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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An empirical investigation into areas of moral awareness and the formulation of principles basic to the… Leedham, Lelia Rachel 1958

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A N E M P I R I C A L I N V E S T I G A T I O N I N T O A R E A S O F M O R A L , A W A R E N E S S A N D T H E F O R M U L A T I O N O F P R I N C I P L E S B ' A S I C T O T H E C O N S T R U C T I O N O F A S C A L E T O M E A S U R E C O N S C I E N C E by L E L I A R A C H E L L E E D H A M B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1956 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n the Department of P S Y C H O L O G Y We accept this thesis as conforming to the r equ i r ed standard M e m b e r s of the Department of Psychology T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A September , 1958. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date September, 195 8 • A N E M P I R I C A L I N V E S T I G A T I O N INTO A R E A S O F M O R A L A W A R E N E S S A N D T H E F O R M U L A T I O N O F P R I N C I P L E S B A S I C TO T H E C O N S T R U C T I O N , O F A S C A L E TO M E A S U R E C O N S C I E N C E A b s t r a c t H i s t o r i c a l l y , m o r a l awareness and conscience have been cons idered mat ters for ph i losophica l and psychoanaly t ica l speculat ion. P s y c h o l o g i s t s , however , v i z . F r i e d e n b e r , E . Z . , and Hav ighurs t , R . J . , (An attempt to measure strength of conscience , J . P e r s o n a l i t y , 1948, 17, 232-243) and Wack , Dunstan, (A psycho log ica l study of consc ience , Stud. P s y c h o l . P s y c h i a t . Ca tho l . U n i v . A m e r . , 1952, 8, N o . 3) have attempted to measure these phenomena. These studies can be c r i t i c i z e d because the m o r a l categories used were de r ived by a p r i o r i and deductive methods ra ther than by e m p i r i c a l , inductive methods. Th is study was undertaken as an attempt to provide an e m p i r i c a l bas i s for a scale to measure conscience and m o r a l aware -ness . A rev iew of the pertinent l i t e ra tu re has revea led many p rob lems which r equ i re solution but which cannot be adequately studied un t i l an effective r e s e a r c h tool has been devised which w i l l enable i n v e s -t igat ion of a broader range of conscience than has p rev ious ly been poss ib l e . A s a step towards provid ing such a too l , two tasks were undertaken: 1. To descr ibe the p r i n c i p a l areas of m o r a l awareness and conscience as ref lected i n data obtained f rom var ious groups of i nd iv idua l s . 2 . To draw out the unifying p r inc ip l e s there in to be used as a f ramework for the const ruct ion of future scales to measure consc ience . So that the data would not be b iased by l i m i t e d populations or by s t r i c t def ini t ions , as wide a va r i e ty of groups of people as could be obtained was used, and no defini t ion of conscience that might colour the data was p rov ided . Data were col lec ted by asking ind iv idua l s , chief ly through the use of a mimeographed ques t ionnai re , what makes them feel bad. Groups contributing data inc luded both sexes f rom r u r a l and urban a reas , aged f rom ten to middle age, and of a va r i e ty of occupat ions. - i i i -The preponderance of data was contr ibuted by un ive r s i ty students. The i tems co l lec ted were sc ru t in i zed and l i ke i t ems were grouped under separate ca tegor ies . The i t ems i n each category were then judged for aptness of f i t , and s i m i l a r i t ems were drawn together under a general p r i n c i p l e . A wide range of conscience m a t e r i a l r e su l t ed f rom this p rocedure . Al toge the r , 944 persons contributed 3,952 i t ems i n the raw data. These were na r rowed down, because of dupl ica t ions , to 1,555 i t e m s . Items f rom the scales of F r i edenberg and Havighurs t and of Wack were inc luded . F r o m this number of i t ems emerged 760 general p r inc ip l e s under seventy-five ca tegor ies . In the l ight of the broad range of conscience m a t e r i a l which has emerged i n the present study, an ana lys i s of the content of the two previous studies has been made. Weaknesses i n their content have become evident, some areas being complete ly neglected whi le others are unduly emphas ized . It i s felt that the general p r inc ip l e s which have been de r ived e m p i r i c a l l y i n this study w i l l be useful as a f ramework upon which to construct a scale to measure conscience . A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S The w r i t e r i s deeply indebted to D r . E . S igno r i for h is encouragement, support, and wise counsel . To D r . D . G . Sampson, as w e l l as to D r . S i g n o r i , gratitude i s expressed for the hours of work which they have devoted to this project . Th is study was supported by a grant of $500 f rom the P re s iden t ' s R e s e a r c h C o m -mi t tee , and one of $ 850 f rom the Koe rne r Foundat ion, made to D r . S i g n o r i , Depar t -ment of Psycho logy . C O N T E N T S Chapter Page I Statement of the p rob lem 1 I I Review of l i t e ra ture 8 Introduction to p rob lem 8 Methodology of e m p i r i c a l psychologis ts 10 The re la t ionship between super-ego, ego- idea l and conscience 16 Psychoana ly t ic theory on the genesis of the super-ego 20 M o r a l development 27 Sexual differences i n m o r a l awareness and super-ego function 42 M o r a l awareness i n delinquents and psychopaths 50 The effect of con t ro l led and uncont ro l led soc i a l factors 58 Changes i n m o r a l awareness wi th t ime 61 Rela t ionship to in te l l igence 64 Rela t ionship to emotional s tabi l i ty 67 Is there a general t r a i t of honesty? 68 Types of conscience 71 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of behaviour 73 At tempts to measure conscience 77 III P rocedure 84 A i m of method 84 Organization of study 84 C o l l e c t i o n of Data 85 a) Method 85 b) D e s c r i p t i o n of contributing groups 87 F o r m u l a t i o n of Categor ies 88 a) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t ems 88 b) B a s i s of formula t ing categories 89 c) Def in i t ion of categories 90 Judgment of c lass i f ica t ions 90 F o r m u l a t i o n of p r i nc ip l e s 90 - v -Chapter Page I V Resul t s and d i scuss ion 92 Gros s n u m e r i c a l r esu l t s . 92 Resul t s accord ing t o groups 92 F o r m u l a t i o n of categories 95 Subjective ana lys is of data 96 E lements wi th in categories 101 C o m p a r i s o n with other studies 102 Achievement of a ims 106 V Summary and suggestions for further study 108 References 112 Appendices A Defini t ions of categories 121 B Items and p r inc ip l e s 127 T A B L E S Di s t r i bu t ion of contr ibutors accord ing to groups Di s t r i bu t ion of i t ems from, other conscience scales under the present categories C h a p t e r I S T A T E M E N T O F P R O B L E M 'Consc ience 1 i s an aspect of human persona l i ty that was left chiefly to the ra t iona l approach of humanists un t i l recent y e a r s . The more recent psycholog ica l in te res t i n conscience der ives f rom the fact that i t i s p resumed to influence behaviour . That i s , a c o r r e c t l y functioning conscience leads to acceptable soc i a l behaviour , whereas a l a ck of conscience , or an i n c o r r e c t l y functioning one, i s usua l ly assoc ia ted wi th soc i a l l y d isapproved behaviour . M o r e o v e r , since conscience appears to be an in tegra l par t of personal i ty which i s as subject to l e a r n i n g , ind iv idua l differences , and malfunctioning as i s emotion, i t deserves as much attention by psychologis ts as that given to i t by others . It i s up to the psychologis t , then, to f ind out i n what situations conscience ac ts , to what degree i t ac ts , how i t i s de-veloped, and when i t i s developed, as w e l l as how i t integrates wi th the r e s t of persona l i ty . Conscience appears to be both a p rob lem and a saving grace i n socie ty . In the n o r m a l person , conscience inc i tes man to be a soc i a l being who can sympathize wi th h i s f e l lows , and prevents h i m f rom doing h a r m and urges h i m to do "good" ins tead. In the neurot ic person , accord ing to - 2 -F r e u d (40), there seems to be a surfei t of consc ience-fee l ing which may overcome the persona l i ty , so that i n therapy the battle must be waged against the super-ego i n order to moderate i ts demands. M o w r e r (89), on the other hand, states that there i s a denial and r e p r e s s i o n of the functions of the super-ego i n the neurot ic individual , so that i n therapy the battle must be waged against the i d and an attempt made to strengthen the super-ego. Both theoris ts emphas ize , however , that there i s malfunctioning of the super-ego i n neuros i s . In the psychopath, there seems to be either no conscience , or such r e p r e s s i o n of conscience that i ts existence cannot be t raced , accord ing to many author s. Despite i ts p resumed impor tance , l i t t l e of a concrete nature is actual ly known about conscience . This l a ck of know-ledge has been ful ly r e a l i z e d by psychologis ts and psychoanalysts who have pointed out a need for study i n this a r ea . F o r example , A l l p o r t (5) has stated, "Psycholog is t s are tempted to tackle only those p rob lems , and to work on only those o r g a n i s m s , that y i e l d to acceptable operat ions . . . . Spec ia l ave r s ion attaches to problems having to do wi th complex mot ives , h i g h - l e v e l in tegra t ion , wi th conscience, f reedom, selfhood. A s we have sa id , i n la rge par t i t i s the re la t ive l ack of objective methods of study that accounts for this a v e r s i o n . Bu t the explanation l i e s a lso i n the preference of p o s i t i v i s m for externals rather than in t e rna l s , for elements ra ther than pat terns, for genet ic ism and for a passive or reac t ive o rgan i sm rather than for one that i s spontaneous and ac t ive . " (5,12) - 3 -It i s pointed out by A s c h (8) that there does not ex is t even a desc r ip t ion of value-judgments , le t alone a theore t ica l explanation of e thical judgment, although i t i s a p rob lem i n psychology. Speaking for psychoanalys ts , R e i k (99) points out that although F r e u d felt the sense of guil t to be the mos t i m p o r -tant p rob lem i n the evolut ion of cul ture , there has been s ca rce ly any p rogress made i n r e s e a r c h i n this a rea since F r e u d ' s t ime . R e i k suggests that psychoanalysts are avoiding the problem i n their publicat ions and quips , "Thus conscience doth make cowards of us a l l " . (99,4) Pas t r e s e a r c h has resu l ted for the mos t par t i n confusion and contention, not only regard ing what conscience i s and of what i t s content cons i s t s , but a l so regard ing how i t comes about. Perhaps this contention i s due as much to the personal biases of the inves t iga tors , causing them to approach the subject i n a na r row way, as to any inherent differences i n the methods of study used. However , the theories that have been put for th cannot be proven , nor the arguments r e s o l v e d , un t i l some means of descr ib ing and measur ing conscience can be assured . The need for a means of desc r ib ing and measur ing conscience has long been recognized i n the psycholog ica l f i e l d . - 4 -At tempts have been made to measure both m o r a l awareness and conscience and the re la t ionship between them. In such studies, m o r a l awareness has been taken to mean an aware -ness of general m o r a l values about which the ind iv idua l may or may not express a conscience fee l ing. On the other hand, conscience has been more n a r r o w l y defined as a reac t ion to a specif ic s i tuat ion i n which the ind iv idua l h i m s e l f i s invo lved or feels h i m s e l f to be invo lved . Where inves t iga tors have studied some aspect of either conscience, m o r a l judgment, or m o r a l awareness , they have usua l ly constructed thei r own sca les . Howeve r , since the studies a r e , for the most part , d i rec ted toward a nar row prob lem i n the b road f i e ld of m o r a l va lues , their wor th i s l i m i t e d . In genera l , there seems to have been a tendency to compose a group of questions i n r ega rd to some act ion such as s teal ing, l y i n g , or cheating, or a mix tu re of seve ra l such top ics . The questions then are l abe l l ed as having to do wi th conscience or m o r a l s or e th ica l judgment or gui l t fee l ing. A c t u a l l y , however , there i s no jus t i f ica t ion for assuming that such scales measure any more than the l y i n g , cheating, etc. , which constitute the bases for the quest ions. A n a r b i t r a r y select ion of behaviour that i s p resumed to have m o r a l s i g -nif icance i s by i ts ve ry nature bound to exclude ce r ta in areas of m o r a l m a t e r i a l . - 5 Only two studies may be regarded as attempts to deal with the p rob lem of measur ing conscience i n any ob-jective sense. One of these, by F r i edenbe rg and Havighurs t (44), was not successful i n measur ing strength of conscience but d id provide much valuable in format ion regard ing conscience. In this study two kinds of m o r a l evaluation were invest igated. The f i r s t involved an objective app ra i sa l of how bad a ce r t a in ac t ion was when per formed by others , whi le the second en-ta i led how the ind iv idua l h i m s e l f would feel i f he pe r fo rmed the act . The difference between the two scores was assumed to measure strength of conscience , but the authors concluded that the second measure alone was probably the more v a l i d ind ica tor of strength of conscience. M o r e o v e r , so far as can be deter-mined , the authors seem to have selected the content of con-science i t ems on an a p r i o r i bas i s for no in format ion i s given regard ing their formula t ion . The other study, by Wack (112), basing i ts content on the judgments of m o r a l theologians, was successful i n measur ing conscience i n Roman Ca tho l i c s . H o w -ever , the resul tant scale i s of such a nature that i t cannot be appl ied to the genera l population, since i t i s couched i n t e r m s incomprehensible to many Pro tes tan ts . In a l l previous studies, conscience i s defined, and quest ionnaires are based on what may be regarded as l i m i t e d areas of consc ience-fee l ing . The test cons t ruc to r s ' own ideas and feelings of conscience, or those of an authori tat ive body, - 6 -determine the d i rec t ion the entire study would take. To overcome such a l i m i t a t i o n , therefore , i t was decided i n the present study to s o l i c i t as wide a range of m o r a l in format ion as could be reasonably obtained f rom people at l a rge . Infor-mat ion was obtained by asking indiv iduals to submit l i s t s of actual situations i n which they might feel twinges of consc ience . Thus, by making such enquir ies of as wide a range of groups of people as were ava i l ab le , i t i s felt that the l imi ta t ions of an a p r i o r i viewpoint on m o r a l values and conscience-fee l ing might be overcome o r , at leas t , ame l io ra ted . Hence , for the purpose of this study, the content of conscience i s not r i g i d l y defined. It i s taken as being that which causes ind iv idua ls to have feelings of d i scomfor t wh ich they themselves might descr ibe as twinges of conscience. To the outs ider , the presence of conscience-feelings may be i n f e r r ed f rom behaviour usua l ly desc r ibed by such t e rms as shame, gui l t , embarrassment , r e m o r s e , chagr ine , self-c r i t i c i s m , etc. , . This study, then, set out to a c c o m p l i s h two m a i n purposes : 1. to descr ibe the p r i n c i p a l areas of m o r a l awareness as they are ref lected i n the broad pattern of conscience data obtained f rom a va r i e ty of groups of i nd iv idua l s . i This was achieved by c lass i fy ing a l l i t ems submitted into m a i n ca tegor ies . to draw out the unifying p r inc ip l e s found there in . The p r inc ip l e s thus outl ined could provide an e m p i r i c a l f ramework on which to bu i ld scales to measure con-science to suit one's purpose. C h a p t e r I I R E V I E W O F L I T E R A T U R E I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P r o b l e m There have been only two studies that have had as their sole concern the const ruct ion of a scale to measure conscience. These w i l l be d i scussed i n detai l i n the c los ing pages of this r ev i ew. However , there have been other types of studies to which one may look for in format ion concerning cer ta in aspects of conscience. There i s that l i t e ra tu re which includes the study of guil t feelings as par t of an inves t iga t ion into a broader f i e ld . There are studies on m o r a l development, wh ich , depending on the outlook of the inves t iga tor , are con-cerned wi th the genesis and growth of the super-ego, and the changes i n m o r a l reasoning which occur wi th i nc rea s ing age. There are studies of m o r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , judgment, and awareness , which are re la ted to the cognitive aspect of con-science . One can a lso draw informat ion f rom invest igat ions into the re la t ionships between m o r a l s and personal i ty va r i ab le s such as in te l l igence . Studies wi th r ega rd to honesty, l y i n g , etc. , are a lso of in te res t to those concerned wi th examining conscience, as conscience plays a leading part i n de termining such cha rac t e r i s t i c s . Psychoana ly t ic studies of the super-ego - 9 -and the ego- idea l mus t a lso be cons idered . There fore , many types of studies are pertinent to the invest igat ion of conscience and w i l l help to elucidate p rob lems invo lved i n such study. In any study of conscience, the work that has been done by psychoanalysts cannot be ignored for two different reasons . The f i r s t i s that the p r inc ip l e s which have aided psychologis ts i n the study of conscience have been d i scove red through the techniques used by psychoanalyt ic theor i s t s . These invest igators have a lso pointed out the important par t that conscience or the super-ego plays i n mental d is turbances . The second reason i s that there are confl ic t ing opinions among psychoanalysts regard ing such things as the difference, i f any, between the super-ego and the conscience, the development and function of the super-ego and the ego- idea l , as w e l l as conf l ic t ing ideas between psychoanalysts and psychologis ts regard ing a reas that would appear , on the surface , to be s i m i l a r . This indicates that much further study i s needed i n order to reconc i l e dif-ferences; study which cannot be done unt i l a survey of the range of conscience, and the relat ionship of the super-ego and ego-idea l to conscience , has been completed. U n t i l i t i s known with what conscience and m o r a l awareness are concerned, one cannot accura te ly study a l l the re la t ionships invo lved i n i t s development or i n i ts abnormal i t i e s . It has been pointed out by Haggard (52) i n a short , c lea r summary of the objective and project ive approached to the 10 -study and measurement of m o r a l charac te r , that there are drawbacks to both of these approaches. They do not supple-ment one another because one i s concerned wi th over t responses while the other i s concerned wi th unconscious reac t ions . A l s o , the project ive approach has i t s theore t ica l bas i s i n the study of abnormals , which introduces another difference between the two approaches. Haggard feels that i t i s necessa ry to draw together the scat tered findings f rom var ious d i s c i p l i n e s , not only f rom these two, before much p rogress can be made. Al though i n this r ev iew the 1 'drawing-together " w i l l not be as complete as might be wished , an attempt w i l l be made to compare and contrast the findings i n cer ta in l i m i t e d a reas of study reflated to m o r a l awareness , m o r a l development, and conscience. Before this can be done, some background i s needed to understand the findings presented by e m p i r i c a l psychologis ts and by psychoanalysts . In order to a id the under -standing of the f o r m e r , a desc r ip t ion of the more common methods and of some newer techniques w i l l be g iven ; F o r an under-standing of the la t te r , a desc r ip t ion of the m a i n theories of super-ego genesis i s necessa ry . M e t h o d o l o g y o f E m p i r i c a l P s y c h o l o g i s t s A va r i e ty of methods have been employed by psychologis ts to study m o r a l awareness and conscience. These consis t of questionnaire s, se l f - rank ing and ra t ing techniques, ind iv idua l tes ts , d i a ry methods, and behaviour si tuat ion tests . - 11 -Quest ionnaire- type tests as used i n studying m o r a l and e thical d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were pioneered by F e r n a l d (38), who also in i t ia ted the use of ranking methods i n this f i e l d . Kohs (70) enlarged upon F e r n a l d ' s questionnaire and gained some ins ight into attitudes toward conduct and concepts of ' r igh t ' and 'wrong ' behaviour . However , these tests were probably as much tests of soc i a l in te l l igence since they involved comprehension of the proper thing to do i n ce r t a in s i tuat ions. These f i r s t tests were ex t remely crude , being i n some cases m e r e l y a co l l ec t ion of sub-tests, gathered from, in te l l igence tes ts ,which the author thought per ta ined to e th ics . Ranking and ra t ing methods were a lso put to ea r ly use . In r ank ing , a number of cha rac t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d , such as s teal ing, l y i n g , etc. , and the subjects are asked to rank them i n order as to degree of Vrongness ' . In ra t ing methods, the behaviour or cha rac te r i s t i c s are ra ted along a scale of values wi th r ega rd to ' r igh tness ' or 'wrongness 1 . These methods have been popular because of their s i m p l i c i t y , but the b road , un -defined t e rms used, which l a ck concrete "anchor-poin ts" are l i k e l y to cause d i s to r t ions . That i s , among different soc ia l o r geographical groups, a t e rm such as "extravagance" may refer to mat ters which are not the same i n content, and thus not the same i n se r iousness . In at leas t one study of this type, by Brogan (21), the categories l i s t e d were obtained by asking persons to name the ten wor s t p rac t ices they could think of. - 12 The sixteen which were found to have been named mos t frequently were used on a permanent l i s t as a bas is for further r e s e a r c h . Al though possess ing weaknesses of i t s own, such an e m p i r i c a l bas i s for the content of a test i s much preferable to a p r i o r i decis ions on content. Another type of test ing technique i s the ind iv idua l admin i s t ra t ion of m o r a l tests s i m i l a r to the Stanford-Binet i n fo rm and content. L i n c o l n and Shields (78) and M c G r a t h (82) have both devised tests of this type which include vocabula ry tests , comprehens ion , def ini t ions , compar i sons , s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences , making sentences, in te rpre t ing p i c tu re s , e t c . , . These tests have draw-backs s i m i l a r to those that apply to quest ionnaire- type tes ts . They are too highly dependent upon ve rba l knowledge and ab i l i ty to be a true measure of m o r a l knowledge. A l s o , they l a ck the economy of admin i s t r a t ion which other tests have as an advantage. A complete ly different type of ind iv idua l test ing technique was used by Piaget (94), who painstakingly questioned ch i ld ren regard ing their own games and their react ions to short s tor ies r ead to them. Thus a deeper understanding of the ind iv idua l ch i ld ' s thoughts could be attained, l i t t l e would be over looked, and a s tandardized si tuation to a id compar i sons was ava i l ab le . The chief l imi ta t ions to this method are the amount of t ime n e c e s s a r i l y taken, the effect of the examine r ' s presence on the ch i ld ' s responses , and any tendency the examiner may have to perce ive ce r ta in things and ignore o thers . - 13 -K e c k e i s s e n (68) added the use of d i a ry m a t e r i a l to t rad i t iona l test methodology. High school g i r l s were asked to r e c o r d problems of conduct i n their d i a r i e s . These entr ies were then c l a s s i f i ed into faulty character t r a i t s , emotibaaal d i f f icu l t ies , r e l ig ious d i f f i cu l t i es , d i f f icul t ies re la t ing to school l i f e , and di f f icul t ies re la t ing to peers . The d ia r i e s provided data for the construct ion of a check l i s t under the m a i n c lass i f ica t ions of maladjustment which the subjects m a r k e d three months l a t e r . Wi th r e g a r d to c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t e m s , K e c k e i s s e n r e m a r k e d that i t was the most dif f icul t part of the study, as many i tems could fit into more than one category. This diff icul ty was probably due to the broadness of the m a i n c l a s s i f i ca t ions , and to the fact that the m a i n headings were not r e s t r i c t e d to one d imens ion . F o r example , faulty character t ra i t s could a lso be t ra i t s which caused di f f icul t ies i n school . The f i r s t c l a s s i f i ca t ion i s re la ted to behavioura l cha rac te r i s t i c s while the second c l a s s i f i ca t ion i s re la ted to the setting i n which behaviour takes p lace . Thus , there could not help but be over lapping . Four s imple techniques for studying cer ta in aspects of m o r a l development are d i scussed by D i e d e r i c h (30). These techniques seem to be adaptations of the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Included are a check l i s t of behaviour kept by a shop teacher and a more elaborate r e c o r d kept by a hosp i t a l , both of which are based on actual inceidents of behaviour , a before-- 14 -and-after essay technique, and a c l a s s i f i ca t ion of value judgments. D i e d e r i c h emphas ized that e thical development i s not a "myster ious in tangib le" but can be t r aced through a l i m i t e d number of things that people do, think, feel and say. D i sgu i sed behavioura l tests of character were f i r s t used by Voe lke r (111) and were enlarged upon by Har tshorne and M a y (54, 55) i n their monumental study, the Charac te r Educat ion Inquiry . This inqu i ry a lso employed paper and penc i l techniques which have a l ready been desc r ibed . The behaviour-type tests , however , m e r i t further desc r ip t ion . A c t u a l behavioural situations were used i n measur ing m o r a l conduct, employing the double test ing technique and the i m -probable achievement technique. In the fo rmer technique, a test i s given under s tandardized conditions which do not p e r m i t cheating, and a second fo rm of the test i s given under conditions where in cheating could take place ea s i l y . The n o r m a l v a r i a t i o n between the two tests, was ascer ta ined . If the difference between the scores f rom the f i r s t to the second test ing was greater than this n o r m a l va r i a t i on , cheating probably o c c u r r e d . In the lat ter technique, tests for which norms had been ascer ta ined p rev ious ly were given to the ch i ld ren . The amount of cheating could then be judged accord ing to the amount by which the c h i l d surpassed these n o r m s . In other behavioura l s i tuat ions, ch i ld ren were given the opportunity to cheat when m a r k i n g thei r own tests , to cheat by peeking, to fake a solut ion, to - 15 -obtain help f r o m others . They had the opportunity to l i e and to steal i n other tests . There were a lso tests of co-opera t ion which measured the re la t ive performance of a c h i l d when work ing on a group effort and when work ing for personal benefit. There were tests of inhib i t ion which measured ab i l i ty to exerc i se se l f - con t ro l while pe r fo rming a monotonous task without being d is t rac ted by more in teres t ing a c t i v i t i e s . Tests of pers is tence measured ab i l i ty to continue uninteres t ing work when a l lowed to stop at any t ime . Har tshorne and M a y thus compi l ed enormous quantities of data and contributed some findings to knowledge of m o r a l conduct. The m a i n conclusions reached are d i scussed under the appropriate headings below. The advantage of the method used i n their study i s that i t measures how a ch i l d ac tua l ly does behave, not just how he says he would behave. However , because of the elaborate procedures necessa ry for staging these tests , they can only be admin i s t e red to l i m i t e d groups. A l s o , the va r i e ty of m o r a l conduct that can be measured i n this way i s definitely l i m i t e d . F o r example , sexual m o r a l i t y could hard ly be measured through behavioura l " tes ts . It i s necessa ry that absolute secrecy regard ing the nature of the tests be mainta ined, otherwise those being tested could make r a d i c a l a l tera t ions i n their behaviour . F r o m the foregoing account of methods i t may be concluded that while standard tests are handicapped by thei r - 16 -super f ic ia l i ty and dependence on the subject 's w i l l ingness to co-operate , they have the advantages of economy and ease of quantif icat ion. It i s only wi th the more adequately financed r e s e a r c h studies that attention may be given to the more concrete expres s ion of conscience through behaviour . T h e R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S u p e r - e g o , e g o - i d e a l a n d c o n s c i e n c e Before entering into a d i scuss ion of psychoanalytic theories of super-ego genesis , i t i s necessa ry to point out that there seems to be no definite agreement on what conscience i s and what super-ego i s , or where one ends and the other begins , or whether they both refer to the same mat te r . This confusion i s a re f lec t ion of the general thinking on this subject. Some inves t iga to rs , such as Starcke (107), Glueck (48), L e v y - S u h l (77), for example , include conscience as par t of the super-ego. Others , such as Greenacre (49) do not differentiate between the two at a l l . S t i l l o thers , v i z . F r i e d m a n (45), Z i l b o o r g (117), and Caruso (24), consider conscience to include more than the super-ego. F r e u d (42) stated that conscience i s a function of the super-ego, but h i s use of the two t e rms was often not c l e a r l y differentiated. A n attempt to c l a r i fy this confusion has been made by M a i l l a u x (84) and Z i l b o o r g (117). The fo rmer l i s t s ce r t a in cha rac t e r i s t i c s by which the super-ego can be dis t inguished f rom conscience . The super-ego i s deemed to be unconscious , out of touch wi th r e a l i t y 17 -and per forms i n a r i g i d , unbending manner as i f fore ign to the personal i ty . On the other hand, conscience i s a ra t iona l i m -pera t ive , i n complete harmony with the exigencies of r e a l i t y . It b lames or excuses object ively and gives r i s e to our sense of r e spons ib i l i t y . The super-ego comes before the consc ience , genet ical ly speaking, a l ready functioning before the use of reason . L e v y (76) prefers not to use the w o r d "consc ience" but would place i t s functions i n the ego. He feels that "con-sc ience" has a highly personal meaning and usua l ly re fe r s to "a mix tu re between super-ego and ego p roces ses , a mix tu re cha rac t e r i s t i c of the ego-developmental stage which the user of the t e rm has reached, be i t ind iv idua l or group". (76,235) This argument about t e rms and the d i s t inc t ion between them i s unnecessary i n Stephen's viewpoint (1 08) , In a cyn ica l manner , he suggests that a l l are developed f rom bodi ly sensations and i t makes no difference whether these sensations be c a l l e d God, super-ego, persecut ing demons, or conscience. Al though the stand taken i n the present study i s not as cyn ica l as Stephen's , i t i s questionable that these dis t inct ions have much p r a c t i c a l purpose. However , this should not destroy their value for c l a r i fy ing the p rob lem of the theore t ica l aspects of m o r a l awareness and conscience. M o r e -over , one might agree wi th F r i e d m a n (45) that i t i s the i nd iv idua l ' s - 18 -own feelings of obl igat ion that should define consc ience , not what we think we see i n that of other ind iv idua l s . To the person who feels he has done something wrong , and feels guil ty about i t , i t makes no immediate difference whether i t i s h is super-ego, h is ego- idea l , or h is conscience that i s causing h im to feel gui l ty . In attempting to measure conscience , one cannot ignore the point made by B e r g l e r (12) i n r e g a r d to the super-ego's being an "unconscious consc ience" , since the unconscious has such great effect on one's conscious thought and fee l ing . Many differences i n responses to a conscience scale may be due to this unconscious element , and thus the "unconscious consc ience" may be measured i n a secondary sor t of way. It i s the amount of gui l t , and the areas i n which i t a r i s e s , ra ther than the p rec i se p rocess f rom which i t a r i s e s , which i s impor tant . Howeve r , i t may be poss ible to s u r m i s e , f rom the extent, content, and the sever i ty of the gui l t , which of these psycholog ica l p rocesses are involved . One may approach the p rob lem of the differences between "shame" and "gu i l t " i n a s i m i l a r way. Different ia t ions between the two have been made by P i e r s and Singer (95) and H i l g a r d (57), while Alexander (4) dis t inguishes between i n f e r i o r i t y feelings and gui l t . P i e r s and Singer feel that "shame" and "gu i l t " can be c l e a r l y d is t inguished. F o r example , the fo rmer a r i s e s f rom tension between the ego and the ego - idea l , while the lat ter a r i s e s out of tension between the ego and the - 19 -super-ego. However , one can lead to another and one can conceal the other. Some indiv idua ls seem to hide their shame so that i t appears ass guil t whi le others become ashamed i n situations which some react to wi th gui l t . T h i s , then, i s the complex si tuation that must be cons idered when one attempts to measure conscience. It would only be confusing to the ind iv idua ls being tested to have to t r y to differentiate between shame and gui l t . However , ce r ta in categories as shown i n the present study, such as " L o s s of Self Respect," are more c lo se ly re la ted to ego- idea l functions as usua l ly pe rce ived than to super-ego functions, and theore t ica l differentiat ions may then be made, i f des i r ed . A c t u a l l y , H i l g a r d ' s (57) definitions of "shame" as a response to being caught by someone else i n soc i a l l y disapproved behaviour and of "gu i l t " as a response to catching oneself i n behaviour cont rary to one's own conscience would be f a i r l y easy to d is t inguish through wording of the quest ions. Y e t , such definitions as H i l g a r d ' s seem to be o v e r -s impl i f i ca t ions , since shame can be felt at other t imes than just when caught by others whi le doing wrong , and guil t i s a more compl ica ted process than m e r e l y catching oneself doing wrong accord ing to one's own conscience. It can a lso apply to seeing others doing wrong , and being accused of doing wrong . - 20 -P s y c h o a n a l y t i c T h e o r y o n t h e G e n e s i s o f t h e S u p e r - e g o In order to understand the theore t ica l presentat ions of psychoanalysts regard ing m o r a l top ics , v iews on the genesis of the super-ego must f i r s t be examined, s ta r t ing , of course , with those of F r e u d . In h is paper "On N a r c i s s i s m " , F r e u d (40) i n t r o -duced the concept of the " ego - idea l " as a model which the ind iv idua l constructs i n h i m s e l f of h i s idea of h i s parents , and which becomes a. perfect image which the ch i l d i s a lways s t r iv ing to at tain. L a t e r , F r e u d set up the much wider notion of the super-ego, which a lso inc luded the n a r c i s s i s t i c ego-i d e a l . The super-ego was seen as functioning i n three w a y s : 1. A s an inhib i t ing force 2. A s an idea l - se t t ing force 3 . A s a s e l f - c r i t i c i z i n g force One of h i s comments on the super-ego was that i t " . . . i s the representat ive of a l l m o r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , the advocate of the impulse toward perfect ion; i n short , i t i s as much as we have been able to apprehend psycho log ica l ly of what people c a l l the 'h igher ' t i l ings i n human l i f e . " (43 , 95) However , F r e u d ' s v iews regard ing the super-ego were not en t i re ly compl imen ta ry . He cons idered the super -ego to be one of the m a i n t roub le -maker s i n menta l d is turbances , and considered the dominance of the super-ego to be a v i c t o r y of the death i m p u l s e . - 21 -Regard ing the format ion of the super-ego, F r e u d (41) be l ieved that i t i s the "heir of the Oedipus complex" and that i t i s - fo rmed through a dual p rocess of development occur ing m a i n l y wi th in the pha l l i c stage. The c h i l d takes over h i s paren ts ' commands and prohibi t ions and introjects them. These i n t r o -ject ions do not become a par t of the ego but fo rm a separate par t which i s sp l i t off f rom the ego, fo rming the inhib i t ing por t ion of the super-ego. The male c h i l d , having had sensual des i res towards h i s mother , gives up these des i res through fear of cas t ra t ion . The ch i l d turns h is host i le feel ing regard ing h is father towards h imse l f , and seeks to become l ike the father by acqu i r ing his i d e a l s . The female ch i l d overcomes her complex more gradual ly through fear of the lo s s of her mothe r ' s l ove , and comes to identify wi th her mother . This p rocess of ident i f icat ion resu l t s i n further development of the super-ego. The tension between the super-ego and the subjugated ego i s gui l t - fee l ing and i s manifested i n the need for punishment. Thus , being on 'good 1 or 'bad ' t e rms wi th the super-ego becomes as important to the ch i l d as the same re la t ionships had been wi th r e g a r d to h is parents . T h i s , then, i s the essence of the concept of the super-ego and i t s genesis , accord ing to orthodox theory. A m o n g those who were the f i r s t to continue this d i s cus s ion were Alexander (3), P e a r s o n (93), and Jones (6&, 65). The la t ter author pointed out seve ra l cont radic tory statements which - 22 -had been made by F r e u d up to that t i m e , and attempted to c l a r i fy the p ic tu re , e spec ia l ly i n r e g a r d to the re la t ions of the super-ego to the outer w o r l d , to the ego, and to the i d . Jones felt that the super-ego may be de r ived f rom either parent, but i s predominent ly de r ived f rom the parent of the same sex, and that sad i sm i s an obvious component of the super-ego. Jones a lso emphas ized that i t wkss the ego, and not the super-ego, which per forms r e p r e s s i o n , although at the demands of the l a t t e r . In this same e r a of d i s cus s ion regarding the super-ego, E d e r (3 6) emphasized the par t the super-ego plays i n n e u r o t i c i s m , and a lso r a i s e d the point that par t of the unconscious super-ego could be inhe r i t ed . A l o n g the same l i n e s , L a m p l - d e Groot (72) a s k s , yea r s l a t e r , i f there might not be a specif ic factor inherent to the fo rmat ion of the super-ego i t s e l f ra ther than i t s being de r ived so le ly f rom i d and ego m e c h a n i s m s . A s the d i scuss ions of the genesis of the super-ego continued over the y e a r s , further refinements and addit ions were contributed by var ious theor i s t s . F o r example , Sch imment i (102) p r e f e r r ed to differentiate between two kinds of i den t i f i c a -t ion : through i m i t a t i o n of the acts approved by the parents , and through incorpora t ion of the acts d isapproved by the paren ts . Imitat ion i s thought to be s imp le r and more consc ious , leading to format ion of the ego- idea l , while inco rpora t ion i s devious , more unconscious , and leads to format ion of the super-ego. 23 -Rank (16) considers the m o t h e r - c h i l d re la t ionsh ip to be a l l - impor t an t i n fo rming the super-ego, and that sad i sm plays a leading par t . The r e a l nucleus of the super-ego i s the " s t r i c t mo the r " as seen by the c h i l d , not the actual mother . Fu r the r e laborat ion of Rank ' s views are inc luded i n a la te r sec t ion . There were three factors that F e n i c h e l (37) cons idered to be important i n the s t ructure and strength of the super-ego. These a r e : 1. The actual behaviour of the parents 2. The ins t inc tua l s t ructure of the ch i l d 3 . The ch i ld ' s mental consti tut ion and a l l i t s previous exper iences . The models the ch i l d has before h i m are thus impor tan t , as w e l l as the nature of h is environment and of h i s object r e l a t i o n -ship s. A n extensive ana lys i s of the theore t ica l d i s cus s ion of the genesis of the super-ego has been made by F l u g e l (3 9). W i t h -out reference to pa r t i cu l a r authors , he points out four m a i n sources of the super-ego as have been suggested by va r ious psychoanalyt ic theor i s t s . 1. The process of d i r ec t i on of the n a r c i s s i s t i c l ib ido to the ego- ideal 2 . The process of in t ro jec t ion of the precepts and m o r a l attitudes of o thers , e spec ia l ly the parents 3. The turning against self of aggress ion towards in t ro jec ted parents 4. The influence of sado-masoch is t i c tendencies - 24 -Some theor is ts have tended to emphasize one of these sources , while others have emphasized another, and ce r ta in p rocesses may have been neglected. F l u g e l has made an ana lys i s of the nature of each source and the ro le which each plays i n the super-ego, thus making a f a i r l y complete summary of the conclusions reached by psychoanalysts up to 1945. M o r e recen t ly , enlargements on theor ies regard ing in t ro jec t ion by Rosenman (100) and on sources and functions of gui l t by Schmideberg (103) have added to the theore t ica l knowledge regard ing the m o r a l p rocesses of the i nd iv idua l . The E n g l i s h school and other modern theor is ts w i l l be d i scussed i n the sect ion on m o r a l development, as the age factor i n these studies i s impor tant , their m a i n disagreement with F r e u d being the stage i n which super-ego development takes p lace . Perhaps the most ardent c r i t i c of F r e u d has been M o w r e r (88, 89) who, although agreeing wi th F r e u d that neu ro t i c -i s m i s due to confl ic t between the super-ego and the i d , takes exception to his idea that i n neu ro t i c i sm the i d i s r e p r e s s e d and the super-ego i s overbear ing . M o w r e r considers that the opposite i s t rue , the super-ego being r ep re s sed and the neuro t ic , ra ther than having too much gui l t , has too l i t t l e , since i t i s not a l lowed to enter consciousness to cont ro l decis ions and ac t ions . Only by e m p i r i c a l l y de termining the amount and range of gui l t in .neurot ic groups as compared wi th n o r m a l groups can this question be thoroughly invest igated. It may perhaps be that - 25 -different types of mental dis turbances involve different p rocesses of r e p r e s s i o n . Some neurot ics may have too severe a conscience while others have too lenient ones, depending on the type of n e u r o s i s . A n y w a y , i t mus t be agreed wi th M o w r e r that e th ica l values demand acute attention i n the study of neuro t i c s . A s c h (8) a lso c r i t i c i z e d the psychoanalyt ic approach, and cites instances which contradict the causal explanations of this school . In c r i t i c i z i n g genetic theories he r a i s e s four poin ts : 1. They have not examined the facts they propose to exp la in . 2 . There i s no way for an habitual connection to produce the specif ic experience of obl iga t ion . 3 . Au thor i ty can produce fear or anger but cannot introduce into the m i n d the d is t inc t ion between a just and an unjust act . 4 . Soc i a l influences cannot produce the phenomenon of va lues , although they are a condit ion for the most s ignif icant e th ica l judgments. "Society cannot i m p o r t these categories into the i n d i v i d u a l . These are proper t ies of ind iv idua ls whose capaci ty to grasp the structure of s o c i a l re la t ions pe rmi t s them to sense r e q u i r e m e n t s . " (8,357) A s c h s t resses the importance of man ' s ab i l i t y to act i n accordance wi th the requi rements of the s i tuat ion, and to do things that need to be done rather than to do things because of subjective d e s i r e s . To back up this statement he r e fe r s to the Gesta l t concept of " r e q u i r e d -ness" , and to Duncker ' s "s i tuat ional mean ing" (34). - 26 -If the function of the super-ego or conscience should be as postulated by the psychoanalyt ic school , a long , detai led conscience scale would not be necessa ry . If, however , the r e -quirements of the si tuation are a l l - i m p o r t a n t , then const ruct ion of a long scale cover ing as great a va r i e ty of c i rcumstances as i s reasonable , re levant to the age group to be tested, i s neces sa ry . Th is la t ter supposition i s i n agreement wi th the p lan of the present study. S u m m a r y In the above d i s cus s ion , F r e u d ' s bas ic concepts regard ing the super -ego were desc r ibed b r i e f l y , along wi th ce r ta in refinements and elaborat ions contributed by other psychoanalyt ic theor i s t s . The chief c r i t i c i s m s , by M o w r e r (88, 89) and A s c h (8), of psychoanalyt ic theory have been d i scussed a l s o . F r o m th i s , i t can be seen that, although F r e u d and h is fo l lowers have contr ibuted a great deal to the understanding of the ind iv idua l ' s m o r a l p r o c e s s e s , there are many prob lems which they have been unable to exp la in . A l s o , these theor is ts have emphasized their own assumptions to such a degree that a b iased approach to the p rob lems has been a r e su l t . Al though a number of techniques have been developed for the study of p rob lems re la ted to m o r a l i t y , there has not yet been devised an ins t rument which can be used to test the psycho-l o g i c a l and psychoanalyt ic theories except i n l i m i t e d a r ea s . B l u m (16a) has set an example i n subjecting ce r ta in psychoanalyt ic - 27 -concepts to the scrut iny of psycholog ica l r e s e a r c h techniques by using a project ive test to study cer ta in aspects of psychosexual adjustment, inc luding seve ra l of in te res t to this study, wh ich w i l l be desc r ibed i n a la te r sec t ion . Such a test ing of va l id i ty of psychoanalyt ic theory wi th r e g a r d to conscience feelings and gui l t would seem to be necessa ry when the faults of this approach are cons idered . A l s o , there are many psycho log ica l hypotheses w h i c h , when tested, have y ie lded resu l t s that confl ict wi th the supposit ions of psychoanalysts wi th r e g a r d to the same topic . The r ema in ing sections of this r ev iew w i l l deal wi th specif ic areas of study, wi th both psychoanalyt ic and psycho log ica l m a t e r i a l appearing together i n cases where both viewpoints are re levant . M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t a) E m p i r i c a l Studies P iage t ' s book ( 94) on the m o r a l development of ch i ld ren has been, a source book i n this f i e l d . P iage t questioned ch i ld ren wi th r ega rd to the ru les by which they play and wi th r e g a r d to s tor ies which had been r ead to them. He found that there i s f i r s t a stage of " m o r a l r e a l i s m " i n which the ch i ld accepts without question the m o r a l teachings and judgments of older pe r sons . However , these r e m a i n external to h is conscience and do not r e a l l y change h i s attitudes and conduct. Involved i n this stage are constraint on the par t of e lders and respec t on the par t of the - 28 c h i l d . The next phase i s an intermediate one i n which the ru les and commands of the f i r s t stage are i n t e r i o r i z e d and genera l i zed . The ch i l d has not iced a difference between the s t r i c t ru les l a i d down by adults and their actual behaviour . The las t stage i s based on co-operat ion and mutual respect and the ra t iona l concept of the just and the unjust. Now, "the ind iv idua l feels f rom wi th in the des i re to treat others as he h i m s e l f would wi sh to be t reated. "(94, 1 A l s o , P iage t found that ch i ld ren f i r s t consider gui l t to be sole ly proportionate to the amount of h a r m or damage done. F o r example , dropping fifteen cups acc iden ta l ly would be considere worse than dropping one cup on purpose. A s development proceeds the ch i ld gradual ly comes to consider the mot ives behind act ions more and m o r e . Wi th r e g a r d to jus t i ce , this invest igator a lso found different stages i n the ch i ld ' s development. A t f i r s t , " jus t i ce" i s that which i s p r o s c r i b e d by the adult . Then equa l i -t a r i a n i s m i s next cons idered to be mos t impor tan t . That i s , goods must be d is t r ibuted equally regard less of c i r cums tances . L a t e r , there i s more subtle d is t inc t ion made, wi th the c h i l d taking into account the c i rcumstances of the i nd iv idua l . These conclusions of P iage t ' s agree wi th observat ions made by K l e i n (69) dur ing p l ay -ana lyses . She observed that the super-ego of the young ch i l d i s much harsher and more c r u e l than that of the older ch i ld or adult . Adopt ing P iage t ' s techniques, Lerner (74) has noted a s i m i l a r pattern of development i n m o r a l judgment i n ch i ld ren i n the Uni ted States. In another study (74a), he repor t s that among - 29 -Swiss schoolboys up to age eight or n ine , m o r a l judgments are en t i re ly " r e a l i s t i c " . The ch i l d does not think of a l te rna t ives nor have r e g a r d for the points of view of other pe r sons , thinking everyone w i l l have the same opinion as he does. Af t e r this age, the ch i ld becomes i nc r ea s ing ly more f lexible i n h is judgments and i s able to identify wi th a greater va r i e ty of persons . This same technique was used by Boehm (17) to compare A m e r i c a n and Swiss ch i l d r en . A m e r i c a n ch i ld ren seem to mature e a r l i e r i n ce r t a in areas of soc ia l development, and are affected by the judgments and norms of the i r peers at an e a r l i e r age. In testing two assumptions behind the w o r k of P iage t and L e r n e r , M c R a e (83) found there i s no general factor under -l y i n g a l l the questions used , but that there are seve ra l sub-c lus te r s re la ted to separate aspects of m o r a l development. These sub-c lus te r s are concerned w i t h : 1. Intentions-consequences 2. Punishment 3 . Pe r spec t ive 4. V i o l a t i o n of no rms M c R a e then postulated two types of m o r a l development, cognitive and emot ional . The fo rmer involves the l ea rn ing of which be -haviour patterns are approved and which d isapproved, whi le the lat ter includes the assoc ia t ion of anxiety wi th one's own deviance and m o r a l indignat ion wi th that of o thers . The f i r s t three c lus te r s are probably more concerned wi th cognitive development, while the v io la t ion of no rms questions are more concerned wi th emotional - 30 -m o r a l development. Therefore , although P iage t ' s findings have been cor robera ted by other s tudies, there i s s t i l l r oom for r e -finement into studies of the two types of m o r a l development. Wi th their Stanfoafd-Binet-like test, L i n c o l n and Shields (78) conduded that there i s a gradual development of m o r a l judgment f rom childhood to ma tu r i t y , although complete under -standing of m o r a l concepts did not occur un t i l w e l l over s ixteen yea r s of age. However , such a late age for understanding of m o r a l concepts must be an ar t i fac t of the test ra ther than of l a ck of m o r a l understanding i n ch i l d r en . The test was obviously highly dependent on ve rba l s k i l l s , and so i t i s l i k e l y that there was not a complete understanding of the vocabulary and sentence s t ructure used ra ther than of the m o r a l concepts hidden behind them. Wi th a s i m i l a r type of test, M c G r a t h (82) found three stages i n the m o r a l development of ch i ld ren f rom age s i x . - F i r s t came the understanding of a duty to God , then of the duty to one's neighbour and to main ta in one's personal in t eg r i ty , and t h i r d l y , of the duty to society and soc i a l groups . It was found that young ch i ld ren are genera l ly k i n d , po l i te , chari table and honest i n the i r dealings wi th o thers , but they tend to be "se l f i sh as to personal gain and i n ^ satisfying their own wants f i r s t " . M o r a l awareness seemed to have developed to a considerable degree of matur i ty by age twelve , but the attainment of i t was g radua l . Obedience appeared to be the mos t impor tant t r a i t up to adolescence , - 31 -whi le truthfulness appeared l a t e r . Since M c G r a t h ' s statement that m o r a l awareness has matured by age twelve seems to be more i n l ine with the d i scove r i e s of other inves t iga to rs , her test i s probably l e s s dependent on in te l lec tua l achievement than that of L i n c o l n and Sh ie lds . However , i t seems diff icul t to accept the idea that the ch i ld f i r s t understands a duty to God i n any but a select group of persons highly t ra ined i n r e l ig ious precepts . Studying younger ch i l d r en , S r . M a r y I . H . M . and Hughes (86) repor t that the necess i ty of obeying one's parents i s understood sometime i n the f i r s t two years of l i f e , although reasons why were more s lowly developed. Rea l i za t i on of r ights of owner -ship a lso o c c u r r e d e a r l y , while the concept of t ruth was understood by age f ive . Average m o r a l growth appeared to be r a p i d f rom three to five yea rs of age, wi th the foundations of m o r a l concepts being l a i d i n p r e - s choo l y e a r s . F r o m the psychoanalyt ic v i e w -point , Greenacre (49) has stated a s i m i l a r opinion, saying that before age five ch i ld ren have some standards of r ight and wrong , of proper ty possess ion , and of cont ro l l ing actions that w i l l h a r m others . Rankings of ch i ld ren aged s i x , accord ing to E b e r h a r t (35) cor re la te . 75 with adult rankings regard ing attitude toward proper ty r igh t s . P r o g r e s s toward adult no rms was steady, wi th greatest p rogress being made dur ing the p r i m a r y grades . Judg-ments were based on the re la t ionship of the owner to the offender, the pos s ib i l i t y of punishment and the k ind and value of the proper ty - 32 -invo lved . F e a r of punishment was a chief factor i n ch i ld ren ' s judgments, while older persons gave d iverse reasons showing concern for o thers . This corresponds to L e r n e r ' s findings (74a) with r ega rd to pe rspec t ive , or the ab i l i ty to sympathize wi th the viewpoints of others . Re la t ing age to guil t with delinquent boys , the M c C o r d s (80) found no s ignif icant change between the ages of eight and th i r teen. They feel that this indicates that soc i a l i z a t i on , as r e -f lected i n guil t fee l ings , occurs at an ea r ly age and that gui l t does not seem to increase wi th ma tu r i t y . Dowd (32) studied changes i n m o r a l reasoning through the high school y e a r s , us ing n o r m a l Cathol ic high school g i r l s as her subjects. These g i r l s were presented wi th th i r ty p rob lem situations invo lv ing m o r a l questions and were asked what they would do under such condi t ions , and the reason for their dec i s i on . The reasons were c l a s s i f i ed as e thical i f based on m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , emotional i f based on considerat ion for the feelings of o thers , and as pragmat ic i f considera t ion for self came f i r s t . There seemed to be a tendency for the use of c o r r e c t e th ica l p r i nc ip l e s to inc rease wi th grade l e v e l , while emotional influences decreased . The pragmat ic influence was strong i n Grade E i g h t and weaker i n Grade Twe lve . Soc i a l p r e s su re s somet imes b l u r r e d the e th ica l i s sues for the adolescents , e spec ia l ly the older ones, as they seem to have a strong des i re for the approval of the i r pee r s . - 33 -A compar i son of high school and un ive r s i ty students was made by Slavens and B r o g a n (106) to see i f there were any differences i n judgments of these two age groups. A s far as ser iousness of prac t ices was concerned, the resu l t s were much the same for both groups. Seve ra l studies have found that i nc rea s ing age i s accompanied by a decrease i n the acceptance of general m o r a l views by ch i l d r en . Such findings have been mentioned by P iage t (94), L e r n e r (74), M c C o r d and M c C o r d (80), Har tshorne and M a y (54), Jones (97) and T e r m a n (97). Wi th r e g a r d to t ruthfulness, Hor ton (59) d i scovered that students seemed to become more tactful i n soc ia l re la t ions and l ess regardful of the t ruth as they go through school . E l emen ta ry pupils tend to be b lunt ly truthful r ega rd l e s s of the feelings of o thers . In genera l , g i r l s were found to be more truthful than boys . However , a major l i m i t a t i o n i n this study was that only one instance was used as a bas i s for de termining t ru th -fulness . Psychoana ly t ic theory agrees wi th the findings of these inves t iga tors . The pertinent studies w i l l be d i scussed under the sect ion on psychoanalyt ic v iews regard ing m o r a l development. However , the question may be more compl ica ted than has been suggested, accord ing to the findings of B e l l e r (10). He studied nine , twelve , and fifteen year o ld boys , us ing the technique of asking them how they "ought" to behave i n cer ta in concrete situations and how they ant icipated they ac tual ly would behave. The major concept behind these situations was deception. B e l l e r , - 34 -consistent wi th the above f indings, found an o v e r a l l drop i n honesty with i nc reas ing age. However , wi th this i nc r ea s ing age, there was a lso a t rend to higher ideals of honesty rather than to a tendency to behave honest ly . Th is meant that there was a l a r g e r d iscrepancy between the two scales wi th the twelve and fifteen y e a r olds than wi th the nine year o lds . Twelve year o ld ch i l d r en set their standards above their ant icipated conduct i n much the same way as n o r m a l adults do, B e l l e r concluded that the twelve year oldihas " i n t e r i o r i z e d " the m o r a l code to a greater extent than the nine year o l d , and that by age fifteen a l i m i t appears to have been reached. In s u m m a r i z i n g the e m p i r i c a l s tudies, there seems to be an agreement that ch i ld ren are at f i r s t v e r y " l i t e r a l " i n the i r appl ica t ion of m o r a l judgment, then become aware of a l t e rna t ives , and are f ina l ly able to r a t iona l ly conceive of the "just" and the "unjust 1 ' by putting themselves i n another 's p lace . However , i t has been suggested that two types of m o r a l development should be cons idered , the cognitive and the emot ional . There seems to be a consensus that truthfulness or honesty decreases , whi le deception i nc r ea se s , wi th the i nc rea s ing sophis t icat ion of the c h i l d . Y e t , there i s evidence that idea ls may not be l owered i n conjunction wi th the more f lexible behaviour . Wi th r e g a r d to the age at which m o r a l awareness f i r s t appears , ch i ld ren as young as eighteen months have shown evidence of awareness of " r i gh t " and "wrong" , wi th the r ap id pe r iod of development being the p r e - s c h o o l - 35 -and ea r ly school y e a r s . B y the t ime a ch i l d has reached the age of twelve to fifteen, h i s awareness and understanding of m o r a l concepts has ma tu red . There i s not complete agreement i n the studies wi th r e g a r d to the average age of attaining this m o r a l ma tu r i ty . There have been few studies on the content of the ch i ld ' s m o r a l concepts, and those which have been done have been wi th reference to such a l i m i t e d population that a great deal more invest igat ion i s r equ i r ed . F o r example , a suitable conscience scale might help to t r ace , not only the waning of truthfulness which has been noted, but a lso the inc rease i n concern for the feelings of others which i t i s suspected accompanies this phenomenon. The r i s e and f a l l of the different facets of m o r a l awareness and conscience might be fol lowed i n this manner , and a c l e a r e r under-standing of in te r re la t ionsh ips of p r inc ip l e s wi th i nc r ea s ing ma tu r i ty may be reached. P s y c h o a n a l y t i c V i e w s The development of the super-ego has been one of the mos t contentious i ssues i n psychoanalyt ic theory. Since F r e u d postulated that the super-ego does not function un t i l the latency p e r i o d , many voices have r i s e n to protest that ch i l d r en show evidence of an operating super-ego long before this age. F r e u d (42) admits that ch i ld ren show guil t feelings at an e a r l i e r age, but says that this awareness of guil t comes into being before the super-ego. The supposit ion that the infant could experience anxiety at the ea r l i e s t o r a l stage was expressed by A b r a h a m (1) as ea r ly 36 -as 1916. He considered that something r e semb l ing guil t could occur at the next stage. • Nunberg (92) and F e r e n c z i (16) point out the importance of bodi ly sensations and bodi ly p rocesses respec t ive ly on the format ion of the super-ego. However , these authors are probably only desc r ib ing one stage i n the developmental p rocess which has been more adequately desc r ibed by Rank, I saacs , Greenac re , etc. , . Through play techniques, K l e i n (69) studied young ch i ld ren aged f rom two to s i x . On this b a s i s , she postulated that the growth of the super-ego i s slow with a beginning ea r ly i n l i f e . H e r hypothesis i s that the infant has violent emotions , cannot d is t inguish between self and not-se l f , and has h ighly ambivalent i m p u l s e s . 'Wdxeiz he f i r s t begins to perce ive his mother as a pe r son , these impulses are at the ag ress ive -ambiva len t stage . He wants to d i smember and consume his mother . These impulses are projected upon the mother so that there a r i s e s the notion of a f i e rce mother wi th ex t remely aggress ive fee l ings . Because the ch i l d in t ro jec ts this image he develops an ex t remely severe super-ego which off-sets h i s destruct ive i m p u l s e s . Thus , K l e i n concludes that the genesis of the super-ego i s to be found i n the o r a l - s a d i s t i c ra ther than i n the pha l l i c stage of development. Isaacs (60) agrees wi th K L e i n i n th i s , pointing out that the super-ego i s often most severe i n ch i ld ren of three to five yea rs of age, i n complete con t r a -d ic t ion of the gentle treatment actual ly r ece ived by the c h i l d . - 37 -She postulates three stages i n gui l t : .1. That a r i s i n g f rom the leas t differentiated l eve l s of e x -per ience , r e su l t ing i n the automatic and "black or wh i t e" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. That a r i s i n g f rom the ea r l i e s t object-cathexis and r e l a t i o n -ships , inc luding f rus t ra t ion as a chief fac tor . 3. That a r i s i n g f rom the in t ro jec t ion of love-objects and in te rna l i za t ion of cas t ra t ion-anxie ty , r esu l t ing i n true gui l t . Fou r stages i n super-ego development were desc r ibed by Greenacre (50). 1. F i r s t 18 months to two yea r s - ea r ly in t ro jec t ive -pro jec t ive stage. 2. Habi t t ra in ing yea rs - struggle to mas te r body urges 3. Age five - struggle of renuncia t ion of oedipal attachment and extension of the w o r l d 4. Reinforcement of the attainments of the oedipal struggle by soc ia l inf luences. The ind iv idua l conscience joins wi th the s o c i a l conscience to some degree. Rank (16),as in te rpre ted by B l u m , has a lso hypothesized ce r ta in stages i n super-ego development: 1. The b io log i ca l super-ego - a r i s i n g f rom o r a l - s a d i s t i c l ib ido dammed up i n the ego causing development of inhib i t ions 2. The m o r a l super-ego - a r i s i n g i n the anal stage as a r e su l t of to i le t t ra in ing causing development of sado-masoch is t i c por t ion of the super-ego. - 38 -3. The soc ia l super-ego - a r i s i n g i n the Oedipal p e r i o d as a r e su l t of ident i f icat ion and in t ro jec t ion . However , Lamp!-de Groot (72) c r i t i c i z e d the viewpoint that the super-ego a r i s e s before the reso lu t ion of the Oedipus complex . He prefers to d is t inguish between the forerunners and the super-ego i t se l f , although he admits there i s a developmental phase of which the super-ego i s the achievement . In t h i s , he prefe rs to fo l low the l ine of thought expressed by F r e u d . Those that do agree on ea r ly format ion of the super-ego, a lso seem to agree , more or l e s s , i n r e g a r d to stages of develop-ment, since a l l begin with the o r a l - s a d i s t i c stage, then go through a pe r iod of mas te r ing bodi ly u rges , and a l l ment ion the Oedipal struggle as an important phase. Changes i n the nature of the super-ego wi th i n c r e a s i n g age have a lso been desc r ibed i n the l i t e r a tu r e . Fen i che l (37) states that the super-ego i s at f i r s t s t r i c t and r i g i d , but i n n o r m a l persons i t l a te r becomes more pl iable and more sens ib le . Hartmann., K r i s and Loewenste in (53) a lso d i scuss this phenomenon, saying that the super-ego f i r s t tends to be ove r ly r i g i d and, ra ther than c o m p r o m i s e , i t y i e l d s . Wi th inc reas ing age, the super-ego adjusts to r e a l i t y , part ly :due to the fact that the function of the super-ego i s l e s s i n danger and so needs l ess pro tec t ion . A l s o B o r n s t e i n (18) says that i n the age group f rom five and one-half to eight, the super-ego functions i n a h a r s h manner , but la te r becomes more pl iable since exposed to l e ss severe confl icts due - 39 -to reduced sexual demands. In a synthesis of many theories and studies, F l u g e l (39) t races eight general tendencies i n m o r a l development. These trends a r e : 1. F r o m egocentr ic i ty to soc ia l i ty 2. F r o m unconscious to conscious 3. F r o m aut ism to r e a l i s m 4. F r o m m o r a l inh ib i t ion to spontaneous 'goodness ' 5. F r o m aggress ion to tolerance and love 6. F r o m fear to secur i ty 7. F r o m heteronomy to autonomy 8. F r o m orec t i c (moral) judgment to cognitive (psychological) judgment Many of these tendencies were f i r s t brought to l ight i n P i age t ' s studie s, and they a l l involve t rans i t ions f rom a p r i m i t i v e state to a more mature state. A theore t ica l viewpoint i s expressed by the psychologis t , A l l p o r t (6), i n desc r ib ing the changes which occur i n the develop-ment of conscience as fo l l ows : " . . . i n the course of t ransformat ion three important changes occu r . 1. E x t e r n a l sanctions give way to in te rna l - a change adequately accounted for by the processes of ident i f ica t ion and in t ro jec t ion . . . 2. Expe r i ences of p roh ib i t ion , fear , and "must" give way to experiences of preference , se l f - respec t , and "ought". Th is shift becomes poss ib le i n propor t ion as the se l f - image and value systems of the ind iv idua l develop. - 40 -3. Speci f ic habits of obedience give way to gener ic self-guidance, that i s to say, to b road schemata of values that confer d i r ec t ion upon conduct. " (6,72) These changes are s i m i l a r to those desc r ibed by psychoanalysts and e m p i r i c a l psychologis ts a l i k e , and gives a broad descr ip t ion of the process desc r ibed i n more deta i l by F l u g e l (39). Psychoana ly t i c studies of m o r a l development, then, have been chiefly concerned wi th desc r ib ing the stages through which the super-ego passes before attaining ma tu r i t y . There f i r s t appears to be an o r a l - s a d i s t i c stage i n which the ch i l d has not yet l ea rned to d is t inguish self f rom not -se l f . Then comes a stage i n which bodi ly processes and their control are of p r i m e impor tance . Then comes the in t ro jec t ion and in t e rna l i za t ion processes which m a y , i n a s t i l l la ter stage, be affected by t ra in ing and other soc ia l inf luences . There are s t i l l those, however , who main ta in that F r e u d ' s contention that the evidence of p re -oed ipa l super-ego i s m e r e l y evidence of a forerunner to the super-ego i s the more c o r r e c t one. Changes are a lso apparent i n the nature of the super-ego as development p rog re s se s . Many theor is ts have r e m a r k e d on the c r u e l , r i g i d super-ego found i n v e r y young c h i l d r e n . Th is r i g i d i t y i s la te r ame l io ra t ed by changes toward a more p l iab le and r e a l i s t i c nature. The gradual attainment of a mature super -ego could perhaps be studied through e m p i r i c a l inves t igat ion into the content and strength of the super-ego at var ious develop-menta l stages. - 41 -S u m m a r y In summary , wi th reference to m o r a l development, a l l inves t igators concerned have agreed that there i s a develop-mental p rocess which must be undergone before a mature conception of m o r a l values i s attained. There are differences i n the postulated ages of achieving this ma tu r i ty , and a lso differences i n the postulated ages at wh ich this p rocess begins . The manner of changes which occur during this p rocess ,as desc r ibed by P iage t , have been f a i r l y w e l l borne out by other authors i n their repor t s on r e s e a r c h . F l u g e l points out eight aspects of the developmental process which undergo change. Wi th i nc reas ing maturi ty , the t rend, both genera l ly and spec i f i ca l ly , seems to be f rom the r i g i d and un rea l i s t i c to the f lexible and adaptive. The mos t recent r e s e a r c h has brought forth the r ea l i z a t i on that ref inement of studies i n order to cont ro l va r i ab les p rev ious ly over looked i s impera t ive i f differences a re to be r e c o n c i l e d . There i s s t i l l much disagreement regard ing the age at which super-ego or conscience makes i t s f i r s t appearance. Al though much of the recent wr i t i ng on this subject has fol lowed K l e i n i n postulating a super-ego preceding the Oedipal s t ruggle , there are s t i l l those who follow F r e u d ' s theory. However , i f factual evidence of guil t i s evidence of the presence of a super-ego, the work of K l e i n , Isaac, Greenacre and of e m p i r i c a l psychologis ts such as S r . M a r y and Hughes would point to i t s existence before the age of f ive . - 42 S e x u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n M o r a l A w a r e n e s s a n d  S u p e r - e g o F u n c t i o n a) E m p i r i c a l Studies Three aspects of sexual differences i n m o r a l judg-ments were studied by B r o g a n . In h is f i r s t study (21), he found no signif icant differences between sexes i n ranking the ser iousness of s ixteen sorts of undesirable behaviour . There was a lso a un i formi ty of opinion as to which of the p rac t i ces we re more frequently indulged i n . L a t e r , these same "wors t p r a c t i c e s " were used to see i f group est imates of the frequency of misconduct were the same with r e g a r d to men and to women (22). There were only two prac t i ces where a d iscrepancy between the two sexes was evidenced . Women tended to think both d r ink ing and gambling were more frequent among men than the men thought. On the ra t ing of re la t ive frequency between the sexes , goss ip , snobbish-ness , extravagance and self ishness were thought to be more frequent among women; dancing, l y i n g , id leness and cheat ing, approximate ly the same; while the remainder were thought to be more frequent among men . Th i s showed there definitely was a "double s tandard" at that t i m e . B r o g a n went on to use this method to study the double standard more in tensely among un ive r s i t y students (23). The students were r e q u i r e d to state whether a p rac t ice was worse for a man to do than for a woman to do, or v ice v e r s a , or whether equally bad for both men and women. Idleness was the only prac t ice thought to be worse for m e n than for - 43 -women. However , the double standards set seemed to v a r y f rom one par t of the Uni ted States to another. A chief c r i t i c i s m of this se r ies of studies l i e s i n Brogan ' s us ing such b road t e rms as se l f i shness , extravagance, id l eness , e t c . , without pinning the t e rms down to actual situations . That i s , no definitions of the t e rms are offered; neither are they re la ted to actual behaviour s i tuat ions. Therefore , differences i n different par ts of the country could be due to l o c a l in terpreta t ions of the meaning of the t e rms ra ther than to var ia t ions i n standards themse lves . T e r m meanings could a lso v a r y considerably f rom person to pe r son . The reference point of each t e r m would have a great deal to do wi th i t s ser iousness . F o r example , gossip designed to hur t others would be much more ser ious than just id le chatter , but either meaning could be taken i n this study, as w e l l as many shades of meaning between these two. However , B rogan ' s technique of finding f rom the students themselves their ideas of the ten wor s t p r a c t i c e s , and select ing the sixteen most frequently mentioned f rom these data, was commendable when contrasted wi th so many studies i n which the scale constructor makes up h is own l i s t s . Thompson (110) a lso based h is behaviour l i s t s on m a t e r i a l obtained f rom students. Having asked boys and g i r l s f rom Grades S ix to Twelve to l i s t behaviour which would be p r a i s e d or b lamed by other ch i ld ren thei r own age, these responses were analyzed into 29 categories of blame responses and 27 categories of p ra i se responses . S l ides consis t ing of the ten mos t frequently - 44 -mentioned p ra i se and blame categories i n each combinat ion were made up and presented to a new populat ion. Resu l t s showed that rankings for the sexes were h ighly s i m i l a r i n the seven age groups , although g i r l s showed greater d i s c r i m i n a t i o n at a l l age l e v e l s . Th is method of studying m o r a l awareness i s ce r t a in ly pra i sewor thy insofar as the method of co l lec t ing e m p i r i c a l data and setting up the categories i s concerned. Y e t , to use the general t e rms of the categories i n the second phase of the study i s not sa t i s fac tory because of the confusion which might a r i s e as to the p rec i s e meaning of the t e r m s , as has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . Thompson 's method of col lec t ing the o r i g i n a l data i s s i m i l a r to the method used i n the present study. However , h i s categories are i n reference to peer group judgments, and therefore do not cover the fu l l range of conscience m a t e r i a l . Other studies which have found great s i m i l a r i t y between m o r a l v iews of m e n and women are those of Skaggs (105), who found "intimate sex re la t ions outside of m a r r i a g e " to be the only i t em with m a r k e d difference; and Dudychka (33), who found a l l m o r a l proposi t ions to be equally be l ieved except those con-cerned wi th smoking . Har tshorne and M a y (54) found honesty to be unrelated to sex, although Hor ton (59) found g i r l s to be more truthful than boys . Ca t t e l l (25) a l s o , repor t s p r a c t i c a l l y no sex differences i n the source t r a i t of-supearisego strength. In the w e l l -known study of the A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y (2), when persona l i ty ext remes were held constant, there was no signif icant difference between the super-egos of men and women. - 45 -C r i s s m a n (28) found women to be more severe i n the i r m o r a l judgments than m e n . Us ing a ra t ing scale for the judgment of fifty i t ems on a quest ionnaire , women were shown to judge four-fif ths of the i t ems more severe ly than the m e n d id . E s p e c i a l l y great differences were shown i n i t ems regard ing d r ink ing , r e l i g i o n and sexual m o r a l i t y , as w e l l as those regard ing cheating, dishonesty, and not contributing to char i ty . Studying a s l ight ly different aspect of sexual differences i n m o r a l i t y , Whit low (114) using a ranking technique on twenty-s ix a c t i v i t i e s , found that the boys r e sembled the g i r l s more i n attitude than they did i n behaviour , whi le the consis tency between attitude and behaviour was greater for the g i r l s than for the boys . One of the conclusions i n a study by B r a h m a c h a r i , as desc r ibed by F l u g e l (39,63-68), was that women seemed to suffer l e ss confl ic t than men , the la t ter being t roubled chiefly by a rebe l l ious ego-idea l . Us ing e m p i r i c a l methods to test psychoanalyt ic p r i n c i p l e s , B l u m (16a) studied parenta l influences on both sexes i n the format ion of the super-ego. On the bas i s of in format ion gathered through use of the B l a c k y p i c tu re s , he found i d e n t i f i c a -t ion n o r m a l l y occurs wi th the parent of the same sex, but that the ident i f icat ion process i s l e ss c l ea r - cu t i n females than i n m a l e s . Wi th r ega rd to f igures in t rojected into the super-ego, he found there were m i x e d e lements , although there was a s l ight tendency for male students to attribute father ly cha rac t e r i s t i c s to the super-ego whi le females p r o s c r i b e d mother ly ones. It i s - 46 -in teres t ing to note that s ignif icant ly more females than ma le s showed evidence of i n t e rna l i zed gui l t , whi le males usua l ly chose ex terna l ized a l te rna t ives . Th is opposes the psychoanalyt ic theor is ts who point out a l a ck of super-ego development i n f emales . These theories w i l l be d i scussed under the psychoanalyt ic por t ion of this topic . In summary , e m p i r i c a l studies show l i t t l e difference between men and women as to ideas on m o r a l i t y except i n some speci f ic a reas . G i r l s seemed to be more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n their judgment, accord ing to one study. Since some actions were found to be thought more ser ious for women than for m e n , the f o r m e r appear to have more p ressure on them to be "good", yet they seem to suffer l e ss f rom confl ict than do m a l e s . Another f inding draws attention to a greater co r r e l a t i on i n females than i n ma les between behaviour and attitude. There i s some evidence that the in t ro jected f igures i n the super-ego are of m i x e d elements i n ma les and females , although there i s a s l ight tendency toward same-sex in t ro jec t ion . Fema le s tended to have more i n t e r n a l i z e d guil t than m a l e s . Al toge the r , there seems to be a fa i r amount of s i m i l a r i t y between sexes , which clashes wi th cer ta in facets of psychoanalyt ic theory . Thus further work i s needed i n this area, b) Psychoana ly t ic V iews F r e u d (41) had d i scussed the difference i n the genesis of the male arid female super-ego and had cons idered the feminine super-ego to be l e ss completely developed than the male super-ego. - 47 -He felt i t inc luded l e s s sense of jus t i ce , l e ss readiness to submit to the necess i t ies of l i f e , but contained more jealousy and more b i a s . Star eke (107) went further than this to say that women seldom possess a conscience , p r e f e r r i ng to submit to an authori ty i n the outside w o r l d . If they have a consc ience , i t i s of different or ientat ion f rom m a n ' s , and they therefore can adjust themselves to new conditions w e l l , because of this freedom f rom a strong super-ego. Th i s lat ter thought contradicts F r e u d ' s be l ie f that women are l e s s ready to submit to the necess i t ies of l i f e . Sachs (1 feels that women do not at tain a super-ego at a l l unless the neces -sary renunciat ion of her c l a i m to the penis, leads to her accepting depr ivat ion as a l i f e - l o n g i d e a l . When the daughter r ema ins f ixated to the father, she does not form, a super-ego that can be ca l l ed her own, but m e r e l y one which i s a copy of her fa ther ' s . Under these c i r cums tances , however , her super-ego may be strong and wel l -deve loped , leading Sachs to say that a good copy might be worth more than a poor o r i g i n a l . B r i e r l y (19) admits that women have a super-ego, although i t i s an ' in fan t i l e" ra ther than a t ru ly "adult" type, due to the pers is tence of infantile o r a l condit ions. Rank, accord ing to B l u m (16), agrees i n essence wi th B r i e r l y since he postulates that the g i r l has a p r i m a r y b io log ica l super-ego whereas the boy builds up over this the paternal soc ia l super-ego. In the female., super-ego, inhibi t ions are dominant, while i n the m a l e , anxiety i s more impor tant . - 48 -F r e u d (41) was of the opinion that the influence of education and of threatened loss of affection are of far more importance i n d r i v ing a g i r l to abandon the Oedipus complex and fo rm the super-ego than i n a boy. M u l l e r - B r a u n s c h w e i g (90) points out that a g i r l may possess something equivalent to a boy 's cas t ra t ion anxiety , a "cance l l ing reac t ion- fo rmat ion of the pen i s -i d e a l " which could be the bas i s of the female super-ego. The difference i n geni tal i ta and muscula ture i s thought by Greenacre (50) to be of influence i n causing d i sc repanc ies between male and female super-egos . She be l ieves that boys struggle against aggress ion and masturbat ion while g i r l s struggle against envy. T i m e of format ion of the super-ego i s a l so thought tb differ wi th the sex of the ch i l d accord ing to Jacobson (.61) and L a m p l - d e Groot (71) who emphasize the e a r l i e r onset i n the f i r s t stage" of the Oedipal struggle i n the g i r l . B rodbeck (20) invest igated the r e l a t ion of i n t e rna l i z ed standards of conduct of young adolescents to the re la t ive influence of their mothers and fa thers . It was found that values are sex-typed at ten yea rs of age, but that there i s i nc rea s ing i den t i f i c a -t ion wi th the opposi te-sexed parent wi th i nc reas ing age, without undermining the influence of the same-sexed parent . These findings might lead to the supposit ion that although there may o r i g i n a l l y be a difference between male and female super-egos , i t i s o v e r l a i d by la te r influences which tend to make them more s i m i l a r . Thus , a study of sex differences at different ages would be needed to find - 49 -out i f such could be the case . A c t u a l l y , i t seems there are three m a i n hypotheses regard ing the female super-ego. One fol lows F r e u d i n saying that women have super-egos which are i n fe r io r to those of men ; • one says they have no conscience at a l l ; and one e m p i r i c a l -psychoanalyt ic study reaches.the conclus ion that the female has in t e rna l i zed guil t to a greater degree, suggesting a s tronger super-ego. Differences i n content ra ther than i n adequacy are emphas ized by some inves t iga to rs , but the same differences are not r epor ted by any of them . S u m m a r y When the conclusions of the psychoanalysts and the e m p i r i c a l psychologis ts are compared , there are such wide differences that reaching a common ground w i l l undoubtedly be di f f icul t . It would seem that one of the f i r s t steps i n deal ing wi th this p rob lem might w e l l be to determine what the respec t ive mental contents regard ing conscience a r e . A s mat te rs now stand, e m p i r i c a l evidence demonstrates m o r a l judgments to be approximate ly equal between the sexes , although the female may be more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and have l e s s confl ic t than the m a l e . On the other hand, psychoanalyt ic theory va r i e s i n i t s opinions as to sexual differences i n super-egos , wi th predominat ing theory emphasiz ing a weaker or l e ss wel l -deve loped female super-ego. - 50 -M o r a l A w a r e n e s s i n D e l i n q u e n t s a n d P s y c h o p a t h s Both psychologis ts and psychoanalysts have been in te res ted i n the delinquent as a source of in format ion on m o r a l behaviour and development, as there seems to be something wrong wi th the "conscience p r o c e s s " i n the delinquent The ra t ionale behind this prac t ice i s probably s i m i l a r to that which under l ies the study of the abnormal pe r son when studying pe r sona l i ty . a) E m p i r i c a l Studies On an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s , a glance at m o r a l judgments and conscience has been inc luded i n many studies of delinquents, and delinquents have been used i n many studies of m o r a l p r o b l e m s . A recent book by M c C o r d and M c O o r d (80), desc r ib ing an extensive study of psychopaths and delinquents, has r a t i f i ed many fo rmer findings as w e l l as doing creat ive new w o r k . A new ques t ionnai re , enti t led "Gui l t S t o r i e s " was used to determine the amount of guil t suffered by different groups. TBKSIquest ionnaire cons is ted of ten s tor ies i n which a boy named "Bob"had v io la ted some standard of soc ia l behaviour. E a c h subject was asked "How does Bob f e e l ? " wi th r ega rd to such acts a s : stealing cake, t e l l ing a teacher he d id not l ike h e r , s teal ing f rom a s tore , running into someone wi th a b i k e , k i l l i n g a m a n , setting a house on f i r e , and severa l other acts of va ry ing se r iousness . The responses given by the ch i l d could genera l ly be c l a s s i f i ed as indica t ing fear , happiness , or gui l t . A m o n g a non-delinquent group, responses to "Gu i l t S t o r i e s " - 51 were compared wi th teacher ' s r a t ings , y i e ld ing 66% agreement . It was found that non-delinquents averaged 82% "gu i l t " answers while 63% was the average for the delinquent boys , and i s repor ted as a s ignif icant difference. The neurot ic and psychot ic ch i l d r en , expected accord ing to F reud ian theory to have more i n t e rna l i z ed gui l t than other groups, averaged 67% "gu i l t " answers , the be -haviour d i so rde r s averaged 54%, and the psychopaths averaged 46%. Could this be an ind ica t ion that M b w r e r i s c o r r e c t i n h i s hypothesis that neurot ics r ep re s s their guil t f ee l ings? M c C o r d and M c C o r d a lso used a M o r a l Code ques t ion-nai re which gave statements of soc i a l l y accepted att i tudes, five dealing wi th society i n general and five wi th the pa r t i cu l a r school i n which the boys l i v e d . The subjects were asked i f they agreed or d isagreed wi th the statements such as "Stealing i s always w r o n g " . These were designed to d i scover i f the ch i ld knows what i s expected and acceptable. A l l groups, even the psychopaths, showed a knowledge of the difference between r ight and wrong . Severa l other invest igators have repor ted that d e l i n -quents know the difference between r ight and wrong . Bar t l e t t and H a r r i s (9) had d i scove red , when compar ing delinquents and non-delinquents, that both groups showed p r a c t i c a l l y the same ab i l i t y to judge the best thing to do i n a p rob lem involv ing m o r a l choice , although the non-delinquents made a higher score i n ranking the degree of wrongness of a l i s t of juvenile offences. L i k e w i s e , S impson (104) compared teachers and p r i sone r s wi th r e g a r d to ra t ing the ser iousness of for ty- f ive c r i m i n a l ac t s , i n an ea r ly - 52 -study. He found close co r r e l a t i on between the sets of r ank ings . Hea ly and Bronne r (56) repor t that of the delinquents they studied, a l l were aware when they had done wrong . These are only a few examples of the many studies that have been completed i n this r e g a r d . In d i rec t contrast to most s tudies, Raubenheimer (98) concluded that the m a i n cha rac t e r i s t i c of potential delinquents i s l a c k of apprec ia t ion of m o r a l va lues . The offences ranked by the boys i n this study were actual offences which had been commit ted by boys i n r e f o r m school . Perhaps Raubenheimer genera l ized h is resu l t s too widely i n concluding this difference i n apprec ia t ion of m o r a l values under these c i r cums tances . The r e fo rm school boys may have a different outlook regard ing offences which their group c o m m i t s , whereas they may have the same outlook as non -de l i n -quents i n other areas of m o r a l i t y . Th is might expla in the difference i n resu l t s between this study and the others p rev ious ly c i ted . Betke (13) repor ted finding differences between d e l i n -quents and n o r m a l s , i n the a rea of reasoning or the reasons why c cer ta in mat ters are judged to be " r igh t " or "wrong" . Delinquents were found to use e thical responses l e s s frequently and p r a g -m a t i c a l reasons more frequently than the non-delinquents . In her study, reasons were c l a s s i f i ed into " r igh t " and "wrong" , and into e thical or dominated by reason and m o r a l laws;; emotional , mot ivated by sympathy; envy, considera t ion or d i s r e g a r d of the - 53 -r ights of others; and p r a g m a t i c a l , mot ivated by the ego, escape of punishment or being caught, self in teres t or u t i l i t y . N o n -delinquents did give more c o r r e c t responses , and Be tke , l ike Raubenheimer , felt false p r i nc ip l e s had been a factor i n delinquency. M o s t e m p i r i c a l s tudies, e spec ia l ly the more recent ones, state that delinquents have the same m o r a l knowledge as non-delinquents, although they do not seem to have the same capacity for feeling gui l ty . However , there i s some evidence that delinquents do not have the same m o r a l knowledge, and so i t cannot be sa id that there i s complete agreement on this topic e i ther . b) Psychoana ly t ic Views Psychoana ly t ic l i t e ra tu re wi th r e g a r d to del inquency, psychopathy and super-ego processes have l a i d emphasis on causal factors i n the faulty format ion of the super-ego. F o r example , Greenacre (49) points out the loca t ion and o r i g i n of the spec ia l defects i n conscience of psychopaths. In the cases she s tudied, there seemed to be too much pr ide counterfeit ing for love on the par t of the parents . There was often an overindulgent mother and a s tern father. She not iced a delayed sense of separateness f rom the mother and the format ion of unrea l idea ls i n the case h i s to r i e s of psychopaths. Greenacre feels that strong gui l t fee l ings , besides being inc reased by ea r ly i l l n e s s and f rus t ra t ions , are a lso encouraged by: - 54 -' 1 . The p red i spos i t ion to anxiety which heightens the anxiety pi tch i n the la ter v i c i s s i tudes of l i f e . 2. The spec ia l negative n a r c i s s i s t i c r e l a t ion to the p a r e n t s . " (49,506) She thinks the la t ter i s more cha rac t e r i s t i c of the h i s to r i e s of many psychopaths. Thus , accord ing to Gre e na c re , psychopaths do have guil t feelings and a conscience . K a r p m a n (67) d i sagrees . He feels ind iv idua ls can be d iv ided into two ca tegor ies : those wi th a conscience , although of wide va r i a t i on f rom highly sensi t ive to a lmos t absent, and those who have no conscience at a l l , such as psychopaths. He feels there are cases which do not demonstrate r e a l psychopathy where there may be a super f i c i a l appearance of a l a c k of consc ience . Here conscience has been pushed aside and inh ib i ted i n response to p ress ing emotional needs. Howeve r , K a r p m a n bel ieves the true psychopath to be cha rac t e r i zed by non-development of any consc ience . That the quali ty and quantity of the ea r ly object re la t ionships of the ch i ld are the essent ia l feature of super-ego development has been emphas ized by H o r a (58). A ch i ld may develop a defective super-ego which may be too weak, tcoo sad i s t i c , or too inconsis tent and confused, as a r e su l t of being depr ived of opportunities for object ca thexis . This l a ck could a r i s e f r o m : 1. being neglected or ins t i tu t iona l ized 2 . being exposed to a severe ly re jec t ing , b ru ta l environment 3. being exposed to a v e r y inconsis tent environment of severe ly ambivalent nature. - 55 -H o r a introduces what he ca l l s the d i s s o c i a l super-ego, which i s the outcome of an ident i f icat ion wi th delinquent parents and a delinquent neighbourhood. It i s cha rac t e r i zed by inadequate guil t feelings i n r e g a r d to delinquent ac ts . " A s a mat ter of fact, the d i s s o c i a l patient finds i t ha rd to bel ieve that there are pceople wi th values different f rom his own. To h i m , the whole w o r l d consis ts of assor ted c r o o k s . " (58,515) Although a l a ck of love i s commonly considered the bas i c cause of super-ego deficiency so that a strong ident i f ica t ion wi th the unloving parents i s i m p o s s i b l e , Johnson (62) emphasizes the re la t ion between paren ts ' poor ly integrated and forbidden impulses and the ch i ld ' s super-ego defects. She feels the ch i ld ' s a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour i n specif ic areas can be t r aced to the parent ' s p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , either conscious or unconscious , i n these a r ea s . This pe rmis s iveness she be l ieves to be due to the parent ' s own forbidden impulses which can be acted out through the c h i l d . A l o n g the same l i n e s , Szurek states that i t i s often the more impor tant parent who unconscious ly encourages the ch i ld ' s poor behaviour . Alexander (3) in t roduced the concept of the need for se l f -punishment as a motive for "acting out". Punishment can be undergone as an excuse for subsequent g ra t i f i ca t ion . The super-ego i s " b r i b e d " by this p r e l i m i n a r y suffering to re lax i t s v i g i l a n c e . S t ress ing another aspect of this p r o b l e m , Woolf (116) states that i f there are host i le feelings between the parents and the c h i l d , the ch i ld ' s m o r a l development w i l l tu rn i n a d i r ec t i on - 56 -opposite to the a ims and intentions of the parents . She a lso gives a detai led desc r ip t ion of the genesis of the two m a i n offences of chi ldhood, l y ing and s teal ing. Bet te lhe im and Sylves ter (15) emphasize thei r obse r -vations that many juvenile delinquents have a high standard of m o r a l i t y . The bel ieve delinquency may be due to having standards set for them by adults which the adults themselves do not l ive up to, and so the ch i ld ren r ebe l ra ther than v io la t ing their own inner convict ions and accepting a double standard of m o r a l i t y . D e l i n -quency may also a r i s e , they fee l , when ch i ld ren are exposed to d i sc repanc ies between the m o r a l standards of their parents . A different iat ion i s made by L a m p l - d e Groot between the two types of faulty super-ego development w h i c h r e su l t i n neurosis on one hand and i n delinquency on the other (73). Neu ros i s resu l t s f rom a strong idea l - fo rma t ion i n ea r ly childhood being dis turbed by an over - severe super-ego, preventing the expres s ion of any aggress ion outwards, and causing i t to be turned towards ' the self. Delinquency i s postulated to occur when there has been weak idea l format ion i n the young c h i l d , l a te r d is turbed by a sadis t ic super-ego, so that the sadis t ic impulses are acted out against the outside environment . There may a lso be mix tu re s of these p roces ses , which r e su l t i n high ideals and neurot ic symptoms i n one spec ia l a r e a , while l ack ing idea ls i n other areas and behaving dis s o c i a l l y . - 57 -There seems to be general agreement, then, among psychoanalys ts , that l ack of love (with cer ta in elaborat ions and refinements ) as w e l l as d i s s o c i a l ident i f ica t ions , can lead to format ion of a defective consc ience . The m a i n disagreement seems to be concerned wi th whether psychopaths have no conscience at a l l or have m e r e l y a defective or r ep re s sed consc ience , an argument which has been indicated by the d i scus s ion of the views of Greenacre and K a r p m a n , only two among many w r i t e r s on the subject. S u m m a r y Psycho log i s t s and psychoanalysts have been concerned with different aspects of the p rob lem of the delinquent 's m o r a l p roces ses . Psycho log i s t s have been work ing on compar isons of delinquent and non-delinquent groups wi th r e g a r d to knowledge of r ight and wrong and wi th r e g a r d to the average amount of gui l t feel ing i n each group. Psychoana lys t s , on the other hand, have been concentrating their efforts on the pa ren t - ch i l d re la t ionships which l ead to defects i n the super-ego. Case h i s t o r i e s and cha rac te r i s t i c s of psychopaths have been studied i n an attempt to settle the argument whether these persons are capable of suffering f rom feelings of guil t or no t . Al though psychopaths are able to simulate guil t fee l ings , the study by M c C o r d and M c C o r d has shown that differences can be d i sce rned , as such indiv idua ls cannot be aware of a l l the feelings of n o r m a l persons . Perhaps a more c o m -prehensive bas is for measur ing conscience may y i e l d a c l e a r e r differentiat ion between psychopathic ind iv idua ls and others . - 58 -T h e E f f e c t o f C o n t r o l l e d a n d U n c o n t r o l l e d S o c i a l F a c t o r s This a rea has been par t ly covered i n the sections on m o r a l development and on delinquency. There are s t i l l a few studies which have not been d i scussed that can add to the know-ledge regard ing va r i ab le s affecting m o r a l awareness . These have to do wi th cont ro l led and uncont ro l led soc ia l inf luences . The effect of t ra in ing on m o r a l character has been one topic for study. Voe lke r (111) compared a control group and an exper imenta l group, to whom spec ia l e thical in s t ruc t ion had been given, on two sets of behavioura l tes ts . The situations i n these tests gave the subjects opportunit ies to s tea l , cheat, not r e tu rn los t a r t i c l e s , to accept c redi t not due, to accept over change, etc. , . Voe lke r concluded, f rom the differences shown between the two tes t ings , that scout t ra in ing leads to higher than average t rus twor th iness . He thinks that t rus tworthiness i s i m p r o v e d by spec ia l t ra in ing and that m o r a l i t y i s more susceptible than i n t e l -lec t to education. L i n c o l n and Shields (78) thought that m o r a l judgment could be marked ly affected by environment and t r a in ing , whi le L o r a n g (79) concluded that either good or bad p r inc ip l e s could be inculca ted through reading , and thus reading can influence conduct. Har tshorne and M a y (54) and Hea ly and Bronne r (56) noted that more frequent attendance at mot ion p ic tures w a s found among those ch i ld ren who tended to be dishonest or delinquent. The Charac te r - 59 -Educat ion Inquiry produced evidence that af f i l ia t ion wi th r e l ig ious groups, Sunday School attendance, and member sh ip i n groups purpor ted to give t ra in ing i n m o r a l s , are not co r r e l a t ed with honesty. This contradicts V o e l k e r ' s f indings, but the di f -ference i s probably due to the difference i n emphasis on t ra in ing i n m o r a l s that V o e l k e r ' s scouts r ece ived i n compar i son wi th that of members of groups. A quest ionnaire was devised by Donnel ly (31) to determine the factors behind the format ion of e th ica l standards of junior college students. A c c o r d i n g to these data, parental influence had the mos t effect on students' behaviour when c o m -pared with r e l ig ious or soc ia l inf luences . A m o n g those students who repor ted being influenced to a great extent by soc ia l app rova l , s t r i c t home d i sc ip l ine seemed an outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . In studying parental influences and ident i f ica t ion , L e v i n and Sears (75) not iced that boys wi th the greatest amount of aggress ion were highly ident i f ied and usua l ly punished by thei r fa thers . M c R a e (83) studied authority re la t ions of ch i ld ren wi th the i r parents and re la t ions with their peers. He found only one of the c lus te r s i n P iage t ' s quest ions, v i z . , that of v io la t ion of n o r m s , showed a significant re la t ionsh ip wi th indices of authori ty . C h i l d r e n of higher soc io-economic status seem to-mature more r ap id ly i n cognitive m o r a l development, whereas lower status ch i ld ren mature more r ap id ly i n emotional m o r a l development because of emancipat ion f rom parental authori ty . L e r n e r (74) had p rev ious ly - 60 -invest igated the re la t ionship between cer ta in soc i a l factors and m o r a l judgment, f inding that lower status ch i ld ren showed l e s s matur i ty i n m o r a l reasoning than d id higher status ch i l d r en , wi th age and inte l l igence held constant. However , M c R a e would say that such resu l t s are due to the overbalance of cognitive m a t e r i a l i n P iage t ' s quest ions . Ca t t e l l (25) found that those who were toward the "posit ive po le" i n the source t r a i t of super-ego strength l acked affection for their parents as c h i l d r e n . This unusual r e su l t i s explained by Ca t t e l l as being due to the ind iv idua l ' s forgett ing the ea r ly stages of in t ro jec t ion and r emember ing the la te r stages dur ing which he was punished for misdemeanours . Wolfenstein (115) compared cul tures i n order to note the effect of var ious types of m o r a l t r a in ing . She observed the m o t h e r - c h i l d re la t ionships and noted the forms of m o r a l behaviour and bel iefs which usua l ly accompanied them. G i v i n g and withholding i n r e w a r d and punishm:ent seemed to lead to the adult be l ie f that the person who t r i e s hardest without successful achievement of the goal i s the "goodest". A l s o , alternate giving and wi thholding, and the tendency for ch i ld ren to behave i n a cont ra ry manner seemed to lead to adult uncertainty i n one's own m o r a l pos i t ion . A feel ing of continuity between the ch i ld ' s body and the m o t h e r ' s , as Wol fen-s te in states i s often the case among the Chinese , seems to l ead to a s trong m o r a l requi rement that the ch i l d should perpetuate the f a m i l y . - 61 -S u m m a r y In summary , t ra in ing appears to have some effect on m o r a l conduct, i f intense enough, and i f the rec ip ien ts of the t ra in ing are not prevented f rom benefiting by other fac to rs . P o o r reading and mot ion pic ture m a t e r i a l seem to have an adverse effect on m o r a l behaviour . Y e t , many of these are supe r f i c i a l influences when compared wi th such factors as f ami ly c i r c u m -stances, love and ident i f ica t ion . In order to study the influences of the more super f i c ia l v a r i a b l e s , the more bas ic conditions w i l l have to be con t ro l l ed . C o m p a r i s o n of conscience scale patterns wi th case h i s to r i e s would be one method of studying causative fac to r s . A l s o , enlarging on V o e l k e r ' s method, i f those wi th s i m i l a r test patterns have had s i m i l a r upbr inging , then t ra in ing inf luences , for example , could be exerted on these indiv iduals to see whether any changes i n pattern could be made i n compar i son wi th a s i m i l a r group wi th no t ra in ing . C h a n g e s i n M o r a l A w a r e n e s s w i t h T i m e There has been much in teres t i n whether there are general changes i n m o r a l i t y over the y e a r s . "Is the younger generation going to the dogs?" i s often hea rd . Severa l studies have dealt wi th this p r o b l e m . A ra t ing scale was used by C r i s s m a n (28) to study changes i n m o r a l judgments over t i m e . F i f ty acts were evaluated by college students i n t e rms of r ightness or wrongness on a scale f rom one to ten. The study was done wi th a ten-year - 62 i n t e r v a l , on s i m i l a r groups , i n 1929 and 1939. A l toge the r , such poor behaviour as l y i n g , cheating and dishonesty were not judged differently i n the different y e a r s . Nei ther were those i t ems concerned wi th c r i m e s of va r ious sorts judged different ly. "Sinning by syndicate" was thought to be more ser ious by the 1939 group, while r e l ig ious questions were l e s s severe ly judged. It seemed that r e l ig ious standards were undergoing the most r ap id change at that time. C r i s s m a n ' s quest ionnaire i s laudable i n that w e l l -defined situations or actions are used as the bas i s for the r a t ings . However , he does not state how the quest ionnaire was developed. M i t c h e l l (87) was a l so concerned wi th the p rob lem of changes over t i m e . He compared the rankings of soc ia l offences made five yea r s apart by senior year high school students. There was great un i formi ty i n the rank ings . In five y e a r s , goss iping had been r a i s e d three steps i n se r iousness , and drunkenness lowered three . B i g a m y and profanity were cons idered l ess ser ious and l y i n g more ser ious by two placement posi t ions . A long- t e rm study, us ing the P r e s s e y X - O Tes t , done at ten-year in te rva l s since 1923, has been repor ted by P r e s s e y and Jones (96). In a l i s t of 125 i t e m s , a r ranged i n 25 groups of five each, the subject had to m a r k those which he thought wors t i n each grouping. Good cha rac t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as bad were l i s t e d . F o r example , some of the t e rms w e r e : " jus t ice , f a i rne s s , shrewdness , honesty, t r i c k e r y " . Many acts that were once thought wrong are no longer thought to be mat ters of m o r a l concern , the authors concluded. - 63 -Changes -.shown were i n r e g a r d to those border l ine acts such as smoking . There 'was also a decreas ing condemnation of and inc reas ing l i k i n g for ce r ta in freedoms i n s e x - s o c i a l re la t ionships and soc i a l amusements . There was no change shown i n more bas ic aspects of m o r a l i t y such as soc ia l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Howeve r , these las t two studies lose value because the t e rms used are b road and undefined. Defini t ions of t e rms would ensure that each subject i s aware of what i s meant by the t e rms and uses the same meaning as a bas is for making rankings as other subjects. One of the conclusions reached i n the above study after finding that older persons tend to be more conservat ive i n the i r judgments was that this i s due to a continuation of conservat ive ideals inculca ted i n youth, ra ther than to a t rend of becoming i n -c reas ing ly conservat ive wi th i nc reas ing age. He feels that older persons probably are even more l i b e r a l than they were upon leaving high school , although, i n compar i son wi th high school graduates of 1953, they are much more conserva t ive . Pe rhaps this i s the under ly ing factor i n the resu l t s obtained by A n d e r s o n and Dvorak (7) who had e a r l i e r studied the foundation on which college students and parents base their standards of conduct. The bases w e r e : r ight or wrong , prudence o r in te l l igent judgment, publ ic opinion, or aesthetic standards. The greatest differences i n reasons given for standards of conduct o c c u r r e d between age groups ra ther than between sex groups . The students differed f rom their parents by basing their conduct on prudence and aesthetics ra ther than upon what i s r ight or wrong. Paren t s - 64 -based judgments on concepts of what i s r ight or wrong , tending to be "black or wh i t e" i n the i r judgments. Both age groups were loathe to admit being influenced by publ ic o p i n i o n . These studies seem to indicate that changes may occur i n m o r a l i t y over the y e a r s , and perhaps may occur i n a r e l a t i v e l y short t i m e . M o r e l i b e r a l attitudes towards sexual and r e l i g i o u s problems are evident, as w e l l as towards d r ink ing and smoking . Changes are not so evident i n mat ters concerning deception or r e spons ib i l i t y , although this could be due to l a ck of sens i t iv i ty i n the i tems used. A s Starcke (107, 187) states the mat te r , "That which yes terday was a n t i - s o c i a l w i l l t omor row be, i n par t , s o c i a l , and that which i s e thical today w i l l become i n turn old-fashioned tomor row m o r n i n g , a n t i - s o c i a l tomor row evening and w i l l , i n par t , grow up again the day after as a soc ia l fo rce . " R e l a t i o n s h i p t o I n t e l l i g e n c e Since Webb's (113) famous study of character f rom which he deduced that profoundness of in te l lec t i s assoc ia ted with m o r a l qual i t ies and soc i a l v i r tues such as kindness and pe r s i s t ence , there has been great in teres t shown i n t ry ing to d i scover i f there ac tual ly i s such a re la t ionship or whether there i s m e r e l y a c o r -r e l a t ion between in te l lec tua l awareness of m o r a l p r i nc ip l e s and intel l igence ra ther than between actual m o r a l i t y and in te l l igence . Th is cont roversy raged throughout the 'twenties as one of the chief areas of in te res t . C h a s s e l l (26) rev iewed a lmos t three hundred studies regard ing the re la t ion of in te l l igence to m o r a l i t y , and - 65 concluded that there tends to be a low posi t ive c o r r e l a t i o n , but that the picture i s compl ica ted by type of group, type of evidence, etc. , . Cooper (27) pooled the resu l t s of many studies made and found the range of co r r e l a t i on between m o r a l i t y and in te l l ec t to be f rom .23 to . 79 . He concluded that s ignif icant posi t ive co r re l a t ions point to a re la t ionship between m o r a l i t y and in te l l ec t when the study i s confined to r e s t r i c t e d groups . Therefore , c o r r e l a t i o n , not compensat ion, i s the r u l e . L i n c o l n and Shields (78) had found wi th their test that among those of the same general in te l lec tua l l e v e l there are differences i n m o r a l judgment. The ab i l i t y to fo rm more complex m o r a l judgments i nc rea sed as general ab i l i ty i n c r e a s e d , although they may not develop at the same ra te . Har t shorne and M a y (54) found that the more in te l l igent ch i ld ren made higher scores on the honesty tes ts , but state that this may have been due to the s m a l l e r amount of p ressure on them to do w e l l , so that they were not so tempted to cheat. There was a lso a posi t ive c o r r e l a t i o n between honesty and school achievement , whi le those i n a lower grade for their age tended to be more deceptive. M o r e recen t ly , and using more modern s ta t i s t i ca l methods, M c C o r d and M c C o r d (80) found no signif icant re la t ionsh ip between inte l l igence and guil t fee l ings , neither among publ ic school ch i ld ren nor delinquent boys . It has a lso been mentioned i n studies regard ing psychopaths, as have been d i scussed e a r l i e r , that such persons are often v e r y in te l l igent , although l ack ing i n m o r a l standards.. - 66 -In the study of va r i ab les associa ted wi th the source t r a i t of super-ego strength, " G " , Ca t te l l (25) states that the person who i s high wi th r e g a r d to super-ego strength may often a lso be in te l lec tua l and cul tured , l o g i c a l , thoughtful, show continuity of in te res t and have "common sense", a l l of which might be cons idered to be re la ted to in te l l igence . On the other hand, a second-order factor cor re la tes high super-ego strength wi th low in te l l igence . Grunes (51) points out that fo rmer studies regard ing the re la t ionship between conscience and in te l l igence had not d i f -ferentiated between types of conscience , which he feels i s a necessa ry ref inement. Af te r d iv id ing ind iv idua ls into groups of those wi th integrated conscience , m o r a l i s t i c - r e p r e s s i v e consc ience , and non-integrated conscience , he hypothesized that the las t two types would be negatively re la ted to in te l l igence while integrated con-science would be pos i t ive ly re la ted . It was found that the influence of such factors as age, sex and c u l t u r a l - r e l i g i o u s background compl ica ted the re la t ionships between the different types of con-science and in te l l igence . However , he feels that the emphasis that has been p laced on the re la t ionship between in te l lec tua l develop-ment and the a s s i m i l a t i o n of conscience may have some bas i s i n fact . That which s tar ted out by appearing to be a s imple process of co r re l a t ing two t r a i t s , has thus been revea led as an a rea which r equ i res the control of many va r i ab les before a posi t ive statement can be made. There i s now not the assurance of e a r l i e r - 67 yea rs that a posi t ive re la t ionship ex i s t s , although such may be so wi th cer ta in types of conscience and not wi th o thers . M o r e inves t igat ion i s r equ i r ed . R e l a t i o n s h i p t o E m o t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y The re la t ionsh ip between emotional s tabi l i ty and conscience has been mentioned elsewhere i n this r e v i e w . Howeve r , there are other significant studies which might be of in te res t he re . Bet te lhe im (14) has mentioned that the super-ego seems helped i n i t s format ion by phys ica l i l l n e s s , while i t s development i s impeded by emotional d is turbances . Perhaps this i s the reason , he s u r m i s e s , that our society has a p e r m i s s i v e attitude toward phys i ca l s ickness whi le i t has had a h i s to ry of a punitive attitude toward emotional d is turbances . However , Har t shorne and M a y (54) found no c o r -re la t ions between the phys i ca l condition of the ch i l d and honesty, although they d id f ind a posi t ive co r r e l a t i on between emotional ins tab i l i ty and deception. McDonough (81) a lso found a negative co r r e l a t i on between m o r a l qual i t ies and ins t ab i l i t y of emot ions . In the study of source t r a i t s , Ca t t e l l (25) has found that the t r a i t of ego-strength, re la ted to emotional s t ab i l i ty , and the t ra i t of super-ego strength, are s i m i l a r i n pa t t e rn . The person who has a strong super-ego may a lso be emot ional ly stable and emotional ly ma tu re , while the neurot ic probably has not an over-development of the super-ego. Ca t t e l l a l so mentions that sel f -sent iment i s s trongly re la ted to the super-ego i n the source t r a i t " G " of super-ego strength. - 68 -B e r g l e r (11) points out that the neurot ic person has a super-ego which i s co r rup t ib l e , putting the emphasis on this factor ra ther than on strength or weakness . That i s , the neuro t ic ' s inner des i res are gra t i f ied at the cost of depress ion and self-damage. "The super-ego exacts i t s fu l l share of punish-ment while the ego rece ives attenuated w i s h fu l f i l lment . . . "(11,22) The contention that emotional s tabi l i ty and strong super-ego are highly co r re la t ed i s i n disagreement wi th orthodox psychoanalyt ic theory stating that an overpowering super-ego i s ins t rumenta l i n the p rob lem of neu ros i s . Perhaps B e r g l e r ' s theory regarding the compromis ing super-ego w i l l halp to moderate the differences between psychoanalyt ic theory and the psycholog ica l studies i n this r e g a r d . A comparat ive study of the consc ience-feelings of the emot ional ly unstable and the emot ional ly stable, extending over a wide range of m a t e r i a l , might c l a r i fy the p r o b l e m . I s t h e r e a g e n e r a l t r a i t o f h o n e s t y ? There has been a great amount of argument i n this r e g a r d among psychologis t s , wi th A l l p o r t (5) proposing a general t r a i t of honesty and Har tshorne and M a y (54) i n s i s t i ng that honesty i s specif ic to cer ta in s i tuat ions. The Charac te r Educat ion Inquiry has presented low posi t ive cor re la t ions among the va r ious tests which Har tshorne and M a y at tr ibuted to elements the jtests had i n common. E s p e c i a l l y low were the cor re la t ions between tests involv ing different settings or different types of behaviour . T h e r e -fo re , they felt that honesty does not appear as a genera l , consistent character t r a i t i n an i n d i v i d u a l . A person who i s honest i n one 4 - 69 -situation or i n one way m a y not be honest i n another si tuat ion or i n other ways . M a i l e r (85) has c r i t i c i z e d this in terpre ta t ion of the data. He contends that the tests of honesty, co-opera t ion and helpfulness, inhibi t ion, and per s i stence showed consis tent ly unimodal cu rves , and sometimes even approached the n o r m a l cu rve . A l s o , a l l the cor re la t ions of these four tests were pos i t ive . This evidence l ed M a i l e r to bel ieve that there i s a common factor which seems to be "the readiness to forego immedia te gain for the sake of a remote but greater ga in" . In their study of delinquents, Hea ly and B r o n n e r (56) have stated that conscience may cover only ce r ta in par ts of be -hav iour . They quote one case i n which a boy showed a strong conscience about being we l l -manne red and doing school w o r k w e l l , whi le steal ing did not bother h i m except for the idea of being caught. In some cases , ly ing was condoned by conscience whi le steal ing was condemned, and i n other i nd iv idua l s , the r eve r se has o c c u r r e d . Psychoana ly t ic w r i t i n g i n many cases appears to agree wi th the e m p i r i c a l findings of Har tshorne and M a y that at leas t some persons can be honest i n one a rea and not i n another. Ade la ide Johnson (62), for example , has r e f e r r e d to such phenomena as "super-ego lacunae" . She feels that there i s , i n some pe r sons , not a general super-ego deficiency but a l a ck of super-ego i n specif ic areas of behaviour . Such lacunae are often accompanied - 70 -by neurot ic conf l ic t s . She feels these "gaps" i n the super-ego cor respond to s i m i l a r defects i n the parent 's super-ego as the parent a l lows the acting out of h is own forbidden impulses as a v i ca r ious sat isfact ion for h imse l f . L a m p l - d e Groot (73) has a lso mentioned a s i m i l a r defect caused by a mix tu re of p rocesses i n super-ego development. It seems, at f i r s t glance, that there i s more evidence on the side of speci f ic i ty than on the side of genera l i ty . Howeve r , i f the data are examined more c lo se ly , there are ce r ta in weak-nesses i n the arguments . These a r e : 1. The data presented by Har tshorne and M a y for spec i f ic i ty can be, and have been, in te rpre ted to support the opposite thes i s . 2 . The data presented by those studying delinquents and ab-no rma l s speak of incons is tenc ies as being super-ego defects . There fore , the n o r m a l pe r son should not show such gaps. Fu r the r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n order to a sce r t a in whether there i s a general "honesty" factor i n n o r m a l i n d i v i d u a l s , wi th only abnormals l ack ing guil t i n ce r ta in a r eas , or whether a l l ind iv idua ls va ry i n their honesty accord ing to the s i tuat ion, being completely l ack ing i n guil t under some conditions but not i n o thers . One of the m a i n reasons why this p rob lem has not been solved has been the l a ck of a comprehensive tool wi th which to capture feelings evidenced under many si tuat ions. - 71 -T y p e s o f C o n s c i e n c e Different types of conscience have been desc r ibed by theor is ts apart f rom those a l ready d i scussed under the heading of " M o r a l Development" . A l l p o r t (6) dis t inguishes between the "must" and the "ought" conscience. The ea r ly conscience of the ch i ld i s a mus t -consciousness , brought about through fear of punishment for doing a wrong act or not pe r fo rming a r ight act . The "ought" conscience i s ra ther a sense of obl igat ion based on value judgments and t i ed up with se l f - re fe rence , without any fear attached to i t . Daya (29) points out that there are two kinds of "ought", the m o r a l and the a x i o l o g i c a l . The m o r a l "ought" operates wi th respect to other persons , while the ax io log i ca l "ought" operates wi th respec t to objects and situations which have d i r ec t re levance to no one but oneself. The au thor i ta r ian conscience of fasc is t s has been ful ly descr ibed by A d o r n o , et a l (2). Th is type of conscience i s not a true conscience , as i t i s underdeveloped and external ized. E t h i c a l values have not r e a l l y been incorpora ted into the self . F e a r of punishment and the presence of external authori ty are essent ia l factors i n i t s exis tence . Th is type of conscience would probably be s i m i l a r to that desc r ibed by A l l p o r t as the "must" conscience. On the other hand, the integrated conscience , as desc r ibed i n "The A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y " i s cha rac t e r i zed by an in t e rna l i zed set of va lues , independent of outside agencies - 72 -for m o r a l dec i s ions , and able to operate i n harmony wi th the emotional impulses and with the self . Two types of conscience are a lso dis t inguished by F r o m m (46) who descr ibes an au thor i ta r ian conscience , and that which he designates as the humanis t ic conscience . F r o m m feels that the au thor i ta r ian conscience corresponds to F r e u d ' s super -ego. It i s dependent on external authori ty and operates through fear of punishment or hope of r e w a r d . Humanis t i c conscience involves self-knowledge and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m and integrat ion wi th the total pe rsona l i ty . Gu i l t feelings occur when the self goes un fu l f i l l ed . A c c o r d i n g to F r o m m , everyone has both types of conscience, va ry ing i n strength i n accordance wi th the i nd iv idua l ' s exper iences . Al though the au thor i ta r ian conscience i s usua l ly the ea r l i e s t to develop, F r o m m i ; t h i n k s that this phase i s not necessa ry i n a non-author i ta r ian socie ty . Rank, accord ing to B l u m (16) makes a s i m i l a r d i s t inc t ion i n h i s " p r i m i t i v e " super-ego and " c o r r e c t l y funct ion-i n g " one. The fo rmer shows i t s e l f i n a need for punishment. Al though there are di f ferences , there i s a thread of s i m i l a r i t y i n the v iews of these theor i s t s . The f i r s t phase of conscience i s overbear ing , r i g i d , and based on external authori ty and fear of punishment, while the second phase i s based on in t e rna l i zed va lues , se l f - re fe rence , and in tegra t ion wi th the entire persona l i ty . These types of conscience match the types desc r ibed i n developmental s tudies. Some indiv idua ls seemingly never attain the more mature type of conscience . - 73 -B y amalgamating the conscience theories of s eve ra l w r i t e r s , Grunes (51) has set t led on three types of conscience , one of which i s the integrated conscience as desc r ibed above. The other two types are the m o r a l i s t i c - r e p r e s s i v e and the nonj^inte gra ted . The m o r a l i s t i c - r e p r e s s i v e conscience i s cha rac te r i zed by attitudes of r i g i d m o r a l d i sc ip l ine towards the self and others and excess ive control over impulses and self e x p r e s s i o n . Th is type of conscience i s ex t remely punitive but no over t confl ict i s shown. The non-integrated conscience includes severe p r inc ip l e s and prohibi t ions but i s accompanied by r e b e l l i o n and over t confl ict . H o r a ' s (58) d i s s o c i a l conscience may be added as another type because, i t draws attention to the k ind of super-ego developed through i d e n -t i f ica t ion with delinquent parents and neighbourhood, cover ing a mat ter left out by Grune . Some of the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h seems to support these d i s t inc t ions . Bet ter tools of measurement may make i t poss ib le to d is t inguish between the m a i n content of each type of consc ience . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B e h a v i o u r The c l a s s i f i ca t ion of behaviour re la ted to m o r a l i t y i s of in te res t i n this study, as one of the reasons for i ts undertaking has been the d issa t i s fac t ion wi th the na r row range of m o r a l i t y covered i n other tes ts . In behavioura l tes ts , such as those of Har tshorne and M a y (54,55) and of Voe lke r (111), the range of topics that can be covered i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d . Paper and penc i l tes ts , however , - 74 -need not be handicapped i n this manner . A s few as one i tem i n one c lass i f i ca t ion has been used, as was done by Hor ton (59) i n his study of l y i n g . In the se r ies of studies done by B r o g a n (21,22,23) sixteen types of actions a re l i s t e d : cheating gambling self ishness smoking dancing goss ip Sabbath breaking steal ing dr ink ing id leness snobbishness swear ing extravagance l y i n g sex i r r e g u l a r i t i e s vulgar ta lk Th i r t een offences and thir teen v i r tues were r e q u i r e d to be ranked by M i t c h e l l ' s subjects (87). The v i r tues w e r e : char i ty kindness soc iab i l i ty t rus twor th iness helpfulness loya l ty spor tsmanship honesty mora l i ty sympathy indust ry openmindedness truthfulness These t e rms per ta ining to v i r tue are ex t remely b road , e spec ia l ly " m o r a l i t y " and "honesty", which could be s t retched to cover a lmos t everyth ing. The l i s t of offences added b igamy, fo rge ry , m u r d e r , robbery and squealing to the B r o g a n l i s t , while smoking , dancing, vulgar ta lk , extravagance, gambl ing , id leness , Sabbath breaking and self ishness were not mentioned, although some of these would be covered i n the l i s t of v i r tues . B rogan ' s l i s t was obtained e m p i r i c a l l y , while M i t c h e l l ' s l i s t of offences had an emphasis on c r i m i n a l offences . He t e rmed h i s l i s t a l i s t of " s o c i a l offences", but many other offences which could be l abe l l ed " s o c i a l " were omit ted. Whit low (114) i m p r o v e d on this method s l ight ly by adding a qualifying w o r d here and there to the l i s t e d w o r d i n order to indicate more c l e a r l y what was meant by that pa r t i cu l a r w o r d . - 75 -F o r example , beside cheating, i s added copying; beside sn i tching, i s added tat t l ing; beside goss ip ing , i s added tale bear ing; beside l a z i n e s s , i s added loafing; and beside deception, i s added white l i e s . It can be seen that the meaning of the i n i t i a l w o r d i s changed con-s iderably by the addit ion of a qualifying t e r m . If this i s so, there must indeed be many interpreta t ions that could be put onto such broad t e rms as have been used i n other s tudies. Whit low used twenty-s ix offences i n h is s tudy. Brogan ' s categories are a l l inc luded , with some changes and some e luc idat ions , except for 'Sabbath b reak ing" . In place of B rogan ' s "vulgar t a l k " has been 3 substituted " te l l ing obscene s t o r i e s " and " l i s tening to obscene s t o r i e s " . Offences Whit low includes which are not covered i n Brogan ' s study a r e : dest roying proper ty protect ing law v io la to r s two-facedness disrespectfulness cowardice disobedience sni tching, tat t l ing truancy deception, white l i e s F r o m this short l i s t i t can be noted that B r o g a n , i n t ry ing to keep his l i s t short , m i s s e d col lec t ing data i n many impor tant a r eas . Th is need to keep the l i s t short i s a l i m i t a t i o n of the ranking technique. A n improvement by way of making te rms more concrete was brought i n by Skaggs (105) who l i s t e d twenty ac t s , although a t e r m as abst ract as " se l f i shness" was s t i l l inc luded . The acts l i s t e d w e r e : cheating on exams steal ing s m a l l objects f rom a store use of profanity se l l ing a found book, having owner ' s being an atheist name rape smoking when the signs say "no s m o k i n g " - 76 -dr ink ing par t ies taking human l i fe (outside of self-defense gambling for money and war ) spitt ing on f loor love affair wi th a m a r r i e d man or woman ly ing to parents steal ing away a f r iend 's love r f l i r t i n g int imate sex re la t ions outside of m a r r i a g e smoking cigaret tes ingrati tude for help or se rv ice rendered you petting and necking Although the t e rms va ry i n spec i f i c i ty , they are a definite improvement over attempts to use one w o r d to descr ibe an e th ica l p r i n c i p l e . Rape , spit t ing on the f l o o r , f l i r t i ng , and i n -gratitude are the only r e a l l y new p r inc ip l e s used i n this test , when compared wi th the o thers , although " rape" could have been inc luded i n Brogan ' s "sex i r r e g u l a r i t i e s " , as could " f l i r t i n g " . Thus , one might associate " rape" wi th sexual i r r e g u l a r i t i e s whi le another might associate " f l i r t i n g " wi th the same term. This sor t of s i tua -t ion , plus the na r row range of p r i nc ip l e s covered i n each study, i s essent ia l ly the reason for conducting the present study. C r i s s m a n (28) desc r ibed actual situations or act ions throughout h i s questionnaire of fifty i t e m s . These acts were not l i m i t e d to what an ind iv idua l might do, but inc luded mat te rs which concern corporat ions and nations as w e l l . E x a m p l e s of the type of i t em used a r e : F a l s i f y i n g a federal income tax re tu rn Buying bootleg l iquor under p roh ib i t ion law Not g iving to char i ty when able Keeping over-change given by a c l e r k i n mis take Such i t ems are much more sat isfactory than those p rev ious ly c i ted , as the ra ter i s given sufficient in format ion to enable h i m to make a v a l i d judgment. Thus, the development of quest ionnaires regard ing m o r a l judgment has been t r aced f rom the one-word desc r ip t ion of - 77 -a b road phase of m o r a l i t y to the descr ip t ion of actual situations i n which actions wi th m o r a l connotations occu r . A l s o , the growth of range i n content f rom one p r inc ip l e i n one category of m o r a l i t y to fifty p r inc ip l e s has been desc r ibed . Howeve r , there may be more than fifty general p r i nc ip l e s of m o r a l i t y operative i n present day socie ty . A t t e m p t s t o M e a s u r e C o n s c i e n c e A t the beginning of this r e v i e w , i t was stated that the two studies which had as the i r sole concern the measurement of conscience would be covered i n the c los ing pages. F o r this purpose, the work of F r i edenberg and Havighur ts (44) and of Dunstan Wack (112) w i l l now be examined. The f i r s t of these was publ ished i n 1946 under the t i t le " A n At tempt to measure the strength of consc ience" . A test was constructed consis t ing of 115 i t ems which cover eleven m a i n categories of behaviour : l oya l t y , honesty, s e l f - c o n t r o l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ego- idea l , k i n d l i n e s s , c l ean l iness , m o r a l courage, r e l i g i o n , authori ty , and misce l l aneous taboos. A twelfth category included i tems which the authors be -l i e v e d to be neut ra l or posi t ive accord ing to typ ica l p r e v a i l i n g m o r a l standards . These five i t ems were included as an ind ica tor of whether other factors besides m o r a l ideology were influencing m o r a l dec i s ions . A l l the i t ems were couched i n concrete t e rms such as " k i l l e d b i rds or other s m a l l a n i m a l s " . The test was given twice to the same group. The f i r s t t i m e , the subjects were asked , "How bad i s i t ? " , while the second t ime they were asked "How would you - 78 -f ee l ? " , i f such behaviour had been indulged i n by the testee. The subjects ra ted their responses by checking one of the columns m a r k e d , "ve ry , ve ry bad" , "bad", "not bad, not good", or "good". The questions were s imp ly worded so that in te l l ec tua l influences would not affect test resu l t s . It was hypothesized that the dif-ference between the scores made on each quest ionnaire would indicate strength of conscience , "since i t depends on the extent to which the subject judges h i s own actions more severe ly than those of o thers" (44,233) . However , i t was found that the same dif-ference score may have different meanings i n different pe r sona l i t i e s . The theore t ica l rat ionale behind using this difference score as a measure of conscience was not dis icussed by the authors . Since i t was concluded that the test does not measure strength of con-science as an i so lab le t r a i t , this was probably due to a faulty assumpt ion . The authors pointed out that the "How would you f e e l ? " par t of the questionnaire was probably the c loses t to a v a l i d measure of conscience. Through calculat ions of in te rna l r e l a t ionsh ips , i t was found that the difference score did not provide a measure of conscience independent of content. A s the "How would you f ee l ? " score seemed to be more useful , cor re la t ions were made between i t and other ins t ruments . A number of l ow, but pos i t ive , r e l a t i o n -ships were found wi th soc iab i l i ty and c leanl iness scores on an in te res t inventory , quest ionnaire resu l t s regard ing sa t is factory re la t ions wi th f a m i l y , and character ra t ing by age mates . The - 79 -low cor re la t ions may be due as much to l a ck of a sa t is factory c r i t e r i o n against which to validate the conscience quest ionnaire as to any weakness i n the test i t s e l f . In 1952, Dunstan Wack published " A psycho log ica l study of consc ience" under the auspices of Cathol ic U n i v e r s i t y of A m e r i c a . In this study, he fol lows the pattern set by F r i edenbe rg and Havighurs t i n having a twin set of ques t ionnai res , but has elaborated by having different tests make the different measurements . In the f i r s t ques t ionnaire , which was constructed to cover the ten commandments , the subject i s asked how frequently he has c o m -mi t ted a ce r ta in s in i n the past , and how bad he thinks i t i s . In the second quest ionnaire , which was constructed to cover five a reas of m o r a l i t y , v i z . , God , f a m i l y , p roper ty , sex, and socie ty , he i s asked how he would feel i f he were to do ce r ta in ac ts . In .con-st ruct ing the tes ts , f rom the i t ems made up, those were re ta ined which were judged pertinent to the test , and which had been given the same c lass i f i ca t ion wi th r e g a r d to v i r tue and v ice by three out of five judges, a l l of whom were m p r a l theologians . It was a s -sumed that a r e c o r d of the subject 's v io la t ions of h i s conscience measu re s , by inference , the command of conscience . In the f i r s t sca le , the Examina t ion of Consc ience , the quantif icat ion of the m a t e r i a l was based on the assumpt ion that "a n o r m a l pe r son w i l l be much more reluctant to violate h i s conscience i f a ser ious offence i s contemplated, than i f i t i s one that i s far l e ss s e r ious . " (112, 18). However , because of the usual d iscrepancy between - 80 -what one " th inks" or " fee ls" and one's expressed behaviour , i t i s not safe to make even this assumpt ion . Al though there seems to be a tendency i n this d i r ec t i on , i t has not been defini tely es tabl ished. F o r example , Slavens and B r o g a n (106) r epor t a ze ro co r r e l a t i on between frequency of offences as es t imated by male high school students and their degree of badness, wi th a - . 5 co r r e l a t i on between frequency and badness for females i n the same group . Whit low (114) a lso repor ts that there i s a general tendency for students to r e f r a i n f rom those acts they consider most se r ious , but states that the tendency i s incomplete and unre l i ab le . W a c k ' s f i r s t sca le , the Examina t ion of Consc ience , was purpor ted to measure conscience, while the second was purpor ted to measure m o r a l consciousness . However , the f i r s t test seemed to measure only the prohib i t ing aspect of conscience , while the second test also seemed to be a measure of conscience espec ia l ly wi th r e g a r d to ce r ta in i t e m s . It was concluded that m o r a l consciousness and conscience are r e l a t ed . It was a lso concluded that conscience i s a genera l ized function i n r e l a t ion to i t s object. A person who is. upright wi th r e g a r d to God i s a l so the person who respects h i s f a m i l y , i s honest, chaste, and f u l -f i l l s h i s c i v i c dut ies . However , the finding of a common factor could be due to the homogeneity of the group upon which the test was s tandardized. The study was c a r r i e d out on a Roman Cathol ic population and the questions were answered by the subjects wi th - 81 -r e g a r d to s infulness . Another l i m i t a t i o n i s that the ques t ion-na i re w a s " a r m - c h a i r e d " . That i s , the questions appearing on the test were made up by the test const ructors operating f rom a defined theological pos i t ion . Thus , Wack ' s test cannot be genera l ly appl ied because of the uise of t e rms which have meaning ma in ly to individuals of the R o m a n Cathol ic fai th . Wack did not repor t any va l ida t ion studies wi th r ega rd to an external c r i t e r i o n . S u m m a r y This rev iew has attempted to emphasize the areas i n which studies have been made by psychologis ts and by psycho-analys ts , so that the two schools of thought might be compared and contrasted. A background of psycholog ica l method used i n studying mat ters re la ted to m o r a l i t y has been g iven , and a lso a background of orthodox psychoanalyt ic theory regard ing the super-ego has been in t roduced, as stepping stones f rom which to set off on the explora t ion of the p rob l ems , solved and unsolved, p e r -taining to the m o r a l p rocesses i n pe rsona l i ty . The genesis of the super-ego has been examined, as w e l l as severa l theor ies regard ing m o r a l development and studies regard ing changes i n m o r a l p rocesses wi th i nc reas ing age. Differences i n m o r a l awareness that occur between sexes, over t i m e , and between personal i ty groups such as delinquents and no rma l s have been d i scussed . Questions whether honesty i s a specif ic or a genera l t r a i t have been invest igated and descript ions, have been given of severa l different types of conscience pe rce ived by severa l authors . - 82 -Another a rea under d i scuss ion has been the re la t ionship between soc ia l influences and conscience, in te l l igence and conscience , and emotional s tabi l i ty and conscience . In a l l these areas i t has been noted that there are va ry ing amounts of agreement and disagreement between authori t ies and between schools of thought. A t t imes there has even been con t rad ic t ion , so that this f i e ld r ema ins one wi th great need for r e s e a r c h . The specif ic tasks i n this study have been to map out the general areas of behaviour that have m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , and to educe general p r inc ip l e s upon which ind iv idua ls may make m o r a l dec i s ions . Th is has been done i n order to provide a f r a m e -work upon which scales to measure conscience may be bu i l t . Of more pa r t i cu la r in te res t , then, to these tasks has been the sect ion i n the rev iew on c l a s s i f i ca t ion of behaviour r e l a t ed to m o r a l i t y , which has invest igated the types of ca tegor iza t ion used i n other s tudies, and has pointed out their strengths and weaknesses . Two studies which have set out wi th the a i m of measur ing conscience have been d i scussed wi th r e g a r d to assumpt ions , method and r e s u l t s . It has become apparent that there are few theories regard ing conscience and m o r a l awareness which have a v a l i d bas i s i n fact and which have been ve r i f i ed through exper imenta t ion . In many cases , there i s much contention even regard ing the most fundamental p r i n c i p l e s . Y e t , conscience and m o r a l awareness are so bas ic to soc ia l and personal i ty p rob lems that there i s an acute - 83 -need for more adequate understanding of this impor tant phenomenon. It i s hoped that the mapping out of areas of m o r a l awareness and conscience and the drawing out of p r i nc ip l e s of d i r ec t pert inence undertaken i n this study w i l l be an a id i n construct ing an ins t rument which may help to break down the. b a r r i e r s of ignorance . C h a p t e r I I I P R O C E D U R E A i m o f M e t h o d It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that one of the a ims of this study i s to determine areas of m o r a l awareness and conscience i n as e m p i r i c a l a manner as poss ib le . In order to do th i s , statements were col lec ted f rom indiv idua ls i n r e g a r d to personal situations which they could r e c a l l making them feel gu i l ty . Another a im i s to determine as wide a range of conscience and m o r a l awareness as poss ib le , as w e l l as not to l i m i t the study to any specif ic r e l ig ious or ph i losophica l groups . In order to help achieve th i s , as v a r i e d a population as could be reasonably obtained was used f rom which to co l lec t the o r i g i n a l i t e m s . Thus , i t i s hoped that some of the l imi ta t ions of fo rmer studies w i l l be overcome. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S t u d y This study i s d iv ided into two sect ions , the w o r k on the f i r s t sect ion n e c e s s a r i l y preceding the other . The f i r s t sect ion i s concerned with de termining the m a i n areas of m o r a l awareness and conscience as shown by e m p i r i c a l data. The second sect ion i s concerned wi th drawing forth p r inc ip l e s f rom each 85 category, so that they may be avai lable as a bas i s f rom which to construct a scale to assess m o r a l awareness and conscience i n the m a i n a reas . The col lec ted i t ems would themselves be avai lable for use as questions on the sca le . C o l l e c t i o n o f D a t a a) Method Individuals were asked to contribute statements regard ing situations or behaviour whihh had caused them to feel guil ty or have twinges of conscience. In mos t cases , a s i m p l y -worded mimeographed form was d is t r ibuted which stated: "When we do or say something wrong we usua l ly feel bad about i t . We might say that our conscience makes us feel that way. Can you think of anything you might say or do that would make you feel bad? Desc r ibe as many examples as you can think of. e . g . If I were to ' k i c k a dog ' I would feel awful . " or "If I should. . . I would fee l . . . . " . When the occas ion r e q u i r e d , further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the ins t ruc t ions was g iven . A t such t imes the invest igator would say that the study was being made i n order to faci l i ta te the construct ion of a scale to measure m o r a l awareness and conscience. A n outline of the p r inc ip l e reasons for the need of such an ins t rument was g iven , and the par t ic ipants were asked to co-operate by suggesting i tems which they could r e c a l l f rom personal exper ience . The par t ic ipants were a lso given assurance that their contributions would be complete ly anonymous, and at no t ime were they r equ i red to identify themselves by name. - 86 -The indiv iduals par t ic ipa t ing i n the study-were reached through their member sh ip i n ce r t a in groups. The use of groups a l ready i n existence made explanation of r e q u i r e -ments much less tasking than would have been the case had the approach concerned i t s e l f wi th i nd iv idua l s . This method a lso made possible gross ident i f ica t ion of the por t ion of the population f rom which cer ta in types and amounts of m a t e r i a l were being de r ived . In the in teres ts of obtaining a broad c r o s s - s e c t i o n of m o r a l and conscience m a t e r i a l , an attempt was made to obtain in format ion f rom as wide a va r i e ty of groups of ind iv idua ls as poss ib le . A desc r ip t ion of the groups used i s given i n a la ter sec t ion. Since i t was not des i red to l i m i t the scale to commonly enacted behaviour , other sources were searched that might contribute useful factual m a t e r i a l of more r a r e occurence . To this end, the publ ica t ion " E t h i c a l Standards of P s y c h o l o g i s t s " (119) was s c ru t in i zed , as i t contains a number of profess iona l situations of general importance that have actual ly o c c u r r e d and been condemned as being uneth ica l . A l s o , an attempt was made to u t i l i ze m a t e r i a l f rom court cases desc r ibed i n law books (118). Seve ra l p r inc ip l e s wereeelicited f rom the la t ter source , although the amount of t ime r equ i r ed i n r e l a t ion to the actual in format ion y ie lded made a l ong- t e rm study of this source i m p r a c t i c a l , and accord ing ly was shor t ly te rmina ted . Items f rom the scales of Wack (112.) and of F r i e d e n -berg and Havighurs t (44) were a lso l i s t e d and treated s i m i l a r l y to - 87 -raw data co l l ec ted . This was done both for the value of the i t ems themselves and so that a compar i son could be more aptly made wi th the m a t e r i a l i n the present study, b) D e s c r i p t i o n of Contr ibut ing Groups The la rges t number of contributions were made by groups of un ive r s i ty students. A l l yea r s of un ive r s i ty were included f rom the winter sess ion , and a f i r s t , t h i r d and fourth year c lass f rom summer school . A night school psychology c lass c o m p r i s e d mos t ly of teachers was a lso u t i l i z e d . The summer school population a lso was made up of a la rge number of t eachers . Thus , the academic groups made up one of the l a rges t sections of the population. C h i l d r e n ' s contributions were a lso s o l i c i t e d . Grades Six and E l e v e n i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t were cont r ibu tors . Seve ra l of these c lasses were i n schools of the poor d i s t r i c t s . A r u r a l Cathol ic pr ivate school , Grades F i v e to E i g h t , a lso suppl ied data, as did a group of Brownies f rom a r u r a l d i s t r i c t . The Vancouver Vocat ional School , i n i t s c lasses for beauty p a r l o r operators and p r a c t i c a l nu r ses , consis t ing a lmos t en t i re ly of women, a lso contributed i t e m s . A l l adult ages were inc luded i n these groups, ranging f rom the late teens to middle age. Housewive ' s groups were a lso obtained, one of them being a group of midd le -aged housewives f rom a r u r a l d i s t r i c t , another a group of young mothers f rom a r u r a l d i s t r i c t , and a t h i r d a group of young mothers i n Vancouver . - 88 -M a l e contr ibutors were not eas i ly avai lable out-side c l a s s - r o o m settings. However , a s m a l l group of ab le -bodied unemployed d id co-operate . At tempts to obtain the ass is tance of business men and of t radesmen were not successfu l . Among the data are i tems contr ibuted by an un -differentiated group, v i z . , those who contr ibuted i tems when attending Open House at the U n i v e r s i t y . F o r m u l a t i o n o f C a t e g o r i e s a) C l a s s i f i c a t i on of Items A s the number of i t ems col lec ted mounted up, definite areas were seen to emerge i n which indiv iduals admit ted having twinges of conscience. F o r example , a number of i t ems regard ing " l y i n g " was among the data co l lec ted . When a category of " l y i n g " became evident, a category was set up and the data searched so that a l l i t ems per ta ining to " l y i n g " were p laced i n i t . New categories were set up when i tems appeared that could not be placed under exis t ing ones, and the same procedure of s e a r c h -ing for s i m i l a r i tems was repeated. When i t was found that a ce r t a in group of pe r sons , e .g . un ive r s i ty students, was not provid ing any i tems that de-sc r ibed a new k ind of p r i n c i p l e , no further i t ems were so l i c i t ed f rom that pa r t i cu la r type of group. Insofar as p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m -stances permi t ted , this prac t ice was continued unt i l no essen t ia l ly new m a t e r i a l could be obtained f rom avai lable groups. - 89 -b) B a s i s of Fo rmula t i ng Categor ies In setting up the ca tegor ies , i t had to be decided along which d imens ion the categories should be organized . It seemed that i tems regard ing situations i n which ind iv idua ls admit having twinges of conscience could be analyzed accord ing to three m a i n d imens ions . These a r e : 1. Setting - the l i fe setting i n which the ac t iv i ty took p lace , e . g . as i n dating, s e l l i ng , or teaching 2. D i r e c t i o n - the pe r son , group or ins t i tu t ion wi th r e g a r d to whom the ac t iv i ty took p lace , e .g . wi th r e g a r d to one's f r i end , employer , or f ami ly 3. Behaviour - the bas ic ac t iv i ty under ly ing the i nd iv idua l ' s ac t ion , e . g . l y i n g , avoiding b l ame , being h y p o c r i t i c a l , e t c . , . A pa r a l l e l ! might be drawn between these dimensions and the " tpmo" fo rmula suggested by M u r r a y (91) i n d i scuss ing d iv i s ions of personal i ty wi th spec ia l reference to the super-ego. Th i s " t ime , p lace , mode, object" pa t te rn i s sa id to fo rm a bas i s for conscience as i t represents "the loose organiza t ion of Do ' s and Don ' t ' s preached and perhaps p rac t i ced by the parents , asser ted to be the only ' R i g h t ' " , which became in t e rna l i zed (91,137) The f i r s t d imens ion of "se t t ing" might be s i m i l a r to M u r r a y ' s d imension of "p lace" , while " d i r e c t i o n " i s comparable to h i s "object", and "behaviour" i s comparable to h i s "mode". M u r r a y a lso includes " t i m e " , but this d imens ion has not made i t s e l f apparent i n the present study. - 90 -In order to avoid confusion and over lap as much as poss ib le (although some over lap seemed to be unavoidable) , i t was necessary to arrange a l l categories along a single d imens ion , and the t h i r d d imens ion , namely "behaviour " which per ta ins to the b a s i c ac t iv i ty under ly ing the s i tuat ion, was chosen for the purpose of this study. The categories arranged i n this manner contain i t ems which could be appl ied to any pe r son , group or ins t i tu t ion and setting, and thus have more general appl ica t ion than if: they were a r ranged accord ing to other d imens ions , c) Def ini t ion of Categor ies In order to faci l i ta te c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t e m s , i t was necessa ry , i n the f i r s t ins tance , to define each category. Defini t ions were fo rmed by a group of judges wi th the i t ems i n each category i n m i n d as guides. The definit ions are not to be thought of as setting out separate compartments of behaviour , but only as aids i n checking c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t e m s . J u d g m e n t o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s When a l l the i t ems had been c l a s s i f i e d , three judges sc ru t in i zed them i n order to a sce r t a in aptness of fit of each i t em i n each category, and necessa ry changes were made when i t was decided that a better c l a s s i f i ca t ion could be achieved. F o r m u l a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s The next step was to draw out general p r i n c i p l e s f rom the i tems i n each category. Items that were s i m i l a r i n p r inc ip l e were grouped together into a m a i n p r inc ip l e that was p resumed to - 91 -cover a l l of the more specif ic instances:. That i s , i t ems containing speci f ic references were broadened i n scope without s igni f icant ly a l t e r ing the meaning of the under ly ing p r i n c i p l e . In this way , a general p r inc ip l e wh ich , for quest ionaire purposes , could be worded to apply to a specif ic group was made ava i l ab le . Whi le formula t ing the p r i n c i p l e s , a further check on ca tegor iza t ion of i tems was made through compar i son of the general p r i n c i p l e s i n the different ca tegor ies . Three judges a lso sc ru t in i zed the aptness of the general i t ies fo rmed f rom the specif ic i t e m . In Appendix M, the i t ems which were sufficiently different f rom each other to be l i s t e d are shown under the m a i n category headings. Fo l l owing the l i s t of i tems, i s g iven a l i s t of the p r inc ip l e s that were drawn from these i t e m s . Bes ide the number of each i t em i s given the number of the p r inc ip l e to which i t be longs , while beside the number of the p r i n c i p l e , i s g iven the number of the i tems which were the bas i s for i t s fo rmula t ion . C h a p t e r I V R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N G r o s s N u m e r i c a l Resu l t s Al toge the r , a total of 944 persons contributed a total of 3,952 i tems i n the raw data; these were na r rowed down, because of dupl ica t ions , to 1,555 different i t e m s . F r o m this number of i t e m s , 760 p r inc ip l e s were formula ted under seventy-five ca tegor ies . It i s not p resumed that a l l areas i n which people have gui l t fee l ings , and a l l m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , have been desc r ibed . H o w -ever , i t i s felt that these resu l t s are a step i n the d i r ec t ion of l ea rn ing the content of m o r a l concepts, and the p r inc ip l e s whereby indiv idua ls say they guide their l i v e s , feel ing guil ty i f they are not fo l lowed. R e s u l t s A c c o r d i n g t o G r o u p s The d i s t r ibu t ion of the groups showing the number of i t ems col lec ted i n each and the number of persons i n each group i s shown i n Table I. A probable l i m i t a t i o n to this study i s the gap i n the population occur ing with old persons of both sexes . Groups of T A B L E 1 . DIS T R I B U T ION O F C O N T R I B U TIONS A C C O R D I N G TO G R O U P S * Group N o . of Items N o . of Cont r ibu tors Grade Six 663 220 Grade E l e v e n 129 43 P a r o c h i a l School , Pent ic ton 359 51 B r o w n i e s , Salmo 186 22 Housewives , Vancouver 136. 40 Housewives , Kelowna 29 11 Housewives , Salmo 29 6 Vancouver Vocat iona l School 17 6 43 Night School Educat ion C l a s s 15 0 145 Summer School , U . B . C . 215 36 Winter Sess ion , U . B . C . 1-2nd yea r s 1032 152 3-4th yea rs 681 68 Open House 134 95 A b l e - b o d i e d Unemployed 33 . 12 Totals 3952 944 A detai led breakdown of frequencies of i tems for each group has been left on fi le wi th D r . S ignor i of the Department of Psycho logy - 94 -e lde r ly persons who were w i l l i n g to co-operate were not avai lable at opportune t imes . It i s hoped that, i n the future, e lde r ly persons'.s and work ing -men ' s groups can be persuaded to contribute data. Howeve r , there i s no way of knowing whether the addit ion of further groups would s ignif icant ly a l ter the pattern of p r i nc ip l e s which have been set up, although the pos s ib i l i t y r e m a i n s . Different groups which have submitted i tems have tended to emphasize different kinds of conscience m a t e r i a l . F o r example , the i tems submitted by young ch i ld ren have been concerned chiefly wi th aggress ive acts such as s t r i k i n g , in jur ing and destruct ive behaviour and wi th such acts as stealing and being rude. The young ch i l d r en i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s have added a la rge amount of m a t e r i a l con-cerned wi th c rue l ty to a n i m a l s , upon which the urban ch i ld ren do not put such emphas is . Older school ch i ld ren offer a wider va r i e ty of m a t e r i a l showing concern for having ha rmed others i n more subtle ways , and show more se l f -consciousness regard ing what others think. They ment ion having guil t feelings regard ing such mat ters as hur t ing others fee l ings , ta lk ing about o thers , and doing things of which others d i s -approve. U n i v e r s i t y students contributed the mos t complex i t ems i n a wide var ie ty of a reas , probably ref lec t ing the v a r i e d backgrounds of the students, who a lso may range i n age f rom the late teens to middle age (the lat ter being espec ia l ly true of summer school students). Housewive ' s groups contributed i tems regard ing another phase of concern for o thers , having chief emphasis on not having done something that should have been done, ra ther than on having done something wrong . Conce rn for the welfare of others was shown wi th spec ia l focus on ch i ld ren and help less persons . F o r m u l a t i o n o f C a t e g o r i e s A l i s t of the categories fo rmed and the defini t ion of each i s shown i n Appendix B . It w i l l be noted that the definitions do not n e c e s s a r i l y duplicate those found i n standard d i c t i ona r i e s . In fact , v e r y few dic t ionary definitions are g iven, as i t was found that such definitions left much to be des i r ed i n the r e a l m of desc r ib ing behaviour . M o r e o v e r , one category may flow into another. F o r example , i t i s often diff icult to a sce r t a in when " indif ference" ends and when "neg-l i g e n c e " begins , except through a r b i t r a r y def ini t ion, or to t e l l when "embar rassmen t" ends and the more las t ing "loss of s e l f - r e spec t " begins . In judging the i t e m s , the cent ra l factor i n each i tem was the one under which i t was ca tegor ized , although to readers i t i s poss ib le that a different factor i n a pa r t i cu l a r i t em may seem more impor tan t . P a r t of the diff icul ty i n the c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t ems was a function of the form i n which the i tems were r ece ived . A t t imes , their meaning has been vague, and at other t imes their content has been "double-b a r r e l l e d " . That i s , they have contained more than one bas ic idea , such as " l y i n g " plus "deception", which at t imes made dec is ions more di f f icul t . However , i t i s felt that as close an approx imat ion , i n as consistent a manner as poss ib le , on a judgmental bas i s was made after some de l ibera t ion . - 9i> -It w i l l be noted that one category, "Crue l ty to A n i m a l s " , unl ike the others , does contain the d imens ion of " d i r e c t i o n " . H o w -ever , i t was felt that a category separate f rom others was needed i n order to include the sentiments that persons have regard ing a n i m a l s , which are often quite different f rom their sentiments regard ing fel low humans. S u b j e c t i v e A n a l y s i s o f C a t e g o r i e s A n i l l u s t r a t i o n of the continuum-type organiza t ion of these categories i s the constel la t ion which re fe rs to in jus t ices or inequa l i t i es . " Injus t ice" i s the t i t le of one of the ca tegor ies , and i s concerned with the v io la t ion of r igh t s , while "unfa i rness" i s concerned wi th inequi t ies i n r e l a t i on to c i r cums tances , and i s deemed to be l e s s s e r ious . " F a v o u r i t i s m " i s another category which might be inc luded i n this constel la t ion as i t ref lec ts unfairness of a more pos i t ive nature , whi le "harshness" ref lec ts the more negative side of unfairness.. " P r e j u d i c e " i s a specif ic type of injust ice that i s d i rec ted towards ce r t a in segments of the populat ion, while " in to le rance" , a l so i n -cluding a cer ta in amount of in jus t ice , emphasizes the factor of n a r r o w -mindedness . Insofar as each of these categories contains an element of not t reat ing others i n a fa i r manner , they are re la ted and on a continuum, but insofar as they each contain a spec i a l i zed element by which they can be differentiated f rom the other categories i n the cons te l la t ion , they are unique. A t t i m e s , there may be doubt wi th r e g a r d to which element i s i n preponderance and c l a s s i f i ca t ion of an i t em may be a matter for dispute. When there was any doubt about the c l a s s i f i ca t ion of an i t e m , the indec i s ion was usua l ly confined to the constel la t ion of groups, and the i t em was placed i n the category upon which the major i ty of judges agreed. On subjective ana ly s i s , there are other m a i n groupings or constel lat ions i n which the categories seem to f a l l . Under aggress ive ac t iv i t i es would f a l l such categories as " s t r i k i n g " , "a rgu ing" , "anger", "hat ing", "destruct ive behaviour" , " k i l l i n g " and " in ju r ing" , the la t ter two being more severe , whi le " s t r i k i n g " and "a rgu ing" are on the m i l d e r end of the continuum. Another constel la t ion of categories i s that re la ted to a genera l cha rac te r i s t i c of being dishonest and doing i l l e g a l ac t s . The mos t general category i n this group i s that of " i l l e g a l behav iour" , which i s a misce l laneous category inc luding a l l acts cont ra ry to law except those mentioned spec i f i ca l ly i n the categories of " s tea l ing" , and " b r i b e r y " . " B r i b e r y " i s not n e c e s s a r i l y confined to types of b r i b e r y condemned by l a w . The category of "dishonesty" i s re la ted to behaviour which i s dishonest but which does not r equ i re act ive par t ic ipa t ion i n i l l e g a l ac t s , but i s ra ther a "dishonesty by xomiss ion" . "Chea t ing" i s another fo rm of behaviour under this conste l la t ion which i s re la ted to behaving i n a manner that i s against the ru les of fa i r p lay . A c lose ly re la ted conste l la t ion i s that concerned wi th the deceiving of o thers . There i s a general category of "decept ion", whi le " l y i n g " i s added as a ve rba l fo rm of deception. "Withholding in fo rma t ion" i s the c o r o l l a r y of l y ing as i t i s deception through not g iving adv ice . " H y p o c r i s y " i s inc luded i n this conste l la t ion as a - 98 -deception regard ing one's true fee l ings . Many of the categories of the constel la t ion consis t ing of dishonesty and i l l e g a l behaviour a lso contain an element of deception, but an a r t i f i c i a l separat ion i s made he re , with the fo rmer constel la t ion being l e s s subtle i n deception than the la t te r . A constel la t ion concerned wi th behaviour d is turbing to the sens ib i l i t i e s of others i s another which i s evident. Under this grouping, "d i scour tesy" re fe rs to contraventions of ru les of etiquette, whi le "rudeness" , deemed a stronger category, i s concerned wi th behaving i n a manner de l ibera te ly offensive to o thers . " V i o l a t i o n of p r i v a c y " might be looked upon as a spec ia l fo rm of rudeness concerned wi th making oneself objectionable through interference or i nqu i ry regard ing othersk l i v e s . "Tac t l e s snes s " i s concerned wi th i nadve r -tently putting others i n upsetting or emba r r a s s ing s i tuat ions. Th is l a cks the deliberate quali ty of "rudeness" , as does "objectionable behaviour" , which refers ; to behaviour others f ind objectionable, but which was not meant to be objectionable by the perpetra tor although the behaviour i s con t ro l lab le . The la t ter i s stronger i n tone than " tac t lessness" , but i s not as strong as "rudeness" , accord ing to the present defini t ions. Such categories as " ingrat i tude", "poor inf luence" , "stubbornness", " impat ience" , and "non-coopera t ion" are a l l con-cerned wi th manners or ways of dealing wi th other persons , wi th "poor inf luence" and "dominat ion" being at the more ser ious end of the continuum and "stubbornness" on the m i l d e r end, as far as - 99 -deleter ious effects such behaviour might have on others are concerned. Behaviour that i s ma l i c ious with r ega rd to others i s inc luded i n the group concerned wi th "envy", " s lander" , and "defamation". Categor ies which have elements of default might a lso be grouped together. "Non-fu l f i l lment of soc ia l ob l iga t ions" and "non-ful f i l lment of soc i a l expectat ions" i m p l y default regard ing these forms of soc ia l p r e s su re . "Non-fu l f i l lment of .personal ob l iga t ions" has reference to not l i v i n g up to one's own standards of behaviour . " A v o i d -ing b l a m e " refers to the avoidance of taking r e spons ib i l i t y for w r o n g -doing or e r r o r , while "breaking p r o m i s e s " concerns default wi th r e g a r d to one's w o r d . Another conste l la t ion of categories includes those p e r -taining to vani ty . The "showing off" category i s a genera l one re la ted to exhib i t ion is t ic behaviour , while "boast ing" re fe r s to showing off i n a ve rba l manner . "Snobbery" i m p l i e s a high degree of vani ty , thinking oneself to be super ior . . A t the other end of the sca le , " embar ra s smen t " per ta ins to a loss of pr ide or vanity of t empora ry durat ion, while " loss of self respec t" contains a feeling of embar rassment but i s of longer durat ion, concerning long- t e rm damage to the se l f - image or to images of those with whom one ident i f ies . "Poor personal a t t r i -butes" has reference to those cha rac t e r i s t i c s which are found damaging to one's vanity i n a permanent , unchangeable way. " E r r o r " , " igno r -ance" and " f a i l u r e " are a lso damaging to vanity i n differ ing ways : through making a mi s t ake , through not knowing what to do, and through fa i l ing to achieve a set s tandard. - 100 -There are many categories which have an under ly ing cha rac t e r i s t i c of l a ck of concern for the we l l -be ing of o thers . " I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " re fe rs to the c o m m i s s i o n of acts that may h a r m others , while " indif ference" , being more passive i n nature, shows a l a ck of concern for the c i rcumstances of o thers . "Negl igence" i s ha r she r , wi th a sense of "active p a s s i v i t y " or of d i r ec t l y re f ra in ing f rom doing something which i s necessary to save others f rom being h a r m e d . " C a r e l e s s n e s s " i s a m i l d e r fo rm of " i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , "unkindness", l ike " i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , i s ac t ive , but differs f rom this category i n being more de l ibera te , the consequences of the act being i n m i n d . " I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " may be thoughtless while "unkindness" i s usua l ly del ibera te . "Crue l ty to a n i m a l s " i s s i m i l a r but has reference only to an imals and includes such actions as k i l l i n g and in ju r ing . A feeling of soc i a l r e b e l l i o n i s entai led i n another cons te l la t ion , such as i n "disobedience" which re fe rs to being r e b e l -l ious with r e g a r d to the commands of o thers , and " d i s l o y a l t y " which r e fe r s to a r ebe l l i on against a l legiance to other persons or ins t i tu t ions . " D i s r e s p e c t " i s m i l d e r than "d i s loya l ty " , r e f e r r i n g to r e b e l l i o n against showing esteem due to o thers , while " i m p i e t y " entails r e b e l l i o n against standard re l ig ious p rac t i ces or against the reverence which should be shown. L i m i t a t i o n s wi th in the self are found i n another group of ca tegor ies . "Over - indu lgence" , "wastefulness", and " lack of self c o n t r o l " are those which designate l a ck of d i sc ip l ine wi th r e g a r d to - 101 -the self. This l ack i s shown i n a m i l d e r way i n "forgetfulness", " t a rd iness" , "p roc ras t ina t ion" and " lack of effort" which usua l ly refer to "not ac t ing" ra ther than to "ac t ing" i n an und i sc ip l ined manner . L a c k of d i sc ip l ine wi th r e g a r d to persona l habits are shown i n " u n c l e a n n e s s " and "unt idiness" . L i m i t a t i o n s wi th in the sel f are a lso shown i n the more general category of "weakness" and i n the s t ronger- toned "coward ice" . "Sex" and " lus t " are two categories which are r e l a t ed to the sexual d r i v e , but " lus t " i s the stronger of the two. It must be emphasized that these constel lat ions are d i scussed only upon a subjective appra i sa l of the p rocesses undergone during c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t e m s . Through s ta t i s t i ca l means , cons te l -la t ions of categories might prove to be made up of different groups . E l e m e n t s w i t h i n C a t e g o r i e s In a more general way, the categories may have reference to the self, to other persons , to ins t i tu t ions , or to objects. A l s o , m o r a l concepts can be re la ted to doing the wrong thing, to doing nothing at a l l or re f ra in ing f rom doing something, and to not doing the r ight thing. Whether behaviour i s del iberate or unintentional and accidental i s another fac tor . A person may feel gui l ty about having done something h imse l f , having been caught doing something or having h is misbehaviour pointed out to h i m , or on seeing the faults or misbehaviour of o thers . Behaviour a rous ing conscience twinges may be in i t ia ted by oneself, or can be in i t ia ted by others wi th the person involved because of the actions of o thers . Under ly ing conscience feelings may be such elements as gui l t , shame, fear , embar ras smen t , r e m o r s e , chagr ine , indignat ion, or s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . - 102 -Conscience i tems can a lso be broken down into those contraventions of m o r a l concepts which are spoken, those which are hea rd , those which are pe r fo rmed , those which are thought, and those which are fe l t . These observations are a lso made after subjective examinat ion of the data submit ted. C o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r S t u d i e s It i s of in te res t to compare the data i n this study, and the categories used, wi th the i t ems and categories used i n other studies by Wack (112) and by F r i edenbe rg and Havighurs t (44).| B a s i s for compar i son w i l l be the range of m a t e r i a l included i n each, and the m a i n content. In order to a id this compar i son , the items, f rom each of these quest ionnaires have been ca tegor ized along wi th the i tems contributed to this study and are l i s t e d along wi th the c o l -lec ted i tems i n each re levant c l a s s i f i ca t ion . A n identifying m a r k of " H " for F r i edenberg and Hav ighur s t f s i t ems and of " W " for Wack ' s i t ems has been placed beside the respect ive i t e m s . Table 2 shows the number of i t ems f rom each scale i n each category accord ing to the present system. It can be seen that there i s great imbalance i n the content of these fo rmer sca les , wi th one category given great emphasis and another a rea of conscience feel ing not represented at a l l , F r i edenbe rg and Hav ighurs t ' s scale has 110 i t ems of conscience i m p o r t which they have c l a s s i f i ed under eleven categories ent i t led: honesty, loya l ty , r e spons ib i l i t y , misce l laneous taboos, k ind l i ne s s , c lean l iness , m o r a l courage, r e l i g i o n , s e l f - c o n t r o l , - 103 T A B L E 2 . D I S T R I B U T I O N O F I T E M S F R O M O T H E R C O N -S C I E N C E S C A L E S U N D E R T H E P R E S E N T C A T E G O R I E S Categor ies Scales F r i edenberg Wack & Havighurs t 1. Ange r 2 3 2. A v a r i c e - 1 3. A v o i d i n g blame 2 4 . Boast ing -• 1 5. B r e a k i n g p romises 1 6. Ca re l e s sness 2 7. Cheating 2 3 8. Cowardice 7 9. Crue l ty to A n i m a l s 1 1 10. Deception 1 3 11. Defamation 5 1 12. De s t ruc t i vene s s - 3 13. Di scour t e sy 1 14. Dishonesty 3 15. D i s loya l ty 3 2 16. Disobedience 9 17. D i s r e s p e c t 4 3 18. Dominat ion 2 19. E m b a r r a s s m e n t 1 20. F a i l u r e 3 21 . F a v o u r i t i s m - 1 22. I l l ega l behaviour 3 2 23. Impatience 1 24. Impiety 10 32 25. Indifference 1 2 26. Injuring . 4 27. I r r e sponsib i l i ty 1 2 28. K i l l i n g i_ 2 29. L a c k of effort 1 30. L o s s of self cont ro l 4 1 31 . L o s s of self respec t 1 32. L u s t - 8 33. L y i n g 1 1 34. Negligence - 1 35. Non-coopera t ion 3 36. Non-fu l f i l lment of personal obligations 3 1 - 103a -T A B L E 2 . - Continued Categor ies Scales F r i edenberg Wack & Havighurs t 37. Non-fu l f i l lment of soc ia l expectations 1 3 38. Non- fu l f i l lment of soc ia l obligations 4 5 39. Objectionable behaviour 1 40. P o o r influence 1 4 41 . P re jud ice 2 42. Self ishness 1 43. Sex 2 16 44. Slander 1 45 . Stealing 5 2 46. S t r i k ing 1 47. Tard iness 1 48. Uncleanne s s 3 49. Unfairne s s 1 50. Unkindness 4 1 51. Unt idiness 3 52. V io l a t i on of P r i v a c y 1 53. Wastefulness 1 2 54. Weakness 4 2 55. Withholding informat ion 1 1 - 104 -ego- ideal and authori ty . When r e c l a s s i f i e d under the present system for ty- three of the seventy-five categories are covered , as i s shown i n Table 2. Wack ' s two scales contain 123 i t ems c l a s s i f i ed under five headings i n one scale and ten i n the other , v i z . , to worsh ip G o d , to respec t God , to keep the Sabbath Day and to work s ix days a week, to honour authori ty , to respect l i f e , to love chast i ty , to be just , to respec t honour and truth (which contain the dictates of the Ten Commandments) , and those per ta ining to God , f a m i l y , p roper ty , sex, and socie ty . Under the present system of c l a s s i f i c a t i on , t h i r t y - s i x categories are represented, as i s shown i n Table 2. This compar i son indicates that the present type of ca tegor iza t ion i s much more sensi t ive than has been used i n previous s tudies , and a l lows for better ana lys is of the p r i n c i p l e s . Of the two previous sca les , that of F r i edenberg and Havighurs t has the broader range of i t e m s , wi th a lmos t s ixty per cent of the categories brought under examinat ion. However , there s t i l l r emains untouched a large a rea of conscience fee l ing . Some of the differences i n the areas studied by these two e a r l i e r scales may be a function of the group for which the test was constructed and upon which i t was s tandardized. F r i edenberg and Havighurs t intended their scale to be used on young persons of school age and so ^theyrwere not concerned wi th mat ters of " lus t " or other such adult p rob lems . However , the scale did not put much emphasis on l y i n g , wh ich , along wi th s teal ing, has been t e rmed by Woolf (116) - 105 -as one of childhood's greatest p rob l ems . Wack ' s sca le , on the other hand, seems to put an a lmos t undue emphasis on three ma t t e r s : "sex" , " lus t" , and " imp ie ty" . It then appears that using a l i m i t e d group on which to standardize such a scale places definite l i m i t s on the areas inc luded. Us ing an es tabl ished phi losophica l pos i t ion as a bas i s for a scale a lso impar t s too great l i m i t a t i o n s . Such bases r e su l t i n an imbalanced scale wi th over -emphas i s on cer ta in areas and neglect of o thers . The neglected areas may be ve ry impor tant ones while the ove r -emphas i zed ones may be r e l a t i ve ly unimportant . Such cannot be ascer ta ined , however , un t i l a scale of wider range and better balance i s admin i s t e red to s i m i l a r groups and the typ ica l pattern of conscience content i s ascer ta ined for each group. The tapping of conscience-feel ings i n r e s t r i c t e d areas i s of l i t t l e value with such an ind iv idua l i zed process as conscience or m o r a l awareness , but this i s not the only l i m i t a t i o n of the content of these sca les . Another l i m i t a t i o n l i e s i n the apparent viewpoint f rom which the i tems are drawn. There i s , seemingly , an emphasis on mat ters that authori t ies would frown on i n their subordinates ra ther than on those ind iv idua ls might feel wi th in themselves . This facts i s brought out when the dominant conste l la t ion i n these two studies i s examined. One- th i rd of Wack ' s i t ems are concerned with the cons te l -la t ion of " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " . Over twenty per cent of the i t ems used by F r i edenberg and Havighurs t are concerned wi th the same cons te l -l a t i on , although perhaps balanced by a lmos t equal attention to those categories per taining to l imi ta t ions of the self (which one might expect - 106 -to be l a rge r since i t includes more categor ies) . A s the " l imi ta t ions of the se l f" constel la t ion contains the categories of "uncleanness" and "unt idiness" which might be looked upon as impos i t ions of authori ty rather than requi rements of the strong self by the younger persons for whom this scale was designed, the p ropor t ion of i t ems re la ted to " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " might be even higher than i s at f i r s t apparent i n the scale of F r i edenberg and Havighurs t . A scale which taps such an a rea as " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " may be inc l i ned to be measur ing conformity as w e l l as consc ience . However , a definite statement i n this r ega rd cannot be made un t i l a wide choice of conscience i t ems i s offered to groups, a l lowing the d iscernment of what does bother the conscience of different segments of the population, by use of a scale bui l t by e m p i r i c a l methods. Thus , the two previous attempts to measure conscience have l imi ta t ions both i n the range of content and i n the imbalance of emphasis on ce r ta in a reas . A sca le , bui l t on an e m p i r i c a l foundation,, w i l l p a r t i a l l y overcome these l imi t a t ions by i ts avoidance of a specif ic philosophy or group as i t s b a s i s , and by i t s viewpoint of conscience f rom the " in s ide" through the cont r ibutor ' s in t rospec t ion , ra ther than imposed f rom the "outs ide" by const ructors who have decided what other persons should have on their consc iences . A c h i e v e m e n t o f A i m s It i s felt that the a i m of co l lec t ing i t ems e m p i r i c a l l y f rom individuals wi th r ega rd to personal situations which they could r e c a l l making them feel guil ty has , i n par t , been achieved. Those - , 107 -who were w i l l i n g to co-operate i n this study seemed to make an honest effort to search their own feelings for m a t e r i a l which would be helpful . Judging by the int imate and personal nature of some of the contr ibut ions, the content of the i t ems contributed suggests that fu l l co-opera t ion was achieved. Indeed, the tone of mos t of the contr ibutions was such that the i tems might a lmos t be used i n a "pro jec t ive" sense. It i s a l so thought that a f a i r l y wide range of conscience and m o r a l awareness has been represented . Howeve r , there are ce r ta in weaknesses i n the population covered , but, i n compar i son wi th e a r l i e r s tudies, a wider range of m a t e r i a l has been found. F r o m the v a r i e d amount of m a t e r i a l co l l ec ted , i t can be seen that twinges of consc ience appear i n a wide range of a r eas , and those which charac te r ize one ind iv idua l may differ cons iderably f rom those of another. It may be sa id that this study i s not l i m i t e d to any specififc r e l ig ious or ph i losophica l group, although i t i s , of course , l i m i t e d to groups wi th in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Whether the breadth of m a t e r i a l could be s ignif icant ly a l t e red by the addit ion of data f rom either groups i s an open quest ion. C h a p t e r V S U M M A R Y A N D S U G G E S T I O N S F O R F U R T H E R S T U D Y This study has been undertaken as an attempt to provide the bas i s for a tool necessary to the invest igat ion of conscience and m o r a l awareness , which have not r ece ived the attention they deserve by v i r tue of the i r impor tance wi th r e g a r d to personal i ty p r o b l e m s . In order to provide a bas i s for the construct ion of such a t o o l , two m a i n tasks were set: 1. To descr ibe the p r i n c i p a l areas of m o r a l awareness and conscience as ref lec ted i n data obtained f rom var ious groups of ind iv idua l s . 2 . To draw out the unifying p r inc ip l e s there in to be used as a f ramework for the construct ion of future scales to measure conscience. In pe r fo rming these t a sks , the m a i n considerat ions to be met were that the data should be obtained f rom as wide a por t ion of the population as was obtainable, so that the bas i s of any resul tant scale would be e m p i r i c a l ra ther than a p r i o r i . So that the study i t s e l f would not be l i m i t e d by an a r b i t r a r y p r e -conception of m o r a l awareness and conscience , no defini t ion of conscience was made . Cont r ibutors were not l i m i t e d i n their ideas concerning such feelings and contributed thei r own notions based on their own feel ings . - 109 A r ev iew of the l i t e ra tu re per ta ining to the study of m o r a l p rob lems has been made, wi th an emphasis on compar i son and contrast of psycholog ica l and psychoanalyt ic v iewpoin ts . Methods used by psychologis ts have been d i scussed , as w e l l as the theore t ica l background to psychoanalyt ic v iews on the super -ego and the ego- idea l . V a r y i n g opinions wi th r e g a r d to aspects of m o r a l development, and the re la t ionsh ip between m o r a l a w a r e -ness and in te l l igence , age, sex, delinquency and psychopathy, and t ime have been among the topics d i scussed , .Special attention has been given to the two previous attempts to measure conscience by F r i edenberg and Havighurs t (44) and by Wack (112). The contributions of these studies, and thei r l imi t a t ions have been examined, and compar i sons of their assumpt ions , a i m s , methods, sca les , and resu l t s have been made. In desc r ib ing the method used i n the present study, emphasis was p laced upon the manner i n which the data was co l lec ted , the groups f rom which they were obtained, the c l a s -s i f ica t ion of i t e m s , and the formula t ion of p r i n c i p l e s . Data was col lec ted by asking i n d i v i d u a l s , chiefly through the use of a mimeographed sheet, what made them, feel bad. Groups c o n t r i -buting data inc luded both sexes , ages f rom ten to middle age, both r u r a l and urban groups wi th a preponderance of u rban , and of v a r i e d occupations, wi th a major i ty of students. When no essent ia l ly new m a t e r i a l could be obtained f rom avai lable groups , no further m a t e r i a l was so l i c i t e d . The i t ems co l lec ted were then - 110 -judged for aptness of f i t , and s i m i l a r i t ems were drawn together under a general p r i n c i p l e . In formulat ing general p r i n c i p l e s , a further check was made on the o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t e m s . The categories were organized along the d imens ion of "Behav iou r " , i . e . , the bas ic ac t iv i ty under ly ing the wrong-doing , ra ther than the person or thing to whom i t was done or the setting i n which i t was done. Defini t ions of categories were made i n order to faci l i ta te the c l a s s i f i ca t ion of i t e m s , but these are a r b i t r a r y and not to be thought of as d iscre te a reas . A wide range of conscience m a t e r i a l resu l ted f rom this p rocedure . Al toge ther , 944 persons contributed 3,952 i t ems i n the raw data. These were na r rowed down, because of dupl ica t ions , to 1,555 i t e m s . F r o m this number of i t ems emerged 760 genera l p r inc ip l e s under seventy-five ca tegor ies . I tems f rom the scales of F r i edenberg and Havighurs t , and of Wack, were a lso u t i l i z e d . Upon subjective ana lys is of the data, ce r t a in s i m i l a r i t i e s can be seen among some of the categories so that they can be thought of as different aspects of a broad concept, or as points on a cont inuum. One of these a reas , which has been named " s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n " , seems to compr i se the la rges t por t ion of the content of previous conscience sca les . Hence , the question a r i s e s whether conformity i s measu red along with conscience i n these sca les . The scale contents of F r i edenbe rg and Havighurs t and of Wack were r e - c l a s s i f i e d into the findings of the present study, and f rom compar i sons , i t was found that the range of these scales was - I l l -compara t ive ly na r row , and that ce r ta in sections tended to be o v e r -emphas ized while others were ove r - looked en t i r e ly . When compared wi th other studies, i t i s felt that this study has , i n par t , been successful i n mapping out a b road a rea i n which m o r a l awareness and conscience are enta i led. Y e t , i t i s felt that even more areas might come to l ight were gaps i n the contr ibut ing population f i l l e d , e spec ia l ly wi th r e g a r d to e lde r ly persons of both sexes , and to men i n the middle y e a r s . The p r inc ip l e s which have been formula ted may serve as a f ramework for the construct ion of quest ionnaires suitable for var ious groups. A l s o , i t i s hoped that others w i l l contribute further p r inc ip l e s which are found to be pertinent to conscience and m o r a l awareness , using the m a t e r i a l now presented as a foundation, ra ther than as a completed s t ruc ture . The next step i n t ry ing to break down the ignorance con-cern ing conscience i s to actual ly construct a scale on the f r amework p rov ided , and to check i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . 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E t h i c a l Standards of P s y c h o l o g i s t s , The A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1953. - 121 -A P P E N D I X A D E F I N I T I O N S O F C A T E G O R I E S - 122 -A P P E N D I X A Defini t ions Ange r - to have feelings of aggress ion of t emporary dura t ion , not expressed phys i ca l l y but may i n c l u d e w e r b a l express ions of anger. A r g u i n g - to take par t i n ve rba l contention, d isagreement , dispute or argument A v a r i c e - to be immodera te ly des i rous of accumulat ing power , wealth or proper ty A v o i d i n g B l a m e - to escape or avoid r e spons ib i l i t y for act ions; or to p e r m i t another to accept the blame for one's act ions Boas t ing - to speak highly of oneself or to a l low exaggerated, f la t ter ing statements to be made wi th r ega rd to oneself B r e a k i n g P r o m i s e s - to violate a ve rba l commit tment ei ther by a posi t ive act cont rary to p romise or by neglect or nonfulf i l lm ent B r i b e r y - to inc i te another to wrong-doing through offer of gain Ca re l e s snes s - to behave i n an unthinking, inattentive manner which leads to undesirable consequences Cheating - to violate p r o s c r i b e d ru l e s of conduct for personal gain; to violate the ru les of fa i r play Coward ice - to fear exposing oneself to danger or to c r i t i c i s m i n situations where there i s an obl igat ion or expectation to act . C rue l ty to A n i m a l s - to cause any unnecessary pain or d i s t r e s s to a n i m a l s , and may include k i l l i n g Decept ion - to defraud another through any t r i c k , underhand prac t ice or mis represen ta t ion Defamation - to engage i n gossip or c r i t i c i s m wh ich , though based on fact, may m a l i g n another 's reputat ion Des t ruc t iveness - to act so as to des t roy, r u i n or m a r the usefulness of anything Di scour t e sy - to not f u l f i l l or to break the ru les of etiquette - 123 -Dishonesty - to acqu i re , without des i re or intent, something belonging to another, and re ta in i t D i s loya l t y - to show neglect or t reachery to persons or inst i tut ions to whom support i s owed Disobedience - to refuse to c a r r y out a command or to do something i n v io la t ion of what has been ordered D i s r e s p e c t - to show a l a c k of reverence or esteem toward someone to whom such i s due Dominat ion S to be overbear ing , "bossy" , d i c t a to r i a l or oppress ive with r ega rd to another E m b a r r a s s m e n t - to f ind oneself i n an awkward pos i t ion through c i rcumstances beyond one's con t ro l , wi th a t empora ry effect only Envy - to -be displeased about someone e l se ' s success , or belongings, accompanied by some degree of m a l i c e E r r o r - to f ind out that one i s mis t aken i n thought or deed F a i l u r e - to be unsuccessful at some undertaking, accord ing to ex te r io r c r i t e r i o n F a v o u r i t i s m - to favour one person ' s in teres ts to the neglect of others having equal c l a ims Forgetfulness - to f a i l to r emember to do something Harshness - to be ove r ly severe i n compar i son wi th c i rcumstances Hat ing - to have a morbid d i s l ike or extreme resentment , usua l ly of l as t ing qual i ty H y p o c r i s y - to feign to be what one i s not; a deception as to r e a l character and feeling Ignorance - to show l a c k of knowledge I l l ega l Behaviour (Misce l laneous) - to commi t acts cont ra ry to l a w , other than those acts specif ied i n other categories Impatience - to be i r r i t a b l e and re s t l e s s due to de lays , obstacles or inab i l i t y to deal wi th others Impiety - to show a general l a c k of reverence toward things usua l ly he ld sac red , according to one's r e l i g i o n - 124 -Indifference - to behave i n a manner showing a l a ck of concern for the we l l -be ing of oneself or others Ingratitude - to show in sens ib i l i t y to favours and ind i spos i t ion to repay them Injuring - to injure a person i n any phys i ca l manner or to think of doing so Injustice - to violate the r ights of others that have been es tabl ished by law or common consent Intolerance - to be so f i r m l y attached to an idea or opinion that i t leads to the exc lus ion of contrary views I r r e spons ib i l i t y - to pe r form actions without due r e g a r d for con-sequences K i l l i n g - to take the l i fe of any person , or to contemplate such acts L a c k of Ef for t - to f a i l to expend sufficient effort to a c c o m p l i s h one's a i m s ; through l a z i n e s s , to be indisposed to ac t ion or exer t ion L o s s of Se l f -Con t ro l - to f a i l to exe rc i se r e s t r a in t over one's feelings or actions L o s s of Se l f -Respec t - to have one's self image damaged by the actions of oneself or of others wi th whom one feels ident if ied L y i n g - to utter a falsehood wi th the intent to m i s l e a d L u s t - to commit sexual i n t e r cou r se , or have des i re for such, i n a manner which i s cons idered soc i a l l y i r r e g u l a r Negl igence - to f a i l to do something having the d i rec t r e su l t that someone i s h a r m e d Non-coopera t ion - to f a i l to do one's share i n an effort of a group to which one belongs, or i n re la t ions wi th others Non-fu l f i l lment of Soc ia l Expectat ions - to avoid or refuse p a r -t ic ipa t ion i n group or ins t i tu t ional ac t iv i t i e s which involve no obligations to pa r t i cu l a r persons Non- fu l f i l lment of Soc ia l Obligat ions - to avoid or refuse duties or obligations wi th r e g a r d to pa r t i cu la r persons or to contractual re la t ionships - 125 -Objectionable Behaviour - to have control lable habits or persona l pecu l i a r i t i e s which are annoying to others Overindulgence - to be excess ive i n sat isfying one's appetites P e r s o n a l At t r ibu tes - to have cha rac t e r i s t i c s which have a poor or mis l ead ing i m p r e s s i o n on others but which cannot be r ec t i f i ed P e r s o n a l Obligat ions - to f a i l to l i ve up to one's own standards which have i m p o r t for no one but oneself P o o r Influence - to misbehave i n such a way as to influence others i n an undesirable or harmful way; or to encourage poor behaviour i n others P re jud ice - to have a negative b ias towards an ind iv idua l based on h i s membersh ip i n a r e l i g ious or ethnic group P r o c r a s t i n a t i o n - to put off doing something, through indec i s ion or conf l ic t , that should be done Rudeness - to del ibera te ly act i n a manner offensive to the sen-s i b i l i t i e s of others Self ishness - to exc lus ive ly consider one's own in teres ts or hap-piness r ega rd les s of that of others; to be inf luenced i n actions solely by a v iew to pr ivate advantage; to do nothing except for persona l gain Sex - to engage i n sexual a c t i v i t i e s , thoughts or d e s i r e s , excluding actual sexual in te rcourse Showing Off - to c a l l attention to oneself through one's act ions; exhibi t ioni sm Slander - to injure someone by ut ter ing a false repor t wi th m a l i c i o u s intent Snobbery - to act i n a manner intended to i m p r e s s others wi th one's supe r io r i t y Stealing - to take clandest inely without p e r m i s s i o n f rom others S t r ik ing - to h i t , slap or s t r ike others Stubbornness - to have ac t ive , unreasonable , or su l len res i s tance to the proposals or influences of others - 126 -Tac t lessness - to inadvertent ly show a l ack of apprec ia t ion of the proper thing to say or do, thus making others feel awkward or upset Tard iness - to be late or not be on t ime accord ing to previous arrangements or custom Uncleanness - to be d i r ty or unsani tary about one's persona l belongings or situations Unfa i rness - to show lack of equity i n r e l a t ion to c i r cums tances ; to take advantage of others Unkindness - to show a l ack of tenderness or goodness of hear t Unt idiness - to l a ck neatness and order V io l a t i on of P r i v a c y - to meddle i n the personal affairs of others without invi ta t ion; to r evea l confidential in format ion Wastefulness - to d i s c a r d or misuse things that could be used to better advantage Weakness - to have feelings of inadequacy; to l a c k perseverance ; to quit; as they relate to the non-ful f i l lment of tasks or expectations Withholding Information - to ho ld back or r e t a in in fo rmat ion , news or facts to the detr iment of someone else 1 2 7 A P P E N D I X B I T E M S A N D P R I N C I P L E S 128 -A N G E R P r i n c i p l e No. Items 1 1. lose m y temper with someone younger 1 2. get angry and start shouting at younger ch i l d r en 12 3. become angry 12 4. lose m y temper 3 5. without thinking l a s h out v io len t ly at someone who has an opinion con t ra ry to mine 10 6. get mad at a joke instead of taking it 2 7. get mad at someone when they hurt me acc ident ly 3 8. say something unkind and rude to m y parents in a fit of anger 3 9. say something in anger which I l a te r regre t 4 10. purposely say something i n anger which i s designed to hurt a person 3 11. snap at someone out of anger 7 12. snap at someone when angry about something they have had nothing to do wi th 6 13, get mad and swear 5 14. lose m y temper over a s m a l l mat ter 7 15, get mad at my fr iend without cause 9 H 1 6 . lose m y temper i n a game because my side was los ing 8 H 1 7 . get mad when m y friends c r i t i c i z e me 11 W 18. curse m y neighbour 3 19. lose m y temper and say something I shouldn't 1 20. be impatient and c r o s s with ch i ld ren 13 21. make my mother mad 14 22. have someone get angry at me 13 W 2 3 . cause those subject to me to become angry 15 W24. cause those in authority to become angry 13 25. cont inual ly provoke those under m y charge to become angry 15 26. repeatedly provoke m y teacher to anger by the questions I ask - 129 -A N G E R I t e m N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1,2,20 1. become angry wi th someone younger 7 2. get mad at someone for something they couldn' t 5, 8,9, 11, 19 3. say something in anger I la ter regre t 10 4. purposely hurt another 's feelings when angry 14 5. lose my temper over a s m a l l matter 13 6. get mad and swear 12, 15 7. get mad at someone for something they didn' t do 17 H 8. get mad when c r i t i c i z e d 16 H 9. get mad when i n diff icul t ies 18 W 10. curse someone in anger 6 11. get mad at a joke instead of taking i t 3,4 12. become angry 23, 25 13.. make someone subject to me angry 22 14. have someone become angry wi th me 21, 24 15. make someone in authori ty angry 130 -A R G U I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. q u a r r e l over things that are r e a l l y my fault 2 2 . have an argument wi th someone 2 3 . q u a r r e l wi th someone 6 4 . have a fight wi th parents and leave home 3 5. get into an argument on the street 4 6. fight someone 4 7. get into a fight 5 8. have many fights or qua r re l s wi th those around me Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. q u a r r e l over things that are r ea l l y my fault 2, 3 2. have an argument wi th someone 5 3 . get into an argument i n public 6 , 7 4 . get into a fight 8 5 . have, many fights or qua r re l s wi th fr iends or associa tes 4 6. leave home because of a q u a r r e l A V A R I C E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. ta lk a customer into buying more of a product than he needs, for my own profi t 2 2 . take advantage of a person^s desperate c i r c u m -stances in o rde r to get cheap labour 3 3 . feel a des i re for a lot of m a t e r i a l goods 4 W 4 . s t r ive excess ive ly to obtain the esteem of another for pe rsona l gain 5 5. be too greedy Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. persuade someone to do something by which I alone w i l l gain 2 2 . take advantage of someone's misfor tunes for persona l gain 3 3 . feel a des i re for a l o t of m a t e r i a l goods 4 W 4 . unduly s t r ive to gain favour of another for p e r -sonal gain 5 5. be too greedy - 132 A V O I D I N G B L A M E P r i n c i p l e No . I tem 1 1. le t someone; take m y punishment 3 2. blame something I d id on someone else 4 3. be blamed for something when i t i s not m y fault 3 4. i n order to save face before a very important person who means much to me I place the blame for something I d id on someone else 2 5. make an e r r o r in some work and allow someone else to be b lamed for i t 2 6. let some mistake be blamed on m y s i s te r because she i s too young to understand in order to save myse l f f rom r ep r imand 6 7. damage a bor rowed a r t i c l e and re turn i t without t e l l ing of the damage, hoping it would not be not iced unt i l a la te r date 6 8. break something I have borrowed and then re tu rn i t without le t t ing the owner know it was damaged 2 9. have made a ser ious mistake for which m y super ior whom I d i s l ike has been blamed and w i l l l i k e l y lose his job and I say nothing 3 10. accident ly break one of m y mother ' s antiques, and fear ing her anger, pretend I am innocent and i m p l y that a younger brother probably did i t 5 11. be involved i n a m i n o r auto accident due to m y own c a r e l e s s -ness but i n s i s t that I was not to blame 1 12. be to blame in a motor accident but the other d r i v e r was confused and w i l l i n g to accept the blame 5 13. refuse to admit I was at fault for an accident in order to avoid compl ica t ions , although I know I am at fault 5 14. break a window and not take blame for i t 6 15. dent the fender of another car on the parking lot and no one saw me so I d id not repor t i t 6 16. inadvertent ly damage a parked car , and be undetected 9 17. be one of a whole group that i s being punished for something I have done and do not admit m y guilt 7 18. get away with anything bad 3 19. blame som eone else for m y own mis take 8 20. get the blame for what someone else had done and they would not admit i t 5 21. hit a person and say I never 5 H 22. be afra id to admit that I had been wi th my c rowd when they were blamed for something 10 23. have a close f r iend who has commit ted a c r i m e for which someone else i s to be punished and they do not confess 6 H 24. break something that belongs to someone else and not t e l l them about i t - 133 -A V O I D I N G B L A M E Item No. P r i n c i p l e s I , 12 1. le t someone else take m y punishment 5, 6, 9 2. let someone else be b lamed for something I d id 2 ,4 , 10, 19 3. blame something I d id on someone else 3 4. be blamed for something when it i s not my fault I I , 13, 14, 21 5. not admit when I have done something wrong 22 7, 8, 15, 16, 24 6. conceal that I have done something wrong 18 7. get away with anything bad 20 8. be blamed for something someone else has done 17 9. al low a whole group, including myself , to be punished for something I have done, but not admit m y guil t 23 10. know of someone a l lowing another to take their punish-ment - 134 -B O A S T I N G P r i n c i p l e No . Item 2 1. boast of something and have someone c o r r e c t me 1 2. boast of m y playing ab i l i ty 3 3. do nothing to halt exaggerated statements that are being made about m y ab i l i ty 4 W 4 . te l l of my sexual exploi ts 1 5. te l l m y ch i ld ren that I could ins t ruct them more ably than their teacher can Item No P r i n c i p l e 2, 5 1. boast of something I think I am good at 1 2. boast of something and have someone c o r r e c t me 3 3. not stop someone else f rom boasting about me 4 W 4 . boast of int imate mat te rs . 135 -B R E A K I N G P R O M I S E S P r i n c i p l e N o . Item 1 1. p romise and then find I could not keep the p r o m i s e 1 2. make a p r o m i s e and not keep i t 2 3 . b reak a p romise to a ch i ld 4 4 . b reak a p romise to my s i s te r 4 5. stay out longer at night than I sa id I would 2 6. p romise to teach m y ch i ld to play the piano, but soon lose in te res t and stop teaching h i m 5 7. f a i l to give a person a l l the help I had p r o m i s e d when I knew he needed help i n the wors t way 3 8. not be i n a pos i t ion to immedia te ly c a r r y out a p r o m i s e made to a person who was dying and i n fact doubt that I would ever be able to c a r r y i t out 1 9. say I w i l l do something and then not do i t 4 H10 . not keep a p r o m i s e given to my father or mother 6 11. be caught by my parents i n the act of smoking when I had p r o m i s e d not to smoke unt i l I was 21 2 12. not get the approval of the r e s t of my f ami ly to provide a home for a foster ch i l d that I had p r o m i s e d to help 1 13. t e l l someone you w i l l go somewhere wi th them and then something comes up and you change your m i n d 7 14. neglect or break a p romise even though cost ly to m y s e l f - 136 -B R E A K I N G P R O M I S E S I t e m No. P r i n c i p l e 1, 2, 9, 13 1. make a promise and not keep it 3, 6, 12 2. break a p romise to a c h i l d 8 3. break a promise made to a dying person 4, 5, 10 4. break a promise made to m y f ami ly 7 5. not keep a promise to someone who is depending on it 11 6. be caught in the act of breaking a promise 14 7. break a p romise even though cos t ly to m y s e l f - 137 -B R I B E R Y Item have an employer who had asked me to do something unethical and had given me a ra ise for i t , and I have just r ece ived the f i r s t cheque on which the ra i se appears approve ce r t a in m a t e r i a l , although defective, because I a m paid to do so be paid for making a statement that i s mi s l ead ing and unfair although not l e g a l l y wrong be given a fee to provide false evidence against a f r iend accept money for getting an unauthorized copy of the f ina l exam for a f r iend P r i n c i p l e rece ive money for doing something unethical take a br ibe to obtain something wanted by someone who i s not enti t led to i t make a ' m i s l e a d i n g statment for money - 138 -C A R E L E S S N E S S P r i n c i p l e No. Item 1 1. break the d i sh to a f r iend ' s best dinner set 1 2. break m y mother ' s best china 1 3. break a d i sh 1 4. break someone e l se ' s things 2 5. break something of my own 1 6. break someone's toy 16 7. acc identa l ly walk out of a store wi th an a r t i c l e i n m y hand that I had forgotten to pay for 21 8. be i n charge of another 's ch i ld for a short t ime dur ing which i t i s acc identa l ly injured 9 9. compla in loudly about my superv i so r s to those whom I la te r d i scover are l i k e l y to t e l l on me 10 10. bor row a book f r o m a f r iend and keep it unt i l the f r iend has to make a personal appearance to c l a i m the book at a much la ter date. 1 11. acc identa l ly bump into a person causing them to drop something fragi le 3 12. r i p my clothing 11 13. unwit t ingly le t m y cigarette burn a valuable table of a host 1 14. break someone's glasses 11 15. d i scover that I had badly torn a few pages of m y f r iend 's valuable text book 11 16. sc ra tch furniture or c a r belonging to someone else 11 17. make a hole in the uphols tery of someone's ca r 11 18. accident ly si t on someone's lunch while taking m y seat i n the bus 11 19. d i scover that I had brought a la rge quantity of wet mud onto the spot less ly c lean l i v i n g r o o m rug i n a f r iend ' s house 13 20. s p i l l something on somebody 12 21. s p i l l something 6 22. misp lace another person 's belongings 4 23. lose an a r t i c l e of m y clothing 5 24. lose a precious possess ion of mine 6 25. lose someone's personal possessions which I have bor rowed 6 26. lose someone e l se ' s proper ty 6 2 7. misp lace a sum of money that was entrusted to me for safekeeping 18 28. knock down an o ld lady accident ly 7 29. lose someone's valued keepsake 18 30. walk into someone - 139 -C A R E L E S S N E S S ( C o n t . ) P r i n c i p l e N o . I tem 15 31. not look where I am going when c r o s s i n g the street 23 32. as a pedestr ian c r o s s i n g a street, cause a ca r to stop so suddenly that the car behind c rashed c into i t 14 33. play wi th matches 10 34. take tools home f rom work and leave them there, so that when they are needed I have to make a t r i p home for them 20 35. accident ly dr ive over an an imal 21 36. spatter a pedestr ian wi th mud f rom m y car 18 37. accident ly r a m the rear bumper of m y car into the front of another car and annoy i ts occupants 8 38. make chance r e m a r k s which l ed to demotion for a business acquaintance 8 39. d i scover that m y casua l r e m a r k s had caused my in f e r i o r s to be r i d i c u l e d in public 16 40. suddenly d i scover that I had put someone's expen-sive l ighter i n m y pocket 16 41. d i scover that I am leaving C h u r c h wi th the church ' s hymnal i n my hand 22 42. by mis take walk into the men 's or women's washroom 17 43. burn some important papers 3 H 44 tear m y clothes c l i m b i n g a fence 19 H 45. not take good care of my f a m i l y ' s belongings 19 46. be d r iv ing someone e l se ' s ca r and have an accident - 140 -C A R E L E S S N E S S I tem No. P r i n c i p l e 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 1 1 , 1. inadvertent ly break someone e l se ' s things 14 5 2. break something of m y own 12, 44 3. tear m y clothing 23 4. lose something of m y own 24 5. lose a precious possess ion of mine 22 ,25 ,26 ,27 6. lose someone e l se ' s proper ty 29 7. lose a precious belonging of someone else 38, 39 8. find I have ha rmed someone wi th my ca re l e s s talk 9 9. find I have ha rmed myse l f wi th m y ca re l e s s talk 10, 34 10. not re turn a borrowed a r t i c le unt i l r eminded by the owner 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 11. damage someone e l s e ' s belongings 1% 36 21 12. s p i l l something 20 13. s p i l l something on someone 33 14. toy with something that could be dangerous 31 15. not look where I am going when I should be careful 7,40, 41 16. absent-mindedly walk off wi th something belonging to someone else 43 17. burn some important papers 30, 28, 37 18. bump into someone accident ly 45,46 H19- not r.ta\ke good care of the belongings of others 35 20. accident ly hurt an an imal 8 21. have someone in m y care accident ly injured 42 22. accident ly enter a room intended for m e m b e r s of the opposite sex 32 23. not look where I am going and cause an accident - 141 -C H E A T I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 6 1. cheat someone out of something they r ea l ly needed or wanted more than I 3 2. improve my score in a sport by cheating 3 3. cheat to win 5 4 . win something unfair ly 7 5. be cheated by my fr iend in a game 9 6. p rocure help on a task I a m requ i red to do by myse l f 3 7. cheat in my school sports 2 8. be caught cheating on an exam 1 9. cheat on the exam 1 10. be found teaching my c lass the questions on a secret government examination the day before the exam is to be given 3 11. be requested by my coach to take advantage of the ref-eree 1 s overs ights whenever the opportunity a r i s e s 8 12. r ea l i ze that my br idge partner is methodica l ly cheating 10 13. gain access to an exam that had been given to another c lass f i r s t 6 W14 . cheat anyone 10 15. see the answers to an examination before the exam 4 16. copy without detection answers which I would not be able to get otherwise 4 17. copy some work 1 18. find that during an exam someone had sl ipped some use-ful notes on my desk which I used 10 19. have diff iculty prepar ing some m a t e r i a l for an exam, and go to someone for help who te l l s me that he has seen the exam and this pa r t i cu l a r m a t e r i a l i s not r e f e r r ed to in any way 11 20. when someone comes to my place of work to get a job done I offer to do it after hours at a cheaper rate 11 21 . work for rates less than the "going wage" although I know that it is undermining progress my fel low w o r k e r s have made in getting higher pay 12 22. be given some tips on winning horses by persons whom I know have had the race fixed 12 23. know how a race was fixed and be asked to accept a la rge bet on a horse that w i l l lose by another person who was total ly ignorant of that fact and I take the bet 7 24. know of someone cheating another person out of a piece of land 14 25. be seated i n b leacher seats at a stage performance and then move into the most - expensive seats after the f i r s t act 13 26. succeed i n using an overdue t ransfer on the bus 15 27. vote a second t ime at an e lect ion 15 28. swing an elect ion my way by cheating at the pol ls - 142 -C H E A T I N G (Continued) P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 5 29. play unfair 5 30. take a f r iend 's offer of last y e a r ' s essay to cover this yea r ' s assignment 15 W31 . vote two or three t imes every elect ion 12 W32 . know how a race is fixed and bet another la rge amount accord ing ly 3 H 3 3 . cheat in a game such as baseba l l or softball 1 H34 . copy answers f r o m someone in his c lass on a test - 143 -C H E A T I N G Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 3 , 4 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 8 1. . cheat on an exam 8 2 . be caught cheating on an exam 3 3 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 1 1 3 . cheat to w in a game 30, 16, 17 4 . copy someone e l se ' s work 4, 29 5 . w in something unfai r ly 1, 14 6. cheat someone out of something they r e a l l y needed or wanted 5, 24 7. sees someone else cheating 12 8. have my side cheat in a game 6 9. p rocure help on a task 13, 15, 19 10. l e a r n questions or answers on an exam beforehand 20, 21 11. undercut set rates by offering labour or products for l e ss money 22, 23, 32 12. bet on a race I know to be f ixed 26 13. use a t icket that i s out of date 25 14. sit in a more expensive place than I have paid for 27, 28,31 15. cheat at the pol l s - 144 -C O W A R D I C E P . r i n c i p l e . N o . Items 1 1. f a i l to admit my true p o l i t i c a l bel iefs i n a hos t i le group 2 2 . avoid doing something which I feel is r ight because I fear the d i sapprova l of my fr iends 2 3 . i n the company of s eve ra l fr iends agree to do something against my better p r i nc ip l e s so as not to seem a "queer" 3 4 . refuse to take a r i s k which is expected of one i n my occupation 5 5 . l i s t en to ma l i c ious gossip about a f r iend without defen-ding the f r iend 4 6, f a i l to defend a close f r iend in an argument wi th a s tranger even though I know the s tranger to be wrong 6 7 . be a f ra id to walk home in the dark 7 8. not interfere in a street fight i n which I could be of help 8 9. offer phys i ca l v io lence and re t rea t because of fear of being hurt 9 10. be the only one wi th in my c i r c l e of fr iends who has not given b lood , although I could quite eas i ly have done so 10 11. hide behind an excuse and not enl is t i f my country was at war 11 12. be a witness to a robbery but not repor t it for fear of r e p r i s a l s 1 13. agree with an act or opinion just to avoid t rouble when inward ly I disagree v io len t ly 12 14. have an argument wi th a f r iend and la ter find I a m wrong , but be af ra id to apologize 13 15. t e l l others of my d issa t i s fac t ion with a f r i end , ra ther than d i r ec t l y compla in ing to my fr iend 14 16. s l ip into a store to avoid meeting a f r iend to whom I owe money 7 17. refuse to endanger myse l f i n order to save a s t ranger f r o m being phys ica l ly hurt 1 H 1 8 . not defend what I bel ieve i n , i f others made fun of my ideas 1 H 1 9 . not speak up to the teacher i f she had done something un-fa i r 5 H 2 0 . not speak up i f someone made mean r e m a r k s about my fami ly 1 H 2 1 . not speak up for something.I be l ieved i n because my fr iends wouldn' t l i ke me for i t 7 23 . be ca l led upon to s ac r i f i ce my safety to a s s i s t a s t ranger who is i n t rouble but I do not respond 1 H 2 4 . did not dare t e l l h is fr iends they were doing something wrong 5 H 2 5 . not speak up for a f r i end , i f I a m i n a group when they said nasty things about the f r iend 1 H 2 6 . not t e l l my father, mother , i f I thought they were wrong - 145 -C O W A R D I C E Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1, 13, 18, 19, 21, 26 1. not speak up for what I bel ieve i n , for fear of c r i t i c i s m 2 , 3 2 . not do what I think i s r ight for fear of c r i t i c i s m 4 3 . not take a r i s k expected of me as a duty 6 4 . not a id a f r iend or re la t ive when help is needed i n a fight or argument 5, 20, 25 5. not defend a f r iend or re la t ive against ma l i c ious gossip 7 6. be a f ra id of the dark 8, 17, 23 7 . not r i s k in jury or my l i fe to save another 9 8. offer to fight and then be af ra id to 10 9. be af ra id to give blood 11 10. be a f ra id to jo in up in t ime of war 12 11. not "report a c r i m e for fear of r e p r i s a l s • 14 12. be a f ra id to apologize after finding I a m in the wrong 15 13. be af ra id to compla in about something to the pe r son invo lved , but just compla in about i t to others 16 14. avoid meeting someone to whom I have an unpaid o b l i -gation - 146 -C R U E L T Y T O A N I M A L S P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 1 1. take a b i r d ' s egg 2 2 . send an an ima l to the pound 3 3 . hurt or be mean to any a n i m a l 3 4 . beat a horse 3 5. hit a cat or dog 4 6. tor ture l i t t l e bugs 4 7. pu l l grasshoppers heads off 15 8. pu l l an an ima l ' s t a i l 5 9. not feed an imals or my pets 5 10. shoo away poor s tarving freezing an imals 6 11. be asked to go shooting b i rds for the pleasure of shooting 6 12. shoot a b i r d for no necess i ty but just for fun 16 13. k i l l a b i r d or an ima l 3 14. be thoughtlessly c r u e l to an a n i m a l 7 15. through necess i ty , be.'obliged to take a job that entails butchering an a n i m a l 9 16. f a i l to a id an injured a n i m a l 10 17. see photographs of hunters standing over the ca rcase of an a n i m a l they have shot 11 18. be standing in my boat and land a b ig f i sh that is des-perately s t ruggl ing for a i r and is t ry ing to free h i m s e l f f r o m the hook 6 19. hunt and k i l l a deer , although I do not need it for food 8 20. k i l l a mouse 4 21 . should go out of my way to squash a f ly 4 22. k i l l insects 13 23 . poison someone's dog 14 24. cause a dog to get run over 12 25. drown kittens 3 26. p i ck a rabbit up by i ts ears 3 27 . p u l l a b i r d ' s feathers out 3 28 . k i c k a dog or throw a rock at it 16 H 2 9 . k i l l e d b i rd s or other s m a l l an imals 3- . W30. show cruel ty to an an ima l - 147 -C R U E L T Y T O A N I M A L S Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. take a b i r d ' s egg 2 2 . send an an ima l to the pound 27, 3, 4, 5, 14, 26, 28 3 . hurt or be mean to an an ima l 21, 22, 6, 7 4 . tor ture or k i l l insects 9, 10 5 . not feed an imals or pets 19, 11, 12 6. shoot a b i r d or a n i m a l for no necess i ty but just for fun 15 7 . be obl iged, through necess i ty , to take a job butcher -ing an imals 20 8. k i l l a mouse 16 9 . f a i l to a id an injured a n i m a l 17 10, see photographs of hunters standing over the ca rcase of an a n i m a l they have shot 18 11. catch a f i sh and see i t gasping for a i r 25 12. drown kittens 23 13. poison an a n i m a l 24 14. cafus-e a dog to get run over 8 15. tease an an ima l or b i r d 13, 29 16. k i l l a b i r d or an ima l - 148 -D E C E P T I O N P r i n c i p l e No. Item 8 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 15 6. 6 7. 5 8. 22 9. 4 10. 14 11. 14 11. 13 13 11 14. 11 15. 10 16. 8 17. 23 18. 7 19. 8 20. 16 21. 8 22. 12 W 23. 5 24. use falsehoods and mis lead ing statements in order to s e l l an a r t i c l e give a biased repor t on a company to a f r iend so that he w i l l not compete for a job for which I have just appl ied persuade a f r iend to do something for which he w i l l la ter be s o r r y in order to promote my own in teres ts give to m y super ior only the informat ion that w i l l please h i m and hide the informat ion he w i l l not l i ke do m y work as qu ick ly as poss ible , without r ega rd to qual i ty , i n o rder to be c red i ted with greater output be invi ted to the home of m y best f r iend 's steady for a party; then on a r r i v a l , r ea l i ze that no one else i s coming and that I have been part of a plan t r i c k a business opponent so as to cause h i m f inancia l l o s s gain a place of authority by mis represen ta t ion because of m y youthful looks manage to get by as a student on many occas ions and thus pay l e s s charge for f ix ing a machine I was not ac tual ly able to r epa i r prope r l y be involved i n an accident on a bus and t ry to co l l ec t damages although the accident was due to my negligence feign in jur ies so that I may be able to co l l ec t damages because of an accident make a repor t on work which I have done and support the repor t wi th f igures which are f ic t ional be asked by a v e r y good fr iend of mine to phone her boss and say she i s i l l and cannot come to work so that she w i l l be able to spend the day with her boy f r iend and I comply stay away f r o m work under false impres s ions of s ickness when r e a l l y I was enjoying a day off successfu l ly cover up for some unnecessary fault offer goods for sale "at huge reduct ions" although the reduct ion i s only i n quali ty, not in price change the tags on two dresses in a store and manage to get the dress that was not on sale for the p r ice of the one that was receive a high p r i ce for m y car by having turned back the mileage and cleaned it up pretend I am se l l ing a new model of a product when it i s exact ly the same as the fo rmer model put a cheap present i n a box f rom an exc lus ive shop in order to make it appear to be a more expensive gift, s e l l an a r t i c l e g iving the i m p r e s s i o n that i t i s in good condi t ion when I know otherwise ask to get someone in a theatre and then stay to see the show without paying be accepted for permanent employment but intend to work only for the next few months - 1 4 9 -D E C E P T I O N (contd. ) P r i n c i p l e No. I tem 17 26. create a false i m p r e s s i o n which should be co r r ec t ed 21 27. copy another person 's work and then state he has copied mine 18 28. in making r epa i r s , use faulty or cheap m a t e r i a l so that I w i l l be assured of further work in the future 7 29- manage to s e l l m y house at a high pr ice to a person who was unaware that the house was a bad buy because of its faults 20 30. sec re t ly do work for two companies which are in compet i t ion although it i s not e thical to do so 5 31. accept a job although I know I have not the time to spend that i s necessa ry for the job to be done p roper ly 4 32. de l ibera te ly make my work las t longer than necessary in order to get more pay for the job 19 33. do some work for a fr iend which he thinks w i l l be done free of charge, but I send h i m a b i l l when I am finished 7 34. s e l l something for more than i t i s wor th 5 35. take advantage of education I a l ready have to i m p l y that I can handle another type of job I am not spec i f i ca l ly t ra ined for 17 36. t e l l m y parents I am going somewhere they approve of b u t ; ; ; : r e a l l y go somewhere I am not supposed to go 13 H 3 7 . wri te a note to the teacher excusing myse l f f r o m school and signing m y mother ' s or father 's name to it 17 W38. swear to anything that I knew I was unable to do 24 39. pretend to be intimate with someone I ha rd ly know in order to gain prest ige 25 W 40. buy a car i n the name of another so the b i l l cannot be c o l l e c t c 27 41. c l a i m a des i rable a r t i c l e i n the los t and found which did not belong to me 26 42. make substitution of cheaper m a t e r i a l s i n a project i n o rder to make greater profi t 26 43. be in charge of the buying in a household and manage to buy second-rate goods and thus make a profit for myse l f - 1 5 0 -D E C E P T I O N Ite m P r i n c i p l e s 2. 1. give false informat ion to prevent compet i t ion 3 2. persuade someone to do something that w i l l h a r m h i m but benefit myse l f 4 3. t e l l someone only pleasant things and hide that which i s unpleasant but which he should know 32, 10, 5 4. through deliberate manipulat ion obtain higher pay than m y work warrants 8, 31, 35, 5 5. obtain work or authority under false pretenses 7 6. t r i c k an: opponent to cause h i m losses .34, 19, 29 7. s e l l something for more than i t i s wor th 20, 22, 17, 1 8. make false c l a i m s about something I am se l l ing 25 9- obtain a chance to t r ave l by mis rep resen t ing m y intentions 16 10. successful ly cover up for some unnecessary fault 14, 15 11. feign i l l ne s s i n order to have a hol iday 23 W 12. t r i c k my way into an entertainment for nothing 37, 13 13. use false f igures or names to support repor ts or excuses 11, 12 14. t ry to co l l ec t damages when I am not ent i t led to them 6 15. be t r i cked by someone into being alone wi th them 21 16. pretend that a gift is more expensive than it ac tua l ly i s 36, 38, 26 17. create a false i m p r e s s i o n that should be co r r ec t ed 28 18. use shoddy m a t e r i a l s i n making r epa i r s so as to cause e a r l y need for further r epa i r s 33 19. charge someone for work they had expected to be done free 30 20. sec re t ly work for r i v a l f i r m s at the same time although i t i s unethical to do so 27 21. copy another person 's work and then pretend he has copied mine 9 22. m i s r ep re sen t my age i n order to benefit f rom lower charges 18 23. change tags on a store a r t i c le in order to get i t moiecheaply - 15 1 -D E C E P T I O N ( c o n t d . ) Item P r i n c i p l e s 39 24. pretend in t imacy wi th someone I hard ly know i n o rder to gain prest ige 40 W 25. use another 's name without p e r m i s s i o n i n order to obtain something 42, 43, 26. use money saved on low qual i ty goods to my own benefit 41 2 7. c l a i m something that does not belong to me - 1 5 2 -D E F A M A T I O N P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 1 1. h a r m someone's reputation by what I have said 4 2 . ta lk to another student about a l e c t u r e r and d i scover that the l e c tu r e r had overheard my r e m a r k s 4 3 . say something nasty about a pe r son to someone and that person heard me 14 4 . mention to s eve ra l people that I d i s l i k e a ce r ta in person and cast aspers ions against h is or her charac te r , and then be told that this person both l i kes and r e -spects, me 8 5. give defamatory evidence about a person although my acquaintance wi th h i m has been l i m i t e d to ta lking to h i m for an hour 12 6. have to l i s t en to a r e c i t a l of the faults of one whom I r e -spect immense ly without opportunity to defend them 5 7 . be running against a good fr iend i n an e lec t ion and should use some damaging informat ion which I had acqui red through int imate assoc ia t ion wi th h i m 13 8. be seen by a ma l i c ious gossip going into a p sych i a t r i s t ' s office 15 9. hear derogatory statements being made about my i n s t r u c -tor ' by other students 16 10. hear derogatory statements being made about my i n s t r u c -tor by other ins t ruc to r s 10 11 . c r i t i c i z e my fel low employees when ta lk ing to my boss 9 .12. c r i t i c i z e my ch i ld ' s t eacher , although I r ea l i ze i t i s unfair to both the ch i ld and the teacher 9 13. as a member of the teaching profess ion run down another teacher and d i scover that the students had heard about it 1 14. have my comments about a person mis in te rp re ted by others , resul t ing i n h a r m to h i m 1 15. be requ i red by my super io rs to make statements about a close f r iend which might h a r m h i m 6 16. speak unflatteringly about an ind iv idua l whi le not knowing of the presence of a close f r iend of the ind iv idua l 7 17. make derogatory r e m a r k s about someone I know w e l l but do not l i k e i n front of some persons who are just s tar t ing to know this person 2 18. ta lk about my mate 2 19. ta lk about someone behind thei r back 2 20. ta lk about a person unchari tably 3 2 1 . tattle on somebody to get them into t rouble 1 22 . by the evidence I a m able to give identify a murde r sus -pect which would lead to h is convic t ion 3 H 2 3 . tat t le- tale on another person 9 H 2 4 . c r i t i c i z e my club leader i n front of others 2 H 2 5 . t e l l bad s tor ies about my father or mother even i f they were true 153 D E F A M A T I O N (Continued) P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 2 W26 . t e l l or l i s t en to a reuta l of the faults of others 2 H 2 7 . t e l l bad s tor ies about my brothers and s i s t e r s 2 H 2 8 . t e l l bad s tor ies about my friends even i f they were true D E F A M A T I O N P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 15, 14, 1, 22 1. unintentionally h a r m someone by what I have said 2 5 , 2 7 , 2 0 , 1 9 , 18,26,28 .2. ta lk about someone behind the i r back 3, 23 3 . tattle on someone to get into trouble 2 , 3 4 . ta lk about someone and find they have overheard my r e m a r k s 7 5. use damaging evidence regarding someone for my own gain 16 6. speak unflat teringly about someone unaware one of the i r fr iends is present 17 7. speak unflat teringly about someone in front of those who are just getting to know them 5 8. give damaging evidence about someone I r e a l l y ha rd ly know 24, 13, 12 9. run down someone in authority before h is subordinates 11 10, c r i t i c i z e my fel lows when speaking to someone in authori ty 26, 15 11. be requ i red by those i n authority to make damaging statements about a f r iend 6 12. have to l i s t en to defamation of a close f r iend without being able to defend h i m 8 13. be seen by a ma l i c ious gossip when I am i n an embar -ras s ing si tuation 4 14. f ind , after defaming someone's charac te r , that they have always said nice things about me 9 15. hear someone speak unflat teringly about someone else 10 16. hear someone speak unflat teringly about someone i n authori ty 1 5 5 -D E S T R U C T I V E N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 10 1. be among a crowd who were responsible for i n c u r r i n g heavy damages on a s m a l l bus inessman 6 2 . p u l l the handle off the car door after being offered a l i f t by a char i table motor i s t 1 3 . b reak a window 2 4 . burn down a house or school 2 5 . set f i r e to a school 3 6. set f i r e to the woods and start a forest f i r e 4 7. help create another war 12 8. destroy beauty of any place or thing 5 9 . b reak off the shoot of a plant 9 10. b reak the w a l l of a publ ic bui ld ing through some rough play wi th a f r iend vV9 WL1. over load a t ruck that w i l l w reck the highway 6 12. m a r k the desk at school wi th my knife 6 13. see someone misuse the furni ture in a f r iend ' s home 7 14. observe a v e r y c lose f r i end , who is unaware of my presence damage a neighbour 's proper ty 6 15. s c r ibb le i n anyone's book 6 'J W 6 , cause damage to another 's proper ty 6 17. smash a car 1 6 18. destroy someone's belongings 6 19. destroy anyone's proper ty 1 20. break someone's toys on purpose 1 2 1 . smash my mother ' s best vase 6 22. damage someone's proper ty 9 23 . smash the street l ights 10 24. be par t of a group who are throwing stones at a ne igh-bour ' s front door 8 25 . damage things that someone t reasures 6 26. throw a rock at a car 6 27. s c ra tch up a car 11 28 . tear up somebody's p ic ture 6 W29 let my cigaret te burn a valuable table of a host that I don't l i ke 1 5 6 D E S T R U C T I V E N E S S Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 3, 20, 21 1. de l ibera te ly break something 4, 5 2 . set f i re to a bui ld ing 6 3. s tart a forest f i re 7 4 . help create another war 9 5. damage a growing plant 2, 16 26 12, 13, , 17, 22, , 27, 18, 15, 29, 19 6. damage or destroy someone's belongings 14 7. see someone damaging proper ty 25 8. damage something that someone 10 , H p 23 9. damage publ ic proper ty 24, 1 10. be part of a group that i s causing damage to someone's proper ty 28 11 tear up someone 1 s p ic ture 8 12. destroy the beauty of any place or thing 15 7s D I S C O U R T E S Y P r i n c i p l e N o . Items . 1 1. f a i l to, change the prepared m e a l which is cont ra ry to my guests re l ig ious bel iefs even though there was t ime to do so 2 2 . in ter rupt someone when they are ta lk ing 6 3 , hear people ta lking a l l the way through a stage p e r f o r m -ance and should have to ask them to be quiet s e v e r a l t imes 3 4 . be encouraged to t a lk by the person I am with at a stage performance to the annoyance of other members of the audience 6 5. co r r ec t someone having diff icul ty express ing themsel f 7 6. omit f r o m a guest l i s t an e lde r ly and t e r r i b l y bor ing f r iend of the f a m i l y , whom I know would expect to be included 4 7 . f a i l to greet my superv i so r for whom I have a great deal of respect 4 8. unconsciously pass someone I know without saying " h e l l o " 5 9. be overloaded wi th p a r c e l s , seated on a bus , and not give my seat to the old lady standing beside me 8 10. be told that I am not holding my knife and fork p rope r ly while eating 8 H 11. have poor table manners at a dinner away f r o m home . I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. ignore my guests ' bel iefs and wishes 2 2 . acc identa l ly in terrupt someone 4 3 . dis turb others wi th ta lking during a stage performance 7 , 8 4 . f a i l to greet someone I know 9 5. not give up my seat on a publ ic conveyance when I should 3, 5 6. co r r ec t someone I have no r ight to co r r ec t 6 7 . omit f r o m a guest l i s t someone who should be included 10, 11, 8. have, poor table manners 1 58 D I S H O N E S T Y P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 W 1. declare m y s e l f bankrupt even though I could pay m y debtors 1 2. owe a sum of money to a f i r m whose records have r e -cently been destroyed by f i r e and should decide not to pay the b i l l 1 W 3. refuse to pay a one hundred do l l a r b i l l that cannot be col lec ted 2 4. re ta in some goods which I la ter d i scovered had been stolen 3 5. make no attempt to t race the owner of valuables that had been left i n a used car which I have purchased 9 6. see a beggar pocket some money which an obviously wealthy person whom I know had dropped 3 7. keep something I have found without looking for the owner 3 8. not re tu rn money I have found, knowing who i t belongs to 3 9. f ind a pen, put i t i n m y pocket, and then hear a woman ask the c l e r k i f a pen had been turned i n , but not give i t back 4 10. d i scover that m y boss had acc identa l ly paid me for a l a rge r number of work hours than I had ac tua l ly done, and not point out the e r r o r 4 11. buy a set of dishes on sale and pay for them, but when the dishes are d e l i v e r e d I find that they are a much more expensive set than the one I had paid for 6 12. rece ive change for a $10. 00 b i l l instead of a $5. 00 b i l l f r o m a c l e rk i n a department store 4 13. d i scover that the mun ic ipa l government has e r r e d i n assess ing m y home and proper ty causing m y taxes to be lower 7 14. send work on to a f i r m wi th the understanding that they give me a " k i c k - b a c k " for the business I send them 8 15. when half way through a job, say I cannot continue un-l e s s I am paid an addi t ional s u m , although I con-t rac ted to do the job at a cer ta in p r ice 5 W 16. spend the money rece ived f r o m accident insurance instead of paying the doctor b i l l wi th i t 4 17. rece ive a f i r s t c lass on my paper but f ind that I was given too many m a r k s and I say nothing about i t - 159 -D I S H O N E S T Y - continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 4 18. pass an exam due to the fact that m y m a r k s on m y paper were total led i n c o r r e c t l y and I do not rec t i fy i t 4 19. rece ive the m e a l check on which an e r r o r has been made i n m y favour i n a restaurant where both the food and the se rv ice were poor 4 20. a l low a mis take made to m y advantage to stand without co r r ec t ion 4 21. be credi ted wi th making a large donation to a char i t -able organizat ion although I ac tual ly didn' t donate anything and I say nothing 3 22. find an a r t i c l e which I la ter gave away only to find that i t belonged to m y best f r iend 1 23. be absoved f r o m a debt because I pretend I am unable to pay although I ac tual ly have the money 1 24. neglect to pay a b i l l that I know myr ^debtor has f o r -gotten about 10 25. f a i l to r e tu rn what I acqui red unjustly"; 2 26. d i scover that the diamond r i n g which I had bought fo r .my f r iend i s wor th more than I paid for i t and i s i n a l l l i ke l ihood a stolen a r t i c l e , but I do nothing about i t - 160 -- continued D I S H O N E S T Y I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 ,2 ,3 , 1. llajke advantage of c i rcumstances that a l low me to 23, 24 get away wi th not paying a debt 4,26 2. re ta in goods I l a te r dind to be stolen 22, 5 ,7 , 3. make no attempt to t race the owner of an a r t i c l e 8,9 I have found 13, 10, 11 4. not point out an e r r o r that has been made i n m y 17,18,19 favour 20, 21 16 W 5. spend money given to me for one purpose for m y own pleasure 12 6. rece ive over change and not point out the mis take 14 7. rece ive a " k i c k - b a c k " for work sent on to others 15 8. after taking on a job at a set p r i c e , ask for more money before complet ing i t 6 9. see that someone else has not re turned los t goods 25 10. f a i l to re tu rn what I acqui red unjustly - 161 - i D I S L O Y A L T Y P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 1 1. know my spouse is engaged i n unethical m a r i t a l p rac t i ces 2 2 . d i scover that my f i r s t m a r i t a l par tner was s t i l l a l ive after I had r e m a r r i e d 3 3 . have to c ross a picket l ine i n a s t r ike to support my fami ly 4 4 . l e a r n that one of my parents had joined a nudist group against the other 's wishes 5 5 . have to support a v i ew cont ra ry to that of my parents because, of the unreasonableness of i t 6 6. express an opinion i n publ ic that i s cont ra ry to the po l i cy of the company for which I work 12 7. have my best f r iend 's f iance, whom I have sec re t ly ad -m i r e d , t e l l me they are r e a l l y in love wi th me 7 8. i n fo rm on a f r iend who has done wrong 8 9 . be named as successor to my best f r iend after he has been f i r ed f r o m a super ior pos i t ion 9 10. go out wi th someone else when I am mad at my best f r iend 12 11. accept a date wi th my best f r iend ' s stead when I know my fr iend is v e r y fond of this person 12 1.2. be reminded that the pe r son to whom I had been making advances at a party i s engaged to a f r iend of mine 17 13. l e a r n that a m a r r i e d c o - w o r k e r whom I l i ke was being attentive to someone other than thei r ma r r i age par tner 10 14. be seen walking down the street wi th an at t ract ive c o m -panion of the opposite sex who is not my steady 10 15. be observed shar ing my lunch wi th a member of the oppo-site sex whi le my steady is at home 11 16. find that after becoming engaged my attention wanders continually to some person other than my fiance 1 17. d i scover that my steady was court ing another on the a s s u -mption that I did not kn ow 12 18. date someone's spouse when the person i s not separated f r o m thei r mar r i age par tner 16 19. as a m a r r i e d pe r son , be given a l i f t home f r o m an evening meeting of employees by a member of the opposite sex and should be invi ted i n to an empty apartment forcoffee 13 20. be skowh favours by one who is a l ready m a r r i e d .14 21 . d i scover that my beloved mar r i age par tner had gone off wi th someone else 16 22. be suspected of l i v ing with more than one mar r i age par tner 15 23 . accept the opportunity to achieve sexual sat isfact ion e l se -where i f my spouse were inval ided so that sex was out of the question 12 24, in the absence of my fiance go out r egu la r ly wi th some one other person of the opposite sex 5 25 . not share my parents ' p o l i t i c a l bel iefs and thus upset them 18 H26. say I didn't l i ke our school to a strange boy or g i r l 1 6 2 D I S L O Y A L T Y (Continued) P r i n c i p l e N o . I t e m s 20 H 2 7 . t e l l a person f r o m out of town about bad conditions i n my own town even i f i t was true 5 28. have to obtain court approva l to m a r r y someone of whom my parents disapprove .18 29. be brought before the president and forced to give a truthful account of where the b lame l i e s for an e r r o r which only I know was made by my i m m e -diate super ior (who has t ra ined me and provided me wi th a secure position) 16 30 . be caught by my c l e rgyman ta lking to a c l e rgyman of another denomination 19 3 1 . go to a church of another faith 5 32 . not share my parents ' r e l ig ious bel iefs and this upsets them 19 W 3 3 . take part i n the church s e rv i ce of some other faith 18 34. be threatened by the superintendent of the company wi th a postponed promot ion i f I do not divulge the resu l t s of my union meeting and. so I give h i m the informat ion 21 35 . leave my f ami ly knowing that I sha l l not see them aga in , for the sake of achieving a higher standard of l i v i n g elsewhere 20 W 36. organize a group to work toward the violent over throw of ch r i s t i an democracy 27 37 . be d i s l o y a l to my country 3 38 . refuse to s t r ike when my fe l low w o r k e r s a re on s t r ike 7 H 39. t e l l the teacher the t ruth when I was asked about a f r iend who had done something wrong - 163 -D I S L O Y A L T Y P r i n c i p l e s f ind that someone to whom I am attached has been unfaithful find that m y f i r s t m a r i t a l partner i s s t i l l a l ive after I have r e m a r r i e d act con t ra ry to union agreements l e a r n one of m y parents had done soemthing against one of the other 's wishes have to support a view cont rary to that of m y f a m i l y express an opinion i n public cont rary to the po l i cy of the organiza t ion for which I work i n f o r m on a f r iend who has done wrong succeed my f r iend i n a posi t ion f r o m which he was f i r e d pass up my best f r iend when I a m mad at them be seen wi th someone of the opposite sex when I a m attached to someone else have my attention wander to someone of the opposite sex other than the one I am attached to date or f l i r t wi th someone who i s a l ready attached to someone else be shown favours by someone who i s m a r r i e d find that I have been deser ted by someone I was attached to not r e m a i n faithful to the person to whom I am attached when they are incapaci tated 164 -- continued: I tem N o . DIS L O Y A L T Y P r i n c i p l e s 30, 22, 19 16. let myse l f become involved i n a si tuation whereby others might question m y faithfulness - 165 -D I S O B E D I E N C E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. misbehave when I a m expected to be nice 9 2. disobey m y parents and go out when they had told me not to 3 3. disobey m y parents 4 4. do anything of which I know m y parents disapprove 4 5. d i s r e g a r d m y parents ' wishes about something 5 6. break an important rule at school or work 6 7. not do something I was told to do by an older person 9 8. be asked by m y parents why I was so late getting home las t night 7 9. as an athlete break t ra in ing 8 10. go somewhere I was told not to 6 11. f a i l to t e l l my parents where I am going 4 12. ' do something about which m y parents know nothing 8 H 13. play cards 9 14. be seen by m y doctor disobeying his o rders 9 15. be put on a diet by m y doctor and then meet h i m the next day when I was obviously overeat ing 3 16. disobey a wise order given to me by a person v e r y much m y senior i n years and experience 8 H 17. left the house at night without m y father 's or mother ' s p e r m i s s i o n 8 18. do something I have been forbidden to do 8 19. get wet when I am not supposed to 2 20. never do what I am told 4 H 21. go out dating late at night wi th a group of older boys and g i r l s 4 H 22. gamble or bet for money 4 H 23. smoke cigarettes or a pipe 5 H 24. eat candy or chew gum i n c lass 5 H 25. disobey l i b r a r y ru les 8 H 26. not go to bed before twelve on a week night - 166 -D I S O B E D I E N C E m N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. misbehave when I am expected to be nice 20 2. never do what I am told 3,16 3. disobey those i n authori ty 23 ,4 , 12 4. do anything of which I know m y parents disapprove 21, 22 6 ,24 ,25 5. break an important rule at school or work 7,11 6. riot do something I was told to do by someone i n authori ty 9 7, break a health reg imen that has been set for me 2, 10, 13 8. do something I was told not to by those i n authori ty 19,18, 17 26, 27 8, 14, 15 9. be caught disobeying o rde r s - 167 -D I S R E S P E C T P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 2 1. feel ashamed of m y parents without good reason 1 2. answer back to m y boss or parents 1 3. talk back to another person 3 4. 4. swear at an older person 3 5. speak sharply to an older person 4 6. chain smoke i n front of m y parents who disapprove of smoking 1 7. present a con t ra ry point of view i n the presence of the whom I know to possess super ior knowledge 4 8. as a member of the a r m e d fo rces , f a i l to salute m y super ior officer 4 9. on leav ing a soc i a l gathering have drawn to m y atten-t ion that cer ta in of my actions and talk had been d is respect fu l to the older persons present 4 10. be i n a c lass that talks and i s genera l ly d is respec t fu l to the l ec tu re r 1 11. speak out of l ine 5 12. see someone si t t ing down while our nat ional anthem is being played 4 H 13. " sass" the teacher 5 H 14. refuse to salute a flag 6 W 15. scandal ize those subject to me 4 W 16. compla in about m y parents or others i n authori ty 1 H 17. talk back to m y father or mother 4 W 18. show d is respec t to m y parents or others i n authori ty 4 H 19. . make fun of the teacher behind her back 4 20. d i s respec t m y super io rs 4 21. show d i s respec t for my parents - 168 -D I S R E S P E C T P r i n c i p l e s speak out of l ine feel ashamed of m y parents without good reason speak sharply or swear at an older person act i n a manner d is respect fu l to older persons or those i n authori ty act i n a manner d is respect fu l to the f lag or nation show d is respec t to those subject to me - 16 9 -D O M I N A T I O N P r i n c i p l e N o . I tem 1 1. t r y to make m y ch i ld fol low exact ly my own ideas and r i d i cu l e any opinions he may have of h is own 6 2. order a l i t t l e ch i ld around 2 3. des i re to dominate someone 3 4. nag 3 5. nag ch i ld ren 6 6. boss anyone 4 7. bu l ly someone 5 8. be overbear ing 6 H 9. boss m y fr iends around 3 10. nag m y husband after he has had a ha rd day at work 1 H 11. persuade another boy or g i r l to do me a favour when they didn' t r e a l l y want to I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e 1 ,11 1. t r y to dominate the thoughts and feelings of others 3 2. des i re to dominate someone 4, 5, 10 3. nag someone 7 4. bu l ly someone 8 5. be overbear ing 2, 9 6. boss someone around - 170 * E M B A R R A S S M E N T P r i n c i p l e Item  N o . be in t roduced at a conservat ive club as an act ive member of the communis t par ty f rom which I res igned a year ago be given a wrapped gift by a f r iend which la te r p roved to be a bottle of whiskey serve wine at a m e a l only to l e a r n that m y guests are teetotal lers as the soc ia l convenor of my c lub, be asked to make a purchase of one case of whiskey f rom the l i quor store be seen walking down the street wi th my steady, holding hands be given a wr i t e -up i n the newspaper that great ly exag-gerates my achievements be told by my banker that there was not enough money i n my account to cover the l a s t cheque I wrote have a ve ry good f r iend who takes me to a church group and I am encouraged to speak on a topic on which I am i n complete disagreement wi th the group have a r i v a l do a kindness for me have a f r iend who se l l s me a l a rge amount of m a t e r i a l i n a department store and deducts ten do l l a r s f rom the cost without my knowing i t at the t ime and when I r e a l i z e the mis take and phone h i m about i t he t e l l s me that he d id i t on purpose be elected to a coveted pos i t ion i n my c lub , only to d i scover la te r that the votes have been i n c o r r e c t l y counted and that m y opponent has ac tual ly won have something s i m i l a r to other persons so that they think I have copied them be naked i n publ ic be seen i n publ ic wi th a g i r l who wears shorts that are too short and too tight 24 15. be k i s s e d i n publ ic by my date 21 16. have m y s k i r t or t rouse r s f a l l down on a publ ic street 23 17. give an e lementary explanation of a subject to semeone I have just met only to d i scover la ter that he i s an expert i n that f i e ld 22 18. meet and have to be f r iendly to an o ld g i r l (boy) f r i end of my boy (g i r l ) f r i end 20 19. be s tared at by a pe r son of the opposite sex for no r eason apparent to me 25 20. have a wonderful m e a l i n a fine res taurant but f ind that I do not have enough money to leave a reasonable t ip 2 21 . be asked to do something foo l i sh i n front of a la rge group 10 1. q 11 2. 12 3 . 1 4 . 24 5. 26 6. 7 7. 2 8. 13 9. 14 10. 9 11. 15 12. 17 13. 16 14. 171 -E M B A R R A S S M E N T (contd. ) P r i n c i p l e Item N o . 3 22. 1 23. 19- 24. 27 25. 17 H 2 6 . 18 27. 3 28. 4 29. 4 30 . 5 3 1 . 6 32. 24 33 . 8 34. 1 35 . be given a sweepstake t icket and i t was la ter publicly-announced that I had won be inv i ted to become a member of the communis t par ty due to necess i ty , be caught going to the bathroom i n an outside a rea not used for such purposes be d r iv ing an o ld car and have i t s t a l l i n a m a i n thoroughfare undress i n front of other people, for instance before a gym c l a s s , or when taking a shower see m y parents together i n the nude win a great deal of money i n a name-drawing contest knowing that I do not approve of contests of this sor t be asked to r ecommend a person I do not know w e l l for an impor tant pos i t ion be asked to sponsor a br ief i acquaintance for c i t i zenship have a re la t ive whose incons idera te , ca re less behaviour has resu l ted i n h is being d i s m i s s e d f rom a pos i t ion to which I had recommended h i m upon a r r i v a l at my f r iend ' s place d i scover that the town's gambling cza r was wai t ing to see me be found by pol ice petting i n a parked car go to a par ty of people who are quite different f rom me be asked to be guest of honour at a c o m m u n i s t - i n s p i r e d organiza t ional meeting - 172 4 E M B A R R A S S M E N T Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 4 , 23 , 35 1. be asked to do something I do not w i s h to do 28, 8 2 . be asked i n front of others to do something I do not w i s h to do 22, 28 3 . f ind I have won money i n a game of chance of which I do not approve 29, 30 4. be asked to r ecommend a person I do not know w e l l 31 5. have someone I have recommended turn out badly 32 6. f ind that an unsavory character i s wai t ing to see me 7 7. f ind that a cheque I had wr i t t en was not covered by my bank account 34 8. go to a gathering of persons I feel to be quite different f rom me 11 9. be e r roneous ly c red i ted wi th some success 1 10. be given an erroneous in t roduct ion 2 11. be offered something (a lcohol , c igare t tes , e t c . ) i n which I do not indulge 3 12. offer something to a guest which I f ind they hea r t i l y disapprove 9 13. have a r i v a l do a kindness for me 10 14. think someone's dishonest act i n my favour has been a mi s t ake , but f ind , on asking them, that i t was done on purpose 12 15. have something s i m i l a r to another person ' s so that they think I copied them 14 16. be seen wi th someone who i s immodes t ly clothed 13, 26 17. be seen when I am i n the nude - 173 -E M B A R R A S S M E N T (contd. ) Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 27 18. see someone i n the nude 24 19. be caught going to the ba throom, due to necess i ty , i n an outside a rea not used for that purpose 19 2 0. be s tared at by someone of the opposite sex 16 21 . have a necessa ry par t of my clothing f a l l off i n publ i c 18 22. acc identa l ly meet and have to be nice to a f o rmer r i v a l 17 23. ve ry s imply expla in something to someone and la ter f ind they knew more about i t than I d id 5, 15, 33 24. be seen showing affection for someone of the opposite sex 20 25. due to t emporary c i rcumstances be unable to show gratitude for something that was done for me 6 26. f ind out exaggerated c l a i m s have been made about me without m y being able to contradict them 25 27. cause a t raff ic congestion because of mechan ica l fa i lure of the vehic le I am d r iv ing P r i n c i p l e N o . 1 1. 1 2. 3 3. 4 4. 3 5. 2 6. 1 7. 5 8. 6 9. I tem N o . 1,2,7 1, 6 2. 3,5 3. 4 4. 8 5. 9 6. - 174 -E N V Y Items bel i t t le m y boss whenever I can i n order to make m y s e l f seem more important be jealous and t r y to bel i t t le a f r iend think e v i l about someone for no r e a l l y just reason find that someone re jo ices over the misfor tunes of the i r fr iends d i s l i k e someone because of m y jealousy for them f a i l to t e l l the complete t ruth and i n so doing r u i n the reputation of a person whom I envy c r i t i c i z e another person 's work out of jea lousy although I have never invest igated his work be jealous and envious of others wonder about something that doesn't belong to me P r i n c i p l e s bel i t t le someone I envy to make m y s e l f seem more important h a r m someone I envy d i s l i ke someone for no reason other than my jealousy of them find that someone re jo ices over the misfor tunes of the i r fr iends be jealous and envious of others envy another 's possess ions - 175 -E R R O R P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 13 1. c r i t i c i z e my ch i ld ren for commit t ing e r r o r s which I l a te r d i scove red they could not avoid 13 2. have been to ld falsehoods which lead me to unjustly accuse another 1 3. cause the company for wh ich I work to suffer a set-back because of m y e r r o r 8 4. be told by a f r iend that there was no gift i n the pa rce l I had sent 1 5. s t r ike the person I took for a p rowler only to f ind that i t was m y closes t f r iend br ing ing me a gift 2 6. t e l l the canvasser for a chari table organizat ion that m y hustand was contributing at the office and la te r "found that he had not any intention of doing so 2 7. d i scover that I had unwitt ingly overcharged a customer i n a store without his being aware of i t 12 8. unwitt ingly c a r r y away another person 's l unch i n place of my own and find no way of getting i n touch wi th them I 9« by mis take give someone the wrong dose of medic ine which cuases h i m great d i scomfor t 4 10. ignore a "hot t ip" on-the stock marke t that was offered me but which I refused, and la ter f ind the stock doubled 3 11. have a f r iend lose money on an investment made on m y advice v 3 12. have a f r iend who takes m y advice and la te r regre ts i t v e r y much 5 13. f ind that I had attended a f o r m a l affair wrongly d res sed 10 14. make a mis take i n front of an audience 10 15. make a mis take i n a show 10 16. get off at the wrong bus stop and have to get back on 8 17. make a foo l i sh mis take II 18. make too many mis takes at work or school 10 19. atoa concer t , applaud between movements 7 20. use a w o r d i n c o r r e c t l y 6 21. make a faux-pas 3 22. unwitt ingly m i s i n f o r m a t r a v e l l e r regard ing a cer ta in route - 176 -E R R O R continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 3 ,5 ,9 1 • cause h a r m to someone by m y e r r o r 6, 7 2. make an e r r o r that causes me to appear to have l i e d or be dishonest 11, 12, 23 3. make an e r r o r i n giving advice that ha rms someone 10 4. make an e r r o r i n accepting advice that la te r ha rms me 13 5. make an e r r o r i n m y dress 22 6. make a fuax-pas 21 7. make an e r r o r i n m y speech 4, 17 8. make a foo l i sh mis take 18 9. make an e r r o r i n a game 14, 15, 10. make a mis take i n front of others 16,20 1 19 11. make too many mis takes at school or work 8 12. p ick up someone e l se ' s belongings having mis taken i t for m y own 1,2 13. punish . or c r i t i c i z e someone unjustly because of a l ack of co r r ec t in format ion - 177 -F A I L U R E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. not have m y work up to standards that have been set 1 2. get a bad repor t card 1 3. get poor average m a r k s 1 4. f a i l i n school 3 5. lose a job 1 6. f a i l an exam 1 7. f a i l i n a subject because of poor attendance 2 8. f a i l to change a bad habit 4 9. through m y own personal weaknesses f ind that I had to d ivorce m y m a r r i a g e partner 7 10. lose a fight 1 11. s t r ike out i n a ba l l game 6 12. lose some contest of s k i l l before people who had bel ieved i n m y ab i l i ty 8 13. not be able to st imulate a ch i ld to be able to achieve something 1 14. not have m y work turn out as i t should 5 15. d i scover I am unable to r epa i r a broken f re indship 9 16. take an important posi t ion feel ing that I could handle i t , and la ter f ind out that I cannot 8 17. be unable to es tab l i sh any re l ig ious faith i n m y ch i ld ren ' s philosophy 3 18. be f i r e d f r o m m y job for ineff ic iency 2 H 19. decide to get r i d of a bad habit , but didn' t do so 9 H 20. make up m y m i n d to be nice to someone I didn' t l i ke and then let that person get m y goat anyhow 2 H 21. not be able to stop eating candy when I t r i e d 3 22. be asked to leave a house where I was babysi t t ing due to my misconduct - 178 -- continued: F A I L U R E I t e m N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 , 2 ,3 ,4 , 1. not have my work up to standards that have been 6 , 7 , 1 1 , 1 4 set 8, 19, 21 2. f a i l to change a bad habit 5 ,18 ,22 3. be f i r ed f rom m y job 9 4. f a i l i n my mar r i age re la t ionsh ip 15 5. be unable to r epa i r a b roken f r iendship 12 6. lose some contest of s k i l l before people who had be l ieved i n my abi l i ty 10 7. lose a fight 13, 17 8. not be able to influence a person i n the r ight d i r ec t i on 16,20 9. be unable to cope with something I have undertaken 179 -F A V O U R I T I S M P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1. i n any way show a preference for ei ther of my parents 2 . give one person a l l the spec ia l jobs 3 . be accused of having p ra i sed another more than he deserves 4 . sl ight one guest in my home by paying too much attention to another 5. show great f avour i t i sm to a ch i l d although I know the other ch i ld ren wi th h i m w i l l feel left out 6. as a teacher pass a pup i l who was not ready to pass into the next grade because of his parents ' pos i t ion in the community 7. act as a referee at a game although I a m a close fr iend of a p layer on one of the teams and know I a m biased in his favour 8. through a f r iend , be able to get my name placed high on a wait ing l i s t , out of tu rn and ahead of many others 9 . d i scover that I had passed a recent exam only because the person who marked i t was a f r iend who "got-me through" 10. be given employment over someone who was better qual i f ied and in greater need m e r e l y because I knew the employer 11. be accepted for an important pos i t ion in my f i r m because of " p u l l " although I know that a more b r i l l i a n t and better qual i f ied man in the f i r m was entit led to it more than I 12. be asked by my best f r iend to get h i m employment , for which he was not at a l l sui ted, i n my father 's f i r m 13. find that a faithful employee has. been f i r e d to make room for me when I had asked a f r iend for a job W 14. p ra i se another immodera te ly I t e m N o . 1 1. 2 2 . 7 3 . 4, 5 4 . 8 5. 6 6. 14 W 7. 3 8. 13, 9, 10, 11 9. - 180 -F A V O U R I T I S M P r i n c i p l e s show a preference for any member of my fami ly give one person a l l the spec ia l jobs act as a judge i n a contest when I know I am b iased in favour of one side show favour i t i sm to someone in the presence of others use spec ia l influence to get something I want give preference to someone because of the i r high soc i a l pos i t ion give someone more p ra i se than they m e r i t be accused of favouring someone be given preference over others - 181 -F O R G E T F U L N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1. forget to do something 1 2. forget to do something I had been told to do 2 3. forget to re tu rn something I have bor rowed 3 4. forget a close r e l a t i ve ' s bir thday 3 5. not send a bi r thday c a r d to a dear old f r iend because I am too busy and then hear that the f r iend has died 10 6. promise to do something for a f r iend, but forget and omit t e l l ing h i m of m y overs ight 4 7. forget to give a ve rba l message to someone 10 8. forget to do an eatrand I had p romised to do 5 9. forget to m a i l a le t ter for someone who has asked me to do so 6 10. forget an appointment with the dentist 7 11. leave a restaurant and accident ly forget to pay the b i l l 10 12. promise a person I w i l l wr i te , phone or v i s i t them and forget a l l about i t unt i l I meet them accident ly on the street 6 13. arrange for fr iends to come and stay and then through forge tfulne ss be out at the time they a r r i v e 9 14. meet someone whom I know I've been introduced to but I cannot think where I met them or what their name is 3 15. forget m y parents on their bir thday or on Fa the r ' s Day or M o the r ' s Day 3 16. forget to give a f r iend a gift for C h r i s t m a s when they have given me one 8 17. a r r i v e at a party having forgottent the gift I had planned to br ing 8 18. f ind I have forgotten m y money when taking out a new fr iend 7 19. bor row money f rom a person and comple te ly forget about i t 7 20. rece ive an overdue notice for a b i l l which I had neglected to pay 6 21. arrange to meet a c lose f r iend at 5: 00 p. m . and forget a l l about i t unt i l next day - 182 F O R G E T F U L N E S S I t e m No. P r i n c i p l e s 2 1. forget to do something I have been told to do 3 2. forget to re tu rn something I have bor rowed 4, 5, 15, 16 3. over look someone at specia l t imes or spec ia l occas ions when one is expected to tend to such mat ters 7 4. forget to pass on a message to someone 9 5. forget to m a i l a le t ter 21 ,10 ,13 6. forget an appointment 11,19,20 7. forget to pay a debt 17, 18 8. forget to take something important wi th me when I go out 14 9. forget someone's name 6, 8, 12 10. forget to do something I had said I would do 183 H A R S H N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items I 1. use c o r p o r a l punishment on a ch i ld 1 2 . spank a baby 1 3 . strap a pupi l 2 4 . be ha r sh to a ch i ld 2 5 . be too s t r i c t wi th the ch i ld ren 5 6. be sa rcas t i c to a ch i ld i n front of other people because I was exasperated 3 7. punish a ch i l d severe ly for a s m a l l point of order 4 8. bawl out my mate 4 9. bawl out someone 4 10. scold someone 3 11. unjustly punish my ch i ld when I lose my temper 6 12. mal t rea t s m a l l ch i ld ren 2 13. keep saying "no" or 1 'don't" to my ch i ld 3 14. r ep r imand my ch i ld ren too ha r sh ly 3 15. punish someone more severe ly than he needed I t e m N o . P r i n c i p l e s 2, 1, 3 1. use c o r p o r a l punishment on a ch i ld or baby 4, 13, 5 2. be too s t r i c t wi th someone 7, 11, 14 3 . punish someone too severe ly 8, 9, 10 4 . bawl out someone 6, 5 . be sa rcas t i c to a ch i l d 12, 6. mal t rea t s m a l l ch i ld ren - 184 -H A T I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. hate my ch i ld ren when they upset me 2 2. hate someone for nothing 3 3 . say I hate someone 4 4. hate someone who has done me wrong Item No . P r i n c i p l e s 1. 1. hate someone dear to me when they upset me 2 2. hate someone for no reason 3 3. say I hate someone 4 4. hate someone because they have done h a r m to me - 185 -H Y P O C R I S Y Items vote for a f r i end although he i s a candidate for a group which I oppose r e a l i z e that I had been to lera t ing some companion m a i n l y for the m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l gains that I de r ived parrot a p rofessor ' s opinions on a test when there i s evidence d i r e c t l y con t ra ry to his opinions say unkind things about my best f r iend behind his back and then when meet ing h i m be v e r y nice to h i m attend church without s incere urge and in teres t pe r fo rm a r e l ig ious r i t u a l to honour m y parents even though i t contradicts m y own be l i e f s v i s i t a nudist camp out of cu r io s i t y and have m y host convinced of the s ince r i t y of m y ideals swi tch p o l i t i c a l aff i l iat ions i n order to get a ce r ta in job accept a posi t ion of r e spons ib i l i t y i n a church although I do not agree wi th a l l the tenets of the pa r t i cu l a r faith jo in an organiza t ion for soc ia l acceptance to which I had to pledge cer ta in r e l ig ious bel iefs that I do not ac tual ly bel ieve jo in a f ra te rna l organiza t ion because m e m b e r s h i p i n i t w i l l l ead to a business p romot ion , although I do not bel ieve i n such organizat ions be asked by a f r i end for advice and I t e l l her what I know she wants to hear rather than the t ruth d i scuss i n s i n c e r e l y a matter of personal impor tance to m y f r iend wi th h i m show admi ra t ion towards an ind iv idua l not because I r e a l l y do admi re h i m but because of what i t may get me put on an act of being in teres ted i n a member of the opposite s i x when I feel no a t t rac t ion to the person have to outwardly approve of another 's sexual d e l i n -quencies because of c i rcumstances beyone their cont ro l let a person take me on expensive dates when I know I could never be s e r i ous ly in teres ted i n the person for a se l f i sh end lead a woman to bel ieve mis t aken ly that I intend to m a r r y her - 186 -- continued: I tem N o . 2, 17 4 5,6 7 8 ,9 ,10 ,11 12, 13 14,15, 18 1,3,16 H Y P O C R I S Y P r i n c i p l e s 1. tolerate someone m e r e l y for personal gain 2. be nice to someone when wi th h i m but ta lk about them behind their backs 3. attend re l ig ious se rv ices without s incere in teres t 4. pretend in teres t i n a group when I am r e a l l y just sat isfying m y cu r io s i t y 5. jo in an organiza t ion for personal gain , although I pretend r e a l in teres t 6. d i scuss wi th someone i n s i n c e r e l y a mat ter of persona l importance to them 7. show admi ra t ion for someone m e r e l y for what i t w i l l get me 8. outwardly show approval of something I r e a l l y d i s -approve 187 I G N O R A N C E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. h a r m an inva l id by not g iving her proper care due to my ignorance 2 2. not know what utensi ls to use whi le eating out at a f o r m a l gathering Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. h a r m someone through not knowing how to give them proper care 2 2. not knowing the proper customs to fol low on a f o r m a l occas ion - 188 -I L L E G A L , B E H A V I O U R P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. knowingly include inaccurate statements i n m y income tax re tu rn 1 W 2. find a perfect way to avoid paying income tax on ninety-thousand do l l a r s 2 3. l e a r n that I had i n d i r e c t l y a s s i s t ed i n the promot ion of a prosti tute 2 4. become a superv isor over a group of prosti tutes 3 5. conceal a package when re turning f r o m the U . S . A . 4 6. have ass i s t ed a f r iend to c a r r y some parce l s through the Canadian customs office wh ich I la ter d i s -covered to contain i l l e g a l l iquor 3 7. pass through the Canadian customs wi th cigaret tes which are not d i scove red 6 8. be a passenger i n a car that knocked down an old man and the d r i v e r refused to stop 5 9- be the d r i v e r i n a hit and run accident 5 10. d r ive away after s t r i k ing a person wi th a car 13 11. jay walk i n front of a pol ice car 8 12. exceed the speed l i m i t on the highway 14 13. be stopped by a po l iceman for fa i l ing to stop at a stop sign 26 15. park i n a space m a r k e d "patrons only" when I a m not a patron 13 16. be a passenger i n a car that had parked i n an i l l e g a l zone 14 17. be i n a car whose d r i v e r was being stopped for speeding 12 18. continue to d r ive a c a r , although forbidden to do so by l a w , because I feel I am capable of d r i v i n g 8 19. be asked to race m y car wi th another car on a public highway 13 20. park i n a no-park ing zone 13 21. r ide m y bike on the s idewalk 13 22. go through a r ed l ight 14 23.. asa teacher be seen by a school board inspec to r , h i t ch -h ik ing 13 24. p ick up a h i t ch -h ike r 15 25. catch a f i sh under regulat ion s ize 15 26. catch a number of f i sh exceeding the game l i m i t 15 27. shoot a doe out of season 7 28. be f i sh ing i n a place only by unlawful t r e spass ing - 189 -I L L E G A L B E H A V I O U R - continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 5 29. d r ive while under the influence of drug or a lcohol 18 30. buy a book that was banned because of m o r a l s 21 31. be a wealthy person whose country i s at war and deal i n the black marke t whi le my f r i ends , who refuse to do th i s , l i ve i n poverty 16 32. f a i l to r e m a i n at the scene of an accident 17 33. s e l l goods wh ich i t i s against the law to s e l l , for my own profi t 20 34. be a partner to a plan of extor t ion 19 35. be asked by m y s i s t e r to help wi th her abor t ion 22 36. break into a j ewe l l e ry store 23 37. forge a le t ter i n another person 's name 17 38. be asked by a m i n o r to supply a bottle of m y father 's l iquor on the p romise he w i l l replace i t 18 39. be asked as the soc i a l convenor of m y club to telephone a taxi late at night for a bottle of bootleg whiskey 17 40. be summoned for bootlegging 24 41 . enter a l i c enced lunge although I am under age 9 42. be offered an a lcoho l i c d r ink i n a place i n which I knew i t was i l l e g a l to d r ink 24 43. go to a pub while under the l ega l age of 21 25 44. unexpectedly find m y s e l f i n the company of ind iv idua ls who are about to admin i s te r to themselves an i l l e g a l drug 25 45. be persuaded to smoke a drugged cigarette 26 H 46. d r ive alone i n a car without a l i cence 18 H 47. buy a chance on a raffle 10 W 48. dispose of stolen proper ty i n la rge amounts for another 1 49. r ece ive a rebate on m y income tax for a c l a i m which I knew to be wrong 10 50. be given a share i n the proceeds stolen f r o m a church poor box 13 H 51. c ross the street when the l ight was on 11 52. kidnap a baby 190 -I L L E G A L B E H A V I O U R (contd. ) Item No. P r i n c i p l e s 1, 2, 49 1. make a false income tax r e tu rn 3 , 4 2. a id i n the promot ion of prost i tu t ion 5 , 7 3. smuggle goods ac ross the border 6 4. help someone c a r r y something over the border which I la ter find to be i l l e g a l 29 5. dr ive while under the influence of a drug or a lcohol 8 , 9 , 1 0 6. be a d r i v e r or passenger i n a car invo lved i n a hi t and run accident 28 7. t respass on private property 12, 19 8. exceed the speed l i m i t 42 9. do an act i n a place where such acts are forbidden 48, 50 10. dispose of or share i n stolen proper ty 52 11. kidnap a c h i l d 18 12. continue to do something I have been spec i f i ca l ly prohibi ted f rom doing by law 11, 15, 16,20 13. commi t a minor traffic inf rac t ion such as j ay-21 ,22 ,24 ,51 wa lk ing , o v e r - p a r k i n g , e t c . , . 13, 17, 23 14. be caught commit t ing a m i n o r traff ic in f rac t ion such as jaywalk ing , o v e r - p a r k i n g , e tc . . , . 25, 26, 27 15. break a game law 32 16. fa i l to r e m a i n at the scene of an accident 33, 3 8, 40 17. se l l something that i t i s i l l e g a l to s e l l 30, 39, 47 18. buy something that i t i s i l l e g a l to buy - 191 -I L L E G A L B E H A V I O U R continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 30 ,39 ,47 18. buy something i t i s i l l e g a l to buy 35 19. a id i n an abort ion 34 20. be a partner i n a plan of extor t ion 31 21. deal i n the black marke t 32,36 22. break into a store 37 23. forge something for m y own gain 41,43 24. do things that i t i s i l l e g a l for me to do because of m y age 44.45 25. become involved i n the admin i s t r a t ion of i l l e g a l drugs 14.46 26. do something without a l i cence i n a si tuat ion i n which a l i cense i s r equ i red by law - 192 -I M P A T I E N C E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 2 1. not have patience wi th a re ta rded ch i ld 1 2. l ack patience wi th the ch i ld ren due to m y own d ispos i t ion 1 3. become exasperated wi th the ch i ld ren 4 4. be "shor t" wi th someone when he or she ta lks wi th me 3 5. show a l ack of patience before a group 2 6. lose patience wi th someone who has good cause to be cranky 2 7. become impatient wi th someone who i s hard of hear ing 2 H 8. be impatient with another boy or g i r l who asked me to explain an easy l e s son 5 9. always become impatient when having to wait for anything Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 2, 3 1. be impatient with ch i ld ren 1 ( (>., 7, 8 2. be impatient with someone about something they cannot help 5 3. show impatience i n front of a group 4 4. be "shor t" wi th someone when they speak to me 9 5. be unduly impatient when caused to wait for something - 193 -I M P I E T Y P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 13 1. tu rn to God only i n t ime of need and doubt and f o r -get at other t imes 5 H 2. not pray before going to bed 2 3. have to part icipate i n war con t ra ry to m y re l ig ious bel iefs 2 4. d i scover that the movie I had attended was d isapproved by m y r e l i g i o n 8 5. be i n a c lass where the professor r i d i c u l e s C h r i s t 3 H 6. make a noise while i n church se rv ice 2 W 7. eat meat on F r i d a y or other meat less days 12 8. doubt that there i s a God and voice this convict ion 9 •"9. see the d is respect fu l treatment of a human body which contravenes the dictates of m y r e l i g i o n 12 W 10. bel ieve that God i s not aware of present w o r l d conditions 12 w 11. hold that science has weakened the proof of God 's existence 6 w 12. deny what I bel ieve about God i n order to m a r r y the person I love 12 w 13. hold that l i fe makes sense without God 8 14. have to l i s t en to m y teacher denounce God and H i s good works 8 15. be told that God doesn't exis t 1 16. re ject the L o r d Jesus C h r i s t as m y own personal Saviour 7 17. f a i l to have reverence for things that a re holy 8 18. hear m y fr iends using God's name i n a fit of anger 4 19. be unable to attend church se rv ices r e g u l a r l y 4 20. l ag i n church attendance 4 21. sk ip church and attend a p icn ic 4 22. m i s s M a s s on Sunday 4 23. be unable to go to church for a considerable length of t ime and neglect to go when an opportuni ty comes 3 24. sneeze loudly i n church dur ing a m i n i s t e r ' s p rayer 3 25. act up i n church 5 26. not say m y p rayer s 6 27. have to give up m y bel ief i n God i n order to save m y l i fe 10 H 28. make fun of r e l i g i o n 4 H 29. t r y to get out of going to church 10 H 30. make fun of something the m i n i s t e r or p r i es t sa id i n church 3 H 31. think about w o r l d l y things whi le i n church - 194 -I M P I E T Y - continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 12 H 32. say that I didn' t bel ieve i n God 4 H 33. not attend Sunday School 10 H 34. make fun of something wr i t t en i n the B i b l e 3 H 35. not pay attention to what the m i n i s t e r of p r i es t sa id i n church 2 W 36. blaspheme ( revi le God and his Saints) 1 W 37. not avoid thoughts, words or deeds that would separate me f r o m God 1 W 38. f a i l to r e m a i n zealous i n promoting the g lo ry of God 1 W 39. unwi l l ing ly accept any suffering that God may have sent 1 W 40. f a i l to thank God for graces and benefits granted 2 W 41. l i s t e n to, r ead , or speak anything cont ra ry to m y fai th 7 w 42. ask God to witness a t r i v i a l mat ter or a falsehood 7 . w 43. commi t a sacr i l ege 7 w 44. f a i l to show proper respect at the ment ion of God 's name 7 . w 45. work on a Sunday or a Ho ly Day 1 w 46. f a i l to do ext ra sp i r i t ua l reading on Sundays and Ho ly days 1 w 47. f a i l to offer up m y work to God 11 w 48. think i t possible for there to be three Gods 11 w 49. worsh ip beauty as m y God 2 w 50. show d i s respec t to c l e rgymen 13 w 51 f a i l to fast at appointed t imes 2 w 52. eat anything cont rary to m y re l ig ious bel iefs 2 53. eat something that was condemned by m y r e l i g i o n ' 2 w 54. use God 's name i m p r o p e r l y 7 . w 55 show d i s respec t to r e l i g i o n 4 w 56. m i s s M a s s on Sunday or a H o l y day 4 w 57. f a i l to attend M a s s devoutly ' 5 w 58. f a i l to say ex t ra p rayers on Sundays 3 w 59. f a i l to l i s t en to the se rmon attentively 2 w 60. have anything to do wi th chain p r a y e r s , or make a Novena i n a suspicious way 7 w 61. f a i l to take notice of the B l e s s e d Sacrament when passing a church 5 w 62. r e m a i n unfaithful to m y p rayer s 1 w 63. f a i l to think of God as much as I should - 195 -I M P I E T Y - continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 37 ,38 ,39 , 1. not do r e l ig ious acts that are r equ i r ed i n a zealous 40, 62,46, person of m y faith 47, 16 3 , 4 , 7 , 3 6 , 2. par t ic ipate i n ac t iv i t i es that contravene m y r e l i g i o n 50 ,52 ,53 , 54,60 6, 24, 25, 3. f a i l to be quiet and attentive i n church 31 ,35 ,39 19, 20, 21, 4. not attend church when I am able 22 ,56 ,23 , 29 ,33 ,57 2, 26, 58, 62 5. not say m y p rayer s or be faithful to them 12, 27 6. give up m y r e l i g i o n i n order to obtain m o r e w o r l d l y goals 17 ,42 ,43 , 7. f a i l to have reverence for things that are holy 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 4 , 61 18 ,5 , 14, 15 8. hear someone desecrat ing m y re l ig ious beliefs 9 9. see ac t iv i t i es which contravene m y re l ig ious bel iefs 28 ,30 ,34 10. make fun of r e l i g i o n or some part of i t 48,49 11. have belief 's that are con t ra ry to the r e l ig ious jteachings of my faith 1 13. doubt m y re l ig ious bel iefs except when I a m i n trouble - 196 -I N D I F F E R E N C E Items pass a begging b l ind man on the corner without giving h i m anything not stop to a id a stranded mo to r i s t when I a m not i n a rush ref-use to help someone who comes to me because I do not w i s h to become involved i n the si tuation pass an ind iv idua l on the s treet , begging money i n order to get something to eat. Af ' ter not giving h i m any, I l a te r f ind that he died of hunger not a s s i s t a neglected or lone ly aged person decl ine to help a person see something wrong and not co r r ec t i t notice an adver t isement which i s irt ended to m i s l e a d the public but do nothing to stop i t s publ icat ion because of d is in te res t f a i l to defend m y good name while others are f a l se ly accusing me of commit t ing a c r i m e r e f r a in f r o m te l l ing m y f r iend someone i s taking advantage of h i m , although i t would be of venefit to h i m to know not in ter fere wi th a f r iend ' s r e m a r k s , although I know he i s damaging his own and other ' s reputations r e f r a in f r o m pointing out the wrong-doing of a f r i end , although I know he does wrong only through ignorance not a s s i s t a s tranger i n a si tuat ion wh ich I know i s causing h i m diff icul ty let someone suffer without helping h i m or her see a b l ind man t ry ing to c ross the street and do not help h i m not v i s i t s i ck and shut - in persons not spend more t ime wi th fr iends and re la t ives who are i l l and lonely see an old woman standing i n a heavy r a i n while I d r ive by i n a car and not p ick her up be "too busy" to l i s t en to m y ch i ld ren ' s needs or t roubles refuse a request that I could ea s i l y f u l f i l l just because I didn' t want to do i t let a s i tuat ion go by when I could have put a person at ease and I didn' t - 197 -- continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . 8 W W, 22. 23. 24. 25. I N D I F F E R E N C E Items not get to know new neighbours more qu ick ly and make them feel at home be standing i n l ine wi th a basket fu l l of g roce r i e s i n front of an old lady wi th two a r t i c l e s i n her hand, and not pe rmi t her to be checked out f i r s t f a i l to defend m y good name hold that m y country should take care of i t s e l f and leave the res t of the w o r l d struggle along as best i t may Item No. P r i n c i p l e s 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 1 3 , 14 ,15 ,18 ,23 , 25, 26 3, 6, 20 16, 17 19 7, 8 10, 11, 12 9 21, 22 1. not help others who are in need of ass is tance 2. refuse a request I could fu l f i l l with l i t t l e trouble 3. not v i s i t s i ck and shut - in persons 4. be unsympathetic when someone wishes to speak of h is t roubles 5. not bother rec t i fy ing a si tuation which I could change 6. r e f r a in f rom giving someone advice which i t would be of benefit for h i m to know 7. f a i l to bother to defend my own reputation 8. not put someone at ease when I could have - 198 -I N G R A T I T U D E P r i n c i p l e No. Items 3 1. not tip a wai t ress in a restaurant who has been helpful 2 2. be given a sweepstake t icket as a gift and not share the winnings with the giver 1 3. f a i l to a s s i s t a moto r i s t who had given me a l i f t to f ix a flat t i re because I might be late for an appointment 3. 4. be granted p e r m i s s i o n to cut c l a s ses in order to accommodate m y other work and then f a i l to attend when I can 5 5. take a g i r l out and spend money on her , and not even get a goodnight k i s s 4 6. show d i s respec t to people who have helped me Item No. P r i n c i p l e 3 1. f a i l to a s s i s t someone who had p rev ious ly helped me 2 2. not share m y good fortune wi th someone who had helped me achieve it 1,4 3. not show m y apprecia t ion for favours done for me 6 4. show d i s respec t topeople who have helped me 5 5. not be shown apprecia t ion for things I have done for someone 199 -I N J U R I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Item 4 1. t r i p someone and they get hurt 4 2 . t r i p a lady 2 3 . acc identa l ly put my finger in someone's eye 13 4 . pu l l someone's ha i r 4 5 . push someone over 4 6. push someone 5 7. run into someone wi th my bike 2 8. injure a f r iend acc identa l ly 5 9. injure a ch i ld wi th my car 11 10. injure someone i n a game 3 11. hurt someone so badly they had to go to the hospi ta l 15 W 1 2 . advocate the s t e r i l i z a t i on of the feeble-minded 3 13. after s t r i k ing a person i n anger l e a r n that I had ma imed h i m for l i fe 10 14. na r rowly m i s s knocking down a pedestr ian 5 15. hi t someone with a car 14 16. bel ieve that i t was de t r imenta l to one's heal th to smoke but find I cannot stop smoking 7 17. drop a s m a l l baby on purpose 8 18. see my s i s t e r get hurt 6 19. beat someone severe ly who has damaged my proper ty 11 20. de l ibera te ly attempt to injure a p layer on a f ie ld during a game 8 21 . see a gang of boys beat another boy who is unable to defend h i m s e l f 14 22. smoke forty cigaret tes per day be l i ev ing this amount could be phys i ca l ly ha rmfu l 12 23 . throw a rock at someone 12 24. throw a stone at someone and they were hurt bad 12 25. throw a swift b a l l and hit somebody 12 26. throw something at somebody 1 27 . hur t someone for no reason whatsoever 1 28. hurt someone younger than me 7 29. hurt a s m a l l ch i ld 17 30 . hurt someone 7 31 . hurt or push a helpless person 17 32. hurt a f r iend 17 33. hurt an older person 14 34. consider taking advantage of a new law that makes it poss ib le for me to be s t e r i l i z e d i n order to avoid having more ch i ld ren 9 W35 . w i s h e v i l to befa l l my neighbour 14 W36 . do anything to injure my health 14 W37 . r i s k my l i fe foo l i sh ly 2 38 . step on someone's feet in a crowded bus 16 39. d isf igure a person for l i fe - 200 -I N J U R I N G  Item N o , P r i n c i p l e s 27, 30 1, hurt someone for no reason whatsoever 3, 8, 38 2 . injure someone acc identa l ly 11 3 . injure someone so badly they r equ i red hosp i ta l i za t ion .1, 2, 5, 6 4 . cause someone to stumble or f a l l 7, 9, 15 5. run into someone with a vehic le 19 6. injure someone who has done comething to hurt me 31 ,33 , 17,28,29 7. hurt someone who is he lp less or younger than m y s e l f 18, 21 8. see someone be hurt 35 9. w i s h that someone be ha rmed in some way 14 10. na r rowly m i s s hurt ing someone 10, 20 11. injure someone in a game 23 ,24 ,25 ,26 12. throw something at someone 4 13. de l ibera te ly hur t someone s l ight ly 34 ,36 , 16,22 14. needless ly expose m y s e l f to ha rmfu l or injurious situations W12 15. advocate a p rac t ice which could be injur ious to heal th 13, 39 16. permanently injure someone 33, 30, 32 17. hurt someone I N J U S T I C E Items accuse or punish someone unjustly punish someone for something they didn' t do be promoted to a high posi t ion at the expense of the person who taught me "everything I know" blame someone for something they didn' t do accuse another unjustly f i re an employee for mak ing a mis take I have p rev ious ly made m y s e l f deprive someone of something they are enti t led to. violate someone's r ights due to mis taken ident i ty , rece ive pra i se and r e w a r d for a project wh ich someone else had produced and not rec t i fy mat ters have m y ty rann ica l boss demoted unjustly should take revenge, be spiteful or be v ind ic t ive towards another due to m y own misjudgment say something about another person which i s unjust judge someone unfai r ly and say m y judgment to other be unjustly accused of a theft I had not commit ted accuse a ch i ld of l y i n g and then f ind out that he was t e l l ing the t ruth accuse someone of taking something of mine when they r e a l l y did not take a personal c redi t for the good work of m y sub-ordinates and blame them for work which I might be c r i t i c i z e d give only half the credi t for some work to a f r iend who did the entire job hear a fel low student unjustly c r i t i c i z i n g me for m e : low m a r k s and lack of effort i n m y studies hear that an old man w a s let out of h is employment because he caused an accident which everyone knew he could not avoid take a l l the credi t for the work of a person i n m y employ refuse to give a man credi t for excel lent work because I have a personal d i s l i ke for h i m be promoted over a co -worke r whom I know to have better qual if icat ions be given credi t for a sc ient i f ic d i s cove ry that had been accompl i shed by another - 202 -I N J U S T I C E (Continued) P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 13 25. rece ive a great deal of p ra i se for a paper I have submitted which someone else wrote for me 13 26. be judged the winner in a major rac ing event i n which I know someone else to be the r e a l winner 13 27. pass on a good idea conceived by one of my sub-ordinates , which was mis takenly thought to be my idea 13 28. take credi t for something I didn't do 13 29. take major c redi t for some w o r k , although some-one else has done more work on it than I have I t e m N o . 1, 15, 16 1. 1, 11 2 . 2, 4 3 . 17, 18, 22 4 . 14 5. 12, 13 6. 7, 8, 21 7. 19 8. 5, 17 9 . 6 10. 20, 10 11. 23, 3 12. 25, 24, 26, 27, 0, 28, 29 13. - 203 -I N J U S T I C E P r i n c i p l e s accuse someone of something they didn't do punish someone unjustly punish or blame someone for something they didn't do not give c red i t for something to someone to whom it i s due be accused of something I did not do say something about another person which i s unjust deprive someone of something they are enti t led to be c r i t i c i z e d unjustly blame or accuse someone unjustly punish someone for something I have, at one t i m e , done m y s e l f see someone being punished unjustly rece ive a r eward above someone who deserves i t more take credi t for something done by others - 204 -P r i n c i p l e N o . 6 7 5 5 4 4 1 1 2 8 1 I t e m N o . 8, 7, 11 9 5, 6 4 1 2 10 I N T O L E R A N C E Items 1. be asked to jo in a nudist colony 2. be asked for a c igar by a woman who sees me smoking one 3. find I have jeopardized my reputation by unknow-ingly associa t ing wi th a c r i m i n a l 4 . d i scover acc identa l ly that a l i f e - long fr iend f inished a j a i l sentence for murder many yea r s ago 5 . l e a r n that I have bought some property next to a house of pros t i tu t ion 6. d i scover that the house next door to mine had been sold to a prosti tute 7. refuse to give a man who smel led of l iquor any money when he asked me 8. be asked to be present at my s o r o r i t y or f ra tern i ty club rooms where I know there is a fa i r chance that l iquor would be served 9. be c r i t i c i z e d as one who r a r e l y or never takes a d r ink 10. be asked to m a r r y a d ivorced person 11. be intolerant of wide ly accepted behaviour P r i n c i p l e s 1. be tolerant of wide ly accepted behaviour 2. be c r i t i c i z e d for remain ing aloof f r o m a p rac t i ce of which I disapprove 4 . find my house i s c lose to someone I consider soc i a l l y undesirable 5 . "d rop" a good fr iend when I find he had at one t ime done something wrong 6. be invi ted to jo in a group not fully accepted soc i a l l y 7. be asked for something that a person.sees I have 8. be asked to m a r r y someone who may be disapproved of soc i a l l y e . g . d ivorced - 205 -I R R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 2 1. dur ing a war speak c a r e l e s s l y so that the enemy i s able to get some v i t a l in format ion and in f l i c t heavy losses on m y side 1 2. go to a publ ic place whi le suffering f r o m a contagious disease 1 3. push someone into the lake or pool 1 4. dunk someone when i n swimming 10 5. be told that m y name had been given (as a reference) without m y p e r m i s s i o n to es tab l i sh credi t i n a department store by one whom I knew to be i r r e s p o n s i b l e 13 6. work as a sa lesman for a company whose product I consider to be a poor buy 4 7. help a man to get a job although I know he may ac tua l ly do h a r m to the general publ ic i n such a posi t ion 1 8. d r ive through a c r o s s - w a l k i n which a mother and a young ch i ld were standing 3 9. fool around at school or work 5 10. pe rmi t a good player wi th a heart condition to play i n a championship game 8 11. be requested to pe r fo rm a profess ional se rv ice for a fee and should think of c a r r y i n g i t out even though I l ack the proper qual i f icat ions 8 12. do work for which I a m not qual i f ied although I know some h a r m may resu l t f r o m m y l ack of t ra in ing 8 13. do some work although I know I am not qual if ied to do i t , as there i s no one i n the v i c i n i t y wi th the necessa ry t ra in ing 6 14. be on a t e r r i f i c par ty wi th a group of m y fr iends who decide to go to a v e r y disreputable p lace , knowing that m y presence there would damage m y f a m i l y ' s reputation as w e l l as m y own 11 15. d i scover that I , as a member of a f ra tern i ty or s o r o r i t y , consis tent ly made a great deal of noise that awakened the neighbours late at night 7 16. make a statement pub l i c ly that an event i s sure to occu r , when I have ac tua l ly no such assurance 9 17. use another person 's proper ty without p e r m i s s i o n 1 W 18. d r ive a car dangerously - 206 -I R R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 12 W 19. commi t a m o r t a l s in 6 W 20 associate with a group although I know that such assoc ia t ion may damage m y f a m i l y ' s reputation as w e l l as m y own 9 H 21. bor row a f r iend ' s belongings without asking 13 22. continue to work for a f i r m although I r ea l i ze some of i ts prac t i ses are enthical 13 23. work for a company although I know i t makes false statements about i ts employees tern No P r i n c i p l e s 2, 3, 4, 8, 18 1. expose others to danger 1 2. speak c a r e l e s s l y of confidential mat ters so that h a r m a r i s e s as a resu l t 9 3. fool around at school or work 7 4. help someone attain a pos i t ion i n which he may h a r m others 10 5. a l low someone to do something which may h a r m them 20, 14 6, behave i n a manner which may disgrace my fami ly name 16 7. make public statements which I know may be mis l ead ing 11, 12, 13 8. take on r e spons ib i l i t i e s that are beyond my capacity 17, 21 9. use another person 's proper ty without p e r m i s s i o n 5 10. use another person 's name without p e r m i s s i o n 15 11. create a d is turbing amount of noise 19 W 12. commi t a m o r t a l s in 6, 22, 23 13. work for someone I feel i s not operating honest ly - 297 -K I L L I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. m u r d e r someone 1 2. unnecessar i ly murde r an enemy while i n war combat 2 3. k i l l somebody acc identa l ly 3 4. k i l l someone i n self defense 4 5. overhear two spec ia l i s t s favouring the m e r i t s of m e r c y k i l l i n g of those born wi th handicapping phys ica l defects 4 6. overhear two scient is ts d i scuss approvingly the m e r i t s of m e r c y k i l l i n g of the suffering 4 7. overhear two scient is ts d i scuss approvingly the m e r i t s of m e r c y k i l l i n g i n the case of the menta l ly deficient 4 8. be told by m y i n s t r u c t o r that o lds ters should be es terminated once they reach the age of 70 2 9. shoot a person on a hunting expedit ion 5 W 10. think about taking my own l i fe 8 11, k i l l one of m y parents 9 12. see the v ic ious bombing and shooting of m y country-men i n a war movie 11 13. be h i r e d as a hangman 7 14. attend a debate and the outcome should favour capi ta l punishment for chronic c r i m i n a l s 6 W 15. support a move to see that abort ions are l ega l i z ed 2 16. through m y poor d r iv ing s k i l l cause a ser ious accident involv ing the death of a ch i ld 10 17. w i s h someone dead just to be "out of the way" 11 18. k i l l an enemy while i n combat - 208 -K I L L I N G - continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 2,1 1. murde r someone 3 ,9 ,16 2. k i l l someone acc identa l ly 4 3. k i l l someone i n self defense 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 4. hear d i scuss ion of m e r c y k i l l i n g s 10 5. think about k i l l i n g m y s e l f 15 6. support l ega l i z ed abort ions 14 7. support capi ta l punishment 11 8. k i l l one of m y f a m i l y 12 9. see m u r d e r i n g and k i l l i n g 17 10. w i s h that someone were dead 18, 13 11. as m y duty be r equ i r ed to k i l l someone - 209 -L A C K O F E F F O R T P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1, watch T V when I should be work ing 1 2. sit r e l ax ing when I should be getting housework done 2 3. not put enough effort into something 2 4. not r e a l l y earn my sa l a ry because of m y l ack of indus t ry 3 5. sleep i n on Sunday 4 6. go to sleep at work or i n school 3 7. stay i n bed too late i n the morn ing 2 8. put l i t t l e thought and prepara t ion into a m e a l 1 9. see a l l the gardening I should do but I r ead instead 3 10. stay i n bed too late i n the morn ing 5 H 11. not make any efforts or do anything about getting a good job after graduating f r o m school I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1,2,9 1. do something re lax ing when I should be work ing 3 ,4 ,8 2. not put enough effort into something 5 ,7 ,10 3. sleep i n or stay i n bed late 6 4. go to sleep at school or work 11 5. not make an effort to prepare for the future - 210 -L O S S O F S E L F C O N T R O L P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. c r y i n public 2 2, after an evening of d r ink ing be told the next day that I had behaved l i ke a drunken fool 3 3. let m y m a r r i a g e partner leave for work unhappy because I have been v e r y c ranky that morn ing 4 4. say bad words 5 5. s c r e a m at someone 6 6. act on impulse unwisely 7 7. b lur t out something without meaning to 6 8. buy something on impulse that I r e a l l y can't afford 8 H 9. couldn't make myse l f stop ta lking wi th others i n the r o o m when I should be doing m y homeaKork 7 H 10. t e l l one of m y teachers what I r e a l l y thought of her when I had meant to get her on m y side 1 H 11. c r y i f someone teased me 4 H 12. use bad language and swear 4 W 13. curse or swear x 5 14. get exci ted and s c r e a m Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. c r y i n public 2 2. misbehave when drunk 3 3. be c ranky and upset others 4, 12, 13 4. swear or say bad words 5, 14 5. s c r e a m when exci ted 6,8 6. act on impulse unwisely 7, 19 7. b lur t out something without meaning to 9 H 8. not be able to stop doing something I shouldn't - 211 -L O S S O F S E L F R E S P E C T P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 2 1. due to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d ivorce be asked to l i ve as a common- law partner wi th someone 1 2. d i scover that a member of m y f a m i l y frequented a house of prost i tut ion 1 3. be told for the f i r s t t ime by a f r iend that m y s i s te r had become a prosti tute 1 4. as a parent, have a ch i ld who, because of p r e - m a r i t a l sex a c t i v i t i e s , had to get m a r r i e d 12 5. f a i l to do m y job as w e l l as I a m able and m y super-v i s o r r e m a r k s on i t I 6. find out that a member of m y f ami ly i s homosexual 10 7. be seen walking with my best f r iend who had just been made president of the nudist club II 8. l e a r n that a member of m y f a m i l y had joined a nudist group 7 9- have someone whom I respect catch me doing some-thing I know I shouldn't do 7 10. have a f r iend catch me doing something I know I shouldn't do 14 11. have to face m y parents wi th the low m a r k s I r ece ived i n m y examinat ion 12 12. be told by m y ins t ruc to r that I had let h i m down by m y low standard of work 8 13. get i n trouble with teacher or parents 18 14. get i n j a i l 15 15. don't get something I ask for 3 16. d i scover that m y father, who has always pr ided h i m -self upon being a strong church w o r k e r , i s invo lved i n a shady business deal 3 17. have a s is ter who becomes an a lcoho l i c 9 18. be a member of a f a m i l y i n which some member fa i l ed to meet standards (in school work , e tc . ) expected of them 13 19- have a m a r i t a l partner who insul ts someone i n m y presence 3 20. know m y spouse i s engaged i n unethical business prac t ices 3 21. l e a r n that m y father had made a substantial f inanc ia l gain by a v e r y c lever but dishonest business t r ans -act ion which enabled m y f a m i l y to achieve a better f inanc ia l and soc i a l status - 212 -- continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . 10 1 16 <7 16 4 4 4 4 8 5 6 6 3 15 H 8 4 9 9 9 1 L O S S O F S E L F R E S P E C T Items 22. be seen wi th a r e l a t ion of mine whom I l i k e v e r y m u c h even though the relat ionts reputation i s such that other people w i l l think l e s s of me 23. be told my father 's m i s t r e s s had come to see m y mother 24. notice that a v e r y good neighbourhood f r iend becomes suddenly cool towards me for no apparent reason 25. be seen commit t ing an unspor tsmanl ike act ion dur ing a competi t ion 26. d i scover that some of m y actions had aroused the i r e of the president of the f i r m for wh ich I work 27. notice that the questions I ask i n group situations repeatedly arouse a negative reac t ion i n others present 28. find that m y p o l i t i c a l beliefs d id not fol low the wishes o of the ma jo r i ty 29. vote for a candidate of whom I know m y fr iends d i s -approve 30. have everyone disagree wi th something I say 31. have someone think I have done something wrong 32. not be able to r e tu rn a favour 33. accept la rge gifts f r o m i n - l a w s that they cannot afford 34. be given a monetary r e w a r d by one whom I know to be a prostitute 35. find that my school p r i n c i p a l i s involved i n soc i a l l y undesirable prac t ices 36. not be chosen as an officer or cha i rman i n a club or committee 37. have something I have done misunders tood 38. be r i d i c u l e d by a group of acquaintances for m y suggestions on a cer ta in topic 39- see m y mother downtown wear ing m y young s i s t e r ' s peddle-pushers and s t r iped T - s h i r t 40. see m y mother going to a football game wi th the man next door because my father doesn't want to go 41 . have a steady who made a fool of themselves i n front of one of m y friends 42. f ind out that m y father i s responsib le for a woman other than m y mother being pregnant L O S S O F S E L F R E S P E C T Items be told that m y mother was enter taining a man while m y father was away be asked to do a favour by a person whom I esteemed but could not oblige because of c i rcumstances beyond m y control be unable to help someone out who came to me for help - 214 -L O S S O F S E L F R E S P E C T - continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 2, 3 ,4 , 6, 1. f ind out a member of m y f a m i l y commits sexual 42 ,43 ,23 i r r e g u l a r i t i e s I 2. be asked to l i ve under d isapproved re la t ions wi th others 16, 17, 20, 3. f ind that a member of m y f a m i l y or someone I ad-21.35 m i r e has commit ted s o c i a l l y undesireable acts 38 ,27 ,28 4. find most persons disagree wi th something I say, 29,30 be l i eve , or do 32 5. not be able to re tu rn a favour 33,34 6. have a favour done for me by someone f r o m whom I do not w i s h to rece ive them 9, 10,25 7. have someone catch me doing something I shouldn't do 13,31,37 8. have someone think I have done something wrong 18,40,39 9. have a member of my f a m i l y or someone I admi re 41 f a i l to meet standards expected of them 7,22 10. be seen wi th someone of notorious reputation 8 11. l e a r n a member of m y f a m i l y has joined an o rgan iza -t ion of which I disapprove 5,12 12. have pointed out to me that I a m not doing w e l l 19 13. have a member of m y f a m i l y misbehave before m y s e l f and others I I 14. have to t e l l m y f a m i l y of m y poor behaviour 13.36 15. not get something I had wanted 24,26 16. f ind that I have angered someone by tact lessness 44,45 17. be unable to help someone because of uncontrol lable c i rcumstances 14 18. be a r r e s t ed or j a i l ed L Y I N G Items say something that i s not true and get somebody into trouble l i e to protect myse l f and get someone else into trouble t e l l a l i e which hurts someone else t e l l a l i e t e l l a l i e of any kind t e l l a l i e about someone attempt to p reserve m y se l f - respec t by t e l l ing students ce r ta in things which I know are false use i l l ne s s as an excuse for not accepting an invi ta t ion and then meet the person on the street who inv i ted me be expected to take m y mother out for a d r ive and I t e l l her the car has broken down because a f r i end invi ted me out swear to a false a l i b i to save m y l i fe knowing that i t might h a r m someone else t e l l a l i e which could not poss ib ly be found out, because I fee l i t i s the best thing to do i n this si tuation t e l l the canvasser for a char i table organiza t ion that m y husband was contributing at the office, even though I know that i t i s un l ike ly that he w i l l contribute be t ry ing to be accurate i n m y answers to these questions but, because some of them seem too pe rsona l , I tend to modify some of m y responsi make up a false excuse to get out of some work decl ine to accept a cer ta in r e spons ib i l i t y on grounds that I do not have enough t ime for i t although I ac tual ly have enough spare t ime to pe r fo rm that pa r t i cu la r task be a witness i n court and swear an oath to t e l l the t ru th , but f ind that l y ing i s necessa ry i n order to protect someone whom I love and bel ieve to be innocent apply for a job i n which I must l i e about m y age i n order to get i t c l a i m more education than I ac tual ly have on a job appl ica t ion - 216 -- continued: L Y I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . 6 8 6 6 4 11 10 3 12 W H Items 19. obtain a good job by c l a iming more experience than I ac tual ly have 20. have to t e l l a hospi ta l patient a l i e about some future happening 21. use false adver t i s ing to promote my own reputation 22. decieve someone by giving false reasons for wanting some informat ion he would not owtherwise give me 23. protect m y father whom I know i s gui l ty , by ly ing to the police 24. notice that I am not answer ing these questions as truthfully as i s expected of me 25. answer a question untruthfully i n order to p reserve some personal digni ty 26. swear to a false a l i b i to save m y l i fe 27. be invi ted over to someone's place for the evening and refuse, saying I a m going somewhere else when I a m not 28. l i e to m y mother about going to some place she didn' t want me to - 217 -- continued: I tem N o . I , 2 1. 3 2. 2 ,10 ,26 ,28 3. 16.23 4. 4 ,5 5. 17,18,19 6. 21,22 6 7. I I , 12 8. 8,13 9. 7,25 10. 13.24 11. 8 , 9 , 1 2 , 1 4 12. 15, 27 L Y I N G P r i n c i p l e s t e l l a l i e that gets someone into trouble t e l l a l i e to h a r m someone else t e l l a l i e to protect m y s e l f t e l l a l i e to protect someone else t e l l a l i e t e l l a l i e i n order to get something I want t e l l a l i e about someone t e l l a l i e because I feel i t i s the best thing to do i n the si tuation be caught i n a l i e t e l l a l i e to preserve m y se l f - respec t t e l l a l i e i n answer ing a questionnaire t e l l a l i e to get out of doing something - 218 -L U S T P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 5 W 1. imagine a way to sexual ly seduce another without any intention of c a r r y i n g out the plan 10 2. have a person of m y own sex invi te me to engage i n sexual ac t iv i t i es wi th them 13 3. be in teres ted i n m a r r y i n g someone who was much older than myse l f 9 W 4. indulge i n mutual masturbat ion wi th the opposite 14 W 5. s ex have sexual re la t ions wi th an an ima l 7 6. be asked by m y fiance to go away together for a weekend before our m a r r i a g e 6 7. run away wi th someone I have just met 13 8. have an affair wi th a much younger person and not be found out 8 9. become sexual ly at t racted to someone e l se ' s m a r r i a g e partner 8 10. be at t racted to another m a n , other than m y husband 8 11. w i s h that another would die so that I could acquire their m a r r i a g e partner 1 12. pe rmi t m y s e l f to be at t racted by m y brother or s i s t e r -i n - l a w 1 13. feel a strong sexual des i re for a close re la t ive 8 14. commit adul tery wi th no poss ib i l i t y of being d i s cove red 2 15. have a sexual affair wi th someone I do not love s i nce r e ly 2 16. engage i n sexual in te rcourse m e r e l y i n order to sat isfy a phys ica l need 11 17. l e a r n that m y g i r l f r iend had had int imate re la t ions wi th a previous boy f r iend 11 18. d i scover that m y fiance had been sexual ly promiscuous before meet ing me 4 19. take part i n a m i x e d party of d r ink ing and sexual acts 3 W 20. jo in a group that holds sexual pleasure i s to be indulged i n whenever one feels the urge 12 21. see m y best f r iend going into a house of pros t i tu t ion 1 22. be told that one of m y close fr iends had become a prosti tute 7 23. lose m y v i r g i n i t y before m a r r i a g e 5 W 24. des i re unchaste acts or thoughts 7 W 25. pe r fo rm an act cont ra ry to chast i ty 7 w 26. commit forn ica t ion but use a contraceptive 15 w 27. masturbate habi tual ly - 219 -L U S T continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 12, 13 1. feel a strong sexual des i re for a close re la t ive 15, 16 2. have a sexual affair wi th someone I do not love s ince re ly 20 W 3. jo in a group which bel ieves i n free love 19 4. be asked to take part i n a m i x e d party of d r ink ing and sexual acts 1,24 5. imagine or des i re sexual in te rcourse 7 6. run away wi th someone I have just met 23 ,26 ,25 ,6 7. have sexual re la t ions outside of m a r r i a g e 9, 10, 11, 14 8/ have adulterous des i res or re la t ions 4 W 9. indulge i n masturbat ion wi th someone else 2 10. be asked to take part i n homosexual acts 17, 18 11. d i scover that someone I love was p rev ious ly sexual ly promiscuous 21,22 12. l e a r n that someone I know has become a prosti tute or has frequented places of prost i tut ion 3,8 13. have an affair wi th a m u c h younger or older person than m y s e l f 28 W 14. have sexual re la t ions wi th an an ima l 27 W 15. masturbate habi tual ly - 220 -N E G L I G E N C E Items see a person collapse on a deser ted downtown street and I ignore the incident and continue to d r ive on see a stranger who i s i n a state of phys ica l col lapse and I ignore h i m f a i l to take precautions to prevent the in ju ry of persons i n m y employ i n order to save money see a person to whom I have a great ave r s ion i n ser ious t rouble and I do not help h i m know about poss ible h a r m befal l ing someone I know but whom I don't l i k e and do nothing about i t r e f r a in f r o m warning an acquaintance of threats which I have overheard let something happen to a person that I could not help as a l eg i s l a to r examine proposed laws supe r f i c i a l l y d i s r e g a r d cer ta in production procedures i n order to save t i m e , although the resu l t ing product may not be of high standard consider only one factor i n making an important dec i s ion affecting someone else because I cannot be bothered to investigate more thoroughly hear that there was insuff icient accommodat ion to feed and clothe the severa l hundred o lds ters i n m y community neglect a ch i ld neglect something of importance to any member of my f a m i l y due to preoccupat ion wi th business leave a baby untended for a short t ime f a i l to warn a f r iend that she has been exposed to a contagious disease f a i l to co r r ec t the actions of those placed under m y charge knowing that m y neglect would cause them possible h a r m have something bad happen on account of m y neglect be exe rc i s i ng a dog for which I a m responsible and i t gets run over - 221 -N E G L I G E N C E - continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 7 ,17,18 1. have something bad happen to someone or some-thing because of m y neglect 14 2. leave a helpless person untended for a short t ime 12 3. neglect a ch i ld 5 ,6 ,15 4. f a i l to warn someone of exposure to danger 16 5. not co r r ec t behaviour which could lead to h a r m 1,2,4 6. ignore a person who requ i red immedia te help to save h i m f r o m h a r m 11 7. not co r r ec t situations wh ich could lead to h a r m 8,10 8. not investigate an important p rob lem thoroughly before making a dec i s ion 3 9. f a i l to take precautions to prevent in jury to others 9, 13 10. neglect mat ters for wh ich others are dependent on me - 222 -P r i n c i p l e N o . 1 1. 3 2. 3 3. 3 H 4. 4 H 5. 2 6. 5 H 7. 3 8. I tem N o . 1 1. 6 2. 2 , 3 , 4 , 8 3. 5 H 4. 7 H 5. N O N - C O O P E R A T I O N Items plead s ickness i n order to avoid a s s i s t ing i n prepara t ion for a soc ia l event and then appear at the event i n good health for the entertainment si t back and let m y fel low club-mates do a l l the ha rd labour i n making a project successful not help i n a group effort not p i tch i n and help i f m y f ami ly was getting things ready for a par ty not offer to help when m y club or young people 's group was a r ranging for an affair not do m y share of work not make an effort to get along w e l l with m y teacher or boss not cooperate i n a work project P r i n c i p l e s not work on a group project but benefit f r o m what was done by others not do m y share of work not help i n a group effort not offer m y help i n a group effort not t r y to get along w e e l l wi th others - 223 -N O N F U L F I L L M E N T O F S O C I A L E X P E C T A T I O N S Items 1. f a i l to give m y share to char i ty because the can-vasse r ca l l ed whi le I was away 2. not vote to elect a person to office when i n a si tuat ion i n which i t i s m y duty 3. be advised that m y donation to a char i table o rgan i -zat ion was much below that expected f r o m one of m y income l e v e l 4. refuse to work i n a char i ty dr ive because I fear i t may become an annual duty 5. not go to a meet ing I am supposed to attend 6. f a i l to attend union meet ings , thereby permi t t ing communis ts to gain control 7. f a i l to contribute to the support of the poor 8. sh i rk m y duty as a host or hostess 9. not attend church or club meet ings , e tc . , for seve ra l sess ions , and then meet the m i n i s t e r or club president , e tc . unexpectedly 10. f a i l to contribute to the support of the church 11. not vote i n a government e lect ion 12. neglect to study the background and p la t form of each party before voting 13. see an accident and h u r r y away so that I w i l l not be inconvenienced by the fo l lowing inqu i ry 14. avoid answer ing the door because I know somebody w i l l ask me for a contr ibut ion to char i ty 15. neglect to take an active part i n the ac t iv i t i es of a community when m y help i s needed 16. not cooperate wi th the community chest N O N F U L F I L L M E N T O F S O C I A L E X P E C T A T I O N S P r i n c i p l e s 1. not contr ibute m y share to char i ty 2. not vote i n an e lect ion or not take proper ca i n voting 3. not go to a meet ing I am supposed to attend 4. sh i rk my duty as host or hostess 5. f a i l to contribute to r e l ig ious organizat ions 6. avoid giving evidence or being named as a witness 7. not take part i n community ac t iv i t i es - 225 -N O N F U L F I L L M E N T O F S O C I A L O B L I G A T I O N S P r i n c i p l e No . l i t ems 12 1. not attend m y parent 's funeral because of the distance I would have to t rave l 7 2. not apologize 2 3. not do the things I am supposed to do when left on m y own 4 4. m i s s a day at school or work 6 5. f a i l to prepare my day's work 6 6. f a i l to prepare my day's work faithfully 6. 7. not do m y homework at night 1 8. disappoint someone 1 9. le t someone down 1 10. leave the res t of the car chain stranded 3 11. t ry to evade the r e spons ib i l i t i e s of m y job 7 W12. f a i l to repa i r any damage I may have done to the sp i r i t ua l or phys ica l l ife of my neighbour 11 13. f a i l to notify the post office of a change of address , thus having my m a i l continue to be sent to m y previous address to the annoyance of the l and lo rd 9 14. be unable to pay a debt or i f I were unavoidably late paying i t 9 15. be unable to pay m y b i l l s 7 W 16. f a i l to repa i r the damage that I may have done to the honour of another 10 17. put a parent in a nurs ing home when I know she would rather be in m y own home 10 18. be r equ i red to support m y m o t h e r - i n - l a w or some other re la t ion 10 19. be unable to provide for my ve ry old and needy parents 10 20. f a i l to provide the necess i t i es of l ife for m y c h i l d r e n because of a l ack of money or work 10 21. be asked to put my ch i ld up for adoption because I was not giving it proper care 7 22. accuse someone e r roneous ly and then fa i l to apologize 6 W 2 3 . f a i l to pe r fo rm my assigned work faithfully 9 W24. f a i l to pay my just debts 8 25. not wr i te le t te rs , e spec ia l ly those of sympathy 12 26. on account of c i rcumstances not to be able to attend m y parent 's funeral 14 27. due to other appointments find i t imposs ib le to a s s i s t my parents i n work that was being c a r r i e d out for m y benefit 1 28. avoid an obligat ion by doing something else instead of meet-ing the obl igat ion 7 29. a l low a house i n which I am l i v i n g to be damaged and not repa i r the damage 15 30. not give m y ch i ld ren a proper re l ig ious background 10 31. not see that my f ami ly has proper meals 1 32. refuse sexual in te rcourse with m y husband - 226 -N O N F U L F I L L M E N T O F S O C I A L O B L I G A T I O N S (cont. ) P r i n c i p l e No . Item 5 33. go away and leave my paper route undone 5 34. have agreed to part icipate as a member of a panel at a public meeting but due to ca r trouble was detained f r o m appearing 13 35. f a i l to keep an appointment to meet someone because something more in teres t ing turned up 11 H 3 6 . not notify a person i f I couldn' t show up for an appointment 2 H 3 7. not do a job assigned to me on a committee 2 H38 . not do m y homework because I wanted to play 4 H 3 9 . skip school 2 40. go out leaving work undone at home 9 W 4 1 . put my c h i l d up for adoption because I don't l ike c h i l d r e n 1 42. not help someone when expected to 1 43. not do what was expected of me 7 44. have a f r iend ask me to c lea r up a misunders tanding I have caused wi th another fr iend but I refuse because I cannot be bothered 2 45. go out the night before an exam I felt I should study for 4 46. play hookey f rom school or work 4 47. stay f rom work unnecessar i ly , although I know i t puts a burden on others 4 48. take an ex t ra half hour for lunch when the boss i s away 2 49. be left to work independently by my employer -and use the time in some other way 2 50. leave the house when I am supposed to be baby si t t ing 2 51. go out when I a m supposed to be work ing at home - 227 N O N F U L F I L L M E N T O F S O C I A L O B L I G A T I O N S Items P r i n c i p l e s 8, 9, 10, 28,32, 42, 43 1. not do what someone expects of me 3, 35, 4 9 , 5 0 , 5 1 , 37, 38, 40 2. not do the things I am supposed to when left on m y own 11 3. t ry to evade the r e spons ib i l i t i e s of m y job 4, 39, 46, 47, 48 4. take time off work or school when I a m not supposed to 33, 34 5. f a i l to do something I have been engaged to do 5, 6, 7, 23 6. f a i l to prepare my work r egu l a r ly 12, 12, 16, 22, 29, 44 7. not make amends for damage I have caused 25 8. not wri te le t te rs that should be wri t ten , such as those of sympathy 24, 14, 15 9. be unable to pay my b i l l s or be unavoidably late i n doing so 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31, 41 10. not see that those in m y charge are ca red for p roper ly 13, 36 11. f a i l to notify those I should of changes of t imes , place and status 1, 26 12. f a i l to partake i n f a m i l y r i tua l s as expected of me 35 13. f a i l to keep an appointment f ami ly 27 14. f a i l to part icipate m/tasks c a r r i e d out for my benefit 30 15. f a i l to see that those in m y charge are not t ra ined p r o p e r l y - 228 -O B J E C T I O N A B L E B E H A V I O U R P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. f ind m y s e l f at a m i x e d party wi th a noticeable hole i n m y socks 1 2. have i t pointed out to me that m y underclothes were showing 2 3. be told that I make a great deal of noise whi le eating soup 5 4. be pointed out as one who eats his mea l s too fast 4 5. hear someone say that I had a strong body odor 3 6. go to the bathroom i n m y pants 2 7. have m y bowels make sounds when i n the presence of others 4 8. have someone cont inual ly turn his head away while speaking to m e , and la ter find i t was due to m y bad breath 5 9. be told to stop scra tching a disapproved part of m y anatomy 2 10. be c r i t i c i z e d for belching i n publ ic 5 11. have m y fr iends t e l l me to stop picking m y nose 5 12. suddenly become aware that I am pick ing m y nose while i n the company of others 4 H 13. f ind out that I had 3.0. I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1,2, 1 have m y clothing i n not iceably poor condition 3 .7 , 10 2. make involuntary but rude noises i n public 6 3. go to the bathroom i n other than the p r e s c r i b e d places 5 .8 , 13 4. find I have a disagreeable odor 4 . 9 , 11, 12 5. pe r fo rm acts wh ich are pe rsona l ly comfor t ing but are distasteful to others - 229 -O V E R I N D U L G E N C E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. eat too much at a par ty 2 2. be told that I had a l ready eaten more than I was enti t led to 2 3. be ca l l ed a glutton for overeat ing 2 4. get drunk I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. eat too much when at a gathering 3,2 2. be told I have eaten more than I a m supposed 4 3. get drunk - 23 0 -P E R S O N A L A T T R I B U T E S , P r i n c i p l e No . Items 1 1. be descr ibed as one who was not ve ry sexual ly a t t rac t ive 2 2. hear my friends descr ibe me as being homely and far f rom good looking or handsome 3 3 . hear someone say that I was except ional ly good looking and handsome 4 4 . d i scove r that I am an i l l eg i t imate ch i ld 4 5. find after I had grown up that I was an adopted ch i ld 5 6. find after mar r i age that I could never have any ch i ld ren . Item No . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. not be sexual ly a t t ract ive 2 2. not be good looking 3 3 . be exceptional ly good looking 4, 5 4 . find I am not r ea l ly my parents ' ch i ld 6 5. find I cannot have ch i ld ren - 231 P E R S O N A L O B L I G A T I O N S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 7 1. become mundane 8 2. go to bed ea r ly and not be a better companion 2 3. not do my best i n whatever job I tackle 3 4. do something cont rary to what I know to be c o r r e c t and for my own good 4 5. not be true to m y s e l f whatever the cost 5 6. neglect doing my duty to mankind 6 7. not t ry to form a c lear philosophy of l i fe 7 8. neglect self-educat ion 7 9. not make time to read better books 8 10. have left undone something I should have done to please or help someone 8 11. dress up for company but not for my husband 2 12. not enter tain as I should l ike 8 13. not be passionate enough wi th my mar r i age partner 8 14. not read to my ch i ld at the end of thecday 8 15. not get up i n t ime to get my husband's breakfast 7 16. not t ry to improve my cooking 1 17. not a ccompl i sh enough i n a day 7 18. become just a household drudge (not in teres t ing) 7 H 19. not s t r ive ahead to become somebody 3 W 2 0 . do anything to disgrace m y s e l f 2 H 21 . not do the best I can i n my studies 2 H 22. not do the best I can on a job 232 P E R S O N A L O B L I G A T I O N S (contd. ) Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s -18 1. not a ccompl i sh enough i n a day 3, 12,22,23 2. not do my best i n every situation 4 3 . do something I know i s bad for m y s e l f 5 4 . not be true to m y s e l f whatever the cost 6 5. neglect doing my duty to mankind 7 6. not t ry to form a c lear philosophy of l ife 1 , 8 , 9 , 1 7 , 1 9 , 7. not t ry to better m y s e l f 20 10 ,11 , 14,15, 8. have left something undone that might have pleased 16 or helped someone - 233 -P O O R . I N F L U E N C E P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 W l . arrange a date for a m o r a l l y weak fr iend with someone whose reputation is bad 2 2. make someone do wrong 3 3. serve a lcohol at a party and la ter find that s eve ra l i n attendance were mino r s 3 4 . feel respons ib le , d i r ec t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , for s tar t ing someone dr ink ing who is now a heavy d r inke r 4 5. hear a mother using profane language when scolding a young ch i ld 4 6. find that I had set a bad example to someone of the younger ch i ld ren in my community 5 H 7 . go around wi th tough kids 1 W 8 . attempt to induce my neighbour to s in 4 W 9 . as a parent give a bad example to my ch i ld ren 6 10. advise a fr iend to do something for his own benefit but which is against the m o r a l code of society 6 11. give money to a f r iend whom I know to be a drunkard 4 W 12, set a bad example Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s W 1 1. lead someone into a tempting situation 2 2. make someone do wrong 3, 4 3. influence someone to start a bad habit 4, 5, 6, 9 4 . set a bad example to younger persons 7 5. mingle in bad company 10, 11 6. encourage someone in the i r misdemeanors - 234 -P R E J U D I C E I terns hear that a group of ch i ld ren who are member s of another race are to be t r ans fe r r ed to the school that m y ch i ld ren attend and I object r ecommend that an acquaintance not be given a job because of h is po l i t i c a l bel iefs refuse someone a job because of his (her) r a c i a l differences be ass igned an advanced posi t ion i n my f i r m which I know another person i n the office deserves more but was over looked because of his race refuse to h i r e someone of a cer ta in race because I fear i t would at tract others of that race to s i m i l a r posit ions h i r e a man wi th lower qual if icat ions than another m o r e qual i f ied applicant because he bolongs to a cer ta in r a c i a l group have a son or daughter who i s i n love wi th and wishes to m a r r y a member of another race refuse to m a r r y a person of a different sk in colour refuse to m a r r y a person of different nat ional i ty but not of v e r y different sk in colour have a re la t ive who wishes to m a r r y someone of a different r e l i g i o n be asked by someone who i s of different r e l i g i o n than mine to m a r r y them and refuse make a point of d i s l i k i n g a foreigner consider m y s e l f free f r o m r a c i a l prejudice yet feel i l l at ease wi th a member of another race be asked to join a f ra te rn i ty which excludes cer ta in r a c i a l or re l ig ious groups become involved i n a group of r a c i a l segregat ionis ts belong to a club which bars a f r iend of mine because of his re l ig ious convict ions buy a house i n a d i s t r i c t r e s t r i c t e d to whites give mi s l ead ing informat ion to a Negro because of m y prejudice regard ing his r ace , not because of his personal qual i t ies continue to work for a company which d i s c r im ina t e s against coloured persons be i n a restaurant when a coloured person i s asked to leave because of h is colour - 235 -P R E J U D I C E - continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . 2 22 11 3 12 2 8 H H Items 21. make fun of someone because of the colour of his (her) sk in 22. witness a person being taunted because of his colour or r e l i g i o n 23. a i r an t i - semet ic views at a s o c i a l gathering and la te r find a Jew was present 24. hear someone c r i t i c i z e m y nat ional i ty 25. overhear someone rude ly r e m a r k that two fore igners ta lking on the bus should not use their native language i n Canada 26. refuse to go around wi th a person because they were of a different nat ional i ty or race 27. make fun of someone e l se ' s r e l i g i o n 28. have ch i ld ren who m a r r y outside their r e l ig ious bel iefs 29. d i s c r imina t e against ce r ta in races - continued: P R E J U D I C E Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s N . B . Where appl icable , include r ace , r e l i g i o n nat ional i ty , p o l i t i c s , i n each i t e m 12 1. make a point of d i s l i k i n g a foreigner 27,21 2. make fun of someone e l se ' s r e l i g i o n , e tc . 24 3. overhear someone c r i t i c i z e m y nat ional i ty , e tc . 15 4. become involved i n a group who ac t ive ly promote r a c i a l prejudice 1, 17, 26 5. refuse to have m y ch i ld ren or m y s e l f associate wi th those of a different r ace , e tc . 29,18 6. d i s c r imina t e against someone because of his p o l i t i c a l be l ie fs , e tc . 13, 7. consider m y s e l f free of r a c i a l prejudice but feel un-comfortable wi th a member of another race 28 ,7 , 10 8. have a member of my f a m i l y who wishes to m a r r y someone of another r a c e , etc. 8 ,9 , 11 9. refuse to m a r r y someone because of their r e l i g ious be l i e f s , etc. 19, 14, 16 10. belong to a group which excludes persons of ce r ta in r a c i a l , etc. groups 23 11. c r i t i c i z e a cer ta in re l ig ious or r a c i a l group and la ter find that a member of that group was present 25 ,22,20 12. see or hear someone being d i s c r i m i n a t e d against because of his nat ional i ty , etc. 4 13. be given preference over someone because they are of an unpopular r a c e , etc. 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 14. not give the same opportunities to those of a cer ta in r a c e , etc. - 237 -P R O C R A S T I N A T I O N P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. w o r r y about a l ack of doing housework but never do anything about it 2 2 . put off a job that is s tar ing me in the face 1 3. not c lea r up a matter that was bothering me 5 4 . start studying for exams too late 3 5. put off doing a task for a long t ime 3 6. f a i l to answer le t ters wi th in a reasonable t ime 4 7. procras t inate with jobs I don't l ike 5 8. be slow to get organized and f a i l to do something for a s i ck f r iend Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 3, 1 1. w o r r y about something but do nothing about it 2 2 . put off a job that must be done 5 3. put off doing something for a long t ime 7 4 . procras t ina te with jobs I don't l ike 4, 8 5. put off doing something unt i l too late - 238 -R U D E N E S S P r i n c i p l e No. Items 12 1. be told by a f r iend that the gift I had sent was of l e s s value than the one he had sent me 1 2. insul t someone 6 3. be drunk and walk into a roomful of people whose bel iefs were against a lcohol 2 4. de l ibera te ly cause someone unnecessary e m b a r r -assment 4 5. k i s s a r e s i s t i ng woman or man 6. be nasty to a sa lesman 8 7. agree to accompany a person and then behave i n a bored, indifferent fashion 11 8. be attending a funeral of a loved one and hear m y fr iends laughing aloud 4 9- be among a group that c rashes a party and r e m a i n unrecognized 5 10. misbehave i n someone e l s e ' s house 6 11. de l ibera te ly cut i n on someone when I was d r i v ing m y car 9 12. s t ick out m y tongue at someone 7 13. s l a m the telephone r e c e i v e r i n someone's ear 6 14. need to use the telephone and when finding the party l ine busy, I bang the r ece ive r up and down 7 15. s l a m the r ece ive r of a telephone on someone I was mad at 3 16. not l i s t en when someone is speaking to me 10 17. say shutup to someone 3 19. ignore a c h i l d who speaks to me 12 20. insul t a person for bumping me and then notice they are b l ind 4 21. k i s s a g i r l on a f i r s t date without apprecia t ing her personal i ty and ignor ing her feelings - 239 -R U D E N E S S Item N o . P r i n c i p l e 2, 20 1. insu l t someone 4 2. de l ibera te ly cause someone unnecessary embar ras sment 16, 19 3. not l i s t e n when someone i s speaking to me 5, 9, 21 4. force my presence on someone 10 5. misbehave i n someone e l se ' s house 3, 11, 14 6. de l ibera te ly do something which annoys others 13, 15 7. abruptly cut off a conversat ion wi th someone 7 8. act i n a bored manner when out wi th someone 12 9. make rude gestures at someone 17, 18 10. say rude things to someone 8 11 . laugh at a t ime which ca l l s for solemni ty 1 12. have someone be de l ibera te ly rude to me - 240 -S E L F I S H N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. a lways be stingy 10 2. be se l f ish with my fr iends 3 3 . be resentful of having to tolerate other people 's ch i ld ren 8 4. accept a compl iment when i t i s r e a l l y due to a group of people, not to m y s e l f alone and not acknowledge the o the r ' s help . 2 5. buy something for m y s e l f when funds are not abundant 11 6. keep money an acquaintance sends me for doing some work for h i m , although I did not expect to get paid for i t 8 7. r e s t r i c t the use of a d i scovery I have made to one company which pays me w e l l rather than let t ing everyone benefit f rom i t 9 8. be insa plane c ra sh and eat my emergency ra t ions without sharing them with others i n the plane who do not know the rat ions exis t 4 9. "take" but not "g ive" i n my re la t ions wi th others 7. 10. do something for m y s e l f which means leaving something for someone else undone 2 11. as the con t ro l le r of a group budget overspend on i tems that are of in teres t to me • 2 12. spend housekeeping money on m y s e l f 5 13. refuse to lend my knowledge to help a worthy cause because I w i l l not get any favourable publ ic i ty f rom i t 7 14. i f I take too much on m y s e l f and thus deprive others of opportunities 6 15. under conditions of s tarvat ion, feel tempted to take away food f rom my fami ly or fr iends 9 16. notice a hungry ch i ld watching me whi le I was eating a large steak dinner and not give h i m any 5 17. refuse to a id a person because I know he cannot pay me for my work 4 18. act i n a ve ry se l f -centered way 3 19- begrudge the t ime spent with my in - l aws 1 H 20. refuse to go on a t r i p with my club because I didn't want to spend the money - 241 -S E L F I S H N E S S p continued:. I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s I , 20 1. be stingy I I , 12,21 2. spend more money than m y share on m y s e l f 3, 19 3. begrudge having to associate wi th those I am expected to be nice to 9, 18 4. act i n a v e r y se l f -cent red way 13, 17 5. refuse to a id a cause or person when I know I cannot be repa id 15 6. be tempted to take things I need away f r o m others 10, 14 7. depr ive others of opportunities by taking them myse l f 4 ,7 8. keep benefits for m y s e l f that others have a r ight to share 8, 16 9. not share m y goods i n t ime of need 2 10. be se l f i sh wi th my fr iends 6 11. keep money given to me that I do not feel I deserve - 242 -S E X P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 9 1. pet before becoming engaged 10 W 2. get a la rge sum for act ing i n an indecent movie 5 3. be forced to watch an indecent f loor show because I am with a group 11 4. be acc identa l ly touched on a disapproved part of m y body 1 5. be provoked to using profane sexual language 12 6. s t r i p someone of the opposite sex 14 7. be asked by m y parents to have a frank d i scuss ion of sex wi th them 9 W 8. do anything that might have l ed to a v io la t ion of chasti ty (necking, petting) 1 w 9. speak or l i s t en to language cont ra ry to chasti ty 9 10. be r equ i r ed to engage i n necking or petting because I am at a party 3 w 11. r e c a l l an i l l i c i t sexual experience wi th pleasure 8 12. see a man and woman petting i n the audience of a theatre 15 13. be told that I a m sexual ly at t ract ive to a member of m y own sex 18 14. be accused of " leading on" a member of the opposite 17 15. s ex be dancing wi th a sexual ly s t imula t ing partner 4 w 16. t r y to at tract another sexual ly by m y scanty clothing 3 w 17. t r y to imagine m y s e l f i n a sexual ly compromis ing si tuation 3 w 18. think about a sexual ly passionate d rama 2 19. have to l i s t en to an obscene s tory or joke because I am unable to leave the group i n wh ich I find m y s e l f 2 20. hear someone t e l l a joke i n which the humour i s d i rec ted at the sexual organs 5 21. be shown obscene photographs 6 22. d i scover that I was reading a sexy novel that had been banned 16 23. have m y c l e rgyman catch me looking through a sex magazine 16 24. be anoticed reading an obviously '"sexy;" 1 book by a f r iend 2 H 25. l i s t e n to someone who was te l l ing d i r ty s tor ies -243 -S E X - continued: P r i nciple N o . Items 6 W 26. read^or look at obscene books 13 H 27. ask one of my parents about sex 3 W 28. entertain unchaste thoughts 4 W 29. d ress immodes t l y 2 w 30. l i s t en to an obscene s tory w i l l i n g l y 6 w 31. read a sexy novel that may not be sent through the m a i l 7 w 32. show approval of another 's sexual delinquencies 5 w 33. go to a club that has an indecent f loor show 17 w 34. engage i n sexual ly s t imula t ing dances 3 w 35. t r y to picture to m y s e l f a lewd show - continued: I tem N o . 5,9 1. 19 ,20 ,25 ,30 2. 11,17,18 3. 28,35 16,29 W 4. 3 ,21,33 5. 22 ,26,31 6. 32 W 7. 12 8. 1,8,10 9. - 244 -S E X P r i n c i p l e s use profane sexual language t e l l or l i s t en to obscene s tor ies or jokes imagine or think about sexual situations dress immodes t ly see an indecent show or pic tures read sexual ly s t imula t ing book or magazines approve another 's sexual delinquency see someone necking or petting be r equ i red to neck or pet when I do not think i t i s r ight 2 W 10. take part i n indicent public performances 4 11. be touched on a disapproved part of m y body 6 12. s t r i p someone of the opposite sex 27 H 13. ask someone about sex 7 14. be asked by someone to d iscuss sex 13 15. be at t ract ive to someone of the same sex 23, 24 16. be seen reading a "sexy" book or magazine 15,34 17. take part i n sexual ly s t imula t ing dances 14 18. be accused of " leading on" a member of the opposite sex - 245 -S H O W I N G O F F P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. t ry to be the centre of attention 3 2. be dared to dr ink five shots of whiskey i n fifteen minute s 2 3. shout ac ross the street 2 4. be too noisy at a party 5 5. t ry to be smar te r than everybody 5 6. ask questions beyond the scope of the course I am taking 2 7. embar rass my spouse with over-exuberance at a party Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. t r y to be the centre of attention 3 , 4 7 2 . be too noisy in public or in a group 2 3. take a dare in o rder to show off 5 4 . t ry to appear to be smar te r than others - 246 -S L A N D E R P r i n c i p l e N o , Items 4 1. be asked to agree with ce r t a in untrue derogatory statements being made about a student who is not an acquaintance of mine 1 2. spread rumours that are not true 2 3. slander the charac ter of a fr iend or an acquaintance and be h i r e d myse l f 3 4 . by c r i t i c i s m and false reports cause another to lose his posi t ion 1 H 5 . spread nasty s tor ies about my gang because they wouldn't do something I wanted to do 1 6. ta lk about someone which i sn ' t ac tual ly true Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 6, 5, 2 1. spread rumours that are not true 3 2. slander someone's charac ter so that I can gain something 4 3. slander someone in order to h a r m them in some way 1 4 . be asked to agree with untrue statements that h a r m someone's charac te r - 247 -S N O B B E R Y  P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. act snobbish 2 2. put on a i r s in order to impres s someone 3 3. snub somebody because my friends don't l ike her 3 4 . t r y to avoid people because I feel they are in fe r io r 3 5. avoid speaking to someone due to h is bad reputation 4 6. snub a person who I recognize but I did not think the person recognized me 5 7. meet an old fr iend after many years of separat ion and because I have acqui red a higher s o c i a l standing I refuse to look at h i m or speak to h i m 2 W 8 . t r y to appear better than I am Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. act snobbish 2, 8 2. t ry to appear better than I a m 5, 4, 3 3. t ry to avoid someone I feel is not good enough 6 4 . snub someone although I recognize them 7 5. snub an old f r iend after I have reached a higher s o c i a l pos i t ion - 248 -S T E A L I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 17 1. take something that doesn't belong to me 16 2. be caught steal ing 17 3. take someone's book 17 W 4. take something that doesn't belong to me 11 5. s teal candy 17 6. s teal an apple 18 H 7. not pay m y fare on a bus and get a free r ide 11 8. charge an expensive a r t i c l e to someone else without this person knowing about i t 11 9. spend money for m y own pleasure and then add the sum to m y business expense account 18 10. be chosen by m y fr iends to place counterfeit t ickets i n the farebox of the t r o l l e y bus 19 11. rob a bank 10 12. knock someone down at night and steal their money 17 13. s teal some money 7 14. use m y employer ' s equipment and supplies for m y personal work , 15. t e l l a f r iend about an idea I have for a iding our work and la ter f ind that he has told the boss before me 17 16. take some cookies f r o m a cookie jar 7 17. p i l fe r s m a l l supplies f r o m the office 13 18. embezzle someone e l se ' s funds 13 19. be sent to pay a b i l l and instead spend the money on m y s e l f 6 20. be asked to a s s i s t i n the planning of a bank robbery even though I w i l l not be requ i red to par t ic ipate i n i t 4 21. take money which I know w i l l not be m i s s e d or t r aced to me 3 22. take something I feel belongs to me 17 23. s teal something, knowing i t i s wrong , and be de termined not to put i t back 2 24. s teal anything f r o m someone I don't know 1 25. s teal anything f r o m someone I know 15 26. see someone else using something that I knew had to be taken f r o m someone else 17 27. s teal a car or bike 14 28. see someone take a newspaper without paying 17 29. take m a i l out of m a i l boxes - 249 -S T E A L I N G - continued: P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 8 30. shoplift 14 31. be wi th a f r iend when he t r i e d to steal something f r o m a department store 14 32. d i scover that a f r iend had s l ipped a diamond f r o m a j ewe l l e r ' s counter into his pocket 14 33. d i scover that a member of m y f a m i l y had brought home some grocer ies that were taken f r o m the food counter of a department store without paying for them 8 34. s teal an a r t i c l e of l i t t l e value f r o m a store without being caught 9 35. pick someone's pocket 9 36. take some money f r o m m y husband's pocket 7 H 37. swipe some paper, penci ls or other l i t t l e things f r o m the place where I work 5 38. break into a j ewe l l e ry store and steal a watch 17 H 39. swipte some penci ls and paper f r o m someone's l o c k e r 13 H 40. use some money which belonged to my club for m y s e l f 1 H 41. take some money f r o m m y mother ' s purse without t e l l ing her 8 W 42. s l i p a diamond r ing into my pociket without danger of being detected 14 43. see a f a m i l y walk ing i n a public park and the ch i ld ren pick f lowers which are not to be touched - 250 -- continued: I tem N o . 41,25 1. 24 2. 22 3. 21 4. 38 5. 20 6. 14,17,37 7. 30 ,34 ,42 8. 35,36 9. 12 10. 8.9 11. 12. 18,19,40 13. 3 3 , 3 2 , 4 3 , 14. 31, 28 26 15. 2 16. 1 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 17. 13, :L6 ,27 29,39,23 7.10 18. 11 19. S T E A L I N G P r i n c i p l e s s teal something f rom someone I know steal something f r o m someone I don't know take something I feel belongs to me take something I know w i l l not be m i s s e d or t r aced to me steal something through breaking and entering a s s i s t i n planning a robbery pi l fer s m a l l supplies f r o m school or work shoplift p ick someone's pocket overcome someone and take their valuables charge i tems to someone without p e r m i s s i o n s teal someone's ideas embezzle someone's money see someone else steal see someone else using something I know was stolen be caught steal ing take something that doesn't belong to me steal a r ide rob c o m m e r c i a l p remises - 251 -S T R I K I N G P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 7 1. hit any one of m y f a m i l y i n anger 3 2. see a po l iceman s t r i k ing a man 4 3. be always knocked and pushed around 1 4 4 . s t r ike a ch i l d i n a fit of temper 2 5. s t r ike a pol ice officer 5 6. hit a f r i end dur ing an argument 6 7. beat up someone 5 8. s lap a person 7 9. hit my brother or s i s te r 1 10. hit a ch i ld 5 11. s lap someone's face 5 12. hi t a person on the head wi th a bat 5. W 13. s t r ike m y mieighbour Item No. P r i n c i p l e s 2, 10 1. s t r ike someone younger 5 2. s t r ike someone i n authori ty 2 3. see someone s t r ik ing another 3 4. be always knocked and pushed around 6 , 8 , 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 5. s t r ike someone else 7 6. beat up someone 1,9 7. hi t one of my fami ly - 252 -S T U B B O R N N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. rece ive good advice and then de l ibera te ly not take i t , continuing in whatever I was doing before 2 2. when asked to do something by my parents I f la t ly refuse l a rge ly through stubbornness when I only half -hear tedly bel ieve I am r ight 3 3 . be too stubborn in ce r ta in situations when it would have been pleasanter i f I had bent a l i t t l e 4 4 . sulk Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1 . refuse to take good advice because of my stubborn:-ne s s 2. 2. refuse to do something when asked , through stubborn-ness 3 3. make things unpleasant by being needless ly stubborn 4 4 . sulk - 253 T A C T L E S S N E S S Items do another person 's work for h i m as i f I d id not t rus t h i m to do i t be too frank and outspoken after speaking before a group, wonder whether I sa id anything to offend anybody make someone else feel inadequate wi th no chance of remedying the si tuation t e l l a person exact ly what I think about some act ion harmful to h i m s e l f wh ich he intends to do, even though t e l l i ng h i m w i l l lose h is f r iendship upset a f r iend by t e l l i ng h i m something I thought he a l ready knew support at great lengths before a group of acquaintances the idea that d ivorce always involves fault on both sides and f ind out l a te r that one of the group i s d ivo rced speak about someone's parents and find they are dead cause embar rassment unintentionally to someone say something that embar ras ses a f r i end i n publ ic not be tactful about subjects and people can in te rpre t the words the wrong way P r i n c i p l e s make someone feel inadequate wi th no chance of remedying the si tuation upset someone by mentioning something I thought he was aware of be too frank and outspoken cause embar rassment unintentionally to someone offend someone when speaking i n front of a group do someone's work for them as i f they cannot be t rusted to do i t themselves - Z54 -T A C T L E S S N E S S P r i n c i p l e s make someone feel inadequate wi th no chance of remedying the si tuation upset someone by mentioning something I thought he was aware of be too frank and outspoken cause embar rassment unintentionally to someone offend someone when speaking i n front of a group do someone's work for them as i f they cannot be t rusted to do i t themselves unintentionally mention a "touchy" subject to someone say things unintentionally that can be m i s -in te rpre ted - 255 T A R D I N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. keep anyone wait ing unnecessa r i ly 2 2. be late for an appointment 2 3 . be detained one half hour f rom keeping an appoint-ment with my ins t ruc tor or employer 2 4 . not a r r i v e exactly on t ime at a place of meeting 3 5 . not be on t ime at work 6 6. hand in an assignment late when I could have had it in on t ime 5 7. be late for church when I could have been on t ime 4 8. not have a m e a l ready on t ime I 9. make the m i l k m a n wait while I co l lec t empty bottles 10. come to school late Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. keep anyone wait ing unnecessar i ly 2 2. be late for an appointment 5 3 . be late for school or work 8 4 . be late at mea l t imes 7 5. be unnecessar i ly late for gatherings 6 6.. be late i n complet ing a job or assignment - 256 -U N C L E A N N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 1 1. have someone t e l l me my ears are d i r ty 2 2. hear my friends say that the handkerchiefs I use are d i r ty 3 3. not wash my hands or b rush my teeth before bed 5 4 . neglect to wash my hands after urinat ing 3 5. not c lean up 4 6 . be accused of having strong and unpleasant body odour which I know to be due to l ack of bathing 1 7. be descr ibed to my friends as one who r a r e l y takes a bath 6 H 8 . not keep my f ingernai ls c lean 3 H 9 . not wash my hands before supper 3 H 1 0 . not b rush my teeth in the morning Item N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. have someone r e m a r k on my d i r ty appearance 2 2. have someone r e m a r k on my d i r ty clothing 3 3. not clean up before bed or mea l t imes 6 4 . not have a bath often enough 3, 4 5. not wash my hands when I should 8 6. f a i l to keep myse l f clean with regard to teeth, f inge rna i l s , h a i r , e tc . - 257 -U N F A I R N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 3 1. force an employee to take r e spons ib i l i t i e s he should not have to shoulder 3 2. load work on an employee i n order to l ighten m y own work load 7 3. bawl the k ids out for doing something they couldn't help 1 4. take advantage of someone's f r iensh ip 6 5, as a student c r i t i c i z e the teaching of an ins t ruc to r even though I knew he was putting for th h is best effort 5 W 6. presume e v i l of another 5 7. f o r m an uncompl imentary opinion of someone whom I have an ot met and find on meet ing h i m that m y opinions have been wrong 5 8. jump to conclusions i n judging m y chi ld 5 9. jump to conclusions about someone's intentions 4 10. be told that the po l icy of a la rge f i r m was to f i r e their employees when they reach the age of 50 10 11. apply for s eve ra l jobs and use the offers I have r ece ived i n order to get a r a i s e f rom m y present employer 1 12. impose on someone's kindness 1 13. take advantage of someone for m y own personal gain 2 14. not wai t m y turn i n l ine 2 15. take a posi t ion i n a l ine -up ahead of someone who had been wai t ing for some t ime 9 16. have a f r iend who feels I have taken advantage of h i m 11 17. have m y employee do some work for m e , and when he i s through, t e l l h i m he must do i t again as he used the wrong method, although I d id not t e l l h i m the work must be done a spec ia l way 7 18. be unreasonable about m y husband not being i n on t ime 6 19. c r i t i c i z e my husband unfai r ly 3 20. leave a mess i n a r o o m for someone else to clean up 7 21. be unreasonable wi th ch i ld ren 7 22. overemphasize a m i n o r fault i n m y ch i ld ren 1 23. achieve something by taking advantage of others 8 24. d i scover that the law had made i t possible to provide ex t ra benefits for my ch i ld ren at the expense of others - 258 -- continued: I tem No . 23 ,4 ,12 ,13 1. 14,15 2. 1,2,20 3, 10 4, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 5, 5,19 6, 3 ,11 ,21 ,22 7, 24 16 11 17 U N F A I R N E S S P r i n c i p l e s take advantage of others not wait m y turn . force someone to take more work on than they should have . d i s m i s s employees because of handicaps, i n f i r m i t i e s or o ld age . jump to conclusions i n making judgments about others . c r i t i c i z e someone although they are doing the best they can . be unreasonable wi th someone about a minor mat ter 8. r ece ive ext ra benefits at the expense of others 9. have someone think I have taken advantage of them 10. use unfair means to achieve a goal 11. make someone do a job again when i t was m y fault i t was not done p rope r ly i n the f i r s t pla - 259 -U N K I N D N E S S P r i n c i p l e No. Items 1 1. say something to hurt someone's feelings intent ional ly 2 2. say something unkind 1 3. hurt someone's feelings 1 4. de l ibera te ly hurt someone by being impatient or unkind 1 5. make someone else feel bad by insul t ing or bel i t t l ing them 3 6. make fun of a d isf igured person 3 7. laugh and point at a c r i pp l ed person 3 8. tease someone 3 9. tease someone about their looks and things 11 10. pick on someone 11 11. p ick on people s m a l l e r than yourse l f 4 12. scare someone 2 13. say something sa rcas t ic 2 14. make a bi t ing r e m a r k 12 15. let someone go off after a disagreement without making up f i r s t 5 16. deprive my parents of enjoyment wi th their grandchi ldren 7 17. leave someone out of things at a party 3 18. laugh at somebody 9 19. t e l l someone I do not l ike them 11 20. be mean to someone 3 21. make provocative statements which resul t in m y companions being emot ional ly upset while I r egard them wi th amuse-ment 3 22. d i scuss a subject i n a group although I know cer ta in members of the group w i l l be embar r a s sed and dis turbed by such d i scuss ion 1 23. make statements i n a group der id ing ce r ta in bel iefs , although I know that a t i m i d member of the group holds these bel iefs 6 24. leave a person stranded by the side of the road 3 25, make fun of an o ld person 12 26. make someone c r y 9 27. have to t e l l a f r iend that I cannot see them again unless a specific change in conduct i s made by them 9 28. have to t e l l a member of the opposite sex to stay away because they bother me 3 29. t e l l someone they have made a mis take and refuse to help them 10 30. use the ignorance of one of m y friends to impre s s somebody else i n their presence 8 31. t e l l someone I do not l ike something which they love 13 32. play an unkind p r a c t i c a l joke on someone 15 33. make someone unhappy 9 34. t e l l a f r iend I don't l ike them any more 3 W 35. r id i cu le my neighbours 260 -U N K I N D N E S S (contd. ) P r i n c i p l e Items N o . 6 36. badly inconvenience someone 11 37. continually reproach someone 15 H 38. tease someone i n my c lass unt i l he or she c r i e s 9 H 39. t e l l another boy or g i r l that I didn' t l ike h i m because he wasn ' t wear ing s ty l i sh clothes 5 40. take something away f rom someone 5 41. take candy f rom a ch i ld 5 42. be asked to stop playing a h a r m l e s s game that my old grandfather was enjoying i m m e n s e l y 3 H 43. tease a sma l l e r ch i ld Items No . 1, 3, 4, 5, 1. 2, 13, 14 2. 6, 7, 8, 9, 18, 21 3. 29, 22, 25, 35,43 12 4. 16, 40 , 41, 42 5. 24, 36 6. 17 7. 31 8. 19, 27, 28, 34, 39 9. 30 10. 10, 11, 20, 37 11. 15 ,26 ,33 ,38 12. 32 13. i - 261 -U N K I N D N E S S P r i n c i p l e s de l ibera te ly hurt someone's feelings say something unkind tease someone or make fun of them frighten someone deprive someone of enjoyment of something badly inconvenience someone leave someone out of things t e l l someone I do not l ike something that they love t e l l someone I no longer l ike them use someone's weakness to my advantage pick on someone make someone c r y or be unhappy play unkind p rac t i ca l jofces on somebody - 262 -UNTIDINESS 1 1. see a l i t te rbug 2 2. do slovenly housekeeping 2 3. have an untidy house too often 3 4. not keep my notebook neat 3 5. not keep my room neat 4 6. not c lean up a mess that I had made at home Item No . P r i n c i p l e s 1 1. see someone else being untidy 2,3 2. have an untidy house too often 4 ,5 H 3. not keep my belongings neat 6 H 4, not c lean up a mess I have made - 263 -V I O L A T I O N O F P R I V A C Y Items hear m y fr iends in fo rming others about m y unpopular p o l i t i c a l views which I feel should not be pub l ic ized give confidential in format ion to someone about a t h i r d person which he passes on to that person and upsets h i m not keep an important secre t give m y w o r d to keep something secret for a ce r ta in lentgth of t ime and repeat i t before the t ime i s up ask someone about a ce r ta in s i tuat ion and afterwards find this person was i n a diff icul t posi t ion at that t ime and though I was g r i l l i n g h i m (her) embar ras s a f r iend by enquir ing into their personal affairs just to satisfy m y own cu r ios i ty ask questions of an acquaintance which I l a te r f ind he resented as an i nvasion of p r i v a c y give m a t e r i a l of a confidential nature to the press without p e r m i s s i o n of the persons involved a l low m a t e r i a l of a confidential nature to be pub-l i shed for m y own f inancia l gain s o l i c i t in format ion wi th the understanding that the contributor w i l l be anonymous, but have a secre t code so that I can identify the answers of each person h a r m a person who has confided i n me by t e s t i -fying against h i m i n court notify a company that someone i s stealing f r o m them, after having been told about i t by the guil ty person i n confidence i n t e l l ing a group about the misdemeanours of a f r i end , r evea l his (her) name by mis take revea l personal secrets about a f r i end , without r e a l i z i n g i t at the t i m e , to a mutual f r i end of both of us t e l l a f r iend he i s s e r ious ly i l l although I know his f ami ly does not want h i m to know comply wi th someone's request to influence m y f r iend i n a cer ta in d i r ec t i on , although i t i s a matter he should be free to decide for h i m s e l f (herself) - 264 -V I O L A T I O N O F P R I V A C Y (contd. ) P r i n c i p l e No . Items 6 17 4 18 4 19 10. 20 13 21 13 22 3 23 11 24 2 25 1 26 1 27 4 28 4 29 14 30 d iscuss my fr iend 's problems with h is mother , although I know he would be great ly embar r a s sed i f he knew rea l i ze that one of my friends treats h i s ch i ld ren i n a way that i s harmful to them and feel c o m -pel led to t e l l h i m so meddle i n someone e l se ' s business make a tape record ing of an int imate conversa t ion with a f r iend without t e l l ing that I have done so attempt to check up on m y g i r l f r iend 's c redi t ra t ing take the opportunity to investigate my neighbour 's personal affairs without detection read my f r iend 's personal d i a ry without their knowing a thing about i t p ick up a paper i n my room and upon examining i t notice that i t i s my roommate ' s l e t t e r , who just then walks i n look into someone's private belongings accidenta l ly overhear a pr ivate conversa t ion i n a foreign language which I understand not be able to avoid l i s ten ing intently to the domest ic in t imac ies of the people i n the next apartment give advice to someone who doesn't ask for i t , knowing I am no authority find fault with things that don't r e a l l y concern me be asked whether I had ever slept wi th a member of the opposite sex - 265 -V I O L A T I O N O F P R I V A C Y - continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 26, 27 1. not be able to avoid hear ing an int imate conversa t ion 25 2. examine someone's belongings 23 3. read someone's le t te rs or d i a r y 28 ,29 ,15 4. meddle i n someone's ]per'S:onalraffaix,s 16,18 ,19 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 1 5. r evea l personal secrets or confidential in format ion 12 of someone to others 17 6. d iscuss someone's personal problems wi th others 8,9 7. a l low m a t e r i a l of a confidential nature to be published 6 ,5 ,7 8. ask questions of someone which I la ter f ind was resented as an invas ion of p r i v a c y 14, 13 9. inadvertent ly r evea l a secre t 10, 20 10. make a r e c o r d of someone's r e m a r k s without t e l l i ng them 24 11. be caught examining pr ivate belongings 1 12. hear m y personal affairs being d i scussed by others 21,22 13. obtain personal informat ion about someone which i s none of m y business 30 14. be asked highly personal questions P r i n c i p l e N o . - 266 -W A S T E F U L N E S S Items 1 1. waste a whole evening watching T V 1 2. waste or misuse t ime 2 3. throw away old clothes when they could be given to char i ty 3 4. lose twenty do l l a r s playing poker when I a m t ry ing to save money for something more worthwhile 4 5. be the las t one to leave a r o o m i n someone e l se ' s house and leave the l ights on 4 W 6. take or unwitt ingly pe rmi t to be served to me a por t ion of food even though I knew I couldn"t eat i t 2 7. des t roy food that b i rds or an imals could eat 3 H 8. spend money on movies and candy which I had planned to save for a b i cyc le 1 W 9. idle away valuable t ime 5 10. spend more money when I go shopping than I should I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 1,2,9 1. waste or misuse t ime 3.7 2. throw away something that could be used by someone else 4.8 3. spend money I had been saving for an important purpose on something t r i v i a l 5,6 4. consume more of something than i s necessa ry 10 5. spend more money than I should - 267 -W E A K N E S S P r i n c i p l e N o . Items 6 1. not t r y to renew a s t ra ined f r iendship when the b reach was caused by me 8 2. leave a misdemeanor unchallenged i n persons under m y care 11 3. r e l y on a benign providence to solve problems I should solve m y s e l f 1 4. avoid giving a d i rec t answer to a question i n order to hide m y ignorance 1 5. run away f r o m home 3 6. f ind I frequently a l low others to persuade me to do something I don't r e a l l y want to do 1 7. take the easy way out 5 8. quit doing something important before i t i s f in ished 2 9. quit school or m y job for no good reason 1 10. run away f r o m trouble 8 11. be l ax when I am expected to be more hardboi led 5 12. not f i n i sh distasteful jobs that have to be done 7 13. c a l l i n a doctor on a t r i v i a l matter 5 H 14. quit work ing on a job even though I hadn't f in ished 5 H 15. decide to be l i k e some older person whom I admi re ve ry much and then quit t ry ing 9 H 16. not do the best I can i n m y studies unless m y parents give me spec ia l awards 6 17 be asked to do something which I think I a m incapable of doing and I refuse without t ry ing 8 •W 18. f a i l to co r r ec t those subject to me 1 H 19. quit a club or .group when things began to go badly 5 H 20. s tart to work for a p r i ze and then get d iscouraged and quit 10 W 21. r e l y on fortune t e l l i ng , s t a r s , s igns , e tc . to solve m y problems 4 22. depend on someone else to do something I should do m y s e l f - 268 -W E A K N E S S •- continued: I tem N o . P r i n c i p l e s 4, 5, 7, 1. avoid trouble by taking the easy way out 10, 19 9 2. quit school or m y job for no good reason 6 3. a l low m y s e l f to be eas i ly influenced by others 22 4. r e l y on others to solve m y problems 8, 12, 14 5. quit doing something important before I have 15, 20 f in ished 1, 17 6. not t r y to do something I should 13 7. c a l l for a id when I should be able to manage by m y s e l f 2, 18, 11 8. be l ax when I should be more s t r i c t 16 H 9- only do things when given a concrete r e w a r d 21 W 10. r e l y on superst i t ious bel iefs ( e . g . astrology) to solve m y problems 3 11. r e l y on a benign Providence to solve problems I should solve m y s e l f - 269 -W I T H H O L D I N G I N F O R M A T I O N P r i n c i p l e No . Items 3 1. refuse to answer questions to help a ce r t a in cause in o rder to main ta in personal p r i v a c y 4 2. t r y to keep some informat ion secre t that w i l l benefit others because i t m a y detract f r o m m y own work 4 3. omi t mentioning a ser ious defect i n a person whom I have been asked to recommend 1 4. help a man who has commit ted a c r i m e by refusing to testify against h im , although I know the public may suffer if he i s set free 1 5. withold what might be valuable informat ion in a iding the recapture of an escaped convic t 1 6. be the only one who knows that an accident was the fault of someone in my fami ly and not t e l l 1 7. have to be a witness regarding an accident in which the injured person could be helped by m y test i -mony, but I do not speak as the defendant i s a f r iend of mine 1 8. f a i l to repor t a law t ransgressor to the police to save personal embar rassment 1 9. accident ly uncover the plans for a theft and keep the knowledge to myse l f 1 10. know that someone stole something but keep i t secre t 2 11. be engaged but do not t e l l m y fiance(e) about a previous affair i n which I had an i l l eg i t ima te c h i l d 2 12. f a i l to t e l l m y fiance my true age before ma r r i age 5 13. delay te l l ing a f r iend bad news although the sooner he i s given the news the better - 270 -W I T H H O L D I N G I N F O R M A T I O N P r i n c i p l e No. Items 2 14. hear my mother te l l ing a f r iend that she was sure I would never touch a dr ink , and I know that I had just come in f r o m a. couple of cock-t a i l par t ies 2 H 15. not t e l l m y mother when I feel s ick W 16. conceal my good works - 271 -W I T H H O L D I N G I N F O R M A T I O N P r i n c i p l e s f a i l to repor t a c r ime to the proper authori t ies or withhold informat ion about a c r i m e withhold personal informat ion about m y s e l f f r o m someone who i s enti t led to know refuse to answer questions although answer ing would help a cer ta in cause t r y to keep something secre t although i t would benefit others to have i t known delay te l l ing someone bad news when i t would be better to t e l l them r ight away 

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