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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An empirical investigation into areas of moral awareness and the formulation of principles basic to the… Leedham, Lelia Rachel 1958

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AN  EMPIRICAL AREAS  OF  INVESTIGATION MORAL,  INTO  AWARENESS  AND THE  FORMULATION  CONSTRUCTION  OF OF  PRINCIPLES A  SCALE  TO  B'ASIC  TO  MEASURE  CONSCIENCE  by B .  A . ,  LELIA RACHEL LEEDHAM U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1956  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the D e p a r t m e n t of PSYCHOLOGY We accept this t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  M e m b e r s of the D e p a r t m e n t of P s y c h o l o g y THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A September,  1958.  THE  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  I further  copying o f t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r financial  gain  s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f  Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  September, 195 8  •  A N E M P I R I C A L INVESTIGATION INTO A R E A S O F M O R A L A W A R E N E S S AND T H E F O R M U L A T I O N O F P R I N C I P L E S B A S I C TO T H E C O N S T R U C T I O N , O F A S C A L E TO M E A S U R E C O N S C I E N C E  Abstract H i s t o r i c a l l y , m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e have been c o n s i d e r e d m a t t e r s for p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i s t s , h o w e v e r , v i z . F r i e d e n b e r , E . Z . , and H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . , (An attempt to m e a s u r e strength of c o n s c i e n c e , J . P e r s o n a l i t y , 1948, 17, 232-243) and W a c k , D u n s t a n , (A p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of c o n s c i e n c e , Stud. P s y c h o l . P s y c h i a t . C a t h o l . U n i v . A m e r . , 1952, 8, N o . 3) have attempted to m e a s u r e these phenomena. T h e s e studies can be c r i t i c i z e d because the m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s u s e d w e r e d e r i v e d by a p r i o r i and deductive methods r a t h e r than by e m p i r i c a l , i n d u c t i v e methods. T h i s study was undertaken as an attempt to p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s for a s c a l e to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s . A r e v i e w of the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e has r e v e a l e d m a n y p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e q u i r e s o l u t i o n but w h i c h cannot be adequately studied u n t i l an effective r e s e a r c h tool has been d e v i s e d w h i c h w i l l enable i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a b r o a d e r range of conscience than has p r e v i o u s l y been p o s s i b l e . A s a step towards p r o v i d i n g such a t o o l , two t a s k s w e r e undertaken: 1.  To d e s c r i b e the p r i n c i p a l a r e a s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and conscience as r e f l e c t e d i n data obtained f r o m v a r i o u s groups of i n d i v i d u a l s .  2.  To draw out the unifying p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e i n to be u s e d as a f r a m e w o r k for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of future s c a l e s to m e a s u r e conscience.  So that the data would not be b i a s e d by l i m i t e d populations or by s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n s , as wide a v a r i e t y of groups of people as c o u l d be obtained was u s e d , and no definition of c o n s c i e n c e that m i g h t c o l o u r the data was p r o v i d e d . Data w e r e c o l l e c t e d by a s k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , chiefly through the use of a m i m e o g r a p h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , what m a k e s them f e e l b a d . G r o u p s c o n t r i b u t i n g data i n c l u d e d both sexes f r o m r u r a l and u r b a n a r e a s , aged f r o m ten to m i d d l e age, and of a v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n s .  - iii -  The preponderance of data was c o n t r i b u t e d by u n i v e r s i t y students. The i t e m s c o l l e c t e d w e r e s c r u t i n i z e d and l i k e i t e m s w e r e g r o u p e d under separate c a t e g o r i e s . The i t e m s i n each category w e r e then judged for aptness of f i t , and s i m i l a r i t e m s w e r e d r a w n together under a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e . A wide range of c o n s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l r e s u l t e d f r o m this p r o c e d u r e . A l t o g e t h e r , 944 p e r s o n s contributed 3,952 i t e m s i n the r a w data. These w e r e n a r r o w e d down, because of d u p l i c a t i o n s , to 1,555 i t e m s . Items f r o m the s c a l e s of F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t and of W a c k w e r e i n c l u d e d . F r o m this number of i t e m s e m e r g e d 760 g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s under s e v e n t y - f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . In the l i g h t of the b r o a d range of c o n s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l w h i c h has e m e r g e d i n the p r e s e n t study, an a n a l y s i s of the content of the two p r e v i o u s studies has been m a d e . W e a k n e s s e s i n t h e i r content have become evident, some a r e a s being c o m p l e t e l y n e g l e c t e d w h i l e others are unduly e m p h a s i z e d . It i s felt that the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have been d e r i v e d e m p i r i c a l l y i n t h i s study w i l l be useful as a f r a m e w o r k upon w h i c h to c o n s t r u c t a s c a l e to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e .  A CKN O W L E D G M E N T S  The w r i t e r i s deeply indebted to D r . E . S i g n o r i for h i s encouragement, support, and w i s e c o u n s e l . To D r . D . G . S a m p s o n , as w e l l as to D r . S i g n o r i , gratitude i s e x p r e s s e d for the h o u r s of w o r k w h i c h they have devoted to this p r o j e c t .  T h i s study was supported by a grant of $ 5 0 0 f r o m the P r e s i d e n t ' s R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e , and one of $ 850 f r o m the K o e r n e r F o u n d a t i o n , made to D r . S i g n o r i , D e p a r t ment of P s y c h o l o g y .  CONTENTS  Chapter I I I  III  Page Statement of the p r o b l e m  1  R e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e I n t r o d u c t i o n to p r o b l e m Methodology of e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p e r - e g o , e g o - i d e a l and c o n s c i e n c e P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y on the genesis of the super-ego M o r a l development Sexual differences i n m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and s u p e r - e g o function M o r a l a w a r e n e s s i n delinquents and psychopaths The effect of c o n t r o l l e d and u n c o n t r o l l e d s o c i a l factors Changes i n m o r a l a w a r e n e s s w i t h t i m e R e l a t i o n s h i p to i n t e l l i g e n c e R e l a t i o n s h i p to e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y Is there a g e n e r a l t r a i t of h o n e s t y ? Types of conscience C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of b e h a v i o u r A t t e m p t s to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e  58 61 64 67 68 71 73 77  Procedure  84  A i m of method Organization of study C o l l e c t i o n of D a t a a) M e t h o d b) D e s c r i p t i o n of contributing groups F o r m u l a t i o n of C a t e g o r i e s a) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s b) B a s i s of f o r m u l a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s c) D e f i n i t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s Judgment of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s F o r m u l a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s  8 8 10 16 20 27 42 50  84 84 85 85 87 88 88 89 90 90 90  - v -  Chapter IV  V  Page R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  92  Gross numerical results R e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g t o groups F o r m u l a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s Subjective a n a l y s i s of data Elements within categories C o m p a r i s o n w i t h other studies A c h i e v e m e n t of a i m s  . 92 92 95 96 101 102 106  S u m m a r y and suggestions for further study  108  References  112  Appendices A  D e f i n i t i o n s of c a t e g o r i e s  121  B  Items and p r i n c i p l e s  127  TABLES  D i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t r i b u t o r s a c c o r d i n g to groups D i s t r i b u t i o n of i t e m s from, other c o n s c i e n c e s c a l e s under the present categories  Ch a p t e r STATEMENT  I OF  P R O B L E M  ' C o n s c i e n c e i s an a s p e c t of h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y that 1  was left chiefly to the r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h of h u m a n i s t s u n t i l recent years.  The m o r e r e c e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n  conscience d e r i v e s f r o m the fact that i t i s p r e s u m e d to influence behaviour.  That i s , a c o r r e c t l y functioning c o n s c i e n c e leads to  acceptable s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , w h e r e a s a l a c k of c o n s c i e n c e , or an i n c o r r e c t l y functioning one, i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l l y disapproved behaviour.  M o r e o v e r , since conscience a p p e a r s to  be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h i s as subject to l e a r n i n g , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and m a l f u n c t i o n i n g as i s e m o t i o n , i t d e s e r v e s as m u c h attention by p s y c h o l o g i s t s as that g i v e n to i t by o t h e r s .  It i s up to the p s y c h o l o g i s t , then, to find out i n what  situations c o n s c i e n c e a c t s , to what degree i t a c t s , how i t i s dev e l o p e d , and when i t i s developed, as w e l l as how i t i n t e g r a t e s w i t h the r e s t of p e r s o n a l i t y . C o n s c i e n c e a p p e a r s to be both a p r o b l e m and a saving grace i n s o c i e t y .  In the n o r m a l p e r s o n ,  conscience  i n c i t e s m a n to be a s o c i a l b e i n g who can sympathize w i t h h i s f e l l o w s , and prevents h i m f r o m doing h a r m and u r g e s h i m to do "good" i n s t e a d .  In the n e u r o t i c p e r s o n , a c c o r d i n g to  -  2  -  F r e u d (40), there seems to be a s u r f e i t of c o n s c i e n c e - f e e l i n g w h i c h m a y o v e r c o m e the p e r s o n a l i t y , so that i n therapy the battle m u s t be waged against the s u p e r - e g o i n o r d e r to m o d e r a t e i t s demands.  M o w r e r (89), on the other hand, states that  there i s a d e n i a l and r e p r e s s i o n of the functions of the  super-ego  i n the n e u r o t i c i n d i v i d u a l , so that i n therapy the battle m u s t be waged against the i d and an attempt made to strengthen the super-ego.  B o t h t h e o r i s t s e m p h a s i z e , h o w e v e r , that there i s  malfunctioning of the s u p e r - e g o i n n e u r o s i s .  In the p s y c h o p a t h ,  there s e e m s to be either no c o n s c i e n c e , or s u c h r e p r e s s i o n of c o n s c i e n c e that i t s existence cannot be t r a c e d , a c c o r d i n g to m a n y author s. D e s p i t e i t s p r e s u m e d i m p o r t a n c e , l i t t l e of a concrete nature i s a c t u a l l y known about c o n s c i e n c e .  T h i s l a c k of k n o w -  ledge has been fully r e a l i z e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o a n a l y s t s who have pointed out a need for study i n this a r e a . A l l p o r t (5) has  F o r example,  stated,  " P s y c h o l o g i s t s are tempted to t a c k l e only those p r o b l e m s , and to w o r k on only those o r g a n i s m s , that y i e l d to acceptable o p e r a t i o n s . . . . S p e c i a l a v e r s i o n attaches to p r o b l e m s h a v i n g to do w i t h complex m o t i v e s , h i g h - l e v e l i n t e g r a t i o n , w i t h c o n s c i e n c e , f r e e d o m , selfhood. A s we have s a i d , i n l a r g e p a r t i t i s the r e l a t i v e l a c k of objective methods of study that accounts for this a v e r s i o n . B u t the explanation l i e s a l s o i n the p r e f e r e n c e of p o s i t i v i s m for e x t e r n a l s r a t h e r than i n t e r n a l s , for elements r a t h e r than p a t t e r n s , for g e n e t i c i s m and for a p a s s i v e or r e a c t i v e o r g a n i s m r a t h e r than for one that i s spontaneous and a c t i v e . " (5,12)  -  3  -  It i s pointed out by A s c h (8) that there does not e x i s t even a d e s c r i p t i o n of v a l u e - j u d g m e n t s , l e t alone a t h e o r e t i c a l explanation of e t h i c a l judgment, although i t i s a problem i n psychology. Speaking for p s y c h o a n a l y s t s , R e i k (99) points out that although F r e u d felt the sense of g u i l t to be the m o s t i m p o r tant p r o b l e m i n the e v o l u t i o n of c u l t u r e , there has been s c a r c e l y any p r o g r e s s made i n r e s e a r c h i n this a r e a since Freud's time.  R e i k suggests that p s y c h o a n a l y s t s a r e a v o i d i n g  the p r o b l e m i n t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s and q u i p s , "Thus c o n s c i e n c e doth make c o w a r d s of us a l l " .  (99,4)  P a s t r e s e a r c h has r e s u l t e d for the m o s t p a r t i n confusion and contention, not only r e g a r d i n g what c o n s c i e n c e i s and of what i t s content c o n s i s t s , but a l s o r e g a r d i n g how i t comes about.  P e r h a p s this contention i s due as m u c h to the  p e r s o n a l b i a s e s of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s , causing them to a p p r o a c h the subject i n a n a r r o w w a y , as to any i n h e r e n t differences i n the methods of study u s e d .  H o w e v e r , the t h e o r i e s that have  been put f o r t h cannot be p r o v e n , nor the a r g u m e n t s r e s o l v e d , u n t i l some means of d e s c r i b i n g and m e a s u r i n g c o n s c i e n c e can be a s s u r e d . The need for a means of d e s c r i b i n g and m e a s u r i n g c o n s c i e n c e has long been r e c o g n i z e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i e l d .  -  4  -  A t t e m p t s have been made to m e a s u r e both m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e m .  In such  s t u d i e s , m o r a l a w a r e n e s s has been taken to m e a n an a w a r e ness of g e n e r a l m o r a l v a l u e s about w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l m a y or m a y not e x p r e s s a c o n s c i e n c e f e e l i n g .  On the other h a n d ,  conscience has been m o r e n a r r o w l y defined as a r e a c t i o n to a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f i s i n v o l v e d o r feels h i m s e l f to be i n v o l v e d . W h e r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s have studied some a s p e c t of either c o n s c i e n c e , m o r a l judgment, or m o r a l a w a r e n e s s , they have u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r own s c a l e s .  However,  since the studies a r e , for the m o s t p a r t , d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a n a r r o w p r o b l e m i n the b r o a d f i e l d of m o r a l v a l u e s , t h e i r w o r t h is limited.  In g e n e r a l , there s e e m s to have been a tendency  to compose a group of questions i n r e g a r d to some a c t i o n such as s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , or cheating, or a m i x t u r e of s e v e r a l such topics.  The questions then ar e l a b e l l e d as h a v i n g to do w i t h  c o n s c i e n c e or m o r a l s or e t h i c a l judgment or g u i l t f e e l i n g . A c t u a l l y , h o w e v e r , there i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for a s s u m i n g that such s c a l e s m e a s u r e any m o r e than the l y i n g , c h e a t i n g , e t c . , w h i c h constitute the bases for the q u e s t i o n s .  A n arbitrary  s e l e c t i o n of b e h a v i o u r that i s p r e s u m e d to have m o r a l s i g nificance i s by i t s v e r y nature bound to exclude c e r t a i n a r e a s of m o r a l m a t e r i a l .  -  5  Only two studies m a y be r e g a r d e d as attempts to deal w i t h the p r o b l e m of m e a s u r i n g conscience i n any o b jective s e n s e .  One of t h e s e , by F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t (44),  was not s u c c e s s f u l i n m e a s u r i n g strength of conscience but d i d p r o v i d e m u c h valuable i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n s c i e n c e .  In  this study two kinds of m o r a l evaluation w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . The f i r s t i n v o l v e d a n objective a p p r a i s a l of how b a d a c e r t a i n a c t i o n was when p e r f o r m e d by o t h e r s , w h i l e the second e n t a i l e d how the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f would feel i f he p e r f o r m e d the act.  The difference between the two s c o r e s was a s s u m e d to  m e a s u r e strength of c o n s c i e n c e , but the authors concluded that the second m e a s u r e alone was p r o b a b l y the m o r e v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of strength of c o n s c i e n c e .  M o r e o v e r , so far as can be d e t e r -  m i n e d , the authors seem to have s e l e c t e d the content of c o n science i t e m s on an a p r i o r i b a s i s for no i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n regarding their formulation.  The other study, by W a c k (112),  b a s i n g i t s content on the judgments of m o r a l t h e o l o g i a n s , was successful i n measuring conscience i n Roman C a t h o l i c s . H o w e v e r , the r e s u l t a n t scale i s of such a nature that i t cannot be a p p l i e d to the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , since i t i s couched i n t e r m s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to m a n y P r o t e s t a n t s . In a l l p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , c o n s c i e n c e i s defined, and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e b a s e d on what m a y be r e g a r d e d as l i m i t e d a r e a s of c o n s c i e n c e - f e e l i n g .  The test c o n s t r u c t o r s ' own ideas  and feelings of c o n s c i e n c e , or those of an a u t h o r i t a t i v e body,  -  6 -  determine the d i r e c t i o n the entire study w o u l d take.  To  o v e r c o m e such a l i m i t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d i n the p r e s e n t study to s o l i c i t as wide a range of m o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n as c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y obtained f r o m people at l a r g e .  Infor-  m a t i o n was obtained by a s k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to s u b m i t l i s t s of a c t u a l situations i n w h i c h they m i g h t feel twinges of c o n s c i e n c e . T h u s , by m a k i n g such e n q u i r i e s of as wide a range of groups of people as were a v a i l a b l e , i t i s felt that the l i m i t a t i o n s of an a p r i o r i v i e w p o i n t on m o r a l v a l u e s and c o n s c i e n c e - f e e l i n g m i g h t be o v e r c o m e o r , at l e a s t ,  ameliorated.  H e n c e , for the purpose of this study, the content of c o n s c i e n c e i s not r i g i d l y defined.  It i s taken as being that  w h i c h causes i n d i v i d u a l s to have feelings of d i s c o m f o r t w h i c h they t h e m s e l v e s m i g h t d e s c r i b e as twinges of c o n s c i e n c e .  To  the o u t s i d e r , the p r e s e n c e of c o n s c i e n c e - f e e l i n g s m a y be i n f e r r e d f r o m behaviour u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d by such t e r m s as shame, g u i l t , e m b a r r a s s m e n t ,  r e m o r s e , chagrine,  self-  c r i t i c i s m , etc. , . T h i s study, then, set out to a c c o m p l i s h two m a i n purposes: 1.  to d e s c r i b e the p r i n c i p a l a r e a s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s as they a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the b r o a d p a t t e r n of c o n s c i e n c e data obtained f r o m a v a r i e t y of groups of i n d i v i d u a l s . i  T h i s was a c h i e v e d by c l a s s i f y i n g a l l i t e m s s u b m i t t e d into m a i n c a t e g o r i e s .  to draw out the unifying p r i n c i p l e s found t h e r e i n . The p r i n c i p l e s thus outlined c o u l d p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l f r a m e w o r k on w h i c h to b u i l d s c a l e s to m e a s u r e c o n science to suit one's p u r p o s e .  Chapter REVIEW  Introduction  to  OF  II LITERATURE  Problem  There have been only two studies that have h a d as t h e i r sole c o n c e r n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a scale to m e a s u r e conscience.  These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n the c l o s i n g  pages of this r e v i e w .  H o w e v e r , there have been other types  of studies to w h i c h one m a y l o o k for i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c e r t a i n aspects of c o n s c i e n c e .  There i s that l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h  i n c l u d e s the study of g u i l t feelings as p a r t of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n into a b r o a d e r f i e l d .  There a r e studies on m o r a l development,  w h i c h , depending on the outlook of the i n v e s t i g a t o r , a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the genesis and growth of the s u p e r - e g o , and the changes i n m o r a l r e a s o n i n g w h i c h o c c u r w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. T h e r e a r e studies of m o r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , judgment, and a w a r e n e s s , w h i c h are r e l a t e d to the cognitive a s p e c t of c o n science.  One can a l s o draw i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  into the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m o r a l s and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Studies w i t h r e g a r d to honesty,  lying,  etc. , are a l s o of i n t e r e s t to those c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x a m i n i n g c o n s c i e n c e , as c o n s c i e n c e p l a y s a l e a d i n g p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  P s y c h o a n a l y t i c studies of the  super-ego  -  9 -  and the e g o - i d e a l m u s t a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d .  Therefore, many  types of studies a r e pertinent to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o n s c i e n c e and w i l l help to elucidate p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n such study. In any study of c o n s c i e n c e , the w o r k that has been done by p s y c h o a n a l y s t s cannot be i g n o r e d for two different reasons.  The f i r s t i s that the p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have a i d e d  p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n the study of conscience have been d i s c o v e r e d through the techniques u s e d by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i s t s .  These  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have a l s o pointed out the i m p o r t a n t p a r t that conscience or the s u p e r - e g o p l a y s i n m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e s .  The  second r e a s o n i s that there are c o n f l i c t i n g opinions among p s y c h o a n a l y s t s r e g a r d i n g such things as the d i f f e r e n c e , i f any, between the super-ego and the c o n s c i e n c e , the development and function of the super-ego and the e g o - i d e a l , as w e l l as c o n f l i c t i n g ideas between p s y c h o a n a l y s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s r e g a r d i n g a r e a s that would a p p e a r , on the s u r f a c e , to be s i m i l a r .  This indicates  that m u c h further study i s needed i n o r d e r to r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s ; study w h i c h cannot be done u n t i l a s u r v e y of the range of c o n s c i e n c e , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the super-ego and egoi d e a l to c o n s c i e n c e , has been c o m p l e t e d .  U n t i l i t i s known  w i t h what conscience and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s a r e c o n c e r n e d , one cannot a c c u r a t e l y study a l l the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n i t s development or i n i t s a b n o r m a l i t i e s . It has been pointed out by H a g g a r d (52) i n a s h o r t , c l e a r s u m m a r y of the objective and p r o j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h e d to the  10  -  study and m e a s u r e m e n t of m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , that there a r e d r a w b a c k s to both of these a p p r o a c h e s .  They do not s u p p l e -  ment one another because one i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h o v e r t r e s p o n s e s w h i l e the other i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h u n c o n s c i o u s r e a c t i o n s .  Also,  the p r o j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h has i t s t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s i n the study of a b n o r m a l s , w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s another difference between the two a p p r o a c h e s .  H a g g a r d feels that i t i s n e c e s s a r y to draw  together the s c a t t e r e d findings f r o m v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , not only f r o m these two, before m u c h p r o g r e s s can be m a d e . A l t h o u g h i n this r e v i e w the ' d r a w i n g - t o g e t h e r " w i l l 1  not be as complete as m i g h t be w i s h e d , an attempt w i l l be made to c o m p a r e and c o n t r a s t the findings i n c e r t a i n l i m i t e d a r e a s of study reflated to m o r a l a w a r e n e s s , m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and conscience.  B e f o r e this can be done, some b a c k g r o u n d i s  needed to u n d e r s t a n d the findings p r e s e n t e d by e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s and by p s y c h o a n a l y s t s .  In o r d e r to a i d the u n d e r -  standing of the f o r m e r , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the m o r e c o m m o n methods and of some newer techniques w i l l be g i v e n  ;  F o r an u n d e r -  standing of the l a t t e r , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the m a i n t h e o r i e s of s u p e r - e g o genesis i s n e c e s s a r y . Methodology  of E m p i r i c a l  Psychologists  A v a r i e t y of methods have been e m p l o y e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s to study m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e .  These  c o n s i s t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s, s e l f - r a n k i n g and r a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s , d i a r y m e t h o d s , and b e h a v i o u r s i t u a t i o n t e s t s .  - 11 -  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - t y p e tests as u s e d i n studying m o r a l and e t h i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w e r e p i o n e e r e d by F e r n a l d (38), who a l s o i n i t i a t e d the use of r a n k i n g methods i n this f i e l d . Kohs (70) e n l a r g e d upon F e r n a l d ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e and gained some i n s i g h t into attitudes t o w a r d conduct and concepts of ' r i g h t ' and ' w r o n g ' b e h a v i o u r .  H o w e v e r , these tests w e r e  p r o b a b l y as m u c h tests of s o c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e since they i n v o l v e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n of the p r o p e r thing to do i n c e r t a i n situations.  These f i r s t tests w e r e e x t r e m e l y c r u d e , being i n  some cases m e r e l y a c o l l e c t i o n of sub-tests, gathered from, i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , w h i c h the author thought p e r t a i n e d to e t h i c s . R a n k i n g and r a t i n g methods were a l s o put to e a r l y use.  In r a n k i n g , a n u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e l i s t e d , such  as s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , etc. , and the subjects a r e a s k e d to r a n k them i n o r d e r as to degree of V r o n g n e s s ' .  In r a t i n g m e t h o d s ,  the behaviour or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r a t e d along a scale of values w i t h r e g a r d to ' r i g h t n e s s ' or ' w r o n g n e s s . 1  These methods have  been popular because of t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y , but the b r o a d , u n defined t e r m s u s e d , w h i c h l a c k concrete " a n c h o r - p o i n t s " a r e l i k e l y to cause d i s t o r t i o n s .  That i s , among different s o c i a l o r  g e o g r a p h i c a l g r o u p s , a t e r m such as " e x t r a v a g a n c e " m a y r e f e r to m a t t e r s w h i c h are not the same i n content, and thus not the same i n s e r i o u s n e s s .  In at l e a s t one study of this type, by  B r o g a n (21), the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d w e r e obtained by a s k i n g p e r s o n s to name the ten w o r s t p r a c t i c e s they could think of.  - 12  The s i x t e e n w h i c h w e r e found to have been n a m e d m o s t frequently w e r e u s e d on a p e r m a n e n t l i s t as a b a s i s for further r e s e a r c h .  A l t h o u g h p o s s e s s i n g w e a k n e s s e s of i t s  own, such a n e m p i r i c a l b a s i s for the content of a test i s m u c h p r e f e r a b l e to a p r i o r i d e c i s i o n s on content. A n o t h e r type of t e s t i n g technique i s the i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m o r a l tests s i m i l a r to the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t i n f o r m and content.  L i n c o l n and S h i e l d s (78) and M c G r a t h (82)  have both d e v i s e d tests of this type w h i c h include v o c a b u l a r y tests, comprehension, definitions, comparisons, s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , m a k i n g sentences, i n t e r p r e t i n g p i c t u r e s ,  etc.,.  These tests have d r a w - b a c k s s i m i l a r to those that apply to questionnaire-type tests.  They a r e too h i g h l y dependent upon  v e r b a l knowledge and a b i l i t y to be a true m e a s u r e of m o r a l knowledge.  A l s o , they l a c k the economy of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  w h i c h other t e s t s have as an advantage. A c o m p l e t e l y different type of i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g technique was u s e d by P i a g e t (94), who p a i n s t a k i n g l y questioned c h i l d r e n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own games and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to s h o r t s t o r i e s r e a d to t h e m .  Thus a deeper understanding of the  i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s thoughts c o u l d be attained, l i t t l e w o u l d be o v e r l o o k e d , and a s t a n d a r d i z e d s i t u a t i o n to a i d c o m p a r i s o n s was a v a i l a b l e .  The chief l i m i t a t i o n s to this method a r e the  amount of t i m e n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e n , the effect of the e x a m i n e r ' s p r e s e n c e on the c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e s , and any tendency the e x a m i n e r m a y have to p e r c e i v e c e r t a i n things and i g n o r e o t h e r s .  - 13 -  K e c k e i s s e n (68) added the use of d i a r y m a t e r i a l to t r a d i t i o n a l test methodology.  High school g i r l s were asked  to r e c o r d p r o b l e m s of conduct i n t h e i r d i a r i e s .  These e n t r i e s  w e r e then c l a s s i f i e d into faulty c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , emotibaaal d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e l i g i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t i n g to school l i f e , and d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t i n g to p e e r s .  The d i a r i e s  p r o v i d e d data for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a check l i s t under the m a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of maladjustment w h i c h the m a r k e d three months l a t e r .  subjects  W i t h r e g a r d to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  i t e m s , K e c k e i s s e n r e m a r k e d that i t was the m o s t d i f f i c u l t p a r t of the study, as many i t e m s could fit into m o r e than one category.  T h i s difficulty was p r o b a b l y due to the b r o a d n e s s  of the m a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and to the fact that the m a i n headings w e r e not r e s t r i c t e d to one d i m e n s i o n .  F o r e x a m p l e , faulty  c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s c o u l d a l s o be t r a i t s w h i c h c a u s e d d i f f i c u l t i e s in school.  The f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to b e h a v i o u r a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i l e the second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the setting i n w h i c h b e h a v i o u r takes p l a c e .  T h u s , there c o u l d not  h e l p but be o v e r l a p p i n g . F o u r s i m p l e techniques for studying c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of m o r a l development a r e d i s c u s s e d by D i e d e r i c h (30).  These  techniques seem to be adaptations of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique.  Included are a c h e c k l i s t of b e h a v i o u r kept by a shop  t e a c h e r and a m o r e elaborate r e c o r d kept by a h o s p i t a l , both of w h i c h a r e b a s e d on a c t u a l inceidents of b e h a v i o u r , a b e f o r e -  - 14 -  and-after e s s a y technique, and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of value judgments.  D i e d e r i c h e m p h a s i z e d that e t h i c a l development  i s not a " m y s t e r i o u s i n t a n g i b l e " but can be t r a c e d through a l i m i t e d number of things that people do, t h i n k , f e e l and s a y . D i s g u i s e d b e h a v i o u r a l tests of c h a r a c t e r w e r e f i r s t u s e d by V o e l k e r (111) and w e r e e n l a r g e d upon by H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54, 55) i n t h e i r m o n u m e n t a l study, the C h a r a c t e r Education Inquiry.  T h i s i n q u i r y a l s o e m p l o y e d paper and  p e n c i l techniques w h i c h have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d .  The  b e h a v i o u r - t y p e t e s t s , h o w e v e r , m e r i t further d e s c r i p t i o n . A c t u a l b e h a v i o u r a l situations w e r e u s e d i n m e a s u r i n g m o r a l conduct, e m p l o y i n g the double t e s t i n g technique and the i m probable a c h i e v e m e n t technique.  In the f o r m e r technique, a  test i s given under s t a n d a r d i z e d conditions w h i c h do not p e r m i t cheating, and a second f o r m of the test i s g i v e n under conditions w h e r e i n cheating could take p l a c e e a s i l y . between the two tests, was a s c e r t a i n e d .  The n o r m a l v a r i a t i o n  If the difference between  the s c o r e s f r o m the f i r s t to the second t e s t i n g was g r e a t e r than t h i s n o r m a l v a r i a t i o n , cheating p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d .  In the  l a t t e r technique, tests for w h i c h n o r m s had been a s c e r t a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y w e r e g i v e n to the c h i l d r e n .  The amount of cheating  could then be judged a c c o r d i n g to the amount by w h i c h the c h i l d s u r p a s s e d these n o r m s .  In other b e h a v i o u r a l s i t u a t i o n s ,  c h i l d r e n w e r e g i v e n the opportunity to cheat when m a r k i n g t h e i r own t e s t s , to cheat by p e e k i n g , to fake a s o l u t i o n , to  -  15  obtain help f r o m o t h e r s . to steal i n other t e s t s .  -  They had the opportunity to l i e and T h e r e were a l s o tests of c o - o p e r a t i o n  w h i c h m e a s u r e d the r e l a t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e of a c h i l d when w o r k i n g on a group effort and when w o r k i n g for p e r s o n a l benefit. T h e r e w e r e tests of i n h i b i t i o n w h i c h m e a s u r e d a b i l i t y to e x e r c i s e s e l f - c o n t r o l while p e r f o r m i n g a monotonous t a s k without being d i s t r a c t e d by m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Tests  of p e r s i s t e n c e m e a s u r e d a b i l i t y to continue u n i n t e r e s t i n g w o r k when a l l o w e d to stop at any t i m e . H a r t s h o r n e and M a y thus c o m p i l e d e n o r m o u s quantities of data and c o n t r i b u t e d some findings to knowledge of m o r a l conduct.  The m a i n c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a r e d i s c u s s e d  under the a p p r o p r i a t e headings b e l o w .  The advantage of the  method u s e d i n t h e i r study i s that i t m e a s u r e s how a c h i l d a c t u a l l y does behave, not just how he says he would behave. H o w e v e r , because of the elaborate p r o c e d u r e s n e c e s s a r y for staging these t e s t s , they can only be a d m i n i s t e r e d to l i m i t e d groups.  A l s o , the v a r i e t y of m o r a l conduct that can be  m e a s u r e d i n this way i s definitely l i m i t e d .  F o r example,  sexual m o r a l i t y c o u l d h a r d l y be m e a s u r e d through b e h a v i o u r a l " tests.  It i s n e c e s s a r y that absolute s e c r e c y r e g a r d i n g the  nature of the tests be m a i n t a i n e d , o t h e r w i s e those being tested could make r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . F r o m the foregoing account of methods i t m a y be concluded that w h i l e standard t e s t s are handicapped b y t h e i r  - 16 -  s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and dependence on the subject's w i l l i n g n e s s to c o - o p e r a t e , they have the advantages of economy and ease of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n .  It i s only w i t h the m o r e adequately  financed r e s e a r c h studies that attention m a y be g i v e n to the m o r e concrete e x p r e s s i o n of conscience through b e h a v i o u r . The  Relationship between and  Super-ego,  ego-ideal  conscience  B e f o r e e n t e r i n g into a d i s c u s s i o n of psychoanalytic t h e o r i e s of s u p e r - e g o g e n e s i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to point out that there s e e m s to be no definite agreement on what c o n s c i e n c e i s and what s u p e r - e g o i s , or where one ends and the other b e g i n s , or whether they both r e f e r to the same m a t t e r .  T h i s confusion  i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the g e n e r a l thinking on this subject.  Some  i n v e s t i g a t o r s , such as S t a r c k e (107), G l u e c k (48), L e v y - S u h l (77), for e x a m p l e , i n c l u d e c o n s c i e n c e as p a r t of the  super-ego.  O t h e r s , such as G r e e n a c r e (49) do not differentiate between the two at a l l . S t i l l o t h e r s , v i z . F r i e d m a n (45), Z i l b o o r g (117), and C a r u s o (24), c o n s i d e r conscience to include m o r e than the super-ego.  F r e u d (42) stated that c o n s c i e n c e i s a function of  the s u p e r - e g o , but h i s use of the two t e r m s was often not c l e a r l y differentiated.  A n attempt to c l a r i f y t h i s confusion has been  made by M a i l l a u x (84) and Z i l b o o r g (117). The f o r m e r l i s t s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by w h i c h the super-ego can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m c o n s c i e n c e .  The  super-ego i s deemed to be u n c o n s c i o u s , out of touch w i t h r e a l i t y  17  -  and p e r f o r m s i n a r i g i d , unbending manner as i f f o r e i g n to the personality.  O n the other hand, c o n s c i e n c e i s a r a t i o n a l i m -  p e r a t i v e , i n complete h a r m o n y w i t h the e x i g e n c i e s of r e a l i t y . It b l a m e s or excuses o b j e c t i v e l y and gives r i s e to our sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The s u p e r - e g o c o m e s before the c o n s c i e n c e ,  g e n e t i c a l l y speaking, a l r e a d y functioning before the use of reason. L e v y (76) p r e f e r s not to use the w o r d " c o n s c i e n c e " but would place i t s functions i n the ego.  He feels that " c o n -  s c i e n c e " has a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g and u s u a l l y r e f e r s to "a m i x t u r e between super-ego and ego p r o c e s s e s , a m i x t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e g o - d e v e l o p m e n t a l stage w h i c h the u s e r of the t e r m has r e a c h e d , be i t i n d i v i d u a l or g r o u p " .  (76,235)  T h i s a r g u m e n t about t e r m s and the d i s t i n c t i o n between them i s u n n e c e s s a r y i n Stephen's v i e w p o i n t (1 0 8 ) , In a c y n i c a l m a n n e r , he suggests that a l l a r e developed f r o m b o d i l y sensations and i t m a k e s no difference whether these sensations be c a l l e d G o d , s u p e r - e g o , p e r s e c u t i n g d e m o n s , or conscience. A l t h o u g h the stand taken i n the p r e s e n t study i s not as c y n i c a l as Stephen's, i t i s questionable that these d i s t i n c t i o n s have m u c h p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e . H o w e v e r , t h i s should not d e s t r o y t h e i r value for c l a r i f y i n g the p r o b l e m of the t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e .  More-  o v e r , one m i g h t a g r e e w i t h F r i e d m a n (45) that i t i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  -  18 -  own feelings of o b l i g a t i o n that should define c o n s c i e n c e , not what we think we see i n that of other i n d i v i d u a l s .  To the p e r s o n  who feels he has done something w r o n g , and feels g u i l t y about i t , i t m a k e s no i m m e d i a t e difference whether i t i s h i s  super-ego,  h i s e g o - i d e a l , or h i s c o n s c i e n c e that i s c a u s i n g h i m to f e e l guilty. In attempting to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e , one cannot i g n o r e the point made by B e r g l e r (12) i n r e g a r d to the  super-  ego's being an "unconscious c o n s c i e n c e " , since the u n c o n s c i o u s has such great effect on one's c o n s c i o u s thought and f e e l i n g . M a n y differences i n r e s p o n s e s to a c o n s c i e n c e scale m a y be due to this u n c o n s c i o u s e l e m e n t , and thus the "unconscious c o n s c i e n c e " m a y be m e a s u r e d i n a secondary s o r t of w a y .  It i s the amount  of g u i l t , and the a r e a s i n w h i c h i t a r i s e s , r a t h e r than the p r e c i s e process from which it a r i s e s , which is important.  However, it  m a y be p o s s i b l e to s u r m i s e , f r o m the extent, content, and the s e v e r i t y of the g u i l t , w h i c h of these p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s are i n v o l v e d . One m a y a p p r o a c h the p r o b l e m of the differences between " s h a m e " and " g u i l t " i n a s i m i l a r w a y .  Differentiations  between the two have been made by P i e r s and S i n g e r (95) and H i l g a r d (57), w h i l e A l e x a n d e r (4) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between i n f e r i o r i t y feelings and g u i l t .  P i e r s and S i n g e r feel that " s h a m e "  and " g u i l t " can be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  F o r e x a m p l e , the  f o r m e r a r i s e s f r o m t e n s i o n between the ego and the e g o - i d e a l , w h i l e the l a t t e r a r i s e s out of t e n s i o n between the ego and the  -  super-ego.  19  -  H o w e v e r , one can l e a d to another and one can  conceal the o t h e r .  Some i n d i v i d u a l s seem to hide t h e i r shame  so that i t appears ass guilt w h i l e others become a s h a m e d i n situations w h i c h some r e a c t to w i t h g u i l t .  T h i s , then, i s the  c o m p l e x situation that m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d when one attempts to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e .  It w o u l d only be confusing to the  i n d i v i d u a l s being tested to have to t r y to differentiate shame and g u i l t .  between  H o w e v e r , c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s as shown i n the  p r e s e n t study, such as " L o s s of Self Respect," a r e m o r e  closely  r e l a t e d to e g o - i d e a l functions as u s u a l l y p e r c e i v e d than to s u p e r - e g o functions, and t h e o r e t i c a l differentiations m a y then be m a d e , i f d e s i r e d .  A c t u a l l y , H i l g a r d ' s (57) definitions  of  " s h a m e " as a r e s p o n s e to being caught by someone else i n s o c i a l l y d i s a p p r o v e d behaviour and of " g u i l t " as a r e s p o n s e to catching o n e s e l f i n behaviour c o n t r a r y to one's own c o n s c i e n c e would be f a i r l y easy to d i s t i n g u i s h through w o r d i n g of the questions.  Y e t , such definitions as H i l g a r d ' s seem to be o v e r -  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s , since shame can be felt at other t i m e s than just when caught by others w h i l e doing w r o n g , and g u i l t i s a m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s than m e r e l y catching oneself doing w r o n g a c c o r d i n g to one's own c o n s c i e n c e .  It can a l s o apply to  seeing others doing w r o n g , and being a c c u s e d of doing w r o n g .  -  Psychoanalytic  20  Theory Supe  -  on the  Genesis  of  the  r-ego  In o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the t h e o r e t i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p s y c h o a n a l y s t s r e g a r d i n g m o r a l t o p i c s , v i e w s on the genesis of the s u p e r - e g o m u s t f i r s t be e x a m i n e d , s t a r t i n g , of c o u r s e , w i t h those of F r e u d . In h i s paper " O n N a r c i s s i s m " , F r e u d (40) i n t r o duced the concept of the " e g o - i d e a l " as a m o d e l w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t s i n h i m s e l f of h i s i d e a of h i s p a r e n t s , and w h i c h b e c o m e s a. perfect i m a g e w h i c h the c h i l d i s a l w a y s s t r i v i n g to a t t a i n .  L a t e r , F r e u d set up the m u c h w i d e r n o t i o n  of the s u p e r - e g o , w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e d the n a r c i s s i s t i c egoideal.  The s u p e r - e g o was seen as functioning i n three w a y s : 1.  A s an i n h i b i t i n g force  2.  A s an i d e a l - s e t t i n g f o r c e  3.  A s a s e l f - c r i t i c i z i n g force  One of h i s comments on the s u p e r - e g o was that i t " . . . i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l m o r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , the advocate of the i m p u l s e t o w a r d p e r f e c t i o n ; i n s h o r t , i t i s as m u c h as we have been able to apprehend p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y of what people c a l l the ' h i g h e r ' t i l i n g s i n h u m a n l i f e . " (43 , 95) H o w e v e r , F r e u d ' s v i e w s r e g a r d i n g the s u p e r - e g o w e r e not e n t i r e l y c o m p l i m e n t a r y .  He c o n s i d e r e d the s u p e r -  ego to be one of the m a i n t r o u b l e - m a k e r s i n m e n t a l  disturbances,  and c o n s i d e r e d the dominance of the s u p e r - e g o to be a v i c t o r y of the death i m p u l s e .  -  21 -  R e g a r d i n g the f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o , F r e u d (41) b e l i e v e d that i t i s the " h e i r of the Oedipus c o m p l e x " and that i t i s - f o r m e d through a dual p r o c e s s of development o c c u r i n g m a i n l y w i t h i n the p h a l l i c stage.  The c h i l d takes o v e r h i s p a r e n t s '  commands and p r o h i b i t i o n s and i n t r o j e c t s t h e m .  These i n t r o -  j e c t i o n s do not become a p a r t of the ego but f o r m a separate p a r t w h i c h i s s p l i t off f r o m the ego, f o r m i n g the i n h i b i t i n g p o r t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o .  The m a l e c h i l d , h a v i n g had s e n s u a l  d e s i r e s towards h i s m o t h e r , g i v e s up these d e s i r e s through fear of c a s t r a t i o n .  The c h i l d turns h i s h o s t i l e f e e l i n g r e g a r d i n g  h i s father t o w a r d s h i m s e l f , and seeks to become l i k e the father by a c q u i r i n g h i s i d e a l s .  The female c h i l d o v e r c o m e s h e r  c o m p l e x m o r e g r a d u a l l y through fear of the l o s s of h e r m o t h e r ' s l o v e , and comes to identify w i t h h e r m o t h e r .  T h i s p r o c e s s of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n further development of the s u p e r - e g o . The t e n s i o n between the s u p e r - e g o and the subjugated ego i s g u i l t - f e e l i n g and i s m a n i f e s t e d i n the need for p u n i s h m e n t . T h u s , being on ' g o o d or ' b a d ' t e r m s w i t h the s u p e r - e g o b e c o m e s 1  as i m p o r t a n t to the c h i l d as the same r e l a t i o n s h i p s had been w i t h r e g a r d to h i s p a r e n t s . T h i s , then, i s the essence of the concept of the s u p e r - e g o and i t s g e n e s i s , a c c o r d i n g to orthodox t h e o r y .  Among  those who w e r e the f i r s t to continue this d i s c u s s i o n w e r e A l e x a n d e r (3), P e a r s o n (93), and Jones (6&, 65).  The l a t t e r  author pointed out s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t o r y statements w h i c h  -  22  -  had been made by F r e u d up to that t i m e , and attempted to c l a r i f y the p i c t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n s of the super-ego to the outer w o r l d , to the ego, and to the i d . Jones felt that the s u p e r - e g o m a y be d e r i v e d f r o m either p a r e n t , but i s p r e d o m i n e n t l y d e r i v e d f r o m the p a r e n t of the same s e x , and that s a d i s m i s an obvious component of the super-ego.  Jones a l s o e m p h a s i z e d that i t wkss the ego, and  not the s u p e r - e g o , w h i c h p e r f o r m s r e p r e s s i o n , although at the demands of the l a t t e r .  In t h i s same e r a of d i s c u s s i o n  r e g a r d i n g the s u p e r - e g o , E d e r (3 6) e m p h a s i z e d the p a r t the super-ego p l a y s i n n e u r o t i c i s m , and a l s o r a i s e d the point that p a r t of the u n c o n s c i o u s s u p e r - e g o c o u l d be i n h e r i t e d .  Along  the same l i n e s , L a m p l - d e G r o o t (72) a s k s , y e a r s l a t e r , i f there m i g h t not be a s p e c i f i c factor i n h e r e n t to the f o r m a t i o n of the super-ego i t s e l f r a t h e r than i t s being d e r i v e d s o l e l y f r o m i d and ego m e c h a n i s m s . A s the d i s c u s s i o n s of the genesis of the  super-ego  continued over the y e a r s , further r e f i n e m e n t s and additions w e r e c o n t r i b u t e d by v a r i o u s t h e o r i s t s .  F o r example, Schimmenti  (102) p r e f e r r e d to differentiate between two k i n d s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : through i m i t a t i o n of the a c t s a p p r o v e d by the p a r e n t s , and through i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the a c t s d i s a p p r o v e d by the p a r e n t s . I m i t a t i o n i s thought to be s i m p l e r and m o r e c o n s c i o u s , l e a d i n g to f o r m a t i o n of the e g o - i d e a l , w h i l e i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s d e v i o u s , m o r e u n c o n s c i o u s , and leads to f o r m a t i o n of the  super-ego.  23  -  R a n k (16) c o n s i d e r s the m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p to be a l l - i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m i n g the s u p e r - e g o , plays a leading part.  and that s a d i s m  The r e a l nucleus of the s u p e r - e g o i s the  " s t r i c t m o t h e r " as seen by the c h i l d , not the a c t u a l m o t h e r . F u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of R a n k ' s v i e w s a r e i n c l u d e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . T h e r e w e r e three f a c t o r s that F e n i c h e l (37) c o n s i d e r e d to be i m p o r t a n t i n the s t r u c t u r e and strength of the These a r e :  super-ego.  1.  The a c t u a l behaviour of the p a r e n t s  2.  The i n s t i n c t u a l s t r u c t u r e of the c h i l d  3.  The c h i l d ' s m e n t a l c o n s t i t u t i o n and a l l i t s p r e v i o u s  experiences. The m o d e l s the c h i l d has before h i m a r e thus i m p o r t a n t , as w e l l as  the nature of h i s e n v i r o n m e n t and of h i s object r e l a t i o n -  ship s. A n extensive a n a l y s i s of the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the genesis of the s u p e r - e g o has been made by F l u g e l (3 9).  With-  out r e f e r e n c e to p a r t i c u l a r a u t h o r s , he points out four m a i n s o u r c e s of the s u p e r - e g o as have been suggested by v a r i o u s psychoanalytic theorists. 1.  The p r o c e s s of d i r e c t i o n of the n a r c i s s i s t i c l i b i d o to  the e g o - i d e a l 2.  The p r o c e s s of i n t r o j e c t i o n of the p r e c e p t s and m o r a l  attitudes of o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y the p a r e n t s 3.  The t u r n i n g against self of a g g r e s s i o n towards i n t r o j e c t e d  parents 4.  The influence of s a d o - m a s o c h i s t i c  tendencies  -  24  -  Some t h e o r i s t s have tended to e m p h a s i z e one of these s o u r c e s , w h i l e others have e m p h a s i z e d another, and c e r t a i n p r o c e s s e s m a y have been n e g l e c t e d .  F l u g e l has made an a n a l y s i s of the  nature of each source and the r o l e w h i c h each p l a y s i n the s u p e r ego, thus m a k i n g a f a i r l y complete s u m m a r y of the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d b y p s y c h o a n a l y s t s up to 1945. M o r e r e c e n t l y , enlargements on t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g i n t r o j e c t i o n by R o s e n m a n (100) and on s o u r c e s and functions of g u i l t by S c h m i d e b e r g (103) have added to the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge r e g a r d i n g the m o r a l p r o c e s s e s of the i n d i v i d u a l .  The E n g l i s h  s c h o o l and other m o d e r n t h e o r i s t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n on m o r a l development, as the age factor i n these studies i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e i r m a i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h F r e u d being the stage i n w h i c h super-ego development takes p l a c e . P e r h a p s the m o s t ardent c r i t i c of F r e u d has b e e n M o w r e r (88, 89) w h o , although a g r e e i n g w i t h F r e u d that n e u r o t i c i s m i s due to c o n f l i c t between the s u p e r - e g o and the i d , takes exception to h i s i d e a that i n n e u r o t i c i s m the i d i s r e p r e s s e d and the s u p e r - e g o i s o v e r b e a r i n g .  M o w r e r c o n s i d e r s that the opposite  i s t r u e , the super-ego being r e p r e s s e d and the n e u r o t i c , r a t h e r than h a v i n g too m u c h g u i l t , has too l i t t l e , since i t i s not a l l o w e d to enter c o n s c i o u s n e s s to c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . O n l y by e m p i r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g the amount and range of g u i l t i n . n e u r o t i c groups as c o m p a r e d w i t h n o r m a l groups can this question be thoroughly i n v e s t i g a t e d .  It m a y perhaps be that  -  25  -  different types of m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e s i n v o l v e different p r o c e s s e s of r e p r e s s i o n .  Some n e u r o t i c s m a y have too s e v e r e a c o n s c i e n c e  w h i l e others have too lenient ones, depending on the type of neurosis.  A n y w a y , i t m u s t be a g r e e d w i t h M o w r e r that e t h i c a l  v a l u e s demand acute attention i n the study of n e u r o t i c s . A s c h (8) a l s o c r i t i c i z e d the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a p p r o a c h , and cites i n s t a n c e s w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t the c a u s a l explanations of this s c h o o l .  In c r i t i c i z i n g genetic t h e o r i e s he r a i s e s four p o i n t s :  1.  They have not e x a m i n e d the facts they propose to e x p l a i n .  2.  T h e r e i s no way for a n h a b i t u a l connection to produce the  s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e of o b l i g a t i o n . 3.  A u t h o r i t y can produce fear or anger but cannot i n t r o d u c e  into the m i n d the d i s t i n c t i o n between a just and an unjust a c t . 4.  S o c i a l influences cannot produce the phenomenon of v a l u e s ,  although they a r e a c o n d i t i o n for the m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t e t h i c a l judgments.  " S o c i e t y cannot i m p o r t these c a t e g o r i e s into the  individual.  These a r e p r o p e r t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s whose c a p a c i t y to  g r a s p the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s p e r m i t s them to sense requirements."  (8,357)  A s c h s t r e s s e s the i m p o r t a n c e of m a n ' s a b i l i t y to act i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the s i t u a t i o n , and to do things that need to be done r a t h e r than to do things because of subjective d e s i r e s .  To  b a c k up this statement he r e f e r s to the G e s t a l t concept of " r e q u i r e d n e s s " , and to D u n c k e r ' s " s i t u a t i o n a l m e a n i n g " (34).  -  26  -  If the function of the s u p e r - e g o o r c o n s c i e n c e s h o u l d be as postulated by the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s c h o o l , a l o n g , d e t a i l e d c o n s c i e n c e scale would not be n e c e s s a r y .  If, h o w e v e r , the r e -  q u i r e m e n t s of the s i t u a t i o n a r e a l l - i m p o r t a n t , then c o n s t r u c t i o n of a long scale c o v e r i n g as g r e a t a v a r i e t y of c i r c u m s t a n c e s as i s r e a s o n a b l e , r e l e v a n t to the age group to be t e s t e d , i s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s l a t t e r supposition i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h the p l a n of the p r e s e n t study. Summary In the above d i s c u s s i o n , F r e u d ' s b a s i c concepts r e g a r d i n g the s u p e r - e g o w e r e d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y , along w i t h c e r t a i n refinements and e l a b o r a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d by other p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theorists.  The chief c r i t i c i s m s , by M o w r e r (88, 89) and A s c h (8),  of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y have been d i s c u s s e d a l s o .  F r o m this, it  can be seen that, although F r e u d and h i s f o l l o w e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l to the understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o r a l p r o c e s s e s , there a r e many p r o b l e m s w h i c h they have been unable to e x p l a i n . A l s o , these t h e o r i s t s have e m p h a s i z e d t h e i r own a s s u m p t i o n s to such a degree that a b i a s e d a p p r o a c h to the p r o b l e m s has been a result. A l t h o u g h a number of techniques have been developed for the study of p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d to m o r a l i t y , there has not yet been d e v i s e d an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h can be u s e d to test the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s except i n l i m i t e d a r e a s . B l u m (16a) has set an example i n subjecting c e r t a i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c  -  27  -  concepts to the s c r u t i n y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h techniques by u s i n g a p r o j e c t i v e test to study c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of p s y c h o s e x u a l adjustment,  i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l of i n t e r e s t to t h i s study, w h i c h w i l l  be d e s c r i b e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n .  Such a t e s t i n g of v a l i d i t y of  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y w i t h r e g a r d to c o n s c i e n c e feelings and g u i l t would seem to be n e c e s s a r y when the faults of this a p p r o a c h a r e considered.  A l s o , there a r e many p s y c h o l o g i c a l hypotheses w h i c h ,  when t e s t e d , have y i e l d e d r e s u l t s that conflict w i t h the s u p p o s i t i o n s of p s y c h o a n a l y s t s w i t h r e g a r d to the same t o p i c . The r e m a i n i n g sections of this r e v i e w w i l l d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c a r e a s of study, w i t h both p s y c h o a n a l y t i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l a p p e a r i n g together i n c a s e s where both v i e w p o i n t s a r e relevant. Moral  Development  a) E m p i r i c a l Studies P i a g e t ' s book ( 94) on the m o r a l development of c h i l d r e n has been, a source book i n this f i e l d .  P i a g e t questioned  c h i l d r e n w i t h r e g a r d to the r u l e s by w h i c h they p l a y and w i t h r e g a r d to s t o r i e s w h i c h h a d been r e a d to t h e m .  He found that t h e r e i s  f i r s t a stage of " m o r a l r e a l i s m " i n w h i c h the c h i l d accepts without q u e s t i o n the m o r a l teachings and judgments of o l d e r p e r s o n s . H o w e v e r , these r e m a i n e x t e r n a l to h i s c o n s c i e n c e and do not r e a l l y change h i s attitudes and conduct.  I n v o l v e d i n this stage  are c o n s t r a i n t on the p a r t of e l d e r s and r e s p e c t on the p a r t of the  -  child.  28  The next phase i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e one i n w h i c h the r u l e s  and c o m m a n d s of the f i r s t stage a r e i n t e r i o r i z e d and g e n e r a l i z e d . The c h i l d has n o t i c e d a difference between the s t r i c t r u l e s l a i d down by adults and t h e i r a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r .  The l a s t stage i s b a s e d  on c o - o p e r a t i o n and m u t u a l r e s p e c t and the r a t i o n a l concept of the j u s t and the unjust.  N o w , "the i n d i v i d u a l feels f r o m w i t h i n the  d e s i r e to t r e a t others as he h i m s e l f would w i s h to be t r e a t e d . "(94, 1 A l s o , P i a g e t found that c h i l d r e n f i r s t c o n s i d e r g u i l t to be s o l e l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the amount of h a r m or damage done. F o r e x a m p l e , d r o p p i n g fifteen cups a c c i d e n t a l l y would be c o n s i d e r e w o r s e than d r o p p i n g one cup on p u r p o s e .  A s development p r o c e e d s  the c h i l d g r a d u a l l y comes to c o n s i d e r the m o t i v e s behind a c t i o n s m o r e and m o r e .  W i t h r e g a r d to j u s t i c e , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o  found different stages i n the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . " j u s t i c e " i s that w h i c h i s p r o s c r i b e d by the adult. t a r i a n i s m i s next c o n s i d e r e d to be m o s t i m p o r t a n t .  At first, Then e q u a l i That i s , goods  m u s t be d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y r e g a r d l e s s of c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Later,  there i s m o r e subtle d i s t i n c t i o n m a d e , w i t h the c h i l d taking into account the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the i n d i v i d u a l . These c o n c l u s i o n s of P i a g e t ' s agree w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s made by K l e i n (69) d u r i n g p l a y - a n a l y s e s .  She o b s e r v e d that the  s u p e r - e g o of the young c h i l d i s m u c h h a r s h e r and m o r e c r u e l than that of the o l d e r c h i l d or adult. A d o p t i n g P i a g e t ' s t e c h n i q u e s , L e r n e r ( 7 4 ) has noted a s i m i l a r pattern of development i n m o r a l judgment i n c h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d States.  In another study (74a), he r e p o r t s that among  -  29  -  S w i s s schoolboys up to age eight or n i n e , m o r a l judgments a r e entirely " r e a l i s t i c " .  The c h i l d does not think of a l t e r n a t i v e s  nor have r e g a r d for the points of view of other p e r s o n s , t h i n k i n g everyone w i l l have the same opinion as he does.  A f t e r this age,  the c h i l d b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y m o r e f l e x i b l e i n h i s judgments and i s able to identify w i t h a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of p e r s o n s .  T h i s same  technique was u s e d by B o e h m (17) to c o m p a r e A m e r i c a n and S w i s s children.  A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n seem to m a t u r e e a r l i e r i n c e r t a i n  a r e a s of s o c i a l development, and a r e affected by the judgments and n o r m s of t h e i r p e e r s at an e a r l i e r age. In testing two a s s u m p t i o n s b e h i n d the w o r k of P i a g e t and L e r n e r , M c R a e (83) found there i s no g e n e r a l factor u n d e r l y i n g a l l the questions u s e d , but that there a r e s e v e r a l s u b - c l u s t e r s r e l a t e d to separate a s p e c t s of m o r a l development.  These s u b -  c l u s t e r s are c o n c e r n e d w i t h : 1.  Intentions-consequences  2.  Punishment  3.  Perspective  4.  V i o l a t i o n of n o r m s  M c R a e then postulated two types of m o r a l development, cognitive and e m o t i o n a l .  The f o r m e r i n v o l v e s the l e a r n i n g of w h i c h b e -  h a v i o u r patterns a r e a p p r o v e d and w h i c h d i s a p p r o v e d , w h i l e the l a t t e r i n c l u d e s the a s s o c i a t i o n of anxiety w i t h one's own deviance and m o r a l i n d i g n a t i o n w i t h that of o t h e r s .  The f i r s t three c l u s t e r s  a r e p r o b a b l y m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h cognitive development, w h i l e the v i o l a t i o n of n o r m s questions ar e m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h e m o t i o n a l  -  m o r a l development.  30  -  T h e r e f o r e , although P i a g e t ' s findings have  been c o r r o b e r a t e d by other s t u d i e s , there i s s t i l l r o o m for r e finement into studies of the two types of m o r a l development. W i t h t h e i r Stanfoafd-Binet-like t e s t , L i n c o l n and Shields (78) conduded that there i s a g r a d u a l development of m o r a l judgment f r o m c h i l d h o o d to m a t u r i t y , although complete u n d e r standing of m o r a l concepts d i d not o c c u r u n t i l w e l l over s i x t e e n y e a r s of age.  H o w e v e r , such a late age for understanding of  m o r a l concepts m u s t be an a r t i f a c t of the test r a t h e r than of l a c k of m o r a l understanding i n c h i l d r e n .  The test was o b v i o u s l y  h i g h l y dependent on v e r b a l s k i l l s , and so i t i s l i k e l y that there was not a complete understanding of the v o c a b u l a r y and sentence s t r u c t u r e u s e d r a t h e r than of the m o r a l concepts hidden behind them. W i t h a s i m i l a r type of t e s t , M c G r a t h (82) found t h r e e stages i n the m o r a l development of c h i l d r e n f r o m age s i x . - F i r s t came the understanding of a duty to G o d , then of the duty to one's neighbour and to m a i n t a i n one's p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y , and t h i r d l y , of the duty to s o c i e t y and s o c i a l g r o u p s .  It was found that young  c h i l d r e n a r e g e n e r a l l y k i n d , p o l i t e , c h a r i t a b l e and honest i n t h e i r dealings w i t h o t h e r s , but they tend to be " s e l f i s h as to p e r s o n a l gain and i n^satisfying t h e i r own wants f i r s t " .  Moral  a w a r e n e s s s e e m e d to have developed to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of m a t u r i t y by age t w e l v e , but the attainment of i t was g r a d u a l . Obedience a p p e a r e d to be the m o s t i m p o r t a n t t r a i t up to a d o l e s c e n c e ,  -  31 -  w h i l e truthfulness a p p e a r e d l a t e r .  Since M c G r a t h ' s statement  that m o r a l a w a r e n e s s has m a t u r e d by age twelve s e e m s to be m o r e i n line w i t h the d i s c o v e r i e s of other i n v e s t i g a t o r s , her test i s p r o b a b l y l e s s dependent on i n t e l l e c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t than that of L i n c o l n and S h i e l d s . H o w e v e r , i t s e e m s difficult to accept the i d e a that the c h i l d f i r s t understands a duty to G o d i n any but a s e l e c t group of p e r s o n s h i g h l y t r a i n e d i n r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t s . Studying younger c h i l d r e n , S r . M a r y I . H . M . and Hughes (86) r e p o r t that the n e c e s s i t y of obeying one's p a r e n t s i s u n d e r s t o o d s o m e t i m e i n the f i r s t two y e a r s of l i f e , although r e a s o n s why w e r e m o r e s l o w l y developed.  R e a l i z a t i o n of r i g h t s of o w n e r -  ship a l s o o c c u r r e d e a r l y , while the concept of t r u t h was u n d e r s t o o d by age f i v e .  A v e r a g e m o r a l growth a p p e a r e d to be r a p i d f r o m  three to five y e a r s of age, w i t h the foundations of m o r a l concepts being l a i d i n p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s .  F r o m the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v i e w -  p o i n t , G r e e n a c r e (49) has stated a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n , saying that before age five c h i l d r e n have some standards of r i g h t and w r o n g , of p r o p e r t y p o s s e s s i o n , and of c o n t r o l l i n g actions that w i l l h a r m others. R a n k i n g s of c h i l d r e n aged s i x , a c c o r d i n g to E b e r h a r t (35) c o r r e l a t e . 75 w i t h adult r a n k i n g s r e g a r d i n g attitude t o w a r d property rights.  P r o g r e s s t o w a r d adult n o r m s was steady, w i t h  g r e a t e s t p r o g r e s s being made d u r i n g the p r i m a r y g r a d e s .  Judg-  ments were b a s e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the owner to the offender, the p o s s i b i l i t y of punishment and the k i n d and value of the p r o p e r t y  -  involved.  32  -  F e a r of punishment was a chief factor i n c h i l d r e n ' s  j u d g m e n t s , w h i l e o l d e r p e r s o n s gave d i v e r s e r e a s o n s showing c o n c e r n for o t h e r s .  T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s to L e r n e r ' s findings (74a)  w i t h r e g a r d to p e r s p e c t i v e , or the a b i l i t y to s y m p a t h i z e w i t h the viewpoints of o t h e r s . R e l a t i n g age to guilt w i t h delinquent b o y s , the M c C o r d s (80) found no s i g n i f i c a n t change between the ages of eight and thirteen.  They feel that this i n d i c a t e s that s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as r e -  f l e c t e d i n guilt f e e l i n g s , o c c u r s at an e a r l y age and that g u i l t does not seem to i n c r e a s e w i t h m a t u r i t y . Dowd (32) studied changes i n m o r a l r e a s o n i n g through the high s c h o o l y e a r s , u s i n g n o r m a l C a t h o l i c h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s as h e r subjects.  These g i r l s w e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h i r t y p r o b l e m  situations i n v o l v i n g m o r a l questions and w e r e a s k e d what they would do under such c o n d i t i o n s , and the r e a s o n for t h e i r d e c i s i o n . The r e a s o n s were c l a s s i f i e d as e t h i c a l i f b a s e d on m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , e m o t i o n a l i f b a s e d on c o n s i d e r a t i o n for the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s , and as p r a g m a t i c i f c o n s i d e r a t i o n for self came f i r s t .  There seemed  to be a tendency for the use of c o r r e c t e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s to i n c r e a s e w i t h grade l e v e l , w h i l e e m o t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s d e c r e a s e d .  The  p r a g m a t i c influence was strong i n G r a d e E i g h t and w e a k e r i n G r a d e Twelve.  S o c i a l p r e s s u r e s s o m e t i m e s b l u r r e d the e t h i c a l i s s u e s  for the a d o l e s c e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the o l d e r ones, as they seem to have a strong d e s i r e for the a p p r o v a l of t h e i r p e e r s .  -  33  -  A c o m p a r i s o n of high s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y students was made by S l a v e n s and B r o g a n (106) to see i f there w e r e any differences i n judgments of these two age g r o u p s .  A s far as  s e r i o u s n e s s of p r a c t i c e s was c o n c e r n e d , the r e s u l t s w e r e m u c h the same for both g r o u p s . S e v e r a l studies have found that i n c r e a s i n g age i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a d e c r e a s e i n the acceptance of g e n e r a l m o r a l v i e w s by c h i l d r e n .  Such findings have been m e n t i o n e d by P i a g e t (94),  L e r n e r (74), M c C o r d and M c C o r d (80), H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54), Jones (97) and T e r m a n (97).  W i t h r e g a r d to t r u t h f u l n e s s , H o r t o n  (59) d i s c o v e r e d that students s e e m e d to become m o r e tactful i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and l e s s r e g a r d f u l of the t r u t h as they go through school.  E l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s tend to be b l u n t l y truthful r e g a r d l e s s  of the feelings of o t h e r s . truthful than b o y s .  In g e n e r a l , g i r l s w e r e found to be m o r e  H o w e v e r , a m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n i n this study was  that only one i n s t a n c e was u s e d as a b a s i s for d e t e r m i n i n g t r u t h fulness.  P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y a g r e e s w i t h the findings of these  investigators.  The pertinent studies w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the  s e c t i o n on p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v i e w s r e g a r d i n g m o r a l development. H o w e v e r , the q u e s t i o n m a y be m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d than has been suggested, a c c o r d i n g to the findings of B e l l e r (10).  He  studied n i n e , t w e l v e , and fifteen y e a r o l d b o y s , u s i n g the technique of a s k i n g them how they "ought" to behave i n c e r t a i n c o n c r e t e situations and how they a n t i c i p a t e d they a c t u a l l y would behave. The m a j o r concept behind these situations was d e c e p t i o n .  Beller ,  -  34  -  consistent w i t h the above f i n d i n g s , found an o v e r a l l drop i n honesty w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age.  H o w e v e r , w i t h t h i s i n c r e a s i n g age,  t h e r e was a l s o a t r e n d to h i g h e r i d e a l s of honesty r a t h e r than to a tendency to behave h o n e s t l y .  T h i s meant that there was a l a r g e r  d i s c r e p a n c y between the two s c a l e s w i t h the twelve and fifteen y e a r olds than w i t h the nine y e a r o l d s .  Twelve year old children  set t h e i r standards above t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d conduct i n m u c h the same way as n o r m a l adults do,  B e l l e r concluded that the twelve  y e a r oldihas " i n t e r i o r i z e d " the m o r a l code to a g r e a t e r extent than the nine y e a r o l d , and that by age fifteen a l i m i t appears to have been r e a c h e d . In s u m m a r i z i n g the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s , there s e e m s to be an a g r e e m e n t that c h i l d r e n a r e at f i r s t v e r y " l i t e r a l " i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n of m o r a l judgment, then become a w a r e of a l t e r n a t i v e s , and a re f i n a l l y able to r a t i o n a l l y conceive of the " j u s t " and the "unjust ' by putting t h e m s e l v e s i n a n o t h e r ' s p l a c e . 1  However, it  has been suggested that two types of m o r a l development should be c o n s i d e r e d , the cognitive and the e m o t i o n a l .  T h e r e s e e m s to  be a consensus that truthfulness o r honesty d e c r e a s e s , w h i l e deception i n c r e a s e s , w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the child.  Y e t , there i s evidence that i d e a l s m a y not be l o w e r e d i n  conjunction w i t h the m o r e f l e x i b l e b e h a v i o u r .  W i t h r e g a r d to the  age at w h i c h m o r a l a w a r e n e s s f i r s t a p p e a r s , c h i l d r e n as young as eighteen months have shown evidence of a w a r e n e s s of " r i g h t " and " w r o n g " , w i t h the r a p i d p e r i o d of development being the p r e - s c h o o l  -  and e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s .  35  -  B y the t i m e a c h i l d has r e a c h e d the age  of twelve to fifteen, h i s a w a r e n e s s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of m o r a l concepts has m a t u r e d .  T h e r e i s not complete a g r e e m e n t i n the  studies w i t h r e g a r d to the average age of attaining this m o r a l maturity. T h e r e have been few studies on the content of the c h i l d ' s m o r a l c o n c e p t s , and those w h i c h have been done have been w i t h r e f e r e n c e to such a l i m i t e d population that a g r e a t d e a l m o r e investigation i s required.  F o r e x a m p l e , a suitable c o n s c i e n c e  s c a l e m i g h t h e l p to t r a c e , not only the waning of truthfulness w h i c h has been noted, but a l s o the i n c r e a s e i n c o n c e r n for the f e e l i n g s of others w h i c h i t i s suspected a c c o m p a n i e s this phenomenon. The r i s e and f a l l of the different facets of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e m i g h t be f o l l o w e d i n this m a n n e r , and a c l e a r e r u n d e r standing of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y m a y be r e a c h e d . P s y c h o an a l y t i c  Views  The development of the super-ego has been one of the m o s t contentious i s s u e s i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory.  Since F r e u d  postulated that the s u p e r - e g o does not function u n t i l the l a t e n c y p e r i o d , m a n y v o i c e s have r i s e n to p r o t e s t that c h i l d r e n show evidence of an operating super-ego long before this age.  F r e u d (42)  a d m i t s that c h i l d r e n show g u i l t feelings at an e a r l i e r age, but says that this a w a r e n e s s of g u i l t c o m e s into being before the s u p e r - e g o . The s u p p o s i t i o n that the infant could e x p e r i e n c e a n x i e t y at the e a r l i e s t o r a l stage was expressed by A b r a h a m (1) as e a r l y  36  -  as 1916. He c o n s i d e r e d that something r e s e m b l i n g g u i l t c o u l d o c c u r at the next stage. • N u n b e r g (92) and F e r e n c z i (16) point out the i m p o r t a n c e of b o d i l y sensations and b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y on the f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o .  H o w e v e r , these  authors a r e p r o b a b l y only d e s c r i b i n g one stage i n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s w h i c h has been m o r e adequately d e s c r i b e d by R a n k , I s a a c s , Greenacre, etc. , . T h r o u g h p l a y t e c h n i q u e s , K l e i n (69) studied young c h i l d r e n aged f r o m two to s i x .  On this b a s i s , she postulated that  the growth of the s u p e r - e g o i s slow w i t h a beginning e a r l y i n l i f e . H e r hypothesis i s that the infant has v i o l e n t e m o t i o n s , cannot d i s t i n g u i s h between self and n o t - s e l f , and has h i g h l y a m b i v a l e n t impulses.  'Wdxeiz he f i r s t begins to p e r c e i v e h i s m o t h e r as a p e r s o n ,  these i m p u l s e s a r e at the a g r e s s i v e - a m b i v a l e n t stage . d i s m e m b e r and consume h i s m o t h e r .  He wants to  These i m p u l s e s a r e p r o j e c t e d  upon the m o t h e r so that there a r i s e s the notion of a f i e r c e m o t h e r with extremely aggressive feelings.  B e c a u s e the c h i l d i n t r o j e c t s  t h i s i m a g e he develops an e x t r e m e l y s e v e r e s u p e r - e g o w h i c h offsets h i s d e s t r u c t i v e i m p u l s e s .  T h u s , K l e i n concludes that the  genesis of the super-ego i s to be found i n the o r a l - s a d i s t i c r a t h e r than i n the p h a l l i c stage of development.  Isaacs (60) a g r e e s w i t h  K L e i n i n t h i s , pointing out that the super-ego i s often m o s t s e v e r e i n c h i l d r e n of three to five y e a r s of age, i n complete c o n t r a d i c t i o n of the gentle t r e a t m e n t a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d by the c h i l d .  -  37  -  She postulates three stages i n g u i l t : .1.  That a r i s i n g f r o m the l e a s t differentiated l e v e l s of e x -  p e r i e n c e , r e s u l t i n g i n the a u t o m a t i c and " b l a c k or w h i t e " characteristics. 2.  That a r i s i n g f r o m the e a r l i e s t o b j e c t - c a t h e x i s and r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g f r u s t r a t i o n as a chief f a c t o r . 3.  That a r i s i n g f r o m the i n t r o j e c t i o n of l o v e - o b j e c t s and  i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of c a s t r a t i o n - a n x i e t y , r e s u l t i n g i n true g u i l t . F o u r stages i n super-ego development w e r e d e s c r i b e d by G r e e n a c r e (50). 1.  F i r s t 18 months to two y e a r s - e a r l y i n t r o j e c t i v e - p r o j e c t i v e  stage. 2.  H a b i t t r a i n i n g y e a r s - struggle to m a s t e r body u r g e s  3.  A g e five - struggle of r e n u n c i a t i o n of oedipal attachment  and extension of the w o r l d 4.  R e i n f o r c e m e n t of the attainments of the o e d i p a l struggle by  social influences.  The i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i e n c e joins w i t h the s o c i a l  c o n s c i e n c e to some d e g r e e . R a n k (16),as i n t e r p r e t e d by B l u m , has a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d c e r t a i n stages i n s u p e r - e g o 1.  development:  The b i o l o g i c a l s u p e r - e g o - a r i s i n g f r o m o r a l - s a d i s t i c  l i b i d o d a m m e d up i n the ego causing development of i n h i b i t i o n s 2.  The m o r a l super-ego - a r i s i n g i n the anal stage as a r e s u l t  of t o i l e t t r a i n i n g causing development of s a d o - m a s o c h i s t i c p o r t i o n of the  super-ego.  -  3.  38  -  The s o c i a l s u p e r - e g o - a r i s i n g i n the O e d i p a l p e r i o d as  a r e s u l t of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n t r o j e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , L a m p ! - d e G r o o t (72) c r i t i c i z e d the v i e w p o i n t that the s u p e r - e g o a r i s e s before the r e s o l u t i o n of the Oedipus complex.  He p r e f e r s to d i s t i n g u i s h between the f o r e r u n n e r s and  the s u p e r - e g o i t s e l f , although he a d m i t s there i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l phase of w h i c h the s u p e r - e g o i s the a c h i e v e m e n t .  In t h i s , he p r e f e r s  to f o l l o w the l i n e of thought e x p r e s s e d by F r e u d . Those that do agree on e a r l y f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o , a l s o seem to a g r e e , m o r e or l e s s , i n r e g a r d to stages of d e v e l o p ment, since a l l begin w i t h the o r a l - s a d i s t i c stage, then go through a p e r i o d of m a s t e r i n g b o d i l y u r g e s , and a l l m e n t i o n the O e d i p a l struggle as a n i m p o r t a n t pha se. Changes i n the nature of the s u p e r - e g o w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age have a l s o been d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  F e n i c h e l (37)  states that the s u p e r - e g o i s at f i r s t s t r i c t and r i g i d , but i n n o r m a l p e r s o n s i t l a t e r b e c o m e s m o r e p l i a b l e and m o r e s e n s i b l e . Hartmann., K r i s and L o e w e n s t e i n (53) a l s o d i s c u s s this phenomenon, saying that the s u p e r - e g o f i r s t tends to be o v e r l y r i g i d and, r a t h e r than c o m p r o m i s e , i t y i e l d s .  W i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, the s u p e r - e g o  adjusts to r e a l i t y , p a r t l y due to the fact that the function of the :  s u p e r - e g o i s l e s s i n danger and so needs l e s s p r o t e c t i o n .  Also  B o r n s t e i n (18) says that i n the age group f r o m five and o n e - h a l f to eight, the s u p e r - e g o functions i n a h a r s h m a n n e r , but l a t e r b e c o m e s m o r e p l i a b l e since exposed to l e s s severe c o n f l i c t s due  -  39  -  to r e d u c e d s exual d e m a n d s . In a s y n t h e s i s of many t h e o r i e s and s t u d i e s , F l u g e l (39) t r a c e s eight g e n e r a l tendencies i n m o r a l development.  These  trends a r e : 1.  F r o m e g o c e n t r i c i t y to s o c i a l i t y  2.  F r o m u n c o n s c i o u s to c o n s c i o u s  3.  F r o m a u t i s m to r e a l i s m  4.  F r o m m o r a l i n h i b i t i o n to spontaneous  5.  F r o m a g g r e s s i o n to t o l e r a n c e and love  6.  F r o m fear to s e c u r i t y  7.  F r o m h e t e r o n o m y to autonomy  8.  F r o m o r e c t i c ( m o r a l ) judgment to cognitive  'goodness'  (psychological) judgment M a n y of these tendencies w e r e f i r s t brought to l i g h t i n P i a g e t ' s studie s, and they a l l i n v o l v e t r a n s i t i o n s f r o m a p r i m i t i v e state to a m o r e m a t u r e state. A t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t i s e x p r e s s e d by the p s y c h o l o g i s t , A l l p o r t (6), i n d e s c r i b i n g the changes w h i c h o c c u r i n the d e v e l o p ment of c o n s c i e n c e as f o l l o w s : " . . . i n the c o u r s e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n three i m p o r t a n t changes o c c u r . 1. E x t e r n a l sanctions give way to i n t e r n a l - a change adequately accounted for by the p r o c e s s e s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n t r o j e c t i o n . . . 2. E x p e r i e n c e s of p r o h i b i t i o n , f e a r , and " m u s t " give w a y to e x p e r i e n c e s of p r e f e r e n c e , s e l f - r e s p e c t , and "ought". T h i s shift b e c o m e s p o s s i b l e i n p r o p o r t i o n as the s e l f - i m a g e and value s y s t e m s of the i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p .  -  40  -  3. S p e c i f i c habits of obedience give way to g e n e r i c s e l f guidance, that i s to s a y , to b r o a d schemata of v a l u e s that confer d i r e c t i o n upon conduct. " (6,72) These changes a r e s i m i l a r to those d e s c r i b e d by p s y c h o a n a l y s t s and e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a l i k e , and g i v e s a b r o a d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d i n m o r e d e t a i l by F l u g e l (39). P s y c h o a n a l y t i c studies of m o r a l development,  then,  have been chiefly c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e s c r i b i n g the stages through w h i c h the super-ego p a s s e s before attaining m a t u r i t y .  There  f i r s t appears to be a n o r a l - s a d i s t i c stage i n w h i c h the c h i l d has not yet l e a r n e d to d i s t i n g u i s h self f r o m n o t - s e l f .  Then c o m e s a  stage i n w h i c h b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s and t h e i r c o n t r o l a r e of p r i m e importance.  Then comes the i n t r o j e c t i o n and i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n  p r o c e s s e s w h i c h m a y , i n a s t i l l l a t e r stage, be affected by t r a i n i n g and other s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s .  T h e r e a r e s t i l l those,  h o w e v e r , who m a i n t a i n that F r e u d ' s contention that the evidence of p r e - o e d i p a l s u p e r - e g o i s m e r e l y evidence of a f o r e r u n n e r to the super-ego i s the m o r e c o r r e c t one. Changes a r e a l s o apparent i n the nature of the ego as development p r o g r e s s e s .  super-  M a n y t h e o r i s t s have r e m a r k e d  on the c r u e l , r i g i d s u p e r - e g o found i n v e r y young c h i l d r e n .  This  r i g i d i t y i s l a t e r a m e l i o r a t e d by changes t o w a r d a m o r e p l i a b l e and r e a l i s t i c n a t u r e .  The g r a d u a l attainment of a m a t u r e  super-  ego could perhaps be studied through e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the content and strength of the s u p e r - e g o at v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l stages.  -  41 -  Summary In s u m m a r y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to m o r a l development, a l l i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c e r n e d have a g r e e d that there i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s w h i c h m u s t be undergone before a m a t u r e conception of m o r a l values i s attained.  T h e r e a r e differences i n  the postulated ages of a c h i e v i n g this m a t u r i t y , and a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the postulated ages at w h i c h t h i s p r o c e s s b e g i n s .  The m a n n e r  of changes w h i c h o c c u r d u r i n g this p r o c e s s , a s d e s c r i b e d by P i a g e t , have been f a i r l y on r e s e a r c h .  w e l l borne out by other authors i n t h e i r r e p o r t s  F l u g e l points out eight a s p e c t s of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l  p r o c e s s w h i c h undergo change.  W i t h i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y , the  t r e n d , both g e n e r a l l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y , s e e m s to be f r o m the r i g i d and u n r e a l i s t i c to the f l e x i b l e and a d a p t i v e .  The m o s t r e c e n t  r e s e a r c h has brought f o r t h the r e a l i z a t i o n that r e f i n e m e n t of studies i n o r d e r to c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s p r e v i o u s l y o v e r l o o k e d i s i m p e r a t i v e i f d i f f e r e n c e s a r e to be r e c o n c i l e d . T h e r e i s s t i l l m u c h d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g the age at w h i c h s u p e r - e g o or c o n s c i e n c e m a k e s i t s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e . A l t h o u g h m u c h of the r e c e n t w r i t i n g on this subject has f o l l o w e d K l e i n i n postulating a super-ego p r e c e d i n g the O e d i p a l s t r u g g l e , there are s t i l l those who follow F r e u d ' s t h e o r y .  However, if  factual evidence of g u i l t i s evidence of the p r e s e n c e of a s u p e r - e g o , the w o r k of K l e i n , I s a a c , G r e e n a c r e and of e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s such as S r . M a r y and Hughes would point to i t s existence before the age of f i v e .  -  Sexual  Differences  42  in Moral  Super-ego  Awareness  and  Function  a) E m p i r i c a l Studies T h r e e aspects of sexual differences i n m o r a l j u d g ments w e r e studied by B r o g a n .  In h i s f i r s t study (21), he found no  significant differences between sexes i n r a n k i n g the s e r i o u s n e s s of s i x t e e n s o r t s of u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r .  T h e r e was a l s o a  u n i f o r m i t y of opinion as to w h i c h of the p r a c t i c e s w e r e m o r e frequently i n d u l g e d i n . L a t e r , these same " w o r s t p r a c t i c e s " w e r e u s e d to see i f group e s t i m a t e s of the frequency of m i s c o n d u c t w e r e the same w i t h r e g a r d to m e n and to w o m e n (22).  There were  only two p r a c t i c e s where a d i s c r e p a n c y between the two sexes was evidenced .  W o m e n tended to t h i n k both d r i n k i n g and g a m b l i n g  w e r e m o r e frequent among m e n than the m e n thought.  O n the  r a t i n g of r e l a t i v e frequency between the s e x e s , g o s s i p , s n o b b i s h n e s s , extravagance and s e l f i s h n e s s w e r e thought to be m o r e frequent among w o m e n ; d a n c i n g , l y i n g , i d l e n e s s and c h e a t i n g , a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e ; while the r e m a i n d e r w e r e thought to be m o r e frequent among m e n .  T h i s showed there definitely was a  "double s t a n d a r d " at that t i m e .  B r o g a n went on to use this method  to study the double s t a n d a r d m o r e i n t e n s e l y among u n i v e r s i t y students (23).  The students w e r e r e q u i r e d to state whether a  p r a c t i c e was w o r s e for a m a n to do than for a w o m a n to do, or v i c e v e r s a , or whether e q u a l l y bad for both m e n and w o m e n . Idleness was the only p r a c t i c e thought to be w o r s e for m e n than for  -  women.  43  -  H o w e v e r , the double standards set seemed to v a r y f r o m  one p a r t of the U n i t e d States to another.  A chief c r i t i c i s m of t h i s  s e r i e s of studies l i e s i n B r o g a n ' s u s i n g such b r o a d t e r m s as s e l f i s h n e s s , e x t r a v a g a n c e , i d l e n e s s , e t c . , without pinning the t e r m s down to a c t u a l situations .  That i s , no definitions of the  t e r m s a r e offered; neither a r e they r e l a t e d to a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r situations.  T h e r e f o r e , differences i n different p a r t s of the  country could be due to l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the m e a n i n g of the t e r m s r a t h e r than to v a r i a t i o n s i n standards t h e m s e l v e s .  Term  meanings could a l s o v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m p e r s o n to p e r s o n . The r e f e r e n c e point of each t e r m w o u l d have a great deal to do with its seriousness .  F o r e x a m p l e , g o s s i p designed to h u r t  others w o u l d be m u c h m o r e s e r i o u s than just i d l e c h a t t e r , but either m e a n i n g could be taken i n this study, as w e l l as m a n y shades of m e a n i n g between these t w o .  H o w e v e r , B r o g a n ' s technique of  finding f r o m the students t h e m s e l v e s t h e i r i d e a s of the ten w o r s t p r a c t i c e s , and s e l e c t i n g the s i x t e e n m o s t frequently m e n t i o n e d f r o m these data, was commendable when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h so m a n y studies i n w h i c h the scale c o n s t r u c t o r m a k e s up h i s o w n l i s t s . T h o m p s o n (110) a l s o b a s e d h i s b e h a v i o u r l i s t s on m a t e r i a l obtained f r o m students.  H a v i n g a s k e d boys and g i r l s  f r o m G r a d e s S i x to T w e l v e to l i s t behaviour w h i c h w o u l d be p r a i s e d o r b l a m e d by other c h i l d r e n t h e i r own age, these r e s p o n s e s w e r e a n a l y z e d into 29 c a t e g o r i e s of b l a m e r e s p o n s e s and 27 c a t e g o r i e s of p r a i s e r e s p o n s e s .  S l i d e s c o n s i s t i n g of the ten m o s t frequently  - 44 -  m e n t i o n e d p r a i s e and b l a m e c a t e g o r i e s i n each c o m b i n a t i o n w e r e made up and p r e s e n t e d to a new p o p u l a t i o n .  R e s u l t s showed that  r a n k i n g s for the sexes w e r e h i g h l y s i m i l a r i n the seven age g r o u p s , although g i r l s showed g r e a t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n at a l l age l e v e l s . T h i s method of studying m o r a l a w a r e n e s s i s c e r t a i n l y p r a i s e w o r t h y i n s o f a r as the method of c o l l e c t i n g e m p i r i c a l data and setting up the c a t e g o r i e s i s c o n c e r n e d .  Y e t , to use the g e n e r a l t e r m s of the  c a t e g o r i e s i n the second phase of the study i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y because of the confusion w h i c h m i g h t a r i s e as to the p r e c i s e m e a n i n g of the t e r m s , as has been m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y .  Thompson's  m e t h o d of c o l l e c t i n g the o r i g i n a l data i s s i m i l a r to the method u s e d i n the p r e s e n t study.  H o w e v e r , h i s c a t e g o r i e s a r e i n r e f e r e n c e to  peer group judgments, and t h e r e f o r e do not c o v e r the f u l l range of conscience m a t e r i a l . Other studies w h i c h have found g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y between m o r a l v i e w s of m e n and w o m e n a r e those of Skaggs (105), who found " i n t i m a t e sex r e l a t i o n s outside of m a r r i a g e " to be the only i t e m w i t h m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e ; and D u d y c h k a (33), who found a l l m o r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s to be e q u a l l y b e l i e v e d except those c o n c e r n e d w i t h s m o k i n g . H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54) found honesty to be u n r e l a t e d to s e x , although H o r t o n (59) found g i r l s to be m o r e truthful than b o y s .  C a t t e l l (25) a l s o , r e p o r t s p r a c t i c a l l y no sex  differences i n the s o u r c e t r a i t of-supearisego strength.  In the w e l l -  known study of the A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y (2), when p e r s o n a l i t y e x t r e m e s were h e l d constant, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the s u p e r - e g o s of m e n and w o m e n .  -  45  -  C r i s s m a n (28) found w o m e n to be m o r e s e v e r e i n t h e i r m o r a l judgments than m e n .  U s i n g a r a t i n g scale for the  judgment of fifty i t e m s on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w o m e n w e r e shown to judge four-fifths of the i t e m s m o r e s e v e r e l y than the m e n d i d . E s p e c i a l l y g r e a t differences w e r e shown i n i t e m s r e g a r d i n g d r i n k i n g , r e l i g i o n and s e x u a l m o r a l i t y , as w e l l as those r e g a r d i n g cheating, d i s h o n e s t y , and not c o n t r i b u t i n g to c h a r i t y . Studying a s l i g h t l y different a s p e c t of s e x u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r a l i t y , Whitlow (114) u s i n g a r a n k i n g technique on t w e n t y - s i x a c t i v i t i e s , found that the boys r e s e m b l e d the g i r l s m o r e i n attitude than they d i d i n b e h a v i o u r , w h i l e the c o n s i s t e n c y between attitude and behaviour was g r e a t e r for the g i r l s than for the b o y s .  One of  the c o n c l u s i o n s i n a study by B r a h m a c h a r i , as d e s c r i b e d by F l u g e l (39,63-68), was that w o m e n seemed to suffer l e s s c o n f l i c t than m e n , the l a t t e r being t r o u b l e d chiefly by a r e b e l l i o u s egoideal . U s i n g e m p i r i c a l methods to test p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p r i n c i p l e s , B l u m (16a) studied p a r e n t a l influences on both sexes i n the f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o .  O n the b a s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n  gathered through use of the B l a c k y p i c t u r e s , he found i d e n t i f i c a t i o n n o r m a l l y o c c u r s w i t h the p a r e n t of the same s e x , but that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s l e s s c l e a r - c u t i n f e m a l e s than i n males.  W i t h r e g a r d to f i g u r e s i n t r o j e c t e d into the  super-ego,  he found there w e r e m i x e d e l e m e n t s , although there was a s l i g h t tendency for m a l e students to attribute f a t h e r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the s u p e r - e g o w h i l e f e m a l e s p r o s c r i b e d m o t h e r l y ones.  It i s  - 46 -  i n t e r e s t i n g to note that s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e f e m a l e s than m a l e s showed evidence of i n t e r n a l i z e d g u i l t , w h i l e m a l e s u s u a l l y chose externalized alternatives.  T h i s opposes the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c  t h e o r i s t s who point out a l a c k of s u p e r - e g o development i n f e m a l e s . These t h e o r i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p o r t i o n of this t o p i c . In s u m m a r y , e m p i r i c a l studies show l i t t l e difference between m e n and w o m e n as to i d e a s on m o r a l i t y except i n some specific areas.  G i r l s s e e m e d to be m o r e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n t h e i r  judgment, a c c o r d i n g to one study.  Since some a c t i o n s w e r e found  to be thought m o r e s e r i o u s for w o m e n than for m e n , the f o r m e r appear to have m o r e p r e s s u r e on them to be " g o o d " , yet they seem to suffer l e s s f r o m conflict than do m a l e s .  A n o t h e r finding  d r a w s attention to a g r e a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i n f e m a l e s than i n m a l e s between b e h a v i o u r and attitude.  T h e r e i s some evidence that the  i n t r o j e c t e d f i g u r e s i n the s u p e r - e g o a r e of m i x e d e l e m e n t s i n m a l e s and f e m a l e s , although there i s a s l i g h t tendency t o w a r d same-sex introjection. guilt than m a l e s .  F e m a l e s tended to have m o r e i n t e r n a l i z e d  A l t o g e t h e r , there s e e m s to be a f a i r amount of  s i m i l a r i t y between s e x e s , w h i c h c l a s h e s w i t h c e r t a i n facets of psychoanalytic theory.  Thus further w o r k i s needed i n this area,  b) P s y c h o a n a l y t i c V i e w s F r e u d (41) had d i s c u s s e d the difference i n the g e n e s i s of the m a l e arid female s u p e r - e g o and had c o n s i d e r e d the f e m i n i n e s u p e r - e g o to be l e s s c o m p l e t e l y developed than the m a l e s u p e r - e g o .  -  47  -  He felt i t i n c l u d e d l e s s sense of j u s t i c e , l e s s r e a d i n e s s to s u b m i t to the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e , but contained m o r e j e a l o u s y and m o r e bias.  Star eke (107) went further than this to say that w o m e n  s e l d o m p o s s e s s a c o n s c i e n c e , p r e f e r r i n g to s u b m i t to an a u t h o r i t y i n the outside w o r l d .  If they have a c o n s c i e n c e , i t i s of different  o r i e n t a t i o n f r o m m a n ' s , and they therefore can adjust t h e m s e l v e s to new conditions w e l l , because of this f r e e d o m f r o m a s t r o n g super-ego.  T h i s l a t t e r thought c o n t r a d i c t s F r e u d ' s b e l i e f that  w o m e n a r e l e s s r e a d y to s u b m i t to the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e .  Sachs (1  feels that w o m e n do not a t t a i n a s u p e r - e g o at a l l u n l e s s the n e c e s s a r y r e n u n c i a t i o n of h e r c l a i m to the penis, l e a d s to h e r a c c e p t i n g deprivation as a l i f e - l o n g ideal.  When the daughter r e m a i n s  fixated to the father, she does not form, a s u p e r - e g o that can be c a l l e d h e r o w n , but m e r e l y one w h i c h i s a copy of h e r f a t h e r ' s . Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r , h e r s u p e r - e g o m a y be strong and w e l l - d e v e l o p e d , l e a d i n g Sachs to say that a good copy m i g h t be w o r t h m o r e than a poor o r i g i n a l . B r i e r l y (19) a d m i t s that w o m e n have a s u p e r - e g o , although i t i s a n ' i n f a n t i l e " r a t h e r than a t r u l y " a d u l t " type, due to the p e r s i s t e n c e of infantile o r a l c o n d i t i o n s . R a n k , a c c o r d i n g to B l u m (16), a g r e e s i n essence w i t h B r i e r l y since he postulates that the g i r l has a p r i m a r y b i o l o g i c a l s u p e r - e g o w h e r e a s the boy b u i l d s up o v e r this the p a t e r n a l s o c i a l s u p e r - e g o .  In the female.,  s u p e r - e g o , i n h i b i t i o n s a r e dominant, w h i l e i n the m a l e , anxiety is more important.  -  48  -  F r e u d (41) was of the o p i n i o n that the influence of education and of threatened l o s s of affection a r e of far m o r e i m p o r t a n c e i n d r i v i n g a g i r l to abandon the Oedipus c o m p l e x and f o r m the s u p e r - e g o than i n a b o y .  M u l l e r - B r a u n s c h w e i g (90)  points out that a g i r l m a y p o s s e s s something equivalent to a b o y ' s c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y , a " c a n c e l l i n g r e a c t i o n - f o r m a t i o n of the p e n i s i d e a l " w h i c h could be the b a s i s of the female s u p e r - e g o .  The  difference i n g e n i t a l i t a and m u s c u l a t u r e i s thought by G r e e n a c r e (50) to be of influence i n c a u s i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s between m a l e and female s u p e r - e g o s .  She b e l i e v e s that boys struggle against  a g g r e s s i o n and m a s t u r b a t i o n w h i l e g i r l s struggle against envy. T i m e of f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o i s a l s o thought tb differ w i t h the sex of the c h i l d a c c o r d i n g to J a c o b s o n (.61) and L a m p l - d e G r o o t (71) who e m p h a s i z e the e a r l i e r onset i n the f i r s t stage" of the O e d i p a l struggle i n the g i r l . B r o d b e c k (20) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n of i n t e r n a l i z e d standards of conduct of young adolescents to the r e l a t i v e influence of t h e i r m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s .  It was found that values a r e s e x -  typed at ten y e a r s of age, but that there i s i n c r e a s i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the o p p o s i t e - s e x e d p a r e n t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, without u n d e r m i n i n g the influence of the s a m e - s e x e d p a r e n t .  These findings  m i g h t l e a d to the supposition that although there m a y o r i g i n a l l y be a difference between m a l e and female s u p e r - e g o s ,  it is overlaid  by l a t e r influences w h i c h tend to m a k e them m o r e s i m i l a r . T h u s , a study of sex differences at different ages w o u l d be needed to find  -  49  -  out i f such could be the c a s e . A c t u a l l y , i t s e e m s there a r e three m a i n hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the female s u p e r - e g o .  One follows F r e u d i n s a y i n g  that w o m e n have s u p e r - e g o s w h i c h are i n f e r i o r to those of m e n ; • one says they have no conscience at a l l ; and one e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o a n a l y t i c study reaches.the c o n c l u s i o n that the female has i n t e r n a l i z e d g u i l t to a g r e a t e r d e g r e e , suggesting a s t r o n g e r ego.  super-  D i f f e r e n c e s i n content r a t h e r than i n adequacy a r e e m p h a s i z e d  by some i n v e s t i g a t o r s , but the same differences a r e not r e p o r t e d by any of them . Summary When the c o n c l u s i o n s of the p s y c h o a n a l y s t s and the e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e c o m p a r e d , there a r e such wide d i f f e r e n c e s that r e a c h i n g a c o m m o n ground w i l l undoubtedly be difficult.  It would seem that one of the f i r s t steps i n d e a l i n g  w i t h this p r o b l e m m i g h t w e l l be to d e t e r m i n e what the r e s p e c t i v e m e n t a l contents r e g a r d i n g conscience a r e .  A s m a t t e r s now  stand, e m p i r i c a l evidence d e m o n s t r a t e s m o r a l judgments to be a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal between the s e x e s , although the female m a y be m o r e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and have l e s s c o n f l i c t than the m a l e . On the other hand, p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y v a r i e s i n i t s opinions as to sexual differences i n s u p e r - e g o s , w i t h p r e d o m i n a t i n g t h e o r y e m p h a s i z i n g a w e a k e r or l e s s w e l l - d e v e l o p e d female super-ego.  -  Moral  Awareness  50  -  in Delinquents  and  Psychopaths  B o t h p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o a n a l y s t s have been i n t e r e s t e d i n the delinquent as a s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n on m o r a l behaviour and d e v e l o p m e n t , as there s e e m s to be s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h the " c o n s c i e n c e p r o c e s s " i n the d e l i n q u e n t  The r a t i o n a l e  behind t h i s p r a c t i c e i s p r o b a b l y s i m i l a r to that w h i c h u n d e r l i e s the study of the a b n o r m a l p e r s o n when studying p e r s o n a l i t y . a) E m p i r i c a l Studies On an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s , a glance at m o r a l judgments and c o n s c i e n c e has been i n c l u d e d i n m a n y studies of d e l i n q u e n t s , and delinquents have been u s e d i n m a n y studies of m o r a l p r o b l e m s . A r e c e n t book by M c C o r d and M c O o r d (80), d e s c r i b i n g a n e x t e n s i v e study of psychopaths and d e l i n q u e n t s , has r a t i f i e d m a n y f o r m e r findings as w e l l as doing c r e a t i v e new w o r k .  A new q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  e n t i t l e d " G u i l t S t o r i e s " was u s e d to d e t e r m i n e the amount of g u i l t suffered by different g r o u p s .  TBKSIquestionnaire c o n s i s t e d  of ten s t o r i e s i n w h i c h a boy n a m e d "Bob"had v i o l a t e d some of s o c i a l behaviour.  standard  E a c h subject was a s k e d "How does B o b f e e l ? "  w i t h r e g a r d to such a c t s a s : s t e a l i n g c a k e , t e l l i n g a teacher he d i d not l i k e h e r , s t e a l i n g f r o m a s t o r e , r u n n i n g into someone w i t h a b i k e , k i l l i n g a m a n , setting a house on f i r e , and s e v e r a l other acts of v a r y i n g s e r i o u s n e s s .  The r e s p o n s e s g i v e n by the c h i l d  c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d as i n d i c a t i n g f e a r , h a p p i n e s s , o r guilt.  A m o n g a non-delinquent g r o u p , r e s p o n s e s to " G u i l t S t o r i e s "  -  51  w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t e a c h e r ' s r a t i n g s , y i e l d i n g 66% a g r e e m e n t . It was found that non-delinquents a v e r a g e d 82% " g u i l t " a n s w e r s w h i l e 63% was the average for the delinquent b o y s , and i s r e p o r t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .  The n e u r o t i c and p s y c h o t i c c h i l d r e n ,  expected a c c o r d i n g to F r e u d i a n t h e o r y to have m o r e i n t e r n a l i z e d g u i l t than other g r o u p s , a v e r a g e d 67% " g u i l t " a n s w e r s , the b e h a v i o u r d i s o r d e r s a v e r a g e d 54%, and the psychopaths a v e r a g e d 46%.  C o u l d this be an i n d i c a t i o n that M b w r e r i s c o r r e c t i n h i s  hypothesis that n e u r o t i c s r e p r e s s t h e i r g u i l t f e e l i n g s ? M c C o r d and M c C o r d a l s o u s e d a M o r a l Code q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h gave statements of s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d a t t i t u d e s ,  five  dealing w i t h s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and five w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l i n w h i c h the boys l i v e d .  The subjects w e r e a s k e d i f they a g r e e d or  d i s a g r e e d w i t h the statements such as "Stealing i s a l w a y s w r o n g " . These were designed to d i s c o v e r i f the c h i l d knows what i s expected and a c c e p t a b l e .  A l l g r o u p s , even the p s y c h o p a t h s , showed a  knowledge of the difference between r i g h t and w r o n g . S e v e r a l other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e p o r t e d that d e l i n quents know the difference between r i g h t and w r o n g .  B a r t l e t t and  H a r r i s (9) h a d d i s c o v e r e d , when c o m p a r i n g delinquents and n o n delinquents, that both groups showed p r a c t i c a l l y the same a b i l i t y to judge the best thing to do i n a p r o b l e m i n v o l v i n g m o r a l c h o i c e , although the non-delinquents made a h i g h e r s c o r e i n r a n k i n g the degree of wrongness of a l i s t of j u v e n i l e offences.  Likewise,  S i m p s o n (104) c o m p a r e d t e a c h e r s and p r i s o n e r s w i t h r e g a r d to r a t i n g the s e r i o u s n e s s of f o r t y - f i v e c r i m i n a l a c t s , i n an e a r l y  -  study.  52  -  He found c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between the sets of r a n k i n g s .  H e a l y and B r o n n e r (56) r e p o r t that of the delinquents they studied, a l l w e r e aware when they had done w r o n g .  These are only a few  e x a m p l e s of the m a n y studies that have been c o m p l e t e d i n t h i s regard. In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to m o s t s t u d i e s , R a u b e n h e i m e r (98) concluded that the m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of potential delinquents i s l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n of m o r a l v a l u e s .  The offences r a n k e d by  the boys i n this study were a c t u a l offences w h i c h had been c o m m i t t e d by boys i n r e f o r m s c h o o l .  Perhaps Raubenheimer generalized his  r e s u l t s too w i d e l y i n concluding this difference i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of m o r a l values under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The r e f o r m s c h o o l boys  m a y have a different outlook r e g a r d i n g offences w h i c h t h e i r group c o m m i t s , w h e r e a s they m a y have the same outlook as n o n - d e l i n quents i n other a r e a s of m o r a l i t y .  T h i s m i g h t e x p l a i n the difference  i n r e s u l t s between this study and the o t h e r s p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d . B e t k e (13) r e p o r t e d finding differences between d e l i n quents and n o r m a l s , i n the a r e a of r e a s o n i n g or the r e a s o n s why c  c e r t a i n m a t t e r s a r e judged to be " r i g h t " or " w r o n g " .  Delinquents  w e r e found to use e t h i c a l r e s p o n s e s l e s s frequently and p r a g m a t i c a l r e a s o n s m o r e frequently than the n o n - d e l i n q u e n t s .  In h e r  study, r e a s o n s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d into " r i g h t " and " w r o n g " , and into e t h i c a l or dominated by r e a s o n and m o r a l laws;; e m o t i o n a l , m o t i v a t e d by sympathy; envy, c o n s i d e r a t i o n or d i s r e g a r d of the  -  53  -  r i g h t s of o t h e r s ; and p r a g m a t i c a l , m o t i v a t e d by the ego, of punishment or being caught, self i n t e r e s t or u t i l i t y .  escape Non-  delinquents did give m o r e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , and B e t k e , l i k e R a u b e n h e i m e r , felt false p r i n c i p l e s had been a factor i n delinquency. M o s t e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the m o r e r e c e n t ones, state that delinquents have the same m o r a l knowledge as n o n - d e l i n q u e n t s , although they do not seem to have the same capacity for feeling g u i l t y .  H o w e v e r , there i s some evidence  that delinquents do not have the same m o r a l knowledge, and so i t cannot be s a i d that there i s complete agreement on t h i s t o p i c either. b) P s y c h o a n a l y t i c V i e w s P s y c h o a n a l y t i c l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e g a r d to d e l i n q u e n c y , psychopathy and super-ego p r o c e s s e s have l a i d e m p h a s i s on c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n the faulty f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o .  For  e x a m p l e , G r e e n a c r e (49) points out the l o c a t i o n and o r i g i n of the s p e c i a l defects i n conscience of p s y c h o p a t h s .  In the c a s e s she  s t u d i e d , there s e e m e d to be too m u c h p r i d e counterfeiting for love on the p a r t of the p a r e n t s . m o t h e r and a s t e r n f a t h e r .  T h e r e was often a n o v e r i n d u l g e n t  She n o t i c e d a d e l a y e d sense of  separateness f r o m the m o t h e r and the f o r m a t i o n of u n r e a l i d e a l s i n the case h i s t o r i e s of p s y c h o p a t h s .  G r e e n a c r e feels that strong  g u i l t f e e l i n g s , b e s i d e s being i n c r e a s e d by e a r l y i l l n e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n s , a r e a l s o encouraged b y :  -  '1. 2.  54  -  The p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to anxiety w h i c h heightens the anxiety p i t c h i n the l a t e r v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e . The s p e c i a l negative n a r c i s s i s t i c r e l a t i o n to the parents." (49,506)  She thinks the l a t t e r i s m o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the h i s t o r i e s of m a n y psychopaths.  T h u s , a c c o r d i n g to G r e e n a c r e ,  psychopaths  do have guilt feelings and a c o n s c i e n c e . K a r p m a n (67) d i s a g r e e s . d i v i d e d into two c a t e g o r i e s :  He feels i n d i v i d u a l s can be  those w i t h a c o n s c i e n c e , although of  wide v a r i a t i o n f r o m h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e to a l m o s t absent, and those who have no conscience at a l l , such as p s y c h o p a t h s .  He feels  there a r e cases w h i c h do not d e m o n s t r a t e r e a l psychopathy w h e r e there m a y be a s u p e r f i c i a l appearance of a l a c k of c o n s c i e n c e . H e r e conscience has been pushed aside and i n h i b i t e d i n r e s p o n s e to p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n a l n e e d s .  H o w e v e r , K a r p m a n b e l i e v e s the true  psychopath to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by non-development of any c o n s c i e n c e . That the q u a l i t y and quantity of the e a r l y object r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the c h i l d a r e the e s s e n t i a l feature of s u p e r - e g o development has been e m p h a s i z e d by H o r a (58).  A child may  develop a defective super-ego w h i c h m a y be too weak, tcoo s a d i s t i c , or too i n c o n s i s t e n t and confused, as a r e s u l t of being d e p r i v e d of opportunities for object c a t h e x i s .  T h i s l a c k could a r i s e f r o m :  1.  being neglected or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  2.  being exposed to a s e v e r e l y r e j e c t i n g , b r u t a l e n v i r o n m e n t  3.  being exposed to a v e r y i n c o n s i s t e n t e n v i r o n m e n t of  severely ambivalent nature.  -  55  -  H o r a i n t r o d u c e s what he c a l l s the d i s s o c i a l s u p e r - e g o , w h i c h i s the outcome of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h delinquent p a r e n t s and a delinquent neighbourhood.  It i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by inadequate  guilt feelings i n r e g a r d to delinquent a c t s .  " A s a m a t t e r of fact,  the d i s s o c i a l patient finds i t h a r d to b e l i e v e that there a r e pceople w i t h v a l u e s different f r o m h i s own. c o n s i s t s of a s s o r t e d c r o o k s . "  To h i m , the whole w o r l d  (58,515)  A l t h o u g h a l a c k of l o v e i s c o m m o n l y c o n s i d e r e d the b a s i c cause of super-ego d e f i c i e n c y so that a strong i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the u n l o v i n g parents i s i m p o s s i b l e , Johnson (62) e m p h a s i z e s the r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t s ' p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d and f o r b i d d e n i m p u l s e s and the c h i l d ' s s u p e r - e g o defects.  She feels the c h i l d ' s  a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s can be t r a c e d to the p a r e n t ' s p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , either c o n s c i o u s or u n c o n s c i o u s , i n these a r e a s . T h i s p e r m i s s i v e n e s s she b e l i e v e s to be due to the p a r e n t ' s own f o r b i d d e n i m p u l s e s w h i c h can be a c t e d out through the c h i l d .  Along  the same l i n e s , S z u r e k states that i t i s often the m o r e i m p o r t a n t p a r e n t who u n c o n s c i o u s l y encourages the c h i l d ' s poor b e h a v i o u r . A l e x a n d e r (3) i n t r o d u c e d the concept of the need for s e l f - p u n i s h m e n t as a m o t i v e for " a c t i n g out".  Punishment can be undergone as a n  excuse for subsequent g r a t i f i c a t i o n .  The s u p e r - e g o i s " b r i b e d "  by this p r e l i m i n a r y suffering to r e l a x i t s v i g i l a n c e . S t r e s s i n g another a s p e c t of this p r o b l e m , Woolf (116) states that i f there a r e h o s t i l e feelings between the parents and the c h i l d , the c h i l d ' s m o r a l development w i l l t u r n i n a d i r e c t i o n  -  56  -  opposite to the a i m s and intentions of the p a r e n t s .  She a l s o  gives a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the genesis of the two m a i n offences of c h i l d h o o d , l y i n g and s t e a l i n g . B e t t e l h e i m and S y l v e s t e r (15) e m p h a s i z e t h e i r o b s e r vations that many juvenile delinquents have a h i g h standard of morality.  The b e l i e v e delinquency m a y be due to h a v i n g standards  set for them by adults w h i c h the adults t h e m s e l v e s do not l i v e up to, and so the c h i l d r e n r e b e l r a t h e r than v i o l a t i n g t h e i r own i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n s and a c c e p t i n g a double s t a n d a r d of m o r a l i t y .  Delin-  quency m a y a l s o a r i s e , they f e e l , when c h i l d r e n a r e exposed to d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the m o r a l standards of t h e i r p a r e n t s . A d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s made by L a m p l - d e G r o o t between the two types of faulty s u p e r - e g o development w h i c h r e s u l t i n n e u r o s i s on one hand and i n delinquency on the other (73).  Neurosis  r e s u l t s f r o m a strong i d e a l - f o r m a t i o n i n e a r l y childhood being d i s t u r b e d by an o v e r - s e v e r e s u p e r - e g o , p r e v e n t i n g the e x p r e s s i o n of any a g g r e s s i o n o u t w a r d s , and c a u s i n g i t to be t u r n e d t o w a r d s ' the self.  D e l i n q u e n c y i s postulated to o c c u r when there has been  weak i d e a l f o r m a t i o n i n the young c h i l d , l a t e r d i s t u r b e d by a sadistic super-ego,  so that the s a d i s t i c i m p u l s e s a r e a c t e d out  against the outside e n v i r o n m e n t .  T h e r e m a y a l s o be m i x t u r e s of  these p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h r e s u l t i n h i g h i d e a l s and n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s i n one s p e c i a l a r e a , w h i l e l a c k i n g i d e a l s i n other a r e a s and behaving dis s o c i a l l y .  -  57  -  T h e r e s e e m s to be g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t ,  then, among  p s y c h o a n a l y s t s , that l a c k of love (with c e r t a i n e l a b o r a t i o n s and refinements ) as w e l l as d i s s o c i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , can l e a d to f o r m a t i o n of a defective c o n s c i e n c e .  The m a i n d i s a g r e e m e n t  seems to be c o n c e r n e d w i t h whether psychopaths have no c o n s c i e n c e at a l l or have m e r e l y a defective or r e p r e s s e d c o n s c i e n c e , an argument w h i c h has been i n d i c a t e d by the d i s c u s s i o n of the v i e w s of G r e e n a c r e and K a r p m a n , only two among m a n y w r i t e r s on the subject. Summary P s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o a n a l y s t s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h different a s p e c t s of the p r o b l e m of the delinquent's m o r a l processes.  P s y c h o l o g i s t s have been w o r k i n g on c o m p a r i s o n s of  delinquent and non-delinquent groups w i t h r e g a r d to knowledge of r i g h t and w r o n g and w i t h r e g a r d to the average amount of g u i l t feeling i n each g r o u p .  P s y c h o a n a l y s t s , on the other h a n d , have  been concentrating t h e i r efforts on the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h l e a d to defects i n the s u p e r - e g o .  C a s e h i s t o r i e s and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of psychopaths have been studied i n an attempt to settle the a r g u m e n t whether these p e r s o n s a r e capable of suffering f r o m feelings of g u i l t or n o t .  A l t h o u g h psychopaths a r e able to  s i m u l a t e g u i l t f e e l i n g s , the study by M c C o r d and M c C o r d has shown that differences can be d i s c e r n e d , as such i n d i v i d u a l s cannot be aware of a l l the feelings of n o r m a l p e r s o n s .  Perhaps a more com-  p r e h e n s i v e b a s i s for m e a s u r i n g c o n s c i e n c e m a y y i e l d a c l e a r e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between psychopathic i n d i v i d u a l s and o t h e r s .  -  The  Effect  of  Controlled  58  -  and  Uncontrolled  Social  Factors T h i s a r e a has been p a r t l y c o v e r e d i n the sections on m o r a l development and on d e l i n q u e n c y .  T h e r e a r e s t i l l a few  studies w h i c h have not been d i s c u s s e d that can add to the k n o w ledge r e g a r d i n g v a r i a b l e s affecting m o r a l a w a r e n e s s .  These have  to do w i t h c o n t r o l l e d and u n c o n t r o l l e d s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . The effect of t r a i n i n g on m o r a l c h a r a c t e r has been one topic for study.  V o e l k e r (111) c o m p a r e d a c o n t r o l group and  a n e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , to whom s p e c i a l e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n had been g i v e n , on two sets of b e h a v i o u r a l t e s t s .  The situations i n  these t e s t s gave the subjects opportunities to s t e a l , cheat, not r e t u r n l o s t a r t i c l e s , to accept c r e d i t not due, to accept over change, etc. , .  V o e l k e r c o n c l u d e d , f r o m the differences shown between  the two t e s t i n g s , that scout t r a i n i n g leads to h i g h e r than average trustworthiness.  He thinks that t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s i s i m p r o v e d by  s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and that m o r a l i t y i s m o r e susceptible than i n t e l l e c t to education. L i n c o l n and S h i e l d s (78) thought that m o r a l judgment could be m a r k e d l y affected by e n v i r o n m e n t and t r a i n i n g , w h i l e L o r a n g (79) concluded that either good or bad p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d be i n c u l c a t e d through r e a d i n g , and thus r e a d i n g can influence conduct. H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54) and H e a l y and B r o n n e r (56) noted that m o r e frequent attendance at m o t i o n p i c t u r e s w a s found a m o n g those c h i l d r e n who tended to be dishonest or delinquent.  The C h a r a c t e r  -  59  -  E d u c a t i o n I n q u i r y p r o d u c e d evidence that a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s , Sunday School attendance, and m e m b e r s h i p i n groups p u r p o r t e d to give t r a i n i n g i n m o r a l s , a r e not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h honesty.  T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s V o e l k e r ' s f i n d i n g s , but the d i f -  ference i s p r o b a b l y due to the difference i n e m p h a s i s on t r a i n i n g i n m o r a l s that V o e l k e r ' s scouts r e c e i v e d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h that of m e m b e r s of groups. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v i s e d by D o n n e l l y (31) to d e t e r m i n e the f a c t o r s behind the f o r m a t i o n of e t h i c a l standards of j u n i o r college students.  A c c o r d i n g to these data, p a r e n t a l  influence had the m o s t effect on students' behaviour when c o m p a r e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s or s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s .  A m o n g those students  who r e p o r t e d being i n f l u e n c e d to a g r e a t extent by s o c i a l a p p r o v a l , s t r i c t home d i s c i p l i n e s e e m e d an outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  In  studying p a r e n t a l influences and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , L e v i n and S e a r s (75) n o t i c e d that boys w i t h the g r e a t e s t amount of a g g r e s s i o n w e r e h i g h l y i d e n t i f i e d and u s u a l l y punished by t h e i r f a t h e r s .  M c R a e (83)  studied a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s and r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r peers.  He found o n l y one of the c l u s t e r s i n  P i a g e t ' s q u e s t i o n s , v i z . , that of v i o l a t i o n of n o r m s , showed a significant r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n d i c e s of a u t h o r i t y .  C h i l d r e n of  h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status seem to-mature m o r e r a p i d l y i n cognitive m o r a l development, w h e r e a s l o w e r status c h i l d r e n m a t u r e m o r e r a p i d l y i n e m o t i o n a l m o r a l development because of emancipation from parental authority.  L e r n e r (74) had p r e v i o u s l y  -  60  -  i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n s o c i a l f a c t o r s and m o r a l judgment, finding that l o w e r status c h i l d r e n showed l e s s m a t u r i t y i n m o r a l r e a s o n i n g than d i d h i g h e r status c h i l d r e n , w i t h age and i n t e l l i g e n c e h e l d constant.  H o w e v e r , M c R a e w o u l d say  that such r e s u l t s a r e due to the o v e r b a l a n c e of cognitive m a t e r i a l i n Piaget's questions. C a t t e l l (25) found that those who w e r e t o w a r d the "positive p o l e " i n the source t r a i t of s u p e r - e g o strength l a c k e d affection for t h e i r p a r e n t s as c h i l d r e n .  T h i s unusual r e s u l t i s  e x p l a i n e d by C a t t e l l as being due to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s forgetting the e a r l y stages of i n t r o j e c t i o n and r e m e m b e r i n g the l a t e r stages d u r i n g w h i c h he was punished for m i s d e m e a n o u r s . W o l f e n s t e i n (115) c o m p a r e d c u l t u r e s i n o r d e r to note the effect of v a r i o u s types of m o r a l t r a i n i n g .  She o b s e r v e d the  m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and noted the f o r m s of m o r a l b e h a v i o u r and b e l i e f s w h i c h u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d t h e m .  G i v i n g and w i t h h o l d i n g  i n r e w a r d and punishm:ent s e e m e d to l e a d to the adult b e l i e f that the p e r s o n who t r i e s h a r d e s t without s u c c e s s f u l a c h i e v e m e n t of the goal i s the "goodest".  A l s o , alternate g i v i n g and w i t h h o l d i n g , and  the tendency for c h i l d r e n to behave i n a c o n t r a r y m a n n e r  seemed  to l e a d to adult u n c e r t a i n t y i n one's o w n m o r a l p o s i t i o n . A f e e l i n g of continuity between the c h i l d ' s body and the m o t h e r ' s , as W o l f e n s t e i n states i s often the case among the C h i n e s e , s e e m s to l e a d to a s t r o n g m o r a l r e q u i r e m e n t that the c h i l d should perpetuate the family.  -  61  -  Summary In s u m m a r y , t r a i n i n g a p p e a r s to have some effect on m o r a l conduct, i f intense enough, and i f the r e c i p i e n t s of the t r a i n i n g are not p r e v e n t e d f r o m benefiting by other f a c t o r s .  Poor  r e a d i n g and m o t i o n p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l seem to have an a d v e r s e effect on m o r a l b e h a v i o u r .  Y e t , many of these a r e s u p e r f i c i a l  influences when c o m p a r e d w i t h such f a c t o r s as f a m i l y c i r c u m s t a n c e s , l o v e and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In o r d e r to study the influences of the m o r e s u p e r f i c i a l v a r i a b l e s , the m o r e b a s i c conditions w i l l have to be c o n t r o l l e d . C o m p a r i s o n of c o n s c i e n c e s c a l e patterns w i t h case h i s t o r i e s would be one method of studying causative f a c t o r s .  Also,  e n l a r g i n g on V o e l k e r ' s m e t h o d , i f those w i t h s i m i l a r test p a t t e r n s have h a d s i m i l a r u p b r i n g i n g , then t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e s , for e x a m p l e , could be e x e r t e d on these i n d i v i d u a l s to see whether any changes i n p a t t e r n could be made i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a s i m i l a r group w i t h no training . Changes  in Moral  Awareness  with  Time  T h e r e has been m u c h i n t e r e s t i n whether there a r e g e n e r a l changes i n m o r a l i t y over the y e a r s . g e n e r a t i o n going to the d o g s ? " i s often h e a r d . dealt w i t h this p r o b l e m .  "Is the younger S e v e r a l studies have  A r a t i n g scale was u s e d by C r i s s m a n (28)  to study changes i n m o r a l judgments over t i m e .  Fifty acts were  evaluated by college students i n t e r m s of r i g h t n e s s or w r o n g n e s s on a s c a l e f r o m one to ten.  The study was done w i t h a t e n - y e a r  -  62  i n t e r v a l , on s i m i l a r g r o u p s , i n 1929 and 1939. A l t o g e t h e r , s u c h poor behaviour as l y i n g , cheating and dishonesty w e r e not judged differently i n the different y e a r s .  N e i t h e r w e r e those i t e m s  c o n c e r n e d w i t h c r i m e s of v a r i o u s s o r t s judged d i f f e r e n t l y .  "Sinning  by s y n d i c a t e " was thought to be m o r e s e r i o u s by the 1939 g r o u p , w h i l e r e l i g i o u s questions w e r e l e s s s e v e r e l y judged.  It s e e m e d  that r e l i g i o u s standards w e r e u n d e r g o i n g the m o s t r a p i d change at that  time.  C r i s s m a n ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s laudable i n that w e l l -  defined situations or actions a r e u s e d as the b a s i s for the r a t i n g s . H o w e v e r , he does not state how the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d . M i t c h e l l (87) was a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p r o b l e m of changes over t i m e .  He c o m p a r e d the r a n k i n g s of s o c i a l offences  made five y e a r s a p a r t by s e n i o r y e a r high s c h o o l students. was g r e a t u n i f o r m i t y i n the r a n k i n g s .  There  In five y e a r s , g o s s i p i n g had  been r a i s e d three steps i n s e r i o u s n e s s , and drunkenness l o w e r e d three.  B i g a m y and p r o f a n i t y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d l e s s s e r i o u s and  l y i n g m o r e s e r i o u s by two p l a c e m e n t p o s i t i o n s . A l o n g - t e r m study, u s i n g the P r e s s e y X - O T e s t , done at t e n - y e a r i n t e r v a l s since 1923, has been r e p o r t e d by P r e s s e y and Jones (96).  In a l i s t of 125 i t e m s , a r r a n g e d i n 25 groups of five  e a c h , the subject had to m a r k those w h i c h he thought w o r s t i n each grouping.  Good c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as bad w e r e l i s t e d .  e x a m p l e , some of the t e r m s w e r e :  "justice, fairness,  For  shrewdness,  honesty, t r i c k e r y " . M a n y acts that w e r e once thought w r o n g a r e no l o n g e r thought to be m a t t e r s of m o r a l c o n c e r n , the authors c o n c l u d e d .  -  63  -  Changes -.shown w e r e i n r e g a r d to those b o r d e r l i n e acts such as smoking.  T h e r e ' w a s a l s o a d e c r e a s i n g condemnation of and  i n c r e a s i n g l i k i n g for c e r t a i n freedoms i n s e x - s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i a l a m u s e m e n t s .  T h e r e was no change shown i n m o r e  b a s i c aspects of m o r a l i t y such as s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . H o w e v e r , these l a s t two studies l o s e value because the t e r m s u s e d a r e b r o a d and undefined.  D e f i n i t i o n s of t e r m s would ensure that each subject  i s aware of what i s meant by the t e r m s and u s e s the same m e a n i n g as a b a s i s for m a k i n g r a n k i n g s as other  subjects.  One of the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n the above study after finding that o l d e r p e r s o n s tend to be m o r e c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r judgments was that this i s due to a continuation of c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e a l s i n c u l c a t e d i n y o u t h , r a t h e r than to a t r e n d of b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age.  He feels that o l d e r  p e r s o n s p r o b a b l y a r e even m o r e l i b e r a l than they w e r e upon l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l , although, i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h h i g h s c h o o l graduates of 1953, they a r e m u c h m o r e c o n s e r v a t i v e . P e r h a p s this i s the u n d e r l y i n g factor i n the r e s u l t s obtained by A n d e r s o n and D v o r a k (7) who h a d e a r l i e r studied the foundation on w h i c h college students and p a r e n t s base t h e i r standards of conduct.  The b a s e s w e r e :  r i g h t or w r o n g , prudence o r i n t e l l i g e n t  judgment, p u b l i c o p i n i o n , or aesthetic s t a n d a r d s .  The g r e a t e s t  differences i n r e a s o n s g i v e n for standards of conduct o c c u r r e d between age groups r a t h e r than between sex g r o u p s .  The students  d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s by b a s i n g t h e i r conduct on prudence and aesthetics r a t h e r than upon what i s r i g h t or wrong.  Parents  -  64  -  b a s e d judgments on concepts of what i s r i g h t or w r o n g , tending to be " b l a c k or w h i t e " i n t h e i r judgments.  B o t h age groups w e r e  loathe to a d m i t being i n f l u e n c e d by p u b l i c o p i n i o n . These studies seem to indicate that changes m a y o c c u r i n m o r a l i t y over the y e a r s , and perhaps m a y o c c u r i n a r e l a t i v e l y short t i m e .  M o r e l i b e r a l attitudes t o w a r d s s e x u a l and r e l i g i o u s  p r o b l e m s are evident, as w e l l as towards d r i n k i n g and s m o k i n g . Changes are not so evident i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g deception or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , although this could be due to l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y i n the i t e m s u s e d . A s S t a r c k e (107, 187) states the m a t t e r , "That w h i c h y e s t e r d a y was a n t i - s o c i a l w i l l t o m o r r o w be, i n p a r t , s o c i a l , and that w h i c h i s e t h i c a l today w i l l become i n t u r n o l d - f a s h i o n e d t o m o r r o w m o r n i n g , a n t i - s o c i a l t o m o r r o w evening and w i l l , i n p a r t , grow up again the day after as a s o c i a l f o r c e . " Relationship  to  Intelligence  Since W e b b ' s (113) famous study of c h a r a c t e r f r o m w h i c h he deduced that profoundness of i n t e l l e c t i s a s s o c i a t e d with m o r a l q u a l i t i e s and s o c i a l v i r t u e s such as kindness and p e r s i s t e n c e , t h e r e has been g r e a t i n t e r e s t shown i n t r y i n g to d i s c o v e r i f there a c t u a l l y i s such a r e l a t i o n s h i p or whether there i s m e r e l y a c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l e c t u a l a w a r e n e s s of m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s and i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t h e r than between a c t u a l m o r a l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e . T h i s c o n t r o v e r s y r a g e d throughout the 'twenties as one of the chief a r e a s of i n t e r e s t .  C h a s s e l l (26) r e v i e w e d a l m o s t three h u n d r e d  studies r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e to m o r a l i t y , and  -  65  concluded that there tends to be a l o w p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , but that the p i c t u r e i s c o m p l i c a t e d by type of g r o u p , type of e v i d e n c e , etc. , .  C o o p e r (27) pooled the r e s u l t s of m a n y studies made and  found the range of c o r r e l a t i o n between m o r a l i t y and i n t e l l e c t to be f r o m .23 to  .79.  He concluded that s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s  point to a r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o r a l i t y and i n t e l l e c t when the study i s confined to r e s t r i c t e d g r o u p s . c o m p e n s a t i o n , i s the r u l e .  T h e r e f o r e , c o r r e l a t i o n , not  L i n c o l n and S h i e l d s (78) had found w i t h  t h e i r test that among those of the same g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l there a r e differences i n m o r a l judgment.  The a b i l i t y to f o r m m o r e  c o m p l e x m o r a l judgments i n c r e a s e d as g e n e r a l a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d , although they m a y not develop at the same r a t e .  H a r t s h o r n e and  M a y (54) found that the m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n made h i g h e r s c o r e s on the honesty t e s t s , but state that this m a y have been due to the s m a l l e r amount of p r e s s u r e on them to do w e l l , so that they w e r e not so tempted to cheat.  T h e r e was a l s o a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n  between honesty and s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t , w h i l e those i n a l o w e r grade for t h e i r age tended to be m o r e d e c e p t i v e . M o r e r e c e n t l y , and u s i n g m o r e m o d e r n s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s , M c C o r d and M c C o r d (80) found no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and g u i l t f e e l i n g s , neither among p u b l i c s c h o o l c h i l d r e n nor delinquent b o y s .  It has a l s o been m e n t i o n e d i n studies  r e g a r d i n g p s y c h o p a t h s , as have been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , that such p e r s o n s a r e often v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t , although l a c k i n g i n m o r a l  standards..  -  66  -  In the study of v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s o u r c e t r a i t of s u p e r - e g o strength, " G " , C a t t e l l (25) states that the p e r s o n who i s h i g h w i t h r e g a r d to s u p e r - e g o strength m a y often a l s o be i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r e d , l o g i c a l , thoughtful, show continuity of i n t e r e s t and have " c o m m o n s e n s e " , a l l of w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d to be r e l a t e d to i n t e l l i g e n c e .  On the other hand, a s e c o n d - o r d e r  factor c o r r e l a t e s h i g h s u p e r - e g o strength w i t h l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e . G r u n e s (51) points out that f o r m e r studies r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n s c i e n c e and i n t e l l i g e n c e had not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between types of c o n s c i e n c e , w h i c h he feels i s a n e c e s s a r y refinement.  A f t e r d i v i d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s into groups of those w i t h  i n t e g r a t e d c o n s c i e n c e , m o r a l i s t i c - r e p r e s s i v e c o n s c i e n c e , and n o n - i n t e g r a t e d c o n s c i e n c e , he h y p o t h e s i z e d that the l a s t two types would be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i l e i n t e g r a t e d c o n s c i e n c e would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . It was found that the influence of such f a c t o r s as age, sex and c u l t u r a l - r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d c o m p l i c a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the different types of c o n s c i e n c e and i n t e l l i g e n c e . H o w e v e r , he feels that the e m p h a s i s that has been p l a c e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p ment and the a s s i m i l a t i o n of conscience m a y have some b a s i s i n fact. That w h i c h s t a r t e d out by a p p e a r i n g to be a s i m p l e p r o c e s s of c o r r e l a t i n g two t r a i t s , has thus been r e v e a l e d as an a r e a w h i c h r e q u i r e s the c o n t r o l of m a n y v a r i a b l e s before a p o s i t i v e statement can be m a d e .  T h e r e i s now not the a s s u r a n c e of e a r l i e r  -  67  y e a r s that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , although such m a y be so w i t h c e r t a i n types of c o n s c i e n c e and not w i t h o t h e r s .  More  investigation i s required. Relationship  to  Emotional  Stability  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and c o n s c i e n c e has been mentioned e l s e w h e r e i n this r e v i e w . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e other s i g n i f i c a n t studies w h i c h m i g h t be of i n t e r e s t h e r e . B e t t e l h e i m (14) has m e n t i o n e d that the s u p e r - e g o seems h e l p e d i n i t s f o r m a t i o n by p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , w h i l e i t s development i s i m p e d e d by e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s .  P e r h a p s this i s the r e a s o n , he s u r m i s e s ,  that our s o c i e t y has a p e r m i s s i v e attitude t o w a r d p h y s i c a l s i c k n e s s w h i l e i t has had a h i s t o r y of a punitive attitude t o w a r d e m o t i o n a l disturbances.  H o w e v e r , H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54) found no c o r -  r e l a t i o n s between the p h y s i c a l condition of the c h i l d and h o n e s t y , although they d i d find a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y and deception.  M c D o n o u g h (81) a l s o found a negative  c o r r e l a t i o n between m o r a l q u a l i t i e s and i n s t a b i l i t y of e m o t i o n s . In the study of source t r a i t s , C a t t e l l (25) has found that the t r a i t of e g o - s t r e n g t h , r e l a t e d to e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y , and the t r a i t of super-ego s t r e n g t h , a r e s i m i l a r i n p a t t e r n .  The  p e r s o n who has a strong s u p e r - e g o m a y a l s o be e m o t i o n a l l y stable and e m o t i o n a l l y m a t u r e , w h i l e the n e u r o t i c p r o b a b l y has not an o v e r - d e v e l o p m e n t of the s u p e r - e g o .  C a t t e l l a l s o mentions that  s e l f - s e n t i m e n t i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the s u p e r - e g o i n the s o u r c e t r a i t " G " of super-ego  strength.  -  68  -  B e r g l e r (11) points out that the n e u r o t i c p e r s o n has a super-ego w h i c h i s c o r r u p t i b l e , putting the e m p h a s i s on t h i s factor r a t h e r than on strength or w e a k n e s s .  That i s , the  n e u r o t i c ' s i n n e r d e s i r e s are g r a t i f i e d at the cost of d e p r e s s i o n and s e l f - d a m a g e .  "The s u p e r - e g o exacts i t s f u l l share of p u n i s h -  ment while the ego r e c e i v e s attenuated w i s h f u l f i l l m e n t . . . "(11,22) The contention that e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and s t r o n g super-ego a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d i s i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h orthodox p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y stating that an o v e r p o w e r i n g s u p e r - e g o i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the p r o b l e m of n e u r o s i s .  Perhaps B e r g l e r ' s  t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g the c o m p r o m i s i n g s u p e r - e g o w i l l h a l p to m o d e r a t e the differences between p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l studies i n t h i s r e g a r d .  A c o m p a r a t i v e study of the c o n s c i e n c e -  feelings of the e m o t i o n a l l y unstable and the e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , extending over a wide range of m a t e r i a l , m i g h t c l a r i f y the p r o b l e m . Is  there  a general  trait  of  honesty?  T h e r e has been a g r e a t amount of a r g u m e n t i n this r e g a r d among p s y c h o l o g i s t s , w i t h A l l p o r t (5) p r o p o s i n g a g e n e r a l t r a i t of honesty and H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54) i n s i s t i n g that honesty i s s p e c i f i c to c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s .  The C h a r a c t e r E d u c a t i o n I n q u i r y  has p r e s e n t e d low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i o u s tests w h i c h H a r t s h o r n e and M a y a t t r i b u t e d to elements the jtests had i n common.  E s p e c i a l l y low were the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e s t s  i n v o l v i n g different settings or different types of b e h a v i o u r . f o r e , they felt that honesty does not appear as a g e n e r a l , c h a r a c t e r t r a i t i n an i n d i v i d u a l .  There-  consistent  A p e r s o n who i s honest i n one  4  -  69  -  situation or i n one way m a y not be honest i n another s i t u a t i o n or i n other w a y s . M a i l e r (85) has c r i t i c i z e d this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data.  He contends that the tests of honesty, c o - o p e r a t i o n and  h e l p f u l n e s s , inhibition, and per s i stence showed c o n s i s t e n t l y u n i m o d a l c u r v e s , and sometimes even a p p r o a c h e d the n o r m a l c u r v e . A l s o , a l l the c o r r e l a t i o n s of these four tests w e r e p o s i t i v e .  This  evidence l e d M a i l e r to b e l i e v e that there i s a c o m m o n factor w h i c h s e e m s to be "the r e a d i n e s s to forego i m m e d i a t e g a i n for the sake of a r e m o t e but g r e a t e r g a i n " . In t h e i r study of delinquents, H e a l y and B r o n n e r (56) have stated that c o n s c i e n c e m a y c o v e r only c e r t a i n p a r t s of b e haviour.  They quote one case i n w h i c h a boy showed a strong  c o n s c i e n c e about being w e l l - m a n n e r e d and doing s c h o o l w o r k w e l l , w h i l e s t e a l i n g d i d not bother h i m except for the i d e a of b e i n g caught.  In some c a s e s , l y i n g was condoned by c o n s c i e n c e w h i l e  s t e a l i n g was condemned, and i n other i n d i v i d u a l s , the r e v e r s e has o c c u r r e d . P s y c h o a n a l y t i c w r i t i n g i n m a n y c a s e s a p p e a r s to a g r e e w i t h the e m p i r i c a l findings of H a r t s h o r n e and M a y that at l e a s t some p e r s o n s can be honest i n one a r e a and not i n another.  Adelaide  Johnson (62), for e x a m p l e , has r e f e r r e d to such phenomena as "super-ego lacunae".  She feels that there i s , i n some p e r s o n s ,  not a g e n e r a l s u p e r - e g o d e f i c i e n c y but a l a c k of s u p e r - e g o i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s of behaviour . Such lacunae a r e often a c c o m p a n i e d  -  by n e u r o t i c c o n f l i c t s .  70  -  She feels these " g a p s " i n the  super-ego  c o r r e s p o n d to s i m i l a r defects i n the p a r e n t ' s s u p e r - e g o as the parent a l l o w s the a c t i n g out of h i s own f o r b i d d e n i m p u l s e s as a v i c a r i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n for h i m s e l f .  L a m p l - d e G r o o t (73) has  a l s o mentioned a s i m i l a r defect caused by a m i x t u r e of p r o c e s s e s i n super-ego development. It s e e m s , at f i r s t g l a n c e , that there i s m o r e evidence on the side of s p e c i f i c i t y than on the side of g e n e r a l i t y .  However,  i f the data a r e e x a m i n e d m o r e c l o s e l y , there a r e c e r t a i n w e a k n e s s e s i n the a r g u m e n t s . 1.  These a r e :  The data p r e s e n t e d by H a r t s h o r n e and M a y for s p e c i f i c i t y  can be, and have been, i n t e r p r e t e d to support the opposite t h e s i s . 2 . The data p r e s e n t e d by those studying delinquents and a b n o r m a l s speak of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s as being super-ego defects . T h e r e f o r e , the n o r m a l p e r s o n should not show such gaps. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n o r d e r to a s c e r t a i n whether there i s a g e n e r a l "honesty" factor i n n o r m a l i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h only a b n o r m a l s l a c k i n g g u i l t i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , or whether a l l i n d i v i d u a l s v a r y i n t h e i r honesty a c c o r d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n , being c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n g u i l t under some conditions but not i n o t h e r s . One of the m a i n r e a s o n s why this p r o b l e m has not been s o l v e d has been the l a c k of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e tool w i t h w h i c h to capture feelings evidenced under m a n y s i t u a t i o n s .  -  Types  of  71 -  Conscience Different types of conscience have been d e s c r i b e d by  t h e o r i s t s a p a r t f r o m those a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d under the heading of " M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t " . A l l p o r t (6) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the " m u s t " and the "ought" c o n s c i e n c e .  The e a r l y c o n s c i e n c e of the c h i l d i s a m u s t -  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , brought about through fear of punishment for doing a w r o n g act or not p e r f o r m i n g a r i g h t a c t .  The "ought" c o n s c i e n c e  i s r a t h e r a sense of o b l i g a t i o n b a s e d on value judgments and t i e d up w i t h s e l f - r e f e r e n c e , without any fear attached to i t .  D a y a (29)  points out that there a r e two kinds of "ought", the m o r a l and the a x i o l o g i c a l .  The m o r a l "ought" operates w i t h r e s p e c t to  other p e r s o n s , w h i l e the a x i o l o g i c a l "ought" operates w i t h r e s p e c t to objects and situations w h i c h have d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e to no one but oneself. The a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n s c i e n c e of f a s c i s t s has been fully d e s c r i b e d by A d o r n o , et a l (2).  T h i s type of c o n s c i e n c e i s  not a true c o n s c i e n c e , as i t i s underdeveloped and e x t e r n a l i z e d . E t h i c a l v a l u e s have not r e a l l y been i n c o r p o r a t e d into the self. F e a r of punishment and the p r e s e n c e of e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y a r e essential factors i n its existence.  T h i s type of c o n s c i e n c e w o u l d  p r o b a b l y be s i m i l a r to that d e s c r i b e d by A l l p o r t as the conscience.  "must"  O n the other h a n d , the i n t e g r a t e d c o n s c i e n c e , as  d e s c r i b e d i n "The A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y " i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n i n t e r n a l i z e d set of v a l u e s , independent of outside a g e n c i e s  -  72  -  for m o r a l d e c i s i o n s , and able to operate i n h a r m o n y w i t h the e m o t i o n a l i m p u l s e s and w i t h the self. Two types of conscience are a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by F r o m m (46) who d e s c r i b e s an a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n s c i e n c e , and that w h i c h he designates as the h u m a n i s t i c c o n s c i e n c e .  F r o m m feels  that the a u t h o r i t a r i a n conscience c o r r e s p o n d s to F r e u d ' s ego.  super-  It i s dependent on e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y and operates t h r o u g h  fear of punishment or hope of r e w a r d .  Humanistic conscience  i n v o l v e s self-knowledge and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the total p e r s o n a l i t y . unfulfilled.  G u i l t feelings o c c u r when the self goes  A c c o r d i n g to F r o m m , everyone has both types of  c o n s c i e n c e , v a r y i n g i n strength i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experiences.  A l t h o u g h the a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n s c i e n c e i s u s u a l l y  the e a r l i e s t to develop, F r o m m i ; t h i n k s that this phase i s not necessary i n a non-authoritarian society. R a n k , a c c o r d i n g to B l u m (16) m a k e s a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n h i s " p r i m i t i v e " super-ego and " c o r r e c t l y f u n c t i o n i n g " one.  The f o r m e r shows i t s e l f i n a need for p u n i s h m e n t . A l t h o u g h there a r e d i f f e r e n c e s , there i s a t h r e a d of  s i m i l a r i t y i n the v i e w s of these t h e o r i s t s .  The f i r s t phase of  c o n s c i e n c e i s o v e r b e a r i n g , r i g i d , and b a s e d on e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y and fear of punishment, w h i l e the second phase i s b a s e d on internalized values, self-reference, personality.  and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the e n t i r e  These types of conscience m a t c h the types d e s c r i b e d  i n developmental studies.  Some i n d i v i d u a l s s e e m i n g l y n e v e r  attain the m o r e m a t u r e type of conscience .  -  73  -  B y a m a l g a m a t i n g the conscience t h e o r i e s of s e v e r a l w r i t e r s , G r u n e s (51) has s e t t l e d on three types of c o n s c i e n c e , one of w h i c h i s the i n t e g r a t e d c o n s c i e n c e as d e s c r i b e d above.  The  other two types are the m o r a l i s t i c - r e p r e s s i v e and the nonj^inte g r a t e d . The m o r a l i s t i c - r e p r e s s i v e c o n s c i e n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by attitudes of r i g i d m o r a l d i s c i p l i n e t o w a r d s the self and o t h e r s and e x c e s s i v e c o n t r o l over i m p u l s e s and self e x p r e s s i o n .  T h i s type of c o n s c i e n c e  i s e x t r e m e l y punitive but no o v e r t conflict i s shown.  The n o n -  i n t e g r a t e d conscience i n c l u d e s s e v e r e p r i n c i p l e s and p r o h i b i t i o n s but i s a c c o m p a n i e d by r e b e l l i o n and o v e r t conflict . H o r a ' s (58) d i s s o c i a l conscience m a y be added as another type because, i t d r a w s attention to the k i n d of super-ego developed through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h delinquent p a r e n t s and neighbourhood, c o v e r i n g a m a t t e r left out by Grune . Some of the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s e e m s to support these distinctions.  B e t t e r tools of m e a s u r e m e n t m a y make i t p o s s i b l e  to d i s t i n g u i s h between the m a i n content of each type of c o n s c i e n c e . Classification  of  Behaviour  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of behaviour r e l a t e d to m o r a l i t y i s of i n t e r e s t i n this study, as one of the r e a s o n s for i t s u n d e r t a k i n g has been the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the n a r r o w range of m o r a l i t y c o v e r e d i n other t e s t s . In b e h a v i o u r a l t e s t s , such as those of H a r t s h o r n e and M a y (54,55) and of V o e l k e r (111), the range of t o p i c s that can be covered i s necessarily l i m i t e d .  P a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t s , h o w e v e r ,  -  74  -  need not be handicapped i n this m a n n e r .  A s few as one i t e m i n  one c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been u s e d , as was done by H o r t o n (59) i n h i s study of l y i n g .  In the s e r i e s of studies done by B r o g a n (21,22,23)  s i x t e e n types of actions a r e l i s t e d : cheating dancing drinking extravagance  gambling gossip idleness lying  selfishness Sabbath b r e a k i n g snobbishness sex i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  smoking stealing swearing vulgar talk  T h i r t e e n offences and t h i r t e e n v i r t u e s w e r e r e q u i r e d to be r a n k e d by M i t c h e l l ' s subjects (87). charity helpfulness honesty industry  The v i r t u e s w e r e :  kindness sociability loyalty sportsmanship morality sympathy openmindedness truthfulness  trustworthiness  These t e r m s p e r t a i n i n g to v i r t u e a r e e x t r e m e l y b r o a d , e s p e c i a l l y " m o r a l i t y " and "honesty", w h i c h could be s t r e t c h e d to c o v e r a l m o s t everything.  The l i s t of offences added b i g a m y , f o r g e r y , m u r d e r ,  r o b b e r y and squealing to the B r o g a n l i s t , w h i l e s m o k i n g , d a n c i n g , v u l g a r t a l k , e x t r a v a g a n c e , g a m b l i n g , i d l e n e s s , Sabbath b r e a k i n g and s e l f i s h n e s s were not m e n t i o n e d , although some of these w o u l d be c o v e r e d i n the l i s t of v i r t u e s .  B r o g a n ' s l i s t was obtained  e m p i r i c a l l y , w h i l e M i t c h e l l ' s l i s t of offences had a n e m p h a s i s on c r i m i n a l offences . He t e r m e d h i s l i s t a l i s t of " s o c i a l o f f e n c e s " , but many other offences w h i c h could be l a b e l l e d " s o c i a l " w e r e omitted. Whitlow (114) i m p r o v e d on this m e t h o d s l i g h t l y by adding a qualifying w o r d h e r e and there to the l i s t e d w o r d i n o r d e r to i n d i c a t e m o r e c l e a r l y what was meant by that p a r t i c u l a r w o r d .  -  75  -  F o r e x a m p l e , beside cheating, i s added copying; beside s n i t c h i n g , i s added t a t t l i n g ; beside g o s s i p i n g , i s added tale b e a r i n g ; beside l a z i n e s s , i s added loafing; and beside d e c e p t i o n , i s added white l i e s . It can be seen that the m e a n i n g of the i n i t i a l w o r d i s changed c o n s i d e r a b l y by the a d d i t i o n of a qualifying t e r m .  If this i s s o , there  m u s t indeed be many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s that could be put onto such b r o a d t e r m s as have been u s e d i n other s t u d i e s . t w e n t y - s i x offences i n h i s s t u d y .  Whitlow u s e d  B r o g a n ' s c a t e g o r i e s are a l l  i n c l u d e d , w i t h some changes and some e l u c i d a t i o n s , except for 'Sabbath b r e a k i n g " .  In place of B r o g a n ' s " v u l g a r t a l k " has been  3 substituted " t e l l i n g obscene s t o r i e s " and " l i s t e n i n g to obscene stories".  Offences W h i t l o w i n c l u d e s w h i c h a r e not c o v e r e d i n  B r o g a n ' s study a r e : destroying property two-facedness cowardice s n i t c h i n g , tattling deception, white l i e s  protecting law violators disrespectfulness disobedience truancy  F r o m this short l i s t i t can be noted that B r o g a n , i n t r y i n g to keep h i s l i s t s h o r t , m i s s e d c o l l e c t i n g data i n m a n y i m p o r t a n t a r e a s . T h i s need to keep the l i s t short i s a l i m i t a t i o n of the r a n k i n g technique. A n i m p r o v e m e n t by way of m a k i n g t e r m s m o r e concrete was brought i n by Skaggs (105) who l i s t e d twenty a c t s , although a t e r m as a b s t r a c t as " s e l f i s h n e s s " was s t i l l i n c l u d e d .  The acts  listed were: cheating on e x a m s use of profanity being a n atheist rape  s t e a l i n g s m a l l objects f r o m a store s e l l i n g a found book, h a v i n g o w n e r ' s name s m o k i n g when the signs say "no s m o k i n g "  -  drinking parties g a m b l i n g for money spitting on f l o o r l y i n g to parents flirting smoking cigarettes petting and n e c k i n g  76  -  taking h u m a n l i f e (outside of self-defense and w a r ) love affair w i t h a m a r r i e d m a n or w o m a n s t e a l i n g away a f r i e n d ' s l o v e r i n t i m a t e sex r e l a t i o n s outside of m a r r i a g e i n g r a t i t u d e for h e l p or s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d y o u  A l t h o u g h the t e r m s v a r y i n s p e c i f i c i t y , they a r e a definite i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r attempts to use one w o r d to d e s c r i b e an e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e .  R a p e , s p i t t i n g on the f l o o r , f l i r t i n g , and i n -  gratitude are the only r e a l l y new p r i n c i p l e s u s e d i n this t e s t , when c o m p a r e d w i t h the o t h e r s , although " r a p e " could have been i n c l u d e d i n B r o g a n ' s "sex i r r e g u l a r i t i e s " , as could " f l i r t i n g " .  T h u s , one  m i g h t a s s o c i a t e " r a p e " w i t h s e x u a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s w h i l e another m i g h t a s s o c i a t e " f l i r t i n g " w i t h the same t e r m .  T h i s s o r t of s i t u a -  t i o n , plus the n a r r o w range of p r i n c i p l e s c o v e r e d i n each study, i s e s s e n t i a l l y the r e a s o n for conducting the p r e s e n t study. C r i s s m a n (28) d e s c r i b e d a c t u a l situations or a c t i o n s throughout h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e of fifty i t e m s .  These acts w e r e not  l i m i t e d to what an i n d i v i d u a l m i g h t do, but i n c l u d e d m a t t e r s w h i c h c o n c e r n c o r p o r a t i o n s and nations as w e l l . of i t e m u s e d a r e :  E x a m p l e s of the type  F a l s i f y i n g a f e d e r a l i n c o m e tax r e t u r n B u y i n g bootleg l i q u o r under p r o h i b i t i o n l a w Not g i v i n g to c h a r i t y when able Keeping over-change given b y a c l e r k i n mistake  Such i t e m s a r e m u c h m o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y than those p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d , as the r a t e r i s g i v e n sufficient i n f o r m a t i o n to enable h i m to m a k e a v a l i d judgment. T h u s , the development of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e g a r d i n g m o r a l judgment has been t r a c e d f r o m the o n e - w o r d d e s c r i p t i o n of  -  77  -  a b r o a d phase of m o r a l i t y to the d e s c r i p t i o n of a c t u a l situations i n w h i c h actions w i t h m o r a l connotations o c c u r .  A l s o , the g r o w t h  of range i n content f r o m one p r i n c i p l e i n one category of m o r a l i t y to fifty p r i n c i p l e s has been d e s c r i b e d .  H o w e v e r , there m a y be  m o r e than fifty g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of m o r a l i t y o p e r a t i v e i n p r e s e n t day s o c i e t y . Attempts  to  Measure  Conscience  A t the beginning of this r e v i e w , i t was stated that the two studies w h i c h had as t h e i r sole c o n c e r n the m e a s u r e m e n t of conscience w o u l d be c o v e r e d i n the c l o s i n g p a g e s .  F o r this  p u r p o s e , the w o r k of F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r t s (44) and of Dunstan W a c k (112) w i l l now be e x a m i n e d .  The f i r s t of these was  p u b l i s h e d i n 1946 under the t i t l e " A n A t t e m p t to m e a s u r e the strength of c o n s c i e n c e " .  A test was c o n s t r u c t e d c o n s i s t i n g of 115  i t e m s w h i c h cover e l e v e n m a i n c a t e g o r i e s of b e h a v i o u r : l o y a l t y , honesty, s e l f - c o n t r o l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , e g o - i d e a l , k i n d l i n e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , m o r a l c o u r a g e , r e l i g i o n , a u t h o r i t y , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s taboos.  A twelfth category i n c l u d e d i t e m s w h i c h the a u t h o r s b e -  l i e v e d to be n e u t r a l or p o s i t i v e a c c o r d i n g to t y p i c a l p r e v a i l i n g m o r a l standards .  These five i t e m s w e r e i n c l u d e d as an i n d i c a t o r of  whether other f a c t o r s besides m o r a l i d e o l o g y w e r e i n f l u e n c i n g m o r a l decisions.  A l l the i t e m s w e r e couched i n concrete t e r m s such as  " k i l l e d b i r d s o r other s m a l l a n i m a l s " . to the same g r o u p .  The test was g i v e n twice  The f i r s t t i m e , the subjects w e r e a s k e d , "How  bad i s i t ? " , w h i l e the second t i m e they were a s k e d "How w o u l d y o u  -  78  -  f e e l ? " , i f such b e h a v i o u r had been i n d u l g e d i n by the t e s t e e . The subjects r a t e d t h e i r r e s p o n s e s by c h e c k i n g one of the c o l u m n s m a r k e d , " v e r y , v e r y b a d " , " b a d " , "not bad, not g o o d " , or " g o o d " . The questions w e r e s i m p l y w o r d e d so that i n t e l l e c t u a l influences would not affect test r e s u l t s .  It was h y p o t h e s i z e d that the d i f -  ference between the s c o r e s made on each q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d indicate strength of c o n s c i e n c e , " s i n c e i t depends on the extent to w h i c h the subject judges h i s own a c t i o n s m o r e s e v e r e l y than those of o t h e r s " ( 4 4 , 2 3 3 ) .  H o w e v e r , i t was found that the same d i f -  ference s c o r e m a y have different m e a n i n g s i n different p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e behind u s i n g this difference s c o r e as a m e a s u r e of c o n s c i e n c e was not d i s i c u s s e d by the a u t h o r s .  Since  i t was concluded that the test does not m e a s u r e strength of c o n science as a n i s o l a b l e t r a i t , this was p r o b a b l y due to a faulty assumption .  The authors pointed out that the "How w o u l d y o u  f e e l ? " p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r o b a b l y the c l o s e s t to a v a l i d m e a s u r e of c o n s c i e n c e . T h r o u g h c a l c u l a t i o n s of i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t was found that the difference s c o r e d i d not p r o v i d e a m e a s u r e of c o n s c i e n c e independent of content.  A s the "How w o u l d y o u f e e l ? "  s c o r e seemed to be m o r e u s e f u l , c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e made between i t and other i n s t r u m e n t s .  A n u m b e r of l o w , but p o s i t i v e , r e l a t i o n -  ships w e r e found w i t h s o c i a b i l i t y and c l e a n l i n e s s s c o r e s on a n interest inventory, questionnaire results regarding satisfactory r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y , and c h a r a c t e r r a t i n g by age m a t e s .  The  -  79  -  low c o r r e l a t i o n s m a y be due as m u c h to l a c k of a s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i o n against w h i c h to validate the c o n s c i e n c e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as to any weakness i n the test i t s e l f . In 1952, Dunstan W a c k p u b l i s h e d " A p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of c o n s c i e n c e " under the a u s p i c e s of C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America .  In this study, he follows the p a t t e r n set by F r i e d e n b e r g  and H a v i g h u r s t i n h a v i n g a t w i n set of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , but has e l a b o r a t e d by h a v i n g different tests make the different  measurements.  In the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h i c h was c o n s t r u c t e d to c o v e r the ten c o m m a n d m e n t s , the subject i s a s k e d how frequently he has c o m m i t t e d a c e r t a i n s i n i n the p a s t , and how bad he thinks i t i s .  In  the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h i c h was c o n s t r u c t e d to c o v e r five a r e a s of m o r a l i t y , v i z . , G o d , f a m i l y , p r o p e r t y , s e x , and s o c i e t y , he i s a s k e d how he w o u l d feel i f he w e r e to do c e r t a i n a c t s .  In.con-  s t r u c t i n g the t e s t s , f r o m the i t e m s made up, those w e r e r e t a i n e d w h i c h w e r e judged pertinent to the t e s t , and w h i c h had been g i v e n the same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to v i r t u e and v i c e by three out of five judges, a l l of whom w e r e m p r a l theologians . It was a s sumed that a r e c o r d of the subject's v i o l a t i o n s of h i s c o n s c i e n c e measures,  by i n f e r e n c e , the c o m m a n d of c o n s c i e n c e .  In the  f i r s t s c a l e , the E x a m i n a t i o n of C o n s c i e n c e , the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l was b a s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n that "a n o r m a l p e r s o n w i l l be m u c h m o r e r e l u c t a n t to v i o l a t e h i s conscience i f a s e r i o u s offence i s c o n t e m p l a t e d , than i f i t i s one that i s far l e s s s e r i o u s . " (112, 18).  H o w e v e r , because of the u s u a l d i s c r e p a n c y between  -  80  -  what one " t h i n k s " or " f e e l s " and one's e x p r e s s e d b e h a v i o u r , i t i s not safe to m a k e even this a s s u m p t i o n .  A l t h o u g h there s e e m s  to be a tendency i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , i t has not been d e f i n i t e l y established.  F o r e x a m p l e , S l a v e n s and B r o g a n (106) r e p o r t a  z e r o c o r r e l a t i o n between frequency of offences as e s t i m a t e d by m a l e h i g h s c h o o l students and t h e i r degree of b a d n e s s , w i t h a - . 5 c o r r e l a t i o n between frequency and badness for f e m a l e s i n the same group .  Whitlow (114) a l s o r e p o r t s that there i s a  g e n e r a l tendency for students to r e f r a i n f r o m those acts they c o n s i d e r m o s t s e r i o u s , but states that the tendency i s i n c o m p l e t e and u n r e l i a b l e . W a c k ' s f i r s t s c a l e , the E x a m i n a t i o n of C o n s c i e n c e , was p u r p o r t e d to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e , while the second was p u r p o r t e d to m e a s u r e m o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  H o w e v e r , the f i r s t  test s e e m e d to m e a s u r e only the p r o h i b i t i n g aspect of c o n s c i e n c e , w h i l e the second test a l s o s e e m e d to be a m e a s u r e of c o n s c i e n c e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to c e r t a i n i t e m s .  It was concluded that  m o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e a r e r e l a t e d .  It w a s a l s o  concluded that c o n s c i e n c e i s a g e n e r a l i z e d function i n r e l a t i o n to i t s object.  A p e r s o n who is. u p r i g h t w i t h r e g a r d to G o d i s a l s o  the p e r s o n who r e s p e c t s h i s f a m i l y , i s honest, chaste, and f u l fills his civic duties.  H o w e v e r , the finding of a c o m m o n f a c t o r  could be due to the homogeneity of the group upon w h i c h the t e s t was s t a n d a r d i z e d .  The study was c a r r i e d out on a R o m a n C a t h o l i c  population and the questions w e r e a n s w e r e d by the subjects w i t h  -  r e g a r d to s i n f u l n e s s .  81 -  A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i s that the q u e s t i o n -  naire was"arm-chaired".  That i s , the questions a p p e a r i n g on  the test w e r e made up by the test c o n s t r u c t o r s o p e r a t i n g f r o m a defined t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n .  T h u s , W a c k ' s test cannot be  g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d because of the uise of t e r m s w h i c h have m e a n i n g m a i n l y to i n d i v i d u a l s of the R o m a n C a t h o l i c f a i t h .  W a c k d i d not  r e p o r t any v a l i d a t i o n studies w i t h r e g a r d to a n e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . Sum m a r y T h i s r e v i e w has attempted to e m p h a s i z e the a r e a s i n w h i c h studies have been made by p s y c h o l o g i s t s and by p s y c h o a n a l y s t s , so that the two s c h o o l s of thought m i g h t be c o m p a r e d and c o n t r a s t e d .  A b a c k g r o u n d of p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e t h o d u s e d i n  studying m a t t e r s r e l a t e d to m o r a l i t y has been g i v e n , and a l s o a b a c k g r o u n d of orthodox p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g the s u p e r ego has been i n t r o d u c e d , as stepping stones f r o m w h i c h to set off on the e x p l o r a t i o n of the p r o b l e m s , s o l v e d and u n s o l v e d , p e r t a i n i n g to the m o r a l p r o c e s s e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y .  The genesis of  the super-ego has been e x a m i n e d , as w e l l as s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g m o r a l development and studies r e g a r d i n g changes i n m o r a l p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age.  Differences i n m o r a l  a w a r e n e s s that o c c u r between s e x e s , over t i m e , and between p e r s o n a l i t y groups such as delinquents and n o r m a l s have been discussed.  Q u e s t i o n s whether honesty i s a s p e c i f i c or a g e n e r a l  t r a i t have been i n v e s t i g a t e d and d e s c r i p t i o n s , have been g i v e n of s e v e r a l different types of c o n s c i e n c e p e r c e i v e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s .  -  82  -  A n o t h e r a r e a under d i s c u s s i o n has been the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l influences and c o n s c i e n c e , i n t e l l i g e n c e and c o n s c i e n c e , and e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and c o n s c i e n c e . In a l l these a r e a s i t has been noted that there a r e v a r y i n g amounts of a g r e e m e n t and d i s a g r e e m e n t between a u t h o r i t i e s and between schools of thought.  A t t i m e s there has even been  c o n t r a d i c t i o n , so that this f i e l d r e m a i n s one w i t h g r e a t need for research. The s p e c i f i c tasks i n this study have been to m a p out the g e n e r a l a r e a s of behaviour that have m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , and to educe g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s m a y m a k e moral decisions.  T h i s has been done i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e a f r a m e -  w o r k upon w h i c h s c a l e s to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e m a y be b u i l t . Of m o r e p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , then, to these tasks has been the s e c t i o n i n the r e v i e w on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of behaviour r e l a t e d to m o r a l i t y , w h i c h has i n v e s t i g a t e d the types of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n u s e d i n other s t u d i e s , and has pointed out t h e i r strengths and w e a k n e s s e s .  Two  studies w h i c h have set out w i t h the a i m of m e a s u r i n g c o n s c i e n c e have been d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d to a s s u m p t i o n s , method and r e s u l t s . It has become apparent that there a r e few t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g conscience and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s w h i c h have a v a l i d b a s i s i n fact and w h i c h have been v e r i f i e d through e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . In m a n y c a s e s , there i s m u c h contention even r e g a r d i n g the m o s t fundamental p r i n c i p l e s . Y e t , c o n s c i e n c e and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s  are  so b a s i c to s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m s that there i s an acute  -  83  -  need for m o r e adequate understanding of this i m p o r t a n t phenomenon. It i s hoped that the m a p p i n g out of a r e a s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e and the d r a w i n g out of p r i n c i p l e s of d i r e c t p e r t i n e n c e undertaken i n this study w i l l be an a i d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h m a y help to b r e a k down the. b a r r i e r s of i g n o r a n c e .  Chapter  III  PROCEDURE  Aim  of  Method It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that one of the a i m s of this  study i s to d e t e r m i n e a r e a s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and i n as e m p i r i c a l a m a n n e r as p o s s i b l e .  conscience  In o r d e r to do t h i s ,  statements w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e g a r d to p e r s o n a l situations w h i c h they could r e c a l l m a k i n g them feel g u i l t y . A n o t h e r a i m i s to d e t e r m i n e as wide a range of conscience  and  m o r a l a w a r e n e s s as p o s s i b l e , as w e l l as not to l i m i t the study to any specific r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p s .  In o r d e r to  help achieve t h i s , as v a r i e d a population as c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y obtained was u s e d f r o m w h i c h to c o l l e c t the o r i g i n a l i t e m s .  Thus,  i t i s hoped that some of the l i m i t a t i o n s of f o r m e r studies w i l l be overcome. Organization  of  Study  T h i s study i s d i v i d e d into two s e c t i o n s , the w o r k on the f i r s t section n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c e d i n g the o t h e r .  The f i r s t  s e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d with d e t e r m i n i n g the m a i n a r e a s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and conscience as shown by e m p i r i c a l data.  The second  section i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d r a w i n g forth p r i n c i p l e s f r o m each  85  c a t e g o r y , so that they m a y be a v a i l a b l e as a b a s i s f r o m w h i c h to c o n s t r u c t a scale to a s s e s s m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e i n the m a i n a r e a s .  The c o l l e c t e d i t e m s w o u l d t h e m s e l v e s be  a v a i l a b l e for use as questions on the s c a l e . Collection a)  of  Data  Method Individuals w e r e a s k e d to contribute statements  r e g a r d i n g situations or behaviour w h i h h h a d caused them to f e e l guilty or have twinges of c o n s c i e n c e .  In m o s t c a s e s , a s i m p l y -  w o r d e d m i m e o g r a p h e d f o r m was d i s t r i b u t e d w h i c h stated: "When we do or say something w r o n g we u s u a l l y f e e l bad about i t . We m i g h t say that our c o n s c i e n c e m a k e s us feel that w a y . C a n y o u think of anything y o u m i g h t say or do that would make y o u feel b a d ? D e s c r i b e as m a n y e x a m p l e s as y o u can think of. e . g . If I w e r e to ' k i c k a d o g ' I would feel awful. " o r "If I s h o u l d . . . I would feel. . . . " . When the o c c a s i o n r e q u i r e d , further  clarification  of the i n s t r u c t i o n s was g i v e n . A t such t i m e s the i n v e s t i g a t o r would say that the study was being made i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a scale to m e a s u r e m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and conscience.  A n outline of the p r i n c i p l e r e a s o n s for the need of  such an i n s t r u m e n t was g i v e n , and the p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d to c o - o p e r a t e by suggesting i t e m s w h i c h they could r e c a l l f r o m personal experience.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a l s o g i v e n a s s u r a n c e  that t h e i r contributions would be c o m p l e t e l y a n o n y m o u s , and at no t i m e w e r e they r e q u i r e d to identify t h e m s e l v e s by n a m e .  -  86  -  The i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the studyw e r e r e a c h e d through t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p i n c e r t a i n g r o u p s .  The  use of groups a l r e a d y i n existence made explanation of r e q u i r e ments m u c h l e s s t a s k i n g than would have been the case h a d the approach concerned itself with individuals.  T h i s m e t h o d a l s o made  p o s s i b l e g r o s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p o r t i o n of the population f r o m w h i c h c e r t a i n types and amounts of m a t e r i a l w e r e being d e r i v e d . In the i n t e r e s t s of obtaining a b r o a d c r o s s - s e c t i o n of m o r a l and c o n s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l , an attempt was made to obtain i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m as wide a v a r i e t y of groups of i n d i v i d u a l s as p o s s i b l e .  A  d e s c r i p t i o n of the groups u s e d i s g i v e n i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . Since i t was not d e s i r e d to l i m i t the scale to c o m m o n l y enacted b e h a v i o u r , other s o u r c e s w e r e s e a r c h e d that m i g h t contribute useful factual m a t e r i a l of m o r e r a r e o c c u r e n c e . To this end, the p u b l i c a t i o n " E t h i c a l Standards of P s y c h o l o g i s t s " (119) was s c r u t i n i z e d , as i t contains a n u m b e r of p r o f e s s i o n a l situations of g e n e r a l i m p o r t a n c e that have a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d and been condemned as being u n e t h i c a l .  A l s o , an attempt was made  to u t i l i z e m a t e r i a l f r o m court cases d e s c r i b e d i n l a w books (118). S e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s wereeelicited f r o m the l a t t e r s o u r c e , although the amount of t i m e r e q u i r e d i n r e l a t i o n to the a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n y i e l d e d made a l o n g - t e r m study of this source i m p r a c t i c a l , and a c c o r d i n g l y was s h o r t l y t e r m i n a t e d . Items f r o m the s c a l e s of W a c k (112.) and of F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t (44) w e r e a l s o l i s t e d and t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y to  -  r a w data c o l l e c t e d .  87  -  T h i s was done both for the value of the i t e m s  t h e m s e l v e s and so that a c o m p a r i s o n c o u l d be more aptly made w i t h the m a t e r i a l i n the p r e s e n t study, b) D e s c r i p t i o n of C o n t r i b u t i n g G r o u p s The l a r g e s t n u m b e r of c o n t r i b u t i o n s w e r e made by groups of u n i v e r s i t y students.  A l l y e a r s of u n i v e r s i t y w e r e  included f r o m the w i n t e r s e s s i o n , and a f i r s t , t h i r d and fourth y e a r c l a s s f r o m s u m m e r s c h o o l . A night s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of t e a c h e r s was a l s o u t i l i z e d .  The s u m m e r  school population a l s o was made up of a l a r g e number of t e a c h e r s . T h u s , the a c a d e m i c groups made up one of the l a r g e s t sections of the p o p u l a t i o n . C h i l d r e n ' s contributions were also solicited.  Grades  Six and E l e v e n i n the V a n c o u v e r School D i s t r i c t w e r e c o n t r i b u t o r s . S e v e r a l of these c l a s s e s w e r e i n schools of the poor d i s t r i c t s .  A  r u r a l C a t h o l i c p r i v a t e s c h o o l , G r a d e s F i v e to E i g h t , a l s o s u p p l i e d data, as d i d a group of B r o w n i e s f r o m a r u r a l d i s t r i c t . The V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l , i n i t s c l a s s e s for beauty p a r l o r o p e r a t o r s and p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s , c o n s i s t i n g a l m o s t e n t i r e l y of w o m e n , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d i t e m s .  A l l adult ages w e r e  i n c l u d e d i n these g r o u p s , r a n g i n g f r o m the late teens to m i d d l e age. H o u s e w i v e ' s groups w e r e a l s o obtained, one of them being a group of m i d d l e - a g e d h o u s e w i v e s f r o m a r u r a l d i s t r i c t , another a group of young m o t h e r s f r o m a r u r a l d i s t r i c t , and a t h i r d a group of young m o t h e r s i n V a n c o u v e r .  -  88  -  M a l e c o n t r i b u t o r s w e r e not e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e outside c l a s s - r o o m settings.  H o w e v e r , a s m a l l group of a b l e -  bodied unemployed did co-operate.  A t t e m p t s to obtain the  a s s i s t a n c e of b u s i n e s s m e n and of t r a d e s m e n w e r e not s u c c e s s f u l . A m o n g the data a r e i t e m s c o n t r i b u t e d by a n u n differentiated g r o u p , v i z . , those who c o n t r i b u t e d i t e m s when attending Open House at the U n i v e r s i t y . Formulation  of  Categories  a) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Items A s the number of i t e m s c o l l e c t e d mounted up, definite a r e a s w e r e seen to e m e r g e i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a d m i t t e d having twinges of c o n s c i e n c e .  F o r e x a m p l e , a number of i t e m s  r e g a r d i n g " l y i n g " was among the data c o l l e c t e d .  When a c a t e g o r y  of " l y i n g " became evident, a category was set up and the data s e a r c h e d so that a l l i t e m s p e r t a i n i n g to " l y i n g " w e r e p l a c e d i n i t . New c a t e g o r i e s w e r e set up when i t e m s a p p e a r e d that c o u l d not be p l a c e d under e x i s t i n g ones, and the same p r o c e d u r e of s e a r c h ing for s i m i l a r i t e m s was repeated. When i t was found that a c e r t a i n group of p e r s o n s , e . g . u n i v e r s i t y students, was not p r o v i d i n g any i t e m s that des c r i b e d a new k i n d of p r i n c i p l e , no further i t e m s w e r e s o l i c i t e d f r o m that p a r t i c u l a r type of g r o u p .  Insofar as p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m -  stances p e r m i t t e d , this p r a c t i c e was continued u n t i l no e s s e n t i a l l y new m a t e r i a l could be obtained f r o m a v a i l a b l e g r o u p s .  -  89  -  b) B a s i s of F o r m u l a t i n g C a t e g o r i e s In setting up the c a t e g o r i e s , i t had to be d e c i d e d along w h i c h d i m e n s i o n the c a t e g o r i e s should be o r g a n i z e d .  It  seemed that i t e m s r e g a r d i n g situations i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a d m i t having twinges of conscience c o u l d be a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g to three main dimensions. 1.  These a r e :  Setting - the life setting i n w h i c h the a c t i v i t y took p l a c e ,  e . g . as i n dating, s e l l i n g , or teaching 2.  D i r e c t i o n - the p e r s o n , group or i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e g a r d  to whom the a c t i v i t y took p l a c e , e . g . w i t h r e g a r d to one's f r i e n d , e m p l o y e r , or f a m i l y 3.  B e h a v i o u r - the b a s i c a c t i v i t y u n d e r l y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  a c t i o n , e . g . l y i n g , a v o i d i n g b l a m e , being h y p o c r i t i c a l , e t c . , . A p a r a l l e l ! m i g h t be d r a w n between these d i m e n s i o n s and the " t p m o " f o r m u l a suggested by M u r r a y (91) i n d i s c u s s i n g d i v i s i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the  super-ego.  T h i s " t i m e , p l a c e , m o d e , object" p a t t e r n i s s a i d to f o r m a b a s i s for conscience as i t r e p r e s e n t s "the loose o r g a n i z a t i o n of D o ' s and D o n ' t ' s p r e a c h e d and p e r h a p s p r a c t i c e d by the p a r e n t s , a s s e r t e d to be the only ' R i g h t ' " , w h i c h became i n t e r n a l i z e d (91,137) The f i r s t d i m e n s i o n of " s e t t i n g " m i g h t be s i m i l a r to M u r r a y ' s d i m e n s i o n of " p l a c e " , w h i l e " d i r e c t i o n " i s c o m p a r a b l e to h i s "object", and " b e h a v i o u r " i s c o m p a r a b l e to h i s " m o d e " .  Murray  a l s o i n c l u d e s " t i m e " , but t h i s d i m e n s i o n has not made i t s e l f apparent i n the p r e s e n t study.  -  90  -  In o r d e r to a v o i d confusion and o v e r l a p as m u c h as p o s s i b l e (although some o v e r l a p s e e m e d to be u n a v o i d a b l e ) , i t was n e c e s s a r y to a r r a n g e a l l c a t e g o r i e s along a single d i m e n s i o n , and the t h i r d d i m e n s i o n , n a m e l y "behaviour " w h i c h p e r t a i n s to the b a s i c a c t i v i t y u n d e r l y i n g the s i t u a t i o n , was chosen for the purpose of this study.  The c a t e g o r i e s arranged i n t h i s m a n n e r contain  i t e m s w h i c h could be a p p l i e d to any p e r s o n , group or i n s t i t u t i o n and setting, and thus have m o r e g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n than if: they w e r e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g to other d i m e n s i o n s , c) D e f i n i t i o n of C a t e g o r i e s In o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , to define each c a t e g o r y . D e f i n i t i o n s w e r e f o r m e d by a group of judges w i t h the i t e m s i n each category i n m i n d as g u i d e s .  The definitions are not to be  thought of as setting out separate c o m p a r t m e n t s of b e h a v i o u r , but only as a i d s i n c h e c k i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s . Judgment  of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s When a l l the i t e m s h a d been c l a s s i f i e d , t h r e e judges  s c r u t i n i z e d them i n o r d e r to a s c e r t a i n aptness of fit of each i t e m i n each c a t e g o r y , and n e c e s s a r y changes w e r e made when i t was d e c i d e d that a better c l a s s i f i c a t i o n could be a c h i e v e d . Formulation  of P r i n c i p l e s  The next step was to draw out g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f r o m the i t e m s i n each c a t e g o r y .  Items that w e r e s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e  w e r e grouped together into a m a i n p r i n c i p l e that was p r e s u m e d to  -  91  -  cover a l l of the m o r e s p e c i f i c instances:.  That i s , i t e m s containing  s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s w e r e broadened i n scope without s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r i n g the m e a n i n g of the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e .  In this w a y , a  g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e w h i c h , for q u e s t i o n a i r e p u r p o s e s , could be w o r d e d to apply to a s p e c i f i c group was made a v a i l a b l e .  While  f o r m u l a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s , a further check on c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of i t e m s was made through c o m p a r i s o n of the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n the different c a t e g o r i e s .  T h r e e judges a l s o s c r u t i n i z e d the aptness  of the g e n e r a l i t i e s f o r m e d f r o m the s p e c i f i c i t e m . In A p p e n d i x M, the i t e m s w h i c h w e r e sufficiently different f r o m each other to be l i s t e d ar e shown under the m a i n category h e a d i n g s .  F o l l o w i n g the l i s t of items, i s g i v e n a l i s t of  the p r i n c i p l e s that w e r e d r a w n f r o m these i t e m s .  B e s i d e the n u m b e r  of each i t e m i s given the number of the p r i n c i p l e to w h i c h i t b e l o n g s , w h i l e beside the number of the p r i n c i p l e , i s g i v e n the n u m b e r of the i t e m s w h i c h w e r e the b a s i s for i t s f o r m u l a t i o n .  Chapter RESULTS  IV  AND  DISCUSSION  Gross Numerical Results A l t o g e t h e r , a total of 944 p e r s o n s c o n t r i b u t e d a total of 3,952 i t e m s i n the r a w data; these w e r e n a r r o w e d down, because of d u p l i c a t i o n s , to 1,555 different i t e m s .  F r o m this n u m b e r of  i t e m s , 760 p r i n c i p l e s w e r e f o r m u l a t e d under seventy-five categories. It i s not p r e s u m e d that a l l a r e a s i n w h i c h people have g u i l t f e e l i n g s , and a l l m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , have been d e s c r i b e d .  How-  e v e r , i t i s felt that these r e s u l t s a r e a step i n the d i r e c t i o n of l e a r n i n g the content of m o r a l concepts, and the p r i n c i p l e s w h e r e b y i n d i v i d u a l s say they guide t h e i r l i v e s , feeling guilty i f they a r e not followed. Results  According  to  Groups  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the groups showing the n u m b e r of i t e m s c o l l e c t e d i n each and the number of p e r s o n s i n each group i s shown i n Table I. A probable l i m i t a t i o n to this study i s the gap i n the population o c c u r i n g w i t h o l d p e r s o n s of both s e x e s .  G r o u p s of  TABLE  1.  DIS T R I B U T I O N O F C O N T R I B U TIONS A C C O R D I N G TO GROUPS *  Group  N o . of Items  N o . of C o n t r i b u t o r s  G r a d e Six  663  220  Grade E l e v e n  129  43  P a r o c h i a l School, Penticton  359  51  Brownies, Salmo  186  22  Housewives, Vancouver  136.  40  Housewives, Kelowna  29  11  Housewives, Salmo  29  6  V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l School  17 6  43  Night School E d u c a t i o n C l a s s  15 0  145  Summer School, U . B . C .  215  36  1-2nd y e a r s  1032  152  3-4th y e a r s  681  68  134  95  Winter Session, U . B . C .  Open House Able-bodied Unemployed Totals  33 3952  .  12 944  A detailed b r e a k d o w n of frequencies of i t e m s for each group has been left on file w i t h D r . S i g n o r i of the D e p a r t m e n t of P s y c h o l o g y  -  94  -  e l d e r l y p e r s o n s who w e r e w i l l i n g to co-operate w e r e not a v a i l a b l e at opportune t i m e s .  It i s hoped that, i n the future, e l d e r l y persons'.s  and w o r k i n g - m e n ' s groups can be p e r s u a d e d to contribute data. H o w e v e r , there i s no way of knowing whether the a d d i t i o n of further groups would s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the pattern of p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have been set up, although the p o s s i b i l i t y r e m a i n s . D i f f e r e n t groups w h i c h have s u b m i t t e d i t e m s have tended to e m p h a s i z e different kinds of conscience m a t e r i a l .  For example,  the i t e m s submitted by young c h i l d r e n have been c o n c e r n e d chiefly w i t h a g g r e s s i v e acts such as s t r i k i n g , i n j u r i n g and d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r and w i t h such acts as stealing and being r u d e .  The young  c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s have added a l a r g e amount of m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n e d w i t h c r u e l t y to a n i m a l s , upon w h i c h the u r b a n c h i l d r e n do not put such e m p h a s i s . O l d e r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n offer a w i d e r v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l showing c o n c e r n for h a v i n g h a r m e d others i n m o r e subtle w a y s , and show m o r e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e g a r d i n g what others t h i n k .  They  m e n t i o n h a v i n g g u i l t feelings r e g a r d i n g such m a t t e r s as h u r t i n g others f e e l i n g s , t a l k i n g about o t h e r s , and doing things of w h i c h others d i s approve.  U n i v e r s i t y students c o n t r i b u t e d the m o s t c o m p l e x i t e m s  i n a wide v a r i e t y of a r e a s , p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t i n g the v a r i e d backgrounds of the students, who a l s o m a y range i n age f r o m the late teens to m i d d l e age (the l a t t e r being e s p e c i a l l y true of s u m m e r s c h o o l students). H o u s e w i v e ' s groups c o n t r i b u t e d i t e m s r e g a r d i n g another phase of c o n c e r n for o t h e r s , h a v i n g chief e m p h a s i s on not h a v i n g done  something that should have been done, r a t h e r than on h a v i n g done something w r o n g .  C o n c e r n for the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s was shown w i t h  s p e c i a l focus on c h i l d r e n and h e l p l e s s p e r s o n s . Formulation  of  Categories  A l i s t of the c a t e g o r i e s f o r m e d and the d e f i n i t i o n of each i s shown i n A p p e n d i x B . It w i l l be noted that the definitions do not n e c e s s a r i l y duplicate those found i n standard d i c t i o n a r i e s .  In fact,  v e r y few d i c t i o n a r y definitions a r e g i v e n , as i t was found that such definitions left m u c h to be d e s i r e d i n the r e a l m of d e s c r i b i n g b e h a v i o u r . M o r e o v e r , one category m a y flow into another.  F o r example, it is  often difficult to a s c e r t a i n when " i n d i f f e r e n c e " ends and when "negl i g e n c e " b e g i n s , except through a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n , or to t e l l when " e m b a r r a s s m e n t " ends and the m o r e l a s t i n g " l o s s of s e l f - r e s p e c t " begins.  In judging the i t e m s , the c e n t r a l factor i n each i t e m was the  one under w h i c h i t was c a t e g o r i z e d , although to r e a d e r s i t i s p o s s i b l e that a different factor i n a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m m a y seem m o r e i m p o r t a n t . P a r t of the difficulty i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s was a function of the f o r m i n w h i c h the i t e m s w e r e r e c e i v e d .  A t times, their meaning  has been vague, and at other t i m e s t h e i r content has been " d o u b l e barrelled".  That i s , they have contained m o r e than one b a s i c i d e a ,  such as " l y i n g " plus " d e c e p t i o n " , w h i c h at t i m e s made d e c i s i o n s m o r e difficult.  H o w e v e r , i t i s felt that as c l o s e an a p p r o x i m a t i o n , i n as  c o n s i s t e n t a m a n n e r as p o s s i b l e , on a judgmental b a s i s was made after some d e l i b e r a t i o n .  - 9i> -  It w i l l be noted that one c a t e g o r y , " C r u e l t y to A n i m a l s " , u n l i k e the o t h e r s , does contain the d i m e n s i o n of " d i r e c t i o n " .  How-  e v e r , i t was felt that a category separate f r o m others was needed i n o r d e r to i n c l u d e the sentiments that p e r s o n s have r e g a r d i n g a n i m a l s , w h i c h a r e often quite different f r o m t h e i r sentiments r e g a r d i n g fellow h u m a n s . Subjective  Analysis  of  Categories  A n i l l u s t r a t i o n of the continuum-type o r g a n i z a t i o n of these c a t e g o r i e s i s the c o n s t e l l a t i o n w h i c h r e f e r s to i n j u s t i c e s or inequalities.  " I n j u s t i c e " i s the t i t l e of one of the c a t e g o r i e s , and i s  c o n c e r n e d w i t h the v i o l a t i o n of r i g h t s , w h i l e " u n f a i r n e s s " i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n e q u i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and i s deemed to be l e s s serious.  " F a v o u r i t i s m " i s another category w h i c h m i g h t be i n c l u d e d  i n t h i s c o n s t e l l a t i o n as i t r e f l e c t s u n f a i r n e s s of a m o r e p o s i t i v e n a t u r e , w h i l e " h a r s h n e s s " r e f l e c t s the m o r e negative side of unfairness.. " P r e j u d i c e " i s a s p e c i f i c type of i n j u s t i c e that i s d i r e c t e d towards c e r t a i n segments of the p o p u l a t i o n , while " i n t o l e r a n c e " , a l s o i n c l u d i n g a c e r t a i n amount of i n j u s t i c e , e m p h a s i z e s the factor of n a r r o w mindedness.  Insofar as each of these c a t e g o r i e s contains a n e l e m e n t  of not t r e a t i n g others i n a f a i r m a n n e r , they are r e l a t e d and on a c o n t i n u u m , but i n s o f a r as they each contain a s p e c i a l i z e d element by w h i c h they can be differentiated f r o m the other c a t e g o r i e s i n the c o n s t e l l a t i o n , they a r e unique.  A t t i m e s , there m a y be doubt w i t h  r e g a r d to w h i c h element i s i n preponderance and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of an i t e m m a y be a m a t t e r for dispute.  When there was any doubt about  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of an i t e m , the i n d e c i s i o n was u s u a l l y confined to the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of g r o u p s , and the i t e m was p l a c e d i n the c a t e g o r y upon w h i c h the m a j o r i t y of judges a g r e e d . On subjective a n a l y s i s , there a r e other m a i n groupings o r c o n s t e l l a t i o n s i n w h i c h the c a t e g o r i e s seem to f a l l .  Under  a g g r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d f a l l such c a t e g o r i e s as " s t r i k i n g " , " a r g u i n g " , "anger",  "hating", "destructive behaviour",  "killing"  and " i n j u r i n g " , the l a t t e r two being m o r e s e v e r e , w h i l e " s t r i k i n g " and " a r g u i n g " are on the m i l d e r end of the c o n t i n u u m . A n o t h e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s i s that r e l a t e d to a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of being dishonest and doing i l l e g a l a c t s . The m o s t g e n e r a l category i n this group i s that of " i l l e g a l b e h a v i o u r " , w h i c h i s a m i s c e l l a n e o u s category i n c l u d i n g a l l acts c o n t r a r y to l a w except those mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the c a t e g o r i e s of " s t e a l i n g " , and " b r i b e r y " .  " B r i b e r y " i s not n e c e s s a r i l y confined to types of  b r i b e r y condemned by l a w .  The category of " d i s h o n e s t y " i s r e l a t e d  to behaviour w h i c h i s dishonest but w h i c h does not r e q u i r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i l l e g a l a c t s , but i s r a t h e r a "dishonesty by  xomission".  " C h e a t i n g " i s another f o r m of behaviour under this c o n s t e l l a t i o n w h i c h i s r e l a t e d to behaving i n a m a n n e r that i s against the r u l e s of f a i r p l a y . A c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c o n s t e l l a t i o n i s that c o n c e r n e d w i t h the d e c e i v i n g of o t h e r s .  T h e r e i s a g e n e r a l category of " d e c e p t i o n " ,  w h i l e " l y i n g " i s added as a v e r b a l f o r m of d e c e p t i o n .  "Withholding  i n f o r m a t i o n " i s the c o r o l l a r y of l y i n g as i t i s deception through not giving advice.  " H y p o c r i s y " i s i n c l u d e d i n this c o n s t e l l a t i o n as a  -  98  -  deception r e g a r d i n g one's true f e e l i n g s .  M a n y of the c a t e g o r i e s of  the c o n s t e l l a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of dishonesty and i l l e g a l behaviour a l s o contain an element of deception, but an a r t i f i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n i s made h e r e , w i t h the f o r m e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n being l e s s subtle i n deception than the l a t t e r . A c o n s t e l l a t i o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h behaviour d i s t u r b i n g to the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of others i s another w h i c h i s evident.  Under this  g r o u p i n g , " d i s c o u r t e s y " r e f e r s to contraventions of r u l e s of etiquette, while "rudeness",  deemed a stronger c a t e g o r y , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h  behaving i n a m a n n e r d e l i b e r a t e l y offensive to o t h e r s .  " V i o l a t i o n of  p r i v a c y " m i g h t be l o o k e d upon as a s p e c i a l f o r m of r u d e n e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a k i n g oneself objectionable through i n t e r f e r e n c e or i n q u i r y r e g a r d i n g othersk l i v e s .  "Tactlessness" i s concerned with inadver-  tently putting others i n upsetting or e m b a r r a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n s . l a c k s the deliberate q u a l i t y of " r u d e n e s s " ,  This  as does "objectionable  b e h a v i o u r " , w h i c h r e f e r s to behaviour others find objectionable, but ;  w h i c h was not meant to be objectionable by the p e r p e t r a t o r the behaviour i s c o n t r o l l a b l e . "tactlessness",  although  The l a t t e r i s stronger i n tone than  but i s not as strong as " r u d e n e s s " ,  a c c o r d i n g to  the p r e s e n t d e f i n i t i o n s . Such categories as " i n g r a t i t u d e " , "poor i n f l u e n c e " , "stubbornness",  " i m p a t i e n c e " , and " n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n " a r e a l l c o n -  c e r n e d w i t h m a n n e r s or ways of dealing w i t h other p e r s o n s ,  with  "poor i n f l u e n c e " and " d o m i n a t i o n " being at the m o r e s e r i o u s end of the continuum and " s t u b b o r n n e s s " on the m i l d e r end, as far as  -  99  -  d e l e t e r i o u s effects such behaviour m i g h t have on others a r e c o n c e r n e d . B e h a v i o u r that i s m a l i c i o u s w i t h r e g a r d to o t h e r s i s i n c l u d e d i n the group c o n c e r n e d w i t h " e n v y " , " s l a n d e r " , and " d e f a m a t i o n " . C a t e g o r i e s w h i c h have elements of default m i g h t a l s o be grouped together.  " N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s " and "non-  f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s " i m p l y default r e g a r d i n g these f o r m s of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e .  " N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t o f . p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s " has  r e f e r e n c e to not l i v i n g up to one's own standards of b e h a v i o u r .  "Avoid-  ing b l a m e " r e f e r s to the avoidance of taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for w r o n g doing o r e r r o r , w h i l e " b r e a k i n g p r o m i s e s " c o n c e r n s default w i t h r e g a r d to one's w o r d . A n o t h e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e s those p e r t a i n i n g to v a n i t y .  The "showing off" category i s a g e n e r a l one r e l a t e d  to e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c b e h a v i o u r , w h i l e " b o a s t i n g " r e f e r s to showing off i n a verbal manner.  "Snobbery" i m p l i e s a h i g h degree of v a n i t y , t h i n k i n g  o n e s e l f to be s u p e r i o r . . A t the other end of the s c a l e ,  "embarrassment"  p e r t a i n s to a l o s s of p r i d e or vanity of t e m p o r a r y d u r a t i o n , w h i l e " l o s s of self r e s p e c t " contains a feeling of e m b a r r a s s m e n t but i s of l o n g e r d u r a t i o n , c o n c e r n i n g l o n g - t e r m damage to the s e l f - i m a g e or to i m a g e s of those w i t h whom one i d e n t i f i e s .  "Poor personal attri-  b u t e s " has r e f e r e n c e to those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e found damaging to one's vanity i n a p e r m a n e n t ,  unchangeable w a y .  " E r r o r " , "ignor-  a n c e " and " f a i l u r e " a r e a l s o damaging to v a n i t y i n d i f f e r i n g w a y s : through m a k i n g a m i s t a k e , through not knowing what to do, and through f a i l i n g to achieve a set s t a n d a r d .  -  100 -  T h e r e a r e m a n y c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h have an u n d e r l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l a c k of c o n c e r n for the w e l l - b e i n g of o t h e r s . " I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " r e f e r s to the c o m m i s s i o n of acts that m a y h a r m others, while "indifference",  being m o r e p a s s i v e i n n a t u r e , shows  a l a c k of c o n c e r n for the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of o t h e r s .  "Negligence" is  h a r s h e r , w i t h a sense of "active p a s s i v i t y " or of d i r e c t l y  refraining  f r o m doing something w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y to save others f r o m being harmed.  " C a r e l e s s n e s s " i s a m i l d e r f o r m of " i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ,  " u n k i n d n e s s " , l i k e " i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , i s a c t i v e , but differs f r o m this c a t e g o r y i n being m o r e d e l i b e r a t e , the consequences of the act being in mind.  " I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " m a y be thoughtless w h i l e " u n k i n d n e s s "  is usually deliberate.  " C r u e l t y to a n i m a l s " i s s i m i l a r but has  r e f e r e n c e only to a n i m a l s and i n c l u d e s such actions as k i l l i n g and injuring. A feeling of s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n i s e n t a i l e d i n another constellation,  such as i n " d i s o b e d i e n c e " w h i c h r e f e r s to being r e b e l -  l i o u s w i t h r e g a r d to the c o m m a n d s of o t h e r s , and " d i s l o y a l t y " w h i c h r e f e r s to a r e b e l l i o n against a l l e g i a n c e to other p e r s o n s or  institutions.  " D i s r e s p e c t " i s m i l d e r than " d i s l o y a l t y " , r e f e r r i n g to r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t showing esteem due to o t h e r s , w h i l e " i m p i e t y " e n t a i l s r e b e l l i o n against standard r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s or against the r e v e r e n c e w h i c h should be shown. L i m i t a t i o n s w i t h i n the self a r e found i n another group of categories.  "Over-indulgence",  " w a s t e f u l n e s s " , and " l a c k of self  c o n t r o l " are those w h i c h designate l a c k of d i s c i p l i n e w i t h r e g a r d to  - 101 -  the self.  T h i s l a c k i s shown i n a m i l d e r way i n " f o r g e t f u l n e s s " ,  "tardiness",  " p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n " and " l a c k of e f f o r t " w h i c h u s u a l l y  r e f e r to "not a c t i n g " r a t h e r than to " a c t i n g " i n an u n d i s c i p l i n e d manner.  L a c k of d i s c i p l i n e w i t h r e g a r d to p e r s o n a l habits a r e  shown i n " u n c l e a n n e s s " and " u n t i d i n e s s " .  L i m i t a t i o n s w i t h i n the  s e l f a r e a l s o shown i n the m o r e g e n e r a l category of " w e a k n e s s " and i n the s t r o n g e r - t o n e d " c o w a r d i c e " . " S e x " and " l u s t " are two c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d to the sexual d r i v e , but " l u s t " i s the stronger of the two. It m u s t be e m p h a s i z e d that these c o n s t e l l a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d only upon a subjective a p p r a i s a l of the p r o c e s s e s  undergone  d u r i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s .  constel-  Through statistical means,  l a t i o n s of c a t e g o r i e s m i g h t prove to be made up of different g r o u p s . Elements  within  Categories  In a m o r e g e n e r a l w a y , the c a t e g o r i e s m a y have to the self, to other p e r s o n s , to i n s t i t u t i o n s , or to objects.  reference  Also,  m o r a l concepts can be r e l a t e d to doing the w r o n g t h i n g , to doing nothing at a l l or r e f r a i n i n g f r o m doing s o m e t h i n g , and to not doing the r i g h t t h i n g .  Whether behaviour i s d e l i b e r a t e or unintentional  and a c c i d e n t a l i s another f a c t o r .  A p e r s o n m a y f e e l g u i l t y about  h a v i n g done something h i m s e l f , h a v i n g been caught doing something or having h i s m i s b e h a v i o u r pointed out to h i m , or on seeing the faults or m i s b e h a v i o u r of o t h e r s .  Behaviour arousing conscience  twinges m a y be i n i t i a t e d by oneself, or can be i n i t i a t e d by o t h e r s w i t h the p e r s o n i n v o l v e d because of the actions of o t h e r s . c o n s c i e n c e feelings m a y be such elements as g u i l t , s h a m e , embarrassment,  Underlying fear,  r e m o r s e , c h a g r i n e , i n d i g n a t i o n , or s e l f - c r i t i c i s m .  - 102 -  C o n s c i e n c e i t e m s can a l s o be b r o k e n down into those contraventions of m o r a l concepts w h i c h are spoken, those w h i c h a r e h e a r d , those w h i c h a r e p e r f o r m e d , those w h i c h a r e thought, and those w h i c h a r e felt.  These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e a l s o made after subjective e x a m i n a t i o n  of the data s u b m i t t e d . Comparison  with  other  Studies  It i s of i n t e r e s t to c o m p a r e the data i n t h i s study, and the c a t e g o r i e s u s e d , w i t h the i t e m s and c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n other studies by W a c k (112) and by F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t (44).| B a s i s for c o m p a r i s o n w i l l be the range of m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n e a c h , and the m a i n content.  In o r d e r to a i d this c o m p a r i s o n , the items,  f r o m each of these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been c a t e g o r i z e d along w i t h the i t e m s contributed to this study and a r e l i s t e d along w i t h the c o l l e c t e d i t e m s i n each r e l e v a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  A n identifying m a r k of  " H " for F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t s i t e m s and of " W " for W a c k ' s f  i t e m s has been p l a c e d beside the r e s p e c t i v e i t e m s .  T a b l e 2 shows  the n u m b e r of i t e m s f r o m each s c a l e i n each c a t e g o r y a c c o r d i n g to the p r e s e n t s y s t e m .  It can be seen that there i s g r e a t i m b a l a n c e i n  the content of these f o r m e r s c a l e s , w i t h one c a t e g o r y g i v e n g r e a t e m p h a s i s and another a r e a of c o n s c i e n c e f e e l i n g not r e p r e s e n t e d at all, F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t ' s s c a l e has 110 i t e m s of c o n s c i e n c e i m p o r t w h i c h they have c l a s s i f i e d under e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s e n t i t l e d : honesty, l o y a l t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , m i s c e l l a n e o u s taboos, kindliness, cleanliness, m o r a l courage, r e l i g i o n , s e l f - c o n t r o l ,  -  TAB L E 2 .  103  DISTRIBUTION O F ITEMS F R O M OTHER CONSCIENCE SCALES UNDER THE PRESENT CATEGORIES  Categories  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.  Anger Avarice Avoiding blame Boasting Breaking promises Carelessness Cheating Cowardice C r u e l t y to A n i m a l s Deception Defamation De s t r u c t i vene s s Discourtesy Dishonesty Disloyalty Disobedience Disrespect Domination Embarrassment Failure Favouritism I l l e g a l behaviour Impatience Impiety Indifference Injuring . Irre sponsibility Killing L a c k of effort L o s s of s e l f c o n t r o l L o s s of s e l f r e s p e c t Lust Lying Negligence Non-cooperation N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of p e r s o n a l obligations  Friedenberg & Havighurst 2  Scales  Wack  -  3 1  -•  1  2 1 2 2 7 1 1 5  -  1 3 9 4 2 1 3  -  3 1 10 1 1 i_  1 4 1  3 1 3 1 3 3 2 3  1 2 32 2 4 2 2 1  -  8 1 1  3  1  -  1  3  -  T A B L E  2.  -  103a  Continued  Categories  37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.  -  N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l expectations N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l obligations Objectionable behaviour P o o r influence Prejudice Selfishness Sex Slander Stealing Striking Tardiness Uncleanne s s Unfairne s s Unkindness Untidiness V i o l a t i o n of P r i v a c y Wastefulness Weakness Withholding i n f o r m a t i o n  Scales Friedenberg & Havighurst  Wack  1  3  4 1 1 2 1 2 1 5  5  1 3 4 3 1 4 1  4 16 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1  - 104 -  e g o - i d e a l and a u t h o r i t y .  When r e c l a s s i f i e d under the p r e s e n t s y s t e m  f o r t y - t h r e e of the seventy-five c a t e g o r i e s a r e c o v e r e d , as i s shown i n Table 2. W a c k ' s two s c a l e s contain 123 i t e m s c l a s s i f i e d under five headings i n one scale and ten i n the o t h e r , v i z . , to w o r s h i p G o d , to r e s p e c t G o d , to keep the Sabbath Day and to w o r k s i x days a week, to honour a u t h o r i t y , to r e s p e c t l i f e , to love c h a s t i t y , to be j u s t , to r e s p e c t honour and t r u t h (which contain the dictates of the T e n C o m m a n d m e n t s ) , and those p e r t a i n i n g to G o d , f a m i l y , p r o p e r t y , and s o c i e t y .  sex,  U n d e r the p r e s e n t s y s t e m of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h i r t y - s i x  c a t e g o r i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , as i s shown i n Table 2 . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n i n d i c a t e s that the p r e s e n t type of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s m u c h m o r e s e n s i t i v e than has been u s e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , and a l l o w s for better a n a l y s i s of the p r i n c i p l e s . Of the two p r e v i o u s s c a l e s , that of F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t has the b r o a d e r range of i t e m s , w i t h a l m o s t s i x t y per cent of the c a t e g o r i e s brought under e x a m i n a t i o n .  H o w e v e r , there s t i l l r e m a i n s untouched a l a r g e  a r e a of conscience f e e l i n g . Some of the differences i n the a r e a s studied by these two e a r l i e r s c a l e s m a y be a function of the group for w h i c h the t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d and upon w h i c h i t was s t a n d a r d i z e d .  F r i e d e n b e r g and  H a v i g h u r s t intended t h e i r scale to be u s e d on young p e r s o n s of s c h o o l age and so ^theyrwere not c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s of " l u s t " or other such adult p r o b l e m s .  H o w e v e r , the scale d i d not put m u c h e m p h a s i s  on l y i n g , w h i c h , along w i t h s t e a l i n g , has been t e r m e d by W o o l f (116)  -  105  -  as one of c h i l d h o o d ' s g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m s .  W a c k ' s s c a l e , on the  other hand, s e e m s to put an a l m o s t undue e m p h a s i s on three m a t t e r s : " s e x " , " l u s t " , and " i m p i e t y " . It then a p p e a r s that u s i n g a l i m i t e d group on w h i c h to standardize such a scale p l a c e s definite l i m i t s on the a r e a s i n c l u d e d . U s i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n as a b a s i s for a scale a l s o i m p a r t s too g r e a t l i m i t a t i o n s . Such b a s e s r e s u l t i n an i m b a l a n c e d scale w i t h o v e r - e m p h a s i s on c e r t a i n a r e a s and neglect of o t h e r s .  The n e g l e c t e d a r e a s m a y be v e r y i m p o r t a n t  ones w h i l e the o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d ones m a y be r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . Such cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d , h o w e v e r , u n t i l a scale of w i d e r range and better balance i s a d m i n i s t e r e d to s i m i l a r groups and the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n of conscience content i s a s c e r t a i n e d for each g r o u p . The tapping of c o n s c i e n c e - f e e l i n g s i n r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s i s of l i t t l e value w i t h such an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o c e s s as c o n s c i e n c e or m o r a l a w a r e n e s s , but this i s not the only l i m i t a t i o n of the content of these s c a l e s .  A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n l i e s i n the apparent v i e w p o i n t  f r o m w h i c h the i t e m s are d r a w n .  T h e r e i s , s e e m i n g l y , an e m p h a s i s  on m a t t e r s that a u t h o r i t i e s would frown on i n t h e i r subordinates than on those i n d i v i d u a l s m i g h t f e e l w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s .  rather  T h i s facts i s  brought out when the dominant c o n s t e l l a t i o n i n these two studies i s examined.  O n e - t h i r d of W a c k ' s i t e m s are c o n c e r n e d w i t h the c o n s t e l -  l a t i o n of " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " . O v e r twenty per cent of the i t e m s u s e d by F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the same c o n s t e l l a t i o n , although perhaps b a l a n c e d by a l m o s t equal attention to those c a t e g o r i e s p e r t a i n i n g to l i m i t a t i o n s of the self (which one m i g h t expect  -  106  -  to be l a r g e r since i t i n c l u d e s m o r e c a t e g o r i e s ) .  A s the " l i m i t a t i o n s  of the s e l f " c o n s t e l l a t i o n contains the c a t e g o r i e s of " u n c l e a n n e s s " and " u n t i d i n e s s " w h i c h m i g h t be l o o k e d upon as i m p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y r a t h e r than r e q u i r e m e n t s of the strong self by the younger p e r s o n s for whom this scale was designed, the p r o p o r t i o n of i t e m s r e l a t e d to " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " m i g h t be even h i g h e r than i s at f i r s t apparent i n the scale of F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t . A scale w h i c h taps such an a r e a as " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " m a y be i n c l i n e d to be m e a s u r i n g c o n f o r m i t y as w e l l as c o n s c i e n c e . H o w e v e r , a definite statement i n this r e g a r d cannot be made u n t i l a wide choice of conscience i t e m s i s offered to g r o u p s , a l l o w i n g the d i s c e r n m e n t of what does bother the c o n s c i e n c e of different  segments  of the population, by use of a scale b u i l t by e m p i r i c a l m e t h o d s . T h u s , the two p r e v i o u s attempts to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e have l i m i t a t i o n s both i n the range of content and i n the i m b a l a n c e of e m p h a s i s on c e r t a i n a r e a s .  A s c a l e , b u i l t on an e m p i r i c a l foundation,,  w i l l p a r t i a l l y o v e r c o m e these l i m i t a t i o n s by i t s avoidance of a s p e c i f i c philosophy or group as i t s b a s i s , and by i t s v i e w p o i n t of c o n s c i e n c e f r o m the " i n s i d e " through the c o n t r i b u t o r ' s i n t r o s p e c t i o n , r a t h e r than i m p o s e d f r o m the " o u t s i d e " by c o n s t r u c t o r s who have decided what other p e r s o n s should have on t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s . Achievement  of  Aims  It i s felt that the a i m of c o l l e c t i n g i t e m s e m p i r i c a l l y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e g a r d to p e r s o n a l situations w h i c h they could r e c a l l m a k i n g them feel guilty h a s , i n p a r t , been a c h i e v e d .  Those  - , 107  -  who w e r e w i l l i n g to c o - o p e r a t e i n this study s e e m e d to m a k e an honest effort to s e a r c h t h e i r own feelings for m a t e r i a l w h i c h w o u l d be h e l p f u l .  Judging by the i n t i m a t e and p e r s o n a l nature of some of  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s , the content of the i t e m s c o n t r i b u t e d suggests that f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d .  Indeed, the tone of m o s t of the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s was such that the i t e m s m i g h t a l m o s t be u s e d i n a " p r o j e c t i v e " sense. It i s a l s o thought that a f a i r l y wide range of c o n s c i e n c e and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s has been r e p r e s e n t e d .  H o w e v e r , there a r e  c e r t a i n w e a k n e s s e s i n the population c o v e r e d , but, i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , a w i d e r range of m a t e r i a l has been found. F r o m the v a r i e d amount of m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d , i t can be seen that twinges of c o n s c i e n c e appear i n a wide range of a r e a s , and those w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e one i n d i v i d u a l m a y differ c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m those of another.  It m a y be s a i d that this study i s not l i m i t e d to any  specififc r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u p , although i t i s , of c o u r s e , l i m i t e d to groups w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Whether the b r e a d t h of  m a t e r i a l could be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d by the a d d i t i o n of data f r o m either groups i s an open q u e s t i o n .  Chapter  SUMMARY  V  AND SUGGESTIONS  FOR  FURTHER  STUDY  T h i s study has been undertaken as an attempt to p r o v i d e the b a s i s for a t o o l n e c e s s a r y to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o n s c i e n c e and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s , w h i c h have not r e c e i v e d the attention they d e s e r v e by v i r t u e of t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e w i t h r e g a r d to p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m s .  In o r d e r to p r o v i d e a b a s i s for the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of such a t o o l , two m a i n t a s k s w e r e 1.  set:  To d e s c r i b e the p r i n c i p a l a r e a s of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and  conscience as r e f l e c t e d i n data obtained f r o m v a r i o u s groups of individuals. 2.  To draw out the unifying p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e i n to be u s e d as  a f r a m e w o r k for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of future s c a l e s to m e a s u r e conscience. In p e r f o r m i n g these t a s k s , the m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to be m e t w e r e that the data should be obtained f r o m as wide a p o r t i o n of the population as was obtainable, so that the b a s i s of any r e s u l t a n t scale w o u l d be e m p i r i c a l r a t h e r than a p r i o r i .  So  that the study i t s e l f w o u l d not be l i m i t e d by an a r b i t r a r y p r e conception of m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e , no d e f i n i t i o n of conscience was made .  C o n t r i b u t o r s w e r e not l i m i t e d i n t h e i r  i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g such feelings and c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r own notions b a s e d on t h e i r own f e e l i n g s .  -  109  A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the study of m o r a l p r o b l e m s has been m a d e , w i t h an e m p h a s i s on c o m p a r i s o n and contrast of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v i e w p o i n t s . Methods u s e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s have been d i s c u s s e d , as w e l l as the t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d to p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v i e w s on the ego and the e g o - i d e a l .  super-  V a r y i n g opinions w i t h r e g a r d to a s p e c t s  of m o r a l development, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and i n t e l l i g e n c e , age, s e x , delinquency and psychopathy, and t i m e have been among the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d , . S p e c i a l attention has been g i v e n to the two p r e v i o u s attempts to m e a s u r e c o n s c i e n c e by F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t (44) and by W a c k (112).  The  contributions of these s t u d i e s , and t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s have been e x a m i n e d , and c o m p a r i s o n s of t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s , a i m s , m e t h o d s , s c a l e s , and r e s u l t s have been m a d e . In d e s c r i b i n g the method u s e d i n the p r e s e n t study, e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d upon the m a n n e r i n w h i c h the data was c o l l e c t e d , the groups f r o m w h i c h they w e r e obtained, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s , and the f o r m u l a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s .  D a t a was  c o l l e c t e d by a s k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , chiefly through the use of a m i m e o g r a p h e d sheet, what made them, feel b a d .  Groups c o n t r i -  buting data i n c l u d e d both s e x e s , ages f r o m ten to m i d d l e age, both r u r a l and u r b a n groups w i t h a preponderance of u r b a n , and of v a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n s , w i t h a m a j o r i t y of students.  When no  e s s e n t i a l l y new m a t e r i a l could be obtained f r o m a v a i l a b l e g r o u p s , no further m a t e r i a l was s o l i c i t e d . The i t e m s c o l l e c t e d w e r e  then  - 110 -  judged for aptness of f i t , and s i m i l a r i t e m s w e r e d r a w n together under a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e .  In f o r m u l a t i n g g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , a  further check was made on the o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s . The c a t e g o r i e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d along the d i m e n s i o n of " B e h a v i o u r " , i . e . , the b a s i c a c t i v i t y u n d e r l y i n g the w r o n g - d o i n g , r a t h e r than the p e r s o n o r thing to whom i t was done or the setting i n w h i c h i t was done.  D e f i n i t i o n s of c a t e g o r i e s w e r e made i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s , but these a r e a r b i t r a r y and not to be thought of as d i s c r e t e a r e a s . A wide range of c o n s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l r e s u l t e d f r o m this procedure. r a w data.  A l t o g e t h e r , 944 p e r s o n s c o n t r i b u t e d 3,952 i t e m s i n the These w e r e n a r r o w e d down, because of d u p l i c a t i o n s , to  1,555 i t e m s .  F r o m this number of i t e m s e m e r g e d 760 g e n e r a l  p r i n c i p l e s under s e v e n t y - f i v e c a t e g o r i e s .  Items f r o m the s c a l e s of  F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t , and of W a c k , w e r e a l s o u t i l i z e d . Upon subjective a n a l y s i s of the data, c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s can be seen among some of the c a t e g o r i e s so that they can be thought of as different aspects of a b r o a d concept, or as points on a c o n t i n u u m . One of these a r e a s , w h i c h has been n a m e d " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " , s e e m s to c o m p r i s e the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of the content of p r e v i o u s c o n s c i e n c e scales.  H e n c e , the question a r i s e s whether c o n f o r m i t y i s m e a s u r e d  along with c o n s c i e n c e i n these s c a l e s . The scale contents of F r i e d e n b e r g and H a v i g h u r s t and of W a c k w e r e r e - c l a s s i f i e d into the findings of the p r e s e n t study, and f r o m c o m p a r i s o n s , i t was found that the range of these s c a l e s was  -  Ill  -  c o m p a r a t i v e l y n a r r o w , and that c e r t a i n sections tended to be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d w h i l e others w e r e o v e r - l o o k e d e n t i r e l y . When compared w i t h other s t u d i e s , i t i s felt that this study h a s , i n p a r t , been s u c c e s s f u l i n m a p p i n g out a b r o a d a r e a i n w h i c h m o r a l a w a r e n e s s and c o n s c i e n c e are e n t a i l e d .  Y e t , i t i s felt  that even m o r e a r e a s m i g h t come to l i g h t w e r e gaps i n the c o n t r i b u t i n g population f i l l e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to e l d e r l y p e r s o n s of both s e x e s , and to m e n i n the m i d d l e y e a r s . The p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have been f o r m u l a t e d m a y s e r v e as a f r a m e w o r k for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s suitable for various groups.  A l s o , i t i s hoped that others w i l l contribute further  p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a r e found to be pertinent to conscience and m o r a l a w a r e n e s s , u s i n g the m a t e r i a l now p r e s e n t e d as a foundation, r a t h e r than as a c o m p l e t e d s t r u c t u r e . The next step i n t r y i n g to b r e a k down the i g n o r a n c e c o n c e r n i n g conscience i s to a c t u a l l y c o n s t r u c t a scale on the f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e d , and to check i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y .  When a s a t i s f a c t o r y  scale has been b u i l t , i t i s hoped that some of the p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d i n the r e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be brought c l o s e r to a s o l u t i o n .  RE  1.  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A . et a l , E x p l o r a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l i t y , New Y o r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938.  92.  N u n b e r g , H . , The sense of g u i l t and the need for punishment, Int. J . P s y c h o - A n a l . , 1926, 7, 4 2 0 - 4 3 2 .  93.  P e a r s o n , G . H . , Some t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o , P s y c h o a n a l . R e v . , 1932, 19, 164-167.  94.  P i a g e t , J . , The M o r a l Judgment of the C h i l d , t r a n s . M . G a b a i n , L o n d o n , P a u l , T r e n c h T r u b n e r , 1932.  95.  P i e r s , G . , and S i n g e r , M . B . , Shame and G u i l t , S p r i n g f i e l d , C h a r l e s G . T h o m a s , 1953.  96.  P r e s s e y , S. L . and J o n e s , A . W . , 1923-1953 and 20 to 60 age changes i n m o r a l codes, a n x i e t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as shown by the " X - O " t e s t s , J . P s y c h o l . , 1955, 39, 4 8 5 - 5 0 2 .  97.  P r e s s e y , S. L . and K u h l e n , R . G . , P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t through the L i f e Span, New Y o r k , H a r p e r s , 1957, 43 6-5 05.  98.  R a u b e n h e i m e r , A . S. , A n e x p e r i m e n t a l study of some b e h a v i o u r t r a i t s of the p o t e n t i a l l y delinquent b o y s , P s y c h o l . M o n o g . , 1925, 3 4 , N o . 6  99.  R e i k , T . , M y t h and G u i l t , New Y o r k , G e o r g e B r a z i l l e r ,  1957.  100. R o s e n m a n , S. , B l a c k m a g i c and s u p e r - e g o f o r m a t i o n , P s y c h o a n a l . R e v . , 1956, 4 3 , 272-319. 101. S a c h s , H . , The f o r m a t i o n of the s u p e r - e g o i n w o m e n , Int. J . P s y c h o - A n a l . , 1929, 10, 3 9 - 5 0 . 102. S c h i m m e n t i , J . M . , M e c h a n i s m of the f o r m a t i o n of c o n s c i e n c e , J . a b n o r m . s o c . P s y c h o l . , 1936, 3 1 , 3 3 8 - 3 3 9 .  119  -  103.  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S z u r e k , S. , G e n e s i s of psychopathic p e r s o n a l i t y t r e n d s , P s y c h i a t r y , 1942, 5, 1-6.  110.  T h o m p s o n , G . C . , A g e t r e n d s i n s o c i a l v a l u e s d u r i n g the adolescent y e a r s , A m e r . P s y c h o l . , 1949, 4 , 250.  111.  V o e l k e r , P . F . , The function of i d e a l s and attitudes i n s o c i a l education, T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , c o n t r i b u t i o n s to education, New Y o r k , 1921, N o . 112.  112.  W a c k , D . J . , A p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of c o n s c i e n c e , Stud. P s y c h o l . P s y c h i a t . C a t h o l . U n i v e r . A m e r . , 1952, 8, N o . 3 .  113.  Webb, E . , C h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y , B r i t . J . P s y c h o l . M o n o g . S u p p . , 1915, 3 .  114.  W h i t l o w , C . M . , A t t i t u d e s and behaviour of h i g h s c h o o l students, A m e r . J . S o c i o l . , 1935* 4 0 , 4 8 9 - 4 9 4 .  115.  W o l f e n s t e i n , M . , V a r i a n t s i n m o r a l t r a i n i n g , The P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Study of the C h i l d , N e w Y o r k , International U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1950, 5, 3 1 0 - 3 2 8 .  116.  Woolf, M . , The c h i l d ' s m o r a l development, i n K . R . E i s s l e r , ed. , S e a r c h l i g h t s on D e l i n q u e n c y , International U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1949, 2 6 3 - 2 7 2 .  117.  Z i l b o o r g , G . , C l i n i c a l v a r i a n t s of m o r a l v a l u e s , A m e r . J . P s y c h i a t . , 1950, 106, 7 4 4 - 7 4 7 .  -  DATA  118. 119.  120  -  REFERENCES  A l l England Law Reports, E t h i c a l Standards of P s y c h o l o g i s t s , A s s o c i a t i o n , 1953.  The A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l  -  121  -  APPENDIX  DEFINITIONS  OF  A  CATEGORIES  - 122 -  APPENDIX  A  Definitions A n g e r - to have feelings of a g g r e s s i o n of t e m p o r a r y d u r a t i o n , not e x p r e s s e d p h y s i c a l l y but m a y i n c l u d e w e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s of a n g e r . A r g u i n g - to take p a r t i n v e r b a l contention, d i s a g r e e m e n t , or a r g u m e n t  dispute  A v a r i c e - to be i m m o d e r a t e l y d e s i r o u s of a c c u m u l a t i n g p o w e r , wealth or p r o p e r t y A v o i d i n g B l a m e - to escape o r a v o i d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a c t i o n s ; o r to p e r m i t another to accept the blame for one's a c t i o n s B o a s t i n g - to speak h i g h l y of oneself o r to a l l o w e x a g g e r a t e d , f l a t t e r i n g statements to be made w i t h r e g a r d to oneself B r e a k i n g P r o m i s e s - to v i o l a t e a v e r b a l c o m m i t t m e n t e i t h e r by a p o s i t i v e act c o n t r a r y to p r o m i s e o r by neglect or n o n f u l f i l l m ent B r i b e r y - to i n c i t e another to w r o n g - d o i n g through offer of g a i n C a r e l e s s n e s s - to behave i n an u n t h i n k i n g , inattentive m a n n e r w h i c h leads to u n d e s i r a b l e consequences Cheating - to v i o l a t e p r o s c r i b e d r u l e s of conduct for personal g a i n ; to v i o l a t e the r u l e s of f a i r play C o w a r d i c e - to fear exposing oneself to danger or to c r i t i c i s m i n situations where there i s an o b l i g a t i o n o r expectation to a c t . C r u e l t y to A n i m a l s - to cause any u n n e c e s s a r y p a i n or d i s t r e s s to a n i m a l s , and m a y i n c l u d e k i l l i n g D e c e p t i o n - to defraud another through any t r i c k , underhand p r a c t i c e or m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n D e f a m a t i o n - to engage i n g o s s i p or c r i t i c i s m w h i c h , though b a s e d on fact, m a y m a l i g n a n o t h e r ' s r e p u t a t i o n D e s t r u c t i v e n e s s - to act so as to d e s t r o y , r u i n or m a r the usefulness of anything D i s c o u r t e s y - to not f u l f i l l o r to b r e a k the r u l e s of etiquette  -  123  -  D i s h o n e s t y - to a c q u i r e , without d e s i r e o r intent, something belonging to another, and r e t a i n i t D i s l o y a l t y - to show neglect or t r e a c h e r y to p e r s o n s or i n s t i t u t i o n s to whom support i s owed D i s o b e d i e n c e - to refuse to c a r r y out a c o m m a n d or to do something i n v i o l a t i o n of what has been o r d e r e d D i s r e s p e c t - to show a l a c k of r e v e r e n c e or esteem t o w a r d someone to whom such i s due D o m i n a t i o n S to be o v e r b e a r i n g , " b o s s y " , d i c t a t o r i a l o r o p p r e s s i v e w i t h r e g a r d to another E m b a r r a s s m e n t - to find oneself i n an a w k w a r d p o s i t i o n through c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond one's c o n t r o l , w i t h a t e m p o r a r y effect only E n v y - to be d i s p l e a s e d about someone e l s e ' s s u c c e s s , or b e l o n g i n g s , a c c o m p a n i e d by some degree of m a l i c e -  E r r o r - to find out that one i s m i s t a k e n i n thought or deed F a i l u r e - to be u n s u c c e s s f u l at some u n d e r t a k i n g , a c c o r d i n g to exterior criterion F a v o u r i t i s m - to favour one p e r s o n ' s i n t e r e s t s to the neglect of others h a v i n g equal c l a i m s F o r g e t f u l n e s s - to f a i l to r e m e m b e r to do something H a r s h n e s s - to be o v e r l y severe i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s H a t i n g - to have a m o r b i d d i s l i k e or e x t r e m e r e s e n t m e n t , u s u a l l y of l a s t i n g q u a l i t y H y p o c r i s y - to feign to be what one i s not; a deception as to r e a l c h a r a c t e r and feeling Ignorance - to show l a c k of knowledge I l l e g a l B e h a v i o u r ( M i s c e l l a n e o u s ) - to c o m m i t acts c o n t r a r y to l a w , other than those acts s p e c i f i e d i n other c a t e g o r i e s Impatience - to be i r r i t a b l e and r e s t l e s s due to d e l a y s , or i n a b i l i t y to deal w i t h others  obstacles  I m p i e t y - to show a g e n e r a l l a c k of r e v e r e n c e t o w a r d things u s u a l l y h e l d s a c r e d , a c c o r d i n g to one's r e l i g i o n  - 124  -  Indifference - to behave i n a m a n n e r showing a l a c k of c o n c e r n for the w e l l - b e i n g of oneself o r others Ingratitude - to show i n s e n s i b i l i t y to favours and i n d i s p o s i t i o n to repay them Injuring - to i n j u r e a p e r s o n i n any p h y s i c a l m a n n e r or to think of doing so Injustice - to v i o l a t e the r i g h t s of others that have been e s t a b l i s h e d by l a w or c o m m o n consent Intolerance - to be so f i r m l y attached to an i d e a or opinion that i t leads to the e x c l u s i o n of c o n t r a r y v i e w s I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - to p e r f o r m actions without due r e g a r d for c o n sequences K i l l i n g - to take the life of any p e r s o n , or to contemplate s u c h a c t s L a c k of E f f o r t - to f a i l to expend sufficient effort to a c c o m p l i s h one's a i m s ; through l a z i n e s s , to be i n d i s p o s e d to a c t i o n or e x e r t i o n L o s s of S e l f - C o n t r o l - to f a i l to e x e r c i s e r e s t r a i n t over one's feelings or actions L o s s of S e l f - R e s p e c t - to have one's self i m a g e damaged by the actions of oneself or of others w i t h whom one feels identified L y i n g - to utter a falsehood w i t h the intent to m i s l e a d L u s t - to c o m m i t sexual i n t e r c o u r s e , or have d e s i r e for s u c h , i n a manner which i s considered socially i r r e g u l a r N e g l i g e n c e - to f a i l to do something h a v i n g the d i r e c t r e s u l t that someone i s h a r m e d N o n - c o o p e r a t i o n - to f a i l to do one's share i n an effort of a group to w h i c h one b e l o n g s , or i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h others N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of S o c i a l E x p e c t a t i o n s - to a v o i d or refuse p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group or i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n v o l v e no obligations to p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n s N o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of S o c i a l O b l i g a t i o n s - to a v o i d or refuse duties o r obligations w i t h r e g a r d to p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n s or to contractual relationships  -  125  -  Objectionable B e h a v i o u r - to have c o n t r o l l a b l e habits or p e r s o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s w h i c h are annoying to others O v e r i n d u l g e n c e - to be e x c e s s i v e i n s a t i s f y i n g one's appetites P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s - to have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h have a poor or m i s l e a d i n g i m p r e s s i o n on o t h e r s but w h i c h cannot be r e c t i f i e d P e r s o n a l O b l i g a t i o n s - to f a i l to l i v e up to one's own standards w h i c h have i m p o r t for no one but oneself P o o r Influence - to m i s b e h a v e i n such a way as to influence o t h e r s i n an u n d e s i r a b l e o r h a r m f u l way; o r to encourage p o o r b e h a v i o u r i n others P r e j u d i c e - to have a negative b i a s towards an i n d i v i d u a l b a s e d on h i s m e m b e r s h i p i n a r e l i g i o u s or ethnic group P r o c r a s t i n a t i o n - to put off doing s o m e t h i n g , through i n d e c i s i o n or c o n f l i c t , that should be done Rudeness - to d e l i b e r a t e l y a c t i n a m a n n e r offensive to the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of o t h e r s S e l f i s h n e s s - to e x c l u s i v e l y c o n s i d e r one's own i n t e r e s t s o r h a p p i n e s s r e g a r d l e s s of that of o t h e r s ; to be i n f l u e n c e d i n actions s o l e l y by a v i e w to p r i v a t e advantage; to do nothing except for p e r s o n a l gain Sex - to engage i n s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s , thoughts or d e s i r e s , e x c l u d i n g a c t u a l sexual i n t e r c o u r s e Showing Off - to c a l l attention to oneself through one's a c t i o n s ; exhibitioni sm S l a n d e r - to i n j u r e someone by u t t e r i n g a f a l s e r e p o r t w i t h m a l i c i o u s intent Snobbery - to act i n a m a n n e r intended to i m p r e s s o t h e r s w i t h one's s u p e r i o r i t y Stealing - to take c l a n d e s t i n e l y without p e r m i s s i o n f r o m o t h e r s S t r i k i n g - to h i t , slap or s t r i k e others Stubbornness - to have a c t i v e , u n r e a s o n a b l e , or s u l l e n r e s i s t a n c e to the p r o p o s a l s or i n f l u e n c e s of o t h e r s  -  126  -  T a c t l e s s n e s s - to i n a d v e r t e n t l y show a l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p r o p e r thing to say or do, thus m a k i n g others feel a w k w a r d or upset T a r d i n e s s - to be late o r not be on t i m e a c c o r d i n g to p r e v i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t s or custom U n c l e a n n e s s - to be d i r t y or u n s a n i t a r y about one's p e r s o n a l belongings or situations U n f a i r n e s s - to show l a c k of equity i n r e l a t i o n to c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; to take advantage of others U n k i n d n e s s - to show a l a c k of t e n d e r n e s s or goodness of h e a r t U n t i d i n e s s - to l a c k neatness and o r d e r V i o l a t i o n of P r i v a c y - to meddle i n the p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s of o t h e r s without i n v i t a t i o n ; to r e v e a l confidential i n f o r m a t i o n Wastefulness - to d i s c a r d or m i s u s e things that could be u s e d to better advantage Weakness - to have feelings of inadequacy; to l a c k p e r s e v e r a n c e ; to quit; as they r e l a t e to the n o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of t a s k s or expectations W i t h h o l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n - to h o l d b a c k or r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , news o r facts to the d e t r i m e n t of someone else  127  APPENDIX  ITEMS  AND  B  PRINCIPLES  128 -  ANGER Principle No.  Items  1 1 12 12 3  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  10 2 3  6. 7. 8.  3 4  9. 10.  3 7  11. 12.  6 5 7 9 8 11 3 1 13 14 13 15 13 15  13, 14. 15, H16. H17. W 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. W23. W24. 25. 26.  lose m y t e m p e r w i t h someone younger get a n g r y and s t a r t shouting at younger c h i l d r e n become a n g r y lose m y temper without thinking l a s h out v i o l e n t l y at someone who has an opinion c o n t r a r y to m i n e get m a d at a joke i n s t e a d of taking it get m a d at someone when they h u r t me a c c i d e n t l y say something unkind and rude to m y parents i n a fit of anger say something i n anger w h i c h I l a t e r r e g r e t p u r p o s e l y say something i n anger w h i c h i s designed to hurt a person snap at someone out of anger snap at someone when a n g r y about something they have had nothing to do w i t h get m a d and swear lose m y temper over a s m a l l matter get m a d at m y f r i e n d without cause l o s e m y t e m p e r i n a game because m y side was l o s i n g get m a d when m y friends c r i t i c i z e me c u r s e m y neighbour l o s e m y temper and say something I shouldn't be i m p a t i e n t and c r o s s w i t h c h i l d r e n make m y m o t h e r m a d have someone get a n g r y at me cause those subject to m e to become a n g r y cause those i n a u t h o r i t y to become a n g r y c o n t i n u a l l y provoke those under m y charge to become a n g r y r e p e a t e d l y provoke m y teacher to anger by the questions I ask  -  129  -  ANGER Item  No .  Principles  1,2,20  1.  become a n g r y w i t h someone younger  7  2.  get m a d at someone for something they couldn't  5, 8 , 9 , 11, 19  3.  say something i n anger I l a t e r r e g r e t  10  4.  p u r p o s e l y h u r t a n o t h e r ' s feelings when a n g r y  14  5.  lose m y temper over a s m a l l matter  13  6.  get m a d and swear  12, 15  7.  get m a d at someone for something they didn' t do  17  H  8.  get m a d when c r i t i c i z e d  16  H  9.  get m a d when i n d i f f i c u l t i e s  18  W 10.  c u r s e someone i n anger  6  11.  get m a d at a joke instead of taking i t  3,4  12.  become a n g r y  23, 25  13..  m a k e someone subject to me a n g r y  22  14.  have someone become a n g r y w i t h me  21, 24  15.  make someone i n a u t h o r i t y a n g r y  130  -  ARGUING Principle No. 1 2 2 6 3 4 4 5  Items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Item N o .  q u a r r e l o v e r things that a r e r e a l l y m y fault have an a r g u m e n t w i t h someone q u a r r e l w i t h someone have a fight w i t h parents and leave home get into an argument on the s t r e e t fight someone get into a fight have many fights or q u a r r e l s w i t h those a r o u n d me  Principles  1  1.  q u a r r e l o v e r things that a r e r e a l l y m y fault  2, 3  2.  have an a r g u m e n t w i t h someone  5  3.  get into an a r g u m e n t i n p u b l i c  6,7  4.  get into a fight  8  5.  have, many fights or q u a r r e l s w i t h f r i e n d s or associates  4  6.  leave home because of a q u a r r e l  AVARICE Principle No.  Items  1  1.  2  2.  3 4 5  W  3. 4. 5.  Item N o .  t a l k a c u s t o m e r into buying m o r e of a p r o d u c t than he n e e d s , for m y own p r o f i t take advantage of a person^s desperate c i r c u m stances i n o r d e r to get cheap l a b o u r feel a d e s i r e for a lot of m a t e r i a l goods s t r i v e e x c e s s i v e l y to obtain the e s t e e m of another for p e r s o n a l gain be too greedy  Principles  1  1.  persuade someone to do something by w h i c h I alone w i l l gain  2  2.  take advantage of someone's m i s f o r t u n e s for p e r s o n a l gain  3  3.  4  W 4.  5  5.  f e e l a d e s i r e for a l o t of m a t e r i a l goods unduly s t r i v e to gain favour of another for p e r sonal gain be too greedy  -  AVOIDING  Principle No. 1. 2. 3. 4.  2  5.  2  6.  6  7.  6  8.  2  9.  3  10.  5  11.  1  12.  5  13.  5 6  14. 15.  6 9  16. 17.  7 3 8  18. 19. 20.  10 6  B L A M E  Item  1 3 4 3  5 5  132  21. H 22. 23. H 24.  l e t someone; take m y punishment blame something I d i d on someone else be b l a m e d for something when i t i s not m y fault i n o r d e r to save face before a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n who means m u c h to me I place the b l a m e for something I d i d on someone else make an e r r o r i n some w o r k and allow someone else to be b l a m e d for i t l e t some m i s t a k e be b l a m e d on m y s i s t e r because she i s too young to understand i n o r d e r to save m y s e l f f r o m reprimand damage a b o r r o w e d a r t i c l e and r e t u r n it without t e l l i n g of the damage, hoping it would not be n o t i c e d u n t i l a l a t e r date break s o m e t h i n g I have b o r r o w e d and then r e t u r n it without l e t t i n g the owner know it was damaged have made a s e r i o u s m i s t a k e for w h i c h m y s u p e r i o r w h o m I d i s l i k e has been b l a m e d and w i l l l i k e l y lose his job and I say nothing a c c i d e n t l y b r e a k one of m y m o t h e r ' s antiques, and f e a r i n g h e r anger, pretend I a m innocent and i m p l y that a younger b r o t h e r p r o b a b l y d i d i t be i n v o l v e d i n a m i n o r auto a c c i d e n t due to m y own c a r e l e s s n e s s but i n s i s t that I was not to blame be to blame i n a m o t o r accident but the other d r i v e r was confused and w i l l i n g to accept the blame refuse to a d m i t I was at fault for an a c c i d e n t i n o r d e r to a v o i d c o m p l i c a t i o n s , although I know I a m at fault break a window and not take blame for it dent the fender of another c a r on the p a r k i n g l o t and no one saw me so I d i d not r e p o r t i t i n a d v e r t e n t l y damage a p a r k e d c a r , and be undetected be one of a whole group that i s being punished for something I have done and do not admit m y guilt get away w i t h anything bad blame s o m eone else for m y own m i s t a k e get the blame for what someone else had done and they w o u l d not a d m i t i t hit a p e r s o n and say I n e v e r be a f r a i d to a d m i t that I had been w i t h m y c r o w d when they were b l a m e d for something have a c l o s e f r i e n d who has c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e for w h i c h someone else i s to be punished and they do not confess b r e a k something that belongs to someone else and not t e l l them about it  - 133 -  AVOIDING Item N o .  B L A M E  Principles  I , 12  1.  l e t someone e l s e take m y punishment  5, 6, 9  2.  l e t someone e l s e be b l a m e d for something I d i d  2 , 4 , 10, 19  3.  blame something I d i d on someone else  3  4.  be b l a m e d for something when it i s not m y fault  I I , 13, 14, 21 5. 22  not a d m i t when I have done something w r o n g  7, 8, 15, 16, 24 6. c o n c e a l that I have done something w r o n g 18  7.  get away w i t h anything bad  20  8.  be b l a m e d for something someone else has done  17  9.  23  10.  allow a whole group, i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f , to be punished for something I have done, but not a d m i t m y g u i l t know of someone a l l o w i n g another to take t h e i r p u n i s h ment  -  134  -  BOASTING  Principle No.  Item  2  1.  boast of something and have someone c o r r e c t me  1  2.  boast of m y playing a b i l i t y  3  3.  do nothing to halt exaggerated statements that are being made about m y a b i l i t y  4  W4.  1  5.  Item No  t e l l of m y s e x u a l e x p l o i t s t e l l m y c h i l d r e n that I c o u l d i n s t r u c t them m o r e ably than t h e i r teacher can  Principle  2, 5  1.  boast of something I think I a m good at  1  2.  boast of something and have someone c o r r e c t me  3  3.  not stop someone else f r o m boasting about me  4  W4.  boast of i n t i m a t e m a t t e r s .  135  BREAKING  Principle No.  -  PROMISES  Item  1 1 2 4 4 2  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  5  7.  3  8.  1 4 6  9. H10. 11.  2  12.  1  13.  7  14.  p r o m i s e and then find I could not keep the p r o m i s e make a p r o m i s e and not keep i t b r e a k a p r o m i s e to a c h i l d b r e a k a p r o m i s e to m y s i s t e r stay out l o n g e r at night than I s a i d I w o u l d p r o m i s e to t e a c h m y c h i l d to p l a y the p i a n o , but soon l o s e i n t e r e s t and stop teaching h i m f a i l to give a p e r s o n a l l the help I h a d p r o m i s e d when I knew he needed help i n the w o r s t way not be i n a p o s i t i o n to i m m e d i a t e l y c a r r y out a p r o m i s e made to a p e r s o n who was dying and i n fact doubt that I w o u l d e v e r be able to c a r r y i t out say I w i l l do something and then not do i t not keep a p r o m i s e g i v e n to m y father or m o t h e r be caught by m y p a r e n t s i n the act of s m o k i n g when I had p r o m i s e d not to smoke u n t i l I was 21 not get the a p p r o v a l of the r e s t of m y f a m i l y to p r o v i d e a home for a foster c h i l d that I h a d p r o m i s e d to h e l p t e l l someone y o u w i l l go somewhere w i t h them and then something comes up and y o u change y o u r m i n d neglect or b r e a k a p r o m i s e even though c o s t l y to m y s e l f  -  BREAKING  Item  No.  136  -  PROMISES  Principle  1, 2, 9, 13  1.  make a p r o m i s e and not keep it  3, 6, 12  2.  b r e a k a p r o m i s e to a c h i l d  8  3.  b r e a k a p r o m i s e made to a dying p e r s o n  4, 5, 10  4.  b r e a k a p r o m i s e made to m y f a m i l y  7  5.  not keep a p r o m i s e to someone who i s depending on it  11  6.  be caught i n the act of b r e a k i n g a p r o m i s e  7.  b r e a k a p r o m i s e even though c o s t l y to m y s e l f  14  -  137  -  BRIBERY Item have an e m p l o y e r who had a s k e d me to do something u n e t h i c a l and had g i v e n me a r a i s e for it, and I have just r e c e i v e d the f i r s t cheque on w h i c h the r a i s e appears approve c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l , although defective, I a m paid to do so  because  be paid for m a k i n g a statement that i s m i s l e a d i n g and unfair although not l e g a l l y w r o n g be given a fee to provide false evidence against a friend accept money for getting an u n a u t h o r i z e d copy of the f i n a l e x a m for a f r i e n d Principle r e c e i v e m o n e y for doing something u n e t h i c a l take a b r i b e to obtain something wanted by someone who i s not entitled to i t make a ' m i s l e a d i n g statment for money  -  138  -  CARELESSNESS  Principle No. 1 1 1 1 2 1 16 21 9 10 1 3 11 1 11 11 11 11 11 13 12 6 4 5 6 6 6 18 7 18  Item 1. b r e a k the d i s h to a f r i e n d ' s best dinner set 2. b r e a k m y m o t h e r ' s best c h i n a 3. b r e a k a d i s h 4. b r e a k someone e l s e ' s things 5. b r e a k something of m y own 6. b r e a k someone's toy 7. a c c i d e n t a l l y walk out of a store w i t h an a r t i c l e i n m y hand that I had forgotten to pay for 8. be i n charge of another's c h i l d for a short t i m e d u r i n g which it i s a c c i d e n t a l l y i n j u r e d 9. c o m p l a i n l o u d l y about m y s u p e r v i s o r s to those w h o m I l a t e r d i s c o v e r are l i k e l y to t e l l on me 10. b o r r o w a book f r o m a f r i e n d and keep it until the f r i e n d has to make a p e r s o n a l appearance to c l a i m the book at a m u c h l a t e r date. 11. a c c i d e n t a l l y bump into a p e r s o n c a u s i n g them to drop something f r a g i l e 12. r i p m y c l o t h i n g 13. u n w i t t i n g l y l e t m y cigarette b u r n a valuable table of a host 14. b r e a k s o m e o n e ' s g l a s s e s 15. d i s c o v e r that I had badly t o r n a few pages of m y f r i e n d ' s valuable text book 16. s c r a t c h furniture or c a r belonging to someone e l s e 17. make a hole i n the u p h o l s t e r y of someone's c a r 18. a c c i d e n t l y s i t on someone's l u n c h while taking m y seat i n the bus 19. d i s c o v e r that I had brought a l a r g e quantity of wet m u d onto the s p o t l e s s l y c l e a n l i v i n g r o o m r u g i n a f r i e n d ' s house 20. s p i l l something on somebody 21. s p i l l something 22. m i s p l a c e another p e r s o n ' s belongings 23. lose an a r t i c l e of m y c l o t h i n g 24. l o s e a p r e c i o u s p o s s e s s i o n of m i n e 25. l o s e someone's p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s w h i c h I have borrowed 26. l o s e someone e l s e ' s p r o p e r t y 2 7. m i s p l a c e a s u m of money that was entrusted to me for safekeeping 28. knock down an o l d l a d y a c c i d e n t l y 29. lose someone's valued keepsake 30. w a l k into someone  -  CARELESSNESS Principle  No .  15 23  31. 32.  14 10  33. 34.  20 21 18  35. 36. 37.  8  38.  8  39.  16  40.  16  41.  22 17 3 19 19  42. 43. 44 45. 46.  H H  139  -  (Cont. ) Item  not look where I a m going when c r o s s i n g the s t r e e t as a p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g a street, cause a c a r to stop so suddenly that the c a r behind c r a s h e d c into i t play w i t h m a t c h e s take tools home f r o m w o r k and leave them there, so that when they ar e needed I have to m a k e a t r i p home for them a c c i d e n t l y d r i v e o v e r an a n i m a l spatter a p e d e s t r i a n w i t h m u d f r o m m y c a r a c c i d e n t l y r a m the r e a r bumper of m y c a r into the front of another c a r and annoy i t s o c c u p a n t s make chance r e m a r k s w h i c h l e d to d e m o t i o n for a b u s i n e s s acquaintance d i s c o v e r that m y c a s u a l r e m a r k s had c a u s e d m y i n f e r i o r s to be r i d i c u l e d i n public suddenly d i s c o v e r that I had put someone's e x p e n sive l i g h t e r i n m y pocket d i s c o v e r that I a m l e a v i n g C h u r c h w i t h the c h u r c h ' s h y m n a l i n m y hand by m i s t a k e w a l k into the m e n ' s or w o m e n ' s w a s h r o o m b u r n some i m p o r t a n t papers tear m y clothes c l i m b i n g a fence not take good c a r e of m y f a m i l y ' s belongings be d r i v i n g someone e l s e ' s c a r and have an a c c i d e n t  -  140  -  CARELESSNESS  Item No.  Principle  1,2,3,4,6,11, 14  1.  5  2.  i n a d v e r t e n t l y break someone e l s e ' s things b r e a k something of m y own  12, 44  3.  tear m y c l o t h i n g  23  4.  lose something of m y own  24  5.  lose a p r e c i o u s p o s s e s s i o n of m i n e  22,25,26,27  6.  lose someone e l s e ' s p r o p e r t y  29  7.  lose a p r e c i o u s belonging of someone else  38, 39  8.  find I have h a r m e d someone w i t h m y c a r e l e s s talk  9  9.  find I have h a r m e d m y s e l f w i t h m y c a r e l e s s talk  10, 34  10.  not r e t u r n a b o r r o w e d a r t i c l e u n t i l r e m i n d e d by the owner  11.  damage someone e l s e ' s belongings  21  12.  s p i l l something  20  13. s p i l l something on someone  33  14.  toy w i t h something that c o u l d be dangerous  31  15.  not look where I a m going when I should be c a r e f u l  7,40, 41  16.  a b s e n t - m i n d e d l y walk off w i t h something belonging  13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 1% 36  to someone else 43 30, 28, 37 45,46  17.  b u r n some i m p o r t a n t papers  18.  bump into someone a c c i d e n t l y  H19-  not r.ta\ke good c a r e of the belongings of o t h e r s  35  20.  a c c i d e n t l y h u r t an a n i m a l  8  21.  have someone i n m y c a r e a c c i d e n t l y i n j u r e d  42  22.  a c c i d e n t l y enter a r o o m intended for m e m b e r s of the opposite sex not look where I a m going and cause an accident  32  23.  -  141  -  CHEATING Principle No.  Items  6  1.  3 3 5 7 9 3 2 1 1  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  3  11.  cheat someone out of something they r e a l l y needed o r wanted m o r e than I i m p r o v e my s c o r e i n a s p o r t by cheating cheat to w i n w i n something u n f a i r l y be cheated by my f r i e n d i n a game p r o c u r e help on a t a s k I a m r e q u i r e d to do by m y s e l f cheat i n my s c h o o l s p o r t s be caught cheating on an e x a m cheat on the e x a m be found teaching my c l a s s the questions on a s e c r e t government e x a m i n a t i o n the day before the e x a m i s to be g i v e n be requested by m y c o a c h to take advantage of the r e f e r e e s o v e r s i g h t s whenever the opportunity a r i s e s r e a l i z e that m y b r i d g e p a r t n e r i s m e t h o d i c a l l y cheating gain a c c e s s to an e x a m that had been given to another class first cheat anyone see the a n s w e r s to an e x a m i n a t i o n before the e x a m copy without detection a n s w e r s w h i c h I would not be able to get o t h e r w i s e copy some w o r k find that d u r i n g an e x a m someone had s l i p p e d some u s e ful notes on my desk w h i c h I used have difficulty p r e p a r i n g some m a t e r i a l for an e x a m , and go to someone for help who t e l l s me that he has seen the e x a m and this p a r t i c u l a r m a t e r i a l i s not r e f e r r e d to i n any way when someone c o m e s to my place of w o r k to get a job done I offer to do it after h o u r s at a cheaper rate w o r k for rates l e s s than the " g o i n g wage" although I know that it i s u n d e r m i n i n g p r o g r e s s my f e l l o w w o r k e r s have made i n getting h i g h e r pay be given some tips on winning h o r s e s by p e r s o n s w h o m I know have had the r a c e fixed know how a r a c e was fixed and be a s k e d to accept a l a r g e bet on a h o r s e that w i l l l o s e by another p e r s o n who was t o t a l l y ignorant of that fact and I take the bet know of someone cheating another p e r s o n out of a piece of land be seated i n b l e a c h e r seats at a stage p e r f o r m a n c e and then move into the most expensive seats after the f i r s t act succeed i n using an overdue t r a n s f e r on the bus vote a second t i m e at an e l e c t i o n swing an e l e c t i o n m y way by cheating at the p o l l s 1  8 10  12. 13.  6 10 4  W14. 15. 16.  4 1  17. 18.  10  19.  11  20.  11  21.  12  22.  12  23.  7  24.  14  25.  -  13 15 15  26. 27. 28.  -  142  -  C H E A T I N G (Continued) Principle No.  Items  5 5  29. 30.  15 12  W31 . W32.  3 1  H33. H34.  play unfair take a f r i e n d ' s offer of l a s t y e a r ' s essay to c o v e r t h i s y e a r ' s assignment vote two o r three t i m e s e v e r y e l e c t i o n know how a r a c e i s fixed and bet another l a r g e amount accordingly cheat i n a game such as b a s e b a l l o r softball copy a n s w e r s f r o m someone i n h i s c l a s s on a test  -  143 -  CHEATING Item N o . 3,4,9,10,18 8  Principles 1.  . cheat on a n e x a m  2.  be caught cheating on an e x a m  33,2,3,7,11  3.  cheat to w i n a game  30, 16, 17  4.  copy someone e l s e ' s w o r k  4 , 29  5.  w i n something u n f a i r l y  1, 14  6.  cheat someone out of something they r e a l l y needed or wanted  5, 24  7.  sees someone else cheating  12  8.  have m y side cheat i n a game  6  9.  p r o c u r e help on a t a s k  13, 15, 19 20, 21  10.  l e a r n questions o r a n s w e r s on an e x a m beforehand  11.  undercut set r a t e s by offering l a b o u r o r p r o d u c t s for l e s s money  22, 2 3 , 32  12.  bet on a r a c e I know to be fixed  26  13.  use a t i c k e t that i s out of date  25  14.  sit i n a m o r e expensive p l a c e than I have paid f o r  27, 2 8 , 3 1  15.  cheat at the p o l l s  -  144  -  COWARDICE P.rinciple.No.  Items  1 2  1. 2.  2  3.  3  4.  5  5.  4  6,  6 7 8  7. 8. 9.  9  10.  10  11.  11  12.  1  13.  12  14.  13  15.  14  16.  7  17.  1 1  H18. H19.  5  H20.  1  H21.  7  23.  1  H24.  5  H25.  1  H26.  f a i l to a d m i t m y t r u e p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s i n a h o s t i l e group a v o i d doing something w h i c h I feel i s r i g h t because I fear the d i s a p p r o v a l of m y f r i e n d s i n the company of s e v e r a l f r i e n d s agree to do something against m y better p r i n c i p l e s so as not to s e e m a "queer" refuse to take a r i s k w h i c h i s expected of one i n m y occupation l i s t e n to m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p about a f r i e n d without defending the f r i e n d f a i l to defend a c l o s e f r i e n d i n an a r g u m e n t w i t h a s t r a n g e r even though I know the s t r a n g e r to be w r o n g be a f r a i d to w a l k home i n the d a r k not i n t e r f e r e i n a s t r e e t fight i n w h i c h I could be of help offer p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e and r e t r e a t because of fear of being hurt be the only one w i t h i n m y c i r c l e of f r i e n d s who has not given b l o o d , although I could quite e a s i l y have done so hide behind an excuse and not e n l i s t i f m y country was at war be a w i t n e s s to a r o b b e r y but not r e p o r t it f o r fear of reprisals agree w i t h an act or opinion just to a v o i d t r o u b l e when inwardly I disagree violently have an argument w i t h a f r i e n d and l a t e r find I a m w r o n g , but be a f r a i d to a p o l o g i z e t e l l others of m y d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a f r i e n d , r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y c o m p l a i n i n g to m y f r i e n d s l i p into a s t o r e to a v o i d meeting a f r i e n d to whom I owe money refuse to endanger m y s e l f i n o r d e r to save a s t r a n g e r f r o m being p h y s i c a l l y h u r t not defend what I b e l i e v e i n , i f others made fun of m y ideas not speak up to the t e a c h e r i f she had done something u n fair not speak up i f someone made m e a n r e m a r k s about m y family not speak up f o r something.I b e l i e v e d i n because m y f r i e n d s wouldn't l i k e me f o r it be c a l l e d upon to s a c r i f i c e m y safety to a s s i s t a s t r a n g e r who i s i n t r o u b l e but I do not r e s p o n d did not dare t e l l h i s f r i e n d s they w e r e doing something wrong not speak up f o r a f r i e n d , i f I a m i n a group when they s a i d nasty things about the f r i e n d not t e l l m y father, m o t h e r , i f I thought they w e r e w r o n g  -  145  -  COWARDICE Item N o .  Principles  1, 13, 18, 19, 21, 26 2,3 4 6  1.  not speak up for what I b e l i e v e i n , for fear of c r i t i c i s m  2.  not do what I think i s r i g h t for fear of c r i t i c i s m  3. 4.  not take a r i s k expected of me as a duty not a i d a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e when h e l p i s needed i n a fight or a r g u m e n t  5, 20, 25  5.  not defend a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e against m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p  6.  be a f r a i d of the d a r k  7.  not r i s k i n j u r y o r my l i f e to save another  9  8.  offer to fight and then be a f r a i d to  10  9.  be a f r a i d to give blood  11  10.  be a f r a i d to j o i n up i n t i m e of w a r  12  11.  not "report a c r i m e for fear of r e p r i s a l s •  14  12.  be a f r a i d to a p o l o g i z e after finding I a m i n the w r o n g  15  13.  16  14.  be a f r a i d to c o m p l a i n about something to the p e r s o n i n v o l v e d , but just c o m p l a i n about i t to others a v o i d meeting someone to w h o m I have a n unpaid o b l i gation  7 8, 17, 23  CRUELTY Principle N o .  TO  ANIMALS  Items  1 2 3 3 3 4 4 15 5 5 6  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  6 16 3 7  12. 13. 14. 15.  9 10  16. 17.  11  18.  6 8 4 4 13 14 12 3 3 3 16 3- .  146  19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. H29. W30.  take a b i r d ' s egg send an a n i m a l to the pound h u r t or be mean to any a n i m a l beat a h o r s e hit a cat or dog t o r t u r e l i t t l e bugs p u l l g r a s s h o p p e r s heads off p u l l an a n i m a l ' s t a i l not feed a n i m a l s or m y pets shoo away poor s t a r v i n g f r e e z i n g a n i m a l s be a s k e d to go shooting b i r d s for the p l e a s u r e of shooting shoot a b i r d for no n e c e s s i t y but just for fun k i l l a b i r d or a n i m a l be t h o u g h t l e s s l y c r u e l to an a n i m a l through n e c e s s i t y , be.'obliged to take a job that entails b u t c h e r i n g an a n i m a l f a i l to a i d an i n j u r e d a n i m a l see photographs of hunters standing over the c a r c a s e of an a n i m a l they have shot be standing i n m y boat and l a n d a b i g f i s h that i s d e s p e r a t e l y s t r u g g l i n g for a i r and i s t r y i n g to free h i m s e l f f r o m the hook hunt and k i l l a d e e r , although I do not need it for food k i l l a mouse should go out of m y way to squash a f l y k i l l insects p o i s o n someone's dog cause a dog to get r u n o v e r d r o w n kittens p i c k a r a b b i t up by its e a r s p u l l a b i r d ' s feathers out k i c k a dog or t h r o w a r o c k at it k i l l e d b i r d s o r other s m a l l a n i m a l s show c r u e l t y to an a n i m a l  CRUELTY Item N o .  147 TO  ANIMALS  Principles  1  1.  take a b i r d ' s egg  2  2.  send an a n i m a l to the pound  27,  3 , 4 , 5,  14,  26, 28  3.  h u r t or be m e a n to an a n i m a l  21,  2 2 , 6, 7  4.  t o r t u r e or k i l l i n s e c t s  5.  not feed a n i m a l s or pets  6.  shoot a b i r d o r a n i m a l f o r no n e c e s s i t y but just f o r fun be o b l i g e d , through n e c e s s i t y , to take a job b u t c h e r -  9, 10 19,  11, 12 15  7.  ing a n i m a l s 20  8.  k i l l a mouse  16  9.  f a i l to a i d an i n j u r e d a n i m a l  17  10,  see photographs of hunters standing over the c a r c a s e of an a n i m a l they have shot  18  11.  catch a f i s h and see it gasping for a i r  25  12.  d r o w n kittens  23  13.  p o i s o n an a n i m a l  24  14.  cafus-e a dog to get r u n o v e r  8  15.  tease an a n i m a l or b i r d  13, 29  16.  k i l l a b i r d or a n i m a l  -  148  -  DECEPTION Principle No.  Item  8  1.  1  2.  2  3.  3  4.  4  5.  15  6.  6 5 22  7. 8. 9.  4  10.  14  11.  14  11.  13  13  11  14.  11  15.  10 8  16. 17.  23  18.  7  19. 20.  8  21.  16  22.  8 12 5  W  23. 24.  use falsehoods and m i s l e a d i n g statements i n o r d e r to s e l l an a r t i c l e give a b i a s e d r e p o r t on a company to a f r i e n d so that he w i l l not compete for a job for w h i c h I have j u s t a p p l i e d persuade a f r i e n d to do something for w h i c h he w i l l l a t e r be s o r r y i n o r d e r to promote m y own i n t e r e s t s give to m y s u p e r i o r only the i n f o r m a t i o n that w i l l please h i m and hide the i n f o r m a t i o n he w i l l not l i k e do m y w o r k as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , without r e g a r d to q u a l i t y , i n o r d e r to be c r e d i t e d w i t h g r e a t e r output be i n v i t e d to the home of m y best f r i e n d ' s steady for a party; then on a r r i v a l , r e a l i z e that no one else i s c o m i n g and that I have been part of a plan t r i c k a b u s i n e s s opponent so as to cause h i m f i n a n c i a l l o s s gain a place of a u t h o r i t y by m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n because of m y youthful l o o k s manage to get by as a student on m a n y o c c a s i o n s and thus pay l e s s charge for f i x i n g a machine I was not a c t u a l l y able to r e p a i r prope r l y be i n v o l v e d i n an a c c i d e n t on a bus and t r y to c o l l e c t damages although the accident was due to m y negligence feign i n j u r i e s so that I m a y be able to c o l l e c t damages because of an a c c i d e n t make a r e p o r t on w o r k w h i c h I have done and support the r e p o r t w i t h f i g u r e s w h i c h are f i c t i o n a l be a s k e d by a v e r y good f r i e n d of m i n e to phone her boss and say she i s i l l and cannot come to w o r k so that she w i l l be able to spend the day w i t h her boy f r i e n d and I c o m p l y stay away f r o m w o r k under false i m p r e s s i o n s of s i c k n e s s when r e a l l y I was enjoying a day off s u c c e s s f u l l y c o v e r up for some u n n e c e s s a r y fault offer goods for sale "at huge r e d u c t i o n s " although the r e d u c t i o n i s o n l y i n q u a l i t y , not i n p r i c e change the tags on two d r e s s e s i n a store and manage to get the d r e s s that was not on sale for the p r i c e of the one that was r e c e i v e a high p r i c e for m y c a r by having turned back the m i l e a g e and c l e a n e d it up pretend I a m s e l l i n g a new m o d e l of a product when it i s e x a c t l y the same as the f o r m e r m o d e l put a cheap p r e s e n t i n a box f r o m an e x c l u s i v e shop i n o r d e r to make it appear to be a m o r e expensive gift, s e l l an a r t i c l e g i v i n g the i m p r e s s i o n that i t i s in good c o n d i t i o n when I know o t h e r w i s e ask to get someone in a theatre and then stay to see the show without paying be accepted for permanent e m p l o y m e n t but intend to w o r k only for the next few months  -  DECEPTION  149  -  (contd. )  Principle No.  Item  17 21  26. 27.  18  28.  7  29-  20  30.  5  31.  4  32.  19  33.  7 5  34. 35.  17  36.  13  H37.  17 24  W38. 39.  25 27  W 40. 41.  26  42.  26  43.  c r e a t e a false i m p r e s s i o n w h i c h should be c o r r e c t e d copy another p e r s o n ' s w o r k and then state he has c o p i e d mine i n m a k i n g r e p a i r s , use faulty or cheap m a t e r i a l so that I w i l l be a s s u r e d of further w o r k in the future manage to s e l l m y house at a high p r i c e to a p e r s o n who was unaware that the house was a bad buy because of its faults s e c r e t l y do w o r k for two c o m p a n i e s w h i c h are i n c o m p e t i t i o n although it i s not e t h i c a l to do so accept a job although I know I have not the time to spend that i s n e c e s s a r y for the job to be done p r o p e r l y d e l i b e r a t e l y make m y w o r k l a s t l o n g e r than n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to get m o r e pay for the job do some w o r k for a f r i e n d w h i c h he thinks w i l l be done free of charge, but I send h i m a b i l l when I a m finished s e l l something for m o r e than i t i s w o r t h take advantage of education I a l r e a d y have to i m p l y that I can handle another type of job I a m not s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d for t e l l m y parents I a m going somewhere they approve of b u t ; ; ; : r e a l l y go somewhere I a m not supposed to go w r i t e a note to the teacher e x c u s i n g m y s e l f f r o m s c h o o l and signing m y m o t h e r ' s or f a t h e r ' s name to it s wear to anything that I knew I was unable to do pretend to be intimate w i t h someone I h a r d l y know i n o r d e r to gain p r e s t i g e buy a c a r i n the name of another so the b i l l cannot be c o l l e c t c c l a i m a d e s i r a b l e a r t i c l e i n the l o s t and found w h i c h d i d not belong to me make substitution of cheaper m a t e r i a l s i n a project i n o r d e r to make greater p r o f i t be i n charge of the buying i n a household and manage to buy second-rate goods and thus make a profit for m y s e l f  - 15 0  -  DECEPTION Ite m  Principle s  2.  1.  give false i n f o r m a t i o n to prevent c o m p e t i t i o n  3  2.  persuade someone to do something that w i l l h a r m h i m but benefit m y s e l f  4  3.  t e l l someone o n l y pleasant things and hide that w h i c h i s unpleasant but w h i c h he should know  32, 10, 5  4.  through d e l i b e r a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n obtain h i g h e r pay than m y work warrants  8, 31, 35, 5  5.  obtain w o r k o r a u t h o r i t y under false p r e t e n s e s  7  6.  t r i c k an: opponent to cause h i m l o s s e s  .34, 19, 29  7.  s e l l something for m o r e than i t i s w o r t h  20, 22, 17, 1  8.  m a k e false c l a i m s about something I a m s e l l i n g  25  9-  obtain a chance to t r a v e l by m i s r e p r e s e n t i n g m y intentions  16  10.  14, 15  11.  23  W 12.  s u c c e s s f u l l y c o v e r up for some u n n e c e s s a r y fault feign i l l n e s s i n o r d e r to have a h o l i d a y t r i c k m y way into an entertainment for nothing  37, 13  13.  use false f i g u r e s o r names to support r e p o r t s o r e x c u s e s  11, 12  14.  t r y to c o l l e c t damages when I a m not e n t i t l e d to them  6  15.  be t r i c k e d by someone into being alone w i t h them  21  16.  pretend that a gift i s m o r e expensive than it a c t u a l l y i s  36, 38, 26  17.  c r e a t e a false i m p r e s s i o n that should be c o r r e c t e d  28  18.  use shoddy m a t e r i a l s i n m a k i n g r e p a i r s so as to cause e a r l y need for further r e p a i r s  33  19.  charge someone for w o r k they had expected to be done free  30  20.  27  21.  s e c r e t l y w o r k for r i v a l f i r m s at the same time although i t i s u n e t h i c a l to do so copy another p e r s o n ' s w o r k and then pretend he has c o p i e d mine  9  22.  m i s r e p r e s e n t m y age i n o r d e r to benefit f r o m l o w e r c h a r g e s  18  23.  change tags on a store a r t i c l e i n o r d e r to get i t m o i e c h e a p l y  -  15 1  DECEPTION  Item  -  (contd. )  Principle s  39  24.  40  W 25.  pretend i n t i m a c y w i t h someone I h a r d l y know i n o r d e r to gain p r e s t i g e use a n o t h e r ' s name without p e r m i s s i o n i n o r d e r to obtain something  42, 43,  26.  use m o n e y saved on l o w q u a l i t y goods to m y own benefit  41  2 7.  c l a i m something that does not belong to me  - 1 5 2 DEF AMATION Principle N o .  Items  1 4  1. 2.  4  3.  14  4.  8  5.  12  6.  5  7.  13  8.  15  9.  16  10.  10 9  11. .12.  9  13.  1  14.  1  15.  6  16.  7  17.  2 2 2 3 1  18. 19. 20. 21. 22.  3 9 2  H23. H24. H25.  h a r m someone's reputation by what I have s a i d t a l k to another student about a l e c t u r e r and d i s c o v e r that the l e c t u r e r had o v e r h e a r d m y r e m a r k s say something nasty about a p e r s o n to someone and that p e r s o n h e a r d me m e n t i o n to s e v e r a l people that I d i s l i k e a c e r t a i n p e r s o n and cast a s p e r s i o n s against h i s o r h e r c h a r a c t e r , and then be told that t h i s p e r s o n both l i k e s and r e spects, me give defamatory evidence about a p e r s o n although m y acquaintance w i t h h i m has been l i m i t e d to t a l k i n g to h i m for an hour have to l i s t e n to a r e c i t a l of the faults of one w h o m I r e spect i m m e n s e l y without opportunity to defend t h e m be running against a good f r i e n d i n an e l e c t i o n and should use some damaging i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h I had a c q u i r e d through i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i m be seen by a m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p going into a p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s office h e a r d e r o g a t o r y statements being made about m y i n s t r u c t o r ' by other students hear d e r o g a t o r y statements being made about m y i n s t r u c t o r by other i n s t r u c t o r s c r i t i c i z e m y f e l l o w e m p l o y e e s when t a l k i n g to my b o s s c r i t i c i z e m y c h i l d ' s t e a c h e r , although I r e a l i z e it i s unfair to both the c h i l d and the t e a c h e r as a m e m b e r of the teaching p r o f e s s i o n r u n down another teacher and d i s c o v e r that the students had h e a r d about it have my c o m m e n t s about a p e r s o n m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by o t h e r s , r e s u l t i n g i n h a r m to h i m be r e q u i r e d by m y s u p e r i o r s to make statements about a close friend which might h a r m h i m speak unflatteringly about an i n d i v i d u a l w h i l e not knowing of the p r e s e n c e of a c l o s e f r i e n d of the i n d i v i d u a l make d e r o g a t o r y r e m a r k s about someone I know w e l l but do not l i k e i n front of some p e r s o n s who a r e just s t a r t i n g to know this p e r s o n t a l k about my mate t a l k about someone behind t h e i r b a c k t a l k about a p e r s o n u n c h a r i t a b l y tattle on somebody to get t h e m into t r o u b l e by the evidence I a m able to give identify a m u r d e r s u s pect w h i c h would l e a d to h i s c o n v i c t i o n t a t t l e - t a l e on another p e r s o n c r i t i c i z e m y club l e a d e r i n front of others t e l l bad s t o r i e s about m y father o r m o t h e r even i f they w e r e true  153 D E F A M A T I O N (Continued) Principle N o . 2 2 2  Items W26. H27. H28.  t e l l o r l i s t e n to a r e u t a l of the faults of others t e l l bad s t o r i e s about m y b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s t e l l bad s t o r i e s about m y f r i e n d s even i f they w e r e true  D E F A M A T ION Principle N o . 15, 14, 1, 22  Items 1.  unintentionally h a r m someone by what I have s a i d  18,26,28  .2.  t a l k about someone behind t h e i r b a c k  3, 23  3.  tattle on someone to get into t r o u b l e  2,3  4.  t a l k about someone and find they have o v e r h e a r d m y remarks use damaging evidence r e g a r d i n g someone for my own gain  25,27,20,19,  7  5.  16  6.  speak u n f l a t t e r i n g l y about someone unaware one of their friends is present  17  7.  speak u n f l a t t e r i n g l y about someone i n front of those who a r e just getting to know t h e m  5  8.  give damaging evidence about someone I r e a l l y h a r d l y know  24, 13, 12  9.  11  10,  26, 15  11.  r u n down someone i n a u t h o r i t y before h i s subordinates c r i t i c i z e m y fellows when speaking to someone i n authority be r e q u i r e d b y those i n a u t h o r i t y to make damaging statements about a f r i e n d  6  12.  have to l i s t e n to defamation of a close f r i e n d without being able to defend h i m  8  13.  be seen by a m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p when I a m i n an e m b a r rassing situation  4  14.  f i n d , after defaming someone's c h a r a c t e r , that they have a l w a y s s a i d n i c e things about me  9  15.  h e a r someone speak u n f l a t t e r i n g l y about someone e l s e  10  16.  h e a r someone speak u n f l a t t e r i n g l y about someone i n authority  155  -  DESTRUCTIVENESS Principle N o .  Items  10  1.  6  2.  1 2 2 3 4 12 5 9  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  vV9 6 6 7  WL1. 12. 13. 14.  6 6 'J 6 6 6 1 1 6 9 10 8 6 6 11 6  15. W6, 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. W29  be among a c r o w d who w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e for i n c u r r i n g heavy damages on a s m a l l b u s i n e s s m a n p u l l the handle off the c a r door after being offered a l i f t by a c h a r i t a b l e m o t o r i s t b r e a k a window b u r n down a house o r s c h o o l set f i r e to a s c h o o l set f i r e to the woods and s t a r t a f o r e s t f i r e help create another w a r d e s t r o y beauty of any p l a c e or thing b r e a k off the shoot of a plant b r e a k the w a l l of a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g through some rough play with a friend o v e r l o a d a t r u c k that w i l l w r e c k the highway m a r k the desk at s c h o o l w i t h m y knife see someone m i s u s e the f u r n i t u r e i n a f r i e n d ' s home o b s e r v e a v e r y c l o s e f r i e n d , who i s unaware of m y p r e s e n c e damage a n e i g h b o u r ' s p r o p e r t y s c r i b b l e i n anyone's book cause damage to a n o t h e r ' s p r o p e r t y smash a car d e s t r o y someone's belongings d e s t r o y anyone's p r o p e r t y b r e a k someone's toys on purpose s m a s h m y m o t h e r ' s best vase damage someone's p r o p e r t y s m a s h the s t r e e t l i g h t s be p a r t of a group who a r e t h r o w i n g stones at a n e i g h b o u r ' s front door damage things that someone t r e a s u r e s t h r o w a r o c k at a c a r s c r a t c h up a c a r t e a r up s o m e b o d y ' s p i c t u r e l e t m y c i g a r e t t e b u r n a v a l u a b l e table of a host that I don't l i k e 1  1 56  DESTRUCTIVENESS Item N o .  Principles  3, 20, 21  1.  d e l i b e r a t e l y b r e a k something  4, 5  2.  set f i r e to a b u i l d i n g  6  3.  start a forest fire  7  4.  help create another w a r  9  5.  damage a g r o w i n g plant  6.  damage or d e s t r o y someone's belongings  14  7.  see someone damaging p r o p e r t y  25  8.  damage something that someone  9.  damage p u b l i c p r o p e r t y  2, 12, 13, 15, 16 , 17, 22, 29, 26 , 27, 18, 19  10 , H p 23 24, 1  10.  be part of a group that i s causing damage to s o m e o n e ' s property  28  11  t e a r up someone s p i c t u r e  8  12.  d e s t r o y the beauty of any p l a c e or thing  1  15 7s  DISCOURTESY Principle N o .  Items .  1  1.  2 6  2. 3,  3  4.  6 7  5. 6.  4  7.  4 5  8. 9.  8  10.  8H  11.  . Item N o .  f a i l to, change the p r e p a r e d m e a l w h i c h i s c o n t r a r y to my guests r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s even though there was t i m e to do so i n t e r r u p t someone when they a r e t a l k i n g h e a r people t a l k i n g a l l the way through a stage p e r f o r m ance and should have to a s k t h e m to be quiet s e v e r a l times be encouraged to t a l k by the p e r s o n I a m w i t h at a stage p e r f o r m a n c e to the annoyance of other m e m b e r s of the audience c o r r e c t someone having difficulty e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l f o m i t f r o m a guest l i s t an e l d e r l y and t e r r i b l y b o r i n g f r i e n d of the f a m i l y , w h o m I know would expect to be i n c l u d e d f a i l to greet m y s u p e r v i s o r for w h o m I have a great d e a l of r e s p e c t u n c o n s c i o u s l y p a s s someone I know without saying " h e l l o " be o v e r l o a d e d w i t h p a r c e l s , seated on a b u s , and not give my seat to the old l a d y standing b e s i d e me be told that I a m not h o l d i n g m y knife and f o r k p r o p e r l y w h i l e eating have poor table m a n n e r s at a dinner away f r o m home  Principles  1  1.  i g n o r e m y guests' b e l i e f s and w i s h e s  2  2.  a c c i d e n t a l l y i n t e r r u p t someone  4  3.  d i s t u r b others w i t h t a l k i n g d u r i n g a stage p e r f o r m a n c e  4.  f a i l to greet someone I know  9  5.  not give up m y seat on a p u b l i c conveyance when I should  3, 5  6.  c o r r e c t someone I have no r i g h t to c o r r e c t  6  7.  o m i t f r o m a guest l i s t someone who should be i n c l u d e d  10, 11,  8.  have, poor table m a n n e r s  7,8  1 58 DISHONESTY Principle No. 1  W  1  1  Items 1. 2.  W  3.  2  4.  3  5.  9  6.  3  7.  3  8.  3  9.  4  10.  4  11.  6  12.  4  13.  7  14.  8  15.  5  W 16.  4  17.  d e c l a r e m y s e l f bankrupt even though I could pay m y debtors owe a sum of m o n e y to a f i r m whose r e c o r d s have r e cently been d e s t r o y e d by f i r e and should decide not to pay the b i l l refuse to pay a one hundr ed d o l l a r b i l l that cannot be collected r e t a i n some goods w h i c h I l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d had been stolen make no attempt to t r a c e the owner of v a l u a b l e s that had been left i n a used c a r w h i c h I have p u r c h a s e d see a beggar pocket some m o n e y w h i c h an o b v i o u s l y wealthy p e r s o n w h o m I know had dropped keep something I have found without l o o k i n g for the owner not r e t u r n m o n e y I have found, knowing who i t belongs to find a pen, put i t i n m y pocket, and then hear a w o m a n ask the c l e r k i f a pen had been t u r n e d i n , but not give i t back d i s c o v e r that m y boss had a c c i d e n t a l l y paid m e for a l a r g e r number of w o r k h o u r s than I had a c t u a l l y done, and not point out the e r r o r buy a set of dishes on sale and pay for t h e m , but when the d i s h e s a r e d e l i v e r e d I find that they a r e a m u c h m o r e expensive set than the one I had paid for r e c e i v e change for a $10. 00 b i l l i n s t e a d of a $ 5 . 00 b i l l f r o m a c l e r k i n a department store d i s c o v e r that the m u n i c i p a l government has e r r e d i n a s s e s s i n g m y home and p r o p e r t y c a u s i n g m y taxes to be l o w e r send w o r k on to a f i r m w i t h the understanding that they give me a " k i c k - b a c k " for the b u s i n e s s I send them when half way through a j o b , say I cannot continue unl e s s I a m p a i d an a d d i t i o n a l s u m , although I cont r a c t e d to do the job at a c e r t a i n p r i c e spend the m o n e y r e c e i v e d f r o m a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e i n s t e a d of paying the doctor b i l l w i t h i t r e c e i v e a f i r s t c l a s s on m y paper but find that I was given too m a n y m a r k s and I say nothing about it  - 159 DISHONEST Y - continued: Principle No.  Items  4  18.  4  19.  4  20.  4  21.  3  22.  1  23.  1  24.  10 2  25. 26.  pass an e x a m due to the fact that m y m a r k s on m y paper w e r e t o t a l l e d i n c o r r e c t l y and I do not rectify it r e c e i v e the m e a l check on w h i c h an e r r o r has been made i n m y favour i n a r e s t a u r a n t where both the food and the s e r v i c e w e r e poor a l l o w a m i s t a k e made to m y advantage to stand without c o r r e c t i o n be c r e d i t e d w i t h m a k i n g a l a r g e donation to a c h a r i t able o r g a n i z a t i o n although I a c t u a l l y d i d n ' t donate anything and I say nothing find an a r t i c l e w h i c h I l a t e r gave away only to find that i t belonged to m y best f r i e n d be absoved f r o m a debt because I pretend I a m unable to pay although I a c t u a l l y have the money neglect to pay a b i l l that I know m y r ^debtor has f o r gotten about f a i l to r e t u r n what I a c q u i r e d unjustly"; d i s c o v e r that the d i a m o n d r i n g w h i c h I had bought f o r . m y f r i e n d i s w o r t h m o r e than I paid for i t and i s i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d a stolen a r t i c l e , but I do nothing about i t  - 160 - continued DISHONEST Y Item N o .  Principles  1,2,3, 23, 24  1.  llajke advantage  4,26  2.  r e t a i n goods I l a t e r dind to be stolen  22, 5 , 7 , 8,9  3.  make no attempt to t r a c e the owner of an a r t i c l e I have found  13, 10, 11 17,18,19 20, 21  4.  not point out an e r r o r that has been made i n m y favour  16  5.  spend money given to m e for one purpose for m y  W  of c i r c u m s t a n c e s that a l l o w m e to get away w i t h not paying a debt  own  pleasure  12  6.  r e c e i v e over change and not point out the m i s t a k e  14  7.  r e c e i v e a " k i c k - b a c k " for w o r k sent on to others  15  8.  after taking on a job at a set p r i c e , ask for m o r e money before c o m p l e t i n g i t  6  9.  25  10.  see that someone else has not r e t u r n e d l o s t goods f a i l to r e t u r n what I a c q u i r e d unjustly  -  161  -i  DISLOYALTY Principle N o .  Items  1 2  1. 2.  3  3.  4  4.  5  5.  6  6.  12  7.  7 8  8. 9.  9  10.  12  11.  12  1.2.  17  13.  10  14.  10  15.  11  16.  1  17.  12  18.  16  19.  13 .14  20. 21.  16 15  22. 23.  12  24,  5 18  25. H26.  know m y spouse i s engaged i n u n e t h i c a l m a r i t a l p r a c t i c e s d i s c o v e r that m y f i r s t m a r i t a l p a r t n e r was s t i l l a l i v e after I had r e m a r r i e d have to c r o s s a p i c k e t l i n e i n a s t r i k e to support m y family l e a r n that one of m y parents had j o i n e d a nudist group against the o t h e r ' s w i s h e s have to support a v i e w c o n t r a r y to that of m y p a r e n t s because, of the unreasonableness of it e x p r e s s an opinion i n p u b l i c that i s c o n t r a r y to the p o l i c y of the company f o r w h i c h I w o r k have my best f r i e n d ' s f i a n c e , w h o m I have s e c r e t l y a d m i r e d , t e l l me they a r e r e a l l y i n l o v e w i t h me i n f o r m on a f r i e n d who has done w r o n g be n a m e d as s u c c e s s o r to m y best f r i e n d after he has been f i r e d f r o m a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n go out w i t h someone e l s e when I a m m a d at m y best friend accept a date w i t h m y best f r i e n d ' s stead when I know m y f r i e n d i s v e r y fond of this p e r s o n be r e m i n d e d that the p e r s o n to whom I had been m a k i n g advances at a p a r t y i s engaged to a f r i e n d of m i n e l e a r n that a m a r r i e d c o - w o r k e r w h o m I l i k e was being attentive to someone other than t h e i r m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r be seen w a l k i n g down the street w i t h an a t t r a c t i v e c o m panion of the opposite sex who i s not m y steady be o b s e r v e d s h a r i n g m y l u n c h w i t h a m e m b e r of the opposite sex w h i l e m y steady i s at home find that after b e c o m i n g engaged m y attention wanders continually to some p e r s o n other than m y fiance d i s c o v e r that m y steady was c o u r t i n g another on the a s s u m p t i o n that I d i d not k n ow date someone's spouse when the p e r s o n i s not separated from their marriage partner as a m a r r i e d p e r s o n , be given a lift home f r o m an evening meeting of e m p l o y e e s by a m e m b e r of the opposite sex and should be i n v i t e d i n to an empty apartment forcoffee be s k o w h favours by one who i s a l r e a d y m a r r i e d d i s c o v e r that m y b e l o v e d m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r had gone off w i t h someone e l s e be suspected of l i v i n g w i t h m o r e than one m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r accept the opportunity to a c h i e v e s e x u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n e l s e where i f m y spouse w e r e i n v a l i d e d so that sex was out of the q u e s t i o n i n the absence of m y fiance go out r e g u l a r l y w i t h some one other p e r s o n of the opposite sex not share m y p a r e n t s ' p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s and thus upset t h e m say I didn't l i k e our s c h o o l to a strange boy o r g i r l  162 D I S L O Y A L T Y (Continued) Principle N o .  Items  20  H27.  5  28.  .18  29.  16  30.  19 5  31. 32.  19 18  W33. 34.  21  35.  20  W 36.  27  37.  3 7  38. H 39.  t e l l a p e r s o n f r o m out of town about bad conditions i n m y own town even i f i t was t r u e have to obtain c o u r t a p p r o v a l to m a r r y someone of whom my parents disapprove be brought before the p r e s i d e n t and f o r c e d to give a truthful account of w h e r e the b l a m e l i e s for an e r r o r w h i c h only I know was made by my i m m e diate s u p e r i o r (who has t r a i n e d me and p r o v i d e d me w i t h a secure position) be caught by m y c l e r g y m a n t a l k i n g to a c l e r g y m a n of another denomination go to a c h u r c h of another faith not s h a r e m y p a r e n t s ' r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and this upsets them take part i n the c h u r c h s e r v i c e of some other faith be threatened by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the company w i t h a postponed p r o m o t i o n i f I do not divulge the r e s u l t s of m y union meeting and. so I give h i m the information leave my f a m i l y knowing that I s h a l l not see t h e m a g a i n , for the sake of a c h i e v i n g a h i g h e r standard of l i v i n g elsewhere o r g a n i z e a group to w o r k t o w a r d the v i o l e n t o v e r t h r o w of c h r i s t i a n d e m o c r a c y be d i s l o y a l to m y country refuse to s t r i k e when m y f e l l o w w o r k e r s a r e on s t r i k e t e l l the t e a c h e r the t r u t h when I was a s k e d about a f r i e n d who had done something w r o n g  - 163 DISLOYALTY Principles find that someone to w h o m I a m attached has been unfaithful find that m y f i r s t m a r i t a l p a r t n e r i s s t i l l a l i v e after I have r e m a r r i e d act c o n t r a r y to union a g r e e m e n t s l e a r n one of m y parents had done soemthing against one of the o t h e r ' s w i s h e s have to support a view c o n t r a r y to that of m y f a m i l y  e x p r e s s an opinion i n public c o n t r a r y to the p o l i c y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n for w h i c h I w o r k i n f o r m on a f r i e n d who has done w r o n g s u c c e e d m y f r i e n d i n a p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h he was fired pass up m y best f r i e n d when I a m m a d at t h e m be seen w i t h someone of the opposite sex when I a m attached to someone else have m y attention wander to someone of the opposite sex other than the one I a m attached to date or f l i r t w i t h someone who i s a l r e a d y attached to someone else be shown f a v o u r s by someone who i s m a r r i e d find that I have been d e s e r t e d by someone I was attached to not r e m a i n faithful to the p e r s o n to w h o m I a m attached when they a r e i n c a p a c i t a t e d  164  -  DIS L O Y A L T Y - continued: Item N o . 30, 22, 19  Principles 16.  l e t m y s e l f become i n v o l v e d i n a situation w h e r e b y others m i g h t question m y faithfulness  - 165 DISOBEDIENCE Principle No. 1 9  1. 2.  3 4 4 5 6 9 7 8 6 4 8 9 9  Items  H  3 8  H  8 8 2 4  H  4 4 5 5 8  H H H H H  m i s b e h a v e when I a m expected to be nice d i s o b e y m y parents and go out when they had told m e not to 3. d i s o b e y m y parents 4. do anything of w h i c h I know m y parents d i s a p p r o v e 5. d i s r e g a r d m y p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s about something 6. b r e a k an i m p o r t a n t r u l e at s c h o o l or w o r k 7. not do something I was t o l d to do b y an o l d e r p e r s o n 8. be a s k e d by m y parents why I was so late getting home l a s t night as an athlete b r e a k t r a i n i n g 9. 10. go somewhere I was t o l d not to f a i l to t e l l m y parents where I a m going 11. 12. ' do something about w h i c h m y parents know nothing 13. play c a r d s 14. be seen by m y doctor d i s o b e y i n g h i s o r d e r s 15. be put on a diet by m y doctor and then meet h i m the next day when I was o b v i o u s l y o v e r e a t i n g 16. d i s o b e y a w i s e o r d e r g i v e n to me by a p e r s o n v e r y m u c h m y s e n i o r i n y e a r s and e x p e r i e n c e 17. left the house at night without m y f a t h e r ' s or m o t h e r ' s permission do something I have been f o r b i d d e n to do 18. get wet when I a m not supposed to 19. never do what I a m told 20. 21. go out dating late at night w i t h a group of o l d e r boys and g i r l s 22. gamble or bet for m o n e y 23. smoke c i g a r e t t e s or a pipe 24. eat candy or chew gum i n c l a s s 25. disobey l i b r a r y rules 26. not go to bed before twelve on a week night  - 166 DISOBEDIENCE m No.  Principles  1  1.  m i s b e h a v e when I a m expected to be nice  20  2.  n e v e r do what I a m t o l d  3,16  3.  disobey those i n a u t h o r i t y  2 3 , 4 , 12 21, 22  4.  do anything of w h i c h I know m y parents d i s a p p r o v e  6,24,25  5.  b r e a k an i m p o r t a n t r u l e at s c h o o l or w o r k  7,11  6.  9  7,  b r e a k a health r e g i m e n that has been set for m e  2, 10, 13 1 9 , 1 8 , 17 26, 27  8.  do something I was told not to by those i n a u t h o r i t y  8, 14, 15  9.  be caught d i s o b e y i n g o r d e r s  riot  do something I was told to do by someone in authority  - 167 DISRESPECT Principle No. 2 1 1 3 3 4  4.  1 4 4  4 1 5 4 5 6 4 1 4  H H W W H W  4 4 4  H  Items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  feel a s h a m e d of m y parents without good r e a s o n a n s w e r back to m y boss or parents t a l k back to another p e r s o n swear at an o l d e r p e r s o n speak s h a r p l y to an o l d e r p e r s o n chain smoke i n front of m y parents who d i s a p p r o v e of s m o k i n g 7. p r e s e n t a c o n t r a r y point of v i e w i n the p r e s e n c e of the w h o m I know to p o s s e s s s u p e r i o r knowledge 8. as a m e m b e r of the a r m e d f o r c e s , f a i l to salute m y s u p e r i o r officer on l e a v i n g a s o c i a l gathering have d r a w n to m y atten9. t i o n that c e r t a i n of m y actions and t a l k had been d i s r e s p e c t f u l to the o l d e r persons p r e s e n t 10. be i n a c l a s s that t a l k s and i s g e n e r a l l y d i s r e s p e c t f u l to the l e c t u r e r 11. speak out of l i n e 12. see someone s i t t i n g down w h i l e our n a t i o n a l anthem i s being played 13. " s a s s " the t e a c h e r 14. refuse to salute a flag 15. s c a n d a l i z e those subject to m e 16. c o m p l a i n about m y parents or others i n a u t h o r i t y 17. t a l k back to m y father or m o t h e r 18. show d i s r e s p e c t to m y parents or others i n authority 19. . make fun of the t e a c h e r behind her back 20. disrespect my superiors 21. show d i s r e s p e c t for m y parents  - 168 DISRESPECT Principles speak out of l i n e  f e e l a s h a m e d of m y parents without good r e a s o n speak s h a r p l y or swear at an o l d e r p e r s o n act i n a m a n n e r d i s r e s p e c t f u l to o l d e r p e r s o n s or those i n a u t h o r i t y  act i n a m a n n e r d i s r e s p e c t f u l to the flag o r nation show d i s r e s p e c t to those subject to me  -  16 9  -  DOMINATION Principle No.  Item  1  1.  6 2 3 3 6 4 5 6 3  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  1  H  H  11.  Item N o . 1,11  t r y to m a k e m y c h i l d follow e x a c t l y m y own i d e a s and r i d i c u l e any opinions he m a y have of h i s own order a little child around d e s i r e to dominate someone nag nag c h i l d r e n boss anyone b u l l y someone be o v e r b e a r i n g boss m y f r i e n d s a r o u n d nag m y husband after he has had a h a r d day at work persuade another boy or g i r l to do m e a favour when they d i d n ' t r e a l l y want to  Principle 1.  t r y to dominate the thoughts and f e e l i n g s of others  3  2.  d e s i r e to dominate someone  4, 5, 10  3.  nag someone  7  4.  b u l l y someone  8  5.  be o v e r b e a r i n g  2, 9  6.  boss someone a r o u n d  -  170 *  EMBARRASSMENT  Principle No.  Item  10  1. q  11  2.  12  3.  1  4.  24  5.  26  6.  7  7.  2  8.  13 14  9. 10.  9  11.  15  12.  17 16  13. 14.  24 21 23  15. 16. 17.  22  18.  20  19.  25  20.  2  21.  be i n t r o d u c e d at a c o n s e r v a t i v e club as an a c t i v e m e m b e r of the c o m m u n i s t p a r t y f r o m w h i c h I r e s i g n e d a y e a r ago be g i v e n a w r a p p e d gift by a f r i e n d w h i c h l a t e r p r o v e d to be a bottle of w h i s k e y s e r v e wine at a m e a l only to l e a r n that m y guests a r e teetotallers as the s o c i a l convenor of m y c l u b , be a s k e d to m a k e a p u r c h a s e of one case of w h i s k e y f r o m the l i q u o r store be seen w a l k i n g down the s t r e e t w i t h m y steady, h o l d i n g hands be g i v e n a w r i t e - u p i n the newspaper that g r e a t l y e x a g gerates m y a c h i e v e m e n t s be t o l d by m y b a n k e r that there was not enough money i n m y account to c o v e r the l a s t cheque I w r o t e have a v e r y good f r i e n d who takes me to a c h u r c h group and I a m encouraged to speak on a t o p i c on w h i c h I am i n complete d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h the group have a r i v a l do a k i n d n e s s for me have a f r i e n d who s e l l s m e a l a r g e amount of m a t e r i a l i n a department store and deducts ten d o l l a r s f r o m the cost without m y knowing i t at the t i m e and when I r e a l i z e the m i s t a k e and phone h i m about i t he t e l l s me that he d i d i t on purpose be e l e c t e d to a coveted p o s i t i o n i n m y c l u b , only to d i s c o v e r l a t e r that the votes have been i n c o r r e c t l y counted and that m y opponent has a c t u a l l y won have something s i m i l a r to other p e r s o n s so that they think I have copied them be naked i n p u b l i c be seen i n p u b l i c w i t h a g i r l who w e a r s s h o r t s that a r e too short and too tight be k i s s e d i n p u b l i c by m y date have m y s k i r t or t r o u s e r s f a l l down on a p u b l i c s t r e e t give an e l e m e n t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n of a subject to semeone I have just m e t only to d i s c o v e r l a t e r that he i s a n e x p e r t i n that f i e l d m e e t and have to be f r i e n d l y to a n o l d g i r l (boy) f r i e n d of m y boy ( g i r l ) f r i e n d be s t a r e d at by a p e r s o n of the opposite sex for no r e a s o n apparent to m e have a wonderful m e a l i n a fine r e s t a u r a n t but find that I do not have enough money to l e a v e a r e a s o n a b l e tip be a s k e d to do something f o o l i s h i n front of a l a r g e group  171  -  E M B A R R A S S M E N T (contd. ) Principle No.  Item  3  22.  1 19-  23. 24.  27  25.  17  H26.  18 3  27. 28.  4  29.  4 5  30. 31.  6  32.  24 8 1  33. 34. 35.  be g i v e n a sweepstake t i c k e t and i t was l a t e r publiclyannounced that I had won be i n v i t e d to b e c o m e a m e m b e r of the c o m m u n i s t p a r t y due to n e c e s s i t y , be caught going to the b a t h r o o m i n an outside a r e a not u s e d for such p u r p o s e s be d r i v i n g a n o l d c a r and have i t s t a l l i n a m a i n thoroughfare u n d r e s s i n front of other p e o p l e , for instance before a gym c l a s s , or when taking a shower see m y p a r e n t s together i n the nude w i n a g r e a t d e a l of money i n a n a m e - d r a w i n g contest knowing that I do not approve of contests of this s o r t be a s k e d to r e c o m m e n d a p e r s o n I do not know w e l l f o r an important position be a s k e d to sponsor a b r i e f i acquaintance for c i t i z e n s h i p have a r e l a t i v e whose i n c o n s i d e r a t e , c a r e l e s s b e h a v i o u r has r e s u l t e d i n h i s being d i s m i s s e d f r o m a p o s i t i o n to w h i c h I had r e c o m m e n d e d h i m upon a r r i v a l at m y f r i e n d ' s p l a c e d i s c o v e r that the town's g a m b l i n g c z a r was w a i t i n g to see me be found by p o l i c e petting i n a p a r k e d c a r go to a p a r t y of people who are quite different f r o m m e be a s k e d to be guest of honour at a c o m m u n i s t - i n s p i r e d organizational meeting  -  172 4  EMBARRASSMENT Item N o .  Principles  4, 2 3 , 35  1.  be a s k e d to do something I do not w i s h to do  28,  2.  be a s k e d i n front of others to do something I do not w i s h to do  3.  find I have won money i n a game of chance of  8  22, 28  w h i c h I do not approve 29, 30  4.  be a s k e d to r e c o m m e n d a p e r s o n I do not know w e l l  31  5.  have someone I have r e c o m m e n d e d t u r n out b a d l y  32  6.  find that an u n s a v o r y c h a r a c t e r i s w a i t i n g to see m e  7  7.  34  8.  find that a cheque I had w r i t t e n was not c o v e r e d by m y bank account go to a gathering of p e r s o n s I f e e l to be quite different f r o m me  11  9.  1  10.  2 3 9  be e r r o n e o u s l y c r e d i t e d w i t h some s u c c e s s be g i v e n an e r r o n e o u s i n t r o d u c t i o n  11. be offered something ( a l c o h o l , c i g a r e t t e s , e t c . ) i n w h i c h I do not indulge 12. offer something to a guest w h i c h I find they heartily disapprove 13. have a r i v a l do a k i n d n e s s for m e  10  14.  think someone's dishonest act i n m y favour has been a m i s t a k e , but f i n d , on a s k i n g t h e m , that i t was done on purpose  12  15. have something s i m i l a r to another p e r s o n ' s so that they think I c o p i e d them  14  16.  be seen w i t h someone who i s i m m o d e s t l y clothed  13, 26  17.  be seen when I a m i n the nude  -  173  -  E M B A R R A S S M E N T (contd. ) Item N o .  Principles  27  18.  see someone i n the nude  24  19.  be caught going to the b a t h r o o m , due to n e c e s s i t y , i n an outside a r e a not u s e d for that purpose  19  2 0.  16  2 1 . have a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of m y clothing f a l l off i n publi c 2 2 . a c c i d e n t a l l y m e e t and have to be nice to a f o r m e r rival  18  be s t a r e d at by someone of the opposite sex  17  23.  v e r y s i m p l y e x p l a i n something to someone and l a t e r find they knew m o r e about i t than I d i d  5, 15, 33  24.  be seen showing affection for someone of the opposite sex  20  25.  due to t e m p o r a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s be unable to show gratitude for something that was done for me find out exaggerated c l a i m s have been made about me without m y being able to c o n t r a d i c t them  6  26.  25  27.  cause a t r a f f i c congestion because of m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e of the v e h i c l e I a m d r i v i n g  - 174 E N VY Principle No.  Items  1  1.  1 3 4  2. 3. 4.  3  5.  2  6.  1  7.  5 6  8. 9.  Item N o .  b e l i t t l e m y boss whenever I can i n o r d e r to m a k e myself seem more important be jealous and t r y to b e l i t t l e a f r i e n d think e v i l about someone for no r e a l l y just r e a s o n find that someone r e j o i c e s over the m i s f o r t u n e s of t h e i r f r i e n d s d i s l i k e someone because of m y j e a l o u s y for t h e m f a i l to t e l l the complete t r u t h and i n so doing r u i n the reputation of a p e r s o n w h o m I envy c r i t i c i z e another p e r s o n ' s w o r k out of j e a l o u s y although I have n e v e r i n v e s t i g a t e d h i s w o r k be jealous and envious of others wonder about something that doesn't belong to m e  Principles  1,2,7  1,  b e l i t t l e someone I envy to m a k e m y s e l f s e e m more important  6  2.  h a r m someone I envy  3,5  3.  d i s l i k e someone for no r e a s o n other than m y j e a l o u s y of t h e m  4  4.  find that someone r e j o i c e s over the m i s f o r t u n e s of t h e i r f r i e n d s  8  5.  9  6.  be jealous and envious of others envy a n o t h e r ' s  possessions  - 175 ERROR Principle No.  Items  13  1.  13  2.  1  3.  8  4.  1  5.  2  6.  2  7.  12  8.  I  9«  4  10.  3  11.  3  12.  5 10 10 10 8 II 10 7 6 3  13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.  c r i t i c i z e m y c h i l d r e n for c o m m i t t i n g e r r o r s w h i c h I l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d they could not a v o i d have been t o l d falsehoods w h i c h l e a d m e to unjustly accuse another cause the company for w h i c h I w o r k to suffer a setback because of m y e r r o r be t o l d by a f r i e n d that there was no gift i n the p a r c e l I had sent s t r i k e the p e r s o n I took for a p r o w l e r only to find that i t was m y c l o s e s t f r i e n d b r i n g i n g m e a gift t e l l the c a n v a s s e r for a c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n that m y hustand was c o n t r i b u t i n g at the office and l a t e r "found that he had not any intention of doing so d i s c o v e r that I had unwittingly o v e r c h a r g e d a c u s t o m e r i n a store without his being aware of i t unwittingly c a r r y away another p e r s o n ' s l u n c h i n place of m y own and find no way of getting i n touch w i t h them by m i s t a k e give someone the w r o n g dose of m e d i c i n e w h i c h cuases h i m great d i s c o m f o r t i g n o r e a "hot t i p " on-the stock m a r k e t that was offered m e but w h i c h I r e f u s e d , and l a t e r find the stock doubled have a f r i e n d lose m o n e y on an i n v e s t m e n t made on m y advice have a f r i e n d who takes m y a d v i c e and l a t e r r e g r e t s it v e r y much find that I had attended a f o r m a l affair w r o n g l y d r e s s e d m a k e a m i s t a k e i n front of an audience m a k e a m i s t a k e i n a show get off at the w r o n g bus stop and have to get back on make a foolish mistake m a k e too m a n y m i s t a k e s at w o r k or s c h o o l atoa c o n c e r t , applaud between m o v e m e n t s use a w o r d i n c o r r e c t l y m a k e a faux-pas unwittingly m i s i n f o r m a t r a v e l l e r regarding a c e r t a i n route v  - 176 ERROR continued: Item N o .  Principles  3,5,9  1•  6, 7  2.  cause h a r m to someone by m y e r r o r m a k e an e r r o r that causes m e to appear to have l i e d or be dishonest  11, 12, 23  3.  m a k e an e r r o r i n giving a d v i c e that h a r m s  someone  10  4.  make an e r r o r i n a c c e p t i n g a d v i c e that l a t e r h a r m s me  13  5.  m a k e an e r r o r i n m y d r e s s  22  6.  make a fuax-pas  21  7.  m a k e an e r r o r i n m y speech  4, 17  8.  make a foolish mistake  18  9.  m a k e an e r r o r i n a game  14, 15,  10.  m a k e a m i s t a k e i n front of others  16,20 1 19 8  11. 12.  m a k e too m a n y m i s t a k e s at s c h o o l or w o r k p i c k up someone e l s e ' s belongings h a v i n g m i s t a k e n i t for m y own  1,2  13.  punish . o r c r i t i c i z e someone unjustly because of a l a c k of c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n  - 177 FAILURE Principle No.  Items  1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 4  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  7 1 6  10. 11. 12.  8  13.  1 5 9  14. 15. 16.  8  17.  3 2 9  18. 19. 20.  2 3  H H H  21. 22.  not have m y w o r k up to standards that have been set get a bad r e p o r t c a r d get poor average m a r k s fail i n school l o s e a job f a i l an e x a m f a i l i n a subject because of poor attendance f a i l to change a bad habit through m y own p e r s o n a l w e a k n e s s e s find that I had to d i v o r c e m y m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r l o s e a fight s t r i k e out i n a b a l l game l o s e some contest of s k i l l before people who had believed i n m y ability not be able to s t i m u l a t e a c h i l d to be able to achieve something not have m y w o r k t u r n out as i t should d i s c o v e r I a m unable to r e p a i r a b r o k e n f r e i n d s h i p take an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n f e e l i n g that I could handle i t , and l a t e r find out that I cannot be unable to e s t a b l i s h any r e l i g i o u s faith i n m y children's philosophy be f i r e d f r o m m y job for i n e f f i c i e n c y decide to get r i d of a bad habit, but d i d n ' t do so m a k e up m y m i n d to be n i c e to someone I didn' t l i k e and then l e t that p e r s o n get m y goat anyhow not be able to stop eating candy when I t r i e d be a s k e d to leave a house where I was b a b y s i t t i n g due to m y m i s c o n d u c t  - 178 - continued: FAILURE Item No.  Principles  1,2,3,4, 6,7,11,14  1.  not have m y w o r k up to standards that have been set  8, 19, 21  2.  f a i l to change a bad habit  5,18,22  3.  be f i r e d f r o m m y job  9  4.  fail i n my marriage relationship  15  5.  be unable to r e p a i r a b r o k e n f r i e n d s h i p  12  6.  lose some contest of s k i l l before people who had believed i n my ability  10  7.  l o s e a fight  13, 17  8.  not be able to influence a p e r s o n i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n  16,20  9.  be unable to cope w i t h something I have undertaken  179  -  FAVOURITISM Principle  No.  Items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  12. 13. W  14.  i n any way show a p r e f e r e n c e for e i t h e r of m y parents give one p e r s o n a l l the s p e c i a l jobs be a c c u s e d of h a v i n g p r a i s e d another m o r e than he d e s e r v e s s light one guest i n m y home by paying too m u c h attention to another show great f a v o u r i t i s m to a c h i l d although I know the other c h i l d r e n w i t h h i m w i l l feel left out as a t e a c h e r pass a p u p i l who was not ready to pass into the next grade because of h i s p a r e n t s ' p o s i t i o n i n the c o m m u n i t y act as a r e f e r e e at a game although I a m a c l o s e f r i e n d of a p l a y e r on one of the t e a m s and know I a m b i a s e d i n h i s favour through a f r i e n d , be able to get m y name p l a c e d high on a waiting l i s t , out of t u r n and ahead of many others d i s c o v e r that I had p a s s e d a r e c e n t e x a m only because the p e r s o n who m a r k e d i t was a f r i e n d who "got-me through" be given e m p l o y m e n t over someone who was better q u a l i f i e d and i n g r e a t e r need m e r e l y because I knew the e m p l o y e r be accepted for an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n m y f i r m because of " p u l l " although I know that a m o r e b r i l l i a n t and better q u a l i f i e d m a n i n the f i r m was entitled to it m o r e than I be a s k e d by m y best f r i e n d to get h i m e m p l o y m e n t , for w h i c h he was not at a l l s u i t e d , i n m y f a t h e r ' s firm find that a faithful employee has. been f i r e d to make r o o m for me when I had a s k e d a f r i e n d for a job p r a i s e another i m m o d e r a t e l y  -  180 -  FAVOURITISM Item  Principles  No.  1  1.  show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r any m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y  2  2.  give one p e r s o n a l l the s p e c i a l jobs  7  3.  act as a judge i n a contest when I know I a m b i a s e d i n favour of one side  4, 5  4.  show f a v o u r i t i s m to someone i n the p r e s e n c e of others  8  5.  use s p e c i a l influence to get something I want  6  6.  give p r e f e r e n c e to someone because of t h e i r high social position  14  W 7.  3  8.  be a c c u s e d of favouring someone  13, 9, 10, 11  9.  be given p r e f e r e n c e o v e r others  give someone m o r e p r a i s e than they m e r i t  -  181  -  FORGETFULNESS  Principle  No .  Items  1 2 3 3  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  10  6.  4 10 5  7. 8. 9.  6 7  10. 11.  10  12.  6  13.  9  14.  3  15.  3  16.  8  17.  8  18.  7  19.  7  20.  6  21.  forget to do something forget to do something I had been told to do forget to r e t u r n something I have b o r r o w e d forget a c l o s e r e l a t i v e ' s b i r t h d a y not send a b i r t h d a y c a r d to a d e a r old f r i e n d because I a m too busy and then hear that the f r i e n d has d i e d p r o m i s e to do something for a f r i e n d , but forget and o m i t t e l l i n g h i m of m y o v e r s i g h t forget to give a v e r b a l message to someone forget to do an eatrand I had p r o m i s e d to do forget to m a i l a l e t t e r for someone who has a s k e d me to do so forget an appointment with the dentist leave a r e s t a u r a n t and a c c i d e n t l y forget to pay the b i l l p r o m i s e a p e r s o n I w i l l w r i t e , phone o r v i s i t them and forget a l l about i t u n t i l I meet them a c c i d e n t l y on the street a r r a n g e for f r i e n d s to come and stay and then through forge tfulne ss be out at the time they arrive meet someone whom I know I've been i n t r o d u c e d to but I cannot think where I m e t them o r what t h e i r name i s forget m y parents on their b i r t h d a y or on F a t h e r ' s D a y or M o t h e r ' s D a y forget to give a f r i e n d a gift for C h r i s t m a s when they have given me one a r r i v e at a party having forgottent the gift I had planned to b r i n g find I have forgotten m y m o n e y when taking out a new f r i e n d b o r r o w money f r o m a p e r s o n and c o m p l e t e l y forget about i t r e c e i v e an overdue notice for a b i l l w h i c h I had n e g l e c t e d to pay a r r a n g e to meet a c l o s e f r i e n d at 5: 00 p. m . and forget a l l about i t u n t i l next day  -  182  FORGETFULNESS  Item  No.  Principles  2  1.  forget to do something I have been told to do  3  2.  forget to r e t u r n something I have b o r r o w e d  3.  o v e r l o o k someone at s p e c i a l t i m e s or s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s when one i s expected to tend to such m a t t e r s  7  4.  forget to pass on a m e s s a g e to someone  9  5.  forget to m a i l a l e t t e r  21,10,13  6.  forget an appointment  11,19,20  7.  forget to pay a debt  17, 18  8.  forget to take something i m p o r t a n t w i t h me when  4, 5, 15, 16  I go out 14 6, 8, 12  9. 10.  forget someone's name forget to do something I had s a i d I would do  183  HARSHNESS Principle  No.  Items  I 1 1 2 2 5  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  3 4 4 4 3 6 2 3 3  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  Item  No.  use c o r p o r a l punishment on a c h i l d spank a baby strap a pupil be h a r s h to a c h i l d be too s t r i c t w i t h the c h i l d r e n be s a r c a s t i c to a c h i l d i n front of other people because I was e x a s p e r a t e d p u n i s h a c h i l d s e v e r e l y for a s m a l l point of o r d e r b a w l out my mate b a w l out someone s c o l d someone unjustly p u n i s h m y c h i l d when I l o s e m y t e m p e r maltreat small children keep saying " n o " or 'don't" to m y c h i l d r e p r i m a n d m y c h i l d r e n too h a r s h l y p u n i s h someone m o r e s e v e r e l y than he needed 1  Principles  2, 1, 3  1.  use c o r p o r a l punishment on a c h i l d or baby  4 , 13, 5  2.  be too s t r i c t w i t h someone  7, 11, 14  3.  p u n i s h someone too s e v e r e l y  8, 9, 10  4.  b a w l out someone  6,  5.  be s a r c a s t i c to a c h i l d  12,  6.  maltreat small children  -  184 -  HATING  Principle No.  Items  1 2 3 4  1. hate m y c h i l d r e n when they upset me 2. hate someone for nothing 3 . say I hate someone 4. hate someone who has done me w r o n g  Item N o .  Principles  1.  1.  hate someone dear to me when they upset m e  2  2.  hate someone for no r e a s o n  3  3.  say I hate someone  4  4.  hate someone because they have done h a r m to me  - 185 HYPOCRISY Items vote for a f r i e n d although he i s a candidate f o r a group w h i c h I oppose r e a l i z e that I had been t o l e r a t i n g some c o m p a n i o n m a i n l y for the m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l gains that I derived p a r r o t a p r o f e s s o r ' s opinions on a test when there i s evidence d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y to his opinions say unkind things about m y best f r i e n d behind h i s back and then when m e e t i n g h i m be v e r y n i c e to h i m attend c h u r c h without s i n c e r e urge and i n t e r e s t p e r f o r m a r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l to honour m y parents even though i t c o n t r a d i c t s m y own b e l i e f s v i s i t a nudist camp out of c u r i o s i t y and have m y host convinced of the s i n c e r i t y of m y i d e a l s s w i t c h p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s i n o r d e r to get a c e r t a i n job accept a p o s i t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a c h u r c h although I do not a g r e e w i t h a l l the tenets of the p a r t i c u l a r faith j o i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n for s o c i a l acceptance to w h i c h I had to pledge c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s that I do not actually believe j o i n a f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n because m e m b e r s h i p i n i t w i l l l e a d to a b u s i n e s s p r o m o t i o n , although I do not b e l i e v e i n such o r g a n i z a t i o n s be a s k e d by a f r i e n d for a d v i c e and I t e l l her what I know she wants to hear r a t h e r than the t r u t h d i s c u s s i n s i n c e r e l y a m a t t e r of p e r s o n a l i m p o r t a n c e to m y f r i e n d w i t h h i m show a d m i r a t i o n t o w a r d s an i n d i v i d u a l not because I r e a l l y do a d m i r e h i m but because of what i t m a y get me put on an act of being i n t e r e s t e d i n a m e m b e r of the opposite s i x when I f e e l no a t t r a c t i o n to the p e r s o n have to o u t w a r d l y approve of a n o t h e r ' s s e x u a l d e l i n quencies because of c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyone t h e i r control l e t a p e r s o n take m e on expensive dates when I know I could n e v e r be s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the p e r s o n for a s e l f i s h end l e a d a w o m a n to b e l i e v e m i s t a k e n l y that I intend to m a r r y her  - 186 HYPOCRISY - continued: Principles  Item N o . 2, 17  1.  t o l e r a t e someone m e r e l y for p e r s o n a l gain  4  2.  be n i c e to someone when w i t h h i m but t a l k about t h e m behind t h e i r backs  5,6 7  3.  attend r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s without s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t  4.  pretend i n t e r e s t i n a group when I a m r e a l l y just satisfying m y c u r i o s i t y j o i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n for p e r s o n a l g a i n , although I pretend r e a l i n t e r e s t  8,9,10,11  5.  12, 13  6.  d i s c u s s w i t h someone i n s i n c e r e l y a m a t t e r of p e r s o n a l i m p o r t a n c e to them  1 4 , 1 5 , 18  7.  show a d m i r a t i o n for someone m e r e l y for what i t w i l l get me  1,3,16  8.  o u t w a r d l y show a p p r o v a l of something I r e a l l y d i s approve  187 IGNORANCE Principle No.  Items  1  1.  h a r m an i n v a l i d by not g i v i n g h e r p r o p e r c a r e due to my ignorance  2  2.  not know what u t e n s i l s to use w h i l e eating out at a f o r m a l gathering  Item N o .  Principles  1  1.  h a r m someone through not knowing how to give t h e m proper care  2  2.  not knowing the p r o p e r customs to follow on a f o r m a l occasion  - 188 ILLEGAL, Principle No. 1 1  Items 1.  W  BEHAVIOUR  2.  2  3.  2 3 4  4. 5. 6.  3  7.  6  8.  5 5 13 8 14  910. 11. 12. 13.  26  15.  13  16.  14  17.  12  18.  8  19.  13 13 13 14  20. 21. 22. 23..  13 15 15 15 7  24. 25. 26. 27. 28.  knowingly i n c l u d e i n a c c u r a t e statements i n m y i n c o m e tax r e t u r n find a perfect way to a v o i d paying i n c o m e tax on ninety-thousand d o l l a r s l e a r n that I had i n d i r e c t l y a s s i s t e d i n the p r o m o t i o n of a prostitute become a s u p e r v i s o r over a group of p r o s t i t u t e s c o n c e a l a package when r e t u r n i n g f r o m the U . S . A . have a s s i s t e d a f r i e n d to c a r r y some p a r c e l s through the C a n a d i a n customs office w h i c h I l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d to contain i l l e g a l l i q u o r pass through the C a n a d i a n customs w i t h c i g a r e t t e s w h i c h are not d i s c o v e r e d be a passenger i n a c a r that k n o c k e d down an o l d m a n and the d r i v e r refused to stop be the d r i v e r i n a hit and r u n accident d r i v e away after s t r i k i n g a p e r s o n w i t h a c a r jay w a l k i n front of a p o l i c e car exceed the speed l i m i t on the highway be stopped by a p o l i c e m a n for f a i l i n g to stop at a stop s i g n p a r k i n a space m a r k e d "patrons o n l y " when I a m not a patron be a passenger i n a car that had p a r k e d i n an i l l e g a l zone be i n a c a r whose d r i v e r was being stopped for speeding continue to d r i v e a c a r , although f o r b i d d e n to do so by l a w , because I f e e l I a m capable of d r i v i n g be a s k e d to r a c e m y car w i t h another car on a public highway p a r k i n a n o - p a r k i n g zone r i d e m y bike on the s i d e w a l k go through a r e d l i g h t a s a teacher be seen by a s c h o o l b o a r d i n s p e c t o r , hitch-hiking p i c k up a h i t c h - h i k e r catch a f i s h under r e g u l a t i o n s i z e catch a n u m b e r of f i s h exceeding the game l i m i t shoot a doe out of season be f i s h i n g i n a place only by unlawful t r e s p a s s i n g  - 189 I L L E G A L  BEHAVIOUR  - continued: Principle No.  Items  5 18 21  29. 30. 31.  16 17  32. 33.  20 19 22 23 17  34. 35. 36. 37. 38.  18  39.  17 24 9  40. 41. 42.  24 25  43. 44.  25 26 18 10  45. 46. 47. 48.  H H W  1  49.  10  50.  13 11  H  51. 52.  d r i v e w h i l e under the influence of drug or a l c o h o l buy a book that was banned because of m o r a l s be a wealthy p e r s o n whose country i s at w a r and deal i n the b l a c k m a r k e t w h i l e m y f r i e n d s , who refuse to do t h i s , l i v e i n p o v e r t y f a i l to r e m a i n at the scene of an a c c i d e n t s e l l goods w h i c h i t i s against the law to s e l l , for m y own p r o f i t be a p a r t n e r to a plan of e x t o r t i o n be a s k e d by m y s i s t e r to help w i t h her a b o r t i o n b r e a k into a j e w e l l e r y s t o r e forge a l e t t e r i n another p e r s o n ' s name be a s k e d by a m i n o r to supply a bottle of m y f a t h e r ' s l i q u o r on the p r o m i s e he w i l l r e p l a c e i t be a s k e d as the s o c i a l convenor of m y club to telephone a t a x i late at night for a bottle of bootleg w h i s k e y be s u m m o n e d for bootlegging enter a l i c e n c e d lunge although I a m under age be offered an a l c o h o l i c d r i n k i n a place i n w h i c h I knew i t was i l l e g a l to d r i n k go to a pub w h i l e under the l e g a l age of 21 unexpectedly find m y s e l f i n the company of i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e about to a d m i n i s t e r to t h e m s e l v e s an i l l e g a l drug be persuaded to smoke a drugged cigarette d r i v e alone i n a c a r without a l i c e n c e buy a chance on a raffle d i s p o s e of stolen p r o p e r t y i n l a r g e amounts for another r e c e i v e a rebate on m y i n c o m e tax for a c l a i m w h i c h I knew to be w r o n g be given a share i n the p r o c e e d s stolen f r o m a c h u r c h poor box c r o s s the s t r e e t when the l i g h t was on kidnap a baby  190  -  I L L E G A L B E H A V I O U R (contd. ) Item N o .  Principles  1, 2, 49  1.  make a false i n c o m e tax r e t u r n  3,4  2.  a i d i n the p r o m o t i o n of p r o s t i t u t i o n  5,7  3.  smuggle goods a c r o s s the b o r d e r  6  4.  h e l p someone c a r r y something over the b o r d e r w h i c h I l a t e r find to be i l l e g a l  29  5.  d r i v e while under the influence of a drug or a l c o h o l  8,9,10  6.  be a d r i v e r or passenger i n a c a r i n v o l v e d i n a h i t and r u n a c c i d e n t  28  7.  t r e s p a s s on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  12, 19  8.  e x c e e d the speed l i m i t  42  9.  do an act i n a place where such acts a r e forbidden  48, 50  10.  dispose of or share i n stolen p r o p e r t y  52  11.  kidnap a c h i l d  18  12.  11, 15, 16,20 21,22,24,51 13, 17, 23  13.  continue to do something I have been s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t e d f r o m doing by law c o m m i t a m i n o r traffic i n f r a c t i o n such as j a y walking, over-parking, e t c . , . be caught c o m m i t t i n g a m i n o r t r a f f i c i n f r a c t i o n  14.  such as j a y w a l k i n g , o v e r - p a r k i n g , e t c . . , . 2 5 , 26, 27  15.  b r e a k a game law  32  16.  f a i l to r e m a i n at the scene of an a c c i d e n t  33, 3 8, 40  17.  s e l l something that i t i s i l l e g a l to s e l l  30, 39, 47  18.  buy something that i t i s i l l e g a l to buy  - 191 I L L E G A L  BEHAVIOUR  continued: Item N o .  Principles  30,39,47  18.  buy something i t i s i l l e g a l to buy  35  19.  a i d i n an a b o r t i o n  34  20.  be a p a r t n e r i n a plan of e x t o r t i o n  31  21.  deal i n the b l a c k m a r k e t  32,36  22.  b r e a k into a s t o r e  37  23.  forge something for m y own gain  41,43  24.  do things that i t i s i l l e g a l for me to do because of m y age  44.45  25.  become i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i l l e g a l drugs  14.46  26.  do something without a l i c e n c e i n a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a l i c e n s e i s r e q u i r e d by law  - 192 IMPATIENCE Principle No.  Items  2 1  1. 2.  1 4  3. 4.  3 2  5. 6.  2  7.  2  H  5  8. 9.  Item N o . 2, 3 1  (  (>., 7, 8  not have patience w i t h a r e t a r d e d c h i l d l a c k patience w i t h the c h i l d r e n due to m y own disposition become e x a s p e r a t e d w i t h the c h i l d r e n be " s h o r t " w i t h someone when he or she t a l k s w i t h me show a l a c k of patience before a group l o s e patience w i t h someone who has good cause to be c r a n k y become i m p a t i e n t w i t h someone who i s h a r d of hearing be i m p a t i e n t w i t h another boy or g i r l who a s k e d m e to e x p l a i n an e a s y l e s s o n a l w a y s b e c o m e i m p a t i e n t when having to w a i t f o r anything  Principles 1.  be i m p a t i e n t w i t h c h i l d r e n  2.  be i m p a t i e n t w i t h someone about something they cannot h e l p  5  3.  show i m p a t i e n c e i n front of a group  4  4.  be " s h o r t " w i t h someone when they speak to me  9  5.  be unduly i m p a t i e n t when caused to w a i t for something  1  - 193 IM PIE TY Principle No. 13 5 2  1. H  2. 3. 4.  2 8 3 2 12 9  Items  H W  5. 6. 7. 8. •"9.  12 12  W  6  w  12.  12 8  w  13. 14.  w  10. 11.  8 1  15. 16.  7 8 4 4 4 4 4  17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  3 3 5 6  24. 25. 26. 27.  10 4 10  H H H  28. 29. 30.  3  H  31.  t u r n to G o d only i n t i m e of need and doubt and f o r get at other t i m e s not p r a y before going to bed have to p a r t i c i p a t e i n w a r c o n t r a r y to m y r e l i g i o u s beliefs d i s c o v e r that the m o v i e I had attended was d i s a p p r o v e d by m y r e l i g i o n be i n a c l a s s where the p r o f e s s o r r i d i c u l e s C h r i s t m a k e a noise w h i l e i n c h u r c h s e r v i c e eat meat on F r i d a y or other m e a t l e s s days doubt that there i s a God and v o i c e this c o n v i c t i o n see the d i s r e s p e c t f u l t r e a t m e n t of a h u m a n body w h i c h contravenes the dictates of m y r e l i g i o n b e l i e v e that G o d i s not aware of p r e s e n t w o r l d conditions h o l d that s c i e n c e has weakened the proof of G o d ' s existence deny what I b e l i e v e about God i n o r d e r to m a r r y the person I love h o l d that l i f e m a k e s sense without God have to l i s t e n to m y t e a c h e r denounce G o d and H i s good w o r k s be t o l d that G o d doesn't e x i s t r e j e c t the L o r d Jesus C h r i s t as m y own p e r s o n a l Saviour f a i l to have r e v e r e n c e for things that a r e h o l y hear m y f r i e n d s using G o d ' s name i n a fit of anger be unable to attend c h u r c h s e r v i c e s r e g u l a r l y l a g i n c h u r c h attendance s k i p c h u r c h and attend a p i c n i c m i s s M a s s on Sunday be unable to go to c h u r c h for a c o n s i d e r a b l e length of t i m e and neglect to go when an o p p o r t u n i t y comes sneeze l o u d l y i n c h u r c h d u r i n g a m i n i s t e r ' s p r a y e r act up i n c h u r c h not say m y p r a y e r s have to give up m y b e l i e f i n G o d i n o r d e r to save m y life m a k e fun of r e l i g i o n t r y to get out of going to c h u r c h m a k e fun of something the m i n i s t e r or p r i e s t s a i d i n church think about w o r l d l y things w h i l e i n c h u r c h  - 194 IMPIETY - continued: Principle No.  Items  12 4 10 3  H H H H  32. 33. 34. 35.  2 1  W W  36. 37.  1 1 1 2 7 7 7  W W W W  38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.  w .w w  7 1  .w w  45. 46.  1 11 11 2 13 2 2 2 7 4 4 5 3 2  w w w w w w  47. 48. 49. 50. 51 52. 53. 54. 55 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.  w .w w w w w w  7  w  61.  5 1  w w  62. 63.  say that I d i d n ' t b e l i e v e i n G o d not attend Sunday School make fun of something w r i t t e n i n the B i b l e not pay attention to what the m i n i s t e r of p r i e s t said i n church blaspheme ( r e v i l e G o d and his Saints) not a v o i d thoughts, w o r d s or deeds that w o u l d separate m e f r o m G o d f a i l to r e m a i n zealous i n p r o m o t i n g the g l o r y of God u n w i l l i n g l y accept any suffering that God m a y have sent f a i l to thank G o d for g r a c e s and benefits granted l i s t e n to, r e a d , or speak anything c o n t r a r y to m y f a i t h ask G o d to w i t n e s s a t r i v i a l m a t t e r or a falsehood commit a sacrilege f a i l to show p r o p e r r e s p e c t at the m e n t i o n of G o d ' s name w o r k on a Sunday or a H o l y D a y f a i l to do e x t r a s p i r i t u a l r e a d i n g on Sundays and H o l y days f a i l to offer up m y w o r k to G o d think i t p o s s i b l e for there to be three Gods w o r s h i p beauty as m y God show d i s r e s p e c t to c l e r g y m e n f a i l to fast at appointed t i m e s eat anything c o n t r a r y to m y r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s eat something that was condemned by m y r e l i g i o n ' use G o d ' s name i m p r o p e r l y show d i s r e s p e c t to r e l i g i o n m i s s M a s s on Sunday or a H o l y day f a i l to attend M a s s devoutly' f a i l to say e x t r a p r a y e r s on Sundays f a i l to l i s t e n to the s e r m o n attentively have anything to do w i t h chain p r a y e r s , or make a Novena i n a s u s p i c i o u s way f a i l to take notice of the B l e s s e d S a c r a m e n t when passing a church r e m a i n unfaithful to m y p r a y e r s f a i l to think of God as m u c h as I should  - 195 IMPIET Y - continued: Item N o .  Principles  37,38,39, 40, 6 2 , 4 6 , 47, 16  1.  not do r e l i g i o u s acts that a r e r e q u i r e d i n a zealous p e r s o n of m y faith  3,4,7,36, 50,52,53, 54,60  2.  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s that contravene m y r e l i g i o n  6, 24, 25, 31,35,39  3.  f a i l to be quiet and attentive i n c h u r c h  19, 20, 21, 22,56,23, 29,33,57  4.  not attend c h u r c h when I a m able  2, 26, 58, 62  5.  not say m y p r a y e r s or be faithful to t h e m  12, 27  6.  give up m y r e l i g i o n i n o r d e r to obtain m o r e w o r l d l y goals  17,42,43, 44,45,44, 61  7.  f a i l to have r e v e r e n c e for things that a r e h o l y  1 8 , 5 , 14, 15  8.  hear someone d e s e c r a t i n g m y r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s  9  9.  see a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h contravene m y r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s  28,30,34  10.  m a k e fun of r e l i g i o n or some part of i t  48,49  11.  1  13.  have belief's that a r e c o n t r a r y to the r e l i g i o u s jteachings of m y faith doubt m y r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s except when I a m i n trouble  - 196 INDIFFERENCE Items pass a begging b l i n d m a n on the c o r n e r without giving h i m anything not stop to a i d a stranded m o t o r i s t when I a m not in a rush ref-use to help someone who comes to me because I do not w i s h to become i n v o l v e d i n the situation pass an i n d i v i d u a l on the s t r e e t , begging m o n e y i n o r d e r to get something to eat. Af'ter not giving h i m a n y , I l a t e r find that he d i e d of hunger not a s s i s t a neglected or l o n e l y aged p e r s o n d e c l i n e to help a p e r s o n see something w r o n g and not c o r r e c t i t notice an a d v e r t i s e m e n t w h i c h i s irt ended to m i s l e a d the p u b l i c but do nothing to stop i t s p u b l i c a t i o n because of d i s i n t e r e s t f a i l to defend m y good name w h i l e others a r e f a l s e l y a c c u s i n g m e of c o m m i t t i n g a crime r e f r a i n f r o m t e l l i n g m y f r i e n d someone i s t a k i n g advantage of h i m , although i t would be of venefit to h i m to know not i n t e r f e r e w i t h a f r i e n d ' s r e m a r k s , although I know he i s damaging h i s own and o t h e r ' s reputations r e f r a i n f r o m pointing out the w r o n g - d o i n g of a f r i e n d , although I know he does w r o n g only through ignorance not a s s i s t a s t r a n g e r i n a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h I know i s c a u s i n g h i m difficulty l e t someone suffer without h e l p i n g h i m or her see a b l i n d m a n t r y i n g to c r o s s the s t r e e t and do not help h i m not v i s i t s i c k and s h u t - i n persons not spend m o r e t i m e w i t h f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s who a r e i l l and l o n e l y see an o l d w o m a n standing i n a heavy r a i n w h i l e I d r i v e by i n a car and not p i c k her up be "too b u s y " to l i s t e n to m y c h i l d r e n ' s needs or troubles refuse a r e q u e s t that I could e a s i l y f u l f i l l just because I d i d n ' t want to do i t let a s i t u a t i o n go by when I could have put a p e r s o n at ease and I didn't  - 197 INDIFFERENCE - continued: Principle No. 8  Items 22. 23.  W W,  24. 25.  not get to know new neighbours m o r e q u i c k l y and m a k e them f e e l at home be standing i n l i n e w i t h a basket f u l l of g r o c e r i e s i n front of an o l d l a d y w i t h two a r t i c l e s i n her hand, and not p e r m i t her to be checked out f i r s t f a i l to defend m y good name h o l d that m y country should take care of i t s e l f and leave the r e s t of the w o r l d struggle along as best it m a y Principles  Item N o . 1,2,4,5,13, 14,15,18,23, 25, 26  1.  not h e l p others who are i n need of a s s i s t a n c e  3, 6, 20  2.  refuse a r e q u e s t I could f u l f i l l with l i t t l e trouble  3.  not v i s i t s i c k and s h u t - i n p e r s o n s  19  4.  be unsympathetic when someone w i s h e s to speak of his troubles  7, 8  5.  not bother r e c t i f y i n g a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h I could change  10, 11, 12  6.  r e f r a i n f r o m g i v i n g someone advice w h i c h i t would  16,  17  be of benefit for h i m to know 9 21, 22  7.  f a i l to bother to defend m y own r e p u t a t i o n  8.  not put someone at ease when I could have  -  198  -  INGRATITUDE  Principle  No.  Items  3  1.  not tip a w a i t r e s s i n a r e s t a u r a n t who has been helpful  2  2.  be given a sweepstake t i c k e t as a gift and not share the w innings with the g i v e r  1  3.  f a i l to a s s i s t a m o t o r i s t who had given me a l i f t to f i x a flat t i r e because I m i g h t be late for an appointment  3.  4.  be granted p e r m i s s i o n to cut c l a s s e s i n o r d e r to accommodate m y other w o r k and then f a i l to attend when I can  5  5.  take a g i r l out and spend m o n e y on h e r , and not even get a goodnight k i s s  4  6.  show d i s r e s p e c t to people who have helped me  Item N o .  Principle  3  1.  f a i l to a s s i s t someone who had p r e v i o u s l y h e l p e d me  2  2.  not share m y good fortune w i t h someone who had helped me achieve it  1,4  3.  not show m y a p p r e c i a t i o n for favours done for me  6  4.  show d i s r e s p e c t topeople who have helped me  5  5.  not be shown a p p r e c i a t i o n for things I have done for someone  199  -  INJURING Principle No.  Item  4 4 2 13 4 4 5 2 5 11 3 15 3  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. W12. 13.  10 5 14  14. 15. 16.  7 8 6 11  17. 18. 19. 20.  8  21.  14  22.  12 12 12 12 1 1 7 17 7 17 17 14  23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.  9 14 14 2 16  W35. W36. W37. 38. 39.  t r i p someone and they get h u r t t r i p a lady a c c i d e n t a l l y put m y finger i n s o m e o n e ' s eye p u l l someone's h a i r push someone o v e r push someone r u n into someone w i t h m y b i k e injure a f r i e n d a c c i d e n t a l l y injure a c h i l d w i t h m y c a r injure someone i n a game h u r t someone so b a d l y they had to go to the h o s p i t a l advocate the s t e r i l i z a t i o n of the f e e b l e - m i n d e d after s t r i k i n g a p e r s o n i n anger l e a r n that I had m a i m e d h i m for l i f e n a r r o w l y m i s s k n o c k i n g down a p e d e s t r i a n hit someone w i t h a c a r b e l i e v e that it was d e t r i m e n t a l to one's h e a l t h to smoke but find I cannot stop s m o k i n g drop a s m a l l baby on purpose see m y s i s t e r get h u r t beat someone s e v e r e l y who has damaged m y p r o p e r t y d e l i b e r a t e l y attempt to injure a p l a y e r on a f i e l d d u r i n g a game see a gang of boys beat another boy who i s unable to defend h i m s e l f smoke f o r t y c i g a r e t t e s p e r day b e l i e v i n g t h i s amount could be p h y s i c a l l y h a r m f u l t h r o w a r o c k at someone t h r o w a stone at someone and they w e r e hurt bad t h r o w a swift b a l l and h i t somebody t h r o w something at somebody h u r t someone for no r e a s o n w h a t s o e v e r h u r t someone younger than me hurt a s m a l l child hurt someone h u r t o r push a h e l p l e s s p e r s o n hurt a friend h u r t an o l d e r p e r s o n c o n s i d e r t a k i n g advantage of a new l a w that m a k e s it p o s s i b l e f o r me to be s t e r i l i z e d i n o r d e r to a v o i d having m o r e c h i l d r e n w i s h e v i l to b e f a l l m y neighbour do anything to injure m y health r i s k m y life f o o l i s h l y step on s o m e o n e ' s feet i n a c r o w d e d bus disfigure a person for life  -  200  -  INJURING Item N o ,  Principles  27, 30  1,  h u r t someone for no r e a s o n whatsoever  3, 8, 38  2.  injure someone a c c i d e n t a l l y  11  3.  i n j u r e someone so b a d l y they r e q u i r e d h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n  .1, 2, 5, 6  4.  cause someone to stumble o r f a l l  7, 9, 15  5.  r u n into someone w i t h a v e h i c l e  19  6.  injure someone who has done comething to hurt me  7.  h u r t someone who i s h e l p l e s s o r younger than m y s e l f  18, 21  8.  see someone be h u r t  35  9.  w i s h that someone be h a r m e d i n some way  14  10.  n a r r o w l y m i s s h u r t i n g someone  10, 20  11.  injure someone i n a game  12.  t h r o w something at someone  13.  d e l i b e r a t e l y h u r t someone s l i g h t l y  14.  n e e d l e s s l y expose m y s e l f to h a r m f u l or i n j u r i o u s  31,33, 17,28,29  23,24,25,26 4 3 4 , 3 6 , 16,22  situations W12  15.  advocate a p r a c t i c e w h i c h could be i n j u r i o u s to h e a l t h  13, 39  16.  p e r m a n e n t l y injure someone  33, 30, 32  17.  h u r t someone  INJUSTICE Items a c c u s e or punish someone unjustly punish someone for something they d i d n ' t do be p r o m o t e d to a h i g h p o s i t i o n at the expense of the p e r s o n who taught m e " e v e r y t h i n g I know" blame someone for something they d i d n ' t do a c c u s e another unjustly f i r e an employee f o r m a k i n g a m i s t a k e I have p r e v i o u s l y made m y s e l f d e p r i v e someone of something they a r e e n t i t l e d to. violate s o m e o n e ' s r i g h t s due to m i s t a k e n i d e n t i t y , r e c e i v e p r a i s e and r e w a r d for a p r o j e c t w h i c h someone else had p r o d u c e d and not r e c t i f y m a t t e r s have m y t y r a n n i c a l boss demoted unjustly should take r e v e n g e , be spiteful or be v i n d i c t i v e towards another due to m y own m i s j u d g m e n t say something about another p e r s o n w h i c h i s unjust judge someone u n f a i r l y and say m y judgment to other be unjustly a c c u s e d of a theft I had not c o m m i t t e d a c c u s e a c h i l d of l y i n g and then find out that he was t e l l i n g the t r u t h a c c u s e someone of t a k i n g something of m i n e when they r e a l l y d i d not take a p e r s o n a l c r e d i t for the good w o r k of m y subordinates and b l a m e t h e m for w o r k w h i c h I m i g h t be c r i t i c i z e d give only half the c r e d i t for some w o r k to a f r i e n d who d i d the e n t i r e job hear a fellow student unjustly c r i t i c i z i n g me for m e low m a r k s and l a c k of effort i n m y studies hear that an o l d m a n w a s l e t out of h i s e m p l o y m e n t because he caused an accident w h i c h e v e r y o n e knew he could not a v o i d take a l l the c r e d i t for the w o r k of a p e r s o n i n m y employ refuse to give a m a n c r e d i t f o r e x c e l l e n t w o r k because I have a p e r s o n a l d i s l i k e f o r h i m be p r o m o t e d over a c o - w o r k e r w h o m I know to have better q u a l i f i c a t i o n s be given c r e d i t for a s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y that had been a c c o m p l i s h e d by another :  -  202  -  I N J U S T I C E (Continued) Principle  No.  Items  13  25.  13  26.  13  27.  13 13  28. 29.  r e c e i v e a great d e a l of p r a i s e for a paper I have submitted w h i c h someone e l s e w r o t e for me be judged the w i n n e r i n a m a j o r r a c i n g event i n w h i c h I know someone else to be the r e a l winner pass on a good idea c o n c e i v e d by one of m y subo r d i n a t e s , w h i c h was m i s t a k e n l y thought to be m y idea take c r e d i t f o r something I didn't do take m a j o r c r e d i t for some w o r k , although s o m e one else has done m o r e w o r k on it than I have  -  203  -  INJUSTICE Item  Principles  No.  1, 15, 16  1.  a c c u s e someone of something they didn't do  1, 11  2.  punish someone unjustly  2, 4  3.  punish o r b l a m e someone for something they didn't do  17, 18, 22  4.  not give c r e d i t for something to someone to w h o m it i s due  14  5.  be a c c u s e d of something I d i d not do  12, 13  6.  say something about another p e r s o n w h i c h i s unjust  7, 8, 21  7.  d e p r i v e someone of something they a r e e n t i t l e d to  19  8.  be c r i t i c i z e d unjustly  5, 17  9.  b l a m e or a c c u s e someone unjustly  6  10.  punish someone for something I have, at one t i m e , done m y s e l f  20, 10  11.  see someone being punished unjustly  23, 3  12.  r e c e i v e a r e w a r d above someone who d e s e r v e s it more  13.  take c r e d i t for something done by others  25, 24, 26, 27, 0, 28, 29  -  204  -  INTOLERANCE Principle  No.  Items  6 7  1. 2.  5  3.  5  4.  4  5.  4  6.  1  7.  1  8.  2  9.  8 1  10. 11.  Item  No.  be a s k e d to j o i n a nudist colony be a s k e d for a c i g a r by a w o m a n who sees me smoking one find I have j e o p a r d i z e d m y reputation by unknowingly a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h a c r i m i n a l d i s c o v e r a c c i d e n t a l l y that a l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d f i n i s h e d a j a i l sentence for m u r d e r many y e a r s ago l e a r n that I have bought some p r o p e r t y next to a house of p r o s t i t u t i o n d i s c o v e r that the house next door to m i n e had been sold to a p r o s t i t u t e refuse to give a man who s m e l l e d of l i q u o r any money when he a s k e d m e be a s k e d to be p r e s e n t at my s o r o r i t y o r f r a t e r n i t y club r o o m s where I know t h e r e i s a f a i r chance that l i q u o r would be s e r v e d be c r i t i c i z e d as one who r a r e l y or n e v e r takes a drink be a s k e d to m a r r y a d i v o r c e d p e r s o n be i n t o l e r a n t of w i d e l y accepted b e h a v i o u r  Principles  8, 7, 11  1.  be t o l e r a n t of w i d e l y accepted b e h a v i o u r  9  2.  be c r i t i c i z e d for r e m a i n i n g aloof f r o m a p r a c t i c e of w h i c h I d i s a p p r o v e  5, 6  4.  find my house i s c l o s e to someone I c o n s i d e r socially undesirable  4  5.  " d r o p " a good f r i e n d when I find he had at one t i m e done something w r o n g  1 2 10  6.  be i n v i t e d to j o i n a group not fully accepted s o c i a l l y  7.  be a s k e d for something that a p e r s o n . s e e s I have  8.  be a s k e d to m a r r y someone who m a y be d i s a p p r o v e d of s o c i a l l y e . g . d i v o r c e d  - 205 IRRESPONSIBILITY Principle No.  Items  2  1.  1  2.  1 1 10  3. 4. 5.  13  6.  4  7.  1  8.  3 5  9. 10.  8  11.  8  12.  8  13.  6  14.  11  15.  7  16.  9 1  W  17. 18.  d u r i n g a war speak c a r e l e s s l y so that the enemy i s able to get some v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l i c t heavy l o s s e s on m y side go to a p u b l i c place w h i l e suffering f r o m a contagious disease push someone into the lake or pool dunk someone when i n s w i m m i n g be t o l d that m y name had been given (as a reference) without m y p e r m i s s i o n to e s t a b l i s h c r e d i t i n a department s t o r e by one w h o m I knew to be irresponsible w o r k as a s a l e s m a n for a company whose product I c o n s i d e r to be a poor buy h e l p a m a n to get a job although I know he m a y a c t u a l l y do h a r m to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n s u c h a position d r i v e through a c r o s s - w a l k i n w h i c h a m o t h e r and a young c h i l d w e r e standing fool a r o u n d at s c h o o l or w o r k p e r m i t a good p l a y e r w i t h a h e a r t condition to play i n a c h a m p i o n s h i p game be r e q u e s t e d to p e r f o r m a p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e for a fee and should think of c a r r y i n g i t out even though I l a c k the p r o p e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s do w o r k for w h i c h I a m not q u a l i f i e d although I know some h a r m m a y r e s u l t f r o m m y l a c k of training do some w o r k although I know I a m not q u a l i f i e d to do i t , as there i s no one i n the v i c i n i t y w i t h the necessary training be on a t e r r i f i c p a r t y w i t h a group of m y f r i e n d s who decide to go to a v e r y d i s r e p u t a b l e p l a c e , knowing that m y p r e s e n c e there w o u l d damage m y f a m i l y ' s reputation as w e l l as m y own d i s c o v e r that I, as a m e m b e r of a f r a t e r n i t y or s o r o r i t y , c o n s i s t e n t l y made a great d e a l of noise that awakened the neighbours late at night make a statement p u b l i c l y that an event i s sure to o c c u r , when I have a c t u a l l y no such a s s u r a n c e use another p e r s o n ' s p r o p e r t y without p e r m i s s i o n d r i v e a car d a n g e r o u s l y  - 206 IRRESPONSIBILITY continued: Principle No.  Items  12 6  W W  19. 20  9 13  H  21. 22.  13  23.  commit a m o r t a l sin a s s o c i a t e w i t h a group although I know that such a s s o c i a t i o n m a y damage m y f a m i l y ' s reputation as w e l l as m y own b o r r o w a f r i e n d ' s belongings without a s k i n g continue to w o r k for a f i r m although I r e a l i z e some of i t s p r a c t i s e s are e n t h i c a l w o r k for a company although I know i t m a k e s false statements about i t s employees Principles  tern No 2, 3, 4 , 8, 18  1.  expose others to danger  1  2.  speak c a r e l e s s l y of confidential m a t t e r s so that h a r m a r i s e s as a r e s u l t  9  3.  fool a r o u n d at s c h o o l or w o r k  7  4.  h e l p someone attain a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h he m a y h a r m others  10  5.  a l l o w someone to do something w h i c h m a y h a r m them  20, 14  6,  behave i n a manner w h i c h m a y d i s g r a c e m y f a m i l y name  16  7.  make public statements w h i c h I know m a y be m i s l e a d i n g  11, 12, 13  8.  take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that a r e beyond m y capacity  17, 21  9.  use another p e r s o n ' s p r o p e r t y without p e r m i s s i o n  5  10.  use another p e r s o n ' s name without p e r m i s s i o n  15  11.  create a d i s t u r b i n g amount of noise  19  W 12.  6, 22, 23  13.  commit a mortal sin w o r k for someone I feel i s not o p e r a t i n g h o n e s t l y  - 297 KILLING Principle No.  Items  1 1 2 3 4  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  4  6.  4  7.  4  8.  2 5 8 9  9. 10. 11, 12.  W  11 7 6 2 10 11  13. 14. W  15. 16. 17. 18.  m u r d e r someone u n n e c e s s a r i l y m u r d e r an enemy while i n w a r combat k i l l somebody a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l someone i n self defense o v e r h e a r two s p e c i a l i s t s f a v o u r i n g the m e r i t s of m e r c y k i l l i n g of those b o r n w i t h handicapping p h y s i c a l defects o v e r h e a r two s c i e n t i s t s d i s c u s s a p p r o v i n g l y the m e r i t s of m e r c y k i l l i n g of the suffering o v e r h e a r two s c i e n t i s t s d i s c u s s a p p r o v i n g l y the m e r i t s of m e r c y k i l l i n g i n the case of the m e n t a l l y deficient be told by m y i n s t r u c t o r that o l d s t e r s should be e s t e r m i n a t e d once they r e a c h the age of 70 shoot a p e r s o n on a hunting e x p e d i t i o n think about taking m y own l i f e k i l l one of m y parents see the v i c i o u s b o m b i n g and shooting of m y c o u n t r y men i n a war movie be h i r e d as a hangman attend a debate and the outcome should favour c a p i t a l punishment for c h r o n i c c r i m i n a l s support a move to see that a b o r t i o n s a r e l e g a l i z e d through m y poor d r i v i n g s k i l l cause a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g the death of a c h i l d w i s h someone dead just to be "out of the w a y " k i l l an enemy w h i l e i n combat  - 208 KILLING - continued: Item N o .  Principles  2,1  1.  m u r d e r someone  3,9,16  2.  k i l l someone a c c i d e n t a l l y  4  3.  k i l l someone i n self defense  5,6,7,8  4.  hear d i s c u s s i o n of m e r c y k i l l i n g s  10  5.  think about k i l l i n g m y s e l f  15  6.  support l e g a l i z e d a b o r t i o n s  14  7.  support c a p i t a l punishment  11  8.  k i l l one of m y f a m i l y  12  9.  see m u r d e r i n g and k i l l i n g  17  10.  w i s h that someone w e r e dead  18, 13  11.  as m y duty be r e q u i r e d to k i l l someone  - 209 LACK Principle No.  1, 2.  2 2  3. 4.  3 4 3 2 1  5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  H  EFFORT  Items  1 1  3 5  OF  10. 11.  Item N o .  w a t c h T V when I should be w o r k i n g sit r e l a x i n g when I should be getting housework done not put enough effort into something not r e a l l y e a r n m y s a l a r y because of m y l a c k of i n d u s t r y sleep i n on Sunday go to sleep at w o r k or i n s c h o o l stay i n bed too late i n the m o r n i n g put l i t t l e thought and p r e p a r a t i o n into a m e a l see a l l the gardening I should do but I r e a d instead stay i n bed too late i n the m o r n i n g not m a k e any efforts or do anything about getting a good job after graduating f r o m s c h o o l  Principles  1,2,9  1.  do something r e l a x i n g when I should be w o r k i n g  3,4,8  2.  not put enough effort into something  5,7,10  3.  sleep i n or stay i n bed late  6  4.  go to sleep at s c h o o l or w o r k  11  5.  not m a k e an effort to p r e p a r e for the future  - 210 LOSS  OF  SELF  Principle No.  CONTROL  Items  1 2  1. 2,  3  3.  4 5 6 7 6 8  H  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  7  H  10.  1 4 4 5  H H W  11. 12. 13. 14.  Item N o .  c r y i n public after an evening of d r i n k i n g be t o l d the next day that I had behaved l i k e a d r u n k e n fool l e t m y m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r leave for w o r k unhappy because I have been v e r y c r a n k y that m o r n i n g say bad w o r d s s c r e a m at someone act on i m p u l s e u n w i s e l y b l u r t out something without m e a n i n g to buy something on i m p u l s e that I r e a l l y can't afford couldn't m a k e m y s e l f stop t a l k i n g w i t h others i n the r o o m when I should be doing m y homeaKork t e l l one of m y t e a c h e r s what I r e a l l y thought of her when I had meant to get her on m y side c r y i f someone teased m e use bad language and swear c u r s e or swear get e x c i t e d and s c r e a m  Principles  1  1.  c r y i n public  2  2.  m i s b e h a v e when drunk  3  3.  be c r a n k y and upset others  4, 12, 13  4.  swear or say bad w o r d s  5, 14  5.  s c r e a m when e x c i t e d  6,8  6.  act on i m p u l s e u n w i s e l y  7, 19  7.  b l u r t out something without m e a n i n g to  8.  not be able to stop doing something I shouldn't  9  H  x  - 211 LOSS Principle No.  OF  SELF  RESPECT  Items  2  1.  1  2.  1  3.  1  4.  12  5.  I  6.  10  7.  II  8.  7  9-  7  10.  14  11.  12  12.  8 18 15 3  13. 14. 15. 16.  3 9  17. 18.  13  19-  3  20.  3  21.  due to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d i v o r c e be a s k e d to l i v e as a c o m m o n - l a w p a r t n e r w i t h someone d i s c o v e r that a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y frequented a house of p r o s t i t u t i o n be told for the f i r s t t i m e by a f r i e n d that m y s i s t e r had become a prostitute as a parent, have a c h i l d w h o , because of p r e - m a r i t a l sex a c t i v i t i e s , had to get m a r r i e d f a i l to do m y job as w e l l as I a m able and m y s u p e r v i s o r r e m a r k s on i t find out that a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y i s h o m o s e x u a l be seen w a l k i n g w i t h m y best f r i e n d who had just been made p r e s i d e n t of the nudist club l e a r n that a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y had joined a n u d i s t group have someone w h o m I r e s p e c t catch me doing s o m e thing I know I shouldn't do have a f r i e n d catch m e doing something I know I shouldn't do have to face m y parents w i t h the l o w m a r k s I received i n m y examination be t o l d by m y i n s t r u c t o r that I had l e t h i m down by m y low s t a n d a r d of w o r k get i n t r o u b l e w i t h teacher or parents get i n j a i l don't get something I ask for d i s c o v e r that m y father, who has a l w a y s p r i d e d h i m self upon being a s t r o n g c h u r c h w o r k e r , i s i n v o l v e d i n a shady b u s i n e s s d e a l have a s i s t e r who b e c o m e s an a l c o h o l i c be a m e m b e r of a f a m i l y i n w h i c h some m e m b e r f a i l e d to m e e t standards (in s c h o o l w o r k , e t c . ) expected of them have a m a r i t a l p a r t n e r who i n s u l t s someone i n m y presence know m y spouse i s engaged i n unethical b u s i n e s s practices l e a r n that m y father had made a s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l gain by a v e r y c l e v e r but dishonest b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n w h i c h enabled m y f a m i l y to achieve a better f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l status  - 212 LOSS  OF  SELF  RESPECT  - continued: Principle No.  Items  10  22.  1  23.  16  24.  <7  25.  16  26.  4  27.  4  28.  4  29.  4 8 5 6 6  30. 31. 32. 33. 34.  3  35.  15  H  36.  8 4  37. 38.  9  39-  9  40.  9  41.  1  42.  be seen w i t h a r e l a t i o n of m i n e w h o m I l i k e v e r y m u c h even though the r e l a t i o n t s r e p u t a t i o n i s s u c h that other people w i l l think l e s s of m e be t o l d m y f a t h e r ' s m i s t r e s s had come to see m y mother notice that a v e r y good neighbourhood f r i e n d b e c o m e s suddenly cool towards m e for no apparent r e a s o n be seen c o m m i t t i n g an u n s p o r t s m a n l i k e a c t i o n d u r i n g a competition d i s c o v e r that some of m y a c t i o n s had a r o u s e d the i r e of the p r e s i d e n t of the f i r m for w h i c h I w o r k notice that the questions I ask i n group situations r e p e a t e d l y a r o u s e a negative r e a c t i o n i n others present find that m y p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s d i d not follow the w i s h e s o of the m a j o r i t y vote for a candidate of w h o m I know m y f r i e n d s d i s approve have everyone d i s a g r e e w i t h something I say have someone think I have done s o m e t h i n g w r o n g not be able to r e t u r n a favour accept l a r g e gifts f r o m i n - l a w s that they cannot afford be given a m o n e t a r y r e w a r d by one w h o m I know to be a prostitute find that m y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i s i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l l y undesirable practices not be chosen as an officer or c h a i r m a n i n a club o r committee have something I have done m i s u n d e r s t o o d be r i d i c u l e d by a group of acquaintances for m y suggestions on a c e r t a i n t o p i c see m y m o t h e r downtown w e a r i n g m y young s i s t e r ' s p e d d l e - p u s h e r s and s t r i p e d T - s h i r t see m y m o t h e r going to a football game w i t h the m a n next door because m y father doesn't want to go have a steady who made a fool of t h e m s e l v e s i n front of one of m y f r i e n d s find out that m y father i s r e s p o n s i b l e for a w o m a n other than m y m o t h e r being pregnant  LOSS  OF  SELF  RESPECT  Items be told that m y m o t h e r was e n t e r t a i n i n g a m a n w h i l e m y father was away be a s k e d to do a favour by a p e r s o n w h o m I e s t e e m e d but could not oblige because of c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond m y c o n t r o l be unable to help someone out who came to me for help  - 214 LOSS  OF  SELF  RESPECT  - continued: Item N o .  Principles  2, 3 , 4 , 6, 42,43,23  1.  find out a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y c o m m i t s s e x u a l irregularities  I  2.  be a s k e d to l i v e under d i s a p p r o v e d r e l a t i o n s w i t h others  16, 17, 20, 21.35  3.  find that a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y or someone I a d m i r e has c o m m i t t e d s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r e a b l e acts  38,27,28 29,30  4.  find m o s t p e r s o n s d i s a g r e e w i t h something I s a y , b e l i e v e , or do  32  5.  not be able to r e t u r n a favour  33,34  6.  have a favour done for m e by someone f r o m w h o m I do not w i s h to r e c e i v e them  9, 10,25  7.  have someone catch m e doing something I shouldn't do  13,31,37  8.  have someone think I have done something w r o n g  18,40,39 41  9.  have a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y or someone I a d m i r e f a i l to meet standards expected of t h e m  7,22  10.  be seen w i t h someone of n o t o r i o u s reputation  8  11.  l e a r n a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y has j o i n e d an o r g a n i z a tion of w h i c h I d i s a p p r o v e  5,12  12.  have pointed out to me that I a m not doing w e l l  19  13.  have a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y m i s b e h a v e before m y s e l f and others  II  14.  have to t e l l m y f a m i l y of m y poor behaviour  13.36  15.  not get something I had wanted  24,26  16.  find that I have a n g e r e d someone by t a c t l e s s n e s s  44,45  17.  be unable to h e l p someone because of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e circumstances  14  18.  be a r r e s t e d or j a i l e d  LYING Items say something that i s not true and get somebody into trouble l i e to protect m y s e l f and get someone e l s e into trouble t e l l a l i e w h i c h hurts someone else tell a lie t e l l a l i e of any k i n d t e l l a l i e about someone attempt to p r e s e r v e m y s e l f - r e s p e c t by t e l l i n g students c e r t a i n things w h i c h I know a r e f a l s e use i l l n e s s as an excuse for not accepting an i n v i t a t i o n and then meet the p e r s o n on the s t r e e t who i n v i t e d m e be expected to take m y m o t h e r out for a d r i v e and I t e l l h e r the car has b r o k e n down because a f r i e n d i n v i t e d m e out swear to a f a l s e a l i b i to save m y l i f e knowing that i t m i g h t h a r m someone else t e l l a l i e w h i c h could not p o s s i b l y be found out, because I f e e l i t i s the best thing to do i n this s i t u a t i o n t e l l the c a n v a s s e r for a c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n that m y husband was c o n t r i b u t i n g at the office, even though I know that i t i s u n l i k e l y that he w i l l contribute be t r y i n g to be a c c u r a t e i n m y a n s w e r s to these questions but, because some of t h e m s e e m too p e r s o n a l , I tend to m o d i f y some of m y responsi m a k e up a false excuse to get out of some w o r k d e c l i n e to accept a c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on grounds that I do not have enough t i m e for i t although I a c t u a l l y have enough spare t i m e to p e r f o r m that p a r t i c u l a r task be a w i t n e s s i n court and swear an oath to t e l l the t r u t h , but find that l y i n g i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to p r o t e c t someone w h o m I love and b e l i e v e to be innocent apply for a job i n w h i c h I m u s t l i e about m y age i n o r d e r to get i t c l a i m m o r e education than I a c t u a l l y have on a job a p p l i c a t i o n  - 216 LYING - continued: Principle No.  Items  6  19.  8  20.  6 6  21. 22.  4  23.  11  24.  10  25.  3 12  W  26. 27.  H  28.  obtain a good job by c l a i m i n g m o r e e x p e r i e n c e than I a c t u a l l y have have to t e l l a h o s p i t a l patient a l i e about some future happening use false a d v e r t i s i n g to promote m y own r e p u t a t i o n decieve someone by giving false r e a s o n s for wanting some i n f o r m a t i o n he would not o w t h e r w i s e give me p r o t e c t m y father w h o m I know i s g u i l t y , by l y i n g to the p o l i c e notice that I a m not a n s w e r i n g these questions as truthfully as i s expected of me a n s w e r a question untruthfully i n o r d e r to p r e s e r v e some p e r s o n a l d i g n i t y swear to a false a l i b i to save m y life be i n v i t e d o v e r to s o m e o n e ' s place for the evening and r e f u s e , s a y i n g I a m going s o m e w h e r e e l s e when I a m not l i e to m y m o t h e r about going to some place she d i d n ' t want m e to  -  217 -  LYING - continued: Principles  Item N o . I, 2  1.  t e l l a l i e that gets someone into t r o u b l e  3  2.  t e l l a l i e to h a r m someone else  2,10,26,28  3.  t e l l a l i e to p r o t e c t m y s e l f  16.23  4.  t e l l a l i e to p r o t e c t someone else  4,5  5.  tell a lie  17,18,19 21,22  6.  6  7.  I I , 12  8.  t e l l a l i e because I feel i t i s the best thing to do i n the s i t u a t i o n  8,13  9.  be caught i n a l i e  t e l l a l i e i n o r d e r to get something I want  t e l l a l i e about someone  7,25  10.  t e l l a l i e to p r e s e r v e m y s e l f - r e s p e c t  13.24  11.  tell a l i e i n answering a questionnaire  8,9,12,14 15, 27  12.  t e l l a l i e to get out of doing something  - 218 LUST Principle No. 5  W  Items 1.  10  2.  13  3.  9  W  4.  14 7  W  5. 6.  6 13  7. 8.  8  9.  8  10.  8  11.  1  12.  1 8 2 2  13. 14. 15. 16.  11  17.  11  18.  4 3  W  19. 20.  12 1  21. 22.  7 5 7 7 15  23. 24. 25. 26. 27.  W W  w w  i m a g i n e a w a y to s e x u a l l y seduce another without any intention of c a r r y i n g out the plan have a p e r s o n of m y own sex i n v i t e m e to engage in sexual activities with them be i n t e r e s t e d i n m a r r y i n g someone who was m u c h o l d e r than m y s e l f indulge i n m u t u a l m a s t u r b a t i o n w i t h the opposite s ex have s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h an a n i m a l be a s k e d by m y fiance to go away together for a weekend before our m a r r i a g e r u n away w i t h someone I have just met have an affair w i t h a m u c h younger p e r s o n and not be found out become s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t e d to someone e l s e ' s m a r r i a g e partner be a t t r a c t e d to another m a n , other than m y husband w i s h that another would die so that I could a c q u i r e their m a r r i a g e partner p e r m i t m y s e l f to be a t t r a c t e d by m y b r o t h e r or s i s t e r in-law f e e l a strong s e x u a l d e s i r e for a close r e l a t i v e c o m m i t a d u l t e r y w i t h no p o s s i b i l i t y of being d i s c o v e r e d have a s exual affair w i t h someone I do not love s i n c e r e l y engage i n s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e m e r e l y i n o r d e r to s a t i s f y a p h y s i c a l need l e a r n that m y g i r l f r i e n d had had i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s w i t h a p r e v i o u s boy f r i e n d d i s c o v e r that m y fiance had been s e x u a l l y p r o m i s c u o u s before m e e t i n g me take part i n a m i x e d p a r t y of d r i n k i n g and s e x u a l acts j o i n a group that holds s e x u a l p l e a s u r e i s to be i n d u l g e d i n w h e n e v e r one f e e l s the urge see m y best f r i e n d going into a house of p r o s t i t u t i o n be t o l d that one of m y c l o s e f r i e n d s had become a prostitute l o s e m y v i r g i n i t y before m a r r i a g e d e s i r e unchaste acts or thoughts p e r f o r m an act c o n t r a r y to c h a s t i t y c o m m i t f o r n i c a t i o n but use a c o n t r a c e p t i v e masturbate habitually  - 219 LUST continued: Item N o .  Principles  12, 13  1.  f e e l a s t r o n g s e x u a l d e s i r e for a close r e l a t i v e  15, 16  2.  have a s e x u a l affair w i t h someone I do not l o v e sincerely  20  W  19  3.  j o i n a group w h i c h b e l i e v e s i n free love  4.  be a s k e d to take part i n a m i x e d p a r t y of d r i n k i n g and s e x u a l acts  1,24  5.  i m a g i n e or d e s i r e s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e  7  6.  r u n away w i t h someone I have just met  23,26,25,6  7.  have s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s outside of m a r r i a g e  9, 10, 11, 14  8/  have adulterous d e s i r e s or r e l a t i o n s  4  9.  indulge i n m a s t u r b a t i o n w i t h someone else  W  2  10.  be a s k e d to take part i n h o m o s e x u a l acts  17, 18  11.  21,22  12.  3,8  13.  d i s c o v e r that someone I love was p r e v i o u s l y sexually promiscuous l e a r n that someone I know has become a prostitute or has frequented places of p r o s t i t u t i o n have an affair w i t h a m u c h younger or o l d e r p e r s o n than m y s e l f  28  W  14.  have s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h an a n i m a l  27  W  15.  masturbate habitually  - 220 NEGLIGENCE Items see a p e r s o n c o l l a p s e on a d e s e r t e d downtown s t r e e t and I i g n o r e the i n c i d e n t and continue to d r i v e on see a s t r a n g e r who i s i n a state of p h y s i c a l c o l l a p s e and I i g n o r e h i m f a i l to take p r e c a u t i o n s to prevent the i n j u r y of p e r s o n s i n m y e m p l o y i n o r d e r to save m o n e y see a p e r s o n to w h o m I have a great a v e r s i o n i n s e r i o u s t r o u b l e and I do not h e l p h i m know about p o s s i b l e h a r m b e f a l l i n g someone I know but w h o m I don't l i k e and do nothing about it r e f r a i n f r o m w a r n i n g an acquaintance of t h r e a t s w h i c h I have o v e r h e a r d l e t something happen to a p e r s o n that I could not help as a l e g i s l a t o r e x a m i n e p r o p o s e d l a w s s u p e r f i c i a l l y d i s r e g a r d c e r t a i n p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n o r d e r to save t i m e , although the r e s u l t i n g product m a y not be of h i g h standard c o n s i d e r only one factor i n m a k i n g an i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n affecting someone else because I cannot be bothered to i n v e s t i g a t e m o r e thoroughly hear that t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t a c c o m m o d a t i o n to feed and clothe the s e v e r a l hundred o l d s t e r s in m y community neglect a c h i l d neglect something of i m p o r t a n c e to any m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y due to p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h business leave a baby untended for a short t i m e f a i l to w a r n a f r i e n d that she has been exposed to a contagious disease f a i l to c o r r e c t the actions of those p l a c e d under m y charge knowing that m y neglect would cause t h e m possible h a r m have something bad happen on account of m y neglect be e x e r c i s i n g a dog for w h i c h I a m r e s p o n s i b l e and i t gets r u n over  - 221 NEGLIGENCE - continued: Item N o .  Principles  7,17,18  1.  have something bad happen to someone or s o m e thing because of m y neglect  14  2.  leave a h e l p l e s s p e r s o n untended for a short t i m e  12  3.  neglect a c h i l d  5,6,15  4.  f a i l to w a r n someone of exposure to danger  16  5.  not c o r r e c t behaviour w h i c h could l e a d to h a r m  1,2,4  6.  i g n o r e a p e r s o n who r e q u i r e d i m m e d i a t e h e l p to save h i m f r o m h a r m  11  7.  not c o r r e c t situations w h i c h could l e a d to h a r m  8,10  8.  not i n v e s t i g a t e an i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m t h o r o u g h l y before making a decision  3  9.  f a i l to take p r e c a u t i o n s to prevent i n j u r y to others  9, 13  10.  n e g l e c t m a t t e r s for w h i c h others a r e on me  dependent  - 222 NON-COOPERATION Items  Principle No. 1  1.  3  2.  3  3.  3  H  4.  4  H  5.  H  6. 7. 8.  2 5 3  Item N o .  plead s i c k n e s s i n o r d e r to a v o i d a s s i s t i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n for a s o c i a l event and then appear at the event i n good health for the entertainment sit back and l e t m y fellow c l u b - m a t e s do a l l the hard labour i n making a project successful not h e l p i n a group effort not p i t c h i n and h e l p i f m y f a m i l y was getting things r e a d y for a p a r t y not offer to h e l p when m y club or young people's group was a r r a n g i n g for an affair not do m y share of w o r k not make an effort to get along w e l l w i t h m y t e a c h e r or boss not cooperate i n a w o r k p r o j e c t  Principles  1  1.  not w o r k on a group p r o j e c t but benefit f r o m what was done by others  6  2.  not do m y s h a r e of w o r k  2,3,4,8  3.  not help i n a group effort  5  H  4.  not offer m y h e l p i n a group effort  7  H  5.  not t r y to get along w e e l l w i t h others  - 223 N O N F U L F I L L M E N T O F SOCIAL EXPECTATIONS Items 1. 2. 3.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  f a i l to give m y s h a r e to c h a r i t y because the c a n v a s s e r c a l l e d w h i l e I was away not vote to elect a p e r s o n to office when i n a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h i t i s m y duty be a d v i s e d that m y donation to a c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n was m u c h below that expected f r o m one of my income level refuse to w o r k i n a c h a r i t y d r i v e because I fear i t m a y become an annual duty not go to a m e e t i n g I a m supposed to attend f a i l to attend union m e e t i n g s , t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g c o m m u n i s t s to gain c o n t r o l f a i l to contribute to the support of the poor s h i r k m y duty as a host or h o s t e s s not attend c h u r c h or club m e e t i n g s , e t c . , for s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s , and then meet the m i n i s t e r or club p r e s i d e n t , e t c . unexpectedly f a i l to contribute to the support of the c h u r c h not vote i n a government e l e c t i o n neglect to study the b a c k g r o u n d and p l a t f o r m of each p a r t y before voting see an a c c i d e n t and h u r r y away so that I w i l l not be i n c o n v e n i e n c e d by the f o l l o w i n g i n q u i r y a v o i d a n s w e r i n g the door because I know somebody w i l l ask m e for a c o n t r i b u t i o n to c h a r i t y neglect to take an a c t i v e part i n the a c t i v i t i e s of a c o m m u n i t y when m y h e l p i s needed not cooperate w i t h the c o m m u n i t y chest  N O N F U L F I L L M E N T OF SOCIAL EXPECTATIONS  Principles 1.  not c o n t r i b u t e m y share to c h a r i t y  2.  not vote i n an e l e c t i o n or not take p r o p e r ca i n voting  3.  not go to a m e e t i n g I a m supposed to attend  4.  s h i r k m y duty as host or h o s t e s s  5.  f a i l to contribute to r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s  6.  a v o i d giving evidence or being n a m e d as a witness not take p a r t i n c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s  7.  -  225  -  N O N F U L F I L L M E N T Principle No.  OBLIGATIONS  litems  12  1.  7 2 4 6 6  1 1 1 3 7  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. W12.  11  13.  6.  OF SOCIAL  9  14.  9 7  15. W 16.  10  17.  10  18.  10 10  19. 20.  10  21.  7 6 9 8 12  22. W23. W24. 25. 26.  14  27.  1  28.  7  29.  15 10 1  30. 31. 32.  not attend m y p a r e n t ' s f u n e r a l because of the distance I would have to t r a v e l not apologize not do the things I a m supposed to do when left on m y own m i s s a day at s c h o o l o r w o r k f a i l to p r e p a r e m y d a y ' s w o r k f a i l to p r e p a r e m y d a y ' s w o r k faithfully not do m y h o m e w o r k at night disappoint someone let someone down leave the r e s t of the c a r c h a i n stranded t r y to evade the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of m y job f a i l to r e p a i r any damage I m a y have done to the s p i r i t u a l o r p h y s i c a l life of m y neighbour f a i l to notify the post office of a change of a d d r e s s , thus having m y m a i l continue to be sent to m y p r e v i o u s a d d r e s s to the annoyance of the l a n d l o r d be unable to pay a debt o r i f I were unavoidably late paying it be unable to pay m y b i l l s f a i l to r e p a i r the damage that I m a y have done to the honour of another put a parent i n a n u r s i n g home when I know she would r a t h e r be i n m y own home be r e q u i r e d to support m y m o t h e r - i n - l a w o r some other relation be unable to provide for m y v e r y o l d and needy parents f a i l to p r o v i d e the n e c e s s i t i e s of life for m y c h i l d r e n because of a l a c k of money or w o r k be a s k e d to put m y c h i l d up for adoption because I was not g i v i n g it p r o p e r c a r e a c c u s e someone e r r o n e o u s l y and then f a i l to apologize f a i l to p e r f o r m m y a s s i g n e d w o r k faithfully f a i l to pay m y j u s t debts not w r i t e l e t t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those of sympathy on account of c i r c u m s t a n c e s not to be able to attend m y parent's funeral due to other appointments find i t i m p o s s i b l e to a s s i s t m y parents i n w o r k that was being c a r r i e d out for m y benefit a v o i d an o b l i g a t i o n by doing something else i n s t e a d of m e e t ing the o b l i g a t i o n a l l o w a house i n w h i c h I a m l i v i n g to be damaged and not r e p a i r the damage not give m y c h i l d r e n a p r o p e r r e l i g i o u s background not see that m y f a m i l y has p r o p e r m e a l s refuse s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h m y husband  -  N O N F U L F I L L M E N T Principle No. 33. 34.  13  35.  11 2 2 4 2  H36. H 3 7. H38. H39. 40.  2 4 4 4 2 2 2  -  OF SOCIAL  OBLIGATIONS  (cont. )  Item  5 5  9 1 1 7  226  go away and leave m y paper route undone have a g r e e d to p a r t i c i p a t e as a m e m b e r of a panel at a public m e e t i n g but due to c a r trouble was detained f r o m appearing f a i l to keep an appointment to meet someone because something m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g turned up not notify a p e r s o n i f I c o u l d n ' t show up for an appointment not do a job a s s i g n e d to me on a c o m m i t t e e not do m y h o m e w o r k because I wanted to play skip s c h o o l go out l e a v i n g w o r k undone at home  W 4 1 . put m y c h i l d up f o r adoption because I don't l i k e c h i l d r e n 42. not help someone when expected to 43. not do what was expected of me 44. have a f r i e n d ask me to c l e a r up a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g I have c a u s e d w i t h another f r i e n d but I refuse because I cannot be bothered 45. go out the night before an e x a m I felt I should study for 46. play hookey f r o m s c h o o l o r w o r k 47. stay f r o m w o r k u n n e c e s s a r i l y , although I know i t puts a burden on o t h e r s 48. take an e x t r a half hour for l u n c h when the boss i s away 49. be left to w o r k independently by m y e m p l o y e r -and use the time i n some other way 50. leave the house when I a m supposed to be baby s i t t i n g 51. go out when I a m supposed to be w o r k i n g at home  -  N O N F U L F I L L M E N T Items  227  OF SOCIAL  OBLIGATIONS  Principle s  8, 9, 10, 28,32, 42, 43  1.  not do what someone expects of me  2.  not do the things I a m supposed to when left on m y own  3.  t r y to evade the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of m y job  4, 39, 46, 47, 48  4.  take time off w o r k o r school when I a m not supposed to  33, 34  5.  f a i l to do something I have been engaged to do  5, 6, 7, 23  6.  f a i l to prepare m y w o r k r e g u l a r l y  7.  not make amends for damage I have c a u s e d  8.  not w r i t e l e t t e r s that should be w r i t t e n , such as those of  3, 35, 4 9 , 5 0 , 5 1 , 37, 38, 40 11  12,  12, 16, 22, 29,  44 25  sympathy 24, 14, 15  9.  17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31, 41 10. 13, 36 11.  be unable to pay m y b i l l s or be u n a v o i d a b l y late i n doing so not see that those i n m y charge a r e c a r e d for p r o p e r l y f a i l to notify those I should of changes of t i m e s , place and status  1, 26  12.  f a i l to partake i n f a m i l y r i t u a l s as expected of me  35  13.  27 30  14. 15.  f a i l to keep an appointment family f a i l to p a r t i c i p a t e m / t a s k s c a r r i e d out for m y benefit f a i l to see that those i n m y charge a r e not t r a i n e d p r o p e r l y  - 228 OBJECTIONABLE BEHAVIOUR Principle No.  Items  1  1.  1  2.  2  3.  5 4 3 2  4. 5. 6. 7.  4  8.  5  9.  2 5 5  10. 11. 12.  4  H  13.  Item N o .  find m y s e l f at a m i x e d p a r t y w i t h a n o t i c e a b l e hole i n m y socks have i t pointed out to me that m y underclothes w e r e showing be t o l d that I m a k e a great d e a l of n o i s e w h i l e eating soup be pointed out as one who eats h i s m e a l s too fast hear someone say that I had a strong body odor go to the b a t h r o o m i n m y pants have m y bowels m a k e sounds when i n the p r e s e n c e of others have someone c o n t i n u a l l y t u r n h i s head away w h i l e speaking to m e , and l a t e r find i t was due to m y bad b r e a t h be t o l d to stop s c r a t c h i n g a d i s a p p r o v e d part of m y anatomy be c r i t i c i z e d for b e l c h i n g i n p u b l i c have m y f r i e n d s t e l l m e to stop p i c k i n g m y nose suddenly become aware that I a m p i c k i n g m y nose w h i l e i n the company of others find out that I had 3.0.  Principles  1,2,  1  have m y clothing i n n o t i c e a b l y poor condition  3 . 7 , 10  2.  m a k e i n v o l u n t a r y but rude n o i s e s i n public  6  3.  go to the b a t h r o o m i n other than the p r e s c r i b e d p l a c e s  5 . 8 , 13  4.  find I have a d i s a g r e e a b l e odor  4 . 9 , 11, 12  5.  p e r f o r m acts w h i c h a r e p e r s o n a l l y c o m f o r t i n g but a r e d i s t a s t e f u l to others  - 229 OVER Principle No.  INDULGENCE Items  1 2  1. 2.  2 2  3. 4.  eat too m u c h at a p a r t y be told that I had a l r e a d y eaten m o r e than I was e n t i t l e d to be c a l l e d a glutton for o v e r e a t i n g get drunk  Item N o .  Principles  1  1.  eat too m u c h when at a g a t h e r i n g  3,2  2.  be t o l d I have eaten m o r e than I a m supposed  4  3.  get drunk  -  PERSONAL , P r i n c i p l e No .  23 0 -  ATTRIBUTES Items  1 2  1. 2.  3  3.  4 4 5  4. 5. 6.  . Item No .  be d e s c r i b e d as one who was not v e r y s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e h e a r my friends d e s c r i b e me as being h o m e l y and far f r o m good l o o k i n g or handsome h e a r someone say that I was e x c e p t i o n a l l y good l o o k i n g and handsome d i s c o v e r that I a m an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d find after I had grown up that I was an adopted c h i l d find after m a r r i a g e that I could n e v e r have any c h i l d r e n  Principles  1  1.  not be s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e  2  2.  not be good l o o k i n g  3  3.  be e x c e p t i o n a l l y good l o o k i n g  4, 5  4.  find I a m not r e a l l y my p a r e n t s ' c h i l d  6  5.  find I cannot have c h i l d r e n  -  PERSONAL  Principle No.  231  OBLIGATIONS  Items  7 8 2 3  1. 2. 3. 4.  4 5 6 7 7 8  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  8 2 8 8 8 7 1 7 7 3 2 2  11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. H 19. W20. H 21. H 22.  become mundane go to bed e a r l y and not be a better companion not do m y best i n whatever job I tackle do something c o n t r a r y to what I know to be c o r r e c t and for m y own good not be true to m y s e l f whatever the cost neglect doing m y duty to m a n k i n d not t r y to f o r m a c l e a r philosophy of life neglect self-education not make time to r e a d better books have left undone something I should have done to please or help someone d r e s s up for company but not for m y husband not e n t e r t a i n as I should l i k e not be passionate enough w i t h m y m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r not r e a d to m y c h i l d at the end of thecday not get up i n time to get m y husband's b r e a k f a s t not t r y to i m p r o v e m y cooking not a c c o m p l i s h enough i n a day become just a h o u s e h o l d drudge (not i n t e r e s t i n g ) not s t r i v e ahead to become somebody do anything to d i s g r a c e m y s e l f not do the best I can i n m y studies not do the b e s t I can on a job  232  P E R S O N A L OBLIGATIONS  Item N o . 18  (contd. )  Principles1.  not a c c o m p l i s h enough i n a day  2.  not do m y best i n e v e r y situation  4  3.  do something I know i s bad for m y s e l f  5  4.  not be true to m y s e l f whatever the cost  6  5.  neglect doing m y duty to m a n k i n d  7  6.  not t r y to f o r m a c l e a r philosophy of life  1,8,9,17,19, 20  7.  not t r y to better m y s e l f  10,11, 14,15, 16  8.  have left something undone that m i g h t have p l e a s e d or helped someone  3, 1 2 , 2 2 , 2 3  - 233 -  POOR. Principle No.  INFLUENCE Items  1  Wl.  2 3  2. 3.  3  4.  4  5.  4  6.  5 1 4 6  H7. W8. W9. 10.  6 4  11. W 12,  Item N o .  a r r a n g e a date for a m o r a l l y weak f r i e n d w i t h someone whose reputation i s bad make someone do w r o n g s e r v e a l c o h o l at a p a r t y and l a t e r find that s e v e r a l i n attendance w e r e m i n o r s feel r e s p o n s i b l e , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , for s t a r t i n g someone d r i n k i n g who i s now a heavy d r i n k e r h e a r a m o t h e r using profane language when s c o l d i n g a young c h i l d find that I had set a bad example to someone of the younger c h i l d r e n i n my c o m m u n i t y go around w i t h tough k i d s attempt to induce my neighbour to s i n as a parent give a bad example to m y c h i l d r e n a d v i s e a f r i e n d to do something for h i s own benefit but w h i c h i s against the m o r a l code of s o c i e t y give money to a f r i e n d w h o m I know to be a d r u n k a r d set a bad example  Principles  W 1  1.  l e a d someone into a tempting situation  2  2.  make someone do w r o n g  3, 4  3.  influence someone to s t a r t a bad habit  4, 5, 6, 9  4.  set a bad example to younger p e r s o n s  7  5.  m i n g l e i n bad company  10, 11  6.  encourage someone i n t h e i r m i s d e m e a n o r s  - 234 PREJUDICE I terns hear that a group of c h i l d r e n who a r e m e m b e r s of another r a c e a r e to be t r a n s f e r r e d to the s c h o o l that m y c h i l d r e n attend and I object r e c o m m e n d that an acquaintance not be given a job because of h i s p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s refuse someone a job because of h i s (her) r a c i a l differences be a s s i g n e d an advanced p o s i t i o n i n m y f i r m w h i c h I know another p e r s o n i n the office d e s e r v e s m o r e but was o v e r l o o k e d because of h i s r a c e refuse to h i r e someone of a c e r t a i n r a c e because I fear i t would a t t r a c t others of that r a c e to s i m i l a r positions h i r e a m a n w i t h l o w e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than another m o r e q u a l i f i e d applicant because he bolongs to a c e r t a i n r a c i a l group have a son or daughter who i s i n l o v e w i t h and w i s h e s to m a r r y a m e m b e r of another r a c e refuse to m a r r y a p e r s o n of a different s k i n c o l o u r refuse to m a r r y a p e r s o n of different n a t i o n a l i t y but not of v e r y different s k i n c o l o u r have a r e l a t i v e who w i s h e s to m a r r y someone of a different r e l i g i o n be a s k e d by someone who i s of different r e l i g i o n than m i n e to m a r r y them and r e f u s e make a point of d i s l i k i n g a f o r e i g n e r c o n s i d e r m y s e l f free f r o m r a c i a l prejudice yet f e e l i l l at ease w i t h a m e m b e r of another r a c e be a s k e d to join a f r a t e r n i t y w h i c h excludes c e r t a i n r a c i a l or r e l i g i o u s groups become i n v o l v e d i n a group of r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n i s t s belong to a club w h i c h b a r s a f r i e n d of m i n e because of h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s buy a house i n a d i s t r i c t r e s t r i c t e d to whites give m i s l e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to a N e g r o because of m y prejudice r e g a r d i n g his r a c e , not because of h i s p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s continue to w o r k for a company w h i c h d i s c r i m i n a t e s against c o l o u r e d persons be i n a r e s t a u r a n t when a c o l o u r e d p e r s o n i s a s k e d to leave because of h i s c o l o u r  - 235 PREJUDICE - continued: Principle No.  Items  2  21.  22  22.  11  23.  3 12  24. 25.  2 8  H  26.  H  27. 28. 29.  m a k e fun of someone because of the c o l o u r of h i s (her) s k i n w i t n e s s a p e r s o n being taunted because of his c o l o u r or r e l i g i o n a i r a n t i - s e m e t i c v i e w s at a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g and l a t e r find a Jew was present hear someone c r i t i c i z e m y n a t i o n a l i t y o v e r h e a r someone r u d e l y r e m a r k that two f o r e i g n e r s t a l k i n g on the bus should not use t h e i r native language i n Canada refuse to go a r o u n d w i t h a p e r s o n because they w e r e of a different n a t i o n a l i t y or r a c e make fun of someone e l s e ' s r e l i g i o n have c h i l d r e n who m a r r y outside t h e i r r e l i g i o u s beliefs d i s c r i m i n a t e against c e r t a i n r a c e s  PREJUDICE - continued: Item N o .  Principles N.B.  Where applicable, include race, religion nationality, politics, i n each item  12  1.  m a k e a point of d i s l i k i n g a f o r e i g n e r  27,21  2.  m a k e fun of someone e l s e ' s r e l i g i o n , e t c .  24  3.  o v e r h e a r someone c r i t i c i z e m y n a t i o n a l i t y , e t c .  15  4.  become i n v o l v e d i n a group who a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e r a c i a l prejudice  1, 17, 26  5.  refuse to have m y c h i l d r e n or m y s e l f a s s o c i a t e w i t h those of a different r a c e , e t c .  29,18  6.  d i s c r i m i n a t e against someone because of h i s p o l i t i c a l beliefs, etc.  13,  7.  c o n s i d e r m y s e l f free of r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e but feel uncomfortable w i t h a m e m b e r of another r a c e  2 8 , 7 , 10  8.  have a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y who w i s h e s to m a r r y someone of another r a c e , etc.  8 , 9 , 11  9.  refuse to m a r r y someone because of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s beliefs, etc.  19, 14, 16  10.  belong to a group w h i c h excludes p e r s o n s of c e r t a i n r a c i a l , e t c . groups  23  11.  c r i t i c i z e a c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s o r r a c i a l group and l a t e r find that a m e m b e r of that group was present  25,22,20  12.  see or h e a r someone being d i s c r i m i n a t e d against because of h i s n a t i o n a l i t y , e t c .  4  13.  be given p r e f e r e n c e o v e r someone because they a r e of an unpopular r a c e , e t c .  2,3,5,6  14.  not give the same opportunities to those of a c e r t a i n r a c e , etc.  -  237  -  PROCRASTINATION Principle No.  Items  1  1.  2 1 5 3 3 4 5  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Item N o .  w o r r y about a l a c k of doing h o u s e w o r k but n e v e r do anything about it put off a job that i s s t a r i n g me i n the face not c l e a r up a m a t t e r that was b o t h e r i n g me s t a r t studying for e x a m s too late put off doing a t a s k for a long t i m e f a i l to a n s w e r l e t t e r s w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e p r o c r a s t i n a t e w i t h jobs I don't l i k e be slow to get o r g a n i z e d and f a i l to do something for a sick friend  Principles  3, 1  1.  w o r r y about something but do nothing about it  2  2.  put off a job that m u s t be done  5  3.  put off doing something for a long t i m e  7  4.  p r o c r a s t i n a t e w i t h jobs I don't l i k e  4, 8  5.  put off doing something u n t i l too late  -  238  -  RUDENESS Principle No. 12  Items 1.  be told by a f r i e n d that the gift I had sent was of l e s s value than the one he had sent me  1  2.  i n s u l t someone  6  3.  2  4.  be drunk and w a l k into a r o o m f u l of people whose b e l i e f s were against a l c o h o l d e l i b e r a t e l y cause someone u n n e c e s s a r y e m b a r r assment  4  5.  kiss a resisting woman or man  6.  be n a s t y to a s a l e s m a n  8  7.  11  8.  agree to a c c o m p a n y a p e r s o n and then behave i n a b o r e d , indifferent fashion be attending a funeral of a l o v e d one and h e a r m y f r i e n d s laughing aloud  4  9-  be among a group that c r a s h e s a p a r t y and r e m a i n unrecognized  5  10.  m i s b e h a v e i n someone e l s e ' s house  6  11.  d e l i b e r a t e l y cut i n on someone when I was d r i v i n g my car  9  12.  s t i c k out m y tongue at someone  7  13.  s l a m the telephone r e c e i v e r i n s o m e o n e ' s ear  6  14.  7  15.  need to use the telephone and when finding the party l i n e busy, I bang the r e c e i v e r up and down s l a m the r e c e i v e r of a telephone on someone I was m a d at  3  16.  not l i s t e n when someone i s speaking to me  10  17.  say shutup to someone  3  19.  ignore a c h i l d who speaks to me  12  20.  4  21.  i n s u l t a p e r s o n for bumping me and then notice they are b l i n d k i s s a g i r l on a f i r s t date without a p p r e c i a t i n g her p e r s o n a l i t y and i g n o r i n g her feelings  -  239  -  RUDENESS Item N o .  Principle  2 , 20  1.  i n s u l t someone  4  2.  d e l i b e r a t e l y cause someone u n n e c e s s a r y e m b a r r a s sment  16, 19  3.  not l i s t e n when someone i s speaking to me  5, 9, 21  4.  force m y p r e s e n c e on someone  10  5.  m i s b e h a v e i n someone e l s e ' s house  3 , 11, 14  6.  d e l i b e r a t e l y do something w h i c h annoys others  13, 15  7.  abruptly cut off a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h someone  7  8.  act i n a b o r e d m a n n e r when out w i t h someone  12  9.  make rude g e s t u r e s at someone  10.  say rude things to someone  8  11 .  laugh at a t i m e w h i c h c a l l s for s o l e m n i t y  1  12.  have someone be d e l i b e r a t e l y rude to m e  17, 18  -  240  -  SELFISHNESS Principle No.  Items  1 10 3  1. 2. 3.  8  4.  2  5.  11  6.  8  7.  9  8.  4 7.  9. 10.  2  11.  2 5  12. 13.  7  14.  6  15.  9  16.  5  17.  4 3 1  18. 19H 20.  a l w a y s be stingy be s e l f i s h with m y f r i e n d s be resentful of having to tolerate other p e o p l e ' s children accept a c o m p l i m e n t when i t i s r e a l l y due to a group of people, not to m y s e l f alone and not acknowledge the o t h e r ' s h e l p . buy something for m y s e l f when funds are not abundant keep money an acquaintance sends me for doing some w o r k for h i m , although I d i d not expect to get paid for i t r e s t r i c t the use of a d i s c o v e r y I have made to one company w h i c h pays me w e l l r a t h e r than l e t t i n g everyone benefit f r o m i t be insa plane c r a s h and eat m y e m e r g e n c y r a t i o n s without s h a r i n g them w i t h others i n the plane who do not know the r a t i o n s e x i s t "take" but not " g i v e " i n m y r e l a t i o n s w i t h others do something for m y s e l f w h i c h means l e a v i n g something for someone e l s e undone as the c o n t r o l l e r of a group budget o v e r s p e n d on i t e m s that are of i n t e r e s t to me • spend housekeeping money on m y s e l f refuse to lend m y knowledge to h e l p a w o r t h y cause because I w i l l not get any favourable p u b l i c i t y from it i f I take too m u c h on m y s e l f and thus d e p r i v e others of opportunities under conditions of s t a r v a t i o n , feel tempted to take away food f r o m m y f a m i l y or f r i e n d s notice a hungry c h i l d watching me w h i l e I was eating a l a r g e steak dinner and not give h i m any refuse to a i d a p e r s o n because I know he cannot pay me for m y w o r k act i n a v e r y s e l f - c e n t e r e d way begrudge the time spent w i t h m y i n - l a w s refuse to go on a t r i p w i t h m y club because I didn't want to spend the money  - 241 SELFISHNESS p continued:. Item N o .  Principles  I , 20  1.  be stingy  I I , 12,21  2.  spend m o r e money than m y share on m y s e l f  3, 19  3.  begrudge having to a s s o c i a t e w i t h those I a m expected to be n i c e to  9, 18  4.  act i n a v e r y s e l f - c e n t r e d way  13, 17  5.  refuse to a i d a cause or p e r s o n when I know I cannot be r e p a i d  15  6.  be tempted to take things I need away f r o m others  10, 14  7.  4,7  8.  d e p r i v e others of opportunities b y t a k i n g t h e m myself keep benefits for m y s e l f that others have a r i g h t to share  8, 16  9.  not share m y goods i n t i m e of need  2  10.  be s e l f i s h w i t h m y f r i e n d s  6  11.  keep m o n e y given to me that I do not feel I deserve  - 242 SEX Principle No. 9 10 5  W  Items 1. 2. 3.  11  4.  1 12 14  5. 6. 7.  9  W  8.  1 9  w  9. 10.  3 8  w  11. 12.  15  13.  18  14.  17 4  15. 16.  w  3  w  17.  3 2  w  18. 19.  2  20.  5 6  21. 22.  16  23.  16  24.  2  H  25.  pet before b e c o m i n g engaged get a l a r g e s u m for a c t i n g i n a n indecent m o v i e be f o r c e d to watch an indecent f l o o r show because I a m w i t h a group be a c c i d e n t a l l y touched on a d i s a p p r o v e d p a r t of m y body be p r o v o k e d to using profane s e x u a l language s t r i p someone of the opposite sex be a s k e d by m y parents to have a frank d i s c u s s i o n of sex w i t h them do anything that m i g h t have l e d to a v i o l a t i o n of c h a s t i t y (necking, petting) speak or l i s t e n to language c o n t r a r y to c h a s t i t y be r e q u i r e d to engage i n n e c k i n g or petting because I a m at a p a r t y r e c a l l an i l l i c i t s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p l e a s u r e see a m a n and w o m a n petting i n the audience of a theatre be t o l d that I a m s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e to a m e m b e r of m y own sex be a c c u s e d of " l e a d i n g on" a m e m b e r of the opposite s ex be dancing w i t h a s e x u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g partner t r y to a t t r a c t another s e x u a l l y by m y scanty clothing t r y to i m a g i n e m y s e l f i n a s e x u a l l y c o m p r o m i s i n g situation think about a s e x u a l l y passionate d r a m a have to l i s t e n to an obscene s t o r y or joke because I a m unable to leave the group i n w h i c h I find myself h e a r someone t e l l a joke i n w h i c h the humour i s d i r e c t e d at the s e x u a l organs be shown obscene photographs d i s c o v e r that I was r e a d i n g a sexy n o v e l that had been banned have m y c l e r g y m a n catch m e l o o k i n g through a sex magazine be anoticed r e a d i n g an o b v i o u s l y '"sexy;" book by a friend l i s t e n to someone who was t e l l i n g d i r t y s t o r i e s 1  -243 SEX - continued: P r i nciple N o . 6 13 3 4 2 6  W H W W  7 5 17 3  w w w w  w w  Items 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.  r e a d ^ o r l o o k at obscene books ask one of m y parents about sex e n t e r t a i n unchaste thoughts dress immodestly l i s t e n to an obscene s t o r y w i l l i n g l y r e a d a sexy n o v e l that m a y not be sent through the m a i l show a p p r o v a l of a n o t h e r ' s s e x u a l delinquencies go to a club that has an indecent f l o o r show engage i n s e x u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g dances t r y to p i c t u r e to m y s e l f a l e w d show  - 244 SEX - continued: Principles  Item N o . 5,9  1.  use profane s e x u a l language  19,20,25,30  2.  t e l l or l i s t e n to obscene s t o r i e s or jokes  11,17,18 28,35  3.  i m a g i n e or think about s e x u a l situations  16,29  4.  dress immodestly  3,21,33  5.  see an indecent show or p i c t u r e s  22,26,31  6.  r e a d s e x u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g book or m a g a z i n e s  32  7.  approve a n o t h e r ' s s e x u a l delinquency  12  8.  see someone n e c k i n g or petting  1,8,10  9.  be r e q u i r e d to neck or pet when I do not think it is right  2  W  W  10.  take part i n i n d i c e n t p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e s  4  11.  be touched on a d i s a p p r o v e d part of m y body  6  12.  s t r i p someone of the opposite sex  13.  ask someone about sex  7  14.  be a s k e d by someone to d i s c u s s sex  13  15.  be a t t r a c t i v e to someone of the same sex  23, 24  16.  be seen r e a d i n g a " s e x y " book or m a g a z i n e  15,34  17.  take part i n s e x u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g dances  14  18.  be a c c u s e d of " l e a d i n g on" a m e m b e r of the opposite sex  27  W  H  -  245  SHOWING Principle No.  OFF  Items  1 3  1. 2.  2 2 5 5  3. 4. 5. 6.  2  7.  Item N o .  3,4  -  t r y to be the centre of attention be d a r e d to d r i n k five shots of w h i s k e y i n fifteen minute s shout a c r o s s the street be too n o i s y at a p a r t y t r y to be s m a r t e r than everybody a s k questions beyond the scope of the c o u r s e I a m taking e m b a r r a s s m y spouse w i t h o v e r - e x u b e r a n c e at a party  Principle s  1  1.  t r y to be the centre of attention  7  2.  be too n o i s y i n public or i n a group  2  3.  take a dare i n o r d e r to show off  5  4.  t r y to appear to be s m a r t e r than others  -  246  -  SLANDER Principle No,  Items  4  1.  1 2  2. 3.  3  4.  1  H5.  1  6.  Item N o .  be a s k e d to agree with c e r t a i n untrue d e r o g a t o r y statements being made about a student who i s not an acquaintance of m i n e s p r e a d r u m o u r s that a r e not true s l a n d e r the c h a r a c t e r of a f r i e n d o r an acquaintance and be h i r e d m y s e l f by c r i t i c i s m and false r e p o r t s cause another to l o s e his position s p r e a d nasty s t o r i e s about m y gang because they wouldn't do something I wanted to do t a l k about someone w h i c h i s n ' t a c t u a l l y true  Principles  6, 5, 2  1.  s p r e a d r u m o u r s that a r e not true  3  2.  s l a n d e r s o m e o n e ' s c h a r a c t e r so that I can gain something  4  3.  s l a n d e r someone i n o r d e r to h a r m t h e m i n some way  1  4.  be a s k e d to agree w i t h untrue statements that h a r m someone's character  -  247  -  SNOBBERY Principle N o .  Items  1 2 3 3 3 4  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  5  7.  2  W8.  Item N o .  act snobbish put on a i r s i n o r d e r to i m p r e s s someone snub somebody because my friends don't l i k e h e r t r y to a v o i d people because I feel they a r e i n f e r i o r a v o i d speaking to someone due to h i s bad r e p u t a t i o n snub a p e r s o n who I r e c o g n i z e but I did not think the p e r s o n r e c o g n i z e d me meet an o l d f r i e n d after many y e a r s of s e p a r a t i o n and because I have a c q u i r e d a h i g h e r s o c i a l standing I refuse to look at h i m o r speak to h i m t r y to appear better than I a m  Principles  1  1.  act snobbish  2, 8  2.  t r y to appear better than I a m  5, 4, 3  3.  t r y to a v o i d someone I feel i s not good enough  6  4.  snub someone although I r e c o g n i z e t h e m  7  5.  snub an o l d f r i e n d after I have r e a c h e d a h i g h e r s o c i a l position  - 248 STEALING Principle No. 17 16 17 17 11 17 18 11  W  H  Items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  11  9.  18  10.  19 10 17 7  11. 12. 13. 14.  ,  15.  17 7 13 13  16. 17. 18. 19.  6  20.  4  21.  3 17  22. 23.  2 1 15  24. 25. 26.  17 14 17  27. 28. 29.  take something that doesn't belong to m e be caught s t e a l i n g take someone's book take something that doesn't belong to m e s t e a l candy s t e a l an apple not pay m y fare on a bus and get a free r i d e charge an expensive a r t i c l e to someone e l s e without this p e r s o n knowing about i t spend m o n e y for m y own p l e a s u r e and then add the sum to m y b u s i n e s s expense account be chosen by m y f r i e n d s to place counterfeit t i c k e t s i n the farebox of the t r o l l e y bus r o b a bank knock someone down at night and steal t h e i r m o n e y s t e a l some m o n e y use m y e m p l o y e r ' s equipment and supplies for my personal work t e l l a f r i e n d about an idea I have for a i d i n g our w o r k and l a t e r find that he has told the boss before m e take some cookies f r o m a cookie jar p i l f e r s m a l l supplies f r o m the office e m b e z z l e someone e l s e ' s funds be sent to pay a b i l l and i n s t e a d spend the m o n e y on m y s e l f be a s k e d to a s s i s t i n the planning of a bank r o b b e r y even though I w i l l not be r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e in it take m o n e y w h i c h I know w i l l not be m i s s e d o r t r a c e d to m e take something I f e e l belongs to me s t e a l s o m e t h i n g , knowing i t i s w r o n g , and be d e t e r m i n e d not to put i t back s t e a l anything f r o m someone I don't know s t e a l anything f r o m someone I know see someone e l s e using something that I knew had to be taken f r o m someone e l s e s t e a l a c a r or bike see someone take a newspaper without paying take m a i l out of m a i l boxes  - 249 STEALING - continued: Principle No.  Items  8 14  30. 31.  14  32.  14  33.  8  34.  9 9 7  H  35. 36. 37.  5 17  H  38. 39.  13  H  40.  1  H  41.  8  W  42.  14  43.  shoplift be w i t h a f r i e n d when he t r i e d to s t e a l something f r o m a department store d i s c o v e r that a f r i e n d had s l i p p e d a d i a m o n d f r o m a j e w e l l e r ' s counter into h i s pocket d i s c o v e r that a m e m b e r of m y f a m i l y had brought home some g r o c e r i e s that w e r e taken f r o m the food counter of a department store without paying for them s t e a l an a r t i c l e of l i t t l e value f r o m a store without being caught pick someone's pocket take some money f r o m m y husband's pocket swipe some paper, p e n c i l s or other l i t t l e things f r o m the place where I w o r k b r e a k into a j e w e l l e r y store and steal a w a t c h swipte some p e n c i l s and paper f r o m s o m e o n e ' s locker use some m o n e y w h i c h belonged to m y club f o r myself take some m o n e y f r o m m y m o t h e r ' s purse without t e l l i n g her s l i p a d i a m o n d r i n g into m y pociket without danger of being detected see a f a m i l y w a l k i n g i n a p u b l i c p a r k and the c h i l d r e n p i c k f l o w e r s w h i c h a r e not to be touched  - 250 STEALING - continued: Item N o .  Principles  41,25  1.  s t e a l something f r o m someone I know  24  2.  s t e a l something f r o m someone I don't know  22  3.  take something I f e e l belongs to me  21  4.  take something I know w i l l not be m i s s e d or t r a c e d to me  38  5.  s t e a l something through b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g  20  6.  a s s i s t i n planning a r o b b e r y  14,17,37  7.  p i l f e r s m a l l supplies f r o m s c h o o l or w o r k  30,34,42  8.  shoplift  35,36  9.  p i c k someone's pocket  12  10.  o v e r c o m e someone and take t h e i r v a l u a b l e s  8.9  11.  charge i t e m s to someone without p e r m i s s i o n  12.  s t e a l someone's ideas  18,19,40  13.  e m b e z z l e someone's m o n e y  33,32,43, 31, 28  14.  see someone else steal  26  15.  see someone e l s e using something I know was stolen  2  16.  be caught s t e a l i n g  13,4,5,6, 13, L6 ,27 29,39,23  17.  7.10  18.  11  19.  take something that doesn't belong to m e  :  steal a ride rob c o m m e r c i a l premises  - 251 STRIKING Principle No. 7 3 4 1 2 5 6 5 7 1 5 5 5.  Items 1. 2. 3.  hit any one of m y f a m i l y i n anger see a p o l i c e m a n s t r i k i n g a m a n be a l w a y s knocked and pushed a r o u n d s t r i k e a c h i l d i n a fit of t e m p e r s t r i k e a p o l i c e officer hit a f r i e n d d u r i n g an argument beat up someone slap a person hit m y b r o t h e r or s i s t e r hit a c h i l d s l a p someone's face hit a p e r s o n on the head w i t h a bat s t r i k e m y mieighbour  44.  W  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  Item N o .  Principles  2, 10  1.  s t r i k e someone younger  5  2.  s t r i k e someone i n a u t h o r i t y  2  3.  see someone s t r i k i n g another  3  4.  be a l w a y s k n o c k e d and pushed a r o u n d  5.  s t r i k e someone else  7  6.  beat up someone  1,9  7.  h i t one of m y f a m i l y  6,8,11,12,13  -  252  -  STUBBORNNESS Principle No.  Items  1  1.  r e c e i v e good a d v i c e and then d e l i b e r a t e l y not take i t , continuing i n whatever I was doing before  2  2.  when a s k e d to do something by my parents I flatly refuse l a r g e l y through stubbornness when I only half-heartedly believe I am right  3  3.  be too stubborn i n c e r t a i n situations when it would have been p l e a s a n t e r i f I had bent a l i t t l e  4  4.  sulk  Item N o .  Principles  1  1.  refuse to take good a d v i c e because of my stubborn:ne s s  2.  2.  refuse to do something when a s k e d , through s t u b b o r n ness  3  3.  make things unpleasant by being n e e d l e s s l y stubborn  4  4.  sulk  -  253  TACTLESSNESS Items do another p e r s o n ' s w o r k f o r h i m as i f I d i d not t r u s t h i m to do i t be too frank and outspoken after speaking before a group, wonder whether I s a i d anything to offend anybody m a k e someone else f e e l inadequate w i t h no chance of r e m e d y i n g the s i t u a t i o n t e l l a p e r s o n e x a c t l y what I think about some a c t i o n h a r m f u l to h i m s e l f w h i c h he intends to do, even though t e l l i n g h i m w i l l l o s e h i s f r i e n d s h i p upset a f r i e n d by t e l l i n g h i m s o m e t h i n g I thought he a l r e a d y knew support at great lengths before a group of acquaintances the i d e a that d i v o r c e a l w a y s i n v o l v e s fault on both sides and find out l a t e r that one of the group i s d i v o r c e d speak about someone's parents and find they a r e dead cause e m b a r r a s s m e n t unintentionally to someone say s o m e t h i n g that e m b a r r a s s e s a f r i e n d i n p u b l i c not be tactful about subjects and people can i n t e r p r e t the w o r d s the w r o n g way  Principles m a k e someone f e e l inadequate w i t h no chance of r e m e d y i n g the s i t u a t i o n upset someone by m e n t i o n i n g s o m e t h i n g I thought he was a w a r e of be too frank and outspoken cause e m b a r r a s s m e n t unintentionally to someone offend someone when speaking i n front of a group do s o m e o n e ' s w o r k for t h e m as i f they cannot be t r u s t e d to do i t t h e m s e l v e s  - Z54 TACTLESSNESS Principles m a k e someone f e e l inadequate w i t h no chance of r e m e d y i n g the s i t u a t i o n upset someone by m e n t i o n i n g something I thought he was a w a r e of be too frank and outspoken cause e m b a r r a s s m e n t u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y to someone offend someone when speaking i n front of a group do s o m e o n e ' s w o r k for t h e m as i f they cannot be t r u s t e d to do i t t h e m s e l v e s unintentionally m e n t i o n a "touchy" subject to someone say things unintentionally that can be m i s interpreted  -  255  TARDINESS Principle No.  Items  1 2 2  1. 2. 3.  2 3 6  4. 5. 6.  5 4 I  7. 8. 9. 10.  Item N o .  keep anyone w a i t i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y be late for an appointment be detained one half h o u r f r o m keeping an appointment w i t h m y i n s t r u c t o r or e m p l o y e r not a r r i v e e x a c t l y on t i m e at a place of m e e t i n g not be on t i m e at w o r k hand i n an a s s i g n m e n t late when I could have had it i n on t i m e be late for c h u r c h when I could have been on t i m e not have a m e a l ready on t i m e make the m i l k m a n wait w h i l e I c o l l e c t empty bottles come to s c h o o l late  Principles  1  1.  keep anyone w a i t i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y  2  2.  be late for an appointment  5  3.  be late for s c h o o l or w o r k  8  4.  be late at m e a l t i m e s  7  5.  be u n n e c e s s a r i l y late for gatherings  6  6..  be late i n c o m p l e t i n g a job or a s s i g n m e n t  -  256  -  UNCLEANNESS Principle No.  Items  1 2 3 5 3 4  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  1  7.  6 3 3  H8. H9. H10.  Item N o .  have someone t e l l me my e a r s a r e d i r t y hear my f r i e n d s say that the h a n d k e r c h i e f s I use a r e d i r t y not w a s h m y hands or b r u s h my teeth before bed neglect to w a s h m y hands after u r i n a t i n g not c l e a n up be a c c u s e d of having strong and unpleasant body odour w h i c h I know to be due to l a c k of bathing be d e s c r i b e d to my f r i e n d s as one who r a r e l y takes a bath not keep m y f i n g e r n a i l s c l e a n not w a s h m y hands before supper not b r u s h my teeth i n the m o r n i n g  Principles  1  1.  have someone r e m a r k on my d i r t y appearance  2  2.  have someone r e m a r k on m y d i r t y c l o t h i n g  3  3.  not c l e a n up before bed or m e a l t i m e s  6  4.  not have a bath often enough  3, 4  5.  not wash my hands when I should  8  6.  f a i l to keep m y s e l f c l e a n w i t h r e g a r d to teeth, f i n g e r n a i l s , h a i r , etc.  - 257 UNFAIRNESS Principle No.  Items  3  1.  3  2.  7  3.  1 6  4. 5,  5 5  W  6. 7.  5 5 4  8. 9. 10.  10  11.  1 1 2 2  12. 13. 14. 15.  9 11  16. 17.  7 6 3 7 7 1 8  18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.  f o r c e an employee to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he s h o u l d not have to shoulder l o a d w o r k on an employee i n o r d e r to l i g h t e n m y own w o r k l o a d b a w l the k i d s out for doing something they couldn't help take advantage of someone's f r i e n s h i p as a student c r i t i c i z e the teaching of an i n s t r u c t o r even though I knew he was putting f o r t h h i s best effort p r e s u m e e v i l of another f o r m an u n c o m p l i m e n t a r y opinion of someone w h o m I have an ot met and find on m e e t i n g h i m that m y opinions have been w r o n g jump to c o n c l u s i o n s i n judging m y c h i l d j u m p to c o n c l u s i o n s about someone's intentions be told that the p o l i c y of a l a r g e f i r m was to f i r e t h e i r e m p l o y e e s when they r e a c h the age of 50 apply for s e v e r a l jobs and use the offers I have r e c e i v e d i n o r d e r to get a r a i s e f r o m m y p r e s e n t e m p l o y e r i m p o s e on someone's kindness take advantage of someone for m y own p e r s o n a l gain not w a i t m y t u r n i n l i n e take a p o s i t i o n i n a l i n e - u p ahead of someone who had been w a i t i n g for some t i m e have a f r i e n d who feels I have taken advantage of h i m have m y employee do some w o r k for m e , and when he i s t h r o u g h , t e l l h i m he m u s t do i t again as he used the w r o n g m e t h o d , although I d i d not t e l l h i m the w o r k m u s t be done a s p e c i a l w a y be unreasonable about m y husband not being i n on t i m e c r i t i c i z e m y husband u n f a i r l y leave a m e s s i n a r o o m for someone e l s e to c l e a n up be unreasonable w i t h c h i l d r e n o v e r e m p h a s i z e a m i n o r fault i n m y c h i l d r e n achieve something by taking advantage of others d i s c o v e r that the l a w had made i t p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e e x t r a benefits for m y c h i l d r e n at the expense of others  - 258 UNFAIRNESS - continued: Principles  Item No. 23,4,12,13  1.  take advantage of others  14,15  2.  not w a i t m y t u r n  1,2,20  3, 3.  f o r c e someone to take m o r e w o r k on than they should have  10  4. 4,  d i s m i s s e m p l o y e e s because of h a n d i c a p s , i n f i r m i t i e s or o l d age  6,7,8,9  5. 5,  j u m p to c o n c l u s i o n s i n m a k i n g judgments about others  5,19  6. 6,  c r i t i c i z e someone although they a r e doing the best they can  3,11,21,22  7. 7,  be unreasonable w i t h someone about a m i n o r matter  24  8.  r e c e i v e e x t r a benefits at the expense of others  16  9.  have someone think I have taken advantage of them  11  10.  use unfair means to a c h i e v e a goal  17  11.  m a k e someone do a job a g a i n when i t was m y fault i t was not done p r o p e r l y i n the f i r s t p l a  -  259  -  UNKINDNESS Principle No.  Items  1 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 11 11 4 2 2 12  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  5 7 3 9 11 3  16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.  3  22.  1  23.  6 3 12 9  24. 25, 26. 27.  9  28.  3  29.  10  30.  8 13 15 9 3  31. 32. 33. 34. W 35.  say something to h u r t someone's feelings i n t e n t i o n a l l y say something unkind h u r t someone's feelings d e l i b e r a t e l y h u r t someone by being i m p a t i e n t or unkind make someone else feel bad by i n s u l t i n g or b e l i t t l i n g them make fun of a d i s f i g u r e d p e r s o n laugh and point at a c r i p p l e d p e r s o n tease someone tease someone about their l o o k s and things pick on someone p i c k on people s m a l l e r than y o u r s e l f s c a r e someone say something s a r c a s t i c make a b i t i n g r e m a r k l e t someone go off after a d i s a g r e e m e n t without m a k i n g up f i r s t d e p r i v e m y parents of enjoyment w i t h t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n leave someone out of things at a party laugh at somebody t e l l someone I do not l i k e them be m e a n to someone make provocative statements w h i c h r e s u l t i n m y companions being e m o t i o n a l l y upset while I r e g a r d them w i t h a m u s e ment d i s c u s s a subject i n a group although I know c e r t a i n m e m b e r s of the group w i l l be e m b a r r a s s e d and d i s t u r b e d by such discussion make statements i n a group d e r i d i n g c e r t a i n b e l i e f s , although I know that a t i m i d m e m b e r of the group holds these beliefs leave a p e r s o n stranded by the side of the r o a d make fun of an o l d p e r s o n make someone c r y have to t e l l a f r i e n d that I cannot see them again u n l e s s a specific change i n conduct i s made by them have to t e l l a m e m b e r of the opposite sex to stay away because they bother me t e l l someone they have made a m i s t a k e and refuse to help them use the ignorance of one of m y friends to i m p r e s s somebody else i n t h e i r presence t e l l someone I do not l i k e something w h i c h they love play an unkind p r a c t i c a l joke on someone make someone unhappy t e l l a f r i e n d I don't l i k e them any m o r e r i d i c u l e m y neighbours  260  -  U N K I N D N E S S (contd. ) Principle No.  Items  6 11 15 9  36. 37. H 38. H 39.  5 5 5  40. 41. 42.  3  H 43.  b a d l y inconvenience someone c o n t i n u a l l y r e p r o a c h someone tease someone i n m y c l a s s u n t i l he o r she c r i e s t e l l another boy o r g i r l that I d i d n ' t l i k e h i m because he w a s n ' t w e a r i n g s t y l i s h clothes take something away f r o m someone take candy f r o m a c h i l d be a s k e d to stop p l a y i n g a h a r m l e s s game that m y o l d grandfather was enjoying i m m e n s e l y tease a s m a l l e r c h i l d  i -  261  -  UNKINDNESS Principles  Items N o . 1, 3, 4, 5,  1.  d e l i b e r a t e l y h u r t someone's f e e l i n g s  2, 13, 14  2.  say something unkind  6, 7, 8, 9, 18, 21 29, 22, 25, 35,43  3.  tease someone or make fun of them  12  4.  16, 4 0 , 41, 42  5.  24, 36  6.  17  7.  31  8.  19, 27, 28, 34, 39  9.  30  10.  10, 11, 20, 37  11.  15,26,33,38  12.  32  13.  frighten someone d e p r i v e someone of enjoyment of something badly inconvenience someone leave someone out of things t e l l someone I do not l i k e something that they love t e l l someone I no l o n g e r l i k e them use someone's weakness to m y advantage pick on someone make someone c r y o r be unhappy play unkind p r a c t i c a l jofces on somebody  -  262  -  UNTIDINESS  1 2 2 3 3 4  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Item N o .  see a l i t t e r b u g do slovenly housekeeping have an untidy house too often not keep m y notebook neat not keep m y r o o m neat not c l e a n up a m e s s that I had made at home  Principles  1  1.  see someone else being untidy  2,3  2.  have an untidy house too often  4,5  H  3.  not keep m y belongings neat  6  H  4,  not c l e a n up a m e s s I have made  - 263 VIOLATION  OF  PRIVACY  Items hear m y f r i e n d s i n f o r m i n g others about m y unpopular p o l i t i c a l v i e w s w h i c h I f e e l should not be p u b l i c i z e d give confidential i n f o r m a t i o n to someone about a t h i r d p e r s o n w h i c h he p a s s e s on to that p e r s o n and upsets h i m not keep an i m p o r t a n t s e c r e t give m y w o r d to keep something s e c r e t for a c e r t a i n lentgth of t i m e and repeat i t before the t i m e i s up ask someone about a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n and a f t e r w a r d s find this p e r s o n was i n a difficult p o s i t i o n at that t i m e and though I was g r i l l i n g h i m (her) e m b a r r a s s a f r i e n d by e n q u i r i n g into t h e i r p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s just to satisfy m y own c u r i o s i t y ask questions of an acquaintance w h i c h I l a t e r find he r e s e n t e d as an i n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y give m a t e r i a l of a confidential nature to the p r e s s without p e r m i s s i o n of the p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d a l l o w m a t e r i a l of a confidential nature to be publ i s h e d for m y own f i n a n c i a l gain s o l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the understanding that the c o n t r i b u t o r w i l l be anonymous, but have a s e c r e t code so that I can identify the a n s w e r s of e a c h p e r s o n h a r m a p e r s o n who has confided i n me by t e s t i fying against h i m i n c o u r t notify a company that someone i s stealing f r o m t h e m , after having been t o l d about i t by the guilty p e r s o n i n confidence i n t e l l i n g a group about the m i s d e m e a n o u r s of a f r i e n d , r e v e a l h i s (her) name by m i s t a k e r e v e a l p e r s o n a l s e c r e t s about a f r i e n d , without r e a l i z i n g i t at the t i m e , to a m u t u a l f r i e n d of both of us t e l l a f r i e n d he i s s e r i o u s l y i l l although I know h i s f a m i l y does not want h i m to know c o m p l y w i t h someone's request to influence m y f r i e n d i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n , although i t i s a m a t t e r he should be free to decide for h i m s e l f (herself)  -  VIOLATION OF PRIVACY Principle No.  264  -  (contd. ) Items  6  17  4  18  4 10.  19 20  13  21  13  22  3  23  11  24  2 1  25 26  1  27  4  28  4 14  29 30  d i s c u s s m y f r i e n d ' s p r o b l e m s with h i s m o t h e r , although I know he would be g r e a t l y e m b a r r a s s e d i f he knew r e a l i z e that one of m y friends t r e a t s h i s c h i l d r e n i n a way that i s h a r m f u l to them and f e e l c o m p e l l e d to t e l l h i m so meddle i n someone e l s e ' s b u s i n e s s make a tape r e c o r d i n g of an i n t i m a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a f r i e n d without t e l l i n g that I have done so attempt to check up on m y g i r l f r i e n d ' s c r e d i t rating take the opportunity to investigate m y n e i g h b o u r ' s p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s without detection r e a d m y f r i e n d ' s p e r s o n a l d i a r y without t h e i r knowing a thing about i t p i c k up a paper i n m y r o o m and upon e x a m i n i n g i t notice that i t i s m y r o o m m a t e ' s l e t t e r , who just then w a l k s i n look into someone's p r i v a t e belongings accidentally overhear a private conversation i n a f o r e i g n language w h i c h I understand not be able to a v o i d l i s t e n i n g intently to the d o m e s t i c i n t i m a c i e s of the people i n the next a p a r t m e n t give advice to someone who doesn't a s k for i t , knowing I a m no authority find fault w i t h things that don't r e a l l y c o n c e r n me be a s k e d whether I had ever slept w i t h a m e m b e r of the opposite sex  - 265 VIOLATION  OF  PRIVACY  - continued: Item N o .  Principles  26, 27  1.  not be able to a v o i d h e a r i n g an i n t i m a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n  25  2.  examine s o m e o n e ' s belongings  23  3.  r e a d s o m e o n e ' s l e t t e r s or d i a r y  28,29,15 16,18,19  4.  m e d d l e i n s o m e o n e ' s ]per'S:onalraffaix,s  2,3,4,11 12  5.  r e v e a l p e r s o n a l s e c r e t s or confidential i n f o r m a t i o n of someone to others  17  6.  d i s c u s s someone's p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w i t h others  8,9  7.  a l l o w m a t e r i a l of a c o n f i d e n t i a l nature to be p u b l i s h e d  6,5,7  8.  ask questions of someone w h i c h I l a t e r find was r e s e n t e d as an i n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y  14, 13  9.  10, 20  10.  inadvertently reveal a secret m a k e a r e c o r d of s o m e o n e ' s r e m a r k s without t e l l i n g them  24  11.  be caught e x a m i n i n g p r i v a t e belongings  1  12.  h e a r m y p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s being d i s c u s s e d by others  21,22  13.  30  14.  obtain p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about someone w h i c h i s none of m y b u s i n e s s be a s k e d h i g h l y p e r s o n a l questions  - 266 WASTEFULNESS Principle No.  Items  1 1 2  1. 2. 3.  3  4.  4  5.  4  2 3 1 5  W  6.  H  7. 8.  W  9. 10.  Item N o .  waste a whole evening watching T V waste or m i s u s e t i m e throw away o l d clothes when they could be given to c h a r i t y l o s e twenty d o l l a r s p l a y i n g poker when I a m t r y i n g to save money for something m o r e w o r t h w h i l e be the l a s t one to leave a r o o m i n someone e l s e ' s house and leave the l i g h t s on take or unwittingly p e r m i t to be s e r v e d to me a p o r t i o n of food even though I knew I couldn"t eat i t d e s t r o y food that b i r d s o r a n i m a l s could eat spend money on m o v i e s and candy w h i c h I had planned to save for a b i c y c l e i d l e away valuable t i m e spend m o r e money when I go shopping than I should  Principles  1,2,9  1.  waste or m i s u s e t i m e  3.7  2.  throw away something that could be used by someone e l s e  4.8  3.  spend money I had been saving for an i m p o r t a n t purpose on something t r i v i a l  5,6  4.  consume m o r e of something than i s n e c e s s a r y  10  5.  spend m o r e m o n e y than I should  - 267 WEAKNESS  Principle No.  Items  6  1.  8  2.  11  3.  1  4.  1 3  5. 6.  1 5 2 1 8 5 7 5 5  H H  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  9  H  16. 17  6 8 1 5  •W H H  18. 19. 20.  10  W  21.  4  22.  not t r y to renew a s t r a i n e d f r i e n d s h i p when the b r e a c h was caused by m e leave a m i s d e m e a n o r unchallenged i n p e r s o n s under m y c a r e r e l y on a benign p r o v i d e n c e to solve p r o b l e m s I should solve m y s e l f a v o i d g i v i n g a d i r e c t a n s w e r to a question i n o r d e r to hide m y i g n o r a n c e run away f r o m home find I frequently a l l o w others to persuade me to do something I don't r e a l l y want to do take the easy way out quit doing something i m p o r t a n t before i t i s f i n i s h e d quit s c h o o l or m y job for no good r e a s o n run away f r o m trouble be l a x when I a m expected to be m o r e h a r d b o i l e d not f i n i s h distasteful jobs that have to be done c a l l i n a doctor on a t r i v i a l m a t t e r quit w o r k i n g on a job even though I hadn't f i n i s h e d decide to be l i k e some o l d e r p e r s o n w h o m I a d m i r e v e r y m u c h and then quit t r y i n g not do the best I can i n m y studies unless m y parents give m e s p e c i a l a w a r d s be a s k e d to do something w h i c h I think I a m i n c a p a b l e of doing and I refuse without t r y i n g f a i l to c o r r e c t those subject to m e quit a club or .group when things began to go b a d l y s t a r t to w o r k for a p r i z e and then get d i s c o u r a g e d and quit r e l y on fortune t e l l i n g , s t a r s , s i g n s , e t c . to solve m y p r o b l e m s depend on someone else to do something I should do m y s e l f  - 268 WEAKNESS •- continued: Item N o .  Principles  4, 5, 7, 10, 19  1.  a v o i d trouble by taking the e a s y way out  9  2.  quit s c h o o l o r m y job for no good r e a s o n  6  3.  a l l o w m y s e l f to be e a s i l y influenced by others  22  4.  r e l y on others to solve m y p r o b l e m s  8, 12, 14 15, 20  5.  quit doing something i m p o r t a n t before I have finished  1, 17  6.  not t r y to do something I should  13  7.  c a l l for a i d when I should be able to manage by m y s e l f  2, 18, 11  8.  be l a x when I should be m o r e s t r i c t  16  H  9-  only do things when given a concrete  21  W  10.  3  11.  reward  r e l y on s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s ( e . g . a s t r o l o g y ) to solve m y p r o b l e m s r e l y on a benign P r o v i d e n c e to solve p r o b l e m s I should solve m y s e l f  -  269  WITHHOLDING  Principle  No.  -  INFORMATION  Items  3  1.  refuse to a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s to help a c e r t a i n cause i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y  4  2.  t r y to keep some i n f o r m a t i o n s e c r e t that w i l l benefit others because i t m a y d e t r a c t f r o m m y own w o r k  4  3.  o m i t m e n t i o n i n g a s e r i o u s defect i n a p e r s o n w h o m I have been a s k e d to r e c o m m e n d  1  4.  help a m a n who has c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e by r e f u s i n g to testify against h i m , although I know the public m a y suffer if he i s set free  1  5.  w i t h o l d what m i g h t be valuable i n f o r m a t i o n i n a i d i n g the r e c a p t u r e of an e s c a p e d c o n v i c t  1  6.  be the only one who knows that an a c c i d e n t was the fault of someone i n m y f a m i l y and not t e l l  1  7.  have to be a w i t n e s s r e g a r d i n g an accident i n w h i c h the i n j u r e d p e r s o n c o u l d be helped by m y t e s t i mony, but I do not speak as the defendant i s a f r i e n d of m i n e  1  8.  f a i l to r e p o r t a l a w t r a n s g r e s s o r to the police to save p e r s o n a l e m b a r r a s s m e n t  1  9.  a c c i d e n t l y uncover the plans for a theft and keep the knowledge to m y s e l f  1  10.  know that someone stole something but keep i t secret  2  11.  be engaged but do not t e l l m y fiance(e) about a p r e v i o u s affair i n w h i c h I had an i l l e g i t i m a t e child  2  12.  f a i l to t e l l m y fiance m y true age before m a r r i a g e  5  13.  d e l a y t e l l i n g a f r i e n d bad news although the sooner he i s given the news the better  -  270  WITHHOLDING  P r i n c i p l e No.  -  INFORMATION  Items  2  14.  hear m y m o t h e r t e l l i n g a f r i e n d that she was sure I w o u l d n e v e r touch a d r i n k , and I know that I had j u s t come i n f r o m a. couple of c o c k tail parties  2  H 15.  not t e l l m y m o t h e r when I feel s i c k  W 16.  c o n c e a l m y good w o r k s  - 271 WITHHOLDING  INFORMATION  Principles  f a i l to r e p o r t a c r i m e to the p r o p e r a u t h o r i t i e s or w i t h h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n about a c r i m e w i t h h o l d p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about m y s e l f f r o m someone who i s e n t i t l e d to know refuse to a n s w e r questions although a n s w e r i n g w o u l d help a c e r t a i n cause t r y to keep something s e c r e t although i t would benefit others to have i t known delay t e l l i n g someone bad news when i t would be better to t e l l t h e m r i g h t away  

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