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The relationship between the reading comprehension of short paragraphs and long passages of science text-book… Horne, Edgar Byron 1958

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING COMPREHENSION OP SHORT PARAGRAPHS AND LONG PASSAGES OP SCIENCE TEXT-BOOK MATERIAL by EDGAR BYRON HORNE B.A.Sc, University of British Columbia, 191*7 B.A., University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1950 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the Faculty and College of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members of the College of Education THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1958 ABSTRACT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING COMPREHENSION OP SHORT PARAGRAPHS AND LONG PASSAGES OP SCIENCE TEXT-BOOK MATERIAL This study attempts to e s t a b l i s h whether or not the a b i l i t y to comprehend long passages of text-book m a t e r i a l i s r e f l e c t e d i n the usual reading comprehension t e s t s c o r e . The s k i l l s which r e s u l t i n a high score on a standardized reading t e s t may not be i d e n t i c a l w i t h those r e q u i r e d i n r e g u l a r classroom reading. A t e s t was constructed t o serve as a c r i t e r i o n of the a b i l i t y t o read a Grade 9 science text-book. The study was l i m i t e d to the k i n d of reading which i s done when the reader's purpose Is t o t a l grasp of a f a i r l y long passage of new and d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l . Study s k i l l s were s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded. The C r i t e r i o n Test, and Test 1 of the Stanford Advanced Reading Test, and Part I I I of the Cooperative Science Test f o r Grades 7» 8» and 9 were administered to 90 Science 10 students. This group was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n of the p u b l i c schools of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the t e s t scores were computed. For the sample used, the c o r r e l a t i o n between Stanford scores and C r i t e r i o n scores was .58; between Stanford scores and Cooperative scores, .66; between Cooperative scores and i i i Criterion scores, .72. The main Inferences derived from these data were: 1. The size of the correlation coefficient (.72) between Cooperative scores and Criterion scores implies that the two tests measure groups' of s k i l l s which are similar but not identical. 2 . For most practical purposes, Part III of the Cooperative Science Test could be used to appraise the ab i l i t y to read material from Science in Action, Book I.* 3« The Stanford Test does not seem to be as good a measure of the a b i l i t y to understand science text-book material as the Cooperative Test. 4» The correlations obtained suggest that the test scores are affected by content and length of passage, content being the more important factor. It is possible that a better criterion would have resulted from having the students read one long passage directly from the text-book. Sueh a criterion would be more like a natural reading situation and less like a standardized test. •••Paterson, G. M., and Cameron, E. E. Toronto: Dent, 1955. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the Study • • • • • • • • • • 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . i | D e f i n i t i o n s . . . . . . . . $ I I . REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE 7 Factors of Comprehension i n Reading . . . 7 Reading i n Content F i e l d s • 9 V a l i d i t y of General Reading Tests f o r S p e c i f i c Purposes • • • • • • • • • 10 I I I . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 13 The S p e c i f i c Purpose of the C r i t e r i o n Test. 13 P o p u l a t i o n l i j . Popu l a t i o n Sample • l i | Experimental M a t e r i a l s . . . . . . . . . . 16 Testing Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . 17 IV. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 18 The Experimental Group . . . . . . . . . < > 18 Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n • • 20 R e l a t i o n of Sample to Pop u l a t i o n . . . . • 20 V CHAPTER PAGE V. THE READING TESTS . . . 22 Selection of the Published Tests 22 Construction of the C r i t e r i o n Test 2lj. Analysis of the Preliminary Forms 26 Analysis of the Revised Form 28 Appraisal of the C r i t e r i o n Test 30 VI. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 33 Homogeneity of the Experimental Group 33 Relation of Sample to Population » 34 Correlations Among Dist r i b u t i o n s of Test Scores . . . . . . . . . . • 36 VII. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 37 VIII. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS . 39 Suggestions f o r Further Research 44 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . k$ APPENDIX A. Miscellaneous Tables 48 APPENDIX B. Directions for Administering Tests 5k ^APPENDIX C. Tests and Scoring Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 56 APPENDIX D. The Relationship Between Stanford Test Scores and Criterion Test Scores for Good and Poor Readers • . . . . . . • «, 0 57 LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I , Item D i f f i c u l t i e s and Flanagan r's f o r the Revised Form of the C r i t e r i o n Test Based on a Random Sample of 100 Papers • • • • • . • • 29 I I . A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r F-Test of Homogeneity of Classes Taking Revised Form of C r i t e r i o n Test . • 33 I I I . Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of IQ's f o r Grade 9 P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver Schools and Random Sample from Experimental Group • • • • • • • • ' • 3 5 IV. Comparison of the Reading Tests Used i n the Experiment . . . • • • • • • • J48 V. Test Scores and IQ's f o r Random Sample of 90 Science 10 Students from Experimental Group • • • I4.9 VI. Christmas Science Marks, C r i t e r i o n Test Scores, and Cooperative Test Scores f o r Two Science 10 Clas s e s , King Edward High School . . . . . . . . 5 1 V I I . Item D i f f i c u l t i e s and Ferguson r ' s f o r P r e l i m -i n a r y Form A of the C r i t e r i o n Test, Based on a Random Sample of 100 Papers . . . 5 2 V I I I . Item D i f f i c u l t i e s and Ferguson r ' s f o r P r e l i m -i n a r y Form B of the C r i t e r i o n Test, Based on a Random Sample of 100 Papers • • • • 53 IX» Stanford Test Scores and Criterion Test Scores for Good and Poor Readers . . • • • • • • 53 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express h i s g r a t i t u d e to h i s F a c u l t y A d v i s e r , Dr. Robin N. Smith, f o r h i s h e l p f u l suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s . He a l s o d e s i r e s to acknowledge encouragement and advice r e c e i v e d from Dr. J . Ranton Mcintosh and Dr. Harry L. S t e i n i n e a r l i e r stages of the study. The author i s indebted to Dr. R. F. Sharp, Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver; to the p r i n c i p a l s of the schools which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the experiment; and to the teachers who administered the t e s t s . The Department of Research and S p e c i a l Services of the Vancouver School Board provided u s e f u l data. The author must acknowledge the i n f i n i t e p atience and understanding of h i s w i f e , Constance E. Home, who helped i n countless ways i n the pr e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This study attempts to discover to what extent scores on a t y p i c a l standardized reading comprehension test r e f l e c t the a b i l i t y to understand long passages of science text-book material. A test to serve as a c r i t e r i o n of this a b i l i t y was constructed. The c o r r e l a t i o n between scores on the c r i t e r i o n test and scores on a standardized t e s t , was considered an i n d i c a t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of the standardized test f o r appraising the comprehension of long passages from a science text-book. I. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The inves t i g a t i o n described i n this thesis devel-oped out of concern about the poor performance of a group of Grade 8 students on reading assignments based on t h e i r science text-book. Most of these students d i d f a i r l y well i n directed reading exercises when guided by f a c t u a l questions. They did poorly, however, when required to interpret and apply what they read without s p e c i f i c help from the teacher. •- 2 In the elementary school, reading is a major part of the curriculum. In the secondary school, reading disappears as a subject In i t s e l f , but reading s k i l l s are applied to learning tasks in every f i e l d . Although extensive reading in a wide variety of source materials is preferable to intensive study of a single text-book, many students do no serious reading other than their text-books. If a text-book has been well-chosen, i t contains the essential information and concepts for the course. Therefore .1 i t is usually required reading, and assignments and examinations are often based on i t . For these reasons, the student with limited comprehension of his text-books is under a severe handicap. Since a student's progress in a subject is i n f l u -enced by his a b i l i t y to read the text-book, every teacher should have accurate data about his pupils' reading s k i l l s . A teacher can gain a general impression of his pupils' reading a b i l i t i e s by observation and informal questions. He can obtain further information from records. The most l i k e l y source of useful, reliable data would seem to be a standardized reading test. The use of any standardized test is justified only i f i t has educational value for the student and/or i t provides useful information about the student. If the test is to be of immediate practical use, i t must have a direct bearing on the work being done in the classroom. The science teacher, for example, wishes to know how well his students can do the kind of reading that he assigns. There are a number, of good reading comprehension tests, but their s u i t a b i l i t y for estimating a student's performance in text-book reading has not been established,. The s k i l l s involved In taking a standardized reading comprehension test seem rather different from those required for the understanding of a science text-book. The typical standardized test contains a collection of short, self-contained passages which are not related to each other or to the current classroom work. Text-book reading, on the other hand, usually calls for sustained application to a single topic, or to a group of closely related topics. It also calls for the a b i l i t y to select and apply appropriate concepts from material recently studied. Furthermore, science text-books often require careful, detailed reading. Bond found that slow reading is a characteristic of high achievement (marks) in science,-*- The comprehension of ^ond, Eva, Reading and Ninth-Grade Achievement (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938), p. 58. s c i e n t i f i c material also requires the command of an extensive technical vocabulary and the a b i l i t y to interpret symbols, charts, and diagrams. The practice of dividing reading comprehension tests into sections according to the unit to be understood (the word, the sentence, the paragraph) suggests that measurable differences In these reading tasks exist. Pew tests, however, attempt the appraisal of very long passages. Perhaps i t is expedient to avoid the problems involved in such tests, but the assumption that any reading comprehension test can be used to estimate a student's a b i l i t y to read lengthy passages should be confirmed or rejected on the basis of experimental evidence. A search of the literature did not reveal any studies on this particular topic, II. STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM This study attempts to answer the following question: What is the relationship between scores on a test of a b i l i t y to understand long passages from a science text-book and scores on: (1) a general reading comprehension testy, and (2) a test of ab i l i t y to interpret s c i e n t i f i c material?' 5 III. DEFINITIONS The following definitions help to c l a r i f y the problem. General reading comprehension test. Reference is made here to a test which consists of short paragraphs chosen from many subject f i e l d s . Typically, i t Is designed for use over a wide range of reading levels. Although the specialized test would seem to be more appropriate for s c i e n t i f i c material than the general test, the latter Is of interest because i t is commonly used. Thus the relationship between general reading scores and reading competence in a particular f i e l d is useful information. Text-book reading. In educational literature, the term reading Is often used in a very broad sense to include a l l the intellectual s k i l l s which are applied when books are used. In this thesis, study s k i l l s (skimming, reviewing, summarizing, etc.) are specifically excluded. Text-book reading is restricted to the kind of reading done when the reader's purpose Is the total grasp of new and rather d i f f i c u l t content. It includes the interpretation of illustrations. Rather d i f f i c u l t content Is specified because as Dolch states, we must admit "that assigned reading of middle grades and on through high 2 school is *hard» for most or at least many children"* Long passages. For the purpose of this study, a long reading passage is one which contains more than 500 words. ~Dolch, E. W., "Comprehension in Reading," Education, LXXVI (May,-1956), 536-540. CHAETER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Although the issue raised In this thesis has been vir t u a l l y ignored in the literature on reading, much has; been written on closely related problems& Since reading comprehension has not yet yielded to precise, unambiguous: ^definition, a ireview of the research attempting to identify i t s components i s pertinents I« FACTORS OF COMPREHENSION IN READING The identification of the factors in reading comprehension has been approached in two ways* In the f i r s t technique, published tests are analyaed©^ Studies of this kind usually produce four or five factors, some of which may not be precisely defined* This type of analysis presupposes that the tests used include the most significant of the factors which make up reading comprehensions In contrast, Davis began by postulating a large number of possible factors• From these he obtained nine independent factors.** His analysis, however, was ^Hall, W» EW, and Robinson, Fa P©, *An Analytical Approach to the Study of Reading S k i l l s , n journal of Educational psychology, XXXVI (October, 1914.5), lj.29^ 3j.2© ^•Davis, F» Bo, "Fundamental Factors of Comprehension in Reading? Psychometrlka, IX (September, 19U4), 1 9 5 - 1 9 7 • 8 challenged by Thurstone, who maintained that i n s i x of the nine tests., a single f a c t o r would account f o r the entire true variance. For the other three tests (word meaning, following the organization of a passage, recognition of l i t e r a r y devices) Thurstone found s p e c i f i c variances of • 25, »22, .21 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Davis retreated from his o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n by reducing his factors to f i v e Independent mental a b i l i t i e s which he describes as follows:^ 1, word knowledge. 2. a b i l i t y to reason In reading. 3« a b i l i t y to follow the organization of a passage... I 4 . . a b i l i t y to recognize l i t e r a r y devices... 5. tendency to focus attention on writer's e x p l i c i t statements...(i.e. a b i l i t y to f i n d the answers to s p e c i f i c f a c t u a l questions). Davis' revised l i s t i s t y p i c a l of the findings of research i n this f i e l d , although no consistent pattern emerges beyond the confirmation of the f i r s t two f a c t o r s . Johnson provides an excellent summary of the research dealing with the factors of reading comprehension.^ ^Thurstone, L. L., "Note on a Reanalysis of Davis' Reading Tests," Psychometrika, XI (September, 1946K 185-188.. - . ^Davis, F. B., "A B r i e f Comment on Thurstone's Note on a Reanalysis of Davis' Reading Tests," Psychometrika, XI (December, 1946), 2l|.9-255.. 7 Johnson, M. S., "Factors i n Reading Comprehension," Educational Administration and Supervision, XXXV (November, 1949), 3B5-40T; — . . 9 I I . READING IN CONTENT FIELDS The need f o r distinguishing between general and spec i a l reading comprehension tests i s suggested by the resu l t s of research concerning reading i n content f i e l d s . The consensus of expert opinion i s that the content 8 Q f i e l d s have s p e c i f i c reading problems. ' 7 Socher reviews recent research i n reading i n the content f i e l d s and concludes that s p e c i f i c reading s k i l l s are needed i n s o c i a l studies, science, and arithmetic• ^ Typical of the minority opinion i s Swenson's conclusion that the "only deviations from the s t r i k i n g concomitance of reading a b i l i t y are found among d i f f e r e n t phases of reading s k i l l (rate versus vocabulary and comprehension) rather than among reading materials (general-narrative material versus science-study m a t e r i a l ) " . 1 1 o McCallister, J. M., Remedial and Corrective  Instruction i n Reading (New York:; D» Apple ton-Century Company, 193^7, p. 189. ^Strang, Ruth, McCullough, Constance M., and Traxler, Arthur, Problems i n the Improvement of Reading (second edition; New York: McGraw-Hill, 195577 p . 1 2 7 . 1 0Socher, E. Elona, "Special Reading S k i l l s Are Needed i n Social Studies, Science, Arithmetic," Reading  Teacher, VI (March, 1 9 5 3 ) , 4 - 1 1 . •^Swenson, Esther J., "A Study of the Relationships Among Various Types of Reading Scores on General and Science Materials," Journal of Educational Research, XXXVI (October, 1 9 4 2 ) , 81-90. 10 I t i s worth n o t i n g that an i n d i v i d u a l may read w i t h unequal e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s although the readings seem to be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t . Some of these v a r i a t i o n s can be explained i n terms of experience and past and present i n t e r e s t s . I n the o p i n i o n of at l e a s t one i n v e s t i g a t o r , the reader's experience f a r outweighs any other s i n g l e f a c t o r as a determiner of the q u a l i t y 12 of understanding. Dolch b e l i e v e s that f l u e n c y of reading i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d r e s u l t s from two f a c t o r s : f i r s t , a r a p i d r e c o g n i t i o n of the vocabulary, and secondly, f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c thought 13 patterns and the idioms of the f i e l d . I I I . VALIDITY OP GENERAL READING TESTS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES Testing higher l e v e l s of reading a b i l i t y . Strang has pointed out that an a p p r a i s a l of reading a b i l i t y based e n t i r e l y on short t e s t passages i s not wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y . •^Shores, J . E., "Some Considerations of I n v a l i d -i t i e s of General Reading.Tests, 1 1 Journal of Educational  Research. XL (February, 1947), 44^-457. 13 Dolch, E. W., Psychology and Teaching of Reading (second e d i t i o n ; Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Garrard Press, 195D, P. 326. 11 None of the standardized tests now available measures adequately the high levels of reading a b i l i t y — t h e a b i l i t i e s to comprehend relationships In a long passage that calls for sustained attention, to organize content, to draw inferences, to grasp metaphors and shifts of meaning, and to apply what is read, 111 She also suggests that teacher-made tests based on text-book readings be used to obtain the data not available IS from published tests, ^ Diagnosis of reading in a subject f i e l d . In describing her diagnostic test of reading in social studies (high school and college), Conant strongly favours long passages for testing comprehension s k i l l s . She considers the optimum length of passage for her purposes to be about 1,000 words. Reading for problem-solving in science* Shores, an outspoken c r i t i c of general reading tests, developed a test for problem-solving in science (grades i | , 5, and 6) , He provides data to show that his test i s more valid •^Strang, Ruth, McCullough, Constance M., and Traxler, Arthur, Problems in the Improvement of Reading (second edition; New York: McGraw-Hill, 195517 p. 273. ^ I b i d . , p. 258. Conant, M. M., The Construction of a Diagnostic  Reading Test (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 19l|2), p. 119, 12 for i t s special function than a general reading test. In his words: The suggestion i s that a b i l i t y to do the type of work-type reading required by problems in science, a reading s k i l l which involves both reading and thinking c r i t i c a l l y about that which is read, is more independent of mental age than Is general reading a b i l i t y and i s different in some degree from whatever is measured In tests of general verbal intelligence and general a b i l i t y to read, 1' x'Shores, J. H., and Saupe, J. L., "Reading for Problem-Solving i n Science," Journal of Educational  Psychology, XLIV (March, 1953), 149-lSl. CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Since no t e s t a p p r a i s i n g the understanding of long passages of science text-book m a t e r i a l could be found, the C r i t e r i o n Test was constructed f o r t h i s purpose* Three t e s t s were administered to a group of Science 10 students from Vancouver schools; (1) the C r i t e r i o n Test, (2) a general reading comprehension t e s t , and (3) a t e s t of a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l . The c o r r e l a t i o n s among the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of scores i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the a b i l i t i e s measured by the t e s t s . I f the C r i t e r i o n Test has high v a l i d i t y , then these c o r r e l a t i o n s are good approximations of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the reading scores and the a b i l i t y to understand long passages of science test-book m a t e r i a l . I . THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF THE CRITERION TEST In order to minimize the i n t e r r u p t i o n to the r e g u l a r school program, the C r i t e r i o n Test was designed so that i t c o u ld be administered i n a r e g u l a r p e r i o d . But the proposed le n g t h of the reading passages reduced the number of items which could be answered i n a given time. I t seemed a d v i s a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , to attempt to measure only in one aspect of text-book comprehension i n the C r i t e r i o n Test. Vocabulary i s undoubtedly of prime importance, but i t i s adequately measured i n e x i s t i n g t e s t s . Of other factors suggested, Davis' reasoning-in-reading seems most appropriate i n this study dealing with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c material. Each Item of the C r i t e r i o n Test Is intended to contribute to the appraisal of t h i s f a c t o r , although the items r e f l e c t to some extent other f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a b i l i t y to answer f a c t u a l questions. I I . POPULATION The experimental population consisted of a l l Science 10 students i n the public schools of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Science 10 (Grade 9 science) was chosen because there appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n d i f f i c u l t y at t h i s l e v e l which r e s u l t s p a r t l y from the amount of material to be mastered, and p a r t l y from the nature of the concepts presented i n the course. I I I . POPULATION SAMPLE Because of the exploratory nature of the study, i t was decided that a sample of about 100 pupils would adequately represent the s p e c i f i e d population. However, such a sample could not be selected from a single school, 15 unless i t was shown that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among Vancouver schools, teachers, and students. For ease of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the c l a s s was used as the u n i t of sampling. In order to be c e r t a i n that a sample of the de s i r e d s i z e and v a r i a b i l i t y was obtained, the t e s t s were given to a group of ten Science 10 c l a s s e s , two from each of f i v e schools. I f a n a l y s i s of variance i n d i c a t e d that a l l ten c l a s s e s were derived from a common p o p u l a t i o n , then s e v e r a l c l a s s e s could be combined to form a sample of the de s i r e d s i z e . On the other hand, i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the c l a s s e s e x i s t e d , then a random sample could be drawn from the t o t a l experimental group. Since there i s a high c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and reading comprehension, i t i s suggested that i f a sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h respect to i n t e l l i g e n c e , i t i s l i k e l y a l s o to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of that p o p u l a t i o n w i t h respect to reading comprehension. I t would have been very d i f f i c u l t to obta i n the IQ's f o r the Science 10 p o p u l a t i o n , but the d i s t r i b u t i o n of IQ's . f o r the t o t a l 1° Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . ' The s i g n i f i c a n c e of "••"The Ot i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Intermediate Examination i s given to a l l Vancouver p u p i l s i n t h e i r l a s t year of elementary school. •^These data would be s l i g h t l y i naccurate because of changes i n the po p u l a t i o n between time of IQ t e s t i n g and time of the experiment. 16 the d i f f e r e n c e between means of O t i s scores f o r sample and f o r the l a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n was t e s t e d . IV. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS The C r i t e r i o n Test. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s s e l f -a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t i s described i n Chapter V. The 38 o b j e c t i v e items are based on f o u r long passages chosen from Science i n A c t i o n , Book I , the Science 10 text-book a u t h o r i z e d 20 f o r use i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. P u p i l s were allowed I 4 8 minutes to complete the t e s t . The standardized t e s t s . P a r t I I I (Comprehension and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) of the Cooperative Science Test f o r  Grades "]_* §.» and 9, Form Y was s e l e c t e d as the t y p i c a l t e s t of a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l . Test I (Paragraph Meaning) of the Advanced Reading Test, Form Jfy[, Stanford Achievement Test was s e l e c t e d as the t y p i c a l general reading comprehension t e s t . Both are 25-minute t e s t s . There are 30 items i n the former t e s t , and 44 items i n the l a t t e r . V. TESTING PROGRAM The three t e s t s described above were administered to the experimental group of ten c l a s s e s . The standard ^ P a t e r s o n , G. M., and Cameron, E. E., Science i n  A c t i o n , Book I . Toronto: Dent, 1955. class period in Vancouver secondary schools i s 55 minutes. In order to complete the proposed testing program within two regular periods, special instructions were prepared which made i t possible to give both the published tests in a single period (see Appendix B). The practicability of these instructions was tested before the f i n a l experiment was undertaken. VI. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS When It was established that the sample was representative of the total Grade 9 population, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients among the test scores were computed as indices of the relation-ships between the a b i l i t i e s measured by the published tests and the ab i l i t y to read a science text-book. CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL METHOD This chapter contains a description of the experimental group, a report of the administration of the tests, and a discussion of the relationships between sample and population, I. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP The experimental group consisted of two Science 10 classes from each of the following secondary schools: S i r Winston C h u r c h i l l , Gladstone, King Edward, Magee, and Templeton. As indicated below, the schools and the i r student bodies were d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from one another. Since reading a b i l i t y i s influenced by environment, an attempt was made i n the sele c t i o n of the schools to obtain the widest possible variety of environmental f a c t o r s . Only a few of the possible factors are discussed below, but a group showing wide variations i n these respects w i l l probably show comparable variations i n other factors bearing on reading a b i l i t y . Size of the schools. The enrollments i n the chosen schools varied from s l i g h t l y under 1,000 pupils to s l i g h t l y over 2,000 pu p i l s . In September, 1957$ there were only three secondary schools i n Vancouver (comprising about \\% 19 of the p o p u l a t i o n of the secondary grades) which had enrollments much l e s s than 1,000 p u p i l s . Since these schools are expected to disappear completely w i t h i n a few years, none was i n c l u d e d i n the experiment. Grade range i n the schools. Two of the schools were j u n i o r - s e n i o r high schools, two were se n i o r high schools, and the other was a j u n i o r high s c h o o l . The educational experience of Grade 7 and 8 students i n secondary schools i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the experience of t h e i r counterparts i n elementary schools. The d i f f e r -ences might be r e f l e c t e d i n the scores on the reading t e s t s . Character of the student bodies. In the schools chosen f o r the experiment, there could be found students who were as well-to-do as any i n Vancouver's p u b l i c school system, and those who were as u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d as any. There were a l s o wide v a r i a t i o n s i n such f a c t o r s as c u l t u r a l background, p a r e n t a l occupation, r a c i a l o r i g i n , and home c o n d i t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n of the c l a s s e s . The s i z e s of"the experimental c l a s s e s ranged between 30 and 35 p u p i l s , w i t h about equal numbers of boys and g i r l s . Each c l a s s was an unselected group of students, and was judged to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i t s s c h o o l . 20 I I . TEST ADMINISTRATION The t e s t s were given i n r e g u l a r science periods by the classroom teacher during the l a s t two weeks of September. The order i n which the t e s t s were given was v a r i e d so th a t any b e n e f i t s due to a favoured p o s i t i o n would be shared among a l l the t e s t s . The s e l e c t i o n of day and p e r i o d was l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the teachers of the experimental c l a s s e s , but I n every case, the two periods of t e s t i n g occurred on d i f f e r e n t days. Testing techniques which were f a m i l i a r to the students were used, so that the form of the items might not be a source of confusion. A l l necessary i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n on the cover page. The p a r t s were not separately timed, but the teacher announced when the students should b e g i n each p a r t . Each supervisor was provided w i t h f u l l d i r e c t i o n s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the three t e s t s (see Appendix B ) . I I I . RELATION OP SAMPLE TO POPULATION A n a l y s i s of variance was a p p l i e d to the c r i t e r i o n t e s t scores to determine i f a l l of the ten c l a s s e s could be considered as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of a common pop-u l a t i o n . Since there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the c l a s s means of the C r i t e r i o n Test scores, a sample of 100 was chosen from the t o t a l experimental group by means of a 21 table of random numbers. The scores of new Canadians (that i s , students who had lived less than two years in an English-speaking country) and of students repeating Science 10 were excluded. There was no significant difference between the mean IQ of the revised sample and the mean IQ of the Grade 9 population. The IQ's of the experimental group were taken from school records. Data for estimating the distribution of the IQ's for the total Grade 9 population were obtained from the Department of Research and Special Services, Vancouver School Board. CHAPTER V THE READING TESTS This chapter describes the s e l e c t i o n of the pub-l i s h e d t e s t s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and a p p r a i s a l of the C r i t e r i o n Test, I , SELECTION OP THE PUBLISHED TESTS As the f i r s t step i n l o c a t i n g t y p i c a l p u b l i s h e d t e s t s , the reviews i n the Buros 1 Mental Measurement Year-books were c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d . Specimen copies of the t e s t s which seemed most s u i t a b l e were then examined. The General Reading Comprehension Test The Stanford Paragraph Meaning Test was chosen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n form and content of standardized reading comprehension t e s t s using short passages. The Test of A b i l i t y to I n t e r p r e t S c i e n t i f i c M a t e r i a l Three t e s t s of t h i s type were s t u d i e d : A b i l i t y to I n t e r p r e t Reading M a t e r i a l s i n the 2 1 N a t u r a l Sciences, This t e s t seems to be e x c e l l e n t f o r the upper high school grades. I t i s not appropriate 2 1 r p e g t £ 0f t n e j o w a Tests of E d u c a t i o n a l Develop-ment f o r High School and College Freshmen, 2 3 i n the present study because of i t s l e n g t h and d i f f i c u l t y . Since i t r e q u i r e s 60 minutes, i t c o u l d not be given i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s p e r i o d . The median score f o r Grade 9 p u p i l s i s only 21+, somewhat l e s s than 30$ of the p o s s i b l e score of 81.. Reading Scales i n Science (Grades 7_ " 12 This t e s t i s of s u i t a b l e l e n g t h and d i f f i c u l t y . I t r e q u i r e s 30 minutes f o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t has, however, a number of undesirable f e a t u r e s * I t c o n s i s t s of 12 short paragraphs and 73 items. There are nine items based on the 18 l i n e s of reading i n the f i r s t paragraph. The items are statements a f t e r which the student i s i n s t r u c t e d to place an "X" i f the statement i s i n the paragraph, or can be deri v e d from i t . I n other words, the t e s t e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t s of 73 t r u e - f a l s e items w i t h a heavy f a c t u a l emphasis. Many of the passages c o n t a i n concepts u s u a l l y introduced before Grade 9« Cooperative Science Test f o r Grades 7_» 8, and This t e s t was chosen because of the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : 1. I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r Grades 7 to 9. 2. I t contains m a t e r i a l which i s comparable to the content of Science 10 but not i d e n t i c a l w i t h i t . M. J . Van Wagenen, (Educational Test Bureau, 1938). 2k 3« I t includes items on the int e r p r e t a t i o n of an i l l u s t r a t i o n . 4 . I t attempts to go beyond the testing of f a c t s . The 25-minute time l i m i t on th i s test makes i t possible to administer i t and the Stanford test i n one class period. • II . CONSTRUCTION OP THE CRITERION TEST Specifications The c r i t e r i o n test was designed to s a t i s f y the following s p e c i f i c a t i o n s : 1. that the test be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . 2. that the reading selections be not les s than 500 words. 3. that the passages include as many as possible of the special problems i n in t e r p r e t a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c material. 4 . that the items stress i n t e r p r e t a t i o n rather than f a c t u a l d e t a i l . 5. that the format of the test be as similar as possible to the format of the Science 10 text-book. 6. that the material i n the test passages be new to the students. 7« that the test be a power rather than speed t e s t . 8. that the directions be clear and establish the desired purpose. 9» that the test be self-administering. Procedures Selection of content. Six representative passages were chosen from the text-book. These passages Included material which required interpretation of tables, formulas, and diagrams. Preparation and editing of items. . Items were con-structed for each passage and the test materials were organized into two preliminary forms (A and B), each con-taining three parts (I, II, and III). Henceforth, a read-ing passage and the items based on i t w i l l be referred to as a part. The material for the preliminary forms was submitted to two experienced teachers of Science 10 for suggestions and criticism. Each part was administered to two grade 8 classes in order to detect ambiguities and di f f i c u l t i e s not apparent to the adult c r i t i c s . This pre-tryout also provided the f i r s t estimate of the times required to administer each part. Administration of preliminary forms. Forms A and B were given to a sampling of students not in the local school. The sample was drawn from two Vancouver secondary schools ( B r i t a n n i a and S i r Winston C h u r c h i l l ) , and from P r i n c e George Junior High School and Nelson J u n i o r High School. The teachers s u p e r v i s i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y exper-iment provided data regarding the time r e q u i r e d f o r each p a r t . P r e p a r a t i o n of r e v i s e d form. Prom the s i x o r i g i n a l p a r t s , f o u r p a r t s were chosen. Items were r e v i s e d or el i m i n a t e d i n the l i g h t of an item a n a l y s i s , and a few new items were added. The r e v i s e d form was submitted to two experts i n educational t e s t i n g f o r suggestions and c r i t i c i s m . Try-out of r e v i s e d form. The r e v i s e d form was given to two c l a s s e s i n King Edward High School to provide data on the new and the r e v i s e d items, and to serve as a f i n a l check on time l i m i t s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I I I . ANALYSIS OP THE PRELIMINARY FORMS Item a n a l y s i s . The item a n a l y s i s of each p r e l i m -i n a r y form was based on a s i n g l e school since i t was found that the c l a s s e s could not be considered as samples drawn from a common p o p u l a t i o n . Each sample contained 100 papers. A worksheet was prepared to show i n d e t a i l the response to each item f o r every paper i n the sample. The item i n t e r n a l - c o n s i s t e n c y i n d i c e s were computed from the f o l l o w -27 23 ing formula:: _ _ PQ-NW PQ where P=aproportion of sample passing the item Q=l-P N=number of test papers i n the sample ¥=proportion of inconsistent responses These s t a t i s t i c s , together with the item d i f f i c u l t i e s (per cent passing), are given i n Table VII and Table VIII i n the Appendix, Part I of Form A and Part I of Form B were discarded as the l e a s t suitable parts. Each item of the other parts was considered i n terms of i t s d i f f i c u l t y and i t s c o r r e l -ation with the whole te s t . Part II of Form A was used as i t appeared i n the preliminary form, but most of the items i n the other parts were revised i n some way. The revisi o n s did not usually involve major reconstruction. Typical 2^Fowler, H, M. "Application of the Ferguson Method of Computing Item Conformity and Person Conformity," Journal  of Experimental Education, XXII (March, 1954) , 2 3 7 - 2 1 ^ E s s e n t i a l l y the Ferguson r i s a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between the observed answer pattern and the "perfect" answer pattern. For an item of \\0% d i f f i c u l t y , f o r example, the perfect answer pattern i s achieved when the obtaining the highest t o t a l scores i s i d e n t i c a l with the passing the item. The c o e f f i c i e n t s derived from th i s formula are smaller than Flanagan r ' s . In the Department of Educational Research, Ontario College of Education, where the formula i s regularly used, r's ranging from .25 to .50 are considered s a t i s f a c t o r y , and an r ^ > .50 i s considered very good. 28 changes i n c l u d e d the a d d i t i o n of a d i s t r a c t o r , the re-word-ing of a non-functioning or a n e g a t i v e l y - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g d i s t r a c t o r , and improvement i n the form of the item. I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The i n t e r n a l consistency of the p r e l i m i n a r y forms was estimated from Kuder-Richardson formula #21:2i| 2 -where T ^ . = c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y H = number of items i n the t e s t Qt = t o t a l t e s t variance P = p r o p o r t i o n of sample passing an item q = i - p For Form A, r = .81; f o r Form B, r = .80. IV. ANALYSIS OF THE REVISED FORM Item a n a l y s i s . The item s t a t i s t i c s are summarized i n Table I . The items vary i n d i f f i c u l t y from one which was passed by 17$ of the sample to one which was passed by 85$ of' the sample. The item d i f f i c u l t i e s are approximately normally d i s t r i b u t e d around a mean d i f f i c u l t y of 53.5$. 2 ^ G u i l f o r d , J . P., Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psych-ology and Education (second e d i t i o n ; New York: McGraw-H i l l , T9F0), p.495. TABLE I ITEM DIFFICULTIES AND FLANAGAN r *S FOR THE REVISED FORM OF CRITERION TEST, BASED ON A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 100 PAPERS Item - a b c d e f £ h i 1 k D i f f i c u l t y a ko 67 73 85 1*3 65 58 59 61* P a r t I Flanagan r .36 .1*0 .1*7 .1*2 •53 .51* .57 .51 .50 D i f f i c u l t y ko kk 59 61* 57 57 28 73 55 58 P a r t I I Flanagan r .1*0 .60 .65 .21 .68 .53 .57 .75 .51* .51* D i f f i c u l t y 81 1*9 52 1*8 36 28 37 36 P a r t I I I Flanagan r •30 .1*9 .08 .56 .51* .51 .31* .1*3 D i f f i c u l t y 57 76 66 59 55 63 57 X7 36 70 21 P a r t IV Flanagan r .53 .36 .1*6 .33 .63 •59 .1*2 .18 .51+ .51 • 25 a P e r cent of sample passing the i t e m . ru 30 Flanagan r's are used to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of each item to the t e s t as a whole* Out of a t o t a l of 38 items, 21 have r's > .£0. Only f o u r items have r's < .30. I n t e r n a l consistency* The i n t e r n a l consistency of the r e v i s e d form was .80 (Kuder-Richardson formula #21). V. APPRAISAL OF THE CRITERION TEST V a l i d i t y . The v a l i d i t y of the C r i t e r i o n Test i s of c r u c i a l importance i n t h i s study. The best a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of i t s v a l i d i t y i s the extent to which i t s a t i s f i e s the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on page 2\\, In the author's o p i n i o n , the m a t e r i a l i n the C r i t e r i o n Test i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n k i n d and d i f f i c u l t y of science text-book m a t e r i a l . Furthermore, nearly, o n e - t h i r d of the items are based at l e a s t p a r t l y on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the type u s u a l l y found i n science text-books. R e l i a b i l i t y . G u i l f o r d s t a t e s that f o r a homogeneous t e s t an index of i n t e r n a l consistency comes c l o s e s t to the b a s i c i d e a of r e l i a b i l i t y (the r a t i o of true variance to t o t a l v a r i a n c e ) . ^ That i n t e r n a l consistency i s an 2 ^ G u i l f o r d , J , P., Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psych-ology and Education (Second e d i t i o n ; New York: McGraw-H i l l , T&O}} p. i|«7. 31 appropriate index of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Criterion Teat can be seen from size of the Flanagan r's li s t e d In Table I* The Criterion Test probably underestimates the true coefficient of r e l i a b i l i t y since certain assumptions of the Kuder-Richardson formula are not realized.26 i n particular, the item d i f f i c u l t i e s are not equal, nor are the item Intercorrelations* Any substantial increase in the internal consistency of a reading comprehension test beyond *80 Is probably achieved at the expense of validity, since a valid measure of a complex group of s k i l l s requires a certain degree of heterogeneity in the items* In discussing this point Guilford says: •••both r e l i a b i l i t y and va l i d i t y cannot be maxima1&.. item-test correlations for well-constructed Items range between *30 and a80*..* Items within these ranges of correlation should provide tests of satis-factory r e l i a b i l i t y and validity.*,*», There is probably better reason for going below these limits than above them in constructing Items. To do so would err on the side of validity which, after a l l , is more important**2' Dif f i c u l t y* The test is of appropriate d i f f i c u l t y for the experimental group, since the scores are approx-imately normally distributed about a mean score of 20©13 (53#$of the possible score)* ^ G u i l f o r d , j * p . , Fundamental Statistics in Psych-ology and Education (second edition: New York* McQraw-rnifri^o), p. m* 27ibld>, p. 523. 32 Prom the discussion in the three preceding paragraphs, the Criterion Test appears to perform i t s function of appraising the a b i l i t y to understand long passages of science text-book material. CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS OP THE DATA I . HOMOGENEITY OP THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP The F - t e s t was used to t e s t the homogeneity of the experimental group. Only e i g h t of the ten c l a s s e s were used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s since a t o t a l of 17 students i n the other two c l a s s e s had taken p r e l i m i n a r y Form B, The computed F (2.$2) i n d i c a t e d that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l (F= 2 . 0 5 ) , but not at the 1% l e v e l (F= 2 , 7 2 ) . Since such a r e s u l t suggested that there might be r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the c l a s s e s , the sample was drawn at random from the t o t a l group. The summary of the a n a l y s i s i s given i n Table I I , TABLE I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR F-TEST OF HOMOGENEITY OF CLASSES TAKING REVISED FORM OF CRITERION TEST Sum of Mean Squares df Square F 653 7 9 3 . 3 2 . 5 2 * 8387 235 3 5 . 6 5 T o t a l 90i|0 242 Between groups W i t h i n groups aF= 2 . 7 2 r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t 1% l e v e l . 3k II. RELATION OP SAMPLE TO POPULATION I t w i l l now be shown that the sample i s represent-a t i v e , w i t h respect to IQ, of a p o p u l a t i o n which i s s i m i l a r to the Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n at the time of the experiment (September, 1957)* The p o p u l a t i o n r e f e r r e d to c o n s i s t e d of those students of the Grade 9 group who were attending Vancouver schools at the time the IQ's of the experimental group were obtained. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of IQ's f o r the sample and f o r the p o p u l a t i o n described above are shown i n Table I I I . I n s p e c t i o n of t h i s t a b l e r e v e a l s that both d i s t r i b u t i o n s are approximately normal. The hypothesis that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the means was t e s t e d . M s - M p _ _ M s - MP C r i t i c a l r a t i o = A r a t i o l a r g e r than .62 would occur by chance i n $k cases out of 100. For t h i s reason the sample was considered to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , w i t h respect to IQ, of the p o p u l a t i o n described above. The experimental p o p u l a t i o n , however, c o n s i s t e d of students e n r o l l e d i n Science 10, The m a j o r i t y of these 2^The p o p u l a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d to Science 10 p u p i l s i n deference to the wishes of the Vancouver School Board. TABLE III FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF IQ'S FOR GRADE 9 POPULATION OF VANCOUVER SCHOOLS AND-FOR RANDOM SAMPLE FROM EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Population Sample IQ a n = 387J+ n = 90 per cent per cent 80 81+ 2.5 2.2 85 - 89 4.3 4.4 90 - 91+ 7.6 4.if 95 - 99 10.5 5.6 100 - 101+ 13 .8 16.7 105 - 109 14.4 20 .0 110 - 114 15.9 17 .8 115 - 119 12 .9 8.9 120 - 12U 9.8 11.1 125 - 129 5 .2 5.6 130 - 131+ 2.2 3.3 135 - 139 .6 I 4 O - 144 . 2 -- 149 .1 -150 - 154 .05 -Mean 108.09 IO8.89 Standard Deviation 12.09 11.37 aScore on the Otis Self-Administering Test of  Mental Ability, Intermediate Examination. b A l l students i n Vancouver schools who would be normally i n Grade 9 at the time of the experiment. cSelected at random from two Science 10 classes i n each of five Vancouver Secondary schools. students were t a k i n g u n i v e r s i t y program. I t i s l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , that the mean IQ of the Science 10 p o p u l a t i o n was s l i g h t l y higher than the mean IQ of the whole Grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n . However, i t i s not l i k e l y that the d i f f e r e n c e was so great that the sample could not be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Science 10 p o p u l a t i o n . I I I . CORRELATIONS AMONG DISTRIBUTIONS OP TEST SCORES Raw c o r r e l a t i o n s . The randomly-selected sample was used to compute the Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Ten of the o r i g i n a l 100 papers were discarded because of incomplete data. The raw c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained were: S t a n d a r d - C r i t e r i o n . 5 8 . C o o p e r a t i v e - C r i t e r i o n .72 . Stanford-Cooperative . 6 6 . The scores are given i n Table V i n the Appendix. C o r r e l a t i o n s c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n . Since the object of the study i s to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between scores on a reading t e s t and the a b i l i t y to read a text-book, allowance should be made f o r the imperfect r e l i a b i l i t y of the C r i t e r i o n Test. Applying the c o r r e c t i o n f o r a t t e n t u a t i o n i n the c r i t e r i o n only, the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between Stanford scores and scores from a per-f e c t l y r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i o n would be .65 f o r the sample. The corresponding C o o p e r a t i v e - c r i t e r i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was . 8 0 . CHAPTER VII INTERPRETATION OP RESULTS The thesis problem is answered by the correlation coefficients given in Chapter VI. The results apply only to the tests and population used in the study. The following inferences were derived from the s t a t i s t i c a l results, 1. The size of the correlation coefficient (.72) between scores on the Cooperative Test and on the Criterion Test implies that the two tests measure to a large extent the same group of s k i l l s . For most practical purposes, Part III (Comprehension and Interpretation) of the Cooperative Science Test could be used to appraise the ab i l i t y to read material from Science in Action, Book JE, 2. The correlation between the scores on the science reading tests is not high enough to say that the differences in the tests are negligible. The reading passages are compar-able in d i f f i c u l t y and the items are similar in form and style. The most obvious difference, length of reading passage, may explain why the correlation was not higher, 3. There does not appear to be any significant difference among the correlations obtained in this study. There i s , however, some basis for suggesting that the Stanford Test is not as good a measure of the a b i l i t y to understand Science text-book material as the Cooperative Test ( r = ,f>8 compared to r = .72). Furthermore, i f the Cooperative Test really is more closely related to the Criterion Test than to the Stanford Test, this would imply that s c i e n t i f i c content has more effect on reading test scores than length of passage. CHAPTER V I I I EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The f i n d i n g s of ed u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h are not confined to e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s . In t h i s chapter, c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s of the study are discussed. The opinions expressed may be h e l p f u l t o those I n t e r e s t e d i n problems r e l a t e d t o measuring the comprehension of text-book m a t e r i a l . The suggestions for. f u r t h e r research are problems which a r i s e out of the present study. How could the C r i t e r i o n Test be improved? The main weakness of the C r i t e r i o n Test, which a l l e g e d l y e x e m p l i f i e s text-book r e a d i n g , i s that i t i s more t e s t than text-book. I t i s not f r e e of the pressures which accompany formal t e s t s . This f a u l t might be l a r g e l y overcome by having the students read one long s e l e c t i o n d i r e c t l y from the text-book. Adequate i n t r o d u c t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n of the t o p i c t o be s t u d i e d would then be p o s s i b l e . A second c r i t i c i s m might be that the scores of the C r i t e r i o n Test r e f l e c t i n part the a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t the Items. Although t h i s extraneous f a c t o r i s d i f f i c u l t to e l i m i n a t e i n an item designed to t e s t the understanding of the f i n e p o i n t s , re-wording might c l a r i f y c e r t a i n items. ko Does the Criterion Teat measure a higher level of under-standing than the published tests used in the experiment? The science reading tests were about equally d i f f i c u l t for the experimental group, but the Stanford Test was much easier. The mean scores of the three tests were 53$. 56$, and 75$ respectively. However, the item statistics for the Criterion Test reveal that the items haying the highest Flanagan r's test specific points. This might mean that the Criterion Test measures the ab i l i t y to answer factual questions. On the other hand, even i f the test does measure the a b i l i t y to reason in reading, the factual items, because of their objectivity, could s t i l l correlate highly with the total score. This does not imply, however, that a test of reasoning-in-reading should be composed entirely of factual items. As a test of complex comprehension s k i l l s , the Criterion Test does not seem to be appreciably superior to the published tests. A finer discrimination might be achieved i f the test were designed for superior readers only. To what extent do students in an average Grade £ class  understand what they read in their science text-book? This problem is approached through a logical analysis of the items which were very d i f f i c u l t for the experimental 41 group. Consider the f o l l o w i n g item as a s i n g l e example: "Every compound has a d e f i n i t e chemical composition." This means that 1. every pound of water (H^G) has the same amount of oxygen i n i t . 2. when two substances combine c h e m i c a l l y , they always form the same compound. 3» a l l compounds are made of chemical substances. 4 . a l l compounds are made of the same substances. 5. compounds formed from the same substances have the same p r o p e r t i e s . Only 27$ of the group t e s t e d on t h i s item answered i t cor-r e c t l y . The Flanagan r was .13* Choices 2 and 5 are s p e c i f i c a l l y contrary to ideas f u l l y developed i n the reading s e l e c t i o n . Choices 3 and 4 do not in c l u d e the concept of " d e f i n i t e composition". Therefore choice 1 i s the only p o s s i b l e choice f o r a p u p i l who thoroughly under-stood what he read. Since t h i s item i s based on the key concept of the passage, i t i s apparent that the ma j o r i t y of the p u p i l s d i d not master the ideas presented. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the item should be a minor hazard to those who d i d understand the reading passage. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between science reading t e s t  scores and achievement i n science? Christmas science marks, C r i t e r i o n Test scores, and Cooperative Test scores f o r two c l a s s e s from one school are given i n Table VI i n the Appendix. These c l a s s e s were taught by d i f f e r e n t teachers. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between marks and C r i t e r i o n Test scores f o r the two c l a s s e s were .55 and .33* 42 The c o r r e l a t i o n s between marks and Cooperative Test scores f o r the same c l a s s e s were ,48 and .34* There seems to be a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between marks and both sets of reading scores f o r one c l a s s , than between marks and one set of reading scores f o r the two c l a s s e s . P o s s i b l e i n f e r e n c e s are that the c l a s s s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading s k i l l s and achievement, and that the science reading t e s t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading s k i l l s and achievement i n a school subject depends,among other t h i n g s , on the amount and type of reading r e q u i r e d of the students, on which s k i l l s are measured by the reading t e s t s , and on how achievement i s defined and measured. In the present case, the examination from which the Christmas marks were obtained emphasized knowledge of f a c t s r a t h e r than a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge. A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s type of achievement and reading comprehension would not be expected. The r a t h e r low c o r r e l a t i o n s a l s o i n d i c a t e the existence of many other f a c t o r s ( i n t e r e s t , a t t i t u d e , ambition, perseverance, e t c . ) which a f f e c t school marks. G u i l f o r d p o i n t s out that i n nature, c o r r e l a t i o n s of zero or 1.00 are the r u l e between v a r i a b l e s when i s o l a t e d . The f a c t that we g b t a i n anything e l s e i s because of the i n e x t r i c a b l e i n t e r p l a y of v a r i a b l e s that we cannot measure i n i s o l a t i o n . 2 9 43 What p r a c t i c a l use can a classroom teacher make of C r i t e r i o n  Test scores? 1. Since the C r i t e r i o n Test c o n s i s t s of t y p i c a l readings from the text-book, a c r i t e r i o n score estimates a student's a b i l i t y to l e a r n from the text-book. Accurate estimates of the reading a b i l i t y of the c l a s s and of the i n d i v i d u a l students w i l l help the teacher to s e l e c t appropriate methods. Good readers would p r o f i t from extensive supple-mentary read i n g . For a c l a s s of very able readers, l e c t u r i n g should be reduced to a minimum. For a c l a s s of poor readers, time should be given to the d i r e c t teaching of reading s k i l l s . 2. A student's score on the C r i t e r i o n Test i s an estimate of h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r understanding the concepts presented i n Science 10. I t can be used along w i t h science marks f o r educational guidance. 3. The t e s t ' s item s t a t i s t i c s provide u s e f u l data regarding the d i f f i c u l t y of c e r t a i n concepts. There i s a very r e a l danger that the expert i s l i k e l y to under-estimate the d i f f i c u l t y of the ideas i n h i s s u b j e c t . The poor r e s u l t s on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n items presumably show the need f o r r e c o g n i z i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between v e r b a l i z a t i o n and genuine understanding. Students may be able to p a r r o t the words of the text-book w i t h very l i t t l e comprehension. kk SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1. How p r a c t i c a l i s the suggestion of having the students read one long passage d i r e c t l y from the text-book? Would s e v e r a l t e s t s , each based on a s i n g l e t o p i c give c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s ? 2. What f a c t o r s of the classroom s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading a b i l i t i e s and achievement i n science? What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of each? 3. Is there an optimum l e n g t h of science reading assignment f o r Grade 9 students? How does i t vary w i t h the a b i l i t y of the students? 1+,. What are the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e s t scores and s k i l l i n text-book reading f o r other reading t e s t s , other text-books, and other populations? BIBLIOGRAPHY American C o u n c i l on Education, L i n d q u i s t , E. P. (ed.). Educational Measurement, Menasha, Wisconsin:: George Banta, 195l^ Bond, Eva, Reading and Ninth-Grade Achievement, New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , no. 756, 1938. Bond, G. L., and Bond, Eva. Developmental Reading i n High School. New York: Macmillan, I9I46"". Buros, 0. K. (ed.). The Th i r d Mental Measurements  Yearbook. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1949, Buros, 0. K. (ed.). The Fourth Mental Measurements  Yearbook. New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 1953* C a r l s o n , T. R, "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Speed and Accuracy of ..Comprehension," Journa l of Educ a t i o n a l  Research, X L I I (March, 1949), 500-511. Conant, M. M. The Co n s t r u c t i o n of a Diagnostic Reading  Test. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , no. 861, 1942. Davis, P. B. "A B r i e f Comment on Thurstone»s Note on a Reanalysis of D a v i s 1 Reading Tests," Psychometrika, XI (December, 1946), 249-255. Davis, F. B. "Fundamental Factors of Comprehension i n Reading," ..Psychometrika, IX (September, 1944)> 185-197. Dolch, E. W. "Comprehension i n Reading," Education, LXXVI (May, 1956), 536-540. Dolch, E. W. Psychology and Teaching of Reading. Second e d i t i o n . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Garrard Press, 1951. Edwards, A. L. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods f o r the B e h a v i o r a l  Sciences. New York: Rinehart, 1954* 46 Fowler, H. M. " A p p l i c a t i o n of the Ferguson Method of Computing Item Conformity and Person Conformity," Journal of Experimental Education, XXII (March, 1954) , 237-245. : G a r r e t t , H. E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. Fourth e d i t i o n . New York: Longmans, 1953. Gates, A. I . The Improvement of Reading. Revised e d i t i o n . New York: Macmillan, 1947. Gray, W. S. Annual Summaries of Reading I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n J o u r n a l of Educational Research. G u i l f o r d , J . P. Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. Second e d i t i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill, 193o: G u i l f o r d , J . P. "New Standards f o r Test C o n s t r u c t i o n , " Educational-and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, VI (no. 4 , 1946TT"l427-43a. . H a l l , W. E., and Robinson, F. P. "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach to the Study of Reading S k i l l s , " J o u r n a l of Edu c a t i o n a l  Psychology, XXXVI (October, 1945), 429-442. Jackson, R. W. B., and Ferguson, G. A. Manual of Educa t i o n a l  S t a t i s t i c s . Second r e v i s i o n . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1942. Johnson, M. S. "Factors i n Reading Comprehension," Educational A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , XXXV (November, 1949), 385-406. M c C a l l i s t e r , J . M. Remedial and C o r r e c t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n i n Reading. New York: Appleton-Century, 1936. Monroe, W. S. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Educa t i o n a l Research. Revised e d i t i o n . New York: Macmillan, 1950. N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education. The Teaching  of Reading. 3 6 t h yearbook, p a r t 1. B l o o m f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1937. Paterson, G. M., and Cameron, E. E. Science i n A c t i o n , Book I . Toronto: Dent, 1955» R03S, C. C. Me as are merit i n Today' s Schools. New York:: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1947. Shores, J . H. " S k i l l s Related to A b i l i t y to Read H i s t o r y and Science," Journal of Educ a t i o n a l Research, XXXVI ( A p r i l , 1943), 584-593. '. Shores, J . H. "Some Considerations of I n v a l i d i t i e s of General Reading Tests," Journal of Edu c a t i o n a l  Research, XL (February, 1947), 44H-457. Shores, J , H., and Saupe, J , L. "Reading f o r Problem-S o l v i n g i n Science," Journal of Educ a t i o n a l Psychology XLIV (March, 1953), 149-158. ' Sochor, E. E. " S p e c i a l Reading S k i l l s are Needed i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Science, A r i t h m e t i c , " Reading Teacher, VI (March, 1953), 4-11. Strang, Ruth, McCullough, Constance M., and T r a x l e r , A r t h u r , Problems i n the Improvement of Reading, Second e d i t i o n New York: McGraw-Hill, 19557" Swenson, Esther J . "A Study of the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Various Types of Reading Scores on General and Science M a t e r i a l s , " J o u r n a l of Educ a t i o n a l Research, XXXVI (October, 1942), 81-90. Thurstone, L. L. "Note on a Reanalysis of Davis' Reading Tests," Psychometrika, XI (September, 1946), 185-188. T r a x l e r , E. E., and Townsend, Agatha. E i g h t More Years of  Research i n Reading. New York: Ed u c a t i o n a l Records Bureau, B u l l e t i n no. 64, 1955. TABLE 17 COMPARISON OF THE READING TESTS USED IN THE EXPERIMENT Cooperative Science Test, Criterion Test Stanford Reading Test, Form Y, Part III Advanced, Form J, Test I Testing time 25 minutes 4B minutes 25 minutes Number of reading passages Longest passage Content Illustrations Tables Number of items Form of items 224 words 3 parts contain material similar to content of Grade 8 science (B. C. program), but not specific-ally taught in Science 3 2 parts contain material similar to content of Grade 9 science, but not specifically tested in the criterion test 1 1 30 multiDle-choice 725 words exerpts from prescribed text for Grade 9 science 20 96 words wide sampling of general reading and reading in special fields — 5 paragraphs could be classed as "scientific" U none 38 27 multiple-choice 3 direct questions 8 points for drawing station model of weather map none none UK multiple-choice completion Grade level 7-9 9 7-9 TABLE V TEST SCORES AND IQ'S FOR RANDOM SAMPLE OP 90 SCIENCE 10 STUDENTS PROM EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Stanford Reading Test, Advanced, Form J , Test I (44 p o i n t s ) 21 8 11 89 34 20 26 111 36 16 16 106 31 13 14 107 31 11 11 112 35 17 14 80 29 16 14 108 43 17 29 120 27 8 10 105 27 16 16 92 23 12 15 98 35 24 29 112 32 10 16 107 38 22 26 122 19 20 85 36 10 22 112 37 21 17 107 19 8 10 94 33 19 22 110 37 15 12 101 30 15 9 103 39 25 32 121 35 23 120 41 28 30 121 33 13 19 112 37 21 18 117 30 12 13 101 37 22 22 134 4o 19 18 103 31 13 19 100 39 25 21 124 20 14 25 107 37 14 18 114 39 23 26 I l k 37 14 16 108 4o 27 33 121 26 12 13 99 33 11 17 105 35 13 9 101 35 22 27 126 33 16 26 118 24 18 109 40 25 30 126 Cooperative C r i t e r i o n Science Test, Test I Q a Form Y, Part I I I (38 p o i n t s ) (30 p o i n t s ) TABLE V (continued) Stanford Cooperative Criterion Reading Test Science Test Test 29 16 16 105 39 15 19 101 36 19 23 121 37 16 23 118 26 9 13 86 ko 16 22 128 26 9 21 105 37 23 27 133 29 7 18 87 36 20 19 117 38 22 30 124 25 12 16 101 31 20 16 105 32 17 11 111 2k 7 20 10k 36 21 18 118 35 19 23 109 39 2k 28 119 38 22 105 21 12 8 90 31 20 19 110 44 23 31 10k 39 18 23 111 18 17 23 95 30 18 16 110 16 5 6 82 28 11 20 93 27 11 17 104 37 21 18 103 k l 28 36 125 36 20 19 104 33 13 16 95 36 16 26 113 37 16 30 119 38 21 30 105 k l 28 32 126 26 14 18 101 43 25 30 134 35 7 22 106 38 19 26 99 31 17 21 110 22 16 18 103 25 19 16 110 32 10 18 114 3k 2k 25 27 117 9 10 108 36 16 17 123 aotls Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability, Intermediate Examination. 51 TABLE VI CHRISTMAS SCIENCE MARKS, CRITERION TEST SCORES, AND COOPERATIVE TEST SCORES FOR TWO SCIENCE 10 CLASSES, KING EDWARD HIGH SCHOOL Class C (n=28) Class G (n= =27) Christmas Criterion Cooperative Christmas Criterion Cooperative mark score score mark score score 103 17 18 92 22 23 104 32 21 57 20 11 117 21 22 72 20 13 150 36 25 80 22 10 126 16 16 66 16 18 116 24 18 71 18 17 58 4 16 53 18 11 99 23 16 60 16 14 42 14 13 110 28 24 90 18 17 76 7 14 75 17 16 81 15 12 125 29 21 99 26 19 79 20 15 110 12 15 80 11 11 111 16 13 55 18 19 94 26 16 104 8 12 88 16 16 74 20 13 78 14 16 139 22 29 87 19 23 111 30 22 109 16 7 76 24 27 30 18 14 103 16 16 118 27 21 86 24 13 90 28 24 90 16 18 102 19 14 110 19 20 79 23 14 106 25 24 41 14 10 87 15 14 64 18 18 124 21 15 71 17 14 121 25 18 Mean 98.25 2 0 e l 8 18.04 81.20 18.91 15.59 TABLE V I I ITEM DIFFICULTIES AND FERGUSON T»S FOR PRELIMINARY FORM A OF THE CRITERION TEST, BASED ON A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 100 PAPERS P a r t I D i f f i c u l t y * a 39 b 78 63 d 75 e_ 28 Item f 35 £ h 35 I 20 1 70 Ferguson r t o .54 .18 .27 .31 .1*5 -.05 .08 .21 .38 .48 P a r t I I D i f f i c u l t y ' 34 66 75 93 62 62 69 52 58 75 Ferguson r . 2 9 .47 .57 . 23 - .32 . 6 2 . 6 3 .24 .38 . 3 1 P a r t I I I D i f f i c u l t y 39 67 67 81 85 87 66 47 41 Ferguson r .28 .32 .10 .48 ,k5 .29 .42 .20 .42 aper Sent of sample passing the item, •»_ C a l c u l a t e d from formula on page 27. VJl PO TABLE V I I I ITEM DIFFICULTIES AND FERGUSON r 'S FOR PRELIMINARY FORM B OF THE CRITERION TEST, BASED ON A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 1 0 0 PAPERS Pa r t I D i f f i c u l t y 1 a. 84 b 67 81 d 87 e_ 7 3 Item f 95 85 h 59 i 1*1 1 kS k 62 1 3 1 Ferguson r° . 4 0 . 3 2 . 2 2 .29 . 3 9 .16 . I 4 . 3 8 «34 «47 . 2 8 . 3 5 P a r t I I D i f f i c u l t y 63 5 8 33 6 0 44 5 1 32 1+3 1+9 39 Ferguson r . 2 7 . 0 5 . 5 0 . 4 6 . 4 3 . 3 2 . 4 5 . 2 2 . 3 6 . 2 0 P a r t I I I D i f f i c u l t y 73 28 33 78 60 29 67 46 5 0 44 Ferguson r .19 . 0 6 . 2 3 .1|2 .1*2 . 2 7 . 3 2 . 4 8 . 2 8 . 2 7 a P e r cent of sample passing the item. ^ C a l c u l a t e d from formula on page 2 7 . APPENDIX B I. DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE STANDARDIZED TESTS, The tests to be given are; 1, Test 1 of the Stanford Achievement Test i . e . paragraph  Meaning 2« Part III of the Cooperative Science Test i . e . Comprehension and Int e rpret at ion The working time of each test is 25 minutes. These instructions were prepared so that both tests could be given in a single 55-minute period. If the tests are given i n a single period, the examiner must be thoroughly familiar with the directions and very efficient i n carrying them out. Distribute the Stanford tests and the answer.sheets, "You w i l l be given two tests t h i s period. The second test w i l l be distributed while you are working on the f i r s t . Do not open the  second test u n t i l you are t o l d to do so. Do not put any marks on either  test booklet„ You are provided with an answer sheet, Write your name  and divis ion on the answer sheet now. Unfold the test so that pages 2, 3j and U face upward. Read the sample at the top of page 2..., The correct answer to #51 i s "brother" so put a "2" on the answer sheet after #51, S imilarly , since "up" i s the answer to #52, put a "7" after #52, You are to do. .only Test 1 - Paragraph Meaning. Are there any questions?... Begin", Record starting time. Check to see that a l l pupils are using the answer sheets and are answering by number. Pass quietly around the room distributing the Co-op t e s t . Watch for pupils opening the second test before they are told to do so. At the end of 25 minutes,. "Stop I Fold your booklets, place to one side with the cover page up. Turn to page 11 of the other t e s t . . . . Notice that the choices in question 1 are ' a l l marked 1-, When writing your answer on the answer sheet, use only the second part of the number. Do not put any marks i n the test booklet. You are to do only part III of t h i s t e s t . Any question**?.,. .Begin," Arrange 'the answer sheets alphabetically. II . DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERBTG SCIENCE READING TEST FOR GRADE IX The test is"designed to measure a student's a b i l i t y to read science text-book material. The working time for the complete test i s 48 minutes. Preliminary experiments indicate that the average student has ample time to attempt every item. However, to avoid having some pupils waste too much time on d i f f i c u l t questions, the supervisor w i l l announce when the students should begin each part. The scores w i l l be meaningful only i f the test is carefully admin-istered according to instructions. Some students w i l l be tempted to look at a neighbour's paper. An alert examiner can reduce t h i s source of error to a minimum. As booklets are being distributed, instruct students to f i l l i n the information requested on the cover page and warn them to wait for further instructions. Allow about one minute after last student receives his paper. Then read directions on cover page aloud. "Are there any questions?" . . . . "Begin reading." Record exact time and complete Time Record below. Each step of arithmetic should be double-checked. Make the announcements at the appro-priate times. The examiner i s requested not to answer any question concerning the test after the pupils begin reading. Time Record Date h r 0 min.-Start of test Number of pupils '  4r (O -"Begin Part II now i f you have not yet started i t . " -"Begin Part III now i f you have not yet started i t . " -V- 14- mim. -"Begin Part 17 now i f you have not yet started i t . " h r . min. -"Stop working!. . . Have you completed the cover page information?". Collect booklets at once. — 4-3 rn.'n. h r . min. -(should check with starting time) Arrange papers alphabetically. Please return a l l material, i . e . completed tests, unused tests, directions for administering. APPENDIX C I» SCPENCE READING TEST FOR GRADE DC DO• NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SOI •Name School , , Are you taking Science 10 this year? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boy or G i r l Father's occupation ..." Age . . . . . . . Yrs, l-ios. Directions; • i' i v • F i l l In the information asked for above... Wait for further instructions. This i s a .test of your a b i l i t y to-'understand, the kinds of material that you would find in-a science text-book. You have been .chosen to take part- i n t h i s experiment along with Grade 9 pupils from other Vancouver schools. Since this is not a speed test , most of you w i l l have more than enough time to t r y a l l the questions. To make sure that, you do not spend too much time on any part, your supervisor w i l l announce when you should be starting each part. However.' i t is not necessary to wait for these announcements. There are four parts to the test.. Read each.selection carefully and then answer the questions which follow the selection, You may refer back to the passage i f you wish. Work right through to the end of1 the t e s t . When.you f i n i s h , go back and try again the questions 3rou missed,. Most•of the questions..are i n the multiple-choice form and you are asked to put the number of the best answer i n the space'provided. If you are not sure of the answer to a question, ivrite down the number of the., choice which seems most l i k e l y . No questions will be permitted after the test begins. Part I ~2~ SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS ^;':;-: ; A synopsis of weather conditions i s made four times each day at a l l weather stations in Canada. These SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS are..taken .at times, which cor-respond to U:30 a.m., 10:30 a.m., ij.:30 p.m., and 10:30 p.m. in the Pacific'time zone. Information i s forwarded from each centre concerning a i r pressure, highest . .,and. lowest., temperatures, ...direction and'speed.,of wind, • humidity,' clouds, ..visibility, and amount of r a i n f a l l or snowfall. These reports are sent as quickly as possible .•from. the, observation station ..by .radio, ..telephone-or '-telegraph,- whichever i s the most convenient. Eventually, the synoptic observations are compiled for the pre-paration, of .a. weather map. Now.-:we• shall.see• how, the-forecaster i s able ;<to put a l l the facts sent.from an individual observation centre into a tiny space about the size of a ten-cent piece. MAKING THE WEATHER MAP ... ....; - • vl, j At the forecast office, the teletype service brings in synoptic observations at a. rate of one. report. every 10 seconds. -The observer how becomes a "plotter" and begins to assemble the details of a WEATHER MAP — a summation of weather conditions as reported from several hundred weather stations. The type of weather map used in Canadian forecast centres is, about 30 inches square arid printed with the. bare out-line of "the principal rivers, lakes> and mountain-ranges of North America.together with large portions of-the Atlantic-and Pacific Ocean. : •.-.:.•'. 68 52 Ja-J 209 ';:'. '•'..• , :'• Station Gircle •symbols • '. " (a) Sky cover by clouds 2$% (b) Barometric pressure 1020.9 millibars :".'....'" (The-decimal- point and digits standing for ••'.':•'. . '.;" hundreds are.emitted ..on. the weather-, map,) Cc) Type of low cloud (cumulus)., (d) Dew point i n degrees Fahrenheit (e) West wind, 2$ miles per hour (f) Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit Each weather observation station i s indicated on the weather map by a" circle 0 — the station c i r c l e , as i t i s called at the forecast centre. The plotter assembles the information which he has received using certain symbols and numerals in definite positions inside and around the station c i r c l e . For instance, consider the simple scheme used on a weather map to indicate the direction and speed of the wind at a certain station. The direction from which the wind i s blowing is shown by a line emerging from the c i r c l e . At the end of the line, one or more symbols are drawn to represent the wind velocity. Each whole barb or "feather" means 10 miles per hour; a half-barb means half that amount or 5 miles an hour; a solid "triangle" means 3>0 miles per hour. A combination of these symbols can be used to show any wind speed. -3. a. Which one of the following words could best be used instead of » "synoptic"? (Put the number of the best answer in the space provided at the right.) 1. simultaneous 2„ observed 3» suimnariaing 4# weather ....... (a) D b. Use the "station c i r c l e " below to show"exactly how the following data would be plotted on a weather map. Do not use any labels, letters, or symbols except those which would appear on the map, - north wind, 15 miles per hour - sky cover 50%, cumulus clouds - dew point 40 °F. - temperature 75°F» - barometer 1015»5 millibars Go on to Part II FORMULAS GIVE COMPOSITION OF COMPOUNDS Every compound has a definite chemical composition. When ve know what kinds of elements are present in a compound^ i t s composition can be represented quite simply. Since elements can be shown by symbols, then compounds (which are made of elements joined chemically) can be shown-by united groups of symbols'•called • CHEMICAL FORMULAS, 'Consider table .salt,.-. acompoundLriiade up of -two elements--' sodium and chlorine: Na is the symbol for sodium, CI i s the -symbol for chlorine, -Nad i s 'the formula for* ;'sodium: chloride (stable s a l t ) . This formula shows that each bit of common salt which exists as a substance is made of 1 atom of sodium chemically united to 1 atom o f chlorine, • When we'remember that each'particle of a substance that, can exist by i t s e l f is. a- moleculeP then we w i l l realize a formula  is an arrangement 'of symbols' standing for a molecule of a compound, • •• The formula of a compound t e l l s the proportions of each element which have joined to make the chemical substance. When a molecule of a compound has more' than, one' atom of ah element in i t s com-position^ the actual number is shown by small SUBSCRIPTS — whole numbers written slightly below and immediately after the symbol for that element. Consider the formula HNO^ * It represents a compound called n i t r i c acid and shows that each molecule of that particular acid is made of 1 atom of hydrogen, 1 atom of nitrogen, and 3 atoms of oxygen. Briefly then, a formula is an arrangement of symbols and  subscripts and stands for a molecule of  a particular compound, ELEMENTS COMBINE IN SIMPLE PROPORTIONS When two elements unite as a compound, that compound is not necessarily the only one which can be formed from them. Take the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) as an illu s t r a t i o n : During burning, carbon usually joins with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (COg), a non-poisonous but suffocating gas. However, during a mine explosion or when a car engine is l e f t running in a closed garage, often there is not enough oxygen present in the air to completely oxidize • the carbon and deadly-poisonous carbon monoxide (CO) is formed. The distinction between these two compounds is in the proportions of the elements present in them — CO has 1 atom of oxygen to 1 atom of carbon? while CO? has 2 atoms of oxygen to 1 atom of carbon. This simple relationship is indicated by the names mon (one) oxide and d i (two) oxide„ In 180/4, John Dalton was able to make a generalization based on many similar relationships.. He showed that whenever there are two or more compounds containing the same elements, the weights of the one element which are combined with a fixed weight of the.other have such simple relationships as 2 to 1, or 3 to 1, or 3 to 2, and the l i k e . Later, when he advanced the atomic theory, Dalton said that only  whole atoms can unite with one another when compounds are formed. Now we can understand why small whole numbers are used in the formulas for compounds and why we do not encounter such complicated arrangements of symbols and subscripts as CiH or H ] N_L0 3 . . Hydrogen Atom Nitrogen Atom 3 Oxygen Atoms Nitric Acid Molecule Symbols- Subscript FORMULA -5-Put the number of the best answer to each question in the space provided at the right. Try each question. You may refer to the reading selection but do not waste too much time on any one question, a, A chemical symbol is used to represent 1, an element 2, a proportion 3o a compound 4, a molecule 5• a formula .....(a) b, How many atoms are there in a molecule of H/jSO^ ? ....(b) c, A subscript gives the number of 1, substances 2 0 molecules '3. atoms 4, elements 5. compounds' ..(c) d, ^SO^ is a kind of chemical shorthand for sulphuric acid. The letters H, S , and. 0 are. 1, formulas 2, molecules 3o compounds. 4» symbols 5,. elements ... ••'(d) e, How many atoms of oulphur (£•) are there in a molecule of ^SO^? (e) f, CiO is not used as a chemical formula because 1, carbon and oxygen do not join in this proportion. 2, in an ordinary chemical change atoms do not divide 3, carbon-dioxide ( C C ^ ) and carbon-monoxide (GO) are the only compounds of carbon and oxygen Uo fractions are harder to work with than whole numbers ,.. ,(f) .g„ Suppose that the formulas given below represent actual substances. Hydrogen (H) and oxygen (0). unite in the same proportion in H„0 as in 1, H02 2 0 3 8 H^02 4. HO 5, .(g) h, A compound is a combination of 1 0 symbols 2« chemicals 3, subscripts 4, formulas 5, . elements ... 3.. „ i . (h) i e Element is to symbol as compound'is to 1 0 proportion 4» . molecule 2, formula 5» atom * (i) 3o subscript j . H^ O is 1„ an element 2 C a formula 3, a mixture 4, an atonw,(j)-Go on to Part I I I Part III -6-.ABSORPTION EXPLAINED Plants take in water and dissolved minerals from the s o i l through the walls of their root-hairs. The membranes which l-ine these cells have a special action with regard to substances passing through them. Water w i l l pass through freely,.dissolved salts less freely, and insoluble materials w i l l not pass 'through at a l l , • . '• A demonstration" w i l l show "how water and certain dissolved substances pass through the walls ; of -root-hairs: A solution of corn syrup (glucose) i n water is, held In an inverted thistleVtube.by fastening a. membrane'of parchment paper or pig's bladder over i t s mouth. The glucose represents the thick sap of plant cells and the membrane corresponds to the c e l l walls. After a time, you w i l l notice that'the • liquid has risen i n the' stem of the thistle-tube. When you remeirber that water can move freely through the'membrane, the, rise indicated that more water had passed inward than -had moved, outward, Perhaps you have used salt as a weed-k i l l e r along a walk.or a driveway. Soon after?the 'salt had been spread around, you. noticed, the-weeds'wilt" and die. In this instance, i t is.apparent that more water passed'outward through the c e l l walls to--wards the salty solution in the s o i l than, passed inward to the plant.. In both cases, the direction of flow through the c e l l walls was from the dilute solution towards the more concentrated one. Such diffusion' through a'special kind of membrane is- termed OSMOSIS, Osmosis plays an important'part i n the.life of plants. Wilted flowers revive in water b'ecause water passes into their cells'and extends, them. When -too much'chemical f e r t i l i z e r i s placed beside a plant i n the s o i l , i t w i l l , w i l t as water i s taken from i t s c e l l s . Thus,- under normal 'conditions, s o i l water diffuses through the walls of root-hairs and moves en into near-by root and stem ce l l s . Finally, i t reaches the plant leaf, where water i s one of the chemical substances needed during photosynthesis. •The movement of liquids' into plants i s usually inward and continuous because most plants have-special'arrangements to get r i d of any water not needed during food-making. . . TRANSPIRATION — WATER ELIMINATION PROCESS Water i s one cf the raw materials necessary for the manufacture of food materials. In addition, i t acts as a carrier for other raw materials, manu-factured products, and wastes throughout the plant. Plants use more water than any other substance. The root system of an averaged-size tree raises an enormous quantity of water from the s o i l . A mature apple tree, for example, w i l l l i f t 800 pounds of water out of the ground in a single day i n the summer. A stalk of corn w i l l raise almost LdxO pounds of water during i t s growing season; while an acre of farm meadow w i l l l i f t more than six tons of water during a warm July day. Fig. 1 WATER . . — y ^ . LEVEL -£-.'• A=. GLUCOSE SL_Jj^^ —-MEMBRANE Showing how water and -dissolved shstances ' pass through c e l l membranes Plants absorb more water through t h e i r roots than they require for photosynthesis. Only about 2% of the moisture taken into the plant goes into the food needed to build ' ' and nourish the plant. The remaining 9&% of the moisture taken into the roots is passed off through the leaves as vapour, Stomata allow this water to pass off from . the interior of the leaf into the a i r . This method of disposing of water is called TRAN3P IRATION . LEAF TRANSPIRED MOISTURE CARDBOARD - WATER Fife, 2 Transpiration can be shown by placing the stem of a large shoot of a plant such as a geranium, through a hole in a piece of cardboard big enough to cover a drink-, ing glass; The glass i s f i l l e d with water and a second tumbler inverted over the l e a f . In a short time, de\i w i l l appear on the inside of the upper glass—this rep-resents moisture which has been evaporated into the a i r from the- plants as transpired water. Put the number of the best answer to each question in the space provided at the r i g h t . Try each question. You may refer to the reading selection but do not waste too much time on any one question. a . F i g , ,2 i s a drawing of an.experiment which shows that 1, sunlight provides energy for food-making i n a plant 2, a plant absorbs more water through i t s roots than i t requires for food-making 3, water rises by capi l lary action i n the stems of plants 4* a dilute solution diffuses through c e l l walls into a concentrated solution .5, a concentrated solution diffuses through c e l l walls, into a dilute solution , . . . . . . . . . . . . ( a ) b . Elimination is related t o - t r a n s p i r a t i o n as absorption is to 1, raw materials 4. osmosis 2, capi l lary action "5, diffusion 3, photosynthesis 2. (b) A -Salt can be used as a .weed-killer because 1, i t has l i t t l e food value 2, i t causes the loss of plant f luids, i t is poisonous in large amounts i t stops osmosis it. clogs the plant's membranoo . . . . . . . 3. 4. 5. d, A dilute solution is often 1. watery 2.' saturated 3, salty 4, impure 5. thick '(c) Turn' Over -8-e. Osmosis i s the process by which a plant 1. gets r i d of.excess water 4, makes i t s food 2. takes i n carbon-dioxide 5.• breathes 3. obtains,, certain raw materials f. .In the experiment shown i n f i g . 1, the water r i s e s i n the tube because 1. . a i r pressure holds up the water 2. c a p i l l a r y action- draws up the water 3. the membrane i s porous. ' . • 4. the glucose solution is'more d i l u t e than the- water 5. the water i s more di l u t e than the glucose solution ......... g. On a warm July day, about how many mature apple trees would - .absorb as much moisture as an acre of farm meadow? 1. f i v e : 2. ten. 3. . fi f t e e n . 4. twenty 5. none of these (g) h. A plant's heeds are usually best supplied when the s o i l water i s 1. •.pure. '• 4. a concentrated solution 2, salty 5, a saturated solution .. ;. . 3. a di l u t e solution . Go on to Part PI PART IV WORK Many of us use the word- "work" without'understanding i t s real, meaning. If you push on some object and succeed i n making i t move, then — and only then you have done WORK. Thus i f you l i f t a book, climb up s t a i r s , or push on the pedals of your bicy c l e , you are doing work. Or, as the s c i e n t i s t s put i t , whenever a force i s exerted and something Is moved, then work has been done, This means that you could exert a l l your strength In trying to budge a heavy piano, but unless i t vas actually moved, a s c i e n t i s t would say that no work was done, STATES OF ENERGY' Scien t i s t s define energy as the capacity for doing work. A l l energy i s either-k i n e t i c or po t e n t i a l . The energy of matter i n motion i s called k i n e t i c ; the energy stored i n matter i s p o t e n t i a l . Only k i n e t i c energy can be put to immediate usej t potential energy must be changed in-some way to the k i n e t i c state before i t can-do useful work,.... POTENTIAL ENERGY — ENERGY IN RESERVE An object may have the a b i l i t y to do work because of i t s p o s i t i o n . A package on the kitchen, shelf has energy associated with i t , as you may discover.if i t f a l l s on your head. As long as the package stays unmoved on the shelf, the term POTENTIAL ENERGY may be used to describe the state of i t s energy — the word "potential" meaning stored or i n reserve. A stone weighing 5 pounds and on the edge of a 5 0 - f o o t - c l i f f has enough potential energy to do 250 foot-pounds of work because of i t s position. Water stored behind a dam-also has potential energy since i t i s i n position to do work when allowed to f a l l . Huge dams have been built, i n many parts •(e) _ ! ( 0 3 (h) _ - 9 -of the world to store run-off water when i t is p l e n t i f u l . These reservoirs hold i t as potential energy which can easily be changed to kinetic energy as i t is needed. Bending, twisting, stretching, or compressing materials often gives them potential energy that can be used to do work. A stretched rubber band is an ,examplej i t can .do .work upon i t s e l f or on things ,it strikes when one end is suddenly released, A similar demonstration can be done with a clock spring. As you. wind the clock mechanism, you give the spring a store of energy. This potential energy is gradually expended as the spring unwinds and turns wheels inside the clock, . In a l i k e manner, a bent bow has a reserve of energyj i t s sudden release causes an arrow to f l y through the a i r . Compressed a i r provides yet another instance of energy being held in reserve. As the a i r is released from i t s container, i t can be made to operate pneumatic hammers or d r i l l s , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . Because of i t s chemical composition, a stick of dynamite has potential energy. On exploding, the compounds within the stick undergo chemical.changes and i t s stored energy is released with great violence. S i m i l a r i l y , fuels such as wood, coal , o i l and gasoline .possess potential energy which can be released by burning them. The potential energy held in a material because of i t s composition is c a l l e d , . chemical energy. Like fuels, the foods which we eat contain the necessary potential chemical energy to enable us to exert muscular force for movement and.other useful work. Scientists have found that a l l atoms have a kind of potential energy beqause of their internal structure. This atomic energy seems.to be locked within each nucleus and in recent years, physicists have learned how to .obtain i t s p a r t i a l release from such atoms as thorium, uranium, and plutonium. Perhaps as more is learned about the forces within atoms, we s h a l l be able to make a better use of . t h i s potential for the benefit of mankind. Objects at rest may be capable of doing work because of their position or composition. However, the potential energy of such things as 'coi led springs, stores of water, foods or fuels, must be changed to the kinetic type before work. can be.accomplished, KINETIC -ENERGY — -ENERGY OF MOTION The energy of motion is called KINETIC ENERGY. Kinetic energy can be described as the a b i l i t y to do work because of i t s motion or the movement of i t s parts. A . thrown baseball has kinetic energy because i t can do work upon any object i t '.might h i t , Man uses various kinds of water-wheels and turbines to u t i l i z e the energy of running water.and make i t do work for him. Winds, c i r c u i t s with e l e c t r i c a l currents flowing in them, and f a l l i n g hammers are other instances of things.which possess kinetic energy they .exert .forces because .they ,are in.motion. This energy .of motion i s sometimes referred to as mechanical energy. Put the number of the best answer to each question in the space provided at the r i g h t . Try each question. You may refer to the reading selection but do not waste too much time on any one question. a. From what height i n feet must a 4-pound weight drop to. do 12 foot-pounds of work? •. (a) *^ b , A clock which has just been wound .but is not going has 1, no energy 4, potential and kinetic energy. . ^ 2 , kinetic energy only 5 , mechanical energy . . . . . . . ( b ) 3_ 3, potential energy only ( -10-c. Which one of the following' is an example of kinetic energy? 1, a bent bow 4. a stick of dynamite 2, a river' • ' 5. none'of these ....... 3, a.truck parked on a h i l l • (c) * d, . Work i s being done when 1. a person'pushes against something 2. an object moves 3. a.-force is exerted 4. a force causes motion 5. an object has energy .(d) 4 k. A wood-pile contains 1. chemical•energy 2. kinetic energy 3. me c han ic a l . e ne r gy 4. physical energy 5. no energy •(e) — 1 f, Wnich one of the following is an example of potential energy? .1. water'flowing through a turbine 2. a' boy running do\m stairs 3. ' a generator producing el e c t r i c i t y 4. a motor operating a fan ' 5. none of these .. •(f) _A Mechanical energy is'also 1. chemical- energy ' 2. ' atomic energy 3» electrical energy 4. potential -energy 5. none of these ',., .(g) h. . Which one of the following' phrases describes a type of ' energy which is different from a l l of the others?: 1. stored energy 4. energy due to position 2. energy due to motion 5. energy in reserve ..... 3. energy due to composition i . -'An object at' rest has •(h) 2. 3. '4'. 5.' both kinetic and potential energy • neither kinetic nor potential energy no kinetic energy ho potential energy no energy of any kind What kind of people have" "capacity for doing work" from the scientific point of view? . . •-1, a l l people intelligent people .. people who like to work ' people who do not t i r e easily strong people 2. 3. 4. 5. .(j) Which one .of", the following, phrases does not belong with the others? 1. chemical energy ' 4. potential energy 2. atomic energy' ' '5. electrical energy (k) 3. mochanical energy 4 'Go back and try questions' which you missed. Scoring Specifications for Part I (items b - i ) , Science Reading Test for Grade IX ~" b. c. d. f . h. i . 1 point for north direction correctly shown. 1 point for two barbs, the short one not more than three-quarters of the length of the longer. acceptable not acceptable U 1 point for any half of station c i r c l e cross-hatched or shaded. not acceptable pint for correct symbol for cumulus cloud anywhere between the dotted lines. Exception;; When symbol was placed in 9 o'clock position and temperature and pressure figures also displaced by 90°, then 1 point for cumulus cloud but no credit for "positioning"-see (h) below. / / .O / \ \ (en \ 1 point for kO. No credit for kO, kO P, kO degrees. 1 point for 155. No credit for 155 millibars, 115, .15.5 1 point for the three numerical quantities in the cor-rect quadrants, or, i f one symbol omitted, for two quantities i n the correct quadrants. 1 point for not labelling the symbols i n any way. Exception; i f station model is obviously not finished, no credit. T T T Stanford A d v a n c e d R e a d i n g: J u TEST 2 W o r d Meaning DIRECTIONS : In each exercise decide which of the four numbered words will complete the sentence best. Look at the number of this word. Mark the answer space at the right which is numbered the same as the word you have chosen. Study the samples. £ VMPLES: ' 6 1 The day that comes after Friday is — 1 Monday 2 Tuesday 3 Saturday 4 Sunday s i 6 2 To draw on a blackboard, use a piece of — 5 pencil 6 straw 7 eraser 8 chalk 52 1 Mary Smith and John Doe are cousins if they have the same — . . 5 1 grandmother 2 mother 3 sister 4 daughter 1 2 Marvelous means— 5 pleasant 6 distant 7 wonderful 8 great. . ... 2 3 r io lash is to — 1 deceive 2 whip 3 destroy 4 waste .3 * Anyone over 21 years old is — 5 a graduate 6 an adult 7 a major 8 a patriot 4 6" f you can identify a butterfly, you can — 1 exhibit it 2 stuff it 3 mount it 4 recognize it. 5 Something you must do, such as paying taxes, is — 5 a custom 6 a sacrifice 7 a duty 8 an opportunity e 7 Height, weight, and temperature are all — 1 distances 2 visible 3 feelings 4 measurements : . . 7 8 Groceries arranged to attract customers are — 5 displays 6 campaigns 7 evidence 8 bargains s 9 To attempt a job is to — 1 condemn it 2 oppose it 3 imagine it 4 undertake it 9 1 0 Things which are much alike are — 5 equal 6 handsome 7 similar 8 opposite 10 1 1 A small thing given as evidence of good faith is a — 1 petition 2 spindle 3 token 4 goblet n 1 2 A person elected to office should be — 5 confused 6 pitied 7 capable 8 noble 12 3 \yhen you don't sense anything which is going on about you, you are — 1 unconscious 2 sullen 3 prosperous 4 sensible 13 1 4 The group of men who run a business are its — 5 managers 6 customers 7 salesmen 8 engineers . . . u 1 5 Saving money for a "rainy day" is — 1 likable 2 industrial 3 fearful 4 advisable is 1 6 People who write letters to each other •— 5 correspond 6 translate 7 interrupt 8 interview is 1 7 The dead body of a wild animal is a — 1 vestige 2 carcass 3 corpuscle 4 corruption n 18 When you have learned your next lesson well, you are — 5 mistaken 6 prepared 7 discouraged 8 educated i s 1 9 Any statement about which there is question is — 1 vagrant 2 elastic 3 appreciable 4 debatable. -. . 1 3 2 ' When a person repeatedly fails at something he wants to do, he may become — 5 buoyant 6 frustrated 7 fruitless 8 drenched 2 1 Something written about or talked about is T-. ' • j 1 a token 2 a topic 3 a title 4 an article 21 2 2 If you have made up your mind about something, you have —; 5 a conviction 6 an investigation 7 a sermon 8 a doubt 22 [ 5 '] . Go on to the next page. TEST 2 Word Meaning (Continued) S t a n f o r d A d v a n c e d R e a d i n 2 3 Clothing of any kind is called— 1 woolens 2 apparel 3 robes 4 draperie 2 4 Money wasted foolishly is — 5 proffered 6 severed .7 scandalized 8 squander© 2 5 If everybody agrees upon a plan, the agreement is— j 1 unanimous 2 moderate 3 proportional 4 conscientious.. . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 An individual who insists upon doing things his way only is — • . \ 5 nimble 6 obstinate 7 kingly 8 towering.. j 2 7 When a man seeks a position with a certain firm, he becomes — . 1 an applicant 2 a suitor 3 a petitioner 4 a contractor . . . . . ! 2 8 A dramatic event in a story is called — 5 an epistle 6 a nucleus 7 a novelette 8 an episode. \ . . . . . . ! 2 9 "She has a good chance to recover" means that improvement is — 1 certain 2 assured 3 impossible 4 probable. 3 0 A difficulty to be overcome is — 5 an obstacle 6 a miracle 7 a vehicle 8 a barnac), 3 1 The way an army executes its campaigns is called its —-1 enmity 2 eclipse 3 tactics 4 treatise... 3 2 A beginner in some sport is — 5 a novice 6 a professional 7 a private 8 an assailaij 3 3 In a story meant to teach something, the teaching is called the — 1 fable 2 myth 3 plot 4 moral 3 4 One who works hard is — 5 brazen 6 alluring 7 ancestral 3 5 A daily newspaper calls the number of papers it sells each day its — 1 administration 2 attraction 3 circulation 4 introduction 3 6 Any very long, unpleasant experience is — 5 an ordeal 6 an offense 7 a vigil 8 a seclusion 3 7 One senator speaks of another senator as his — 1 collector 2 elector 3 colleague 4 chaplain 8 diligent. 3 8 Spotlessly clean clothes are — 5 blanched 6 immaculate 7 stark 8 purge 3 an incident 4 an ei 3 9 A small event that is part of a story is — l a plot 2 an epic 4 0 Any national issue over which there is disagreement is — 5 controversial 6 contraband 7 tabu 8 subversive 4 1 Corrupt politics are due largely to public — 1 responsiveness 2 antagonism 3 degradation 4 indifference. 4 2 To destroy something completely is to — 5 detract it 6 distort it 7 annihilate it 8depress.it  4 3 A very exact measurement is— 1 absolute 2 concise 3 precise 4 fundamental. 4 4 The "crossing" of two or more kinds of grain produces — 5 mongrels 6 hybrids 7 formulas 8 chaff 4 5 An interesting conversationalist often has a store of — 1 denominations 2 anecdotes 3 alibis 4 conveyances 4 6 Sometimes an opinion on a subject is changed after—-5 consternation 6 delegation 7 dissolution 8 deliberation. . . . . . Stop. 16 ] Advanced Reading Test FORM J M S T A N F O R D A C H I E V E M E N T T E S T T R U M A N L . K E L L E Y • R I C H A R D M A D D E N • E R I C F . G A R D N E R • LEWIS M . T E R M A N • GILES M . R U C H Advanced Reading Test for Use with Separate Answer Sheet 1 Issued 1953 by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois • Copyright 1952 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved, FBIKTED IN U.&A. SAT : ADV. BEAD. : m-r This test is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law. TEST l Paragraph Meaning Stanford A d v a n c e d R e a d i n g : J M 2 * DIRECTIONS : Read each paragraph below. Decide which one of the numbered words at the right is best for each blank, and then mark the answer space which is numbered the same as the word you have chosen. Study the sample below, and answer the other questions in the same way. S A M P L E : I am shorter than my sister and taller than my brother. This morning we stood beside one another. I looked down at my 51 and 52 at my sister. 51 .52 1 friend 3 sister 5 around 7 up 2 brother 4 feet 6 back 8 down 1 The children went to the circus. They saw elephants and monkeys and many other animals. There were many clowns and lots of popcorn and peanuts. The children said that they wished a 1 would come every day. 1 parade 3 circus 2 clown 4 monkey 2-3 The gold used for jewelry is mixed with another metal, usually copper. Pure gold is very soft, and jewelry made of it would not wear well. Therefore, copper or some other 2 is mixed with the gold to make it 3 1 metal 3 material 5 brighter 7 softer 2 mineral 4 chemical 6 prettier 8 harder 4 - 5 Insects that fly at night often make mistakes. It may be that they cannot tell the light of the moon from that given by an open fire. Sometimes these . 4 fly into a 5 and are killed. 1 animals 3 moths 5 window 7 flame 2 insects 4 birds 6 house 8 car 6 I go to bed at seven o'clock. Bob stays up until eight. We both rise at seven o'clock in the morning. Bob sleeps an hour 6 than I do. 1 longer 3 later 2 more 4 less 7-8-9 Wool is clipped from live sheep by a process called shear-ing. The entire mat of fleece from each animal comes off in a single piece. With electric clippers one man can 1 from 150 to 200 8 a day. After shearing, the 9 is rolled up and sent to the mill. clip kill pounds lambs 9 skin 11 fleece 2 run 4 feed 6 sheep 8 pelts 10 hide 12 cotton 10 io-n-12-13 A few years ago most freight was carried by railroad trains. Now such things as furniture and even automobiles are sent across country on trucks. Goods sent by 10 can go only where H have been laid, but goods sent by 12 can reach any point to which a 13 runs. 11 12 13 14-15 A long time ago the people of Peru did not know how to write. In order to count, they tied knots in threads of differ- * 4 ent colors. Each color meant a different kind of thing. The 14 in a thread stood for the things being 15 . [ 2 1 . 15 1 truck 2 rail 3 freight 4 express 5 roads 6 paths 7 tracks 8 highways 9 truck 10 rail 11 freight 12 express 13 drive 14 trail 15 track 16 road 1 knots 2 colors 3 loops 4 twists 5 counted 6 named 7 written 8 used Go on to the next page. TEST 1 Paragraph Meaning (Continued) S t a n f o r d A d v a n c e d R e a d i n g : J M TEST l Paragraph Meaning (Continued) S t a n f o r d A d v a n c e d R e a d i n g : JM 16 17 ^ V I T - I S The dog, first domesticated during the Old Stone Age, belongs to the same family as the wolf, jackal, and fox. It is believed that some breeds of dogs resulted from crossing two of these three animals, but perhaps not all dogs had the same ancestors. .Many breeds have developed since the 16 It is hard to see anything of the 17 in the barkless dog of the North American Indians, or any kinship between the is 18 and the cocker spaniel. 19-20 Ventriloquism is the art of making sounds so that they appear to come from a distance rather than from the speaker's i g own mouth. It is an ancient 19 . and many authorities believe that various phenomena such as the Greek oracles and the Egyptian speaking statues owe their explanation to the practice of 20 by the priests. great m i - 2 Stone Age gration American 4 First World revolution War 23-24-26 A common example of a chemical reaction is the rusting of iron. A gas called oxygen which is present in the air com-bines with the silvery metal iron to form a reddish brown substance known in chemistry as ferrous oxide, but commonly called 23 . This substance is quite different from either the 24 or the 25 which combined to form it. 20 21-22 Crude oil from wells in Texas and other Western states is now transported in pipes to refineries in such distant states as California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Pumping stations are located 25 to 40 miles apart along each pipe line. From 2 1 storage tanks near the wells the oil passes into the 21 and is 22 to the refineries. 22 23 24 25 2 6 During the French and Indian War more than one hundred English colonists were captured by the Indians at Deerfield, 2 g Massachusetts, and taken into the forest. Later, some were rajisomed but many refused to return to 26 17-28-29 Architectural styles are the result of social, technical, 2 7 and environmental factors. The flat-roofed houses of the Egyptians and the Aztecs were practical because of dry cli-mates. This illustrates the 27 factor. For heavy struc-tures both peoples used the pyramid, rather than beams, 28 buttresses, girders, etc. This illustrates the 28 factor. The decorations of these two peoples were widely different because of traditions and aesthetic standards. This illustrates 29 the>-^  29 factor. 30-31-32 The windward side of a great mountain chain has plenty of rainfall, whereas the regions on its lee are more arid. This difference is due to the fact that when prevailing winds strike high mountains, precipitation occurs and relatively little mois-ture is carried over the crest. Thus, the regions lying on the 30 side of mountain chains are better suited to 31 32 30 31 32 5 jaguar 6 lynx 7 jackal 8 puma 9 badger 10 antelope 11 leopard 12 wolf 1 science 2 art 3 custom 4 event 5 deceit 6 mystery 7 prophecy 8 ventrilo-quism 1 tankers 2 pipe lines 3 tank cars 4 oil trucks 5 shipped 6 tricked 7 hauled 8 pumped 1 iron 2 oxygen 3 copper 4 rust 5 iron 6 copper 7 rust 8 gas 9 oxide 10 oxygen 11 air 12 moisture 3 + 1 Pennsyl- 2 custody vania 3 captivity ,4 civilization 1 environ- 2 technical mental 3 social 4 common 5 environ- 6 technical mental 7 social 8 common 9 environ- 10 technical mental 11 social 12 common 1 windward 2 northern 3 southern 4 front 5 mining 6 defense 7 agriculture 8 sheep raising than those protected from the [ 3 ] 9 westerlies 10 northerlies 11 hurricanes 12 prevailing winds Go on to the next page. 33-34 A dinosaur called "stegosaurus" had a brain-like nerve center inside his skull, and another,- larger one in the region 33 of the pelvis. This latter controlled the reptile's heavy tail, which was armed with horn-like spines. Because of the domi-nance of the rear 33 , scientists jokingly ask whether the 3 4  34 wagged his tail, or vice versa. 35 35-36-37 Much of the history of man might be written in terms of ocean currents. The warm Gulf Stream contributes so much to the temperatures of England and northern Europe that if somehow it could be cut off, the region of the British Isles would be nearly uninhabitable. The mass of frigid arctic water helps bend the 35 to take a 36 direction and is itself prevented from reaching the 37 36 37 38-39 The noun radical comes from the Latin word for root. A radical is something fundamental, or at the root of things. One who wishes to upset the government is a radical because he wishes to make fundamental changes. In chemistry the fundamental parts of a compound are radicals. Recently a 38 critic of radicalism denounced a professor's book entitled " Organic Radicals in the Presence of Catalysts." It is reason-able to assume that the subject matter of the book was 38 . A dictionary would inform one that catalysts are chemical 3 9 agents and not foreign agents. The critic should conclude that the book was 39 . 40 41 4 0 Unusual meanings are sometimes attached to words. For as long as we have a record, "seeding" has meant putting seeds into the ground to grow into mature plants. " Cloud seeding " is an attempt to 40 41-42 Myths are' imaginary tales and have for their heroes gods and goddesses. In fables animals talk and have the char-acteristics of human beings. Apollo, the sun-god, figures prominently in many Greek 41 . The story of the " Dog 42 in the Manger " is one of the most familiar '42 43-44 Symbiosis is a very interesting biological phenomenon. It is the intimate living together of two different forms of life. For example, the Yucca, a desert plant, has its pollen carried from one flower to another by the Yucca moth only. This moth lays its eggs in a Yucca seed pod; the eggs hatch; the larvae eat some seeds and nothing else; they turn into moths, get covered with pollen, fly to a second Yucca blossom, carrying the pollen and fertilizing the seeds of the second plant. Thus 43 . The scientific term for wonderful cases like this is 44 [4 ] 43 44 1 spines 2 nerve center 3 pelvis 4 head 5 reptile 6 mastodon 7 man-eater 8 mammal 1 Gulf 2 Polar Stream Current 3 Japan 4 Atlantic Current 5 northward 6 westerly -7 north- 8 southeast-easterly erly 9 Gulf 10 Atlantic Stream 1-1 British 12 Newfound^ Isles land Coast 1 radical 2 subversive 3 unfamiliar 4 entertain-to the ing critic 5 about 6 u n - A m e r i -astronomy can 7 subversive 8 about chemistry 1 put seeds 2 put seeds into the into ground clouds 3 make seeds 4 make rain mature 1 fables 2 legends 3 myths 4 histories 5 myths 6 fables 7 legends 8 anecdotes 1 the moth 2 the Yucca helps the helps the Yucca moth 3 each helps 4 eachisnec-the other essary to the other 5 evolution 6 mutual aid 7 symbiotic 8 biologic ac-union commodation Stop. 4 + EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE COOPERATIVE SCIENCE TEST FOR GRADES 7, 8, and 9 FORM Y TEST NUMBER 615-84-1 by PAUL E. K A M B L Y , University of Oregon with the editorial assistance of P A U L J . B U R K E , Graduate Record Office; C A R L A. P E A R S O N , Southwest High School (Minneapolis); A L B E R T G. R E I L L E Y , Framingham Junior High School; A G A T H A T O W N S E N D , Educational Records Bureau; and J O H N G. Z I M M E R M A N , College of William and Mary Please print: Name .' Date r  Last First Middle Grade or Class '....1... Age Date of Birth Yrs. Mos. School ..: - City Sex. M. or F. Title of the science course you are now taking (for example: General Science) — ..— Teacher — General Directions: Do not turn this page until the examiner tells you to do so. This examination consists of three parts and requires 80 minutes of working time. The directions for each part are printed at the beginning of the part. Read them carefully and proceed at once to answer the questions. DO NOT S P E N D . T O O M U C H T I M E O N A N Y O N E I T E M . A N S W E R T H E EASIER QUESTIONS FIRST; then return to the harder ones, if you have time. There is a time limit for each part. You are not expected to answer all the questions in any part in the time limit; but if you should, go on to the next part. If you have not finished a part when the time is up, stop work on that part and proceed at once' to the next part. If you finish the last part before the time is up, you may go back and work on any part. No questions may be asked after the examination has begun. You may answer questions even when you are not perfectly sure that your answers are correct, but you should avoid wild guessing, since wrong answers will result in a subtraction from the number of your correct answers. Part Minutes Raw Score Scaled Score Percentile I Informational Background 40 II Terms and Concepts 15 III Comprehension and Interpretation 25 Total 80 COOPERATIVE TEST DIVISION Educational Testing Service Princeton, N. J. Los Angeles, Calif. Copyright, 1948, by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. Printed in U. S. A. - 2 -PART I I N F O R M A T I O N A L B A C K G R O U N D (40 minutes) Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five choices. Select the one that best completes the statement or answers the question, and put its number in the parentheses at the right. 1. 2. A man watching the stars notices that stars which were just rising six hours ago are now directly overhead. This effect is caused by the 1-1 rotation of the earth on its axis. 1-2 vast speed of the stars in distant space. 1-3 revolution of the moon about the earth. 1-4 motion of the sun among the stars. 1- 5 turning of the stars around the sun as a center . 1 ( Discoveries that are announced by scien-tists are likely to be true because 2- 1 scientists are educated people. 2—2 the discoveries are usually based on careful experiments. 2-3 the discoveries are based on natural laws. 2-4 scientists rarely make mistakes. 2- 5 scientists know what they are trying to discover s 2( It is believed that dinosaurs lost out in their struggle for existence chiefly because 3- 1 they were killed by man for food, man could not tame them, they were not adapted to changes that took place in the earth's sur-face and climate. they were not fitted to eat plant food, they had no brains 3( 7. 3-2 3-3 3 ^ 3-5 4. Which of the following would tend to in-crease in number most rapidly if all owls in a locality were killed? 4-1 Field mice 4-2 Robins 4-3 Groundhogs 4-4 Wild ducks 4-5 Quail 4( 5. Which one of the following animals can most easily change his surroundings to fit his needs? 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 A whale A gorilla An elephant A man A horse . . 5( ) The moon exerts a very important influence on 6-1 the tides. 6-2 changes in weather. 6-3 crops. 6-4 the relative lengths of day and night. 6-5 climate; 6( 8. 10. 12. The caloric rating of food refers specifically to the 7-1 vitamin content. 7-2 mineral content. 7-3 heat energy released by burning the food. 7-4 dry weight. 7-5 amount of protoplasm it will build. . 7( ) Most of the energy used by power plants at Niagara Falls is obtained from water by 8-1 evaporating the water. 8-2 distilling the water. 8-3 changing the water chemically. 8-4 making use of the force the water exerts in falling. 8-5 taking electricity from the water. . . 8( Soft coal heated to a high temperature in the absence of air will yield 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-5 coke. petroleum, marble, lime. sodium bicarbonate. . . : 9( A blast furnace is used to 10-1 extract aluminum from its ore. extract iron from its ore. extract gasoline from petroleum, produce natural gas. produce coal gas. . . . . . . . 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10( 11. The planet which takes the longest time to revolve around the sun is 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 the earth. Mercury. Venus. Mars. Pluto. . . 11( ) Through the entire atmosphere, as one gets farther away from the surface of the earth, the atmosphere 12-1 becomes denser. 12-2 becomes less dense. 12-3 changes continuously in chemical composition. 12-4 becomes bluer in color. 12-5 increases steadily in temperature. . 12( 13. Fresh water will boil at about 13-1 32° Fahrenheit. 13-2 68° Fahrenheit. 13-3 132° Fahrenheit. 13^1 150° Fahrenheit. 13-5 212° Fahrenheit. . . , 13( ) Go on to the next page. - 11 -PART in C O M P R E H E N S I O N A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N (25 minutes) Directions: This part consists of passages and tables. Following each selection are several items concerning it. Read the passage or examine the table carefully first; then decide which one of the choices given after each item best completes the statement or answers the question. If you cannot decide, you may go back to the selection. After you have decided on the answer to an item, put its number in the parentheses at the right as you did in Parts I and II. S O M E C O M M O N C O M M U N I C A B L E DISEASES Disease Means of Communication Early Symptoms Chicken Pox Discharges from nose or throat of patient. Rash. Diphtheria Nose or throat discharges; sometimes infected milk. Begins like a cold. Measles Nose or throat discharges. Begins like a cold. Reddish spots appear on the third day. Mumps Nose or throat discharges. Pain in salivary glands. Scarlet Fever Discharges from nose, mouth, ears; infected milk. Begins like a cold. In 24 hours evenly diffused bright red spots appear under skin. Whooping Cough Discharges from nose or mouth. Cough worse at night. "Whooping" develops in about 2 weeks. 1. According to the table above, impure milk is most likely to carry germs of 1-1 measles. 1-2 mumps. 1-3 scarlet fever. 1—4 chicken pox. 1-5 whooping cough 1( ) 3. The diseases listed in the table, taken as a whole, are most likely to be spread by - 3-1 spoiled food. 3-2 polluted water. 3-3 air-borne germs. 3—4 unpasteurized milk. 3-5 household pets 3( ) 2. Mary was sent home from school with what • seemed like a cold accompanied by a rash. One would be justified in concluding that she probably had 2-1 diphtheria. 2-2 whooping cough. 2-3 mumps. 2—4 tuberculosis. 2-5 some communicable disease; it is impossible to tell which one from the information given. . . . ; 2( ) 4. One of the most practicable ways, to avoid getting these diseases is to 4-1 stay away from crowds in poorly ventilated rooms. 4-2 eliminate milk from one's diet. 4-3 boil all.drinking water. 4—4 pasteurize all milk., 4-5 screen all windows and-doors 4( ) Go on to the next page. In 1941 the United States shipped some 150,000 tons of water to Great Britain. This represents the water content (75 to 95%) of the fruits and vegetables that were transported during that year. Removal of this water by dehydration before shipping will make it possible for this tonnage to be used for the transportation of other materials. Modern scientific dehydration preserves the flavor and some 90% of the vitamins of fresh food. In one process the fruits and vegetables are cooked, cooled, pulped, and then sprayed in a thin film on revolving drums, where heat drives off 96% of their water in from ten to twenty seconds. Steam rising rapidly from the food prevents oxidation, as when apples turn brown. The foods most successfully dried in this way are apples, bananas, peaches, peas, squash, and pumpkin; and in the dried state these foods will store well for years. When water is added and the food warmed up (it need not be cooked again), it is ready to be served. 5. The process described by the writer re-moves most of the water from the food by 5-1 oxidation. 5-2 preservation. 5-3 evaporation. 5—4 transportation. 5-5 cooling 5( ) 6. The writer of the passage believes that 6-1 many foods should be dehydrated be-fore shipping. 6-2 less food should be transported to Great Britain. 6-3 dehydrated foods contain more vita-mins than untreated foods. 6-4 the transportation of other materials is more important than the transpor-tation of food. 6-5 dehydration of foods improves their flavor. . 6( ) 7. According to the passage, an important rea-son for drying foods before shipment is to 7-1 increase the amount of water shipped to Great Britain. 7-2 permit greater shipments of other materials. 7-3 prevent apples from turning brown. 7-4 conserve fuel by making it unneces-sary to cook foods. 7-5 make the foods more convenient to serve 7( ) - 13 -Figure 1 I A L O N G THE j| W A R M F R O N T | - —iea-ioo MI »(;•" •-••'•)» to 50o M.—. l' A l O N C THE | C O L O F R O N T ^ N B S T CUM6 HCIGNT 4 When air masses are active, storms occur. To a meteorologist a storm does not necessarily mean rain or snow. It is merely an active field of combat where warm air has made a dent in the cold front. This forms a round or oval low-pressure storm area, anywhere from 300 to 2,000 miles in diameter, with the winds revolving around it counterclockwise and spiraling slowly towards the center. Rains sometimes fall along the fronts in this "low" and are carried across the country by the prevailing westerly winds. Along the warm front, the onrushing warm air climbs over and pushes back the wedge of cold air, as is shown in Figure 1. As it rises, it cools and gives up its moisture. Clouds form as billions of tiny water droplets, only about 4 ten-thousandths of an inch across, condense out of the air, and cling to microscopic bits of dust. Then, as the droplets grow in size, they fall and we have rain—or if they freeze on the way down, we have sleet; or if they form crystals of ice while they are still in the cloud, we have snow. Along the cold front, shown in Figure 2, changes are usually sharper. The warm air is pushed upward sud-denly, and huge quantities of water, often thousands of tons, condense out of it to form towering thunderheads. 8. A storm may best be defined as 8-1 a low-pressure area. 8-2 a high-pressure area. 8-3 an area in which the winds are revolv-ing clockwise. 8-4 an area in which the winds are spiral-ing out from the center. 8-5 an area in which there are violent and destructive winds 8( ) 9. Rains usually move across the United States from 9-1 east to west. 9-2 west to east. 9-3 north to south. 9-4 south to north. 9-5 southeast to northwest 9( ) 10. Which of the following characteristics of the warm air mass is responsible for its position as shown in Figure 1? 10-1 Rapid motion 10-2 Counterclockwise motion 10-3 Large volume 10-4 Light weight 10-5 Relatively heavy weight 10( ) 12. Rains are caused by 12-1 cold fronts being pushed upward. 12-2 cold fronts being pushed downward. 12-3 warm fronts rising over cold fronts. 12-4 warm fronts going under cold fronts. 12-5 warm fronts mixing with cold fronts. 12( ) 13. The center of every raindrop is 13-1 a molecule of water. 13-2 an atom of water. 13-3 a tiny particle of ice. 13—4 a tiny particle of dust. 13-5 an electron 13( ) 14. A person who predicts weather on the basis of accurate information is technically called 14-1 a weather forecaster. 14-2 a geologist. 14-3 a meteorologist. 14—4 an anemometer. 14r-5 an astrologist 14( ) 11. Sleet particles are most accurately de-scribed as 11-1 frozen rain drops. 11-2 large hailstones. 11-3 frozen water vapor. 11-4 small bits of dust. 11-5 a kind of snow. . .* 11 ( ) 15. What is the approximate diameter in inches of a water droplet in a cloud? 15-1 .4 15-2 .04 15-3 .004 15-4 .0004 15-5 .00004 15( ) Go on to the next page. - 14 -(1 (2 (3 . (4: (5 (6: (7 («: (9: do: ( i i (12 (13 (14 (15 (16 The work you do in walking is, for the greater part, work in lifting your body. To find how high you lift your body at each step, hold a piece of crayon touching the blackboard when you stand with your side to it. Walk along at your natural gait, keeping the arm rigid with the body. The crayon makes a rising and falling curved line. Find the number of inches from the average of the lowest points on the curve to the average of the highest points on the curve. This is the distance you lift your body at each step. Measure this ""distance in inches and change to a fraction of a foot. This number multiplied by your weight is the work you do at each step; multiply by the number of steps you take in walking from home to school to get'the foot-pounds of work you do. 16. The work you do in taking one step is found by multiplying your weight by 16-1 12. 16-2 your height. 16-3 the distance, in feet, that your body is lifted in taking a step. 16-4 the length, in feet, of the curved line in the experiment. 16-5 the number of inches in one step. . 16( ) 19. Even without the use of the crayon and blackboard, one could calculate that the work done by a 200-pound man going up a step 9 inches high would be 19-1 150 foot-pounds. 19-2 175 foot-pounds. 19-3 200 foot-pounds. 19-4 267 foot-pounds. 19-5 1,500 foot-pounds 19( ) 17. In calculating the amount of work you do in walking from home to school by the method described above, it is not necessary to know 17-1 your weight. 17-2 the distance you lift your body at each step. 17-3 the number of inches in one foot. 17-4 the number of steps from home to school. 17-5 the speed with which you walk. . . 17( ) 20. To make the change indicated in lines 12 and 13 of the passage, it is necessary to 20-1 multiply by your weight. 20-2 multiply by the number of steps from home to school. 20-3 multiply by 12. 20-4 divide by 12. 20-5 divide by your height. 20( ) 18. This method for measuring the work you do in walking would be least accurate if you 18-1 weighed a great deal. 18-2 were going uphill. 18-3 walked in a straight line. 18-4 walked in a circle. 18-5 walked very slowly 18( ) 21. If your weight is 120 pounds, and the dis-tance you lift your body at each step is one inch, how much work will you do in taking 1,000 steps? 21-1 1,000 foot-pounds 21-2 1,200 foot-pounds 21-3 10,000 foot-pounds 21-4 12,000 foot-pounds 21-5 120,000 foot-pounds 21( ) Go on to the next page. - 15 -Often the instinctive actions of insects seem so compli-cated that it is difficult to think of them as being purely mechanical reactions, as they are. The actions of a cer-tain larva that is a parasite of one of the wild solitary bees illustrate this statement. Following their inherited in-stincts, these tiny larvae lie in wait for this certain kind of bee at the mouth of the underground tunnel in which she builds her nest. As she approaches, several of the larvae leap upon her back and bury themselves in her hair. Here they remain motionless while the bee, follow-ing her instincts, makes the necessary journeys to the flowers for materials with which to construct her cells and to store them with food for her young. But the instant she lays an egg in a cell, the egg somehow serves as a stimulus to the little parasites. Immediately they leap upon it, for it is the bee's egg that they use for food. The bee seals the cell in her customary mechanical way—the only way that her inherited nerve structure permits. She has no way of knowing that her egg will be eaten, nor can she alter her behavior in the slightest degree. The larva mentioned in the passage above is 22-1 not harmful to bees in general. 22-2 really of benefit to bees. 22-3 harmful to many insects. 22-4 a parasite. 22-5 a nest-builder 22( The food of the larvae consists of 25. 23-1 23-2 23-3 23^1 23-5 honey. part of a beehive, bees' eggs, bees' hair, parasites 23( ) 26. According to the writer, the actions of both the bee and the larva depend on 24-1 past experience. 24-2 the need for food. 24-3 parental instruction. 24-4 intelligent planning. 24-5 inherited nerve structure 24( The author feels that 25-1 some bees are very intelligent. 25-2 seemingly intelligent behavior in in-sects is merely instinctive. 25-3 parasites are among the most in-telligent of insects. 25-4 parasites as well as insects are im-portant in pollinating flowers. 25-5 domestic bees have more highly developed nerve structures than wild solitary bees 25 ( From the passage, conclude that one could justifiably 26-1 26-2 26-3 26-4 26-5 most parasites eat bees' eggs. this larva has a well-developed sense of smell. the disappearance of this kind of bee might also cause the disappearance of these larvae. the bees who know that their eggs are under attack can drive parasites away. this larva would be found in all bee-hives 26( Go on to the next page. - 16 -The first stroke of the four-stroke cycle Diesel engine is the intake of a charge of fresh air. With the inlet valve open, the piston, moving downward, pumps in air to fill the cylinder. When the piston passes the bottom of its stroke, the inlet valve closes. The second stroke compresses the air to between 500 and 600 pounds per square inch. When air is com-pressed, its temperature rises. In the Diesel engine the temperature of the compressed air may reach as high as 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The fuel is injected into this hot air. Since the oil is in a fine, fog-like spray, it starts to burn immediately. The injector continues to spray fuel oil into the cylinder until all of the charge is injected. The pressure in the cylinder rises to between 800 and 850 pounds per square inch. The third stroke is the power stroke. The hot gases expand and force the piston downward. The chemical energy of the fuel is converted into mechanical energy to move the piston. The fourth stroke is the exhaust stroke. The exhaust valve opens and the piston, moving upward, forces the burned gases out to make room for a new charge of air. 27. The pressure which injects oil into a Diesel cylinder must be at least 27-1 15 pounds per square inch. 27-2 30 pounds per square inch. 27-3 100 pounds per square inch. 27-4 400 pounds per square inch. 27-5 800 pounds per square inch. . . . 27( 29. What causes the fuel to ignite in a Diesel cylinder? 29-1 Hot fuel 29-2 A spark 29-3 Hot air 29-4 Heat of friction 29-5 A fuel pump 29( 28. Which of the following processes is most important during the third stroke of the piston? 28-1 Chemical changes occur. 28-2 Air is compressed. 28-3 Heat is absorbed. 28-4 Energy is stored. 28-5 Energy is destroyed 28( ) 30. In what position are the valves during the compression stroke? 30-1 Both are open. 30-2 Both are closed. 30-3 The inlet valve is open and the ex-haust valve is closed. 30-4 The inlet valve is closed and the ex-haust valve is open 3,0( ) If you finish this part before the time is up, you may go back and work on any part. 0 3 7 11 IS 19 23 Number wrong | | | 1 1 1 | 2 6 10 14 18 22 + Amount to be subtracted 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number right_ Subtract^ (See table at left) J 94 R 20 X Raw Score on Part III = Difference TV. ANSWER SHEETS FOR-THE' STANDARDIZED TESTS N 310.6 . • o o o e . * o « o o o i > . t . . « o « o . o . o « «SCllOOl« o , . » . . 0 . 0 . • > • • > . » 0 » Stanford Test Cooperative Test P*2-.ANSWER BY NUMBER ANSWER BY NUMBER 51 1 22 p . l l - 1 3 52 7 23 4- 2 5 1 3 84 5 3 3 2 i 25 ro 4 3 * 26 4- p.12- 5 3 4 27 I 6 1 5 7 28 7 7. 6 4 29 // p.13- 8 1 7 / 30 / 9 2-8 31 7 10 4-9 If 32 /z. 11 1 10 z p.4. - 33 12 3 11 7 34 5" 13 4-12 ? 35 f 14 3 13 36 7 15 4-14 / 37 n p.14- 16 3 15 6* 38 3 17 5~ 16 Z 39 18 2_ 17 7 40 4- 19 / 18 41 3 20 A-19 2_ 42 21 3 20 43 4- p.15- 22 4-• 7 — , — 21 V - 44 7. 23' t 24' 5" 25 26 p,16- 27 28 29 30 3 S •3 2_ APPENDIX D THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STANFORD TEST SCORES AND CRITERION TEST SCORES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS The relationship between Stanford Test scores and Criterion Test scores may vary with the a b i l i t y of the group. To investigate this possibility, the correlations between these two sets of scores were computed separately for good and poor readers• From the total group writing the tests, the papers of students repeating Science 10 and those who had tried preliminary form B were discarded© Of the remain-ing group, the 65 pupils (2$%) with the highest scores on the Stanford Test comprised"the good readers* Since the range of a b i l i t y bad been greatly reduced, i t mas not sur» prising to find that the correlation coefficient dropped from »58 to ©39• The corresponding coefficient for the poor readers, the group scoring i n the bottom 2f> per cent on the Stanford Test, was »21» Application of Fisher's ^transformation indicated that the difference between the correlations was not significant. These data suggest that the Criterion Test calls for certain s k i l l s which are not included in general reading tests, but whether these s k i l l s should be included is a. matter of opinion* The scores are given i n Table IX* ' 58 T A B L E I X STANFORD T E S T SCORES AND C R I T E R I O N T E S T SCORES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS Good Readers* Poor Readers b Jtfd. C r i t . Stfd. C r i t . Stfd. C r i t . Stfd* Gri1 29 39 25 22 18 21 20 ki 30 & 25 20 20 26 15 39 23 42 27 19 10 29 19 k3 31 i+Q 32 28 1% 28 15 ki 36 38 25 2k 10 25 16 39 29 39 21 26 9 28 17 k.0 29 38 12 26 13 29 16 hi 32 41 27 2k 20 28 19 39 23 k3 31 2k 13 21 11 39 26 38 15 21 38 27 17 39 2lv ko 26 23 12 25 23 39 13 ko 22 26 13 27 10 kk 31 39 20 % 10 28 20 29 28 38 26 16 16 27 7 ki 19 39 28 29 *6 29 14 39 17 39 36 26 18 29 *k 39 24 38 34 27 16 2k 29; 20 39 29 38 2k 21 18 8 39 25 k2 25 29 18 2k 11 39 17 k3 29 28 20 25 k® 33 a> 25 21 8 29 lk kX 28 k2 32 29 15 25 16 39 23 ki 26 25 15 28 17 39 29 k3 30 ^ 20 27 17 1+2 23 39 25 2^  17 21 13 3$ 26 k2 30 16 6 18 23 •ij.6 23 ko 28 23 15 29 15 39 19 30 18 11 25 11+ 39 32 38 30 26 13 25 23 38 23 i a 30 26 21 2k 10 kP 18 ij.2 18 29 16 28 26 ko 16 40 30 25 lk 29 14 38 2k 29 25 aThe 65 pupils scoring i n the top 2$% on the Stanford Teste ^The 65 pupils scoring i n the bottom 2$% on the Stanford Test* 

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