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The parolee and his "after-care" problems : an exploratory study of conditions encountered by men on… Spiro, Grant Philip 1961

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THE  PAROLEE AND HIS "AFTER-CARE™ PROBLEMS:  An e x p l o r a t o r y study o f c o n d i t i o n s encountered by men on p a r o l e which impede the process o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , w i t h some a p p l i c a t i o n s t o a f t e r - c a r e agencies, B r i t i s h - C o l u m b i a , 1961.  by GRANT PHILIP SPIRO  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1961 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  In the  presenting  requirements  of  British  it  freely  agree for  that  an  advanced  for  available  I  copying  gain  shall  by or  not  his  p a r t i a l  degree  fulfilment  at  the  Library  shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  may  be  granted  representatives.  allowed  of  this  without  by  of  the  It thesis  is  Columbia,  make  further this  Head  of  thesis my  understood  for  my w r i t t e n  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada.  copying  of  University  the  publication be  in  that  for  purposes  or  agree  for  permission  that  Department  thesis  Columbia,  scholarly  Department  this  financial  permission.  iii ABSTRACT This thesis i s concerned with the problems of men d i s charged from prison on parole. The objective i s to describe the broad contours of the subject and then to i d e n t i f y within these l i m i t s those problems of the parolee which appear most l i k e l y to a f f e c t h i s chances of successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The major defects i n our present system of parole are reviewed and some suggestions are offered f o r further research. This study i s primarily exploratory i n nature, as no attempt has been made to submit p r e c i s e l y formulated hypotheses to exact v e r i f i c a t i o n procedures. Ten major problems thought to be common to a l l parolees, t h e i r causes and t h e i r many ramifications are discussed. Extensive reference i s made to previously published analyses of t h i s subject. To supplement t h i s discussion, various leaders i n the f i e l d of after-care and several parolees were interviewed to provide further i n formation for the analysis and i l l u s t r a t i o n of the ten problem areas explored. The evidence gathered indicates that of the ten problem areas discussed, the problems of reintegration into the family and the community pose the greatest d i f f i c u l t y to the parolee and the after-care agencies; and that the other problems d i s cussed serve i n the main only to complicate these two c r i t i c a l areas. The study indicates that the key to solving these problems hinges on the parolee's mental picture of himself, which has been warped by h i s prison experiences. The study shows also that, contrary to public b e l i e f , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n generally starts only when the parolee i s released, and not during incarceration. The value of parole l i e s i n the fact that, through r e a l i s t i c and warm support, the parole supervisor can help the parolee to gain a better image of himself, and thereby a s s i s t him to meet the f r u s t r a t i o n s of s o c i a l l i v i n g i n such a way as to allow and_ encourage emotional growth. The study shows a need for more r e a l i s t i c programs of education and t r a i n i n g , as well as r e a l i s t i c pre-release programs f o r the inmate. Such programs would reduce the obstacles of r e j o i n i n g the family and the community and help to reduce the tendency toward dependency shown by most parolees. Moreover, the study indicates, that the success and the effectiveness of parole rests to a large extent on the attitude of the p u b l i c . Without public good w i l l corrections programs w i l l never be able to succeed. This means that the objectives and r e s u l t s of good after-care programs must constantl y be kept before the public i n order to b u i l d t h e i r confidence i n , understanding of, and support for these programs.  iv The study shows the great need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n this f i e l d . Yet i n the f i e l d o f c o r r e c t i o n s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Canada v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has i n f a c t been done. Some needed l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h are i n d i c a t e d .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to extend my sincere thanks to Mr. Adrian Marriage for h i s advice i n planning t h i s study, and f o r h i s h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m of the material as i t progressed to completion.. I wish also to thank Mr. M. Davis, Executive Director of the John Howard Society of B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. R. Smith, Assistant Director of Corrections for the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. Kyle Stevenson, the B r i t i s h Columbia Regional Representative f o r the National Parole Board; Mr. C. McCaw, Executive Director of the Borstal Association of B r i t i s h Columbia; and Brigadier H. Nyrerod, Director of Correctional Services f o r the Salvation Army of B r i t i s h Columbia, each for the time and information they so w i l l i n g l y  supplied.  F i n a l l y , may I extend a special thanks to my wife without whose help and support t h i s thesis would never have been completed.  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  The Nature and Conditions of Parole  Chapter II  Problems of the Discharged  Page After-care i n Canada—yesterday and today. History of parole i n Canada. Common confusions about parole. J u s t i f i c a t i o n for parole. Nature of the present study: a study of the l i t e r a t u r e and l o c a l interviews 1  Offender  Employment. Relations within the family. Re-establishment i n the community. E f f e c t s of incarceration. Devaluation of " s e l f image". Police discrimination. P e r s i s t i n g influence of past and present criminal companions. Loss of c i v i l r i g h t s . Negative attitudes to authority. Problems created by parole conditions 23  Chapter I I I  Two  Views:  The After-Care Agency  f  and The  Parolee  How after-care agencies see the problems of the parolee: s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s ; the predisposed personality; "post-release paranoia *; s o c i a l relationships; how the parolee sees his problems: f e e l i n g s toward parole; self-conception; the parolee and his friends; the parolee and the parole supervisor 55 1  Chapter IV  What i s Wrong With Our R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program  The p r i s o n : old and new concepts. The Parole System. The public a t t i t u d e . Conclusion. Suggested future research topics... 81  Appendix: A.  Bibliography.  CHAPTER I THE  NATURE AND CONDITIONS OF PAROLE  ••Many men on t h e i r r e l e a s e c a r r y t h e i r p r i s o n about w i t h them i n t o t h e a i r , and hide i t as a s e c r e t d i s g r a c e i n t h e i r hearts S o c i e t y t a k e s upon i t s e l f t h e r i g h t t o i n f l i c t punishment on t h e i n d i v i d u a l , but i t a l s o has the supreme v i c e o f shallowness and f a i l s t o r e a l i z e what i t has done. When t h e man s punishment i s over i t l e a v e s him t o h i m s e l f ; i t abandons him a t t h e very moment when i t s h i g h e s t duty towards him b e g i n s . " T  Oscar Wilde, de P r o f u n d i s . Both p a r o l e and a f t e r - c a r e have a long h i s t o r y i n Canada. Although progress has been p a i n f u l l y slow, p a r t i a l l y owing t o p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l apathy and executive some p r o g r e s s has been achieved  inefficiency,  i n this field.  Until  recent-  l y the emphasis had been p l a c e d on punishment and custody, but the t r e n d now i s toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e p r i s o n e r .  While  t h i s , o f course, i s a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , t h e l a c k o f adequate f a c i l i t i e s , u n r e a l i s t i c programs and u n t r a i n e d  workers  have r e s u l t e d i n t h e marquetry t h a t e x i s t s today. After-Care  i n C a n a d a — Y e s t e r d a y and Today  In t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f c o r r e c t i o n s i n Canada a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e o f f e n d e r from t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  once he was  discharged  In 1835 Canada's f i r s t p e n i t e n t i a r y  was opened, and t h e f o l l o w i n g year t h e Rules and for  little  Regulations  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d : The s h o r t e s t s e c t i o n had t o do w i t h '•Discharge o f Convicts'", and reads as follows**. . . a d i s c h a r g e d  -2c o n v i c t s h a l l be c l a d i n a decent s u i t o f c l o t h e s , s e l e c t e d from t h e c l o t h i n g t a k e n from new c o n v i c t s • • • He s h a l l then be s u p p l i e d with money a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i s t a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i c t where he was t r i e d and sentenced, but not exceeding the sum s p e c i f i e d i n t h e law (one pound). As t h e time when t h e c o n v i c t i s about t o be d i s c h a r g e d i s f a v o r a b l e f o r e l i c i t i n g t r u t h , w i t h a view t o o b t a i n i n g f a c t s which may be u s e f u l , the C h a p l a i n w i l l endeavour t o o b t a i n from him a short h i s t o r y o f h i s l i f e , h i s parentage, education, t e m p t a t i o n s , and t h e v a r i o u s steps by which he was l e d i n t o a course o f v i c e and crime, and commit t h e same t o w r i t i n g , f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f the i n s p e c t o r s ; a f t e r which, t h e c o n v i c t s h a l l be d i s c h a r g e d w i t h a s u i t a b l e admonition and a d v i c e . 1  T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e t r i b u t i v e theory  o f custody and  punishment so l o n g dominant i n our c o u n t r y . The for  first  discharged  Canadian r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r a f t e r - c a r e p r i s o n e r s appears t o be found i n 1S49  when  a commission was e s t a b l i s h e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the conduct, management and d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p e n i t e n t i a r y at Kingston.  "When t h i s r e p o r t was i s s u e d i t contained  the f o l l o w -  ing: I t must be confessed t h a t t h e success o f any system o f p r i s o n d i s c i p l i n e w i l l be s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by the treatment which the c o n v i c t r e c e i v e s on h i s d i s charge from confinement. A c o n v i c t may leave h i s c e l l p e n i t e n t and determined t o reform, but i f he i s met w i t h harshness and r e f u s e d employment, and h i s good r e s o l u t i o n s t r e a t e d w i t h scorn, d e s p a i r w i l l soon overtake him, poverty and t h e f o r c e o f circumstances w i l l t o o o f t e n d r i v e him back t o t h e haunts o f crime . . . Much has been done i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by p r i s o n s o c i e t i e s , who r e c e i v e the p e n i t e n t t r a n s g r e s s o r on h i s d i s c h a r g e , and a i d e him and s t r e n t h e n him i n h i s s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e frowns o f the world; t h e t i d e o f p u b l i c sympathy has been, by t h e i r l a b o u r s , t u r n e d towards the h e l p l e s s o u t 1 Canada, Report o f a Committee Appointed t o I n q u i r e i n t o the P r i n c i p l e s a n d Procedures Followed i n t h e Remission S e r v i c e E t c . Ottawa. 1956, p . 74i ( h e r e a f t e r known as t h e Fauteux Report)•  c a s t , and great good has undoubtedly been e f f e c t e d , * A more noble work c o u l d not engage the e f f o r t s o f the C h r i s t i a n o r P h i l a n t h r o p i s t . We t r u s t t h a t such a s o c i e t y w i l l , ere l o n g , e x i s t i n our own country. • • Despite  t h i s observation,  around 1867 jail.  The  the challenge  when a Sunday School was teachers  was  not taken up  s t a r t e d i n the  were mainly M e t h o d i s t s or  until  Toronto  Anglicans:  . . . who emphasized the d o c t r i n e o f p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n , and q u i t e n a t u r a l l y t h e y turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o those who they b e l i e v e d , were most i n need o f h e a r i n g the gospel.-' In 1874  t h i s same group e s t a b l i s h e d the  t i o n o f Toronto.  Prisoners* Aid  S e r v i c e s were expanded t o the p e n i t e n t i a r y  where the workers soon found preaching types o f o f f e n d e r was  t o the more d i f f i c u l t  u s e l e s s and t h a t u n l e s s upon r e l e a s e  t h e i r m a t e r i a l needs were g i v e n a t t e n t i o n , preaching s a l v a t i o n was  Associa-  t o no  personal  avail.  As t h e y e a r s r o l l e d by the P r i s o n e r s * A i d a t t r a c t e d some o f Toronto's l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s who a c t i v e r e f o r m e r s i n the a s s o c i a t i o n . t h e y began t o r e a l i z e t h e r e was  I t was  Association became q u i t e  not l o n g  before  something wrong w i t h the whole  p e n a l system, e s p e c i a l l y as f a r as i t concerned the treatment g i v e n the p r i s o n e r s .  In 1891  the f i r s t p e n a l convention  h e l d by the P r i s o n e r s * A i d A s s o c i a t i o n and  because p e n a l reforms  were so s t r o n g l y advocated, more o f t e n t h a n not the A i d A s s o c i a t i o n was Ibid..p.  3  Kidman, John, The  p. 7.  Prisoners*  r e f e r r e d t o as the Penal Reform A s s o c i a t i o n •  2  1947,  was  74. Canadian P r i s o n . Ryerson P r e s s ,  Toronto,  When the o r i g i n a l charter f o r the Prisoners* Aid Association was taken out the t i t l e given was Prisoners* Aid Association of Canada which provided i n i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n : ••• that the aim would be a nation-wide organization, with branches operating under the head o f f i c e as to p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s , but with f u l l autonomy as to methods and i n d i v i d u a l work.**However, t h i s end was never achieved. was  The only branch formed  i n 1897 i n London, Ontario, which unfortunately had a short  l i f e of approximately two years.  In 1892 the Prisoners* Aid  Association o f Montreal was also formed, but there appears to be no evidence that t h i s event was influenced by the existence of the Toronto Association. The f i r s t e f f e c t s o f the e f f o r t s of the Prisoners* Aid Association o f Canada were seen i n the convention of 1891 where reference was made to the Royal Commission o f 1890 to inquire into the Prison and Reformatory System o f the  Province  of Ontario and the appointment o f Dr. A. M. Rosebrugh, an outstanding  member of the Prisoners* Aid Association, to the  commission.  Although various recommendations were made (for  example, improved and more i n d u s t r i a l schools, means to save destitute children from criminal careers, improvement i n management of county j a i l s and better c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of inmates), nothing was done with these recommendations. In 1897  however, the Guelph Prison Farm, the f i r s t prison without  walls i n Canada, was opened, bearing the o f f i c i a l name of the 4  Ibid.  r  p. 9«  -5Qntario Reformatory.  Within due time i t was followed by  c l a s s i f i e d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the same general type and regime, such as Burwash Farm (for more d i f f i c u l t cases), also at Mimico, Fort William and Langstaff  (The l a s t municipal farm).  For women the Mercer and Concord i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t . wake o f these reformatories the indeterminate  In the  sentence and  the Ontario parole system were introduced, applying only to reformatories.  At any rate the pinnacle of reform seems to  have been reached.  The Toronto Prisoners' Aid Association  slowed i t s pace and on the death of Dr. Rosebrugh i n 1915» dropped completely from the p i c t u r e . For the next phase we must turn to Montreal where we f i n d that i n 1917, p r i o r to the armistice, there existed the following  agencies:  1. The Prisoners  1  Aid Association of Montreal, dating from 1892.  2. The Honour League o f Canada. 3. The Criminal Reform Association. 4. The National Criminal Reform Association. As can be conjectured there was considerable overlap between these four agencies which resulted i n the merger i n 1919 of the National Criminal Reform Association and the Honour League of Canada under the name o f the Canadian Prisoners Welfare Association.  The Montreal Prisoners* Aid Association of 1892  stayed out and the Criminal Reform Association l i k e so many others just dropped completely out of the p i c t u r e : F i n a l consolidation o f the prison aid e f f o r t i n Montreal was consummated i n September, 1931,  -6-  when the o r i g i n a l Prisoners Aid Association of Montreal - dating from 1892 - and the Canadian Prisoners* Welfare Association (Montreal Branch) were merged. The f i n a l merger took out a new p r o v i n c i a l charter, with the name of Prisoners* Aid and Welfare Association of Montreal. The Canadian Prisoners* Welfare Association continued i t s national reform a c t i v i t i e s , plus promotion of l o c a l prison aid bodies, u n t i l 1935 when the Ottawa charter was ceded to the Canadian Penal Association that was formed at the f i r s t Canadian Penal Congress i n May of that year.1  5  Although the f i r s t after-care agencies and programs started i n the east, the program slowly spread west. province i n the west was  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  outstanding  In 1929  in  Vancouver the Reverend Canon A. H. Sovereign through the M i n i s t e r i a l Association formed a committee to study the problem of after-care i n Vancouver.  Owing to the intense a c t i v i t y of  Canon Sovereign the movement went forward and an agency formed under the name of the John Howard Society. 1931 Two  In  was  May  the organization formed i t s f i r s t board of d i r e c t o r s . of the outstanding  achievements of t h i s organization were  to start the B r i t i s h Columbia B o r s t a l I n s t i t u t i o n of  New  Haven and the inauguration of adult probation services i n the criminal courts of Vancouver. After-care societies existed i n Regina and Winnipeg by the l a t t e r part of the 1 9 3 0 * s .  Since 1 9 4 6 there has been a  sharp increase i n the number of after-care agencies i n Canada: John Howard Societies, named after the great prison reformer of the eighteenth century, with salaried f u l l - t i m e workers, are now i n operation i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Edmonton, Calgary, Ottawa, London, Kingston, 5  Ibid., p. 1 9 .  -7H a l i f a x , S t . John's, M o n t r e a l , Hamilton and Toronto. Other John Howard S o c i e t i e s , with v o l u n t a r y o r p a r t time p e r s o n n e l , are f u n c t i o n i n g i n Lethbridge, Peace R i v e r , Regina, Saskatoon, P r i n c e A l b e r t , Thunder Bay, (Port Arthur and Fort W i l l i a m ) , S t . C a t h e r i n e s , S t . John, Sydney, Windsor, S a r n i a and Moncton. E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t i e s , named a f t e r the Quaker p r i s o n w e l f a r e p i o n e e r , f o r work among female exp r i s o n e r s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver, K i n g s t o n , Ottawa and Toronto. At Winnipeg, there i s t h e Mani b o t a Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , with f u l l - t i m e employees. In M o n t r e a l , a l s o on a f u l l - t i m e employee b a s i s , a r e the S o c i e t e d ' O r i e n t a t i o n et de R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S o c i a l e and the C a t h o l i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e . In Quebec C i t y , Le S e r v i c e de Readaptation, Inc., i s i n the same w e l l established category." While a l l t h e above mentioned agencies belong t o the Canadian Corrections  Association  each i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  autonomous.  The  methods f o r f i n a n c i n g t h e i r programs vary from p r o v i n c e t o province  and c i t y t o c i t y .  community chest,  Some depend e n t i r e l y on t h e l o c a l  some on donations from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and  b u s i n e s s e s and o t h e r s r e c e i v e some a i d from p r o v i n c i a l and municipal  governments.  Those a s s o c i a t e d  with F e d e r a l  Pen-  i t e n t i a r i e s r e c e i v e g r a n t s from t h e P e n i t e n t i a r i e s Branch o f the Department o f J u s t i c e . Besides these s e c u l a r agencies t h e r e a r e o t h e r  organizations  t h a t have been a c t i v e t o some extent i n the program o f a f t e r care.  Most notable o f t h e s e are t h e P r i s o n Gate S e r v i c e s o f  the S a l v a t i o n Army and the Church Army o f the A n g l i c a n o f Canada.  Other r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s such as the U n i t a r i a n s , the  Society o f Friends  and some Roman C a t h o l i c agencies have c o n t r i b u t -  ed although on a l i m i t e d s c a l e . 6  Church  Fauteux Report, p. 75»  -8As we can see, the Canadian after-care programs are i n t h e i r strongest p o s i t i o n since t h e i r rather long and p a i n f u l l y slow s t a r t : ... due to the co-operation and f i n a n c i a l contributions of the f e d e r a l and some p r o v i n c i a l governments, some municipal corporations and interested c i t i z e n s . The increasing number of these agencies that are included i n Community Chest campaigns across Canada i s s i g n i f i c a n t . , They are accepted and supported by the publ i c as they have never been before i n Canada.7 The necessity f o r r e a l i s t i c after-care programs i s quite apparent i f one  considers that i n the period ending March 31, 1955,  prisoners who  had  2,001  served two years or more were released from  the eight Canadian Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . This does not include the hundreds who  would also have been released from  our p r o v i n c i a l j a i l s and reformatories.  Some of course w i l l  need no assistance i n becoming law-abiding  c i t i z e n s but the  majority w i l l need help and guidance in order to be successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d and reintegrated into society. History of Parole i n Canada Canada s parole l e g i s l a t i o n was 1  parliament  i n 1898.  f i r s t introduced into  At t h i s time the l e g i s l a t o r s chose to  c a l l i t by the current english term "Ticket of Leave'*. act  was  The  e n t i t l e d "An Act to Provide for the Conditional Liberation  of Convicts".  There has been some confusion i n the past whether  the term "Ticket of Leave" i s synonymous with the term "parole," so at t h i s point I would emphasize that the "Ticket of Leave Act" i s a Parole Act because: 7  Loc. c i t .  -9It provides for the conditional l i b e r a t i o n of a person under sentence so that he or she may continue to serve his or her sentence at large i n the community rather than within the confining walls of the prison.° The Prime Minister of that day i n speaking of the new act recognized  the d i f f i c u l t i e s of readjustment for the discharged  offender when released into the community: The object o f t h i s b i l l i s to introduce the t i c k e t of-leave system for convicts. The b i l l follows, I believe, word for word, the English Act. That Act has been i n operation i n England for some twenty years or more, perhaps, and I understand, has worked s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The b i l l provides generally that the Governor-in-Council may allow a convict to be set at large on condition of good behavior. The convict so set at large i s not free; he can be re-arrested at any time; but he i s allowed to be at large, to some extent under the surveillance of the p o l i c e . Here i s a convict, a young man of good character, who may have committed a crime i n a moment of passion, or perhaps, have f a l l e n a v i c t i m to bad example or the influence o f unworthy f r i e n d s . There i s a good report of him while i n confinement, and i t i s supposed that i f he were given another chance, he would be a good c i t i z e n . Under the b i l l , power i s given to the Governor General to order h i s l i b e r a t i o n - of course, under certain rules to be established i n the framing of which we s h a l l be guided by the precedents o f England. The matter i s experimental, so f a r as we are concerned, but we are guided by the experience i n Great B r i t a i n . " The act was passed the following year.  From the passing of the  act i n 1899 to 1958 there had been no substantial amendment to the act. The f i r s t hopeful sign that change was i n the o f f i n g was the appointment of the Archambault Report, published i n 1938. 8 Newman, Charles L., Sourcebook on Probation. Parole and Pardons, S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s . Thomas 1958, p. 308. 9  Fauteux Report, p. 55.  -10This report d i d an extensive and comprehensive study o u t l i n i n g the problems c l e a r l y and made many r e a l i s t i c and clear-cut recommendations f o r t h e i r s o l u t i o n .  However, with the outbreak  of World War I I t h i s report was lost i n the shuffle and as a r e s u l t the recommendations of t h i s report were never implemented. Following the war the growing concern f o r the state of our prisons and prisoners slowly gained momentum.  Governments  on every l e v e l gradually r e a l i z e d the importance of after-care programs.  The next b i g step was the appointment o f the Fauteux  Committee whose report was published i n 1956 and which received a large measure of approval from the c o r r e c t i o n a l people.  The  present f e d e r a l government took steps within i t s authority to implement c e r t a i n recommendations o f t h i s report and consequently a new act came into being. The new Parole Act was passed by the House of Commons, August 18, 1958 and by the Senate on August 21 o f the same year.  The act came into force, January 1, 1959« It provides f o r the creation o f a Parole Board o f not l e s s than three and not more than f i v e members, to be appointed f o r a period not exceeding ten years. The board w i l l have exclusive j u r i s d i c t i o n i n granting, refusing, or revoking parole ( i t i s to be known as parole, not as t i c k e t of leave) and there i s no appeal from the Board's decision. The Chairman o f the Board w i l l have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for d i r e c t i n g the s t a f f serving the Board. S t a f f w i l l be appointed under the terms o f the C i v i l Service Act, except that s t a f f now serving the Remission Service may be transferred to the Board. Board members w i l l be paid. Sentences of over two years w i l l be reviewed f o r parole automatically (details to be determined).  -11Sentences under two years w i l l be reviewed on a p p l i c a t i o n . The Board i s not required to grant personal interviews to applicants f o r parole. There i s provision f o r suspension o f parole while the Board decides whether t o revoke or not. Conviction f o r an i n d i c t a b l e offense carries automatic f o r f e i t u r e . There i s provision f o r serving the remainder of a sentence a f t e r the revocation i n the area o f a r r e s t , rather than i n the i n s t i t u t i o n where the parolee was incarcerated p r i o r to parole. The Board has additional j u r i s d i c t i o n to revoke or suspend a sentence o f corporal punishment, or a suspension of a d r i v i n g licence under the Criminal Code. The Board s h a l l , on d i r e c t i o n of the Minister o f J u s t i c e , make any i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n connection with a request f o r the exercise of the r o y a l prerogative of mercy. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the Minister of Justice under Section 666 o f the Criminal Code (automatic review o f sentences as an habitual criminal) are transferred to the b o a r d . 10  Common Confusion About Parole The present  study i s concerned with the problems that  the paroled offender may encounter on his return to society. The paroled prisoner unlike the discharged prisoner i s s t i l l under r e s t r a i n t , and although he i s not completely f r e e , he has spent l e s s time i n prison than the offender who i s d i s charged a f t e r expiration of his sentence. or discharged, problems.  Whether on parole  ex-inmates meet certain basic or universal  These problems w i l l be dealt with i n the following  chapter. What then do I mean by parole?  I have chosen the United  Nations d e f i n i t i o n which I f e e l i s a comprehensive and concise statement: 10 "Across Canada", Canadian Welfare ember 1958, p. 1 4 0 .  r  Vol. 3 4 , No. 3 , Sept-  -12••• t h e c o n d i t i o n a l r e l e a s e o f a s e l e c t e d c o n v i c t e d person b e f o r e completion o f t h e term o f imprisonment t o which he has been sentenced. I t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e person i n q u e s t i o n continues i n the custody o f t h e s t a t e o r i t s agent and t h a t he may be r e i n c a r c e r a t e d In t h e event o f m i s b e h a v i o r . I t i s a p e n o l o g i c a l measure designed t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f t h e o f f e n d e r from t h e h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d l i f e o f t h e p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t o t h e freedom o f community l i v i n g . I t i s not intended as a g e s t u r e o f l e n i e n c y o r f o r g i v e ness, 1  1  The main p o i n t s t o observe i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a r e t h a t t h e offender  i s s t i l l under custody o f t h e s t a t e and t h a t t h e  b a s i c purpose i s t o b r i d g e t h e gap between t h e c l o s e l y ordered l i f e o f t h e p r i s o n community and t h e freedom o f normal community l i v i n g .  Some students o f c r i m i n o l o g y  f e e l that  parole  i s not granted as a r i g h t but as a p r i v i l e g e and o p p o r t u n i t y for  i t r e q u i r e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o demonstrate h i s c a p a c i t y  t o conform t o t h e b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s by s o c i e t y .  and standards e s t a b l i s h e d  However t h i s i s a debatable p o i n t .  The m a j o r i t y  o f c o r r e c t i o n a l people f e e l t h a t p a r o l e i s a r i g h t the inmate can meet t h e requirements o f p a r o l e .  provided  I t follows  t h a t p a r o l e has a d u a l f u n c t i o n , on t h e one hand t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the offender, society.  and on t h e o t h e r , t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f  These g o a l s o f p a r o l e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e .  A successful-  l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d o f f e n d e r guarantees p r o t e c t i o n f o r s o c i e t y j u s t as t h e s a f e t y o f t h e community r e q u i r e s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and readjustment o f o f f e n d e r s .  successful Further,  parole  i m p l i e s s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l s or c o n d i t i o n s imposed on t h e parolee.  The s u p e r v i s i o n aspect  i n v o l v e s guidance and a s s i s t -  11 United N a t i o n s . P a r o l e and A f t e r - G a r e , New York, Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , J u l y , 1954 ( S e r i e s ST/SOA/SD/4) p. 1.  -13ance which s e t p a r o l e apart from t h e t y p i c a l p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s . These c o n t r o l s have t h e same o b j e c t i v e s o f p r o t e c t i n g s o c i e t y and  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e i n t e g r a -  t i o n o f the parolee i s that parole Probation  into society.  Another important f a c t o r  should be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from p r o b a t i o n  o r pardon.  d i f f e r s from p a r o l e b a s i c a l l y i n t h a t i t i s an i  a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n c a r c e r a t i o n and t h e court has j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h e p r o b a t i o n e r ,  whereas i n p a r o l e the court has g i v e n  up i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o the p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and p a r o l e completion o f p a r t o f t h e sentence. hand, an a c t o f f o r g i v e n e s s  implies  Pardon i s , on t h e other  and r e m i s s i o n o f punishment. I t  f r e e s the i n d i v i d u a l from any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e s t a t e with r e s p e c t t o t h e remaining time o f t h e imposed sentence. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Parole Although p a r o l e i s a r e c o g n i z e d  procedure i n contemporary  penology, t h e r e a r e good reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c have many r e s e r v a t i o n s about p a r o l e .  I t i s perhaps  n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t some j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a r o l e  should  be o f f e r e d h e r e . By g r a n t i n g p a r o l e we may l i m i t those e f f e c t s o f p r i s o n which a r e i n j u r i o u s t o t h e inmate and u l t i m a t e l y t o h i s f a m i l y . I t i s obvious t h a t no i n s t i t u t i o n i n t e n t i o n a l l y exposes inmates t o p e n a l t i e s t h a t w i l l t h r e a t e n t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r mental h e a l t h ; r a t h e r , these p e n a l t i e s should But  contribute to t h e i r  rehabilitation.  even i f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d s i t s program i n accordance  with t h e s e views, t h e p r i s o n community by i t s own nature  creates  -14c o n d i t i o n s which r e s u l t i n an adverse i n f l u e n c e on manyp r i s o n e r s.  This i s r e a d i l y recognized  segregation  o f p r i s o n e r s i s a v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n most  institutions.  when one r e a l i z e s t h a t  Hardened c r i m i n a l s , sex d e v i a t e s , a d d i c t s and  f i r s t o f f e n d e r s , mingle f r e e l y .  The i n e x p e r i e n c e d  l e a r n from  the experienced and must conform t o t h e p r i s o n c u l t u r e f o r t h e i r own s a f e t y i f not f o r companionship. Prolonged i n c a r c e r a t i o n o f husbands and f a t h e r s  creates  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and o f t e n r e s u l t s i n a permanent f a m i l y breakdown.  Even i f adequate m a t e r i a l  support  i s g i v e n t o dependents, the problem i s not e n t i r e l y a l l e v i a t e d s i n c e t h e r e a r e so many imponderable f a c t o r s t h a t the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n both s o c i a l l y and m o r a l l y . by s h o r t e n i n g  influence However, p a r o l  t h e p e r i o d o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n , may help t o a l l e v i a t  some o f t h e problems t h a t a r i s e both f o r t h e f a m i l y and t h e incarcerated  offender.  Furthermore, p a r o l e i s a method by which t h e p r i s o n term may be shortened.  I t i s evident  t h a t continued  incarceration  f o r many p r i s o n e r s serves no u s e f u l purpose and i s l i a b l e t o produce apathy and hard f e e l i n g s toward s o c i e t y and t h e law enforcement a g e n c i e s .  Neither  would u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e l e a s e a t  t h i s time a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n f o r s o c i e t y . provides  P a r o l e however,  t h e s u p e r v i s i o n and a s s i s t a n c e necessary t o h e l p t h e  p a r o l e e become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s o c i e t y .  Many f a c t o r s have t o  do with t h e t i m i n g o f c o n d i t i o n a l r e l e a s e , t h e most important o f these being  t h e s o c i a l adjustment t h e inmate has made d u r i n g  -15his  i n c a r c e r a t i o n and h i s present a t t i t u d e s .  meets both t h e c o r r e c t i o n a l and humanitarian  Parole  then,  objectives of  s h o r t e n i n g o r i g i n a l p r i s o n terms. Parole f a c i l i t a t e s  a realistic  application o f pre-release  programs f o r the p e n i t e n t i a r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n v o c a t i o n a l programs.  The t i m i n g o f p a r o l e and completion  of v o c a t i o n a l  courses o r other t r a i n i n g programs i s an important  problem as  o f t e n i n t h e past and even now inmates a r e not a b l e t o complete a program because o f b e i n g p a r o l e d t o o soon; on t h e other hand, they may f i n i s h  t h e i r course but a r e unable t o use t h e i r  newly a c q u i r e d a b i l i t i e s continued and  f o r long p e r i o d s o f time because o f  i n c a r c e r a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , l o n g range p a r o l e p l a n s  f l e x i b l e r e l e a s e procedures  w i l l enable  correctional  a u t h o r i t i e s t o have t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e l e a s e d a t t h e most opportune time w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s k i l l s he has a c q u i r e d and h i s w i l l i n g ness and r e a d i n e s s t o a d j u s t t o s o c i e t y .  Obviously i f a  p r i s o n e r must l a n g u i s h i n j a i l a f t e r l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l i t w i l l r e s u l t i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n as w e l l as l o s s o f manual d e x t e r i t y i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l course he completed and i n h i s a t t i t u d e s toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs. P a r o l e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r e a l i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs p r i o r t o t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f the sentence.  I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine t h a t when t h e  o f f e n d e r i s r e l e a s e d i n t o s o c i e t y he i s exposed t o c o n d i t i o n s and modes o f behavior t h a t he could not become acquainted  with  -16o r may  have f o r g o t t e n w h i l e i n p r i s o n .  and produce g r e a t a n x i e t y f o r him.  These can be  confusing  Parole h e l p s the  discharged  o f f e n d e r t o make a r e a l i s t i c use  o f those r u l e s and  recommended i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  I t would f o l l o w t h a t modern  i n s t i t u t i o n s attempt t o i n t r o d u c e  norms  norms t o the p r i s o n e r  he had not p r e v i o u s l y known o r observed o u t s i d e the walls.  that  prison  I t i s not hard t o presume t h a t these norms e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the f o r m a l u n r e a l s o c i e t y o f a p r i s o n would have but  a  slight  helping  impact upon the p r i s o n e r .  the o f f e n d e r  Without some means o f  a p p l y these r u l e s r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n f r e e s o c i e t y ,  the p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e t u r n t o p r e v i o u s  c r i m i n a l behavior i s  g r e a t l y enhanced. The p r o s p e c t the g r e a t e s t walls.  o f p a r o l e encourages the p r i s o n e r t o m a i n t a i n  amount of contact  w i t h the world o u t s i d e the  The most important c o n t a c t s t o the p r i s o n e r are  c o n t a c t s w i t h p r i s o n p e r s o n n e l and close f r i e n d s .  informed  what i s going on i n the o u t s i d e world and h e l p him l y as w e l l .  personal  v i s i t s from l o v e d ones  L e t t e r s from home help keep him  prison  and on  psychological-  Newspapers, r a d i o , magazines, movies and  lectures  as w e l l as v i s i t s from a f t e r - c a r e agencies c o n t r i b u t e , keeping him knowledgeable and  i n t e r e s t e d i n the f r e e s o c i e t y .  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t i f t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y p r i s o n e r w i l l not have the same stimulus w i t h s o c i e t y and  i s more l i a b l e  of parole,  to maintain  the  contacts  to do "easy t i m e " — t h a t  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r i s o n ' s program o f a c t i v i t i e s as p o s s i b l e and  It i s  as  o n l y when i t w i l l serve the ends o f the  is, little prisoner  -17or get him out o f hard or d i r t y work.  I t i s reasonable to  assume that contact with society has the greatest significance and meaning to the offender when he i s able to associate i t with the p o s s i b i l i t y of being paroled. Parole and the p o s s i b i l i t y of parole provide Incentive f o r the inmate to use the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and services to his  best advantage.  The inmate w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the various  f a c i l i t i e s offered, (for example, recreational, vocational and r e l i g i o u s ) , i f there i s some encouragement and reward f o r his  efforts.  Whether the inmate's response i s phlegmatic or  enthusiastic w i l l have a great deal to do with his present perception of h i s future.  Parole offers t h i s incentive and  furnishes the motivation f o r him to u t i l i z e and a v a i l himself of the offered services. Furthermore, the prospect of parole may act as an incentive for  good conduct while incarcerated.  Obviously no inmate i s  apt to jeopardize his freedom i f he has the p o s s i b i l i t y of being granted parole.  However, on the other hand, inmates  w i l l conform to prison l i f e without r e b e l l i o n i n a s u p e r f i c i a l way as t h e i r method of meeting the problem of incarceration. I f e e l that t h i s s u p e r f i c i a l or simulated conduct pattern w i l l be of l i t t l e value to the inmate once he has been released. In f a c t , i t i s the opinion of many correctional workers that evidence exists that an inmate with a less smooth adjustment i s revealing the existence of a well-integrated personality. From my own professional experience I would say that an  -18i n c a r c e r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l who the f o r m a l and  s t r i c t p r i s o n s o c i e t y has more o f a p e r s o n a l i t y  problem than those men freedom and Accordingly,  has no d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o  the  who  n a t u r a l l y r e b e l at t h e i r l o s s o f  s t r i n g e n t r u l e s under which they must  i t would be f o o l i s h t o base the g r a n t i n g  p a r o l e merely on good conduct o f the inmate and  live. of  equally, to  g i v e too g r e a t an emphasis t o i t s value i n s e c u r i n g  conformity  to prison r u l e s . Once the inmate has been r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n on we may  observe t h a t a f t e r - c a r e o f f e r s a s s i s t a n c e t o  i n d i v i d u a l and  at the  parole,  the  same time serves t o some degree as a  d e t e r r e n t because o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f p a r o l e  revocation.  I t i s apparent t h a t the s u p e r v i s i n g agency o f f e r s the i n d i v i d u a l not o n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s i s t a n c e but a l s o d i r e c t m a t e r i a l h e l p . Often the support  g i v e n t o the i n d i v i d u a l i s the primary f a c t o r  i n h i s p o s t - i n s t i t u t i o n a l adjustment. as a safeguard t o p r i s o n i f he his parole.  Parole revocation  f o r s o c i e t y , i n t h a t the p a r o l e e may  be  returned  cannot abide by the r u l e s of s o c i e t y and  These l i m i t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s p l u s the  acts  of  possibility  o f being r e t u r n e d t o p r i s o n o f t e n a c t as p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s on t h e p a r o l e e d u r i n g h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . P a r o l e s u p e r v i s i o n and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  revocation  help t o p r o t e c t s o c i e t y d u r i n g the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d o f time immediately a f t e r the p r i s o n e r i s r e l e a s e d .  The l i m i t a t i o n s  or r e s t r i c t i o n s o f p a r o l e are d e v i s e d not o n l y to h e l p p a r o l e e t o r e f r a i n from f u r t h e r c r i m i n a l behavior  but  the to  -19p r o t e c t s o c i e t y by p r o v i d i n g r e a l i s t i c further criminality.  safeguards a g a i n s t  N a t u r a l l y t h e r e are r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n  p a r o l e which e n t a i l p o s s i b l e danger t o s o c i e t y but t o negate p a r o l e because o f such r i s k s i s an i n v a l i d argument.  It i s  g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t s o c i e t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n p a r t f o r the  c a u s a t i o n o f crime and t h e r e f o r e should be w i l l i n g to take  a c a l c u l a t e d r i s k i n the attempt t o r e h a b i l i t a t e the P a r o l e a f f o r d s the o p p o r t u n i t y b i l i t y toward the  offender.  t o s o c i e t y to meet i t s r e s p o n s i -  offender.  Furthermore, I f e e l i t i s evident  t h a t p a r o l e may  moderate  unduly harsh sentences which have r e s u l t e d from p r e s s u r e s aroused p u b l i c o p i n i o n .  from  I t i s o f t e n t o be observed t h a t when  the p r e s s or r a d i o have no world wars o r major catastrophes r e p o r t , they t u r n t o crime news, and woe i f he  i s caught i n t h i s purge.  b e t i d e the  offender  Of course, the degree t o which  the c o u r t i s swayed by p u b l i c o p i n i o n depends on the law o f the country. not  s t i l l must d e a l w i t h the  concerning t r y t o be.  criminal  In Canada p u b l i c o p i n i o n g e n e r a l l y does  sway the c o u r t s , o r at l e a s t i t i s not  ever, we  to  supposed t o .  judge's o p i n i o n s  and  Howfeelings  a p a r t i c u l a r crime, unbiased as judges g e n e r a l l y One  judge may  give an extremely harsh sentence  w h i l e another w i l l g i v e a l i g h t e r sentence f o r the Although p a r o l e ' s purpose i s not t o c o r r e c t the  same crime.  c o u r t s ' sentenc-  i n g i n j u s t i c e s , i t would help minimize unduly h a r s h sentences. P a r o l e o f f e r s the p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s the chance t o the i n f l u e n c e s o f the p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n on the  offender.  evaluate  -20-  Because parole i s set up to maintain close contact with the parolee for s p e c i f i c periods of time i t allows the penal system to determine to what extent the i n s t i t u t i o n contributes, or as the case may be, f a i l s to contribute, to the adjustment of the inmate once he i s released.  It also allows the  admini-  s t r a t i o n to determine whether there i s s u f f i c i e n t or i n s u f f i c i e n t treatment  a v a i l a b l e and to what extent the treatment  has con-  t r i b u t e d to the success of the discharged inmate i n society. Before the advent of parole, administration had no means to carry out large scale studies on the effects of prison on the prisoner.  However, with the advent of parole, subsequent  investigations into t h i s problem have been made possible. Again, parole has demonstrated c l e a r l y that i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment  of offenders i s not always the most e f f i c i e n t  of dealing with them.  way  I t i s because of parole and i t s companion  probation that the merits of i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment reviewed with a great deal of skepticism.  are being  This revaluation of  our correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s has resulted i n more emphasis on the ron-punitive correctional techniques. Last but not least are the f i n a n c i a l aspects of parole. Parole i s a less costly form of treatment treatment.  To what degree i t i s or how  than i n s t i t u t i o n a l  large a saving to the  p u b l i c i t would represent i s d i f f i c u l t to assess.  In the  Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries 1953-54 i t states:  -21. . . $ 4 . 4 2 was the average d a i l y cost of keeping an inmate i n a Federal Penitentiary. The cost of keeping an inmate i n an Ontario reformatory has been calculated at $1,760 a year. The cost of parole depends on many f a c t o r s , including the salary paid to the after-care s t a f f and the number of persons under supervision. A figure of f i f t y cases has been suggested as a reasonable caseload. I f we accept t h i s f i g u r e , i t means that one parole o f f i c e r can supervise a number of men who, i f they are held i n prison, w i l l cost the public over $200 a day to maintain. The cost of parole i s on a par with the cost of probation, which, as we said, has been estimated as not exceeding $50 a year, an average, f o r each probationer It i s obvious that the cost of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f a r outstrips the costs of parole, which of course supplies another j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r parole. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of assessing a c t u a l costs of parole are many; f o r example, how much of the public's funds are spent on supporting the dependents of the criminal, not only i n the matter of material help but also i n r e l a t i o n to the costs of apprehending children, providing f o s t e r homes, and so f o r t h . Further, a man  paroled i s able to support h i s family and  prevent possible breakdowns due to his long incarceration.  If  we were to speculate f o r a moment and presume that a parole o f f i c e r would be paid $9,000 a year and he could handle a caseload of f i f t y parolees, then the cost based on h i s salary would be $180 saving.  per year per inmate which obviously i s a large  However, we have to add normal o f f i c e costs and  material assistance which w i l l be given to the parolee  and  12 .Canadian Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the F i s c a l lear 1953-54.cited i n Fauteux Royal Commission Report. Ottawa, 1956.  -22w i l l v a r y from area t o a r e a .  Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e  p a r o l e o f f i c e r s c a s e l o a d i s not s t a t i o n a r y f o r a y e a r . handle as many as two hundred p a r o l e e s w i t h i n a g i v e n  He may  year.  U n t i l uniform a c c o u n t i n g and p a r o l e procedure a r e used a c r o s s Canada t h e exact cost o f a p a r o l e e per year w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s .  However, we do know d e f i n i t e l y t h a t c o s t s o f  p a r o l e a r e l e s s than c o s t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e . Mature o f t h e Study The  remainder o f t h e study w i l l be concerned with t h e  problems o f t h e p a r o l e e . nature  I t i s p r i m a r i l y exploratory i n  s i n c e no attempt has been made t o submit p r e c i s e l y  formulated  hypotheses t o exact v e r i f i c a t i o n procedures t h e  aim b e i n g r a t h e r t o d e s c r i b e t h e broad  contours o f t h e s u b j e c t  and t o i d e n t i f y w i t h i n these l i m i t s those problems o f t h e p a r o l e e which appear t o a f f e c t rehabilitation  most c r u c i a l l y .  h i s chances o f s u c c e s s f u l Chapter Two c o n s i d e r s t e n  gross problems common t o p a r o l e e s , t h e i r many r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  causes and t h e i r  To supplement t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , v a r i o u s  l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f a f t e r - c a r e and s e v e r a l p a r o l e e s were interviewed. informed  These i n t e r v i e w s were aimed a t e l i c i t i n g  o p i n i o n s on the problems o f t h e p a r o l e e and a t  p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e a n a l y s i s and i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e n problem areas e x p l o r e d . with i n Chapter Three. i n our present  This material i s dealt  I n Chapter Four t h e major d e f e c t s  system o f p a r o l e a r e reviewed and suggestions  are o f f e r e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  CHAPTER I I PROBLEMS OF DISCHARGED OFFENDERS When an offender i s released from prison, and 95 per cent of the men incarcerated are released at some time, they meet with many problems which are extremely d i f f i c u l t to overcome. A l l discharged prisoners w i l l face these problems whether they have served t h e i r sentence i n f u l l and are discharged i n f u l l , or whether they are paroled under supervision.  Often  the released prisoner finds that h i s former employer has no job f o r him and he has no references a new employer w i l l accept; his wife and family may have long since abandoned him; h i s property, i f he had any, i s gone; and In short, he i s faced with obstacles that make his readjustment to society extremely difficult.  Problems of a discharged offender are numerous and  d i f f e r i n degree and i n t e n s i t y , depending on the community to which he i s discharged, the i n s t i t u t i o n from which he i s discharged and h i s own determination and inner strengths.  I  propose to deal with some of the peculiar obstacles and problems the parolee may face upon h i s release.  These problems I  believe apply to a l l discharged offenders but henceforth I w i l l r e f e r to parolees instead of the broad category of discharged offenders. important  I have chosen but ten of the most  of the many problems that must be solved before we  can expect complete r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and readjustment of the offender.  These problems i f not solved, w i l l probably result  i n the parolee once again returning to h i s previous patterns of a n t i - s o c i a l behavior.  -24-  (1) Problems of Employment The problem of employment i s c r u c i a l and basic i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and s o c i a l adjustment of the parolee.  It i s  not hard to imagine the d i f f i c u l t i e s the parolee w i l l meet i n t r y i n g to find suitable employment and i n holding the job once he f i n d s i t .  To start with, our penal i n s t i t u t i o n s do  not often succeed i n fostering good work habits, nor do they at present provide adequate t r a i n i n g or emphasize the importance of placing men i n work within the i n s t i t u t i o n which w i l l make the most o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and stimulate t h e i r i n t e r e s t .  We  do know that a large percentage of parolees are incapable of qualifying f o r s k i l l e d or semi-skilled jobs owing to t h e i r lack of education, so that they must be s a t i s f i e d with jobs which are l e s s f i n a n c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and which o f f e r  little  security or the chance of taking pride i n one's accomplishment, that i s to say, common laboring jobs. The current theory i s that a parolee must be placed i n a job that i s s a t i s f y i n g both m a t e r i a l l y and emotionally, that the job must be one which the parolee has some competence for or a keen interest In.  Maurice E. Williams states:  We know from experience that the employed parolee has about three times as good a chance of "making" h i s parole, other things being equal, as the unemployed one. 1  a  1 Williams, Maurice E., "Developing Employment Opportunities for Parolees", Focus, v o l . 3 no. 2, (March 1952) p. 4 7 .  -25-  However, sound as t h i s p o i n t o f view may  i n some senses be, i t  i s i n the nature o f a c o u n s e l o f p e r f e c t i o n .  While no one  will  deny t h a t t o meet the requirements o f c i t i z e n s h i p a steady income i s an important f a c t o r , i n the case o f the p a r o l e e i t may  be  more r e a l i s t i c t o assume t h a t he w i l l get h i s emotional g r a t i f i c a t i o n s elsewhere.  I t i s a s k i n g too much t o  insist  t h a t the job must be e m o t i o n a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e i n the f i r s t p l a c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the average p a r o l e e w i l l  be  a b l e t o o b t a i n the type o f employment he f e e l s w i l l meet h i s emotional needs, and i n the second p l a c e , no matter what job he g e t s , he w i l l r a r e l y be completely s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t . The i n f e r e n c e here i s o f course t h a t someone i s going to  get him the r i g h t  job and they w i l l l o o k a f t e r him so t h a t  he won't have t o f a c e any f r u s t r a t i o n s .  T h i s may  work w h i l e  the a f t e r - c a r e agency i s g i v i n g him support, but when they withdraw a f t e r a few months he f i n d s h i m s e l f alone and should he not be a b l e t o cope w i t h the p r e s s u r e s , he f a l l s a p a r t . The  John Howard S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  f o r example,  have found t h a t t h e i r most s u c c e s s f u l work has o f t e n been accomplished  w i t h the p a r o l e e who  cannot f i n d  employment.  Here, w i t h support from the agency, the p a r o l e e f i n d s t h a t he can and does have the a b i l i t y to cope w i t h t h i s  frustrating  problem, t h u s i n c r e a s i n g h i s f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r a n c e which i n t u r n h e l p s him t o meet o t h e r f r u s t r a t i n g problems t h a t such as f a m i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s , community d i s c r i m i n a t i o n so f o r t h .  arise, and  The important f a c t o r here i s t h a t t h e r e i s f i n a n c i a l  a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e t o meet the b a s i c needs o f the f a m i l y or  -26-  individual.  I f t h i s i s available together with the support  provided by the after-care agency, the man can meet t h i s challenge and cope with the f r u s t r a t i o n s i n a normal way, thus showing growth. I f the parolee i s a well balanced mature i n d i v i d u a l who just needs a job to be r e h a b i l i t a t e d , then there i s correspondi n g l y less need for the services of an after-care agency since, sooner or l a t e r , he w i l l get a job through his own e f f o r t s . But the majority of parolees are not well balanced, mature i n d i v i d u a l s ; rather they are immature individuals who cannot t o l e r a t e either the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of finding and keeping a job or the f r u s t r a t i o n s of being without one. They require an environment i n which they can grow and mature, and placing them i n a job that they f e e l i s worthy of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , though perhaps a precondition of that growth, does not by i t s e l f guarantee i t . The discharged offender i n p r i n c i p l e can f i n d employment through the Special Placements Branch of the National Employment Service.  But i n a c t u a l i t y t h i s service, although attempt-  ing to place these men i n jobs, i s not by any means uniformly successful.  Many people f e e l that t h i s state of a f f a i r s i s  the r e s u l t of the lack of trained and q u a l i f i e d personnel i n the Special Placements Branch and lack of interest i n the program of placing parolees. assumption.  However, t h i s i s an erroneous  The National Employment Service, no matter how  -27well staffed or how deeply interested, can only find jobs; i t cannot make them.  When there are jobs available they w i l l  place the parolee, but they cannot go beyond t h i s . . There i s one negative aspect to the Special Placement Branch of the National Employment Service.  The procedure i n  B r i t i s h Columbia i s that p r i o r to discharge the parolee i s v i s i t e d by the Special Placements O f f i c e r who interviews him and r e g i s t e r s him, gives him a card and t e l l s him to report to the National Employment Service o f f i c e when discharged.  Now  most inmates know that there won t be a job waiting f o r them, T  so when they are released they "blow" the l i t t l e money they were given upon release and then, a f t e r having t h i s f l i n g , report to the National Employment Service.  By having t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r arrangement we have created an u n r e a l i s t i c  expecta-  t i o n of service which permits the offender to blame someone else f o r his not getting a job.  In short, we are playing  into h i s dependency needs which have already been grossly aggravated during h i s incarceration. This system encourages, dependency, i t allows the parolee to place the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of finding a job on someone else and provides him with the ready-made r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n that "they" did not get him one and that i t was not h i s f a u l t .  I t i s at t h i s point that he needs  support not only from his supervisor but h i s family as w e l l . After-care agencies, s p e c i f i c a l l y the John Howard Society of B r i t i s h Columbia, do attempt to help the discharged  offender  i n finding a job, but must r e l y mainly on the construction  -28and lumber i n d u s t r i e s . or  Some argue t h a t job placement i s not  should not be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a f t e r - c a r e a g e n c i e s ,  and I h e a r t i l y agree.  However, t h e y do have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f d e v e l o p i n g a program o f p u b l i c and employer education with the emphasis on the problem o f employment. It  should be expected t h a t the p a r o l e e w i l l show  i n i t i a t i v e by a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d employment on h i s own. o b s t a c l e s he meets i n f a c i n g an employer a r e many.  The  In the  f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s common experience t h a t when p r o s p e c t i v e employers have t h e c h o i c e o f two men, one with a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d and t h e o t h e r without, but both having t h e same q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , they are more l i k e l y t o choose t h e man without t h e criminal record.  T h i s choice i s d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o the  e x i s t i n g community employment s i t u a t i o n .  I n times o f an  abundant l a b o r supply t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f a p a r o l e e a r e greatly  reduced.  T h i s r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether employers tend t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t p a r o l e e s because o f u n f o r t u n a t e past experiences o r as a r e s u l t o f p r e j u d i c e d a t t i t u d e s .  I am  o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t although past experience o f u n r e l i a b l e p a r o l e e s i s o f some importance, f a c t o r as employer p r e j u d i c e .  i t i s not as d e c i s i v e a We do know t h a t employers who  have h i r e d a p a r o l e e with u n s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s w i l l seldom take another  chance even i f the next p a r o l e e ' s o f f e n c e was not even  remotely s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t p a r o l e e ' s .  There i s a tendency  on t h e p a r t o f employers t o a p p l y a form o f f a l s e  logic,  -29r e s u l t i n g i n a blanket one  catagorization of a l l parolees. " I f  p a r o l e e goes sour then I won't h i r e any more".  connection,  In t h i s  John Melecherak s t a t e s :  ...about one-seventh o f a l l the i n t e r v i e w e d employers knowingly employed former o f f e n d e r s , and approximately o n e - h a l f o f them found t h e i r s e r v i c e s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h i s would suggest t h a t past experience c o u l d not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o b s t a c l e s t o employment o f former o f f e n d e r s . . . . 2  I t would then appear t h a t p r e j u d i c e i s t h e important  factor.  Some years ago t h e Random Foundation undertook a study t o a s c e r t a i n t h e degree o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t  discharged  offenders: The study i n v o l v e d 475 p r o s p e c t i v e employers i n most areas o f b u s i n e s s . Gf t h i s number, 312 s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t they would not h i r e an e x - p r i s o n e r . A l l but one o f t h e 312 f u r t h e r s t a t e d they would f i r e a man i f they l e a r n e d o f h i s past a f t e r he had secured work with them....3 This s i t u a t i o n s t i l l  e x i s t s today, t h e employer's g e n e r a l  a t t i t u d e toward p a r o l e e s being  "Once a c r i m i n a l always a  criminal". I t has been my experience  and t h a t o f t h e John Howard  S o c i e t y t h a t most employers have no d e f i n i t e p o l i c y on h i r i n g p a r o l e e s and t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n i s l e f t p e r s o n n e l manager and h i s i m p r e s s i o n s , the matter.  e n t i r e l y up t o the b e l i e f s and b i a s e s on  We f i n d i n many i n s t a n c e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n n e l  manager, e s p e c i a l l y i n companies t h a t d e a l d i r e c t l y with t h e 2 Melecherak, John, Employment Problems o f Former 1954, M.S.W. T h e s i s U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, p. 5 3 .  Offenders.  3 Barnes, Harry E . and T e e t e r s , Negley, T. New Horizons i n C r i m i n o l o g y . 3 r d e d i t i o n , 1959, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e H a l l , Inc., p. 5 4 7 .  -30p u b l i c , w i l l not h i r e a p a r o l e e .  They c l a i m t h a t i f they h i r e  him  as the p u b l i c w i l l not  i t may  a f f e c t t h e i r business,  r o n i z e a s t o r e t h a t h i r e s "ex-cons'*.  pat-  Or on the other hand  t h e y w i l l not h i r e on the grounds t h a t i t would lower the morale o f t h e i r s t a f f , w h i l e i f the p a r o l e e got  into further  t r o u b l e i t would a f f e c t a l l of them as w e l l as cause adverse public opinion.  We  a l s o f i n d a g r e a t d e a l o f "passing  buck" i n l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s .  The managements s t a t e t h a t they  would be g l a d t o h i r e p a r o l e e s  i f the unions would accept  them; the unions c l a i m they would accept them i f the would h i r e them.  parolee  But  seldom does he get the  job.  b e t t e r t r a i n e d , b e t t e r educated, h i g h l y ambitious has  even l e s s chance o f o b t a i n i n g a job  w i t h h i s t r a i n i n g and he  company  On the s u r f a c e both p r o t e s t t h a t they are  a l l f o r the p a r o l e e . The  the  cannot be  consistent  a b i l i t y , as the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g i s t h a t  trusted:  . . . I f a man i s a s k i l l e d worker, c o n t r a r y t o p u b l i c b e l i e f , he w i l l f i n d the going tougher, but not i m p o s s i b l e . I f , however, he happens t o have the m i s f o r t u n e t o be a white c o l l a r worker, then h i s chances are r e a l l y g r i m . Only a v e r y s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f employers would be w i l l i n g to c o n s i d e r him at a l l , even those f i r m s which employ u n s k i l l e d workers without any q u e s t i o n have thorough s c r e e n i n g o f t h e i r white c o l l a r s t a f f , the o n l y p o s i t i o n he could hope f o r would be c l e r i c a l . 4 Another o b s t a c l e that has become more prominent i n the l a s t decade i s the  " f i d e l i t y o r s u r e t y bond".  p r a c t i s e o f employers and 4  Melecherak, John, op.  T h i s growing  companies o f bonding t h e i r employees i s c i t . . p.  54.  -31p o s i n g a d i f f i c u l t problem t o p a r o l e e s .  Most bonding companies  w i l l n o t bond anyone with a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d .  I f an employer  h i r e s a man with a r e c o r d he does so on h i s own; the blanket bond t h a t most companies have does not and w i l l not cover an i n d i v i d u a l with a r e c o r d , so t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the r i s k are l e f t to t h e employer.  The r e s u l t i s that  employers  who have t h e i r s t a f f bonded tend t o shy away from p a r o l e e s . I suspect a l s o , t h a t i n many cases bonding i s used as an excuse o r way out f o r not h i r i n g p a r o l e e s .  Union dues are another meet.  obstacle f o r the parolee to  Most unions a r e not i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  r e c o r d and show no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n toward p a r o l e e s i n t h e matter of  e l i g i b i l i t y f o r membership.  c r a f t unions, t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n  However, i n t h e case o f the f e e s a r e so h i g h that most  p a r o l e e s could never a f f o r d t o b e l o n g .  With most unions how-  ever, some arrangement can be made so t h a t t h e p a r o l e e can belong The  and pay h i s fees as soon as he i s p l a c e d i n a j o b .  important  situation.  f a c t o r with unions i s the e x i s t i n g  employment  I f they have many o f t h e i r own men unemployed  they a r e not l i k e l y to be w i l l i n g t o accept t h e p a r o l e e . on the other hand employment c o n d i t i o n s are good they g l a d l y take a p a r o l e e . personnel  will  The g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o f the union  i s o f a p o s i t i v e nature  but i s r e l a t e d t o the  g e n e r a l economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the area and the e x i s t i n g employment  situation.  If  -32Another problem t h a t I b e l i e v e from my own  experience  and o b s e r v a t i o n p l a c e s u n t o l d o b s t a c l e s i n t h e path o f t h e p a r o l e e i s t h e n e g a t i v e and adverse  p u b l i c i t y p r o v i d e d by  t h e v a r i o u s mass communication media, and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e newspapers.  How seldom do we see i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s t h e s t o r y  o f t h e p a r o l e e who made good!  To s e l l newspapers m a t e r i a l i s  e v i d e n t l y needed t h a t w i l l arouse t h e p u b l i c s i n d i g n a t i o n . f  Woe b e t i d e the p a r o l e e who g e t s i n t o t r o u b l e , even i f i t has nothing t o do w i t h h i s former o f f e n s e :  t h e papers w i l l make  sure t h a t he i s p u b l i c a l l y whipped and raked over the c o a l s . We can r e a d i l y see t h e handicaps t h e d i s c h a r g e d i s p l a c e d under with r e g a r d t o s e c u r i n g employment.  offender It i s  indeed a m u l t i f a c e t e d problem, and one t h a t must be s o l v e d s i n c e t h e r e cannot be complete r e h a b i l i t a t i o n u n t i l t h e b a s i c v o c a t i o n a l requirements  o f t h e p a r o l e e can be met.  He i s  b l o c k e d every way he t u r n s and u n l e s s he can r e c e i v e t h e s u p p o r t i v e h e l p so necessary,  t h e r e s u l t w i l l o f t e n be a  return to previous c r i m i n a l behavior (2) Problems o f Re-establishment  and e v e n t u a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n .  o f t h e Parolee With t h e Family  There i s a g r e a t d e a l of evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the problems o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the m a r r i e d o f f e n d e r s u c c e s s f u l l y c e n t e r on h i s being a b l e t o r e i n t e g r a t e with h i s f a m i l y . I t i s obvious t h a t marriage i s one o f t h e c l o s e s t o f human r e l a t i o n ships.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e married o f f e n d e r s t h a t we d e a l w i t h  are immature i n d i v i d u a l s who have a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y e i t h e r t o  -33g i v e o r t o accept  l o v e and who have married those  partners  who can meet t h e i r immature dependency o r n e u r o t i c needs. In t h e m a j o r i t y o f cases the o f f e n d e r ' s marriage i s a l r e a d y p o t e n t i a l l y u n s t a b l e , and when t h i s f a c t i s added t o the trauma o f s e p a r a t i o n and t h e emotional  by-products  r e s u l t i n g from i n c a r c e r a t i o n we may s p e c u l a t e on the many d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by the m a r r i e d  offender:  The woman whose husband i s removed from h e r by a r r e s t and imprisonment can be a f f e c t e d i n many ways. U s u a l l y she l o s e s h e r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and i s c o n f r o n t e d by many p r a c t i c a l problems i n earning a l i v i n g and c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d r e n . She a l s o l o s e s s e x u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , and h e r thoughts may concentrate on how long she holds t o h e r a b s t i n e n c e . Gone from h e r too i s t h e person who had g i v e n h e r a f e e l i n g o f value. T h i s f e e l i n g o f d e s e r t i o n may mean t o h e r t h a t she i s w o r t h l e s s , s i n c e otherwise how would h e r husband become i n v o l v e d i n a crime. Side r e a c t i o n s o f b i t t e r n e s s and hate can be p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e world i n g e n e r a l , and she can see everyone as h o s t i l e . Hers i s a r e g r e s s i v e r e a c t i o n and c h i l d i s h t r a i t s reappear. Dependency, f r u s t r a t i o n , and r e b e l l i o n may become a c t i v e . I f an a g g r e s s i v e response ensues, i t i s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e absent husband unless the strongest o f m a r i t a l t i e s existed.5 I f t h e r e a r e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d , t h e s e p a r a t i o n from t h e father  can r e s u l t i n an improper emotional  e s p e c i a l l y i f the c h i l d r e n a r e young.  development,  The boy needs t h e  f a t h e r t o have male i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; t h i s process i s helped c o n s i d e r a b l y i f t h e f a t h e r i s someone whom the boy woiold to  f o l l o w as an example.  like  The boy's problem i s f u r t h e r compounded  by c o n f u s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y : t h a t i s , he i s s t r u g g l i n g with a d e c i s i o n he i s never a b l e t o make, namely whether h i s f a t h e r 5 S h i n e r , E.V., "The Return o f t h e M a r r i e d Offender t o H i s Family". Proceedings o f the Canadian Congress o f C o r r e c t i o n s , 1957, M o n t r e a l , p. 6 2 .  -34i s r i g h t o r t h e law i s r i g h t . o f t h e a d u l t male o b j e c t ing  from childhood  T h i s combined w i t h t h e removal  compounds t h e c h i l d ' s problem o f mov-  t o mature a d u l t h o o d .  Furthermore, t h e daughter needs h e r f a t h e r as a model on which she w i l l base h e r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men. l y t h e extended s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r has n e g a t i v e a l e f f e c t s on t h e c h i l d r e n as w e l l as on t h e mother.  Obviouspsychologic-  Added  t o these a r e t h e e x t e r n a l problems, such as r a z z i n g and t e a s i n g by t h e c h i l d r e n ' s companions which o f t e n r e s u l t i n emotional damage t o t h e c h i l d r e n . and  T h i s s t i g m a t i z a t i o n by t h e i r playmates  a d u l t s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t and d e f i a n c e o f  authority figures. Apart from t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f s e p a r a t i o n on the f a m i l y , what o f the e f f e c t on t h e o f f e n d e r ? p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  He t o o f a c e s  i n f l u e n c e s i n p r i s o n which I w i l l  w i t h i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s  deal  chapter:  His detention forces h i s p e r s o n a l i t y into regression not o n l y because o f t h e a n x i e t y a r i s i n g from t h e new experience, but a l s o because environmentally he i s made dependent upon t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as he was upon his parents. T h i s temporary r e g r e s s i o n under a r e p r e s s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l regimen can l e a d t o f i x a t e d p a t t e r n s o f p r o t e s t o r e x c e s s i v e dependence t h a t may extend beyond h i s i n c a r c e r a t i o n . O r d i n a r i l y he, t o o , w i l l experience a b l a c k - t i n t e d p e r i o d o f mourning which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e l f - r e c r i m i n a t i o n and s e l f - p i t y . I t i s at t h i s time t h a t h i s f e e l i n g s o f shame and worthl e s s n e s s s e t o f f a chain o f doubt and s u s p i c i o n about h i s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and h i s w i f e ' s s e x u a l f i d e l i t y . His i n s e c u r i t y i s heightened t o a c e r t a i n extent by t h e n e e d l i n g o f h i s more c a l l o u s f e l l o w i n m a t e s . 0  6  Ibid.  ?  p. 65  Our p r i s o n s do l i t t l e about h i s f a m i l y .  t o a l l e v i a t e these f e e l i n g s o f the inmate  Two  v i s t s each month are allowed a l o n g with  l i m i t e d correspondence.  Even where v i s i t i n g i s allowed,  f a c i l i t i e s are such t h a t a spontaneous mutual r e s p o n s i v e n e s s with r e a l emotional v a l u e i s i m p o s s i b l e . The m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the p a r o l e e demands a g r e a t d e a l from him which i s i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with the l i f e been l e a d i n g i n p r i s o n .  In p r i s o n the keynote was  he  has  conformity  and dependency, but upon r e l e a s e he must become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s e l f a s s e r t i v e ; from a s o c i e t y l a c k i n g normal emotional and s o c i a l exchanges he moves t o an environment where h i s w i f e w i l l l o o k f o r such responses.  His w i f e w i l l be l o o k i n g f o r  and s e e k i n g support at t h e same time t h a t her p a r o l e e husband is.  I f n e i t h e r i s a b l e t o o f f e r the o t h e r support,  affection  and encouragement, m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t w i l l o f t e n a r i s e over some "convenient" side i s s u e .  Moreover, h i s c h i l d r e n w i l l seek h i s  love and r e c o g n i t i o n and w i l l need t o t e s t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with him as w e l l as r e a s s u r e themselves the newly resumed p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  o f the s t a b i l i t y o f His a b i l i t y to  o f f e r the c h i l d r e n the l o v e and r e c o g n i t i o n they want w i l l determine  how  q u i c k l y t h e y w i l l a l l o w him t o resume h i s r o l e  as f a t h e r : As a f a t h e r , the o f f e n d e r has been denied any experience c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o those o f p a r e n t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . With the c h i l d r e n seeking to r e - e s t a b l i s h him as an e g o - i d e a l , he w i l l f e e l t h a t h i s d e l i n q u e n c y d e t r a c t s from the model he senses he should be f o r them. T h i s t h r e a t can be overcome i f t h e i r emotional contact i s  -36rewarding. He w i l l have t o penetrate the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t adjustment p a t t e r n t h a t has emerged between mother and c h i l d r e n d u r i n g h i s absence. T h i s sense o f e x c l u s i o n can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r the man hypers e n s i t i v e t o r e j e c t i o n . The mother who has shown p e r c e p t i o n i n keeping him a l i v e i n t h e i r minds and emotions has immeasurably a i d e d the f a t h e r ' s re-acceptance i n t o the home.* 7  Furthermore, the p a r o l e e may  r e t u r n t o the f a m i l y t o  h i s w i f e has become, at l e a s t on the  find  s u r f a c e , independent.  Her  success i n meeting the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f breadwinner, mother and  f a t h e r may  have r e s u l t e d i n s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n p r e v i o u s l y  unknown to her.  With the r e t u r n of the f a t h e r she may  ambivalent f e e l i n g s toward him.  On the one  have  hand she wants  t o assume the r o l e o f f a t h e r and breadwinner, yet on the hand she may  f i n d the r e l i n q u i s h m e n t  because o f her success.  success.  I f her p a r o l e e  She  other  o f these r o l e s d i f f i c u l t  w i l l need r e c o g n i t i o n o f  husband can meet her  her  emotional needs,  can demonstrate t o her h i s d e s i r e and m o t i v a t i o n  t o succeed,  t h e n t h e w i f e w i l l be able t o r e l i n q u i s h her independence a d j u s t to the new I t i s evident  t h a t a s t a b l e marriage and  family l i f e i s  i s t h e most important area i n v o l v e d f o r the m a r r i e d Whatever the gaps i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s may a f t e r - c a r e agencies as a whole have not met The  I b i d . . p.  68  U n t i l we  and  offender. be,  the needs o f  excuses of l a c k o f s t a f f and  heavy case loads are o n l y p a r t l y v a l i d . 7  and  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n c l u d e s her husband.  the b a s i s f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the o f f e n d e r  married p a r o l e e .  him  the the  excessively have i n v o l v e d  -37the e n t i r e f a m i l y i n t h e treatment  process  so t h a t they a r e  aware o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses we s h a l l not be meeting our o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e married  offender.  (3) Problems o f Re-Establishment  i n t h e Community  S o c i e t y as a whole does not welcome t h e d i s c h a r g e d o f f e n d e r o r p a r o l e e back with open arms d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t 95 per cent o f the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o s o c i e t y a t one time o r another.  I t i s apparent t h a t t h e  success o f p a r o l e t o a l a r g e extent depends on t h e community and i t s a t t i t u d e s toward p a r o l e and crime i n g e n e r a l .  Many  communities are u n w i l l i n g t o accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p a r o l e e and g i v e v a r i o u s reasons assume such a r i s k .  Nevertheless  f o r t h e i r unwillingness to I am o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t  the problem i s b a s i c a l l y a l a c k o f understanding  o f the p r i n c i p l e s  o f p a r o l e and the h e s i t a n c y o f t h e c i t i z e n t o accept and f u l f i l l h i s d u t i e s as a c i t i z e n . The p a r o l e e i s f a c e d on h i s r e t u r n t o t h e community (and here we a r e assuming t h a t t h e p a r o l e e was p r e v i o u s l y from a non c r i m i n a l community) with d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , nonacceptance and perhaps one o f the most v i c i o u s o f s o c i a l attitudes, ostracism.  The p a r o l e e soon d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s  former f r i e n d s and acquaintances,  with v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s ,  f i n d excuses f o r a v o i d i n g him as much as p o s s i b l e . The p u b l i c r e a c t s t o t h e man with a r e c o r d with and i n many cases, f e a r .  I t l o o k s upon d i s c h a r g e d  distrust  offenders  -38from the a r c h a i c t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t , seeing them immoral and  sinful.  as unclean,  Most people b e l i e v e t h a t crime must be  punished and t h a t c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r must and w i l l repeat i t s e l f s i n c e a l l c r i m i n a l s are born bad.  Furthermore,  this  c o n c e p t i o n o f the c r i m i n a l i s supported by a continuous  stream  o f m i s i n f o r m a t i o n through the p r e s s , r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n and motion p i c t u r e s .  the  The p u b l i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the c r i m i n a l i s  i n terms o f s t e r e o t y p e s : For example, the p u b l i c has u n c r i t i c a l l y accepted Lombroso's e a r l i e r conception o f the c r i m i n a l type w i t h the r e c e d i n g forehead, prognathous jaw, dangl i n g arms below the knees and p o s s e s s i n g low sensi t i v i t y t o p a i n . Many b e l i e v e that unusual p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mark the s o c i a l l y v a r i a n t i n d i v i d u a l . Do not the movies and t h e t h e a t r e put b e f o r e our eyes i n d i v i d u a l s who are a t f i r s t glance r e c o g n i z a b l e as villains?® R e h a b i l i t a t i o n cannot acceptance o f t h e p a r o l e e . his  succeed without t h e community's I do not mean t h e y should accept  past deeds; r a t h e r t h a t t h e y g i v e t h e p a r o l e e access t o  those people who  are o r may  become important t o him.  The  i n c a r c e r a t e d o f f e n d e r f e e l s t h a t he does not belong t o the "square  John" community, t h a t he i s an o u t c a s t .  When he i s  r e l e a s e d , p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s support and r e i n f o r c e t h i s and u n l e s s the p a r o l e e can r e c e i v e help i n meeting  feeling,  this  frustra-  t i o n he w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e t u r n t o p r e v i o u s c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r . I f the p a r o l e e i s t o be p a r t o f the community i n a s o c i a l sense, then he must be accepted by the community. No community can r e a l l y "reform" a person without a c c e p t i n g him. He must be g i v e n the w i l l and the 8 Vedder, Clyde B., " P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s That Handicap P r i s o n Officials". Proceedings American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1951, New York, p. 238.  -39a b i l i t y to co-operate. These are f i r s t considerat i o n s . He w i l l not be "reformed" u n t i l he acquires a genuine interest i n others. He must learn that the only way to face himself i s to face the world with h i s heart tempered and s t i r r e d by the s o c i a l i n t e r e s t . He must learn to give for the s o c i a l interest....° I f the goal i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s helping the parolee resume normal l i v i n g i n the community, then the community i t s e l f must be ready to. help him.  He must f e e l that he i s  useful to a respectable or s i g n i f i c a n t person or group. must f e e l that he has a common interest i n the group.  He  If,  as so often i s the case, the parolee i s not given a chance to express and develop h i s legitimate i n t e r e s t s he w i l l turn once again to h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s .  The community  must recognize that the parolee i s , i n the majority of cases, a s o c i a l l y immature i n d i v i d u a l and that he needs a great deal of supportive help and understanding  to meet the f r u s t r a t i o n s  of normal community l i v i n g . The after-care agencies help the parolee f e e l that he belongs to the community, for the agency i s part of the community and supported by the community.  In addition, the agency helps  the parolee to meet the f r u s t r a t i o n s of normal community l i v i n g i n such a way that emotional and s o c i a l growth are possible f o r the parolee.  However, u n t i l the public catches  up with, as i t were, contemporary penological philosophies and understands the why and wherefore of corrections programs,  9 Reinhardt, James R., Ph.D., "The Discharged Prisoner and the Community". Federal Probation. June 1957, p. 48.  -40the implacable provide  one  w a l l o f p u b l i c and  o f the b i g g e s t  community a t t i t u d e s w i l l  o b s t a c l e s t h a t the p a r o l e e  and  a'fter-care agencies have to meet, (4)  Problems Created by  Incarceration  What e f f e c t does p r i s o n have on the inmate? difficult  q u e s t i o n t o answer and  o f extensive  study i n i t s e l f .  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h others who When he has  could w e l l be the  subject  I n c a r c e r a t i o n means  f e e l as he,  enforced  r e j e c t e d by s o c i e t y .  been sentenced t o imprisonment he has, r e a l l y been  sentenced t o r e g i m e n t a t i o n , and  This i s a  futility.  d i s c i p l i n e , unemployment, r o u t i n e  I n c a r c e r a t i o n , without a doubt, i s p a i n f u l t o  the inmate both p h y s i c a l l y and  mentally.  t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e depends on the man  How  a man  reacts  and h i s emotional  development.  N e v e r t h e l e s s once i n p r i s o n he i s subjected  pressures  s t r e s s e s t h a t make f o r what many w r i t e r s term  and  "prison psychosis".  The  to  prisoner i s :  ...subjected t o prolonged m a t e r i a l d e p r i v a t i o n , l a c k i n g h e t r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and rubbed raw by the i r r i t a n t s o f l i f e under compression, the inmate p o p u l a t i o n i s pushed i n the d i r e c t i o n o f d e v i a t i o n from r a t h e r than adherence t o l e g a l norms. I n c a r c e r a t i o n without doubt has o f the p r i s o n e r and makes the  an e f f e c t on the mental h e a l t h  job o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h a t much  more d i f f i c u l t . Perhaps the most p a i n f u l c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g from i n c a r c e r a t i o n i s the d e p r i v a t i o n o f l i b e r t y . 10 Sykes, Gresham M., U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 195«,  The New  Not  S o c i e t y of C a p t i v e s , J e r s e y , p. 2 2 .  only i s Princeton  -41h i s freedom o f movement r e s t r i c t e d but he has r i g h t s and  p r i v i l e g e s of a free c i t i z e n .  l o s t a l l the  Furthermore, i n c a r -  c e r a t i o n means he i s cut o f f from the emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f f a m i l y and  friends.  True he does have v i s i t i n g and  p r i v i l e g e s which to some extent  mailing  reduce h i s i s o l a t i o n , but,  many inmates have found, these c o n t a c t s become fewer as y e a r s pass.  T h i s i s o l a t i o n i s indeed p a i n f u l and  the  i s aggravated  f u r t h e r by the f a c t t h a t the inmate sees h i s imprisonment a r e j e c t i o n by I t has  o f t e n been claimed  t h a t many c r i m i n a l s are  so  c r i m i n a l c u l t u r e t h a t no amount o f moral  condemnation, r e j e c t i o n or d i s a p p r o v a l w i l l have any  e f f e c t on  T h i s p r o b a b l y i s t r u e f o r t h a t s m a l l number o f  offenders  known as p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i m i n a l s , o f the k i n d d e s c r i b e d Sutherland.  1 1  as  society.  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the  them.  as  by  However, evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r the  great  majority of prisoners: N e i t h e r the a l i e n a t i o n from the ranks o f the lawa b i d i n g nor involvement i n a system o f c r i m i n a l values i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e l i m i n a t e the t h r e a t t o the p r i s o n e r ' s ego posed by s o c i e t y ' s r e j e c t i o n . ^ 1  There are many s i g n s o f the p r i s o n e r ' s degradation,  f o r example  the number i n s t e a d o f a name, the t y p i c a l h a i r c u t , the o f the p r i s o n uniform and  so f o r t h .  The  p r i s o n e r b a s i c a l l y i s the l o s s o f s e l f 11 The 12  s t a t u s l o s t by  66.  the  respect:  S u t h e r l a n d , Edwin H., The P r o f e s s i o n a l T h i e f . U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1937. I b i d . . p.  anonymity  Phoenix Books,  -42In s h o r t , the w a l l which s e a l s o f f t h e c r i m i n a l , the contaminated man, i s a constant t h r e a t t o the p r i s o n e r - s s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n , and the t h r e a t i s c o n t i n u a l l y repeated i n t h e many d a i l y reminders that he must be kept apart from "decent" men. Somehow t h i s r e j e c t i o n or d e g r a d a t i o n by the f r e e community must be warded o f f • • • • t u r n e d a s i d e , rendered harmless. Somehow the imprisoned c r i m i n a l must f i n d a d e v i c e f o r r e j e c t i n g h i s r e j e c t o r s , i f he i s t o S o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o c i e t y and i s our mode o f l i f e .  o f our  The a b i l i t y t o use i t  r e s p o n s i b l y i s a c q u i r e d g r a d u a l l y d u r i n g the p h y s i c a l and emotional growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l from b i r t h t o adulthood. One  e f f e c t o f l o s i n g l i b e r t y on t h e inmate i s r e g r e s s i o n t o  an e a r l i e r stage o f development: T h i s r e g r e s s i o n i s brought about and maintained by t h e t h r e a t e n i n g new r e a l i t y — a s o c i e t y without l i b e r t y . When d e p r i v e d o f l i b e r t y t h e c r i m i n a l i n d i v i d u a l , l i k e the i n f a n t , becomes unable t o depend upon h i m s e l f t o choose and t o master h i s own pleasurable o r p a i n f u l experiences. Like the i n f a n t , he comes t o c o n s i d e r t h e e x t e r n a l world as good o r bad, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n o r f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e moment. T h i s s p l i t t i n g i n o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s l e a d s e v e n t u a l l y , f o r t h e conv i c t , t o t h e disappearance o f t h e good o b j e c t relationship. **' 1  In short we make the o f f e n d e r too dependent on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ; by i n c a r c e r a t i n g him we make him f e e l t h a t he does not belong t o s o c i e t y , t h a t he i s an o u t c a s t . is  l e f t with very l i t t l e  Consequently t h e inmate  choice but t o t u r n t o h i s f e l l o w  inmates i n o r d e r once again t o have an o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . It  i s w i t h i n t h i s s o c i e t y t h a t t h e inmate i s once again  able  13 Cormier, Bruno M., Ph.D., "The P s y c h o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s on the D e p r i v a t i o n o f L i b e r t y on t h e Offender". Proceedings o f the Canadian Congress o f C o r r e c t i o n s . 1957, Montreal, p. 141. 14  I b i d , , p . 140.  -43have a sense o f b e l o n g i n g ,  and  of  self-esteem.  There are a c e r t a i n number o f men c l a s s i f i e d as "normal" o f f e n d e r s . o f f e n d e r s , men  with no p r e v i o u s  U n l i k e the m a j o r i t y  i n p r i s o n who  may  These are g e n e r a l l y  history of criminal  o f immature o f f e n d e r s  be first  tendencies.  the normal  offender  does not bear any  abnormal resentment t o s o c i e t y f o r long  p e r i o d s o f time.  He tends t o i d e a l i z e the l o s t e x t e r n a l s o c i e t y .  He  seldom i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the  c r i m i n a l s o c i e t y while incarcerated  as he i s a b l e t o keep the image o f the good s o c i e t y w i t h i n himself.  Upon r e l e a s e he u s u a l l y succeeds i n r e i n t e g r a t i n g  h i m s e l f i n t o s o c i e t y even i f he encounters o b s t a c l e s . On the o t h e r hand, when the immature o f f e n d e r the mere r e s t o r a t i o n of l i b e r t y does not The by  bonds e s t a b l i s h e d with the s o c i e t y ' s r e j e c t i o n o f him  s o l v e the problem.  c r i m i n a l s o c i e t y , strengthened and  the resentment he has  o f s o c i e t y ' s l a c k o f f o r g i v e n e s s , a l l make the t i o n an e x c e e d i n g l y  i s released  d i f f i c u l t operation.  job o f  because  rehabilita-  No matter how  t r y t o b e l i e v e t h a t our i n s t i t u t i o n s are i n s t i t u t i o n s  we of  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the f a c t remains t h a t the inmate deprived l i b e r t y , denied a c c e s s t o h e t r o s e x u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , robbed o f  p e r s o n a l autonomy, s t r i p p e d o f w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n , i n s t i t u t i o n as punishment pure and  simple.  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot t u r n men crime t o the path o f the law-abiding We  of  sees the  With t h i s type o f from the paths o f  citizen.  possess s u f f i c i e n t knowledge at the present  time t o  -44r e a l i z e t h a t the k i n d o f i n f l u e n c e p r i s o n has w i l l be c h i e f l y dependent on the p r i s o n e r has  on an inmate  s o c i a l p a t t e r n s t o which the  been d a i l y exposed w h i l e i n p r i s o n .  Our  method o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n i s i n r e a l i t y the d e s e r t i o n o f o f f e n d e r when he needs us most. e x i s t i n g system when we ing further.  We  We  the  are f o r t u n a t e under the  can prevent the o f f e n d e r  from d e t e r i o r a t -  cannot l a y the blame on our i n s t i t u t i o n s  Rather the blame must be p l a c e d on  s o c i e t y as a whole.  t h a t i s needed f o r change i s t h a t t h e r e f o r change; but t h a t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , minor e x c e p t i o n s , (5) D e v a l u a t i o n  present  i s missing  should  be  alone.  All  willingness  i s p r e c i s e l y what, w i t h  from the p i c t u r e .  o f S e l f Image  The p r i s o n regimen tends t o produce d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the a l r e a d y poor conception  t h a t the o f f e n d e r  has  of himself.  i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f inmates are immature whose s e l f image was normal s o c i e t y and  had t o t u r n t o crime to b o l s t e r t h e i r I t i s p r e c i s e l y these men  we  punish w i t h the d e p r i v a t i o n of  Although t h i s i s indeed p a i n f u l t o the inmate, the f a c t i s t h a t we and  men  such t h a t they could not f u n c t i o n i n  sagging s e l f - r e s p e c t . p r i s o n and whom we  There  place i n  liberty. significant  devaluate h i s s e l f image by the very f r u s t r a t i o n s  d e p r i v a t i o n s which f o l l o w the l o s s o f freedom - - f o r example,  the l a c k o f h e t r o s e x u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the i s o l a t i o n from the  f r e e s o c i e t y , the withdrawal o f m a t e r i a l goods and ...however p a i n f u l these f r u s t r a t i o n s o r d e p r i v a t i o n s may be i n the immediate terms o f thwarted g o a l s , d i s c o m f o r t , boredom, and  services:  -45l o n e l i n e s s , they c a r r y a more profound hurt as a set o f t h r e a t s and a t t a c k s which are d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the very foundations o f the p r i s o n e r ' s being. '' 1  The inmate's p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f as a person of value grows dimmer and dimmer and he begins t o see h i m s e l f as a nobody, he f e e l s he i s u s e l e s s , and his  comes t o b e l i e v e t h a t any attempt  on  p a r t t o be o f value i n the f r e e s o c i e t y i s h o p e l e s s . An o f f e n d e r does not r e g a i n a p o s i t i v e s e l f image merely  by being r e l e a s e d , and h e r e i n l i e s the problem.  What the  p a r o l e e needs most upon r e l e a s e i s companionship, someone i s ready t o h e l p him,  someone who  accepts him f o r what he i s , who past.  T h i s i s the  sees him as a man,  who  who  does not condemn him f o r h i s  job o f the p a r o l e o f f i c e r , to help  the  p a r o l e e b u i l d a h e a l t h y s e l f - i m a g e o f h i m s e l f , t o meet t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s and o b s t a c l e s o f l i v i n g and f u n c t i o n i n g i n a f r e e society.  Often these men  are l e a r n i n g to l i v e a new  must be helped the same way warmth and  as one h e l p s a c h i l d ,  emotional and m a t e r i a l support.  a f t e r - c a r e agencies  f a l l down.  Our  life  and  understanding,  Here too i s where  caseloads are h i g h ,  our  p e r s o n n e l u n t r a i n e d , funds are l i m i t e d , and as a r e s u l t  the  a p p r o p r i a t e time cannot be g i v e n t o each p a r o l e e .  The  parolee  must see h i s p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r as more than a f i g u r e o f a u t h o r i t y . (6) Problems o f P o l i c e D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Here a g a i n i s a problem t h a t at l e a s t i n Canada and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Vancouver does not, from the a v a i l a b l e evidence, 15  Sykes, Gresham, M.,  op. c i t . .  p.  79  -46appear t o be o f s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s .  Often we hear a p a r o l e e  say t h a t he has been checked by p o l i c e f o r no reason a t a l l . The  f a c t i s t h a t no p o l i c e o f f i c e r , unless he knows t h e p a r o l e e  p e r s o n a l l y , has any i d e a who i s on p a r o l e .  I f he checks an  i n d i v i d u a l i t i s because he has reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t i s wrong.  When he makes h i s r e p o r t t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n , t h e  name i s checked and i f i t i s d i s c o v e r e d the name i s turned parolees.  something  t h a t he i s a p a r o l e e  over t o t h e d e t e c t i v e who i s i n charge o f  I f t h i s happens, the p a r o l e e  i s l i a b l e t o be taken  down t o t h e s t a t i o n t o c l a r i f y what has happened. There i s some evidence t h a t a l a r g e percentage o f p o l i c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o r badgering i n t h e Vancouver area i s i n t h e parolee's  mind.  No p a r o l e e  i s taken t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y and i f he i s taken down i t i s by t h e s p e c i a l d e t e c t i v e i n charge o f p a r o l e . generally  The r e g u l a r procedure i s  j u s t a telephone c a l l a s k i n g him t o r e p o r t i f t h e r e  i s some r e p o r t t h a t he was somewhere he should or i f he was checked f o r h i s b e h a v i o r . experience c o r r o b o r a t e s  not have been  The John Howard  these o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  Society's  and i t appears  likely  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a t l e a s t on t h e l o c a l scene, t h i s i s not one of the parolee's  problems.  (7) Problems o f P e r s i s t i n g I n f l u e n c e  o f Past and Present Companions  There i s no doubt t h a t t h e types o f people a p a r o l e e a s s o c i a t e s w i t h w i l l determine t o a l a r g e extent w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l o r g r a v i t a t e t o h i s previous behavior.  Evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p a r o l e e  whether he criminal  i s placed  under  -47tremendous p r e s s u r e s receive help. in ing  t h a t w i l l be overbearing  i f he does not  He i s c o n s t a n t l y meeting men whom he has known  p r i s o n , some t r y i n g t o go s t r a i g h t , o t h e r s i n criminal a c t i v i t i e s .  s t i l l participat-  The l a t t e r w i l l t r y t o pressure  the p a r o l e e t o j o i n them, o f f e r i n g b i g money, good times and so f o r t h .  The temptation i s great  has t o some extent munity and s t i l l  f o r the parolee.  He  been d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by t h e com-  f e e l s r e j e c t e d and o f l i t t l e value t o anyone.  What a temptation t o go with those people who want him, who accept him and make him f e e l t h a t he i s valued However, i f t h e p a r o l e e  and neededI  i s r e c e i v i n g good s u p e r v i s i o n ,  help  and understanding, he w i l l be a b l e t o withstand these temptations and p r e s s u r e s ,  e s p e c i a l l y i f through h i s super-  v i s o r h i s experiences i n s o c i e t y have been p o s i t i v e . g e n e r a l l y t h e man who has been u n s u c c e s s f u l his  It i s  i n any phase o f  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n who w i l l r e t u r n t o former c r i m i n a l  companions. Each time we send a man t o p r i s o n , we p l a c e him i n a s o c i e t y o f c r i m i n a l s where he w i l l meet o l d companions and new companions, b i n d i n g him t i g h t e r t o t h e c r i m i n a l s o c i e t y . T h i s I b e l i e v e i s t h e dilemma o f c o r r e c t i o n s .  I f we want a  man t o g i v e up h i s c r i m i n a l a s s o c i a t e s , we should  surely  h e s i t a t e t o send him t o an i n s t i t u t i o n where he i s f o r c e d t o l i v e and a s s o c i a t e w i t h them. A p e c u l i a r disadvantage o f t h e c r i m i n a l i s t h a t other people who have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  unlike  ( f o r example  -48mental p a t i e n t s and a l c o h o l i c s , who a r e encouraged t o meet as a group) t h e p a r o l e e s group.  are forbidden  ina  Even i f t h i s group i s under s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e p u b l i c  tend t o see any meeting of p a r o l e e s The  t o meet each other  as dangerous and t h r e a t e n i n g .  p a r o l e e must t h e r e f o r e , f i n d new f r i e n d s i n the normal  society.  But t h i s i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  i n s e c u r e and o f t e n h y p e r s e n s i t i v e .  f o r a man who i s  The p a r o l e e  i s at a r e a l  disadvantage when he cannot a s s o c i a t e w i t h other p a r o l e e s are t r y i n g t o go s t r a i g h t as he i s .  who  He i s f o r c e d t o r e j e c t  these a s s o c i a t e s , w h i l e on t h e other hand he i s r e j e c t e d by many o f t h e people i n t h e community. Parole  can be worse t h a n i n c a r c e r a t i o n .  I f t h e man l a c k s  companionship he might as w e l l be back i n j a i l where a t l e a s t he can have f r i e n d s h i p and a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g . (8) Problems o f Loss o f C i v i l Rights and Other Handicaps One  o f t h e g r e a t e s t r e h a b i l i t a t i v e i s s u e s today i s t h e  inability  o f t h e man w i t h a r e c o r d t o be bonded.  has been d i s c u s s e d has  T h i s problem  above, but i t i s a l o s s o f c i v i l r i g h t s t h a t  a s t r o n g impact on t h e p a r o l e e .  He i s l i m i t e d i n t h e type  o f employment a v a i l a b l e t o him; white c o l l a r work i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible  as i t i s t h e p o l i c y o f most companies t o bond t h e i r  employees. Another i s s u e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f r u s t r a t i n g bonding i s s u e i s t h e "no c r i m i n a l " c l a u s e t h a t many b i g companies and p r o f e s s i o n s have.  The l a t t e r would a f f e c t o n l y a few p a r o l e e s  since the majority  do not have enough s c h o o l i n g t o be e l i g i b l e  -49for  such p r o f e s s i o n s as medicine, law, pharmacy and a c c o u n t i n g .  However, many l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s have a "no c r i m i n a l " c l a u s e and r e f u s e t o h i r e any man who has a c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y .  This  a g a i n reduces t h e chances o f employment f o r many p a r o l e e s . The main problem c r e a t e d by l o s s o f c i v i l r i g h t s i s centered on t h e q u e s t i o n o f employment. this field  Discrimination i n  i s i n t e n s e l y f r u s t r a t i n g f o r t h e p a r o l e e who sees  such r e s t r i c t i o n s as i l l o g i c a l and a d i r e c t a t t a c k on him. Other c i v i l  l o s s e s such as b e i n g unable t o enter c e r t a i n  c o u n t r i e s as an immigrant a f f e c t o n l y the m i n o r i t y . (9) Problems o f Negative A t t i t u d e s t o A u t h o r i t y There i s l i t t l e have a n e g a t i v e  doubt t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r o l e e s  a t t i t u d e toward a u t h o r i t y .  Undoubtedly  i n d i v i d u a l , male o r female, has had unpleasant  every  experiences  a u t h o r i t y a t some time i n h i s l i f e , whether w i t h p o l i c e ,  with parents,  t e a c h e r s , employers o r s i b l i n g s , a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s who have abused t h e i r a u t h o r i t y , who have f o r c e d us t o do something t h a t we f e l t was u n j u s t .  T h i s aroused f e e l i n g s o f f e a r , hate,  revenge and anger o r some o t h e r form o f h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e i n us.  I f these  experiences  were repeated  o f t e n enough we would  b u i l d up a g r e a t d e a l o f h o s t i l e r e s i s t a n c e t o a u t h o r i t y . F u r t h e r we tend t o see a u t h o r i t y i n a s s o c i a t i o n with  punish-  ment, f o r i t i s p r e c i s e l y those w i t h a u t h o r i t y who may have punished us most o f t e n .  - 5 0 -  There i s a great d e a l o f evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t majority of offenders  have n e g a t i v e  These f e e l i n g s d i d not cumulative past early  f e e l i n g s toward a u t h o r i t y .  s p r i n g up overnight  experiences,  the  but are based  on  i n most cases going back t o  childhood. These f e e l i n g s are not reduced by the time the  man  e n t e r s p r i s o n , h i s experience w i t h the p o l i c e and the p r o b a b l y having i n c r e a s e d h i s immature and  negative  Once i n p r i s o n these f e e l i n g s are aggravated.  The  courts  feelings. prison  i t s e l f i s a symbol o f a u t h o r i t y , the guards are but p a r t the b u r e a u c r a t i c  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y t o be  of  exploited  when and wherever p o s s i b l e : ...Indeed, the g l a r i n g c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t d e s p i t e the guns, and the s u r v e i l l a n c e , the searches and the p r e c a u t i o n s o f the c u s t o d i a n s , the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r o f the inmate p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r s markedly from t h a t which i s c a l l e d f o r by o f f i c i a l commands and d e c r e e s . V i o l e n c e , f r a u d , t h e f t , aberrant s e x u a l behavior - a l l are common-place o c c u r r e n c e s i n the d a i l y round o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n i s conceived o f by s o c i e t y as the u l t i m a t e weapon f o r the c o n t r o l o f the c r i m i n a l and h i s d e v i a n t a c t i o n s . 1 0  The  a c t i o n s o f the inmates are the r e s u l t o f many t h i n g s ,  negative  a t t i t u d e s being but one  o f them.  The  important  here i s that our i n s t i t u t i o n s h e l p t o support and these n e g a t i v e respect  f e e l i n g s and  f o r the r u l e o f  t o d i m i n i s h an a l r e a d y  16  subside.  The  parolee  increase slender  law.  Once r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n , t h e s e negative not  fact  still  Sykes, GreshamM., op.  a t t i t u d e s do  sees a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s as  c i t . . p.  76.  -51dangerous or t h r e a t e n i n g .  The problem then i s t o help the  p a r o l e e t o r e a l i z e t h a t a u t h o r i t y does not mean punishment, t h a t a u t h o r i t y can be p o s i t i v e as w e l l as n e g a t i v e . p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r must g i v e the p a r o l e e a new a u t h o r i t y , a p o s i t i v e experience.  The  experience  with  The immature p a r o l e e has •  c a r r i e d i n t o h i s a d u l t l i f e the n e g a t i v e a u t h o r i t y c o n f l i c t s from h i s youth.  The  job o f the s u p e r v i s o r i s to d i s p e l these  c o n f l i c t s by the proper use o f a u t h o r i t y . learn that to l i v e and  The p a r o l e e must  i n s o c i e t y he cannot escape r e s t r i c t i o n s  curtailment of h i s a c t i v i t i e s .  To l i v e i n f r e e  means t h a t he must renounce many o f h i s i m p u l s i v e i f o n l y i n exchange f o r the. assurance same.  society,  satisfactions,  t h a t o t h e r s w i l l do  the  W i t h i n these r e s t r i c t i o n s t h e r e i s room f o r freedom.  The p a r o l e e w i l l grow and become a d j u s t e d to the extent t h a t he w i l l accept these r e s t r i c t i o n s and by h i s own w i l l impose these r e s t r i c t i o n s on h i m s e l f .  free  will  To h e l p the p a r o l e e  overcome the problems o f h i s h o s t i l e and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s i s one  o f the most important  aspects t h a t must be met  i f rehabilita-  t i o n i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l . ( 1 0 ) Problems Created by P a r o l e C o n d i t i o n s The primary purpose o f p a r o l e c o n d i t i o n s or r e s t r i c t i o n s i s t o p r o v i d e a guide f o r conduct f o r the p a r o l e e .  I t follows  then t h a t these c o n d i t i o n s should be f l e x i b l e , r e a l i s t i c enforcible. to  I n s h o r t , the c o n d i t i o n s should be  the f u l l e s t  extent p o s s i b l e .  and  individualized  Obviously c e r t a i n conditions  w i l l apply t o a l l p a r o l e e s but i n the main the  restrictions  -52should meet the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l p a r o l e e .  In e f f e c t  p a r o l e c o n d i t i o n s should d e f i n e p a r o l e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  and  should be based on the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s needs.' Often p a r o l e c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n f r u s t r a t i o n s f o r the p a r o l e e and on o c c a s i o n these goal of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  c o n d i t i o n s a c t a g a i n s t the  ultimate  For example, a common r e s t r i c t i o n i s  that a p a r o l e e must o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n b e f o r e s p e c i f i e d area as designated  l e a v i n g the  i n h i s parole conditions.  What  happens to the p a r o l e e when he i s o f f e r e d a job i n another g e o g r a p h i c a l area as not i n f r e q u e n t l y happens? the p a r o l e e has  contacted the r i g h t people and  permission,  job has been l o s t .  the  By the time obtained  As o f t e n as not,  these  jobs have time l i m i t s on them, i n t h a t the person h i r e d must r e p o r t f o r work the next day. factor. jobs.  Time i s t h e r e f o r e , an  important  T h i s type o f r e s t r i c t i o n l e s s e n s h i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r However, t h e r e are f u r t h e r r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  f e e l s he i s being  The  d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by the v e r y f a c t t h a t  he i s a p a r o l e e and under r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t seem to u n r e a l i s t i c and  parolee  him  injust.  I t i s understandable t h a t a l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s on p a r o l e , because o f t h e i r e a r l i e r experiences  should have a  great d e a l o f d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g a s u b s e r v i e n t r o l e  and  asking p e r m i s s i o n  f o r a c t i o n s which the o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n i s  f r e e t o perform.  Furthermore, many r e s t r i c t i o n s have  t o do with h i s crime.  little  He must o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n to marry, t o  buy a c a r , or t o get a f i n a n c i a l l o a n .  He must a b s t a i n from  -53i n t o x i c a t i n g beverages and so f o r t h .  Restrictions of this  type add f u r t h e r t o t h e p a r o l e e ' s f e e l i n g o f hopelessness and d e p r e c i a t e d s e l f image, thereby  i n c r e a s i n g h i s negative  a t t i t u d e toward a u t h o r i t y . I t i s obvious  t h a t many p a r o l e r e s t r i c t i o n s c o n t r a d i c t  the o b j e c t i v e s o f p a r o l e by p l a c i n g u n r e a l i s t i c and r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p a r o l e e s way. !  Simply  stated, the  b a s i c p a r o l e o b j e c t i v e i s t o h e l p t h e p a r o l e e develop from w i t h i n , but t h e apparent emphasis o f t h e p a r o l e t i o n s today i s c o n t r o l from without; as an attempt t o r u n h i s l i f e .  controls restric-  t h e p a r o l e e sees these  Parole r e s t r i c t i o n s are t o  c o n t r o l o r i n h i b i t t h e p a r o l e e ' s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s but not emotional growth.  As t h e p a r o l e e shows emotional growth t h e  c o n t r o l s should be reduced, and p a r o l e r e s t r i c t i o n s t h e r e f o r e be f l e x i b l e .  should  How then can t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  self  image have room t o grow when he sees h i m s e l f t r e a t e d as a c h i l d , where h i s a l r e a d y e x c e s s i v e tendency toward dependency i s strengthened  and r e i n f o r c e d and t h e s i m p l e s t d e c i s i o n s a r e  dependent on the consent  o f someone e l s e ?  In g e n e r a l t h e fewer t h e p a r o l e r e s t r i c t i o n s t h e b e t t e r hope t h e r e i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a good s u p e r v i s o r - p a r o l e e relationship.  But having such u n r e a l i s t i c and i n f l e x i b l e  r e s t r i c t i o n s r e s u l t s i n an atmosphere t h a t i s not conducive f o r mutual c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p e c t .  There i s a great d e a l o f  evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r o l e r e s t r i c t i o n s cause many  -54f r u s t r a t i n g and degrading problems f o r the parolee.  These  problems could be overcome more r e a d i l y than some of the preceding problems by having r e a l i s t i c , f l e x i b l e r e s t r i c t i o n s based on the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  When taken  i n context of the entire r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process they do no more than add f u e l to the f i r e .  CHAPTER I I I TWO VIEWS:  THE AFTER-CARE AGENCY AND THE PAROLEE  How A f t e r - C a r e Agencies See the Problems o f the Parolee The  purpose o f t h i s  any h y p o t h e s i s .  chapter i s n o t t o prove o r v a l i d a t e  Rather i t i s an e x p l o r a t o r y survey t o i l l u s -  t r a t e and make p l a u s i b l e , i f p o s s i b l e , those problems o f the p a r o l e e which were d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . The m a t e r i a l obtained  i s based on f a c e t o f a c e i n t e r v i e w s o f  one hour d u r a t i o n w i t h l e a d e r s i n the f i e l d  approximately  of after-care  i n B r i t i s h Columbia as w e l l as a s e l e c t e d number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e p r e s e n t l y s e r v i n g time on p a r o l e . persons were i n t e r v i e w e d :  The f o l l o w i n g  Mr. M. D a v i s , Executive D i r e c t o r  o f The John Howard S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. R. Smith, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s f o r the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. Kyle Stevenson, the B r i t i s h Columbia Representative  Regional  f o r t h e N a t i o n a l P a r o l e Board; Mr. G. McCaw,  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the B o r s t a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia; and B r i g a d i e r H. Nyrerod, D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s f o r t h e S a l v a t i o n Army o f B r i t i s h These experts wholeheartedly  Columbia.  agree on the v a l u e and  b e n e f i t o f p a r o l e i n our c o r r e c t i o n a l and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs.  However, a l l s t a t e d o r i m p l i e d t h a t no matter how  p r o g r e s s i v e o r modern our p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may become, they s t i l l r e p r e s e n t an a r t i f i c i a l  environment.  How s u c c e s s f u l  our r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program may be depends t o a great  extent  -56on what happens t o t h e man a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from our i n s t i t u tions.  There i s no simple panacea f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  problem i s m u l t i f a c e t e d the  The  and w i l l depend on such f a c t o r s as  q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the  offender,  s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s and t h e m o t i v a t i o n  and person-  a l i t y o f the parolee. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t everyone o f these  experts  when d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t a t e d i n one form o r another t h a t w h i l e p a r o l e success i s dependent on many f a c t o r s , the most important f a c t o r s were the p a r o l e e ' s  p e r s o n a l i t y development and the s i t u a t i o n i n t o  which the p a r o l e e  i s released.  T h i s would a t f i r s t  glance  appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t we are d e a l i n g w i t h two c a t e g o r i e s o f problems:  on t h e one hand those problems c r e a t e d by  s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , and on t h e o t h e r hand problems emanating from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y .  It  would be an e r r o r to assume t h a t these problems a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t h e sense t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e w i l l make t h e other case.  o f t h e one problem  i r r e l e v a n t , f o r i n r e a l i t y t h i s i s not t h e  I f we could p i c t u r e an a x i s where a t one extreme we have  those o f f e n d e r s  who a r e r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f p e r s o n a l i t y problems  ( f o r example t h e a c c i d e n t a l o f f e n d e r ) t o t h e other serious personality disorder  extreme o f  ( f o r example t h e sex-deviant  or  compulsive f o r g e r ) we can c l e a r l y see t h a t these problems are a c t u a l l y a continuum ranging other.  from t h e one extreme t o t h e  And Our understanding w i l l be f u r t h e r enhanced i f we  -57p i c t u r e the s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s as a c o - a x i s , thus c r e a t i n g the two  dimensions o f t h e p a r o l e e ' s p r o s p e c t s o f s u c c e s s .  By s i t u a t i o n a l problems I r e f e r t o those problems t h a t develop out o f the p a r o l e e ' s g e n e r a l environment and which the p a r o l e e has l i t t l e problems which develop  or no c o n t r o l .  over  For example,  because the p a r o l e e was  unable t o  secure  employment, o r the problems r e s u l t i n g from the t r a n s i t i o n he must make from the p r o t e c t e d and  c o n t r o l l e d environment o f  the p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t o f r e e s o c i e t y . t h a t o f t e n the p a r o l e e , no matter how dependent on how him,  I t i s quite  apparent  w e l l motivated, i s  the s o - c a l l e d f r e e community w i l l r e a c t to  and t h a t w h i l e t h i s i s something which w i l l t e s t h i s  r e s o u r c e s o f c h a r a c t e r , i t i s not something which w i l l  yield  merely t o f o r c e o f c h a r a c t e r . In the second case, t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a p r e d i s p o s e d p e r s o n a l i t y who  has a marked l e a n i n g toward  c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y , unfavourable the a g g r a v a t i o n of h i s problem. m o t h e r - f i x a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y who  situations w i l l result  For example, the immature commits a crime and goes t o  p r i s o n w i l l become even more s o c i a l l y inadequate o f unfavourable  circumstances  i n f a c t o f t e n develops  In  on r e l e a s e .  as a r e s u l t  This p e r s o n a l i t y  serious paranoidal manifestations.  O b v i o u s l y , i n the event t h a t t h e r e i s a p r e d i s p o s e d p e r s o n a l i t y , then these s i t u a t i o n a l problems may  w e l l produce f u r t h e r  d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the a l r e a d y immature, p a t h o l o g i c a l i n d i v i d u a l .  -58Nor  should we  f o r g e t t h a t the p r i s o n experience i t s e l f  may-  a i r eady have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s outcome. There i s some evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the problems have more importance w i t h the f i r s t o r  situational incidental  o f f e n d e r , w h i l e the r e c i d i v i s t s problems are merely aggravated f  by the  s i t u a t i o n a l problems t h a t a r i s e e i t h e r i n the i n s t i t u t i o n  o r i n the  community.  problem and  The  h e l p i n g him  emphasis must be on h i s p e r s o n a l i t y  overcome these problems and t o bear  the f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t may The experts  employment o f p a r o l e e s as one  by a l l the  o f the most important f a c t o r s t h a t must be  d e a l t w i t h by p a r o l e e majority  i s considered  and  supervisor a l i k e .  However, the  f e e l t h a t problems r e s u l t i n g from the  s i t u a t i o n should be kept i n p e r s p e c t i v e , and employment problem i s o f t e n over-emphasized. o p i n i o n t h a t employment may  or may  Mr.  employment  aver t h a t  A l l are o f the  circumstances  Smith i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t w h i l e a  short p e r i o d o f unemployment with f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e not be harmful, i f j o b l e s s n e s s time, i t may  of  w e l l be doubted whether s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  t o the p a r o l e e  be  will  extends over a long p e r i o d  can take p l a c e s i n c e i n our present  achieve.  the  not be a major problem  depending upon the i n d i v i d u a l and the present o f the p a r o l e e .  arise.  s o c i e t y employment means  p r e c i s e l y the independence he i s t r y i n g  Employment i s necessary before  rehabilitation  to can  completely r e a l i z e d because i t g i v e s a f e e l i n g o f worth  -59and accomplishment t o the p a r o l e e .  On the o t h e r hand,  Davis f e e l s t h a t , i n the l i g h t o f h i s experience,  Mr.  employment  does not mean s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and o f t e n the most s u c c e s s f u l p a r o l e e i s the one who  has been a b l e t o meet t h e  f r u s t r a t i o n s o f not b e i n g a b l e to secure employment and from r e t u r n i n g t o f u r t h e r c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . emotional growth on the p a r o l e e ' s p a r t .  refrain  This i n d i c a t e s  F u r t h e r , i f the  problem o f employment i s the o n l y problem t h a t the p a r o l e e then i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he w i l l need h e l p o t h e r than f i n d i n g employment.  T h i s i n i t s e l f does not  justify  has,  with after-  care f o r i n r e a l i t y t h i s i n d i v i d u a l would need no more h e l p than any o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l who  i s unemployed.  Furthermore t h e r e i s a great d e a l o f evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t even i f t h e r e was  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u l l employment f o r  a l l p a r o l e e s , t h i s i n i t s e l f would not reduce t o any  great  extent the r a t e o f p a r o l e f a i l u r e .  from the  I would conclude  m a j o r i t y o f o p i n i o n s t h a t employment i s not the panacea o f rehabilitation.  I t i s an important  factor i n assisting  the  p a r o l e e t o b u i l d a s t r o n g s e l f image by h e l p i n g him f e e l  he  i s accomplishing  that  something by having money i n h i s pocket  belongs to him and was  not o b t a i n e d through c h a r i t y .  v a l u e of p a r o l e l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t o f f e r s  The  emotional  support and t o a c e r t a i n degree, p h y s i c a l a i d t o the p a r o l e e u n t i l such time as the i n d i v i d u a l can o b t a i n employment. F u r t h e r , once the p a r o l e e i s working, p a r o l e should help  him  overcome some o f the f r u s t r a t i o n s t h a t he i s l i a b l e t o encounter  -60such as p r e j u d i c e and  o s t r a c i s m by h i s f e l l o w workers.  A l l of the a f t e r - c a r e experts the p a r o l e e  himself  problems he  encounters.  I interviewed  o f t e n c r e a t e s i n h i s own Every man  mind many o f  the  r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n f e e l s  he i s branded v i s i b l y as a c r i m i n a l . i n degree w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l .  believe that  The  T h i s o f course v a r i e s degree or i n t e n s i t y i s  not the important f a c t o r , r a t h e r i t i s t h a t they have t h i s f e e l i n g and  t h a t i t i s more i n t e n s e immediately a f t e r r e l e a s e  from p r i s o n .  For example, a p a r o l e e may  hear some people laughing the d e f e n s i v e  and  at the back.  f e e l s they are  get on a bus  and  Immediately he i s on  laughing  at him.  There are  many examples of t h i s type o f t h i n k i n g on the p a r t o f r e c e n t l y discharged Mr.  parolee  p r i s o n e r but the above example w i l l  Davis r e f e r s t o t h i s phenomenon as  paranoia",  the suffice.  "post-release  o r i n simpler terms, a f e e l i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e .  f e e l s t h a t everyone i s l o o k i n g at him,  The  t h a t he i s not  r e a l l y p a r t o f the community.  T h i s f e e l i n g does not  happen  spontaneously upon r e l e a s e but  i s the accumulation o f many  f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g h i s experience with p o l i c e , the c o u r t s the s t a f f o f the p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . r e s u l t s i n the p a r o l e e parolee  and  This f e e l i n g of d i f f e r e n c e  becoming h o s t i l e t o a u t h o r i t y .  f e e l s t h a t i f he doesn't get a job, i t i s not  t h e r e i s no p o s i t i o n open, but r a t h e r because he i s an  The because "ex-con".  I f he i s l a i d o f f , i t i s not because t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r work a v a i l a b l e ; r a t h e r someone has t o l d the boss t h a t he i s an  "ex-con".  -61Much o f t h i s h o s t i l i t y and embitterment i s focused on the p o l i c e , and t o a c e r t a i n extent t h e p o l i c e r e i n f o r c e t h e p a r o l e e ' s s u s p i c i o n s because o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner. New r e c r u i t s who have not l e a r n e d how t o handle t h e i r a u t h o r i t y r o l e p r o p e r l y a r e t h e main o f f e n d e r s .  For example, i f a p o l i c e  o f f i c e r stops a c i t i z e n f o r some minor t r a f f i c o f f e n s e t h e c i t i z e n may be h o s t i l e but u s u a l l y on account  o f being  r a t h e r than t h e manner i n which he was t r e a t e d .  stopped  However, t h e  p a r o l e e , who a l r e a d y f e e l s t h a t he i s d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , sees such r o u t i n e check-ups as a p e r s o n a l a f f r o n t and f e e l s he i s being stopped not f o r the o f f e n s e but because he i s a parolee.  The a u t h o r i t a t i v e manner used enhances t h i s  and o f t e n h e l p s t o strengthen the p o s t - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  feeling "paranoia".  T h i s f e e l i n g o f being branded and o f b e i n g unique i s an extremely  important  p a r o l e e ' s concept  problem as i t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the  o f s e l f and w i l l s e r i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e t h e  success o f h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  As we can see, t h i s  "post-  r e l e a s e p a r a n o i a " w i l l be r e l a t e d t o some extent t o the degree o f success t h e p a r o l e e w i l l have i n r e a d j u s t i n g t o the community and h i s f a m i l y . There i s no q u e s t i o n i n t h e minds o f t h e a f t e r - c a r e experts t h a t t h e b i g g e s t o r key problem i s the r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p a r o l e e i n t o t h e community. process may almost  The success o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  be d e f i n e d as t h e degree o f r e i n t e g r a t i o n  i n t o t h e community t h a t t h e p a r o l e e i s a b l e t o accomplish.  -62Mr.  Stevenson  and Mr. McCaw are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t many  o f t h e problems the p a r o l e e encounters are the r e s u l t o f h i s o v e r - s e n s i t i v i t y and t h a t i n f a c t a great number o f the problems do not e x i s t except i n the p a r o l e e ' s mind. Mr. McCaw nor Mr. encountered  Stevenson  However, n e i t h e r  f e e l s t h a t a l l the problems  are due merely t o h y p e r - s e n s i t i v i t y but t h a t t h i s  h y p e r - s e n s i t i v i t y may simple problems.  aggravate  and  complicate  relatively  A l l experts are agreed, however, t h a t the  p r i s o n experience c r e a t e s emotional problems t h a t are ly difficult  f o r the p a r o l e e t o overcome without  exceeding-  extensive help.  Mr. Davis a s s e r t s t h a t the problem o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s an e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  one f o r the p a r o l e e .  The p a r o l e e  has d e f i n i t e g u i l t  f e e l i n g s as a r e s u l t o f being a r r e s t e d ,  taken t o c o u r t and  c o n v i c t e d and presented i n the newspapers  as a v i l e and unwanted i n d i v i d u a l .  The r e s u l t o f such t r e a t -  ment tends t o induce i n the c r i m i n a l a f e e l i n g o f being outcast.  an  The p r i s o n experience f u r t h e r aggravates t h i s problem.  When r e l e a s e d the p a r o l e e i s p l a c e d i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t he no longer knows how  t o cope w i t h .  In p r i s o n the  s i t u a t i o n s tend to l o s e the s u p e r f i c i a l veneer o f  social  civilization.  For example, i n p r i s o n the inmates when g r o p i n g f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n seldom t a l k about the weather, but i n our s o c i a l when we  situations,  f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a t o p i c t o speak o f , we o f t e n  t u r n t o a d i s c u s s i o n about weather.  The p a r o l e e , a f t e r h i s  p r i s o n experience, f i n d s such c o n v e r s a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t , r e s u l t i n g i n h i s f e e l i n g out o f p l a c e and not  belong-  -63ing.  In short he f e e l s l i k e a drunk at a tea party.  Moreover  t h i s f e e l i n g o f not belonging i s strengthened when the conversation turns to "what I did l a s t week or last month or last year".  The parolee i s unable to contribute to t h i s and  the free society that he i s to draw his s o c i a l references from i s i n r e a l i t y foreign to him.  He f e e l s that he i s talking  at them but that he i s unable to communicate with them. The evidence indicates that the hinge of the parolee's capacity for s o c i a l reintegration i s his own mental picture of himself.  The value of parole l i e s i n the fact that through  r e a l i s t i c and warm support the parole supervisor can help the parolee to gain a better s e l f image of himself by supporting and a s s i s t i n g him to meet the f r u s t r a t i o n s of s o c i a l l i v i n g i n such a way that w i l l allow for emotional growth of the parolee.  Mr. Davis further points out that after-care agencies  i n themselves help the parolee to f e e l the community i s interested i n him as the agency i s part of and supported  by  th e community• A l l the experts agree that u n t i l the community i s educated and i s w i l l i n g to accept the parolee the problem of s o c i a l reintegration w i l l continue to be extremely d i f f i c u l t .  That  some program of public education i s needed i s beyond doubt. Moreover, a program of gradual release of the offender into the community would be valuable.  Again, i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs  where the inmate i s allowed to have more contact with the  -64community w h i l e i n p r i s o n would be b e n e f i c i a l and would h e l p t o break down t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e e l i n g s o f mutual s u s p i c i o u s n e s s and antagonism between the p u b l i c and t h e o f f e n d e r . According t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e d experts' another important  extremely  and key problem, s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f r e i n t e g r a t i o n  i n t o t h e community a r i s e s i n t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t parolee i n h i s family.  o f the  But a l l were c a r e f u l t o s t r e s s t h e  f a c t t h a t t h i s problem can be p l a c e d i n a f a l s e p e r s p e c t i v e . Re-establishment  o f a young o f f e n d e r i n a f a m i l y which was  probably t h e cause o f h i s c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s would be p o i n t less.  Mr. Smith made the p o i n t t h a t r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  f a m i l y depends on t h e age o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  i n the  F o r younger  o f f e n d e r s r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t ; i n t h e f a m i l y i s more important and meaningful.  To t h e o l d e r s i n g l e o f f e n d e r t h i s problem does  not seem as important. treatment Mr.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n should not o n l y i n c l u d e  f o r the o f f e n d e r but f o r t h e f a m i l y as w e l l . Davis brought out the p o i n t t h a t t o t h e married  o f f e n d e r , resuming h i s p l a c e i n h i s f a m i l y i s a primary while r e j e c t i o n by t h e f a m i l y can be t r a u m a t i c have many n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s . r e s e t t l e m e n t o f the married  concern,  f o r him and  There are many s i d e s t o t h e offender.  Often on t h e w i f e ' s  p a r t t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g o f resentment because she was abandoned by her husband and l e f t t o f a c e t h e problems a r i s i n g w i t h i n the community a l o n e .  On t h e other hand t h e p a r o l e e i s apt t o  f e e l resentment because he f e e l s h i s w i f e does not completely  -65comprehend what he went through  during h i s i n c a r c e r a t i o n .  Moreover, because o f t h e o f f e n d e r ' s d e p r i v a t i o n o f h e t r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s while i n p r i s o n , he f r e q u e n t l y imagines h i s wife's i n f i d e l i t y .  When he i s r e l e a s e d t h i s problem does  not d i s a p p e a r , even i f these f a n t a s i e s are unfounded.  The  p a r o l e e has an i n s a t i a b l e a p p e t i t e f o r p r o o f t h a t these f a n t a s i e s were not based on f a c t .  T h i s constant t e s t i n g  and d i s t r u s t tends t o serve as a b a r r i e r between man and w i f e . In a d d i t i o n t o the above problems a l l t h e experts mentioned a problem i n t a k i n g up the t h r e a d s o f f a m i l y l i f e a g a i n which a r i s e s from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s an element o f strangeness on t h e p a r t o f both p a r t n e r s who - a f t e r what i s o f t e n a lengthy s e p a r a t i o n - p r a c t i c a l l y have t o g e t t o know one another a g a i n .  T h i s strangeness r e s u l t s on t h e p a r o l e e ' s  p a r t because o f h i s having l i v e d i n the p r o t e c t e d a n d l i m i t e d environment o f the i n s t i t u t i o n which has made him g e n e r a l l y more dependent, w h i l e on the o t h e r hand t h e w i f e has become more independent  because o f having had t o do without him.  T h i s combination tends a g a i n t o cause t h e p a r o l e e t o make enormous demands f o r assurance t h a t he i s s t i l l needed, w h i l e the w i f e tends t o c l i n g t o t h e independency she has gained w h i l e she was without him.  T h i s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n her denying  the p a r o l e e the assurance he i s seeking and consequently he f e e l s r e j e c t e d and unwanted. As can be seen, t h e e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f a f t e r - c a r e whom I i n t e r v i e w e d a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e two most  -66s e r i o u s problems t o overcome a r e t h e r e o r i e n t a t i o n i n t o t h e community a n d r e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e f a m i l y . were e x p r e s s e d a s t o o t h e r  Various  problems t h e p a r o l e e  opinions  may e n c o u n t e r ,  such as l o s s o f c i v i l r i g h t s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b y p o l i c e , a n d so f o r t h ,  b u t o n the w h o l e t h e y s t i l l  felt  that the major  p r o b l e m s were r e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e community a n d f a m i l y . B r i g a d i e r H. Nyrerod b r o u g h t up one f e a t u r e  of after-care  that bears mentioning.  I t i s h i s o p i n i o n t h a t one a s p e c t  parole  b y many a f t e r - c a r e a g e n c i e s i s t h e  o f t e n overlooked  spiritual that ual  element i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  complete r e h a b i l i t a t i o n change o n t h e p a r t  a great  The b r i g a d i e r b e l i e v e s  cannot t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t  o f the parolee.  This o p i n i o n  d e a l o f w e i g h t when one c a l l s t o mind  Anonymous and t h e i r  success,  which  of  spirit-  gains  Alcoholics  - a s i s w e l l known - i s  based on an a p p e a l t o a s o r t o f r e l i g i o u s  faith.  Both  c o r r e c t i o n s w o r k e r s and A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous d e a l w i t h b a s i c a l l y t h e same s o r t o f immature i n d i v i d u a l , w h i l e are  a l c o h o l i c s o r heavy d r i n k e r s .  many  criminals  I f one c a n be h e l p e d  by  " s p i r i t u a l t h e r a p y " i t may p o s s i b l y have some more c e n t r a l place  i n the f i e l d  o f corrections than i t presently  Another problem mentioned cause a g r e a t  by t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d  deal o f trouble t o the parolee  i s past  does.  that can and p r e s e n t  c r i m i n a l companions and t h e i r p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o n t h e p a r o l e e . The m a j o r i t y  f e e l that  ory adjustment  i f the parolee  i n the family,  i s n o t making a  satisfact-  community a n d employment,  there  I s a t e n d e n c y f o r h i m t o s e e k o u t h i s o l d g r o u p , a move w h i c h  u l t i m a t e l y leads to t r o u b l e .  However, i f a  satisfactory  adjustment i s being made i t i s u n l i k e l y he w i l l be i n c l i n e d to go back t o c r i m i n a l s o c i e t y .  Mr.  Smith f e l t t h a t  parolees,  because o f t h e i r overdependency, tend t o l e a n h e a v i l y on support  from o t h e r s , and  t h a t i f these  people are c r i m i n a l  t y p e s , he hasn't much o f a chance t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d .  How-  ever, t h i s does not mean t h a t a group approach to the problem could not  be attempted, p r o v i d e d i t can be watched and  vised properly.  Nevertheless  contact w i t h c r i m i n a l types  the m a j o r i t y f e e l t h a t  super-  constant  can o n l y l e a d u l t i m a t e l y t o  the  i n d i v i d u a l once a g a i n becoming i n v o l v e d i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . A l l agree t h a t our p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s tend t o aggravate the a l r e a d y present Under our present  problems from which t h e i n d i v i d u a l  system, no matter how  suffers.  p r o g r e s s i v e i t may  be-  come, these problems w i l l be aggravated by i n c a r c e r a t i o n and i t s associated experiences.  However, they f e e l t h a t p a r o l e  i s a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n as i t removes the p r i s o n e r from the i n s t i t u t i o n and i n g hand.  p l a c e s him  i n s o c i e t y under a  The v a l u e o f p a r o l e i s t h a t i t h e l p s the man  help h i m s e l f t o overcome h i s problems and  steadyto  frustrations i n l i f e  and t o develop w i t h i n h i m s e l f the c a p a c i t y t o "take i t " without  v e n t i n g h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s on s o c i e t y .  b a s i c a l l y and  simply  T h i s , then,  s t a t e d , i s the f o c u s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  and p a r o l e p r o v i d e s the environment and the help f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o take  place.  necessary  -68A l l experts p o i n t e d out t h a t l a c k o f money t o i n s t i g a t e programs and r e s e a r c h , l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d and t r a i n e d workers, heavy caseloads  (which u l t i m a t e l y mean t h a t p a r o l e i s o f t e n  no more than a form o f s u r v e i l l a n c e ) are the b a s i c problems as f a r as t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f p a r o l e a r e concerned. But a l l are o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a new dawn i s approaching i n the f i e l d o f a f t e r - c a r e and t h a t i n the near f u t u r e these problems w i l l be p a r t i a l l y o r e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d through the seeming i n c r e a s e o f i n t e r e s t shown by the v a r i o u s  levels  o f government and by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . How the Parolee Sees h i s Problems Again, t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e study i s o f an e x p l o r a t o r y nature.  The p a r o l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d  cannot be considered a  good r e s e a r c h sample i n t h a t o n l y e i g h t p a r o l e e s were interviewed.  Furthermore, t h i s sample i s b i a s e d i n the  sense t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d by t h e John Howard S o c i e t y and S a l v a t i o n Army were p a r o l e e s who were w i l l i n g and  anxious t o d i s c u s s t h e i r problems as they  I n t e r v i e w s were o f approximately duration.  saw them.  one and a h a l f hour i n  The purpose was t o o b t a i n t h e o p i n i o n o f those  i n d i v i d u a l s who were c l o s e s t t o t h e r o o t s o f t h e problem o f the p a r o l e e , p r i n c i p a l l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l on p a r o l e .  A further  purpose was t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e were any sharp d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n and experience  between t h e a f t e r - c a r e  p e r s o n n e l and t h e p a r o l e e s themselves.  Interviews  i n f o r m a l i n mood and seven questions were asked.  were  -69(1) How d i d you f e e l toward p a r o l e while i n p r i s o n ? (2) Do you f e e l t h a t s o c i e t y has r e j e c t e d or been u n f a i r t o you? (3) What problems as a p a r o l e e cause you t h e most concern? (4) When r e l e a s e d what mental p i c t u r e o f y o u r s e l f d i d you have? (5) Do t h e m a j o r i t y o f your f r i e n d s have c r i m i n a l backgrounds? (6) What do you expect  from your p a r o l e  officer?  (7) Do you f e e l t h a t p a r o l e i s o f any value? Question  1. How d i d YOU f e e l toward p a r o l e w h i l e i n p r i s o n ?  The d e c i s i o n t o a p p l y f o r p a r o l e o r t o be d i s c h a r g e d a t t e r m i n a t i o n o f sentence appears t o be a s e r i o u s and p a i n f u l d e c i s i o n f o r most p a r o l e e s t o make.  I t i s disquieting to  r e a l i z e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f inmates know v e r y l i t t l e p a r o l e and t h a t they are seldom informed it  entails.  about  what p a r o l e i s o r what  Of t h e e i g h t p a r o l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d a l l s t a t e d  t h a t although p a r o l e meant g e t t i n g out o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e y d i d not l o o k forward t o p a r o l e because they f e l t  they  would be unable t o cope with t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with p a r o l e , and i f they were u n s u c c e s s f u l , they would be r e t u r n e d to p r i s o n . One p a r o l e e s a i d : "Many men i f they had a chance t o get p a r o l e wouldn't take i t i f they had a short time t o do as they don't know i f t h e y could handle i t and the thought o f b e i n g r e t u r n e d t o p r i s o n would be t o o much f o r them", parolee stated: "Parole i s a b i g d e c i s i o n —  another  i f you i n t e n d t o  go back i n t o crime i t o f course i s not a good t h i n g , s t i l l i f  -70you a r e i n t e n d i n g t o go s t r a i g h t you must c o n s i d e r i t c a r e f u l l y as t h e r e i s the chance you can be  sent back t o p r i s o n f o r some  mistake t h a t a normal c i t i z e n c o u l d make without A l l parolees interviewed t h a t p a r o l e to a man out o f the can".  fear *. 1  s t a t e d i n one manner or another  i n p r i s o n means but one t h i n g - "to get  Moreover, not o n l y i s a p p l y i n g f o r p a r o l e  a major and t e s t i n g d e c i s i o n i n i t s e l f ,  but w a i t i n g f o r an  answer i s a l s o extremely f r u s t r a t i n g s i n c e i t takes a o f months b e f o r e the p r i s o n e r knows one way is  couple  or the o t h e r .  It  l i k e s i t t i n g on a fence - "you're not i n and you're not  out".  Two  p a r o l e e s were f i r s t  o f f e n d e r s and  they were i n c a r c e r a t e d the f i r s t time i t was "You  get to hate e v e r y t h i n g and  s t a t e d t h a t when a real jolt  -  everybody, you :just cannot  get used t o i t , and p a r o l e o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f p a r o l e i s the one  redeeming t h i n g t o l o o k forward  to".  Perhaps the  inmates' f e e l i n g toward p a r o l e c o u l d be best shown by excerpt  an  from a l e t t e r r e c e i v e d by a p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r :  ...Mr. M. t o l d me t h a t you wanted me t o w r i t e t o you r e g a r d i n g p a r o l e . The thought o f p a r o l e or even going out o f here when my time i s up scares me. I'm a f r a i d o f going o u t . I'm a f r a i d o f not s t a y i n g out. I'm a f r a i d o f b e i n g a f r a i d t o go out.... I spent a few hours the o t h e r n i t e s t u d y i n g my reasons f o r not g e t t i n g busy on t h i s p a r o l e . The o n l y t h i n g t h a t emerged with any c l a r i t y was the f a c t t h a t I'm d e l i b e r a t e l y s t a l l i n g u n t i l you l e a v e , then I won't f e e l g u i l t y about not doing anything — you've been t r a i n e d i n t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g , I guess you know some f o u r d o l l a r word t o d e s c r i b e my c o n d i t i o n . I n s t i t u tionalized? (There's a t h r e e d o l l a r word anyway).... I've been wondering i f I'm capable o f f o r c i n g myself to adhere t o the r u l e s o f the f l o c k t i l l i t becomes h a b i t . I suspect I am more goat than sheep. No o f f e n s e meant t o you, you're probably a w e l l a d j u s t e d  -71goat, o r i f you'd r a t h e r , a s l i g h t l y maladjusted sheep I'm s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g my constant v i g i l a g a i n s t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but I'm b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l l i k e Don Quixote. I t o b v i o u s l y needs t o be a t t a c k e d from another a n g l e . 1  Question 2. Do you f e e l t h a t s o c i e t y has r e j e c t e d o r been u n f a i r to you? A l l t h e p a r o l e e s emphasized t h a t when a man i s sentenced to  p r i s o n he f e e l s t h a t  s o c i e t y has r e j e c t e d him —  " I f they  d i d n ' t want me, t o h e l l with them" i s the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e . The f i r s t o f f e n d e r s s t a t e d t h a t a f t e r the i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f shock they d i d n ' t r e a l l y hate s o c i e t y ; they knew what they had done wrong and must pay the consequences.  However, as  t i m e passes t h e p r i s o n e r s b e g i n t o hate e v e r y t h i n g and everyone and e s p e c i a l l y the people who put them t h e r e .  They f e e l  t h a t s o c i e t y does not want them and determine t h e r e f o r e t o act  and a s s o c i a t e w i t h those who a r e w i l l i n g t o accept them.  All  s t a t e d t h a t the l o n g e r they were i n c a r c e r a t e d t h e more  they f e l t  s o c i e t y d i d not want them and was r e j e c t i n g them.  Question 3 . What problems as a p a r o l e e cause you the most  concern?  T h i s q u e s t i o n e l i c i t e d many d i v e r g e n t p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s , depending  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p a r t i c u l a r needs and  emotional m a t u r i t y .  However, t h e r e appear t o be t h r e e areas  which a l l p a r o l e e s mentioned and which, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , a l l p a r o l e e s w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h : (1) employment and money (2) f e a r , and (3)  companionship.  A l l the p a r o l e e s claimed t h a t employment was one o f t h e i r b i g g e s t problems;  t h a t without  employment t h e y had no money t o  -72buy the m a t e r i a l goods necessary f o r a decent were d r i v e n t o sponging  life;  o f f friends or family.  t h a t they  They f e l t  t h a t as long as they were unemployed they c o u l d not be independent.  F u r t h e r problems t h a t arose w i t h attempting t o  o b t a i n work seemed t o c r e a t e even g r e a t e r t e n s i o n . to  tell  Whether  the employer and t h e i r f e l l o w employees about t h e i r  r e c o r d was an extremely d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n .  Most o f t h e  p a r o l e e s f e l t t h a t i f the employer asked them he should be t o l d o f t h e i r p a s t , but with f e l l o w workers i t was best i f t h e y knew nothing about the p a s t . "A job i s very important. to  One p a r o l e e emphasized  I t ' s not a c t u a l l y t h e work, i t ' s  have money t o a f f o r d those t h i n g s you were d e p r i v e d o f  d u r i n g your p r i s o n term.  I t ' s not r e a l l y the job, i t ' s how  much money i t b r i n g s i s t h e important  t h i n g , a guy i s always  tempted about money, when you get out o f p r i s o n you've got n o t h i n g and you are envious o f those who have". Fear of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r o l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d , was another major area o f concern. s a i d "Fear was my b i g g e s t problem. I was a f r a i d o f a n y t h i n g .  One p a r o l e e  I was a f r a i d o f e v e r y t h i n g ,  I was a f r a i d o f people and myself  and I guess, most o f a l l I was a f r a i d o f r i d i c u l e " .  This  f e a r appears t o be present i n a l l the p a r o l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s f e e l i n g o f inadequacy t h a t t h e p a r o l e e has i s a c r u c i a l problem, and u n t i l the p a r o l e e b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s "somebody", when he f e e l s t h a t people accept him f o r what he i s now and not what he was, these f e a r s w i l l continue t o be a major w a l l  -73between the parolee and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Another parolee  asserts "In prison you get to the point that you f e e l that everything i s hopeless, that you have no value —  when you are  paroled a guy has got to be able to prove to himself and to the community that he i s needed, you cannot quite see where you w i l l be needed i n society. I've been lucky.  You f e e l completely inadequate.  I've got two years experience.  I've got  friends and I have found people can l i k e me f o r myself.  new  I  guess t h i s has helped me the most". The t h i r d area that seems to cause trouble f o r the parolee and t h i s i s a unanimous opinion of the parolees interviewed, i s they cannot see why they should not have contact with fellow inmates struggling with the same problems as they.  Moreover,  as one parolee claims "When you have been i n intimate contact with a number of men over many years while i n prison, when you know everything about eachother, how i n the h e l l can you say to him,  'I can't be seen associating with you as you are an  undesirable character'?" that i f a man  I t seems to be the general consensus  i s going to go straight, contact with criminal  companions i s not going to a l t e r things, especially i f he i s getting good supervision and help.  Another parolee declared  "What a guy needs i s someone to t a l k t o , somebody to l i s t e n to you who  i s interested i n you not because i t i s h i s job but  because you are a human being. spective.  I t would give you a new per-  A guy needs a buddy and companion r e a l bad who  be around whenever he i s needed".  will  This need f o r companionship  -74was quite apparent when I was i n t e r v i e w i n g the parolees, e s p e c i a l l y the parolees who had no f a m i l y t o r e t u r n to upon t h e i r r e l e a s e from p r i s o n . The above problems were common t o a l l the parolees interviewed but most o f them also mentioned a number o f others.  One area o f concern i s that the parolee can see no  reason t o report t o more than one parole supervisor.  Although  they s t a t e that they f e e l nothing toward the p o l i c e , the m a j o r i t y f e e l that r e p o r t i n g t o the p o l i c e every week i s degrading and upsetting even though the p o l i c e t r e a t them very w e l l .  Reporting t o the p o l i c e serves l i t t l e value as  f a r as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s concerned, and t h i s i s quite apparent i n the very way the parolee speaks o f p o l i c e s u p e r v i s i o n . Another subject that was brought up by the only homeless parolee interviewed was that a s i n g l e man, when released from p r i s o n , o f t e n has no home t o go t o .  What i s needed,  according t o t h i s parolee, i s some system o f h o s t e l s throughout the country where the parolee can r e s i d e u n t i l he can "make i t on h i s own". These homes should be located across Canada f o r i t i s t h i s p a r o l e e s f  opinion a l s o that t o have any  chance a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n the parolee must get away from the area where he committed h i s crime.  To quote one o f the parolees  interviewed, "Once the parolee has got a s t a r t and i s backed up with r e a l understanding  and help, he w i l l go s t r a i g h t " .  -75Question  A. When r e l e a s e d what m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f y o u r s e l f d i d you have?  The a n s w e r s t o t h i s  question, although  ways, may b e summarized a s f o l l o w s . is  negative.  to  t h e community.  given i n various  The p a r o l e e s ,  He f e e l s he i s o f l i t t l e  value  self  image  to himself or  He h a s no s p i r i t u a l o r m a t e r i a l v a l u e , and  i s b r a n d e d and unwanted.  One p a r o l e e r e m a r k e d , "When I came  out  small.  of prison I felt  very  You come f r o m a l o w c l a s s  of  s o c i e t y ( j a i l ) and a r e expected  t o immediately  in  a higher  community).  what you  nor  living  You d o n ' t know  l o n e s o m e i s u n t i l y o u have t o t r y , y o u g e t so f r u s t r a t e d just  that  class of society (free  start  want  these  t o s i t down and c r y l i k e  men a r e l i k e  how e v e n t o s t a r t .  tering  a baby".  I t i s apparent  l o s t men, n o t k n o w i n g w h i c h way t o go Most p a r o l e e s  d e c l a r e d t h a t any f l a t -  n o t i o n t h e y may h a v e o f t h e m s e l v e s i s s o o n l o s t  T h e y had t o a c c e p t  the prison society f o rt h e i r  i n prison.  own p h y s i c a l and  mental p r o t e c t i o n .  Question  5 . Do t h e m a . j o r i t y o f y o u r f r i e n d s h a v e c r i m i n a l b a c k grounds?  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r o l e e s  interviewed  stated that  they  h a v e f r i e n d s who have c r i m i n a l b a c k g r o u n d s b u t have managed t o go  straight.  However,  criminal records. parolees them  most n e w l y a c q u i r e d  From t h e g e n e r a l t a l k  have d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n prison.  i t appears that  most  i n s t a y i n g away f r o m men who knew  As one p a r o l e e  g u y s I knew i n p r i s o n .  f r i e n d s have no  said,  " I bump i n t o  so many  You know h i m w e l l e s p e c i a l l y  i f he  was a c e l l mate a n d you. n a t u r a l l y want t o t a l k t o h i m a n d  -76have a cup o f c o f f e e but that i s about a l l .  I f he i s s t i l l  i n v o l v e d i n crime, seeing him and t h e way he i s j u s t makes you a i l the more sure t h a t you don't want t o go back t o t h a t k i n d o f life™.  A l l the p a r o l e e s  f e e l that t h i s i s a r e a l  problem and no matter what c i t y t h e y may go t o , sooner o r l a t e r they a r e going t o meet some f e l l o w who was i n p r i s o n w i t n them.  Further,  that supervised  f i v e o f the parolees  interviewed  suggested  group meetings o f men faced w i t h t h e same  k i n d o f problems would p r o b a b l y be o f help as t h e y  could  d i s c u s s t h e t r o u b l e s they were having and how they were t r y i n g to handle them.  A l s o , a l t h o u g h not mentioned, but  d e f i n i t e l y i m p l i e d , was t h e f a c t t h a t by t h i s method the parolee him  would f e e l t h a t he belonged t o a group t h a t understood  and h i s problems and which was t r y i n g , l i k e h i m s e l f , t o  overcome these d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Knowing t h a t these men were  h a v i n g the same d i f f i c u l t i e s and problems would be a method o f h e l p i n g t o boost h i s morale. All  the p a r o l e e s  f e e l t h a t any c o n s i s t e n t contact  with  f r i e n d s s t i l l a c t i v e i n crime would be d i s a s t r o u s f o r any parolee  t r y i n g t o go s t r a i g h t .  The temptations o f b i g money  and  the pressures  for  him t o cope w i t h and would r e s u l t i n him g e t t i n g mixed up  in  brought on t h e man would be j u s t t o o much  some " d e a l " no matter how good h i s i n t e n t i o n s o r f o r t h a t  matter h i s p a r o l e  s u p e r v i s i o n were.  -77Uuestion 6.  What do you expect  from your p a r o l e  officer?  The p a r o l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d were a l l o f one o p i n i o n i n t h i s matter.  A l l f e l t t h a t what they wanted from a p a r o l e  officer  most was t h a t he be a buddy who was w i l l i n g t o h e l p a t any time•  Someone who w i l l l i s t e n and t r e a t  human b e i n g s .  them l i k e normal  One p a r o l e e s t a t e s "A p a r o l e o f f i c e r must be  w i l l i n g t o h e l p you a t any time.  A f t e r a l l , you are l e a r n i n g  a new l i f e , most o f us don't even know how t o do t h e simple t h i n g s o f everyday l i f e .  T h i s i s t h r e a t e n i n g and without a  buddy who can h e l p you get over these rough spots you a r e beat before you s t a r t " . the e x i s t i n g  The p a r o l e e s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t under  system p a r o l e o f f i c e r s  cannot f u l f i l l t h i s  because o f t h e heavy caseloads and shortages o f p a r o l e Nevertheless  role officers.  a l l f e l t t h a t t h e r e should be some program t o  supplement t h e p a r o l e o f f i c e r .  One example was a " b i g b r o t h e r "  type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n along t h e l i n e s o f t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia  B o r s t a l B i g B r o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r again, as one p a r o l e e feels,  "Why can't people  i n t h e community s e t up a program  which w i l l a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l  i n t h e community t o take a  p a r o l e e under t h e i r wing and h e l p him t o l e a r n how t o l i v e a new l i f e ?  They expect  us t o g i v e up some way o f l i f e but don't  g i v e us a n y t h i n g t o take i t s p l a c e .  They h o l d up p a r o l e as  a reward but when you get o u t , you haven't got a t h i n g " . It  i s q u i t e apparent t h a t t h e p a r o l e e s I i n t e r v i e w e d  t h a t t h e p a r o l e o f f i c e r has t o be a f r i e n d  as w e l l as an  felt  -78authority figure.  One  parolee  be more l i k e a f r i e n d and  s t a t e d "Parole o f f i c e r s  l e s s l i k e a dutch u n c l e .  f i n e but what you need i s understanding  should  Advice i s  and guidance".  More-  over a number o f p a r o l e e s i m p l i e d t h a t having t o r e p o r t t o more than one Question  7.  p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r was  confusing.  Do you f e e l t h a t p a r o l e i s o f any  value?  A l l the p a r o l e e s but one p r o f e s s e d t h a t p a r o l e was some value t o them.  The one  p a r o l e e who  l i t t l e o r not any value t o him was had been h i s f i r s t o f f e n s e .  He  of  f e l t p a r o l e was  an o l d e r p a r o l e e and  of this  s t a t e d t h a t he would not  back i n t o crime whether he had a p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r or  go  not.  He had made a mistake and had p a i d f o r i t and t h a t was a l l t h e r e was  t o i t . The m a j o r i t y o f p a r o l e e s a f f i r m e d t h a t  d e f i n i t e v a l u e p a r o l e has  i s to get them out of p r i s o n and  away from the p r i s o n atmosphere.  A l l mentioned t h a t p a r o l e  had helped them by p r o v i d i n g support them the s t r e n g t h t o keep t r y i n g . " P a r o l e f o r c e d me  t o accept  and  and h e l p which save  One  parolee  declared,  f o r the f i r s t time i n my  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f s o c i e t y . to  one  You have got t o have h e l p  cope with the change from crime t o a law-abiding p a r o l e h e l p s t o p r o v i d e the support  i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t brought out was  life  you need".  citizen An  t h a t the p a r o l e e s b e l i e v e  that parole i s e s p e c i a l l y valuable f o r f i r s t not o n l y g e t s them away from where they met  offenders. men  who  could  f u t u r e c r i m i n a l a s s o c i a t e s , but a l s o , i n s t e a d o f l e t t i n g  It be the  -79p r i s o n e r come out " c o l d t u r k e y " , where he can go and do as he p l e a s e s , p r o v i d e s s u p e r v i s i o n and h e l p which i n most is  cases  s u f f i c i e n t t o ensure t h a t the f i r s t o f f e n d e r w i l l never  r e t u r n t o crime. Another i n t e r e s t i n g o p i n i o n brought out i n the i n t e r v i e w s was t h a t p a r o l e should be g r a n t e d t o c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d o f f e n d e r s immediately  a f t e r s e n t e n c i n g , r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g them t o  go t o p r i s o n i n an atmosphere o f hopelessness and  and d e s p a i r  l e a r n a l l t h e r e i s t o know about d e v i e n t b e h a v i o r .  present system o f automatic  The  imprisonment o f t e n makes i t a l l  the harder f o r a man t o r e t u r n t o s o c i e t y as a law-abiding citizen.  Moreover i f a man i s p a r o l e d he should have more  money than t h e u s u a l twenty d o l l a r s t h a t he i s r e l e a s e d w i t h s i n c e most men upon r e l e a s e "blow" t h i s money on a n i g h t out on t h e town and then a r e broke.  The p a r o l e e s f e e l t h a t i f  t h e r e were some funds a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h e i r spree i t would h e l p them not o n l y t o f e e l l i k e an independent person but i n many cases help buy t h e c l o t h e s and equipment t h e y need t o get a job.  Too o f t e n the p a r o l e e i s i n the predicament o f not  being a b l e t o a f f o r d t o go t o work. h i s pocket  A man w i t h no money i n  loses a l o t of s e l f respect.  Another f a c t brought out i n these i n t e r v i e w s , although o n l y mentioned by t h r e e p a r o l e e s , was t h a t seven out o f t h e e i g h t had v e r y l i t t l e  formal education.  The average l e v e l  o f s c h o o l i n g was between Grades V I I I and X and i t cannot be s a i d t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e i n any s i g n i f i c a n t degree  -80t h e means f o r a man  to obtain f u r t h e r formal education.  the p a r o l e e s but one admitted t h a t they were not  All  adequately  t r a i n e d f o r jobs above the l e v e l o f s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o u r , and t h i s c e r t a i n l y h e l d them back when t r y i n g to get work. There were o t h e r o p i n i o n s and problems expressed i n t e r v i e w s but as they a f f e c t e d the r e s p e c t i v e men  i n a personal  manner o r were founded on i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s and and were not o f a common nature t o more than one man, it  unnecessary  t o b r i n g them i n t o my  summary.  i n the  circumstances I felt  I have endeavor-  ed t h e r e f o r e , t o summarize as c o n c i s e l y as p o s s i b l e the problems which appeared t o have g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n and  relevance.  CHAPTER IV WHAT IS WRONG WITH OUR REHABILITATION PROGRAM?  The  P r i s o n System Evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the use o f p r i s o n s as a p u n i s h -  ment has f a i l e d i n d e t e r r i n g crime and thus f a r has done toward reforming  the c r i m i n a l .  I n f a c t one might  little  readily  deduce that p r i s o n s do more t o t r a i n and c o n d i t i o n c r i m i n a l s f o r crime than r e h a b i l i t a t e In the m a j o r i t y  them.  There i s no question  o f cases p r i s o n r e s u l t s i n n e u r o s i s ,  that  psychosis,  p e r v e r s i o n , moral and p h y s i c a l d e g e n e r a t i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n and aggression. I t i s evident that p r i s o n i s an " u n n a t u r a l " and  p r i s o n e r s * experiences i n the i n s t i t u t i o n strengthen  already deviant  behavior p a t t e r n s .  room f o r normal e x p r e s s i o n . and  environment  "Where," —  s e l f respect  I n p r i s o n there  their  i s no  The inmate i s t o l d "When," "How"  i n f a c t he l e a d s an i n f a n t i l e e x i s t e n c e . H i s  i s destroyed.  He i s s t r i p p e d o f a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  except t o conform t o t h e c u s t o d i a l p a t t e r n .  Of course, i t s t i l l  remains t r u e that the e f f e c t o f p r i s o n w i l l depend on the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , but t o expect t h e p r i n c i p a l e f f e c t o f imprisonment t o be r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s both v a i n and f o o l i s h . The  f a c t remains t h a t f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f inmates, no matter  how strong o r s t a b l e they may be, t h e experience w i l l have an e f f e c t on t h e i r mental h e a l t h .  -82The o p i n i o n s o f t h e a f t e r - c a r e l e a d e r s and support t h i s gloomy view.  parolees  U n f o r t u n a t e l y no r e s e a r c h has been  c o n c l u s i v e i n showing what p r e c i s e e f f e c t s p r i s o n does have on i n d i v i d u a l s ; i n f a c t s o l i d i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s area i s marked by i t s absence.  Nevertheless,  i t i s becoming more and  more apparent t o c o r r e c t i o n a l and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l e a d e r s i n Canada t h a t p r i s o n i s not the answer to our crime Mr.  problem.  F u l t o n , the M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , has h i m s e l f g i v e n p u b l i c  u t t e r a n c e t o the now  f a m i l i a r t a g t h a t our aim  should be t o  t r e a t the o f f e n d e r r a t h e r than the o f f e n s e .  I f t h i s then i s  t h e g o a l we must c o n s i d e r most c a r e f u l l y and  realistically  t h e q u e s t i o n : "What i s the purpose o f p r i s o n ? "  Do we  i n d i v i d u a l s to p r i s o n f o r or as punishment, or f o r and  rehabilitation?  We  send  treatment  cannot continue to t o l e r a t e the i n -  c o n s i s t e n t and warring answers t h a t are g i v e n t o these a t the present t i m e . as punishment and improve, but we  I t i s a paradox to send a man  expect to reform him.  cannot improve a man  though we  humanitarian  by p u n i s h i n g him i f  cannot reform by kindness, we and  p e r s o n a l i t i e s who symptom i s t h e i r  to p r i s o n  To reform means to  punishment i s conceived merely as causing i n j u r y t o And  questions  decent i n our treatment  still  him.  can  be  o f those types  of  i n r e a l i t y s u f f e r from a d i s e a s e whose criminality.  Re-education i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the c r i m i n a l , y e t r e e d u c a t i o n under the best o f c o n d i t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t .  Under  -83our  e x i s t i n g system i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e .  Our  only  c o n c l u s i o n as t o the value o f p r i s o n i s t h a t i t removes unwanted i n d i v i d u a l s from s o c i e t y f o r a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d o f time, t o t h i s extent present  and  our p r i s o n s have indeed been s u c c e s s f u l .  system does not pose a p r e t t y p i c t u r e and  Our  this i s  p r o b a b l y the reason the p u b l i c r e f u s e s to view the p i c t u r e i n i t s true l i g h t . monstrosity  we  They p r e f e r t o d i s b e l i e v e t h a t  have c r e a t e d  e x i s t s , and  they f i n d comfort f o r t h e i r apathy.  in this  educating  the  challenge  The  the p u b l i c r e s t s w i t h the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n people and and  onus f o r  informing  c o r r e c t i o n a l and  u n t i l they are prepared t o accept  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f such a charge we  become r e s i g n e d t o the  the  o n l y then w i l l i t do  something to change these c o n d i t i o n s . and  prisoners  t h a t they w i l l r e t u r n t o  community sooner or l a t e r , then and  the  society's attitude  U n t i l the p u b l i c r e a l i z e s t h a t  are people, s i c k people, and  disbelief  I t i s a truism that  s t a t e o f our p r i s o n s i s the s t a t e o f our to the o f f e n d e r .  this  must  e x i s t i n g system.  I do not advocate the a o o l i t i o n o f p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t would be f r i v o l o u s t o b e l i e v e t h a t we reached the p o i n t where t h i s i s p o s s i b l e .  as a s o c i e t y have We  w i l l need  p r i s o n s f o r a long time to come f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y and the  confinement of p r i s o n e r s i f o n l y because t h e r e  some i n d i v i d u a l s wno and  skills.  cannot be helped w i t h our present  are knowledge  I do recommend however, t h a t wherever p o s s i b l e  -8V we attempt t o develop humane a l t e r n a t i v e s t o i n c a r c e r a t i o n which a t the same time w i l l o f f e r adequate p r o t e c t i o n t o s o c i e t y , and thus h a l t the growth o f the u s e l e s s system have  we  now. One  s o l u t i o n would be the establishment o f s m a l l i n -  s t i t u t i o n s t o meet t h e needs o f s p e c i a l types o f o f f e n d e r s . For example, i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r sex d e v i a n t s , i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d and handicapped o f f e n d e r s , i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r f i r s t o f f e n d e r s , f o r e s t r y and farm camps f o r a d u l t s and and so f o r t h .  youths,  I f we must continue t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e o f f e n d e r s  then we must be prepared t o have i n s t i t u t i o n s to meet t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs.  The aim o f these s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s  would be t o p r o v i d e concentrated and i n t e n s i v e h e l p t o the i n d i v i d u a l i n order t o r e t u r n him t o s o c i e t y as q u i c k l y as possible. Another i n n o v a t i o n I b e l i e v e would be of v a l u e , viewed by many as r a d i c a l , would be t h a t inmates be employed and p a i d f u l l  s a l a r y while i n p r i s o n .  although gainfully  From the  money p a i d t o the p r i s o n e r , h i s room and board would be deducted, as a l s o any  sundry  expenses.  I f the inmate were m a r r i e d , a  p o r t i o n would be sent home to help support h i s f a m i l y . Unemployment deductions  c o u l d be made so t h a t when r e l e a s e d  he would s t i l l have an income.  T h i s type o f program would  be b i t t e r l y opposed by unions and, t o some extent, management, but I f e e l some p l a n c o u l d be arranged t h a t would be  acceptable  -85t o both.  T h i s type o f program would go a long way i n breaking  down the over-dependency c r e a t e d i n p r i s o n . would h e l p the o f f e n d e r t o keep o r develop  In a d d i t i o n i t  a h e a l t h y s e l f image  as he would s t i l l f e e l he had r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . present  system he i s completely  Under our  stripped o f responsibility.  I t would a l s o g i v e him a chance t o make r e p a r a t i o n t o t h e victim o f his offence. The P a r o l e System I t i s becoming obvious t h a t most o f f e n d e r s a r e not prepared  f o r parole.  Although  t h e t h e o r y i s that an o f f e n d e r  should be r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n a t t h e p o i n t when he has t h e most chance t o succeed,  there i s l i t t l e  evidence t o i n d i c a t e  when t h i s r a t h e r vague p o i n t o f time o c c u r s .  The c r i t e r i a  t o determine when t h e o f f e n d e r i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ready t o be d i s c h a r g e d a r e even more d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y . The p a r o l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s They a r e d i s c h a r g e d on p a r o l e f e e l i n g inadequate  fact.  and f r i g h t e n e d .  They have f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n , o f being unwanted and branded. T h e i r estimate o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l worth i s low.  Contrary t o  public b e l i e f , i t i s at t h i s point that the i n d i v i d u a l treatment one  and not w h i l e he was i n p r i s o n .  o f the chief d i f f i c u l t i e s o f parole.  starts  Here a l s o we f i n d The p a r o l e e i s an  i n d i v i d u a l who has been m e n t a l l y and m o r a l l y warped by h i s p r i s o n experience.  T h i s makes t h e job o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n more  d i f f i c u l t and accounts  f o r many o f t h e f a i l u r e s t h a t take p l a c e .  -86Furthermore, those o f f e n d e r s who the o f f e n d e r s \fao succeed  and,  have been chosen as the most l i k e l y to  a l l t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , would p r o b a b l y have  gone s t r a i g h t i n any help.  are r e l e a s e d on p a r o l e a r e  case with the minimum o f support  I suspect t h a t t h i s , as much as anything e l s e ,  and helps  t o account f o r the h i g h degree o f success p a r o l e has been a b l e to m a i n t a i n . who  However, t h i s s t i l l l e a v e s the  offender  has not been s e l e c t e d as a good r i s k f o r p a r o l e .  Obviously  t h i s i n d i v i d u a l has the more s e r i o u s emotional and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s t u r b a n c e t o overcome.  I t n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s t h a t he would  b e n e f i t most from the s u p e r v i s i o n and could o f f e r . parole.  emotional  support  parole  N e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s i n d i v i d u a l seldom r e c e i v e s  He i s g e n e r a l l y d i s c h a r g e d i n f u l l at the  completion  o f h i s sentence or i s placed on p a r o l e f o r r e l a t i v e l y short p e r i o d s o f time which would not p r o v i d e adequate time f o r proper parole supervision. community on h i s Our present and  unrealistic.  He i s l e f t t o attempt t o a d j u s t t o the  own. system o f s e l e c t i n g p a r o l e e s i s i n e f f i c i e n t The N a t i o n a l P a r o l e Board i s so f a r removed  from the a c t u a l p a r o l e e and h i s problems t h a t i t might as w e l l be n o n - e x i s t e n t .  They never see the p a r o l e e o r speak t o  him and must r e l y on t h e i r r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' r e p o r t s and v a r i o u s agency r e p o r t s i n o r d e r to make t h e i r f i n a l d e c i s i o n . T h e i r power i s a b s o l u t e . be a reasonably  T h i s might appear on the s u r f a c e to  sound method o f s e l e c t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l f o r  p a r o l e but when one  c o n s i d e r s the volume o f a p p l i c a n t s whose  -87cases must be reviewed by merely one board i n a country t h e s i z e o f Canada, one can r e a d i l y see t h e r e i s n e i t h e r s u f f i c i e n t time nor manpower a l l o t t e d t o g i v e each case f a i r and honest consideration.  That t h e Parole Board should pretend  to  a reasonable  d e c i s i o n without  to  the man i s l i t t l e  t o come  ever having p e r s o n a l l y t a l k e d  short o f hypocrisy.  I t could o n l y be  compared t o window d r e s s i n g , as t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what i t amounts t o .  I t would be more p r a c t i c a l and r e a l i s t i c t o  have p a r o l e boards e s t a b l i s h e d i n each p r o v i n c e which would i n t e r v i e w the p a r o l e e s themselves and then, a i d e d by t h e v a r i o u s agency r e p o r t s , make t h e i r d e c i s i o n .  Furthermore,  the p a r o l e board should be composed o f t r a i n e d men and women who a r e aware o f and understand t h e problems t h a t w i l l the p a r o l e e .  confront  In a d d i t i o n , t h e p a r o l e board should be composed  o f members who w i l l devote f u l l time t o p a r o l e work and be s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l p a i d as t o a t t r a c t men and women o f h i g h c h a r a c t e r and a b i l i t y . Another g l a r i n g gap i n our p a r o l e system which i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by t h e a f t e r - c a r e l e a d e r s i n t e r v i e w e d and i l l u s t r a t e d v i v i d l y by our e i g h t p a r o l e e s i s t h e l a c k o f p r e - p a r o l e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o h e l p prepare t h e p a r o l e e f o r h i s r e t u r n t o s o c i e t y i n a g r a d u a l and c o n t r o l l e d manner r a t h e r than s u b j e c t him t o t h e t r a u m a t i c  experience  community i n one s t e p .  o f moving from p r i s o n t o t h e  These i n s t i t u t i o n s would a l l o w the  p r i s o n e r t o work i n t h e community and l i v e o u t s i d e t h e p r i s o n  -88walls i n small establishments  f o r periods ranging from six to  twelve months before release. Moreover, the lack of formal education, as well as s k i l l e d t r a i n i n g , on the part of the parolees i s evident and i s clearlysupported  by the interviews that are reported i n Chapter I I I .  Formal educational i n s t i t u t i o n s should be part of the o v e r a l l parole program as well as the prison program.  This  type of i n s t i t u t i o n would be available for those prisoners who  have the i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity to benefit from a f u l l - t i m e  course.  Moreover, such an i n s t i t u t i o n would allow for the  concentration of teachers and allow f o r the transfer of those inmates who  could benefit from an intensive course.  Again  r e a l i s t i c apprentice t r a i n i n g programs should be established to prepare the parolee for s a t i s f a c t o r y and remunerative employment.  This type of program could be worked out i n  conjunction with representatives of labor and management.  To  say that l i t t l e can be done for the parolee i n the employment f i e l d because of the e x i s t i n g economic and labor s i t u a t i o n , although true i n part, i s negative and evasive. continue to plan and prepare for the future.  We must  I f we are not  prepared to do t h i s then we can never hope to improve the parolee's p o s i t i o n i n the labor market, especially i n our society where the emphasis i s on continued s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and technology.  -89To speak o f the  l a c k o f funds and  l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i n p a r o l e may point.  the  be a n t i - c l i m a c t i c at t h i s  N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s a s e r i o u s problem i n our  system t h a t has  e f f e c t s on the  a b i l i t y to understand and o f current  c a r r y out  parolee  A p a r o l e o f f i c e r must have  professional qualifications.  light  It  i  of an incompetent p a r o l e o f f i c e r . appropriate  parole  f a r - r e a c h i n g a f f e c t s on the p a r o l e e .  would not be d i f f i c u l t t o v i s u a l i z e the  i n the  lack of p r o f e s s i o n a l -  He must have the  the work o f treatment  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  s o c i o l o g i c a l theory.  In b r i e f , he must have p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n order to  deal  with the  him  h i g h l y complex problems o f the p a r o l e e  overcome these problems. matter how  Mediocracy and  w e l l meaning the p a r o l e  place i n a parole  and  incompetence, no  o f f i c e r may  be, have no  system.  C l o s e l y a l l i e d with t h i s i s the matter o f  salaries.  S a l a r i e s must be s u f f i c i e n t t o a t t r a c t the people o f highest  calibre.  help  Further,  t h e r e must be  the  economic p r o v i s i o n  made t o h i r e the n e c e s s a r y number o f workers to do the e f f e c t i v e l y and  efficiently.  without proper and  There i s no doubt t h a t  job  parole  adequate s u p e r v i s i o n i s a mockery o f  parole p r i n c i p l e s . The  i n i t i a l c a p i t a l outlay to provide  s a l a r i e s , proper f a c i l i t i e s and q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l and  for attractive  programs w i t h which to a t t r a c t  to inaugurate a proper r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  - 9 0 -  program would be extremely it  would r e s u l t  present  high.  However, over the l o n g  i n tremendous savings as compared with  run  the  system.  U n t i l a l l l e v e l s o f government and the p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l are w i l l i n g t o provide t h e monies needed to do an adequate job,  we  w i l l continue to m u l t i p l y our problems.  I t i s my  p e r s o n a l view t h a t i t would be an e r r o r to b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s up to the p u b l i c and government to make t h e f i r s t move.  The  move must come from the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n people themselves. must be prepared it  They  to prove to a l l t h a t p a r o l e has v a l u e , t h a t  i s worthwhile.  p r o p e r l y supported  And they must be a b l e to produce the  facts,  by r e s e a r c h , to convince the p u b l i c t h a t  t h e i r work has a v i t a l p l a c e i n c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Another o b s t a c l e i n our present  system i s the n e c e s s i t y  t h a t the p a r o l e e must not o n l y r e p o r t t o h i s p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r but a l s o to the l o c a l p o l i c e as o f t e n as the o f f i c e r i n charge sees f i t .  This requirement  p a r o l e e e m o t i o n a l l y and for  him.  i s extremely  difficult  f o r the  a l s o c r e a t e s a great d e a l o f  Further t h i s requirement  inconvenience  does l i t t l e toward r e h a b i l i t a -  t i o n and merely serves as a method f o r the p o l i c e to keep t r a c k of  discharged offenders.  continued  and  grounds f o r  s u r v e i l l a n c e by the p o l i c e once t h e p a r o l e e  r e g i s t e r e d with them. traumatic  There are no r e a l i s t i c  I t would be more p r a c t i c a l and  i f t h e p o l i c e were out o f the p i c t u r e  has less  completely  i f any r e p o r t s they might r e q u i r e on the p a r o l e e  be  -91o b t a i n e d from t h e p a r o l e s u p e r v i s o r by t h e simple o f a telephone  call.  expedient  The p r e s e n t system i s an example o f t h e  a r c h a i c a t t i t u d e o f t h e law enforcement agencies toward p a r o l e . Many o f t h e problems o f t h e p a r o l e e could be a l l e v i a t e d i f t h e r e was a r e a l i s t i c p r e - r e l e a s e program.  The o b s t a c l e s  o f r e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o community and f a m i l y could be g r e a t l y reduced  i f a program c o u l d be d e v i s e d so as t o a l l o w f o r  maximum contact w i t h the f a m i l y and the community while t h e offender i s s t i l l i n p r i s o n . kind found u s e f u l too.  Family c o n j u g a l v i s i t s o f t h e  i n c e r t a i n South American c o u n t r i e s might w e l l prove As the man i s n e a r i n g h i s r e l e a s e on p a r o l e ,  s u p e r v i s e d home v i s i t s would h e l p t o s o l v e t h e problem o f strangeness t h a t e x i s t s between the p a r t n e r s a f t e r long p e r i o d s of incarceration.  Moreover t h i s would reduce t h e tendency  toward dependency on the p a r t o f the p a r o l e e as he would be a l e r t e d to h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o h i s f a m i l y and the community. Small p r e - r e l e a s e i n s t i t u t i o n s as recommended in this  earlier  study, would h e l p immeasurably i n a s s i s t i n g t h e p a r o l e e  to r e h a b i l i t a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y .  T h i s type o f i n s t i t u t i o n would  be designed p r i m a r i l y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who have no f a m i l y t o return t o .  N e v e r t h e l e s s i t would p r o v i d e f o r c o n t a c t with  the community and g r a d u a l r e l e a s e i n t o Housing f a c i l i t i e s  society.  f o r p a r o l e e s who have no home t o go t o  would have d e f i n i t e value i n making them f e e l t h a t they  really  -92belong  to s o c i e t y .  These f a c i l i t i e s  could be modelled a f t e r  the small number of B r i t i s h h o s t e l s which perform a s i m i l a r function.  These homes c o u l d be  l o c a t e d i n the major  cities  a c r o s s Canada and p r o v i d e board and room at reasonable  rates  on a "pay-as-you-are-able" b a s i s u n t i l such time as the can o b t a i n employment and  a f f o r d h i s own  of p a r o l e e s would p r e f e r to pay t h e i r own t h a t these  upkeep. way  parolee  As the m a j o r i t y  i t i s unlikely  f a c i l i t i e s would be abused.  Another o b s t a c l e that f a c e s the p a r o l e e immediately r e l e a s e from the i n s t i t u t i o n i s the l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t The  o p i n i o n s o f the  way  s o l v e d i n v a r i o u s ways.  i s to pay unemployment insurance  he i s i n the  funds.  i n t e r v i e w e d p a r o l e e s and a f t e r - c a r e l e a d e r s  make i t c l e a r t h a t t h i s i s o f t e n an important problem c o u l d be  factor.  This  The most p r a c t i c a l  f o r the o f f e n d e r  while  i n s t i t u t i o n so t h a t upon r e l e a s e he could  b e n e f i t s u n t i l he was could be obtained  on  g a i n f u l l y employed.  Part o f t h i s money  from the s m a l l amount o f money t h a t  o f f e n d e r i s p a i d f o r h i s work. creation of a parolee  collect  the  An a l t e r n a t i v e would be  the  c r e d i t bank on which he could borrow  up t o a c e r t a i n amount which he would have to pay back with i n t e r e s t i n a s t i p u l a t e d but  f l e x i b l e p e r i o d o f time.  This  could be set up on the l i n e s o f the popular  c r e d i t unions.  p a r o l e e i s too o f t e n i n a p o s i t i o n where he  cannot a f f o r d to  go to work and h i s s u p e r v i s i n g agency cannot p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e f o r him. to  The  The  financial  above suggestion would at l e a s t  c o n t r o l the problem o f l a c k o f funds t h a t f a c e s the  help  parolee  -93on h i s r e l e a s e .  To be  this privilege.  But  sure, some i n d i v i d u a l s would abuse  I f e e l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s are  that more would b e n e f i t from i t and t o f i n d i t necessary The  would be l e s s  greater inclined  t o r e t u r n t o crime f o r a l i v e l i h o o d .  Public Attitude I t i s an undisputed  f a c t t h a t the success and the  effective-  ness o f p a r o l e r e s t s to a l a r g e extent on the a t t i t u d e o f the public. the  T h i s c l a i m i s c l e a r l y supported  and  illustrated in  summaries of i n t e r v i e w s with a f t e r - c a r e personnel  parolees.  R e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the community and  and  i n t o the  family  as w e l l as the v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n a l problems that occur as a r e s u l t of t h e p a r o l e e ' s attempts to reform  are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d  to s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e toward crime and the o f f e n d e r .  In f a c t  the p u b l i c i s remarkably uninformed as t o the problems o f crime p r e v e n t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  The m a j o r i t y o f  do not r e a l i z e or attempt to contemplate the encountered by the p a r o l e e .  He  difficulties  I t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t f o r  the average c i t i z e n t o v i s u a l i z e how the p a r o l e e i s .  confused  and  insecure  cannot comprehend the p a r o l e e ' s  i n a b i l i t y to make d e c i s i o n s and perform the simplest successfully.  citizens  seeming tasks  He cannot understand t h a t t h i s i s o f t e n the  r e s u l t o f extended absence from the community and  i s not aware  of the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s such an absence can have on a  man  while i n c a r c e r a t e d . There are many ways t o educate and  stimulate public  a t t i t u d e s t o the problem o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  However, I  am  -94-  1  convinced myself t h a t t h e onus o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s l i e s on the c o r r e c t i o n a l and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p e r s o n n e l . a continuous  This requires  and i n t e n s i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s program.  After-  care a u t h o r i t i e s should u t i l i z e t h e mass communications media. Good a f t e r - c a r e and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e processes i n newsworthy f a s h i o n .  should be presented  T h i s does not mean t h a t we should  cover  up our f a i l u r e s o r weaknesses f o r , on t h e c o n t r a r y , a p o l i c y of  frankness should be adhered t o .  In a d d i t i o n t o u s i n g t h e  mass communication channels, a program o f p u b l i c speaking  should  be f o l l o w e d which would reach groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f every k i n d and i n t e r p r e t the o b j e c t i v e s and advantages o f a f t e r — c a r e programs t o these groups. Every a f t e r - c a r e agency should p e r i o d i c a l l y p u b l i s h and d i s t r i b u t e a r e p o r t o f i t s work t o t h e p u b l i c e i t h e r i n the form o f pamphlets o r b r o c h u r e s .  These p u b l i c a t i o n s would  tell  t r e n c h a n t l y the v a r i o u s phases o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t h e problems involved.  F u r t h e r , a concentrated  effort of interpretation  should be made t o those o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s which a r e e i t h e r r e l a t e d to o r concerned  with the o v e r a l l c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d  ( c o u r t s , l e g i s l a t i v e committees, law enforcement a g e n c i e s ) . I t i s up to - i t s advocates  t o i n t e r p r e t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a f t e r -  care t o these v a r i o u s groups who, because o f l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n , may o f t e n not understand  the value o f a f t e r - c a r e to offenders.  I b e l i e v e t h a t these o b j e c t i v e s would h e l p t o make t h e p u b l i c aware o f and i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Before we can expect r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o achieve t h e d e s i r e d  -95goals we must convince the taxpayer who w i l l ultimately have to support the program.  Without public goodwill we w i l l  never be able t o succeed.  This means that the objectives and  r e s u l t s of good after-care programs must constantly be kept before the public i n order to b u i l d t h e i r confidence i n , understanding  of and support for our program.  Conclusion In conclusion, I believe that our goal of wanting a man who enters prison to leave our hands as a law-abiding member of the community i s a r e a l i s t i c one.  However, as can be  r e a d i l y ascertained, the job o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a tough, r e a l i s t i c one which w i l l require every b i t of knowledge and s k i l l we can bring to i t . There i s no question that success i n parole i s dependent on many f a c t s of which we are f u l l y aware and over which we have e n t i r e l y adequate powers o f c o n t r o l . We tend to f o o l ourselves with the b e l i e f that our f a i l u r e to change behavior i s due mainly either t o ignorance or to circumstances we are powerless to avert or a l t e r , —  which  o f which one example  would be the a l l e g e d l y untreatable condition of the so-called psychopath. One obvious fact that we have often overlooked  i s that  after-care and parole seldom can r i s e above the l e v e l of the i n s t i t u t i o n s to which we commit the offender and from which  -96we u l t i m a t e l y r e l e a s e him. t i o n s have l i t t l e  U n f o r t u n a t e l y our penal  or none o f t h e elements which have a  p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the p r i s o n e r .  Our i n s t i t u t i o n s do not  provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e o f f e n d e r t o equip with s k i l l s  institu-  himself  and e s t a b l i s h h i s own s e l f r e s p e c t .  Of course, t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t we a r e making  progress  i n t h i s a r e a , as i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the t r e n d away from maximum s e c u r i t y t o minimum custody  i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e  development o f t r a i n i n g programs f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l  personnel.  But d e s p i t e these improvements t h e r e i s no room f o r complacency.  We have f a i l e d i n the p r o v i s i o n o f r e a l i s t i c work  programs.  D i a g n o s t i c and treatment p e r s o n n e l  ing  i n the m a j o r i t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s .  t r a i n e d personnel there i s l i t t l e  are s a d l y l a c k -  Without p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  chance o f h e l p i n g t h e o f f e n d e r  d u r i n g i n c a r c e r a t i o n r e s o l v e some o f t h e problems he w i l l upon d i s c h a r g e .  The dismaying t h i n g i s t h a t although  face  we have  c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f t h e ways our p r i s o n s can do a b e t t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e job, we have not t r a n s l a t e d our knowledge i n t o p r a c t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e programs. It  i s obvious t h a t t h e job o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s not an  easy one.  I t i s d i s c o u r a g i n g and o f t e n p e r p l e x i n g .  We s u f f e r  from many gaps i n our knowledge, i n our f a c i l i t i e s and i n p u b l i c support.  We have s o l d o u r s e l v e s a b i l l o f goods but  we are s t i l l haunted by doubts as t o i t s r e a l v a l u e , with t h e r e s u l t that we cannot s e l l others on the value o f p a r o l e and  -97after-care.  Research i n t h i s area i n Canada i s marked by-  i t s absence.  P a r o l e terminology  i s vague and nebulous and  should be s i m p l i f i e d and c l a r i f i e d . should m a i n t a i n r e a l i s t i c s e l v e s t o exact crime  Every a f t e r - c a r e agency  s t a t i s t i c s which would lend them-  c o m p i l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s .  The c h a l l e n g e o f  c o n t r o l and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been g i v e n t o us; t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s up t o us t o a c c e p t .  I t i s our b a s i c  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f i n d the answers and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o answer t h e one simple  q u e s t i o n , Can we a f f o r d t o f a i l ?  Suggested Future Research T o p i c s I t i s a r e v e a l i n g experience  when r e a d i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e  o f p a r o l e and a f t e r - c a r e t o d i s c o v e r how many f a c t s are o n l y o p i n i o n s and are not supported  by r e s e a r c h .  In the f i e l d of  c o r r e c t i o n s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e s e a r c h t o p i c s a r e e v i d e n t l y u n l i m i t e d , and we know r o u g h l y what and  areas o f r e s e a r c h would be o f v a l u e .  very l i t t l e  Yet i n t h i s  types  field  r e s e a r c h has been done, e s p e c i a l l y as regards t h e  methodology o f p a r o l e s u p e r v i s i o n .  I believe that t h i s i s  due p r i m a r i l y to the f a c t that we have not as y e t s t a n d a r d i z e d our s t a t i s t i c s o r our b a s i c methods f o r c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s .  Until  some move i s made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d  will  never a c q u i r e r e a l momentum. r e s e a r c h t o p i c s have suggested  From t h i s p r e s e n t  study  certain  themselves which I b e l i e v e should  engage our e a r l y and c l o s e a t t e n t i o n . 1.  C a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s are r e q u i r e d o f t h e a c t u a l  -9Seffects of prison on the offender's morale and s e l f image as compared with other offenders who have not had prison experience and are on probation. 2.  These should be supplemented with studies of the various  e f f e c t s o f g u i l t , shame, and a damaged s e l f concept on the parolee who who 3.  returns to h i s family i n contrast to the parolee  has no one to t u r n to and no place to go. Some assessment should be undertaken of the effects of  the various v i s i t o r s (wife, g i r l f r i e n d , friends) on the offender, with special reference to the existing prison visiting 4. to  facilities.  It would be s t r a t e g i c a l l y useful f o r parole a u t h o r i t i e s know what attitudes successful parolees have toward the  offense f o r which they have served a prison term.  Do they  look upon t h e i r crime with contempt, do they attempt to  suppress  a l l thoughts of i t , or do they view i t with pride? 5.  F i n a l l y I should l i k e to recommend the establishment  of  a p i l o t project i n a small community where we should be able to mobilize a l l the s o c i a l services and i n s t i t u t i o n s and  co-  ordinate them i n a program of prevention and after-care. From the evaluation of such a project i t would be r e l a t i v e l y easy to determine whether prevention and after-care are of value or not and more p a r t i c u l a r l y (since the long range benefits of parole are scarcely i n dispute at t h i s point)  i  -99i t would a s s i s t us i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of those  factors,  both personal and s i t u a t i o n a l , which m i l i t a t e against or contribute to the discharged prisoner's success i n finding his place among free and responsible  men.  -100BIBLIOGRAPHY "Across Canada." Canadian Welfare, v o l . 34 no. 3 (September 1958), pp..138-140. American Prison Association, A Manual of Correctional Standards. New York, 1954. American Prison Association, Handbook on Pre-Release Preparation. New York, 1950. Bacon, Richard G. "Service f o r the Short-Term Inmate." American Prison Association, 1951, New York, pp. 291-299. 1  Barnes, Elmer Harry and Teeters, Negley K. New Horizons- i n Criminology. 3 ed., New Jersey, Prentice H a l l Inc., 1959. B e l l , Marjorie, ed. Parole i n P r i n c i p l e and Practice. A Manual Report, New York. National Probation and Parole Association, 1957. Campbell, Kathleen. "Prisoners Aid Associations o f Canada." Proceedings American Prison Association, 1952, New York, pp. 198-206. 1  C an a d a: Report o f a Committee Appointed to Inquire into the Principles and Procedures Followed i n the Remission Service of the Department of Justice o f Canada, Ottawa, 1956. Canada: Report o f the Royal Commission Investigating the Penal System o f Canada^ Ottawa, 1938. Cavan, Ruth S. and Zemans, Eugene S. "Marital Relationships of Prisoners i n Twenty-eight Countries." Reprinted from The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, v o l . 49 no. 2 (July - August 1958). Cozart, Reed. " P o l i c i e s and Procedures Concerned with V i s i t s to Individual Inmates." American Prison Association, 1951, New York, pp. 286-290. Curran, James W. "Rehabilitative Value of Prison Industries." Proceedings American Correctional Association, 1956, New York, pp. 55-57. Dienstein, William. Are You Guilty? Charles C. Thomas, 1954.  Springfield, I l l i n o i s ,  Fulton, Hon. Davie. "A New Deal for Criminals." Magazine, v o l . 10 no. 49 (I960) Toronto.  Week-end  -101-  Gurman, Isaac. "Community Discrimination Against the Parolee."' Focus, v o l . 3 2 no. 6 (November 1 9 5 3 ) pp. 163-168. Hannon, Murray. "Stumbling Stones f o r J a i l e r s . " American Correctional Association, 1 9 5 6 , New pp.  55-57.  Proceedings York,  Hannum, R. R. "Employment Problems of Ex-Offenders." (November 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 184-187.  Focus,  Harper, Joe C. "Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Prison Program." Proceedings American Correctional Association, 1 9 5 6 , PP.  33-36.  Hjalmarson, Glen. "The Fear of Freedom." no. 3 , (February 1 1 , 1 9 6 1 ) , Toronto.  Maclean's, v o l . 7 4  Howard League f o r Penal Reform, Legal D i s a b i l i t i e s of ExPrisoners. London, England, 1 9 5 1 . John Howard Society.  Letter from inmate.  Keve, Paul. Prison, Probation or Parole. Minnesota Press, 1 9 5 4 . Kidman, John. The Canadian Prison. Toronto, 1 9 4 7 .  March 1 9 6 1 . University of  The Ryerson Press,  Lindner, Robert M. Stone Walls and Men. 1 9 4 6 , New York.  Odyssey Press,  Long, H. S. "The F i r s t Hundred Days." Reappraising Crime Treatment. National Probation and Parole Association Yearbook, 1 9 5 3 , pp.  31-33.  McDivitt, C. B. "Reintegration of the Offender i n the Community." Proceedings of the Annual Congress of Corrections , 1 9 4 9 , pp.  126-131.  Melecherak, John. Employment Problems of Former Offenders. 1 9 5 4 Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of Toronto. Morris, Pauline. Prison A f t e r - C a r e : Charity or Public Responsibility? London, England. Fabian Research Series 218. Newman, Charles L. Sourcebook on Probation, Parole and Pardons. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , Charles C. Thomas (copyright 1 9 5 8 ) . Ohlin, Lloyd E. Selection f o r Parole: A Manual of Parole Prediction, New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1 9 5 1 .  -102-  Oswald, Russell G. "Community Discrimination Against the Parolee — a Second Look." Focus, v o l . 33 no. 3 (May 1954) pp. 66-71. Reinhardt, James J. "The Discharged Prisoner and the Community." Federal Probation, v o l . 21 no. 2 (June 1953), Washington, D.C.  pp. 4 7 - 5 1 .  Scudder, Kenyon J . Prisoners are People. Company, New York, 195 2.  Doubleday and  Shiner, E. V. "The Return of the Married Offender to his Family." Proceedings of the Canadian Congress of Corr e c t i o n s . 1957, Montreal, pp. 6 0 - 7 0 . Stanley, T. G. "Attracting Employer Interest i n Parolees." Focus, v o l . 29 no. 4 (July 1950), pp. 102-105. Sutherland, Edwin H. P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology. Philadelphia, 1939T (fifth edition). Sykes, Gresham M. The Society of Captives. University Press, New Jersey, 1958. Tappan, Paul W. Contemporary Correction. Co. Inc., New York, 1951.  Lippincott,  Princeton  McGraw-Hill Book  United Nations. Parole and After-Care. Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , New York, 1954. Series ST/SOA/SD/4. United Nations. Pre-Release Treatment and After-Care as Well as Assistance to Dependents of Prisoners. Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , New York, I960. Second United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (London, August I960). Series A/CONF.17/8/. Vedder, Clyde B., Koenig, Samuel., Clark, Robert E. New York, Dryden Press, 2nd p r i n t i n g , 1955.  Criminology.  Vedder, Clyde B. "Public Attitudes That Handicap Prison Officials." Proceedings American Prison Association, 1957, New York, pp. 237-245.  

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