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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Public assistance policy : a review of contemporary legislation and practice in British Columbia 1955

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PUBLIC ASSISTANCE POLICY A Review of Contemporary Legislation and Practice i n Br i t i s h Columbia by DOUGLAS LASCELLES JACKSON Thesis Submitted i n par t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK School of Social Work THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1955 v i ABSTRACT The purpose of this study has been to review the development of public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia; and to compare the present policies of (a) e l i g i b i l i t y and determin- ation of need, (b) assistance levels, and (c) service programs, in war Veterans* Allowance, o l d Age Assistance, Blind Persons* Allowance, Motherst Allowance and Social Allowance. Reference is made to American programs where a comparison of policies is helpful i n clarifying Issues. On policy concerning such questions as residence, relatives* responsibility, citizenship, assessment of resources, levels of.assistance, and service programs, the policy Manual and the Acts and Regulations of the B.C. Social Welfare Branch are used as the basis for comparative analysis, interviews were held with authorities administering the programs and these were pursued In order to c l a r i f y apparent variation i n policy be- tween programs and administrative agencies. Information on the American programs was obtained through literature, correspon- dence; and a v i s i t to one local office of the State Department of public Assistance, Washington. For the purpose of measuring levels of assistance, use is made of a standard budget developed i n a previous M&ster of Social Work thesis. From this a monthly cost schedule is developed to suggest an up to date budgetary standard and to point up the evaluation of the adequacy of current public assist- ance allowances. Discrepancies between programs on such mat- ters as exemptions and additional income are also examined. Service programs including the social and medical aspects are studied comparatively, and i t is established that B r i t i s h Columbia is a leader in this respect.. The more .effective use of trained and untrained personnel i n the social services appears to demand further research. The study leads to seven major suggestions; (a) abolition of local residence qualifications with appropriate financial arrangements; (b) standardization and liberalization of policies respecting assessment of resources and income; (c) use of the standard budget i n establishing and meeting need; (d) use of a simplified budget - de f i c i t method for determining grants; (e) more effective use of personnel i n social services; (f) extended use of research i n public assistance; (g) development of advisory - committee groups in public assistance. i l TABLE OF CONTENTS page Acknowledgements • • • • • >v Abstract • . • . • • v i Chapter I public Assistance Programs in B.C.. . . . . 1 Constitutional responsibility in Canada. Historical development of public assistance i n B.C. A review of federal programs. Provincial and Mun- i c i p a l programs. Administrative structure. Summary. Chapter II E l i g i b i l i t y Factors (Non Financial) . . . . 29 Residence laws in Canada. Reciprocal Agreements. Residence in the united States. Relatives* responsibility. Citizenship and moral standards. Summary. Chapter III Assessment of Resources • 61 Real property. Personal property and income. Assessment of property in the united states. Transfer of property. Income and additional exemp- tions. Nursing and boarding home care. Assessment of resources in Washington State. Summary. Chapter IV Levels of Assistance 85 Development of the concept of adequacy. A Minimum budget. Assistance rates in B.C. A case for graduated scales*. Meeting need i n Washington Stated Supplementary allowances. Summary. Chapter V Service Programs . . . . . 107 Social services. Diagnosis i n social assist- ance. Casework services. Rehabilitation services. Medical care in public assistance. Public care in Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia's program. Medical indi- gency. Summary. i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS continued. page Chapter VI Conclusions 132 Basic principles In public welfare. Public assistance i n B.C«# present and future. Residence. Reciprocal Agreements. Assessment of Resources. Levels of Assistance, Discrepancies. Public Housing. Rehabilitation services. Medical care. General Rao oramendations• Appendices A Administrative Structure of Provincial and Municipal Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . l^lj. B E l i g i b i l i t y Factors in Public Assistance in Washington 155 C Serial Letter from Director of Welfare regarding a Schedule of .Exemptions and Other Income . . 156 D Bibliography 157 iv TABLE OP CONTENTS oontinued Tables and Schedules i n the Test Table 1 Residence Regulations i n Canada - Provincial and Municipal 33-35 Table 2 Residence Requirements for public Assistance in B r i t i s h Columbia 39 Table 3 Relatives» Responsibility in B.C 55 Table 1|. Real Property, Derived and Calculated Income Regulations i n War veterans* Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Mothers* Allowance, and Social Allowance - 63 Table lj. (a) A Comparison of Deductions of Income from Property, Rentals, and Boarding Care, in war Veterans» Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Mothers » .Allowance, and Social Allowance . . . 6I4. Table 5 Personal Property and Income Regulations i n War veterans* Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Mothers* Allowance, and Social Allowance . . . 66 Table 6 Assessment of Resources for Nursing and Boarding Home Care i n Vancouver City Social Service Department, Municipality of Burnaby, and Social Welfare Branch. • • • . 80 Table 7 Monthly Budget Item cost Schedule, Vancouver, November, 195fy- 92 Table 8 Public Assistance Rates In Br i t i s h Columbia . . 9ij. Table 9 Comparison of Rates of Assistance with Costs of the "content of Living 1 1 in Vancouver, November, 19514- . • • 96 Table 10 A Suggested Scale of Social Allowance Rates Based on Cost of Pood, Clothing and Personal Items, According to Age and Sex, and Shelter as of November, 195H- 100 t The writer wishes to acknowledge the help received from Prof. ¥.G. Dixon and Dr. L.C. Marsh of the School of Social Work i n regard to matters of content and research method respectively, and in the reading of draft chapters. Also, the writer greatly appreciates the splendid cooper- ations shown hy the following In providing material on policy and program: Mr. J. H. Brown, D i s t r i c t Authority, War veterans» Allowance, and Mrs^ Mary Nicholson, Social Service, Department of veterans' Affairs; Miss Margaret Gourlay, Welfare Director of the Vancouver City Social Service Department; Mr. E.L. Coughlin, Administration, and Mr. W. Rasmussen, Dis t r i c t Supervisor, Social Welfare Department, Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby; and Mrs. Nora Downey, Acting Administrator, Whatcom County Public Welfare Department, PUBLIC ASSISTANCE POLICY CHAPTER I PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS IN B.C. CONSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY IN CANADA In considering the development of public assist- ance i n Bri t i s h Columbia i t is important that some attention be given to the legislative structure upon which the program has been bu i l t . When the Fathers of confederation undertook to formulate a Canadian Constitution they, of course, had no conception of social security, as i t is known today. Insofar as they recognized the need for such ser- vices, they must have presumed that these would be provided by the local authorities as had been the tradition in England since the days of Elizabethan'poor Law. Public welfare is not mentioned in the B r i t i s h North America Act as such. Those sections which serve to define the respective jurisdictions of the Dominion and the provinces in this f i e l d seem unrelated in language and in their original meaning to the problems of modern social welfare. In Section 9 1 of the B r i t i s h North America Act, the parliament of Canada was empowered w t o make laws for the peace, order, and good government of Canada, in relation to a l l matters not coming within the classes of subjects by this Act assigned exclusively to the legislatures of the provinces1*. Section 92 of the Act gave to the provinces cer- tain powers to legislate on matters of public welfare. This includes the establishment of prisons in and for the prov- ince; the establishment of hospitals, asylums, charities and eleemosynary institutions, and municipal Institutions; the solemnization of marriage; property and c i v i l rights; the ad- ministration of justice In the province; and "generally a l l matters of a merely local or private nature™. The Dominion parliament was given by the Fathers of Confederation the residual powers; that i s , explicit grants of power were made to the provincial legislatures and a l l the remainder was to go to the Dominion. The words "peace, order, and good government" were not to be taken i n any l i t e r a l sense; the phrase was simply one which was frequently used by the Br i t i s h Parliament when i t wished to make a comprehensive grant of legislative power. Section 91 then proceeded to illu s t r a t e the general authority, thus bestowed, by specify- ing a number of these powers, and, to prevent possible mis- interpretation, e x p l i c i t l y stated that these enumerated powers were inserted "for greater certainty, but not so as to restrict the generality of the foregoing terms of this Section". These illustrations were, in fact, unnecessary, for the entire dis- tribution had been completed when the provinces had been allotted their powers and the Dominion had been given the remainder. Although this was the original Intention of the Act, a different interpretation was gradually imposed upon the original through the use of the term "property and c i v i l rights", found in Section 91 of the Act, It was argued by the Judicial committee of the privy Council that this term was not intended to limit provincial jurisdiction to matters of purely provincial or local interest, but that when a topic f e l l under this general head i t was clearly pr ovincial unless the Act positively asserted the contrary. The enumerated Dominion powers, which had begun as illustrations of Dominion authority, thus became of greater consequence than the general power which they were supposed to i l l u s t r a t e , because the latter was lost through the interpretation given to the term "property and c i v i l r i g h t s " , 1 The phrase - "generally a l l matters of a merely local or private nature i n the province" - was also used to reduce the general authority of the Dominion government. These two terms, through the Interpretation given them, in effect gave the residual powers to the provinces:^ The term "peace, order and good government", of necessity required subsequent interpretation, and the Judicial Committee decided that the meaning inferred was that of com- prehensive emergency powers which i n time of national p e r i l or necessity could be invoked by the Dominion to override, i f necessary, any or a l l conflicting provincial powers. Such action was taken during both world wars on the basis of this 1 DAWSON, R. McGregor, The Government of Canada, University of Toronto Press, 19^7* p. 109 - 110 mm lj. m> interpretation. From the provisions of the Act, It would appear that, apart from the responsibility of welfare services to certain groups, 1 and for the provision of services "for the peace, order and good government of Canada", i t is a basic principle of the constitution that "major responsibility for public welfare shall be assumed by the provinces, and that they w i l l work out with the municipalities detailed arrange- ments for administration". THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN B.C. Since the beginning of settlement by white men, over a hundred years ago, the province of B r i t i s h Columbia has had a history of booms and depressions arising out of the exploitation of i t s natural resources. This boom exper- ience, checked only by relatively short periods of depression u n t i l the 1930»s, generated i n the people attitudes of exub- erant optimism regarding material a f f a i r s , and great confidence In the future of their province. This s p i r i t of progressive- ness has, to some extent, been responsible for the develop- ment of social services i n B r i t i s h Columbia which are pro- 1. Section 91 of the Act gives the parliament of Canada responsibility, among other things, for marine hospitals, criminal law procedure, and the operation of penitentiaries. 2. CASSIDY, H.M., "Public Welfare Organization in Canada - Dominion and Provincial", Canadian Conference on Social Work, Ottawa, 1937, P. 7. - ~ " - 5 - gressive when compared to others In Canada. The rapid development of pioneering communities made great demands on the provincial government for the pro* vision of physical services such as transporation. Hence the pattern of a strong central government had been established when the pioneers began to concern themselves with community services such as hospitals and education. They had no desire to wait for the gradual provision of these necessities and amenities by municipalities and private organizations. The presence amongst the early settlers of a high percentage of B r i t i s h immigrants, who had previous knowledge of trade unionism and socialism, was another factor which contributed to the development of social reform. In discussing these influences, Dr. H.M. Cassidy states the following: Such an environment has been f a i r l y good s o i l for the growth of public social services. The absence of private social agencies with vested interests: and the relatively slow and weak devel- opment of municipal government l e f t the f i e l d free for leadership by the province. The thin spread of population over the interior and the consequent d i f f i c u l t y of delegating financial and administrative responsibilities to municipal units further encouraged central control over policy and practice.1 In the early years following Confederation pub- l i c welfare, under the provisions of poor law or municipal statutes, was almost wholly the responsibility of the munici- p a l i t i e s . Following B r i t i s h poor law precedent, they were 1 CASSIDY* Harry M. Ph.D.* Public Health and Welfare Organization i n Canada, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 19lj£, p. 40 - UJL " charged with the obligation of making provisions for a l l classes of the poor, while the provincial governments did l i t t l e except operate gaols or insane asylums. By the end of the nineteenth century i t had become apparent that addition- a l services were needed, and the provinces enacted legislation to provide for institutions for the feeble-minded, homes for the aged and infirm, child welfare services, hospitalization for the indigent, and other programmes to be operated directly, or by the municipalities and private agencies, sometimes with financial support from the province. Bri t i s h Columbia, unlike Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and nearly a l l the American states, has never had a poor law. However i t has had an equivalent of this in the simple provision of the Municipal Act that " i t shall be the duty of every c i t y and d i s t r i c t municipality . ... to make suitable provision for i t s poor and destitute". 1 The oblig- ation was not considered seriously during the early days of the municipalities, however i t was to become an overwhelming responsibility i n the years of the great depression. Vancouver was the f i r s t municipality to organize a r e l i e f department. This was done in 19llj- following a collapse of the railroad and land settlement boom which re- sulted in much unemployment and destitution, in the years 1920 to 1926, there was heavy winter unemployment, and dur- ing this period the Dominion granted aid to the provinces to assist them in providing unemployment r e l i e f . Dominion- 1 E.S.B.C. 1936 Chap. 109, Sec. 501 provincial grants wore made to Vancouver, and a few other municipalities i n support of r e l i e f work projects or direct r e l i e f . Because of i t s administrative jurisdiction over unorganized territory, the province was forced early in i t s development to make some provision for the aged and the sick* As early as 1886 appropriations were made " i n aid of the des- titute, poor and sick", and for the "burial of indigents", 1 and by the end of the 1920»s these had Increased to annual expenditures of about $100,000. To care for the old and i n - firm without homes of their own, the province established the Provincial Home at Kamloops in 1893. Admission was dependent on payment of 75 percent of maintenance costs by the munici- pality, where the person had lived. As early as 1886 provin- c i a l funds were being paid to hospitals vhich made claims for the care of indigent persons, in 1902 the municipalities were given responsibility i n this area in that they were to contribute i n respect to each day of hospitalization given to their res idents. In 1920 Br i t i s h Columbia passed the Mothers» Pension Act under which the province was to assume a l l costs of this program, thus relieving the municipalities of a large burden of responsibility to which they were technically liable under the indigent provisions of the Municipal Act. Admin- istration of the scheme was transferred from the Workmen's Compensation Eoard to the Superintendent of Welfare of the 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Bri t i s h Columbia i n the Canadian Confederation, Submission to the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1938) p. 169 Provincial Secretary«s Department when i t was found that the Act was being misinterpreted. Brit i s h Columbia was the f i r s t province i n Canada to make use of the federal Old Age pensions Act of 1927 which offered f i f t y per cent of costs as a subsidy to provinces granting pensions up to twenty dollars per month to needy old people over seventy years of age. Administrative respon- s i b i l i t y for this program was given to Workmen's Compensation Board because of this agency's success in i t s own f i e l d , and because of the fact that i t was trusted by the public. Child welfare problems called for the attention of the government early in the history of the province and in 1901 the Infants Act was passed providing for the appoint- ment of a provincial Superintendent of Neglected Children and the formation of children's aid societies, i n the same year societies were formed i n both Vancouver and Victoria, under private boards, to provide ward and non-ward services: in 1905 the Catholic Children's Aid Society was formed. F o l l - owing a survey of child welfare by the Canadian Council on Child and Family Welfare in 1927, Miss Laura Holland, an able and experienced social worker, was appointed as director of the agency, and a start made towards the employment of pro* fessional personnel and the Introduction of modern child wel- fare methods. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE DURING THE DEPRESSION Bri t i s h Columbia was extremely hard hit by the great depression of the 1930is. Provincial and municipal revenues dropped as rapidly as the level of unemployment and destitution grew. The unemployed besieged the municipal authorities for r e l i e f , and the drop in revenues from taxes and grants at the very time when expenses for r e l i e f were mounting sharply caused acute financial d i f f i c u l t i e s for the municipalities. Within a few years a number of them including Burnaby, North Vancouver City, North Vancouver District,, Pernio, and Prince Rupert defaulted on their debt obligations, and their administration was taken over by commissioners appointed by the provincial government. Until the f a l l of 1930 the municipalities, along with a few private agencies, carried the growing load of re- l i e f without assistance from the province. In October of that year the Dominion agreed to share equally, with the prov- inces and municipalities, in the costs of direct r e l i e f and municipal r e l i e f works on a £0-25-25 shared basis. The Dom- inion agreed to share equally with the province the cost of works and direct r e l i e f for homeless men and transients. Both provincial and municipal work projects were undertaken, supplemented by direct r e l i e f for those who did' not benefit from emergency employment, and thus B r i t i s h Columbia was launched upon i t s largest enterprise i n social welfare. Unfortunately this program was short-lived. The province and municipalities had scarcely begun their work projects for the winter of 1931-32 when the Dominion govern- ment reduced i t s grants by one-half, which forced the prov- ince and municipalities to reduce their work r e l i e f from - 10 - wages to maintenance only. P o l i t i c a l unrest was marked during these years, and people cried for better things. With the election i n the f a l l of 1933, & progressive Liberal cabinet came into power, and the stage was set for social reform. In July 193b *he f i r s t important reorganization step occurred with the appointment of a Director of Social Welfare whose respon- s i b i l i t i e s were to be of a planning, organizing, and coordin- ating nature* In consequence of the lack of f i e l d staff i n the Welfare Branch outside Vancouver, use was being made of govern- ment agents, provincial police, and municipal o f f i c i a l s i n an attempt to provide services, but this was far from satisfactory. The Welfare Field Service was established i n A p r i l 1935 to solve this problem. The existing f i e l d staff of the Welfare Branch, consisting of nine social workers, made up the nuc- leus of the new unit under the direction of Miss Laura Holland, In addition, six new positions were authorized. Centralized control of social work personnel with- in the Welfare Field Service made for uniformity of policy regarding recruiting and staff development. At the outset, personnel standards were adopted which called for graduate training i n social work or the equivalent, and every effort was made to recruit trained personnel. Because of overcrowding of indigent patients i n hospitals, due to low r e l i e f allowance, and the lack of con- valescent f a c i l i t i e s i n the community, the provincial Secre- - 11 - tary»s Department made a special grant to the ci t y of Vancouver to assist i n the organization of a hospital clearance program; and i n the following year a similar grant was made to Vancouver, along with one to Victoria, i n addition, the province loaned social workers to the two cities to take part i n the work. The Vancouver scheme, operating through the City Social Ser- vice Department, Included the provision of boarding home placement, medical, and home:; nursing services, the services of social workers, and public health nurses i n making placements, and the provision by the city of adequate payment for a l l ser- vices. During the same year, a social worker was appointed to the staff of the inspector of Hospitals to assist i n a clear- ance program i n respect to the smaller hospitals of the prov- ince. With the formation of the Unemployment Relief Branch i n 193b minimum standards for r e l i e f were developed as well as other regulations which brought uniformity to re- l i e f measures. Able-bodied men, both provincial and munici- pal cases, were required to ttwork out r e l i e f 1 1 , i.e. to perform some work on public projects at the prevailing rate u n t i l they had earned an amount equal to their allowances. Relief was usually paid i n cash, but often rents were paid direct to the landlord and clothing issued. There were few changes i n the public assistance programs other than that of unemployment r e l i e f during the 1930»s. w i t h regard to Dominion grants for the Old Age Pen- sion, these were increased i n 1931 from f i f t y per cent to seventy-five percent, and i n 1937 blind persons beyond the age of forty were brought within the scheme. Mothers* allow- ances, to which municipalities were required to make contri- butions following legislative changes i n 1932, were again made the sole responsibility of the province i n A p r i l 1937« The previous year, following severe criticism, the government had amended the Mothers* Allowances Act, to provide for a small monthly allowance for disabled husbands. In 1937* new regulations governing the Destitute, poor, and Sick Funds pro- vided orderly rules regarding e l i g i b i l i t y , nature, and extent of assistance for the poor r e l i e f of residents of unorganized territory. This program was made the administrative respon- s i b i l i t y of the Welfare F i e l d Service. A problem, which had been causing much hardship for those i n need, was that of establishing residence of app- licants for r e l i e f . Local areas were under pressure to save money i n every way possible, and i t was common practice to deny r e l i e f or other services to those whom they claimed to be non-residents. This situation was remedied to a major ex- tent with the adoption, i n 1936, of the Residence and Respon- s i b i l i t y Act. This legislation established a uniform resid- ence rule for family heads of one year i n a municipality, (or unorganized territory, in wiich case a person became a prov- i n c i a l responsibility), without public assistance of any kind or, alternatively, for three years. Controversies were to be settled by a Board of Arbitration consisting of one government- a l representative, one municipal representative, and a third person chosen by these two.1 1 CASSIDY, H.M. Op. Cit. p. 120 - 1 3 - Administrative D i f f i c u l t i e s . The basic d i f f i c u l t y i n the administration of public assistance was the fact that the closely related services of the provincial government were divided between three main agencies, the Welfare Branch of the Provincial Secretary, the Unemployment Relief Branch of Labor, and the o ld Age Pensions Branch of the Workmen's Compensation Board. This division made for unnecessary overlapping and dup- li c a t i o n of work, successive investigations of the same family, and some overlapping of medical services. There were sharp differences i n the approaches, the policies, the standards, and the methods of work of the three agencies, and this bred f r i c t i o n , and lack of cooperation. In March of 1938* the provincial government agreed to contribute ij.0 per cent of the cost of the r e l i e f for 8000 persons transferred as unemployables from unemployment r e l i e f to poor r e l i e f . In 1939* the province raised the amount of the grant for unemployables to 80 per cent and extended i t to cover a l l cases except those requiring nursing-home or institutional care. The next important step occurred i n Ap r i l 19lj.O when a l l but a few provincial poor r e l i e f boarding care cases were transferred from the Welfare Branch to the Unemployment Relief Branch. Following the discontinuance of Dominion grants in 19lp.» the province assumed the f u l l cost of Its tt80-20n policy in granting aid to the municipalities, both for the employables and the unemployables• Thus the unemployment and poor r e l i e f systems of the province were un- i f i e d under the direction of the Relief Branch of the Depart- - l a - ment of Labor. Following the election of October, 191+-1, further steps were taken. Legislation was passed giving the respon- s i b i l i t y for old age and blind pensions to the Department of the Provincial Secretary, under the direction of a three-man administrative board, i n October, 191*2, the Social Assistance Branch was set up under the Provincial Secretary to handle the work formerly done by the Welfare Branch and the Unemploy- ment Relief Branch. The new branch also absorbed the Welfare F i e l d Service, renaming i t the "Field Service", and adding to it s staff some forty of the former r e l i e f investigators. The Medical Services unit of unemployment Relief became a division of the Social Assistance Branch, as did child welfare, mothers* allowances, and the administration of general r e l i e f , to be called social allowances. The New Fi e l d Service. Administrative develop- ments occurred rapidly with the formation of the Social Assist- ance Branch. TKe fifteen d i s t r i c t s of the F i e l d Service were replaced by five regional d i s t r i c t s , each to be administered by a supervisor who was responsible for the administration of a l l forms of public assistance for provincial cases, and for the municipal administration within the area. In 19̂4-3 the administration of provincial cases in Vancouver was made the responsibility of the City Social Service Department, thus integrating the two schemes and over- coming the duplication of offices and administrative worm. The province recompensed the city by assigning staff from the - 15 ~ F i e l d Service to the four city offices i n the ratio of one to each two city workers. With this innovation i n Vancouver, there was largely realized one of the leading recommendations of both the Beveridge and the National Resources planning Board re- ports on social security: that in each community there be one centre for public assistance applications rather than the con- fusing array of offices that has been common in Canada, Britain, and the united States in the past. 1 Post War Developments, In 1914-5 "the need for coordinating welfare planning, and maintaining uniform stan- dards of services in a l l parts of the province, brought about the passage of the Social Assistance Act of Br i t i s h Columbia, The provincial government, under this legislation, was to con- tinue financial assistance to the municipalities but only under the condition that "the municipality shall provide and maintain social assistance and relative social administrative services on a basis consistent with the standards established 2 by the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act". As a means of control over municipal authorities the pr ovincial government was empowered "to withhold Provincial funds i f local authorities f a i l to comply with any provisions of the Act or any of the regulations made pursuant" 1 CASS ID Y, H. M. Op. Cit. p 134 2 Social Assistance Act, B r i t i s h Columbia, 19ij-5# Sec. \ 3 Ibid Sec. 13, Sub. Sec. (e) — 16 — The standards of social assistance to be provided were to be at "a reasonable level consistent with the cost of li v i n g as related to standards of assistance 1 1, 1 The provincial authorities were, on the basis of periodic reviews of cost-of- l i v i n g index, to distribute tables of rates of social assis- tance on the basis of which they would reimburse the munici- pali t i e s at an agreed percentage rate for their assistance expenditures. The Act also attempted to improve standards of personnel by requiring that social workers employed by munici- palities "have qualifications equivalent to those required in 2 the Provincial Services", To aft i n this, the province agreed to assign one»half the social workers i n a municipal office, or make up f i f t y per cent of the salaries of the municipal social workers, providing they are not more than those being paid provincial workers. Due to the great growth of the health and welfare program i n Brit i s h Columbia It was deemed necessary to estab- l i s h a department separate from that of the provincial Secre- tary. This was done i n October, 19i|-6, with the formation of the Department of Health and Welfare. This development made possible the decentralization of the Social Assistance Pro- gramme i n that the "authority for granting social assistance was delegated by the Director of Welfare to the Regional Supervisors, (now re-named Regional Administrators), and decisions with respect to the social workers planning with 1 Ibid Sec. 6, Sub. Sec. (a) 2 Ibid Sec. 6, Sub. Sec. (b) - 17 ~ their clients was delegated to Case-work Supervisors". 1 De- centralization of the authority to grant Mothers» Allowance at the local level has not yet been taken, although e l i g i b i l - i t y studies, follow-up v i s i t s , and casework supervision Is carried out locally. A REVIEW OP FEDERAL PROGRAMS War Veterans* Allowance. The War Veterans» Allow- ance Act was introduced in 1930 to make provision for the maintenance of veterans of the War of 19llj.-l8 who, at the age of 60, are incapable of maintaining themselves; or who, at any age, are permanently unemployable. The scope of the act has been enlarged u n t i l i t includes veterans of the North West F i e l d Force, the South African War, and the War of 1939-4-5. In order to qualify, veterans must have served i n a "theatre of actual war". A third category includes those veterans of any age, who, i n the opinion of the War Veterans'Allowance Board at Ottawa, are incapable of maintaining themselves, and unlikely to become, capable "due to a combination of reasons or handicaps, physical, mental or economic", w i d - ows and orphans of veterans are admitted to the benefits of the act, providing the veteran was himself eligible during his lifetime. Complete medical and dental treatment, under the Department of Veterans* Affairs, are available to the 1 Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch, Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King»s Most Excellent Majesty, Victoria, B.C. 31* March, 19^8, p. .27. 2 Canada Year Book, I9I4.6, p. IO6I4. - 18 - veteran i n receipt of the allowance, but not to a widow on allowance, or to any dependent of the recipient. Public Assistance to Indians, The Federal Govern- ment has assumed responsibility for the health and welfare of Canadats Indians;, Approximately $3*000,000 is given ann- ually to Indians through old age security, old age assistance, and blind persons allowances. In cases of necessity, the government gives direct assistance in :Hind to individuals or groups of individuals. The food ration to destitute Indians has recently been increas- ed, and extended welfare services have been made available to the Indian reservations through the employment of qualified social workers. Health services to Indians are provided by the Department of National Health and Welfare. Disaster Belief, i t has been the policy of the Dominion Government, i n regard to the granting of disaster r e l i e f , to deal with each particular situation on the basis of the need rather than to establish a permanent program. During the severe floods in the Fraser Valley in June, I9I4.8, the matter of federal r e l i e f was referred to i n the House of Commons by the Right. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King in the follow- ing manner. It is clear that the damage has already reached such proportions that federal assistance w i l l be necessary, not only for r e l i e f , but also for rehabilitation and restoring the devastated areas: I have, with the approval of ray colleagues, informed the premier that the federal government is prepared to assist the province financially ~ 19 - I might say our government has in mind, and I have suggested to the premior of Br i t i s h Columbia, the appointment of a representative of bur govern- ment at Victoria, and the appointment by the gov- ernment of British Columbia of a representative of their government, the two to become members of a commission that might be called the Fraser Valley r e l i e f and rehabilitation commission, to have general supervision over the entire situation, and to be able to deal with questions as they may arise from hour to hour, as well as from day to day, 1 Such a commission was appointed with Major General B.B, Hoffmeister representating the federal government and the Hon, Eric Hamber representing the provincial government. At a later date the Prime Minister reported that i t had been agreed that the federal government would make a grant of $5*000,000 to the province for r e l i e f and rehabili- tation, and in addition accept responsibility for 75 per cent p of the costs of repairing the dykes and restoring the land. Similar proaedurBs i n respect to the setting up of commissions was taken by the federal government at the time of the Winnipeg Flood i n 1950, and the disastrous fi r e s at Rimouski and Cabano during the same year. Federal Grant-in-Aid Programs, Rather than taking responsibility for the development of nation-wide public assistance programs which might have been interpreted as a violation of the B r i t i s h North America Act, the Federal government has adopted a policy of making grants to assist i n the development of programs within the provinces. This started with the Old 1 Debates of the House of Commons, Dominion of Canada, V, 19^8, p. 4 7 3 8 2 ibid, v i , I9I4.8, p, 5 8 3 1 - 20 - Age Pension Act of 1927 which provided for federal grants equal to one-half the costs of assistance, (75 percent after 1 9 3 1 ) , to be awarded to needy persons over 70 years under provincial legislation, i n 1937 the needy blind over 1+0 years of age were included, and i n I9I4.8 the qualifying age was lowered to 2 1 years• In January 1952 the federal government authorized through i t s Old Ago Security Act, pensions to a l l persons over 70 years who could establish twenty years residence i n the country. At the same time, with the passage of the Old Age Assistance Act, the federal government agreed to pay half the costs of assistance to needy persons between the ages of 6 5 and 70 years with'similar residence. During the same year the residence required for recipients of blind pensions was lowered to ten years under the provisions of the Blind Persons Act, the federal government continuing to pay 75 P©** cent of the costs. The provincial government commenced the Old Age Assistance and Blind persons Allowance programs i n January, 1 9 5 2 , and i n addition to the basic allowance, authorized the payment of a cost-of-living bonus, on the basis of a means test, for those with three years residence i n the province immediately prior to application for assistance. This bonus is also available on the same basis to o ld Age Security recip- ients , In A p r i l , 1955* a Dominion-provincial program of aid to the t o t a l l y disabled w i l l be started i n B r i t i s h Columbia on a 50-50 basis. This program requires residence.of ten - 21 - years i n Canada, and a means test similar to that within the Old Ago Assistance program. Applicants not qualifying are to be screened with a view to rehabilitation training. F u l l health services are provided by the Medical Services Division for recipients of the Cost-of-Living Bonus, Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons* Allowance, and Aid to the Disabled. PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL PROGRAMS Mothers* Allowance. As has been described previously, this program has been offered since 1920 for the maintenance of widows with children, or families In which the husband is incapacitated, or absent from the home.* A residence of three years i n the province i s required for e l i g i b i l i t y i n addition to a f a i r l y r i g i d means test. The provincial authority to grant Mothers* Allowance has been delegated by the Director of Welfare to the Family Services Division of Social welfare Branch thus maintaining central control. However, casework services are provided by the local area. Recipients and their dependents are eligible for f u l l medical coverage under the provincial "health services" program, as well as other supple- mentary allowances available to recipients of social allowances. Social Allowance. Although this program is i n the main a joint responsibility of province and municipality, pay- ments are administered at total cost to the province for res- idents of unorganized territory who have one year*s residence 1 Woman eligible i f husband became an inmate of a penitent- iary or mental hospital while resident i n the province. - 22 - In the province. The required means test is not so stringent as that in Mothers» Allowance* This program provides under the Social Assistance Act for persons, adult or minor, who "through mental or physi- cal illness or other exigency 0 are i n need of financial assit- ance i n order to provide a minimum standard of l i v i n g and "who are unable to provide i n tfiole or i n part by their own efforts". One year is residence In the local area and an indlciation of need is required. In addition to financial assistance, the program provides limited casework services with a view to f a c i l i t a t i n g the social and economic rehabilitation of recip- ients. Supplementary allowances are also provided and these include boarding and nursing home care, dietary allowances to cover the purchase of special foods, required for health rea- sons, emergency health allowances to cover the replacement of essential household items such as a stove or the cost of repairs to the home, moving, or eviction. Housekeeping services to the temporarily invalided recipient, or i n case of the absence of the mother from the home, the provision of 'homemaker* ser- vices are part of the program. Pre-natal and T.B. allowances are available to augment food allowances of recipients of social allowance who are pregnant, or who are infected by, or exposed to tuberculosis* Financial responsibility for these allowances is shared between the province and the municipality i n th ich the recipient was last self-supporting for one year on the basis of the 80-20 formula. This formula i s also used i n covering • 23 - the costs of the f r i l l medical care available to social allow- ance recipients. Should the recipient apply for aid i n an area other than that i n which he has established residence, the costs w i l l be "charged back 0 to his own area or to the province i f he hasn't established municipal residence. Unemployment Assistance. Although the 'unemployed employable» is apparently covered by the Social Assistance Act, 1 the attitude of the authorities, both provincial and municipal, has been one of vascillatlon. However, during the last two winters unemployment assistance has been granted to residents of the province on the same means test requirements as social allowance. No medical services are provided. Nursing and Boarding Home Care. The provision of nursing and boarding home care for chronically i l l hospital patients who were previously i n receipt of assistance or who have become indigent during their illness Is the joint respon- s i b i l i t y of the hospital social workers and the municipal or d i s t r i c t social workers. This service is also available to recipients of assistance within the community who, for health reasons, are no longer able to care for themselves i n their homes. The province shares the cost of this care on an 80-20 basis with the responsible municipality. Casework ser- vices include the interpretation to the person and, or his family, of his need for convalescent or boarding care, and 1 The term "or other exigency" can be interpreted to include unemployment.' - 2l(. - of the limited resources available. In this respect i t should be mentioned that a l l boarding and nursing homes with facilities for two or more persons which are to be used for the care of recipients of assistance must be licensed under the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act, or the Hospital Act, and must be inspected annually by the local or district welfare department, or the department of the Inspector of Hospitals. Foster Care. A child may be placed in foster care as a .protective measure when i t is found that there is neglect in the home, and that the parents are unwilling to, or incap- able of, providing proper care. The child is made a ward of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, or of the Children*s Aid Society having jurisdiction in the area where the child is apprehended. In such a case the Superintendent or Society has f u l l powers of guardianship over the child and is responsible for his care and training. In practice the latter becomes the responsibility of the social worker in the locality who works on a casework basis both with the child and the foster parents. Casework services are also made available to the parents to help them accept the necessity for apprehension. A child may be placed in non-ward foster care by parents, who, because of illness or other temporary circum- stances, are unable to provide proper care. In both cases, the financial responsibility lies with the municipality in which the parents are residents, or i f they live in unorganized territory, the provincial govern- ment is responsible. Payment is made on a per diem basis, — 25> « according to the terras of the Protection of Children Act, Section 3̂ * sub-section 1, or in non-ward care according to the parents a b i l i t y to pay. The municipality, or province has the right to ask the magistrate in a protection case for an over-order against the parents for reimbursement of the costs of maintenance* in the case of a unmarried mother, the province accepts the entire cost of ward or non-ward care in order to ensure the g i r l the.greatest measure of protection and confidentiality, the focus being that of rehabilitation rather than financial responsibility* A l l children i n care are eligible for f u l l medical attention and hospital care through the Social Assistance Medical Services. Medical Services, F u l l medical services are available to recipients of assistance under any of the prov- i n c i a l or joint provincial-municipal programs. These "health services' 1 are organized under the Director of Medical Services, who is responsible to the Deputy Minister of Welfare, As is the case with a l l forms of social assistance i n Br i t i s h Col- umbia, one year's residence i n the province on a self-suppor- ting basis is required for e l i g i b i l i t y . The recipient of "health services" is granted a Hospital Insurance and Medical Ident- i f i c a t i o n card which he presents to his. family doctor when seeking medical attention, or to his druggist when securing a prescription. A capitation payment Is made to the Canadian Medical Association, (B.C. Division) to cover medical services. Where - 26 - the recipient of "health services" has municipal residence the cost of services is shared with the province according to the 80-20 formula, ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE The chief executive of B r i t i s h Columbia»s wel- fare program is the Deputy Minister of Welfare, who is respon- sible to the Minister of Health and Welfare, for the adminis- tration of most provincial social legislation Including public assistance. He is assisted by the Director and Assistant Dir- ector of Welfare who together with him comprise the General Administration of the Branch. The former is responsible for releasing a l l policies with respect to expenditures and ser- vices while the latter is responsible for the personnel of the Social Welfare Branch, office procedures and standards of professional services. The province is divided geographically into six regions. Each region is under the jurisdiction of & Regional Administrator, who has delegated authority to authorize ex- penditures when need i s proven. This authority is further delegated to the Dist r i c t Supervisors, who, acting upon well established policies, authorize normal forms of expenditure, obtaining sanction for extraordinary expenditure from the Reg- ional Administrator. Believing implicitly in.the principles of local government, the Social Welfare Branch encourages the active participation of the Municipalities i n these social welfare services. Municipalities of over 10,000 must, i n fact, establish their own - 2 7 - social welfare administrations. Except i n Vancouver and Victoria, where a network of long-established private agencies give family and child welfare services (leaving the granting of financial assist- ance to the City Administered Agencies), a l l dfcher large Municipalities give the generalized services of the Social Welfare Branch. Because they do this, the Provincial supervisors give supervision to their staffs. Because these municipalities are administering Provincial legislation, the Social Welfare Branch provides half of the staff required to give these services with Municipal boundaries. 1 Smaller municipalities may wish to have their own welfare administrator i n M i c h case the Social Welfare Branch pays; one-half the salary of that o f f i c i a l who is supervised by the d i s t r i c t supervisor from the nearest provincial office. The remaining municipalities "buy" the services of the social workers i n the provincial offices at the rate of If? cents per capita of population per annum.' A schematic diagram of the administrative structure of welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia is found i n Appendix A. Summary. Beginning with the legislative respons- i b i l i t i e s of the province as stated i n the B r i t i s h North America Act, public assistance i n B.C. has developed from i t s early beginnings i n a pioneer setting to the formation of the f i r s t organized assistance program i n Vancouver i n 19llj.. This was followed by the Institution of Mothers* Allow- ance i n 1920, and the federally subsidized program of Old Ago Pensions which B.C. adopted i n 1927, the f i r s t province to do so. problems of the depression were many, as were the devel- opments in public assistance waich included the appointment 1 Social Welfare Administration i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Office of the Training Supervisor, Social Welfare Braneh* Vancouver, 1953 • - 28 - of a Director of welfare, the establishment of the Welfare Fie l d Service, and the formation of the Unemployment Relief Branch* These were major steps towards the provision of structure, service, and standards i n public assistance. This was furthered by the passing of the Residence and Responsibility Act of 1936, and the centralization of 'relief 1 within the Relief Branch of the Department of Labor, and f i n a l l y the establish- ment of the Social Assistance Branch of the Department of the frovi n c i a l Secretary which was to be responsible for the provision of public assistance, casework services by. the F i e l d Service, and health services by the Medical Services unit. The major post-war developments were the passage of the Social Assistance Act, the establishment of the Department of Health and Welfare, the development of the categorical programs of Old Age Assistance and Blind Persons Allowances, and the growth of supplementary services within the social assistance program. A review of public assistance programs, federal, provincial, and municipal is followed by a description of the administration of provincial public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The plan, of the rest of the study is to review the various programs i n respect to residence regulations, relatives » responsibility, citizenship and other e l i g i b i l i t y factors; assessment of resources, i.e. means test requirements; levels of assistance; and service programs. Some reference is made to American programs of assistance where this serves to aid in measuring standards. Major discrepancies between programs are explored, and the case for a more tttqtalw approach to the provision of public assistance in.British Columbia is considered. CHAPTER II ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS (NON-FINANCIAL) Public assistance means cash, goods, or services provided to, or on behalf of an Individual on a means test basis, because he is unable to provide himself and his family with the necessities of l i f e . Basic to the concept of public assistance is the assessment of the applicant as to his e l i g - i b i l i t y for aid. In this chapter consideration w i l l be given to the non-financial factors which are common in e l i g i b i l i t y studies within public assistance today.. The demands of re- sidence, relatives' responsibility, citizenship, and moral standards have been handed down from the past, and an attempt w i l l be made to ascertain their value in contemporary public assistance. RESIDENCE LAMS IN CANADA In a federal union such as Canada, the problem of residence becomes a major issue in the administration of social services. Whether a person is eligible for assistance may de- pend on the factor of his legal residence in Canada, whether he has lived within a particular province for a given period, or i f his residence within a municipality is unbroken by any con- siderable period of absence. Because of the multiple levels - 30 - of responsibility, and the desire of the local area or prov- ince to support only their "own", residence has grown to be one of the most important and complex issues within public assistance programs. In her study of residence i n 19S>2, Miss E. L. Govan found that there were 3 * 9 9 2 governmental units i n Canada admin- istering social services. 1 These figures are indicative of how involved the process of establishing responsibility for the granting of aid can become. The process is complicated by the fact that each province is responsible for developing i t s own policy i n regard to municipal and provincial services* including matters of residence, and there has been l i t t l e or no cooperation between them i n developing such a policy. In the older provinces of Canada, the early Eng- l i s h laws on residence had a strong influence because of the prominence which the local governments played i n these geo- graphical areas. It was the intention of these early laws to ensure that some community would be responsible for everyone who needed help, and that each community would be protected from the financial responsibility of caring for non-residents. The laws gave the community authority to remove any person who was " l i k e l y to become chargeable". But the tragedy was that most communities became more concerned about the cost of services than they were about meeting needs. The result is to make obligatory a detailed 1 GOVAN, E.L., Residence and Responsibility i n Canada* Canadian Welfare Council* Ottawa* 19J>2# p. 1 . - 31 - verified investigation regarding residence wherever an applic- ation is made for any type of public assistance or care to which residence laws apply. If an applicant»s residence is question- ed, or not established, i t may mean that the municipality w i l l have to consult with another municipality or province. It may mean "charging back" to the other municipality the expenses incurred, or "repatriating" the applicant to the responsible l o c a l i t y or province. It may also mean costly legal processes to determine responsibility, and bickering between municipalities and provinces. To the client i t means that, i n addition to the fact that he must prove his need for help, he must also prove residence. This only serves to increase his insecurity. It may mean lengthy delay and uncertainty, the refusal of aid, or the threat of being removed to his place of residence against his wishes as a condition to his receiving assistance. The lack of cooperation between provinces i n devel- oping residence laws is evident from Table 1. This is readily seen i f the residence requirements in the various provinces for Mothers* Allowances are considered. In Quebec five years •domicile' is demanded; i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Nova Scotia three years residence, on the mother's part, is required; i n Saskatchewan, and Ontario one year is sufficient. In Manitoba, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island the stress is on the length of time the child has been resident i n the province. Other programs show an equal dissimilarity i n respect to res- idence requirements. - 32 - B r i t i s h Columbia Is the only province which has en- acted comprehensive residence legislation. The Residence and Responsibility Act defines residence as i t applies to a l l social legislation, and at the same time assigns responsibility to the various "local areas". Under the Act, a person establishes residence in a local area when he lives there without public assistance for one year. The Social Assistance Regulations require at least twelve months continuous residence in the province, on a self-supporting basis, before a person is e l - igible for social assistance. RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS It has been a common practice in public assistance since the days of the Elizabethan Poor Law to deny assistance to persons who have not established local residence, or to grant i t only on the condition that the recipient be repatri- ated to his own area. As repatriation is not always socially sound, the procedure has been replaced in some places by recip- rocal agreements. For example, persons who would otherwise qualify for social assistance in B r i t i s h Columbia, but who are liv i n g in Saskatchewan, may be given assistance from B r i t i s h Columbia. By the same agreement the resident of Saskatchewan who has moved to Br i t i s h Columbia may also receive a i d . 1 Manitoba and B.C. have reciprocal agreements which include reimburse- ment of funds issued. A similar agreement is i n effect between i former provinces in respect to the care of children of unmarried 1 As an experiment, since 1953* reimbursement of funds has not been required. See footnote p. 37 TABLE 1 RESIDENCE REGULATIONS IN CANADA - PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL PROVINCIAL RESIDENCE MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE INTERPROVINCIAL AGREEMENTS BRITISH COLUMBIA SOCIAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS PERSON MUST HAVE BEEN IN THE PROV- INCE FOR AT LEAST 12 MONTHS CON- TINUOUSLY, SELF-SUPPORTING. MOTHERS9 ALLOWANCE, THREE YEARS IN PROVINCE IMMED- IATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION. PROVINCIAL CHARGE. A PERSON WITH RESIDENCE IN AN UNORGANIZED TERRITORY. RESIDENCE AND RESPONSIBILITY AC T . RESIDENCE DEFINED AS ONE YEAR SELF-SUPPORTING IN A LOCAL AREA. RETAINED UNTIL RESIDENCE GAINED ELSEWHERE OR PERSON OUTSIDE PROVINCE FOR ONE YEAR. ACT AP- PLIES TO ALL ASSISTANCE FOR WHICH MUNICIPALITY HAS ANY RE- SPONSIBILITY. ACT COVERS CHAR- GING BACK OF COSTS TO RESPON- SIBLE MUNICIPALITY TO DISCOUR- AGE REMOVAL OF NON-RESIDENTS. RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS WITH ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN FOR PAYMENT OF SUPPLEMENTARY ALLOWANCE TO OLD AGE AND BLIND PENSIONERS; AND WITH SASKATCHEWAN IN RESPECT TO SOCIAL ASSISTANCE, AND FOR THE CARE OF CHILDREN OF UN- MARRIED PARENTS.* ALBERTA NOT DEFINED. FOR UNEMPLOYMENT - ASSISTANCE, 12 CONSECUTIVE MON- THS IN THE 2K IMMEDIATELY PRE- CEDING APPLICATION FOR AID, ON A 'SELF-SUPPORTING* BASIS. 'TRANSIENT', A PERSON WITHOUT MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE, OR RESID- ENCE OUTSIDE THE PROVINCE; A PROVINCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. DEFINED IN MUNICIPAL ACTS AS 12 MONTHS CONSECUTIVE RESIDENCE IN THE 2K IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING APPLICATION WITHOUT RELIEF. RE- TAINED UNTIL GAINED ELSEWHERE. REMOVAL LEGAL WHEN TRANSPORTATION AND ACCOMMODATION PROVIDED BY RESPONSIBLE MUNICIPALITY. AGREEMENTS WITH BRITISH COLUMBIA AND SASKATCHEWAN AS ABOVE. SASKATCHEWAN NOT DEFINED. SOCIAL AID AC T . ONE YEAR'S RESIDENCE PRIOR TO APPLICATION OR A TOTAL OF 12 MONTHS WITHOUT RESIDENCE ELSE- WHERE REQUIRED FOR MOTHERS* ALLOWANCE. SOCIAL AID AC T . AID TO INDIGENTS, 3°5 D A Y S CONTINUOUS OR AGGREGATE RESI- DENCE IN A LOCAL AREA WITHOUT PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. REMOVAL POSSIBLE ONLY ON APPRO- VAL OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BOARD. AGREEMENTS WITH BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALBERTA AS ABOVE. TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) RESIDENCE REGULATIONS IN CANADA - PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL PROVINCIAL RESIDENCE MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE INTERPROVINCIAL AGREEMENTS MANITOBA NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. CHILD A RESIDENT FOR 2 YEARS PRIOR TO THE PRECIP- ITATING INCIDENT. MUNICIPAL AC T . ONE YEAR CONTINUOUS RESIDENCE DURING THE 3 YEARS PRIOR TO FIRST RECEIPT OF AID, OR AREA WHERE PERSON LIVED LONGEST IN THE 3 YEARS. RETAINED UNTIL IN ANOTHER AREA FOR 1 YEAR. RE- MOVAL ONLY UPON REQUEST OF RES- PONSIBLE MUNICIPALITY. NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, EBCEPT WITH B.C. FOR SOCIAL ALLOWANCE. ONTARIO NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. MOTHER A RESIDENT AT THE TIME OF THE PRECIPITATING INCIDENT AND FOR 1 YEAR IM- MEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLIC- ATION FOR AID. NO UNIFORMITY. CHILD WELFARE. LAST PLACE IN WHICH CHILD RE- SIDED FOR ONE YEAR. UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF . LAST PLACE OF 12 CONSECUTIVE MONTHS RESIDENCE SINCE APRIL 1 , £ 9 4 8 (DATE ALTERED PERIODICALLY) No RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. QUEBEC 'DOMICILE* NOT DEFINED. AID TO NEEDY MOTHERS. DOMICILE IN QUEBEC FOR 5 YEARS AND 1 , 0 9 5 0 A Y S RESID- ENCE IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION FOR AID. NO UNIFORMITY. CHILD WELFARE. INSTITUTIONAL CARE; DOMICILE OB- TAINED BY 6 MONTHS RESIDENCE. CHARITABLE INSTITUTION CARE. DOMICLE OBTAINED BY 12 CONSEC- UTIVE MONTHS RESIDENCE. NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. NEW NOT DEFINED. BRUNSWICK MOTHERS1 ALLOWANCE. FATHER'S ABSENCE FROM THE PROVINCE NOT MORE THAN 6 MONTHS. CHILD MUST BE A RESIDENT OF 3 YEARS STAND- ING OR IF UNDER 3 YEARS, FROM BIRTH. ACT RESPECTING THE SETTLEMENT OF THE POOR. A PERSON OVER 21 YEARS GAINS SETTLEMENT FROM 3 YEARS CONTIN- UOUS RESIDENCE IN A PARISH. RE- MOVAL THROUGH CIVIL ACTION. NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) RESIDENCE REGULATIONS IN CANADA - PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL PROVINCIAL RESIDENCE MUNICIPAL RESIDENCE INTERPROVINCIAL AGREEMENTS NOVA SCOTIA NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. MOTHER A RESIDENT ON APPLIC- ATION AND FOR 3 YEARS PREV- IOUSLY. POOR RELIEF ACT SETTLEMENT. GAINED BY PERSON OVER 21 YEARS BY 2 CONSECUTIVE YEARS RES- IDENCE WITHIN THE POOR DISTRICT. REMOVAL BY CIVIL ACTION. NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS" ALLOWANCE. CHILD.MUST HAVE BEEN RES- IDENT FOR 3 YEARS. IF UNDER 3 YEARS, MOTHER RESIDENT AT THE TIME OF HIS BIRTH AND CHILD CONTINUOUSLY SINCE BIRTH. NO MUNICIPALITIES. NO POOR LAW" OF SOCIAL ASSISTANCE LEGISLATION. TOWNS HAVE A MORAL RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS THEIR OWN INDIGENT. HAS BY ORDER-IN-COUNCIL STATED WILLINGNESS TO MAKE RECIPROCAL AGREE- MENTS. NONE MADE. NEWFOUNDLAND NOT DEFINED. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE. NOT CONSIDERED RESIDENT DUR- ING PERIOD OF CONSECUTIVE AB- SENCE WHICH EXCEEDS ONE YEAR. NO MUNICIPAL ASSISTANCE. NO RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. SOURCE: GOVAN, E.S.L. RESIDENCE AND RESPONSIBILITY, CANADIAN WELFARE COUNCIL, OTTAWA, 4 9 5 2 . A SOCIAL WELFARE DEVELOPMENTS IN CANADA 4953-54* CANADIAN WELFARE COUNCIL, OTTAWA, A 9 5 4 . P. 24, 2 7 . B IBID. P . 1 6 . RESIDENCE REDUCED FROM FIVE YEARS DURING THE 195** SESSION. - 36 * parents. B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan have re- ciprocal agreements i n respect to the payment of a Cost-of- Living Bonus for recipients of Old Age Security, Old Age Assis- tance, and Blind persons* Allowances. These latter agreements do not include health services, and the recipient moving to B r i t i s h Columbia must be resident for one year before he can qualify for medical care. Should a person with less than one year's residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia apply for social assistance, he may be gran- ted temporary assistance at the discretion of the regional ad- ministrator. However he is advised that he is technically i n - eligible and that the province of apparent responsibility w i l l be approached regarding reimbursement, repatriation, or confir- mation of residence i f he is from Saskatchewan. In the case of an immigrant who has been i n Canada for less than one year, social assistance can be granted with the province and the fed- eral government sharing the costs equally. The l a t t e r w i l l share the costs of assistance for a period of one year only from the time of a r r i v a l . Medical cards authorizing health services are not given to such applicants, and a request for medical treatment, other than emergency, must be cleared with the Director of Medical Services. For the immigrant who has been i n the country more than one year, the provisions of the Residence and Responsibility Act, and the Social Assistance Act are applicable. - 37 - Residence and Repatriation* Provincial residence has been established by the inter-Provincial Agreement* accord- ing to which a person is considered to have gained residence in the province where he last resided for one year on a se l f - supporting basis. It is according to this concept of resid- ence that application for reimbursement by, or repatriation to another pr ovince is made. This is done by the Family Division of the Social Welfare Branch which is notified by the issuing municipality or d i s t r i c t ; and arrangements for repatriation are made only when approval has been received from the responsible province* The effect of residence laws on the welfare of unmarried mothers who move to another province for their con- finement has been studied by the Canadian Welfare Council. A special committee recommended that i n respect to unmarried mothers, residence regulations should be abolished, and that the provincial governments should assume the major burden of financial costs. With a view to maintaining confidentiality, 1 In reference to this Miss Marie Ridde11, Supervisor, Family Division, Social Welfare Branch, writes the following: the "Inter-provincial Agreement" does not exist In actuality as a.duly documented and signed agreement between provinces. It is simply a "gentlemen's agreement" which apparently grew out of correspondence between the Deputy Ministers of the four western provinces i n 19ljl# Since that time through referrals on individual oases and i n some cases informal arrangements, a l l other provinces have generally speaking, come to accept the same understanding, although sometimes i n individual cases d i f f i c u l t i e s may arise because of d i - vergence between provincial legislation and the inter-prov- i n c i a l agreement, or differences i n implementation. Correspondence received from the above-named A p r i l 7th, 1955 - 3 8 - the responsible municipality should not be approached for payment of hospital costs, financial assistance, or mainten- ance of the child. The committee also recommended that the practice of repatriation should cease, 1 Saskatchewan was the f i r s t province to adopt the recommendations of this committee, and more recently B r i t i s h Columbia has done likewise* No attempt is made i n this province to recover costs of care or to repatriate the mother unless she requests i t , or unless the Family Division of the Social welfare Branch feels the circumstances warrant i t * Every precaution is taken to maintain confidentiality* i n addition casework services are offered to help the client plan for herself and the child* Residence Requirements for B r i t i s h Columbia* Table 2 gives the residence requirements for the various, public assistance programs i n this province. With regard to the federal programs, a period of twenty years residence i n Canada is required for Old Age Security, and Old Age Assistance recipients; whereas for blind and disabled per- sons ten years residence is required. There are no resid- ence requirements for War Veterans* Allowance, or for social assistance to immigrants who have been i n the country less than one year. 1 MURPHY, Marion, "Residence, A problem"for Unmarried Mothers", Canadian welfare, XXVIII, 1953* p. 33 - 3 5 TABLE 2 RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA RESIDENCE IN CANADA 2 0 YEARS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION. ( IF ABSENT DURING 2 0 YEARS, RESIDENCE DOUBLE THE PERIOD OF ABSENCE PRIOR TO THE 2 0 YEARS) . 1 0 YEARS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION, (IF ABSENT DURING 10 YEARS NOT MORE THAN AVERAGE OF 6 0 DAYS PER YEAR WITH RESIDENCE IN CANADA AT LEAST TEN YEARS AGO) ON APPLICATION RESIDENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 3 YEARS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO APPLICATION. 1 YEAR SELF- SUPPORTING NON-RESIDENTS ( l . E . PERSONS WITH LESS THAN ONE YEAR'S RESIDENCE. ^ OLD AGE SECURITY' OLD AGE ASSIST- ANCE BLIND PERSONS' ALLOWANCE DISABLED PERSONS' ALLOWANCE WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE SOCIAL ASSIST- ANCE To IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA LESS THAN ONE YEAR. COST OF LIVING BONUS FOR OLD AGE SECURITY, OLD AGE ASSIST- ANCE, AND BLIND PERSONS' ALLOW- ANCE RECIPIENTS. MOTHERS' ALLOW- ANCE SOCIAL A S S I S T - ANCE , INCLUD- ING FINANCIAL A ID, BOARDING AND NURSING HOME CARE. HEALTH SERVICES To OLD AGE SE - CURITY AND OLD AGE ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS IN TEMPORARY SOCIAL ASSISTANCE INCLUOING FINAN- CIAL ASSISTANCE, BOARDING AND NURSING HOME CARE, FOSTER CARE, PEND- ING NOTIFICATION OF RESPONSIBLE PROVINCE REGARD- ING REIMBURSE- SOURCES: SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE REGULATIONS RECEIPT OF BON- MENT OR REPAT- US UNDER RECIP- RIAT I ON. ROCAL AGREEMENT WITH ALBERTA, OLD AGE SECUR- ITY RECIPIENT OTHERWISE E L - IGIBLE. — 1*JO — Provincial residence of three years is required for Mothers* Allowance, and also for the Cost-rof-Living Bonus for old Age Security, Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons and Disabled Persons' Allowance recipients, one Year's residence in the province is required for social assistance and health services. An aged person who applies for assistance and who has not been i n the province for three years prior to applic- ation is barred from the Cost-of-Living Bonus u n t i l he reaches seventy when he is eligible for Old Ago Security,* This means that such a person must get by on less than social allowance rates although he may have been i n the province for longer than one year prior to application. The aged person with less than one year's residence cannot qualify for health services u n t i l he has reached seventy at which time he qualified for old Age Security, Further to this he must have the "required one year's residence i n B r i t i s h p Columbia" without assistance. Such practices as these are discriminatory and are contrary to the e l e g i b i l i t y require- ment of one year«s residence for health services under the social assistance program of this province. In respect to provincial responsibility for Old Age Assistance, Blind persons or Disabled persons Allowance, the province i n which the applicant spent the last three years before reaching the qualifying age, or before applying 1 Social Welfare Branch, Policy Manual, old Age Assistance p. 16-17 2 ibi d , p, 31 - in - for assistance, i s financially responsible for payment of the provincial contribution. This financial responsibility con- tinues even though the recipient moves to another province. There has been much more discussion and research in respect to residence requirements i n the united States than i n Canada, and for this reason there is value in review- ing the fstate of the unionf as a guide i n considering changes within Canadian programs. RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES The Rhode Island Experience, u n t i l 191+4 ten years residence was required for public assistance i n Rhode Island. However, Governor McGrath, i n reviewing the program, could see no justification for denying aid to a resident from another state when the country was pouring millions of dollars into the poor areas of the world. The result was the abolishment of settlement laws in Rhode Island. Over a period of time records were kept which established the fact that there was no increase i n the number of recipients through immiagration, i n spite of the fact that rates were higher than i n adjacent states. 1 Although great significance has been given to these findings, when examined more closely they do not give such conclusive weight to the case for abolishment of residence. It should be recalled that the experiment took 1 LEET, Glen, "Rhode Island Abolishes Settlement", Social Service Review, XVIII, 1944* P» 282 place i n time of war when prosperity was the order of the day. Secondly, the housing situation i n Rhode Island was bad due to the presence of a naval base. Thirdly, the difference i n assistance rates, i n the order of two to three dollars monthly, was not sufficient to ju s t i f y the expense of moving from an- other state. Further to this, one might consider the supple- mentary services such as medical care i n contemplating the advantages of moving, also the lack of opportunity for supp<- lementary income i n a strange state. In a depression, large difference i n assistance rates would l i k e l y Invite movement, as would a milder climate with i t s corresponding reduction in cost of fuel and winter clothing. The Rhode island experience was outstanding i n its change of philosophy. It went as far as to repeal leg- i s l a t i o n which authorized the cancellation of public assist- ance when a recipient l e f t the state. This move was made when i t was found that older people were occupying accommod- ation needed by defense workers. The new legislation allow- ed them to leave the state permanently without losing their assistance. In reference to repatriation Glen Leet wrote the following: Rhode island w i l l not authorize the return of any person, and w i l l not request an authoriz- ation from another state unless such a return is desired by the person concerned..... At a time when we are fighting against a Nazi regime 1 Ibid p. 286 - k3 - which has no scruples about pushing around help- less people, we do not propose to have any part in plans of pushing around good Americans merely because they are poor.l The Californian Experience. During the great depression of the 1930»s there was a move i n the United States to close state borders to migrant people. California, with its attractive climate, and its large f r u i t growing dis t r i c t s employing migrant workers, was particularly threatened by an influx of destitute people from other states and took this measure for its own protection. The matter of the constit- utional rights of the individual in this measure was brought before the courts. Judge Byrnes of the United States Supreme Court upheld the right of the individual to move freely from one •state to another. He presented the view that the concept underlying the California Law was that "each community should care for i t s own indigent" but that in recent times i t had been proved that the "theory of the Elisabethan poor laws 2 no longer f i t s the facts". The concern of this state that i t s public assist- ance programs be limited to caring for " i t s own indigent" is born out by present residence requirements. For Old Ag© Assistance, five years residence i n the state within the last nine years Is required, including the year immediately 1 Ibid p. 285 2 Edwards vs. State of California, 31IL V.S. 6 0 , L. Ed. 315, 62 Supreme Court 161L (I9I4JL) - kk - prior to application.^ In regard to county aid and r e l i e f , the applicant must be a resident of the state for three years without receiving public or private r e l i e f . In addition he must have resided within the county for at least one year p prior to application for aid. Although proof that there was an intent to establish residence when the person entered the state is legally required, this policy has been hard to ad- minister because of appeal board hearings which have favored a more l i b e r a l interpretation of residence, 3 However, in general, California favors s t r i c t and lengthy residence re- quirements as a safeguard against having to care for those other than "their own",̂ " i The Pennsylvania Study, in 19̂ 5 the Pennsylvania Legislature reduced residence requirements for a l l types of public assistance to one year, and eliminated them for non- resident applicants from states which had no requirements. In the following years the attitude towards residence changed and the conviction developed amongst members of the Legis- lature that lengthy residence requirements would keep public assistance caseloads down, in 19̂ 9 a study was initiated to obtain data which would justify an increase in the period required for t 1 BOND* Floyd A., et, a l . , Our Needy Aged, Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1954* P« 10B - 109 2 Laws Relating to the Department of Social Welfare of California, Div. Ij., Ch. 2, Sees. 2555 - 2556 3 BOND, Floyd A., et. a l . , op. c i t . p. 3I4.6 - 3k-7 k- Ibid p. 3^6 - 45 - establishing state residence* It was found, however, that only 2*IL per cent of family heads of units on assistance had been i n the state less than five years* This meant that i n fewer than three cases i n every hundred was residence of less than five years an issue. The ratio of resident recipients with less than this period i n the state was actually smaller for the following reason. The figure given included non« residents receiving assistance whose state of legal residence could not be determined, or who could not be returned to their own state.* On the basis of these findings i t did not seem that public assistance costs would be reduced to any extent by the use of such a lengthy period of residence as five years*1 Residence i n New York* In 191+0-1+1, a study was made of residence i n New york State* Four years previously a policy had been adopted of granting assistance to the resident and urn-resident alike: however residence studies were continued, and the investigation made use of this i n - formation. It was found i n this study that the average length of residence of families on home r e l i e f was 6*3 years* In a review of "charge-backs9 i n the New York program, i t was shown that most of the counties neither gained, nor lost, any important net amounts from their 1 DAVIS, Eleanor J . , "The Question of Length of Residence", public Welfare, VII, 1949* p. 155 2 JACKSON, Glenn E», "Settlement and Social Welfare i n New York", Social Service Review, X#, 191+1» P» 434 - . ljjb - ' practice of charging back of assistance costs to the counties in which the recipients held residence,^" • Glenn E. Jackson sums up the discussion on charg- ing-back of assistance expenditures with the following state- ment. Whereas the community to which people are mi- grating retains a l l the new income, either in new wealth, or in new community participation in services, from the newcomers who pay their own way, at the same time the new community charges back the cost of r e l i e f for newcomers who f a i l to make a go of i t . Therefore, the rejected community loses i t s paying citizens while continuing to pay for i t s former non- paying residents. Would i t not be more equit- able i f the growing community accepted the « l i t t l e of the bitter along with the better. Another study i n New York considered the admin- istrative procedures involved in the various types of cases - locally settled, intra-county "charge-back", inter-county 11 charge-back", "state charge", and county charges. The over-all average proportion of the time of investigators, clerks, and local welfare officers devoted to residence questions was computed at 1 8 per cent. 3 Jackson feels that the facts lead naturally to the conviction that residence laws should eventually be abol- ished. This is not a new point of view. In fact this belief was proclaimed by Adam Smith, the noted English economist, in 1 7 7 6 when he wrote in the Wealth of Nations: "TO remove - a man who has committed no misdemeanor from the parish where 1 Ibid p. 1^32 - ^ 3 8 2 Ibid p. ij.38 3 Ibid p. ijl|.l . - 47 - he chooses to reside, is an evident violation of natural l i b - erty and justice. 1* Washington's Policies on Residence. E l i g i b i l i t y requirements for general assistance to needy persons i n Washington State stipulate one year's residence within the state. As the county plan of assistance was abolished in 1953 for a state administered program, local residence or county responsibility is no longer a factor within this pro- gram. Temporary assistance is granted to non-residents, and they are returned to their own state providing this is the best social plan; otherwise they can continue to receive assistance within Washington State. Residence requirements for the categorical programs vary considerably, as shown i n Table 7# Categorical assistance is continued to residents moving from the state on the basis of a sound plan, u n t i l residence is established elsewhere. 1 1 California continues Old Age Assistance outside the state for a period of one year when i t is assumed that res- idence has been established elsewhere. Such a practice may lend i t s e l f to developing 'stateless* citizens i f the re- quirements elsewhere are greater than one year, or i f the recipient has been i n more than one state during his ab- sence. It is Interesting to note that California has set the pe riod of absence at one year before assuming that the recipient has gained residence elsewhere, and yet i t re- quires three years for a person to gain residence i n the State of California, i t is further evidence of a desire to avoid responsibility, where possible, because of a fear of being overwhelmed. - IL8 - The practice of continuing assistance to a recip- ient moving out of the state u n t i l residence is established elsewhere is f a i r l y common throughout the united States. "Twenty-five per cent of the states enable their welfare departments to enter into agreements with other states for the purpose of reducing or eliminating durational residence requirements on a reciprocal basis."* The Social Security Administration has urged the removal of durational residence requirements i n the cat- egorical programs on the ground that they are inconsistent with the purposes of an aid program designed to help needy people regardless of where they liv e * The trend has been towards shortening the period, but there are s t i l l 21 states requiring the maximum of five years within the last nine years as l a i d down by the Social security Act, The Migrant Worker. Myron palk has written that i n the United States the "economic, industrial, and agricultural systems have been built around, and are de- pendent upon a free-moving labour force. Migrant workers have always created wealth for the nation, the states, and the communities which they serve."3 He suggests that three factors indicate even more movement among the people i n the America of tomorrow* 1 BOND, Floyd A., et a l , op. c i t . p. 136 2 ibi d p. 135 3 FALK, Myron, "Settlement Laws, A Major Problem i n Social Welfare", American Association of Social Workers, 1 9 4 8 . p. 6 . " — : - - 49 - (1) Increasing specialization of trades; e.g. bridge builders, o i l workers, and engineers. These specialists and their families move to various parts of the country as pro*, jects are completed and new ones begun. (2) urbanization. It was estimated that i n 19^7 3,000,000 more people were l i v i n g i n cit i e s than when the census was taken i n 19^0$ and that half of the increase came from farms. There is the added d i f f i c u l t y of 'putting down' roots i n the city, and the pos s i b i l i t y of transfer or pro- motion to a larger ci t y . (3) Mechanization of farming has resulted i n the displacement of farm workers to a major degree. These people either move to the c i t y or join the migrant workers*' Falk states that the needs of migrant workers "can be best me$ by making available to them the same rights and opportunities essential to the welfare of a l l our c i t - izens. Settlement laws only add human d i f f i c u l t i e s and unnecessary administrative costs and problems, without serving as a constructive factor. Settlement laws should be abolished". 1 In repudiating settlement laws* Glen Leet writes the following: In a free nation there is no place for state or local trade barriers, state or local settle- ment laws, or similar restrictions which tend 1 FALK» Myron op. c i t . . p. 10 2 The term 'settlement' is used i n parts of the United States i n place of residence, and generally refers to res- idence of long standing.' - 50 - to Balkanize our nation. In a free nation, no person, rich or poor, should be "bound to the s o i l " by settlement laws as though he were a serf.in the dark ages. We find i t d i f f i c u l t to understand how any person can, with sincerity, be concerned with free enterprise and economic freedom and s t i l l support the provisions of the settlement laws which bear so harshly upon the poor.l Conclusions. The original intention of residence requirements as found within the Elizabeth poor Laws was to ensure that responsibility for the care of the needy could be established. For this reason legislation was passed making the local areas responsible for such care. Over the centuries the true intent has been lost and residence laws have been used to avoid the responsibility of providing care. Further, residence laws were enacted i n relation to a static community whereas today the economy lends i t s e l f to migration and a changing populace. For these reasons alone i t can be said that the principle of residence is archaic and inapplicable within modern-day public assist- ance. The development of the concept that the needy person has a right to assistance, as evidenced by the i n - clusion of Freedom from Want amongst one of the Four Free- doms of the post war world, gives further support to the idea of abolishing residence laws which deny the right of a l l people in need to freedom from want. To consider the idea that residence laws should be abolished i n Canada is not practical except as they are replaced by social security 1 Ibid p. 282 - 51 - measures which, w i l l meet public assistance needs i n a l l parts of the country, and which w i l l protect the local areas from overwhelming assistance costs caused by the presence of non- resident recipients. The federal government could encourage abolition by instituting grants-in-aid to the provinces for unemployment assistance, and residual assistance* on the condition that residence requirements be discontinued* In regard to the matter of local residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there are provisions within the Social Assistance Act whereby a municipality or d i s t r i c t may grant assistance to a resident of another area and charge-back the costs of assistance to the responsible area. However the Vancouver City social Service Department has not always agreed to issue assistance on this basis with the result that the applicant has to return to his local area, or move to a nearby area which w i l l grant him aid on a charge-back basis. Neither of these alternatives may have any practical value i n relation to proper social planning* As i t would appear that one of the main object- ives of the Social Assistance Act i s to provide an e f f i c - ient and uniform public assistance program through the province; this could best be accomplished by the abolition . of local residence and the substitution of provincial res- idence of one year as the only requirement for social assist- ance. Financial responsibility of the local area could be 1 Assistance programs other than categorical* v i z . Social Assistance and Mothers* Allowance - £2 - maintained through a m i l l rate levy* or on a per capita basis according to the population with the area. 1 Administrative costs in relation to ncharge- back" operations would be eliminated and time spent i n establishing residence much reduced. Following the precedent established both i n the united States and i n the old Age Assistance p? ogram i n Canada, the practice of continuing Social Assistance or Mothers' Allowance to the recipient leaving this prov- ince for sound reasons, u n t i l residence is gained elsewhere should be adopted. The present practice of denying assist- ance outside the province restricts the recipient and does not allow him to take advantage of opportunities elsewhere; eg. the offer of a home at a very reasonable rent by a relative or friend i n another province. 1 In assessing the municipal contribution some consider- ation should be given to the relation between the popul- ation of an area, i t s a b i l i t y to finance public assistance, and the size of i t s public assistance r o l l s . Vancouver, with i t s population of over 300,000, and Its very large tax resources, both residential and industrial, had 4,129 people on social assistance as of Mareh 31* 1954* Surrey, with a much smaller population, and just a fraction of the tax resources which Vancouver has, was granting assistance to 1,0J+.9 people during the same period. West Vancouver ' which is a wealthy municipality by comparison had only 60 persons on social assistance at that time. Some thought should be given to an equalization formula waich would help the poorer municipalities to support their load. The figures used are from the report of the s o c i a l Welfare Branch for 1953-54» P« 36 - 37 - 53 - RELATIVES* RESPONSIBILITY The concept of relatives* responsibility dates back to the provisions of the English Poor Law, The Act of 1597 for the "Relief of the poor" enunciated the doct- rine of family responsibility. Under the Act of Elizabeth of 1601 the mutual responsibility for parents to support children was extended to grandfathers and grandmothers,* It was f e l t that the parents should be legally responsible for the support of their children and that i n later l i f e the children should be responsible for the care of the aging parents, Relatives* Responsibility in B r i t i s h Columbia, The legislation relating to relatives* responsibility i n Bri t i s h Columbia is known as the Parents * Maintenance Act of 1936, This Act makes possible the enforced support of a dependent parent by a son or daughter where a b i l i t y to pay is established by the magistrate. The maximum payment under the Act is $20, per week and failure to pay can result i n penalties including fines and Imprisonment up to three months. The extent, however, to wi ich this act is used i n reference to relatives* responsibility can be gathered from the fact that at no time during interviews with prov- i n c i a l and municipal welfare authorities was reference made to i t , A need may have been for such legislation at the time of the great depression - no such need to even refer 1 MILES, Arthur p., An Introduction to Public Welfare, Boston, D.C- Heath & Co., 19i|-9» p. 26 - 27 ~ " ' ~" • - A.- to the legislation is apparent today. In discussing the matter of the welfare agency trying to force the relative to support the recipient, i t was the combined opinion of the welfare authorities that this was a costly and generally fruitless approach 1 as far as enlisting permanent support. The situation i n respect to family responsibility i n B r i t i s h Columbia varies between programs as indicated i n Table 3. In those where the element of right Is strongest. I.e. In War Veterans* Allowance and Old Age Assistance, par- ticipation of relatives is entirely voluntary, i n Mothers* Allowance and Social Allowance, however, single children, l i v i n g i n the home, are expected to contribute seven per cent of gross earnings If their income exceeds $60. per 2 month, policy in respect to contributions of relatives for boarding and nursing care varies among the different agencies as Table $ shows. The Vancouver City Social Service De- partment assesses the income of children whose parents re- quire care. Single children where able are (expected* to contribute while married children who are able are 'requested* to help, i n the Social Welfare Branch and Municipality of Burnaby programs, relatives contribute on a voluntary bais only, however they are brought i n on the total planning wherever possible. The policy of the City of Vancouver i n regard 1 In a study made in California i n 1954* o n e county spent $1,250. to collect $7,037.50 i n a well systematized legal approach to relatives* responsibility for Old Age Assistance recipients. BOND* Floyd A. et a l , op. c i t . p. 201 2 See Appendix C for changes effective A p r i l 1, 1955. Vancouver City Social Service Department is at present con* aidering these - 55 - TABLE 3 RELATIVES' RESPONSIBILITY WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE RELATIVES' CONTRIBUTIONS ENTIRELY VOLUNTARY OLD AGE ASSISTANCE INFORMATION REQUIRED CONFIRMING EXTENT TO WHICH REGULAR CONTRIBUTIONS ARE TO BE CONTINUED IF ASSISTANCE GRANTED. NO LIENS AGAINST RECIPIENT'S ESTATE EXCEPT IN CASE OF OVERPAYMENT OR FRAUD. MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE ~[$> OF GROSS EARNINGS WHEN OVER $60.00. NOT MANDATORY WHEN CHILDREN HAVE- OTHER SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES, E . G . MEDICAL BILLS, ALLOWANCE OR ARE LIVING OUTSIDE THE HOME. LIEN AGAINST ESTATE TO RECOVER COST OF INDIGENT BURIAL. BOARDING OR NURSING CARE CITY SOCIAL SERVICE DEPT. ABILITY OF CHILDREN TO CONTRIBUTE ASSESSED. SINGLE PERSON, AVERAGE $25WQO/MON. LITTLE PRESSURE UNLESS CHILDREN ALREADY CONTRIBUTING. MARRIED PERSON - LITTLE EFFORT TO ENLIST SUPPORT BEYOND A REQUEST WHERE PERSON IS ABLE TO. SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH RELATIVES CONTRIBUTE VOLUNTARICY. MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY RELATIVES CONTRIBUTE VOLUNTARILY. SOURCES: SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, POLICY MANUAL INTERVIEWS WITH PUBLIC WELFARE AUTHORITIES . - j>6 — to working children i n Mothers* Allowance or Social Allowance families is given below. Such restrictions may put severe strain on family relationships and contribute towards the development of bitter attitudes on the part of the children towards authority. The f i r s t child is expected to contrib- ute 25 per cent of any excess over $45» per month and the second child everything above the f i r s t $15» There does not appear to be any recognized philosophy on which this policy is based. In fact, there are few cases of working children i n »social assistance' homes and an assessment is made i n each case. The general practice at the present time is to exempt 75 per cent of the combined earnings of the children. American Practice. The concept of family re- sponsibility was incorporated into early American poor law legislation and has remained a very l i k e l y issue i n public assistance i n many parts of the United States* Reference has been made to the fact that tthe enforcement of relatives* responsibility i n relation to public assist- ance is declining i n Canada".1 A considerable move in the opposite direction has been reported in the United States where in recent years there has been a tightening of leg- p i s l a t i o n i n numerous states. In a study of relatives* responsibility i n Old 1 DIXON* W.G.* "Issues i n Public Assistance", B r i t i s h Columbia Welfare,,VI, 1949* p. 10 .. . 2 BERMAN & BLAETUS* "State Public Assistance Legislation, 1951* tt Social Security,Bulletin, XIV, 1951* P. 228 - 231 - 57 - Age Assistance made i n 1952, Elizabeth Epler found that four- teen states deny assistance when i t has been established that children can support. In another twenty-one states, although the agencies do not deny assistance, there is provision for court action to obtain support. Most of these states use a base sum'- i n respect to children's income, which, i f exceeded, establishes the a b i l i t y to support. The contribution varies, and where some states require 20 per cent of the excess other states require 100 per cent of income above the base sum.* Many other states, however, have abolished relatives* respon- s i b i l i t y . An example of this is Washington where no attempt is made to enforce support. Income of children l i v i n g i n the home is considered as a resource of the family, but the only approach to relatives outside the home is i n relation to social planning in a positive sense. California enforces relatives* responsibility through a legal procedure affected by the county. This often collapses at the f i n a l stage of summonsing through the fear of the legal o f f i c i a l , who is an elected person, of losing »the vote*. The rate of contribution varies according to excess income, being approximately 20 per cent of the ex- cess. "The present (January 1954) scale begins for a single person at the level of $201 monthly income and advances with each $25. Increment. It does not apply to a married person (or other person with one dependent) u n t i l his salary 1 EPLER, Elizabeth,. "Old Age Assistance: Children's A b i l i t y to Support", Social Security Bulletin, XVII,-1954* P. 9 - 58 - reaches $301. per month11 Cone lias Ions. There are several strong arguments against relatives* responsibility. F i r s t l y , the family clan is a social unit of the past. With the great surge towards urbanization and mobility of population there has been a resultant loosening of family ti e s . The younger people no longer have accommodation available to their parents. Houses are smaller now and gardens also with the result that con- tributions must be made i n cash rather than i n kind. Secondly, in most instances of relatives * support i t is a case of the near poor supporting the poor to meet their obligation. Finally, i t is f e l t that to prosecute people to ensure their support of relatives is a cumbersome and costly practice. The policy, wi ich is becoming increasingly prevalent i n Brit i s h columbia, of encouraging the participation of the family i n total planning i n a positive sense, instead of seeing them solely as a means to minimize assistance costs, is a far better way to strengthen family ties and to develop healthy attitudes towards the community. CITIZENSHIP AND MORAL STANDARDS This concept of aid to the favored has been a part of welfare legislation since time began. The idea of helping "our owri, and those "worthy of help" has been re- flected i n the requirement of citizenship and moral char- 1 BOND, Floyd A* et a l , op. c i t . p. 112 - 59 - acter as factors i n e l i g i b i l i t y for public assistance. B r i t i s h Columbia has largely abolished such discrimination through i t s Social Assistance Act, as has the federal government i n i t s programs of aid to the aged, blind, disabled, and to veterans. Mothers* Allowance alone requires that the applicant be a B r i t i s h subject. Although Washington State has no citizenship clauses in i t s e l i g i b i l i t y regulations, eleven states i n America require citizenship i n reference to Old Age Assist- ance. Feelings are strong i n plfeaea? such as California about granting equal rights to minor national groups who could otherwise qualify. California would have to grant aid to an additional 1L5,000 people, the great majority of these of Mexican origin, i f citizenship were abolished as a requirement; and this would add $35*000,000 annually to i t s Old Age Assistance program.* Moral standards are not an issue in granting public assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia or Washington, ex- cept i n the Mothers * Allowance program of this province which requires that the recipient be a if i t and proper per- son' as a mother, persons of doubtful capacity as mothers receive Social Allowance which has identical rates of assistance and services. As in Washington there is the recognition that public assistance should be granted on the basis of need, the other social problems to be assessed and worked with simultaneously, but not as a condition to 1 BOND, Floyd A., et a l , op. c i t . p. 250 - 60 - receiving assistance. There is no longer the concept of fehe worthy and the unworthy,, but rather the concepts of need, and of the a b i l i t y of some people to accept and benefit from social casework services. For others the concept of protect- ion of the person and society is being considered where necess- ary. SUMMARY This chapter deals with the major e l i g i b i l i t y factors, other than financial, that are generally considered i n public assistance. Following a discussion of residence requirements in Canada, the issue of reciprocal agreements and i t s counterpart, repatriation of the non-resident is con- sidered. The residence requirements of the various programs in B r i t i s h Columbia are given along with some of the result- ing discriminations. Following this the question of resid- ence i n American programs is aired, and the Rhode Island ex- perience i n abolishment is discussed, as are other findings in American welfare research. A case is made for abolition of residence in Canadian Welfare and some suggestions given for immediate steps as they relate to public assistance i n Br i t i s h Columbia, The issue of relatives* responsibility is discussed with reference to programs i n the United States and i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the latter being considered i n de- t a i l , m closing, brief reference is made to citizenship and moral character as requirements In public assistance e l i g i b i l i t y studies. CHAPTER III ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCES Public assistance means cash, goods, or ser- vices provided to, or on behalf of an individual on a means test basis because he and his family have insuffic- ient resources to obtain the necessities of l i f e . It i s , therefore, an essential part of the administration of pub- l i c assistance to assess the resources available i n meet- ing the needs of the applicant* REAL PROPERTY In the assessment of real property there Is generally a difference made between property which a per- son is using for shelter and that which is used solely for purposes of revenue or speculation* In most programs a limit is set on the value of real property a person can own for shelter purposes and s t i l l remain eligible* In B r i t i s h Columbia there is a multiplicity of approaches to the matter of assessment of real property as can be seen from Table 1L* Social Allowance regulations appear to be the most l i b e r a l but this should be qualified . - 62 - with the statement that property other than that used for shelter is generally considered as a liquid asset, and the person is encouraged to s e l l It before applying for assist- ance. Mothers* Allowance regulations are the most r e s t r i c t - ive in limiting the assessed value of the property, less en- cumbrances, to $2,500.* m War Veterans* Allowance, Old Ag© Assistance, and Blind Persons* Allowance, property is con- sidered a source of income which is calculated on the basis of five per cent of the cost price in the f i r s t case, and in the latter two, five per cent of the assessed value. An exemption of $ 6,000. on the market value of the home is allowed' under War Veterans* Allowance, the calculation being made on the excess, i f any, less encumbrances. If the veteran feels he has paid an excessive pri£e for his home, he can have i t assessed by the Department of Veterans * Affairs for the purpose of the assistance. The attitudes taken in the different programs towards the assessment of shelter and meals, provided to the recipient without charge, vary as can be seen from Table 1L. While War Veterans * Allowance makes no deductions for such, the recipients of Old Age Assistance, and Mothers * or Social Allowance, who receive free shelter, or room and board, get only a fraction of the f u l l grant. While the practice of ignoring these resources, as is done i n res- pect to War Veterans* Allowance Is not businesslike, i t 1 This policy is adhered to by the Vancouver City Social Service Department; however the Municipality of Burnaby uses the.same regulations as those under Social Allowance* - 63 - TABLE - REAL PROPERTY, DERIVED AND CALCULATED INCOME REGULATIONS IN WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE, MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE, AND SOCIAL ALLOWANCE. RESTRICTIONS WHERE SHELTER PROVIDED WHERE ROOM AND BOARD PROVIDED INCOME - RENTALS . ROOMERS, BOARDERS 50JS OF GROSS RENTALS RECEIV- ED CONSIDERED AS INCOME. EX - CESS ABOVE FOLL- OWING CONSIDERED AS INCOME: ROOM PROVIDED - $15.00/MO. MEALS PROVIDED - $35.00/MO. ROOM & MEALS PROVIDED - $ 50.00/MO. WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE NO RESTRICTIONS ON PROPERTY TO THE VALUE OF $6,000 (COST NOT AN ISSUE UN- LESS RECIPIENT WORKS AND RE- CEIVES REMUNER- PRICE)J 5$ 0 F - AT I ON AS WELL AS EXCESS CALCULAT- SHELTER OR ED AS INCOME, ROOM AND BOARD. THE REMUNERAT- ION ONLY IS CON- SIDERED FOR IN- COME PURPOSES. OLD AGE ASSISTANCE 5$ OF ASSESSED VALUE OF HOME CALCULATED AS INCOME. GRANT REDUCED BY NOT LESS THAN: SINGLE PERSON - $ 10.00/MO. $120.00/YR. MARRIED COUPLE: $ 15.00/MO. $180.00/YR. GRANT REDUCED BY NOT LESS THAN SINGLE PERSON - $ 30.00/MO. $360,00/YR. MARRIED COUPLE - $ 45.00/MO. $540.00/YR* NOT LESS THAN 5°# :• OF GROSS RENTALS RECEIVED CONSIDER- ED AS INCOME, AND 20$ OF GROSS AM- OUNT RECEIVED FOR BOARD AND LODGING. WHERE RECIPIENT RENTING, NET PRO- FIT CONSIDERED AS INCOME. MOTHERS" ALLOWANCE SOCIAL ALLOWANCE NO ALLOWANCE WHERE ASSESSED VALUE OF HOME $2,500 ABOVE ENCUMBRANCES. NO RESTRICTION BASED ON REAL PROPERTY GRANT REDUCED BY UNIT 1 $12.50/MO. ($150,/YR) UNIT 2 $17.50/MO. $ 210./YR) UNIT •$ $22.00/MO. UNIT 5 $24.50/MO. UNIT 5 $27.00/MO. UNIT 0 $29«50/MO. UNIT 7 $32.00/MO. UNIT 8 $34.50/MO ,,GRANT REDUCED , .BY:-!,. UNIT.- 1 $35.00/MO , ($420./YR) UNIT 2 $57.O0/MO ($684./YR) UNIT 3 $68.50/MO UNIT 4 $79.50/MO UNIT 5 $9T.50/MO UNIT 6 $103.0Q/MO UNIT 7 $114.50/MO UNIT 8 $126#00/MO ..RENT FROM SELF- CONTAINED SUITES TOTALLY DEDUCT- IBLE. 40$ OF FOLLOWING DEDUCTIBLE: 1 ROOMER, EXCESS OVER $"12.50/MO. 2 ROOMERS, EXCESS OVER $17.00/MO. 1 BOARDER, EXCESS OVER $35.00/MO. 2 BOARDERS, EX- CESS OVER $57.OO/MO. SOURCES: SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE REGULATIONS appears j u s t i f i a b l e as a move i n securing f o r the veteran a l e v e l of l i v i n g which i s clo s e r to adequacy. TABLE k (a) A COMPARISON OF DEDUCTIONS OF INCOME FROM PROPERTY, RENTALS, AND BOARDING- CARE, IN WAR VETERANS» ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE, MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE, AND SOCIAL ALLOWANCE. Assessment of Income Income income on home from from 2 costing & assess $1+0,00 boarders -ed at $3,600, s u i t e at $6fymo. Net Income WAR VETERANS' N i l ALLOWANCE - iM or $130^ $20. cost 57? ~~73. Rent Bd OLD AGE ASSISTANCE 5# or $180, per year $15. per • month $0% or $20, ^$130. 20^.26 cost57 ^=». 20. •H 47. -15 MOTHERS' OR May be i n e l - 100% $130. N i l 37.80 - i g i b l e * deduct- cost- 10.00° SOCIAL ed plus 4-7.60 ALLOWANCE N i l N i l exempt .67. ~ 3 . less W 25.20 37.B0 a See p. 62 regarding l i m i t s on r e a l property. b Shelter and food allowance under S o c i a l Allowance, c $10. exemption. In Table 1+. (a) a comparison i s made of the assessment practices i n respect to income from' property, i n - 65 ~ this case § $3#600. home* within the different assistance programs. The veteran is not assessed anything for his home; he is allowed to retain $20. of the income from the rental; or he is allowed to retain $50. for each person he boards, and an additional $15* for his casual labour in this regard - a total of $130. Deducting costs, his net income is $73# The aged person is assessed I180*1 or ' $l5» per month as calculated income from his home; he gains $20. from renting, or i f he boards two persons he retains $47* The person on Motherst or Social Allowance .gains nothing £rcm renting but retains $1|.7.80 from boarding* PERSONAL PROPERTY AND INCOME In assessing personal property, household equipment and clothing are exempted. In general the following are included; cash i n hand or in the bank, government bonds, stocks, and other securities, cash surrender value of insurance, agreements for sale and mortages, livestock and automobiles. The pmblie assist- ance pr ograms i n B r i t i s h Columbia include these items. As is shown i n Table £, cash assets are ex- empted i n War Veterans* Allowance and Old Age Assistance programs to the extent of $1,000. for a single person or 1 Under the new system of assessing property for tax- ation purposes Inaugurated by the B.C. Legislature early in 1955* the old Age Assistance applicant suffers, pre- viously the assessed value of homes of most Old Ago Assist- ance recipients was between $2,000. and $3*000.; whereas an average value under the new system would be around $3*500. Interview with corporation of Burnaby authority. - 66 * TABLE 5 - PERSONAL PROPERTY AND INCOME REGULATIONS IN WAR VETERANS * ALLOW- ANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE, MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE. —UT~ ~~m m BASIC ALLOWANCE CASH & LIQUID ASSETS ADDITIONAL EXEMPTIONS ADDITIONAL INCOME ALLOWED WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE SINGLE MARRIED CASUAL EARNINGS (WITH OR UNEARNED INCOME UP TO WITHOUT $ 2 5 /YR» SINGLE MARRIED DEPENDENTS) FAMILY ALLOWANCE. $ 7 2 0 . $1,296. $ 1 , 0 0 0 . $ 2 , 0 0 0 . MOTHERS' OR SOCIAL EXEMPT • EXEMPT ALLOWANCES. ALLOWANCE NOT GRANTED PENSION ALLOWANCES UNTIL ASSETS REDUCED. FOR CHILDREN. SINGLE MARRIED $ 1 2 0 . /YR $ 1 2 0 . / YR OLD AGE ASSISTANCE StNGLE MARRIED $ 4 & 0 , $ 9 6 0 . SINGLE MARRIED COUPLE $ 1 , 0 0 0 . $ 2 , 0 0 0 . EXEMPT • EXEMPT . AFTER DEDUCTION BAL- ANCE DIVIDED BY NUM- BER OF MONTHS REMAIN- ING UNTIL APPLICANT REACHES 7 0 AND MULT- IPLIED BY 12 TO GIVE CALCULATED YEARLY IN- COME FROM THIS SOURCE FAMILY ALLOWANCES MOTHERS' OR SOCIAL ALLOWANCES* ASSIG- NED PAY WHERE NO DEPENDENTS' ALLOWANCE HAS BEEN GRANTED. BLIND PERSON'S GUIDE ALLOWANCE. COST-OF- LIVING BONUS FOR THOSE COMPLYING WITH REQUIREMENTS UP TO $ 1 5 . / M O . CASUAL GIFTS OF SMALL VALUE. SINGLE MARRIED $240. $2)10. FOR COST-OF-LIVING BONUS RECIPIENTS SINGLE MARRIED $ 1 2 0 . NIL MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE UNIT 1 UNIT 2 $I*5/MO $ 6 9 . 5 0 / MO $ 5 ^ 0 . $ 8 3 4 . SOCIAL ALLOWANCE SINGLE MARRIED CHILDRENS CASUAL SUMM- COUPLE OR ER EARNINGS. FAMILY FAMILY ALLOWANCES. OLD AGE ASSISTANCE OR $ 2 5 0 . $ 5 0 0 . SECURITY, BLIND PER- • EXEMPT EXEMPT SONS* ALLOWANCE EX- EMPT BUT RECIPIENT ALLOWANCE NOT GRANTED NOT INCLUDED IN ALLOW- UNTIL ASSETS REDUCED ANCE UNIT EARNED UNEARNED $10/MO B $120/YR EXCESS TOTALLY DEDUCT- IBLE. $10/MO B $120/YR OR $21*0. IF THERE IS NO UNEARNED INCOME. k0% OF EXCESS DEDUCTIBLE SOURCES: SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL' W.V.A. FORM 17 (REVISED 1 - 5 3 ) A § E E INCOME AND ADDITIONAL EXEMPTIONS, P. 7^ B As LAID DOWN IN SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL. AMOUNT VARIES WITH MUNICIPALITIES. *H 67 ** $2,000, for a married couple. If a veteran has personal property i n excess of the limit he is not e l i g i b l e for assistance u n t i l he has reduced them. In this respect i f he reduces his assets by spending $500. on a t r i p he w i l l not be penalized, The same attitude w i l l be taken to the Old Age Assistance applicant who has reduced his assets to the maximum in making Improvements to his home,1 An Important factor to consider in these pro- grams is the reduced earning capacity of the aged person , and his need for, and right to expect security on a perm- anent basis. This philosophy has been expressed i n the federal Old Age Security p? ogram which authorizes pensions for a l l persons seventy years and over, who have the re- quired twenty years residence, without any means test. While this measure is certainly focussed on the provision of security for the aged, there is l i t t l e evidence of the same philosophy in the Old Age Assistance regulations re- garding personal property (see Table 5). The income from excess cash assets is calculated on the basis of a govern- ment annuity covering the period u n t i l the recipient reaches seventy, and the rate of assistance is lowered by this amount. This means that the recipient is expected to spend his excess assets during this period, and support himself 1 Although this approach to excessive cash assets is not written into policy, i t appears i n the advice given to pro- spective applicants by the staff in welfare offices. 2 The veteran must be sixty, or younger and incapable of maintenance, the old Age Assistance recipient sixty-five. m 68 — from the age of seventy on with the $1JJ0. Old Age Security pension* Had the annuity been based on the l i f e expectancy of the recipient, he could look forward to a higher level of income and a greater sense of security when he reached seventy. As i t i s , the term "old age security without a means test" has a hollow ring for this person* He has been reduced to the level of a person without means before he can reach the goal of security in old age; not by misfort- une, but by social legislation. Provincial Policies* In the Mothers' Allowance and Social Allowance programs the applicant is exempt ed under Social Welfare Branch policy up to $2£0* as a single person, or up to $500* i f he has dependents* He may be allowed assistance with cash assets above the maximum i f these are required immediately for the payment of outstand- ing debts, or i f the applicant wishes to invest i n a home* The recipient of social allowance who is suffer- ing from tuberculosis gets special consideration i n respect to personal property, "because of the importance of rehab- i l i t a t i o n plans". 1 Instead of being limited to $25>0. or $ 5 0 0 . , depending on his status, 3 per cent of the amount in excess of the maximum is considered as Income and de- ductible from the basic allowance. For example, $2,5?00. is $ 2 , 0 0 0 . in excess of the exemption; and 3 per cent of this $60» per year* The basic allowance is reduced by 1 Social Welfare Branch, Policy Manual p. 33 - 69 « #5'. 00. The recipient with T.B. is also eligible for an ex- tra allowance to cover payment of insurance premiums. This is done to prevent the policy becoming void, and the recip- ient experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining insurance at a later date because of his history of T.B. Tuberculosis has been a greater public health danger than other diseases, hence the special consideration given to such patients, i t represents a reflection of the categorical approach where certain cases have status. Recipients of Old Age Security may qualify for the Cost-of-Living Bonus of $15>. per month providing their total income, including bonus, is less than $7@0. per year for a single person, or $1,320. i n the case of a married couple. Income calculations, except i n respect to pers- onal property, are made on the basis of Old Age Assistance policies. An exemption of $2£0. for a single person, and $500. for a married couple is allowed before any calculations are made regarding personal property. Income from the ex- cess cash assets is computed on the basis of the monthly rate payable under a government annuity, purchasable with the total excess cash assets to cover the lifetime of the recipient. In the case of a married recipient l i v i n g with his spouse, the Income is computed on the basis of the monthly rates payable to.each with half the excess cash assets. - 70 m Municipal policies. Municipalities are allowed to set their own limits as to the amount of personal prop- erty an applicant can retain, and i n this respect there is considerable variation. While Burnaby adheres to Social Welfare Branch policy (see Table $), Vancouver limits the cash assets of Social Allowance applicants equivalent to one month's assistance.* For example a single person is allowed while a group of two is allowed $69. $ 0 . This compares very unfavorably with Social Welfare Branch which grants exemptions of $2£o. and $5>00. respectively. Assessment of Property i n the United States. In reviewing the Old Age Assistance programs i n the united States, i t has been found that fifteen states set dollar •a maxima on homestead property,"' defined either i n terms of assessed value or market value, less encumbrances, which 1 At the time of application cash assets up to the amount of the group social allowance may be excepted by the unit Director. Amounts i n excess of this may be ex- cepted at the discretion of the Administrator, up to the maximums set by City Council policy, namely $13>0. for single persons, and $300. for families. Cases i n which additional exemptions over the group allowance are being requested are usually received by a staff committee of senior personnel i n the City Social Service Department. 2 BOND, Floyd A. et a l , op. c i t . p. 11L3 - li|-7 3 Homestead property is not defined In public welfare text books used by the writer; the Eaton Handy English Dictionary defines i t as ttthe enclosure immediately con- nected with a mansion." In the United States i t refers to the property surrounding a ranch or farm-house. - 71 - range from $ 1 , 5 0 0 . to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . There are twenty-three states with no homestead maxima but a number of these re- quire that the property not exceed the value of modest homes i n the community. Eight states permit the continued ownership of additional real property providing i t is used to produce reasonable income; otherwise i t must be sold. Six other states specify the amount of additional property without distinguishing between real and personal, but the low limits, v i z . $15>0. to $73>0., suggest that such holdings seldom include real estate of any appreciable value. TRANSFER OF PROPERTY It is the concern of the administrators of assistance programs that a person may transfer part or a l l of his property i n order to qualify for assistance, or to evade l i e n or recovery requirements. "In twenty-seven of the American states transfers made within a specified num- ber of years prior to application for old Age Assistance, generally five years, are presumed to be made with the intention of qualifying for assistance, unless the appli- cant presents substantial evidence to the contrary." 1 i n a l l the other states, except two which made no investi- gation of transfers involving property valued at $5>00. or less, a l l transfers may be reviewed, regardless of when made, -to determine their bearing on e l i g i b i l i t y . There is the same concern about this matter 1 BOND, Floyd A.* et a l op. c i t . p. l£2 - 72 ~ i n the public assistance progreps i n B r i t i s h Columbia. For example, Old Age Assistance regulations require a f u l l i n - vestigation of any transfer of property made within the five years prior to application. It is the applicant's re- sponsibility to prove that he did not transfer the property in order to qualify for assistance and unless he can do this he w i l l be assessed as though there had been no transfer* War Veterans» Allowance likewise prohibits the transferring of property in order to qualify for aid. Certain exceptions are made to this general practice. The regulations require that a person needing permanent care as a chronic invalid i n the Provincial i n - firmary or Provincial Home at Kamloops sign over his prop- erty both real and personal to the Crown.* However, in practice i t is suggested to the applicant that he consider transferring his property to his relatives prior to seek- ing admission. A similar approach is used i n dealing with the War Veterans» Allowance recipient who owns a large home and cannot maintain i t . Every attempt is made to help him conserve his assets and to maintain him at his highest level of adjustment. If the recipient is a married veteran or a widower, he may be advised to s e l l his home and buy a small- er one, keeping i n mind the fact that no assessment is made on the f i r s t $6,000. invested in real property. If after 1 Provincial infirmaries Act, Application Form, Form of Transfer of Property - 73 - completing the transaction, the recipient has cash assets In excess of that allowed, he must reduce these before he can receive further assistance, (see Sable $). He Is assured though that he can qualify for the allowance once this Is done. If the veteran has children or relatives to whom he wishes to leave his estate, It Is often suggested that he choose with them a house which they w i l l occupy and assume payments for, and when he Is deceased they w i l l assume the mortgage. In the meantime the veteran fixes up a suite In the basement or elsewhere In the house where he can li v e Independently. This Is a f a i r l y special case, but the philosophy which Is in evidence is general within the pro- gram. The concept is that of one veteran helping another, within the widest possible interpretation of the regulations; and i n such a way as to interfere with the recipient's de- fenses against dependency, loss of status, and loss of security, as l i t t l e as possible. The recipient of Social Allowance is allowed to s e l l his home, buy another one, and can remain on assist- ance so long as any cash assets derived from the transaction do not exceed the limit set. He is ineligible i f his cash assets are excessive. Calculation of income from real property for applicants of Blind Persons' Allowance is made on the same basis as for old Age Assistance recipients (see Table Ij.). There is no exemption of personal property for the blind - 74 - person, the income from this source being computed on the monthly rate payable under a government annuity, purchas- able with the total cash assets to cover the lifetime of the recipient, INCOME AND ADDITIONAL EXEMPTIONS In each of the assistance programs i n this province there are allowances for "Additional income" as shown i n Table 5, column (4)> there are other exemptions which are not calculated as income which are l i s t e d in column (3), The most significant of these is the item of "casual earnings" under War Veterans* Allowances. This includes earnings from odd jobs such as building a fence for which the recipient might be paid $50. It also i n - cludes earnings from regular part time employment, up to the maximum of $50. pe r month. The veteran may include as casual earnings $25. per month for work done i n providing room and board for a person. He is also exempted the earn- ings of regular employment of short duration up to a max- imum of twelve weeks in any allowance year with no limit on the amount of remuneration obtained. It should be re- called that many of the older veterans are not able to work at a l l , but the value of these regulations l i e i n the fact that i f a recipient feels he is able to work and wishes to take casual employment he Is not penalized for his i n i t i - ative by a reduction i n his assistance. It encourages a - 75 - person to operate as independently as possible, and at the same time ensures the security of the basic allowance. An attempt has been made to give the recipient of Blind persons' Allowance greater opportunity for earning. Although his basic pension of $l|-0. per month is the same as that granted under Old Age Assistance he is allowed as a single person additional income of $360. per year as com- pared to $2i|.0. He is also elig i b l e for the Cost-of-Living Bonus of $15. per month If his income including assistance does not exceed $660. The single Old Age Assistance recip- ient must limit his total annual income to $600. i f he wishes to qualify for the f u l l bonus. The major drawback to the provisions i n respect to the blind is that there is no par- t i a l bonus paid. This means that i f a person earns $10. over the maximum of $660. he is liable to lose $180. during the next year through being disallowed the bonus. It would be more i n the interests of encouraging self-help among the recipients i f the bonus was reduced in proportion to the ex- cess income earned. A significant move was made i n this direction in the united States i n July, 1951* with an Amendment to Section 1002 (a) (8) of the s o c i a l Security Act which would provide for the exemption of Income of blind persons in re- ceipt of assistance, up to $50. monthly. It was f e l t that this would encourage the blind to prepare for, engage in, or continue to hold remunerative employment. A survey of public assistance legislation completed that year showed - 76 - that 28 states had enacted legislation i n respect to the amendment,* Provincial policies, under Motherst Allowance and Social Allowance regulations, a recipient is allowed additional earned income of $20. per month. Forty per cent of any earned Income in excess of this is deductible, and should the income equal or exceed the rate of assistance consideration must always be given to continuing e l i g i b i l - 2 it y . There is value i n this policy especially i n cases where allowance is being granted as part of a total rehab- i l i t a t i o n plan. As the recipient regains his strength, i f his Indigence has been caused by illn e s s , or injury, he is able to increase his income. One wonders what hurdle the client faces when he reaches the point where he can earn an amount equal to, or in excess of his public assistance. If he does earn this much he is liable to be cut off his assistance thereby being penalized for his i n i t i a t i v e . Un- less a person had considerable feelings against remaining on assistance, he might be strongly tempted to keep his earnings beiox? the maximum u n t i l he was strong enough to take full-time employment; Or to make false statements about his income which to many seems justifi e d on the basis of the • Inadequacy of assistance rates,, Would It not aid in the recipient's move toward self-sufficiency to decrease 1 BUMA.N & BIAETUS, "Survey of public Assistance Legis- lation", Public Welfare, LX, 1.951, p. 228 2 For recent changes, see Appendix c - 77 « the assistance i n proportion to the amount he earns i n ex- cess of the maximum? For example, a man is receiving the Social Allowance rate of $83.50 for himself, his wife, and one child. If he Yearns $82.50 i n addition to his allowance; he can retain the $10. basic exemption plus 60 per cent 1 of the remainder, i.e. $ l i 3 . 5 0 . His total income at this point is $137*00. However should his earnings equal his allowance of $ 8 3 . 5 0 , he w i l l no longer be eligib l e for assistance. This reduces his income to his earnings, and he is thus pen- alized for his endeavors. The recipient would be wiser to keep his earnings below his allowance which is $83.50 i n this case, u n t i l he is sure he can earn $137*70, at which time he can terminate assistance. In the suggested plan above, the figure of $137*00 might be set for this group as the total Income allowable, and as the recipient's earnings Increase towards this figure, the allowance grant could be lowered proportion- ately. In effect, this is what is done i n War Veterans' Allowance, and Old Age Assistance. The recipient can thus be encouraged to move towards self-sufficiency, and during the process be assured of continued security. It has been 2 stated that tf* is common practice for recipients of Social Allowance to restrict their earnings to the maximum allowed to avoid becoming ineligible for assistance. However, under the other proposal they would be apt to earn more because their overall income would remain constant instead of being 1 See Table 5 for deductions on earned Income. 2 WIEBE, John, formerly Administrator, Social Welfare Department, Municipality of Surrey. - 78 - seriously curtailed through loss of assistance. This would, in effect, reduce assistance costs, encourage recipients to a higher degree of independence, arid allow them a more ad- equate level of l i v i n g . Municipal policies. As i n other areas munici- palities are able to set their own policies i n regard to additional income. The Vancouver City Social Service De- partment staff instructions are as follows: "Ten dollars per month for 2 adults or one adult and one dependent - plus $2.^0 per month for each additional dependent, up to a maximum exemption of $20. per month. The exemption of $5*00 per month for single persons w i l l s t i l l remain in effect." At the present time, with no funds available for extra rentals, exemption of additional income to meet ex- cessive rent is reviewed on an individual basis in the staff 2 .committee meetings. The municipalities of Burnaby and Surrey adhere to Social Welfare Branch policy i n this matter, exempting $10. unearned income and $10. earned Income. If the client has no unearned income he is allowed to earn $20. per month. Forty jje r cent of any excess earned income is deductible with a maximum set as the amount equal to the maximum allow- .. y _ 1 In Washington State public assistance programs there is no income exempted. However, as assistance is granted according to levels established to meet the needs of the recipient adequately, reducing the grant because of income does not affect the net income of the recipient. So long as there is any deficiency between income and need assist- ance is given to maintain the balance. 2 see footnote p, - 79 - ance payable at which point assistance is terminated. Excess unearned income Is totally deductible. Such a policy as the former which enforces hardships on the recipient, through forcing him to exist on a sub-marginal level, without grant- ing him the opportunity to improve his situation, requires attention i n respect to Section 3 of the Social Assistance Act. It reads as follows: It shall be a condition precedent to the grant- ing of such aid (by the province) that the munici- pali t y shall provide and maintain social assist- ance and relative social administrative services on a basis consistent with the standards estab- lished by the rules and? regulations made pursu- ant to this Act. NURSING AND BOARDING HOME CARE Assessment of resources in planning for nursing or boarding home care is considered very important, espec- i a l l y in a large city such as Vancouver where the cost of publicly provided care is i n the order of $100,000. per month. Due to the great demand and shortage of accommoda- tion for such care i n the large urban areas the rates are proportionately higher as shown i n Table 6. With regard to real property there are no re- strictions made in the provision of temporary care. How- ever, i f a person who is single or widowed applies for per- manent care and is the owner of real property, care is granted on a temporary basis by the Vancouver Social Ser- vice Department with the proviso that the home be sold. So&lal welfare Branch encourages the person to rent his - 8 0 ~ TABLE 6 - ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCES FOR NURSING AND BOARDING HOME CARE IN VANCOUVER CITY SOCIAL SERVICE, MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY, AND SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. REAL PROPERTY PERSONAL PROPERTY CITY SOCIAL TEMPORARY B.H. OR N.H. NO SERVICE DEPT. B.H . - $ 6 5 . - 1 0 0 / M O N.H . - $ 1 5 0 - 2 2 5 / MO RESTRICTIONS HELD TO MINIMUM WHERE POSSIBLE COMFORTS ALLOW- ANCE - $ 7 . 0 0 SHAREABLE 8 0 - 2 0 PERMANENT B . H . OR N.H.- GRANTED TEMP- ORARILY ON PROVISO THAT HOME IS SOLD IF CLIENT SINGIE OR WIDOWED. TEMPORARY B.H. OR N.H. EXEMPT UP TO A MAXIMUM OF $ 1 5 0 . DEPEND- ING ON INDIVID- UAL CIRCUM- STANCES. PERMANENT B.H.- 1 MONTHS CARE - $ 6 5 . 0 0 CASH. N.H. -1 MONTH'S • CARE - $ 1 0 5 . 0 0 OR $ 2 1 0 . 0 0 IF CLIENT MARRIED WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE OR SECURITY USED BY CITY TO DE- FRAY COSTS OF CARE . SfiCJAL WELFARE BRANCH B.H.MAX $65«00/MO N.H.MAX $13>00/MO COMFORTS ALLOWANCE $ 7.00 SHAREABLE 50-20 WITH RESPONSIBLE MUNICIPALITY. B.H. OR N.H. PERSON ENCOUR- NO . AGED TO RENT RESTRICTIONS HOME. NO EFF- ORT TO HAVE HIM SELL HIS HOME. WORKER SEES THAT HOME IS CARED FOR. B.H. OR N.H. B.H. OR N.H. SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE, OLD AGE ASSISTANCE OR SECURITY USED BY RECIP- IENT TO DEFRAY , COSTS OF CARE. MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY B.H . $ 6 5 . 0 0 PLUS N.H .$ 1 5 0 . 0 0 SHAREABLE ON INDIVIDUAL APPLICATION B.H. OR N.H. HOME RENTED-WITH NO CLIENTS PER- RESTRICTIONS MlSSION, IF SINGLE, TO DE- FRAY COST OF CARE . B.H. OR N.H. SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . COMFORTS ALLOWANCE UP TO $ 7 * 0 0 , EX- CEPT TO THOSE HAVING NO SUCH NEED B.H. OR N.H. SINGLE $ 2 5 0 . MARRIED $ 5 0 0 . B.H. - BOARDING HOME CARE N.H. - NURSING HOME CARE SOURCES; INTERVIEWS WITH PUBLIC WELFARE AUTHORITIES - 81 - property to defray costs, thus maintaining himself as inde- pendently as possible. Burnaby Social Welfare Department rents the property, with the client's permission, to defray the costs. In regard to personal property, the c i t y of Van- couver allows the person cash assets to the value of one month's care. This policy was l a i d down by City Council several years ago, and the prevailing rates of $ 6 5 . and $105* are s t i l l used as maxima for single and married per- sons respectively. In addition, the applicant must sign over any pension he is receiving to defray costs of care. This means undue hardship for elderly couples in particular. They must reduce their assets to $ 2 1 0 . , i f the person is to get care, and this sum is supposed to cover burial expenses, and such other costs as those i n relation to maintenance of their home. In addition, the spouse remaining at home has to manage expenses on a reduced income. The social worker who has to 'interpret' this policy to applicants meets f e e l - ings which must be 'akin' to those of people who in times past were offered 'the poor house' as the only form of re- l i e f . Not only does the person face the separation and eventual loss of his spouse, but also the extreme likelihood of spending his last days with nothing that represents i n - dependence. The Social Welfare Branch and Municipality of Burnaby allow $25>0. for a single person and $500. for a married couple. If nothing else i t allows the person s u f f i c - - 82. - lent assets to cover a decent burial, and the feeling that with careful planning there is a p o s s i b i l i t y of "making i t " . It is expected that the applicant himself w i l l use his pen- sion to pay for his care while the agency makes up the d i f f - erence. This again leaves the feeling with the client that i t s this show' and that the agency is cooperating. There is the p o s s i b i l i t y of a client being d i f f i c u l t with the landlord or operator but this policy seems to have more meaning constructively than the policy whereby the client directs the pension authority to send his cheque to the "City". There is no provision fcr nursing or boarding home care under War Veterans* Allowance except as It re- lates to part of a medical treatment plan, In which case veterans» f a c i l i t i e s are available. The veteran who feels he cannot take care of himself can apply for admission to "veterans 5 1 care". This, in effect, is f u l l boarding and sick room care with a minimum of restrictions, and comforts provided. Veterans with means are eligi b l e for this pro- viding they sign over their total assets, care is valued, at $120, per month and should the veteran wish to leave his remaining assets are returned to him. Transfer of property to the Crown is required for admission of chronic cases to the Provincial Infirmary at Marpole, and of the aged to the Provincial Home at Kamloops, As has been previously stated however, i t is suggested in practice that the applicant consider transfer - 83 - of his property to relatives before seeking admission, ASSESSMENT OP RESOURCES IN WASHINGTON STATE The procedure of assessing resources i n public assistance in Washington State is a relatively simple pro- cess. Assistance is granted on the basis of need which is established when property holdings, real and personal, are limited to certain values; and vfaen income is less than one month's requirements. As shown in Appendix B the limits on property, real and personal, are the same for a l l programs except assistance to the employable which is an emergency program, generally restricted to food, and other temporary grants to families, with children. As previously stated, unlike the programs in Br i t i s h Columbia, there is no i n - come exempted i n assessing the resources of an applicant, except in the Aid to the Blind program where the f i r s t $50. is allowed. This makes for greater simplicity of assessment, and avoids the poss i b i l i t y of a person being considered i n - eligible because he is receiving Unemployment insurance, a veterans' pension, or other such income. The receipt of either of the above forms of income results in i n e l i g i b i l i t y for many applicants i n this province.* The Department of Public Assistance in Washington has placed dollar values on such items as food, clothing, personal items, shelter, fuel for heating, and fuel for cooking. When these are supplied 1 Social assistance cannot be granted to subsidize Un- employment insurance benefits which are for some c l a s s i f i - cations of employees below social assistance rates. For example the family of three drawing $10. per week Unemploy- (footnote continued next page) they are considered as sources of income. SUMMARY This chapter deals with those areas generally included i n the assessment of an applicant's resources i n reference to establishing and meeting his need for public assistance. The factors of real and personal property are discussed generally, and i n particular as they are dealt with i n the assistance programs in B r i t i s h Columbia, The issue of transferring property is considered as i t affects e l i g i b i l i t y for assistance. Assessment of income within the various programs in this province is considered and some suggestions made for a more positive approach to this subject which might increase i n i t i a t i v e among assistance recipients. Assessment of real and personal property, as It relates to the provision of nursing and boarding.home care by different municipalities, and the Social Welfare Branch, is discussed and differences shown. The chapter closes with a statement regarding assessment practices i n public assistance i n Washington State, ment Insurance cannot be assisted to bring their total In- come up to the Social Allowance rate, in this case $83.5>0 per month. In the Washington State programs, i s in our Social Assistance Act (but not practice), this responsib- i l i t y is accepted. The Vancouver City Social Service De- partment does accept responsibility for granting assistance to a veteran receiving a small pension for war services con- sidering i t as income. There seems to be a lack of consis- tency in these policies, and aneed to work out these d i f f - . iculties with the agencies concerned, 1 "Social assistance may be granted,..to individuals who are unable to provide i n whole or in part by their own efforts, through other security measures,...necessities essential to maintain or assist in maintaining a reasonably normal and healthy existence," Sec. Ij. CHAPTER IV LEVELS OP ASSISTANCE A study of the levels of public assistance grants i n the various programs i n Brit i s h Columbia is of l i t t l e value unless i t is related to a level of l i v i n g compatible with decency and health. Por example* a com- parison of General Assistance rates made i n the United States i n 194-7 showed that the highest state payment was nearly seven times that of the lowest.* This, by i t s e l f , certainly gives ground for suspicion that some of the rates must be too low but the rates must be measured directly against the cost of a defined "content of l i v i n g " (a term further referred to below) i n the states under study. Sarah Riley has tried to define a physically healthy standard for public assistance recipients as one including "adequate nutrition, shelter from the elements, warm and protective clothing, sufficient heat, water, and light, sufficient household supplies and equipment for eating and sleeping and maintaining reasonable sanitation, p and necessary medical and dental care". However, physical 1 BURNS, Eveline M., The American Social Security System, (Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., iv4v)» p. 3!?l 2 RILEY, Sarah, "How Adequate Should Assistance Be", public Welfare, VI 1948* P» *43 — 86 — standards alone may not be sufficient. Public assistance recipients should liv e on a mentally healthy level also which implies reasonable education for the children, commun- it y a c t i v i t i e s for the children and the adults; an opportun- i t y to improve the a b i l i t y and capacity for work and to carry out the duties of citizenship; clothing which, i n addition to essential covering, meets customary standards; and recreation. If they do not get these, they w i l l be- come - or raise - second class citizens, or other problems w i l l arise (eg., delinquency)^which w i l l show that the par- simony of the community in setting low r e l i e f standards was unwise. In an attempt to establish the concept of "content of l i v i n g " as a standard of assistance jane Hoey has made a study of the use of various basic consumption items as standards amongst public agencies. In a study of Old Age Assistance programs, i n 1947» thirty-one of the forty-nine jurisdictions for which information was avail- able specified that food must be included i n a l l cases where assistance is granted; but only one-half of the forty-nine had set mandatory state cost figures for even this item. A smaller proportion had assured themselves that these cost figures were actually used throughout the state. Of the twenty-six states requiring inclusion of clothing i n the computation of assistance payments, only nineteen had mandatory cost figures. Fewer than one-third had figures for fuel, light, water and shelter, and few indeed had stated government responsibility for r e f r i g - . - 87 - eration, replacement of household equipment and furnishings, insurance, medicine chest supplies, transportation, or "mis- cellaneous" which means "leeway" to the client,* If adequacy of assistance is the goal of the pub- l i c welfare worker or the granting of assistance on the basis of need, a standard "content of l i v i n g " must be established by which adequacy or need can be measured, For this purpose information is required on the content of l i v i n g amongst families l i v i n g on low Incomes, and the cost of the various items of which i t consists. The Welfare Council of Greater 'I'oronto has under- taken several studies of minimum essential budgets, and has brought them up to date from time to time. Its main compu- tation, entitled "A, Guide to Family Spending", was developed to show the actual spending habits of lower income families in Toronto, This information was evaluated against best available judgment on nutrition and other needs for stable family l i v i n g . The standard used by the committee was defined as that "which w i l l maintain a minimum level of health and 2 self-respect". The items included are food, clothing, clothing upkeep, personal care, transportation for recre- ation, religious observance and personal allowance. Items related to the operation of the home were also l i s t e d and 1 HGEY, Jane M., "Content of Living as a standard of Assistance", journal.of Social Casework, XXCIII, 19l|T* P»4 2 Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, A Guide to Family Spending In Toronto, 1949* P« 1 — 88 — included house furnishings, laundry, e l e c t r i c a l and gas re- quirements, heating, water, cleaning supplies, health supp- l i e s , newspaper and radio, and family entertainment. Using the different sex and age groupings, family budgets can be computed.1 Because of the lack of research on rentals paid in Toronto the Technical Committee recommended that no table of shelter costs be included but rather that 25 per cent might be used in calculating the proportion of income re- quired for rent. For families owning their dwellings the cost of shelter has been computed as including principal and interest on indebtedness, taxes, insurance, repairs, p water, heating and u t i l i t i e s such as gas and el e c t r i c i t y . A MINIMUM BUDGET In undertaking a study of social assistance grants in Br i t i s h Columbia, Edmund Ralph made use of the Toronto calculations and developed a "standard budget1* for use in evaluating the needs of Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance recipients in Vancouver. Ralph described the standard budget as a. "quantitative and qualitative state- ment of the goods and services necessary for the mainten- ance of a healthy and socially accepted standard of li v i n g , 1 The variation in the prices of these items made necessary the revision of the tables, and "Summary Tables of "A Guide to Family Spending" i n Toronto" were published in A p r i l , 1952, p. 2 - 5 2 Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, op. c i t . 19i|-9 p.38 - 89 « . according to the best judgment of those who set the stan- dard1'. * For the purposes of his minimum budget he reduced the number of consumption items to four, viz. food, clothing, 2 household carrying charges, and personal Items. For the con- tent of his food schedule he relied on the "Low Cost Weekly Food Allowance for Various Age Groups", issued as a nutri- tional guide by the Metropolitan Health Committe of Greater Vancouver. He simplified the clothing schedule established by the Toronto study because he considered the latter too complicated and excessive for assistance budgets. 3 He used his own judgment regarding the rates of replacement and ob- tained the costs of the clothing from Eaton's and Simpson's catalogues for 1951-52. He included In the item "household carrying charges" a l l expenses connected with the household such as rent, taxes, mortgages, depreciation, household re- pairs, water, Insurance, light, gas, fuel and operating equipment. In estimating appropriate costs of housing he recommended the use of the policy of allowing the item of household carrying charges to be accepted "as paid" or "as paid to a maximum". He qualified this by stipulating that maxima be established within the various communities through- out the province that would be representative of the pre- vailing costs in the different areas.h Ralph included 1 RALPH, Edmund V., The Use of the Standard Budget to Evaluate weed i n Public Assistance, (Master of Social Work Thesis, university of B r i t i s h uolumbia, Vancouver, 1952) p.11 2 Ibid p. 13 * 11L 3 Ibid p. 36 ii ibid p. kl - 90 - among personal sundries such items as a comb, toothbrush, dentrifice, haircuts, razor blades, l i p s t i c k , shoe repairs, busfare and recreation. Also included was an allowance which had been defined i n the Toronto study as including the f o i l - owing: chewing gum, soft drinks, tobacco, postage, stationery, greeting cards, g i f t s , jewelry, etc, 1 It has long been rec- ognized that people on social assistance require such items; i f no other way is possible they w i l l reduce their food allow- ance i n order to have them. In drawing up a schedule on per- sonal sundries Ralph used his own judgment of minimum require- ments of this kind, compiling costs according to prevailing prices for the various age groups amongst the two sexes, TJsing the Low Cost Pood Allowance (for March, 1952) and his own schedules for clothing and personal sun- 2 dries, Ralph developed a Budget Item Cost Schedule from which he could compute the standard budget for these items for a family of any size or composition in respect to age and sex. As was recommended by the Metropolitan Health Committee, he added 35 per cent to the cost of food for per- sons l i v i n g alone, 20 per cent for two people l i v i n g to- gether, and 10 per cent for families of three or more, Por the purposes of this study, Ralph's Budget Item Cost Schedule^ has been adopted; adjustment being made only by using the food costs given in a more recent low 1 Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, op. c i t , 191+-9* P. 37 2 RALPH, Edmund A. op. c i t , p. 1+5 3 Ibid p. 1+.5 - 91 « cost allowance report from the Metropolitan Health committee, i.e. for November 195?4» T n © cost of clothing has been ad- justed on the basis of the drop in the Consumer price Index for clothing in Vancouver between March 1952 and November 1954* from 116.6 to 112.7.1 The personal sundries item has been adjusted to compensate for the r i s e in busfare and shoe repairs during the same period. The adjusted schedule is found i n Table 7. ASSISTANCE RATES The rates of assistance in the various programs r i n B r i t i s h Columbia are given i n Table 8. The War Veterans* Allowance and Old Age Assistance rates are based on the "flat-grant-minus" method of calculating payments. The re- cipient is allowed a certain maximum annual income •tfiich consists of his basic allowance plus a defined amount of •a ' earned or calculated income. However should his income exceed the defined amount his allotrance is decreased pro- portionately. Social Allowance and Mothers* Allowance pay- ments are also based on the "flat-grant-minus" method^" with fixed reductions for the items provided from other sources. For example, i f a single person is. able to secure shelter at no cost, (eg. through relatives or friends) the grant 1 Consumer price Indices for Begional Cities, Dominion Bureau of St a t i s t i c 1 9 5 V 1 9 5 4 * - ~ 2 March 1952 - shoe repair $1.00; bus fare, adults lOpf, children 5̂ » November 195q-» shoe repair, mam's $2.00, women*s and children $1.20; bus fare, adults l5j&» children 7̂ . 3 See Tables It and 5 k BOND, Floyd, A.» et a l op. c i t . p. 262 - 92 - TABLE 7 - MONTHLY BUDGET ITEM COST SCHEDULE - VANCOUVER, NOVEMBER, 1954 COST ACCORDING TO NUMBER IN THE FAMILY ADULT MALE ADULT.FEMALE BOY 16 - 18 BOY 13 - 15 GIRL 16- 18 GIRL 13- 15 CHILDREN 10 - 12 7 - 9 4 - 6 1 - 3 FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES FOOD CLOTHING SUNDRIES 26.70 H..50 22.25 5.18 3.71 30.83 6.41 4.19 26.38 6.41 4.19 24.18 6.36 3.60 21.82 6.36 3.60 20.83 4.61 2.12 2.12 14.58 3.|5 .80 12.01 2.73 .80 23.73 4.50 *-37 20.6q 5.18 3.71 27.40 6.4d> 4.19 23.47 6.41 4.19 22.08 6.36 3.60 19.39 6.36 3.60 18.52 4.61 2.12 U 2.12 13.04 3.65 .80 10.68 2.73 21.76 4,50 .̂37 18.96 5.18 3.71 25.11 6.41 4.19 21.51 6.41 4.19 20.24 6.36 3.60 3.60 16.97 4.61 2.12 14.47 4.61 2.12 11.96 .80 9.79 2.73 - 93 - is reduced by $12.50.* If his food is also provided his payment is reduced by another $22.50. If he has income from some other source (eg. a pension) his assistance pay- 2 ment is reduced according to policy. The chief difference between the federal programs and the provincial-municipal is that the former operate on the basis of an allowance year whereas the latter are on a monthly basis. The variation i n rates is not so extreme for single persons, ranging from $1|0. per month for the Old Age Assistance recipient without bonus, to $55» for the aged person receiving the ttcost-6f-living bonus1*. The variation appears more extreme when rates for two persons are com- pared. The Mothers» Allowance or Social Allowance grant for a couple is $69.50, the War Veterans* Allowance $90.^ and the old Ag© Assistance with f u l l bonus $110. If the provincial government believes that a $15* bonus Is j u s t i - fied for elderly people raising the pension for a couple from $80. to 110., i t may well be asked on what basis is the social assistance grant for two people limited to $69.5>0? Further, i f the recipient of social assistance requires $li5» per month to l i v e on, is the government justifi e d in limiting the aged person to $i|0. because he 1 The breakdown of allowances varies between municipal- i t i e s . City of Vancouver used Support and miscellaneous, and Shelter only In the amounts of $30. and $l£. for Unit 1. Burnaby uses Food, Fuel and Shelter, and Sundries in the amounts of $25., $15., and $5» respectively. 2 See Tables 4 and 5 3 In March 1955» the federal government authorized the increase of War Veterans* Allowance to $60. for the single person, and $108. for the married couple or widow(er) with dependents. The rates of $50. and $90. are used i n the tables because these were In effect, i n November 1954 when the budget schedule In Table 7 was constructed. - 94 TABLE 8 WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RATES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA MAXIMUM BASIC ALLOWANCE MARRIED COUPLE SINGLE $ 6 0 0 . PER YEAR $ 5 0 , PER MONTH PLUS $ 1 2 0 . PER YEAR FROM AN ASSISTANCE FUND IF REQUIRED. WIDOW OR WIDOWER WITH DEPENDENTS $ 1 , 0 8 0 . PER YEAR $ 9 0 . PER MONTH PLUS $ 1 2 0 . PER YEAR IF REQUIRED ' FOOD AND CLOTHING MARRIED MALE FEMALE COUPLE 3 4 . 3 4 3 0 . 1 6 5 7 . 3 4 OLD AGE ASSISTANCE SINGLE 4 8 0 . PER YEAR 40. '(PER MONTH MARRIED COUPLE $ 960. PER YEAR $ OO. PER MONTH NO BREAKDOWN OLD AGE ASSISTANCE WITH COST-OF- LIVING BONUS 6 6 0. PER YEAR 55»° PER MONTH $ 1 , 3 2 0 . PER YEAR $ 1 1 0 . PER MONTH NO BREAKDOWN SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH MAX 1 MUM UNIT ALLOWANCE FOOD SHELTER 1 45.OO 2 2 . 5 0 1 2 . 5 0 2 6 9 . 5 0 4 0 . 0 0 1 7 . 0 0 3 8 3 . 5 0 4 6 . 5 0 2 2 . 0 0 4 9 7 . 5 0 5 5 . 5 0 2 4 . 5 0 5 I H . 5 0 6 4 . 5 0 2 7 . 0 0 6 1 2 5 . 5 0 7 3 . 5 0 2 9 . 5 0 7 1 3 9 * 5 0 8 2 . 5 0 3 2 . 0 0 8 . 1 5 3 . 5 0 9 1 . 5 0 3 4 . 5 0 SOCIAL ALLOWANCE GUIDE CLOTHING OPERATING SUNDRIES 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 3 . 5 0 3 . 5 0 5 . 5 0 4 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 4 . 5 0 6 . 5 O 6 . 5 0 5 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 7 . 0 0 5 . 5 0 9 . 5 0 7 . 5 0 6 . 0 0 1 1 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 6 . 5 0 1 2 . 5 0 8 . 5 0 SOURCES: SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH POLICY MANUAL WAR VETERANS' ALLOWANCE REGULATIONS - 95 - has not lived in the province three years before applying? To qualify for fii5» per month under the Social Allowance program a person needs only one year's residence in the province, 1 The discrepancies between programs are glaring when a comparison is made between assistance rates and the costs of the various items included In the Budget Schedule, This comparison for family units consisting of one, two, and three persons is given in Table 9 » It can be seen that i f the Old Age Assistance recipient receiving the baalc fljX). clothes and feeds himself according to minimum requirements, he w i l l have $ 2 , l j . 7 a month l e f t for shelter. If he is w i l l - ing to, he can get a room down In the Powell Street area i n Vancouver for fl5« to $ 1 7 » per month but in order to balance his budget he must reduce his expenditures for food, cloth- ing, and personal sundries by almost l\Q per cent which is a major drop below the minimal level, '-̂'he s o c i a l Allowance recipient is i n a somewhat similar situation i f he attempts to meet his minimal needs for food and clothing as he has only $ 7 » i | 7 l e f t for shelter. Should he pay his month's rent f i r s t which w i l l be at least f15« to $ 1 7 , he w i l l have to reduce his allowance for food, clothing, and per- sonal sundries by 2 3 $ , It should be pointed out that the War Veterans» Allowance program does not include responsibility for the needs of a recipient's spouse or dependent children beyond 1 See table 2 p. 29 - 96 •> TABLE 9 - COMPARISON OF RATES OF ASSISTANCE WITH COSTS OF THE "CONTENT OF LIVING"* IN VANCOUVER, NOVEMBER 1954 MAXIMUM BASIC ALLOWANCE WAR VETERANS' $ 50 .00 ALLOWANCE OLD AGE ASSISTANCE & 40.00 BLIND ALLOWANCE WITH COST-OF- LIVING BONUS 55*°° SOCIAL ALLOWANCE 45.00 B FOOD, CLOTHING, PERSONAL SUNDRIES MALE * 35-57 35.57 35.57 35.57 FEMALE ? 31.14 31.14 31.1^ 31.11* BALANCE FOR HOUSE- HOLD CARRYING CHARGES MALE FEMALE $ 14.43 $ 18.86 4.43 8.86 19-43 23.86 9.^3 13.86 TWO PERSONS WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE 9 0 . 0 0 OLD AGE ASSIS- TANCE & BLIND ALLOWANCE WITH COST-OF- LIVING BONUS 110.00 SOCIAL ALLOWANCE 69.5O MOTHERS* ALLOWANCE MAN & WIFE MOTHER & MOTHER & CHILD 1- BOY 16 - 3 YRS. 18 YRS. (B) (C) (A) 3 2 . 6 0 29.48 62̂ 08 80.00 62.08 62.08 62.08 29.48 14.21 * 3 ^ 9 43.69 67.48 ( A 1 ) ( B 1 ) ( C 1 ) 2Q.48 38.00 6p«3 27.92 46.3* 22.52 17.92 47.92 7.42 25.81 2.02 THREE PERSONS WAR VETERANS* ALLOWANCE SOCIAL ALLOWANCE MOTHERS* ALLOW- ANCE 9 0 . 0 0 MAN, WIFE & «HILD 1 - 3 YRS (C) 30.63 27.85 12 71 MOTHER, TWO CHILDREN 5-3 YRS. (0) 27.85 13.32 MOTHER, Two BOYS 13-15 YRS. ( E ) 27.85 32.11 32*11 92.07 (C 1*) ( D 1 ) ..(E 1) 18.20 35.5I -2.07 83.50 71.80 54.49 92.07 11.70 29.01 -8.57 A SEE TABLE 7 B SEE TABLE 8 - 97 - the granting of an additional $IL80. per year. 1 It is argued that the other members of the family are the responsibility of the province or municipality, and in cases where the max- imum grant of $90. is less than the amount allowable under the social allowance guide, the difference is made up by the provincial or municipal welfare department. It would seem more reasonable that the federal government Should accept the responsibility for the maintenance of the family where the indigency is a result of war service or of a nature for which the veteran is eligible for War Veterans' Allowance. A CASE FOR GRADUATED SCALES At present the food allowance for a newborn child and an adult male Is the same, i.e. the amount allowed for food for a man and wife, or mother and child is $ij.O. However the cost of food for a man and wife has been calculated as $23.73 plus $20.69 » or $1^4.1^2, while the cost for a mother, and child one to three years of age, is only $20.69 plus $10.68 or $31»37. Lack of concern for the needs of different individuals appears even more clearly i f a comparison is made of the costs of food, clothing and personal items (see Table 9) for s o c i a l Allowance or Mothers' Allowance. Of a total grant of $69.5>0, a man and wife require $62.08 for these items, leaving $7«l|£ for shelter. A mother and child of one to three years, require only $lj-3«69 for the same items leaving 1 With the recent increases this amount is raised to $576. 2 See Table 7 - 98 - $25.81"for shelter. A mother with a boy sixteen to eighteen years of age receives $69.50 also but for minimum standards of decency and health requires $67.4.8 to cover costs of food clothing and personal items. When i t is realized that this mother has to pay the fixed charges for rent and, or house* hold carrying charges such as heat, e l e c t r i c i t y , insurance, mortgage payments, f i r s t , i t is readily seen that she w i l l have far less than the minimum required for food, clothing and personal items. The mother with the young child might manage to locate shelter at a cost of $25. per month and have the f u l l amount l e f t for the other items. A policy which lends i t s e l f to such discrimination does not seem to be i n the least related to the Social Assistance Act which stresses so clearly the principles of freedom from prejudice If the granting of the Cost»of-Living Bonus to the aged and blind is considered to be Social Assistance as defined i n 3 the Act , what basis is there for the discrimination shown in the Motherst Allowance and Social Allowance programs against those who are unable to provide the "necessities essential to maintain a reasonably normal and healthy.-exe* istence"?^" The aged couple in need can receive up to $110. assistance whereas the younger couple or mother and child 1 See Table 9* Balance for Household Carrying Charges, B 1. 2 " i n the administration of social assistance there shall be no-discrimination based on race, colour, creed, or po- l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . " Social Assistance Act, 194-5 c.62, Sec. II . . 3 Ibid Sec. 2 - 3 1L Ibid Sec. 3 * 99 - are.limited by provincial policy to $ 6 9 . 5 0 . It may be ar- gued that the aged people w i l l need assistance over a con- siderable period whereas for the mother and child It is just a temporary measure. However for the 13>1 Mothers' Allowance cases closed in 1952-53 the average length of time on assistance was 5*25 years. 1 which is a considerable length of time to be on such a marginal basis of existence. The only po s s i b i l i t y of a defensible policy of fairness is a much more generous scale a l l round, or else a detailed scale which would standardize rates according to the needs of the various age and sex groupings. Such a suggested scale is worked out in Table 10 which is graduated according to the costs of food, clothing, and personal items for the different groupings. For ease In computation of rates the number of categories has been reduced from those in Table 7 and the rates have been rounded to the nearest twenty-five cents. Shelter costs have been based on the present policy of the Municipality of Burnaby In paying "rental overages" at 100 per cent local responsibility to a maximum 2 of $25 . for a single person and $4.0. for a family. Such 1 Annual Report, Social Welfare Branch, 1953* p. U 36 2 These rates are not out of line with the findings of a recent study of rents paid by social assistance families in Vancouver. For single family dwellings rents ranged from $20. to $ 7 0 . with a median of about $42 . This did not generally include u t i l i t i e s such as heat, light, fuel for cooking, etc. The median rent for apartments was $37» and i n only 35$ of the cases did the rent include the u t i l - i t i e s . Of the 70 families studied almost one-half were . paying over $37- rent. It was found that the median excess over the amount allowed In the grant for those adequately (footnote continued on next page) - 1 0 0 ~ TABLE ttO A SUGGESTED SCALE OF SOCIAL ALLOWANCE RATES BASED ON COST OF FOOD, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL ITEMSA, ACCORDING TO AGE AND SEX, AND SHELTER AS OF NOVEMBER, 1954. MAXIMUM FOOD, CLOTHING, UNIT CATEGORY ALLOWANCE & PERSONAL ITEMS SHELTER AS PAID TO 1 A MAN 1 B WOMAN $ 70.50 • 66.25 ONE PERSON $ 35*50 31.25 BASIC OVERAGE TOTAL $ 15.00° $ 25.00 $ 40.00 2 A MAN & WIFE 122.00 127.50 2 /C MOTHER & 2 B MOTHER & CHILD „ 16-188 CHILD 1-91 B 2 D MOTHER & CHILD 10-15 B 108.00 119.00 TWO PERSONS 62.00 67.50 48.00 59.GO 20.00 C 40.00 60.00 SAME SAME SAME 3 A MAN & WIFE 3 B MOTHER & CH 1 LD 16-18B 3 C MOTHER & CHILD 1-9B 3 D MOTHER & CHILD to-15? 3 E CHILD 1-9b 3 F CHILD £©-15' 3 G CHILD 16-181 THREE OR MORE PERSONS No IN U N , T C 1 - , 57.50 3 25.00° 4o.oo 65.00 61.25 4 27.50 4o.oo 67.50 5 30.00 4o.oo 70.00 44.50 6 32.50 4o.oo 72.50 7 35.00 4o.oo 75.00 55.75 16.50 27.75 32.00 ft AVERAGES TAKEN OF COSTS, TABLE 7 B SEE TABLE 7 c FUEL & SHELTER ITEM IN BURNABY ALLOWANCE SCALE SEE FOOTNOTE P. 93 - 101 - payments are made on the basis of an individual assessment where rents, or mortgage payments, and other household carry- ing charges are high. A charge-back arrangements has been made with Vancouver whereby the latter w i l l pay rental over- age to Burnaby cases, and Burnaby w i l l do likewise with re- cipients who are Vancouver responsibilites. This scale constitutes a "budget d e f i c i t " 1 sys- tem of granting assistance whereby the costs of the content of l i v i n g are estimated and the grant based on the difference between income or resources supplied to the recipient from other sources and these costs. It has been stated by a public assistance auth- ority who has studied the budget d e f i c i t system as used in the United States that i t is more complicated and less under- stood by workers and recipients than the flat-grant-minus" 2 -method. However in a simplified form as i n Table 10 i t (footnote continued from page 99) housed was $11 . Eighty percent of apartments were excessive i n rent, the median being $10. Whereas only 12 percent of those paying up to $ 5 . excess had adequate shelter, a l l those paying $25. excess over the grant for shelter had a pos s i b i l - i t y of adequate shelter. It was also established that the cost to homeowners of maintenance, mortgage, taxes and other charges was roughly equivalent to rents paid by tenant re- cipients.* - - Warren Wilson, Housing Conditions of Social Assistance Families, (faster of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h uolumbia, Vancouver, 1955. p. 54- • 69i *P» 27. 1 MILES, Arthur p. op. c i t . p. 396. "The theory of this method is that there are essential needs for any family and that a cash value can be placed upon these needs. In addition a cash value must be placed upon the income and re- sources of the individual. This amount is deducted from the individual's needs and the de f i c i t is the amount of his grant." , 2 ibid p. 398 - 399 - 102 « does not appear to require an excessive amount of calcul- ation i n order to compute the rates.* When i t is recalled that the make-up of the family by age and sex is required for social history purposes in the Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance programs, i t should not be d i f f i c u l t for this to be readily available far use in determining the size of the grant. For example, If a family consisting of a man, wife and three children aged 3 , 7 and I I L years applies for assistance, their needs can be quickly assessed from Table 10. '•'•'he man and wife under Unit 3A require $57.50 for support i.e., for food, clothing, and personal items. The two children 3 and 7 under 3E require $16.50 each and the older child under 3F $27,75* The shelter allowance, to a maximum of $ 7 0 , for five persons, and the total cost of support is the sum of these, i.e. up to $1,88,25, depending on the actual cost of shelter for this family. The mother with four children under ten years of age qualifies under 30 for $1|1L.50, under 3E for an additional $lj.9.50, and under shelter allowance up to $70.her total needs for support reaching a maximum of $161L, depending on shelter costs. If we compare these totals with the present allowance for a family of five as given In Table 8 under Social Allowance, 1 In comparison to Table 10, the Washington State "Sum- mary of Monthly Standards for Basic Requirements" is six pages in length. - 103 - v i z . $111.50, 1 we see how much more closely they are related to the needs of the individuals. Under the pr esent system the mother can feed and clothe herself and her children and have $17.00 l e f t over for shelter. If the man and wife attempt the same they w i l l require $6.75 more than the total grant, and have nothing l e f t for shelter. An alternative to the suggested scale in Table 10 would be to set the rates on the basis of the needs of the single man, the man and wife, and the child sixteen to eigh- teen years of age. Although this would assure adequacy of assistance to a l l , and a minimum of administration i t would be much more costly i n respect to total assistance given. The proposed schedule In Table 10 assures adequacy of assist- ance to a l l with a minimum of expenditure and administration. Because i t is related to the needs of the individual and the related costs, i t is the easiest to interpret both to the community and to the recipient. Periodic Review. A very important qualification i n the use of the suggested scale Is that these rates are based on the cost of the "content of l i v i n g " In Vancouver as of November 1954« I n order that the scale continue to provide for a minimum level of adequacy i t would need to be adjusted with the changes i n the costs of items on some rea- sonable periodical basis. Such a need was recognized by a committee of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council which 1 This figure includes the. allotxanee for shelter. - I O I L - feBjS' - studied adequacy of assistance recently. In a brief submitted to the Provincial Government in December 195>2 one of the rec- ommendations was that "paragraph 7 of the Regulations to the Social Assistance Act which refers to the cost-of-living (consumer's) index, be amended, substituting the words "from time to time" to "at least once in each f i s c a l year"." 1 Meeting Need in Washington State. The Washington State Department of Public Assistance operates the assistance programs within the counties of the state; and apart from the assistance program to employable people, which is of an emer- gency nature, the levels of assistance are the same in the 2 various categorical programs. As has been previously stated a budget defi c i t system is used, whereby the needs of the person are compared with his sources of income, i f any, and assistance is granted where an imbalance exists. The needs of the applicant have been standardized for the different sex and age groupings under the items of food, clothing, and personal items; rent (to a maximum)^, and home ownership upkeep; fuel for cooking, light and refrigeration, water and household 1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Report of the Committee studying the Adequacy of Social Allowance, November, 19^2 2 A $5>» transportation grant is available to the aged and the blind. 3 Rental maxima vary between counties from $2£. to $4-0. It was considered by welfare authorities in Whatcom County, where the maximum is $35*» that this item was seriously out of line with prevailing rents. - 105 - supplies, fuel for space and water heating. In respect to allowances for children under the Aid to Dependent Children program maximas are placed on grants of $ 3 8 . for a child under 13 years and $IL£. for an older child. The various items are coded, as are the different sources of income, and the actual size of grant is calculated on a machine which is located at the head office of the Department of Public Assistance where a l l cheques, (emergency cash grants excepted) are issued. Some idea of the adequacy of assistance i n this program can be gained from the following figures.* The shelter and household allowance for a mother and child under the Aid to Dependent Children program was calculated at $ 5 5 * 2 0 . The food, clothing, and personal maintenance allow- ance totalled $82.£0. Because of the fact that state bud- gets are prepared bi-annually, and that expenditures had been heavier than expected, the f u l l grant of $ 1 3 7 « 1 0 could not be given. A "ratable" reduction of 20 per cent was applied, reducing the total grant to $110.16. This grant far exceeds the present standards In B r i t i s h Columbia waere a mother and child on Mothers» Allowance or Social Allowance are given $ 6 9 . 5 0 . It compares favorably with the figures given i n Table 1 0 . It should be stated that d i f f i c u l t y has been 1 This information was obtained from an actual record during an interview with Mrs. Nora Downey, Acting Admin- istrator, Whatcom County Office, Bellingham, in March, 1 9 5 5 . - 106 - expressed in respect to the correlation.between standards and cost of li v i n g . Although legislation i n Washington requires periodic review of rates, there would appear to be discrep- ancies due to a lag in the adjustment of rates. SUPPLEMENTARY ALLOWANCES The provision of boarding and nursing home care, the granting of dietary allowances and special grants for repairs to the home or replacement of such items as the stoves, are handled i n both provincial and municipal offices on an individual basis according to the needs of the person in question and prevailing costs. As can be seen from Table 5 rates for boarding and nursing home care vary between dis- t r i c t s according to the prevailing costs. Because of the shortage of such homes the agencies have to be prepared to pay the prevailing rates in order to secure such services. In respect to the comforts allowance of $7«00, i t is con- siderably in excess of the amount stipulated in Table 9 under personal sundries, i.e., 37 and $ 3 . 7 1 per mala- and female respectively. The provision of extra clothing is a responsibility of the local area and not shareable on the 80-20 basis as are the other allowances. Because of this clothing is not provided except in rare cases where there are a large number of children in the family. As can be readily seen that, apart from clothing, the pro- vision of these supplementary allowances is on the basis of need and of adequacy. - 107 - SUMMARY Following a review of research carried out by the Welfare Council of Greater Toronto in respect to the spending habits of low income families, the work of Edmund Ralph In establishing a standard budget for social assistance families In Vancouver is considered. His Budget Item Cost Schedule is brought up to date, and, following a study of present rates in the public assistance programs in B.C. a comparison is made as to their relative inadequacy. A suggested scale of Social Allowance rates follows which is designed to assure adequacy of assistance with a minimum of administrative effort. The Washington State public assistance program is re- viewed as i t relates to the calculation of grants, and to the provision of adequacy in assistance. In closing, brief ref- erence is made to supplementary allowances granted within the social assistance program in Br i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER V SERVICE PROGRAMS SOCIAL SERVICES As early as 1869, i n which year the f i r s t Charity Organization Society was founded i n London, there was a conviction that the giving of material aid was in most Instances f u t i l e . It was recognized that there was no attempt to help the needy become self-supporting but, rather that dependency was encouraged. Enlightened peo- ple sought a means whereby the poor could be helped to help themselves through education, job referral, assistance from relatives, and of course, good advice and moral support. There was an attempt to register cases to avoid duplication of r e l i e f , and a stress on thorough investi- gation of requests for help In order to Insure aid only to the 'worthy' poor. Although their philosophy was restrictive and moralistic the Charity Organization movement gave impetus to the growth of organized social assistance and to the concept of social Investigation from which has sprung the - 108 . - profession of social work. Mary Richmond carried forward - and refined the latter concept to the place where i t became a systematic technique whereby the social situation of the client could be diagnosed. With the development of dynamic psychiatry the need for recognition of the psychological factors involved was accepted by the social wor$ profession and included as an integral part of social diagnosis. How- ever, • due bath th. the lack of professionally trained staff in public assistance, and to its primary focus on the grant- ing of financial aid, this area of social work has, in the main, limited i t s evaluation to the more tangible aspects of the applicant's situation with the major emphasis on e l i g i b i l i t y and assessment of resources. DIAGNOSIS IN SOCIAL ASSISTANCE In those programs where the need for public assistance has been brought about by the loss of the app- licant's a b i l i t y to support himself and his family through the death or desertion of the ttbreadwinnertt;i the need is more than financial. The family structure has been dis- rupted and the results are f e l t in a l l areas, the physical, the economic, and the emotional. New and unpleasant ad- justments must be faced, and these on reduced rations of emotional support because the disruption has caused a re- gression towards dependency and each member of the family has turned more towards 'self preservation'. The single - 109 - person is in a similar position when robbed of his a b i l i t y to support himself through illness, d i s a b i l i t y , or even in- carceration. The resulting regression brings to conscious- ness dependency needs which cannot be met "by bread alone". The basic need is for psychological support given through an accept ance of the person, a reassurance of his worth and ah-expression of confidence that the problems at hand can be worked through. 1 It is at this point that s k i l l In diagnosis is needed. In writing on the place of services i n public assist- ance Marjorie J. Smith has stated the following: One of the most d i f f i c u l t and s k i l l f u l jobs i n casework diagnosis is to determine the extent of emotional dependency. Two clients wftich give every evidence of being dependent may be- utterly different problems to the caseworker. The one may be fundamentally dependent with a poor prognosis in regard to attaining self-support. The second may be a person who has achieved a considerable de- gree of independence and who, through enforced idleness, has regressed backward to become as dependent-looking as the f i r s t . With encouragement, understanding, and interpretation of his behavior, he can be helped to assume pa r t i a l respon- s i b i l i t y , and f i n a l l y to reach a more adult state with a maximum degree of self-sufficiency . 3 Without s k i l l f u l diagnosis of the dependency needs of clients, much costly time can be spent where move- 1 HOLLIS, Florence, "The Techniques of Casework", Prin- ciples and Techniques in casework, Family Service Association of America, 1950 p. I L I ^ 2 SMITH, Marjorie J., "The place of Services in public Assistance", Public Welfare, JJC 1951, p. 163 3 Ibid - 110 - ment Is not possible, and clients with good prospects of re- habilitation can be passed by as dependent "hangers-on". The Texas Department of Public Welfare, over a period of seven years, developed through teaching and research a program of diagnosis and selection rtiereby each case is assessed at i n - take regarding the need for casework services beyond this point. The purpose of the program was to enable the provision , of casework to those i n need, and the abolishment or modifi- cation of procedures which for caseworkers was time-consum- ing and profitless i n respect to the provision of s k i l l e d services, 1 At present, in welfare offices i n B r i t i s h Columbia, "intake" responsibilities are. handled on a rota- tion basis, each worker taking his turn as a "duty worker". The standard of diagnostic s k i l l used in »intake* varies with the particular worker on duty. During the preliminary e l i g - i b i l i t y study made upon application, and during the v i s i t to the home which generally precedes issuance of the initial cheque, the worker attempts to assess the tot a l situation of the applicant and to offer help with any problems he may have. The Burnaby Welfare Department stresses that the intake s i t - uation is not an emergency situation but rather that the app- lic a t i o n is the f i n a l step i n a series of events which have produced among other things financial need on the part of the applicant. This approach helps the worker to look be- yond the financial problem to see the needs of the total 1 CURRIN, Maurine, "Operation Diagnosis", Public Welfare XII, 19SIJ. P. 133 , - I l l - person. This does not mean that cheques cannot be issued on an emergency basis i f required; Vancouver Social Service Department and Burnaby Welfare assistance both issue emer- gency grants within hours of application, 1 CASEWORK SERVICES In the programs where the applicant is able to claim a right to assistance; for example i n War Veterans' Allowance or Old Age Assistance, or Blind Persons' Allowance, in which areas there has been an acceptance of responsibility, there does not seem to be the same need for the provision of psychological support during intake by the professional worker. In these programs an increased degree of dependency is to be expected as a normal characteristic of the groups concerned, and further there is the status of the aged, the blind or the veteran which lends him support as an applicant. The requirements for a person interviewing applicants in these programs might include a high degree of sensitivity to the feelings of people; interviewing s k i l l s related to the gathering of information, and the description of policy and procedure; and an a b i l i t y to sense the p r e s - ence of situations needing attention by professionally trained staff. Such a job shouldn't require five or six years of university training. 1 The writer i n observing the administrative and c l e r i c a l processes in these two agencies was extremely impressed by their efficiency, sense of teamwork, and focus on the prov- ision of service to clients. - 112 - Personnel Standards, It has been the concern of the social work profession that any area of social ser- vice that requires face-to-face contact with applicants or clients should be the responsibility of the social worker. However i t must be recognized that schools of social work cannot keep pace with the expansion of the f i e l d of social welfare and that a compromise must be made, Kermit Wiltse has called for such a compromise through a " r e a l i s t i c apprai- sa l of the nature of service i n public assistance", 1 to assess which areas can be handled by non-professional staff receiv- ing special training, and which require the services of the professional social worker. The standard of social work personnel in public 2 assistance today varies very considerably, Leyendecker ree- fers to programs in the United States where neither workers nor supervisors have professional training, in B r i t i s h Columbia, under our provinclally administered public assist- ance program, a much higher standard has been reached. It varies from municipality to municipality, and i n the different 1 WILTSE, Kermit, Social Casework in public Assistance, Department of Social Welfare, State of California, 195'd, p. 29. 2 LEYENDECKER, Hilary M,, Problems and Policy in Public Assistance, Harper & Bros,, New York, 19i>i?# P» 2db 3 In a recent conference on public Welfare held in the United States, i t was estimated that eighty per cent of social workers in American public assistance programs are untrained. This information was obtained during an inter- view with Miss Moscrop, Supervisor of Staff Training, Social Welfare Branch, Vancouver, — 113 ••» provincial offices but runs from less than f i f t y per cent of "casework" staff with one or more years of professional train- 1 ing to as high as sixty-five per cent amongst the staff of Social Welfare Branch, It is general practice also*? in pub- l i c welfare' i n Br i t i s h Columbia, to require two years of pro- fessional training for supervisory staff. Because of the shortage of professionally trained workers vacancies have to be f i l l e d on occasion with untrained people. However, this d i f f i c u l t y is overcome to some degree by an in-service t r a i n - ing course directed by the Training Sup rvisor of the Social Welfare Branch which is available to personnel from both mun- i c i p a l and provincial welfare offices. In comparison with other public welfare programs, Br i t i s h Columbia seems second to none in respect to i t s standards of social work personnel. Specialization of Staff, There Is a move at the present time i n public welfare i n B r i t i s h columbia towards specialization of staff, in previous years the local area was divided into d i s t r i c t s and the worker i n the d i s t r i c t was responsible for a "general caseload" composed of a l l categories of aid and kinds of service. This might have i n - cluded several hundred Old Age Assistance cases idaich by policy require a yearly v i s i t for the purpose of reporting any change in social or economic circumstances. There was also the responsibility for handling new applications for 1 Public Welfare in B r i t i s h Columbia, 19514.* Annual Report of Social Welfare Branch, Victoria, 19i4> P' J 17 - l i l t ~ Old Age Assistance, boarding and nursing home care, along with Social Allowance, Mothers' Allowance, and In most areas child welfare. It was f e l t i n certain municipalities that i n the interests of efficiency workers should be delegated to handle particular areas of work such as Old Age Assistance applications and annual f i e l d reports, boarding and nursing home care, and so on. The Vancouver Social Service Depart- ment developed an Old Age Assistance Section, and used i t s Medical Section to handle boarding and nursing home place- ments. The Burnaby Social Welfare Department designated in-service workers to handle assistance to the aged, and boarding and nursing home placements. Recently the City has moved further on the premise that professional workers are not required to process Old Age Assistance applications"'' and are planning to pass this responsibility back to the local Old Age Assistance Board office. They are hoping to employ highly trained social workers to handle specific casework problems of the aged on a referral basis. The Burnaby Welfare Department has divided the tfrork even further. Due to the limited number of trained workers i t was considered best to subdivide the social allowance cases into "family service" and straight finan- c i a l assistance, the former to include a l l families with 1 See page ll£ for results of a sarvey on casework needs i n public assistance in Texas. - 115 - children receiving aid. I t was assumed that this group would have a high prevalence of social problems and would need the best trained and most highly s k i l l e d workers. This reason- ing is substantiated in a survey made by the Eexas Department of Public Welfare. In reviewing the various categories of assistance i t was found that only eight per cent of Old Age Assistance cases required casework services whereas seventy- five per cent of families receiving Aid to Dependent Children 1 2 grants required casework help. Such a scheme of providing the best casework services for those most in need of i t amongst the public assistance population makes for a more effective program in that the professional s k i l l s are being used in a concen- trated manner Instead of being lost by scattering them through- out the various areas. Apart from anything else, this is the only way in which social casework as a profession can be proven to be of value i n public assistance; and the only way In which highly s k i l l e d workers w i l l be a t t r a c t e d to the f i e l d . Dr. Wiltse, in his experiment on the value of casework method and s k i l l s i n public assistance, found that the "complex kind of social casework problems represented by some of the case situations with which every public assist- 1 A program of assistance to children deprived of parental support through "death, continued absence from the home, or the physical or mental Incapacity of the parent". Eveline Burns, op. c i t . p. 320 2 CTJRRIN, Haurine, op. c i t . p. 136 - 116 - ance agency must deal are such as to demand the greatest professional competence and s k i l l that can be acquired", 1 He envisages the ideal as a unit within the agency composed of several well trained and experienced workers and a super- 2 visor who are responsible for selected caseloads. The extent to which a public assistance worker in B r i t i s h Columbia can provide casework services to clients depends upon size of caseload, the nature of scope of t e r r i - tory to be covered, and the number of services for which he may be responsible, in rural d i s t r i c t s the worker must han- dle a l l types of'public assistance and in addition child wel- fare services. However, In the municipalities where special- ization is taking place the worker is able to focus on a par** ticular area of the assistance program i n keeping with his training and experience. In War Veterans* Allowance, as i n Old Age Assist- ance, the applicant is given a major responsibility in com- pleting the required forms and in obtaining the required evidence of e l i g i b i l i t y , A Veterans* Welfare Officer inter** views the applicant i n order to verify his e l i g i b i l i t y and the forms are passed to the D i s t r i c t Board for assessment. The Welfare Officer is not necessarily a trained social worker but must meet merit standards through a competition held for the position, A social service department works in conjunction with the welfare officers on a consultative 1 WILTSJ3, Kermit, op, c i t , p. 31 2 Ibid • 117 • basis, casework problems are referred through the social ser- vice staff, who are professionally trained, to the various social agencies within the community. Casework Services i n Washington State. In re- gard to public assistance l i t t l e use is made of professionally trained social workers, by the State Department of public Assistance, the latter being used mainly for supervisory positions and in child welfare. Until recently, the only assistance families receiving casework services were those which were receiving child welfare services also. It is understood that the situation is improving; eg. Whatcom County Office was recently advised that an establishment has been made recently for three trained workers to join the " v i s i t o r " staff of the Whatcom County Public Assistance Office. REHABILITATION SERVICES Although there may be more than one definition for the term "rehabilitation", that proposed by the National Council on Rehabilitation, New York, seems adequate for the purposes of this discussion. It is as follows: Rehabilitation is the restoration of the hand- icapped to the fulle s t physical, mental, social vocational, and economic usefulness of which they are capable.^ The primary purpose of modern public assistance 1 HOOSON, William, The Rehabilitation of public Assistance Recipients, (Master of »ocial work Thesis, university of "• Bri t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1953) 118 - programs is to do just that; to help the needy person towards the best possible adjustment between himself and his environ- ment. In Canada, as i n the united States, the concept of rehabilitation originated within the Workmen's Compensation programs. The return of the veterans of World War II, and the training programs developed to aid i n their re-establishment gave great Impetus to this movement. An amendment to the Vocational Training coordination Act of 191+2, dated May 1, 1951 and known as Schedule M made possible the Issurance of re-training grants to handicapped persons In Canada who had worked before, and were eli g i b l e for Unemployment insurance Benefits, In August 1952 this was extended to persons who had never worked before. Persons on social assistance could be referred to a local committee on rehabilitation composed of staff from the National Employment Service, (Special Placements Section), and other agencies concerned with re- habilitation. If the person was found suitable for retrain- ing on the basis of medical opinion, social history inform- ation, and vocational counselling assessment, federal funds could be obtained for this purpose. More recently an arrangement has been made whereby the cost of re-training social assistance recipients in British Columbia is being shared between the province and the responsible municipality on the basis of the 80 - 20 formula. The writer had the occasion recently to refer a young woman from the Out Patient Department, Vancouver •- 119 - General Hospital to the Vancouver City Social Service Depart- ment for social assistance during a courage of training i n hairdressing. This person had lost her husband recently, and her diabetic condition would not allow her to return to her previous mode of employment to support her young daughter, eighteen months old. Information was submitted as to her medical condition, her social adjustment, her s u i t a b i l i t y for training in beauty culture, as assessed by the Vocational Counselling Service, and the costs involved i n the training course to be given at the Vancouver Vocational Institute, Social assistance was assured her during the period of train- ing and a special grant made by the City Social Service De- partment on an 80-20 basis to cover training expenses. The cooperation between agencies was excellent and the total administrative procedure was a very real credit to the City Social Service Department, This i s not an isolated case but rather an example of the splendid services available to people on public assistance In B r i t i s h Columbia, Rehabil- itation services are also available to young veterans who apply for War Veterans» Allowance and who are not considered permanently disabled. Another very useful service which Is available to recipients of public aid i n this province Is that of the thomemaker» WBBO goes into the home where the mother is temporarily incapacitated or away i n hospital. This again is a service provided on an individual basis following a - 120 - thorough assessment by the social worker and financed jointly between the province and the municipality. In any of these special services such as re- training or homemaking the need for casework help is great because of the demands made on the recipient to mobilize him- self to enter new experiences, to form new relationships, and f i n a l l y to leave behind the security of public assistance and return to maximum self-sufficiency. The need for s k i l l f u l screening and selection for rehabilitation training was pointed up in a p i l o t pro- gram inaugurated in California in 195>2 amongst families re«* ceiving Aid to Needy Children grants. Prom a group of it,000 families 81+2 were referred for assessment; of these 61+9 were rejected as unsuitable, and 193* or l+,8$, were given train- ing. By spring of the following year, the saving to one county alone in reduced assistance expenditures ws.s $2,691. monthly,1 This project which was to last for eighteen months was financed through a grant of $33*000, from the Federal Security Agency, If It is assumed that the one county men- tioned had no relapses during the period of one year, the savings i n reduced expenditure, viz, $32,292, would almost match the total grant invested, to say nothing of the in- come taxes paid by the persons rehabilitated, Lefson quotes figures from a study done in 191+9 of lp.3 families receiving $619*500, yearly in public assistance who were rehabilitated 1 LEFSON* Leon, "Rehabilitation public Assistance Reclp- ients1.1, Public Welfare, XI, 1953* p, 1+9 » J?0 - 121 - at a cost of $lll|.,926... By the following year these families were earning slightly less than $1,000,000. annually and were receiving no assistance.^ L i t t l e more need be said for the value to the client and to the community of rehabilitation services i n public assistance. MEDICAL CARE IN PUBLIC ASSISTANCE The united States Social Security Act of 1935 did not provide for the federal support of state or county medical care programs geared to categorical assistance re- cipients. A l l federal funds were to be used In providing unrestricted money payments to the recipient to allow him the full e s t possible independence. This requirement was followed by most states in order to qualify for a maximum degree of federal participation in financing their programs of cat- egorical aid. Some states met medical need through county and local funds especially those where maximum payments were low. This requirement tended to hinder the development of comprehensive medical programs. In 195>0 the Act was amended to allow either money payments to, or on behalf of recipients of medical care. This allowed for greater f l e x i b i l i t y but not an ex- tension of services available to meet the need. An admin- istrative device was approved following this amendment. The states were allowed to assess medical 1 Lefson, Leon, Ibid p. 1L7 - 122 - expenditures on the basis of an average cost per capita and to charge this average against each recipient's account. This meant a federal grant up to a maximum of $55* per month for each recipient of categorical aid, part of which could be placed in a pool fund and made available to cover a f a i r l y comprehensive l i s t of medical services. Some states have thus overcome problems resulting from the maximum limitation on individual payments,"'" Pearl Bierman has found that only a very small number of states have adopted this plan but considerable interest is expressed in i t by public assist- 2 ance administrators. Some states have made provisions for the med- i c a l l y indigent, i.e., those people who are otherwise s e l f - supporting but cannot meet medical needs - such provision is generally limited to the "catastrophic i l l n e s s " in which costs are high,"' increasing aged population has meant i n - creasing need of medical care for the chronically 111, Hos- pitals at one time gave special considerationtto public assistance cases but they can no longer afford to give this care at a rate considerably below operating costs which have multiplied in recent years. Pearl Bierman, i n 1953 » found that, i n sixteen states there were no public assistance funds available for general medical care,' Two states had comprehensive public 1 BIERMAN. Pearl, "Medical Assistance Programs" Social Service Review, XXVIII, June 1 9 5 b P» 187 - 195 - 2 2&id p, 188 3 Ibid « 123 ~ health programs: fourteen states had medical programs f i n - anced by local funds but only six of these were considered adequate. According to the American Public Welfare Assoc- iation only thirteen states have organized medical units with professional health personnel, the director being either a medical doctor or a medical social worker.1 In a study of medical care in old age assistance made i n 193>2, Ruth White found considerable variation in policy between states, and that payment for services was generally well below that normally charged. For example, the average payment for hospital care was between four and five dollars per day. In most states the amounts paid f a i l e d 2 to cover costs* In states and lo c a l i t i e s with policies covering a wide variety of services, relatively few recipients received this care.^ Public Medical care In Canada* In reviewing the development of public assistance medical care, i t can be seen that the Poor Law tradition of municipal responsibility for the sick poor, with it s concomitant requirements of ascertain- ment of residence and application of a means test at the time that care is sought has been the practice i n Canada. It should be noted, however, that a l l public hospitals - and practically a l l hospitals, voluntary and government, are 1 Ibid p. 194 . 2 WHITE, Ruth, "Medical Services in Old Age Assistance", Social Security Bulletin, XV, 195'2, p<* 9 3 Ibid p. 11 - 121+ - "public" hospitals - provide care for indigents... The prov- inces have adopted the practice of giving grants to public hospitals, calculated on a patient-day basis, to supplement municipal payments i n meeting costs of providing care to those in need",1 Of the five provincial programs in effect today, Dr. Taylor states that two provide limited benefits and three provide a broad range of services. The two limited programs are those of Ontario established in 1933* and of Nova Scotia, estab- lished in 19^0, Contrary to the usual defin- i t i o n of limited benefits, these programs are restricted to the services of physicians in office or home. In Ontario this now includes home deliveries, certain laboratory procedures, and emergency drugs. Medical and surgical care in hospital continues to be provided as before, with the hospital administering a means test at the time service is obtained,.^ Beneficiaries of public assistance medical care are i n general the recipients of categorical assistance, and assistance to unemployables* In B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Ontario medical programs have been developed for recipients of Old Age Security on the basis of a means test, Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons* Allowance and Mothers' Allowances* Details of these programs have been gathered i n a study done by the Canadian Welfare Council and published in 1952 under the t i t l e of "Public Provision £>r Medical Care i n Canada", The other provinces at the time of the study had not de- 1. TAYLOR, Malcolm G,, "Social Assistance Medical care Programs i n Canada", American journal of Public Health, xxxxiv, 1951+, P . 75i """" : : : 2 Ibid p* 751 . - 125 - veloped any special arrangements for these groups. Next to Br i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan provides the most comprehensive public medical care program. A l l re- cipients under the Tsategorical assistance programs of Old Age Security (with bonus), Blind Persons', and Mothers* Allowances receive f u l l health services which are provided by the Saskatchewan Public Health Department. In addition to this, Old Age Assistance recipients are entitled to have their hospitalization tax paid which entitles them to the benefits which a l l residents receive through the Saskatchewan Hospital Services plan. This is an insurance scheme which covers a l l hospital costs apart from doctors* bills.. It is the responsibility of the local munici- pality to provide health care for residents who cannot afford i t . Any person l i v i n g in Saskatchewan but not having municipal residence, who requires medical care and cannot afford i t , can be nominated by the Department of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation for health service coverage pro» vided by the Department of Public Health. This includes "physicians* services, including surgery, at home, office, or hospital; special nursing; chiropody; physiotheraphy; optical services; surgical appliances; dental care; and the payment of hospital insurance premiums. A maximum payment of $5'0. is made towards dentures. Certain drugs, such as insulin, are provided free while the patient Is exprected to pay twenty per cent of the cost of others". 1 1 Canadian Ttfelfare Council, Public Provision for Medical Care in Canada, Ottawa, 19^2 pT~9 - 126 - Financing Public Medical care. In regard to financing medical care for indigents, Ontario set the prece- dent for other provincial programs, excepting Saskatchewan, by entering into a contract with the provincial medical assoc- iation for the provision of medical care to qualified ben- eficiaries for a stipulated sum of money, to be administered by the association or its agent.^ In Saskatchewan the medical care program was accepted by the government as a part of the total health program, ttbut the government recognizes the essential role of the profession in i t s successful administration and there- fore relies for policy guidance and for the assessment of accounts on a three-member Central Medical Assessment Board which the association nominates and which the government p appoints and pays". MEDICAL CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Under an agreement with the Canadian Medical Association (B.C.- Division) and the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Municipalities every recipient of Old Ago Security (with bonus), Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons', Mothers* and Social Allowance, having one years *#esidence in the province, 3 is entitled to f u l l medical, surgical, and obstetrical care in home, office and hospital in accordance with recognized 1 TAYLOR, Malcolm G. op. c i t . p. 752 2 ibid p. 753 3 (On presentation of Hospital insurance and Medical Identification Card which is issued to the recipient.) - 127 - medical practice. An arrangement has been made whereby a p;er cap- i t a payment of twenty dollars per year is paid to the Can- adian Medical Association (B.C. Division) for every person in receipt of assistance and eligib l e for health services. These payments which are made monthly according to caseload figures are shared between provinces and municipality accord- ing to the 80 - 20 formula. The recipient is allowed to go to the doctor of his own choice, the latter submitting his b i l l s to the Medical Association for payment quarterly In proportion to the funds available. The medical profession which has been receiving i n the order of sixty-five per cent of the prescribed rates is asking that the capitation payment be raised to twenty-five dollars* With regard to hospitalization, the recipient is covered under the present hospitalization scheme for which a l l residents are eligible. The co-insurance charge of one dollar per day is paid under health services provis- ions which means that hospitals in B r i t i s h fcjolumbia are recompensed i n f u l l for the hospitalization of recipients of assistance* The commonly prescribed drugs are available through medical prescription; the druggist supplying these at a ten per cent reduction and being reimbursed from prov- incial-municipal funds. The dental services which are pro- vided include extractions, and dentures and prophylaxis on an individually assessed basis, the latter being geared to — 128 *** the needs of children i n assistance families. Medical and surgical applicances, and glasses are also available to the recipient of assistance when required, the cost of which is shareable according to the 80 - 20 formula. The health services are administered by the Director of Medical Services who is responsible to the Deputy Minister of Welfare. Under his direction this pro- gram has grown i n recent years to be the most comprehensive in Canada. The greatest strength of this program is seen to be the maintenace of the family doctor-patient relation- ship. The recipient is free to go to his own doctor who treats him according to recognized medical practice. If he requires treatment by a specialist, the doctor arranges this himself. If a patient who lives i n an outlying d i s t r i c t or municipality requires treatment which is available only In Vancouver, on the authorization of the Director he can. 1 be brought in by train, plane, or bus. If temporary lodg- ings are to be required, these are handled by the Medical Social Work Consultant of the Social Welfare Branch wio acts as a liaison between the social worker i n the f i e l d and the D i r e c t o r of Medical Services on a l l medical matters. The focus is always upon meeting the needs of the patient according to the best standards of medical care. It has been said that to be ideal a medical 1 MOSCOVICH, J.C. M.D., l»Stock-TakingM, B r i t i s h Columbia*s Welfare, X, May - June 1953- p. 9 - 11 . - 129 « program should make possible the payment of medical costs by the recipient himself, but such a scheme w uld be t e r r i b l y unwieldy due to the need for the issuance of me dical care grants. The present program is much more acceptable to the medical profession because of i t s administration by a medical authority who is concerned with meeting the medical needs of indigent people according to the medical standards, and with a view to efficiency. It is acceptable to the recipient be- cause he retains his freedom of choice as to practitioner and he is relieved of the burden of applying for special grants for medical care. This program is acceptable to the people of the province because i t uses the insurance prin- ciple similar to any pre-paid medical scheme whereby the risk of requiring medical care is spread over a large num- ber of people. (It has been estimated that one i n twenty recip&jfents requires care, 1) Medical Indigency. Medical Indigency in B r i t i s h ^olumbia is not considered as a responsibility of public welfare. Those people i n the lower mainland area who require medical attention and cannot pay for i t can re» ceive the best of care through, the Out Patient Department of the Vancouver General Hospital. There are no residence restrictions, the only limiting factor being that of maxw imura income which is limited to $125, for the single person 1 This figure quoted during an interview with J»C, Moscovich, M.D., Director of Medical Services, Social Welfare Br%nch. - « 130 - and $15>5. for the married man. For the f i r s t child $ 2 0 . is exempted and for each additional child $ 2 5 . Five hundred dollars i n cash assets are allowed but these figures serve only as a basis for consideration. In cases of doubt f n assessment is made by a social worker in terms of the cost of similar treatment in the community, length of treatment, and other factors. The Services of the Out Patient Depart- ment are available to the recipient of public assistance and great use is made of the various clinics i n providing medical care for recipients from a l l parts of the province, Shaughnessy hospital provides Out Patient treat« iiient to the r e c i p i e n t of War Veterans t Allowance and to the medically indigent veteran whose annual income, less fllj.80, exemption for his wife, and $150. for each child, is less than $720, This care is not extended to his family. This represents one of the great weaknesses i n the War Veterans* Allowance program and requires attention In respect to meeting these needs, SUMMARY Following a brief reference to the growth of professional social work i n public assistance, the needs of the adventitiously indigent, as they relate to casework ser* vices, are discussed. Considerable stress is placed on the value of diagnostic s k i l l s i n evaluating emotional depend- ency among... the needy especially in programs where the con- cept of right to assistance has not been recognized to any - 131 - extent. In the programs where the applicant has status the writer feels that the threat of dependency Is not so strong arid that the intake process can be handled with less need for professional casework. This viewpoint is taken because of the shortage of trained workers and the continual expan- sion of welfare services which threatens to perpetuate the shortage. The present personnel policies In B r i t i s h Columbia*s program with regard to standards of training are discussed and reference made to the movement towards specialization of staff which is being made with a view to maximum use of staff s k i l l s . A description of present intake procedures and the provision of casework services is followed by a review of the development of rehabilitation i n public assist- ance in this province and its present high standards. The closing section deals with medical care in public assistance and includes a brief reference to its present status in the United States and Canada. The program in B r i t i s h Columbia is discussed i n detail and is seen to be of outstanding calibre. The problem of medical indigency is also referred to and some mention made of re- sources available within this province. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS Before considering the findings and implications of this study some reference should be made to the principles of public welfare in a democracy. It has been stated that the "underlying principles of the public welfare program must be consistent with the basic principles of democracy""*- which stress that every individual is to be granted the opportunity to become a participating member, i n the nation's welfare, the community's welfare, and his own personal welfare. De- mocracy is founded upon respect for the integrity of the individual, and a concern for men and f a i t h in them. The growth of governmental services has been an expression of this respect and concern and has resulted i n the declaration of certain underlying principles which follow. A l l individuals have common human needs - physical, intellectual, emotional, and s p i r i t u a l - and the person in receipt of assistance should be able to meet these needs i n the manner customary to his community. The well-being of the individual contributes to the well-being of the community through his participation i n community affairs and his acceptance of responsibilities as 1 Viteashington State Department of public Welfare, public Welfare i n the State of Washington, Olympia, 19^.9, p.~7 - 133 - a citizen. The administration of public welfare should i n - sure that a l l individuals concerned receive equal treatment in respect to social legislation and policy. The needy per- son is a free person and as a private citizen retains his rights regarding his personal, social and economic a f f a i r s . Every individual who considers himself i n need has a right to apply for assistance, and to have his e l i g i b i l i t y determined. He has a right to a thorough explanation of e l i g i b i l i t y pro- cedures, and the steps he should take i n making application for assistance. He is then in a better position to decide whether or not he wishes to proceed with the application. It is considered that for most indigent people, the money payment is the best wagf to meet the needs. The individual must be assured that he can depend on assistance at regular intervals u n t i l such time as his needs change, or u n t i l lie is found to be no longer eligible. The private affairs of the recipient of assistance are to be considered confidential to the agency, and any sharing of information with other agencies is to be done only upon the recipient »s approval;,-. With the rights of a citizen there are also the responsibilities on the applicant's part to recognize the legal and financial limitations of the agency; to supply the agency with pertinent information related to his application for aid; and to keep the agency informed of any changes i n his circumstances which might affect his grant. If an individ- ual feels that he has been treated unfairly, he has the right •- 134 - to a f a i r hearing by another j u r i s d i c t i o n . 1 The incorporation of these principles into pub- l i c assistance in B.C. has been effected to a major extent. The rights of a l l Individuals to apply for aid and to receive equal treatment are respected as are the rights of recipients to money payments, to an assurance of continued regular assist- ance, to a f a i r hearing, and to a maintenance of confidenti- a l i t y regarding personal af f a i r s . The extent to which the programs i n this province have been concerned with meeting the needs of indigent people adequately, and assuring the well-being of recipients, has been a major focus; of this study. In this concluding chapter an assessment Is made of the degree to which these latter principles have been incor- porated. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN B.C. - PRESENT AND FUTURE The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia has much to be proud of in developing Canada's most progressive public assis- tance program. The great strength to this program li e s in the liberalism and sincerity with which the whole area of public welfare has been considered i n this province. This has been a constant factor in the growth and development of public assistance and such attitudes pervade the social leg- is l a t i o n enacted in B.C. Commencing with the Residence and Responsibility 1 Ibid p. 7 - 9 - 135 - Act of 1936 which brought consistency to matters of residence, this philosopb/ was epitomized with the passage of the Social Assistance Act of 194-5 which, along with pursuant regulations made possible the fulfilment of many of the above mentioned principles through the following: 1 The granting of assistance "to Individuals, whether adult or minor, or to families, who through mental or physical Illness or other exigency are unable to provide in whole or in part by their own efforts, through other security measures, or from income and other resources, necessities essential to main- tain or assist i n maintaining a reasonably normal and healthy existonce": 2 The granting of assistance to needy persons with- out respect to "ra&e,v, color, creed, or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s : 3 The standardization of assistance practices through- out the province to the extent that "the municipality shall provide and maintain social assistance and relative social ad- ministrative services on a basis consistent with the standards established by the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act": it The sharing of assistance costs between the pro- vince and the municipalities on the condition that " i f local authorities f a i l to comply with any provisions of this Act or any regulations made pursuant" provincial funds can be with- held: 5 The supervision by provincial authority of "local government and municipal units ... that dispense funds auth- - 136 - orized under this Act 1 1: 6 The Social Assistance Regulations establish the right of the individual to an appeal against a decision and the constitution of the Board of Review is l a i d down with a view to ensuring a f a i r hearing without prejudice i n favor of either party. With such legislation the foundation was l a i d for a comprehensive program of public assistance designed to give aid on the basis of need. It remains to consider further developments and modifications to this fundamentally sound structure. Residence. In respect to the matter of residence it,would appear that the present requirement of one year with- in the province on a self-supporting basis is reasonable i n the light of the great number of transient persons who come to this province seeking employment."'' The abolition of residence must await the inauguration of a country-wide pro- gram of unemployment assistance. It is strongly recommended on the basis of existing practices i n regard to local resid- ence, viz. that of denying assistance to residents of the province because they do not hold residence i n the local area, and of granting assistance and charging back costs to the responsible area, which is administratively expensive, 1 This was established i n a study during the winter of 1954-55» when i t was found that lit. 7 per cent of destitute persons applying to nine different social agencies i n Vancouver for assistance had less than one year's residence in the province. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Report on Registration of Unemployed, Vancouver, February, 1955» p. 17 - 137 - that consideration be given to the abolishment of local residence and responsibility, and that an alternative to the 80 - 20 formula be found for financing social assistance. 1 This could be done through a m i l l rate levy as is done i n Washington State, or on a per capita basis according to the population with, the local area. The fact that during the f i s c a l year 1953 - 54- the province paid $1,615,34-8.10 for provincial cases, i.e. those persons having provincial but not local residence; and i n addition 80 per cent of the $1»959*600.06 paid to municipal cases, indicates the great responsibility (approximately 90 per cent) that the province 1 p already has i n financing social assistance. It would be much simpler to abolish a l l procedures In regard to establish- ing local responsibility, in accounting local assistance costs, i n charging back costs to other local areas; and to establish local or municipal participation on the basis of 10 per cent of the total costs of social assistance. It would be a much more comprehensive program and would guaran- tee assistance to any resident of the province i n need re- gardless of what part of the province he was i n when he applied. 1 In the above mentioned study i t was found that although 84.. 5 per cent of the persons studied had at least one year's residence i n B.C., 25 .3 per cent were not residents of Vancouver. This would mean charging-back, i f unemployment assistance were granted. 2 Public Welfare In Br i t i s h Columbia, 1954* Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, 1954-* p. 36 - 138 - Another matter regarding residence which should be re c t i f i e d is that of the aged person who applies for assistance after being in the province les:s than three years* or who enters the province after qualifying for Old Age Assistance in another province. He is ineligible for the Cost-of-Living Bonus and medical services u n t i l he reaches seventy and is restricted to the $ljO. grant. The younger person who has been in this province for only one year, If i n need, can qualify for $t|-5» per month and medical services under the Social Allowance program. This, in effect discrim- inates against the person over 6$ years of age. If Social Allowance is the residual program for this province then, according to the Social Assistance Act, i t is the respons- i b i l i t y of the provincial authority to subsidize the categor- i c a l assistance to the extent that the recipient's total allowance w i l l equal the Social Allowance grant. Reciprocal Agreements. The matter of reciprocal agreements has been discussed and i t is encouraging to note the extent to which B.C. has moved in this direction. Coun- try-wide application of this policy is most desirable and i t is hoped that further movement to f a c i l i t a t e this is being considered. The fact that B.C. and Saskatchewan have "ex- perimentally" dispensed with the practice of reimbursement of funds by the responsible province points to considerable simplification i n reciprocal agreement procedures. 1 Section 3 of the Act authorizes the subsidy of "other security measures". - 139 - In respect to those provinces which have no re- ciprocal agreement with B.C.. this province should consider the continuation of aid u n t i l recipients who leave the pro- vince to better themselves have gained residence elsewhere. Some thought should also be given to the broader use of pub« l i e assistance agencies in 6isher provinces in administering assistance to residents of B.C. who become indigent elsewhere prior to establishing residence. Some of the other provinces occasionally do accept reimbursement from B.C. for assistance granted to a resident of this province for which they have b i l l e d the Social Welfare Branch 1 but this practice could be expanded i f the advantages were properly interpreted to other provinces. The practice of repatriation is i n no way related to present trends towards increased migration and should be discarded as a r e l i c of Poor Law legislation. The economy of this country demands mobility of the employable population and public assistance, i f i t is to be curative, must be re- lated to the nature of the economy. ASSESSMENT OP RESOURCES It has been indicated that assessment of resources is handled quite differently In the federal programs of War Veterans' Allowance, Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons' Allow- ance, and Disabled Persons' Allowance, in comparison to the provincial programs of assistance. The calculated income 1 Miss Marie Riddell, op. c i t . p. 2 - 114-0 - based on the value of real property, the earned income from rentals and other sources are a l l subtracted from the maximum annual allowance under the program i n question. The fact that these policies are l a i d down i n fed- eral statutes and regulations means that they cannot be modified by the provinces. A major lesson can be learned from the federal programs in that there is an attempt made to maintain the re- cipient at a maximum level of independence. This is reflected in the personal property exemptions which are considerably larger than those in Mothers' Allowance and Social Allowance. This tendency is most noticeable in War Veterans' Allowance where every effort is made towards l i b e r a l Interpretation of policy. The positive identification brought about by one vet- eran helping another has resulted in the l i b e r a l attitude to- wards policy which are so evident. The voice of the veteran through the Canadian Legion and the aged through old age pen- sion groups have been heard and acknowledged by the government, whereas to date the Social Allowance and Mothers» Allowance have had l i t t l e representation. The practice in the United States of using c i t - izen boards in the administration of public assistance does much to keep the public informed of practices for which they are financially responsible. In this country the provisions of the various programs are unknown except to those who ad- minister them and those who receive them. The Social Allow- - - 1 41 - ance or Mothers' Allowance recipient has not the opportunity to express his or her right to adequacy of assistance and the democratic administration thereof. It is the responsi- b i l i t y of the community to participate in the formation of policy in the interest of both the recipient and the tax- payer. Personal property. It is considered that the personal property within the categorical programs are in keeping with the permanent nature of the d i s a b i l i t y . The £act that the limits i n Social Allowance and Mothers» Allowance are lower is acceptable where the period of f i n - ancial dependency w i l l be short. The provincial govern- ment has seen the value in preserving the resources of the recipient of Social Allowance who is suffering from Tuber- culosis. The policy of assessing income from excess assets on the basis of a deduction of three per cent as annual i n - come is valid where assistance w i l l be needed for a consid- erable period and where vocational readjustment may be necessary. It should be considered in other situations where illnesses such as poliomyelitis, heart; disease, arth- r i t i s , and mental illness are involved. The practice of the Vancouver City Social Ser- vice Department in restricting personal assets to that equal to one month's assistance brings additional d i f f i - culties to the problem of social adjustment. The City should be approached regarding these discrepancies which - lU2 - severely effect the person applying for assistance i n Vancouver. Failing a correction of these practices there is power under the Social Assistance Act to bring pressure to bear. Income. With reference to the federal programs the policies of War Veterans» Allowance are the most l i b e r a l and the most l i k e l y to encourage a maximum effort towards se l f - support. The same incentive is not i n evidence in the other federal categories. Major changes have been made recently regarding policies relating to exemptions and income i n Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance. 1 The major purpose i n making these changes has been to effect greater standardization of policy in provincial social welfare offices and hopefully i n munici- pal offices also. These changes are being considered by the Vancouver City Social Service Department and there is some justification for thinking that they w i l l be put into effect. In the main the result has been a reduction of allowable income, (eg. Whereas under the previous policy, the unit of two could earn an amount equal to their grant of $ 6 9 . 5 0 , they are now restricted to a total income including allowance of $100.) Concern was expressed by the committee responsible for the new policy regarding 11 the danger of attempting to set up a schedule designed to compensate for 2 law or inadequate social assistance rates 1 1. The new pol- 1 See Appendix C for Social Welfare Branch s e r i a l letter dated March 2 9 , 1955. 2 Ibid - li+3 - icy increases the gap between War Veterans* Allowance policies regarding income and those of Social Allowance and Mothers* Allowance in that the veteran with one dependent can have a total income of $l£8. The policy of the United States Federal Security Agency in exempting the f i r s t $50. earned by the blind must certainly encourage self-support and consideration should be given to such a move i n this country for the indigent blind and permanently disabled, There would appear to be the need for a more thor- ough interpretation to recipients of policies regarding i n - come. From the writer[a experience with people on assistance there would seem to be considerable ignorance as to their rights and a corresponding reticence to earn more than the basic $20. exemption for fear of being "cut off" assistance, LEVELS OF ASSISTANCE The major weakness in public assistance i n Br i t i s h Columbia li e s In the inadequacy of assistance rates. This is not so much the case where the recipients have had representation to government and status in the community as have the veteran, the aged, the blind, and now the disabled. The Social Allowance and Mothers» Allowance have had no real status with the result that these rates are the lowest. For example the single veteran gets $60. per month whereas the unemployable gets $1L5«̂ 1 Although the latter grant might be sufficient In rural areas where cheap shelter and other resources may be avail- able, i t is not so i n the c i t i e s . - l l A - In keeping with the philosophy of public welfare in B r i t i s h Columbia It would seem appropriate that adequate standards of assistance be established for use In public > assistance in this province. These have been formulated i n this study as a Suggested Scale for Social Allowance. 1 Social Allowance rates were i n i t i a l l y established on the basis of Work- men's Compensation policy but have long since f a l l e n "by the way side", the latter being $100. for a mother and child In comparison to $69.$0 In the assistance program. There is no tradition to overcome in bringing about a move towards adequ- acy but rather an ignorance concerning the "fruits?' of inad- equacy - delinquency, impoverished family and social relation- ships, mainourishment, lowered resistance to physical and mental illness, to name but a few. The Director of Medical Services has indicated that much of the treatment given to assistance recipients might be unnecessary i f rates were ad- 2 equate. Periodic Review. The periodic review of assist- ance rates as they relate to costs of the content of li v i n g is necessary both to guard the right of the indigent to ad- equate minimum standards, and to protect the taxpayer. The steady decline In the Consumer Price Index i n Vancouver in 1 See Table 10, p. 100 2L This statement made In an interview with Dr. J.C. Moscovich, Director of Medical Services, Social Welfare Branch. - 114-5 - the past thirty months3"* housing excepted, indicates that savings might be made by reviews at least once a year. Discrepancies Between Programs, The policy of the province in providing bonuses for the aged to ensure a minimum level of adequacy is to be commended. However i t must be recognized that the younger people in need w i l l make a greater contribution - positively or negatively - to the community and oh this basis alone the same level of adequacy is warranted for those on Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance, In keeping with the principle of equal treatment for a l l i t is suggested that the prcv i n c i a l government adopt one scale of rates by which the needs of a l l Indigent people w i l l be met, whether in categorical or residual assistance programs. If this were established many of the problems facing recipients, those of inadequate housing, poor cloth- ing, lack of self-esteem, and the resulting lack of p a r t i c i - pation in church and other community activities would be solved or more easily handled. Much of the time which social workers spend i n dealing with these problems could be used to work with the underlying problems related to financial dependency. The granting of adequate assistance does not in i t s e l f promote emotional growth and independence. This was 1 The change from March 1952 to November 1951+ was as follows: clothing, 116.6 to 112.7; food, 120.9 to 112.3; household operation 123.0 to 125.1+, Consumer Price indices for Regional Cities, Dominion Bureau of St a t i s t i c s , 1952, - 146 - proven in an "experiment of adequacy" carried out by the Vancouver City Social Service Department in 1949-50. Assist- ance was granted on the basis of need as established between worker and client among a caseload of thirty recipients. Major improvements were noted i n respect to family relation- ships, children's health and participation in school activ- i t i e s , and improved feelings i n being able to "dress like normal human beings" and to enjoy community recreation. With the primary focus on adequacy of assistance instead of res- toration of the family to self-support, l i t t l e real movement was seen. However the effects of adequacy of assistance were evident, and as a basis for casework services focussed on the restoration of the recipients to a maximum level of indepen- dence. The value of intensive casework i n helping public assistance families towards independence has been pointed out by Dr. Wiltse in his report on an experiment carried out with Aid to Dependent Children families i n C a l i f o r n i a . 1 Government Housing. It has long been the concern of the Vancouver City Social Service Department that families on assistance are inadequately housed, and that they are pay- ing exorbitant prices for this shelter. This was pointed out by a recent thesis when i t was found that only 33 per cent of the families on social assistance in Vancouver which were p studied had good housing? and of the four member families paying $42« per month, which was 71 per cent i n excess of 1 WILTSE, Kermit, op. c i t . p. 1 - 26 2 Wilson, Warren, op. c i t . p . the allowance, only 55$ were adequately housed. In reference to government subsidized housing the City stressed in their 194-9 Annual Report the need for housing and pointed out that building houses to rent at $ 3 0 . or $35. had no meaning for those on such low rental allow- ances. The City stated the fpliow&Qg: If such rentals are necessary the department should be authorized to increase rental allow- ances in cases- where there is real suffering and distress If this short range policy of providing inad- equate allowances is continued i t is inevitable that not only w i l l there be great loss in human values, but that there w i l l be considerable i n - crease in public expenditure for medical, hos- p i t a l , or other institutional care i n the future, 2 SOCIAL SERVICES It is established that B.C. has the highest standards of professional social work personnel in public assistance in North America, perhaps the highest i n the world. This might have been said about the Br i t i s h troops who defended courageously, but unsuccessfully, the outposts of the Empire during the last war. The c r i t i c a l factor was one of equipment and supplies, and a statement made famous by this experience was that of "too l i t t l e and too late". The great cry was "Give us the tools and we w i l l f i n i s h the 1 Ibid Fig. 5 and 6 p. 5 l 2 City Social Service Department, Annual Report, 194-9* Quoted in the Housing Bulletin, #10, Vancouver Housing Association, 1952 ! .. - 11L8 - job", and there is the same recognition in public assistance in B r i t i s h Columbia today. To carry the military para l l e l further the real need is for an "appreciation of the situation" before plan- ning any action. The focus in public assistance in this province has been on the individual to the neglect of the needs of the mass of the indigent population. Just as an army "marches on i t s stomach", the indigent require the basic necessities of l i f e before consideration can be given to the problems underlying the financial dependency. The tendency has been to substitute "casework for calories". With a program of adequacy of assistance In operation, this province is in a position to do a tremendous service i n Its public assistance programs because of the high standards of personnel. This requires the use of the diagnos- t i c approach not only within caseloads to select those recip- ients who need and can benefit from professional casework services, but also within the program i t s e l f in the assess- ment and placement of staff in areas where they can make their maximum contribution. Research is needed to ascertain those areas in public assistance where casework services are not so urgently needed and i n this way conserve the professional resources. The greatest need i n the social service program is that of diagnostic f a c i l i t i e s in the intake section of the public assistance programs. It is here that the funds of the community are requested, and i t is here that an i n - - ^ - vestment is to be made. As stewards of public funds intake workers have a responsibility to assess the possible returns on the investment of financial assistance, casework, and medical services. It is accept ed that a l l people have a right to adequacy of assistance and medical care; but beyond this there must be careful selection i f results are to be ob- tained, and the value of casework proved. Casework planning must be based on the dignity and worth of the individual, his recognized a b i l i t y to grow and change, and on the re- sources which exist, and which can be mobilized in the com- munity. It must be recognized that these people do not be- long to the agency but to the community; and this focus must be maintained i n respect to mobilizing the community to meet the needs of their fellow citizens. One wonders i f the re- cipient population could not be mobilized and strengthened through the formation of Recipients' Rehabilitation Clubs in the various communities. Surely these people have much to contribute, both to one another i n discussing ways and means of l i v i n g on public assistance, and to the development of a better public assistance program based on their own ex- periences, which in so many Instances are admirable examples of how to deal with harsh r e a l i t i e s . It should be stated that the services might be more readily available to families receiving Mothers t Allow- ances i f this program were discontinued, and the recipients absorbed within the a o c i a l Allowance program. The rates of assistance are identical, and the latter program is more - i5o - f l e x i b l e because of i t s higher degree of decentralization. The fact that the recipients are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l or d i s t r i c t o f f i c e makes f o r greater care i n planning, and a greater degree of l o c a l f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Services. The development of re- t r a i n i n g programs i n public assistance has been rapid i n t h i s province, and the standard of service i n t h i s area commendable. It i s strongly recommended that a program of research be i n - s t i t u t d d , preferably by the School of S o c i a l Work (where students are available) to assess the degree of success i n r e - t r a i n i n g r e c i p i e n t s , and to prove the value of casework services i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n on r e - cipients during r e - t r a i n i n g i s recognized, and some study should be given to i t as a possible f a c t o r In f a i l u r e to complete a course of t r a i n i n g , or successful placement. I f i t Is considered that s o c i a l work has a r o l e i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , i t must be proved to those responsible f o r the development of these programs. Medical Care. The medical care program i n s o c i a l assistance i n B.C. i s second to none i n giving comprehensive services to a l l r e c i p i e n t s q u a l i f y i n g under p r o v i n c i a l r e s i - dence. The Director of Medical Services suggests that the major requirement l i e s i n a further d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of authority to regional administrators and d i s t r i c t super- v i s o r s . 1 1 Public Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1954, °P» c i t . p. J 75- - 151 - It is interesting to note that the Br i t i s h con- ception of health Insurance, that of a non-contributory system has been followed in Canada in other areas, viz., Family Allowances, Old Age Security, and the Bri t i s h Columbia Hospital Insurance Scheme, a l l of which are financed through taxation. The federal government has expressed responsibil- i t y for health Insurance and i t is assumed that when in - stituted this program w i l l be financed in a similar manner. It is suggested that i n i t i a l l y , the federal government might be asked to assume responsibility in providing medical care for recipients of federal categorical programs, viz, the aged, the blind, and the disabled. In 1952 - 53, 1+5,875 1 or 67 .7 per cent of those eligible for public medical care were aged or blind recipients. Last year this service cost 2 $5,591,1+10.13 and i f the federal government would assume 50 per cent of the costs to categorical recipients the sav- ing to this province would be significant, i.e. In the neigh- borhood of $1 .93 millions. This would provide a ready source to finance increased Social Allowance grants which last year totalled $3 .57 millions. 3 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS There is a very real need i n B r i t i s h Columbia for a definite program of Unemployment Assistance which to 1 Public Welfare In Br i t i s h Columbia, 1953, p. U 75 2 Public Welfare in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951+, p. J 38 3 Ibid - 152 - date has been a make-shift arrangement between the province and municipalities during the winter months. This subject has received considerable attention at Ottawa recently, and i t is hoped that some definite policy regarding federal par- ticipation w i l l be formulated,at the forthcoming conference between federal and provincial representatives. Research. Without doubt the public assistance program in British Columbia is one to be justifiably proud-, of; however its further development requires the institution of a comprehensive research program in ,a l l phases, i f the needs of the indigent are to be adequately met at a minimum cost to the community, and with a maximum use of existing and potential resources. Public Participation. The objective in public assistance is to meet, through financial grants, the needs of people who are unable to provide themselves with the essentials of l i f e . Further, i t s objective is to meet these needs in such a way as to minimize the dependency of the re- cipient, and to provide an opportunity for him to re-establish himself whenever possible as a self-respecting, self-support- ing citizen. This objective can be realized to a greater de- gree through citizen participation in the development of pol- icy in public assistance. It can be further realized through Increased participation of recipients in groups where they can develop feelings of self-i^orth and some sense of respon- s i b i l i t y , both to those aided and to those who administer - 153 - the program. It has been said that "without a vision the people perish". It is only as the citizens - both those ifchat give and those that receive - realize the dignity and worth of the individual and what his restoration means to society in the reduction of delinquency, mental illness, and social impoverishment, that they w i l l move to institute a comprehensive system of social security, including adequate public assistance measures. - 1 5 1 + - APPENDIX A ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OP PUBLIC WELFARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA D E P A R T M E N T O F H E A L T H & W E L F A R E SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH DEPUTY MINISTER OF WELFARE RESEARCH Social Surveys & Research ACCOUNTING Estimates, Accounting and Statistics DIRECTOR OF WELFARE PERSONNEL TRAINING In-Training library MEDICAL SERVICES Direction of Medical Services for Social Welfare Branch • ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE FIELD CONSULTANTS WELFARE INSTITUTIONS LICENSING Licensing and .- Inspection of: Boarding Hemes Orphanages Maternity Homes Hostels Nurseries Kindergartens, etc. T.B. and V.D. SOCIAL.SERVICES Services to Patients in Hospitals and Clinics PSYCHIATRIC SOCIAL SERVICES Services to Patients in Crease •Clinic, Mental Hospitals, Homes for Aged, Woodlands School PROVINCIAL HOME Care for Dependent Aged Men Provincial Home Act OLD AGE ASSISTANCE BOARD Provision ot Maintenance for the Aged Old Age Assistance Act Old Age Security Act The Blind Pensions Act (Federal) The Blind Persons Allowance Act Old Age Assistance Act (Provincial) DIRECTOR INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS FIELD SERVICE Provision of Social Service to a l l Categories Serving: Child Welfare Mothers* Allowances Social Allowances Old-Age Assistance Tuberculosis Division Venereal Disease Division Mental Hospitals Child Guidance Clinic Boys' Industrial School Girls' Industrial School Hospital Inspection Branch Welfare Institutions Provincial Home Collections Service Law Courts Family Allowances (Federal) Veterans Affairs (Federal) Indian Affairs (Federal) REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 CHILD WELFARE Protection of Neglected and Dependent Children Adoption Act Children of Unmarried Parents Act Protection of Children Act Juvenile Delinquents Act FAMILY SERVICES Safeguarding the Family Unit - Service to Single Persons - Counselling Mothers' Allowance Act Social Assistance Act Deserted Wives and Childrens Maintenance Act Parents Maintenance Act BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL Rehabilitation of the Committed Delinquent Boy Industrial School for Boys Act GIRLS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL Rehabilitation of the Committed Delinquent G i r l Industrial School for Girls Act MISCELLANEOUS REGION 4 REGION 5 REGION 6 REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR Provincial Offices Albemi Courtenay Duncan Nanaimo Victoria Municipal Office Amalgamated Saanich Victoria Municipal Offices - Served Provincially Albemi Campbell River Central Saanich Courtenay Cumberland Duncan Esquimalt Ladysmith Lake Cowichan Nanaimo North Cowichan Oak Bay Port Alberni Quallcum Beach FIELD CONSULTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR Provincial Offices New Westminster Vancouver Westview Municipal Offices - Amalgamated Burnaby Coquitlam New Westminster, City North Vancouver, . City North Vancouver District Richmond Vancouver, City West Vancouver Municipal Offices - Served Provincially Delta Fraser Mills Port Coquitlam Port Moody Westview FIELD CONSULTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR Provincial Offices Kamloops Kelowna Penticton Salmon Arm Vernon Municipal Offices Amalgamated Kamloops, City Kelowna, City Penticton, City Vernon, City Municipal Offices - Served Provincially Armstrong Coldstream Enderby Glenmore Merritt North Kamloops Oliver Peachland Princeton Revelstoke Salmon Arm, City Salmon Arm, District Spallumcheen Summerland FIELD CONSULTANT T REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR Provincial Offices Cranbrook Creston Femie Grand Forks Trail Nelson New Denver Municipal Offices - Served Provincially Cranbrook Creston Fernie Grand Forks Greenwood Kaslo Kimberley Nelson Rossland Trail Warfield FIELD CONSULTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR Provincial Offices Pouce Coupe Prince George Quesnel Williams Lake Prince Rupert Smithers Municipal Offices -Served Provincially Dawson Creek Prince George Prince Rupsrt Quesnel FIELD CONSULTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR Provincial Offices Abbotsford Haney Chilli wack Municipal Offices - Amalgamated Chilliwhack Town- ship Langley Surrey Municipal Offices - Served Provincially Chilllwack Hope Kent Maple Ridge Matsqui Mission, District Mission, Village Pitt Meadows Sumas FIELD CONSULTANT APPENDIX B ELIGIBILITY FACTORS IN PUBLIC ASSISTANCE IN WASHINGTON STATE i BASIC ELIGIBILITY FACTORS FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE (AND FEDERAL MATC»\wi) Appendix * (Rev. 9-54) 1 C A T E G O R Y • ! F A C T O R OA A ( l ) ADC (2) AB (?) DA ( l i ) ! UNEMPLOYABLE ( 5 ) GA EMPLOYABLE ((,) AGE MUST BE 65 YEARS OR OLDER t MUST B E : 1. UNDER »l6, OR 2 . 1.6 OR 17 AND IN SCHOOL ( INCLUDES UNBORN CHILDREN) MUST B E : .1. 21 OR OVER, OR 2. l(> TO 21 AND THRU 12TH GRADE OR NOT E L I G I B L E FOR TRAINING SCHOOL MUST B E 18 YEARS OR OLDER 'NO REQUIREMENTS NO REQUIREMENTS ; MAINTAINED R E S I D E N C E IN S T A T E ! 5 OUT OF LAST 9 YEARS AND 1 RESIDENCE IYEAR IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING IN STATE [APPLICATION MAINTAINED R E S I D E N C E IN S T A T E 1 YEAR PRECEDING A P P L I C A T I O N ( R E L A T I V E OR C H I L D ) MAINTAINED RESIDENCE IN S T A T E 5 OUT OF L A S T 10 YEARS BUT IF BLINDNESS IS CAUSED AFTER COMING TO S T A T E , NO REQUIREMENTS MAINTAINED RESIDENCE IN S T A T E FOR 1 YEAR PRECEDING A P P L I C A T I O N MAINTAINED RESIDENCE IN S T A T E FOR 1 YEAR PRECEDING A P P L I C A T I O N BUT NO WAITING PERIOD FOR EMERGENCY SAME AS UNEMPLOYABLE GA RESIDENCE IN INST. 1. INSTITUTION A . MUST NOT B E - B. MUST BE 2. PERSON A S T A T E OR F E D E R A L INSTITUTION (2, A PUBL IC MENTAL INSTITUTION ( 5 . A PRIVATE OR P U B L I C ( HOSPITAL I i . " S U B J E C T TO S T A T E L ICENSING ( 5 . MUST B E A P A T I E N T IN A MEDICAL INSTITUTION IF IN P U B L I C INST ITUT ION ( 6 . MUST NOT B E PSYCHOTIC SAME AS OAA I F S T I L L CONSIDERED AS " L I V I N G IN HOME" SAME AS OAA SAME AS OAA S A M E AS OAA EXCEPT CAN PAY GRANTS TO PERSON IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS DOES NOT APPLY TRANSFER OF jHAS NOT TRANSFERRED PROPERTY PROPERTY jTO QUALIFY FOR A S S I S T A N C E SAME AS OAA SAME AS OAA SAME AS OAA S A M E AS OAA SAME AS OAA NOT CONCURRENTLY RECEIVING OTHER AID • CANNOT B E CONCURRENTLY RECE IV ING OTHER T Y P E OF FEDERAL A ID SAME AS OAA SAME AS OAA SAME AS OAA IS NOT E L I G I B L E FOR FEDERAL A ID OR CANNOT B E INCLUDED IN F E D E R A L A I D GRANT SAME AS UNEMPLOYABLE GA • • OTHER PROVISIONS i 1. DEPRIVEO OF PARENTAL SUPPORT OR CARE THRU D E A T H , ABSENCE OR S EPARAT1 ON 2. L I V I N G IN A HOME WITH A R E L A T I V E 1. NOT S O L I C I T I N G ALMS IN WASHINGTON 2. NO OTHER PRIMARY INFIRMITY ! 3 . TECHNICALLY B L I N D MUST B E TOTALLY AND PERMANENTLY DISABLED NOT A B L E TO WORK IN A REGULAR OR PREDICTABLE MANNER 1. ABLE TO WORK REGULARLY, BUT 2. NOT WORKING FULL—TIME 3 . IS ATTEMPTING TO GET WORK NEED i t i DEFINITION OF NEED IS SAME FOR ALL CATEG APPLICANT MUST BE IN NEED, IS IN NEED I F : A , PROPERTY HOLDINGS ARE L I M I T E D TO T H E FOLLOWING V A L U E S : 1. A HOME 2. CASH AND MARKETABLE S E C U R I T I E S OF A. $200 - S I N G L E PERSON B. SjiljOO - FAMILY 3 . CASH SURRENOER VALUE OF INSURANCE OF A . | 5 0 0 - S I N G L E PERSON B. $1000 - FAMILY l i . TOTAL OF CASH AND INSURANCE OF $500 FOR A S I N G L E AND $1000 FOR A FAMILY 5 . A CAR 6. BUT TOTAL V A L U E OF C A S H . S E C U R I T I E S , INSURANCE (CASH VALUE) AND CAR EQUITY MUST NOT EXCEED &1050 IN V A L U E FOR FAMILY BUT #550 FOR A S I N G L E 7 . USED AND U S E F U L HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS AND CLOTHING 0. A R T I C L E S OF SENTIMENTAL V A L U E 9 . OTHER USED AND USEFUL PERSONAL PROPERTY SUCH AS T O O L S , BUSINESS E Q U I P - MENT, FARM MACHINERY, L I V E S T O C K , ETC. WHICH WILL REDUCE NEED OR AID FOR R E H A B I L I T A T I O N . 10. PROPERTY OWNED AND USED BY A CHILD AS A MEMBER OF A GROUP ENGAGED IN LEARNING AND EARNING FUNDS FOR FUTURE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS , , ._ i n ? 0RIES EXCEPT EMPLOYABLE GA AND FOLLOWS BELOW B. A L L INCOME IS LESS THAN ONE MONTH'S REQUIREMENTS * (BUDGEY) * EXCEPT IN AB PROGRAMS FEOERAL MATCHING 1. OAA, AB, DA GRANTS OF A L L REC IP IENTS ARE MATCHED EXCEPT WHEN A R E C I P I E N T ( l ) IS IN AN INSTITUTION AND HAS TUBERCULOS16 OR (2) IS INCOMPETENT AND HAD NO GUARDIAN, OR ( 3 ) IS IN A PUBLIC INSTITUTION BUT IS NOT A PAT IENT 2 . ADC - A L L GRANTS ARE MATCHED 3 . NO MATCHING FOR ANY GA GRANTS IS IN NEED I F : A .PROPERTY HOLDINGS DO NOT EXCEED L .A HOME 2.USED AND U S E F U L A . HOUSEHOLD F U R N I S H - INGS B . CLOTHING—PERSONAL E F F E C T S C . TOOLS & EQUIPMENT USED IN TRADE OR OCCUPATION • . L I V E S T O C K WHOSE P R O - DUCTS ARE CONSUMED 8. INCOME DOES NOT EXCEED COST OF REQUIREMENTS C . H A 6 NO WAY TO MEET COST OF REQUIREMENTS THRU CREDIT OR L O C A L PUBLIC OR PRIVATE COMMUNITY R E - SOURCES OF ANY TYPE r .A .NY EQUITY IN ANY OTHER TYPE OF PROPERTY(EXCEPT A - l 4 2 ABOVE IS A R E - SOURCE) i - 156 - APPENDIX C SCHEDULE OF EXEMPTIONS AND OTHER INCOME > U O T E O U R F I L E N O . . T E L E P H O N E B E A C O N 6 1 1 1 T H E GOVERNMENT OF TH E PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA D E P A R T M E N T O F H E A L T H A N D W E L F A R E O F F I C E O F T H E D I R E C T O R O F W E L F A R E March 29, 1955 SERIAL NO. 302P/234M TO ALL, MUNICIPALITIES AND OFFICIALS OF THE SOCIAL W E L F A R E BRANCH Re: Social Allowance and-.Mothers' Allowances- Schedule of Exemptions and Deductions on Other Income A committee comprising municipal and provincial representatives has for some time been engaged in the study of the above-named subject with a view to establishing a Uniform policy at municipal and provincial level. The attached is the final report of the committee and the schedule outlined therein has been approved. The schedule will become effective Apri l 1, 1955 in all provincial social welfare offices, and it is recommended that it be put into effect at the same time in all municipal welfare offices. Regulation 10 of the Regulations made pursuant to the Mothers' Allowances Act will be deleted Apri l 1, 1955. Instructions in the Policy Manual will be amended shortly. A review of the effectiveness, of this schedule will be made at the end of a six months1' period. S O C I A L W E L F A R E B R A N C H V I C T O R I A J. A . SADLER Director of Welfare Serial Letter Book "SOCIAL A L L O W A N C E " JAS:eh R E P O R T OF C O M M I T T E E STUDYING S C H E D U L E OF EXEMPTIONS AND DEDUCTIONS ON OTHER INCOME PERTAINING TO RECIPIENTS OF SOCIAL A L L O W A N C E AND MOTHERS ' A L L O W A N C E . , General Remarks As was pointed out previously, although a schedule had been established in the administration of Mothers' Allowances, there has been no uniformity in dealing with earnings and income in Social Allowance cases, at. either Municipal or Provincia l level . The Committee confirmed their opinion previously expressed, that any schedule established should be uniform for both forms of assistance at both levels of administration. The Committee again emphasized their belief thai, the basic consideration of any such schedule should be the encouragement of individual and family indepen- dence wherever possible, and that recognition should be given to individual efforts toward self-supports The Committee re-affirmed their awareness of the danger of attempting - to set up a schedule designed to compensate for low or inadequate social assistance rates, and feel that the present suggested schedule could and should be applicable even though social assistance rates are revised. 1. The following classification of income is suggested: (A) Earned Income Income from: (1) Casual and permanent earnings-- (a) Single persons (b) Heads of families (2) Boarders (3) Roomers or Suites (4) Sale of Produce (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 * (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 (14 (15 (16 (B) Unearned Income Income from: Union or Lodge Benefits Insurance Benefits Annuities Superannuation Co-operative Societies Disability or Mi l i t a ry Pension Widows' Allowance War Veterans' Allowance Unemployment Insurance Workmen's Compensation Alimony or separation order Separation agreement or voluntary payments Deserted Wives' and Children's Maintenance Unmarried Parents payments Self-contained suites Net rental from property apart from the home - 2 - (17) Sale of property apart from the home (18) Sale of Assets (19) Any other income not classified as earned income as in Section (J * 'Unearned Income1 9 refers to Unemployment Insurance to the working mother who is head of the family, or the over-age husband whose opportunities for further employment are remote, not to the employable male head of the family. 2. The following schedule of exemptions is recommended: (A) Earned Income The exemptions for any income are not cumulative and must be calculated on a monthly income basis. (1) Casual and Permanent Earnings: (a) Single Persons--a basic exemption of $10.00, plus further exemp- tion of 25% of the balance of the earnings. (b) Heads of Fami l ie s - -a basic exemption of $20. 00, plus further exemption of 25% of the balance of the earnings for Unit 2 or more NOTE--Earned income and social assistance together shall in no case exceed the following maximums: 1 - $ 65.00 2 - 100.00 3 - 115.00 4 - 130.00 5 - 145.00 6 - 160.00 7 - 175.00 N Q T E - - " C a s u a l " Earnings: It was felt that if a man and woman both had "Casual" earnings, the basic and percentage exemption should apply on the combined earnings. (2) Income from Boarders: (not members of immediate family) $50.00 be exempted for the first boarder and $35. 00 for each additional boarder subject to local municipal by-laws as to boarding houses. This would include the basic exemption if there is other earned in- come. If the home is a licensed boarding home, or contains more than two boarders, then it should not be subsidized by Social Assistance (3) Income from Roomers or Suites: Rented within the family home wherein services are provided by the landlord, should be considered as straight earned income with the same exemption as earnings of heads of famil ies . I - 3 - (4) Income from Sale of Products: The administering office must de- termine the amount of net income which w i l l then be considered as earned income. (B) Unearned Income (1) A l l unearned income as outlined and any other income of a s imi lar nature is wholly deductible. An exception to this may be made in a case of excessive rental. For the purpose of this schedule, Old Age Security, Old Age Assistance, Blind Assistance, Disabled Persons Allowance and Family Allowance are not taken into consideration. (2) Income from self-contained suites wherein no services are provided by the landlord is to be considered as in the same way as net rental from property apart from the house. NOTE - - Net Rental from property apart from the home was defined as the gross income from property less light, heat, insurance, water rates, taxes and necessary repairs where applicable. 3. Earnings of Children It was felt.the question.of. the .exejnption of earnings, of a working child in the family presented an entirely different picture from that of the earnings of the head of the family,, In the former, the degree of responsibility to the family was less and, therefore, the exemptions should be greater. (1) Earnings of children up to the age of 18 and s t i l l attending school and i n - cluded in the Social Assistance, may be exempted up to $30. 00 per month. Earnings above that should be totally deductible. (2) Earnings of working children in the home Where there are one or two working children in the home, an exemption of 75% of the gross individual earnings or $80. 00 each, whichever is the greater, may be made. In the case of three or more working children in the home, it is felt that the total income may be sufficient to support the family group and any application for social allowance should be given consideration only on the individual case basis. N O T E - Such a child is not eligible for Social Allowance or Mothers' Allowance and is not to be included in the basic family unit when computing amount of the allowance. Calculations are to be made on gross earnings. (3) Earnings of children out of the home Such children should be approached and encouraged to contribute family. Subject to individual circumstances, a maximum of 50% to the of the - 4 - contribution could be deducted from the allowance payable to the family. This would apply also to Assigned Pay. 4. General Recommendations , 1 (1) Earnings should be calculated on a monthly basis (4 j times the weekly rate) and adjustments should be made in the nearer lower dollar of earnings (2) As it is recognized that a person owning a home has incidental expenses for upkeep in addition to taxes, etc. , it is felt that no differentiation should be made in allowance paid to a person paying rent and a person owning his home. This w i l l require a change in policy for Social Allowance and an amendment to the regulations of the Mothers' Allowance Act . (3) In the event of the application of these regulations creating a hardship, special consideration could be given in the local area on an individual case basis, subject to the approval of the administering authority. (4) It is not the intention to apply these regulations to active cases where a reduction in the allowance would result. However, these regulations are to be applied in the case of new application, reinstatement or change in circumstances. (5) The Committee recommends that the suggestions made in this report be put into effect as of A p r i l 1st, 1955. Any comments or suggestions re- garding the implementation of these regulations should be submitted to the Director of Welfare. If a review is necessary the Committee w i l l reconvene. JAS/rp - 157 Appendix D BIBLIOGRAPHY General References Bond, Floyd A., et. a l . , pur Needy Aged, Henry Holt & Co., New York, 195t£ Burns, Eveline, The American Social Security System, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 191+9 Cassidy, H.M., Public Health & Welfare Organization in Canada, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 19U-5 Falk, Myron, Settlement Laws, A"Major problem in Social Welfare", American Association of Social Workers, 191+8 . ; Govan, E.L., Residence & Responsibility in Canada, Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1952 Miles, Arthur P., An Introduction to Public Welfare, D.C. Heath & Co., Boston, 19IL9 Ralph, Edmund v . , The Use of the Standard Budget to Evaluate Need in" Public Assistance, (Master of Social Work Thesis, university of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1952) Social Welfare Branch, Acts & Regulations for Field Service, Department or Health & Welfare, Victoria , Policy Manual for Fi e l d Service, Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, A Guide to Family Spending in Toronto, 191+9 - 158 BIBLIOGRAPHY Specific References Berman & Blaetus, "Survey of Public Assistance Legislation", Public .Welfare, IX, 1951 Bierman, Pearl, wMedical Assistance Programs1*, Social Service Review, XXVIII, 1955- British Columbia, Bri t i s h Columbia In the Canadian Confeder- ation, Submission to the rtoyal commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, 1938 Canadian Welfare Council, piibllc Provision for Medical care in Canada^ Ottawa, 1952 Cassidy, H.M»# "Public Welfare Organization in Canada - Dominion and provincial 1*, Canadian Conference on Social Work, Ottawa,,1937 Community Chest & Council of Greater Vancouver, Report on Registration of Unemployed, Vancouver, 1955 Currin, Maurine, "Operation Diagnosis1*, Public Welfare, XII, 1954 Davis, Eleanor J., l*The Question of Length of Residence1', Public Welfare, VII, 1949 Dixon, W.G., "issues In Public Assistance", Bri t i s h Columbia Welfare, VI, 1949 Epler, Elizabeth, "Old Age Assistance: children»s A b i l i t y to Support", Social Security Bulletin, XVII, 1954 - Jackson, Glenn E., "Settlement & Social Welfare In New York", Social Service Review, XV, 19iul Leet, Glen, "Rhode Island Abolishes Settlement", Social Service Review, XCIII, 19^4 Lefson, Leon, "Rehabilitation of public Assistance Recip- ients", Public Welfare, XI, 1953 Murphy, Marion, "Residence, A Problem for Unmarried Mothers", Canadian Welfare, XXVIII, 1953 - 1 5 9 - BIELIOGRAPHY Riley , Sarah, "How Adequate Should Assistance Be", Public Welfare, VI, 191-1-8 Smith, Marjorie j . , "The place of Services i n public Assistance", Public Welfare, IX, 1 9 5 1 S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Annual Reports of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Department of Health and Welfare, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 - 8 , 1 9 5 3 , and 1 9 5 4 , S o c i a l Welfare Administration i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o f f i c e of the Training Supervisor, Vancouver, 1 9 5 3 Taylor, Malcolm G., " S o c i a l Assistance Medical Care Programs i n Canada", American Journal of public Health, XXXXIV, 1 9 5 4 Vancouver Housing Association, Housing B u l l e t i n , X, 1 9 5 2 Washington State Department of Public welfare, Public Welfare i n the State of Washington, Olympia, T9~43 White, Ruth, "Medical Services i n Old Age Assistance", S o c i a l Security B u l l e t i n ^ XV, 1 9 5 2 Wilson, Warren, Housing Conditions of S o c i a l Assistance Families, (Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 5 5 ) Wiltse, Kermit, S o c i a l Casework i n Public Assistance, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, State of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 5 2

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