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Group methods in a treatment home for girls : analytical study of the group work contributions of Warrendale… Cutcher, Allen Charles 1958

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GROUP METHODS IN A TREATMENT HOME FOR GIRLS An A n a l y t i c a l S tudy of the Groupwork C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Warrendale (Newmarket, O n t a r i o ) , 1 9 5 7 . b y ALLEN CHARLES CUTCHER T h e s i s Submi t ted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requ i rements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1953 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia i i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f a m i l i e u programme, g i v i n g s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n to i t s groupwork methods and c o n t r i b u t i o n s wh ich i s i n o p e r a t i o n a t W a r r e n d a l e , a r e s i d e n t i a l t rea tment home f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d g i r l s s i t u a t e d i n Newmarket, O n t a r i o . A g a i n s t a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the i n s t i t u t i o n , i t g i v e s the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s o f the work done w i t h c h i l d r e n , u s i n g the m i l i e u concept as p i o -neered by F r i t z R e d l and Bruno B e t t l e h e i m . The i n s t i t u t i o n u s e s caseworkers and groupworkers as r e s i d e n t i a l s t a f f , d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , but o n l y the group work a s p e c t s of the programme are c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . Three a s p e c t s of the t o t a l m i l i e u a r e c o n s i d e r e d ; (a) r o u t i n e s and r u l e s ; (b) l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s and the community; (c) d i s c i p l i n e and p r o b l e m - h a n d l i n g . P a r t s o f the l i f e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d and a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the v a r i o u s t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l s o f the i n s t i -t u t i o n ; (a) t e n s i o n r e d u c t i o n ; (b) i n d i v i d u a l i t y ; (c) g a i n -i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; (d) e x p r e s s i o n - a n d r e l e a s e o f f e e l i n g s . The va lue o f t h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e i r d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e . The c o n t r i b u t i o n and use o f group s k i l l s i n the m i l i e u s e t t i n g are c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f the t h e r -a p e u t i c g o a l s ment ioned above . The group s e s s i o n i s the p r i n c i p a l t e c h n i q u e c o n s i d e r e d , and the i n t e r p r e t i v e and g o a l s e t t i n g v a l u e s o f group s e s s i o n s are brought o u t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e l e b r a t i n g s o c i a l f e s t i v i t i e s and the s p e c i a l uses o f group s e s s i o n s as e x p r e s s i v e media a re a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d as a p a r t o f group s k i l l s . The o v e r -a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f improvement, are summarized i n a c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I - In s t i t u t i o n s and Group Approaches to Treatment Page The problem of dealing with emotionally disturbed children. Types of g i r l s who need i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Different approaches to r e s i d e n t i a l treatment. Origin and h i s t o r y of Warrendale. P o l i c i e s and working phi-losophies of Warrendale. The milieu and the tasks of the worker. Method of the study 1 Chapter II - The Supportive Approach to Routines. Leisure- Time A c t i v i t i e s and Problem-Handling Theoretical background and general concepts used at Warrendale. Routines; Programme; d i s c i p l i n e ; i n r e l a t i o n to tension reduction, i n d i v i d u a l i t y , gaining r e l a t i o n s h i p with the children. Expression and release of f e e l i n g s . The value of routines and leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s as diagnostic devices 18 Chapter III - Group S k i l l s i n Adjustment and Treatment Concepts of the use of the group and the r o l e of the leader, i n a treatment s i t u a t i o n . The formulation of group l i v i n g r o l e s and standards. The group focus on in d i v i d u a l problems; expression and release of f e e l i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to group sessions. The value of f e s t i v i t i e s and holidays, etc. The group adjustment value of group sessions 41 Chapter IV - Contributions and P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Warrendale Treatment potentials: parental substitutes; a range of s i b l i n g s ; a positive m i l i e u . The psychological understanding of the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s ap p l i c a t i o n to everyday l i v i n g . Suggestions for improvement; creative a c t i v i t y programme; supervision and development of s t a f f ; increase i n physical and psychiatric f a c i l i t i e s ; community involvement 63 Appendices: A. L i s t of Warrendale g i r l s and t h e i r problems B. Summary of admission forms and reports C. Bibliography i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. John Brown and Miss Lorraine Scott of "Warrendale" for t h e i r comments and suggestions. My thanks also go to Mr. Lawrence Wick, a colleague, and Mr. Floyd Bolton both of Vancouver, who made my consultative v i s i t there possible. Special thanks go to Dr. Leonard Marsh and Miss Anne Furness, both of the School of s o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, who had the f a i t h i n my a b i l i t y to do th i s study by consultation and correspondence. Their e f f o r t and attention to my work made this study possible. CHAPTER I INSTITUTIONS AND GROUP APPROACHES TO TREATMENT The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n has a l o n g h i s t o r y i n Western s o c i e t y , bu t the development o f i n s t i t u t i o n s e s -p e c i a l l y f o r c h i l d r e n has o c c u r r e d o n l y i n the l a s t one hundred and f i f t y y e a r s . Wars and h i g h m a t e r n a l d e a t h r a t e s b o t h c o n -t r i b u t e d to the b u i l d i n g o f orphanages and homes f o r dependent c h i l d r e n and a g r e a t number o f t h e s e were m a i n t a i n e d by r e l i g i o u s and p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r d e r s . In Nor th A m e r i c a , a f t e r the F i r s t Wor ld War ( 1 9 1 4 - ^ 1 9 1 8 ) , as a d o p t i v e and f o s t e r home p r a c t i c e s became more a c c e p t e d and the number o f orphans dropped s i g n i f i -c a n t l y , t h e day o f the orphanage waned, and t h e r e seemed t o be no p l a c e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a modern c h i l d c a r e programme. Over the y e a r s however, i t has become e v i d e n t t h a t even i n the most e f f i c a c i o u s c h i l d ca re sys tem, t h e r e remains a r e s i -due o f c h i l d r e n who f a i l i n t h e i r ad justment t o f a m i l y l i f e . I n d i v i d u a l r e m e d i a l measures seemed unab le t o cope w i t h a l l the c a s e s , and the term "not r e s p o n d i n g t o t r e a t m e n t " has become more and more common. The v a l u e o f group t rea tment o f c h i l d r e n w i t h e m o t i o n -a l d i s t u r b a n c e s became e v i d e n t under such p i o n e e r s as August A i c h h o r n , who o p e r a t e d a t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r boys i n V i e n n a i n - 2 -the 1920's, and Dr. Bruno B e t t l e h e i m and Dr. F r i t z R e d l b o t h of whom d e v e l o p e d s i m i l a r group t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s some t w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r . Thus, t h e needs o f dependent c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care have changed g r e a t l y i n t h e l a s t t h i r t y o r f o r t y y e a r s , and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h e r e a s o n s why a c h i l d need be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f o r an e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e . C h i l d r e n  Who Hate. Love I s Not Enough. Wayward Youth and o t h e r d e s c r i p -t i v e t i t l e s o f books w r i t t e n about e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d 1 c h i l d r e n , s u g g e s t some o f t h e s e r e a s o n s . I n v a r i a b l y , t h e h i s t o r i e s o f d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n show t h a t t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f b a s i c needs o r t h e l a c k o f i m p o r t a n t g o a l s i n t h e i r l i v e s has produced unmanageable q u a n t i t i e s o f a g g r e s s i o n , d e s t r u c t i v e -ness and o t h e r d i s t u r b a n c e s . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i o f slums and p o v e r t y as con-t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o p r o d u c i n g a g g r e s s i o n and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s are w e l l known and documented by s o c i o l o g i s t s , b u t t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f t h e c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s and h i s p e e r s i s a l s o o f k e y s i g n i f i c a n c e . The problem i s a l s o one o f more t h a n p a r e n t a l p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t , common as t h a t i s . R a t h e r , the e m o t i o n a l c a r e and c o n c e r n t h a t t h e p a r e n t has e x p r e s s e d t o the c h i l d seems t o det e r m i n e t h e degree and d e p t h o f d i s t u r b a n c e i n a c h i l d . Most o f the p a r e n t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t Dr. B e t t l e h e i m 1 See b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r more complete r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e t i t l e s - 3— h a s t r e a t e d , f o r e x a m p l e , h a v e b e e n o f a b o v e a v e r a g e i n c o m e , a n d h a v e s h o w n t h e m s e l v e s t o b e i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n s . B e g i n n i n g w i t h a t y p e o f p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n t h a t may b e e i t h e r o v e r t o r d i s g u i s e d , t h e e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d may f i n d s u p p o r t a n d c o m f o r t f r o m s u r r o u n d i n g s o u t s i d e t h e h o m e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i v e s o r a s e n s i t i v e t e a c h e r o r some o t h e r p a r e n t s u b s t i t u t e may f i l l t h e b r e e c h ; b u t w h e n t h e b a s i c i n f a n t n e e d s a r e r e p e a t e d l y d e n i e d , t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o bene-f i t f r o m s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e n o t e n o u g h . W h a t o f t e n h a p p e n s i s t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f r e j e c t i o n c o n t i n u e s a n d t h e c h i l d g r a d -u a l l y b e c o m e s t h e c h i l d w i t h whom n o b o d y w a n t s t o l i v e . S u c h a c h i l d u s u a l l y g o e s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f f o s t e r h o m e s , c a u s e s d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n i t y , a n d a f t e r a p e r i o d o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t a n d c l i n i c s , may b e s e n t t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l o r d e t e n t i o n home u n t i l t h e r e s e e m s t o be n o p l a c e l e f t f o r h i m . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e e v e n t u a l f a t e o f s u c h a c h i l d t o o o f t e n w a s t o b e s e n t t o a t r a i n i n g s c h o o l o r a n i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e f e e b l e - m i n d e d w h e r e a n i n s t i -t u t i o n a l i z e d l i f e a w a i t e d h i m . I n o r d e r t o h e l p s u c h a c h i l d , i t b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y t o k n o w w h a t s p e c i f i c d i s t u r b a n c e s h a v e o c c u r r e d i n h i s e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d w h a t d e f e n c e s t h e c h i l d h a s d e v -e l o p e d i n o r d e r t o w a r d o f f t h e i m p a c t o f t h e u n p l e a s a n t w o r l d a r o u n d h i m . I t t h e n b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s i g n a - 4 -s u p p o r t i v e m i l i e u i n wh ich the c h i l d can e x p r e s s h i s p r i m a r y e m o t i o n a l maldeve lopment . I t i s as he i s a b l e t o e x p r e s s h i s d i s t u r b a n c e t h a t i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o h e l p him f a c e r e a l i t y w i t h i n the e g o - s u p p o r t i v e framework o f the m i l i e u . In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , t h e m i l i e u must a l s o c o u n t e r - a c t the d e f e n c e s t h a t the c h i l d has used i n h i s p a s t , b e f o r e any form o f r e l a t i o n s h i p - t h e r a p y can be s u c c e s s f u l . D i f f e r e n t Approaches t o R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment A d e s c r i p t i v e s tudy o f twelve r e s i d e n t i a l t rea tment c e n t r e s i n the U . S . A . , r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d by the C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f A m e r i c a , r e v e a l s the v a r i e t y o f methods and p h i l o s o p h y used i n t h e t rea tment o f d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The p r e f a c e o f t h i s s tudy summarizes t h i s v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h , (but emphasizes u n a n i m i t y o f o b j e c t i v e ) , i n the f o l l o w i n g words : These t rea tment i n s t i t u t i o n s , though d i v e r s e i n t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y , o r i g i n and a u s p i c e s , a l l r e s u l t f rom a t tempts to f i n d more s u c c e s s f u l ways o f h e l p i n g d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . They have been e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e t rea tment f o r t h e c h i l d f o r whom the gu idance c l i n i c s , f o s t e r c a r e a g e n c i e s and c o r r e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s have been u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e adequate h e l p . They have one t h i n g i n common - the development  o f a t o t a l approach t o t h e r a p y . ^ There are two g e n e r a l v i e w p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g the concept o f t o t a l t h e r a p y and b o t h c e n t r e on the r o l e o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s t a f f , the p e r s o n s who d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n i n the l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . In one a p p r o a c h , the r e s i d e n t i a l worker 2 R e i d , Joseph H. and Hagen, He len R . , R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment  o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n . C h i l d We l fa re League o f A m e r i c a , New York C i t y , 1 9 5 2 . P . 5 ( U n d e r l i n i n g added) - 5 -i s r e g a r d e d a s the b a s i c t h e r a p i s t , h a n d l i n g a l l the i n d i v i d u a l and group s i t u a t i o n s as t h e y a r i s e . In f a c t , such workers are o f t e n c a l l e d t h e r a p i s t s . The second approach i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concept o f " m i l i e u " or e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h e r a p y , a term o r i g i n a t e d by Bruno B e t t l e h e i m . In d e s c r i b i n g i t he s a y s : We sometimes t h i n k o f our work as e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h e r a p y r a t h e r than p s y c h o t h e r a p y . That i s , we r e l y l e s s on the i s o l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one p e r s o n , or the w o r k i n g out o f problems i n a r e l a t i v e l y s e c l u d e d t r e a t m e n t room - or even the use o f s y m b o l i c p l a y m a t e r i a l - and more on the v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e -tween c h i l d r e n and the v a r i o u s s t a f f members and among the c h i l d r e n themse lves . 3 T h i s concep t o f t h e r a p y i n a m o d i f i e d fo rm i s the major c o n c e r n o f the p r e s e n t t h e s i s . I t i s examined i n p r a c t i c a l form by r e l a t i n g i t t o an a n a l y t i c a l account o f the program o f " W a r r e n d a l e " , a r e s i d e n t i a l t r ea tment home f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d g i r l s , s i t u a t e d i n Newmarket, O n t a r i o . O r i g i n and H i s t o r y o f Warrenda le Warrendale began as a "Home f o r Wayward C h r i s t i a n Women and G i r l s " e s t a b l i s h e d i n T o r o n t o i n 1916 under the a u s p i c e s o f a Women's A u x i l i a r y o f an A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . I t was t h e n c a l l e d S t . F a i t h ' s L o d g e . I t was d e c i d e d t o p r o v i d e a s e r v i c e f o r dependent g i r l s because o f the l a c k 3 B e t t l e h e i m , B r u n o , Love i s Not Enough , F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , 1950, P. 32 - 6 -of such f a c i l i t i e s i n the community, and t h i s f o c u s r e m a i n s , a l t h o u g h l o n g - r a n g e p l a n s w i l l i n c l u d e care o f boys as w e l l . A f t e r f o r t y y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n , i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n was d e a l i n g w i t h b e h a v i o r problems b e -yond i t s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t , and f i n a l l y community p r e s s u r e brought i t s c l o s u r e i n 1 9 5 0 . By t h i s t i m e , the b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s , ( a l l women), had not o n l y d e c i d e d t o move the i n s t i t u t i o n , but a l s o t o d i r e c t the f o c u s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n more a l o n g t rea tment l i n e s . A l a r g e t w e l v e - a c r e e s t a t e i n Newmarket ( 3 0 m i l e s n o r t h o f Toronto ) became a v a i l a b l e f o r c h a r i t a b l e p u r p o s e s , and t h i s was p u r c h a s e d by S t . F a i t h ' s L o d g e . A c c o r d i n g l y , i n 1 9 5 1 a groupworker was h i r e d ; a new name, " W a r r e n d a l e " , was a d o p t e d , and the new i n s t i t u t i o n was opened i n A u g u s t , 1 9 5 2 . By t h i s t i m e , t h e b o a r d had become s e c u l a r i z e d and became a member o f the U n i t e d Community Fund o f G r e a t e r Toronto and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l . Warrendale today c o n s i s t s o f one main b u i l d i n g and two a u x i l i a r y b u i l d i n g s , s i t u a t e d on twe lve a c r e s o f l a w n , o r c h a r d and wooded a r e a s . The main b u i l d i n g houses twe lve t o e i g h t e e n g i r l s aged e i g h t t o s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . The g i r l s s l e e p i n rooms on the two t o p f l o o r s , f rom one t o f o u r g i r l s t o a room. The o l d e r g i r l s , ( twelve t o s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d ) , g e n e r a l l y but not i n f l e x i b l y , have t h e i r rooms on the t h i r d f l o o r , w h i l e the younger g i r l s ( e i g h t t o twe lve y e a r s o l d ) , g e n e r a l l y occupy the second f l o o r . The second f l o o r - 7 -a l s o c o n t a i n s an i s o l a t i o n - s i c k room, s t a f f mee t ing room, a med ic ine d i s p e n s a r y and l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r two s t a f f . On ly one s t a f f p e r s o n l i v e s i n a t p r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h i n the b e g i n -n i n g o f the agency a l l s t a f f l i v e d i n . The ground f l o o r c o n -t a i n s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , k i t c h e n , d i n i n g room, l i v i n g room, p i a n o room, a , t e l e v i s i o n room and a t i l e - f l o o r e d sun room, wh ich i s the o n l y smoking a r e a i n the house f o r t h e g i r l s . The d i n i n g room i s a common one f o r s t a f f and g i r l s , w i t h s i x t a b l e s , f o u r p e r s o n s t o a t a b l e . The basement c o n -t a i n s the l a u n d r y and i r o n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , p l u s a p l a y and p a r t y room. These l i v i n g arrangements a re not r e g a r d e d a s i d e a l f o r so many c h i l d r e n o f v a r y i n g a g e s . A s e r i e s o f c o t t a g e -type houses f o r s i x t o e i g h t c h i l d r e n i s b e i n g p l a n n e d t o a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n . T h u s , i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s the l i v i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e rooms have f r e q u e n t l y been changed t o meet new needs and to p r e s e r v e a more h o m e - l i k e q u a l i t y t o the i n s t i t u t i o n . One o f the a u x i l i a r y b u i l d i n g s i s S e n i o r House, wh ich i s f o r o l d e r g i r l s f i f t e e n y e a r s and o l d e r , who a r e mature enough t o be more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s house i s r e g a r d e d as a t r a n s i t i o n a l s tage f rom g r o u p -l i v i n g t o a more independent type o f l i v i n g . T h i s s e r v i c e i s u s u a l l y f o r g i r l s who a r e s t i l l g o i n g t o s c h o o l . A s i m i l a r home i n Toronto f o r work ing g i r l s i s p r o j e c t e d f o r the f u t u r e . - 8 -One t o f i v e g i r l s l i v e on the ground f l o o r o f t h i s b u i l d i n g . T h i s f l o o r has a bedroom, a t e l e . V i s i o n - l i v i n g room, a b e d - s i t t i n g room, a bathroom and a k i t c h e n where the g i r l s do t h e i r own c o o k i n g . The second f l o o r i s o c c u p i e d by the d i r e c t o r ' s o f f i c e and l i v i n g room. The o t h e r a u x i l i a r y b u i l d i n g i s the Warrenda le S c h o o l , grades one to s i x , wh ich has a c a p a c i t y o f s i x g i r l s . I t has a c l a s s r o o m and p l a y and c r a f t s a r e a . The s c h o o l i s d e s -i g n e d t o h e l p those c h i l d r e n sent t o W a r r e n d a l e , who have a poor s c h o o l ad justment because o f e d u c a t i o n a l b l o c k i n g or poor s c h o o l c o n d u c t . As soon as a g i r l i s a b l e t o f u n c t i o n w e l l enough, she i s sent t o the Newmarket P u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . O b j e c t i v e s and P o l i c i e s The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f Warrendale are t o p r o v i d e a t o t a l c a r e and a f t e r ca re t reatment f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s -t u r b e d g i r l s o f average I . Q . , w i t h a v iew o f h e l p i n g each g i r l towards f a m i l y ad jus tment , o r where t h i s i s no t p o s s i b l e , t o c o - o p e r a t e i n a s o c i a l p l a n f o r a g i r l . W a r r e n d a l e , i n e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s , w i l l assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c h i l d and a l s o p r o v i d e s a f t e r care s e r v i c e i n r e s i d e n c e or out i n the community. There i s a l s o a s c h o l a r s h i p f u n d f o r g i r l s w i s h i n g t o take advanced e d u c a t i o n . Warrendale a c c e p t s p r i v a t e p lacements as w e l l as s o c i a l agency and c o u r t r e f e r r a l s , and w i l l take g i r l s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d s or l o n g term p l a c e m e n t s . S o c i a l easework w i t h p a r e n t s , where p o s s i b l e , i s assumed by W a r r e n d a l e . - 9 -The C h i l d r e n and In take P o l i c i e s On January 15, 1958 t h e r e were twenty-one g i r l s r a n g -i n g f rom e i g h t t o s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d , i n r e s i d e n c e at W a r r e n d a l e . Of t h e s e , s i x t e e n were l i v i n g i n the main h o u s e , t h r e e l i v e d i n S e n i o r House, and two were a t t e n d i n g p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . F i v e g i r l s a t t e n d e d Newmarket P u b l i c S c h o o l s , seven a t t e n d e d New-market H igh S c h o o l , t h r e e were e n r o l l e d i n a b u s i n e s s s e c r e -t a r i a l s c h o o l i n T o r o n t o , and f o u r a t tended W a r r e n d a l e ' s own s c h o o l . The m a j o r i t y o f the g i r l s come f rom the Toronto a r e a and a re r e f e r r e d by Toronto s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . However, about one t h i r d o f the g i r l s are f rom o t h e r d i s t r i c t s o f O n t a r i o (see Appendix A ) . The g i r l s come f rom a l l economic and s o c i a l l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y , b u t most o f them have been t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f temporary p lacements or f o s t e r homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The symptoms t h a t the g i r l s d i s p l a y would be t o o numerous t o f u l l y d e s c r i b e , but a few examples might i l l u s t r a t e them: h o s t i l i t y t o a d u l t s and a u t h o r i t y , a t t a c k -i n g o t h e r c h i l d r e n , c h r o n i c l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , temper t a n t r u m s , d e l u s i o n a l f a n t a s i e s and day d reaming , wi thdrawn and extreme shyness t e n d e n c i e s , a t tempted s u i c i d e , r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s , s e x u a l p r o b l e m s , r u n n i n g away, and many o t h e r s . To cca tegor i ze ; these symptoms i s a d i f f i c u l t and u n p r e c i s e p r o c e d u r e , s i n c e s e v e r a l symptoms may be d i s -p l a y e d by one g i r l . However, an approximate break down - 10 -o f the g i r l ' s d i s o r d e r s wh ich predominate i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r would b e : p r i m a r y and secondary d i s o r d e r s , f o u r g i r l s ; severe n e u r o t i c d i s o r d e r , f o u r g i r l s ; p s y c h o t i c and p r e - p s y c h o t i c d i s o r d e r s , e i g h t g i r l s ; d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s w i t h n e u r o t i c or p s y c h o t i c symptoms, th ree g i r l s . I t can be seen t h e n , t h a t W a r r e n d a l e ' s p o p u l a t i o n c o v e r s a wide range o f d i s t u r b a n c e s . However, c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g c o n s t a n t m e d i c a l c a r e , e p i l e p t i c s , f i r e s e t t e r s , extreme d e l i n q u e n t s and runaways a re g e n e r a l l y not a c c e p t e d . C h i l d r e n w i t h d e l i n q u e n t or p s y c h o t i c t e n d e n c i e s are c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s e d i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r e f f e c t on the t o t a l m i l i e u , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f the g r o u p i n g s w i t h i n the h o u s e . Warrendale c o n s i d e r s t h a t i t s programme can b e s t serve c h i l d r e n w h o : -1. E x h i b i t p r i m a r y o r s e c o n d a r y d i s o r d e r s or o t h e r n e u r o t i c symptoms, and have f a i l e d t o a d j u s t t o a d o p t i o n , f o s t e r homes or o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2. May have shown d e l i n q u e n t or " i n c o r r i g i b l e " b e h a v i o u r , b u t have enough ego c o n t r o l s t o use an open i n s t i t u t i o n . 3 . Are d i a g n o s e d as h a v i n g p r e - p s y c h o t i c or p s y c h o t i c symptoms. 4. Are a g g r e s s i v e and h o s t i l e . 5 . Due t o p a r e n t a l r e s e n t m e n t , cannot use a f o s t e r placeme n t . 6. Are w i thdrawn , a u t i s t i c i n symptoms, or o v e r - c o n -f o r m i n g and need a more demanding e n v i r o n m e n t . 7. Have e x p e r i e n c e d a s e r i o u s d e l a y i n b a s i c h a b i t t r a i n i n g . - 11 -8. Need s p e c i a l s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n due t o b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s or l e a r n i n g b l o c k s . 9 . P r e s e n t problems t h a t r e q u i r e s tudy and d i a g n o s i s i n a t w e n t y - f o u r hour l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h Warrendale does not serve f e e b l e - m i n d e d c h i l d r e n , i t t a k e s i n t o account the f a c t t h a t I . Q . r a t i n g s and t e s t s may be a f f e c t e d by e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . No f o r m a l d i a g n o s i s , a l o n g c l a s s i c l i n e s i s made, b u t p s y c h i a t r i c assessments a r e made o f e a c h c h i l d d u r i n g s t a f f meet ings w i t h t h e c o n s u l t a n t p s y c h i a t r i s t , or case c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the r e f e r r i n g agency . P s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g i s done by t h e r e f e r r i n g agency where p o s s i b l e , or arrangements a r e o f t e n made w i t h t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s i n T o r o n t o . P s y c h o - t h e r a p y w i t h p s y c h i a t r i s t s i n T o r o n t o has been a t tempted w i t h o l d e r g i r l s , bu t r e s u l t s have not been too s u c c e s s f u l . P s y c h o - t h e r a p e u t i c s e s s i o n s by r e s i d e n t w o r k e r s , under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f the head caseworker o r the d i r e c t o r , have been f o u n d t o be more p r a c t i c a l . B e f o r e a g i r l come.s t o Warrendale she i s sent a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a stamped e n v e l o p e , t o make i t p r i v a t e . Forms a r e a l s o sent t o her p a r e n t s or s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s (see appendix B ) . A v i s i t f o r the c h i l d i s a r ranged and she i s shown around the house by one o f the g i r l s , and she i s then i n t e r v i e w e d b y the head caseworker or d i r e c t o r . A g i r l may be a c c e p t e d (or r e j e c t e d ) on the b a s i s o f her p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e , her compat-i b i l i t y w i t h the t o t a l group and her own d e s i r e t o come. I f she does not w i s h to come, she i s not c o e r c e d , but o t h e r v i s i t s or i n t e r v i e w s may be a r r a n g e d . In a few - 12 -s i t u a t i o n s , the g i r l may have l i t t l e c h o i c e , or the a l t e r -n a t i v e s , such as t r a i n i n g s c h o o l , may be more u n p l e a s a n t t h a n her f e a r s o f s t a y i n g a t W a r r e n d a l e . Such s i t u a t i o n s are not r e g a r d e d as i d e a l , bu t the g i r l s a t t i t u d e s are a s s e s s e d i n the l i g h t o f the p r e d i c a m e n t , and she may be a c c e p t e d . In a l l c a s e s , t h e r e i s a t h r e e month p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d , and a t t h i s t ime a case c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d t o d e c i d e whether the agency can h e l p the g i r l . I f her ad justment i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , a l o n g term p l a n w i l l be made. The r o u t i n e r e g a r d i n g a new g i r l coming i n t o Warrendale w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . S t a f f and S t a f f Management On January 1$ , 1953 the t o t a l s t a f f o f Warrendale c o n s i s t e d o f t h i r t e e n f u l l t ime and s i x p a r t t ime p e r s o n s , whose job c o n s i s t o f : 1 C o n s u l t a n t P s y c h i a t r i s t - 4 hours a week f o r s t a f f c o n s u l -t a t i o n and a v a r i a b l e amount o f time f o r case c o n f e r e n c e s . 1 E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r 7 R e s i d e n t workers - 3 o f whom have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s as w e l l . One i s f u l l t ime h o l i d a y s t a f f . 1 Teacher 1 S e c r e t a r y - B o o k k e e p e r 1 N igh t Duty S t a f f 1 P a r t t ime r e c r e a t i o n worker 1 p a r t t ime l a u n d r y woman 1 F u l l t ime cook 1 R e l i e f cook - 13 -2 Part time cleaning women 1 Maintenance man - f u l l time Three of the part time staff are male staff, as are the Director, Program Director and the maintenance man. The 1958 budget allows for two additional full-time staff, a residential worker and a typist (for typing case records), and these w i l l be hired. An idea of staff manage-ment can be gained by reviewing the division of staff responsi-b i l i t y which was begun in September, 1957. These roles have evolved out of experiences gained during the period when a l l staff lived in, and each worker had more or less equal responsi-b i l i t i e s . Three of the resident workers are responsible for three areas of administration. Time i s allowed in their schedules for these duties which are: Head Case Worker -in charge of casework responsibilities to the children and where possible to their parents. She i s also responsible for preparation of case conferences and consults with the Director regarding intake. The head caseworker has an im-portant role in the termination of g i r l s and may do follow up home v i s i t s . She sometimes supervises new staff, and consults with resident workers doing casework interviews. Program Director - in charge of planning daily, holiday and summer program. He purchases materials and aids other staff in carrying out a c t i v i t i e s . - 14 -House A d m i n i s t r a t o r - s u p e r v i s e s housekeep ing and c o o k i n g s t a f f and i s i n charge o f p u r c h a s e s r e l a t e d t o f o o d , h o u s e -k e e p i n g m a i n t e n a n c e , g i r l s ' c l o t h i n g and a l l o w a n c e s and menu p l a n n i n g . These s t a f f spend between one q u a r t e r and one h a l f o f t h e i r s c h e d u l e d t ime f o r these d u t i e s , the remainder b e i n g spent w i t h the c h i l d r e n . F o r a l l r e s i d e n t s t a f f , t h e r e are two f u l l days o f f and an e i g h t hour d a y . The u s u a l s h i f t s a re f rom 2:30 P.M. t o 10:30 P.M. o r 7:30 A.M. t o 3:30 P.M. S i x weeks h o l i d a y t ime i s p r o v i d e d t o make up f o r work-s c h e d u l e d h o l i d a y s , and because o f the s t r a i n c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h the p o s i t i o n . The D a i l y Tasks o f the R e s i d e n t Worker The innumerable t a s k s t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l worker p e r f o r m s i n t h e course o f d a i l y l i v i n g w i t h the c h i l d r e n , range f rom the t r i v i a l i t y o f s u p p l y i n g a match , to a v i t a l i n t e r v i e w about a b o y - f r i e n d . In sum, t h e y add up t o an e x p r e s s i o n o f a t o t a l c o n c e r n f o r the c h i l d w h i c h becomes e v i d e n t i n the c h i l d ' s own f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y . The d e -s c r i p t i o n s here are p a r t i a l and w i thou t the dynamics o f b e h a v i o u r wh ich w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The r e s i d e n t i a l s t a f f wakes the c h i l d , sends them t o s c h o o l and g r e e t s them at l u n c h and a f t e r s c h o o l . She , or h e , w i l l have supper w i t h t h e g i r l s , h e l p w i t h d i s h e s and l a u n d r y , watch t e l e v i s i o n w i t h them or p l a y games w i t h them, h e l p them w i t h s t u d i e s and f i n a l l y put them t o bed - 15 -a f t e r a i d i n g them i n e v e r y t h i n g f rom b a t h i n g t o t a k i n g temper -a t u r e s t o mending c l o t h e s . D u r i n g these b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s in te rwoven a m y r i a d o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t s i x t e e n c h i l d r e n and t h r e e or f o u r a d u l t s (the u s u a l amount p e r s h i f t ) can p r o d u c e . T h u s , t h e r e i s the " s m a l l t a l k " and s o c i a l i z i n g t h a t o c c u r s a f t e r s c h o o l , the b u y i n g t r i p s , g o i n g t o G i r l G u i d e s , 4 the " p i g g y b a c k " r i d e s , and games and programme on weekends. In meet ing these k i n d o f demands, i n a t h e r a p e u t i c manner, the worker does not need a handbook o f r u l e s , but r a t h e r a p h i l o s o p h y o f approach t o the t o t a l l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . To summarize, t h e g e n e r a l t rea tment p r i n c i p l e s o f Warrendale are m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the methods and p r i n c i p l e s o f such men as D r . F r i t z R e d l and D r . Bruno B e t t l e h e i m . That i s t o s a y , s o c i a l work and menta l h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s are a p p l i e d i n a l l phases o f group and i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g p r o c e s s . In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e as t h e r a p e u t i c a m i l i e u as p o s s i b l e , s o c i a l workers a re used to work d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n as r e s i d e n t i a l w o r k e r s . In e f f e c t , e a c h r e s i d e n t i a l s t a f f i s an e n v i r o n -menta l t h e r a p i s t who, i n h a n d l i n g the a c t i n g out s i t u a t i o n s as t h e y happen, s u p p l i e s the c o r r e c t measures e n a b l i n g the c h i l d t o e v e n t u a l l y change . I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n i s a c o n s t a n t g o a l and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e g i r l s i s encouraged -even d e v e l o p e d . T h u s , Warrendale i s a r e a l i t y f o c u s e d t o t a l -ca re i n s t i t u t i o n . The l i f e f o r the g i r l s i s made as homel ike 4 C u t c h e r , A l l e n , "Program A c t i v i t i e s i n a R e s i d e n t C e n t r e F o r G i r l s " . The S o c i a l Worker , Ot tawa, The Canad ian A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , Vol .24, No.3. A p r i l 1956, P . l . - 16 -as possible without any a l l u s i o n s as to why they are there and what the agency i s t r y i n g to do. Through i n d i v i d u a l and group sessions, the r e a l situations of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and group l i v e s are faced and dealtr . with as they occur. Method of Thesis "Warrendale" can be seen as a s o c i a l work setting with a t r u l y generic basis, involving a constant inter-play of casework and groupwork p r i n c i p l e s applied by s o c i a l workers on a twenty-four hour basis i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . I t has also been necessary f o r the s t a f f of Warrendale to know its,: immediate community, as well as the broader community resources. From a research point of view, the whole agency and i t s . con-cepts are of an experimental nature, a testing-ground f o r the application of s o c i a l work and mental health p r i n c i p l e s towards a twenty-four l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . The plan of the present t h e s i s w i l l be to analyze three e s s e n t i a l components of the m i l i e u that Warrendale has evolved; (a) routines, (b) leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , (c) d i s c i p l i n e and problem-handling. In the second chapter, these three aspects are considered i n terms of such s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s as tension reduction, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , gaining r e l a t i o n s h i p s , expression of f e e l i n g s , and diagnosis. Examples of such situations as bed-time, breakfast, c r a f t sessions and games, and community involvement are given to i l l u s t r a t e these p r i n c i p l e s . - 17 -The use o f group s k i l l s and t h e v a l u e o f group and s o c i a l s e s s i o n s w i t h the g i r l s are the main c o n c e r n o f t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r . Some group s e s s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d to i l l u s -t r a t e t h e i r v a l u e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f group s t a n d a r d s , the group d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s , and the group e x p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n . The impor tance o f h o l i d a y f e s t i v i t i e s and o t h e r s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s s u c h as the c h i l d r e n ' s b i r t h d a y s are a l s o s t r e s s e d a t W a r r e n d a l e . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r summarizes the v a l u e s of the m i l i e u used i n Warrendale t o t r e a t e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d g i r l s . The impor tance o f the i n s t i t u t i o n as a p a r e n t a l s u b s t i t u t e i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d at W a r r e n d a l e , and the need f o r a t r a i n e d s o c i a l work s t a f f t o c a r r y out t h i s g o a l i s r e c o g n i z e d . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g the s e r v i c e s a t Warrendale a re a l s o made i n the f o u r t h c h a p t e r . CHAPTER I I THE SUPPORTIVE APPROACH TO ROUTINES, LEISURE-TIME ACTIVITIES AND DISCIPLINE The d e s i g n o f the r o u t i n e s , l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c i p l i n e o f any i n s t i t u t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s t h a t d etermine the atmosphere and f e e l i n g s about t h e whole i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s t h i s i n t a n g i b l e b u t i n f l u e n t i a l atmos-phere t h a t a p e r s o n f e e l s when he e n t e r s any i n s t i t u t i o n . These t h r e e i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f t h e t o t a l program can be d i s c u s s e d by means o f t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : (1) do t h e r o u t i n e s r e l a x t h e c h i l d r e n y e t p r o v i d e r e a l i t y l i m i t s ; (2) do t h e l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s g r a t i f y needs w h i l e l e t t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n have f u n t o o ; (3) i s t h e p r o b l e m - h a n d l i n g and d i s -c i p l i n e f o c u s e d on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s problems r a t h e r t h a n a d u l t c o n v e n i e n c e ? I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l w o r k e r s must be h e l p i n g , a f f e c t i o n a t e , " c h i l d a c c e p t i n g " p e o p l e w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s i n a l l t h e above a r e a s . R o u t i n e s o r r u l e s a re n e c e s s a r y t o a l m o s t any group l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , and even v o l u n t a r y groups g e t i n v o l v e d w i t h w r i t i n g c h a r t e r s and c o n s t i t u t i o n s . I n the p a s t , r o u t i n e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s came t o be " n e c e s s a r y e v i l s " , o r were r a t i o n a l i z e d as " c h a r a c t e r b u i l d e r s . " I n some c a s e s r o u t i n e s came t o mean work, and c h i l d l a b o u r became - 19 -an almost indispensible part of the economics of a childrens institution. In the book Creative Group Living, Suzanne Schulze has this comment on routines in institutions; "To be sure, routine has been misunderstood and misused by-many an institution, yet when based on their needs as in d i -viduals and as members of a group and constructively used, 1 i t s advantages can be many." It i s the aim at Warrendale, to use routines constructively and to therapeutic advantage to the child. The therapeutic value of play has long been recog-nized in individual therapy with children, but i t i s only in the last ten or fifteen, years that leisure-time a c t i v i -ties have been recognized as a valuable tool in the thera-peutic process. Dr. Redl, in his book Controls from Within devotes an entire chapter called "Programming for Ego Support" to this subject, in which he states: We have learned to consider the importance of making the program f i t the needs and readiness of the children rather than expose children to activi t i e s which are traditionally considered "good" for them without mental hygiene scrutiny.2 Warrendale uses leisure-time ac t i v i t i e s with this "mental hygiene scrutiny", and the goals of social health are con-stantly kept in mind in the formulation of group a c t i v i t i e s . 1 Schulze, Suzanne, Creative Group Living, New York Assoc-iation Press, 1951, P.9 2 Redl, Fritz and Wineman, David, Controls From Within, Free Press, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1952, P.86 • ~~ - 20 -D i s c i p l i n e and o t h e r p r o b l e m - h a n d l i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n t rea tment must be d i s s o c i a t e d f rom the "punishment and t h r e a t s " a t t i t u d e s t h a t are p r e v a l e n t i n some c o n c e p t s of d i s c i p l i n e . The use o f t h r e a t s and punishment r u n s c o u n t e r t o the concept o f the worker b e i n g a c o n s t r u c t i v e n o n - h a r m f u l , " e n a b l i n g " p e r s o n . T h i s does not mean t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l worker does not a c t i v e l y engage h i m s e l f i n the c h i l d ' s p r o b -l e m s , nor does i t i n d i c a t e p e r m i s s i v e n e s s as a p o l i c y . D r . R e d l s t a t e s t h i s v i e w p o i n t w e l l by s a y i n g : A t rea tment home i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n a v o i d i n g and s q u a s h i n g the prob lem b e h a v i o r r e s u l t i n g f rom the d i s t u r b a n c e s o f the c h i l d r e n , bu t i n g i v i n g i t a chance t o come out i n the open so i t can be m a n i p u l a t e d and used f o r t r e a t m e n t purposes , On the o t h e r hand, i t i s impor tan t t o a v o i d the i m p r e s s i o n of t o t a l p e r m i s s i v e n e s s i n the c h i l d r e n s minds .3 Warrendale r e s i d e n t i a l s t a f f v iew d i s c i p l i n e and p r o b l e m - h a n d l i n g i n the l i g h t o f i t s t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l s , the most impor tan t o f wh ich i s the e s t a b l i s h i n g and d e v e l o p -ment o f e g o - s t r e n g t h s and i n n e r c o n t r o l o f the c h i l d r e n . G i s e l a Knopka d e f i n e s t h i s i n n e r c o n t r o l a s : " the c a p a c i t y t o a c c e p t f r u s t r a t i o n or postponement o f g r a t i f i c a t i o n 4 of ones w i s h e s . " These t h r e e e s s e n t i a l components of the " t o t a l m i l i e u " - r o u t i n e s , l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c i p l i n e and p r o b l e m - h a n d l i n g - w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the l i g h t o f 3 I b i d , P. 59 4 Knopka, G i s e l a , Groupwork i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , W h i t e s i d e P r e s s , 1954, P. 88 • - 21 -the more impor tan t t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l s t h a t Warrendale t r i e s t o a c h i e v e . R e d u c i n g F r i c t i o n , F r u s t r a t i o n and T e n s i o n The m i l i e u o f Warrendale seeks t o s e t a r e l a x i n g a tmosphere , wh ich t e n d s t o reduce t h e t e n s i o n s o f l i v i n g and p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r o f the c h i l d r e n . I t does not t r y t o p a c i f y e v e r y c o n f l i c t , bu t by r e d u c i n g u n n e c e s s a r y c o n -f l i c t s over such a c t i v i t i e s as h o u s e - k e e p i n g or c o m p e t i t i v e games, s t a f f e n e r g i e s can be b e t t e r used t o d e a l w i t h e v e n t s produced by t h e c h i l d r e n ? S problems r a t h e r t h a n the s t r u c t u r e o f the t o t a l p rogram. P u t t i n g the g i r l s t o bed and awakening them i n the morn ing are examples o f r o u t i n e s t h a t i f p r o p e r l y h a n d le d can determine the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e f o r the r e s t o f the d a y . Bed- t ime i s a g r a d u a l t h r e e - s t a g e a f f a i r a t W a r r e n d a l e ; the f i r s t s i g n a l i s the snack of m i l k and c o o k i e s , h a l f an hour b e f o r e g o i n g up t o b e d . A f t e r the hour o f n i n e , a l l g i r l s go u p s t a i r s or have a t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g e x c e p t i o n and t h e r e i s t h e n a f o r t y - f i v e minute p e r i o d f o r p r e p a r i n g f o r b e d . At l i g h t s o u t , s t a f f members s t a y c l o s e a t hand t o ease the c h i l d r e n i n t o s l e e p , Q u i e t t a l k i n g and r a d i o s a t low volume are a l l o w e d , as a re s m a l l n i g h t l i g h t s . The c h i l d r e n f a c e t h e i r n i g h t f e a r s i n i n d i v i d u a l ways. Some t r y t o get as e a r l y a s t a r t as p o s s i b l e and put on pajamas r i g h t a f t e r the study hour a t 7:30; o t h e r s r e s i s t - 22 -u n d r e s s i n g u n t i l t h e l a s t - p o s s i b l e moment. Extreme u p s e t s a f t e r " l i g h t s o u t " u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e c h i l d f r o m her-room, f o r t h e sake o f t h e group. She may be b r i e f l y i n t e r v i e w e d out i n a s e p a r a t e h a l l w a y and s e n t back t o bed, o r may be put t o bed i n t h e i s o l a t i o n - s i c k room. Ann, t o t a k e one example, e x h i b i t e d an a l m o s t c o n t i n -u a l u p s e t a t bedtime f o r almost a y e a r . At t i m e s her n o i s e -making and a g g r e s s i v e t a u n t i n g of. t h e s t a f f ( w h i c h were demands f o r p r o t e c t i o n ) became so out o f c o n t r o l t h a t she sometimes had t o be h e l d down i n t h e i s o l a t i o n room f o r p e r i o d s up t o an hour. E v e n t u a l l y , she would b u r s t i n t o t e a r s and sobs and t h e n a t l a s t r e l a x f o r the n i g h t . G r a d u a l l y she began t o r e l a t e t o a p a r t i c u l a r worker her f e a r s o f the d a r k , and o f " b e i n g k i l l e d i n t h e d a r k " . I t s t i l l r e q u i r e d s e v e r a l months f o r her t o r e s p o n d t o t h e w o r k e r ' s r e q u e s t t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e u p s e t so she c o u l d go by h e r s e l f t o the i s o l a t i o n - r o o m , where she f e e l s s a f e r . G r a d u a l l y , f o r Ann, i n t e r v i e w s a r e r e p l a c i n g t h e u p s e t s a t bedtime. ,The awakening p r o c e s s a t Warrendale i s s i m i l a r l y d e s i g n e d t o reduce t h e f r i c t i o n s and t e n s i o n s t h a t can e a s i l y d e v e l o p as each c h i l d makes t h e t r a n s i t i o n from s l e e p and dreams, t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e coming day. F i r s t c a l l i s t e n or f i f t e e n m inutes b e f o r e the " o f f i c i a l " wake up t i m e . The w o r k e r e n t e r s the room b u t makes no d i r e c t e f f o r t t o awaken the c h i l d r e n . R a t h e r , she may a r r a n g e s c a t t e r e d - 23 -c l o t h e s , p i c k up b o o k s , f i x the b l i n d s or t u r n r a d i o s on at a low volume. Those who are awake are g r e e t e d w i t h a c h e e r f u l phrase and g i v e n any h e l p they may n e e d . By seven o ' c l o c k , a second s t a f f member comes on duty and t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e n e s s t o t h e i r v o i c e t o n e s and a c t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t now i t i s t ime t o a r i s e . T h i r d c a l l i s t e n minutes l a t e r and i s the f i n a l one; by then most o f the g i r l s are i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f g e t t i n g u p . More s t a f f t ime and a t t e n t i o n can a l s o be spent on t h o s e who are r e s i s t -i n g waking u p . The methods u s e d to overcome t h e s e r e s i s t a n c e s might be humour, i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o d r e s s i n g , group p r e s s u r e , o r an a u t h o r i t a t i v e demand, but i n any case t h e r e i s adequate time, t o handle most s i t u a t i o n s . There are s e v e r a l t e n s i o n - r e d u c t i o n f a c t o r s i n t h i s r o u t i n e . Those who get up e a r l y can s t i l l r e c e i v e s t a f f a t t e n t i o n , and i n f a c t some g i r l s a r i s e e a r l y f o r t h a t r e a s o n . The t h r e e s t a g e s not o n l y a l l o w f o r a s t a g g e r e d use o f the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ; more i m p o r t a n t , i t a l l o w s each g i r l t o ge t up a c c o r d i n g t o her own s t a t e o f m i n d . There a r e many o t h e r d e v i c e s used f o r r e d u c i n g t e n -s i o n and f r i c t i o n a t W a r r e n d a l e , such as h a v i n g a med ic ine d i s p e n s a r y open f o r one h a l f an hour b e f o r e bed t i m e , or the s e r v i c e o f s t a f f members i n h e l p i n g g i r l s w i t h d i s h -washing or l a u n d r y . Such seeming ly un impor tan t d e t a i l s as p r i v a c y o f rooms, the s p a c i n g o f f u r n i t u r e and u s e s o f rooms - 24 -are a l l c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f making group l i v i n g e a s i e r . The use o f a c t i v e games t o reduce p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c t e n s i o n s , and the c r e a t i v e r e l e a s e o f a r t s and c r a f t s have l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d , and such a c t i v i t i e s a re f u l l y used f o r those p u r -poses a t W a r r e n d a l e . However, i t has been f o u n d t h a t o f t e n games have t o be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d or v a r i e d , f o r o t h e r -wise the " s i d e e f f e c t s " o f the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f can cause e x t r a " h a n d l i n g " p r o b l e m s . One o f the most impor tan t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r example , i s t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p e t i t i o n on the c h i l d r e n . The i m p l i c -a t i o n s o f c o m p e t i t i o n a re a major r e a s o n why the g i r l s p l a y v e r y few of such s t a n d a r d g p o r t s as v o l l e y b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , r a c e s and r e l a y s a t W a r r e n d a l e . Wh i le some o f the c h i l d r e n w i l l p l a y t h e s e games a t s c h o o l , most o f them do not a t tempt to b r i n g the p a t t e r n t o W a r r e n d a l e . T h u s , the g i r l s p l a y a v e r s i o n o f badmington t h a t has no s c o r e k e e p i n g and no b o u n d a r i e s , o r a type o f b a s k e t b a l l t h a t has no team s t r u c t u r e , or a v e r s i o n o f b a s e b a l l c a l l e d "bounce o u t " has e v o l v e d , under wh ich a p e r s o n s t a y s a t bat a s l o n g as she does not h i t a b a l l t h a t can be caught "on the f l y " or the f i r s t bounce . The r e a s o n f o r the l a t t e r r u l e i s t h a t i t even a l l o w s g i r l s who are not adept a t c a t c h i n g a b a l l t o p l a y . T h i s v a r i a t i o n a l s o guaran tees a q u i c k t u r n o v e r o f b a t t e r s , so each g i r l q u i c k l y g e t s a t u r n a t b a t . - 25 -I t soon became e v i d e n t to the group worker t h a t o r g a n i z e d group a c t i v i t i e s and " s t u n t s " on a team b a s i s were a lmost i m p o s s i b l e because o f the f r u s t r a t i o n s and t e n -s i o n s r e s u l t i n g f rom the s e l e c t i o n o f teams. T h u s , r a t h e r than have team r a c e s or s t u n t s , the group even ts were i n d i v i d -u a l i z e d and the g i r l s per formed " a g a i n s t the c l o c k " by b e i n g t i m e d , r a t h e r than compet ing a g a i n s t someone e l s e . T h i s i n d i v i d -u a l i z a t i o n s t i l l l e f t the d i f f i c u l t y o f who was t o b e g i n the a c t i v i t y . C h r i s and Tammy, f o r example , were g i r l s who i n -v a r i a b l y c lamoured f o r f i r s t p o s i t i o n and d i s r u p t e d the b e -g i n n i n g o f p lanned a c t i v i t i e s , u n t i l the groupworker f i n a l l y d e v i s e d a c a r d w i t h the r u l e s o f the game and a number on i t . By t h i s d e v i c e the s e l e c t i o n o f the o r d e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d be l e f t t o c h a n c e , and a l t h o u g h C h r i s and Tammy o f t e n b i t t e r l y compla ined about t h e i r f a t e , the i m p e r s o n a l s e l e c t i o n a l l o w e d them t o p a r t i c i p a t e . In t i m e , the numbered c a r d system has become a method o f p r e p a r i n g the g i r l s f o r an a c t i v i t y ; i t d e f i n e s what i s t o be done and i t keeps s c o r e o f the game. The c h i e f v a l u e of d i s c i p l i n e and prob lem h a n d l i n g i n r e l a x i n g t e n s i o n s i s the s e c u r i t y t h a t l i m i t s p r o v i d e f o r the c h i l d who i s " a c t i n g o u t " and the l a t i t u d e they p r o -v i d e f o r the withdrawn c h i l d . No mat ter how much the s t a f f workers may r e a s s u r e a c h i l d v e r b a l l y , i t i s the way i n wh ich c h i l d r e n a r e d e a l t w i t h by members of the s t a f f and - 26 -o f b e i n g hand led h e r s e l f t h a t l e s s e n s a c h i l d ' s f e a r s about her own i m p u l s i v e n e s s . T h u s , a worker h a n d l i n g the temper tantrums o f one g i r l i n a group s i t u a t i o n not o n l y r e a s s u r e s h e r , but r e a s s u r e s the o t h e r g i r l s who are w a t c h i n g . C h r i s , f o r example , i s f r u s t r a t e d because a r e s i -d e n t i a l worker promised to go s h o p p i n g f o r a p a i r o f shoes t h a t a f t e r n o o n . However, C h r i s ' t e a c h e r had kept her i n f o r e x t r a work, as C h r i s was new t o the s c h o o l . I t was p a s t the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t f o r d e p a r t u r e t h a t the worker had s e t , bu t C h r i s would not a c c e p t t h i s . When the worker t r i e d t o a s s u r e C h r i s t h a t the next day would do as w e l l , C h r i s b e -came more a g i t a t e d and a c c u s e d the worker o f not want ing her t o have s h o e s , and o f g e t t i n g o t h e r g i r l ' s shoes but not h e r s . The worker a g a i n t r i e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h a t i t was then too c l o s e t o supper t o go; t h a t i t was no o n e ' s f a u l t . C h r i s began to w a i l t h a t she had not done a n y t h i n g wrong, t h e n sudden ly s t r u c k the worker and r a n i n t o the d i n i n g room, u p -s e t t i n g some c h a i r s . R e a l i z i n g t h a t C h r i s was l o s i n g her s e l f - c o n t r o l , the worker f o l l o w e d the g i r l i n t o the d i n i n g room: s e e i n g t h a t the g i r l was i n no f u r t h e r mood f o r r a t i o n -a l d i s c u s s i o n , she h e l d the g i r l ' s arms and sa t down w i t h h e r . A f t e r she had calmed down somewhat, the worker took C h r i s t o a s e p a r a t e room, where C h r i s was a b l e t o t a l k about her a n x i e t i e s about her new t e a c h e r , and about the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as the s h o e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the worker - 27 -went w i t h her and h e l p e d her t o p i c k up the c h a i r s . I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n and F l e x i b i l i t y In W a r r e n d a l e , the i d e a o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the " m i l i e u " i s d e v e l o p e d by f o s t e r i n g the i d e a o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y i t s e l f . Over and o v e r a g a i n i t i s s t r e s s e d v e r b a l l y , d u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l and group s e s s i o n s , t h a t each g i r l i s d i f f e r e n t , h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m s , and r e q u i r i n g d i f f e r e n t h a n d l i n g . These words are put i n t o p r a c t i c e , so t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the g i r l s as w e l l as s t a f f t h i n k i n these t e r m s . B r e a k f a s t i s an e x a m p l e . o f the Warrendale r o u t i n e s where i n d i v i d u a l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y a re i l l u s t r a t e d . B r e a k -f a s t i s se rved over a p e r i o d o f t ime r a t h e r than a f i x e d t i m e , but the end o f the p e r i o d i s d e f i n i t e . A g i r l may choose whatever c e r e a l she l i k e s , and may ask t h e cook t o p repare eggs the way she l i k e s them. The o l d e r g i r l s o f t e n cook t h e i r own f o o d . The g i r l s may have t h e i r b r e a k f a s t b e f o r e or a f t e r t h e y d r e s s , and they s i t i n f o r m a l l y i n the d i n i n g room. R a t h e r than r e g i m e n t i n g everyone t o be s i t t i n g down a t o n c e , t h e w o r k e r ' s e n e r g i e s are t h u s b e t t e r d i r e c t e d t o -wards h e l p i n g each g i r l t o ea t a r e a s o n a b l e b r e a k f a s t . T h i s approach a l l o w s f o r the wide v a r i a t i o n o f morn ing a p p e t i t e s and g i v e s a more homel ike atmosphere t o the m e a l . H o s t i m p o r -t a n t , i t p r e s e n t s each g i r l w i t h a c h o i c e r a t h e r t h a n f i x e d r o u t i n e a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the d a y . - 28" -Wot a l l routines can be so i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , but the method of carrying them out can s t i l l be made as f l e x i b l e as possible. For example, the g i r l s look a f t e r t h e i r own rooms as they see f i t , but once a week a clean-up i s enforced and the rooms are swept and made orderly, the bathrooms are cleaned, and l i n e n i s changed. Since allowances are not given out u n t i l the rooms are inspected, a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made be-tween d i f f e r e n t ages and l e v e l s of neatness. When the rooms are inspected, s t a f f help i s given where needed to keep stan-dards reasonable. While i t i s the goal of group a c t i v i t i e s to help the children to share and play together, quite often the a c t i v i t y has to be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d to insure g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; otherwise the a c t i v i t y breaks down. An example of t h i s problem i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a record of a leatherwork c r a f t session: The worker began the a c t i v i t y by showing a sample of the b e l t s that could be made. The response was immediate and enthusiastic i n spite of the cost (for part of the cost had to be contributed by them from t h e i r allowances). Betty, Grace, Donna, S a l l y , P o l l y , Evelyn, Anita,,Fredia and Helen started the work. However, before we could get started Joan, who was too debt-ridden to afford a b e l t t h i s week, came i n with her perfume set, taking up most of the table. The group mobilized against t h i s obvious int r u s i o n and Betty and Donna (the older g i r l s ) f i n a l l y got her to move. The group co-operation and i n t e r a c t i o n was good, although troubles began when the worker had to spend more time with Grace, who was extremely cautious and anxious about the job she could do. Evelyn began to nag incessently about small d e t a i l s of the work and P o l l y became more and more demanding of the workers exclusive - 29 -attention u n t i l she began to cry. The worker was able to give enough support to Grace through Betty and Donna's help, but Po l l y and Evelyn would not accept help from them. In spite of the time the worker was able to give her, Evelyn also began to cry and said the worker was discriminating against her and the worker hated her. Meanwhile, Helen had worked on her own and ruined her b e l t i n her impatience, and then accused the worker saying " I t was a l l your f a u l t " . A staff-member came i n to help the worker but.by now i t seemed to be too l a t e - the g i r l s claimed only the worker could help them. However, i n spite of these f r u s t r a t i o n s the others ca r r i e d on very well, and i n f a c t , i n spite of the tears they a l l did a good leatherwork job, except Helen who w i l l have to do another b e l t . Thus, even though there were adequate t o o l s , mater-i a l s and space (which i n i t s e l f can create sharing problems) and the worker had made sure there were f a c i l i t i e s f or every-one, the sharing of the worker himself almost became more of a problem than the group could handle. Obviously, a second worker at the beginning of the session would have eased most of the i n d i v i d u a l demands. One of the most conspicuous areas where i n d i v i d u a l -i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y i s applied i s i n community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and dating. I f a g i r l wishes to j o i n a community group such as G i r l Guides, Church groups or other recreation groups, the i n t e r e s t and capacity of the g i r l i s assessed and she i s t o l d of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e a l i t i e s of j o i n i n g such a group. I f the worker decides that the g i r l can handle herself properly i n public, she goes f o r a t r i a l period. - 30 -In the " d a t i n g " p r o c e s s , each g i r l b a r g a i n s i n d e p e n d -e n t l y (except f o r f o u r s o m e s ! f o r her " d a t i n g " p r i v i l e g e s . B e -cause o f the importance o f boys i n the g i r l s ' l i v e s , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t most o f the g i r l s have had i n the s e x u a l a r e a , i t becomes e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o know the boys t h e y go out w i t h . The g i r l s are r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g boys t h a t they meet i n the community t o meet the s t a f f a t W a r r e n d a l e . I f any " d a t i n g " i s c o n s i d e r e d , a boy i s i n t e r v i e w e d and i s t o l d the " d a t i n g " r e g u l a t i o n s and i s g i v e n a framework o f e x p e c t a t i o n s : t h a t Warrenda le e x p e c t s him t o t r e a t a Warrenda le g i r l as he would a community g i r l , and t h a t Warrendale e x p e c t s her t o conduct h e r s e l f i n a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f a s h i o n . The " d a t e s " a r e a r r a n g e d a t W a r r e n d a l e , so t h a t the s i t u a t i o n can be a s s e s s e d by s t a f f members. T h i s i n d i v i d u a l approach makes each g i r l ' s " d a t i n g " or g o i n g out dependent on her s o c i a l m a t u r i t y r a t h e r than age or s e n i o r i t y r u l e s . G a i n i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p Through R o u t i n e s . L e i s u r e - T i m e A c t i v i t i e s  and D i s c i p l i n e By p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h the c h i l d r e n i n c e r t a i n r o u -t i n e s , s t a f f members demonstrate t h a t they a r e h e l p i n g as w e l l as a u t h o r i t y p e r s o n s . F o r example, t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r -a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n o r d e r i n g a c h i l d t o wash d i s h e s and h e l p i n g the c h i l d do the d i s h e s . The bedt ime r o u t i n e o f f e r s one o f the b e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l workers t o demon-s t r a t e t o the c h i l d r e n t h e i r h e l p i n g , e n a b l i n g r o l e . T h u s , h e l p i n g the c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r b a t h , p u t t i n g up t h e i r h a i r - 31 -and o t h e r bedtime r i t u a l s can be a b e g i n n i n g t o more mean-i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t a f f and c h i l d r e n . Joan, f o r example, t o o k p r i d e i n the n e a t n e s s and arrangement o f h e r room and spent much o f her pre-bedtime p e r i o d i n p r e p a r i n g h e r s e l f and her room f o r s l e e p . By h e l p i n g her w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s and showing an i n t e r e s t i n the g i r l s bedtime r i t u a l s , a worker was a b l e t o g a i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h t h e worker became Joan's " f a v o r i t e s t a f f " . S t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s i s a n o t h e r v a l u a b l e method o f g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c h i l d r e n . W h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t a b l e games, o r i n i t i a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l s t u n t s i s i m p o r t a n t , one o f t h e most c o n v i n c i n g ways an a d u l t can demonstrate t h a t he i s a c h i l d - a c c e p t i n g , f u n - l o v i n g a d u l t i s t o p l a y t h e i r c h i l d h o o d games w i t h them. Such games as h i d e and seek, b l i n d man's b l u f f , s k i p p i n g , r e d l i g h t , and many o t h e r s , a r e h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l a t W a r r e n d a l e . The r u l e s are so u n i v e r s a l and so r o o t e d i n c h i l d h o o d t h a t even the most d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n w i l l p l a y them. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s f a r l e s s f r i c t i o n i n i n i t a t i n g and p l a y i n g such games, and t h e r e i s n o t t h e c h e a t i n g t h a t o c c u r s i n a d u l t games, such as c a r d p l a y i n g . By m a i n t a i n i n g an a t t i t u d e o f p l a y i n g w i t h the c h i l d , y e t not b e i n g a c h i l d , a worker o f f e r s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t t h e c h i l d u s u a l l y has never had b e f o r e . I n more s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s such as B i n g o , q u i z z e s , or s t u n t s , t h e a d u l t can be a g i v i n g p e r s o n , and a t Warren-- 32 -d a l e p r i z e s a re o f t e n g i v e n as i n c e n t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The reward may be s m a l l , such as a p i e c e o f bubb le gum, but everyone who p a r t i c i p a t e s g e t s s o m e t h i n g . S i m i l a r l y , the s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h the g i r l s i n such g r a t i f y i n g a c t i v i t i e s as c a n d y - m a k i n g , c o o k - o u t s i n summer and sewing . S t a f f invo lvement i n the l i f e - p r o b l e m s o f the c h i l d r e n does not a lways c o n s i s t o f c u r c i a l i n t e r v i e w s or h a n d l i n g t a n t r u m s . Involvement a l s o means c o n c e r n f o r s m a l l e r i s s u e s such as p u t t i n g on o v e r s h o e s i n bad wea ther , r e m i n d i n g a g i r l t o comb her h a i r b e f o r e g o i n g o u t , w e a r i n g s o c k s , and o t h e r d e t a i l s o f l i v i n g . These s m a l l e r i n c i d e n t s add up t o a t o t a l q u e s t i o n i n the c h i l d r e n s mind; "Do t h e s e a d u l t s ca re about me?" Ann , f o r example , o f t e n would walk o u t -o f - d o o r s i n below z e r o weather w i t h no o v e r c o a t on t o t e s t the s t a f f on d u t y . I t was f o u n d t h a t i f t h e s e i s s u e s were not hand led p r o p e r l y , one c o u l d a n t i c i p a t e more s e r i o u s a c t i n g out i n o t h e r a r e a s . L i k e w i s e , E s t h e r ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t o f b e i n g w o r t h l e s s , and unwanted was m i r r o r e d i n her unkempt h a i r , her d i r t y sweaters and s k i r t s and her unshod f e e t . What good would i t do f o r a s t a f f member t o t e l l her t h a t they c a r e d f o r h e r , i f t h e y a l l o w e d her t o d r e s s l i k e t h a t ? T h u s , i t i s v i t a l l y impor tan t f o r s t a f f members a t W a r r e n -d a l e t o show a c o n c e r n f o r and do something about the s m a l l d e t a i l s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . P o s s i b l y , the most impor tan t f a c t o r i n t h i s invo lvement i s the e m o t i o n a l tone and we ight - 33 -t h a t a s t a f f member u s e s i n a p p l y i n g such r u l e s . The emphasis i s on the c h i l d not the r u l e , and t h e r e s i d e n t s t a f f must show t h i s th rough h i s t o t a l c o n c e r n f o r e a c h c h i l d . L i k e w i s e , the c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e towards house p r o p e r t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s t a f f a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e r n about housekeep ing and house r u l e s . E x p r e s s i o n and R e l e a s e o f F e e l i n g s I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h a t r o u t i n e s be f l e x i b i l e enough to a l l o w the c h i l d to e x p r e s s her f e e l i n g s about the r o u t i n e y e t the r o u t i n e cannot be compromised because o f t h i s . An e l e v e n year o l d , l i k e L u c y , may swear, sc ream, and r e s i s t s c h o o l w i t h a l l her s t r e n g t h , bu t when the r e c e s s i s over she goes back t o the Warrendale s c h o o l , even i f she has t o be c a r r i e d . L i k e w i s e , the s u r f a c e b e h a v i o u r towards a r o u t i n e cannot a lways be a c c e p t e d a t i t s f a c e v a l u e . In f a c t , a c t i n g out a g a i n s t r o u t i n e s a lmost i n v a r i a b l y i n -v o l v e s f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d to some o t h e r c a u s e . T h i s i s o f t e n e v i d e n t i n the one and a h a l f hour s tudy p e r i o d r o u t i n e , when many o f the c h i l d r e n r e l e a s e t h e i r f e e l i n g s about s c h o o l and t h e i r t e a c h e r s . One n i g h t , f o r example , Tammy b l o c k e d c o m p l e t e l y on d o i n g her A r i t h m e t i c homework, a s u b j e c t t h a t she had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h b e f o r e , but never t h a t s e v e r e l y . An i n d i c a t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t the problem was more t h a n a q u e s t i o n o f A r i t h m e t i c became e v i d e n t when she began t o accuse the s t a f f member on duty i n t h a t room o f not want ing t o h e l p h e r . She was asked t o - 34 -remain a f t e r the period was over, and two other workers t r i e d to help her, and s t i l l she maintained that no one was helping. Her f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l and attention span i n short, were very low. She wept and cri e d that she needed help, and put away her books i n despair. The next day, the worker asked Tammy about the Arithmetic, Tammy r e p l i e d that she had done the Arithmetic i n the morning, that what r e a l l y bothered her was that to-morrow she had to make a speech before the t o t a l class, and she had put i f o f f . The teacher had t o l d her i t had to be done by the next day or i t would mean f a i l u r e i n that subject. R e a l i z i n g the d i f f i c u l t y that an a u t i s t i c c h i l d l i k e Tammy would have with such a project, the worker gave her considerable help and support i n prepar-ing the speech. The blocking on Arithmetic was considerably lessened aft e r she made her speech. The use of program-activities to express f e e l i n g s has been a fac t long recognized by group workers, and i t i s an important device at Warrendale. Providing outlets for h o s t i l e feelings of g i r l s i s not as well recognized as i t has been with boys, but experiences at Warrendale have shown i t to be as necessary. The g i r l s often indulge i n chasing games and mock f i g h t s , and i n cases where they are f e a r f u l to wrestle with peers, they w i l l ask s t a f f , espec-i a l l y a man-staff member to wrestle with them. Fencing, a harmless type of boxing and a punching bag are also used as h o s t i l i t y outlets; snowball f i g h t s i n winter, water gun - 35 -f i g h t s ( w i t h t h e g i r l s i n b a t h i n g s u i t s ) d u r i n g hot summer days are w o n d e r f u l h o s t i l i t y o u t l e t s . C r a f t s and f a n t a s y - p l a y a l s o have a h i g h l y e x p r e s s i v e v a l u e . I n the Warrendale s c h o o l b o t h o f t h e s e methods a r e u s e d t o have t h e g i r l s e x p r e s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s about a d u l t s , w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t i f t h e y a r e t o a c c e p t the t e a c h e r f s r o l e . Over and over i n t h e i r p l a y i n s c h o o l , t h e c h i l d r e n r e - e n a c t scenes o f s p a n k i n g , s c o l d i n g and d i s c i p l i n i n g o f c h i l d r e n . F r e e s t y l e a r t work, c l a y m o l d i n g and o t h e r c r a f t s a r e a l s o v a l u a b l e e x p r e s s i v e media. The r e a c t i o n t o d i s c i p l i n e and p e n a l t i e s i s not o f t e n t h o u g h t o f as an e x p r e s s i v e o u t l e t , y e t i t has been n e c e s s a r y a t Warrendale t o c o n s i d e r d i s c i p l i n e s and p e n a l t i e s i n terms o f t h e r e l i e v i n g g u i l t . For example, when B e t t y began s t e a l i n g a r t i c l e s from th e downtown s t o r e s , i t became n e c e s s a r y t o c a t c h her w i t h t h e s t o l e n goods (which would be r e t u r n e d t o t h e s t o r e , or money s e n t i n l i e u o f them) and t h e n f a c e her w i t h t h e t h e f t s and g i v e her an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d o f not b e i n g a b l e t o go downtown. Now, i t was n o t b e l i e v e d by t h e staff-members t h a t t h e " s t a y i n g i n " p e n a l t y i n i t s e l f would h e l p B e t t y w i t h her s t e a l i n g problem, but r a t h e r t h e i n t e r v i e w s about the i n c i d e n t , and the subsequent t a l k s she would have w i t h a staff-member, each t i m e she wanted t o have t h e p e n a l t y l i f t e d . Thus, t h e p e n a l t y s e r v e s as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r d i s c u s s i n g a g i r l s p roblem r a t h e r t h a n an i n s t r u m e n t f o r - 36 -r e t r i b u t i o n . It i s a p o l i c y of Warrendale, that any penalty can be waived or reduced i f the g i r l shows any insight Into the reasons f o r i t . In Betty's case, which i s quite t y p i c a l , i f she was not caught at stealing, she would become depressive or s t a r t i n v i t i n g penalties i n other areas of l i v i n g , so that she could l i v e more comfortably with her own g u i l t - f e e l i n g s . Thus, when Betty i s caught s t e a l i n g (which was often) i t became important that her fe e l i n g s of g u i l t be reduced by a penalty so that they do not in t e r f e r e with the worker's attempt to get at the basis of her st e a l i n g . Likewise, the staff-members of Warrendale have been faced with the " c i r c u l a r e f f e c t " that a penalty can have on a g i r l who runs away i n order to be punished. Sometimes a g i r l w i l l become so c o n f l i c t e d about a family s i t u a t i o n , or be so g u i l t y about something she had done, that she f e e l s that she deserves the supreme penalty: removal from the i n s t i t u t i o n . In;an open i n s t i t u t i o n , running away i s the usual way of expressing t h i s goal. To merely penalize a c h i l d f o r t h i s act and leave i t go at that i s not enough. For t h i s r e l i e v e s the g u i l t f e e l i n g s only temporarily, f o r an unresolved problem. When the problem i s re-activated through some incident (e.g. l e t t e r s from home) another run occurs and the cycle i s repeated. What i s necessary to break t h i s cycle i s to vigor-ously "re-engage" the c h i l d emotionally into the l i f e of the - 37 -i n s t i t u t i o n . Wi th each r u n n i n g away i n c i d e n t , the g i r l i s i n t e r v i e w e d about the s e r i o u s n e s s and danger o f her a c t , and whenever p o s s i b l e , the meaning o f her a c t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d . I f the r u n n i n g away i s due t o " o u t s i d e " s i t u a t i o n s , t h e n the r e a l i t y o f these s i t u a t i o n s a re r e v i e w e d w i t h the g i r l and a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r u n n i n g away t o s o l v e these s i t u a t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d where p o s s i b l e . Such an i n t e r v i e w must c a r r y an e m o t i o n a l weight t o demonstrate a p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n f o r the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e g i r l . T h i s c o n c e r n must be c o n -t i n u e d i n f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e g i r l , f o r i f she becomes e m o t i o n a l l y a l i e n a t e d f r o m the i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e w i l l be no end t o the r u n n i n g away. R o u t i n e s . L e i s u r e - T i m e A c t i v i t i e s and D i s c i p l i n e as  D i a g n o s t i c A i d s The r e a c t i o n s o f a g i r l t o the m i l i e u o f Warren-d a l e p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s t o the k i n d and d e p t h o f d i s t u r b a n c e o f the c h i l d . A g i r l ' s r e a c t i o n t o s u c h r o u -t i n e s as d i s h w a s h i n g , c l e a n - u p or l a u n d r y are o f t e n i n d i c -a t i v e o f a g i r l ' s f e e l i n g s toward mother f i g u r e s s i n c e these s i t u a t i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y the fo rmer " b a t t l e g r o u n d s " o f p r e v i o u s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s or p l a c e m e n t s . L i k e w i s e , the r e a c t i o n s t o b e d - t i m e and wake-up such as the e x p r e s s i o n o f n i g h t - f e a r s and d i s c u s s i o n o f dreams, are r e v e a l i n g o f the c h i l d ' s i n n e r f e e l i n g s . F o r example , i t was o n l y a f t e r the c o n s i s t e n t n i g h t - t i m e c o n c e r n o f over a y e a r by s t a f f members, t h a t a g i r l w i t h n i g h t - f e a r s and e n e u r e s i s was a b l e t o r e v e a l t h a t her f a t h e r had made s e x u a l advances towards - 3a -her when she went to the bathroom. Many children come to Warrendale with a poor a b i l i t y to play with adults and other children. When they come, they are surrounded by a host of play opportunities which often reveal the source of the d i f f i c u l t y of playing s k i l l s . Those who enter i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s with enthusiasm and v i t a l i t y usually reveal a previous environmental lack of opportunity to play. Such was S a l l y who had been p r a c t i c a l l y made a servant and maid (at age 10) by her step-mother; she expressed a wish to sleep i n the program o f f i c e . Others reveal t h e i r i n s e c u r i t i e s by withdrawal from a c t i v i t i e s , but more often t h i s type of g i r l w i l l eventually play with the s t a f f members and when she f e e l s secure enough, with other g i r l s . Chris quickly revealed her extreme r i v a l r y the f i r s t day she came, by throwing a tantrum when she was not f i r s t i n an a c t i v i t y . Joan re v e a l -ed her narcissism and manipulative s k i l l by p a r t i c i p a t i o n only i n games she could win and with people she could defeat. The diagnostic value of p l a y - a c t i v i t i e s are well used at Warrendale. I l l u s t r a t i o n s of experience at Warren-dale have shown that observations of the children during play offers excellent opportunities f o r the assessment of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the chi l d r e n . It i s during the f i r s t days of adjustment to the i n s t i t u t i o n that valuable insights to the new child' s r e -actions can be gained; f o r l a t e r , she builds up her part-- 39 -t i c u l a r se t o f d e f e n s e s t h a t make o b s e r v a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t . U s u a l l y , the g i r l cannot b e l i e v e t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s what i t seems t o be ; a p l a c e f o r c h i l d r e n , not f o r a d u l t c o n v e n i e n c e . A new g i r l i s u s u a l l y v e r y s u s p i c i o u s o f the a d u l t s who seem f r i e n d l y and seem t o get a l o n g w e l l w i t h the o t h e r g i r l s . In e s s e n c e , the new g i r l b r i n g s a p a t t e r n o f d e f e n s e s t h a t she has used s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t t h e a d u l t s and p e e r s o f her p a s t . The d i f f i c u l t i e s b e g i n when she c o n t i n u e s t o behave as i f t h e o l d s i t u a t i o n s s t i l l a p p l i e d . M a r t h a , f o r example , came t o the agency w i t h a deep d i s t r u s t o f a d u l t s and extreme r i v a l r y w i t h p e e r s . F o r many months she c o n t i n u e d t o a c t a s i f e v e r y a d u l t was l i k e her r e j e c t i n g a d o p t i v e p a r e n t s . She c o n t i n u e d t o compete w i t h her p e e r s and be h o s t i l e t o them as she was w i t h her h a l f s i s t e r - who was a d i a b e t i c . Mar tha had been kept on the same d i e t as her h a l f s i s t e r and Mar tha hoarded c o o k i e s and f r u i t i n her d r e s s e r and s e c r e t p l a c e s a l l over the h o u s e . She f o u g h t o f f a l l a t tempts a t r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t was o n l y a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h a t she was a b l e t o v e r b a l i z e f r e e l y about her i n n e r f e e l i n g s . T h i s o c c u r r e d o n l y a f t e r c o n s i s t e n t s t a f f a t t e n t i o n t o her s t e a l i n g p r o b l e m s , r e s i s t a n c e to r u l e s , and peer d i f f i -c u l t i e s . She s t i l l has g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l f - i n s i g h t and i s s t i l l v e r y n a r c i s s i s t i c but her a b i l i t y t o v e r b a l i z e may ye t h e l p her when she i s r e a d y f o r i n t e n s i v e p s y c h o -t h e r a p y . - 40 -The f i r s t " h a n d l i n g " s i t u a t i o n s w i t h a c h i l d o f t e n r e v e a l s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o v e r b a l i z e and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o adapt and change . For example , the g i r l i s t o l d t h a t any p e n a l t y t h a t i s g i v e n a t Warrendale may be removed or r e d u c e d i f the g i r l can t a l k w i t h s t a f f and show enough i n s i g h t about the i n c i d e n t . I f a g i r l can use such a d e v i c e , i t o f t e n h e l p s her t o v e r b a l i z e her f e e l i n g s and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a way she had never been a b l e t o do p r e v i o u s l y . T h u s , the e g o - s u p p o r t i v e and c o u n t e r - d e l u s i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f the m i l i e u o f Warrendale are n e c e s s a r y s t e p s i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d t o the p o i n t where she can a c c e p t a t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a r e s i d e n t i a l w o r k e r . In m i l d e r d i s t u r b a n c e s , most o f the c h i l d ' s problems can be r e s o l v e d by the i n f l u e n c e s o f the m i l i e u and t h e group s i t u a t i o n s . However, i n most c a s e s , moving the c h i l d t o -wards an i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a s t a f f member i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f h e l p i n g the c h i l d . Some-t i m e s a g i r l ' s l e n g t h o f s t a y , o r the dep th o f her d i s -t u r b a n c e , i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h i s t r a n s f e r t o an i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; but i t has been found t h a t , where severe n e u r o t i c symptoms r e m a i n , the d i s c h a r g e d g i r l i s f a r more amenable t o i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o t h e r a p y on an o u t - p a t i e n t b a s i s . The impor tance o f the group as s u c h , and the use o f group s k i l l s i n t h i s a re the s u b j e c t s o f the next c h a p t e r . CHAPTER I I I GROUP SKILLS IN ADJUSTMENT AND TREATMENT Group e x p e r i e n c e s a t Warrendale a r e not o n l y v a l u a b l e i n t h e m s e l v e s f o r the development o f s o c i a l and community v a l u e s , but they a r e o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e i n making i t p o s s i b l e f o r a c h i l d t o a c c e p t an i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . C h r i s , f o r example , f o r t h e f i r s t year o f her s t a y a t W a r r e n d a l e , c l a i m e d t h a t " t h e r e was no one t h e r e t o p l a y w i t h h e r " ; t h a t " the o t h e r c h i l d r e n d i d not l i k e h e r " . D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d she a l s o had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n a t t e n d i n g any o f the s o c i a l -o c c a s i o n meals o f t h e house such as b i r t h d a y s , C h r i s t m a s and o t h e r h o l i d a y s . On her own b i r t h d a y she c o u l d not come i n t o the d i n i n g room t o c u t her cake u n t i l n e a r l y everyone had l e f t the room a f t e r the m e a l . G r a d u a l l y , she began t o r e s p o n d t o the p e r s i s t e n t suppor t t h a t s t a f f and o l d e r g i r l s o f f e r e d h e r ; t o come and j o i n the f e s t i v i t i e s . C o i n c i d e n t a l w i t h her e v e n t u a l f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e a f f a i r s was the i n c r e a s i n g f r i e n d s h i p she had d e v e l o p e d w i t h a g i r l who b e -came her " f i r s t chum" a t W a r r e n d a l e . Thus , w i t h C h r i s ' s c a s e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say whether her i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was dependent on her group e x p e r i e n c e s , or her group e x p e r i e n c e s e n a b l e d her t o have a more i n d i v i d u a l - 4.2 -r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, i t seems to be true with many children whose d i f f i c u l t i e s are so i n d i v i d u a l , that a group experience i s a necessary prelude to new i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Except for the Warrendale school, the Senior House, and occasional small group meetings (such as with senior g i r l s regarding "dating"), sub-groups are not formed f o r treatment purposes at Warrendale. Thus, the main concern of t h i s chapter w i l l be the sixteen g i r l s of the main house, and the group s k i l l s which have been used to influence such a group. Two important points determine the r o l e of the r e s i -dent workers who deal with the group: the f a c t that the Warren dale population must be a "formed group", and the poor state of the s o c i a l health of the members of the group. In Wilson and Ryland's Social Group Work Practice, a simple chart has been devised to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o c i a l health of the members and the approximate r o l e of the worker. This chart i s repcoduced here to indicate i t s significance to Warrendale's use of group s k i l l s . - 43 -Degree of A c t i v i t y of Worker STATE OF SOCIAL HEALTH OF MEMBERS5 Out of touch with r e a l i t y Withdrawn or very aggressive I n d i f f e r -ence Interested but lack knowledge and experi ence of group l i f e Interested and have knowledge -and experi ence of group l i f e Eager and competent to p a r t i c i p a t i Controller \ Leader (very active Stimulator Instigator (active) Adviser Teacher (less active] Participant Observer (occasional observer) Enabling Observer (active when asked) 5 Wilson, Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys, Social Group Work Practice, Boston Hougton M i f f l i n Co., 1949, p. 68 - 44 -I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the c h i l d r e n a t Warrendale f i t the f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i a l h e a l t h more a p p r o x i m a t e l y than the l a s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the dominant r o l e s o f a worker i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n would be those o f c o n t r o l l e r , l e a d e r , s t i m u l a t o r - i n s t i g a t o r . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t the c h i l d caseworker i s never an a d v i s o r - t e a c h e r , p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r , o r an e n a b l i n g o b s e r v e r ; i t does mean t h a t the group o f f e r s l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s e l a t t e r r o l e s . In u s i n g these more c o n t r o l l i n g and d i r e c t i v e r o l e s , the worker must be c o n s t a n t l y aware t h a t the g o a l s o f s o c i a l h e a l t h r e m a i n the same. Perhaps the b e s t e x p r e s s i o n o f group s k i l l s a t W a r r e n -d a l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the group s e s s i o n s t h a t are h e l d when i s s u e s a r i s e . When an i s s u e such as a new g i r l coming or a coming E a s t e r program or r u l e s are t o be r e v i e w e d , t h e n a group mee t ing w i l l be announced, and a l l g i r l s and s t a f f on du ty have t o a t t e n d , w i t h a s t a f f spokesman ( u s u a l l y the d i r e c t o r or programme d i r e c t o r ) a c t i n g as a k i n d o f c h a i r m a n . F o r m u l a t i o n o f Group L i v i n g R u l e s and E x p e c t a t i o n s Group s e s s i o n s have been impor tan t i n s e t t i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r b e h a v i o u r i n the house and the community, and have been u s e f u l i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between community b e h a v i o u r and p r i v a t e b e h a v i o u r . " D a t i n g " and g o i n g out w i t h boys have o f t e n been d i s c u s s e d w i t h the t o t a l g r o u p , but the most m e a n i n g f u l d i s -c u s s i o n o f t h i s has o c c u r e d i n sub-group meet ings w i t h the - 45 -older g i r l s who do the dating. The following i s a record of one such meeting: It was evident that several of the older g i r l s had been meeting some delinquent boy's at the restaurant, and others had been arranging meetings with boys inside the l o c a l movie-house. The worker c a l l e d a meeting with four of the oldest g i r l s ; Mae, Pat, E l l e n and Dorothy, to empha-size some "dating" p r i n c i p l e s . The worker t o l d them that i n the future, g i r l s who intended to "date" a boy would f i r s t have to bring the fellow to Warrendale i n order to introduce him to Warrendale s t a f f . There was l i t t l e response to t h i s new r u l e , but the worker could see the look of determination on Pat and Mae's faces that seemed to indicate that t h i s was too much i n t e r -ference of t h e i r personal l i v e s . F i n a l l y , Pat said "Yeah, but suppose he does not want to come up and see-you - maybe he i s a f r a i d " . "Then", r e p l i e d the worker, "you have to think about what t h i s means, a f r a i d of what? Does he care enough about you to overcome these f e a r s - i f they are real? Why would he be ashamed of meeting the people who look a f t e r you? You know i f he "dated" any other g i r l on t h i s street, her parents would l i k e l y ask to meet the boy." "But you are not our parents" sneered Mae "so what Is the difference?" "That may be", commented the worker, "but we are as responsible for you as parents would be; and, by the way, Mae, what i s t h i s I hear about you meeting Joe i n the "movie" l a s t week. This i s another practice that i s going to have to stop. I f he can't spend 60$ a week to take you out to a movie, how much do you think he i s r e a l l y interested i n you? If he i s r e a l l y that "broke" or poor, which I doubt, -then you had better s t a r t i n v i t i n g him here, and be a hostess". "But i t s not just you I am t a l k i n g about", continued the worker, "there are other g i r l s here who have been doing similar acts. That i s why I want you older g i r l s , who are an example of the younger g i r l s , to understand t h i s important p r i n c i p l e : you w i l l be known by the boys, and other people, i n town by h<w you behave and conduct yourselves i n pu b l i c . " " I f some Warrendale g i r l s are so insecure that they w i l l go to almost any length to hold a boy-friend, or other g i r l s go around town with a "chip on t h e i r shoulder" then thats how every Warrendale g i r l w i l l be regarded u n t i l she can prove otherwise". "I suppose we get a reputation good or bad, whether we l i k e i t or not", sighed E l l e n . " P r e c i s e l y " echoed the worker. - 46 -Mae s a i d she would t r y and b r i n g Joe t o the h o u s e , and Dorothy compla ined about the swear ing done by the younger g i r l s o u t s i d e on the g r o u n d s . The worker s a i d he hoped the g i r l s p r e s e n t c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d the new p r i n c i p l e s , as he was g o i n g t o p r e s e n t t h e s e i d e a s t o a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g , where the younger g i r l ' s b e h a v i o u r would a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . Community s t a n d a r d s are o f t e n p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l or group s e s s i o n s and i n s e s s i o n s h e l d b e f o r e g i r l s go downtown i n a g r o u p . However, when a community i s s u e has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the t o t a l g r o u p , t h e n a group s e s s i o n i s h e l d . F o r example , S a l l y came home and compla ined t h a t Mar tha had been t a l k i n g a t s c h o o l about the " a w f u l " b e h a v i o u r t h a t went on a t W a r r e n d a l e . The s t a f f members r e a l i z e d t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s b e h i n d M a r t h a ' s g o s s i p i n g was the f a c t t h a t she was making the t r a n s i t i o n f rom the main house t o t h e s e n i o r house and she was seen i n d i v i d u a l l y about t h i s . I t was a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s b e h a v i o u r might be more common among o t h e r g i r l s , so a t the next group s e s s i o n t h i s i s s u e was i n c l u d e d . At t h i s s e s s i o n , the s t a f f spokesman r e v i e w e d why War ren -d a l e p e r m i t t e d b e h a v i o u r t h a t would not be a l l o w e d out i n the community. "Why do we do t h i s ? " asked the spokesman. E s t h e r prompt ly s a i d "So we won ' t a c t up i n town" , "And a l s o so t h a t a g i r l can do something about s u c h b e h a v i o u r w h i l e she i s h e r e " added the spokesman. The spokesman then went on t o e x p l a i n the harm o f v e n t i l a t i n g f e e l i n g s about o t h e r g i r l s and happenings a t Warrendale t o chums or peop le i n the community. S a l l y broke i n by m e n t i o n i n g M a r t h a ' s g o s s i p i n g at s c h o o l and Martha began a c o u n t e r - a c c u s a t i o n about S a l l y ' s b e h a v i o u r w i t h b o y s . T h i s - 47 -almost broke the meeting up and only the strong chairmanship of the s t a f f spokesman retained the focus of the meeting. F i n a l l y , i n an e f f o r t at diversion, Martha exclaimed that, there were other things done i n the community too, and the round of accusations began again; stealing at school, noisy behaviour with boys, swearing on the grounds, unkempt appearance. Above the noise, the s t a f f spokesman gained the at-tention of the group by saying that he was glad that they a l l knew what he was t a l k i n g about, and that i t was important that they a l l understood two p r i n c i p l e s ; the f i r s t was that Warren-dale was private l i k e a home, and had a private side to i t s l i f e , l i k e any family did. "People do not generally go around making family a f f a i r s public and neither should we" he empha-sized, " I f you have something to complain about or don't l i k e something that happens, do your t a l k i n g about i t here." "Second, i s that you shopild understand c l e a r l y that we allow behaviour that the community outside won't t o l e r a t e , because we t r y and understand i t and help g i r l s with such problems." Focus on Individual Problems Stealing, both i n the house and i n the community i s not the problem i t once was, and t h i s change has been a t -tributed i n a large part to the success of group sessions on t h i s matter. The following i s a t y p i c a l pattern of a ste a l i n g episode. An a r t i c l e mr money i s reported stolen and i f s t a f f are certain that a theft has occured, action i s immediate and a l l leaves - 48 -are c a n c e l l e d and a group s e s s i o n i s h e l d . I n d o u b t f u l c a s e s , a day o r two may e l a p s e , t o a l l o w f o r m i s l a i d a r t i c l e s o r f o r i n d i v i d u a l means t o work a s o l u t i o n . I n any c a s e , t h e f a c t s a r e c a r e f u l l y l e a r n e d by t h e s t a f f and t h e r e a c t i o n s o f known s t e a l e r s a r e c a r e f u l l y watched, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e group m e e t i n g . Even i f the s t a f f i s r e l a t i v e l y c e r t a i n who t o o k t h e a r t i c l e , a g r o u p , s e s s i o n may be h e l d i f o n l y t o r e l i e v e g r o u p - g u i l t and t o r e v i e w t h e problem o f s t e a l i n g i n g e n e r a l . U s u a l l y , the d i r e c t o r or program d i r e c t o r c h a i r s t h e m e e t i n g s . He b e g i n s by r e v i e w i n g the s t e a l i n g i n c i d e n t and s a y i n g t h a t he e x p e c t s the p e r s o n t o r e t u r n i t . There i s an a i r o f t e n s i o n and u s u a l l y many distractions when many g i r l s l i s t a r t i c l e s t h a t t h e y have had m i s s i n g and how about d o i n g ii something about t h a t . The s t a f f spokesman t h e n r e v i e w s t h e Warrendale a t t i t u d e t o s t e a l i n g somewhat i n t h i s manner: 1. That a t W a r r endale s t e a l i n g i s a problem r a t h e r t h a n a c r i m e . I t i s a s e r i o u s problem because i f t h e g i r l does not get h e l p w i t h t h a t problem a t W a r r e n d a l e , she s t a n d s a chance o f l o s i n g her j o b , her f r i e n d s , and maybe even her freedom, i f she i s caught by p e o p l e who don't c a r e why she s t e a l s . When you s h i e l d a s t e a l e r you don't h e l p h e r , you o n l y keep her from g e t t i n g h e l p she needs. 2. N e a r l y everyone has u r g e s t o s t e a l ; t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a s t e a l e r and a n o n - s t e a l e r i s t h a t the s t e a l e r g i v e s i n t o t h o s e u r g e s . 3. G i r l s s t e a l f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . I t may be out o f j e a l o u s y or d i s l i k e o f someone, or even because t h e y want t o have domething from someone t h e y l i k e v e r y much. I n o r d e r t o be h e l p e d a s t e a l e r s h o u l d know why she s t e a l s and t h e n do something about i t . - 4 9 -4 . S t e a l i n g i s d e s t r u c t i v e among people who l i v e t o -g e t h e r , because i f you c a n ' t t r u s t t h e peopl e you l i v e w i t h , who can you t r u s t ? 5. Warrendale does not p u n i s h g i r l s f o r s t e a l i n g , b u t n a t u r a l l y she had t o g i v e back what she s t o l e and i t would be b e s t i f t h e g i r l c o u l d see a s t a f f a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g and g i v e t h e a r t i c l e back. I f she c a n ' t do t h a t , she s h o u l d r e t u r n t h e a r t i c l e s e c r e t l y - f o r a t l e a s t she w i l l have shown some a b i l i t y t o do something about her problem. A t i m e l i m i t i s s e t f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e a r t i c l e and i n about one h a l f t h e cases t h e a r t i c l e i s r e t u r n e d b e f o r e t h a t t i m e . I f n o t , t h e n the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s a r e begun and i n most c a s e s the s t e a l e r i s d i s c o v e r e d . A s i d e f r o m t h e r e t u r n i n g o f t h e a r t i c l e s t h e s e group and i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about a g i r l ' s a t t i t u d e s t o s t e a l -i n g , t h e e f f e c t o f g u i l t , and t h e i r r esponse t o group p r e s s u r e . On r a r e o c c a s i o n s , group s e s s i o n s a re h e l d t o d i s c u s s a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l and h e r problems. U s u a l l y , t h e g i r l c o ncerned does n o t a t t e n d such a m e e t i n g . C h r i s , f o r example, became so b i z a r r e and i n t e r f e r i n g o f g i r l a c t i v i t i e s i n her b e h a v i o u r and was so u p s e t t i n g t o t h e grou p , t h a t a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g was c a l l e d t o h e l p t h e group u n d e r s t a n d her symptons and t o g i v e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o handle her when she d i s t u r b e d i n d i v i d u a l s and group a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g was shown by the g i r l s when i t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t C h r i s had t o a d j u s t t o Warrendale o r e l s e t h e r e was no where e l s e f o r her t o go, and t h e r e f o r e t h e whole agency had t o make s p e c i a l e f f o r t s t o h e l p h e r . Then n e a r l y everyone - 50 -r e l a t e d i n s t a n c e s o f c o n f l i c t t h a t t h e y had w i t h C h r i s . A t each i n c i d e n t the s t a f f t r i e d t o g i v e a l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and some s u g g e s t i o n s o f how t o d e a l w i t h h e r . O l d e r g i r l s were t o l d t o h o l d C h r i s as s t a f f d i d , r a t h e r t h a n h i t her when she ups e t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , and younger g i r l s were t o l d t o ask s t a f f t o handle h e r when she i n t e r f e r e d w i t h them. I n e f f e c t , the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n became i n v o l v e d i n C h r i s ' s b e h a v i o u r and t h e r e s u l t s were v e r y n o t i c e a b l e . On l a t e r a n a l y s i s , t h e s t a f f f e l t t h a t the sense o f i n v o l v e m e n t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n was as i m p o r t a n t as t h e h a n d l i n g s u g g e s t i o n s and i n g i v i n g t h e group a s e c u r i t y about C h r i s ' b i z a r r e n e s s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , a f t e r a s e r i e s o f run-aways by a g i r l i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o have a group s e s s i o n t o c l a r i f y W a r r e n d a l e ' s p o s i t i o n about r u n n i n g away, and t o a l l a y t h e a n x i e t i e s t h a t s u c h r u n s produce i n g i r l s w i t h s i m i l a r t e n d e r c i e s . S a l l y , f o r example, had r u n away r e p e a t e d l y , t h e main c o n f l i c t stemming from her doubt r e g a r d i n g her f a t h e r ' s a f -f e c t i o n , now t h a t he had a new common-law w i f e . She c o u l d n o t c o n s c i o u s l y a c c e p t the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no p l a c e f o r her i n t h e new f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and t r i e d t o r e s o l v e i t by r u n n i n g back home. She had i n v o l v e d f o u r o t h e r g i r l s i n t h e s e r u n s . W h i l e S a l l y was on one o f her r u n s , a group s e s s i o n was h e l d , and t h e group was t o l d o f the p o s s i b l e consequences o f h er r u n s . Here i s an o b s e r v e r s r e p o r t on a group s e s s i o n : - 51 -The s t a f f spokesman r e v i e w e d S a l l y ' s r u n s , s a y i n g t h a t t h e y stemmed from a f a m i l y c o n f l i c t beyond W a r r e n d a l e ' s c o n t r o l , and t h a t a l t h o u g h s t a f f t r i e d t h e i r b e s t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s , S a l l y s t i l l had t o agree to the minimum o f Warrendale r u l e s - e s p e c i a l l y t h a t she s t a y around so W a r r endale c o u l d h e l p h e r . "How can we h e l p a g i r l who i s n ' t h e r e " asked the spokesman " T h e r e f o r e " he con-t i n u e d '^unless S a l l y c a n agree t o t h e s i m p l e p r i n c i p l e o f s t a y i n g here and g o i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e g o i n g out r u l e s , we w i l l have t o send her back t o t h e c o u r t t h a t r e f e r r -ed here h e r e " . "But t h a t means t r a i n i n g s c h o o l and you know i t " a c c u s e d Joan "You're s e n d i n g her t o G a i t ( t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l ) " she c o n t i n u e d . "No" c o r r e c t e d t h e w o r k e r "We c a n ' t make t h a t d e c i s i o n o n l y t h e c o u r t can; a l l we can do i s d e c i d e i f a g i r l can s t a y and i n t h i s case we a r e l e a v i n g the d e c i s i o n up t o S a l l y . She s t i l l has a c h o i c e t o make. As we have s a i d b e f o r e , W a r r e n d a l e has an open door p o l i c y - and doesn't keep g i r l s who do not want t o s t a y . " P o l l y and Tammy began t o q u i e t l y weep, B e t t y ( S a l l y ' s f r i e n d ) h e l d her head down i n a d e p r e s s e d f a s h i o n . Joan, Grace and C h r i s grumbled t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t want t o s t a y - t h a t t h e y were b e i n g k e p t i n Warrendale a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l . " T hat's n ot t r u e and you know i t " r e t o r t e d t h e worker ','1 know you two (Grace and Joan) are f e e l i n g bad about S a l l y - e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e you have b o t h been on ru n s w i t h S a l l y . You b o t h know how h e l p l e s s she i s when she g e t s t h e s e i m p u l s e s " . Joan p e r s i s t e d i n her c l a i m t h a t she had no c h o i c e i n coming t o Warrendale "You c a l l i t a c h o i c e - t h i s p l a c e o r t r a i n i n g s c h o o l " she s houted. " I t ' s a l i m i t e d c h o i c e " a d m i t t e d t h e worker "but don't f o r g e t , we d i d n ' t g i v e you t h a t c h o i c e , - y o u r caseworker d i d . We c o u l d o n l y d e c i d e whether t o ta k e you when you d e c i d e d t o come. Grace, you know your own f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n enough t o know t h a t you d e c i s i o n t o s t a y here i s r e a l i s t i c ; and C h r i s , you speak t o your p a r e n t s about s t a y i n g here when t h e y n e x t v i s i t y ou." Thus, the group i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i s s u e s o f S a l l y ' s c h o i c e . The w o r k e r summarized t h e s i t u a t i o n by s a y i n g ; "So S a l l y has t o make her d e c i s i o n . We want her t o s t a y , b u t she had t o c o n t r o l her i m p u l s e s enough t o l i v e w i t h t h e r u l e s of t h e house - l i k e everyone e l s e . We t h i n k she c a n , b u t i t ' s up t o h e r . Now, i f she a g r e e s t o t r y a g a i n we w i l l a l l have t o h e l p h er over t h i s r o u g h s p o t i n her l i f e . Remember t h a t by g e t t i n g y o u r own f e e l i n g s mixed up w i t h h e r s and not d o i n g some-t h i n g about her u r g e s t o r u n , you a r e not h e l p i n g h e r . " - 52 -The group i s t h u s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e agency, and t h e amount o f a c t i n g o ut t h a t can be t o l e r a t e d . I t a l s o h e l p s t o r e l i e v e f e e l i n g s o f g i r l s w i t h r u n n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and p r e p a r e s them f o r t h e p o s s i b l e d e p a r t u r e o f S a l l y . There i s a l s o a c o u n t e r - d e l u s i o n a l a s p e c t , o f r e s p o n d i n g to t h e g i r l s who f e e l t h e y a r e i n Warrendale a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l . Group S e s s i o n s as E x p r e s s i v e M e d ia I s s u e s w h i c h have an e f f e c t on t h e t o t a l group a r e o f t e n h a n d l e d i n a group s e s s i o n , i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s and v e n t i l a t e f e e l i n g s and t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t o f a s i t u a t i o n on the morale o f t h e group. For i n s t a n c e , when i t i s an-nounced a t a group s e s s i o n t h a t a new g i r l i s coming f o r a v i s i t , t h e r e i s immediate s p e c u l a t i o n about her age, her l o o k s , and her background. The g i r l i s d e s c r i b e d by t h e spokesman i n a r e a l i s t i c b u t s y m p a t h e t i c f a s h i o n , o u t l i n i n g some o f the g i r l ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h a comment t h a t Warrendale can h e l p h e r . Q u i t e o f t e n a g i r l i s known by g i r l s i n the house and t h e y are i n v i t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e g i r l as t h e y knew h e r . When t h e g i r l v i s i t s she i s shown aro u n d t h e house and i n t r o -duced t o t h e g i r l s and s t a f f . A f t e r i t i s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e g i r l w i l l come, t h e r e i s an immediate b a r g a i n i n g f o r who she w i l l room w i t h , t o what s c h o o l she w i l l go and o t h e r l i v i n g a rrangements. I n e f f e c t t h e whole s o c i o m e t r i c p a t t e r n changes. T h i s method o f group p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a newcomer worked - 53 -e x t r e m e l y w e l l w i t h Joan. B e f o r e Joan came, t h e group was t o l d t h a t she had been d i s c h a r g e d from a c l o s e d C a t h o l i c V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l because o f her extreme r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and t h a t she i n c i t e d s e v e r a l r i o t s t h e r e . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t she was r e g a r d e d by them as an e x p e r t a t g e t t i n g o t h e r g i r l s i n t r o u b l e and t h a t she was an extreme b e h a v i o u r problem. The g i r l s were t h e r e f o r e warned about her t a c t i c s o f p l a y i n g one g i r l a g a i n s t a n o t h e r and her m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s . She began her f i r s t week by t e l l i n g c e r t a i n g i r l s t h a t she had he a r d about them and f o r a w h i l e s e v e r a l g i r l s were mad a t each o t h e r and f e u d s were d e v e l o p i n g . On b e i n g reminded by s t a f f members about t h e group s e s s i o n , s e v e r a l o f t h e g i r l s caught Joan i n m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and t o l d h e r s o . Joan a l s o was caught i n a s m a l l t h e f t by B e t t y (the n a t u r a l l e a d e r o f the h o u s e ) . E v e n t u a l l y , Joan gave up her a t t e m p t s a t group d o m i n a t i o n and began t o r e l a t e t o a male s t a f f and i n f a c t moved i n w i t h a younger g i r l who s u i t e d h er t r u e e m o t i o n a l l e v e l . The e m o t i o n a l impact o f a g i r l o f s t a f f l e a v i n g W arrendale i s an o c c a s i o n t h a t has a l s o been w e l l e x p r e s s e d i n group s e s s i o n s . The g i r l s i d e n t i f y s t r o n g l y w i t h anyone l e a v i n g . , f o r i t i n v o l v e s t h e i r own f e e l i n g s about l e a v i n g . A m e e t i n g i s h e l d , and t h e g i r l l e a v i n g i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a memento. There i s u s a l l y much c r y i n g and a g e n e r a l g r i e v -i n g s e s s i o n t a k e s p l a c e . W i t h a s t a f f l e a v i n g t h e e v e n t i s - 54 -sometimes more c h a n n e l e d , and the c h i l d r e n a c t out t h e i r f e e l -i n g s i n s k i t s or t a l e n t shows. For example , when a c h i l d l e s s s t a f f c o u p l e , who had met and m a r r i e d w h i l e a t W a r r e n d a l e , d e p a r t e d , the g i r l s enac ted a s k i t o f t h e i r c o u r t s h i p ; g e t t i n g m a r r i e d ; h a v i n g a baby and b r i n g i n g i t up "Warrendale s t y l e " . A t another s t a f f d e p a r t u r e , Tammy e x p r e s s e d her f e e l i n g s i n a charade - she a c t e d out a b u r i a l s c e n e . In s k i t s , s t a f f a re u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the c h i l d who has been c l o s e s t t o them and a symbol o f s t a f f i s t o c a r r y a l a r g e bunch o f k e y s . When a s c h o o l t e a c h e r l e f t , the s c h o o l g i r l s p r e s e n t e d a s k i t o f a t y p i c a l day a t W a r r e n d a l e . L u c y , one o f the most s tubborn c h i l d r e n r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l work, e n a c t e d a t e a c h e r who seemed t o be c o n s t a n t l y b e r a t i n g c h i l d r e n about d o i n g t h e i r work, and the g i r l s were c o n s t a n t l y showing n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s . L i k e w i s e , when house p e t s d i e or a re r u n o v e r , t h e r e i s a g r i e v i n g s e s s i o n and t h i s i s u s u a l l y channe led by some e l a b o r a t e c a s k e t making and a b u r i a l out i n the f i e l d . The Warrendale S c h o o l as a Group E x p e r i e n c e W a r r e n d a l e ' s s c h o o l has group e x p e r i e n c e s beyond the u s u a l house l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The s c h o o l has f rom two t o s i x p u p i l s and the c o n t e n t o f the t e a c h i n g i s secondary t o the a t t i t u d e s o f the g i r l s towards the t e a c h e r and towards s c h o o l work i n g e n e r a l . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e a c t i o n among the c h i l d r e n and c o n s i d e r a b l e s e l f - h e l p between them. The r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t e a c h e r i s t h e most impor tan t f u n c t i o n o f the s c h o o l . - 55 -A s i d e f r o m t h e l e s s o n s , t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a l a c t i n g out towards the t e a c h e r and a l a r g e amount o f f a n t a s y p l a y and p l a y a c t i n g . Scenes o f c r u e l mothers, and s t u b b o r n d i s o b e d i e n t c h i l d r e n are most o f t e n a c t e d , w i t h t h e t e a c h e r t a k i n g p a r t a t t h e i r r e q u e s t . The t e a c h e r a v o i d s t h e c r u e l mother r o l e . Going s h o p p i n g , " h o s p i t a l " and g o i n g t o bed a r e r e c u r r e n t themes. Thus,, w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n work a t t h e i r own s c h o l a s t i c speed, i t has been f o u n d t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y c o n s c i o u s about whether t h e y are up t o the l e v e l o f the community s c h o o l work. When t h e y have r e s o l v e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t e a c h e r s and a d u l t s , t h e g i r l who i s r e a d y g e n e r a l l y b e g i n s t o demand t h a t she go back t o r e g u l a r s c h o o l . Such a g i r l i s g i v e n a f u l l c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s and exams and i f she can s t a n d the f r u s t r a t i o n she i s t r a n s f e r r e d . The s c h o o l i s c o n s c i o u s o f i t ' s i d e n t i t y b u t does not c o n t i n u e as a sub-group i n t h e house a f t e r s c h o o l . Group S i g n i f i c a n c e o f H o l i d a y and S o c i a l F u n c t i o n s One o f t h e s t r i k i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i m p r e s s e d t h e s t a f f o f Warrendale when t h e agency was i n i t ' s f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s was t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e g i r l s t o major h o l i d a y s as C h r i s t m a s , E a s t e r , T h a n k s g i v i n g and even summer h o l i d a y s , f o r t h e s e a r e t i m e s t h e y m i s s f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n s most. The r e a c t i o n was u s u a l l y one o f gloom o r a i m l e s s h y p e r - a c t i v i t y . I t a l s o was apparent t h a t t h e y were r e a c t i n g t o t h e poor h o l i d a y and s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t t h e y had had b e f o r e coming t o W a r r e n d a l e . Q u i t e o f t e n , f o r t h e m , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s meant o n l y a d u l t drunkenness.; or unspoken r e j e c t i o n by b e i n g s e n t - 56 -t o camps or s c h o o l s ; or t h e c h e e r l e s s c e l e b r a t i o n o f h o l i d a y s i n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . S t e l l a , f o r example, t o l d o f b e i n g g i v e n a s i n g l e p r e s e n t - a d o l l - f o r C h r i s t m a s w h i l e a t a c h i l d r e n ' s home. The d o l l was t a k e n back from her when she l e f t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . H o l i d a y s a l s o have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s i n h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d r e g a i n t h e f e e l i n g s t h a t t h e y a r e a p a r t o f a l a r g e r s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t n o t h i n g s h o r t o f a major program e f f o r t c o u l d c o u n t e r - a c t t h i s s o c i a l l a c k i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a r e a h o s t o f t r a d i t i o n s around most h o l i d a y s and i t was d e c i d e d t o e x p l o i t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s as much as p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e a s u p e r -abundance o f c h i l d - a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o overcome h o l i d a y r e s i s t a n c e . Thus, t h e r e have d e v e l o p e d over t h e y e a r s a con-s i d e r a b l e amount o f t r a d i t i o n s and c e l e b r a t i o n s , w h i c h would perhaps be more t h a n an average f a m i l y would p r o v i d e . E ach c h i l d can t h e n choose t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h meet her own needs. The C h r i s t m a s season i s a good example o f s o c i a l a c t i v i -t i e s as r e a c t i o n s a t t h i s t i m e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r s . The C h r i s t m a s season u s u a l l y b e g i n s w i t h a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as C h r i s t -mas c a r d making, C h r i s t m a s l i s t s , group s e s s i o n s on program a c t i v i t i e s (a swim t o t h e Y.W.C.A. i s t r a d i t i o n a l ) and t h e n t h e s t e n c i l l i n g o f t h e windows and c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e g r e e n s b e g i n t h e house d e c o r a t i n g . Then, a f t e r g i f t making and the s h o p p i n g t h a t accompanies t h e e x t r a C h r i s t m a s a l l o w a n c e , t h e p r e - C h r i s t m a s a c t i v i t i e s b e g i n , t h e g r e e n s are hung, t h e g i r l s - 57 -c u t out d e c o r a t i o n s and t h e r e i s c a r o l i n g on C h r i s t m a s Eve. Perhaps t h e most l o o k e d - f o r w a r d - t o t r a d i t i o n i s t h e s l e e p i n g d o w n s t a i r s by the t r e e ( t h e g i r l ' s m a t t r e s s e s a r e br o u g h t down) so t h e y can wake up surrounded by the p r e s e n t s t h e s t a f f put t h e r e d u r i n g t h e n i g h t . The C h r i s t m a s - m e a l t a b l e s a re w e l l d e c o r a t e d by t h e o l d e r g i r l s , and the t r a d i t i o n a l t u r k e y and o t h e r C h r i s t m a s f o o d s a r e s e r v e d . The c o r n u c o p i a c e n t r e p i e c e from w h i c h the g i r l s draw s m a l l t o k e n g i f t s i s a n o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . An o r g a n i z e d program o f w i n t e r s p o r t s and t r i p s i s a l s o a p a r t o f the h o l i d a y s . The o t h e r h o l i d a y s have d e v e l o p e d s i m i l a r t r a d i t i o n s such a s ; t h e r a c e around t h e house a f t e r t h e E a s t e r d i n n e r ; the s t a f f - g i r l t u g o f war a t T h a n k s g i v i n g ; t h e t r i p t o t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n i n the summer. These a r e a l l p a r t o f the f e s t i v i t i e s and t r a d i t i o n s o f Wa r r e n d a l e . However, the v a l u e o f such i n t e n s i v e and e l a b o r a t e observance o f h o l i -days would not be a s v a l u a b l e i f i t were not accompanied by t h e warmth and s i n c e r i t y o f t h e t o t a l s t a f f . Over t h e y e a r s , t h e r e has growg. a sense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t has e n a b l e d each c h i l d t o f e e l t h a t h o l i d a y s can be a happy time - even i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . The o b s e r v i n g o f each g i r l s b i r t h d a y o f f e r s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o g n i z e each g i r l as an i n d i v i d u a l , and make " h e r " day a s o c i a l one. On her b i r t h d a y , a g i r l c h o o s e s t t h e menu f o r t h e day (pork chops, c o r n and i c e - c r e a m a r e f a v o r i t e s ) and i t i s a j o y f u l moment when t h e cake i s broug h t i n and - 58 -everyone s i n g s "Happy B i r t h d a y " . Many g i r l s are seaming ly embarrassed by so much r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p r o v a l and t h e y some-t i m e s shout " D o n ' t s i n g i t , d o n ' t s i n g i t " and put t h e i r hands over t h e i r e a r s . The g i r l a l s o r e c e i v e s $3.00 as a g i f t , and an e x t r a n i g h t out t o see a show, w i t h a "chum". Another o b -servance more q u i e t l y done i s when a young g i r l b e g i n s her menses. To c e l e b r a t e her e n t r a n c e t o womanhood a female s t a f f member t a k e s the g i r l out f o r a movie or a s u p p e r . There has been o n l y one open-house a t W a r r e n d a l e , b u t i t demonstra ted how eager the g i r l s were t o show t h e i r home t o the p u b l i c . W i t h s t a f f h e l p they formed commi t tees , and hand led such d e t a i l s as s e r v i n g f o o d , p a r k i n g , t o u r s and a movie programme. The group responded w e l l , and t h e r e was not one b e h a v i o u r i n c i d e n t . The g i r l s are encouraged t o b r i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s t o W a r r e n d a l e , and i n t u r n , they may v i s i t the homes o f f r i e n d s . S t a f f u s u a l l y check w i t h the p a r e n t s o f a c h i l d b e f o r e g r a n t -i n g p e r m i s s i o n f o r a v i s i t . T h i s a v o i d s p o s s i b l e m i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g and e n l a r g e s W a r r e n d a l e ' s community c o n t a c t s . The g i r l s are reminded t h a t v i s i t o r s are p a r t o f the community and as such community b e h a v i o u r i s e x p e c t e d f rom them as w e l l as the g u e s t s . Sometimes f r i e n d s o f the g i r l s - s e n s i n g the compara t ive f reedom o f Warrendale b e g i n t o a c t l i k e Warrendale g i r l s , and have t o be reminded t h a t t h i s i s a p r i v i l e g e f o r Warrendale g i r l s . C a s u a l v i s i t o r s , c h i l d o r a d u l t , a r e d i s -couraged f rom v i s i t i n g and a d u l t s may not see a c h i l d w i t h o u t - 59 -s t a t i n g t h e i r r e a s o n . P e r s o n s w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t are g e n e r a l l y shown around the house by one o f the g i r l s . Group Adjustment v a l u e o f Group S e s s i o n s ^he group p r o c e s s o f d i s c u s s i n g house r u l e s and e v e n t s a i d s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n a f e e l i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n v o l v e -ment i n the a c t i v i t i e s and programme. * o r example , b e f o r e the •^aster h o l i d a y s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f the g i r l ' s i n t e r e s t s i s c i r c u l a t e d and a t e n t a t i v e programme i s drawn u p . ^ group meet ing was h e l d and t h e n the programme i s d e s c r i b e d and comments are i n v i t e d . A n x i e t i e s about t r i p s , the b a r g a i n i n g f o r s t a y i n g u p , the o l d e r g i r l s p a r t y s u g g e s t i o n s , q u e s t i o n s about ^ a s t e r c l o t h e s and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r e b y making the h o l i d a y t i m e s someth ing t o a n t i c i p a t e and e n j o y . •'•he r u l e s about t e l e v i s i o n r e v i e w i n g a r e an example •r-o f the c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f group s e s s i o n s , ^ t a f f members do not censor t e l e v i s i o n programmes, but because o f the c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n w i t h the bed time r o u t i n e , i t does s e t l i m i t s on how l o n g the programmes can be watched . A t the b e g i n n i n g of the f a l l s e a s o n , d u r i n g a group s e s s i o n , the g i r l s compla ined t h a t c e r t a i n programmes t h a t t h e y l i k e d s t a r t e d a t n i n e - j u s t when t h e y had t o go up t o b e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h r e e h a l f hour e x c e p t i o n s were made d u r i n g the week, and one hour e x c e p t i o n s on F r i d a y s and S a t u r d a y s , w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t the g i r l s have t h e i r pajamas on f o r the e x c e p t i o n . However, over a p e r i o d o f months i t was n o t e d - 60 m-by s t a f f members t h a t m i s b e h a v i o u r was i n c r e a s i n g i n the t e l e -v i s i o n room, and t h a t t h e r e were too many u n f i n i s h e d t a s k s a t " l i g h t s o u t " . I t seemed t h a t t e l e v i s i o n e x c e p t i o n s by b e i n g au tomat ic were becoming e x t e n s i o n s f o r t ime d o w n s t a i r s r a t h e r than because o f a genuine i n t e r e s t i n t h e programme. I t a l s o appeared t h a t t h e one hour e x t e n s i o n on t h e week-end was t o o l o n g f o r the younger g i r l s , and they e x p r e s s e d t h e i r boredom and t i r e d n e s s i n m i s b e h a v i o u r . The f o l l o w i n g i s a s t a f f r e p o r t : A group s e s s i o n was c a l l e d by s t a f f and the t e l e v i s i o n r u l e s were r e v i e w e d . I t was p roposed t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e , a t e l e v i s i o n e x t e n s i o n would be g i v e n o n l y t o t h o s e who asked f o r one a t supper t i m e . Mar tha grumbled about the "good o l d d a y s " when the younger g i r l s were not around and the bed t i m e s and t e l e v i s i o n t i m e s were l a t e r . The s t a f f spokesman r e p l i e d t o t h i s comment, e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t no change i n the p r e s e n t hours was b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d -bu t how you got the e x t e n s i o n s . He c o n t i n u e d t h a t s t a f f had thought about the o l d e r and younger g i r l s i n te rms o f p r i v i l e g e s , and were s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e younger g i r l s o n l y have one h a l f hour e x c e p t i o n s on the w e e k - e n d s , and the o l d e r g i r l s an h o u r . The o l d e r g i r l s were n a t u r a l l y p l e a s e d about t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r m a t u r i t y , b u t some o f the younger g i r l s c r i e d out i n p r o t e s t . Another s t a f f then p roduced a l i s t showing t h a t i n the p r e v i o u s t h r e e weeks o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f the younger g i r l s (and a n o i s y m i n o r i t y a t t h a t ) watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r more t h a n h a l f an h o u r . Tammy s t i l l t r i e d t o p r o t e s t but the o l d e r g i r l s p r e s s u r e d her to "use her head" and she a c q u i e s c e d . Then S a l l y agreed t h a t - p e r h a p s t o make sure a g i r l was i n t e r e s t e d , she s h o u l d name the programme she wanted t o s e e . The s p o k e s -man agreed t h a t the s u g g e s t i o n was a good o n e . Tammy and Lucy p r o t e s t e d t h a t they might not know the programmes. "Ask Mar tha o r b e t t y (group l e a d e r s ) " suggested the w o r k e r -'-or even r e a d the p a p e r " . A l l seemed t o a g r e e , so the mee t ing was c l o s e d . T h i s s e s s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the impor tance o f u s i n g age d i f f e r e n c e s i n a group t o e f f e c t a change on an age b a s i s . One o f t h e g o a l s o f such r u l e s has been to g ive r e c o g n i t i o n - 61 -t o the o l d e r g i r l s and t o a v o i d t h e i r s u s p i c i o n t h a t the house i s r u n on t h e b a s i s o f t h e l o w e s t age denomenator, e.g. e i g h t y e a r s o l d . S o c i a l and group s k i l l s a r e t h e r e f o r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e m i l i e u o f W a r r e n d a l e . E v e r y e f f o r t i s made t o make each s o c i a l and group s i t u a t i o n a p o s i t i v e growth i n s p i r i n g p r o c e s s . When t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , t h e g o a l i s t o make s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s the l e a s t h a r m f u l p o s s i b l e . Group s e s s i o n s have a s t a f f t r a i n i n g v a l u e , and a r e e x c e l l e n t media f o r o r i e n t i n g a new g i r l about p a s t e v e n t s and p r e s e n t p o l i c y . The s e s s i o n s a r e a l s o v a l u a b l e as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s on i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d a t group m e e t i n g s . Q u o t a t i o n s from o r examples o f f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d i n group s e s s i o n s o f t e n c a r r y more w e i g h t t h a n t h e statement o f an i n d i v i d u a l . Other Use o f Group S k i l l s W h i l e t h e use o f group s k i l l s as a p p l i e d t o the t o t a l group i s t h e main c o n c e r n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e use o f group s k i l l s i s p r e v e l a n t i n many phases o f t h e work a t W a r r e n d a l e . Such t o p i c s as changes i n f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s , t h e e f f e c t i v e -ness o f room arrangements, and t h e management o f the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t r i p s a r e f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d a t the we e k l y s t a f f m e e t i n g s , and h a n d l i n g t e c h n i q u e s are c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s im-p o r t a n t t h a t a l l r e s i d e n t s t a f f be k e p t a b r e a s t o f t h e group l i f e o f t h e c h i l d r e n . P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t has been t h e s t a f f - h a n d l i n g - 62 -o f t h e n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p o f the g i r l s t h a t has d e v e l o p e d i n the p a s t y e ar a t W a r r e n d a l e . Among t h e staff-members t h e r e has been a g rowing awareness o f the need f o r l e a d e r s h i p o u t -l e t s among t h e g i r l s . Upon r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t a t t i m e s o l d e r g i r l s w i s h e d t o h e l p w i t h r o u t i n e s i t u a t i o n s , and a f t e r a c a r e f u l assessment by the s t a f f , t h e r e has d e v e l o p e d a " j u n i o r -s t a f f " arrangement, whereby c e r t a i n o l d e r g i r l s , who a r e a b l e t o and want t o h e l p , a r e s c h e d u l e d as a " j u n i o r - s t a f f " . I f a c c e p t e d i n t h i s r o l e t h e g i r l s a r e p a i d s m a l l wages f o r t h e i r h e l p . Thus, " j u n i o r - s t a f f " may h e l p put t h e s m a l l e r g i r l s t o bed, or h e l p staff-members d u r i n g an o u t i n g . " J u n i o r -s t a f f " a r e a l s o v e r y u s e f u l i n camping d u r i n g t h e summer. N a t u r a l l y , t h e " j u n i o r - s t a f f " are not e x p e c t e d t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r staff-members, and c a r e i s t a k e n not t o i n v o l v e them i n h a n d l i n g extreme b e h a v i o u r . Such a p o l i c y has been v a l u a b l e i n p r o v i d i n g a r e c o g -n i t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e house. I t a l s o g i v e s the n a t u r a l l e a d e r s an even g r e a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and g i v e s t h e staff^members an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t would not o t h e r w i s e be p o s s i b l e . Group s k i l l s a r e t h u s d e v e l o p e d and f o s t e r e d among the n a t u r a l l e a d e r s t o t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l the g i r l s . CHAPTER IV CONTRIBUTIONS AND POSSIBILITIES OF WARRENDALE An a lmost u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the g i r l s who come t o Warrendale i s t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p towards p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s has b r o k e n down. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards a l l a d u l t s a re d i s t o r t e d i n some way. Most o f t e n , g i r l s r e a c t i o n s towards mother f i g u r e s are most i n t e n s i v e and p r o n o u n c e d . T h i s i s perhaps another r e a s o n why caseworkers and t h e r a p i s t s (who a r e o f t e n women) have such d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e l p i n g such g i r l s i n d i v i d u a l l y . Most o f the War renda le g i r l s have been t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f f o s t e r - h o m e p lacements or i n s t i t u t i o n s and have f a i l e d i n them. M a r t h a , i s the most d r a m a t i c example she had t w e n t y - s i x p lacements b e f o r e placement a t W a r r e n d a l e . Whatever the r e a s o n f o r p lacement breakdowns i t remains a f a c t t h a t most f o s t e r (or a d o p t i v e ) p a r e n t s expec t more, e m o t i o n a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h a n the u p s e t c h i l d i s a b l e t o g i v e . What d e v e l o p s i s a lmost a v i c i o u s c i r c l e . A f o s t e r - h o m e p lacement , f o r example, b r e a k s down because o f i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s which are -beyond the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o meet them. T h i s r e s u l t s i n g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s o f i n -adequacy and i n s e c u r i t y wh ich may cause g r e a t e r a c t i n g out symptoms t h a t p rovokes f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n and another breakdown i n p lacement . For example , on one c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s form (see - 64 -Appendix B) there were no l e s s than nineteen acting out symptoms! I f the c h i l d i s not able to t r u s t or respond to the a f f e c t i o n and attention of the substitute-parents, or even one of tehem, then usually the p lacement i s doomed* C h i l d p lacement agencies are u n f o r t u n a t e l y a l l t o o aware of the r e s u l t s of such a m u l t i -tude of p lacements i n t h e i r c a s e l o a d s . The end r e s u l t i s the type o f c h i l d who i s p l a c e d a t Warrendale who b r i n g s many " a c t i n g ou t" symptoms w i t h wh ich f o s t e r homes were not a b l e to c o p e . Warrendale o f f e r s a v a r i e t y o f p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s whom the c h i l d can a c c e p t or r e j e c t w i t h o u t f e a r o f " s u r v i v a l " . S u r v i v a l , t o the t r a u m a t i z e d c h i l d means a c c e p t a n c e and a f e e l -i n g o f permanence. In e s s e n c e , Warrendale g i v e s as much p a r e n t a l c o n c e r n and ca re as p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t a s k i n g r e c i p r o c a l l o v e and a f f e c t i o n . No doubt because i t i s not e x p e c t e d , i n t i m e , the c h i l d u s u a l l y a l l o w s h e r s e l f t o e x p r e s s l o v e and a f f e c t i o n f r e e l y . Warrendale i s a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s because the symptoms and b e h a v i o u r , t h a t the o t h e r " p a r e n t s " i n the c h i l d r e n's l i v e s c o u l d not t o l e r a t e , are met by s t a f f who are t r a i n e d t o u n d e r s t a n d and d e a l w i t h s u c h b e h a v i o u r . P r a c t i c a l l y , a l s o , t h e r e are a l a r g e r number o f t r a i n e d , v e r y t o l e r a n t and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g a d u l t s to whom a c h i l d can r e l a t e to than t h e r e i s i n a f o s t e r - h o m e . Warrendale as a P a r e n t - S u b s t i t u t e The r o l e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and the s t a f f as p a r e n t -s u b s t i t u t e s s h o u l d be c l e a r and d e f i n e d . There i s a tremendous - 65 -l a c k o f agreement about t h i s . Any i n s t i t u t i o n wh ich assumes t o t a l care o f c h i l d r e n has t o assume a p a r e n t a l r o l e whether the i n s t i t u t i o n r e c o g n i z e s i t or a c c e p t s i t . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h an i n s t i t u t i o n , t h a t assumes t h i s t o t a l care i s aware t h a t t h i s p a r e n t a l r o l e e x i s t s w i l l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the m e n t a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d . When an i n s t i t u t i o n does not assume p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n s i t p r o d u c e s the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " c h i l d ; a c h i l d who i s a u t i s t i c , i n s e c u r e i n the extreme and o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d awkward and s l o w . Warrendale i s a b l e t o a v o i d most o f the dangers o f i n s t i -t u t i o n a l i z i n g c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s because s t a f f become e m o t i o n a l l y engaged i n the c h i l d ' s problems as t h e y a r i s e , and because the t o t a l m i l i e u o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s " c h i l d - c e n t e r e d " and as f l e x i -b l e as p o s s i b l e . Indeed , Warrendale c a n , and d o e s , o f f e r much i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d who has been p l a c e d i n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . The S t a f f R o l e as P a r e n t - S u b s t i t u t e s To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n , a s t a f f member must have a t h o r o u g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e , wh ich combines t o t a l c o n c e r n f o r the c h i l d w i t h a l l the o b j e c t i v i t y he can m u s t e r . A common p h i l o s o p h y and approach i s h e l d by a l l s t a f f . They a re a pa r t o f the "group p a r e n t - s u b s t i t u t e " , a s w e l l as a p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h e i r own r i g h t . Reduced t o i t s s i m p l e s t t e r m s , a r e s i d e n t i a l worker p e r f o r m s p a r e n t a l t a s k s w i t h each c h i l d though b o t h are aware t h a t the s t a f f p e r s o n i s n o t , nor w i l l ever b e , t h a t c h i l d ' s t r u e p a r e n t . T h u s , t h e r e can be no " l e t ' s p r e t e n d " q u a l i t y about the p a r e n t a l f u n c t i o n o f s t a f f . When - 6 6 -c h i l d r e n c a l l s t a f f "mommy" o r " d a d d y " , or ask t o be a d o p t e d , t h e y are g e n t l y reminded t h a t s t a f f can be " l i k e p a r e n t s " w i t h -out becoming t h e i r a c t u a l p a r e n t s . The Va lue of Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p O f t e n c h i l d r e n , a lmost v i o l e n t l y , r e s i s t a l l a t tempts a t d e v e l o p i n g m e a n i n g f u l a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s because t h e y have been hur t so o f t e n by a d u l t s . They even have t o r e s i s t t h e - n o n -demanding k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p Warrendale has t o o f f e r . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s of . i n e s t i m a t e a b l e v a l u e t h a t W a r r e n -d a l e a l s o o f f e r s a range o f s i b l i n g s and p e e r s t h a t no f a m i l y c o u l d match . W i t h i n the group a newcomer can f i n d : c h i l d r e n t o h a t e , c h i l d r e n t o l i k e , c h i l d r e n w i t h whom t o work out f e e l -i n g s , c h i l d r e n w i t h whom t o p l a y and t h o s e t o h e l p . The r e s u l t s are t h a t a t Warrendale a newcomer can f i n d a c h i l d r e n ' s a tmos-phere t h a t i s s u s t a i n i n g enough t o p e r m i t her t o do w i t h o u t an a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , peer i n f l u e n c e s a re c a r e f u l l y and c o n t i n u a l l y o b s e r v e d , and the q u a l i t y o f n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p a s s e s s e d because the i n f l u e n c e o f the group on an i n d i v i d u a l can be v i t a l and p o s i t i v e or a t another t ime e q u a l l y n e g a t i v e . F o r example , Mar tha r a t i o n -a l i z e d her d i s t r u s t o f a d u l t s because she f e l t she was the most abused c h i l d i n the w o r l d . When she began t o r e l a t e t o o t h e r c h i l d r e n , she was amazed t o f i n d t h a t o t h e r s had been t h r o u g h s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d , i n f a c t , some had been even more abused t h a n she* - 67 -The S u p p o r t i v e A s p e c t o f the M i l i e u Even where a c h i l d has not a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o an a d u l t , o r where a c h i l d has not a s i n g l e f r i e n d i n the house , she i s s t i l l a b l e t o m a i n t a i n h e r s e l f t e m p o r a r i l y and grow because o f the a l l - i m p o r t a n t s u p p o r t i v e a s p e c t o f the m i l i e u . C h r i s , as an example , r e s i s t e d every e f f o r t o f s t a f f t o form a r e l a t i o n s h i p , and succeeded i n a l i e n a t i n g every g i r l i n the house w i t h her b i z a r r e b e h a v i o u r . E v e n a f t e r many weeks o f s t a f f h a n d l i n g to p r o t e c t her f rom h e r s e l f and the g r o u p , s e v e r a l o f the o l d e r g i r l s d e c l a r e d t h a t C h r i s ' s b e h a v i o u r annoyed them "no end" - but they r e a l i z e d how much she needed h e l p , and Warrendale was the p l a c e t o get i t . Such symptom t o l e r a n c e by a d u l t s and p e e r s would be i m p o s s i b l e i n a f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . The M e n t a l H e a l t h A s p e c t o f D a i l y L i v i n g As an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y w e l l grounded i n menta l h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s , Warrendale o f f e r s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y and growth o f c h i l d r e n , t h a t many p a r e n t -s u b s t i t u t e s l a c k . One o f the most common r e a c t i o n s o f d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n who are sudden ly exposed t o an a c c e p t i n g , a f f e c t i o n -ate s u r r o u n d i n g , i s t o t e s t t h i s a f f e c t i o n t o d i s c o v e r i f the a d u l t s are r e a l l y concerned about them. Most p a r e n t - s u b s t i t u t e s cannot s tand such p e r i o d s o f t e s t i n g f o r too l o n g , but W a r r e n -d a l e r e g a r d s an adjustment p e r i o d o f t h r e e t o s i x months as a v e r a g e , and up to a y e a r as not u n u s u a l . Tammy, f o r example, was very withdrawn f o r her f i r s t days a t War renda le ; b u t , as # 68 — she saw t h a t the s ta f f -members o f f e r e d c o n c e r n and a f f e c t i o n t o the o t h e r g i r l s she began a p e r i o d o f demanding, c l i n g i n g , " p i g g y - b a c k " , " j u m p i n g - o n " k i n d of a t t e n t i o n t h a t n e a r l y e x -ha us ted s i x s t a f f members. Her f i r s t need d i d not seem t o be a need f o r a d e e p - p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , but r a t h e r the more f r a n k and o b v i o u s need o f " p e o p l e t o h u g " . When a g i r l f e e l s more s e c u r e , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f t e s t -i n g , and i s h a v i n g more o f h e r a f f e c t i o n a l needs met , t h e r e i s u s u a l l y a p e r i o d o f r e g r e s s i o n . In t h i s r e g r e s s i v e p e r i o d , the c h i l d u s u a l l y r e l i v e s some o f h e r p a s t e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s which i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r h e r t o grow beyond these e m o t i o n -a l b l o c k s . W a r r e n d a l e , however , does not f o s t e r complete r e -g r e s s i o n or a r e t u r n t o i n f a n c y . R a t h e r i t a l l o w s r e g r e s s i o n i n some a r e a s o f l i v i n g w h i l e v i g o u r o u s l y s u p p o r t i n g the g i r l i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f g r o w t h . A twe lve or f i f t e e n y e a r o l d g i r l can suck a baby b o t t l e b e f o r e g o i n g t o s l e e p . T h i s would shock most people who d i d not r e a l i z e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e a r l y m a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n . However, l i m i t s are s e t as t o when and how the b o t t l e i s u s e d . As i n the case o f u s i n g baby b o t t l e s a s a t o o l to p e r m i t r e g r e s s i o n , many o t h e r p r a c t i c e s , p o l i c i e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s a re c o n s t a n t l y i n o p e r a t i o n . These t o t h e un in formed layman may l o o k l i k e " c o d d l i n g " , " s p o i l i n g " , and l a i s s e z - f a i r e p r a c t i c e s . S t i l l t h e r e i s a " c h i l d - c e n t e r e d " d e s i g n th roughout the whole f r a m e -work o f agency and p r a c t i c e which i s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . - 69 -C h i l d r e n ' s b i t i n g , h i t t i n g , k i c k i n g , and swear ing a t s t a f f -members may seem t o be o v e r l y p e r m i s s i v e , by the un in formed layman a g a i n , but t h i s i s not t r u e . These symptoms are worked w i t h i n a c o n s c i o u s way w i t h the c h i l d t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g i n s i g h t i n h i s p r o b l e m s . T h i s growth can o n l y be founded i n complete a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c h i l d and h i s knowing i t . Only t h e n can t h e y b e g i n t o see the d i f f e r e n c e between r e j e c t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r and r e j e c t i o n o f them. Warrendale i s a l s o aware o f the impor tance o f growth p a t t e r n s o f p u b e r t y and a d o l e s c e n c e . Many g i r l s come t o Warren-d a l e , who are p h y s i c a l l y f a r more d e v e l o p e d t h a n they are s o c i a l -l y or e m o t i o n a l l y . O t h e r s come l o o k i n g so immature and p h y s i -c a l l y u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine them as someday becoming an a d u l t . Whi le Warrendale has no panacea f o r d e a l i n g w i t h such d i s p a r i t i e s , i t does have e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r g i r l s a t v a r i o u s a g e s , but p r o v i d e s i n d i v i d u a l a l l o w a n c e s . F o r example, S t e l l a who a c t s and l o o k s f a r o l d e r t h a n her e l e v e n y e a r s may have c e r t a i n " i n t e r m e d i a t e " p r i v i l e g e s i n g o i n g out i n the e v e n i n g p r o v i d e d she i s accompanied by an o l d e r g i r l . So t o o , the symptoms and b e h a v i o u r t h a t have con f used and angered the a d u l t s i n the p a s t l i f e o f a g i r l , i s not a lways a c c e p t e d i n i t s f a c e va lue a t W a r r e n d a l e . A knowledge o f the dynamics o f human growth and b e h a v i o u r , and s k i l l i n a p p l y i n g c o r r e c t i v e measures are n e c e s s a r y equipment o f the s t a f f - m e m b e r s . - 70 -Warrendale and the L o c a l Community The f a c t t h a t Warrendale i s an "open" i n s t i t u t i o n , g i v e s each g i r l , a s she i s a b l e , . a , c h a n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the community. The s t a f f u t i l i z e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s wh ich a r i s e w i t h community p e r s o n s , such as t e a c h e r s or s h o p - k e e p e r s , who have c o n t a c t w i t h the g i r l s , to i n t e r p r e t W a r r e n d a l e f s programme and t rea tment g o a l s . However, community c o n t a c t s are not l e f t t o chance; i n f a c t , Warrendale t a k e s c o n s i d e r a b l e ca re to a v o i d the abuses o f i n d i s c r i m i n a t e exposure t o the community and the o t h e r extreme o f a v o i d i n g community invo lvement beyond a g i r l ' s a b i l i t y t o use i t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . To s t e e r such a m idd le course i s not a s imple m a t t e r ; i n d e e d , c o n s i d e r i n g the t y p e s o f d i s t u r b a n c e s o f the c h i l d r e n , t h e r e i s a c a l c u l a t e d r i s k i n such community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, i n W a r r e n d a l e 1 s v iew , the s o c i a l v a l u e s g a i n e d f a r outweigh the p o s s i b l e r i s k s . The r e a l i s t i c s t a n d a r d s t h a t Warrendale s e t s f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the emphasis on community p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a p r i v i l e g e have been e f f e c t i v e i n k e e p i n g " a c t i n g ou t" symptoms to a minimum i n the community. The emphasis t o the c h i l d r e n t h a t Warrendale i s the p l a c e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s - not the community has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s s u c c e s s . A c t u a l l y , W a r r e n d a l e ' s r o u t i n e s and " g o i n g o u t " s t a n d a r d s seem t o be more c o n s e r v a t i v e , the e x p e c t a t i o n s h i g h e r , and more c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e d t h a n i n many f a m i l i e s i n the community. - 71 -Warrendale as a Symbol o f S t a b i l i t y F o r c h i l d r e n who have few f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n s t o r e t u r n t o and whose l i v e s have been c h a o t i c and l a c k i n g i n s t a b i l i t y , p r o b a b l y the most l a s t i n g i m p r i n t t h a t Warrendale l e a v e s i s a sense o f c o n t i n u i t y and permanence. A f t e r she l e a v e s W a r r e n -d a l e a c h i l d t u r n s t o the peop le and p l a c e s t h a t have the most meaning to them. As c h i l d r e n r e v i s i t f o s t e r p a r e n t s or c a s e -w o r k e r s , the g r a d u a t e s r e t u r n t o W a r r e n d a l e . F o r even though a t Warrendale the s t a f f and g i r l s change , the b u i l d i n g and the s e t t i n g i t s e l f may symbo l i ze the m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t she once had t h e r e . Thus , g radua tes a re encouraged t o v i s i t Warrendale a t any t i m e . F r e q u e n t l y , g i r l s r e t u r n to j o i n i n the C h r i s t m a s and E a s t e r f e s t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t Warrendale assumes a p a r e n t a l r o l e f o r some g i r l s even a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n f rom the i n s t i t u t i o n . G i r l s w i t h a r e s i d u e o f problems o f t e n v i s i t f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and gu idance r e a s o n s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d over the y e a r s ; t h a t g r a d u a t e s w i l l l i v e e l s e w h e r e , ye t know t h a t Warrendale i s a lways a p l a c e they can r e t u r n t o and be welcome. P o s s i b l e Improvements I t i s not supposed i n any way t h a t the p r e s e n t t h e s i s i s even a complete d e s c r i p t i o n * o f W a r r e n d a l e . The t o t a l programme has been a d e v e l o p i n g , growing p r o c e s s ever s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . The board and s t a f f are k e e n l y aware t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r -a b l e room f o r f u r t h e r improvement , development and change i n - 72 -i n the s e r v i c e i t p r o v i d e s f o r c h i l d r e n . In r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p a n s i o n p l a n has a l r e a d y been f o r m u l -a t e d , and f u n d - r a i s i n g i s b e i n g o r g a n i z e d . The p l a n i n c l u d e s e x p a n s i o n o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s on a c o t t a g e b a s i s , and an i n c r e a s e o f c l i n i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s . Some o f the s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p l a n , a s t h e y have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s the eagerness w i t h which b o a r d and s t a f f g r e e t new i d e a s and d e s i r e t o improve s e r v i c e . Improving the P r a c t i c e The c r a f t and c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y programme can be i m -p r o v e d . Such a c t i v i t i e s as d r a m a t i c s , dance c l a s s e s , woodwork, c e r a m i c s and o ther e x p r e s s i v e a r t s have been i m p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t s u c c e s s o f such p r o j e c t s as p i a n o l e s s o n s , s e w i n g , and c o o k i n g suggest the v a l u e t h a t an i n c r e a s e d programme o f t h i s n a t u r e . The a r t s and c r a f t s programme s u f f e r s f r o m ; s p o r a d i c t i m i n g , l a c k o f space and f a c i l i t i e s and l i m i t e d s k i l l s o f s t a f f . S u b - g r o u p s , on a c l u b b a s i s , have been r a r e , and seem t o d i s i n t e g r a t e b e f o r e they become w e l l o r g a n i z e d . How much o f t h i s i s the n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f an t y p i c a l group i s not known but the s t a f f have not had o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a l l y f i n d o u t . An i n c r e a s i n g development o f i n t e r e s t p r o j e c t s might w e l l e n -courage i n t e r e s t s u b - g r o u p s i n the h o u s e . P r e s e n t l y the t r e n d towards f r i e n d s h i p s u b - g r o u p s i n the house i s r a t h e r a s o c i o -- 73 -m e t r i c p a t t e r n o f " p a i r s " and " t r i a d s " . A s o c i o m e t r i c s tudy o f such p a t t e r n s would p r o b a b l y r e v e a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p and f r i e n d s h i p swings wh ich would be i n v a l u a b l e i n p l a n n i n g programme. Knowledge o f how, why and when t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s change, the au thor f e e l s , i s more impor tan t i n a t rea tment c e n t e r than perhaps i n most o t h e r s e t t i n g s . The s t a f f a l r e a d y o b s e r v e s i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e c l u e s f o r how a c h i l d i s f e e l i n g . F o r example , i f t h e y are f e e l i n g t h e y are " c r a z y " they seek the company o f the c h i l d whose b e -h a v i o u r i s most b i z a r r e - a n d c o n v e r s e l y when t h e i r s t r i v i n g towards p o s i t i v e growth i s s t r o n g e s t t h e y seek s t a f f and the g i r l s who most e x e m p l i f y t h i s f o r them. The s t a f f observe and use t h i s knowledge but i t i s o n l y the extremes as m e n t i o n -ed above which are c o n s c i o u s l y u s e d . The " s h a d i n g s " o f f e e l -i n g which a f f e c t i n t e r a c t i o n s a re not as e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e . Much c o u l d be done i n r e s e a r c h on t h i s q u e s t i o n a l o n e . P r e s e n t h a n d l i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n o f n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p among the g i r l s i n d i c a t e t h a t the c u l t i v a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s h i p c o u l d be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d . The p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e o f g i v i n g a g i r l more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on s m a l l j o b s , as she i s a b l e t o handle i t , ( e . g . o l d e r g i r l s h e l p i n g t o put the younger g i r l s t o b e d ) , seems to be a v a l i d p r i n c i p l e , and s h o u l d be deve loped f u r t h e r . P r o b a b l y one o f the most u s e f u l t o o l s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d would be a r e g u l a r f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f the g i r l s who l e a v e W a r r e n d a l e . Such a s tudy would not o n l y form background f o r - 74 -e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the work o f W a r r e n d a l e ; i t would a l s o p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r work w i t h s e n i o r g i r l s , and the a f t e r - c a r e programme. S t a f f and P s y c h i a t r i c S e r v i c e s I t has been found a t Warrendale t h a t when group s i t u -a t i o n s a r e m i s h a n d l e d , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s and methods a re u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d . Indeed , u n l e s s the s t a f f a re aware o f the r o o t causes o f s u c h group phenomena a s ; group c o n t a g i o n , " s c a p e g o a t i n g " , p h y s i c a l f i g h t s , and d e l i n q u e n t s u b - g r o u p s , they d e a l w i t h s u r f a c e b e h a v i o u r b o t h group and i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r e a c h worker t o r e c o g n i z e group b e h a v i o u r symptoms, but a l s o t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h them as t h e y o c c u r . U s i n g programme a c t i v i t i e s t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y , s e t t l i n g a f i g h t s i t u a t i o n or u s i n g o n e s e l f i n a p o s i t i v e way d u r i n g a group d i s c u s s i o n , are but a few o f the group s k i l l s a worker must l e a r n and use c o n s t a n t l y a t W a r r e n d a l e . I t has been g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a t Warrendale t h a t the a r t o f u s i n g group s k i l l s i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t o f the equipment o f i t s s t a f f , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r s o c i a l work b a c k g r o u n d . The l e a r n i n g o f such s k i l l s r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree o f assumpt ion o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . F o r s t a f f c o - o p e r a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n e s i v e n e s s are i m -m e d i a t e l y more e s s e n t i a l t o the t rea tment g o a l s i n a r e s i d e n c e s u c h as W a r r e n d a l e . - 75 -S t a f f T r a i n i n g and Development The s t a f f t r a i n i n g and development o f group s k i l l s i s no t done s e p a r a t e l y a t W a r r e n d a l e , b u t r a t h e r as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the t o t a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i n d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . To e f f e c t such a t r a i n i n g , Warrendale depends h e a v i l y on the " l e a r n - a s - y o u - w o r k " c o n c e p t , and t h e r e f o r e a new worker spends h i s f i r s t weeks on s t a f f w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h an e x p e r i e n c e d worker . I n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r o v i d e d on the b a s i s o f t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s mutual h e l p and e v a l u a t i o n among a l l the s t a f f - m e m b e r s i s a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s wh ich adds immeasurably t o each workers e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n on the j o b , s t a f f mee t ings b e f o r e and a f t e r the work ing day and week ly s t a f f - m e e t i n g s a r e the c h i e f methods o f t r a n s m i t t i n g s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n about the g r o u p - l i f e o f the h o u s e . These methods a re dependent upon the a b i l i t y o f e a c h s ta f f -member t o work as an e q u a l member of a " s t a f f team" and upon the amount and q u a l i t y o f communi-c a t i o n among them. T h i s i n t e r - c o m m u n i c a t i o n among s t a f f has r e a c h e d a h i g h degree o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t W a r r e n d a l e . I n d i v i d u -a l s u p e r v i s i o n has been p r a c t i c e d a t W a r r e n d a l e , bu t a t p r e s e n t i t i s done a t the r e q u e s t o f s t a f f who w i s h i t . More would p r o b a b l y be g a i n e d by a more r e g u l a r s u p e r v i s i o n programme, based on t h e use o f i n d i v i d u a l and group r e c o r d s . A d a i l y l o g i s p r e s e n t l y k e p t , and group r e c o r d s are o c c a s i o n a l l y made, but these have not been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n s t a f f - t r a i n i n g . - 76 -L i k e w i s e , e f f e c t i v e as t h e i n f o r m a l and group methods o f t r a i n -i n g have b e e n , an i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s i o n programme would p r o b a -b l y p r o v i d e a b e t t e r o u t l e t f o r the workers f e e l i n g s about the i n e v i t a b l e p r e s s u r e s o f the j o b . The p r i n c i p a l d i s a d v a n t a g e o f the methods o f u s i n g and d e v e l o p i n g group s k i l l s a t Warrendale has been t h a t t h e y t e n d t o f o c u s , because o f n e c e s s i t y , on the immediate s i t u a t i o n s or c r i s e s t h a t occur i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the l o n g term p e r s p e c t i v e and the v a l u e o f r e v i e w i n g accumula ted e x p e r i e n c e i s o f t e n l a c k i n g . However, i n s p i t e o f these d i s -a d v a n t a g e s , the g a i n i n g and use o f group s k i l l s are s o u n d l y based on t h e g e n e r i c p r a c t i c e and p r i n c i p l e s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . Such group s k i l l s are u n i q u e l y combined w i t h i n d i v i d u a l methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o v i d e a t h o r o u g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . Improvement o f P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s The need f o r i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t i e s i s a p r e s s i n g one f o r War renda le . Whi le t h e r e i s now adequate s t a f f f o r h a n d l i n g a f u l l complement o f c h i l d r e n <Q18 i n the main h o u s e ) , and the l i v i n g space i s a d e q u a t e , the r e c r e a t i o n and p l a y space i s h e a v i l y o v e r l o a d e d , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r . There needs t o be a p l a y room f o r the younger c h i l d r e n , a c r a f t room, a s i t t i n g room f o r the o l d e r g i r l s t o use f o r e n t e r -t a i n i n g p u r p o s e s , as w e l l as a b e t t e r p lacement f o r the t e l e -v i s i o n s e t . Perhaps even more p r e s s i n g i s the need f o r e n -l a r g i n g the f a c i l i t i e s f o r s e n i o r g i r l s , a s the number o f - 77 -g r a d u a t e s keeps i n c r e a s i n g . The p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g i s o n l y a d e -quate f o r f i v e g i r l s , and the l e n g t h o f s t a y seems t o be l o n g e r t h a n was a n t i c i p a t e d , and a b u i l d i n g t h a t would p r o v i d e space w i l l p r o b a b l y be n e c e s s a r y . The grounds a re q u i t e adequate f o r e n l a r g e d f a c i l i t i e s , and a new p l a y g r o u n d which i s b e i n g b u i l t w i l l r e l i e v e the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g the summer. The Community and Warrendale Community a c c e p t a n c e o f Warrendale has g r a d u a l l y improved i n the l a s t f o u r y e a r s . The improvement i n the p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r o f the g i r l s and the c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n by the b o a r d and s t a f f , have been f a c t o r s i n t h i s improvement . L a t e l y , a woman r e s i d e n t o f the town o f Newmarket was added t o the b o a r d , and i n t ime t h e r e w i l l be more. L i k e w i s e , the concept o f h a v i n g a s s o c i a t e b o a r d members has been a f r u i t f u l o n e , and o f f e r s p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n c r e a s e d Newmarket p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t s h o u l d c l i n i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s be i n c r e a s e d , community p a r t i c i p a t i o n might be i n v i t e d and even d a y - c a r e s e r v i c e s might be p o s s i b l e . L i k e w i s e , t h e r e are c o n s i d e r a b l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the New-market S c h o o l Board i n d e v e l o p i n g the Warrendale s c h o o l w i t h community c h i l d r e n t a k i n g p a r t . In s p i t e o f i t s s h o r t h i s t o r y and such deve lopmenta l d i f f i c u l t i e s as b u d g e t , s t a f f t r a i n i n g , and community a c c e p t a n c e , Warrendale has been a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a s t a n d a r d o f work t h a t has impressed everyone who has been connected w i t h the i n s t i -t u t i o n . The p o l i c y o f u s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d workers - 73 -t o work d i r e c t l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n , and the concept o f the r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n as a dynamic agency t h a t uses a l l the f o r c e s o f s o c i a l work and community r e s o u r c e s t o h e l p a c h i l d f i n d h e r s e l f i n an atmosphere o f f reedom and a p o s i t i v e l i v i n g env i ronment , seems t o be an e f f e c t i v e way o f h e l p i n g e m o t i o n -a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s t h e s i s has c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the group work c o n t r i b u t i o n i n a t rea tment c e n t e r f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The w r i t e r has d e s c r i b e d the a c t u a l s e t t i n g and "way o f work" and made some recommendations f o r the f u t u r e . L i t t l e at tempt has been made t o a n a l y i z e the f i n d i n g s about the s e t t i n g or to p r o j e c t the da te a g a i n s t the t o t a l group work - case work and t rea tment c e n t e r p h i l o s o p h i e s . At Warrenda le t h e r e i s not the c l e a r l y d e f i n e d job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r s t a f f t h a t would be found i n most a g e n c i e s u s i n g s o c i a l work p r o c e s s e s . The group worker , i s o f n e c e s s i -t y a caseworker more o f t e n t h a n i n most o t h e r s e t t i n g s . The a c t u a l l e n g t h o f t ime i n a d a y , week or month spent w i t h a c h i l d makes f o r an i n t e n s i v e n e s s and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f work t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t f rom a n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g . W a r r e n d a l e , and t h e a u t h o r , f i r m l y b e l i e v e s i t i s t h i s g e n e r i c approach t o h e l p i n g answer the needs o f c h i l d r e n , t h a t i t i s the o n l y one t h a t can o f f e r l a s i n g r e s u l t s . I t i s hoped t h a t o t h e r s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g assessments o f the caseworker , a d m i n s t r a t i v e and community o r g a n i z a t i o n - 79 -a s p e c t s o f W a r r e n d a l e 1 s approach o f the problem of h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n who are e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d . Then t h i s p r e s e n t s tudy might be more u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s b e i n g p l a n n e d f o r c h i l d r e n t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y more e f f e c t i v e a s t h e y seek t o h e l p c h i l d r e n grow and l i v e more c r e a t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e l i v e s . - 82 -Schedule A. Some Notes on the Population of Warrendale (January, 1956) G i r l s Name (pseudonym) Age Length of stay Reason for Referrals High Sci ool G i r l s S a l l y 14 3 yrs. 3 mo. Conduct disorder - unmanageable -running away Jane 14 10 mo. Conduct disorder and neurotic t r a i t s -h o s t i l i t y to adults and structure -strong projective tendencies - sexual problem Betty 16 3 yrs. 7 mo Shy - withdrawn - non-communicative -pre-psychotic Evelyn 15 3 mo. Child of psychotic parents both hospitalized - lack of concentration, mistrusts adults - sullen - rude -no F.H. adjustment Grace 16 1 yr. 6 mo. Hostile c h i l d - uncontrollable at F.H. - sexual problem to negro c h i l d Donna 15 Public , 3 weeks Ichool G i r l s Running away - due to environmental d i f f i c u l t i e s Ann 13 1 yr. 7 mo. Emotional anaethesia - grossly over-weight - i n a b i l i t y to relate - temper tantrums Peggy 16 1 yr. 6 mo. Sexual problems - s u i c i d a l tendencies Freida 124 5 mo. Sexual problems - school problem Clara 12 2 yrs. 6 mo Diagnosed schizophrenic c h i l d -temper tantrums, loss of r e a l i t y -paranoidal Tami 12 1 yr. 7 mo Diagnosed a u t i s t i c c h i l d - sexual problem - 10 foster homes i n 2 years - 83 -G i r l s Name (pseudonym) Age Length of Stay Reason f o r R e f e r r a l s Lucy S t e l l a Helen Esther K. Beverley K. Nonnie Sophie Kate Warrendele School G i r l 10£ 1 y r . 2 mo 12b 1 y r . 9 mo 15 3 y r s . 10 3 mo. 1 mo. Senior Hduse G i r l s 17 17 16 hi y r s . 5 years k y r s . 6 mo Behaviour problem - unmanageable i n F.H. - anxiety nightmares -educational problem S i b l i n g r i v a l r y - d i s t r u s t of a d u l t s s u l l e n disobdient - conduct d i s o r d e r W r i t i n g and reading d e f e c t s i n g grade 2 at 12 years o l d u n s o c i a l i z e d c h i l d f a i l -Day and night s o i l e r - extreme edu c a t i o n a l blockage - an u n s o c i a l -i z e d c h i l d - very unkempt E x h i b i t s temper tantrums - imagined ghosts - d e l u s i o n a l - e d u c a t i o n a l blockage Depressive - g r o s s l y overweight -s i s t e r to Betty Extremely hyprochondrical - conduct problem w i t h boys and men - l i t t l e t r u s t i n a d u l t s Depressive - d e l u s i o n a l at night - x poor o r i e n t a t i o n - 84 -Schedule B . Some In take and I n f o r m a t i o n Forms o f W a r r e n d a l e . A . Faceshee t f o r R e f e r r a l Summary B . I n i t i a l S ' e f e r r a l Sheet C . S c h o o l Form D. G i r l s Form E . Bed-Time O b s e r v a t i o n Form Si A R R ]g is 0 A L K FACESHEST FOR REFERRAL SUMMARY .JitS OF CHILD D A r E STATUS OF CHILD AND DATE CHILD CAUS INTO CARE fllRTHDATE SCHOOL AND GRADE HEIGHT WEIGHT MENSTRUATION DATS CHILD"S WORKER (MISS*MRS.) AGENCY P/UI_Y WORKER (IF DIFFERENT) IS CHILD mv< IN INSTITUTION? (SPECIFY) _ FAMILY PICTURE DATES BIOLOGICAL PARENTS* NAME FATHER AGE CHILD FROM LIVED MITH TO REASON FOR KEiiOV/tL MOTHER SIBLINGS; 1. 3-k. 5. 6, "•• LAST FOST_R OR ADOPTIVE PARENTS (SPECIF FATHER . Y) MOTHER SIBLINGS; Xo 2. 1 3, 1 Please use back of sheet for l i s t i n g other hfemesc INSTITUTIONAL EXPfcRIEhCE. (SPECIFY AND GIVE DATEST lo z, ; __________JIZZZZ .3= PAST OR PRESENT ORGANIZED GROUP EXPERIENCE. (Specify name of camp, church group. Guides,, Y„ or other a and give_approximate dates)"* 1, __ _____ , 2. : ^  ____ „ . -3. ' : , 4, . • „ I W A R R E N D A L E INITIAL REFERRAL SHEET (To TJO attached to yellow facoaheet) NAME OP REFERRAL DATS 1 . Plooso state in a few words the girl's sodo-economic background (housing, income] cultural group, style of l i f o , how she has adjusted to socio-economic level of foster home*) 2. Describe the youngster briefly* .What does she look like? Is she large* small or average size for age? Any outstanding physical defects or characteristics? 3* Describe the family situation i n a few wards: Was there harmony or conflict? i-Sarital or sibling difficulties? Closely knit or disorganised? Are parents interested i n maintaining contact? Will she return to own family? Have sibling contacts been maintained? Are sibling contacts possible?- What does child know about biological parents? 4* Describe foster family situation i n a few -uordst Was there haroony or oonfliot? Marital or sibling difficulties? Closely knit or disorganized? Child's place i n this family? Is this family Interested in maintaining contact with this child? 5. Describe adoptive family situation in a fsir yards: Was there haaaony or conflict? Marital or sibling difficulties? Closely knit or disorganieed? Child's place i n this family? Is this family interested In maintaining contact with this child? 6«. Stat© in a faw t^roa the yotuagstar's main proHtea« Why do you cotts&der referral , t o I 'Jari'andale instead o f foster home? What I s her s japfcoi ia&e Tseiav-Or? I s s h * probloB u o r s e a t h<om9 in school,, or in o t h e r contacts? ?o Please describe briefly what ycu know about how the gjgl _ae$g with adults and cMl«_?©n around hero So Da you consider the g i r l OT3-urceful? Is aha x&ttolssH-. or outgoing? Is site overly anxious? Fearful? 9c How long has the agency kno^a this youaast_g?.., Hoy long have you knoyn har? B ,„ ,„ . . -.,,„-How frequently hev© you seen h-r?„in,„ .,„.„,„ , L , ,..„„„ In your agency prsperod to provide oasetjork or psychiatric services during her -ta.7? _ , „ i r i. i i 3.0* Stat® i n a few words vhst assets the g i r l has, £~d -what activitica you kntnj hsi* to bs> intsrested i n * State i n a few wards your long rang© plans for hers Hstro these hear, discossed *dth her? \$h&t happens to her tfhen she leaves Vlarrandal®? « 3 » 12« . Uhat x-jould you l i k e as -bo do fo r th is g i r l tdxUe she Is here? £o you thinfc th&a uould involve is tsnsive casetiock? Group therapy? Psychotherapy? 139 Mditioztal remarket Signature of t?ozkero H i R E B B D A L S IJAJ-sS OF CHILD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AGS G&fiSBL SCHOOL .. I»Q*„ Bear l*£iac&paXs The above naaed g i r l has been accepted f o r placement at l&rrendale -» a res ident ia l centre f o r adolescent g i r l s . G i r ls i n our car© range an age from 10 to 15 years and C03© from a v a r i e t y o f backgrounds* Generally a l l o f them are presenoiag some adjustjEent problems at the present tfcne.. MG save found that vis are much better able to help these children i f we can get "a report from the school which they l a s t attended before coming to u s . There i s perhaps no better source of information about the ch i ld *s potential capacity and actual performance available to us» In t ry ing to think of x-ays o f making i t easier for the school to provide «s vjith th is helpful info:nnation*. m hare devised the following fossa Hhieh ws would l i k e you to ask the teacher who knows the c h i l d beat to complete and return to n s , dince our s ta f f i s a ssell trained professional group, you can rest assured that whatever information you send us -Kill be used i n the s t r i c tes t confidence and f o r the benefit of the c h i l d to the best of our a b i l i t y * I f yen have further questions about the nature of our vorltj please f e e l free to phone o r mate and m m i l be pleased to discuss them with you at your convenience* X wish to thank you and your staf f i n advance f o r your co-operation i n helping us provide; a qual i ty service to the children i n our care* lours sincerely^ John L> Brovi% tecutiva Director* J i s / kg Enclsc ** S *=• l e t&at are t M s g i r l ' s nicest <palit ies? 2 * what type of psoblem Ix&ataor does she show i n school? 3« Is she a hspjgr personl Itescjfifce* 4» As fa r as school «osk goes? how does she manage compassed to clsss_aies? Is s&e making to capacity? Is school i&zk easy? 5*" Hon does she gat along TSMX her peers i n school? Is she a logger? How ^ould. you describe hex1 fr iends? 6 » Bees she have boyfriends as Tsell as g^l f r ionda? Ebvr dees she relate to hoys? 7* How uould you (te&vs&ba her relat ioasaip to jou$ her teach©?? 8* How do ether teachers f e e l about her? 9* Would you say this girl brings -ham psoWm& into the school vxth her? Sn. «hat nay? 10* Ifea did you first fiad fee?* © problem in gcksol? I X » i ke these certain tx_©» 'mm she I D more of a problem than others? Describe* 12* How well does she &oep her school raorlc up? How does she respond when you talk to her about this? %3* How docs she respond to discipline? 14« What do you find most effective in handling her when sh-a is troublesome? 15 • -hat do you think i s responsible fbr her problems? 16* Hhat are the things you think we will have trouble with at Warrendale? 17* ™hat are the things you thirfc wo- *:on*t have trouble with as far as she ij* concerned? 18 o Here are some things you havott't as&ed about but x-Siich are important to know i f yeu are goisg to work with this girls-Signed* • • • • • • » • • • • * • » • • • * • • • * • • • • « »*»«»»«**•»•* • • * • * * Hxoe»* • • • • • • » • • • • « * • . • « « « Kd&'&ionsfeip ijo Girl* ••«•«-!•<*•«««»*•**•«•••*»•*•*»«*•• iJ A Ii R E i i 0 A L E Directors John U Broun Telephones Uouoarlset TWining Iii There*-We haven't net you yet* but we hear that you miijht be cooing out to stay at .iarrendaloe UB tiunt you to cono out and see i t before you aalco up your mind 8 but i n tho moantiiaeii we'd l i k e to liavo you f i l l out this fora* ? J anteo i t easier, ue've put dotm gone of the things that other g i r l s have told uso ¥ou just chock the ones that host t a L hot; you f e e l and that's aXU I/lien you've finished, put i t i n this envelope and moil i t to uso Wo*ro looking foruard to a v i s i t froa yuu soon 0 Bye for now and thanks a loto John L. Droxjna Warrendale 0 JrB^ 3 e As-far as school goesj" I'm i n Grade • • • • I l i k e I t a l o t I l i k e i t a l i t t l e b i t I don't l i ke i t too wel l . Sometimes i t ' s 0«K0 . . • . • • • • . . • • • • « • I hate i t * • • • • • • • • • . •>•• I t ' s nice as f a r as the kids go, but X hate a l l the homework • • * . . • • • The IdLds are O.K* but the teacher sure gives me a pain®. « ..*«•<» I don't l i k e the kids m u c h * * . * . . * * . The kids are too stuck up«.o There are too many r u l e s * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Most of tho boys are nice* * Most o f the g i r l s are 0,:'.*.*............ Some teachers are 0«1C • • • • • • • • * . • I l i k e a l l the t e a c h e r s * . . . . • There i s too much homeuork0  X hate to recite i n front of the c lass* • • I wish they xiouidn9t keep asking so many questions. The ldds think -they're so snart a l l the t i n e . . . . . . . . . . . . . The teachers are too nosy*. • • • • • • • • • * • . * . * « The teachers don't care about tho k i d s . . . . . • • • • • < . * • • • I f they rea l ly l i k e you they wouldn't be so b o s s y * . . . »• I do 0*K, i n school,,. X have a lo t of trouble i n school* •> They're always picking on m e * . . . . . . . . . . . . I'm gonna quit as soon as I can*** a • • • • • • • • * The best part of school i s r e c e s s . . . . * . * « Sonetiaos X f e e l like quitting •••• I f I dared* I'd skip school • X don't always do ny hcmowork* * . . . * * . . • • • . • X never do homework*• A * • • I 'd lilce to skip scliool sometimes After I skip school X' i i scared to go baeko. . . • The pr incipal i s pretty dumb. . . . . .« I f X had a n icke l fo r every time X got the strop I'd be r i c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What good does school do anyway* «• • I ' ts fun ra is ing heck i f you don't get caught X l i ke to get the teachers m a d * * * * • • • * . * • • • X get along O.K. i n school* • • • • • • • • • School's f u n . . . . . . . . . . . Anything else you'd l i ke to say about school?*** • • . . . . • » . . . . . . . . . Well now, le t '8 get away from school and take a look at grown-ups - adults sswnen and women* Some grown-ups are 0 * 1 1 . . . • • • • • • • X don't l i k e most grown-ups*••••• l i f e would bo batter i f there weren't so many of them** . . . . • X don't t rust then. .tfomen arent as bad as m e n * . . * . . • • • » • • • • • • . * lien are better than women*.»««.».•..•.••** 1 went a steady Ix^fiuexid*......*. » » . , . » * « . . « c . ' < > e p They're 0*K* as long as have a steady bcyf jcdcndoo« o . „ 0 o <.« .» .<> . . . *»o "'ley leave me a lone* . . * * . * . . ^ X don't wont to go s t e a d y * . a * * * . * * ^ . . * * • . . . * » « They're too bossy*. . . * . . . . . * _ I want to get married Shey never Icoop the i r promises„ on as soon as I c a n « « i m . i i » . » « t « . » « « » o . i o c o . o « . . They're always forcing you to They're too & o a l i o « » « < i * » c . » » « < . 9 . » . « . « « o « . « « . . . « do what Jkhey want you to do 0  They're always try ing to They get mad f o r no reason* « . . . •«•••« S 6 * something from y o u o . , . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . o . » . . « a . They always want to spo i l your f u n 9 . « » < , 0 0 6 I l i ke g i r l s b e t t o r . « . » . . . . . . « f . » « . « They don't understand me*. • • * * SQ* along better with g i r l s * . . . . . . . . . . . I hate ta lk ing to t h e n * * . . . . . . . * 1 "ave a rea l good g i r l f r i e n d * . » * * . . • lou sure can B t t rust t h e n * * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 < d l l&e to have a g i r l f r i e n d . . . . <>• I l i ke a f e w * . . . . v . V b « b o f > * V **iends ere too wild** • * . . I H i e the tjomen 1 t o a fziend I more than the m e n * * * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C a n *alfc ^° about t h i n g s * . * * . * . . . . . . . . . . * . . * • * I l i k e the men 1 l i l ts to go out with the g a a g « * s » . . . • * * « « . • • » » r~ve than the women* • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l i k e to go out They never ''ive you a c h a n c e * . . * . * . . » « . . . . with a boy a l o n e e * * . * * . - ) . * . . * * * . * * * . . * * . * . . . . - . ; I 'wish thoy would stop 1 ^ t o have some g i r l s shoving me a r o u n d * * . . • « . . . . » . « » . « • » . • • . • « with me when I go o u t » * o e . . . a . . • . » * • • ( > • . « . . * » < > I l i k e most grown-ups*•• . . « • « . . . . . . . . . « • • . They don't understand me**..•«.««..*».«• «.« I l i ke them most of the t i n e * * * . • » . . . < . • • « l i k e big part ies«*»e«ee*ea*«<»»90»*..oe..*•*.* Boy s do they give me a p a i n * . . . . . . . . . . « . . « ^ 2ike soa l l p a r t i e s * . * . . . . . . . * . . * * * * * * * * * * . . ^ * They'xu too o l d - f a s h i o n e d « . . * » * . * . * . . . * « » « ^ l i ke d a n o e s * . • * . * « « * * * « • * « » • » * » » • • • • « • • < > They're too s t r i c t „ » . » . * • • • • * I f o s t * ° neck too m u c h , * * . * . * * * , . . . * . * They cause most of my t r o u b l e s * . . . « » . . . . . * Older boys are more f u n * * * * * . * * * . » » » . . . . • • • « » » I hate them.* . **** ^73 stf age are too d g r . * , . . . . * . • • . • • • • • • • * * • * • Boys my age are too young*.*t*»*<. . . . .»«,<. . • • • *»« Now, how about boys and g i r l s * -1 wish I had more f r i e n d s * • • • • • . « * . . . . . « . . . » . < . » I l i k e b o y s . . . « * • * Most fr iends can' t be trustedo * . . • « « Th re 0• K * * « . « » a » « « * . . . * « . « » . • . . * . » . * . * . . They talk behind your b a c k * * * . . . * . « * » * • « « • « » . . . I l i k e then but they s ure are s i l l y * . ». Sonotimos I know they'JPO laughing ttt X I O a « e « i i > i > < « o i i « > i i o a o « e e t c * > Wish X XtELQ EDSSr© p o p u l a r a a o » » » « o o o . o . o o o . o < i o o o c o I"- afraid I 111 do the VTOQg t h i n g o t t i « « i i t n i < e < » t t t « t a e t o t o < i n t i i i i t I set along 0 oK« with thorn a l l 0404000*0 044900000 lounger l d d s sure give me a paxln I l i k e younger kida ifast kida lilt© n e a t t e t . . . . . . . Nobody l ikes o . t c x . c e . c Anything else"?*.* 0 OUOOOOA 0 000 00««0»00i OOQ 00 a«00«000000»OBoOO»0«900 D 0 O O O O 9 0 o 0 D t O O 0 0 O O O O 0 0 O 4 0 O D O e 0 0 » 0 f f 0 ' 4 « 9 t r 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 A 4 O C « « 0 04> « O O 4 0 O 0 « S C 0 0 O O 0 9 0 O O Q 0 O « O O O A O O 0 A 0 0 O Q e e 4 OO0O ^ i s i s sometimes the way I f e e l abouo r^yself? 1 % s e a r e d o o o . o . o o o o o . , 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I worry too muohooooa X have bad thoughtslo.oo.o • « o o o « © o o © o » o e o « . » « a o a « o Nobody understands ne Nobody l i kes nsoooo... I thin:: I'M goo&o SomothOfci'S X h/',te m y g e X f e * o . » o e a a o « i > o » o o 4 a e s a e . o « o I'd J i t e 'Ho ,je away fo r a w h i l e « « . i » e o o . a « . 1 wish tiling i would WOriw GUt DOffet&S? f o r f i e o « > » o « » » « . « e « > » s i » o e « e e o a o » » . e £• '»I jUSt UnlUOkyo a Q o o . o o © © © o a e « * a a o o * o o . e « . a a . a . o 3f~l• t.U'lP'.R I W i s h X .00U3d d i © o * o e . . « . a . o * s o o * * o o . » . C t o i . ' t h n v s mv4tgi> i * m i 0 e « < Everybody i s against m e * . » » a o.. o a o « o c <• o, X sure have a l o t of p r o b l c s i s o . o . e . o . c They O :JTO make i t tou{jb, fo r i 3 0 « o « . o » « X wish X could t rust somebod;'©*.. .sat - i 1%. b a d o o o a o a a a a e * a • . o o » a 6 a • ao . * a * o J <• •' X get lonosoao a lot»» X never :;ot my i i a y t » « . , l > . . < » o IJhen X take thin,;.! *"fao 1 Le t * - j 0 » t > . » - . « - . X have bad d r e a u s a o « o « e o « < » a . o o o » . . . « » ' X sotsetincs walk in. my s leep** . * .a*-, o-X wish X Izmt how to danee Xsm not rea l ly very well X haVe lotS O f C O l d S o » o o » o » « o o o o o o o e e : J o o - > I got fun&y pains sometimes a o> a a o a* o a a o a > 1 X sure drsam a lota . - j « o e o * » o . o » o<,.8 * i » « i o - » X have nightmares soiaet iXiBOsos .oo.oo.aoft- j I'ra shy o e o a o o o a a a . e o a o a a . s a o o a o o o a o e o . a o e I'm not pretty enough* My periods bother m e a . a o e e a o e o . . . o o a s o o n . < X td,ah X knev more about 3oeu«>««>»6 *« .«eo<>- . Sonetixjes X lose cry tonper. <»•« a 0 . , .».»'«««• •• X wish X iffits older a « «oa t> . ace . aoaso«oooa«>3a 19TUB missed a l o t Of things i n my l i f e I've had ny share of t a u # i ) Things always turn o u t wivr-,i* * * o - r . o • « » « o » 3 • X wish people uoalin't a x-rays pick on ' js^n.f...* I'm not vary snor t 9 c <•»».. Sonetimes I'd l i k e to h i t some people*. I ' l l never have good l u c k * . , . . . . . . . . * Sometimos X hate e v e r y b o d y * * * . * . * . • • • • • • . « • • * People are rea l good to m e « . • • • • • . • • » I wish I knew what people expectel of me* . * * . * . . . . . . . . * People are 0,K* but they just don't u n d e r s t u a d * * * * * * . . . . * . . . Someday t h e y ' l l be s o r r y . * . . * . * « . . . . . . . • • * . * » 1 ,;ish X didn' t swear * • • • • • I 'd change my name i f they'd l e t me do i t * . . . Boy* am I ever mixed u p * * . • • • • • • • • * • • « • • « • • » * I've been luckyp so far* I ijish I knew i f ;oeople l iked me or no t , . . . * • • * . • • • dad Tgas O.K. , * ify dad never understood m e * . . * . . • My mother was pretty good* • • • • % mother nevar understood m c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % parents <f.on't care what happe-is to rne****** • • • • • • • Of a l l th/> people I know* these are the ones X l i k e best - . * • * • • «•••*««.••••...••«•••*•.••••••«•*••..••*•.*«» X lil>3 grimes*, o • « • • • • • « . . * • • « * * * • . « . a * • • • • • * • X wiih X knew more g o m e s * * * * . * * * * * * . . I l i ke to make things**** • * • • * • • r Ish X know how to make ..-/re things than X do [ wish X could get along better with p e o p l e . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . * Modern music i s better than western*. . • * X l i k e western music b e s t * • • • « • • < I don't f ee l haipy very often I'm afraid to t rust people* * . * * * . X l i k e to read* * * * * * * •«*•«« X l i ke t o watoh T * V * * , * * * • • « • • • * . X l i k e movie-so***. • • • • • • • • • » • • • • X wish X could have more dates People don't t rust me* * * * * * * * * * * . X can take ears of myself 0*K*« . Boy* do X ever get sick of rules I've never been treated f a i r l y * * Everybody picks on m e * . * * * . * * * * * . X \nsh X had a pet to look a f te r * . * « • • • • I wish X had something of my own once*. ...< Nobody l i kes m e * * * * * * * . . . * * X wish X knew i f people l ikod me*** ». I t sure i s hard to jet along with e v e r y b o d y * . » . . . . • • • • « X viish I could l i v e where X wanted, to l i v e . . . . . . . . . . I t seems l i k e somebody i s always ye l l ing at ne . . . . . . . . . . . . I f only I had one good'friend I wish X knew what I've done v / r o n g * . * . . . * . . . . . . . . . . I wish I could stop smoking. Sometimes I l i ke to f o o l people* Nobody knows what I'm thinking 1£ people knew what was on my mind they'd he more e a r e f u l o o . ^ ^ • • . • . . » > < —I wish I could get yaway from i t a l l * . . . . • • • • • * • • * . . * • I wish I could l i v e some of my l i f e over a g a i n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a . . . . . a * . . . I never t e l l anybody how I f e e l . * . * . • • • • • • I used to hate f u n . . . . • • * . * • . . . . . . . * . . . * • You can' t t rust anybody a n y m o r e * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • I'm better o f f than most p e o p l e * * . . • * • • • • • • • • • I f I to ld everything I know i t would be tough o n . s o m e b o d y . . . . . . . . . . . . I've had more experience than most kids my age. . . . . . . . . . . I've had enough troubles already to l a s t the . rest of my l i f e • • fffieday I ' l l get even..« • . . . . a I hate o ld people . . . • • • • There are always some brats around to spo i l e v o r y t h i n g a . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . i Everything was going f ine u n t i l bango! Everything seemed to go wrong at once a • • * • • » • • » • » » • • • .Everything has always gone wrong f o r me. • • . • * . . . . . . . . . . . . . I t Isn ' t so tough for b o y s . . . . . . . a I wish I'd been born a b o y . . . . . . . . . • . . a I f I only knew t-ihere my family w a s ! . . . . * . • * • • . • • • This i s iihat I l i k e to read best -I've never had nice things... I'm better i f 1 got a spanking once i n a w h i l e * . . . Spanldng only makes tilings worse I hate r o a d i n g . a . a . . » . . . . . ' I worry about myself o * I'm too nervous* Sometimes I f e e l l i ke crying but X c a n ' t * . . . . . . . . . . . . . X c ry too much* * . .? * *? . . * * . . * X hate being alone i n the dark X b i te my f ingernai ls* •» • • • « ' • * • • X sometimes wet the b e d * . . . . * . . . There i s always too much arguing and f ight ing going on I t ' s fun to neck***** « I'm afra id of boys X get t i r ed e a s i l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X uish X knew why X fee l the way I d o * * * . Some of my thoughts, scare me****. I almost never sn i le * * * . * * * * . * * *< X haven't had a good laugh f o r a long t ime* . . * * * X don't know much** .*** X know more than i s good fb& me •ihen X get mad X just want to run away** * * * * * . * * * * * * . . BEDTIME OBSERVATIONS DATE 1. EARLY EVENING USE OF STAFF AND PEERS; In what manner? open or masked? what potential has t h i s g i r l f o r the use of her peers to provide the security necessary to make the t r a n s i t i o n from waking to sleeping? how do her relationships with the g i r l s and the sta f f d i f f e r from other periods during the day? 2. REACTION TO.IDEA OF GOING TO BED: What was the f i r s t sign of such a reaction? (did i t take place early i n the evening; downstairs; when she reached the bedroom, etc?) i s there an increase i n f r i c t i o n between her and her peers? and sta f f ? did she become more active? l e s s active? did she seek material props? food? objects? of what sort? what seemed to be her f r u s t r a t i o n tolerance l e v e l ? 3. REACTION AT SNACK-TIME; how direct was she i n expressing her feelings? how did she seem to regard the food? any difference from other eating situations? 4. USE OF TIME: from the f i r s t mention that i t i s time to begin preparing fo r bed; did she seem rushed? how aware i s she of the length of time available and of the passing of time? Page 2. 5. UNDRESSING ROUTINES: how does she prepare herself and her bed f o r the night?' does she complain re physical ailments and i f so, how are these complaints timed? how do they d i f f e r from such occurences at other times of the day? describe her borrowing and returning a c t i v i t i e s ; does she leave her clothing i n a p i l e on the floor? put i t away i n order? how and where? what can you see from t h i s about the child's f e e l i n g about the things she discards from today? 6. GETTING INTO BED: did she go into bed and stay there or did she make several t r i p s into bed? i f the l a t t e r , of what duration v/ere these t r i p s ? what does she do, once i n bed? what positions does she assume? can you detect patterns i n these? what comments does she make when she i s i n bed and are these the same as on other nights? what props and bed arrangement does the g i r l need? 7. REACTION TO "LIGHTS OUT": what i s the nature of t h i s reaction? what sort of verbal i n t e r a c t i o n takes place at t h i s time between t h i s g i r l and the s t a f f and room-mates? i s there an increase i n protest and c r i t i c i s m ? what are the topics of conversation as the l i g h t s are being turned off and after? Page 3. 8. MASTURBATION AND SELF-CUDDLING: how much i s t h i s a factor i n the behaviour of the g i r l during t h i s period? can you detect anxiety, g u i l t , a n t i c i p a t i o n , etc, i n t h i s area? i n what forms? can t h i s be related to the position i n which the g i r l i s l y i n g or any of her pre-sleep and sleeping behaviour? 9. COMMENTS ON BEDTIME: note any comments the g i r l has made at any time during the day about bedtime and preparation f o r bed; the manner i n which these are made. 10. BEHAVIOUR SYMPTOMS: was there any breakdown i n the child's defenses during or p r i o r to going to bed? impulsivity coming through? 11. FIRST REACTION TO WAKING: Is the g i r l ' s behaviour at t h i s time markedly diff e r e n t from her actions i n other situations? how? Page 4 . 12. OTHER; f 85 -BIBLIOGRAPHY B o o k s : A i c h h o r n , A u g u s t , Wayward Y o u t h , M e r i d a n B o o k s , New Y o r k , 1955 B e t t l e h e i m , B r u n o , Love I s Not Enough , I l l i n o i s , The Free P r e s s , 1949 B e t t l e h e i m , B r u n o , T r u a n t s From L i f e . I l l i n o i s , The F ree P r e s s , 1956 B i l l i n g t o n , A . , Group Work P r a c t i c e In A R e c e i v i n g C e n t r e  F o r B o y s , Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1953. 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