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The relative effectiveness of four procedures for evaluating student's written themes McMechan, Melville Young 1961

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1 THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOUR PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING STUDENTS' WRITTEN THEMES BY MELVILLE YOUNG MCMECHAN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1 9 6 1 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date September 18, 1961.  AN ABSTRACT THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOUR PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING STUDENTS' WRITTEN THEMES MELVILLE YOUNG MCMECHAN The a b i l i t y t o communicate e f f e c t i v e l y i n w r i t i n g i s important not only w i t h i n the ed u c a t i o n a l system but a l s o i n business, p r o f e s s i o n a l , and domestic l i f e . Most educators agree t h a t t h i s a b i l i t y can best be developed through r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e and they agree, f u r t h e r , t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e can be given d i r e c t i o n and purpose through the use of c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and pr o p e r l y employed marking techniques. Over the years v a r i o u s techniques were developed w i t h a view to i n c r e a s i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of theme grading; others were designed t o reduce the marking l o a d ; s t i l l others were c h i e f l y concerned w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t upon the students. But there was no c o n c l u s i v e evidence favouring a s p e c i f i c method which would promote composition improvement. In response to the need f o r such a method the w r i t e r proposed the use of " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e " comments. An i n s t r u c -t i o n a l and marking programme i n v o l v i n g four equated groups of Grade Eight students was devised. The two experimental groups had a l l t h e i r p r a c t i c e themes marked with l e t t e r grades and b r i e f comments r e s p e c t i v e l y . The corresponding c o n t r o l groups had only one-quarter of t h e i r p r a c t i c e themes marked. I n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t paragraphs provided the nu-m e r i c a l bases f o r making i n t e r - g r o u p comparisons. I t was hypothesized t h a t , between the p a i r s of groups t o be compared, i i i i i i f there were no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s p r i o r t o the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s f o l l o w i n g i t . A n a l y s i s of the main body of evidence showed th a t the n u l l hypothesis was sustained throughout. No advantage f o r any p a r t i c u l a r marking method could be c l a i n e d . I n f a c t , the c o n t r o l groups e v i d e n t l y made as much progress as the other s . Supplementary c a l c u l a t i o n s focussed a t t e n t i o n on smaller sub-groups i n r e s t r i c t e d a b i l i t y ranges. Here, apparently, the " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e " sub-groups made the most c o n s i s t e n t gains. S u b j e c t i v e opinion as w e l l as o b j e c t i v e evidence was sought. A m a j o r i t y of teachers and students thought that the composition had improved and, given a choice of s e v e r a l marking plans, expressed a preference f o r w r i t t e n comments. I t seemed reasonable t o conclude t h a t , w h i l e the " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e " comments method d i d not prove s i g n i f i c a n t l y advantageous, i t might, n e v e r t h e l e s s , merit f u r t h e r study. I t was suggested f u r t h e r t h a t the k i n d of marking may be l e s s im-portant than r e g u l a r , purposeful p r a c t i c e . Perhaps l i m i t e d marking techniques could be developed which would not only improve composition but a l s o f r e e teachers f o r the i n d i v i d u a l -i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n which may, a f t e r a l l , provide the best answer to the question, "How can we help students reach a standard of achievement i n composition which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the demands of an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s o c i e t y ? " TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT . • v i i Chapter I . BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ... 1 General D e s c r i p t i o n of the Problem Survey of Related Research Importance of Further I n v e s t i g a t i o n Statement of the Problem The Hypotheses I I . THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 19 Subjects, M a t e r i a l s , and Organization O r i e n t a t i o n of Teachers and Students Group Matching Procedure Te s t i n g Programme Organization of Lessons Marking of P r a c t i c e Themes by Teachers Rating of Test Paragraphs The C o n t r o l Problem S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment Employed Questionnaires I I I . PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE 38 Matching Data R e s u l t s of F i n a l T e s t i n g " F u l l P r a c t i c e " Group Results A n a l y s i s of Re s u l t s from S e l e c t e d Sub-groups Questionnaire Summaries IV. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS 53 Re-statement of Problem and Hypotheses Conclusions Reached P o s s i b l e Reasons f o r Observed Results S u b j e c t i v e Reactions of P a r t i c i p a n t s Avenues f o r Further Research i v BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES F o l l o w i n g A . TEACHERS' M A N U A L S . B. INSTRUCTIONS TO RATERS OF TEST PARAGRAPHS-. C. SAMPLES OF STUDENT TEST AND PRACTICE PARAGRAPHS. D. SAMPLES OF QUESTIONNAIRES. LIST OF TABLES Table Page lo Matching 2. R e s u l t s of F i n a l T e s t i n g 40 3« Test Paragraph R e s u l t s f o r the " F u l l P 3751 Ct X C 6" G 1^ 0 Up o««o*»ooeooeoo*»o«ooooe««oo £fl 4 . Summary of Paragraph Test Score Gains Made by Sub-groups Selected on I.Q* Basis 43 5o Summary of Gains Made by Sub-groups Sel e c t e d on the Ba s i s of I n i t i a l Test 6. Comparison of Gains Retained Samples / " F u l l P r a c t i c e " N 48 7. Answers t o Key Questions on S i x 8 . Answers t o Questions on Students' QlJl 6 S"t X Onifl 3. X I"* © S «a«aooo«ooooooeoeoo«oooooo»ao»oooo 50 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT To the many people who a s s i s t e d with the prepara-t i o n and execution of the experimental programme I am most g r a t e f u l . F i r s t , I wish to acknowledge the encouragement and guidance o f f e r e d by my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. J . R. Mcintosh, D i r e c t o r of Secondary Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Secondly, I wish to thank Mr. D. Dashwood-Jones, V i c e - p r i n c i p a l of Inglewood J u n i o r High f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e throughout the planning and pres e n t a t i o n of the composition l e s s o n s . I wish a l s o t o thank Mr. J.F. E l l i s and Mr. G. Addy who spent many hours r a t i n g the t e s t para-graphs. F i n a l l y , I am indebted t o the p r i n c i p a l , teachers, and students of Inglewood J u n i o r High School f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t cooperation. v i i CHAPTER I BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE.PROBLEM The development of the a b i l i t y to communicate c l e a r l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n writing has long been a major objective i n our society. How can t h i s worthwhile goal be attained? Most educators agree that the most hopeful pro-cedure i s to provide a planned, regular programme of written composition practice. They agree further that writing alone i s not enough. Of four hundred teachers questioned i n a survey conducted by the C a l i f o r n i a Council of English Associations ninety per cent said that theme marking i s an i n t e g r a l part of the o v e r a l l composition programme.^ The Department of Education for B r i t i s h Columbia concurs, for, i n a recent English b u l l e t i n for the Junior High School, i t urges teachers not only to provide frequent writing assign-ments but also to "see that a l l are marked or graded". 2 What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e f f e c t i v e theme marking system? Fundamentally, i t should f a c i l i t a t e learning, i . e . , i t should a s s i s t students to improve the qu a l i t y of t h e i r written work. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a marking system should, according to a majority of teachers i n the aforecited C a l i f o r n i a survey, arouse and maintain i n t e r e s t , focus 1 William J . Dusel, "Some Semantic Implications of Theme Correction," English Journal, v o l . 41 (October 1955), p. 392, 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Junior High  School English. English 7, 8. 10, 1956, p. 12. 1 2 a t t e n t i o n on strengths and weaknesses, and i n d i c a t e progress r e l i a b l y . 3 To t h i s l i s t must be added the important r e q u i r e -ment tha t a scheme of e v a l u a t i o n , however d e s i r a b l e i n other r e s p e c t s , should not make unreasonable demands upon the teacher., The great expenditure of time and energy apparently r e q u i r e d f o r the marking of themes has been the source of much concern and considerable contention among E n g l i s h teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the secondary l e v e l where the burden of marking the work of s e v e r a l c l a s s e s i s very r e a l . Binney f l a t l y s t a t e s t h a t "The; real.enemy of the E n g l i s h teacher i s time, or more a c c u r a t e l y , l a c k of time."4 The i d e a l s o l u t i o n to the problem i s , of course, the e s t a b l i s h -ment of smaller c l a s s e s . However, i n view of the current alarm over the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g cost of education, i t i s very u n l i k e l y that t h i s s o l u t i o n w i l l be employed i n the forseeable f u t u r e . Now i f c l a s s e s are t o remain l a r g e , i f w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e i s to be i n c r e a s e d , and i f a l l of the r e s u l t i n g themes are to be graded, the marking burden may become l i t e r a l l y unbearable. In summary then, what i s needed i s some means of ev a l u a t i o n which w i l l serve the primary purpose of improving the students' a b i l i t y t o communicate c l e a r l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n w r i t i n g and which, at the same time, w i l l a l l e v i a t e the marking l o a d . 3 W i l l i a m J . Dusel, l o c . c i t . 4 J . Binney, "Note on Teaching Composition," Education, v o l . 7 4 (March 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 4 4 3 . 3 Has such a marking system already been i d e n t i f i e d and put to use? In order t o answer t h i s question adequately i t w i l l be necessary t o examine the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t . In twentieth century America and B r i t a i n much opinion and considerable research have centred on the marking of E n g l i s h compositions<> During the e a r l y part of the century a number of composition s c a l e s , purporting to a s s i s t i n the e v a l u a t i o n of such t h i n g s as mechanical c o r r e c t n e s s , s t y l e , and thought content, were t r i e d out. Among these, some of the b e t t e r known were those designed by Thorndike,5 H i l l e g a s , ^ Willing,'' 7 and Hudelson.^ Such s c a l e s have been c r i t i c i z e d on a number of grounds. Green., says t h a t s c a l e s are u s e f u l f o r the establishment of standards but have f a i l e d to provide any adequate b a s i s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e r r o r s or p u p i l d i f f i c u l t i e s . 9 Remmers and Gage, a f t e r reviewing a number of s c a l e s , concluded t h a t they are of 5 E. L. Thorndike, "A Scale of M e r i t i n E n g l i s h W r i t i n g by Young People," J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 11 (June 1911), pp. 361-368. 6 M. B. H i l l e g a s , "A Scale f o r the Measurement of A b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h Composition by Young People," Teachers College  Record, v o l . 13 (September 1912), pp. 331-384. 7 M. H. W i l l i n g , "Measurement of W r i t t e n Composition," E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 7 (March 191S)., pp. 193-202. 8 E a r l Hudelson, " E n g l i s h Composition: I t s Aims, Methods, and Measurement," Twenty-second Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l  S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, P a r t I , Bloomington, P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1922. 9 Harry A. Green, " E n g l i s h Language, Grammar, and Composition," Encyclopaedia of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1950, pp. 383-395. 4 value only when used by experienced r a t e r s . 1 0 The average classroom teacher has n e i t h e r the experience nor the time to make the widespread use of composition s c a l e s f e a s i b l e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , composition grading has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d e t a i l e d marking o f a l l e r r o r s . In the e a r l y 1 9 3 0 's s e v e r a l s t u d i e s were conducted i n order to observe the e f f e c t of such marking on the e l i m i n a t i o n of e r r o r s i n students' w r i t t e n themes. In an experimental research p r o j e c t , Fellows demonstrated that d e t a i l e d correc-t i o n by the teacher d i d not r e s u l t i n any a p p r e c i a b l e reduc-t i o n of t e c h n i c a l e r r o r s , except perhaps f o r some of the b r i g h t e s t p u p i l s . H He found, as d i d L e o n a r d 1 2 and Ransome,1^ that classroom i n s t r u c t i o n was a more e f f i c i e n t procedure f o r t h i s purpose. Furthermore, Leonard-^ and C l a r k ^ both 10 H. H. Remmers and N. L. Gage, Edu c a t i o n a l Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n . New York, Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1943, pp. 233-236.' 11 John E. Fellows, "The I n f l u e n c e of Theme-Reading on E l i m i n a t i n g T e c h n i c a l E r r o r s i n the W r i t t e n Compositions of Ninth Grade P u p i l s , " U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa S t u d i e s : Studies i n  Education, v o l . 7 No. 1 U 9 3 2 ) , p. $6, c i t e d i n Review of  Educational Research, v o l . 4 (December 1934), p. 459. 12 P a u l J . Leonard, "The Use of P r a c t i c e E x e r c i s e s i n the Teaching of C a p i t a l i z a t i o n . a n d Punctuation," C o n t r i b u t i o n s to  Education, No. 372. New York, Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1930, c i t e d i n Review of.Educa- t i o n a l Research, v o l . 1 (December 1931), p. 353. 13 Grace Ransome, "Remedial Methods i n E n g l i s h Composition," The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H.S. ed.), v o l . 22 (November 1933), pp. 749-754. 14 Paul J , Leonard, E d i t o r i a l Comment i n Review of Educa- t i o n a l Research, v o l . 4 (December 1934), p. .461. 15 W. A. Clark ( J r . ) , "Neither a Margin S c r i b b l e r Nor a Juggler of Numbers," The-English Journa l ( C o l , ed.), v o l . 28 (February 1939), pp. 133-138. ~ 5 expressed the view that t r a d i t i o n a l e r r o r marking placed not only an over-emphasis on the mechanics of w r i t i n g but a l s o , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , an under-emphasis on the development of c l e a r and e f f e c t i v e expression. Sams summarized t h i s view-p o i n t r a t h e r n e a t l y by saying that the process of composition should be "one of g i v i n g form to ideas r a t h e r than one of 1 c g i v i n g ideas to form". More r e c e n t l y a number of educators have d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o the p o s s i b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of d e t a i l e d c o r r e c t i o n . Maize f e e l s that students are simply overwhelmed by a mass of mark ing,17 w h i l e Gregory suggests t h a t overuse of the red p e n c i l i s "more crude than a s l a p i n the face".13 F i n a l l y , the J u n i o r High School E n g l i s h B u l l e t i n , w h i l e u r g i n g teachers t o use some form of grading f o r a l l w r i t t e n assignments, recommends that a l l - e r r o r marking be done only once or twice a month."^ At t h i s point i t seems reason-able to conclude t h a t d e t a i l e d c o r r e c t i o n of a l l w r i t t e n work f a i l s to q u a l i f y as an i d e a l marking procedure. The obvious a l t e r n a t i v e i s , of course, "general impression" marking i n which the teacher makes an o v e r a l l 16 Henry W. Sams, "Composition i n the New Curriculum," College E n g l i s h , v o l . 10 (November 1948), pp. 98-102. , 17 Roy C. Maize, "A Theme a Day", N a t i o n a l Education  A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , v o l . 4 2 (September 1953), pp.-335-336. 18" Emily B„ Gregory, "Managing Student W r i t i n g " , E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 44 {January 1955), pp. 18-2.5. 19 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, opo c i t . , p. 14. 6 assessment of the composition and records i t , u s u a l l y i n the form of a numerical score or a l e t t e r grade. There are, i n the l i t e r a t u r e , many references both t o t h i s marking plan and to v a r i a t i o n s of i t . In the opinion of S t e e l and Talman, "The i m p r e s s i o n i s t method of marking compositions . . . . . . . i s fundamentally sound and can be made workable. " 2 0 The report of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s describes an o b j e c t i v e scheme which, w h i l e sound i n i t s aims, appears, to t h i s w r i t e r at l e a s t , to be r a t h e r too complicated f o r easy a p p l i c a t i o n by the classroom teacher. Morrison and Vernon, i n a study of the Steel-Talman method, concluded that i t produced r e s u l t s which were no more c o n s i s t e n t than those obtained by means of a simple a n a l y s i s combined w i t h an o v e r - a l l impression, and s t a t e d f u r t h e r that i t ignored those a e s t h e t i c aspects of composition which are too s u b j e c t i v e to t a b u l a t e . 2 1 Cast, i n a r a t h e r comprehensive study, found that general impression marking was only s l i g h t l y l e s s r e l i a b l e f o r e v a l u a t i o n purposes than an a n a l y t i c grading plan which r e q u i r e d the markers to take more cognizance of p a r t i c u l a r strengths and weaknesses.22 ("Analytic "grading" 2 0 James H, S t e e l and John Talman, The Marking of E n g l i s h  Compositions. London, James N i s b e t , 1 9 3 6 , p. 1 . 2 1 R. L. Morrison and P. E. Vernon, "A Mew Method of Marking E n g l i s h Compositions," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Educational Psychology, v o l . 2 , part 2 :Uune 1 9 4 D , pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 9 . 2 2 B, M.. D. Cast, " E f f i c i e n c y of D i f f e r e n t Methods of Marking E n g l i s h Compositions", B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Educational Psychology, v o l . 9 (November-1939), pp. 2 5 7 - 2 6 9 . 7 r e f e r s t o procedures designed mainly f o r the purpose of t r y i n g to improve s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and should not be con-fused w i t h the d e t a i l e d c o r r e c t i o n of mechanical and gram-m a t i c a l e r r o r s discussed i n the immediately preceding para-graph.) Paton, i n a l a t e r study, confirmed Cast's f i n d i n g s and, i n a d d i t i o n noted that general impression marking r e s u l t e d i n a somewhat l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y spread of scores than d i d an a n a l y t i c method.^3 Coward, i n an experimental research, concluded that general impression and content/form (two marks recorded as a f r a c t i o n , a l l er r o r s counted f o r the form p o r t i o n of the score) methods had approximately the same r e l i a b i l i t y . 2 ^ More r e c e n t l y Wormsbecker found no s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the improvement of composition w r i t i n g a b i l i t y of matched groups of Grade S i x c h i l d r e n when the two marking procedures employed by Coward were a p p l i e d by classroom teachers over a ten-week p r a c t i c e p e r i o d . 2 5 i n summary, there appears t o be l i t t l e c o n c l u s i v e evidence con-cerning general impression marking, e i t h e r w i t h respect t o i t s e f f i c a c y as a means f o r improving student w r i t i n g , or w i t h 23 J . M. Paton, "Marking Examination Papers, with S p e c i a l Reference to Essay•Questions i n E n g l i s h , " School (Sec. ed.), v o l . 35 (May 1947), pp. 530-583. 24 Ann F. Coward, "A Comparison of Two Methods of Grading E n g l i s h Compositions," Journal of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 43 (October 1952), .pp. 81-93. 25 John H. Wormsbecker, "A Comparative Study of Three Methods of Grading Compositions," Master's t h e s i s U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. 8 respect to i t s r e l i a b i l i t y as a s c o r i n g procedure. I t does have the advantage of being reasonably economical of teacher time and energy and may, t h e r e f o r e , merit f u r t h e r study. As an a l t e r n a t i v e to the d e t a i l e d e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n and general impression methods discussed thus f a r , various w r i t e r s have put forward the proposal that only a l i m i t e d number of paragraph elements be marked at any one time. Such a plan, i n the opinion of i t s proponents, not only would b e n e f i t the students both p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and i n terms of sub-sequent w r i t i n g a b i l i t y , but a l s o would be a time-saver f o r teachers. In 1932 Cook urged teachers to mark only c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c p o i n t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the nature of the w r i t i n g assignment. ° L a t e r , a s i n g l e - p o i n t - p e r theme method, sug-gested by M a i z e 2 ^ was used i n an experimental study by Wormsbecker, 2^ However, t h i s procedure apparently produced no more measurable improvement than, d i d the impression and content/form methods. The E n g l i s h B u l l e t i n recommends t h a t , as a time-saving procedure, teachers should concentrate on s p e c i f i c e r r o r s i n p a r t i c u l a r assignments. 2 9 A v a r i a t i o n of such marking p r a c t i c e was employed by Gregory who, i n order t o permit more a c t u a l w r i t i n g , marked thoroughly only four of the 26 L u e l l a B. Cook, "Reducing the Paper Load," The E n g l i s h  J o u r n a l (H. S. ed. and C o l , ed.). v o l . 21 (May-1932), pp. 364-370. 27 Roy C o Maize, l o c . c i t . 28 John H. Wormsbecker, l o c . c i t . 29 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, op. c i t . , p. 14» 9 themes submitted by each student i n her r e g u l a r c l a s s e s during the year. The remaining themes were simply marked "S" or "U", the c r i t e r i o n being " s i n c e r i t y of e f f o r t " . ^ U nfortunately, si n c e no c o n t r o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d the apparently favourable r e s u l t s could not be v e r i f i e d . In the c o n t i n u i n g search f o r more h e l p f u l composi-t i o n grading procedures, a number of educators have proposed and t r i e d v a r i o u s systems i n v o l v i n g marking by p u p i l s . In an experimental study H a l l concluded that a system of p u p i l -a p p r a i s a l promoted greater progress i n the a b i l i t y t o w r i t e than d i d t e a c h e r - a p p r a i s a l . ^ C h a l i f o u r gave her Grade V I I I students s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n marking one another's mis-takes and found that t h i s procedure decreased the t e c h n i c a l e r r o r s i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . ^ 2 Cotter had groups of students combine to grade paragraphs on a rank basis.33 They used r a t i n g sheets having s e v e r a l questions based on content and technique r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h apparent success. Halvorsun found that j u s t checking o f f e r r o r s without s p e c i f y i n g t h e i r 30 Emily B. Gregory, i o c . c i t . 31 Mabelle H a l l , " P u p i l - A p p r a i s a l versus Teacher-Appraisal of Seventh Grade Compositions," Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1931, c i t e d i n Review of Educational  Research, v o l . 4 (December 1934), p. 459. 32 J e s s i e B. C h a l i f o u r , "The E f f e c t of T r a i n i n g Students to Grade Compositions on Composition Work," Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , B u t l e r Universit3'-, 1937, c i t e d i n Review of Ed u c a t i o n a l  Research, v o l . 10 ( A p r i l 1940), p. 117. 33 John G. C o t t e r , "Paragraph E v a l u a t i o n , " The E n g l i s h  J o u r n a l , v o l . 38 (October 1949), pp. 453-460. 10 nature placed more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the student.34 The E n g l i s h B u l l e t i n suggests that teachers make the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e use of student a s s i s t a n c e since "marking has a con-s i d e r a b l e educational value f o r the marker".35 Perhaps one of the c h i e f advantages o£'J a system i n v o l v i n g p u p i l - a p p r a i s a l i s t h a t , t o a degree, i t f r e e s the teacher to concentrate on such important paragraph elements as s e l e c t i o n of id e a s , ef-f e c t i v e n e s s of sentence-structure, coherence, e t c . , and al s o permits him to provide more i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t i v e to these elements. The importance of such i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c -t i o n has been emphasized by Washburne,3& Archer , 3 7 and Nur n b e r g . ^ The l a t t e r s tated t h a t composition improvement depends more on "mind-to-mind d i s c u s s i o n " than on c o r r e c t i o n . At t h i s point a word of caution i s i n order. While the st u d i e s reported apparently obtained r e s u l t s favouring p u p i l -a p p r a i s a l , not a l l of them f a l l i n t o the category of comprehen-s i v e and c o n t r o l l e d research. Further, i n the opinion of the 34 N. 0 . Halvorsun, "Two Methods of I n d i c a t i n g E r r o r s i n Themes," College E n g l i s h , v o l . 2 (December 1940), p. 279. 35 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, op. c i t . , p. 14. 36 C. W. Washburne, "The Attainments of G i f t e d C h i l d r e n Under I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n , " Twenty-third Yearbook, N. S. S. E., P a r t i , P u b l i c School, 1924, pp. 247-261, c i t e d i n Review of Ed u c a t i o n a l Research, v o l . 13 ( A p r i l 1943), p. Wf9 37 C l i f f o r d P. Archer, " E n g l i s h Composition," Review of  Educa t i o n a l Research, v o l . 19 ( A p r i l 1949), p. .l7+o7 38 Maxwell Nurnberg, "Improving High School Composition," The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 36 (May 1947), p. 246. 11 w r i t e r , there are p o s s i b l e disadvantages which must be con-s i d e r e d . In the f i r s t p l ace, the inexperience of the student r a t e r s may r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s e r r o r s i n judgment. In a d d i t i o n , p u p i l - a p p r a i s a l methods use considerable i n s t r u c t i o n a l time which i n many instances may be u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d f o r other as-pects of the composition programme. I t seems reasonable to s t a t e t h a t , short of c o n c l u s i v e research to the contrary, p u p i l - a p p r a i s a l serves b e t t e r as a supplement than as an a l t e r -n a t i v e to t e a c h e r - a p p r a i s a l . A m a j o r i t y of the s t u d i e s and opinions thus f a r ex-amined o r i g i n a t e d i n North America. But no survey of composi-t i o n grading procedures would be complete i f i t f a i l e d to con-s i d e r the v a r i o u s s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g a number of c o n t r o l l e d researches, which have been c a r r i e d out i n Great B r i t a i n . In t h i s country such researches are of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e be-cause the w r i t i n g of essays has long been an I n t e g r a l part of the Grammar School Entrance ("11+") and School C e r t i f i c a t e Examinations both of which may g r e a t l y a f f e c t a student's academic f u t u r e . Perhaps the best known i n v e s t i g a t i o n was conducted by a sub-committee of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Examinations Enquiry Committee under the chairmanship of S i r P h i l i p Hartog . ^ 9 This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was designed to t e s t the chairman's theory t h a t 'directed' : essays, i . e . , compositions w r i t t e n 'with a given 39 P. Hartog, "The Marking of E n g l i s h Essays," A Report on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n C a r r i e d Out by a Sub-Committee of the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Examinations Enquiry Committee, London, Macmillan, 1941, c i t e d i n "The Marking o f . E n g l i s h Essays," B r i t i s h  J ournal of Educational Psychology, v o l . 11 (November 1941), p. 233. 1 2 object i n view* c o n t r i b u t e more to the improvement of w r i t t e n expression and can be marked more c o n s i s t e n t l y than i s the case w i t h the conventional 'undirected' essays. More s p e c i -f i c a l l y , Hartog hoped t h a t by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an element c a l l e d 'sense', i . e . , the degree t o which the w r i t e r a t t a i n s the 'given o b j e c t 1 , both the v a l i d i t y and the r e l i a b i l i t y of essa3r marking could be improved. The main part of the care-f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out w i t h over one thousand s i m i l a r l y educated students, a l l of whom were pre-p a r i n g f o r the School C e r t i f i c a t e Examination. When the study was completed, the p r o f e s s i o n a l examiners who took p a r t , as w e l l as the re p o r t authors, were convinced that ' d i r e c t e d ' essays and marking f o r 'sense' are of value but the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f a i l e d t o show any s u p e r i o r i t y f o r t h i s method. One of the c h i e f f i n d i n g s , i n f a c t , was that marks depend, apparent-l y , as much on the i d i o s y n c r a s i e s of the markers as on the a c t u a l m e r i t s of the composition. The problem of essay marking r e l i a b i l i t y , which loomed so l a r g e i n the Hartog i n v e s t i g a t i o n , has been the subject of a number of other e n q u i r i e s , most of them f a i r l y r e c e n t . For ex-ample, Vernon and M i l l i c a n conducted an experiment at the London I n s t i t u t e of Education f o l l o w i n g which they concluded t h a t the combined judgment of two or more markers "does y i e l d a w r i t i n g a b i l i t y f a c t o r which can be only p a r t i a l l y p r e d i c t e d by t e s t s " . ^ 0 4 0 P. E. Vernon and G. D. M i l l i c a n , "A Further Study of the R e l i a b i l i t y of E n g l i s h Essays," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Psychology, v o l . 7 (November 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 7 3 . ~ 13 Penfold, on the other hand, was c r i t i c a l of the continued use of the essay i n the Grammar School Entrance ("11+") Examination because of the l a c k of marking consistency.4 1 She found t h a t even when the same examiners re-marked essays the r e s u l t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , r e g a r d l e s s of essay length and of the k i n d of marking systems employed. Consequently, she contended t h a t r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s could h a r d l y be expected when many d i f f e r e n t markers are i n v o l v e d as i n the "11+" Examinations. She proposed a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h a t s e v e r a l aspects of composition a b i l i t y could b e t t e r be evalu-ated by o b j e c t i v e t e s t s . Wiseman, i n answer to Penfold, r e -i t e r a t e d the value of the essay examination, s t a t i n g that the a b i l i t y to compose could be measured only on the b a s i s of a c t u a l composition.4 2 i n t h i s connection he presented e x p e r i -mental evidence demonstrating f a i r l y high, though not s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , marker r e l i a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , Pidgeon and Yates, l i k e P enfold, found a l a c k of marking consistency but concluded, very s e n s i b l y i n t h i s w r i t e r ' s view, t h a t , f o r the present at l e a s t , educators must choose between r e l i a b l e measuring instruments ( o b j e c t i v e t e s t s ) which are narrow i n scope and r e s t r i c t i v e i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e and l e s s r e l i a b l e t e s t s (essays) which may exert a more d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on 41 D. M. Edwards P e n f o l d , "Symposium: The Use of Essays i n S e l e c t i o n at 1 1 + , I - Essay-Marking Experiments," B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 26 (June 1956), pp. 128-136. 42 S. Wiseman, "Symposium: The Use of Essays i n S e l e c t i o n at 11"*", I I - Essay Marking Experiments," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 26 (November 1956), pp. 163-179. 14 education,43 These two educators suggested a l s o t h a t i t may s t i l l be f e a s i b l e to combine the best f e a t u r e s of both objec-t i v e and essay t e s t s i n a c r e a t i v e response t e s t which w i l l be both v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . In concluding t h i s survey of important B r i t i s h i n v e s t i -gations i t may be s a i d , i n s p i t e of the l a c k of agreement i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s , that as a group they are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by thoroughness not only w i t h respect t o the a n a l y t i c grading plans employed but a l s o w i t h respect t o the d e t a i l e d marking i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d , and the p a i n s t a k i n g s t a t i s t i c a l analyses a p p l i e d . These somewhat complicated methods, however, do not seem s u i t a b l e f o r use by the r e g u l a r classroom teacher., And since the f a c t remains that no s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e has yet been found f o r w r i t t e n compositions, the marking problem con-t i n u e s , at l e a s t i n some degree, unresolved. The grading procedures discussed thus f a r have i n -cluded d e t a i l e d e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n , general impression marking, l i m i t e d marking, p u p i l - a p p r a i s a l , a n a l y t i c grading, and one or two v a r i a t i o n s of these. Where i t has been p o s s i b l e , advan-tages and disadvantages of each scheme have been noted. From these s t u d i e s much valuable i n f o r m a t i o n has been derived. For example, the f u t i l i t y of continuous a l l - e r r o r marking and the d i f f i c u l t y of marking c o n s i s t e n t l y have been reasonably w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , and v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s have been o f f e r e d . 43 D» A. Pidgeon and A. Yates, "Symposium: The Use of Essays i n S e l e c t i o n at 11+, IV - Experimental I n q u i r i e s , i n t o the Use of Essay-Type E n g l i s h Papers," B r i t i s h J ournal of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 27 (February 1957), pp. 37-47. 15 However, as p r e v i o u s l y noted by the w r i t e r i n a research seminar submission, "The most important t e s t of the worthwhile-ness of any research or classroom procedure i s whether i t a s s i s t s i n the attainment of d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s . " 4 4 The r e a l t e s t of a composition grading procedure, t h e r e f o r e , i s whether i t c o n t r i b u t e s m a t e r i a l l y t o the improvement of w r i t t e n composi-t i o n .45 Many of the s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s chapter have paid l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to t h i s primary marking f u n c t i o n . This view-point i s by no means p e c u l i a r to the w r i t e r . In 1922, Hudelson c r i t i c i z e d a number of composition scales not j u s t because they f a i l e d to produce c o n s i s t e n t scores, but more importantly, be-cause they f a i l e d to take cognizance of the p u p i l s ' i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of the marks and f a i l e d , consequently, to help the w r i t e r s do better.4 6 Dusel was c r i t i c a l of any marking system which f a i l e d to communicate to p u p i l s the information they needed i n order to improve.47 Wormsbecker noted t h a t , w h i l e much considera-t i o n .had been given to marking r e l i a b i l i t y , very l i t t l e a t t e n -t i o n had been pa i d t o p u p i l r e a c t i o n t o the k i n d of mark given.4$ The Senior High School E n g l i s h B u l l e t i n sums up these 44 M. Y. McMechan, "Outl i n e of Proposed Study of Methods of E v a l u a t i n g Students' W r i t t e n Themes," Research Seminar a s s i g n -ment, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952, p. 4 (Chapter I j . 45 I b i d . , p. IS, 46 E a r l Hudelson, op. c i t . , p. 39. 47 W i l l i a m J . Dusel, op. c i t . , pp. 390-397. 48 John H. Wormsbecker, op. c i t . , p. 8 . 16 p o i n t s of view by s t a t i n g , "Composition marking must i n s t r u c t as w e l l as assess."49 In 1952, as part of the work i n connection w i t h the research seminar r e f e r r e d to i n the preceding paragraph, the w r i t e r proposed an a l t e r n a t i v e grading procedure which, i t was hoped, would prove more e f f e c t i v e i n improving the q u a l i t y of w r i t t e n themes than some of the other methods here i n reviewed.-^ This procedure c o n s i s t e d mainly of "commenting upon the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " of the v a r i o u s paragraphs submitted i n s t e a d of as-s i g n i n g marks, i n d i c a t i n g e r r o r s , e t c . ' S a l i e n t f e a t u r e s ' , t o be described more f u l l y l a t e r , may be b r i e f l y defined as "those aspects of a w r i t t e n theme which stand out, e i t h e r f o r t h e i r e xcellence or lack of i t " . Subsequently, C o l l i n s expressed a s i m i l a r idea when he stated that marking comments should be d i r e c t e d t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w r i t i n g and not to mechanical d e t a i l . 5 1 Dusel suggested the use of h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e comments " r e v e a l i n g only those reader r e a c t i o n s which w i l l be h e l p f u l " . 5 2 Apparently, however, there has been no a c t u a l research i n v o l -v i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r marking p r o p o s a l . In view of the l a t t e r f a c t the w r i t e r decided to a t -tempt an experimental study which might determine whether or 49 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Senior High  School E n g l i s h , E n g l i s h 20 and 21, 30 and 31, 40 and 41, 91 and 93, 1954, p. 26. 50 M. I . McMechan, op. c i t . , O u t l i n e p. 4. 51 Harold C o l l i n s , "Conversing i n the Margins," College  E n g l i s h , v o l . 15 (May-1954), p. 465-466. 52 W i l l i a m J . Dusel, op. c i t . , p. 391. 17 not t h i s " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " proposal might be of p a r t i c u l a r value i n promoting w r i t i n g improvement. For purposes of com-parison and c o n t r o l the general impression and l i m i t e d marking methods r e s p e c t i v e l y were s e l e c t e d , the former because i t was a f a m i l i a r procedure r e a d i l y a p p l i e d by the classroom teacher, and the l a t t e r because i t was a p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e , accept-able to school a u t h o r i t i e s , f o r the experim e n t a l l y d e s i r a b l e "no marking" method. In general terms, the problem was, "To i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of fo u r procedures f o r e v a l u a t i n g students' w r i t t e n themes." B r i e f l y s t a t e d , the four procedures were: (1) General impression — A l e t t e r grade was assigned on a l l p r a c t i c e themes. (2) S a l i e n t f e a t u r e s — One or two ph r a s a l comments were made on a l l p r a c t i c e themes. (3) General impression and l i m i t e d marking combined — A l e t t e r grade was assigned on every f o u r t h theme only. (4) S a l i e n t f e a t u r e s and l i m i t e d marking combined — One or two phrasal comments were made on every f o u r t h theme only. I t w i l l be noted that procedures (3) and (4) are simply l i m i t e d marking v a r i a t i o n s of procedures (1) and (2 ) . The purpose of t h i s arrangement, of course, was to in c o r p o r a t e a c o n t r o l f e a t u r e i n t o the experimental design. So that the four procedures could be compared, four equated groups of students, X, Y, X]_ and Y-|_, were e s t a b l i s h e d . X, Y, X]_ and Y^_ had t h e i r p r a c t i c e themes over a three and one-h a l f month p e r i o d marked by procedures one t o four r e s p e c t i v e l y . 18 I n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t paragraphs formed the main b a s i s f o r comparisons between: X/Y, X/X^, and Y/Y]_, and the c h i e f s t a t i s t i c a l procedure was a p p l i c a t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis. The assumption was made that i f the groups being com-pared were pro p e r l y matched there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s between X andY between X and X-j_, or between Y and Y]_ on the i n i t i a l t e s t paragraphs. This being the case, the s p e c i f i c hypotheses i n t h i s study became: (a) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e between X and Y on the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs when a l l Group X p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the general impression method ( l e t t e r grade o n l y ) , and a l l Group Y p r a c t i c e themes by the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s method. (b) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e between X and X^ on the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs when a l l Group X p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the general impression method and only one-quarter of the Group X-j_ p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the same method. (c) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e between Y.and Y± on the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs when a l l Group Y p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the s a l i e n t features method and only one-quarter of the Group Yj_ p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the same method. I f the n u l l hypothesis were not sustained i t might then be p o s s i b l e t e n t a t i v e l y t o decide which of the four marking procedures has the greatest p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n the classroom. CHAPTER I I THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD I t i s proposed f i r s t to o u t l i n e the experimental method as a whole and then t o e x p l a i n i t s more important f e a t u r e s i n greater d e t a i l . Through the k i n d cooperation of the school a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n , arrangements were made t o conduct the study from February to June, 1957, using r e g u l a r Grade V I I I c l a s s e s at Inglewood J u n i o r High School, West Vancouver. P r i o r to the a c t u a l ex-periment, Mr. D. Dashwood-Jones, V i c e - p r i n c i p a l and Head of the E n g l i s h Department, and the w r i t e r met on s e v e r a l occasions to d i s c u s s the d e t a i l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n and execution. Next the various m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d were assembled. These included I.Q. and standardized language scores which served as the bases f o r matching the experimental and c o n t r o l groups, t e s t paragraphs which made p o s s i b l e the comparison of i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s u l t s , teachers' manuals which contained i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the proper conduct of the study together w i t h d e t a i l e d lesson plans and marking procedures, and miscellaneous other m a t e r i a l s which served a v a r i e t y of purposes: f o l d e r s f o r s t o r i n g p r a c t i c e themes, pass-outs f o r i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n s , reading r e f e r e n c e s , and d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the r a t i n g of t e s t paragraphs. The study was then c a r r i e d out according to the f o l l o w -i n g t i m e t a b l e - . During the f i r s t h a l f of February explanatory meetings were h e l d w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i n g classroom teachers and w i t h the independent t e s t paragraph r a t e r s , standardized 1 9 20 language and i n i t i a l paragraph t e s t s were administered, and f o u r matched groups of student subjects were e s t a b l i s h e d . With t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y phase completed, the classroom composi-t i o n programme proceeded from mid-February u n t i l the end of May, the only i n t e r r u p t i o n of consequence being the Easter t e s t s and h o l i d a y s . E a r l y i n June the f i n a l standardized language and paragraph t e s t s were given and b r i e f teacher and student questionnaires were answered. While t h i s completed the programme i n s o f a r as i t d i r e c t -l y a f f e c t e d the school there s t i l l remained two important t a s k s : the marking of the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs by the independent r a t e r s and the a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s by the w r i t e r . The former was achieved w i t h i n the two months f o l l o w i n g w h i l e the l a t t e r was undertaken l a t e r . The foregoing o u t l i n e was designed to present a b r i e f , i f somewhat sketchy, overview of the procedures employed i n t h i s experimental study. In order, however, t h a t the reader may more f u l l y understand the purpose and nature of these pro-cedures t h e i r e s s e n t i a l f eatures w i l l be described i n greater d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. The s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e experimental s u b j e c t s proved r e l a t i v e l y easy. At the time, Inglewood J u n i o r High School had some three hundred Grade V I I I students e n r o l l e d i n ten r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , eight of which were approximately matched f o r s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e and achievement and two of which were super i o r but roughly equal t o each other. The Grade V I I I l e v e l was i d e a l f o r i t was p o s s i b l e t o set up a f a i r l y compre-21 hensive composition programme and at the same time to r e t a i n the s i n g l e paragraph as the b a s i c v e h i c l e f o r w r i t t e n p r a c t i c e . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of ten equal-sized c l a s s e s w i t h i n one school was a t t r a c t i v e too f o r i t not only s i m p l i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements but a l s o made p o s s i b l e greater teacher-to-teacher consistency i n lesson p r e s e n t a t i o n and marking. In a d d i t i o n to having s u i t a b l e subjects i t was, of course, most d e s i r a b l e t o have well-informed and cooperative teaching personnel. The p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers were, t h e r e f o r e , i n v i t e d t o attend a s e r i e s of o r i e n t a t i o n d i s c u s s i o n s . In a p r e l i m i n a r y meeting Mr. Jones b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d the nature of the study and the school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s point of view w i t h respect t o i t . A day or two l a t e r the w r i t e r presented a f u r -t h e r explanation of the study's purpose and o r g a n i z a t i o n . At t h i s time a l s o the teaching manuals were d i s t r i b u t e d and d i s -cussed. When the teachers had had time to study the i n s t r u c -t i o n s and lesson plans, another meeting provided the oppor-t u n i t y f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and expansion of v a r i o u s aspects of the p r e s c r i b e d procedures. F i n a l l y , throughout the e x p e r i -mental programme, the i n s t r u c t o r s were encouraged t o seek an-swers t o any questions which might a r i s e . While i t was manifest t h a t f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the composition programme should be supplied to teachers, i t was l e s s evident how much should be given t o the student sub-j e c t s . I t was f e l t t h a t the end r e s u l t s would be more meaning-f u l i f the programme were conducted i n an apparently normal atmosphere r a t h e r than i n one which was o b v i o u s l y experimental. 22 With t h i s idea i n mind i t was f i n a l l y decided that the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n could best be presented q u i e t l y and u n i -formly t o a l l students by means of a simple pass-out. The c h i e f p o i n t s covered were these: a l l students would p a r t i c i p a t e i n a f u l l programme of composition i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e ; the teachers were i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g out what k i n d of i n s t r u c -t i o n , p r a c t i c e , and marking would produce the best r e s u l t s ; most of the themes submitted would be returned but the f i r s t two and the l a s t two would be r e t a i n e d f o r purposes of compari-son; marking procedures would vary from student to student but no d i s c u s s i o n of these would be p o s s i b l e u n t i l l a t e r i n the term; a l l students would r e c e i v e the same i n s t r u c t i o n and be given c r e d i t f o r t h e i r best work. Words such as "experimental" and " t e s t " were purposely omitted i n the pass-outs. While the o r i e n t a t i o n process f o r teachers and s t u -dents proceeded, the establishment of the f o u r matched groups X, Y, X-j_, and Y^, was a l s o undertaken. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the necessary data included I.Q. and standardized language t e s t scores. Up-to-date I.Q. scores, based on the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre I n t e l l i g e n c e I n d i c a t o r , were supplied by the school o f f i c e . 5 3 Standardized language scores were obtained by a d m i n i s t e r i n g Form X of the Cooperative E n g l i s h T e s t . 5 4 This t e s t was recommended by Dr. C. B. Conway, D i r e c t o r of the 5 3 V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre I n t e l l i g e n c e I n d i c a t o r , Grades 3-8, adapted from the Henmon-Nelson Tests o f Mental A b i l i t y , Ontario College of Education, Toronto, 1 9 4 6 . 5 4 Cooperative E n g l i s h Test (Lower L e v e l ) , Test A, Mechanics of Expression, Form X, Cooperative Test D i v i s i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , Los Angeles. 23 D i v i s i o n of Tests, Standards, and Research, Department of Education. As a check, f i r s t term language and composition scores based on teacher estimates were a l s o obtained. For con-venient reference a l l of the data described i n t h i s paragraph were summarized by the w r i t e r on c l a s s l i s t s supplied by the school o f f i c e . The a c t u a l matching i n v o l v e d the s e l e c t i o n of four sub-groups i n each of the ten c l a s s e s . The reason f o r having a l l four groups represented i n each c l a s s was, of course, to reduce the e f f e c t of teacher-to-teacher v a r i a t i o n s i n i n s t r u c t i o n and marking. Of the two hundred ninety-two students f o r whom complete matching data were a v a i l a b l e e i g h t y - f i v e were assigned t o X, e i g h t y - s i x to Y, sixty-one to X]_, and s i x t y to Y^. X and Y were the experimental groups w h i l e the smaller X^ and Y]_ were the corresponding c o n t r o l s . The groups t o be compared were considered matched i f there . were no s i g n i f i c a n t mean or standard d e v i a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h respect t o e i t h e r I.Q. or standardized language scores. In the classroom the students were not i d e n t i f i e d as X, Y, X]_ } or Y^_ but were simply requested t o place the num-ber 1, 2, 3 , or 4 ( i n place of X, Y, etc.) on each p r a c t i c e theme submitted. The number i n each group was s u b s t a n t i a l l y .reduced l a t e r through the e l i m i n a t i o n of sub j e c t s who moved away, missed t e s t paragraphs, or were absent f o r three or more p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the "N's" a c t u a l l y used i n the establishment of matched groups and i n the a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s w i l l be found i n Chapter I I I . M a t e r i a l s f o r comparing the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s u l t s c o n s i s t e d of scores obtained from p a r a l l e l standardized language 24 t e s t s (Forms X. and Y of the aforementioned Cooperative E n g l i s h Test) and scores assigned t o t e s t paragraphs by independent raterso As the language tests employed are w i d e l y known and accepted there i s l i t t l e need to describe them f u r t h e r . The problem of s u i t a b l e t e s t paragraphs, however, must be d e a l t w i t h at greater length.. A l t o g e t h e r four such paragraphs were xvritten by each p a r t i c i p a t i n g student, two p r i o r t o the p r a c t i c e period and two f o l l o w i n g i t . So that the end r e s u l t s could be compared the t e s t assignments were c a r e f u l l y planned and c o n t r o l l e d . The mimeographed sheets i s s u e d t o every student on each of the four occasions included a t o p i c o u t l i n e , i n s t r u c t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the le n g t h and format of the paragraph and a check l i s t f o r s e l f - a p p r a i s a l . (Copies of the i n s t r u c t i o n s may be seen i n the teachers' manual). Paragraph assignments one and three were p a r a l l e l i n form and s i m i l a r i n nature; paragraph a s s i g n -ments two and four were a l s o comparable but d i f f e r e n t from one and t h r e e . The f i v e even-numbered d i v i s i o n s wrote paragraphs one and two i n i t i a l l y and three and four f i n a l l y w h i l e the f i v e odd-numbered d i v i s i o n s wrote t h r e e and four i n i t i a l l y and one and two f i n a l l y . This arrangement was designed t o o f f s e t any p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i f f i c u l t y or appeal of the four t e s t paragraphs. The grading of these paragraphs w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n the chapter. Described i n the foregoing paragraphs were the va r i o u s procedures which n e c e s s a r i l y preceded the a c t u a l e x p e r i -mental p e r i o d . In Chapter One i t was s t a t e d t h a t the proposed experiment was mainly concerned w i t h the e f f e c t of c e r t a i n 25 marking procedures on the improvement of students' w r i t t e n compositions. I t was e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , to arrange a s u i t a b l e p r a c t i c e period d u r i n g which a l l students would r e -ceive s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and be given the same w r i t i n g as-signments and a l l teachers would use standardized procedures f o r marking the themes submitted. The i n s t r u c t i o n and assignments employed were based on the fundamental composition forms of n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and e x p o s i t i o n as then p r e s c r i b e d f o r Grade V I I I by the Depart-ment of Education. At the beginning of the three and one-half month p r a c t i c e period Mr. Jones gave a demonstration lesson i n order t o keep the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n as c o n s i s t e n t as pos-s i b l e from teacher to teacher. The planned teaching programme r e q u i r e d two periods per seven-day week and c o n s i s t e d of f o u r -teen one-hour lessons d e a l i n g w i t h seven major t o p i c s . These t o p i c s were based on s p e c i f i c reading s e l e c t i o n s which were e i t h e r mimeographed or read from a t e x t . The reading r e f e r -ences were designed not only to present s t i m u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l but a l s o t o provide a l l c l a s s e s and teachers with a d e f i n i t e and s i m i l a r point of departure. Each major t o p i c contained m a t e r i a l f o r two l e s s o n s , "a" and "b", r e l a t e d by content and/or technique. This " p a i r e d - l e s s o n s " arrangement made i t p o s s i b l e f o r students to improve paragraph form, to change the focus, or to expand i d e a s . R e v i s i o n such as t h i s , i t was hoped, would.contribute more to the improvement of w r i t t e n composition than would mere e r r o r - c o r r e c t i o n and re-copying of the o r i g i n a l themes. Each one-hour lesson was d i v i d e d i n t o two roughly equal p a r t s , the f i r s t being f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and the second f o r 26 the w r i t t e n assignment. A l l of the m a t e r i a l s needed f o r each of the fourteen l e s s o n s , — o u t l i n e s , i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e s , e t c . , were prepared i n advance and placed i n the teachers' manual. I t should be noted here t h a t only t h i r t e e n of the lessons and assignments were completed when time ran out. I t seems u n l i k e l y , however, th a t the omission of one lesson had any appreciable bearing upon the r e s u l t s . The marking of the p r a c t i c e themes, being the indepen-dent v a r i a b l e around which the e n t i r e experiment re v o l v e d , r e -ceived p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . D e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s were placed i n the teachers' manuals and f u l l y discussed before the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d was begun. The four marking procedures, w h i l e d e a l t w i t h b r i e f l y i n Chapter One, merit f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n . At the end of every composition p e r i o d the teachers f i r s t sorted each set of papers i n t o the four sub-groups, X, Y, X]_, and Y j ( l a b e l l e d 1, 2, 3, or 4 by the students) and then marked as f o l l o w s : Group X. Marking by general impression. Group X papers were sorted i n t o p i l e s and assigned l e t t e r grades A, B, C, D, or E according t o the teacher's general impression of t h e i r r e l a t i v e composition v a l u e s . S u i t a b l e c r i t e r i a f o r recog-n i z i n g good compositions were l i s t e d so that the impressions formed by the va r i o u s teachers would, to some degree at l e a s t , have s i m i l a r bases. No marks or comments other than the s i n g l e l e t t e r grade were permitted. Group Y. Marking by s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s . Group Y papers were a l s o sorted i n t o p i l e s but as the teachers read they commented i n w r i t i n g , by c o n s t r u c t i v e phrases or short 27 sentences, on a minimum of one or a maximum of two s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s * So t h a t the reader may understand the term " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " the explanation given to the teachers i s repeated here. . . . . " S a l i e n t f e a t u r e s are those aspects of the themes which stand out, e i t h e r f o r t h e i r excellence or l a c k of i t . Often, but not always, these f e a t u r e s w i l l be r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r concepts discussed i n the accompanying l e s s o n . You w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y comment on the same f e a t u r e s from student to student or from lesson t o l e s s o n . Rather, the c r i t e r i o n should be: What comment(s) w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r student to improve h i s w r i t i n g a b i l i t y ? " These b r i e f comments were w r i t t e n i n the margin or below the work. No other marks were permitted. Group Xj_. L i m i t e d marking u s i n g l e t t e r grades. The procedure f o r t h i s c o n t r o l group was the same as f o r Group X except t h a t , on the students' papers, l e t t e r grades were placed on the second, s i x t h , and ten t h assignments o n l y . No marks of any k i n d were placed on the remaining papers. Instead, as general e r r o r s i n content and/or mechanics were discussed i n c l a s s , the X]_ students were encouraged t o examine t h e i r own unmarked themes i n order to i d e n t i f y t h e i r weaknesses and estimate t h e i r worth. Group Y]_. L i m i t e d marking u s i n g s a l i e n t f e a t u r e comment. The procedure f o r t h i s c o n t r o l group was the same as f o r Group Y except that the comments were made on the second, s i x t h , and tenth assignments on l y . With respect to the remain-i n g papers the method f o r Y]_ p a r a l l e l e d that f o r X]_. I t should be noted here t h a t , p r i o r t o the development 28 of the l i m i t e d marking plan, the f e a s i b i l i t y of "no-marking" c o n t r o l groups was examined. In theory such c o n t r o l would be d e s i r a b l e ; i n p r a c t i c e i t was not f e a s i b l e f o r a number of reasons. In the f i r s t place, r e g u l a r marking of w r i t t e n themes i s Department of Education p o l i c y . In the second p l a c e , the superintendent approved the experiment on the understanding t h a t i t would i n v o l v e no s e r i o u s departure from departmental r e g u l a t i o n s . In the t h i r d p l a c e , the school p r i n c i p a l f e l t t hat a "no-marking" plan not only might r e s u l t i n unfavourable p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n but a l s o might adversely a f f e c t the progress of a s i z a b l e number of students. The p l a c i n g of marks or comments on every f o u r t h theme only f o r the and Yj_ c o n t r o l groups was an acceptable a l t e r n a t i v e . For school records only the teachers placed i n t h e i r own mark-books l e t t e r grades f o r a l l assignments submitted by a l l subjects r e g a r d l e s s of group but the students were not aware of t h i s f a c t . One f i n a l observation concerning the marking of the p r a c t i c e themes should be made. Inasmuch as they e n t a i l e d only a minimum of w r i t i n g on the students' papers, the pro-cedures o u t l i n e d above were q u i t e economical of teacher time. As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , i n i t i a l , a n d f i n a l language and paragraph t e s t r e s u l t s formed the bases f o r comparing the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the aforementioned marking pro-cedures. Since the standardized language t e s t used had ap-p r o p r i a t e p a r a l l e l forms the r e s u l t s obtained were thought t o be reasonably dependable. Unquestionably, however, the r e -s u l t s of greatest importance were d e r i v e d from the grading of 29 the t e s t paragraphs. I t was imperative, t h e r e f o r e , that t h i s grading be done as competently and r e l i a b l y as p o s s i b l e . Three independent r a t e r s , a l l experienced E n g l i s h teachers, agreed to undertake t h i s important work. They were Mr. A. G o Addy (then teacher of E n g l i s h at Sutherland J u n i o r High, and p r e s e n t l y V i c e - p r i n c i p a l of Canyon Heights School), Mr. J . F. E l l i s (then P r i n c i p a l of Cedardale School, and p r e s e n t l y on the s t a f f of the College of Education), and the w r i t e r . Before s t a r t i n g the a c t u a l grading the r a t e r s met on three separate occasions t o d i s c u s s the problem i n general and the bases f o r assignment of marks i n p a r t i c u l a r . F o l l o w i n g these d i s c u s s i o n s the w r i t e r prepared f o r each r a t e r a typed set of i n s t r u c t i o n s designed not only t o standardize grading, r e c o r d i n g , and handling procedures, but a l s o t o minimize mark v a r i a t i o n s from r a t e r to r a t e r . A copy of the d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s i s included i n Appendix B, B r i e f l y , however, the e s s e n t i a l features of the plan were as f o l l o w s . The grading scheme employed might be described as modified general impression w i t h p a r t i c u l a r em-phasis on e f f e c t i v e n e s s of expression. The main c r i t e r i a f o r determining the q u a l i t y of composition were suggested by S t e e l and Talman.55 A l l of the t e s t paragraphs were i d e n t i f i e d by code numbers ahead of time so that the r a t e r s d i d not, at any time, know whose papers they had nor what experimental groups 55 James H. S t e e l and John Talman, The Marking of E n g l i s h  Compositions, London', James Nis b e t , 1936. 30 were i n v o l v e d . Each r a t e r independently graded every t e s t paper and assigned a score out of t w e n t y - f i v e . This score was recorded and the mark removed before the paper was passed on. The three marks thus obtained were t o t a l l e d and the procedure was then repeated f o r the second t e s t paragraph. Thus each paragraph was assigned a mark out of s e v e n t y - f i v e and each student received a mark out of one hundred f i f t y f o r each p a i r . The t o t a l mark f o r each student was then d i v i d e d by three (the number of r a t e r s ) i n order to a r r i v e at t h e composite mark out of f i f t y which was used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s . The u n r e l i a b i l i t y of composition grading has long been known. So that t h i s problem might be minimized c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l measures were taken. To begin w i t h , from the f i r s t set of papers to be graded completely, sample paragraphs, at var i o u s l e v e l s of e x c e l l e n c e , were s e l e c t e d , typed, and used as guides f o r a l l subsequent grading. The c h i e f b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i o n was cl o s e mark agreement. Next, the three r a t e r s met again t o discuss and to reach agreement upon those papers showing considerable mark v a r i a t i o n . As a consequence of t h i s and a s i m i l a r meeting l a t e r on, serio u s mark d i f f e r e n c e s were almost e l i m i n a t e d . F i n a l l y , about f i f t e e n per cent of the i n i t i a l t e s t paragraphs were set as i d e f o r i n c l u s i o n w i t h the f i n a l paragraphs. This provided a safeguard against any ten-dency of the r a t e r s a u t o m a t i c a l l y to assign higher marks at the conclusion of the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d . In order t o assure the proper conduct of the e x p e r i -ment i t was necessary not only to s e l e c t s u i t a b l e subjects and m a t e r i a l s , t o provide teachers w i t h d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l and 31 marking i n f o r m a t i o n , to e s t a b l i s h matched groups, and t o ar-range f o r competent grading of the t e s t paragraphs, but a l s o t o exert a measure of c o n t r o l over the mechanics of the plan, e s p e c i a l l y i n the classroom. S e v e r a l important suggestions f o r c o n t r o l l i n g experimental c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e mentioned d i r e c t l y or i n f e r r e d elsewhere i n t h i s chapter are brought t o -gether here f o r convenient reference. These suggestions were discussed with the p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers ahead of time and were repeated i n d e t a i l i n the manuals. A d d i t i o n a l meetings or typed memos made i t p o s s i b l e f o r every teacher to r e c e i v e the same guidance as questions arose during the course of the experiment. The need f o r close adherence t o the p r e s c r i b e d l e s s o n plans, time a l l o t m e n t s , and w r i t t e n assignments was em-phasized as was a l s o the requirement t h a t marks and comments on papers were not to be discussed w i t h i n d i v i d u a l students. Throughout the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , c a r e f u l attendance and mark records were kept f o r a l l students. At the conclusion of the experiment these records were con s o l i d a t e d so t h a t i t was pos-s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the a c t u a l attendance f o r every student i n each of the matched groups. So t h a t a l l students would r e c e i v e the same i n f o r m a t i o n , mimeographed pass-outs were r e g u l a r l y used. In order t o f a c i l i t a t e the handling of the w r i t t e n themes throughout t h e . p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , i n d i v i d u a l f o l d e r s were s u p p l i e d . F i n a l l y , two f a c t o r s combined to guard a g a i n s t out-s i d e i n f l u e n c e s . In the f i r s t place, students were r e q u i r e d t o complete a l l p r a c t i c e and t e s t themes w i t h i n the c l a s s p e r i o d s . In the second place, since v i s i t o r s t o the school were, always encouraged t o r e p o r t t o the general o f f i c e , there 32 were no unnecessary i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n the classrooms. Although the r e g u l a r Easter t e s t i n g programme was somewhat longer than a n t i c i p a t e d , i t proved to be the only important break i n the experimental programme. The s t a t i s t i c a l treatment employed i n connection w i t h the experiment c o n s i s t e d mainly of a s e r i e s of mathematical com-parisons which were designed both f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the matched groups and f o r checking the hypotheses s t a t e d i n Chapter One. The c h i e f s t a t i s t i c a l procedure was a p p l i c a t i o n of the n u l l hy-po t h e s i s . The s t a t i s t i c s t o be c a l c u l a t e d f o r each comparison were the number of subjects (N), the a r i t h m e t i c mean (M), the standard d e v i a t i o n (SD), the standard e r r o r of the mean (SE]y[), the mean d i f f e r e n c e (D), the standard e r r o r of the mean d i f -ference (SEp), and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o (CR). For these terms, f o r the formulae i n which they are used, and f o r the reference t a b l e s employed i n the a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s the w r i t e r i s i n -debted to G a r r e t t . 5 6 The data r e q u i r e d f o r the establishment of matched groups c o n s i s t e d of I.Q. r a t i n g s based on the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre I n t e l l i g e n c e I n d i c a t o r and standardized lang-uage scores d e r i v e d from Form X of the Cooperative E n g l i s h Test. Once these data had been c o n s o l i d a t e d and the four groups X, Y, X]_, and Y^ had been t e n t a t i v e l y organized the mean I.Q., the standard d e v i a t i o n I.Q., and the standard e r r o r of the mean 5 6 Henry E. G a r r e t t , S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education  ( 5 t h ed-.), New York, Longmans Green, 1 9 5 8 . 33 were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each group. For the l a s t c a l c u l a t i o n the formula was: SEjyj m SD The next step was t o c a l c u l a t e the standard e r r o r of the mean d i f f e r e n c e f o r each of the three p a i r s X/Y, X/X]_, and Y/Y-j_, u s i n g the formula: S E D = \ / S E \ + S E 2M 2 The f i n a l step i n t h i s s e r i e s was to determine the c r i t i c a l r a t i o D f o r each p a i r i n order t o t e s t the n u l l hypothesis. " S ^ D " These c a l c u l a t i o n s were then repeated f o r the i n i t i a l standardized t e s t scores. I f , at th a t time, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s with respect to e i t h e r the I . Q. r a t i n g s or the standardized language t e s t scores one might reasonably conclude t h a t the groups were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y matched and the experiment could proceed d i r e c t l y . However, as a f i n a l check on the closeness of matching, the same pro-cedures were a p p l i e d t o the i n i t i a l t e s t paragraph scores when these became a v a i l a b l e . At t h i s point i t should again be noted that some of the subjects f o r whom the o r i g i n a l matching data were complete, subsequently moved away, missed three or more p r a c t i c e a s s i g n -ments, or were absent f o r one or more f i n a l language and para-graph t e s t s . At the conc l u s i o n of the experiment i t was neces-sary, t h e r e f o r e , to repeat the aforementioned c a l c u l a t i o n s w i t h a somewhat smaller nM" i n each group. These r e v i s e d 3 4 r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table I of Chapter Three. At the conc l u s i o n of the p r a c t i c e period the f i r s t r e s u l t s a v a i l a b l e f o r study were the f i n a l standardized l a n g -uage t e s t scores. The s t a t i s t i c a l procedures a p p l i e d to the I n i t i a l t e s t scores were repeated using the f i n a l scores, the assumption being t h a t , i n t e r v e n i n g p r a c t i c e notwithstanding, there would s t i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e be-tween X and Y, X and X-j_, or Y and Y]_. Thus, the c h i e f aim was not so much t o determine the s i z e of the absolute gain but r a t h e r to a s c e r t a i n whether there had been any appre c i a b l e change i n the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the groups between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g . When the f i n a l t e s t paragraph scores were a v a i l a b l e the n u l l hypothesis was again employed f o r the inter-group comparisons. This time, however, the standard e r r o r of the mean d i f f e r e n c e between each comparison was determined by the formula: SE D r j / < S E 2M X i + S E \ 2 > ( 1 - r 2 x y > The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n term i n t o the formula pro-duces a smaller standard e r r o r . This i s qu i t e reasonable f o r , according to G a r r e t t , "when two groups have been matched i n some t e s t or t e s t s t h e i r v a r i a b i l i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d i n a l l f u n c t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d with the matching v a r i a b l e s . " 5 7 In t h i s case, the c o r r e l a t i o n between the standardized language t e s t 5 7 I b i d . , p. 2 3 2 . 3 5 scores and the t e s t paragraph scores was determined by the product-moment method o u t l i n e d by G a r r e t t . 5 & The obtained c o e f f i c i e n t of . 6 0 was c a l c u l a t e d using the combined N of two hundred f o r t y - s i x . The f i n d i n g s with respect to the f i n a l language and paragraph t e s t scores are summarized i n Table I I . The c a l c u l a t i o n s j u s t described completed the mathematical a n a l y s i s , as o r i g i n a l l y planned. Subsequently, however, f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was undertaken i n order t h a t the a v a i l a b l e data might be used more f u l l y . Up to t h i s point the t o t a l population used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s was two hundred f o r t y - s i x and i n c l u d e d subjects who were present f o r a t l e a s t e l e v e n - t h i r t e e n t h s of the prac-t i c e as w e l l as f o r a l l t e s t s . Although i t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t absence from one or two p r a c t i c e periods would have any a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t upon the f i n a l r e s u l t s i t was decided, n e v e r t h e l e s s , to check by r e p e a t i n g the inter-group compari-sons w i t h respect t o i n i t i a l and f i n a l paragraph t e s t scores f o r the one hundred seventy-three students who were present f o r a l l p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s work are r e -ported i n Table I I I . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s described thus f a r d e a l t only w i t h groups i n which there were wide ranges of i n t e l l i g e n c e and composition a b i l i t y . Further study was needed i n order t o determine the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t of the f o u r marking pro-cedures on students of high and low a b i l i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y . 5 8 I b i d . t pp. 1 3 4 - 1 3 9 . 36 The f i v e sub-groups to which reference i s made i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs were s e l e c t e d , i n appropriate propor-t i o n s , from the X, Y, X],, and Y]_ " f u l l p r a c t i c e " groups. Since the sub-groups were small i t was p o s s i b l e to use the d i f f e r e n c e method suggested by Garrett f o r determining the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between means.59 This method uses the formulae: SD D = 1 / Z x 2 and SE M = S D D V N - 1 \nr~ The f i r s t sub-group c o n s i s t e d of the f o r t y - f o u r students (about t w e n t y - f i v e per cent) whose V.G.C. I.Q. r a t i n g s were one hundred t h i r t y - t w o or more. The second sub-group c o n s i s t e d of the f o r t y - f o u r lower a b i l i t y students whose V.G.C. I.Q. r a t i n g s were one hundred nine or l e s s . (Although an I.Q. of one hundred nine i s i n the range u s u a l l y described as "average" i t was nevertheless at the t w e n t y - f i f t h p e r c e n t i l e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r population,,) The next three sub-groups were s e l e c t e d not on the b a s i s of i n t e l l i g e n c e but according t o t h e i r i n i t i a l paragraph t e s t scores. For t h i s p o r t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the " f u l l p r a c t i c e " students i n each of X, Y, X^, and Y i were d i v i d e d i n t o upper t h i r d , middle t h i r d , and lower t h i r d sub-groups. The students composing the upper t h i r d had composite i n i t i a l scores of t h i r t y - t w o or more out of f i f t y w h i l e the students composing the lower t h i r d had scores of twenty-seven or l e s s . 59 I b i d . , pp. 227-228. 37 The f i n d i n g s w i t h respect to the aforementioned sub-groups are summarized i n Tables IV and V. This concludes the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed. The p r e s e n t a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s f o l l o w i n Chapters Three and Four. The foregoing paragraphs d e a l t only w i t h the numeri-c a l procedures used i n the experimental programme. But the o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s produced by these procedures t e l l nothing of the s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . C l e a r l y the ultimate success or f a i l u r e of any educational method depends i n l a r g e measure upon such s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n . Therefore, at the c o n c l u s i o n of the experiment, both teachers and students were asked t o complete questionnaires which were designed to a s c e r t a i n what they thought about the programme i n general and the marking procedures i n p a r t i c u l a r . Copies of these questionnaires are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D and the r e s u l t s are reported i n Chapter Three. CHAPTER I I I PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE The hypotheses sta t e d i n Chapter I'.", c a l l e d f o r com-parisons between matched groups X and Y, X and X-^  and Y and Y-j_ r e s p e c t i v e l y . The various symbols and formulae used f o r checking the s i g n i f i c a n c e between each p a i r of means were ex-p l a i n e d i n Chapter I I . Before the a c t u a l experiment could begin i t was e s s e n t i a l t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t the four groups were pro p e r l y matched. Complete matching data, c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , standardized t e s t scores, and i n i t i a l paragraph t e s t r e s u l t s , were a v a i l a b l e f o r two hundred f o r t y - s i x students. Table I summarizes t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . TABLE I MATCHING DATA Part One — I n t e l l i g e n c e Group N Mean SD SEM Groups Compared S E N M D CR X 67 120.74 14.15 1.74 Y 74 119.23 14.55 1.70 XY 2,43 1.51 .62 X l 49 120.60 13.95 2.01 xxx . 2.66 .14 .05 *1 56 120.94 14.35 1.93 YY1 2.57 1.71 .67 38 39 Part Two — Standardized Language Group N Mean SD SEjyj Groups Compared SE D M D CR X 67 43.63 7.50 .92 Y 74 43-53 7.26 .85 XY 1.25 .10 .03 X l 49 43-31 7.20 1.04 x x l 1 .39 .32 .23 Y l 56 43.30 7.56 1.02 Y Y 1 1 .33 .27 .20 Part Three — I n i t i a l Test Paragraphs Group N Mean SD SEjyj Groups Compared SE D M D CR X 67 29 .30 4.95 .61 Y 74 29.95 5.55 .65 XY .39 .65 .73 *1 49 30.76 5.13 .74 XX ]_ .96 1.46 1.52 Y l 56 30.36 5.52 .74 Y Y 1 .93 .41 • 42 Examination of Table I shows c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of l e s s than one with respect t o both i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores and standardized language r e s u l t s and l e s s than 1.6 w i t h respect to i n i t i a l paragraph t e s t scores. The assumption was made, there-f o r e , that the f o u r groups composing the reduced N of two hun-dred f o r t y - s i x were reasonably w e l l matched i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , general language a b i l i t y , and paragraph-writing s k i l l . At the conclusion of the p r a c t i c e period each student wrote a p a r a l l e l form of the standardized language t e s t and two f i n a l paragraph t e s t s . The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table I I . 40 TABLE I I RESULTS OF FINAL TESTING Part One — Standardized Language Group N Mean SD SEjyj Groups Compared SE D MD CR X 67 4 7 . 0 3 7 . 2 9 .90 Y 74 4 6 . 4 8 7 . 2 0 084 XY 1 .23 . 5 5 . 4 5 X l 4 9 4 7 . 6 5 7 . 3 2 1.06 xx x 1 .39 .62 . 4 5 Y l 56 4 7 . 2 9 8 . 6 7 1.17 YY X 1 »44 .81 . 5 6 Part Two — F i n a l Test Paragraphs Group N Mean SD SE M Groups Compared SE D M D CR X 67 32.16 4.68 .58 Y 74 32.58 4.98 .58 XY .43 a 42 .98 X l 49 33.08 5.13 .74 XX X .75 .92 1.23 Y l 56 32.34 5.55 .74 YY X .58 0 24 .41 Just as Table I indicated no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f -ferences before the practice period, so Table I I indicates no s i g n i f i c a n t mean differences at the conclusion of the practice period. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s are so small that the n u l l hy-pothesis was c l e a r l y sustained for each comparison made. No advantage could be claimed f o r any one method of grading the practice themes. 41 The N of two hundred f o r t y - s i x used i n Tables I and I I i n c l u d e d a l l students who were present f o r the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , the standardized language t e s t s , the t e s t paragraphs, and at l e a s t e l e v e n - t h i r t e e n t h s of the p r a c t i c e . I t was sub-sequently decided t o repeat the t e s t paragraph c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h i s time i n c l u d i n g as subjects only the one hundred seventy-three students who were present f o r a l l of the p r a c t i c e and t e s t s . Table I I I summarizes these c a l c u l a t i o n s . TABLE I I I TEST PARAGRAPH RESULTS FOR "FULL PRACTICE" GROUP Part One — I n i t i a l Test Paragraphs Group N Mean. SD SE M Groups Compared SE D M D CR X 46 29.63 5.16 .77 Y 51 29.53 5.40 .77 XY 1.09 .10 .092 X l 35 30.23 5.13 .88 X X - L 1.17 .60 .51 Y l 41 30.19 4.83 .76 Y Y X 1.08 .66 .61 Part Two — F i n a l Test Paragraphs Group N Mean SD SEjyj Groups Compared SE D MD CR X 46 32.63 4.68 .70 Y 51 32.47 5.16 .73 XY .81 .16 .20 x l 35 32.54 5.13 xx x .90 .09 .10 Y l 41 32.68 4.98 .79 Y Y i .86 .21 0 24 42 The evidence presented i n Part One i n d i c a t e s t h a t the " f u l l p r a c t i c e " groups were adequately matched i n para-graph w r i t i n g a b i l i t y before the p r a c t i c e period w h i l e that presented i n Part Two i n d i c a t e s that these groups developed no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s during the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d . The " f u l l p r a c t i c e " groups X, Y, X^, and Y^ made percentage gains i n paragraph t e s t scores of six., f i v e point e i g h t y - e i g h t , four point sixty-two and four point n i n e t y -eight r e s p e c t i v e l y . For these l a r g e groups, c o n s i s t i n g of subj e c t s with a wide range of i n t e l l i g e n c e and composition a b i l i t y , the d i f f e r e n t marking procedures a p p l i e d during the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d produced no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mean gains. However, the average score i n c r e a s e of f i v e point forty-two per cent was s u f f i c i e n t t o prompt f u r t h e r study. What proportion of t h i s i n crease was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o students of high and low a b i l i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y ? Did gains made by v a r i o u s sub-groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one an-other? Tables IV and V summarize some of the answers to these questions. The subjects i n c l u d e d i n the sub-groups under study were i n the " f u l l p r a c t i c e " category. 43 TABLE IV SUMMARY OF PARAGRAPH TEST SCORE GAINS MADE BY SUB-GROUPS SELECTED ON I.Q. BASIS Part One — Top 2% (V.G.C. I.Q.'s of 132 or more) Sub-group X Y h Y l T o t a l N 13 10 9 12 44 I n i t i a l M 33.^4 33.10 30.78 33.42 F i n a l M 36.92 37.90 34 «44 36.25 M D 3.08 4 .80 3.66 2.83 d f 12 9 8 11 SD D 3.57 3.80 3.85 3.44 S E M D .99 1.20 1.28 1.00 t 3.11 4 . 0 0 2.86 2.83 L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of gain 156 1% 5% 2% 44 Part Two — Bottom 25% (V.G.C. I . Q . ' s of 109 or l e s s ) Sub-group X Y x l Y l T o t a l N 9 12 12 11 44 I n i t i a l M 25.00 25.58 26.16 27.82 F i n a l M 27 o 44 29.00 30.08 29.27 M D ' 2 o 44 3.42 1.92 1.45 d f 8 11 11 10 SD D 3.05 2.78 3.12 2.49 S E M J J 1.02 . 8 0 .90 .75 t 2.40 4 o 26 2.13 1.93 L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of gain 5% 1% Not Not C e r t a i n observations may be made concerning Table IV. F i r s t , .as shown i n Part One, a l l four h i g h e r - a b i l i t y sub-groups made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s . X and Y sub-groups made gains s i g n i f i c a n t a t the one per cent l e v e l w h i l e X]_ and Y]_ made gains s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e per cent and two per cent l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Secondly, as shown i n Part Two, two l o w e r - a b i l i t y sub-groups, X. and Y, made s i g n i f i c a n t gains. The Y sub-group, whose p r a c t i c e themes were a l l given " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e " comments made very s i g n i f i c a n t g a i ns; the X sub-group, whose p r a c t i c e themes were a l l marked w i t h l e t t e r grades, made s i g n i f i c a n t gains. On the other hand, n e i t h e r X]_ nor Y]_ sub-groups made s i g n i f i c a n t gains. I t 45 w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t only one-quarter of the p r a c t i c e themes w r i t t e n by these two sub-groups was marked i n any way. One might conjecture t h a t the l o w e r - a b i l i t y students may have become discouraged when t h e i r work was returned unmarked. TABLE V SUMMARY OF GAINS MADE BY SUB-GROUPS SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF INITIAL TEST PARAGRAPH SCORES Part One — Upper T h i r d ( I n i t i a l Scores of 32 or be t t e r ) Sub-group X Y X l Y l T o t a l N 14 19 15 14 62 I n i t i a l M 35.21 35.05 34.80 35.57 F i n a l M 36.93 37.47 36.27 37.-50 M D 1.72 2 • 42 1.47 1.93 d f 13 18 14 13 SD D 3.52 4.12 3.65 2.50 S E M D .94 .94 .94 .67 t 1.83 ' 2.57 1.56 2.89 L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of gain Not 2% Not 2% 46 Part Two — Middle T h i r d ( I n i t i a l Scores of 28 - 3 D Sub-group, X. Y x l Y l T o t a l N 1 9 13 9 12 53 I n i t i a l M 29.53 29.46 29.33 2 9 . 6 7 F i n a l M 32.53 31.62 32.00 31.53 MD 3.00 2.16 2.67 1.91 d f 1 8 12 8 11 SD D 3.38 3.05 3.46 2.15 S E M D ..73 .85 1.15 .62 t 3.85 2.54 2.32 3 .09 L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e 1% of gain 5% 5% 2% Part Three — Lower T h i r d ( I n i t i a l Score. 3 of 2 7 or l e s s ) Sub-group X Y x l Y l T o t a l N 13. 1 9 1 1 1 5 53 I n i t i a l M 24.23 2 4 . 2 5 24 . 46 2 5 . 6 7 F i n a l M 2 7 . 8 5 2 8 . 4 1 2 8 . 1 3 2 8 . 6 0 MD 3 . 6 2 4 . 1 6 3 . 7 2 2 . 9 3 d f 1 2 1 3 1 0 1 4 SD D 2 . 3 3 2 . 4 8 2 . 4 2 4 . 0 7 . 6 5 . 5 7 . 7 3 1 . 0 5 t 5 . 5 7 7 . 3 1 5 . 0 9 2 . 7 9 L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of gain 1% 1% 2% 47 Some of the subjects who had i n i t i a l paragraph scores of t h i r t y - t w o or more were students with high scholas-t i c a b i l i t y but a s i z a b l e number of them were students w i t h middle or lower s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y . Whether or not the l a t t e r f a c t may have r e s t r i c t e d the upper t h i r d ' s gains i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . In any case, Part One of Table V shows th a t no sub-groups i n the upper t h i r d made gains which were s i g n i f i c a n t at the one per cent l e v e l . Gains f o r Y and Y-j_ did 1, however, reach the two per cent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f i g u r e s i n Part Two of Table V i n d i c a t e that a l l middle t h i r d sub-groups made s i g n i f i c a n t gains during the three and one-half month p r a c t i c e p e riod. The gain f o r X sub-group was the only one t o reach the one per cent l e v e l . From Part Three of Table V i t may be observed that gains f o r X, Y, and X-^  sub-groups r e s u l t e d i n very high " t " scores and, consequently, very low l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Although Y-j_'s gain was not so great i t was s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t at the two per cent l e v e l . Apparently, many students i n the lower t h i r d i n i t i a l l y made a considerable improvement i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e standing during the term of the experiment. One may w e l l ask whether the in c r e a s e i n t e s t para-graph scores reported i n the preceding t a b l e s represented genuine gains i n composition a b i l i t y or whether i t simply r e -f l e c t e d a p o s s i b l e tendency on the part of the independent r a t e r s to assi g n higher marks t o the f i n a l themes. So tha t t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y could be checked some of the i n i t i a l t e s t paragraphs were w i t h h e l d and, f o r r a t i n g , were included at 48 random among the f i n a l paragraphs. I n i t i a l t e s t s could be so in c l u d e d without r i s k of r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons. F i r s t , dates of w r i t i n g were omitted; secondly, the papers were i d e n t i f i e d by numbers only; t h i r d l y , the content gave no time clue s i n c e h a l f of the subjects wrote t e s t paragraphs one and three i n i t i a l l y and two and four f i n a l l y w h i l e the other h a l f reversed t h i s order. The i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean scores of the r e t a i n e d samples are reported i n Table V I . For purposes of comparison s i m i l a r data are given f o r the " f u l l p r a c t i c e " N of one hundred seventy-three. TABLE VI COMPARISON OF GAINS — RETAINED SAMPLES / "FULL PRACTICE" N Group N I n i t i a l M F i n a l M M Gain Retained 21 30.90 33.43 2.53 F u l l P r a c t i c e 173 29.85 32.56 2.71 Of t h i r t y - n i n e samples r e t a i n e d at the beginning of the experiment, eighteen could not be in c l u d e d i n the c a l c u l a -t i o n s since the subjects moved away or were absent f o r t e s t s or p r a c t i c e . The f i g u r e s i n Table VI show that the gains i n -d i c a t e d f o r the remaining twenty-one r e t a i n e d samples ap p r o x i -mate gains made i n the l a r g e r group. Therefore, i t seems reasonable to assume that the independent r a t e r s were not biased and that the reported gains were genuine. The evidence reported thus f a r has been based upon 49 o b j e c t i v e procedures. Tables VII and V I I I summarize some of the s u b j e c t i v e reactions- of the teachers and students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the experimental programme. TABLE VII ANSWERS TO KEY QUESTIONS ON SIX TEACHERS' QUESTIONNAIRES 1. Which group seemed to make the best progress? 2. Which group seemed to be most s a t i s f i e d w i t h the procedure? 3. Which procedure d i d you prefer? System of Grading Employed Number of responses to teacher questions No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 a. A l l marked — l e t t e r grade 4 i 2 b. A l l marked — comments lh 2 34 c. L i m i t e d marking — l e t t e r grades - - -d. Limited marking — comments - - l e. Undecided 1 - 1 T o t a l N 5 6 6 Mixed numbers i n the f i r s t and t h i r d columns i n d i -cate t h a t one teacher gave equal weight to "a" and "b" a l -t e r n a t i v e s . A l s o , one teacher d i d not answer question one. Table VII shows t h a t , i n the opinion of the teachers, the marking of a l l p r a c t i c e paragraphs not only l e d to greater progress but a l s o gave the students greater s a t i s f a c t i o n than d i d l i m i t e d marking procedures. The teachers themselves ex-pressed a d e f i n i t e preference f o r the r e g u l a r use of comments, 50 either exclusively or i n conjunction with other marking procedures. The information reported i n the following table i s based on the answers given by seventy-eight students i n three representative d i v i s i o n s . TABLE VIII ANSWERS TO KEY QUESTIONS ON STUDENTS' QUESTIONNAIRES 1. Do you think that your own composition improved? Groups X. Y x l Y l Composite Yes 62% 77% 72% 76% 69% No 5% 14% 6% 6% 8% Not Sure 33% 9% 22% 18% 23% 2. I f you had a choice which one of the following marking procedures would be of the greatest help to you? a. A l l paragraphs marked i n d e t a i l , i . e . every error indicated. 37% b. A l l paragraphs marked with a l e t t e r grade 14% c. A l l paragraphs marked with short written comments. 40% d. Just some paragraphs marked with a l e t t e r grade so that you have an opportunity to judge some of your own work. 4% e. Just some paragraphs commented upon so that you have an opportunity, to judge some of your own work. 5% 51 3. I f a l l of your p r a c t i c e paragraphs were assigned l e t t e r grades d i d these marks help you to judge your own progress? (For Group X only) ko I f a l l of your p r a c t i c e paragraphs had w r i t t e n comments on them d i d these comments help you to improve your composition? (For Group Y only) 5. I f j u s t some of your paragraphs were assigned l e t t e r grades d i d you f e e l that you were penalized because you had t o judge the r e s t of the work yourself?" (For Group X-^  only) 6. I f j u s t some of your p r a c t i c e paragraphs were commented upon d i d you f e e l that you were g e t t i n g enough teacher a s s i s t a n c e ? (For Group Y^ only) Question Group Yes No Not Sure 3 X 76% 3% 21% 4 Y 87%' 5% 8% 5 X i 16% 53% 31% 6 Y l 54% 36% 10% On the b a s i s of the answers to the f i r s t question i n Table V I I I two conclusions may be reached. F i r s t , a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the students thought that they had improved i n composition a b i l i t y . . Secondly, Groups Y and Y^ had, by a small margin, the highest percentages expressing t h i s view. In answer to the second question t h i r t y - s e v e n per cent of the students s t a t e d t h a t they would p r e f e r , i f given the choice, to have a l l of t h e i r work marked i n d e t a i l . 52 Whether t h i s i s j u s t what they have been accustomed to over the years or whether they r e a l l y want to have t h e i r e r r o r s pointed out i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . F o r t y per cent ex-pressed a preference f o r short w r i t t e n comments. Very few chose the l i m i t e d marking techniques. The r e s u l t s of questions three to s i x i n Table V I I I i n d i c a t e t h a t most of the students whose p r a c t i c e themes were a l l marked, whether by l e t t e r grades or w i t h comments, thought that they had b e n e f i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . On the other hand, almost h a l f of the students i n the c o n t r o l groups had some doubts concerning the value of the l i m i t e d marking procedures. CHAPTER IV/ INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS In Chapter One i t was stated t h a t the primary pur-pose of any composition marking scheme should be the improve-ment of students' a b i l i t y to communicate c l e a r l y and e f f e c -t i v e l y i n w r i t i n g . From a p r a c t i c a l point of view, e v a l u a t i o n procedures must not only serve t h i s primary purpose but a l s o must not make unreasonable demands upon teacher t i m e e In order t o f i n d out whether an e f f e c t i v e , p r a c t i c a l scheme had already been i d e n t i f i e d and put t o use the w r i t e r searched the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s search l e d t o the f o l -lowing c o n c l u s i o n s . Composition s c a l e s were not found to be f e a s i b l e f o r r e g u l a r classroom use. D e t a i l e d c o r r e c t i o n of a l l e r r o r s emphasizes mechanical accuracy at the expense of the development of c l e a r and e f f e c t i v e e xpression. The e v i -dence w i t h respect to general impression marking i s s t i l l i n -c o n c l u s i v e but t h i s method does have the advantage of being reasonably economical of teacher time. L i m i t e d marking plans, such as the "single-point-per-theme" method appear to be most u s e f u l i n complementing r a t h e r than i n r e p l a c i n g other pro-cedures. S i m i l a r l y , p u p i l - a p p r a i s a l complements but cannot r e p l a c e t e a c h e r - a p p r a i s a l . In England a number of a n a l y t i c grading schemes, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by great emphasis on the prob-lem of mark r e l i a b i l i t y , have been t e s t e d under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . However, these d e t a i l e d schemes, which were pre-pared i n conjunction w i t h the "11+-" or School C e r t i f i c a t e Examinations, do not seem to provide a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to 53 54 the classroom teacher's d a i l y and weekly composition marking problems. The w r i t e r proposed an a l t e r n a t i v e procedure which, i t was hoped, would prove e f f e c t i v e i n improving the q u a l i t y of w r i t t e n work without making excessive demands upon teacher time. This procedure c o n s i s t e d , i n the main, of "commenting upon s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " i n s t e a d of a s s i g n i n g marks or i n d i -c a t i n g e r r o r s . For purposes of comparison and c o n t r o l , four marking procedures were s e l e c t e d f o r use w i t h four matched groups of Grade V I I I students, X, Y, X^, and Y]_. These procedures were: X — A s s i g n i n g l e t t e r grades to a l l p r a c t i c e themes. Y — Commenting upon the s a l i e n t features of a l l p r a c t i c e themes. X]_ — A s s i g n i n g l e t t e r grades to one-quarter of the p r a c t i c e themes. Y-j_ — Commenting upon the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of one-quarter of the p r a c t i c e themes. The problem was then s t a t e d , "To i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of four procedures f o r e v a l u a t i n g students' w r i t t e n themes'.!' Assuming that X, Y , X]_, and Y]_ were properly matched on the b a s i s of the i n i t i a l t e s t para-graphs the s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r t h i s study then became: (a) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e be-tween X and Y on the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs when a l l Group X p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the general impression method ( l e t t e r grade o n l y ) , and a l l Group Y p r a c t i c e themes by the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s method. 55 (b) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e be-tween X and X]_ on the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs when a l l Group X p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the general impression method and only one-quarter of the Group X]_ p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the same method. (c) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e be-tween Y and Y-^  on the f i n a l t e s t paragraphs when a l l Group Y p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s method and only one-quarter of the Group Y]_ p r a c t i c e themes have been marked by the same method. Table I I , d e a l i n g as i t does w i t h the two hundred f o r t y - s i x cases f o r whom complete matching data were a v a i l -a b l e , s u p p l i e s the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n needed f o r t e s t i n g the aforementioned hypotheses. A l l s i x of the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s l i s t e d are l e s s than one and the n u l l hypothesis i s sustained throughout. Therefore i t seems reasonable t o assume th a t the s l i g h t mean d i f f e r e n c e s reported may e a s i l y have a r i s e n by chance. S i m i l a r l y , Table I I I which l i s t s the r e s u l t s derived from the smaller " f u l l p r a c t i c e " group of one hundred seventy-t h r e e , r e p o r t s no s i g n i f i c a n t mean or standard d e v i a t i o n d i f -ferences between X and Y, X and X^, or Y and Y-j_, and thus confirms the conclusions based upon Table I I . These two set s of r e s u l t s appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t Group X students, whose work was always graded w i t h l e t t e r grades, made approximately • the same progress as Group Y students whose work was always marked w i t h " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e " comments. Furthermore, Group X]_ and Group Y]_ students, whose 56 work was marked only one-quarter of the time apparently pro-gressed as w e l l as the students whose work was marked a l l of the time. E v i d e n t l y , none of the four procedures used proved more e f f e c t i v e than the others. However, the l a r g e heterogeneous groups t o which Tables I I and I I I r e f e r i n cluded a wide range of i n t e l l i g e n c e and composition a b i l i t y . Tables IV and V summarize the f u r -t h e r s t u d i e s which were c a r r i e d out w i t h respect to smaller, homogeneous sub-groups. These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t may be noted, c o n s i s t e d of t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n i t i a l t o f i n a l gains made by each sub-group i n a s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y category. Part One of Table IV shows that a l l four sub-groups of students with high i n t e l l i g e n c e made s i g n i f i c a n t gains w h i l e P a r t Two shows t h a t only X and Y sub-groups of the students w i t h lower i n t e l l i g e n c e made s i g n i f i c a n t gains. The high a b i l i t y students progressed favourably r e g a r d l e s s of marking procedures. The lower a b i l i t y students appeared to progress favourably only i f t h e i r work received r e g u l a r teacher a t t e n t i o n . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table V, when the subjects were d i v i d e d according to t h e i r i n i t i a l t e s t paragraph scores the r e s u l t s were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Of students assigned t o the upper t h i r d , only Y and Y]_ sub-groups made s i g n i f i c a n t gains. Of students assigned t o the middle t h i r d , a l l four sub-groups made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i ns. Of students assigned to the lower t h i r d a l l four sub-groups again made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i ns. In f a c t , the t-scores f o r a l l lower t h i r d sub-groups 57 except were much higher than r e q u i r e d f o r the one per cent s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . I t appears t h a t , i n general, students who s t a r t e d out w i t h low marks made greater progress than those who began w i t h high marks. This i s not s u r p r i s i n g since the range through which gains could r e a d i l y be made was much l e s s r e s t r i c t e d f o r students whose scores were low i n i t i a l l y than f o r students whose scores were high i n i t i a l l y . Another f a c t o r which may help t o account f o r the recorded outcomes i s the probable i n e q u a l i t y of raw score u n i t s at d i f f e r e n t points on the s c a l e . F i n a l l y , the upper and lower t h i r d r e s u l t s may be r e l a t e d to the phenomenon known as "regression towards the mean" which may occur when c o r r e l a t e d t e s t s , such as the i n i t i a l and f i n a l paragraph t e s t s , are given at s u i t a b l e i n -t e r v a l s . Looking at the r e s u l t s of Tables IV and V as a whole, one might observe t h a t the Y sub-groups were the only ones which made s i g n i f i c a n t gains throughout. The Y " t - s c o r e s " were quite high not only f o r students i n both high and low s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e categories but a l s o f o r students i n both high and low i n i t i a l composition a b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s . S i m i -l a r l y , the Y-|_ sub-groups, w i t h one exception, had a c o n s i s t e n t pattern of s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s . The apparent advantage held by the Y and Y]_ sub-groups was, however, h a r d l y l a r g e enough to warrant any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n . What f a c t o r s , q u i t e apart from the procedures used f o r marking the p r a c t i c e themes, may have l e d to the rather i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s ? One of the most s t r i k i n g features of Tables I I - V i s the smallness of the gains reported through-58 out. How can we account f o r improvements of only four to s i x per cent a f t e r three and one-half months of c a r e f u l l y - p l a n n e d i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e ? In the f i r s t place, although the students had l i t t l e paragraph work as such during the f i r s t part of the Grade V I I I year, they d i d have considerable p r a c t i c e i n the mechanical aspects of w r i t t e n language. Furthermore, paragraph work had re c e i v e d appropriate emphasis during the Grade VII year. These two f a c t o r s may have tended t o r e s t r i c t the degree of improvement p o s s i b l e during the l a t t e r h a l f of Grade V I I I . In the second place, f o r the purpose of e q u a l i z i n g w r i t e r and marker appeal, the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t paragraph a s s i g n -ments made were s i m i l a r i n idea and design. Looking back, however, one wonders i f the f i n a l t e s t s lacked the moti v a t i o n t h a t completely new themes might have provided. In the t h i r d p l ace, the f i n a l w r i t i n g was done duri n g the f i r s t week of June, — p e r h a p s some of the students, e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h good grades, had begun to r e l a x a l i t t l e w i t h the end of the year i n s i g h t . F i n a l l y , the r a t e r s were aware t h a t excessive d i f f e r e n c e s between i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores would be open to question. Consequently, they may have been r a t h e r conserva-t i v e i n t h e i r f i n a l assessments. In the view of the w r i t e r , the s u b j e c t i v e opinions of both teachers and students are of p a r t i c u l a r value, f o r no educational method can be t r u l y s u c c e s s f u l unless i t has earned the approbation of the people who use i t . From Tables V I I and V I I I i t i s evident t h a t both teachers and students thought that the marking of a l l themes 5 9 c o n t r i b u t e d more t o the improvement of w r i t t e n composition than d i d l i m i t e d marking. P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h i s view i s im-por t a n t , even though i t i s not borne out by the experimental evidence. I t a l s o may be seen that both teachers and students s e l e c t e d , as t h e i r f i r s t c h o i ce, the marking procedure i n -v o l v i n g the p l a c i n g of " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e " comments on a l l p r a c t i c e themes. Some a d d i t i o n a l teacher and student view p o i n t s , not reported i n the t a b l e s , may help to g i v e per s p e c t i v e to the experimental programme as a whole. Many c o n s t r u c t i v e ideas f o r a l t e r n a t i v e marking procedures were o f f e r e d . Quite a number of students as w e l l as some teachers suggested t h a t a combination of l e t t e r grades and comments might prove d e s i r a b l e . Others suggested t h a t a l l - e r r o r marking be incorporated w i t h the aforementioned procedure. A few students thought t h a t the teachers should increase i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e w h i l e others i n d i c a t e d t h e i r preference f o r more classroom d i s c u s s i o n . Two teachers s a i d t h a t there should be opportunity f o r students to compare and c r i t i c i z e the work of others i n c l a s s . Some l e s s c o n s t r u c t i v e but e q u a l l y thought-provoking suggestions were a l s o o f f e r e d . Three examples w i l l serve t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r general t e n o r . "Don't w r i t e any paragraphs." "The work should be marked by the person that wrote i t — w i t h no teachers b r e a t h i n g down your neck." The t h i r d example i s a c l a s s i c i l l u s t r a t i o n of p r e c i s e and e f f e c t i v e w r i t i n g . I t was simply "Go to ." 60 The teachers reported that a s i z a b l e number of X^ and Y i students, e s p e c i a l l y among those of average and lower a b i l i t y , f e l t that they were being t r e a t e d u n f a i r l y by com-parison w i t h students who had t h e i r work marked r e g u l a r l y . This a t t i t u d e may have adversely a f f e c t e d the success of the programmeo A m a j o r i t y of teachers and students l i k e d the " s i t u a t i o n " type of lesson provided. There was general agree-ment that the lessons had high i n t e r e s t value f o r capable students but there was some f e e l i n g that t h i s type of pro-gramme was very demanding f o r l e s s able students. Opinion was d i v i d e d as t o whether enough time was allowed f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s and f o r the w r i t t e n work. One teacher suggested t h a t the programme would have been more e f f e c t i v e i f over-n i g h t planning could have f o l l o w e d the d i s c u s s i o n part of the< lesson and preceded the a c t u a l w r i t t e n assignment. When the main body of evidence i n Chapter I I I i s considered, i t must be admitted that the " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " marking procedure, f o r which high hopes were h e l d , d i d not prove to be more e f f e c t i v e than other procedures i n improving the q u a l i t y of the w r i t t e n work of students i n g e n e r a l . Nevertheless, a p o r t i o n of the evidence d i d seem t o suggest t h a t the " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " procedure might prove advantageous f o r use w i t h s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s . Furthermore, both teachers and students apparently thought that t h i s method was h e l p f u l . In any case, i t does appear t o have s u f f i c i e n t promise to merit f u r t h e r study. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , perhaps the type of marking 61 used i s l e s s important than the p r o v i s i o n f o r r e g u l a r , pur-p o s e f u l p r a c t i c e . The l i m i t e d marking groups, although not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the method, d i d seem t o progress as w e l l or n e a r l y as w e l l as the other groups. Therefore, the l i m i t e d marking p l a n , l i k e the " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " procedure, merits f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , i f teachers need mark only some of the w r i t t e n themes, they w i l l have much more time f o r p r e p a r a t i o n and f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n which many educators b e l i e v e provides the best answer to the ever-present question, "How can we improve the q u a l i t y of students' w r i t t e n work?" BIBLIOGRAPHY A r t i c l e s Archer, C l i f f o r d P. " E n g l i s h Composition." Review of Educa-t i o n a l Research, v o l . 19 ( A p r i l 1949), pp. 135-151. Binney, J . "Note on Teaching Composition." Education, v o l . 74 (March 1954), pp. 443-446. Cast, B. M. D. " E f f i c i e n c y of D i f f e r e n t Methods of Marking E n g l i s h Compositions." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Educational  Psychology, v o l . 9 (November 1939), pp. 257-269. C h a l i f o u r , J e s s i e B. "The E f f e c t of T r a i n i n g Students t o Grade Compositions on Composition Work." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , B u t l e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1937. C i t e d i n • Review of Educa t i o n a l Research, v o l . 10 ( A p r i l 1940), p. 117. C l a r k , W. A. ( J r . ) "Neither a Margin S c r i b b l e r Nor a Juggler of Numbers." The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l ( C o l , ed.), v o l . 28 (February 1939), pp. 133-138. C o l l i n s , Harold. "Conversing i n the Margins." College  E n g l i s h , v o l . 15 (May 1954), pp. 465-466. Cook, L u e l l a B. "Reducing the Paper Load." The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H. S. ed. and' C o l , ed.), v o l . 21 (May 1932), pp. 364-370. C o t t e r , John C. "Paragraph E v a l u a t i o n . " The E n g l i s h  J o u r n a l , v o l . 38 (October 1949), pp. 458-460. Coward, Ann F. "A Comparison of Two Methods of Grading E n g l i s h Compositions." J o u r n a l o f Edu c a t i o n a l Psy- chology, v o l . 43 (October 1952), pp. 81-93. Dusel, W i l l i a m J . "Some Semantic I m p l i c a t i o n s of Theme -C o r r e c t i o n . " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 41 (October 1955), pp. 390-397. Green, Harry A. " E n g l i s h Language, Grammar, and Composition." Encyclopaedia of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1950, pp. 383-395. Gregory, Emily B. "Managing Student W r i t i n g . " E n g l i s h  J o u r n a l , v o l . 44 (January 1955), pp. 18-25. H a l l , Mabelle. " P u p i l - A p p r a i s a l versus Teacher-Appraisal of Seventh Grade Compositions i " Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1931. C i t e d i n Review of  Edu c a t i o n a l Research, v o l . 4 (December 1934), p. 459. 62 63 Halvorsun, N. 0. "Two Methods of I n d i c a t i n g E r r o r s i n Themes." College E n g l i s h , v o l . 2 (December 1940), pp. 277-279. H i l l e g a s , M. B. "A Sca l e f o r the Measurement of A b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h Composition by Young People." Teachers College  Record, vol". 13 (September 1912), pp. 331-384. Leonard, P a u l J . E d i t o r i a l Comment i n Review of Educ a t i o n a l  Research, v o l . 4 (December 1934), p. 461. Leonard, Paul J . "The Use of P r a c t i c e E x e r c i s e s i n the Teaching of C a p i t a l i z a t i o n and Punctuation." Contribu- t i o n s to Education, No.-372, New York, Bureau of P u b l i c a -t i o n s , Teachers Coll e g e , Columbia•University, 1930. C i t e d i n Review of Educ a t i o n a l Research, v o l . 1 (December 1931), p. 353. Maize, Roy C. "A Theme a Day." N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , v o l . 42 (September 1953), PP* 335-336. M o r r i s o n , R. L. and Vernon P. E. "A New Method of Marking E n g l i s h Compositions." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Ed u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 2, part 2 (June 194D, pp. 109-119. Nurnberg, Maxwell. "Improving High School Composition." The  E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 36 (May 1947), p. 243-247. Paton, J . M. "Marking Examination Papers, with S p e c i a l Reference t o Essay- Questions i n E n g l i s h . " School (Sec. ed.), v o l . 35 (May 1947), pp. 580-583. Penfold, D. M. Edwards. "Symposium: The Use of Essays i n S e l e c t i o n at 11+, I -.Essay Marking Experiments." B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l of Ed u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 26 (June 1956), pp. 128-136. Pidgeon, D. A. and Yates, A. "Symposium: The Use of Essays i n S e l e c t i o n at 11"*", IV - Experimental I n q u i r i e s i n t o the Use of Essay-Type E n g l i s h Papers." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  Edu c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 27 (February 1957), pp. 37-47. Ransome, Grace. "Remedial Methods i n E n g l i s h Composition." The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l (H.S. ed.), v o l . 22 (November 1933), pp. 749-754. Sams, Henry W. "Composition i n the New Curriculum." College  E n g l i s h , v o l . 10 (November 1948), pp. 98-102. Thorndike, E. L. "A Scale of M e r i t i n E n g l i s h W r i t i n g by Young People." J o u r n a l of Ed u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 11 (June 1911), pp. 361-368. 64 Vernon, P. E a and M i l l i c a n , G. D. "A Further Study of the R e l i a b i l i t y of E n g l i s h Essays." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Psy- chology, v o l . 7 (November 1954), pp. 65-74. W i l l i n g , M. H. "Measurement of W r i t t e n Composition." E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 7 (March 1918), pp. 193-202. Wiseman, S. "Symposium: The Use of Essays i n S e l e c t i o n at 11+, I I - Essay Marking Experiments." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, v o l . 26 (November 1956), pp. 163-I7_ Books G a r r e t t , Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education  (5th ed.). New York, Longmans Green, 1958. Hudelson, E a r l . • " E n g l i s h Composition: I t s Aims, Methods, and Measurement." Twenty-second Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l  S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, Part I , Bloomington, P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1922. Remmers, H. H. and Gage; N. L. E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement and  E v a l u a t i o n . New York, Harper and Brothers, 1943i ~-S t e e l , James H. and Talraan, John. The Marking of E n g l i s h Compositions. London, James N i s b e t , 1936. Washburne, C. W. "The Attainments of G i f t e d C h i l d r e n Under I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n . " Twenty-third Yearbook, N. S. S. E.,  Part I , P u b l i c School, 1924, pp. 247-261, C i t e d i n • Review of Educational" Research, v o l . 13 ( A p r i l 1943), p. 185. Miscellaneous F e l l o w s , John E. "The Influence of Theme-Reading on E l i m i n a -t i n g T e c h n i c a l E r r o r s i n the W r i t t e n Compositions of N i n t h Grade P u p i l s . " U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa"Studies: Studies  i n Education, v o l . 7 No. 1 (1932), p. 56. C i t e d i n Review  of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, v o l . 4 (December 1934), p. 459. Hartog, P. "The Marking of E n g l i s h Essays." A Report on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n C a r r i e d Out by a Sub-Committee of'the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Examinations Enquiry Committee, London, Macmillan, 1941. C i t e d . i n "The Marking'of E n g l i s h Essays." B r i t i s h • J o u r n a l of Educational Psychology, v o l . 11 (November 1941), p. 233. C i t e d a l s o i n "Sense or Sentences? Marking of E n g l i s h Composition." Times E d u c a t i o n a l Supplement, September 6, 1941, P« 418. 65 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education.• Junior•High  School E n g l i s h , E n g l i s h 7, 8 , 10. 1956, pp. 12, 14. B r i t i s h Columbia,- Department of Education. Senior High  School E n g l i s h , E n g l i s h 20 and 21, 30 and 31, 40 and 41 , 91 and 93. 1954, p. 26. Wormsbecker, John H. "A Comparative Study of-Three Methods of Grading Compositions." Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre I n t e l l i g e n c e I n d i c a t o r , Grades 3-8.. Adapted from the Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental A b i l i t y , Ontario College of Education, Toronto, 1946. Cooperative E n g l i s h Test (Lower L e v e l ) , Test A, Mechanics of Expression, Form X. Cooperative Test D i v i s i o n , E d ucational T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , Los Angeles. APPENDIX A TEACHER'S MANUAL appended t o The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four Procedures f o r E v a l u a t i n g Students' W r i t t e n Themes M. Y. McMechan COMPOSITION PROGRAMME 5Mli§2LS Feb 0 May p 3.9570 (Information f o r Teachers) I n t r o d u c t i o n From mid-February u n t i l the end of May the Grade 8 c l a s s e s w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e In a programme of more or l e s s formal composition f o r two one=hour periods each sevsn^day waeko The proposed programme has two main f e a t u r e s ; (1) An o r d e r l y development of some b a s i c composition concepts through the use of s u i t a b l e reading s e l e c t i o n s and r e g u l a r w r i t i n g asslgnmentso In general„ the programme w i l l i n -clude n a r r a t i o n ^ d e s c r i p t i o n exposition,, and business l e t t e r s as p r e s c r i b e d by the Course of Studies f o r Grade 8 0 The p a r t i c u l a r s of the programme together w i t h d e t a i l e d l e s s o n plans w i l l be provided,, (2} Marking or grading procedures which, i t Is hoped p w i l l not only c o n t r i b u t e to the Improvement of student w r i t i n g but a§.so make only reasonable demands upon teacher time and energyo The marking schedule f o r the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d may be somewhat more r i g o r o u s than u s u a l but at l e a s t p a r t i a l compensation Is assured through the p r o v i s i o n of d e t a i l e d lessonso So t h a t we may have some b a s i s f o r Judging the end r e s u l t s ^ each c l a s s w i l l w r i t e I n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t paragraphs and w i l l take i n i t i a l and f i n a l standardized language t e s t s (using p a r a l l e l forms)o The standardized t e s t s w i l l be arranged f o r and conducted by the administration,. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the I n i t i a l and f i n a l paragraphs are provided on another page 0 Other Information to f o l l o w w i l l i n -clude d e t a i l s of marking and r e c o r d i n g procedures^ what to t e l l students about the programmes, i n s t r u c t i o n s to students concerning w r i t i n g of paragraphs 9 i n s t r u c t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the s u c c e s s f u l execu-t i o n of the programme,, and term o u t l i n e and d e t a i l e d lessonso There i s no i n t e n t i o n to make c l a s s to c l a s s or teacher to teacher comparisons of r e s u l t s 0 In any case p the method of grouping (to be described l a t e r ) precludes the making of such comparisons,. Rather, we hope thatj, as a r e s u l t of our planned programme^, we may be able to I d e n t i f y and use a more e f f e c t i v e means of marking student themeso ;ra&M@ F e b o May, 1957o fGa>s©ral Information f o r Students <>) !Eh© a b i l i t y to communicate ®ff©etlv©ly i n writing i s on® of th® saost -useful s k i l l s a person <ean d©v©lop0 Many authorities agree that the best way to improve this a b i l i t y i s to have regular instruction and practice i n written composition,, Your teachers ar® very interested i n finding out what kind of inst r u c t i o n pra©tices and marking w i l l produce th© best results*, So 0 for th© n@xt few weeks„ our composition prograram® w i l l be a l i t t l e different from the usual 0 During these weeks you w i l l b© writing a number of th@m@s each ©f which i s to© don® witbdn a regular periodo The f i r s t two paragraphs w i l l not b© returned to you but w i l l b© retained so that they can be compared with those you do Xater 0 Th© marking procedures,, too 8 w i l l to© a l i t t l e different,, Later i n th® tenap your teacher w i l l be glad to go over your work with you Individually,, but g for th® present,, he or sha has been asked not to discuss 9 on an individual basis 9 the marks or comments which may appear on your paperso In th© meantime^ you may b© sure that you w i l l a l l receives th© same instruction i n class„ and ®ls© that a l l of you w i l l be giv@n credit for the b®st work you submit,, So9 always do your bosto In this way you w i l l not only help yourself but also w i l l provide your teachers with valuabl© informal tion about th© most useful kind of composition prograxam© for our schoolo general Procedure for* Composition (Lessons I a -ggff/b) C Information f o r Students .»<» to b© f i r m l y f i x e d In th© composition section of each student°s looseleaf and to be referred to as often as necessaryo) (a) Each composition lesson f o r th® next few weeks w i l l begin with a short reading sel@efcS.on,, either from your text or mimeographedo Read th© se l e c t i o n and be prepared to answer questions about Ito Careful reading In th© f i r s t part of the period should r e s u l t i n mor© e f f e c t i v e writing In the second parte Do not write on mimeographed materials unless In<= strueted to do so 0 (b) Each lesson w i l l Include some Instruction, either review or new worko Li s t e n c a r e f u l l y as you w i l l be expected to work e n t i r e l y on your own i n the l a t t e r part of the perlodo (c) Each lesson w i l l Include a written assignment to be done i n the second h a l f of th© hour© (c) P O P each written assignment always have ready an unmarked sheet of looseleaf paper«> Prepare i t as follows? lo In the upper l e f t corner of the fr o n t , i d e n t i f y your paper using th© number 1, 2, 3, or 4, as instructed by your teachero Writ® - I your number i n tha margin of t h i s paper so that you w i l l always ' b© able to r e f e r to i t 0 This number Is f o r your teacher 9s us® and Is In no way reiated to your c l a s s standing or composition a b l l i t y o 2a In tha upper r i g h t comer Indicate th© lesson number {1 a g 3 c 8 3o unless there Is on© already, draw a one-Inch margin at th© l e f t of your paper,, 4 0 Writ© your nam© and d i v i s i o n on th© back of your papero (a) Each written assignment w i l l have three partes t i t l e , phrasal outlln© & and paragraph^s)© Your teacher w i l l t©ll you how and when to proceed f o r each lesson but always think before you writ© and then, writ© as neatly as you can 0 Make a good1 "impression on th© reader,, •(f) kte th© ©nd of th© hour you w i l l hand In your written worko Watch your timing so that you w i l l be f i n i s h e d , I f possible, about f i v e minutes before the end of the perlodo Us© t h i s time to re~eheck your work by asking yourself th© questions which f o l l o w i (I) Rave X spelled and punctuated co r r e c t l y ? (II) Have I written good sentences? ( i l l ) Hav© I kept to th© topic? ( i v ) Ar© my topic and summary sentences e f f e c t i v e ? (v) Is my Information accurate? (vl) Do th© words I hav© chosen produce th© desired effect? Hav© I used a l l words correctly? ( v i i ) Have I Joined th© various Ideas e f f e c t i v e l y ? ( v i i i ) Have I remembered and used the ideas discussed at th© beginning of the lesson? I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r I n i t i a l and P i n a l Paragraphs (_ For ~t ea c A e «*<r) Each student w i l l w r i t e t at times designated by the o f f i c e ^ a s e r i e s of f o u r t e s t paragraohsc Two of these w i l l precede th© p r a c t i c e period and two w i l l f o l l o w i t 0 The w r i t i n g assignments are based upon giv/en s i t u a t i o n s (to be described l a t e r ) 3 The marking of the paragraphs w i l l be done by three independent raters» (a) S p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s ( f o r each of the f o u r paragraphs In t u r n ) : lo Use r e g u l a r E n g l i s h periods© 20 Give the students no p r i o r n o t i c e (other than what appeared i n the general i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s ) o 3 0 T e l l the students that they are going to w r i t e a paragraph, but do not e x p l a i n that i t i s a t e s t p a r a g r a p h 4 0 Hand out f o o l s c a o but t e l l the students to await the i n s t r u c t t i o n s which accompany the s i t u a t i o n o u t l i n e 0 (Th© mechanical o r g a n i z a t i o n i s designed t o a s s i s t the r a t e r s e ) 5o H^and out mimeographed copies of student i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d s i t u a t i o n o u t l i n e s * Advise the c l a s s to read the i n s t r u c t i o n s and the o u t l i n e e a r e f u l l y 0 6 0 Watch the time l i m i t s o Students are to have f i f t e e n minutes f o r reading the i n s t r u e t i o n s , p r e paring t h e i r papers, studying the o u t l i n e , p l a n n i n g t h e i r paragraphs 3 and w r i t i n g t h e i r p h r a s a l outlines« At the end of f i f t e e n minutes. I n s t r u c t them to begin-the paragraph p r o p e r 0 A f t e r f i f t e e n a d d i t i o n a l minutes t e l l the students they now have f i v e min" utes i n which to f i n i s h and--to check t h e i r work by asking- --themselves the questions on t h e i r own I n s t r u c t i o n sheets• Provide no assi s t a n c e i n the a c t u a l planning or w r i t i n g o 7 0 C o l l e c t the papers, place them i n the envelope provided, and send them to the o f f i c e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g notation? Paragraph Number ( f i l l i n ) , D i v i s i o n ^ i r - o (b) Notes re paragraph topics« The f o u r s i t u a t i o n s , described on the f o l l o w i n g page, were not chosen at random but are designed so that they provide some bases f o r comparing the I n i t i a l and f i n a l products© I f you study the o u t l i n e s you w i l l observe that "a (1)" and ,!b (1)" are p a r a l l e l In tha t both s i t u a t i o n s are r e a l i s t i c s both i n v o l v e the f e e l i n g of f e a r , and both provide the ske l e t o n of the paragraphs S i m i l a r l y , "a (2)" and "b (2)" are p a r a l l e l i n tha t both have the "dream approach", both in v o l v e e x c i t i n g adventure,? and both r e q u i r e the student to provide h i s own ideas almost e n t i r e l y 0 OL (I) I© Please do not mark t h i s paper In any wayG £ 0 Do not write anything on your foolscap u n t i l you have read the Instructions c a r e f u l l y 0 •jo Draw a on©«=Inch margin at the l e f t and a one-half inch margin at the r i g h t of your paper (Page 1 ) 0 Write your name and d i v i s i o n number on th© other side of the paper at the bottom (Page 2)9 4Q Six f u l l spaces up from the bottom of the f i r s t page draw a straight l i n e across the page 0 Then at two~space Intervals draw two more l i n e s below the f i r s t on® so that there are three such i n t e r v a l s altogether,, (See sample provided) e So You are going to write a paragraph based on the mimeographed outline -, below 0 ' Before you writ© anything, read the outline c a r e f u l l y and plaa:. what you are going to say e Then write a phrasal outline (6 or 7 p h r a s o s K Do not s t a r t th© paragraph proper u n t i l your teacher t e l l s you to do so© V/hen you f I n i s h * check your work by asking yourself the following questions? ( i ) Have I spelled and punctuated correctly? (II) Have I written good sentences? ( i l l ) Have I k®pt to the topic? ' (Iv) Ar® my topic and summary sentences e f f e c t i v e ? (v) Is ray Information accurate? (vi ) Do th© words I have chosen produce the desired effect? Have I used a l l words correctly? ( v i i ) Have I Joined the various id@as e f f e c t i v e l y ? Paragraph Situation Imagine that you have j u s t had the experience outlined here,, Write a paragraph W <= 2.5 l i n e s p approximately) t e l l i n g about i t o At home9 aloa© or with smaller children only stormy night -» unusual noises ~° frightened simple explanation -=> eonolusion 0 Instructions to Students e , P l«§a8© do not mark t h i s paper i n any way0 2 0 Do not writ© anything on your foolscap u n t i l you hav® read th® Instructions c a r e f u l l y 0 3o Draw a on@«inch margin at th© l e f t and a on©=>half Inch margin at th© r i g h t of your paper (Pag© 1 ) 0 Writ® your nam© and d i v i s i o n number on th© other side of th© paper at th© bottom (Page 2)0 i 40 Six f u l l spaces up from th© bottom of th© f i r s t pag© draw a straight lin® across th© page<> Then at two=>space Intervals draw two more l i n e s below the f i r s t on© so that there are three such Intervals altogether^, (See sample provided) 0 S o You ar® going to write a paragraph based on th© mimeographed outlin© belowo Before you writ® anything, read th© outline c a r e f u l l y and plan what you ar© going to say e Then writ© a phrasal outlin© |6 O P 7 phrases)o Do not s t a r t the paragraph proper u n t i l your teacher tell® you to do so.« When you f i n i s h ^ check your work by asking yourself the following questions? ( i ) Have I spelled and punctuated correctly? (11) Have I written good sentences? ( i i i ) Have I kept to the topic? (iv ) Are my topic and summary sentences effec t i v e ? (v) Is ray information accurate? (v i ) Do th© words I hav© chosen produce th© desired effect? Bam© I used a l l words correctly? ( v i i ) Hav® I Joined th© various Ideas e f f e c t i v e l y ? Paragraph Situation Imagine that p f o r th© past few days 8 you hav© had an unci® who i s a r e t i r e d sea=»captain staying at your home*, During th® ©venings he has told you some marvellous s t o r i e s about hi® advon-tur©s 0 Last night you went to bed and had an e x c i t i n g dream In which you wer© th© capt a i n Q How writ© a paragraph {/& «= 2,5 l i n e s ) Xnsfegnictiongi t o Students ooo b 0) l o Pleas© do not mark t h i s paper In any way 0 «20 Do not wspifc® anything on your 1 f o o l s c a p u n t i l you n.«M-k x - h ^ i i/v. i n s t r u c t i o n s e a r @ f u l l y 0 3o Draw a on®°Inch margin a t th® l e f t and a one^half Inch margin at th© uplght of yous° paper (Pag® D o Write your nam© and d i v i s i o n number on th© other s i d e of the paper a t the bottom (Pag© 2)o 4 0 Sis: f u l l spaces up from th© bottom of th© f i r s t pag© draw a s t r a i g h t lln© ia.eg>@gg ^ h© pag® 0 Th@n at tws^spa©® i n t e r n a l s draw two more l i n e s below th© f i r s t on® so th a t th©r© ar© fehree such i n t e r v a l s a l t o g e t h e r 0 (S®® sampl® ps^vldedlo So You as°@ going t o writ© a paragraph based on th© mimeographed outlin© b©l@w0 Before you w r i t e anything^ read the o u t l i n e e a r e f u l l y and p l a n what you as5© going t o sa y 0 Then writ© a p h r a s a l outlin® e a r e f u l l y (6 or 7 phrases)*, Do not s t a r t th® paragraph proper u n t i l your teacher tell® you to do s o D Wh©n you f i n i s h ^ check you2? work by askin g y o u r s e l f th® f o l l o w i n g questions% (1) Hav© I s p e l l e d and punctuated c o r r e c t l y ? ( I I ) Hav© I w r i t t e n good sentence©? ( I l l ) Have I kept to th® topi©? ( i v ) Are my t o n i c and summary sentences e f f e c t i v e ? (v) I® my Information accurate? ( v l ) Do th© words I have chosen produce th® d e s i r e d e f f e c t ? Hav© I used a l l words c o r r e c t l y ? ( v i i ) Have 1 j o i n e d the v a r i o u s Ideas e f f e c t i v e l y ? Paragraph S i t u a t i o n Imagine t h a t you have r e c e n t l y had th© ©:cp©ri@n<g© o u t l i n e d fe©l©w0 irifc© a paragraph ('&' <=> &5 l i n e s approximately) d e s c r i b i n g what happenedo Mot©£> t r i p ©n u n f a m i l i a r highway <=>= going down h i l l =•<=> brake f a i l u r e ia©2*©.aslng <=>•=> momtlng f©a2° ®» sudden t u r n i n g o f th© highway •==» tanesspeeted s o l u t i o n <=» eonolusiono' Instructions to Students ® & o & > Pleas© dl© nofe mark t h i s paper i n any way0 So Do not write anything on your foolscap u n t i l you have read th© instructions @arefully 0 So. Draw a on©*dneh margin at th© l e f t and a one*" h a l f inch margin at th@ r i g h t of your paper (Page 1)o Write your nam® and d i v i s i o n number on the other side of th© paper at th©,bottom (Pag© 2)o 4 0 Six f u l l spaces up from th© bottom of the f i r s t pag® draw a straight lin® across th© pag® e Then at two°spae© Intervals draw two more l i n e s below th© f i r s t on® so that there ar© three such Intervals altogether 0 (Se© sample provided)© 5 0 You ar© going to write a paragraph bas®d on th® mimeographed outlin® b©low 0 Before you writ© anything., read th© outlin© c a r e f u l l y and plan what you are going to say© Then write a phrasal outlin® (6 or 7 phrases}<• Do not s t a r t th© paragraph proper.until your teacher t e l l s you to do soo When you f l n i s h 8 check your work by asking yourself th© following questions? (1) H ave I sp@ll©d and punctuated correctly? ( i i ) H av© I written good sentences? ( I l l ) Hav® I kept to the topic? (Iv) Ar© my topic and summary sentences ef f e c t i v e ? (v) Is my information accurate? (vi ) Do th© wo^ds I hav® chosen produce th© desired effe c t ? Hav® I used a l l words correctly? ( v i i ) Hav© I joined th© various ideas e f f e c t i v e l y ? Paragraph Situation Imagine that an uncle s who has spent several years In A f r i c a as a big-gam© hunter 8 has been staying at your horn® f o r a few days 0 During th© evenings he has recounted soma of h i s more t h r i l l i n g ad=» ventureso Last night you went to bed and dreamt that you were th® blg~gam@ huntero Write a paragraph (/if - X5 l i n e s ) describing an e x c i t i n g Incident on a big=»gam@ hunting expedition 0 Grouping of Children Within Glasses Four matched groups X, Y, Xx, and Y^ w i l l be set up 9 Shis involves four sub-groups In each of ten classes«, Matching w i l l b© don® on the basis of IG Qo and standardised language te s t scores, with f i r s t term language marks being used as a check i n the doubtful cases,, This matching process w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of th© writer© Before th© actual practice period begins, each teacher w i l l receive, f o r each d i v i s i o n taught, e l a s s - l l s t s showing to which sub«group each student has been assigned 0 I t Is th© Intention that th© only d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n treatment between sub-groups In any class w i l l b© with respect to th© marking of written themes„ A l l students w i l l receive the same class In° s t a i c t i o n , th© same time In which to plan and write, and th© same amount of p r a c t i c e 0 Th© d i f f e r e n t marking procedures ar© described i n d e t a i l on a following sheet 9 Even though t h i s nomenclature w i l l be retained f o r explanations of procedure and f o r s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of r e s u l t s . I t Is probably unwise to t e l l the students that they belong to X, Y, Xx, or Y i groups respectively,. Instead, they w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by number, with 1 representing X, 2 representing Y, 3 representing Xi, and 4 representing Yio Both means of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be in°> dleated on the cla s s l i s t s you receive© Rather than t e l l th© students they are grouped, j u s t i n s t r u c t them to writ© the number you assign i n the upper l e f t corner of each written them© & Instruct them to use th© same number throughout th© practice periodo You w i l l notice that th© sub-groups vary i n si z e * This arrange-ment was chosen p a r t l y f o r experimental purposes and p a r t l y to reduce the number of students In the lim i t e d marking sub-groupao Th© main purpose of having sub-groups within each c l a s s . Instead of working with whole d i v i s i o n s , Is to cancel out teacher-to=teacher differences In presentation and markingo Marking and Recording Procedures At th© end of each composition period remind th® students to mak© sur© t h e i r work Is Id e n t i f i e d and then c o l l e c t th© papers 0 Before markingp sort these papers Into the four sub-groups 0 X«, Y„ X i a and Yi© Remember that on the students 9 them©© these ar© indicated as l p 2 0 5„ and 4 respectively© Mark th® papers and record th© r e s u l t s before th© next composition periodo X^group© Marking by general impression© R©ad th© paragraph® c a r e f u l l y 0 paying p a r t i c u l a r attention to content or story value and styl® 0 Keep In mind o r i g i n a l ! t y p sentence structure,, precis© ©hole© ©f words p correct us© of words 0 unity,, eo° h©r©ne©„ ehoi©© of t i t l e 0 and effectiveness of topic and summary sen<= tencesa Kot® als© th© extent to which th® student ©mploy@d th© con~ c©pt(s) which was emphasized i n th® lesson© (Se© P o 14 of th© 1956 Eng l i s h B u l l e t i n f o r ©pad©© 7 B 8 0 and 9 f o r '"things to look f o r " when marking student themes) 0 As you read,, sort th© paragraphs in t o f i v e piles,, occasionally re-reading th© f i r s t ones as a eh@ck© As° sign marks A 0 B c C 0 D 9 or E In th® l o f t margins of th© papers© (In some classes th©r© w i l l probably be no E papers and h@nc® only four p i l e s f t ) Record th@ grade i n th® section of your mark book which you hav© set up f o r t h i s purpos© 0 In th© separate s c r i b b l e r provided or In a section of your eours© book which you ©an organize f o r t h i s pur« pos© s not© th© lesson number and topic and record th© following? (1) Common ©rrors In accuracy of materials (2) Typical ©rrors In mechanics© (3) B r i e f comments0 constructive or oth©rwis© 0 concerning th© lessono (Optional) (1) and (2) w i l l b© used In your next l©sson„ (3) w i l l form th© basis f o r a possible r e v i s i o n or expansion of t h i s series of l©ssons 0 Re<= p©at Items (1)„ ( 2 ) B and (3) f o r a l l groups and a l l lessons © Y°group 0 Marking of s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s 0 Read and sort th© paragraphs as f o r X~group 0 As you read p comment9 by constructive phras© or short sentence,, on a minimum of on© or a maximum of two s a l i e n t features© S a l i s n t features ar© thos© aspects of th© themes which stand out„ eith e r f o r t h e i r excellence or lack of it© Often,, but not always„ thes© features w i l l b© rela t e d to th® p a r t i c u l a r concepts discussed In th© accompanying lesson© You w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y comment on th© same features from student to student or from lesson to lesson© Rather„ th© c r i t e r i o n should b©g what comraent(s) w i l l b© most e f f e c t i v e i n helping t h i s p a r t i c u l a r student to improve h i s w r i t i n g a b i l i t y ? Th© on© or two comments described above are to be written i n the margin or below th© work© No mark ( l e t t e r grade) i s to be placed on th© student's paper but,, f o r school purposes only 0 record th© appropriate l e t t e r grades In your mark book© Pleas© do not indleafe® these grades to th© students,, In any way© Record t y p i c a l errors,, accuracy deviations,, ©tc 0 as f o r X^group© Xi ° f f g o u p o Limited marking,, using a l e t t e r gradeo Proceed as f o r X~group but, on the student's papers, record the l e t t e r grades on the following lesson assignments only? l b , 3 b , 5 b 0 and 7 b 0 For school purposes, assign grades to, and record re° suits from the Intermediate papers as well but write nothing on them0 I t i s most important, from the experimental point of view, that no Indication concerning the grade of these Intermediate papers be given to th© students*** Instead, as accuracy and t y p i c a l errors are dis= cussed i n cl a s s , Xx«group students should be encouraged to examine t h e i r own unmarked themes, to t r y to locate errors In form and content 0 and to make an estimate of what they think t h e i r grade should be c As a check they may compare t h e i r average estimates with that assigned by th® teacher on ©very fourth them® 0 Record t y p i c a l e r r o r s , accuracy deviations, etc^, as f o r X=group0 Y^groupo Limited marking, using s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s 0 Proceed as f o r Y~group, except that s a l i e n t feature comments ar© t© be made only f o r lessons l b , 3 b, 5 b, and 7 b„ Efothlng w i l l be recorded on the Intermediate assignments, and, as before, students should be given no information about them 0 As with th® X l l i m i t e d marking group, the students should be encouraged to examine t h e i r own unmarked themes during th® check of accuracy and t y p i c a l errors„ They should t r y to Identify t h e i r own weaknesses and strong points on th© intermediate papers Just as th© teacher does on ©very fourth one© Again, f o r school purposes only s l e t t e r grades should be re~ corded i n the mark book but should be k@pt secret,, In summary i t w i l l be noted that, f o r school purposes, a l l stu-dents In a l l groups w i l l hav© t h e i r l e t t e r grades recorded In the teachers 0 mark books© For experimental purposes, th© actual written assignments w i l l hav© only the following grades or comments on themT X = group <=>•= Letter grade on a l l papers 0 Y « group <=><=> On© or two comments on a l l papers 0 XI « group Letter grade on every fourth paper* Y i °group «» One or two comments on ©very fourth paper<> Notes Th© following of the procedures outlined above w i l l require c a r e f u l reading and recording but a minimum of actual writing on the students' papers 0 * Students should not be to l d that a grade i s recorded whether a mark appears on t h e i r papers or not© Control of Experimental Conditions The following suggestions and precautions are mentioned or l n ~ ferred elsewhere but are put together here f o r convenient reference 0 They are designed to reduce teaeher^to^teacher differences and, con° sequently, to help increase th© r e l i a b i l i t y of results© (a) Suggestions concerning general procedure (1) Except, possibly, f o r c l a r i f y i n g directions;, do not help students i n any way with i n i t i a l and f i n a l paragraphs© (2) Keep to th© lesson plans, time allotments, and written assignments which are provided© (3) See that a l l lessons are completed and a l l assignments col<=> looted l a c l a s s tlm©« JSo home=>work i s to be as signed 0 This suggest t i o n i s a precaution against th© possible influence of factors outside th© classroom,, The only exception to t h i s i s the assignment i n th© Immediately preceding English period, ©f th© reading lessons "1 ( a ) " and n&g£(&)n9 Thes® two selections requir© a l i t t l e more reading time than Is available i n th® regular composition period,, ( 4 ) In the s c r i b b l e r In which you record common ©rrors, lack of accuracy, ©tc 0, with respect to each lesson, make a note of any inter** ruptlons which seriously a f f e c t the time allotment© You w i l l be asked to summarize t h l a Information at th© end of the practice perlodo ( 5 ) In your mark book l a y out a section f o r recording the l e t t e r grades f o r each of th© fourteen assignments (1 a, 1 b, 2 a, 2 b, etc©)© B© sur© to c o l l e c t the assignment, f i n i s h e d or not, from ©ach student ©aeh periodo Record th® l e t t e r grades before th® next perlodo This constitutes not only your record of th© student 8s work but also th® experimental record of attendance and number of themes per studento This record w i l l be most important at th® end of the practice period,, (6) You w i l l b® supplied with a f o l d e r f o r each student you teaeho A l l themes should be f i l e d In t h e i r proper fol d e r s when teacher and students ar© through with themo (b) Suggestions concerning th© assignments (IS During the actual writing, do not a s s i s t Individual students with eit h e r form or content© (You w i l l hav© given pertinent c l a s s i n -structions i n the f i r s t h a l f of the period*) (2) When you return papers to the students, do not answer questions r e l a t i n g to marks or comments on i n d i v i d u a l papers 0 I t may b© p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to r e f r a i n from giving some kind of h i n t to thos© students i n th© l i m i t e d marking groups© However, your close cooperation i s most necessary©. ( 3 ) I f questions come up, point out that ©ach student can make worthwhile improvement by making h i s own decisions, by f i n d i n g and correcting h i s own ©rrors, and by estimating the value of h i s own f i n i s h e d product© Outline of Teaching Topics and Assignments The topics outlined below were chosen and are considered suit° able f o r the following reasons? 1 9 They provide both teacher and student with a d e f i n i t e and si m i l a r s t a r t i n g place or situation,, (See 0 p a r t i c u l a r l y p p u p i l reading materials i n the columnar outline©) 20 They provide a means whereby d i f f e r e n t teachers w i l l be using the same materials,, employing s i m i l a r teaching methods,, and giv i n g the same p u p i l assignments© 3© They w i l l balance the time and practice factors from class to class© 4 0 They have (we believe) a f a i r l y high Interest value f o r and a reading and writing d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l suited to Grade 8 children© 5© They represent the forms of written composition prescribed by the Department of Education f o r Grade 8 pupils© (Narration,, exposition,, description,, letters)© Organization of Lessons© Each major topic provides the material f o r two lessons^ "a" and I Jb% rel a t e d by content and/©r technique© Each one-hour lesson w i l l be divided i n t o two roughly equal p a r t s 0 ^ p r e p a r a t i o n (1) and actual w r i t i n g (2)© The precise make-up w i l l vary from topic to topic but w i l l follow "approximately t h i s plans Lesson "a" 1© Preparation ( i ) Return compositions from previous "b n period© While each student examines M s own paper,, b r i e f l y discuss content accuracy and t y p i c a l form errors© Co l l e c t these papers© ( i i ) B r i e f introduction to new topic plus basic composition concepts© ( i i i ) S i l e n t reading <•=>•=• text or mimeographed© Por longer selections t h i s reading w i l l be don© i n the English class immediately preceding the composition lesson<> (I a„ J&Sk) ( i v ) B r i e f discussion to br i n g out points In the sel e c t i o n read© (Facts,, ldeas 0 etc©) 2© Writing assignment Phrasal outline© Written theme© (to be graded by the teacher before the next composition lesson) C o l l e c t i o n of papers© ( i ) ( I D ( I i i ) Lasson "b" (i 0e© the second on©«hour lesson on a major topic) l o Preparation ( 1 ) Return of compositions from "a"© (II) B r i e f accuracy check (content)© (III) B r i e f discussion of t y p i c a l errors examples on th© board p r i o r to th® lesson (form) 0 ( i v ) Discussion of th© means of development of th® second^ rela t e d theme© (Revision^, enlargement^ change of focus of Interest)© 2© Writing assignment (I) Phrasal outline© (II) Written th©m®© ( i i i ) C o l l e c t i o n of both sets of papers °= "a" to folders f l "b B f o r marking. This Idea of having each major topic i n two parts has these advantages? 1© On© sel©ction or s i t u a t i o n i s us©d f o r two lessons© (Reading tim© not ©xeessiv©)© 2© Som® connection and r e v i s i o n of content and form i s required of th© student© (In accordance with Departmental English Bulletins)© So Mere mechanical correction Is avoided b y th® i n c l u s i o n of ad~ d l t i o n a l concept© and/or b y a change i n th© focus of interest© Hot® r@ the nature and d l f f l e u l t y of th© lesson topics? 1© Th© reading materials are not to© d i f f i c u l t f o r average Grade 8 children^ even thoughp at f i r s t glance D th© topics may appear to be somewhat advanced 0 2 0 The students hav© already had (In Grade 7 and th© f i r s t h a l f of Grade 8) a reasonable amount of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r and p r a c t i c e with sentences and paragraph® In general© Xn Grade 7 they wer© exposed to narration^ description^ and exposition^ as such© In Grade 8 thus f a r 0 they have had considerable i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n th© mechanics of written expression© Th® programme from now u n t i l the end of May provides students with the oppor<= tu n i t y not only to put to us© the paragraph fundamentals already emphasized but also to increase t h e i r knowledge of composition concepts and to Improve t h e i r w r i t i n g s k i l l s with respect to n a r r a t l o n 0 exposition and description© Seven Major Topics (14 lessons — outline only) Notes (a) r e f e r s to lesson "a" and (b) to lesson "b" of each major t o p i c G s D s N, and E, r e f e r to general, descrir>tive 0 narrative, and expository themes respectively* Koo and Type of Major Tonic Pu p i l Reading Material Composition Concepts and/or Pool of Interest General Statement f o r Writing Assignment G I I D "Jungle Doctor" Po 294 f f o of prescribed text, L i f e and Mv^ntur® (Board outline by teacher as lesson develops) "a" and "b" — Review of basic concepts of composition wa"<=-=Review of unity,, =«= Emphasis on facts,, "b "=•=> Revl©w of coherence «=•-Emphasis on example and i n c i d e n t s 0 Mimeographed Paragraph models and p u p i l instructions© "a" -» "May i n Ireland" "Autumn" "a" and "b"-of a paragraph from a given modelo "a"«=•»Coherence by repetl<= t i o n of a key phrase =>°Pattern "-emphasis© form and content •=«=>Dominant tone, b r i e f mention only wb"»°Coherence by point of view (relationship of writer to environment) Pattern — f o r form only Dominant Tone »<=> emphasisedo "a" and "b" •=>-Contrast of i d e a l -i s t i c and p r a c t i ~ c a l q u a l i t i e s of Albert Schweitzer*, Notes The reading s e l e c t i o n Is f a i r l y easy for Grade 8 0 Descriptive paragraph on Spring i n West Vancouver* "a" =>= P a r a l l e l both form and content "b" p a r a l l e l form only© Content w i l l be originalo (Conversion to Spring from Autumn) II I D "a" — Mimeo° graphed selec* t i o n and instructionso "The Withered Hand", "a" and "b" — Development of a descriptive paragraph from a given s i t u a t i o n with a s p e c i f i c purpose In mindo « an <== s p e c i f i c context provided (®fe p u p i l in= st r u c t l o n sheet) » a" -<=> Paragraph describing the hand In order to create an atmos-phere of mystery and fear,. Nooand Type of Major Topic Pupil Reading Material Composition Concepts and/or Poci of Interest General Statement f o r Writing Assignment III (Cont'd) "b" Description of John S i l v e r and h i s actions* Pertinent parts of Chap© VIII of Treasure Island to be read aloud by the teachero "b"«*-Generalized context only© ( S i l v e r appears li k e a b l e to Jim but repug* nant to the reader© How i s t h i s achieved? " b " — O r i g i n a l description of a character on two l e v e l s (so that a second character and the reader w i l l have opposite re-actions)© IV E Business letters© Text: Usinf Our Language "a" Review quickly pp© 116-124 New; pp© 201« 202© "b" pp. 217« 219 o "a"--Brief review of fun-damentals; form, c l a r i t y , b r evity, courtesy© --Discussion of l e t t e r s of inquiry© " b M — L e t t e r of Application —Importance of content and manner of expression "a"---Letter of i n -quiry r e l a t i n g to a s p e c i f i c problem, e g g 0 New Bike—guar-antee—=defec t i v e — r e q u e s t f o r inform"' ation or a c t i o n 0 "b " — A p p l i c a t i on for a Job i n answer to an advertisement© (Using Our Language P. 219, EXo 7, b or e„ V E Text Selec-t i o n "The In-candescent Lamp"© (from L i f e and Ad- venture Pupil Instructions© "a"—Expository concepts (general) —Method of summarizing b r i e f l y the author's ex-planation© (Pacts and t h e i r Interpretation) "b"—Point of view. «?••=»Writer t e l l s the story as a primary or secondary character© «a"--paragraph summary of the devel<= opment of the In-candescent lamp© "b"—Revise and expand "a" using a p a r t i c u l a r point of view© ( e 0 g 0 , as Edison himself)© No oand Tvne of Major Tonic Pupil Reading Material Composition Concepts and/or Poci of Interest General statement f o r Writing Assignment VI Mimeographed Polk-lore anec-dote, "Th© Elevator Story", nlus written instructions© Notes Th© el©-vator t y p i f i e s crowded moving, public convey-ances i n which disaster may oc-cur© ) "a" and "b " ^ D i s c u s s i o n of basic narrative con-cepts© "a"—Sequence of ideas — U s © of scene and summary concept, — W r i t e r outside of the story© <»b"—point of view© (Who t e l l s the story?) Writer i n the story as a primary or secondary character© " a " * - R e b e l l i n g of the anecdote using the same general idea but o r i g i n a l incidents and set-* tings© e©go plane, ship, or t r a i n Instead of elevator© "b"—Re-working of paragraph i n "a" with the writer as a character but re-taining the anecdotal forra 0 VII N Mimeographed narrative s e l e c t i o n p "Lapse of Time" plus punII in« structionso »a"—Brief review of narrative concept as i n VI© «»«• Re-cap of concepts and anecdotal form as i n VI b but with f r e s h material and more d i f f i c u l t p l o t -s true ture © =»-Step-by-step teacher assistance with p l o t analysis© "b"~-Conversion to narrative form (use of the paragraph as a punctuational d e v i c e ) e "a"—Using "lapse of time" plot struc-ture but o r i g i n a l settings and i n c i -dents© ( S t i l l anec' dotal form) "b"—Re-working of "a" i n narrative form© (H 9Bo--point of view©) --jjess teacner nelp and more i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l res* p o n s i b l l i t y , <»-Practice i n paragraph structure© ENGLISH 8 TEACHING NOTES Lesson 1 a Review of the Paragraph General lo Assign the reading of "Jungle Doctor", p„ 294, L i f e and Adventure In th© immediately preceding English periods 2 0 Quickly review ideas of paragraph unity, tooic sentence, and sum-mary sentence, Pp© 15-21, Using Our Language, 3© E l i c i t main f a c t s from the reading, using a board outline© (a) Sentence On© (Topic Sentence) <=•<= Some statement of the contra=> di c t o r y nature of Albert Schweltzerg h i s p r a c t i c a l a b i l i t y and h i s ideals© e©g© Albert Schweitzer could almost be des° cribed as a p r a c t i c a l saint© (b) Body? Group 1 « Sentences describing h i s physical appearance and h i s background© Group 2 <=• Sentences pointing out h i s p r a c t i c a l q u a l i -t i e s that ar© demonstrated i n the story© Group 3 ° Sentences pointing out h i s ideals or h i s goal© that are demonstrated i n the st o r y 0 (c) Summary Sentence =>•=• A statement of conclusions to be reached© 4© Assign the w r i t i n g of a paragraph describing Albert Schweitzer© (To be preceded by a phrasal outline©) The writing i s to b© done on looseleaf paper supplied by th© student© ENGLISH 8 TEACHING NOTES Lesson 1 b lo Quickly review Idea of coherence,. Using Our Language, pp© 41, 980  2 0 Return assignments from "a"© Discuss t y p i c a l errors i n form (on the board beforehand)© Check accuracy b y questioning the class on s p e c i f i c points of development i n "Jungle Doctor" 0 Encourage the pupils to look f o r t h e i r own errors© 3© Give in s t r u c t i o n s to students f o r r e v i s i o n and focussing of Interests (Details by discussion, outline only on the board)© (a) (I) Make your statement as d e f i n i t e and as s p e c i f i c as possible© Where you can do so, quote examples© (II) Try to f i n d points to br i n g out that other students may overlook© Don 9t be s a t i s f i e d with the obvious things^ look f o r the f i n e r shades o f character© (b) Revise the summary sentences This should make a f i n a l , general comment on the m any•= sided nature of Schweitzer 5s character i n a form which w i l l s t i c k i n the reader 9s mind© (e) Select a t i t l e f o r your paragraph© (d) Work out a phrasal outline according to the Instructions you received i n the l a s t lesson© Be sure you hav© don© every=* thing that was suggested there© 4 0 Assign re°writing of paragraph from "a" using s p e c i f i c examples, Imprlving coherence, e t c 0 as suggested above© Notes No separate p u p i l instructions (pass-outs) are required here because of the nature of Lessons 1 a and b© ENGLISH 8 TEACHING NOTES Lesson 2 a l e Assign Model 1 P TOMay i n Ireland" (mimeographed) f o r reading© 2© Th® idea Is to have the pupils write a s i m i l a r l y patterned para«= graph on "Spring In West Vancouver"o Explain to the class© 3 0 T e l l your class to study th© pattern (form and content) of t h i s selectiono Th© d e t a i l s of procedure are found In pupils" notes and Instructions which follow these teaching notes© The p a r a l l e l s referred to would be f o r West Vancouver 0 4 0 Have th© pupils study the plan of organisation© Agaln f l d e t a i l s ar® on p u p i l Instruction sheets© 5 0 Assign the wr i t i n g of the theme on looseleaf paper© Pupils should adjust wher© necessary to ma^ @ proper sentences and paragraph© Notes (1) Timing here w i l l have to be c l o s e l y watched© Suggestion • f o r the f i v e above a c t i v i t i e s ? 1© and 2© •==• Total of 5 min 0 3© 10 min 0 4 0 15 min 0 5© 20 min© (2) I f teachers f e e l t h i s time Is i n s u f f l c i e n t s pupils may Just revise t h e i r work on the model and hand I t I n 0 •J* Of the 14 written themes^ j u s t two are based on models 0 ENGLISH 8 MODEL NO. 1 PUPIL INSTRUCTIONS Lesson 2 a Description (Using Models) Exercise based on model. Coherence by r e p e t i t i o n of key phrase. 1. The triple-spaced paragraph by Sheehan i s the model; the l i n e s are f o r your rough notes.. You are going to follow the pattern of the model and f i l l i n the spaces as the p a r a l l e l s occur to you. You may f i l l i n some here and some there, and go back to complete the blanks l a t e r . You may wish to rearrange your ideas somewhat, moving an idea from one end to the other. In any case, you should have thought the piece through from beginning to end, i n your own terms, two or three times before you begin your plan. 2. A f t e r you have f i l l e d i n the blanks with ideas p a r a l l e l to the ideas expressed by Sheehan, study the following organization. Column A i s an abstract or general-i z a t i o n of the steps of development used by Sheehan i n the model paragraph. Column B i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the method of gaining coherence. Column A (1) Associate y o u r s e l f with the topic (2) State your t o p i c , (time and place) (3) Indicate your approach. (You are going to give a s e r i e s of answers to the question; "What does i t mean?") (k) Bring i n a fig u r e of speech to show the contrast between winter and spring. (5>) How do you react to spring? (What do you think of clothes, sports, outdoors, hunting, etc.) (6) General signs of spring on land, or on sea, or i n the sky (7) S p e c i f i c signs of spring overhead and underfoot (8) Bring i n the e f f e c t s of spring on young school c h i l d r e n . (Bringing the f i r s t flowers to school; or t h e i r energetic p u r s u i t of games.) (9) How does spring make you f e e l ? (10) End with a concrete p i c t u r e of spring ob-j e c t i f i e d . Some person following a spring pu r s u i t . Show him sharing h i s pleasure, c a l l i n g out a greeting or a comment on the weather. A person gardening, pups, c h i l -dren f r i s k i n g on the lawn. Column B Coherence by r e p e t i t i o n . ... . i t means It means It means It means It means It means It means It means 3 . On a clean sheet of loose l e a f paper write out a paragraph using complete sentences, and using pattern and organization of 1 and 2 above. ENGLISH COMPOSITION — Model Paragraph "May i n Ireland", by Sheehan. (Write i n p e n c i l on t h i s paper) What i s the dominant tone?_ . That was a pleasant d r i v e . I t i s May i n Ireland. . What does i t mean? I t means coming out of a dark tunnel into b l i n d i n g sunshine. I t means ca s t i n g o f f the slough of winter, and t a l k i n g with head erect and fr e s h habiliments under the l e a f y trees and by the borders of shining seas. The crab-apple blossoms, pink and white, scent the a i r over your head, a&nd the primroses and v i o l e t s dapple the t u r f under your f e e t . It means c h i l d r e n returning at evening with hands and pinafores f u l l of the scented cowslips and the voluptuous woodbine. I t means the pouring of wine blood i n t o empty veins, and the awakening of tor p i d f a c u l t i e s . I t means the cheery salutations of the ploughman, as the c o u l t e r turns over the r i c h brown s o i l and the rooks follow each furrow f o r food. ENGLISH 8 TEACHING NOTES Lesson 2 b Description (Using Models) l o Return "2 a" paragraph f o r discussion of t y p i c a l errors In form and p a t t e m 0 Encourage students to examine t h e i r own papers to see how they could be Improved© 2o Hand out mimeographed paragraphs describing "Autumn" and assign reading* (Model No© 2©)© 3o Apply the technique of 2 a to t h i s model© Students may use spaces between l i n e s f o r outline© 4© Discuss the means of gaining coherence© For 2 a i t was r e p e t i t i o n of a key phrase but here I t Involves the re l a t i o n s h i p of the writer to h i s environment (moving point of vlew) 0 5<» The students w i l l write a second paragraph on "Spring In West Vancouver" but with the point of view and pattern discussed and modelled In "Autumn"© 6© Urge the students to c a p i t a l i z e on the t o p i c a l aspect (spring w i l l soon be here) by focussing attention and attempting to create a suitable dominant tone© 7© Assign w r i t i n g of paragraph© on looseleaf paper 0 ( I f the model i s used as the outline I t should be c o l l e c t e d and placed In the folder)© Notes The only new p u p i l material here Is the paragraph on "Autumn"© ENGLISH 8 MODEL NO. 2 AUTUMN - Washington Irving Lesson 2 b Dominant Tone (Note to students: This paper i s f o r reading and rough ou t l i n e only). As Ichabod jogged slowly on h i s way, h i s eye, ever open to every symptom (sign) of c u l i n a r y * abundance, ranged with delight over the treasures of j o l l y autumn. On a l l sides he beheld vast stores of apples^ some hanging i n oppressive opulence on the trees; some gathered into baskets and b a r r e l l s f o r the marketj others heaped up i n r i c h p i l e s f o r cider-press. Farther on he beheld great f i e l d s of Indian corn with i t s golden ears peeping from t h e i r l e a f y coverts*, and holding out a promise of cakes and hasty pudding. Yellow pumpkins lay beneath them, turning up t h e i r round b e l l i e s to the sun, and giving ample prospects of the most luxurious of pies. And anon he passed the fragrant buckwheat f i e l d s , and as he saw them he thought of dainty slapjacks*, w e l l buttered, and garnished with honey. * c u l i n a r y : having to do with the kitchen or the preparation of food. *covert: t h i c k e t . *slapjacks: t h i s was the name used at that time. We use "Flapjacks". ENGLISH 8 Description (Por a Specific Purpose) Lesson 3 a "The Withered Hand " Teaching Notes l o Return the assignments from 2 b c Quickly discuss t y p i c a l errors i n form© (Place examples on the board before the l e s s o n ) 0 En** courage the students to &©<=©xamine t h e i r own work© 2 0 B r i e f l y review dominant tone and l o g i c a l order 0 the two p r i n c i p l e s of d e scription relevant to t h i s lesson© Show how dominant tone can be achieved through word choice and simple imagery Q Use three or four short examples 9 previously selected from students 8 themesp to i l l u s t r a t e this© Point out that "place to place" and "general to p a r t i c u l a r " are two commonly used forms of l o g i c a l order© 3© Co l l e c t and f i l e 2 b papers, d i s t r i b u t e 3 a student instructions^, and assign th© reading© (On the attached studeMt instructions)© 4 0 Question th© students to draw t h e i r attention to the f a c t that th© story i s t o l d i n the f i r s t person© (Th© story°teller i s a pa r t i c i p a n t In the s t o r y 0 ) In the same way draw attention to th© l i g h t and bantering ton© of the f i r s t h a l f of the context*. So Go over th© student d i r e c t i o n s with the class© Emphasize th© switch from a l i g h t and bantering ton© to on© of ugliness, aystery p fear and evil© The purpose of th© des c r i p t i o n Is to create th© necessary atmosphere f o r the e v i l which i s to followo 6© Assign the descriptive paragraph© Point out that students w i l l have to decld© I n d i v i d u a l l y upon a good topic sentence as part of t h e i r compositions© ENGLISH 8 DESCRIPTION (For a S p e c i f i c Purpose) Lesson 3 a P u p i l I n s t r u c t i o n s 1, Read the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r to-day's assignment. 2, The f o l l o w i n g account forms the Beginning 6f Guy de Maupassant's t a l e THE WITHERED HAND i n H.W.P. Sloman's t r a n s l a t i o n . I f you want to f i n i s h the s t o r y you can f i n d the book i n a c o l l e c t i o n of de Maupassant's short s t o r i e s i n the school or the l o c a l l i b r a r y . "About e i g h t months ago a f r i e n d of mine, Louis R..», had i n v i t e d some o l d school f r i e n d s i n one evening; we were d r i n k i n g punch and smoking, as we ta l k e d l i t e r a t u r e and p a i n t i n g , w i t h a funny s t o r y from time to time, the usual s o r t of young man's p a r t y . Suddenly the door burst open and one of my best childhood f r i e n d s came i n l i k e a h u r r i c a n e , "Guess where I've come from", he c r i e d as he entered: "I bet i t ' s the M a b i l l e n i g h t - c l u b , suggested one of the p a r t y * "No, you look too cheer-f u l j you've been borrowing money, burying your aunt or tak i n g your watch to the pawn-broker's", opined another,.. "You're a l l wrong, I've j u s t come from P.... i n Normandy, where I've been s t a y i n g f o r a week, -and I've brought back a f r i e n d , whom I beg leave to introduce you*" With these words he took* out of h i s pocket a withered hand; i t was...." "A" ~ ' ~~ 1 - Here f o i l o w s , In some s i x l i n e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s d r i e d up human hand, severed a t the w r i s t and coloured w i t h age, 1 " P i c t u r e to yourselves", explained my f r i e n d , "the s a l e the other day of the e f f e c t s _ o f an old wizard, w e l l known i n the d i s t r i c t ; he a t -tended the Sabbot every Saturday n i g h t on a broom s t i c k , p r a c t i s e d both white and b l a c k magic, made-cows give blue m i l k . . . Anyhow the o l d r a s c a l was much attached to t h i s hand, which he a l l e g e d belonged to a famous c r i m i n a l , executed i n 1736..." As the s t o r y develops the withered hand develops a l i f e of i t s own h i r i n g the hours of darkness and e v e n t u a l l y s t r a n g l e s the^ man who pur-chased i t , ""--^ 3 0 Your teacher w i l l d i s c u s s the s t o r y and d i r e c t i o n s w i t h you, 4, You are to w r i t e the d e s c r i p t i o n of the withered hand as i t might have appeared at the "A" a f t e r the words " i t was....". Your d e s c r i p t i o n need not be long but every word should count. Reminders to Students a} Use some l o g i c a l order, s t a r t w i t h the n a i l s and work back or use the general to the p a r t i c u l a r , - I t may help you to "see the hand" I f you place your l e f t hand i n f r o n t of you, f i n g e r s bent and tensed i n a c l a w - l i k e p o s i t i o n , ' Notice the s k i n colour and tex-t u r e , n a i l s , , and bony appearance. b) The dominant tone here should be one of ug l i n e s s and of v i n d i c -t i v e e v i l . There should be something menacing about t h i s l i f e -l e s s o b j e c t , p o s s i b l y best expressed i n the p o s i t i o n of the f i n g e r s . Your d e s c r i p t i o n should create an atmosphere of mystery 1 and f e a r . Be c a r e f u l w i t h your choice of words. c) Make your paragraph a complete one. I t need not f o l l o w gramma-t i c a l l y from " i t was...". Compose your' own t o p i c sentence. 5, I d e n t i f y your l o o s e l e a f paper w i t h name and number as i n s t r u c t e d e a r l i e r . Plan your work before w r i t i n g the paragraph. ENGLISH 8 DESCRIPTION (For a Specific Purpose) Lesson 3 b Teaching Notes Reading materials Description of Long John Silver in Chapter VIII of Treasure Island (Authorized Text, 1955)» l o Return the assignments from 3 a© Quickly discuss typical errors i n form© (Place examples on the board ahead of time)© 2© Point out that in the 3 a description the purpose, decided beforehand, dictated th® dominant tone of mystery and evil© Show how well some students achieved this ton© by reading two or three ^aort, previously selected excerpts from the assignment just completed© Collect and f i l e 30 paragraphs© 3 0 Explain th© purpose of the new lessons To describe a character on two levels© The f i r s t level Is th© impression he makes upon a second character In the story (In this case, the writer)© The second level i s the impression he makes upon the reader 0 The second impression Is op-posed to th© first© The student Is going to assume that he is writing a story and has com© to th® point at which he must introduce an Important figure© The writer, as a young character In the story, accepts this figure as an upright, appealing person, but the reader who i s less naive, does not accept him but "sees through" his deceiving outward appearance© 4© Having given this general explanation of intention,, now read to the class th© pertinent parts of Chapter VIII i n Treasure Island (4& pages)© Point out that the incidents would arouse th© suspicions of an average adult but th© attractive^and colourful qualities of Silver 8 s appearance9 voice a and manner close Jim 9 a ©yes to his suspicious actions© An ex=> ample of such an action iss Silver allows a pirate whom Jim recognizes plenty of time to escap©0 (The students w i l l b© familiar with Silver 9 s real character from their studies In Grade VII©) 5© Reiterate the nature of the assignment© Each student is to imagine that he i s writing a story from the f i r s t person point of vlew 0 In th© assignment he i s to describe his meeting with a particularly striking figure whom he accepts on sight but whose actions cause th© reader to ^ becom© suspicious© 6© Th© assignment should be short and It should be original© (Not a description of John Silver©) It may b© limited to the appealing general Impression that the writer«character has formed,together with on© ques" tionable action or incident which starts th© trai n of suspicion i n th© reader's mind© A simpl© i l l u s t r a t i o n (which should be read.to a l l stu-dents) followss A salesman comes to your door and offers, on behalf of his employer, to place, i n your home a free encyclopedia, requiring only that you supply a short statement saying how useful the set i s 0 However, at the end of a l l his glow ing friendliness, h© quickly passes over a statement, set out in two pages of fine print, that you agree to assume the costs of handling, mailing, and packaging© In your enthusiasm you would tend to overlook this aspect of the arrangement but an onlooker would cer-tainly hav© misgivings© 7© During your discussion with th© class^outline, on the board, the nature and intention of the assignment© 8© No separate student Instructions are required© Remind your class to follow the general instructions (whichthey a l l have) in laying out the W O r k ENGLISH 8 Business Letters Note; Lessons 4 a and 4 b, Business'Letters» are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the preceding lessonso I t i s suggested, t h e r e f o r e , that ten or f i f t e e n minutes In a preceding E n g l i s h p e r i o d be used f o r the r e t u r n of 3 b paragraphs and f o r d i s c u s s i o n of t y p i c a l errors© At the same time a l l stiadents w i l l be able to see marks or comments on t h e i r papers since 3 b I s one of the f o u r paragraphs which i s marked or commented, upon f o r a2.j. f o u r groups© I f the above procedxire i s followed then the whole of the 4 a p e r i o d w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r the new topic© Lesson 4 a L e t t e r of I n q u i r y Teaching Notes (No separate student i n s t r u c t i o n s are required©) l o Provide m o t i v a t i o n by questioning the students concerning the v a r i e t y and volume of business correspondence and the importance of i t s c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o the e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g of our s o c i e t y 9 x 2 0 B r i e f l y review the form of business correspondences, Draw a t t e n t i o n to the s i x p a r t s of the normal business letter© Have students r e f e r to the t e x t 9 "Using Our Language% P c 116-124„ 3© Review a l s o the p r i n c i p l e s of accuracy, brevity,, and courtesy© 4© Discuss the l e t t e r of inquiry© Refer to P© 201-202 i n the text. Not© that the business l e t t e r i s one of the most common uses of e x p o s i t o r y writing© So Assign the w r i t i n g of a l e t t e r of I n q u i r y based on the s i t u a t i o n out" l i n e d below? Nearly new b i c y c l e -.«=• three-month guarantee "=•=• d e f e c t i v e brakes — request f o r s u i t a b l e a c t i o n (adjustment, r e p a i r ^ or r e p l a c e -ment)© Remind students to i d e n t i f y t h e i r papers as i n s t r u c t e d e a r l i e r . . Lesson 4 b A p p l i c a t i o n f o r a Job Teaching Notes l o Return the assignments from 4 a© Q&ickly d i s c u s s - t y p i c a l e r r o r s i n form© Note a l s o examples which i l l u s t r a t e l a c k of accuracy, b r e v i t y , or courtesy© §Placed on the board p r i o r t o the period)© Encourage students t o re-examine t h e i r own themes i n the l i g h t of the above d i s -cus s i o n 0 2© Discuss the l e t t e r of application© Have the students r e f e r to P e 217-219 s In the text© Emphasize the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s ; ( I ) A l e t t e r of a p p l i c a t i o n should f o l l o w the general r u l e s f o r a l l business l e t t e r s © ( i i ) I t should make a prospective employer f e e l t h a t the a p p l i c a n t I s i n t e l l i g e n t , neat, and eareful© ( i i i ) I t should attempt to demonstrate ( c l e a r l y , but not b o a s t f u l l y ) t h a t the a p p l i c a n t has ample q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and w i l l be an asset to t h i s employer© 3© Assign the w r i t i n g of a l e t t e r of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a job i n answer to an advertisement© See the t e x t 9 P„ 219, Ex© 7 S b s f o r g i r l s , and Ex© 7, c f o r boys© Allow at l e a s t t h i r t y minutes f o r planning and writing© ENGLISH 8 Lesson 5 (a) EXPOSITION Making the Incandescent Lamp Teaching Botes© Intr o d u c t o r y Botes This i s the f i r s t composition lesson f o l l o w i n g th® E a s t e r Holidays© F u r t h e r a i t i s a l i t t l e longer than th® average© In order to assure s u f f i c i e n t time both f o r the necessary review and f o r the l e s s o n i t s e l f you are requested to complete items 1 <=> 4 i n the E n g l i s h period immediately preceding the a c t u a l oom~ p o s i t i o n period© 1© Have the students re-read th© g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s issued at the be=» gin n i n g of t h i s programme© a© B r i e f l y review the p r i n c i p l e s of e x p o s i t o r y writing© See P© 802 ff©. Using Our Language© On P© 209 there i s a u s e f u l summary of these prTno fples© ~ 3s, B r i e f l y review the p r i n c i p l e s of summarization© ( A l l but only th© important i d e a s B your own words© no unnecessary words, phrases or i l i u s t r a t i o n S j , paragraph form i n the t h i r d person,, etc©) 4© Have the students read "Making the Incandescent Lamp",, P© 3 4 2 0 L i f e and Adventure© I n s t r u c t them t o watch f o r the key ideas and t o " W 0 pr ©"pared to d i s c u s s them© 5© At the beginning of the a c t u a l composition period hand out iaime©~ graphed p u p i l instructions© Have the students re-read th© s e l e c t i o n to f i n d the answers to the questions on t h e i r sheets© Take th© answers orally© For convenience, both the questions and the answer® f o l l o w heres IScience 1© What i s the subject matter? A© ( E l e c t r i c i t y {Lamps and L i g h t i n g ^ {The i n v e n t i o n of the Incandescent lamp 2© What does "incandescent" mean? A„ Something heated to the p o i n t that i t gives o f f light© 3© What i s an arc lamp? A© A lamp which creates l i g h t by f o r c i n g an e l e c t r i c spark to jump a gap© 4© What was the s p e c i f i c problem? A© To f i n d some m a t e r i a l which would withstand t h e heat necessary to make i t incandescent without melting or burning up© So What was the f i r s t m a t e r i a l used? A c Platinum wire© 6© What does "drawn" mean i n t h i s sense? A© Made, manufactured;; l i t e r a l l y "drawn out"© 7© What was the next step? A© An attempt t o b u i l d up a wire c o i l «» more wire© 8© What i s " r e s i s t a n c e " ? A© The q u a l i t y that apparently r e t a r d s the e l e c t r i c a l energy and turns i t to heato Page 2 Teaching Notes© 90 What happened to the c o i l idea? A© It short c i r c u i t e d i t s e l f 0 LQ© What do you mean by "short c i r c u i t " ? A c Current takes a shorter rout^ than i s planned© L l o To what things was he r e s t r i c t e d ? A© Conductors© L2© Why had Sdison not t r i e d carbon ? A© Oxidizes i n a vacuum© 13© What did they use eventually? A© Fine carbonized s t r i p s of bamboo© Working with the students 0 set out on the blackboard„ i n outline form only D the main fa c t s and steps i n Sdison f fs account of the developments (a) The f i r s t encounter with an arc light© (b) The decision to change from s e r i e s to parallel© (o) The experiment with f i n e drawn platinum wire© (d) The use of a cylinder of airconia© {©) The experiment with the oarv th® carbonized cotton thread heated i n a vacuum© (f) Th© test f o r length of l i f e of the cotton thread filament© (g) The work with bamboo filaments© Assign the writing of an aneoc"otal paragraph summary, about one^quartsr the length of the o r i g i n a l selection© of the main steps i n the making of the incandescent lamp© Remind the students to i d e n t i f y t h e i r papers and to plan t h e i r work as instructed i n previous assignments© ENGLISH 8 E x p o s i t i o n P u p i l I n s t r u c t i o n s . Lesson 5 a Making the Incandescent Lamp 1. Read c a r e f u l l y "Making the Incandescent Lamp", P. 342, L i f e and  Adventure. 2. 3e prepared to answer the f o l l o w i n g questions. Pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n -t i o n to t e c h n i c a l terras. Use your d i c t i o n a r y when necessary. 1. What i s the subject matter? 2. What does "incandescent" mean? 5. What i s an arc lamp?-4. What'was the s p e c i f i c problem? 5. What was the f i r s t m a t e r i a l used? 6. "What does "drawn" mean i n t h i s sense? 7. "/hat was the next step? 8. What i s " r e s i s t a n c e " ? 9. What happened to the c o i l idea? 10. What do you mean by "short c i r c u i t " ? 11. TO what things was he r e s t r i c t e d ? 12.. Why had Edison not t r i e d carbon? 13. What d i d they use eventually? 3.. Your teacher w i l l work w i t h you to prepare a board o u t l i n e of the key facts' and steps i n the development of the incandescent lamp. 4. (a) Pla n and w r i t e a paragraph i n which you summarize the S e l e c t i o n just d i s c u s s e d . Use the paragraph form i n the t h i r d person. Your theme should be about one-quarter the length of the o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n . (b) As sentence 1 of your paragraph s t a t e what the s e l e c t i o n i s about, You may r e q u i r e a second sentence to complete t h i s . (c) In a s e r i e s of sentences, one f o r each part of the s e l e c t i o n , e x p l a i n what i t was that Edison was t r y i n g to do and how he went about i t , (d) As a concluding sentence sum up what i t was that Edison was attempting to e x p l a i n to us, 5 c Remember to check your work over f o r choice of words, sentence s t r u c t u r e and l i n k a g e , punctuation, e t c . , and to i d e n t i f y your paper as i n s t r u c t e d e a r l i e r , • EHSLISH 8 EXPOSITION Teaching Sotes© Lesson 5 (fe) Making the Incandescent Lamp I© Return w r i t t e n assignments from 5 (a) • Discuss t y p i c a l e r r o r s i n form and accuracy* So Review th© main stepa i n th© development of th© Incandescent lamp© Students may again r e f e r to t h e i r t e x t s where necessary© So Discuss the I n t r o d u c t i o n of the personal note i n t o the o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n Th® students 5summaries in 5 (a) were w r i t t e n from the t h i r d person p o i n t of view© Edison f fs account i s from the f i r s t person point of view© What advantages has t h i a ? Discuss w i t h the s t u d e n t s 0 4 0 In order t o develop the "personal note" concept mentioned above ths teacher may d i s c u s s the f o l l o w i n g ideas as they apply to the selection,, "Making the Incandescent Lamp". {See "The Grammar of Gossip" f i P 0 48 of The A r t of P l a i n Talko) (a) Time magazine pr i d e s i t s e l f t h a t "our s u b s c r i b e r s understand th© evenTTH terms of the p e r s o n a l i t y who caused i t , " There may be some doubt whether p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e a l l y cause eventa and whether readers r e a l l y understand th© event b e t t e r because they ar© gi v e n personal d e t a i l s about the participants© But there i s no doubt about one things human i n t e r e s t makes f o r e a s i e r reading,, S c i e n t i f i c t e s t s have shown that people are b e t t e r at reading about other people than anything else© (p© 48) TjLmeJjs human I n t e r e s t d e v i c e s are not merely the a d d i t i o n of lnt©r» esting^oTographtoal tit~bits© They i n v o l v e argument„ p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n form 0 th© w r i t i n g of s o i e n c e 8 f o r example„ as a s o r t o f in«? door adventure s t o r y and the d i r e c t address o f the reader© (b) The t h i n g to do Is t o go through the t e x t sentence by sentence end to look f o r the l o g i c a l — not the grammatical subject© A f t e r a wall® you di s c o v e r that the l o g i c a l s ubject ,1s always a person and that ev&ry sentence can be w r i t t e n so that t h i s person i s mentioned © In a d d i t i o n to the logical subject there i s o f t e n the g e n e r a l p u b l i c Involved and the general p u b l i c should never be general but should be "you" and "us"© 5© A s s i g n the r e v i s i o n of the paragraph submitted i n 5 (a). This r e v i s i o n should,, of course„ i n v o l v e e l i m i n a t i o n of e r r o r s and I n c l u s i o n of any p r i n c i p a l ideas omitted In the f i r s t draft© Most important„ however B Is the s h i f t i n poin t of view© Each student i s now t o imagine that h© i s Edison© Thus the them© w i l l s t i l l summarise the important steps in the making of the lamp but w i l l be t o l d In the f i r s t person and w i l l be laor© "personal" than was the f i r s t paragraph© ENGLISH 8 N a r r a t i o n Teaching Notes. Lesson 6 (a) F o l k l o r e Anecdote ("Elevator") 1© Return 5 (b) paragraphs a d i s c u s s t y p i c a l errors,, have students r e -©jiamine t h e i r work, and then place these themes i n th© f o l d e r s * So B r i e f l y review th© p r i n c i p l e s of n a r r a t i o n . See pp* 67 and 94 i n Using Our Language 0 5© D i s t r i b u t e the mimeographed student i n s t r u c t i o n s which Include th® " e l e v a t o r " l e t t e r from Alexander Wooloott to Margaret M i t c h e l l In ifc o i he recounts an I n t e r e s t i n g piece of folklore© Assign the reading of t h i s letter© 4© Working c o o p e r a t i v e l y with the students9 o u t l i n e the sequence of events on th© board© Discuss the e s s e n t i a l elements of the plot#© Point out which are scene and which are suaaaary 6 For convenience, a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n ofTHes"© concepts i s incTiHid on the p u p i l i n s t r u c t t i o n sheet© At t h i s point no d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f them i s necessary as they w i l l be considered more f u l l y i n 6 (b)© # The e s s e n t i a l elements of the p l o t ar© as f o l l o w s 0 Someone has a dream i n which he sees an object s t r o n g l y suggestive of death ( i n t h i s case, th© hears©}© Associated w i t h t h i s object i s a person of s t r i k i n g appearance (the d r i v e r ) v?ho makes a shorty cryptic statement which may o r may not be out of place i n the s i t u a t i o n ("Room f o r on© soren)© Later„ i n h i s waking hours, the person i s i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which tragedy i s p o s s i b l e but not probable (about to board the elevator)© In t h i s waking s i t u a t i o n this person sees the s t r i k i n g face from the dream, hears the same words which now are q u i t e fitting, and, in the shock of memory, withdraws from the s i t u a t i o n thus saving h i s own lif-,-© 5© P o i n t out to the students that it would be q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o a l t e r the s e t t i n g s (two pa r t s ) and the c h a r a c t e r s and s t i l l r e t a i n the ai-me e s s e n t i a l p l o t s Discuss two o r three p o s s i b i l i t i e s ! e©go c r o s s i n g a busy s t r e e t , t a k i n g a trip by a i r , etc© 6o A s s i g n the w r i t i n g of a s i m i l a r s t o r y u s i n g the anecdotal form ( t h i r d person, s i n g l e paragraph, no d i r e c t speech)© The students are t o cre a t e t h e i r own s e t t i n g s and characters but are to use the same plot© c ENGLISH 8 NARRATION TeaoMv-g, LY t Lesson 6 lb) Folklore Anecdote ==> "'Elevator" lo Q u i c k l y r e v i e w t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s o f n a r r a t i o n 2© R e t u r n t h e 6 ( a ) p a r a g r a p h s D i s o u s s t y p i c a l e r r o r s i n f o r m a n d s e r i o u s d e p a r t u r e s f r o m t h e e s s e n t i a l p l o t ( o n th® b l a c k b o a r d a h e a d o f t i m e ) . E n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e - e x a m i n e t h e i r own t h e m e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e e r r o r s a n d d e p a r t u r e s © So D i s c u s s m o r e f u l l y t h e u s e o f s c e n e a n d s u m m a r y i n n a r r a t i o n © 4 o D i s o u a s t h e c h a n g e i n p o i n t o f view© I n 6 Ca) t h e s t u d e n t s w r o t e f r o m t h e t h i r & p e r s o n p o i n t of v i e w ( o u t s i d e t h e s t o r y ) © I n 6 (b) t h e y a r e t o w r i t e f r o m t h e f i r s t p e r s o n p o i n t o f v i e w ( I n s i d e t h e s t o r y 0 a s t h e p r i m a r y c h a r a o t e r ) © T h e i m p o r t a n t I d e a s r e l a t i n g b o t h -to s c e n e a n d summary a n d t o p o i n t of v i e w a r e s u m m a r i z e d o n t h e p u p i l i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t s a n d w i l l n o t „ t h e r e f o r e , , b e r e p e a t e d here© n e v e r t h e l e s s 0 m o s t s t u d e n t s w i l l ne©<3 some a s s i s t a n c e I n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e i d e a s © 5© A s s i g n t h e r e v i s i o n a n d e x p a n s i o n of t h e 6 ( a ) p a r a g r a p h © E m p h a s i s e t h e s w i t c h i n p o i n t o f v i e w a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e .scene and s u m m a r y c o n c e p t © Go o v e r p u p i l i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h y o u * st^d&iit;.© ENGLISH 8 Lessons 6 a and b NARRATION P u p i l I n s t r u c t i o n s . F o l k l o r e Anecdote " E l e v a t o r " . . •1. The f o l l o w i n g quotation i s from a l e t t e r of Alexander Woolcott (the O r i g i n a l "Man Who Came To Dinner") i n which he suggests the p l o t of a sto r y fr-om the f o l k l o r e of many, c o u n t r i e s . Your teacher w i l l d i s c u s s i t w i t h ,.youa ... -.-. .' .• • , " \ New York C i t y , ' A p r i l 3, 1937. Dear Margaret M i t c h e l l , .You're j u s t goading me to t e l l t hat s t o r y of the e l e v a t o r . I wrote I t ".years ago f o r the "New Yorker" and i t was my f i r s t encounter w i t h f o l k l o r e , i n that v e r s i o n the scene was an elegant Southern home w i t h the scent .of magnolias . i n the"; a i r "and the crunch of wheels on g r a v e l . I t was a hearse that came by and the d r i v e r w i t h the l i v i d face took '.off h i s -top hat. and looked up at the windoi- and s a i d , "Room' f o r one more'.". I t was those words i s s u i n g from the selfsame face, (but t h i s time the face of a-man-operating the e l e v a t o r ) which, i n a department store up no r t h the f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r , l e d her to' r e c o i l i n the n i c k of time.' " ' '- ' I have since learned that that e l e v a t o r has' been cr a s h i n g . s t e a d i l y since the l a t e " e i g h t i e s "„ . .more o f t e n than not there i s a hearse though, I too ., have known, the man. to c a r r y the c o f f i n , . - . I t l's a. hearse that's heard, on the .cobblestones of D i j o n and-, the crash ' a f t e r -wards .occurs i n a-hotel i n Paris.' In' America the f a c e i s u s u a l l y -l i v i d w i t h a scar across i t . As you get past the Rhine r - -the. s t o r y has long had currency around Warsaw — the-man i s d i stInguished. by a shock of s c a r l e t h a i r , crowning a face the col o u r of a f i s h ' s " b e l l y . Very pretty,. „ „ ••.'•" - • ' .-. -• Alexander Woolcott. 2. Your teacher has/reviewed w i t h you some of the important p r i n c i p l e s of'narration,- . Another important n a r r a t i v e concept concerns the use of -scene and s u m m a r y E v e r y - event i n a s t o r y does not r e c e i v e -the same a t t e n t i o n from the w r i t e r , . In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s stage of the work we w i l l use two terms, "scene" and - summary". , - • ' The use of scene. The scene gives the reader the sense of a c t u a l l y being present f o r he i s - h e a r i n g the words as they were a c t u a l l y -spoken and seeing the a c t i o n as i t r e a l l y ..happened, • Through, the' eyes of the w r i t e r he- Is watching the s t o r y take-place., The-.scene i s therefore, used f o r important and intense moments*. The c r i s i s and the climax of a s e r i e s of a c t i o n s i s always narrated i n "scene." by a competent w r i t e r . The use of summary0 When the w r i t e r wishes to cover l a r g e areas of space or long periods of time r a p i d l y , he uses summary. Such periods of time and space are necessary to the s t o r y but are not worth n a r r a t i n g w i t h the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l of a scene, / A..nk \ Page 2 Pup i 1 Ins true t ions. Point of view is another important idea which w i l l be discussed,, mainly in connection with 6 b . A story told by one of the characters is told' from the f i r s t person point of view. Any incident i n which the narrator takes an active part is told in the f i r s t person. A story so told gains i n vividness but suffers one great disadvantage -- the w r i t e r cannot recount events i n which he did not take part, Stevenson's "Kidnapped' is told i n the f i r s t person. " A story told by the author himself, instead of by one of the characters, i s told from the t h i r d person point of view. This is the point of view used in writing h i s t o r y and i s also the'one' usually chosen fp.r t e l l i n g a story. The writer s a c r i f i c e s some vividness by adopting this--method since the action i s no longer described by one who took part i n i t , but the author can now recount a l l Qv«nts since he assumes knowledge of everything that happens. Writing' assignments: In your assigninlfn't' you w i l l create your own settings, incidents, and characters but r e t a i n the same plot and anecdotal form. 'Now write a single paragraph in the thi r d person t e l l i n g a story s i m i l a r tc (but not the,same as)- the one above. |__b •. . " •' .. This assignment i s a r e v i s i o n and expansion of your 6 a theme. This, time .you are to imagine that you are the primary character and are to write the story from the f i r s t person point of view. You w i l l f i n d . that the indire c t quotation w i l l enliven your work and w i l l s t i l l permit you to.use the anecdotal form (no di r e c t speech). : At the'same time, expand your vereion of the anecdote by treating some of the incidents as scene and some as summary. Avoid any e ^ r ^ have made in 5 a. ENGLISH 8 Lesson 1 Ca) NARRATION "Lapse of Tim© Teaching Notes„ lo Return paragraphs 6 {b) 0 Discuss typical errors in form (on th© hoard ahead of time). Use examples from these paragraphs to review the n a r r a t i v e concepts of scene and summary and of point of v i e w 0 Students should re-examine t h e i r own themes In the l i g h t of t h i s discuss'ion© Distribute the mimeographed student instructions* So Discuss the importance of time sequence in narration (the ©rder in which the various events in the story ar© told}© For t h i s purpose a concrete example i s provided as part of the student instructions 0 Discuss this b r i e f l y with the class 0 So Instruct the students to read the story of the Bra'Iys and th® Brannans© Working with the students outline the time sequence of events and th© essential plot as in Lesson 6 (a)© It may be necessary to explain the lapse of time "angle" employed by the writer© Th© key seeias to be in the line "a man may live a whole l i f e in the moment of stabbing and pulling the blade out again"© It is quite likely that In that moment the son Imagined one unpleasant possibility of the v i s i t to their long-time enemies© The experience was so powerful that It approached reality© The actual event which followed was quite different from the imagined one© 4© Assign the writing of an anecdotal, third person paragraph in which the student uses a parallel plot but original characters and settingo This w i l l be shorter and simpler than the story of the Bradys and th© Brennans* Discuss one or two possibilities© ENGLISH 8 n a r r a t i o n Lesson 7 ( b ) "Lapse of Time" Teaching Notes, l o Return 7 (a) paragraphs,, B r i e f l y d i s c u s s t y p i c a l e r r o r s i n f o r e cud s e r i o u s departures from p l o t structure„ B r i e f l y r e v i s e c.!*?c t-hz-p r i n c i p l e s of time sequence„ scene and summary9 and point of vlewo So In t h i s l e s s o n the students w i l l be r e q u i r e d to convert the anec-d o t a l paragraph from 7 ( a) t o a longer n a r r a t i v e form© Prepare the c l a s s f o r t h i s by t a k i n g the o r i g i n a l s t o r y and d e c i d i n g (with th© c l a s s ) which i n c i d e n t s can be c l a s s i f i e d as scene and which as summaryo 3o Bote a l s o the use of the d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n i n t h i s story© Encourage the students t o incl u d e some of t h i s as part of t h e i r r e v l s i o n s 0 4c, A s s i g n the w r i t i n g of the theme© I t should c o n t a i n the same p l o t & c h a r a c t e r s 8 and s e t t i n g as 7 (a) but should be converted from an anecdote i n v o l v i n g on© paragraph to a longer n a r r a t i v e i n v o l v i n g at l e a s t three paragraphs© Suggest to the 3tudents t h a t they l i m i t t h e i r n a r r a t i v e to soene 0 summary0 and soene 0 i f possible© A c t u a l length i s l e s s important than the attempt t o us© the p r i n c i p l e s of narration,* I n t h i s f i n a l paragraph of th© s e r i e s the students branch out from the s i n g l e paragraph theme and have an opportunity to us© the paragraph as a punotuational device© SNSLISH 8 N a r r a t i o n P u p i l I n s t r u c t i o n s lessons .7 a and b .Bradys.and Brennans Anecdote ("Lapse of Time") I... ! Time Sequence. •— -. The order i n which a w r i t e r sets, down the events i n h i s n a r r a t i v e ' i s of great Importance."" •-..•"'•'••" ". :'\ ".. Let. us- imagine that a w r i t e r of f i c t i o n has found a happening which he f e e l s contains the makings of a-plot f o r a.piece of f i c t i o n . To, s i m p l i f y ' t h e m a t t e r - f u r t h e r l e t . us imagine that. I t c o n s i s t s of. the f o l l o w i n g . e v e n t s : 1.. A and B, two desperate-men, pl a n to murder 0. 2.. A and 3 do murder C i n the l i b r a r y of h i s country home. . 3. The b u t l e r f i n d s G Ts dead'body. . ,r ' , •'4. The b u t l e r phones the p o l i c e . 5. As i n a l l imaginary s t o r i e s , the p o l i c e are b a f f l e d and c a l l i n ' the -famous d e t e c t i v e D.. 6.. D questions a l l . t h e suspects. 7. D'works out the p o s s i b l e method of, and reason f o r committing the crime. 8. D exposes the two c r i m i n a l s who are l e d o f f to j u s t i c e . .. • I f we arrange these events on a l i n e representing- the passage of time, they would look something l i k e t h i s : 1 2 •-••g" 4. 5 6 . 7 8 A and B "They" B u t l e r G a l l s P o l i c e D e t e c t i v e D works C r i m i n a l s P l a n the s t r i k e f i n d s p o l i c e b a f f l e d D a r r i v e s out exposed murder the ...-•/ method' body and reason I f our w r i t e r of f i c t i o n set down the events i n t h i s order, that i s , i n t h e i r n a t u r a l sequence, there would be n c s t o r y because we would know from the beginning who.had done the deed and why. In-order to hold our i n t e r e s t the w r i t e r " d i s t u r b s " the " n a t u r a l sequence" or the normal order of time. He would probably put number 3 f i r s t and then rearrange.them l i k e t h i s : 3 4 5 6 7 2 1 8 • . He might omit 1 completely. •-..".' '•'•'.' -2. Lapse of Time Plot'—The'Bradys" and the Brennans There were one time, s a i d the f o l k t a l e , two warring c l a n s . For convenience c a l l one of them the Bradys and the other the Brennans, And the Bradys, a blackheaded people, deciding to make peace w i t h the redheaded Brennans, i n v i t e d t h e i r c h i e f and h i s el d e s t son to a banquet i n t h e i r c a s t l e . How the o l d s t o r y t e l l e r s always s a i d c a s t l e or palace when they meant a thatched, whitewashed c a b i n . The two Brennans approached the Brady c a b i n and heard i n the dis t a n c e the noise of j o l l i t y . "Take your s k i a n ( k n i f e ) from your l e a t h e r b e l t , " s a i d the f a t h e r to the son, "and put i t out of s i g h t i n the th a t c h . 'Tisn't wholesome to walk w i t h a bare blade showing i n t o a house of peace'.1 Page 2 Pupi1 Ins true t ions The son drew s l o w l y from'his b e l t •'of "'Spanish''leather'his long sharp k n i f e . As the f a t h e r stepped over the welcoming thre s h o l d the son reached up and b u r i e d the k n i f e i n the thatch above the door, s t a b b i n g " i t i n u n t i l ' n o t h i n g showed but the brass-studded end of the h a f t . Then he a l s o crossed the threshold to see h i s f a t h e r wounded ahd bleeding on the f l o o r , and the Bradys crouched i n a corner,, hate i n t h e i r f a c e s , t h e i r backs' to ! the w a l l , t h e i r weapons i n t h e i r hands. . 'And a f t e r the b a t t l e the young man, who-was strong and a hero,, and a, match f o r -a haggard f u l l - of-Bradys, rescued h i s f a t h e r , c a r r i e d him away across the f i e l d s and a deep r i v e r to the house of a leech'"who bound and healed the' wounds... Fording-the r i v e r he slipped, on a round stone and .came'near to- drowning, but by a great e f f o r t he survived ,.§nd a f t e r many t e r r o r s saved h i s father's- l i f e . Then, red hot f o r vengeance, he turned back to the Brady cabin, reached up again, p u l l e d h i s k n i f e out of the that c h , stepped murderously across the threshold to f i n i s h the whole f a m i l y -- ard saw the Bradys laughing and d r i n k i n g , and h i s father, among them as happy, and unmarked as a man could be.. His f a t h e r s a i d to him, "What delayed you, boy, and what are you doing w i t h the ski a n ? " The Bradys .said, "Welcome son of a good f a t h e r . Drink some poteen". Or words to that e f f e c t . 'That was - a l l of. the o l d s t o r y . No expl a n a t i o n s , no moral except, perhaps, that an honest bare blade i s b e t t e r than, a-blade'hidden' i n the body of a neighbour's house, or that a man may l i v e a whole l i f e i n the moment of stabbing and puTling the blade out again..... For the young Brennan boy 'a gesture, had stopped the world dead and given wonderful things the opportunity to' happen. ' 3c O u t l i n e of Time Sequence and E s s e n t i a l P l o t . Your teacher, w i t h your a s s i s t a n c e , w i l l o u t l i n e the time sequence of events, and the e s s e n t i a l elements of the p l o t . 4 r. 7 a Assignment. •'.>... •.'•' On l o o s e l e a f paper you are to p l a n and w r i t e an anecdotal t h i r d person paragraph using a p a r a l l e l p l o t but o r i g i n a l characters and .-.setting.. Your paragraph need not be lengthy and w i l l probably be simpler i n .structure than the s t o r y you have j u s t read. 5 o 7 b Assignment. Using the same p l o t , c h a r a c t e r s , and s e t t i n g a s ' i n 7 a convert your theme from a one-paragraph anecdote to a three or more paragraph n a r r a t i v e . This n a r r a t i v e w i l l probably c o n s i s t only of scene, summary, and scene. Use d i r e c t , quotations i f p o s s i b l e but, as • n a r r a t o r , r e t a i n the t h i r d person poi n t of view. " APPENDIX B - INSTRUCTIONS TO RATERS OF TEST PARAGRAPHS appended t o The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four Procedures f o r E v a l u a t i n g Students' W r i t t e n Themes M. Y. McMechan C O P Y I n s t r u c t i o n s to Raters of I n i t i a l and F i n a l Paragraphs 1« I n t r o d u c t i o n There i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t , pro-v i d i n g the markers read c a r e f u l l y , there i s l i t t l e d i f -ference i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of d e t a i l e d , content/form, or i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c marking. We s h a l l use a modified general impression method. Composition elements to be considered, i n decreasing order of emphasis, a r e : e f f e c t i v e n e s s of expression, u n i t y , and mechanical c o r r e c t n e s s . 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of Composition Elements (a) E f f e c t i v e n e s s of expression. T h i s • i n c l u d e s choice of words and phrases, sentence-s t r u c t u r e , and sentence-linkage. Since these three aspects of expression l a r g e l y determine the degree of c l a r i t y , em-phasis, and reader i n t e r e s t they are of prime importance. Wisely-chosen words and phrases help the w r i t e r more r e a d i l y and more p r e c i s e l y t o communicate h i s ideas to the reader. Good sentence-structure helps to secure c l a r i t y and emphasis through v a r i e t y of sentence form, changes i n the normal word order, proper subordination and coordina-t i o n , the use of a p p d s i t i o n a l words or groups of words, intra-sentence connectives, e t c . E f f e c t i v e sentence-l i n k i n g s draw together and organize a l l of the ideas i n the paragraph. Involved here are the use of "bridge" words and the arrangement (order) of the v a r i o u s sentences. (b) Unity. U n i t y , or oneness of expression, as considered here, i s concerned only w i t h the r e l a t i o n of the v a r i o u s ideas to the t o p i c and the degree t o which the t o p i c and summary sentences are u n i f y i n g f o r c e s i n the paragraph. I t w i l l be noted that the general content i s the same f o r a l l paragraphs i n each f i v e - d i v i s i o n group. The s p e c i f i c i d e a s , however, were s e l e c t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l students. This s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c ideas i s r e l a t e d to oneness of expression. [These ideas are u s u a l l y noted i n the student's p h r a s a l o u t l i n e and are repeated i n the para-graph proper.) The manner of expression and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the ideas are both f a c t o r s of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of expres-s i o n . This i s probably a somewhat a r t i f i c i a l d i f f e r e n t i -a t i o n but may serve t o emphasize some of the composition q u a l i t i e s we consider important and are t r y i n g to assess. (c) Mechanical c o r r e c t n e s s . Mechanical c o r r e c t n e s s • a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s something to the w r i t t e n theme. However, when purely mechanical e r r o r s do not g r e a t l y reduce the - e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f communication between w r i t e r and reader, such e r r o r s - should not be s e v e r e l y ' p e n a l i z e d . On the other hand, when e r r o r s i n s p e l l i n g , punctuation, or usage are such that they ap-p r e c i a b l y reduce the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of expression, they should be penalized under that heading. Of the t w e n t y - f i v e p o s s i b l e marks assigned t o each i n i t i a l paragraph (see below), approximately eighteen to twenty s h a l l be a r b i t r a r i l y assigned to e f f e c t i v e n e s s of expression and the remaining f i v e to seven marks to u n i t y and mechanical c o r r e c t n e s s , 3• C r i t e r i a f o r Determining Composition Q u a l i t i e s The point of view expressed above may be summarized through the use of questions. I t i s suggested t h a t mark-in g r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l be increased i f each marker a p p l i e s the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s of questions t o each paragraph. Af-f i r m a t i v e answers to "a" questions w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n higher scores; a f f i r m a t i v e answers to "b" questions w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n lower scores; " n e u t r a l " or " p a r t l y " answers w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n intermediate scores. I (a) Does the choice of word or phrase more r e a d i l y or more p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e the w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t i o n ? (b) Are words and phrases i n c o r r e c t or i n e f f e c t i v e ? (Included here would be grammatical e r r o r s which commit a breach of i d i o m ) . I I (a) Does the sentence-structure help t o secure emphasis and/or c l a r i t y by the s k i l f u l r e l a t i n g of v a r i o u s sentence elements? (b) Are the sentences l a c k i n g i n i n t e r e s t ; are they i n -c o r r e c t i n form; are the various elements l e f t unre-l a t e d ? Involved here are m i s s i n g or poorly chosen connectives, misplaced m o d i f i e r s , incoherences, e t c . I l l (a) Are the sentences e f f e c t i v e l y l i n k e d ? Are they ar-ranged i n a good, l o g i c a l order? The l i n k i n g may often be achieved through the use of "bridge" words which show time, p l a c e , a d d i t i o n , r e p e t i t i o n , cauaul, e t c . , r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In some cases sentence arrangement alone may provide e f f i c i e n t l i n k a g e , (b) I s sentence-linkage i n e f f e c t i v e , e i t h e r because of poor " b r i d g i n g " or because of poor sentence order? Or, to s t a t e both "a" and "b" another way, are the ideas j o i n e d i n an i n t e r e s t i n g , e f f i c i e n t , and l o g i c a l manner? IV (a) I s the paragraph u n i f i e d ? Are each of the ideas ex-pressed r e l a t e d t o the t o p i c ? Do the t o p i c and sum-mary sentences c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s u n i f i c a t i o n ? (b) Does the paragraph contain m a t e r i a l unrelated to the t o p i c ? Does the paragraph take too long t o get s t a r t e d or go on too long a f t e r the climax has been reached? V (a) In general, are the mechanics good? (b) Are the mechanics d e f i n i t e l y poor? By keeping these questions i n mind the marker w i l l a void the e r r o r of over-emphasizing c e r t a i n paragraph elements w h i l e a l l o w i n g others to go almost unnoticed* U» Marking of Sample Paragraphs At the beginning we-shall s e l e c t twenty-eight or t h i r t y sample paragraphs, say three from each of ten d i v i s i o n s , i f p o s s i b l e . These w i l l be chosen so that about seven or eight w i l l be w r i t t e n by students who had A i n t h e i r f i r s t term composition, about seven by students who had B, about seven by students who had C and about seven by students who had D or E. These samples w i l l then be s h u f f l e d and marked independently by each of the three r a t e r s . Each r a t e r w i l l s o r t the twenty-eight or t h i r t y samples i n t o f o u r p i l e s , re-read to pick out the median i n each p i l e , and a s s i g n marks of 23, 1$, 13, and S r e s -' p e c t i v e l y to the median papers. He w i l l then re-read the other papers i n each p i l e and assign marks ranging from 21-25, 16-20, 11-15, ?-10 r e s p e c t i v e l y , depending upon h i s estimate of each paper compared w i t h the median i n each p i l e . ( I t w i l l be noted that the maximum score i s 25 when t h i s scheme i s used). 5. Recording of Scores The r e c o r d i n g of scores w i l l be done as f o l l o w s : The f i r s t r a t e r records each score at the r i g h t of the r e c t a n g l e at the bottom of the paper. He then records the student's- name (from the back) i n the middle of the r e c t a n g l e , and f i n a l l y assigns a code number which he copies at the l e f t of a l l three r e c t a n g l e s . The code number corresponds to t h a t on a p r e v i o u s l y prepared l i s t of names and numbers. F i n a l l y , he t e a r s or cuts o f f the bottom r e c t a n g l e and f i l e s i t . The papers may then be passed on t o the second r a t e r who f o l l o w s the same pro-cedure but records the score i n the second r e c t a n g l e . Before passing the papers on t o the t h i r d marker he t e a r s or cuts o f f the second rectangle and f i l e s i t . When the t h i r d r a t e r has gone through the same procedure the three of them w i l l then compare r e s u l t s , discuss p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n c e , re-mark some papers i f necessary, and f i n a l l y decide upon the most reasonable mark to as-si g n to each paper. 6. Use of Samples. Two samples from each of the four c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be se l e c t e d on the f o l l o w i n g bases: ( i ) There w i l l have been cl o s e agreement on the scores assigned by the three independent r a t e r s , ( i i ) The paragraphs w i l l have been assigned at or near the median i n each of the four s o r t i n g p i l e s . These eight samples w i l l be typed so that the same set' w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n the same form t o each of the markers. Raters should remember t h a t , while these samples w i l l be • exact copies ( i n c l u d i n g a l l e r r o r s ) of the students' work, they w i l l not i n d i c a t e i n any way the appearance of the o r i g i n a l papers. These samples should be r e f e r r e d t o r e g u l a r l y as the r e s t of the marking proceeds, 7. Marking and Recording of the Remainder of Each Set The r e s t of the paragraphs w i l l not come to the r a t e E s i n any p a r t i c u l a r order. Take f i f t e e n to twenty at random, s o r t i n t o p i l e s , and proceed as with the sample themes. Make r e g u l a r and systematic comparisons with the typed samples. I t may be, f o r example, that any given group may not have paragraphs i n the 21-25, or " l e s s than 11" c a t e g o r i e s . Make comparisons of each new group, not only w i t h the samples, but a l s o w i t h immediately preceding paragraphs. Record the scores i n the same manner as on the samples. COPY'OF SAMPLE PARAGRAPHS USED BY RATERS phrasal" O u t l i n e 1. grey dawn, d u l l horizon, peaceful sea, quiet 2. a feminine shriek of "'horror 3. rushed from my cabin 4. " f i r e . " 5. a woman i n nighty, clutching baby smoke poured from her cabin 6. y e l l e d commands to the spectators and crew 7. was the f i r e spreading?!! 8. pumps extinguish the crackling blaze. 9 . "Never smoke i n bed". Paragraph It was warm and grey, as I looked from my cabin window, early that morning. A sense of peacefulness and quiet was evident through out the ship. A l l at once I f e l t a sick f e e l i n g inside me, as I heard the t e r r i -f i e d scream of a woman, and smell the raw, choking smoke! I ran from my cabin to the passenger's quarters, just i n time to see a panic-stricken woman, i n a f l i m s y nighty, rushing from her room carrying a t i n y baby! Y e l l i n g commands to the crew and spectators, I grabbed a f i r e extinguisher and fought my way through the smoke, a damp waiter ' s towel across my mouth. How f a r had the f i r e spread? Would i t be the destruction of my ship? My fears soon l e f t me, however, as I saw the burned bed clothes and curtains. The blaze was soon overcome, but the damage to the passen-ger's property was considerable. I am certain that no guests who were on my s h i p , on that f r i g h t e n i n g day, w i l l ever smoke i n bed! phrasal Outline 1. night — a f e e l i n g of excitement 2. strange behaviour 3. mutiny 4. escape 5. tables turned 6. return to harbour 7. end of dream Paragraph It was a starry, moonlit, night. There was a f e e l i n g of excitement i n -the a i r . I am captain of a ship on the.high seas. My crew i s tough, weather-beaten and g r i z z l e d . The ship I am captain of i s a gallant, sturdy, f a s t , s a i l i n g v e s sel. The men seemed to have been acting strangely. Then, i t happened! The worst thing that a captain can expect! Mutinyl My cabin door swung open and a long, black gun muzzle was thrust into my dark cabin. My cabin was quite large and I, with a few of my f a i t h f u l s a i l o r s who slept i n the same cabin, slipped out the door i n the back of the room. After crawling n o i s l e s s l y to the a f t e r deck and s l i d i n g down a r a i l to the deck above my cabin we surrounded the mutinous s a i l o r s . Then the tables turned. We were the winners. I stepped down, revolver i n hand, and forced the mutineers into the b r i g , where, prisoners were kept. After a few weeks t r a v e l I s a i l e d my ship into harbour, where, a f t e r a t r i a l , a l l prisoners were j a i l e d f o r several years. I had put down a mutiny. Then I woke^ up. I was not such a hero a f t e r a l l . Although i t was a dream, I had the s a t i s -f a c t i o n of being a public hero and a small-boys i d o l . phrasal Outline You have a captain v i s i t i n g you — he told you some wonderful stories — Last night you dreamed you were a sea-captain — you & your crew were plundered by pirates out i n the middle of the ocean — You fought them off single-handedly and got a l l t h e i r "loot" that they had stolen. Paragraph For the past few days my uncle, who i s a sea-captain, has been v i s i t i n g us, & during that time, he has told us many e x i t i n g s t o r i e s of his adven-tures. Last night I had a dream about one of them & i n i t I was the cap-t a i n . We (my crew & I) were s a i l i n g along quite peacefully one afternoon i n the middle of the ocean when the look-out spied a pirate ship on the horizon. The crew started to panic but I was not a f r a i d . I soon quieted them down & we got out the ammunition. Before we knew i t they were upon us, jumping from a l l sides with daggers i n t h e i r teethl My men were so t t e r r i f i e d they couln't do a thing. But, I just dpew out my sword & p i s t o l & with both of them I fought the pirates o f f single-handedIII They had k i l l e d quite a few of my men but I was able to carry-on with the r e s t . We boarded the pirate ship & got a l l of the valuables they had stolen. There were diamonds, emerallds, rubys, a l l kinds of Jewells set i n s o l i d gold. Just as we were boarding our own ship again The alarm rang. But, what a wonderful dream that wasj Phrasal Outline go to bed thinking about sea stories — go to sleep and dream — i n the a t l a n t i c — -on small boat -- alone — sharks a l l around — get swept overboard -- wake up — Paragraph Adventure on the A t l a n t i c I t was 9.30 and I had to go to bed, dreaming about the sea stories my uncle a r e t i r e d sea-captain had told me. I found myself In mid A t l a n t i c , the sun was high overhead. Nowhere could I see land, only the white-caps off the high A t l a n t i c waves. I had to f i s h f o r my food having none on board. Then I caught a f i s h , I had hooked i t through the g i l l s . Blood started to flow from his g i l l s , which attraced dozens of sharks i n no time f l a t . I keyed down f l a t on the deck so as not to f a l l over. The sun Was sinking behind the waves. At night i t became quite calm, the moon shone In the sharkes eyes. Then i t became very rough. The sharks were waiting. I could see t h e i r huge jaws. Then i t happened, a monstrous wave caught the boat on itfs side. I was thrown into the cold deep sea. Then as that happened I found myself laying on the f l o o r i n my bedroom, f i n d i n g out I had had a bad dream. phr asal Outl ine Topic Sentence stormy night one of the masts broke some men were trapped How we got out of i t Summary Sentence. Paragraph On My Own Ship I was captain of my own ship and going to s a i l the high seas. One night we were s a i l i n g i n the Indian Ocean when a l l of a suddened a storm blew up i t was the worse storm I had ever seen. The waves were cashing at the boat the wind was Jjqwling around the mast. Then i t happened one of the masts came cashing down. There were loud y e l l s . Five men were trapped under i t . One of the men was dead and the others we managed to get out. Then a huge white whale came charging i n on us. Then I woke up y e l l i n g my head o f f . I just hope I don't have any more dreams l i k e that. Phrasal Outline looking f o r treasure — f i n d i t — p i r a t e ship chases you. — b a t t l e , p i r a t e ship beat — go back to harbour c i r r i p p l e d . Paragraph The "Sea Worthy" One day while I was t r a v e l l i n g to an unknown Island where there was reported found a treasures hoping there s t i l l some f o r me. When X H K one of my crew said there was "land Ahoy"0 So thingking t h i s was Island we stopped to have a look. Well we were looking around K K one of my crew stumbled on to an old cave so we a l l went to have a look. I went i n alone and found a treasurer chest. Just as I was about to open i t one of my crew said a pirate ship was i n sight. So we carried the chest aboared the "Bea Worthy" our ship and set s a i l . While we were just out of the Bay the Pirate ship.started shooting at us so we returned f i r e . After about ten minutes of f i r e i n g the Pirate ship started to sink. So we started f o r gx home. But on our way home we ran i n to a l i t t l e storm — afte r the storm was through we saw the water gushing through the bottom so we set out on our long boat f o r home. About 6 hours l a t e r we reached home without the treasure i n a l l the excietraent we foregot about the treasure. Before that the "Sea Worthy" had riden out many a storm but thi s time with a treasure aboard i t had to sink. My next boat i s going to becalled. "Unsea Worthy". APPENDIX C - SAMPLES OF STUDENT TEST AND PRACTICE PARAGRAPHS appended to The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four Procedures f o r Ev a l u a t i n g Students' W r i t t e n Themes M. Y. 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' . . . . . •, \ ' • '• . , ^ . • - V -L _I x ^z$4iu- ^..j$LJ^cZi-A^^2^ 1 i i 4- -i - i /£bc&&yifr 1 V - - - - - - h . ^ _ * £ & ^ _ _ ^ _ < ^ ^ /dzcivetyUk/, __-__&_ dhuJr tLOcsTh ^Uc^hj JeAo-frC ^ A . joA/nU QAMSULAJ -u %/^jy*^iL*^ J i u ^ j u J %^ALJ^J. / K A A J - W ^ V ^ ^ j •_ ~T7~1 <-Ad_/JjJ-jyd^ 1 jr^ifM+A " " f T -Lauds. m~A' JM, >a C G ). 7" •6 V 7 fyyjrfL-jro, -sQ^-JL APPENDIX D - SAMPLES OF QUESTIONNAIRES appended to The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four Procedures f o r E v a l u a t i n g Students' W r i t t e n Themes M. Y. McMechan CUKSTIOSBAIRB FOR TEACHERS ,11s GRADE VIIX COMPOSITION PROGRAMS (Please do a©t i n d i c a t e name or d i v i s i o n ) 1,. F i r s t of a l i o thank--you f e r y much f o r your cooperation i n t h i s research p r o j e c t „ 2c Did you f e e l that the programme as a whole r e q u i r e d more time and e f f o r t than you v,'ouid o r d i n a r i l y employ over a 4 month p e r i o d ? So Did. you fe4l that the prepared lessons were u s e f u l to you as teaching a i d s ? 40 Did ytm/feel that the students gained from t h i s " s i t u a t i o n " type of lesson? Was there any d i f f e r e n c e between h i g h a b i l i t y and low a b i l i t y students in t h i s regard? UU „ . 5=, Were there many complaints from the " l i m i t e d marking' 8 groups? t2S?A UMJLAL : „- __ -Comment b r i e f l y a P s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t ? 6 0 M i l c h of t h e / f o l l o w i n g ^ seemed, to make the best progress; WUMT' (a) A l l marked l e t t e r grades (b) A l l marked - ©©ajmeiats (c) L i m i t e d marking = l e t t e r grades (d) w 10 o comments ^ ?„ Which of the f o u r groups above (a-d) seemed most s a t i s f i e d w i t h the procedure ? ^ 8o .From your personal point of view which of the f o u r marking procedures d i d you p r e f e r ? ( See a-d) above ^ 9a What other procedure do you t h i n k would be b e t t e r f o r your purposes ? 10a I f you were o r g a n i s i n g a s i m i l a r programme what changes would yoa make ? A _ H g j M _ H J _ _ ^ ® - G r a d e Composition Fgograraae Pleas© un d e r l i n e on© answer to each of the f o l l o w i n g questions! Do not put your nam© on t h i s paper© l o Did you l i k e th© " s i t u a t i o n " type of assignment which was used throughout the term? X§_<> No« W o t s „ 3 9 2o Do you th i n k that your own composition improved? Ygy^ o No*, Not s u r e G 3o *Vas enough time allowed f o r each assignment ? Yes 0 J _ Q Not sureo 40 Answer t h i s Item only i f a l l of your paragraphs were assigned l e t t e r gradess •Did t h i s mark help you to judge youx* own prog_es_?Y_jo No Q Not sur©0 5 0 Answer t h i s item o n l y i f a l l of your paragraphs had w r i t t e n eomments on them! Did t h i s type o f comment help you to Improve your composition ? Y@&0 N© 0 $ot sur©p 6 0 Answer t h i s item o n l y i f J u s t some o f you? paragraphs were marked w i t h a l e t t e r grades Did you f e e l you were p e n a l i z e d a t a l l because you had t© judge your own ©ark f o r some of your paragraphs? Yeso No Q Not sure© 7 0 Answer t h i s Item o n l y i f j u s t some of y@u_ paragraphs wer© commented upon? Did you f e e l you were g e t t i n g enough teacher as s i s t a n c e ? Yes 0 No© Not sur®9 8 0 Answer t h i s Item o n l y I f you answered e i t h e r item 6 ©r item 7 s Did jou f e e l t h a t th© o p p o r t u n i t y to judge some o f your own work helped you to Improve? Yeso N© 0 Not sure© Did yo_ f e e l t h a t th© paragraphs not marked by th® teaeher were a wast© of time because you d i d not know how you were g e t t i n g along- ? Y©s 0 H© 0 Not sux»®o 9© A l l students pleas© answer t h i s items Tf^you had a choice which on© of the f o l l o w i n g marking procedures would be of g r e a t e s t help t© you ? (Underline one Q) a) A l l paragraphs marked I n a l l d©talls 0i oe o every e r r o r indicated© b) A l l paragraphs marked w i t h a l e t t e r grade,, d; J u s t some paragraphs marked w i t h a l e t t e r grade so that you have an o p p o r t u n i t y to judge some of your own work ? e) J _ _ t some paragraphs commented upon so that you have an op p o r t u n i t y to judge some o f your own work ? 1 0 o I s there some other procedure you t h i n k would be b e t t e r than any of those named above? 0 I f s© e d e s c r i b e i t i n a sentence o r tw@© <_3? Questionnaire°G-rade V l I I Composition Programme Please u n d e r l i n e on© answer to each of the f o l l o w i n g questions' Do not put your name on t h i s pape_o l o Did yo\* l i k e the " s i t u a t i o n " type of assignment which was used throughout the term? _ _ o No 0 Not s u r e p 2o Do you th i n k that your own composition improved? Yea* No<> Not sure© 3o »Vas enough time allowed fop each assignment ? __So Mo0 Not sur© 4 C Answer t h i s Item onl y i f a l l of your paragraphs were assigned l e t t e r gradess Did t h i s mark help you to judge your own progress?Y© s 0 Ho c Not s u r @ 0 5 0 Answer t h i s Item o n l y i f a l l of your paragraphs had w r i t t e n comments ©n thems Did t h i s type of comment help you to Improve your composition ? ___o No Q Hot s u _ _ p 6 0 Answer' t h i s item o n l y I f j u s t some of your paragraphs were marked w i t h a l e t t e r 1 grade? Did you "feel you were p e n a l i z e d a t a l l because you had t@ judge your own work f o r some ©f your paragraphs? Y©a<> No 0 Not sure.? 7 0 Answer t h i s Item o n l y I f j u s t som© of y@ur paragraphs wer® _omment®d upons Did you f e e l you wer® g e t t i n g enough teacher a s s i s t a n c e ? Yes 0 Ho© N©t su_@Q 8 0 Answer t h i s item o n l y I f you answered e i t h e r Item 6 ©r Item 7 g Did you f e e l t h a t th© o p p o r t u n i t y t® judge some of your own work helped you to Improve? Yeso N© 0 Not sur® Did you f e e l t h a t th® paragraphs not marked by the teacher wer© a wast® of tim® because you d i d not know hot? you wer® g e t t i n g alon_ ? Y©s 0 W© 0 Not sur©o @o A i l students pleas® answer t h i s Items T F y o u had a choice which one of the f o l l o w i n g marking procedures would b® of g r e a t e s t help t© you ? (Underline one 0) a) A l l paragraphs marked i n a l l d e t a l l s ^ i o e o every e r r o r 3.ndieated 0 b j A l l paragraphs marked w i t h a l e t t e r grade e ©) A l l BflPflgpaphfl marked w i t h shavt w r i t t e n c o r n m - n t a . * d) J u s t some paragraphs marked w i t h a l e t t e r grade so that you have an o p p o r t u n i t y to judge some of your own work ? e) J _ s t some paragraphs commented upon so that you have an op p o r t u n i t y to Judg© som® o f your own work ? 10o I s there some other procedure you t h i n k would be b e t t e r than any of those named above? o I f 3© e describe I t i n a sentence o r tw@c Pliag© "^ideFlin© '5H®~1aSsw9i» *£©' e^a~or'tiie' i*©ll@wii*g qt?asfci©»&* Do nofe put your nam© ©n t h i s pap©i°o i o Did yoia Ilk® th© " s i t u a t i o n " typ© of assignment whi©h wag used throughout th© t@rs? ___0 No 0 K©ft su?@Q 2© ^© y©^ th i n k t h a t your ©TO composition improved? X__o H©<> Kofe gitr@o So t'Jan eao'agh time allewsd f-v.-? escfe aeaigra»OTt ? Vaa.. F^ ., $©fc 5 * ^ O i , 4o Answer t h i s item o n l y I f a l l ©f your paragraphs wer© assigned l e t t e r grades8 Did t h i s mark help you t® Judg© your @wm pr@g_e__?Y©So I s 0 Hot ©UP©© g© Anawes> t h i s Item o n l y i f a l l of your paragraphs had written ©@mm@nts ©HI th©sas Did t h i s typ© of ©eminent help you fe® Isapr©v@ your ©©mpo_It.t©a ? Y&Ea Ito© 23©fe su_?@e S© Answer t h i s item o n l y i f J u s t som® ©f yous* paragraphs wer© marked w i t h a l e t t e r gradas Did you f e e l you wer© p e n a l i s e d a t a l l b®eaus® you had t® Judg® y e w ©wn work f o r som® of your paragraph©? . Yea© N©© N©fe sus^© 7© Aaswer t h i s I t e a ©nly i f Jusfe s©m© ©f jww paragraph® wer® @©mmenfe®d upom D M jam f e e l you w®r@ g e t t i n g ©nough t@a©h©r asglstan©© ? 'Y®&Q N© 0 H@t sTOo So Answer t h i s item o n l y I f yoa answered ©Ither It©® 6 ©r £t®s ? § Dig y©ia f®©l t h a t th© ©pperfeunity t@ judg© ®®m@ ©f y@U2? ©w» werk helped y©« fe© impr©^©? Y^s- M@0 I©fe au:f©0 Did y©« I1®©! t h a t feh© paragraphs not marked by few® t©a©h©3? wer® a wast© ©f time b@©aus® yeu d i d net ten&a how y©u were g e t t i n g &l©ss|§ ? Y@g0 |©o Me^ st^\-> ©o A l l , stud©nfcgs pleas© answer thl© it®®8 I F y © u ted a ©h©I©@ whi@h one ©f th© f o l l o w i n g marking pr©@®dur@s would b@ ©f gr©@,t@@fe help fe® y@ta ? (Usderlin® @n©0) a) A l l wftraasgRPha ma^k®d l a a l l d®fadl£u£o®o ©very ©rror indi©at©d0 h) A l l paragraphs marked w i t h a l©tter grada© ©) A l l paragraphs marked w i t h s h o r t w r i t t e n ©©mmsnfeso d) J u s t som© paragraph© m&rksd w i t h a letter gradi> ae t h a t JQU • hav© an opportunity to judg® s@m@ of your ©wn work f ®i J'mt 3©m® paragraphs @@mment®d upon so tha t y©u have m. ©pp©rfeunlty to Judg© som© ©£ your ©wn w©rk f 10© Is ther© ®@ai® ©th©r proeedura^ou t h i n k would b© b©tt©r tfaaa any^of th©©© nam@d ab&v©? x f s@s deaeribe i t i s a X, QuQ-tionnair®°Grade V l i g : Composition Programme Please u n d e r l i n e on® answer to each of the f o l l o w i n g questionss Do not put your name on t h i s paper© l o Did you Ilk© the " s i t u a t i o n " type of assignment which was used throughout the term? Yes 0 No© Hot sure© 2o Do you th i n k that your own composition improved? Yes<> No 9 Not sure© 5o kVas enough time allowed f o r each assignment ? Yeso Ko© Hot s u r e 0 4 Q Answer t h i s item onl y i f a l l of your paragraphs were assigned l e t t e r grades? Did t h i s mark help you te judge your own progress?Yeso Ho© Not sur©© 5© Answer t h i s item o n l y i f a l l of your paragraphs had w r i t t e n comments on thems Did t h i s type of comment help you t o improve your composition ? Y®s 0 Ko© Not sur@e 6© Answer t h i s item o n l y i f J u s t some of your paragraphs were marked w i t h a l e t t e r grades Did you f e e l you were p e n a l i z e d a t a l l because you had t© Judge your own work f o r some of your paragraphs? Yes© Ko 0 Not sure© 7© Answer t h i s item o n l y i f J u s t som© of y@ur paragraphs were commented upons Di d you f e e l you wer© g e t t i n g enough teacher a s s i s t a n c e ? Y©_» No© Not sure© 8© Answer t h i s Item o n l y i f you answered e i t h e r item 6 ©r item 7 s Did you f e e l t h a t th© o p p o r t u n i t y t© Judge some of your own work helped you to improve? Yes« No» Not sure© Did yo_ f e e l t h a t th® paragraphs not marked by the teacher wer© a wast© of time because you d i d not know how you wer© g e t t i n g along ? Yeso N©/> Not sure© 9 © A l l students please answer t h i s Items "IF"you had a choice which one of the f o l l o w i n g marking procedures would b® of g r e a t e s t help t© you ? (Underline one c) a) A l l paragraphs marked I n a l l d e t a i l s p l ^ e o every e r r o r i n d i c a t e d ^ b) A l l paragraphs marked w i t h a l e t t e r grade p '©) A l l paragraphs marked w i t h s h o r t w r i t t e n comments© d) J u s t som© paragraphs marked w i t h a l e t t e r grade s© that you have an o p p o r t u n i t y to judge some of your own work ? @) Jumt som© paragraphs commented upon so that you have an op p o r t u n i t y to judge som© of your own work ? 10© Is there some other procedure you t h i n k would b© b a t t e r than any of those named above? z ^ , ^ « I f sos d e s c r i b e i t i n a sentence or two© Yi 

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