking and lack of the knowledge of the problems that can appear i n the older foster child, and how to help him with them, might be corrected through the implementation of a staff develop-ment program geared to the needs of the staff members. The question must be raised as to whether there i s a tendency not to give as much service to adolescent children as necessary. Perhaps the size of caseloads may have something to do with this. However, with the addition of a f i f t h worker in 1 9 5 3 , caseloads of the other four workers were decreased, which should have helped the situation. Nevertheless i t seems that, because of the pressure of other work, staff are not able to v i s i t foster children as much as they would lik e to do. Some workers may feel that a child appears to be making io6. a satisfactory adjustment and, as a result, v i s i t s may not be made frequently enough, but i t i s often in these foster homes that trouble begins, and earlier attention might have saved much later work. This lack of foresight indicates the need for workers to receive as much help as possible through both staff development and supervision, so that they may become aware of what can happen during placement, and when help can best be given. The simple knowledge that most children "try out" foster parents, often after a short period of conforming, can be of great value to workers and to foster parents i f known before placement. Similar help in knowing the child's need to feel that he i s liked and wanted, and that his parents are not bel i t t l e d , can be of great value to a l l those trying to help him. The use made of existing resources i n working with adoles-cents i n the Kamloops d i s t r i c t , seems to be l e f t to each individual social worker to decide largely for himself. Over the years, some staff made good use of these resources, while other workers comple-tely ignored them. In working with the adolescent, i t i s clear that schools, churches, police and many other professions can often be of great assistance i n helping the child. More stress could be paid upon the part the school plays in the l i f e of the adolescent, for, outside his family, this i s the major interest of the growing child i n the more isolated community. With the advent of the Commu-nity Programmes Branch in most parts of British Columbia, i t may be that established groups in the communities might be used profitably in the adolescent's adjustment. 107. Problems Arising i n Placement. In the case illustrations presented i n the earlier chapters, both positive and negative points are brought out. From the i l l u s -trations, particularly that of Joan B., i t appears that placements i n 194-1 were not evaluated too well, and that there was need for more care i n the selection of homes. The foster home placement program was i n i t s early stage of development but, with untapped foster home resources and proper interpretation, the standards of homes used might have been higher. After Joan's poor start, she seems to have been placed i n a more suitable home, but one in which standards may have been so high that she could not feel she belonged, nor could she li v e up to them. Another problem with Joan, as well as with her brother Fred, was loss of focus. In the case of Joan, this seems definitely apparent over a long time, and as a result she has had a most trying, adolescent period. If there had been more awareness of her feelings about herself and her family, many of the problems present might have been worked through, and her conflict might have been averted to some extent. Although Fred's d i f f i c u l t i e s seem to have been short lived, again focus was lost because of concern for this lad's sister. Fortunately this was corrected and, with recognition and encouragement, Fred was helped to be more comfortable i n his total environment. This i l l u s t r a t i o n also shows the need for workers to establish relationship with a l l professions whether they be police, public health nurses, school authorities or doctors. 10S. In the other cases presented, John C. again illustrates that there was some lack of thinking at the time of his birth. It seems that the staff, even at this time, may have been so heavily loaded with work that they did not have time to give sufficiently concentrated services. If John's mother had been given more support, or her plan for adoption been more r e a l i s t i c a l l y accepted, placement at a later date could have been averted. When John f i n a l l y did come into care, there was lack of suitable foster homes for adolescents. This i s also apparent i n other cases presented, such as Mildred and Alma T. as well as in the case of Marion K. The case of John 0. also shows that, because of distance from the office, workers are unable to v i s i t more isolated areas as often as they.wish. Because of the distance Mrs.Flint lived from Kamloops, i t was impossible for the worker to v i s i t very often; and d i f f i c u l t to evaluate the real need for protection and suitable guardianship. Because of the inability of John to relate in foster homes, the example shows the need for some type of group l i v i n g for adolescents, where less i s expected of them than in a foster home setting. In actuality, this suggestion i s also applicable to some of the others. Doug 0., who rebelled against his foster mother, could have been helped in such a setting. The same is true of Ron T,,who also rebelled or the brother of Marion K. In the case of Mildred and Alma T., there i s seen a lack of diagnostic understanding on the part of staff, as well as lack of understanding on the part of the foster parents. This case, also, 109. i l l u s t r a t e s the ever-present problem of suitable foster home place-ments. The need of a father person i s evident in the case of Doug and Frank 0.. Although a single woman or widow i s sometimes able to help an adolescent adjust, this does not always work out, and there i s need for further study of the ultimate effects of an adolescence spent without male authority or example. This i l l u s t r a t i o n i s ano-ther argument for careful evaluation of each individual case i n this respect. Similarly, i n the case of Helen J., i t might have helped i f more thought had been given to the possible complication that could arise with the type of foster mother with whom they were dea-ling. In an earlier chapter the problem of Marion K.'s brother was discussed briefly. If there were more f l e x i b i l i t y allowed by the Divisional Office i n planning for such a boy, such as allowing him a room, or having some group-living plan, he might have adjusted more easily than he did when i t was arranged for him to go to a foster home. In the case of Alice V.,there was a need to move Alice mainly because dJf schooling. Other factors may have entered the picture, but the precipitating factor was the lack of a high school i n her d i s t r i c t . This need to move a child for educational reasons i s becoming less of a problem, due to the introduction of the consolidated school in many dis t r i c t s around Kamloops. To say the least, the problems shown in the illustrations of adolescent children i n foster care are numerpus. They may be summarized as follows: 110. There i s often d i f f i c u l t y with the adolescent child who i s unable to relate closely to foster parents, in the same way that younger children can, since adolescents are normal-ly moving away from parental ties towards independence. There i s a growing need to find suitable foster homes for adolescents. There i s a lack of these homes, and although many foster parents are willing to take young children, there seems to be a fear on the part of many people that they cannot cope with the problem of a disturbed adolescent. There i s some possibility that the size of saseloads carried by d i s t r i c t workers may be too large, and perhaps i t i s time to review the size of each worker's load in relation to his individual capabilities to give the needed services. Some efforts have been made elsewhere to weigh different types of cases i n relation to the usual time needed for them, and adolescents, especially away from their own homes are always given a heavy weighting. There seems to be a need for staff to be analytical in their evaluation of foster homes to be used. In addition, the worker must be aware of how his total situation can affect the growing child. There appears a need for social workers to be more aware that the major focus i n giving services to foster children i s the child, while the foster parents are secondary, and v i s i t s to them are for the purpose of working together to help the child make a more satisfactory adjustment, and 111. find a place where he feels he can belong and i s accepted and liked. (6) In some cases, there should be more thought given to the implications of the f i r s t placement of a child. (7) There i s a need for social workers to become more aware of the help other professions can be i n giving services to children i n foster care. (8) There may be need for other resources to be developed by Ohild Welfare Division and the d i s t r i c t s in planning for adolescent children who may have run away from home, or whose personalities are such that they w i l l not adjust to the limits of a foster home. (9) There seem to be some problems in giving services because of .distances and weather conditions being variable in the Kamloops d i s t r i c t . (10) There i s , i n this area, the problem of adolescent children being placed with single women or widows. This problem i s also apparent i n other areas as well as i n Kamloops, and should be studied both as to i t s causes and i t s ultimate effects. The Improvement of Services. Although these problems are present i n Kamloops d i s t r i c t , i t i s to be supposed that most District Branches throughout the Province of British Columbia are experiencing similar issues in adolescent foster placement. It i s f e l t that there are ways i n which most of these can be met. Some of the following suggestions 112. may not be feasible at this time, but they may act as a base for further study and evaluation: (1) Because of the apparent d i f f i c u l t y many adolescent children have in accepting foster home care, there i s a need for some experi-mentation in group-living f a c i l i t i e s for adolescents. A type of home that could be used for such children could be tried f i r s t on a small scale with perhaps three or four children being cared for, and a couple i n charge. If i t i s not practical to do this on a Kamloops d i s t r i c t basis, then perhaps i t might be tried on a regional basis with a l l di s t r i c t offices participating i n such a scheme. The type of home suggested would be on a more impersonal basis where the children would not be expected to relate so closely to parent figures as they would i n a foster home. There should be a husband and wife with some training in understanding the needs of adolescent boys and g i r l s , and group programs should be worked out. The children would attend school in the d i s t r i c t , and participate in community affairs as any other children would. They would also be free to invite c h i l -dren from the community to their home. It might be wise to try such an experiment i n a large centre so that the total plan could be evaluated carefully, and case-work services could be available for each child. (2) Many adolescent children, i f placed i n suitable foster homes, might do better than they have in past experience. Kamloops i s not the only area that i s having d i f f i c u l t y i n locating adequate 1 1 3 -resources for this age group. In reality, the adolescent boy or g i r l seems to demand more than just boarding home care. Rates paid to foster parents have been increased over the past year and, although some special rates are paid in exceptional situa-tions, this i s not a standard policy. If maintenance rates were i n c r e a s e d ^ for adolescent children, one wonders i f i t might induce more people of quality to apply for children of this age group. ( 3 ) The size of caseloads i s a real problem i n most d i s t r i c t offices. The only.way that this could be improved would be by further increase in staff. This i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve when there are many claims upon government i n an expanding economy. However, as has been mentioned, time studies and weighting of kinds of cases, have been helpful elsewhere. Certainly both recognition and interpretation of the greater time required by child place-ment and especially placement of adolescents i s essential. (4) The need for more careful evaluation of foster homes, as well as diagnostic thinking on the part of the staff, can only be met through individual supervision, staff development programs, reading of professional literature, and experience. Perhaps there i s a need for implementation of f u l l e r staff development program, not only i n Kamloops but i n other d i s t r i c t offices, and also i n many private agencies. (5) The placement of Child Welfare Consultants in each Region would undoubtedly be of great benefit to the program. (l) This has been tried i n the State of Washington, with some success, since 194-2. Ilk, (6) The problems of distance and weather are very real i n the Kam-loops d i s t r i c t . The only satisfactory answer to the dilemna i s additional workers,and this appears remote at the time of writing. In spite of pressing problems, the illustrations do indicate a sincere wish on the part of a l l members of the Kamloops staff to give the best services possible to a l l clients, including adolescents. The Superintendent of Ohild Welfare and her staff make every effort to see that the adolescent receives the best care possible under the existing circumstances and resources. It i s hoped that some of the suggestions made may be of assistance to them i n their constant wish to improve services throughout the province. 115. Appendix A. Definitions of Services Given "by the Social Welfare Branch Ohild Guidanee Clinic. For the most part cases i n this category are Shared Services, . Child Guidance Clinic cases should only be defined as such when they are i n the process of c l i n i c a l examina-tion, eithe?fe.waiting their examinations, or immediately afterwards Collections These cases are usually referred by the Collector of: Institutional Revenue for investigation as to the a b i l i t y of rela-tives to pay for keep of patients i n a Provincial Institution. Fa,mily Service. Any case where casework or counseling services are rendered to individuals or families i n need of such service where financial assistance or specialized child welfare services are not required. Hospital Clearance. These are cases referred for clearance by the Inspector of Hospitals or a responsible municipality. Clearance refers to planning for patients i n hospital whose illness i s of a chronic nature and have no one who can make plans for them. Mothers' Allowance means a l l cases i n receipt of Mothers' Allow-ance, as well as any case in which an application for this allow-ance i s being made by an applicant. Old Age Assistance means a case i n which an application i s made for Old Age Assistance; where investigation i s made regarding an application whether assistance i s granted or not; or where case work services are rendered to a family or individual i n receipt of Old Age Assistance. Provincial Home. Any case i n which an application to the Provin-c i a l Home has been submitted. Provincial Infirmary Any case i n which an application to the Provincial Infirmary has been submitted. Provincial Mental Hospital refers to any case where the patient i s i n hospital and contact i s maintained with the patient's fami-ly or with the patient himself when he returns home. Crease Clinic. Any case referred for services whena patient i s in c l i n i c or after he returns home. Social Allowance means a l l cases i n receipt of Social Allowance as well as any in which an application i s ma.de for Social Allow-ance and an investigation made regarding such application, i r r e s -pective of whetheror not Social Allowance i s granted. 116. Appendix A (continued) Tuberculosis. Unless a social worker i s asked to perform.a public health function, a l l -cases i n which tuberculosis i s a factor should be counted i n another category. Welfare Institutions. A Welfare Institution i s any project which comes under the scope of the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act and which i s referred by the Inspector of Welfare Institutions or directly by the applicant. Pending Adoption Homes are homes i n the process of investigation and awaiting approval. Approved Adoption Homesare homes that have been approved and awai-ting placement of children. Children i n Adoption Homes means the actual number of children under supervision i n adoption homes whether they have been placed by the Child Welfare Division,, a private agency, or privately. Children in Care A child i n care i s a child for whom the Superin-tendent of Child Welfare has assumed responsibility either perma-nently through court action, or temporarily at the requests of the child's parent, parents, or guardian. Children of Unmarried Parents Actmeans a case i n which this Act i s used or i n which unmarried parenthood or illegitimacy i s the p r i -mary problem. Pending Foster Homes are homes i n the process of investigation, and pending f i n a l approval of placement of children. Approved Foster Homes are approved homes awaiting placement, and a l l foster homes i n use. Protection of Children. A protection case i s one in which there i s need for the amelioration or removal by casework methods of conditions in the home that cannot be overlooked by a child welfare agencjr, and which, i f permitted to continue, would in a l l l i k e l y -hood, result i n court action under the Protection of Children Act or the Juvenile Delinquents Act. Special Services means those cases in which the Superintendent of Child Welfare i s concerned, other than specified Child Welfare l e -gislation. Unorganized Territory refers to.any part of the province not orga-nized as a city or municipality(1) . (l) Compiled from office Manual, Department of Health and Welfare, Province of British Columbia. 117-Appendix B. Child Welfare Definitions Apprehension refers to the holding of a child for reasons of pro-tection. Authority i s usually given in writing or by telegram, by the Superintendent or the Deputy Superintendent of Child Wel-fare. Within seven days, the child must be presented before a stipenduary magistrate, judge, or i f neither of the two i s repre-sented i n the area, then two Justices of the Peace. At this point the case may be adjourned u n t i l a later date and the child remain i n the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare while he or she i s before the court. Committal. When evidence has been given as to the need for pro-tection of a child, then the social worker w i l l usually ask the magistrate or two Justices of the Peace, to complete transfer of guardianship to the Superintendent of Child Welfare. Hon-ward Care refers to a child being placed in care for a tempo-rary period. Although a parent i s asked to contribute to mainte-nance, the payments are not compulsory and each case i s reviewed on an individual basis. Authority to bring' a child into this type of care i s given by the di s t r i c t supervisor. The Superintendent of Child Welfare or social worker has no control over the return of the child There i s only a written agreement between the parent and d i s t r i c t office. Ward Care refers to a child who i s committed to the care of the superintendent. If home conditions should improve then the parents may apply to the court for rescinding of the order. If the order i s rescinded, i t i s on the recommendation of the di s t r i c t office where the parents l i v e , after the total situation has been re-eva-luated. US. Appendix 0 . (i) Statistics form Kamloops District for two comparative years, and 1 9 5 3 . Tables 1(a) , 1(b); 2(a), 2(b). Material for tables summarized from d i s t r i c t s t a t i s t i c for each month. (ii ) Frequency of placement of fifty-two children studied. Material derived from records of the Kamloops Social Welfare Branch which have been reviewed. 119-f A B L E 1 (a) Total number of Case® Carried by Kamloops Social f e l f are ir©nc» I ' t e a -July 194$ to December (1.) fategoty. .'©£ • O^age July • Aug. '.iept. • -f ct,' •Heir. 'Set* Av. Ho Oases Social Alldwaacs . 170 ' .17© 173 I72 -, 166. 172 171 , 16 10 10 10 10 family.- ffffvio© 36 35 35 3*... :•; 36 ©Id Age Feilsipa 409 507 510 433 p?&t. of eMidten , P 46 47 48 ..Peia&. Fest©r. Ifometi - . ; • 3 3 3 2 3 ilppr»a Fo#tof Horn©. 1 27 27 . 2B 2S .2.9 31 ,.. 29 Clfeiidirea i n F. 8oaj©j . 2 6 31 31 31 32 30 0in.©£ Ham, threat© 51 32 . 33 35 36 33 Pending Adoptions 12 1Q 10 $ 11 5 9 App•d.Adop.Homes 17 .21. • 2| 24 2k . •• 30 • 23 Qlm.ia Adopt.Homee 33 17 33 32 30 33 Special Services 0 0 0 0 0 0 -/fpfe^rctilQBis: ' 7 . . 6 7 7 .. 6 ..1 6 7 Mental Hospital -: 9 . . • 10 9 7 . . 6 ' • t. 8 Child Gdnca.Clinic 2 • 2 2 • 2 2 1 2 Hospital Clearance 0 0 0 0 0 -Welfare Institutes 1 © 0 0 0 0 Pro v.Infirmary 0 1 0 0 0 0 -Celleetions 3 0 0 2 0 0 -Family .AilcwanG© 0 0 0 0 0 0 - * * Provincial Home 0 1 2 2 1 1 1 fatal* S&eh loath S15 $3© $13 S§4 9**6 949 (1) Thi© table shows cases added or closed each month, thus making a difference i n each month's t o t a l . 120. tmiM X<fc) TotaX fuat>©?,-0f,..eai«B'Aetlv© faea.ifoaih 'fta-Kadloopa g&oial telfar© B*aaeo f&ofe July X9**3 to Bec«ab#e X^S* Qt&e&tf ©f fas© to*' Sept, Oet* • Btt-T, Av« So-eisiX l i i^mofi SI "' m 70 & Koth@?s Jiilow&aea if .i 6 6 5 Family S*w«t,o.e 17 lh 17 18 15 %$ ©X& Age ?®»il®ji io© %2h U7 XX7 19 ' " 19 2X 22 19 - 18' 20 Pend.f00tet Hoses ' 3 - 5 ' k 3 , 3 3 kppweit foe.lidmet XX IX 11 13 13 13 23 17 19 21 m 2X 8to«*.f. f». iatenta *9 t$ I? • 20 .a 17 19 ' ?eaaiiig opt ions 5. 1 . 7 7 I % .i App?'a Mop.Homes U f 7 9 7 9 g <3ha. in., AA>p* Boaiaa IS 13- 16 22 u 10 18 ©pe©i&X 8*»*iee0 1; • 0 § 0 0 • . 0 V" 3 . it, 5 _ 6 • Meat&X Hospital . _ 3 k 5 k Ohild ®ii*oe>eUnie s X 0 0 0 X mm Hospital, <SXeejreAO* X © I 0 -1 0 1 0 © 0 ft&nmi^ tnftttm T 0 0 - 0 X 2 X ColleotioGR 0 0 0 3 . 3 2 Fftssilr A&Xowanc© 0 0 0 0 P 0 PftMriftdifil Home , 1 . X 3 3 3 ' X 2 'to**! Sa4h Ubatfe 31? 32X 3^ 7 $8£ 121. fABLI 2(a) Total Number of Gases Carried by Kamloops Social Welfare Branca from July 1953 to December 1953(1) ^ 0ateg6ry of Oase" July Aug* Oct. lev. Bee. Av.Io. Cases Sa.M©. family Service- SB 103 102 10$ 101 Mothers'Allowance 6 6 6 5 5 6 Social Allowance 157 152 1^9 157 162 156 Blind Pension 9 9 9 10 10 11 10 O^d Age Assistance Ihi 1*7 151 150 lk6 Old Age Security 595 m 597 587 3m 5^6 591 Adop.Homes Pending 10 S 9 10 11 9 Adop.Hones Appr'd 25 26 23 23 21 19 25 Ghn.in Adop.Homes 3$ 31 jk 35 39 i|4 36 Ohn.in foist et Home? 61 63 67 66 78 77 69 Foster Homes Pend. $ 7 1© 12' 12 12 10 foster Homes App*& 5% 53 55 55 ' 55 5^  Pfcot'n of Children . 8 s 7 6 6 6 7 Can. of SaiBi Parents 3^ 32 29 32 33 3«* 32 •Special Services . 1 * 1 i 1 1 1 Child Gdnce.Clinic 0 0 0 5 0 -0reace C l i n i c % k 10 k 11 ' 5 6 prov.Mental Hoep. 1 ' g 0 9 0 10 5 Ooileotion© 3 5 6 7 $ 7 6 Hoep.©learance 0 0. 0 0 0 1 -Provincial Hojfie 0 X 1 1 1 0 -Pro v. Infirmary 0 0 1 1 1 0 - • -.Welfare Institutes If. 5 tuberculosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 ma fotuls Saea Month 1251 1257 1273 1265 1297 1307 (I) t h i s Table shows cases added or closed eaeh month, thus making a difference i a each month's to t a l . 122. mmM.2(h) .Total Mwmm of Umm A@%iw £»efc smm i » Koftoope $mm mm J t a y isgjf to ®@0®at» 1953. ®&%®$®$f or Cast 0ot.. 3eo. jftkJfia aa ".Ho as 20 • S3 m ttet&m* Al low** 3 • a 2 2 3 So&t&l .73 56 70 6© 7*'. •6a Blind Peattaa © 0 0 t a -Old Ag* Aftole-taae* i i 13 • 13 ' 1* 16 . 16 15 01* Ago §e&itt% la 5$ 4a 31 41 4 5 1 4 I 3 $ 4 5 • 7 14 6 ? 10 '13 id Ctm.£& foot** Sam$ 10 4S g6 33 33 32 Foster iN§n$i$§ ? . £1 5 5 a 4 ?6dt«* Btfao* A$9*6 11 & 1? •%$ is 11 17 $»cft'& of omi&ra 1 . 2 1 1 a 2 3tm.of Um>Pmm%$ 14 18 I f ta 10 Bpm%&l Mtvi®m- 0 J. 1 0 0 i I •0 1 0 * Creaea 0Ut&o' 0 0 t 1 § 0 • Psw.ietstel. Keep. 8 0 1 6 a (SOllooHons 1 2 4 4 i 1 a fto^.01eas&Aa43 • 1 1 0 1 a • tovifeeisl Ho®© 1 0 0 1 a 3 Pspo-v. tofijfiwwejr 1 6 0 0 © 1 % 0 2 4 1 1 I 0 0 0 0 0 f#titl®.Sas!i '«0^ 21? 3©l aoa S77 215 1 2 3 . m$ Stettmr of 9|aM$Rt* ta©H- HIM? Sat. ^ Wmtem of PtaooiMftt* total .  : A ©*.JKHML...*. .....,..t^« .j Q ~ 3 .'3 1 «•» % 7,7 — 6 *» 6 7 - 10 1 5 . % 10 . i&a-10 - 12 k % $ 11 21.2 m * 15 ' .11 - • g If ' - .56.5 .15 and over 1 l - a. .3.9.' Wtht ' 20 *5 7 5g • .100.0 CD tmm mm * ptsioft am 19*0 * Son© of tfeftie «M34f©& si?© BOW di«0M#geti ftfe* eat 12k. 125. Appendix E. Bibliography. General References. Day, Gladys D., Home Finding, Washington D.0. Federal Security Agency, 1951 Farnham, Marjorie F., The Adolescent, New York, Harper and Brothers 1951 . . . . . . H i l l , Ernest David, The Regional Administration of Public Welfare in British Columbia. M.S.W.Thesis, University of British Columbia, 195O Hollingshead, August B., ElmtownsYouth , New York, John Wiley & Sons 19^9 Josselyn, Irene M., The Adolescent and His World, New York. Family Service Association of America, 1952 Saddler, Wm. S., Adolescence Problems, St.Louis. The C.V.-Mosby Company, 19£§ Pamphlets Foster, Frances E., "Basic Principles i n Casework Treatment of an Adolescent", The Family, Vol.20(October 1939 pp.184 - . 1 9 1 . Hutchinson, D., "The Parent-Child Relationship As a Factor in Child Placement," The Family . Journal of Social Casework, Volume 2.1 (April 19461 Ingle, D.A., "Family Casework Services for Adolescents", Journal of Social Casework, Volume 22 (November 1947)p.34-9. Rail, Mary E., "Dependency and the Adolescent" Journal of Social Casework, Volume 28,(Spril 1947) p.123 Ross, Helen, "The Caseworker and the Adolescent", The Family, Volume 2 2 , (November 194-1) p . 2 3 1 Province of British"Columbia, Department of Education,"The Commu-nity Programmes Branch", Don McDiarmid, Queen's Printer, Victoria, B.C. 1953 126. Bibliography (continued) Specific References Province of British Columbia, Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, Victoria B.C., Don McDiarmid, King's Printer, Haroh.31, 1942 Province of British Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, Policy Manual, Victoria, 1950. Revised 1951, 1952, 1953 Province of British Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, Social Welfare Branch, Office Manual , Victoria, B.C. (Continued revisions since 194-6) Province of British Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, Social Welfare Branch, Acts and Regulations, Victoria, Don McDiarmid, Queen's Printer. A compilation of Pro-vincial and Federal Statutes applicable to administra-tion of Social Welfare in British Columbia. Pamphlet Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Placement Worker and the Child's Own Parents", Social Casework Volume 35 (July 195*0 P-292 

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