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Some social and emotional factors contributing to the rejection of the first child of a forced marriage Lazenby, Doris Elizabeth 1954

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SOME SOCIAL AND MOTIONAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE REJECTION OF THE FIRST CHILD OF A FORCED MARRIAGE  by DORIS ELIZABETH LAZENBY  Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work  School of Social Work  195U The University of British Columbia  iv.  ABSTRACT  ' Io families which are seen by social agencies the f i r s t child of a forced marriage would appear to be rejected to a greater degree than his siblings. Thie study attempts by examination of 10 oases to discover some reasons for the rejection of the f i r s t child, to estimate the kind and degree of rejection and i t s effect on the child, and f i n a l l y to suggest some measures whioh may help the child develop more normally and prevent him being a rejecting parent i n his turn. The cases used were taken from the f i l e s of the Child Guidance Clinic, the Juvenile Court and the Family Welfare Bureau, They did not a l l provide such complete information as would be desirable, but represent a cross-section of families coming to the agencies. In every case examined the foroed marriage was unhappy and the f i r s t child rejected by one or both parents. The rejeotion was overt when the parent showed direct h o s t i l i t y to the child or covert when i t took the form of over-protection or overindulgence to compensate for guilt feelings of the parents The rejected f i r s t child was unable to develop a mature, well-integrated personality; he showed inability, to form satisfactory personal relationships within and without the home. Consequently he developed behavior problems, physical symptoms or habit disorders. The fathers and mothers were rejected by their own parents; their consequent immaturity and unmet needs resulted i n the forced marriage and their inability to love and accept the child who was the cause of i t . Therefore he, in his turn, was unable to develop normally and i s likely to be an inadequate and rejecting parent himself. It should be the aim of social agencies to break the chain of rejeotion. Case-work treatment of the child may be accompanied by treatment of the parents, where possible, to assist them i n meeting their needs and becoming mature persons who can accept and love their f i r s t child. Some foroed marriage® may be prevented by case-work help to the unmarried mother which may aid]? her i n surrendering her baby for adoption.  ii. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  Introduction  The f i r s t ohild of a foroed marriage i s his oonoeption was the cause of the marriage* Rejection; partial, complete, covert, overt. jection; over-protection; over-indulgence. A 10 ease histories; source of material; object Chapter 2.  Page rejected because A rejected ohild. Unconscious reforoed marriage. of study  1  The Child  Each child i s different; common factor. Rejection and i t s sffeot on the child. Behavior of aggressive and non-aggressive rejected children. Type of delinquency. Physical effeots of rejection. Over-responsibility; development of super-ego. Use of the child to satisfy neurotic needs of parents. .....12 Chapter 3«  The parents  Why a foroed marriage; immature parents. Treatment by own parents; treatment of child. Parents showing physical symptoms and/or alcoholism. Use of the child to satisfy dependency needs...28 Chapter L>  Conclusions  The rejection of the f i r s t ohild of a foroed marriage i s likely where the marriage i s unhappy. Rejected children develop problems and need help; home environment must be changed; parents need treatment. Child with weak super-ego, maladjusted persona l i t y . Alternative plans for unmarried mothers; family help through education. Improvement of marriage improves child's ohanoe for normal development; helps him to be a good parent i n his turn.  L2  Appendices: A. B.  Bibliography Case records  50 55  iii. ' TABLES IN TEE TEXT Table 1.  Page Behavior of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Rejected Children  18  2.  Age of Children in 1950 and Delinquency Charge  19  3.  Physical Development and Illness of Rejected Children •  h>  ....  21  Opinion of Clients in reference to Factors Prompting 29  Marriage 5*  Elements of Father's Relationship to Parents •  6.  Elements of Mother's Relationship to parents ....... 33  7*  Form of Rejection Shown by parents ............  8.  Father's Treatment of Relationship with Mother's Treatment of Relationship with  9« 10.  Child Compared to Father's Own Parents Child Compared to Mother's Own Parents  31  3h 36 37  Parents Showing Signs of Illness and/or Alcoholism . 3 9  1  SOME SOCIAL AMD EMOTIONAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE REJECTION OP THE FIRST CHILD OF A FORCED MARRIAGE  CHAPTEE I. t  INTRODUCTION Every social worker i n family or children's agencies i s acquainted with oases where the f i r s t child in a family appears to receive harsh treatment from one or both pareats quite different from that aocorded to his siblings.  The ohild responds to this differential  treatment i n a variety of ways, ranging from mild emotional disturbance to acute behavior problems or asurosis©  The birth of the f i r s t ohild is  particularly significant to the parents because his arrival disturbs such marital adjustment as the couple have so far achieved, and the arrival of subsequent children does not make such a complete change i n their way of l i f e *  The disruption consequent upon the arrival of the  f i r s t ohild commonly results i n some ambivalence i n the parents* attitude towards him; they both like and dislike him; love him and hate him. If, however, this f i r s t child i s over-protected, over-indulged, or treated with harshness or neglect that does not appear i n the parents' handling of his siblings, the soeial worker, on comparing marriage and birth dates, frequently discovers that this ohild was conoelved before marriage and his conception was the immediate oause of the marriage* The newborn baby's greatest needs are for warmth, food and his mother's love and acceptance whilst she satisfies these needs*  Most parents  are ambivalent in their attitude to the new baby, but i n normal oases love outweighs hate and the child i s cherished.  However, i f the sight of the  ohild continually reminds the mother and father that he was the cause of their marriage, and i f that marriage i s unsatisfactory i n many respects, then their love of the child may be outweighed by the hate they f e e l for  (2) him as the direct oause of their misf or tucate marriage*  The truly  rejected child is unwanted and unloved from the start and he soon realizes that his mother does not want him, or rather, sinoe he i s too young to reason, he knows that his demands are not met and that his environment i s cold and unloving. His mother usually represents his chief contact with the world i n the f i r s t few months of his l i f e , and i f she hates him and treats him without tenderness, or leaves him with others who treat him harshly, his subsequent emotional development may be arrested at this stage because his f i r s t oral needs are never completely satisfied*  Since i t i s usually a woman who handles the baby, rejection  by her i s likely to be of greater importance than rejection by the father, who may have very l i t t l e to do with the child i n his f i r s t few months• Rejected Child A rejected ohild, for the purpose of this paper, may be defined as an unwanted child*  Rejeotion may be complete, as when the mother»s  behavior to the ohild from birth indicates a constant strong dislike* It may be partial, as when the mother i s inconsistent and sometimes appears to have some fondness for the child* Rejeotion by either or both parents may be quite overt and expressed i n action by neglect and harsh treatment, or verbally as when the parents fight and argue In front of the child, saying they would not have married i f they had not been forced to do so by the child. This i s oonsoious rejection and i s probably better for the ohild than hidden rejeotion, as he knows what he i s up against and adjusts himself accordingly to "expecting the worst".  Hidden rejection may be conscious  (3) or unconscious.  Unconscious rejection often takes the form of over-  protection, which i s the result of the guilt feelings of parents who cannot face the faot that they hate the child who was the cause of the marriage. The ohild i s sometimes over-indulged for the same reason. The mother's oonsoienoe says, "I must not hate this ohild who i s the reason for my unsatisfactory marriage so I w i l l prove how much I love him as I should," so she takes extra good care of him and i s over-protective, being fearful that he w i l l be hurt, or else over-indulges him i n an attempt to s t i f l e her guilt feelings.  Sometimes treatment of the child  by one or both parents may be mixed, alternating between over-protection and overt rejection* There are many reasons for rejeotion of a child and most of them are found i n the personalities of immature parents*  Immature people whose  early emotional needs were not met, and who are s t i l l seeking to satisfy them, are those we find i n forced marriages*  Had their personalities  developed more normally, the girl's pregnancy and the subsequent foroed marriage would not have occurred*  There are, however, many immature  parents who were not foroed to marry, therefore i t may be d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the rejection of a f i r s t child i s the result of guilt about the marriage or only of the parents' immaturity*  However, i f the  f i r s t ohild i s rejected and his siblings are not, or i f the degree of rejection with which he i s treated i s much more severe than that accorded to his siblings, then we might expect that this rejeotion i s due to guilt.  1* "Anxiety attaoks may occur because of any inner impulse whose expression i s frustrated* (TOien the frustrated impulse is an aggressive one the feeling of anxiety takes a particular form we describe as a feeling of g u i l t ) . English, 0* Spurgeon, M.D. and Pearson, Gerald H.J M D» Emotional Problems of Living; W* W* Norton & Co*; Sew York, 19U5» p.168. n  0  a  ik) Foroed Marriage A foroed marriage i s here considered to be any marriage which was precipitated by conception*  This includes those engaged couples  who are foroed to advance the date of the wedding because of the woman's pregnancy, and also those oases where the woman deliberately becomes pregnant i n an attempt to force the man to marry her. In Canadian oulture pre-marital sex relationships are not generally openly accepted and one or more partners may feel considerable guilt about their experiences*  The child which i s the product of them  is there as an ever-present reminder*  In certain other cultures  marriage may be postponed u n t i l the woman i s found to be pregnant and i n this circumstance pre-marital sex experience i s accepted as not only permissible but desirable*  Hence, one would not expect to find rejection  of the f i r s t child of these marriages because of guilt, since the feeling of guilt i s absent*  In marriages where one or both partners were  brought up i n the mores of a different culture, rejeotion of the child i s not so likely to be present* The effect of the rejection on the child for any oause whatsoever 13 summed up by Gordon Hamilton when she says that "Early rejection or i n consistent handling leads to inconsistent, impulsive behavior, weak ego formation and a poorly-integrated character." *  i t i s no wonder, then,  that these f i r s t children of foroed marriages present behavior problems which bring them to the attention of agencies and frequently of the law.  1* Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy i n Child Guidance; Columbia University Press; New York; 19k7, P« 30« ""*" ~~~~  (5) Rejeotion Rejeotion is not a word used by the early psyohiatrists and i t does not appear in Freud's writings or in the psyohiatrio dictionary*  In the 1930'3 there was considerable d i 3 o u s s i o a of It, but i t  appears to be more or less taken for granted today and there is very l i t t l e written on the subject.  In Webster's New International  Dictionary the following meanings of the word are given: Rejeotion - (l) To refuse to acknowledge, adopt, reoeivej to decline to accept; to refuse. (2) To oast or throw away as useless, unsatisfactory. (3)  To refuse to hear, receive; to repel.  (I4.) To refuse to grant, consider or aoeede to. (5) To eject or spew out, as from the mouth or stomach. (6) To throw or oast back. (7) To oast off; to repudiate, to forsake. The synonyms given for rejeotion arei spurn, repel, repudiate, refuse and dismiss. There are many degrees of rejeotion ranging from expressed ffcate 1  to feeble dislike, but a l l of them include some or a l l of the above definitions.  A rejecting father may refuse to acknowledge the ohild as  his; many a mother has said to a d i f f i c u l t child, "You are no ohild of mine."  There are numerous cases of parents who have told their child  that they wished he would leave home and never come back, and others who have refused to listen to his explanations or help him when he is in trouble.  Our detention homes and industrial schools are f u l l of ohildren  1. Webster's New International Diotionary, second edition, unabridged.  (6) who have been spurned, repelled, repudiated, refused and dismissed* There are thousands of others who grow up neurotic, maladjusted and with various psyohomatio complaints because from birth they have been treated with hatred instead of love* Peroival M* Symonds in "A Study of Parental Acceptance or 1 Rejection"  defines rejection as follows] "By rejected we mean the child  who is unwanted by either father or mother*  Either father or. mother  or both f a i l to give the child adequate care, protection or affection, or they may make invidious oontrasts with the other children i n the family* or with children outside the family, and, i n general, the child is negleoted i n one or more ways*" Because the child*s experience during his f i r s t few years of l i f e i s so important, most of the writings on rejection deal with maternal rejeotion only*  H* W* Hewe 11, 14. D., i n a paper on "Psyoho2  dynamics of Maternal Rejection"  , writes:  "A clear-cut definition of  maternal rejection i s d i f f i c u l t because we are not dealing with a olinical entity and because i t i s a matter of degree*"  in this paper, maternal  rejeotion i s defined as "that situation where the birth of a child was unwelcome to the mother"-^ and he obtained a definite statement to that effect from the mother.  In his l i s t of causative factors he includes a  forced marriage, which acoounts for fifteen percent of the cases he 1* Symonds, Percival M. "A Study of Parental Acceptance and Rejection"; American Journal of Orthopsychiatry! Ootober; 1936; p. 680. 2* Newell, H* W*, M*D» "Psycho-dynamics of Maternal Rejection"; Amerioan Journal of Orthopsychiatry; Vol. hi No. 3 ; July; 1 9 3 U . 3»  Op* oit*  (7) studied.  Among indirect causative factors he l i s t s the following:  (1)  Parent disappointed io mate.  (2)  Parent's lack of affection for other parent.  (3)  Frequent quarrelling of parents.  (k)  Broken home.  (5)  The father a poor provider.  (6)  Parent unmoral.  (7)  Father cruel to wife.  (8)  Marriage opposed by grandparents.  With the exception of No* ht ell these causes appear i n the ten oases here studied. A forced marriage is l i k e l y to be as unwilling marriage on the part of one or both of the parents and i s therefore a f e r t i l e f i e l d for the growths of disharmony, discouragement and interference from relatives*  A l l these things contribute to hatred of the f i r s t child.  Newell«s conclusion i s that "Maternal rejection is primarily due to the  1 mother's unhappy adjustment to marriage",  and that this i s usually the  result of "immaturity and emotional instability on the part of one or more parents"«  These are the kind of people who are caught i n the trap  of a foroed marriage and the f i r s t child i s a convenient and logical object on which to vent their hostility or on whom to foous their guilt feelings. Rejection by the father becomes more important to the child as he grows older and i t frequently takes the form of over°etrictness to the point of persecution*  As in the ease of the mother, the father has  a conscious or unoonscioue desire to be free from the burden of the  1«  Op o i t .  (8) ohild,, who i s frequently used as a foeus for the parents* disputes, and a whipping-boy for hostility generated by the marriage and the problems of providing a living for his family* Overt Rejection Evidence of overt rejeotion i 6 found in parents* statements of their attitudes*  One father, in speaking of the f i r s t child, remarked  that as far as he could see, his wife never had any use for the child from the day he was born, but she did not seem to mind the other two so much*  Such statements are substantiated by neglect and harsh treatment  of the child as a baby, and by later treatment when he i s told that he i s unwanted*  Newell l i s t s six reactions of parents showing overt rejection: (1)  Parent markedly irritated by child.  (2)  Parent punishes child severely*  (3)  Parents neglected ohild.  (U)  Parents nag child.  (5)  Parent threatened to put child away*  (6)  Parent oalled ohild "dumb".  We may add to these the cases where the child i s told that he was the oause of the marriage and of the parents' troubles. Over-protection The mother or father who unconsciously rejects the ohild tries to compensate for guilt feelings by over-protection*  The parents  are overly anxious about the child's eating habits and elimination, keep him from playing with other children, and do not allow him freedom to develop*  They are frequently over-strict with the ohild i n their effort  to look after him conscientiously.  (9) Over-indulgence Over-indulgence ia closely a l l i e d to over-proteotion and i t would appear to be sometimes a conscious and sometimes an unconscious effort to compensate for guilt feelings.  The over-indulged child i s  given everything ho wants and more, and ho i s not allowed to accept any responsibility.  His parents want him to have a better l i f e than they  had, and are willing to sacrifice their own needs and wants to this end. Nevertheless, they do not really love the c h i l d  0  and the material things  he i s given are intended to take the place of love and to make up to him for their hostile feelings.  A mother who had rejected her daughter  from birth spent most of her spare time sewing and knitting beautiful clothes for the g i r l .  She was continually boasting of this, but the  daughter recognized that the mother gave her clothes to make up for not wanting her. There are parents who alternate between over-hostility or over-protection and over-indulgence, and this form of rejection i s probably the most d i f f i c u l t that a child has to face.  He can adjust  himself to consistent treatment, even i f i t i s hostile, but i f he receives mixed treatment from even one parent he develops very l i t t l e sense of security, as no matter what he does i t may be considered wrong* The ohild always senses that he i s rejected and that his world is hostile, and he reacts either with open hostility or with neurotic behavior and psyohomatic illness.  Dr. David M. Levy, i n a study of  twenty oases of maternal over-protection, found that over-indulgent over-proteotion yields aggressive and egooontrio behavior i n the child* Dominating over-proteotion yields submissive and effeminate behavior and i n both oases the children had great d i f f i c u l t y making friends, and  (10) 1  showed feeding problems. The material used in these studies was obtained from the Juvenile Court, the Child Guidance Clinic, and the Family Welfare Bureau of Vancouver*  Most of these cases were known to at least two  of these agencies, and material obtained i n one place could be supplemented by that i n another*  Wherever possible, the caseworkers were interviewed*  There are ten case histories, five of them on girls and five on boys. A l l the cases were open during 19U9 and 1950. are  In every case but one there  two or more siblings, so that i t was possible to estimate differences  in treatment of the f i r s t child and his siblings*  in every case but one  the parents are s t i l l together, although at times there may have been other men or women i n the picture* divorce toward the end of  1950*  In the one case the mother secured her  The economic circumstances of the  different families vary considerably from comfort to downright poverty* Unfortunately, only those children whose rejection produces a definite problem are seen by the agencies*  The writer believes that  there are probably numerous cases of foroed marriages which turn out successfully, and i n which the f i r s t ohild is not rejeoted or i s rejected only to a very small degree*  These cases do not come to the attention of  agencies, so i t has not been possible to find out whether rejection neoessarily always exists or whether i t does not*  However, i t appears  reasonable to suppose that there may be marriages, which took place after impregnation, i n which both parties showed a more mature affection for one another and were sincerely anxious for the wedding to take place* In these oases there would be much less guilt and correspondingly more  1* Levy, Dr. David M. "Maternal Over-Protection and Rejection". Journal of Hervous and Mental Disease; January-June, 1 9 3 1 ; column 7 3 ; pp. 6 5 & 7 0 .  (11) acceptance of the f i r s t child*  It i s even possible that the happiness  of the marriage might be attached to the child who preoipitated i t and in that oase he would be cherished rather than rejected as the cause of the marriage. This study points out that rejeotion of the f i r s t child of a foroed marriage does exist i n some eases and w i l l attempt to find out why, and what, i f anything, oan be done about i t *  The oase histories  which may be found i n the Appendix a l l t e l l the same story with a difference.  Whether boys or g i r l s , these children have been singled out  from their siblings by their parents for treatment which was indicative of rejection.  CHAPTER II. THE CHILD The influences which affect each of the ten children here studied are s p e c i f i c  That i s to say, each ohild starts with a  different constitution, has a different family and different experiences.  However, the children have several things in common; a l l  are f i r s t children of forced marriages and a l l are rejected.  There  are times when even the best parents reject their child or children. What is important for a child's normal development i s that he should f e e l loved and w nted most of the time. a  The f i r s t child of any  marriage i s the one who i s the experiment, on whom the parents learn, and he i s l i k e l y to suffer from this; the mother particularly may  be  very anxious when oaring for her f i r s t baby. The children here studied start with an extra handioap.  They are also f i r s t children and are  rejected because their very existence placed their parents i n an unhappy situation. The child i s born completely dependent and his needs must be met i f he is to survive.  He feels his mother's rejection instinct-  ively by the way i n which he is handled.  Some years ago i t was thought  best that the child's need be met by the establishment of a r i g i d timetable for eating, sleeping and playing.  The rejeoting mother could use  this as an excuse for cruelty to the child.  However, even i f she follows  the present trend towards indulgence and appears to be anxious to gratify his needs, oold, rough, over-controlling or very timid handling may oonvinoe the infant that his world i s unloving, and  carelessness  (13) and direct negleot have the same effect. Margaret W. Gerrard, Ph.D. M.D., i n an article on "Emotional Disorders of Childhood", says that "a cruel and inconsistent mother 1 offers a kind of necessity for self-sufficiency i n an infant"  and i n  consequence of this he creates for himself a phantasy world of comfort which may later lead to schizophrenia; or localises suffering i n one part of his body, which w i l l result i n psychosomatic disorders; or he may show hostile aggressiveness. At a l l events he Is thrown back upon himself for gratification, and since he has not reoeived love he does not know how to give i t . As he grows older he finds that hostility and aggression result i n retaliation and his dependenoy needs are s t i l l so great that he often attempts to repress his hostility, and co-operates with his mother during his toilet-training,  i t i s at this time that he should  learn to control his aggression, because he wishes to please his mother, and he should begin to learn social standards and develop a super-ego based on the standards of his parents. rejeoting he cannot do this.  If these parents are harsh and  He may develop guilt feelings during this  period because he i s afraid of punishment.  Erich Promm defines the  feeling of guilt as "actually the fear of displeasing those of whom one 2 i s afraid".  Sometimes these same guilt feelings lead to deliberate  misbehavior on the part of the child because he feels he needs punishment for the feelings of hostility he has towards his parents. He may both love and hate them, and punishment atones for these feelings.  It i s  1* Gerrard, Margaret W.,Ph.D.,M.D. "Emotional Disorders of Childhood", Dynamic Psychiatry, edited by Franz Alexander M.D. and Helen Ross; University of Chicago Press. 1952. p. 1?U« 2. Promm, Erich, "Individual & Social Origins of Neuroticism", American Sociological Review. Vol. 9 . 19liU« pp. 380=44..  Ok) doubtful i f the child who i s rejected overtly immediately after birth ever manages to f e e l love towards anyone  e  Sometimes the hostility f e l t  by the ohild for his rejecting parents i s transferred to the outside world, which he sees as cruel and hard but as less dangerous to him than his parents*  He may treat others who are smaller and younger than  himself with aggressive oruelty because that i s the only kind of treatment that he knows* Since the only type of attention he gets from his parents involves punishment he may learn to take a masochistic delight i n being hurt. During the nest stage of his psycho-sexual development the ohild normally feels attracted to the parent of the opposite sex, and looks on the parent of the same sex as a r i v a l *  If he feels affection  for the latter he gives up the former as a sexual object and identifies with the parent of the same sex*  However, i f both parents are rejeoting  and hostile, he finds i t hard to love or to identify, and reaches adolesoenoe without having satisfactorily developed a capacity for relationship to his parents and to the outside world. If the parent of the same sex is rejecting, no love and i d e n t i f i cation i s possible, and the ohild may remain closely tied to the parent of the opposite sex; he may even try to adopt some of the characteristics of that sex i n an effort to please the rejeoting parent.  At the same  time the ohild may feel that when he or she has grown big he w i l l revenge himself on the rejeoting parent. English and Pearson, i n speaking of the boy's submission to his rejeoting father, feel that "as the years pass this phantasy of revenge beoomes unoonsoious, but when the boy has a son of his own he  (15) may tend to treat him in just the same way as the father treated him when he was a boy.  tt 1  The rejeotion, therefore, tends to perpetuate  itself. If the ohild is a g i r l rejected by her mother, she finds i t diffioult to lore and identify with the mother* and may develop masculine traits or be submissive to her mother. If the parent of the opposite sex is rejecting, the child's oapacity for forming relationships with the opposite sex is damaged. The boy may turn his love toward his father and tend to reject a l l women, or to have his revenge on women for the rejeotion by his mother* The g i r l may tend to projeot her h o s t i l i t y to her rejecting father on to other masculine figures, and may form close relationships only with women. The f i r s t ohild rejected by both parents faces f i r s t the problem of his mother's rejection and then, when he i s old enough to realize i t , that of his father.  Mother i s unloving, but father often punishes and  blames him, t e l l s him he i s stupid and not wanted, and he can never do anything right.  He has no love from anyone; a l l his satisfactions must  come from himself and he i s not oapable of satisfying a l l his own needs* He has no confidence i n himself because of continued criticism, but he has many hostile feelings about his parents^which he realizes might be dangerous i f expressed and result i n more punishment, so he turns them against the outside world or against himself* As a result he becomes more d i f f i c u l t to handle as he grows older*  He fights, steals, truants,  runs away or i s involved in sex or gang problems; he may be enuretic and have nightmares; he may develop speech d i f f i c u l t i e s , learning blooks, or 1* English, 0. Spurgeon, M.D., and Pearson, Gerald H.J., M.D. Emotional Problems of Living. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York; 1924.5.  (16) specific diseases. Throughout he remains inseoure i n his world, and unsure of himself* In addition to rejeotion by his parents the rejeoted f i r s t ohild of a foroed marriage faces the problem of siblings who are treated differently to himself, and he i s consequently jealous and made more keenly aware of the special treatment he receives. for him i s one of constant h o s t i l i t y and insecurity.  The home atmosphere The problems shown  by each child are the result of the treatment that he has received at home plus his subsequent experiences i n the outside world. Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Children Children who develop problems as a result of their parents' attitude toward them f a l l into two main classes; the aggressive and the non-aggressive. A oertain amount of aggression i s healthy and necessary for survival,  during the normal development of a child he learns to control to  his aggressive impulses^which are his reaction a* the restrictions and frustrations he encounters i n learning to adjust to the demands of our culture*  If he reoeives love and enoouragement from his parents,  particularly his mother, he begins to develop some control of these impulses as he tries to please mother, absorbs her standards and begins to develop his super-ego*  If he i s rejeoted by his parents he feels no  need to please them, develops l i t t l e capacity for enduring tension and aots out his impulses without restraint. looks for pleasure only to himself.  He remains narcissistic and  His feelings for his parents are  hostile, and he shows them by aggression. The non-aggressive child i s conscious of the same impulses, but attempts to repress them because they are dangerous and he i s afraid of  (17) retaliation from his parents*  He tries to love his rejeoting parents  and tries hard to be good i n order to avoid punishment, but he too has not had enough love to help him i n mastering his hostile wishes*  He i s  anxious and insecure because he i s afraid that he i s bad and deserves punishment, which he may come to welcome because i t allays his guilt feelings*  The ohild conforms because of fear, and develops defenoes to  deal with his impulses* Behavior of Rejeoted Children H» W. Newell M.D*, i n an article on "The PsychoDynamics of Maternal Rejeotion", discusses the behavior of rejeoted ohildren both 1  aggressive and non-aggressive. ohildren includes the following:  Characteriatio behavior of aggressive ( 1 ) unpopular with other ohildren;  (2) restless, hyperactive; ( 3 ) attention-getting behavior; (k) quarrelsome i n play with other children; ( 5 ) selfish in play with other children; (6) disobedient to parents or teaohers; (7) temper displays; (8) stealing; (9) truanting from sohool. Characteristics of the non-aggressive rejeoted children include: (1) poor sohool achievement; ( 2 ) apparent oraving for affection; ( 3 ) shy and seolusivej (k) food fads; ( 5 ) seasivity; (6) inability to oonoentrate; (7) ory easily; ( 8 ) fearful; ( 9 ) enuresis; (10) restless sleep and (11) oomplain easily. Table I* l i s t s these characteristics and indioates those which are shown by the children i n the oases studied* They inolude both habit and conduct disorders* In many oases the ohildren who show primarily aggressive traits also show non-aggressive t r a i t s . The ohildren who show the greatest number of aggressive traits are those i n oases B, F, I and J* The ohild showing the greatest signs of non-aggressive rejeotion i s oase G. 1* Newell, H.We, "The Psyoho-Dynamlos of Maternal Rejeotion"; American Journal of Paycho-Dynamlog; Vol* k, No.3; July. 193k.  (18) TABLE I. Behavior of Aggressive Rejeotod Children (1) Unpopular with other children  T  B  C  D  B  F  (2) Restless, hyperactive Attention-getting behavior  B  F  (Ij.)  Quarrelsome i n play with other children  B  ! F  Selfish i n play with other children  B  (6)  (8) (9)  I  J J  H  I  J  I  J ! i j i i i! i  I  Disobedient to parent or  1  teacher (7)  H  G  (3)  (5)  G  Temper displays Stealing Truanting from school  B  F  B  F  A  B  A  B  *—  1  H  D  1  -•• •  1  J i  1  i  I  !1  •  11  I  i  Behavior of Non-Aggressiv© Rejected Children (1) Poor sohool achievement (2) Apparent craving for affection (3)  Shy and seoiusive  (I4.)  Food fads  (5)  Sensitivity  (6)  Inability to concentrate  (7)  Cry easily  D B  I  C G  C  G  (8) Fearful (9)  Enuresis  (10) Restless sleep (11) Complain easily  F B  D D  G  I ...  B  J J  !..r.  (19) The aggressive ohildren are those who are acting out their h o s t i l i t y against their parents and the outside world, and In addition to the problems mentioned there were two which brought the children into conflict with the lawt TABLE II. Age of Children in 1950  Charge  i  Theft  Case A.  15  B.  15  C.  17  D.  16  E.  19  F.  9  G.  3  H»  17  Theft  I.  18  Theft  Je  18  •OOCf«»«o««*  Sex immorality Running away; theft.  Table II. shows the ages in 1950 of the children studied and the number who became delinquent. Three girls appeared i n Juvenile Court; two boys were in Boys Industrial School.  Of the remainder, two of the ohild-  ren were young, 9 and 3 ysars respectively.  One g i r l was illegitimately  pregnant, while the remaining two have been i n the care of social agencies. Lorraine A., Shirley D., Arthur F. and B i l l I. a l l ran away from home, but Arthur did not appear i n Court.  Laura C. and Susan E. beoame  illegitimately pregnant; the latter's parents looked after her and she was not oharged.  B i l l I. was involved i n sex offences.  Children who run away from home do so partly to esoape from an unpleasant situation and partly because they hope i t w i l l c a l l attention  (20) to themselves and that their parents w i l l show concern about them. Lorraine A. and Susan D. ran away from home to avoid beating by their fathers, as did Arthur P. B i l l I. was completely out of control at home and was i n search of excitement with other members of his gang. hostile to their home environment and their parents.  A l l were  /  Laura C*s pregnancy appeared to be an unconscious expression of revolt against her inconsistent and over-strict father and may also have been an attempt to win his love by having his baby. She was consciously looking for the love that she never received at home. Susan E. was i n revolt against her mother's domination and the fact that she was given too much responsibility.  She had her revenge by bringing her baby home for  her parents to look after.  It seems possible that she was one of those  girls discussed by Leontine Young , who i s tied to her mother by her 1  infantile dependency needs and who has her baby to give to her mother i n revenge, because she oan work out her phantasy i n no other way.  Robert  Fliess, M.Do, explains the behavior of this group of girls as follows: "Her pre-oedipal sexuality has....persisted into adolescence....; there was no other way of outgrowing i t than by acting i t out. Once this i s done she oan become "oedipal" and perform the subsequent steps i n the development  „2.  of a woman.  n  Physical Effects of Rejeotion Table III. shows the physical development and illnesses of each of the ten children.  Each reaoted i n a specific way to his home environ-  ment and to the common factor of rejection.  Six were breast-fed, two were  1. Young, Leontine, Out of Wedlock. A Study of the Problems of the Unmarried Mother and her Child. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.; New York, Toronto, London. 2. Fliess, Robert, M.D. "On the Psychology of Two Types of Unmarried Mothers; A Psychoanalytic Postscript", included i n Young, Leontine, op.cit.l.  1 9 5 k »  (21) bottle-fed and we have no information about the remaining  two.  TABLE III. Physical Development and Illnesses of Rejected Children A.  Breach birth, breast-fed, childhood diseases, bites fingernails;  B.  Breast-fed, childhood diseases, carbuncles;  C. D.  Nervous mannerisms, t i e in one eye, stutters; Bottle-fed, f a l l on head at 1^ years, broke leg, measles and mumps (serious), eyeglasses, tonsillectomy, headaches, toothaches, bowel troubles, menstrual pains, never feels well, bites fingernails;  E.  Breast-fed 3 months, toilet-trained at 9 months, childhood diseases, appendectomy, eyeglasses, kidney trouble;  F.  Bottle-fed, bronchitis 8 months, severe whooping-cough, pneumonia, slow development, squint when tired, huge appetite;  G.  Born by caesarean seetion, breast-fed 3 months, t o i l e t trained at one year, slow talking, measles, seizures, bites fingernails;  He  Apparently normal development but economic privation;  I.  Breast-fed, childhood diseases, broken arm, abscessed leg. Osteomyelitis, sight-sweats, masturbates;  J«  Breast-fed, bronchial pneumonia at 1 year, hospitalized «3 times before 6 years, childhood diseases, blood-poisoning, rectal abscess, tonsillectomy, circumcision. Shirley D., born when her mother was 1 5 , was probably neglected  from the start and none of the family are particularly healthy because they have not had enough proper food. defence.  However, Shirley used illness as a  She was lazy and used the excuse that she did not feel well, i f  asked to do anything.  She had acute menstrual cramps and i t i s noticeable  that she always ran away close to or during her period.  It would seem that  her mother•e previous^ experiences, a l l of which had been discussed with her,  (22) may have made her dissatisfied with her feminine role,and the menstrual pains are a sign of this. Susan E. had a dominating mother and was completely toilet-trained at 9 months, later she developed a kidney condition which may have been partly imitation of her mother, who retreated into illness when l i f e was too hard, and partly an ezpression of h o s t i l i t y against harsh treatment. Arthur F . was rejected by his mother from birth; he was improperly fed and olothed, which resulted i n bronchitis, whooping-cough and WAS  pneumonia whilst he was s t i l l very young. His huge appetiteMite probably an expression of his attempt to satisfy his unmet oral needs. At 8 months Dick S. developed seizures, whioh have no apparent organic basis.  He was toilet-trained at one year, but enuresis started  when he was two. His seizures appeartt&o be a reaction to his mother's rejeotion.  Sherds completely dominating, and at the same time overwas  protects, and he^s afraid of her. Besides childhood diseases, B i l l I. has had osteomyelitis, a broken arm and ah abscessed leg. He^e* physically well-developed but hac/L t e r r i f i c night-sweats, and constantly masturbates.  He has been untrained  and unhappy i n his home environment and has/ a sense of insecurity and social inadequacy. . Some of his hostility has been unconsciously expressed through illness. George J . had bronchial pneumonia at 1 year and was hospitalized three times before he was 6 years old.  Besides childhood diseases he had  blood-poisoning, a rectal abscess, a tonsillectomy and a circumcision. His mother overtly rejected him and he suffered from outright neglect and cruelty.  Some of his anxiety was expressed i n his various illnesses.  To  a small ohild a sojourn i n hospital may be very damaging, as he interprets  (23) i t as desertion by his parents, and operations represent a direct assault on his person; therefore, the illnesses caused by physical and emotional neglect resulted i n s t i l l further damage to George* Of the remaining four cases Lorraine A* had a tonsillectomy, and continually bites her nails* from carbuncles.  Margaret B. talked in her sleep and suffered  Johnny H* apparently developed normally. We have no  information on Laura C's early development, but at the time she appeared in Court she stuttered, had a t i c in one eye and showed a number of nervous mannerisms. The information shown in these oases indicated that the children showed both habit and oonduot disorders and most of them have more history of aocident or illness than most children, since their h o s t i l i t y and anxiety made i t s e l f f e l t i n tensions which produced some sort of physical symptoms. Over-Responsibility and Development of Super-Ego The mother of a rejected baby does not want to be bothered with i  him, therefore she often tries to push him into developing more rapidly than he should so that he may the sooner attain independence. Alternatively, she finds i t easier to keep him a helpless infant in crib or pen long after he should be learning to walk or explore.  In either oase she would  like to be r i d of him. The same process is followed again as the ohild reaches adolescence and sometimes before.  The rejected f i r s t child is expected to mature  earlier and take responsibility for his younger siblings.  Adolescence is  the time when the child conforms to the super-ego of the group of his peer8 and this i s frequently different to the super-ego which he acquired from his parents.  If he has emancipated himself too quiekly his super-ogo  (21+) is overthrown and he has nothing to put in i t s place.  Actually the ohild  who has been rejected from the start, either overtly or covertly, or who has been treated inconsistently, has had very l i t t l e chanoe to build up any sort of super-ego, and his reactions to his parents' treatment of him are hostile or anxious.  As he grows older, not having reosived love, he i s  unable to form a sufficiently strong relationship with his parents to enable him to incorporate their standards.  As he grows older, more demands are  made on him than he can readily meet.  He resents too much responsibility  and tries to avoid i t , but has l i t t l e chance to develop controls of his own, so that his independence i s apt to lead him into trouble with school authorities or the outside world. He projects the hostility he feels for his parents on to others through his aggressive behavior, and sooner or later he is likely to run foul of the law. B i l l l's aggressive behavior in attacking younger children, running away and stealing, steme^Trcm his need to retaliate and to escape, as well as the fact that he has a distorted super-ego acquired from inconsistent parents who were constantly quarrelling and venting their h o s t i l i t y on him. Use of the Child to Satisfy Neurotic Needs Four mothers made a neurotic use of their daughters by attempting to satisfy through them their own unmet dependency needs. One mother attempted to satisfy her needs through her son.  There was no sign that the  fathers attempted to do this, and only Mr. H. seemed to have his dependency needs met by his wife, and that only intermittently as Mrs. H. retired from r e a l i t y whenever l i f e became too much for her.  At that point Mr. H« turned  for r e l i e f to alcohol, as did a number of fathers.  (See Chapter III.)  A number of the parents appeared to take a vicarious delight in  (25) the delinquent or predelinquent behavior of the f i r s t child, as though he were doing the things they wished to do themselves*  They seemed almost  to push the child into delinquency with one hand whilst they held him back and punished him with the other.  This no doubt unoonscious process gave  them the double satisfaction of enjoying the child's behavior and giving them another excuse to punish him.  Also, i n doing this, they identified  with the child and f e l t that they were punishing themselves, so that the ohild was i n a true sense a scapegoat for his parents. Robert Lindner states that "children act according to what they read between the lines of evident parental behavior and demand, and somehow come to understand that the interior intention of the parents frequently differs from their exterior command; that the parents actually secretively often wish him to misbehave to relieve their own urgent impulses in that direction; that when he does, by punishing him the parents attain reassurance against their own revolt; that he i s i n a very real sense a sort of s a c r i f i c i a l victim to their unconscious wishes........; by identifying with the ohild of their flesh and blood they participate vioariously i n his insurrection.  and f i n a l l y they are presented with an opportunity  to discharge their hostilities against the child under conditions which appear right and just to them." " 1  Shirley D's father refused to allow her to bring boy friends into the house because he was afraid that his wife, only fifteen years older than Shirley, might have a boy friend, too. Mrs. p., an ignorant and unrealistic person said, after her hysterectomy, she f e l t that l i f e was over for her, and pushed Shirley towards marriage so that through her experiences she could gain some vicarious satisfaction. 1. Lindner, Robert, Prescription for Rebellion; Rinehart & Co. Inc. New York. Toronto, p. 73; published simultaneously in Canada by Clarke, Irwin & Co. Limited; Toronto. 1952.  (26) Mr8* Be has always been openly afraid that Susan would get into trouble.  In faot, the parents of a l l the girls seem to have feared that  their daughters would follow their example, and perhaps unoonsoieusly hoped that they would do so. Arthur F's mother and father have continually punished him and seemed to find their only satisfaction i n his notions when he was i n trouble and there was some sort of excuse to whip him. Johnny H's stealing seemed to be an attempt to replace the love that he never received.  At times his mother identifies with him and feels  that she is blamed for what he does, and therefore the punishment that he receives is hers. George J's mother tried to have him placed in a foster home. Possibly bad behavior was what she wanted of George i n order to justify i  the faot that she wished to hsve him oared for by others. A l l these parents have seen their child not as what he is but as something of which they can make neurotic use.  They seemed unconsciously  to wish to substitute punishment of the child for punishment of themselves, and therefore often urged him into delinquency i n order to make certain that he would be punished. Parental Quarrelling Since none of the cases studied present suooessful marriages, the parents involved find their own needs unsatisfied and are constantly quarrelling.  They tend to use the child to further their own disputes  and do not present any sort of united parental discipline.  If father i s  s t r i c t , mother is permissive; i f father says Yes, mother says No, not because of concern for the child but in order to anger the marital partner.  (27) Consequently the child, eves i f he avoids direct hostility, i s oaught in the crossfire of his parents' quarrels*  To a lesser extent this applies  to his siblings, but the oases studied indicate that the f i r s t child is likely to be used as the whipping-boy and is subject to more inconsistent treatment than his siblings.  CHAPTER III. THE PARENTS The parents rejeoted the f i r s t ohild because he was the cause of the marriage and the marriage was unhappy. The marriage may have been unhappy because the partners were immature, neurotic and incompatible, but also because i t was forced*  It was psycho™  logioal factors which led both men and women into a foroed marriage. Of the oases studied, two women said that the marriage was not foroed and that their parents would have helped them to make other plans. Two probably attempted oonsoiously to become pregnant in order to force the marriage, but claimed that they were compelled to marry.  The remaining six f e l t that the marriage was foroed and  largely undesired.  In general, the women wondered whether the man  would have married them had they not been pregnant, and the men expressed suspicion that their wives were running around with other men, sinoe they had had relations with them before marriage.  Of the  ten men, a l l appear to have f e l t that the marriage was foroed. Table 17 shows the attitude of both men and women toward the marriage)  (29) TABLE IV. Opinion of Clients l a Reference to Faotora Prompting Marriage Marriage Forced or Otherwise i Men Case A.  Yes  Women •  No i  Be  Yes .«••*........... Yes  C.  Yes  Yes  D.  Yes  Yes  B  Yes - l i t t l e objection- Yes  s  F.  Yes  Pregnancy probably deliberate  G.  Yes  E.  Yes  I. J.  Yes-little objeotion- Yes Yes ................ Pregnancy possibly deliberate  "  "  »  .....No i  Foroed Marriages Why did the foroed marriages take place at a l l .  Why were the  women not unmarried mothers and the men putative fathers?  i t seems that  none of these were l i t e r a l l y "shot-gun marriages and although pressure n  was brought to bear on the men^it was largely the social standards of their culture which, enforced by the feelings of the girls and their parents, resulted i n the marriage.  At a l l events we have no record indicating that  any of these men attempted to leave town or deny their responsibilities. Marriage was to them the most acceptable way out of their difficulty, otherwise they would have attempted other plans.  It i s possible that some  of these putative fathers unconsciously wished to be forced into marriage. A great, deal has been written on the psychology of the unmarried  (30) mother and very l i t t l e about putative fathers, probably because the latter are often illusive and shadowy figures.,  However, the psychology  of the putative father is somewhat similar to that of the unmarried motheri.  Samuel Futterman, M.D., and Jean Be Livermore, i n an article 1  on putative fathers, olaim that the boy's identification with his father sometimes involves acting out of the oedipal fancies, especially when the  father i s harsh and s t r i c t towards him.  The boy wishes to have a  ohild which he can think of as belonging to himself and his mother. Also a child represents to a man the sign of his own potency and makes him feel more secure i n the manhood which his fear of his father and his father's hostility has helped to make him doubt. Some unmarried fathers are s t i l l more immature and have not yet reached the oedipal stage. They are s t i l l tied to their mothers by their infantile dependency needs and have not attempted to identify with their fathers. ing  This type of unmarried father may unconsciously be attempt-  to revenge himself on his mother by impregnating another woman and  having a baby out of wedlook which he would like to take to his mother. His  hostile feelings towards his mother are transferred to a l l women, and  the  woman he impregnates means nothing to him except as the instrument  p through which he acts out his phantasy. Futterman and Livermore also state, "Many neurotics cannot assume eonsoious responsibility for their decisions, so that assuming the role of putative father i s a sort of retreat.  That i s , on their own they  lo Futterman, j^amuel, and Livermore, Jean B. "Putative Fathers". Journal of Sooial Casework; Vol. 28; No.5; May, I9lfl; p. 17k. 2. Young, Leontine. Out of lediopk. A Study of the Problems of the Unmarried Mother and her Child. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York; Toronto; London. Chapter 8, p.131.  (31) cannot make decisions about anything, and putative fatherhood sort of propels them into marriage"  We have not sufficient information about  the father's family, but the following table shows the father's relationship to parents as far as possible; TABLE V. ELEMENTS OP FATHER'S RELATIONSHIP TO PARENTS Case A.  Tie to mother never resolved;  B*  Over-indulged by mother; father often absent;  C.  Parents had high standards - rebooted him after his marriage;  D.  Deprived and insecure emotionally and economically;  E«  L i t t l e information - apparently deprived and inseoure;  F.  111, over-indulged, given no responsibility;  G.  Strict father, deprived;  H.  Rejected by parents, inseoure, inferior to siblings;  I.  Over-striot parents;  J.  Strict father, mother uninterested; f e l t inferior to family;  Table 7. shows the father's relationship to his own parents  c  in  eaoh of the ten oases he was treated i n such a manner as to make i t unlikely that he oan work through his oedipal phase and identify with his father, and his neurotic need to prove his manhood by impregnation seems also to have involved readiness to be pushed into marriage*  It would seem  from the oases studied that a foroed marriage i s likely to take place when 1.  op. Cit. p. 175  (32) the man involved has not completed his emotional development and suooeeded i n identifying himself with the male figure of his father. In the oases studied there does not appear to be any evidence to show why some of these men did not remain putative fathers*  Mr* E*  had been married before and i t i s possible that he thought of marriage as more satisfactory than promiscuity* Mr* I. was very neurotic and he may have been one of those who allowed himself to be pushed into marriage because he found i t d i f f i c u l t to make deoisions. Mr* G. had received an injury similar to castration and Mrs* G's pregnancy restored his feeling of potenoy*  Mr* G* does not appear to have  rejeoted his f i r s t ohild, but each of the other fathers have done so when they found the marriage unsatisfactory.  This would seem to indicate that  Mr* G* has found some satisfaction i n his marriage, and does not need to hate the child that was the cause of the marriage, which he admits was foroed. For the remaining fathers, possibly marriage, even i f foroed, offered them some status.  We do not know.  Mother's reasons for Entry into Foroed Marriage Of the ten women, Mrs* G. and Mrs* J* consciously attempted to foroe marriage by becoming pregnant.  Mrs. A* and Mrs. H* said that their  parents would have helped them, but they wanted marriage when onoe pregnant.  Table VI shows mother's relationship to parents:  (33) TABLE 71 ELEMENTS OF MOTHER'S RELATIONSHIP TO PARENTS Case A.  Vindictive mother, unresolved tie to father;  B.  Over-strict father;  C.  Deprived financially - l i t t l e information;  D.  Deprived; father died;  E.  Deprived; s t r i c t mother; father not mentioned  F#  Deprived; inadequate, shadowy father;  G.  Striot, depriving father; loving mother;  H.  Domineering, over-protective mother; striot father;  I.  Neurotic, unstable parents;  J*  Inadequate father; hostile mother;  It i s possible that some of these girls retained their infantile dependence on their mothers, and did not even reach the oedipal stage. In any oase they had l i t t l e chance to resolve an oedipal tie to their fathers, and where the mother was hostile there may have been an additional reason unconsciously to desire to have their father's child.  Mrs. A*, Mrs. B.  and Mrs. H. might come i n this oategory. Mrs. C. was not only deprived of love and affection, but the l i t t l e sister whom she cared for was given up for adoption.  She was seeking for  love^and might have been hoping for a baby to replace the sister she lost. Mrs. D. w s deprived i n every way and came of a family of very low a  social and moral standards where her behavior would be accepted.  It is  possible that she was an ignorant victim. Mrs. F. and Mrs. J . may have become pregnant deliberately to  (3k) foroa the marriage and get away from poor home situations.  Mrs. G. also  may have wanted to beoome pregnant as the only way to oapture Mr. G. whom she had a need to dominate. Mrs. E. was adopted by a hard, dominating mother and we hear nothing about a father.  It is possible that her pregnanoy was a revenge  on her mother. Of Mrs. I. we know only that she earns of a very neurotic  family  and f e l t much guilt. Both mothers and fathers had been rejected to some degree by their own parents.  This rejeotion and their inability to work through their  feelings towards their parents was largely the oause of the forced marriage. They, i n their turn, have rejected the f i r s t ohild of that marriage. In the oases studied there i s no evidence of rejeotion of the siblings to the same degree as the firstborn, although the other children w i l l undoubtedly suffer from the unhappy marriage. TABLE VII FORM OF REJECTION SHOWN BY PARENTS Mother Cass (Girls) A. Over-proteotion, over-responsibility. B. Over-indulgence. Ce  Over -pr o tec t i on» over-responsibility.  D. Overt rejeotion, over-responsibility.  Father Over-strict, oruel. Over-indulgence; negleot Over-strict, cruel. Overt rejeotion.  Over-indulgence, over-responsibility.  Over-strict, oruel.  Overt rejeotion.  Overt rejeotion.  G. Over -pr oteo tion.  Does not reject.  H.  Overt rejeotion.  Overt rejeotion.  I.  Over-protection, over-responsibility.  Over-indulgence.  J.  Overt rejeotion, over -r es pons i bi l i ty. Overt rejeotion.  E.  (Boys) F.  (35) Table VII* shows th© type of rejeotion by father and mother i n each oase*  It would seem that the fathers do not feel so much guilt  about the marriage as do their wives. Eight of them overtly rejeot or else are over-strict and cruel* Mr* G* i s the only man who does not reject and he may well feel that he gained something from the marriage in proof of his masculinity*  Mr* B* treated his ohild with over-indulgence and neglect,  and Mr* I* with over-indulgence. We know that Mr. I. expressed guilt about the marriage, and Mr. B. may have had some guilt feelings* Mr* A* seemg</to have guilt feelings about his desertion of his mother when he married, and i t is possible that he projected some of the hostility he f e l t for his wife on to Lorraine*  Mr. J . may have f e l t that  his marriage was a lowering of his family standards, and projected his feelings of hostility on to George. The remaining fathers showed overt hostility toward the f i r s t ohild and did not appear to feel guilt.  A l l were immature persons*  Our moral  standard i s s t i l l a double one and more blame i s attached to the woman than to the man, henoa i t is to be expeoted that she would feel more guilt. Of the mothers, only four were openly hostile, and three of these, Mrs* D« Mrs* F* and Mrs. J., openly blamed the child for the marriage* a  Four mothers manifested their guilt through over-proteotion and two by over-indulgence* ' In addition, six of the ten mothers gave the ohild too much responsibility.  No doubt the fathers also shared in this, but the  ohildren blamed the mother*  The mothers expeoted too much of four girls  and two boys, and two of the remaining boys were too young to be given any responsibility. Over-responsibility would appear to be an expression of the same feeling of hostility as the father's over-strictness. It may be an additional way of punishing the child by making him face some of the  (36) d i f f i c u l t i e s created by the marriage and carry some of the burdens. Another manifestation of this attitude of the mother, whioh appeared i n five of the ten cases, i s her attempt to satisfy her own unmet dependency needs through the ohild.  In four cases the girls or their mothers remarked  that $hey were just like sisters and disoussed everything together.  This i s  also i n effect passing on part of the burden of the marriage to the cause of i t .  In only one case, "I.",did the mother attempt to satisfy her needs  through her son by putting him i n the place of his inadequate father, and i n this case there was also a neurotic sexual t i e . Of the five girls two were over-protected and two over-indulged by the mother.  In the f i f t h case, Mrs. D. was married at li|. and completely  rejected her f i r s t child. Both fathers and mothers expressed open fear lest their daughters become illegitimately pregnant.  Table VIII shows the father's treatment of  his daughter and son as compared with his own relationship to his parents: TABLE VIII. Father's Treatment of Child Compared to Father's Relationship with Own Parents Father's Treatment of Daughter Father's Relationship to Parents (Girls) A.  Over-strict, oruel.  Never resolved tie to mother.  B.  Indulgence and neglect.  Over-indulged.  C.  Over-strict, cruel.  Strict parents, high standards.  D.  Overt rejeotion.  Deprived economically and emotionally  E.  Over-strict.  Deprived and inseoure.  Father's Treatment of Son (Boys) F.  Overt rejeotion  Sick,over-indulged,no responsibility  G.  Does not reject; helps.  Strict father, deprived.  He  Overt rejection.  Rejected and inseoure.  I.  Over-indulged.  Striot parents.  J.  Hatred and jealousy.  Rejected.  (37) In those oases t^here the f i r s t ohild was a g i r l , the fathers i a four oases treated them with cruelty aad/or over-strictness which appears much the same to the ohild. neglectful.  Mr. 8. was alternately over-indulgent or  Negleot is i t s e l f a form of cruelty, and his indulgence was  generally meant to annoy his immature wife.  He himself was immature aad  over-indulged' by his mother aad father. Mr* A. may have f e l t hostility to his wife who had come between himself and his mother, and he projected some of this on to Lorraine. Mr. C. and Mr. E. f e l t inadequate and insecure and projected their h o s t i l i t y on to the f i r s t child, while Mr. D.,who had known no love and security himself^could foous his aggression and hostility on Shirley, who oould not retaliate.  Except for Mr. G. the fathers of the boys had been  rejected by their parents and treated their sons with hostility except for Mr. I . who over-indulged B i l l . 0  He had guilt about the marriage because of  the high standards and striotness of his parents and his neurotic personality. Table IX shows the attitudes of the mothers to the f i r s t ohild compared with the treatment which they themselves received from their parents: TABLE IX. Mother's Treatment of Child Compared to Mother's Relationship with Own Parents Mother's Treatment of Daughter Mother's Relationship to Parents (Girls) A. Over-proteotion, over-responsibility. Rejeoting mother, t i e to father. B. Over-indulgence. Striot, r i g i d parents. C. Over =protection,over-responsibility.  Careless, oare-free parents.  D. Overt rejeotion,over-responsibility.  Daprived,widowed mother.  E. Over-indulged.  Hard mother, deprived.  Mother's Treatment of Son (Boys) p. overt rejeotion G. Over-proteotion H. Overt rejeotion  Over-responsibility,inadequate parents. Over-protective mother, striot, depriving f a tiier. Domineering mother, striot father.  I. Over-protection, over-responsibility., J. Overt rejeotion,over-respoasibility.  Neurotic, unpredictable family. Inadequate father,nagging mother.  (38) Some of the mothers studied treated their daughters in the opposite manner to whioh they were treated by their parents*  That i s to  say, the mothers who had strict parents treated their children with overindulgence, and those who had carefree, indulgent parents over-protected their children*  Other mothers treated their children in the same manner  in which they were treated* A mother whose marriage was not forced may develop considerable h o s t i l i t y to a ohild i f her pregnancy was a period of frustration and unpleasantness, or i f she was deprived physically or emotionally*  The  mother i n a foroed marriage* expeoting. the arrival of her f i r s t child, tied to a mate she feels did not want her, and frequently in a preoarious financial situation, i s not likely to have a happy pregnancy*  Her state  is actually often worse than that of the unmarried mother who phantasies that she is having her father's baby, hopes that the putative father may marry her, or tries to deny her pregnancy, or r e a l i s t i c a l l y plans for the adoption of her child. The expectant mother in a foroed marriage cannot phantasy; she is faced with stern, bitter reality in the Shape of the actual father and marital situation, and her child is likely to be rejected before i t is born.  When the ohild arrives i t is something upon which she oan vent her  hostility either overtly or oovertly.  The attitude she adopted i n the ten  eases studied included four oasesj B., C. and E., where the mother treated the child i n the opposite manner to that in which her parents treated her. This might well be a reaction formation; the mother is afraid that she w i l l treat the child as she was treated, so she avoids this by doing the exact opposite.  Mrs. I. tried to over-protect B i l l ; a l l we know of her parents  is that they were unpredictable*  Mrs* G. over-protected, which was  the  (39) same treatment that she received from her mother, but she had a rebooting father. Overt rejeotion appeared i n the case of Mrs* D*, who received no love and affection herself and remained too immature to give to her child*  Gr, -a* i n the oases of Mrs. F*. Mrs. E* and Mrs* J * who projected  the hostility aroused by the unhappy marriage on to the f i r s t ohild. Physioal Illness TABLE X. Parents Showing Signs of Illness and/or Alcoholism Men Case A.  Women  Diabetes  B*  Alcohol  Co  Stomach ulcers, alcohol.  D*  Alcohol  E*  Arthritis  F*  St* Vitus Dance, 7 years in Solarium.  Eernia, gall-bladder, kidney, heart affected. Obese, heart, thyroid. -  Go  E*  Alcohol.  I.  Alcohol  Jo  Table X* shows the number of parents whose tensions and anxieties were manifested i n illness or i n alooholiem.  Four of the men showed a  specific disease* Mr. F's illness began in his childhood and was not the result of his unhappy marriage, but because of i t he was over-indulged by his parents and developed into a dependent personality unable to accept  responsibility. Mr. A's disease appeared f i r s t when he was on his honeymoon, and Mr. C. has stomach ulcers.  Five of the men frequently take refuge  in alcohol, including Mr. C , despite (or beoauee of) his ulcers. Only two £>f the women showed definite physical symptoms. In addition, Mrs. D. had numerous miscarriages and f i n a l l y a hysterectomy. Mrs. F. also had a record of numerous miscarriages, and Mrs. I. was f i n a l l y sterilized after an abortion. Four of the women regularly worked outside the home, partly because of the economic necessity but also, no doubt, to obtain the satisfactions and status that they did not receive at home. Mrs. F. satisfied her neurotic needs by boarding other people's babies, although she neglected her own son.  Possibly the  satisfactions obtained from work outside the home, or even from the children,  account for the fact that only two women regularly retreat into i l l -  ness and none into alcoholism,  "r perhaps the fact that five women, Mrs.  A., Mrs. B«, Mrs. C , Mrs. D. and Mrs. J., succeeded i n satisfying some of their dependency needs through their f i r s t child might explain why they did not show more physical symptoms.  It i s culturally acceptable for a  woman to be dependent, but not for a man; illness and alcoholism are more acceptable for him. Both men and women are attempting to satisfy previously unmet infantile needs. A l l these parents showed hostility to their partners and to the f i r s t child, who may be identified with their own over-strict and hostile parents, and their immaturity resulted i n inconsistent treatment of the child.  A l l these factors tended to make them poor parents and particularly  so toward the f i r s t child.  He was the focus of hostility and conscious or  unconscious guilt; he was treated with cruelty or neglect or over-proteoted  (1+1)  and over-indulged.  In either oase he received treatment which was  likely to hamper his physical and emotional development.  In addition  he was likely to be given too much responsibility and expected to mature more rapidly than he was able, whioh meant that he was forced to discard his dependency needs before he was ready to do so.  He  was also the child who was most often picked by the mothers to satisfy their own unmet dependency needs. Adelaide M. Johnson M.D.,  Ph.D., in an article, "A Contribution  to Treatment of Super-ego Defect",  1  points out that an inconsistent  mother often gives love and approbation to the child only when he is taking responsibility, and that she does not allow him to be dependent, whioh is a necessary part of his growing up.  She indicates that one  ohild in a family may be singled out for hostile treatment by the parents who perhaps unconsciously even wish him to be delinquent because he then aots out the hostile impulses whioh they themselves have been foroed to repress, and they gain vicarious satisfaction from this and the ensuing punishment.  It would appear that in a forced  , marriage the child picked thus to satisfy his parents' neurotic needs is most likely to be the f i r s t child, since the hostility already f e l t for him by his parents makes him the natural scapegoat, and since he represents their sin for which they feel they should be punished.  1. Johnson, Adelaide M., M.D. Ph.D. "A Contribution to Treatment of Super-Ego Defect." Social Case Work; April, 1950; p. 135  CHAPTER 17. CONCLUSIONS It can not be stated dogmatically that a foroed marriage must lead to rejeotion of the f i r s t child, but i n the ten cases picked at i  random each f i r s t ohild was rejected.  Therefore, i t can be said that  possible rejeotion i s an extra hazard that the f i r s t ohild of a forced marriage must face. There appeared to be no happy, satisfactory marriage i n the group studied.  If a foroed marriage i s happy, then the primary reason  for rejeotion of the f i r s t child i s non-existent. Indeed i t i s possible that the f i r s t child might be especially cherished as the cause of a happy situation rather than resented as the oause of an unhappy one. It would appear that the cases which coma to the attention of social agencies are those forced marriages which are unhappy, where the f i r s t child i s rejected.  The parents i n the oases studied were  immature people who had not succeeded i n working out their emotional relationships within their own family group, and the woman's pregnancy, which precipitated the marriage, was the result of unconscious needs on the part of both the man and the woman due to their emotional problems. Since they were not ready to make a mature heterosexual adjustment they were unlikely to make a successful marriage.  With the marriage unsuccess-  f u l ^ and their emotional needs not adequately met by their parents earlier^ or by the marital partner, they sought satisfaction and release of tension in other ways.  00) . These rejected f i r s t children, a l l of whom showed signs of emotional damage, are themselves potential parents and unless something oan be done to^help them they are likely i n their return to rejeot their own children*  They are maladjusted, damaged personalities because  of the treatment they received from their parents, who were i n their time the product of inconsistent and rejecting treatment by their own parents*  If the case histories went back far enough we should probably  find that they, i n their turn, were rejeoted by their parents*  It i s  the responsibility of social work agencies whioh are i n oontact with these families to break the sequence of cause and effect whioh results i n the development of emotionally maladjusted individuals*  Unfortunately  these children do not always come to the attention of social agencies u n t i l their problems have developed to the point where they are either pre-delinquent or delinquent* These are the children who are reacting to the hostility of  i their environment by acting out their conflicts outside the home* Father and mother have been at the least unkind, and often deliberately oruel* The child's attempts to express his hostile feelings against his parents have met with punishment and further rejection, and since he i s not big enough to dare to fight his parents he relieves his tensions by aggressive behavior; he fights with other children, steals, runs away from home and i s rebellious i n school* For every delinquent ohild before the courts there are numbers of pre-delinquents whose neighbors talk avidly of the trouble they w i l l soon be i n , and prophesy the arrival of the police; whose parents warn them of impending disaster, and who say of themselves, half-frightened and half-defiant, that they w i l l soon be i n the industrial sohool.  040 Beside the hostile, aggressive children, there are those who withdraw and those whose tensions are expressed i n physical illness. The non-aggressive child attempts again and again to win his parents' love but is always unsuccessful. His feelings of hostility to his parents and his fear of retaliation result i n guilt; he represses these feelings and tries to be a good child.  His inner conflict and the effort involved  in repression may result i n the development of behavior disorders, may prevent a satisfactory school adjustment and the child may ultimately withdraw into himself, since he gains no satisfaction from relationships in the outside world.  In order to gain the love and attention he so  desperately needs he may develop some physical symptoms, hoping that mother w i l l look after him as she did when he was an infant. It is important that these rejected children be given help as early as possible, but our present organization for the promotion of mental health i s not as well established as that which looks after the physical health of our children.  Vancouver's metropolitan area has a  well organized system of baby c l i n i c s , where mothers can take their infants for immunization and help with feeding problems and general care* Unfortunately the overtly rejecting mother who neglects her baby i s not likely to take the trouble to attend a baby olinic regularly, and the over-protective and over-indulgent mother w i l l not change her methods of baby care i n response to advice if her guilt is unconscious and her need to compensate for guilt feelings i s great.  Unless the mother and the  father can be reaohed at this point, rejection of the child w i l l continue. Actually, the only parents who are likely to receive treatment when the child i s small are those who come to agencies for help with some other problem.  (k5) The older child who i s a problem i n school w i l l certainly come to the attention of the teachers^whether he is disobedient and troublemaking, or merely dreams and does not work. ome of these problem s  ohildren are referred to the school psychiatrist, some to the Child Guidance Clinic and some to other social agencies. Some of these rejected children behave well i n school and therefore many of them are not referred for  help u n t i l some emergency arises and they are on the verge of delin-  quency or already before the court. It is important that school authorities make i t possible for agencies to do some preventive work by referring the children who need help as soon as i t becomes apparent that there is a problem. At this point the family must be brought into the picture, and work must be done with the parents as well as the child. Since i t is the home environment which is largely responsible for  the behavior of the child, some attempt to modify conditions in the  home is necessary i f progress i s to be made with the child i n treatment, and i f that progress i s to be maintained.  It may be possible for a case-  worker, ao ting as a "good mother" or "good father" to the ohild, to help him to see that a l l the world i s not hostile; that the case-worker  likes  the child, even i f he does things which he has been told are bad, and other people may like him too, so i t is not necessary for him to be continually rebellious and destructive.  But as the child develops  security with the worker he continues to live i n the same environment whioh produoed his problems; his parents are s t i l l rejecting; they s t i l l see the child as a convenient scapegoat for their hostility and guilt and as an objeot to satisfy their neurotic needs.  Therefore, i t i s  essential that an effort be made to bring one i f not both of the parents to the agency for treatment.  An understanding of the home situation i s  (k6) 1360633ary for proper diagnosis of the child, and this understanding i n volves a knowledge of the parents as people with problems of their own. It is frequently d i f f i c u l t for the parents to understand that they are a part of the child's problem.  If they can be helped to understand this  i t i s possible that they may be able to modify their behavior and rsoognize the child's needs apart from their own. Even a slight change i n the home situation may make i t possible for the child to develop a better relationship with his parentsj more acceptance and less rejeotion may make i t less necessary for him to act out his hostility or withdraw from hi3 environment. If the mother (and i t i s usually she who comes to an agency) can accept help with her own problems, the case-worker, by giving her the understanding and acceptance she needs, may gradually help her to reoognize that she is part of her child's problem and that her behavior towards her child is the result of her relationships to her own parents and siblings and of her own unmet needs.  If she can be helped to  satisfy some of her needs i n a more normal and adult way, and i f some of her guilt can be relieved, she may no longer need to feel such hostility to her f i r s t child.  Even i f the mother i s unwilling to come for  regular treatment interviews, i t i s sometimes possible through environmental manipulation© such as finding a part-time job^or better housing, to help the mother obtain increased status and satisfaction, and by this means to decrease her hostility to the child.  However, unless the mother  is helped to modify her harsh treatment of the ohild because she sees her part i n the problem, i t i s unlikely that any improvement i n the situation w i l l be maintained. The rejected child who has a weak super-ego and whose delinquency  •  {  k  l  )  has been unconsciously encouraged by his parent oan be helped by the worker to develop new standards based on the worker as a parent figure, but i f he remains i n his own home the parents must be helped to modify their demands and to see the part which they themselves have played i n fostering bad behavior.  If the case-worker gives support to the mother  in the healthy areas of her personality, by being the "corrected mother" and giving the mother the experience of help, she may sometimes gain some understanding of her behavior and the fact that she has actually encouraged the child's delinquency*  If she i s able to recognize this  she may be able to control her impulses and see the child as he i s and not as an instrument to gratify her neurotic needs. Treatment i s more often given to the mother than the father because the mother has usually more influence on the child i n his earlier years.  There i s not sufficient evidence i n the oases studied  to warrant any conclusion, but i t would appear that more mothers than fathers are willing to ask for help and admit that they have problems. One possible explanation of this might be that culturally a man i s expected to be strong, independent and self-reliant*  Therefore, i n  admitting that he has a problem and asking for help^he i s admitting that he lacks masculinity, and to avoid this he denies that any problem exists. There are many rejeoted children who never become delinquent, but they are s t i l l maladjusted personalities, not f i t to oope with a l l the varied experiences they meet i n l i f e , or to become adequate parents i n their turn.  The ohild who conforms and withdraws i s very likely to  be overlooked, but he too i s a damaged person. Some foroed marriages can be prevented i f alternative plans are offered to the unmarried mother and she is helped to place her child for  (UB) adoption*  She must also be helped to understand her feelings about her  parents and to mature to the point where she no longer uses her baby to meet her unoonscious need*  The oase-worker, by aoting as a warm and  giving mother to the g i r l , gives her support and help in her plans to gain some happiness for herself.  If the g i r l has sufficient confidence  in the worker she may be able to look at her own situation and understand the reasons for her behavior, and i f she can do this she may find i t easier to relinquish her baby for adoption.  A large number of i l l e g i t -  imately pregnant girls do seek help from sooial agencies, but there are s t i l l those, ignorant of the services offered, who are married in shame and haste i n an attempt to cover up their behavior. We need better interpretation of available services. If the marriage doss take place the mother may be helped to understand some of the baby's needs.  The Victorian Order of Nurses i s  offering lectures to expectant mothers whioh include talks by nurses and social workers.  Some churches sponsor marriage clinics, and oourses are  offered i n parent education by the educational authorities*  A l l these  things oan help, but parents rejeot and use the f i r s t child as an object of hostility because of guilt and because the marriage i n whioh they find themselves i s so unsatisfactory*  If they oan be helped toward r e l i e f of  guilt they w i l l not find i t so neoessary to satisfy neurotio needs through the child*  If they oan be assisted i n finding more normal satis-  factions, both i n and out of marriage, the whole home situation w i l l be improved.  By improving the marriage we improve the child's chance of  normal development, so that when he becomes a parent in his turn, his ohild may be aooepted and not rejected.  m Bach child i s an individual and some children show more resistance than others to the various traumata they meet©  No child  oan encounter oontinued rejeotion from one or both parents without suffering damage which w i l l prevent him developing a mature and well integrated personality.  The f i r s t child of a foroed marriage runs an  enormous risk of rejeotion which results in his becoming an immature personality, making a poor marriage adjustment and becoming a poor parent i n his turn.  APPENDIX "A"  BIBLIOGRAPHY English, 0. Spurgeoh and Pearson, Gerald H.J., Common Neuroses of Children and Adults; W.W. Norton; New York; 1937 Tosselyn, Irene M., The Psychosocial Development of Children; Family Service Association of America; New York; 1948 Menninger, K a r l and Leaf, Munro, You and Psychiatry; Scribner's; New York; 1948 Freud, Anna, The Ego and Mechanisms of Defense; International universities Press; New York; 1946 Hinsie & Schatzky, Psychiatric Dictionary; Oxford University Press; London, New York. Fenichel, Otto, Psychoanalytic Theory of Neur,osis; W.W.Norton; Sew York,1945 Fromm-Reichmann, Freida, M.D., Principles of Intensive Psychotherapy; The University of Chicago Press; 1950 Benedict, Kuth, Patterns of Culture; Penguin Books; 1946 Deutsch, Helene, The Psychology of Women; Vols. 1 & 2, Gunne & Stretton; 1944 H o l l i s , Florence, Women i n ;eaarital C o n i l i c t ; Family Service Association of America; l\iew York; 1949 A l l e n , Frederick, Psychotherapy with ohildren; W.W. .Norton; Sew York, 1942 Freud, Sigmund, Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex; i n "The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud"; The Modern Library; flew York; 1938 namilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy i n Child Uuidance; Columbia university Press; flew York; 1947 Kibble, Margaret, The Rights of Infants; Columbia University Press; New York, 1948 Dunbar, Flanders, mind and Body; Random House; New York; 1947 B a r t l e t t , Harriett M., Some Aspects of Social Casework i n a Medical Setting; Prepared f o r Committee on Functions, American Association of Medical s o c i a l Workers; Chicago; 1940  1/  (51)  U r e e n a c r e P h y l l i s , M.D., Trauma, Growth and Personality;'W.W. and Go. 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Reymert, f e e l i n g s and Emotions; McGraw-Hill Book uo., I n c . ; New York, T o r o n t o , London; 1950 Lindner, Robert, P r e s c r i p t i o n f o r R e b e l l i o n ; Rinehart & Co.j T o r o n t o ; 1952  New  York,  E n g l i s h , 0. Spurgeon and Pearson, G e r a l d H.J., E m o t i o n a l Problems o f Living;: tff.tv. Norton; New York, 1945 loung, L e o n t i n e , Out o f mediock, A S t u d y o f t h e Problems o f t h e Unmarried Mother and Her C h i l d ; M c u r a w - H i l l Sook Co. I n c . ; New xork, T o r o n t o , London; 1954 Johnson, A d e l a i d e , M.D., Ph.D., "A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Treatment o f Superego D e f e c t " , S o c i a l Casework, A p r i l , 1950, p.135 G o l d s m i t t , J . and K., "Treatment o f and A d o l e s c e n t w i t h Superego D e f e c t " , S o c i a l Casework, A p r i l 1950, p.139 Symonds, P e r c i v a l , "A Study o f P a r e n t a l A c c e p t a n c e and R e j e c t i o n " , American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , October 1938 Futterman, Samuel, M.D., and Jean JB. L i v e r m o r e , " P u t a t i v e F a t h e r s " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, m y 1947,. p. 174 B l o c k , S a b e t t e , "The Unmarried Mother - I s She D i f f e r e n t " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, J u l y 1945, p. 163  (52)  Xoung, L e o n t i n e R., " P e r s o n a l i t y P a t t e r n s i n Unmarried M o t h e r s " , The F a m i l y , December 1945, p. 296 aehmideberg, M e l i t t a , ia.D., " P s y o n i a t r i c - S o c i a l F a c t o r s i n xoung Unmarried M o t h e r s " , S o c i a l Casework, J a n u a r y 1951, p.3 Judge, Jane U., "Casework w i t h t h e Unmarried Mother i n a F a m i l y Agency", S o c i a l Casework, J a n u a r y 1951, p.7 n e r n e y , £., " M a t e r n a l C o n f l i c t s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 3, 1933 tfinbord, A l b e r t S. and P a r k e r , I d a R., What Becomes o f t h e Unmarried M o t h e r ? , R e s e a r c h Bureau on S o c i a l Casework; B o s t o n ; 1927 E a s a n i n , J . and aandschen, S i e g l i n d e , "Psychodynamic F a c t o r s i n I l l e g i t i m a c y " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o r O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , January 1941,pp.66-85 C l o t h i e r , F l o r e n c e , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Unmarried P a r e n t h o o d " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , J u l y 1943, p.531 H o r l o c k , fiiaud, "Some A s p e c t s o f I l l e g i t i m a c y " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C a n a d i a n Conference o f S o c i a l Workers, . H a l i f a x 1946 Mangold, ueorge , " C h i l d r e n .born out o f Wedlock", U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s , V o l . 3, No. 3, 1921 R e i d e r , Norman, "The Unmarried f a t h e r " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Conference o f o o c i a l Work:, A p r i l 16, 1947 a a r s h , j a a r g u e r i t e , "Common A t t i t u d e s Toward t h e Unmarried r a t h e r " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l Work, 1940 tsrenner, R u t h , "Casework S e r v i c e s f o r Unmarried M o t h e r s " , The F a m i l y , November and December 1941 . t t r i s l e y , Mary S., " P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Unmarried P a r e n t h o o d " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , J u l y 1943 McCrae, H e l e n , " R e c i d i v i s m i n Unmarried M o t h e r s : Problems o f t h e S o c i a l Work A p p r o a c h " , T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. N e w e l l , H.W., M.D., "The Psychodynamics o f 'Maternal R e j e c t i o n " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 4, No. 3, J u l y 1934 N e w e l l , H.W., M.D., "A F u r t h e r S t u d y o f i n t e r n a l R e j e c t i o n " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y " , V o l . 6 , No. 4, October 1936 L e v y , D a v i d M., " M a t e r n a l O v e r - p r o t e c t i o n and R e j e c t i o n " , j o u r n a l o f Nervous and M e n t a l D i s e a s e , V o l . 73, Jan.-June, 1931, pp. 65-70  (53)  Stemsrud, A l i c e , and Wardwell, S i b y l , "A Comparative study of fourteen S o c i a l l y Well Adjusted Children with t h e i r Ifoladjusted s i b l i n g s " , Smith college Studies i n S o c i a l Work Abstracted 4;165, Dec. 1953 Figge, Margaret, "Some .tractors i n the E t i o l o g y of Maternal Rejection" Smith College Studies i n S o c i a l tYork 2, pp. 237-60, iaarch 1932 j^runk, C h r i s t i n e , "The E f f e c t s or imternal Over-protection on the E a r l y Development and Habits of c h i l d r e n " , Smith College Studies i n S o c i a l Work 2 pp. 261-73, isaarch 1932 Hough, E l i z a b e t h , "Some Factors i n the E t i o l o g y of i n t e r n a l Over-protection", Smith college Studies i n S o c i a l Work 2, pp. 188-208, xaaroh 1932 Lewenberg, jsaartha, "Marital Disharmony as a Factor i n the E t i o l o g y of .Maternal Over-protection", Smith college Studies i n S o c i a l Work 2. pp.224-36, March 1932 Uleason, jaary, "A Study of A t t i t u d e s Leading to the Rejection of the c h i l d by the Mother", Smith college Studies i n S o c i a l Work 1, pp.407-08, June 1931 Witmer, Helen L., "Studies i n jiaternal Over-protection and Rejection", Smith college Studies i n S o c i a l Work 2, pp.181-187, March 1932 Rosenheim, Frederick, "The character Structure o f a Rejected C h i l d " American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July 1942, p.486  APPENDIX "B"  CASE  Hti 0 O R B S  (#)  CASE I Lorraine A. was corn i n 1935.  She has two brothers and a  s i s t e r , respectively 5, 10 and 11 years younger than herself.  She  appeared, i n Juvenile Court charged with theft under $25.00 and spent some time i n the Detention Home.  Since she was i n Grade 8 she has been  truant ing and running away from home.  -The family f i r s t became known to  the Family Welfare Bureau when Mr. A. asked f o r domestic help at the time of his wife's fourth pregnancy. I t was noted then that he showed l i t t l e consideration for jars. A. and had no appreciation of her d i f f i c u l t i e s .  .aoth  said that she was f i v e months pregnant at the time of the marriage and that they had known one another f o r two years and "gone together" for one. .Mr. A. f e l t that the marriage had been "forced" but Mrs. A. claimed that she would have married him anyway and that her father would have helped her had not t h i s marriage been her wish. Mr. A. was the second of four children. He had an older sister who was i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant and later married and divorced.  His  younger brother made an apparently successful marriage and had a mentally retarded c h i l d , subsequently adopting a baby. His younger sister made an unhappy marriage and contracted tuberculosis.  Mr. A's father was a  clarinet player with the Symphony and Mr. A. expressed great envy of his ability.  Mr. A. Senior had died or cancer.  nir. A'S mother was a kind  person to whom he was very much attached, but since a stroke i n 1938  she  had been confined to hospital, and i n spite of his protestations of affect i o n he rarely v i s i t e d her there.  She was very resentful of his marriage.  Although the home was a harmonious one fir. A. feels that his parents were not s t r i c t enough with the children and he should have been spanked more  (56)  than he was.  Jie intended to be a teacner and passed his Senior Matricula-  t i o n examinations but the depression prevented any further education. After his father's death iie nelped h i s mother by playing the saxophone i n dance bands and i n 1935 when he was twenty-one he married tars. A., then seventeen and f i v e months pregnant.  up u n t i l t h i s time h i s health had  been good, but three days after his return from his honeymoon, he developed diabetes.  He was a pale, t h i n man with glasses and poorly-fitting false  teeth, bad tempered, i r r i t a b l e and over-strict with his children, and very possessive, jealous and suspicious of his wife.  ns worked as a chef at  Vancouver General ac-spital and seemed to be i n t e l l i g e n t , reliable and w e l l liked at his job. Mrs. A. was the eldest of three g i r l s and her siblings seemed to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y married but had no children, ner father was a pensioner of f o r l d War I , who had some stomach i l l n e s s .  She had a very  deep feeling for him, and when she became i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant i t was to her father that she turned and he promised to look after her i f she did not want to marry ar. A. he died i n her arms.  She remained very attached to him, and later  She claimed she was fond of her. mother but the  l a t t e r appeared to be somewhat vindictive and disliked her daughter. Mrs. A. was continually i n conflict with her mother and sisters, who were very c r i t i c a l of her. Grade 8.  She did poor work i n school and only reached  She wanted to marry Mr. A. and said that he was quite ready  to marry her but has since claimed she was a drawback to him. sex education and did not recognize the onset of labor.  She had no  After t h e i r  marriage they were on r e l i e f u n t i l 1939, after which a series of jobs ended  (57)  i n Mr. A. working as chef and Mrs. A. i n the ward kitchen at Vancouver General H o s p i t a l .  Mrs. A. claimed she worked t o buy extras for. herself  and the ch.ild.ren, e s p e c i a l l y Lorraine.  She was an a t t r a c t i v e woman but  an i n e f f i c i e n t housekeeper. M a r i t a l adjustment was very poor, no contraceptives were used and there was continual fear of pregnancy.  The s t r a i n of t h i s r e l a t i o n -  ship probably contributed t o Mr. A!s bad temper.  He b e l i t t l e d h i s wife,  objected t o her making f r i e n d s or taking part i n any associations such as the Parent-Teachers' Association, and refused to allow her or the c h i l d r e n t o have any friends i n the home.  He was suspicious and jealous and  claimed that she had had other men besides himself, that she l i e d t o him and ran up b i l l s at the stores.  There was continual s t r i f e i n the home,  and although he was o v e r - s t r i c t with a l l the c h i l d r e n he took out most of h i s resentment on Lorraine.  He beat her, refused her pocket money, and  i n s i s t e d that she come straight home from school to look a f t e r her s i b l i n g s . He would n o t . l e t her attend groups or bring f r i e n d s home and was t e r r i f i e d of her knowing any boys.  Mrs. A. said she loved Lorraine the best of  a l l her c h i l d r e n and t r i e d to protect her from her father.  She supported  her i n a l l she did and said she wanted Lorraine to have a better l i f e than she had.  She treated her more l i k e a s i s t e r than a daughter and discussed  a l l her problems with Lorraine, excusing her conduct on the grounds of the father's s t r i c t n e s s . protect the c h i l d r e n .  Mrs. A. claimed that she only stayed with Mr. A. t o At one time she l e f t him for several weeks.  ^Lorraine was a breach b i r t h , weighed 7 l b s . 1 oz. and was breast-fed f o r nine months.  She apparently developed normally, had  (58)  measles and whooping cough, and at f i v e years had a tonsillectomy. l i k e d sweet things, sleeps a l o t and bites her n a i l s .  She  She began to  menstruate at eleven, and began running away from home and truanting when i n Grade 8, giving as a reason that her father was mean to her. she played l a t e she was wandered away.  When  a f r a i d to go home because he whipped her, so she  On one occasion she was  picked up by the police a f t e r  spending a night i n Hurnaby, and, on another, a f t e r s t e a l i n g a dress i n New  Westminster.  This time she was placed i n the Detention Home and did  not want t o go home because she was a f r a i d of her father, but she was  needed  to look a f t e r her s i b l i n g s , as both parents work, and a f t e r a very angry scene with her father, was  permitted  to go back.  play with children her own  age and was  She had l i t t l e chance to  insecure with them.  she was uneasy, and unable to trust them.  She was  With adults  aware that she was  the  cause of her parents' marriage and that her father focused h i s resentment on her.  She was twice examined at the c h i l d Guidance C l i n i c ,  reported f i r s t that her father was  who  "aggressively imposing on her both  p h y s i c a l l y and psychologically", and that she reacted with h o s t i l i t y and fear.  Later the C l i n i c reported "Patient's self-concept may  be i n t e r -  preted as one of i s o l a t i o n i n the desert of human i n t e r a c t i o n .  She  probably has no very close personal r e l a t i o n s h i p with any one i n d i v i d u a l , though i n groups people are stimulating  easy enough to get along with even though not i t i s conceded that her r e l a t i o n s h i p to her  father constitutes the essence of the etiology of her present I n an endeavour to h e l p that Mr. A. see a p s y c h i a t r i s t .  difficulties".  the m a r i t a l s i t u a t i o n i t was  arranged  He showed l i t t l e willingness to co-  (59)  o p e r a t e and a f t e r a c o u p l e o f i n t e r v i e w s d i d not keep h i s appointments and l i t t l e p r o g r e s s was made.  He expressed t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e w o r l d  was governed by f e a r , and t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t f e l t t h a t he might be p r e psychotie.  He had a p p a r e n t l y never worked t h r o u g h h i s o e d i p a l c o n f l i c t  and s t i l l had much g u i l t about h i s mother and h i s d e s e r t i o n o f h e r t o m a r r y Mrs. A. significant.  The o n s e t o f d i a b e t e s t h r e e days a f t e r h i s honeymoon i s n i s sense o f g u i l t about t h e m a r r i a g e was f o c u s e d on  L o r r a i n e , t h e cause o f i t , and he t o o k out h i s resentment on h e r .  ne  was t e r r i f i e d t h a t L o r r a i n e might r e p e a t h e r mother.* s p a t t e r n i f she had a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h b o y s . M r s . A. was s t r o n g l y t i e d t o i i e r f a t h e r and r e s e n t e d h e r mother; t n i s was t n e p r o b a b l e cause o f h e r pregnancy.  ner g u i l t  f e e l i n g s about t h e m a r r i a g e r e s u l t e d i n o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n o f L o r r a i n e  •1 and p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h e r i n a n endeavour t o g i v e h e r t h e b e t t e r l i f e w h i c h she h e r s e l f m i s s e d . h e r own dependency needs.  A l s o , she used h e r t o s a t i s f y  L o r r a i n e was caught between h e r f a t h e r ' s  r e j e c t i o n and h o s t i l i t y and h e r mother's demands and o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n . She was a l w a y s g i v e n t o o much r e s p o n s i D i l i t y a t home and had no chance t o m i x w i t h t h o s e o f h e r own age.  She r e a c t e d w i t h h o s i t i l i t y  and a n a t t e m p t t o r u n away f r o m a n u n b e a r a b l e s i t u a t i o n .  iheChild  Guidance C l i n i c has recommended t h a t she be removed f r o m home, and c o n s i d e r s t h a t she i s a f a i r l y n o r m a l c h i l d i n a v e r y poor e n v i r o n m e n t .  (60) CASE I I Margaret  B. was 15 y e a r s o l d i n 1950,  She had an 11 y e a r o l d  b r o t h e r and a 7 y e a r o l d s i s t e r , b o t h o f whom p r e s e n t e d no apparent problems.  behavior  Margaret h e r s e l f was r e f e r r e d t o t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e Bureau  because o f h e r r e l a t i v e s ' complete  i n a b i l i t y t o handle h e r .  She s t a y e d  away f r o m s c h o o l , d i d n o t r e t u r n home when she was t o l d , made f r i e n d s w i t h u n d e s i r a b l e s , l i e d , s t o l e from h e r r e l a t i v e s and g e n e r a l l y was a problem w h e r e v e r she was.  She had no r e a l home now a s h e r f a t h e r and mother were  d i v o r c e d i n 1950.  Her f a t h e r m a r r i e d a g a i n t o a g i r l o f 23 who w o r k s .  M a r g a r e t ' s mother and b r o t h e r and s i s t e r l i v e d on Vancouver I s l a n d where M r s . B. was employed by h e r b r o t h e r .  M a r g a r e t ' s bad b e h a v i o r t h e r e r e -  s u l t e d i n h e r u n c l e ' s r e f u s a l t o a l l o w h e r t o s t a y and she was sent t o a n o t h e r u n c l e and a u n t , s h i f t e d from one t o another and f i n a l l y sent t o her grandparents.  Her g r a n d f a t h e r was so i n c e n s e d a t h e r b e h a v i o r t h a t he  wanted h e r sent t o u - i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l .  She i s now b e i n g c a r e d f o r i n  a f o s t e r home s u p e r v i s e d by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Mr.  and M r s . B's m a r r i a g e was a f o r c e d one and b o t h f a m i l i e s  were opposed t o i t .  We do n o t know v e r y much about .Mr. B's p a r e n t s but h i s  f a t h e r was a sea c a p t a i n who was away most o f t h e t i m e , and i t appears p r o b a b l e t h a t he was o v e r - i n d u l g e d by h i s mother.  I n a l l e v e n t s , he had a  h i s t o r y o f i r r e s p o n s i b l e d r i n k i n g , and r u n n i n g a f t e r o t h e r women.  He  s t a r t e d a s a bus d r i v e r and l a t e r became a n i n s t r u c t o r , f o r t h e o t h e r d r i v e r s . His  w i f e never knew i f o r when he was coming home.  beg h i m f o r money t o pay h e r b i l l s .  E v e r y month she had t o  As f a r a s Margaret was concerned,  Mr. B. used h e r a g a i n s t h i s w i f e , g i v i n g h e r money and a l t e r n a t e l y s p o i l i n g and s c o l d i n g h e r .  When she was a t t h e beach w i t h h e r f r i e n d s ,  Margaret  (61)  often saw him with other women, but did not t e l l her mother. Mr. B. was an inadequate husband and father, and since his divorce and second marriage had shown no inclination to see Margaret.  He had expressed  willingness to help pay her board, but refused to take any responsib i l i t y for her. Mrs. B. was the second g i r l i n a family of eight. Her father was a r i g i d , uncompromising Scot, who was at one time MIA, and several times Mayor of his Municipality.  Her mother had a s t r i c t  upbringing but was a kind and giving person, the only one who had shown any r e a l sympathy and understanding for Margaret.  Mrs. B's family was  very proud of i t s good name and position i n the community, and Margaret's behavior was a threat.  Mrs. B. was married at 18, straight from school,  probably as a revolt against an over-strict father, and the whole family was very upset. with the family's pride.  She remained an immature person, very concerned Her feeling towards Margaret had been throughout  one of g u i l t , followed by over-indulgence.  She said helplessly that she  was unable to cope with the g i r l and had treated her more as a sister than a daughter.  When Margaret became a problem to the family she was anxious  to transfer her responsibility to' someone else.  Marital adjustment was  poor i n every way, and although Mrs. B. claimed that she wanted Margaret, the child was rejected from the start.  Both.parents were immature people,  always quarreling, and Mr. B. stayed away from home more and more u n t i l the f i n a l separation. M argaret weighed 6 lbs. 5 oz. and was born after only two hours' labor.  She was breast-fed f o r eight months and sucked her thumb  u n t i l 3 years old.  There was no emphasis on too early training and  (62)  she d e v e l o p e d  n o r m a l l y , but her mother c l a i m e d t h a t she was always  d i f f i c u l t a n d a l w a y s wanted h e r own way.  She had c h i l d h o o d d i s e a s e s  l i g h t l y and a t 5 y e a r s had a lump i n h e r g r o i n t h a t r e t u r n e d a t p u b e r t y . D u r i n g h e r 1 5 t h y e a r she s u f f e r e d f r o m c a r b u n c l e s . r e f u s e t o e a t , but l a t e r on had a good a p p e t i t e .  A s a baby she would When s m a l l , a l t h o u g h  w e l l - t r a i n e d , she would wet and s o i l h e r s e l f t o annoy h e r mother, and t h i s c o n t i n u e d even a f t e r she went t o s c h o o l .  When t i n y she f o u g h t r a t h e r  t h a n p l a y e d w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n and ii©s alvaays a n t a g o n i s t i c ' t o h e r p a r e n t s . She was s p o i l e d and had a l l h e r own way u n t i l t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e  first  s i b l i n g wnen sne was 4 y e a r s o l d , and she was e x c e e d i n g l y j e a l o u s o f h i m . From t h e n on she f o u g h t f o r a t t e n t i o n , and h e r mother c l a i m e d she a l w a y s got more o f e v e r y t h i n g f o r h e r s e l f , because she made l i f e so u n p l e a s a n t f o r everyone e l s e .  A s a c h i l d she made up f a n t a s t i c s t o r i e s and had a l w a y s  t w i s t e d the t r u t h t o s u i t h e r s e l f .  H e r mother t r e a t e d h e r more o r l e s s a s  an e q u a l and d i s c u s s e d h e r problems w i t h h e r .  She was most a n x i o u s t o b e g i n  t o m e n s t r u a t e a s a s i g n t h a t she was grown up, a n d was w i t h a n o t h e r 14 y e a r o l d g i r l who was r a p e d by a s a i l o r .  She knew a l l about h e r f a t h e r ' s a f f a i r s  w i t h o t h e r women a n d i t was v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t s h e knew she was t h e cause o f her parents' marriage.  When 12 y e a r s o l d she was s t a y i n g ' out l a t e a t n i g h t ;  by t h e t i m e s h e was 14 she s t a y e d away a l t o g e t h e r f o r days a t a t i m e , and her mother d i d n o t know where s h e was.  She t r u a n t e d and was i m p e r t i n e n t i n  s c h o o l , where she never worked t o c a p a c i t y , and s h e l e f t s c h o o l as soon a s she became 15. She d i d n o t s t a y w i t h h e r f i r s t another.  job n o r succeed  i n finding  She s t o l e f r o m her r e l a t i v e s and managed t o q u a r r e l w i t h e v e r y  member o f t h e f a m i l y . b e l i t t l i n g others.  She was a l w a y s r e j e c t e d a n d i n s e c u r e and c o n t i n u a l l y  - A l t o g e t h e r she was a d e f i a n t and p a t h e t i c l i t t l e  girl,  (63)  who s a i d o p e n l y t h a t no one cared f o r h e r , and she c a r e d f o r no one.  she  needed a c c e p t a n c e , a p p r o v a l and a f f e c t i o n , and t h e o n l y p e r s o n who a t t e m p t e d t o g i v e h e r t h e s e was h e r grandmother, whose e f f o r t s were l i m i t e d by t h e s t e r n g r a n d f a t h e r .  Margaret was examined a t O h i l d Guidance  G l i n i c where she r a t e d b r i g h t n o r m a l , a n d i t was f e l t t h a t s h e had n e v e r had a c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h a mature woman she c o u l d l o o k up t o , and t h a t h e r trouble-making  was a n attempt t o show h e r i m p o r t a n c e .  She d i d n o t appear  t o be making s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment i n t h e f o s t e r home where she was p l a c e d by t h e O h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Mrs. strictness.  B's pregnancy was p r o b a b l y a r e v o l t a g a i n s t h e r f a t h e r ' s  She s t i l l had a s t r o n g t i e t o h e r f a t h e r and a l l h e r d e a l i n g s  w i t h Margaret seemed t o be i n f l u e n c e d by f e a r o f what he w o u l d t h i n k . had r e j e c t e d t h e c h i l d who caused h e r m a r r i a g e , o t h e r two. and  She  but n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , t h e  Her g u i l t f e e l i n g s appeared t o have r e s u l t e d i n o v e r - i n d u l g e n c e  l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e and she had used M a r g a r e t i n a n attempt t o s a t i s f y  h e r own unmet dependency needs. M a r g a r e t , r e j e c t e d and i n s e c u r e , had sought a t t e n t i o n i n t h e o n l y way w h i c h seemed t o b r i n g r e s u l t s , V i z . , by h o s t i l i t y and t r o u b l e making.  So l o n g a s h e r l y i n g and s t e a l i n g were c o n f i n e d t o t h e f a m i l y  she was n o t c o n s i d e r e d d e l i n q u e n t , but i t seemed p r o b a b l e be p i c k e d up by t h e p o l i c e sooner o r l a t e r .  t h a t she would  (6U)  CASE I I I L a u r a was a s m a l l , blonde g i r l w i t h many nervous mannerisms i n c l u d i n g a s t u t t e r and a t i c i n one eye.  She was b o r n when h e r mother  was 19 a n d h e r f a t h e r 2 3 , and has a b r o t h e r two y e a r s younger, a n d two s i s t e r s s i x and seven y e a r s younger t h a n h e r s e l f .  She appeared i n J u v e n i l e  c o u r t o n a charge o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y , a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g month was apprehended  as a n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o b a t i o n e r , a n d spent some t i m e i n t h e  D e t e n t i o n Home.  When she was d i s c h a r g e d h e r f a t h e r d i d not want h e r a t  home, so she remained a t t h e u n i t e d c h u r c h Home u n t i l h e r c h i l d was b o r n . She was most a n x i o u s t o have her^baby adopted, b u t t h e f a m i l y p u t c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e on h e r t o keep i t and she brought i t home w i t h h e r .  She  r e f u s e d t o m a r r y t h e p u t a t i v e f a t h e r , who s e r v e d a t e r m i n O a k a l l a f o r contributing t o juvenile delinquency. M r . C. i s a longshoreman, t a l l and w i r y and i n poor h e a l t h . His  f a t h e r was a bus d r i v e r , and Mr. C  f e l t t h a t he m a r r i e d beneath h i m .  ue wanted a n i c e , c l e a n , s h i n y house and thought t h a t h i s w i f e was i n competent and had f a i l e d him i n t h i s .  She was a c a r e l e s s , obese, s l o p p y ,  u n a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n , who was f o n d o f g a r d e n i n g and n o t o f h o u s e k e e p i n g . ivir. 0 . c l a i m e d t h a t he c o u l d n o t b r i n g h i s f r i e n d s home so he spent his  t i m e i n t h e beer p a r l o r , where he drank a l o n e .  He had stomach  ulcers,  and was a l w a y s v e r y s e v e r e w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y r e j e c t i n g o f Laura.  He had been d e s c r i b e u a s bad tempered, d o m i n a t i n g and e x c i t a b l e ,  always i n c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s treatment o f t h e c h i l d r e n , up h i s mind about L a u r a .  ne c o u l d never make  F i r s t he wanted h e r t o marry t h e p u t a t i v e f a t h e r ,  and t h e n r e f u s e d t o hear o f i t ; f i r s t  he wanted h e r home a n d t h e n he t u r n e d  (65)  her out.  His own parents would have l i t t l e t o do with hiin a f t e r h i s  marriage^  He and h i s wife were always incompatible and he appeared to  have rejected Laura because of h i s g u i l t about the marriage.  Laura's  >pregnancy reactly.fiited a l l h i s e a r l i e r feelings and resulted i n a family storm.  He has expressed fear that the other g i r l s w i l l f o l l o w Laura's  example. M r s . C. was a casual housekeeper, and was much, more g i v i n g to the children than her husband, herself was a f r a i d of him.  she acted as a buffer between them, but she  The home was i n a constant state of turmoil,  and i n general there was an atmosphere of vicious hate. We do not know much about M r s . C's parents except that she and her family had a very d i f f i c u l t time f i n a n c i a l l y .  There were two g i r l s i n  the family, and when jars. G. was 8 years old a t h i r d one was  corn.  She  looked a f t e r t h i s c h i l d , which was f i n a l l y placed f o r adoption, and jars. o. f e l t very deprived.  She claimed that she had never found Laura any trouble  and that she had discussed everything with Laura and given her sex education.  She f e l t that Laura had i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s , l a r g e l y because of  her father's continual c r i t i c i s m .  Her husband accused her of babying a l l  the c h i l d r e n but would never discuss plans with her.  Both parents worked  and the c h i l d r e n were alone most of the day, being Laura's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Neither parent was anxious t o receive help from any agency. Laura apparently developed as normally as could be expected i n an atmosphere of continuous s t r i f e .  She had a good understanding of her  parents and knew only too w e l l that she was the cause of the marriage. Both parents openly feared that she would become pregnant.  She  completed  (66)  Grade 11 i n s c h o o l a n d , when apprehended, was w o r k i n g a s a j u n i o r s t e n o g r a p h e r a t |80.00 a month.  She was q u i t e promiscuous and had r e l a t i o n s  w i t h s e v e r a l men, i n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t h e r o v e r - s t r i c t f a t h e r .  Once  pregnant she was t e r r i f i e d t h a t h e r f a t h e r would f i n d o u t , and t r i e d t o conceal her condition.  A f t e r she l e f t t h e D e t e n t i o n Home h e r f a t h e r  s e n t h e r t o l i v e w i t h h e r m a t e r n a l a u n t , who was a warm, g i v i n g p e r s o n and w i t h whom she was happy, b u t he would n o t l e t h e r r e m a i n t h e r e a n d s e n t h e r t o t h e U n i t e d u h u r c h Home.  L a u r a was t o r n between h e r d e s i r e  t o do h e r b e s t f o r h e r baby and s t i l l r e t a i n h e r f a t h e r ' s good w i l l . She was q u i t e u n r e a l i s t i c i n h e r i d e a s and s t i l l p h a n t a s i e d deal.  When she was i n t h e Home h e r f a t h e r v i s i t e d h e r t w i c e and h e r  mother n o t a t a l l . for  a great  W h i l e she s t a y e d t h e r e she r e f u s e d t o make c l o t h e s  t h e baby, b u t i n s t e a d d i d embroidery a s i f t o deny t h e f a c t o f  h e r pregnancy.  Her f a m i l y ' s p l a n s f o r t h e c h i l d appeared t o be v e r y u n -  r e a l i s t i c as i t was t o be c a r e d f o r by t h e grandmother when L a u r a obtained  a j o b , s i n c e both, f a t h e r a n d mother xvere w o r k i n g . L a u r a was r e j e c t e d o p e n l y b y b o t h f a t h e r and mother.  Her mother  showed h e r some a f f e c t i o n b u t attempted t o s a t i s f y some o f h e r unmet dependency needs t h r o u g h t h e g i r l .  She was n e v e r a b l e t o p l e a s e h e r  o v e r - s t r i c t f a t h e r b u t was s t i l l t r y i n g t o l o v e h i m and was s e e k i n g h i s approval.  She had n o t matured beyond t h e p h a n t a s y s t a g e a n d h e r o e d i p a l  c o n f l i c t seemed t o be s t i l l u n r e s o l v e d .  Her pregnancy was a r e v o l t  a g a i n s t o v e r - s t r i c t n e s s a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t r e a t m e n t and she sought e l s e w h e r e t h e l o v e t h a t she d i d n o t r e c e i v e a t home.  (67) CASE IV S h i r l e y D . appeared i n Juvenile court charged with running away, and stealing clothes and jewellry.  The family came here from  Saskatchewan and were helped by the Red cross and subsequently by a number of agencies as they were always i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s .  S h i r l e y was  born when her mother was 15 years o l d and had seven brothers and s i s t e r s born i n the ensuing eleven years. In addition, her mother had many miscarriages.  Both parents are iof Dutch Mennonite stock, and the belonged  t o the Salvation Army because .they said "they got something out of i t " . Mr. D. i s 13 years older than h i s wife and treated her as a c h i l d , as indeed she was.  They were on r e l i e f on t h e i r wedding day and have  seldom been without some sort of assistance. Mr. D. worked as a truck d r i v e r and as a laborer,  lie managed  t o complete urade 3 i n school, and after that attended night school f o r a short time.  We do not know much about h i s family, but h i s e a r l y l i f e  was  a very deprived one and he i s an immature, self-centred person who does not f e e l that he had any duty t o h i s wife and family.  He was discharged from  the Army f o r unknown medical reasons and f i n d s h i s greatest r e l i e f i n alcohol.  He was  jealous and d i s t r u s t f u l of h i s wife and l a t t e r l y did not  l i k e S h i r l e y t o have any boy f r i e n d s , since he was a f r a i d she would f i n d a boy f r i e n d f o r Mrs. D. Mrs. D. had never known love and security as she was brought up by her widowed mother i n a family which included seven g i r l s and one boy. She went to work f o r her room and board when she was 10 years o l d . Several of her brothers were known to have theft records. Mrs. D. had no sex  (68)  education a t a l l ,  and became pregnant when she was 14. She completed  Grade 8 a t s c h o o l and appeared t o have average i n t e l l i g e n c e , but she was an immature dependent p e r s o n n e e d i n g a f f e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y , w h i c h she d i d not f i n d i n h e r m a r r i a g e .  She was a poor housekeeper and manager, h u t  was most a n x i o u s t h a t h e r c h i l d r e n should have a b e t t e r chance t h a n she had.  However, she c o u l d n o t s t a n d up t o h e r husband.  She gave S h i r l e y  f a r t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n l o o k i n g a f t e r a l l t h e o t h e r t r e a t e d her a s a s i s t e r r a t h e r than a daughter.  c h i l d r e n , and  There was a s t r o n g t i e  between them but she d e f i n i t e l y r e j e c t e d S h i r l e y and was much more p r o t e c t i v e o f the other c h i l d r e n . The  m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t was v e r y p o o r .  contraceptives,  Mr. D. r e f u s e d  so t h e r e were numerous m i s c a r r i a g e s ,  p r o b a b l y some of -  them s e l f - i n d u c e d , u n t i l f i n a l l y M r s . p. was s t e r i l i z e d . o p e n l y t h a t S h i r l e y was t h e c h i l d o f h i s c o u s i n .  t o use  jar. D. s a i d  B o t h p a r e n t s used h e r  as a b u f f e r and o p e n l y blamed h e r f o r t h e m a r r i a g e and a l l t h e i r t r o u b l e s . S h i r l e y was D o t t l e - f e d .  When 1-j- y e a r s o l d she had a bad f a l l ,  h u r t i n g n e r head a n d b r e a k i n g h e r r i g h t l e g . diseases, She  She had a l l t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  and, a f t e r a n a t t a c k o f mumps a t age 1 2 , had t o wear g l a s s e s .  had a t o n s i l l e c t o m y when she was 13, and a l w a y s s u f f e r e d g r e a t  when m e n s t r u a t i n g . close t o her period.  pain  When she r a n away f r o m home i t was a l w a y s d u r i n g o r None o f t h e c h i l d r e n were p a r t i c u l a r l y  p r o b a b l y because t h e y n e v e r had enough f o o d . headaches, t o o t h a c h e s and n i g h t m a r e s .  healthy,  S h i r l e y s u f f e r e d from  She w a l k e d and t a l k e d i n h e r  s l e e p , a n d s u f f e r e d f r o m v a r i o u s k i n d s o f bowel t r o u b l e .  She a t t e n d e d  s p e c i a l c l a s s e s a t s c h o o l , where she was c o n t i n u a l l y p l a y i n g p r a n k s , and  (69)  was domineering and bullying with the younger children* However, she did not attend school regularly because she had too much responsibility at home. Her intelligence appeared to be only borderline. When she was asked to do anything she always replied that she did not feel well. Whenever she did not return home promptly from school her father beat her and she ran away. She knew quite well that she was rejected by both parents, who often told her that the wished she would leave home. After Mrs. DJfs hysterectomy she appeared to feel that l i f e was over for her, and pushed Shirley towards marriage, apparently hoping to obtain some vicarious satisfaction from her daughter's activities. this time that Shirley definitely became delinquent.  It was at  There was never  any money for clothes and she stole What she wanted. Shirley herself maintained that she was happy at home except that she did not have the things she wanted. father, who  She had a stronger t i e to her mother than to her  she f e l t did not want her.  Her disturbance during her  period might mean that she was rejecting her feminity because of her mother's poor experience which had been shared with her in great detail.  In spite of a l l her ailments, Shirley was a pretty child and  she was married early in 1951.  (70)  CASE M S u s a n ii« had a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , born i n 1950 when she was 1 9 . She c l a i m e d t h a t t h e f a t h e r was a n A m e r i c a n s a i l o r who g o t h e r drunk on cheap w h i s k e y a n d l e f t town i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d .  She had  spent a good d e a l o f t i m e f r e q u e n t i n g dance h a l l s w i t h poor companions, and s t a y i n g o u t l a t e .  She had two b r o t h e r s two and t h r e e y e a r s younger  t h a n h e r s e l f , and a s i s t e r 5 y e a r s younger.  liar, E . was f o u r y e a r s  younger t h a n h i s w i f e when he m a r r i e d , when she was 34 and s i x weeks pregnant.  He had a p r e v i o u s w i f e who d i e d .  S t a t e s , o f Irish-German-Dutch  He was b o r n i n t h e u n i t e d  o r i g i n and had v e r y l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n ,  and when t h e c o u p l e m a r r i e d he was w o r k i n g a s a c o a l m i n e r ,  l a t e r he had  v a r i o u s j o b s a s l a b o r e r , and t h e n as a f i r e m a n f o r t h e C.N.H.  Very  soon a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e t h e f a m i l y went on r e l i e f , where t h e y remained u n t i l he j o i n e d t h e Army.  A f t e r h i s d i s c h a r g e he had a j o b a t f60.00 a  week f o r a few months and t h e n was unemployed,  ne d i d n o t l i j s e work  and had some a r t h r i t i s w h i c h he used a s a n excuse t o a v o i d i t . liars E . was a d o p t e d when she was t h r e e y e a r s o l d by a v e r y h a r d , s t r i c t woman.  When she was 14 she went to' work a s a cook and u n t i l h e r  m a r r i a g e gave most o f h e r money t o h e r mother.  She was a n x i o u s t h a t h e r  c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have a n e a s i e r l i f e t h a n she h a d . When t h i n g s became t o o d i f f i c u l t a t home she r e t r e a t e d i n t o i l l n e s s , h a v i n g had g a l l - b l a d d e r t r o u b l e and a n o p e r a t i o n f o r abdominal h e r n i a . c o n d i t i o n and a bad h e a r t .  She a l s o had a k i d n e y  When Mr. E . was n o t w o r k i n g  Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l l a u n d r y .  she worked a t  She was never s t r i c t w i t h Susan but  o v e r - i n d u l g e d h e r a s much as p o s s i b l e .  On t h e o t h e r hand, when t h e g i r l  (71)  became 14 she kept h e r home f r o m s c h o o l t o l o o k a f t e r t h e younger c h i l d r e n a n d always gave t h e c h i l d t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  She was  o p e n l y a f r a i d t h a t Susan would g e t i n t o some k i n d o f s e x d i f f i c u l t y . The f a t h e r had always been v e r y s t r i c t and on o c c a s i o n had s e n t M r s . E . out a t n i g h t t o l o o k f o r Susan, and t h e r e was c o n t i n u a l s t r i f e  j m r i t a l adjustment was v e r y poor, i n t h e home.  S u s a n was a d i f f i c u l t b i r t h and was b r e a s t - f e d f o r t h r e e months,  n e r mother had h e r c o m p l e t e l y t r a i n e d by t h e t i m e she was  9 months,  she had pneumonia, r u b e l l a , c h i c k e n - p o x , m e a s l e s , a c u t e  a p p e n d i c i t i s and a k i d n e y c o n d i t i o n . t o wear g l a s s e s .  A f t e r t h e measles  she was f o r c e d  She r e a c h e d Grade 7 i n s c h o o l , b u t was r a t e d a s low-  normal i n t e l l i g e n c e .  When Mrs. 'E. was f o r c e d t o go t o work she gave  a l l t h e household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o susan.  A f t e r she l e f t  school,  s u s a n passed a s 18 and a t one t i m e she worked f o r a t i m e a t t h e Vancouver H o t e l l a u n d r y , but she s a i d h e r f a t h e r p i c k e d on h e r so she gave up h e r job.  s h e was u n r e l i a b l e i n e v e r y way, e s p e c i a l l y i n k e e p i n g a p p o i n t -  ments,  s h e appeared t o be f o n d o f h e r mother, but p a i d h e r o n l y f20.00  a month b o a r d , i n s i s t i n g on k e e p i n g a l l t h e r e s t o f h e r money t o spend on c l o t h e s ,  s h e f e l t r e s e n t f u l t h a t h e r f a t h e r d i d n o t want t o work,  and t h a t she was b e i n g f o r c e d t o do s o . She became pregnant w h i l s t h e r mother was i n h o s p i t a l f o r a n o p e r a t i o n , and made t e n t a t i v e to  arrangements  go i n t o t h e S a l v a t i o n Army Home, a s t h e f a m i l y a t t e n d e d S a l v a t i o n  Army s e r v i c e s .  However, she was u n a b l e t o conform t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e  Home so she r e t u r n e d home.  When t h e c h i l d was b o r n she f i r s t p l a n n e d t o  p l a c e him because she d i d n o t want t o t a k e any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r him,  (72)  but h e r mother persuaded h e r t o l e t t h e p a r e n t s adopt him, and i t was a r r a n g e d t h a t Mrs, E. and Susan would do s h i f t work:.and l o o k a f t e r him. S u s a n ' s baby was p a r t o f h e r r e v o l t a g a i n s t h e r mother's d o m i n a t i o n and her f a t h e r ' s o v e r - s t r i c t n e s s and t h e f a c t t h a t she was g i v e n t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . h e r r e v e n g e on her p a r e n t s her look a f t e r i t .  She was not r e a d y f o r a baby, but had  by k e e p i n g i t and i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e y h e l p  (73)  CASE V I A r t h u r F. was  s e n t by h i s s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l t o t h e s c h o o l  p s y c h i a t r i s t when he was aggressive behavior.  6 y e a r s o l d because o f h i s immature and  H i s mother c l a i m e d t h a t he was always h a r d t o  h a n d l e , r u n n i n g away, d i s o b e d i e n t , and h a v i n g c o n t i n u a l temper t a n t r u m s . He was a l s o e n u r e t i c .  A r t h u r ' s f a t h e r and mother were m a r r i e d when  Mr. F. was 22 and Mrs. F. 18, and Mrs. F. was  seven months p r e g n a n t .  •They had known one a n o t h e r f o r about two y e a r s , and Mr. F's p a r e n t s were v e r y much opposed t o t h e m a r r i a g e , w h i c h t h e y f e l t was beneath son.  their  A r t h u r had two younger b r o t h e r s , J a c k i e two y e a r s younger,  was b o r n d u r i n g t h e War,  who  and B i l l y s i x y e a r s younger, b o r n when h i s  f a t h e r r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e Army. We know t h a t Mr. F J s g r a n d p a r e n t s m a r r i e d v e r y young, d e s p i t e t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , who mother.  d i d n o t approve o f t h e grand-  Mr. F^s f a t h e r and mother o v e r - i n d u l g e d h i m .  Dance and was  He had S t . V i t u s '  i n a s o l a r i u m f r o m 7 t o 14 y e a r s , and he never l e a r n e d t o  t a k e any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  H i s mother was a p e r f e c t i o n i s t , who  disliked  Mrs. F. i n t e n s e l y , and b o t h h i s p a r e n t s t r i e d c o n t i n u a l l y t o break up t h e m a r r i a g e w h i c h t h e y had so b i t t e r l y opposed.  When Mr. F. found t h e m a r r i a g e  d i f f i c u l t he j o i n e d t h e Army and went Overseas, where he met a D u t c h g i r l , and t o l d h i s w i f e t h a t he was not r e t u r n i n g . back and a t h i r d boy was b o r n .  However, he d i d come  Mr. F. was a garage worker and managed a  s e r v i c e s t a t i o n f o r h i s f a t h e r a l t h o u g h p r e v i o u s t o h i s war he never remained  a t any one j o b .  experience  He was n e r v o u s , moody, i r r a t i o n a l  and  i r r e s p o n s i b l e , and appeared t o hate h i s m a r r i a g e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y A r t h u r  <7U)  who  was t h e cause o f i t .  A s soon a s a n y t h i n g went wrong he v e n t e d  h i s anger on A r t h u r , and h i s o n l y i n t e r e s t i n h i m t o o k t h e f o r m o f punishment• Mrs. F. was t h e second i n a f a m i l y o f s i x and, b e i n g t h e o l d e s t g i r l , had t o l o o k a f t e r t h e f a m i l y .  H e r mother was a c h e e r f u l ,  h a p h a z a r d , o b l i g i n g p e r s o n , a n d her f a t h e r was a c o m p l e t e l y shadowy figure. hospital.  When she was 15, M r s . F. went o u t t o work a s a t r a y g i r l i n a She had a h i s t o r y o f s l i g h t h e a r t t r o u b l e and a t h y r o i d  c o n d i t i o n , and was v e r y obese.  She was a l w a y s i n s e c u r e and u n s a t i s -  f i e d h e r s e l f , and c o u l d n o t g i v e l o v e t o h e r c h i l d r e n .  I t seems  p r o b a b l e t h a t she became pregnant d e l i b e r a t e l y i n o r d e r t o f o r c e t h e marriage.  D u r i n g her husband's absence o v e r s e a s , Mrs. F . had a  v e t e r a n s ' house and boarded b a b i e s , f o r whom she appeared t o have a s t r o n g , n e u r o t i c need.  She h e r s e l f had two m i s c a r r i a g e s between t h e  two o l d e r b o y s , a n d i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t h e r need t o care f o r b a b i e s might be a n attempt t o prove t h e f e m i n i n i t y w h i c h her m i s c a r r i a g e s seemed t o deny.  She used h e r own c h i l d r e n d e l i b e r a t e l y i n o r d e r t o  keep.the m a r r i a g e t o g e t h e r and a l w a y s l o v e d t h e c h i l d t h a t h e r husband preferred a t the time.  She was v e r y nervous and c o n s t a n t l y h i t t i n g  t h e c h i l d r e n , though she r e a d books on c h i l d b e h a v i o r and attempted t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e and e x p l a i n h e r a c t i o n s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t she  p r o j e c t e d h e r d i s l i k e o f A r t n u r on t o h e r husband.  C e r t a i n l y she always  c l a i m e d t h a t A r t h u r was d i f f i c u l t , a n d t h e o t h e r boys easy t o manage. Mrs. F . was s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n her m a r r i a g e a n d ras  (75)  c o n s t a n t l y being depreciated  by h e r husband and h i s f a m i l y ,  jar. and  jars. JT. q u a r r e l e d c o n s t a n t l y and t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e when A r t h u r was s m a l l . she c o n t i n u e d  She m o d i f i e d a l i t t l e , but JMr. i f . n o t a t a l l . and  t o u s e t h e c h i l d r e n a s a t i e t o h e r husband.  A r t h u r weighed 5 l b s . a t b i r t h and was n o t b r e a s t - f e d . baby he was o p e n l y r e j e c t e d and n o t w e l l c a r e d f o r .  As a  He was n o t p r o p e r l y  c l o t h e d n o r f e d and a t 8 months Jiad b r o n c h i t i s and s e v e r e whooping cough. A t 8 y e a r s he had pneumonia. t h e mother c l a i m e d  He d e e p l y r e s e n t e d  Jackie's b i r t h , although  she t r i e d t o p r e p a r e him f o r i t .  He a l w a y s  resented  t h e a t t e n t i o n J a c k i e r e c e i v e d but appeared t o be f o n d o f t h e baby. v e r y s l o w i n w a l k i n g and t a l k i n g , and s q u i n t e d when t i r e d . enormous a p p e t i t e , w h i c h was never s a t i s f i e d .  He was  He had an  H i s f a t h e r and mother  t r i e d t o h a n d l e h i m by punishment, and h i s f a t h e r whipped him c o n t i n u a l l y . He never t r i e d t o g e t o u t o f t r o u b l e by l y i n g , a l t h o u g h J a c k i e appeared t o be a n a c c o m p l i s h e d l i a r .  Arthur's  aggression  away, and by v i o l e n t temper t a n t r u m s a t s c h o o l .  was shown by h i s  running  He u n d o u b t e d l y heard h i s  p a r e n t s f i g h t i n g about h i m and b l a m i n g h i m f a r t h e m a r r i a g e .  The p s y c h i a -  t r i s t f e l t t h a t he showed t h e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s o f a much younger c h i l d and t h a t he was immature, a g g r e s s i v e  and n e g a t i v i s t i c , though p r o b a b l y o f  average i n t e l l i g e n c e . A r t h u r was a p a t h e t i c f i g u r e , l i v i n g i n c o n t i n u a l c o n f l i c t , h a t e d b y h i s f a t h e r a s t h e cause o f t h e m a r r i a g e , and r e j e c t e d by t h e mother who was u n a b l e t o g i v e a f f e c t i o n because she was u n s a t i s f i e d e m o t i o n a l l y h e r s e l f , and c o u l d o n l y s a t i s f y h e r n e u r o t i c needs by b o a r d i n g other people's  babies.  (76)  CASE V I I D i c k G. was r e f e r r e d by h i s d o c t o r t o C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c when he was 3 y e a r s o l d because o f s e i z u r e s w h i c h d i d n o t appear t o have any o r g a n i c o r i g i n .  D i c k had one b r o t h e r a y e a r younger t h a n h i m s e l f .  H i s f a t h e r and mother m a r r i e d when M r . c she was t h r e e months p r e g n a n t .  was 38 and jars. G. 32, and  M r s . G. was t h e o l d e s t o f f i v e  siblings  and l e f t s c h o o l i n Grade 8 t o l o o k a f t e r t h e younger c h i l d r e n w h i l s t h e r mother worked.  Her f a t h e r , a s t r i c t , r e l i g i o u s man, was k i l l e d  i n an  a c c i d e n t a t t h i s t i m e , when she was j u s t 1 5 . L a t e r she d i d k i t c h e n work i n a h o s p i t a l and was a chef i n t h e A i r f o r c e f o r two and a h a l f y e a r s . She was d e v o t e d t o h e r mother and f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s .  One o f h e r b r o t h e r s was a n a l c o h o l i c who had t o be e s c o r t e d  home w i t h h i s money each week-end.  One o f h e r s i s t e r s became v e r y  r e l i g i o u s a n d gave up a good j o b o n l y t o f i n d t h a t she was d i s a p p o i n t e d and u n s a t i s f i e d by h e r new f a i t h . y e a r s b e f o r e she m a r r i e d h i m .  M r s . G. knew h e r husband f o r f i f t e e n  She was a poor housekeeper, u n t i d y and  i m p r a c t i c a l , v e r y dogmatic a n d c o m p l e t e l y unaware o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e m o t i o n a l needs, a l t h o u g h she appeared t o g i v e them good p h y s i c a l c a r e . Mr.  G. was a v e r y q u i e t boy, more i n t e r e s t e d i n books t h a n i n  p l a y , never making f r i e n d s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n h i s own age. He had a s t r i c t and dominating  f a t h e r who announced, when Mr. G. was 14, t h a t  h e n c e f o r t h he would s t a y home f r o m work and h i s sons c o u l d support h i m . Mr. G. s t i l l had one b r o t h e r and one s i s t e r a l i v e , and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to  h i s mother appeared t o be f a i r l y n e b u l o u s .  deprived childhood.  On t h e w h o l e , h i s was a  B e f o r e t h e War he was a s a i l o r and was i n t h e  (77)  M e d i c a l Corps o v e r s e a s .  D u r i n g t h i s t i m e he was v e r y b a d l y burned  about t h e g e n i t a l s i n an a c c i d e n t and t h e d o c t o r s c l a i m e d t h a t he c o u l d never have a c h i l d .  He worked as a body-fender mechanic a t $50.00 a  week and appeared t o be a q u i e t , unassuming and r e a s o n i n g man, f e l t t h a t h i s m a r r i a g e was adjustment.  who  v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because o f s e x u a l m a l -  H i s w i f e passed out c o m p l e t e l y d u r i n g i n t e r c o u r s e .  Mr.  U. had known a g r e a t many women and o n l y m a r r i e d because M r s . G.  was  pregnant.  She was  c o l d and v e r y i g n o r a n t o f sex when she m a r r i e d ,  but  she seemed t o have planned t o m a r r y as she persuaded Mr. G. t o go on a f o u r weeks' h o l i d a y t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e she became pregnant.  A t f i r s t she had been a t t r a c t e d t o him because she b e l i e v e d  he c o u l d n e v e r have c h i l d r e n , but she l a t e r boasted t h a t t h e d o c t o r s were xvrong about Mr. G's t h a t her m a r r i a g e at  c o n d i t i o n and she was r i g h t .  I t seems p r o b a b l e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s were v e r y l i m i t e d and she t h r e w h e r s e l f  t h i s u n w i l l i n g man  because she needed someone t o p o s s e s s and  b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s no l o n g e r needed h e r .  her  The c o u p l e had l i t t l e i n  common, and t h e home atmosphere was f u l l o f t e n s i o n .  Mrs. G. never  appeared t o l o v e D i c k but i s k i n d e r t o h i s younger b r o t h e r . D i c k was He was but was  b o r n by c a e s a r e a n  s e c t i o n , weighing 8 l b s . 4 ozs.  b r e a s t - f e d f o r t h r e e months and appeared t o be p h y s i c a l l y p e r f e c t s l o w - t a l k i n g and o v e r - a c t i v e .  by t h e t i m e t h a t he was  a year o l d .  He was  completely t o i l e t - t r a i n e d  when he was two, e n u r e s i s s t a r t e d .  He had h i s f i r s t s e i z u r e a t about 8 months, and i t appeared a f t e r frustration.  The a t t a c k s were o f seconds' d u r a t i o n and were " l i k e a  s t a r t or s h i v e r " . activity.  D i c k had  t o n s i l i t i s at t h r e e .  The d o c t o r s p r e s c r i b e d p h e n o b a r b i t a l f o r o v e r ,:epistaxis a t 13 months, m e a s l e s a t two y e a r s He c o n t i n u a l l y b i t h i s f i n g e r n a i l s , and was  and a  (78)  mischievous  c h i l d wno  egged on n i s b r o t h e r .  and l i k e d h i s own way,  very curious  and would p u l l out drawers ana s c a t t e r soap  f l a k e s a l l over t n e k i t c h e n . a t him and he was  He was  H i s mother handled him by  screaming  c o m p l e t e l y dominated by her and a f r a i d t o l e a v e h e r .  He had v e r y l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n and o f t e n appeared s u l k y and  stubborn.  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c f e l t t h a t D i c k was a withdrawn, w i s t f u l and unhappy c h i l d , s u b j e c t t o e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n , produced by an and i r r i t a b l e mother who aware o f e m o t i o n a l needs.  was  concerned  She  about p h y s i c a l t h i n g s but  erratic un-  seemed t o be q u i t e u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p  a  s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her c h i l d r e n and d i d not want t o c a r e f o r D i c k , t h o u g h she was  warmer and more g i v i n g t o h i s b r o t h e r .  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D i c k and t r i e d t o h e l p him, but he was his wife.  She was  Mr.  G.  dominated  by  c o m p l e t e l y u n w i l l i n g t o do a n y t h i n g f o r her husband  and he appeared t o r e s e n t t h e f a c t t h a t she d i d not want t o h e l p D i c k or himself.  D i c k ' s r e a c t i o n t o h i s mother's r e j e c t i o n was  h i s mischievous physical basis.  shown by  b e h a v i o r , and t h e s e i z u r e s w h i c h appeared t o have no  (79)  CASE  YI1I  Johnnie H. was i n Boys' i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l f o r s t e a l i n g , and was a problem c h i l d f o r a number o f y e a r s . was about 8 y e a r s o l d . for  Be began s t e a l i n g when he  B i s mother m a r r i e d Mr. n. a f t e r o n l y knowing h i m  two months, because she was p r e g n a n t , a g a i n s t t h e wishes o f h e r  f a m i l y who would have h e l p e d h e r i n any p l a n she m i g h t have made, far. n . was 28 and she 25 a t t h e t i m e ,  n e r mother and f a t h e r c o n s i d e r e d  him u s e l e s s a n d were v e r y u p s e t when t h e i r d a u g h t e r m a r r i e d h i m , a s he was t h e b l a c k sheep o f a good f a m i l y .  J o h n n i e ' s next b r o t h e r xvas b o r n  when he was 4 y e a r s o l d ; t h e n came two s i s t e r s and a n o t h e r b r o t h e r and several miscarriages, Johnnie's f a t h e r , Mr. H., came f r o m A l b e r t a where Mr. H. s e n i o r was a r e t a i l shoe merchant.  A l l t h e f a m i l y succeeded i n l i f e  except Mr. H. who appeared t o have f e l t r e j e c t e d and i n s e c u r e a t home, and o b t a i n e d h i s o n l y s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m h i s s u c c e s s i n H i g h s c h o o l athletics.  He was e r r a t i c a n d u n r e l i a b l e , c o n t i n u a l l y changing j o b s ,  and was a heavy d r i n k e r o n o c c a s i o n .  He c e n t e r e d a l l h i s resentment on  Johnnie whom he hated because t h e c h i l d was t h e cause o f t h e m a r r i a g e . Mrs. i t ' s mother was a warm p e r s o n Dut v e r y and p o s s e s s i v e .  domineering  She was a n e x c e l l e n t housekeeper and o v e r - p r o t e c t e d  h e r d a u g h t e r , who was a n o n l y c h i l d a n d was n o t expected  t o do a n y t h i n g  a t home.  She s a i d t h a t h e r mother was more l i k e a s i s t e r t h a n a mother  to  Her f a t h e r was k i n d but q u i t e s t r i c t .  her.  He was a O.P.R. agent  i n a s m a l l p l a c e a n d Mrs. H. j u s t had h e r good t i m e s and t o o k no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r anything.  The f a m i l y had f a i r l y good s t a n d a r d s , w h i c h '  (80)  she h e r s e l f was l a t e r unable t o m a i n t a i n .  She was an immature  and was r e s e n t f u l o f h e r p a r e n t s ' o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e n e s s .  person  The case worker  f e l t t h a t she wanted t o g e t away f r o m home and have a baby t o p u n i s h her mother,  ohe was c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g t o keep up good  standards,  w i t h a n i n e f f e c t u a l husband and i n s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t .  She  r e s e n t e d J o h n n i e p a r t i c u l a r l y and showed t h i s by n a g g i n g him and e x p e c t i n g f a r t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f r o m him. f i e d w i t h him anu thought  A t t i m e s she i d e n t i -  she was blamed f o r what he d i d . When t h i n g s  became t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r h e r i n t h e home, she r e t r e a t e d f r o m r e a l i t y , and w i t h o u t h e r s u p p o r t Air. H. began d r i n k i n g a g a i n .  With the e x c e p t i o n  o f J o h n n i e , t h e c h i l d r e n have a l l had i n c o n s i s t e n t t r e a t m e n t between l o v e and a p a t h y .  alternating  M r s . H. wanted t o be a good mother b u t she  was q u i t e i n c a p a b l e o f i t , and was n o t even s u f f i c i e n t l y mature t o s t a n d on h e r own f e e t when h e r husband was i n t h e Army.  She asked t o  have him brought home w h i c h he r e s e n t e d . J o h n n i e a p p a r e n t l y developed  n o r m a l l y , though t h e whole  f a m i l y has s u f f e r e d a c e r t a i n amount o f economic p r i v a t i o n .  He never  r e c e i v e d any l o v e a t home and compensated f o r i t s l a c k by s t e a l i n g , f o r w h i c h he was sent t o rsoys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . he was sent t o h i s g r a n d p a r e n t s t o have a d j u s t e d v e r y w e l l .  A f t e r he came out  i n t h e c o u n t r y and t h e r e he appeared  He u n d e r s t o o d  t o o much o f h i s p a r e n t s '  s i t u a t i o n and b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d h i s f a t h e r ' s d r i n k i n g . him by h i s g r a n d p a r e n t s  The h e l p g i v e n  was o f a p o s i t i v e k i n d and J o h n n i e  felt  t h a t f o r once i n h i s l i f e he was wanted, but he was s t i l l a n x i o u s t o  (81)  return to his own family,  xie was the neurotic bond between his  father and mother and had taken a l l the resentment which both felt in a most unsatisfactory marital situation.  (82) CASE IS  b i l l I. had been a problem ever s i n c e he was i n Grade 2 a t school,  ae was caught s t e a l i n g , and p l a y e d t r u a n t ; ne f r e q u e n t l y  a t t a c k e d s m a l l e r C h i l d r e n , and appeared t o nave a need t o prove hims e l f "a b i g s h o t " .  He broke i n t o c a b i n s , and r a n away f r o m home u n t i l  he was p l a c e d i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home.  L a t e r , he voas a n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  p r o b a t i o n e r , became i n v o l v e d w i t h gangs, and f i n a l l y s t o l e a c a r and was sent t o ijoys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , f r o m w h i c h he r a n away on two occasions.  H i s f a t h e r a n d mother were m a r r i e d when t h e former was  30 a n d t h e l a t t e r 21 and she was f i v e months p r e g n a n t .  B i l l had a  b r o t h e r a y e a r younger a n d a s i s t e r t h r e e y e a r s younger.  After the  b i r t h o f h i s s i s t e r , M r s . I . had a n a b o r t i o n , a f t e r w h i c h she was v e r y i l l and was f i n a l l y s t e r i l i z e d . Mr.  I . was a d e c o r a t o r and p a i n t e r , and an e x c e e d i n g l y c l e v e r  one, who would be a t t h e t o p o f h i s t r a d e i f i t were n o t f o r t h e c o n t i n u a l h a r a s s i n g f a m i l y problems. t h e c h i l d r e n were b o r n . better-than-average  However, he was on r e l i e f when a l l  He had v e r y s t r i c t p a r e n t s , and came f r o m a  background b u t o n l y managed t o complete grade s c h o o l .  He wanted t o do t h e r i g h t t h i n g s f o r h i s c h i l d r e n but he was a v e r y n e u r o t i c and i n s e c u r e f a t h e r , who t o o k r e f u g e i n a l c o h o l ,  tie c l a i m e d  t h a t t h e f a m i l y were happy u n t i l he came home one. n i g h t and f o u n d h i s brother s l e e p i n g w i t h h i s w i f e .  S i n c e t h e n he had f e l t i n a d e q u a t e and  suspicious. Mrs.  I . had l i t t l e s e c u r i t y a s a c h i l d .  She came f r o m a  n e u r o t i c a n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e f a m i l y and worked a s a c l e r k i n a s t o r e , a f t e r a grade s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n .  She was a v e r y n e u r o t i c p e r s o n h e r s e l f ,  (83)  c o n s t a n t l y nagging the f a t h e r over B i l l , She to  felt  and was  g r e a t g u i l t about t h e m a r r i a g e and had  over-protect B i l l ,  responsibility.  but  a v e r y poor manager. c o n s t a n t l y attempted  a t t h e same time had g i v e n him too much  When t h e y were h a v i n g  B i l l as a punching-bag and  a dispute, both parents  he knew o n l y t o o w e l l t h a t he was  used  t h e cause  of the marriage. B i l l weighed 9 l b s . when b o m He  developed e a r l y and  had  i n c l u d i n g those  n i g h t sweats which appeared when he  i n h i s own  family.  He  He  outstanding mechanical aptitude.  r e f u s e d t o go t o s c h o o l and  and w e l l d e v e l o p e d .  became  He was  v e r y keen on s p o r t s and d i d  h i s physique.  Because he was  P h y s i c a l l y , he  so b i g and has  o l d e r f o r h i s age, many demands have been made on him.  c h i l d r e n were l e f t  a l o n e f r e q u e n t l y when t h e y were s m a l l , and  claimed  t h a t he was  i n v o l v e d i n sex  always The  spent  g r e a t d e a l o f time l i s t e n i n g t o h o r r o r programs on t h e r a d i o . 9 y e a r s o l d , i t was  was  showed g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n a r t , and  a number o f e x e r c i s e s aimed at d e v e l o p i n g  looked  negative.  He masturbated c o n t i n u a l l y , and  v i o l e n t l y s i c k i f he cut h i m s e l f .  very t a l l  had  t o o k out h i s h o s t i l i t y on younger c h i l d r e n ,  f r e q u e n t l y caught s t e a l i n g .  was  He  i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home, but e x a m i n a t i o n f o r TB proved  As he grew o l d e r , B i l l  had  b r e a s t - f e d f o r 8 months.  a l l the childhood diseases.  n o c t u r n a l e n u r e s i s and t e r r i f i c was  and was  a  When he  activity.  He d e r i v e d g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n from p l a n n i n g r e c r e a t i o n t h a n from anything  he a c t u a l l y d i d . uis  to  first  have an IQ, o f 113.  t h a t he was  e x a m i n a t i o n at o h i l d Guidance u l i n i c showed The  G l i n i c f e l t t h a t he was  non-cooperative,  Bill  s u f f e r i n g from f e a r ,  i n a t t e n t i v e , s a d i s t i c and  l a z y , and  had  was  (8U)  a g r e a t need t o keep up with, t h e o t h e r hoys i n h i s gang, w h i c h he j o i n e d because o f h i s need t o be a n a g g r e s s o r .  A later clinic  examination r e -  p o r t e d t h a t he l a c k e d p e r s i s t e n c e and had poor s e l f a n d p e r s o n a l a d j u s t ment.  By t h i s t i m e h i s p a r e n t s were unable t o handle h i m a t home and  h i s mother was d e f i n i t e l y a f r a i d o f him; a s a r e s u l t , both p a r e n t s gave i n t o h i m and o v e r - i n d u l g e d h i m i n s o f a r a s t h e y were a b l e .  At t h i s  p o i n t he s t o l e a c a r and was p l a c e d i n Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , where both p a r e n t s v i s i t e d h i m and d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d t o h e l p h i m . B i l l r e c e i v e d no r e a l t r a i n i n g a t home, where he was t h e focus o f t h e parents' resentment o f t h e i r m a r i t a l worker a t j u v e n i l e  c o u r t f e l t t h a t he had a s t r o n g ego but a d i s t o r t e d  super-ego and a sense o f s o c i a l inadequacy situation,  He u n d e r s t o o d  amount o f i n s i g h t  s i t u a t i o n . The case  w h i c h was due t o h i s home  h i s p a r e n t s f a i r l y w e l l , and had a c e r t a i n  i n t o h i s own f e e l i n g s .  r o t h parents over-indulged  him, and h i s mother o v e r - p r o t e c t e d h i m because o f h e r own g r e a t g u i l t feelings.  The f a t h e r would have l i k e d t o h e l p , but was inadequate  and w i t h d r e w i n t o  alcohol.  (85)  uASE X G>eorge j . was p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home a t h i s own r e q u e s t when h i s mother t e m p o r a r i l y d e s e r t e d t h e f a m i l y , tie was brought t o o h i l d Guidance o l i n i c s e v e r a l t i m e s because o f c o n t i n u e d day"and  night /  e n u r e s i s , and l y i n g a n d s t e a l i n g ,  n i s f a t h e r and mother m a r r i e d when • /  t h e f o r m e r was 30 y e a r s o l d a n d t h e l a t t e r 19, and George had two s i s t e r s 18 months a n d 6 y e a r s younger t h a n he.  ooth h i s  f a t h e r and  mother appeared t o f a v o r t h e s i s t e r s a n d t o w i s h t o g e t r i d o f George. M r . J . was b o r n i n S o u t h A f r i c a and was brought up a Roman Catholic.  H i s p a r e n t s were w e l l - t o - d o p e o p l e i n t h e B r i t i s h  and he a t t e n d e d a p r i v a t e s c h o o l .  tradition  H i s f a t h e r was s t r i c t and showed no  i n t e r e s t i n t h e boy and he g o t l i t t l e a c c e p t a n c e and s e c u r i t y from t h e f a m i l y , so he l e f t home when about 1 6 . He always f e l t h i m s e l f u n a b l e t o l i v e up t o h i s f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n s and background and had a n enormous need f o r r e s p e c t and s t a t u s w h i c h had never been f i l l e d . work o n t h e b o a t s and had done numerous odd j o b s .  tie le'ft home t o  When he m a r r i e d M r s . H.  he was o n r e l i e f and had s i n c e been a b o i l e r - m a k e r ' s a s s i s t a n t a n d worked on t a n k e r s and o t h e r s h i p s .  He was always a n i n a d e q u a t e husband and  f a t h e r , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s e n t e d George, t o whom he was a b u s i v e and f o r whom he t o o k no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o p e n l y b l a m i n g t h e boy f o r t h e m a r r i a g e , when t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n became t o o much f o r h i m he s i m p l y w i t h d r e w and t o o k no p a r t .  H i s w i f e l e f t h i m s e v e r a l t i m e s f o r o t h e r men but he d i d  n o t appear a c t i v e l y t o r e s e n t t h i s . feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y .  I t seemed m e r e l y t o i n c r e a s e h i s  (86)  Mrs. h a r d ; she was  J . came o f a v e r y poor f a m i l y and was  s u b m i s s i v e t o her mother and m a r r i e d t o escape, p r o b a b l y  becoming pregnant d e l i b e r a t e l y . She worked as a s a l e s c l e r k . was  The  had  o n l y Grade 8 e d u c a t i o n  f a m i l y income was  l o c a t e d near t h e G.P.R. f l a t s .  j ' s mother was  made t o work v e r y  There was  and  low and the f a m i l y home some s u g g e s t i o n  that  Mrs.  a t one t i m e k e e p i n g , a d i s o r d e r l y house.  iars. J . was  d i r t y , s l o v e n l y and n o i s y .  a t George and beat him, had t r i e d t o push him  She  c o n t i n u a l l y shouted  but appeared t o have some s t r o n g t i e t o him  i n t o t a k i n g h i s father.'s p l a c e .  and  S i n c e he grew  o l d e r t h i s beoame more n o t i c e a b l e and t h e y were o u t w a r d l y q u i t e a f f e c t i o n ate,  tieorge l i k e d t o have her c o a t over h i s bed when he went t o  D u r i n g t h e War  ¥irhen jur. J . was  away i n t h e Army, t h e c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d  a t s c h o o l t h a t t h e y hade. Daddy i n t h e Army and When Mr.  sleep.  a Daddy i n t h e Navy.  J . r e t u r n e d , .Mrs. J . l e f t w i t h a n o t h e r man  and George asked t o  be t a k e n i n t o c a r e .  I t was  jars. J . , a p p a r e n t l y ,  f e l t v e r y g u i l t y about h e r m a r r i a g e and about t h e  s e x u a l t i e t o ueorge.  a b o u t t h i s t i m e t h a t George began t o  She was  she appeared t o i d e n t i f y , and  a l w a y s f o n d o f t h e two g i r l s , w i t h whom v e r b a l i z e d t h a t she wanted t o keep them  but w o u l d l i k e George removed f r o m the home. completely  steal,  The m a r i t a l s i t u a t i o n  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and i a r s . J . f r e q u e n t l y l i v e d w i t h o t h e r  was  men,  only to return l a t e r . u-eorge was  born in'1932.  seven months pregnant when she was ment appeared normal and he was e a r l y i n 1933,  H i s mother was married.  breast-fed.  between s i x and  H i s b i r t h and However, he had  and t h e p h y s i c a l c a r e he r e c e i v e d was  e a r l y developpneumonia  p r o b a b l y not  too  (87)  good.  He had mumps a n d m e a s l e s , c h i c k e n p o x and a bad case o f b l o o d -  p o i s o n i n g , a l s o a t o n s i l l e c t o m y , a r e c t a l a b s c e s s and c i r c u m s i o n , t h e l a s t t h r e e n e c e s s i t a t i n g t r i p s t o t h e h o s p i t a l b e f o r e he was s i x y e a r s old.  He was a l w a y s o v e r - a c t i v e and s u f f e r e d f r o m day and n i g h t  enuresis.  He was a poor s l e e p e r , c o n t i n u a l l y b i t h i s n a i l s a n d appeared  unable t o • p l a y w i t h other c h i l d r e n . ance was p o o r .  A f t e r he s t a r t e d s c h o o l h i s a t t e n d -  He was r e s t l e s s , nervous and appeared t o have no  particular interest.  A t t h i s p o i n t h i s mother d e s e r t e d w i t h a merchant  seaman and on h e r r e t u r n he was t a k e n i n t o c a r e as he had a s k e d .  He was  n e r v o u s , e x c i t a b l e and l a c k e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and, a f t e r a fex»7 months, was  moved t o a n o t h e r home.  A t 1 0 y e a r s he was p l a c e d i n A l e x a n d r a  C o t t a g e , where he showed g r e a t f e a r o f b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a s i s s y .  He  t a l k e d v e r y q u i c k l y and n e r v o u s l y , f o r g o t what he was t o l d t o do, and put h i m s e l f t o s t e p a t n i g h t by r o l l i n g h i s head f r o m s i d e t o s i d e . H e appeared a t C h i l d guidance c l i n i c on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s and i n 1948 t h e C l i n i c ' s o p i n i o n was t h a t he f e l t d i r e c t r e j e c t i o n and a g g r a v a t i o n f r o m an i n a d e q u a t e f a t h e r whose h o s t i l i t y was e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t ueorge had been a t t e m p t i n g t o t a k e h i s f a t h e r ' s p l a c e w i t h his  mother.  A t t h i s t i m e he c o n t i n u a l l y q u a r r e l e d w i t h h i s s i s t e r  and had no r e a l boy f r i e n d s ,  u l i n i c treatment  helped him t o r e l a t e t o  o t h e r s and he e v e n t u a l l y found a g i r l f r i e n d and was h e l p e d t o a t t e n d f i r s t y e a r c l a s s e s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , s i n c e he had a n IQ, o f 140.  He  r e a l i z e d t h a t he would have t o l e a v e home but found i t v e r y hard t o break t h e t i e t o h i s mother, a l t h o u g h ne had a c e r t a i n amount o f i n s i g h t and  (88)  knew t h a t he was t h e cause o f t h e m a r r i a g e a n d t h a t t h i s e x p l a i n e d  some  of t h e parents' h o s t i l i t y t o him. The ad j u s t m e n t .  g i r l s i n t h e f a m i l y appeared t o be making a f a i r l y good They were i n d u l g e d by both f a t h e r and mother.  The mother  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h them a n d t h e y p r e s e n t e d no t h r e a t t o t h e f a t h e r , but he remained g u i l t y about t h e m a r r i a g e and h i s t r e a t m e n t o f George, and d i d not attempt t o be a f a t h e r t o t h e boy.  M r s . J . was s t i l l t r y i n g t o prove  her f e m i n i n i t y by a t t r a c t i n g d i f f e r e n t men, b u t i n s p i t e o f h e r a g g r e s s i o n she was f e a r f u l and g u i l t y because o f t h e m a r r i a g e and h e r s e x f e e l i n g s t o George, G e o r g e was o p e n l y r e j e c t e d by b o t h f a t h e r and mother, and r e a c t e d by s t e a l i n g , q u a r r e l i n g , s i c k n e s s , e n u r e s i s and l a c k o f s e l f confidence.  W i t h no good e x p e r i e n c e o f home l i f e he asked f o r a  placement away f r o m home a n d on h i s r e t u r n t h e r e was h e l p e d by t h e u l i n i c w o r k e r g r a d u a l l y t o break h i s home t i e s , and s t a r t h i s u n i v e r s i t y education.  

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