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A comparative study of three methods of grading compositions Wormsbecker, John Henry 1955

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE METHODS OF GRADING COMPOSITIONS by JOHN HENRY WORMSBECKER, JR. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the School of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS. Members of the School of Education THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l , 1955 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE METHODS OF GRADING COMPOSITIONS by JOHN HENRY WORMSBECKER, JR. AN ABSTRACT OF A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF - THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS; in the School of Education THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l , 1955 The present study was undertaken to examine under controlled conditions the opinions of certain educators regarding methods of marking compositions and their effects upon improving pupils' composition. Three grading schemes were considered* the Over-a l l Impression method by which one mark i s awarded; the Content/ Form method by which two separate marks are awarded, one for content and the other for mechanics; and the Single Point Per Theme method by which several grading factors are used i n d i -vidually on different occasions as a basis for grading. The problem stated was: Which, i f any, of the three grad-ing methods used in the experiment under similar learning con-ditions, i s most effective in assisting pupils to improve their writing? Six teachers and two hundred and thirteen grade six pupils from three elementary schools representing a cross-section of the school population, participated i n the study. These groups were taught the same written composition lessons under stand-ardized conditions for a ten week period during'the f a l l term. Teachers graded the groups' weekly composition assignments by one of the three methods under observation. These methods had been previously outlined to the pupils, who were supplied with mimeographed marking guide sheets. The gains i n composition s k i l l achieved as a result of the experiment were obtained by measuring the difference between i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores on a standardized language test and i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores on samples of pupils' compositions written under standardized conditions and graded by a team of three English teachers. 1 The Null Hypothesis was assumed and no differences i n the de-gree of composition improvement were anticipated. Classes were divided into three roughly equivalent groups and each teacher marked the three class groups by the experi-mental methods. (In this and in other matters teachers were guided by a Teacher's Manual.) From these eighteen sub-groups, three groups totalling 156 subjects, matched on a group i n t e l -ligence test and a standardized language test, were obtained. The study was conducted from late September to the middle of December during the year 195^. A f i n a l standardized language test identical to that given eleven weeks before and similar samples of written work such as were obtained earlier provided the f i n a l scores and concluded the experiment. Conclusions 1, The subjects participating i n the study achieved highly significant gains in their level of composition writing. In a two and one-half month period, the gain i n the Stand-ardized Language Test scores, according to grade norms supplied for the test, was 1,2 grades. A corresponding significant Increase in the quality of sample written com-positions was also observed. 2, The importance of the method of grading, perhaps, i s over-estimated. If the pupil receive a mark for written assignments and understands i t s basis, i t would appear that this may be one important factor i n composition improvement. The suggested salutory psychological effects of one method, 2 the simplicity of another, or the r e a l i s t i c basis of s t i l l another marking scheme does not seem to affect the pupils' interpretation of their grade. It may be that the three methods have approximately equal effects upon improving pupils 1 written work. 3. On the basis of results obtained in this study there would seem to be no evidence to support claims of the superior-i t y of any one of the three marking methods under observa-tion. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was possible due to the interest and cooperation of several administrators and teachers in the Vancouver School System. The writer wishes to express his thanks to Mr. D.6. MacKenzie, Assistant Superintendent of Schools i n Charge of Elementary Education, for permission to carry out the study and to Dr. Selwyn Millar, Director, Bureau of Research and Special Services, for supplying testing material. Mr. R.K. Found, principal of Henry Hudson School, Mr. W.H.W. Hardwick, principal of Maple Grove School, and Mr. C.E. Shoemaker, principal of Norquay School, made experimental groups available i n their schools and gave much administrative assistance. Especial thanks are due Mr. J.A. Cousins, Mr. H.J. Brandt, Mr. R.K. Found, Mr. CH. Rudolph, and Mr. J.B. Tait, who taught the lessons and marked the many composi-tions, and to Mr. E.C. Barton and Mr. W.I. Gear, who marked the composition samples. For his helpful criticism, guidance, and interest, the writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to his sponsor, Dr. J.R. Mcintosh, Director, School of Education, who gave him an appreciation of the many problems confronting one in experimental research. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction 1 Survey of the Literature 1 Purpose and Statement of the 8 Present Problem II THE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Selection of Subjects 9 The Teacher 1s Manual 10 Formation of the Experimental Groups 11 Description of the Methods of Grading 12 Method for Obtaining Data Required 1? i n the Study Grading of Pupils' Written Composition 15 Samples Length and Nature of the Experimental 16 .Programme III STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS Raw Data from which Analysis Was Done 18 I n i t i a l Test Results 20 Establishment of Matched Groups 22 Examination of Final Gains 25 IV SUBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Factors Introducing Bias into the Study 29 Observations on the Methods of Marking 31 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Nature of the Problem 33 Source and Character of Data 3** S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques Employed 35 Conclusions 3& Suggestions for Further Study 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY 39 APPENDIX A "How Your Compositions Are *fl Marked" Pupil Guide Sheets B Teacher's Manual for the Study M>5 C Samples-of Pupils' Work i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. S t a t i s t i c a l Basis for Considering the Three Experimental Groups Matched 12 II. Grouping of Subjects In the Study ..... 18 III. National Intelligence Test Results for the Three Groups 20 IV. I n i t i a l Standardized Language Test Results (September) for the Three Groups • 21 V. I n i t i a l Sample Composition Scores (September) • 23 II n n n II II VI. Mean Gains Made by Groups X, Y, Z. In Standardized Language Test (Final Test, December) 25 VII. Final Run Scores on Sample Compositions (December) 27 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Sample Lesson Plan From the Study 10 2 Introductory Information Supplied to A l l Subjects 11 iv' CHAPTER I BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM As a means of developing student thought and communica-tion the school gives a prominent place in i t s curricula to written composition. The volume of important research i n this f i e l d has changed composition teaching methods and philosophy. Dogmatic copying of models and formal l i s t s of du l l topics have been rejected. These have given way to con-sideration of student interests, provision for individual differences, and encouragement of originality i n writing. However, unlike some aspects of composition teaching that have been experimentally examined and improved upon, the problems of grading have not altogether been satisfactorily solved. That this i s so i s not for want of research on the topic. Thomdike, i n 1911 > recognized the d i f f i c u l t y of accurate composition grading and suggested "A Scale of Merit i n English Writing by Young People". 1 He proposed a scale of grading by comparing pupil writing to standard samples he devised. By using such a method, Thomdike hoped that more uniformity i n teacher-grading of pupil themes would be possible. The Hillegas Composition Scale, 2 published i n the following year was the next development i n this f i e l d . lE.L. Thomdike, "A Scale of Merit i n English Writing by Young People." Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 11, (June, 1911), pp. 361-368. ?M.B. Hillegas, "A Scale for the Measurement of Ab i l i t y i n English Composition by Young People". Teaehers College  Record. Vol. XIII, (September, 1912), pp. 331-384. 1 Willing , 3 i n 1918, suggested an alternative to the common grading system of one over-all mark. He claimed this grading method failed to distinguish between the technical excellence of any given composition and i t s story value or content. There-fore he advocated a twofold rather than an over-all grading. He suggested a mark of less than seventy percent i f the composition did not have good story value plus technical excellence. Yet no composition marked under the Willing method would receive less than forty percent i f i t had either good story value or techni-cal excellence. The single mark awarded i n using this method was based on both of these aspects of composition writing. Educators became so aware of the inadequacies of prevailing composition grading schemes that much of the Twenty-second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education was devoted to the problem.1*" It deplored the lack of suitable easily defined scales for grading since.•."standards seen only in the mind's eye are subject to change."5 Of more importance to this study i s the fact that in the Twenty-second Yearbook's discussion, the pupil's interpreta-tion of grades awarded i s b r i e f l y considered. For examplei "A scale mark w i l l mean much more to a child i f he can see 3M.H. Willing, "Measurement of Written Composition". English Journal, Vol. VII, Number 3> (March, 1918), pp. 193-202. ^wentv-second Yearbook National Society for the Study  of Education. Part I, English Composition! Its Aims, Methods, and Measurement, written by Earl Hudelson, Bloomington, I l l . i Public School Publishing Co., 1922, pp. i x + 161. 5 l b i d . . P. 3 7 . exactly how much merit i t represents.• '.Teachers1 marks should he more than mysterious symbols.*^ in this the influence of modern educational psychology i s evident, for not only i s accuracy of grading important but so also i s pupil interpreta-tion of teacher-grading. Seely's excellent text, On Teaching English.7 contains a thoughtful treatment of grading. "That estimate of student accomplishment i n composi-tion must be as soundly based, as impersonal, and as just, in the view of a l l the circumstances as we can make i t . " 8 Seely contended that this could not be done with a two mark system as suggested by Willing. He argued that content and mechanics could not be separated i n grading and that only a single mark could give the pupil an honest estimate of his work. An over-all grade embracing both these aspects of written work gave the pupil a better basis on which to judge his writing. "The teacher must consider the whole product, not i t s factors. " 9 Two Br i t i s h educationalists, Steel and Talman, 1 0 published a short work i n 1936 which attempted to develop a single mark grading method based upon the efficiency with which the expression communicates the ideas to the reader. 6 I b i d . . P. 39. 7Howard F. Seely, On Teaching English. New York* American Book Company, 1933, Pp. xix +391. 8IbJ^., p. 2&%. 9 l b i d . . p. 285. lOjames H. Steel and John Talman, The Marking of English  Compositions. London, Wj: James Nisbet and Company Ltd., 1936. Pp. v i i + 5 5 . 3 They attempted to achieve this by employing an analytic, objective scheme supposedly easily applied by any classroom teacher. The pupil's use of words, sentences, and sentence-sequences was each examined separately and a complicated scale for teacher guidance in grading was supplied. Morrison and Vernon 1 1 studied the Steel-Talman method under experimental conditions and found i t to be no more objective than was a general analysis of the work plus an over-all impression. They concluded that the method was far from objective, and that i t ignored the more aesthetic aspects of composition which did not lend themselves to tabulation. Another researcher, Cast,^ experimented with twelve examiners marking compositions by four different schemes. Her findings were that... " A l l methods of marking English Compositions con-tain a -large amount of u n r e l i a b i l i t y yet i t s amount can evidently be greatly reduced by standardized instructions and by training examinerS . m 1 3 The pupils' point of view came into focus again when Mirrielees advocated the two mark grading method. She f e l t •^R.L. Morrison and P.E. Vernon, "A New Method of Mark-ing English Compositions", B r i t i s h Journal of Educational  Psychology. Vol. II, Part 2 , (June, 19M-1), pp. 109 - 119. 12B.M.D. Cast, "The Efficiency of Different Methods of Marking English Compositions". B r i t i s h Journal of Educational  Psychology. Vol. IX, Part 3 , (November, 1939). PP. 257 - 269. ^ I b i d . . p. 259. I l +Lucia B. Mirrielees, Teaching Composition and Litera-ture in Junior and Senior High School. Revised ed. New York* Harcourt, Brace and Company, 19M-6, Pp. i x f 691. that such a system c l a r i f i e d composition for the student and made i t possible for the teacher to give credit for human experience, interest and s p i r i t in an otherwise mechanically poor theme, MIn the f i r s t grade and f i r s t comment you try to appraise the somewhat intangible quality i n composition; i n the second you give a more accurate evaluation of the pupil's use of mechanics. "15 Such a scheme forces one to examine a given theme from two different points of view. Mirrielees considered that i t takes into consideration pupil differences, since i t gives recognition to the pupil who has ideas yet cannot express them well. At the same time i t awards the pupil who has mastered the mechanics of composition yet has not the g i f t of originality. The pupil receives two marks on his paper, one above the other. If the significance of these marks i s explained f u l l y , Mirrielees f e l t that the pupil can readily see where he i s i n need of improvement. Perhaps much of pupils' discouragement i n composition writing results from receiving poor marks continu-a l l y , when in r e a l i t y there may well be some positive elements in the work which might be praised. An interesting alternative to pencil-marking compositions was offered by C o h e n . H e used an Electronic Disc Voice-1 ? I b i d . , p. h7. ^Nachman Cohen, "Correcting Compositions Without a Pencil". English Journal. Vol. XXXIX, Number 10, (December, 1950), pp. 579-580. 5 writer to evaluate compositions. Then students played hack his recordings and heard his evaluation of their work while they examined their papers. He found this system timesavlng and stimulative to student interest. But such a scheme at the present time appears to he s t i l l i n the early experimental stage and severely restricted i n i t s application. There are then, really two basic methods of composition grading. One scheme advocates an over-all Impression of the composition as a unit as a basis for a grade. The many;essen-t i a l s of good composition writing are examined. Such points ass value of Ideas, organization, vocabulary, mechanics, and s k i l l i n sentence building are a l l taken into consideration; but one mark i s awarded. The other method prefers a two-mark system in which credit for thought and expression i s separated from credit for form and mechanics and the paper receives two marks. These marks are entirely divorced and are based on quite different aspects of composition. In 1952, Coward compared these two methods of composition grading.17 She found the "wholistic" or over-all impression, and the "atomistic 1 1 or marks-for-separate-sections, methods were equally reliable i f the same amount of time were spent on each. She concluded that there was no i n t r i n s i c difference i n the nature of the a b i l i t i e s evaluated by the two methods. 'Ann F. Coward, "A Comparison of Two Methods of Grading English Compositions".. Journal of Educational Psychology. XLIII, No. 6, (October, 1952), pp. 81-93. 6 An alternative to the methods here reviewed was offered by Maize. 1 8 After years of experiment and teaching he f e l t that students become overwhelmed by many corrections and an over-a l l grade. He suggested a skimming technique of looking and grading for one point in each theme. Then, by compiling a f i l e of the pupils* work, a f a i r estimate of the correct grade might be made. Maize suggested the use of a l i s t of grading factors. Such points as: punctuation, good usage, spelling, organiza-tion, and thought content are used separately as a basis for grading. The pupils' work would be graded one time for correct punctuation, another time for spelling, and another for sentence structure. The basis for grading, of course, would be unknown to the pupil before writing the composition. The ease of marking under this system enabled him to increase the number of compositions pupils wrote. Perhaps there i s no one best method of composition grading. One may be more detailed, one may be faster, one may be less confusing, yet each has i t s limitations. Which method, or a variation of i t , should one use? Greenl9 i n a recent a r t i c l e points out the need for reviewing and improving composition evaluation and analysis. While there has been much interest in determining the r e l i a b i l i t y of composition scales and methods of grading, 73 Roy C. Maize, "A Theme A Day". National Educational  Association! Journal. XLII, No. 6, (September, 1953J, pp. 335-336. ^Harold A Green, "Language Arts (composition)". Review  of Educational Research. XX, No. 2, (April, 1952), pp. 96-97. l i t t l e has been done in the f i e l d of pupil interpretation of teachers 1 composition grading. It i s suggested that a s i g n i f i -cant value of composition writing results from the pupils 1 evaluation ;.of their work after i t has been marked. If this i s so, perhaps educators are ignoring an aspect of the subject of grading which requires attention. How important i s pupil interpretation of the grades which teachers give their written work? Do the pupils obtain the same information and motivation regardless of the grading scheme? Does any one system of evaluation assist them more towards improving their writing? The Importance of considering the needs of students i s well recognized. Perhaps one composition grading system better f i l l s these needs than do others. It i s the writer's intention to compare three methods of grading compositions and their effects upon students' writing i n controlled situations. The Over-all Impression, the Content/ Form, and the Single Point Per Theme methods w i l l be compared. The problem w i l l be to determine which, i f any, of the grading methods used i n the experiment, under similar learning conditions, i s most effective in assisting students to improve their writing. 8 CHAPTER II THE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Subjects for the study were selected from among sixth grade pupils of the Vancouver Elementary Schools, Any grade from grade four or five to the f i n a l year of high school might have been used. However, the grade six pupil was decided upon because he has a basic knowledge of the elements of written composition yet he has not moved on to the high school where individual timetabling, i n f l e x i b i l i t y of subject periods, and departmental examinations pose problems which would result in additional d i f f i c u l t i e s in this type of experiment. Six teachers and two hundred and thirteen pupils from three schools in widely separated d i s t r i c t s of the city participated i n the study. Permission to undertake the experiment was received from Mr. D.B. MacKenzie, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, i n Charge of Elementary Education. The principals and teachers who assisted in the study were most cooperative and agreed to administer the experiment according to the experimental requirements. In some cases this meant lengthening periods of instruction or changing the time of the Language period, but this was done in the interests of the study. The principals and teachers involved met i n a conference with the writer i n the latter part of September, 195**> before the i n i t i a l sample run. The purpose of the experiment was explained and a Teacher's Manual 2 0 was distributed and discussed. 2 0 A copy of the Teacher's Manual used i n the study may be found i n Appendix B. 9 FIGURE 1 A SAMPLE L&iSOR PLAN FROM THE STUDY LESSON V EXPOSITION  Period 1. October 18-22 Lesson Objective; To help pupils gain awareness of the importance of explanations and directions, definitions, etc., as functions of communi-cation. Introduction: Point out that cave men communicated with one another with grunts and gestures. Gradually these developed Into language. The need for clear.and simple communication is obvious. This i s a s k i l l that must be developed. Suppose someone asks, "What is a beaver?" Is i t enough to say, "an animal?" Why not? Bring out the points that: clearness . . . . • . . . , _ a c c u r a c y ) are the important essentials of briefness ' explanation and communication. Classworkt Have pupils give oral definitions for: (1) bicycle (2) bolero (girls w i l l know this one) (3) sprint (h) splint (5) pen nib (and perhaps a few more) Have them give written definitions for the following in their note** bookso Proper sentences should be written, of course. (1) giraffe (2) dictionary (3) school (k) student .(5) flying saucer (6) boxer (7) grapefruit Marked by pupils. Review main points* Exercise: Suppose someone stopped you on the street and asked you to direct him to the nearest post office, or hardware store, etc. Could you give a clear, brief, accurate answer? The teacher w i l l pick out a land*-mark near the school and ask the students to write a paragraph giving directions needed to reach this landmark from the school. Have these read out and examined by the class. Attempt to bring the students to a c r i t i c a l evaluation of their work* F i g u r e 2 I n t r o d u c t o r y Information S u p p l i e d t o A l l S u b j e c t s A NOTE TO STUDENTS ABOUT THEIR COMPOSITION WORK o Here are some t h i n g s you should know about the composition work t h a t you w i l l be doing f o r the next s e v e r a l weeks: You w i l l have o n l y one chance to w r i t e your compositions. In other words you w i l l not have time to make a rough copy f i r s t . J u s t do the best you can. You w i l l have a few minutes to t h i n k about what you w i l l w r i t e , then you w i l l have f i f t e e n minutes to w r i t e . Your work should be about- t en li n e s , i n l e n g t h . T h i s i s about f i v e or s i x sentences. Your teacher w i l l not w r i t e a note on your work t e l l i n g you about i t . You should l o o k at the grade you r e c e i v e d and then r e f e r to your "How Your Compositions Are Marked" sheets to f i n d out how w e l l you are w r i t i n g and where you need improvement. You w i l l be asked to r e w r i t e poor or c a r e l e s s work so take care t o check f o r neatness and c o r r e c t n e s s . Ask your-s e l f the f o l l o w i n g questions a f t e r you have f i n i s h e d your work: Can I Say "Yes" To A l l These? (1) Have I chosen a t o p i c t h a t i s not too wide? Is i t i n t e r e s t i n g ? (2) Is my t o p i c sentence i n t e r e s t i n g ? Does i t t e l l the reader what the paragraph i s about? (3) Does each sentence t e l l about the t o p i c sentence? (k) Are the sentences arranged i n good order? (5) Have I a good c l o s i n g sentence? (6) Is- the paragraph indented and i s i t n e a t l y done? Have I checked the s p e l l i n g ? ' (7) HAVE I-CHECKED IT OVER? ( The Teacher's Manual presented the purpose and outline of the study. Directions for setting up class groups were supplied, and, as an i l l u s t r a t i o n , a sample class was grouped. The most important section of the manual dealt with the three methods of grading to be used in the experiment. Each method was discussed in detail. Standardized directions for obtaining i n i t i a l samples of written work and language s k i l l s were included. An outline of lessons, lesson plans for the run of the study, and a teacher's record sheet completed the contents of the manual. It was intended to be a standardized guide and reference for those participating in the study. Because the methods of grading were the variables under consideration i t was necessary to eliminate, as far as possible, the effects of the individual teacher as a factor in composition improvement and concentrate on the differences which might result due to the methods of grading. This was achieved by having each teacher use the writer's lesson plans for the written composition periods of the entire f a l l term. The lesson plans were drawn up after examination of the Bri t i s h Columbia Department of Education Course of Studies for Grade Six Language. Short units were selected which cul-minated in written work for grading. Lesson objective, intro-duction, board work, exercises, and a l l assignments were supplied for each lesson. 2 1 Two composition periods were con-2 1A sample lesson plan from the study i s given in Figure 1. 10 d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g s e s s i o n e a c h w e e k a n d b y a r r a n g e m e n t t h e y l a s t e d f o r t y m i n u t e s . N o o u t - o f - c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t s w e r e g i v e n . T h e t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t o l i m i t t e a c h i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e m a n u a l . T e a c h e r s i n f o r m e d t h e i r c l a s s e s t h a t f o r t h e n e x t t e r m t h e i r w r i t t e n w o r k w o u l d b e m a r k e d b y t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s . T h e t h r e e s c h e m e s w e r e d i s c u s s e d s o t h a t t h e p u p i l s w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e v a r i o u s b a s e s f o r m a r k i n g w o u l d b e a n d h o w t h e m a r k s w o u l d a p p e a r o n t h e i r w o r k . T e a c h e r s s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e m e t h o d b y w h i c h a s t u d e n t m i g h t b e m a r k e d , t h i s w o u l d i n n o w a y a f f e c t h i s r e p o r t c a r d g r a d e f o r L a n g u a g e . 2 2 T h e m a t c h e d g r o u p s e x p e r i m e n t a l m e t h o d s e e m e d b e s t s u i t e d f o r u s e w i t h t h i s s t u d y . T h r e e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t g r o u p s w e r e s e t u p b y a s k i n g t e a c h e r s t o d i v i d e t h e i r c l a s s e s i n t o t h r e e c o m p a r a b l e g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o p u p i l s ' p a s t l a n g u a g e a c h i e v e m e n t , I . Q . , a n d s e x . T h e s i x c l a s s e s w e r e a r a n d o m s a m p l i n g o f V a n c o u v e r ' s g r a d e s i x p o p u l a t i o n . F r o m t h e g r o u p s s e t u p b y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , t h e w r i t e r f o r m e d t h r e e g r o u p s w i t h m a t c h e d m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s b a s e d o n s c o r e s m a d e o n t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t 2 3 a n d t h e L o s A n g e l e s D i a g n o s -t i c L a n g u a g e T e s t , F o r m T h r e e . D a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e s c o r e s 2 2 A m i m e o g r a p h e d s h e e t e n t i t l e d " A N o t e t o S t u d e n t s A b o u t T h e i r C o m p o s i t i o n W o r k " , i s s u e d t o a l l s t u d e n t s , i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2. 23Median V a n c o u v e r G r a d e S i x I . Q . ( N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t ) i s 109.1 ( f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m D r . S e l w y n M i l l a r , D i r e c t o r , B u r e a u o f . R e s e a r c h a n d S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l s ) . 11 for the three groups i s given in Table 1. None of the d i f f e r -ences in scores among the groups is s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. TABLE I STATISTICAL BASIS FOR CONSIDERING THE THREE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS MATCHED DATA GROUP "X" GROUP "Y" GROUP "Z" Mean* I.Q. 111.78 111.82 111.1U-SDi I.Q. 13.32 13.0** 12.88 Mean: Standardized Language Test 103.21 101.02 101.93 SD. Standardized Language Test 12.68 l*f . l6 13.16 These groups were labelled "X," "Y," and "Z," and each group's written composition work (one assignment per pupil each week) was graded by the classroom teacher according to standard-ized instructions. Group "X" was graded by the Over-all Impression method. These points were considered: mechanics, vocabulary and sentence s k i l l , organization and development, naturalness and simplicity, value of ideas, and total impression. The grade awarded was a single mark based on the written work as an integrated whole. The letter grades A, B, C, D, and E were used. Grades were written in red pencil and placed in the lower right corner of the pupils' work. The customary marks used to indicate spelling 12 errors, faulty punctuation, and incorrect form were permitted but teachers were instructed to write no comments on assign-ments. This applied to a l l groups in the study. Group "Y" was graded by the Content/Form method by which two separate marks were given. The content mark was based upon the originality of expression and subject matter included. In assessing this aspect of composition the teachers were guided by this scale of values: A, i f the pupil showed exceptional a b i l i t y in his expression and ideas; B, i f the pupil demonstrated competence; C, i f the pupil suggested competence; D, i f the pupil suggested incompetence; and f i n a l l y , E, i f the pupil demonstrated incompetence. The second mark was based on the pupils' use of mechanics. Spelling, punctuation, word usage and vocabulary, paragraph and sentence form, and organization of material were considered. Any one or more errors in each of the five areas was counted as one error. Hence i f a student had no errors in a l l five sections he received an A grade, i f he had one or more errors In one section he received B, and so on. The marks were placed one above the other; the content mark above the one for mechanics or form. The Single Point per Theme method was used in marking the n if compositions of group Z. Here the teacher examined the written work for one point only and the grade was awarded on the basis of pupil performance in this one factor. The grade factors were: (a) punctuation and capitalization, (b) word usage, vocabulary, spelling, (e) paragraph and sentence form, (d) thought content, (e) organization. The marks awarded 13 ranged from A, i f the p u p i l showed e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y i n the g i v e n grade f a c t o r , down t o E, i f the p u p i l demonstrated i n -competence. The p u p i l s were not aware o f the order i n which grade f a c t o r s would be used. Teachers graded on the b a s i s o f the same grade f a c t o r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Each f a c t o r was used t w i c e . The mark was p l a c e d i n the same p l a c e as f o r groups "X" and "Y," but a l s o i n c l u d e d was an a b b r e v i a t i o n which i n d i c a t e d the grade f a c t o r f o r t h a t assignment. E r r o r s other than those o f the f a c t o r being c o n s i d e r e d were ign o r e d i n marking. I t should be noted t h a t although the schemes f o r marking were q u i t e u n l i k e , the same b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s o f good composition were i n c l u d e d i n each method to determine the mark g i v e n . An abr i d g e d v e r s i o n o f the Hudelson Composition S c a l e s s u i t a b l e f o r grade s i x was s u p p l i e d t o the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s as a guide f o r s e c u r i n g s i m i l a r standards o f e v a l u a t i o n . The t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e was minimized s i n c e a l l t h r e e groups were taught by the same t e a c h e r . When the "X" groups from the s i x c l a s s e s were combined, and s i m i l a r l y the "Y"'s and the " Z " f s , t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e s would tend t o c a n c e l one another. To a s s i s t p u p i l s i n understanding the symbols on t h e i r graded work they were g i v e n mimeographed sheets e n t i t l e d "How Your Compositions Are Graded." 2^ These were pasted i n t h e i r notebooks and the p u p i l s c o n s u l t e d them when t h e i r graded work was r e t u r n e d each week. Samples o f these guides are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. Ik Two samples o f p u p i l s ' w r i t t e n work and the r e s u l t s o f a st a n d a r d i z e d language t e st25 were o b t a i n e d b e f o r e the study commenced i n the l a s t week of September. The compositions were w r i t t e n on separate days under s t a n d a r d i z e d c o n d i t i o n s . One sample was a s t o r y completion; the other a l e t t e r . These were w r i t t e n on t o p i c s which were f e l t to be w i t h i n the scope o f p u p i l i n t e r e s t s and exp e r i e n c e . S i m i l a r samples were taken upon c o n c l u s i o n o f the experiment e l e v e n weeks l a t e r . The c l a s s t e a c h e r d i d not mark these i n i t i a l and f i n a l samples. These were c o l l e c t e d by the w r i t e r f o r e v a l u a t i o n . Accurate grading o f these p u p i l samples posed a d i f f i c u l t problem. The s u b j e c t i v i t y o f composition marking has long been a subj e c t o f c o n t e n t i o n . While the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f tea c h e r marking w i t h i n the classroom was not v i t a l t o the study, i t was most n e c e s s a r y i n the gradi n g o f the i n i t i a l and f i n a l samples s i n c e these would supply the raw sco r e s from which the gains a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d i f f e r e n t methods would be c a l -c u l a t e d . In t h i s the w r i t e r was guided by the experience o f C a s t 2 ^ who proposed s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and t r a i n i n g o f examiners t o i n c r e a s e u n i f o r m i t y i n g r a d i n g . Two experienced t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h at Gladstone Secondary School and the w r i t e r marked the samples o f w r i t t e n work. They met p r i o r t o the i n i t i a l sample r u n and d i s c u s s e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f marks f o r v a r i o u s composition elements and p r a c t i c e d marking composi-2 ^ L o s Angeles D i a g n o s t i c T e s t ; Language Form 3. Los Angeles; C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau. 2 6B.M.D. Cast, "The E f f i c i e n c y o f D i f f e r e n t Methods o f Marking E n g l i s h Composition." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. IX, Part I I I , (November 19, 1939). p. 59. 15 t i o n s under the system. S p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n were a l l o t t e d f i f t e e n percent o f the mark, thought content about f i f t e e n p e r -cent ( t h i s was kept low because o f the d i f f i c u l t y o f o b j e c t i v e assessment), sentence form, o r g a n i z a t i o n , and word usage and v o c a b u l a r y were about e q u a l l y weighted i n determining the remainder o f the mark. The marks awarded by the t h r e e examiners were then compared and any d i s c r e p a n c i e s were re-examined. I n i t i a l l y , an i t e m i z e d check l i s t grading scheme was attempted. But t h i s was abandoned a f t e r a t r i a l r u n s i n c e i t proved no more a c c u r a t e and f a r more slow than the O v e r - a l l Impression method. The samples were eva l u a t e d independently by each marker. The mark g i v e n was a percentage. A f t e r the t h r e e markers had graded a g i v e n c l a s s these marks were t a b u l a t e d and averaged. In cases where d i f f e r e n c e s ranged beyond e i g h t p o i n t s the com-p o s i t i o n s were r e - a s s e s s e d . The same p l a n was used i n marking the f i n a l samples. The study began as scheduled and r a n f o r twelve weeks. During t h i s p e r i o d o n l y the l e s s o n s as c o n s t r u c t e d by the w r i t e r were taught. In no case was a teacher absent nor was a l e s s o n not taught on the a p p r o p r i a t e day. Each week's work culminated i n a w r i t t e n e x e r c i s e , f o r which the p u p i l s were allowed e x a c t l y f i f t e e n minutes w r i t i n g time. The te a c h e r graded themes i n t h r e e groups a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i e d marking methods. These were r e t u r n e d t o the p u p i l s at the b e g i n n i n g o f the f o l l o w i n g week. A few minutes were a l l o t t e d at the s t a r t o f the p e r i o d when the p u p i l s examined t h e i r themes and 16 consulted their guide sheets. Questions concerning grades received were encouraged by teachers. The pupils 1 interpreta-tion of their grades was intended to assist them in improving their next composition. Though a rigorous marking schedule was demanded of class-room teachers this was offset somewhat by the ready-made lesson plans which eliminated that part of their preparation. During one week of the study, compositions were graded by the pupils themselves according to group methods. This proved to be quite popular among pupils and teachers. As the study progressed the writer visited the schools concerned to assure himself that a l l was proceeding as planned. No problems were encountered. In a l l cases the study was running well and teachers were anxious to be objective and keep the work as sc i e n t i f i c as possible. The experiment was concluded in the middle of December, 195^ > after which a f i n a l sample of the subjects' written work and a standardized language test, identical with that given in September, were taken. The records of class teachers' marks were then returned to the writer. The three markers of sample compositions concluded their grading of the 850 f i n a l exercises and the experimental run was completed. 17 CHAPTER I I I STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Of the 213 p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study, 156 were r e t a i n e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Those not c o n s i d e r e d were s u b j e c t s who were absent f o r more than t h r e e days of any week or who missed more than one of the weekly w r i t t e n assignments, s i n c e i t was f e l t such p u p i l s had not been f a i r l y exposed t o the c l a s s work and methods o f g r a d i n g . The s u b j e c t s w i t h whom the study i s concerned were grouped as shown i n Table I I . TABLE I I GROUPING OF SUBJECTS IN THE STUDY Group X: U 11 Group Y Group Z Boys 29 26 2k G i r l s 27 21 29 T o t a l 56 1*7 53 Because the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was done u s i n g the matched groups method, the three groups d i d not r e q u i r e i d e n t i c a l numbers. The raw data from which the groups were matched c o n s i s t e d o f the s u b j e c t s ' scores on the N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Te and the Los Angeles D i a g n o s t i c Test Language, Form 3 . The N.I.T. 2?The N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t . Yonkers-on-Hudson: World Book Company. 18 s c o r e s were obtained from r e s u l t s o f t e s t s g i v e n the p r e v i o u s s c h o o l year when the present s u b j e c t s were i n grade f i v e . Those students o f one s c h o o l who had not been so t e s t e d had the same t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Vancouver Sch o o l Board p s y c h o l o g i s t d u r i n g the f a l l term, 195^. The Los Angeles D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Language, was s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l assessment o f the language a b i l i t y o f the s u b j e c t s . T h i s t e s t had been used by the Vancouver School Board on p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s and was found t o t e s t the s u b j e c t matter o f the grade s i x language course adequately. The data w i t h r e s p e c t t o I.Q. and i n i t i a l S t a n d a r d i z e d Language Test, r e s u l t s f o r the study from which the groups were matched i s shown i n Tables I I and I I I . The Standard E r r o r o f the D i f f e r e n c e between Means was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the f o r m u l a : 19 TABLE III NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE TEST RESULTS FOR THE THREE GROUPS Group N Mean SD D l f f . i n Means S E D i f f . D l f f . / M / S E M D i f f . « » X 56 111.78 13.32 -II II Y 47 111.82 13.04 .04 2*61 .015 II II Y ±7 111.82 13.04 II n z:, 53 111.14 12.88 .68 2.59 .262 II a x 56 111.78 13.32 V 53 111.14 12.88 .64 2.52 .254 Values of " t " with 100 degrees of freedom (from Garrett's tables):: 1% level of significance - 2.63 % level of significance - 1.98 The means and standard deviations of the National In-telligence Test scores of the experimental groups are shown i n Table III to be well matched. Since the c r i t i c a l ratios are extremely small and insignificant, there appears no evidence of differences of mean intelligence or of the degree of var i a b i l i t y from the means. 20 TABLE IV INITIAL STANDARDIZED LANGUAGE TEST RESULTS (SEPTEMBER) FOR THE THREE GROUPS Group N Mean SD DIff. in Means SE D i f f . M D i f f . / M/SE D i f f . II " X 56 103,21 12.68 II II Y k7 101.02 l*f . l6 2,19 2.66 .822 II II Y 101,02 1 .^16 II a Z 53 101.93 13.16 .81 2.7^ .322 ii i< X 56 103.21 12.68 II 11 Z 53 101.93 13.16 1.28 2.k7 .516 Values of " t " with 100 degrees of freedom (from Garrett's tables): 1% level of significance - 2.63 % level of significance - 1.98 Similarly the statistics given in Table IV show that the second criterion upon which i t was proposed that the groups would be matched was a satisfactory one for i t s means and W II II II |l li standard deviations in groups X, Y, and Z matched closely. Again the c r i t i c a l ratios obtained proved to be of no statis-t i c a l significance. While i t has no bearing upon this study i t might be pointed out that mean language scores of the experimental groups were well above the norms given in the 21 t e s t f o r grade seven. T h i s i s o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e because the t e s t was based on an American s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n and s t r e s s on the t e a c h i n g of language s k i l l s v a r i e s from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . I t was upon these two c r i t e r i a , showing matched means and standard d e v i a t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s of no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance t h a t the groups were c o n s i d e r e d t o be matched. The i n i t i a l sample composition s c o r e s , which were a composite o f the t h r e e markers' grades on the two themes w r i t t e n b e f o r e the study commenced, support the r e s u l t s o f the f i r s t two a n a l y s e s . The formula used f o r o b t a i n i n g the Standard E r r o r of the D i f f e r e n c e between Means was a g a i n . Means s c o r e s , standard d e v i a t i o n s , and other data w i t h r e s p e c t X t o the i n i t i a l composition samples taken i n September are noted i n Table V. 22 TABLE V INITIAL SAMPLE COMPOSITION SCORES (SEPTEMBER) Group N Mean SD D i f f . in Means SE D i f f . D i f f . / 'VSE MDiff. X 56 57.71 12.0*f II i i Y 56.57 11.20 l.l«t 2.29 A 9 7 II II Y k7 56.57 11.20 n II Z 53 55.09 11.25 1.H8 2.25 .715 II H x: 56 57.71 12.0»+ it H z 53 55.09 11.25 2.62 2.23 1.16 Values of " t " with 100 degrees of freedom (from Garrett's tables): 1% level of significance - 2.63 % level of significance - 1.98 As might be expected the mean scores in the writing of themes were not high. The distributions were closely matched showing no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences among the means• Therefore i t may be assumed that the three groups at the beginning of the experiment were approximately equivalent in level of general intelligence and more particularly in level of composition a b i l i t y . The f i n a l gains of group "X", being marked by the Over-all Impression method, group "Y", being 23 marked by the Content/Form method, and group "Z" being marked by the Single Point per Theme method, were now to be compared with the i n i t i a l scores achieved on the Standardized Language Test and on the sample written compositions. The f i n a l gains in composition improvement after two and one half months of standardized teaching methods and three separate marking programmes were tested against the Null Hypothesis. It would be assumed that there were no differences in the effects that the different marking methods might have upon improving the pupils' writing and that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences among the means of the f i n a l language scores and the f i n a l written composition sample scores. The formulai was used to determine the Standard Error of the Difference between Means. This more accurate formula could be employed because a correlation between the i n i t i a l -Standardized Language Test and i n i t i a l sample composition scores was calculated using the population of the three groups as "N". The Pearson Product Moment " r " was found to be .698. This correlation was later u t i l i z e d when the SE of the Difference Between Means in the f i n a l samples was calculated. For the effects of the three 5E 2h marking methods upon improvement of student writing would be based upon examination of the gains made by the groups on the f i n a l sample and standardized test scores. The results of the f i n a l Standardized Language Test are given in Table VI. TABLE VI MEAN GAINS MADE BY GROUPS "x", Yy "z\, IN STANDARDIZED LANGUAGE TEST (FINAL TEST, DECEMBER) Group N Mean Final Score SD Mean Gain D i f f . i n Means SE M D i f f . D i f f . / M/SE D i f f . ii * X 56 119.36 14.16 16.15 n II Y 47 117.82 16.12 16.80 1.54 3.008 .513 Y 47 117.82 16.12 16.80 II « Z 53 116.31 14.24 14.38 1.51 2.89 .522 n II X 56 119.36 14.16 16.15 i. 11 II Z" 53 116.31 14.24 14.38 3.05 2.34 1.303 Values of " t " with 100 degrees of freedom (from Garrett*s tables) 1% level of significance - 2.63 % level of significance - I.98 It can be seen that the mean gains in test scores are substantial. According to norms lis t e d for the test, the normal composition growth in a four month period at school led to an increase i n the norms of five points. In this study the mean gains proved 25 t o be t h r e e times the normal growth and were among the norms f o r grade n i n e . Although the improvement was c o n s i d e r a b l e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means of groups was s m a l l , and when the c r i t i c a l r a t i o was a p p l i e d , the d i f f e r e n c e s proved not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e , judging from the examina-t i o n of r e s u l t s o f the f i n a l S t a n d a r d i z e d Language T e s t , one would conclude t h a t t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e f f e c t s t h a t the t h r e e marking systems had upon the improvement o f p u p i l s 1 composition s k i l l s through t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the symbols used i n g r a d i n g . A study o f the data i n T a b l e V I I , t h a t of the f i n a l com-p o s i t i o n themes scored by the t h r e e markers, concludes the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The formula p r e v i o u s l y employed f o r o b t a i n i n g the Standard E r r o r of the D i f f e r e n c e between Means o f matched groups was once more used! While the maximum mark p o s s i b l e on the S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t had been 150, the composition samples, as has been p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, were graded on the b a s i s o f 100 marks maximum. Consequently the g a i n achieved i n a c t u a l w r i t i n g improvement over such a s h o r t space of time was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . SE. M . - M . 26 TABLE VII FINAL RUN SCORES ON SAMPLE COMPOSITIONS (DECEMBER) Group N Mean SD Mean Gain D i f f . i n Means SE M D l f f . D i f f . / M/SE D i f f . / M 11 II X 56 64.11 10.98 6.40 II II Y 47 63 .82 12.24 7.25 .29 1*66 .174 Y 47 63.82 12.24 7.25 Z /" 53 65.97 10.13 10.88 2.15 1.62 1.33 w n X 56 64.11 10.98 6.40 II II z 53 65.97 10.13 10.88 1.86 1.46 1.26 Values of " t " with 100 degrees of freedom (from Garrett's tables) 1% level of significance - 2.63 % level of significance - 1.98 However, an examination of the c r i t i c a l ratios of the Standard Error of the Difference between Means reveals that the results obtained do not show any significant differences in gain among the experimental groups. Therefore the Null Hypothesis has been 27 upheld and the three methods of marking pupils* written com-position do not appear to have any different effects upon assisting pupils to improve their composition, according to the findings of this study. An examination of the three distributions of f i n a l scores does not reveal any trend, either for poor students to improve more than the superior, or for the opposite to be shown. The v a r i a b i l i t y in each instance has remained about the same. The highly significant gains i n composition s k i l l s achieved by a l l groups in the study remains as the only posi-tive evidence produced by the experiment that the writer i s able to report. 28 CHAPTER IV SUBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t g ains i n composition s k i l l s were not unexpected. A b i a s i n f a v o r of a marked g a i n was a n t i c i -pated because the experiment was conducted at the beginning o f a new s c h o o l term. For t h i s r eason, f o l l o w i n g a two month absence from schoolwork, an i n t e n s i f i e d programme such as the present study r e q u i r e d was l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n more than a u s u a l improvement. However, the f a l l term was s e l e c t e d f o r the study because i t was f e l t t h a t t eacher i n f l u e n c e s would l e a s t a f f e c t i t at t h i s time. I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g methods, review of p r e v i o u s work, and the nature and number o f w r i t t e n assignments would tend t o i n c r e a s e the d i f f i c u l t y o f o b t a i n i n g matched groups d u r i n g a l a t e r p e r i o d i n the term. B i a s on the p a r t of the youngsters p a r t i c i p a t i n g must not be o v e r l o o k e d . The experimental requirements r e s u l t e d i n a new c l a s s s i t u a t i o n i n which t h r e e marking methods, p r o b a b l y not a l l f a m i l i a r , would be used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the c l a s s -room. That the c l a s s e s were known t o be experimental groups, and t h a t they were g i v e n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , marking guide s h e e t s , and a s p e c i a l programme o f l e s s o n s , may w e l l have had a s t i m u l a t i v e e f f e c t upon c l a s s i n t e r e s t . The l e s s o n p l a n s themselves assured a planned programme of language development throughout the term. The i n t r o d u c t o r y statements, classwork and assignments q u i t e p r o b a b l y set a good l e v e l o f classroom t e a c h i n g . 29 Perhaps the most important s i n g l e f a c t o r i n composition improvement was the f a c t t h a t the p u p i l s wrote s i x t e e n composi-t i o n s i n the space o f twelve weeks. E l e v e n o f these were r e t u r n e d soon a f t e r w r i t i n g w i t h a t e a c h e r ' s p r i n t e d marking symbol i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the compositions had been examined and e v a l u a t e d . The time-consuming nature o f composition marking o f t e n prevents a comparable number of compositions t o be graded and r e t u r n e d t o c l a s s e s i n a normal s c h o o l programme. P u p i l s * p r e v i o u s composition experience d i d not seem t o a f f e c t t h e i r s cores i n t h i s study. An a n a l y s i s o f p u p i l s * s c o r e s i n the s e v e r a l s c h o o l s used i n the experiment showed no i n d i c a t i o n o f any tendency c o n t r a r y t o t h a t o f the r e s u l t s as a whole. I t may be t h a t the study d i d not extend f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g p e r i o d o f time so t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s i n marking e f f e c t s might appear. As i s o f t e n the case w i t h a new l e a r n i n g e x p e r i -ence, the i n i t i a l gains are l a r g e , but these e v e n t u a l l y tend t o l e v e l o f f , i f g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t time t o r e a c h a p l a t e a u . Perhaps at t h i s l a t e r stage o f l e a r n i n g and experience the d i f f e r e n c e s , i f any, i n the e f f e c t s o f the marking systems employed might be shown. Even though conscious e f f o r t s were made t o l i m i t t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme, the t e a c h e r remains as the s u b j e c t i v e l i n k between r e s e a r c h e r and p u p i l , and h i s i n f l u e n c e cannot be i g n o r e d . In t h i s study, through use o f the Teachers' Manual, the l e s s o n p l a n s , and pre-experiment conference, i t was hoped t h a t t h i s b i a s might be minimized. That the v a r i o u s 30 groups marked by d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s appeared t o form a p p r o x i -m ately normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s when re-formed i n the experimental groups "X", "Y", and "Z", would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s was achieved and t h a t the r o l e o f the teacher was o f l i t t l e d i r e c t importance i n t h i s study. Some o b s e r v a t i o n s about the methods o f marking used i n the experiment may be o f f e r e d . Upon completion o f the study the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s met w i t h the w r i t e r t o d i s c u s s the programme. A l l the t e a c h e r s agreed t h a t the experiment had proved t o be a s t i m u l a t i n g experience f o r both p u p i l and t e a c h e r . I t seemed t o emphasize the importance o f good composition t o p u p i l s , and i t made some o f the problems o f marking compositions more evident t o t e a c h e r s . I t was the o p i n i o n o f two t e a c h e r s t h a t the S i n g l e P o i n t per Theme method of grading was worthy of f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s was not because i t might im-prove the l e v e l o f composition w r i t i n g but more p a r t i c u l a r l y because i t seemed t o have a good e f f e c t upon p u p i l m o t i v a t i o n and i t was easy t o s c o r e . Another teacher d i s l i k e d the same method f o r i t s supposed poor p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s i n t h a t ( i n the o p i n i o n o f t h i s t e a c h e r ) t h e r e was no l o g i c a l steady improvement i n grades. That i s , a p u p i l might f a i l a paper on sentence s t r u c t u r e , r e c e i v e a h i g h mark the f o l l o w i n g week f o r p u n c t u a t i o n , and f a i l the next week on usage. Two other t e a c h e r s f a v o r e d the two mark system, which t h e y had not used b e f o r e , because they f e l t t h a t t h i s system made i t p o s s i b l e f o r p u p i l s to succeed i n a t l e a s t one aspect o f c omposition w r i t i n g where b e f o r e they r e c e i v e d f a i l i n g 31 marks. Another teacher s t a t e d t h a t w h i l e he had c o n s c i e n t i o u s -l y f o l l o w e d the manual's suggestions d u r i n g the course o f the study he was r e t u r n i n g t o the O v e r - a l l Impression method f o r the remainder o f the term. The t e a c h e r s a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the study appeared as d i v i d e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s about marking as the a u t h o r i t i e s c i t e d i n the survey of the l i t e r a t u r e i n Chapter I . The p u p i l s , from r e p o r t s of t e a c h e r s , seemed t o l i k e best the Content/Form and S i n g l e P o i n t per Theme methods, and l i k e d l e a s t the O v e r - a l l Impression scheme. The r e l a t i v e n o v e l t y o f the former two methods p r o b a b l y accounts f o r t h i s p r e f e r e n c e . As f o r p u p i l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the mark ob t a i n e d and i t s sub-sequent e f f e c t s upon composition w r i t i n g , t h i s study has shown none o f the methods t o have any s u p e r i o r i t y . 32 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The present study was undertaken to examine under con-trolled conditions the opinions of certain educators regarding methods of marking compositions and their effects upon improv-ing pupils' written work. One scheme suggested was the age-old Over-all Impression method. This scheme was advocated because i t supposedly gave the pupil an honest over-all estimate of his writing a b i l i t y in one easily understood mark. Another method examined was the Content/Form or two mark method. In this scheme, one mark was awarded for Content and another for the pupils' use of mechanics. This method was recommended for i t s recognition of pupil effort in two separate composition areas, each of which received a separate mark. Finally the Single Point per Theme method was studied. Since only one grade factor was considered as a basis for marking each time, i t was suggested that pupils usually confused by other marking systems, could by this method readily find their errors and correct them. The problem stated was: Which, i f any, of the three grading methods used in the experiment, under similar learn-ing conditions, i s most effective in assisting pupils to im-prove their writing? Do pupils obtain the same information and motivation regardless of the grading scheme? Does any one system of evaluation assist them more toward writing better compositions? 33 To study this problem three matched groups of grade six pupils were taught the same composition lessons under similar conditions for a ten week period during the f a l l school term. During this time the groups' compositions were graded accord-ing to standardized instructions by one of the three methods previously reviewed. These methods had been outlined and discussed with the pupils who were supplied with marking guide sheets. The gains achieved in composition s k i l l as a result of the study were obtained by measuring the difference between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores on a standardized language test and i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores on samples of composition written under standardized conditons. The Null Hypothesis was assumed and no differences in the degree of composition improvement were anticipated. The experimental groups consisted of a total of 213 pupils of three widely separated elementary schools i n Vancouver. The six classes used in the study could be said to be a cross-section of the Vancouver Schools population. After eliminating pupils for reasons of attendance the f i n a l number of pupils under observation was 156. These were divided into three groups called: "X", marked by the Over-all Impression marking method; "Y", marked by the Content/Form marking method; and "Z", marked by the Single Point per Theme marking method. i These groups were matched according to mean and standard deviation in group intelligence test scores and results on a i standardized language test. 3h Each o f the s i x c l a s s e s i n c l u d e d i n the study was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t groups f o r marking purposes. Teachers o f these c l a s s e s graded one w r i t t e n assignment per week. A f t e r g r a d i n g , these s t a n d a r d i z e d assignments were r e t u r n e d t o the p u p i l s . The method by which p u p i l s were graded was determined by the groups i n which the s u b j e c t s had been p l a c e d . Teachers met i n conference w i t h the w r i t e r and agreed t o adhere r i g i d l y t o the d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n f o r grading by the t h r e e methods. These d i r e c t i o n s , other p e r t i n e n t d a t a , and complete l e s s o n p l a n s f o r the run o f the study were i n c l u d e d i n a Teacher's Manual s u p p l i e d t o t e a c h e r s . I t should be noted t h a t each teacher graded by a l l t h r e e methods. There-f o r e when eigh t e e n sub-groups had been grouped i n t o the f i n a l t h r e e f o r study, the teacher i n f l u e n c e s tended t o c a n c e l one another. I t was supposed t h a t i f any marking method d i d a s s i s t students more than the o t h e r s i n improving t h e i r w r i t t e n work, the programme undertaken would r e v e a l t h i s . I n i t i a l d a t a was o b t a i n e d from d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p u p i l s ' s c o r e s on the N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t , the Los Angeles D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Language, and composite s c o r e s on two s t a n d a r d i z e d w r i t t e n assignments graded by a team o f t h r e e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s . The l a t t e r score was d e r i v e d from an average o f the t h r e e markers' e v a l u a t i o n s and was a p e r c e n t -age. Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d and u s i n g t h e s e , the Standard E r r o r o f the D i f f e r e n c e between Means o f groups' s c o r e s was found. A Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n o f .698 was o b t a i n e d when the i n i t i a l Standard-35 i z e d Language Test and the i n i t i a l w r i t t e n samples were c o r -r e l a t e d . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e t o employ the formula f o r the Standard E r r o r o f the D i f f e r e n c e between Means o f groups matched i n mean and standard d e v i a t i o n i n the a n a l y -s i s o f f i n a l gains i n language s k i l l s . The study was conducted as scheduled and no problems were encountered d u r i n g i t s course. The f i n a l S t a n d a r d i z e d Language T e s t , i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t g i v e n e l e v e n weeks b e f o r e , and s i m i -l a r samples o f w r i t t e n work such as were taken b e f o r e the experiment began p r o v i d e d the f i n a l s c ores and concluded the experiment. Upon examination of the gains o f the t h r e e groups i n composition s k i l l as measured by the S t a n d a r d i z e d Language Te s t and w r i t t e n composition samples t h e r e was found t o be a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n a b i l i t y among the groups. The g a i n proved t o be over one f u l l grade i n language s k i l l s a c c o r d i n g t o norms of the t e s t and the w r i t t e n sample gains were a l s o h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . However, when the formula f o r the Stand-ar d E r r o r o f the D i f f e r e n c e between Means o f groups matched i n mean and standard d e v i a t i o n was a p p l i e d t o these f i n a l s c o r e s , the s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n g a i n proved not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -i c a n t . The N u l l Hypothesis was t h e r e f o r e s u s t a i n e d . C o n c l u s i o n s 1 . The s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study achieved h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n t h e i r l e v e l o f composition w r i t i n g . In a two and o n e - h a l f month p e r i o d , the g a i n i n the S t a n d a r d i z e d Language Test s c o r e s , a c c o r d i n g t o grade 36 norms s u p p l i e d f o r the t e s t , was 1.2 grades. A c o r r e s -ponding s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the q u a l i t y o f sample w r i t t e n compositions was a l s o observed. 2. The importance o f the method o f g r a d i n g , perhaps, i s over-e s t i m a t e d . I f the p u p i l r e c e i v e s a mark f o r w r i t t e n assignments and understands i t s b a s i s , i t would appear t h a t t h i s may be one important f a c t o r i n composition im-provement. The suggested s a l u t o r y p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f one method, the s i m p l i c i t y o f another, or the r e a l i s t i c b a s i s of s t i l l another marking scheme does not seem t o a f f e c t the p u p i l s 1 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r grade. I t may be t h a t the three methods have approximately equal e f f e c t s upon improving p u p i l s 1 w r i t t e n work. 3. On the b a s i s o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study t h e r e would seem t o be no evidence t o support c l a i m s of the s u p e r i o r -i t y o f any one o f the t h r e e marking methods under observa-t i o n . Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Study 1. To overcome the e f f e c t s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n i t i a l gains o f a l l groups, which might tend t o c o n c e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n marking methods, the experiment c o u l d be extended u n t i l such time when the p l a t e a u o f the l e a r n i n g curve has been reached. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e might then be e v i d e n t . 2. In o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h whether more mature p u p i l s might b e t t e r understand the d i f f e r e n t g rading methods, a s i m i l a r study might be attempted at a h i g h e r grade l e v e l . 3. A marking study u s i n g homogeneously grouped slow l e a r n e r s and homogeneously grouped s u p e r i o r students as s u b j e c t s c o u l d be undertaken t o determine i f marking methods d i f f e r i n t h e i r e f f e c t s on composition improvement i n these a b i l i t y groups, k. The study c o u l d be repeated w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f a c o n t r o l group whose w r i t t e n assignments would not be graded at a l l . Such an experiment might present evidence t o show the degree t o which composition marking a c t u a l l y a f f e c t s com-p o s i t i o n improvement. 38 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Cole, Luella. Psychology of the Elementary Sohool Subjects. New York: Farrar and Rinehart Inc., 193^. Pp. xiv + 330. Mlrrieless, Lucia B. Teaching Composition and Literature in  the Junior and Senior High School. Revised ed. New York; Harcourt, Bruce and Company, 194-6. Pp. ix + 691. Seely, Howard F. On Teaching English. New York: American Book Company, 1933. Pp. xix + 391. Steel, James H. and Talman, John. The Marking of English Compositions. London, W.r James Nisbet and Co., Ltd., 1936. Pp. v i i + 55. Tidyman, Willard F. and Butterfield, Marguerite. Teaching  the Language Arts. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1951. Pp. i x t 433. Periodicals: Cast, B.M.D. "The Efficiency of Different Methods of Marking English Composition". B r i t i s h Journal of Educational  Psychology. IX, Pt. I l l , (November, 1939), pp. 257-269. Cohen, Nachman. "Correcting Compositions Without a Pencil". English Journal. XXXIX, No. 10, (December, 1950) PP. 579-580. Coward, Ann F. "A Comparison of Two Methods of Grading English Compositions". Journal of Educational Research. XLIII, No. 6. (October, 1952), pp. 81-93. Diederich, Paul B. "The Measurement of S k i l l in Writing". School Review. LIV, No. 10, (June, 194-6), pp. 584- 592. Green, Harold A. Section on Language Arts (Composition). Review of Educational Research. XX, No. 2, (April, 1952), pp. 96-97. Hillegas, M.B. "A Scale for the Measurement of A b i l i t y i n English Composition by Young People". Teachers College  Record. XIII, (September, 1912), pp. 331-384-. Leonard, S.A. "How English Teachers Correct Papers". English  Journal. (October, 1923), pp. 517-532. 39 Maize, Roy C. "A Theme A Day". N.E.A. J o u r n a l . X L I I , No. 6, (September, 1953), pp. 335-336^ M o r r i s o n , R.L. and Vernon, P.E. "A Jew Method o f Marking E n g l i s h Compositions". B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. I I , P t . I I , (June, 1941), pp. 109-119. T h o m d i k e , E.L. "A S c a l e f o r M e r i t i n E n g l i s h W r i t i n g by Young People". J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. I I , (June, 1911), pp. 361-368. W i l l i n g , M.H. "Measurement o f W r i t t e n Composition". E n g l i s h  J o u r n a l . V I I , No. 3, (March, 1918), pp. 193-202. Hudelson, E a r l . " E n g l i s h Composition: I t s Aims, Methods, and Measurement". Twenty-second Yearbook N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y  f o r the Study o f E d u c a t i o n . P a r t I . Bloomington, 111.: P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1922, Pp. i x + 161. M i s c e l l a n e o u s : Janzen, Henry. "An Exp e r i m e n t a l Study t o Determine the Value o f S e l f A p p r a i s a l i n Teaching Grade.Nine Composition". Unpublished Master o f E d u c a t i o n T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, 1933. 40 APPENDIX A HOW YOUR COMPOSITIONS ARE MARKED P u p i l Guide Sheets hi APPENDIX: A HOW YOUR COMPOSITIONS ARE MARKED II II One Mark For the Whole Composition Method - Group X I f your compositions are being graded by t h i s method they w i l l be g i v e n one mark which i s based on a l l the t h i n g s which to g e t h e r make a good composition, such as:: (1) Is your p u n c t u a t i o n , s p e l l i n g , and grammar c o r r e c t ? (2) Have you been c a r e f u l i n your c h o i c e o f words and i n the way you have w r i t t e n sentences? (3) Is your work i n some s o r t o f reas o n a b l e o r d e r ? (4) Are your thoughts or id e a s expressed n a t u r a l l y and simply? (5) How does your composition st r i k e the person who reads i t ? In oth e r words, i s i t w r i t t e n w i t h care and s k i l l or i s i t j u s t c a r e l e s s l y thrown t o g e t h e r ? The mark you r e c e i v e depends upon how w e l l your composi-t i o n measures up t o the standards s et by these q u e s t i o n s . You w i l l r e c e i v e an A i f your composition i s v e r y w e l l done and shows t h a t you understand how t o w r i t e w e l l . You w i l l r e c e i v e a B i f your work i s w e l l done and shows t h a t you have a good i d e a o f what makes a good comp o s i t i o n . You w i l l r e c e i v e a C i f your work shows t h a t you are t r y i n g t o remember the important t h i n g s about composition w r i t i n g . You w i l l r e c e i v e a D i f your work shows t h a t your composi-t i o n w r i t i n g needs a l o t ~ o f a t t e n t i o n . Your w i l l r e c e i v e an E i f your work shows t h a t you have no i d e a o f composition w r i t i n g . h2 HOW YOUR COMPOSITIONS ARE MARKED The Two Mark Method - Group "Y" If your compositions are being marked with two grades this means that your teacher i s considering your written work from two different sides. The f i r s t letter grade (the one on top) depends on the ideas you have used in the composition, whether they are yours or someone else's, and how well you have expressed these ideas. (a) You w i l l receive an £ i f your ideas are very good and you have expressed them well. (b) You w i l l receive a B i f you show that you can . - use your own ideas""and express them. (c) You w i l l receive a C i f i t looks as though you are thinking and are trying to say something. (d) You w i l l receive a D i f i t looks as though you are not trying to say anything in your written work. (e) You w i l l receive an E i f your work shows no evidence of any ideas or expression. That i s the way your f i r s t mark i s determined. The second grade (the one on the bottom) i s based on how well you have learned to use the main rules of composition. Your teacher w i l l be looking for these pointst (1) Spelling - Are the words you use correctly spelled? (2) Punctuation and Capitals - Can you use punctua-tion and capitals correctly? (3) Word Usage and Vocabulary - Do you choose the right words and use them properly? (4) Paragraph and Sentence Form - Is your paragraph on one topic? Are your sentences single thoughts and well written? (5) Organization - Is your work in some sort of reasonable order? If after asking these questions of your composition the answers are a l l "yes", you receive an A. If after asking these questions of your composition the answers are a l l "yes" but one you receive B. If three answers are "yes" you receive a C. If two answer are "yes" you receive a D. If one or none r..;-fcs "yes" you receive an E. Notice that you receive two separate marks. The f i r s t  mark grades what you have said (your ideas), the second mark grades how you have said i t (your use of the rules of good com- position.) Your mark w i l l look like this: £ 43 HOW YOUR COMPOSITIONS ARE MARKED The S i n g l e P o i n t Per Composition Method - Group Z I f your compositions a re being marked by t h i s method you w i l l r e c e i v e one mark f o r your composition. However, t h i s mark i s based on j u s t one f a c t o r o f composition w r i t i n g . Next time your work i s graded another f a c t o r w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f o r the composition grade. T h i s system c o n c e n t r a t e s on one t h i n g at a time and should show you how much improvement you r e q u i r e i n each o f the f a c t o r s t h a t make up a good comp o s i t i o n . Only these f a c t o r s w i l l be markedi (1) P u n c t u a t i o n and C a p i t a l i z a t i o n When your work i s graded on t h i s p o i n t - i f your p u n c t u a t i o n and c a p i t a l s a re c o r r e c t , you r e c e i v e A. I f t h e r e i s one mistake you r e c e i v e B. I f t h e r e are two mistakes you r e c e i v e C, e t c . (2) Word Usage. Vocabulary, and S p e l l i n g When your work i s graded on t h i s p o i n t - i f your s p e l l i n g and ch o i c e of words i s c o r r e c t you r e c e i v e A. I f t h e r e i s one mistake you r e c e i v e B, e t c . (3) Paragraph and Sentence""Form When your work i s graded on t h i s p o i n t - i f your paragraph i s on one t o p i c , i f i t holds t o g e t h e r , and i f the sentences a re com-posed o f s i n g l e thoughts you r e c e i v e A. I f t h e r e i s one mistake you r e c e i v e B, e t c . (4-7 Thought Content (The Ideas t h a t You Have Used) I f your i d e a s are f r e s h and w e l l chosen you r e c e i v e A. I f your i d e a s are q u i t e good you r e c e i v e B. I f your i d e a s are f a i r you r e c e i v e C, e t c . (5) O r g a n i z a t i o n I f your work i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d w i t h some system you r e c e i v e A. I f i t i s q u i t e w e l l o r g a n i z e d you r e c e i v e B, e t c . N o t i c e t h a t o n l y ONE o f the f i v e p o i n t s l i s t e d w i l l d e c i d e your grade on any one composition. Of course, you w i l l not know which o f the p o i n t s i s t o be the one d e c i d i n g your grade so remember t o do your best work and check f o r a l l f i v e p o i n t s . For example, one week your teacher may be l o o k i n g f o r c o r r e c t p u n c t u a t i o n and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n and next week he may be l o o k i n g f o r thought c o n t e n t . Remember your composition grade on each p i e c e o f work "that i s marked i s based on j u s t one o f these f i v e f a c t o r s or p o i n t s . You w i l l know which o f these f a c t o r s was marked by the a b b r e v i a -t i o n b e s i d e the grade. For example: £-. 0 r S » would mean you were marked f o r p a r a -graph o r g a n i z a t i o n and you r e c e i v e d "A". B G o r r t e n t would mean t h a t you were marked f o r thought content or idea s i n your paragraph and you r e c e i v e d "B". APPENDIX B TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE STUDY 4-5 - I I A C H E R J . S M A N U A L -COMPOSITION GRADING STUDY C O N T E N T S 1. General I n f o r m a t i o n About the Experiment 2. D i r e c t i o n s f o r S e t t i n g Up C l a s s Groups 3. L i s t of Minimum E s s e n t i a l s . k. Methods of Grading 5. Number of Compositions to be Marked 6. Lesson Plans f o r Each Composition P e r i o d During Experiment 7. F i l i n g of Papers 8. Record Sheet f o r Work Graded 9. Record of Attendance 10. Notes GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXPERIMENT - 1 -The purpose of t h i s study i s to examine three common grading methods used i n e v a l u a t i n g w r i t t e n composition to determine i f any one of these c o n t r i b u t e s more toward s t u d e n t s 1 w r i t i n g improvement than do the o t h e r s . I n order to make a f a i r comparison i t i s necessary f o r a l l teachers i n v o l v e d i n the experiment to te a c h e x a c t l y the same l e s s o n s , give I d e n t i c a l assignments, and mark i n the same way. By such a procedure the o n l y v a r i a b l e s w i l l be the marking methods. (These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . ) I t i s hoped t h a t s i x c l a s s e s of three Vancouver Elementary Schools w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The experiment w i l l r u n f o r the f a l l term u n t i l December and w i l l c o n s i s t of two f o r t y minute composition p e r i o d s per week. D i r e c t i o n s f o r S e t t i n g Up C l a s s Groups Three grading methods w i l l be used by each teacher p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. Teachers are asked to d i v i d e t h e i r c l a s s e s i n t o three groups so t h a t each teacher w i l l mark each of h i s or her c l a s s e s u s i n g the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t methods. Arrange the groups so t h a t they are o f approximately equal language a b i l i t y . K i n d l y group w i t h these f a c t o r s i n mind: (a) I.Q. of Students 0 0 Sex (c) Language achievement ( P r e f e r a b l y on l a s t year's M e t r o p o l i t a n Language Achievement T e s t ) For example the f o l l o w i n g might be a c l a s s grouped a c c o r d i n g to d i r e c t i o n s f o r the experiment: GROUP X GROUP Y GROUP Z I.Q. Lang. Ach. Sex I.Q. Lang. Ach. Sex I.Q. Lang. Ach. Sex 118 110 106 103 100 101 96 90 M F F F M M M F 122 115 109 100 101 98 97 93 M F M F M M F M 125 117 105 101 99 98 97 89 F M M F F M F M NOTE - This i s ab b r e v i a t e d f o r a c l a s s of 2k, In other words each group w i l l have about the same l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y i n composition w r i t i n g from the bes t to the po o r e s t . I t would be a d v i s a b l e to appoint or e l e c t a monitor f o r each group - c a l l them X, Y, and Z, so t h a t composition c o l l e c t i n g may be f a c i l i t a t e d . - 2 * A LIST OF MINIMUM ESSENTIALS T h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d by the teachers concerned i n the study. I t i s the experimenter's, o p i n i o n t h a t c e r t a i n b a s i c w r i t t e n composition elements may be d e f i n e d and t h a t i f p u p i l s cannot meet these elementary e s s e n t i a l s they should r e c e i v e a f a i l i n g mark. METHODS OF GRADING Each time compositions are c o l l e c t e d they are to be kept i n t h e i r separate groups. K i n d l y mark ac c o r d i n g to the o u t l i n e s f o r each method. The X-Group w i l l be marked by the f o l l o w i n g scheme: Group "X" The O v e r a l l Grade Method. By t h i s method the teacher w i l l a s s i g n a s i n g l e l e t t e r grade f o r the o v e r a l l work on the composition.' , These p o i n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d J (1) Mechanics: p u n c t u a t i o n , s p e l l i n g , and grammar. (2) Vocabulary and Sentence S k i l l (3) O r g a n i z a t i o n and Development (4) Naturalness and S i m p l i c i t y (5) Value of Idea(s) (6) T o t a l Impression The argument behind t h i s scheme i s t h a t . a l l aspects o f the student's work must be con s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a t e d whole. Therefore the grade g i v e n i s con-s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f a l l p o i n t s l i s t e d above. Some sample s c a l e s w i l l be pro v i d e d to a s s i s t teachers i n e s t a b l i s h i n g standards f o r grades. I t i s suggested t h a t " p i l i n g " o f papers would a s s i s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Use the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r grades o n l y : A, B, C, D, E. Pl a c e grade i n r i g h t corner a t the end of the p u p i l ' s composition. Use a standard r e d marking p e n c i l . Group "Y" The Two P o i n t Method By t h i s method the teacher a s s i g n s two grades, one over the o t h e r , f o r the f o l l o w i n g : I . Content - the i d e a , o r i g i n a l i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n , the s u b j e c t matter, the thought, e t c . I f the student: (a) Shows e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y he r e c e i v e s A (b) Demonstrates competence he r e c e i v e s B (©) Suggests competence he r e c e i v e s C (d) Suggests incompetence he r e c e i v e s D (e) Demonstrates incompetence he r e c e i v e s E 3 *•* Group "Y" (continued) I I . P u p i l T s Use o f Mechanics (a) S p e l l i n g - a l l s p e l l i n g e r r o r s are counted one e r r o r o n l y 0 (tO P u n c t u a t i o n - any e r r o r s i n p u n c t u a t i o n are. counted as one e r r o r o n l y . i (cO Word Usage.and Vocabulary - e r r o r s t r e a t e d as above. (d) Paragraph and sentence form - e r r o r s t r e a t e d as above. (e) O r g a n i z a t i o n - e r r o r s t r e a t e d as above. I f the student has, no e r r o r s i n h i s composition he r e c e i v e s .............. A I f the student has, one e r r o r i n mechanics he r e c e i v e s .................... B it » 1! tl f u n (a-r»T»nT»<5 »' » n ti r* ii H ii it - f-h - p p p » u tt it u r\ " " " " f o u r or f i v e e r r o r s i n mechanics he r e c e i v e s •> E T h i s scheme i s advocated by some because i t g i v e s the p u p i l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r o r i g i n a l i t y and e x p r e s s i o n (or c a r e f u l mechanics) and more r e a d i l y shows him where he i s i n need of h e l p . The mark should be p l a c e d as f o r "X" but should be w r i t t e n l i k e t h i s : -|p NOTE.- Content mark above mechanics mark. Group "Z" The S i n g l e P o i n t Per Theme Method By t h i s methdd the tea c h e r examines the composition f o r one p o i n t o n l y and the grade i s awarded on the b a s i s o f the p u p i l ' s performance on t h i s p o i n t i n h i s composition. N a t u r a l l y the p u p i l s are not informed beforehand what i s to be the grade f a c t o r on any g i v e n composition. The f o l l o w i n g separate grade f a c t o r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d : (1) P u n c t u a t i o n and C a p i t a l i z a t i o n (2) Word* Usage, Vocabulary, S p e l l i n g (3) Paragraph and Sentence Form (40 Thought Content (5) O r g a n i z a t i o n I f the student shows e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y i n the g i v e n grade f a c t o r con-s i d e r e d ^  he r e c e i v e s o . . . . . o o . . o s . s . . . o e o a a « o < > . . s . . . c > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A I f he demonstrates competence he r e c e i v e s . . a s » » s . . o o . » » » o . o o a » B I f he suggests competence he r e c e i v e s • . • . • . . . . e . . . . . . . . . o . . . o . C I f he suggests incompetence he r e c e i v e s ..<>..... D I f he demonstrates incompetence he r e c e i v e s ................... E C e r t a i n grouping o f f a c t o r s has been necessary because o f the l i m i t e d number o f compositions to- be graded. T h i s marking'method i s upheld by some who suggest t h a t i t shows p u p i l s c l e a r l y where g i v e n e r r o r s are made and y e t does not confuse them by drawing a l l t h e i r e r r o r s t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n each time compositions are marked. The grades w i l l be p l a c e d as f o r "X" and "Y" but beside the grade the teacher w i l l i n d i c a t e on which f a c t o r the grade was based. «• k u (Group "Z") continued For example: B < P u n c t * 8 2 1 ( 1 C a P * } £(thought) - D ( o r g a n i z . ) e t c < The order of .grading f o r the f a c t o r s w i l l , be g i v e n before the experiment b e g i n s . The o u t l i n e p r e c e d i n g the l e s s o n ^ guides i n d i c a t e s the marker o f each assignedcomposition. Where the teacher marks the compositions i t would be t a p p r e c i a t e d i f these could be r e t u r n e d t o p u p i l s by the f o l l o w i n g composition p e r i o d . P l e a s e allow a few minutes 1 time a t the beginning o f the l e s s o n f o r p u p i l s to examine these r e t u r n e d papers and c o n s u l t t h e i r "How Are My Compo-s i t i o n s Marked?" sheets s i n c e t h i s aspect of t h e i r composition work has r e a l v a l u e . Questions p e r t a i n i n g t o marking should be encouraged. LESSON PLANS FOR BACH COMPOSITION PERIOD DURING EXPERIMENT F o l l o w i n g the o u t l i n e i s a s e t of l e s s o n guides c o v e r i n g the work of each p e r i o d of composition d u r i n g the course of the study. I t i s most important t h a t a l l teachers take e x a c t l y the same work each p e r i o d of each week. The l e s s o n s have been planned w i t h these p o i n t s i n mind: (a) an attempt has been made to make the work o f p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t and worth to the p u p i l s . (b) work has been o u t l i n e d from suggestions i n the Programme o f S t u d i e s , (c) the u n i t s are s h o r t , c u l m i n a t i n g i n w r i t i n g f o r marking. Again i t might be p o i n t e d out t h a t . i t i s important f o r teachers to f o l l o w the l e s s o n .guides c l o s e l y so t h a t the p l a n may be completed as suggested,, ORDER OF POINTS FOR MARKING BY SINGLE POINT PER THEME METHOD (For Group Z) Week 1 Word Usage, Vocabulary, S p e l l i n g . Week 2 Paragraph and Sentence Form. Week 3 P u n c t u a t i o n and C a p i t a l i z a t i o n . Week H O r g a n i z a t i o n . Week 5 Thought Content. Week 6 Paragraph and Sentence Form. Week 7 Word Usage, Vocabulary, S p e l l i n g . Week 8 O r g a n i z a t i o n . Week 9 P u n c t u a t i o n and C a p i t a l i z a t i o n . Week 10 Thought Content, OBTAINING INITIAL SAMPLES Because of the nature o f the experiment i t is. most important t h a t u n i f o r m methods and d i r e c t i o n s be used by p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers i n ob-t a i n i n g i n i t i a l samples. DURING THE FIRST PERIOD OF THE FIRST WEEK: A. Begin the f i r s t p e r i o d of the i n i t i a l \veek by e x p l a i n i n g b r i e f l y to the p u p i l s t h a t s e v e r a l marking methods f o r grading compositions d u r i n g the next few months w i l l be used. S t r e s s the p o i n t t h a t i t w i l l make no d i f f e r e n c e to t h e i r r e p o r t card marks which marking method i s used- to grade t h e i r papers. D e s c r i b e the three marking methods b r i e f l y . T e l l the students i n which groups they w i l l be and appoint a c o l l e c t i n g - monitor f o r each group. Give each student an a p p r o p r i a t e copy o f the mimeographed sheet, "How Your Compositions are Marked." I n s t r u c t them to paste them on the i n s i d e cover of t h e i r composition notebooks f o r easy r e f e r e n c e . B. T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n may take approximately twenty minutes. . The remaining time i s taken up w i t h o b t a i n i n t the f i r s t sample of the c l a s s ' s w r i t t e n work. Ask the c l a s s what was the g r e a t e s t s p o r t i n g t h r i l l o f the year. Undoubtedly some aspect of the B.E. Games w i l l be mentioned. T e l l them t h a t s i n c e i t was such an event undoubtedly a l l the students were e i t h e r at some of the events, or saw them on TV, or heard them on the r a d i o , or read about them, and t h e r e f o r e you are p l a n n i n g to ask them to w r i t e you a l e t t e r t e l l i n g about some aspect of the B.E. Games. Give them about f i v e minutes to t h i n k about the assignment. — What are they going to say and how are they going to say i t ? Encourage them to do t h e i r v e r y b e s t . About h a l f a page of f o o l s c a p should.be s u f f i c i e n t . D i s t r i b u t e the paper and allow f i f t e e n minutes f o r composition. At the end of f i f t e e n minutes be sure t h e i r f u l l names are w r i t t e n i n the lower r i g h t corner of the paper and'have them c o l l e c t e d . Do not mark them. Second P e r i o d of F i r s t Week . A. T e l l students t h a t you are going to read the f i r s t p a r t of a s t o r y to them. A f t e r they have heard i t they are to w r i t e .the r e s t of the s t o r y on f o o l s c a p u s i n g t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n to complete the s t o r y . T e l l them t h a t you w i l l give them f i v e minutes to t h i n k about what they w i l l w r i t e . B. Read the s t o r y aloud c a r e f u l l y and e x p r e s s i v e l y . (Read beforehand once or twice) P. 249 Dominion Language S e r i e s , Book I I , S e c t i o n 212. C. A f t e r the s t o r y has been read ask the. students', "What happened n e x t ? " T e l l them t o make t h e i r s t o r y as i n t e r e s t i n g and e x c i t i n g , as they can. Have them t h i n k about t h e i r assignment f o r about f i v e minutes. Then i s s u e f o o l s c a p , encourage them to do t h e i r v ery b e s t neat and c a r e f u l work. Allow e x a c t l y f i f t e e n minutes. HSCKB: xhara xkink At the end of t h a t time c o l l e c t the papers. Please check to be sure the students' f u l l names are i n the top r i g h t corner. • D. D i s t r i b u t e copies of the s t a n d a r d i z e d language t e s t ' s u p p l i e d . Read the d i r e c t i o n s to the students as r e q u i r e d . Time t h e ^ t e s t . Be sure, a l l papers have students' names. C o l l e c t papers. FILING OF PAPERS I t i s suggested t h a t each p u p i l keep a f i l e o f . h i s r e t u r n e d compositions so th a t he may observe h i s pr o g r e s s through the weeks. ' RECORD SHEET FOR WORK GRADED Below w i l l be found a r e c o r d sheet f o r r e c o r d i n g grades g i v e n to p u p i l s f o r assignments d u r i n g the course o f the study. Please r e c o r d marks a c c o r d i n g to' the grading method. ATTENDANCE Because a r e c o r d of those p u p i l s m i s s i n g s e v e r a l days - o f ' s c h o o l d u r i n g the f a l l term i s v i t a l to t h i s study, teachers are asked to. r e c o r d on the form below absentees of more than three s u c c e s s i v e days .at any. one time and of those absent when, w r i t t e n work f o r teacher grading has been done. ° m v l r OUTLINE OF LESSONS' Week 1. Sept . 2 7~Oet.l Marking systems ex-p l a i n e d Groups formed. I n i t i a l L e t t e r sample. P e r i o d 1 Week 2. Oct. 1+-8 U n i t on the Sentence Week 3» Oct. 11-15 U n i t on the Paragraph Week h. Oct. 18-22 U n i t on Expo s i t - * i o n Importance of Communication. D e f i n i t i o n s . D i r e c t i o n s . (5) Sentence concept. Subject & P r e d i c a t e . (1) Form. Reason, f o r Paragraph-i n g . T o p i c sentence. Importance of or d e r . (3) S t o r y completion sample. Standardized Language t e s t . P e r i o d 2. Sentence reviewed. Sentence punctuatior Assignment (2) Paragraph reviewed. .. Concluding sentences. • ^ Assignment. (4) N e c e s s i t y f o r de-t a i l s . L o g i c a l o r d e r . C l e a r n e s s and. b r e v i t y . An e x p l a n a t i o n i n paragraph form. Assignment. (6) Week 5. Oct. 25-29 Language S k i l l s Week 6. November 1-5 U n i t on F r i e n d l v Week 7 Nov. 8 - 1 2 U n i t on Summarizing, Week 8. Nov. 15-19 U n i t on the Socia] Synonyms. Pu n c t u a t i o n - comma, p e r i o d , i n t e r r o g a -t i v e , explamation p o i n t , apostrophe. P e r i o d 1. (7) L e t t e r s Review form. S i g n i f i c a n c e of Heading, e t c . (!) and Notetaking, O r a l p r a c t i c e . Recording Messages. (11) L e t t e r I n v i t a t i o n s . L e t t e r s w r i t t e n . Marked by p u p i l s i n groups. (13) Paragraph review. (8) Assignment. F r i e n d l y l e t t e r review. • L e t t e r s w r i t t e n to some r e a l person, (10) Assignment. Not e t a k i n g i n sc h o o l . Why? P o i n t s t o remember. (1.2) Assignment. U n i t on N a r r a t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n using p l a y a c t i n g . D i s c u s s important p o i n t s . (lkj Assignment. Week 9. Nov. 22 - 26 N a r r a t i o n continued. O u t l i n i n g . P e r i o d 1. (15) Week 10. Nov. 29-Dec. 3 M o d i f i e r s A d j e c t i v e s . (17) ' Week 11. Dec. 6 - 10 : E n g l i s h Usage. Agreement of Sub j e c t and P r e d i c a t e . (19) Week 12. Dec. 13 - 17. F i n a l Sampling L e t t e r S t o r y Standardized Test. W r i t i n g a good n a r r a t i v e . Composition. (16) Assignment. Adverbs. (5-8). Assignment. Review of Term's work. (20) Assignment. ! -LESSON I THE SENTENCE ~ 5 *• r P e r i o d 1. October k - 8 Lesson O b j e c t i v e s ; 1. To review the concept o f the sentence. 2. To help p u p i l s become aware of the importance of . u s i n g good/sentences. I n t r o d u c t i o n ; Bab'ies f i r s t use s i n g l e words to i n d i c a t e t h e i r wants; i . e . Doggy, Water, Mama, e t c . G r a d u a l l y as t h e i r vocabulary develops so does t h e i r use of words^ i n a s e r i e s . T h i s might be d i s c u s s e d by the.'pupils.. . Ask the q u e s t i o n , "what makes one group o f words a sentence and another group o f words n o t a sentence?" S t r e s s the importance of one thought i n one sentence. What are thoughts? Classwork; Have the f o l l o w i n g on the blackboard: (a) To the r i v e r . (b) A l a r g e r a b b i t . (c) The b a n d i t was captured, (d) He runs w e l l . (e) Q u i c k l y over the fence. ( f ) E a g l e s f l y . (g) The man on the white horse. • Ask the c h i l d r e n to t e l l which are complete thoughts and. which are not. (ORALLY) Not i c e t h a t i n each thought we t h i n k or t a l k about something and we say some-t h i n g about i t . Example on blackboard: The c i r c u s came to town. Can anyone t e l l us what these main p a r t s o f a sentence are c a l l e d ? — S u b j e c t and P r e d i c a t e . Have the f o l l o w i n g on the Blackboard: 1. The B r i t i s h Empire Games were e x c i t i n g . 2. A happy crowd l e f t the stadium. 3* Jack saw the m i l e r a c e . 4-. Past the f i n i s h l i n e came the A u s t r a l i a n . . 5.. I n the crowd Donna was l o s t . Ask students to p i c k out the main p a r t s o f these sentences o r a l l y . Help students to n o t i c e t h a t s u b j e c t and p r e d i c a t e o r d e r i s not f i x e d . I n d i c a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of sentence v a r i e t y . Review - Why should we know how to use sentences c o r r e c t l y ? Remember: (1) They are complete thoughts. (2) They have a s u b j e c t and a p r e d i c a t e . (3) They b e g i n w i t h a c a p i t a l l e t t e r and end w i t h a p e r i o d , ^ q u e s t i o n mark or exclamation mark.(This c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d ) . E x e r c i s e s : Have the c h i l d r e n w r i t e some sentences on the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s . These may be read o r a l l y for* c l a s s e v a l u a t i o n . Have the c l a s s name the t h i n g or p e r i o n t a l k e d about and what i s s a i d about the s u b j e c t . .' (a) A Hallowe'en Prahlc Cc) S e l l i n g Hot Dogs (b) A D o l l a r to Spend (d) My Pet S q u i r r e l LESSON I I THE SENTENCE ~ 6 -P e r i o d 2« October h - 8  L e s s o n O b j e c t i v e s To s t r e n g t h e n p u p i l s ' understanding of the sentence. I n t r o d u c t i o n ; Review the concept of the sentence. P o i n t out t h a t i t i s a more advanced form of communication thaft s i n g l e words, e t c 0 Glassworks P l a c e the f o l l o w i n g on the B.B„ P u p i l s w i l l w r i t e t h e i r responses i n t h e i r composition notebooks, u s i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e heading. A. Write gooc sentences u s i n g these as s u b j e c t and p r e d i c a t e : (a) b u l l d o g r a n (b) Mary c r i e d Cc) t r e e f e l l '» (d) Slimmer i s (e) P a u l s c r a t c h e d Cf) swimmers were r a c i n g B» P l a c e the proper p u n c t u a t i o n marks at the end of the f o l l o w i n g s Ca) S a l l y and M a r i l y n were l a t e (b) The hot rod jumped the fence (c) Was anyone h u r t Cd) May I have an apple (e) Ouch, t h a t stove i s s t i l l hot ( f ) The movie was extremely funny C. Change the order of the s u b j e c t s and p r e d i c a t e s of the f o l l o w i n g t o show t h a t you know what i s meant by a v o i d i n g monotonous unchanging sentence s t y l e Examples The man d i v e d i n t o the water. Into the water d i v e d the man. Ca) Smoke and flames came from the cave mouth, (b) He approached the cave without a gun. Cc) The dragon r o a r e d f i e r c e l y down i n the depths of the h o l e . Cd) S a i n t George k i l l e d the dragon a f t e r a hard b a t t l e . Ce) The k i n g presented him with a f i n e c a s t l e as a g i f t . F o l l o w i n g these e x e r c i s e s and the checking o f t h i s work, say: Sentences are a l l we need when we are w r i t i n g simple thoughts but i f we wish to t e l l more about a c e r t a i n t o p i c we need t o know something about para-graphs. We s h a l l be l e a r n i n g about them next day. E x e r c i s e : Today I would l i k e you to choose any one of the t o p i c s on the B.B. and w r i t e s e v e r a l good sentences about i t . B e g i n the f i r s t l i n e about an i n c h from the margin. CTo be w r i t t e n on f o o l s c a p ) T o p i c s on B.B'.s 1. A L e s s o n I Learned T h i s Summer. 2. The Penguins Made Me Laugh I 3» What Food We Had a t Our P i c n i c a t the Lake. ho Something E x c i t i n g That Happened to Me t h i s Summer. Teacher c o l l e c t s and marks. - 7 -LESSON I I I THE PARAGRAPH P e r i o d 1. October 11 - 15 Lesson Ob.iective: To review the e s s e n t i a l s of the paragraph form. I n t r o d u c t i o n : Return the.paragraphs done i n the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n . Some g e n e r a l comments w i l l be p o s s i b l e - a few words of commendation, e s p e c i a l l y . Then b e g i n by l o o k i n g at a good paragraph. (Model on B.B.) Page ( r e f e r e n c e to be s u p p l i e d . ) Classwork: 1. Have a good reader read paragraph on B . B . " o r a l l y . 2. Help students to n o t i c e the i ndented b e g i n n i n g , the good opening and'concluding sentences. 3. D i s c u s s reason f o r paragraphing - have p u p i l s imagine how pages would lo o k i f we dispensed w i t h paragraphs. Hence we use paragraphs ( l ) To separate thought u n i t s . (2) For ease of r e a d i n g . 4-. D i s c u s s form f o r paragraph (a) Indented beginning. (b) One i n c h margin on the l e f t . ( c ) Work c a r e f u l l y and n e a t l y w r i t t e n . (d) Work always checked when completed.. (e) Topic sentence - should i n t e r e s t the reader and give key to whole paragraph. ( f ) Order o f sentences - a l l should be on the t o p i c i n d i -! cated by the t o p i c sentence and should be i n l o g i c a l o r n a t u r a l order. (g) Concluding sentence - a k i n d o f summary. Don't l e a v e the t o p i c "up i n the a i r " . Have these two t o p i c sentences on the B.B. (a) T h i s s t o r y i s about a goat. (b) My pet goat, Jake, i s always g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e . Ask the c l a s s which would make a b e t t e r t o p i c sentence. Why? • Have the c l a s s make b e t t e r t o p i c sentences from the f o l l o w i n g on the B.B. F i r s t three o r a l l y , the r e s t i n t h e i r notebooks*. 1.. We enjoyed the r i d e . 2, The c i r c u s came to town. 3. T h i s paragraph i s about my f a v o u r i t e s p o r t . 4-. I am.going to t e l l you about Butch. 5. Sandy i s a s m a l l k i t t e n . 6. The s t o r y takes p l a c e i n the evening. 7. T h i s i s how you bake p o t a t o e s . D i s c u s s t h e i r sentences o r a l l y . I n Review P o i n t Out That: 1. Topic sentences i n t r o d u c e the s u b j e c t of the paragraph and must do so i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way to h o l d reader's a t t e n t i o n . 2. A l l other sentences ( i n t h e i r case u s u a l l y f o u r or f i v e ) t e l l more about the t o p i c . These should have some ord e r . 3. The f i n a l sentence should wind up the t o p i c . - 8 ~ L e s s o n I I I (continued) E x e r c i s e ; Have the f o l l o w i n g on the B.B.. Have p u p i l s r e o r g a n i z e the sentences so t h a t they become a good paragraph and w r i t e them i n t h e i r notebooks. T e l l them i t i s a "mixed up" paragraph. Remember indented b e g i n n i n g , e t c . 1. I f f i r e s d e s t r o y our f o r e s t s , w i l d l i f e w i l l s u f f e r . 2. We must p r o t e c t our b i r d s and animals because they are worth m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s to our country. 3. We must a l l cooperate to prevent unnecessary waste and t o conserve w i l d l i f e . 4. I f hunters shoot too many ducks or deer, these b i r d s and animals w i l l become sca r c e , 5. W i l d l i f e i s one o f the important and v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n our p r o v i n c e . 6. They are important f o r our f u r i n d u s t r y and they, are a source of r e c r e a t i o n f o r hunters and t o u r i s t s . D i s c u s s the p u p i l s ' answers o r a l l y . - 9 w LESSON IV THE PARAGRAPH P e r i o d 2, October 11 - 15  Lesson O b j e c t i v e ; To review the components of a good paragraph and w r i t e an example f o r e v a l u a t i o n . • I n t r o d u c t i o n ; B e g i n the l e s s o n by asking p u p i l s what are paragraphs. Why are they used? Review 1 the p o i n t s to: remember when w r i t i n g paragraphs. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s a good paragraph from a poor one? P o i n t out i n p a s s i n g t h a t the a b b r e v i a t i o n "&" f o r "and" i s to be avoided as i s the w r i t i n g i n numerals of numbers below one hundred. Summing up p o i n t out that paragraphs are merely a c o n v e n i e n t way o f grouping thoughts on one t o p i c . Classwork: A. I n order t h a t . p e o p l e w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d enoughtto read pur paragraphs they should have i n f o r m a t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g b e ginnings. Have p u p i l s w r i t e t o p i c , sentences f o r the f o l l o w i n g topics i n t h e i r notebooks: (1) A F l y i n g Saucer Landed on the Schoolground. (2) The Neighbour's Pet Canary. (3) My B r o t h e r ' s Hot Rod. B. Have p u p i l s w r i t e two or t h r e e more t o p i c sentences about each o f the above t o p i c s . C . Have p u p i l s w r i t e s u i t a b l e c o n c l u d i n g sentences f o r the t o p i c s . NOTE: I f time runs s h o r t , cut p a r t of p r e c e d i n g but allow f i f t e e n minutes f o r the paragraph to be w r i t t e n . E x e r c i s e : Think f o r a moment about something you fd l i k e t o t e l l the c l a s s about and w r i t e a paragraph on t h a t s u b j e c t . You might l i k e to t e l l them about your pet, or an e x c i t i n g experience you've had, or an i n t e r e s t i n g t r i p you have taken, e t c . ( w r i t t e n on f o o l s c a p ) There i s a check l i s t on the B.B«. to guide you i n your work. Have the f o l l o w i n g on the B.B.: "Can You Say 'Yes* To A l l These?" (1) Have I chosen a t o p i c t h a t i s not too wide? Is i t i n t e r e s t i n g ? (2) I s my t o p i c sentence i n t e r e s t i n g ? Does i t t e l l the reader what the paragraph i s about? (3) Does each sentence t e l l about the t o p i c sentence? (4) Are the sentences arranged i n good order? (5) Have I a good c l o s i n g sentence? (6) I s the paragraph indented and i s i t n e a t l y done? Have I checked the s p e l l i n g ? (73 HAVE I CHECKED IT OVER? LESSON V EXPOSITION P e r i o d i T October 18-22  L e s s o n O b j e c t i v e ; To h e l p p u p i l s g a i n awareness o f the importance of explana-t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s , d e f i n i t i o n s , e t c . , as f u n c t i o n s of communication. I n t r o d u c t i o n ; P o i n t out t h a t cave men communicated wi t h one another w i t h grunts and gesture's. G r a d u a l l y these developed i n t o language. The need f o r c l e a r and simple communication i s obvious. T h i s i s a s k i l l t h a t must be developed. Suppose someone asks, "What.is a beaver?" . . Is i t enough to say, "an animal?" Why not? B r i n g out the p o i n t s t h a t : clearness- ^ accuracy ^ are the important e s s e n t i a l s o f b r i e f n e s s ) e x p l a n a t i o n and communication. Classwork; Have p u p i l s give o r a l d e f i n i t i o n s f o r : (1) b i c y c l e (2) b o l e r o ( g i r l s w i l l know t h i s one) (3) s p r i n t (4) s p l i n t (5) pen n i b (and perhaps a few more) Have them give w r i t t e n d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r notebooks. Proper sentences should be w r i t t e n , o f course. (1) g i r a f f e (2) d i c t i o n a r y (3) s c h o o l (h) student (5) f l y i n g saucer (6) boxer (7) g r a p e f r u i t Marked by p u p i l s . Review main p o i n t s . E x e r c i s e : Suppose someone stopped you on the s t r e e t and asked you to d i r e c t him to the n e a r e s t post o f f i c e , o r hardware s t o r e , e t c . Could you give a c l e a r b r i e f , accurate answer? The teacher w i l l p i c k out a landmark near the s c h o o l and ask the students to w r i t e a paragraph g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s needed to reach t h i s landmark from the s c h o o l . Have these read o#t and examined by the c l a s s . Attempt to b r i n g the student to a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r work. - 11 -LESSON VI EXPOSITION • P e r i o d 2. October 18-22  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To continue work on e x p o s i t i o n by having p u p i l s p l a n and w r i t e an<; e x p o s i t o r y paragraph. I n t r o d u c t i o n : P o i n t out t h a t t h i s i s one of the most u s e f u l aspects of compo-s i t i o n work i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l communication. Now suppose someone asked you, "How do you p l a y b a s e b a l l ? " or "How do you make fudge?" Give some h e l p f u l suggestions f o r answering questions o f . t h a t k i n d . P u p i l s w i l l supply answers such as: (1) Give necessary d e t a i l s (2) Use l o g i c a l order (3) Be c o r r e c t (40 Use good sentences Classwork: The c l a s s w i l l attempt to answer one of the questions above o r a l l y keeping i n mind the p o i n t s above. Teacher w i l l r e c o r d t h e i r responses on the B . B . E x e r c i s e : Now t h a t we have done one together l e t ' s each t r y to give a good w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n o f any one of the f o l l o w i n g . Be c a r e f u l t o be as c l e a r , a c c u r a t e , and b r i e f as you can - u s i n g proper sentences, of course. Remember s i n c e your sentences are a l l on one t o p i c t h i s i s a paragraph and the r u l e s f o r good paragraphs apply here. ( W r i t t e n on f o o l s c a p ) T o p i c s : (on B.B.) (1) How to make b i s c u i t s (2) How to b u i l d a r a f t (3) How to f i x a f l a t t i r e (40 How to sew on a b u t t o n (5) How to s e t a t a b l e (6) How to p l a y soccer . « 12 • LESSON VII LANGUAGE SKILLS  P e r i o d 1. October 25 - 29  Lesson Objective:. To i n c r e a s e p u p i l s k i l l i n u s i n g p u n c t u a t i o n and synonyms. I n t r o d u c t i o n : Return paragraphs and make some g e n e r a l comments ( e s p e c i a l l y p r a i s e ) . Note t h a t c l a s s c o u l d do w i t h some a s s i s t a n c e i n r e d u c i n g the use o f c e r t a i n words too f r e q u e n t l y . Instead o f u s i n g such words as n i c e , f i n e , funny, e t c . , r e p e a t e d l y we should know other words which mean more e x a c t l y what we are t r y i n g to say. Have the c l a s s give o r a l meanings f o r : (1) n i c e P o i n t out t h a t these words are overworked and have (2) f i n e ) somewhat i n d e f i n i t e meanings. (3) b i g E x p l a i n the use o f synonjims - f o r v a r i e t y and (V) bad ) p r e c i s e n e s s i n w r i t i n g . Classwork: A. Have c l a s s give synonyms, f o r the f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r notebooks: ; (1) s m a l l (5) f a i r (2) good (6) slow (3) v e r y (7) c l o s e (4-) f a s t B. Another way to improve our w r i t i n g i s by c a r e f u l p u n c t u a t i o n . Review o r a l l y w i t h p u p i l s the use of the c o m a a : '* b) with words of address s? m e ! xf^ eS m i g h t b e (c) with yes and no ) p l a c e d on B.B. Use of the p e r i o d : (a) to show the end o f an " o r d i n a r y " sentence. The end of a thought. (b) f o l l o w s a b b r e v i a t i o n s . Use of q u e s t i o n mark: - f o l l o w s a l l q u e s t i o n s . Use of exclamation p o i n t : - to i n d i c a t e strong f e e l i n g . Example: Oh, I l o s t my purse J Have p u p i l s t®^try a few. Use of apostrophe: (a) to show l e t t e r ommission. (b) to show p o s s e s s i o n . Do not — Don't She i s — She's I t i s — I t ' s John's belonging to John. Have p u p i l s t r y a few. E x e r c i s e : Rewrite the f o l l o w i n g paragraph i n your notebooks u s i n g more s u i t a b l e words where necessary and p u n c t u a t i n g i t c o r r e c t l y . ON B.B.: The f i r e m a n i s a n i c e man to have i n the d i s t r i c t he guards us n i g h t and day we know t h a t i f a f i r e breaks out the HE n i c e red t r u c k w i l l come i n a few minutes w i l l the f i r e m a n go to f i g h t a f i r e i n the middle o f the n i g h t yes he won°t waste any time coming w i t h axes l a d d e r s and hose smoke f i r e b r i c k s water and i c e can cause bad a c c i d e n t s however the firemans l i f e i s e x c i t i n g and important so he c o n s i d e r s t h a t a p a r t o f h i s job. Check i n c l a s s . LESSON V I I I PARAGRAPH REVIEW Paragraph 2. October 25 - 2 9  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To c o n s o l i d a t e work done to date on the. paragraph and have the p u p i l s prepare a paragraph f o r e v a l u a t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n : Review a l l work to date on the paragraph. Importance of t o p i c sentence, one main t o p i c throughout to m a i n t a i n u n i t y - s t i c k i n g t o the s u b j e c t . T h i s i s done through c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Now l e t us f i n d out whether we can apply t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to paragraph w r i t i n g . A f t e r we w r i t e our paragraphs we s h a l l mark them i n our grading groups. Classwork: P u p i l s w i l l w r i t e paragraphs on one of the t o p i c s suggested guided by the check l i s t found i n l e s s o n Four. (a) How Hallowe'en Began (b) F i r e c r a c k e r s are too Dangerous to be Used (c) " T r i c k s or T r e a t s " Allow about f i f t e e n minutes, then have p u p i l s group themselves according to t h e i r grading method. , i . e . "X" one o v e r a l l grade iiyii two marks, form/content "Z" grade o n l y f o r complete sentences and proper p u n c t u a t i o n . Routine f o r grading; P u p i l s w i l l gather i n three groups about the room. A good reader w i l l be chosen by each group as t h e i r reader. While he or she reads each composition the remainder of the group l i s t e n s . The work i s checked and a m a j o r i t y grade i s awarded and p l a c e d on the paper i n the u s u a l manner f o r t h a t marking system. The p u p i l s may use t h e i r "How Are My Compositions Marked?" sheets as guides. The b e s t composition from each group might be read to the c l a s s i f time p e r m i t s . These marks should be recorded I n the u s u a l manner. LESSON IX THE FRIENDLY LETTER • - 1 4 P e r i o d 1, November 1 - 5 Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To review the form of the f r i e n d l y l e t t e r and p o i n t out the worth of t h i s aspect of composition to the p u p i l i n h i s o u i of sc h o o l l i f e . I n t r o d u c t i o n : D i s c u s s the problem of communicating w i t h frie n d s , who l i v e out of town. How can we communicate? • • - - T e l e p h o n e Telegram Most commonly of course by l e t t e r . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s a good l e t t e r from a poor one?- . Why i s i t important to w r i t e a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s ? ; Classwork: . B r i n g out p o i n t s t h a t : (1) L e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s the person who w r i t e s i t . (2) L e t t e r , s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g . (3) L e t t e r should be i n f o r m a t i v e . (4) P u n c t u a t i o n and E n g l i s h should be c o r r e c t . " Why? Have a sample l e t t e r on the B.B. ( r e f e r e n c e to be su p p l i e d ) Have p u p i l s note p u n c t u a t i o n and; form. • • What i s the reason f o r the heading? Why have a s a l u t a t i o n ? The " H e l l o ^ " p a r t of the l e t t e r . Depends upon how . w e l l you know the r e c e i v e r ,i.e. Dear Mrs. Smith, Dear Jane. Body of the l e t t e r — merely the message t h a t you.are sending. Signature - Why i s i t necessary? You s i g n f i r s t name to those whom you know w e l l , f u l l name to those whom you don't know w e l l . Have a run-together l e t t e r on the B.B. ( i n a paragraph w i t h no pu n c t u a t i o n or c a p i t a l s ) . Students w i l l w r i t e t h i s l e t t e r i n c o r r e c t form i n t h e i r . n o t e -books. C o r r e c t i n c l a s s . E x e r c i s e : F or next 'composition day t h i n k of some f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e to'whom you would l i k e t o w r i t e a l e t t e r . Think a l s o of some of the things y o u . w i l l t e l l him ( h e r ) . For of course — a l e t t e r i s always w r i t t e n f o r some purpose. NOTE: I f the c l a s s has some mutual f r i e n d or i f one of i t s members, is. at home or i n h o s p i t a l i l l , t h i s c r e a t e s ara a m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e t t e r w r i t i n g . - 15 -LBSSON X THE FRIENDLY LETTER  P e r i o d 2. November 1 - 5  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To w r i t e a p u r p o s e f u l f r i e n d l y l e t t e r . INTRODUCTION: Review b r i e f l y p o i n t s of p r e v i o u s l e s s o n , s t r e s s i n g t h a t : (a) F r i e n d l y l e t t e r s are w r i t t e n by most of us throughout our . l i f e t i m e — we should l e a r n to. w r i t e them p r o p e r l y . (b) L e t t e r s r e p l a c e a chat w i t h the r e c e i v e r , so they should be a good r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the person who w r i t e s i t . Cc) N e c e s s i t y of form and c o r r e c t n e s s . Classwork: D i s c u s s w i t h c l a s s the enjoyment of r e c e i v i n g p e r s o n a l m a i l . • Ask c l a s s from what p o i n t s i n the world have they r e c e i v e d m a i l . Why i s the word pen-pal a good .way of e x p r e s s i n g a l e t t e r - w r i t i n g friend-?. E x e r c i s e : P u p i l s w i l l w r i t e a f r i e n d l y l e t t e r to. anyone they d e s i r e . x T h i s w i l l be w r i t t e n on f o o l s c a p . These w i l l be marked by the teacher and r e t u r n e d . . Please ask the p u p i l s . t o b r i n g some w r i t i n g paper and a stamped envelope to c l a s s f o r next composition p e r i o d . LESSON X (b) THE FRIENDLY LETTER  P e r i o d 3. November 1 - 5- .• i Note: Since the previous l e s s o n was very s h o r t i t i s hoped t h a t teachers may f i n d i t p o s s i b l e to."borrow" a l i t t l e time from some other aspect of. E n g l i s h i n order t h a t t h i s u n i t be culminated. Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To post a good f r i e n d l y l e t t e r . i n t r o d u c t i o n : (1) Discuss, d i f f e r e n t types of l e t t e r paper and envelopes. Attempt, to b r i n g p u p i l s to the understanding of what i s good t a s t e i n s t a t i o n e r y . For example - the i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n by h e a v i l y scented, gaudy paper. (2) Show hew to f o l d t h e - l e t t e r . (3) How to p r o p e r l y address the envelope, where to pla c e the r e t u r n address. (k) How t o p l a c e l e t t e r i n the envelope. Why? Classwork: Remaining p o r t i o n of p e r i o d i s taken up w i t h r e w r i t i n g l e t t e r r e turned to c l a s s members at beginning of p e r i o d , a d d r e s s i n g the envelope, e t c . Teacher may c i r c u l a t e about the c l a s s g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e where needed. - 16 LESSON XI SUMMARIZING AND NOTETAKING P e r i o d 1 T November 8 - 1 2  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To give p u p i l s p r a c t i c e and improve t h e i r s k i l l i n i n t e r -p r e t i n g what ot h e r s have s a i d so t h a t they may r e c o r d i t i n t h e i r own words. I n t r o d u c t i o n : How o f t e n has the.telephone rung and you were the.only one at home to r e c e i v e the c a l l ? Supposing the message were for. your pare n t s ? '. Or perhaps someone has come to gi v e your p a r e n t s o r o l d e r b r o t h e r or s i s t e r a message? What should one do to be sure the message w i l l be r e c e i v e d as intended? IT SHOULD BE WRITTEN DOWN. P o i n t s t o remember: (1) Give a l l the main p o i n t s . (2) Be c l e a r . (3) Be b r i e f . Classwork: ORAL - Conduct an imaginary phone c a l l w i t h a p u p i l . Imagine th a t you are t r y i n g to con t a c t her ( h i s ) f a t h e r i n connection v/ith a P.T.A. square dance. Her f a t h e r i s n o t a t home.' The p u p i l r e c e i v e s the message. Have some other p u p i l write, the. main p o i n t s ' o f the message on the B.B. Try a s i m i l a r method between p u p i l s f o r s i t u a t i o n s such as: ' . (a) A - f r i e n d phones; to i n v i t e mother to Church S o c i a l and Sa l e of Work on f o l l o w i n g Wednesday, p r i c e f i f t y c ents. (b) Employer phoning t o i n f o r m f a t h e r t h a t he i s to take the f o l l o w i n g day o f f due t o some d i f f i c u l t y i n goods supply at. the p l a n t i n which he works. Have- some s i t u a t i o n s f o r those without phones. WRITTEN - Using a s i t u a t i o n played by two c l a s s members have the. c l a s s record, the message they would g i v e to the person asked f o r , . -- when completed check f o r main p o i n t s , c l a r i t y , good sentences. S e v e r a l such examples might be attempted. Such work has many counter- • p a r t s i n w r i t t e n work of p u p i l s i n out of s c h o o l l i f e . - 17 -LESSON XII SUMMARIZING AND NOTETAKING  P e r i o d 2, November 8 - 12  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To improve p u p i l s ' s k i l l i n summarizing and n o t e t a k i n g as r e q u i r e d f o r s u b j e c t s such as S o c i a l S t u d i e s at the grade s i x l e v e l . I n t r o d u c t i o n : J u s t as r e c o r d i n g the main p o i n t s of what a person has s a i d i s ' i m p o r t a n t i n r e c o r d i n g messages, we o f f e n have a s i m i l a r t a s k i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s at s c h o o l . -Probably you have been asked i n S o c i a l Studies to r e a d ' c e r t a i n p a r t s of the textbook, say a paragraph, and then to give the contents i n your own words. What do you l o o k f o r ? How do you put i t down so that i t would be easy to r e f e r to? B r i n g out such p o i n t s as: (a) Main thought as a heading - c l u e s o f t e n found i n the t o p i c sentence of the paragraph — why. u n d e r l i n e ? (b) P o i n t s i n the s e c t i o n t h a t e l a b o r a t e upon (a) should be l i s t e d . (c) C l e a r n e s s and accuracy are important. Why? (d) Notes are made f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose; i . e . to enable student to r e c a l l m a t e r i a l read by means of t h i s short cut. Much of f u t u r e work i n many s u b j e c t s w i l l i n v o l v e n o t e t a k i n g — hence p u p i l s should s t r i v e to..master t h i s s k i l l . (e) Neatness and l a y o u t important. Why? Classwork: P r a c t i c e - teacher w i l l read a.short paragraph from the S o c i a l s Text apropos to the u n i t p r e s e n t l y under study. Have the c l a s s attempt: (a) To p i c k out. the main p o i n t . (b) To s e l e c t p o i n t s that e l a b o r a t e upon the main thought. Show p u p i l s an acceptable note-form.. For example: Main heading u n d e r l i n e d . P o i n t s l i s t e d below indented. Space between main headings. Have p u p i l s t u r n to S o c i a l s Text and make notes on a paragraph ( r e f e r e n c e to be s u p p l i e d ) E x e r c i s e : F o l l o w i n g the p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s have c l a s s make s u i t a b l e notes f o r a paragraph ( r e f e r e n c e s u p p l i e d ) on f o o l s c a p f o r marking. - 18 LBSSON X I I I THE SOCIAL LETTER  P e r i o d 1, November 1 5 - 1 9  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To review b r i e f l y the f r i e n d l y l e t t e r and expand the d i s c u s s i o n to i n c l u d e the s o c i a l l e t t e r of i n v i t a t i o n form. An example w i l l be w r i t t e n . ' . " . . I n t r o d u c t i o n : Why do we w r i t e l e t t e r s ? Many suggestions w i l l be o f f e r e d such as - To say h e l l o t o someone and t e l l him some i n t e r e s t i n g news, to thank someone f o r a present, e t c . Probably some p u p i l w i l l suggest to i n v i t e someone to a p a r t y or f o r an o u t i n g . Perhaps some of you were at a Hallowe'en P a r t y or a r e c e n t B i r t h d a y P a r t y . How are people i n v i t e d to p a r t i e s ? (a) by phone or i n person "(b) by l e t t e r Here, then, i s another u s e f u l job t h a t l e t t e r s do f o r us. Classwork: Note t h a t the form i s e x a c t l y the same as that of the f r i e n d l y l e t t e r ( f o r i t is' a f r i e n d l y l e t t e r ) but c e r t a i n important i n f o r m a t i o n must be i n c l u d e d . (a) Occ a s i o n or nature of the p a r t y (b) Time '(e) P l a c e End the l e t t e r w i t h a f r i e n d l y comment such as,"We are l o o k i n g forward to seeing you at the p a r t y " or " S h a l l we see you on Saturday?" Keep the l e t t e r t o the p o i n t . I t i s , remember, a l e t t e r of i n v i t a t i o n . E x e r c i s e : Have the. p u p i l s w r i t e a s u i t a b l e l e t t e r .of i n v i t a t i o n to some p u p i l i n v i t i n g him (her), on f o o l s c a p f o r marking. - 19 -- LESSON XIV NARRATION  P e r i o d 2. November 15-19 . L e s s o n O b j e c t i v e ; To i n i t i a t e a u n i t on n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way and have the students w r i t e a paragraph.' I n t r o d u c t i o n ; The w r i t e r has found r e a l i t y - t y p e p l a y a c t i n g i n the c l a s s -room e x c e p t i o n a l l y h e l p f u l i n g i v i n g beginning students "something to w r i t e about". For example, a l a r g e boy i n the c l a s s might enter the room f o l l o w i n g noon hour a l l covered with bandages and.accuse the s m a l l e s t boy i n the room of a s s a u l t . I t i s suggested that the teacher "cook-up" some such s i t u a t i o n and have'the a c t i o n take p l a c e at the beginning of a composition c l a s s p e r i o d . (Be sure to p i c k accomplices who w i l l do a r e a l i s t i c job.) F o l l o w i n g d i s c l o s u r e of the p l o t the c l a s s might d i s c u s s the a c t i o n . What i n f o r m a t i o n would be necessary to t e l l the s t o r y of what occured? C l a s s responses might be w r i t t e n on B.B. Who? > Where? i ^ow supposing a l l these were s u p p l i e d . When? i I s i t n e c e s s a r i l y going to be a good s t o r y ? " Why? i How? ; Have c l a s s r e a l i z e t h a t i n t e r e s t i s the important cement which h o l d s the i n f o r m a t i o n together so t h a t the reader w i l l enjoy the s t o r y . •Classwork: ORAL; Ask one or two c l a s s members' to t e l l the c l a s s what happened i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p l a y l e t . Have the c l a s s c r i t i c i z e t h e i r s t o r i e s i n the l i g h t of the p o i n t s l i s t e d on the B.B. WRITTEN: Have p u p i l s w r i t e the a c t i o n of the p l a y l e t i n para-graph form i n t h e i r notebooks so t h a t an o u t s i d e r would have a good p i c t u r e o f the p l o t . Reining the p u p i l s t h a t they are w r i t i n g a paragraph so t h a t a l l the p o i n t s about paragraph w r i t i n g should be kept i n mind. Have them t e l l the s t o r y i n f i v e or s i x sentences. P u p i l s w i l l mark these paragraphs as. p r e v i o u s l y suggested. Have the paragraph c h e c k - l i s t on the B.B. • LESSON XV NARRATION  P e r i o d 1. November 22 - 26  L esson O b j e c t i v e : To d i s c u s s the paragraph form and p o i n t out the value of o u t l i n i n g . I n t r o d u c t i o n : Comment upon.class e f f o r t s on assignment marked by p u p i l s the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . How w e l l are class.members s c o r i n g on the'paragraph check l i s t ? . Suggest t h a t paragraph w r i t i n g i s l i k e b u i l d i n g . ' How does a b u i l d e r ensure t h a t a house i s b u i l t j u s t as the owner wishes? Perhaps.a student w i l l suggest by u s i n g plans or b l u e p r i n t s . Paragraphs and l o n g e r compositions a l s o r e q u i r e b l u e p r i n t s - i n compo-s i t i o n these are c a l l e d o u t l i n e s . Classwork: D i s c u s s o u t l i n e s . What are they? - merely a s k e l e t o n , a frame-work on which we b u i l d paragraphs and l onger'compositions. We w r i t e b e t t e r when we have a plan; The o u t l i n e i s a form of p l a n . Write the following, t i t l e on the B.B.: • ' • • . • , The Day the Duke V i s i t e d Our School • - have the students s u g g e s t . s t o r i e s f o r the above. - have s e v e r a l s t o r i e s told.. - then have c l a s s decide which p o i n t s they wish to use i n t h e i r s t o r y and l i s t them i n o u t l i n e form on the B.B. S t r e s s the f a c t t h a t t h i s i s the way l o g i c a l order i n paragraph work i s assured. E x e r c i s e : . Have the p u p i l s w r i t e two t o p i c sentences i n t h e i r notebooks f o r the t o p i c on the B.B. Guided by the o u t l i n e on the B.B. have them w r i t e two a p p r o p r i a t e con-c l u d i n g sentences. Some of these may be r e a d aloud and e v a l u a t e d by the c l a s s . Have the p u p i l s w r i t e an a p p r o p r i a t e o u t l i n e f o r a paragraph on the t o p i c , " I t Pays to be Kind to Animals." These w i l l be read out to the c l a s s . - 21 -LESSON XVI NARRATION P e r i o d 2, November 22 - 26  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : With, the knowledge gained from paragraph work and the n a r r a t i v e form .to. w r i t e a good n a r r a t i v e composition.. . I n t r o d u c t i o n : Everybody l i k e s a good s t o r y . I t i s true some people are n a t u r a l s t o r y - t e l l e r s . But we can a l l l e a r n how to t e l l s t o r i e s i f we r e -member the work we have been doing i n composition the l a s t few days. L a s t day we were u s i n g imaginary t o p i c s f o r our s t o r i e s . I t ' s much more f u n to t e l l about experiences, t h a t are r e a l . Would some of the c l a s s members l i k e to t e l l us. about some e x c i t i n g experiences t h a t they have had? Some st o r i e s ' are t o l d ? Classwork: Did you enjoy those s t o r i e s ? D i d they h o l d our i n t e r e s t ? Were we t o l d who? what? e t c . ? Remember the p o i n t s we d i s c u s s e d l a s t day t h a t were important f o r good s t o r y t e l l i n g ? What were they? E x e r c i s e : Remembering a l l we have done so f a r on the sentence, paragraph work, and o u t l i n e s , make an o u t l i n e and w r i t e a'paragraph. t e l l i n g "about some experience t h a t has happened to you or someone you know. To be w r i t t e n on f o o l s c a p and marked. LESSON XVII, ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS - 22 w P e r i o d I . November 29 - Dec. ^  Lesson O b j e c t i v e ; To i n c r e a s e e x p r e s s i o n i n composition w r i t i n g by work w i t h a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e r s . I n t r o d u c t i o n ; Have the f o l l o w i n g on the B.B.; The l a d y sang.. A boat sank. People came. Are these sentences? A f t e r students have agreed that they are, ask them what they t h i n k of such sentences. P o i n t s such as these w i l l be brought out: • . (1) These sentences are too i n d e f i n i t e . They don't r e a l l y t e l l us very much. (2) They are u n i n t e r e s t i n g . (3) They don't say which l a d y or what boat, e t c . Ask p u p i l s f o r suggestions which would improve these sentences. Write these on the B.B. What are such words c a l l e d t h a t we have added to these sentences? M o d i f i e r s or a d j e c t i v e s . N o t i c e t h a t a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e r s change or narrow down the s u b j e c t so t h a t i t i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s c r i b e d . M o d i f i e r s are extremely important i n our w r i t t e n work because they enable us to be more accurate and p r e c i s e i n our e x p r e s s i o n . Classwork: (a) ORAL: Have c l a s s suggest s h o r t sentences u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s on the B.B.: p l e a s a n t great handsome d i f f i c u l t . a n c i e n t c a r e l e s s c u r i o u s funny q u i e t • simple (b) WRITTEN; Have the c l a s s supply a p p r o p r i a t e a d j e c t i v e s f o r the f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r notebooks: day f l o w e r A game g i a n t n winter view ) mistake music 3 B , R f o r e s t dinner ) E x e r c i s e : The students w i l l w r i t e good sentences u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s i n t h e i r notebooks: i n t e l l i g e n t .muddy s i n c e r e . ' damp kin d shadowy happy howling wide new - 23 „ LESSON XVIII ADVERB MODIFIERS  P e r i o d 2, November 29 - December 1  L e s s o n O b j e c t i v e : To i n c r e a s e e x p r e s s i o n i n composition w r i t i n g by work . wi t h adverb m o d i f i e r s . I n t r o d u c t i o n : Have these on the B.B.: The. l a d y sang. A boat' sank. People came. How d i d we make b e t t e r sentences from these l a s t day? (By adding a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e r s ) L a s t day we worked with o n l y the s u b j e c t h a l f o f th® sentence. Today we s h a l l work with the p r e d i c a t e h a l f . . ' ; L e t us use the" sentence, "The l a d y sang.." .•••'••• Give us a word which w i l l t e l l us HOW she sang. Give us a word which w i l l t e l l us WHERE she sang. Now give us a word which w i l l t e l l us WHEN she sang. What are such m o d i f i e r s c a l l e d ? N o t i c e t h a t adverb m o d i f i e r s change the meaning of the p r e d i c a t e s by t e l l i n g : How \ Where ^ When J on Why ) B.B. Classwork: (.a) The c l a s s w i l l supply s e v e r a l s u i t a b l e adverbs f o r the other two sentences on the B.B. o r a l l y . (b) Use the f o l l o w i n g adverbs i n good sentences. Do your . work i n your Composition notebook. h u r r i e d l y b o l d l y -s slow down ^ on q u i e t l y e a r l y > B.B. here n o i s i l y ) n e a t l y f a s t ) E x e r c i s e : On f o o l s c a p the students w i l l w r i t e a sh o r t paragraph of f i v e or s i x sentences u s i n g the t o p i c sentence s u p p l i e d and u s i n g a d j e c t i v e and adverb m o d i f i e r s where a p p r o p r i a t e . (on B.B.)..-- The door opened and i n walked the s t r a n g e s t f i g u r e . T0 be- marked - 24- -LSvSSON XIX AGREEMENT. P e r i o d 1. December 6 - 1 0  L e s s o n O b j e c t i v e : To emphasize the importance of agreement between s u b j e c t and p r e d i c a t e . I n t r o d u c t i o n : Have the f o l l o w i n g on the B.B.: The horses runs. We sometimes hear people u s i n g such language. What i s the matter w i t h the sentence? How could we use run i n the sentence above? No t i c e t h a t you use one form of the p r e d i c a t e or verb w i t h a s u b j e c t r e p r e s e n t i n g one person or t h i n g and another when the s u b j e c t r e p r e s e n t s more than one person or t h i n g . ExampleJ A.horse runs. Many horses r u n . You use the s i n g u l a r form of the p r e d i c a t e when r e f e r r i n g to one person, p l a c e , or t h i n g . You use the p l u r a l form of the p r e d i c a t e when r e f e r r i n g to more than one person, p l a c e , or t h i n g . Care must be taken to a v o i d mixing the two forms as we d i d i n t h e f i r s t example. Classwork: (a) C o r r e c t the f o l l o w i n g o r a l l y . E x p l a i n why c o r r e c t i o n s are necessary: 1. The crowd swim. . 2. John dance b e t t e r than I. 3« The waves pounds on the. beach. 4- . She get up about twelve. 5- B i l l and Dave doesn't l i k e s occer. (b) Rewrite each o f the f o l l o w i n g sentences i f the s u b j e c t and p r e d i c a t e are not e i t h e r both s i n g u l a r or both p l u r a l . I f a sentence i s c o r r e c t simply w r i t e c o r r e c t beside t h a t number i n your notebook. 1. The t r e e s sways i n the wind. 2. A l o u d bang were heard. 3' She stands beside the b r i d g e . 4-. Into the brush goes the dogs. 5. A l a n t e r n shines i n the window. E x e r c i s e : Write good sentences u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s and p r e d i c a t e s c o r r e c t l y i Example: Windows opens. . — The window opens q u i t e e a s i l y . 1* Plane f l y . • 2. Motor stop. 3« Shovel d i g . 4-. Water flows-. 5« C i t i e s grows. 6. He don't. 7. Wind blow. 8. They i s n ' t . . LESSON XX GENERAL REVIEW • P e r i o d 2, December 6 - 10  Lesson O b j e c t i v e : To make a f i n a l review of the year's work. I n t r o d u c t i o n : Our term i s j u s t about at an end. A good time t o review the work we have been doing i n w r i t t e n composition f o r the l a s t few months. Classwork: ORAL: What do we understand by a good sentence? - What i s the su b j e c t ? What i s the p r e d i c a t e ? - Give examples of s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l s u b j e c t s and p r e d i c a t e s . - Why do we w r i t e i n paragraphs? - L i s t the p o i n t s to remember when w r i t i n g paragraphs. - What are synonyms? Why are they u s e f u l ? - What i s the use f o r the exclamation p o i n t ? - Why do we have f i v e separate s e c t i o n s to the f r i e n d l y l e t t e r ? What are they? - What i s the purpose of o u t l i n i n g ? . - What are m o d i f i e r s ? How. are they used? - What are p o i n t s to remember when g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s t o someone? - What i s a t o p i c sentence? E x e r c i s e : On f o o l s c a p w r i t e a paragraph of f i v e or s i x sentences on one of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : (1) The B.C. L i o n s F o o t b a l l Team (2) My F a v o u r i t e Winter Sport (3) The Meaning of Christmas (4-) Why I Would L i k e a C e r t a i n Present f o r Christmas. RECORD SHEET FOR COMPOSITION GRADING STUDY C l a s s Teacher Week: Group "X" , . 2 • 3 . 4 5 '6 7 8. .9 1° Name 1. •' 2. . ' • 3. • • : 5. . 6 . • j • 7 . 8. t i . j 9- I i • 1 • 10. i E 1 1 11. f • r . j 12. •t \ 13- t . i . i, 14. i ^ E • ' 15. • 2 3 V i "77T 7 8 4 .1 Group "Y" • • 9 1. \ s 1 [ : ! 2. f ; ) !• • i • 'i 3. | • i 1 i i i t •s 4. ' ' • • I- [ • l • • i | i 5. ' • | 1 1 1 1 6. • - i i 1 ; r' § i • ! n \ i 7. • I > 1 f * ' ! I § ' I ! 1 ' > if f 9. : l • 10. ..'1 - ! i « [ ? i 11. •• I f • i • I: i ; I 1 12. : • j • j". ? • 1 -i • 1 1 13-. •; • ! i i ! i ! 14. I ;• t ' ' t i s ? ,.-41- „ . „ j - I s j • • •• •• ™ • - — r — i — T- H — r - j — 1 r — \ Group "Z" • • ; 2 ; 3 | 4 j 5 | 6 j 7 !• 8} 9 ! 10 1 1. i 1 ! f !. 1 ! i 2. - - I ' l l i • 1 i ! . 3.. • - I i • 4. . ] f » ii • j ' I i 5. ' 1 • !" • ( f ! : 1 • 6. '! • ! : !•• i r 7- ' i < ' [. '•! i M 8. : ! ,) • • ' :J 9- 1 ; ; - 1 ' t. 10. i l 1 1 I- • 11. i ' 12. » i 13- • i -14. . I i«?. i ! . NOTES INSTRUCTIONS FOR FINAL WEEK OF COMPOSITION GRADING STUDY  December H - 17, Final Sampling F i r s t Period: A, T e l l the pupils that you are going to read the f i r s t part of a story to them. After they have heard i t , they are to write the rest of the story on foolscap using their imagination to complete i t . T e l l them you w i l l give them five minutes to think about what they w i l l write. B. Then read aloud the following: It was the day before Christmas. Snow lay on the ground; the air was cold and crisp. One couldn't help but feel the excitement. Bright Christmas decorations beckoned i n windows, mysterious parcels were being delivered to homes, and everywhere people went about their business with smiles on their faces. Yes, the joyous Christmas Season was here. Young B i l l was having a poor day selling his magazines. It seemed that everyone was too busy to have time for magazines now. B i l l ' s father had died two years ago so now B i l l helped out his mother by selling magazines. He had hoped to s e l l enough today to buy his mother a present but i t didn't look as though he would have much success. Here i t was already four o'clock and he hafl sold only five magazines. Twenty cents for his whole day's work. i t was getting dark. Should he give up and return home? This Christmas would be a mo«t bare one since his mother's job did not pay enough for any money to be spent on Christmas things. "No," thought B i l l , " I ' l l t ry a few more houses. I may be able to s e l l f i f t y cents worth i f I keep on trying." Then the wonderful thing happened. He went w to the next house and knocked on the door C. After the story has been tfead ask the students, "What happened next?" T e l l them to make their story as interesting and exciting as they can. D. Give them five minutes to think about their assignment. Then issue fools-cap. Encourage students to do their best, neat and eareful work. Allow exactly fifteen minutes. When collecting papers please be sure the students have written their names on their papers. Do not mark them. E. Distribute copies of the standardized language test supplied. Read the directions as required. Time the test. Be sure a l l students write names on test. Collect papers. Do not mark them. -Second Period: A. Begin by pointing out that we who live i n the city often take for granted many things that persons l i v i n g i n the country never see. Could the class give some examples? i.e. t a l l buildings, sidewalks, department stores, etc. Well, at Christmas, we i n Vancouver can wander through the downtown section and see many delightfully decorated store windows, department stores, and even decorated streets. Then, of course, there are several exciting toylands we may v i s i t . Let's imagimthat we have a friend who lives on a lonely farm i n the Cariboo who i s unable to see a l l these things. His name i s Ralph. Let us write a letter t e l l i n g him what we can about downtown Vancouver at Christmas time. You w i l l have about five minutes to think over what you are going to say. B. Distribute paper and allow fifteen minutes for composition. Encourage students to do their very best. Remind them to include a l l the essentials of good letter writing. (You might write the name Ralph on the B.B.) Collect papers. Be sure names are on them. Do not mark. APPENDIX C SAMPLES OF PUPILS' WORK " V -•7 \ -: , •" ; \ 7: ' (Jeekjy (\ssijr\n\eni: hOarlcco| b\j Class leachers 4 - C O J t ^ A * - b ut*f 0 " A' S^dehtuS^r-iy S/Z^oj s^/e^Jt^ ^X^PsyyJ A~4sJ@&&>J JtXrs^f- ' *.» O r .... ^nM^rnll^li^i.. ^ ^ ^ ^ c ^ : 1 1 • I I V T rtj^os : A i ^ — _ ^ Pupil Sam pies' Z.7- Wl M _ Ifh^fi — „ I y Ut&-y&-l&Cfly??2^ -Z-\H — . — - — ^ . — "jfl <f^-x^^/Jr-y ^ 7 ^ / s*^asyy2£> ^/sij^T. (^^taz^L W ^y^Le^h?) JJMJ ^^HO J^n^r- ^ i / s ) / ) j so ^/*>^/A1~<As4J, ^lUuyUJ -Mir A/ , • • , .— — i 1 • --> • 1 i • • 1 • • 3' if. 4 6~ A c '7 ———/h^y/>^^i^ —JLo-My.—xhtSL+JL Jr^k^y^-H^l, ^ J A ^ ^XA^IC/ AA 7 - / V / ~ _JUA/-JJ 3 XL tit . as 

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