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The relationship between the reading comprehension of short paragraphs and long passages of science text-book… Horne, Edgar Byron 1958

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING COMPREHENSION OP SHORT PARAGRAPHS AND LONG PASSAGES OP SCIENCE TEXT-BOOK MATERIAL by EDGAR BYRON HORNE B.A.Sc, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 191*7 B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Arts i n the Faculty and College of Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS  Members of the College of Education THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1 9 5 8  ABSTRACT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING COMPREHENSION OP SHORT PARAGRAPHS AND LONG PASSAGES OP SCIENCE TEXT-BOOK MATERIAL T h i s s t u d y attempts t o e s t a b l i s h whether o r not t h e a b i l i t y t o comprehend l o n g passages o f t e x t - b o o k  material  i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e u s u a l r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t s c o r e . The  s k i l l s w h i c h r e s u l t i n a h i g h s c o r e on a s t a n d a r d i z e d  r e a d i n g t e s t may n o t be i d e n t i c a l w i t h those r e q u i r e d i n r e g u l a r classroom  reading.  A t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d t o serve as a c r i t e r i o n o f the a b i l i t y t o r e a d a Grade 9 s c i e n c e t e x t - b o o k .  The s t u d y  was l i m i t e d t o the k i n d o f r e a d i n g w h i c h i s done when t h e r e a d e r ' s purpose I s t o t a l g r a s p o f a f a i r l y l o n g passage o f new and d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l .  Study s k i l l s were s p e c i f i c a l l y  excluded. The  C r i t e r i o n T e s t , and Test 1 o f t h e S t a n f o r d Advanced  Reading T e s t , and P a r t I I I o f t h e C o o p e r a t i v e  S c i e n c e Test f o r  Grades 7» 8» and 9 were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 90 S c i e n c e 10 s t u d e n t s . T h i s group was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f the Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n of t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Intercorrelations  The  o f t h e t e s t s c o r e s were computed.  F o r the sample u s e d , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between S t a n f o r d s c o r e s and C r i t e r i o n s c o r e s was .58; between S t a n f o r d and C o o p e r a t i v e  s c o r e s , .66; between C o o p e r a t i v e  scores  s c o r e s and  iii C r i t e r i o n scores,  .72.  The main Inferences derived from these data were: 1.  The size of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  (.72)  between Cooperative scores and C r i t e r i o n scores implies that the two tests measure groups' of s k i l l s which are s i m i l a r but not i d e n t i c a l . 2.  For most p r a c t i c a l purposes, Part I I I of the  Cooperative Science Test could be used to appraise the a b i l i t y to read material from Science i n Action, Book I.* 3«  The Stanford Test does not seem to be as good a  measure of the a b i l i t y to understand science text-book material as the Cooperative Test. 4»  The correlations obtained suggest that the test  scores are affected by content and length of passage, content being the more important f a c t o r . It i s possible that a better c r i t e r i o n would have resulted from having the students read one long passage d i r e c t l y from the text-book.  Sueh a c r i t e r i o n would be  more l i k e a natural reading s i t u a t i o n and less l i k e a standardized t e s t .  1955.  •••Paterson, G. M.,  and Cameron, E. E.  Toronto:  Dent,  In p r e s e n t i n g the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  Department  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada.  thesis my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  further  financial  permission.  TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  Background o f t h e Study • • • • • • • • • • Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m Definitions II.  1  . . . . . . . . .  i |  . . . . . . . .  $  REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE  7  F a c t o r s o f Comprehension i n Reading  . . .  7  •  9  Reading i n Content F i e l d s V a l i d i t y o f G e n e r a l Reading T e s t s f o r S p e c i f i c Purposes III.  • • • • • • • • •  10  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  13  The S p e c i f i c Purpose o f the C r i t e r i o n T e s t . Population  lij.  P o p u l a t i o n Sample  •  Experimental Materials T e s t i n g Program  l i |  . . . . . . . . . .  16  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis IV.  13  . . . . . . . . . . .  EXPERIMENTAL METHOD The E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  17 18  .........<> • •  R e l a t i o n o f Sample t o P o p u l a t i o n  18 20  . . . . •  20  V  CHAPTER V.  VI.  PAGE 22  THE READING TESTS . . . S e l e c t i o n of the P u b l i s h e d T e s t s  22  C o n s t r u c t i o n of the C r i t e r i o n Test  2lj.  A n a l y s i s of the P r e l i m i n a r y Forms  26  A n a l y s i s of the Revised Form  28  A p p r a i s a l of the C r i t e r i o n Test  30 33  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Homogeneity of the Experimental  Group  33  »  34  R e l a t i o n of Sample to P o p u l a t i o n  C o r r e l a t i o n s Among D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Test Scores VII. VIII.  . . . . . . . . . .  •  37  INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Suggestions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  36  .  39 44  f o r F u r t h e r Research  k$  . . .  APPENDIX A.  Miscellaneous  Tables  48  APPENDIX B.  D i r e c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g Tests  5k  ^APPENDIX C.  T e s t s and S c o r i n g Keys  56  APPENDIX D.  The Relationship Between Stanford Test  . . . . . . . . . . .  Scores and C r i t e r i o n Test Scores f o r Good and Poor Readers  • . . . . . . • «,  0  57  LIST OP TABLES TABLE I,  PAGE Item D i f f i c u l t i e s and F l a n a g a n r ' s f o r t h e R e v i s e d Form o f t h e C r i t e r i o n T e s t Based on a Random Sample of 100 Papers  II.  • • • • • . • • 29  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r F-Test o f Homogeneity o f C l a s s e s T a k i n g R e v i s e d Form o f C r i t e r i o n T e s t . • 33  III.  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s  o f IQ's f o r Grade 9  P o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver S c h o o l s and Random Sample f r o m E x p e r i m e n t a l Group IV.  • • • • • • • ' • 3 5  Comparison o f t h e Reading T e s t s Used i n t h e Experiment  V.  •  • J48  . . . • • • • • •  T e s t Scores and IQ's f o r Random Sample o f 90 S c i e n c e 10 Students f r o m E x p e r i m e n t a l Group • • • I4.9  VI.  C h r i s t m a s S c i e n c e Marks, C r i t e r i o n T e s t S c o r e s , and C o o p e r a t i v e T e s t Scores f o r Two S c i e n c e 10 C l a s s e s , K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l  VII.  ........51  Item D i f f i c u l t i e s and Ferguson r ' s f o r P r e l i m i n a r y Form A of t h e C r i t e r i o n T e s t , Based on . . . 5 2  a Random Sample o f 100 Papers VIII.  Item D i f f i c u l t i e s and Ferguson r ' s f o r P r e l i m i n a r y Form B o f t h e C r i t e r i o n T e s t , Based on a Random Sample o f 100 Papers • • • •  IX»  53  Stanford Test Scores and C r i t e r i o n Test Scores f o r Good and Poor Readers  . . •••  • • • 53  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e to h i s F a c u l t y A d v i s e r , Dr. Robin N. S m i t h , f o r h i s h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s . He a l s o d e s i r e s t o acknowledge encouragement and a d v i c e r e c e i v e d f r o m Dr. J . Ranton M c i n t o s h and Dr. H a r r y L. S t e i n i n e a r l i e r stages o f the study. The a u t h o r i s i n d e b t e d t o Dr. R. F. Sharp, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , Vancouver; t o t h e p r i n c i p a l s o f the s c h o o l s which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e experiment; and t o t h e t e a c h e r s who a d m i n i s t e r e d the t e s t s . The Department o f Research and S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d p r o v i d e d useful data. The author must acknowledge t h e i n f i n i t e p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s w i f e , Constance E. H o m e , who h e l p e d i n c o u n t l e s s ways i n t h e preparation of t h i s t h e s i s .  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This study attempts to d i s c o v e r t o what extent scores on a t y p i c a l s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t r e f l e c t the a b i l i t y t o understand of s c i e n c e text-book  material.  long passages  A t e s t t o serve as a  c r i t e r i o n of t h i s a b i l i t y was c o n s t r u c t e d .  The c o r r e l a t i o n  between scores on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t and scores on a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t , was c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of the s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t f o r a p p r a i s i n g the comprehension o f l o n g passages from a s c i e n c e  text-  book. I. The  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  i n v e s t i g a t i o n described i n this thesis devel-  oped out of concern about the poor performance of a group of Grade 8 students  on r e a d i n g assignments based  on t h e i r s c i e n c e text-book.  Most o f these students d i d  f a i r l y w e l l i n d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e s when guided by f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s .  They d i d p o o r l y , however, when  r e q u i r e d t o i n t e r p r e t and apply what they read s p e c i f i c h e l p from the t e a c h e r .  without  •- 2  In the elementary school, reading i s a major part of the curriculum.  In the secondary school, reading  disappears as a subject In i t s e l f , but reading s k i l l s are applied to learning tasks i n every f i e l d .  Although  extensive reading i n a wide variety of source materials is preferable to intensive study of a single  text-book,  many students do no serious reading other than their text-books.  If a text-book has been well-chosen, i t  contains the e s s e n t i a l information and concepts f o r the course.  Therefore .1 i t i s usually required reading,  and assignments and examinations are often based on i t . For these reasons, the student with limited comprehension of his text-books  i s under a severe handicap.  Since a student's progress i n a subject is i n f l u enced by his a b i l i t y to read the text-book,  every teacher  should have accurate data about his p u p i l s ' reading skills.  A teacher can gain a general impression of  his pupils' reading a b i l i t i e s by observation and informal questions. records.  He can obtain further information from The most l i k e l y source of useful, r e l i a b l e  data would seem to be a standardized reading t e s t . use of any standardized test i s j u s t i f i e d  The  only i f i t  has educational value f o r the student and/or i t provides useful information about the student.  If the test i s to  be of immediate p r a c t i c a l use, i t must have a d i r e c t bearing on the work being done i n the classroom. science teacher, f o r example, wishes to know how  The well  his students can do the kind of reading that he assigns. There are a number, of good reading comprehension tests, but their s u i t a b i l i t y f o r estimating a student's performance i n text-book reading has not been established,. The s k i l l s involved In taking a standardized  reading  comprehension test seem rather d i f f e r e n t from those required f o r the understanding of a science text-book. The t y p i c a l standardized t e s t contains a c o l l e c t i o n of short, self-contained passages which are not r e l a t e d to each other or to the current classroom work.  Text-  book reading, on the other hand, usually c a l l s f o r sustained application to a single t o p i c , or to a group of c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o p i c s .  It also c a l l s f o r the  a b i l i t y to s e l e c t and apply appropriate concepts from material recently studied.  Furthermore, science text-  books often require c a r e f u l , detailed reading.  Bond  found that slow reading i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of high achievement (marks) i n science,-*-  The comprehension of  ^ond, Eva, Reading and Ninth-Grade Achievement (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938), p. 58.  s c i e n t i f i c material also requires the command of an extensive technical vocabulary and the a b i l i t y to interpret symbols, charts, and diagrams. The practice of dividing reading comprehension tests into sections according to the u n i t to be understood (the word, the sentence, the paragraph) suggests that measurable differences In these reading tasks e x i s t . t e s t s , however, attempt the appraisal of very long  Pew  passages.  Perhaps i t i s expedient to avoid the problems involved i n such tests, but the assumption that any reading comprehension test can be used to estimate a student's a b i l i t y to read lengthy passages should be confirmed or rejected on the basis of experimental evidence.  A search of the l i t e r a t u r e  did not reveal any studies on this p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c , II.  STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM  This study attempts to answer the following question: What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between scores on a test of a b i l i t y to understand long passages from a science text-book and scores on:  (1) a general reading comprehension  testy, and (2) a test of a b i l i t y to interpret material?'  scientific  5 III.  DEFINITIONS  The following d e f i n i t i o n s help to c l a r i f y the problem. General reading comprehension t e s t .  Reference  is made here to a test which consists of short paragraphs chosen from many subject f i e l d s .  T y p i c a l l y , i t Is  designed f o r use over a wide range of reading l e v e l s . Although the specialized test would seem to be more appropriate f o r s c i e n t i f i c material than the general test, the l a t t e r Is of interest because i t i s commonly used.  Thus the r e l a t i o n s h i p between general reading  scores and reading competence i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d is useful information. Text-book reading.  In educational l i t e r a t u r e ,  the term reading Is often used i n a very broad sense to include a l l the i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s which are applied when books are used.  In this thesis, study s k i l l s  (skimming, reviewing, summarizing, etc.) are s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded.  Text-book reading i s r e s t r i c t e d to the kind  of reading done when the reader's purpose Is the t o t a l grasp of new and rather d i f f i c u l t content. the interpretation of i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  It includes  Rather d i f f i c u l t  content Is specified because as Dolch states, we must admit "that assigned reading of middle grades and on through high 2  school i s *hard» f o r most or at least many children"* Long passages.  For the purpose of this study,  a long reading passage i s one which contains more than 500 words.  ~Dolch, E. W., "Comprehension i n Reading," Education, LXXVI (May,-1956), 536-540.  CHAETER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Although the issue raised In this thesis has been v i r t u a l l y ignored i n the l i t e r a t u r e on reading, much has; been written on c l o s e l y related problems&  Since reading  comprehension has not yet yielded to precise, unambiguous: ^ d e f i n i t i o n , a ireview of the research attempting to i d e n t i f y i t s components i s pertinents I«  FACTORS OF COMPREHENSION IN READING  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the factors i n reading comprehension has been approached i n two ways*  In  the f i r s t technique, published tests are analyaed©^ Studies of this kind usually produce four or f i v e f a c t o r s , some of which may not be precisely defined* This type of analysis presupposes that the tests used include the most s i g n i f i c a n t of the factors which make up reading comprehensions In contrast, Davis began by postulating a large number of possible f a c t o r s • nine independent factors.**  From these he obtained His analysis, however, was  ^ H a l l , W» EW, and Robinson, Fa P©, *An A n a l y t i c a l Approach to the Study of Reading S k i l l s , journal of Educational psychology, XXXVI (October, 1914.5), lj.29^3j.2© n  ^•Davis, F» Bo, "Fundamental Factors of Comprehension i n Reading? Psychometrlka, IX (September, 19U4), 1 9 5 - 1 9 7 •  8 c h a l l e n g e d by Thurstone, who  maintained  t h a t i n s i x of  the  nine tests., a s i n g l e f a c t o r would account f o r the e n t i r e true v a r i a n c e .  For the other three t e s t s (word meaning,  f o l l o w i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a passage, r e c o g n i t i o n of l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s ) Thurstone found s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e s • 25,  »22,  of  .21 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Davis  r e t r e a t e d from h i s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n by  r e d u c i n g h i s f a c t o r s to f i v e Independent mental a b i l i t i e s which he d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s : ^ 1, 2. 3« I4.. 5.  word knowledge. a b i l i t y to reason In r e a d i n g . a b i l i t y to f o l l o w the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a passage... a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . . . tendency to focus a t t e n t i o n on w r i t e r ' s e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s . . . ( i . e . a b i l i t y to f i n d the answers to s p e c i f i c f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s ) .  Davis' r e v i s e d l i s t  i s t y p i c a l of the f i n d i n g s of r e s e a r c h  i n t h i s f i e l d , although  no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n emerges  beyond the c o n f i r m a t i o n of the f i r s t two f a c t o r s . Johnson provides  an e x c e l l e n t summary of the  d e a l i n g w i t h the f a c t o r s of r e a d i n g  research  comprehension.^  ^Thurstone, L. L., "Note on a Reanalysis of D a v i s ' Reading T e s t s , " Psychometrika, XI (September, 1946K  185-188..  -.  ^Davis, F. B., "A B r i e f Comment on Thurstone's Note on a Reanalysis of Davis' Reading T e s t s , " Psychometrika, XI (December, 1946), 2l|.9-255..  7 Johnson, M. S., " F a c t o r s i n Reading Comprehension," E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , XXXV (November,  1949), 3B5-40T;  —  . .  9 II.  READING IN CONTENT FIELDS  The need f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t s i s suggested by the r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h concerning r e a d i n g i n content The  fields.  consensus of expert o p i n i o n i s t h a t the content 8  f i e l d s have s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g problems. '  Q 7  Socher  reviews  r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n r e a d i n g i n the content f i e l d s and concludes  t h a t s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g s k i l l s are needed i n  s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s c i e n c e , and a r i t h m e t i c • ^ T y p i c a l of the m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n i s Swenson's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the "only d e v i a t i o n s from the s t r i k i n g concomitance of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a r e found among d i f f e r e n t phases of r e a d i n g s k i l l  (rate versus v o c a b u l a r y and  comprehension) r a t h e r than among r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s ( g e n e r a l - n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l versus material)".  science-study  1 1  o  M c C a l l i s t e r , J . M., Remedial and C o r r e c t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n i n Reading (New York:; D» Apple ton-Century  Company, 193^7, p. 189.  ^Strang, Ruth, McCullough, Constance M., and T r a x l e r , A r t h u r , Problems i n the Improvement of Reading (second e d i t i o n ; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 9 5 5 7 7 p . 1 2 7 . S o c h e r , E. E l o n a , " S p e c i a l Reading S k i l l s Are Needed i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Science, A r i t h m e t i c , " Reading Teacher, VI (March, 1 9 5 3 ) , 4 - 1 1 . 1 0  •^Swenson, E s t h e r J . , "A Study of the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Various Types of Reading Scores on General and Science M a t e r i a l s , " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, XXXVI (October, 1 9 4 2 ) , 81-90.  10 I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l may r e a d w i t h unequal e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s the r e a d i n g s seem t o be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t . variations  although  Some o f these  c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f e x p e r i e n c e and  p a s t and p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s . one i n v e s t i g a t o r ,  I n the o p i n i o n of a t l e a s t  the reader's experience f a r  outweighs  any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r as a d e t e r m i n e r o f t h e q u a l i t y 12  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  Dolch b e l i e v e s that f l u e n c y of  r e a d i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d r e s u l t s f r o m two f a c t o r s : f i r s t , a r a p i d r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y , and s e c o n d l y , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c thought 13 p a t t e r n s and the i d i o m s o f t h e f i e l d . I I I . VALIDITY OP GENERAL READING TESTS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES Testing higher l e v e l s of reading a b i l i t y .  Strang  has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t an a p p r a i s a l o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y e n t i r e l y on s h o r t t e s t passages i s n o t w h o l l y  based  satisfactory.  •^Shores, J . E., "Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f I n v a l i d i t i e s of General Reading.Tests, J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . XL ( F e b r u a r y , 1947), 44^-457. 13 D o l c h , E. W., P s y c h o l o g y and Teaching o f Reading (second e d i t i o n ; Champaign, I l l i n o i s : G a r r a r d P r e s s , 195D, P. 326. 11  11 None of the standardized tests now available measures adequately the high l e v e l s of reading a b i l i t y — t h e a b i l i t i e s to comprehend r e l a t i o n s h i p s In a long passage that c a l l s f o r sustained attention, to organize content, to draw inferences, to grasp metaphors and s h i f t s of meaning, and to apply what i s read, 111  She also suggests that teacher-made tests based on textbook readings be used to obtain the data not available IS from published t e s t s , ^ Diagnosis of reading i n a subject f i e l d .  In  describing her diagnostic test of reading i n s o c i a l studies (high school and college), Conant strongly favours long passages f o r testing comprehension s k i l l s . She considers the optimum length of passage f o r her purposes to be about 1,000 words. Reading f o r problem-solving  i n science*  an outspoken c r i t i c of general reading tests, a test f o r problem-solving 6),  Shores, developed  i n science (grades i | , 5, and  He provides data to show that his test i s more v a l i d  •^Strang, Ruth, McCullough, Constance M., and Traxler, Arthur, Problems i n the Improvement of Reading (second edition; New York: McGraw-Hill, 195517 p. 273. ^ I b i d . , p. 258. Conant, M. M., The Construction of a Diagnostic Reading Test (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 19l|2), p. 119,  12 for i t s special function than a general reading t e s t . In his words: The suggestion i s that a b i l i t y to do the type of work-type reading required by problems i n science, a reading s k i l l which involves both reading and thinking c r i t i c a l l y about that which i s read, i s more independent of mental age than Is general reading a b i l i t y and i s d i f f e r e n t i n some degree from whatever i s measured In tests of general verbal intelligence and general a b i l i t y to read, ' 1  'Shores, J . H., and Saupe, J . L., "Reading f o r Problem-Solving i n Science," Journal of Educational Psychology, XLIV (March, 1953), 149-lSl. x  CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN S i n c e no t e s t a p p r a i s i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g passages of s c i e n c e t e x t - b o o k m a t e r i a l c o u l d be the C r i t e r i o n Test was  of l o n g found,  c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h i s purpose*  Three t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a group of S c i e n c e s t u d e n t s f r o m Vancouver s c h o o l s ; (1) (2)  the C r i t e r i o n T e s t ,  a g e n e r a l r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t , and  of a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t s c i e n t i f i c  10  (3)  material.  a test  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s among the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s c o r e s i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the a b i l i t i e s measured by tests.  I f the C r i t e r i o n Test has h i g h v a l i d i t y ,  these c o r r e l a t i o n s are good a p p r o x i m a t i o n s  the then  of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the r e a d i n g s c o r e s and the  ability  t o understand l o n g passages of s c i e n c e t e s t - b o o k m a t e r i a l . I.  THE  SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF THE  I n o r d e r t o minimize s c h o o l program,  CRITERION TEST  the i n t e r r u p t i o n t o the r e g u l a r  the C r i t e r i o n Test was  d e s i g n e d so t h a t  i t c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a r e g u l a r p e r i o d . proposed l e n g t h of the r e a d i n g passages reduced  But  the number  of items which c o u l d be answered i n a g i v e n t i m e . seemed a d v i s a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o attempt  the  It  t o measure o n l y  in one aspect of text-book Vocabulary it  i s adequately  comprehension i n the C r i t e r i o n T e s t .  i s undoubtedly of prime importance, measured i n e x i s t i n g t e s t s .  f a c t o r s suggested,  Of  but  other  D a v i s ' r e a s o n i n g - i n - r e a d i n g seems most  a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s study d e a l i n g w i t h the of s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l .  interpretation  Each Item of the C r i t e r i o n Test  Is intended to c o n t r i b u t e to the a p p r a i s a l of t h i s f a c t o r , although the items r e f l e c t to some extent other f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a b i l i t y to answer f a c t u a l II.  questions.  POPULATION  The experimental p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l l Science 10 students i n the p u b l i c schools of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  Science 10  (Grade 9 s c i e n c e ) was  chosen because  there appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n d i f f i c u l t y at t h i s l e v e l which r e s u l t s p a r t l y from the amount of m a t e r i a l to be mastered,  and p a r t l y from the nature  the concepts presented i n the III.  course.  POPULATION SAMPLE  Because of the e x p l o r a t o r y nature of the i t was  of  decided t h a t a sample of about 100  study,  p u p i l s would  adequately r e p r e s e n t the s p e c i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n .  However,  such a sample c o u l d not be s e l e c t e d from a s i n g l e s c h o o l ,  15 u n l e s s i t was shown t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among Vancouver s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s ,  and s t u d e n t s .  F o r ease  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e c l a s s was used as t h e u n i t o f sampling.  I n o r d e r t o be c e r t a i n t h a t a sample o f t h e  d e s i r e d s i z e and v a r i a b i l i t y was o b t a i n e d ,  t h e t e s t s were  g i v e n t o a group o f t e n S c i e n c e 10 c l a s s e s , two f r o m each of f i v e s c h o o l s .  I f a n a l y s i s of variance  indicated that  a l l t e n c l a s s e s were d e r i v e d f r o m a common p o p u l a t i o n ,  then  s e v e r a l c l a s s e s c o u l d be combined t o f o r m a sample o f the desired size.  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  among t h e c l a s s e s e x i s t e d , t h e n a random sample c o u l d be drawn f r o m t h e t o t a l e x p e r i m e n t a l  group.  S i n c e t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g comprehension, i t i s suggested t h a t i f a sample i s representative  of a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  i t i s l i k e l y a l s o t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e a d i n g comprehension.  of that  population  I t would have been  v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n the IQ's f o r the S c i e n c e 10 p o p u l a t i o n , b u t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f IQ's . f o r t h e t o t a l 1° Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . ' The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f "••"The O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y , I n t e r m e d i a t e E x a m i n a t i o n i s g i v e n t o a l l Vancouver p u p i l s i n t h e i r l a s t y e a r o f elementary s c h o o l . •^These d a t a would be s l i g h t l y i n a c c u r a t e because o f changes i n the p o p u l a t i o n between time o f IQ t e s t i n g and time o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t .  16 the d i f f e r e n c e between means of O t i s s c o r e s f o r sample and f o r the l a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n was t e s t e d . IV.  EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS  The C r i t e r i o n T e s t .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s  a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter V.  The  self-  38  o b j e c t i v e items are based on f o u r l o n g passages chosen f r o m S c i e n c e i n A c t i o n , Book I , the S c i e n c e 10  text-book authorized  20 f o r use i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  P u p i l s were  a l l o w e d I 4 8 minutes t o complete the t e s t . The s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s .  P a r t I I I (Comprehension  and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) of the C o o p e r a t i v e S c i e n c e T e s t f o r Grades "]_* §.» and 9,  Form Y was  s e l e c t e d as the t y p i c a l  of a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l . (Paragraph Meaning) of the Advanced Reading S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t was r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t .  test  Test I T e s t , Form Jfy[,  s e l e c t e d as the t y p i c a l g e n e r a l B o t h are 25-minute t e s t s .  There  are 30 items i n the former t e s t , and 44 i t e m s i n the l a t t e r . V.  TESTING PROGRAM  The t h r e e t e s t s d e s c r i b e d above were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l group of t e n c l a s s e s .  The  standard  ^ P a t e r s o n , G. M., and Cameron, E. E., S c i e n c e i n A c t i o n , Book I . Toronto: Dent, 1955.  class period i n Vancouver secondary schools i s 55 minutes. In order to complete the proposed testing program within two regular periods, special instructions were prepared which made i t possible to give both the published tests i n a single period (see Appendix B).  The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y  of these instructions was tested before the f i n a l experiment was  undertaken. VI.  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  When I t was established that the sample was representative of the t o t a l Grade 9 population, the Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s among the test scores were computed as indices of the r e l a t i o n ships between the a b i l i t i e s measured by the published tests and the a b i l i t y to read a science text-book.  CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL METHOD T h i s chapter c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the experimental of  group, a r e p o r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the t e s t s , and a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between sample and p o p u l a t i o n , I. The  THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  experimental  group c o n s i s t e d of two Science 10  c l a s s e s from each o f the f o l l o w i n g secondary s c h o o l s : S i r Winston C h u r c h i l l , Gladstone, and Templeton.  King Edward,  Magee,  As i n d i c a t e d below, the s c h o o l s and t h e i r  student bodies were d i s t i n c t l y  d i f f e r e n t from one another.  Since r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d by environment, an attempt was made i n the s e l e c t i o n of the schools to o b t a i n the widest p o s s i b l e v a r i e t y of environmental  factors.  Only a few of the p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s a r e d i s c u s s e d below, b u t a group showing wide v a r i a t i o n s i n these r e s p e c t s probably  will  show comparable v a r i a t i o n s i n other f a c t o r s b e a r i n g  on r e a d i n g  ability.  S i z e o f the s c h o o l s . schools v a r i e d f r o m s l i g h t l y over 2,000 p u p i l s .  The enrollments  i n the chosen  under 1,000 p u p i l s t o s l i g h t l y  I n September, 1957$ there were only  three secondary schools i n Vancouver  (comprising about \\%  19 of the p o p u l a t i o n o f the secondary e n r o l l m e n t s much l e s s t h a n 1,000  g r a d e s ) w h i c h had  pupils.  Since  these  s c h o o l s are expected t o d i s a p p e a r c o m p l e t e l y w i t h i n a few y e a r s ,  none was  i n c l u d e d i n the  Grade range i n the s c h o o l s .  experiment. Two  of the s c h o o l s  were j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , two were s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , and the o t h e r was  a junior high school.  The  e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of Grade 7 and 8 s t u d e n t s i n secondary  s c h o o l s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m the  of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n elementary  schools.  experience The  differ-  ences might be r e f l e c t e d i n the s c o r e s on the r e a d i n g tests. C h a r a c t e r of the s t u d e n t b o d i e s . chosen f o r the experiment, who  t h e r e c o u l d be found  students  were as w e l l - t o - d o as any i n Vancouver's p u b l i c  s c h o o l system, and those who any.  I n the s c h o o l s  were as u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d as  There were a l s o wide v a r i a t i o n s i n such f a c t o r s as  c u l t u r a l background, p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n , r a c i a l  origin,  and home c o n d i t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n of the c l a s s e s .  The  e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s ranged between 30  sizes of"the and 35  pupils,  w i t h about e q u a l numbers of boys and g i r l s .  Each c l a s s  was  judged  an u n s e l e c t e d group of s t u d e n t s , and was  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i t s s c h o o l .  to  20 II.  TEST ADMINISTRATION  The t e s t s were g i v e n i n r e g u l a r s c i e n c e p e r i o d s b y the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d u r i n g t h e l a s t two weeks o f September.  The o r d e r i n which t h e t e s t s were g i v e n was  v a r i e d so t h a t any b e n e f i t s due t o a f a v o u r e d p o s i t i o n would be shared among a l l t h e t e s t s .  The s e l e c t i o n o f  day and p e r i o d was l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s ,  b u t I n every c a s e ,  p e r i o d s of t e s t i n g o c c u r r e d on d i f f e r e n t  t h e two  days.  T e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h were f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t s were used, so t h a t t h e f o r m o f the items might n o t be a source of c o n f u s i o n . on t h e c o v e r page.  A l l n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n The p a r t s were n o t s e p a r a t e l y t i m e d ,  b u t t h e t e a c h e r announced when t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e g i n each p a r t .  Each s u p e r v i s o r was p r o v i d e d w i t h f u l l  d i r e c t i o n s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the three t e s t s (see Appendix B ) . III.  RELATION OP SAMPLE TO POPULATION  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was a p p l i e d t o t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t s c o r e s t o determine  i f a l l of the t e n c l a s s e s c o u l d  be c o n s i d e r e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples o f a common population.  S i n c e t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e  c l a s s means o f the C r i t e r i o n T e s t s c o r e s , a sample of 100 was chosen f r o m t h e t o t a l e x p e r i m e n t a l group by means o f a  21  table of random numbers.  The scores of new Canadians (that  i s , students who had l i v e d less than two years i n an Englishspeaking country) and of students repeating Science 10 were excluded.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between  the mean IQ of the revised sample and the mean IQ of the Grade 9 population. The IQ's of the experimental group were taken from school records.  Data f o r estimating the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the IQ's f o r the t o t a l Grade 9 population were obtained from the Department of Research and Special Services, Vancouver School Board.  CHAPTER V THE READING TESTS T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the s e l e c t i o n of the publ i s h e d t e s t s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and a p p r a i s a l of the C r i t e r i o n T e s t , I,  SELECTION OP THE  PUBLISHED TESTS  As the f i r s t s t e p i n l o c a t i n g t y p i c a l p u b l i s h e d t e s t s , the r e v i e w s i n the B u r o s books were c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d .  1  M e n t a l Measurement Y e a r -  Specimen c o p i e s of the  t e s t s w h i c h seemed most s u i t a b l e were t h e n examined. The G e n e r a l Reading Comprehension Test The  S t a n f o r d Paragraph Meaning T e s t was  chosen as  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n f o r m and c o n t e n t of s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t s u s i n g s h o r t p a s s a g e s . The Test of A b i l i t y t o I n t e r p r e t S c i e n t i f i c M a t e r i a l Three t e s t s of t h i s type were s t u d i e d : A b i l i t y t o I n t e r p r e t Reading M a t e r i a l s i n the 21  Natural Sciences, for  T h i s t e s t seems t o be e x c e l l e n t  the upper h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s .  I t i s not  appropriate  21rp £ f t j T e s t s of E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p ment f o r H i g h School and C o l l e g e Freshmen, e g t  0  n  e  o  w  a  23  i n the p r e s e n t  study because o f i t s l e n g t h and d i f f i c u l t y .  S i n c e i t r e q u i r e s 60 m i n u t e s , i t c o u l d n o t be g i v e n i n a regular class period.  The median s c o r e f o r Grade 9 p u p i l s  i s o n l y 21+, somewhat l e s s t h a n 30$ o f t h e p o s s i b l e s c o r e of 81.. Reading S c a l e s i n S c i e n c e  (Grades 7_ " 12  T h i s t e s t i s o f s u i t a b l e l e n g t h and d i f f i c u l t y . r e q u i r e s 30 minutes f o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . however, a number o f u n d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s * of 12 s h o r t p a r a g r a p h s and 73 i t e m s .  It  I t has, I t consists  There a r e n i n e  items  based on t h e 18 l i n e s o f r e a d i n g i n the f i r s t p a r a g r a p h . The  items a r e statements a f t e r which the s t u d e n t i s i n s t r u c t e d  to p l a c e an "X" i f t h e statement i s i n the p a r a g r a p h , o r can be d e r i v e d f r o m i t .  I n o t h e r words, the t e s t e s s e n t i a l l y  c o n s i s t s o f 73 t r u e - f a l s e items w i t h a heavy f a c t u a l emphasis. Many o f the passages c o n t a i n c o n c e p t s u s u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d b e f o r e Grade 9« Cooperative  S c i e n c e Test f o r Grades 7_» 8, and  T h i s t e s t was chosen because o f the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : 1. I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r Grades 7 t o 9. 2 . I t c o n t a i n s m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s comparable t o the c o n t e n t o f Science 10 b u t n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h i t .  M. J . Van Wagenen, ( E d u c a t i o n a l Test B u r e a u , 1938).  2k 3« I t i n c l u d e s items on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of an  illustration. 4.  I t attempts to go beyond the t e s t i n g  of f a c t s .  The 25-minute time l i m i t on t h i s t e s t makes i t p o s s i b l e to a d m i n i s t e r i t and the S t a n f o r d t e s t i n one c l a s s p e r i o d . • II.  CONSTRUCTION OP THE CRITERION TEST  Specifications The c r i t e r i o n t e s t was designed to s a t i s f y the following  specifications:  1. that the t e s t be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . 2. that the r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s  be not l e s s than  500  3. t h a t the passages i n c l u d e as many as p o s s i b l e  of  words.  the  s p e c i a l problems  i n interpretation  of s c i e n t i f i c  material. 4.  t h a t the items s t r e s s  interpretation  r a t h e r than  factual detail. 5. t h a t the format of the t e s t be as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e to the format of the Science 10 text-book. 6. t h a t the m a t e r i a l i n the t e s t passages be new to the s t u d e n t s . 7« t h a t the t e s t be a power r a t h e r than speed  test.  8. that the directions be clear and establish the desired purpose. 9» that the test be self-administering. Procedures Selection of content.  Six representative passages  were chosen from the text-book.  These passages Included  material which required i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of tables, formulas, and diagrams. Preparation and e d i t i n g of items. . Items were constructed f o r each passage and the test materials were organized into two preliminary forms (A and B), each containing three parts (I, I I , and I I I ) . Henceforth,  a read-  ing passage and the items based on i t w i l l be referred to as a part.  The material f o r the preliminary forms was  submitted to two experienced suggestions  and c r i t i c i s m .  teachers of Science 10 f o r Each part was administered to  two grade 8 classes i n order to detect ambiguities and d i f f i c u l t i e s not apparent to the adult c r i t i c s .  This pre-  tryout also provided the f i r s t estimate of the times required to administer each part. Administration of preliminary forms.  Forms A and B  were given to a sampling of students not i n the l o c a l school.  The sample was drawn from two Vancouver secondary  s c h o o l s ( B r i t a n n i a and S i r W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ) , and f r o m P r i n c e George J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l and N e l s o n J u n i o r H i g h School.  The t e a c h e r s s u p e r v i s i n g t h e p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r -  iment p r o v i d e d d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e time r e q u i r e d f o r each part. P r e p a r a t i o n of r e v i s e d form. p a r t s , f o u r p a r t s were chosen.  Prom the s i x o r i g i n a l  Items were r e v i s e d o r  e l i m i n a t e d i n the l i g h t o f an i t e m a n a l y s i s , and a few new  items were added.  The r e v i s e d f o r m was s u b m i t t e d t o  two e x p e r t s i n e d u c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g f o r s u g g e s t i o n s and criticism. Try-out of r e v i s e d form.  The r e v i s e d f o r m was g i v e n  t o two c l a s s e s i n K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l t o p r o v i d e d a t a on the new and t h e r e v i s e d i t e m s , and t o s e r v e as a f i n a l  check  on time l i m i t s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . III.  ANALYSIS OP THE PRELIMINARY FORMS  Item a n a l y s i s .  The i t e m a n a l y s i s o f each p r e l i m -  i n a r y f o r m was based on a s i n g l e s c h o o l s i n c e i t was f o u n d t h a t the c l a s s e s c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as samples drawn f r o m a common p o p u l a t i o n .  Each sample c o n t a i n e d 100 p a p e r s .  A worksheet was p r e p a r e d t o show i n d e t a i l t h e response t o each i t e m f o r e v e r y paper i n t h e sample.  The i t e m  i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y i n d i c e s were computed f r o m the f o l l o w -  27 ing  23  formula::  _ _ PQ-NW PQ where P=aproportion  of sample p a s s i n g the i t e m  Q=l-P N=number of t e s t papers i n the sample ¥=proportion of i n c o n s i s t e n t responses These s t a t i s t i c s , (per  together w i t h the i t e m d i f f i c u l t i e s  cent p a s s i n g ) , are g i v e n i n Table V I I and Table  V I I I i n the Appendix, P a r t I of Form A and P a r t I of Form B were d i s c a r d e d as the l e a s t s u i t a b l e p a r t s .  Each i t e m of the other p a r t s  was c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of i t s d i f f i c u l t y and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with the whole t e s t .  P a r t I I of Form A was used as  i t appeared i n the p r e l i m i n a r y form, b u t most of the items i n the other p a r t s were r e v i s e d i n some way. did  not u s u a l l y i n v o l v e major r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The r e v i s i o n s Typical  ^ F o w l e r , H, M. " A p p l i c a t i o n of the Ferguson Method of Computing Item Conformity and Person Conformity," J o u r n a l of Experimental E d u c a t i o n , XXII (March, 1 9 5 4 ) , 2 3 7 - 2 1 ^ E s s e n t i a l l y the Ferguson r i s a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between the observed answer p a t t e r n and the " p e r f e c t " answer p a t t e r n . For an item of \\0% d i f f i c u l t y , f o r example, the p e r f e c t answer p a t t e r n i s achieved when the o b t a i n i n g the h i g h e s t t o t a l scores i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the p a s s i n g the item. The c o e f f i c i e n t s d e r i v e d from t h i s formula are s m a l l e r than Flanagan r ' s . I n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Ontario C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n , where the formula i s r e g u l a r l y used, r ' s ranging from . 2 5 t o . 5 0 are c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y , and an r ^> . 5 0 i s c o n s i d e r e d very good. 2  28 changes i n c l u d e d t h e a d d i t i o n o f a d i s t r a c t o r , the re-wording  of a non-functioning or a negatively-discriminating  d i s t r a c t o r , and improvement i n t h e f o r m o f the i t e m . Internal consistency. the  The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f  p r e l i m i n a r y forms was e s t i m a t e d f r o m K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n  f o r m u l a #21:  2i|  2 -  where T ^ . = c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y H  = number o f items i n the t e s t  Q  = total  t  test variance  P = p r o p o r t i o n o f sample p a s s i n g a n i t e m  q For  = i-p  Form A, r = .81; f o r Form B, r = .80. IV.  ANALYSIS OF THE REVISED FORM  Item a n a l y s i s .  The i t e m s t a t i s t i c s  a r e summarized  i n Table I . The i t e m s v a r y i n d i f f i c u l t y f r o m one which was passed b y 17$ o f t h e sample t o one which was passed b y 85$ of' the sample.  The i t e m d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d around a mean d i f f i c u l t y o f 53.5$.  ^ G u i l f o r d , J . P., Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n (second e d i t i o n ; New York: McGrawH i l l , T9F0), p.495. 2  TABLE I ITEM DIFFICULTIES AND FLANAGAN r *S FOR THE REVISED FORM OF CRITERION TEST, BASED ON A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 100 PAPERS Item a  b  c  d  e  f  £  h  i  ko  67  73  85  1*3  65  58  59  61*  Flanagan r  .36  .1*0  .1*7  .1*2  •53  .51*  .57  .51  .50  Difficulty  ko  kk  59  61*  57  57  28  73  55  58  Flanagan r  .1*0  .60  .65  .21  .68  .53  .57  .75  .51*  .51*  Difficulty  81  1*9  52  1*8  36  28  37  36  Flanagan r  •30  .1*9  .08  .56  .51*  .51  .31*  .1*3  Difficulty  57  76  66  59  55  63  57  X7  36  70  21  Flanagan r  .53  .36  .1*6  .33  .63  •59  .1*2  .18  .51+  .51  • 25  -  Difficulty Part I  Part I I  Part I I I  P a r t IV  a  a  1  k  P e r c e n t o f sample p a s s i n g t h e i t e m . ru  30  F l a n a g a n r ' s a r e used t o i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of each i t e m t o the t e s t as a whole* 21 have r ' s >  .£0.  Only f o u r i t e m s have r ' s <  Internal consistency* the r e v i s e d f o r m was .80 V.  Out o f a t o t a l o f 38 i t e m s , .30.  The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f  (Kuder-Richardson formula  #21).  APPRAISAL OF THE CRITERION TEST  Validity.  The v a l i d i t y of the C r i t e r i o n Test i s  of c r u c i a l importance i n t h i s s t u d y .  The b e s t a v a i l a b l e  i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s v a l i d i t y i s t h e e x t e n t t o which i t s a t i s f i e s the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on page 2\\,  I n the a u t h o r ' s  o p i n i o n , t h e m a t e r i a l i n the C r i t e r i o n T e s t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n k i n d and d i f f i c u l t y o f s c i e n c e t e x t - b o o k m a t e r i a l . F u r t h e r m o r e , n e a r l y , o n e - t h i r d o f the items a r e based a t l e a s t p a r t l y on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the type u s u a l l y found i n s c i e n c e t e x t - b o o k s . Reliability.  G u i l f o r d s t a t e s t h a t f o r a homogeneous  t e s t an i n d e x o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y comes c l o s e s t t o the b a s i c i d e a of r e l i a b i l i t y total variance).^  (the r a t i o of true variance t o  That i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i s an  ^ G u i l f o r d , J , P., Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n (Second e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : McGrawH i l l , T&O}} p. i|«7. 2  31 appropriate index of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the C r i t e r i o n Teat can be seen from size of the Flanagan r's l i s t e d In Table I* The C r i t e r i o n Test  probably underestimates the true  c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y since certain assumptions of the Kuder-Richardson formula are not realized.26 i n p a r t i c u l a r , the item d i f f i c u l t i e s  are not equal, nor are  the item Intercorrelations* Any substantial increase i n the i n t e r n a l consistency of a reading comprehension test beyond *80 Is probably achieved at the expense of v a l i d i t y , since a v a l i d measure of a complex group of s k i l l s requires a certain degree of heterogeneity i n the items*  In discussing t h i s point  Guilford says: •••both r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y cannot be maxima1&.. item-test correlations f o r well-constructed Items range between *30 and a80*..* Items within these ranges of c o r r e l a t i o n should provide tests of s a t i s factory r e l i a b i l i t y and validity.*,*», There i s probably better reason for going below these l i m i t s than above them i n constructing Items. To do so would err on the side of v a l i d i t y which, after a l l , i s more important** ' 2  Difficulty*  The test i s of appropriate d i f f i c u l t y  for the experimental group, since the scores are approximately normally distributed about a mean score of 20©13 (53#$of the possible score)*  ^ G u i l f o r d , j * p . , Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education (second e d i t i o n : New York* McQraw-  rnifri^o), 2  p.  m*  7 i b l d > , p. 523.  32 Prom the discussion i n the three preceding  paragraphs,  the C r i t e r i o n Test appears to perform i t s function of appraising the a b i l i t y to understand long passages of science text-book material.  CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS OP THE I.  HOMOGENEITY OP THE The  F - t e s t was  experimental  group.  DATA  EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  used t o t e s t the homogeneity of  Only e i g h t of the t e n c l a s s e s were  used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s s i n c e a t o t a l of 17 o t h e r two computed F  the  c l a s s e s had  s t u d e n t s i n the  t a k e n p r e l i m i n a r y Form B,  The  (2.$2) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  means were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5% l e v e l a t the 1% l e v e l  (F=2,72).  ( F = 2 . 0 5 ) , but  not  S i n c e such a r e s u l t s u g g e s t e d  t h a t t h e r e might be r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the c l a s s e s , the sample was The  drawn a t random f r o m the t o t a l group.  summary of the a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n i n Table I I , TABLE I I  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR F-TEST OF HOMOGENEITY OF TAKING REVISED FORM OF CRITERION TEST Sum of Squares Between groups  653  W i t h i n groups  8387  Total  90i|0  a  df 7  235  CLASSES  Mean Square 93.3  2.52*  35.65  242  F = 2 . 7 2 r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t 1%  F  level.  3k  II.  RELATION OP SAMPLE TO POPULATION  I t w i l l now be shown t h a t the sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , w i t h r e s p e c t t o IQ, o f a p o p u l a t i o n which i s s i m i l a r to the Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n a t the time of the experiment (September, 1957)*  The p o p u l a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i s t e d o f  those s t u d e n t s of the Grade 9 group who Vancouver s c h o o l s a t the time the IQ's group were o b t a i n e d .  The  distributions  were a t t e n d i n g of the  experimental  of IQ's f o r the  sample and f o r the p o p u l a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above a r e shown i n Table I I I . I n s p e c t i o n of t h i s t a b l e r e v e a l s t h a t b o t h distributions  are a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r m a l .  The  hypothesis  t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the means was tested. Critical ratio=  A r a t i o l a r g e r than .62 out of 100.  M -Mp__Mss  MP  would occur by chance i n $k  F o r t h i s r e a s o n the sample was  cases  considered to  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , w i t h r e s p e c t t o IQ, of the p o p u l a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. The  e x p e r i m e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n , however, c o n s i s t e d of  s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n S c i e n c e 10,  The m a j o r i t y of  these  ^The p o p u l a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o S c i e n c e 10 p u p i l s i n d e f e r e n c e t o the w i s h e s of the Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d . 2  TABLE III FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF IQ'S FOR GRADE 9 POPULATION OF VANCOUVER SCHOOLS AND-FOR RANDOM SAMPLE FROM EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  IQ  a  Population n = 387J+ per cent  80  85 90  95  100  105  110  115 120  125  130  135 I4O  150  - 8891+ - 91+ - 99 - 101+ - 109 - 114 - 119 12U - 129 - 131+ - 139 - 144 149 - 154  Mean Standard Deviation  Sample n = 90 per cent  2.5  2.2  4.3  4.4  13.8  5.6 16.7  7.6 10.5 14.4  15.9  12.9  9.8  5.2  2.2  .6  .2 .1 .05 108.09  12.09  4.if  20.0 17.8  8.9 11.1 5.6 3.3  -  IO8.89  11.37  Score on the Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Intermediate Examination. a  A l l students i n Vancouver schools who would be normally i n Grade 9 at the time of the experiment. b  S e l e c t e d at random from two Science 10 classes i n each of f i v e Vancouver Secondary schools. c  s t u d e n t s were t a k i n g u n i v e r s i t y program.  It i s likely,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e mean IQ o f t h e S c i e n c e 10 p o p u l a t i o n was  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean IQ o f t h e whole Grade  9 population.  However,  i t i s not l i k e l y that the  d i f f e r e n c e was so g r e a t t h a t the sample c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S c i e n c e 10 p o p u l a t i o n . III.  CORRELATIONS AMONG DISTRIBUTIONS OP TEST SCORES Raw c o r r e l a t i o n s .  The r a n d o m l y - s e l e c t e d  sample was  used t o compute t h e Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n coefficients.  Ten o f the o r i g i n a l 100 papers were d i s c a r d e d  because o f i n c o m p l e t e d a t a .  The raw c o e f f i c i e n t s  obtained  were:  The  Standard-Criterion  .58.  Cooperative-Criterion  .72.  Stanford-Cooperative  .66.  s c o r e s a r e g i v e n i n Table V i n t h e Appendix. Correlations corrected f o r attenuation.  o b j e c t of t h e study i s t o determine  S i n c e the  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s c o r e s on a r e a d i n g t e s t and t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d a t e x t - b o o k , allowance  s h o u l d be made f o r t h e i m p e r f e c t  r e l i a b i l i t y o f the C r i t e r i o n T e s t .  Applying the c o r r e c t i o n  f o r a t t e n t u a t i o n i n the c r i t e r i o n o n l y , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between S t a n f o r d s c o r e s and s c o r e s f r o m a p e r f e c t l y r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i o n would be .65 f o r t h e sample. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g C o o p e r a t i v e - c r i t e r i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was . 8 0 .  CHAPTER VII INTERPRETATION OP RESULTS The thesis problem i s answered by the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s given i n Chapter VI.  The results apply only  to the tests and population used i n the study.  The following  inferences were derived from the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s , 1.  The size of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  (.72)  between scores on the Cooperative Test and on the C r i t e r i o n Test implies that the two tests measure to a large extent the same group of s k i l l s . III  For most p r a c t i c a l purposes, Part  (Comprehension and Interpretation) of the Cooperative  Science Test could be used to appraise the a b i l i t y to read material from Science i n Action, Book JE, 2.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the scores on the science  reading tests i s not high enough to say that the differences i n the tests are n e g l i g i b l e .  The reading passages are compar-  able i n d i f f i c u l t y and the items are similar i n form and style.  The most obvious difference, length of reading passage,  may explain why the c o r r e l a t i o n was not higher, 3.  There does not appear to be any s i g n i f i c a n t  difference among the correlations obtained i n this  study.  There i s , however, some basis f o r suggesting that the Stanford Test i s not as good a measure of the a b i l i t y to understand Science text-book material as the Cooperative Test ( r = ,f>8  compared to r = .72).  Furthermore, i f the Cooperative Test  r e a l l y i s more closely related to the C r i t e r i o n Test than to the Stanford Test, t h i s would imply that s c i e n t i f i c  content  has more e f f e c t on reading test scores than length of passage.  CHAPTER V I I I EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The f i n d i n g s o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a r e n o t c o n f i n e d to e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s .  In t h i s chapter, c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s  of the s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d .  The o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d may be  h e l p f u l t o those I n t e r e s t e d i n problems r e l a t e d t o measuring the comprehension o f t e x t - b o o k m a t e r i a l .  The s u g g e s t i o n s f o r .  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e problems w h i c h a r i s e out o f t h e p r e s e n t study. How c o u l d t h e C r i t e r i o n T e s t be improved? The main weakness o f the C r i t e r i o n T e s t , w h i c h a l l e g e d l y e x e m p l i f i e s text-book r e a d i n g , i s that i t i s more t e s t than t e x t - b o o k .  I t i s not f r e e of the pressures  w h i c h accompany f o r m a l t e s t s .  T h i s f a u l t might be l a r g e l y  overcome by h a v i n g the s t u d e n t s r e a d one l o n g s e l e c t i o n d i r e c t l y from t h e t e x t - b o o k .  Adequate i n t r o d u c t i o n and  o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e t o p i c t o be s t u d i e d would t h e n be p o s s i b l e . A second c r i t i c i s m might be t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e C r i t e r i o n Test r e f l e c t i n p a r t the a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t the Items.  A l t h o u g h t h i s extraneous  factor i s d i f f i c u l t to  e l i m i n a t e i n an i t e m d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f i n e p o i n t s , r e - w o r d i n g might c l a r i f y c e r t a i n i t e m s .  ko Does the C r i t e r i o n Teat measure a higher l e v e l of understanding than the published tests used i n the experiment? The science reading tests were about equally d i f f i c u l t f o r the experimental group, but the Stanford Test was much easier.  The mean scores of the three tests were 53$. 56$,  and 75$ respectively.  However, the item s t a t i s t i c s f o r the  C r i t e r i o n Test reveal that the items haying the highest Flanagan r's test s p e c i f i c points.  This might mean that  the C r i t e r i o n Test measures the a b i l i t y to answer f a c t u a l questions.  On the other hand, even i f the test does measure  the a b i l i t y to reason i n reading, the f a c t u a l items, because of their o b j e c t i v i t y , could s t i l l correlate highly with the t o t a l score.  This does not imply, however, that a test of  reasoning-in-reading should be composed e n t i r e l y of f a c t u a l items. As a test of complex comprehension s k i l l s , the C r i t e r i o n Test does not seem to be appreciably superior to the published tests.  A f i n e r discrimination might be achieved i f the test  were designed f o r superior readers only. To what extent do students i n an average Grade £ class understand what they read i n their science text-book? This problem i s approached through a l o g i c a l analysis of the items which were very d i f f i c u l t f o r the experimental  41 group.  C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g i t e m as a s i n g l e example:  "Every compound has a d e f i n i t e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . " T h i s means t h a t 1. e v e r y pound o f water (H^G) has t h e same amount of oxygen i n i t . 2. when two substances combine c h e m i c a l l y , they always f o r m the same compound. 3» a l l compounds a r e made o f c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s . 4. a l l compounds a r e made of the same s u b s t a n c e s . 5. compounds formed f r o m the same substances have the same p r o p e r t i e s . Only 27$ o f the group t e s t e d on t h i s i t e m answered i t c o r rectly.  The F l a n a g a n r was .13*  C h o i c e s 2 and 5 a r e  s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n t r a r y t o i d e a s f u l l y developed reading s e l e c t i o n .  i n the  Choices 3 and 4 do n o t i n c l u d e t h e  concept o f " d e f i n i t e c o m p o s i t i o n " .  Therefore choice 1 i s  the o n l y p o s s i b l e c h o i c e f o r a p u p i l who t h o r o u g h l y unders t o o d what he r e a d . concept  S i n c e t h i s i t e m i s based on the key  o f the passage, i t i s apparent  t h a t the m a j o r i t y  of the p u p i l s d i d n o t master t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d .  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i t e m s h o u l d be a minor h a z a r d t o those who d i d understand  t h e r e a d i n g passage.  What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c i e n c e r e a d i n g t e s t s c o r e s and achievement i n s c i e n c e ? Christmas  s c i e n c e marks, C r i t e r i o n Test s c o r e s , and  C o o p e r a t i v e Test s c o r e s f o r two c l a s s e s f r o m one s c h o o l a r e g i v e n i n Table V I i n the Appendix. by d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s .  These c l a s s e s were taught  The c o r r e l a t i o n s between marks and  C r i t e r i o n Test s c o r e s f o r t h e two c l a s s e s were .55 and .33*  42 The  c o r r e l a t i o n s between marks and  for  the same c l a s s e s were ,48  and  Cooperative Test scores .34*  There seems to  be  a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between marks and b o t h s e t s of r e a d i n g s c o r e s f o r one  c l a s s , t h a n between marks and  r e a d i n g s c o r e s f o r the two  classes.  one  Possible  set  of  inferences  are  t h a t the c l a s s s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g s k i l l s and t e s t s were not The in a and  achievement, and  t h a t the s c i e n c e r e a d i n g  significantly different.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g s k i l l s and  achievement  s c h o o l s u b j e c t depends,among o t h e r t h i n g s , on the amount type o f r e a d i n g r e q u i r e d  of the s t u d e n t s , on which  are measured by the r e a d i n g t e s t s , and defined  and  measured.  on how  I n the p r e s e n t c a s e ,  skills  achievement i s the  examination  f r o m which the C h r i s t m a s marks were o b t a i n e d emphasized knowledge of  facts rather  t h a n a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge.  A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s type of achievement r e a d i n g comprehension would not be  expected.  The  and  rather  low  c o r r e l a t i o n s a l s o i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e of many o t h e r factors  ( i n t e r e s t , a t t i t u d e , ambition, perseverance,  which a f f e c t s c h o o l marks.  G u i l f o r d points  out  etc.)  that  i n n a t u r e , c o r r e l a t i o n s of z e r o or 1.00 are the r u l e between v a r i a b l e s when i s o l a t e d . The f a c t t h a t we g b t a i n a n y t h i n g e l s e i s because of the i n e x t r i c a b l e i n t e r p l a y of v a r i a b l e s t h a t we cannot measure i n isolation.29  43 What p r a c t i c a l use c a n a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r make of C r i t e r i o n Test  scores? 1.  S i n c e the C r i t e r i o n Test c o n s i s t s of t y p i c a l  r e a d i n g s f r o m the t e x t - b o o k , a c r i t e r i o n s c o r e  estimates  a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n f r o m the t e x t - b o o k .  Accurate  e s t i m a t e s o f the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y of the c l a s s and of the i n d i v i d u a l students w i l l help the teacher t o s e l e c t appropriate methods.  Good r e a d e r s would  mentary r e a d i n g .  p r o f i t from extensive supple-  F o r a c l a s s of v e r y a b l e r e a d e r s , l e c t u r i n g  s h o u l d be r e d u c e d t o a minimum.  For  a c l a s s o f poor r e a d e r s ,  time s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the d i r e c t t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s . 2.  A s t u d e n t ' s s c o r e on the C r i t e r i o n Test i s an  e s t i m a t e of h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r e s e n t e d i n S c i e n c e 10.  the concepts  I t c a n be used a l o n g w i t h s c i e n c e  marks f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . 3.  The t e s t ' s i t e m s t a t i s t i c s p r o v i d e u s e f u l  regarding the d i f f i c u l t y of c e r t a i n concepts.  data  There i s  a v e r y r e a l danger t h a t the e x p e r t i s l i k e l y t o undere s t i m a t e the d i f f i c u l t y o f the i d e a s i n h i s s u b j e c t .  The  poor r e s u l t s on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n items presumably show the need f o r r e c o g n i z i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between v e r b a l i z a t i o n and genuine u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  Students may be a b l e t o p a r r o t the  words o f t h e t e x t - b o o k w i t h v e r y l i t t l e  comprehension.  kk SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1.  How p r a c t i c a l i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f h a v i n g the  s t u d e n t s r e a d one l o n g passage d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t e x t - b o o k ? Would s e v e r a l t e s t s , each based on a s i n g l e t o p i c g i v e consistent results? 2.  What f a c t o r s o f the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s and achievement i n science? 3.  What i s the r e l a t i v e importance o f each? I s t h e r e an optimum l e n g t h o f s c i e n c e r e a d i n g  assignment f o r Grade 9 s t u d e n t s ?  How does i t v a r y w i t h the  a b i l i t y of t h e s t u d e n t s ? 1+,. What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e s t s c o r e s and s k i l l i n t e x t - b o o k r e a d i n g f o r o t h e r r e a d i n g t e s t s , o t h e r t e x t - b o o k s , and o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s ?  BIBLIOGRAPHY American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , L i n d q u i s t , E. P. ( e d . ) . E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement, Menasha, Wisconsin:: George B a n t a , 195l^ Bond, E v a , Reading and Ninth-Grade Achievement, New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , no. 756, 1938. Bond, G. L., and Bond, E v a . Developmental Reading i n H i g h S c h o o l . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , I9I46"". B u r o s , 0. K. ( e d . ) . The T h i r d M e n t a l Measurements Yearbook. New B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949, B u r o s , 0. K. ( e d . ) . The F o u r t h M e n t a l Measurements Yearbook. New J e r s e y : Gryphon P r e s s , 1953* C a r l s o n , T. R, "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Speed and A c c u r a c y of ..Comprehension," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , X L I I (March, 1949), 500-511. Conant, M. M. The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a D i a g n o s t i c Reading T e s t . New Y o r k : Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , no. 861, 1942. D a v i s , P. B. "A B r i e f Comment on Thurstone»s Note on a R e a n a l y s i s o f D a v i s Reading T e s t s , " P s y c h o m e t r i k a , X I (December, 1946), 249-255. 1  D a v i s , F. B. "Fundamental F a c t o r s o f Comprehension i n Reading," ..Psychometrika, I X (September, 1944)>  185-197.  D o l c h , E. W. "Comprehension i n Reading," E d u c a t i o n , LXXVI (May, 1956), 536-540. D o l c h , E. W. P s y c h o l o g y and Teaching o f R e a d i n g . Second e d i t i o n . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : G a r r a r d P r e s s , 1951. Edwards, A. L. Sciences.  S t a t i s t i c a l Methods f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l New York: R i n e h a r t , 1954*  46 F o w l e r , H. M. " A p p l i c a t i o n o f the Ferguson Method o f Computing Item C o n f o r m i t y and P e r s o n C o n f o r m i t y , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , X X I I (March, 1954), 237-245. : G a r r e t t , H. E. S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . F o u r t h e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : Longmans, 1953. G a t e s , A. I . The Improvement o f R e a d i n g . New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1947.  Revised e d i t i o n .  Gray, W. S. Annual Summaries o f Reading I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research. G u i l f o r d , J . P. Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . Second e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l ,  193o:  G u i l f o r d , J . P. "New Standards f o r T e s t C o n s t r u c t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l - a n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, V I  (no. 4 , 1946TT"l427-43a.  .  H a l l , W. E., and R o b i n s o n , F. P. "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach to the Study o f Reading S k i l l s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , XXXVI (October, 1945), 429-442. J a c k s o n , R. W. B., and F e r g u s o n , G. A. Manual o f E d u c a t i o n a l Statistics. Second r e v i s i o n . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1942. Johnson, M. S. " F a c t o r s i n Reading Comprehension," E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , XXXV (November, 1949), 3 8 5 - 4 0 6 . M c C a l l i s t e r , J . M. Remedial and C o r r e c t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n i n Reading. New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y , 1936. Monroe, W. S. ( e d . ) . E n c y c l o p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . R e v i s e d e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 5 0 . N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study o f E d u c a t i o n . The Teaching of Reading. 3 6 t h yearbook, p a r t 1. Bloomfield, Illinois: P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1937. P a t e r s o n , G. M., and Cameron, E. E. S c i e n c e i n A c t i o n , Book I . T o r o n t o : Dent, 1955»  R03S, C. C. Me as are merit i n Today' s S c h o o l s . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1947.  New York::  Shores, J . H. " S k i l l s R e l a t e d t o A b i l i t y t o Read H i s t o r y and S c i e n c e , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , XXXVI ( A p r i l , 1943), 584-593. '. S h o r e s , J . H. "Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f I n v a l i d i t i e s o f G e n e r a l Reading T e s t s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , XL ( F e b r u a r y , 1947), 44H-457. S h o r e s , J , H., and Saupe, J , L. "Reading f o r ProblemS o l v i n g i n Science," Journal of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology XLIV (March, 1953), 149-158. ' Sochor, E. E. " S p e c i a l Reading S k i l l s a r e Needed i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , S c i e n c e , A r i t h m e t i c , " Reading Teacher, V I (March, 1953), 4-11. S t r a n g , Ruth, M c C u l l o u g h , Constance M., and T r a x l e r , A r t h u r , Problems i n the Improvement o f R e a d i n g , Second e d i t i o n New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 19557" Swenson, E s t h e r J . "A Study o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among V a r i o u s Types o f Reading Scores on G e n e r a l and S c i e n c e M a t e r i a l s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , XXXVI (October, 1942), 81-90. T h u r s t o n e , L. L . "Note on a R e a n a l y s i s o f D a v i s ' Reading T e s t s , " P s y c h o m e t r i k a , X I (September, 1946), 185-188. T r a x l e r , E. E., and Townsend, Agatha. E i g h t More Y e a r s o f Research i n R e a d i n g . New Y o r k : E d u c a t i o n a l Records Bureau, B u l l e t i n no. 64, 1955.  TABLE 17 COMPARISON OF THE READING TESTS USED IN THE EXPERIMENT Cooperative Science Test, Form Y, Part III Testing time  25 minutes  Criterion Test  4B minutes  Number of reading passages Longest passage Content  Stanford Reading Test, Advanced, Form J, Test I 25 minutes  20 224 words 3 parts contain material similar to content of Grade 8 science (B. C. program), but not specifica l l y taught in Science 3  725 words exerpts from prescribed text for Grade 9 science  96 words wide sampling of general reading and reading i n special fields — 5 paragraphs could be classed as "scientific"  2 parts contain material similar to content of Grade 9 science, but not specifically tested in the criterion test Illustrations  1  U  none  Tables  1  none  none  30  38  UK  Number of items Form of items  Grade level  multiDle-choice  7-9  27 multiple-choice 3 direct questions 8 points for drawing station model of weather map  9  multiple-choice completion  7-9  TABLE V TEST SCORES AND IQ'S FOR RANDOM SAMPLE OP 90 SCIENCE 10 STUDENTS PROM EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Stanford Reading T e s t , Advanced, Form J , T e s t I (44 p o i n t s )  21 34 36 31  31  35  29  Cooperative Science Test, Form Y, P a r t I I I (30 p o i n t s )  8 20  11 26  13 11 17  14 11 14 14  16  16  43 27 27 23 35 32 38  17 8  36 37  10 21 8  19  33 37 30  39  35 41 33 37 30 37 4o 31  39  20 37  39  37 4o 26  33 35 35 33 40  Criterion Test (38 p o i n t s )  16 12  24 10 22 19  19  15 15 25  28 13 21 12 22 19  13 25 14 14 23 14 27  12  11 13 22 16 24 25  16  29  10 16 15  29 16  26 20 22 17 10 22 12  9  32 23 30  19  18 13 22 18 19  21 25  18  26  16  33 13 17  9  27 26  18  30  IQ  a  89  111 106 107 112 80 108 120 105  92 98  112 107 122 85 112 107 94 110 101 103 121 120 121 112 117 101 134 103 100 124 107 114 Ilk 108 121 99  105 101  126  118  109 126  TABLE V (continued) Stanford Reading Test 29  39 36 37  26 ko 26  37  29  36 38 25 31 32 2k 36 35 39 38 21 31 44 39 18 30 16 28 27 37 kl  36 33 36 37 38  kl 26  43 35 38 31 22 25 32 3k 2k 36  Cooperative Science Test  16 15 19 16  9 16 9 23 7 20 22 12 20 17 7 21 19  2k 22 12 20 23 18 17 18 5 11 11 21 28 20 13 16 16 21  Criterion Test 16 19  23 23 13 22 21 27 18 19  30  16 16  11 20 18 23 28 8 19  31 23 23 16  6 20 17 18 36 19  16  26  16 19  30 30 32 18 30 22 26 21 18 16  16  27 10 17  28 14 25 7 19  17 10 25 9  105 101 121 118 86 128 105 133 87 117 124 101 105 111 10k 118 109 119 105 90 110 10k 111 95 110 82 93 104 103 125 104 95 113 119  105 126  101 134  18  aotls Self-Administering Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Intermediate Examination.  106  99 110 103 110 114 117 108 123  51  TABLE VI CHRISTMAS SCIENCE MARKS, CRITERION TEST SCORES, AND COOPERATIVE TEST SCORES FOR TWO SCIENCE 10 CLASSES, KING EDWARD HIGH SCHOOL  Class C (n=28) Christmas Criterion mark score 103  104  117  150 126 116 58 99 42 90 75 125 79  80  55 104 74 139 111 76  103  86 90 110 106  87  124 121  Mean  98.25  Class G (n==27)  Cooperative score 18  17 32 16  21 22 25 16  24 4  16  21 36  18  16 13 17  23  14  18 17 29 20 11  18 8 20 22  53 60 110 76  81  109  24 16 19 25 15 21 25  13 18  16  20 24 14 15  18 e  66  71  22  24  20 l8  72 80  99 110 111 94 88  27  16  92 57  16 21 15 11 19 12 13  29  30  Christmas Criterion mark score  18.04  78 87  30 118 90 102 79 41 64  22 20 20 22 16  18 18 16 28 7 15 26 12  16  26 16  14  19 16  18 27 28 19  23 14 18  Cooperative score 23  11 13 10  18 17 11 14 24 14 12 19 15 13 16 16 16  23 7 14 21 24 14 14 10  18  71  17  14  81.20  18.91  15.59  TABLE V I I ITEM DIFFICULTIES AND FERGUSON T»S FOR PRELIMINARY FORM A OF THE CRITERION TEST, BASED ON A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 100 PAPERS Item d  e_  f  63  75  28  35  .18  .27  .31  .1*5  -.05  34  66  75  93  62  Ferguson r  .29  .47  .57  .23  Difficulty  39  67  67  Ferguson r  .28  .32  .10  Difficulty* Part I  Ferguson r  Difficulty Part I I  Part I I I  t o  '  a  b  39  78  .54  h  I  1  35  20  70  .08  .21  .38  .48  62  69  52  58  75  .32  .62  .63  .24  81  85  87  66  47  41  .48  ,k5  .29  .42  .20  .42  -  £  .38  .31  aper Sent of sample p a s s i n g the i t e m , •»_  C a l c u l a t e d f r o m f o r m u l a on page 27. VJl PO  TABLE V I I I ITEM DIFFICULTIES AND FERGUSON r 'S FOR PRELIMINARY FORM B OF THE CRITERION TEST, BASED ON A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 1 0 0 PAPERS Item  Difficulty Part I  1  Ferguson r°  Part I I  Part I I I  a  a.  b  84  67  .40  Difficulty  63  Ferguson r  .27  Difficulty Ferguson r  81  d  e_  f  87  7 3  95  85  . 3 9 .16  .I4  . 3 2 . 2 2 .29  i  59  1*1  kS  62  3 1  39  .36  .20  .05  .50  .46  .43  .32  .45  .22  73  28  33  78  60  29  67  46  .19  .06  .23  .1|2  .1*2  .27  .32  .48  ^ C a l c u l a t e d f r o m f o r m u l a on page 2 7 .  1  1+9  44  P e r c e n t of sample p a s s i n g the i t e m .  k  «47  60  5 1  1  . 3 8 «34  33  5 8  32  h  1+3  5 0  .28  44  .27  .28 . 3 5  APPENDIX B I.  DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE STANDARDIZED TESTS, The t e s t s to be given are; 1, Test 1 of the Stanford Achievement Test i . e . paragraph Meaning 2« Part III of the Cooperative Science Test i . e . Comprehension and Int e rpret at ion  The working time of each t e s t i s 25 minutes. These instructions were prepared so that both t e s t s could be given i n a single 55-minute period. If the t e s t s are given i n a single period, the examiner must be thoroughly f a m i l i a r with the directions and very e f f i c i e n t i n carrying them out. Distribute the Stanford t e s t s and the  answer.sheets,  "You w i l l be given two t e s t s t h i s period. The second test w i l l be distributed while you are working on the f i r s t . Do not open the second test u n t i l you are t o l d to do so. Do not put any marks on either test booklet„ You are provided with an answer sheet, Write your name and d i v i s i o n on the answer sheet now. Unfold the t e s t so that pages 2, 3j and U face upward. Read the sample at the top of page 2..., The correct answer to #51 i s "brother" so put a "2" on the answer sheet after #51, S i m i l a r l y , since "up" i s the answer to #52, put a "7" after #52, You are to do. .only Test 1 - Paragraph Meaning. Are there any questions?... Begin", Record starting time. Check to see that a l l pupils are using the answer sheets and are answering by number. Pass q u i e t l y around the room d i s t r i b u t i n g the Co-op t e s t . Watch for pupils opening the second test before they are t o l d to do so. At the end of 25 minutes,. "Stop I Fold your booklets, place to one side with the cover page up. Turn to page 11 of the other t e s t . . . . Notice that the choices i n question 1 are ' a l l marked 1-, When writing your answer on the answer sheet, use only the second part of the number. Do not put any marks i n the test booklet. You are to do only part III of t h i s t e s t . Any question**?.,. .Begin," Arrange 'the answer sheets a l p h a b e t i c a l l y .  II.  DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERBTG SCIENCE READING TEST FOR GRADE IX  The test is"designed to measure a student's a b i l i t y to read science text-book material. The working time for the complete test i s 48 minutes. Preliminary experiments indicate that the average student has ample time to attempt every item. However, to avoid having some pupils waste too much time on d i f f i c u l t questions, the supervisor w i l l announce when the students should begin each p a r t . The scores w i l l be meaningful only i f the t e s t i s c a r e f u l l y administered according to i n s t r u c t i o n s . Some students w i l l be tempted to look at a neighbour's paper. An a l e r t examiner can reduce t h i s source of error to a minimum. As booklets are being d i s t r i b u t e d , instruct students to f i l l i n the information requested on the cover page and warn them to wait for further i n s t r u c t i o n s . Allow about one minute after l a s t student receives h i s paper. Then read directions on cover page aloud. "Are there any questions?" . . . .  "Begin reading."  Record exact time and complete Time Record below. Each step of arithmetic should be double-checked. Make the announcements at the appro-  priate times. The examiner i s requested not to answer any question concerning the test after the pupils begin reading. Time Record hr  Date min.-Start of test  0  Number of pupils  '  4r ( O -"Begin Part II now i f you have not yet started  it."  -"Begin Part III now i f you have not yet started i t . "  -V- 14-  mim. -"Begin Part 17 now i f you have not yet started i t . "  hr.  min. -"Stop w o r k i n g ! . . . Have you completed the cover page information?". C o l l e c t booklets at once.  — 4-3 rn.'n. hr.  min. -(should check with s t a r t i n g time)  Arrange papers a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . Please return a l l material, i . e . completed t e s t s , unused t e s t s , d i r e c t i o n s for administering.  APPENDIX C I»  SCPENCE READING TEST FOR GRADE DC  DO• NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SOI •Name  School  ,,  Are you taking Science 10 t h i s year? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boy or G i r l Father's occupation  ..."  Age  .......  Yrs,  l-ios.  Directions; i' i  •  F i l l In the information asked for above...  v •  Wait for further i n s t r u c t i o n s .  This i s a .test of your a b i l i t y to-'understand, the kinds of material that you would find i n - a science text-book. You have been .chosen to take part- i n t h i s experiment along with Grade 9 pupils from other Vancouver schools. Since t h i s i s not a speed t e s t , most of you w i l l have more than enough time to t r y a l l the questions. To make sure that, you do not spend too much time on any p a r t , your supervisor w i l l announce when you should be starting each p a r t . However.' i t i s not necessary to wait for these announcements.  There are four parts to the test.. Read each.selection c a r e f u l l y and then answer the questions which follow the s e l e c t i o n , You may refer back to the passage i f you wish. Work right through to the end of the t e s t . t r y again the questions 3 ou missed,. 1  When.you f i n i s h , go back and  r  Most•of the questions..are i n the multiple-choice form and you are asked to put the number of the best answer i n the space'provided. If you are not sure of the answer to a question, ivrite down the number of the., choice which seems most l i k e l y .  No questions  will  be permitted after the test begins.  Part I  ~2~  SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS  ^;':;-  ;  :  A synopsis of weather conditions i s made four times each day at a l l weather stations i n Canada. These SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS are..taken .at times, which correspond to U:30 a.m., 10:30 a.m., ij.:30 p.m., and 10:30 p.m. i n the Pacific'time zone. Information i s forwarded from each centre concerning a i r pressure, highest . .,and. lowest., temperatures, ...direction and'speed.,of wind, • humidity,' clouds, ..visibility, and amount of r a i n f a l l or snowfall. These reports are sent as quickly as possible .•from. the, observation station ..by .radio, ..telephone-or '-telegraph,- whichever i s the most convenient. Eventually, the synoptic observations are compiled for the preparation, of .a. weather map. Now.-:we• shall.see• how, the-forecaster i s able<to put a l l the facts sent.from an individual observation centre into a tiny space about the size of a ten-cent piece. ;  MAKING THE WEATHER MAP  ... ....; - • vl, j  At the forecast office, the teletype service brings i n synoptic observations at a. rate of one. report. every 10 seconds. -The observer how becomes a "plotter" and begins to assemble the details of a WEATHER MAP — a summation of weather conditions as reported from several hundred weather stations. The type of weather map used i n Canadian forecast centres is, about 30 inches square arid printed with the. bare outline of "the principal rivers, lakes> and mountain-ranges of North America.together with large portions of-the Atlantic-and Pacific Ocean. •.-.:.•'. :  68  Ja-J  209  52  ';:'. '•'..•  , :'•  Station Gircle •symbols •  '. "  (a) Sky cover by clouds 2$% (b) Barometric pressure 1020.9 millibars ".'....'" (The-decimal- point and digits standing for . '." hundreds are.emitted ..on. the weather-, map,) Cc) Type of low cloud (cumulus)., (d) Dew point i n degrees Fahrenheit (e) West wind, 2$ miles per hour (f) Temperature i n degrees Fahrenheit :  ••••'.':•'.  ;  Each weather observation station i s indicated on the weather map by a " c i r c l e 0 — the station c i r c l e , as i t i s called at the forecast centre. The plotter assembles the information which he has received using certain symbols and numerals i n definite positions inside and around the station c i r c l e . For instance, consider the simple scheme used on a weather map to indicate the direction and speed of the wind at a certain station. The direction from which the wind i s blowing i s shown by a line emerging from the c i r c l e . At the end of the l i n e , one or more symbols are drawn to represent the wind velocity. Each whole barb or "feather" means 10 miles per hour; a half-barb means half that amount or 5 miles an hour; a solid "triangle" means 3>0 miles per hour. A combination of these symbols can be used to show any wind speed.  -3.  a. Which one of the following words could best be used instead of » "synoptic"? (Put the number of the best answer i n the space provided at the right.) 1. simultaneous 2„ observed 3» suimnariaing 4 weather ....... (a) #  b.  Use the "station c i r c l e " below to show"exactly how the following data would be plotted on a weather map. Do not use any labels, l e t t e r s , or symbols except those which would appear on the map, -  north wind, 15 miles per hour sky cover 50%, cumulus clouds dew point 40 °F. temperature 75°F» barometer 1015»5 millibars  Go on to Part I I  D  FORMULAS GIVE COMPOSITION OF COMPOUNDS Every compound has a definite chemical composition. When ve know what kinds of elements are present i n a compound^ i t s composition can be represented quite simply. Since elements can be shown by symbols, then compounds (which are made of elements joined chemically) can be shown-by united groups of symbols'•called • CHEMICAL FORMULAS, 'Consider table .salt,.-. acompoundLriiade up of -two elements--' sodium and chlorine: Na i s the symbol for sodium, CI i s the -symbol f o r chlorine, -Nad i s 'the formula for*'sodium: chloride (stable s a l t ) . This formula shows that each b i t of common salt which exists as a substance i s made of 1 atom of sodium chemically united t o 1 atom o f chlorine, • When we'remember that each'particle of a substance that, can exist by i t s e l f is. a- molecule then we w i l l realize a formula is an arrangement 'of symbols' standing for a molecule of a compound, • •• ;  P  Hydrogen Atom  Nitrogen Atom  3 Oxygen Atoms  N i t r i c Acid Molecule Symbols-  Subscript  FORMULA  The formula of a compound t e l l s the proportions of each element which have joined to make the chemical substance. When a molecule of a compound has more' than, one' atom of ah element i n i t s composition^ the actual number i s shown by small SUBSCRIPTS — whole numbers written s l i g h t l y below and immediately after the symbol for that element. Consider the formula HNO^* It represents a compound called n i t r i c acid and shows that each molecule of that particular acid i s made of 1 atom of hydrogen, 1 atom of nitrogen, and 3 atoms of oxygen. B r i e f l y then, a formula i s an arrangement of symbols and subscripts and stands for a molecule of a particular compound,  ELEMENTS COMBINE IN SIMPLE PROPORTIONS When two elements unite as a compound, that compound i s not necessarily the only one which can be formed from them. Take the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) as an i l l u s t r a t i o n : During burning, carbon usually joins with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (COg), a non-poisonous but suffocating gas. However, during a mine explosion or when a car engine i s l e f t running i n a closed garage, often there i s not enough oxygen present i n the a i r to completely oxidize • the carbon and deadly-poisonous carbon monoxide (CO) i s formed. The distinction between these two compounds i s in the proportions of the elements present in them — CO has 1 atom of oxygen to 1 atom of carbon while CO? has 2 atoms of oxygen to 1 atom of carbon. This simple relationship i s indicated by the names mon (one) oxide and d i (two) oxide„ In 180/4, John Dalton was able to make a generalization based on many similar relationships.. He showed that whenever there are two or more compounds containing the same elements, the weights of the one element which are combined with a fixed weight of the.other have such simple relationships as 2 to 1, or 3 to 1, or 3 to 2, and the l i k e . Later, when he advanced the atomic theory, Dalton said that only whole atoms can unite with one another when compounds are formed. ?  Now we can understand why small whole numbers are used i n the formulas f o r compounds and why we do not encounter such complicated arrangements of symbols and subscripts as CiH or H ] N _ L 0 3 . .  -5-  Put the number of the best answer to each question i n the space provided at the right. Try each question. You may refer to the reading selection but do not waste too much time on any one question, a, A chemical symbol i s used to represent 1, an element 2, a proportion 3o a compound 5• a formula b,  a molecule .....(a)  How many atoms are there i n a molecule of H/jSO^?  c, A subscript gives the number of 1, substances 2 molecules '3. atoms 5. compounds' 0  d,  4,  4,  ....(b) elements  ..(c)  ^SO^ i s a kind of chemical shorthand for sulphuric acid. The letters H, S , and. 0 are. 1, formulas 2, molecules 3o compounds. 4» symbols 5,. elements ...  ••'(d)  e,  How many atoms of oulphur (£•) are there i n a molecule of ^SO^?  (e)  f,  CiO 1, 2, 3, Uo  .g„  i s not used as a chemical formula because carbon and oxygen do not join i n this proportion. in an ordinary chemical change atoms do not divide carbon-dioxide ( C C ^ ) and carbon-monoxide (GO) are the only compounds of carbon and oxygen fractions are harder to work with than whole numbers ,..  Suppose that the formulas given below represent actual substances. Hydrogen (H) and oxygen (0). unite i n the same proportion i n H„0 as i n 1, H0 2 3 H^0 4. HO 5, .(g) 2  h,  0  2  8  A compound i s a combination of 1 symbols 2« chemicals 3, 5, . elements ... .. „ i 0  3  i  e  subscripts .  4,  formulas  (h)  Element i s to symbol as compound'is to 1 proportion 4» . molecule 2, formula 5» atom 3o subscript 0  j.  ,(f)  H^O i s 1„ an element  2  C  a formula  * (i)  3, a mixture  4,  an atonw,(j)-  Go on to Part I I I  Part I I I  -6-  .ABSORPTION EXPLAINED Plants take i n water and dissolved minerals from the s o i l through the walls of their root-hairs. The membranes which l-ine these cells have a special action with regard to substances passing through them. Water w i l l pass through freely,.dissolved salts less freely, and insoluble materials w i l l not pass 'through at a l l , • . '• A demonstration" w i l l show "how water and certain dissolved substances pass through the walls of root-hairs: A solution of corn syrup (glucose) i n water is, held In an inverted thistleVtube.by fastening a. membrane'of parchment paper or pig's bladder over i t s mouth. The glucose represents the thick sap of plant c e l l s and the membrane corresponds to the c e l l walls. After a time, you w i l l notice that'the • l i q u i d has risen i n the' stem of the thistle-tube. When you remeirber that water can move freely through the'membrane, the, rise indicated that more water had passed inward than -had moved, outward, ;  -  Perhaps you have used salt as a weedk i l l e r along a walk.or a driveway. Soon after?the 'salt had been spread around, you. noticed, the-weeds'wilt" and die. In this instance, i t is.apparent that more water passed'outward through the c e l l walls to-wards the salty solution i n the s o i l than, passed inward to the plant.. In both cases, the direction of flow through the c e l l walls was from the dilute solution towards the more concentrated one. Such diffusion' through a'special kind of membrane is- termed OSMOSIS, Osmosis plays an important'part i n t h e . l i f e of plants. Wilted flowers revive i n water b'ecause water passes into their cells'and extends, them. When -too much'chemical f e r t i l i z e r i s placed beside a plant i n the s o i l , i t w i l l , w i l t as water i s taken from i t s c e l l s .  .  Fig. 1  WATER . — y ^ . LEVEL  -£-.'• A=.  GLUCOSE  SL_Jj^^ —-MEMBRANE Showing how water and -dissolved shstances ' pass through c e l l membranes  Thus,- under normal 'conditions, s o i l water diffuses through the walls of roothairs and moves en into near-by root and stem c e l l s . F i n a l l y , i t reaches the plant leaf, where water i s one of the chemical substances needed during photosynthesis. •The movement of liquids' into plants i s usually inward and continuous because most plants have-special'arrangements to get r i d of any water not needed during foodmaking. . . TRANSPIRATION — WATER ELIMINATION PROCESS Water i s one cf the raw materials necessary f o r the manufacture of food materials. In addition, i t acts as a carrier for other raw materials, manufactured products, and wastes throughout the plant. Plants use more water than any other substance. The root system of an averaged-size tree raises an enormous quantity of water from the s o i l . A mature apple tree, f o r example, w i l l l i f t 800 pounds of water out of the ground i n a single day i n the summer. A stalk of corn w i l l raise almost LdxO pounds of water during i t s growing season; while an acre of farm meadow w i l l l i f t more than s i x tons of water during a warm July day.  Plants absorb more water through t h e i r roots than they require for photosynthesis. Only about 2% of the moisture taken into the plant goes into the food needed to b u i l d ' ' and nourish the p l a n t . The remaining 9&% of the moisture taken into the roots i s passed off through the leaves as vapour, Stomata allow t h i s water to pass off from . TRANSPIRED the i n t e r i o r of the l e a f into the a i r . MOISTURE This method of disposing of water i s c a l l e d TRAN3P IRATION . CARDBOARD  LEAF  - WATER  Fife, 2  Transpiration can be shown by placing the stem of a large shoot of a plant such as a geranium, through a hole i n a piece of cardboard b i g enough to cover a d r i n k - , ing glass; The glass i s f i l l e d with water and a second tumbler inverted over the leaf. In a short time, de\i w i l l appear on the inside of the upper g l a s s — t h i s represents moisture which has been evaporated into the a i r from the- plants as transpired water.  Put the number of the best answer to each question i n the space provided at the r i g h t . Try each question. You may refer to the reading selection but do not waste too much time on any one question.  a.  b.  F i g , ,2 i s a drawing of an.experiment which shows that 1, sunlight provides energy for food-making i n a plant 2, a plant absorbs more water through i t s roots than i t requires for food-making 3, water r i s e s by c a p i l l a r y action i n the stems of plants 4* a d i l u t e solution diffuses through c e l l walls into a concentrated solution .5, a concentrated solution diffuses through c e l l walls, into a d i l u t e solution , . ...... .....(a) Elimination i s related t o t r a n s p i r a t i o n as absorption i s to 1, raw materials 4. osmosis 2, c a p i l l a r y action "5, diffusion 3, photosynthesis -  Salt can be used as a .weed-killer because 1, i t has l i t t l e food value 2, i t causes the loss of plant f l u i d s , 3. i t i s poisonous i n large amounts 4. i t stops osmosis 5. it. clogs the p l a n t ' s membranoo . . . . . . . d,  2.  A d i l u t e solution i s often 1. watery 2.' saturated  3,  salty  4,  (b)  '(c) impure  5.  thick Turn' Over  A -  -8e.  f.  g.  Osmosis i s the process by which a plant 1. gets r i d of.excess water 4, makes i t s food 2. takes i n carbon-dioxide 5.• breathes 3. obtains,, c e r t a i n raw materials .In the experiment shown i n f i g . 1, the water r i s e s i n the tube because 1. . a i r pressure holds up the water 2. c a p i l l a r y action- draws up the water 3. the membrane i s porous. ' . • 4. the glucose s o l u t i o n is'more d i l u t e than the- water 5. the water i s more d i l u t e than the glucose s o l u t i o n ......... On a warm July day, about how many mature apple trees would - .absorb as much moisture as an acre of farm meadow? 1. f i v e : 2. ten. 3. . f i f t e e n . 4. twenty 5. none of these  A plant's heeds are u s u a l l y best supplied when the s o i l water i s 1. •.pure. '• 4. a concentrated s o l u t i o n 2, s a l t y 5, a saturated s o l u t i o n .. ;. . 3. a d i l u t e s o l u t i o n .  •(e) _ !  (0 (g)  h.  3 (h)  Go on t o Part PI PART IV WORK Many of us use the word- "work" without'understanding i t s real, meaning. I f you push on some object and succeed i n making i t move, then — and only then you have done WORK. Thus i f you l i f t a book, climb up s t a i r s , or push on the pedals of your b i c y c l e , you are doing work. Or, as the s c i e n t i s t s put i t , whenever a force i s exerted and something Is moved, then work has been done, This means that you could exert a l l your strength In t r y i n g to budge a heavy piano, but unless i t vas a c t u a l l y moved, a s c i e n t i s t would say that no work was done, STATES OF ENERGY' S c i e n t i s t s define energy as the capacity f o r doing work. A l l energy i s eitherk i n e t i c or p o t e n t i a l . The energy of matter i n motion i s c a l l e d k i n e t i c ; the energy stored i n matter i s p o t e n t i a l . Only k i n e t i c energy can be put to immediate usej p o t e n t i a l energy must be changed in-some way t o the k i n e t i c state before i t can-do u s e f u l work,.... t  POTENTIAL ENERGY — ENERGY IN RESERVE An object may have the a b i l i t y to do work because of i t s p o s i t i o n . A package on the kitchen, s h e l f has energy associated with i t , as you may d i s c o v e r . i f i t f a l l s on your head. As long as the package stays unmoved on the s h e l f , the term POTENTIAL ENERGY may be used t o describe the state of i t s energy — the word " p o t e n t i a l " meaning stored or i n reserve. A stone weighing 5 pounds and on the edge of a 5 0 - f o o t - c l i f f has enough p o t e n t i a l energy t o do 250 foot-pounds of work because of i t s p o s i t i o n . Water stored behind a dam-also has p o t e n t i a l energy since i t i s i n p o s i t i o n to do work when allowed t o f a l l . Huge dams have been b u i l t , i n many parts  _  -9of the world to store run-off water when i t i s p l e n t i f u l . These reservoirs hold i t as potential energy which can e a s i l y be changed to k i n e t i c energy as i t i s needed. Bending, t w i s t i n g , stretching, or compressing materials often gives them potential energy that can be used to do work. A stretched rubber band i s an ,examplej i t can .do .work upon i t s e l f or on things ,it strikes when one end i s suddenly released, A similar demonstration can be done with a clock spring. As you. wind the clock mechanism, you give the spring a store of energy. This p o t e n t i a l energy i s gradually expended as the spring unwinds and turns wheels inside the clock, . In a l i k e manner, a bent bow has a reserve of energyj i t s sudden release causes an arrow to f l y through the a i r . Compressed a i r provides yet another instance of energy being held in reserve. As the a i r is released from i t s container, i t can be made to operate pneumatic hammers or d r i l l s , . . . .  . . .  . . . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  *  .  Because of i t s chemical composition, a s t i c k of dynamite has p o t e n t i a l energy. On exploding, the compounds within the stick undergo chemical.changes and i t s stored energy i s released with great v i o l e n c e . S i m i l a r i l y , fuels such as wood, c o a l , o i l and gasoline .possess potential energy which can be released by burning them. The potential energy held in a material because of i t s composition i s c a l l e d , . chemical energy. Like f u e l s , the foods which we eat contain the necessary potential chemical energy to enable us to exert muscular force for movement and.other useful work. S c i e n t i s t s have found that a l l atoms have a kind of p o t e n t i a l energy beqause of t h e i r i n t e r n a l structure. This atomic energy seems.to be locked within each nucleus and i n recent years, physicists have learned how to .obtain i t s p a r t i a l release from such atoms as thorium, uranium, and plutonium. Perhaps as more i s learned about the forces within atoms, we s h a l l be able to make a better use of . t h i s p o t e n t i a l for the benefit of mankind. Objects at rest may be capable of doing work because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n or composition. However, the p o t e n t i a l energy of such things a s ' c o i l e d springs, stores of water, foods or f u e l s , must be changed to the k i n e t i c type before work. can be.accomplished, KINETIC -ENERGY — -ENERGY OF MOTION The energy of motion i s c a l l e d KINETIC ENERGY. Kinetic energy can be described as the a b i l i t y to do work because of i t s motion or the movement of i t s p a r t s . A . thrown baseball has k i n e t i c energy because i t can do work upon any object i t '.might h i t , Man uses various kinds o f water-wheels and turbines to u t i l i z e the energy of running water.and make i t do work for him. Winds, c i r c u i t s with e l e c t r i c a l currents flowing i n them, and f a l l i n g hammers are other instances of things.which possess k i n e t i c energy they .exert .forces because .they ,are in.motion. This energy .of motion i s sometimes referred to as mechanical energy.  Put the number of the best answer to each question i n the space provided at the r i g h t . Try each question. You may refer to the reading selection but do not waste too much time on any one question. a.  b,  From what height i n feet must a 4-pound weight drop to. do 12 of work?  foot-pounds •. (a)  A clock which has just been wound .but i s not going has 1, no energy 4, potential and k i n e t i c energy. . 2 , k i n e t i c energy only 5 , mechanical energy .......(b) 3, p o t e n t i a l energy only  *^ ^ 3_  (  -10-  c. Which one of the following' i s an example of kinetic energy? 1, a bent bow 4. a stick of dynamite 2, a river' • ' 5. none'of these ....... 3, a.truck parked on a h i l l d, . Work i s being done when 1. a person'pushes against something 2. an object moves 3. a.-force i s exerted 4. a force causes motion 5. an object has energy A wood-pile contains 1. chemical•energy 2. kinetic energy 3. me c han ic a l . e ne r gy f,  .(d)  4. physical energy 5. no energy  Wnich one of the following i s an example of potential energy? .1. water'flowing through a turbine 2. a' boy running do\m stairs 3. ' a generator producing e l e c t r i c i t y 4. a motor operating a fan ' 5. none of these .. Mechanical energy is'also 1. chemical- energy ' 2. ' atomic energy 3» e l e c t r i c a l energy  • (c)  4. potential -energy 5. none of these ',.,  h. . Which one of the following' phrases describes a type of ' energy which i s different from a l l of the others? 1. stored energy 4. energy due to position 2. energy due to motion 5. energy i n reserve ..... 3. energy due to composition  *  4  •(e) — 1  •(f)  _A  .(g)  :  •(h)  i . -'An object at' rest has both kinetic and potential energy • 2. neither kinetic nor potential energy 3. no kinetic energy '4'. ho potential energy 5.' no energy of any kind What kind of people have" "capacity for doing work" from the s c i e n t i f i c point of view? . . •1, a l l people ... 2. intelligent people ' 3. people who l i k e to work 4. people who do not t i r e easily 5. strong people k. Which one .of", the following, phrases does not belong with the others? 1. chemical energy ' 4. potential energy 2. atomic energy' ' '5. e l e c t r i c a l energy 3. mochanical energy  .(j)  (k)  4  'Go back and t r y questions' which you missed.  Scoring Specifications f o r Part I (items b - i ) , Science Reading Test f o r Grade IX ~" b.  1 point f o r north d i r e c t i o n c o r r e c t l y shown.  c.  1 point f o r two barbs, the short one not more than three-quarters of the length of the longer. not  acceptable  acceptable  U d.  1 point f o r any half of s t a t i o n c i r c l e or shaded. not  cross-hatched  acceptable  pint f o r correct symbol f o r cumulus cloud anywhere between the dotted l i n e s . Exception;; When symbol was placed i n 9 o'clock p o s i t i o n and temperature and pressure \ figures also displaced by 90°, / then 1 point f o r cumulus cloud but no c r e d i t f o r "positioning"\ / see (h) below. \ /  .O  f.  1 point f o r kO. (en 1 point f o r 155.  .15.5  No c r e d i t f o r kO, kO P, kO degrees. No c r e d i t f o r 155  millibars,  115,  h.  1 point f o r the three numerical quantities i n the correct quadrants, or, i f one symbol omitted, f o r two quantities i n the correct quadrants.  i.  1 point f o r not l a b e l l i n g the symbols i n any way. Exception; i f s t a t i o n model i s obviously not f i n i s h e d , no c r e d i t .  T  TEST 2  T  Stanford Advanced R e a d i n g : J u  T  Word  Meaning  In each exercise decide which of the four numbered words will complete the sentence best. Look at the number of this word. Mark the answer space at the right which is numbered the same as the word you have chosen. Study the samples.  DIRECTIONS:  £ VMPLES:  '  61  The day that comes after Friday is —  62  To draw on a blackboard, use a piece of —  1  2 Tuesday 3 Saturday  5 pencil  6 straw  4 Sunday si  7 eraser  8 chalk 52  Mary Smith and John Doe are cousins if they have the same — 1 grandmother  2  1 Monday  2 mother  Marvelous means— 5 pleasant  3 sister  .. 5  4 daughter  6 distant  7 wonderful  T E S T 2 Word Meaning 2 3  2 4 2 5  2 6  2 7  1 8 great. . ...  o lash is to — 1 deceive 2 whip 3 destroy 4 waste * Anyone over 21 years old is — 5 a graduate 6 an adult 7 a major " f you can identify a butterfly, you can — 1 exhibit it 2 stuff it 3 mount it 4 recognize it. Something you must do, such as paying taxes, is — 5 a custom 6 a sacrifice 7 a duty 8 an opportunity Height, weight, and temperature are all — 1 distances 2 visible 3 feelings 4 measurements Groceries arranged to attract customers are — 5 displays 6 campaigns 7 evidence 8 bargains 3 ri  2  .3 8 a patriot 4  2 8  2 9  6  5  3 0 3 1  e 3 2  7  :..7  3 3  8  9  10 11  12 3  14  15 16  To attempt a job is to — 1 condemn it  2 oppose it  3 imagine it  Things which are much alike are — 5 equal 6 handsome A small thing given as evidence of good faith is a — 1 petition 2 spindle 3 token 4 goblet  s  4 undertake it 9  7 similar  8 opposite 10 n  A person elected to office should be — 5 confused 6 pitied 7 capable \yhen you don't sense anything which is going on about you, you are — 1 unconscious 2 sullen 3 prosperous 4 sensible The group of men who run a business are its — 5 managers 6 customers 7 salesmen 8 engineers  3 4 3 5  3 6  37  8 noble 12 3 8  13 3 9  ...u  Saving money for a "rainy day" is — 1 likable 2 industrial 3 fearful 4 advisable is People who write letters to each other •— 5 correspond 6 translate 7 interrupt 8 interview is  The dead body of a wild animal is a — 1 vestige 2 carcass 3 corpuscle 4 corruption n 18 When you have learned your next lesson well, you are — 5 mistaken 6 prepared 7 discouraged 8 educated is Any statement about which there is question is — 1 vagrant 2 elastic 3 appreciable 4 debatable. -. .13 ' When a person repeatedly fails at something he wants to do, he may become — 5 buoyant 6 frustrated 7 fruitless 8 drenched Something written about or talked about is T-. ' • j 1 a token 2 a topic 3 a title 4 an article 21 If you have made up your mind about something, you have —; 5 a conviction 6 an investigation 7 a sermon 8 a doubt 22 17  4 0  4 1  4 2  4 3 4 4  19  4 5  2  21  4 6  Stanford Advanced Readin  (Continued)  Clothing of any kind is called— 1 woolens  2 apparel  Go on to the next page.  4 draperie  Money wasted foolishly is — 5 proffered 6 severed .7 scandalized 8 squander© If everybody agrees upon a plan, the agreement is— j 1 unanimous 2 moderate 3 proportional 4 conscientious............ An individual who insists upon doing things his way only is — • . \ 5 nimble 6 obstinate 7 kingly 8 towering.. j When a man seeks a position with a certain firm, he becomes — . 1 an applicant 2 a suitor 3 a petitioner 4 a contractor .....! A dramatic event in a story is called — 5 an epistle 6 a nucleus 7 a novelette 8 an episode. \ ......! "She has a good chance to recover" means that improvement is — 1 certain 2 assured 3 impossible 4 probable. A difficulty to be overcome is — 5 an obstacle 6 a miracle 7 a vehicle 8 a barnac), The way an army executes its campaigns is called its —1 enmity 2 eclipse 3 tactics 4 treatise... A beginner in some sport is — 5 a novice 6 a professional 7 a private 8 an assailaij In a story meant to teach something, the teaching is called the — 1 fable 2 myth 3 plot 4 moral  STANFORD A C H I E V E M E N T TEST  FORM  J M  T R U M A N L . K E L L E Y • R I C H A R D M A D D E N • ERIC F . G A R D N E R • LEWIS M . T E R M A N • GILES M . R U C H  Advanced Reading Test for Use with Separate  Answer  Sheet  One who works hard is — 5 brazen 6 alluring 7 ancestral 8 diligent. A daily newspaper calls the number of papers it sells each day its — 1 administration 2 attraction 3 circulation 4 introduction Any very long, unpleasant experience is — 5 an ordeal 6 an offense 7 a vigil 8 a seclusion One senator speaks of another senator as his — 1 collector 2 elector 3 colleague 4 chaplain Spotlessly clean clothes are — 5 blanched  6 immaculate  7 stark  8 purge  A small event that is part of a story is — l a plot 2 an epic 3 an incident 4 an ei Any national issue over which there is disagreement is — 5 controversial 6 contraband 7 tabu 8 subversive Corrupt politics are due largely to public — 1 responsiveness 2 antagonism 3 degradation 4 indifference. To destroy something completely is to — 5 detract it 6 distort it 7 annihilate it 8depress.it A very exact measurement i s — 1 absolute 2 concise 3 precise 4 fundamental. The "crossing" of two or more kinds of grain produces — 5 mongrels 6 hybrids 7 formulas 8 chaff An interesting conversationalist often has a store of — 1 denominations 2 anecdotes 3 alibis 4 conveyances Sometimes an opinion on a subject is changed after—5 consternation 6 delegation 7 dissolution 8 deliberation. ..... Stop.  2 2  [ 5 '] .  3 robes  Advanced Reading Test  16 ]  1  Issued 1953 by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois • Copyright 1952 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved, FBIKTED IN U.&A. SAT : ADV.  BEAD. :  This test is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.  m-r  Stanford Advanced Reading: JM  Stanford A d v a n c e d R e a d i n g : J M  T E S T l Paragraph  Meaning  2*  Read each paragraph below. Decide which one of the numbered words at the right is best for each blank, and then mark the answer space which is numbered the same as the word you have chosen. Study the sample below, and answer the other questions in the same way.  DIRECTIONS:  SAMPLE  : I am shorter than my sister and taller than my brother. 51 This morning we stood beside one another. I looked down at my 51 and 52 t my sister. .52 a  The children went to the circus. They saw elephants and monkeys and many other animals. There were many clowns and lots of popcorn and peanuts. The children said that they wished a 1 would come every day.  1 friend 3 sister  2 brother 4 feet  5 around  6 back 8 down  7 up  1  2-3 The gold used for jewelry is mixed with another metal, usually copper. Pure gold is very soft, and jewelry made of it would not wear well. Therefore, copper or some other 2 is mixed with the gold to make it 3 Insects that fly at night often make mistakes. It may be that they cannot tell the light of the moon from that given by an open fire. Sometimes these . fly into a 5 and are killed. 4 - 5  4  I go to bed at seven o'clock. Bob stays up until eight. We both rise at seven o'clock in the morning. Bob sleeps an hour 6 than I do.  1 parade 3 circus  2 clown 4 monkey  1 metal 3 material  2 mineral 4 chemical  5 brighter 7 softer  6 prettier 8 harder  1 animals 3 moths  2 insects 4 birds  5 window 7 flame  6 house 8 car  6  1 longer 3 later  2 more 4 less  T E S T 1 Paragraph  Meaning  (Continued)  T E S T l Paragraph  The dog, first domesticated during the Old Stone Age, great m i 2 Stone Age belongs to the same family as the wolf, jackal, and fox. It 16 gration American 4 First World is believed that some breeds of dogs resulted from crossing two revolution War of these three animals, but perhaps not all dogs had the same 5 jaguar 6 lynx ancestors. .Many breeds have developed since the 16 17 7 jackal 8 puma It is hard to see anything of the 17 in the barkless dog of the North American Indians, or any kinship between the is 9 badger 10 antelope 11 leopard 12 wolf 18 and the cocker spaniel. ^VIT-IS  19-20 Ventriloquism is the art of making sounds so that they appear to come from a distance rather than from the speaker's own mouth. It is an ancient 19 . and many authorities believe that various phenomena such as the Greek oracles and the Egyptian speaking statues owe their explanation to the practice of 20 by the priests. 21-22 Crude oil from wells in Texas and other Western states is now transported in pipes to refineries in such distant states as California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Pumping stations are located 25 to 40 miles apart along each pipe line. From storage tanks near the wells the oil passes into the 21 and is 22 to the refineries.  i g  20  2 1  22  A common example of a chemical reaction is the rusting 23 of iron. A gas called oxygen which is present in the air combines with the silvery metal iron to form a reddish brown 24 substance known in chemistry as ferrous oxide, but commonly called 23 . This substance is quite different from either 25 the 24 or the 25 which combined to form it.  1 science 3 custom  2 art 4 event  5 deceit 7 prophecy  6 mystery 8 ventriloquism  1 tankers 3 tank cars  2 pipe lines 4 oil trucks  5 shipped 7 hauled  6 tricked 8 pumped  1 iron 3 copper  2 oxygen 4 rust  5 iron 7 rust  6 copper 8 gas  9 oxide  11 air  A few years ago most freight was carried by railroad trains. Now such things as furniture and even automobiles are sent across country on trucks. Goods sent by 10 can go only where H have been laid, but goods sent by 12 can reach any point to which a 13 runs. io-n-12-13  2 run  clip kill  4 feed  pounds lambs  6 sheep 8 pelts  9 skin 11 fleece  10 hide 12 cotton  10  1 truck 3 freight  2 rail 4 express  11  5 roads 7 tracks  6 paths 8 highways  12  9 truck 11 freight  10 rail 12 express  13  13 drive 15 track  14 trail 16 road  14-15 A long time ago the people of Peru did not know how to write. In order to count, they tied knots in threads of differ- * ent colors. Each color meant a different kind of thing. The 15 14 in a thread stood for the things being 15 . [ 2 1 .  4  1 knots 3 loops  2 colors 4 twists  5 counted 7 written  6 named 8 used  Go on to the next page.  2 g  Architectural styles are the result of social, technical, and environmental factors. The flat-roofed houses of the Egyptians and the Aztecs were practical because of dry climates. This illustrates the 27 factor. For heavy structures both peoples used the pyramid, rather than beams, 28 buttresses, girders, etc. This illustrates the 28 factor. The decorations of these two peoples were widely different because of traditions and aesthetic standards. This illustrates 29 the>-^ 29 factor. 17-28-29  2 7  The windward side of a great mountain chain has plenty30 of rainfall, whereas the regions on its lee are more arid. This difference is due to the fact that when prevailing winds strike 31 high mountains, precipitation occurs and relatively little moisture is carried over the crest. Thus, the regions lying on the 30 side of mountain chains are better suited to 31 32 32 than those protected from the [3 ] 30-31-32  (Continued)  A dinosaur called "stegosaurus" had a brain-like nerve center inside his skull, and another,- larger one in the region 33 of the pelvis. This latter controlled the reptile's heavy tail, which was armed with horn-like spines. Because of the dominance of the rear 33 , scientists jokingly ask whether the 34 wagged his tail, or vice versa. 33-34  3 4  35  Much of the history of man might be written in terms of ocean currents. The warm Gulf Stream contributes so much to the temperatures of England and northern Europe 36 that if somehow it could be cut off, the region of the British Isles would be nearly uninhabitable. The mass of frigid arctic water helps bend the 35 to take a 36 direction and is 37 itself prevented from reaching the 37  10 oxygen 12 moisture  1 Pennsylvania 3 captivity  1 environmental 3 social 5 environmental 7 social  3 +  2 custody  ,4 civilization  1 windward 3 southern  6 defense 5 mining 7 agriculture 8 sheep raising  Symbiosis is a very interesting biological phenomenon. It is the intimate living together of two different forms of life. For example, the Yucca, a desert plant, has its pollen carried from oneflowerto another by the Yucca moth only. This 43 moth lays its eggs in a Yucca seed pod; the eggs hatch; the larvae eat some seeds and nothing else; they turn into moths, get covered with pollen,flyto a second Yucca blossom, carrying the 44 pollen and fertilizing the seeds of the second plant. Thus 43 . The scientific term for wonderful cases like this is 44  9 westerlies 10 northerlies 11 hurricanes 12 prevailing winds  Go on to the next page.  2 Polar Current 4 Atlantic  5 northward 6 westerly -7 n o r t h 8 southeasteasterly erly 9 Gulf Stream 1-1 British Isles  10 Atlantic 12 Newfound^ land Coast  1 put seeds 2 put seeds into the into ground clouds 3 make seeds 4 make rain mature  43-44  2 northern 4 front  1 Gulf Stream 3 Japan Current  Unusual meanings are sometimes attached to words. For 40 as long as we have a record, "seeding" has meant putting seeds into the ground to grow into mature plants. " Cloud seeding " is an attempt to 40  3 9  8 common  9 environ- 10 technical mental 11 social 12 c o m m o n  5 reptile 6 mastodon 7 man-eater 8 m a m m a l  1 radical 2 subversive 3 unfamiliar 4 entertainto the ing critic  6 technical  4 common  3 pelvis  2 nerve center 4 head  The noun radical comes from the Latin word for root. A radical is something fundamental, or at the root of things. One who wishes to upset the government is a radical because he wishes to make fundamental changes. In chemistry the fundamental parts of a compound are radicals. Recently a 38 critic of radicalism denounced a professor's book entitled " Organic Radicals in the Presence of Catalysts." It is reasonable to assume that the subject matter of the book was 38 . A dictionary would inform one that catalysts are chemical agents and not foreign agents. The critic should conclude that the book was 39 .  41-42 Myths are' imaginary tales and have for their heroes gods and goddesses. In fables animals talk and have the char- 41 acteristics of human beings. Apollo, the sun-god, figures prominently in many Greek 41 . The story of the " Dog 42 in the Manger " is one of the most familiar '42  2 technical  1 spines  38-39  40  2 6  7-8-9 Wool is clipped from live sheep by a process called shearing. The entire mat offleecefrom each animal comes off in a single piece. With electric clippers one man can 1 from 150 to 200 8 a day. After shearing, the 9 is rolled up and sent to the mill.  Meaning  35-36-37  23-24-26  During the French and Indian War more than one hundred English colonists were captured by the Indians at Deerfield, Massachusetts, and taken into the forest. Later, some were rajisomed but many refused to return to 26  Stanford Advanced Reading: JM  [4 ]  5 about 6 un-Ameriastronomy can 7 subversive 8 about chemistry  1 fables 3 myths  2 legends 4 histories  5 myths 7 legends  6 fables 8 anecdotes  1 the m o t h 2 the Yucca helps the helps the Yucca moth 3 each helps 4 eachisnecthe other essary to the other 5 evolution 6 m u t u a l aid 7 symbiotic 8 biologic acunion commodation  Stop. 4 +  EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE  COOPERATIVE SCIENCE TEST FOR GRADES 7, 8, and 9 FORM Y  TEST NUMBER  615-84-1  by  PAUL E. K A M B L Y , University of Oregon with the editorial assistance of P A U L J . B U R K E , Graduate Record Office; C A R L A. P E A R S O N , Southwest High School (Minneapolis); A L B E R T G . R E I L L E Y , Framingham Junior High School; A G A T H A T O W N S E N D , Educational Records Bureau; and J O H N G . Z I M M E R M A N , College of William and Mary  Please print: Name  Last  First  Grade or Class School  .' Age  '....1...  ..:  Date  Middle  -  Yrs.  r  Date of Birth  Mos.  City  Sex.  Title of the science course you are now taking (for example: General Science) Teacher  —  M. or F.  ..—  —  General Directions: Do not turn this page until the examiner tells you to do so. This examination consists of three parts and requires 80 minutes of working time. The directions for each part are printed at the beginning of the part. Read them carefully and proceed at once to answer the questions. DO N O T S P E N D . T O O M U C H T I M E O N A N Y O N E I T E M . A N S W E R T H E E A S I E R QUESTIONS F I R S T ; then return to the harder ones, if you have time. There is a time limit for each part. You are not expected to answer all questions in any part in the time limit; but if you should, go on to the next part. If you have not finished a p when the time is up, stop work on that part and proceed at once' to the next part. If you finish the last part before the time is up, you may go back and work on any part. No questions may be asked after the examination has begun. You may answer questions even when you are not perfectly sure that your answers are correct, but you should avoid wild guessing, since wrong answers will result in a subtraction from the number of your correct answers. Part  I II III  Minutes  Informational Background  40  Terms and Concepts  15  Comprehension and Interpretation  25  Total  Raw Score  Scaled Score  Percentile  80 COOPERATIVE TEST DIVISION Educational Testing Service  Princeton, N. J.  Los Angeles, Calif.  Copyright, 1948, by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. Printed in U. S. A.  - 2 PART I INFORMATIONAL BACKGROUND (40 minutes) Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five choices. Select the one that best completes the statement or answers the question, and put its number in the parentheses at the right. 1.  2.  A man watching the stars notices that stars which were just rising six hours ago are now directly overhead. This effect is caused by the 1-1 rotation of the earth on its axis. 1-2 vast speed of the stars in distant space. 1-3 revolution of the moon about the earth. 1-4 motion of the sun among the stars. 1-5 turning of the stars around the sun as a center . 1(  3^ 3-5  5.  to the 7-1 vitamin content. 7-2 mineral content. 7-3 heat energy released by burning the food. 7-4 dry weight. 7-5 amount of protoplasm it will build. . 7( Niagara Falls is obtained from water by 8-1 evaporating the water. 8-2 distilling the water. 8-3 changing the water chemically. 8-4 making use of the force the water exerts in falling. 8-5 taking electricity from the water. . . 8(  Soft coal heated to a high temperature in the absence of air will yield 9-1 coke. 9-2 petroleum, 9-3 marble, 9-4 lime. 9-5 sodium bicarbonate. . . : 9(  believed that dinosaurs lost out in struggle for existence chiefly because they were killed by man for food, man could not tame them, they were not adapted to changes that took place in the earth's surface and climate. they were not fitted to eat plant food, they had no brains 3(  10.  A blast furnace is used to 10-1 extract aluminum from its ore. 10-2 extract iron from its ore. 10-3 extract gasoline from petroleum, 10-4 produce natural gas. . . . . . . . 10-5 produce coal gas.  10(  Which of the following would tend to increase in number most rapidly if all owls in a locality were killed? 4-1 Field mice 4-2 Robins 4-3 Groundhogs 4-4 Wild ducks 4-5 Quail 4(  11. The planet which takes the longest time to revolve around the sun is 11-1 the earth. 11-2 Mercury. 11-3 Venus. 11-4 Mars. 11-5 Pluto. . . 11(  Which one of the following animals can most easily change his surroundings to fit his needs? 5-1 A whale 5-2 A gorilla 5-3 An elephant 5-4 A man 5-5 A horse . . 5(  12.  Through the entire atmosphere, as one gets farther away from the surface of the earth, the atmosphere 12-1 becomes denser. 12-2 becomes less dense. 12-3 changes continuously in chemical composition. 12-4 becomes bluer in color. 12-5 increases steadily in temperature. . 12(  13.  Fresh 13-1 13-2 13-3 13^1 13-5  The moon exerts a very important influence on 6-1 the tides. 6-2 changes in weather. 6-3 crops. 6-4 the relative lengths of day and night. 6-5 climate; 6(  )  8. Most of the energy used by power plants at  Discoveries that are announced by scientists are likely to be true because 2- 1 scientists are educated people. 2—2 the discoveries are usually based on careful experiments. 2-3 the discoveries are based on natural laws. 2-4 scientists rarely make mistakes. 2-5 scientists know what they are trying to discover s 2( It is their 3- 1 3-2 3-3  4.  7. The caloric rating of food refers specifically  )  water will boil at about 32° Fahrenheit. 68° Fahrenheit. 132° Fahrenheit. 150° Fahrenheit. 212° Fahrenheit. . . ,  13(  )  )  Go on to the next page.  - 11 -  PART i n COMPREHENSION A N D INTERPRETATION  (25 minutes) Directions: This part consists of passages and tables. Following each selection are several items concerning it. Read the passage or examine the table carefully first; then decide which one of the choices given after each item best completes the statement or answers the question. If you cannot decide, you may go back to the selection. After you have decided on the answer to an item, put its number in the parentheses at the right as you did in Parts I and II.  SOME COMMON COMMUNICABLE Disease  1.  2.  DISEASES Early Symptoms  Means of Communication  Chicken Pox  Discharges from nose or throat of patient.  Rash.  Diphtheria  Nose or throat discharges; sometimes infected milk.  Begins like a cold.  Measles  Nose or throat discharges.  Begins like a cold. day.  Mumps  Nose or throat discharges.  Pain in salivary glands.  Scarlet Fever  Discharges from nose, mouth, ears; infected milk.  Begins like a cold. In 24 hours evenly diffused bright red spots appear under skin.  Whooping Cough  Discharges from nose or mouth.  Cough worse at night. 2 weeks.  According to the table above, impure milk is most likely to carry germs of 1-1 measles. 1-2 mumps. 1-3 scarlet fever. 1—4 chicken pox. 1-5 whooping cough 1( Mary was sent home from school with what • seemed like a cold accompanied by a rash. One would be justified in concluding that she probably had 2-1 diphtheria. 2-2 whooping cough. 2-3 mumps. 2—4 tuberculosis. 2-5 some communicable disease; it is impossible to tell which one from the information given. . . . ; 2(  3.  )  4.  )  Reddish spots appear on the third  "Whooping" develops in about  The diseases listed in the table, taken as a whole, are most likely to be spread by - 3-1 spoiled food. 3-2 polluted water. 3-3 air-borne germs. 3—4 unpasteurized milk. 3-5 household pets  3(  One of the most practicable ways, to avoid getting these diseases is to 4-1 stay away from crowds in poorly ventilated rooms. 4-2 eliminate milk from one's diet. 4-3 boil all.drinking water. 4—4 pasteurize all milk., 4-5 screen all windows and-doors 4(  )  )  Go on to the next page.  In 1941 the United States shipped some 150,000 tons of water to Great Britain. This represents the water content (75 to 95%) of the fruits and vegetables that were transported during that year. Removal of this water by dehydration before shipping will make it possible for this tonnage to be used for the transportation of other materials. Modern scientific dehydration preserves theflavorand some 90% of the vitamins of fresh food. In one process the fruits and vegetables are cooked, cooled, pulped, and then sprayed in a thin film on revolving drums, where heat drives off 96% of their water in from ten to twenty seconds. Steam rising rapidly from the food prevents oxidation, as when apples turn brown. The foods most successfully dried in this way are apples, bananas, peaches, peas, squash, and pumpkin; and in the dried state these foods will store well for years. When water is added and the food warmed up (it need not be cooked again), it is ready to be served.  5. The process described by the writer removes most of the water from the food by 5-1 oxidation. 5-2 preservation. 5-3 evaporation. 5—4 transportation. 5-5 cooling 5(  6. The writer of the passage believes that 6-1 many foods should be dehydrated before shipping. 6-2 less food should be transported to Great Britain. 6-3 dehydrated foods contain more vitamins than untreated foods. 6-4 the transportation of other materials is more important than the transportation of food. 6-5 dehydration of foods improves their flavor. . 6(  7. According to the passage, an important reason for drying foods before shipment is to 7-1 increase the amount of water shipped to Great Britain. 7-2 permit greater shipments of other materials. 7-3 prevent apples from turning brown. 7-4 conserve fuel by making it unnecessary to cook foods. 7-5 make the foods more convenient to serve 7(  )  )  )  - 13 -  Figure 1  I A L O N G THE j| W A R M F R O N T |-  —iea-ioo MI  »(;•"  ^  •-••'•)» to N  B  S  T  CUM6  50o  M.—. HCIGNT 4  l' A l O N C THE | COLO FRONT  When air masses are active, storms occur. To a meteorologist a storm does not necessarily mean rain or snow. It is merely an active field of combat where warm air has made a dent in the cold front. This forms a round or oval low-pressure storm area, anywhere from 300 to 2,000 miles in diameter, with the winds revolving around it counterclockwise and spiraling slowly towards the center. Rains sometimes fall along the fronts in this "low" and are carried across the country by the prevailing westerly winds. Along the warm front, the onrushing warm air climbs over and pushes back the wedge of cold  8.  A storm may best be defined as 8-1 a low-pressure area. 8-2 a high-pressure area. 8-3 an area in which the winds are revolving clockwise. 8-4 an area in which the winds are spiraling out from the center. 8-5 an area in which there are violent and destructive winds 8(  air, as is shown in Figure 1. As it rises, it cools and gives up its moisture. Clouds form as billions of tiny water droplets, only about 4 ten-thousandths of an inch across, condense out of the air, and cling to microscopic bits of dust. Then, as the droplets grow in size, they fall and we have rain—or if they freeze on the way down, we have sleet; or if they form crystals of ice while they are still in the cloud, we have snow. Along the cold front, shown in Figure 2, changes are usually sharper. The warm air is pushed upward suddenly, and huge quantities of water, often thousands of tons, condense out of it to form towering thunderheads.  12.  10.  11.  Rains usually move across the United States from 9-1 east to west. 9-2 west to east. 9-3 north to south. 9-4 south to north. 9-5 southeast to northwest 9(  Which of the following characteristics of the warm air mass is responsible for its position as shown in Figure 1? 10-1 Rapid motion 10-2 Counterclockwise motion 10-3 Large volume 10-4 Light weight 10-5 Relatively heavy weight 10(  Sleet particles are most accurately described as 11-1 frozen rain drops. 11-2 large hailstones. 11-3 frozen water vapor. 11-4 small bits of dust. 11-5 a kind of snow. . .* 11 (  are caused by cold fronts being pushed upward. cold fronts being pushed downward. warm fronts rising over cold fronts. warm fronts going under cold fronts. warm fronts mixing with cold fronts. 12(  )  ) 13.  9.  Rains 12-1 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-5  The center of every raindrop is 13-1 a molecule of water. 13-2 an atom of water. 13-3 a tiny particle of ice. 13—4 a tiny particle of dust. 13-5 an electron  13(  )  A person who predicts weather on the basis of accurate information is technically called 14-1 a weather forecaster. 14-2 a geologist. 14-3 a meteorologist. 14—4 an anemometer. 14r-5 an astrologist 14(  )  What is the approximate diameter in inches of a water droplet in a cloud? 15-1 .4 15-2 .04 15-3 .004 15-4 .0004 15-5 .00004 15(  )  ) 14.  )  15.  )  Go on to the next page.  - 14 -  The work you do in walking is, for the greater part, work in lifting your body. To find how high (3 you lift your body at each step, hold a piece of . (4: crayon touching the blackboard when you stand with your side to it. Walk along at your natural (5 (6: gait, keeping the arm rigid with the body. The (7 crayon makes a rising and falling curved line. («: Find the number of inches from the average of the (9: lowest points on the curve to the average of the do: highest points on the curve. This is the distance you lift your body at each step. Measure this (ii (12 ""distance in inches and change to a fraction of a (13 foot. This number multiplied by your weight is (14 the work you do at each step; multiply by the (15 number of steps you take in walking from home (16 to school to get'the foot-pounds of work you do.  (1 (2  16.  17.  The work you do in taking one step is found by multiplying your weight by 16-1 12. 16-2 your height. 16-3 the distance, in feet, that your body is lifted in taking a step. 16-4 the length, in feet, of the curved line in the experiment. 16-5 the number of inches in one step. . 16(  In calculating the amount of work you do in walking from home to school by the method described above, it is not necessary to know 17-1 your weight. 17-2 the distance you lift your body at each step. 17-3 the number of inches in one foot. 17-4 the number of steps from home to school. 17-5 the speed with which you walk. . . 17(  18. This method for measuring the work you do in walking would be least accurate if you 18-1 weighed a great deal. 18-2 were going uphill. 18-3 walked in a straight line. 18-4 walked in a circle. 18-5 walked very slowly 18(  19.  )  Even without the use of the crayon and blackboard, one could calculate that the work done by a 200-pound man going up a step 9 inches high would be 19-1 150 foot-pounds. 19-2 175 foot-pounds. 19-3 200 foot-pounds. 19-4 267 foot-pounds. 19-5 1,500 foot-pounds 19(  )  20. To make the change indicated in lines 12 and 13 of the passage, it is necessary to 20-1 multiply by your weight. 20-2 multiply by the number of steps from home to school. 20-3 multiply by 12. 20-4 divide by 12. 20-5 divide by your height. 20(  )  )  )  21. If your weight is 120 pounds, and the distance you lift your body at each step is one inch, how much work will you do in taking 1,000 steps? 21-1 1,000 foot-pounds 21-2 1,200 foot-pounds 21-3 10,000 foot-pounds 21-4 12,000 foot-pounds 21-5 120,000 foot-pounds 21(  )  Go on to the next page.  - 15 -  Often the instinctive actions of insects seem so complicated that it is difficult to think of them as being purely mechanical reactions, as they are. The actions of a certain larva that is a parasite of one of the wild solitary bees illustrate this statement. Following their inherited instincts, these tiny larvae lie in wait for this certain kind of bee at the mouth of the underground tunnel in which she builds her nest. As she approaches, several of the larvae leap upon her back and bury themselves in her hair. Here they remain motionless while the bee, following her instincts, makes the necessary journeys to the flowers for materials with which to construct her cells and to store them with food for her young. But the instant she lays an egg in a cell, the egg somehow serves as a stimulus to the little parasites. Immediately they leap upon it, for it is the bee's egg that they use for food. The bee seals the cell in her customary mechanical way—the only way that her inherited nerve structure permits. She has no way of knowing that her egg will be eaten, nor can she alter her behavior in the slightest degree.  The larva mentioned in the passage above is 22-1 not harmful to bees in general. 22-2 really of benefit to bees. 22-3 harmful to many insects. 22-4 a parasite. 22-5 a nest-builder 22(  The food of the larvae consists of 23-1 honey. 23-2 part of a beehive, 23-3 bees' eggs, 23^1 bees' hair, 23-5 parasites  23(  According to the writer, the actions of both the bee and the larva depend on 24-1 past experience. 24-2 the need for food. 24-3 parental instruction. 24-4 intelligent planning. 24-5 inherited nerve structure 24(  25.  )  The author feels that 25-1 some bees are very intelligent. 25-2 seemingly intelligent behavior in insects is merely instinctive. 25-3 parasites are among the most intelligent of insects. 25-4 parasites as well as insects are important in pollinating flowers. 25-5 domestic bees have more highly developed nerve structures than wild solitary bees 25 (  26. From the passage,one could justifiably conclude that 26-1 most parasites eat bees' eggs. 26-2 this larva has a well-developed sense of smell. 26-3 the disappearance of this kind of bee might also cause the disappearance of these larvae. 26-4 the bees who know that their eggs are under attack can drive parasites away. 26-5 this larva would be found in all beehives 26(  Go on to the next page.  - 16 The first stroke of the four-stroke cycle Diesel engine is the intake of a charge of fresh air. With the inlet valve open, the piston, moving downward, pumps in air to fill the cylinder. When the piston passes the bottom of its stroke, the inlet valve closes. The second stroke compresses the air to between 500 and 600 pounds per square inch. When air is compressed, its temperature rises. In the Diesel engine the temperature of the compressed air may reach as high as 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The fuel is injected into this hot air. Since the oil is in a fine, fog-like spray, it starts to burn immediately. The injector continues to spray fuel oil into the cylinder until all of the charge is injected. The pressure in the cylinder rises to between 800 and 850 pounds per square inch. The third stroke is the power stroke. The hot gases expand and force the piston downward. The chemical energy of the fuel is converted into mechanical energy to move the piston. The fourth stroke is the exhaust stroke. The exhaust valve opens and the piston, moving upward, forces the burned gases out to make room for a new charge of air.  29. What causes the fuel to ignite in a Diesel cylinder? 29-1 Hot fuel 29-2 A spark 29-3 Hot air 29-4 Heat of friction 29-5 A fuel pump 29(  27. The pressure which injects oil into a Diesel cylinder must be at least 27-1 15 pounds per square inch. 27-2 30 pounds per square inch. 27-3 100 pounds per square inch. 27-4 400 pounds per square inch. 27-5 800 pounds per square inch. . . . 27(  28.  Which of the following processes is most important during the third stroke of the piston? 28-1 Chemical changes occur. 28-2 Air is compressed. 28-3 Heat is absorbed. 28-4 Energy is stored. 28-5 Energy is destroyed 28(  30.  )  In what position are the valves during the compression stroke? 30-1 Both are open. 30-2 Both are closed. 30-3 The inlet valve is open and the exhaust valve is closed. 30-4 The inlet valve is closed and the exhaust valve is open 3,0( If you finish this part before the time is up, you may go back and work on any part.  0 Number wrong  3  7 11 IS 19 23  Number right_  +  Subtract^ (See table at left)  | | |  111|  2 6 10 14 18 22 Amount to be subtracted 0  J 94  R 20 X  1 2 3 4  5 6  Raw Score on Part III = Difference  )  TV.  N 310.6 .  •  o  o  o  e  .  *  o  «  o  o  o  ANSWER SHEETS FOR-THE' STANDARDIZED TESTS i  >  .  t  .  .  «  o  «  o  .  o  .  o  «  Stanford Test  P*2-  1  22  52  7  23  1  3  2 3  .  »  .  .  0  .  0  . • > • • > .  3  4-  2  5  84  5  3  3  i  25  ro  4  *  26  4-  27 28  6  4  29  //  7  /  30  /  If z  p.4.-  p.12-  I  7  8  p.13-  5  3  6  1  7  7.  8  1  9  2-  4-  31  7  10  32  /z.  11  33  12  1  3  11  7  34  5"  13  12  ?  35  f  14  43  36  7  15  4-  13 14  /  37  n  15  6*  38  3  16  Z  39  17  7  40  4-  19  41  3  20  A-  21  3  18 19  2_  21 t  42 43  20 V-  44  » 0 »  ANSWER BY NUMBER p.ll-  5  10  ,  1  4  9  o  Cooperative Test  .ANSWER BY NUMBER 51  «SCllOOl«  4-  7. •7  p.14- 16  3  17  5~  18  2_  p.15- 22  /  4-  — , —  23' 24'  5"  25 26  3  p,16- 27  S  28 29  •3  30  2_  APPENDIX D THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STANFORD TEST SCORES AND CRITERION TEST SCORES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS The relationship between Stanford Test scores and C r i t e r i o n Test scores may vary with the a b i l i t y of the group. To investigate t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , the correlations between these two sets of scores were computed separately f o r good and poor readers•  From the t o t a l group w r i t i n g the t e s t s ,  the papers of students repeating Science 10 and those who had t r i e d preliminary form B were discarded©  Of the remain-  ing group, the 65 pupils (2$%) with the highest scores on the Stanford Test comprised"the good readers*  Since the  range of a b i l i t y bad been greatly reduced, i t mas not sur» p r i s i n g to f i n d that the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t dropped from »58 to ©39•  The corresponding c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the  poor readers, the group scoring i n the bottom 2f> per cent on the Stanford Test, was »21» Application of Fisher's ^ t r a n s f o r m a t i o n indicated that the difference between the correlations was not s i g n i f i c a n t . These data suggest that the C r i t e r i o n Test c a l l s f o r c e r t a i n s k i l l s which are not included i n general reading t e s t s , but whether these s k i l l s should be included i s a. matter of opinion* The scores are given i n Table IX*  '  58 TABLE  IX  S T A N F O R D T E S T S C O R E S AND C R I T E R I O N T E S T FOR GOOD AND POOR R E A D E R S  Good Readers* Jtfd. C r i t . 29  30  ki  23 31  39  k3 ki  36 29 29  39  k.0  32  hi  39 39 39 39  23 26 2lv  13 31  kk 29 ki  28 19 17  39  24  39  39 39 39  29  25  17  k® kX  33 28 23 29 23 26  39 39  1 +2 3$  23  •ij.6 39 39 38  19 32  23  kP ko  18 16  38  2k  a  Test*  Poor Readers  Stfd. Crit. 39  & 42  i+Q 38 39 38  41 k3  38  ko ko  39 38 39 39 38 38  k2 k3  a>  k2 ki k3  39  k2 ko  38  ia  ij.2 40  SCORES  25 25 27 32  25 21  12  27 31  15  26  22 20  26 28 36  34 2k  25 29  25  32 26  30 25 30 28  30 30  30 18  30  Stfd. C r i t .  22  20 19 28 2k  26 26  2k 2k  21 23 26  % 16  29 26  27  21 29 28 21 29  25 ^  2 ^ 16 23 18 26 26 29 25 29  b  Stfd* Gri1  18 20 10 1% 10 9 13 20 13 38 12 13  21 26 29 28  20  28 29 28 21  17  16  27  10 *6  18 16 18 18  25  27 25 27 28  25  13  25 25  lk  28 29  25  17 23 10  20 7  20 8 11  20 17 6  21 16  16 19 11  2k 29; 2k  29  28 27 21 18 29  11  16  14  20 29  15  15  29  8  15 15  15  19  2k  *k  25  lk  16 17 17 13  23 15 11+ 23 10 26  14  The 65 pupils scoring i n the top 2$% on the Stanford Teste  ^The 65 pupils scoring i n the bottom 2$% on the Stanford  

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