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Some considerations in planning a mobile logging operation Spiers, John James Kennedy 1956

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SOME CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING A MOBILE LOGGING OPERATION  by JOHN JAMES KENNEDY SPIERS B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y of Otago, 1949  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY In the F a c u l t y of Forestry  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  Members o f the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1956  ABSTRACT  The vast timber resource of the P a c i f i c Northwest has been dwindling r a p i d l y p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those areas of good a c c e s s i b i l i t y c l o s e to the markets.  T h i s , together with the  increased demand o f a buoyant market and a r a p i d l y expanding f o r e s t products  industry,has made i t necessary to recover the  g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e amount of timber from the a c c e s s i b l e f o r e s t acreages,.and  t o u t i l i z e those areas p r e v i o u s l y considered  i n a c c e s s i b l e or uneconomic. In order to accomplish  t h i s , the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y  has changed from i t s former r o l e as e x p l o i t e r of a l a r g e n a t u r a l resource and i s approaching  i t s f u t u r e r o l e of f o r e s t manager, i n  which i t w i l l s t r e s s c o n s e r v a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f the a v a i l a b l e timber p r e v i o u s l y considered unmarketable.  During  the l a s t decade l o g g i n g operators have had t o modify the t r a d i t i o n a l l o g g i n g methods designed a c c e s s i b l e timber t r a c t s .  to cope with l a r g e volumes on  T h i s has been achieved by i n c r e a s i n g  the m o b i l i t y of o p e r a t i o n s , i n order t o cope w i t h s c a t t e r e d stands of lower timber volume growing on land that i s more d i f f i c u l t to log.  A l s o by i n t r o d u c i n g a v a r i e t y of methods f o r h a n d l i n g  s m a l l e r l o g s , a g r e a t e r wood volume per acre i s being T h i s t h e s i s i s a d i s c u s s i o n of  recovered.  the p l a n n i n g of a  modern mobile l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n i n order t o take the maximum advantage of the new machines and methods of l o g g i n g t h a t have been developed.  A comparison i s made of the advantages and  l i m i t a t i o n s of the machinery introduced r e c e n t l y to l o g g i n g operations i n order to o u t l i n e the methods of o p e r a t i o n whereby these machines may be used most e f f e c t i v e l y .  The method o f  planning a l a y o u t i s considered so that l o g g i n g engineering, economics ,and s i l v i c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may be balanced i n (  order to get the most e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of the present  forest  crop, and t o provide f o r t h e r a p i d r e g e n e r a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n of the f u t u r e crop.  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Universitj'of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may of my  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  stood that  Head  I t i s under-  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver Canada. Date  be granted by the  ZO  "  /X  -  Columbia .  written  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  The  n e c e s s i t y of increased u t i l i z a t i o n  3  The  n e c e s s i t y of g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y  3  A t t a i n i n g improved u t i l i z a t i o n  5  Salvage l o g g i n g  5  High-lead  12  High-lead  with mobile spar  14  High-lead  with truck-mounted spar  14  Mobile loggers Combination  19  yarding-loading-trucking  devices  23  Tractor skidding  25  Loading .  25  Trucking  33  Pre-logging  35  Thinning  43  Developments a f f e c t i n g the m o b i l i t y of the operation Use  of mobile spars  Separation Use  The  logging  of y a r d i n g and  53 53  l o a d i n g operations  of l a r g e r u b b e r - t i r e d s k i d d i n g machines  57 59  T r u c k - t r a n s f e r systems  66  Wheel-mountings f o r m o b i l i t y  68  n e c e s s i t y of e f f e c t i v e planning  72  Economic c o n t r o l  72  The  77  use  of a e r i a l photography  Patch l o g g i n g  80  Effect  on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n  80  Effect  on r e g e n e r a t i o n  82  An a i d to f l e x i b l e l o g g i n g A b a r r i e r to the spread  84  of p a t h o l o g i c a l  disease  .  84  A s i l v i c u l t u r a l viewpoint  84  Some disadvantages  84  Costs  85  Windthrow  86  Planning layout  88  Economics of patch l o g g i n g  89  Planning a l o g g i n g operation  90  Road systems  91  Settings  92  S e t t i n g boundaries  94  Steps i n p l a n n i n g an o p e r a t i o n  97  P r e p a r a t i o n of the l o g g i n g p l a n  98  Bibliography  99  INTRODUCTION The  author was  sent t o B r i t i s h Columbia t o study l o g g i n g  machinery and methods of o p e r a t i o n .  To accomplish  t h i s purpose  he t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington, Oregon and  Idaho.  t h i s t h e s i s was  The m a t e r i a l which p r o v i d e s the b a s i s o f  c o l l e c t e d during t h e s e  A l i t e r a t u r e survey was but most of the m a t e r i a l presented  travels.  compiled  i s based on  at the U n i v e r s i t y , information  gained d u r i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n s with l o g g i n g p e r s o n n e l the P a c i f i c Northwest. were c o n s u l t e d , and viewpoints  A l a r g e number of l o g g i n g  c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n was  o f equipment manufacturers,  i n d i v i d u a l logging contractors. was  throughout  gained by the author, who  executives  g i v e n t o the  machine o p e r a t o r s  In a d d i t i o n , v a l u a b l e  and  experience  worked i n v a r i o u s phases of t h e  i n d u s t r y near Lake Cowichan and t h e Nanaimo Lakes on Vancouver Island. Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n presented viewpoints  of experienced  workers who  p r e s e n t t h e i r views on paper. times  expressed  conditions.  a r e i n p a r t due  The  i s based on  have l i t t l e  the  time to  c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints  to widely d i f f e r i n g  some-  operating  In g e n e r a l the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  emphasizes those p o i n t s of view which are supported convincing corroborative  by the most  evidence.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s were not available  i n the form d e s i r e d , or were c o n f i d e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e  few t a b l e s are included, i n t h i s t h e s i s .  Some graphs are i n c l u d e d  to show general trends r a t h e r t h a n r e a l v a l u e s , which are too dependent on i n d i v i d u a l working c o n d i t i o n s . The w r i t e r wishes t o acknowledge t h e e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by many men i n t h e logging i n d u s t r y of t h e P a c i f i c Northwest.  I t i s impossible  the f o l l o w i n g were p a r t i c u l a r l y  to mention them a l l , but  helpful;  B i l l Chalmers  Comox Logging and Railway Co.,Ladysmith  Jim Crickmay  B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t Products  Tom Wright  Canadian F o r e s t Products  A r c h i e Byers  A l a s k a Pine  Don  T a h s i s Co. , Vancouver  McColl  L t d . , Vancouver  L t d . , Vancouver  and C e l l u l o s e L t d . , P o r t M c N e i l l  L l o y d Edwards  Columbia C e l l u l o s e Co. L t d . , Terrace  Bud  S k a g i t Iron and S t e e l Works,  Penny )  ) Chett Barr)  Sedro-Woolley, Washington  Marc Troyer  Berger E n g i n e e r i n g  Mac  P a c i f i c Truck and T r a i l e r L t d . , Vancouver  Billingsley  Dick Nixon  Co., S e a t t l e  Vancouver L a b o r a t o r y ,  Forest  Products  L a b o r a t o r i e s of Canada. In p r e p a r i n g and p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s the a s s i s t a n c e of t h e w r i t e r ' s graduate committee, P r o f e s s o r s Knapp, Ker and Smith, was .invaluable s i n c e the w r i t e r was not conversant  with Canadian  methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n . J.  J . K. S p i e r s  F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, B. C. December 19^6  Columbia  INTRODUCTION Close s u p e r v i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d to minimise l o g g i n g c o s t s , one  of the l a r g e s t and most v a r i a b l e items i n  the cost of producing  timber products.,  Logging p l a n n i n g i n  advance i s the most e f f e c t i v e method of a c h i e v i n g the c o r r e c t s o l u t i o n to the cheapest method of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from the to the m i l l s .  A good l o g g i n g p l a n should  c o n s i d e r the  stump  character-  i s t i c s of a timber area as a whole i n r e l a t i o n to p o s s i b l e e x t r a c t i o n methods, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes,and a v a i l a b l e equipment. p l a n should  The  i n d i c a t e the most favourable methods of o p e r a t i o n i n  an area and the sequence i n which they are to be c a r r i e d out. E s s e n t i a l l y the n e c e s s i t y i s f o r v i s i o n i n management t o take a l l aspects  of f o r e s t r y and  logging into consideration.  Low  logging  c o s t s , expressed i n d o l l a r s per thousand board f e e t , are longer the only c r i t e r i a of l o g g i n g e f f i c i e n c y . l o g g i n g c o s t s have o f t e n meant excessive areas of lower value were bypassed and  In the past  l o g g i n g waste,  be considered  The  economic b e n e f i t s to f u t u r e operations must  The  well  p l a n i t s e l f should be f l e x i b l e enough t o cope  with f l u c t u a t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s and as c a t a s t r o p h i c wind and conditions.  as  along with current l o g g i n g economics i n any  prepared p l a n .  low  Often  these when logged  i s o l a t e d u n i t s at a l a t e r date have proven uneconomic. s i l v i c u l t u r a l and  no  to meet emergencies such  snow damage,or prolonged adverse c l i m a t i c  In a d d i t i o n advance planning must make p r o v i s i o n f o r  p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by new  equipment and  newly  developed o p e r a t i n g methods. Over the past decade methods have changed  consider-  ably because loggers have been f o r c e d t o move i n t o rougher and more remote areas at higher e l e v a t i o n s , and  these stands c o n t a i n  lower volumes per acre than those p r e v i o u s l y experienced.  In  a d d i t i o n , the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y has changed a p p r e c i a b l y from a predominantly lumber i n d u s t r y to one which uses small wood, p r e v i o u s l y wasted, as pulp, pressed T h i s change has  two  boards, hogged f u e l , e t c .  r e s u l t a n t s which e f f e c t l o g g i n g  planning  2  considerably:  i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e timber  resource, and,  a g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y of o p e r a t i o n with l e s s con-  c e n t r a t i o n on heavy equipment. P a s t e r , l i g h t e r , more mobile machines are a n e c e s s i t y to keep c o s t s on a reasonable  l e v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y when  d e a l i n g with s m a l l l o g s . The l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y , having changed from e x p l o i t a t i o n of l a r g e l o g s to maximum u t i l i z a t i o n i n the f o r e s t , i s devoting more a t t e n t i o n to a c h i e v i n g the maximum y i e l d per not only i n the present  acre  crop but a l s o i n the next r o t a t i o n .  In t h i s t h e s i s the e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s e d a t i o n and g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y on p l a n n i n g are d i s c u s s e d . of the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of l o g g i n g i s given and  utilizAn o u t l i n e  their  advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s are compared with the newer methods of logging.  The probable  f u t u r e crop are a l s o  e f f e c t s of present  l o g g i n g systems on the  considered.  In making t h i s study the w r i t e r t r a v e l l e d  extensive-  l y i n the Douglas f i r r e g i o n of the P a c i f i c Northwest and a wide v a r i e t y of l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  I t was  visited  hoped to present  i n t h i s t h e s i s a complete set of t a b l e s - showing comparative c o s t s and  production f i g u r e s from the l o g g i n g systems s t u d i e d .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y most companies do not record d e t a i l e d cost and recovery f i g u r e s from small i n d i v i d u a l operations such as and p r e - l o g g i n g . prepared  log  salvage  Therefore, a comparison of methods could not  be  i n t a b u l a r form and few c o s t f i g u r e s can be presented  in  this thesis. Much of the machinery d i s c u s s e d i s s t i l l  i n the  developemental stage and there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e controversy  over  the mechanical e f f i c i e n c y of c e r t a i n u n i t s .  the  mechanical s i d e has been purposely  D i s c u s s i o n on  e l i m i n a t e d i n t h i s study  and  only the p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s u n i t s o u t l i n e d .  3 The N e c e s s i t y of Increased  Utilization  The f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y i n the P a c i f i c  North-  west i s expanding r a p i d l y to meet the demands of an i n c r e a s i n g domestic one.  market and a steady and p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s i n g overseas  Much of t h i s i n d u s t r y i s based on the use of waste m a t e r i a l  from lumber manufacture and of small-wood from the f o r e s t .  The  l a t t e r t r a d i t i o n a l l y has been considered unmarketable on the lumber market.  Therefore, to meet the i n c r e a s e d demand a much  wider v a r i e t y of f o r e s t products are being e x t r a c t e d . poor type and of species p r e v i o u s l y l e f t behind are Snags, w i n d f a l l s and broken tops are salvaged. u l a r l y important  Logs of  taken.  This i s p a r t i c -  i n areas c l o s e to the producing m i l l s where  e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e i s taken o f f each .-.acre. products i n d u s t r i e s are equipped  Most of these  forest  with expensive machines which  must operate a t a h i g h c a p a c i t y t o be economical.  Therefore,  many companies with l i m i t e d f o r e s t resources are n o w . r e a l i z i n g that maximum wood p r o d u c t i o n per acre i s of paramount  importance.  Thisjmaximum wood p r o d u c t i o n can be achieved i n the present  only  by:'jncreased u t i l i z a t i o n of the f o r e s t resource and i n the f u t u r e by f u l l e s t use of the productive c a p a c i t y of the a v a i l a b l e land as soon as p o s s i b l e . The N e c e s s i t y of Greater M o b i l i t y In the e a r l y days of l o g g i n g i n the P a c i f i c  North-  west most of the areas harvested had heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e timber.  T h i s meant that the use of heavy,  s p e c i a l i z e d , r e l a t i v e l y immobile machines of h i g h c a p i t a l c o s t , l i k e Lidgerwood Skidders, were f e a s i b l e because they only r e q u i r e d moving o c c a s i o n a l l y and l a r g e volumes of timber were yarded from one l o c a t i o n .  At the present time, however, there  are few of these stands c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e volumes per a ere l e f t except  i n the more remote areas.  Therefore, l o g g e r s are moving  i n t o stands of lower d e n s i t y and i n t o more rugged country.  In  many areas operations are being c a r r i e d out at e l e v a t i o n s between 4,000 and 5,000 f e e t where l o g g i n g i s very d i f f i c u l t  and  4  where the timber  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than on the lower s l o p e s .  Other areas, p r e v i o u s l y by-passed as scrub timber, logged.  are now  being  In a d d i t i o n , i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t i s being made to take  a v a i l a b l e p i e c e of timber  o f f the ground.  the case i n some areas of Washington and  every  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y Oregon where c e r t a i n  companies are already becoming short of the timber needed t o keep t h e i r pulp m i l l s working at optimum c a p a c i t y . To harvest  t h i s s m a l l e r timber and  t o p i c k up  the  salvage, equipment that i s l i g h t e r , l e s s expensive,and more mobile i s a necessity.  Often the l o g g i n g crew has t o move from s e t t i n g  to s e t t i n g s e v e r a l times i n a month so that the amount of unproductive  time between moves has to be kept to a minimum.  A l s o , whereas i t was  r e l a t i v e l y easy to run a l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n  at a p r o f i t where the volume of the average l o g handled exceeded 2 , 0 0 0 board f e e t , i t i s exceedingly be averaging  c o s t l y to handle logs t h a t  l e s s than 2 0 0 board f e e t .  may  As d a i l y p r o d u c t i o n i s  reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y by the combined e f f e c t s of l o g g i n g small l o g s , stands  of low d e n s i t y and  made to keep unproductive imum use  of every man  high, the timber  difficult  t e r r a i n , every  e f f o r t must be  time to a minimum and to make the max-  and machine.  I f machine o p e r a t i n g c o s t s are  i s handled at a l o s s .  In a mobile l o g g i n g  operat-  i o n t h i s machinery must be t r a n s p o r t e d to the o p e r a t i o n and moved from s e t t i n g to s e t t i n g r a p i d l y i f the o p e r a t i o n i s to  pay.  S i l v i c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the r e g e n e r a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n of the next crop are a f f e c t i n g the methods of l o g g i n g with the r e s u l t that i n most areas today some form of patch-logging  or s t a g g e r e d - s e t t i n g system i s used.  that current operations g e n e r a l l y are spread area of f o r e s t and  over a much l a r g e r  i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y i s r e q u i r e d not only f o r  the prime l o g g i n g but a l s o f o r l o g g i n g salvage and pickup.  T h i s means  r i g h t of  way  5  A t t a i n i n g Improved U t i l i z a t i o n E f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n i s improving  r a p i d l y i n the  Northwest as small l o g s , broken p i e c e s , l o n g b u t t s , snags and wind f a l l s are removed before, d u r i n g or a f t e r the major operation takes p l a c e .  T h i s small wood may  be removed i n three ways:  Salvage l o g g i n g or r e - l o g g i n g Pre-logging Thinning Salvage Logging Salvage l o g g i n g , the f i r s t method used i n order to i n c r e a s e u t i l i z a t i o n , i n v o l v e s p i c k i n g up the s a p l i n g s , s m a l l ends, l o n g b u t t s , and broken tops, l e f t a f t e r the main l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . T h i s i s u s u a l l y expensive because very small p i e c e s are handled and because adequate machinery f o r t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n has to be devised.  yet  Equipment that i s most s u i t a b l e f o r small p i e c e s  o f t e n i s inadequate to handle o c c a s i o n a l l a r g e l o g s .  Brandstrom,  (1933) showed that heavy machinery became very uneconomical when working on l o g s c o n t a i n i n g l e s s than 200 board f e e t and was  at  i t s optimum working economy i n l o g s near i t s maximum c a p a c i t y (Graph I ) . of a 1955  The  e f f e c t of l o g s i z e on cost i n the v a r i o u s phases  Vancouver I s l a n d l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n i s shown i n Table  Hence, i n many areas, s m a l l e r l o g s should be l e f t r e - l o g g i n g crews.  Adopting  f o r salvage  I. or  t h i s method r e s u l t s i n much lower  c o s t s f o r the major l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n but a l a r g e r q u a n t i t y of the s m a l l e r l o g s are smashed i n e x t r a c t i n g the l a r g e r ones over them.  Therefore, the o v e r a l l economy of l e a v i n g a l a r g e amount  of s m a l l e r l o g s on the ground i s d o u b t f u l as the breakage i n c r e a s e s and the percentage of the o v e r a l l l o g g i n g c o s t s charged to  salvage c o s t s became c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r .  A l l good l o g s t h a t  can be e x t r a c t e d at the break-even f i g u r e or above should be taken i n the major l o g g i n g operation and salvage crews'.  The  only the remainder l e f t  e f f e c t of the volume of pulpwood  to  salvage  e x t r a c t e d on o v e r a l l l o g g i n g c o s t s i s shown i n Table I I .  GRAPH I  R e l a t i o n of Volume of Log t o Yarding Costs  A summary of graph by Brandstrom Pg. 61. Logging c o s t s and o p e r a t i n g methods i n the Douglas f i r r e g i o n  TABLE I E f f e c t of Log Size on Costs i n Various Phases of a Logging Operation Source - 1955 f i g u r e s - a Vancouver Island o p e r a t i o n Log Average Board f e e t  P e l l and Buck  Yard-Load  Trucking  Boom  Overheads General  Roads Maintenance and w r i t e o f f  50  7.50  22.80  4.90  4.00  4.50  3.00  100  6.50  15.30  4.50  3.75  4.50  3.00  150  5.50  12.00  4.40  3.25  4.25  3.00  200  4.50  10.25  4.30  2.75  4.00  3.00  250  3.60  7.75  4.20  2.50  3.75  2.80  300  3.25  6.45  4.00  2.35  3.50  2.80  350  3.15  5.25  3.75  2.10  3.50  2.80  400  3.05  5.00  3.25  1.90  3.25  2.80  450  2.95  4.80  3.25  1.60  3.00  2.60  500  2.85  4.60  3.00  1.40  3.00  2.60  550  2.80  4.30  3.00  1.20  2.75  2.60  600  2.75  4.00  3.00  1.00  2.75  2.60  8  TABLE I I The E f f e c t of Percentage of Salvage E x t r a c t e d on T o t a l Logging Costs Percentage P u l p l o g s by p i e c e s 10$  T o t a l Logging Costs i n c r e a s e d by  .  Increased Cost per cubic foot  3.4$  $ 0.39  15  6.1  0.66  20  8.5  0.93  25  11.1  1.20  30  13.7  1.47  35  15.7  1.68  40  16.7  1.78  Source of d a t a :  1 9 5 5 p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s over a y e a r l y output  of 6 0 , 0 0 0 M board f e e t on a Vancouver I s l a n d  operation.  P u l p l o g average  1 0 1 board f e e t  ( 2 7 . 3 cubic  feet)  Sawlog average  3 6 0 board f e e t  ( 6 9 . 5 cubic  feet)  Sawlogs minimum s i z e  8 i n c h diameter 1 0 i n c h diameter  TPulplog minimum s i z e  6 i n c h diameter 1 0 i n c h diameter  32 foot l o g 18 foot chunk 3 2 foot l o g 1 2 f o o t chunk  9  Nearly a l l of the l a r g e r companies on the coast are now  engaged i n salvage l o g g i n g over most of t h e i r operations  and good clean-up and a h i g h degree of u t i l i z a t i o n i s obtained. An example of the amount of wood on the ground before and a salvage o p e r a t i o n i s shown i n P i g s . 1 and  after  2.  In Washington s m a l l c o n t r a c t l o g g e r s or "gyppos" are'employed by the l a r g e r companies to do the salvage l o g g i n g . On the job a company foreman can supervise about 20 "gyppo" s i d e s by checking c o n t r a c t s , p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and v i s i n g clean-up.  super-  These s m a l l operators are u s u a l l y hard-working  and very c o s t - c o n s c i o u s and they make e f f e c t i v e use of t h e i r equipment.  Company p o l i c y u s u a l l y seems t o be to r e s t r i c t them  to one or two  crews.  These "gyppos", being mainly  owner-opera-  t o r s , have lower machine maintenance c o s t s and personnel problems are s m a l l .  Sometimes they do not have machines best adapted f o r  the job but they are ingenious and use the machines a v a i l a b l e to the best advantage.  U s u a l l y the s m a l l operator i s more e f f i c i e n t  i n g e t t i n g more p r o d u c t i o n per machine with l e s s maintenance and l o s s of working time. In B r i t i s h Columbia most companies do t h e i r salvage l o g g i n g with s p e c i a l crews.  In t h i s way  of the machine best s u i t e d t o the job. may  use may  own  be made  However, t h i s advantage  be o f f s e t by the f a c t that day-wage l a b o u r i s not as  suitable  to t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n where a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of very strenuous work i s r e q u i r e d . The m a t e r i a l to be removed i n a salvage l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n v a r i e s with the l o c a t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n and the use.  end  Most salvage operations are designed t o provide c h i p s f o r  a pulp m i l l .  In t h i s case, burnt or charred l o g s are u s u a l l y not  salvagable, although the i n s i d e wood may  be sound.  On the  other  hand,,logs with up to 50$ r o t are salvaged i n some areas, n o t a b l y i n western Washington.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f the r o t i s  on the outside of the l o g as i t w i l l then be sloughed log-barker.  o f f i n the  Species not s u i t a b l e f o r pulping,such as Cedar, are  10  Salvage Operations Port M c N e i l l , V.I.  Pig. 1 .  Before salvage.  P i g . 2.  A f t e r salvage.  11  f r e q u e n t l y l e f t behind.  Cedar can be u t i l i z e d  i n sulphate  pulp  but the low p r i c e paid f o r i t does not u s u a l l y compensate f o r the additional logging cost.  However, with general expansion of the  wood-using i n d u s t r y and the p o s s i b i l i t y  of u t i l i z a t i o n  near f u t u r e i t probably would pay to salvage  s m a l l cedar logs of  good q u a l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f there are adequate water facilities.  The  i n the storage  e x t r a cost of y a r d i n g these l o g s , e s p e c i a l l y i n  a h i g h - l e a d o p e r a t i o n , i s small because the more timber t h a t i s removed from an area the lower i s the overhead cost per u n i t . An important ion  problem a s s o c i a t e d with the u t i l i z a t -  of salvage l o g s i s t h e i r h a n d l i n g at the m i l l .  Very small  p i e c e s sometimes cause t r o u b l e i n conveyors i f they are not designed important  f o r small s i z e s .  The percentage of salvage l o g s i s an  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n m i l l c o s t s because the h a n d l i n g ,  and,chipping;costs o f small l o g s i s high and  the output  barking  i s small  i n comparison to l a r g e l o g s . The  allowable percentage of r o t and low  s p e c i e s , such as the hardwoods and  cedar,  value  i n the l o g supply i s  a f a c t o r that has to be. taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A l l f r a c t u r e d ends are u s u a l l y bucked o f f because they p i c k up d i r t , s m a l l stones, and  other f o r e i g n bodies  tend to come through the chipper i n l o n g s l i v e r s . l i q u o r p e n e t r a t i o n i s from the end,  these s l i v e r s  and  A l s o , as do not cook  properly. S c a l i n g of salvage l o g s i s a problem.;.. .The'. general p r a c t i c e i s to avoid s c a l i n g and to weigh the l o g s as t r u c k loads instead'.  T h i s can be done by i n s t a l l i n g a t r u c k  weigh-bridge or by a t t a c h i n g a h y d r a u l i c weighing device to the unloading A-frame at the l o g dump. use  i n southern  A recent weighing d e v i c e , i n  Oregon, i s an e l e c t r o n i c s c a l e f i t t e d on  t r u c k and t r a i l e r bunks.  The  the  weight on the bunks r e g i s t e r s on  a d i a l f i t t e d i n the t r u c k . Salvage operations are being c a r r i e d out up to  12 f i v e and more years a f t e r the normal l o g g i n g operation.  This  u s u a l l y means that there i s a l a r g e r percentage of r o t , e s p e c i a l l y sap r o t .  Salvage operations should take place about one  or  two  The volume of l o g g i n g s l a s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y of tops  and  years a f t e r normal l o g g i n g . (i)  The  advantages of t h i s  are:  small branches i s reduced. (ii)  The bark has had time to loosen and much w i l l come o f f  in logging. the b a r k i n g (iii)'  T h i s reduces the heavy l o a d that s m a l l l o g s put  on  facilities.  Use  of l o g g i n g roads by salvage operators does not  i n t e r f e r e with normal l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s . (iv)  At t h i s time the l o g g i n g roads have not d e t e r i o r a t e d ,  hence, road maintenance and (v)  r e p a i r i s not  Rot has not yet had  expensive.  time t o a f f e c t the q u a n t i t y or  q u a l i t y of the l o g s . (vi)  I f salvage l o g g i n g i s l o n g delayed, young s e e d l i n g s  w i l l be damaged. In some areas of the P a c i f i c Northwest s l a s h burning i s compulsory w i t h i n a year of l o g g i n g . case, salvage  I f t h i s i s the  operations must be c a r r i e d out p r i o r to burning  as  charred l o g s are u n s u i t a b l e f o r pulp. Yarding Systems The methods used i n y a r d i n g salvage l o g s are many and v a r i e d but the most e f f e c t i v e seem to be the f o l l o w i n g : High-lead spar t h a t was  yarding.  In t h i s method use i s made of the same  used i n the o r i g i n a l h i g h - l e a d l o g g i n g u s i n g  ropes, chokers,  and a s m a l l e r y a r d i n g machine.  lighter  T h i s does not need  any a d d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g because the s e t t i n g s are the same as i n the prime l o g g i n g .  The y a r d i n g machine i s o f t e n l i g h t A Skagit "B.U.  i n weight  and  i s o f t e n truck-mounted.  15" mounted on  an  old  t r u c k - c h a s s i s i s shown i n use at F o r e s t Grove, Oregon ( P i g . 3).  Often with such l i g h t truck-mounted,yarders, d i f f i c u l t y i s e x p e r i e n ced i n anchoring them p r o p e r l y to prevent  jumping out of l e a d .  Large logs or stumps should be used f o r anchors.  With a h i g h -  13  P i g . 3.  Truck-mounted Skagit B.U. 15.  Used f o r y a r d i n g  salvage with c o n v e n t i o n a l spar.  14  l e a d system u s i n g an o l d spar, the chokers 3/4"  wire rope.  should be reduced  to  As a r e s u l t , the operator of the yarder w i l l  have to t r e a t the r i g g i n g more g e n t l y and w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y to break l o g s . High-lead y a r d i n g u s i n g a mobile  spar  S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t types of spar have been designed f o r t h i s type of work.  Most of them are homemade wooden spars  about 60 to 80 f e e t high, mounted on wheels or t r a c k s , w i t h some type of A-frame device t o a i d i n r a i s i n g the spar.  They can  p u l l e d along by t r a c t o r or t r u c k between s e t t i n g s .  A spar of  be  t h i s type mounted on s t e e l wheels i s seen i n F i g u r e . 4 . These spars are s h o r t e r than those used on the o r i g i n a l h i g h - l e a d o p e r a t i o n , consequently i s l e s s (see Table I I I ) .  t h e i r e f f e c t i v e range  T h i s means t h a t some r e v i s i o n of the  planning i s r e q u i r e d to achieve more e f f e c t i v e usage by a t i n g any l o n g c o r n e r s . mobile  elimin-  U s u a l l y three to s i x s e t t i n g s of the  spar a l o n g the road through the o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g are  adequate (see F i g . 5). High-lead y a r d i n g u s i n g truck-mounted spars The u n i t s used i n . t h i s system are l i g h t  yarders  and spars from 40 to 70 f e e t h i g h mounted on t r u c k s or t r a i l e r s . The  spar f o l d s down over the t r a n s p o r t i n g v e h i c l e f o r easy moving  and i s raised' or lowered by the y a r d i n g machine. may  These machines  i n c o r p o r a t e some type of s e l f - t i g h t e n i n g guy device with  drums mounted on and d r i v e n by the machine.  A mobile  guy  spar of  t h i s type mounted with the yarder on an o l d s o l i d - t i r e d low-bed t r a i l e r i s shown i n F i g u r e 6.  T h i s was  being used on Vancouver  I s l a n d and f o r short moves could be moved with the spar erect and h e l d i n p l a c e u s i n g the main rope and  haulback.  Planning f o r t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to that i n F i g u r e 5, These units have an added advantage due t o t h e i r :  i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y and quick set-up time i n that they can make many small moves and windrow l o g s ( F i g . 7 ) .  T h i s means t h a t  P i g . 4.  M o b i l e wooden spar Port M c N e i l l  Spar has u n i v e r s a l j o i n t p i v o t and A-frame i s used t o a i d r a i s i n g .  16  TABLE I I I Range of E f f e c t i v e L i f t  of Various High-lead Spars  Range normally i s e f f e c t e d by 3 f a c t o r s : (1)  Height of spar  (2)  Power and speed of yarder  (3)  Slope and ground o b s t r u c t i o n s Lift  i s considered to be e f f e c t i v e out t o 4 times  the height of the spar,on l e v e l ground. approximate  Prom t h e r e on,conditions  ground yarding^with speed and power of the y a r d i n g  machine being the c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s . E f f e c t i v e range and l i f t  of u n i t s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s Height of spar  Unit Older type h i g h - l e a d spar 1920,' s Current c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h - l e a d spar Burrard s t e e l tower Berger porta-tower Mobile wooden spar (Alaska Pine Co.) Mobile t r a n s p o r t e r mounted spar (MacMillancand Bloedei:).; Truck Mounted spar (Comox Logging and Railway Co.) Skagit S.J. 8. mobile yarder Trackloader T.L.15 Skagit S.J. 4 RT. mobile l o g g e r  EihvXmc  &>sT(xnce 0 f  Maximum d i s t a n c e where l i f t i s effective  180' 120' 90' .90' 80' .70'  720' 480* 360' 360' 320' 280'  50'  200'  40'  160 128' 109' 1  27'2"  l'(V.  (iw  £><r).  paper.  17  F i g . 5.  Diagram to show o r i g i n a l r e c t a n g u l a r s e t t i n g for c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h - l e a d s p l i t up i n t o 6 s e t t i n g s f o r a 7 0 ' mobile spar.  Legend:—— (x) O  -Boundary Position Boundary Position  of conventional h i g h - l e a d of c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h - l e a d of mobile spar s e t t i n g s . f o r mobile spar.  setting. spar.  P i g . 7.  Windrowed logs from mobile spar.  19  y a r d i n g can be w e l l ahead of l o a d i n g and the l o g p i l e does not become too h i g h .  High cold-decks d i f f i c u l t to l o a d out  are o f t e n a f e a t u r e of a normal h i g h - l e a d o p e r a t i o n . With t h i s type o f windrowing with an e a s i l y moved machine i t i s advantageous i f the l o g s are yarded from the f o r ward a r c and not around t o the r i g h t angle l e a d .  This insures  that the l o g s are a t the best angle f o r t h e l o a d i n g machine t o f a c i l i t a t e rapid  loading.  Use of mobile l o g g e r s These are wheel or track-mounted  self-propelled  v e h i c l e s with a spar and boom that are used f o r both y a r d i n g (on the h i g h l e a d p r i n c i p l e ) and l o a d i n g . by machinery  They are manufactured  companies e s p e c i a l l y f o r l o g g i n g .  They are an  expensive investment but due to t h e i r rugged c o n s t r u c t i o n and w  extreme m o b i l i t y they are prooving very u s e f u l i n l o g g i n g not only salvage but l a r g e r l o g s as w e l l . Moving from s e t t i n g t o s e t t i n g i s r a p i d due to the s e l f - t i g h t e n i n g guys i n c o r p o r a t e d i n these machines. r i g g i n g s e l f - t i g h t e n i n g guys are an e s s e n t i a l .  For fast  With a s k i l l e d  crew the r i g g i n g time can be reduced from s e v e r a l hours t o a matter of minutes.  In some cases the machine can make short  moves along a road f o r windrowing without any a l t e r a t i o n of guy stumps and without the d r i v e r coming out of h i s cab. Many of these machines are i n use with "gyppo" operators i n Western Washington, the.Skagits,models S.J.4.and S.J.4.R.T., b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y popular.  T h i s type of machine i s  very s u i t a b l e f o r a c o n t r a c t o r o p e r a t i o n because: (i)  Yarding and l o a d i n g investments are i n one machine ,  which can be moved from s e t t i n g t o s e t t i n g without  additional  towing expense. (ii)  The Machine can both yard and l o a d .  On h i g h - p r o d u c t i o n  jobs i t i s v e r s a t i l e enough t o yard out mainly d u r i n g the daytime and can load out at n i g h t on a second s h i f t from windrowed l o g s .  20  (iii)  The machine i s b e t t e r suited, to the h i g h e r p a i d , more  s k i l l f u l and  c a r e f u l operators u s u a l l y employed by  "gyppos".  However, good o p e r a t o r - t r a i n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h i s type of r i g so that s k i l l i n s t e a d of power i s used to avoid "hang-ups". Some of these u n i t s have a swinging boom and  often  i n c o r p o r a t e a wide "Tommy Moore" sheave on the boom t i p through which the B u t t - r i g g i n g can be p u l l e d . in  T h i s i s a most u s e f u l a i d  l a n d i n g , s t a c k i n g or l o a d i n g l o g s on narrow roads on  steep  side s l o p e s . Photographs of t h i s type of machine working i n normal l o g g i n g operations are shown i n F i g u r e s 8 and Due  to the shortness  some r e v i s i o n i n the planning They are not  9.  of the s p a r i n these machines  of any  o p e r a t i o n i s necessary.  s u i t a b l e f o r y a r d i n g d o w n h i l l because of the  low  clearance which causes many hangups, and t h e i r y a r d i n g  distance  on easy going  It i s  should be r e s t r i c t e d to about 400  advantageous i n i n c r e a s i n g the  feet.  e f f e c t i v e y a r d i n g distance  these machines t o have a f a s t l i n e p u l l .  of  T h i s f a s t haul i n  speed, combined with an a b i l i t y t o change gears on the move, enables the t u r n to jump or bounce p o s s i b l e hangups.  However,  they do have a great advantage i n y a r d i n g steep u p h i l l s i d i n g s i n that the boom p r o j e c t i n g over the l i p of the h i l l have g r e a t e r clearance than a normal high spar a d d i t i o n to t h i s the Washington "Trakloaders" model S.J.4  a c u t a l l y may  ( F i g . 10). and  the  In  Skagit  R.T..,can be moved c l o s e . j to the edge of the  hill,  and because of t h e i r swing a b i l i t y can land the l o g s at r i g h t angles to the l i n e of y a r d i n g  ( F i g . 11).  These mobile loggers are most advantageouse,. when used over road l a y o u t s designed f o r t h e i r use.  It i s  economic to build-.•. q u i t e a more extensive  road network i f the  f i x e d cost o f / y a r d i n g set up i s :very low.  Most e f f e c t i v e use  of  t h i s type of machine i s being demonstrated by crews of younger loggers r a t h e r than the " o l d t i m e r s " . not understand i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and  The  o l d e r l o g g e r s o f t e n do  r e q u i r e i t to show the same  performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l  heavy machines.  P i g . 8.  Washington t r a c k l o a d e r y a r d i n g and s t a c k i n g .  Note:  Butt r i g g i n g has j u s t gone through l a r g e sheave.  P i g . 11. Diagram to show advantage of mobile, yarder i n combined y a r d i n g , s t o c k i n g , l o a d i n g o p e r a t i o n along a roadway.  23 The truck-mounted jammer i s another type  of  mobile logger i n use on salvage operations as w e l l as on many c h e r r y - p i c k i n g and  s e l e c t i v e - l o g g i n g jobs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia.  A jammer i s a truck-mounted  yarder with a s i n g l e wooden spar supported can be f o l d e d down f o r t r a v e l l i n g .  The  by an A-frame which  spar i s f r e e swinging  can be r a i s e d and lowered by a l u f f i n g d e v i c e . can be hand tightened^are used and  square-lead.  L i g h t guys,,which  the machines can be moved from  place to place i n about f i v e minutes. the most part and  and  Old t r u c k s are used f o r  the machines can yard i n an a r c out to the  By changing from y a r d i n g r i g g i n g to end hooks i t  can be used f o r l o a d i n g .  T h i s type of machine i s good f o r y a r d i n g  steep slopes u p h i l l and f o r l o g g i n g small but awkward s e t t i n g s . It i s v e r y mobile and  so i s u s e f u l i n s c a t t e r e d timber but i t s  production r a t e i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y high. s m a l l o p e r a t i o n by a l o g g e r who expensive  equipment.  I t i s designed f o r a  does not want to i n v e s t i n  A truck-mounted jammer l o a d i n g s m a l l l o g s  i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia i s shown i n F i g u r e  12.  Combination y a r d i n g - l o a d i n g and t r u c k i n g d e v i c e s These are machines designed  f o r the small l o g g e r  with a minimum of f i n a n c i a l resource and a small crew.  Their  running c o s t s are low, and p r o d u c t i o n r a t e i s u s u a l l y not above f i f t e e n cords per day f o r a 10 mile h a u l .  T h e i r use on  wholesale  salvage operations i s l i m i t e d as they must yard from a formed roadway and the maximum y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e i s approximately feet.  200  Therefore, they are l i m i t e d t o small c h e r r y - p i c k i n g  operations and cannot be used f o r a complete salvage a d d i t i o n a l road i s c o n s t r u c t e d .  The  job unless  "Easy-way logger" i s a  machine of t h i s type at present being used i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F i g u r e 13 shows a crane t r u c k s u i t a b l e f o r y a r d i n g , l o a d i n g and trucking.  25  Salvage  y a r d i n g by t r a c t o r In many areas where the t e r r a i n i s not t o o  difficult  salvage i s being skidded out by t r a c t o r .  A tractor  on t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n has to be b i g enough t o push i t s own way through the d e b r i s to the l o g s and have enough clearance to scramble over o b s t a c l e s . T h i s u s u a l l y means that a t r a c t o r of D.6 s i z e has to be used t o do the job and to enable payload, many chokers have to be used.  i t to get a  reasonable  Therefore, there i s  c o n s i d e r a b l e machine d e l a y time between t u r n s while the t u r n i s being choked. used.  T h i s occurs even when two s e t s of chokers are b e i n g  A D.6 t r a c t o r and a r c h engaged i n a salvage o p e r a t i o n near  Nanaimo i s seen i n F i g u r e 1 4 .  I t w i l l be noted how small i s the  payload. Planning f o r a t r a c t o r salvage o p e r a t i o n should be confined wherever p o s s i b l e to areas where the prime l o g g i n g has been by t r a c t o r and the access t r a c k s a l r e a d y c l e a r e d . ing  A l l yard-  wherever p o s s i b l e should be d o w n h i l l so t h a t maximum  payloads  are c a r r i e d . Loading  salvage l o g s In l o a d i n g salvage l o g s the c o n v e n t i o n a l l o a d i n g  methods, such as a McLean type h e e l boom r i g g e d t o the spar t r e e or t h e adaption of a shovel crane t o a h e e l boom, are not s u i t a b l e . As these methods r e q u i r e a hooker t o a t t a c h t h e tong and only one piece can be handled small l o g s .  a t a time, they are uneconomic f o r l o a d i n g  In the operations u s i n g mobile loggers or t h e Easy-  way l o g g e r d e s c r i b e d above, there i s no n e c e s s i t y f o r a separate l o a d i n g device.  However, a l l other methods of salvage r e q u i r e a  f a s t way of h a n d l i n g many s m a l l l o g s u s i n g as few men as p o s s i b l e . Probably  the most e f f e c t i v e way t o handle small  salvage logs i s by use of a converted s h o v e l l o a d e r f i t t e d Berger  a i r tongs.  with  The c l o s i n g and opening of these tongs i s  c o n t r o l l e d from the l o a d e r cab and t h e r e i s no need f o r a man on the ground.  A b i g advantage i s t h a t the tongs can p i c k up  Pig.  14.  D.6  t r a c t o r and arch l o g g i n g salvage.  27  s e v e r a l l o g s at once. log  They provide f a s t l o a d i n g with p o s i t i v e  c o n t r o l and a. maximum of s a f e t y .  One  of these machines  working on a Vancouver I s l a n d o p e r a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e As production from i n d i v i d u a l salvage s i d e s i s f a i r l y  15.  low,a t r u c k  mounted l o a d e r with, a i r tongs i s an e x c e l l e n t machine f o r two  or  three d i s p e r s e d salvage s i d e s i n a patch l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . In p l a n n i n g f o r the use of a i r tongs c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given t o a few  f a c t o r s that c o n t r o l t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  P r i m a r i l y the main disadvantage flexibility  with an a i r tong i s t h a t i t s  i s l i m i t e d and most of them cannot reach f u r t h e r  than a 33 f o o t r a d i u s .  . . The  1  ..• height from which i t can p i c k up  or place a l o g i s a l s o l i m i t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the stick.  Because of these l i m i t a t i o n s , c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s  dipper should  be followed i n p l a n n i n g . (i) air  Cold decks must not be allowed to get too h i g h as  tong cannot reach up to them.  the  Therefore, i f c o l d decking i s  being c a r r i e d out, i t i s b e t t e r I f the l o g s are windrowed along the roadside at a height not exceeding ground.  about 15 f e e t from the  A mobile l o a d i n g machine can move along the windrow  easily. (ii)  As the a i r tong has r e s t r i c t e d reach a l l l o g s must be  c l o s e to the road. difficult (iii)  The machine can "cherry pick'but i t i s a  and expensive  <"  operation.  A l l unnecessary l o a d i n g movement must be e l i m i n a t e d i n  order to l o a d small l o g s economically.  To accomplish  this,  yarded  logs are windrowed at an acute angle to the road so the amount of swing i n each movement of the l o a d e r i s reduced (Fig.  16).  The  icated i n Figure (iv) of  t o the minimum.  comparative a r c s of the machine l o a d i n g are i n d 17.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to i n c r e a s i n g the  the l o a d e r operator.  visibility  Most c o n v e n t i o n a l methods have poor  v i s i b i l i t y and are o f t e n i n a c c u r a t e and unsafe when p l a c i n g the top l o g s on a b i g t r u c k .  Among the methods that have been t r i e d  are s e t t i n g the l o a d i n g machine on a ramp or excavating the t r u c k  28  P i g . 15.  Shovel with Berger a i r - t o n g s l o a d i n g salvage l o g s .  P i g . 16. Note:  An example o f windrowed l o g s .  The acute a n g l e o f the l o g s on the r i g h t o f the road. T h i s g i v e s the minimum l o a d i n g swing.  30  p o s i t i o n s l i g h t l y hut both these tend to make the o p e r a t i o n l e s s mobile.  Some companies have extended the cab height to i n c r e a s e  v i s i b i l i t y and t h i s seems to be an e x c e l l e n t i d e a , g i v i n g increased s a f e t y to the o p e r a t i o n ( P i g . 18). Methods that are commonly being used to l o a d s m a l l l o g s would be a p p l i c a b l e t o salvage l o g l o a d i n g . logs i n a prepared  b i n (as shown i n P i g s . 19 and  Bundling  of  20), and l o a d i n g  them by bundles on to a t r u c k , i s p r a c t i c e d on a t h i n n i n g o p e r a t i o n at Sechelt t r e e farm.  An adoption of t h i s system could be used  with almost any type of l o a d i n g machine. Bundling  or package h a n d l i n g with the bundles being  h e l d i n s t e e l bands or wire rope s t r a p s i s of great advantage,, i n that i t can be c a r r i e d through s e v e r a l stages of the l o g - h a n d l i n g facilities.  In the water t h i s system p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e s l o s s  from s i n k e r s .  Packaging i s p a r t i c u l a r l y advantageous where l o a d -  i n g and unloading devices are i n s t a l l e d on a l a r g e o p e r a t i o n to handle b i g logs,and where t h e i r cost i n h a n d l i n g s m a l l l o g s as p i e c e s would be completely  uneconomical.  Smaller"gyppo" operators  are g e n e r a l l y not so i n t e r e s t e d i n h a n d l i n g t h e i r produce i n bundles.  C a p i t a l expenditure  and  d e p r e c i a t i o n charges per u n i t  of time on heavy equipment r e q u i r e d t o handle bundles,would be high. may  The volume of salvage l o g s handled  on a small o p e r a t i o n  not be s u f f i c i e n t to make i t economical.  Package h a n d l i n g  can  be economical only when there i s great volume p r o d u c t i o n or where the packages can be set a s i d e from a normal l o g g i n g s i d e and handled  from t h e n on as u n i t s as soon as they are The  completed.  other method of l o a d i n g salvage and  small l o g s  i s the use of a l o g grapple used with a mobile type crane as shown i n F i g u r e 21.  T h i s machine i s e x c e l l e n t f o r p i c k i n g up  s e v e r a l l o g s at a time out of windrows. tong-man.  loader  I t does not r e q u i r e a  Many of the s m a l l e r "gyppo" salvage loggers r i g a  g i n pole to l o a d out t h e i r l o g s .  In t h i s case the t r a c t o r used  f o r y a r d i n g the l o g s i s a l s o used t o power the l o a d e r o p e r a t i o n .  Pig.  18.  Osgood l o a d e r with cab extended f o r better  visibility.  P i g . 19.  Loading l o g s i n t o a bundling b i n . Sechelt t r e e farm.  P i g . 20.  Prepared bundles being loaded onto a t r u c k . Gin pole l o a d e r .  P i g . *21.  Log grapple used with maxi-mpunted northwest crane.  33  Trucking  salvage  logs  Handling of salvage challenge  logs has .proved to be a major  i n the area,and g e n e r a l l y speaking the  conventional  l o g g i n g t r u c k i s not s u i t e d to t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n . approaches are being t r i e d to overcome the problem.  Several  Self load-  i n g t r u c k s , such as the Easy-way l o g g e r are being used by some o f the smaller operators. that salvage  Other o u t f i t s p l a n t h e i r operations  so  i s yarded at the same time as the: major l o g s and, when  a load of short logs accumulates on the l a n d i n g , s p e c i a l  ,l  chunk  ,,  t r u c k s designed to t r a n s p o r t short logs are c a l l e d f o r over the r a d i o communication system. One  of the best methods i s the use  designed short l o g salvage t r a i l e r s .  of s p e c i a l l y  These t r a i l e r s which are  r e a l l y b i g f l a t tops with s e v e r a l sets of stakes are designed to be p u l l e d by the normal l o g g i n g t r u c k . considerable  As salvage  time to l o a d , i t i s u n d e s i r a b l e  to t i e a t r u c k u n i t  down to a l o a d i n g time of 45 minutes or more. salvage  loads should be preloaded.  manufactured by P a c i f i c Truck and a l l y operated f r o n t end truck.  One  takes  Therefore,  these  v e r s i o n of these t r a i l e r s , ,  T r a i l e r Qompany has hydra.ulicf  s k i d s which take the weight o f f the l o a d at  of the t r a i l e r , u n t i l i t i s picked up by the  the  logging  These t r u c k s have a h y d r a u l i c f i f t h wheel device which  make the l o a d easy t o p i c k up. case i s l e s s than three minutes.  Truck turnaround time i n t h i s These t r a i l e r s can be  e i t h e r with windrowed logs or c o n v e n t i o n a l  c o l d decks.  of these t r a i l e r s are shown i n F i g u r e s 2 2 ,  23,  and  24.  used Photos  P i g . 22.  " P a c i f i c " t r u c k and s a l v a g e t r a i l e r .  35 Pre-Logging Salvage l o g g i n g i s the attempt t o p i c k up the rubbish and smashed l o g s l e f t  a f t e r a normal o p e r a t i o n .  This  l e d to thoughts on the l i n e of "Let us avoid the waste" and subsequently  p r e - l o g g i n g was introduced.  Pre-logging*s  major  p r i n c i p l e i s t o e x t r a c t the s m a l l l o g s of h i g h v a l u e , eg., cedar p o l e s , before t h e i r value was c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced by f e l l i n g breakages.  Along with these small l o g s i t pays t o  e x t r a c t snags and sound w i n d f a l l s which may cause  excessive  breakage when sound logs are f e l l e d across them. P r e - l o g g i n g d i f f e r s from t h i n n i n g i n t h a t bark damage to the s t a n d i n g t r e e s i s o f no p a r t i c u l a r importance as the main crop w i l l be removed soon a f t e r w a r d s .  Pre-logging  operations are d i f f i c u l t as they a r e being c a r r i e d out i n the standing timber,, of ten on rough t e r r a i n . operation are high,but  Costs on t h i s type of  generally speaking,it i s p r o f i t a b l e logging  because the type of produce e x t r a c t e d i s o f t e n i n a s p e c i a l i z e d category and may have h i g h market value, e.g., p i l i n g and cedar poles.  Even i f pre-logged  at a f i g u r e t h a t g i v e s only a s m a l l  or even minus p r o f i t margin, i t i s u s u a l l y more than o f f s e t by the markedly improved l o g g i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the main crop.  In  t h i s case the major operation's i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t could c a n c e l any  s l i g h t l o s s on p r e - l o g g i n g . Most l o g g i n g crews p r e f e r to work i n areas that  have been pre-logged e a s i e r and f a s t e r .  and i t makes the main l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n much In a d d i t i o n l o g g i n g roads as w e l l as some  landings and s k i d t r a i l s are already formed i n advance of the main l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . to leave a pre-logged  In the cases where i t may be necessary  area f o r some time i t enjoys  some o f the  advantages of a thinned stand w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l increment onto the best stems.  going  Slash i n p r e - l o g g i n g i s mostly from the  thin-crowned sub-dominants and most of t h i s i s broken up by the yarding operation.  Thus, a. l a r g e volume of s l a s h accumulation i s  avoided and the c l e a r n e s s under the t r e e s ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 25) is a b i g factor i n efficient f i r e  c o n t r o l and p r o t e c t i o n .  When  Pre-logged area on a Vancouver I s l a n d operation. Showing c l e a n ground c o n d i t i o n s f o r prime l o g g i n g .  37  the f i r e hazard  i s high, p r e - l o g g i n g operations are much l e s s  dangerous than prime l o g g i n g or salvage o p e r a t i o n s . the shade f a c t o r , and the i n c r e a s e d humidity  and  Because of  lower temper-  atures under the f o r e s t canopy, p r e - l o g g i n g can be  continued  when other operations are f o r c e d to cease work. Small t r a c t o r s are being used f o r most p r e - l o g g i n g operations on the e a s i e r t e r r a i n . c a t e r p i l l a r D.4s  The m a j o r i t y of these u n i t s are  or other makes comparable i n s i z e .  On  the  rougher t e r r a i n ^ v a r i o u s types o f p a r t a b l e h i g h - l e a d machines, s i m i l a r to those used f o r salvage l o g g i n g are used. not need t o be very powerful However, a s  Yarders  do  as most of the produce i s s m a l l .  the t u r n s are s m a l l and the d i s t a n c e s l o n g ,  r e q u i r e f a s t y a r d i n g and r e t u r n speeds.  they  Because of the goeat  d i f f i c u l t y with hangups and l o g s going behind  standing t r e e s , i t  i s e s s e n t i a l t o have chokers t h a t can be e a s i l y detached from the butt r i g g i n g . ing  Use  of t h i s type of choker a l s o a s s i s t s i n reduc-  t o t a l turn time by a l l o w i n g the turns to be pre-choked.  A  truck mounted spar of the type used on a p r e - l o g g i n g operation Vancouver I s l a n d i s shown i n F i g u r e  26.  In planning the layout of any l o g g i n g i s envisaged  o p e r a t i o n where pre-  the y a r d i n g l e n g t h on the s e t t i n g s sometimes  needs to be reduced.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n a h i g h - l e a d  s e t t i n g where l o s t time due to hangups i n c r e a s e s with yarded.  on  distance  G e n e r a l l y the p r e - l o g g e r sets up s e v e r a l times i n a  c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h - l e a d s e t t i n g and t h i s reduces the d i s t a n c e to l o n g corners. it  Even then, p a r t i c u l a r l y where y a r d i n g i s d o w n h i l l , ,  o f t e n does not pay to yard the f u l l d i s t a n c e of the h i g h - l e a d  setting.  T h i s i s because the low  spars  (40 to 50 f e e t high)  used i n p r e - l o g g i n g do not have the l i f t h i g h - l e a d spar of approximately spar of 90 f e e t  120  compared to a normal  f e e t or to a mobile s t e e l  (see Table I I I , page 16). A d e s i r a b l e layout f o r p r e - l o g g i n g steep  might look something l i k e t h a t shown i n F i g u r e 27. outside the pre-logged  country  Those s t r i p s ,  area shown, i n some cases might be bunched  by t r a c t o r to w i t h i n the yarded a r e a .  U s u a l l y , however, the  high  P i g . 26.  Truck mounted mobile s p a r used f o r s a l v a g e and p r e - l o g g i n g .  Atea  wkick couli.  W  buntKt^  by tracto*-  /- "f~~l~  1  t, upWl  *  /  H13K- le&&  (g)  Prt-loj —  Pig. 27.  Hijk-lecA.  IWmj  Se^fiMj fcouniwy seTfmt) bgunia^  D i a g r a m t o show t y p i c a l p r e - l o g l a y o u t i n a high-lead s e t t i n g i n steep.country. A c t u a l d i s t a n c e s w o u l d depend  on t o p o g r a p h y  and m a c h i n e s u s e d .  40  double-handling  costs make them i m p r a c t i c a l to p r e - l o g and  are l e f t to be yarded  i n the major l o g g i n g job ..in, the  they  conventional  manner. On steep country, extend  i f the y a r d i n g arc does not  to the square l e a d there i s l e s s d i f f i c u l t y with l o g s  s l i d i n g away from or onto l a n d i n g s on steep s i d e h i l l s e t t i n g s . Hot l o g g i n g , however, i s almost a n e c e s s i t y on any  of the  h i l l s i d e s where slopes are i n excess  (Fig.,"28).  of 40 percent  Ropes and r i g g i n g should be kept as l i g h t  steep  as  p o s s i b l e i n p r e - l o g g i n g because of the n e c e s s i t y of changing l i n e s more o f t e n than u s u a l .  Smaller, l e s s powerful machines are  used so t h a t the breakage due  to u s i n g excessive power i s reduced  to  a minimum. .'Jhehthe pre-logger gets the maximum y i e l d of whole  l o g s from the acreage over which he i s working. F e l l i n g f o r p r e - l o g g i n g should be w e l l supervised and stumps cut as low to the ground a s p o s s i b l e .  This i s p a r t i c -  u l a r l y h e l p f u l on a t r a c t o r job where ground clearance i s important.  In f e l l i n g f o r p r e - l o g g i n g by h i g h - l e a d , t r e e s should  be  f e l l e d i n a herring-bone design so that the number of h a u l i n g roads necessary to  i s reduced.  With t h i s f e l l i n g p a t t e r n l o g s do not have  be "eiwashed" round standing t r e e s any more than i s necessary  (see F i g . 29). An area with cedar poles f e l l e d e x t r a c t i o n by t r a c t o r i s shown i n F i g u r e 30. good cleanup achieved and for  for pre-logging An example of the  the optimum c o n d i t i o n s then  prevailing  the major o p e r a t i o n has been shown i n F i g u r e 25, a photo  taken near Nanaimo. In p l a n n i n g f o r p r e - l o g g i n g operations  access  roads must be put i n f o u r to f i v e years ahead of the prime l o g g i n g operation to allow s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the p r e - l o g g i n g .  Pre-  l o g g i n g should be f a r enough i n advance of the prime l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n to allow the s l a s h (of which there i s v e r y because pre-logged  t r e e s are mostly  little  sub-dominants) to s e t t l e ,  but not that f a r ahead that barking damage to the main crop cause defect and  decay.  can  Fig.  28.  Diagram to i l l u s t r a t e d i f f i c u l t y of square l e a d p r e - l o g g i n g on steep side f a c e s .  P i g . 30.  Cedar poles f e l l e d i n a p r e - l o g g i n g operation.  43 Thinning  Operations I f the t h i n n i n g o p e r a t i o n i s considered  to be  s i l v i c u l t u r a l f e l l i n g or e x t r a c t i o n of t r e e s from an area,with the major aim of improving the c o n d i t i o n and v a l u e  o f the  remaining crop, then there are few t r u e t h i n n i n g operations i n the P a c i f i c Northwest.  However, i f t h i n n i n g i s considered  a p r o f i t a b l e intermediate  t o be  c u t t i n g o f l o g s from an area without  excessive damage t o the remaining crop, then there a r e q u i t e a number of operators  p r a c t i c i n g "thinning", " s e l e c t i v e logging"  or " t h i n n i n g from the top".  Removal of wolf t r e e s and market-  able snags a r e u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n such t h i n n i n g s . The main d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i n n i n g compared to p r e l o g g i n g i s t o avoid damage t o the remainder o f the crop. At present tractor.  almost a l l t h i n n i n g i s b e i n g done by  In planning such an o p e r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n an  immature, undeveloped s t a n d ^ i t may be unwise t o e s t a b l i s h an extensive road network because of unwarranted c a p i t a l expendi t u r e and increased t a x a t i o n .  Under these circumstance a rubber  t i r e d s k i d d i n g machine which completes l o n g swings of up t o one mile^down prepared t r a c k s - t o the l a n d i n g i s very e f f i c i e n t .  This  system i s being s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n Sechelt Tree Farm where a C a t e r p i l l a r D.4. bunches turns f o r a W e s t f a l l 100 ( P i g . 31). These s k i d d i n g t r a c k s should be put i n so t h a t the bunching d i s t a n c e i s l i m i t e d to about 200 f e e t .  F o r short d i s t a n c e s the  bunching t r a c t o r can dispense with the a r c h and manoeuvre e a s i e r w i t h i n the standing t r e e s .  S k i d d i n g t r a c k s should be designed  so that the W e s t f a l l does not have to back up steep p i t c h e s . i s i n e f f i c i e n t under these c o n d i t i o n s because two-thirds unladen reight i s over the f r o n t wheels.  Production  It  o f the  under t h i s  system i s highest when bunched turns do not have t o be rechoked. Therefore,  a "hot l o g g i n g " o p e r a t i o n i s most e f f e c t i v e where out-  put of bunching and s k i d d i n g t r a c t o r s are balanced t o keep the s k i d d i n g t r a c t o r s j u s t one turn ahead.  T h i s may mean when c l o s e  to the l a n d i n g , t h a t two bunching t r a c t o r s may be r e q u i r e d t o keep the rubber t i r e d s k i d d i n g t r a c t o r working at f u l l  capacity,,  44  P i g . 31.  Westfall'100*! rubber t i r e d t r a c t o r skidding thinnings.  45  whereas near t h e e x t r e m i t i e s one i s s u f f i c i e n t .  At t h i s  stage  the other crawler t r a c t o r can he used t o c o n s t r u c t t h e next skidding track.  A graph showing comparative  o p e r a t i n g c o s t s of  t r a c k and wheel type t r a c t o r s i s shown i n F i g u r e 32.  As shown  on the graph break even point f o r d i r e c t s k i d d i n g i s at 400 feet. is  A diagram of the ground l a y o u t f o r t h i s type o f o p e r a t i o n  i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 33. In many areas that a r e due to come under manage-  ment and to be thinned by u s i n g t r a c t o r s , frequent l i g h t nings are considered t o be most advantageous.  thin-  Unsurfaced c a t  roads through the timber can only stand a c e r t a i n amount of abuse before they breakdown, t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case under winter c o n d i t i o n s . to  A l s o t r a c k - s i d e t r e e s have the a b i l i t y  recover from s l i g h t bark damage but i f t h i s damage i s heavy  they may e v e n t u a l l y d i e . help i n t r e e s e l e c t i o n .  Nature^then  gets an opportunity t o  Damaged t r e e s and the l e s s vigorous  ones become obvious and can e a s i l y be removed p e r i o d i c a l l y i n a system of frequent l i g h t t h i n n i n g s . A t h i n n i n g i n t e r v a l of about 5 years under these c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w s complete u t i l i z a t i o n of w i n d f a l l s and snow damaged t r e e s .  Timber l o s s from n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y can thus be  more or l e s s e l i m i n a t e d .  With l i g h t t h i n n i n g s i t should be  p o s s i b l e to s e l e c t i v e l y remove those t r e e s producing l i t t l e net increment  or t r e e s of poor q u a l i t y .  Northwest l i t t l e  So f a r i n the P a c i f i c  i s known about t h e e f f e c t of v a r i o u s thinning-  systems so a "get the f e e l of the stand" p o l i c y o f frequent l i g h t t h i n n i n g s i s advantageous.  Experimental areas of h e a v i e r  t h i n n i n g should be t r i e d t o t e s t the e f f e c t s of snow damage and p o s s i b l e heavy windthrow. to  extend  With l i g h t t h i n n i n g s i t i s p o s s i b l e  operations over a l a r g e r area and b r i n g more & r e s t under  management. From the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view i t i s d e s i r able to s t a r t the c o n t r a c t l o g g e r o f f with the s m a l l e s t p r o f i t able cut p o s s i b l e .  I f he commences with ideas of h i g h p r o d u c t i o n  with l a r g e machinery i t i s then very much harder t o reduce h i s  Pig.  32.  Comparison of o p e r a t i n g c o s t s of t r a c k l a y i n g and rubber t i r e d t r a c t o r . A h y p o t h e t i c a l example  (Assuming s i m i l a r horsepower and c o n d i t i o n s favourable t o rubber tired s k i d d i n g ) . I n c l i n a t i o n o f t h i s graph and the break-even point w i l l vary with the d i f f e r e n t u n i t s being compared,but the p a t t e r n w i l l be the same. A s i m i l a r graph i s shown i n " T r a c t o r s f o r Logging". F.A.O. o f U.N. 1956, p. 160.  '-flatter above  only  ifc*o*  <-- loo' —> -Jr,n*x 4 0 0 ' T»  (too 1  • Attdi  •  of. • 800'  Scale r = *©o'.  P i g , 33.  Layout f o r combined s k i d d i n g o p e r a t i o n .  48  cut per acre - whereas from s m a l l beginning i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to i n c r e a s e i t .  With a s m a l l allowable output,, s t r i c t l y  c o n t r o l l e d ^ t h e l o g g e r takes more care t o achieve maximum u t i l i z a t i o n and there i s l e s s l o s s through  breakage.  In l o g g i n g from a l i g h t t h i n n i n g o p e r a t i o n l e s s l a n d i n g space i s r e q u i r e d and lower c o l d decks minimize l o a d i n g difficulties. In more rugged country, where cable y a r d i n g systems must be used, h e a v i e r t h i n n i n g i s r e q u i r e d f o r an economical operation.The.  f i x e d c o s t s of r i g g i n g i s a v l a r g e percentage '  of the y a r d i n g cost and the cost per M i n c r e a s e s g r e a t l y as the allowable cut per a c r e i s reduced. On the steeper ground where t r a c t o r s cannot be used, t h i n n i n g i s most d i f f i c u l t .  The c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of  cable y a r d i n g used f o r c l e a r l o g g i n g steep ground do c o n s i d e r a b l e damage to s t a n d i n g t r e e s .  Some use i s made of horses  i n the B r i t i s h  Columbia i n t e r i o r f o r s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g and i n Washington f o r thinning.  However, i n many other p a r t s o f t h e world,  Great B r i t a i n , c o n t i n e n t a l Europe, and New used almost  notably  Zealand, horses a r e  e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h i n n i n g operations on steep ground.  T h i s i s probably the most e f f e c t i v e and economical  way o f e x t r a c t -  i n g s m a l l m a t e r i a l as t h i n n i n g s , w i t h a minimum of damage to the standing crop.  One of the main d i f f i c u l t i e s with horses  get them back up the h i l l a g a i n .  i s to  Therefore, t h e i r e f f e c t i v e use  on steep ground i s l i m i t e d t o about 1000-foot hauls and an easy u p h i l l r e t u r n t r a c k must be p r o v i d e d .  Stand d e n s i t y , amount of  brush, and roughness of t e r r a i n have a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on the output o f horses.  In an area such as c o a s t a l r e g i o n s of the  P a c i f i c Northwest two other problems i n t h e use o f horses are immediately  evident:  F i r s t l y , there i s a l a c k of s u i t a b l e  t r a i n e d horses and teamsters, and secondly, the expense o f l o o k i n g a f t e r them and keeping them d u r i n g week-ends and seasonal lay offs.  To overcome t h i s problem mechanical  t h i n n i n g s on steep ground are being  developed.  methods of y a r d i n g  49 O  n e  s o l u t i o n to the problem of t h i n n i n g on steep  ground i s the use of s k y l i n e systems such as the Wyssen s k y l i n e c r a n e o r the Naud s k y l i n e c a r r i a g e . ;  i v e l y used i n many p a r t s of the w o r l d for  steep areas of t h i s country.  The Wyssen has been e f f e c t and has great  In p l a n n i n g the use o f the  Wyssen system two l i m i t a t i o n s must be f u l l y (i)  possibilities  understood:  The s k y l i n e has t o be suspended above the ground with  enough clearance f o r the l o g s t o swing f r e e of the ground f o r the whole d i s t a n c e on each y a r d i n g road.  T h i s i n v o l v e s the use o f  "intermediate hangers" t o provide enough c l e a r a n c e .  R i g g i n g of  these hangers i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e work. (ii)  The y a r d i n g machine i s g r a v i t y powered so the s k y l i n e  must be steep and t i g h t enough^with l i t t l e  d e f l e c t i o n ..in  order  that the c a r r i a g e does not have t o run l e v e l or u p h i l l any part of  the way ( P i g . 34). G e n e r a l l y , i n l a y i n g - o u t an area f o r e x t r a c t i o n  with the Wyssen system, a roading s t r i p should be s e l e c t e d and felled.  Logs can be yarded t o t h i s s t r i p from up t o 200 f e e t on  each s i d e of the s k y l i n e .  In s e l e c t i n g t h i s s t r i p i t i s best t o  p i c k concave h i l l p r o f i l e s wherever p o s s i b l e as l e s s hangers w i l l then be needed.  T h i s i s important  because the r i g g i n g expense  i n v o l v e d with each hanger i s c o n s i d e r a b l e ( P i g . 35). Trees can be f e l l e d i n herring-bone  fashion f o r  e x t r a c t i o n d i r e c t to the s k y l i n e ( P i g . 36) and from outside the 200  foot reach can be brought i n by t r a c t o r o r horse t o a p o s i t i o n  w i t h i n reach o f the s k y l i n e . For u p - h i l l t h i n n i n g on steep ground, v a r i o u s forms of  single-drum  logging-winches  can be used.  The clearance of  these i s aided g r e a t l y i f some form of boom or A-frame i s attached to  the y a r d i n g u n i t .  In p l a n n i n g t h e i r use, the timber  should be  f e l l e d to f a c i l i t a t e u p h i l l y a r d i n g and, once again, an acute herring+bone p a t t e r n i s probably  the best.  A l s o the skid-roads  should be l o c a t e d s t r a i g h t u p - h i l l , about 50 f e e t a p a r t , or wherever there i s a n a t u r a l c o r r i d o r through the standing  timber.  50  Pig. 3 4 .  Diagram  to show Wyssen s k y l i n e rigged i n unsuitable s i t u a t i o n .  P i g . 3 5 ( A ) . Best s i t u a t i o n Concave topography. No intermediate hangers r e q u i r e d .  Pig. 3 5 .  Diagram to show r i g g i n g r e q u i r e d f o r v a r y i n g topography.  Pig. 36.  F e l l i n g l a y o u t f o r use with Wyssen s k y l i n e . Herring-bone p a t t e r n with l o g s skidded u p h i l l to cause l e a s t damage to standing t r e e s .  52  In t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l to use the haulback  system common t o c o n v e n t i o n a l yarders, as there  would be excessive time l o s t haulback  i n road changing.  To overcome the  d i f f i c u l t y chokers are returned to the bush,, e i t h e r • (  manually,with  a chokerman dragging d o w n h i l l the h a l f - i n c h main-  l i n e used, or, by u s i n g a drum attachment on a power saw.  This  l a t t e r c a r r i e s about 200 f e e t of 5 / l 6 t h l i n e and i s taken out t o the extremity of the y a r d i n g road and operated by one of the chokermen.  Wherever blocks have to be attached t o t r e e s f o r  siwashing l o g s onto the main s k i d rows cord rubber b e l t i n g i s used t o p r o t e c t the t r e e from the block s t r a p . In the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer t r e e s a r e very v u l n e r a b l e to excessive bark damage because of i n c r e a s e d sap flow, and the g e n e r a l l y loose c o n d i t i o n of the bark. thinning- operations may have t o be reduced  Therefore,  or stopped a l t o g e t h e r .  53  Developments A f f e c t i n g the M o b i l i t y of the Logging Operation The t r a d i t i o n a l l o g g i n g method of the Northwest i s high l e a d y a r d i n g with some type of s k y l i n e swing where necessary and f i x e d h e e l boom l o a d i n g from the spar t r e e . system  i s g r a d u a l l y g i v i n g way  This  to more mobile methods of oper-  a t i o n because of the reasons s t a t e d p e r v i o u s l y (page 3).  The  more important of these mobile methods i n the major c l e a r f e l l i n g operations a r e : (i)  The use -of p o r t a b l e spar t r e e s with s e l f  tightening  guys that can be set up and r i g g e d i n an hour or two.  These  spars should i n c o r p o r a t e the use of a good f a i r l e a d block f o r both main and haulback e n a b l i n g i t to yard i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s without the n e c e s s i t y of having to s h i f t the b l o c k around t h e tree.  A spar of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e  (ii) (iii)  37.  The d i v o r c i n g of the y a r d i n g and l o a d i n g procedure, 'The use of f a s t r u b b e r - t i r e d s k i d d i n g t r a c t o r s f o r  long swings over steep grades. To make the most e f f e c t i v e use of these  new  methods i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t that they j u s t r e p l a c e the o l d e r methods over the o r i g i n a l l y planned s e t t i n g s .  The whole l o g g i n g  area must be planned s p e c i f i c a l l y to take advantage of these methods. Use  of Mobile  Spars  In the past b i g powerful ma.chin.es, heavy r i g g i n g , and chokers, and l a r g e t a l l  spars were the r u l e .  High-powered  y a r d e r s were considered e s s e n t i a l i n order to p u l l t u r n out of hangups.  With t h i s demand f o r more power, running l i n e s , butt  rigging,and chokers had to be s t r o n g enough to withstand the shock l o a d s .  T h i s meant that there was  little  broken  but there was  p l e n t y of l o g breakage and sometimes a l l the l o g s  of a t u r n had p i e c e s smashed o f f them on the h a u l i n .  rigging, A l s o with  heavy chokers of 1" or more i n diameter, choking time was and two  chokermen had t o be used t o handle them.  slow,,  54  55 I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t merely to use the newer mobile  spars under the same c o n d i t i o n s as the o l d h i g h - l e a d  system,; as g e n e r a l l y ' s p e a k i n g , they are not so rugged as predecessors.  their  S t e e l spars are p r e f e r a b l e to wooden ones  because of t h e i r b e t t e r s t r e n g t h to weight r a t i o .  Lighter  machines and r i g g i n g are advantageous^as t h i s reduces time, a major f a c t o r i n t o t a l t u r n time  choking  (see P i g . 58) and  will  probably r e s u l t i n lower c o s t s due to r e d u c t i o n i n the number of chokermen.  To work with t h i s l i g h t e r equipment two  d e v i a t i o n s from the o l d e r p r a c t i c e s must be made. must be planned  important -The  setting-  so that y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e s are s h o r t e r and  corners are avoided wherever p o s s i b l e because these mobile  long spars  are u s u a l l y 30 to 40 f e e t s h o r t e r than the s t a n d i n g wooden spars. Stumps must be cut lower. "hangups'' and 'siwashes'Jwith  The major cause of  the r e s u l t a n t broken r i g g i n g and  smashed l o g s , a r e the high stumps evident almost the Northwest.  everywhere i n  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , stumps were cut h i g h because the  t r e e s were f e l l e d by hand-saws.Por s a f e t y , and i n order to reduce the strenous amount of hand sawing the f a l l e r s cut h i g h .  In some  cases they used s p r i n g boards'to get up to 15 f e e t or more above any butt s w e l l or heart r o t .  With the present use of power-saws,  p a r t i c u l a r l y on the s m a l l e r t r e e s , -there i s no d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g down to near ground l e v e l on the h i g h s i d e of the stump. A l l timber, except t h a t which may be cut at t h i s l e v e l .  be dangerous to cut low,  On steep ground i t i s an  advantage to use the "Humbolt" undercut.  should  additional  In a d d i t i o n to the  l e s s e n i n g of o b s t r u c t i o n to y a r d i n g , low stumps reduce breakage both i n the t r e e being f e l l e d and the stump.  A l s o , now  i n others which may  across  that timber u t i l i z a t i o n i s paramount, the  volume of the a d d i t i o n a l timber that may erable.  fall  be harvested i s c o n s i d -  T h i s adds g r e a t l y to the value of the l a r g e s t and  the most v a l u a b l e l o g i n the t r e e .  In some areas at l e a s t  often another  10,000 board f e e t per acre could have been removed from the h i g h stumps. The main advantage of mobile m o b i l i t y and quick set-up time.  spars l i e s i n t h e i r  Therefore, i n comparison to the  56  IO0  Pig.  38.  ZOO  300 yafiinij  400 50O distance in  600 ( ec'f  7oo  So©  too  •  1000  Diagram to show r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f element times f o r v a r i o u s haul i n d i s t a n c e s i n a t y p i c a l high-lead operation. (Assume constant  slope and t u r n volume)  Graph formed from f i g u r e s given f o r a h i g h l e a d operation described i n " A n a l y s i s of production and c o s t s i n h i g h - l e a d y a r d i n g " by Tennas, Ruth, and-Bernsten, 1956, p. 19. Choker s e t time could be c o n s i d e r a b l y decreased by use of l i g h t e r chokers.  57  normal h i g h - l e a d s e t t i n g the f i x e d cost of r a i s i n g them i s verylow.  I t takes two  hours to set up a Berger P o r t a b l e tower i n  comparison with about 3 to 4 days f o r a normal h i g h - l e a d with many more men  and machines i n v o l v e d .  spar,  T h i s advantage then  must be used to reduce the v a r i a b l e cost of y a r d i n g by e l i m i n a t i n g wherever p o s s i b l e the "long" corners of normal s e t t i n g where y a r d i n g c o s t s are high pay,  the s a v i n g achieved  (Pig. 3 9 ) .  through lower y a r d i n g c o s t s and  set up should be g r e a t e r than any spar r e n t a l c o s t .  To make a mobile  spar cheaper  i n c r e a s e d roading cost or h i g h  In planning l a y o u t , more favourable  l i n e s and lower c o l d decks should be the  hauling  aim.  I t i s advantageous to have many more small s e t t i n g s a l o n g a road and to windrow l o g s to the road. t h i s way  If in  the y a r d i n g i s confined to the most e f f e c t i v e a r c , i t  r e s u l t s i n q u i c k e r yarding, no swing of blocks on the spar, reduced s t r a i n and wear on ropes and b l o c k s .  and  A l s o , there i s the  added advantage of good d i r e c t i o n a l placement of l o g s f o r quick l o a d i n g out.  Because of lower y a r d i n g c o s t s , i t may  to c o n s t r u c t a c l o s e r road network and d i s t a n c e s (Matthews, 1 9 4 2 , Separation  be p o s s i b l e  f u r t h e r to reduce h a u l i n g  Chapter V ) .  of Yarding and Loading  Operations  Most e f f e c t i v e y a r d i n g and l o a d i n g i s accomplished when they are divorced>so that both the y a r d i n g and can work without of time.  i n t e r f e r i n g with each other and  loa.ding crew  consequent l o s s  T h i s e l i m i n a t e s the " f e a s t or famine" system a s s o c i a t e d  with some systems of y a r d i n g on c e r t a i n topography.  Congestion  on the l a n d i n g i s reduced and yarded t u r n s do not have t o be delayed at the edge of the l a n d i n g w h i l s t the l o a d i n g crew gets clear.  However, as most of the more mobile l o a d i n g equipment  has l i m i t e d reach, care must be taken i n y a r d i n g to see that' a l l logs are a c c e s s i b l e to the l o a d e r and that cold-decks not become too high.  Any  cold-deck  or windrow p i l e should  do not  exceed f i f t e e n f e e t i n height and l o g s should not be more than twenty f e e t from the roadway where a l o a d e r f i t t e d with a i r tongs i s to be used.  58  -Z>ijTan<e yar4ei  P i g . 39.  ««\ Hund-re^S of fcct^  R e l a t i o n s h i p of d i s t a n c e to y a r d i n g costs High-lead  yarding.  (Graph summarizes Brandstrom, 1933)  59  In most of these h i g h - p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , machines e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r e i t h e r y a r d i n g or l o a d i n g are much more e f f e c t i v e than combination y a r d i n g - l o a d i n g machines which may  be e x c e l l e n t l y s u i t e d f o r s m a l l e r outputs with l i m i t e d  crew and f i n a n c e . o  Use of Large Rubber-Tired S k i d d i n g Machines In the Northwest, l a r g e r u b b e r - t i r e d  tractors  are a c h i e v i n g i n c r e a s i n g prominence as a u n i t f o r swinging l a r g e turns d i s t a n c e s of up to three m i l e s . i n design than a t r a c t o r , but any new  They are simpler  u n i t must be used  and i t s maintenance must be understood.  correctly  These u n i t s do not  r e p l a c e e n t i r e l y the t r a c k type t r a c t o r nor can they e l i m i n a t e e i t h e r the l o g g i n g t r u c k or the s k y l i n e swing, but they do have t h e i r place i n p r o v i d i n g a l a r g e - c a p a c i t y machine that can  swing  l a r g e loads over f a i r l y steep grades on roughly prepared roads. Probably t h e i r most s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n has been i n those areas on the i s l a n d s and i n l e t s of B r i t i s h Columbia have to be t r a n s p o r t e d from 800 water.  where l o g s  yards to three m i l e s to the  T h e i r use i n such an area e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r  expensive t r u c k roads and a l o a d i n g and unloading d e v i c e . to the slowness  Due  of t u r n time andtexce.ssive. wear on t r a c k s and  r o l l e r assemblies, a normal t r a c k l a y i n g t r a c t o r would be impractical. In p l a n n i n g to use these machines, i t must be r e a l i s e d that they are expensive u n i t s with h i g h f i x e d c o s t s . Therefore, they must be used at maximum c a p a c i t y d u r i n g t h e i r e n t i r e o p e r a t i n g time.  P u l l - c a p a c i t y loads are p a r t i c u l a r l y  important i n s k i d d i n g l o n g d i s t a n c e s .  The great advantage over  the c r a w l e r - t r a c t o r i s i n speed,, :•• arid i f t h i s speed can not be u t i l i z e d , they should not be used.  Often they can do some of  t h e i r own bunching but they are not n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as a c r a w l e r - t r a c t o r and are more l i m i t e d by ground c o n d i t i o n s . They w i l l work welleengugh hard s u r f a c e underneath.  i n mud  i f they can get down t o a  Therefore, i t i s always advantageous  to have c r a w l e r - t r a c t o r s bunching f o r them so that the rubber-  60  t i r e d machines may  "be used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r high-speed  swing.  A crawler i s u s u a l l y necessary to make the roads f o r them. Among the machines more commonly used i n the' P a c i f i c Northwest at present i s the W e s t f a l l Performer,  (a d i e s e l -  engined machine with r i g i d frame and c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a n s m i s s i o n , Pig.  40), the Wagner loggermobile,  (a d i e s e l - e n g i n e d machine with  h y d r a u l i c a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d k i n g p i n s t e e r i n g , P i g . 41), and the Le Tourneau Westinghouse Tournaskidder,  (a s k i d - s t e e r v e h i c l e with  e l e c t r i c a l l y powered winch and blade, P i g . 42). Probably the most promising of the machines o p e r a t i o n a l i s the L© Tourneau E l e c t r i c Arch  ( P i g . 43).  now  These  machines are having some maintenance d i f f i c u l t i e s at present but, these should be overcome when l o g g i n g operators become more conversant with e l e c t r i c a l equipment.  T h e i r p r i n c i p l e of  u s i n g independently operated e l e c t r i c wheel d r i v e s and l a r g e r u b b e r - t i r e s with h i g h f l o t a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s should be the most e f f e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y as speed and power are  completely  v a r i a b l e from 0 to 11 m.p.h. with no gear changing necessary i n the v a r y i n g t r a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s they are l i k e l y to  encounter.  Grades up to 35 percent are n e g o t i a t e d e a s i l y i n muddy c o n d i t i o n s or  broken rock, 65 percent grades are the maximum they can  n e g o t i a t e under optimum t r a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . In  p l a n n i n g the l a y o u t , the roads f o r the  rubber-  t i r e d r i g s should be l a i d out to provide f a v o u r a b l e grades whereever p o s s i b l e , as any adverse grade means a r e d u c t i o n not only in  speed but i n l o a d c a p a c i t y .  Often t u r n s cannot  be of  full  c a p a c i t y because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n assembly of f u l l t u r n s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true where the s m a l l e r l o g s i z e s are being handled.  To keep the r u b b e r - t i r e d u n i t o p e r a t i n g a t  c a p a c i t y the work of the bunching  full  tra.ctor should be organised  so that i t s time to bunch a f u l l t u r n equals the round time of the r u b b e r - t i r e d r i g to the dumping ground.  trip  These  machines are designed f o r l a r g e - l o a d c a p a c i t y , p r i m a r i l y by placement of the a r c h so t h a t the l o a d i s on the d r i v i n g wheels, thus i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r t r a c t i v e  effort.  61  P i g . 41.  Wagner TRD  14.  Logger-mobile.  Skidding t r e e l e n g t h l o g s .  F i g . -42.  Le Tourneau Westinghouse Tournaskidder  • F i g . 43.  Le Tourneau E l e c t r i c Arch  63  A r u b b e r - t i r e d s k i d d i n g device that i s verypopular  i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  s k i d d i n g on snow and  i c e roads under winter c o n d i t i o n s , i s the  t r u c k - a r c h ( P i g . 44).  These are heavy l o g g i n g t r u c k s  fitted  with an arch over the r e a r a x l e s and a p r o t e c t i v e p l a t e to prevent  logs from damaging the rear-end  weight i s f i t t e d strengthened  i n f r o n t and  and t i r e s .  A  the whole c h a s s i s and  i n order to take the increased l o a d .  counter-  s p r i n g s are In p l a n n i n g  to use these truck-arches, logs should be skidded t o the s i d e and bunched by t r a c t o r .  The  l o g s should be  road-  short-choked  as the a r c h does not extend back from the c h a s s i s as f a r as a normal tractor-drawn  arch.  on  I f t h i s a r c h were extended, the  t r u c k ' s f r o n t wheels would tend to leave the' ground These r i g s are i d e a l f o r s k i d d i n g 16 to 20 t r e e l e n g t h logs up to f i v e miles down 10 to 15 percent packed snow or i c e .  grades on  Under these c o n d i t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e to  handle n e a r l y twice the load that would b e ' p o s s i b l e to t r u c k normally. In planning the use of these u n i t s , the loggingarea should be l a i d out and d i v i d e d i n t o summer and winter The areas of rough topography with steep access-roads  areas.  should  be  worked d u r i n g the summer months u s i n g normal l o g g i n g - t r u c k transportation.  (These t r u c k s may  and counter-weight removed and may t r u c k d u r i n g t h i s period.) winter operations; access  work as a normal l o g g i n g  Other areas need t o be reserved f o r roads to these areas should not have  a grade i n excess of 15 percent c o n t r o l under f r o z e n c o n d i t i o n s . avoided  have arch, p r o t e c t i o n p l a t e ,  as t r u c k s would be d i f f i c u l t to Adverse grades should  be  wherever p o s s i b l e as the l o a d - c a p a c i t y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y  decreased  i f the t r u c k s must cope with adverse grades. In s k i d d i n g on snow or i c e there i s l i t t l e damage  or a b r a s i o n to the logs but under dry c o n d i t i o n s t h i s type  of  ha/uling i s i n a d v i s a b l e because, i n a d d i t i o n t o more s k i d d i n g r e s i s t a n c e , the logs are abraded c o n s i d e r a b l y and  small stones  '  Pig.  44.  P a c i f i c 4x4  B r i t i s h Columbia  truck-arch. interior.  65  which may s e r i o u s l y damage saws or other sawmilling  equipment  are embedded i n them. There a r e many advantages t h a t accrue from t r e e l e n g t h s k i d d i n g of logs on snow and i c e as p r a c t i c e d with system. (i)  this  These i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : Cost  of s u p p l i e s i s lower, e.g., fewer chokers are  Cost  of manpower i n bucking, bunching, and s k i d d i n g  required. (ii)  i s decrea.sed. (iii)  More c a p a c i t y under the arch i s p o s s i b l e with  each  t u r n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when logs a r e choked at the s m a l l end. (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)  Long logs are e a s i e r t o l o c a t e i n heavy snow. Damage to the ground i s reduced, There i s l e s s g r i t i n the ends of the l o g s , With logs choked at the small end, the l i t t l e  abrasion  that might occur at the butt does not matter as t h i s i s u s u a l l y removed i n the s l a b at the sawmill.  66  Truck T r a n s f e r Systems In many areas of the P a c i f i c Northwest the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p r e - l o a d i n g device, coupled  with a l o g - l o a d  r e l a y system, has become a n e c e s s i t y f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: With much s m a l l e r l o g s and  consequently  longer  l o a d i n g times, non-productive delay time at the l a n d i n g increased.  has  Because of the high f i x e d - c o s t s of modern heavy  t r u c k s with l a r g e c a p a c i t y t r a i l e r s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t  the  time at the l a n d i n g has to be reduced to a minimum. Heavy-duty t r u c k s of rugged c o n s t r u c t i o n are e s s e n t i a l f o r h a u l i n g l a r g e loads over adverse grades and of poor standard,  roads  whereas l i g h t e r t r a c t o r u n i t s are more econom-  i c a l i n h a u l i n g these same loads over good roads.  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e where the added weight of the l a r g e r u n i t cause the gross weight of t r u c k and The  load to exceed highway l i m i t s .  delay time a s s o c i a t e d with l o a d i n g and  over a comparatively  may  hauling  short s e c t i o n of rough road would reduce the  number of t r i p s p o s s i b l e per day.  With a t r a n s f e r u n i t however,  a reduced number of highway t r u c k s can operate on s h i f t , working 24 hours a day.  Forest Products l a b o r a t o r y i n t h e i r equipment  survey notes (D 1367-52, 1952)  state:  "For example one C a l i f o r n i a Company with a woods haul of 3 to 6 miles and highway haul of 57 miles had two  t r i p s per day  f o r a t o t a l of 120M  of a t r a n s f e r system and u s i n g two  ten t r u c k s  per day.  doing  On i n t r o d u c t i o n  heavy woods-to-highway u n i t s  and three highway-units doing f i v e t r i p s the company put out  90M  per day with h a l f the number of t r u c k s . " Most of these u n i t s are equipped with h y d r a u l i c c y l i n d e r s to r a i s e the f r o n t bunk u n t i l i t can be supported by a f i x e d stand. are incorporated  In the P a c i f i c t r u c k s these h y d r a u l i c c y l i n d e r s i n the t r u c k design but, where highway h a u l i n g  i s the r u l e , the t r u c k has t o be kept to a minimum weight the h y d r a u l i c c y l i n d e r i s operated  by a separate  and  motor, such as  i n the t r a n s f e r system shown i n F i g u r e s 45  and  46,  or from a  y a r d i n g or l o a d i n g machine at the preload point at the ing  as shown i n F i g u r e 47.  p o r t a t i o n and  land-  To g a i n more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t r a n s -  increased s a f e t y , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of any  t r a n s f e r system r e q u i r e s e f f e c t i v e d i s p a t c h i n g .  An  radio-communication system between a l l s i d e s , the and the t r a n s f e r p o i n t s are an  such  efficient  dispatcher,  essential.  For companies o p e r a t i n g v e h i c l e s over t h e i r  own  roads, on which i t i s not necessary t o t r a n s f e r a l l loads, such an i n s t a l l a t i o n would be p r i m a r i l y to i n c r e a s e the of operations.  The  flexibility  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system t h e r e f o r e , would be  independent of l o a d i n g speeds and  of l a n d i n g shut-downs.  T r a n s f e r p o i n t s should be l o c a t e d at the base of the access  road to a l l l a n d i n g s , where there i s room f o r at  l e a s t 10 to 12  stanchions-^ on l e v e l ground.  The  road from the  t r a n s f e r point to the m i l l or dump should be a h i g h - c l a s s that can be operated and  road  over at high speed with s a f e t y both day  night.  Stanchions: support  These are the u p r i g h t s on the ground which  the l o a d bunks.  They may  be f i x e d i n a  base or, f o r the more mobile operations on a s t e e l s l e d .  they are  concrete fixed  P i g . 4 5 . T r u c k - T r a i l e r t r a n s f e r point at Clackamas Tree Farm  Pig. 47.  H y d r a u l i c a l l y operated p r e - l o a d d e v i c e . Power from l o a d e r on r i g h t .  68 *u  Wheel-Mountings f o r M o b i l i t y Almost everywhere i n the Northwest operators attempting  are  to reduce the amount of time l o s t i n s h i f t i n g from  s e t t i n g to s e t t i n g , even i n the more c o n v e n t i o n a l  operations.  E v e r y t h i n g , from the h e a v i e s t yarders to the l i g h t e r machines, i n c l u d i n g l o a d e r s , water tanks, guy-rope, drums and s e r v i c i n g machinery, i s being mounted on wheels wherever p o s s i b l e . manufacturers such as Skagit S t e e l and  Some  Iron Works are d e v i s i n g  s p e c i a l c h a s s i s with s o l i d s t e e l wheels ( P i g . 48), while some l o g g i n g companies are making t h e i r heavy machinery mobile by u s i n g c a s t - o f f railway wheels with the f l a n g e s cut o f f ( P i g . 49). In the l i g h t e r u n i t s an o l d t r u c k , a discarded t r u c k - c h a s s i s , or a t r a i l e r are used ( P i g s . 50,  51,  52).  Many l o a d i n g cranes are now f o r use i n heavy timber,  or truck-mounted- f o r use  timber, t o give increased m o b i l i t y . l o a d from two  e i t h e r maxi-mounted2, in lighter  This o f t e n enables  or three d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s i n one day.  them to The  maxi-  mounts ( P i g . 53) have a maximum speed of about 6 m i l e s per hour, but the c h a i n - d r i v e s can be disconnected h y d r a u l i c system coupled  f o r towing and  the  to that of the truck f o r b r a k i n g .  This  type of mount has an advantage over the truck-mounted v e r s i o n i n that the operator does not have t o get out of h i s cab when moving along a windrow or when l o g g i n g a right-of-way.  U s u a l l y the  maxi-mounts are 11 to 12 f e e t wide, which i n c r e a s e s s t a b i l i t y i f out-riggers^, are used, very heavy logs can be handled.  Maxi-mounted: T h i s i s a method of wheel mounting heavy machinery such as l o a d e r s and shovels. There are u s u a l l y 3 a x l e s , with one of these being s t e e r a b l e and the wheels are chain d r i v e n from a power-takeoff. The e n t i r e u n i t i s c o n t r o l l e d from the l o a d e r cab. 'Outtriggers: These are a d j u s t a b l e f i t t i n g s used to widen the base of a machine i n the s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n g i v i n g more s t a b i l i t y . In many cases o u t - r i g g e r s a l s o serve t o take weight o f f the springs and a x l e s .  and,  Pig.  48.  S o l i d s t e e l wheel c h a s s i s f o r l a r g e Skagit yarder.  P i g . 49.  Moved by  D.8.  Yarder c h a s s i s on discarded wheels with cut f l a n g e s .  railway  P i g . 51.  600 g a l l o n water tank on o l d logging—trailer.  P i g . 52.  Cfuyline p i c k - u p drum and  rig-up  goat on out of date t r u c k .  72  The  truck-mounted u n i t s ( F i g . 54) are the l e a s t  s t a b l e and so d e f i n i t e l y need o u t - r i g g e r s .  They cannot l i f t as  much t o the s i d e as they c a n over the ends, so g e n e r a l l y they a r e not  suitable f o r handling large logs.  truck cab,  A l s o , because of the  they u s u a l l y do not have a f u l l swing.  However, they  are o f t e n the cheapest and c e r t a i n l y the f a s t e s t where m o b i l i t y to p i c k up s c a t t e r e d heaps of b i g l o g s i s r e q u i r e d . The N e c e s s i t y  of E f f e c t i v e Planning  With the timber resource  becoming s m a l l e r and much  more d i f f i c u l t to handle the margin f o r p r o f i t It  i s being reduced.  i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important that operations be planned to  u t i l i z e a l l a v a i l a b l e equipment and methods that g i v e maximum production per acre at the optimum p r o f i t margin. Not  only must operations be planned t o give the best  p r o f i t f i g u r e f o r current operations but due a t t e n t i o n must be paid to r e - f o r e s t a t i o n of each logged a r e a .  Gone are the days  when the cost per M f o r l o g s d e l i v e r e d to t h e l a n d i n g was the only guide as t o whether t h e l o g g i n g operation was a success The present  or n o t .  day l o g g i n g manager must balance three f a c t o r s ; the  p r o f i t to be made on the l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n from stump to the m i l l ; the n e c e s s i t y t o recover the maximum volume per a c r e ; and the need to b r i n g a logged The  area i n t o f u l l production  as soon as p o s s i b l e .  l a t t e r two f a c t o r s are most important where the timber r e s -  ource a v a i l a b l e to a p a r t i c u l a r company i s l i m i t e d . Economic C o n t r o l A p r o p e r l y organized t o o l s that can be used to provide for  time study i s one of the c h i e f owners and managers with a ba.sis  i n t e l l i g e n t d e c i s i o n on management problems by c o l l e c t i n g ,  a n a l y z i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g a l l s i g n i f i c a n t  facts.  D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l c u t t i n g p r a c t i c e s , along with the development o f a wide v a r i e t y of l o g g i n g machinery and methods of h a r v e s t i n g , have made i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t the economi c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of any of these techniques The  be thoroughly  studied.  l i m i t a t i o n s and advantages of any p a r t i c u l a r system must be  known as a l l management problems have t o be s t u d i e d  eventually  F i g . 54.  Truck mounted Bohemian Boom Loading Crane.  Note s u p p o r t i n g guys.  74  from an economic point of view, embracing both the present the f u t u r e .  and  In the past many s t u d i e s of l o g g i n g have shown costs  i n u n i t s d i d not a s s i s t l o g g i n g management i n p i n p o i n t i n g sources of i n e f f i c i e n c y .  A w e l l o r i e n t a t e d time study should have one  or  more of the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n view: It may "bottlenecks"  be used to l o c a t e the uneconomic phases or  of any p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n .  t h i s "trouble-shooting"  The  o b j e c t i v e of  type of study i s to e l i m i n a t e unnecessary  work, reduce b o t t l e n e c k s  i f p o s s i b l e , and  l i m i t the o p e r a t i o n to  the range of c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n which i t i s most economical. time study may  be used to compare the e f f i c i e n c y of d i f f e r e n t  methods or machinery over v a r i e d o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . type of study i s a sound b a s i s on which to design an logging plan.  A  This  overall  By u s i n g i t , a p p l i c a t i o n of v a r i o u s machines and  methods can be l i m i t e d to those areas i n which they can at t h e i r maximum production.  operate  Time s t u d i e s can be used as a  b a s i s f o r s e t t i n g up .•. a„ form of i n c e n t i v e payments.  Prom these  s t u d i e s , management can i n i t i a t e i n c e n t i v e plans which i n c r e a s e production,  reduce c o s t s , and  more e f f e c t i v e labour. of operations  give the worker a j u s t reward f o r  Time s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r i n g a l a r g e number  can be used to firm t a b l e s c o v e r i n g cost of  operation  f o r any p a r t i c u l a r machine or method under v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . These t a b l e s ca.n then be used as a b a s i s f o r cost estimates undeveloped or f u t u r e  on  operations.  An e v a l u a t i o n must be made of a l l the v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r operation,and  t h i s must be considered  in  e s t i m a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of a p a r t i c u l a r machine or method. The  c h i e f v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g a woods operation (i)  The timber crop, which may  hundred l o g s per a c r e .  vary from a few,to s e v e r a l  Tree or l o g s i z e may  to s e t t i n g or even w i t h i n a s e t t i n g .  are:  The  vary from s e t t i n g  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  centages of the v a r i o u s s i z e c l a s s e s are most important. general c o n d i t i o n of the t r e e s as r e g a r d s  defect and  perThe  t r e e form  a l s o play a part i n e v a l u a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of the  timber  75  crop on c o s t s .  A summary of the e f f e c t of avera.ge l o g s i z e  a l l phases of l o g g i n g costs was (ii)  7.  given i n Table I, page  Land topography and ground c o n d i t i o n s , which may  g r e a t l y w i t h i n one  on  vary  small area, o f t e n c o n t r o l the s e l e c t i o n of  the method to be used. (iii)  The  labour f o r c e i s one  of the most v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s  i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of woods work^ and to  assess.  one of the most d i f f i c u l t  The a b i l i t i e s of groups of workers do not vary g r e a t l y  i n themselves but p r o d u c t i v i t y i s s e n s i t i v e to such outside i n f l u e n c e as labour-management r e l a t i o n s , and the o r g a n i z i n g e f f i c i e n c y of management. (iv)  Machine performance, due  varys c o n s i d e r a b l y .  The  skill,  to age and mechanical c o n d i t i o n ,  or i n e f f i c i e n c y , of the  o f t e n d i s g u i s e s t h i s f a c t o r making i t very d i f f i c u l t  operator  to evaluate.  In s e t t i n g up a time study a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e i s e s s e n t i a l .  A d e t a i l e d study must be made of the  elements i n v o l v e d i n the o p e r a t i o n to be timed. a r l y important  to d i s t i n g u i s h the v a r i o u s elements i n three  different categories: delay time.  It i s p a r t i c u l -  o p e r a t i n g time, subsidary time^ , ;  I f the study i s to have any value i t must be  c a r r i e d oii't a c c u r a t e l y with f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l . ing  A  cover-  r e p o r t should c o n t a i n a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l f a c t o r s  a f f e c t i n g the o p e r a t i o n timed. and presented Any  and  The r e s u l t s should be  analyzed  i n r e a d i l y readable form such as graphs or t a b l e s .  graph tha.t can show the minimum and  optimum l e v e l s of  economical o p e r a t i o n i s very advantageous (see P i g .  55).  Subsidary time: T h i s i s the time f a c t o r that i s not d i r e c t l y productive but i s necessary to the completion of a y a r d i n g o p e r a t i o n . I t i n c l u d e s time f o r changing y a r d i n g roads, changing c i r c u i t b l o c k s , swinging spar t r e e b l o c k s , t i g h t e n i n g g u y l i n e s , and moving y a r d i n g or l o a d i n g machines. (Tennas, Ruth and Berntsen, 1 9 5 6 ) .  76  F i g . 55.  H y p o t h e t i c a l curve to show range of cost v a r i a b i l i t y due to s i z e of l o g to be handled with any s p e c i f i c machine.  77  The F a c i l i t a t i o n of More E f f e c t i v e Planning by the Use of A e r i a l Photography A topographic map i s an e s s e n t i a l fi>r advance planning of l a r g e s c a l e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  A w e l l prepared  map can g r e a t l y reduce the amount of time spent on ground reconnaissance and helps t o i n t e g r a t e t h e v a r i o u s phases of l o g g i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r area.  Stand c o n d i t i o n i n f l u e n c e s the  f e l l i n g sequence i n any area.  Since over-mature and decandent  areas should be removed f i r s t , t h e l o c a t i o n and extent of these areas has t o be known.  In the past decade a e r i a l photographs  have come i n t o g e n e r a l usage.  They have proved an i n v a l u a b l e  a i d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when used i n s t e r e o s c o p i c p a i r s , and when used with a topographic map. Most topographic maps used at present have a 20 or 25 f e e t contour i n t e r v a l and a s c a l e of from 400 to 500 f e e t to the i n c h .  These are prepared  i n conduction with the t i m -  ber c r u i s e and are e s s e n t i a l l y t r a v e r s e s with contour i n t e r p o l a t e d between.  lines  These maps although a great a i d to l o g g i n g  operations have s e v e r a l disadvantages.  Although u s u a l l y accurate  on the g r i d l i n e c o n s i d e r a b l e e r r o r can occur between tie l i n e s because of the l i m i t e d view d u r i n g surveying i n dense stands or broken country. costly.  P r e p a r a t i o n of these maps i s time consuming and  A l a r g e p o o l of s k i l l e d labour i s r e q u i r e d f o r f i e l d  surveying and o f f i c e  draughting.  In some areas topographic maps p l o t t e d from photographs are being used e x t e n s i v e l y i n p l a n n i n g ground ations.  aerial oper-  Not only can these photographic methods be used f o r  topographic mapping but with r e c e n t advances timber types can be e a s i l y d e l i n i a t e d and u s i n g photo-volume t a b l e s the composi t i o n and volume of the stands can be estimated.  This i s  advantageous i n remote areas where ground reconnaissance would be both expensive and time consuming.  Some d i f f i c u l t y i n the  measurement of stands from the a i r i s s t i l l b e i n g experienced but t h i s i s expected to be overcome i n the near f u t u r e .  So -far  78  the most accurate mapping of t h i s type has been done i n the sparser timbered areas,or where there are many breaks i n the canopy to allow the photogrammeter to d i s t i n g u i s h ground l e v e l clearly.  Where i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t , a map  a e r i a l photographs presents a good p i c t u r e of the  based  on  relative  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of topographic f e a t u r e s which are o f t e n of more importance  than the a c t u a l height of these f e a t u r e s . The dense,,tall, c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t of the c o a s t a l  region of the P a c i f i c Northwest provide d i f f i c u l t problems f o r the photogrammetrist  due to obscuring of ground f e a t u r e s by a  heavy canopy and, the great d i f f i c u l t y i n judging the height of the t r e e s .  T h i s f a c t o r i s exceedingly important  because  accuracy i s dependent on an estimate of the height of the crown cover.  The height used i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d but i s c l o s e to  average  stand h e i g h t .  would be too d i f f i c u l t  Top height i s not used because t r e e t i p s to p i c k out on the photographs.  This  height i s l i a b l e to v a r y due to d i f f e r e n t s i t e s and a s p e c t s . The p l o t t e r can only check h i s height when he comes t o a gap i n the crown c l o s u r e .  Because of these f a c t o r s even-aged  are much more e a s i l y contoured than stands of mixed age  stands classes.  E s s e n t i a l l y , the topographic maps must present a p i c t u r e of the ground,,from which the l o g g i n g planner can work. By h i g h l i g h t i n g the more d i f f i c u l t p l a c e s these maps e l i m i n a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e aimless reconnaissance.  Problem areas should be  i n v e s t i g a t e d thoroughly by ground methods. In p r a c t i c e , t r i a l road l i n e s can be drawn out i n the o f f i c e and planned to give a balance of cut and f i l l . l o c a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the map,  Their  which i n d i c a t e s the most  d i r e c t route t o the main areas of timber, the best p o s s i b l e alignment  of roads, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of routes to any  control  p o i n t s which might e f f e c t l o c a t i o n or l i m i t c o n s t r u c t i o n . p e r u s a l of the topographic map  By  the area.can be roughly d i v i d e d  i n t o ground s u i t a b l e f o r the v a r i o u s l o g g i n g methods.  With  cable y a r d i n g these maps are most u s e f u l f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons:  The maximum y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e s can be seen immediately;  <  79  with allowances f o r d e f l e c t i o n , spar h e i g h t , and sag, the s e t t i n g can be a l l o c a t e d t o machines o f the r e q u i r e d capacity;  line  clearance over o b s t a c l e s can be c a l c u l a t e d i n doubt-  f u l cases, and p r o f i l e t r a v e r s e s can be taken o f the c r i t i c a l y a r d i n g roads; calculated  acreages and volumes per s e t t i n g can be  easily. In u s i n g maps based on a e r i a l photography  i t must  be r e a l i z e d that these are at present f a r from p e r f e c t  because  of  canopy.  the i n a b i l i t y of the mapper to see below the f o r e s t  Therefore, although these maps g r e a t l y minimize the amount of f i e l d work necessary they do not do away with i t e n t i r e l y and ground checks of a l l r o a d l i n e s , l a n d i n g s and s e t t i n g boundaries are  necessary.  80  PATCH LOGGING Patch l o g g i n g i s the l i m i t i n g of c l e a r cut areas to  small u n i t s of l e s s than one hundred acres ( P i g . 5 6 ) . In  the past the m a j o r i t y of o p e r a t i o n s i n the  Douglas f i r r e g i o n were continuous c l e a r c u t s .  In some areas  there was a type of patch l o g g i n g due mainly t o the p r a c t i c e of s e l e c t i n g only the best patches of timber f o r l o g g i n g and l e a v ing  the r e s t .  I t was noted t h a t the green timber areas l e f t  acted as a very e f f i c i e n t f i r e guard, and that r e s t o c k i n g was most s u c c e s s f u l near the timber edge. I t i s only r e c e n t l y however, that patch l o g g i n g „ or  the staggered s e t t i n g system,has been used s y s t e m a t i c a l l y as  an accepted system  of s i l v i c u l t u r e and management.  Like a l l  methods i t has i t s advantages and disadvantages and there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e controversy over i t s value t o the i n d u s t r y as a whole.  In a l l cases the i n d i v i d u a l circumstances must be taken  into consideration. The E f f e c t s on P i r e P r o t e c t i o n Patch l o g g i n g i s e f f e c t i v e i n b r e a k i n g up the whole l o g g i n g area i n t o s m a l l i s o l a t e d areas with adequate green timber f i r e breaks i n between.  The monetary value of t h i s type  of  insurance i s impossible t o determine but i t adds c o n s i d e r a b l y  to  the s a f e t y of the whole a r e a . The s l a s h areas thus l e f t are e a s i l y handled by  c o n t r o l l e d burning and r i s k of l o s s i s reduced. f e l l e d areas have a bad f i r e  Most l a r g e c l e a r  history.  Por maximum f i r e p r o t e c t i o n the areas to be l e f t should be s e l e c t e d so t h a t there are no l o n g u p h i l l because f i r e t r a v e l s r a p i d l y In  settings  uphill.  these areas l e f t as f i r e breaks no p r e - l o g g i n g  should be c a r r i e d out u n t i l the regrowth past the hazardous  stage.  Otherwise,  on the logged area i s  p r e - l o g g i n g s l a s h on the  ground could make the f i r e b r e a k dangerous i n the case of a f i r e spreading from the logged over a r e a .  F i g . 56.  A f o r e s t near Mt.  Rainier  showing patch l o g g i n g .  82  The a d d i t i o n a l road network necessary f o r patch l o g g i n g i s i t s e l f u s e f u l i n f i r e c o n t r o l as an e f f i c i e n t  fire-  :  break  and provides r a p i d access f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g . U s u a l l y , i t i s necessary to put a f i r e  line  round the edge of the s l a s h to p r o t e c t the s t a n d i n g t r e e s when s l a s h burning takes p l a c e , otherwise c o n s i d e r a b l e damage could occur i n the i n c r e a s e d perimeter of standing t r e e s given by patch l o g g i n g .  One  disadvantage  i n patch l o g g i n g i s t h a t the  hazardous areas i n the f o r e s t are more numerous and widely d i s persed.  But t h i s i s compensated by the a c t u a l hazard i n any  area being  one  reduced.  The E f f e c t on In  Regeneration the P a c i f i c Northwest one of the b i g advantages  of patch l o g g i n g i s i t s value i n r e s t o c k i n g a. logged a r e a . i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important  s i n c e good seed years are  This  irregular  and an adequate seed source must be c l o s e to the logged area f o r s e v e r a l years to i n c r e a s e the changes of adequate r e s t o c k i n g . S u c c e s s f u l r e g e n e r a t i o n depends on the l o c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n of the seed source, ground c o n d i t i o n s , and  the presence  of such seed d e s t r o y e r s as cone borers and rodents.  or absence One  dis-  advantage l i e s i n the f a c t that i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible t o c o n t r o l the composition of the new hemlock seem to b'e more p r o l i f i c  stand.  Por example cedar  seeders than Douglas f i r and  the d i s p e r s a l d i s t a n c e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e g r e a t e r . that while Douglas f i r may seed face i t may  1000 f e e t  and  h o l d i t s own  T h i s may  mean  i n the mixture near the  hardly' be represented at d i s t a n c e s of over  from the seed sources  (Millar  1956).  In most areas,  p a r t i c u l a r l y where the timber i s being used f o r sawmilling, i t i s considered d e s i r a b l e to keep the s t o c k i n g of Douglas f i r as high as p o s s i b l e . t h i s s p e c i e s may  Therefore, i n some s i t u a t i o n s seed t r e e s ofbe l e f t i n the logged  setting.  On unburned cutover areas with p l e n t y of shade, cedar and hemlock germinate  and goow w e l l .  Douglas f i r does  b e t t e r a f t e r a moderate s l a s h burn with a l i t t l e ing  to p r o t e c t the seed from excessive ground  shade  remain-  temperatures.  83 For  the i n i t i a l cut-over there i s not much  d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l e c t i n g the areas to be l e f t as a seed source , p r o v i d i n g the s e t t i n g s are not too l a r g e .  Reserved  should be i n good p o s i t i o n s f o r seed d i s s e m i n a t i o n .  settings Those i n  depressions or downwind of the p r e v a i l i n g wind c u r r e n t s are of l i t t l e use.  In succeeding c u t s , seed sources have to be l e f t  these u s u a l l y take the form  of patches or i s o l a t e d seed  With t h i s method, problems may  and  trees.  arise,because i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  avoid damaging these t r e e s when c a r r y i n g out a s l a s h burn.  After  the areas become adequately restocked, h a r v e s t i n g of these i s o l a t e d patches or i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s may  be uneconomical.  Because of t h i s ,  many companies tend to leave behind c u l l t r e e s that are not worth harvesting.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l that seed  be  from the b e t t e r t r e e s .  An attempt must be made to l o c a t e f i n a l seeding patches or i n d i v i d ual  t r e e s i n the p o s t i o n s there they f a c i l i t a t e maximum seed  spread and i n p o s i t i o n s where they can be harvested f a i r l y a f t e r they have accomplished t h e i r purpose.  easily,  Often i t i s d i f f i -  c u l t to reserve t r e e s i n f a v o u r a b l e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are not subject t o blowdown.  When r e s e r v e d seed patches are f i n a l l y  removed,,the remaining area u s u a l l y has to be p l a n t e d .  In some  cases,when l o g g i n g i s c a r r i e d out at the r i g h t time i n a good seed year, s u f f i c i e n t seed i s d i s t r i b u t e d by the f e l l e d One  trees.  s c h o o l of thought b e l i e v e s that i n many areas,  p a r t i c u l a r l y where good seed years are i n f r e q u e n t and the seed source poor, that i t pays to go to the added expense of p l a n t i n g . T h i s means that the new  area may  be adequately stocked the  y e a r , i n s t e a d of t a k i n g f i v e years or more.  first  In t h i s case i t i s  argued that the a d d i t i o n a l volume increment obtained over the f i r s t f i v e years more than pays f o r the cost of p l a n t i n g and maximum use i s being made of the l a n d s . p l a n t i n g has been u n s u c c e s s f u l .  In some areas however,  The use of s c h o o l boys d u r i n g  v a c a t i o n f o r p l a n t i n g has been a f e a t u r e i n one U n i t e d States operation.  Some others have t r i e d r e s e e d i n g from the a i r .  84  An A i d to F l e x i b l e  Logging  A patch l o g g i n g system  opens up a wide area of  timber and many more timber types are tapped i n the e a r l y stages of developement.  T h i s enables a company to take the best  advant-  ages of f l u c t u a t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s and to e x t r a c t timber best • s u i t e d to the p r e v a i l i n g optimum markets.  For example, with  high p r i c e s o f f e r e d f o r l a r g e Douglas f i r " p e e l e r " l o g s an area c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h e r than normal percentage of these l o g s can be logged almost  immediately.  With a slump i n t h i s  particular  market, operations could then be t r a n s f e r r e d to some other area c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e percentages of the then most p r o f i t a b l e  logs.  With an extensive area developed, the planner is^. .1 a b l e to r e s e r v e areas on the lower l e v e l s c l o s e to the camps or booming grounds.  These areas can be r e t a i n e d f o r winter l o g g i n g  or emergency o p e r a t i o n s .  A l s o , with the whole l o g g i n g area  developed, salvage of areas damaged by f i r e , wind, i n s e c t s or disease i s p o s s i b l e . A B a r r i e r to the Spread of P a t h o l o g i c a l Disease Patch l o g g i n g i n some cases proves a b a r r i e r to the spread of some i n s e c t and f u n g a l damage.  I t may  be  partic-  u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t those that occur at only one stage i n the l i f e c y c l e .  Some i n s e c t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , may  only a t t a c k  young s e e d l i n g s , f o r example, Hylobius p a l e s (Pale's w e e v i l ) . Burning of s l a s h helps to keep down i n f e s t a t i o n s by Dendroctonus and Ips spp. which breed i n l o g g i n g s l a s h . A Silvicultural  Viewpoint"  In c e r t a i n areas, s e t t i n g s f o r l o g g i n g can be confined to c e r t a i n forest types or s i t e c l a s s e s . boundaries concur with those of the f o r e s t types  I f the s e t t i n g differential  s i l v i c u l t u r a l treatment, t h i n n i n g , or s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g could be carried  out.  Some Disadvantages There appear to be two major disadvantages at present a s s o c i a t e d with patch l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e .  The i n c r e a s e d  c a p i t a l o u t l a y r e q u i r e d to develop a staggered s e t t i n g  system  85  and,  the l o s s e s caused by blowdown around the i n c r e a s e d  perimeter.  forest  Both of these p o i n t s are debatable and t h e r e i s  c o n f l i c t i n g evidence on c e r t a i n f a c t o r s i n blowdown (Worthington, 1953,  Gratkowski, 1956). Costs Higher c o s t s are the most immediate o b j e c t i o n to  patch l o g g i n g and t h i s system has f o r e s t p r a c t i c e and  sound economics.  c a p i t a l investment i n roads and company does not own inventory has  to be balanced between good Often t h e r e i s a higher  i n timber.  I f the  logging  s u f f i c i e n t land, a much l a r g e r timber  to be acquired.  IT he a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d  f o r t h i s i s not earning as i f i t were i n v e s t e d f o r the company. A small company l o g g i n g timber l e a s e s or l i c e n s e s u s u a l l y cannot a f f o r d to aquire enough land to put patch l o g g i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e . At present  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington,  t a x a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d as the l a n d i s improved and many companies w i l l not acquire l a n d i n advance or e f f e c t improvements, such as extensive Therefore,  road networks, because of t h i s i n c r e a s e d t a x a t i o n . they do not begin to develop an area u n t i l they are  about to move i n t o i t . Roads, being c l a s s f i e d as an improvement, are taxable u n t i l they are f i n a l l y w r i t t e n o f f . give the operator any  i n c e n t i v e to patch l o g .  be encouraged on timber s a l e areas and  T h i s does not  Patch l o g g i n g  can  i n p u b l i c working c i r c l e s  by reducing the stumpage on the more remote "take" patches so that- the l o g g e r has more money a v a i l a b l e to c o n s t r u c t h i s Subsequent stumpages f o r timber a l o n g s i d e can be i n c r e a s e d . due  road.  an e s t a b l i s h e d road  There are increased road maintenance c o s t s  to the l a r g e r road network.  In a d d i t i o n l o g g i n g costs are  higher because of higher t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , set-up,  and  With the  supervision  costs due  to the more d i s p e r s e d operations.  perimeter  of r e c e n t l y f e l l e d areas there i s increased costs i n  c o n s t r u c t i n g f i r e breaks around each setting before off.  increased  i t i s burnt  86  Windthrow A prominent problem r e s u l t i n g from the greatlyi n c r e a s e d f o r e s t perimeter of s m a l l s e t t i n g s i s windthrow at the t r e e edge ( P i g . 57).  Included with t h i s windthrow are a  l a r g e number of t r e e s pushed over by the f a l l i n g windthrown trees.  In what were h i g h l e a d or s k y l i n e s e t t i n g s , windthrown  t r e e s are d i f f i c u l t to salvage and the cost of l o g g i n g i s h i g h . Logging equipment o f t e n has to be moved l o n g d i s t a n c e s to salvage these s m a l l amourats of timber.  T r a c t o r s are used on t h i s type of  salvage but are u n s u i t a b l e i n the very steep country.  With the  development of more mobile p o r t a b l e spars however, stand edges may  be open t o salvage at a more reasonable c o s t .  In the case  of a blowdown i t i s not considered good p r a c t i c e to cut down the remaining edge t r e e s to s t r a i g h t e n out the s e t t i n g edge because these s u r v i v o r s are probably the most windfirm.  In some cases  where the y a r d i n g equipment i s s u f f i c i e n t l y mobile, some c o l d decking can be done. S e t t i n g s should be designed so t h a t the reserve areas have maximum p r o t e c t i o n from the p r e v a i l i n g winds.  In  p l a n n i n g there are c e r t a i n types of areas very v u l n e r a b l e to windthrow and these should be avoided as a standing t r e e edge. Trees growing on swampy ground or s o i l s with very l i t t l e  depth  to the hardpan u s u a l l y have a shallow root system t h a t make them s u s c e p t i b l e to windthrow.  Areas where root r o t s , such as  Polyporus s c h w e i n i t z i i or P o r i a W e i r i i e f f e c t root s t r e n g t h i f exposed, may  be subjected t o heavy windthrow.  Unfortunately  these areas are d i f f i c u l t to d e t e c t . Areas with a l a r g e percentage  of overmature t r e e s  with heavy crowns can be e x t e n s i v e l y damaged. Very narrow s t r i p s e t t i n g s which f o r c e the wind to blow through them at a much i n c r e a s e d v e l o c i t y may some cases severe windthrow.  cause i n  T h i s can be d i s a s t r o u s i f such a  wind flow i s funneled i n t o a v u l n e r a b l e a r e a .  A l o t of t h i s  type of damage can be avoided i f l o c a l wind behaviour i s s t u d i e d thoroughly before s e l e c t i n g reserve s e t t i n g s .  87  P i g . 57.  Windthrow round the p e r i m e t e r of a logged p a t c h .  88  Planning Patch Logging  Layout  Probably the best s i z e f o r a l o g g i n g patch i s the smallest area that can be handled  economically, however, i t  should wherever p o s s i b l e be kept to under a 100 a c r e s .  Pull  s e t t i n g s should be adhered to for the c o n v e n t i o n a l type cable yarders because to r e t u r n to the same s e t t i n g l a t e r means double r i g - u p costs„which i n most cases are c o n s i d e r a b l e . of  In the  case  c o l d deck s e t t i n g s ^ i t must be remembered t h a t the home t r e e  s e t t i n g must be s e l e c t e d f o r c u t t i n g at the same time as the c o l d deck s e t t i n g . Wherever p o s s i b l e the most d i s t a n t part of the „area to be logged should not be more than one thousand f e e t , from the seed source,, except where the logged s e t t i n g l i e s under favourable d i s t r i b u t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , downwind of the seed  source.  U s u a l l y the worst blowdown occurs on f a c e s p a r a l l e l to the wind stream where the wind has a f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t i n a steep g u l l y or where the wind has a l o n g unbroken approach i n t o a l a r g e " f a c e " of t r e e s .  Therefore, i t u s u a l l y i s advant-  ageous to have the s t r i p s a c r o s s a g u l l y .  In c o n s i d e r i n g the  areas to be l e f t as f i r e b r e a k s c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to i n c r e a s i n g the width of the f i r e b r e a k on steep h i l l s i d e s .  A  f i r e t r a v e l s very r a p i d l y u p h i l l and the s l a s h on a w e l l drained hillside  becomes very d r y i n the summer months, making t h i s  of area extremely  hazardous.  Roads and Although  type  streams u s u a l l y form good  boundaries..  r i d g e s are not the best from a f i r e p r o t e c t i o n p o i n t of  view they are o f t e n o b l i g a t o r y as edges,,due to the l o g g i n g method to be used. For e f f i c i e n t f i r e p r o t e c t i o n each reserved area should be at l e a s t as wide as the "take" area.  Each patch  left  should be the s i z e of a s e t t i n g normally logged, so that when the time comes to l o g i t , i t i s p r o f i t a b l e .  Impractically sized  "leave areas" with u n s u i t a b l e topographic boundaries  for future  l o g g i n g would mean i n c r e a s e d f u t u r e l o g g i n g c o s t s w i t h ithe })  89  r e s u l t a n t reduced r e t u r n s .  I t i s sometimes advantageous t o  r e s e r v e the " l e a v e a r e a s " on ground s u i t a b l e f o r t r a c t o r salvage l o g g i n g round the edges. P l a n n i n g of the l a y o u t r e q u i r e s compromise of a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . R a r e l y w i l l t h e s e t t i n g most s u i t a b l e as a f i r e p r o t e c t i o n u n i t be i d e a l from the seed d i s p e r s a l p o i n t of view and s t i l l f i t i n w i t h o v e r a l l l o g g i n g p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The c o n d i t i o n s e f f e c t i n g - 3 each d i f f e r e n t a r e a must be balanced t o a r r i v e a t the best answer. The d e s i g n of the l a y o u t should be a compromise between p r a c t i c a l l o g g i n g e n g i n e e r i n g and efficient forestry. Economics of Patch Logging The extent t h a t p a t c h l o g g i n g can be put i n t o p r a c t i c e i s determined by b a l a n c i n g good s i l v i c u l t u r e , present l o g g i n g economy and f u t u r e monetary b e n e f i t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f o r s e e the future,,hut any method, t h a t p r o t e c t s the present f o r e s t c r o p , and a i d s i n r a p i d l y e s t a b l i s h i n g the f u t u r e one, must not be d i s c a r d e d because of present f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l o n e . A l l f a c t o r s must be weighed b e f o r e the d e c i s i o n i s reached. Due t o f l u c t u a t i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s , any attempt t o a s s e s s f u t u r e market c o n d i t i o n s of a f o r e s t crop i s d i f f i c u l t . However, c o n s i d e r i n g the present buoyant c o n d i t i o n s of the t i m b e r i n d u s t r y , t i m b e r l a n d developed now i s i n s u r a n c e f o r any future setbacks. T h e r e f o r e , w i t h very c o m p e t i t i v e f u t u r e p r i c e s , the n e c e s s i t y of spending money on e s t a b l i s h i n g roads would not be p r e s e n t . Rates on f e l l e d and bucked t i m b e r , and f o r e s t a r e a s , are decreased by most i n s u r a n c e companies where t h e r e i s the a d d i t i o n a . l s a f e t y of a patch l o g g i n g system.  90  PLANKING- A LOGGING OPERATION I n t e n s i v e advance planning i s r e q u i r e d before moving i n t o an undeveloped area. cut on a staggered  The o b j e c t i v e should be to  s e t t i n g system, c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a c h i e v i n g  the maximum r e t u r n per acre by increased u t i l i z a t i o n at the best possible p r o f i t . and  Any l o g g i n g p l a n must be reasonably  flexible,  i f i t i s to cover a long p e r i o d of time, must make p r o v i s i o n s  f o r p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n s due to new equipment and methods of working. Road development must be designed  t o serve not  only the areas t o be cut immediately, but a l s o the leave s e t t i n g s and  emergency u n i t s .  as a u n i t .  Therefore,  the whole area should be planned  Then the s e t t i n g s f o r immediate c u t t i n g should be  selected, making adequate p r o v i s i o n s f o r winter and summer working, and wherever p o s s i b l e r e s e r v i n g an area of good timber and easy access as an emergency area. The major aims should be t o balance  the road  spacing and y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e s t o get t h e minumum l o g g i n g cost per M.  T h i s spacing can be e a s i l y worked out on l e v e l ground or even  slopes  (Matthews, Chapters V and V I I I ) , but with the rough topog-  raphy being worked at present  i n the Northwest, l o c a t i o n  d i c t a t e d by t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s . and  roads^must t h e r e f o r e  S e t t i n g boundaries,  i s often landings,  be planned as composite u n i t s .  Consider-  a t i o n must be given to such o b l i g a t o r y p o i n t s of l o c a t i o n as s u i t able stream c r o s s i n g s , n a t u r a l l a n d i n g s , easy switchbacks, and favourable  saddles.  and unfavourable  Rock outcrops,  grades must be avoided.  The  l o g g i n g p l a n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a compromise  between engineering, to adequately  swamps, steep r i d g e s , r a v i n e s ,  economic, and f o r e s t r y f e a t u r e s .  plan an area, the F o r e s t r y Engineer  Therefore,  must have a v a i l -  able the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c t o o l s : For engineering^adequate topographic contour  maps showing  l i n e s and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to l o g g i n g .such as  e x i s t i n g access, streams, r i d g e s , rock outcrops  and c l e a r i n g s are  91 an e s s e n t i a l . is  In a d d i t i o n , good a e r i a l photographic  coverage  necessary. For forestry,.the c r u i s e r e p o r t and a f o r e s t  map should be made up from c r u i s e data and the a e r i a l graphs.  type  photo-  In a d d i t i o n t o the normal c r u i s e f i g u r e s , i t i s  advantageous i f as w e l l as volume per a c r e , the average  log size  and maximum l o g s i z e expected are shown. For economic c o n t r o l , a thorough knowledge of the c a p a b i l i t i e s , l i m i t a t i o n s and optimum and maximum working on the equipment to be used i s e s s e n t i a l .  ranges  To do t h i s i t i s nec-  essary to have a v a i l a b l e time s t u d i e s and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l and graphic i n f o r m a t i o n prepared from them. PLANNING A ROAD SYSTEM Proper spacing of roads can be c a l c u l a t e d by b a l a n c i n g road haulage and c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s with y a r d i n g c o s t s . . Road standards may vary with the amount of timber t o be hauled over them. to  N a t u r a l l y the main a r t e r i a l roads should be c o n s t r u c t e d  a h i g h e r standard than those short l i f e  roads designed to serve  only one or two s e t t i n g s . In  g e n e r a l , roads i n easy s l o p i n g o r u n d u l a t i n g  country, where t r a c t o r y a r d i n g i s envisaged,should be planned t o run below the country to be logged. to  Roads should not be so c l o s e  the drainage as to block streams,or be i n danger of f l o o d  damage. For cable y a r d i n g systems the ?  s i b l e should be above the area t o be yarded. it  i s b e t t e r t o attempt  road wherever posOn steeper country  to keep the road system  i n a s e r i e s of  l e v e l s so that the m a j o r i t y of the roads have l i t t l e  grade and  r e s u l t i n economical h a u l i n g c o s t s with l e a s t road maintenance. Such a system mobile s p a r s .  i s most important i n any windrowing system u s i n g The amount of steep maximum grade road  these l e v e l s should be kept to a minimum.  joining  Steep j o i n i n g roads  i n t e n s i f y the amount of road per 100 acres but a r e of l i t t l e use  92  for  landings and  are i n e f f e c t i v e mileage as a working  road.  A t t e n t i o n given to engineering of a road i s r e p a i d many-fold i n cheaper l o g g i n g c o s t s .  Good road  alignment  i s e s s e n t i a l because i t u s u a l l y means the s h o r t e s t route, e a s i e r adequate drainage,  b e t t e r v i s i b i l i t y , and consequently  increased  s a f e t y , l e s s g r a v e l i s r e q u i r e d and maintenance c o s t s are minimized . PLANNING SETTINGS The  area i s subdivided  i n t o separate  settings  a c c o r d i n g to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the topggraphy to each type yarding.  For c o r r e c t a l l o c a t i o n of s e t t i n g s a knowledge of  l i m i t a t i o n s and  optimum working ranges of the v a r i o u s types  equipment i s an e s s e n t i a l .  d i v i d e d i n t o two main methods: The  t r a c t o r - s k i d d i n g and  can  be  high-lead  t r a c t o r i s more mobile, b e t t e r s u i t e d to c l e a n i n g  out small i s o l a t e d areas and and  of  A great v a r i e t y of y a r d i n g methods  have been used i n the past, but those used at present yarding.  of  spur roads.  i t can prepare i t s own  landings  Yarder o p e r a t i o n needs a more experienced  and has higher set up c o s t s , but i t i s not l i m i t e d by  crew  topography  or ground c o n d i t i o n s . T r a c t o r y a r d i n g i s most economical when used on medium or easy downhill s l o p e s . should be avoided to  i f possible.  U p h i l l s k i d d i n g i s expensive and The  t r a c t o r i s eminently  s k i d d i n g logs out of a d i v a r i c a t i n g system of shallow  from below.  Yarding d i s t a n c e v a r i e s with topography and  suited gullies ground  c o n d i t i o n s but u s u a l l y the maximum economical d i s t a n c e s l i e between 500  f e e t and 1400  feet.  On t e r m i n a l stands  of spur  roads,  s k i d d i n g a longer d i s t a n c e than normal i s economical because of the reduced road c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t .  The  a d d i t i o n a l saving by  not  p e n e t r a t i n g by road to w i t h i n normal s k i d d i n g d i s t a n c e from the edge of the s e t t i n g more than balances  the extra y a r d i n g c o s t .  The major advantages of u s i n g a t r a c t o r f o r y a r d i n g a r e : (i) (ii)  I t i s mobile and  can move i t s e l f  I t can do a l l i t s own  from s e t t i n g to s e t t i n g ,  " b u l l cooking''  for setting.  " B u l l cooking". These are the s e r v i c i n g jobs performed around a l a n d i n g , such as c l e a r i n g the l a n d i n g of s l a s h , moving heavy equipment and r i g g i n g work.  93 (iii)  I t can be used on road c o n s t r u c t i o n and  earth work as  w e l l as y a r d i n g o p e r a t i o n s . (iv) ing  I t i s w e l l adapted to salvage and  i s o l a t e d jobs  cover-  only a small area. Its  cost and a f a i r l y  disadvantages  are that i t has a high o p e r a t i n g  short working l i f e .  over rock areas without  damaging t r a c k s and  a t i o n i s hindered g r e a t l y by adverse deep mud  Also a t r a c t o r cannot work i t s e f f e c t i v e oper-  ground c o n d i t i o n s such as  or swampy ground. One  disadvantage  of a t r a c t o r s e t t i n g on  fairly  steep downhill y a r d i n g area i s t h a t i t tends to a c c e l e r a t e e r o s i o n problems by c o n c e n t r a t i n g the water flow.  Each t r a c t o r  road s p i l l s i t s flow out i n t o the l a n d i n g area. Cable h a u l i n g systems have s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t ages over the t r a c t o r o p e r a t i o n .  They can operate  over  advant-  steep  country e a s i l y and are not a f f e c t e d by ground c o n d i t i o n s such as rock, mud  or snow.  h i l l yarding.  They are the most p r a c t i c a l methods f o r up-  U s u a l l y y a r d i n g u n i t s have much lower o p e r a t i n g  c o s t s than t r a c t o r s of comparable horsepower.  Yarding  operations  are not a f f e c t e d by weather c o n d i t i o n s . In p l a n n i n g f o r h i g h - l e a d or s k y l i n e operations with a f i x e d spar, s e l e c t i o n of a w e l l s i t u a t e d l a n d i n g i s v i t a l . A l i t t l e . t i m e spent  i n choosing the best s i t e i s samply r e p a i d  by continued l o g production with a minimum of delay time.  A  s u i t a b l e l a n d i n g should have the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (i)  Adequate l a n d i n g space - The  l a n d i n g must have adequate  room to land l o g s s a f e l y and to operate a l o a d e r with a l l y a r d i n g roads.  A good egress f o r t r u c k s with a f l a t or s l i g h t l y  downhill  start i s desirable. (ii)  Clearance  - Clearance  i s the determining  whether c e r t a i n roads can by yarded  or not.  f a c t o r as to  Clearance  the mainline to be l i f t e d h i g h enough to give " l i f t " to  the t u r n being yarded  ground or "hang up"  enables  or "bounce"  so that b u t t s do not drag i n t o the  on stumps.  "Bind".gof r o p e on o b s t r u c t i o n and g r o u n d f e a t u r e s  s h o u l d be •  avoided. (iii) sitting  Coverage, on t h e  coverage  the  one  less  be i n c r e a s e d a t  This  is  setting  the  arc over which a y a r d e r  can g a i n c l e a r a n c e .  The l a r g e r  s e t t i n g s a r e r e q u i r e d but coverage  the  expense o f  should  planning layout  is  t o be  the  nearly level  for mobile-high-lead  system of as  w o r k i n g on t h e  level  particularly applies setting of  the  from the spar.  twice that is  and t h e i r to  spread instead  of  swing balance  is  not  upset.  The l e n g t h  f o r the u p h i l l y a r d i n g i s  e r o s i o n a s p e c t as t h e  concentrated.  to g i v e  windrowing  s h o u l d be  w i t h t o p o g r a p h y and t h e  as are  This  of  the  height at  least  Uphill yarding  water  runoff  is  F i g u r e 56 shows a t y p i c a l down-  y a r d i n g p a t t e r n and i n d i c a t e s  concentrated  location  y a r d i n g and l o a d i n g m a c h i n e s  downhill or s i d e h i l l y a r d i n g .  from the  road  where  The r o a d s  some l o a d i n g c r a n e s .  Usually distance  also better  hill  that  roadside varies  of the  operations  cold decking logs.  possible,so  never  clearance.  S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o in  the  accelerated  how w a t e r  r u n o f f may be  erosion.  SELECTING THE SETTING BOUNDARIES C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o setting  boundaries  boundary,  the  so  edge o f  a f i r e - b r e a k with the following  features  that, the  as w e l l as  setting  is  generally  provide a d e f i n i t e  relatively  exposed  However, w i t h t h e damage.  of  s h a l l be i n a good p o s i t i o n  make good s e t t i n g  Seed d i s p e r s a l  t r e e s removed t h e r e  from s u c h a v a n t a g e  The  features  Timber i n these  n o r m a l l y and t h e r e f o r e ,  as  boundaries:  are n a t u r a l topographic  y a r d i n g boundary.  adjacent  the  being a natural yarding  s t a n d i n g t i m b e r i n a. w i n d f i r m a r e a .  S p u r s and r i d g e s that  location  places  quite windfirm. may be some wind  point  is  good and a  "Bind". T h i s o c c u r s where r u n n i n g r i g g i n g i s b e i n g p u l l e d round o r o v e r an o b s t r u c t i o n c a u s i n g e x c e s s i v e r o p e wear and sometimes f i r e h a z a r d .  P i g . 58.  A c l e a r f e l l e d a r e a showing the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n of d o w n h i l l y a r d i n g .  96  r i d g e i s a n a t u r a l boundary to a spreading  fire.  Roads provide good boundaries.  In the o l d e r ,  more s t a t i c operations roads were not d e s i r a b l e as  boundaries  because r i g - u p c o s t s were h i g h f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h - l e a d s e t tings.  Therefore, i n order to reduce r i g - u p c o s t s both s i d e s  of the road were yarded t o the one spar.  With the very ;slight  f i x e d per-acre cost of set-up i n a mobile o p e r a t i o n , the  mobile  u n i t can r e t u r n t o take a "leave" area on one s i d e of the road with very l i t t l e  additional cost.  Roads are e x c e l l e n t  fire-  breaks and provide access to the boundary of a s e t t i n g f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g or salvage o p e r a t i o n s . Streams are n a t u r a l y a r d i n g boundaries both to tra.ctor and yarder and provide a good f i r e - b r e a k . little  A l s o there i s  i n t e r f e r e n c e with stream flow or w i l d l i f e f a c i l i t i e s ,  a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n i s minimized  and  i f l o g s are not yarded across a  stream. Benches and g e n t l e slopes make much b e t t e r bounda r i e s from the f i r e - c o n t r o l p o i n t of view tha,n steep slopes where an advancing f i r e has c o n s i d e r a b l e v e l o c i t y .  F i r e - f i g h t i n g access  i n t o such benches i s c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r . Timber type-lines are o f t e n good boundaries,  partic-  u l a r l y i f there i s great age or s i z e d i f f e r e n c e between the i n each type. firerrbreak.  stands  A young stand-, f o r i n s t a n c e , o f t e n makes a good In a d d i t i o n , s p e c i a l i z e d equipment and  different  l o g g i n g methods might be introduced i n s e l e c t e d timber  stands.  For example, t h i n n i n g might be introduced i n an immature stand of  good type i n which l i g h t e r equipment would be used.  not p o s s i b l e to s e l e c t s e t t i n g boundaries ures  If i t is  on any of these  feat-  •'> i t i s much more d e s i r a b l e t o have a boundary running at  r i g h t - a n g l e s t o the contours than along i t .  Fire control i s  e a s i e r under these c o n d i t i o n s as a f i r e tends to run u p h i l l  and,  t h e r e f o r e , f i r e - f i g h t i n g can be concentrated on a narrower f r o n t i f s e t t i n g boundaries minimized.  funning p a r a l l e l t o the contour are  97 THE STEPS I N PLANNING AN OPERATION A first designed  requirement  i s a field  to give the f o r e s t engineer  knowledge o f ground c o n d i t i o n s . be made.  b o t h o r i e n t a t i o n and some  A p r e l i m i n a r y plan should  T h i s i s made f r o m a t o p o g r a p h i c  the a i d of a e r i a l photographs. mine e c o n o m i c r o a d - s p a c i n g  reconnaissance, then  map'in t h e o f f i c e  with  Time-study data i s used t o d e t e r -  and y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e s .  e s s e n t i a l l y a p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n and, as such,  This i s  i s s u b j e c t t o such  m o d i f i c a t i o n s a s l a t e r may p r o v e a d v i s a b l e i n t h e f i e l d . U s u a l l y , i n e a s i e r c o u n t r y , t h e map easy t o f o l l o w .  I n more d i f f i c u l t  l o c a t i o n may be  relatively  t o p o g r a p h y i t may be  necessary  to  f i x the obligatory points of l o c a t i o n f i r s t . i n the f i e l d ,  to  l i n k them u s i n g t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e  alignment.  The s e c o n d s t e p i s t o c o m p l e t e f i e l d a l l t h e road and s e t t i n g s .  During  y a r d i n g methods and d i s t a n c e s .  planned  where n e c e s s a r y , a n d  l o c a t i o n s of  t h i s stage, f u l l a t t e n t i o n  must be p a i d t o l o c a l f e a t u r e s a f f e c t i n g b o t h and  road c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  Alternative locations are  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these  a l t e r a t i o n s ' on t h e o v e r a l l p l a n must be c o n s i d e r e d . a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n one s p e c i f i c  then  local An  import-  s p o t may n e c e s s i t a t e r e - l o c a t i o n  throughout the surrounding area.  In this f i e l d  investigation,.,  c o n t r o l l i n g f e a t u r e s must be g i v e n t h e most a t t e n t i o n .  Consider-  a b l e e n g i n e e r i n g work i s j u s t i f i e d a t p o i n t s o f l a r g e c u l v e r t i n s t a l l a t i o n s , b r i d g e s i t e s , a n d where e x t e n s i v e r o c k work i s encountered.  Landing  l o c a t i o n s must be c h e c k e d f o r s p a c e ,  c l e a r a n c e and c o v e r a g e , and o b s t a c l e s t o y a r d i n g a v o i d e d p o s s i b l e by r e - l o c a t i o n o f l a n d i n g s .  I n steep country,  back p o s i t i o n s a r e o f t e n c o n t r o l l i n g p o i n t s of road and  h a v e t o be d i s c o v e r e d .  Usually, field  where switch-  location  l o c a t i o n s a r e marked  by u s i n g a s t a p l i n g hammer t o t a c k v a r i o u s - c o l o u r e d c a r d s o r aluminum t a g s t o t h e t r e e s .  When a l t e r n a t i v e s h a v e b e e n  c o n s i d e r e d , f i n a l l o c a t i o n s a r e pegged out i n t h e f i e l d estimates  of road  c o n s t r u c t i o n and l o g g i n g c o s t s a r e  and  prepared.  98  P r e p a r a t i o n of the Logging Plan T h i s i s the f i n a l stage where l o g g i n g p l a n , f o r e s t working plan, and production requirements are amalgamated t o g i v e a forestry logging plan.  The p l a n must be f l e x i b l e enough to  cope with changing market or economic conditions^and enough to be able t o make use f o r e s t management.  of new  progressive  methods of l o g g i n g  and  I d e a l l y , the p l a n presents a planned method  and a sequence of working the whole f o r e s t  area.  For f i r s t c u t t i n g , areas should be s e l e c t e d i n accordance with s i l v i c u l t u r a l and  damaged, areas  considerations.  should be cut f i r s t  able m a t e r i a l i s recovered. there must be a balance  Overmature  stands  so that the maximum salvage-  However, to make an economic o p e r a t i o n  of high and  low-value s e t t i n g s .  b a l a n c i n g of types w i l l vary with f l u c t u a t i n g markets.  This Where  patch l o g g i n g i s being p r a c t i c e d , i t i s best t o attempt to e x t r a c t the more rugged s e t t i n g s f i r s t .  There i s sure to be some wind  damage i n the reserved s e t t i n g .  Salvage of t h i s windthrow can  be  more e a s i l y accomplished i n a s e t t i n g of l e s s d i f f i c u l t topography . P r o v i s i o n must be made f o r summer and winter worki n g areas and i f p o s s i b l e an e a s i l y - a c c e s s i b l e high-volume stand, c l o s e to egress from the area, should be set a s i d e f o r emergency operation. F i n a l l y a complete schedule  of  silvicultural,  developement, and l o g g i n g operations should be drawn up to act as a b a s i s and  time-table f o r the o v e r - a l l  operations.  99  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l i s - C h a l m e r s Manufacturing Co. 1949. Fundamentals of Logging. Milwaukee, Wis. 95 pp. Aufderheide, Robert. 1 9 4 9 - Getting forestry into the logging p l a n . Timberman 50(5): 53-56, 96. Berntsen, C a r l , M. 1954. Commercial t h i n n i n g on steep Timberman 55(8). 3 pp.  ground.  Brandstrom, A x e l J.F. 1933. Logging costs and o p e r a t i n g methods i n the Douglas f i r r e g i o n . Washington, D.C. Charles Lathrop Pack F o r e s t r y Foundation. 1 1 7 pp. B r i e g l e b , P h i l l i p A. 1950. A p p l i e d f o r e s t management i n the Douglas f i r r e g i o n . U.S. For. Serv., P a c i f . Nthwest. For. Range Exp. Stn. Res. note 71. 9 pp. Brown, Nelson C. New York.  1949. Logging.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc.  C a t e r p i l l a r T r a c t o r Co. 1955. Earthmoving guide t o p r o f i t . Peoria, I l l i n o i s . 217 pp. Pood and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of the United N a t i o n s . 1956. T r a c t o r s f o r l o g g i n g . Rome. 189 pp. F o r e s t Club U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1953. F o r e s t r y handbook f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver. 15-29. Forest Products Laboratory. 1940-1956. methods. 'Equipment, survey notes.  Improved h a r v e s t i n g Madison, Wisconsin.  Gratkowski, H.J. 1956. Windthrow round staggered s e t t i n g s i n o l d growth Douglas f i r . Forest S c i . V o l . 2. No. 1. 60 - 7 4 . K o r o l e f f , A. 1953. Reserach t o i n c r e a s e l o g g i n g e f f i c i e n c y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y Research O r g a n i z a t i o n . 11th Congress, Rome. 984-987. MacBean, A.P. 1945. The Ladysmith experiment i n s a l v a g i n g pulpwood from l o g g i n g waste. B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a , B. C. Matthews, Donald Maxwell, 1942. Cost c o n t r o l i n the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y . McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. New York. Matson, Elmer E. and Grantham, John B. 1947. Salvage l o g g i n g i n the Douglas f i r regions of Oregon and Washington. Oregon F o r e s t Products Laboratory. Oregon State C o l l e g e , C o r v a l l i s , Oregon. B u l l e t i n 1. 40 pp.  100  M i l l a r , R.A. 1956. Some economic and s i l v i c u l t u r a l aspects of patch l o g g i n g . A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia Foresters. (Unpublished t h e s i s ) . Northwest Wood Products C l i n i c . 1952. Package h a n d l i n g s m a l l timber m a t e r i a l . Panel d i s c u s s i o n . Spokane, Washington.  2-11.  Ruth, Robert H. and S i l e n , Roy R. 1950. Suggestions f o r g e t t i n g more f o r e s t r y i n t o the l o g g i n g p l a n . U.S. F o r . Serv., P a c i f . Nthwest. F o r . Range Exp. S t a . Paper No. 7. 30 pp. S i l e n , Roy R. 1955. More e f f i c i e n t road p a t t e r n s f o r a Douglas , f i r drainage. Timberman 5 6 ( 6 ) : 8 2 , 8 5 , 86, 88. Simmons, Fred C. 1951. Northeastern loggers handbook. U.S. For. Serv., Ntheast For. Exp. Sta. Upper Darby, Pennsylvania . Tennas, Magnus E., Ruth, Robert H., and Bertsen, C a r l M. 1955. An a n a l y s i s of production and c o s t s i n h i g h - l e a d y a r d i n g . U.S. For. Serv., P a c i f . Nthwest. For. Range Exp. S t a . Research paper 1 1 . 37 pp. Timberman.  1956.  Timberman.  1956.  Timberman.  1956.  57. 57.  57.  (11)  1 p.  (11).  (3)  Experimental t h i n n i n g of 45-year o l d stand. P r e - l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n p l a y s important  82-88.  role.  P r o f i t a b l e t h i n n i n g and p r e - l o g g i n g .  256-238.  Worthington, Norman P. 1953. Reproduction f o l l o w i n g small group c u t t i n g s i n v i r g i n Douglas f i r . U.S. F o r . Serv., P a c i f . Nthwest. For. Range Exp. Sta., Res. Note No. 84, 5 pp. Worthington, Norman P. and Shaw, Elmer W. 1952. Cost of t h i n n i n g young Douglas f i r . Timberman 5 3 ( 1 0 ) . 4 pp.  

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