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Strathcona Nursery School : its contributions for working mothers Stewart, Donald Granville 1956

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STRATHCQNA NURSERY SCHOOL  Its Contributions For Working Mothers by DONALD GRANVILLE STEWART Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Vfork Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social mrk SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 1956 The University of British Columbia i i i ABSTBA.CT A survey i e being conducted t h i s year (1956) on a n a t i o n a l basis, by the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labour, regard-ing family circumstances of married women o Against t h i s back-' ground, a small scale survey has been undertaken of mothers who send t h e i r ohildren to Stratheona Bursery School* Tho Huraery^ i s an important s o e i a l w e l f a r e resource financed l a r g e l y by the Gommunlty Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, the majority of the c l i e n t s of t h i s agency arc working mothers, and some are the solo provider f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n * The survey offered the opportunity not only of s i g n i f i c a n t comparitive material, but of at l e a s t p a r t i a l evaluation of the work of t h i s Hurseryy In r e l a -t i o n both to i t s immediate d i s t r i c t and tho c i t y generally* The f a m i l i e s served by the Hursery were composed. In January 1956, of t h i r t y - s i x "normal"(i.e. complete) f a m i l i e s and eleven "broken" ( i . e . f a t h e r absent or incapasitated) f a m i l i e s . Twenty of these f a m i l i e s were sampled, with approximately the same proportion of complete and broken f a m i l i e s . Interviews were obtained with the mothers, mostly i n the e a r l y evening i n t h e i r homes. A modified form of the schedule employed f o r tho national (Women* s Bureau) survey being used. There was a wide v a r i a t i o n In the economic status of the f a m i l i e s , although the mothers stated t h e i r purpose i n working was to earn a l i v i n g or supplement the family budget. There appeared to be a preoccupation with immediate needs, and l i t t l e e f f o r t to make a long-term evaluation of t h e i r p o s i t i o n , the effeot of the mothers work on the family, or the gains and losses to the children* "The majority l i v e d i n overcrowded residences* but only an exceptional few were saving f o r a l a r g e r o r b e t t e r houses a majority were buying more e a s i l y obtainable items such as t e l e v i s i o n Bets and automobiles. The d i r e c t need f o r the Hursery School i s beyond question. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that a high proportion of the mothers l i v e i n other parts of the c i t y . There i s need f o r c a r e f u l consideration, however, of th© ti-*f*-foM ft»ietion of th© Huraery, (a) pre-school education and (b) day oar®*" -:The agency also has to harmonize (a) I t s services to the c h i l d and (b) i t s p o t e n t i a l service to the family as a whole. Some t e n t i t l v e recommendations regarding s t a f f personnel include the addition of a s o c i a l caseworker to the person-n e l who could aot as a l i a i s o n between the Hursery and the parents as well as a s s i s t i n g with s e l e c t i o n and intake of f a m i l i e s * I i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter .1. The Fu n c t i o n and Purpose of Nursery Schools The h i s t o r i c a l development o f nursery s c h o o l s . D e f i n i t i o n s o f Nursery School, d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between Day Nursery and Kindergarten, B r i e f h i s t o r i c a l sketch of Strathcona Nursery School. The community surrounding Strathcona Nursery School. Tho a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Nursery. The purpose o f the study. Method o f approach.... 1. Chapter 2. Economic and S o o i a l Problems C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s . Resident d i s t r i b u t i o n of Nursery School c l i e n t s . White c o l l a r f a m i l i e s , t h e i r residence occupations of mother and f a t h e r and t h e i r com-bined incomes. Manual-Artisan f a m i l i e s , t h e i r r esidence, occupations of mother and f a t h e r and t h e i r combined incomes. Immigrant f a m i l i e s . Broken f a m i l i e s , t h e i r r esidence, occupation of the mother and her income* The t y p i c a l mother* f a t h e r and c h i l d . Summary........... 22. Chapter 3. Family L i f e and C h i l d Care Patterns evident I n the l i v e s of the mother i n the white c o l l a r group. C h i l d r e n I n white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s , Manual-Artisan f a m i l i e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Broken f a m i l i e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , Personal i n t e r e s t s o f the mother. Summary o f the uses made by the f a m i l i e s o f the Nursery.,.....,»,,,.,,., * * * *... Chapter lj.. The Working Mother and Strathcona Nursery School The nursery i n the urban community. The working mother: gains and l o s s e s f o r the c h i l d r e n . The nursery s c h o o l : b a s i c needs. Some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Strathcona Nursery School *.*..... ....*.**.,. 76 . Appendix A - Sample Schedule.. 101. Table 2, Combined incomes o f manual-artisan f a m i l i e s * . . . ..1+1. Table 3. Summary o f some s o c i a l and economic i n d i e l e s . . . . ,5>0» Page TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Table 1. Combined Incomes o f white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s 33. (b) Chart F i g . 1. Resident d i s t r i b u t i o n of Nursery School c l i e n t s , January 19^6 2*. iv ACKHO¥LE!DGMENTS I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Miss Anne Furness f o r h e r aasi s t a n c e i n o r g a n i z i n g and r e v i s i n g t h i s study and t o Dr. L.G, Marsh f o r h i s valua b l e comments on p r e s e n t a t i o n o f th© material« Th© co-operation received, at Strathcona Nursery School was very much appreciated. Both Mrs. Judge and Mrs. Conway gave w i l l i n g l y of t h e i r time and knowledge. To Mis s S h i r l e y Stewart, my t y p i s t * I say thankyou f o r a job w e l l done. To Miss Donnetta Hondarson, whose constant i n s p i r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e made I t p o s s i b l e to complete t h i s study, I owe a very s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e . STRATHCONA NURSERY SCHOOL? ITS CONTRIBUTIONS FOR WORKING MOTHERS CHAPTER ONE THE FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF NURSERY SCHOOLS In tho development of nursery schools there has been two d i s t i n c t aspects which have c o n t r i b u t e d to the i n s t i t u t i o n represented to~day. The f i r s t aspect was concerned o n l y w i t h the c u s t o d i a l care o f the pre-school c h i l d during the mbther's tforking hours. L a t e r , i n the development of nursery schools emphasis was placed upon the l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y of the young c h i l d . To-day the nursery school i s u s u a l l y recognized as an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n which supplements the home l i f e of pre-school c h i l d r e n . I t a s s i s t s the c h i l d to l e a r n the many avenues of d a i l y l i v i n g , during a p e r i o d I n the c h i l d ' s l i f e when he I s developing a b a s i c foundation f o r l i v i n g w i t h other people. I t Includes many c h i l d r e n from homes where the mother I s employed ou t s i d e the homo. Some c h i l d r e n come from homes where the mother may bo 111 or otherwise i n c a p a c i t a t e d . Others are e n r o l l e d by f a m i l i e s where th© mother I s n e i t h e r working or i n c a p a c i t a t e d , but wish t o provide t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h an experience of group p l a y . The education and organ!aed care of young c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e t h e i r own home i s not a modern i d e a . The Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n o f UOO B.C. developed e a r l y methods o f childhood education. P l a t o proposed the Idea i n Tho R e p u b l i c . Tho Romans had " ...ludus o r p l a y space p r o v i d e d * . . f o r t h e i r young c h i l d r e n . " 1 The seventeenth 1. Landreth, Catherine, Education o f the Young C h i l d . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 191)2, page hi. 2 and nineteenth c e n t u r i e s saw Comenious, Rousseau, P e s t a l o z z i , and Robert Owen l e a d i n g the way toward e a r l y childhood schools, as a method of improving s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s l a i d the foundation f o r the systematic programs and concepts t h a t have been Incorporated i n the nursery school of to-day. Th© s o c i a l and economic needs of the va r i o u s c o u n t r i e s have played an important p a r t i n the development of the nursery school. Great B r i t a i n discovered d u r i n g the Boer War t h a t many p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s were r e j e c t e d because o f t h e i r poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . One of the r e s u l t s of t h i s d i s c o v e r y was an in c r e a s e d p u b l i c I n t e r e s t i n developing f u t u r e generations who would be h e a l t h i e r I n a l l r e s p e c t s . A t t e n t i o n was drawn to the slum areas which retarded many c h i l d r e n i n p h y s i c a l and emotional grovjth. F u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n soon r e v e a l e d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n should be given to the pre-school c h i l d . The p r e -school c h i l d , whose mother was f o r c e d by economic circumstances to work, i l l u s t r a t e d a s p e c i a l need. I n 1909 Rachel and Margaret M c M i l l a n e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t Nursery School i n Deptford, London to care f o r tho neglected c h i l d r e n o f low income parents. The F i s h e r Act, passed i n 1918 I n England, provided nursery school care as p a r t o f tho ed u c a t i o n a l system I n areas where the parents could not provide adequate care fov pre-school c h i l d r e n . These nursery schools wore p h i l a n t ^ o p l c I n purpose, but t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l goals wore w e l l d e f i n e d . 3 Russia's Nursery Schools wore f i r s t organized I n 1919 • f o l l o w i n g the p o l i t i c a l upheaval of 1917. The Bols h e v i k ' s were p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d and trere .Interested I n e s t a b l i s h i n g a new l i f e f o r the country. The Russian creches irere S t a t e supported and wore designed f i r s t , t o f r e e women so they c o u l d work o r study and take p a r t i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the country. Another purpose was, " t o give c h i l d r e n a communist ed u c a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n " . 2 Due t o the i n t e r e s t and re s e a r c h i n the f i e l d of human behavior i n tne United States another development arose. W i t h the i n c r e a s e d knowledge of human behavior a new emphasis was placed on the Importance of the e a r l y developmental years of the c h i l d . As a r e s u l t n u r s e r i e s were s e t up i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s as human r e l a t i o n s h i p l a b o r a t o r i e s . The m a j o r i t y of the students I n the e a r l y American schools were c h i l d r e n of u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . Where Great B r i t a i n s t a r t e d necessary schools i n the slums, the United States developed them I n the u n i v e r s i t y . Nursery Schools I n the United S t a t e s and Canada have never shown uniform growth and development. The pioneers d i d not record t h e i r e f f o r t s adequately and the r e a l needs of the c h i l d r e n were overlooked f o r a l o n g p e r i o d . Some n u r s e r i e s d i d develop programs t h a t met the c h i l d r e n ' s needs, but t h e i r experience was not adequately shared. T h i s has r e s u l t e d I n an uneven development 2. Vera Pediaevsky and P.S. H i l l , Nursery School and Parent Education I n S o v i e t R u s s i a . New York, E.P.D. Dutton and Co. L t d . , 1936* page 31. k and i t has g i v e n each nursery school i t s own p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y . Such i n d i v i d u a l i t y has both hindered and helped the development of the nursery school as an I n s t i t u t i o n . I t hindered by b l o c k i n g a u n i f i e d movement to s e t higher standards. I t helped by f u r n i s h i n g v a l u a b l e experimental s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s experience, the work of th© e a r l y p h i l o s o p h e r s , and the modern concept of c h i l d care were brought together to r a i s e nursery school standards beyond c u s t o d i a l care, to i n c l u d e childhood education. The increased u r b a n i z a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , the wars, depression, uneasy peace, and the increase l a the tempo of l i v i n g have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to the s h i f t i n g I n p o s i t i o n of the f a m i l y . There has been a gradual r e d u c t i o n I n the areas i n which the f a m i l y have primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . More r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s being delegated to o r g a n i z a t i o n s and I n s t i t u t i o n s o u t s i d e the immediate f a m i l y . The nursery school can be considered a by-product of t h i s s h i f t i n the p o s i t i o n o f the f a m i l y . The nursery school was designed t o supplement not t o U3urp the f a m i l y f u n c t i o n . The I n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y u n i t has to adapt to the pressures of l i v i n g i n today's world. I n doing so, the community i s c a l l e d upon by f a m i l i e s who need a s s i s t a n c e I n meeting these p r e s s u r e s . The care and education o f c h i l d r e n has boon recognized as a community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as w e l l as a f a m i l y concern. Group programs f o r young c h i l d r e n , based on sound p r i n c i p a l s o f s o c i a l 5 development and mental h e a l t h , o f f e r an e d u c a t i o n a l and supportive program to both c h i l d r e n and parents endeavouring to promote the welfare o f the c h i l d and at the same time main-t a i n the values o f f a m i l y l i f e . D e f i n i t i o n s of Nursery School. D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g Between Day  Nursery and Kindergarten. U s e F o r e s t i n her book Preschool Education devotes a chapter t o a r e l a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the Day Nursery, the Kindergarten, and the Nursery School. She s t a t e s t h a t they have "...as t h e i r common__alm the_jaare-and education of the p r e -school c h i l d outside of the home environment f o r at l e a s t p a r t of the day*"3 She goes on to s t a t e t h a t these I n s t i t u t i o n s have v a r i e d w i d e l y i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n th© values they have sought to r e a l i z e f o r mothers and c h i l d r e n . The day nursery (sometimes c a l l e d day care) developed from the French creche; the f i r s t having opened I t s doors I n P a r i s I n l8lti|,. In 1862 they had grown I n number and were recognised by the French government as an e f f e c t i v e way to combat i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , great s t r e s s being placed upon pr e v e n t i v e work.. The creche or day nursery spread to other European c o u n t r i e s and to America. I±s primary purpose i n a l l c o u n t r i e s was f i r s t to take e f f i c i e n t care of the c h i l d r e n of working mothers; and Inasmuch as the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l needs wero f a r more obvious and more 3. F o r e s t U s e , Preschool Education; A H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l  Study. Ifew York; Tho M a e m l l l i a n Co., 1929, page 310. 6 g e n e r a l l y understood than h i s I n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and emotional needs, the emphasis was upon p h y s i c a l care.k The primary aim of the k i n d e r g a r t e n has always been educational.. U s e F o r e s t suggests t h a t "At i t s best i t has on the whole f u l f i l l e d t h i s aim."5 i t aimed at a i d i n g the complete development of the c h i l d by p r o v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s s u i t e d to the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l needs. They have been e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r Immigrants I n North America. The k i n d e r g a r t e n u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t t h e i r enrollment to c h i l d r e n between f o u r and s i x years of age. I n one of tho recent books pu b l i s h e d on the nursery s c h o o l , Katherlne H. Read gives a d e f i n i t i o n o f the nursery school as "... .a school s e r v i n g the needs of two-, three-* and f o u r - y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n by o f f e r i n g them experiences adapted to what i s now known about the growth needs of these age l e v e l s . I t shares w i t h parents the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r promoting sound growth i n a p e r i o d when growth i s r a p i d and important,.,."3 Most nursery schools have a wider age range, i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n from two to f i v e and even, I n many eases, to the time when the c h i l d begins school at s i x years of age. There Is a considerable amount o f c o n f u s i o n regarding the Ij.. I b i d , Page 312 5. I b i d , Page 330 3. Read, Katherlne H., The Nursery School: A Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Laboratory. P h i l a d e l p h i a ; Vf.B, Saunders Co,,19i>Q, page 17» 7 s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the nursery school and day care* J u d i t h Gasman gave an address to the C h i l d Welfare League S e c t i o n , N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , i n June 1 9 5 5 i n which she o u t l i n e d t h i s c o nfusion and gave the f o l l o w i n g statement i n an attempt to c l a r i f y the two p o s i t i o n s * A nursery school i s a program f o r educating young c h i l d r e n - — a s young as two or three years of age, up to or I n c l u d i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n age. I t s I n t e n t and focus I s on the e d u c a t i o n a l values o f a group experience under teacher guidanoe!. A day care program, on the other hand, has no age l i m i t , e i t h e r downward o r upward, although any p a r t i c u l a r program may s e l e c t I t s ovm. l i m i t a t i o n i n day care as does a sc h o o l , . . . Day care i s a s e r v i c e to supplement the f a m i l y ' s care of the c h i l d f o r p a r t of the day outside h i s own home. The d i f f e r e n c e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n purpose and In focus..•• Any group program f o r young c h l l d r e n - - b y whatever name; nursery school, p l a y school, day nursery e t c . — r e q u i r e s the f u l l s k i l l s of the nursery school p r o f e s s i o n and many a q u a l i f i e d nursery school teacher... works w i t h c h i l d r e n I n ot h e r than nursery schools. This gives n a t u r a l support to the confusion between a program which i s p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l and one p r i m a r i l y a supplement to the home.3 I t i s not the purpose o f t h i s study to f a c t o r out the confusion or to question the p a r t i c u l a r name g i v e n to a p r e -school program. However i t i s valuable to make the above d i s t i n c t i o n . As the standard of pre-school programs evolve and become c r y s t a l i a e d the r o l e s played by nursery schools and day % J u d i t h Camman, "What i s happening i n Day Care--New Concepts, Current P r a c t i c e s and Trends", C h i l d Welfare, January 1 9 5 6 , oage 23-21^. 8 care w i l l probably become l e a s important. I n our examination o f Strathcona Nursery School i t i - d l l be shown t h a t both education and home supplementation are c l o s e l y interwoven. H i s t o r i c a l Sketch o f Strathcona Nursery School. Th© Strathcona Nursery School was e s t a b l i s h e d i n September 191^3* hy the Welfare C o u n c i l of the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies of Vancouver. I n a l e t t e r , dated November 2 l | , 1 9 ^ 3 from the Executive D i r e c t o r of the Vancouver C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies to the A s s i s t a n t Deputy, P r o v i n c i a l S ecretary of B r i t i s h Columbia i t was s t a t e d t h a t the Strathcona Nursery School has been e s t a b l i s h e d " . . . i n order to set a p a t t e r n f o r government supported n u r s e r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n of mothers engaged i n war I n d u s t r i e s . " ^ Due to crowded households, low Incomes, low r e n t , h i g h r a t i o o f divorced and separated f a m i l i e s to married f a m i l i e s , h i g h r a t e o f j u v e n i l e delinquency, i l l n e s s , and mothers working, the Nursery was found t o be meeting a very r e a l need I n the neighbourhood during the war years. A f t e r the war was over the Nursery continued to serve the area i n Vancouver bounded by Campbell, P r i o r , Main and Railway S t r e e t s . F o l l o w i n g tho amalgamation o f the Chest and C o u n c i l t o the one o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f Greater Vancouver, I t was decided that the o p e r a t i o n of the Stratheona !{.. Report of Casework Agency Review Committee to S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Committee on Strathcona Nursery School, June 25* 1 9 5 1 . 9 Nursery School was not a f u n c t i o n o f t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n 191+6 and 191+7 the Community Chest and C o u n c i l set up a committee to recommend which e x i s t i n g agency c o u l d best assume respon-s i b i l i t y f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the Nursery. The committee disbanded when the F o s t e r Day Care A s s o c i a t i o n was unabk t o accept t h e i r suggestion. Representatives of agencies i n the area such as the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Committee the p r i n c i p a l o f Strathcona P u b l i c School, and s t a f f members of v a r i o u s p r i v a t e agencies met u n o f f i c a l l y I n an e f f o r t to o b t a i n a sponsor because they f e l t the Nursery was meeting an important need. E a r l y i n 191+8 the Alexandra F r e s h A i r Camp, a member agency of Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s agreed to take over the o p e r a t i o n . of the Strathcona Nursery School. Mrs. M y r t l e Judge has boen Executive D i r e c t o r of both Camp Alexandra and Strathcona Nursery School s i n c e 191+8. P r i o r to 191+8 the Nursery moved from one c r i s i s to another. Under-staffed, inadequate q u a r t e r s , h e a t i n g problems, inadequate f i n a n c e s , u n t r a i n e d s t a f f and tho l a c k of sponsorship a l l combined to make i t a very d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n and one which.was not too h e a l t h y f o r the c h i l d r e n . Despite the poor c o n d i t i o n s the Nursery continued to s t r u g g l e because I t was f e l t by the s t a f f and Board of D i r e c t o r s , that even these c o n d i t i o n s were b e t t e r than those the c h i l d r e n faced at home. Under the new sponsorship of Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s 10 the Nursery continued to faco s e r i o u s problems. The most acute was th© l a c k o f adequate housing f o r the Nursery. Ttfo moves were made i n 19UB, both proved to be h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The Nursery moved i n t o It3 permanent quarters erected by the Board of D i r e c t o r s f o r t h i s purpose at Cordova and P r i n c e s s S t r e e t s i n the s p r i n g o f 1 9 5 0 . I n 1951 the Nursery extended i t s program to meet the needs of the f a m i l i e s . The f a m i l y I n which the mother worked found i t very d i f f i c u l t to keep w i t h i n the Nursery hours o f 8 * 3 0 A.M. to l^s30 P.M. A l s o there was the problem o f c h i l d care d u r i n g the summer months. Christmas and Easter h o l i d a y s * The Nursery met the problem by opening at 7?30 A.M. and c l o s i n g at 6 s 0 0 P*M. on weekdays from September to June. During the summer months the Nursery operates a p l a y school* I n 19$h and 1955 the Nursery began to concentrate t h e i r s e r v i c e s upon the f a m i l i e s where the mother was working outside the home. Ser v i c e had always been given t o such f a m i l i e s where the mother worked dur i n g the day. The focus o f s e r v i c e had been on f a m i l i e s who l i v e d w i t h i n the immediate area bounded by Campbell, Prior» Main and Railway S t r e e t s . A l l c h i l d r e n i n the d i s t r i c t were e l i g i b l e to attend the nursery r e g a r d l e s s of whether th© mother was employed or not. Tho change i n focus moved the nursory from a general s e r v i c e to the more s p e c i f i c problem f a c e d by the workin g mother* Many f a m i l i e s o r i g i n a l l y l i v e d and 11 worked i n th© p r o s c r i b e d area at the time the c h i l d was e n r o l l e d •. L a t e r as t h e i r economic st a t u s Improved the f a m i l i e s moved to b e t t e r d i s t r i c t s i n Vancouver and Burnaby, i n most cases, e i t h e r the f a t h e r o r the mother continued to work i n the immediate area. They were s t i l l able t o b r i n g the c h i l d t o and from the Nursery without too muoh d i f f i c u l t y . The c h i l d r e n I n the Immediate area were no longer the focus of the Nursery School, The c h i l d of tho working mother, r e g a r d l e s s o f where he l i v e d became the focus of the s e r v i c e g i v e n by Strathcona Nursery School, The Community Surrounding Strathcona Nursery School. The community i n Vancouver known as Strathcona comprises approximately f o r t y c i t y b l o c k s , bounded by Campbell, Main, P r i o r and Railway S t r e e t s , East Hastings S t r e e t runs p a r a l l e l to P r i o r S t r e e t , b i s e c t i n g the area approximately one t h i r d of the distance from Burrard I n l e t t o P r i o r S t r e e t . The corner o f Main and Hastings S t r e e t s formed the o r i g i n a l " c e n t r e " of the c i t y . In the past three decades the c i t y centre has moved south and west to i t s present p o s i t i o n at G r a n v i l l e and Georgia. This movement i s a n a t u r a l phenomena of increased u r b a n i z a t i o n and an outgrowth of the r i s e and d e c l i n e of urban areas. The second stage of the phenomena I s a d e c l i n e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r area which once was the centre of the c i t y . S o c i o l o g i s t s r e f e r to t h i s stage as one of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 12 G i s t and H a l b e r t devote a chapter to d i s o r g a n i z e d areas I n t h e i r book Urban Society.£ They c h a r a c t e r i z e the area on two l e v e l s ? the a s s o c i a t i o n s ! l e v e l r e f e r s to the d i s r u p t i o n qf e s t a b l i s h e d s o o i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n or between human groups; the socond l e v e l r e f e r s to the personal d i s r u p t i o n which occurs i n the l i f e o r g a n i z a t i o n of.the I n d i v i d u a l * Crime, delinquency* v i c e , d i v o r c e , d e s e r t i o n , and m o b i l i t y are I n d i c e s or symptoms of the former l e v e l and neuroses, psyehosis, a l c h o l l s m and s u i c i d e are symptoms of the l a t t e r l e v e l . D e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g s and h a b i t a t i o n by Impoverished people, l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y I n the d i s t r i c t , and the absence of community p a r t i c i -p a t i o n o r noighbourhood e s p r i t de corps c h a r a c t e r i z e these d i s o r g a n i z e d areas. There may be a h i g h degree of organized p a r t s such as v i c e and crime but the community l a c k s a f e e l i n g of worth and p r i d e i n I t s e l f . I n Vancouver the Immediate area west of Main S t r e e t i s and has been a commercial d i s t r i c t f o r most of the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y . The Strathcona area* east of Main S t r e e t I s and always has been, a r e s i d e n t i a l area. Industry has moved In t o the area to a considerable degree e s p e c i a l l y along th© w a t e r f r o n t of Burrard I n l e t and to a l e s s e r extent on th© other side around P r i o r S t r e e t . The commercial d i s t r i c t immediately west of the Strathcona area i s considered a d i s o r g a n i z e d area I n the l i g h t 5 . G i s t , Noel P. arid H a l b e r t , L.A., Urban S o c i e t y , New Yorkt Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1 9 5 0 . 13 of the above d e f i n i t i o n . However i t i s perhaps l o s s d i s -organized to a degree than the neighbourhood to the west. Strathcona Nursery School I s i n the s i x hundred b l o c k East Cordova., F u r t h e r west on Cordova S t r e e t , s t a r t i n g approxi-mately at Main S t r e e t , and c o n t i n u i n g west f o r f o u r blocks, i s VancouverVs " s k i d row". From Railway S t r e e t south to P r i o r S t r e e t there i s a gradual improvement I n the b u i l d i n g s . Hastings S t r e e t i s a d e f i n i t e d i v i d i n g l i n e i n the e c o l o g l o a l s t r u c t u r e of the area. Between Railway S t r e e t on Burrard I n l e t and Hastings S t r e e t there I s a mixture of I n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s . The i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s are, f o r the most p a r t s u b s t a n t i a l . The r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s are o l d , wooden frame, unpainted, b u i l t on t h i r t y f o o t l o t s . The yards are s m a l l , unkept and u s u a l l y l i t t e r e d w i t h junk. The rooming houses are d e t e r i o r a t e d , the h a l l s are p o o r l y l i t , and the general atmosphere i s d e s o l a t e . The Strathcona Nursery Sohool i s l o c a t e d approximately I n the middle o f . t h i s s e c t i o n of the area. I t I s a concrete b l o c k b u i l d i n g ttfhich can e a s i l y be converted to an I n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g at some f u t u r e date should t h i s s e c t i o n become e n t i r e l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d . From Hastings S t r e e t south to P r i o r the homes improve i n s t r u c t u r e , appearance and landscaping. There are fewer rooming houses and more s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . Some I n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s are l o c a t e d throughout t h i s s e c t i o n . 111. Before World War Two the waterfront was h e a v i l y populated by Japanese. Today Japanese s t i l l predominate together w i t h a mixture of new Canadians of European e x t r a c t i o n . Across E a s t i n g s S t r e e t there I s a l a r g e community of Chinese* Toward P r i o r S t r e o t and the Railway yards of the F a l s e Creek F l a t s , I t a l i a n s form the m a j o r i t y of the r e s i d e n t s . There are a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h number o f r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c groups i n the area. Some t h i r t y percent of th© f a m i l i e s are t r a n s i e n t and s i x t y percent of the people speak a language -other than E n g l i s h * ^ Old time r e s i d e n t s show a d i s t i n c t l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n I n t o Canadian l i f e . Communication between most e t h n i c groups i s almost no n - e x l s t a n t , each p r e f e r l n g t o promote and perpetuate i t s s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e w i t h l i t t l e concern f o r the t o t a l community. There I s no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group th a t can act as spokesman f o r the d i s t r i c t . There i s no neighbourhood c e n t r e , Parent Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n o r other parent body t h a t can co-ordinate the community a c t i v i t i e s . Almost a l l o f the l e a d e r s h i p comes from p r o f e s s i o n a l people who l i v e o u t s i d e the d i s t r i c t . There are no p l a y areas or parks f o r the c h i l d r e n ? Hastings Park i s used f o r commercial s p o r t s . There i s a d i s t i n c t l a c k o f wholesome r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a d u l t s . Although there are no p l a y areas f o r c h i l d r e n there are s e v e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the c h i l d r e n of 6, Steiman, B o r i s ; Community Or g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Welfare. Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , 1955* 15 the area. There are f i f t e e n churches r e p r e s e n t i n g f i f t e e n denominations o r e t h n i c o r i e n t a t e d denominations, and s e v e r a l m i s s i o n s . There are many groups and agencies who have an investment i n the area. The e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups are a p o t e n t i a l source of enrichment to the d i s t r i c t and Vancouver as a whole, but there i s no organized movement f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l , and there I s a l a c k of d e s i r e on the p a r t of the r e s i d e n t s f o r such c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Because of low r e n t the area has a d i s p r o o o r t a t e number o f I n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and a l a r g e number of o l d e r people who r e c e i v e the Old Age Pension and Old Ago Allowance. This Is the s o t t i n g of the Strathcona Nursery School. The recent trend of s e r v i c e to f a m i l i e s who are r e s i d e n t I n other s e c t i o n s of Vancouver or Burnaby has had a d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e upon the Nursery. One of the purposes of t h i s study i s t o assess to what extent t h i s i n f l u e n c e has a l t e r e d the focus of the s e r v i c e given by the Nursery. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Strathcona Nursery School Is a member ageney of the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s , of which Alexandra House and Gordon House are a l s o members. Alexandra House and Gordon House oach are administered by separate Boards of D i r e c t o r s . Camp 16 Alexandra and Strathcona Nursery School are administered by a t h i r d Board of D i r e c t o r s , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o p e r a t i o n of both agencies* The 1956 Board c o n s i s t s of eighteen mombers who are e l e c t e d each year at the annual meeting of the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s . At the present time there i s no r o t a t i o n system, and a board member can u s u a l l y remain as lon g as the I n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s to be a c t i v e . As a member agency of Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s the Strathcona Nursery School i s a l s o a member of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l of Greater Vancouver. The budget f o r 1955 r e c e i v e d from the Community Chest and C o u n c i l was $ 1 8 , 0 0 0 . The second source o f revenue r e c e i v e d by Strathcona Nursery School comes from fees p a i d by the parents.. The maximum fee p a i d by the parent i s $>6.00 per week f o r each e h i l d attending the Nursery. This f e e i s on a s l i d i n g s c a l e , depending upon the parents a b i l i t y t o pay and can range from # 6 . 0 0 per week to z e r o . I n 1955 the Nursery r e c e i v e d §7,9$k» from fees p a i d by the. p a r e n t s . The Executive D i r e c t o r I s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Board of D i r e c t o r s f o r executing p o l i c y l a i d down by the Board. I n February 1956 the s t a f f c o n s i s t e d of a nursery s u p e r v i s o r , an a s s i s t a n t nursery s u p e r v i s o r , f i v e teachers, two pa r t - t i m e un-t r a i n e d h e l p e r s , a r e c e p t i o n i s t , a cook, a housekeeper and a j a n i t o r . 17 The Purpose of the Study. During World War Two many Canadian women, i n c l u d i n g married women w i t h c h i l d r e n , went to work i n war I n d u s t r i e s or other businesses to r e l i e v e men f o r s e r v i c e i n the Armed Forces. A myth developed f o l l o w i n g the end of the war tha t a l l of these women returned t o t h e i r homes and d i d not continue to work, A second f a c t o r has been the increase i n the number of young couples where the wi f e has continued t o work i n an e f f o r t that they, as a f a m i l y , can e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own home. The c o s t of l i v i n g has r i s e n during and a f t e r the war, jobs are more abundant, wages women r e c e i v e are h i g h e r and there has been a general r i s e I n the p u b l i c e s t i m a t i o n of the standard of l i v i n g , 7 The f a c t I s many women who aro married and who have f a m i l i e s , are working outside of t h e i r own homes. What k i n d of work are they doing, what are t h e i r hours and working c o n d i t i o n s , what i s t h e i r a t t i t u d e to work, what e f f e c t has t h i s employment had upon the f a m i l y , and what about c h i l d care? These are a few of the quostions t h a t many people have been a s k i n g without r e c e i v i n g any f a c t u a l r e p l i e s t o t h e i r q u l r l e s . They are Important questions and there should bo adequate answers s u p p l i e d since the e f f e c t o f t h i s trend w i l l have f a r reaching consequences to our country i n 7. For the purpose o f t h i s paper the w r i t e r d e f i n e s the "standard of l i v i n g " as the l e v e l at which we would l i k e to l i v e . The " l e v e l of l i v i n g " we d e f i n e as the l e v e l a t which we a c t u a l l y l i v e . 18 the f u t u r e . A s t a r t has been made by the Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, Ottawa i n t h e i r request, to the Canadian Schools of S o c i a l Work f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n conducting an extensive survey o f Canadian women who are working f o r pay. The questions which await an answer are a n a t i o n a l problem, and i t i s being con-ducted on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e * This present study, although not d i r e c t l y connected vrith the n a t i o n a l survey, i s an attempt to answer the same general questions. This study Is focused upon the working mother and the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r nursery school to these f a m i l i e s . V/e are concerned about the working c o n d i t i o n s , the a t t i t u d e s of the mother to h e r work, why she Is employed, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y the e f f e c t o f the mothers employment upon the c h i l d r e n , and the values of the Nursery School* This study does not attempt t o evaluate the Strathcona Nursery School program or the standards o f the Nursery as com-pared to any other Nursery. The focus i s on the working mother and the c o n t r i b u t i o n th© Strathcona Nursery makes toward the community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a m i l i e s where the mother I s working outside the homo. I t I s s i g n i f i c a n t that th© Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, Ottawa, requested the a s s i s t a n c e o f the Schools of S o c i a l 19 Work i n conducting the n a t i o n a l survey. Tho questions r a i s e d are of p a r t i c u l a r importance to the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work since i t i s the s o c i a l worker who i s , and w i l l be, most con-cerned i f the present trend of \*orking mothers proves to be o f det r i m e n t a l o f f s e t upon tho f a m i l y . The f a m i l y I s tho b a s i c u n i t i n s o c i e t y and the p r o f e s s i o n o f S o c i a l Work, as a h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n , i s v i t a l l y concerned w i t h a l l aspects and pressures upon the f a m i l y . The nursery school i s one of a host of t o o l s a v a i l a b l e f o r the work of strengthening the f a m i l y . I t I s Important not only f o r the s o c i a l worker but f o r the community and n a t i o n at l a r g o , to know the value o f the nursery school as a resource. Method of the Study* This study has two p a r t i c u l a r aims, (a) through i n t e r v i e w s w i t h working mothers who send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to Strathcona Hursory School, to review t h e i r problems and t h e i r views on the School and (b) some ©valuation of how the ITursery meets th© needs by c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n . On January 1 0 , 1 9 5 & thor© were a t o t a l of f o r t y - s e v e n f a m i l i e s i*ho sont t h e i r c h i l d r e n to Strathcona Nursery School. Of t h i s t o t a l , t h i r t y - s i x f a m i l i e s o r approximately s e v e n t y - f i v e percent, were f a m i l i e s i n which both the mother and f a t h e r were I n th© homo. E l e v e n , or approximately twenty-five percent, were f a m i l i e s I n which the f a t h e r vras absent due to death, s e p a r a t i o n 20 o r divorceo In c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h tho s t a f f a t the School o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia* i t was decided that a sample group of the mothers would bo in t e r v i e w e d . The t o t a l number of mothers in t e r v i e w e d was tx^enty. F i f t e e n mothers, or s e v e n t y - f i v e percent of the sample group, were chosen from those f a m i l i e s i n which both mothers and f a t h e r s were present I n the home* F i v e mothers, o r twenty-five percent of the sample were not l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands f o r v a r i o u s reasons, but I n each case, the mother had custody of the c h i l d . Of the t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t s of f o r t y - s e v e n , forty*thre© were homes I n which the mother was e i t h e r working, o r l o o k i n g f o r work. One mother was deceased, two were 111, and one wa3 not working or l o o k i n g f o r x^ork. The sample was obtained by asking the Nursery S u p e r v i s o r , Mrs. Margaret Conway, f o r a l i s t of names and address of f a m i l i e s who would not be d i s t u r b e d by a v i s i t and whom she f e l t would be w i l l i n g t o co-operate i n the survey. Mrs. Conway suggested twenty-seven f a m i l i e s , from whom,, twenty i n t e r v i e w s were obtained. F o r the m a j o r i t y of those Interviewed, an appointment was made w i t h e i t h e r the mother or f a t h e r when they came to p i c k up the c h i l d r e n from the Nursery I n the afternoon. This was fo l l o w e d by an Int e r v i e w I n the f a m i l y residence which l a s t e d from t h i r t y t o n i n e t y minutes* The average i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d one hour. 21 The Interview c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i o s of questions (somewhat, abreviatod from the standard schedule employed f o r the Women's Bureau Survey) and a general d i s c u s s i o n which was designed to o b t a i n tho mother's a t t i t u d e s to the questions. Th© schedule i s l i s t e d I n Appendix A. Observations were., recorded Immediately f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w s and cover a t t i t u d e s , l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the c h i l d r e n ' s behavior, and the h u s b a n d ' s - p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n the i n t e r v i e w . CHAPTER TWO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS I n order to see th© f a m i l i e s served by the Strathcona Nursery i n t h e i r proper p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s necessary to examine t h e i r economic and s o c i a l s t a t u s , i n c l u d i n g the f a m i l y composition, and housing c o n d i t i o n s . Por th© purpose o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n th© sample group of f a m i l i e s are subdivided under the headings of "normal" for complete) and "broken" f a m i l i e s . I n the process of a n a l y z i n g the c o l l e c t e d data, i t became apparent* that the normal f a m i l i e s contained two separate groups of peoplej those who were employed i n white c o l l a r occupation, and those who worked I n manual or a r t i s a n employment. I n order t o present th© data I n a form which lends I t s e l f to comparison and which a l s o draws out the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n found w i t h i n these twenty f a m i l i e s , th© m a t e r i a l i s a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s . These s e c t i o n s are th© n o m a l white c o l l a r , normal manual-artisan or wage earner f a m i l i e s ; and the broken f a m i l i e s . The occupation o f th© f a t h e r s f o r a s the b a s i s upon which the f a m i l y was considered to come w i t h i n the white c o l l a r group or the wage earner group. The broken f a m i l i e s ar© a v a r i e d but s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c e n t group and they are d i s c u s s e d together on t h a t b a s i s . The number of f a m i l i e s w i t h i n each of the three groups, are as f o l l o w s : White c o l l a r 6 Manual A r t i s a n 9 Broken 5> 23 Although the groups are s m a l l , they appear to represent the experience which i s of most relevance f o r understanding the r o l e of the Nursery. F o r each of the three sub-groups the m a t e r i a l i s d i s c u s s e d under the headings of f a m i l y , residence, and work. Resident D i s t r i b u t i o n of Nursery School C l i e n t s . Before d i s c u s s i n g the f a m i l i e s Interviewed i n the course o f t h i s study i t i s necessary to i l l u s t r a t e the general l o c a t i o n o£ a l l f a m i l i e s served by the Strathcona Nursery School. I n January 1956, the Nursery served f o r t y - s e v e n f a m i l i e s I n the Greater Vancouver area. The accompanlng map i n d i c a t e s the approximate l o c a t i o n of thoso f a m i l i e s Interviewed and those t h a t were not w i t h i n the Strathcona area I t s e l f . Of the t h i r t e e n f a m i l i e s l i v i n g w i t h i n the area, the sample group Included only t h r e e . I n Chapter One I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t the Strathcona area borders on what the s o c i o l o g i s t r e f e r s to as a d i s o r g a n i z e d area. Such an area I s a l s o r e f e r r e d to as " b l i g h t e d " , slum, d e t e r i o r a t e d , or t r a n s i t i o n a l . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f such an area are poor housing, d e t e r i o r a t e d f a c i l i t i e s and a low l e v e l o f l i v i n g . I t I s a l t o g e t h e r probable t h a t the t o t a l group of f o r t y - s e v e n f a m i l i e s , because of the t h i r t e e n w i t h i n the Strathcona area, may have a s l i g h t l y lower l e v e l of l i v i n g than the sample group i n d i c a t e s . I f the need f o r the Strathcona Nursery i s great among t h i s sample, I t Is even g r e a t e r f o r the r e s t . The l o c a t i o n of homes served by the Strathcona Nursery School 13 ever-changing. I n 1955 the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s served was 109, This t o t a l comprised e i g h t y - f i v e norma! or complet© f a m i l i e s and twenty-four broken homes. I n p r o p o r t i o n a l terms t h i s equals approximately seventy-eight percent normal f a m i l i e s and twenty-two percent broken homes. The same approximate p r o p o r t i o n s were f o l l o w e d i n s e l e c t i o n the sample f a m i l i e s : out of the t o t a l of twenty, f i v e were broken f a m i l i e s . 25 Resident D i s t r i b u t i o n of Nursery School C l i e n t s January 1956. 26 White C o l l a r F a m i l i e s . I n th© sample group o f twenty f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d , s i x , (or t h i r t y per cent) were considered to f a l l w i t h i n the grouping of norma! o r complete f a m i l i e s , i n which the occupation of the husband was of whit© c o l l a r or non-manual s t a t u s . I t i n c l u d e d one small business p r o p r i e t o r , two students, a c l e r k and a c i v i l servant. F a m i l y . These s i x f a m i l i e s were f a i r l y comfortable I n - m a t e r l a l possessions. They Included people who had been married f o r severa l years who e i t h e r had time to b u i l d a home, or at l e a s t were moving towards t h i s g o a l . The m a j o r i t y of the mothers were under t h i r t y - f i v e years of age. Two of the group however were between t h i r t y - f i v e and f o r t y - f o u r years of age. They were a l l born i n Canada. Three of the mothers had completed grade twelve and the remaining three completed grade e i g h t * nine and ten. The f a m i l y l i f e was c h i l d - c e n t r e d f o r the b r i e f p e r i o d when they were a l l home I n the evenings. During the weekends the f a m i l y u n i t had some semblance o f a u n i f i e d group. Unfor-t u n a t e l y the mothers had much of t h e i r housework t o do on the weekends. Th© shortage of time a v a i l a b l e f o r household d u t i e s and c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n l e f t very l i t t l e time f o r tho 27 personal i n t e r e s t s of the parents. The l i m i t e d amount of time was one of the outstanding f a c t s r e f e r r e d to by the f a m i l i e s In a l l groups* W i t h one e x c e p t i o n the m a j o r i t y of these f a m i l i e s appeared to work as an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t i n the spheres of f a m i l y a c t i v i t y and r e c r e a t i o n . The exception was a f a m i l y i n which the super-f i c i a l bond l a c k e d any n o t i c e a b l e warmth of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The parents worked hard to b u i l d a b e t t e r m a t e r i a l s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n to "...have a b e t t e r chance than we had". But they appeared to l a c k any r e a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the values of f a m i l y l i f e . T his group had greater job s e c u r i t y than the manual a r t i s a n group. They had a r e g u l a r e i g h t hour day, s i c k leave b e n e f i t s , p a i d s t a t u t o r y h o l i d a y s and dependable Incomes. The husbands may become i l l but they would have a job upon t h e i r r e t u r n . This s e c u r i t y d i d not e x i s t I n the f a m i l i e s of the two students, since both men were not earning at the time of the I n t e r v i e w ; the f a m i l y was supported by the earnings of the w i f e , however, t h e i r long-term outlook was r e l a t i v e l y good, since from the t r a i n i n g and education o f the husband, a reasonably w e l l p a i d job c o u l d be expected. Of the 3lx white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s , two f a m i l i e s rented apartments of three and f o u r rooms. The remaining f o u r l i v e d i n s i n g l e houses. Two rented and two were paying o f f i n s t a l m e n t s 28 on a mortgaged house* The s i z e of the houses r a n from f i v e to seven rooms. Only one f a m i l y of the s i x l i v e d w i t h i n the Strathcona d i s t r i c t . The others l i v e d i n widely s c a t t e r e d s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver. I n each ease, however, at l e a s t one of the parents worked i n or near the Strathcona d i s t r i c t * F or example when one mother knew she would have to support the f a m i l y w h i l e her husband attended u n i v e r s i t y , she f i r s t p l a c e d the c h i l d i n the Nursery and then looked f o r , and found work I n the same area. The f u r n i s h i n g s were adequate 1 i n a l l cases. I n most cases the f u r n i t u r e was r e l a t i v e l y new. Four of the s i x homes had t e l e v i s i o n sets as p a r t of the f u r n i s h i n g s . Occupations. (a) Mothers' Three of the mothers were c l e r i c a l workers and three were f a c t o r y w o r k e rs. 2 As i n the case of the husbands, tho c l e r i c a l 1. F u r n i s h i n g s w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of adequate, l e s s than adequate, more than adequate. These are a r b i t r a r i l y terms used by the w r i t e r . Adequate I s d e f i n e d as having a l l the ba s i c n e c e s s i t i e s suoh as stove, s i n k , t a b l e , c h a i r per person, bed per person, l i v i n g room s u i t e , washing machine. I t does not inclu d e t e l e v i s i o n , automatic dishwasher, d r i e r , s p e c i a l e l e c t r i c a ppliances. To be c l a s s i f i e d as adequate the f u r n i s h i n g s must be i n a usable c o n d i t i o n . 2. The groupings were made on the b a s i s of the f a t h e r ' s occupation. The occupations o f the mothers does not e f f e c t the o r i g i n a l grouping. 29 jobs r e f l e c t e d a c e r t a i n b a s i c job s e c u r i t y . I n comparing th© past work h i s t o r i e s of the mothers, I t was n o t i c e d that h a l f of tho group had changed t h e i r job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . One woman had moved from c l e r i c a l t o f a c t o r y work, and two had moved from f a c t o r y to c l e r i c a l work. I n a l l cases I t was apparent that work was a means to an end. The primary end was f i n a n c i a l , but f o r two women, work was e i t h e r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l e a s e of energy or an ©scape from household d u t i e s . Those two worked p r i m a r i l y because they were not happy I n t h e i r own homes. There was no apparent f e e l i n g s of I n f e r i o r i t y i n the wroraen who d i d f a c t o r y work whi l e t h e i r husbands were engaged I n white c o l l a r work. There seemed to be a common bond between husband and w i f e i n a l l cases. They were partners I n an e n t e r p r i s e d i r e c t e d towards " g e t t i n g ahead". The l e v e l of ©ducation had very l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the jobs h e l d by these women. Only one person was working .at a j o b f o r which she was t r a i n e d . Two women w i t h grade e i g h t and nine educations were doing c l e r i c a l work while each of the f a c t o r y workers had completed grade "twelve. These f a c t o r y workers were engaged I n occupations that were below t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . T h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n was that they could make more money I n these typ©s of jobs. I t can be s©en tha t t h i s impression i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t , i n t h a t , t h i s sampling group I l l u s t r a t e d t h a t 30 the c l e r i c a l workers had, a h i g h e r minimum wage than the f a c t o r y workers. The f a c t o r y workers however averaged a h i g h e r income.3 The income r e c e i v e d by the c l e r i c a l workers ranged from #100 to 2^1+0 per month while the f a c t o r y workers ranged between $89 per month and §2l|.0« I n these two groups the h i g h e s t monthly wage of $2i}.0 happened to be the same, but the lowest f a c t o r y income was l e s s than the loxjest c l e r i c a l Income. The f a c t o r y workers 1 combined incomes averaged §168 per month whi l e the c l e r i c s l worker's averaged $163 per month. The above f i g u r e s were obtained by asking the women what t h e i r approximate Income was f o r the past txrelve months; The r e p l i e s to t h i s question a l s o brought f o r t h the f a c t t h a t o n l y two of the s i x women had worked the e n t i r e previous twelve months. One woman had worked o n l y f o u r months, two f i v e months, and one had worked nine of the previous twelve months. On the q u e s t i o n of f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g the women were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d . Three d i d not envisage any f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g i n the f u t u r e . The other three wanted t r a i n i n g which would Increase t h e i r earning c a p a c i t y . One o f the three was a c t u a l l y t a k i n g a course i n accounting w i t h the view of I n c r e a s i n g h er earning, c a p a c i t y . The hours of work of the mother 1s i s a very Important element i n the t o t a l management of the home and from the view* p o i n t of a d m i n i s t e r i n g s e r v i c e s i n the Strathcona Nursery School. 3. I t should be noted a l s o t h a t the f a c t o r y worker has l e s s c l e a n i n g and c l o t h i n g expenses. 31 When ono considers that these mothers spent on the average, 8.7 hours, e x c l u d i n g t r a v e l l i n g time* i n t h e i r employment, I t .,. i s easy to see that the women had very l i t t l e time f o r homo management and c h i l d care. E i t h e r the mother or f a t h e r has t o b r i n g th© c h i l d to th© Nursery befor© going to work e A vory r o e ! problem I s created f o r the parents i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o accomplish t h i s d a i l y task. The c h i l d r e n must b© h u r r i e d through breakf ast and down to th© Nursery. The usual p r a c t i c e I s f o r tho parent who s t a r t s work th© l a t e s t i n tho morning to d e l i v e r the c h i l d to tho Nursery. I n the afternoon the parent who f i n i s h e s work th© e a r l i e s t u s u a l l y p i c k s up th© c h i l d . I n t h i s way tho c h i l d i s i n the Nursory the s h o r t e s t p e r i o d of time. The s i t u a t i o n I s complicated when only on© parent works near tho Nursery School. I n such cases the c h i l d may spend nine hours or lon g e r I n th© JJursery each day. In th© group o f f a m i l i e s i n which th© f a t h e r I s engaged i n a white c o l l a r occupation, the working hours of th© mothers d i d not show any dofinlt© p a t t e r n . On© mother s t a r t e d work at 7:00 A.M. and worked u n t i l 5t00 P.M., s i x days a week. This women o f t e n returned to work a t n i g h t and she estimated her work week at s e v e n t y - f i v e hours. This was an ex c e p t i o n s ! caso. Since I t was Impossible because of d i s t a n c e f o r t h i s mother to e i t h e r take or p i c k up th© c h i l d r e n at the Nursery, she d i d not have any 32 d i r e c t contact w i t h the Nursery School s t a f f . The other women s t a r t e d work at e i t h e r e i g h t or nine o'clock i n the morning, and f i n i s h e d between f o u r t h i r t y and s i x i n the evening. With the exception of one woman who worked Saturday mornings, the remaining f o u r worked a f i v e day week. I n f i v e cases t h e r e f o r e the average amount of time the mother spent outside the home, ex c l u d i n g t r a v e l l i n g time was 1+3 hours per week. (b) Father's Occupation. The occupations o f the f a t h e r s i n t h i s group Included a p r o p r i e t o r , a c l e r k , a salesman, a c i v i l servant and two students. The element o f job s e c u r i t y and a higher education l e v e l was apparent I n t h i s group of men. The income r e c e i v e d by the f a t h e r ' s engaged i n white c o l l a r occupations v a r i e d from $lf?0 per month t o |280. The average monthly Income was approximately $208. This f i g u r e i s s l i g h t l y lower than the average monthly Income o f the f a t h e r s engaged I n manual-artisan work. The -two students had worked o n l y e i g h t of the past twelve months. The others had been employed f o r the e n t i r e twelve months. The hours of work o f these men were very s i m i l a r to those of t h e i r wives. The p r o p r i e t o r worked a s i x t y hour, f i v e and one h a l f day week. The other men wcrked a f o r t y hour f i v e day week. 33 I n a m a j o r i t y of cases the t o t a l f a m i l y was together by s i x o'clock i n the evening. For a few short hours, before the , c h i l d r e n ' s bedtime, they were a f u l l f a m i l y u n i t . I n most cases t h i s p e r i o d was c h i l d centred as they ate supper and played together* Combined Incomes of Husband and Wife. • The combined incomes of both parents f o r the previous twelve months, on a monthly average, ranged between approximately #200 and $31+2. The average monthly Income f o r the year I n these s i x f a m i l i e s was approximately $280. I n f i v e f a m i l i e s e i t h e r the f a t h e r or the mother had not worked the e n t i r e twelve months. As a r e s u l t the above f i g u r e s are c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d when the combined Incomes are computed f o r the month o f December 1955. The combined Incomes f o r December ranged from $175 to §520 per month. The average income f o r the s i x f a m i l i e s i n December was approximately $307. Table 1. Combined Incomes of White C o l l a r F a m i l i e s .  Income f o r 1955*- II Income f o r December* 1955. Family 1. 2. 3. t 6. Husband 2,000 1,200 2,000 1,800 3,000 2,800 Wife 2,100 1,200 800 1,800 1+00 1,200 T o t a l i+,100 2,1+00 2,800 3,600 3,1+00 l+,000 Monthly Average 31+2.00 200.00 231+.00 300.00 283.00 333.00 Husband 167 i5o 250 280 «A11 f i g u r e s are approximate Sources R e p l i e s of parents to schedule questions. Wife 175 X 150 100 21+0 T o t a l 175 21+0 256 300 350 520 Family number f o u r i n th© tabl© on th© preceding page were co-owners of a sm a l l business establishment. They were the only f a m i l y I n which both parents worked th© e n t i r e twelve months. Although t h i s f a m i l y d i d not attempt to d i v i d e th© company p r o f i t s , th© w r i t e r has don© so f o r c o n s i s t e n c y I n t h i s tabl©. The blank spaces under the husbands Income f o r December I n d i c a t e the two students who were n o t earning at th a t time. This t a b l e I l l u s t r a t e s th© monitary advantage when the wlf© s t a r t e d to work. I t w i l l b© noted t h a t the Incomes of one f a m i l y made a sharp drop but the remaining flv© had a s u b s t a n t i a l Increase w i t h both parents working. The Increase I n the monthly averages comparing 1 9 5 5 and December 1 9 5 5 ranged from | 0 t o $ 1 8 7 * This v a r i a t i o n was caused by the v a r y i n g l e n g t h of time worked I n 1 9 5 5 . The a c t u a l monitary advantage of the mother working can be seen by comparing the monthly Incomes f o r December 1 9 5 5 . Manual-Artisan F a m i l i e s . Th© second major group t o b© considered i s the manual-a r t i s a n normal f a m i l i e s . I n t h i s study the d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n to tho manual-artisan normal f a m i l y I s , a f a m i l y I n which the mother and f a t h e r are l i v i n g I n the home and the f a t h e r I s engaged i n 3 5 work which i s generally considered to be u n s k i l l e d or semi-s k i l l e d . The manual-artisan worker Is d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the s k i l l e d professional or self-employed worker. In terms of numbers, th i s group includes nine or of the t o t a l f a m i l i e s In the sample group. Within t h i s c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n there i s a sub-group of four New-Canadian f a m i l i e s . The general picture.of these families was s i m i l a r to the white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s . They were a group of young people who were becoming established. Each family was an Individual e n t i t y with i t s own p a r t i c u l a r story, successes and problems. The average age of the mothers In t h i s group was 27 which was lower than the average age of 31 years In the white c o l l a r group. The majority of these mothers come within the 25-31+ year category. This was also r e f l e c t e d In the number of c h i l d r e n i n each family. Six f a m i l i e s had one c h i l d and three had two children. These parents had not been married as long as the white c o l l a r parents and consequently they were In beginning stages of esta b l i s h i n g a home. In the s i x viii t e c o l l a r f a m i l i e s there were a t o t a l of th i r t e e n c h i l d r e n whereas In the nine manual-artesan f a m i l i e s there were twelve. The average number of c h i l d r e n i n the white c o l l a r group was 2.17 per family. In the manual-artisan group the average was 1.33 per family. 36 Residence A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n to the white c o l l a r group e x i s t e d w i t h regard to the area o f residence i n tho c i t y . One f a m i l y l i v e d I n the Strathcona area w h i l e the others were l i v i n g I n s c a t t e r e d p a r t s of Vancouver and one f a m i l y l i v e d I n Burnaby* The residences themselves v a r i e d from a new #17*000 home I n a new d i s t r i c t to a shack w i t h no e l e c t r i c i t y o r running water on tho edge of Burrard I n l e t . Because these were c o m p a r l t l v e l y young f a m i l i e s * t h e i r f u r n i s h i n g s were e i t h e r new o r c o m p a r l t l v e l y good second hand f u r n i t u r e . S i x o f the nine homes had t e l e v i s i o n s e t s . A s l i g h t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f these f a m i l i e s rented t h e i r residences than d i d the white O b l l a r workers'. Pour f a m i l i e s rented houses* three rented apartments, and two owned, or were paying f o r t h e i r own homes. The type o f residence was s i m i l a r i n both groups except t h a t I n the manual-artisan group two f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n shacks. The tenancy and type o f residence I s t a b u l a t e d below as a comparison of th© two groups. Tenancy White C o l l a r Manual-Artisan Own house*- 2 2 Rented house 2 Ij. Rented apartment 2 ,^ 3„_ T o t a l I T " 9 Type S i n g l e house 1± k U p s t a i r s apartment 1 2 Basement s u i t e 1 1 Shack 0 2 # paying a mortgage. 37 Occupations a) mothers The m a j o r i t y of the women, whose husbands were employed i n manual-artisan work, were engaged i n f a c t o r y typo employment. S i x women were i n t h i s job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n while threo were engaged i n c l e r i c a l work. One of the s i x , having become pregnant had r e c e n t l y stopped work* She had p r e v i o u s l y been employed i n a packing establishment. At the time o f the i n t e r v i e w she x*as a "mothers-helper'* from 9s00 A.M. to 1:00 P.M. I n tho Strathcona Nursery School. Although only one f a c t o r y worker had been employed f o r a f u l l twelve months, a l l the c l e r i c a l workers had worked the f u l l p e r i o d . The other f a c t o r y *«>rkers had worked from s i x to nine months due t o seasonal v a r i a t i o n s I n t h e i r type of work. Once again i t can be seen there was more job s e c u r i t y f o r thewhite c o l l a r worker. The l e v e l of education achieved by those women was lower than the white c o l l a r groups. E i g h t women had stopped school i n grade e i g h t , nine or ton. Only women had completed grade twelve. She had a l s o completed a one year business course and was employed as a s e c r e t a r y . The l e v e l of education reaohed by the women i n the white c o l l a r and the manual-artisan f a m i l i e s are t a b u l a t e d on the f o l l o w i n g page. White C o l l a r Manual-Artisan Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 1 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 1 I n surveying the past work h i s t o r y only one of the group had changed t h e i r job e l a s s i f l o a t i o n . A l l of these nine women s t a t e d t h e i r purpose I n working was to supplement the f a m i l y income. They s a i d t h a t they ".. . c o u l d not get ahead or i f we d i d I t would take so l o n g " . The husbands' Income was used f o r the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s of food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r . The w i f e s * Income was used to equip the home w i t h f u r n i s h i n g s and I n a few cases to save p a r t o f the income towards a down payment on a house. A l l these women worked a f i v e day, f o r t y hour week. They s t a r t e d at seven o r e i g h t i n the morning and f i n i s h e d between t h r e e - t h i r t y and f i v e I n the evening. Only one of the nine women expressed any i n t e r e s t I n f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g . The m a j o r i t y d i d not expect t o continue working l o n g enough t o make i t worthtjhile f o r them t o seek f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g . I n comparing the income o f the women I n t h i s s e c t i o n i t **as noted that the income of the c l e r i c a l workers exceeded those of the f a c t o r y workers. This I s the opposite of the f i n d i n g s 39 i n the white c o l l a r s e c t i o n . In f a c t the minimum monthly wage of $200 f o r the c l e r i c a l workers was the maximum wage r e c e i v e d by the f a c t o r y workers. The c l e r i c a l worker's monthly earnings ranged between $200 and $233 and averaged approximately #21ij. per month. The f a c t o r y worker's income ranged from $86 to #200 per month and averaged $lij2. The average monthly income f o r a l l the women was $166 per month. This i s the same as the average income of the women In the white c o l l a r group. b) Fathers* occupation By d e f i n i t i o n t h i s group was composed of men who were engaged i n raanuel o r a r t i s a n employment. Four of these f a t h e r s were eraftmen and f i v e were manual l a b o u r e r s . They a l l had worked f o r the f u l l twelve months w i t h the exception of two who had been i l l f o r a p e r i o d o f one t o two months. T h e i r type of occupations created c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . There was a stronger element of u n c e r t a l n l t y regarding t h e i r employment as compared to the white c o l l a r workers. The t r u c k d r i v e r , f o r Instance, spoke of tho v a r i a t i o n s i n h i s working hours. He may work two hours one day and twelve the next. Since he was p a i d by the hour t h i s c r e a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a reasonable budget. The element o f u n c e r t a i n i t y ko permeated a l l o f these jobs and had an e f f e c t upon th© people and t h e i r homes. The two f a m i l i e s I n which th© f a t h e r became i l l d u ring th© course of the year i l l u s t r a t e d a second grave problem f o r the manual-artisan group. With the onset o f i l l -ness, income ceased, and there was ever present the f e a r of not having a job to go back t o . Tho manual-artisan workers earned s l i g h t l y mor© than t h a t of the whit© c o l l a r workers. Th© lowest monthly Income was #125 whereas the lowest white c o l l a r workers' monthly Income was $150. Th© h i g h e s t white c o l l a r occupation brought #280 w h i l e the h i g h e s t manual-artisan xrarker r e c e i v e d $300 per month. The average monthly income o f the f a t h e r s o f the whit© c o l l a r f a m i l i e s was approximately $208 w h i l e the average ineom© o f the manual-art!sen f a m i l i e s was $217. Combined Income. The combined income f o r 1955 of the mother and f a t h e r I n the nine manual-artisan f a m i l i e s ranged between approximately $258 and #b,33 a month. Th© average monthly income f o r th© year was approximately #350. T h i s was an average of #70 per month mor© than the monthly average f o r .1955 o f the white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s . I n three of the f a m i l i e s both parents worked the e n t i r e year. T h e i r Income remained th© same x*hen I t was c a l c u l a t e d in f o r 1955 and f o r December 1 9 5 5 . I n th© other s i x f a m i l i e s e i t h e r the f a t h e r o r the mother had H o t worked the e n t i r e twelve months. Therefor© t h e i r average earnings f o r the year ar© below t h e i r average f o r December 1955. The combined Income f o r th© month of December 1955 ranged between approximately #300 and #458, The average Incom© f o r th© nine f a m i l i e s I n December was approximately #363, T h i s monthly average f o r the nln© f a m i l i e s i n the manual-artisan group i s $56 h i g h e r than th© average of $307 i n the whit© c o l l a r group• Tabl© 2 Combined Income of Manual-Artisan F a m i l i e s . Incom© f o r 1955 Income f o r December 1955 Family 1 . 2 . 3 . t 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . Source; Husband 3 , 6 0 0 2 , 6 0 0 2 , 5 0 0 2 , 0 0 0 2,900 1 , 5 0 0 2 , 5 0 0 2 , 6 0 0 2 , 5 0 0 Wife 1 , 6 0 0 600 600 1 , 4 0 0 800 2 , 8 0 0 2,1*00 2 , 4 0 0 2 , 5 0 0 T o t a l 5,200 3,200 3,100 3 , 4 0 0 3,700 4 , 3 0 0 4,900 5,ooo 5 , 0 0 0 ago Monthly Av©j 4 3 3 . 0 0 2 6 7 . 0 0 2 5 8 . 0 0 233 . 0 0 3 0 8 . 0 0 3 5 8 . 0 0 4 0 8 . 0 0 1-16.00 4 1 6 . 0 0 A l l f i g u r e s are approximate R e p l i e s of parents t o schedule questions. Husband 300 217 227 167 242 1 2 5 2 0 8 216 250 Wife T o t a l — 300 86 303 10Q; 327 175 342 1 1 4 356 233 358 200 4-08 200 w> 208 458 Family one i n Table two I n d i c a t e s the mother who was not working f o r pay at the time of the i n t e r v i e w . F a m i l i e s s i x , seven and e i g h t were those I n which both parents worked through-out th© year. k2 Those h i g h e r incomes p l a c e the manual*artIsan f a m i l i e s i n a more favorable f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n than the white c o l l a r . g r o u p . With t h e i r combined incomes they are I n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to buy and f u r n i s h a home than the white c o l l a r group. However i t must be kept I n mind that two, (or o n e - t h i r d ) , o f the f a t h e r s I n the white c o l l a r groups were students, and as such, were not c o n t r i -b u t i n g towards the f a m i l y Income. As w i t h the white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s the monetary value o f the mother's employment i s I l l u s t r a t e d by comparing the Incomes f o r December 19!>5>. Immigrant F a m i l i e s . W i t h i n the group of manual-artisan f a m i l i e s there was a sub-group of new Canadians. This group was composed o f f o u r German f a m i l i e s , who had a r r i v e d i n Canada w i t h i n the past f o u r years. These people were fac e d w i t h the prospect of s t a r t i n g a new l i f e i n a new country. Each f a m i l y spoke o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s encounted d u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t year i n Canada. They had w e l l d e f i n e d goals and were w i l l i n g and able t o make s a c r i f i c e s I n order to reach t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . These goals Included buying f u r n i t u r e , a c a r and a house. One f a m i l y although I n Canada o n l y f o u r y e a r s , had a c a r , f u r n i t u r e and were buying a home. T h e i r l o n g range goal was to pay f o r t h e i r present home, then buy a newer house and make the rent from the f i r s t home pay 1,3 f o r th© soeond. A.second f a m i l y , i n Canada two years, had a c a r , new f u r n i t u r e and looked forward to a home i n the near f u t u r e . They had been able to move towards t h e i r g o a l q u i c k l y because they rented a shack on the edge o f Burrard I n l e t f o r #20 per month. There was no e l e c t r i c i t y or running water and the surroundings vmro degrading and d e l a p i t a t e d . The f a m i l y had ignored the surroundings and inconveniences and had concentrated upon c r e a t i n g a home which was very a t t r a c t i v e and r a d i a t e d the warmth of the I n h a b i t a n t s 1 p e r s o n a l i t i e s . T h e i r g o a l of a house of t h e i r own i n the futu r e d i d not stop them from enjoying the present. This young f a m i l y i l l u s t r a t e d a degree o f r e a l i t y which was aot too p r e y e l a n t i n the t o t a l sample group. Most of the f a m i l i e s "put up w i t h the present" s i t u a t i o n and looked towards the f u t u r e w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s l i v e d f o r the f u t u r e and almost ignored the present s i t u a t i o n s . This young German couple were able to p l a n f o r the f u t u r e and y e t they appeared to thoroughly enjoy making t h e i r present home and surroundings as comfortable as p o s s i b l e . These people had s e t a h i g h goal f o r themselves and they wore working very hard to moot t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . I n each of the f o u r f a m i l i e s , both parents were engaged i n manual-artisan occupations. The mothers had been q u a l i f i e d s e c r e t a r i e s i n Germany but d i d not understand the E n g l i s h language w e l l enough to continue i n c l e r i c a l work i n Canada. kk Broken F a m i l i e s . The t h i r d major group to be considered are those f a m i l i e s i n which the f a t h e r was absent from the homes. These women had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of supporting t h e i r c h i l d r e n and themselves. Their s i t u a t i o n s were quite d i f f e r e n t from tho normal f a m i l i e s . They not o n l y had to be both parents to t h e i r c h i l d r e n , they had to work and thoy had t o have someone care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n white they worked. T h e i r income was the o n l y income r e c e i v e d by the f a m i l y and vras not j u s t a supplement to the t o t a l Income as was the case I n the normal f a m i l i e s . This I s a small group as compared to the normal and two b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of the circumstances are o u t l i n e d below to c l a r i f y the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s . On© f a m i l y was r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e due to the mothers 1 i l l n e s s . She was able to o b t a i n a few days work at Infrequent i n t e r n a l s . The c h i l d r e n were cared f o r i n the o Strathcona Nursery School so t h a t t h i s mother could cope w i t h her housework and aocept work when she was p h y s i c a l l y able to do s o # She was the mother of two and l i v e d w i t h , and cared f o r , her aged mo ther-1 rit-1 aw» Tho second f a m i l y l i v e d I n a d e l a p i t a t e d shack near the r a i l w a y t r a c k s . The b u i l d i n g l i t e r a l l y shook each tlm© a t r a i n went p a s t . Th© mother had to provide f o r f o u r young c h i l d r e n and h e r s e l f . Two of tho c h i l d r e n were att e n d i n g p u b l i c school and the two youngest were at the Nursery. The mother had divorced her f i r s t husband and separated from her second husband a year ago. P r i o r to and following the divorce the family was supported by s o c i a l assistance* Five months ago she obtained an out-of-doors job. Following the f i v e years i n which she was dependent upon s o c i a l assistance this job was b e n e f i c i a l to both her physical and emotional health. The job not only made her independant, i t increased her f e e l i n g of self-worth. A rather dramatic r e s u l t had also taken place In one of her c h i l d r e n attending tho Hursery. The c h i l i apparently had had an emotional block which made I t Impossible f o r her to speak. The combined ef f e c t of the Nursery and the removal of marital f r i c t i o n through separation had allowed the c h i l d to grow emotionally to the point that the mother stated "...she's a l i t t l e chatterbox now". These i l l u s t r a t i o n s picture some of the multiple problems, economic and personal, of these f a m i l i e s . In the t o t a l group of f i v e f a m i l i e s three were separated and two divorced. Each of the f i v o mothers came within the age range of twenty-five to t h i r t y - f o u r years. Three of the mothers had one c h i l d , one had two c h i l d r e n and one had four c h i l d r e n . The average number of c h i l d r e n per family was 1.80 as compared to 2*17 i n the white c o l l a r group and 1.33 i n the manual-artisan group. 4& Residence,, One o f these f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n the Strathcona area and the others l i v e d I n two various sections of Vancouver. A l l f a m i l i e s rented t * i t h th© exception o f one who l i v e d I n th© mother-in-law's homo. On© mother rented a three room shack w i t h an a t t i c which was used f o r bedrooms. The other three f a m i l i e s rented two room apartments. I n these cases the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s were very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and crowded. I n one s i t u a t i o n the c h i l d s l e p t w i t h h i s mother and i n another the c h i l d ' s bed was two easy c h a i r s f a c i n g eaoh other. With one exception the f u r n i s h i n g s of these homes wore o l d and Inadequate* I n th© on© exc e p t i o n , th© women .furnished a two room apartment w i t h th© possessions o f her former home* Three of the f i v e f a m i l i e s had t e l e v i s i o n s e t s . Occupations, Two of these mothers were engaged I n c l e r i c a l work and three i n f a c t o r y - t y p e work. The l e v e l of education was s i m i l a r to tha t of the women I n normal f a m i l i e s . Two of the f i v e had completed grade twelvo and th© others f i n i s h e d grades nine, ton, and eleven. I n ©ach f a m i l y tho mothers' purpose i n working was c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . They had t o support themselves and t h e i r li-7 c h i l d r e n . A l l . the mothers s t a t e d t h a t they d i d not r e c e i v e any f i n a n c i a l a i d from t h e i r husbands. Although these women planned to work i n d e f i n i t e l y only one of the f i v e had considered the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g . A r e a l i t y to be considered was the f a c t t h a t I t would be almost Impossible f o r these women to get f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g , unless I t was an I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program which provided an adequate wage w h i l e the r© rson l e a r n e d the work. Job s e c u r i t y was a very important aspect i n the l i v e s o f these women. Two I l l u s t r a t i o n s show the problems they faced. One women, who had a job I n a bank became 111 l a s t summer, and was o f f work s i x weeks. She rec e i v e d s i c k leave b e n e f i t s and had her job x*hen she returned. The other women had a f a c t o r y -typo job. Her son had the mumps a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w and she had had to remain at home to nurse hlra. She had phoned the p l a n t e a r l i e r t h a t day to e x p l a i n the s i t u a t i o n . The f o r e -man had t o l d her t h a t he understood the s i t u a t i o n and t h a t she should not worry about l o o s i n g her job. Her r e l i e f was very apparent during the Interview. This s i t u a t i o n had turned out w e l l f o r her, but the constant f e a r of I l l n e s s and the p o s s i b -i l i t y of l o o s i n g her job was a r e a l concern. This l a c k of s e c u r i t y had prompted h er to search f o r a c l e r i c a l job I n an e f f o r t to f i n d more s e c u r i t y . The Ineomo r e c e i v e d each month was qu i t e low c o n s i d e r i n g 43 the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s these women c a r r i e d . Mention was made e a r l i e r of th© on© f a m i l y supported on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Tho lowest income was approximately §120 por month arid th© h i g h e s t was approximately §208 per month. The average income for the group was $175 which was $9.00 h i g h e r than th© average Income of $166 r e c e i v e d by both groups of mothers I n the normal f a m i l i e s . The hours of work were most important f o r both the mothers and th© Nursery School. The l o n g e s t day was 7s30 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. For tho c h i l d r e n I n t h i s f a m i l y I t meant a ten hour day a t the Nursery. Th© others s t a r t e d work at ©Ither 6s00 or 9.*00 A.M. The t y p i c a l mother I n the sample groups was married, born I n Canada, between twenty-five and t h i r t y - f o u r years of age, and had completed grade t e n education. She was engaged i n a f a c t o r y -typo occupation and her Income averaged approximately $169 per month. She worked a f o r t y hour week and had Saturday and Sunday o f f . She began to work at 8:00 A.M. and f i n i s h e d at 4*30 P.M. She had one to two c h i l d r e n between the ages of three and f i v e . I f she l o s t her job she would d e f i n i t e l y look f o r another immediately, but sho was not i n t e r e s t e d I n f u r t h e r job t r a i n i n g . The t y p i c a l f a t h e r was engaged I n s e m i - s k i l l e d work. He s t a r t e d work at 8:00 A.M. and f i n i s h e d a t 5:00 P.M. He had worked 11.2 months i n the past year and h i s Income averaged about $213 f o r a f o r t y hour, f i v e day week. 1*9 The t7plc.nl c h i l d was a f o u r year o l d boy. H© l i v e d i n East Vancouver and was taken to the Nursery by h i s mother each day. He l i k e d going to the Nursery but found i t hard to get up so e a r l y i n the morning. At the Nursery he found the m a j o r i t y of th® a c t i v i t i e s to h i s l i k i n g . He played hard, l e a r n e d to use f i n g e r p a i n t s and enjoyed the s t o r i e s read by h i s teacher. When h l c mother p i c k e d him up, a f t e r nine hours I n the Nursery, he had many experiences to r e l a t e to her. At home he was the centre of a t t e n t i o n as he continued t e l l i n g h i s s t o r i o s . A l l too soon i t was h i s bedtime, and because he had not f i n i s h e d r e l a t i n g h i s experiences he d i d not want to go to bed. Summary., The residence of the f a m i l i e s , as i n d i c a t e d by the map, i l l u s t r a t e s three r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . The f i r s t I s that there i s a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l i e s b e l n g served by the Nursery* Secondly, the m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s l i v e I n East Vancouver. Various observers agro9 t h a t East Vancouver i s a wage earner d i s t r i c t , which would i n d i c a t e t h a t the Nursery I s s e r v i n g an area where the need I s most p r e s s i n g . The t h i r d f a c t o r I s noted i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the Strathcona area. This f a c t would suggest that i f there i s a need f o r the s e r v i c e ' outside the d i s t r i c t , there i s an even g r e a t e r need f o r Nursery s e r v i c e s v r i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . I n order to gi v e a summary of the Important f a c t s which 50 have been discussed i n t h i s chapter, the following table draws the several aspects together so they may be oompared* Table 3. Summary of Some S o c i a l and Economic I n d l c i e s . Factor White C o l l a r Manual-A r t i s a n Broken Average Monthly Family Income1 280 350 175 Average Monthly Income of the Mother 166 166 175 Housing and Furnishing Hating adequate adequate poor Person-Room Average 0.9 0.9 0.8 Children per Family 2.17 1.33 1.80 Average Age of C h i l d r e n 2 3.8yrs. 3.9y*s 4.3yrs. Average Age of Mothers 31.1yrs. 27.7yrs 29.0yrs Average Level of Mother's Education pr.lO Gr . 9 6 r . l l w Source: Replies of the mothers to Schedule questions, 1. Average Income forth© previous twelve months (not necessarily twelve months work).* 2, Attending Strathcona Nursery School. The economic status of this, sample group of twenty f a m i l i e s varied considerably between and within each of the three sections, normal white c o l l a r , normal manual-artisan and broken f a m i l i e s . I t was apparent that within each of these sections income varied widely and overlapped th© other sections. Th© 51 monthly income v a r i e d by #1+00 from the low of #120 to the h i g h o f #520* T h i s wide v a r i a t i o n I n income i l l u s t r a t e s the ex-tremes w i t h i n the t o t a l group. Th© f a m i l y who l i v e d on #120 a month had very l i t t l e margin w i t h which t o face any c r i s i s such as i l l n e s s or unemployment. These two extremes a l s o i l l u s t r a t e the f a m i l y where the mother works t o m a i n t a i n a subsistance l i v i n g and the f a m i l y I n which the mother*s income supplements an already adequate income. I n the l a t e r s i t u a t i o n the f a m i l y I s not as threatened by i l l n e s s or unemployment* The mothers' income h e l p s to buy m a t e r i a l advantages such as f u r n i t u r e and an automobile. The average monthly income of the normal f a m i l i e s i n December 1955 was approximately #31+0. F o r the same p e r i o d the average Income of f o u r of the f i v e broken homes was #175• The f i f t h broken home f a m i l y was r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The housing c o n d i t i o n s of the sample group v a r i e d from a rented shack t o a new #17»000 home. One q u a r t e r or f i v e f a m i l i e s owned, o r were paying f o r t h e i r house. The remaining f i f t e e n rented e i t h e r an apartment or a house. I t I s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the f a m i l y w i t h the Income of #520 a month l i v e d I n a r e n t e d basement s u i t e I n the Strathcona area. The accepted r a t i o used as a standard from which t o measure overcrowding, i n the s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e way, i s , l e s s than one " l i v i n g room" f o r each person l i v i n g i n the home. This measure-ment excludes k i t c h e n s and bathrooms. A p p l y i n g t h i s measurement to the sample group I t was found t h a t o n l y three f a m i l i e s had 52 more than adequate space ( i . e . f o u r people l i v i n g i n f i v e rooms) and s i x f a m l l l o s had adequate space, o r one room f o r each person. The remaining e l e v e n f e m l l e s ( i . e . somewhat more than h a l f ) were overcrowded i n t h e i r present l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . The average space occupied by these three c a t e g o r i e s i s summarised i n the t a b u l a t i o n below. More than adequate space 1.27 rooms per person Adequate space 1.00 rooms per person Less than adequate space .61* rooms per person The overcrowding was not confined, t o any one s e c t i o n of the sample group. The white c o l l a r and manual-artisan groups b o t h had . 9 rooms per person w h i l e the broken f a m i l i e s had . 8 rooms per person. This of course i s only an approximate measure, and more d e t a i l e d study would be necessary t o go Into a l l the aspects of overcrowding. I t was a l s o evident t h a t a m a j o r i t y of the f a m i l i e s d i d not have safe p l a c e s a t home f o r t h e . c h i l d r e n to p l a y . A few o f the houses had a backyard where the c h i l d r e n c ould p l a y . S e v e r a l l i v e d on busy s t r e e t s which were dangerous f o r young c h i l d r e n * A l l those who l i v e d i n apartments had no p l a c e f o r the c h i l d r e n to p l a y except the s t r e e t . At the same time f i f t y - f i v e per cent o f the f a m i l i e s owned t e l e v i s i o n sets and over f i f t y per cent owned automobiles. The a r b i t r a r y comparative c l a s s i f i c a t i o n made by the w r i t e r of the 53 f u r n i s h i n g s d i v i d e d them as f o l l o w ? 40$ more than adequate* 1 30$ adequate? 30 % l e s o than adequate* Of the t h i r t y p e r cent ( o r s i x homed) o l a s s i f i e d as l e s s than adequate, one h a l f had t e l e v i s i o n s e t s * Although the s t a t e d g o a l of the working mother was t o h e l p tray a house i t would appear t h a t f u r n i s h i n g s , i n c l u d i n g t e l e v i s i o n s e t s and automobiles were more necessary. One of the apparent reasons f o r t h i s c h o i c e was such items were mere e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e . The savings i n -vested i n them c o u l d be u t i l i z e d . There seems to he the sug-g e s t i o n here t h a t m a t e r i a l goods and advantages were more r e a l t o these f a m i l i e s than a savings account* I t Is a s o c i a l a s s e t t o be a b l e t o d i s c u s s l a s t n i g h t ' s t e l e v i s i o n programme and d r i v e a l a t e model car<» The g e n e r a l impression r e c e i v e d was t h a t these f a m i l i e s were f a l l o w i n g the accepted p a t t e r n of l i v i n g i n the present witheut a n a l y z i n g the s i t u a t i o n o r con-s i d e r i n g th© futur&e !• c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i s c u ssed on page 28 ef ohapter two* CHAPTER THREE FAMILY LIFE AND CHILD CARE* Aga i n s t t h i s background of d i f f e r e n t i a l standards and needs, what can be s a i d of f a m i l y l i f e and the neods of the c h i l d r e n ? We s h a l l re-examine the needs o f the mothers and the way the Nursery meets these needs., The study does not c l a i m to present a comprehensive p i c t u r e o f a l l the f a m i l i e s who use the f a c i l i t i e s o f the Nursery, r a t h e r I t covers one small group. The main purpose of the study i s a survey and e v a l u a t i o n of the needs o f these working mothers. The study w i l l a l s o focus on the c h i l d both i n h i s home and I n the Nursery and the foundations being l a i d I n h i s l i f e by these two I n s t i t u t i o n s . We s h a l l l o o k at the t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t as e s s e n t i a l to the development o f the c h i l d , and the pla c e of Strathcona Nursery School i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the f a m i l y u n i t . To the c h i l d , the Nursery I s an I n t e g a l p a r t o f h i s f a m i l y l i f e . Bmt nursery schools are a community resource to supplement the home and as such need c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n I s g i v e n to the ways.th© mothers use Strathcona Nursery School as a supplement to t h e i r f a m i l y . White C o l l a r Normal F a m i l i e s . In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of working mothers a t t e n t i o n i s drawn to t h e i r p a t t e r n of personal i n t e r e s t s ? t h e i r purpose I n 55 working and t h e i r assessment of the gains and l o s s e s o f work; and tho important d i f f i c u l t i e s work presents f o r the mothers. Three p a t t e r n s were evident I n a n a l y z i n g the c o l l e c t e d data. I n the f i r s t p a t t e r n the women were experiencing confusion as they attempted to m a i n t a i n a sense o f e q u i l i b r i u m I n t h e i r r o l e s as I n d i v i d u a l s , wives, mothers and c i t i z e n s . I n the second p a t t e r n the women managed to achieve a balance i n t h e i r l i v e s . But I n the l a s t p a t t e r n , which was f o l l o w e d by the m a j o r i t y o f these women, they chose to ignore th© s i t u a t i o n and proceeded from day t o day without any p l a n . A m i n o r i t y of the women were not content to stay at home to be " . . . j u s t a housewife 1*, Mrs. A. i s an example o f a woman who f i t t e d the f i r s t p a t t e r n . Mrs, A. expressed the f e e l i n g t h a t she was not happy when she stayed a t home. She had worked most of her married l i f e and found work a s a t i s f y i n g experience. M r 3 . A, had stopped tforking f o r a p e r i o d e a r l y i n 1955 hut soon found she was bored by the household r o u t i n e . This bordom soon created m a r i t a l disharmony and a l s o bogan to make her c h i l d r e n upset. The f a m i l y decided t h a t they would be f u r t h e r ahead I f Mrs, A. was employed. She s t a r t e d working a g a i n and continued f o r f o u r months when i t was decided that she would go I n t o business f o r h e r s e l f . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n very l o n g hours f o r Mrs, A, but i t provided her w i t h a method o f expressing h e r s e l f which she found s a t i s f y i n g * The c h i l d r e n saw very l i t t l e o f t h e i r mother due to her working hours which were from 7*00 A.M. t o 56 5:00 P.M. Th© c h i l d r e n disapproved of t h e i r mother working and echoed the f a t h e r ' s statement t h a t " I don't l i k e i t , but i t ' s best f o r us". Mrs. A. had no time f o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t , a c t i v i t i e s , o r hobbles* She d i d not belong t o any c l u b , o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r ohurchj and her only r e c r e a t i o n was Sunday c a r r i d e s . Mrs. A. i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f - c e n t e r e d and I s unable to face the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r a i s i n g her own c h i l d r e n . Her need to work was d i r e c t e d more towards s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n than working to supplement the f a m i l y income. A second women I l l u s t r a t e d a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d p a t t e r n of l i v i n g . Mrs. B. was a q u i e t , secure person who managed an accounting course along w i t h her job and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . She enjoyed her work but found she had no time f o r h e r s e l f . There was a strong "we" or f a m i l y f e e l i n g present i n the home. The f a m i l y shared a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as a u n i t . Every evening and week-end was devoted to the c h i l d . Both Mr. and Mrs. B. d i d th© housework a f t e r the c h i l d had gone to bed i n the e a r l y evening. Mrs. B. had no time f o r personal a c t i v i t i e s beyond her course, and she d i d not have any outside a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. The s a t i s f a c t i o n s she found w i t h i n her home and f a m i l y were s u f f i c i e n t to c a r r y her along a o o m p a r i t i v e l y w e l l balanced program of l i v i n g . The tone o f her p a t t e r n o f l i v i n g arose from a r e l a t i v e l y stable p e r s o n a l i t y . 57 Mrs. B.'a purpose I n working was to support the f a m i l y while Mr. B* attended u n i v e r s i t y , , She f e l t t hat beoause she enjoyed h e r work and found i t s a t i s f y i n g t h a t she had person-a l l y gained by being employed. She balanced t h i s w i t h the l o s s o f time f o r personal I n t e r e s t s . But she looked forward to the time when she co u l d have the c h i l d a t home w i t h her. The m a j o r i t y of the womon I n the white c o l l a r group worked because oif f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y . As a group they tended to ignore any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f gains o r l o s s e s o r problems created by working, Mrs. C, worked, not from choice but from what the f a m i l y f e l t was a f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y . Mr. C s monthly income as a c i v i l servant was r e l a t i v e l y low* The f a m i l y experienced d i f f i c u l t y In, managing to continue paying f o r t h e i r home and f u r n i s h i n g s on Mr, C.*s S a l a r y . Work i t s e l f , was not as import-ant to Mrs, C, as Mrs* A* Mrs* C. d i d not want others to r a i s e her c h i l d r e n , y e t , o n l y by the a d d i t i o n of her Income would the f a m i l y be able to manage. As a r e s u l t she was c o m p a r l t l v e l y c r i t i c a l o f the Strathcona Nursery School* The Strathcona area was a poor sit© f o r the Nursery; the c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d bad grammars th© b u i l d i n g had a musty odour. Mrs, C. had given up her group c o n t a c t s . Sho enjoyed sewing but due to the l a c k of time she was unable to continue t h i s i n t e r e s t . Her r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of Sunday car r i d e s , watching t e l e v i s i o n and l i s t e n i n g t o rec o r d s . 58 Each f a m i l y was faced w i t h t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r problems and met them I n v a r i o u s ways, depending upon the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the persons Involved. Our p a r t i c u l a r concern i n t h i s study I s w i t h the women. The b r i e f sketches above and those that f o l l o w r e l a t e the ways i n which the women met t h e i r problems, found time f o r personal I n t e r e s t s , and what they regarded as the purpose f o r working and, the problems work created f o r them. The a t t i t u d e o f the husbands to t h e i r wives working was evenly d i v i d e d . Three of the mon s t a t e d they d i d not l i k e t h e i r wives working. They recognized th© n e c e s s i t y a t t h i s time but d e f i n i t e l y looked forward to the time when t h e i r wives would remain a t home w i t h the c h i l d r e n * The remaining three e i t h e r wanted t h e i r wives to work o r s t a t e d t h a t "...she can s u i t h e r s e l f " . C h i l d r e n I n White C o l l a r F a m i l i e s . Th© c h i l d r e n of th© f a m i l i e s who came w i t h i n the white c o l l a r group ranged I n age from nine months t o f o u r t e e n years o f age. The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n I n these f a m i l i e s was t h i r t e e n , e i g h t of whom attended the Strathcona Nursery School. The average age of these e i g h t c h i l d r e n was 3.8 years* The f i v e c h i l d r e n who d i d not attend the Nursery were e i t h e r too young o r they attended p u b l i c school. Of the c h i l d r e n who were too young to attend the Nursery, one was cared f o r d u r i n g 59 the day by a baby-sitter»l and the other by h i s grandparents. I n both cases the parents looked forward to the day when they could send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to the Nursery. I n the second case the grandparents found i t d i f f i c u l t to care f o r the c h i l d and the parents Intended to send him to the Nursery as soon as he had some c o n t r o l over bowel movements. The c h i l d r e n who attended p u b l i c school were s i x , ten, and fo u r t e e n years o f age. The l a t t e r two cared f o r themselves a f t e r school. The s i x year o l d went d i r e c t l y to h i s uncle's home* I n t h i s case the uncle l i v e d across the s t r e e t from the school and t h i s arrangement was q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y . I t seems th a t the c h i l d r e n l i v e d a t the Nursery and went home f o r a v i s i t each n i g h t . During the i n t e r v i e w s , which were always h e l d i n the e a r l y evening the w r i t e r observed the c h i l d r e n were s t i l l a c t i v e and e x c i t e d , although i t was t h e i r bedtime, Th© e i g h t c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the Strathcona Nursery School averaged a minimum of e i g h t and one-quarter hours each week day I n the I n s t i t u t i o n , Approximately two-thirds of t h e i r waking hours were spent i n group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h other c h i l d r e n . One-third o f t h e i r time was spent w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . A f t e r twelve o r more hours ( I n c l u d i n g the r e s t p eriods i n the Nursery) of a c t i v i t y these c h i l d r e n were not ready f o r bed. The short p e r i o d o f time the c h i l d r e n had w i t h t h e i r parents made I t 1 . The baby s i t t e r r e c e i v e d $6 .00 a week. 60 necessary t h a t they orowd i n as much a c t i v i t y as p o s s i b l e before bedtime. Por these reasons the w r i t e r suggests t h a t home l i f e was more of an overnight v i s i t . These c h i l d r e n l i v e d two separate l i v e s , one i n the Nursery and th© other a t home. I n each case the parents s t a t e d th© c h i l d r e n enjoyed going to th© Nursery and s e v e r a l remarked, t h a t t h e i r c h i l d o f t e n c r i e d on Saturday mornings when "they could not go to s c h o o l " . These c h i l d r e n had the opp o r t u n i t y to l i v e I n a c h i l d ' s world i n s t e a d of an a d u l t world. They learn e d by example and ro u t i n e I n which t h e i r peers s e t th© p a t t e r n which they f o l l o w e d . P o r example, when a o h l l d entered the Nursery he would observe th© other c h i l d r e n washing t h o l r hands before lunch o r a f t e r p l a y i n g o u t s i d e . With these examples before him i t was n a t u r a l h© should copy h i s peers. This c a r r i e d over i n t o the home where the three year o l d would n a t u r a l l y go and wash without being t o l d , before he came to the t a b l e . Examples o f t h i s type were very encouraging to the parents. They saw the advantages of the c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g to p l a y x<d.th others, to share t h e i r toys, t o become more Independent, to mix w i t h other races and n a t i o n a l i t i e s , and they found comfort i n the knowledge that the c h i l d r e n were supervised a t a l l times and cared f o r by understanding, sympathetic people. They d i d not recognize the ba s i c need of c h i l d r e n f o r the c o n s i s t e n t care and 61 a t t e n t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y the need of the c h i l d f o r i t s mother*. The apparent reasons f o r t h i s l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n was f i r s t , they assumed the Nursery was f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e as parents and second, t h e i r own l a c k of knowledge of the needs of c h i l d r e n . Manual-Artisan F a m i l i e s . Those f a m i l i e s I n which the f a t h e r was engaged I n manual-a r t i s a n employment, as defined I n chapter two, i n c l u d e d nine o f the twenty f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d . There was a s i m i l a r i t y I n the pat t e r n s these women followed as compared to the women i n the white c o l l a r group. A t t e n t i o n i s again focused on the p a t t e r n of personal I n t e r e s t s of the mothers! t h e i r purpose i n working and an assessment o f the gains and l o s s e s o f workj and the important d i f f i c u l t i e s work presented f o r th© mothers. Mrs. D, represents a t y p i c a l p i c t u r e of the new Canadian home I n which the mothers were expe r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n achi e v i n g a dGgree of I n t e g r a t i o n between pe r s o n a l l i f e , home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and employment. Mrs. D. was s e l f - c o n s c i o u s of her l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to understand and use the E n g l i s h language. As a r e s u l t the D. f a m i l y took no p a r t i n community a c t i v i t i e s and had very few f r i e n d s . She spoke German to her f e l l o w employees and expressed smblvalant f e e l i n g s i n t h i s regard. Mrs. D. wanted to l e a r n to speak E n g l i s h but the temptr.tion to 62 seek the f a m i l i a r i n work and language e x p r e s s i o n made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r her to r e s o l v e t h i s c o n f l i c t . As a c h i l d Mrs. D. had attended k i n d e r g a r t e n and she, therefor®, saw the Nursery School as a p a r t of her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a mother. U n l i k e the Canadian born mothers Mrs. D. saw the Nursery School as p a r t o f a o h l l d * s education and her a t t i t u d e toward the Nursery was the same as towards p u b l i c s c h o o l . The concept of nursery schools was accepted without q u e s t i o n o r e v a l u a t i o n on her p a r t . U n l i k e Mrs. A., who was a l s o e x p e r i -encing d i f f i c u l t y , Mrs. D. d i d not expect t o work I n d e f i n i t e l y * She had set a vague time l i m i t o f two years when she thought the f a m i l y trould have s u f f i c i e n t possessions t o l i v e on Mr. D.'s Income* T h o i r c h i l d would then be s t a r t i n g p u b l i c school and she f e l t I t would be more necessary f o r h e r to remain at home. Mrs. E. was a s i n g l e example I n t h i s group of nine mothers who had achieved a p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g balance I n her l i f e * A f t e r c o n siderable s t r u g g l e , i n c l u d i n g a p e r i o d of s e p a r a t i o n , Mrs. E. had found a system which s u i t e d the f a m i l y needs. She enjoyed her work and was able, by u s i n g a schedule, to complete the major p a r t of her housework during the week. This gave her time to persue her own I n t e r e s t I n s p o r t s . Mrs. E. a l s o found time to take an a c t i v e p a r t I n her Church. Her purpose i n working was t o supplement the f a m i l y income. Work was enjoyable f o r t h i s woman because she f e l t the company was very f a i r to 63 i t s employees. She d i d have strong f e e l i n g s about others r a i s i n g her c h i l d and she planned to work o n l y u n t i l they could make a downpayment on a house. Mrs. E, spoke w i t h considerable concern of the l o s s e s t o her c h i l d when he was separated from h i s mother f o r such l o n g p e r i o d s . She had h i g h p r a i s e f o r the Nursery and I t s s t a f f but she f e l t I t was more important that the c h i l d should be guided I n h i s development by h i s mother. Mrs. P. represents a p a t t e r n i n which the young mothers were only too ready to place t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the Nursery I n an e f f o r t to s h i f t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Mrs. P. was a young woman who had been married when she was s i x t e e n . She s t a t e d t h a t she had l i t t l e p a t ience w i t h her c h i l d and t h e r e f o r e the c h i l d was b e t t e r o f f i n the Nursery School. Mrs. P. found i t d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n f u l l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her home and chI3d r e n . Mr. P. was away f r e q u e n t l y and he was one of the few husbands who refused to h e l p h i s w i f e w i t h any o f the housework. With-out h i s support Mrs. P. tended to l o o s e I n t e r e s t I n th© home and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d . Mrs. P. fs s t a t e d purpose i n working was to buy f u r n i t u r e . She found however, that they were unable to save and she d i d not t h i n k they were g e t t i n g ahead. When asked I f she had l o s t any-t h i n g through work, she r e p l i e d that her c h i l d got b e t t o r car© at th© Nursery than she c o u l d give and t h e r e f o r e nothing had 6% been l o s t , Mrs. F. d i d not have time f o r personal a c t i v i t i e s or I n t e r e s t s . Since beginning work she had stopped a l l outside a c t i v i t i e s . Her home was u n t i d y arid showed a l a c k of o r g a n i z -ation,,, This group of nine women presented a s i m i l a r general s i t u a t i o n to those I n the white c o l l a r group.. A few had worked out an I n t e g r a t i o n of t h e i r r o l e s , some d i s p l a y e d confusion regarding t h e i r p o s i t i o n and s e v e r a l were comfortable i n s t r e s s i n g t h e i r r o l e s as wives and mothers. C h i l d r e n i n Manual-Artisan Families., The c h i l d r e n of the nine f a m i l i e s i n the manual-artisan group ranged i n age from two and one h a l f years to eighteen y e a r s . The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n was twelve, ten o f whom attended Strathcona Nursery School. The average age of the c h i l d r e n a t tending the Nursery was 3.9 y e a r s . Of the two c h i l d r e n not a t t e n d i n g the Nursery one was nine years o f age and attended p u b l i c s chool, the other was eighteen years o f age and worked* The nine year o l d c h i l d had to l o o k a f t e r h e r s e l f from the time school ended u n t i l h e r parents returned home fVrom work. Th© minimum average l e n g t h o f time spent i n th© nursery by the t e n c h i l d r e n was e i g h t and one-half hours. T h i s was s l i g h t l y l onger than the average o f e i g h t and one-quarter hours of the 6 5 c h i l d r e n i n the white c o l l a r group. The c h i l d r e n o f the New-Canadian f a m i l i e s faoed an added problem not shared w i t h the m a j o r i t y of the o h i l d r e n * They began t a l k i n g by l e a r n i n g German and I n the Nursery they l e a r n e d E n g l i s h , Prom the parents p o i n t o f view, t h i s presented no great problem except that the three year o l d was unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the two languages and t h e r e f o r e combined both E n g l i s h and German I n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n . One f i v e year o l d could hear a s t o r y i n E n g l i s h and come homo a t n i g h t and t e l l the same st o r y to h i s mother i n German. With I n c r e a s i n g ago these c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d to d i s t i n g u i s h and use both E n g l i s h and German, 2 Th© w r i t e r saw a l l but three, ef the twelve c h i l d r e n . There were no i n d i c a t i o n s o f gross disturbance observed, although i n s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s th© same element of v i s i t i n g the home noted I n the whit© c o l l a r groups was present. Th© two groups d i f f e r e d I n the number and age of th© c h i l d r e n . The whit© c o l l a r f a m i l i e s had an average o f 2.17 c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y while the manual-artisan group had 1 * 2 5 . The white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s had 6 l . 5 # of t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the Nursery School age, while 8 3 * 3 $ o f the manual-artisan c h i l d r e n were of Nursery School age. The white c o l l a r f a m i l i e s averaged more c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y but w i t h a s m a l l e r number w i t h i n the Nursery School age range. 2 . This w i l l be advantageous to the c h i l d when he begins Grade one. 66 Broken F a m i l i e s . The i n t e r e s t of the f i v e women i n t h i s group centred around meeting the day to day l i v i n g experiences connected w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n and themselves. They c a r r i e d the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r home and turned to Strathcona Nursery School f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * Time and the nature o f the questions asked, of these women, d i d not le n d i t s e l f to any d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s Involved i n these f a m i l i e s . However the w r i t e r observed that these women were comparatively more d i s -turbed emotionally than the women.in the normal f a m i l i e s . Two o f the f i v e women had good job s e c u r i t y whine three f a c t o r y workers d i d not have the s e c u r i t y which was so v i t a l to them. The l a c k of f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y added to the present i n s e c u r i t y of t h e i r m a r i t a l p o s i t i o n . One mother was t e c h n i c a l l y separated due to her husband being i n c a r s e r a t e d on a manslaughter charge a r i s i n g from a highway a c c i d e n t . An i n t e r e s t i n g comparison can be made between Mrs. Q.»s a t t i t u d e to s e p a r a t i o n and the other women i n t h i s group. Mrs. G. f e l t the s e p a r a t i o n s t r o n g l y and f r e e l y expressed her b i t t e r n e s s and disappointment. She had the burden o f i l l h e a l t h and the worry over her husband, whom she f e l t , had been 67 u n j u s t l y charged. With th© other women s e p a r a t i o n was a r e l i e f and a move towards a h e a l t h i e r s i t u a t i o n . Because o f her 111 h e a l t h Mrs. 0. had been unable to o b t a i n steady employment. Tho Nursery was c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d r e n so that she would be abl© to do her housework and take the odd job as she was p h y s i c a l l y a b l e . Mrs* Or. hoped to o b t a i n steady employment i n the near f u t u r e . I n the meantime the f a m i l y were r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Mrs. H. represents a case i n which there was some emotional disturbance not caused by economic i n s e c u r i t y * Mrs. H* was a c i v i l servant and she was the on l y woman I n the sample group who co n t r i b u t e d to a pension fund. She had had a ver y r e a l s t r u g g l e to m a i n t a i n h e r s e l f and her c h i l d f o r sometime. F i n a l l y she was able to o b t a i n a s u i t so tha t sli© eould apply f o r c l e r i c a l work* Mrs. H. received the h i g h e s t wage of the women I n th© broken f a m i l y group. However she was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s j o b . Mrs. H. was pre-occupled w i t h f i n d i n g s e c u r i t y through remarriage. Her own marriage had f a i l e d and so had common law r e l a t i o n s h i p s . She had had three m i s c a r r i a g e s f o l l o w i n g th© b i r t h of her f i r s t o h i l d . Her f r e e - f l o w i n g conversation i n d i c a t e d t h a t she had a f e a r of becoming u n a t t r a c t i v e as she grew o l d e r . Her determination to f i n d a husband was r a t i o n a l i z e d by the statement I need to f i n d a f a t h e r f o r my (c h i l d ) * . 68 The remaining three I n t h i s group of f i v e women r e f l e c t e d the r e l i e f found I n se p a r a t i o n . They were happier working and c a r r y i n g the f u l l f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than they had been w h i l e married. Sach spoke o f the Improvement I n the h e a l t h of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and themselves. C h i l d r e n of Broken Homes. The c h i l d r e n i n the f i v e f a m i l i e s I n which the f a t h e r was absent from the home, were between the ages of three and one* h a l f and seven and one-half. Seven of the t o t a l o f nine c h i l d r e n I n these f a m i l i e s attended Strathcona Nursery School. The average age of lj . , 3 years was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the average of 3.8 years f o r the white c o l l a r normal f a m i l i e s and 3.9 years for the manual-artisan normal f a m i l i e s . The median age of a l l the twenty-five c h i l d r e n a t t ending the Nursery was f o u r years. The two c h i l d r e n who attended p u b l i c school were b r o t h e r after and s i s t e r . They were cared f o r by a neighbourAschool u n t i l the mother returned from work. The minimum average l e n g t h of time these seven c h i l d r e n spent I n the Nursery was 8.6 hours per day. This i s a p p r o x i -mately the same l e n g t h of time as I n both groups o f norraal f a m i l i e s . The c h i l d r e n i n the broken homes tended t o i l l u s t r a t e 69 more emotional disturbances than those from normal homes. Reference has already been made to the c h i l d w i t h speech d i f f i c u l t i e s * The C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c had t o l d the.mother t h a t i f the emotional t e n s i o n s , caused by m a r t i a l d i s c o r d i n her second marriage, were reduced, the c h i l d would l e a r n t o t a l k . F o l l o w i n g the s e p a r a t i o n and attendance at the Nursery t h i s c h i l d was able t o improve r a t h e r d r a m a t i c a l l y . A second i l l u s t r a t i o n I s one whieh occurred In.the w r i t e r ' s presence when he i n t e r v i e w e d Mrs. H. Upon e n t e r i n g the homo, the c h i l d jumped up from p l a y i n g q u i e t l y w i t h toys, ran over and took the w r i t e r ' s b r i e f case> examined I t c a r e f u l l y then asked the w r i t e r t o leave; Mrs* H. ignored t h i s request and sat a t one end of tho k i t c h e n t a b l e w h i l e the w r i t e r s a t a t the other; I n the f o l l o w i n g f o r t y minute I n t e r v i e w the c h i l d managed to f i n d a l l the movable items I n the two room s u i t e and place them between her mother and the w r i t e r . By these a c t i o n s t h i s c h i l d appeared to be b u i l d i n g a w a l l between her mother and tho strange man. I t was her method of. expressing d i s a p p r o v a l of the v i s i t o r ; As f a r as the c h i l d was concerned the w r i t e r was another i n a s e r i e s of men who v i s i t e d the home from time to time; I n a l a t e r onquiry a t th© Nursery I t was confirmed t h a t t h i s c h i l d had an emotional problem. She had been, and continued to be, a o h i l d who had d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g to the groups e n u r e s i s c o n t i n u e d although the mother s t a t e d the Nursery was h e l p i n g hor t o meet t h i s problem* 70 I n th© d i s c u s s i o n of th© f a m i l y lif© and c h i l d car© i n t h i s chapter reference has been made to s p e c i f i c questions asked o f the women i n the i n t e r v i e w s . I n the f o l l o w i n g p a r a -graphs t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s drawn together to i l l u s t r a t e the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n as i t was I n d i c a t e d i n a l l of the twenty i n t e r v i e w s . The t o t a l group o f women are discussed without reference to the subgroups such as manual normal f a m i l i e s e t c . Personal I n t e r e s t s o f the Mother. Wilson and Ryland, I n t h e i r book S o e i a l Group Work .Practice-p o i n t out tha t a d u l t s need r e c r e a t i o n j u s t as c h i l d r e n need p l a y . " A d u l t s need to f i n d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s some of the same s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h a t c h i l d r e n f i n d i n t h e i r p lays mastery over s e l f and over materials„ environment and s i t u a t i o n s ; w i s h f u l f i l l r a e n t ; some fantasy? some escape from r e a l i t y and the superego; f u n and laug h t e r ; and the norms f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g h e l p f u l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ' * . 2 I n h i s c o n t e x t , a ve r y s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i s the f a c t that f o r t y - f i v e per cent of the mothers i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t they had no personal i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s or hobbies. Several mentioned that they were u s u a l l y too t i r e d to take on any outside a c t i v i t i e s . The remaining eleven spoke of reading , watching 2. W i l s o n , Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys, S o e i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e s . New York: Houghton M i f f l i n Go. 191+9 page 209. 71 t e l e v i s i o n , movies, s p o r t s , sowing and gardening as t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Three quarters of the mothors s a i d t h a t they had no time or very l i t t l e time f o r such i n t e r e s t s or a c t i v i t i e s . An oven greater f a c t t h a t concerns the Nursery School i s th a t s i x t e e n o r e i g h t y por cent of the mothers had no a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any c l u b s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s or Church. Those who had o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s confined them t o t h e i r Church, b r i d g e c l u b or i n one case the o c c a s i o n a l day's work w i t h the Vancouver Volunteer Bureau. A t t e n t i o n I s drawn to the E* f a m i l y mentioned e a r l i e r i n which the mother worked on a r a t h e r r i g i d schedule and was therefor© able to bowl one n i g h t a weak and s t i l l have h e r weekends fr e e f o r personal and f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . Mrs* E. a l s o commented tha t anything which upset her schedule, such as a shower f o r a f r i e n d , on th© evening she was supposed to i r o n , would throw th© whole p l a n out of balance f o r the r e s t of th© week. Th© mother's l a c k o f outside I n t e r e s t s would i n d i c a t e t h a t they have very littl© time* and i n some cases, very l i t t l e dosir© to p a r t i c i p a t e I n a c t i v i t i e s o u tside the home. For t h i s reason i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r the. Nursery to f a c i l i t a t e a parent group f o r d i s c u s s i o n o r a c t i v i t i e s * There were only s i x f a m i l i e s who d i d not share some form of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s together. The f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s 72 i n c l u d e d sports which i n v o l v e d the c h i l d r e n , Sunday walks or ca r d r i v e s , going to th© movies, o r watching t e l e v i s i o n . One new Canadian f a m i l y used the t e l e v i s i o n set to improve t h e i r E n g l i s h . They watched the commercials which gave them both the s p e l l i n g and pr o n u n c i a t i o n . Another f a m i l y read to each other and l i s t e n e d to records. On the whole the a c t i v i t i e s shared as a f a m i l y group, as w e l l as the personal i n t e r e s t s of the mother, were s p e c t a t o r o r passive f u n c t i o n s ; The p a r e n t s 1 attempts to b r i n g the f a m i l y together were oentred around Sunday oar d r i v e s or watching t e l e v i s i o n . I n r e a l i t y t h i s was a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r c h i l d c a r e . I n a l l twenty f a m i l i e s the woman's st a t e d reason f o r working was f i n a n c i a l g a i n . T h i s was a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r i n each case but i n a few f a m i l i e s i t was obvious t h a t the women had a psycho-l o g i c a l need to work e i t h e r as a method of ©scape from being " j u s t a housewife" o r a r e l e a s e of f r u s t r a t i o n . The need t o be Independent was predominant i n the broken homos. Regardless of what the goal o r purpose was f o r the women; the m a j o r i t y s t a t e d that they thought they were moving " s l o w l y but s t e a d i l y " towards t h e i r o b j e c t i v e . Only two of the women s t a t e d they d i d not t h i n k they were ac h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l e i t h e r f i n a n c i a l l y o r p e r s o n a l l y * Three quarters of the twenty women thought they had r e c e i v e d 73 personal gains through work. Some measured the advantages of working i n gains to t h e i r homes. They f e l t a sense o f p r i d e I n the m a t e r i a l goods t h e i r income was able to c o n t r i b u t e to f a m i l y l i f e . Others spok© o f I n d i v i d u a l g a i n s . They f o l t more a l e r t and b e t t e r able to cope w i t h t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g when they worked out s i d e the home,. To quote a mother w i t h t h i s a t t i t u d e , " I f I stay at home I only t h i n k o f the k i d s and housework. When I work I have to be aware of the outside world'*. Other women had worked a l l t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s and they would be unhappy, they f e l t , i f they d i d not have a f u l l time occupation along w i t h t h o l r home and f a m i l y . Summary., The v a r i a t i o n s I n f a m i l y l i f e as i l l u s t r a t e d by the exam-i n a t i o n of the womon i n t h i s sample group shows t h a t there were three predominate uses mads of Strathcona Nursery School. They are? those t h a t found the Nursery an e s s e n t i a l resource In. order to keep the f a m i l y together as a u n i t ? thoso who found i t valuable to the f a m i l y ; and those who used the Nursery as a convenient method o f r e l i e v i n g the parents o f c h i l d - c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * I n tho f i r s t group tho w r i t e r i n c l u d e s a l l the broken f a m i l i e s , Since there are few resources i n Vancouver w i t h the competence of the s t a f f a t Strathcona Nursery School, these 7k wemen have the p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n i t l v e s o f f o s t e r placement, fostor-daycare o r tho Nursery. I n these p a r t i c u l a r cases the mothers d i d not have any r e l a t i v e s who were capable o f c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d . The second group Includes f a m i l i e s such as the two students, the new Canadian; f a m i l i e s , and those who were attempting to m a i n t a i n an adequate income on which, to .support the f a m i l y . The t h i r d group i n c l u d e s those f a m i l i e s i n which the . parents I n d i c a t e d t h a t they saw the Nursery as a resource f o r r e l i e v i n g them of p a r t of t h e i r c h i l d car© r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n se v e r a l homes i t was apparent t h a t th© women worked p r i m a r i l y f o r p e r s o n a l reasons which I n c l d e n t l y increased th© f a m i l y Income. These women d i d not appear to be content I n t h e i r own homes and sought s a t i s f a c t i o n through employment. The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are made on th© b a s i s of Income and resources (other than the mothers income derived from employment). Group one Includes 25% o f th© t o t a l sarapl© group to whom th© Nursery School was an e s s e n t i a l resource. I n group two, 35% o f th© t o t a l sample group used the Nursery as a valuable resource. The remaining were considered by th© w r i t e r to be u s i n g th© Nursery as a n o n - e s s e n t i a l resource. Mrs. H. represents a f a m i l y I n which the Nursery School was 75 an e s s e n t i a l resource. Although Mrs. H. had compart!vely good job s e c u r i t y she would have had to plaee her c h i l d i f t h e i r resource was not avallab3e » Because of the emotional d i s t u r b -ances of the c h i l d * i t would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a foste.r-day-care home which c o u l d meet the c h l l d s needs. P o s t e r placement would probably have to be considered the best a l t e r n i t i v e . Both Mrs, B, and Mrs. D , are mothers who found the Nursery a very valuable resource. They were both working towards a w e l l defined goal and used the Nursery I n a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner. I n Mrs, D«*s case h e r e h i l d l i v e d i n a predominately German environment. The Nursery School p r o v i d e d a valuable o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c h i l d to l e a r n Canadian ways o f l i v i n g as w e l l as to speak E n g l i s h . Examples of f a m i l i e s who were attempting to shed t h e i r r e s p o n s b i l l t y are found i n Mrs, A. and Mrs. P. i n the f i r s t i n s tance Mrs. A. experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n making an adequate adjustment to her home l i f e . Mrs. P. st a t e d t h a t she d i d not f e e l the f a m i l y was g a i n i n g by her working. I n both cases the Nursery was used as a "dumping ground" f o r the c h i l d r e n . These three uses of the Nursery w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n Chapter Pour, CHAPTER FOUR THE WORKING MOTHER AND STRATHCONA NURSERY SCHOOL. As p a r t o f a f i n a l review o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s study-I t I s necessary to look b r i e f l y a t the p o s i t i o n of the urban f a m i l y today. The p o s i t i o n and value of the nursery school depends very much on t h i s . The changing p a t t e r n of urban l i v i n g has had many r a m i f i c a t i o n s , not the l e a s t of which, i s the develop-ment of many i n s t i t u t i o n s to h e l p the f a m i l y cope w i t h the problems created by the increased u r b a n i z a t i o n . One o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s which has a r i s e n because of the general pressures caused by u r b a n i z a t i o n i s the nursery School. The f o l l o w i n g d l s e u s s i o n helps to c l a r i f y the p o s i t i o n of Strathcona Nursery School i n i t s environment. I n Chapter One a b r i e f d i s c r i p t i o n of the Strathcona area I l l u s t r a t e d the m u l t i p l i c i t y of c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c f o r c e s i n an area covering approximately f o r t y c i t y b l o c k s . The d i s t r i c t o f East Vancouver, which I s east o f Strathcona, i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the m u l t i p l i c i t y of ethnic and c u l t u r a l backgrounds, But the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not qu i t e as d i v e r s e as th© Strathcona d i s t r i c t . There are e t h n i c groups of Chinese, I t a l i a n , Japanese,, European Immigrants, Negroes and Anglo-Saxons.. There are more than a dozen ethnic o r i e n t a t e d r e l i g i o u s denominations i n and immediately around the Strathcona area. There I s very l i t t l e communication between these e t h n i c and 77 c u l t u r a l groups i n th© Strathcona area or between th© groups i n the l a r g e r d i s t r i c t of East Vancouver. F o r example, the Chinese community remains separate and autonomous from the other c u l t u r a l groupa. The c h i l d r e n from these homes do come together through the p u b l i c school system, but the a d u l t s * e s p e c i a l l y the f i r s t g e neration parents, tend to remain i n t h e i r own et h n i c group* The enrollment i n p u b l i c schools I n the area I s on© measure o f the cosmopolitan character of the d i s t r i c t . There are so many c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c backgrounds i n attendance at the Strathcon a P u b l i c School t h a t I t i s known as the " l i t t l e United Nations". Although the Seymour P u b l i c School, i n the d i s t r i c t east of Strathcona has many, c h i l d r e n of v a r y i n g backgrounds i t does not have the same d i v e r s i t y as the Strathcona P u b l i c School. I n c o n t r a s t th© K e r r i s d a l e P u b l i c School, which i s s i t u a t e d i n a d i s t r i c t o f business and p r o f e s s i o n a l people s e v e r a l m i l e s to th© south-west o f th© Strathcona area, has only a few c h i l d r e n who are of non-Canadian parents. Many f a m i l i e s l i v e i n the Strathcona area o n l y l o n g enough to acquire th© f i n a n c i a l means to be able to move to a b e t t e r d i s t r i c t I n the c i t y . Many people who r e c e i v e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and o l d age pensions o r war veterans* allowances llv© I n the area because o f th© inexpensive l o d g i n g s . I n f a c t , I t could be s a i d t h a t many people l i v e i n th© Strathcona area because of economic 78 and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s . They do not have the f i n a n c i a l resources to l i v e i n other d i s t r i c t s o r they have an ethnic and s o c i a l t i e ( i . e . some Chinese f a m i l i e s ) : to the area. The f u n c t i o n s o f the modem f a m i l y has a l t e r e d so t h a t many out s i d e i n f l u e n c e s Impringe upon the members and there has been a t r a n s f e r of these f u n c t i o n s to other o r g a n i z a t i o n s • There i s a wide v a r i a t i o n I n the extent to which the f a m i l y has t r a n s f e r e d i t ' s f u n c t i o n . W i t h i n the urban f a m i l i e s the impact o f modem l i f e has not been uniform on a l l f a m i l y groups. Due to s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s some o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been able to perform c e r t a i n d u t i e s which the f a m i l y , by i t s very nature of personnel and s t r u c t u r e , cannot c a r r y out e f f e c t i v e l y . I n many or g a n i z a t i o n s the aim i s to supplement r a t h e r than usurp the f a m i l y f u n c t i o n . I n the twe n t i e t h century the s t a t e has spread i t s i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l over many economic, c u l t u r e d and s o c i a l phases of l i v i n g through the c r e a t i o n of new f u n c t i o n s o r the expansion o f o l d . The r o l e o f government i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s an I l l u s t r a t i o n o f the extent to which some t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y f u n c t i o n s have been t r a n s f e r e d to the s t a t e * There has been a d e c l i n e I n the r o l e the f a m i l y has played In education, r e c r e a t i o n , and p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The school system has assumed a major p o s i t i o n , not h e l d I n the p a s t , of gu i d i n g c h i l d r e n and youth. The teacher I s almost a s u b s t i t u t e parent since they o f t e n give moral guidance and take h e a l t h 79 proeautlons as w e l l as give I n s t r u c t i o n i n academic s u b j e c t s . Commercialized r e c r e a t i o n has taken over the former r o l e the f a m i l y hold as a centre f o r r e c r e a t i o n . There i s more con c e n t r a t i o n upon spec t a t o r sports than making a b a l l team o f the f a m i l y . Movies, dances and c a r n i v a l s draw the f a m i l y members o f f i n d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s . On the other hand, such devices as reading aloud, l i s t e n i n g to records and r a d i o , and watching t e l e v i s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t tho homo I s s t i l l an important r e c r e a t i o n a l centre f o r many people, The r i s e and growth o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and the use of pr o b a t i o n I l l u s t r a t e s the: d e c l i n e of p r o t e c t i v e and d i s c i p l i n a r y f u n c t i o n s of the family*, I n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p h y s i c a l and emot i o n a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d are being used to a grea t e r degree than i n the p a s t . Today economic s t a t u s does not present a b a r r i e r to such s e r v i c e s and thus th© f a m i l y i s r e l i e v e d of the Immediate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r i n g f o r 111 r e l a t i v e s , A casual o b s e r v a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l economic f u n c t i o n s o f th© home shows that s p e c i a l i z e d agencies now assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The Increase I n bakery shops, r e s t a u r a n t s , h o t e l s , laundry establishments, c l o t h i n g f i r m s and canned goods bare witness to a dramatic change i n f u n c t i o n and d a l l y t a sks w i t h i n the home. This I s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n o f a r i s e I n tho standard o f l i v i n g . 8o Perhaps one o f the most n o t i c e a b l e and l e a s t understood phenomena of u r b a n i z a t i o n i s the subtle l o s s o f c o n t r o l by the f a m i l y , over i n d i v i d u a l members. This d e c l i n e i n c o n t r o l has o f t e n been absorbed by o t h e r forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The demands of urban work takes the f a t h e r , and o f t e n the mother, away from the home f o r a major p o r t i o n o f the day. This r e -s u l t s i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which i t i s d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l . On a farm* both parents are near home much of the time and as a r e s u l t they were able to give continuous guidance o r i n s t r u c t i o n to the c h i l d r e n . "The p e r i o d o f time duri n g which each c h i l d undergoes the c o n d i t i o n i n g i n f l u e n c e s of the f a m i l y has been shortened w i t h each encroachment of e x t r a - f a m i l i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " . * Moral d i s c i p l i n e , r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l care and education are i n c r e a s i n g l y being taken over by o t h e r s , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t much of the t r a i n i n g and c o n d i t i o n i n g I s governed by o u t s i d e I n f l u e n c e s , These " i n s t i t u t i o n s " are I n c r e a s i n g l y d e f i n i n g the a t t i t u d e s and behavior p a t t e r n s o f those who come t-dthin t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r sphere o f i n f l u e n c e . When both parents work these I n s t i t u t i o n s assume an even g r e a t e r r o l e , "Though i t i s evident that urban l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s have had a d i s o r g a n i z i n g e f f e c t on f a m i l y l i f e , c r e a t i n g behavior and p e r s o n a l i t y problems, the f a m i l y s t i l l remains a f u n c t i o n i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n , perhaps the most important i n the l i f e experience 1. G i s t , Noel P, and H a l b e r t , L.A.. urban S o c i e t y . New York, Thomas Y. C r o w e l l , T h i r d E d i t i o n , 195©, page U0°» 81 of tho I n d i v i d u a l " . 2 Th© p r o f e s s i o n of S o c i a l Work endorses t h i s statement and goes oven f u r t h e r "...the f a m i l y I s the primary and b a s i c u n i t i n our s o c i e t y " . 3 The f a m i l y I s i n the continuous process o f a d j u s t i n g t o th© l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y which I s c o n s t a n t l y attempting to become i n t e g r a t e d and s t a b i l i z e d . Ko other s i n g l e i n s t i t u t i o n i s capable of a s s i s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l to grow and adapt t o the changing c o n d i t i o n s to tho degree t h a t i s found i n the f a m i l y . Many or g a n i z a t i o n s have been c r e a t e d to a s s i s t the f a m i l y . One of these i n o v a t l o n s I s the nursery s c h o o l . I t I s able to meet tho needs of c h i l d r e n i n a v a r i e t y of ways which a s s i s t them I n t h e i r growth and development 6 In h e r book. The Nursery School. Katherln© H. ReadU suggests se v e r a l f u n c t i o n s i n which the c h i l d may have r i c h experiences. She suggests t h a t the good nursery school can o f f e r the c h i l d some o f tho values once found i n l a r g e f a m i l i e s . Thos© inelud© being able to p l a y w i t h others about th© same age, the 30ns© of belonging to a group, sharing experiences, and the chance to be s e l f s u f f i c i e n t and independent; The c h i l d i n a l a r g o f a m i l y 2. Opclt; page 3. Exner,. Helen Philosopher Concepts and p r i n c i p a l s o f S o e i a l Work Meth©d,memeographod m a t e r i a l * School o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1951+. I*. Miss Katharine Read, The Nursery School. P h i l a d e l p h i a . W.B. Saunders Company, 1950, page 30. 82 spends much o f h i s . time i n a " c h i l d ' s , world", he does not hcve to l i v e up to a d u l t standards at a l l times. The '*only c h i l d " o f t e n spends much time w i t h a d u l t s , and unpleasant. I n c i d e n t s u s u a l l y a r i s e . I f the c h i l d has too many unpleasant experiences w i t h a d u l t s he i s apt to develop r e s i s t a n c e s to the a d u l t a u t h o r i t y . The nursery school i s on® way o f g i v i n g the c h i l d an o pportunity to compete w i t h equals and s t i l l have a d u l t guidance. The second value Miss Read suggests I s that the nursery school can o f f e r some of the values once found i n spacious l i v i n g . I n confined quarters of urban d w e l l i n g a l l too o f t e n c h i l d r e n do not have adequate p l a y space to meet t h e i r needs. I n a nursery school the rooms and playgrounds are u s u a l l y designed to meet these needs. In the urban s e t t i n g c h i l d r e n o f t e n do not have the f i r s t hand experiences which are v i t a l I n l e a r n i n g . Eggs don't come In a c a r t o n , but unless the c h i l d has an opp o r t u n i t y to gather eggs i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r them to comprehend the r e a l p i c t u r e . Often they tend to get a reverse p i c t u r e of. the source o f food. An example of t h i s occured I n the w r i t e r ' s presence r e c e n t l y . Two c h i l d r e n age seven and three were v i s i t i n g a farm f o r the f i r s t time. The seven year o l d p r o u d l y p o i n t e d to some f i v e g a l l o n m i l k cans and announced to the three year o l d , "That's where the cows get t h e i r m i l k from":. "¥e can h a r d l y estimate 83 how modern l i f e l i m i t s the I n t e l l e c t u a l development o f c h i l d r e n by l i m i t i n g t h e i r f i r s t hand experiences."5> Many a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to d a i l y needs are c a r r i e d on outside the home. The c h i l d has r e s t r i c t e d o p o r t u n i t i e s to l e a r n of these a c t i v i t i e s . Miss Read suggests t h a t research seems to I n d i c a t e t h a t "... attendance at nursery echool has an e f f e c t on the I n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l of c h i l d r e n (and t h i s ) may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the advantages of the l a r g e r number of f i r s t hand experiences that are o f f e r e d at school over the number o f f e r e d I n the modern home*1.6 Miss Read also suggests t h a t the nursery has a f u n c t i o n as an I n t e r p r e t e r of knowledge of c h i l d r e n to parents. She suggests that many parents have had very l i m i t e d experience *riLth c h i l d r e n p r i o r to becoming parents themselves. They do not know what to expect at v a r y i n g ages and stages of development. They o f t e n need an o p o r t u n l t y to observe c h i l d r e n at p l a y , to d i s c u s s questions w i t h an experienced person. "The nursery school i s one way to transmit the experience and f i n d i n g s of research centres to p r a c t i c i n g parents",7 The nursery school has developed to meet f a m i l y needs I n a 5. 6. 7. I b i d I b i d i b i d 81* changing urban s o c i e t y , The nursery s c h o o l , through i t s f a c i l i t i e s , s e t t i n g , and l e a d e r s h i p provide many strengths f o r m e r l y found i n the f a m i l y u n i t , These are some of the needs which the nursery school can be designed t o meet—needs both of adult s and of o h i l d r e n . The Working Mother: Gains and Losses For the C h i l d r e n . The mothers were asked to comment upon t h e i r present and past arrangements f o r c h i l d c a r e . The twenty women a l l spoke w i t h enthusiasm o f the present arrangements w i t h the Strathcona Nursery School, Several had experienced unhappy arrangements i n the past. These past arrangements Included p l a c i n g the c h i l d r e n w i t h r e l a t i v e s , u s u a l l y grandparents; p r i v a t e placements which i n v a r i a b l y proved to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; a f o s t e r day care p l a c e -ment al s o proved u n s a t i s f a c t o r y I n one s i t u a t i o n ; a few had t r i e d a housekeeper and i n each case they found t h a t the c h i l d r e n became q u i t e upset. The r e p l i e s to the question o f the present arrangements brought p r a i s e from a m a j o r i t y of the mothers. A l l twenty ex-pressed s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Nursery School. A few of the r e p l i e s can be quoted to i l l u s t r a t e the v a r y i n g degrees of enthusiasm and a l s o the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o r l a c k of depth i n the r e p l y s , "I'm very s a t i s f i e d , ray c h i l d i s doing so much b e t t e r at the Nursery", "I'm completely s a t i s f i e d , . . t h e y have done a 85 l o t f o r him'*, " I t h i n k the Nursery i s wonderful", o r " I have no wo r r i e s , I know he i s w e l l looked a f t e r " . The l e a s t e n t h u s i a s t i c person simply s t a t e d , " I know whore they are a t " . Most.of the mothers were able to f o l l o w these comments by I l l u s t r a t i n g what the Nursery had meant to them. I n two s i t u a t i o n s the Nursery was h e l p i n g w i t h speech r e t a r d a t i o n . S e v e r a l others remarked on how the c h i l d r e n c o u l d now p l a y w i t h others much b e t t e r . Most mothers r e f e r r e d to the s t a f f of the Nursery I n very p o s i t i v e terms. They l i k e d the s t a f f ' s competence and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l approach. Bach mother l a i d g r e at s t r e s s on the f a c t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d l i k e d the Nursery and the teachers. I t was o f course necessary to i n t e r p r e t the survey so t h a t nobody interviewed f e l t t h a t t h i s study might somehow a f f e c t t h e i r c h l l d s ' f u t u r e attendance at the Nursery. The purpose of the study was c a r e f u l l y explained to each parent at the Nursery d u r i n g the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t , and l a t e r i n t h e i r homes the purpose was again reviewed. This was done p r i n c i p a l l y to reduce to a minimum the chance that the parents might f e e l t h a t u n l e s s they supported the Nursery they might somehow be asked to remove t h e i r c h i l d . However there I s no o b j e c t i v e way of measuring t h i s aspect I n the mothers' r e p l y . I t can o n l y be assumed that such f e e l i n g s would be a p a r t of the r e p l y : because of the pre c a u t i o n s taken, I t I s b e l i e v e d t h i s does not add seriou s b i a s to the mothers' r e p l y . 86 The major d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n commented on by the mothers was not w i t h the Nursery I t s e l f but w i t h I t s l o c a t i o n . S e v e r a l mothers d i d not l i k e the area i n which the Nursery was l o c a t e d . Such r e p l i e s cam© from parents who had never l i v e d i n o r near the Strathcona area and a t present they tended to l i v e a t some dist a n c e from the Nursery. Two f a c t o r s appear to i n f l u e n c e t h i s sentiment. F i r s t was the tendency of those women who l i v e d a t a d i s t a n c e to regard the Strathcona area as a slum; They d i d not l i k e being a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such an area. The second reason appeared to be the di s t a n c e i t s e l f ; The women expressed t h e i r problem o f g e t t i n g the c h i l d r e n up e a r l y I n the morning and making the l o n g t r i p to the Nursery. One woman remarked on the "mus"byodor". of the b u i l d i n g ; She wondered I f the dampness might f a c i l i t a t e the spreading of communicable diseases and head c o l d s ; The women were a l s o asked to comment upon what e f f e c t s t h e i r working had on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; I n terras of gains the mothers Indicated t h a t the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d such good care, at the Nursery that they were quit® w e l l o f f . The m a j o r i t y had not taken time to evaluate the e f f e c t t h e i r work had on the c h i l d r e n ; Another t y p i c a l answer was that the c h i l d r e n were b e t t e r o f f a t school than they would be at home; The c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d to p l a y w i t h o t h e r s , they l i v e d i n a " c h i l d ' s , world", they gained a f e e l i n g of independance, they would be l o n e l y at home without 87 playmates, they were more polite, they learned to wash them-selves, they learn to count, to draw and paint, to sing* these s k i l l s a l l make i t easier for the children to start public school. The New Canadian families a l l stressed that th© child learns to speak correct English, Several mothers stated that their children appreciated them more when they did not see too much of the parents* Regarding any losses th© children might hay© because their mother was working, only five of the twenty remarked that their children missed being with their mother* They saw the value of parental care and the child's need to be with them* They also . found It d i f f i c u l t to find time to follow the particular. Interests of their child. One mother expressed her frustration, at the lack of time when she said, "I don't even have time to make any clothes for them". The only direct reference, to the Nursery i n which th© mothers f e l t their ohildren lost by the. mother working were directed toward th© program and not th© staff* Some f e l t that the day at th© Nursery was too long for their child. One German boy of two and one-half yoars was confused by the two languages and therefore combined the use of both i n his speech. Also th© children were exposed to group diseases. These are legitimate complaints but the f i r s t two ar© beyond th© control of the Nursery, The "Nursery has a daily health inspection and If a 88 c h i l d becomes i l l d u r i n g the day the parents are n o t i f i e d and requested to take the c h i l d home. The mothers were asked f o r t h e i r ideas of d e s i r a b l e f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d care while they worked. The ansxiier r e c e i v e d from eighteen of the twenty mothers was very c o n s l s t a n t . Almost without exception they r e p l i e d , "Well I would l i k e to see more n u r s e r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c i t y " . Two of the mothers suggested t h a t there should be a school bus to p i c k up the c h i l d r e n In the morning. Both women f e l t t h a t the parents should take the c h i l d r e n home I n the afternoon. The Nursery Schoolt Basle Needs. I t was st a t e d I n Chapter On© t h a t the nursery school i s an educational i n s t i t u t i o n which supplements the homo l i f e of the c h i l d r e n . I t seems th a t there are two d i s t i n c t , y e t over l a p p i n g s e r v i c e s t h a t nursery schools perform. The f i r s t s e r v i c e appears to be an educ a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the c h i l d . The second i s a s e r v i c e d i c t a t e d by the socio-economic circumstances o f the parents. The f i r s t view sees the nursery school as an educ a t i o n a l bridge to p u b l i c school f o r the c h i l d . The program I s designed on the b a s i s of the needs o f the two to f i v e year o l d c h i l d . This i n c l u d e s a maximum o f f o u r hours attendance each week day In the nursery. I n the m a j o r i t y of the l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n on 89 the s u b j e c t , th© w r i t e r s accept t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as th© usual s i t u a t i o n . I n such a s e r v i c e th© nursery i s seen as p r i m a r i l y educational i n focus. I n the second view the nursery i s seen as a community resource f o r a s s i s t i n g f a m i l i e s w i t h socio-economic problems. This i s the f u n c t i o n Strathcona Nursery School f u l f i l l s . Such a s e r v i c e I s d i r e c t e d towards th© working, broken and occasion-a l l y the d i s t u r b e d f a m i l y . I n the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n I t may be advisable i n some cases to remove the c h i l d r e n from the home f o r a major p a r t of the day. I f the mother i s over anxious regarding r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , or Is emoti o n a l l y upset due to I l l n e s s , the nursery school may supply a needed s e r v i c e by c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d w h i l e the mother regains her h e a l t h or I s helped to g a i n confidence i n r a i s i n g her c h i l d r e n . Th© c h i l d from the working, broken or d l s t r u b e d f a m i l y has the opportunity to gain the oduc a t i o n a l advantage of the nursery school program. But the time he spends, i n th© group environment I s u s u a l l y double th© l e n g t h of time spent by the c h i l d from the home that does not hav© acute socio-economic problems. I n those ways the nursery school s e r v i c e can be seen as two-fold, w i t h each p a r t o r s e r v i c e overlapping the other. I n th© l i t e r a t u r e on day car© centres I t was Implied t h a t both s e r v i c e s can and are combined w i t h i n the sare© agoncy. 90 Strathcona Nursery School combines these two s e r v i c e s but tends to emphasize tho meeting o f socio-economic needs of the f a m i l i e s . As i t has been shown In the i n f l u e n c e of u r b a n i z a t i o n , there I s a tendency f o r agencies organized to supplement the home to a c t u a l l y usurp a major p o r t i o n of th© r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . This I s true of the Nursery; Th© r e p l i e s o f th© mothers i n d i -cate that they not o n l y do not r e a l i z e t h i s but t h a t they encourage i t . Por those f a m i l i e s who use the Nursery as an e s s e n t i a l resource;, I t can be argued t h a t t h i s I s almost a n e c e s s i t y . I n those f a m i l i e s who f i n d the Nursery a v a l u a b l e resource there I s cause f o r concern, because th© s e r v i c e s o f th© Nursery ar© u s u a l l y temporary, t h a t the homo should not b© di s r u p t e d by the l o s 3 o f foc u s . I n those f a m i l i e s where the f a m i l y use th© Nursery as a n o n - e s s e n t i a l resource I t I s v i t a l l y important that the Nursery does not encourage f a m i l y breakdown by reducing f a m i l y u n i t y . E v a l u a t i n g Strathcona Nursery School a g a i n s t Miss Road's c r i t e r i a , i t can be seen t h a t the Nursery f u l f i l l s three of the f o u r f u n c t i o n s she sets out. I n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h a t of supplying values onco found i n l a r g e f a m i l i e s , I t can b© n o t i c e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the sample group of f a m i l i e s wero s m a l l . E l e v e n f a m i l i e s had an "only c h i l d " , s i x f a m i l i e s had two c h i l d r e n , one f a m i l y had three c h i l d r e n and only two f a m i l i e s had four c h i l d r e n . These c h i l d r e n I n Strathcona- Nursery School were able to p l a y i n a c h i l d ' s world w i t h others o f t h e i r own age group. 91 They belonged to a group and an a d u l t was " t h e i r " teacher. They shared t h e i r experiences and toys a t the l e v e l o f which they were capable and they were able to compote w i t h equals r a t h e r than always being guided by o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . The s t a f f person supervised t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and a s s i s t e d the c h i l d to adjust to v a r y i n g circumstances, I n Chapter Three I t was noted that the homes these c h i l d r e n came from were overcrowded. I t must a l s o bo repeated t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the f a m i l i e s l i v e d I n shacks, apartments or basement s u i t e s which d i d not a l l o w f o r much p l a y space f o r the c h i l d r e n . Through p l a y , c h i l d r e n are able to oxperience what l i v i n g Involves and i t provides an opp o r t u n i t y to t e s t o l d and new experiences. The importance of p l a y f o r the c h i l d I s w e l l known. Wilson and Ryland suggest the purpose of p l a y f o r the c h i l d as^ " . . . p l a y serves the i n d i v i d u a l as a means of..,.{!) g a i n i n g mastery o r c o n t r o l , (2) f i n d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r wish f u l f i l l m e n t , (3) escaping through f a n t a s y , securing a leave o f absense from r e a l i t y and th© superego, (5) f i n d i n g o u t l e t s through f u n and humor, and (6) l e a r n i n g to be both a l e a d e r and a f o l l o w e r I n group l i f e " * When p l a y I s confined to busy s t r e e t s o r l a n e s the c h i l d l a c k s a necessary element I n h i s or her development. These c h i l d r e n , w i t h few exc e p t i o n s j did.not have adequate p l a y space around t h e i r own homes. The Strathcona Nursery t h e r e -f o r e s u p p l i e d some of the needed experiences f o r the c h i l d r e n . 8. o p c i t . page 202. 92 U n f o r t u n a t e l y due to tho d e s i g n of the b u i l d i n g , and the s m a l l playground the Strathcona Nursery School can not meet the f u l l needs o f a l l the c h i l d r e n . However, w i t h the equipment and space a v a i l a b l e i t I s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the Nursery i s doing a c r e d i t a b l e job I n t h i s regard. I n the t h i r d area o u t l i n e d by Miss Read, that o f f i r s t hand experiences, the Strathcona Nursery School i s somewhat-handicapped by i t s l o c a t i o n , P e s p i t e t h i s handicap the Nursery u t i l i z e s the surrounding p l a c e s o f i n t e r e s t f o r f i e l d , t r i p s . The c h i l d r e n v i s i t the w a t e r f r o n t , P u b l i c L i b r a r y and other p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t . An area i n which the Strathcona Nursery School has not achieved I t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l according to Miss Read's c r i t e r i a i s t h a t o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the knowledge o f c h i l d r e n to parents. The o n l y r e a l contact the s t a f f of the Nursery School has w i t h parents I s through tho Wednesday afternoon "Coffee Hour". T h i s i n v o l v e s asking the parent who p i c k s up the c h i l d I n the a f t e r -noon to stop l o n g enough f o r c o f f e e . I n a l l cases observed by the w r i t e r t h i s means the parent has a cup of c o f f e e while w a i t i n g f o r the c h i l d to be dressed and ready f o r t r a v e l l i n g home. Only one member of the s t a f f I s f r e e to t a l k w i t h I n d i v i d u a l parents and she I s also expected to serve the refreshments at the same time. I n a c t u a l f a c t t h i s allows f o r very l i t t l e time I n which to d i s c u s s any problems which may have a r i s e n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r 93 c h i l d . A l s o a t such times there I s no p r i v a c y and as a r e s u l t the parents would he embarassed to d i s c u s s personal problems. The Nursery has not been able to develop any groups meetings of the parents where mutual problems could be di s c u s s e d , nor do the parents have much o p p o r t u n i t y to o b t a i n an accurate estimate of what they can expect from t h e i r c h i l d . P a r t of th© explan-a t i o n l i e s i n the l a c k o f time a v a i l a b l e f o r the parents to p a r t i c i p a t e I n such a group d i s c u s s i o n . A l s o I t was noted I n the sample group t h a t 80$ expressed no I n t e r e s t s i n community o r group p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e i r c h i l d r e n spend two-thirds o r more o f t h e i r waking hours I n the Nursery. To them, the Nursery I s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e . Any community s e r v i c e which c o n t r i b u t e s to the education and supplementation of the home to t h i s e x t e n t must have elose eo-operation w i t h the parents. I n Chapter Three i t was shown t h a t the Nursery School provides e i t h e r a va l u a b l e or a necessary resource f o r keeping the f a m i l y together i n 60$ o f the sample group. Without c l o s e . c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the parents the Nursery oan not f u l f i l l I t s r o l e to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . B a s i c c h i l d development which I s operated i n two separate i n s t i -t u t i o n s , (the home and the Nursery) and which i s not co- o r d i n a t e d , can not hope to provide adequate foundations f o r the c h i l d . An even g r e a t e r concern i s w i t h the f a m i l i e s who use the Nursery as a convenient resource f o r c h i l d care w h i l e the. mother works to 9k supplement an adequate budget or who works because of a p a r t i c u -l a r need of her own* Th© meaning o f th© l o n g hours I n the Nursery to th© c h i l d ? the overcrowding of the homes| the l a c k of time f o r c h i l d car© and household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been discussed i n Chapter Two and Three, The l a c k of p a r e n t a l oompanlonship needs a b r i e f statement. I t was i n d i c a t e d i n the f a m i l y r e c r e a t i o n t h a t many of these f a m i l i e s attempted to develop f a m i l y companionship through Sunday c a r r i d e s and watching t e l e v i s i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s are q u i t e commendable but they do not replace the cl o s e d a l l y c ontacts o f the c h i l d w i t h th© pa r e n t s , ©specially th© mother. Car r i d e s and t o l o v l s l o n p u l l th© f a m i l y together but thoy ar© not i n themselves adequate s u b s t i t u t e s for eduoatiott of the c h i l d through h i s medium, p l a y . The c u r t a i l m e n t of t h i s o p p o rtunity f o r companionship i s unavoidable.In the m a j o r i t y of cases and t h i s adds to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the. Nursery. Only by Increased l i a i s o n between the parents and th© Nursery can the parents p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l i v e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Strathcona Nursery S c h o o l . What does t h i s imply f o r f u t u r e p l a n n i n g i n Strathcona Nursery School? I t seems tha t sine© i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r tha parents to come to the Nursery, the only r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e i s f o r the Nursery to go to th© parents i n t h e i r homos. This i s impossible w i t h th© present s t a f f a v a i l a b l e and would r e q u i r e an a d d i t i o n a l 95 s t a f f person. Such a person would need s k i l l s i n c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s , knowledge of community resources and have the a b i l i t y and s k i l l to work as a l i a i s o n w i t h th© t o t a l community resources. The person best equipped to handle t h i s work would be a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l ease-worker. Through observing the c h i l d i n the Nursery and v i s i t i n g the home r e g u l a r l y the caseworker c o u l d f u l f i l l the r o l e of l i a i s o n between the Nursery and the home. A caseworker would a l s o have the s k i l l and knowledge to a c t as a c o n s u l t a n t to the s t a f f of the Nursery School,. Eleanor Hosley i n an address to the C h i l d Welfare League of America, C e n t r a l Regional Conference, Dayton, Ohio i n March began by saying " I t has been g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t case-work should be an I n t e g r a l p a r t o f a w e l l - s e t - u p day care program**. She continues i n the a r t i c l e to p o i n t out t h a t although we know l i t t l e about h e l p i n g people to r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n s u c c e s s f u l l y we do know something o f the needs o f c h i l d r e n and something about parents; One o f these f a c t s i s th a t the parents form the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f that Important p a r t of the f a m i l y the super ego or conscience; The pre-school c h i l d does not I n t e r n a l -i z e the p a r e n t a l image so that he can operate alone. Therefor© the s t a f f must, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , appear i n the c h i l d * s eyes to be one o f h i s parents; The necessary i n g r e d i a n t f o r t h i s c l o s e 9. Hosley, Eleanor, "Casework I n Day Care Centres": C h i l d Welfare .Vol. 30, Number 7, J u l y 1951. 9 6 co-operation I s a s t a f f member who has the time and s k i l l to work w i t h the parents. nk caseworker I s the most l o g i c a l choice? f o r the most p a r t , teachers r e c e i v e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t r a i n i n g I n working w i t h and understanding a d u l t s . . . . The teacher who I s assigned to work w i t h the c h i l d r e n cannot do the necessary work w i t h parents I n her spare t l m e " , ^ 0 Eleanor Hosley says t h a t a l l s t a f f members must respect the I n t e g r i t y of the f a m i l y and I t s e s s e n t i a l v a l u e s . She hastens to s t a t e t h a t the s t a f f should not work i n separate 11,, . w a t e r t i g h t compartments? teachers should and w i l l have oontaet w i t h p a r e n t s , and caseworkers w i t h c h i l d r e n 1 1 A* I n Chapter Throe I t was suggested t h a t o f the f a m i l i e s wore u s i n g Strathcona Nursory School as a resource f o r r e l i e v i n g them of p a r t of t h e i r c h i l d care r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Since the Nursery I s th© only I n s t i t u t i o n a t t h i s time which provides an a l l day s e r v i c e f o r working mothers, I t I s apparent that s e l e c t i o n and Intake ar© very Important f u n c t i o n s . A t the present time there I s no d e f i n i t i v e statement which s p e l l s out the c r i t e r i a f o r Intake i n the Nursery, Moving from th© home t o the Nursery School environment i s a very important step f o r th© young c h i l d . Unless sueh a move i s necessary i t may put undue s t r e s s upon the two o r three year o l d c h i l d to b© separated from h i s mother a l l day. A l s o the d i s t u r b i n g f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the mothers 10. 11. I b i d I b i d 97 saw th© s e p a r a t i o n as being " a l r i g h t " g i v e s cause f o r concern. Eleanor Hosley s t a t e s that "...the caseworker takes a p p l i -c a t i o n s s i t Is her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to decide who s h a l l be admitted.. • . t h i s means e x p l o r i n g w i t h each a p p l i c a n t * • .the reasons f o r wanting care, the c h i l d ' s readiness f o r such an experience, both parents' a t t i t u d e towards such a p l a n , hours, fees and the general nature o f th© s e t - u p " . 1 2 Hrs. A, needs some h e l p to understand her f e e l i n g s toward home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * Mrs. P, might l i k e an o p p o r t u n i t y to express some of her f e a r s and f r u s t r a t i o n I n t h i s new country and she c o u l d b e n e f i t by an e a r l y understanding o f the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s which w i l l be n o t i c e d l a t e r when her c h i l d adopts d i f f e r e n t ways of doing t h i n g s . Mrs. G. has a g r e a t deal of g u i l t around her husbands i n c a r c e r a t i o n and what t h i s w i l l mean to her c h i l d r e n . Mrs. F, f e e l s Incapable of c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d . A caseworker could h e l p her w i t h these f e e l i n g s and a l s o h e l p her to g a i n i n knowledge o f c h i l d r e n . I n doing t h i s Mrs. F.'s confidence could be b u i l t up so t h a t she could assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n s e v e r a l instances a caseworker might r e f e r the parents to more s u i t a b l e resources such as a f o s t e r - d a y - c a r e home near where she l i v e s . I n other s i t u a t i o n s r e f e r r a l to a s o c i a l agency might l e a d to the f a m i l y being able to cope w i t h t h e i r budget 12. I b i d 98 aad f e a r s of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n so t h a t the Nursery was not needed. Another concern arose from m a t e r i a ! i n Chapter Two when I t was observed t h a t housing c o n d i t i o n s were overcrowded. Those f a m i l i e s were not assessing t h o i r present s t a t u s , nor wero they t h i n k i n g of the de t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t o f overcrowding upon t h o i r c h i l d r e n . They planned to buy a home sometime but tended to see value o n l y i n immediate m a t e r i a l possessions. Through con*' t a e t s w i t h these f a m i l i e s a caseworker c o u l d h e l p the f a m i l i e s decide what they r e a l l y wanted and from t h a t p o i n t the value o f the Nursery could be assessed and u t i l i z e d to the best advantage. The Strathcona Nursery School i s a community s e r v i c e for the Greater Vancouver area. I t i s financed, by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l and fees from th© parents served. The map i l l u s t r a t e s the s c a t t e r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f a m i l i e s served i n January 1956. E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter reference was mad© to the women* s com-ments upon d e s i r a b l e c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s ; They asked f o r more nursery schools i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the c i t y . I t would appear t h a t there I s a r e a l ne©d f o r expansion o f nursery schools I n Greater Vancouver area. There are s e v e r a l kindergartens and day care centres i n Vancouver and Burnaby* However none of thos© centres remain ©pen f o r the l e n g t h of time t h a t I s nocessary f o r the working mother. Prom the d i s t r i b u t i o n as seen i n the map i t would appear t h a t any f u t u r e expansion should come through new nursery schools i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of 99 the Greater Vancouver area. Such expansion should Include very c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p o i n t s o f employment f o r women i n Vancouver* Th© most s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a t i o n , from the parents point, o f view, appears to be c l o s e to t h e i r employment. Any f u t u r e expansion of nursery school s e r v i c e s i n the Greater Vancouver should be done i n co-operation w i t h the S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . At the present time there I s a shortage of t r a i n e d , nursery school s t a f f . The c a l i b r e of f u t u r e s t a f f w i l l depend on the. l e a d e r s h i p g i v e n i n the t r a i n i n g and s e l e c t i o n * The Board of D i r e c t o r s o f the Strathcona Nursery School are seeking an E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r teaching program. With such an appointment the Niirsery w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n to give th© l e a d e r s h i p needed f o r t r a i n i n g s t a f f . For t h i s reason i t I s suggested that th© l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n o f the Nursery i n t h i s regard w i l l be as. a t r a i n i n g centre f o r f u t u r e s t a f f p ersonnel. At the present time the Nursery does not r e c o r d the d a l l y a o t i v i t i e s and p a r t i c u l a r problems of I n d i v i d u a l o h i l d r e n . I t i s an accepted p o l i c y of s o c i a l agencies to record t h e i r contacts w i t h c l i e n t s so t h a t assessment of needs, and o b j e c t i v i t y i s maintained i n the work. Recording would strengthen the d i r e c t s e r v i c e s to the parents and c h i l d r e n . This study was, and any f u t u r e research w i l l be hampered by because of the l a c k o f r e -corded i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y . 100 Strathcona Nursery School has a very d i f f i c u l t Job I n t h i s community. I t has had many s t r u g g l e s i n i t s development. That i t has succeeded I n m a i n t a i n i n g i t s development i n t h i s d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n and that i t i s doing a good job more than j u s t i f i e s i t s ©distance. I t i s destined to stay I n the community s e r v i c e s because of the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the Board of D i r e c t o r s and the s t a f f to c o n s t a n t l y improve s e r v i c e s to tho f a m i l i e s of t h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e . The Strathcona Nursery School has c o n s t a n t l y moved forward and continues to p l a n f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e measures. On February 10, 1956 the Executive D i r e c t o r , I n her annual r e p o r t , concluded by saying, "Our go a l s f o r 1956 the s e t t i n g up o f a d e f i n i t e teacher t r a i n i n g program* f u r t h e r s t a f f developments, and r a i s i n g o f nursery school standards". i o i Appendix A,. Schedule f o r Working Mothers Using Strathcona Hurserv School, S e c t i o n I - Statements of. the womon i n t e r v i e w e d "A" - Background Information 1. M a r r i e d .... Widotred ...» pivo r e e d ,••. Separated,•, 2. Country of b i r t h . . . . . . . ... Year of entry to Canada 3 . Age group* 14*19 years .... 3 5 - 4 4 years *•«• 2 0 * 2 4 years .... 4 5 - 5 4 years .... . 2 5 « » 3 4 years .... 4. L e v e l of Education Grade completed (elementary o r secondary). .» Other formal educations C o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y ............. Vo c a t i o n a l o r P r o f e s s i o n a l ........ P a r t "B** - Current o r L a s t Job and Work H i s t o r y . 5 . (a) C u r r e n t l y working f o r pay or p r o f i t s (b) Where o r f o r whom works (worked). D e s c r i p t i o n o f work What the bu s i n e s s , f i r m or employer does Working (worked) at two jobs at the same time .... (0) F u l l - t i m e r e g u l a r workers Yes .... Ko .... D a l l y working hours T o t a l hours worked per week S p e c i f i c days worked I n the week P a r t 1. 102 (d) I f no f o r ( c ) j Part-time....Seasonal.•..Casual.... (e) What the person intervieweds 1. l i k e s ( l i k e d ) about her working hours I I . d i s l i k e s about her working hours ( f ) Earnings from employment o r net earnings from business operated by the women in t e r v i e w e d . Approximate earnings I n the twelve months preceding the In t e r v i e w ( I n round f i g u r e s to the nearest $100.). 6. During the twelve months preceding the Interview, worked the e q u i v a l e n t of? .months. 7. Has the women Interviewed ever c o n t r i b u t e d to a pension fund i n connection w i t h a job? Yes.... No.... 8. Work H i s t o r y P a r t "C* - Husband's Job 9. (a) Where or f o r whom husband works D e s c r i p t i o n of work D e s c r i p t i o n What the business, f i r m o r employer does (b) P u l l - t i m e r e g u l a r workers Yes..*. No*... D a i l y working hours T o t a l hours worked p e r week S p e c i f i c days worked i n the week (c) I f "no" f o r (b)s Part-time....Seasonal....Casual•••• (d) Husband i s not working and why; Illness....Retired....Unemployed.... Other (e) Husband's income. Approximate Income i n the twelve months preceding the i n t e r v i e w ( i n round f i g u r e s to the nearest #100.$ 10. During the twelve months preceding the Int e r v i e w , husband worked the e q u i v a l e n t o f * . , . . months 1 0 3 P a r t n D n - Horn© R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1 1 * Persons l i v i n g I n the household: The woman h e r s e l f .,., • Husband .,... Number o f sons ...,. Number o f daughters • • • * • Other r e l a t i v e s ..... Number o f roomers • •.•• Number o f boarders ...... 1 2 , Number o f dependent c h i l d r e n Age and sex of each dependent c h i l d . Do they normally attend s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , o r u n i v e r s i t y ? Not i n school Age Sex ,, • •, Nursery school o r . k i n d e r g a r t e n , , . « . . * . . o Grades 1 - 1 3 e . . • . . . , » « Gollege o r U n i v e r s i t y Other ..... 1 3 « Oare o f c h i l d r e n w h i l e the mother i s employed (a) Strathcona Nursery School c o s t per week •• (b) Other c o s t per week ....... 11+. I n what ways i s the.mother (a) S a t i s f i e d w i t h arrangements f o r c h i l d care? (b) D i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h arrangements f o r c h i l d care? 15>. How does the woman int e r v i e w e d r u n her home when working f o r pay? (a) Routine of household d u t i e s . (b) E x t e n t of r e g u l a r h e l p from other members o f household. 1 6 . Housing House ,. • Apartment o r f l a t ... Occupy a l l ... o r p a r t ... o f house, apartment o r f l a t ; Own ... Rent ... Other ( e x p l a i n ) How many rooms of housekeeping? Description of Housing...• * Part "En - Other Interests 17. Pattern of other interests when working for pay. (a) Personal interests* ac t i v i t i e s or boobies. (b) Aotlvo participation In clubs* organizations* church a c t i v i t i e s . (c) Other recreational activities shared as a family group. (d) Comments about time available for Interests other than her job and family responsibilities. - Attitude Information (a) Purposes the women Interviewed has i n working. (b) To what extent does she feel she i s achieving these purposes through work? What the women Interviewed thinks she hass (a) gained by working? (b) lost by working? (a) What does the husband think about his wife working? (b) What do children think of their mother working? (c) What do other relatives and friends think of her i-<rorklng? (a) Comments of the woman interviewed regarding the effects of her working on her children* (1) i n terms of gains (11) In terms of anything they have lacked (b) What reservations, i f any, has she with regard to leaving her children while she Is working? Part "F" 18. 19. 20. 21. 10$ 22. Ideas, i f any, about d e s i r a b l e f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d oare. 23. Ch i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the women Interviewed because of work, 21}. I f the person i n t e r v i e w e d completed Grade 12 o r has: had some s p e c i a l job t r a i n i n g , how does she f e e l about h e r job as r e l a t e d to her education and experience? P a r t wG i r - Future Plans 2$, (a) What the person i n t e r v i e w e d would do i f sh© l o s t h e r job (look f o r work o r not loo k f o r work.) .•(b)- How l o n g she expects to go on working f o r pay, 26, (a) I s th© person i n t e r v i e w e d t a k i n g any education o r t r a i n i n g at the present time? Yes,**. No...* (b) I f i ryes" f o r (a) - what? 27* (a) Would the person i n t e r v i e w e d be I n t e r e s t e d I n job t r a i n i n g ? Yes•••• Ho*••« (b) I f M y e s n f o r (a) «• what type o f t r a i n i n g would she choos© and why? S e c t i o n I I - Enumerator's A n a l y s i s (NOT f i l l e d i n a t time o f i n t e r v i e w ) A* Reasons why the person i n t e r v i e w e d I s working, B* Does job measure up to ed u c a t i o n a l and occupational t r a i n i n g . Yes.... No..*. Choice ( e x p l a i n ) l i m i t a t i o n o f employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s ( e x p l a i n ) C. Other Comments 106 B i b l i o g r a p h y * General References; Baruch, Dorothy: Parents and O h i l d r e n Go to School* Chicago: S c o t t * Foreaman and Co., 1 9 3 9 . E n g l i s h , 0. Spurgeon,' and Pearson, G e r a l d : Emotional Problems  of L i v i n g . A v o i d i n g the Neurotic P a t t e r n * New York: W.W. Norton, 191+5* G e s e l l , A r n o l d , and l l g , Frances: I n f a n t and C h i l d i n the  Cu l t u r e o f Today. New York: Harper and Bros., 191+3. Hamilton, Gordon: Psychotherapy i n C h i l d Guidance* New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y press, 191+7. Isaacs, Suzan: S o c i a l Development. I n Young C h i l d r e n . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1 9 3 7 . Mead, Margaret: And Keep Your Powder Dry, an A n t h r o p o l o g i s t Looks a t America. New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Co., 191+3. Parsons, T a l c o t t and Bal e s , Robert F.: Family, S o c i a l i z a t i o n an I n t e g r a t i o n Process. Glenooe, 111, The Free P r e s s , 1955* RIbble, Margaret: The R i g h t s o f i n f a n t s . E a r l y P s y c h o l o g i c a l Needs and T h e i r S a t i s f a c t i o n s , New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 191+3* Spock, Benjamin: Pocket Book o f Baby and C h i l d Care. New York, Pocket Book I n c . S p e c i f i c References: A l l e n , W.Y., and Campbell, D.? The C r e a t i v e Nursery Centre; A U n i f i e d S e r v i c e to C h i l d r e n and Pa r e n t s . New York: F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of America, 191+8. B l a t z , W i l l i a m E,: Nursery Education; Theory and P r a c t i c e . New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, 1936. Cusden, Phoebe E.* The E n g l i s h Nursery School. London: Kegan P a u l , French, Trubner and Company L t d . , 1938. Fedeaevsky, Vera, and H i l l , P.S.: Nursery School and Parent Education i n S o v i e t R u s s i a . New York: E.P. Dutton and Co. L t d . , 1936. 107 F o r e s t , U s e * Preschool Education: A H i s t o r i c a l and O r i t i c a l Study. Hex* York? The M a c m i l l l a n Co., 1929. G i s t , Noel P., and Hal b e r t * L.A.: Urban S o c i e t y . Now York: Thomas Y.. Crowell Co., 1950., Hamilton: Theory and P r a c t i c e off S o e i a l Case Work.. Nex* York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press", 1951 • I s a a c s , Susans The Nursery Years. New York: The Vanguard Press, 1938. Johnson, H a r r i e t M.s C h i l d r e n I n the Nursery School. New York: The John Day Co.:, 1928. K e l l o g g , Rhoda: Nursery School Guide. San F r a n c i s c o : Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1949. Landreth, Catherines Education o f the Young C h i l d . New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1942. McFarlane, Mary: A Survey of Pre-Sohpol Centres I n Vancouver. Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , 1949. Read, Katherine H.s The Nursery School; A Human R e l a t i o n s h i p s Laboratory. P h i l a d e l p h i a : W.B, Saunders Co., 1950. Stoiman, B o r i s : Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c l a l Welfare. An A n a l y t i c a l Study off a Low-Income T r a n s i t i o n a l D i s t r i c t (Vancouver, 1952-54) w i t h S p e c i a l Reference to Problems o f I n t e r - C u l t u r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , 1955. Wilson, Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys; S o c i a l Group. Work Pr a c t l c e S | New York: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1949. A r t i c l e s and Reports. Annual Reports o f Camp Alexandra and Strathcona Nursery School 1948 - 1952, 1954 and 1955 to Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s Annual Meetings. Caiman, J u d i t h , "What I s Happening I n Day Care—New Concepts, Current P r a c t i c e s and Trends". C h i l d . Welfare V o l . 35, No. 1. January 1956. Report o f East End Inter-Agency Committee to Community Chest and C o u n c i l of Greater Vancouver, March 16, 1955. 108 Report of Casework Agency Review Committee to S o c i a l Planning Committee on Strathcona Nursery School, 616 Bast Cordova, June 25* 1951» Report o f Executive D i r e c t o r , Strathcona Nursery School to Board o f D i r e c t o r s , February 1 0 , 1956. D a v i s , D.D., "Nursery Schools, T h e i r Development and Current P r a c t i c e s i n the United S t a t e s " . B u l l e t i n 1932, No. 9. U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e of Education, Washington, D.C. Exner, Helen K., "Philosophy, Concepts and P r i n c i p a l s o f S o c i a l Work Method. School cf S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 195J-I-Hosley, Eleanor, "Casework i n Day Care Centres". C h i l d Welfare. Vo. 3 0 , No. 7 . , J u l y 1951. "Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s L i c e n s i n g A c t " . Chapter 363 of the Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 19k8. as r e p r i n t e d I n the B.C. Gazette, January 17th, 1952, page 239. Queen»s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C. 

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