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An examination of the social structure of the women's unit, Oakalla Prison Farm 1961

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AN EXAMINATION OP THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OP THE WOMEN'S UNIT OAKALLA PRISON FARM by DOROTHY MAE COUTTS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF • • THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE- DEGREE- OF • MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY" OF BRITISH COLUMBIA -May-1961. - In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be alloived without my written permission. Department of Anthropology and Sociology The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date Ma? 3. 1961 ABSTRACT T h i s i s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f a women's p r i s o n . The p r i s o n h a s f i v e p r i m a r y t a s k s : c u s t o d y , i n t e r n a l o r d e r , s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e , p u n i s h m e n t and r e f o r m a t i o n . V e r b a l p r i o r i t y i s g i v e n t o r e f o r m a t i o n , b ut c u s t o d y and i n t e r n a l o r d e r t a k e p r e c e d e n c e i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . M a t r o n s p r e f e r t o p l a y t h e i r r o l e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways. T h o s e who s u b s c r i b e t o a h a b i t - f o r m i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f r e f o r m - a t i o n p r e f e r w o r k i n g on t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t . T h e i r v i e w s and p r a c t i c e s a r e i n harmony w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c u s t o d y . T h o s e who s u b s c r i b e t o a b a s i c - c h a n g e p h i l o s o p h y p r e f e r t h e more r e l a x e d and p e r m i s s i v e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t . T h e i r v i e w s and p r a c t i c e s a r e , f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c u s t o d y . And s t r u c t u r a l p r e s s u r e t e n d s t o f o r c e t h e s e m a t r o n s t o become more c u s t o d i a l o v e r t i m e . I n exchange f o r o b e d i e n c e and c o n f o r m i t y i n some s p h e r e t h e m a t r o n s a g r e e n o t t o t a m p e r w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s o f t h e i n m a t e s . T h i s b a r g a i n f o r c o m p l i a n c e seems e s s e n t i a l g i v e n t h e p r e s e n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r i s o n . The i n m a t e s s u f f e r f r o m t h e d e p r i v a t i o n o f l i b e r t y , goods and s e r v i c e s , h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , autonomy, s e c u r i t y and, a t t h e Women's U n i t , p r i v a c y . The a d d i c t s and " r o u n d e r s " a d o p t c o h e s i v e modes o f r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e d e p r i v a - t i o n s . " S q u e a l e r s " , "hack l o v e r s " and " p a r t p l a y e r s " a d o p t a l i e n a t i v e modes o f r e s p o n s e . The i n m a t e s d i f f e r by g r o u p s i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s t o o f f i c i a l o p p r e s s i o n . The y o u n g e r a d d i c t g r o u p s r e b e l h a b i t u a l l y , t h e o l d e r g r o u p s c o n f o r m o v e r t l y b u t do n o t change t h e i r b a s i c v a l u e s . ACKN OWLEDGEMENT S I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o many p e o p l e who h a v e , by t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and t h e i r t o l e r a n c e , made t h i s s t u d y p o s s - i b l e . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s t o D r . K a s p a r D. N a e g e l e f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e and p a t i e n t s u p e r v i s i o n . I t was as a r e s u l t o f Dr.. N a e g e l e ' s l e c t u r e s t h a t I f i r s t became i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i o l o g y , and i t h a s b e e n f r o m many o f h i s l e c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i o n s and s e m i n a r s t h a t I have g a i n e d most o f ray u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . Belshaw, Mr. B l i s h e n , D r . Robson and Mr. L o c h e n f o r t h e g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e t h e y have g i v e n me t h r o u g h t h e i r l e c t u r e s and i n t h e c o u r s e o f p r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s . T h e i r g u i d a n c e , c r i t i c i s m and a d v i c e h a s b e e n v e r y v a l u a b l e . T h i s s t u d y was s u p p o r t e d i n l a r g e p a r t by a g r a n t f r o m t h e Canada C o u n c i l f o r w h i c h I am v e r y g r a t e f u l . I would a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k Warden C h r i s t i e f o r t h e a s s i s t a n c e and s u p p o r t he h a s g i v e n me, and t h e C h i e f M a t r o n a t t h e Women's U n i t , M i s s B. E. Maybee, who has b e e n e s p e c - i a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g and h e l p f u l , a r r a n g i n g s h i f t s and l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e f o r my c o n v e n i e n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o m e n t i o n my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t • g i v e n me by b o t h t h e i n m a t e s and t h e s t a f f a t t h e Women's U n i t . They have e n d u r e d q u e s t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o u t c o m p l a i n t , and have been e x t r e m e l y g e n e r o u s w i t h b o t h t h e i r t i m e and t h e i r k n o w l e d g e . To my room-mate Donna P i n c h , my p a r e n t s and my f r i e n d s I w o u l d l i k e . t o e x t e n d a s p e c i a l t h a n k s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and f o r e b e a r a n c e . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k M r s . J a n e t B u r g e s s who h a s so a b l y t y p e d t h i s s t u d y , and who h a s e n d u r e d .so many i n c o n v e n i e n c e s on my b e h a l f . TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1. INTRODUCTION . . 1 11. A FRAME OF REFERENCE 6 The P r i s o n and i t s S e t t i n g 7 The Regime o f t h e C u s t o d i a n 8 The D e f e c t s o f T o t a l Power 1$ The P a i n s o f Imprisonment . . . . . 17 A r g o t .Roles 2l| C r i s i s a nd E q u i l i b r i u m , 29 Summary O b s e r v a t i o n s . 31 111. RESEARCH METHODS AND EXPERIENCES 33 I V . THE WOMEN'S UNIT AND "ITS SETTING 1|1 The P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Women's U n i t l±6 Becoming an Inmate l\.Q Group P l a c e m e n t s 5 2 Work Teams 61 V. THE. ROLE OF THE MATRON 68 The Regime o f t h e M a t r o n s . 68 C o n f i g u r a t i o n o f T a s k s 88 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 93 R e l a t i o n s t o O t h e r s 106 M a t r o n s as an O c c u p a t i o n a l Group . . . . . . . 120 O c c u p a t i o n a l S t r a i n s and Rewards 136 Commitment t o t h e O c c u p a t i o n llj . 5 Summary O b s e r v a t i o n s II4.8 CHAPTER PAGE VI. WOMEN AS CAPTIVES 156 The D e p r i v a t i o n o f L i b e r t y . . . . . . . 1 5 8 The D e p r i v a t i o n o f Goods and S e r v i c e s . . . 1 8 1 The D e p r i v a t i o n o f H e t e r o s e x u a l - R e l a t i o n s h i p s - 1 8 8 The D e p r i v a t i o n o f ^Autonomy .- ; . ... 200 The D e p r i v a t i o n o f S e c u r i t y . .-_ . . 221 The D e p r i v a t i o n o f P r i v a c y . - , .- .-. 225 Summary O b s e r v a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 V l l . CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS•FOR FURTHER STUDY . • 237 V l l l BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25l I X . APPENDICES 256 A p p e n d i x A : E x c e r p t s f r o m t h e M a n u a l . . . .« 257 A p p e n d i x B : G l o s s a r y 268 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION One c o u l d u n d e r t a k e a s o c i o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a women's p r i s o n w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i n t e n t i o n o f f i n d i n g some an s w e r s t o t h e many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o b - lems c o n f r o n t e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g . The v a l i d i t y o f any f i n d - i n g s made g i v e n t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f knowledge i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i o l o g y and o f c o r r e c t i o n s w o u ld, however, be h i g h l y s u s p e c t . On a n o t h e r l e v e l o f c o n c e r n , a women's p r i s o n c o u l d p r e s u m a b l y p r o v i d e a good c a s e s t u d y f o r any one o f a number o f s o c i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . The p r i s o n c o u l d be s t u d i e d a s a n example o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f a v e r y s p e c i a l k i n d i n w h i c h t h e consumer o f t h e s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a t t h e same t i m e a n u n w i l l i n g member o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . An i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l d e v i a n c e m i g h t a l s o prompt one t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r i s o n a s a c o n v e n - i e n t showcase i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l d e v i a n t s become members o f a s o c i e t y o f d e v i a n t s . The p r i s o n c o u l d p r o v i d e a n e q u a l l y f r u i t f u l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l r o l e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r t h e many u n r e s o l v e d p r o b l e m s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n s m i g h t b e a r i l l u m i n a t i o n by a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e ways i n w h i c h i n m a t e s l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n , and the ways i n w h i c h m a t r o n s l e a r n t o p e r f o r m t h e i r r o l e s . E x a m i n a t i o n s and s t u d i e s o f t h i s t y p e r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n amount o f g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l 2 s y s t e m o f t h e p r i s o n , however, and a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f male d e v i a n c e and o f p r i s o n s f o r men have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s , b u t e x t r e m e l y l i t t l e h a s been w r i t t e n e i t h e r a b o u t f e m a l e d e l i n - q u e n t s o r a b o u t i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o h o u s e them. I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h a s a l s o been c o n s i d e r a b l e w r i t t e n a b o u t m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s , b u t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f i n d i n g s i n e i t h e r o r b o t h o f t h e s e two f i e l d s c a n be u n i l a t e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e s i t u a t i o n I n a women's p r i s o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . IT. u n d e r t o o k t h i s s t u d y s p e c i f i c a l l y t o make s e n s e o u t o f a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h I f o u n d m y s e l f . As a n employee o f t h e Women's U n i t I became i n t r i g u e d by t h e d i m l y v i s i b l e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r i s o n , b u t was u n a b l e t o f i n d any d e s c r i p t i v e o r a n a l y t i c a l s t u d i e s w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t I abandoned my o r i g - i n a l p l a n t o work i n t h e s e t t i n g o n l y f o r t h e summer a n d began t o make a more s y s t e m a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n - o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . A s t u d y d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s , be t h e y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e v i a n c e , r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n , seemed r a t h e r p r e m a t u r e , so I have a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l p o r t r a i t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s i n s t e a d . Of n e c e s s i t y c e r - t a i n o m i s s i o n s h a v e been made i n t h i s p o r t r a i t , due i n p a r t t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y and i n p a r t t o t h e i n n a t e d i f f - i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d when m a k i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . There i s a l i n e between the captives and the captors across which communication i s d i f f i c u l t . As a participant observer playing the role of a captor I was reminded of the s i g n i f i - cance of t h i s l i n e on many occasions. Information cannot often be obtained by simply asking questions i n the Women's Unit, one must rather be patient and watch, sometimes f o r month or years before some i n d i c a t i o n of the answers can be gained. THE MAJOR QUESTIONS OP THIS STUDY Common Features of Imprisonment. Using Gresham Sykes' book The Society of Captives*' both as a key to the s o c i a l structure of the prison and as a point f o r comparison between prisons, the f i r s t concern of the study w i l l be to examine the s o c i a l order at the Women's Unit and to determine some of the common elements and attributes of prisons. Such an examination and comparison w i l l imply an evaluation of the generality of the frame of reference derived by Sykes. The s p e c i f i c questions i n t h i s regard w i l l be: 1. What are the common tasks assigned to prisons and i s the p r i o r i t y of tasks s i m i l a r from one prison to another? 2. What- are some of the common elements of authority i n the prison, and how does t h i s authority affect the type of relati o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the inmates and the custodians? 3. What are some of the common pains of imprisonment? To Gresham M. Sykes, The^Society of Captives, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 193o1 • what extent does imprisonment as such r e s u l t i n character- i s t i c f r u s t r a t i o n s or d e p r i v a t i o n s , regardless of the s p e c i f i c type of p r i s o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , or the s p e c i f i c type of po p u l a t i o n i n the prison? I±. How do inmates adapt to the d e p r i v a t i o n s experienced i n the prison? What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c patterns found regardl e s s of the s p e c i f i c type of p r i s o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , or the s p e c i f i c type of population i n the prison? Unique Features of Imprisonment at the Women's U n i t , Oakalla P r i s o n Farm. The second major concern of t h i s study w i l l be to examine the unique aspects of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the Women's U n i t * An attempt w i l l a l s o be made to d i s - cover some of the determinants of these unique f e a t u r e s of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ; 1. To what extent does the type of po p u l a t i o n housed at the Women's Unit i n f l u e n c e the nature of the s o c i a l system of that U n i t ? 2. To what extent does the type of program conducted by the i n s t i t u t i o n i n f l u e n c e the nature of the s o c i a l system at the Women's Unit ? 3 . To what extent does the f a c t that both the captives and the captors are women i n f l u e n c e the nature of the s o c i a l system of the Women's Un i t ? I t i s hoped that as t h i s study progresses some c o n t r i b - u t i o n s to general s o c i o l o g i c a l knowledge w i l l be made, but as has been i n d i c a t e d above, the purpose of the study cannot be 5 t o p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e any s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s . The t e s t o f t h e p r e s e n t work w i l l be t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s c a n be d e r i v e d f o r f u t u r e e x a m i n a t i o n of a more r i g o r o u s t y p e . CHAPTER I I A FRAME OF REFERENCE S t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g f e m a l e c r i m i n a l i t y and f e m a l e c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e e x t r e m e l y few i n number, p a r t - i c u l a r l y s t u d i e s w i t h a s o c i o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . A u t h o r s o f t e x t b o o k s c o n c e r n i n g c r i m i n o l o g y u s u a l l y c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a b r i e f c h a p t e r on t h e s u b j e c t o f f e m a l e d e v i a n c e , a n d c o n f i n e t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r f e m a l e c r i m i n a l s t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n t and f o r m a l p r o g r a m o f s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s . C o n c e r n w i t h a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , o r w i t h t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p r e v a i l i n g w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a s been, w i t h o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s , c u r s o r y i n t h e e x t r e m e . One s u c h e x c e p t i o n i s L o w e l l S. S e l l i n g ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p s e u d o - f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n s o b s e r v e d w i t h i n a j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u - t i o n f o r g i r l s . B e f o r e e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g p a t t e r n s o f a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e Women's U n i t a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y d e r i v e d a n d t e s t e d i t was f e l t t h a t a more g e n e r a l f u n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n w o u l d be e s s e n t i a l , and t o t h i s end t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e v i s e d . The t e s t i n g o f more p r e c i s e p r o - p o s i t i o n s w i l l t h e n h a v e t o be l e f t t o f u r t h e r s t u d i e s w i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l f i e l d . L o w e l l S. S e l l i n g , "The Pseudo F a m i l y " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 37 ( 1 9 3 D , PP.2^7-253. 7 One o f t h e m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g a s o c i o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Women's U n i t was t h e d e t e r m i n a - t i o n o f a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e w h i c h w o u l d be a t once p r a c t i c a l and f r u i t f u l . B e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e , t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e d e v e l o p e d by Gresham M. Sy k e s f o r h i s s t u d y o f a maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n f o r men h a s been f o l l o w e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t i n t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l 2 s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Women's U n i t a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n F a r m . A b r i e f p r e c i s o f t h i s s t u d y by S y k e s w i l l p r o v i d e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I . THE PRISON AND ITS SETTING The New J e r s e y S t a t e Maximum S e c u r i t y P r i s o n h o u s e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,200 a d u l t male c r i m i n a l s h e l d i n c o n f i n e m e n t 3 f o r p e r i o d s o f t i m e r a n g i n g f r o m one y e a r t o l i f e . A p p r o x - i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h o s e s e r v i n g s e n t e n c e s i n t h i s i n s t i t u - t i o n h a v e b e e n c o n v i c t e d o f e i t h e r f e l o n i o u s h o m i c i d e , b u r g l a r y o r r o b b e r y . I n many r e s p e c t s t h i s p r i s o n h a s become t h e dumping g r o u n d f o r t h o s e o f f e n d e r s who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t o o d i f f i c u l t o r t o o d a n g e r o u s t o be accommodated e l s e w h e r e . T h r e e h u n d r e d c u s t o d i a l , c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f members a r e c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of g o v e r n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h i s i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n . ^ " Gresham M. S y k e s , The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958* •^Sykes, S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , p . x v i ^ L o c . c i t . 8 The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r i s o n i s i t s d r a b n e s s . I t l a c k s t h e a m e n i t i e s o f l i f e , , b u t d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t a c u t e p h y s i c a l d i s c o m f o r t f o r t h e i n h a b i t - a n t s . Some o f t h e d r a b n e s s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n c a n p e r h a p s be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n f u s i o n e x i s t i n g as t o t h e " r a i s o n d ' e t r e " o f p r i s o n a s a means o f c o p i n g w i t h c r i m i n a l d e v i a n c e . S h a l l t h e p r i s o n be d e s i g n e d t o p u n i s h t h e o f f e n d e r , t o r e f o r m h i m , o r t o d e t e r t h e p r o s p e c t i v e o f f e n d e r ? S u r e l y t h e r e i s some c o n t r a d i c t i o n b etween t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , and no one p h y s i c a l p l a n t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f a l l t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s . T h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n i s t y p i c a l o f p r i s o n s a s we know them t o - d a y : T hey l a c k p u r p o s e , c o l o u r o r p e r s o n a l i t y b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e been d e s i g n e d t o compromise between t h e s e d i v e r s e o b j e c t i v e s . T h ey a r e a u s t e r e and d u l l , b u t n o t c o m p l e t e l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r h a b i t a t i o n ; t h e o u t e r w a l l s r e m i n d t h e community o f i t s p r e s e n c e , b u t p r o h i b i t a c l o s e r v i e w . R e f o r m a t i o n i s a v e r b a l i z e d h o p e , b ut l i t t l e i s done w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o f e n s u r i n g r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o f f e n d e r . I I . THE REGIME OP THE CUSTODIAN • The r e g i m e o f t h e c u s t o d i a n s r e p r e s e n t s a s i m i l a r u n e a s y compromise between c o n f l i c t i n g t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o t h e p r i s o n by s o c i e t y . T h e s e t a s k s . a r e a d m i t t e d l y i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h one. a n o t h e r , y e t t h e p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must f i n d a means o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e s e I n c o n g r u i t i e s i n t o a c o n c r e t e s e t o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . A p o l i c y o f a c t i o n must somehow be d e r i v e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e n f o r c e d by t h e g u a r d s . 9 T h e most p r o m i n e n t t a s k s w h i c h the p r i s o n a n d t h e c u s t o d i a n s must p e r f o r m a r e : c u s t o d y o f t h e i n m a t e , t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n t e r n a l o r d e r , s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i n s t i t - u t i o n , p u n i s h m e n t o f t h e o f f e n d e r s , and, h o p e f u l l y , r e h a b i l i t a - t i o n . C l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n o f e a c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o l i c y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The t a s k o f c u s t o d y . S y k e s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t a s k o f c u s t o d y h a s p r e - e m i n e n c e i n t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n . The p r e v e n t i o n o f e s c a p e s c a n n o t be i n s u r e d by t h e u s e o f armed g u a r d s and w a l l s a l o n e however, and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s v e r y much aware o f t h i s f a c t . T i m e , e n e r g y and i n g e n u i t y must be e m p l o y e d i n t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f e s c a p e s b e f o r e t h e y c a n be f u l l y a t t e m p t e d , and r i g i d r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g d r e s s , g r o o m i n g and a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n a r e d e s i g n e d e s p e c i a l l y t o d i s - c o u r a g e s u c h a t t e m p t s . Inmates must be c o u n t e d , s e a r c h e d and s u p e r v i s e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , f o r a l t h o u g h t h e p r i s o n s t a f f i s c o n - v i n c e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e s c a p e , t h e y a r e e q u a l l y con- v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e i s an u n d e t e r m i n e d number who w o u l d , g i v e n t h e s l i g h t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y , s e e k t h e i r f r e e d o m a t any c o s t . C u s t o d i a l p r e c a u t i o n s a r e i r k s o m e t o t h e i n m a t e s and burdensome t o t h e g u a r d s , but t h e p u b l i c o u t c r y a g a i n s t e s c a p e s i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s n o t w i l l i n g t o be f o u n d w a n t i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The t a s k o f i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o 10 c u s t o d y , and s e c o n d i n t h e r a n k o f p r e c e d e n c e w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s c o n c e r n w i t h i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . As t h e a u t h o r h a s s t a t e d , i n t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n t h e dilemma between a p e r m i s s i v e s o c i a l a t m o s p h e r e and i n t e r n a l o r d e r h a s b e e n r e s o l v e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e l a t t e r . The inmate p o p u l a t i o n i s s u c h t h a t one must c o n c e d e t h a t e v e n u n d e r t h e b e s t o f c i r c u m - s t a n c e s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f o r d e r w o u l d p r e s e n t a f o r m i d a b l e p r o b l e m , an d t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f p r i s o n l i f e a r e f a r f r o m o p t i m a l . The f r u s t r a t i o n s and d e p r i v a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e i n m a t e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i m p r i s o n m e n t c r e a t e s t r o n g p r e s s u r e s t o w a r d d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o r . The g u a r d i s c a u g h t up i n a v i c i o u s 3 c i r c l e i n w h i c h he must s u p p r e s s t h e v e r y a c t i v i t y t h a t he h e l p s t o c r e a t e . The r e p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s w h i c h t h e g u a r d f e e l s he must employ heap... f u r t h e r f r u s t r a t i o n u pon t h e i n m a t e s , and t h e a n t a g o n i s m between t h e g u a r d and h i s p r i s o n e r s s p i r a l s u p ward. C o n t r o l o f t h e i n m a t e s i s n o t o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f l e g a l i n f r a c t i o n s , but w i t h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f " q u i e t " , " p e a c e f u l " and " o r d e r l y " l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n a s w e l l . R e g u l a t i o n s n o t o n l y p r o h i b i t d e v i a n c e , b u t r i g i d l y c i r c u m s c r i b e any a c t i v i t y w h i c h c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y l e a d t o d e v i a n c e . The p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f t h i s e x t e n s i v e c o n t r o l h a s b e e n t h e i n m a t e s ' autonomy t h r o u g h t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f numerous r u l e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o t h e o u t s i d e r t o be, (and may i n f a c t o b j e c t i v e l y b e ) , u n n e c e s s a r i l y p e t t y i n many r e s p e c t s . S y k e s , S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , p.2$ 1 1 The T a s k o f S e l f - M a i n t e n a n c e . The c u s t o d i a n i s e x p e c t e d , f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , t o make e f f i c i e n t u s e o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n , and t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n p r e s e n t s h i m w i t h a k n o t t y p r o b l e m . Whether t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r p e n a l l a b o u r r e f l e c t s a d e s i r e t o h a v e t h e i n m a t e assume some o f t h e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n o f h i s i m p r i s o n m e n t , o r a d e s i r e t o p u n i s h t h e i n m a t e f o r h i s o f f e n c e , o r p e r h a p s e v e n a d e s i r e t o e f f e c t a c u r e f o r h i s d e v i a n c e , t h e c u s t o d i a n c a n f a c i l i t a t e a work program o n l y by s a c r i f i c i n g a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c u s t o d i a l c o n t r o l . I f t h e i n m a t e s c o u l d r e m a i n l o c k e d i n t h e i r c e l l s a l l day l o n g , c u s t o d i a l c o n t r o l w o u l d p e r h a p s s t i l l be c o n s i d e r - a b l e , b u t would p r e s e n t much l e s s complex p r o b l e m s t h a n i s t h e c a s e when i n m a t e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o work. I f he i s t o work, an i n d i v i d u a l must be a l l o w e d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m o f move- ment and w i l l r e q u i r e a v a r i e t y o f t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s i f he i s t o g e t a j o b d o n e . Freedom o f movement and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t o o l s i n c r e a s e t h e h a z a r d s o f e s c a p e and i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r , b u t t h e c u s t o d i a n i s n o t f r e e n o t t o t a k e t h i s c h a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e c u s t o d i a n f e e l s t h a t he must h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o show f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l man h o u r s o f work w h i c h e x i s t w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n i f he i s t o r e m a i n employed, t h e i n m a t e s f a c e no s u c h r e q u i r e m e n t . T h ey w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f l i f e w h e t h e r t h e y t a k e p a r t i n a work p r o g r a m o r n o t , and t h e c u s t - o d i a n f i n d s h i m s e l f i n t h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n o f n e e d i n g t h e l a b o u r o f h i s c a p t i v e s f a r more t h a n do t h e c a p t i v e s them- s e l v e s . The c u s t o d i a n i s n o t a b l e t o u s e e x t r e m e c o e r c i v e m e a sures s u c h a s b r u t e f o r c e o r s t a r v a t i o n t o e x t r a c t h i g h l e v e l s o f e f f o r t , and he f i n d s t h e e x i s t i n g i n c e n t i v e s o f p u n i s h m e n t and r e w a r d q u i t e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e c o n s c i e n t i o u s l a b o u r f r o m t h e i n m a t e s . The i n m a t e s w i l l ( t o a v o i d t h o s e p u n i s h m e n t s w h i c h can be meted o u t ) work, but c a n r e t a l i a t e by a p a t h e t i c a l l y a p p e a r i n g t o work, w h i l e a c t u a l l y d o i n g v e r y l i t t l e o f v a l u e . The c u s t o d i a n s c a n p u s h t h e i r p r i s o n e r s i n t o a semblance o f work, b u t c a n n o t do more t h a n t h i s . I f he i s t o o b t a i n c o n s c i e n t i o u s work f r o m t h e i n m a t e s , t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l must be a b l e t o manage men as w e l l as g u a r d them, and t h i s r e q u i r e s t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , d e s i r e s and o p i n i o n s . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h t h i s t y p e o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n p o s e s t o t h e p r a c t i c e s o f s t r i n g e n t c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e . The ta3k o f p u n i s h m e n t . I t w o u l d n o t be u n f a i r t o o b s e r v e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n f e e l t h a t t h e c r i m i n a l s a r e p l a c e d i n p r i s o n n o t f o r p u n i s h m e n t , but a_s p u n i s h m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e c u s t o d i a n s r a r e l y r e f e r t o t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e c a p t i v e p r i o r t o h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a s s o m e t h i n g f o r w h i c h atonement must be s e c u r e d d u r i n g : h i s i m p r i s o n m e n t , h i s p r i o r d e v i a n c e s e r v e s as a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e u s e o f e x t r e m e measures d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d " i n c i d e n t s " w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n . C e r t a i n l y i n t h e d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c u s t o d i a n s t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n c e r n g i v e n t o c o n s c i o u s l y i n f l i c t i n g p u n i s h m e n t u p o n t h e i n m a t e s , but t h e v e r y c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p r i s o n a r e , i n many r e s p e c t s , p u n i t i v e . The r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d u pon c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h e p u r c h a s e o f c a n t e e n s u p p l i e s and v i s i t s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d may 13 c e r t a i n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n m a t e s a s e v i d e n c e s o f a p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e , h u t t h e c u s t o d i a n s i n s i s t t h a t t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e i m p o s e d m e r e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h d e g r e e o f c u s t o d y a n d i n t e r n a l o r d e r . Whether t h i s i s i n f a c t t h e whole r e a s o n f o r s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n s o r n o t , t h e g u a r d d o e s n o t f i n d t h a t he i s a b l e t o v i e w t h e i n m a t e as an i n d i v i d u a l who h a s b e e n s t r i p p e d o f h i s h u m a n i t y . The g u a r d f r e q u e n t l y comes t o l i k e t h o s e whom he must r u l e , and i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t he he l i k e d i n r e t u r n . I t i s t h i s f a c t w h i c h d o e s much t o temper t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n power o f t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l . The t a s k o f r e f o r m . S y k e s b e l i e v e s t h a t r e f o r m a t i o n i s t h e most ambiguous of a l l t h e t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o t h e p r i s o n , f o r a l t h o u g h few w o u l d q u a r r e l w i t h t h e m e r i t s o f r e f o r m a t i o n as a n o b j e c t i v e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s e x i s t i n g as t o t h e means one must employ t o a t t a i n t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Many s t u d e n t s o f t h e p r o b l e m b e l i e v e t h a t r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e d e v i a n t r e q u i r e s a p r o f o u n d change i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . Two t h e o r e t i c a l f a c t i o n s t h e n e x p r e s s d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s a s t o t h e means o f a t t a i n i n g t h i s p r o f o u n d c h a n g e . T h o s e d e v o t e d t o a p s y c h i a t r i c v i e w o f c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r s u p p o r t t h e n e e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t h e r a p y . T h o s e d e v o t e d t o a more s o c i o l o g i c a l v i e w o f c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r see s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , m e a n i n g f u l work and e d u c a t i o n s a s t h e m i n i m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o g r a m . S y k e s , S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , p.12 B o t h f a c t i o n s u s u a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p u n i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t must be r e d u c e d and t h e p e r m i s s i v e , s u p p o r t i v e f e a t u r e s i n c r e a s e d b e f o r e t h e i r e f f o r t s a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e t o any d e g r e e . A t t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n r e f o r m a t i o n h a s , i n p r a c t i c e , t h e l e a s t p r i o r i t y o f a l l t h o s e t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o t h e p r i s o n . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , i m p r i s o n m e n t i s t e r m e d a s u c c e s s i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l does n o t emerge f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n a worse s t a t e t h a n t h a t i n w h i c h he e n t e r e d . The a d m i n i - s t r a t o r o f t h e p r i s o n h a s d e v e l o p e d a p h i l o s o p h y o f r e f o r m a - t i o n w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r among t h e i n m a t e s w h i l e i n t h e p r i s o n i s t h e most p o t e n t d e v i c e . a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e p a r i n g t h e p r i s o n e r t o f o l l o w t h e d i c t a t e s o f s o c i e t y when he i s r e l e a s e d . C o n t r o l o f t h e p r i s o n e r ' s b e h a v i o r r a t h e r t h a n h i s mind i s s t r e s s e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i o n s a r e f o r c e d t o m a t c h n o r m a t i v e demands, t h e mind w i l l f o l l o w a f t e r . An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r i s o n i s t h e r e f o r e made i n t e r m s o f how t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s a r e ( a f f e c t i n g t h e t o t a l s o c i a l c l i m a t e . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n becomes a b a t t l e f o r c o m p l i a n c e . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y c o n t r a d i c t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g means o f a c h i e v i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r r e f o r m a t i o n as c o n c e i v e d by e i t h e r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t o r t h e t h e r a p i s t , and h a s t h e e f f e c t o f r e l e g a t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o i t s c u s t - omary l o w l e v e l o f p r i o r i t y i n t h i s s o c i a l s e t t i n g . The n e e d f o r s t r i c t c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l o f the i n m a t e bpdy i s r e - e m p h a s i z e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h i s t i m e i n t h e name o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 1 5 I I I . THE DEFECTS OF TOTAL POWER I t i s f r e q u e n t l y a r g u e d t h a t t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c u s t o d i a l r e g i m e i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p o o r c a l i b r e o f i n d i v i d u a l s n o r m a l l y r e c r u i t e d by t h e p r i s o n o r t h a t i t i s a r e s u l t a n t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e r e c r u i t s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e , o r h a v e no c a r e e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r j o b . S y k e s h a s c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e argument t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e f e c t s i n t h e p r i s o n ' s s y s t e m o f power a r e a t l e a s t e q u a l l y r e s p o n - s i b l e f o r the a p p a r e n t i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p r i s o n s y s t e m . A l t h o u g h t h e power s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y s u c h t h a t t h e c u s t o d i a n i s i n v e s t e d w i t h t o t a l power, i n a c t u a l f a c t t h e c u s t o d i a n ' s power i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . One of t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e f e c t s i n t h e p r i s o n ' s s y s t e m o f power ca n be f o u n d i n t h e l a c k o f a s e n s e o f d u t y among t h o s e who a r e h e l d c a p t i v e t o obey t h e i r c a p t o r s . The i n m a t e s may a g r e e t h a t t h e c u s t o d i a n i s l e g i t i m a t e l y e n t i t l e d t o h o l d h i s p o s i - t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , b u t t h e y do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y must t h e n a u t o m a t i c a l l y comply w i t h h i s w i s h e s and demands. I n t h e f a c e o f t h i s l a c k o f a s e n s e o f d u t y , t h e c u s t - o d i a n c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y demand c o m p l i a n c e by t h e use o f c o e r c i o n , b u t c o e r c i o n i s a g r o s s l y i n e f f i c i e n t means o f s e c u r i n g o b e d i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e t a s k a s s i g n e d t o t h e i n m a t e i s o f a complex n a t u r e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i f t h e c u s t o d i a n d oes u s e b r u t e f o r c e t o g i v e a u t h o r i t y t o h i s command, t h e i n m a t e s may r e a c t i n k i n d , and t h e c u s t o d i a n i s p a i n f u l l y aware o f how g r e a t l y outnumbered he i s . 16 The c o l l e c t i o n o f p u n i s h m e n t s and r e w a r d s w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c u s t o d i a n as means o f p e r s u a s i o n i s e x t r e m e l y p a l t r y and l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . T hose r e w a r d s w h i c h are a v a i l - a b l e i n t h e p r i s o n a r e g r a n t e d t o t h e i n m a t e s u p o n a r r i v a l , and t h e i n m a t e s come t o v i e w t h e s e as t h e i r r i g h t s r a t h e r t h a n as r e w a r d s o r p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h must be e a r n e d b y g o o d b e h a v i o r . The i n m a t e who i s p u n i s h e d b y t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s may be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a m a r t y r h i s f e l l o w s . L e f t w i t h no e f f e c t i v e r e w a r d o r punishment, i n c e n t i v e s , t h e c u s t o d i a n must r e l y u p o n l e s s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t e c h n i q u e s f o r s e c u r i n g c o m p l i a n c e . The g u a r d l e a r n s t h a t t o g a i n o b e d - i e n c e i n t h o s e i s s u e s w h i c h r e a l l y m a t t e r , he m u s t a l l o w c o n - s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i n t h o s e m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e o f l e s s s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The most e f f e c t i v e means o f s e c u r i n g c o m p l i a n c e t h u s i n v o l v e s a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c o r r u p - t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e g u a r d . A t t h e same t i m e , b e c a u s e h e i s i n c o n s t a n t , and c l o s e - c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n m a t e s on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s , t h e g u a r d w i l l p r o b a b l y f o r m f r i e n d s h i p s , w i t h t h o s e h e i s s u p p o s e d t o r u l e . He may f a i l t o c a r r y o u t some o f h i s d u t i e s o r t o e n f o r c e some r u l e s s i m p l y b e c a u s e he w i s h e s t o r e m a i n a "good f e l l o w " i n the e y e s o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s , t h e i n m a t e s . As t h e c u s t o d i a n becomes more d e e p l y enmeshed i n p a t t e r n s o f r e c i p r o c i t y , t h e a u t h o r i t y o f h i s r o l e g r a d u a l l y s l i p s away i n t o t h e h a n d s o f a few t r u s t e d i n m a t e s . R e c a p t u r e o f t h i s l o s t a u t h o r i t y may t h e n be a t t e m p t e d o n l y a t h i s p e r i l . 17 I V . THE PAINS OP IMPRISONMENT H a v i n g e x a m i n e d t h e p r i s o n s e t t i n g and t h e r e g i m e w h i c h t h e c u s t o d i a n s t r y t o impose u p o n t h e i n m a t e s , t h e a u t h o r t u r n s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l i f e i n t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e i n m a t e s . T h e r e was a t i m e when i m p r i s o n m e n t i n v o l v e d e x t r e m e p h y s i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n s and p u n i s h m e n t j h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s were d e p l o r a b l e , f o o d was i n a d e q u a t e , and t r e a t m e n t by t h e s t a f f o f t e n b r u t a l . P e n a l r e f o r m s and i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c aware- n e s s o f and c o n c e r n f o r c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e more g r o s s l y p u n i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t , y e t t h e i n m a t e s s t i l l f i n d t h e i r p l i g h t e x t r e m e l y p a i n f u l . P h y s i c a l l y i m p r i s o n m e n t h a s become much l e s s d e v a s t a t i n g t h a n i t was f o r m e r l y , b u t t h e p s y c h o l o g - i c a l p a i n s h a v e n o t d e c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Many o f t h e i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p o s s e s s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h n o r m a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - e s t e e m and p r o v i d e p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e f o r h i s s e l f - image s u d d e n l y become i n a c c e s s i b l e i f he i s s e n t t o p r i s o n . Not o n l y d o e s t h e v i c t i m s u f f e r a l o s s o f p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e f r e e community, b u t h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n and s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n i s g r e a t l y t h r e a t e n e d by v i r t u e o f t h i s n e w l y a c q u i r e d s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . The d e p r i v a t i o n s w h i c h most s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e p r i s o n e r a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Gresham S y k e s , t h e l o s s o f f r e e d o m , t h e l o s s o f h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e l o s s o f goods and s e r v i c e s , t h e l o s s o f autonomy, and t h e l o s s o f s e c u r i t y . E a c h h a s a u n i q u e i m p a c t u p o n t h e i n d i v i d - u a l and p o s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o b l e m s f o r h i m . To r e m a i n i n t a c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t h e i n m a t e must somehow l e a r n t o cope w i t h and a d a p t h i m s e l f t o t h e s e d e p r i v a t i o n s . The d e p r i v a t i o n s o f l i b e r t y . The most o b v i o u s l y p a i n - f u l c o n d i t i o n imposed upon t h e i n m a t e s o f a p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e d e p r i v a t i o n o f t h e i r l i b e r t y . The i n m a t e must c o n f i n e h i s a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e im m e d i a t e a r e a o f t h e p r i s o n , and c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n u o u s u n t i l he must r e l y a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y u pon the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s i n t e r e s t s and f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s e m o t i o n a l n e e d s . Cut o f f f r o m h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , he must r e l y u p o n h i s a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n , w h e t h e r he f i n d s t h e s e a s s o c i a t e s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n g e n i a l o r n o t . I s o l a t i o n w i t h i n the p r i s o n i s p a i n f u l n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e l o s s o f the o u t s i d e w o r l d , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e t h i s i s o l a - t i o n i m p l i e s r e j e c t i o n by t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d as w e l l . The inm a t e i s made aware t h a t i t i s b e c a u s e he was f o u n d u n s u i t a b l e t h a t he was p l a c e d i n t h e p r i s o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , and s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e inmate must be i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e f r e e community so t h a t t h e community may s u r v i v e i n t a c t . He i s n o t o n l y p l a c e d i n t h e p r i s o n f o r h i s own good ( a s t h e h o s p i t a l i n m a t e may i n t e r p r e t h i s i s o l a t i o n ) b u t i s p l a c e d i n t h e p r i s o n p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e good o f t h e community. The community can f u n c t i o n more a d e q u a t e l y w i t h o u t t h e d e v i a n t , and i s w i l l i n g t o r e j e c t t h e d e v i a n t t o e n s u r e s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . The i n m a t e ' s i m p o r t a n c e as a n i n d i v i d u a l i s d r a m a t i c a l l y r e f u t e d : Not o n l y w i l l t h e w o r l d c o n t i n u e t o go a r o u n d 19 w i t h o u t h i m , b u t , i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y , i t w i l l go a r o u n d more e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h o u t h i m . To e n d u r e p s y c h o l o g - i c a l l y , t h e p r i s o n i nmate must f i n d a means o f r e j e c t i n g h i s r e j e c t o r s - a way o f w a r d i n g o f f h i s r e j e c t i o n by means o f c o u n t e r - a t t a c k . The d e p r i v a t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e i n m a t e s o f t h e New J e r s e y Maximum S e c u r i t y P r i s o n a r e a d e q u a t e l y h o u s e d and f e d , a n d t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e a d e q u a t e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n , y e t t h e y f i n d t h e i r e x i s t e n c e m a t e r i a l l y a s c e t i c , and r e s e n t t h i s a s c e t i c i s m . B e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t c l a i m t h a t t h e i r a s c e t i c i s m i s s e l f - w i l l e d , o r t h a t i t was d e l i b e r a t e l y a d o p t e d f o r t h e sake of some f u t u r e g o a l , be i t s p i r i t u a l o r m a t e r i a l i s t i c , t h e i n m a t e s a r e l e f t w i t h o n l y t h e n e g a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r d e p r i v a t i o n , and s u f f e r a c c o r d i n g l y . I n o u r s o c i e t y , g r e a t s y m b o l i c i m p o r t a n c e i s a t t a c h e d t o p o s s e s s i o n s , and i n no s m a l l measure a man can e v a l u a t e h i s own w o r t h , and w i l l be a p p r a i s e d by o t h e r s i n t e r m s o f t h e k i n d , number and q u a l i t y o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n s . . To be s t r i p p e d o f t h e s e s y m b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n s , and o f p o s s e s s i o n s w h i c h a r e o n e ' s own, c a n r e s u l t i n deep s e a t e d d o u b t s c o n - c e r n i n g o n e ' s i d e n t i t y , s t a t u s and p e r s o n a l w o r t h . P o o r t o the e x t e n t t h a t he c a n n o t even l a y c l a i m s t o a common c h a i r o r a s u i t o f c l o t h i n g , t h e i n m a t e o f t h e maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n s e e s h i m s e l f a s a f a i l u r e i n t e r m s o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h e q u a t e m a t e r i a l d e p r i v a t i o n w i t h p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c y . 20 The d e p r i v a t i o n o f h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h some w r i t e r s h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e d u c t i o n o f s e x u a l d r i v e and a c o n s e q u e n t r e d u c t i o n o f s e x u a l f r u s t r a t i o n f o r t h e inm a t e o f a p r i s o n , c o n v e r s a t i o n and a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e t o p i c o f - s e x u a l i t y w i t h i n t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n t e n d s t o b e l i e t h i s c l a i m . Inmates i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , u n l i k e t h o s e i n some L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , do n o t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f h a v i n g c o n j u g a l v i s i t s w i t h t h e i r w i v e s o r m i s t r e s s e s . T h e y a r e f o r c e d t o become c e l i b a t e s d u r i n g t h e i r i m p r i s o n m e n t . T h i s l a c k o f h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s can c r e a t e p r o b l e m s g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f s e x u a l f r u s t r a t i o n h owever, f o r once a g a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s b r o u g h t on by t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t enough as t o w a r r a n t o u r a t t e n t i o n . I n a s o c i e t y w h i c h i s w i t h o u t women, a n x i e t y c o n c e r n i n g o ne's m a s c u l i n i t y t e n d s t o be g e n e r a t e d . H o m o s e x u a l i t y d e v e l o p s , and e v e n f o r . t h o s e who do n o t t a k e p a r t i n s u c h a c t - i v i t i e s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s o r a s t h e r e s u l t o f p e r s u a s i o n o r c o e r c i o n , s t r o n g g u i l t f e e l i n g s may r e s u l t f r o m t h e a c t i v a - t i o n o f l a t e n t h o m o s e x u a l t e n d e n c i e s . S e d u c t i o n . o r n e a r s e d u c - t i o n i n t o a p a t t e r n w h i c h i s s e v e r e l y c e n s u r e d o u t s i d e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n may ( r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f l i f e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ) r e s u l t i n a c u t e f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t and d o u b t s c o n c e r n i n g o n e ' s s e x u a l n o r m a l i t y . P h y s i o l o g i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n h o m o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c an be a t t a i n e d o n l y a t a g r e a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t f o r most i n m a t e s . The p r o b l e m of m a s c u l i n i t y may be c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n o u t s i d e t h e s t r i c t l y s e x u a l s p h e r e s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f t h e l o s s o f t h e f e m i n i n e a u d i e n c e . B e c a use t h e r e a r e no women t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p o l a r extreme o f m a s c u l i n i t y , t h e i n m a t e ' s s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes more d i f f i c u l t . How i s he t o know i f he J3 r e a l l y a man when he i s s u r r o u n d e d o n l y by o t h e r s who a l s o c a l l t h e m s e l v e s men? Which o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l most c o n v i n c i n g l y p o r t r a y h i s manhood i n t h e a b s e n c e o f women who r e p r e s e n t t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f h i s s e x u a l s t a t u s ? S e c o n d a r y s t a n d a r d s o f m a s c u l i n i t y become d i s t o r t e d and a c c e n t u a t e d i n t h e f a c e o f t h i s l o s s , and i n m a t e s f i n d t h a t t h e y must c o n - t i n u a l l y p r o v e t h e i r m a s c u l i n i t y i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e i r m a s c u l i n i t y c a n n o t be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , n o r can i t be v e r i f i e d s i m p l y by p o i n t i n g t o t h a t w h i c h i s n o t m a s c u l i n e , f o r no s u c h i n d e x i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The d e p r i v a t i o n o f autonomy. I t may be a r g u e d t h a t men a r e f a r f r o m f r e e a g e n t s e v e n i n t h e " f r e e " community f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e r i g i d l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d by law, norm and c u s t o m . . S t i l l , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by c u s t o m r a t h e r t h a n by d i r e c t i v e , and t h e r e a r e many a r e a s i n w h i c h p e r s o n a l d e c i s - i o n s a r e n o t o n l y a l l o w e d , b u t a r e e s s e n t i a l . b e f o r e a c t i o n can be t a k e n by t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Such i s n o t t h e c a s e w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n . The i n m a t e i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e d e c i s i o n s and o r d e r s o f h i s s u p e r i o r s w i t h r e g a r d t o a l l p h a s e s o f h i s l i f e . And he i s f r e q u e n t l y e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w o r d e r s o r a c c e p t r u l i n g s w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f an e x p l a n a t i o n o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Some o f t h e i g n o r a n c e among t h e i n m a t e s a s t o t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d r u l i n g s and p o l i c i e s i s d e l i b e r a t e l y f o s t e r e d , f o r t h e r e i s a s e n s e i n w h i c h r u l e s w h i c h have been j u s t i f i e d a r e t h e n o p e n 22 t o c r i t i c i s m and r e j e c t i o n . I f t h e r a t i o n a l e r e m a i n s i n s c r u t - a b l e , t h e i n m a t e i s n o t so c a p a b l e o f q u e s t i o n i n g ( o r more i m p o r t a n t c h a l l e n g i n g ) t h e r u l i n g w h i c h h a s b e e n p a s s e d down t o h i m . The d e p r i v a t i o n o f autonomy i s f r u s t r a t i n g n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n s c r u t a b i l i t y o f t h e r u l i n g s d e l i v e r e d , i t i s a l s o f r u s t r a t i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r s o n a l d e g r a d a t i o n w h i c h r i g o r o u s and m e t h o d i c a l c o n t r o l i n v o l v e s , . The inmate i s made t o a p p e a r i n c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g a p r o p e r d e c i s i o n f o r h i m s e l f e i t h e r b e c a u s e he c a n n o t be t r u s t e d , o r b e c a u s e he s i m p l y d o e s n o t know what i s b e s t o r what s h o u l d be done i n a g i v e n i n s t a n c e . The i n m a t e becomes weak and h e l p l e s s , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a s u p e r i o r f o r c e a g a i n s t w h i c h he h a s no a d e q u a t e d e f e n s e o r weapon. A d u l t s t a t u s i s t h r e a t e n e d b e c a u s e o f t h i s d r a s t i c l o s s o f p e r s o n a l autonomy, and t h e i n m a t e f i n d s h i m s e l f r e t u r n e d t o t h e h e l p l e s s s t a t e o f h i s c h i l d h o o d once more. The d e p r i v a t i o n of s e c u r i t y . The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n i n c l u d e s m u r d e r e r s , t h i e v e s , r a p i s t s and o t h e r s w i t h l o n g h i s t o r i e s o f v i o l e n t , a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r . P r o l o n g e d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h men o f t h i s n a t u r e i s f a r f r o m r e a s s u r i n g f o r a n y o n e , r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s own r e p u t a t i o n f o r a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e i n m a t e s n o r m a l l y d e v e l o p e x t e n - s i v e p a t t e r n s o f s u p p o r t and m u t u a l a i d , t h e r e r e m a i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f o u t l a w s i n t h e i r m i d s t f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n t o be a p p a r e n t d a i l y . A wareness o f t h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n d e p r i v e s t h e p r i s o n i n m a t e o f t h a t s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y w h i c h he n o r m a l l y c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o f e e l i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s f e l l o w s o u t s i d e t h e p r i s o n s e t t i n g . 23 E a c h inmate i s u n c o m f o r t a b l y aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t s o o n e r o r l a t e r he w i l l be " t e s t e d " by a n o t h e r i n m a t e who i s a n x i o u s t o s eek some a d v a n t a g e . The i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g t e s t e d . i s f a c e d w i t h a d o u b l e p r o b l e m . I f he s h o u l d f a i l h i s t e s t , he may become t h e t a r g e t o f many who w i s h t o d e p r i v e h i m o f h i s i n t e g r i t y o r h i s p o s s e s s i o n s . I f he s h o u l d p a s s h i s t e s t , he may become t h e t a r g e t o f a l l t h o s e who w i s h t o e s t a b l i s h r e p u t a t i o n s f o r b r a v e r y and t o u g h n e s s . I n c i d e n t s o f i n t e r - p e r s o n a l a g g r e s s i o n and a t t e m p t s a t e x p l o i t a t i o n become p u b l i c t e s t s o f a d e q u a c y and m a n l i n e s s , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d i s a c u t e l y aware t h a t h i s manhood w i l l be p u b l i c l y e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o how he f a r e s i n any c o n t e s t . P a t t e r n s o f adaptation!.- I n t h e f a c e o f t h e enormous p r e s s u r e s w h i c h t h e s e p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t e x e r t u pon t h e i n d i v i d u a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l , r a t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e s e p r e s s u r e s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o e v o l v e i n t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l r o l e s . S y k e s b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two g e n e r a l p a t h s o f a d a p t a t i o n o p e n : The i n m a t e can b i n d h i m s e l f t o h i s f e l l o w s w i t h t i e s o f m u t u a l a i d , l o y a l t y and a f f e c t i o n , s t a n d i n g f i r m l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e o f f i c i a l s , o r h e may s e e k h i s own a d v a n t a g e i n a b a t t l e o f a l l a g a i n s t a l l . H i s b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n may be e i t h e r " c o l l e c t i v i s t i c " o r " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " . I n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , o f c o u r s e , i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r c a n n o t be n e a t l y c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e s e p o l a r e x t r e m e s , but e x t e n d s a c r o s s t h e f u l l r a n g e o f p o s s i b i l i t y between t h e s e two. V. ARGOT ROLES P r i s o n a r g o t , l i k e t h e a r g o t o f any g r o u p , r e f l e c t s c r u c i a l a x e s o f l i f e w h i c h t o t h a t g r o u p a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p o r t a n t a s t o w a r r a n t naming and d e f i n i n g . The a r g o t o f t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n i s o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d t o many e x t e r n a l a r g o t i n f l u e n c e s ; t h e a r g o t o f p a r t i c u l a r c r i m i n a l g r o u p s , t h e c u r r e n t s l a n g o f t h e day, j a z z a d d i c t s , and t h e l i k e . But t h o s e a s p e c t s o f p r i s o n l i f e w h i c h a r e p e c u l i a r t o t h e p r i s o n s e t t i n g r e s u l t i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a s p e c i a l p r i s o n v o c a b u l a r y . The s o c i a l r o l e s w h i c h d e v e l o p i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c r u c - i a l a x e s o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n s e t t i n g a l s o e n j o y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n of s p e c i a l names and d e f i n i t i o n s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e A r g o t R o l e s and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t r e v e a l s much c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r i s o n a s a s o c i e t y . S o c i a l c o h e s i v e n e s s a g a i n s t t h e c u s t o d i a n . The most o b v i o u s s o c i a l b o undary i n t h e c u s t o d i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h a t w h i c h e x i s t s between t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s and t h e p r i s o n i n m a t e s . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may m i t i g a t e some o f t h e more p a i n f u l a s p e c t s o f b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e c u s t o d - i a n , t h e i n m a t e s f e e l t h a t any and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s must be k e p t s t r i c t l y w i t h i n t h e i n m a t e g r o u p . T h o s e who f a i l t o g u a r d t h e s e c r e t s o f t h e i n m a t e s a n d who do n o t i n o t h e r ways s t a n d d i r e c t l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s a s a g r o u p d e v i a t e f r o m t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s t o f t h e i n m a t e body, and a r e s i n g l e d o ut and l a b e l l e d a s d e v i a n t s S p e c i a l names a r e a p p l i e d w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f th e p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n c e r n i s p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e f l o w o f i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e game o f c a t and mouse w h i c h t y p i - f i e s s t a f f - i n m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t s i n t h e f e e l i n g t h a t any i n f o r m a t i o n may be o f some s l i g h t v a l u e t o t h e c u s t o d i a n s . " S q u e a l e r s " and " r a t s " d i s r e g a r d t h e f e l t n e ed o f t h e i n m a t e s t o p r e v e n t t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e i r g r o u p t o t h e c u s t o d i a n s , and i n so d o i n g d i s r e g a r d t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f p r i s o n e r s as a do m i n a n t v a l u e . T h e y u s u a l l y c o n d u c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s o f " s q u e a l i n g " and " r a t t i n g " t o a t t a i n t h e i r own ends, and a r e r e g a r d e d c o n t e m p t u o u s l y b e c a u s e o f t h i s s e l f i s h m o t i v a t i o n . T h e s e names a r e a n y t h i n g b u t f l a t t e r i n g , and a r e n e v e r t a k e n l i g h t l y . " C e n t e r men" do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c l o s e i n m a t e s e c r e t s , h u t t h r e a t e n i n m a t e s o l i d a r i t y by i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e c u s t o d i a n s . A " c e n t e r man" p o s e s a s p e c i a l t h r e a t t o t h e c o h e s i v e l y o r i e n t e d i n m a t e s b e c a u s e he a c t u a l l y s h a r e s t h e o f f i c i a l s ' p o i n t o f v i e w . I n s p i t e o f h i s a c t u a l g r o u p membership, t h e " c e n t e r man" w o u l d p r e f e r membership i n t h e o p p o s i n g g r o u p . S o c i a l c o h e s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o s c a r c e g o o d s . " G o r i l l a s " t a k e what t h e y want f r o m o t h e r i n m a t e s by u s i n g f o r c e . T h ey f i n d c o e r c i o n , o r t h e t h r e a t o f c o e r c i o n an e f f e c t i v e weapon t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own e n d s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e g o a l i s t o s e c u r e s c a r c e goods f r o m o t h e r s w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n a s an a t t e m p t a t s o f t e n i n g t h e h u r t w h i c h t h e y p e r s o n a l l y s u f f e r b e c a u s e o f m a t e r i a l d e p r i v a t i o n . 26 " M e r c h a n t s " o r " p e d l a r s " s e l l s c a r c e goods t o t h e i r f e l l o w i n m a t e s when t h e y s h o u l d ( t o p r e s e r v e i n m a t e s o l i d a r i t y and t o c o n f o r m w i t h t h e i n m a t e code) g i v e them. They do n o t s h a r e t h e goods i n s h o r t s u p p l y , but e x p l o i t t h e n e e d s o f o t h e r s . T h e i r i m p e r s o n a l d e a l i n g s a r e a d e n i a l o f t h e u n i t y o f t h e i m p r i s o n e d c r i m i n a l s ; t h e y a r e d e s t r u c t i v e t o t h e s o l i d a r - i t y o f t h e r e j e c t e d . M a s c u l i n i t y as an i n d e x o f s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The i n m a t e s o f t h e New J e r s e y S t a t e P r i s o n a r e c u t o f f f r o m t h e most i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n o f " m a l e n e s s " , h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , t o u g h n e s s and i n w a r d s t a m i n a become t h e m a j o r i n d i c e s by w h i c h manhood i s e v a l u a t e d . T h o s e who t a k e p a r t i n h o m o s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n a r e g e n e r a l l y f e l t t o be l e s s m a s c u l i n e t h a n a r e t h o s e who d i s p l a y a g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y f o r s e l f - c o n t r o l t h r o u g h s e x u a l r e s t r a i n t . But h o m o s e x u a l i t y i s p r a c t i s e d n o n e t h e l e s s . S o c i a l s t a t u s i s t h e n a l l o t t e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t y p e o f r o l e h a b i t u a l l y p l a y e d i n t h e h o m o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p . The p r i m a r y d i s t i n c t i o n made a t New J e r s e y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s b etween t h e " a g g r e s s i v e " and t h e " p a s s i v e " p a r t n e r s , and t h e f o r m e r i s r e g a r d e d most t o l e r a n t l y . The " w o l f " o r a g g r e s s i v e , a c t i v e h o m o s e x u a l a l m o s t e s c a p e s t h e s t i g m a o f h i s p e r v e r s i o n w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n w a l l s , f o r he d o e s s t i l l e x h i b i t some o f t h e m a s c u l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t o u g h n e s s and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . He i s f r e q u e n t l y v i e w e d by t h e o t h e r i n m a t e s a s m e r e l y s e e k i n g p h y s i c a l r e l e a s e ; he i s unmoved by l o v e and i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e e m o t i o n s o f t h e 27 p a r t n e r he h a s c o e r c e d , b r i b e d o r s e d u c e d i n t o a l i a i s o n . , " P u nks" a r e p a s s i v e h o m o s e x u a l s who, i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e i n m a t e s , a r e "made, n o t . b o r n " . B e c a u se t h e y a c t f r o m f e a r o r f o r t h e sake o f q u i c k a d v a n t a g e i n t h e f o r m o f pay- ment made f o r s e x u a l f a v o u r s g r a n t e d , t h e y a r e t h o u g h t t o be weak and s o f t , p h y s i c a l l y as w e l l as m o r a l l y . " F a g s " a r e p a s s i v e h o m o s e x u a l s who d o u b l y f o r f e i t t h e i r c l a i m t o m a s c u l i n i t y . They n o t o n l y become t h e p a s s i v e p a r t n e r i n t h e s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t a l s o t a k e on t h e o u t - ward g u i s e o f f e m i n i n i t y . T h ey may a d o p t e x a g g e r a t e d f e m i n i n e mannerisms o f s p e e c h and c a r r i a g e , w i l l " f e m i n i z e " t h e i r c l o t h - i n g a n d g r o o m i n g as f a r a s p o s s i b l e , and may e v e n u s e make-up o r dye t h e i r u n d e r c l o t h i n g . T h ey a r e s u b j e c t e d t o a l l t h e s c o r n and d e r i s i o n t o w h i c h t h e h o m o s e x u a l i s u s u a l l y s u b - j e c t e d i n s o c i e t y . T h ey a r e b e l i e v e d t o be " t r u e " homo- s e x u a l s who a c t u a l l y p r e f e r h o m o s e x u a l t o h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R e a c t i o n s t o o f f i c i a l o p p r e s s i o n . " B a l l b u s t e r s " b l a t a n t l y d i s o b e y t h e p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s by means o f p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a s s a u l t , and c o n t i n u a l l y c a u s e d i s t u r b a n c e s w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n . T h e y a r e o f t e n r e g a r d e d by o t h e r s a s .. f o o l s , f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t o n l y i n an i n c r e a s e d number o f c o n t r o l s b e i n g imposed by t h e g u a r d s . " B a l l b u s t e r s " s a c r i f i c e t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e e n t i r e i n m a t e body f o r t h e sake o f a c h i l d i s h , e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t . The " R e a l man" i s a d m i r e d b e c a u s e he c a n " t a k e i t " , w h a t e v e r " i t " may a t t h e moment b e . A l o o f and w i t h o u t com- p l a i n t he i s t h e i n m a t e s ' v e r s i o n o f decorum. H i s demeanor d e n i e s t h e c u s t o d i a n ' s power t o s t r i p h i m o f h i s a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h i m s e l f . I n t e r - i n m a t e c o n f l i c t . The "Tough" i s q u i c k t o q u a r r e l w i t h h i s f e l l o w p r i s o n e r s , h i s a s s a u l t s f l o w i n g f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t he f e e l s he h a s b e e n i n s u l t e d , r a t h e r , t h a n f r o m a d e s i r e t o e x p l o i t o t h e r s . He i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s " t o u c h i n e s s " , but i s a d m i r e d t o some e x t e n t i n s p i t e o f t h e d i s r u p t i v e n a t u r e o f h i s a c t i o n s s i m p l y b e c a u s e he w i l l n o t t o l e r a t e e i t h e r r e a l o r i m a g i n e d i m p o s i t i o n s . He e x h i b i t s t h e m a s c u l - i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b r a v e r y and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , h i s raw c o u r a g e c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r h i s i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p r i s o n community. The " H i p s t e r " i s a l s o p r o n e t o a g g r e s s i v e n e s s a g a i n s t o t h e r i n m a t e s , b u t h i s t o u g h n e s s i s t h o u g h t t o be a f a c a d e . He i s a b u l l y , b u t h i s t e n d e n c y t o e r e c t a f a l s e f r o n t a l s o e x t e n d s b e y o n d h i s s i m u l a t e d b r a v e r y . He assumes a t t i t u d e s , mannerisms and p r o f e s s e s i n t e r e s t s w h i c h a r e n o t w i t h him. n a t u r a l . A l l i s done i n a n e f f o r t t o be a c c e p t e d i n t o c l i q u e s t o w h i c h he doe s n o t r i g h t f u l l y b e l o n g . A l t h o u g h he h o p e s t o g a i n f a v o u r by h i s s i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t s and c a p a b i l i t i e s , he i s r e g a r d e d a s a phoney and s u f f e r s a c c o r d i n g l y f r o m a l o s s o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . C o h e s i v e and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a d j u s t m e n t s . A s i d e f r o m t h e " R e a l man", t h e a r g o t r o l e s o u t l i n e d above d e p i c t " i n d i v - i d u a l i s t i c " a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t . They 29 a r e d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e r e d u c t i o n o f f r i c t i o n b e tween t h e i n m a t e s . The " c o h e s i v e " r e s p o n s e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n c l u d e s o c i a l r o l e s w h i c h i n v o l v e l o y a l t y , g e n e r o s i t y , s e x u a l r e s t r a i n t , e n d u r a n c e w i t h d i g n i t y , and t h e m i n i m i z i n g o f f r i c t i o n between t h e i n m a t e s . The name o f " R e a l man" t e n d s t o be empl o y e d t o c o v e r a l l o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S y k e s h a s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e e x t e n t o f " c o h e s i v e n e s s " i n t h e p r i s o n t h e g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s o c i e t y o f c a p t i v e s w i l l move i n ' t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n m a t e s o l i d a r i t y and t h e g r e a t e r t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t w i l l be r e n d e r e d l e s s s e v e r e f o r t h e i n m a t e 7 p o p u l a t i o n a s a w h o l e . A c o h e s i v e i n m a t e s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s t h e p r i s o n e r s w i t h a m e a n i n g f u l s o c i a l g r o u p w h i c h w i l l l e n d them s u p p o r t i n t h e i r b a t t l e s a g a i n s t t h e i r c ondemnors. V I . CRISIS AND EQUILIBRIUM The f o c a l p o i n t o f s o c i a l change w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n i s t h e t r a n s f e r o f power f r o m t h e c u s t o d i a n s t o t h e i n m a t e s . As was p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , t h e s t r u c t u r a l w e a k n e s s e s o f power w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n t e n d t o g e n e r a t e a s y s t e m o f compromise and c o r r u p t i o n so t h a t , o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , l a r g e r and l a r g e r amounts o f t h e c u s t o d i a n ' s c o n t r o l a r e w h i t t l e d away. But s o o n e r o r l a t e r t h e c u s t o d i a n w i l l be f a c e d w i t h t h e n e c - e s s i t y of r e g a i n i n g c o n t r o l f r o m t h e i n m a t e s i f he i s t o "^Sykes, The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , p . 107 3 0 r e t a i n h i s j o b . He must e i t h e r " t i g h t e n u p " . t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o r be s u b j e c t e d t o a s t o r m o f p r o t e s t s i f knowledge o f t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f h i s a u t h o r i t y becomes p u b l i c . I t i s t h e c o h e s i v e l y - o r i e n t e d i n m a t e who r e c e i v e s most o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f any s y s t e m o f c o r r u p t i o n , f o r he i s s e e n by t h e g u a r d s a s one who " c o - o p e r a t e s " , who can be " r e s p e c t e d " , and who does n o t c a u s e t r o u b l e by e x p l o i t i n g o t h e r i n m a t e s . He c a n be c o u n t e d on t o p o i n t o ut t h e wisdom o f " g e t t i n g a l o n g " t o t h e o t h e r i n m a t e s , r e d u c i n g much o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e g u a r d ' s j o b . And i t i s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e " c o h e s i v e l y - o r i e n t e d " i n m a t e i s t h e n a b l e t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e s e b e n e f i t s among t h e o t h e r i n m a t e s t h a t he i s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n much o f h i s i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n . The c o h e s i v e l y - o r i e n t e d p r i s o n e r , c o m m i t t e d t o t h e v a l u e s o f i n m a t e l o y a l t y , g e n e r o s i t y , e n d u r a n c e a n d t h e c u r b - i n g o f f r i c t i o n d o e s much t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r i s o n ' s e q u i l i b r i u m . He s t a n d s f o r t h e v a l u e o f k e e p i n g t h i n g s q u i e t . When t h e c u s t o d i a n f e e l s t h a t he i s f o r c e d t o s t r i p t h e c o h e s i v e l y - o r i e n t e d p r i s o n e r o f h i s power ( by d e s t r o y i n g t h e s y s t e m o f i l l i c i t p r i v i l e g e s , o f p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t , and l a x i t y w h i c h i n c r e a s e h i s i n f l u e n c e ) t h e u n s t a b l e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e t e n s i o n s o f p r i s o n l i f e , and r i s e i n t o d o m i n a n c e . The s t a g e i s t h e n s e t f o r i n s u r r e c t i o n and r i o t . 31 V I I SUMMARY OBSERVATIONS. The T a s k s o f t h e P r i s o n . I n summary one c o u l d say t h a t S y k e s c o n c e i v e s o f ' t h e p r i s o n a s a s o c i e t y w h i c h i s d e v i d e d i n t o two o p p o s i n g camps, t h e c a p t o r s and t h e c a p t i v e s . T he p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m s e v e r a l t a s k s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r d u t i e s , some o f w h i c h r e q u i r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . The t a s k s o f c u s t o d y and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l t e n d , however, t o d o m i n a t e a l l t h e o t h e r s . The r e m a i n i n g t a s k s o f t h e p r i s o n a r e p u r s u e d o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y can be a d a p t e d t o - t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l . The P a i n s o f I m p r i s o n m e n t . T h e r e a r e f i v e c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t and t h e s e a r e r e l a t e d t o d e p r i v a - t i o n o f l i b e r t y , o f h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o f goods and s e r v i c e s , o f autonomy and o f s e c u r i t y . T h e s e d e p r i v a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t t a c k s o h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l a nd t h e i n m a t e must f i n d some means o f w a r d i n g them o f f o r r e n d e r i n g them h a r m l e s s i f he i s t o s u r v i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . The A r g o t R o l e s . B e c a u s e t h e p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t r e p r e s e n t c r u c i a l a x e s o f l i f e f o r t h e i n m a t e s , t h e s o c i a l r o l e s w h i c h d e v e l o p a s a d a p t a t i o n s t o t h e s e p a i n s a r e g i v e n s p e c i a l a r g o t names. The names g r a p h i c a l l y d e f i n e s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r t o t h e Inmate s o c i e t y . I n g e n e r a l t h e i n m a t e s can s e e k t o n u l l i f y t h e p a i n s o f i m p r i s o n m e n t e i t h e r by d e v e l o p i n g a s o l i d a r y , c o - o p e r a t i v e i n m a t e s o c i e t y , o r by s e e k i n g t h e i r own a d v a n t a g e a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e i r f e l l o w s . The f o r m e r p a t t e r n o f a d a p t a t i o n i s t h a t o f t h e " r e a l man". The l a t t e r p a t t e r n i s t h a t o f t h e " r a t " , t h e " m e r c h a n t " , t h e " h i p s t e r " , t h e " b a l l b u s t e r " o r t h e " w o l f " . The D e f e c t s o f T o t a l Power. The g u a r d s f i n d t h a t t h e i r power and a u t h o r i t y i s v e r y I m p e r f e c t s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e i n m a t e s do n o t f e e l m o r a l l y o b l i g e d t o c o n f o r m t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r d e r s . B e c a u s e t h e " r e a l man" s t a n d s f o r the v a l u e o f k e e p i n g t h i n g s q u i e t and o f g e t t i n g a l o n g i n t h e p r i s o n , t h e g u a r d l e a r n s t o u s e t h e " r e a l man" t o s e c u r e c o m p l i a n c e f r o m t h e i n m a t e s . The " r e a l man" becomes a b a r g a i n i n g a g ent between t h e c u s t o d i a n and t h e i n m a t e s by l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e g u a r d i n some a r e a s i n e x c h a n g e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n o t h e r s . The g u a r d ' s a u t h o r i t y i s c o r r u p t e d f o r t h e s a k e o f o b t a i n i n g inmate c o m p l i a n c e . C r i s i s and E q u i l i b r i u m . S o c i a l change w i t h i n t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n I s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f l u x o f power between t h e i n m a t e s and t h e i r guards.. I f t h e g u a r d s s t r i p t h e c o h e s i v e l y - o r i e n t e d i n m a t e s o f t h e i r power, t h e more d i s r u p t i v e e l e m e n t s may t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g , and, i n the f a c e o f i n c r e a s i n g mass d i s c o n t e n t , s u r g e i n t o power. I n t h e h i g h l y c h a r g e d a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e p r i s o n t h i s change t o d i s r u p t i v e , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c inmate l e a d e r s h i p f r e - q u e n t l y p r e c i p i t a t e s a r i o t . S o c i a l change w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n becomes a f l u c t u a t i o n b etween c r i s i s and e q u i l i b r i u m i n a v e r y d r a m a t i c s e n s e . 0 CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH METHODS AND EXPERIENCES To a f f o r d t h e r e a d e r some p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s p e r h a p s i m p o r t a n t t h a t some comments be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e methods u s e d i n g a t h e r i n g t h e d a t a w h i c h w i l l a p p e a r on t h e s u b s e q - u e n t pages o f t h i s s t u d y . Many o f t h e g e n e r a l i z e d o b s e r v a - t i o n s made i n t h e s t u d y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a - t i o n . F o r t h r e e y e a r s I have b e e n employed a t t h e Women's U n i t i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f a m a t r o n j d u r i n g t h a t t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d t h e a c t u a l n a t u r e o f t h e d u t i e s p e r f o r m e d v a r i e d c o n - s i d e r a b l y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t f o u r months o f employment much t i m e was s p e n t m oving a b o u t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n f r o m one d e p a r t - ment t o a n o t h e r i n a n a t t e m p t t o g a i n an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f i t s f u n c t i o n i n g , and t o g a i n some e x p l i c i t knowledge o f p r o - c e d u r e s and c u s t o d i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e I worked p r i m a r i l y on t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t (7:00a.m. t o 3*00p.m.), a l t e r - n a t e l y a c t i n g as a s u b s t i t u t e s c h o o l t e a c h e r , s u p e r v i s i n g g a r - bage d i s p o s a l , f l o o r s c r u b b i n g , g a r d e n i n g and t h e w h i t e w a s h i n g o f f e n c e s , and e v e n became i n v o l v e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f an a c - c e s s r o a d t o t h e l a k e s i d e summer camp. A t t h e end o f t h i s f i r s t summer I was p l a c e d on t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t (3:00p.m.'to 11:00p.m.) t o a c t as a g r o u p m a t r o n . The f i r s t a s s i g n m e n t was t o a g r o u p o f N a t i v e I n d i a n o f f e n d e r s , e a c h s e n t e n c e d f o r a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s g r o u p was h o u s e d i n an o u t s i d e u n i t , and t h e r e l a x e d , f r e e a t m o s p h e r e was v e r y e n j o y a b l e . A f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x weeks I was a s s i g n e d t o a g r o u p o f f a i r l y e x p e r i e n c e d n a r - c o t i c a d d i c t s h o u s e d i n t h e u p p e r s t o r e y o f t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g o f t h e Women's U n i t . I n i t i a l l y I was g r e e t e d r a t h e r s k e p t i c - a l l y by t h e g r o u p , t h e i r f i r s t comment b e i n g , "What doe s t h a t f r o n t o f f i c e t h i n k i t ' s d o i n g s e n d i n g a baby l i k e t h i s t o Group T h r e e ? " T h ey h a d t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g a r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t g r o u p , and were somewhat i n s u l t e d t h a t someone so o b v i o u s l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d a s t h e i r " s t e a d y " g r o u p m a t r o n . T h e y r o s e t o t h e o c c a s i o n by " a d o p t i n g " t h e i r new m a t r o n , however, a n d became a l m o s t p r o t e c t i v e . I t was w i t h a r e a l f e e l i n g o f r e g r e t t h a t I l e f t t h i s g r o u p t o be- come t h e r e l i e f m a t r o n f o r two g r o u p s o f y o u n g e r f i r s t o f f e n d e r s A p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t e e n months a f t e r c o m i n g i n t o t h i s s e t t i n g I was t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , a n d I have r e m a i n e d i n t h a t d e p a r t m e n t u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , b a r r i n g two l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e g r a n t e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . As p a r t o f t h e d u t i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t a m a t r o n must i n t e r v i e w t h e new a d m i s s i o n s f o r t h e d u a l p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g a f a i r l y a c c u r - a t e s o c i a l h i s t o r y , and o f h e l p i n g t o r e s o l v e any m a j o r p r o - b l e ms o f t h e inmate w h i c h may r e q u i r e i m m e d i a t e a t t e n t i o n . T h i s a s s i g n m e n t a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e - p e r s o n a l f i l e s o f e a c h o f t h e i n m a t e s h e l d a t t h e Women's U n i t d u r i n g t h e p a s t e i g h t e e n months. F o r m a l 35 i n t e r v i e w s and c o u n t l e s s c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s have been h e l d d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e t h r e e y e a r s , and i t i s f r o m t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s t h a t much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r i s o n i n m a t e s h a s been g l e a n e d . A l l o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o r d s and documents were made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and i t i s f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s t h a t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a h a s been d e r i v e d . I n a d d i t i o n , The Manual^" ( w h i c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n by t h e C h i e f M a t r o n f o r t h e us e o f a l l s t a f f ) h a s p r o v e d t o be a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , - p a r t i c u l a r l y when a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e o f f i c i a l p o i n t o f v i e w was n e e d e d . E x c e r p t s f r o m t h i s s o u r c e have b e e n u s e d i n t h e body o f t h e s t u d y and a l s o a p p e a r I n an a p p e n d i x . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g m a t r o n s as an o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p was g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s and d i s c u s - s i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s s t a f f members o v e r t h e t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d o f employment, and f r o m a s e r i e s o f t e n i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s . The m a t r o n s c h o s e n t o be i n t e r v i e w e d were p u r p o s e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f s i x t y - f i v e . ' T h i s sample i n c l u d e d so f a r as was p o s s i b l e , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e m a t r o n s a c c o r d i n g t o age, l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g , a n d e d u c a t i o n . A l l m a t r o n s c o n s e n t e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d b e f o r e d e f i n i t e a r r a n g e m e n t s ^ " I n f o r m a t i o n f o u n d i n T h e M a n u a l i s n e i t h e r d a t e d n o r a r e t h e p a g e s numbered. I t i s a l o o s e l e a f f o l d e r t o w h i c h f r e q u e n t a d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s a r e made as p o l i c i e s a nd r o u t i n e s c h a n g e . The e x c e r p t s q u o t e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o m p r i s e t h e more s t a b l e e n t r i e s . S i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t d a t e d n o r pag e s o f t h e e n t r i e s numbered no f o o t n o t e r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made i n f u t u r e when The M a n u a l i s m e n t i o n e d . were made, and were g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a - t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t was t o be s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y , I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e s e women f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and f o r so g e n e r o u s l y c o n t r i b u t i n g o f t h e i r f r e e t i m e . The i n t e r v i e w s were o f a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d n a t u r e , l a s t i n g a n a v e r a g e o f one- and a q u a r t e r h o u r s e a c h . E i g h t o f t h e t e n i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d d u r i n g o f f - d u t y h o u r s , e i t h e r i n t h e home o f t h e s u b j e c t o r i n my own home. The r e m a i n i n g two i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n t h e Women's U n i t p r e m i s e s , b u t d u r i n g o f f - d u t y h o u r s and were c o n d u c t e d u n - i n t e r r u p t e d and i n p r i v a c y . The i n t e r v i e w s were t a p e r e c o r d e d w i t h t h e f u l l k nowledge and c o n s e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s and were l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d . E x c e r p t s f r o m t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s h a v e b e e n u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e m a t r o n . \ O n e [ o f t h e more o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t I was b o t h an o b s e r v e r and a w o r k e r a t t h e Women's U n i t . No d o u b t some o f t h e d a t a ob- t a i n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e m a t r o n s was c o l o u r e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a t r o n s b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d were n o t e n t i r e l y o b l i v i o u s t o t h e p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e s and p e t t h e o r i e s h e l d by m y s e l f . And some o f t h e k i n d r e m a r k s made c o n c e r n i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s and s u i t a b i l i t y o f a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n were p r o b a b l y s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o p l e a s e and c o m f o r t me. Some s c i e n t i f i c c o n s o l a t i o n c a n p e r h a p s a l s o be t a k e n f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t a f e w v e r y u n c o m p l i m e n t a r y remarks were a l s o made, so t h a t I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e d i s t o r t i o n may n o t have been t o o g r e a t a f t e r a l l . M ost o f t h e d a t a d e a l i n g w i t h t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e i n m a t e s e x p e r i e n c e and a d j u s t t o i m p r i s o n m e n t was g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t l e a v e o f a b s e n c e w h i c h I t o o k d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d November 1959 t o May I960. I worked I n t h e C l a s s i - f i c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t one day e a c h week t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l e a v e o f a b s e n c e so t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e Women's U n i t c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e a r r a n g e - ments were made f o r me t o spend one e v e n i n g w i t h e a c h o f t h r e e s e p a r a t e inmate g r o u p s and t o c o n d u c t w i t h e a c h a g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n . W h i l e t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s were b e i n g made e a c h g r o u p was a s k e d i f t h e y w o u l d h a v e o b j e c t i o n s t o a t a p e r e c o r d e r b e i n g u s e d . T h e y were t o l d t h e g e n e r a l p u r - p o s e o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s ; t h a t t h e y were b e i n g c o n d u c t e d as a n a t t e m p t a t f i n d i n g o u t what b e i n g i n p r i s o n was r e a l l y l i k e , f r o m t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w . A d d i t i o n a l l y t h e y were a s s u r e d t h a t i f , f o l l o w i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e r e were any p a r t s o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o have e r a s e d f r o m t h e t a p e s , t h i s w o u l d be d o n e . T h r e e a d d i c t g r o u p s were c h o s e n f o r t h e g r o u p d i s c u s - s i o n s , and a l l t h r e e a g r e e d t o t a k e p a r t . The reasons. 1:for c h o o s i n g t h r e e a d d i c t g r o u p s a r e p r i m a r i l y two: F i r s t , t h e a d d i c t g r o u p s seem t o be t h e m a j o r " c u l t u r e b e a r e r s " i n t h i s p r i s o n , and s e c o n d l y , t h e p r o b l e m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n g r o u p s a r e s u c h t h a t g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n 38 w o u l d n o t be t o o f r u i t f u l . Many o f t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n women do n o t speak E n g l i s h w i t h any f a c i l i t y , and t e n d t o become s i l e n t and d e f e n s i v e when t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n e x t e n d s b e y o n d t h e i r g r a s p o f t h e l a n g u a g e . G r o u p s T h r e e , P o u r and E i g h t were u l t i m a t e l y c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f u l l age r a n g e o f t h e a d d i c t g r o u p s , Group E i g h t b e i n g t h e y o u n g e s t , Group P o u r t h e e l d e s t . G r oup d i s c u s s i o n s were t h o u g h t t o be a d v i s a b l e r a t h e r t h a n a s e r i e s o f e x t e n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s ' o r q u e s t i o n - n a i r e s , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f t h e many p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i f one i n m a t e i s s u s p e c t e d o f " i n f o r m i n g " on a n o t h e r o r on a g r o u p I n t h i s s e t t i n g . By d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s a s a g r o u p no s u c h c l a i m c o u l d l a t e r be l a i d a g a i n s t any one i n d i v i d u a l . Any s u s p i c i o n s e n t e r t a i n e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be o b t a i n e d , o r t h e p o s s i b l e d e t r i m e n t a l u s e t o w h i c h i t c o u l d be put c o u l d be d i s p e l l e d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p as a w h o l e . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e w o u l d a c t - u a l l y l e a v e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l more f r e e t o t a l k a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s r a i s e d t h a n w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n t h e c a s e . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was o f a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d t y p e i n w h i c h g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d o f t h e g r o u p , t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d e p e n d i n g t o some e x t e n t u p o n t h e n a t u r a l f l o w o f t h e g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n . Inmate p a r t i c i p a - t i o n w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s was good and f a i r l y g e n e r a l i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , and a t t i m e s t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r was q u i t e f o r g o t t e n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e m i n u t e s o f l i v e l y c o n v e r s a t i o n 3 9 was m i s s e d i n one s e s s i o n b e c a u s e no one, Inmate o r i n t e r v i e w e r , h a d n o t i c e d t h a t t h e t a p e h a d b e e n f i l l e d . A l t h o u g h t h e i n m a t e s were i n t r i g u e d by t h e t a p e - r e c o r d i n g p r o c e s s , and were a n x i o u s t o h a v e t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s r e g i s t e r e d f o r p o s t e r i t y ( i n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e i r g r o u p m a t r o n s ) , i t c a n n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r was a member o f t h e s t a f f . As h a s b e e n s t a t e d e a r l i e r I was o n l e a v e o f a b s e n c e f r p m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n when t h e i n m a t e g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d , b u t was a t t h e same t i m e w o r k i n g i n t h e Women's U n i t f o r one day e a c h week. A l t h o u g h c i v i l i a n c l o t h e s were worn when t h e g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s were b e i n g h e l d , t h e o f f i c i a l r o l e c o u l d n o t be e n t i r e l y f o r g o t t e n by t h e g r o u p members. A t one p o i n t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h e q u e s t i o n a s k e d o f one g r o u p q u i t e o b v i o u s l y p o s e d t o o g r e a t a t h r e a t t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e g r o u p a g a i n s t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f o r t h e r e p l y came f r o m one i n m a t e , " T h a t ' s a l l r i g h t , y o u ' r e i n c i v v i e s t o n i g h t , b u t n e x t S a t u r d a y y o u ' l l be b a c k i n w h i t e ( u n i f o r m ) a g a i n . D u r i n g a n o t h e r o f t h e g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s t h e s u b j e c t o f l e s b i a n i s m was r a i s e d , t h e n a b r u p t l y d r o p p e d by t h e i n m a t e s . A f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n was c o m p l e t e d and t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r h a d b e e n t u r n e d o f f , one member of t h e g r o u p men- t i o n e d t h a t she h a d wanted t o d i s c u s s t h i s i s s u e , b u t t h a t she h a d b e e n c o n c e r n e d t h a t I m i g h t n o t want s u c h e m b a r r a s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d w i t h t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e d i s c u s s i o n . When t h e g r o u p was p e r s u a d e d t h a t s u c h was n o t t h e c a s e , t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r was a g a i n t u r n e d on, and t h e d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e d on t h i s t o p i c f o r a n o t h e r q u a r t e r o f a n h o u r . E a c h g r o u p i n s i s t e d upon h a v i n g t h e e n t i r e s e s s i o n p l a y e d b a c k o v e r t h e r e c o r d e r a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d i s - c u s s i o n , and seemed w e l l p l e a s e d w i t h t h e c o n t e n t . The t h r e e d i s c u s s i o n s r a n g e d i n l e n g t h f r o m one h o u r t o one h o u r and a h a l f . The g r o u p s a l l b u t demanded t h a t t h e s e t a p e s o f t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s r e m a i n i n t a c t , w i t h n e i t h e r d e l e t i o n s n o r a d d i t i o n s b e i n g p e r m i t t e d . The r e c o r d i n g s were l a t e r t r a n s - c r i b e d i n f u l l , and s u c h i n m a t e q u o t a t i o n s as h a v e been u s e d i n t h e body o f t h i s s t u d y have b e e n t a k e n v e r b a t i m f r o m t h e s e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l t a p e r e c o r d i n g s . The c o - o p e r a t i o n , i n t e r e s t and s u p p o r t shown by b o t h t h e i n m a t e s and t h e s t a f f t h r o u g h o u t t h e g a t h e r i n g o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d n o t h a v e been more g e n e r o u s , and t h e meth- o d o l o g i c a l ' l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y c a n n o t c l a i m e x c u s e i n t h i s r e g a r d . A g l o s s a r y o f t h e a r g o t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r s i n a n appendix.. I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e w o u l d p r o v e more s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e r e a d e r t h a n would t h e i n s e r t i o n o f f o o t n o t e s o r c o n t e x t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e some o f t h e a r g o t e x p r e s s i o n s a r e u s e d r e p e a t e d l y . The a c c u r a c y o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n h a s b e e n v e r i f i e d , so f a r as p o s s i b l e , by b o t h s t a f f a n d i n m a t e s o f t h e Women's U n i t . CHAPTER IV THE WOMEN'S UNIT AND I T S SETTING G e o g r a p h i c a l l y O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm i s l o c a t e d on what c o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e been one o f t h e most c h o i c e p i e c e s o f r e a l e s t a t e i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . S i t u a t e d on t h e s i d e o f a l o n g h i l l , i t commands a p a n o r a m i c v i e w o f D e e r L a k e (on w h i c h t h e p r i s o n p r o p e r t y b o r d e r s ) , o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby and much o f V a n c o u v e r , and t h e m o u n t a i n s o f t h e c o a s t r a n g e b e y o n d . Much o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s v i e w i s n e g a t e d f o r t h e Women's U n i t , h owever, by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e o l d e r , s p r a w l i n g q u a r t e r s o f t h e men i n t h e i m m e d i a t e f o r e g r o u n d . The M a i n G a o l o f t h e Men's U n i t i s t h e most i m p o s i n g and a l s o one o f t h e o l d e s t b u i l d i n g s on t h e p r i s o n g r o u n d s . C o n s t r u c t e d o f d u l l brown b r i c k and f r a n k l y d i s p l a y - i n g s t e e l b a r s on e a c h c e l l window i t a f f o r d s a d e p r e s s i n g r e m i n d e r o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p r i s o n - s t r i c t c u s t o d y o f t h o s e whom s o c i e t y h a s f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o e j e c t . P r e s e n t i n g some c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r a s t t o t h e a u s t e r i t y o f t h e M a i n G a o l , t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g o f t h e Women's U n i t b o a s t s a c a m o u f l a g e o f p i n k and b e i g e p a i n t o v e r a s o l i d c o n c r e t e and s t e e l s t r u c t u r e . S u r r o u n d i n g t h i s b u i l d i n g a r e s i x s m a l l e r wood-frame b u i l d i n g s v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o a s a Panabode, H u t s and C o t t a g e s d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e . Some a t t e m p t h a s b e en made t o s c r e e n t h e Women's U n i t f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e p r i s o n by t h e u s e o f wooden f e n c e s and s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d t r e e s and f o l i a g e . T h i s h a s b e e n done f o r t h e d u a l p u r p o s e o f making t h e g r o u n d s a s a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g a s p o s s i b l e , a n d o f d i s c o u r a g i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e men a n d t h e women by means o f "window w r i t i n g " . To e n t e r t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g o f t h e Women's U n i t a v i s i t o r o r employee must p a s s t h r o u g h t h e g a t e h o u s e a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e p r i s o n g r o u n d s , w a l k p a s t t h e M a i n G a o l o f t h e men's s e c t i o n on t h e l e f t , t u r n up a s h o r t d r i v e w a y t o t h e r i g h t , r i n g t h e d o o r b e l l o f t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g , t h e n w a i t u n t i l some- one f r o m w i t h i n u n l o c k s t h e h e a v y wooden d o o r . D u r i n g t h e h o t summer months t h e s e d o o r s a r e u s u a l l y l e f t open, b u t o r n a m e n t a l wrought i r o n o u t e r d o o r s a r e l o c k e d i n t h e i r s t e a d . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s and v i s i t i n g rooms a r e d i r e c t l y i n s i d e t h i s e n t r a n c e i n a s h o r t w i n g w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o c o l l e c t i v e l y a s t h e " f r o n t o f f i c e " . Inmates e i t h e r e n t e r i n g o r l e a v i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n u s e t h e basement e n t r a n c e o f t h i s same w i n g . The r e c o r d s and a d m i t t i n g d e p a r t m e n t s a r e d i r e c t l y i n s i d e t h e basement e n t r a n c e t o t h e M a i n B u i l d i n g . A t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e " f r o n t o f f i c e " i s a l o n g two s t o r e y w i n g . The g r o u n d l e v e l h o u s e s a l o n g c o r r i d o r on e i t h e r s i d e o f w h i c h open t h e k i t c h e n and m a i n d i n i n g a r e a , t h e c l i n i c , a dayroom a r e a and t h i r t e e n c e l l s . The s m a l l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e i s l o c a t e d h a l f way down t h i s c o r r i d o r , n e x t d o o r t o t h e dayroom. One c e l l a t t h e end o f t h e c o r r i d o r h a s b e e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o a l e c t u r e room f o r t h e Home N u r s i n g C l a s s , and c o n t a i n s some equipment f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n . The c e l l s a r e s m a l l rooms w h i c h h a v e been p a i n t e d i n v a r i o u s p a s t e l c o l o u r s . Two o f t h e rooms i n t h i s s e c t i o n c a n accommodate as many a s s i x i n m a t e s a t one t i m e , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y a r e u s e d as e i t h e r s i n g l e o r d o u b l e rooms. E a c h room h a s a l a r g e s e c u r i t y - t y p e window w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f numer- ous s m a l l , s t e e l - f r a m e d window p a n e s . Two rooms on t h i s l o w e r c o r r i d o r h a v e b a r s o u t s i d e o f t h e windows as w e l l , and a r e r e s e r v e d f o r t h o s e i n m a t e s who a r e a w a i t i n g t r a n s f e r t o t h e Women's P e n i t e n t i a r y a t K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o . The e x t r a s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s e i n m a t e s as t h e i r s e n t e n c e s a r e l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e i s a bunk bed, one o r two c h a i r s , a b e d s i d e t a b l e , s i n k , t o i l e t and m i r r o r i n e a c h room, w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l t o u c h e s o f a b r i g h t b e d s p r e a d , c u r t a i n s on t h e windows, d o i l i e s , p i c t u r e s and o t h e r n i c k n a c k s . A wooden d o o r w i t h a s m a l l g l a s s p o r t h o l e s e p a r a t e s e a c h room f r o m t h e c o r r i d o r . The D o o r s must e i t h e r be k e p t l o c k e d o r open, as t h e r e a r e no l a t c h e s w h i c h c a n be o p e r a t e d f r o m t h e i n s i d e o f t h e c e l l s . The l i g h t s w i t c h f o r e a c h room i s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e room i n a s m a l l l o c k e d s w i t c h box. The u p p e r s t o r e y t o t h i s w i n g h a s a s m a l l b e a u t y p a r l o u r , a s e w i n g and o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y room, a f a c t o r y s e w i n g room, and two d a yrooms. T h e r e a r e f o u r t e e n c e l l s on t h i s l e v e l w h i c h a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e on t h e m a i n f l o o r . The s e c u r i t y c e l l s , l a u n d r y , gymnasium and two l i v i n g u n i t s a r e l o c a t e d i n a t h r e e s t o r e y b l o c k a t t h e end o f t h i s l o n g w i n g o f t h e main b u i l d i n g . The t e n s e c u r i t y c e l l s a r e i n t h e basement o f t h i s w i n g , and w h i l e t h e y a r e s i m i l a r i n s i z e and g e n e r a l d e s i g n t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h e y a r e much more a u s t e r e . The c o n c r e t e w a l l s a r e p a i n t e d a non - d e s c r i p t b u f f c o l o u r , t h e r e a r e no c u r t a i n s , p i c t u r e s , m i r r o r s o r n i c k n a c k s , and t h e b e d s p r e a d s a r e p l a i n , h o s p i t a l i s s u e w h i t e . The s i n k and t o i l e t a r e o f s p e c i a l s t e e l c o n s t r u c t i o n so t h e y c a n n o t be damaged, and t h e d o o r t o e a c h c e l l i s r e i n - f o r c e d w i t h a s h e e t o f s t e e l on t h e i n s i d e . The l a u n d r y i s a l s o i n t h e basement o f t h i s w i n g , and h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n f u l l y e q u i p p e d w i t h modern a p p l i a n c e s w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g a l l t h e l a u n d r y n e e d s o f t h e Women's U n i t . The gymnasium, w h i c h i s d i r e c t l y above t h e l a u n d r y , d o u b l e s a s a c h a p e l on Sun d a y s , s e r v i n g t h o s e o f t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d t h o s e o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . The two l i v i n g u n i t s i n t h i s a r e a a r e on t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d s t o r e y above t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s , and a r e i d e n t i c a l i n d e s i g n t o one a n o t h e r . T h e r e i s a s m a l l k i t c h e n a r e a a t one end o f e a c h u n i t f r o m w h i c h m e a l s a r e s e r v e d b u t n o t p r e p a r e d . The dayroom i s l a r g e , w i t h a d i n i n g t a b l e n e x t t o t h e k i t c h e n and s e r v i n g c o u n t e r and a l i v i n g r o o m a r e a a t t h e o t h e r e n d . The windows a t t h e end o f t h e l i v i n g r o o m a r e a a r e a g a i n s e c u r i t y s t y l e , b u t a r e a t t r a c t i v e l y c u r t a i n e d w i t h f u l l l e n g t h d r a p e s w h i c h c a n be drawn a t w i l l . S u r r o u n d i n g t h e d i n i n g and l i v i n g a r e a a r e s i x rooms; t h r e e s i n g l e and t h r e e d o r m i t o r y s t y l e . , E a c h o f t h e s e u n i t s c a n house a s many a s f o u r t e e n women, b u t an a t t e m p t i s made t o r e s t r i c t t h e number t o t e n 45 i f p o s s i b l e . W h i l e th e i n m a t e s a r e i n t h e s e l i v i n g u n i t s , t h e d o o r l e a d i n g i n t o e a c h i s k e p t l o c k e d . W i t h i n t h e u n i t s , however, t h e i n d i v i d u a l room d o o r s a r e l e f t u n l o c k e d . A f t e r " l o c k u p " a t n i g h t t h e i n d i v i d u a l room d o o r s a r e a l l l o c k e d , b u t t h e u n i t d o o r i s l e f t open so t h a t t h e m a t r o n s w i l l be a b l e t o h e a r i f anyone c a l l s o r k n o c k s f o r a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e n i g h t . F o r m i n g a s e m i - c i r c l e a r o u n d t h e f r o n t o f t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g a r e f o u r wood-frame b u i l d i n g s known a s h u t s . T h r e e o f t h e s e h u t s have a k i t c h e n and b a t h r o o m p l u s a c o m b i n a t i o n d a y r o o m - d o r m i t o r y a r e a w i t h bunk beds l i n i n g t h e w a l l s . The maximum c a p a c i t y f o r e a c h h u t i s t e n . The i n m a t e s make t h e i r own b r e a k f a s t and s u p p e r i n t h e s e h u t s , but a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e i r d i n n e r f r o m t h e m a i n k i t c h e n . S e c u r i t y i n t h e s e u n i t s i s m i n i m a l i n t h a t t h e o u t s i d e d o o r i s l o c k e d o n l y a t n i g h t , a l l o w i n g t h e o c c u p a n t s f r e e d o m t o e i t h e r s t a y i n s i d e t h e h u t o r move o u t s i d e on t o • t h e l a w n as t h e y p l e a s e . The f o u r t h h u t i s s i m i l a r i n g e n e r a l d e s i g n t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e , b u t i s u s e d as a s c h o o l f o r . t h e Women's U n i t , d e s k s and t y p e w r i t e r s b e i n g s u b s t i t u t e d f o r bunk beds and t a b l e s . The two c o t t a g e s a d j o i n a c e n t r a l o f f i c e a r e a f r o m w h i c h t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n e i t h e r d o r m i t o r y may be o b s e r v e d . T h i s , t o o , i s a wood-frame b u i l d i n g , b u t i s o f a medium s e c u r i t y t y p e . The d o o r s a r e k e p t l o c k e d most o f t h e t i m e , and t h e windows a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g . E a c h o f t h e two c o t t a g e s c o n t a i n s a l a r g e , v e r y modern k i t c h e n where a l l m e a l s c a n be p r e p a r e d , and a l a r g e d a y - d o r m i t o r y a r e a s i m i l a r t o b u t l a r g e r t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n t h e h u t s . They a r e s p a c i o u s and b r i g h t , and c o u l d be o p e r a t e d q u i t e a u t o n o m o u s l y f r o m t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g i f t h e r e were s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f members t o p e r m i t t h i s . E a c h c o t t a g e c a n accommodate t w e l v e i n m a t e s i f n e c e s s a r y . The Panabode i s a l s o a wood-frame, medium s e c u r i t y u n i t . I t was d e s i g n e d t o s e g r e g a t e t h e more r e f o r m a b l e a d d i c t s f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n so t h a t t h e y m i g h t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f a c o n c e n t r a t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m . The Panabode c o n t a i n s a k i t c h e n i n w h i c h a l l m e a l s a r e p r e p a r e d , a l i v i n g r o o m and d i n i n g a r e a , a n a c t i v i t y room, and a d o r m i t o r y i n w h i c h e a c h g i r l h a s a s e p a r a t e c u b i c l e . T h e s e c u b i c l e s a f f o r d more p r i v - a c y t h a n do t h e d o r m i t o r y a r r a n g e m e n t s i n t h e h u t s and t h e c o t t a g e s , b u t l e s s p r i v a c y t h a n t h e rooms o f t h e main b u i l d i n g . The o u t s i d e d o o r i s n o r m a l l y k e p t l o c k e d t o t h i s u n i t , a l t h o u g h t h e panabode members may u s e t h e l a w n i n f r o n t o f t h e i r b u i l d - i n g u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e i r m a t r o n . The maximum c a p a c - i t y o f t h i s u n i t i s t e n . I . POPULATION OP THE WOMEN'S UNIT Because t h e Women's U n i t a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm i s t h e o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r a d u l t f e m a l e o f f e n d e r s , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d i n n a t u r e . Ages r a n g e f r o m s i x t e e n t o s e v e n t y y e a r s , s e n t e n c e s r a n g e i n l e n g t h f r o m t h r e e d a y s t o two y e a r s l e s s one d a y . A l l women r e c e i v i n g s e n t e n c e s o f two y e a r s o r more a u t o m a t i c a l l y come u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l Government and a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Women's P e n i t e n t i a r y i n K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o . But these, women, l i k e t h o s e who a r e a w a i t i n g t r i a l , a r e h e l d i n c u s t o d y a t t h e Women's U n i t a t O a k a l l a u n t i l p r o p e r d i s - p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r c a s e s i s c o m p l e t e d . Inmates a r e drawn f r o m e v e r y t y p e o f s o c i a l s e t t i n g e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e : s m a l l towns, r a n c h e s , f a r m s , I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s , c i t i e s , and f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s . C h a r g e s i n c l u d e d r u g p o s s e s s i o n , i n t o x i c a - t i o n , t h e f t , f o r g e r y , p r o s t i t u t i o n , a b o r t i o n and c h i l d abandon- ment, t o m e n t i o n b u t a few. The d a i l y p o p u l a t i o n a t t h e Women's U n i t f l u c t u a t e s between 130 and 9 0 , t h e l o n g r a n g e a v e r a g e c o u n t b e i n g 120. A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n on a sample day i n d i c - a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s : Of a t o t a l c o u n t o f IOI4., some 61 women ( o r 58.65 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ) c l a s s e d t h e m s e l v e s a s n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s , and 3̂ - (32.73 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ) c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be e x c e s s i v e u s e r s o f a l c o h o l . S e v e n o f t h e s e lOij. women were e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age o r y o u n g e r ; t w e n t y t h r e e were t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s o f age o r y o u n g e r . F o r t y - t w o women were c o n v i c t e d on c h a r g e s i n v o l v i n g t h e i l l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n o f n a r c o t i c s , e i g h t e e n were c o n v i c t e d on c h a r g e s i n v o l v i n g t h e i l l e g a l u se o r p o s s e s s i o n o f l i q u o r . Some t w e n t y - s e v e n were o f N a t i v e I n d i a n e x t r a c t i o n . T wenty- f i v e o f t h o s e i n t h e Women's U n i t were t h e r e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , w h i l e one N a t i v e I n d i a n women h a d a c c r u e d a t o t a l o f l l | 5 p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s t o O a k a l l a P r i s o n F a r m . The a v e r a g e 48 length of sentence being served was 7.69 months, both the median and modal sentence lengths were six months. Some twenty individuals were serving sentences of six months on th i s day. At any one time, from f i f t e e n to twenty per cent.of the population may be expected to be i n the Orientation Group because they are waiting t r i a l , waiting transfer to Kingston Penitentiary, are i l l , are mentally disturbed, or are being segregated from the rest of the inmate population f o r d i s - c i p l i n a r y purposes. I I . BECOMING AN INMATE On admission each inmate i s required to give to the Records Department information concerning her age, address, r a c i a l o r i g i n , educational l e v e l , occupation, marital status, dependents, height, weight, and any i d e n t i f y i n g marks, tattoos or scars which she may have. She must at the same time r e l i n q u i s h any money, jewelery, l e g a l documents or other items of value which she may have i n her possession. These a r t i c l e s are locked i n the strong room u n t i l the owner i s to be released. The new a r r i v a l then proceeds to the Admitting Department where she must s t r i p , bathe and wash her hair under the watchful eye of the Admitting Matron. At t h i s time narcotic addicts are given a choice of either spending ten days i n i s o l a t i o n , or taking the "drug routine". The drug routine (or the "treatment" as i t i s alternately known) i s designed to uncover any narcotics w h i c h t h e a d d i c t may have o n h e r p e r s o n a t t h e t i m e o f h e r a d m i s s i o n . I t c o n s i s t s o f a t h o r o u g h p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , a n enema and a n e m e t i c . I f a n a d d i c t d o e s " t a k e t h e t r e a t - ment" w h i l e b e i n g a d m i t t e d she i s r e q u i r e d t o s t a y i n t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s f o r a t h r e e day p e r i o d . T h i s a d d i t i o n a l p r e - c a u t i o n a r y measure i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l s i n c e t h e d r u g r o u t i n e i s by no means an i n f a l l i b l e p r o c e d u r e f o r d i s - c o v e r i n g c o n c e a l e d n a r c o t i c s . N a r c o t i c s can be s w a l l o w e d i n a r u b b e r c o n t a i n e r some t i m e p r i o r t o a d m i s s i o n t o O a k a l l a and may be i n a c c e s s i b l e i n t h e d i g e s t i v e t r a c t a t t h e p a r t i c - u l a r t i m e o f a r r i v a l a t t h e Women's U n i t . A l l i n m a t e s a r e i s s u e d n i g h t g o w n s , t o w e l s and s h o e s i n e x c h a n g e f o r t h e i r own c l o t h i n g . T h o s e who a r e n o t g o i n g t o t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s a r e a l s o g i v e n a g r e e n d r e s s , b l u e j e a n s and a p o l o s h i r t , , and a r e a l l o w e d t o h a v e combs, t o o t h b r u s h e s and o t h e r i t e m s f r o m t h e i r p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s . T o b a c c o and c i g a r e t t e p a p e r s a r e a l s o a l l o w e d , but t a i l o r m a d e c i g a r e t t e s a r e n o t . A l l i t e m s a r e t h o r o u g h l y i n s p e c t e d by t h e A d m i t t i n g M a t r o n b e f o r e t h e i n m a t e i s a l l o w e d t o t a k e them w i t h h e r t o e n s u r e t h a t n o t h i n g i s smuggled i n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n t r a b a n d . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e i n m a t e ' s p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s a r e p l a c e d i n h e r " e f f e c t s " i n t h e a d m i t - t i n g room, and l o c k e d away u n t i l she i s r e a d y f o r r e l e a s e . I f she i s t o be p l a c e d i n i s o l a t i o n i n t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s , t h e i n m a t e w i l l be a l l o w e d o n l y n i g h t c l o t h i n g , t o w e l s , c i g a r e t t e s and p o s s i b l y ( b u t n o t a l w a y s ) a comb. She i s n o t a l l o w e d t o h a v e e i t h e r m a t c h e s o r a l i g h t e r , and a l t h o u g h she may smoke a s much as she w a n t s , she must w a i t u n t i l a m a t r o n I s a v a i l a b l e t o "have a l i g h t " . She must t h e n e i t h e r c h a i n smoke o r a w a i t t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e p r i s o n s t a f f . . F o r r e a s o n s o f s e c u r i t y , o n l y s t a f f members a r e a l l o w e d i n t o t h i s a r e a o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . No one i s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t i o n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , b u t m a t r o n s do make f r e q u e n t c h e c k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e r e i s someone u n d e r g o i n g w i t h d r a w a l f r o m n a r c o t i c s . The r e s u l t i s t h a t any i n m a t e i n t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s , w h e t h e r she be t h e r e f o r p u n i s h m e n t o r b e c a u s e she i s a newly a d m i t t e d a d d i c t , must k n o c k on t h e d o o r o f h e r c e l l i f she w i s h e s t o a t t r a c t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a matron.. Inmates who n e e d n o t go to, t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s a r e p l a c e d i n Group S i x , t h e o r i e n t a t i o n g r o u p w h i c h i s l o c a t e d on t h e m a i n . f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g . Group S i x d o e s n o t have any r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m and a l l members a r e l o c k e d - i n t h e i r rooms f r o m 6:3Qp»m. u n t i l b r e a k f a s t t i m e i n t h e m o r n i n g . Inmates a w a i t i n g t r i a l o r t r a n s f e r t o t h e K i n g s t o n P e n i t e n t i a r y f o r Women may, a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e M a t r o n i n C h a r g e , t a k e p a r t i n t h e work p r o g r a m i f t h e y so d e s i r e , b u t t h e y a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o do t h i s n o r do t h e y r e c e i v e any r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r l a b o u r s . S h o r t l y a f t e r h e r a d m i s s i o n , u s u a l l y l a t e r i n t h e same day, t h e new i n m a t e i s i n t e r v i e w e d and examined by t h e d o c t o r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , h e r s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s t a k e n and r e c o r d e d by someone w o r k i n g i n t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t . A t t h e same t i m e t h e i n m a t e i s g i v e n a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a n d , i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what w i l l be e x p e c t e d o f h e r w h i l e she i s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l i s l a t e r u s e d by t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Team t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u p a n d work p l a c e - ment t o w h i c h t h e i n m a t e w i l l be a s s i g n e d . An a t t e m p t i s a l s o made d u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w t o d e t e r m i n e any s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h may r e q u i r e immediate a t t e n t i o n , s u c h as i n f o r m - i n g f a m i l y o f t h e w h e r e a b o u t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l , f i n d i n g someone t o c a r e f o r h e r c h i l d r e n , c o n t a c t i n g l e g a l c o u n s e l and so f o r t h . Once a n i n m a t e h a s been i n t e r v i e w e d , s e n t e n c e d by t h e c o u r t and d e c l a r e d f i t by t h e p h y s i c i a n , s h e i s e l i g i b l e f o r " g r o u p i n g " o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o b o t h work o r team p l a c e m e n t and g r o u p o r l i v i n g u n i t p l a c e m e n t . I n t h e o r y t h e s e p l a c e m e n t s a r e a l w a y s made by t h e C l a s s i f i - c a t i o n Team, w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e M a t r o n i n C h a r g e , t h e C u s t o d y M a t r o n , and t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , as a minimum. O t h e r m a t r o n s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i f t h e y have s p e c i a l knowledge o f t h e i n m a t e o r have a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e c a s e f o r any r e a s o n . I n p r a c t i c e t h e s e p l a c e m e n t s a r e sometimes made by one o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Team members as t h e r e s u l t o f some p r e s s i n g n e e d i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ; e i t h e r t o make room i n Group S i x f o r i n c o m i n g i n m a t e s o r t o f i l l a g r o u p o r team w h i c h r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l members. N e i t h e r g r o u p n o r team p l a c e m e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s a c r e d o r i r r e v e r s i b l e however, and i f a d e c i s i o n h a s o b v i o u s l y b een a p o o r one, changes c a n be e f f e c t e d r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y . Inmates c a n a l s o r e q u e s t a 52 change i n g r o u p o r team p l a c e m e n t s and i f t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r e q u e s t i n g a change are c o n s i d e r e d t o b e l e g i t i m a t e , s u c h c h a n g e s c a n a l s o be made. 111. GROUP PLACEMENTS Gr o u p p l a c e m e n t r e f e r s t o t h e s e g r e g a t e d l i v i n g u n i t s i n t o w h i c h t h e i n m a t e s are p l a c e d . T h e s e l i v i n g u n i t s are p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r , and a r e d e s i g n e d t o d u p l i c a t e as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and atmosphere o f a n o r m a l home. A , f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e "Group S y s t e m " ( a s t h i s p o l i c y o f d i v i d i n g t h e i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n up i n t o s m a l l l i v i n g g r o u p s h a s come t o be known at t h e Women's U n i t ) i s t h a t i t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e b o t h p r o t e c t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e i n m a t e s . B e c a u s e t h e i n m a t e s r e p r e s e n t s u c h an h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f ages, s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s , c r i m i n a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s , " c l u s t e r i n g " o f i n m a t e s a r o u n d a few d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f e e l s a re s i g n i f i c a n t i s f e l t t o be a p r a c - t i c a l way o f a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . One o f t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s w i t h p r e v e n t i n g " c o n t a m i n a t i o n " o f t h e l e s s c r i m i n a l l y d i s p o s e d b y t h e more c r i m i n a l l y o r i e n t e d w h i l e i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n . T h e r e i s a d i s t u r b i n g t e n d e n c y f o r f i r s t o f f e n d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e v e r y young, t o b e g i n e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h n a r c o t i c s f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e f r o m t h e Women's U n i t . By s e g r e g a t i n g the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s i n w h i c h n a r c o t i c u s e r s and n o n - n a r c o t i c u s e r s a r e r a t h e r r i g i d l y i s o l a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h o p e s t o c u r b t h i s t e n d e n c y t o some e x t e n t . F u r t h e r t o t h i s , i n m a t e s a r e s e g r e g a t e d r o u g h l y a c c o r d - i n g t o age and " t y p e " a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y b e low. The g r o u p s r o u g h l y r e p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e s t a g e s o f s o c i a l i z a - t i o n i n t o t h e d e l i n q u e n t c u l t u r e and p r o g r e s s i v e a d o p t i o n o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t c o d e . W i t h i n t h e Women's U n i t t h e h a b i t u a l n a r c o t i c o f f e n d e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e u l t i m a t e s t a g e i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e a r e t e n a l t e r n a t i v e g r o u p s i n t o w h i c h an i n m a t e may be p l a c e d f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e a c t u a l p l a c e m e n t o f an i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e l e n g t h o f h e r s e n t - e n c e , h e r age, c r i m i n a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and t h e c u s t o d i a l r i s k w h i c h i t i s f e l t she may p r e s e n t . E a c h u n i t i s a b l e t o accom- modate a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e l v e i n m a t e s , b u t u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s f r o m e i g h t t o t e n . The i n m a t e s s l e e p and e a t i n t h e s e u n i t s , p l a n - n i n g and p r e p a r i n g t h e i r own m e a l s i n some. F r o m t h e s e l i v i n g u n i t s t h e y go o u t d u r i n g t h e day t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e i r work pro g r a m , r e t u r n i n g f o r l u n c h and f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g p r o g r a m when t h e work day i s t h r o u g h a t 2:30p.m. Most o f t h e a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g p r o g r a m i s d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e members o f any one l i v i n g g r o u p must f u n c t i o n as a g r o u p i n t h a t p r o g r a m as w e l l , w i t h many a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e i r own home u n i t s . Members o f one g r o u p a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h o r c o n v e r s e w i t h members o f a n o t h e r g r o u p d u r - i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e h o u r s and t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e "Group S y s t e m " ( o r " G r o u p i n g and t r o u p i n g " as t h e i n m a t e s c a l l i t ) i s t h e o b j e c t o f much d e r i s i v e comment and t h e s o u r c e o f much in m a t e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . G roups T h r e e and S e v e n . G r o u p s T h r e e and S e v e n a r e h o u s e d on t h e t o p f l o o r o f t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g . The members o f Group T h r e e l i v e i n t h e rooms a t one end o f t h e l o n g c o r r i d o r , Group Seven a t t h e o t h e r . E a c h g r o u p h a s i t s own dayroom w h i c h c o n t a i n s a c h e s t e r f i e l d and s e v e r a l s o f t c h a i r s I f t h e members o f e i t h e r group w i s h t o c o n g r e g a t e t h e y must do so i n t h e dayroom where t h e y c a n be e a s i l y o b s e r v e d by t h e s t a f f . No g i r l i s a l l o w e d t o go i n t o a n o t h e r g i r l * s room. The members o f any g r o u p a r e s u p p o s e d t o s t a y w i t h i n t h e i r own g r o u p , and a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o mix w i t h o r t a l k t o members o f any o t h e r g r o u p . The d i f f i c u l t y o f e n f o r c i n g a r u l e s u c h as t h i s i n a n a r e a s u c h as t h e " t o p h a l l " where t h e g r o u p s a r e n o t p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r c a n be r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Group T h r e e c o n t a i n s y o u n g a d d i c t s , u s u a l l y i n t h e i r e a r l y t w e n t i e s , who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e f o r m a b l e , b u t who h a v e s e r v e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t i m e i n v a r i o u s i n s t i t u - t i o n s . T h i s g r o u p h a s a r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g d i f f i c u l t t o " h a n d l e " , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f . The members e n j o y a c e r t a i n n o t o r i e t y f o r b e i n g s t u b b o r n and b u m p t i o u s as a g r o u p , b u t w i l l u s u a l l y c o n c e d e t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t o e x e r t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e l o n g r u n . T h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a c t i v e g r o u p i n t h a t t h e y l i k e t o t a k e p a r t i n s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s more t h a n do some o t h e r g r o u p s . Group T h r e e h a s some a s p i r a n t i nmate l e a d e r s and l e s b i a n s , and i t i s n o t uncommon f o r t h i s g r o u p t o u n d e r g o e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s i n w h i c h a t h i n l y v e i l e d b a t t l e f o r power and l e a d e r s h i p p r e - v a i l s between i t s members. Group Seven i s made up o f many o l d a d d i c t s , b u t a d d i c t s who a r e n o t i n f l u e n t i a l inmate l e a d e r s and who a r e c o n s i d e r e d , f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t o be r e l - a t i v e l y h a r m l e s s . Some c h r o n i c a l c o h o l i c s w i t h l o n g i n s t i t u - t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s a r e a l s o p l a c e d i n Group S e v e n . B e c a u s e o f t h e age o r p o o r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f many members, t h i s g r o u p i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be q u i t e i n a c t i v e . They p r e f e r q u i e t , i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s k n i t t i n g , c r o c h e t ! h g o r p l a y - i n g c a r d s t o s p o r t s , d a n c i n g , g o i n g f o r w a l k s o r o t h e r s u c h a c t i v i t i e s . G r o u p s F o u r and E i g h t . Groups F o u r and E i g h t a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e l i v i n g u n i t s a t t h e end o f t h e m a i n x^ing o f t h i s b u i l d i n g . Group F o u r h a s many o l d e r a d d i c t s who h a v e been i n and o u t o f p r i s o n s f o r many y e a r s . T h ey a r e " c o n w i s e " i n t h a t t h e y know how t o c o n f o r m t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and g e n e r a l l y "do e a s y t i m e " . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p a r e a number o f v e r y a g g r e s s i v e l e s b i a n s . T h e y a r e i n t h i s u n i t p r i m a r i l y a s a p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a g a i n s t p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n m a t e l e a d e r s and f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l e s s c r i m i n a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n m a t e s who c o u l d q u i t e l i k e l y be g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e women. 56 The members o f Group F o u r t a k e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n p r o d u c i n g a h o m e - l i k e a t m o s p h e r e i n t h e i r q u a r t e r s , a n d spend much o f t h e i r t i m e m a k i n g d o i l i e s , c e r a m i c p i e c e s , c o p p e r p l a q u e s and s m a l l f u r n i t u r e p i e c e s . House p l a n t s , g o l d f i s h and b u d g e r i g a r b i r d s a l s o a b ound. Most i n m a t e s i n Group F o u r s e r v e s e n t e n c e s o f n i n e months o r more, so t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o " s e t t l e i n " c o m f o r t a b l y c a n be s y m p a t h e t - i c a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . S t i l l , t h e y a r e r a t h e r c o n t e m p t u o u s l y c r i t i c i z e d by b o t h s t a f f and i n m a t e s f o r t h e i r a p p a r e n t c o n - t e n t m e n t w i t h t h e i r l i v e s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e y a r e a c c u s e d o f b e i n g " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " , and t h e i r g r o u p i s f e l t t o be v e r y r e m i n i s c e n t o f a grou p o f o l d m a i d s who, i n t h e a b s e n c e o f e i t h e r h u s b a n d s o r c h i l d r e n , seek t o j u s t i f y t h e i r e x i s t e n c e by t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o t h e i r homes, p l a n t s and p e t s , p e r h a p s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e s e a r t i c l e s and t h i n g s . Group E i g h t I s made up o f y o u n g a d d i c t s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t e e n t o t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s o f age who have been c o n v i c t e d on t h e i r s e c o n d o r t h i r d c h a r g e . T h i s i s q u i t e an u n s t a b l e g r o u p w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e s many a m b i v a l e n c e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o d u c e s many e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t s o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r . T h e s e y o u n g women have been a s s i g n e d t o t h i s u n i t b o t h t o p r e v e n t t h e i r f u r t h e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o l d e r a d d i c t s and t o a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l t h e i r d i f f i c u l t b e h a v i o r . T h e y a r e o f t e n t h o u g h t o f by t h e o t h e r i n m a t e s and by t h e s t a f f as t h e " b r a t s " o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n - s i s t e n t r e a c t i o n o f r e b e l l i o u s n e s s i n t h e f a c e o f any r e p r e s - e n t a t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y . They r e b e l on p r i n c i p l e , w h e t h e r i t 57 is to their ultimate strategical advantage to rebel or not. The Huts. There is l i t t l e to differentiate one hut from another in so far as the nature of their population is concerned, except, perhaps, the length of sentence being served by the members. The huts are usually populated by Native Indian womenwho have been charged either with intoxi- cation under the Indian Act, or under the Government Liquor Act i t s e l f . These offenders come to gaol repeatedly but sel- dom receive sentences of more than three months on any one conviction, the most usual sentence being ten days. Many of these women come from rural and outlying d i s t r i c t s and do not become involved in the more seriously delinquent a c t i v i t i e s . They are considered to be a good custodial risk because their sentences are so short, and because of the comparative naivete. Normally the Native Indian offenders remain aloof from, the other inmates within the institution, but those who come from the Vancouver area,>and the very young from any d i s t r i c t , seem impressed with the addict group, and sometimes become en- meshed in their ac t i v i t i e s both within and outside the institution. Although they are also placed in the huts, they are scrutinized rather more closely by the institution and are considered to be more easily influenced by the addicts, and more in danger of succumbing to the attractions of nar- cotic usage. . The Cottages. Cottage D members are usually f i r s t offenders. They are usually the lone-wolf type of casual o f f e n d e r s ; cheque w r i t e r s , a b o r t i o n i s t s , bootleggers and so f o r t h as a r u l e . They are u s u a l l y not acquainted w i t h any other inmates i n Oakalla p r i o r t o being i n c a r c e r a t e d , and serve sentences of from three to s i x months because of the nature of t h e i r charges. Because they have been f a i r l y w e l l s o c i a l i z e d t o meet the expectations of s o c i e t y , members of t h i s group are more co-operative and manageable than most as a r u l e . Some Cottage D offenders r e t u r n on n a r c o t i c charges, but normally they are j u s t "one time l o s e r s " and are consid- ered t o be "Square Johns" i n comparison to the r e s t of the women w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Cottage E houses young f i r s t offenders t o O a k a l l a , hut f i r s t offenders who have long records of delinquency, u s u a l l y as j u v e n i l e s . Many have spent considerable time i n the G i r l s I n d u s t r i a l School, and some are s t i l l of j u v e n i l e . s t a t u s , but have been t r a n s f e r r e d t o adult court because they are no longer considered to be s u i t a b l e candidates f o r a j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n . T y p i c a l l y they have escaped from the j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n innumerable times, and are considered by that i n s t i t u t i o n to be i n c o r r i g i b l e . In the course of t h e i r many escapes they have become w e l l acquainted with drug a d d i c t s i n Vancouver, and may have been charged with n a r c o t i c poss- e s s i o n . They have u s u a l l y been sentenced to serve s i x months or more at the Women's Unit e i t h e r on charge of Escaping Lawful Custody or Possessing N a r c o t i c s . This group i s u s u a l l y v o l a t i l e and unpredictable i n the extreme. They pose a serious threat t o custody and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l , and a r e g r e a t l y enamoured o f t h e e x c i t i n g , g l a m o r o u s l i f e o f t h e n a r c o t i c a d d i c t . T h ey f r e q u e n t l y a s p i r e t o membership i n t h e a d d i c t g r o u p , a l t h o u g h many w i l l deny s u c h a s p i r a t i o n s and g e n u i n e l y be f e a r f u l o f t h e i r f u t u r e . A g a i n , a m b i v a l e n c e and r e b e l l i o n becomes t h e k e y n o t e o f d a i l y a c t i v i t y . The Panabode. The Panabode c o n t a i n s a d d i c t s o f m i x e d a g e s and w i t h v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be m o t i v a t e d t o change t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t way o f l i f e a n d , s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o s t o p u s i n g n a r c o t i c s . T h ey a r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s p l a c e m e n t by a p s y c h i a t r i s t f o l l o w i n g a s e l f - i n i t i a t e d r e q u e s t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h i s p l a c e m e n t . A p p l i c a n t s must have a minimum s e n t e n c e l e n g t h o f s i x months b e f o r e t h e y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s p l a c e - ment . H a v i n g r e q u e s t e d a s s i s t a n c e i n a v o i d i n g n a r c o t i c u s a g e i n t h e f u t u r e , Panabode members a r e e x p e c t e d t o be c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h any p r o g r a m p l a n n e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s g r o u p i s ( i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e s t a f f ) among t h e b e s t i n t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n , b u t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t above r e p r o a c h n o r w a n t i n g i n d i f f i c u l t i e s n o n e t h e l e s s . To a v o i d s c o r n and d e r i s i o n f r o m o t h e r i n m a t e s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h e s e g i r l s f i n d t h a t t h e y must m a i n t a i n t h e i r i n m a t e l o y a l t y , y e t somehow r e c o n c i l e t h i s l o y a l t y w i t h t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s t a f f . Members o f t h i s g r o u p a r e i n a n o r m a t i v e dilemma b e c a u s e t h e y w i s h t o move ou t o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t f a c t i o n s o f s o c i e t y and i n t o t h e l e g i t i m a t e f a c t i o n s . T h i s i s t h e o b v e r s e o f t h e dilemma e n c o u n t e r e d by f i r s t o f f e n d e r s and a s p i r a n t n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s • The above d e s c r i p t i o n o f i nmate " t y p e s " i n e a c h o f t h e t e n g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a l a l l o c a t i o n o f i n m a t e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , o f c o u r s e , t o s o r t o u t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o p r e - c o n c e i v e d c a t e g o r i e s , and f r e q u e n t l y t h e d e c i s i o n t o p l a c e a p a r t i c u l a r i n m a t e i n one g r o u p r a t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r i s q u i t e a r b i t r a r y , f o r she may n o t c o n f o r m t o any one p a r t i c u l a r s t e r e o t y p e more t h a n a n o t h e r . The i n m a t e s a r e sometimes d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a c e d i n an u n l i k e l y g r o u p i f t h e a d m i n i s t r a - t i o n f e e l s an i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d be " c o o l e d down", o r i f a g r o u p n e e d s t o be g i v e n t h e b e n e f i t o f a more s t a b l e i n m a t e t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f i t s members. V e r y t r o u b l e s o m e , a c t i v e Inmates may t h e n be d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a c e d i n a much o l d e r , s e t t l e d a d d i c t g r o u p o r i n one o f t h e h u t s where t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e o t h e r g r o u p members w i l l be n e g l i g i b l e , and where t h e y may be f o r c e d (by t h e s h e e r i n e r t i a o f t h e r e s t o f t h e g r o up) t o abandon t h e i r r e c k l e s s pace i n f a v o u r o f a more subdued demeanor i n r e l a - t i o n t o a r i s i n g s i t u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , . a f a i r l y mature " s q u a r e J o h n " o f f e n d e r may f i n d t o h e r d i s m a y t h a t she i s a member o f a v e r y y o u n g , r e b e l l i o u s g r o u p where ( i t i s hoped) h e r r e l a t i v e m a t u r i t y may have an e d i f y i n g e f f e c t u pon t h e r e s t o f t h e g r o u p members. 61 IV. WORK TEAMS T h e r e a r e n i n e teams o r work p l a c e m e n t s p o s s i b l e a t t h e Women's U n i t , and t h e members o f any one work team c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be drawn f r o m any o r a l l o f t h e t e n l i v i n g g r o u p s . The i n m a t e s a r e p l a c e d on a s p e c i f i c team a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r - e s t s and a p t i t u d e s have been c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i r l e n g t h o f s e n t e n c e , p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , a t t i t u d e and a b i l i t y t o f i t i n t o a g i v e n team and t h e c u s t o d i a l r i s k w h i c h t h e y a r e b e l i e v e d t o p r e s e n t . M a i n t e n a n c e . The M a i n t e n a n c e team t a k e s c a r e o f a l l c l e a n i n g and s c r u b b i n g w i t h i n t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g . H a l l f l o o r s a r e s c r u b b e d and p o l i s h e d t w i c e d a i l y , and a r e waxed t w i c e a week . Windows a r e c l e a n e d , b r a s s d o o r knobs a r e p o l i s h e d and w a l l s a r e washed down a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . A l l new i n m a t e s who a r e p h y s i c a l l y a b l e t o do t h i s t y p e o f work a r e p l a c e d " o n m a i n t e n a n c e " ( p r o n o u n c e d l o c a l l y as " M a i n t a i n a n c e " ) f o r a few d a y s u n t i l t h e y c a n be more c l o s e l y a s s e s s e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r work h a b i t s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e , t h e i r a b i l i t y , t o f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e i r g e n e r a l a p t i - t u d e . A d d i c t s spend one o r two weeks on m a i n t e n a n c e as soon as t h e y a r e a b l e t o w o r k , as i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s t y p e o f h a r d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y h e l p s t o b u i l d up t h e i r b o d i e s most q u i c k l y f o l l o w i n g t h e r i g o u r s o f d r u g usage and w i t h d r a w a l . Inmates w i t h s e n t e n c e s o f one month o r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y r e m a i n on t h e m a i n t e n a n c e team t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r s e n t e n c e . I n t h i s way, some h a b i t u a l s h o r t t e r m o f f e n d e r s spend most o f t h e i r t i m e 62 i n p r i s o n w o r k i n g on m a i n t e n a n c e . S e w i n g and M e n d i n g . The S e w i n g and M e n d i n g team do e s a l l t h e mending f r o m t h e Men's G a o l . Many o f t h e o l d e r women a r e p l a c e d on t h i s team as t h e work i s n o t s t r e n u o u s . Some i n s t r u c t i o n i s g i v e n by t h e s t a f f on t h e u s a g e o f s e w i n g m a c h i n e s , but most o f t h e work c o n s i s t s o f d a r n i n g s o c k s and i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be u s e f u l p r i m a r i l y a s a p r o d u c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n an i n s t r u c t i v e d e p a r t m e n t . P h y s i c a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d i n m a t e s o r i n m a t e s w a i t i n g t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y , o r who a r e g o i n g t h r o u g h a l o n g w a i t i n g t r i a l p e r i o d a r e f r e q u e n t l y p l a c e d i n t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l T h e r a p y d e p a r t m e n t b e c a u s e i t a f f o r d s a maximum d e g r e e o f c u s t o d i a l s u p e r v i s i o n and i s a l s o more i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e i n m a t e . I n s t r u c t i o n i s . g i v e n i n k n i t t i n g , w e a v i n g , c r o c h e t i n g , l e a t h e r c r a f t , c o p p e r w o r k and e m b r o i d e r y . The p r o d u c t s a r e s o l d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t o v i s i t o r s o r members o f t h e s t a f f . Any p r o f i t s e a r n e d a r e u s e d t o buy more mat- e r i a l s f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t . An e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d u pon t h e q u a l i t y o f work done r a t h e r t h a n t h e amount p r o d u c e d . C a r p e n t r y . The o n l y team r u n by a male s t a f f member i s t h e C a r p e n t r y Crew. T h i s work team c o n s t r u c t s e v e r y t h i n g f r o m f u r n i t u r e t o shops and c a b i n s . Team members a r e i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e u s e o f power t o o l s , b u t t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i s as a c o n s t r u c t i o n crew. T h e r e a r e u s u a l l y e i g h t o r l e s s on t h i s team, a l l o f whom have v o i c e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s p l a c e m e n t and who a r e known t o be w i l l i n g and h a r d w o r k e r s . As t h e y a r e o u t d o o r s a good d e a l o f t h e t i m e , have s o m e t h i n g c o n c r e t e t o show f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s and a r e a b l e t o work w i t h t h e o n l y male member o f t h e s t a f f t h e r e i s k e e n c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e i n m a t e s t o be g i v e n t h i s work p l a c e - ment. R e c e n t l y t h e r e h a s b e en a n added a t t r a c t i o n f o r work p l a c e m e n t as t h e C a r p e n t r y crew h a s b e en w o r k i n g on a f a r m p r o j e c t n e a r Haney, B.C., w h i c h i s known as T w i n M a p l e s . The e n t i r e crew s t a y s a t T w i n M a p l e s Farm f o r a week a t a t i m e t e a r i n g down t h e o l d f a r m b u i l d i n g s and c o n s t r u c t i n g d o r m i t o r i e s i n t h e i r s t e a d . T h e s e crew members e n j o y c o n s i d e r a b l y more p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m t h a n any o t h e r o f t h e work teams, p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e removed f r o m t h e m a i n i n s t i t u t i o n most o f t h e t i m e and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , more e a s i l y s u p e r v i s e d , and p a r t l y a l s o as a f o r m o f r e w a r d f o r t h e i r h a r d and c o n s c i e n t i o u s work p e r - f o r m a n c e . The i n m a t e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o assume more r e s p o n - s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own good b e h a v i o r on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t any s e r i o u s i n f r a c t i o n s may j e o p a r d i z e t h e whole T w i n M a p l e s p r o j e c t , and a l s o on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e y p e r - s o n a l l y w o u l d most c e r t a i n l y be d r o p p e d f r o m t h i s work p l a c e - ment. The p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e T w i n M a p l e s l o c a t i o n and t h e p r o m i s e o f a g r e a t l y r e d u c e d " i n s t i t u t i o n a l " a t m o s p h e r e a r e u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t t o m o t i v a t e c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e h i g h work and b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s work p l a c e m e n t . The K i t c h e n . I n t h e k i t c h e n t h e e m p h a s i s i s o f n e c - e s s i t y p l a c e d upon p r o d u c t i o n , i n m a t e s b e i n g s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s p l a c e m e n t e i t h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e i r g e n e r a l h i g h l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y o r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h o u g h t t o be l a z y a nd i n n e e d o f a p l a c e m e n t w h i c h makes g r e a t demands upon them. T h e r e i s some o p p o r t u n i t y t o e a r n p r o m o t i o n s w i t h i n t h e k i t - c h en, and some i n s t r u c t i o n i s g i v e n c o n c e r n i n g d i e t a nd n u t r - i t i o n a l f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n , b u t as was m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s i s u p o n p r o d u c t i o n . The L a u n d r y . S i n c e t h e l a u n d r y i s i n t h e basement o f t h e new w i n g o f t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g a t t h e Women's U n i t , i t i s c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e b u i l d i n g . As a co n s e q u e n c e many g r o u p f o u r members a r e p l a c e d i n t h e l a u n d r y t o work as an a d d i t i o n a l means of s e g r e g a t i n g them f r o m t h e g e n e r a l inmate p o p u l a t i o n . The l a u n d r y i s e q u i p p e d w i t h modern l a u n d r y e q u i p m e n t so t h a t t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n u s e f u l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d f o r f u t u r e employ- ment v e n t u r e s . A l l o f t h e l a u n d r y o f t h e Women's U n i t i s done i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . The B e a u t y P a r l o u r . The b e a u t y p a r l o u r o p e r a t e s a s a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t r a i n e d by a q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t r i c e and t a k e t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s q u i t e a n o nymously a l o n g w i t h o t h e r h a i r d r e s s i n g c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e community. T o c o m p l e t e t h e c o u r s e i n m a t e s must be s e r v i n g s e n t e n c e s o f s i x months o r more, a l t h o u g h some s t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e y w i l l t r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r c o u r s e s i n a r e g u l a r h a i r d r e s s i n g s c h o o l f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e f r o m t h e Women's U n i t . The s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e i r t r a d e on one a n o t h e r and on i n m a t e s f r o m o t h e r work d e p a r t m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o a w e e k l y s c h e d u l e . E a c h work d e p a r t m e n t i s g i v e n a s p e c i f i c day o f t h e week on w h i c h one i n m a t e f r o m t h a t d e p a r t ment c a n r e c e i v e f r e e h a i r d r e s s i n g s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g a shampoo h a i r c u t , s e t and a m a n i c u r e . M a t r o n s who a r e o f f d u t y f r e q u - e n t l y a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e h a i r d r e s s i n g d e p a r t m e n t , p a y i n g f o r any m a t e r i a l s u s e d and a n o m i n a l f e e f o r t h e work done by t h e i n m a t e s . Money t h u s e a r n e d by t h e d e p a r t m e n t i s u s e d t o buy u p - t o - d a t e equipment and m a t e r i a l s and to' e q u i p s t u d e n t s who a r e w r i t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s . H i g h s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e a r e demanded and a c h i e v e d by t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . S t u d e n t s u s u a l l y do w e l l i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c r e d i t t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n when t h e y a r e t a k e n out t o s p e c i a l h a i r d r e s s - i n g c o n v e n t i o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . Power S e w i n g . The power s e w i n g o r f a c t o r y s e w i n g d e p a r t - ment r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s w i t h some m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s and w i t h a t l e a s t a l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s a r e t a u g h t f a c t o r y c u t t i n g and s e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s , m aking i n s t i t u t i o n d r e s s e s , b l u e j e a n s and pyjamas i n t h e p r o - c e s s . Q u a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n p r o d u c t i o n i s a g a i n e m p h a s i z e d by t h e i n s t r u c t r i c e . T h e r e a r e no e x a m i n a t i o n s g i v e n f o r t h e power s e w i n g c o u r s e , b u t s t u d e n t s a r e c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e i r h o u r s o f t r a i n i n g when t h e y l e a v e , and a r e u s u a l l y a b l e t o f i n d employment w i t h garment m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n t h e G r e a t e r 66 Vancouver area. This department can accommodate six students at any one t ime. Home Nursing. A course i n home nursing i s given to a group of f i v e or more students at a time. At the conclusion of the course examinations are written and c e r t i f i c a t e s are issued to the successful candidates. As part of t h e i r duties the members of t h i s team a s s i s t in looking a f t e r sick inmates, and generally provide assistance to the c l i n i c s t a f f . It has been the practice of t h i s department to take a certain number of instalment students - students who come to gaol repeatedly fo r short periods of time. On re-entering the i n s t i t u t i o n they carry on with t h e i r home nursing course where they l e f t off at the expiration of t h e i r previous sentence. The School. The school, which i s located i n the fourth hut outside the Main Building, provides an opportunity f o r inmates to improve t h e i r academic standing by taking corres- pondence courses. Inmates enrol i n typing, shorthand and other commercial subjects, as well as the t r a d i t i o n a l acad- emic courses such as mathematics and English. The school can accommodate approximately ten students at any one time, and many inmates are anxious to take advantage of both the acad- emic and more p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g offered. Some students attend school on a f u l l time basis but many go to school f o r only h a l f a day, working i n some other department f o r the remainder of the day. There i s a great deal of controversy within the Women's U n i t as t o t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f h a v i n g work teams whose members a r e s e l e c t e d f r o m many d i f f e r e n t l i v i n g g r o u p s . Many f e e l t h a t t o a l l o w m i x i n g d u r i n g t h e w o r k i n g h o u r s c o m p l e t e l y n e g - a t e s any o f t h e p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e "Group S y s t e m " a f t e r t h e w o r k i n g day i s f i n i s h e d . O t h e r s f e e l t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r i n g e n t d u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s t o p r e v e n t " c o n t a m i n a t i o n " o f any t y p e t a k i n g p l a c e between t h e i n m a t e s . . The f a c t r e m a i n s , however, t h a t t h i s r a t h e r c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o l i c y d o e s make n e c e s s a r y t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e and e f f o r t j u s t i f y i n g t h e s e a p p a r e n t a n o m a l i e s i n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n b o t h t o t h e i n m a t e s and t h e s t a f f . CHAPTER V THE ROLE OP THE MATRON F o l l o w i n g t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e d e r i v e d by Gresham S y k e s , t h e f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( o r t a s k s ) o f t h e Women's U n i t b e a r some i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r i t i s w i t h i n t h i s f r a m e w o r k t h a t t h e m a t r o n must p l a y h e r r o l e and t h e i n m a t e s must l i v e . ' ' ' As i t i s t h e m a t r o n who must a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m t h e many t a s k s a l l o t t e d t o t h e p r i s o n , a n d i t i s she; ; who must e n f o r c e t h e c u s t o d i a l r e g i m e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , a n a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o examine t h e r o l e o f t h e m a t r o n more c l o s e l y t o see how mat- r o n s a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n and p r e f e r t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e l i m i t - a t i o n s and demands o f t h e s e f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . I t i s ho p e d t h a t a n I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e w i l l a f f o r d some I n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r o f t h e Women's U n i t . I . THE REGIME OF THE MATRONS I n i t i a l l y t h e Women's U n i t i s e x p e c t e d t o r e t a i n i n c u s t o d y t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e been c o m m i t t e d t o i t s c a r e , and t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y g i v e n p r e c e d e n c e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u - t i o n . The maxim " c u s t o d y comes f i r s t , b u t t r e a t m e n t i s most i m p o r t a n t " h a s been c o i n e d by t h e Warden, and i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c u s t o d y does come f i r s t . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y x G r e s h a m M. Sykes",1: The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, pp . 1 8 - 3 8 . 69 s a t i s f y i n g b o t h t h e s e w i s h e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h b e l o w . L o g i c a l l y t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s p e r h a p s i m p o s s - i b l y ambiguous a n d c o n t r a d i c t o r y , b u t i t h a s p r o v i d e d a much n e e d e d u n i f y i n g dogma f o r t h e d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s a nd i n t e r e s t s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . C u s t o d y and C o n t r o l . W i t h i n t h e Women's U n i t t h e r e a r e no f i r e a r m s o r o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o c o e r c e t h e i n m a t e s i n t o r e m a i n i n g i n t h e g a o l , b u t t h e r e i s an abundance o f l o c k s , k e y s and r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d armed male g u a r d s a r e v e r y much i n e v i d e n c e a s t h e y m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s t s on. t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e g a o l g r o u n d s . T h e s e g u a r d s a r e c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r e v e n t i n g e s c a p e s o f b o t h t h e men and t h e women o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n , and h a v e presum- a b l y been g i v e n o r d e r s t o s h o o t i f t h e y o b s e r v e anyone m a k i n g an e s c a p e a t t e m p t . The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e y would a c t - u a l l y s h o o t a t a woman a t t e m p t i n g t o e s c a p e r e m a i n s an open one t o d a t e and i s d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h by t h e women f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . But t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a c t i o n h a s n e v e r b een c o m p l e t e l y r e f u t e d i n t h e s e d e b a t e s . A l l o f t h e a t t e m p t e d and a c c o m p l i s h e d e s c a p e s o f women p r i s o n e r s w i t h i n t h e p a s t two and a h a l f y e a r s h a v e f a i l e d t o s t i r t h e g u a r d s t o f i r e any s h o t s , b u t t h i s c o u l d q u i t e e a s i l y be b e c a u s e t h e y a c t u a l l y d i d n o t o b s e r v e t h e a t t e m p t s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n c e o f armed "guards may s e r v e a s a s l i g h t d e t e r r e n t t o any women who may be c o n t e m p l a t i n g e s c a p e f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h e s t a f f o f t h e Women's U n i t 70 do n o t f e e l t h e y c a n be c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t upon s u c h m e a s u r e s . The c u s t o d i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e Women's U n i t a r e f u r t h e r e n s u r e d by v i g i l a n t e n f o r c e m e n t o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i n m a t e b e h a v i o r , r o u t i n e movements, and g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s . T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e i m p a r t e d t o e a c h new s t a f f member, b o t h v e r b a l l y and by means o f a ma n u a l . As h a s be e n e x p l a i n e d above The M a n u a l i s a t y p e w r i t t e n l o o s e - l e a f document w h i c h r e m a i n s i n t h e m a i n o f f i c e o f t h e Women's U n i t . I t h a s be e n p r e p a r e d by t h e C h i e f M a t r o n and i s sub- j e c t t o p e r i o d i c a d d i t i o n s and r e v i s i o n s . I t i s known as The M a n u a l a t t h e Women's U n i t and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as s u c h i n t h i s s t u d y . Among t h e c u s t o d i a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h i t c o n t a i n s a r e d i r e c t i v e s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t d o o r s and cup- b o a r d s must n e v e r be l e f t u n l o c k e d ; a c a r e f u l c h e c k must be k e p t on a l l t o o l s . M a t e r i a l s w h i c h c o u l d be d a n g e r o u s t o e i t h e r m a t r o n s o r o t h e r i n m a t e s i f m a l e v o l e n t l y employed must a l w a y s be k e p t u n d e r l o c k and k e y , t o be d i s p e n s e d o n l y a t t h e m a t r o n ' s d i s c r e t i o n . The i n m a t e s a r e c o u n t e d a t s e v e r a l s p e c i f i e d t i m e s d u r i n g e a c h e i g h t h o u r s h i f t , and s t a f f members a r e r e q u i r e d t o t a k e t h e i r t u r n i n p e r f o r m i n g t h i s d u t y , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c j o b w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . M a t r o n s " t a k e t h e c o u n t " a t 6:30&.m. ( j u s t b e f o r e t h e s h i f t i s c h a n g e d ) , a t 11:30a.m. ( n o o n c o u n t ) , a t 2:30p.m. ( s h i f t c h a n g e ) , iji:lj.5p.m. ( d i n n e r c o u n t ) , 8:30p.ra. and 10:30p»m. f o r s h i f t change a g a i n . When t a k i n g t h e c o u n t , n o t o n l y must e a c h inmate be a c c o u n t e d f o r , b u t l o c k s and d o o r s must be c h e c k e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e u n i t . Once t h e c o u n t h a s b e en c h e c k e d i t becomes t h e r e s p o n - s i b i l i t y o f e a c h m a t r o n on d u t y t o know a t a l l t i m e s where a l l t h e members o f h e r i n m a t e g r o u p a r e , what t h e y a r e d o i n g and, i d e a l l y , t h e t o p i c o f any c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y may be h a v i n g . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s l a t t e r e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s f e l t t o be i m p o r t a n t t o k e e p s t r i c t c o n t r o l o f and have a n a w a r e n e s s o f i n m a t e plots',, i n t r i g u e s and g o s s i p as f a r as i s p o s s i b l e so t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e p r e c a u t i o n s c a n be t a k e n by t h e s t a f f t o keep i n m a t e d i s c o n t e n t and i n t e r n a l s t r e s s t o a minimum. C e n s o r s h i p o f c o n v e r s a t i o n p r e s u m a b l y l i m i t s t h e amount o f inmate u n r e s t by d i s c o u r a g i n g " s t r e e t t a l k " as w e l l . C o n v e r s a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o c u r e m e n t and u s a g e o f n a r c o t i c s a r e t h o u g h t t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y harm- f u l , f o r t h e y t e n d t o make t h e a d d i c t s " f e e l y e n h y " . Con- c e r n f o r c o n t a m i n a t i o n o r c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e c r i m i n a l l y l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d a l s o p r o m p t s c e n s o r s h i p o f e v e n c a s u a l c o n - v e r s a t i o n b etween the i n m a t e s . The manual a l s o c a u t i o n s t h a t c a r e must be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h e w r i t i n g o r p a s s i n g o f mess- a g e s between t h e f e m a l e i n m a t e s o r between t h e male and f e m a l e i n m a t e s , f o r s u c h messages c o u l d c o n t a i n p e r t i n e n t c u s t o d i a l I n f o r m a t i o n . M essages c a n be t r a n s m i t t e d e i t h e r i n w r i t t e n f o r m as n o t e s o r " k i t e s " , o r c a n be t r a n s m i t t e d by window w r i t i n g - t h e f l a s h i n g o f s i g n a l s f r o m one a r e a t o a n o t h e r by t h e u s e o f a l i g h t e r o r a f l a s h l i g h t . O v e r t a t t e m p t s a t e s c a p e a r e n o t t h e o n l y t h r e a t s 72 t o good c u s t o d y . E q u a l l y r i g o r o u s a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o m a i n t a i n i n g l a w and o r d e r w i t h i n t h e g a o l . M u l t i t u d i n o u s r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r e v e n t t h e i n m a t e s f r o m " g e t t i n g out o f h a n d " by one means o r a n o t h e r , and c o n t r a b a n d i s t h o u g h t t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . C o n t r a b a n d i s l i s t e d as s u c h b e c a u s e i t may be h e l p f u l i n c o m p l e t i n g a n e s c a p e p l a n , o r b e c a u s e i t ' s e x i s t - e n c e i n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s i s s e e n as a s o u r c e o f p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t a nd c o m p e t i t i o n among t h e i n m a t e s . Money, t a i l o r - made c i g a r e t t e s , c h e w i n g gum, w r i t i n g p a p e r a n d , most i m p o r t - a n t , n a r c o t i c d r u g s o f any d e s c r i p t i o n , a r e a l l s t r i c t l y f o r b i d d e n . ' When t h e r e i s any r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t t h a t s u c h a commodity h a s - p e n e t r a t e d i n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n e x t e n s i v e s e a r c h e s and i n m a t e " f r i s k s " w i l l be t h e o r d e r o f t h e d a y . B e c a u s e i t i s f e l t t h a t s t a f f members m i g h t be e a s i l y f o o l e d by t h e i n m a t e s o r p e r s u a d e d t o b r i n g q u e s t i o n a b l e c o m m o d i t i e s I n t o t h e Women's U n i t , s t r i c t r u l e s a r e a p p l i e d w h i c h make i t n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n t o b r i n g any i t e m s I n t o t h e i n m a t e s . I t i s s i m i l a r l y d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r any s t a f f member t o make a phone c a l l f o r a g i r l o r o t h e r w i s e make a c o n t a c t i n t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d f o r h e r w i t h o u t f i r s t h a v i n g o b t a i n e d p e r m i s - s i o n t o do t h i s f r o m t h e C h i e f M a t r o n . The d e g r e e o f c o n c e r n f e l t i n t h i s r e g a r d i s e v i d e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t f r o m The M a n u a l : 73 N e v e r m a i l a l e t t e r o r a c a r d f o r a g i r l . No m a t t e r how i n n o c e n t i t may seem, t h i s i s a v e r y f o o l i s h t h i n g t o do and i t c o u l d v e r y e a s - i l y c o s t y o u y o u r j o b ... I t i s a l s o a g a i n s t t h e r u l e s f o r y o u t o p a s s a n y t h i n g t o o r r e c e i v e a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e men. T h i s i n c l u d e s p a s s i n g t o and f r o m a g u a r d . I f a g u a r d i s f o o l i s h enough t o a c c e p t s o m e t h i n g f r o m one o f t h e men and p a s s i t t o y o u , r e f u s e t o a c c e p t i t ... N e v e r meet a g i r l o n t h e o u t s i d e and b r i n g a n y t h i n g i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g f o r h e r . T h ey can make up p l a u s i b l e s t o r i e s , b u t never, do t h i s . T h i s r e g u l a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a t t h e O a k a l l a Women's U n i t b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s i n t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n . The c o n t r o l o f c o n t r a b a n d becomes e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e d i s t i n c t f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u - ous b a t t l e o f w i t s b e t w e e n i n m a t e s and s t a f f c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n c e a l m e n t and d i s c o v e r y o f n a r c o t i c s . A c c o r d i n g t o The M a n u a l t h e r e s h o u l d be a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t and t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t , s u c h t h a t t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t be n o t as r i g i d as t h e t r a i n i n g ( m o r n i n g ) s h i f t , and t h a t t h e a t m osphere s h o u l d be more r e l a x e d and f r i e n d l y d u r i n g t h e a f t e r n o o n p r o g r a m . T h e r e a r e , however, c e r t a i n r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h the m a t r o n i s t o l d t h e g i r l s must f o l l o w , and t h e m a t r o n i s a s s u r e d t h a t she i s n o t d o i n g t h e g i r l s any f a v o u r by n o t e n f o r c i n g t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y . A c c o r d i n g t o The M a n u a l , i f t h e r u l e s a r e n o t e n f o r c e d c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e i n m a t e s w i l l f e e l u n s u r e o f t h e i r g r o u n d a n d t e n s i o n w i l l be c r e a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t f r o m The M a n u a l o u t l i n e s t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r i s o n p o l i c y 74 w h i c h must be a d h e r e d t o a t a l l t i m e s and on a l l s h i f t s : K i t e s a n d t h e k i t e - l i n e a r e a b s o l u t e l y i l l e g a l ( a s i s any f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e women and t h e men). A g r o u p l e a d e r s h o u l d n e v e r condone k i t i n g and s h o u l d r e f r a i n f r o m t a l k i n g a b o u t k i t e s o r j o k i n g a b o u t t h e k i t e - l i n e o r t h e g i r l s ' k i t e - l i n e romances b e c a u s e t h i s t e n d s t o make t h e g i r l s b e l i e v e t h a t y o u do condone i t o r a t l e a s t do n o t t h i n k i t i s a s e r i o u s t h i n g . K i t e s a r e i l l e g a l a n d must be t a k e n away f r o m any g i r l c a u g h t w r i t i n g o n e . T h i s . i s a must a t a l l t i m e s . K i t i n g i s i n some c a s e s n o t h i n g more t h a n a n i d l e p a s s t i m e c a r r i e d on f o r want o f s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r t o do and a l s o b e c a u s e i t i s i l l e g a l . However, i n some c a s e s i t I s a v e r y bad t h i n g f o r a g i r l t o g e t mi x e d up w i t h some " c h a r a c t e r " down be l o w b e c a u s e she may meet h i m on.t h e o u t s i d e and c o n s e q u e n t l y g e t i n t o f u r t h e r t r o u b l e . One s i t u a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t i s s e r i o u s enough t o w a r r a n t a c o n s t a n t l o o k o u t f o r k i t e s a nd p i c k i n g them up a t e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y . I f a g i r l w i l l n o t g i v e u p a k i t e , o r d e r h e r t o do so and i f she s t i l l r e f u s e s she i s d i s o b e y i n g a m a t r o n ' s o r d e r s and t h i s must be r e p o r t e d t o t h e M a t r o n i n C h a r g e o f t h e s h i f t . N e v e r w r e s t l e w i t h a g i r l o v e r a k i t e o r k i t e s . A l l g i r l s must be k e p t away f r o m t h e windows a t a l l t i m e s . Y o u can o r d e r any g i r l away f r o m any window. N o t h i n g l o o k s worse t h a n a l l t h e g i r l s l i n e d up a t t h e o u t s i d e windows s m i l i n g and s i g n i n g t o t h e men on t h e f i e l d . The g i r l s a r e s u p p o s e d t o be k e p t busy and a r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o h a v e t i m e f o r s u c h i d l e p a s s t i m e s . I t does n o t m a t t e r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y s i g n i n g t o t h e men o r n o t - t h e y a r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o be a t t h e windows. I f a g i r l h a s n o t h i n g b e t t e r t o do f i n d h e r s o m e t h i n g t o do - h a v e h e r sweep t h e h a l l o r e v e n s c r u b i t , and so on. Any g i r l who i s a c t u a l l y c a u g h t w i n d o w - w r i t i n g i s t o be r e p o r t e d t o t h e m a t r o n i n c h a r g e o f t h e s h i f t . . Any c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e women and t h e men i s s t r i c t l y a g a i n s t r e g u l a t i o n s . The g i r l s c a n n o t t a l k t o t h e men, s i g n t o t h e men, o r T ? h i s s t a t e m e n t i s i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o a n o t h e r i n t h e s e d i r e c t i v e s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t , "No j o b s h o u l d be j u s t an e x c u s e t o keep someone b u s y " . e v e n s t a n d o r s i t a n d w a t c h w h i l e a man s i g n s t o h e r . She i s o u t s i d e f o r a r e a s o n ( w a t c h i n g a game, e t c . ) and s h o u l d be d o i n g t h i s . I f y o u have a g r o u p o u t s i d e and one o f them b r e a k s t h i s r u l e , d o n ' t e v e n c h e c k h e r more t h a n once - b u t b r i n g t h e who l e g r o u p i n . I f y o u do t h i s f o r a w h i l e , t h e g r o u p w i l l know y o u mean what y o u s a y and w i l l behave b e t t e r f o r i t . A g i r l I s n o t a l l o w e d t o swear i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . A l w a y s r e p r i m a n d a g i r l f o r s w e a r i n g e v e n i f i t ' s j u s t a ''damn". I f a g i r l a c t u a l l y c u r s e s a t y o u , she c a n be c r i m e d f o r d o i n g s o . However, y o u must remember t h a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s a r e v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g t o t h e i n m a t e s . I f t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n r e a c h e s a c e r t a i n p o i n t , t h e g i r l w i l l "blow h e r t o p " . I f y o u h a p p e n t o be t h e a u t h o r i t y who i s e n f o r c i n g t h e r u l e s , she w i l l n a t u r a l l y "blow" a t y o u . She i s n o t c u r s i n g y o u as a p e r s o n , b u t r a t h e r t h e a u t h o r i t y y o u r e p r e s e n t . Y o u must k e e p t h i s i n mind i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n . T h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c a s e . A g i r l may d e l i b e r a t e l y c u r s e y o u knowing f u l l w e l l she s h o u l d n ' t . I t i s up t o y o u t o j u d g e t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r y o u r s e l f . I f a g i r l " blows h e r t o p " a t y o u I n f r o n t o f o t h e r g i r l s , i t i s u s u a l l y a w i s e t h i n g t o r e p o r t i t m e r e l y as a p r e v e n t a t i v e measure - a g i r l must be t a u g h t n o t t o b l o w up a t e v e r y l i t t l e f r u s t r a t i o n . T h i s i s a s e r i o u s t h i n g i n t h i s s e t t i n g and s h o u l d n e v e r be c o n s i d e r e d a game. A g i r l who h i d e s must be s e v e r e l y r e p r i m a n d e d and t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be f u l l y e x p l a i n e d t o h e r . E v e n g i v e n t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s t h e onus f o r i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n i s s t i l l p l a c e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e mat r o n ' s s h o u l d e r s . The M a t r o n i n C h a r g e o f C u s t o d y . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e p o r t m e n t and s a f e k e e p i n g o f t h e i n m a t e s i n h e r c h a r g e becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f e a c h m a t r o n ' s d u t i e s i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t f o r e a c h s h i f t one m a t r o n i s 76 a s s i g n e d t o be i n c h a r g e o f c u s t o d y . A l t h o u g h c u s t o d y i s u l t i m a t e l y h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e e n t i r e s t a f f i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h c u s - t o d y and t o h a n d l e d i f f i c u l t i e s on t h e i r own l e v e l so f a r as p o s s i b l e . The C u s t o d y M a t r o n does o p e r a t e as a " t r o u b l e - s h o o t e r " i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i f t h e m a t r o n i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l - v e d c a n n o t c o p e w i t h a s i t u a t i o n o r i f p u n i s h m e n t o r r e s t r i - c t i o n s must be i m p o s e d u p o n an i n m a t e , b u t h e r d u t i e s a r e p r i m a r i l y t o s u p e r v i s e t h e e n t i r e p r o g r a m o n h e r s h i f t . She becomes t h e c o - o r d i n a t o r o f movement and a c t i v i t i e s , a r r a n g e s f o r e s c o r t s f o r t h o s e i n m a t e s who must l e a v e t h e g r o u n d s f o r any r e a s o n , o v e r s e e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n m a t e s t o t h e v a r i o u s work d e p a r t m e n t s o r o f t h e i n m a t e g r o u p s t o t h e v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e on t h e a f t e r n o o n p r o g r a m . As an e x p e r i e n c e d member o f t h e s t a f f h e r d u t i e s a l s o i n c l u d e p l a n n i n g f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s o f t h e i n m a t e s and she i s v e r y much i n v o l v e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . She i s e x p e c t e d t o have an u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and t o a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e most " h e a l t h y " g r o u p p l a c e m e n t and work p l a c e m e n t f o r e a c h I n m a t e . The T a s k o f S e l f - M a i n t e n a n c e . I t i s now q u i t e g e n - e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d be, as s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g as p o s s i b l e p r o v i d i n g t h e y do n o t compete e c o n o m i c a l l y w i t h c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t s .or s e r v i c e s p r o d u c e d on t h e o p e n m a r k e t . I n c r e a s i n g l y e a c h p r i s o n i s e x p e c t e d t o become a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d community w i t h i n a community w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a t e d d e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e a l l t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e f o r i t s members. The Women's B u i l d i n g I s no e x c e p t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d and i n an a t t e m p t t o meet t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n t h e i n m a t e s a r e u t i l i z e d as a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g l a b o u r f o r c e , p r e p a r i n g and s e r v i n g t h e i r own m e a l s , s e w i n g , l a u n d e r i n g and m e n d i n g t h e i r own c l o t h i n g , and k e e p i n g t h e i r own l i v i n g q u a r t e r s c l e a n and t i d y . T h e r e d o e s n o t seem t o be any e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e Women's U n i t make a p r o f i t i n any o f i t s work p r o j e c t s b u t t h e r e _ls t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i n t h e Men's U n i t . F o r e a c h work a s s i g n m e n t t h e r e must be a t l e a s t one s t a f f member t o s u p e r - v i s e t h e i n m a t e s a c t u a l l y d o i n g t h e work. They must see t h a t t h e work g e t s done, and a l s o t h a t t h e work I s d i s t r i - b u t e d f a i r l y between t h e members o f t h e work crew. I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t i s e c o n - o m i c a l l y q u i t e u n s o u n d , f o r t h e r e i s a d u p l i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d j u s t a s a d e q u a t e l y be p r o v i d e d f o r f r o m t h e Men's U n i t - one k i t c h e n c o u l d s e r v e t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f O a k a l l a , a s c o u l d one l a u n d r y and one t a i l o r s h o p . T h u s t h e work f o r c e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e Women's U n i t c o u l d be f r e e t o p r o d u c e some s p e c i a l i z e d commodity f o r u s e i n a l l government i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s , however, w o u l d f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e many p e c u l i a r p r o b l e m s f a c e d by t h e j u x t a - p o s i t i o n o f mal e and f e m a l e p r i s o n s w i t h i n a few h u n d r e d y a r d s o f one a n o t h e r and w o u l d a d d i t i o n a l l y f a i l t o r e c o n c i l e t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e p e c u l i a r p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e O a k a l l a Women's U n i t . Many Inmates a r e s e r v i n g e x t r e m e l y s h o r t s e n t e n c e s , o r a r e m e r e l y i n t h e g a o l w h i l e a w a i t i n g t r i a l . T h e s e women must be g i v e n some work t o k e e p them f r o m b e c o m i n g b o r e d and d i s s a t i s f i e d , y e t t h e y c o u l d n o t be r e a d i l y a b s o r b e d i n t o a p r o d u c t i o n d e p a r t m e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f g i v i n g them some t r a i n i n g i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n . The m a i n - t e n a n c e o r h o u s e k e e p i n g d u t i e s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n c a r e o f b y t h e new a r r i v a l s t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , b o t h s e n t e n c e d and u n s e n t e n c e d , as t h e work does n o t r e q u i r e any p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l o r s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n . Many i n m a t e s c h o o s e t o work r a t h e r t h a n t o r e m a i n i n t h e i r c e l l s d u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s , a l t h o u g h w o r k i n g i s d e f i n e d as a " p r i v i l e g e " f o r t h o s e who a r e n o t s e n t e n c e d t o s e r v e t h e i r t e r m a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm. U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y s u c h i n m a t e s were g i v e n no f i n a n c i a l r e i m b u r s e m e n t f o r t h e i r l a b o u r u n l e s s s e n t e n c e d t o O a k a l l a . Prom t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f c u s t o d y and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l i t makes good s e n s e t o k e e p t h e Women's U n i t as autonomous f r o m t h e Men's U n i t as p o s s i b l e . The more f r e q u e n t l y f o o d , l a u n d r y o r c l o t h i n g must be h a n d l e d b y b o t h male and f e m a l e i n m a t e s , t h e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r i s e f o r " k i t e s ' * t o be " p l a n t e d 1 1 and " k i t e - l i n e s " t o o p e r a t e e f f i c i e n t l y , and a d d i - t i o n a l l y t h e more f r e q u e n t l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l a r i s e f o r t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f c o n t r a b a n d . By r e d u c i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y 79 f o r c o n t a c t between t h e two u n i t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e g u l a r l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p i n g I s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . A l t h o u g h t h e Women's U n i t i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y autonomous i n i t s o p e r a t i o n t h e r e a r e s t i l l s e v e r a l ways i n w h i c h i t r e m a i n s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e M a i n G a o l . The women must s t i l l go "down t h e h i l l " t o h a v e x - r a y s t a k e n , t o be p h o t o g r a p h e d and f i n g e r p r i n t e d , and t o a t t e n d d e n t a l and o p t o m e t r i c c l i n i c s . E l e c t r i c i a n s a nd p l u m b e r s a r e f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d t o t h e Women's U n i t , k i t c h e n s u p p l i e s must be d e l i v e r e d t o t h e women's k i t c h e n f r o m t h e main k i t - c h e n , and g a r b a g e i s c o l l e c t e d and d i s p o s e d o f by t h e men. The i n m a t e s u n d o u b t e d l y u l i t i z e t h e s e few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m a k i n g c o n t a c t , b u t whereas now i t i s n o t u n u s u a l t o f i n d one o r two " k i t e s " i n one week, k i t e s were f o r m e r l y f o u n d by t h e b a g f u l l e v e r y few d a y s . P i l l o w c a s e s were s t u f f e d w i t h k i t e s and f o r w a r d e d b e t w e e n t h e two u n i t s a l o n g w i t h t h e d a i l y l a u n d r y w h i c h was t a k e n t o t h e Men's U n i t f o r l a u n d e r i n g . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f p r e v e n t i n g c o n t a c t and t h e com- m u n i c a t i o n o f messages i s r e c o g n i z e d by b o t h o f f i c e r s a nd m a t r o n s , and f r e q u e n t l y t h e o f f i c e r s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o b r i n g a crew o f male i n m a t e s t o t h e Women's U n i t b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l t h e i r men g e t i n t o t r o u b l e w h i l e a r o u n d t h e women. I f t h e male i n m a t e s do n o t I n i t i a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e women t h e women w i l l f r e q u e n t l y t a k e m a t t e r s i n t o t h e i r own h a n d s and make o v e r t u r e s t o t h e men. I t i s n o t u n u s u a l t o h e a r 80 p e r s o n n e l f r o m t h e Men's U n i t a t a l l l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t y r e f e r t o t h e Women's U n i t a s b e i n g "good o n l y f o r i t s n u i s - ance v a l u e " . The work p r o g r a m a t t h e Women's U n i t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two m a i n s e c t i o n s ; t h o s e d e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e 3 e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and t h o s e w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h v o c a t i o n a l o r a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g o f t h e i n m a t e s . The i n m a t e pay s c a l e f o r b o t h t y p e s o f work p l a c e m e n t i s t h e same; f r o m t e n t o t h i r t y c e n t s ( i n t e n c e n t g r a d a t i o n s ) , t h e a c t u a l r a t e o f pay d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i n d i v i - d u a l ' s g e n e r a l c o n d u c t i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e j o b . Whether a m a t r o n i s i n c h a r g e o f a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t o r a p r o d u c t i o n d e p a r t m e n t , she i s e x p e c t e d t o u t i l i z e t h e work p r o g r a m i n a " t h e r a p e u t i c " manner. I t i s t h e b e l i e f o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e employ- ment w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l t e a c h t h e i n m a t e u s e f u l t r a d e s and h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y . Many i n m a t e s have l o n g h i s t - o r i e s o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y employment i n w h i c h t h e y were u n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g t o s t a y w i t h any one j o b f o r more t h a n a f e w weeks o r months. I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t i f t h e inm a t e c o n t i n u e s i n s u c h a n e r r a t i c p a t t e r n a f t e r she i s r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e p r i s o n she w i l l r e t u r n t o c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y . I f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s a b l e t o a s s i g n t h e inmate t o a t y p e o f work w h i c h she f i n d s e n j o y a b l e a n d a t w h i c h she can become r e a s o n a b l y p r o f i c i e n t i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t she 81 w i l l n o t o n l y p r o v e u s e f u l t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h a t p l a c e - ment b u t w i l l g a i n u s e f u l knowledge and p r o f i t f r o m a mean- i n g f u l work e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . I f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i nmate d o e s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y w i s h t o l e a r n a s k i l l o r t r a d e w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o r i f t h e l e n g t h o f h e r s e n t e n c e o r t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t she c a n a t l e a s t d e v e l o p new a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d work i f t h e i n s t i t - u t i o n ' s work p r o g r a m i s s k i l f u l l y p l a n n e d and s k i l f u l l y e x e c u t e d by e a c h m a t r o n . Work must, t h e r e f o r e , be " m e a n i n g f u l " so t h a t t h e iiraate c a n d e r i v e some s e n s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d a c h i e v e m e n t , and c a n a p p r e c i a t e t h e rew a r d s w h i c h work c a n h a v e i n i t s e l f . The M a n u a l d e s c r i b e s t h e m a t r o n ' s r e s p o n - s i b i l i t i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e work p r o g r a m o f t h e i n s t i t u t - i o n a s f o l l o w s : D u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s : 1. Keep c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n o f y o u r team, t h e y a r e n o t t o l e a v e t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s . 2. Y o u a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c u s t o d y a n d c o n d u c t o f y o u r team w i t h o u t t o o o b v i o u s p o l i c i n g . 3 . S t u d y y o u r team d u t i e s , g i v e e a c h j o b a name, make up c l e a r and c o n c i s e r u l e s f o r e a c h j o b . Make a t i m e s c h e d u l e f o r e a c h j o b . i | . See t h a t y o u r d e p a r t m e n t t e a c h e s good w o r k i n g h a b i t s a n d when p o s s i b l e g i v e t h e in m a t e a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 5 . Y o u t e a c h team members t o work I n s u c h a way t h a t t h e i r s e r v i c e s w o u l d be a c c e p t - a b l e i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y . 6. No j o b s h o u l d be j u s t a n e x c u s e t o keep someone b u s y . 7. J o b s s h o u l d be r e a l i s t i c , c r e a t i v e and g i v e e a c h w o r k e r a s e n s e o f a c h i e v e m e n t . 82 8. Y o u r b e s t method o f t e a c h i n g i s by e x a m p l e . M o r a l s , h a b i t s , p r i n c i p l e s , a r e n o t t a u g h t by l o g i c - t h e y a r e a b s o r b e d f r o m t h e e n v i r - onment. The c a r e y o u t a k e i n d r e s s and g r o o m i n g o u t o f r e s p e c t t o y o u r p r o f e s s i o n , t h e i n t e r e s t a n d i n i t i a t i v e y o u show on t h e j o b , t h e c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s y o u d i s p l a y , and t h e p r i d e y o u t a k e i n a j o b w e l l done a r e a l l i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n s . Y o u can be s u r e t h a t y o u a r e u n d e r c l o s e s c r u t i n y by t h e i n m a t e s and y o u r e v e r y a c t i o n and a t t i t u d e a r e w e i g h e d and j u d g e d by them. 9 . Do NOT o v e r - s t a f f t o s u p p l y e x t r a j o b s . 10. The p r o d u c t o f y o u r d e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d meet w i t h s t a n d a r d s o f t h e " o u t s i d e " . 11. Y o u w i l l k e e p a l l e q u i p m e n t i n ^ y o u r d e p a r t - ment i n good r e p a i r . 12. Y o u w i l l a c q u a i n t y o u r s e l f w i t h t h e l a t e s t method o f o p e r a t i n g y o u r t y p e o f d e p a r t m e n t . The m a t r o n i s r e q u i r e d t o demand h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f work p e r f o r m a n c e f r o m t h e i n m a t e s u n d e r h e r s u p e r v i s i o n , n o t o n l y so t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n may r u n s m o o t h l y , b u t t o p r o v i d e t h e i n m a t e s w i t h a f e e l i n g o f s e l f - w o r t h t h r o u g h r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o do a good j o b . Some c r e d - e n c e i s a l s o g i v e n t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t f o r a n inmate t o com- p e t e s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r employment f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e she must h a v e h i g h e r t h a n a v e r a g e work s t a n d a r d s t o compensate f o r t h e f a c t t h a t she h a s a g a o l r e c o r d . E v e n w i t h i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e v a l u e o f l e a r n i n g and h a r d work p e r s e , w h e t h e r t h e p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n u n d e r s t u d y w i l l be u t i l i z e d f o r employment by t h e i n d i v i d u a l l a t e r o r n o t . E m p h a s i s i s a g a i n p l a c e d upon good work h a b i t s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e l f - r e s p e c t . T h i s e m p h a s i s may be 83 e s s e n t i a l t o c o u n t e r a c t s t a f f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n t h e u s e f u l - n e s s o f a v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m w i t h i n t h e Women's U n i t . The number o f women who h a v e a c t u a l l y u t i l i z e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e h a s b e e n f o u n d t o be r a t h e r meagre i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e numbers who have b e e n e x p o s e d t o t h e p r o g r a m . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s l a c k o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n s t i t u - t i o n a l t r a i n i n g may be q u i t e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d , t h e r e must s t i l l a p p a r e n t l y be some j u s t i - f i c a t i o n made f o r p e r s i s t e n c e w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . I t h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e en n o t e d by v i s i t o r s t o t h e i n s t - i t u t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h l e v e l o f work p e r f o r m a n c e among t h e women i n m a t e s a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n F a r m . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon i n a s e t t i n g w h i c h i s h i s t o r i c a l l y n o t o r i o u s f o r s l o v e n l y work h a b i t s and low l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t i s t h e r a p p o r t w h i c h e x i s t s between t h e i n m a t e s and t h e s t a f f . I nmates do l i v e up t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e s t a f f , and do t a k e a p e r s o n a l p r i d e i n t h e i r work f r e q u - e n t l y . The f a v o u r a b l e s t a f f - i n m a t e r a t i o p r o b a b l y h a s some b e a r i n g u p o n t h i s f a c t o r , f o r t h e m a t r o n i s a b l e t o know and u n d e r s t a n d e a c h member o f h e r crew, and t o f o r m a p e r s - o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f some s o r t w i t h e a c h . The Inmates m a i n - t a i n some s e n s e o f I d e n t i t y i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n a n d f i n d t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e s t a f f member s u p e r v i s i n g them d o e s make a d i f f e r e n c e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e m a i n i n d i f f e r e n t t o w a r d one member o f a s m a l l group c o n s i s t e n t l y , e v e n i f t h a t one member i s a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d as b e i n g i n many r e s p e c t s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g r o u p members. Inmates f r e q u e n t l y work h a r d b e c a u s e t h e y l i k e t h e i r m a t r o n s and want t o p l e a s e them. The T a s k o f P u n i s h m e n t . I t i s t h e g e n e r a l p h i l o s - ophy o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t t h o s e who a r e s e n t e n c e d t o a t e r m w i t h i n i t s c o n f i n e s s h o u l d n o t be p u n i s h e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p u n i s h m e n t w h i c h a l o s s o f f r e e d o m e n t a i l s . The m a t r o n i s e n j o i n e d t o be a c c e p t i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n m a t e s , a n d t o r e f r a i n f r o m l e c t u r i n g them o r o t h e r w i s e showing r e p u g - n a n c e f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r w h i c h h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r i n c a r c e r a t i o n . The i n m a t e s a r e p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g " p r o b l e m s " and i t i s p r e s u m a b l y up t o t h e m a t r o n t o i n some way a s s i s t t h e i n m a t e i n r e s o l v i n g o r coming t o g r i p s w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s . The a c t u a l d i s c i p l i n a r y m e a sures a v a i l a b l e t o a m a t r o n i n c l u d e e v e r y t h i n g f r o m r e p r i m a n d s t o a l o s s o f " d a y s " . Inmates c a n be l o c k e d i n t h e i r own rooms f o r one e v e n i n g o r f o r a few h o u r s , o r t h e y c a n be removed t o t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e d i s c i p l i n i n g m a t r o n a n d t h e c h i e f m a t r o n t h i n k a change i n t h e i n m a t e ' s a t t i t u d e w a r r a n t s a r e t u r n t o h e r g r o u p and work team. As one would e x p e c t , t h e more s t u b b o r n , p r o u d Inmates spend t h e l o n g e s t t i m e s i n t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n w i l l i n g t o a p p e a r c o n - t r i t e f o r t h e i r m i s d e m e a n o r s . S i n c e t h e g r o u p s y s t e m was e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e h a s a l s o been an a t t e m p t a t i n s u r i n g g r o u p c o n f o r m i t y by p u n i s h i n g t h e e n t i r e g r o u p i f one member s t e p s o u t o f l i n e . I n a c t u a l 85 p r a c t i c e , however, t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y . I n some i n s t a n c e s an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be p u n i s h e d , i n o t h e r s t h e g r o u p as a whole w i l i l o s e some p r i v - i l e g e s u c h as g o i n g t o a c o n c e r t o r l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o . Group p u n i s h m e n t i s most f r e q u e n t l y i n f l i c t e d when members o f t h e g r o u p a r e d i s c o v e r e d " k i t i n g " e i t h e r t o t h e men o r t o o t h e r s w i t h i n t h e Women's U n i t . M i s b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s f e l t t o be more s e r i o u s , s u c h a s i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , c o n c e a l i n g c o n t r a b a n d , b e i n g u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f n a r c o t i c s o r w h a t e v e r c a n r e s u l t i n a n inmate b e i n g " c r i m e d " . When h e r name h a s been p l a c e d "on t h e c r i m e s h e e t " a n i n m a t e t h u s c h a r g e d must a p p e a r i n Warden's C o u r t where t h e p r o b a b i l i t y i s t h a t , i f f o u n d g u i l t y , ( s h e u s u a l l y i s ) , she w i l l l o s e some o f h e r r e m i s s i o n t i m e . The Warden o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e may f e e l t h a t a w a r n i n g i s s u f f i c i e n t i n some c a s e s , b u t u s u a l l y a l o s s o f days i s t h e outcome. R e m i s s i o n t i m e or "good t i m e " i s e a r n e d a t t h e r a t e o f one day p e r week f o r good b e h a v i o r , and i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y c a l c u l - a t e d a t t h e t i m e t h e i n m a t e i s g i v e n h e r p r o b a b l e d a t e o f d i s c h a r g e . I f a n inmate s e r v i n g a l o n g s e n t e n c e "blows some d a y s " o r " l o s e s some c o p p e r " she may h a ve months added t o h e r p r o b a b l e d a t e o f d i s c h a r g e . R e m i s s i o n days w h i c h h a ve b e e n l o s t c an be e a r n e d back, b u t t h e i n m a t e must s u b m i t a s p e c i a l r e q u e s t t o t h e Warden t o r e c e i v e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n and i s s e l d o m a b l e t o redeem more t h a n h a l f o f h e r l o s t r e m i s s i o n . 86 The T a s k o f R e f o r m . The a f t e r n o o n p r o g r a m i s s u p p o s e d l y p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e Inmates, and i s i n f a c t known as t h e " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " as o p p o s e d t o "work" p r o g r a m o f t h e d a y t i m e . D u r i n g t h i s s h i f t a l l m a t r o n s a r e s t i l l e x p e c t e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c u s t o d y o f t h o s e i n m a t e s u n d e r t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e a c t u a l number n o r m a l l y r a n g i n g f r o m s e v e n t o twelve i n m a t e s p e r m a t r o n . The s m a l l l i v i n g g r o u p s become t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f a c t i v i t y f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t . T h e s e g r o u p s h a v e been f o r m e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y u n i t . I t I s h o p e d t h a t t h e s e s m a l l g r o u p s w i l l f o s t e r t h e p e r s o n a l g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h d i d n o t , f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , o c c u r w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y u n i t . G roup work and g r o u p t h e r a p y p r i n c i p l e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o , and t h e m a t r o n i s e n c o u r a g e d t o f a m i l i a r i z e h e r s e l f w i t h t h e aims and p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s . T he m u l t i p l i c i t y o f e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p and t h e r o l e o f t h e g r o u p m a t r o n c a n p e r h a p s b e s t be i l l u s t r a t e d by q u o t i n g once a g a i n f r o m The M a n u a l : Y o u r g r o u p i s y o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s u p t o y o u t o see t h a t t h e y behave them- s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s up t o y o u t o see t h a t t h e y have g r o u p a c t i v i t y p l a n n e d f o r t h e t i m e y o u a r e t o be w i t h them. I t i s up t o y o u t o make t h i s a c t i v i t y a s i n t e r e s t i n g and as v a r i e d as p o s s i b l e . I f a g i r l d oes s o m e t h i n g y o u do n o t a p p r o v e o f , u s e y o u r own judgement b u t t r y t o h a n d l e i t on y o u r own l e v e l . T a l k t o t h e g i r l , t a k e away some p r i v i l e g e , h a v e a g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t i t , and so o n . How- e v e r , i f y o u f e e l i t i s t o o s e r i o u s t o h a n d l e on t h e g r o u p l e v e l , r e p o r t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e m a t r o n i n c h a r g e . The g r o u p s y s t e m a n d g r o u p a c t i v i t y h a s s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s . The g i r l s can be k e p t u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n a l m o s t c o n s t a n t l y , t h u s k e e p i n g them f r o m some l e s s d e s i r a b l e a c t - i v i t y ; t h e g i r l s l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h e a c h o t h e r and g e t a l o n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r . S i n c e t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n a p l a c e l i k e t h i s i s made up o f p e o p l e who a r e a n t i - s o c i a l , t h a t i s , t h e y c a n n o t g e t a l o n g i n s o c i e t y , t h i s p o i n t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . I n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e g r o u p s a r e f o r c e d , t h r o u g h e n c o u r a g e m e n t and p r e s s u r e , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n games and s p o r t s . T h i s i s good i n t h a t t h e y l e a r n s p o r t s m a n s h i p a n d f a i r p l a y as w e l l a s c e r t a i n s k i l l s w h i c h may"add t o t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . W i t h t h i s i n mind i t i s y o u r j o b as a g r o u p l e a d e r t o see t h a t t h e one who n e e d s encouragement g e t s i t , t h a t p r a i s e i s g i v e n t o t h e one who n e e d s i t a n d ' n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o t h e b e s t p l a y e r a l l t h e t i m e , and so o n . Because o f t h e s e t h i n g s and b e c a u s e s u p e r v i s i o n i s so i m p o r t a n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r y o u t o have t h e whole g r o u p u n d e r y o u r s u p e r v i s i o n a t a l l t i m e s . T h e r e - f o r e , i f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g i r l s want t o go o u t , t h e whole g r o u p must g o . L e g i t i - m a t e l y s i c k g i r l s a r e exempt f r o m t h i s , o f c o u r s e . Y o u must remember t h a t t h e g i r l who n e v e r wants t o go w i t h t h e g r o u p - t h e one who wants t o be by h e r s e l f a l l t h e t i m e i s t h e one who i s g o i n g t o b e n e f i t t h e most f r o m h a v i n g t o l e a r n t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s . E v e n t u a l l y she may e v e n l i k e t o go o u t and p l a y b a l l a nd so on, e s p e c i a l l y i f she becomes a f a i r b a l l p l a y e r . T h e r e f o r e , she h a s g a i n e d much more t h a n t h e g i r l who wanted t o be o u t and f o u n d i t e a s y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e y o u must work t h e h a r d e s t w i t h t h e most u n c o - o p e r a t i v e members o f y o u r g r o u p . , I t i s a good p o l i c y t o t a l k t o t h e g i r l s i n d i v i d u a l l y when t h e y f i r s t come i n t o t h e g r o u p . I n t h i s way y o u can l e a r n what k i n d o f g i r l y o u a r e g e t t i n g , what h e r n e e d s w i l l be and, t h e r e f o r e , how y o u w i l l t r e a t h e r . Yo u c an a l s o i n f o r m h e r what i s e x p e c t e d o f h e r . Make i t f r i e n d l y and c a s u a l . I t i s a l s o a good i d e a t o h a v e a q u i e t c h a t w i t h e a c h g i r l o c c a s i o n a l l y w h i l e t h e y a r e i n t h e g r o u p . A f t e r t h e y h a v e r e t i r e d i s u s u a l l y a good t i m e f o r a c h a t , b u t i f t h e g i r l i s i n 83 w i t h o t h e r s , and t h i s t i m e i s n o t s u i t a b l e , t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s as l o n g as y o u a r e n o t s a c r i f i c i n g t h e r e s t o f y o u r g r o u p f o r one p e r s o n . I f a g i r l wants t o t a l k a b o u t h e r t r o u b l e s i t i s y o u r j o b t o e n a b l e h e r t o do t h i s a f t e r t h e g r o u p h a s b r o k e n u p . I t u s u a l l y h e l p s a g i r l t o t e l l someone a b o u t h e r w o r r i e s a n d t r o u b l e s - i t r e l e a s e s a c e r t - a i n amount o f a n x i e t y and t e n s i o n . T h e s e d i s - c u s s i o n s a n d a n y t h i n g y o u l e a r n a b o u t t h e g i r l s h o u l d be p u t down i n y o u r r e c o r d i n g s . As a g r o u p m a t r o n y o u must be a b l e t o work w i t h a g r o u p i n r e s p e c t t o a l l t h e t h i n g s l i s t e d a b o v e . Y o u must be a b l e t o keep y o u r g r o u p t o g e t h e r , p l a n t h i n g s f o r y o u r g r o u p t o do,: k e e p d i s c i p l i n e , i n y o u r g r o u p , keep harmony i n y o u r g r o u p , and so o n . Y o u must a l s o be a m a t r o n o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h a t y o u must e n f o r c e t h e r u l e s on a l l i n m a t e s , n o t j u s t y o u r own g r o u p . A number o f themes r u n t h r o u g h t h e s e p r e s c r i b e d g o a l s and means o f a c h i e v i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , b u t i s a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h a t j u s t as no m a t r o n i s a l l o w e d t h e l u x u r y o f b e i n g s o l e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s o f c u s t o d y o r c o n t r o l , so a l s o no m a t r o n I s a l l o w e d t h e l u x u r y o f b e i n g s o l e l y c o n - c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s o f t h e r a p y o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . . I I . CONFIGURATION OF TASKS The m a t r o n ' s o c c u p a t i o n c a n n o t be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d m e r e l y by e x a m i n i n g t h e f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e r o l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t a l s o t o be aware o f t h e ways i n w h i c h the m a t r o n s t h e m s e l v e s a c t u a l l y v i e w t h e i r r o l e ; t h e p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o t h e many t a s k s t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m , t h e s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e u t i l i z e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e p a t t e r n s o f d e v i a n c e f r o m t h e s e s t a n d a r d s and t h e r e w a r d s and s t r a i n s o f t h e work. To d e t e r m i n e how t h e m a t r o n s t h e m s e l v e s c o n c e i v e o f t h e i r r o l e ; how t h e y "make s e n s e " o u t o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g demands made upon them, t e n I n t e r v i e w s w i t h s t a f f members o f t h e Women's U n i t were t a p e r e c o r d e d . The c o n t e n t o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s h a s b e e n u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : C u s t o d y a n d C o n t r o l . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h o s e m a t r o n s who were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y f e l t c u s t o d y t o be t h e i r p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w i t h t h e i n s u r a n c e o f t h e i n m a t e s ' w e l f a r e and s a f e - k e e p i n g r a n k i n g a c l o s e s e c o n d : -:V F i r s t and f o r e m o s t a m a t r o n ' s d u t y i s t o see t h a t t h e i n m a t e s who a r e put. i n t o g a o l s t a y t h e r e u n t i l t h e i r r e l e a s e t i m e , so c u s t - ody i s f i r s t . ... w i t h o u t c u s t o d y y o u h a v e n o t h i n g e l s e , so we must a l w a y s p u t c u s t o d y f i r s t ... a n d t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e g i r l s i s n e x t . Y o u a r e r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t p e r s o n ' s l i f e . She h a s b e e n d e p r i v e d o f h e r l i b e r t y , and y o u r e a l l y become r e s p o n - s i b l e f o r h e r s a f e t y . M a i n t a i n i n g good c u s t o d y w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s a p p a r e n t l y f e l t t o be p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f any f u r t h e r d u t i e s o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f any f u r t h e r g o a l s . ^ T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e s . o f an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i s t a k e n f r o m K a s p a r D. N a e g e l e and E l a i n e C u l l e y S t o l a r , "The L i b r a r i a n o f t h e N o r t h w e s t " i n M o r t o n K r o l l , ed.,. L i b r a r i e s a n d L i b r a r i a n s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , P a c i f i c . N o r t h w e s t L i b r a r y A s s o c - i a t i o n L i b r a r y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t R e p o r t s , v o l . I 4 . , S e a t t l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , I 9 6 0 , pp.51-137. T h i s pub- l i c a t i o n i s a n a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n o f an e a r l i e r u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . 90 W h e t h e r t h i s c o n s e n s u s i s due t o p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a p r i s o n , o r w h e t h e r i t i s due t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , ( o r a s u b t l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two) i s n o t t o o c l e a r . But a t l e a s t one m a t r o n h a d what she b e l i e v e d t o be a n a c c u r a t e p r e - c o n c e p t i o n o f h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : My i d e a s h a v e n ' t changed b e c a u s e my i m p r e s - s i o n s o f a g a o l b e f o r e c o m i n g t o work t h e r e was o f a p l a c e f o r c u s t o d y . When somebody i s s e n t t o g a o l t h e m a i n t h i n g i s t o keep them i n g a o l . T h a t i s t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f a j a i l , t o keep p e o p l e away f r o m s o c i e t y . I s t i l l t h i n k t h a t c u s t o d y I s o u r m a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B u t . t h e Image o f a " c u s t o d i a n " i s somewhat e m b a r r a s s i n g t o many who a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d " p r o g r e s s i v e " and w i t h b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a " p r o g r e s s i v e " i n s t i t u t i o n . Y o u must be on y o u r t o e s , and y o u c a n ' t be c a r e l e s s , but t h e r e i s no p l a c e i n a modern i n s t i t u t i o n f o r p e o p l e who a r e s t r i c t l y c u s t o d i a l . T h e r e i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e r y e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t e a c h m a t r o n s h o u l d be a t l e a s t a c u s t o d i a n . O t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n t e r n a l o r d e r and t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f l i m i t s upon t h e p o p u l a - t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The d e g r e e o f l a t i t u d e p e r m i s s i b l e i n e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n was f e l t t o v a r y f r o m one s i t u a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , so t h a t t h e m a t r o n becomes a m e d i a t o r between t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e i n m a t e . She must i n t e r p r e t and e n f o r c e r e s t r i c t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y demanded by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s e t a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t s h e r s e l f i f she b e l i e v e s them t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n : 91 Impose c o n t r o l s , s e t l i m i t s and so on. The l i m i t s a r e s e t f o r us ( t h e m a t r o n s ) t o some e x t e n t , b u t o u r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e i n some a r e a s . S t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l s i s n e c e s s a r y i n some a r e a s . Some m a t r o n s f e l t t h a t t h e Inmate's b e h a v i o r s h o u l d be v e r y r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d e v e n t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n and p e r s o n a l demeanor s h o u l d meet w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p o l i t e s o c i e t y : T o h e r g r o u p h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e t e a c h i n g e t i q u e t t e and good manners. Improve t h e i r way o f t a l k i n g , c u t o u t s t r e e t t a l k and f i l t h y t a l k . P r o v i d e them w i t h w o r t h w h i l e t o p i c s . Good manners and no s t r e e t t a l k . I n r a t h e r s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h i s v i e w , o t h e r r e s p o n d - e n t s were g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e d u c i n g t h e p a i n s o f i m p r i s - onment by m i n i m i z i n g t h e number o f r u l e s and r e s t r i c t i o n s i m posed upon t h e i n m a t e s . . The f e e l i n g b e i n g t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t enough t o be d e p r i v e d o f o n e ' s f r e e d o m w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o be f u r t h e r b a d g e r e d by s t a f f a n x i e t i e s and s t r i n g - ent e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g o n e ' s b e h a v i o r : A g i r l ' s t i m e i n g a o l s h o u l d be made as p l e a s - a n t as p o s s i b l e f o r h e r . I t ' s a h a r d l i f e and we s h o u l d n ' t make I t t o o o b v i o u s ! - t h a t we a r e w o r r i e d a b o u t h e r r u n n i n g away o r d o i n g s o m e t h i n g wrong. P u n i s h m e n t . P u n i s h m e n t o f t h e i n m a t e s was n o t d i s - c u s s e d as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by any o f t h e m a t r o n s i n t e r v i e w e d p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s w h i c h t h i s c o n c e p t h a s i n modern day c r i m i n o l o g y . E x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i n m a t e s was l e g i t i m i z e d on s e v e r a l c o u n t s , b u t p u n i s h m e n t , and e v e n d i s c i p l i n e were a v o i d e d as c o n s i d e r a - 92 t i o n s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e m a t r o n ' s r o l e . T h e r e i s a s e n s e i n w h i c h the d e v i a n c e o f t h e i n m a t e does n o t d i r e c t l y t o u c h t h e m a t r o n , m a k i n g . i t r e l a t i v e l y e a s y f o r h e r t o d i s r e g a r d t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e i n m a t e ' s c h a r - a c t e r and b e h a v i o r . The d e v i a n c e f o r w h i c h t h e i n m a t e h a s been c o n v i c t e d h a s o c c u r r e d b o t h o u t s i d e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and o u t s i d e t h e m a t r o n ' s s o c i a l s p h e r e , and h a s p r o b a b l y n o t h a d any d i r e c t a f f e c t w h a t e v e r u p o n e i t h e r t h e m a t r o n ' s l i f e s t y l e o r h e r s y s t e m o f v a l u e s . I t i s t h e n n o t t o o d i f f - i c u l t f o r t h e m a t r o n t o be f o r g i v i n g and p e r h a p s e v e n f o r - g e t f u l o f t h e a c t r e s u l t i n g i n a r r e s t a n d i n c a r c e r a t i o n . U n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , c o n c e r n f o r p u n i s h m e n t o f t h e o f f e n d e r w h i l e she i s i n t h e Women's U n i t w i l l u n d e r s t a n d - a b l y be q u i t e n e g l i g i b l e . However, d e v i a n c e w h i c h o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s n o t v i e w e d so l i g h t l y by t h e . , s t a f f . N o r i s d e v i a n c e w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a p t t o be much l e s s p u n i t i v e l y h a n d l e d by the s t a f f t h a n by t h e members o f t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n when d e v i a n c e o c c u r s i n the community. By way o f example, d r u g u s a g e i s c o n s i d e r e d by most m a t r o n s t o be u n f o r t u n a t e and p i t i a b l e , b ut somewhat u n d e r - s t a n d a b l e i n t h e a d d i c t who i s i n f r e e s o c i e t y . I f t h i s same a d d i c t p r o c u r e s n a r c o t i c s w h i l e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n h owever, she w i l l be s u b j e c t e d t o s e v e r e s a n c t i o n s . She w i l l n o t o n l y be removed t o t h e s e c u r i t y c e l l s , b u t w i l l p r o b a b l y a l s o be r e q u i r e d t o a p p e a r i n Warden's C o u r t , where she w i l l l i k e l y l o s e some o f h e r r e m i s s i o n t i m e . The m a t r o n s e x c u s e p u n i s h m e n t w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n f o r t h e y b e l i e v e i t t o be a n e f f e c t i v e means o f d e t e r r i n g o t h e r s f r o m e n g a g i n g i n s i m i l a r d e v i a n t , a c t i v i t i e s and b e c a u s e p u n i s h m e n t p r e s u m a b l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Y e t t h e s e same j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r a p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e and r e a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f s o c i e t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d (by t h e s t a f f ) t o be u n r e a l i s t i c . W i t h i n t h e community, a d d i c t i o n can be i n t e r - p r e t e d by t h e m a t r o n as a n i n d i c a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l weakness w h i c h i s a n t a g o n i z e d by the h a r s h n e s s o f the s o c i a l m i l i e u w i t h i n w h i c h the a d d i c t l i v e s . W i t h i n t h e p r i s o n , n a r c o t i c u s a g e i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f u n g r a t e f u l n e s s and d e c e i t f u l n e s s and, p e r h a p s most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t r e p r e s e n t s i n a r a t h e r d r a m a t i c manner t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e s t a f f t o " r e h a b i l i t a t e " t h e d r u g u s e r . T h e s e anomalous a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d r u g u s a g e w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e p r i s o n h a v e been r e c o g n i z e d by many s t a f f members, but t o d a t e l i t t l e p r o g r e s s has been made I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e v o l v e a means o f c o p i n g w i t h d e v i a n c e w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e f r o m a more t h e r a p e u t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , y e t e f f e c t i v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r n a l o r d e r and c o n t r o l a t a s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h l e v e l . I I I . REHABILITATION The t a s k o f r e f o r m , o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as i t i s more f r e q u e n t l y known a t t h e Women's U n i t , i s a t l e a s t t h e o r - e t i c a l l y most i m p o r t a n t . But one m i g h t w e l l be d u b i o u s 9A a b o u t t h e v a r i o u s means w h i c h a r e u t i l i z e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d b o t h i n t h e name o f , and q u i t e h o n e s t l y w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f , r e f o r m i n g the i n m a t e s . Many o f t h e p r o c e s s e s w h i c h t a k e p l a c e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a r e j u s t i f i e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l v a l u e a s a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l . F o r example, c u s t o d y i s j u s t i f i a b l e s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t i s t h e l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t c u s t o d y i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d by b o t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d by i n d i v i d u a l m a t r o n s as a good r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l . The f e e l i n g i s t h a t y o u must h o l d t h e p a t i e n t i n o r d e r t o t r e a t him, and a d d i t i o n a l l y , t h a t i t i s somehow damaging f r o m a t h e r a p e u t i c p o i n t o f v i e w t o be a f u g i t i v e . Most m a t r o n s a p p e a r t o be r e s i g n e d t o t h e i r p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c u s t o d i a l p r o c e d u r e s , i n s p i t e o f t h e d o u b t s w h i c h many a u t h o r i t e s f e e l c o n c e r n i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f m i x i n g c u s t o d i a l and t h e r a p e u t i c f u n c t i o n s i n one s o c i a l m i l i e u . W i t h i n : . t h e Women's U n i t , where r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a t l e a s t v e r b a l l y one o f t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a - t i o n , a l l a c t i v i t i e s must a p p a r e n t l y b e a r some p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h i s g o a l t o have meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e . B e c a u s e e v e r y o n e i s q u i t e f r a n k l y g r a s p i n g f o r answers i n t h e p r i s o n s e t t i n g , t h e r e i s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r any a c t i v i t y o r p r o g r a m t o be j u s t i f i e d a s some k i n d o f "answer". Because no m a t r o n i s f r e e t o d i s r e g a r d t h e t a s k o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , she;- i s v p r e s s u r e d i n t o g i v i n g l i p s e r v i c e t o t h i s g o a l r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e s p e c i f i c t a s k a t han d I s t h e main - 95 t e n a n c e o f c u s t o d y o r i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l , o r the., m e t i n g o u t o f p u n i s h m e n t . G r o u p and Team M a t r o n s . The q u e s t i o n o f how t h e m a t r o n s a c t u a l l y p l a y e d and p r e f e r r e d t o p l a y t h e i r r o l e s was c l a r i f i e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "Can a good m a t r o n work a l l s h i f t s e q u a l l y w e l l ? " . Many o b s e r v a t i o n s were made c o n - c e r n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n " a t m o s p h e r e " f r o m one s h i f t t o a n o t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y between t h e m o r n i n g and a f t e r n o o n s h i f t s . The t h i r d s h i f t ( n i g h t s ) was n o t d i s c u s s e d a t much l e n g t h , f o r i t was f e l t t o i n v o l v e n o t h i n g more t h a n c u s t o d i a l a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as c h e c k i n g d o o r s and l o c k s , c o u n t i n g i n m a t e s and c e n s o r i n g t h e i n c o m i n g m a i l . T h e r e was g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s among t h e m a t r o n s t h a t t h e day s h i f t i s ( a n d s h o u l d be) r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t and r i g i d . The a f t e r n o o n s h i f t i s more f l e x i b l e and r e l a x e d . As one m a t r o n h a s d e s c r i b e d i t : You n e e d some i m a g i n a t i o n t o work on a f t e r n o o n s . On d a y s y o u j u s t n e e d t o be a b l e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on o r d e r s , maybe be a b l e t o do one t h i n g w e l l and t e a c h i t , b u t on a f t e r - n oons y o u must know a b i t a b o u t c o o k i n g , c l e a n - i n g , r e c r e a t i o n and so o n . T h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a more r e l a x e d atmos- p h e r e on e v e n i n g s ( a f t e r n o o n s ) . I t ' s n o t so much a m a t t e r o f l a x c u s t o d y , . y o u h a ve t h e same c u s t o d y b e c a u s e y o u h a v e t h e same number o f g i r l s t o l o o k a f t e r , b u t t h e r e i s j u s t a d i f f - e r e n c e i n a t m o s p h e r e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n " a t m o s p h e r e " was s e e n t o demand a d i f f - e r e n t t y p e o f m a t r o n , a d i f f e r e n t " s t y l e " o f p l a y i n g t h e r o l e . F o r d a y s y o u h a v e t o be a r e a l d i s c i p l i n a r i a n b e c a u s e work means d i s c i p l i n e . I f t e a c h i n g , 96 e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e k i d s , y o u must be s t r o n g , o r t h e y j u s t d o n ' t l e a r n . D i s c i p l i n e i s good f o r t h e s e k i d s when t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g . .... F o r a f t e r n o o n s y o u have t o be p a t i e n t , n o t s c r e a m when t h e y d o n ' t know how t o d u s t a c o r n e r , b u t go and show them what t o d o . ... T h i n g s a r e more e a s y g o i n g on a f t e r n o o n s , t h e r e f o r e y o u must be more p a t i e n t . When y o u a r e a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n y o u c a n j u s t s a y , "You do i t " , ... ( b u t ) t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g t o r e l a x i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s . Some ( m a t r o n s ) t e n d t o be b e t t e r g r o u p t h a n team p e o p l e ; F o r teams y o u n e e d some d e g r e e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the work a r e a and o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p e r s o n ; know what t h e y want t o do and how t o g e t i t done, f o r example d i s t r i b u t i n g v a r i o u s d u t i e s among t h e g i r l s , s h o w i n g and t e a c h i n g them. ... Group m a t r o n s must be a b l e t o t a l k , t o b r i n g t o l i g h t as many o f t h e p r o b l e m s as t h e y c a n . I f y o u c a n d e a l w i t h them a d e q u a t e l y , f i n e , o r make . r e f e r r a l s o r s o m e t h i n g . T h i s y o u must do on d a y s , t o o , but w i t h i n a t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m y o u d o n ' t h a v e as much t i m e t o spend I n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h e a c h p e r s o n t a l k i n g o u t t h e i r p r o b l e m s as y o u w o u l d on a f t e r n o o n s where i t ' s more i n f o r m a l , y o u h a v e m o r e ' t i m e t o s i t a r o u n d and c h a t - h a v e t e a , g e t i n v o l v e d i n a c t i v - i t i e s w h i c h m i g h t s u g g e s t t o them by y o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n so t h e y may want t o r e l a t e more. V a l u e j u dgements as t o w h i c h a p p r o a c h was b e t t e r were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i c i t i n most a n s w e r s , b u t t h e r e was r a t h e r a m a t t e r - o f - f a c t s t a t e m e n t t h a t d i f f e r e n t " t y p e s " o f m a t r o n s were n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l t h e d i f f e r e n t n e e d s o f t h e two s h i f t s . I t ' s n i c e t o work b e s i d e m a t r o n s ... who t a k e c a r e o f manners, c l e a n l i n e s s , e t c . , b u t y o u c o u l d n ' t h a v e s i x t y m a t r o n s l i k e t h a t . T a k e y o u r y o u n g u n i v e r s i t y g i r l s f o r example, ( m a t r o n s ) , o b v i o u s l y t h e g i r l s ' t a b l e manners a r e a l l o w e d t o go, b u t t h e u n i v e r s i t y g i r l s c r e a t e a h a p p y , p l e a s a n t a t m o s p h e r e , and t h a t ' s f i n e , b u t t h e y d o n ' t t h i n k t o l o o k u n d e r t h e s i n k and c h e c k t o see i f t h e g a r b a g e h a s b een l o o k e d a f t e r and so on. T h ey a r e a f r a i d t o g e t f i r m w i t h t h e g i r l s . You. h a v e t o h a v e b o t h k i n d s o f m a t r o n , y o u c o u l d n e v e r h a v e j u s t t h e s t r i c t t y p e . 97 The two t y p e s o f a p p r o a c h were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one m a t r o n a s f o l l o w s : The e x p e r t s f e e l t h a t a p e r s o n ' s r e l a t - i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e g i r l s i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e j o b o r w h a t e v e r t h e y h a p p e n t o be d o i n g .. ( b u t ) ... i t w o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t e x p e r t h a i r d r e s s i n g done i f y o u must p u s s y f o o t a r o u n d b e c a u s e o f p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s . I f y o u h a v e one, y o u a r e g o i n g t o have t o s a c r i f i c e t h e o t h e r ... I n s t r u c t r i c e s s h o u l d know w h e t h e r p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h them h a v e a n y t h i n g v e r y u p s e t t i n g h a p p e n , s u c h a s a d e a t h o r s o m e t h i n g , o r s h o u l d be aware o f o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h may be t r o u b l i n g them so t h e y d o n ' t u n n e c e s s a r i l y p i l e i t o n . Be t a c t f u l enough t o t a k e i t e a s y on one o r two p e o p l e i n y o u r team i n t h e m o r n i n g , t h e n i f t i m e w a r r a n t s i t , be more demanding o f them a n o t h e r t i m e . The g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s a p p e a r s t o be t h a t b e n e v o l e n t d e s p o t i s m i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e way t o h a n d l e t h e t a s k r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t , w i t h a more k i n d l y , p e r m i s s i v e a p p r o a c h b e i n g r e s e r v e d f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p r i s o n w o r l d i s f o s t e r e d by t h e Warden o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , f o r he h a s o n more t h a n one o c c a s i o n s t a t e d s i m i l a r v i e w s when a d d r e s s i n g a s t a f f m e e t i n g . The m o r n i n g s h i f t must " g e t t h i n g s done", but t h i s i n t u r n p r o d u c e s many s t r a i n s and f e e l i n g s o f t e n s i o n i n t h e i n m a t e s b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s s u r e s w h i c h :are, b r o u g h t t o b e a r u p o n them. The a f t e r n o o n s h i f t must t h e n smooth t h e r u f f l e d f e a t h e r s , and g e n e r a l l y p e r f o r m t h e i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Warden, t h e a f t e r n o o n s t a f f must be k i n d a n d a c c e p t i n g , w i l l - i n g t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y r e a s s u r a n c e o f l o v e f o r t h e i n m a t e s , r e a l i z i n g t h a t e x p r e s s i o n s o f h o s t i l i t y and r e s e n t m e n t 98 w i l l p r o b a b l y be made b y t h e i n m a t e s as a n e c e s s a r y way o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s p r o d u c e d on t h e m o r n i n g p r o g r a m . T h i s d u a l i t y o f a p p r o a c h s u p p o s e d l y d u p l i c a t e s t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g i n f r e e s o c i e t y where p e o p l e must l e a v e t h e r e l a x e d a t m o sphere o f t h e i r own homes t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e demanding, a c h i e v e m e n t - o r i e n t e d b u s i n e s s w o r l d . Prom t h i s h a r s h m i l i e u t h e y r e t u r n a g a i n t o t h e s a n c t i t y and t r a n q u i l i t y o f t h e i r homes a t t h e end o f t h e d a y . The a c t u a l work p l a c e m e n t w h i c h a m a t r o n w i l l h a v e was f e l t t o be p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s u l t o f h e r own p e r s o n a l c h o i c e i n t h e m a t t e r : Whether t h e y a r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i v i d e d up t h i s way o r n o t t h e y do d i v i d e t h i s way. The s t r i c t e r p e o p l e p r e f e r m o r n i n g s b e c a u s e i t i s c u t and d r i e d , a r u l e i s a r u l e , i n t e r p r e t e d as i t i s w r i t t e n . Y o u c a n ' t do t h i s on a f t e r n o o n s . I b r e a k a l o t o f r u l e s m y s e l f b e c a u s e i t j u s t w o u l d n ' t work t o f o l l o w t h e r u l e s a l l t h e t i m e . You w o u l d n ' t h a v e much p r o g r a m . Somebody h a s t o s t i c k h e r n e c k o u t . M a t r o n s a p p a r e n t l y f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e on e i t h e r m o r n i n g s h i f t o r a f t e r n o o n s h i f t , and t e n d , o v e r t i m e , t o s e t t l e r a t h e r p e r m a n e n t l y on one. N i g h t s h i f t t e n d s t o be t h e u l t i m a t e p l a c e o f b a n i s h - ment i f a s t a f f member i s f o u n d t o c r e a t e g r o s s d i f f i c u l t i e s o n e i t h e r a f t e r n o o n s o r m o r n i n g s , b u t some m a t r o n s do work n i g h t s b y c h o i c e , e i t h e r b e c a u s e i t f i t s i n b e t t e r w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e o r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t a k i n g some c o u r s e o f s t u d y w h i l e w o r k i n g . W o r k i n g n i g h t s h i f t q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y i s o l a t e s a m a t r o n f r o m any e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n m a t e s so t h a t anyone w o r k i n g i n t h e g a o l p r i m a r i l y . b e c a u s e o f an i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d o f c o r r e c t i o n s w o u l d f i n d i t most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . M a t r o n s who work n i g h t s f o r any e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e c e r t - a i n l y do n o t e n j o y t h e same d e g r e e o f p r e s t i g e e i t h e r among t h e o t h e r s t a f f members o r among t h e i n m a t e s as do m a t r o n s w o r k i n g day o r a f t e r n o o n s h i f t . The p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n seems t o be t h a t a l m o s t anyone c o u l d work on n i g h t s i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f a c u s t o d i a n , h u t t h a t i t r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t a l i m i t e d amount o f s k i l l t o he .a team o r g r o u p m a t r o n . Two g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f c o r r e c t i o n e x i s t a t t h e Women's U n i t , and t h e r e seems t o be a c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y o f c o r r e c t i o n s t o w h i c h a m a t r o n s u b s c r i b e s a n d t h e s h i f t w h i c h she p r e f e r s t o work. T h o s e w o r k i n g on t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t t e n d t o f e e l t h a t i t i s t h e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r i s o n t o t e a c h t h e i n m a t e s t o c o n f o r m t o a u t h o r i t y and t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f r a t h e r s t r i n g e n t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . I f t h e p r i s o n c a n c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e inmate w h i l e she i s i n p r i s o n , t h e i n m a t e w i l l p r e s u m a b l y be a b l e t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s s e t down by s o c i e t y when she i s r e l e a s e d . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p h y s i o l o g i c a l ( n o n - c o g n i t i v e ) h a b i t - f o r m i n g a p p r o a c h t o human b e h a v i o r . A c t u a l l y c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and m o t i v a t i o n s i s n o t so much t h e g o a l as i s i n s u r i n g t h a t t h e o u t w a r d b e h a v i o r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l comes t o be more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e : T h e y s h o u l d have e t i q u e t t e books a r o u n d t h e r e and we s h o u l d h a v e t h e g i r l s r e a d i n g a n d 100 p r a c t i s i n g i t among t h e m s e l v e s .... t h e y s h o u l d e n a c t d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , t h e n t h e y would know how t o a c t when t h e y g e t o u t .... I f a g i r l knows how t o c o n d u c t h e r s e l f i n s o c i e t y and i s g i v e n a t r a d e a t O a k a l l a and t h e n e c e s s a r y a f t e r - c a r e .. i t s h o u l d e n a b l e h e r t o g e t a j o b , and t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . T h i s v i e w o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l e g i t i m i z e s t h e e x i s t i n g p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h m a t t e r s o f i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l - t h e e n f o r c e - ment o f m u l t i t u d i n o u s r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o f o r m u l a t e h a b i t s o f b e h a v i o r w h i l e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h w i l l p r e s u m a b l y p e r s i s t f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e f r o m t h e p r i s o n . "Good h a b i t s " s h o u l d be f o s t e r e d i n a l l s p h e r e s o f e n d e a v o r : work, r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n : We s h o u l d g i v e them l o n g e r work h o u r s and n o t so many b r e a k s n o r so much f o o d d u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s . T h e y s h o u l d l e a r n t o do a f u l l d a y * s work, o t h e r w i s e t h e y w i l l be e x h a u s t e d when t h e y f i r s t s t a r t t o work and t h e y a r e n ' t g o i n g t o be a b l e t o s t i c k i t o u t . We s h o u l d f i n d work f o r them on t h e o u t s i d e ... Some o f them have deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , b u t most j u s t d o n ' t have any r o o t s . A n o t h e r m a t r o n c a r r i e d t h i s v i e w one s t e p f a r t h e r , s e e i n g t h e p r i m a r y v a l u e o f r e l e a s e on p a r o l e i n t e r m s o f p o s t - r e l e a s e h a b i t f o r m a t i o n : I f t h e y were g i v e n a j o b f o r s i x months t h e y w o u l d t h i n k t w i c e b e f o r e g i v i n g i t up, t h e y w o u l d s o r t o f s e t a p a t t e r n , t h e y w o u l d n ' t mind i t so much. I f i t i s y e a r s s i n c e t h e y h a v e worked t h e v e r y t h o u g h t o f i t w o u l d s c a r e them. ... R e a l l y we s h o u l d l e a d them by t h e h a n d ... They s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d , p l a c e d i n a j o b , and a p l a c e f o u n d f o r them t o l i v e . H a v i n g l e a r n e d g o od work h a b i t s , e t i q u e t t e and c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y 101 a p p a r e n t l y i s t h a t g i v e n a p e r i o d o f s u p e r v i s e d a d j u s t m e n t w i t h i n t h e community, most i n m a t e s c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l i v e t h e "good l i f e " f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o them by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . By c o n t r a s t , t h o s e w o r k i n g on the a f t e r n o o n s h i f t t e n d i n t h e mai n t o s u p p o r t t h e v i e w t h a t s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t a f u n d a m e n t a l change i n t h e Inma t e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n m a t e s a r e e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y " s i c k " o r a r e p e r h a p s c o m m i t t e d t o an a n t i - s o c i a l s e t o f v a l u e s a n d s t a n d a r d s . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h e n becomes a m a t t e r o f c o n v i n c i n g t h e i n m a t e s o f t h e w o r t h i - n e s s , o r p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y , o f t h e e n j o y a b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r s t y l e o f l i f e . T h e r e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n among t h e s t a f f members t h a t t h e l i f e o f t h e i n m a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n v o l - v e d i n n a r c o t i c o f f e n c e s i s : A r e a l l i v e game o f cops and robbers', an e x c i t i n g l i f e , and how tame e v e r y t h i n g e l s e must be i n c o m p a r i s o n I T h e y f e e l s q u a r e p e o p l e a r e r e a l l y s t u f f y . They l o v e t o have t h e i r f u n ; c h i l d i s h p l e a s u r e s , n o t a d u l t p l e a s u r e s . They d o n ' t t h i n k i t ' s f u n t o l i s t e n t o some k i n d s o f m u s i c o r t o have a good c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h ey d o n ' t want t h e i r minds t o work, t h e y j u s t want t o d r i f t a l o n g , l i k e t e e n a g e r s w i t h no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ... We s h o u l d show them t h a t b e i n g good can be l o t s o f f u n , t h e n t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t o go a r o u n d f e e l i n g g u i l t y a l l t h e t i m e ... No wonder some o f them d r i n k and u s e d r u g s w i t h a c o n s c i e n c e l i k e t h a t I I t t h e n becomes t h e t a s k o f t h e m a t r o n t o p r o v i d e a n example o f a good and f u l l l i f e , t o be an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h whom t h e i n m a t e s c o u l d i d e n t i f y a n d t o a s p i r e t o be l i k e . The m a t r o n must n o t o n l y s e l l h e r s e l f , b u t s e l l h e r s t y l e o f 102 l i f e a s w e l l . She must p r o v i d e n o t o n l y t h e means f o r change o r growth, b u t p r o v i d e t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r c h a n g i n g a n d g r o w i n g as w e l l : W i t h t h e methods h e r e i t goes so much more b e y o n d t h e c u s t o d y and s a f e k e e p i n g o f t h e i n m a t e s , w h i c h i s as i t s h o u l d b e . Y o u a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t p e r s o n ' s way o f t h i n k i n g and h e r o u t l o o k . Y o u must t r y t o make them t h i n k , and t o change t h e i r way o f t h i n k i n g , w h i c h i s p r e t t y h a r d t o d o . T h i s i s what g o t them i n t o t r o u b l e i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . I f y o u change t h e i r way o f t h i n k i n g t h e n i t . c h a n g e s t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and ways o f b e h a v i n g . The m a t r o n s s u b s c r i b i n g t o t h e " b a s i c c h a n g e " v i e w o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e c o m m i t t e d t o a b e l i e f i n t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e i n m a t e s w i t h a p e r m i s s i v e , s u p p o r t i v e atmos- p h e r e i n w h i c h t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o grow and t o make t h e s e b a s i c c h a n g es i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t r u c t u r e . To t h i s e x t e n t t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y I s i n harmony w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t , b u t a r e n o t i n harmony w i t h the u s u a l c o n c e p t s o f c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l w i t h i n a p r i s o n . One would s u s p e c t t h a t f r u s t r a t i o n s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m t h e s e r a t h e r i n c o n g r u o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s t o t h e work. T h e r e JLs a c e r t a i n amount o f i n t e r - s h i f t r i v a l r y e v i d - e n c e d w h i c h sometimes b o r d e r s on o u t r i g h t a n t a g o n i s m . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e between t h o s e members o f t h e day and a f t e r - noon s h i f t who h a v e n o t b e e n r o t a t e d between t h e two s h i f t s f o r months o r i n some c a s e s y e a r s . C o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e two t e n d s t o b r e a k down, and e a c h c l a i m s - t h a t t h e o t h e r I s u n c o - o p e r a t i v e o r u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o w a r d t h e s p e c i f i c g o a l s o f 103 t h e i r s h i f t : One h a l f o f t h e s t a f f d o e s n ' t know what t h e o t h e r h a l f i s t r y i n g t o d o . -The a f t e r n o o n s t a f f h a s a b e t t e r i d e a o f what t h e m o r n i n g s t a f f i s d o i n g b e c a u s e i t i s b e t t e r w i t h i n t h e i r s c o p e . I t ' s e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d what y o u a r e t r y i n g t o do when y o u a r e t e a c h i n g h a i r d r e s s i n g , e t c . But who c o u l d e v e r f i g u r e o u t what g r o u p work was t h e i r own? Most p e o p l e f e e l t h a t work- i n g on a f t e r n o o n s i s j u s t a m a t t e r o f p l a y i n g b r i d g e .... t h i s i g n o r a n c e i s (now) p e r h a p s my f a u l t . I s h o u l d say I am g o i n g t o have a l e c t u r e a n d t e l l . e v e r y b o d y what g r o u p work i s . Somebody s h o u l d be t e l l i n g them. One way o f o v e r c o m i n g p r o v i n c i a l i s m o f v i e w w o u l d be t o e n c o u r a g e s t a f f t o r o t a t e between a l l t h r e e s h i f t s r e g u l - a r l y . A n o t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s : . Have more o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s where a l l . s t a f f o f a n a r e a , g r o u p , s t a f f o r team s t a f f come t o g e t h e r ... ( f o r ) ... i n t e g r a t i o n b etween t h e two s h i f t s . Sometimes t h i s r e a l l y seems t o be l a c k i n g . S h o u l d s t r e s s more o f a c o n s t a n t g o a l , n o t " w e l l t h i s s h o u l d h a v e been done on t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t " , e t c . An o p en a t t i t u d e , t h i s i s what we a r e a i m i n g f o r ; f o r t h e g i r l s , f o r t h e a c t i v i t y , f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ... we s h o u l d n ' t l e t m i n o r t h i n g s d e t r a c t and b o t h e r . T h i s c a n . o n l y be done t h r o u g h , c o n s t a n t c o n f e r e n c e s , s h o r t o r g a n i z e d m e e t i n g s , g e n e r a l s t a f f k n owing what i s g o i n g on. A t p r e s e n t t h e r e i s l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s t y p e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h s t a f f a r e s u p p o s e d t o p a s s a l o n g any p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r r e l i e v i n g m a t r o n . A d a i l y r e p o r t book i s r e a d by a l l a n d c o n t a i n s a r e c o r d o f movements w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and o f any m a j o r i n c i d e n t s , but o n l y a few o f t h e u n i t s keep a r e c o r d o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s and t e a m s . C o r r u p t i o n o f A u t h o r i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e m a t r o n s j u s t i f y 104 many o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o one a n o t h e r i n t e r m s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e y a p p a r e n t l y do n o t p r e s e n t t h i s sanne j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e i n m a t e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n m a t e s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r i s o n i s i n t e n d e d t o p u n i s h c o n v i c t e d o f f e n d e r s by r e t a i n i n g them i n c u s t o d y . They a r e r e s i g n e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t " i f y o u a r e g o i n g t o p l a y , y o u have t o p a y " . T h e y pay t h e i r d e b t by r e m a i n i n g i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h e y a r e n o t o b l i g e d t o change t h e i r ways b e f o r e t h e y a r e r e l e a s e d . R e l e a s e comes a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e imposed by t h e c o u r t s , n o t as t h e r e s u l t o f good b e h a v i o r o r a p r o f e s s e d d e s i r e t o become a c o n f o r m i n g member o f s o c i e t y . A t t h e Women's U n i t t h e i n m a t e s seem t o make a b a r g a i n w i t h t h e m a t r o n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e y ( t h e i n m a t e s ) w i l l com- p l y w i t h t h e w i s h e s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e m a t r o n s do n o t t r y t o t a m p e r w i t h t h e i n m a t e s ' s y s t e m o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e may be some t r a n s f e r o f power f r o m t h e s t a f f t o t h e i n m a t e s as a means o f s e c u r i n g c o m p l i a n c e , b u t t h e u s u a l p a t t e r n seems t o be t h e a b o v e . The m a t r o n s a r e e i t h e r f o r c e d o r f i n d i t more c o n v e n i e n t t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r f u n c t i o n t o t h e i n m a t e s i n t e r m s o f c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l r a t h e r t h a n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I t i s p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y c l o s e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t a c t between s t a f f and i n m a t e s a t t h e Women's U n i t t h a t t h e i n m a t e s s e e k t h i s k i n d o f a b a r g a i n w i t h t h e m a t r o n s , f o r m a t r o n s a r e i n c o n t i n u o u s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n m a t e s , and c o u l d p r e s u m a b l y p r o v i d e a v e r y r e a l t h r e a t t o t h e i r b a s i c a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n s . 105 E v i d e n c e o f t h e a p p a r e n t s e d u c t i o n o f t h e m a t r o n s t o a d o p t i o n o f t h e i n m a t e s ' v i e w o f i m p r i s o n m e n t can be s e e n i n t h e m a t r o n s ' e x p r e s s e d r e a c t i o n s t o c o n v i c t i o n and s e n t e n c i n g o f t h e i n m a t e s . The m a t r o n s s y m p a t h i z e w i t h t h e i n m a t e s i f a s e n t e n c e imposed f o r an o f f e n c e c o m m i t t e d seems t o be p a r t i c - u l a r l y s e v e r e , o r i f t h e p o l i c e h a v e been s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n s p o r t s m a n l i k e i n s e c u r i n g an a r r e s t . W i t h r e g a r d t o d r u g u s a g e , f o r example, t h e s t a f f may be f u l l y aware t h a t an inmate h a s b e e n g u i l t y o f u s i n g n a r c o t i c s i l l e g a l l y , b u t i f t h e c i r - c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i n m a t e ' s a r r e s t a r e s u c h t h a t i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o a c t u a l l y f i n d h e r g u i l t y o f p o s s e s s i n g n a r c o t i c s m a t r o n s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y w i s h t h e i n d i v i d u a l " l u c k " i n h e r c o u r t c a s e . By w i s h i n g t h e i n m a t e s l u c k t h e m a t r o n s i m p l y t h a t t h e y r e a l l y f e e l t h e Inmates w o u l d be j u s t as w e l l o f f r e t u r n - i n g t o t h e community as t h e y w o u l d be r e m a i n i n g i n t h e p r i s o n . The v a l i d i t y o f i m p r i s o n m e n t as a means o f e f f e c t i n g r e f o r m a - t i o n o f t h e i n m a t e s i s t h e r e b y r e f u t e d . When s e n t e n c e s a r e imposed t h e m a t r o n s and i n m a t e s d i s c u s s t h e f a i r n e s s ,of t h e s e n t e n c e r a t h e r t h a n i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y as a p e r i o d o f t i m e i n w h i c h t h e i n m a t e can be p e r s u a d e d o r c o e r c e d i n t o c h a n g i n g h e r p a t t e r n o f l i f e . The'-matrons may f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o a p p e a r t o be s e d u c e d by t h e i n m a t e s ' v i e w and j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f I n c a r c e r a - t i o n i n o r d e r t o f o r m a w o r k a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i n m a t e s and t o s e c u r e c o m p l i a n c e i n some i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s . But t h e 106 f a i l u r e o f t h e s t a f f t o o p e n l y j u s t i f y a nd l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r r o l e s i n t e r m s o f a n i n t e n t i o n t o change t h e i n m a t e s c e r t a i n l y p l a c e s some g r a v e l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l . . I V . RELATIONS TO OTHERS I n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h e r r o l e t h e m a t r o n must f o r m a p e c u l i a r t y p e o f a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e "consumer" o f h e r s p e c i a l k i n d o f s e r v i c e . But she i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o a n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g p u b l i c w h i c h , by a p r o c e s s o f s y s t e m a t i c and f o r m a l i z e d r e j e c t i o n , h a s p r o v i d e d t h e m a t r o n w i t h h e r " c l i e n t " . I n a s e n s e t h e c l i e n t b e l o n g s more c o m p l e t e l y t o t h e i n s t i t u - t i o n t h a n does t h e employee, f o r as a member o f a t o t a l i n s t i - t u t i o n t h e i n m a t e s t a y s w i t h i n i t s c o n f i n e s f o r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s o f t h e day, and r e m a i n s t h r o u g h o u t t h a t t i m e , and f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f h e r s e n t e n c e , an " i n m a t e " . The m a t r o n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s f r e e t o l e a v e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a t t h e com- p l e t i o n o f h e r e i g h t h o u r s h i f t , a nd i s a b l e ( a n d e x p e c t e d ) t o d r o p h e r r o l e a s a m a t r o n when she l e a v e s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . Many o f t h e i n m a t e s h a ve " b e l o n g e d " t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r a much l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e t h a n h a v e most m a t r o n s t o o , and c a n n o s t a l g i c a l l y r e f e r t o t h e "good o l d d a y s " o f a p r e v i o u s s e n t e n c e , u s u a l l y b e f o r e t h e a d v e n t o f " t h e g r o u p s y s t e m " . As a v o l u n t a r y member o f a n o t h e r w i s e i n v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l g r o u p , t h e m a t r o n must d e f i n e h e r s e l f t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f b o t h t h o s e on t h e " i n s i d e " a n d t h o s e on t h e " o u t s i d e " . B e c a u s e 107 of t h i s complicating r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n which the matron must offer some;type of "service" to a consumer which has been defined by her employer (the public) as at least l e g a l l y an "enemy", the matron has to somehow s a t i s f y two quite d i f f e r e n t demands, and must somehow reconcile the two.^" To some extent she can be l e f t free to perform her role as she sees f i t by in s u l a t i n g her a c t i v i t i e s from observa b i l i t y . This may i n fact be one of the reasons why prisons as such have persisted i n the face of increasing awareness of t h e i r l i m i t e d useful- ness as deterrents or r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l s . Perhaps prison workers f e e l the necessity of being both insulated and isolated from society when playing t h e i r r o l e , either because of t h e i r self-consciousness about t h e i r a b i l i t y to " r e h a b i l i t a t e " , or because the public i s not as yet prepared to condone a thera- peutic approach to penology. Whatever the " r e a l " reason may be, the Women't Unit i s quite successfully isol a t e d from the rest of the community, but s o c i a l workers from any recognized s o c i a l work agency have no d i f f i c u l t y i n penetrating the b a r r i e r i f they wish to either continue or e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t - ionship with any inmate. The Matron's Relationship to Society. Many s t a f f members reported that when engaged i n casual conversation or when at a s o c i a l gathering, i f the question of occupation arose they frequently demurred,or described themselves i n ^Talcott Parsons, Structure and Process i n Modern Societies , I l l i n o i s , The Free Press of Glencoe, I960, pp.ij.7-56. 108 h a l f - t r u t h s , saying that they worked f o r the Attorney General's Department or something s i m i l a r . The rationale given f o r t h i s reluctance was that they f e l t the public would not "understand", necessitating an overly long explanation of t h e i r duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s while i n an inappropriate s o c i a l s e t t i n g . Others mentioned that when they did explain where they worked people usually registered great shock, and frequently would remark incredulously, "But how could someone l i k e you work i n a place l i k e that?" They would rather circumvent the whole issue than f i n d themselves on the defensive concerning t h e i r work. In many respects the matron i s a member of a f r i n g e occupational r o l e , one which i s not quite acceptable i n p o l i t e society because of the d i s t a s t e f u l connotations e l i c i t e d by mention of prisons, prisoners and guards. Negative stereo- types do exist i n r e l a t i o n to prisoners i n which they are depicted as rather savage, corrupt individuals who have about them a general aura of decadence. Equally negative stereo- types of the prison guard are prevalent; he i s depicted as a rather dull-witted, usually s a d i s t i c and frequently corrupt opportunist, who makes his l i v i n g by making others miserable. A d d i t i o n a l l y , there seems to be a general expectation that prolonged and rather intimate association with the m i s f i t s of society w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n a certain amount of "taking on" of the a t t r i b u t e s of the other. Lawyers and p s y c h i a t r i s t s are probably the most v i s i b l e occupational roles which are 109 viewed somewhat ambivalently by society for similar reasons. The Matron's Relationship to the Inmates. It is interesting to note that much the same feeling of defensive- ness was evidenced in the responses given by the matrons to the general question: "How would you describe the inmates?" Most matrons had two distinct opinions to express: a "public opinion" which they would use to answer such a question posed by someone outside the institution, and a "private opinion" which they f e l t free to discuss only with someone on the "inside". For the benefit of the general public the matrons again expressed reluctance in discussing the topic at a l l , and stated in fact that: It is best not to describe them at a l l , because i t is d i f f i c u l t for most people to realize what i t is a l l about. If pressed to discussion, the tendency was then apparently to make the inmates appear in as favourable a light as poss- ibl e . They would be described in terms denoting their pre- dominant normality rather than their abnormality or deviance, and would be excused of their maladaptive behavior on grounds which tended to place the onus for their behavior on society rather than on the offender herself. They would be character- ized as being the innocent victims of under-privileged homes and unfavourable environments in which they would have no opportunity to develop into more normal, contributing members of society. Their "real" opinions were, by contrast, consid- erably less flattering to the inmates, and frequently charged 110 them with considerably more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own actions: My pat answer i s that they are people who have never had a chance. My r e a l f e e l - ings are that they are weak people and we add to t h i s . I never do (describe the inmates) because most people think they have two horns -• so I t e l l them they only.have one horn. I don't, usually t a l k about them unless i t ' s to another matron or to someone else i n the f i e l d . .. For my own s a t i s f a c t i o n , I l i k e most of them, I think they are just mixed up and s i c k .. I t e l l them they are nice people, but they don't.under- stand that you can l i k e a person even though they have done every rotten thing i n the book .- If I were t a l k i n g to a t o t a l stranger i t would.be.a hard thing to do because I have such a block about discussing these people with anyone outside the business. Without a b i t of experience i n these l i n e s nobody has any conception of what these people are l i k e . If I were describing them f o r my own s a t i s - f a c t i o n , they give you the impression of being l i t t l e children i n l o t s of ways, and yet under- neath ... something wrong i s there. Others dissociate the deviant behavior which o r i g i n a l l y placed the g i r l i n the i n s t i t u t i o n from the i n d i v i d u a l with whom they must cope, and f i n d the inmates to be quite normal people within the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . They describe them i n these terms both f o r the public and f o r t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t i o n : I just say that once you have them i n there, away from t h e i r old way of l i f e they don't seem to be much d i f f e r e n t from the aver- age, run of people. But of course that's prob- ably closing your eyes to a l o t ... I never r e a l l y think too much about some of the awful things they do, you just take them as you f i n d them. I l l By d e s c r i b i n g t h e i n m a t e s t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c as n i c e , b u t u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d v i c t i m s o f s o c i e t y t h e m a t r o n s i n f l u e n c e t h e i r s e l f and p u b l i c image i n two ways. F i r s t , by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e n o r m a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e i n m a t e , some o f t h e " d i r t i n e s s " o f h e r work w i l l be r e d u c e d and, p o s s i b l y , she w i l l e n j o y a n i n c r e a s e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e as a c o n s e q u e n c e . S e c o n d l y , by p l a c i n g t h e onus f o r s o c i a l d e v i a n c e u p o n t h e p u b l i c , t h e m a t r o n i s somewhat a b s o l v e d o f h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f " c u r i n g " t h e phenomenon i n one o m n i s c i e n t g e s t u r e . H e r p r i v a t e o p i n i o n s a l s o have c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r h e r s e l f - i m a g e . E i t h e r she c a n v i e w t h e i n m a t e s as b e i n g so g r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d t h a t she c a n n o t p o s s i b l y do much t o e f f e c t a change, o r she c a n v i e w them as n o r m a l p e o p l e w h i l e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n who must be a s s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e " o u t s i d e " i f t h e y a r e t o a v o i d r e c i d i v i s m . She p r o b a b l y c a n n o t c o m p l e t e l y a b s o l v e h e r s e l f o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i n g t h e i n m a t e s , b u t she c a n l i g h t e n t h e b u r d e n o f h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e s e ways. The. g e n e r a l f e e l i n g w h i c h e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s , a t l e a s t on t h e s u r f a c e , s u r p r i s i n g l y r e l a x e d and p l e a s a n t . One m a t r o n r e c a l l e d h e r i n i t i a l s u r p r i s e as f o l l o w s : J u s t t o l o o k a t the p l a c e I t h i n k i t i s q u i t e a m a z i n g ; t h e p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , g i r l s t a l k i n g t o t h e m a t r o n s i n a n o f f h a n d manner as t h e y w o u l d t o anyone ... I t h o u g h t i t was amaz- i n g when I f i r s t saw them. I a l w a y s f e e l l i k e d e f e n d i n g t h e p l a c e i n a way, b e c a u s e i t i s n ' t t h a t b a d . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e warmth i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i n m a t e s and t h e m a t r o n s , an d on t h e whole t h e 112 s t a f f f e e l s t h a t t h e i n m a t e s a r e l i k e a b l e , f r i e n d l y and a l m o s t c h i l d l i k e i n t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m , n o i s e and m i s c h i e v i o u s - n e s s . The amount o f l a u g h i n g and j o k i n g w h i c h i s e v i d e n t i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n was commented upon by s e v e r a l m a t r o n s , a n d t h e y a s c r i b e d t h i s phenomenon v a r i o u s l y t o a n a b s e n c e o f c a r e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b r o u g h t on by r e m o v a l f r o m t h e community, and as a mechanism f o r r e l e a s e o f t h e many s t r a i n s p r o d u c e d by m i c r o c o s m i c l i v i n g : T hey a r e a l l q u i t e l i k e a b l e and a l l seem q u i t e . y o u n g ... but O l i v e f o r i n s t a n c e i s p r o b - a b l y n o t q u i t e as y o u n g i n h e r own home as she i s I n j a i l . T h e i r g i g g l i n g , e t c . , may be a means o f t e n s i o n r e l e a s e , o r i t may be t h e y a c t y o u n g b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a m o t h e r f i g u r e h e r e i n t h e m a t r o n . C e r t a i n l y many i n m a t e s h a ve commented t h a t t h e y a r e " t r e a t e d l i k e c h i l d r e n " , w h i c h w o u l d l e n d some s u p p o r t t o t h e n o t i o n o f dependency w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o say w h i c h came f i r s t , i n m a t e dependency o r m a t r o n o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e n e s s , b u t t h e r e s u l t a n t p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r a r e a m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n f o r b o t h t h e i n m a t e s and t h e s t a f f . U n d o u b t e d l y f o r some i n m a t e s l i f e h a s n e v e r been so good m a t e r i a l l y as t h e y e x p e r i e n c e i t i n p r i s o n , a n d f o r many who f i n d t h e m s e l v e s u n a b l e t o cope w i t h l i f e i n t h e f r e e s o c i e t y f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , a s o j o u r n t o t h e Women's U n i t i s a welcome r e s p i t e f r o m t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p r o b l e m s . I t i s a f a c t t h a t i n m a t e s s e e k a r r e s t f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , t h a t some a s k t o s t a y i n t h e p r i s o n o v e r C h r i s t m a s and t h a t some f r a n k l y a d m i t t h a t t h e y g e t b e t t e r n u r s i n g - h o m e c a r e i n O a k a l l a t h a n t h e y c o u l d hope f o r e l s e w h e r e . T h e s e f a c t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y p o i n t e d t o as t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e h i g h r a t e o f r e c i d i v i s m among t h e i n m a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n women who u s u a l l y come f r o m g r o s s l y u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d s o c i a l a r e a s , and among t h e a l c o h o l i c s who i n no s m a l l measure owe t h e i r l o n g e - v i t y t o t h e p e r i o d i c p h y s i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h t h e y u n d e r - go w h i l e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t c a n n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t l i f e i n t h e Women's U n i t a t O a k a l l a i s e x t r e m e l y I n s u l a r and c o n c e n t r a - t e d i n n a t u r e . Prom s e v e n o ' c l o c k I n t h e m o r n i n g u n t i l e i g h t - t h i r t y a t n i g h t , ( a n d i n some u n i t s n i n e - t h i r t y ) , t h e Inmates a r e t h r o w n i n t o c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r and w i t h the s t a f f . They work t o g e t h e r i n teams t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n d u r i n g t h e d a y , and must " g r o u p and t r o u p " t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r l i v i n g g r o u p u n t i l b e d t i m e a t n i g h t . E a t i n g , w o r k i n g and p l a y i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t h e same p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g , and p r e d o m i n a t e l y w i t h t h e same e i g h t o r n i n e a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n e d a s s o c i a t e s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y p r o d u c e t e n s i o n s . L i f e i s so com- p a c t and c o n s t r i c t e d t h a t t o r e m a i n t o l e r a b l e , i n t e r - p e r s o n a l g r i e v a n c e s must be k e p t t o a minimum. The p r e v a l e n c e o f k i d d i n g and j o k i n g w h i c h o b t a i n s between, i n m a t e s and betw e e n i n m a t e s and t h e s t a f f , s e r v e s as one mechanism t o r e l e a s e t e n s i o n s , and a d d i t i o n a l l y a l l a y s a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t a k i n g i t a l l t o o s e r i o u s l y . L a u g h i n g a t o n e s e l f - and one's p r e d i c a m e n t may e f f e c t i v e l y i n s u l a t e t h e t r a g e d y o f 1 1 4 . t h e s i t u a t i o n a t l e a s t . t e m p o r a r i l y . The q u i e t d e s p a i r o c c a s - i o n a l l y w i t n e s s e d by t h e s t a f f a f t e r " l o c k u p " g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e s h a l l o w n e s s o f t h e f a c a d e w h i c h i s b e i n g m a i n t a i n e d . I t i s n o t uncommon f o r a m a t r o n t o f i n d one o f h e r g r o u p members I n t e a r s f o r no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n when ma k i n g t h e f i n a l c h e c k o f h e r u n i t , o r f o r someone t o beg t h e m a t r o n t o s t a y and t a l k f o r a w h i l e - t o bend a s y m p a t h e t i c e a r . The i n m a t e s h a v e a s o l i d a r i t y w h i c h b e l i e s d i s l o y a l t y t o one a n o t h e r , b u t a m a t r o n i s f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y e d as a s o u n d i n g b o a r d , f o r t h e g i r l s f e e l t h e i r companions have enough " t r o u b l e s o f t h e i r own" and s h o u l d n o t be f u r t h e r b u r d e n e d by t h e t r o u b l e s o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . The t e n d e n c y f o r t h e i n m a t e s t o be c o n s t a n t l y "on t h e p o i n t f o r s o m e t h i n g " was n o t e d , b u t t h e ma t r o n s d i f f e r e d i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s e a c t i o n s o f t h e in m a t e s as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e o f i m m a t u r i t y o r o f * m a l e v o l e n c e : They p u t up a f r o n t . T h e y . h a v e an a l m o s t c h i l d l i k e a p p r o a c h t o e v e r y t h i n g . The way t h e y l o s e t h e m s e l v e s i n a ~ b a l l game e t c . , and y e t e v e n t h o u g h t h e y a r e k i b i t z i n g a r o u n d on t h e b a l l f i e l d t h e i r e y e s a r e a l w a y s w a n d e r i n g , n o t - i c i n g e v e r y t h i n g . T hey a r e a l w a y s t h i n k i n g and t h e i r t h i n k i n g I s d e v i o u s . We h a v e t o a c c e p t t h a t o n t h e s u r f a c e b e h a v i o r , y e t h a v e t o be aware o f t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t a l l t h e t i m e , and i t ' s s u c h a c o n f l i c t ... They h a v e an a l e r t n e s s , a l m o s t a n a n i m a l a l e r t n e s s ... an a w a r e n e s s , a k e e n n e s s . The a d d i c t s i n p a r t i c u l a r were i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e s t a f f a s b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y on t h e w a t c h f o r some u n s p e c i f i e d " o p p o r t u n i t y " . 115 On t h e whole t h e y a r e v e r y f r i e n d l y . The I n d i a n g i r l s a r e r a t h e r shy and w i t h d r a w n a t f i r s t . The a d d i c t s a r e v e r y s l y . T h e y a r e a l w a y s t h i n k i n g o f how b e s t t o g e t t h e b e s t o f anyone i n t h e b u i l d i n g . Y o u a l w a y s h a v e t o be j u s t one jump a h e a d o f them ... I f t h e y a r e g o i n g t o want a n y t h i n g f r o m y o u t h e y a r e so n i c e t o y o u , t h e n a b o u t an h o u r l a t e r t h e y a r e down t o t h e c l i n i c a s k i n g y o u f o r some m e d i c a t i o n . T h i s p e r c e i v e d t e n d e n c y t o w a r d " s l y n e s s " ( e s p e c i a l l y on t h e p a r t o f the a d d i c t s ) , i s c o n s i d e r e d by many m a t r o n s t o be an o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s e a s e s u f f e r e d by t h o s e who must l i v e by t h e i r w i t s . The c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f u n t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s i n t h e i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n i s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f s u s p i c i o u s n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e m a t r o n s . The v e r y game o f c a t and mouse w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y i s th e g e n e s i s o f t h e d i s o r d e r i s f o s t e r e d w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s o r d e r . A v i c i o u s , , c i r c l e o f a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d and p e r p e t u a t e d , making t h e e s t a b l i s h - ment o f any o t h e r p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etween t h e r e p r e s - e n t a t i v e s o f a u t h o r i t y and t h e d e v i a n t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . P l a y i n g t h i s game doe s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e f r i e n d l y f e e l i n g s b etween s t a f f and i n m a t e s , b u t t h e r e i s r a t h e r a n u n w r i t t e n agreement t h a t a t t i t u d e s o f l o y a l t y and m u t u a l o b l i g a t i o n a r e o n l y o p e r a t i v e w i t h i n c e r t a i n p r e s c r i b e d s p h e r e s , and o u t s i d e t h e s e r i g i d l y d e l i m i t e d a r e a s e a c h must f e n d f o r h e r s e l f . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s c h o o l p r o v i d e s a p e r t i n e n t e x a m p l e . W i t h i n t h e s c h o o l i n m a t e s a r e e n r o l l e d i n v a r i o u s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e s 1 1 6 which are provided by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education. Cheating on these courses i s , of course, p o s s i b l e , but i s not condoned by the inmates, p a r t l y we would suspect, because the s t a f f are unable to e x e r c i s e e f f e c t i v e e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and must, t h e r e f o r e , charge the inmates w i t h assuming t h i s respon- s i b i l i t y themselves. W i t h i n the same department,. however, inmates w i l l be unashamedly dishonest to the extent that they w i l l , whenever the opportunity presents i t s e l f , s t e a l paper to be used at a l a t e r date f o r w r i t i n g " k i t e s " . By making p e r i o d i c checks of the inmates to determine the presence of i l l e g a l paper the s t a f f Is i n e f f e c t demonstrating to the inmates t h e i r e x p e c tation that paper w i l l be s t o l e n . I n t h i s case, as i n most, i n d i v i d u a l performance u s u a l l y conforms w i t h the expectations of the other. I n those areas of behavior and a c t i v i t y i n which the matron does extend her t r u s t she i s seldom disappointed, but where r u l e enforcement i s a r e l - a t i v e l y automatic process and i s the object of constant reminder on the part of s t a f f , the inmates apparently do not f e e l m orally o b l i g a t e d to exert any s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , f o r they sus- pect (and r i g h t l y so) t h a t d i s c i p l i n e w i l l be forthcoming e x t e r n a l l y . I f the matron i s remiss .in the performance of her d u t i e s of r u l e enforcement or i s not d i l i g e n t enough to i n t e r - cept k i t e s and messages, the inmates are "one up" on her. I f the inmate i s detected and punished f o r such a misdemeanor, then she has been caught out, and by the r u l e s of good s p o r t s - manship w i l l probably not h o l d any personal grudge against 117 t h e m a t r o n who has c a u g h t h e r . J u s t how f a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n f o r m i t y c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r t o t h e i n m a t e g r o u p s f r o m t h e m a t r o n i s , o f c o u r s e , a moot p o i n t . Some a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f l a t e n t e x p e c t a - t i o n o f s t a f f r e g a r d i n g i n m a t e p e r f o r m a n c e was e v i d e n c e d by t h e m a t r o n who d i s c u s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e " i n s i d e " b e h a v i o r o f t h e i n m a t e s f r o m t h a t " o u t s i d e " ; Once t h e y a r e i n t h e g a o l s e t t i n g t h e y r e a c t q u i t e n o r m a l l y . I guess t h e y f e e l a b i t o f s e c u r i t y o r s o m e t h i n g i n g a o l , o r w h e t h e r t h e y j u s t do what we e x p e c t them t o do i n g a o l . Me e x p e c t them t o a c t t h i s way. I t t h e y c a n get up and do a j o b i n g a o l e v e r y m o r n i n g , why c o u l d n ' t t h e y do t h a t when t h e y were o u t ? . . . I - g u e s s nobody c a r e s what t h e y do on t h e o u t s i d e . S i m i l a r l y , p r o b l e m s w i t h l e s b i a n i s m w i t h i n t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n were s e e n t o be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y t h e f a u l t o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e o f t h e s t a f f w h i c h , t h e o b s e r v e r f e l t , t e n d e d t o be o v e r l y s u s p i c i o u s o f any f r i e n d s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e g i r l s . I t h i n k we make t o o much of i t i n a way . You know t h e s e g r e a t f r i e n d s h i p s a r e n o t a l w a y s l e s b i a n , but we jump on them and s t i r them u p . Then t h e y o u n g k i d s become c u r i o u s a b o u t i t , t h e r e ' s so much i n t r i g u e s u r r o u n d i n g i t . Some m a t r o n s a r e h i g h l y s u s p i c i o u s o f any inmate a c t - i v i t y w h i c h m i g h t be e v e n v a g u e l y r e l a t e d t o l e s b i a n i s m and a r e v e r y s t r i c t i n t h e i r e n f o r c e m e n t o f r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o i n t i m a c y between the g i r l s . Inmates a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o s i t o n one a n o t h e r ' s l a p o r e v e n t o s h a r e t h e same c h a i r . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m a t r o n s 118 e n f o r c e t h e s e r u l e s , h owever, some f e e l i n g t h a t r i g i d e n f o r c e - ment i s e s s e n t i a l t o p r e v e n t " e p i s o d e s " , o t h e r s f e e l i n g t h a t r i g i d e n f o r c e m e n t p r o d u c e s a r t i f i c i a l i t y and a l m o s t f o r c e s t h e i n m a t e s i n t o a t l e a s t " p l a y i n g " a t b e i n g l e s b i a n s j u s t t o d e f y t h e s t a f f . We a r e t o o l a x i n many ways ... T h a t e p i s o d e o f L o r n a n e c k i n g i n t h e h a l l s , e t c . , w o u l d n e v e r . h a v e gone t o t h o s e l e n g t h s i f we h a d more m a t r o n s l i k e on t h e s t a f f . I saw M i s s l e t ( b o t h g i r l s ) o u t ( o f t h e i r rooms) and w a t c h e d w h i l e t h e y w a l k e d down t h e h a l l w i t h t h e i r arms a r o u n d e a c h o t h e r . T h i s s o r t o f t h i n g was g o i n g on a l l t h e t i m e . T h ey s h o u l d n e v e r h a v e been a l l o w e d t o r e a c h t h a t p o i n t where t h e g i r l i s so f r u s t r a t e d and worked up s e x u a l l y t o be i n a s t a t e t o ( c r e a t e an i n c i d e n t ) . I know t h a t wasn't p r e m e d i t a t e d . Some m a t r o n s f e e l t h a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f a f f e c t i o n b etween t h e g i r l s a r e q u i t e n o r m a l , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s a n d c h i l d r e n and have l i t t l e o t h e r o u t l e t f o r t h e i r e m o t i o n s . O t h e r s f e e l t h a t any demon- s t r a t i o n s b etween women a r e a b n o r m a l and a b h o r r e n t , and f e e l i t t h e i r d u t y t o s e v e r e l y s a n c t i o n any e v i d e n c e s o f s u c h b e h - a v i o r . The r e s u l t a n t u n e v e n n e s s o f r u l e e n f o r c e m e n t l e a d s t o a r a t h e r c o n f u s i n g s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h n e i t h e r t h e i n m a t e s n o r t h e s t a f f a r e t o o s u r e j u s t what t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i c y i s . The i n m a t e s a r e a b l e t o p l a c e t h e m a t r o n s i n a r a t h e r awkward p o s i t i o n by a c c u s i n g t h o s e who e n f o r c e t h e r u l e s r i g i d l y o f h a v i n g " d i r t y m i n ds", o r can g i v e t h e more l e n i e n t m a t r o n t h e d i s t i n c t i m p r e s s i o n t h e y f e e l she i s r a t h e r n a i v e a n d t h a t t h e y ( t h e inmates) h a v e r e a l l y o u t s m a r t e d h e r i n some s m a l l way. 119 S a t i s f a c t o r y and U n s a t i s f a c t o r y E n c o u n t e r s . P r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s o f i n m a t e s was n o t u n i v e r s a l by any means. Some s t a f f p r e f e r r e d w o r k i n g w i t h t h e n a t i v e g i r l s (who n o r m a l l y s e r v e v e r y s h o r t s e n t e n c e s ) b e c a u s e t h e y f o u n d them q u i e t and c o - o p e r a t i v e , and f a i r l y open and d e m o n s t r a t i v e . T h e i r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e s p o n s e , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , t o s u p e r v i s i o n was s e e n as b e i n g i n r e f r e s h i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e " c o n " a p p r o a c h o f t h e more " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " a d d i c t o f f e n d e r s , most o f whom have s p e n t many y e a r s i n many g a o l s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . O t h e r s p r e f e r r e d w o r k i n g w i t h t h e more g a o l - w i s e i n m a t e s b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t have t o be r e m i n d e d c o n s t a n t l y o f t h e r o u t i n e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e y d i d r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more s u r v e i l l a n c e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s a t t e m p t s t o " b e a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n " i n one way o r a n o t h e r . S t i l l o t h e r s f a v o u r e d t h e y o u n g , h o s t i l e i n m a t e s who p r e s e n t e d many p r o b l e m s t o the s t a f f , b u t who c o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e i r t a l e n t s . On t h e whole t h o s e m a t r o n s who s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e " h a b i t - f o r m i n g " o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d c o r r e c t i o n s d i d n o t l i k e t o be a s s i g n e d t o i n m a t e s who were e x c e p t i o n a l l y h o s t i l e o r d i s t u r b e d . One s u c h m a t r o n f r a n k l y s t a t e d she d i d n o t l i k e h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h the more d i s t u r b e d i n m a t e s b e c a u s e she f e l t she o n l y a n t a g o n i z e d them. M a t r o n s who were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n d e l v i n g more d e e p l y i n t o p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e i n m a t e s f o u n d t h e v e r y d i s t u r b e d g i r l s t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g : I w o u l d l i k e t h e GIS g i r l s ( G i r l s I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l ) b e c a u s e t h e y a r e y o u n g and t h e r e i s more hope o f d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w i t h them ... i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e so m i x e d up, t h e y f e e l "what h a s anyone e v e r done f o r me", t h e y h a v e been i n t h i s r a t r a c e e v e r s i n c e t h e y can remember, w i t h c r u e l f a t h e r s , b e i n g abandoned and so o n . I gu e s s I p r e f e r ; t h e m b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more l i k e c h i l d r e n and ne e d h e l p ... t h e y a r e more damaged p e r s o n a l i t i e s . P r e s u m a b l y t h i s t y p e o f inmate p r o v i d e s t h e m a t r o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h e f f e c t i n g a b a s i c change i n a t t i t u d e s w i t h a r a t h e r g r a p h i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r . h e r p h i l o s o p h y o f c o r - r e c t i o n s . ..V. MATRONS AS AN OCCUPATIONAL GROUP R e c r u i t m e n t and C h o i c e . M a t r o n s a r e r e c r u i t e d f r o m a w ide v a r i e t y o f p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n and v o c a - t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . No s p e c i f i c pre-employment t r a i n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be m a n d i t o r y a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . M a t r o n s a r e s e l e c t e d by means o f a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n w h i c h a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e " s u i t ' a b i l i t y " o f h e r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r e s t s . B e c a u s e i t h a s n o t b e e n t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f t h e Women's U n i t t o a d v e r t i s e p u b l i c l y f o r a p p l i c a n t s when a v a c a n c y o c c u r s , o r t o c o n d u c t f o r m a l e x a m i n a t i o n s and c o m p e t i t i o n s among t h o s e who do a p p l y f o r a p o s i t i o n , m a t r o n s employed h a v e u s u a l l y f i r s t h e a r d o f t h e work t h r o u g h a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o r a c q u a i n t a n c e who i s a l r e a d y employed a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s f a c t o r , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s i n g t r a i n i n g as a " s u i t a b l e " 1 2 1 o r i e n t a t i o n t o p r i s o n work, p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e h e a v y b i a s i n f a v o u r o f t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p i n t h e t o t a l p o p u - l a t i o n o f m a t r o n s . I t i s presumed t h a t t h e p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c u s t o d i a l and s e c u r i t y m e a sures n e c e s - s a r y i n t h e m e n t a l h o s p i t a l , as w e l l as h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h and t r a i n i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d p a t i e n t s them- s e l v e s w i l l s e r v e as a good b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o p r i s o n work, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t some t w e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e m a t r o n s c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d are p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e s . P r a c t i c a l and r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s make up a n o t h e r s i x t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s t a f f , so t h a t i n a l l t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s t a f f o f s i x t y — f i v e m a t r o n s h a v e h a d some n u r s i n g t r a i n i n g and i n s t i - t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t a f f c o n s i s t s o f s p e c i a l i s t s s u c h as c a s e w o r k e r s , o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t s , and i n s t r u c t o r s i n b e a u t y p a r l o u r o p e r a t i o n , d r e s s m a k i n g and power ( f a c t o r y ) s e w i n g . The r e m a i n i n g m a t r o n s f o r m a h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n r e c r e a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and j u v e n i l e c l u b l e a d e r s h i p . A.few h a v e h a d u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . A l l o f t h e s e m a t r o n s h a d b e e n h i r e d b y t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n i n i t i a l l y as summer r e l i e f s t a f f , b u t r e m a i n e d i n t h e work a t t h e end o f t h e h o l i d a y s e a s o n . I t w o u l d appear t h a t no one c u r r e n t l y employed b y t h e Women's U n i t embarked u p o n h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f b e c o m i n g a m a t r o n i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . - - D e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n employment i n t h i s c a p a c i t y 122 a p p e a r e d t o t h o s e m a t r o n s i n t e r v i e w e d t o h a v e been q u i t e hap- h a z a r d and. a c c i d e n t a l i n n a t u r e , but t h e s e p a t t e r n s do p r e s e n t some s i m i l a r i t y w i t h one a n o t h e r . T y p i c a l of t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "Why d i d y o u c h o s e O a k a l l a P r i s o n F a r m as a p l a c e t o work" i s t h e f o l l o w i n g g i v e n by a p r a c t i c a l n u r s e : I knew M r s . L., and o u r h o s p i t a l was c l o s i n g . We were a l l b e i n g . t r a n s f e r r e d some p l a c e , so I a p p l i e d a t O a k a l l a . I knew a l i t t l e a b o u t t h e p l a c e as I h a d met some o f t h e s t a f f f r o m t h e o l d d a y s . A n o t h e r m a t r o n , w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y b a c k g r o u n d i n Home E c o n o m i c s , d e s c r i b e d h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e work t h u s : I came t o work a t O a k a l l a as somewhat o f a f l u k e . I had no j o b a f t e r t h i r d y e a r ( a t u n i v e r s i t y ) , a f r i e n d was w o r k i n g a t O a k a l l a and knew o f an o p e n i n g , so s u g g e s t e d I a p p l y . I went on l e a v e o f a b s e n c e t o c o m p l e t e my f o u r t h y e a r a t U.B.C. I d e c i d e d t o s t a y on b e c a u s e ... t h e i d e a o f o p e n i n g a power s e w i n g d e p a r t m e n t (was s u g g e s t e d ) and I was i n t e r e s t e d , so d e c i d e d t o s t a y . A few w i t h p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n p s y c h i a t r i c and s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s were a t t r a c t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t i t o f f e r e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o do work s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h t h e y h a d f o u n d e n j o y a b l e e l s e w h e r e j I h a d h e a r d a b o u t ( t h e Warden) and h i s e m p h a s i s upon r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I h a d done c o n s i d e r a b l e r e c r e - a t i o n a l t h e r a p y i n ( a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l ) - I was i n t e r e s t e d , came t o see h i m , and was h i r e d . I h a d t o l e a v e my j o b i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t h a v e a w o r k i n g v i s a . I was d o i n g s i m i l a r work w i t h c h i l d r e n t h e r e . . I l i k e d w o r k i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n b e t t e r t h a n 123 w i t h a d u l t s , however, as y o u c o u l d r e a l l y see y o u r r e s u l t s ... I t h o u g h t I was g o i n g t o s e t t h e w o r l d on f i r e t h e same way h e r e . T r a i n i n g and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g o f new s t a f f members a s i d e f r o m a n o p p o r t - u n i t y t o p e r u s e The M a n u a l sometime d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few d a y s o f employment. The M a n u a l c o n t a i n s a b r o a d o u t l i n e o f t h e l i m i t s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e m a t r o n must p e r f o r m h e r d u t i e s , but i s o f l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e n o v i c e s e e k i n g some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e more s u b t l e d y n a m i c s o f h e r new r o l e . M a t r o n s do n o t go t h r o u g h a f o r m a l i z e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ; t h e y a r e n o t a p p r e n t i c e o r s t u d e n t m a t r o n s b e f o r e b e c o m i n g f u l l - f l e d g e d m a t r o n s , and t h e y must assume h e a v y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y u pon e n t e r i n g t h e i r new work s i t u a t i o n . A n t i c i - p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e p r i s o n community, and s p e c i f i - c a l l y i n t o t h e r o l e o f a s u p e r v i s o r i n t h a t community i s u s u a l l y m i n i m a l due t o t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f i n s u l a t i o n f r o m p u b l i c v i e w e n j o y e d by b o t h t h e p r i s o n a n d t h e p r i s o n w o r k e r . A c t u a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e r o l e i s most f r e q u e n t l y ex p o s t f a c t u m i n n a t u r e , f o r t h e new m a t r o n f i n d s t h a t she i s a m a t r o n b e f o r e she h a s h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c o v e r how m a t r o n s a c t u a l l y b e h a v e . B e c a u s e no one on s t a f f h a s b e e n f o r m a l l y d e s i g n a t e d t o i n s t r u c t t h e new m a t r o n c o n c e r n i n g how she s h o u l d "behave", " t i p s " f r o m t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d m a t r o n s w h i c h c o u l d s a v e t h e n o v i c e c o n s i d e r a b l e h a r d s h i p a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p a s s e d a l o n g t o h e r . E x p e r i e n c e d m a t r o n s may u n c o n s c i o u s l y n e g l e c t t o p a s s 124 a l o n g o r c o n s c i o u s l y w i t h h o l d p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e c u l i a r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r i s o n community and t h e p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h n o r m a l l y e x i s t b etween i n m a t e s and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . I f new s t a f f members a r e t h o u g h t t o p o se a s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e a t t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y o f e m ployees o f l o n g s t a n d i n g , t h i s d a n g e r may become e v e n more a c u t e . A l t h o u g h t h e p a t t e r n i s b e c o m i n g somewhat m o d i f i e d , i t h a s n o t been uncommon o v e r t h e p a s t y e a r s f o r a new s t a f f member t o be handed a s e t o f k e y s , t o be a s s i g n e d t o an iinmate g r o u p , and be r e q u e s t e d t o "be a m a t r o n " t h e f i r s t m o r n i n g she r e p o r t s f o r d u t y . One m a t r o n d e s c r i b e d h e r i n i t i a t i o n t o t h e work as f o l l o w s : E v e r y t h i n g was wrong w i t h me. No one so much as gave me a f i v e m i n u t e c h a t on what was e x p e c t e d o f me. I h a d t o a s k t h e i n m a t e s what t o d o . T h e r e was.none o f t h i s b u s i n e s s o f g o i n g w i t h a n o t h e r m a t r o n f o r l u n c h i n t h e h u t t o l e a r n a b o u t i t ... u n t i l we g e t e x t r a s t a f f f o r summer r e l i e f . A n o t h e r r e p o r t e d h e r e x p e r i e n c e t h u s ; I was t o o c o n f u s e d when I f i r s t s t a r t e d w o r k i n g h e r e t o be aware o f what I e x p e c t e d . A d a p t i n g and l e a r n i n g h e r e i s a l l done by f e e l . Y o u t e s t y o u r l i m i t s . Y o u o i i l y f i n d o u t what y o u c a n ' t do, n o t what y o u s h o u l d o r c a n d o . O r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e work and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e r o l e h a s b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s p r i m a r i l y by means o f t r i a l and e r r o r . O f t e n t h e i n m a t e s h a v e been p r i m - a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s c h o o l i n g t h e m a t r o n i n t h e norms and d a i l y r o u t i n e s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e r e i s o n c e a g a i n a v e r y o b v i o u s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e i t h e r n e g l e c t i n g t o p a s s a l o n g 125 c e r t a i n p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e new m a t r o n , o r f o r d e l i b - e r a t e l y m i s i n f o r m i n g h e r . L e a r n i n g t h e p r o p e r "manner" as w e l l as t h e f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f h e r r o l e may be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k f o r t h e new m a t r o n , and i n o u t l i n i n g what she c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d e s i r a b l e means o f o r i e n t i n g new s t a f f , one m a t r o n p o i n t e d t o t h e d e s i r - a b i l i t y o f d e l i b e r a t e i n s t r u c t i o n : I t h i n k t e a c h i n g ( t h e new m a t r o n s ) an a t t i t u d e i s a v e r y good t h i n g - and s h o w i n g them, w i t h o u t b e i n g a s h o w - o f f as y o u a r e d o i n g i t , j u s t t h e answers a n d how t o g i v e them w i t h o u t o f f e n d i n g e i t h e r t h e s t a f f i n v o l v e d o r t h e p r o g r a m i n v o l v e d . T h i s i s one o f t h e I m p o r t a n t t h i n g s , b e c a u s e y o u j u s t d o n ' t know how t o t a l k t o t h e s e p e o p l e when y o u f i r s t g e t h e r e . The m a t r o n who h a s n o t b e e n f o r t u n a t e enough t o r e c e i v e t h i s t y p e o f o r i e n t a t i o n t o h e r new j o b may f i n d i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o f o r m a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i n m a t e s . W i t h t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n mind, s e v e r a l m a t r o n s ment- i o n e d t h e a d v a n t a g e o f p r e v i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , f o r s u c h e x p e r i e n c e a p p a r e n t l y g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s a d a p t a t i o n t o the demands o f t h e work i n the Women's U n i t : When anybody comes i n t o t h i s s e t t i n g , i f t h e y h a v e a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d t h e y f i t i n q u i t e e a s i l y b e c a u s e a l l i n s t i - t u t i o n s a r e r u n p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same - t h e same i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l p r o b l e m s e x i s t , e t c . N u r s e s who h a v e h a d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p a t - i e n t s h a v e an a d v a n t a g e i n coming t o work, as t h e y a r e u s e d t o w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e . T h ey h a v e more o f an i d e a o f how t o go about, i t . T h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y l o o k f o r i n s t i - t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n new s t a f f i f t h e y were i n a p o s i t i o n 126 t o do t h e r e c r u i t i n g f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e were c o n s i d e r e d t o be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s by many ( a l l o f whom ha d i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s r a t h e r t h a n a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s ) : I w o u l d l i k e t o f i n d p e o p l e w i t h s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d t o mine - t h e p s y c h i a t r i c t r a i n i n g . Not j u s t t h e t h r e e y e a r s , b u t e x p e r i e n c e i n more t h a n one i n s t i t u t i o n . Y o u a r e w o r k i n g i n t h e same k i n d o f a r e a , i t ' s t h e same as a d a p t - i n g n u r s i n g p r o c e d u r e s f r o m b r o k e n l e g s t o t h o s e f o r b r o k e n arms. I t i s t h e same s o r t o f t h i n g , y o u a r e d e a l i n g w i t h damaged s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s b o t h i n p r i s o n s and i n m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s . I t i s a good i d e a t o h a v e them on p r o b - a t i o n a r y s t a f f a t f i r s t , as i t i s h a r d t o know who i s g o i n g t o f i t i n . The ! u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s seem t o be t h e ones s u f f e r i n g f r o m t e n s i o n , t h a t ' s why t h e y s h o u l d h a v e some e x p e r i e n c e i n an i n s t i l t u t i o n b e f o r e coming t o work h e r e . O a k a l l a i s among t h e h a r d e r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o work i n - when t h e y ( t h e i n m a t e s ) a r e a l l a t y o u i n t h e e v e n i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m s i t ' s p r e t t y h a r d t o cope w i t h them. T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s t e n d t o r e f l e c t a c o n c e r n f o r t h e new m a t r o n ' s immediate u s e f u l n e s s and t h e Immediate s u c c e s s o f h e r a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . M a t r o n s who h a d c o n - s i d e r a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e coming t o work a t t h e p r i s o n l o o k f o r o t h e r s who w o uld, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e , be a b l e t o assume t h e r o l e o f a m a t r o n w i t h a s i m i l a r minimum o f I n i t i a l s t r a i n and a n x i e t y . S u c h new m a t r o n s c o u l d become a d e q u a t e c u s t o d i a n s r e a d i l y , and a t l e a s t m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s quo o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n so f a r as d a i l y r o u t i n e s and a c t i v i t i e s were c o n c e r n e d . The f o l k - l o r e o f t h e 127 i n s t i t u t i o n i s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r i c h w i t h t a l e s o f t h e " e n l i g h t e n e d " u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who h a v e made c u s t o d i a l e r r o r s , o r h a v e b e e n i n a d e q u a t e i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e r o l e o f a m a i n t e n a n c e o r s e w i n g roommatron b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s e s p h e r e s . A more c o m p r o m i s i n g v i e w was h e l d by a few m a t r o n s who f e l t t h e i r o p i n i o n s h a d c hanged w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e " b e s t " o r most d e s i r a b l e t r a i n i n g and b a c k g r o u n d among p r o s p e c t i v e m a t r o n s : I u s e d t o t h i n k t h a t n u r s e s worked out t h e b e s t h e r e , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k so any more. I. t h i n k now t h a t t e a c h e r s do ... t h e y have a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e g i r l s — e s p e c i a l l y h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s work o u t w e l l w i t h t h e y o u n g e r g i r l s . T h e r e were some c o n c e s s i o n s g i v e n t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t e d m a t r o n s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r u l t i m a t e o r e v e n t u a l u s e - f u l n e s s , a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e i r i m m e d i a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n : Y o u c a n ' t s u b s t i t u t e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r book l e a r n i n g , b u t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i l l o n l y t a k e y o u s o f a r u n l e s s y o u h a v e t h e o t h e r t o go on w i t h f r o m t h e r e ... As f a r as t h e u n i v e r - s i t y k i d s a r e c o n c e r n e d , g i v e them a l i t t l e b i t o f t i m e and t h e y ' v e g o t i t a l l o v e r t h e o t h e r s . I t j u s t s t a n d s t o r e a s o n . The ones who a r e n ' t ( s u c c e s s f u l ) ... i t ' s j u s t a p e r s o n a l i t y m a t t e r , and i t w o u l d n ' t m a t t e r where t h e y worked, t h e y s t i l l w o u l d n ' t f i t i n . I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g . O n l y one o r two m a t r o n s m e n t i o n e d a need f o r a f u l l s c a l e c o u r s e f o r m a t r o n s t o c o m p l e t e b e f o r e a c t u a l l y b e c o m i n g m a t r o n s . Most seem t o f e e l t h a t i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w o u l d be more u s e f u l . S p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s e x i s t i n g 128 i n the i n s t i t u t i o n could be discussed, and general s t a f f awareness increased: We should go every day to learn, f o r an hour or so to t a l k about things that happen, etc. We should have sort of c l i n i c discussions on people. When things happen you should discuss those things. Find out what the g i r l s ' d i f f e r e n t stories are from the other matrons, etc. That way youf.could f i n d out r e a l l y what i s going on. When the question of becoming better matrons was posed to the s t a f f , there was a general consensus that experience would only bring about improvement i n performance up to a certain point, then one must, f o r the sake of refreshment of interest and of increasing c a p a b i l i t y , take some additional t r a i n i n g or attend some courses dealing with the general f i e l d of corrections. Speaking f o r myself, I would be better now because of some of the.lectures I've had and the interest stimulated from t h i s which led to my reading more about i t etc. I wasn't concerned about who the leader of the group was, or i n analyzing the group at a l l . We were a l l just having a wonderful time ... We'd take a walk, and they would be dropping kites a l l along the road ... I never thought about analyzing the fringe members of the group and so on. I just went f u l l pelt ahead and i f any- body wasn't playing I saw to i t that they did without knowing why they were out of i t . Your work would be more e f f e c t i v e with a background or some idea of what you were supposed to be doing. It ' s l i k e building a house without a plan. Some of the lectures we've had give a very clear idea of what group work i s a l l about ... After taking those lectures you get a better look at yourself too, you see where you f a l l down i n a l o t of things. 129 T h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y a t e n d e n c y f o r s t a f f t o l o s e t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e work, t o become " s t a l e " o r l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c o v e r t i m e . E v e n i n g c o u r s e s s p o n s o r e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n - ment and i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r s t a f f o f t h e v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s were t h o u g h t v a l u a b l e n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d aware- n e s s w h i c h t h e s e c o u r s e s gave t h e s t a f f , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y r e - v i t a l i z e d l a g g i n g i n t e r e s t I n t h e work: I t h i n k I h a d more c o n c e r n f o r t h i n g s b e f o r e . T h a t ' s why I t h i n k y o u s h o u l d h a v e a good b r u s h - u p once i n a w h i l e . I h a d more t i m e t h e n . I p r o b a b l y was b e t t e r t o t h e i n m a t e s - more u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Y o u s h o u l d h a v e a change o r s o m e t h i n g on t h e j o b . E v e n t h e c l a s s e s we t a k e i n t h e w i n t e r make me f e e l d i f f e r e n t t o w a r d the i n m a t e s . T hey make me t h i n k what a h e e l I've b e e n . I g e t t o f e e l l i k e I s h o u l d spend-more t i m e w i t h t h e p o o r l i t t l e t h i n g s ... T h e r e s h o u l d be s o m e t h i n g , m a y b e . j u s t s w i t c h i n g a r o u n d a b i t , but I s u ppose t h a t w o u l d n ' t be good f o r t h e g i r l . But i t m i g h t do wonders f o r t h e s t a f f I P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s o f Good M a t r o n s , .Gn t h e whole, t h e s t a f f i n t e r v i e w e d were much h a p p i e r t o d i s c u s s t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h e y f e l t were most i m p o r t a n t i n s t a f f members r a t h e r t h a n t h e s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g t h e y con- s i d e r e d t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h c a n be l i s t e d on p a p e r a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e o f u s e f u l n e s s i n an a c t u a l work s i t u a t i o n : I d o n ' t know ab o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Many p e o p l e who h a v e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s on p a p e r j u s t c a n ' t g i v e o u t t h e i r k n o w l e d g e . You c a n ' t a t t r a c t a l l t h e p e o p l e we w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e w i t h what y o u can o f f e r them now i n t h e s y s t e m . You h a v e t o go on i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s t o a good e x t e n t . H o p e f u l l y w i t h as much e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d as p o s s i b l e , t h e n y o u go o n f r o m t h e r e t o see w h e t h e r t h e y a r e s u i t a b l e o r n o t ... I t h i n k t h e r e h a v e been some t e r r i f i c s t a f f members t h e r e who h a v e h a d v e r y l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n f o r m a l l y , b u t h a d a t e r r i f i c i n t e r e s t and i n s i g h t , and enough e x p e r i e n c e on t h e i r own t o be p r e t t y u n d e r s t a n d - i n g p e o p l e . Sometimes t h e y a r e f a r s u p e r i o r t o some u n i v e r s i t y p e o p l e we h a v e h a d . P e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f h a p p i n e s s , p a t i e n c e and " u n d e r s t a n d i n g were s t r e s s e d most c o n s i s t e n t l y by t h e s t a f f . I w o u l d a s k , "Are y o u happy y o u r s e l f , a r e y o u l e a d i n g a n o r m a l , happy s o c i a l l i f e : f a i r l y a c t i v e , f a i r l y w e l l - b a l a n c e d " ... F i r s t o f a l l y o u y o u r s e l f must be a b l e t o , h a n d l e y o u r own l i f e w e l l , y o u must have t h e c a p a c i t y o f m a k i n g a good l i f e f o r y o u r s e l f . A m a t r o n s h o u l d h a v e a g r e a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e o p l e . I f y o u d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d how a p e r s o n f e e l s o r e v e n t h i n k s , y o u a r e a l o s t c a u s e . Y o u w i l l n e v e r change them o r t h e i r way o f t h i n k i n g . Q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h w o u l d s u i t a m a t r o n f o r employment a t t h e Women's U n i t s h o u l d a l s o I n c l u d e t h o s e w h i c h w i l l make h e r own a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n e a s i e r a c c o r d i n g t o one r e s p o n d e n t : Someone w i t h a good s e n s e o f humour, a p l e a s a n t p e r s o n a l i t y , n o t q u i c k t e m p e r e d . Someone w i t h much p a t i e n c e ... T h e y r e a l l y s h o u l d be p a t i e n t , and c a l m , c o o l and c o l l e c t e d - n o t someone who i s g o i n g t o be s u f f e r i n g f r o m t e n s i o n i n a b o u t a week. S t a n d a r d s o f E x c e l l e n c e . The i n s t i t u t i o n h a s s e t c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s o f c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l t o w h i c h a m a t r o n must a d h e r e and a g a i n s t w h i c h h e r p e r f o r m a n c e can be e v a l u - a t e d , b u t t h e r e a r e no d e f i n i t e s t a n d a r d s s e t by t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n t o e v a l u a t e a m a t r o n ' s r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e . A d m i t t e d l y , t h i s f a i l u r e t o s e t a s t a n d a r d may be d e l i b e r a t e on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , f o r t h e y may w i s h t o l e a v e t h e m a t r o n f r e e t o f i n d h e r own b e s t means o f p e r - f o r m i n g h e r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e d u t i e s . Many m a t r o n s a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e a l l o w e d t o f i n d t h e i r own way o f r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n m a t e s - a manner w h i c h i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r gen- e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y . But o t h e r s f e e l t h a t s u c h a d e g r e e o f l a t - i t u d e i s n o t e s s e n t i a l b e f o r e a m a t r o n c a n f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n h e r r o l e , and w o u l d welcome some s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e y c o u l d e v a l u a t e t h e m s e l v e s . I t may a l s o be t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s n o t s u r e i t s e l f j u s t what t h e most e f f i c i e n t means o f p u r s u i n g r e h a b - i l i t a t i o n a r e , and many m a t r o n s f e e l t h a t t h i s i s t h e r e a l r e a s o n why t h e y a r e n o t g i v e n s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e y c o u l d a p p r a i s e t h e i r work. The m a t r o n s would, on t h e w h o l e , a p p r e c i a t e s u c h a c r i t e r i a however, f o r t h e y do become a n x i o u s a b o u t t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e i r work. T h e y know t h a t p e r i o d i c r e p o r t s a r e made c o n c e r n i n g t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h a r e l a t e r u s e d f o r p r o m o t i o n s and s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s , but t h e y a r e n o t e v e n s u r e o f t h e b a s i s u pon w h i c h t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s a r e made. One o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e f a i l u r e t o s e t a s t a n d - a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o r e h a b i l i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n s seems t o be a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e o f c u s t o d i a l c o n c e r n o f t h e m a t r o n . M a t r o n s a r e a b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r c u s t o d i a l p e r - f o r m a n c e , and a r e e v a l u a t e d by o t h e r s i n t h i s r e g a r d c o n t i n u a l l y . 132 T h e y come t o f e e l t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a t l e a s t become p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r r o l e , s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t <too s u r e j u s t how t h e y a r e s u c c e e d i n g i n o t h e r t a s k s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n w i t h c u s t o d i a l i s m does h o t p r e s e n t t o o much o f a dilemma: t o t h o s e m a t r o n s who e n t e r e d t h e work w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w hich s u p p o r t s t h e n e e d f o r r i g o r o u s c o n t r o l o f t h e i n m a t e s 1 o u t w a r d behav- i o r . F o r t h o s e who f e e l t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s a b a s i c change i n i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s , i n c r e a s e d c u s t o d i a l c o n - c e r n c a r r i e s w i t h i t an abandonment o r compromise o f f o r m e r b e l i e f s . As t h e m a t r o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y c u s t o d i a l , she must abandon p r a c t i c e s o f p e r m i s s i v e n e s s and s u p p o r t w h i c h t h e " b a s i c c h ange" o r i e n t a t i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n seems t o v i e w as e s s e n t i a l p r a c t i c e . U n a b l e t o f i n d s p e c i f i c o r f o r m a l s u p p o r t f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e s o f p e r m i s s i v e n e s s and s u p p o r t t h e m a t r o n may f e e l p r e s s u r e d i n t o a t l e a s t c o n f o r m - i n g t o t h e c u s t o d i a l demands o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t f o r some t h i s change i n o r i e n t a t i o n may i n v o l v e r e a l f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t and a n x i e t y . P a t t e r n s o f D e v i a n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f s t a n d - a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e m a t r o n ' s r o l e ( o u t s i d e t h e c u s t o d i a l r e a l m ) i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p o s i t i v e l y I d e n t i f y d e v i a n c e o f r o l e p e r - f o r m a n c e . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , b o t h m a t r o n s and i n m a t e s can i d e n t i f y some s t a f f members who a r e e i t h e r " t o o s t r i c t " o r " t o o l e n i e n t " , b u t t h e g r e a t e s t p u b l i c c e n s u r e f a l l s upon t h o s e who a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t a s t o l e n i e n c y o r s t r i c t n e s s . The i n m a t e s 133 and o t h e r s t a f f members l i k e t o know "where t h e y s t a n d " and a m a t r o n who i s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n r u l e e n f o r c e m e n t o r i n temp- erament c r e a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n . M a t r o n s f e e l u n e a s y a b o u t o t h e r s whom t h e y f e e l t e l l t o o much, o r g e t t o o i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i n m a t e s . T h e r e i s a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e , and t h a t v i o l a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l r u l e o f p r a c t i c e may h a v e some r a t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t s : T hey s h o u l d know v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t y o u r p e r s o n a l l i f e . Y o u r p r o b l e m s e t c . s h o u l d be •kept away. I f y o u t e l l them a n y t h i n g t h e y b u i l d i t up much more. I t ' s okay t o t e l l them y o u h a v e b e e n t o a show, b u t n o t who y o u went w i t h . One m a t r o n I know o f h a s t o l d t o o much. She h a s b e e n t e l l i n g h e r p r o b l e m s t o t h e i n m a t e s . D i s c u s s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , p a r t o f y o u r p e r s o n a l l i f e i s okay, b u t i t s h o u l d be n o t h i n g t h e y c a n g e t h o l d o f o r make a n y t h i n g o f . T e l l i n g y o u r p r o b l e m s i s g o i n g t o o f a r . I d o n ' t know why, bu t I j u s t f e e l t h a t i t i s . . I t h i n k y o u s h o u l d be f r i e n d l y , but y o u s h o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e i r r e s p e c t ... k e e p y o u r d i s t a n c e . I f t h e y g e t t o o c l o s e t h e y c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f y o u . I a g r e e w i t h n o t b e i n g f r i e n d l y w i t h them on t h e o u t s i d e . T h ey w i l l u s e y o u v e r y q u i c k l y i f t h e y t h i n k t h e y c a n . I h e a r d a g i r l t a l k i n g a b o u t s e e i n g a m a t r o n she d i d n ' t l i k e down on s k i d r o a d , l o o k i n g v e r y s l o v e n l y . The g i r l s a i d , "The m a t r o n s a i d she was l o o k i n g f o r someone,.but do y o u t h i n k I b e l i e v e d h e r ? I t h i n k she was j u s t g o i n g t o . g e t a b e e r . " T h e r e seem t o be two g e n e r a l c u r r e n t s o f c o n c e r n r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t i f s t a f f p l a c e ^ t h e m s e l v e s i n a v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n , e i t h e r by " t e l l i n g t o o much" o r b e h a v i n g i n d i s c r e e t l y 134 on t h e " o u t s i d e " t h e y may p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g r i p e f o r b l a c k m a i l . T h i s b l a c k m a i l may t a k e t h e f o r m o f r e q u i r i n g a m a t r o n t o c a r r y messages f o r t h e i n m a t e s , b o t h w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a n d t o t h e o u t s i d e , o r r e q u i r i n g a m a t r o n t o s e c u r e o r t r a n s p o r t c o n t r a b a n d o f v a r i o u s d e s c r i p - t i o n s . T h a t t h i s t y p e o f c o e r c i o n must o c c u r i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o s t a f f who " c a n be t r u s t e d t o d e l i v e r a message" w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f some o f t h e " k i t e s " w h i c h a r e f o u n d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . A m a t r o n who i s b e i n g t h u s e x p l o i t e d w i l l p r o b a b l y be p i t i e d by o t h e r s t a f f members, b u t i f d e f i n i t e p r o o f o f h e r " i l l e g a l " a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t , she i s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o t e r m i n a t e h e r employment. The s e c o n d c o n c e r n seems t o be w i t h c o r r u p t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h a l o s s o f l e g i t i m a t i o n o f t h e r o l e . I f a m a t r o n i s f o u n d t o behave i n some s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p e c t s i m i l a r t o t h o s e whom she i s e x p e c t e d t o d i r e c t and g u i d e w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e s u l t w i l l p r o b a b l y be t h a t t h e i n m a t e s b e g i n t o q u e s t i o n h e r " r i g h t " t o assume t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e r o l e . B e c a u s e t h e m a t r o n must r e l y so h e a v i l y upon h e r m o r a l u p r i g h t n e s s as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h e r r i g h t t o be a m a t r o n ( r a t h e r t h a n h e r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g o r s k i l l s i n some c a p - a c i t y ) , any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t she may be m o r a l l y s u s p e c t may h a v e d e v a s t a t i n g r e p e r c u s s i o n s . A.matron who h a s b e e n s e d u c e d e i t h e r by a n i n d i v i d u a l i n m a t e ' s p o r t r a y a l o f what she c o n - s i d e r s t o be t h e good l i f e , o r by t h e g e n e r a l " r o u n d e r " o r i e n t a t i o n t o l i f e p o s e s a v e r y g r e a t t h r e a t t o t h e l e g i t i m a c y 135 o f the p r i s o n as a w h o l e . I f a s t a f f member ( p r e s u m a b l y t h e e p i t o m e o f c o n f o r m i t y and s o b r i e t y ) c a n be p e r s u a d e d t o p u r s u e t h e d e v i a n t l i f e , who i s t o say t h a t i t i s n o t i n f a c t t h e b e t t e r way o f l i f e ? A m a t r o n who does t e n d t o i d e n t i f y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i n m a t e o r w i t h t h e i n m a t e g r o u p as a whole must a l s o be b r o u g h t a b o u t r a t h e r s h a r p l y i f she i s t o r e m a i n on t h e s t a f f . The i n s t i t u t i o n c a n n o t t o l e r a t e d e v i a n c e w h i c h a c t - u a l l y r e s u l t s i n c u s t o d i a l v i o l a t i o n s o f a more s i g n i f i c a n t t y p e , and s u c h a d e v i a n t w o u l d q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y be f o r c e d t o l e a v e h e r j o b . T h e r a p e u t i c i n c o m p e t e n c e i s n o t so e a s i l y e v a l u a t e d , however, n o r i s i t as s t r i c t l y s a n c t i o n e d . Wo one i s e v e r d i s m i s s e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f i n a d e q u a c y o f t h i s t y p e . The i n s t i t u t i o n t e n d s t o cope w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n by s e e k i n g a s u i t a b l e p l a c e m e n t f o r an i n e f f e c t u a l r e f o r m e r , one w h i c h r e q u i r e s l i t t l e o t h e r t h a n c u s t o d i a l e n f o r c e m e n t . O c c u p a t i o n a l I d e n t i t y . S t a f f members a t t h e O a k a l l a Women's U n i t h a v e no o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y a s i d e f r o m t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y work. The t i t l e o f " m a t r o n " i s s i n g u l a r l y l a c k i n g i n d e s c r i p t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s and the r o l e d o e s n o t i n any way make s e n s e i f d i v o r c e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . S t a f f members c a n n o t d e s c r i b e them- s e l v e s s o l e l y as " m a t r o n s " a n d e x p e c t t o have i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s o c c u p a t i o n a l l y . T h ey must e l u c i d a t e by e x p l a i n i n g where t h e y a r e m a t r o n s as a minimum t o e s t a b l i s h i n g any k i n d o f p u b l i c image o f t h e i r w ork. T h i s d e pendence upon t h e 136 i n s t i t u t i o n e m p l o y i n g them i s n o t m e r e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p u b l i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n but i s a l s o o p e r a t i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r v e r y p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e r o l e , f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s h a v e no m arket o u t s i d e t h e p r i s o n . No one h i r e s a m a t r o n f o r p r i v a t e p u r p o s e s ( a t l e a s t n o t s i n c e t h e l a s t o f t h e p r i v a t e l y owned and o p e r a t e d p r i s o n s were d i s b a n d e d i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e l a s t c e n t u r y ) r e s u l t i n g i n c o m p l e t e dependence upon one s o u r c e o f employment. The m a t r o n i s s t r i p p e d o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , b e c a u s e she h a s no one s p e c i f i c s t a n d a r d o f p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g and i s n o t g i v e n any s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o l l o w i n g employment. M a t r o n s f o r m a p s e u d o - p r o f e s s i o n g r o u p i n t h a t r e c r u i t s a r e drawn f r o m a v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t d i v e r s e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . B e c a u s e t h e r e i s a l a c k of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f " m a t r o n h o c d n and o f t r a i n i n g b e f o r e a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e m o b i l i t y o f s t a f f b etween t h e O a k a l l a Women's U n i t and o t h e r p r i s o n s , e i t h e r i n t h i s c o u n t r y o r f u r t h e r a f i e l d . O n l y two members c u r r e n t l y on s t a f f have h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and b o t h o f t h e s e came f r o m E n g l a n d where t h e y u n d e r w e n t a s p e c i a l p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g and o r i e n t a t i o n b e f o r e b e c o m i n g m a t r o n s i n t h a t s e t t i n g . VI OCCUPATIONAL STRAINS AND REWARDS. O c c u p a t i o n a l S t r a i n s . T h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t m a t r o n s f i n d b e i n g a m a t r o n i s h a r d work, and a d d i t i o n a l l y 137 t h e r e i s a b e l i e f p r e v a l e n t t h a t u n l e s s y o u do f i n d y o u r work d i f f i c u l t , y o u a r e n o t d o i n g a good j o b . I n r e p l y t o t h e gen- e r a l q u e s t i o n "Do y o u t h i n k t h a t b e i n g a m a t r o n i s a h a r d j o b ? " the f o l l o w i n g comments were made: Yes I I f y o u a r e g o i n g t o be a g o od s t a f f member i t i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t j o b . I t ' s h a r d e r t o be a g r o u p m a t r o n t h a n "to be w o r k i n g on c u s t o d y as I am now, and h a r d e r t o be a team m a t r o n t o o ... Group work i s v e r y d e m a n d i n g . T h e r e i s a l o t o f l e g work, w a l k i n g up and down t h o s e h a l l s . A l s o i f t h e k i d s a r e t e n s e , y o u ' g e t t i r e d . Sometimes I t h i n k y o u have done y o u r b e s t j o b o f work when y o u come o f f d u t y f e e l i n g y o u have a c h i e v e d a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g . I n o t h e r words i t s h o u l d n ' t be e a s y . As s o o n as y o u f i n d i t e a s i e r , y o u a r e n o t d o i n g a n y t h i n g , n o t g e t t i n g a nywhere. You s h o u l d r e a l l y be m e e t i n g d i f f i c - u l t i e s . Some o f t h e e x p r e s s e d " d i f f i c u l t i e s " r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e p h y s i c a l demands o f t h e work, and o t h e r s a r o u n d t h e number o f s k i l l s and k i n d s o f knowledge t h e s t a f f f e l t t h e y s h o u l d h a v e i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m a d e q u a t e l y . O t h e r " d i f f i c u l t i e s " seem t o r e v o l v e a r o u n d r a t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r a i n s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s t a f f b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work i t s e l f . G e n e r a l and S p e c i a l Norms. W i t h i n t h e t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h e s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e i t s e l f i m p l i e s c e r t a i n v a l u e c o n f l i c t s , c o n f l i c t s w h i c h become more a c u t e when the s u p e r v i s o r i s n e i t h e r d e f i n e d by h i m s e l f n o r by t h o s e b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d as h a v i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r - q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d l e n d a u t h o r i t y t o o r l e g i t i m i z e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s r o l e . I n w e s t e r n s o c i e t y some v e r y d e f i n i t e i d e a s and i d e a l s 138 a r e i n e x i s t e n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h must e x i s t b etween any two i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e one c a n l e g i t i m a t e l y v i o l a t e t h e p r i v a c y o f o r c l a i m a c c e s s t o t h e p o s s - e s s i o n s o f a n o t h e r . O u t s i d e t h e f a m i l i a l t y p e o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i t s incumbent h i g h d e g r e e o f m u t u a l o b l i g - a t i o n s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f l o y a l t y , o n l y a v e r y f e w o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y e mployed s u c h as d o c t o r s and l a w y e r s a r e g i v e n t h e p r i v i l e g e o f i n f r i n g i n g upon t h e p r i v a c y o f a n o t h e r ' s body o r p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s and a c t i v i t i e s . And e v e n t h e y c a n n o t v i o l a t e t h e p r e v a i l i n g norms o f p r i v a c y a t random, but o n l y u n d e r v e r y s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w i l l p r e s u m a b l y be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f t h e i r c l i e n t u l t i m a t e l y . I n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c u s t o d y , however, t h e m a t r o n must i n f r i n g e u pon t h e p h y s i c a l p r i v a c y o f o t h e r s , and f o r p u r p o s e s o f t r e a t m e n t " h a v e a c c e s s t o a g r e a t d e a l o f knowledge c o n c e r n - i n g t h e p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n m a t e s , c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z i n g t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and o b s e r v i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t s w i t h o t h e r i n m a t e s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The m a t r o n may e n t e r any room a t any t i m e , must r e a d a l l l e t t e r s w r i t t e n and a l l l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d by t h o s e i n m a t e s i n h e r c a r e , and h a s t h e a u t h o r i t y t o c e n s o r o r w i t h h o l d d e l i v e r y o f any o f t h e s e l e t t e r s . The m a t r o n may s i m i l a r l y c e n s o r a l l c o n - v e r s a t i o n s b e t w e e n any two i n m a t e s , o r r e f u s e to. a l l o w c e r t a i n i n m a t e s t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r , t h u s f o r c i n g h e r v a l u e judgements and s t a n d a r d s upon o t h e r s who h a v e no s i m i l a r r i g h t t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s and p r i v a t e a f f a i r s o f t h e 139 m a t r o n . D i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y w h i c h h a s i t s o n l y f o u n d a - t i o n i n l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f s u p e r i o r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y , o r w o r t h i n e s s and l a c k o f w o r t h i n e s s , i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t i n o u r s o c i e t y , b o t h as an i n m a t e and as a m a t r o n . As a c o n s e - q u e n c e , t h e m a t r o n w i l l p r o b a b l y e x p e r i e n c e q u i t e s t r o n g g u i l t f e e l i n g s when she p e r f o r m s t h e s e a c t s , as,', she I s u n a b l e t o I m m e d i a t e l y d e - s o c i a l i z e o r f o r g e t t h e u s u a l p a t t e r n s o p e r a t i v e i n s o c i e t y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e b r e a c h e s o f a c c e p t e d s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e w i l l p r o b a b l y h a v e t o be p e r f o r m e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s o l a t i o n o f p r o v i n g t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e - f i c i a l e i t h e r t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s e c u r i t y w i t h i n t h e i n s t i - t u t i o n o r t o t h e w e l f a r e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e i n m a t e s . One m a t r o n e x p r e s s e d h e r f e e l i n g s o f d i s t a s t e a t h a v i n g t o r e a d m a i l s e n t t o t h e i n m a t e s u n d e r h e r s u p e r v i s i o n : The o n l y t h i n g I d o n ' t l i k e a bout t h e j o b i s h a v i n g t o r e a d t h e i r m a i l . . . ( I ) . . . s o r t o f h a d a g u i l t y f e e l i n g a bout i n f r i n g i n g u pon t h e i r p r i v a c y a t f i r s t . She went on t o s a y t h a t she managed t o " g e t o v e r " t h i s f e e l i n g o f g u i l t c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r p r i v a c y i n some s p h e r e s a f t e r " h a v i n g t h e w o o l p u l l e d o v e r my e y e s a few t i m e s " , b u t she s t i l l f e l t u n e a s y about r e a d i n g t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . A n o t h e r s o u r c e o f s t r a i n r e v o l v e s around t h e n o r m a l p a t t e r n s o f d e f e r e n c e and demeanor whereby the y o u n g i n t h e community u s u a l l y a d d r e s s t h e e l d e r l y members o f t h e commu- n i t y f a i r l y r e s p e c t f u l l y , and r e f e r t o them as "Mr." o r "Mrs." r a t h e r t h a n by t h e i r f i r s t names. W i t h i n t h e Women's U n i t , however, a l l i n m a t e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o by t h e i r C h r i s t i a n names. Young m a t r o n s e s p e c i a l l y f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d o p t t h i s r a t h e r " l e v e l l i n g " s y s t e m o f n o m e n c l a t u r e . Age d i f f e r e n c e s u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e t h e f r e e d o m e n j o y e d between i n d i v i d u a l s t o o ; o l d e r p e o p l e a r e g i v e n t h e p r i v i l e g e o f b e i n g more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r i v a t e m a t t e r s o f t h e y o u n g t h a n a r e t h e young e x p e c t e d o r a l l o w e d t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r i v a t e m a t t e r s o f t h e o l d . M a t r o n s , by c o n t r a s t , a r e e x p e c t e d t o c o u n s e l and g u i d e i n m a t e s r e g a r d l e s s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g e , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e I n l e g a l s t a t u s . T h i s r e f u t e s t h e g e n e r a l norm t h a t t h e " o l d e r " a p e r s o n becomes t h e " w i s e r " he a l s o becomes. The i n c o n g r u o u s s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s i n w h i c h a v e r y y o u ng m a t r o n n o t o n l y a d v i s e s an o l d e r women as t o what she s h o u l d do, b u t a l s o a c t u a l l y p l a c e s l i m i t s on t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e o l d e r woman ( t h e inm a t e ) and r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o r f r o m t h e o l d e r women w h i l e she i s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . B e c a u s e she f e l t the i n c o n g r u i t y o f h e r y o u t h i n t h e r o l e o f a m a t r o n , one m a t r o n m e n t i o n e d t h a t , "I f e e l I have my age a g a i n s t me. I d o n ' t i n s p i r e c o n f i d e n c e . " She e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i n m a t e s w o u l d f e e l she was t o o n a i v e and i n e x p e r i - e n c e d t o be u s e f u l t o them i n e f f e c t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f how much f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a nd s t u d y she h a d t o h e r c r e d i t , w h i c h was, i n t h i s c a s e , c o n s i d e r a b l e . M a t r o n s a p p a r e n t l y f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o u n l e a r n c e r t a i n g e n e r a l norms and r e p l a c e them by s p e c i a l norms w h i c h a p p l y t o the p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n . Once a g a i n , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s l i t t l e f o r m a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e r o l e , t h e m a t r o n s do n o t have much a s s i s t a n c e i n m aking t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . They seem t o become r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e s p e c i a l norms o n l y when t h e g e n e r a l norms o f b e h a v i o r a r e somehow p r o v e n t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . C u s t o d y and T h e r a p y . I d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s may be o p e r a t i v e a d d i t i o n a l l y b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g demands o f c u s t o d i a l and t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . F r e q u e n t l y t h e m a t r o n must s o l v e t h e dilemma o f w h e t h e r she w i l l c hose good c u s t o d i a l o r good t r e a t m e n t means o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e I n m a t e s . F o r example, f r o m a t r e a t m e n t p o i n t o f v i e w i t may be c o n s i d e r e d i m p e r a t i v e f o r a m a t r o n t o show c o n f i d e n c e i n and t r u s t o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r a p a r t i - c u l a r g r o u p . T o do t h i s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p w o u l d have t o be g i v e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f autonomy i n a r r a n g i n g and e x e c u t i n g t h e i r own a f f a i r s w i t h l i t t l e o r no i n t e r f e r - e nce f r o m t h e m a t r o n f o r t h c o m i n g ( a c c o r d i n g t o p r e v a i l i n g v i e w s o f " t h e r a p y " ) . Autonomy and p r i v a c y a r e d e t r i m e n t a l t o good c u s t o d y , however, f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f u n s u p e r v i s e d a c t i v i t y c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y p r o v i d e j u s t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y n e c - e s s a r y t o s e c u r e c o n t r a b a n d m a t e r i a l , w r i t e i l l e g a l n o t e s , o r i n extreme c a s e s , a c t u a l l y make good an e s c a p e p l a n . O t h e r p r o b l e m s w i l l a r i s e a s t o w h e t h e r t h e m a t r o n s h o u l d impose s t r i c t and c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e f o r m i s b e h a v i o r o r w h e t h e r she s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o " u n d e r s t a n d " e a c h i n m a t e , g i v i n g a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t y p e o f a t t e n t i o n . P e r f o r m a n c e dilemmas s u c h as t h e s e a r e m a n i f o l d , and f o r - t h e t r e a t m e n t - o r i e n t e d m a t r o n t h e y w i l l h a v e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e p e r - c u s s i o n s s i n c e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e g ood c u s t o d i a l m e a s u r e s a r e d e f i n e d as m a n d a t o r y , w h i l e good t r e a t m e n t m e asures a r e d e f i n e d a s b e i n g d e s i r a b l e r a t h e r t h a n m a n d a t o r y . B e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o t a d e f i n i t e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a - t i o n i n t o t h e r o l e o f t h e m a t r o n , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e m a t r o n w i l l f e e l t h a t h e r s u c c e s s o r l a c k o f s u c c e s s i n r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e i s due t o some p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e r a t h e r t h a n some more d e - p e r s o n a l i z e d " s k i l l " . The s k i l l s w h i c h t h e m a t r o n u s e s a r e t h o s e o f p e r s u a s i o n and s u g g e s t i o n , w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f a c c e p t a n c e by t h o s e who a r e b e i n g p e r s u a d e d . R e j e c t i o n o f t h e m a t r o n by t h e i n m a t e s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n w h i c h c a s e she may f e e l , and may i n f a c t be r e j e c t e d as b o t h t h a t w h i c h she as a m a t r o n r e p r e s e n t s , and as a p e r s o n . S e l f - d o u b t s and f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y w h i c h i n v o l v e t h e whole p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n a s p e c i f i c s k i l l w i l l p r o b a b l y r e s u l t , and t h e extreme p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l f a t i g u e w h i c h t h e new m a t r o n n o r m a l l y e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p r o b - a b l y a good i n d e x o f t h e i n t e n s e n a t u r e o f t h e s t r a i n w h i c h she f e e l s . Rewards o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n . Rewards f r o m t h e i n s t i t u - t i o n f o r good s e r v i c e a r e s e l d o m c o n c r e t e o r o v e r t i n n a t u r e , t a k i n g more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n n o t t h e f o r m o f an a b s e n c e o f s a n c t i o n s . T h e s e l a t t e r can be i n t h e f o r m o f v e r b a l H 3 r e p r i m a n d s f r o m t h e s e n i o r s t a f f o r o f a more s u b t l e n a t u r e s u c h as b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o p o o r s h i f t s , p o o r inmate g r o u p s o r p o o r work a r e a s . No d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n can be drawn between work p e r f o r m a n c e and work a s s i g n m e n t s , however, f o r a l l s h i f t s , g r o u p s and work a r e a s must have a m a t r o n a s s i g n e d t o them a t a l l t i m e s , and t h e u n d e s i r a b l e a s s i g n m e n t s w i l l n o t a l w a y s be made f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n i n g t h e p o o r p e r - f o r m a n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r m a t r o n . Rewards e x p e r i e n c e d f r o m t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work i t s e l f were d i s c u s s e d by t h e m a t r o n s . One f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d t h a t a p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n h e r work was t h e f i n a n c - i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h i t gave h e r . She f e l t t h a t she e a r n e d b e t t e r wages a t O a k a l l a t h a n she c o u l d , w i t h h e r p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g e a r n e l s e w h e r e . O t h e r s m e n t i o n e d t h e s p e c i f i c e v e n t s w h i c h made them f e e l t h a t t h e y h a d "done a good d a y ' s work" o r f e l t p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r d a y ' s work. I u s e d t o t h i n k on m a i n t e n a n c e t h a t I h a d done a good d a y ' s work when t h e k i d s were a l l e a g e r and h a p p y . t o work f o r me. When t h e y h a d c l e a n e d up w e l l and t h e r e h a d been no h a r d f e e l i n g s o r no g r u m b l i n g - when e v e r y b o d y went home h a p p y . ... I f y o u h a v e a grou p o f g i r l s and a r e w o r k i n g w i t h them i t i s e a s i e r t o have a good d a y . When the work g e t s done, y o u c a n see s o m e t h i n g h a s b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e k i d s a r e a l l h a p p y . I t ' s h a r d t o h a v e a r e a l good day (when y o u d o n ' t have a g r o u p ) . B o t h m a t r o n s who h a d assumed more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s t h a n a c t u a l d u t i e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d them d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e i n m a t e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y f o u n d t h e i r work l e s s s a t i s f y i n g now. A p p a r e n t l y a warm, f r i e n d l y s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e s a t i s f i e s most s t a f f members, e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y h a v e somehow b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s f e e l i n g . One m a t r o n m e n t i o n e d h e r p l e a s u r e a t " f o r m i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p " , e i t h e r w i t h a n I n d i v i d u a l o r w i t h a g r o u p : When I have r e a c t e d w i t h t h e whole g r o u p , e i t h e r i n a p o s i t i v e o r a n e g a t i v e s e n s e . When I r e a l l y g e t t h r o u g h t o a g i r l . When w o r k i n g w i t h G a i l I f e l t r e a l l y good when I f i n a l l y g o t t h r o u g h t o h e r ... t h e g i r l d i s c o v e r s where she s t a n d s , who and what I am. M a t r o n s i n v o l v e d i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g c a n g l e a n t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s f r o m b o t h t h e r e a l m o f a c h i e v e m e n t , and f r o m t h e s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l r e a l m t h u s : When I h a v e c o - o p e r a t i v e s t u d e n t s who do w e l l . I d o n ' t r e a l l y f i t i n w i t h the r e a l l y d i s t u r b e d p e o p l e , I j u s t seem t o a n t a g o n i z e them. When I can w a l k down t h e h a l l and e v e r y s i c k room i s n e a t and c l e a n , (when) t h e whole a r e a i s q u i e t and u n d e r c o n t r o l , e t c . ... Sometimes l i k e when a m a t r o n ( f r o m t h e J u v e n i l e home) s a i d M a r g a r e t was i n c a p a b l e o f l e a r n i n g , she came t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r w o r k i n g w i t h h e r f o r f i v e y e a r s , and I was a b l e t o h a n d h e r an exam p a p e r on w h i c h M a r g a r e t p r o v e d h e r s e l f v e r y c a p a b l e o f l e a r n i n g . Rewards and s a t i s f a c t i o n s were a l s o f e l t t o be f o r t h - c o ming f r o m r e p o r t s o f f o r m e r i n m a t e s who h a d a p p a r e n t l y managed t o a v o i d c o n t i n u i n g i n t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t c a r e e r p a t - t e r n s . When a g i r l c a n come t o me and say she i s g o i n g t o make a change f o r t h e b e t t e r , t h a t she I s g o i n g t o make an e f f o r t . .. But when t h e y r e a l l y t r y , e s p e c i a l l y ' s o m e o n e we have t h o u g h t was h o p e l e s s . Or i f y o u h e a r t h e y a r e d o i n g f i n e on t h e o u t s i d e . 145 When a g i r l w r i t e s i n and s a y s she i s s t i l l o u t , s t i l l b e h a v i n g , and I u s u a l l y know i f t h e y a r e l y i n g . Or when I g e t a phone c a l l f r o m them. Many i n m a t e s w r i t e t o s t a f f members a t the i n s t i t u t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e l e a s e , and r e p o r t on t h e i r w h e r e a b o u t s and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , f r e q u e n t l y r e l a y i n g t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and m i s t a k e s a s w e l l as t h e i r t r i u m p h s . M a t r o n s a r e a l w a y s p l e a s e d t o r e c e i v e l e t t e r s and c a l l s , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y have r e a l l y become a " s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r " t o t h e i n m a t e i n v o l v e d . V I I COMMITMENT TO THE OCCUPATION M a t r o n s v i e w t h e i r a t t a c h m e n t o r commitment t o t h e i r work a t t h e Women's U n i t d i f f e r e n t l y . Some f e e l t h e work i s s i m i l a r t o a c a l l i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e " c a l l i n g " i s r a t h e r g e n e r a l l y t o h e l p p e o p l e , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g : I f e e l my work i s a c a l l i n g , a d e s i r e t o h e l p p e o p l e . I t ' s a c a r e e r t o o , o f c o u r s e , b u t i t i s more o f a c a l l i n g . T h i s f e e l i n g i s t o w a r d p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l . I d o n ' t mind where i t i s , o r w i t h whom I d e a l so l o n g as I am d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t o h e l p p e o p l e . One m a t r o n v i e w e d h e r work as a c o m b i n a t i o n o f j o b , v o c a t i o n and c a l l i n g , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s p e c - i f i c t a s k a t hand, t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t r a i n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e t a s k and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e w a r d s g a i n e d f r o m p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e t a s k . 146 T h e r e a r e d a y s I f e e l l i k e a J a c k - o f - a l l - t r a d e s , and m a s t e r o f n o n e . I u n p l u g s i n k s , f i x e l e c t r i c p l u g s , e t c . , b u t i f I were p a i d t e n t i m e s a s much, and i f I w e r e n ' t happy i n t h i s , I c o u l d n ' t do i t . The demands, t h e t h i n g s i t does t o me e m o t i o n a l l y a r e t e r r i f i c . ... But t h e n I r e a l i z e t h a t maybe I.do a l i t t l e more sometimes t h a n i s c a l l e d f o r , and I know t h e government c e r t a i n l y d i d n ' t w r i t e a l o t o f t h i n g s i n t o t h e c o n t r a c t I s i g n e d w i t h them. So i s i t a j o b , a c a l l i n g , a v o c a t i o n ? I t ' s j u s t a c o m b i n a t i o n . I r e a l l y c a n ' t i m a g i n e b e i n g happy any o t h e r p l a c e . I n my o t h e r j o b s I h a v e a l w a y s dreamed o f some o t h e r t y p e o f work; a dream j o b . I t ' s a l i t t l e b i t o f e v e r y t h i n g , and I see i t as s u c h . T h o s e who c o n s i d e r t h e i r work t o have a t l e a s t some f e a t u r e s o f a c a l l i n g seem t o f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o make some t a n g i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l g o a l o f " h e l p i n g p e o p l e " b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g , and b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l i f e a n d / o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e b e c o m i n g m a t r o n s . T h e i r g o a l s a r e h i g h , b u t t h e y f e e l t h e y h a d a t l e a s t some o f t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s , and t o g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n s f r o m a j o b w e l l d o ne. O t h e r s were l e s s i n s p i r e d by t h e work, but f o u n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g , and w o u l d n o t be w i l l i n g t o exchange i t f o r a n o t h e r : Do y o u mean how c o m m i t t e d am I ? I e n j o y i t , a nd wo u l d m i s s i t i f and when I do l e a v e . A t t i m e s I g e t t i r e d o f i t b e c a u s e i t g e t s v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g , b u t I d o n ' t e x a c t l y f e e l d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p o i n t . w h e r e I f e e l we a r e r e a l l y r e f o r m i n g p e o p l e , o r m a k i n g g r e a t s t r i d e s . I l o o k f o r w a r d t o coming t o work, and v e r y s e l - dom i f e v e r come and am b o r e d by what goes on a r o u n d me. I w o u l d r a t h e r work t h e r e t h a n a t a h o s p i t a l w h i c h i s what I was t r a i n e d f o r . I. l i k e n u r s i n g U7 but I t h i n k I w o u l d work f o r much l e s s pay a t O a k a l l a . .1 w o u l d n ' t change O a k a l l a f o r more money. I c a n ' t see where I c o u l d go and be as happy and a s - i n t e r e s t e d as I am t h e r e , where i t w o u l d n ' t be j u s t a j o b a f t e r a w h i l e . I l o o k f o r w a r d t o g o i n g t o work. I f e e l l i k e a d e d i c a t e d o l d m o t h e r . I w o u l d n ' t say i t was a c a l l i n g , b u t I l i k e i t . I'm more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s t h a n i n any o t h e r j o b I've had ... I r e a d up on my j o b h e r e , b o o k s - o n p s y c h o l o g y and c r i m i n o l o g y . A l l h a d some t r a i n i n g and p r e v i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n e x p e r - i e n c e , b u t f o u n d b e i n g a m a t r o n more t o t h e i r l i k i n g t h a n t h e • p r e v i o u s r o l e s t h e y h a d p l a y e d . I n a s e n s e t h e y were a d d i n g t o t h e i r f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e r a t h e r t h a n a b a n d o n i n g i t . T h e r e were a b l e t o be as much as t h e y h a d b e e n t r a i n e d f o r , and more. A l l o f t h e above seem w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r work and w i t h t h e i r own c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p r i s o n . O t h e r s a r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d , however, and f e e l f r u s t r a t e d t o t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e y a r e d i s i l l u s i o n e d and p l a n e v e n t u a l l y t o l e a v e t h e work: A t f i r s t I h a d t h e f e e l i n g t h a t e v e n t u a l l y I w o u l d f i n d m y s e l f i n t h e j o b . W e l l I f o u n d m y s e l f a l l r i g h t , and f o u n d I h a d n o t h i n g . I j u s t c a n ' t c o n t r i b u t e enough t o s t a y i n t h e f i e l d . I'm so much o f a b a b y s i t t e r and so l i t t l e o f any- t h i n g e l s e . I t was a w o r t h w h i l e e x p e r i e n c e . , h o w e v e r . . . . I'm d i s i l l u s i o n e d now, so a t p r e s e n t i t i s j u s t a j o b ... i f y o u c o u l d r e a l l y l e a r n g r o u p work and d e v e l o p y o u r s e l f i n t o some s o r t o f a s c i e n t i f i c t o o l , i t w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e . T h e r e a r e so many s t o n e w a l l s , y o u a r e j u s t b u c k i n g a l l t h e t i m e ... I f e e l c o m p l e t e l y i n c o m p e t e n t as a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p e r s o n i n a more s c i e n t i f i c s e n s e . The above comment i s t y p i c a l o f t h o s e m a t r o n s who h a v e come i n t o t h e work c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f p e r m i s s i v e n e s s and s u p p o r t i v e n e s s as p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l t o r e f o r m - a t i o n o f i n m a t e s . T y p i c a l l y t h e s e m a t r o n s h a v e h a d c o n s i d e r - a b l e e d u c a t i o n and h a v e s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , b ut h a v e n o t h a d any a c t u a l t r a i n i n g a s t h e r a p i s t s . They l a c k t h e s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g e s s e n t i a l t o p u r s u e t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e g o a l s , and have n o t f o u n d t h e n e c e s s a r y g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h s u c h p r a c t i c e s a t t h e Women's U n i t . B e c a u s e t h e y f i n d t h e y h a v e become l i t t l e o t h e r t h a n c u s t o d i a n s , t h e s e m a t r o n s (and o t h e r s who w i l l n o t compromise t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y o f r e f o r m a t i o n ) f e e l c o m p e l l e d t o abandon t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e . V I I I SUMMARY OBSERVATIONS R e l a t i o n s t o S o c i e t y . I n g e n e r a l i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e m a t r o n i s i n a r a t h e r u n i q u e p o s i t i o n , f o r she i s employed by a p u b l i c f r o m w h i c h h e r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n s u l a t e d . P r i s o n s a r e i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e community b o t h p h y s i c a l l y a n d f i g u r a t i v e l y , a nd t h e m a t r o n does n o t w i s h t o d i s p e l t h e p r o t e c t i v e s h i e l d o f p u b l i c i g n o r a n c e c o n c e r n i n g h e r work. She may w i s h g r e a t e r f r e e d o m t o e x p e r i m e n t and, t h e r e f o r e , d e s i r e . g r e a t e r p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e r work, b u t she i s n o t w i l l i n g t o work u n d e r t h e p u b l i c g a z e . P r e s u m a b l y she w o u l d l i k e g r e a t e r f r e e d o m t o a c t as she s e e s f i t , b u t i s n o t w i l l i n g t o have any g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c f o r h e r a c t i o n s . The m a t r o n f e e l s t h a t she and h e r work a r e m i s u n d e r s t o o d by s o c i e t y , b u t she does l i t t l e t o r e c t i f y t h e s i t u a t i o n . She d o e s n o t l i k e t o t a l k a b o u t h e r work t o c a s u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s , and when she i s e n g a g e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n she s t r e s s e s t h e n o r m a l i t y o f h e r work and h e r c l i e n t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r more a b n o r m a l f e a t u r e s . I n p r i v a t e she i s much more p r o n e t o s t r e s s the a b n o r m a l f e a t u r e s o f h e r work an d o f h e r c l i e n t s , p o s s i b l y as a way o f j u s t i f y i n g t o h e r s e l f ( a n d t o h e r p e e r s ) h e r l a c k o f s u c c e s s i n a c t u a l l y r e f o r m i n g p r i s o n e r s . R e l a t i o n s t o t h e I n m a t e s . The m a t r o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i n m a t e s i s a l s o r a t h e r c o m p l e x . B e c a u s e she e x p e c t s t h e i n m a t e s t o do more t h a n m e r e l y comply w i t h t h e c u s t o d i a l demands o f t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s , she must somehow j u s t i f y t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n . The i n m a t e s c o u l d , p r e s u m a b l y , m e r e l y s i t i n t h e i r c e l l s f r o m t h e d a t e o f t h e i r a r r i v a l u n t i l t h e com- p l e t i o n o f t h e i r s e n t e n c e s . T h e r e i s a b e l i e f p r e v a l e n t t o - d a y t h a t i t i s somehow "good f o r " i n m a t e s t o work and t o t a k e p a r t i n a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s , e i t h e r as p u n i s h - ment o r repayment f o r p a s t d e v i a n c e , o r t o somehow e f f e c t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The i n m a t e s a r e n o t e n t i r e l y a d v e r s e t o w o r k i n g and p l a y i n g s t r e n u o u s l y , p a r t i a l l y b e c a u s e a c t i v i t y as s u c h h e l p s t o f i l l t h e many h o u r s b e f o r e t h e y w i l l a g a i n be f r e e . The v e r y c l o s e c o n t a c t w h i c h t h e y must have w i t h t h e m a t r o n s ( b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h r a t i o o f m a t r o n s t o i n m a t e s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ) , c a r r i e s w i t h i t an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e m a t r o n s may a c t u a l l y permeate t h e p r o t e c t i v e s h e l l o f t h e Inmate g r o u p . To meet t h i s t h r e a t t h e i n m a t e s c o r r u p t t h e 150 a u t h o r i t y o f t h e m a t r o n s by making a b a r g a i n w i t h them. The i n m a t e s and s t a f f seem t o a r r i v e a t an u n w r i t t e n agreement whereby t h e i n m a t e s a g r e e t o work and t o t a k e p a r t i n r e c r e a t - i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w h i c h s a v e s t h e m a t r o n s f r o m embarrassment a t s u c h a t i m e s as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n does come u n d e r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y ) , b ut t h i s i s done w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e m a t r o n s w i l l n o t f u r t h e r d i s r u p t t h e i n m a t e s by t a m p e r i n g w i t h t h e i r a t t i t u d e s o r v a l u e s . The m a t r o n i s s e d u c e d i n t o a t l e a s t a n o u t w a r d agreement t h a t i m p r i s o n m e n t i s p e r h a p s j u s t p u n i s h m e n t f o r t h o s e who a r e c a u g h t , b u t t h a t t h e r e can be l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i m p r i s o n m e n t i f t h e o b j e c t i v e i s s o l e l y t o c u r e t h e d e v i a n t . The T a s k s o f t h e M a t r o n . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l t a s k s o f t h e m a t r o n a t t h e Women's U n i t i n d i c a t e d t h e p r i o r i t y o f two; c u s t o d y and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e i n m a t e s a n d r e f o r m - a t i o n . The c u s t o d i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , ( a n d by e x t e n s i o n , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f i n t e r n a l o r d e r and c o n t r o l ) must a t a l l t i m e s be t h e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t a f f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be p u r s u e d o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e commensurate w i t h good c u s t o d i a l p r o c e d u r e s . A l o n g w i t h t h e s e c u s t o d i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s one f i n d s an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t m a t r o n s s h o u l d a t a l l t i m e s a t t e m p t t o r e f o r m i n m a t e s , and t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a t l e a s t v e r b a l l y , u l t i m a t e l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t t a s k o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e t h e .Inmates a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l , homogeneous g r o u p s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e m a t r o n can p r e s u m a b l y p e r f o r m t h e 151 r e q u i s i t e t h e r a p e u t i c f u n c t i o n s . Two O r i e n t a t i o n s t o t h e R o l e . T h e r e seem t o be two p r i m a r y o r i e n t a t i o n s t o t h e r o l e o f t h e m a t r o n . T h e s e may be s e e n as two. s t y l e s o f p l a y i n g t h e r o l e w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o two p r i m a r y v i e w s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The f i r s t p h i l o s o p h y o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r r e f o r m seems t o be b a s e d on a b e l i e f t h a t i n m a t e s must l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i mposed by s o c i e t y , and t h a t t h e most e f f i c i e n t means o f t e a c h i n g t h i s l e s s o n i s t o demand a d h e r e n c e t o r a t h e r s t r i c t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r i s o n . The c o n c e r n o f t h e m a t r o n becomes one o f p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e s y s t e m - s u p p o r t i n g t h e a d m i n i - s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d demanding o b e d i e n c e and h i g h s t a n d - a r d s o