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Public assistance policy : a review of contemporary legislation and practice in British Columbia Jackson, Douglas Lascelles 1955-12-31

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PUBLIC ASSISTANCE POLICY A Review of Contemporary L e g i s l a t i o n and Practice i n B r i t i s h Columbia by DOUGLAS LASCELLES JACKSON  Thesis Submitted i n p a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK  School of S o c i a l Work  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  1955  vi ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study has been to review the development of public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia; and to compare the present p o l i c i e s of (a) e l i g i b i l i t y and determination of need, (b) assistance l e v e l s , and (c) service programs, i n war Veterans* Allowance, o l d Age Assistance, B l i n d Persons* Allowance, Motherst Allowance and S o c i a l Allowance. Reference i s made to American programs where a comparison of p o l i c i e s i s h e l p f u l i n c l a r i f y i n g Issues. On p o l i c y concerning such questions as residence, r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c i t i z e n s h i p , assessment of resources, levels of.assistance, and service programs, the p o l i c y Manual and the Acts and Regulations of the B.C. S o c i a l Welfare Branch are used as the basis f o r comparative analysis, interviews were held with authorities administering the programs and these were pursued In order to c l a r i f y apparent v a r i a t i o n i n p o l i c y between programs and administrative agencies. Information on the American programs was obtained through l i t e r a t u r e , correspondence; and a v i s i t to one l o c a l o f f i c e of the State Department of public Assistance, Washington. For the purpose of measuring levels of assistance, use i s made of a standard budget developed i n a previous M&ster of S o c i a l Work t h e s i s . From t h i s a monthly cost schedule i s developed to suggest an up to date budgetary standard and t o point up the evaluation of the adequacy of current public a s s i s t ance allowances. Discrepancies between programs on such matters as exemptions and a d d i t i o n a l income are also examined. Service programs including the s o c i a l and medical aspects are studied comparatively, and i t i s established that B r i t i s h Columbia i s a leader i n t h i s respect.. The more .effective use of trained and untrained personnel i n the s o c i a l services appears t o demand further research. The study leads t o seven major suggestions; (a) a b o l i t i o n of l o c a l residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s with appropriate f i n a n c i a l arrangements; (b) standardization and l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of p o l i c i e s respecting assessment of resources and income; (c) use of the standard budget i n establishing and meeting need; (d) use of a s i m p l i f i e d budget - d e f i c i t method f o r determining grants; (e) more e f f e c t i v e use of personnel i n s o c i a l services; (f) extended use of research i n public assistance; (g) development of advisory - committee groups i n public assistance.  il  TABLE OF CONTENTS page Acknowledgements  • • • • •  Abstract • . Chapter I  >v  • . • •  vi  public Assistance Programs i n B.C.. . . . .  1  Constitutional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Canada. H i s t o r i c a l development of public assistance i n B.C. A review of f e d e r a l programs. P r o v i n c i a l and Muni c i p a l programs. Administrative structure. Summary. Chapter I I  E l i g i b i l i t y Factors (Non F i n a n c i a l ) . . . . 29  Residence laws i n Canada. Reciprocal Agreements. Residence i n the united States. Relatives* r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . C i t i z e n s h i p and moral standards. Summary. Chapter I I I Assessment of Resources •  61  Real property. Personal property and income. Assessment of property i n the united s t a t e s . Transfer of property. Income and a d d i t i o n a l exempt i o n s . Nursing and boarding home care. Assessment of resources i n Washington State. Summary. Chapter IV  Levels of Assistance  85  Development of the concept of adequacy. A Minimum budget. Assistance rates i n B.C. A case f o r graduated scales*. Meeting need i n Washington Stated Supplementary allowances. Summary. Chapter V  Service Programs  . . . . .  107  S o c i a l services. Diagnosis i n s o c i a l a s s i s t ance. Casework services. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Medical care i n public assistance. Public care i n Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia's program. Medical i n d i gency. Summary.  iii  TABLE OP CONTENTS continued.  page Chapter VI  Conclusions  132  Basic p r i n c i p l e s In public welfare. Public assistance i n B.C«# present and future. Residence. Reciprocal Agreements. Assessment of Resources. Levels of Assistance, Discrepancies. Public Housing. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n services. Medical care. General Rao oramendations•  Appendices A  Administrative Structure of P r o v i n c i a l and Municipal Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . l ^ l j .  B  E l i g i b i l i t y Factors i n Public Assistance i n  C  Washington S e r i a l Letter from Director of Welfare regarding a Schedule of .Exemptions and Other Income . .  D  Bibliography  155 156 157  iv TABLE OP CONTENTS oontinued Tables and Schedules i n the Test Table Table  1  Residence Regulations i n Canada - P r o v i n c i a l  2  and Municipal Residence Requirements f o r public Assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia  33-35 39  Table  3  Relatives» R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n B.C  55  Table  1|.  Real Property, Derived and Calculated Income Regulations i n War veterans* Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Mothers* Allowance, and S o c i a l Allowance -  63  Table  Table  Table  Table  lj. (a) A Comparison of Deductions of Income from Property, Rentals, and Boarding Care, i n war Veterans» Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Mothers » .Allowance, and S o c i a l Allowance . . . 5  6  7  6I4.  Personal Property and Income Regulations i n War veterans* Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Mothers* Allowance, and S o c i a l Allowance . . .  66  Assessment of Resources f o r Nursing and Boarding Home Care i n Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, Municipality of Burnaby, and S o c i a l Welfare Branch. • • • .  80  Monthly Budget Item cost Schedule, Vancouver, November,  195fy-  92  Table  8  Public Assistance Rates In B r i t i s h Columbia . .  9ij.  Table  9  Comparison of Rates of Assistance with Costs of the "content of L i v i n g i n Vancouver, November, 19514- . • •  96  A Suggested Scale of S o c i a l Allowance Rates Based on Cost of Pood, Clothing and Personal Items, According to Age and Sex, and Shelter as of November, 195H-  100  11  Table 10  t  The writer wishes to acknowledge the help received from Prof. ¥.G. Dixon and Dr. L.C. Marsh of the School of S o c i a l Work i n regard to matters of content and research method respectively, and i n the reading of draft chapters. Also, the writer greatly appreciates the splendid cooperations shown hy the following In providing material on p o l i c y and program:  Mr. J. H. Brown, D i s t r i c t Authority,  War veterans» Allowance, and Mrs^ Mary Nicholson, S o c i a l Service, Department of veterans' A f f a i r s ; Miss Margaret Gourlay, Welfare D i r e c t o r of the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department; Mr. E.L. Coughlin, Administration, and Mr. W. Rasmussen, D i s t r i c t Supervisor, S o c i a l Welfare Department, Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby; and Mrs. Nora Downey, Acting Administrator, Whatcom County Public Welfare Department,  PUBLIC ASSISTANCE POLICY  CHAPTER I  PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS IN B.C.  CONSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY IN CANADA In considering the development of public a s s i s t ance i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s important that some attention be given to the l e g i s l a t i v e structure upon which the program has been b u i l t .  When the Fathers of confederation undertook  to formulate a Canadian Constitution they, of course, had no conception of s o c i a l security, as i t i s known today. Insofar as they recognized the need f o r such serv i c e s , they must have presumed that these would be provided by the l o c a l authorities as had been the t r a d i t i o n i n England since the days of Elizabethan'poor Law.  Public welfare i s  not mentioned i n the B r i t i s h North America Act as such. sections which serve to define the respective  Those  jurisdictions  of the Dominion and the provinces i n this f i e l d seem unrelated i n language and i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l meaning to the problems of modern s o c i a l welfare. In Section 9 1  of the B r i t i s h North America Act,  the parliament of Canada was empowered t o make laws f o r the w  peace, order, and good government of Canada, i n r e l a t i o n to a l l matters not coming within the classes of subjects by this  Act assigned exclusively to the l e g i s l a t u r e s of the provinces *. 1  Section 92 of the Act gave to the provinces cert a i n powers to l e g i s l a t e on matters of p u b l i c welfare.  This  includes the establishment of prisons i n and f o r the province; the establishment of hospitals, asylums, c h a r i t i e s and eleemosynary i n s t i t u t i o n s , and municipal I n s t i t u t i o n s ; the solemnization of marriage; property and c i v i l r i g h t s ; the adm i n i s t r a t i o n of justice In the province; and "generally a l l matters of a merely l o c a l or private nature™. The Dominion parliament was given by the Fathers of Confederation the r e s i d u a l powers; that i s , e x p l i c i t grants of power were made to the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s and a l l the remainder was to go to the Dominion.  The words "peace, order,  and good government" were not to be taken i n any l i t e r a l sense; the phrase was simply one which was frequently used by the B r i t i s h Parliament when i t wished to make a comprehensive grant of l e g i s l a t i v e power.  Section 91 then proceeded to  i l l u s t r a t e the general authority, thus bestowed, by specifying a number of these powers, and, to prevent possible misinterpretation, e x p l i c i t l y stated that these enumerated powers were inserted " f o r greater certainty, but not so as to r e s t r i c t the generality of the foregoing terms of t h i s Section". i l l u s t r a t i o n s were, i n f a c t , unnecessary,  These  f o r the entire d i s -  t r i b u t i o n had been completed when the provinces had been a l l o t t e d t h e i r powers and the Dominion had been given the remainder.  Although this was the o r i g i n a l Intention of the Act, the  a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was gradually imposed upon o r i g i n a l through the use of the term "property and c i v i l  r i g h t s " , found i n Section 91 of the Act, the  I t was argued by  J u d i c i a l committee of the p r i v y Council that this term  was not intended to l i m i t p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n to matters of purely p r o v i n c i a l or l o c a l i n t e r e s t , but that when a topic f e l l under t h i s general head i t was c l e a r l y pr o v i n c i a l unless the  Act p o s i t i v e l y asserted the contrary.  The enumerated  Dominion powers, which had begun as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Dominion authority, thus became of greater consequence than the general power which they were supposed to i l l u s t r a t e , because the l a t t e r was l o s t through the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given to the term "property and c i v i l r i g h t s " ,  1  The phrase - "generally a l l  matters of a merely l o c a l or private nature i n the province" was also used to reduce the general authority of the Dominion government.  These two terms, through the Interpretation given  them, i n e f f e c t gave the r e s i d u a l powers to the provinces:^ The term "peace, order and good government", of necessity required subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the J u d i c i a l Committee decided that the meaning i n f e r r e d was that of comprehensive emergency powers which i n time of national p e r i l or necessity could be invoked by the Dominion to override, i f necessary, any or a l l c o n f l i c t i n g p r o v i n c i a l powers.  Such  action was taken during both world wars on the basis of t h i s 1 DAWSON, R. McGregor, The Government of Toronto Press, 19^7* p. 109 - 110  of Canada, University  mm  lj.  m>  interpretation. From the provisions of the Act, I t would appear that, apart from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of welfare services to c e r t a i n groups, and f o r the p r o v i s i o n of services " f o r the 1  peace, order and good government of Canada", i t i s a basic p r i n c i p l e of the c o n s t i t u t i o n that "major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r public welfare s h a l l be assumed by the provinces, and that they w i l l work out with the municipalities d e t a i l e d arrangements f o r administration".  THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN B.C. Since the beginning of settlement by white men, over a hundred years ago, the province of B r i t i s h Columbia has had a h i s t o r y of booms and depressions a r i s i n g out of the e x p l o i t a t i o n of i t s natural resources.  This boom exper-  ience, checked only by r e l a t i v e l y short periods of depression u n t i l the 1930»s, generated i n the people attitudes of exuberant optimism regarding material a f f a i r s , and great In the future of t h e i r province.  confidence  This s p i r i t of progressive-  ness has, to some extent, been responsible f o r the development of s o c i a l services i n B r i t i s h Columbia which are pro1. Section 91 of the Act gives the parliament of Canada responsibility, among other things, f o r marine h o s p i t a l s , criminal law procedure, and the operation of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . 2. CASSIDY, H.M., "Public Welfare Organization i n Canada Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l " , Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Work, Ottawa, 1937, P. 7. ~"  -  5 -  gressive when compared to others In Canada. The rapid development of pioneering  communities  made great demands on the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r the pro* v i s i o n of physical services such as transporation.  Hence  the pattern of a strong central government had been established when the pioneers began to concern themselves with community services such as hospitals and education.  They had no desire  to wait for the gradual provision of these necessities and amenities by municipalities and private  organizations.  The presence amongst the early s e t t l e r s of a high percentage of B r i t i s h immigrants, who of trade unionism and socialism, was  had previous knowledge another f a c t o r which  contributed to the development of s o c i a l reform. In discussing these influences, Dr. H.M.  Cassidy  states the following: Such an environment has been f a i r l y good s o i l f o r the growth of public s o c i a l services. The absence of private s o c i a l agencies with vested interests: and the r e l a t i v e l y slow and weak development of municipal government l e f t the f i e l d free f o r leadership by the province. The t h i n spread of population over the i n t e r i o r and the consequent d i f f i c u l t y of delegating f i n a n c i a l and administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to municipal units further encouraged c e n t r a l c o n t r o l over p o l i c y and practice.1 In the e a r l y years following Confederation publ i c welfare, under the provisions of poor law or municipal statutes, was palities.  almost wholly the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the munici-  Following B r i t i s h poor law precedent, they were  1 CASSIDY* Harry M. Ph.D.* Public Health and Welfare Organization i n Canada, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 19lj£, p. 40 - UJL "  charged with the obligation of making provisions f o r a l l classes of the poor, while the p r o v i n c i a l governments did l i t t l e except operate gaols or insane asylums.  By the end  of the nineteenth century i t had become apparent that additiona l services were needed, and the provinces enacted l e g i s l a t i o n to provide f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the feeble-minded, homes f o r the aged and infirm, c h i l d welfare services, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r the indigent, and other programmes to be operated d i r e c t l y , or by the municipalities and private agencies, sometimes with f i n a n c i a l support from the province. B r i t i s h Columbia, unlike Nova Scotia and  New  Brunswick, and nearly a l l the American states, has never had a poor law.  However i t has had an equivalent of t h i s i n the  simple provision of the Municipal Act that " i t s h a l l be the duty of every c i t y and d i s t r i c t municipality . ... to make suitable provision f o r i t s poor and d e s t i t u t e " .  1  The  oblig-  ation was not considered s e r i o u s l y during the early days of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , however i t was to become an overwhelming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the years of the great depression. Vancouver was the f i r s t municipality to organize a r e l i e f department.  This was done i n 19llj- following a  collapse of the r a i l r o a d and land settlement boom which r e sulted i n much unemployment and d e s t i t u t i o n , 1920 to 1926,  i n the years  there was heavy winter unemployment, and dur-  ing this period the Dominion granted a i d to the provinces to a s s i s t them i n providing unemployment r e l i e f . 1  E.S.B.C. 1936  Chap. 109,  Sec.  501  Dominion-  p r o v i n c i a l grants wore made to Vancouver, and a few other municipalities i n support of r e l i e f work projects or d i r e c t relief. Because of i t s administrative j u r i s d i c t i o n over unorganized t e r r i t o r y , the province was forced early i n i t s development to make some p r o v i s i o n f o r the aged and the sick* As early as 1886 appropriations were made " i n a i d of the dest i t u t e , poor and s i c k " , and f o r the " b u r i a l of i n d i g e n t s " ,  1  and by the end of the 1920»s these had Increased to annual expenditures of about $100,000.  To care f o r the o l d and i n -  f i r m without homes of t h e i r own, the province established the P r o v i n c i a l Home at Kamloops i n 1893.  Admission was dependent  on payment of 75 percent of maintenance costs by the municipality, where the person had l i v e d . c i a l funds were being  As early as 1886 provin-  paid to hospitals vhich made claims  f o r the care of indigent persons,  i n 1902 the municipalities  were given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n this area i n that they were to contribute i n respect to each day of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n given t o t h e i r res idents. In 1920 B r i t i s h Columbia passed the Mothers» Pension Act under which the province was to assume a l l costs of t h i s program, thus r e l i e v i n g the municipalities of a large burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to which they were t e c h n i c a l l y l i a b l e under the indigent provisions of the Municipal Act.  Admin-  i s t r a t i o n of the scheme was transferred from the Workmen's Compensation Eoard to the Superintendent  of Welfare of the  1 B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia i n the Canadian Confederation, Submission to the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1938) p. 169  P r o v i n c i a l Secretary«s Department when i t was found that the Act  was being misinterpreted. B r i t i s h Columbia was the f i r s t province i n Canada  to make use of the federal Old Age pensions Act of 1927  which  offered f i f t y per cent of costs as a subsidy to provinces granting pensions up to twenty dollars per month to needy old people over seventy years of age.  Administrative respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s program was given to Workmen's Compensation Board because of this agency's success i n i t s own f i e l d ,  and  because of the fact that i t was trusted by the p u b l i c . C h i l d welfare problems c a l l e d f o r the attention of the government early i n the h i s t o r y of the province and i n 1901  the Infants Act was passed providing f o r the appoint-  ment of a p r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Neglected Children and the formation of children's a i d s o c i e t i e s ,  i n the same  year s o c i e t i e s were formed i n both Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , under private boards, to provide ward and non-ward services: i n 1905  the Catholic Children's A i d Society was formed.  Foll-  owing a survey of c h i l d welfare by the Canadian Council on C h i l d and Family Welfare i n 1927,  Miss Laura Holland, an able  and experienced s o c i a l worker, was appointed as d i r e c t o r of the agency, and a s t a r t made towards the employment of pro* f e s s i o n a l personnel and the Introduction of modern c h i l d welfare methods. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE DURING THE DEPRESSION B r i t i s h Columbia was extremely hard h i t by the great depression of the 1930is.  P r o v i n c i a l and municipal  revenues dropped as r a p i d l y as the l e v e l of unemployment and d e s t i t u t i o n grew.  The unemployed besieged the municipal  authorities f o r r e l i e f , and the drop i n revenues from taxes and grants at the very time when expenses f o r r e l i e f were mounting sharply caused acute f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the municipalities.  Within a few years a number of them including  Burnaby, North Vancouver C i t y , North Vancouver District,, Pernio, and Prince Rupert defaulted on t h e i r debt obligations, and t h e i r administration was taken over by commissioners  appointed  by the p r o v i n c i a l government. U n t i l the f a l l of 1930  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , along  with a few private agencies, carried the growing load of rel i e f without assistance from the province.  In October of  that year the Dominion agreed to share equally, with the provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n the costs of d i r e c t r e l i e f and municipal r e l i e f works on a  £0-25-25 shared  basis.  The Dom-  i n i o n agreed to share equally with the province the cost of works and d i r e c t r e l i e f f o r homeless men and transients. Both p r o v i n c i a l and municipal work projects were undertaken, supplemented  by d i r e c t r e l i e f f o r those who did' not benefit  from emergency employment, and thus B r i t i s h Columbia  was  launched upon i t s largest enterprise i n s o c i a l welfare. Unfortunately this program was s h o r t - l i v e d .  The  province and municipalities had scarcely begun t h e i r work projects f o r the winter of  1931-32 when  the Dominion govern-  ment reduced i t s grants by one-half, which forced the province and municipalities to reduce t h e i r work r e l i e f from  -  10  -  wages to maintenance only. P o l i t i c a l unrest was marked during these years, and people c r i e d f o r better things.  With the e l e c t i o n i n  the f a l l of 1933, & progressive L i b e r a l cabinet came i n t o power, and the stage was set f o r s o c i a l reform. 193b  *he f i r s t important  In July  reorganization step occurred with  the appointment of a Director of S o c i a l Welfare whose respons i b i l i t i e s were to be of a planning, organizing, and coordinating nature* In consequence of the lack of f i e l d s t a f f i n the Welfare Branch outside Vancouver, use was being made of government agents, p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e , and municipal o f f i c i a l s  i n an  attempt to provide services, but t h i s was f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y . The Welfare F i e l d Service was established i n A p r i l 1935 t o solve this problem.  The e x i s t i n g f i e l d s t a f f of the Welfare  Branch, consisting of nine s o c i a l workers, made up the nucleus of the new unit under the d i r e c t i o n of Miss Laura Holland, In addition, s i x new positions were authorized. Centralized control of s o c i a l work personnel  with-  i n the Welfare F i e l d Service made f o r uniformity of p o l i c y regarding r e c r u i t i n g and s t a f f development.  At the outset,  personnel standards were adopted which c a l l e d f o r graduate t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work or the equivalent, and every e f f o r t was made t o r e c r u i t trained personnel. Because of overcrowding of indigent patients i n hospitals, due t o low r e l i e f allowance,  and the lack of con-  valescent f a c i l i t i e s i n the community, the p r o v i n c i a l Secre-  -  11  -  tary»s Department made a s p e c i a l grant to the c i t y of Vancouver to assist i n the organization of a h o s p i t a l clearance program; and i n the following year a s i m i l a r grant was made to Vancouver, along with one to V i c t o r i a ,  i n addition, the province loaned  s o c i a l workers to the two c i t i e s t o take part i n the work. The Vancouver scheme, operating through the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, Included the provision of boarding home placement, medical, and home:; nursing services, the services of s o c i a l workers, and public health nurses i n making placements, and the provision by the c i t y of adequate payment f o r a l l services.  During the same year, a s o c i a l worker was appointed  to the s t a f f of the inspector of Hospitals to a s s i s t i n a c l e a r ance program i n respect to the smaller hospitals of the province. With the formation of the Unemployment R e l i e f Branch i n 1 9 3 b minimum standards f o r r e l i e f were developed as well as other regulations which brought uniformity to rel i e f measures.  Able-bodied men, both p r o v i n c i a l and munici-  p a l cases, were required t o work out r e l i e f , i . e . to perform tt  1 1  some work on public projects at the p r e v a i l i n g rate u n t i l they had earned an amount equal to t h e i r allowances.  R e l i e f was  usually paid i n cash, but often rents were paid d i r e c t to the landlord and clothing issued. There were few changes i n the public assistance programs other than that of unemployment r e l i e f during the 1930»s.  w i t h regard to Dominion grants f o r the Old Age Pen-  sion, these were increased i n 1931 from f i f t y per cent t o seventy-five percent, and i n 1937 b l i n d persons beyond the  age of f o r t y were brought within the scheme.  Mothers* allow-  ances, to which municipalities were required t o make c o n t r i butions following l e g i s l a t i v e changes i n 1932,  were again  made the sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the province i n A p r i l 1937« The previous year, following severe c r i t i c i s m , the government had amended the Mothers* Allowances Act, to provide f o r a small monthly allowance f o r disabled husbands.  In 1937* new  regulations governing the Destitute, poor, and Sick Funds provided orderly rules regarding e l i g i b i l i t y , nature, and extent of assistance f o r the poor r e l i e f of residents of unorganized territory.  This program was made the administrative respon-  s i b i l i t y of the Welfare F i e l d Service. A problem, which had been causing much hardship f o r those i n need, was that of establishing residence of applicants for r e l i e f .  Local areas were under pressure to save  money i n every way possible, and i t was common p r a c t i c e to deny r e l i e f or other services t o those whom they claimed t o be non-residents.  This s i t u a t i o n was remedied to a major ex-  tent with the adoption, s i b i l i t y Act.  i n 1936,  of the Residence and Respon-  This l e g i s l a t i o n established a uniform r e s i d -  ence rule f o r family heads of one year i n a municipality, (or unorganized t e r r i t o r y , i n wiich case a person became a provi n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) , without public assistance of any kind or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , f o r three years.  Controversies  were t o be  s e t t l e d by a Board of A r b i t r a t i o n consisting of one governmenta l representative, one municipal representative, and a t h i r d person chosen by these two. 1  CASSIDY, H.M.  1  Op. C i t . p. 120  -  13  -  Administrative D i f f i c u l t i e s .  The basic  difficulty  i n the administration of public assistance was the fact that the  c l o s e l y related services of the p r o v i n c i a l government were  divided between three main agencies, the Welfare Branch of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, the Unemployment R e l i e f Branch of Labor, and the o l d Age Pensions Branch of the Workmen's Compensation Board.  This d i v i s i o n made f o r unnecessary overlapping and dup-  l i c a t i o n of work, successive investigations of the same family, and some overlapping of medical services.  There were sharp  differences i n the approaches, the p o l i c i e s , the standards, and the methods of work of the three agencies, and t h i s bred f r i c t i o n , and lack of cooperation. In March of 1938* the p r o v i n c i a l government agreed to contribute ij.0 per cent of the cost of the r e l i e f f o r 8000 persons transferred as unemployables from unemployment r e l i e f to poor r e l i e f . the  In 1939* the province r a i s e d the amount of  grant f o r unemployables to 80 per cent and extended i t  to cover a l l cases except those requiring nursing-home institutional April  care.  or  The next important step occurred i n  19lj.O when a l l but a few p r o v i n c i a l poor r e l i e f boarding  care cases were transferred from the Welfare Branch to the Unemployment R e l i e f Branch.  Following the discontinuance of  Dominion grants i n 19lp.» the province assumed the f u l l cost of Its  tt  80-20  n  p o l i c y i n granting a i d to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  both f o r the employables and the unemployables•  Thus the  unemployment and poor r e l i e f systems of the province were uni f i e d under the d i r e c t i o n of the R e l i e f Branch of the Depart-  - l a ment of Labor. Following the e l e c t i o n of October, 191+-1, further steps were taken.  L e g i s l a t i o n was passed giving the respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r o l d age and b l i n d pensions to the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, under the d i r e c t i o n of a three-man administrative board,  i n October, 191*2, the S o c i a l Assistance  Branch was set up under the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary to handle the work formerly done by the Welfare Branch and the Unemployment R e l i e f Branch.  The new branch also absorbed the Welfare  F i e l d Service, renaming i t the " F i e l d Service", and adding to i t s s t a f f some f o r t y of the former r e l i e f investigators. The Medical Services unit of unemployment R e l i e f became a d i v i s i o n of the S o c i a l Assistance Branch, as d i d c h i l d welfare, mothers* allowances, and the administration of general r e l i e f , to be c a l l e d s o c i a l allowances. The New F i e l d Service.  Administrative develop-  ments occurred r a p i d l y with the formation of the S o c i a l A s s i s t ance Branch.  TKe f i f t e e n d i s t r i c t s of the F i e l d Service were  replaced by f i v e regional d i s t r i c t s , each t o be administered by a supervisor who was responsible f o r the administration of a l l forms of public assistance f o r p r o v i n c i a l cases, and f o r the municipal administration within the area. In 19^4-3 the administration of p r o v i n c i a l cases i n Vancouver was made the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, thus integrating the two schemes and overcoming the duplication of o f f i c e s and administrative worm. The province recompensed the c i t y by assigning s t a f f from the  - 15 ~ F i e l d Service to the four c i t y o f f i c e s i n the r a t i o of one to each two c i t y workers. With t h i s innovation i n Vancouver, there was l a r g e l y r e a l i z e d one of the leading recommendations of both the Beveridge and the National Resources planning Board reports on s o c i a l s e c u r i t y : that i n each community there be one centre f o r public assistance applications rather than the confusing array of o f f i c e s that has been common i n Canada, B r i t a i n , and the united States i n the p a s t .  1  Post War Developments,  In  1914-5 "the need f o r  coordinating welfare planning, and maintaining uniform standards of services i n a l l parts of the province, brought about the passage of the S o c i a l Assistance Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, The p r o v i n c i a l government, under this l e g i s l a t i o n , was t o continue f i n a n c i a l assistance to the municipalities but only under the condition that "the municipality s h a l l provide and maintain s o c i a l assistance and r e l a t i v e s o c i a l administrative services on a basis consistent with the standards established 2 by the rules and regulations made pursuant to t h i s Act".  As  a means of control over municipal authorities the pr o v i n c i a l government was empowered "to withhold P r o v i n c i a l funds i f l o c a l authorities f a i l t o comply with any provisions of the Act or any of the regulations made pursuant" Op. C i t . p 134  1  CASS IDY, H. M.  2  S o c i a l Assistance Act, B r i t i s h Columbia,  3  Ibid  Sec. 13, Sub. Sec. (e)  19ij-5# Sec. \  —  16 —  The standards of s o c i a l assistance to be provided were to be at "a reasonable l e v e l consistent with the cost of l i v i n g as r e l a t e d to standards of a s s i s t a n c e , 11  1  The p r o v i n c i a l  authorities were, on the basis of periodic reviews of cost-ofl i v i n g index, to d i s t r i b u t e tables of rates of s o c i a l a s s i s tance on the basis of which they would reimburse the municip a l i t i e s at an agreed percentage rate f o r t h e i r assistance expenditures. The Act also attempted to improve standards of personnel by requiring that s o c i a l workers employed by municip a l i t i e s "have q u a l i f i c a t i o n s equivalent to those required i n 2 the P r o v i n c i a l Services",  To aft i n t h i s , the province agreed  to assign one»half the s o c i a l workers i n a municipal  office,  or make up f i f t y per cent of the s a l a r i e s of the municipal s o c i a l workers, providing they are not more than those being paid p r o v i n c i a l workers. Due  t o the great growth of the health and welfare  program i n B r i t i s h Columbia I t was deemed necessary to establ i s h a department s e p a r a t e from that of the p r o v i n c i a l Secretary.  This was done i n October, 19i|-6, with the formation of  the Department of Health and Welfare.  This development made  possible the decentralization of the S o c i a l Assistance Programme i n that the "authority f o r granting s o c i a l assistance was  delegated by the Director of Welfare to the Regional  Supervisors,  (now re-named Regional Administrators), and  decisions with respect to the s o c i a l workers planning with 1  Ibid  Sec. 6, Sub. Sec. (a)  2  Ibid  Sec. 6, Sub. Sec. (b)  -  17  ~  t h e i r c l i e n t s was delegated to Case-work Supervisors".  De-  1  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the authority to grant Mothers» Allowance at the l o c a l l e v e l has not yet been taken, although e l i g i b i l i t y studies, follow-up v i s i t s , and casework supervision Is carried out l o c a l l y .  A REVIEW OP FEDERAL PROGRAMS War Veterans* Allowance. The War Veterans» Allowance Act was  introduced i n 1930 to make p r o v i s i o n f o r the  maintenance of veterans of the War of 19llj.-l8 who,  at the age  of 60, are incapable of maintaining themselves; or who, any age, are permanently unemployable.  at  The scope of the act  has been enlarged u n t i l i t includes veterans of the North West F i e l d Force, the South A f r i c a n War,  and the War  of 1939-4-5.  In order to q u a l i f y , veterans must have served i n a "theatre of actual war". any age, who,  A t h i r d category includes those veterans of  i n the opinion of the War  Veterans'Allowance  Board at Ottawa, are incapable of maintaining themselves, and u n l i k e l y to become, capable "due to a combination of reasons or handicaps, physical, mental or economic",  wid-  ows and orphans of veterans are admitted to the benefits of the act, providing the veteran was himself e l i g i b l e during his l i f e t i m e .  Complete medical and dental treatment, under  the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , are available to the 1 Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Printed by Don McDiarmid, P r i n t e r to the King»s Most Excellent Majesty, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 31* March, 19^8, p. .27. 2  Canada Year Book, I9I4.6, p. IO6I4.  -  18  -  veteran i n receipt of the allowance, but not to a widow on allowance, or to any dependent of the r e c i p i e n t . Public Assistance to Indians,  The Federal Govern-  ment has assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the health and welfare of Canadats Indians;,  Approximately $3*000,000 i s given ann-  u a l l y to Indians through old age security, old age assistance, and b l i n d persons  allowances.  In cases of necessity, the government gives d i r e c t assistance i n :Hind to individuals or groups of i n d i v i d u a l s . The food r a t i o n to destitute Indians has r e c e n t l y been increased, and extended welfare services have been made available to the Indian reservations through the employment of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers.  Health services to Indians are provided by  the Department of National Health and Welfare. Disaster B e l i e f ,  i t has been the p o l i c y of the  Dominion Government, i n regard to the granting of disaster r e l i e f , to deal with each p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n on the basis of the need rather than to e s t a b l i s h a permanent program. During the severe floods i n the Fraser V a l l e y i n June, I9I4.8, the matter of federal r e l i e f was referred to i n the House of Commons by the Right. Hon. W.L.  Mackenzie King i n the follow-  ing manner. It i s clear that the damage has already reached such proportions that federal assistance w i l l be necessary, not only f o r r e l i e f , but also f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e s t o r i n g the devastated areas: I have, with the approval of ray colleagues, informed the premier that the f e d e r a l government i s prepared to a s s i s t the province financially  ~  19  -  I might say our government has i n mind, and I have suggested to the premior of B r i t i s h Columbia, the appointment of a representative of bur government at V i c t o r i a , and the appointment by the government of B r i t i s h Columbia of a representative of t h e i r government, the two to become members of a commission that might be c a l l e d the Fraser V a l l e y r e l i e f and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n commission, to have general supervision over the entire s i t u a t i o n , and to be able to deal with questions as they may a r i s e from hour to hour, as well as from day to day, 1  Such a commission was appointed with Major General B.B, Hoffmeister representating the f e d e r a l government and the Hon, E r i c Hamber representing the p r o v i n c i a l government. At a l a t e r date the Prime Minister reported that i t had been agreed that the federal government would make a grant of $5*000,000 to the province f o r r e l i e f and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and i n addition accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 75 per cent p of the costs of repairing the dykes and r e s t o r i n g the land. S i m i l a r proaedurBs i n respect to the s e t t i n g up of commissions was taken by the f e d e r a l government at the time of the Winnipeg Flood i n 1950,  and the disastrous f i r e s  at Rimouski and Cabano during the same year. Federal Grant-in-Aid Programs,  Rather than taking  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the development of nation-wide public assistance programs which might have been interpreted as a v i o l a t i o n of the B r i t i s h North America Act, the Federal government has adopted a p o l i c y of making grants to a s s i s t i n the development of programs within the provinces.  This started with the Old  1  Debates of the House of Commons, Dominion of Canada,  2  i b i d , v i , I9I4.8, p, 5 8 3 1  V, 1 9 ^ 8 , p. 4 7 3 8  -  20  -  Age Pension Act of 1 9 2 7 which provided f o r f e d e r a l grants equal to one-half the costs of assistance, ( 7 5 percent a f t e r 1 9 3 1 ) , to be awarded t o needy persons over 70 years under p r o v i n c i a l legislation,  i n 1 9 3 7 the needy b l i n d over 1+0 years of age were  included, and i n I9I4.8 the q u a l i f y i n g age was lowered t o 2 1 years• In January 1 9 5 2 the f e d e r a l government authorized through i t s Old Ago Security Act, pensions to a l l persons over 70 years who could e s t a b l i s h twenty years residence i n the country.  At the same time, with the passage of the Old Age  Assistance Act, the f e d e r a l government agreed t o pay h a l f the costs of assistance to needy persons between the ages of 6 5 and 70 years with'similar residence. During the same year the residence required f o r recipients of b l i n d pensions was lowered t o ten years under the provisions of the B l i n d Persons Act,  the f e d e r a l government continuing to pay 7 5 P©** cent of  the costs. The p r o v i n c i a l government commenced the Old Age Assistance and B l i n d persons Allowance programs i n January, 1 9 5 2 , and i n addition to the basic allowance, authorized the payment of a c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus, on the basis of a means t e s t , f o r those with three years residence i n the province immediately p r i o r t o a p p l i c a t i o n f o r assistance.  This bonus  i s also available on the same basis to o l d Age Security r e c i p ients , In A p r i l , 1955* a Dominion-provincial program of aid t o the t o t a l l y disabled w i l l be started i n B r i t i s h on a 50-50 b a s i s .  Columbia  This program requires residence.of t e n  -  21 -  years i n Canada, and a means test s i m i l a r t o that within the Old Ago Assistance program.  Applicants not q u a l i f y i n g are t o  be screened with a view t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g .  F u l l health  services are provided by the Medical Services D i v i s i o n f o r recipients of the Cost-of-Living Bonus, Old Age Assistance, B l i n d Persons* Allowance,  and A i d t o the Disabled.  PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL PROGRAMS Mothers* Allowance.  As has been described previously,  t h i s program has been offered since 1920 f o r the maintenance of widows with children, or families In which the husband i s incapacitated, or absent from the home.*  A residence of three  years i n the province i s required f o r e l i g i b i l i t y i n addition to a f a i r l y r i g i d means t e s t .  The p r o v i n c i a l authority t o  grant Mothers* Allowance has been delegated by the D i r e c t o r of Welfare to the Family Services D i v i s i o n of S o c i a l welfare Branch thus maintaining c e n t r a l c o n t r o l .  However, casework  services are provided by the l o c a l area.  Recipients and t h e i r  dependents are e l i g i b l e f o r f u l l medical coverage under the p r o v i n c i a l "health services" program, as w e l l as other supplementary allowances available to recipients of s o c i a l allowances. S o c i a l Allowance.  Although t h i s program i s i n the  main a j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of province and municipality, payments are administered at t o t a l cost t o the province f o r r e s idents of unorganized t e r r i t o r y who have one year*s residence 1 Woman e l i g i b l e i f husband became an inmate of a penitenti a r y or mental h o s p i t a l while resident i n the province.  In the province.  22  -  The required means t e s t i s not so stringent  as that i n Mothers» Allowance* This program provides under the S o c i a l Assistance Act f o r persons, adult or minor, who "through mental or physic a l i l l n e s s or other exigency are i n need of f i n a n c i a l a s s i t 0  ance i n order t o provide a minimum standard  of l i v i n g and "who  are unable to provide i n tfiole or i n part by t h e i r own e f f o r t s " . One year is residence In the l o c a l area and an i n d l c i a t i o n of need i s required.  In addition t o f i n a n c i a l assistance, the  program provides l i m i t e d casework services with a view t o f a c i l i t a t i n g the s o c i a l and economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of r e c i p ients.  Supplementary allowances are also provided and these  include boarding and nursing home care, dietary allowances t o cover the purchase of s p e c i a l foods, required f o r health reasons, emergency health allowances t o cover the replacement of e s s e n t i a l household items such as a stove or the cost of repairs to the home, moving, or e v i c t i o n .  Housekeeping services t o the  temporarily invalided recipient, or i n case of the absence of the mother from the home, the provision of 'homemaker* services are part of the program.  Pre-natal and T.B. allowances  are available t o augment food allowances of r e c i p i e n t s of s o c i a l allowance who are pregnant, or who are infected by, or exposed t o tuberculosis* F i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these allowances i s shared between the province and the municipality i n th i c h the recipient was l a s t self-supporting f o r one year on the basis of the 80-20 formula.  This formula i s also used i n covering  •  23  -  the costs of the f r i l l medical care available to s o c i a l allowance r e c i p i e n t s .  Should the r e c i p i e n t apply f o r a i d i n an  area other than that i n which he has established residence, the costs w i l l be "charged back  0  to his own area or to the  province i f he hasn't established municipal residence. Unemployment Assistance.  Although the 'unemployed  employable» i s apparently covered by the S o c i a l Assistance Act,  1  the attitude of the a u t h o r i t i e s , both p r o v i n c i a l and  municipal, has been one of v a s c i l l a t l o n .  However, during the  l a s t two winters unemployment assistance has been granted to residents of the province on the same means t e s t as s o c i a l allowance.  requirements  No medical services are provided.  Nursing and Boarding Home Care.  The p r o v i s i o n  of nursing and boarding home care f o r c h r o n i c a l l y i l l h o s p i t a l patients who were previously i n receipt of assistance or who have become indigent during t h e i r i l l n e s s Is the j o i n t  respon-  s i b i l i t y of the h o s p i t a l s o c i a l workers and the municipal or d i s t r i c t s o c i a l workers.  This service i s also available to  recipients of assistance within the community who,  f o r health  reasons, are no longer able to care f o r themselves i n t h e i r homes. The province shares the cost of t h i s care on an 80-20 basis with the responsible municipality. Casework services include the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the person and, or h i s family, of his need f o r convalescent or boarding care, and 1 The term "or other exigency" can be interpreted to include unemployment.'  -  2l(. -  of the limited resources available.  In this respect i t should  be mentioned that a l l boarding and nursing homes with f a c i l i t i e s for two or more persons which are to be used for the care of recipients of assistance must be licensed under the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act, or the Hospital Act, and must be inspected annually by the local or d i s t r i c t welfare department, or the department of the Inspector of Hospitals. Foster Care.  A child may be placed i n foster care  as a .protective measure when i t i s found that there i s neglect in the home, and that the parents are unwilling to, or incapable of, providing proper care.  The child is made a ward of  the Superintendent of Child Welfare, or of the Children*s Aid Society having jurisdiction i n the area where the child is apprehended.  In such a case the Superintendent or Society has  f u l l powers of guardianship over the child and i s responsible for his care and training.  In practice the latter becomes the  responsibility of the social worker i n the l o c a l i t y who works on a casework basis both with the child and the foster parents. Casework services are also made available to the parents to help them accept the necessity for apprehension. A child may be placed i n non-ward foster care by parents, who, because of illness or other temporary circumstances, are unable to provide proper care. In both cases, the financial responsibility lies with the municipality i n which the parents are residents, or i f they live i n unorganized territory, the provincial government is responsible. Payment is made on a per diem basis,  —  25>  «  according to the terras of the Protection of Children Act, Section 3^* sub-section 1, or i n non-ward care according to the parents a b i l i t y to pay.  The municipality, or province  has the right to ask the magistrate  i n a protection case f o r  an over-order against the parents f o r reimbursement of the costs of maintenance*  i n the case of a unmarried mother, the  province accepts the entire cost of ward or non-ward care i n order to ensure the g i r l the.greatest measure of p r o t e c t i o n and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , the focus being that of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n rather than f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * A l l children i n care are e l i g i b l e f o r f u l l medical attention and h o s p i t a l care through the S o c i a l Assistance Medical Services. Medical Services,  F u l l medical services are  available to r e c i p i e n t s of assistance under any of the provi n c i a l or joint provincial-municipal programs.  These "health  services' are organized under the Director of Medical Services, 1  who i s responsible to the Deputy Minister of Welfare,  As i s  the case with a l l forms of s o c i a l assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia, one year's residence i n the province on a self-support i n g basis i s required f o r e l i g i b i l i t y .  The r e c i p i e n t of "health  services" i s granted a Hospital Insurance and Medical i f i c a t i o n card which he presents  Ident-  to his. family doctor when  seeking medical attention, or to his druggist when securing a prescription. A c a p i t a t i o n payment Is made to the Canadian Medical Association, (B.C. Division) to cover medical services. Where  -  26  -  the recipient of "health s e r v i c e s " has municipal residence the cost of services i s shared with the province according t o the 80-20 formula,  ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE The chief executive of B r i t i s h Columbia»s welfare program i s the Deputy Minister of Welfare, who i s respons i b l e to the Minister of Health and Welfare, f o r the administ r a t i o n of most p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n Including public assistance.  He i s a s s i s t e d by the D i r e c t o r and Assistant D i r -  ector of Welfare who together with him comprise the General Administration of the Branch.  The former i s responsible f o r  releasing a l l p o l i c i e s with respect t o expenditures  and ser-  vices while the l a t t e r i s responsible f o r the personnel of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, o f f i c e procedures and standards of professional s e r v i c e s . The province i s divided geographically i n t o s i x regions.  Each region i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of & Regional  Administrator, who has delegated authority to authorize expenditures when need i s proven.  This authority i s f u r t h e r  delegated t o the D i s t r i c t Supervisors, who, acting upon w e l l established p o l i c i e s , authorize normal forms of expenditure, obtaining sanction f o r extraordinary expenditure from the Regi o n a l Administrator. Believing i m p l i c i t l y in.the p r i n c i p l e s of l o c a l government, the S o c i a l Welfare Branch encourages the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n these s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of over 10,000 must, i n f a c t , e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own  -  27  -  s o c i a l welfare administrations. Except i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , where a network of long-established private agencies give family and c h i l d welfare services (leaving the granting of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t ance to the C i t y Administered Agencies), a l l dfcher large M u n i c i p a l i t i e s give the generalized services of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. Because they do t h i s , the P r o v i n c i a l supervisors give supervision to t h e i r s t a f f s . Because these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are administering P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the S o c i a l Welfare Branch provides h a l f of the s t a f f required to give these services with Municipal boundaries. 1  Smaller municipalities may wish to have t h e i r own welfare administrator i n M i c h case the S o c i a l Welfare Branch pays; one-half the s a l a r y of that o f f i c i a l who i s supervised by the d i s t r i c t supervisor from the nearest p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e . The remaining municipalities "buy" the services of the s o c i a l workers i n the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s at the rate of If? cents per capita of population per annum.' A schematic diagram of the administrative structure of welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s found i n Appendix A. Summary. Beginning with the l e g i s l a t i v e responsi b i l i t i e s of the province as stated i n the B r i t i s h North America Act, public assistance i n B.C. has developed from i t s e a r l y beginnings i n a pioneer s e t t i n g to the formation of the f i r s t organized assistance program i n Vancouver i n 19llj..  This was followed by the I n s t i t u t i o n of Mothers* Allow-  ance i n 1920,  and the f e d e r a l l y subsidized program of Old Ago  Pensions which B.C. adopted i n 1927, so.  the f i r s t province to do  problems of the depression were many, as were the devel-  opments i n p u b l i c assistance waich included the appointment 1 S o c i a l Welfare Administration i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Office of the Training Supervisor, S o c i a l Welfare Braneh* Vancouver, 1953 •  -  28 -  of a Director of welfare, the establishment F i e l d Service, and the formation Branch*  of the Welfare  of the Unemployment R e l i e f  These were major steps towards the p r o v i s i o n of  structure, service, and standards i n public assistance.  This  was furthered by the passing of the Residence and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Act of 1936, and the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of ' r e l i e f 1 within the R e l i e f Branch of the Department of Labor, and f i n a l l y the e s t a b l i s h ment of the S o c i a l Assistance Branch of the Department of the f r o v i n c i a l Secretary which was to be responsible f o r the p r o v i s i o n of public assistance, casework services by. the F i e l d Service, and health services by the Medical Services u n i t . The major post-war developments were the passage of the S o c i a l Assistance Act, the establishment  of the Department of Health  and Welfare, the development of the c a t e g o r i c a l programs of Old Age Assistance and B l i n d Persons Allowances, and the growth of supplementary services within the s o c i a l assistance program. A review of public assistance programs, f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and municipal i s followed by a description of the administration of p r o v i n c i a l public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The plan, of the rest of the study i s to review the  various programs i n respect to residence regulations, r e l a t i v e s » r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c i t i z e n s h i p and other e l i g i b i l i t y f a c t o r s ; assessment of resources,  i . e . means test requirements; l e v e l s  of assistance; and service programs.  Some reference i s made  to American programs of assistance where t h i s serves to a i d i n measuring standards.  Major discrepancies between programs  are explored, and the case f o r a more  tt  tqtal  w  approach to the  p r o v i s i o n of public assistance i n . B r i t i s h Columbia i s considered.  CHAPTER I I  ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS  (NON-FINANCIAL)  Public assistance means cash, goods, or services provided to, or on behalf of an Individual on a means t e s t basis, because he i s unable to provide himself and his family with the necessities of l i f e .  Basic to the concept of public  assistance i s the assessment of the applicant as to his e l i g i b i l i t y for aid.  In t h i s chapter consideration w i l l be given  to the non-financial factors which are common i n e l i g i b i l i t y studies within public assistance today..  The demands of r e -  sidence, r e l a t i v e s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c i t i z e n s h i p , and moral standards have been handed down from the past, and an attempt w i l l be made to ascertain t h e i r value i n contemporary public assistance.  RESIDENCE LAMS IN CANADA In a f e d e r a l union such as Canada, the problem of residence becomes a major issue i n the administration of s o c i a l services.  Whether a person i s e l i g i b l e f o r assistance may de-  pend on the factor of his l e g a l residence  i n Canada, whether he  has l i v e d within a p a r t i c u l a r province f o r a given period, or i f his residence within a municipality i s unbroken by any considerable period of absence.  Because of the multiple levels  -  30  -  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and the desire of the l o c a l area or province to support only t h e i r "own", residence has grown to be one of the most important and complex issues within public assistance programs. In her study of residence i n 19S>2, Miss E. L. Govan found that there were 3 * 9 9 2 governmental units i n Canada administering social services. how  1  These figures are i n d i c a t i v e of  involved the process of establishing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  the granting of a i d can become.  The process i s complicated  by the fact that each province i s responsible f o r developing i t s own p o l i c y i n regard to municipal and p r o v i n c i a l services* including matters of residence, and there has been l i t t l e or no cooperation between them i n developing such a p o l i c y . In the older provinces of Canada, the e a r l y Engl i s h laws on residence had a strong influence because of the prominence which the l o c a l governments played i n these geographical areas.  It was the intention of these e a r l y laws to  ensure that some community would be responsible f o r everyone who needed help, and that each community would be protected from the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of caring f o r non-residents. The laws gave the community authority to remove any person who was " l i k e l y to become chargeable".  But the tragedy  was  that most communities became more concerned about the cost of services than they were about meeting needs. The r e s u l t i s to make obligatory a d e t a i l e d 1 GOVAN, E.L., Residence and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Canada* Canadian Welfare Council* Ottawa* 19J>2# p. 1 .  -  31  -  v e r i f i e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n regarding residence wherever an a p p l i c ation i s made f o r any type of public assistance or care to which residence laws apply.  I f an applicant»s residence i s question-  ed, or not established, i t may mean that the municipality w i l l have to consult with another municipality or province.  I t may  mean "charging back" to the other municipality the expenses incurred, or " r e p a t r i a t i n g " the applicant to the responsible l o c a l i t y or province.  I t may also mean c o s t l y l e g a l processes  to determine r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and bickering between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and provinces. To the c l i e n t i t means that, i n a d d i t i o n to the fact that he must prove his need f o r help, he must a l s o prove residence.  This only serves to increase his i n s e c u r i t y . I t  may mean lengthy delay and uncertainty, the r e f u s a l of a i d , or the threat of being removed to his place of residence against his wishes as a condition to his r e c e i v i n g assistance. The lack of cooperation between provinces i n developing residence laws i s evident from Table 1.  This i s r e a d i l y  seen i f the residence requirements i n the various provinces f o r Mothers* Allowances are considered.  In Quebec f i v e years  •domicile' i s demanded; i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Nova S c o t i a three years residence, on the mother's part, i s required; i n Saskatchewan, and Ontario one year i s s u f f i c i e n t .  In Manitoba,  New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island the stress i s on the length of time the c h i l d has been resident i n the province. Other programs show an equal d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n respect t o r e s idence  requirements.  -  32  -  B r i t i s h Columbia Is the only province which has enacted comprehensive residence l e g i s l a t i o n .  The Residence and  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Act defines residence as i t applies to a l l s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , and at the same time assigns r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the various " l o c a l areas".  Under the Act, a person establishes  residence i n a l o c a l area when he l i v e s there without public assistance f o r one year.  The S o c i a l Assistance  Regulations  require at least twelve months continuous residence  i n the  province, on a self-supporting basis, before a person i s e l i g i b l e f o r s o c i a l assistance. RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS It has been a common practice i n public assistance since the days of the Elizabethan Poor Law to deny assistance to persons who have not established l o c a l residence, or to grant i t only on the condition that the r e c i p i e n t be r e p a t r i ated to his own area.  As r e p a t r i a t i o n i s not always s o c i a l l y  sound, the procedure has been replaced i n some places by r e c i p r o c a l agreements. For example, persons who would otherwise q u a l i f y for s o c i a l assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but who are l i v i n g i n Saskatchewan, may be given assistance from B r i t i s h Columbia. By the same agreement the resident of Saskatchewan who has moved to B r i t i s h Columbia may also receive a i d .  1  Manitoba  and B.C. have r e c i p r o c a l agreements which include reimbursement of funds issued.  A s i m i l a r agreement i s i n e f f e c t between i  former provinces  i n respect to the care of children of unmarried  1 As an experiment, since 1953* reimbursement of funds has not been required. See footnote p. 37  TABLE 1 R E S I D E N C E REGULATIONS IN CANADA - PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL  PROVINCIAL RESIDENCE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  ALBERTA  SASKATCHEWAN  MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS RESIDENCE AND RESPONSIBILITY A C T . PERSON MUST HAVE BEEN IN THE PROVRESIDENCE DEFINED AS ONE YEAR INCE FOR AT LEAST 12 MONTHS CONSELF-SUPPORTING IN A LOCAL AREA. TINUOUSLY, SELF-SUPPORTING. RETAINED UNTIL RESIDENCE GAINED ELSEWHERE OR PERSON OUTSIDE MOTHERS 9 ALLOWANCE, PROVINCE FOR ONE YEAR. ACT APTHREE YEARS IN PROVINCE IMMEDPLIES TO ALL ASSISTANCE FOR IATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION. WHICH MUNICIPALITY HAS ANY REPROVINCIAL CHARGE. SPONSIBILITY. ACT COVERS CHARA PERSON WITH RESIDENCE IN AN GING BACK OF COSTS TO RESPONUNORGANIZED TERRITORY. SIBLE MUNICIPALITY TO DISCOURAGE REMOVAL OF NON-RESIDENTS.  INTERPROVINCIAL AGREEMENTS RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS WITH ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN FOR PAYMENT OF SUPPLEMENTARY ALLOWANCE TO OLD AGE AND BLIND PENSIONERS; AND WITH SASKATCHEWAN IN RESPECT TO SOCIAL ASSISTANCE, AND FOR THE CARE OF CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS.*  NOT DEFINED. FOR UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE, 12 CONSECUTIVE MONTHS IN THE 2K IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING APPLICATION FOR A I D , ON A 'SELF-SUPPORTING* BASIS. 'TRANSIENT', A PERSON WITHOUT MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE, OR RESIDENCE OUTSIDE THE PROVINCE; A PROVINCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.  DEFINED IN MUNICIPAL ACTS AS 12 AGREEMENTS WITH BRITISH MONTHS CONSECUTIVE RESIDENCE IN COLUMBIA AND SASKATCHEWAN THE 2K IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING AS ABOVE. APPLICATION WITHOUT R E L I E F . RETAINED UNTIL GAINED ELSEWHERE. REMOVAL LEGAL WHEN TRANSPORTATION AND ACCOMMODATION PROVIDED BY RESPONSIBLE MUNICIPALITY.  NOT DEFINED. SOCIAL AID A C T . ONE YEAR'S RESIDENCE PRIOR TO APPLICATION OR A TOTAL OF 12 MONTHS WITHOUT RESIDENCE E L S E WHERE REQUIRED FOR MOTHERS* ALLOWANCE.  SOCIAL AID A C T . D A Y S AID TO INDIGENTS, 3°5 CONTINUOUS OR AGGREGATE RESIDENCE IN A LOCAL AREA WITHOUT PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. REMOVAL POSSIBLE ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BOARD.  AGREEMENTS WITH BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALBERTA AS ABOVE.  TABLE 1  (CONTINUED) RESIDENCE REGULATIONS  PROVINCIAL R E S I D E N C E  IN CANADA - PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL  MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE  INTERPROVINCIAL AGREEMENTS  NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. CHILD A RESIDENT FOR 2 YEARS PRIOR TO THE PRECIPITATING INCIDENT.  MUNICIPAL A C T . ONE YEAR CONTINUOUS RESIDENCE DURING THE 3 YEARS PRIOR TO FIRST RECEIPT OF A I D , OR AREA WHERE PERSON LIVED LONGEST IN THE 3 YEARS. RETAINED UNTIL IN ANOTHER AREA FOR 1 YEAR. R E MOVAL ONLY UPON REQUEST OF RESPONSIBLE MUNICIPALITY.  NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, EBCEPT  ONTARIO  NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. MOTHER A RESIDENT AT THE TIME OF THE PRECIPITATING INCIDENT AND FOR 1 YEAR IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION FOR A I D .  NO UNIFORMITY. CHILD WELFARE. LAST PLACE IN WHICH CHILD R E SIDED FOR ONE YEAR. UNEMPLOYMENT R E L I E F . LAST PLACE OF 12 CONSECUTIVE MONTHS RESIDENCE SINCE APRIL 1 , £ 9 4 8 (DATE ALTERED PERIODICALLY)  No RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE.  QUEBEC  'DOMICILE* NOT DEFINED. AID TO NEEDY MOTHERS. DOMICILE IN QUEBEC FOR 5 YEARS AND 1 , 0 9 5 0 A Y S RESIDENCE IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION FOR A I D .  NO UNIFORMITY. CHILD WELFARE. INSTITUTIONAL CARE; DOMICILE OBTAINED BY 6 MONTHS RESIDENCE. CHARITABLE INSTITUTION CARE. DOMICLE OBTAINED BY 12 CONSECUTIVE MONTHS RESIDENCE.  NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE.  NEW BRUNSWICK  NOT DEFINED. ACT RESPECTING THE SETTLEMENT OF THE POOR. MOTHERS1 ALLOWANCE. A PERSON OVER 21 YEARS GAINS FATHER'S ABSENCE FROM THE SETTLEMENT FROM 3 YEARS CONTINPROVINCE NOT MORE THAN 6 UOUS RESIDENCE IN A PARISH. REMONTHS. CHILD MUST BE A MOVAL THROUGH C I V I L ACTION. RESIDENT OF 3 YEARS STANDING OR IF UNDER 3 YEARS, FROM BIRTH.  NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE.  MANITOBA  WITH B.C. FOR SOCIAL ALLOWANCE.  TABLE 1  (CONTINUED) RESIDENCE REGULATIONS IN CANADA - PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL  PROVINCIAL RESIDENCE NOVA  SCOTIA  PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND  MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE  INTERPROVINCIAL AGREEMENTS  NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. MOTHER A RESIDENT ON APPLICATION AND FOR 3 YEARS PREVIOUSLY.  POOR R E L I E F ACT SETTLEMENT. GAINED BY PERSON OVER 21 YEARS BY 2 CONSECUTIVE YEARS RESIDENCE WITHIN THE POOR DISTRICT. REMOVAL BY CIVIL ACTION.  NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE.  NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS" ALLOWANCE. CHILD.MUST HAVE BEEN RESIDENT FOR 3 YEARS. IF UNDER 3 YEARS, MOTHER RESIDENT AT THE TIME OF HIS BIRTH AND CHILD CONTINUOUSLY SINCE  NO MUNICIPALITIES. NO POOR LAW" OF SOCIAL ASSISTANCE LEGISLATION. TOWNS HAVE A MORAL RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS THEIR OWN INDIGENT.  HAS BY ORDER-IN-COUNCIL STATED WILLINGNESS TO MAKE RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS. NONE MADE.  NO MUNICIPAL  NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE.  BIRTH. NEWFOUNDLAND  NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. NOT CONSIDERED RESIDENT DURING PERIOD OF CONSECUTIVE ABSENCE WHICH EXCEEDS ONE YEAR.  SOURCE:  GOVAN, E . S . L .  RESIDENCE AND R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y , CANADIAN WELFARE COUNCIL, OTTAWA, 4 9 5 2 .  A  SOCIAL WELFARE DEVELOPMENTS IN CANADA  B  IBID. P .  16.  ASSISTANCE.  4953-54*  CANADIAN WELFARE COUNCIL, OTTAWA, A 9 5 4 . P. 24, RESIDENCE REDUCED FROM FIVE YEARS DURING THE 195** SESSION.  27.  -  parents.  36  *  B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan have r e -  c i p r o c a l agreements i n respect to the payment of a Cost-ofL i v i n g Bonus f o r recipients of Old Age Security, Old Age A s s i s tance, and Blind persons* Allowances.  These l a t t e r agreements  do not include health services, and the r e c i p i e n t moving t o B r i t i s h Columbia must be resident f o r one year before he can q u a l i f y f o r medical care. Should a person with less than one year's residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia apply f o r s o c i a l assistance, he may be granted temporary assistance at the d i s c r e t i o n of the regional administrator.  However he i s advised that he i s t e c h n i c a l l y i n -  e l i g i b l e and that the province of apparent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be approached regarding reimbursement, r e p a t r i a t i o n , or c o n f i r mation of residence i f he i s from Saskatchewan.  In the case of  an immigrant who has been i n Canada f o r less than one year, s o c i a l assistance can be granted with the province and the fede r a l government sharing the costs equally.  The l a t t e r w i l l  share the costs of assistance f o r a period of one year only from the time of a r r i v a l .  Medical cards authorizing health  services are not given to such applicants, and a request f o r medical treatment, other than emergency, must be cleared with the D i r e c t o r of Medical Services. For the immigrant who  has  been i n the country more than one year, the provisions of the Residence and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Act, and the S o c i a l Assistance Act are applicable.  -  37  -  Residence and Repatriation*  P r o v i n c i a l residence  has been established by the i n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l Agreement* according to which a person  i s considered to have gained residence  i n the province where he l a s t resided f o r one year on a s e l f supporting b a s i s .  I t i s according to t h i s concept of r e s i d -  ence that a p p l i c a t i o n f o r reimbursement by, or r e p a t r i a t i o n to another pr ovince i s made.  This i s done by the Family  D i v i s i o n of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch which i s n o t i f i e d by the issuing municipality or d i s t r i c t ; and arrangements f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n are made only when approval has been received from the responsible province* The e f f e c t of residence laws on the welfare of unmarried mothers who move t o another province f o r t h e i r confinement has been studied by the Canadian Welfare Council. A s p e c i a l committee recommended that i n respect t o unmarried mothers, residence regulations should be abolished, and that the p r o v i n c i a l governments should assume the major burden of f i n a n c i a l costs.  With a view t o maintaining c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ,  1 In reference t o t h i s Miss Marie Ridde11, Supervisor, Family D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Welfare Branch, writes the following: the " I n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l Agreement" does not exist In a c t u a l i t y as a.duly documented and signed agreement between provinces. It i s simply a "gentlemen's agreement" which apparently grew out of correspondence between the Deputy Ministers of the four western provinces i n 19ljl# Since that time through r e f e r r a l s on i n d i v i d u a l oases and i n some cases informal arrangements, a l l other provinces have generally speaking, come t o accept the same understanding, although sometimes i n i n d i v i d u a l cases d i f f i c u l t i e s may arise because of d i vergence between p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and the inter-provi n c i a l agreement, or differences i n implementation. Correspondence received from the above-named A p r i l 7 t h ,  1955  -  38  -  the responsible municipality should not be approached f o r payment of h o s p i t a l costs, f i n a n c i a l assistance, or maintenance of the c h i l d .  The committee also recommended that the  practice of r e p a t r i a t i o n should cease,  1  Saskatchewan was the f i r s t province to adopt the recommendations of t h i s committee, and more r e c e n t l y B r i t i s h Columbia has done likewise*  No attempt i s made i n t h i s  province to recover costs of care or to repatriate the mother unless she requests i t , or unless the Family D i v i s i o n of the S o c i a l welfare Branch f e e l s the circumstances it*  warrant  Every precaution i s taken to maintain c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y *  i n addition casework services are offered to help the c l i e n t plan f o r h e r s e l f and the c h i l d * Residence Requirements f o r B r i t i s h Columbia* Table 2 gives the residence requirements f o r the various, p u b l i c assistance programs i n t h i s province.  With regard  to the f e d e r a l programs, a period of twenty years residence i n Canada i s required f o r Old Age Security, and Old Age Assistance r e c i p i e n t s ; whereas f o r b l i n d and disabled persons ten years residence i s required.  There are no r e s i d -  ence requirements f o r War Veterans* Allowance, or f o r s o c i a l assistance to immigrants who have been i n the country less than one year. 1 MURPHY, Marion, "Residence, A problem"for Unmarried Mothers", Canadian welfare, XXVIII, 1953* p. 33 - 3 5  RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR P U B L I C A S S I S T A N C E  TABLE 2  RESIDENCE 2 0 YEARS  IN .10  CANADA YEARS  RESIDENCE ON A P P L I C A T I O N  IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION. ( IF ABSENT DURING 2 0 YEARS, RESIDENCE DOUBLE THE PERIOD OF ABSENCE PRIOR TO THE 2 0 YEARS)  IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION, ( I F ABSENT DURING 10 YEARS NOT MORE THAN AVERAGE OF 6 0 DAYS PER YEAR WITH RESIDENCE IN CANADA AT LEAST TEN YEARS AGO)  OLD A G E SECURITY'  BLIND PERSONS' ALLOWANCE  WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE  OLD AGE A S S I S T ANCE  D I S A B L E D PERSONS' ALLOWANCE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE  3 YEARS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION.  To IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA LESS THAN ONE YEAR.  COST OF L I V I N G BONUS FOR OLD AGE SECURITY, OLD AGE A S S I S T ANCE, AND BLIND PERSONS' ALLOWANCE RECIPIENTS. MOTHERS' ANCE  SOURCES:  IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE REGULATIONS  ALLOW-  IN  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  1 YEAR S E L F SUPPORTING  NON-RESIDENTS ( l . E . PERSONS WITH LESS THAN ONE YEAR'S RESIDENCE. ^  S O C I A L A S S I S T - TEMPORARY S O C I A L A N C E , INCLUDASSISTANCE ING FINANCIAL INCLUOING FINANA I D , BOARDING CIAL ASSISTANCE, AND NURSING BOARDING AND HOME C A R E . NURSING HOME C A R E , HEALTH S E R V I C E S FOSTER C A R E , PENDTo OLD AGE S E - ING NOTIFICATION CURITY AND OLD OF RESPONSIBLE AGE ASSISTANCE PROVINCE REGARDRECIPIENTS IN ING REIMBURSERECEIPT OF BON- MENT OR REPATUS UNDER RECIP- RIAT I ON. ROCAL AGREEMENT WITH ALBERTA, OLD AGE SECURITY RECIPIENT OTHERWISE E L IGIBLE.  — 1*JO  —  P r o v i n c i a l residence of three years i s required f o r Mothers* Allowance, and a l s o f o r the Cost-rof-Living Bonus f o r old Age Security, Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons and Disabled Persons' Allowance r e c i p i e n t s ,  one Year's residence  i n the province i s required f o r s o c i a l assistance and health services. An aged person who applies f o r assistance and who has not been i n the province f o r three years p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n i s barred from the Cost-of-Living Bonus u n t i l he reaches seventy when he i s e l i g i b l e f o r Old Ago Security,*  This  means that such a person must get by on less than s o c i a l allowance rates although he may have been i n the province f o r longer than one year p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n . The aged person with less than one year's residence cannot q u a l i f y f o r health services u n t i l he has reached seventy at which time he q u a l i f i e d f o r old Age Security,  Further to t h i s he  must have the "required one year's residence i n B r i t i s h p Columbia"  without assistance.  Such practices as these are  discriminatory and are contrary to the e l e g i b i l i t y requirement of one year«s residence f o r health services under the s o c i a l assistance program of t h i s province. In respect to p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Old Age Assistance, B l i n d persons or Disabled persons Allowance, the province i n which the applicant spent the l a s t three years before reaching the q u a l i f y i n g age, or before applying 1 S o c i a l Welfare Branch, P o l i c y Manual, old Age Assistance p. 1 6 - 1 7 2  i b i d , p, 31  -  in -  f o r assistance, i s f i n a n c i a l l y responsible f o r payment of the p r o v i n c i a l contribution.  This f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y con-  tinues even though the r e c i p i e n t moves to another province. There has been much more discussion and research i n respect to residence requirements i n the united States than i n Canada, and f o r t h i s reason there i s value i n reviewing the fstate of the unionf as a guide i n considering changes within Canadian programs.  RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES The Rhode Island Experience,  u n t i l 191+4 ten  years residence was required f o r public assistance i n Rhode Island.  However, Governor McGrath, i n reviewing the program,  could see no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r denying a i d to a resident from another state when the country was pouring m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s into the poor areas of the world.  The r e s u l t was  the abolishment of settlement laws i n Rhode Island. Over a period of time records were kept which established the f a c t that there was no increase i n the number of recipients through immiagration, i n spite of the f a c t that rates were higher than i n adjacent s t a t e s .  1  Although great s i g n i f i c a n c e has been given to these f i n d i n g s , when examined more c l o s e l y they do not give such conclusive weight to the case f o r abolishment of residence.  I t should be r e c a l l e d that the experiment  1 LEET, Glen, "Rhode Island Abolishes Settlement", S o c i a l Service Review, XVIII, 1944* P» 282  took  place i n time of war when prosperity was the order of the day. Secondly, the housing s i t u a t i o n i n Rhode Island was bad due to the presence of a naval base.  T h i r d l y , the difference i n  assistance r a t e s , i n the order of two to three d o l l a r s monthly, was not s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y the expense of moving from another state.  Further to t h i s , one might consider the supple-  mentary services such as medical care i n contemplating the advantages of moving, also the lack of opportunity f o r supp<lementary income i n a strange s t a t e . In a depression, large difference i n assistance rates would l i k e l y Invite movement, as would a milder climate with i t s corresponding reduction i n cost of f u e l and winter clothing. The Rhode i s l a n d experience was outstanding i n i t s change of philosophy.  I t went as f a r as t o repeal l e g -  i s l a t i o n which authorized the c a n c e l l a t i o n of p u b l i c a s s i s t ance when a recipient l e f t the state.  This move was made  when i t was found that older people were occupying accommodation needed by defense workers.  The new l e g i s l a t i o n allow-  ed them to leave the state permanently without l o s i n g t h e i r assistance. In reference to r e p a t r i a t i o n Glen Leet wrote the following: Rhode i s l a n d w i l l not authorize the return of any person, and w i l l not request an authorization from another state unless such a return i s desired by the person concerned..... At a time when we are f i g h t i n g against a Nazi regime 1  Ibid p. 286  -  k3 -  which has no scruples about pushing around helpless people, we do not propose to have any part i n plans of pushing around good Americans merely because they are poor.l The C a l i f o r n i a n Experience.  During the great  depression of the 1930»s there was a move i n the United States to close state borders to migrant people.  C a l i f o r n i a , with  i t s a t t r a c t i v e climate, and i t s large f r u i t growing d i s t r i c t s employing migrant workers, was p a r t i c u l a r l y threatened by an i n f l u x of destitute people from other states and took t h i s measure f o r i t s own protection.  The matter of the constit-  u t i o n a l rights of the i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s measure was brought before the courts. Judge Byrnes of the United States Supreme Court upheld the right of the i n d i v i d u a l to move f r e e l y from one •state to another.  He presented the view that the concept  underlying the C a l i f o r n i a Law was that "each community should care f o r i t s own indigent" but that i n recent times i t had been proved that the "theory of the Elisabethan poor laws 2 no longer f i t s the f a c t s " . The concern of t h i s state that i t s public a s s i s t ance programs be limited to caring f o r " i t s own indigent" i s born out by present residence requirements.  For Old Ag©  Assistance, f i v e years residence i n the state within the l a s t nine years Is required, including the year immediately 1 2  315,  Ibid  p. 285  Edwards vs. State of C a l i f o r n i a , 31IL V.S. 6 0 , L. Ed. 6 2 Supreme Court 161L (I9I4JL)  p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n . ^  kk -  In regard to county a i d and r e l i e f ,  the applicant must be a resident of the state f o r three years without receiving public or private r e l i e f .  In addition he  must have resided within the county f o r at least one year p p r i o r to application f o r a i d .  Although proof that there was  an intent to e s t a b l i s h residence when the person entered the state i s l e g a l l y required, t h i s p o l i c y has  been hard to ad-  minister because of appeal board hearings which have favored a more l i b e r a l interpretation of residence,  3  However, i n  general, C a l i f o r n i a favors s t r i c t and lengthy residence r e quirements as a safeguard against having to care f o r those other than " t h e i r own",^" i  The Pennsylvania Study,  i n 19^5 the Pennsylvania  Legislature reduced residence requirements f o r a l l types of public assistance to one year, and eliminated them f o r nonresident applicants from states which had no requirements. In the following years the attitude towards residence changed and the conviction developed amongst members of the Legislature that lengthy residence requirements would keep public assistance caseloads down, i n 19^9 a study was i n i t i a t e d to obtain data which would j u s t i f y an increase i n the period required f o r t  1 BOND* Floyd A., et, a l . , Our Needy Aged, Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1954* P« 10B - 109 2 Laws Relating to the Department of S o c i a l Welfare of C a l i f o r n i a , Div. Ij., Ch. 2, Sees. 2555 - 2556 3  BOND, Floyd A., et. a l . , op. c i t . p. 3I4.6 - 3k-7  k- Ibid  p. 3^6  -  45 -  establishing state residence*  I t was found, however, that  only 2*IL per cent of family heads of units on assistance had been i n the state less than f i v e years*  This meant that i n  fewer than three cases i n every hundred was residence of less than f i v e years an issue.  The r a t i o of resident recipients  with less than this period i n the state was a c t u a l l y smaller f o r the following reason.  The figure given included non«  residents r e c e i v i n g assistance whose state of l e g a l residence could not be determined, or who could not be returned t o t h e i r own s t a t e . *  On the basis of these findings i t d i d not seem  that public assistance costs would be reduced t o any extent by the use of such a lengthy period of residence as f i v e years*  1  Residence i n New York* made of residence i n New york State*  In 191+0-1+1, a study was Four years previously  a p o l i c y had been adopted of granting assistance to the resident and urn-resident a l i k e : however residence studies were continued, and the investigation made use of t h i s i n formation.  I t was found i n t h i s study that the average  length of residence of families on home r e l i e f was 6*3 years* In a review of "charge-backs i n the New York 9  program, i t was shown that most of the counties neither gained, nor l o s t , any important net amounts from t h e i r 1 DAVIS, Eleanor J . , "The Question of Length of Residence", public Welfare, VII, 1949* p. 155 2 JACKSON, Glenn E», "Settlement and S o c i a l Welfare i n New York", S o c i a l Service Review, X#, 191+1» P» 434  - . ljjb  - '  practice of charging back of assistance costs to the counties i n which the recipients held residence,^" • Glenn E. Jackson sums up the discussion on charging-back of assistance expenditures  with the following s t a t e -  ment. Whereas the community to which people are migrating retains a l l the new income, either i n new wealth, or i n new community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n services, from the newcomers who pay t h e i r own way, at the same time the new community charges back the cost of r e l i e f f o r newcomers who f a i l to make a go of i t . Therefore, the rejected community loses i t s paying citizens while continuing to pay f o r i t s former nonpaying residents. Would i t not be more equitable i f the growing community accepted the « l i t t l e of the b i t t e r along with the better. Another study i n New  York considered the admin-  i s t r a t i v e procedures involved i n the various types of cases l o c a l l y s e t t l e d , intra-county "charge-back", inter-county 11  charge-back", "state charge", and county charges.  The  o v e r - a l l average proportion of the time of investigators, clerks, and l o c a l questions was  welfare o f f i c e r s devoted to residence  computed at 1 8 per  cent.  3  Jackson feels that the facts lead n a t u r a l l y to the conviction that residence laws should eventually be abolished.  This i s not a new point of view.  In fact this b e l i e f  was proclaimed by Adam Smith, the noted English economist, i n 1 7 7 6 when he wrote i n the Wealth of Nations: " T O remove a man who  has committed no misdemeanor from the p a r i s h where  1  Ibid  p. 1^32 - ^ 3 8  2  Ibid  p. ij.38  3  Ibid  p. ijl|.l  .  -  47  -  he chooses to reside, i s an evident v i o l a t i o n of natural l i b erty and  justice. * 1  Washington's P o l i c i e s on Residence.  Eligibility  requirements f o r general assistance to needy persons i n Washington State s t i p u l a t e one year's residence within the state. 1953  As the county plan of assistance was  abolished i n  f o r a state administered program, l o c a l residence or  county r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s no longer a f a c t o r within t h i s program.  Temporary assistance i s granted to non-residents,  and  they are returned to t h e i r own state providing t h i s i s the best s o c i a l plan; otherwise they can continue to receive assistance within Washington State.  Residence requirements  for the c a t e g o r i c a l programs vary considerably, as shown i n Table 7#  Categorical assistance i s continued to residents  moving from the state on the basis of a sound plan, u n t i l residence i s established elsewhere.  1  1 C a l i f o r n i a continues Old Age Assistance outside the state f o r a period of one year when i t i s assumed that r e s idence has been established elsewhere. Such a p r a c t i c e may lend i t s e l f to developing 'stateless* c i t i z e n s i f the r e quirements elsewhere are greater than one year, or i f the recipient has been i n more than one state during his absence. It i s Interesting to note that C a l i f o r n i a has set the pe r i o d of absence at one year before assuming that the r e c i p i e n t has gained residence elsewhere, and yet i t requires three years f o r a person to gain residence i n the State of C a l i f o r n i a , i t i s further evidence of a desire to avoid r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , where possible, because of a fear of being overwhelmed.  -  IL8  -  The practice of continuing assistance to a r e c i p ient moving out of the state u n t i l residence i s established elsewhere i s f a i r l y common throughout the united States. "Twenty-five per cent of the states enable t h e i r welfare departments to enter into agreements with other states f o r the purpose of reducing or eliminating durational residence requirements on a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s . " * The S o c i a l Security Administration has urged the removal of durational residence requirements i n the c a t e g o r i c a l programs on the ground that they are inconsistent with the purposes of an a i d program designed to help needy people regardless of where they l i v e *  The trend has been  towards shortening the period, but there are s t i l l 21 states requiring the maximum of f i v e years within the l a s t nine years as l a i d down by the S o c i a l s e c u r i t y Act, The Migrant Worker.  Myron palk has written  that i n the United States the "economic, i n d u s t r i a l , and a g r i c u l t u r a l systems have been b u i l t around, and are pendent upon a free-moving labour force.  de-  Migrant workers  have always created wealth f o r the nation, the states, and the communities which they serve."3 He suggests that three factors indicate even more movement among the people i n the America of tomorrow* 1  BOND, Floyd A., et a l , op. c i t . p.  2  ibid  p.  136  135  3 FALK, Myron, "Settlement Laws, A Major Problem i n S o c i a l Welfare", American Association of S o c i a l Workers, 1948. p. 6 . " : —  (1)  49 -  Increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of trades; e.g. bridge  builders, o i l workers, and engineers.  These s p e c i a l i s t s and  t h e i r f a m i l i e s move to various parts of the country as pro*, jects are completed and new ones begun. (2)  urbanization.  I t was estimated that i n 19^7  3,000,000 more people were l i v i n g i n c i t i e s than when the census was taken i n 19^0$ and that h a l f of the increase came from farms.  There i s the added d i f f i c u l t y of 'putting down'  roots i n the c i t y , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s f e r or promotion to a larger c i t y . (3)  Mechanization  displacement  of farming has resulted i n the  of farm workers to a major degree.  These  people e i t h e r move to the c i t y or j o i n the migrant workers*' Falk states that the needs of migrant workers "can be best me$ by making available to them the same rights and opportunities e s s e n t i a l t o the welfare of a l l our c i t izens.  Settlement  laws only add human d i f f i c u l t i e s and  unnecessary administrative costs and problems, without serving as a constructive f a c t o r . be abolished".  Settlement  laws should  1  In repudiating settlement laws* Glen Leet writes the following: In a free nation there i s no place f o r state or l o c a l trade b a r r i e r s , state or l o c a l s e t t l e ment laws, or s i m i l a r r e s t r i c t i o n s which tend 1  FALK» Myron  op. c i t . . p. 10  2 The term 'settlement' i s used i n parts of the United States i n place of residence, and generally refers to residence of long standing.'  - 50 to Balkanize our nation. In a free nation, no person, r i c h or poor, should be "bound to the s o i l " by settlement laws as though he were a s e r f . i n the dark ages. We f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to understand how any person can, with s i n c e r i t y , be concerned with free enterprise and economic freedom and s t i l l support the provisions of the settlement laws which bear so harshly upon the poor.l Conclusions.  The o r i g i n a l intention of residence  requirements as found within the E l i z a b e t h poor Laws was t o ensure that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of the needy could be established.  For this reason l e g i s l a t i o n was passed  making the l o c a l areas responsible f o r such care.  Over the  centuries the true intent has been l o s t and residence laws have been used to avoid the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of providing care.  Further, residence laws were enacted i n r e l a t i o n to  a s t a t i c community whereas today the economy lends i t s e l f to migration and a changing populace.  For these reasons  alone i t can be said that the p r i n c i p l e of residence i s archaic and inapplicable within modern-day public a s s i s t ance. The development of the concept that the needy person has a r i g h t to assistance, as evidenced by the i n clusion of Freedom from Want amongst one of the Four Freedoms of the post war world, gives further support to the idea of abolishing residence laws which deny the right of a l l people i n need to freedom from want.  To consider the  idea that residence laws should be abolished i n Canada i s not p r a c t i c a l except as they are replaced by s o c i a l s e c u r i t y 1  Ibid  p. 282  - 51 measures which, w i l l meet public assistance needs i n a l l parts of the country, and which w i l l protect the l o c a l areas from overwhelming assistance costs caused by the presence of nonresident r e c i p i e n t s .  The f e d e r a l government could encourage  a b o l i t i o n by i n s t i t u t i n g grants-in-aid to the provinces f o r unemployment  assistance, and r e s i d u a l assistance* on the  condition that residence requirements be discontinued* In regard to the matter of l o c a l residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there are provisions within the S o c i a l Assistance Act whereby a municipality or d i s t r i c t may  grant  assistance to a resident of another area and charge-back the costs of assistance to the responsible area.  However  the Vancouver C i t y s o c i a l Service Department has not always agreed to issue assistance on t h i s basis with the r e s u l t that the applicant has to return to his l o c a l area, or move to a nearby area which w i l l grant him aid on a charge-back basis.  Neither of these alternatives may have any p r a c t i c a l  value i n r e l a t i o n to proper s o c i a l planning* As i t would appear that one of the main objectives of the S o c i a l Assistance Act i s to provide an e f f i c ient and uniform public assistance program through the province; t h i s could best be accomplished by the a b o l i t i o n . of l o c a l residence and the s u b s t i t u t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l residence of one year as the only requirement f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t ance.  F i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l area could be  1 Assistance programs other than c a t e g o r i c a l * v i z . S o c i a l Assistance and Mothers* Allowance  -  £2 -  maintained through a m i l l rate levy* or on a per c a p i t a basis according to the population with the a r e a .  1  Administrative costs i n r e l a t i o n to chargen  back" operations would be eliminated and time spent i n establishing residence much reduced. Following the precedent  established both i n  the united States and i n the old Age Assistance p? ogram i n Canada, the practice of continuing S o c i a l Assistance or Mothers' Allowance to the r e c i p i e n t leaving t h i s province f o r sound reasons, u n t i l residence i s gained elsewhere should be adopted.  The present p r a c t i c e of denying a s s i s t -  ance outside the province r e s t r i c t s the r e c i p i e n t and does not allow him to take advantage of opportunities elsewhere; eg. the o f f e r of a home at a very reasonable rent by a r e l a t i v e or f r i e n d i n another province. 1 In assessing the municipal contribution some consideration should be given to the r e l a t i o n between the population of an area, i t s a b i l i t y t o finance p u b l i c assistance, and the s i z e of i t s public assistance r o l l s . Vancouver, with i t s population of over 300,000, and Its very large tax resources, both r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l , had 4,129 people on s o c i a l assistance as of Mareh 31* 1954* Surrey, with a much smaller population, and just a f r a c t i o n of the tax resources which Vancouver has, was granting assistance to 1,0J+.9 people during the same period. West Vancouver ' which i s a wealthy municipality by comparison had only 60 persons on s o c i a l assistance at that time. Some thought should be given to an equalization formula waich would help the poorer m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to support t h e i r load. The figures used are from the report of the o c i a l Welfare s  Branch f o r 1953-54» P« 36 - 37  -  53  -  RELATIVES* RESPONSIBILITY The concept of r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y dates back to the provisions of the E n g l i s h Poor Law,  The Act  of 1597 f o r the " R e l i e f of the poor" enunciated the doctrine of family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Under the Act of E l i z a b e t h  of 1601 the mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r parents to support children was extended to grandfathers and grandmothers,* It was f e l t that the parents should be l e g a l l y responsible f o r the support of t h e i r children and that i n l a t e r l i f e the children should be responsible f o r the care of the aging parents, Relatives* R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, The l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s known as the Parents * Maintenance Act of 1936, This Act makes possible the enforced support of a dependent parent by a son or daughter where a b i l i t y to pay i s established by the magistrate.  The maximum payment under  the Act i s $20, per week and f a i l u r e to pay can r e s u l t i n penalties including fines and Imprisonment up to three months.  The extent, however, to wi i c h t h i s act i s used i n  reference t o r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be gathered from the fact that at no time during interviews with provi n c i a l and municipal welfare authorities was reference made to i t ,  A need may have been f o r such l e g i s l a t i o n at the  time of the great depression - no such need to even r e f e r  1 MILES, Arthur p., An Introduction to Public Welfare, Boston, D.C- Heath & Co., 19i|-9» p. 2 6 - 27 ~"' ~"  • - A.to the l e g i s l a t i o n i s apparent today.  In discussing the  matter of the welfare agency t r y i n g to force the r e l a t i v e to support the r e c i p i e n t , i t was the combined opinion of the welfare authorities that t h i s was a c o s t l y and generally f r u i t l e s s approach as f a r as e n l i s t i n g permanent support. 1  The  s i t u a t i o n i n respect to family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n B r i t i s h Columbia varies between programs as indicated i n Table 3. I.e.  In those where the element of right Is strongest.  In War Veterans* Allowance and Old Age Assistance, par-  t i c i p a t i o n of r e l a t i v e s i s e n t i r e l y voluntary,  i n Mothers*  Allowance and S o c i a l Allowance, however, single  children,  l i v i n g i n the home, are expected t o contribute seven per cent of gross earnings I f t h e i r income exceeds $60. per  2  month,  p o l i c y i n respect to contributions  of r e l a t i v e s f o r  boarding and nursing care varies among the d i f f e r e n t agencies as Table $ shows.  The Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service De-  partment assesses the income of children whose parents r e quire care.  Single children where able are (expected* to  contribute while married children who are able are 'requested* to help,  i n the S o c i a l Welfare Branch and Municipality of  Burnaby programs, r e l a t i v e s contribute on a voluntary bais only, however they are brought  i n on the t o t a l planning  wherever possible. The p o l i c y of the C i t y of Vancouver i n regard  1 In a study made i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1954* county spent $1,250. to c o l l e c t $7,037.50 i n a well systematized l e g a l o  n  e  approach to r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Old Age Assistance r e c i p i e n t s . BOND* Floyd A. et a l , op. c i t . p. 201 2 See Appendix C f o r changes e f f e c t i v e A p r i l 1, 1955. Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department i s at present con* aidering these  - 55 TABLE 3  RELATIVES' RESPONSIBILITY  WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE  RELATIVES' CONTRIBUTIONS  OLD AGE ASSISTANCE  INFORMATION REQUIRED CONFIRMING EXTENT TO WHICH REGULAR CONTRIBUTIONS ARE TO BE CONTINUED IF ASSISTANCE GRANTED. NO LIENS AGAINST RECIPIENT'S ESTATE EXCEPT IN CASE OF OVERPAYMENT OR FRAUD.  MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE SOCIAL ALLOWANCE  BOARDING OR NURSING CARE  SOURCES:  ENTIRELY VOLUNTARY  ~[$> OF GROSS EARNINGS WHEN OVER $60.00. NOT MANDATORY WHEN CHILDREN HAVE- OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES, E . G . MEDICAL B I L L S , OR ARE LIVING OUTSIDE THE HOME. LIEN AGAINST ESTATE TO RECOVER COST OF INDIGENT BURIAL.  CITY SOCIAL SERVICE D E P T .  ABILITY OF CHILDREN TO CONTRIBUTE ASSESSED. SINGLE PERSON, AVERAGE $25WQO/MON. L I T T L E PRESSURE UNLESS CHILDREN ALREADY CONTRIBUTING. MARRIED PERSON - LITTLE EFFORT TO ENLIST SUPPORT BEYOND A REQUEST WHERE PERSON IS ABLE T O .  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH  RELATIVES CONTRIBUTE VOLUNTARICY.  MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY  RELATIVES  CONTRIBUTE VOLUNTARILY.  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, POLICY MANUAL INTERVIEWS WITH PUBLIC WELFARE AUTHORITIES  j>6  .-  —  to working c h i l d r e n i n Mothers* Allowance or S o c i a l Allowance families i s given below.  Such r e s t r i c t i o n s may put severe  s t r a i n on family relationships and contribute towards the development of b i t t e r attitudes on the part of the c h i l d r e n towards authority. ute  25 per cent  The f i r s t c h i l d i s expected to contrib-  of any excess over  $45» per month  second c h i l d everything above the f i r s t $15»  and the  There does  not appear to be any recognized philosophy on which t h i s p o l i c y i s based.  In f a c t ,  there are few cases of working  children i n »social assistance' homes and an assessment i s made i n each case.  The general p r a c t i c e at the present  time i s to exempt 75 per cent of the combined earnings of the c h i l d r e n . American P r a c t i c e . The concept of family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was incorporated into e a r l y American poor law l e g i s l a t i o n and has remained a very l i k e l y issue i n public assistance i n many parts of the United States* Reference has been made to the fact that t t h e enforcement of r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o public a s s i s t ance i s d e c l i n i n g i n Canada".  1  A considerable move i n the  opposite d i r e c t i o n has been reported i n the United States where i n recent years there has been a tightening of l e g p i s l a t i o n i n numerous states. In a study of r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Old 1 DIXON* W.G.* "Issues i n Public Assistance", B r i t i s h Columbia Welfare,,VI, 1949* p. 10 .. . 2 BERMAN & BLAETUS* "State Public Assistance L e g i s l a t i o n , 1951* S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , B u l l e t i n , XIV, 1951* P. 228 - 231 tt  - 57 Age Assistance made i n 1952,  E l i z a b e t h Epler found that four-  teen states deny assistance when i t has been established that children can support.  In another twenty-one states, although  the agencies do not deny assistance, there court a c t i o n to obtain support.  is provision for  Most of these states use a  base sum'- i n respect to children's income, which, i f exceeded, establishes the a b i l i t y to support.  The contribution v a r i e s ,  and where some states require 20 per cent of the excess other states require 100 per cent of income above the base sum.* Many other states, however, have abolished r e l a t i v e s * responsibility.  An example of t h i s i s Washington where no attempt  is made to enforce support. the home i s considered  Income of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n  as a resource of the family, but the  only approach to r e l a t i v e s outside the home i s i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l planning  i n a p o s i t i v e sense.  C a l i f o r n i a enforces r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through a l e g a l procedure affected by the county.  This  often  collapses at the f i n a l stage of summonsing through the fear of the l e g a l o f f i c i a l , who i s an elected person, of l o s i n g »the vote*.  The rate of contribution varies according t o  excess income, being approximately 20 per cent of the excess.  "The present (January 1954)  scale begins f o r a s i n g l e  person at the l e v e l of $201 monthly income and advances with each $25.  Increment.  I t does not apply t o a married person  (or other person with one dependent) u n t i l his s a l a r y 1 EPLER, Elizabeth,. "Old Age Assistance: Children's A b i l i t y to Support", S o c i a l Security B u l l e t i n , XVII,-1954* P. 9  - 58 reaches $301.  per month  11  Cone lias Ions.  There are several strong arguments  against r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . F i r s t l y , the family c l a n i s a s o c i a l unit of the past.  With the great surge towards  urbanization and mobility of population there has been a resultant loosening of family t i e s . longer have accommodation  The younger people no  available t o t h e i r parents.  Houses  are smaller now and gardens also with the r e s u l t that contributions must be made i n cash rather than i n kind.  Secondly,  i n most instances of r e l a t i v e s * support i t i s a case of the near poor supporting the poor to meet t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n . Finally, i t i s felt  that t o prosecute people t o ensure t h e i r  support of r e l a t i v e s i s a cumbersome and c o s t l y p r a c t i c e . The p o l i c y , wi i c h i s becoming increasingly prevalent i n B r i t i s h olumbia, of encouraging the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the c  family i n t o t a l planning i n a p o s i t i v e sense, instead of seeing them s o l e l y as a means to minimize assistance costs, i s a f a r better way to strengthen family t i e s and to develop healthy attitudes towards the community.  CITIZENSHIP AND MORAL STANDARDS This concept of a i d to the favored has been a part of welfare l e g i s l a t i o n since time began.  The idea of  helping "our owri, and those "worthy of help" has been r e f l e c t e d i n the requirement of c i t i z e n s h i p and moral char1  BOND, Floyd A* et a l , op. c i t . p. 112  - 59 acter as factors i n e l i g i b i l i t y f o r public assistance. B r i t i s h Columbia has l a r g e l y abolished such discrimination through i t s S o c i a l Assistance Act, as has  the  federal government i n i t s programs of aid to the aged, b l i n d , disabled, and to veterans.  Mothers* Allowance alone requires  that the applicant be a B r i t i s h subject. Although Washington State has no c i t i z e n s h i p clauses i n i t s e l i g i b i l i t y regulations, eleven states i n America require c i t i z e n s h i p i n reference to Old Age A s s i s t ance.  Feelings are strong i n plfeaea? such as C a l i f o r n i a  about granting equal rights to minor national groups could otherwise q u a l i f y . aid to an a d d i t i o n a l  who  C a l i f o r n i a would have to grant  1L5,000 people,  the great majority of  these of Mexican o r i g i n , i f c i t i z e n s h i p were abolished as requirement; and t h i s would add  $35*000,000 annually  to i t s  Old Age Assistance program.* Moral standards are not an issue i n granting public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia or Washington, except i n the Mothers * Allowance program of t h i s  province  which requires that the recipient be a i f i t and proper person' as a mother,  persons of doubtful capacity as mothers  receive S o c i a l Allowance which has i d e n t i c a l rates of assistance and services.  As i n Washington there i s the  recognition that public assistance should be granted on the basis of need, the other s o c i a l problems to be assessed and worked with simultaneously, 1  but not as a condition to  BOND, Floyd A., et a l , op. c i t . p.  250  a  receiving assistance.  60  -  There i s no longer the concept of  fehe worthy and the unworthy,, but rather the concepts  of need,  and of the a b i l i t y of some people to accept and benefit from s o c i a l casework services. F o r others the concept of protection  of the person and society i s being considered where necess-  ary. SUMMARY This chapter deals with the major e l i g i b i l i t y f a c t o r s , other than f i n a n c i a l , that are generally considered i n p u b l i c assistance. requirements  Following a discussion of residence  i n Canada, the issue of r e c i p r o c a l agreements  and i t s counterpart, r e p a t r i a t i o n of the non-resident sidered.  The residence requirements  i s con-  of the various programs  i n B r i t i s h Columbia are given along with some of the r e s u l t ing discriminations. Following t h i s the question of r e s i d ence i n American programs i s a i r e d , and the Rhode Island experience i n abolishment  i s discussed, as are other findings  i n American welfare research.  A case i s made f o r a b o l i t i o n  of residence i n Canadian Welfare and some suggestions for  given  immediate steps as they r e l a t e to public assistance i n  B r i t i s h Columbia,  The issue of r e l a t i v e s * r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s  discussed with reference t o programs i n the United States and i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the l a t t e r being considered i n detail,  m closing, b r i e f reference i s made t o c i t i z e n s h i p  and moral character as requirements e l i g i b i l i t y studies.  In public assistance  CHAPTER I I I  ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCES Public assistance means cash, goods, or services provided t o , or on behalf of an i n d i v i d u a l on a means t e s t basis because he and h i s family have i n s u f f i c ient resources  to obtain the necessities of l i f e .  It i s ,  therefore, an e s s e n t i a l part of the administration of publ i c assistance to assess the resources  available i n meet-  ing the needs of the applicant*  REAL PROPERTY In the assessment of r e a l property there Is generally a difference made between property which a person i s using f o r shelter and that which i s used s o l e l y f o r purposes of revenue or speculation*  In most programs a  l i m i t i s set on the value of r e a l property a person can own f o r shelter purposes and s t i l l remain e l i g i b l e * In B r i t i s h Columbia there i s a m u l t i p l i c i t y of approaches to the matter of assessment of r e a l property as can be seen from Table 1L*  S o c i a l Allowance regulations  appear to be the most l i b e r a l but t h i s should be q u a l i f i e d  . -  62  -  with the statement that property other than that used f o r shelter i s generally considered as a l i q u i d asset, and the person i s encouraged to s e l l I t before applying f o r a s s i s t ance. ive  Mothers* Allowance regulations are the most r e s t r i c t -  i n l i m i t i n g the assessed value of the property, less en-  cumbrances, t o $2,500.* m War Veterans* Allowance, Old Ag© Assistance, and Blind Persons* Allowance, property i s considered a source of income which i s calculated on the basis of f i v e per cent of the cost p r i c e i n the f i r s t case, and i n the l a t t e r two, f i v e per cent of the assessed value. An exemption of $  6,000.  on the market value of the home  i s allowed' under War Veterans* Allowance, the c a l c u l a t i o n being made on the excess, i f any, less encumbrances. I f the veteran feels he has paid an excessive pri£e f o r his home, he can have i t assessed by the Department of Veterans * A f f a i r s f o r the purpose of the assistance. The attitudes taken i n the d i f f e r e n t programs towards the assessment  of s h e l t e r and meals, provided t o  the recipient without charge, vary as can be seen from Table 1L. While War Veterans * Allowance makes no deductions for  such, the recipients of Old Age Assistance, and Mothers *  or S o c i a l Allowance, who receive free shelter, or room and board, get only a f r a c t i o n of the f u l l grant.  While the  practice of ignoring these resources, as i s done i n respect to War Veterans* Allowance Is not businesslike, i t 1 This p o l i c y i s adhered to by the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department; however the Municipality of Burnaby uses the.same regulations as those under S o c i a l Allowance*  TABLE  -  IN WAR  -  R E A L PROPERTY, D E R I V E D AND C A L C U L A T E D INCOME REGULATIONS  VETERANS' ALLOWANCE,  OLD A G E A S S I S T A N C E , MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE, AND SOCIAL  RESTRICTIONS WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE  63  ALLOWANCE.  WHERE SHELTER PROVIDED  NO RESTRICTIONS ON PROPERTY TO THE VALUE OF (COST  NOT AN ISSUE UNLESS RECIPIENT WORKS AND RECEIVES REMUNERPRICE)J 5$ 0 F - AT I ON AS WELL AS EXCESS CALCULAT- SHELTER OR ED AS INCOME,  $6,000  WHERE ROOM AND BOARD PROVIDED  INCOME - RENTALS . ROOMERS, BOARDERS  ROOM AND BOARD. THE REMUNERATION ONLY IS CONSIDERED FOR INCOME PURPOSES.  50JS  OF GROSS RENTALS RECEIVED CONSIDERED AS INCOME. E X CESS ABOVE FOLLOWING CONSIDERED AS INCOME: ROOM PROVIDED -  $15.00/MO.  MEALS PROVIDED  $35.00/MO.  -  ROOM & MEALS PROVIDED -  $ 50.00/MO.  OLD AGE ASSISTANCE  5$ OF ASSESSED VALUE OF HOME CALCULATED AS INCOME.  GRANT REDUCED BY NOT LESS THAN: SINGLE PERSON -  $ 10.00/MO. $120.00/YR.  MARRIED COUPLE:  $ 15.00/MO. $180.00/YR.  MOTHERS" ALLOWANCE  NO ALLOWANCE WHERE ASSESSED VALUE OF HOME ABOVE ENCUMBRANCES.  $2,500  SOCIAL ALLOWANCE  NO RESTRICTION BASED ON REAL PROPERTY  GRANT REDUCED BY UNIT $12.50/MO.  1  ($150,/YR) 2 $17.50/MO. $ 210./YR) UNIT •$ $22.00/MO. UNIT  5 5  UNIT $24.50/MO. UNIT $27.00/MO. UNIT 0 $29«50/MO. UNIT 7 $32.00/MO. UNIT $34.50/MO  8  GRANT REDUCED NOT LESS THAN 5°# BY NOT LESS THAN :• OF GROSS RENTALS SINGLE PERSON - RECEIVED CONSIDER$ 30.00/MO. ED AS INCOME, AND $360,00/YR. 2 0 $ OF GROSS AMMARRIED COUPLE - OUNT RECEIVED FOR $ 45.00/MO. BOARD AND LODGING. $540.00/YR* WHERE RECIPIENT RENTING, NET PROFIT CONSIDERED AS INCOME. ,,GRANT REDUCED , ..RENT FROM S E L F CONTAINED SUITES .BY:-!,. UNIT.$35.00/MOTOTALLY DEDUCTIBLE. , ($420./YR) UNIT $57.O0/MO4 0 $ OF FOLLOWING DEDUCTIBLE: ($684./YR) UNIT $68.50/MO 1 ROOMER, EXCESS UNIT $79.50/MO OVER $"12.50/MO. UNIT $9T.50/MO 2 ROOMERS, EXCESS UNIT $103.0Q/MO OVER $17.00/MO. UNIT 7 $114.50/MO 1 BOARDER, EXCESS UNIT $126#00/MO OVER $35.00/MO. 2 BOARDERS, EXCESS OVER  1  2  3 4 5 6 8  $57.OO/MO.  SOURCES:  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE REGULATIONS  appears j u s t i f i a b l e as a move i n s e c u r i n g f o r t h e v e t e r a n a l e v e l o f l i v i n g which i s c l o s e r t o adequacy.  TABLE k (a)  A COMPARISON OF DEDUCTIONS OF INCOME FROM  PROPERTY, RENTALS, AND BOARDING- CARE, IN WAR  VETERANS»  ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE, MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE, AND SOCIAL ALLOWANCE.  Assessment o f Income income on home from c o s t i n g & a s s e s s $1+0,00 -ed a t $3,600, suite  WAR VETERANS' N i l ALLOWANCE -  OLD AGE ASSISTANCE  MOTHERS' OR -  SOCIAL ALLOWANCE  5#  iM  or $20.  o r $180, per year $15. p e r • month  $0% o r  May be i n e l igible*  100%  Nil  Income from 2 boarders a t $6fymo.  $20,  $130^ cost  a b c  Bd  ~~73.  ^=». $130.  deduct- costed plus Nil exempt .67.  W  Rent  57?  ^$130. 20^.26 cost57  less  Net Income  20.  •H Nil  47. -15  37.80 10.00° 4-7.60  ~ 3 . 25.20 37.B0  See p . 62 r e g a r d i n g l i m i t s on r e a l property. S h e l t e r and f o o d allowance under S o c i a l Allowance, $10. exemption.  I n T a b l e 1+. (a) a comparison i s made o f t h e assessment p r a c t i c e s i n r e s p e c t t o income from' p r o p e r t y , i n  -  65 ~  this case § $3#600. home* within the d i f f e r e n t assistance programs.  The veteran i s not assessed anything f o r his  home; he i s allowed t o r e t a i n $20.  of the income from the  r e n t a l ; or he i s allowed to r e t a i n $50.  f o r each person  he boards, and an a d d i t i o n a l $15* f o r h i s casual labour i n this regard - a t o t a l of $130.  Deducting costs, h i s  net income i s  $73#  $l5» per month  as calculated income from his home; he gains  The aged person i s assessed  I180*  1  or '  $20. from renting, or i f he boards two persons he retains  $47*  The person on Motherst or S o c i a l Allowance .gains  nothing £rcm renting but retains $1|.7.80 from boarding*  PERSONAL PROPERTY AND INCOME In assessing personal property, household equipment and clothing are exempted.  In general the  following are included; cash i n hand or i n the bank, government bonds, stocks, and other s e c u r i t i e s , cash surrender value of insurance, agreements f o r sale and mortages, l i v e s t o c k and automobiles.  The pmblie a s s i s t -  ance pr ograms i n B r i t i s h Columbia include these items. As i s shown i n Table £, cash assets are exempted i n War Veterans* Allowance and Old Age Assistance programs t o the extent of  $1,000.  f o r a single person or  1 Under the new system of assessing property f o r taxa t i o n purposes Inaugurated by the B.C. Legislature early i n 1955* the old Age Assistance applicant s u f f e r s , prev i o u s l y the assessed value of homes of most Old Ago A s s i s t ance recipients was between $2,000. and $3*000.; whereas an average value under the new system would be around $3*500. Interview with corporation of Burnaby authority.  -  66  *  T A B L E 5 - PERSONAL PROPERTY AND INCOME REGULATIONS IN WAR ANCE, OLD AGE A S S I S T A N C E , MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE  —UT~  B A S I C ALLOWANCE  WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE SINGLE $720.  ~~m  CASH & L I Q U I D A S S E T S SINGLE  MARRIED  $1,296.  MARRIED (WITH OR WITHOUT DEPENDENTS) $1,000. $2,000. EXEMPT • EXEMPT  VETERANS * ALLOW-  AND S O C I A L A S S I S T A N C E .  m  ADDITIONAL EXEMPTIONS CASUAL EARNINGS UNEARNED INCOME UP TO $25/YR» FAMILY ALLOWANCE. MOTHERS' OR SOCIAL ALLOWANCES.  ADDITIONAL INCOME ALLOWED SINGLE  MARRIED  $120./YR  $120./YR  SINGLE  MARRIED  $240.  $2)10.  ALLOWANCE NOT GRANTED PENSION ALLOWANCES UNTIL ASSETS REDUCED. FOR CHILDREN. OLD A G E ASSISTANCE StNGLE $4&0,  FAMILY ALLOWANCES MOTHERS' OR SOCIAL ALLOWANCES* ASSIGNED PAY WHERE NO . DEPENDENTS' ALLOWANCE AFTER DEDUCTION BALHAS BEEN GRANTED. ANCE DIVIDED BY NUMBLIND PERSON'S GUIDE BER OF MONTHS REMAIN- ALLOWANCE. COST-OFING UNTIL APPLICANT LIVING BONUS FOR REACHES 7 0 AND MULT- THOSE COMPLYING WITH IPLIED BY 12 TO GIVE REQUIREMENTS UP TO CALCULATED YEARLY IN- $ 1 5 . / M O . CASUAL COME FROM THIS SOURCE GIFTS OF SMALL VALUE. SINGLE  MARRIED $960.  MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE  MARRIED COUPLE $1,000. $2,000. EXEMPT • EXEMPT  CHILDRENS CASUAL SUMMER EARNINGS. FAMILY ALLOWANCES. UNIT 1 UNIT 2 OLD AGE ASSISTANCE OR $I*5/MO $69.50/ $250. $500. SECURITY, BLIND PERMO • EXEMPT EXEMPT SONS* ALLOWANCE EXEMPT BUT RECIPIENT $5^0. $834. ALLOWANCE NOT GRANTED NOT INCLUDED IN ALLOWUNTIL ASSETS REDUCED ANCE UNIT SOCIAL ALLOWANCE  SOURCES:  SINGLE  MARRIED COUPLE OR FAMILY  FOR  COST-OF-LIVING  BONUS RECIPIENTS SINGLE $120.  UNEARNED  $10/MO B  $10/MO B  $120/YR  $120/YR OR $21*0. IF THERE IS NO UNEARNED INCOME. k0% OF EXCESS DEDUCTIBLE  EXCESS TOTALLY DEDUCTIBLE.  P.  7^  A  §EE  B  As LAID DOWN IN SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL. AMOUNT VARIES WITH MUNICIPALITIES.  EXEMPTIONS,  NIL  EARNED  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL' W.V.A. FORM 17 (REVISED 1-53)  INCOME AND ADDITIONAL  MARRIED  *H  $2,000,  f o r a married couple.  67 ** I f a veteran has personal  property i n excess of the l i m i t he i s not e l i g i b l e f o r assistance u n t i l he has reduced them. he reduces his assets by spending not be penalized,  In t h i s respect i f  $500.  on a t r i p he w i l l  The same attitude w i l l be taken to the  Old Age Assistance applicant who has reduced his assets to the maximum i n making Improvements to his home,  1  An Important f a c t o r to consider i n these programs i s the reduced earning capacity of the aged person , and his need f o r , and right to expect s e c u r i t y on a permanent b a s i s .  This philosophy has been expressed i n the  f e d e r a l Old Age Security p? ogram which authorizes pensions f o r a l l persons seventy years and over, who have the r e quired twenty years residence, without any means t e s t . While t h i s measure i s c e r t a i n l y focussed on the p r o v i s i o n of s e c u r i t y f o r the aged, there i s l i t t l e evidence of the same philosophy i n the Old Age Assistance regulations r e garding personal property (see Table 5).  The income from  excess cash assets i s calculated on the basis of a government annuity covering the period u n t i l the r e c i p i e n t  reaches  seventy, and the rate of assistance i s lowered by this amount.  This means that the recipient i s expected to spend  his excess assets during this period, and support himself 1 Although t h i s approach to excessive cash assets i s not written into p o l i c y , i t appears i n the advice given to prospective applicants by the s t a f f i n welfare o f f i c e s . 2 The veteran must be s i x t y , or younger and incapable of maintenance, the old Age Assistance r e c i p i e n t s i x t y - f i v e .  m  68  —  from the age of seventy on with the $1JJ0. Old Age Security pension*  Had the annuity been based on the l i f e  expectancy  of the r e c i p i e n t , he could look forward to a higher l e v e l of income and a greater sense of s e c u r i t y when he reached seventy.  As i t i s , the term " o l d age s e c u r i t y without a  means t e s t " has a hollow r i n g f o r t h i s person*  He has been  reduced to the l e v e l of a person without means before he can reach the goal of s e c u r i t y i n old age; not by misfortune, but by s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Provincial Policies*  In the Mothers' Allowance  and S o c i a l Allowance programs the applicant i s exempt ed under S o c i a l Welfare Branch p o l i c y up to $2£0* as a single person, or up to $500* i f he has dependents*  He may be  allowed assistance with cash assets above the maximum i f these are required immediately f o r the payment of outstanding debts, or i f the applicant wishes to invest i n a home* The r e c i p i e n t of s o c i a l allowance who i s s u f f e r ing from tuberculosis gets s p e c i a l consideration i n respect to personal property, "because of the importance of rehabi l i t a t i o n plans".  1  Instead of being l i m i t e d to $25>0. or  $ 5 0 0 . , depending on his status, 3 per cent of the amount i n excess of the maximum i s considered as Income and deductible from the basic allowance.  For example, $2,5?00.  i s $ 2 , 0 0 0 . i n excess of the exemption; t h i s $60» per year* 1  and 3 per cent of  The basic allowance i s reduced by  S o c i a l Welfare Branch, P o l i c y Manual  p. 33  -  69 «  #5'. 00. The recipient with T.B. i s also e l i g i b l e f o r an ext r a allowance t o cover payment of insurance premiums.  This  is done to prevent the p o l i c y becoming void, and the r e c i p ient experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining insurance at a l a t e r date because of h i s h i s t o r y of T.B. Tuberculosis has been a greater public health danger than other diseases, hence the s p e c i a l consideration given to such patients, i t represents a r e f l e c t i o n of the categorical approach where c e r t a i n cases have status. Recipients of Old Age Security may q u a l i f y f o r the Cost-of-Living Bonus of $15>. per month providing t h e i r t o t a l income, including bonus, i s less than $7@0. per year f o r a single person, or $1,320. i n the case of a married couple.  Income calculations, except i n respect to pers-  onal property, are made on the basis of Old Age Assistance policies.  $500.  An exemption of $2£0. f o r a single person, and  f o r a married couple i s allowed before any calculations  are made regarding personal property.  Income from the ex-  cess cash assets i s computed on the basis of the monthly rate payable under a government annuity, purchasable with the t o t a l excess cash assets to cover the l i f e t i m e of the recipient.  In the case of a married r e c i p i e n t l i v i n g with  his spouse, the Income i s computed on the basis of the monthly rates payable to.each with h a l f the excess cash assets.  -  70  Municipal p o l i c i e s .  m  Municipalities are allowed  to set t h e i r own l i m i t s as to the amount of personal property an applicant can r e t a i n , and i n this respect there i s considerable v a r i a t i o n .  While Burnaby adheres to S o c i a l  Welfare Branch p o l i c y (see Table $), Vancouver l i m i t s the cash assets of S o c i a l Allowance applicants equivalent to one month's assistance.* For example a single person i s allowed  while a group of two i s allowed $ 6 9 . $ 0 .  This  compares very unfavorably with S o c i a l Welfare Branch which grants exemptions of $2£o. and $5>00. respectively. Assessment of Property i n the United States. In reviewing the Old Age Assistance programs i n the united States,  i t has been found that f i f t e e n states set d o l l a r •a  maxima on homestead property,"' defined either i n terms of assessed value or market value, less encumbrances, which 1 At the time of application cash assets up to the amount of the group s o c i a l allowance may be excepted by the unit Director. Amounts i n excess of t h i s may be excepted at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Administrator, up to the maximums set by C i t y Council p o l i c y , namely $13>0. f o r single persons, and $300. f o r f a m i l i e s . Cases i n which a d d i t i o n a l exemptions over the group allowance are being requested are usually received by a s t a f f committee of senior personnel i n the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department. 2  BOND, Floyd A. et a l , op. c i t . p.  11L3 - li|-7  3 Homestead property i s not defined In public welfare text books used by the writer; the Eaton Handy E n g l i s h Dictionary defines i t as the enclosure immediately connected with a mansion." In the United States i t refers to the property surrounding a ranch or farm-house. tt  -  71  range from $ 1 , 5 0 0 . to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 .  There are twenty-three  states with no homestead maxima but a number of these r e quire that the property not exceed the value of modest homes i n the community.  Eight states permit the continued  ownership of additional r e a l property providing i t i s used to produce reasonable income; otherwise i t must be sold. Six  other states specify the amount of a d d i t i o n a l property  without distinguishing between r e a l and personal, but the low l i m i t s , v i z . $15>0. to $73>0., suggest that such holdings seldom include r e a l estate of any appreciable value.  TRANSFER OF PROPERTY It i s the concern of the administrators of assistance programs that a person may transfer part or a l l of his property i n order to q u a l i f y f o r assistance, or to evade l i e n or recovery requirements.  "In twenty-seven of  the American states transfers made within a s p e c i f i e d number of years p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n f o r old Age Assistance, generally f i v e years, are presumed to be made with the intention of q u a l i f y i n g f o r assistance, unless the a p p l i cant presents substantial evidence to the c o n t r a r y . "  1  in  a l l the other states, except two which made no i n v e s t i gation of transfers involving property valued at $5>00. or l e s s , a l l transfers may be reviewed, regardless of when made, -to determine t h e i r bearing on e l i g i b i l i t y . There i s the same concern about this matter 1  BOND, Floyd A.* et a l op. c i t . p. l£2  -  72  ~  i n the public assistance progreps i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F o r example, Old Age Assistance regulations require a f u l l i n vestigation of any transfer of property made within the f i v e years p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n .  I t i s the applicant's r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y to prove that he did not t r a n s f e r the property i n order t o q u a l i f y f o r assistance and unless he can do t h i s he w i l l be assessed as though there had been no transfer* War  Veterans» Allowance likewise p r o h i b i t s the t r a n s f e r r i n g  of property i n order t o q u a l i f y f o r a i d . Certain exceptions practice.  are made to t h i s  general  The regulations require that a person needing  permanent care as a chronic i n v a l i d i n the P r o v i n c i a l i n firmary or P r o v i n c i a l Home at Kamloops sign over his property both r e a l and personal t o the Crown.*  However, i n  practice i t i s suggested to the applicant that he consider t r a n s f e r r i n g his property to his r e l a t i v e s p r i o r t o seeking  admission. A s i m i l a r approach i s used i n dealing with the  War  Veterans» Allowance r e c i p i e n t who owns a large home  and cannot maintain i t .  Every attempt i s made t o help him  conserve his assets and to maintain him at his highest of adjustment.  level  I f the r e c i p i e n t i s a married veteran or a  widower, he may be advised to s e l l his home and buy a smaller one, keeping i n mind the fact that no assessment i s made on the f i r s t $6,000. invested i n r e a l property.  I f after  1 P r o v i n c i a l infirmaries Act, A p p l i c a t i o n Form, Form of Transfer of Property  -  73  -  completing the transaction, the r e c i p i e n t has cash assets In excess of that allowed, he must reduce these before he can receive further assistance, (see Sable $).  He Is assured  though that he can q u a l i f y f o r the allowance once t h i s Is done.  I f the veteran has children or r e l a t i v e s to whom he  wishes to leave h i s estate, I t Is often suggested that he choose with them a house which they w i l l occupy and assume payments f o r , and when he Is deceased they w i l l assume the mortgage.  In the meantime the veteran fixes up a suite In  the basement or elsewhere In the house where he can l i v e Independently.  This Is a f a i r l y s p e c i a l case, but the  philosophy which Is i n evidence i s general within the program.  The concept i s that of one veteran helping another,  within the widest possible i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the regulations; and i n such a way as to i n t e r f e r e with the r e c i p i e n t ' s defenses against dependency, loss of status, and loss of security, as l i t t l e as possible. The recipient of S o c i a l Allowance i s allowed to s e l l h i s home, buy another one, and can remain on a s s i s t ance so long as any cash assets derived from the transaction do not exceed the l i m i t set.  He i s i n e l i g i b l e i f his cash  assets are excessive. Calculation of income from r e a l property f o r applicants of Blind Persons' Allowance i s made on the same basis as f o r old Age Assistance recipients (see Table Ij.). There i s no exemption of personal property f o r the b l i n d  -  -  74  person, the income from t h i s source being computed on the monthly rate payable under a government annuity, purchasable with the t o t a l cash assets to cover the l i f e t i m e of the r e c i p i e n t ,  INCOME AND ADDITIONAL EXEMPTIONS In each of the assistance programs i n this province there are allowances f o r "Additional income" as shown i n Table 5,  column (4)>  there are other exemptions  which are not calculated as income which are l i s t e d i n column (3),  The most s i g n i f i c a n t of these i s the item of  "casual earnings" under War Veterans* Allowances.  This  includes earnings from odd jobs such as b u i l d i n g a fence f o r which the r e c i p i e n t might be paid $50.  It also i n -  cludes earnings from regular part time employment, up to the maximum of $50. casual earnings $25.  pe r month.  The veteran may  include as  per month f o r work done i n providing  room and board f o r a person.  He i s also exempted the earn-  ings of regular employment of short duration up to a maximum of twelve weeks i n any allowance year with no l i m i t on the amount of remuneration obtained.  It should be r e -  c a l l e d that many of the older veterans are not able to work at a l l , but the value of these regulations l i e i n the f a c t that i f a r e c i p i e n t f e e l s he i s able to work and wishes to take casual employment he Is not penalized f o r h i s i n i t i ative by a reduction i n h i s assistance. I t encourages  a  -  75  -  person to operate as independently as possible, and at the same time ensures the s e c u r i t y of the basic allowance. An attempt has been made to give the recipient of Blind persons' Allowance greater opportunity f o r earning. Although h i s basic pension of $l|-0. per month i s the same as that granted under Old Age Assistance he i s allowed as a single person a d d i t i o n a l income of $360. per year as compared to $2i|.0.  He i s also e l i g i b l e f o r the Cost-of-Living  Bonus of $ 1 5 . per month I f his income including assistance does not exceed $ 6 6 0 .  The single Old Age Assistance r e c i p -  ient must l i m i t h i s t o t a l annual income to $ 6 0 0 . i f he wishes to q u a l i f y f o r the f u l l bonus.  The major drawback to the  provisions i n respect to the b l i n d i s that there i s no part i a l bonus paid.  This means that i f a person earns $10.  over the maximum of $ 6 6 0 . he i s l i a b l e to lose $180. during the next year through being disallowed the bonus.  I t would  be more i n the interests of encouraging s e l f - h e l p among the recipients i f the bonus was reduced i n proportion to the excess income earned. A s i g n i f i c a n t move was made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n the united States i n July, 1951*  with an Amendment to  Section 1002 (a) (8) of the o c i a l Security Act which would s  provide f o r the exemption of Income of b l i n d persons i n r e ceipt of assistance, up to $ 5 0 . monthly.  I t was f e l t that  t h i s would encourage the b l i n d to prepare f o r , engage i n , or continue to hold remunerative employment.  A survey of  public assistance l e g i s l a t i o n completed that year showed  -  76 -  that 28 states had enacted l e g i s l a t i o n i n respect to the amendment,* Provincial policies,  under Motherst Allowance  and S o c i a l Allowance regulations, a r e c i p i e n t i s allowed additional earned income of $20. per month.  F o r t y per cent  of any earned Income i n excess of t h i s i s deductible, and should the income equal or exceed the rate of assistance consideration must always be given t o continuing 2 ity.  eligibil-  There i s value i n t h i s p o l i c y e s p e c i a l l y i n cases  where allowance i s being granted as part of a t o t a l rehabi l i t a t i o n plan.  As the r e c i p i e n t regains his strength, i f  his Indigence has been caused by i l l n e s s , or i n j u r y , he i s able to increase his income.  One wonders what hurdle the  c l i e n t faces when he reaches the point where he can earn an amount equal to, or i n excess of his public assistance. I f he does earn t h i s much he i s l i a b l e to be cut o f f his assistance thereby being penalized f o r h i s i n i t i a t i v e .  Un-  less a person had considerable feelings against remaining on assistance, he might be strongly tempted to keep his earnings beiox? the maximum u n t i l he was strong enough to take f u l l - t i m e employment; Or to make f a l s e statements about his income which to many seems j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the • Inadequacy of assistance rates,,  Would I t not aid  i n the recipient's move toward s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y t o decrease 1 BUMA.N & BIAETUS, "Survey of public Assistance l a t i o n " , Public Welfare, LX, 1.951, p. 228 2  For recent changes, see Appendix c  Legis-  -  77  «  the assistance i n proportion to the amount he earns i n excess of the maximum?  For example, a man i s r e c e i v i n g the  S o c i a l Allowance rate of $ 8 3 . 5 0 f o r himself, h i s wife, and one c h i l d .  I f he Yearns $ 8 2 . 5 0 i n addition to h i s allowance;  he can r e t a i n the $ 1 0 . basic exemption plus 60 per c e n t of 1  the remainder, is $137*00.  i.e. $li3.50.  His t o t a l income at this point  However should his earnings equal h i s allowance  of $ 8 3 . 5 0 , he w i l l no longer be e l i g i b l e f o r assistance. This reduces his income to h i s earnings, and he i s thus pena l i z e d f o r his endeavors.  The r e c i p i e n t would be wiser t o  keep h i s earnings below h i s allowance which i s $ 8 3 . 5 0 i n t h i s case, u n t i l he i s sure he can earn $137*70, at which time he can terminate assistance. In the suggested plan above, the f i g u r e of $137*00 might be set f o r t h i s group as the t o t a l Income allowable, and as the recipient's earnings Increase towards this f i g u r e , the allowance grant could be lowered proportionately.  In e f f e c t , t h i s i s what i s done i n War Veterans'  Allowance, and Old Age Assistance.  The r e c i p i e n t can thus  be encouraged to move towards s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and during the process be assured of continued s e c u r i t y . 2 stated  I t has been  that tf* i s common practice f o r recipients of S o c i a l  Allowance t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r earnings to the maximum allowed to avoid becoming i n e l i g i b l e f o r assistance. However, under the other proposal they would be apt to earn more because t h e i r o v e r a l l income would remain constant instead of being 1  See Table 5 f o r deductions on earned Income.  2 WIEBE, John, formerly Administrator, S o c i a l Welfare Department, Municipality of Surrey.  -  78  -  s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l e d through loss of assistance.  This would,  i n e f f e c t , reduce assistance costs, encourage recipients to a higher degree of independence, arid allow them a more adequate l e v e l of l i v i n g . Municipal p o l i c i e s .  As i n other areas munici-  p a l i t i e s are able to set t h e i r own p o l i c i e s i n regard to additional income.  The Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service De-  partment s t a f f instructions are as follows:  "Ten d o l l a r s  per month f o r 2 adults or one adult and one dependent plus $2.^0 per month f o r each a d d i t i o n a l dependent, up to a maximum exemption of $20. per month.  The exemption of  $5*00 per month f o r single persons w i l l s t i l l remain i n effect."  At the present time, with no funds available f o r  extra rentals, exemption of a d d i t i o n a l income to meet excessive rent i s reviewed on an i n d i v i d u a l basis i n the s t a f f 2 .committee meetings. The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Burnaby and Surrey adhere to S o c i a l Welfare Branch p o l i c y i n this matter, exempting $10. unearned income and $10. earned Income.  I f the c l i e n t  has no unearned income he i s allowed to earn $20. per month. Forty jje r cent of any excess earned income i s deductible with a maximum set as the amount equal to the maximum allow..  y _  1 In Washington State public assistance programs there i s no income exempted. However, as assistance i s granted according to levels established to meet the needs of the recipient adequately, reducing the grant because of income does not a f f e c t the net income of the r e c i p i e n t . So long as there i s any deficiency between income and need a s s i s t ance i s given to maintain the balance. 2 see footnote p,  -  79 -  ance payable at which point assistance i s terminated. unearned income Is t o t a l l y deductible.  Excess  Such a p o l i c y as the  former which enforces hardships on the r e c i p i e n t , through forcing him to exist on a sub-marginal l e v e l , without granting him the opportunity to improve h i s s i t u a t i o n , requires attention i n respect to Section 3 of the S o c i a l Assistance Act.  It reads as follows: It s h a l l be a condition precedent to the granting of such aid (by the province) that the municip a l i t y s h a l l provide and maintain s o c i a l a s s i s t ance and r e l a t i v e s o c i a l administrative services on a basis consistent with the standards establ i s h e d by the rules and? regulations made pursuant to t h i s Act.  NURSING AND BOARDING HOME CARE Assessment of resources i n planning f o r nursing or boarding home care i s considered very important,  espec-  i a l l y i n a large c i t y such as Vancouver where the cost of p u b l i c l y provided care i s i n the order of $100,000. per month.  Due to the great demand and shortage of accommoda-  t i o n f o r such care i n the large urban areas the rates are proportionately higher as shown i n Table 6. With regard to r e a l property there are no r e s t r i c t i o n s made i n the provision of temporary care.  How-  ever, i f a person who i s single or widowed applies f o r permanent care and i s the owner of r e a l property, care i s granted on a temporary basis by the Vancouver S o c i a l Service Department with the proviso that the home be sold. So&lal welfare Branch encourages the person to rent his  TABLE 6  ~  ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCES FOR NURSING AND BOARDING HOME CARE  -  VANCOUVER  80  C I T Y S O C I A L S E R V I C E , M U N I C I P A L I T Y OF BURNABY,  IN  AND S O C I A L WELFARE  BRANCH. REAL PROPERTY  CITY SOCIAL TEMPORARY SERVICE DEPT. B.H. OR N.H. B.H.-$65.-100/MO NO N . H . - $ 1 5 0 - 2 2 5 / M O RESTRICTIONS HELD TO MINIMUM WHERE POSSIBLE COMFORTS ALLOWANCE - $ 7 . 0 0 SHAREABLE 8 0 - 2 0  PERSONAL  PERMANENT B . H . OR N.H.GRANTED TEMPORARILY ON PROVISO THAT HOME IS SOLD IF CLIENT SINGIE OR WIDOWED.  B.H. OR N.H. PERSON ENCOURNO . AGED TO RENT B.H.MAX $65«00/MO RESTRICTIONS HOME. NO E F F N.H.MAX $13>00/MO ORT TO HAVE COMFORTS ALLOWANCE HIM SELL HIS $ 7.00 HOME. WORKER SHAREABLE 5 0 - 2 0 SEES THAT HOME WITH RESPONSIBLE IS CARED FOR. MUNICIPALITY.  B.H.$65.00 PLUS N.H.$150.00 SHAREABLE ON INDIVIDUAL APPLICATION  B.H. OR N.H. NO RESTRICTIONS  PERMANENT TEMPORARY B.H. OR N.H. B.H.- 1 MONTHS EXEMPT UP TO CARE - $ 6 5 . 0 0 A MAXIMUM OF CASH. $150. DEPENDN.H. -1 MONTH'S ING ON INDIVID- • CARE - $ 1 0 5 . 0 0 UAL CIRCUMOR $ 2 1 0 . 0 0 IF STANCES. CLIENT MARRIED WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE OR SECURITY USED BY C I T Y TO DEFRAY COSTS OF CARE .  SfiCJAL WELFARE BRANCH  MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY  B.H. OR N.H. SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . MARRIED $ 5 0 0 .  B.H. OR N.H. SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE OR SECURITY USED BY RECIPIENT TO DEFRAY , COSTS OF CARE.  HOME RENTED-WITH B.H. OR N.H. CLIENTS PERB.H. OR N.H. SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . MlSSION, IF MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . SINGLE, TO DE- MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . FRAY COST OF CARE . COMFORTS ALLOWANCE UP TO $ 7 * 0 0 , EXCEPT TO THOSE HAVING NO SUCH NEED  B.H. - BOARDING HOME CARE N.H. - NURSING HOME CARE  SOURCES;  PROPERTY  INTERVIEWS WITH PUBLIC WELFARE  AUTHORITIES  -  81  -  property to defray costs, thus maintaining himself as independently as p o s s i b l e .  Burnaby S o c i a l Welfare Department  rents the property, with the c l i e n t ' s permission, to defray the costs. In regard to personal property, the i t y of Vanc  couver allows the person cash assets to the value of one month's care.  This p o l i c y was  l a i d down by C i t y Council  several years ago, and the p r e v a i l i n g rates of $ 6 5 .  and  $105* are s t i l l used as maxima f o r single and married persons r e s p e c t i v e l y . In addition, the applicant must sign over any pension he i s r e c e i v i n g to defray costs of care. This means undue hardship f o r e l d e r l y couples i n p a r t i c u l a r . They must reduce t h e i r assets to $ 2 1 0 . , i f the person i s to get care, and t h i s sum i s supposed to cover b u r i a l expenses, and such other costs as those i n r e l a t i o n to maintenance of t h e i r home.  In addition, the spouse remaining at home has  to manage expenses on a reduced income.  The s o c i a l worker  who has to 'interpret' t h i s p o l i c y to applicants meets f e e l ings which must be 'akin' to those of people who  i n times  past were offered 'the poor house' as the only form of r e lief.  Not only does the person face the separation and  eventual loss of his spouse, but also the extreme l i k e l i h o o d of spending his l a s t days with nothing that represents i n dependence. The S o c i a l Welfare Branch and Municipality of Burnaby allow $25>0. f o r a single person and $ 5 0 0 . f o r a married couple.  I f nothing else i t allows the person s u f f i c -  -  82. -  lent assets to cover a decent b u r i a l , and the f e e l i n g that with c a r e f u l planning there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of "making i t " . It i s expected that the applicant himself w i l l use his pension to pay f o r his care while the agency makes up the d i f f erence. its  This again leaves the f e e l i n g with the c l i e n t that  this show' and that the agency i s cooperating.  There  is the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c l i e n t being d i f f i c u l t with the landlord or operator but t h i s p o l i c y seems to have more meaning constructively than the p o l i c y whereby the c l i e n t directs the pension authority to send h i s cheque to the "City". There i s no p r o v i s i o n fcr nursing or boarding home care under War Veterans* Allowance except as It r e lates to part of a medical treatment plan, In which case veterans» f a c i l i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e .  The veteran who  feels  he cannot take care of himself can apply f o r admission to "veterans  51  care".  This, i n e f f e c t , i s f u l l boarding and  s i c k room care with a minimum of r e s t r i c t i o n s , and provided.  comforts  Veterans with means are e l i g i b l e f o r this pro-  v i d i n g they sign over t h e i r t o t a l assets,  care i s valued,  at $120, per month and should the veteran wish to leave his remaining assets are returned to him. Transfer of property to the Crown i s required f o r admission of chronic cases to the P r o v i n c i a l Infirmary at Marpole, and of the aged to the P r o v i n c i a l Home at Kamloops,  As has been previously stated however, i t i s  suggested i n practice that the applicant consider transfer  -  83  -  of h i s property to r e l a t i v e s before seeking admission,  ASSESSMENT OP RESOURCES IN WASHINGTON STATE The procedure of assessing resources i n p u b l i c assistance i n Washington State i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple process.  Assistance i s granted on the basis of need which i s  established when property holdings, r e a l and personal, are l i m i t e d to c e r t a i n values; and vfaen income i s less than one month's requirements.  As shown i n Appendix B the l i m i t s on  property, r e a l and personal, are the same f o r a l l programs except assistance to the employable which i s an emergency program, generally r e s t r i c t e d to food, and other temporary grants to families, with children.  As previously stated,  unlike the programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there i s no i n come exempted i n assessing the resources of an applicant, except i n the A i d to the Blind program where the f i r s t i s allowed.  $50.  This makes f o r greater s i m p l i c i t y of assessment,  and avoids the p o s s i b i l i t y of a person being considered i n e l i g i b l e because he i s receiving Unemployment insurance, a veterans' pension, or other such income.  The receipt of  either of the above forms of income results i n i n e l i g i b i l i t y f o r many applicants i n t h i s province.*  The Department of  Public Assistance i n Washington has placed d o l l a r values on such items as food, clothing, personal items, shelter, f u e l for heating, and f u e l f o r cooking.  When these are supplied  1 S o c i a l assistance cannot be granted t o subsidize Unemployment insurance benefits which are f o r some c l a s s i f i cations of employees below s o c i a l assistance r a t e s . For example the family of three drawing $10. per week Unemploy(footnote continued next page)  they are considered as sources of income.  SUMMARY This chapter deals with those areas generally included i n the assessment of an applicant's resources i n reference to establishing and meeting h i s need f o r p u b l i c assistance.  The factors of r e a l and personal property are  discussed generally, and i n p a r t i c u l a r as they are dealt with i n the assistance programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  The  issue of t r a n s f e r r i n g property i s considered as i t a f f e c t s e l i g i b i l i t y f o r assistance.  Assessment of income within  the various programs i n t h i s province i s considered and some suggestions made f o r a more p o s i t i v e approach to t h i s subject which might increase i n i t i a t i v e among assistance recipients.  Assessment of r e a l and personal property, as  It relates to the p r o v i s i o n of nursing and boarding.home care by d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, i s discussed and differences shown. closes with a statement  The chapter  regarding assessment p r a c t i c e s i n  public assistance i n Washington State, ment Insurance cannot be assisted to bring t h e i r t o t a l Income up to the S o c i a l Allowance rate, i n t h i s case $83.5>0 per month. In the Washington State programs, i s i n our S o c i a l Assistance Act (but not p r a c t i c e ) , t h i s responsibi l i t y i s accepted. The Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department does accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r granting assistance to a veteran receiving a small pension f o r war services considering i t as income. There seems to be a lack of consistency i n these p o l i c i e s , and aneed to work out these d i f f - . i c u l t i e s with the agencies concerned, 1 "Social assistance may be granted,..to individuals who are unable to provide i n whole or i n part by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , through other s e c u r i t y measures,...necessities e s s e n t i a l to maintain or a s s i s t i n maintaining a reasonably normal and healthy existence," Sec. Ij.  CHAPTER IV  LEVELS OP ASSISTANCE A study of the levels of public assistance grants i n the various programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s of l i t t l e value unless i t i s related to a l e v e l of l i v i n g compatible with decency and health.  Por example* a com-  parison of General Assistance rates made i n the United States i n 194-7 showed that the highest state payment was nearly seven times that of the lowest.*  This, by i t s e l f ,  c e r t a i n l y gives ground f o r suspicion that some of the rates must be too low but the rates must be measured d i r e c t l y against the cost of a defined "content of l i v i n g " (a term further referred to below) i n the states under study.  Sarah R i l e y has t r i e d to define a p h y s i c a l l y  healthy standard f o r public assistance recipients as one including "adequate n u t r i t i o n , s h e l t e r from the elements, warm and protective clothing, s u f f i c i e n t heat, water, and l i g h t , s u f f i c i e n t household supplies and equipment f o r eating and sleeping and maintaining reasonable s a n i t a t i o n , p  and necessary medical and dental care".  However, p h y s i c a l  1 BURNS, Eveline M., The American S o c i a l Security System, (Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., iv4v)» p. 3!?l 2 RILEY, Sarah, "How Adequate Should Assistance Be", public Welfare, VI 1948* P» *43  —  86 —  standards alone may not be s u f f i c i e n t .  Public assistance  recipients should l i v e on a mentally healthy l e v e l also which implies reasonable education f o r the children, communi t y a c t i v i t i e s f o r the children and the adults; an opportuni t y to improve the a b i l i t y and capacity f o r work and to carry out the duties of c i t i z e n s h i p ; clothing which, i n addition to e s s e n t i a l covering, meets customary standards; and recreation.  I f they do not get these, they w i l l be-  come - or r a i s e - second class c i t i z e n s , or other problems w i l l arise (eg., delinquency)^which w i l l show that the parsimony of the community i n s e t t i n g low r e l i e f standards was unwise. In an attempt to e s t a b l i s h the concept of "content of l i v i n g " as a standard of assistance jane Hoey has made a study of the use of various basic consumption items as standards amongst public agencies.  In a study of  Old Age Assistance programs, i n 1947» thirty-one of the forty-nine j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o r which information was a v a i l able s p e c i f i e d that food must be included i n a l l cases where assistance i s granted; but only one-half of the forty-nine had set mandatory state cost figures f o r even t h i s item.  A smaller proportion had assured themselves  that these cost figures were a c t u a l l y used throughout the state.  Of the twenty-six states requiring i n c l u s i o n of  clothing i n the computation of assistance payments, only nineteen had mandatory cost f i g u r e s .  Fewer than one-third  had figures f o r f u e l , l i g h t , water and shelter, and few indeed had stated government  responsibility for refrig-  .  -  87  -  eration, replacement of household equipment and furnishings, insurance, medicine chest supplies, transportation, or "miscellaneous" which means "leeway" to the  client,*  I f adequacy of assistance i s the goal of the publ i c welfare worker or the granting of assistance on the basis of need, a standard "content  of l i v i n g " must be established  by which adequacy or need can be measured,  For t h i s purpose  information i s required on the content of l i v i n g amongst families l i v i n g on low Incomes, and the cost of the various items of which i t c o n s i s t s . The Welfare Council of Greater 'I'oronto has undertaken several studies of minimum e s s e n t i a l budgets, and brought them up to date from time to time.  has  Its main compu-  t a t i o n , e n t i t l e d "A, Guide to Family Spending", was  developed  to show the actual spending habits of lower income families i n Toronto,  This information was  evaluated against best  available judgment on n u t r i t i o n and other needs f o r stable family l i v i n g . The standard used by the committee was  defined  as that "which w i l l maintain a minimum l e v e l of health and 2 self-respect".  The items included are food, clothing,  clothing upkeep, personal care, transportation f o r recreation, r e l i g i o u s observance and personal allowance.  Items  related to the operation of the home were also l i s t e d and 1 HGEY, Jane M., "Content of L i v i n g as a standard of Assistance", journal.of S o c i a l Casework, XXCIII, 19l|T* P»4 2 Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, A Guide to Family Spending In Toronto, 1949* P« 1  —  88 —  included house furnishings, laundry, e l e c t r i c a l and gas r e quirements, heating, water, cleaning supplies, health suppl i e s , newspaper and radio, and family entertainment.  Using  the d i f f e r e n t sex and age groupings, family budgets can be computed.  1  Because of the lack of research on rentals paid  i n Toronto the Technical Committee recommended that no table of s h e l t e r costs be included but rather that 25 per cent might be used i n c a l c u l a t i n g the proportion of income r e quired f o r rent.  F o r families owning t h e i r dwellings the  cost of shelter has been computed as including p r i n c i p a l and interest on indebtedness, taxes, insurance, r e p a i r s , p  water, heating and u t i l i t i e s such as gas and e l e c t r i c i t y .  A MINIMUM BUDGET In undertaking a study of s o c i a l assistance grants i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Edmund Ralph made use of the Toronto calculations and developed a "standard budget * f o r 1  use i n evaluating the needs of S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers' Allowance recipients i n Vancouver.  Ralph described the  standard budget as a. "quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e statement of the goods and services necessary f o r the maintenance of a healthy and s o c i a l l y accepted standard  of l i v i n g ,  1 The v a r i a t i o n i n the prices of these items made necessary the r e v i s i o n of the tables, and "Summary Tables of "A Guide to Family Spending" i n Toronto" were published i n A p r i l , 1 9 5 2 , p. 2 - 5 2  Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, op. c i t . 19i|-9 p.38  -  89  « .  according to the best judgment of those who set the standard '. * 1  For the purposes of his minimum budget he reduced  the number of consumption items to four, v i z . food, c l o t h i n g , 2 household carrying charges, and personal Items.  For the con-  tent of his food schedule he r e l i e d on the "Low Cost Weekly Food Allowance f o r Various Age Groups", issued as a n u t r i t i o n a l guide by the Metropolitan Health Committe of Greater Vancouver.  He s i m p l i f i e d the c l o t h i n g schedule established  by the Toronto study because he considered the l a t t e r too complicated  and excessive f o r assistance budgets.  3  He used  his own judgment regarding the rates of replacement and obtained the costs of the clothing from Eaton's and Simpson's catalogues  f o r 1951-52.  He included In the item "household  carrying charges" a l l expenses connected with the household such as rent, taxes, mortgages, depreciation, household r e p a i r s , water, Insurance, l i g h t , gas, f u e l and operating equipment.  In estimating appropriate costs of housing he  recommended the use of the p o l i c y of allowing the item of household carrying charges to be accepted "as paid" or "as paid to a maximum".  He q u a l i f i e d this by s t i p u l a t i n g that  maxima be established within the various communities throughout the province that would be representative of the prev a i l i n g costs i n the d i f f e r e n t areas.h  Ralph included  1 RALPH, Edmund V., The Use of the Standard Budget to Evaluate weed i n Public Assistance, (Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h uolumbia, Vancouver, 1952) p.11 2  Ibid  p. 13 * 11L  3  Ibid  p. 36  ii  ibid  p. kl  -  90  -  among personal sundries such items as a comb, toothbrush, d e n t r i f i c e , h a i r c u t s , razor blades, l i p s t i c k , shoe repairs, busfare and recreation. Also included was an allowance which had been defined i n the Toronto study as including the f o i l owing: chewing gum,  soft drinks, tobacco, postage, stationery,  greeting cards, g i f t s , jewelry, e t c ,  1  It has long been rec-  ognized that people on s o c i a l assistance require such items; i f no other way i s possible they w i l l reduce t h e i r food allowance i n order to have them.  In drawing up a schedule on per-  sonal sundries Ralph used his own  judgment of minimum require-  ments of this kind, compiling costs according to p r e v a i l i n g prices f o r the various age groups amongst the two  sexes,  TJsing the Low Cost Pood Allowance (for March, 1952)  and his own schedules f o r clothing and personal sun2  dries, Ralph developed a Budget Item Cost Schedule  from  which he could compute the standard budget f o r these items f o r a family of any s i z e or composition i n respect to age and sex.  As was recommended by the Metropolitan Health  Committee, he added 3 5 per cent to the cost of food f o r persons l i v i n g alone, 20 per cent f o r two people l i v i n g  to-  gether, and 10 per cent f o r families of three or more, Por the purposes of t h i s study, Ralph's Budget Item Cost Schedule^ has been adopted; adjustment being made only by using the food costs given i n a more recent low 1  Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, op. c i t , 191+-9* 37  P. 2  RALPH, Edmund A. op. c i t , p.  3  Ibid  p. 1+.5  1+5  -  91 «  cost allowance report from the Metropolitan Health committee, i . e . f o r November  195?4»  T n  © cost of c l o t h i n g has been ad-  justed on the basis of the drop i n the Consumer p r i c e Index f o r clothing i n Vancouver between March 1952 and November  1954*  from 116.6 to 112.7.  1  The personal sundries  item  has been adjusted to compensate f o r the r i s e i n busfare and shoe repairs during the same period.  The adjusted  schedule  is found i n Table 7.  ASSISTANCE RATES The rates of assistance i n the various programs r  i n B r i t i s h Columbia are given i n Table 8.  The War Veterans*  Allowance and Old Age Assistance rates are based on the "flat-grant-minus" method of c a l c u l a t i n g payments.  The r e -  cipient i s allowed a c e r t a i n maximum annual income •tfiich consists of his basic allowance plus a defined amount of •a  earned or calculated income.  '  However should his income  exceed the defined amount his allotrance i s decreased portionately.  pro-  S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers* Allowance pay-  ments are a l s o based on the "flat-grant-minus" method^" with f i x e d reductions f o r the items provided from other sources. For example, i f a s i n g l e person is. able to secure shelter at no cost, (eg. through r e l a t i v e s or friends) the grant 1 Consumer p r i c e Indices f o r Begional C i t i e s , Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c 1 9 5 V 1 9 5 4 * ~  2 March 1952 - shoe repair $1.00; bus f a r e , adults lOpf, c h i l d r e n 5^» November 195q-» shoe repair, mam's $2.00, women*s and c h i l d r e n $1.20; bus f a r e , adults l5j&» c h i l d r e n 7^. 3  See Tables It and 5  k  BOND, Floyd, A.» et a l op. c i t . p. 262  T A B L E 7 - MONTHLY BUDGET  92 -  ITEM COST SCHEDULE  - VANCOUVER, NOVEMBER,  COST ACCORDING TO NUMBER  ADULT MALE  FOOD CLOTHING  26.70 H..50  23.73 4.50 *-37 20.6q 5.18 3.71  21.76 4,50 ^.37  30.83 6.41 4.19  27.40  25.11 6.41 4.19  26.38  23.47  4.19  6.41  4.19  21.51 6.41 4.19  24.18 6.36 3.60  22.08 6.36 3.60  20.24 6.36 3.60  21.82 6.36 3.60  19.39 6.36 3.60  3.60  20.83 4.61 2.12  18.52 4.61 2.12  16.97 4.61 2.12  SUNDRIES ADULT.FEMALE FOOD CLOTHING  22.25  SUNDRIES  3.71  BOY  16 - 18 FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  BOY  13 - 15 FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  GIRL  16-  18  FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  GIRL  13-  15  FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  CHILDREN  FOOD  10 - 12 CLOTHING SUNDRIES  7- 9 4- 6  FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  1- 3  5.18  6.41  FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES  IN THE FAMILY  2.12  6.4d> 4.19  U  14.58 3.|5 .80  2.12 13.04 3.65 .80  12.01 2.73  10.68 2.73  .80  18.96 5.18 3.71  14.47 4.61 2.12 11.96 .80 9.79 2.73  1954  i s reduced by $12.50.*  93  -  I f h i s food i s also provided h i s  payment i s reduced by another $22.50.  I f he has income  from some other source (eg. a pension) his assistance pay2 ment i s reduced according to p o l i c y .  The chief difference  between the federal programs and the provincial-municipal is that the former operate on the basis of an allowance year whereas the l a t t e r are on a monthly basis. The v a r i a t i o n i n rates i s not so extreme f o r single persons, ranging from $1|0. per month f o r the Old Age Assistance recipient without bonus, to $55» f o r the aged person receiving the  cost-6f-living  tt  bonus *. 1  The v a r i a t i o n  appears more extreme when rates f o r two persons are compared.  The Mothers» Allowance or S o c i a l Allowance grant  f o r a couple i s $69.50, the War Veterans* Allowance $90.^ and the old Ag© Assistance with f u l l bonus $110. p r o v i n c i a l government believes that a $15*  I f the  bonus Is j u s t i -  f i e d f o r e l d e r l y people r a i s i n g the pension f o r a couple from $80. to 110.,  i t may well be asked on what basis i s  the s o c i a l assistance grant f o r two people l i m i t e d to $69.5>0?  Further, i f the r e c i p i e n t of s o c i a l assistance  requires $li5» per month to l i v e on, i s the government j u s t i f i e d i n l i m i t i n g the aged person to $i|0. because he 1 The breakdown of allowances varies between municipali t i e s . City of Vancouver used Support and miscellaneous, and Shelter only In the amounts of $30. and $l£. f o r Unit 1. Burnaby uses Food, Fuel and Shelter, and Sundries i n the amounts of $25., $15., n d $5» respectively. a  2  See Tables 4 and 5  3 In March 1955» the federal government authorized the increase of War Veterans* Allowance to $60. f o r the single person, and $108. f o r the married couple or widow(er) with dependents. The rates of $50. and $90. are used i n the tables because these were In effect, i n November 1954 when the budget schedule In Table 7 was constructed.  TABLE 8  94  PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RATES MAXIMUM  BASIC  IN B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  ALLOWANCE MARRIED COUPLE  ' FOOD AND C L O T H I N G  WIDOW OR WIDOWER  SINGLE  WITH  MARRIED  DEPENDENTS  MALE  $ 6 0 0 . PER YEAR $ 5 0 , PER MONTH PLUS $ 1 2 0 . PER  $ 1 , 0 8 0 . PER YEAR  YEAR FROM AN A S S I S T A N C E FUND I F REQUIRED.  YEAR  WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE  $ 90.  PLUS $ 1 2 0 .  SINGLE OLD A G E ASSISTANCE  PER MONTH  FEMALE  COUPLE  30.16  57.34  34.34  PER  I F REQUIRED  MARRIED  4 8 0 . PER YEAR 4 0 . '(PER MONTH  $  6 6 0 . PER YEAR  $ 1,320.  COUPLE  9 6 0 . PER  $ OO.  YEAR  PER MONTH  NO  BREAKDOWN  NO  BREAKDOWN  OLD A G E ASSISTANCE WITH COST-OF-  55»° PER  L I V I N G BONUS  MONTH  S O C I A L WELFARE  UNIT  MAX 1 MUM ALLOWANCE  FOOD  $  BRANCH  110.  PER YEAR  PER MONTH  S O C I A L ALLOWANCE G U I D E  SHELTER  CLOTHING  OPERATING  SUNDRIES  1  45.OO  22.50  12.50  2.00  3.00  5.00  2  69.50  40.00  17.00  3.50  3.50  5.50  3  83.50  46.50  22.00  4.00  5.00  6.00  4  97.50  55.50  24.50  4.50  6.5O  6.50  5  IH.50  64.50  27.00  5.00  8.00  7.00  6  125.50  73.50  29.50  5.50  9.50  7.50  7  139*50  82.50  32.00  6.00  11.00  8.00  8 .  153.50  91.50  34.50  6.50  12.50  8.50  SOURCES:  S O C I A L WELFARE WAR  BRANCH P O L I C Y MANUAL  VETERANS' ALLOWANCE REGULATIONS  -  95  -  has not l i v e d i n the province three years before applying? To q u a l i f y f o r  fii5»  per month under the S o c i a l Allowance  program a person needs only one year's residence i n the province,  1  The discrepancies between programs are g l a r i n g when a comparison i s made between assistance rates and the costs of the various items included In the Budget Schedule, This comparison f o r family units c o n s i s t i n g of one, and three persons i s given i n Table 9 »  two,  I t can be seen that  i f the Old Age Assistance recipient r e c e i v i n g the baalc fljX). clothes and feeds himself according to minimum he w i l l have  $2,lj.7  a month l e f t f o r s h e l t e r .  requirements, I f he i s w i l l -  ing to, he can get a room down In the Powell Street area i n Vancouver f o r his  fl5«  to  $ 1 7 »  per month but i n order to balance  budget he must reduce his expenditures f o r food, c l o t h -  ing,  and personal sundries by almost l\Q per cent which i s a  major drop below the minimal l e v e l ,  '-^'he o c i a l Allowance s  recipient i s i n a somewhat s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i f he attempts to meet his minimal needs f o r food and c l o t h i n g as he has only  $7»i|7  l e f t for shelter.  Should he pay his month's  rent f i r s t which w i l l be at least f15«  to $ 1 7 , he  will  have to reduce his allowance f o r food, c l o t h i n g , and personal sundries by 2 3 $ , It should be pointed out that the War Veterans» Allowance program does not include r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the needs of a recipient's spouse or dependent c h i l d r e n beyond 1  See table 2 p. 29  -  96 •>  T A B L E 9 - COMPARISON OF R A T E S OF A S S I S T A N C E WITH COSTS OF T H E "CONTENT OF L I V I N G " *  $  OLD A G E ASSISTANCE & BLIND  1954  NOVEMBER  BALANCE  FOOD, CLOTHING,  MAXIMUM BASIC B ALLOWANCE WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE  IN VANCOUVER,  PERSONAL SUNDRIES MALE FEMALE  FOR HOUSE-  HOLD CARRYING CHARGES MALE  FEMALE  50.00  * 35-57  ? 31.14  40.00  35.57  31.14  4.4  55*°°  35.57  31.1^  19-43  23.86  45.00  35.57  31.1 *  9.^3  13.86  $ 14.43  $ 18.86  8.86  3  ALLOWANCE  WITH COST-OFL I V I N G BONUS SOCIAL ALLOWANCE  1  TWO PERSONS MAN  & WIFE  MOTHER  &  C H I L D 1-  3  VETERANS*  90.00  ALLOWANCE  WITH COST-OFL I V I N G BONUS S O C I A L ALLOWANCE MOTHERS*  -  18  YRS.  YRS.  (C)  2Q.48 38.00 6p«3  29.48  32.60  29.48  14.21  62^08 OLD A G E A S S I S TANCE & BLIND ALLOWANCE  &  BOY 16  (B)  (A) WAR  MOTHER  *3^9  (A ) 1  62.08  17.92  110.00  62.08 62.08  47.92  43.69  67.48  1  (C ) 1  27.92 46.3* 22.52  80.00 69.5O  (B )  7.42 25.81 2.02  ALLOWANCE  T H R E E PERSONS MAN, WIFE & «HILD  1 - 3  YRS  90.00  MOTHER, Two BOYS  CHILDREN YRS.  13-15  5-3  (0) 27.85 13.32  (C)  WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE  MOTHER, TWO  30.63 27.85  12 S O C I A L ALLOWANCE MOTHERS* ALLOWANCE  A  S E E TABLE  7  (E)  27.85 32.11  (C *) 1  ( D ) ..(E ) 1  1  18.20 35.5I -2.07  32*11  71  83.50  YRS.  92.07  71.80  54.49 B  SEE TABLE 8  92.07  11.70 29.01 -8.57  -  97  -  the granting of an a d d i t i o n a l $IL80. per y e a r .  1  I t i s argued  that the other members of the family are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the province or municipality, and i n cases where the maximum grant of $ 9 0 . i s less than the amount allowable under the s o c i a l allowance guide, the difference i s made up by the p r o v i n c i a l or municipal welfare department.  It would seem  more reasonable that the federal government Should accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance of the family where the indigency i s a result of war service or of a nature f o r which the veteran i s e l i g i b l e f o r War Veterans'  A CASE FOR  Allowance.  GRADUATED SCALES At present the food allowance f o r a newborn c h i l d  and an adult male Is the same, i . e . the amount allowed f o r food f o r a man  and wife, or mother and c h i l d i s $ij.O.  the cost of food f o r a man $23.73 plus $ 2 0 . 6 9  »  However  and wife has been calculated as  or $1^4.1^2, while the cost f o r a mother,  and c h i l d one to three years of age, i s only $ 2 0 . 6 9 plus $ 1 0 . 6 8 or $ 3 1 » 3 7 .  Lack of concern f o r the needs of d i f f e r e n t  individuals appears even more c l e a r l y i f a comparison i s made of the costs of food, clothing and personal items (see Table 9 ) f o r o c i a l Allowance s  grant of $69.5>0, a man  or Mothers' Allowance.  Of a t o t a l  and wife require $ 6 2 . 0 8 f o r these  items, leaving $7«l|£ f o r s h e l t e r .  A mother and c h i l d of one  to three years, require only $lj-3«69 f o r the same items leaving 1  With the recent increases t h i s amount i s r a i s e d to $ 5 7 6 .  2  See Table 7  -  98  -  $25.81"for s h e l t e r . A mother with a boy sixteen to eighteen years of age receives $69.50 also but f o r minimum standards of decency and health requires $67.4.8 to cover costs of food clothing and personal items.  When i t i s r e a l i z e d that t h i s  mother has to pay the f i x e d charges f o r rent and,  or house*  hold carrying charges such as heat, e l e c t r i c i t y ,  insurance,  mortgage payments, f i r s t , i t i s r e a d i l y seen that she w i l l have f a r less than the minimum required for food, clothing and personal items.  The mother with the young c h i l d might  manage to locate shelter at a cost of $25.  per month and  have the f u l l amount l e f t f o r the other items.  A policy  which lends i t s e l f to such discrimination does not seem to be i n the least related to the S o c i a l Assistance Act which stresses so c l e a r l y the p r i n c i p l e s of freedom from prejudice I f the granting of the Cost»of-Living Bonus to the aged and b l i n d i s considered to be S o c i a l Assistance as defined i n 3 the Act , what basis i s there f o r the discrimination shown i n the Motherst Allowance and S o c i a l Allowance programs against those who  are unable to provide the "necessities  e s s e n t i a l to maintain a reasonably normal and istence"?^"  healthy.-exe*  The aged couple i n need can receive up to  $110.  assistance whereas the younger couple or mother and c h i l d 1 See Table 9* Balance f o r Household Carrying Charges, B. 1  2 " i n the administration of s o c i a l assistance there s h a l l be no-discrimination based on race, colour, creed, or pol i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . " S o c i a l Assistance Act, 194-5 c.62, Sec. II. . 3  Ibid  Sec.  1L  Ibid  Sec. 3  2-3  *  99  -  are.limited by p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y to $ 6 9 . 5 0 .  It may be ar-  gued that the aged people w i l l need assistance over a considerable period whereas f o r the mother and c h i l d It i s just a temporary measure.  However f o r the 13>1 Mothers'  Allowance cases closed i n 1952-53 the average length of time on assistance was  5*25 y e a r s .  1  which i s a considerable length  of time to be on such a marginal basis of existence. The only p o s s i b i l i t y of a defensible p o l i c y of fairness i s a much more generous scale a l l round, or else a d e t a i l e d scale which would standardize rates according to the needs of the various age and sex groupings.  Such a  suggested scale i s worked out i n Table 10 which i s graduated according to the costs of food, c l o t h i n g , and personal items f o r the d i f f e r e n t groupings.  For ease In computation of  rates the number of categories has been reduced from those i n Table 7 and the rates have been rounded to the nearest twenty-five  cents. Shelter costs have been based on the  present  p o l i c y of the Municipality of Burnaby In paying " r e n t a l overages" at 100 per cent l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a maximum 2 of $ 2 5 . for a s i n g l e person and $4.0. f o r a family. Such 1  Annual Report, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, 1953*  p. U 36  2 These rates are not out of l i n e with the findings of a recent study of rents paid by s o c i a l assistance families i n Vancouver. For single family dwellings rents ranged from $ 2 0 . to $ 7 0 . with a median of about $ 4 2 . This d i d not generally include u t i l i t i e s such as heat, l i g h t , f u e l f o r cooking, etc. The median rent f o r apartments was $37» and i n only 35$ of the cases d i d the rent include the u t i l i t i e s . Of the 7 0 families studied almost one-half were . paying over $37- rent. It was found that the median excess over the amount allowed In the grant f o r those adequately (footnote continued on next page)  -  TABLE  100  ~  A SUGGESTED SCALE OF SOCIAL ALLOWANCE RATES BASED ON  ttO  COST OF FOOD, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL ITEMSA, ACCORDING TO AGE AND SEX, AND SHELTER AS OF NOVEMBER, 1954.  MAXIMUM UNIT  CATEGORY ALLOWANCE  FOOD,  SHELTER  CLOTHING,  & PERSONAL  ITEMS  AS  PAID  TO  ONE PERSON 1  A  1 B  $ 70.50  MAN  • 66.25  WOMAN  BASIC  $ 35*50 31.25  OVERAGE  $ 15.00°  TOTAL  $ 25.00  $  40.00  TWO PERSONS 2 A 2  B  MAN  MOTHER  &  CHILD  „  16-18  2  /C  122.00  62.00  127.50  67.50  SAME  108.00  48.00  SAME  119.00  59.GO  SAME  & WIFE  MOTHER CHILD  1-9  20.00  C  40.00  60.00  8  & B  1  2 D  MOTHER CHILD  &  10-15B  THREE OR MORE PERSONS No IN U  3 A  MAN  3 B  MOTHER CH  3  C  &  WIFE &  1 LD 16-18  MOTHER  1-9 3 D  MOTHER CHILD CHILD CHILD CHILD  C  1  -  ,  25.00°  4o.oo  61.25  4 5  27.50 30.00  4o.oo 4o.oo  67.50 70.00  6 7  32.50 35.00  4o.oo 4o.oo  72.50 75.00  B  65.00  &  55.75  to-15? 3 E 3 F 3 G  T  3  44.50  CHILD  ,  57.50  B  &  N  1-9  16.50  b  £©-15' 16-18 1  27.75 32.00  ft B  AVERAGES TAKEN OF COSTS, T A B L E SEE TABLE 7  c  F U E L & SHELTER P.  93  7  ITEM IN BURNABY ALLOWANCE S C A L E S E E FOOTNOTE  -  101  -  payments are made on the basis of an i n d i v i d u a l assessment where rents, or mortgage payments, and other household carrying charges are high.  A charge-back arrangements has been  made with Vancouver whereby the l a t t e r w i l l pay r e n t a l overage to Burnaby cases, and Burnaby w i l l do likewise with r e cipients who are Vancouver r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s . This scale constitutes a "budget d e f i c i t "  1  sys-  tem of granting assistance whereby the costs of the content of l i v i n g are estimated and the grant based on the difference between income or resources supplied to the r e c i p i e n t from other sources and these costs. It has been stated by a public assistance autho r i t y who has studied the budget d e f i c i t system as used i n the United States that i t i s more complicated and less understood by workers and recipients than the flat-grant-minus" 2 method. However i n a s i m p l i f i e d form as i n Table 10 i t (footnote continued from page 99) housed was $ 1 1 . Eighty percent of apartments were excessive i n rent, the median being $10. Whereas only 12 percent of those paying up to $ 5 . excess had adequate shelter, a l l those paying $25. excess over the grant f o r s h e l t e r had a p o s s i b i l i t y of adequate s h e l t e r . It was also established that the cost to homeowners of maintenance, mortgage, taxes and other charges was roughly equivalent to rents paid by tenant rec i p i e n t s . * - - Warren Wilson, Housing Conditions of S o c i a l Assistance Families, (faster of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h uolumbia, Vancouver, 1955. p. 54- • 69i *P» 27. 1 MILES, Arthur p. op. c i t . p. 396. "The theory of t h i s method i s that there are e s s e n t i a l needs f o r any family and that a cash value can be placed upon these needs. In addition a cash value must be placed upon the income and r e sources of the i n d i v i d u a l . This amount i s deducted from the individual's needs and the d e f i c i t i s the amount of h i s grant." , 2  ibid  p. 398 -  399  -  102  «  does not appear to require an excessive amount of c a l c u l ation i n order to compute the rates.*  When i t i s r e c a l l e d  that the make-up of the family by age and sex i s required f o r s o c i a l h i s t o r y purposes i n the S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers' Allowance programs, i t should not be d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s to be r e a d i l y available f a r use i n determining the s i z e of the  grant. For example, If a family consisting of a  wife and three children aged 3 ,  man,  7 and I I L years applies for  assistance, t h e i r needs can be quickly assessed from Table 10.  '•'•'he man  and wife under Unit 3A require  $57.50 f o r  support i . e . , f o r food, clothing, and personal items. two c h i l d r e n 3 and 7 under 3E require $16.50 each and older c h i l d under 3F $27,75* maximum of $ 7 0 ,  The the  The shelter allowance, to a  f o r f i v e persons, and the t o t a l cost of  support i s the sum  of these, i . e . up to $1,88,25, depending  on the actual cost of shelter f o r this family.  The mother  with four c h i l d r e n under ten years of age q u a l i f i e s under 30 for $1|1L.50, under 3E f o r an a d d i t i o n a l $lj.9.50, and under shelter allowance up to $70.her t o t a l needs f o r support reaching a maximum of $161L, depending on shelter costs. we compare these t o t a l s with the present  If  allowance f o r a  family of f i v e as given In Table 8 under S o c i a l Allowance, 1 In comparison to Table 10, the Washington State "Summary of Monthly Standards for Basic Requirements" i s s i x pages i n length.  -  103 -  v i z . $111.50, 1 we see how much more c l o s e l y they are related to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l s .  Under the p r esent system  the mother can feed and clothe h e r s e l f and her children and have $17.00 l e f t over f o r shelter.  I f the man and wife attempt  the same they w i l l require $6.75 more than the t o t a l grant, and have nothing l e f t f o r s h e l t e r . An alternative to the suggested scale i n Table 10 would be to set the rates on the basis of the needs of the single man, the man and wife, and the c h i l d sixteen to eighteen years of age. Although this would assure adequacy of assistance to a l l , and a minimum of administration i t would be much more costly i n respect to t o t a l assistance given. The proposed schedule In Table 10 assures adequacy of a s s i s t ance to a l l with a minimum of expenditure and administration. Because i t i s related to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l and the related costs, i t i s the easiest to interpret both to the community and to the r e c i p i e n t . Periodic Review. A very important q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n the use of the suggested scale Is that these rates are based on the cost of the "content of l i v i n g " In Vancouver as of November 1954«  I  n  order that the scale continue to  provide f o r a minimum l e v e l of adequacy i t would need to be adjusted with the changes i n the costs of items on some reasonable p e r i o d i c a l basis.  Such a need was recognized by a  committee of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council which 1  This f i g u r e includes the. allotxanee f o r s h e l t e r .  -  IOIL  feBjS'  -  studied adequacy of assistance recently.  In a b r i e f submitted  to the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n December 195>2 one of the recommendations was that "paragraph 7 of the Regulations to the S o c i a l Assistance Act which refers to the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g (consumer's) index, be amended, s u b s t i t u t i n g the words "from time to time" to "at least once i n each f i s c a l year"." Meeting Need i n Washington State.  1  The Washington  State Department of Public Assistance operates the assistance programs within the counties of the state; and apart from the assistance program to employable people, which i s of an emergency nature, the levels of assistance are the same i n the 2 various categorical programs. As has been previously stated a budget d e f i c i t system i s used, whereby the needs of the person are compared with his sources of income, i f any, and assistance i s granted where an imbalance  exists.  The needs of the applicant have  been standardized f o r the d i f f e r e n t sex and age  groupings  under the items of food, clothing, and personal items; rent (to a maximum)^, and home ownership upkeep; f u e l f o r cooking, l i g h t and r e f r i g e r a t i o n , water and  household  1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Report of the Committee studying the Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowance, November, 19^2 2 A $5>» transportation grant i s available to the aged and the b l i n d . 3 Rental maxima vary between counties from $2£. to $4-0. It was considered by welfare authorities i n Whatcom County, where the maximum i s $35*» that t h i s item was s e r i o u s l y out of l i n e with p r e v a i l i n g rents.  -  -  105  -  supplies, f u e l f o r space and water heating. allowances  In respect to  f o r children under the Aid to Dependent Children  program maximas are placed on grants of $ 3 8 . f o r a c h i l d under 13 years and $IL£. f o r an older c h i l d .  The various  items are coded, as are the d i f f e r e n t sources of income, and the actual s i z e of grant i s calculated on a machine which i s located at the head o f f i c e of the Department of Public Assistance where a l l cheques, (emergency cash grants excepted) are issued. Some idea of the adequacy of assistance i n t h i s program can be gained from the following f i g u r e s . *  The  s h e l t e r and household allowance for a mother and c h i l d under the Aid to Dependent Children program was $55*20.  c a l c u l a t e d at  The food, clothing, and personal maintenance allow-  ance t o t a l l e d $82.£0.  Because of the f a c t that state bud-  gets are prepared bi-annually, and that expenditures  had  been heavier than expected, the f u l l grant of $ 1 3 7 « 1 0 could not be given.  A " r a t a b l e " reduction of 20 per cent  applied, reducing the t o t a l grant to $110.16. f a r exceeds the present standards  was  This grant  In B r i t i s h Columbia waere  a mother and c h i l d on Mothers» Allowance or S o c i a l Allowance are given $ 6 9 . 5 0 . given i n Table  It compares favorably with the figures  10.  It should be stated that d i f f i c u l t y has been 1 This information was obtained from an actual record during an interview with Mrs. Nora Downey, Acting Admini s t r a t o r , Whatcom County Office, Bellingham, i n March, 1 9 5 5 .  -  106  -  expressed i n respect to the correlation.between standards and cost of l i v i n g .  Although l e g i s l a t i o n i n Washington requires  periodic review of rates, there would appear to be discrepancies due t o a l a g i n the adjustment  of rates.  SUPPLEMENTARY ALLOWANCES The provision of boarding and nursing home care, the granting of dietary allowances and s p e c i a l grants f o r repairs to the home or replacement of such items as the stoves, are handled i n both p r o v i n c i a l and municipal o f f i c e s on an i n d i v i d u a l basis according to the needs of the person i n question and p r e v a i l i n g costs.  As can be seen from Table  5 rates f o r boarding and nursing home care vary between d i s t r i c t s according to the p r e v a i l i n g costs.  Because of the  shortage of such homes the agencies have to be prepared to pay the p r e v a i l i n g rates i n order t o secure such services. In respect to the comforts allowance of $7«00,  i t i s con-  siderably i n excess of the amount stipulated i n Table 9 under personal sundries, i . e . , and female respectively.  37 and $ 3 . 7 1 per mala-  The p r o v i s i o n of extra clothing  is a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l area and not shareable on the 80-20 basis as are the other allowances.  Because of  t h i s clothing i s not provided except i n rare cases where there are a large number of children i n the family.  As  can be r e a d i l y seen that, apart from clothing, the prov i s i o n of these supplementary allowances i s on the basis of need and of adequacy.  -  107 -  SUMMARY Following a review of research c a r r i e d out by the Welfare Council of Greater Toronto i n respect to the spending habits of low income f a m i l i e s , the work of Edmund Ralph In establishing a standard budget f o r s o c i a l assistance families In Vancouver i s considered.  His Budget Item Cost  Schedule i s brought up to date, and, following a study of present rates i n the public assistance programs i n B.C. a comparison i s made as t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e inadequacy.  A  suggested scale of S o c i a l Allowance rates follows which i s designed to assure adequacy of assistance with a minimum of administrative effort.  The Washington State public assistance program i s r e -  viewed as i t relates to the c a l c u l a t i o n of grants, and to the p r o v i s i o n of adequacy i n assistance.  In c l o s i n g , b r i e f r e f -  erence i s made to supplementary allowances granted within the s o c i a l assistance program i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  CHAPTER V SERVICE PROGRAMS  SOCIAL SERVICES As early as 1869, i n which year the f i r s t Charity Organization Society was founded i n London, there was a conviction that the giving of material aid was i n most Instances f u t i l e .  I t was recognized that there was  no attempt to help the needy become self-supporting but, rather that dependency was encouraged.  Enlightened peo-  ple sought a means whereby the poor could be helped t o help themselves through education, job r e f e r r a l , assistance from r e l a t i v e s , and of course, good advice and moral support.  There was an attempt to r e g i s t e r cases to avoid  duplication of r e l i e f , and a stress on thorough i n v e s t i gation of requests f o r help In order to Insure aid only to the 'worthy' poor. Although t h e i r philosophy was r e s t r i c t i v e and m o r a l i s t i c the Charity Organization movement gave impetus to the growth of organized s o c i a l assistance and to the concept of s o c i a l Investigation from which has sprung the  profession of s o c i a l work.  108 . -  Mary Richmond c a r r i e d forward -  and refined the l a t t e r concept to the place where i t became a systematic  technique whereby the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n of the  c l i e n t could be diagnosed.  With the development of dynamic  psychiatry the need f o r recognition of the psychological factors involved was  accepted by the s o c i a l wor$ profession  and included as an i n t e g r a l part of s o c i a l diagnosis.  How-  ever, • due bath th. the lack of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s t a f f i n public assistance, and to i t s primary focus on the ing  grant-  of f i n a n c i a l aid, t h i s area of s o c i a l work has, i n the  main, l i m i t e d i t s evaluation to the more tangible aspects of the applicant's s i t u a t i o n with the major emphasis on e l i g i b i l i t y and assessment of resources.  DIAGNOSIS IN SOCIAL ASSISTANCE In those programs where the need for public assistance has been brought about by the loss of the appl i c a n t ' s a b i l i t y to support himself and his family through the death or desertion of the breadwinner ;i the need is tt  more than f i n a n c i a l .  tt  The family structure has been d i s -  rupted and the r e s u l t s are f e l t i n a l l areas, the p h y s i c a l , the economic, and the emotional.  New  and unpleasant ad-  justments must be faced, and these on reduced rations of emotional support because the d i s r u p t i o n has caused a r e gression towards dependency and each member of the family has turned more towards 'self preservation'.  The single  -  109 -  person i s i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n when robbed of his a b i l i t y to support himself through i l l n e s s , d i s a b i l i t y , or even i n carceration.  The r e s u l t i n g regression brings to conscious-  ness dependency needs which cannot be met "by bread alone". The basic need i s f o r psychological support given through an accept ance of the person, a reassurance of his worth and ah-expression of confidence that the problems at hand can be worked through.  1  It i s at this point that s k i l l In diagnosis i s needed.  In writing on the place of services i n public a s s i s t -  ance Marjorie J . Smith has stated the following: One of the most d i f f i c u l t and s k i l l f u l jobs i n casework diagnosis i s to determine the extent of emotional dependency. Two c l i e n t s wftich give every evidence of being dependent may beu t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t problems to the caseworker. The one may be fundamentally dependent with a poor prognosis i n regard to a t t a i n i n g self-support.  The  second may be a person who has achieved a considerable degree of independence  and who,  through enforced idleness, has  regressed backward to become as dependent-looking as the first.  With encouragement, understanding, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of his behavior, he can be helped to assume p a r t i a l respons i b i l i t y , and f i n a l l y to reach a more adult state with a maximum degree of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . 3 Without s k i l l f u l diagnosis of the dependency needs of c l i e n t s , much c o s t l y time can be spent where move1 HOLLIS, Florence, "The Techniques of Casework", P r i n ciples and Techniques i n casework, Family Service Association of America, 1950 p. I L I ^ 2 SMITH, Marjorie J . , "The place of Services i n public Assistance", Public Welfare, JJC 1951, p. 163 3 Ibid  -  110  -  ment Is not possible, and c l i e n t s with good prospects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be passed by as dependent "hangers-on". The Texas Department of Public Welfare, over a period of seven years, developed through teaching and research a program of diagnosis and s e l e c t i o n rtiereby each case i s assessed at i n take regarding the need f o r casework services beyond t h i s point.  The purpose of the program was to enable the p r o v i s i o n  , of casework to those i n need, and the abolishment or modification of procedures which f o r caseworkers was time-consuming and p r o f i t l e s s i n respect to the p r o v i s i o n of s k i l l e d services,  1  At present, i n welfare o f f i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, "intake" r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are. handled on a rotat i o n basis, each worker taking h i s turn as a "duty worker". The standard of diagnostic s k i l l used i n »intake* varies with the p a r t i c u l a r worker on duty.  During the preliminary e l i g -  i b i l i t y study made upon application, and during the v i s i t to the home which generally precedes issuance of the i n i t i a l cheque, the worker attempts t o assess the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n of the  applicant and to o f f e r help with any problems he may have.  The Burnaby Welfare Department stresses that the intake s i t uation i s not an emergency s i t u a t i o n but rather that the appl i c a t i o n i s the f i n a l step i n a series of events which have produced among other things f i n a n c i a l need on the part of the  applicant.  This approach helps the worker t o look be-  yond the f i n a n c i a l problem to see the needs of the t o t a l 1 XII,  CURRIN, Maurine, "Operation Diagnosis", Public Welfare 19SIJ. P. 133 ,  person.  Ill -  This does not mean that cheques cannot be issued  on an emergency basis i f required; Vancouver S o c i a l Service Department and Burnaby Welfare assistance both issue emergency grants within hours of a p p l i c a t i o n ,  1  CASEWORK SERVICES In the programs where the applicant i s able to claim a r i g h t to assistance; f o r example i n War  Veterans'  Allowance or Old Age Assistance, or B l i n d Persons' Allowance, i n which areas there has been an acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , there does not seem to be the same need f o r the p r o v i s i o n of psychological support during intake by the professional worker.  In these programs an increased degree of dependency  i s to be expected as a normal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the groups concerned, and further there i s the status of the aged, the b l i n d or the veteran which lends him support as an applicant. The requirements f o r a person interviewing applicants i n these programs might include a high degree of s e n s i t i v i t y to the feelings of people; interviewing s k i l l s related to the gathering of information, and the d e s c r i p t i o n of p o l i c y and procedure; and an a b i l i t y to sense the p r e s ence of situations needing attention by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s t a f f .  Such a job shouldn't require f i v e or s i x  years of u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . 1 The writer i n observing the administrative and c l e r i c a l processes i n these two agencies was extremely impressed by t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y , sense of teamwork, and focus on the provi s i o n of service to c l i e n t s .  -  112  Personnel Standards,  It has been the concern  of the s o c i a l work profession that any area of s o c i a l service that requires face-to-face contact with applicants or c l i e n t s should be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s o c i a l worker. However i t must be recognized that schools of s o c i a l work cannot keep pace with the expansion of the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare and that a compromise must be made,  Kermit Wiltse  has c a l l e d f o r such a compromise through a " r e a l i s t i c apprais a l of the nature of service i n public a s s i s t a n c e " ,  1  to assess  which areas can be handled by non-professional s t a f f receiving s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , and which require the services of the professional s o c i a l worker. The standard of s o c i a l work personnel i n public 2 assistance today varies very considerably,  Leyendecker ree-  fers to programs i n the United States where neither workers nor supervisors have professional t r a i n i n g ,  in British  Columbia, under our p r o v i n c l a l l y administered p u b l i c a s s i s t ance program, a much higher standard has been reached.  It  varies from municipality t o municipality, and i n the d i f f e r e n t 1 WILTSE, Kermit, S o c i a l Casework i n public Assistance, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, State of C a l i f o r n i a , 195'd, p. 29. 2 LEYENDECKER, H i l a r y M,, Problems and P o l i c y i n Public Assistance, Harper & Bros,, New York, 19i>i?# P» 2db 3 In a recent conference on public Welfare held i n the United States, i t was estimated that eighty per cent of s o c i a l workers i n American public assistance programs are untrained. This information was obtained during an i n t e r view with Miss Moscrop, Supervisor of S t a f f Training, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Vancouver,  —  113  ••»  p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s but runs from less than f i f t y per cent of "casework" s t a f f with one or more years of professional t r a i n 1 ing to as high as s i x t y - f i v e per cent S o c i a l Welfare Branch,  amongst the s t a f f of  It i s general practice also*? i n pub-  l i c welfare' i n B r i t i s h Columbia, to require two years of prof e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r supervisory s t a f f .  Because of the  shortage of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained workers vacancies have t o be f i l l e d on occasion with untrained people.  However, t h i s  d i f f i c u l t y i s overcome to some degree by an in-service t r a i n ing course directed by the Training Sup r v i s o r of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch which i s available to personnel from both muni c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l welfare o f f i c e s .  In comparison with  other public welfare programs, B r i t i s h Columbia seems second to none i n respect to i t s standards of s o c i a l work personnel. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n of S t a f f , There Is a move at the present time i n public welfare i n B r i t i s h olumbia towards c  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of s t a f f ,  i n previous years the l o c a l area  was divided into d i s t r i c t s and the worker i n the d i s t r i c t was responsible f o r a "general caseload" composed of a l l categories of a i d and kinds of s e r v i c e .  This might have i n -  cluded several hundred Old Age Assistance cases idaich by p o l i c y require a yearly v i s i t f o r the purpose of reporting any change i n s o c i a l or economic circumstances.  There was  also the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r handling new applications f o r 1 Public Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 19514.* Annual Report of S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V i c t o r i a , 19i4> P' J 17  -  l i l t  ~  Old Age Assistance, boarding and nursing home care, along with S o c i a l Allowance, Mothers' Allowance, and In most areas  child  welfare. It was f e l t i n c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s that i n the interests of e f f i c i e n c y workers should be delegated t o handle p a r t i c u l a r areas of work such as Old Age Assistance applications and annual f i e l d reports, boarding and nursing home care, and so on. The Vancouver S o c i a l Service Department developed an Old Age Assistance Section, and used i t s Medical Section to handle boarding and nursing home placements.  The Burnaby S o c i a l Welfare Department designated  in-service workers to handle assistance t o the aged, and boarding and nursing home placements.  Recently the C i t y has  moved further on the premise that p r o f e s s i o n a l workers are not required to process Old Age Assistance applications"'' and are planning to pass t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y back to the l o c a l Old Age Assistance Board o f f i c e .  They are hoping to  employ highly trained s o c i a l workers to handle s p e c i f i c casework problems of the aged on a r e f e r r a l b a s i s . The Burnaby Welfare Department has divided the tfrork even further. Due to the limited number of trained workers i t was considered best to subdivide the s o c i a l allowance  cases into "family s e r v i c e " and straight f i n a n -  c i a l assistance, the former to include a l l families with 1 See page ll£ f o r results of a sarvey on casework needs i n public assistance i n Texas.  - 115 children receiving a i d .  I t was  -  assumed that t h i s group would  have a high prevalence of s o c i a l problems and would need the best trained and most highly s k i l l e d workers.  This reason-  ing i s substantiated i n a survey made by the Eexas Department of Public Welfare. assistance i t was  In reviewing the various categories of found that only eight per cent of Old  Age  Assistance cases required casework services whereas seventyf i v e per cent of families r e c e i v i n g Aid to Dependent Children 1 2 grants required casework help. Such a scheme of providing the best casework services f o r those most i n need of i t amongst the public assistance population makes f o r a more e f f e c t i v e program i n that the professional s k i l l s are being used i n a concentrated manner Instead of being l o s t by s c a t t e r i n g them throughout the various areas. only way  Apart from anything  else, t h i s i s the  i n which s o c i a l casework as a profession can be  proven to be of value i n public assistance; and the only  way  In which highly s k i l l e d workers w i l l be a t t r a c t e d to the field. Dr. Wiltse, i n his experiment on the value of casework method and s k i l l s i n public assistance, found that the "complex kind of s o c i a l casework problems  represented  by some of the case situations with which every public a s s i s t 1 A program of assistance to c h i l d r e n deprived of parental support through "death, continued absence from the home, or the p h y s i c a l or mental Incapacity of the parent". Eveline Burns, op. c i t . p. 320 2  CTJRRIN, Haurine, op. c i t . p.  136  -  116  -  ance agency must deal are such as to demand the greatest professional competence and s k i l l that can be  acquired",  1  He envisages the i d e a l as a unit within the agency composed of several well trained and experienced workers and a super2 v i s o r who  are responsible f o r selected  caseloads.  The extent to which a public assistance worker i n B r i t i s h Columbia can provide casework services to c l i e n t s depends upon s i z e of caseload, the nature of scope of t e r r i tory to be covered, and the number of services f o r which he may  be responsible,  i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s the worker must han-  dle a l l types of'public assistance and i n addition c h i l d welfare services.  However, In the municipalities where s p e c i a l -  i z a t i o n i s taking place the worker i s able to focus on a par** t i c u l a r area of the assistance program i n keeping with his t r a i n i n g and experience. In War  Veterans* Allowance, as i n Old Age A s s i s t -  ance, the applicant i s given a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n comp l e t i n g the required forms and i n obtaining the required evidence of e l i g i b i l i t y ,  A Veterans* Welfare O f f i c e r inter**  views the applicant i n order to v e r i f y his e l i g i b i l i t y  and  the forms are passed to the D i s t r i c t Board f o r assessment. The Welfare O f f i c e r i s not necessarily a trained s o c i a l worker but must meet merit standards through a held f o r the p o s i t i o n ,  competition  A s o c i a l service department works  i n conjunction with the welfare o f f i c e r s on a consultative 1  WILTSJ3, Kermit, op, c i t , p.  2  Ibid  31  • basis,  117 •  casework problems are referred through the s o c i a l ser-  vice s t a f f , who are p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained, to the various s o c i a l agencies within the community. Casework Services gard to public assistance  i n Washington State. In r e -  l i t t l e use i s made of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  trained s o c i a l workers, by the State Department of public Assistance,  the l a t t e r being used mainly f o r  positions and i n c h i l d welfare. assistance  supervisory  U n t i l recently, the only  families receiving casework services were those  which were receiving c h i l d welfare services also.  It i s  understood that the s i t u a t i o n i s improving; eg. Whatcom County Office was recently advised that an establishment has been made recently f o r three trained workers to j o i n the " v i s i t o r " s t a f f of the Whatcom County Public Assistance O f f i c e .  REHABILITATION SERVICES Although there may be more than one d e f i n i t i o n f o r the term " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " , that proposed by the National Council on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , New York, seems adequate f o r the purposes of this discussion.  I t i s as follows:  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s the r e s t o r a t i o n of the handicapped to the f u l l e s t p h y s i c a l , mental, s o c i a l vocational, and economic usefulness of which they are capable.^ The primary purpose of modern public  assistance  1 HOOSON, William, The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of public Assistance Recipients, (Master of »ocial work Thesis, u n i v e r s i t y of "• B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1953)  118  -  programs i s to do just that; to help the needy person towards the best possible adjustment between himself and his environment. In Canada, as i n the united States, the concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n originated within the Workmen's Compensation programs.  The return of the veterans  of World War  t r a i n i n g programs developed to a i d i n t h e i r gave great Impetus to this movement.  I I , and  re-establishment  An amendment to the 1,  Vocational Training coordination Act of 191+2, dated May 1951  and known as Schedule M made possible the Issurance  of  r e - t r a i n i n g grants to handicapped persons In Canada who worked before, and were e l i g i b l e f o r Unemployment Benefits,  In August 1952  had never worked before.  this was  the  had  insurance  extended to persons  who  Persons on s o c i a l assistance could  be r e f e r r e d to a l o c a l committee on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n composed of s t a f f from the National Employment Service, (Special Placements Section), and other agencies concerned with r e habilitation.  I f the person was  found suitable f o r r e t r a i n -  ing on the basis of medical opinion, s o c i a l h i s t o r y information, and vocational counselling assessment, f e d e r a l funds could be obtained f o r this purpose. More recently an arrangement has been made whereby the cost of r e - t r a i n i n g s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s being shared between the province the responsible municipality on the basis of the 80 - 20 formula.  The writer had the occasion r e c e n t l y to r e f e r a  young woman from the Out Patient Department, Vancouver  and  •-  119 -  General Hospital to the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department f o r s o c i a l assistance during a courage of t r a i n i n g i n hairdressing. This person had l o s t her husband recently, and her diabetic condition would not allow her to return to her previous mode of employment to support her young daughter, eighteen months old.  Information was submitted as t o her  medical condition, her s o c i a l adjustment, her s u i t a b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g i n beauty culture, as assessed by the Vocational Counselling Service, and the costs involved i n the t r a i n i n g course to be given at the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , S o c i a l assistance was assured her during the period of t r a i n ing and a s p e c i a l grant made by the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department on an 80-20 basis to cover t r a i n i n g expenses. The cooperation between agencies was excellent and the t o t a l administrative procedure was a very r e a l c r e d i t to the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department,  This i s not an i s o l a t e d case  but rather an example of the splendid services a v a i l a b l e t o people on public assistance In B r i t i s h Columbia,  Rehabil-  i t a t i o n services are also a v a i l a b l e to young veterans who apply f o r War Veterans» Allowance and who are not considered permanently disabled. Another very u s e f u l service which Is a v a i l a b l e to recipients of public a i d i n this province Is that of the thomemaker» WBBO goes i n t o the home where the mother i s temporarily incapacitated or away i n h o s p i t a l .  This again  is a service provided on an i n d i v i d u a l basis following a  -  120  -  thorough assessment by the s o c i a l worker and financed j o i n t l y between the province and the municipality. In any of these s p e c i a l services such as ret r a i n i n g or homemaking the need f o r casework help i s great because of the demands made on the r e c i p i e n t to mobilize hims e l f to enter new  experiences, to form new r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  f i n a l l y to leave behind the s e c u r i t y of public assistance and return to maximum s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . The need f o r s k i l l f u l screening and s e l e c t i o n f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g was pointed up i n a p i l o t program inaugurated i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 195>2 amongst families re«* ceiving Aid to Needy Children grants.  Prom a group of it,000  families 81+2 were r e f e r r e d f o r assessment; of these 61+9 were rejected as unsuitable, and 193* ing.  or l+,8$, were given t r a i n -  By spring of the following year, the saving to one  county alone i n reduced assistance expenditures ws.s $2,691. monthly, was  1  This project which was  to l a s t f o r eighteen months  financed through a grant of $33*000, from the Federal  Security Agency,  I f It i s assumed that the one county men-  tioned had no relapses during the period of one year, the savings i n reduced expenditure, v i z , $32,292, would almost match the t o t a l grant invested, to say nothing of the i n come taxes paid by the persons r e h a b i l i t a t e d , figures from a study done i n 191+9  $619*500,  Lefson quotes  of lp.3 f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g  yearly i n public assistance who  were r e h a b i l i t a t e d  1 LEFSON* Leon, " R e h a b i l i t a t i o n public Assistance Reclpients . , Public Welfare, XI, 1953* p, 1+9 » J?0 1  1  -  121  -  at a cost of $lll|.,926... By the following year these families were earning s l i g h t l y less than $1,000,000. annually and were receiving no assistance.^ L i t t l e more need be said f o r the value to the c l i e n t and to the community of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services i n public assistance.  MEDICAL CARE IN PUBLIC ASSISTANCE The united States S o c i a l Security Act of 1935 did not provide f o r the federal support of state or county medical care programs geared to categorical assistance r e cipients.  A l l f e d e r a l funds were to be used In providing  unrestricted money payments to the recipient to allow him the f u l l e s t possible independence.  This requirement was followed  by most states i n order to q u a l i f y f o r a maximum degree of federal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n financing t h e i r programs of categorical a i d .  Some states met medical need through county  and l o c a l funds e s p e c i a l l y those where maximum payments were low.  This requirement tended to hinder the development of  comprehensive medical programs. In 195>0 the Act was amended to allow either money payments to, or on behalf of recipients of medical care.  This allowed f o r greater f l e x i b i l i t y but not an ex-  tension of services available to meet the need.  An admin-  i s t r a t i v e device was approved following this amendment. The states were allowed to assess medical 1  Lefson, Leon, Ibid  p. 1L7  -  122  -  expenditures on the basis of an average cost per capita and to charge t h i s average against each recipient's account. This meant a f e d e r a l grant up to a maximum of $55* per month f o r each r e c i p i e n t of categorical a i d , part of which could be placed i n a pool fund and made available to cover a f a i r l y comprehensive l i s t of medical services.  Some states have  thus overcome problems r e s u l t i n g from the maximum l i m i t a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l payments,"'"  Pearl Bierman has found that only  a very small number of states have adopted t h i s plan but considerable i n t e r e s t i s expressed i n i t by public a s s i s t 2 ance administrators. Some states have made provisions f o r the medi c a l l y indigent, i . e . , those people who are otherwise s e l f supporting but cannot meet medical needs - such p r o v i s i o n i s generally l i m i t e d to the "catastrophic i l l n e s s " i n which costs are high,"'  increasing aged population has meant i n -  creasing need of medical care f o r the c h r o n i c a l l y 111,  Hos-  p i t a l s at one time gave s p e c i a l considerationtto public assistance cases but they can no longer a f f o r d to give t h i s care at a rate considerably below operating costs which have m u l t i p l i e d i n recent  years.  Pearl Bierman, i n 1953 » found that, i n sixteen states there were no public assistance funds available f o r general medical care,'  Two states had comprehensive public  1 BIERMAN. Pearl, "Medical Assistance Programs" S o c i a l Service Review, XXVIII, June 1 9 5 b P» 187 - 195 2  2&id  3  Ibid  p, 188  «  123 ~  health programs: fourteen states had medical programs f i n anced by l o c a l funds but only s i x of these were considered adequate.  According  to the American Public Welfare Assoc-  i a t i o n only t h i r t e e n states have organized medical units with professional health personnel,  the d i r e c t o r being either  a medical doctor or a medical s o c i a l worker.  1  In a study of medical care i n old age assistance made i n 193>2, Ruth White found considerable v a r i a t i o n i n p o l i c y between states, and that payment f o r services was generally well below that normally charged.  For example,  the average payment f o r h o s p i t a l care was between four and f i v e d o l l a r s per day. 2 to cover costs*  In most states the amounts paid f a i l e d  In states and l o c a l i t i e s with p o l i c i e s  covering a wide v a r i e t y of services, r e l a t i v e l y few recipients received this  care.^ Public Medical care In Canada* In reviewing the  development of public assistance medical care, i t can be seen that the Poor Law t r a d i t i o n of municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s i c k poor, with i t s concomitant requirements of ascertainment of residence and a p p l i c a t i o n of a means test at the time that care i s sought has been the p r a c t i c e i n Canada. I t should be noted, however, that a l l public hospitals - and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l h o s p i t a l s , voluntary and government, are 1  Ibid  p. 194  .  2 WHITE, Ruth, "Medical Services i n Old Age Assistance", S o c i a l Security B u l l e t i n , XV, 195'2, p<* 9 3  Ibid  p. 11  -  121+ -  "public" hospitals - provide care f o r indigents... The provinces have adopted the practice of giving grants to public hospitals, calculated on a patient-day basis, to supplement municipal payments i n meeting costs of providing care to those i n need",  1  Of the f i v e p r o v i n c i a l programs i n e f f e c t today, Dr. Taylor states that two provide l i m i t e d benefits and three provide a broad range of services. The two l i m i t e d programs are those of Ontario established i n 1933* and of Nova Scotia, establ i s h e d i n 19^0, Contrary to the usual d e f i n i t i o n of l i m i t e d b e n e f i t s , these programs are r e s t r i c t e d to the services of physicians i n o f f i c e or home. In Ontario t h i s now includes home d e l i v e r i e s , c e r t a i n laboratory procedures, and emergency drugs. Medical and s u r g i c a l care i n h o s p i t a l continues to be provided as before, with the h o s p i t a l administering a means test at the time service i s obtained,.^ Beneficiaries of public assistance medical care are i n general the recipients of categorical assistance, and assistance to unemployables* In B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Ontario medical programs have been developed f o r recipients of Old Age Security on the basis of a means t e s t , Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons* Allowance and Mothers' Allowances* D e t a i l s of these programs have been gathered i n a study done by the Canadian Welfare Council and published i n 1952 under the t i t l e of "Public Provision £>r Medical Care i n Canada", The other provinces at the time of the study had not de1. TAYLOR, Malcolm G,, " S o c i a l Assistance Medical care Programs i n Canada", American journal of Public Health,  xxxxiv, 1951+, P . 75i 2  Ibid  p*  751  """"  :  :  :  . - 125 veloped any s p e c i a l arrangements f o r these groups. Next to B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan provides the most comprehensive public medical care program.  A l l re-  cipients under the Tsategorical assistance programs of Old Age Security (with bonus), B l i n d Persons', and Mothers* Allowances receive f u l l health services which are provided by the Saskatchewan Public Health Department.  In addition  to t h i s , Old Age Assistance recipients are e n t i t l e d to have t h e i r h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n tax paid which e n t i t l e s them t o the benefits which a l l residents receive through the Saskatchewan Hospital Services plan.  This i s an insurance scheme which  covers a l l h o s p i t a l costs apart from doctors*  bills..  It i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l municip a l i t y to provide health care f o r residents who cannot afford i t .  Any person l i v i n g i n Saskatchewan but not having  municipal residence, who requires medical care and cannot a f f o r d i t , can be nominated by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r health service coverage pro» vided by the Department of Public Health.  This includes  "physicians* services, including surgery, at home, o f f i c e , or h o s p i t a l ; s p e c i a l nursing; chiropody;  physiotheraphy;  o p t i c a l services; s u r g i c a l appliances; dental care; and the payment of h o s p i t a l insurance premiums. of $5'0. i s made towards dentures.  A maximum payment  Certain drugs, such as  i n s u l i n , are provided free while the patient Is exprected to pay twenty per cent of the cost of others".  1  1 Canadian Ttfelfare Council, Public Provision f o r Medical Care i n Canada, Ottawa, 19^2 pT~9  -  126  -  Financing Public Medical care.  In regard t o  financing medical care f o r indigents, Ontario set the precedent f o r other p r o v i n c i a l programs, excepting Saskatchewan, by entering into a contract with the p r o v i n c i a l medical associ a t i o n f o r the provision of medical care to q u a l i f i e d bene f i c i a r i e s f o r a stipulated sum of money, to be administered by the association or i t s agent.^ In Saskatchewan the medical care program was accepted by the government as a part of the t o t a l health program, but the government recognizes the e s s e n t i a l role tt  of the profession i n i t s successful administration and therefore r e l i e s f o r p o l i c y guidance and f o r the assessment of accounts on a three-member Central Medical Assessment Board which the association nominates and which the government p  appoints and pays".  MEDICAL CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Under an agreement with the Canadian Medical Association (B.C.- D i v i s i o n ) and the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Municipalities every recipient of Old Ago Security (with bonus), Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons', Mothers* and S o c i a l Allowance, having one years *#esidence i n the province, 3 i s e n t i t l e d to f u l l medical, s u r g i c a l , and o b s t e t r i c a l care i n home, o f f i c e and h o s p i t a l i n accordance with recognized 1  TAYLOR, Malcolm G. op. c i t . p. 752  2  ibid  p. 753  3 (On presentation of Hospital insurance and Medical I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Card which i s issued to the r e c i p i e n t . )  -  127  -  medical p r a c t i c e . An arrangement has been made whereby a p;er capi t a payment of twenty d o l l a r s per year i s paid to the Canadian Medical Association (B.C. D i v i s i o n ) f o r every person i n receipt of assistance and e l i g i b l e f o r health services. These payments which are made monthly according to caseload figures are shared between provinces and municipality according to the 80 - 20 formula.  The r e c i p i e n t i s allowed to go  to the doctor of his own choice, the l a t t e r submitting his b i l l s to the Medical Association f o r payment quarterly In proportion to the funds available.  The medical profession  which has been receiving i n the order of s i x t y - f i v e per cent of the prescribed rates i s asking that the c a p i t a t i o n payment be raised to twenty-five  dollars*  With regard to h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , the recipient i s covered under the present h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n scheme f o r which a l l residents are e l i g i b l e .  The co-insurance  charge  of one d o l l a r per day i s paid under health services provisions which means that hospitals i n B r i t i s h fcjolumbia are recompensed i n f u l l f o r the h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n of recipients of assistance* The commonly prescribed drugs are available through medical p r e s c r i p t i o n ; the druggist supplying these at a ten per cent reduction and being reimbursed from provincial-municipal funds.  The dental services which are pro-  vided include extractions, and dentures and prophylaxis on an i n d i v i d u a l l y assessed basis, the l a t t e r being geared t o  —  128 ***  the needs of children i n assistance f a m i l i e s . Medical and s u r g i c a l applicances, and glasses are also available to the recipient of assistance when required, the cost of which i s shareable according to the 80 - 20 formula. The health services are administered  by the  Director of Medical Services who i s responsible to the Deputy Minister of Welfare.  Under his d i r e c t i o n t h i s pro-  gram has grown i n recent years to be the most comprehensive i n Canada.  The greatest strength of this program i s seen  to be the maintenace of the family doctor-patient r e l a t i o n ship.  The recipient i s free to go to his own doctor who  treats him according to recognized medical p r a c t i c e . I f he requires treatment by a s p e c i a l i s t , the doctor arranges t h i s himself.  I f a patient who l i v e s i n an outlying d i s t r i c t  or municipality requires treatment which i s a v a i l a b l e only In Vancouver, on the authorization of the Director he can. 1 be brought i n by t r a i n , plane, or bus.  I f temporary lodg-  ings are to be required, these are handled by the Medical S o c i a l Work Consultant  of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch wio  acts as a l i a i s o n between the s o c i a l worker i n the f i e l d and the i r e c t o r of Medical Services on a l l medical matters. D  The focus i s always upon meeting the needs of the patient according to the best standards of medical care. It has been s a i d that to be i d e a l a medical 1 MOSCOVICH, J.C. M.D., »Stock-Taking , B r i t i s h Columbia*s Welfare, X, May - June 1953- p. 9 - 11 . l  M  -  129  «  program should make possible the payment of medical costs by the recipient himself, but such a scheme w u l d be t e r r i b l y unwieldy due to the need f o r the issuance of me d i c a l care grants.  The present program i s much more acceptable to the  medical profession because of i t s administration by a medical authority who  i s concerned with meeting the medical needs of  indigent people according to the medical standards, and with a view to e f f i c i e n c y .  It i s acceptable to the recipient be-  cause he retains his freedom of choice as to p r a c t i t i o n e r and he i s r e l i e v e d of the burden of applying f o r s p e c i a l grants f o r medical care.  This program i s acceptable to the  people of the province because i t uses the insurance p r i n c i p l e s i m i l a r to any pre-paid medical scheme whereby the r i s k of requiring medical care i s spread over a large number of people. (It has been estimated that one i n twenty recip&jfents requires care, ) 1  Medical Indigency. Medical Indigency i n B r i t i s h ^olumbia i s not considered as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of public welfare.  Those people i n the lower mainland area  who require medical attention and cannot pay f o r i t can re» ceive the best of care through, the Out Patient Department of the Vancouver General Hospital. There are no residence r e s t r i c t i o n s , the only l i m i t i n g factor being that of maxw imura income which i s limited to $125,  f o r the single person  1 This figure quoted during an interview with J»C, Moscovich, M.D., Director of Medical Services, S o c i a l Welfare Br%nch. -  « and $15>5. f o r the married man.  130  -  For the f i r s t c h i l d $ 2 0 . i s  exempted and f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d $ 2 5 .  F i v e hundred  dollars i n cash assets are allowed but these figures serve only as a basis f o r consideration.  In cases of doubt f n  assessment i s made by a s o c i a l worker i n terms of the cost of s i m i l a r treatment i n the community, length of treatment, and other f a c t o r s .  The Services of the Out Patient Depart-  ment are available t o the r e c i p i e n t of p u b l i c assistance and great use i s made of the various c l i n i c s i n providing medical care f o r r e c i p i e n t s from a l l parts of the province, Shaughnessy h o s p i t a l provides Out Patient treat« iiient to the r e c i p i e n t of War Veterans t Allowance and to the medically indigent veteran whose annual income, less fllj.80, exemption f o r his wife, and $ 1 5 0 . f o r each c h i l d , i s less than $720,  This care i s not extended to his family.  This  represents one of the great weaknesses i n the War Veterans* Allowance program and requires attention In respect to meeting these needs,  SUMMARY Following a b r i e f reference t o the growth of professional s o c i a l work i n public assistance, the needs of the adventitiously indigent, as they r e l a t e to casework ser* v i c e s , are discussed.  Considerable stress i s placed on the  value of diagnostic s k i l l s i n evaluating emotional dependency among... the needy e s p e c i a l l y i n programs where the concept of right to assistance has not been recognized to any  extent.  131 -  In the programs where the applicant has status the  writer feels that the threat of dependency Is not so strong arid that the intake process can be handled with less need f o r professional casework.  This viewpoint i s taken because  of the shortage of trained workers and the continual expans i o n of welfare services which threatens to perpetuate the shortage.  The present personnel p o l i c i e s In B r i t i s h Columbia*s  program with regard to standards of t r a i n i n g are discussed and reference made to the movement towards s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of s t a f f which i s being made with a view to maximum use of staff skills.  A description of present intake procedures  and the provision of casework services i s followed by a review of the development of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n public a s s i s t ance i n t h i s province and i t s present high standards. The closing section deals with medical care i n public assistance and includes a b r i e f reference to i t s present status i n the United States and Canada. The program i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s discussed i n d e t a i l and i s seen to be of outstanding c a l i b r e .  The problem of medical  indigency i s also referred to and some mention made of r e sources available within this province.  CHAPTER VI  CONCLUSIONS  Before considering the findings and implications of this study some reference should be made to the p r i n c i p l e s of public welfare i n a democracy.  I t has been stated that  the "underlying p r i n c i p l e s of the public welfare program must be consistent with the basic p r i n c i p l e s of democracy""* which -  stress that every i n d i v i d u a l i s to be granted the opportunity to become a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member, i n the nation's welfare, the community's welfare, and h i s own personal welfare.  De-  mocracy i s founded upon respect f o r the i n t e g r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , and a concern f o r men and f a i t h i n them. The growth of governmental services has been an expression of this respect and concern and has r e s u l t e d i n the declaration of c e r t a i n underlying p r i n c i p l e s which follow.  A l l individuals  have common human needs - p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  emotional,  and s p i r i t u a l - and the person i n receipt of assistance should be able to meet these needs i n the manner customary to h i s community.  The well-being of the i n d i v i d u a l contributes t o  the well-being of the community through h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s and h i s acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as 1 Viteashington State Department of public Welfare, public Welfare i n the State of Washington, Olympia, 19^.9, p.~7  -  133  -  a citizen. The administration of public welfare should i n sure that a l l individuals concerned receive equal i n respect to s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y .  treatment  The needy per-  son i s a free person and as a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n retains his rights regarding h i s personal, s o c i a l and economic a f f a i r s . Every i n d i v i d u a l who  considers himself i n need has a right to  apply f o r assistance, and to have his e l i g i b i l i t y determined. He has a r i g h t to a thorough explanation of e l i g i b i l i t y procedures, and the steps he should take i n making a p p l i c a t i o n for assistance.  He i s then i n a better p o s i t i o n to decide  whether or not he wishes to proceed with the a p p l i c a t i o n .  It  i s considered that f o r most indigent people, the money payment i s the best wagf to meet the needs.  The i n d i v i d u a l must be  assured that he can depend on assistance at regular intervals u n t i l such time as his needs change, or u n t i l lie i s found to be no longer e l i g i b l e .  The p r i v a t e a f f a i r s of the recipient  of assistance are to be considered c o n f i d e n t i a l to the agency, and any sharing of information with other agencies i s to be done only upon the recipient »s approval;,-. With the rights of a c i t i z e n there are also the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the applicant's part to recognize the l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l limitations of the agency; to supply the agency with pertinent information related to his a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a i d ; and to keep the agency informed of any changes i n his  circumstances  which might a f f e c t his grant.  I f an i n d i v i d -  ual  feels that he has been treated u n f a i r l y , he has the right  •to a f a i r hearing by another  134  -  jurisdiction.  1  The incorporation of these p r i n c i p l e s into publ i c assistance i n B.C. has been effected to a major extent. The rights of a l l Individuals to apply f o r a i d and to receive equal treatment are respected as are the rights of recipients to money payments, to an assurance of continued regular a s s i s t ance, to a f a i r hearing, and to a maintenance of confidentia l i t y regarding personal a f f a i r s .  The extent to which the  programs i n t h i s province have been concerned with meeting the needs of indigent people adequately, and assuring the well-being of r e c i p i e n t s , has been a major focus; of t h i s study.  In t h i s concluding chapter an assessment Is made of  the degree to which these l a t t e r p r i n c i p l e s have been incorporated.  PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN B.C. - PRESENT AND FUTURE The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia has much to be proud of i n developing Canada's most progressive public a s s i s tance program.  The great strength to t h i s program l i e s i n  the l i b e r a l i s m and s i n c e r i t y with which the whole area of public welfare has been considered i n t h i s province.  This  has been a constant f a c t o r i n the growth and development of public assistance and such attitudes pervade the s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n enacted i n B.C. Commencing with the Residence 1  Ibid  p. 7 - 9  and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  - 135 Act of 1936 which brought consistency to matters of residence, t h i s philosopb/ was epitomized  with the passage of the S o c i a l  Assistance Act of 194-5 which, along with pursuant regulations made possible the f u l f i l m e n t of many of the above mentioned p r i n c i p l e s through the following: 1  The granting of assistance " t o Individuals, whether  adult or minor, or to f a m i l i e s , who through mental or p h y s i c a l I l l n e s s or other exigency are unable to provide i n whole or i n part by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , through other s e c u r i t y measures, or from income and other resources, necessities e s s e n t i a l to maint a i n or a s s i s t i n maintaining a reasonably normal and healthy existonce": 2  The granting of assistance to needy persons with-  out respect to "ra&e,v, color, creed, or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s : 3  The standardization of assistance practices through-  out the province to the extent that "the municipality s h a l l provide and maintain s o c i a l assistance and r e l a t i v e s o c i a l administrative services on a basis consistent with the standards established by the rules and regulations made pursuant t o t h i s Act": it  The sharing of assistance costs between the pro-  vince and the municipalities on the condition that " i f l o c a l authorities f a i l to comply with any provisions of this Act or any regulations made pursuant" p r o v i n c i a l funds can be withheld: 5  The supervision by p r o v i n c i a l authority of " l o c a l  government and municipal units ... that dispense funds auth-  -  136  -  orized under this A c t : 11  6  The S o c i a l Assistance Regulations  e s t a b l i s h the  right of the i n d i v i d u a l to an appeal against a d e c i s i o n and the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the Board of Review i s l a i d down with a view to ensuring a f a i r hearing without prejudice i n favor of either party. With such l e g i s l a t i o n the foundation was  laid  for a comprehensive program of public assistance designed to give aid on the basis of need.  It remains to consider  further developments and modifications to t h i s  fundamentally  sound structure. Residence.  In respect to the matter of residence  it,would appear that the present requirement of one year withi n the province on a self-supporting basis i s reasonable i n the l i g h t of the great number of transient persons who come to t h i s province seeking employment."'' The a b o l i t i o n of residence must await the inauguration of a country-wide program of unemployment assistance.  It i s strongly recommended  on the basis of existing practices i n regard to l o c a l r e s i d ence, v i z . that of denying assistance to residents of the province because they do not hold residence i n the l o c a l area, and of granting assistance and charging back costs to the responsible area, which i s administratively expensive, 1  This was  established i n a study during the winter of  1954-55» when i t was found that lit. 7 per cent of d e s t i t u t e  persons applying to nine d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l agencies i n Vancouver f o r assistance had less than one year's residence i n the province. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Report on R e g i s t r a t i o n of Unemployed, Vancouver,  February, 1955»  p.  17  -  137  -  that consideration be given to the abolishment of l o c a l residence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and that an a l t e r n a t i v e to the 80 - 20 formula be found f o r financing s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  1  This could be done through a m i l l rate levy as i s done i n Washington State, or on a per capita basis according to the population with, the l o c a l area.  The fact that during the  f i s c a l year 1953 - 54- the province paid $1,615,34-8.10 f o r p r o v i n c i a l cases, i . e . those persons having p r o v i n c i a l but not l o c a l residence; and i n addition 80 per cent of the $1»959*600.06 paid to municipal cases, indicates the great 90 per cent) that the province p already has i n financing s o c i a l assistance. I t would be  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (approximately 1  much simpler to a b o l i s h a l l procedures In regard to e s t a b l i s h ing l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n accounting l o c a l assistance costs, i n charging back costs to other l o c a l areas; and to e s t a b l i s h l o c a l or municipal p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the basis of 10 per cent of the t o t a l costs of s o c i a l assistance. I t would be a much more comprehensive program and would guarantee assistance to any resident of the province i n need r e gardless of what part of the province he was i n when he applied. 1 In the above mentioned study i t was found that although 84.. 5 per cent of the persons studied had at least one year's residence i n B.C., 2 5 . 3 per cent were not residents of Vancouver. This would mean charging-back, i f unemployment assistance were granted. 2 Public Welfare In B r i t i s h Columbia, 1954* S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, 1954-* p. 36  -  138  -  Another matter regarding residence which should be r e c t i f i e d i s that of the aged person who applies f o r assistance a f t e r being i n the province les:s than three years* or who enters the province a f t e r q u a l i f y i n g f o r Old Age Assistance i n another province.  He i s i n e l i g i b l e f o r the  Cost-of-Living Bonus and medical services u n t i l he reaches seventy and i s r e s t r i c t e d to the $ljO. grant.  The younger  person who has been i n t h i s province f o r only one year, I f i n need, can q u a l i f y f o r $t|-5» per month and medical services under the S o c i a l Allowance program.  This, i n effect discrim-  inates against the person over 6$ years of age.  If Social  Allowance i s the r e s i d u a l program f o r t h i s province then, according to the S o c i a l Assistance Act,  i t i s the respons-  i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l authority to subsidize the categori c a l assistance to the extent that the recipient's t o t a l allowance w i l l equal the S o c i a l Allowance grant. Reciprocal Agreements.  The matter of r e c i p r o c a l  agreements has been discussed and i t i s encouraging to note the extent to which B.C. has moved i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  Coun-  try-wide application of this p o l i c y i s most desirable and i t is hoped that further movement to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i s being considered.  The fact that B.C. and Saskatchewan have "ex-  perimentally" dispensed with the p r a c t i c e of reimbursement of funds by the responsible province points to considerable s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n r e c i p r o c a l agreement procedures. 1 Section 3 of the Act authorizes the subsidy of "other security measures".  -  139  -  In respect to those provinces which have no r e c i p r o c a l agreement with B.C..  this province should consider  the continuation of aid u n t i l r e c i p i e n t s who  leave the pro-  vince to better themselves have gained residence elsewhere. Some thought should also be given to the broader use of pub« l i e assistance agencies  i n 6isher provinces i n administering  assistance to residents of B.C.  who become indigent elsewhere  p r i o r to establishing residence.  Some of the other provinces  occasionally do accept reimbursement from B.C.  f o r assistance  granted to a resident of t h i s province f o r which they have b i l l e d the S o c i a l Welfare Branch  1  but t h i s p r a c t i c e could be  expanded i f the advantages were properly interpreted to other provinces.  The p r a c t i c e of r e p a t r i a t i o n i s i n no way r e l a t e d  to present trends towards increased migration and should be discarded as a r e l i c of Poor Law l e g i s l a t i o n .  The economy  of this country demands m o b i l i t y of the employable population and public assistance, i f i t i s to be curative, must be related to the nature of the economy.  ASSESSMENT OP RESOURCES It has been indicated that assessment of resources is handled quite d i f f e r e n t l y In the f e d e r a l programs of War Veterans' Allowance, Old Age Assistance, B l i n d Persons' Allowance, and Disabled Persons' Allowance, i n comparison to the p r o v i n c i a l programs of assistance. 1  The calculated income  Miss Marie R i d d e l l , op. c i t . p. 2  -  114-0 -  based on the value of r e a l property, the earned income from rentals and other sources are a l l subtracted from the maximum annual allowance under the program i n question. The fact that these p o l i c i e s are l a i d down i n fede r a l statutes and regulations means that they cannot be modified by the provinces. A major lesson can be learned from the federal programs i n that there i s an attempt made to maintain the r e cipient at a maximum l e v e l of independence.  This i s r e f l e c t e d  i n the personal property exemptions which are considerably larger than those i n Mothers' Allowance and S o c i a l Allowance. This tendency i s most noticeable i n War Veterans' Allowance where every e f f o r t i s made towards l i b e r a l Interpretation of policy.  The p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n brought about by one vet-  eran helping another has resulted i n the l i b e r a l attitude t o wards p o l i c y which are so evident.  The voice of the veteran  through the Canadian Legion and the aged through old age pension groups have been heard and acknowledged by the government, whereas to date the S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers» Allowance have had l i t t l e representation. The practice i n the United States of using c i t izen boards i n the administration of public assistance does much to keep the public informed of practices f o r which they are f i n a n c i a l l y responsible.  In t h i s country the provisions  of the various programs are unknown except to those who administer them and those who receive them.  The S o c i a l Allow-  -  -  11 4  -  ance or Mothers' Allowance r e c i p i e n t has not the opportunity to express his or her right to adequacy of assistance and the democratic  administration thereof.  It i s the responsi-  b i l i t y of the community to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formation of p o l i c y i n the interest of both the recipient and the taxpayer. Personal property. It i s considered that the personal property within the c a t e g o r i c a l programs are i n keeping with the permanent nature of the d i s a b i l i t y .  The  £act that the l i m i t s i n S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers» Allowance are lower i s acceptable where the period of f i n a n c i a l dependency w i l l be short.  The p r o v i n c i a l govern-  ment has seen the value i n preserving the resources of the recipient of S o c i a l Allowance who culosis.  i s s u f f e r i n g from Tuber-  The p o l i c y of assessing income from excess assets  on the basis of a deduction of three per cent as annual i n come i s v a l i d where assistance w i l l be needed f o r a considerable period and where vocational readjustment necessary.  may  be  It should be considered i n other situations  where i l l n e s s e s such as p o l i o m y e l i t i s , heart; disease, a r t h r i t i s , and mental i l l n e s s are involved. The p r a c t i c e of the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department i n r e s t r i c t i n g personal assets to that equal to one month's assistance brings a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s to the problem of s o c i a l adjustment.  The  City  should be approached regarding these discrepancies which  - lU2 severely effect the person applying f o r assistance i n Vancouver. F a i l i n g a correction of these practices there i s power under the S o c i a l Assistance Act to bring pressure to bear. Income.  With reference to the federal programs  the p o l i c i e s of War Veterans» Allowance are the most l i b e r a l and the most l i k e l y to encourage a maximum e f f o r t towards s e l f support.  The same incentive i s not i n evidence i n the other  f e d e r a l categories. Major changes have been made recently regarding policies r e l a t i n g to exemptions and income i n S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers' Allowance.  1  The major purpose i n making these  changes has been to effect greater standardization of p o l i c y i n p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l welfare o f f i c e s and hopefully i n municip a l o f f i c e s also.  These changes are being considered by the  Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department and there i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r thinking that they w i l l be put into e f f e c t . In the main the r e s u l t has been a reduction of allowable income, (eg. Whereas under the previous p o l i c y , the unit of two could earn an amount equal to t h e i r grant of $ 6 9 . 5 0 , they are now r e s t r i c t e d to a t o t a l income including allowance of $ 1 0 0 . )  Concern was expressed by the committee  responsible f o r the new p o l i c y regarding the danger of 11  attempting to set up a schedule designed to compensate f o r 2 law or inadequate s o c i a l assistance r a t e s . The new p o l 11  1 See Appendix C f o r S o c i a l Welfare Branch s e r i a l l e t t e r dated March 2 9 , 1955. 2  Ibid  -  li+3  -  i c y increases the gap between War Veterans* Allowance  policies  regarding income and those of S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers* Allowance  i n that the veteran with one dependent can have a  t o t a l income of $l£8. The p o l i c y of the United States Federal Security Agency i n exempting the f i r s t $50.  earned by the b l i n d must  c e r t a i n l y encourage self-support and consideration should be given to such a move i n this country f o r the indigent b l i n d and permanently disabled, There would appear to be the need f o r a more thorough interpretation to recipients of p o l i c i e s regarding i n come.  From the writer[a experience with people on assistance  there would seem to be considerable ignorance as to t h e i r rights and a corresponding reticence to earn more than the basic $20. exemption f o r fear of being "cut o f f " assistance,  LEVELS OF ASSISTANCE The major weakness i n public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia l i e s In the inadequacy of assistance rates. This i s not so much the case where the recipients have had representation to government and status i n the community as have the veteran, the aged, the b l i n d , and now the disabled. The S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers» Allowance have had no r e a l status with the r e s u l t that these rates are the lowest.  For  example the single veteran gets $60. per month whereas the unemployable gets  $1L5«^  1 Although the l a t t e r grant might be s u f f i c i e n t In r u r a l areas where cheap shelter and other resources may be a v a i l able, i t i s not so i n the c i t i e s .  -  l  l  A  -  In keeping with the philosophy  of public welfare  i n B r i t i s h Columbia I t would seem appropriate that adequate standards of assistance be established f o r use In public > assistance i n this province.  These have been formulated i n  t h i s study as a Suggested Scale f o r S o c i a l Allowance. S o c i a l 1  Allowance rates were i n i t i a l l y established on the basis of Workmen's Compensation p o l i c y but have long since f a l l e n "by the way side", the l a t t e r being $100.  f o r a mother and c h i l d In  comparison to $69.$0 In the assistance program.  There i s no  t r a d i t i o n to overcome i n bringing about a move towards adequacy but rather an ignorance concerning the "fruits?' of inadequacy - delinquency, impoverished family and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ships, mainourishment, lowered resistance t o p h y s i c a l and mental i l l n e s s , t o name but a few.  The Director of Medical  Services has indicated that much of the treatment given t o assistance recipients might be unnecessary i f rates were ad2 equate. Periodic Review.  The periodic review of a s s i s t -  ance rates as they r e l a t e to costs of the content of l i v i n g is necessary both to guard the r i g h t of the indigent to adequate minimum standards, and to protect the taxpayer.  The  steady decline In the Consumer Price Index i n Vancouver i n 1  See Table 1 0 , p. 100  2L This statement made In an interview with Dr. J.C. Moscovich, Director of Medical Services, S o c i a l Welfare Branch.  -  114-5  -  the past t h i r t y months "* housing excepted, indicates that 3  savings might be made by reviews at least once a year. Discrepancies Between Programs,  The p o l i c y of  the province i n providing bonuses f o r the aged to ensure a minimum l e v e l of adequacy i s to be commended.  However i t  must be recognized that the younger people i n need w i l l make a greater contribution - p o s i t i v e l y or negatively - to the community and oh t h i s basis alone the same l e v e l of adequacy is warranted f o r those on S o c i a l Allowance and Mothers' Allowance,  In keeping with the p r i n c i p l e of equal treatment  f o r a l l i t i s suggested that the prcv i n c i a l government adopt one scale of rates by which the needs of a l l Indigent people w i l l be met, whether i n categorical or r e s i d u a l assistance programs.  I f this were established many of the problems  facing r e c i p i e n t s , those of inadequate housing, poor c l o t h ing, lack of self-esteem, and the r e s u l t i n g lack of p a r t i c i pation i n church and other community a c t i v i t i e s would be solved or more e a s i l y handled.  Much of the time which s o c i a l  workers spend i n dealing with these problems could be used to work with the underlying problems r e l a t e d to f i n a n c i a l dependency. The granting of adequate assistance does not i n i t s e l f promote emotional growth and independence.  This was  1 The change from March 1952 to November 1951+ was as follows: clothing, 116.6 to 1 1 2 . 7 ; food, 120.9 to 1 1 2 . 3 ; household operation 123.0 to 125.1+, Consumer Price indices f o r Regional C i t i e s , Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1952,  - 146 proven i n an "experiment of adequacy" c a r r i e d out by the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department i n ance was  1949-50.  Assist-  granted on the basis of need as established between  worker and c l i e n t among a caseload of t h i r t y r e c i p i e n t s . Major improvements were noted i n respect to family r e l a t i o n ships, children's health and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school a c t i v i t i e s , and improved feelings i n being able to "dress  like  normal human beings" and to enjoy community recreation. With the primary focus on adequacy of assistance instead of rest o r a t i o n of the family to self-support, l i t t l e r e a l movement was  seen.  However the effects of adequacy of assistance were  evident, and as a basis f o r casework services focussed  on the  restoration of the recipients to a maximum l e v e l of independence.  The value of intensive casework i n helping public  assistance families towards independence has  been pointed  out by Dr. Wiltse i n his report on an experiment carried out with Aid to Dependent Children families i n C a l i f o r n i a .  1  Government Housing. It has long been the concern of the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department that families on assistance are inadequately housed, and that they are paying exorbitant prices f o r t h i s shelter. by a recent thesis when i t was  This was  pointed  found that only 33 per cent of  the families on s o c i a l assistance i n Vancouver which were p  studied had good housing? paying 1 2  $42« per  out  and of the four member families  month, which was  71  per cent i n excess of  WILTSE, Kermit, op. c i t . p. 1 - 26 Wilson, Warren, op. c i t . . p  the allowance,  only 55$ were adequately housed.  In reference to government subsidized housing the C i t y stressed i n t h e i r 194-9 Annual Report the need f o r housing and pointed out that b u i l d i n g houses to rent at $ 3 0 . or $ 3 5 . had no meaning f o r those on such low r e n t a l allowances.  The C i t y stated the fpliow&Qg: I f such rentals are necessary the department should be authorized to increase r e n t a l allowances i n cases- where there i s r e a l s u f f e r i n g and d i s t r e s s I f this short range p o l i c y of providing inadequate allowances i s continued i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that not only w i l l there be great loss i n human values, but that there w i l l be considerable i n crease i n public expenditure for medical, hosp i t a l , o r other i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n the future, 2  SOCIAL SERVICES It i s established that B.C. has the highest standards  of professional s o c i a l work personnel i n public  assistance i n North America, perhaps the highest i n the world.  This might have been said about the B r i t i s h troops  who defended courageously,  but unsuccessfully, the outposts  of the Empire during the l a s t war. The c r i t i c a l f a c t o r was one of equipment and supplies, and a statement made famous by t h i s experience was that of "too l i t t l e and too l a t e " . The great cry was "Give us the tools and we w i l l f i n i s h the 1  Ibid F i g . 5 and 6  p. 5 l  2 C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, Annual Report, 194-9* Quoted i n the Housing B u l l e t i n , #10, Vancouver Housing Association, 1952 ! ..  -  11L8  -  job", and there i s the same recognition i n public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia today. To carry the m i l i t a r y p a r a l l e l further the r e a l need i s for an "appreciation of the s i t u a t i o n " before planning any action.  The focus i n public assistance i n this  province has been on the i n d i v i d u a l to the neglect of the needs of the mass of the indigent population.  Just as an  army "marches on i t s stomach", the indigent require the basic necessities of l i f e before consideration can be given to the problems underlying the f i n a n c i a l dependency.  The tendency  has been to substitute "casework f o r c a l o r i e s " . With a program of adequacy of assistance In operation, t h i s province i s i n a p o s i t i o n to do a tremendous service i n Its public assistance programs because of the high standards of personnel.  This requires the use of the diagnos-  t i c approach not only within caseloads to select those r e c i p ients who  need and can benefit from professional casework  services, but also within the program i t s e l f i n the  assess-  ment and placement of s t a f f i n areas where they can make t h e i r maximum contribution.  Research i s needed to ascertain those  areas i n public assistance where casework services are not so urgently needed and i n this way  conserve the professional  resources. The greatest need i n the s o c i a l service program i s that of diagnostic f a c i l i t i e s i n the intake section of the public assistance programs.  It i s here that the funds  of the community are requested, and i t i s here that an i n -  - ^ vestment i s to be made.  -  As stewards of public funds intake  workers have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to assess the possible returns on the investment of f i n a n c i a l assistance, casework, and medical services.  It i s accept ed that a l l people have a  right to adequacy of assistance and medical care; but beyond t h i s there must be c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n i f r e s u l t s are to be tained, and the value of casework proved.  ob-  Casework planning  must be based on the d i g n i t y and worth of the i n d i v i d u a l , his recognized  a b i l i t y to grow and change, and on the r e -  sources which exist, and which can be mobilized i n the community.  It must be recognized  that these people do not  be-  long to the agency but to the community; and t h i s focus must be maintained i n respect to mobilizing the community to meet the needs of t h e i r fellow c i t i z e n s .  One wonders i f the re-  cipient population could not be mobilized and strengthened through the formation  of Recipients' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Clubs  i n the various communities.  Surely these people have much  to contribute, both to one another i n discussing ways and means of l i v i n g on public assistance, and to the development of a better public assistance program based on t h e i r own  ex-  periences, which i n so many Instances are admirable examples of how  to deal with harsh r e a l i t i e s . It should be stated that the services might be  more r e a d i l y available to families r e c e i v i n g Mothers t Allowances i f this program were discontinued, and the recipients absorbed within the o c i a l Allowance program. a  The rates of  assistance are i d e n t i c a l , and the l a t t e r program i s more  -  i5o -  f l e x i b l e because of i t s h i g h e r degree of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The  f a c t t h a t the r e c i p i e n t s are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  l o c a l or d i s t r i c t and  o f f i c e makes f o r g r e a t e r  care i n  the  planning,  a g r e a t e r degree of l o c a l f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s . The  development of r e -  t r a i n i n g programs i n p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e has province,  been r a p i d i n t h i s  and the standard of s e r v i c e i n t h i s area commendable.  I t i s s t r o n g l y recommended that a program of r e s e a r c h be i n s t i t u t d d , p r e f e r a b l y by the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work (where students are a v a i l a b l e ) t o assess the degree of success i n r e - t r a i n i n g r e c i p i e n t s , and  t o prove the v a l u e o f casework  s e r v i c e s i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The  a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n on r e -  c i p i e n t s during r e - t r a i n i n g i s recognized, should be  and  some study  g i v e n to i t as a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r In f a i l u r e  to  complete a course of t r a i n i n g , or s u c c e s s f u l placement. it  Is c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t s o c i a l work has  If  a role i n rehabilitation,  i t must be proved t o those r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the development  of these programs. M e d i c a l Care. assistance  i n B.C.  The  m e d i c a l c a r e program i n s o c i a l  i s second to none i n g i v i n g comprehensive  s e r v i c e s t o a l l r e c i p i e n t s q u a l i f y i n g under p r o v i n c i a l r e s i dence.  The  D i r e c t o r of M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s  major requirement l i e s  1 p.  and  district  super-  1  P u b l i c Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1954,  J  75-  the  i n a f u r t h e r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  authority to r e g i o n a l administrators visors.  suggests t h a t  °P» c i t .  -  151  -  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the B r i t i s h conception of health Insurance, that of a non-contributory system has been followed i n Canada i n other areas, v i z . , Family Allowances, Old Age Security, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Hospital Insurance Scheme, a l l of which are financed through taxation.  The federal government has expressed r e s p o n s i b i l -  i t y f o r health Insurance and i t i s assumed that when i n s t i t u t e d this program w i l l be financed i n a s i m i l a r manner. It i s suggested that i n i t i a l l y , the federal government might be asked to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n providing medical care f o r recipients of f e d e r a l categorical programs, v i z , the aged, the b l i n d , and the disabled.  In 1952 - 5 3 , 1+5,875  1  or 6 7 . 7 per cent of those e l i g i b l e f o r public medical care were aged or b l i n d r e c i p i e n t s . 2 $5,591,1+10.13  Last year this service cost  and i f the federal government would assume  50 per cent of the costs to categorical recipients the saving to this province would be s i g n i f i c a n t , i . e . In the neighborhood of $ 1 . 9 3 m i l l i o n s .  This would provide a ready source  to finance increased S o c i a l Allowance grants which l a s t year totalled $3.57 millions.  3  GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS There i s a very r e a l need i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a d e f i n i t e program of Unemployment Assistance which t o 1  Public Welfare In B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953, p. U 75  2  Public Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951+, p. J 38  3  Ibid  -  152  -  date has been a make-shift arrangement between the province and municipalities during the winter months.  This subject  has received considerable attention at Ottawa recently, and i t i s hoped that some d e f i n i t e p o l i c y regarding federal part i c i p a t i o n w i l l be formulated,at  the forthcoming conference  between federal and p r o v i n c i a l representatives. Research. Without doubt the public assistance program i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s one to be j u s t i f i a b l y proud-, of; however i t s further development requires the i n s t i t u t i o n of a comprehensive research program i n , a l l phases, i f the needs of the indigent are to be adequately met at a minimum cost to the community, and with a maximum use of e x i s t i n g and potential  resources. Public P a r t i c i p a t i o n . The objective i n public  assistance i s to meet, through f i n a n c i a l grants, the needs of people who are unable to provide themselves with the essentials of l i f e .  Further, i t s objective i s to meet these  needs i n such a way as to minimize the dependency of the r e c i p i e n t , and to provide an opportunity f o r him to r e - e s t a b l i s h himself whenever possible as a s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g , self-supporting c i t i z e n .  This objective can be r e a l i z e d to a greater de-  gree through c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the development of p o l i c y i n public assistance.  I t can be further r e a l i z e d through  Increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n of recipients i n groups where they can develop feelings of self-i^orth and some sense of respons i b i l i t y , both to those aided and to those who  administer  the program.  153  -  I t has been s a i d that "without a v i s i o n the  people perish".  I t i s only as the c i t i z e n s - both those  ifchat give and those that receive - r e a l i z e the dignity and worth of the i n d i v i d u a l and what his r e s t o r a t i o n means to society i n the reduction s o c i a l impoverishment, comprehensive  of delinquency, mental i l l n e s s , and  that they w i l l move to i n s t i t u t e a  system of s o c i a l security, including  public assistance measures.  adequate  -  151+  -  APPENDIX  A  ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE PUBLIC WELFARE IN  OP  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  D E P A R T M E N T H E A L T H  &  OF  W E L F A R E  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH  ACCOUNTING Estimates, Accounting and Statistics  DEPUTY MINISTER OF WELFARE  RESEARCH  MEDICAL SERVICES Direction of Medical Services for Social Welfare Branch •  DIRECTOR OF WELFARE  Social Surveys & Research  PERSONNEL ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE TRAINING In-Training library  DIRECTOR INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS  FIELD CONSULTANTS  T.B. and V.D. SOCIAL.SERVICES  WELFARE INSTITUTIONS LICENSING  Services to Patients in Hospitals and Clinics  Licensing and .- Inspection of: Boarding Hemes Orphanages Maternity Homes Hostels Nurseries Kindergartens, etc.  PROVINCIAL HOME  PSYCHIATRIC SOCIAL SERVICES  Care for Dependent Aged Men  Services to Patients in Crease •Clinic, Mental Hospitals, Homes for Aged, Woodlands School  Provincial Home Act  OLD  Provision ot Maintenance for the Aged Old Age Assistance Act Old Age Security Act The Blind Pensions Act (Federal) The Blind Persons Allowance Act Old Age Assistance Act (Provincial)  REGION 2  REGION 1  CHILD WELFARE  AGE ASSISTANCE BOARD  FIELD SERVICE Provision of Social Service to a l l Categories Serving: Child Welfare Mothers* Allowances Social Allowances Old-Age Assistance Tuberculosis Division Venereal Disease Division Mental Hospitals Child Guidance Clinic Boys' Industrial School Girls' Industrial School Hospital Inspection Branch Welfare Institutions Provincial Home Collections Service Law Courts Family Allowances (Federal) Veterans Affairs (Federal) Indian Affairs (Federal)  REGION 3  FAMILY SERVICES  Protection of Neglected and Dependent Children  Safeguarding the Family Unit - Service to Single Persons Counselling  Adoption Act Children of Unmarried Parents Act Protection of Children Act Juvenile Delinquents Act  Mothers' Allowance Act Social Assistance Act Deserted Wives and Childrens Maintenance Act Parents Maintenance Act  REGION 4  BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL Rehabilitation of the Committed Delinquent Boy Industrial School for Boys Act  GIRLS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL  MISCELLANEOUS  Rehabilitation of the Committed Delinquent Girl Industrial School for Girls Act  REGION 5  REGION 6  T REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR  Provincial Offices Albemi Courtenay Duncan Nanaimo Victoria  Municipal Office Amalgamated Saanich Victoria  Municipal Offices Served Provincially Albemi Campbell River Central Saanich Courtenay Cumberland Duncan Esquimalt Ladysmith Lake Cowichan Nanaimo North Cowichan Oak Bay Port Alberni Quallcum Beach FIELD CONSULTANT  REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR  Provincial Offices New Westminster Vancouver Westview  Municipal Offices Amalgamated Burnaby Coquitlam New Westminster, City North Vancouver, . City North Vancouver District Richmond Vancouver, City West Vancouver  Municipal Offices Served Provincially Delta Fraser Mills Port Coquitlam Port Moody Westview  FIELD CONSULTANT  REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR  Provincial Offices  Municipal Offices Amalgamated  Kamloops Kelowna Penticton Salmon Arm Vernon  Kamloops, City Kelowna, City Penticton, City Vernon, City  Municipal Offices Served Provincially Armstrong Coldstream Enderby Glenmore Merritt North Kamloops Oliver Peachland Princeton Revelstoke Salmon Arm, City Salmon Arm, District Spallumcheen Summerland  FIELD CONSULTANT  REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR  REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR  Provincial Offices  Provincial Offices  Cranbrook Creston Femie Grand Forks Trail Nelson New Denver Municipal Offices Served Provincially Cranbrook Creston Fernie Grand Forks Greenwood Kaslo Kimberley Nelson Rossland Trail Warfield  FIELD CONSULTANT  Pouce Coupe Prince George Quesnel Williams Lake Prince Rupert Smithers Municipal Offices Served Provincially Dawson Creek Prince George Prince Rupsrt Quesnel  FIELD CONSULTANT  REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR  Provincial Offices  Municipal Offices Amalgamated  Abbotsford Haney Chilli wack  Chilliwhack Township Langley Surrey  Municipal Offices Served Provincially Chilllwack Hope Kent Maple Ridge Matsqui Mission, District Mission, Village Pitt Meadows Sumas  FIELD CONSULTANT  APPENDIX  B  E L I G I B I L I T Y FACTORS IN PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN  WASHINGTON STATE  i  BASIC ELIGIBILITY  1  OA A ( l )  FACTOR MUST  AGE  B E 65  YEARS  ADC OR  OLDER  t  ; M A I N T A I N E D R E S I D E N C E IN S T A T E ! 5 OUT OF L A S T 9 YEARS AND 1  RESIDENCE IN STATE  IYEAR  RESIDENCE IN INST. 1.  MUST  PRECEDING  BE  PERSON  TRANSFER OF PROPERTY  jHAS NOT T R A N S F E R R E D PROPERTY jTO Q U A L I F Y FOR A S S I S T A N C E  NOT CONCURRENTLY RECEIVING OTHER AID  CANNOT B E CONCURRENTLY R E C E I V I N G OTHER T Y P E OF FEDERAL A I D  •  APPLICANT MUST BE A,  NEED  PROPERTY  7. 0. 9.  i 10.  OLDER  OAA  SAME AS  'NO  REQUIREMENTS  S A M E AS OAA E X C E P T CAN PAY GRANTS TO PERSON IN P U B L I C AND P R I V A T E HOSPITALS  DOES  OAA  SAME AS  OAA  S A M E AS  OAA  IS NOT E L I G I B L E FOR F E D E R A L A I D OR CANNOT B E INCLUDED IN F E D E R A L A I D GRANT  MUST B E T O T A L L Y AND PERMANENTLY DISABLED  NOT A B L E TO WORK IN A REGULAR OR P R E D I C T A B L E MANNER  2.  2. 3.  NOT S O L I C I T I N G ALMS IN WASHINGTON NO OTHER PRIMARY INFIRMITY TECHNICALLY BLIND  S A M E AS  OAA  IS IN N E E D IF: ARE L I M I T E D TO T H E FOLLOWING  !  B.  VALUES:  A L L INCOME (BUDGEY)  IS  OF  L E S S THAN ONE M O N T H ' S  *  EXCEPT  IN  REQUIREMENTS  AB PROGRAMS  FAMILY  INSURANCE  OF  FEOERAL MATCHING  FAMILY  1. OAA, AB, DA  T O T A L OF C A S H AND INSURANCE OF $500 FOR A S I N G L E AND $1000 FOR A F A M I L Y A CAR BUT T O T A L V A L U E OF C A S H . S E C U R I T I E S , INSURANCE ( C A S H V A L U E ) AND CAR E Q U I T Y MUST NOT E X C E E D &1050 IN V A L U E FOR F A M I L Y BUT #550 FOR A S I N G L E U S E D AND U S E F U L HOUSEHOLD F U R N I S H I N G S AND C L O T H I N G A R T I C L E S OF S E N T I M E N T A L V A L U E OTHER U S E D AND U S E F U L PERSONAL P R O P E R T Y S U C H AS T O O L S , B U S I N E S S E Q U I P M E N T , FARM M A C H I N E R Y , L I V E S T O C K , E T C . WHICH W I L L R E D U C E NEED OR A I D FOR R E H A B I L I T A T I O N . PROPERTY OWNED AND U S E D BY A C H I L D AS A MEMBER O F A GROUP ENGAGED IN L E A R N I N G AND EARNING FUNDS FOR F U T U R E E D U C A T I O N A L N E E D S  ,  ,  GRANTS OF A L L R E C I P I E N T S A R E MATCHED E X C E P T WHEN A R E C I P I E N T ( l ) IS IN AN I N S T I T U T I O N AND HAS TUBERCULOS16 OR (2) IS INCOMPETENT AND HAD NO G U A R D I A N , OR ( 3 ) IS IN A P U B L I C I N S T I T U T I O N BUT IS NOT A P A T I E N T  ._ i n ?  i  2.  ADC  -  3.  NO MATCHING  ALL  GRANTS  ARE MATCHED  FOR ANY GA  GRANTS  NOT  S A M E AS  DEFINITION OF NEED IS SAME FOR ALL CATEG 0RIES EXCEPT EMPLOYABLE GA AND FOLLOWS BELOW  NEED,  REQUIREMENTS  SAME AS U N E M P L O Y A B L E GA  S A M E AS  1.  EMPLOYABLE ((,)  M A I N T A I N E D R E S I D E N C E IN S T A T E FOR 1 YEAR P R E C E D I N G A P P L I C A T I O N BUT NO W A I T I N G P E R I O D FOR EMERGENCY  OAA  D E P R I V E O OF P A R E N T A L SUPPORT OR C A R E THRU D E A T H , A B S E N C E OR S EPARAT1 ON L I V I N G IN A HOME WITH A RELATIVE  GA NO  S A M E AS  C A S H S U R R E N O E R V A L U E OF A . | 5 0 0 - S I N G L E PERSON  6.  OR  OAA  3.  B. $1000 -  YEARS  S A M E AS  A HOME C A S H AND M A R K E T A B L E S E C U R I T I E S A. $200 - S I N G L E PERSON  B. SjiljOO -  18  OAA  1. 2.  li. 5.  it  IN HOLDINGS  OAA  MUST B E  ! UNEMPLOYABLE ( 5 )  !  S A M E AS  PROVISIONS  i  (li)  DA  M A I N T A I N E D R E S I D E N C E IN M A I N T A I N E D R E S I D E N C E IN S T A T E 5 OUT OF L A S T 10 YEARS S T A T E FOR 1 YEAR BUT I F B L I N D N E S S IS C A U S E D PRECEDING APPLICATION A F T E R COMING TO S T A T E , NO REQUIREMENTS  1.  •  •  M A I N T A I N E D R E S I D E N C E IN S T A T E 1 YEAR P R E C E D I N G APPLICATION (RELATIVE OR C H I L D )  SAME AS  Appendix * (Rev. 9-54)  FEDERAL MATC»\wi)  MUST B E : .1. 21 OR O V E R , OR 2. l(> TO 21 AND THRU 12TH GRADE OR NOT E L I G I B L E FOR T R A I N I N G S C H O O L  •  OTHER  (AND  MUST B E : 1. UNDER »l6, OR 2. 1.6 OR 17 AND IN S C H O O L ( I N C L U D E S UNBORN CHILDREN)  A S T A T E OR F E D E R A L S A M E AS OAA I F S T I L L INSTITUTION C O N S I D E R E D AS " L I V I N G (2, A P U B L I C M E N T A L I N S T I T U T I O N IN H O M E " ( 5 . A P R I V A T E OR P U B L I C ( HOSPITAL I i . " S U B J E C T TO S T A T E L I C E N S I N G ( 5 . MUST B E A P A T I E N T IN A M E D I C A L I N S T I T U T I O N IF IN PUBLIC INSTITUTION ( 6 . MUST NOT B E P S Y C H O T I C  INSTITUTION A . MUST NOT B E B.  2.  IMMEDIATELY  [APPLICATION  (2)  FACTORS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE CATEGORY AB (?)  *  APPLY  OAA  S A M E AS U N E M P L O Y A B L E GA  1. 2. 3.  A B L E TO WORK R E G U L A R L Y , BUT NOT WORKING F U L L — T I M E IS A T T E M P T I N G TO GET WORK  IS IN N E E D IF: A . P R O P E R T Y H O L D I N G S DO NOT E X C E E D L.A HOME 2 . U S E D AND U S E F U L A . HOUSEHOLD F U R N I S H INGS B. CLOTHING—PERSONAL EFFECTS C . TOOLS & EQUIPMENT U S E D IN T R A D E OR OCCUPATION • . L I V E S T O C K WHOSE P R O DUCTS A R E CONSUMED 8. INCOME DOES NOT E X C E E D COST OF R E Q U I R E M E N T S C . H A 6 NO WAY TO MEET COST OF R E Q U I R E M E N T S THRU C R E D I T OR L O C A L P U B L I C OR P R I V A T E COMMUNITY R E SOURCES OF A N Y T Y P E r . A . N Y E Q U I T Y IN ANY OTHER T Y P E OF P R O P E R T Y ( E X C E P T A - l 4 2 A B O V E IS A R E SOURCE)  -  156  APPENDIX  C  SCHEDULE OF EXEMPTIONS AND OTHER INCOME  >UOTE  TELEPHONE  O U RFILE NO..  B E A C O N 6 1 1 1  THE GOVERNMENT OF T H E PROVINCE O F BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT  O FH E A L T H A N D W E L F A R E  SOCIAL W E L F A R E  BRANCH  VICTORIA  OFFICE  OF T H E  DIRECTOR O F W E L F A R E  March 29, 1955 SERIAL NO. 302P/234M TO ALL, MUNICIPALITIES AND OFFICIALS OF T H E SOCIAL W E L F A R E BRANCH Re:  Social Allowance and-.Mothers' AllowancesSchedule of Exemptions and Deductions on Other Income  A committee comprising municipal and provincial representatives has for some time been engaged in the study of the above-named subject with a view to establishing a Uniform policy at municipal and provincial level. The attached is the final report of the committee and the schedule outlined therein has been approved. The schedule will become effective A p r i l 1, 1955 in all provincial social welfare offices, and it is recommended that it be put into effect at the same time in all municipal welfare offices. Regulation 10 of the Regulations made pursuant to the Mothers' Allowances Act will be deleted A p r i l 1, 1955. Instructions in the Policy Manual will be amended shortly. A review of the effectiveness, of this schedule will be made at the end of a six months1' period.  Serial Letter Book "SOCIAL A L L O W A N C E " JAS:eh  J. A . S A D L E R Director of Welfare  R E P O R T O F C O M M I T T E E STUDYING S C H E D U L E OF E X E M P T I O N S AND DEDUCTIONS ON O T H E R I N C O M E P E R T A I N I N G TO R E C I P I E N T S O F SOCIAL A L L O W A N C E A N D M O T H E R S ' A L L O W A N C E . ,  General Remarks As was pointed out previously, although a schedule had been established in the administration of Mothers' Allowances, there has been no uniformity in dealing with earnings and income in Social Allowance cases, at. either Municipal or P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . The Committee confirmed their opinion previously expressed, that any schedule established should be uniform for both forms of assistance at both levels of administration. The Committee again emphasized their belief thai, the basic consideration of any such schedule should be the encouragement of individual and family independence wherever possible, and that recognition should be given to individual efforts toward self-supports The Committee re-affirmed their awareness of the danger of attempting to set up a schedule designed to compensate for low or inadequate social assistance rates, and feel that the present suggested schedule could and should be applicable even though social assistance rates are revised. 1.  The following classification of income is suggested: (B) Unearned Income  (A) Earned Income  Income from:  Income f r o m : (1)  Casual and permanent earnings-(a) Single persons (b)  Heads of families  (2)  Boarders  (3)  Roomers or Suites  (4)  Sale of Produce  (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 *(9 (10 (11 (12 (13 (14 (15 (16  Union or Lodge Benefits Insurance Benefits Annuities Superannuation Co-operative Societies Disability or M i l i t a r y Pension Widows' Allowance War Veterans' Allowance Unemployment Insurance Workmen's Compensation Alimony or separation order Separation agreement or voluntary payments Deserted Wives' and Children's Maintenance Unmarried Parents payments Self-contained suites Net rental from property apart from the home  - 2 (17) (18) (19)  Sale of property apart from the home Sale of Assets Any other income not classified as earned income as in Section (J  * 'Unearned Income 1 9 refers to Unemployment Insurance to the working mother who is head of the family, or the over-age husband whose opportunities for further employment are remote, not to the employable male head of the family. 2.  The following schedule of exemptions is recommended: (A) Earned Income The exemptions for any income are not cumulative and must be calculated on a monthly income basis. (1)  Casual and Permanent Earnings: (a)  Single P e r s o n s - - a basic exemption of $10.00, plus further exemption of 25% of the balance of the earnings.  (b)  Heads of F a m i l i e s - - a basic exemption of $20. 00, plus further exemption of 25% of the balance of the earnings for Unit 2 or more N O T E - - E a r n e d income and social assistance together shall in no case exceed the following maximums: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  - $ 65.00 100.00 115.00 130.00 145.00 160.00 175.00  N Q T E - - " C a s u a l " Earnings: It was felt that if a man and woman both had " C a s u a l " earnings, the basic and percentage exemption should apply on the combined earnings. (2)  Income from Boarders: (not members of immediate family) $50.00 be exempted for the first boarder and $35. 00 for each additional boarder subject to local municipal by-laws as to boarding houses. This would include the basic exemption if there is other earned i n come. If the home is a licensed boarding home, or contains more than two boarders, then it should not be subsidized by Social Assistance  (3)  Income from Roomers or Suites: Rented within the family home wherein services are provided by the landlord, should be considered as straight earned income with the same exemption as earnings of heads of f a m i l i e s .  I  - 3 (4)  (B)  Income from Sale of Products: The administering office must determine the amount of net income which w i l l then be considered as earned income.  Unearned Income (1)  A l l unearned income as outlined and any other income of a s i m i l a r nature is wholly deductible. An exception to this may be made in a case of excessive rental. F o r the purpose of this schedule, Old Age Security, Old Age Assistance, Blind Assistance, Disabled Persons Allowance and F a m i l y Allowance are not taken into consideration.  (2)  Income from self-contained suites wherein no services are provided by the landlord is to be considered as in the same way as net rental from property apart from the house. N O T E - - Net Rental from property apart from the home was defined as the gross income from property less light, heat, insurance, water rates, taxes and necessary repairs where applicable.  3.  Earnings of Children It was felt.the question.of. the .exejnption of earnings, of a working child in the family presented an entirely different picture from that of the earnings of the head of the family,, In the former, the degree of responsibility to the family was less and, therefore, the exemptions should be greater. (1)  Earnings of children up to the age of 18 and s t i l l attending school and i n cluded in the Social Assistance, may be exempted up to $30. 00 per month. Earnings above that should be totally deductible.  (2)  Earnings of working children in the home Where there are one or two working children in the home, an exemption of 75% of the gross individual earnings or $80. 00 each, whichever is the greater, may be made. In the case of three or more working children in the home, it is felt that the total income may be sufficient to support the family group and any application for social allowance should be given consideration only on the individual case basis. N O T E - Such a child is not eligible for Social Allowance or Mothers' Allowance and is not to be included in the basic family unit when computing amount of the allowance. Calculations are to be made on gross earnings.  (3)  Earnings of children out of the home Such children should be approached and encouraged to contribute to the family. Subject to individual circumstances, a maximum of 50% of the  - 4 contribution could be deducted from the allowance payable to the family. This would apply also to Assigned Pay. 4.  General Recommendations , (1) (2)  1 Earnings should be calculated on a monthly basis ( 4 j times the weekly rate) and adjustments should be made in the nearer lower dollar of earnings As it is recognized that a person owning a home has incidental expenses for upkeep in addition to taxes, etc. , it is felt that no differentiation should be made in allowance paid to a person paying rent and a person owning his home. This w i l l require a change in policy for Social Allowance and an amendment to the regulations of the Mothers' Allowance Act.  (3)  In the event of the application of these regulations creating a hardship, special consideration could be given in the local area on an individual case basis, subject to the approval of the administering authority.  (4)  It is not the intention to apply these regulations to active cases where a reduction in the allowance would result. However, these regulations are to be applied in the case of new application, reinstatement or change in circumstances.  (5)  The Committee recommends that the suggestions made in this report be put into effect as of A p r i l 1st, 1955. Any comments or suggestions regarding the implementation of these regulations should be submitted to the Director of Welfare. If a review is necessary the Committee w i l l reconvene.  JAS/rp  -  157  Appendix  D  BIBLIOGRAPHY  General References  Bond, Floyd A., et. a l . , pur Needy Aged, Henry Holt & Co.,  New York, 195t£  Burns, Eveline, The American S o c i a l Security System, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 191+9 Cassidy, H.M., Public Health & Welfare Organization i n Canada, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 19U-5 Falk, Myron, Settlement Laws, A"Major problem i n S o c i a l Welfare", American Association of S o c i a l Workers, 191+8  .  ;  Govan, E.L., Residence & R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Canada, Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1952 Miles, Arthur P., An Introduction to Public Welfare, D.C. Heath & Co., Boston, 19IL9 Ralph, Edmund v . , The Use of the Standard Budget to Evaluate Need in" Public Assistance, (Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1952) S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Acts & Regulations f o r F i e l d Service, Department or Health & Welfare, V i c t o r i a , P o l i c y Manual f o r F i e l d Service, Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, A Guide to Family Spending i n Toronto, 191+9  -  158  BIBLIOGRAPHY  S p e c i f i c References Berman & Blaetus, "Survey of Public Assistance L e g i s l a t i o n " , Public .Welfare, IX, 1951 Bierman, Pearl, Medical Assistance Programs *, S o c i a l Service Review, XXVIII, 1955w  1  B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia In the Canadian Confederation, Submission to the rtoyal commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, 1938 Canadian Welfare Council, piibllc Provision f o r Medical care i n Canada^ Ottawa, 1952 Cassidy, H.M»# "Public Welfare Organization i n Canada Dominion and provincial *, Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Work, Ottawa,,1937 1  Community Chest & Council of Greater Vancouver, Report on Registration of Unemployed, Vancouver, 1955 Currin, Maurine, "Operation Diagnosis *, Public Welfare, XII, 1954 1  Davis, Eleanor J . , *The Question of Length of Residence ', Public Welfare, VII, 1949 l  Dixon, W.G.,  1  "issues In Public Assistance", B r i t i s h Welfare, VI, 1949  Columbia  Epler, Elizabeth, "Old Age Assistance: children»s A b i l i t y to Support", S o c i a l Security B u l l e t i n , XVII,  1954  -  Jackson, Glenn E., "Settlement & S o c i a l Welfare In New York", S o c i a l Service Review, XV, 19iul Leet, Glen, "Rhode Island Abolishes Settlement", S o c i a l Service Review, XCIII, 19^4 Lefson, Leon, "Rehabilitation of public Assistance Recipients", Public Welfare, XI, 1953 Murphy, Marion, "Residence, A Problem f o r Unmarried Canadian Welfare, XXVIII, 1953  Mothers",  -  1 5 9  -  BIELIOGRAPHY R i l e y , Sarah, "How Adequate Should A s s i s t a n c e Be", P u b l i c W e l f a r e , V I , 191-1-8 Smith, M a r j o r i e j . , "The p l a c e of S e r v i c e s i n p u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e " , P u b l i c W e l f a r e , IX, 1 9 5 1 S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Annual Reports of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 - 8 , 1 9 5 3 , and 1 9 5 4 , S o c i a l Welfare Administration i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o f f i c e of the T r a i n i n g S u p e r v i s o r , Vancouver, 1 9 5 3 T a y l o r , Malcolm G., " S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e M e d i c a l Care Programs i n Canada", American J o u r n a l of p u b l i c Health, XXXXIV, 1 9 5 4 Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , Housing B u l l e t i n , X,  1952  Washington S t a t e Department o f P u b l i c w e l f a r e , P u b l i c Welfare i n the S t a t e of Washington, Olympia,  T9~43  White, Ruth, " M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s i n Old Age A s s i s t a n c e " , S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n ^ XV, 1 9 5 2 W i l s o n , Warren, Housing C o n d i t i o n s of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e F a m i l i e s , (Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 5 5 )  W i l t s e , Kermit, S o c i a l Casework i n P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e , S t a t e of California, 1 9 5 2  

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