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A Comparison of the personality profiles of parents and their children Coulter, Thelma Templeton 1953

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'A COMPARISON OF THE PERSONALITY PROFILES OF PARENTS AND THEIR CHILDREN. fey THELMA TEMPLETON COULTER A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candid-ates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members of the Department of PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1953., A COMPARISON.OF THE PERSONALITY PROFILES OF PARENTS AND THEIR CHILDREN. Ab s t r a c t . . The purpose of t h i s experiment was to t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and t h e i r unmarried c h i l d r e n over the age of 16 i n r e s p e c t t o nine p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s on the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i k e -sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t between cro s s - s e x e d p a r e n t - c h i l d . In order t h a t the hy p o t h e s i s might be t e s t e d the MMPI was ad m i n i s t e r e d t o 52 f a m i l i e s a l l with a Roman C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o u s background. A l l responses were scored a c c o r d i n g to the manual of d i r e c t i o n s and subj e c t e d to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n order that d i f f e r e n c e s might be demonstrated., The r e s u l t s of the experiment lend support to the hypothes-i s , the main f i n d i n g s b e i ng as f o l l o w s : 1.. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between v a r i o u s members of the f a m i l y on the nine MMPI v a r i a b l e s . These c o r r -e l a t i o n s are small but f a v o r a theory of p o s i t i v e r e l -a t i o n s h i p s between parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 2. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l i k e - s e x e d and c r o s s -sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d combinations e x i s t on the Mf s c a l e . Oh the remaining 8 s c a l e s there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . However, there i s evident a p o s i t i v e gen-e r a l t r e n d which i n d i c a t e d that sons tend to resemble t h e i r f a t h e r s and daughters to resemble t h e i r mothers. The r e s u l t s are not h i g h enough to be of p r e d i c t i v e importance. The data are more suggestive than con-' e l u s i v e . T h i s l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e may be due to v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which tend to lower i n t r a - f a m i l y c o r r e l a t i o n s . Suggestions were made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r e h on other groups. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The w r i t e r wishes t o express her a p p r e c i a t i o n to the s u b j e c t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , whose cooper-a t i o n has made the study p o s s i b l e . She i s a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Mr. E. Belyea and Dr. D. T. Kenny f o r t h e i r most h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions. S p e c i a l thanks are due to her s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. E. I. S l g n o r i f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n developing the p l a n of a n a l y s i s and s t a t i s t i c a l procedure, and a l s o f o r h i s most h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m and encouragement.. \ C O N T E N T S CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OP"" THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n S p e c i f i c Purpose of the Experiment I I . REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES I I I . EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS', SUBJECTS AND DESIGN IV. THE DATA AND "THEIR TREATMENT S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The Data Resume of the F i n d i n g s V. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS a V I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS V I I . FURTHER SUGGESTED STUDIES i References Appendices A. Copy of Test B. Answer Sheet TABLES TABLE" I INTRA-FAMILY PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATIONS' 13 II FATHER-SON,MOTHER-SON CRITICAL RATIOS 14 III FATHER-DAUGHTER,MOTHER-DAUGHTER CRITICAL RATIOS 15 IV FATHER-SON,FATHER-DAUGHTER CRITICAL RATIOSc 16 V- MOTHER-SON,MOTHER-DAUGHTER CRITICAL RATIOS 17 VI PATTERNS OF CORRELATIONS WITHIN THE FAMILY FOR EACH MMPI VARIABLE • _ 18 VII AVERAGE CORRELATIONS OF THE NINE MMPI VARIABLES FOR BLOOD-RELATED PAIRS 21 APPENDICES A. Copy of teat., B. Answer sheet. C H A P T E R I . I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D S T A T E M E N T OF T H E P R O B L E M . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n : There i s g e n e r a l agreement amongst p s y c h o l o g i s t s of a demonstrable resemblance between parents and c h i l d r e n i n re s p e c t to v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v i s . , p h y s i c a l t r a i t s , moral o p i n i o n s , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l . Pearson (28) c o l l e c t e d measures on parent and o f f s p r i n g i n the p h y s i c a l t r a i t s of s t a t u r e , arm span, and forearm l e n g t h . The p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n s i n these t r a i t s averaged about . 5 2 . The Hartshorne, May, and Shuttleworth (10) s t u d i e s on moral o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s showed a t o t a l parent and midparent-c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n of . 5 5 . A l a r g e - s c a l e study of i n t r a - f a m i l y resemblances i n a t t i t u d e i s t h a t of Newcomb and S v e l h l a ( 2 5 ) . For parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n he obtained c o r r e l a t i o n s of . 6 3 , .4-4-, and . 5 6 on the Thurstone a t t i t u d e s c a l e s towards Church, War, and Communism r e s p e c t i v e l y . . The r e l a t i o n between parents and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g who have grown up i n the home are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f o r measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e . In the most extensive of these s t u d i e s , Conrad and Jones (7) obtained a p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n of .49. The r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of environment and h e r e d i t y has never been d e f i n i t e l y s e t t l e d , although there i s an impressive accumulation of data. H e r e d i t y and environment are so i n t e r -r e l a t e d and so dependent on each other t h a t they cannot be co n s i d e r e d a p a r t . Loevinger (17) has r e c e n t l y demonstrated t h a t attempts to determine the p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of h e r e d i t y and environment i n v o l v e the assumption that t h e i r e f f e c t s are a d d i t i v e . He p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s Is I n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n which p r e c l u d e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of simple a r i t h m e t i c laws. Schwesinger ( 3 2 ) argued t h a t the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of h e r e d i t y and environment. Is s p e c i f i c not only t o the t r a i t , but a l s o to the i n d i v i d u a l and the p a r t i c u l a r environment, t h a t i s , under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s of environment, the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of h e r e d i t y w i l l d i f f e r ; and under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s of h e r e d i t y , the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of e n v i r o n -ment w i l l d i f f e r . In the case of f a m i l y resemblance, both h e r e d i t a r y and. environmental f a c t o r s operate simultaneously to produce g r e a t e r l i k e n e s s w i t h i n the o r d i n a r y f a m i l y than i s found among i n d i v i d u a l s chosen a t random. A t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are passed on through precept and example.' The common e f f e c t s of the same environment tend to i n c r e a s e the resemblances between parent and c h i l d . Much s t r e s s i s l a i d on " s o c i a l h e r e d i t y " by Blanchard (4) who b e l i e v e s that " d e s i r e of a p p r o v a l and n a t u r a l tendency to i m i t a t e , i n c i t e the c h i l d to pantomine a t t i t u d e s t h a t he sees i n parents u n t i l they are woven i n t o the h a b i t system t h a t c o n t r o l s h i s own beh a v i o r and have become an i n t e g r a t e d f a c t o r of the whole p e r s o n a l i t y . . . " . M i l l e r and D o l l a r d (24) a l s o agree that i m i t a t i v e b e h a v i o r i s l e a r n e d and f o l l o w s the laws of l e a r n i n g . In the present study i t i s proposed to t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y the degree of relationship between parents and their children in respect to the nine personality traits on the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.) ( 1 2 ) . No effort is made to prove whether any resemblance which may exist is due to heredity or environment; i t is an attempt to find the degree of relationship since any resemblance would be due to environmental factors superimposed on heredity. Specific Purpose of the Experiment: Specifically, the hypothesis to be tested was: That the degree of relationship between like-sexed parent-child is significantly higher than that between cross-sexed parent-child. o CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF RELATED S T U D I E S . In 1934, H o f f e d i t z (15) r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s of a study to determine how much c h i l d r e n resemble t h e i r parents and one another i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 100 f a m i l i e s , each w i t h a f a t h e r and a mother and a t l e a s t two c h i l d r e n of h i g h - s c h o o l age or over. Most f a m i l i e s l i v e d In a P e n n s y l v a n i a c i t y of 5 0 , 0 0 0 , some few l i v e d i n s m a l l towns near--by. They are a l l normal i n t h a t the c h i l d r e n when young l i v e d w i t h t h e i r pa.rents. The g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e number of s o c i a l and economic groups are r e p r e s e n t e d . Three scores from the Bern-r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (3) were used; n e u r o t i c i s m , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y , and dominance. ( S c a l e s 1, 2, & 4 ) . The resem-blance c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained were low, ranging from .008 to .284. Sward and Friedman (33) u s i n g the n e u r o s i s score (Scale 1) e x t r a c t e d from The B e r n r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory made a comparison of parents and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g i n emotional a t t i t u d e s T h i s study was p a r t of a l a r g e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s i n temperament between Jews and G e n t i l e s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 387 young a d u l t s a t t e n d i n g h i g h - s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y . The Jewish parents are dominantly Russian born immigrants of long American r e s i d e n c e and f a i r l y s u p e r i o r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . The non Jewish parents are North European P r o t e s t a n t s , and by and l a r g e American born. The race samples are s a i d to be comparable i n age, I.Q., r e s i d e n c e , and p a t e r n a l occupation. Using 56 to 58 p a i r s r e s u l t s obtained were: Jewish Gentile Father-son . 2 9 .-31 Mother-son .16 .27 Father-daughter .24 .05 Mother-daughter . 3 1 . 1 1 They concluded that parental r's are but f a i n t l y related to sex-alignment. I f anything, children resemble more clos e l y the arent of the same sex. In 1943 Patterson (26) correlated the Bernreuter scores of mothers with c h i l d behavior ratings at the nursery school l e v e l (average age 4 years) using the Fels Parent-Behavior Rating Scale f o r the children. Bernreuter scores of mothers were also correlated with the scores on the Brown Personality Inventory (5) f o r a group of 28 older children, age 8-10 years. From the standpoint of education, i n t e l l i g e n c e and income the group of parents was a superior one. The re s u l t i n g correlations are a l l low and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In explaining his r e s u l t s , Patterson suggests that better measures of parent personality would show closer relationships or that It i s not parent personality per se, but actual behav-i o r of the parent which influences c h i l d personality. GJerde (8) i n 1 9 4 9 administered the MMPI to a population of ninth and tenth grade pupils of the Laboratory School of the University of Chicago, and t h e i r parents. The children i n t h i s group had a mean age of 14.8 years, a mean I.Q. of 138, and came from families whose fathers, i n seven cases but of eight, f e l l i n the f i r s t two groups on the Minnesota Occupational Scale. The ranges of. c o e f f i c i e n t on the nine scales for the various parent-child, relationships were as follows: Father-son, N = 83, r's from .07 to .31; Mother-son, N=93, r's from .05 to .21; Father-daughter, N = 62, r's from .01 to .29; Mother-daughter, N=80, r's from .01 to .27. Individual corr-elations on each scale are not reported. An objection to the G-jerde study i s the low age range of the children which extended over 12 years, 9 months to 16 years, 3 months. The general normal group for the•standardization of the MMPI had a minimum age of 16 years. Many questions on th i s test are not designed for subjects aged 12 to 14 years. In the present study the ages of the children range from 16 years to 27 years which i n view of the foregoing remarks i s an improve-ment on the G-jerde study.. 7.. CHAPTER I I I . EXPERIMENTAL M A T E R I A L S , S U B J E C T S A N D D E S I G N . T e s t M a t e r i a l s : The t e s t used f o r t h i s study was the Minnesota M u l t i -p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (MMPI).. T h i s device i s a s t r u c t -ured p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t c o n s i s t i n g of 550 Items i n boo k l e t form (See Appendix). The s u b j e c t i s asked to read each statement and answer whether i t i s true or f a l s e as a p p l i e d t o him. I f the statement does not apply t o him or i f i t i s something t h a t he does not know about, the s u b j e c t l e a v e s the q u e s t i o n unans-wered. B r i e f l y , t h i s t e s t y i e l d s scores on nine components of p e r s o n a l i t y , v i z : Hs (H y p o c h o n d r i a s i s ) , D (Depression), Hy ( H y s t e r i a ) , Pd (Psychopathic d e v i a t e ) , Mf ( M a s c u l i n i t y -f e m i n i n i t y ) , Pa ( P a r a n o i a ) , Pt (Psy c h a s t h e n i a ) , Sc ( S c h i z -o p h r e n i a ) , and Ma (Hypomania). In a d d i t i o n there are f o u r scores which d e a l w i t h other p r o p e r t i e s of the s c a l e , v i z : q u e s t i o n mark, ( ? ) , L i e ( L ) , the F s c a l e , and a suppressor score c a l l e d K. ( 8 ) . The Question score c o n s i s t s of the t o t a l number of items put i n the 'Cannot say' category; the s i z e of t h i s score a f f e c t s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the other s c o r e s . Large Question scores i n v a l i d a t e a l l o t h e r s . I f no more than an average of one un-answered item occurs i n every b l o c k of 15 items, the Question score Is c o n s i d e r e d to be 'OK'. T h i s OK i s taken to i n d i c a t e a T scor6 of 50 i n the l a t e r t r a n s l a t i o n from raw scores to T s c o r e s . . The L score i s a l s o a v a l i d a t i n g score t h a t a f f o r d s a measure of the degree to which the s u b j e c t may be attempting to f a l s i f y h i s scores by always choosing the response t h a t p l a c e s him i n the most acceptable l i g h t s o c i a l l y . A h i g h L score does not e n t i r e l y i n v a l i d a t e the other scores but i n d i c a t e s t h a t the true v a l u e s are probably h i g h e r than those a c t u a l l y obtained. The F score Is not a p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e but serves as a check on the v a l i d i t y of the whole r e c o r d . I f the F score i s h i g h , the other s c a l e s are l i k e l y to be i n v a l i d e i t h e r because the s u b j e c t was c a r e l e s s or unable to comprehend the items. A low F score i s a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the s u b j e c t s responses were r a t i o n a l and r e l a t i v e l y p e r t i n e n t . K a c t s as a suppressor v a r i a b l e . ( 8 ) ( 1 0 ) ( 1 1 ) ( 1 2 ) ( 1 3 ) . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r which has been found to be of value i n sharpening the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power of the c l i n i c a l v a r i a b l e s measured by the t e s t . I t accentuates the v a l i d i t y of the Hs, Pd, Pt, Sc, and Ma s c a l e s . The manual f o r the MMPI co n t a i n s t a b l e s g i v i n g the' standard score e q u i v a l e n t s f o r raw scores on each of the nine s c a l e s . Each t a b l e i s accompanied by a d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s normative group and s p e c i a l notes. A l l of the scores are expressed as T scores, the g e n e r a l normal sample having a mean of 50 and a S.D. of 1 0 . Subj ects: The subjects f o r t h i s study consisted of fifty-two families a l l with a Roman Catholic r e l i g i o u s background. Each family had a mother and a father l i v i n g and contained at least one son and daughter over the age of 16 and unmarried. A l l subjects were residents of a middle-class d i s t r i c t i n the c i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, but nevertheless the sample includ-ed both working and middle-class according to occupation.. The mean age of the group of offspring at time of tes t i n g was 18 years, 3 months; the age range extending over 16 years, 5 months to 27 years, 4 months.. The mean age of the parents was 53 years, 9 months with an age range of 40 to 64 years. The sample employed i n t h i s study i s considered to be representative of the Catholic population i n the d i s t r i c t with offspring over the age of 16 and unmarried. The t o t a l parish contains 400 families and out of these there were 7 1 families who met the spec i f i c a t i o n s of the sample needed for the study. For various reasons 6 out of the 7 1 families were unable to serve as subjects and 7 of the families had only one parent l i v i n g . There were members of 6 families who had high scores on the v a l i d i t y , ?, or F scales and t h e i r records were discarded. This l e f t the 52 families who formed the basis for t h i s study. Design: The b o o k l e t form of the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c Personality-Inventory was ad m i n i s t e r e d to the s u b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o the d i r e c t i o n s i n the manual.. Not a l l of the 52 f a m i l i e s were t e s t e d a t -one time, but a l l members of any one f a m i l y were t e s t ed t o g e t h e r to prevent any comparison and d i s c u s s i o n of answers Co n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was made to g a i n the confidence and g o o d w i l l of the s u b j e c t s . They were g i v e n assurance that the r e s u l t s would be t r e a t e d i n the s t r i c t e s t of confidence so f a r as they p e r s o n a l l y were concerned. The s u b j e c t ' s i d e n t i t y was w i t h h e l d i f he d i d not care to r e v e a l h i s name. Info r m a t i o n was obtained on h i s age, sex, and occupation. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i n the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the cases the responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y g i v e n Over one-half of the s u b j e c t s asked f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t e s t . The answer sheets were a l l scored u s i n g the hand s c o r i n g key. Scores were obtained f o r the Question score, the L score, the F score, and K, as w e l l as f o r the nine t r a i t s . The ' T' scores were then determined f o r a l l raw s c o r e s . CHAPTER IV. THE DATA AND THEIR TREATMENT. S t a t i s t i c a l Procedure: Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r f a t h e r -son, f a t h e r - d a u g h t e r , mother-son, mother-daughter, f a t h e r -mother and son-daughter p a i r s on each of the nine t r a i t s of the MMPI.., These were examined f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e . (See Table I ) . The Pearson and F i l o n c o e f f i c i e n t between two r ' s having one a r r a y i n common was computed u s i n g the method g i v e n by Pet e r s and Van Voor h i s ( 2 9 ) . T h i s formula r „ - r - K*. (i - *£ - rl - tft +- *rtx n, r^)— i s used because the same a r r a y occurs as one f a c t o r i n both the r ' s . That i s , i n the c o r r e l a t i o n between f a t h e r - s o n and f a t h e r -daughter, the common f a c t o r i s the f a t h e r , and In the mother-son, mother-daughter c o r r e l a t i o n the common f a c t o r i s the mother and so on. T h i s v a l u e , C „ was then employed i n the formula f o r T l - X . r i 3 the standard e r r o r of a d i f f e r e n c e between r ' s t h a t regards the c o r r e l a t i o n between the r ' s . *r - r = I f the c o r r e l a t i o n between the two r ' s having one a r r a y i n common i s d i s r e g a r d e d and the formula f o r the standard e r r o r employed In the u s u a l manner without the t a i l , the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e i s underestimated. C r i t i c a l r a t i o s were computed f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between l i k e - s e x e d p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n s and cross-sexed parent-c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n s on a l l nine MMPI v a r i a b l e s . These data are cont a i n e d i n Tables I I , I I I , IV and V. T h i s m a t e r i a l formed 1 2 . formed the b a s i s f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of the h y p o t h e s i s . Table VI prese n t s the p a t t e r n s of c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y on each MMPI v a r i a b l e s e p a r a t e l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y a t the present time there i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t i s t i c a l technique f o r p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s . C l u s t e r s are d i f f i c x i l t to separate by any sharp c r i t e r i o n from other s t r a g g l i n g c l u s t e r s . Another d i f f i c u l t y i s the a r b i t r a r y l e v e l of mean i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n by which we l i m i t admission of v a r i a b l e s to a c l u s t e r . Some people c o n s i d e r t h a t only those v a r i a b l e s which c o r r e l a t e t o g e t h e r above -t- 0.8 belong to the same c l u s t e r , whereas others would put i t as low as + 0 . 3 . The element of s u b j e c t i v e judgement i n combining v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as the f a i l u r e of the system to y i e l d exact p r e d i c t i v e equations makes i t a r b i t r a r y and undependable. Neve r t h e l e s s the p a t t e r n s of the c o r r e l a t i o n s were tab-u l a t e d i n the form of a matrix i n the hope t h a t some c l u s t e r s would be apparent. 13-Table I., Ihtra-famlly product-moment cor r e l a t i o n s . MMPIT Variable Father-son Mother-daughter Son-daughter Mother-son Father-daughter Father-mother Hypochondriasis .38" .22 .42** .24 .18 .21 Depression -.46** .41** .37*- . 3 6 * * .26 .02 Hysteria . 3 1 " .38** .38** . 1 9 .12 .11 Psychopathic-deviate .33* .26 . 3 5 * .18 .34* .20 Masculinity-femininity .67** .62*' .26 . 1 9 .28* .44** Paranoia .49" .43** .43** .37** . 2 9 * .36'** Psychasthenia . 2 9 * .36** .41*" .30* .23 .10 Schizophrenia .34* .24 . 3 1 * . 1 9 .18 -.13 Hypomania .43** .49** .39** .30* .24 - . 3 2 * ** Indicates c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l of confidence. * Indicates c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l of confidence. 14.. Table I I . C r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r f a t h e r - s o n and mother-son pairs-. F . - So ..r 12 M - S r 13 D i f f . r - r 12 13 F - M r 23 r r r 12 13 <^ ~d r C R . P. Hs .38 .24 + .14 .21 . 1 6 5 .161 0.87 .20 D .46 .36 t .10 .02 -.060 .168 0.60 .28 Hy .31 .!9 + .12 . 1 1 .081 .176 0.68 . 2 5 Pd . 3 3 .18 • + . 1 5 .20 . 1 7 1 .166 0.90 . 1 9 Mf .67 .19 + .48 . 4 4 .388 .126 3.82 .001 Pa . 4 9 .37 +.12 .36 . 2 7 4 .136 0 . 8 8 . 1 9 Pt . 2 9 .30 -.01 Sc . 3 4 . 1 9 +.15 - .13 -.161 . 1 9 5 0 . 7 7 . 2 3 Ma . 4 3 .30 + •13 - . 3 2 - .367 . .198 0 . 6 6 ..26 Table I I I . C r i t i c a l r a t i o s for father-daughter and mother-daughter pairs.. M - D" r 12 F - -D .r 13 D i f f . r - r 12 13 F - M r . 2 3 r r r 12 13 * d r CR. P.. Hs, . 2 2 .18 +•.04 . 2 1 . 1 9 1 . 1 6 9 0.24 .41 D: .41 .26 •+-•15 • 0 2 - . 0 3 3 . 1 7 6 0 . . 8 5 . 2 0 Hy . 3 8 . 1 2 + . 2 6 . 1 1 . 0 8 7 . 1 7 3 1 . 5 0 . 0 7 Pd . 2 6 . 3 4 _ .08 Mf . . 6 2 .28 + . 3 4 . 4 4 . 3 6 4 . 1 2 5 2 . 7 2 .004 Pa . 4 3 . 2 9 + .14 . 3 6 . 3 0 2 .142 0 . 9 8 . 1 7 Pt . 3 6 . 2 3 + . 1 3 . 1 0 . 0 5 9 . 1 7 3 0. .75 . 2 3 Sc .24 .18 +- . 0 6 - . 1 3 - . 1 5 1 . 2 0 1 0 . 3 0 .39 Ma .49 .24 + . 2 5 - . 3 2 - . 3 6 3 . 1 9 5 1 . 2 8 . 1 1 Table IV. C r i t i c a l p a i r s . r a t i o s for father-son and 16 father-daughter P" - S" .r 12 F - D r 13 D i f f . r - r 12 13 S - D r 2 3 r r r 12 13 <T d r CR. P. Hs . 3 8 .18 + . 2 0 .42 . 3 8 9 .142 1.41 . 0 8 .46 .26 + . 2 0 . 3 7 .304 .142 1.40 . 0 9 Hyy . 3 1 . 1 2 + . 1 9 . 3 8 . 3 6 7 - .148 1 . 2 8 . 1 1 Pd . 3 3 .34 - . 0 1 Mf . 6 7 .28 -+.39 . 2 6 . 1 7 1 . 1 3 7 2.84 .003 Pa=> . 4 9 . 2 9 + . 2 0 .43 . 3 6 8 . 1 3 1 . 1 . 5 3 . 0 7 Pt . 2 9 . 2 3 + . 0 6 .41 . 3 9 6 .142 0.42 .34 Sb .34 .18 + .16 . . 3 1 . . 2 8 3 . 1 5 3 1 . 0 5 . 1 5 Ma .43 .24 + . 1 9 . 3 9 . 3 4 4 .140 1 . 3 6 . 0 9 Table V. C r i t i c a l r a t i o s for mothe r-•daughter and mother-; 3on p a i r s . M - : r 12 D M - S r 13 D i f f . . r - r 12 13 F - M r 2 3 r r r 12 13 r CR. P. Hs . 2 2 .24 - . 0 2 D .41 . 3 6 + . 0 5 . 3 7 . 3 2 4 .137 0.37 •36 Hy . 3 8 . 1 9 +-.19 . 3 8 . 3 6 3 .141 1 . 3 5 . 0 9 Pd . 2 6 .18 +-.08 . 3 5 . 3 2 3 . 1 5 3 0 . 5 2 ..31 Mf . 6 2 . 1 9 +-.43 . 2 6 . 0 7 6 .149 2 . 8 8 . 0 0 2 Pa . 4 3 . 3 7 +-.06 . 4 3 . 3 5 8 . 1 3 2 0 . 4 5 . 3 3 Pt . 3 6 . 3 0 + . 0 6 .41 . 3 9 1 . 1 3 6 0 . 4 4 . 3 3 Sc .24 . 1 9 + . 0 5 .31 . 2 8 7 . 1 5 7 0 . 3 2 . 3 8 Ma .49 . 3 0 + . 1 9 . 3 9 .324 . 1 3 5 1.41 . 0 8 Table V I . Patterns of corre MMPI'variable. l a t i o n s w i t h i n the 1.8 v f a m i l y f o r each Hypochondriasis.. F. S. D. Depression. F. S . D. H y s t e r i a . F. S. D. F =» Father S 3 * Son Ml =» Mother Dr= Daughter F. S. D. M. . 3 8 * * .18 . 2 1 .42*" .24 . 2 2 F. S. D. M. .46** . 2 6 . 0 2 . 3 7 * - - .36** .41** F. S. D. M. . 3 1 * . 1 2 . 1 1 . 3 8 * « - . 1 9 . 3 8 * * Table VI. (con't^ Psychopathic D e v i a t e . F. S. D. M. F. . 3 3 * . 3 4 * . 2 0 S. . 3 5 * .18 D. .26 M a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y I n t e r e s t . F. . S. D. M. F. .67** .28" . 4 4 * 5=. .26 .19 D. .62*' P a r a n o i a . F. S. D. M. F. . 4 9 * " . 2 9 * . 3 6 S. . 4 3 * * . 3 7 ' D. . 4 3 ' P s y c h a s t h e n l a . F. S. D. M . F. . 2 9 * .23 .10 S.' .41** .30* D. . 3 6 * 2.0 Hypomanla, Table VIX (con't.) Schizophrenia.. F. S. D. . M . F. .34** .18 - . 1 3 S. . 3 1 * . 1 9 D. .24 F. S. D. M . F. . .43** .24 -.32* S:< .39**- . 3 0 * D. .49*-* * • Indicates c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l of confidence. * Indicates, c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l of confidence. 2 1 . Table VII7 Average correlations of nine MMPI scores for blood-related pairs.* Variable. Mean r for Range for No..of s i g . r's Father-blood-related blood-related for blood- mother, pa i r s . pairs. related pairs. Masculinity-femininity .404 . 1 9 - . 6 7 3 .44 Paranoia .402 . 2 9 - . 4 9 5 .36 Depression . 3 7 2 .26 - .46 4 . 0 2 Hypomania . 3 7 0 .24 - .49 4 - . 3 2 Psychasthenia . 3 1 8 . 2 3 - .41 4 . 1 0 Psychopathlc-devlate . 2 9 2 .18 - . 3 5 4 . 2 0 Hypochondriasis .288 .18 - .42 2 . 2 1 Hysteria . 2 7 6 . 1 2 - . 3 8 3 ' . 1 1 Schizophrenia . 2 5 2 .18 - . 3 4 2 - . 1 3 * The mean r's given above are for blood-related pairs only, v i z : father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, mother-daughter, and son-daughter. RESUME OF THE FINDINGS, 22. The i n t r a - f a m i l y c o r r e l a t i o n s on the nine MMPI t r a i t s are prese n t e d i n Table I . , The Wallace-Snedecor t a b l e s ( 9 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h 5 0 degrees of freedom a c o r r e l a t i o n must be . 2 7 3 or above to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5 $ l e v e l , and. . 3 5 4 or above to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l . Of the 54 c o r r e l a t i o n s c a l a u l a t e d 3 3 are s i g n i f i c a n t i n c l u d i n g 21 at the 1% l e v e l . Of i n t e r e s t here are the f a t h e r - s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s of which. 5 of the 9 are. s i g n i f i c a n t at the lf0 l e v e l , the remaining f o u r b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5 $ l e v e l . . Of the mother-daughter c o r r e l a t i o n s , s i x are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1% l e v e l , the remain-i n g three not being s i g n i f i c a n t . From t h i s i t would appear t h a t the f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more pronounced than the mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p . . Both the f a t h e r - s o n and mother-daughter c o r r e l a t i o n s on the Mf s c a l e were comparatively high, b e i n g . 6 7 and . 6 2 r e s -p e c t i v e l y . Thus on .this one s c a l e there appears to be. a dem-o n s t r a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and t h e i r l i k e - s e x e d c h i l d r e n . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between mother-son and fat h e r - d a u g h t e r are a l l low. Two of the mother-son c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c -ant at the 1% l e v e l and two at the 5%. Of the father-daughter c o r r e l a t i o n s three are s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l and none a t the 1% l e v e l . From t h i s i t would appear t h a t sons tend t o resemble t h e i r mothers s l i g h t l y more than f o r daughters to r e s -emble t h e i r f a t h e r s . Table I I , I I I , IV and V present the d e t a i l s of th6 compar-i s o n o f ^ l i k e - s e x e d p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h cross-sexed 23. p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n s on the nine MMPI v a r i a b l e s . The p r o b a b i l i t y of each C r i t i c a l R a t i o i s g i v e n a c c o r d i n g to the " o n e - t a i l h y p o t h e s i s " t h a t l i k e - s e x e d p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r -e l a t i o n s are g r e a t e r than cross-sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r e l a t i o n s . On examining Table I I we f i n d t h at the c r i t i c a l r a t i o of the d i f f e r e n c e between f a t h e r - s o n and mother-son p a i r s on the Mf s c a l e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The remaining 8 v a r i a b l e s are not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , a l l f a l l i n g below the r e q u i r e d l e v e l as w i l l be seen by the pro-b a b i l i t y column headed "p". Table I I I p r e s e n t s the C r i t i c a l R a t i o s between f a t h e r -daughter.and mother-daughter p a i r s . The r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r to those i n Table I I . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s are a l l low and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Mf v a r -i a b l e which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .004 l e v e l of confidence, T a b l e s IV and V present the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r f a t h e r -son, f a t h e r - d a u g h t e r p a i r s , and mother-son, mother-daughter p a i r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s u l t s here remain s u b s t a n t i a l l y unchanged from those i n T ables I I and I I I . There i s a s i g n i f -i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between l i k e - s e x 6 d and cross-sexed parent- . c h i l d p a i r s on the Mf s c a l e , w i t h the remaining 8 v a r i a b l e s showing no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s e v i d e n t from Tables I I , I I I , IV and V t h a t the f o u r p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not vary g r e a t l y . The only con-s i s t e n t t r e n d i s on the Mf s c a l e . On t h i s v a r i a b l e sons tend to resemble t h e i r f a t h e r s and daughters to resemble t h e i r mothers. T h i s would normally be expected as m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n -i n i t y of i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n A© a s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e f o r males and 2 4 . females.. Table VI pre s e n t s the p a t t e r n s of c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y on the nine MMPI v a r i a b l e s . I t can be s a i d a t once t h a t there does not appear t o be any c o n s i s t e n t i n t r a - f a m i l y p a t t e r n a c c o r d i n g to these data. No p a t t e r n occurred f r e q u e n t l y enough to permit a n a l y s i s . There i s some s i m i l a r i t y between the matr i c e s f o r Hypochondriasis, Depression, H y s t e r i a and Psych-a s t h e n i a , but si n c e t h i s i s very s l i g h t and i n the absence of . any o v e r a l l c o n s i s t e n c y I t would be unwise to draw any co n c l u s -i o n s . . Table VII pr e s e n t s the averages o f the i n t r a - f a m i l y c o r r -e l a t i o n s on the nine MMPI v a r i a b l e s . Here we are viewing the t o t a l p a t t e r n of the MMPI p r o f i l e i n s t e a d of c o n s i d e r i n g the s c a l e s s e p a r a t e l y . T h i s g i v e s a more s a t i s f a c t o r y p i c t u r e of the e n t i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r -i o u s combinations of b l o o d - r e l a t e d p a i r s . I t a l s o allows us to order the t r a i t s f o r the degree of i n t r a - f a m i l y s i m i l a r i t y they show. The averaging of r's i s a oubious and o f t e n an i n c o r r e c t procedure. But s i n c e the r's f o r b l o o d - r e l a t e d p a i r s do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y In s i z e and the signs are a l l p o s i t i v e , the d i s -t o r t i o n probably i s not exceedingly l a r g e . T h i s summary i s giv e n to o b t a i n a g e n e r a l i z e d p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p on a h i g h g l o b a l l e v e l . T h i s "average c o r r e l a t i o n " should be viewed only as sug g e s t i v e . I t w i l l be noted t h a t the average c o r r e l a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y of a very low order, ranging from . 2 5 2 to .404. I t i s evident t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p found i s sm a l l , though almost c e r t a i n l y 25. i t does e x i s t . Most i n t r a - f a m i l y resemblance i s found on the Mf t r a i t , w i t h the l e a s t resemblance on the S c h i z o p h r e n i a t r a i t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s appear s m a l l e r than.those g e n e r a l l y found between f a m i l i e s f o r mental and p h y s i c a l t r a i t s and v a r i o u s s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . 2 6 . . CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. ' From, the resume of the f i n d i n g s , , i t appears t h a t r e l a t i o n - - ' s h i p s on p e r s o n a l i t y resemblance w i t h i n the f a m i l y are p o s i t i v e but low, u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r r -e l a t i o n of about . 5 0 which Is f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , p h y s i c a l t r a i t s and s o c i a l attitudes-:.. The i n t r a - f a m i l y c o r r e l a t i o n s i n Table I on the whole are quite.low, although the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i o u s parent-c h i l d groups are a l l p o s i t i v e . I t would seem t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s not a s p e c i f i c one, but r a t h e r g e n e r a l i n nat-ure. I t i s observed t h a t the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s are between, f a t h e r and son,. and the second highest.between mother and daughter. . The g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y of f a t h e r and son i s perhaps due to the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r t h a t i n our s o c i e t y a s m a l l boy i s u s u a l l y exhorted to p a t t e r n h i s a c t s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r s p e c t -i v e s a f t e r those of h i s f a t h e r . The same i s true f o r g i r l s towards t h e i r mothers but to a l e s s e r degree. Another e x p l a n a t i o n might be t h a t g i r l s Instead of emul-a t i n g t h e i r mothers, attempt a s o r t of compensation by. r e a c t -i n g In o p p s i t i o n to t h e i r mothers. I f so, negative c o r r e l a t i o n s would be expected between mothers and t h e i r daughters. However, t h i s i s not the case. A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s of mothers and daughters on the 9 s c a l e s , although s m a l l , were p o s i t i v e . A pparently the opposing tendencies are not between p a r t i c u l a r mothers and t h e i r daughters, but between the group tendencies of a d u l t and a d o l -escent females., 27. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between f a t h e r and mother tend to be low and sometimes n e g a t i v e . These c o r r e l a t i o n s are i n f l u e n c e d by-f a c t o r s other than i n t r a - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as the f a c t -ors which make f o r s e l e c t i o n of marriage p a r t n e r s . . G-jerde (8) pr e s e n t s product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n u s i n g the nine s c a l e s on the MMPI. H i s r e s -u l t s are s i m i l a r to the r e s u l t s on t h i s study but the i n t r a -f a m i l y c o r r e l a t i o n s are somewhat lower. T h i s may he due to a f a c t o r a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out i n the r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , t h a t the age. range of the c h i l d r e n i n the G-jerde sample was 12 to 16 years.. Many ques t i o n s on the MMPI are not designed f o r s u b j e c t s aged. 12 to 14 y e a r s . The general, normal group f o r the s t a n d a r d i z a t -i o n of the MMPI had a minimum age of 16 years.. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s th a t c o r r e l a t i o n s on the present study are h i g h e r because the parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n may have s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y tendencies because o f c u l t u r a l influences.. It-was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter I I I t h a t the s u b j e c t s were members of a h i g h l y s e l e c t group w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e l i g i o u s background. Tables I I , I I I , IV and V present the data r e l a t i v e t o the hyp o t h e s i s t h a t the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i k e - s e x e d p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than that between c r o s s -sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d . From the t a b l e s we see t h a t only on the Mf t r a i t was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s on the remaining 8 v a r i a b l e s are low and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , '^here was no demonstrated r e l a t i o n s h i p on the " n e u r o t i c t r i a d " . (Hypochondriasis, Depression and H y s t e r i a ) . However one would not expect a c o r r e l a t i o n between parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n on the Hs s c a l e , s i n c e age shows a p o s i t i v e 28. c o r r e l a t i o n with hypochondriasis. The ps y c h i a t r i c syndromes i n the MMPI are enormously com-plex and overlap to such an extent that a discussion of indiv-idual scales i s not possible. It must be pointed out that the high s i g n i f i c a n t differences on the Mf variable between like-sexed and cross-sexed parent-c h i l d pairs may be a chance difference rather than a r e a l d i f f -erence due to the scoring on thi s v a r i a b l e . Females obtain a lower T score, and males obtain a high T score by having a high raw score. However, since the difference between like-sexed and cross-sexed pairs i s very s i g n i f i c a n t i t may be that on the Mf scale sons do tend to resemble t h e i r fathers and g i r l s to resemble t h e i r mothers. Gjerde (8) found a higher c o r r e l a t i o n between father-son and mother-daughter pairs on thi s same variable. Further evidence was obtained by Smith' (32A0> i n a study of masculinity-femininity t r a i t s of a 0group of sorority g i r l s . . He:. found a tendency f o r the more decidedly feminine g i r l s to have more feminine mothers and more masculine fathers, though corr-elations were of a low order. (from .24 to .33) Judging from Tables I I , I I I , IV and V one can only say that the rel a t i o n s h i p i s not high enough to <_ive any confidence i n attempting to predict for i n d i v i d u a l cases. It seems p r a c t i c -a l l y certain, however, that a positive r e l a t i o n existed between the childr e n studied here and t h e i r parents as far as t h e i r per-sonality t r a i t s on the MMPI were concerned. That t h i s r e l a t i o n -ship was not a large one has been mentioned several times. Very l i t t l e has been said i n t h i s discussion about any s i n g l e MMPI v a r i a b l e . The i n v e n t o r y was used to get an over-a l l view of p e r s o n a l i t y r e g a r d l e s s of what the s c a l e s are meas-u r i n g i n order t h a t the hypothesis c o u l d be examined. I t i s . , w e l l known t h a t the s c a l e s cannot be used f o r c l i n i c a l d i a g -n o s i s as they are of d o u b t f u l v a l i d i t y , although the t e s t as a whole i s c o n s i d e r e d to be one of the b e t t e r paper and p e n c i l measures of o v e r a l l p e r s o n a l i t y . We can wit h p r o f i t examine the Mf s c a l e a l i t t l e more c l o s e l y , as i t showed the h i g h e s t i n t r a - f a m i l y c o r r e l a t i o n s and was the only s i n g l e s c a l e to show s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between l i k e - s e x e d and c r o s s -sexed p a r e n t a l - s i b s . The Mf s c a l e i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d the M a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e as though i t measured m a s c u l i n i t y i n the c l i n i c a l sense. But i n the MMPI .manual, i t i s c a l l e d the I n t e r e s t s c a l e and i s s a i d t o measure the tendency towards m a s c u l i n i t y or femininity of i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n . The w r i t e r knows of no study which has c o n v i n c i n g l y shown t h a t male homosexuals o b t a i n h i g h e r scores than normal males. I f the s c a l e d i d measure m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y i n the c l i n i c a l sense, the .44 mother-father c o r r e l a t i o n would be most s u r p r i s i n g . - But t h i s i s not so i f we regard i t as a measure of i n t e r e s t , as we would expect husbands and wives to have s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between l i k e - s e x e d and cro s s - s e x e d p a r e n t a l - s i b s i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s I n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . The l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between l i k e - s e x e d and cross-sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d p a i r s r e q u i r e s some d i s c u s s i o n . I t may now be asked which f a c t o r s would 30. c o n t r i b u t e i n l o w e r i n g the resemblance between parents and t h e i r l i k e - s e x e d c h i l d r e n . One f a c t o r Is the i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l sep-a r a t i o n of parent and c h i l d as the c h i l d grows o l d e r with a s h i f t of the e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the home to the s c h o o l , and a f u r t h e r s h i f t of s o c i a l t r a i n i n g to gangs, c l u b s and other outside organizations:. F a c t o r s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , the number of s i b l i n g s i n the home, maladjusted s i b l i n g s , the s i z e of the f a m i l y , o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n t r a - s i b l i n g and p a r e n t a l - s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and peer-group r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l l i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l i t y development. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t these v a r i a b l e s are by no means u n c o r r e l -ated and may i n t e r f e r e with, or cut a c r o s s , t h i s tendency t o -ward i n t r a - f a m i l y s i m i l a r i t y . The problem of the f a m i l y i s v a s t i n s scope, and i t can he s t u d i e d i n many ways. But the e s s e n t i a l i n d e f i n i t e n e s s of the q u a n t i t i e s to be measured make the study of f a m i l y l i f e and p er-s o n a l i t y development d i f f i c u l t . Encouraging as i s the d e v e l -opment of i n c r e a s i n g l y accurate' q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s of f a m i l y l i f e , the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the phenomena s t u d i e d n e c e s s a r i l y imply t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l techniques are l i m i t e d when a p p l i e d to f o r c e s or p rocesses of i n t e r a c t i o n which are f r e q u e n t l y essent-i a l l y q u a l i t a t i v e . From the outset one i s conscious of the i n t r i -c a c i e s of f a m i l y l i f e , some of which defy a n a l y s i s , some of which when ana l y s e d or i s o l a t e d , cease to have the same s i g n i f i c a n c e as s i n g l e threads, as they had when interwoven i n f a m i l y p a t t e r n s . Many p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which can be d e t e c t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n and r a t i n g s cannot be a p p r a i s e d adequately with the p r e s e n t t e s t s a v a i l a b l e , although they show a degree of i n t r a - f a m i l y resemblance. A l s o , many aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y 31. In which children resemble t h e i r parents are not suitable for adaptation to t e s t s . However, the results indicate that i t i s c l e a r l y desirable that further research be carried out on the problem of the family since no i n d i v i d u a l exists ' i n vacuo 1, for he i s a member of society, and the family influences society through the ind-i v i d u a l i n so f a r as i t influences his whole attitude to l i f e . . 3 2 c C H A P T E R v i : : . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. The purpose of t h i s experiment was to t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and t h e i r unmarried c h i l d r e n over the age of 16 i n r e s p e c t to the nine p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s on the MMPI. The i n t e n t has not been to e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s beyond those which can be hypothesized from the r e l a t i o n s h i p s as they are d i s c o v e r e d to e x i s t . I t was hypo t h e s i z e d t h a t the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i k e - s e x e d p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t between cross-sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d . In 1 order to t e s t the hypothesis the MMPI was adminitered to 52 f a m i l i e s a l l w i t h a Roman C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o u s background . A l l responses were scored a c c o r d i n g to the manual of d i r e c t i o n s and s u b j e c t e d to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s In order t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s might be demonstrated. The r e s u l t s of the experiment only p a r t i a l l y support the hy p o t h e s i s , the main f i n d i n g s b e i n g as f o l l o w s : 1. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s do e x i s t between members of the f a m i l y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s on the whole, although p o s i t -i v e , are sm a l l , suggesting e i t h e r that the f a c t o r s s t u d i e d were only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d , or that measure-ment methods were r e l a t i v e l y u n r e l i a b l e . 2. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between l i k e - s e x e d and c r o s s -sexed p a r e n t - c h i l d p a i r s was found on the Mf s c a l e . . The remaining 8 v a r i a b l e s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erences. There i s a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p , though the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s so sm a l l as to be merely s u g g e s t i v e . 3 3 . 3.. The g i r l s and parents seemed l e s s i n agreement than d i d the boys and t h e i r p a r e n t s . I t was re c o g n i z e d that many v a r i a b l e s were o p e r a t i n g to reduce the s i m i l a r i t y between parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h i t was p o s s i b l e by the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t -i s t i c a l techniques to c o n s i d e r the resemblances between f a t h e r -son and mother-daughter, other f a c t o r s such as e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e , s o c i a l c l u b s , peers, s i z e of f a m i l y , number and ord-i n a l p o s i t i o n of s i b l i n g s cut across the f a m i l y p a t t e r n and obscure the p i c t u r e . Keeping these f a c t o r s i n mind i t i s r e a l -i z e d that ©flail the i n f l u e n c e on the development of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s , those e x e r c i s e d by the parents are of paramount importance. I t must he remembered t h a t measuring techniques i n the areas of p e r s o n a l i t y are l e s s r e l i a b l e than those i n areas of i n t e l l i g e n c e and p h y s i c a l t r a i t s , and that improved measuring d e v i c e s , when employed i n f u t u r e p a r e n t - c h i l d s t u d i e s may r e v e a l more s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t would be i n c o r r e c t to g e n e r a l i z e from t h i s p o p u l a t i o n to people g e n e r a l l y . C o n c l u s i o n s are r e s t r i c t e d to the C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n . C H A P T E R V i i : . F U R T H E R S U G G E S T E D S T U D I E S . 34 The c o n c l u s i o n s of the present study, although they must he c o n s i d e r e d as t e n t a t i v e , i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g enough p o s i t i v e t r e n d to warrant f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h b e i n g done on the problem of p a r e n t - c h i l d s i m i l a r i t i e s . I t i s suggested, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the experiment be repeat-ed u s i n g a P r o t e s t a n t p o p u l a t i o n and a l a r g e r number of s u b j e c t s . T h i s experiment might a l s o be repeated u s i n g a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t i n s t e a d of an o b j e c t i v e one. An e x t e n s i o n of the present study i n t o a l o n g i t u d i n a l one would a l s o give f u r t h e r knowledge- r e l a t e d to p a r e n t - c h i l d resemblances, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of t h e i r course of develop-ment. Thus, i t would be p o s s i b l e to determine whether c h i l d r e n tend to i n c r e a s e or decrease i n resemblance to t h e i r parents as they mature. Th i s might a l s o be extended to the r e l a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and true and f o s t e r c h i l d r e n which would con-c e i v a b l y add to the t o t a l p i c t u r e . I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t a study be done u s i n g f a m i l i e s which are not i n t a c t , where e i t h e r parent i s m i s s i n g , to a s c e r t -a i n the degree of resemblance between the c h i l d r e n and the e x i s t i n g p a r e n t . Another i n t e r e s t i n g study would be the comparison of the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s of only c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p arents. A more ambitious study could be c a r r i e d out comparing f r a t -e r n a l and i d e n t i c a l twins with t h e i r parents w i t h a view to f i n d i n g out the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of environment and h e r e d i t y . REFERENCES (1) ALLPORT, G.H. Personality, a psychological interpretation. New York: Henry Holt, 1937. (2) ANASTASI, A., and FOLEY, J.P. Jr. Reorientation i n heredity-environment controversy. Psychol. Rev., 1948, 55, 239-249. (3) BERNREUTER, R.G. The personality inventory. Palo Alto: Stanford Univ. Press, 1931. (4) BLANCHARD, P. The family situation and personality development. Ment. Hygiene, 1927, 11, 15-22. (5) BROW, F. A psychoneurotic inventory for children between nine and fourteen years of age. J. Appl. Psychol., 1934, 18, 566-577. (6) CHAMPNEY, H. Fels parent-behavior rating scales. Yellow Springs: Antioch Press, 1939. (7) CONRAD, H.S., and JONES, H.E. A second study of familial resemblance in intelligence: environmental and genetic implications of parent-child and sibling correlations in the total sample. 39th Yearbook, Nat. Soc. Stud. Educ, 1940, Part II, 97-141. (8) GJERDE, CM. Parent-child resemblance in vocational interests and personality t r a i t s . Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Minnesota, 1949. (9) GUILDFORD, J.P. Fundamental stati s t i c s in psychology and education. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1950, 610. (10) HARTSHORNE, H., MAY, M., and SHUTTLEWORTH, F.K. Studies i n the organization of character. Hew York; Macmillan, 1930. (11) HATHAWAY, S.R., and McKINLEY, J.C. Supplementary manual for the Minnesotat Multiphasic Personality Inventory. New York: Psychol. Corp., 1946. (12) HATHAWAY, S.R., and McKINLEY, J.C. Manual for the Minnesota:; Multiphasic Personality Inventory. New York: Psychol. Corp., 1943. (13) HATHAWAY, S.R. and McKINLEY, J.C. A multiphasic personality sohedule. I . Construction of the schedule. J . Psychol., 1940, 10, 249-254. (14) HATHAWAY, S.R., and McKINLEY, J.C. A multiphasic personality schedule: III. The measurement of symptomatic depression. J. Psychol., 1942, 14, 73-84. HOFFEDITZ, E.L. Family resemblances in personality t r a i t s . J . Soc Psychol., 1934, 5 , 214-227. HORST, P. The prediction of personal adjustment. Social Science Research Council Bulletin, 1941, No. 48. LOEVINGER, J. On the proportional contributions of differences in nature and in nurture to differences i n intelligence. Psychol. Bull., 1943, 40, 725-756. McKINLEY, J.C., and HATHAWAY, S.R. A multiphasic personality schedule: I I . A differential study of hypochondriasis. J. Psychol., 1940, 10, 225-268. McKINLEY, J.C., and HATHAWAY, S.R. A multiphasic personality schedule: IV. Psychasthenia. J . Appl. Psychol., 1942, 26, 614-624. McKINLEY, J.C., and HATHAWAY, S.R. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: V. Hysteria, hypomania and psychopathic-deviate. J . Appl. Psychol., 1944, 28, 153-174. McNEMAR, Q. The mode of operation of suppressant variables. Amer. J. of Psychol., 1945, 58, 554-555. MEEHL, P.E. A simple algebraic development of Horst's suppressor variables. Amer. J. of Psychol., 1945, 58, 550-554. MEEHL, P.E., and HATHAWAY, S.R. The K factor as a suppressor variable i n the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. J. Appl. Psychol., 1946, 30, 525-564. MILLER, N.E., and DOLIARD, J. Social learning and imitation, 1941, New Haven: Yale University Press. NEWCOMB, T., and SVEHIA, G. Intra-family relationships i n attitude. Sociometry, 1937, 1, 271-283. PATTERSON, CH. A note on Bernreuter personality of mothers and some measures of child personality. J. Soc.P s y c h o l . , 1943, 17-18, 89-92. PEARSON, K., and FILON, L.N.G. Mathematic contributions to the theory of evolution. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), Series A, Vol. 191, 259-262. PEA.RS0N, K., and LEE, A. On the laws of inheritance i n man: I. Inheritance of physical characters. Biom., 1903, 2, 357-462. (29) PETERS, C.C, and VAN VOORHIS, W.R. St a t i s t i c a l procedure and their mathematical bases. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1940, 185. (30) ROFF, M. Intra-family resemblances i n personality characteristics. J. Psychol., 1950, 30, 199-227. (31) SCHMIDT, H.O. Test profiles as a diagnostic aid: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. J. Appl. Psychol., 1945, 29, 115-131. (32) SCHWESINGER, G.C Heredity and environment. New York: Macmillan, 1933, 484. (32A) SMITH, J.H. The relation of masculinity-femininity scores of sorority g i r l s oh a Free Association test to those of their parents. J. Soc. Psychol., Aug. 1945, 22, 79-85. (33) SWARD, K., and FRIEDMAN, M.B. The family resemblance in temperament. J. Abn. and Soc. Psychol., A p r i l . 1935 - Jan. 1936, 30, 256-261. (34) TEEMAN, L.M., and MILES, C.C Sex and personality. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1936. (35) WILL0UGHBY, R.R. Family similarities in mental test a b i l i t i e s . 27th Yearbook, Nat. Soc. Stud. Educ, 1928, Part I, 55-59. 

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