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An examination of the social structure of the women's unit, Oakalla Prison Farm Coutts, Dorothy Mae 1961

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AN  THE  SOCIAL  EXAMINATION  STRUCTURE  OAKALLA  OP  OP T H E WOMEN'S U N I T  PRISON  FARM  by  DOROTHY MAE B.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS  SUBMITTED  COUTTS  of British  Columbia,  1958  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF  • • T H E REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR THE- DEGREE- OF • OF  ARTS  in  t h e Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE  as conforming  U N I V E R S I T Y " OF B R I T I S H  -May-1961. -  to the  COLUMBIA  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may  be  granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be alloived without my written permission.  Department of  Anthropology and  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  Ma?  3. 1961  Sociology  ABSTRACT This  i s an examination  women's p r i s o n . internal Verbal  The  order,  order  Matrons Those  who  ation  prefer  has f i v e  self-maintenance,  priority  internal  prison  of the s o c i a l primary  punishment  take  precedence  prefer  i n actual  to play t h e i r  on t h e morning  subscribe to a basic-change  views  and p r a c t i c e s  requirements force  these In  the of  exchange  matrons  agree  the inmates.  given  goods  and  security  more  f o r obedience  inmates  suffer  from  cohesive  The  modes  of  inmates  "hack  modes  privacy.  and  to  seems  sphere  and v a l u e s essential  prison.  of response  lovers"  shift.  time.  i n some  of  heterosexual relationships,  "Squealers",  alienative  of the  the  with the  tends  the attitudes  the deprivation  a n d , a t t h e Women's U n i t , adopt  prefer  over  and c o n f o r m i t y  structure  and  custody.  pressure  custodial  with  reform-  of the afternoon  bargain f o r compliance  social  services,  "rounders" tions.  t o become  This  of  philosophy  structural  not t o tamper  the present The  And  ways.  views  are,frequently i n conflict  of custody. matrons  of  Their  the requirements  r e l a x e d and p e r m i s s i v e atmosphere  and  i n different  shift.  Those  who  custody,  and r e f o r m a t i o n .  subscribe to a habit-forming philosophy working  of a  practice.  roles  a r e i n harmony w i t h  Their  tasks:  i s given t o r e f o r m a t i o n , but custody  practices  more  structure  "part  The  liberty,  autonomy, addicts  to these players"  and  deprivaadopt  response. differ  by  groups  i n their  characteristic  responses rebel not  to  official  habitually,  change  their  oppression.  the o l d e r basic  groups  values.  The  younger  conform  addict  overtly  but  groups do  ACKN OWLEDGEMENT S  I  am g r e a t l y  their  assistance  ible.  I would  Kaspar  D. N a e g e l e  supervision. that  I first  from  many  have  gained I  indebted  and t h e i r  for his  lectures,  most  would  interested  also  like  they  the  course  of private  and  advice  has been very  I  also  mention both  questions  extremely  and seminars  that  I  of the discipline. my  me t h r o u g h  appreciation  their  Their  i n large  f o r which  toDr.  for  t h e great  lectures  andi n  guidance,  part  I am v e r y  by a  criticism  he h a s g i v e n  me,  B . E. M a y b e e ,  for  shifts  In addition,  both  without their  I would  complaint, time  espec-  and  a t t h e Women's U n i t .  and interviews  Matron  who h a s b e e n  the encouragement•given  and t h e s t a f f  with  for the  and t h e C h i e f  and h e l p f u l , arranging  convenience.  grant  grateful.  t o thank Warden C h r i s t i e  Miss  generous  lectures  valuable.  like  appreciation  t h e inmates  endured been  my  toDr.  and i t has been  and Mr. Lochen  discussions.  and support  f o r my  t o express  given  Council  understanding  absence  discussions  was s u p p o r t e d  t h e Women's U n i t ,  ially of  study  would  assistance at  have  t h e Canada  i n sociology,  poss-  and p a t i e n t  o f Dr.. N a e g e l e ' s  D r . Robson  assistance  study  my t h a n k s  guidance  o f ray u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Belshaw, Mr. B l i s h e n ,  from  invaluable  who h a v e , b y  made t h i s  t o express  I t was a s a r e s u l t became  people  tolerance,  especially like  of his  This  t o many  leaves  like  to  me b y They  have  and have  and t h e i r  knowledge.  To I  would  and  room-mate  like.to  extend  forebearance.  Burgess .so  my  many  who  has  Donna a  special  Finally,  so a b l y  inconveniences  Pinch,  parents  thanks  I would  typed o n my  my  this  for their  like study,  behalf.  a n d my  patience  t o thank Mrs. a n d who  friends  has  Janet endured  TABLE  OP  CONTENTS  CHAPTER 1. 11.  PAGE INTRODUCTION A FRAME  . .  OF R E F E R E N C E  The  Prison  The  Regime o f t h e  The  Defects  The  Pains  6 7  and i t s S e t t i n g  of  Custodian  Total  8  Power  1$  o f Imprisonment  . . . . .  A r g o t .Roles Crisis  111. IV.  Observations  ,  29  .  31  R E S E A R C H METHODS AND E X P E R I E N C E S  33  T H E WOMEN'S U N I T  1|1  The  AND "ITS S E T T I N G  l±6  P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Women's U n i t  Becoming Group  l\.Q  a n Inmate  52  Placements  Work Teams V.  17 2l|  and E q u i l i b r i u m  Summary  1  THE. ROLE The  61  O F T H E MATRON  68  Regime o f t h e Matrons  Configuration  .  o f Tasks  88  Rehabilitation Relations Matrons  106  as an Occupational  Commitment Summary  93  t o Others  Occupational  Strains  Group  and Rewards  to the Occupation  Observations  68  . . . . . . .  120 136 llj.5  II4.8  CHAPTER VI.  PAGE 156  WOMEN AS CAPTIVES The D e p r i v a t i o n o f L i b e r t y The D e p r i v a t i o n o f  .  .  .  .  Goods and S e r v i c e s  .  . 1 5 8  . .  .  .  181  The D e p r i v a t i o n o f H e t e r o s e x u a l - R e l a t i o n s h i p s The D e p r i v a t i o n o f ^Autonomy The D e p r i v a t i o n o f  Security  The D e p r i v a t i o n o f  Privacy.- ,  Summary O b s e r v a t i o n s .  .  .  .  .-  ;  .  .-_ .  .  221 225  .- .-.  230  . . . . . . . . . .  CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS•FOR FURTHER STUDY  Vlll  BIBLIOGRAPHY  IX.  200  ...  .  Vll.  . . .  188  .  •  237 25l  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  256  APPENDICES Appendix A :  Excerpts  Appendix B:  Glossary  from the Manual .  .  .  .«  257 268  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  One  could  women's p r i s o n answers  undertake  with  a  the express  t o t h e many  confronted  i n this  ings  made  the present  of  sociology  suspect.  of  provide  level  a  good  sociological issues  prison of  could  a very  provided  setting. state  and o f c o r r e c t i o n s  On a n o t h e r  presumably  be  case  studied  special kind  ient a  also  prompt  showcase  society  fruitful social  i n institutions,  of  t h e ways  i n which  Examinations amount  of general  bear  inmates  i n which  however,  An  matrons  investigated. of formal  t h e consumer  interest  background  of the time  the prison  could  deviance  as a  conven-  an  unresolved  type  of  problems  examination  within  to perform  of  equally  the development  to live  information  unwilling  become members  i l l u m i n a t i o n by a n  of t h i s  The  service  an  provide  o r t h e many  and s t u d i e s  could  organizations  i n social  concerning  learn  highly  f o r any one o f a number  being  learn  be  a women's p r i s o n  i s a t t h e same  of information  s o c i a l i z a t i o n s might  the ways  field  The p r i s o n  of  and  i n the  i n d i v i d u a l deviants  of deviants.  roles  o f knowledge  one t o i n v e s t i g a t e  i n which  source  find-  as a n example  by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  prob-  o f any  study  i n which  some  The v a l i d i t y  would,  currently  of a  and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e  of concern,  member o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . might  intention of f i n d i n g  administrative  lems  given  s o c i o l o g i c a l examination  the prison,  their  require  concerning  roles. a the  certain social  2 system  of the prison,  literature  reveals  available. for  extremely quents In  been  little  o r about  recent  that  Several  men h a v e  however, there  studies  there  both  o f these  situation  of  a s i t u a t i o n i n which  the  Women's U n i t  social  female  which  picture  been  inal  plan  make  a more A  specific  t o work  study  so I have  institution  tain  omissions  iculties  studies  encountered  about  At this  be t h e y  applied  t o make  could  point  study  when m a k i n g  visible  to find provide  the s o c i a l t o prove with  to provide  i n this  sense o u t  I abandoned  or socialization,  b e e n made  to the  any a  clear  my  orig-  f o r t h e summer a n d b e g a n t o  concerned  attempted  i n either  As a n employee o f  which  specifically  the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s  written  findings  b u t was u n a b l e  and o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s have  them.  i n t r i g u e d by t h e d i m l y  examination-of  r o l e development  premature, the  designed  hypotheses,  deviance,  myself.  i n the s e t t i n g only  systematic  delin-  questionable.  specifically  of the prison,  but  t o house  considerable  t o which  i s  I found  of the situation.  are designed  c a n be u n i l a t e r a l l y  study  or analytical  prisons  e i t h e r about  prison  I became  structure  descriptive  to  this  and of  written  two f i e l d s  IT. u n d e r t o o k  deviance  information  success,  has also  I n a women's  such  considerable  mental h o s p i t a l s , but the extent or  little  with  institutions  years  i s very  o f male  undertaken h a s been  and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  structure.  or  disprove  formal seemed  a general  instead. portrait,  and inpart  organization, rather portrait  Of n e c e s s i t y  of cer-  due i n p a r t  t o the innate  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s  diffsetting.  There i s a l i n e between the c a p t i v e s and the captors a c r o s s which communication i s d i f f i c u l t .  As a p a r t i c i p a n t  observer  p l a y i n g the r o l e of a c a p t o r I was reminded o f the s i g n i f i cance of t h i s l i n e on many o c c a s i o n s .  Information cannot  o f t e n be o b t a i n e d by simply a s k i n g questions i n the Women's U n i t , one must r a t h e r be p a t i e n t and watch, sometimes f o r month or years before some i n d i c a t i o n of the answers can be gained. THE  MAJOR QUESTIONS OP THIS STUDY  Common Features of Imprisonment.  U s i n g Gresham Sykes'  book The S o c i e t y of Captives*' both as a key t o  the s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e of the p r i s o n and as a p o i n t f o r comparison between p r i s o n s , the f i r s t  concern of the study w i l l be t o examine  the s o c i a l o r d e r a t the Women's U n i t and t o determine some of the common elements and a t t r i b u t e s of p r i s o n s . examination  Such an  and comparison w i l l imply an e v a l u a t i o n o f the  g e n e r a l i t y of the frame of r e f e r e n c e d e r i v e d by Sykes.  The  s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s regard w i l l be: 1.  What are the common t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o p r i s o n s and i s the p r i o r i t y o f tasks s i m i l a r from one p r i s o n t o another?  2.  What are some of the common elements of a u t h o r i t y i n the -  p r i s o n , and how does t h i s a u t h o r i t y a f f e c t the type of r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the inmates and the custodians? 3.  What are some of the common pains of imprisonment?  Gresham M. Sykes, The^Society P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 193o • 1  To  of C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n ,  what e x t e n t  does imprisonment as such r e s u l t  i s t i c frustrations  i n character-  o r d e p r i v a t i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f the s p e c i f i c  type o f p r i s o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o r the s p e c i f i c type o f population I±.  i n the prison?  How do i n m a t e s adapt t o t h e d e p r i v a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p r i s o n ?  What a r e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  patterns  found  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s p e c i f i c type o f p r i s o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o r t h e s p e c i f i c type o f p o p u l a t i o n  i n the prison?  Unique F e a t u r e s o f Imprisonment a t t h e Women's U n i t , O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm.  The second major c o n c e r n o f t h i s  w i l l be t o examine t h e unique a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l of t h e Women's U n i t *  study  structure  An attempt w i l l a l s o be made t o d i s -  c o v e r some o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f these unique f e a t u r e s o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ; 1.  To what e x t e n t does t h e t y p e o f p o p u l a t i o n housed a t t h e Women's U n i t i n f l u e n c e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l system  of t h a t 2.  Unit?  To what e x t e n t does the t y p e o f program conducted by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n f l u e n c e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l system a t  the Women's U n i t ? 3.  To what e x t e n t does t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h t h e captives and t h e c a p t o r s a r e women i n f l u e n c e the n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l system  of t h e Women's U n i t ? I t i s hoped t h a t as t h i s study p r o g r e s s e s some c o n t r i b utions t o general has  sociological  knowledge w i l l be made, b u t as  been i n d i c a t e d above, t h e purpose o f t h e study cannot be  5 to  prove  or disprove  the  present  can  be  work w i l l  derived  any be  f o r future  specific  hypotheses.  the extent  t o which  examination  of  The t e s t specific  a more  of  hypotheses  rigorous  type.  CHAPTER I I  A  Studies correctional icularly  with  to  criminality  are extremely  sociological  criminology  chapter  their  a  REFERENCE  examination  the  institutions. social  been,  with  interaction only  such exception pseudo-family tion  a few e x c e p t i o n s ,  formations  of female  deviance,  f o r female  of  and  criminals  program o f  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s ,  or  with  the institutions  has  i n the extreme.  One  cursory  S. S e l l i n g ' s observed  Authors  themselves  and f o r m a l  within  part-  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  within  a  juvenile  institu-  f o r girls. Before  adaptation  explicit  derived  general  fund  of  institution  that  present  will  general  Journal  was  would  have  i t was  concerning  The t e s t i n g  t o be l e f t  patterns  P r i s o n Farm  felt  that  the s o c i a l  be e s s e n t i a l ,  devised.  then  concerning  at Oakalla  and t e s t e d  of information  study  positions  hypotheses  t o t h e Women's U n i t  profitably  this  with  prevailing  i s Lowell  content  of institutions  Concern  female  f e w i n number,  usually  on t h e s u b j e c t  and  orientation.  a description of the physical plant  such  be  with  OF  female  institutions  concerning  a brief  confine  concerning  studies  textbooks  FRAME  a  could  more  structure  and t o t h i s o f more  of  end t h e  precise  to further studies  prowithin  field.  L o w e l l S. S e l l i n g , "The P s e u d o o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 37 ( 1 9 3 D ,  Family",  American  PP.2^7-253.  7 One a  o f t h e major  sociological  tion  t h e frame  h i s study  followed  of reference  Because  i n attempting  was t h e d e t e r m i n a -  which  would  of the similarity  of reference  o f a maximum  to a large  encountered  o f t h e Women's U n i t  frame  and f r u i t f u l .  objective, for  examination  of a theoretical  practical  difficulties  developed  be a t once  i n general  b y G r e s h a m M.  Sykes  s e c u r i t y p r i s o n f o r men h a s b e e n  extent  i n this  examination  of the social 2  structure precis the  o f t h e Women's U n i t  of this  general  study  by Sykes  at Oakalla will  o r i e n t a t i o n and focus  Prison  provide  some  of interest  Farm.  A  brief  indication of  of t h e present  study. I.  The  New  T H E P R I S O N AND  Jersey  State  1,200 a d u l t  approximately  ITS SETTING  Maximum  male  Security  Prison  criminals held  houses  i n confinement  3 for  periods  imately tion or  two-thirds  have  been  robbery.  ground or  o f time  I n many  t o o dangerous  with  o f those  convicted  f o r those  custodial,  ranging  one y e a r  serving  offenders  sentences  this  Approx-  i nthis  instituburglary  p r i s o n h a s become t h e dumping  who a r e c o n s i d e r e d  t o be accommodated  clerical  to life.  o f either felonious homicide,  respects  elsewhere.  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f  the responsibility  inmate  from  of governing  t o be t o o d i f f i c u l t Three  members  hundred  are charged  and a d m i n i s t r a t i n g  this  population.^"  G r e s h a m M. S y k e s , T h e S o c i e t y P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958* •^Sykes, ^Loc.  Society  c i t .  of Captives,  of Captives,  p.xvi  Princeton,  8 The of but  most  the prison  or  to deter  could  between  be c o n s i d e r e d  a l l three  of  prisons  or  p e r s o n a l i t y because  but  objectives.  a s we  these  know  diverse  not completely  remind  Reformation specific  The  regime  compromise society. another,  These  by  T h e New  Jersey  them t o - d a y : they  these  regulations.  have  been  him,  i s some  lack  Prison  to  conflicting  of the  admittedly  Incongruities into  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and enforced  view.  with the  offender.  a  similar  uneasy  t o t h e p r i s o n by  incongruous  with  find  a concrete  o f a c t i o n must  walls  •  represents assigned  dull,  a closer  i s done  OP T H E C U S T O D I A N  tasks  and  the outer  but prohibit  reformation  colour  compromise  are austere  but l i t t l e  i s typical  purpose,  f o rhabitation;  of i t s presence,  policy  there  designed  They  of the custodians  A  Shall  to reform  State  They  objectives.  tasks.are  d'etre"  f o r the accomplishment  y e t t h e p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must  translating and  appropriate  T H E REGIME  between  Surely  be  o b j e c t i v e s , a n d no one p h y s i c a l  of ensuring  II.  f o r the inhabit-  can perhaps  the offender,  i s a v e r b a l i z e d hope,  purpose  life,,  criminal deviance.  offender?  unsuitable  t h e community  of  as t o t h e " r a i s o n  with  t o punish  these  of  between  existing  the prospective  contradiction  I t lacks the amenities  physical discomfort  of coping  p r i s o n be d e s i g n e d  of the physical structure  of the i n s t i t u t i o n  to the confusion  p r i s o n a s a means  plant  acute  Some o f t h e d r a b n e s s  attributed  the  feature  i s i t s drabness.  does n o t represent  ants.  of  striking  one.  a means o f set of rules  somehow  by t h e g u a r d s .  be  derived  9 The  most  prominent  custodians  must  perform  maintenance  of  punishment  tion.  Closer  they  have  of The  custody  and  much a w a r e employed  and  vinced  of  of  that  the  of  each  policy  custody.  escapes alone  this  and  within  however,  the  Time,  for  majority  of  that  there  slightest  to  the  is  sufficiently  to  be  found  The  guards,  strong  wanting  task  of  escapes  to  seek  that  the  rehabilita-  extent  to  which  be  State the  task  Prison.  administration  is  very  ingenuity they  the  the  are  who  freedom  grooming to  dis-  searched  and  staff  con-  is  are  equally  would,  at  be fully  institution  they  to  be  especially  prison  number  must  can  dress,  counted,  within  the  armed  before  irksome  the  the  instit-  of  and  escape,  are  the  use  designed  their  of  by  concerning  those  but  the  Jersey  energy  although  precautions  inmate,  indicated that  the  undetermined  opportunity,  Custodial burdensome  i s an  the  hopefully,  insured  Inmates must  continuously,  and  institution.  New  and  p r i s o n are  interested i n attempting  vinced  the  be  regulations  attempts.  the  of  i n the  of  the  and,  Sykes has  prevention rigid  of  prison  illustrates  cannot  fact.  the  self-maintenance  offenders,  pre-eminence  walls  such  supervised  the  has  activity  courage  not  task  i n the  attempted,  the  which  custody  order,  i n s p e c t i o n of  prevention  guards  of  influenced  The  are:  internal  ution,  tasks  any  con-  given  cost.  the  inmates  and  public outcry  against  escapes  administration  in this  respect.  internal  control.  Closely  i s not  related  willing  to  10 custody,  and  second  institution  is  has  i n the  a  stated,  permissive  resolved such  stances  maintenance  and  the  of  disruptive circle  their  to  create.  feels  he  must  and  the  and  internal  of  The  would  prison  The  The  employ  repressive  the  very  measures  are  the  guard  and  been  of  by  the  in a  optimal.  inmates toward  vicious3  activity  his  circum-  f a r from  which  is  formidable  pressures  up  between  population  a  heap... f u r t h e r f r u s t r a t i o n  between  has  best  present  i s caught  suppress  the  strong  author  dilemma  inmate  life  the  the  order  encountered  create  guard  As  the  even under  deprivations  must  antagonism  Prison  order  imprisonment  i n w h i c h he  helps  of  within  control.  State  that  conditions  behavior.  precedence  latter.  concede  f r u s t r a t i o n s and  because  Jersey  the  of  internal  atmosphere of  must  rank  with  New  social  one  the  problem, The  concern  i n favour  that  i n the  that  the upon  he  guard the  inmates,  prisoners  spirals  upward. Control prevention "quiet", well.  of  legal  Regulations  deviance.  rules  the  "peaceful"  circumscribe  been  of  the  any  The  objectively  be),  Sykes,  and not  which  with  the  the  of  could  of  within  outsider  to  petty  Captives,  the but  extensive  the  (and  i n many  p.2$  the  may  of  prison  as  rigidly lead  to  control  enforcement be,  with  maintenance  conceivably  this  through  unnecessarily  Society  concerned  p r o h i b i t deviance,  price  autonomy to  but  only  "orderly" living only  purchase  appear  i s not  infractions,  activity  inmates'  which  inmates  has  of  numerous  in  fact  respects.  11 The for  a  variety  force him  labour  reflects  inmate  a  only  day  able, case  long,  but  ment  and  get  tools  a  will  whether odian the  they  i s not the  The  measures  such  or  even  free  custodian  i s to  They take  will part  as  remain be  captives  brute  perhaps  to  degree  movement  to  and  and  take  a  feels  that  hours  of  the  the  program  or  use  than  is  the  work, of  an move-  of  must  disorder,  have  but  the or  something  exist  inmates  face  within no  e s s e n t i a l s of not,  and  do  to  consider-  availability  f a r more able  be  is  position  than  cells  chance.  he  with  a  i f he  work w h i c h  employed,  the  work  materials  uncomfortable  force  effect  freedom  internal  this  the  punish  i s to  of  t o o l s and  escape  s t i l l  I f he  penal  custodial  problems  work.  of  work  i s not  to  facilitate  complex  provided  in a  i n the  custodian  man  desire desire  presents  some o f  in their  of  not  a  can  certain  of  a  assume  locked  variety  potential  of h i s  selves.  a  a  rationale for  remain  to  labour  expectation  of  less  expected,  the  degree  expected  hazards  finds himself  labour  much  of  is  certain  could  Freedom  the  i f he  requirement.  a  use  inmate  custodian  allowed  done.  show f o r t h e prison  are  be  Although  the  perhaps  the  inmates  require  increase  custodian  the  c u s t o d i a l c o n t r o l would  must  job  or  custodian  this  the  imprisonment,  sacrificing  inmates  individual  to  have  would present  when  p r i s o n , and  desire to his  The  efficient  Whether  of  I f the  make  problem.  offence,  by  to  the  f o r h i s deviance,  control.  the  Self-Maintenance.  reasons,  burden  for his  program  to  of  a knotty  financial  all  of  available within  with  cure  Task  the  cust-  them-  coercive  extract  life  needing  captives  extreme  starvation to  of  the  such  high  levels  of  effort,  punishment labour  and  from  little a  of  If the  prison  them,  and  desires  i s to  this  are The  State for  feel  that  of  avoid can  push  their  than  those  retaliate  The  contradictions  the  practices  of  very  prisoners  work f r o m  account  by  into  this.  m a n a g e men  into  conscientious  a c t u a l l y doing  more  to  but  as  their  which  the  inmates,  well  as  guard  attitudes,  this  stringent  of  the  It  the  would not  officials  criminals  are  type  of  custody  the  behavior  captive  as  the  something  for  imprisonment, h i s  and  f o r the  use the  custodians  inflicting of  the  of  extreme  prison. there  punishment prison  upon  i n many  to  his  entry be  serves  as  designed  to  deviance  i n the  concern  inmates,  placed  upon  correspondence,  supplies  visits  from  the  day-to-day  given but  respects,  outside  not  must  restrictions and  Jersey  custodians  measures  the  New  atonement  is little  are,  the  Certainly  to  in prison  prior  which prior  unfair  the  placed  Although  of  be  of  a_s p u n i s h m e n t .  the  conditions  canteen  able  taking  "incidents" within  The  be  (to  but  during: h i s  consciously  while  do  punishment.  institution  activities  very  to  work,  can  ensure  will  conscientious  majority  rationalization  avoid  of  of  the  refer to  secured a  ta3k  that  the  cannot  must  requires  punishment,  into  work,  to  of  considerable.  Prison  rarely  but  obtain  poses  out)  custodians  opinions.  consideration  observe  work,  official  and  control  The  inmates  meted to  existing incentives  insufficient  The  be  appearing  of  he  quite  can  value.  semblance  f i n d s the  inmates.  which  apathetically  he  reward  the  punishments  and  to  the  punitive. the  world  purchase may  13 certainly punitive  be  attitude,  restrictions to  the  interpreted  are  hut  the  imposed  preservation of  and  internal  for  such  order.  merely  a  or  not,  h i s humanity.  The  he  must  rule,  i s concerned  is  this  fact  of  the  prison  an  a  one  of  the  this  profound  criminal therapy. behavior the  high  guard  are  the  he  he  temper  a  essential of  custody  whole  does not who  of  these  degree  individual  that  much t o  tasks  reason  find has  that  been  like  he  stripped  those  whom  liked i n return.  the  totalitarian  to  with  merits  consensus this  It  power  o p i n i o n s as Those  support  devoted  the  to  a more  requirements  Society of  need  of  the to  for  a  existing  the  the  for  to  requires  theoretical  factions  attaining  psychiatric or  view and  the  students  deviant  rehabilitative  p.12  as  Many  means o f  work  is  reformation  sociological  Captives,  prison,  individual  meaningful a  of  Two  to  devoted  the  reformation  objective.  reformation of  self-government,  Sykes,  to  in his personality.  change.  minimal  the  attain  that  believes that  assigned  is little  divergent  Those  Sykes  quarrel  believe  behavior  see  they  i s in fact  an  that  f r e q u e n t l y comes t o  reform.  there  change  express  does  employ  problem  profound  guard  a l l the  would  must  then  as  of  objective,  means of  task  few  as  evidences  official.  ambiguous  although as  which  because  the  of  and  inmate  as  insist  sufficiently  able  The  the  inmates  custodians  is  most  view  the  Whether t h i s  restrictions to  by  view  of  group of  criminal  educations  program.  Both  factions  imprisonment features could  success  Jersey  the least  state  than  which  states  society behavior  while  rather  how  concerning  means  follow  after.  of the prison  strict  of priority  custody  re-emphasized  of  reforma-  potent  device.  the dictates of  prisoner's  on t h e grounds  t o match  that  normative  An e v a l u a t i o n  of the  made  the traditional  scientist  or  i n terms  social  social  reformation  to i t s  setting.  o f the inmate this  beliefs  or the therapist,  rehabilitation  i n this  and c o n t r o l  admini-  behavior  i s therefore  by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  rehabilitation.  The  i s t h e most  rehabilitation  the social  a  the experience  of deviant  of the  to  a battle f o r compliance.  contradicts  has the e f f e c t of relegating low l e v e l  from  are (affecting the t o t a l  of achieving  by e i t h e r  i s termed  to follow  are forced  has, i n  assigned  a philosophy  the prisoner  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n becomes  conceived  omary  of  n o t emerge  i n the p r i s o n  officials  tasks  imprisonment  i s stressed  philosophy  rehabilitation  i n which he e n t e r e d .  h i s mind  influence  This  for  of a l l those  than  will  of  supportive  reformation  Control  the prison  climate.  Prison  extent,  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i o n s  reformative  and  State  i s released.  demands, t h e mind  features  degree.  the prevention  f o r preparing  when he  e f f o r t s at  has developed  that  the inmates  available  as  their  that  of the prison  the punitive  and t h e p e r m i s s i v e ,  priority  To a l a r g e  a worse  among  of  before  that  i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l does  strator  if  be r e d u c e d  t h e New  prison.  tion  believe  be e f f e c t i v e t o a n y  practice,  in  must  increased  At  the  usually  cust-  The  need  bpdy i s  time  i n t h e name  15 III.  It  THE  is frequently  custodial  regime  is a  individuals  normally  a  resultant  of  the  experience,  or  have  has in  countered the  sible  with  prison's for  the  in actual  One  of  the  can  be  found  are  held  tion  of  securing  inmates of  how  brute may  greatly  of  or  i t  the  prison  that  in their  the  the  structure  custodian  is  custodian's i n the  a  sense  prison's  captors.  with  do  his  this  not  wishes  lack  demand is a  of  particularly  to  give  i n kind,  outnumbered  severely system  to  hold  they  of  i s .  power who  may  agree  his  posithen  by  the  task  the  use  to  his  custodian  cust-  of  means  assigned  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i f the  the  limited.  of  must  duty,  inefficient  authority  and he  sense  i f the  total  demands.  compliance  grossly  nature.  a  with  inmates  that  and  is  among t h o s e  The  feel  respon-  system.  invested  duty  defects  prison  is  is  Sykes  equally  the  power  of  job.  prison  within  the  sufficient  structural  of  the  that  recruits lack  inefficiency  they  complex  react  calibre  legitimately entitled  of  force  poor  least  their  coercion  a  the  at  obey  but  obedience,  of  of  POWER  power a r e  of  conceivably  but  i s of  does use  of  the  is  face  inefficiency  interest  lack  comply  the  could  inmate  to  the  argument  power  fact  authority,  coercion,  career  the  custodian  automatically  odian  no  i n the  that  these  structural defects  captive  In  that  such that  power,  the  fact  the  TOTAL  r e c r u i t e d by  apparent  theoretically  argued  OF  reflection  system  Although  that  DEFECTS  command,  of to  the  custodian the  i s p a i n f u l l y aware  16  The available paltry able the  collection  to the custodian  and l a r g e l y  inmates  The  who  to view  with  the  custodian  for  securing  ience  tion  rely  upon  compliance. issues  thus  of the authority  really  those he i s supposed  some  of h i s duties  wishes  to remain  inmates.  patterns slips  As  this  lost  will  a "good  o r punishment,  learns  that  the custodian  which  authority  may  incentives, techniques  to gain  degree  with  He may  fail  becomes  of  corrup-  time,  because  on a  friendships, to carry out he  of h i s associates,  more d e e p l y enmeshed i n of h i s role  o f a few t r u s t e d t h e n be  serious  simply because  i n the eyes  con-  means o f  the inmates  probably form  obed-  allow  are of less  A t t h e same  the authority  the hands  as  privileges  m a t t e r , he must  a certain  to r u l e .  fellow"  than  and  behavior.  o f these  o r t o e n f o r c e some r u l e s  of reciprocity,  away i n t o  earned by good  The most e f f e c t i v e  involves  the guard  avail-  arrival,  rather  straightforward  o f the guard.  with  of  less  i s i n c o n s t a n t , and c l o s e -contact basis,  upon  are  h i s fellows.  reward  to the i n s t i t u t i o n .  which  rights  the removal  i n those matters  compliance  day-to-day  the  be  The guard  which  rewards  as t h e i r  a martyr  which i s  o f persuasion i s extremely  Those  must  no e f f e c t i v e  latitude  consequence securing  t o be  must  i n those  siderable  these  which  and rewards  t o the inmates  i s punished by  be c o n s i d e r e d Left  he  are granted  or privileges  inmate  may  come  as means  ineffective.  i n the prison  rewards  o f punishments  gradually  inmates.  attempted  only  Recapture  at h i s p e r i l .  17 IV.  Having  examined  the  custodians  his  attention to  State  Prison  physical were  try  was  ness  of  and  food  features  of  pains  have  image Not  the  activities  self-esteem  within  and  does  the  evaluation acquired seriously  inadequate, reforms  yet  than  i n the  the  the  and  New  treatment  the  more  the  loss  of  freedom,  the  loss  of  goods  and  but  prisons  s t i l l  contribute of  to  an  reference  his by  punitive their  has  the  become  psycholog-  are,  the  of  to  selfprison.  prestige  and  status  self-conception  and  self-  virtue  of  according  loss  of  this  which to  heterosexual  s e r v i c e s , the  his  i s sent  of  possessions  individual's  for  deprivations  prisoner loss  aware-  have  find  but  the  accordingly.  threatened The  by  public  grossly  formerly,  victim suffer a loss  the  extreme  conditions  increased  i n a c c e s s i b l e i f he  position.  Jersey  P h y s i c a l l y imprisonment  points  turns  inmates.  inmates  i t was  which  author  involved  within  these  the  housing  and  conditions  community,  affect  of  regime  inter-personal relationships,  is greatly  social  view  the  inmates,  life  was  decreased  become  free  of  punishmentj  provide  the  the  imprisonment  which normally  suddenly  only  not  s e t t i n g and  and  painful.  ical  of  of  when  imprisonment,  less devastating  and  point  for  much  Many  prison  e l i m i n a t i o n of  extremely  IMPRISONMENT  impose u p o n  Penal  concern  i n the  the  time  brutal.  resulted  plight  the  deprivations  often  P A I N S OP  consideration  a  deplorable,  staff  to  a  from  There  THE  newly most  Gresham  Sykes,  relationships,  autonomy,  and  the  loss ual  of security. and poses  intact with  is  and adapt  himself  imposed  the deprivation activities  t h e inmate t o these  deprivations  condition  his  liberty.  becomes  world  must  rely  e x c l u s i v e l y upon  needs.  must  upon h i s a s s o c i a t e s  these  the loss  tion  inmate that  free is  community  prison  The  willing  world,  must  confine  and  tenuous  t h e inmate  congenial  until  so t h a t  but a l s o  i n the prison  may  whether he  because  world  because  this  as w e l l .  h e was f o u n d place,  isola-  The unsuitable and  be i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e may  survive  f o r h i s own  good  intact.  He  (asthe  i n t e r p r e t h i s i s o l a t i o n ) but i s placed f o r t h e good  can f u n c t i o n  importance will  o f t h e community.  more a d e q u a t e l y  t o r e j e c t the deviant  Not only  ofh i s  or n o t .  i n the f i r s t  t h e community  he  f o r the  i s p a i n f u l not only  must  contact  and f r i e n d s , he  the prison,  i t i s because  i n the prison  primarily  inmate's  refuted:  within  the p r i s o n  that  that  placed  inmate  community is  aware  believes  hospital the  within  h e was p l a c e d  not only  pain-  institution  the i n s t i t u t i o n  r e j e c t i o n by t h e o u t s i d e  i s made  society  t o cope  obviously  of the prison,  increasingly  particularly  o f the outside  implies  remain  learn  of a penal  Cut o f f from h i s f a m i l y  associates  Isolation of  individ-  o f h i s i n t e r e s t s and f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n  emotional  finds  To  The inmate  area  the outside  rely  the  somehow  The most  upon t h e inmates  t o t h e immediate  almost  f o rhim.  must  of l i b e r t y .  of their  upon  deprivations.  with  satisfaction  impact  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c problems  psychologically,  The ful  Each has a unique  without  t o ensure  The  the deviant,  continue  and  self-preservation.  as an i n d i v i d u a l i s d r a m a t i c a l l y the world  i n  t o go  around  19 without go  him, but, i n the estimation  around  ically,  more e f f i c i e n t l y  the prison  rejectors  - a way  without  inmate must of warding  of the majority, him.  find  To endure  a means  i t will psycholog-  of rejecting h i s  o f f h i s r e j e c t i o n by means o f  counter-attack. The that are  deprivation  the inmates adequately  medical  claim  o f t h e New  housed  attention,  ascetic,  their  and f e d ,  this  asceticism  f o r t h e sake  or materialistic,  It i s true  Security  they  Because  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r  adequate  materially  they  cannot  or that  o f some f u t u r e  the inmates  Prison  receive  existence  i s self-willed,  it  negative  their  asceticism.  adopted  the  Maximum  and that  find  deliberately spiritual  and s e r v i c e s .  Jersey  y e t they  and resent  that  o f goods  i t was  goal,  are left  deprivation,  be  with  only  and s u f f e r  accordingly. In to  our society,  possessions,  his  own w o r t h ,  the  kind,  stripped which  the or  sees  and w i l l  of these  one's  suit  symbolic  small  importance  measure  be a p p r a i s e d  a man  symbolic  by o t h e r s  own,  can r e s u l t  i d e n t i t y , status  that  he  cannot  of clothing,  himself  definitions inadequacy.  possessions,  equate  seated  l a y claims  i n terms material  attached  evaluate  i n terms o f  and o f  and personal  t h e inmate  as a f a i l u r e which  even  i n deep  i s  can  number and q u a l i t y o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n s .  extent a  and i n no  a r e one's  cerning  great  . To  possessions doubts  worth.  to a  con-  Poor t o  common  o f t h e maximum  chair  security  of the prevailing deprivation  be  with  prison  social  personal  20 The  deprivation of heterosexual  some w r i t e r s h a v e drive  and a consequent  inmate topic  of a prison,  belie  this  in  some  of  having forced  Jersey  their  State  than  those  frustration  significant In  enough  a  develops, ivities or  on a v o l u n t a r y  coercion,  strong  of latent  tion  into  and  may  doubts  a  great The  outside  who  basis  tendencies. i s severely  i n homosexual  psychological problem  part  result  of  the  Seduction.or censured  i n acute  sexual  normality.  f o r most  sphere  act-  activa-  near  seduc-  outside the circumstances  feelings  of  guilt  Physiological  r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be a t t a i n e d  cost  sexual  i n such  persuasion  from  result  o f m a s c u l i n i t y may  the s t r i c t l y  concerning  Homosexuality  (regardless of the extenuating  one's  again  women, a n x i e t y  or as the r e s u l t  homosexual  concerning  greater  deprivation are  do n o t t a k e  f e e l i n g s may  which  problems  f o r once  be g e n e r a t e d .  i n the institution)  gratification at  to  guilt  a pattern  institution life  tends  opportunity  our a t t e n t i o n .  i s without  and even f o r . t h o s e  tion  of  as t o warrant  society which  one's m a s c u l i n i t y  o n by t h i s  the  those  This  r e l a t i o n s h i p s can create  brought  unlike  imprisonment.  of heterosexual  problems  tends  They  lack  psychological  f o r the  or mistresses.  their  however,  sexual  to the  Prison  America,  wives  celibates during  of sexual  of  and a t t e n t i o n g i v e n  i n North  with  Although  frustration  c o u n t r i e s , do n o t have  visits  t o become  i s a reduction  of sexual  t h e New  Inmates  American  conjugal  there  conversation  claim.  Latin  that  reduction  of-sexuality within  to  are  claimed  relationships.  only  inmates. be  simply  called  into  because  question  of the loss  of  the  feminine  represent  the  polar  identification J3  really  call  standards  of of  tinually  index  to  that  deprivation free  are  their  are  taken  not by The  and  to  others  absence  sexual  of  status?  d i s t o r t e d and that  in this  for  granted,  which  i s not  self-  know who  i f  he  also  characteristics will  frequently  ignorance and  most  women  who  Secondary accentuated  they  must  in  con-  environment.  Their  nor  verified  can  i t be  masculine,  for  no  such  an  to  to  inmates  custom  the  the  a l l phases  follow  orders  as  norm  i n which  i s not  explanation  among t h e  law,  rather  or to  or  of  been  his  accept  and  can  the orders And  he  rulings  rationale  justified  action  life.  justification. the  decis-  within  decisions  their  than  personal  case  is deliberately fostered,  r u l e s which have  and  e s s e n t i a l .before  upon  men  custom. .  areas  Such  that  by  many  are  argued  for  are  but  be  " f r e e " community  c o n t r o l l e d by  regard  expected of  i n the  i s dependent  with  I t may  are  allowed,  policies  i n which  even  individual.  superiors  benefit  autonomy.  circumscribed  there  inmate  is  sense  rigidly  the  his  rulings  agents  only  of  without  of  activities  directive,  prison.  the  by  to  inmate's  i s he  only  i n the  masculinity  women  the  How  inmates f i n d  pointing  no  is readily available.  Still,  be  his  and  taken  f a r from  ions  their  his  become  be  activities  by  of  manhood  cannot  The are  loss,  are  masculinity,  surrounded  Which his  there  difficult.  is  masculinity  prove  by  of  a n t i t h e s i s of  this  masculinity simply  men?  portray  the  face  extreme  when he  themselves  represent  Because  becomes more  a man  convincingly  the  audience.  Some  of  behind  for  there  is  are  then  open  a  22  to  criticism  able,  the  i s not  challenging)  I f the  so  capable  the  ruling  r a t i o n a l e remains of  questioning  which has  been  inscrut-  (or  more  passed  down  him. The  because also  the  and  because  know what  methodical  state  c o n t r o l involves,. making  be  in a  becomes weak w h i c h he  the  and has  inmate  once  others  with  Prison long  for  sive  support  of  outlaws  daily.  inmate could the  men  the and  in their  that  be  prison  i s made  given  defense  drastic  does  a  superior  weapon.  loss  returned  not  instance.  with  or  of  to  either  Adult  personal  the  helpless  more.  Awareness  of  this  The  population  of  violent,  of  this  regardless  Although  of  of  histories  anyone,  simply  includes murderers,  aggressiveness. patterns  adequate  security.  association with  reassuring  done  finds himself  d e p r i v a t i o n of  and  no  which  inmate  helpless, confronted  because  childhood  State  outside  should  only  decision for himself  what  Jersey  normally  proper  or  New  prison  a  The  i s best  The  apparent  degradation  he  of h i s  numbers  personal  not  delivered, i t is  because  and  Prolonged  rulings  t r u s t e d , or  i s threatened  autonomy,  the  the  be  against  status  of  of  of  is frustrating  cannot  inmate  force  because  incapable  he  autonomy  inscrutability  frustrating  appear  The  d e p r i v a t i o n of  of  rigorous to  rejection.  inmate  important to  and  sense  expected setting.  inmates mutual  midst of of to  this  own  is far  the  rapists  aggressive  behavior. from  reputation  normally  a i d , there  remain  exploitation  to  extensufficient be  deprives  security  in relation  for  develop  for exploitation  personal feel  thieves,  nature  of h i s  of  to  which his  the  he fellows  23 Each sooner is  or  inmate  later  anxious  to  he  he  him  of  his  test,  may  his  of  with  tests  challenged evaluated  of  the  target  of  his  possessions.  become  the  target  f o r bravery  i s acutely according  pressures  of  which  t o how  these  pains  distinctive  patterns  be  to  The  that  inmate  aid,  loyalty  the  bind  and  officials, a l l against  course,  into the  one full  or  two  himself  affection, may  a l l . His or  another of  on  In  of  to  face  to h i s  seek h i s  of  these  possibility  the  polar  of  In  rather could Sykes  adaptation ties  in a be  actual  neatly  these  the  of  open: mutual  in opposition  extremes,  between  being  publicly  upon  roles.  advantage  be  become  enormous  level,  o r i e n t a t i o n may  cannot  be  pressures  firmly  "individualistic".  to  individual  fellows with  own  wish  Incidents  exert  social  paths  standing  behavior  of  these  of  pass  contest.  psychological  general  who  the  his  deprive  should  manhood w i l l  the  nature  basic  and  i n any  fail  exploitation  imprisonment  the  i n the  individual  range  fares  adaptation  are  or he  "collectivistic" of  of  evolve there  can  he  his  at  who  being  to  I f he  attempts  that  wish  toughness.  manliness,  adaptation!.-  particularly  believes  and  aware  individual,  expected  and  that  should  a l l those  and  fact  inmate  I f he  many who  of  the  individual  or  adequacy  Patterns  The  problem.  reputations  of  another  double  i n t e r - p e r s o n a laggression  public  of  " t e s t e d " by  a  integrity may  be  aware  some a d v a n t a g e .  become  he  establish  will  seek  tested . i s faced test,  i s uncomfortably  but two.  to  battle  either practice,  categorized extends  across  V.  Prison crucial ant  axes  argot,  Jersey  State  slang  aspects  of prison  ial  axes  of l i f e  distinction of  these  to  the pains  nature  roles within  Roles  exists  painful  which  as a  boundary  between  In order aspects  of being  they  activities  must  be k e p t  Those  who  officials of  ways  stand  as a group  t h e inmate  body,  develop  i n relation  much  But  those  setting  vocabulary.  and d e f i n i t i o n s .  reveals  argot  groups, the  setting also  An  they  t o the  cruc-  enjoy t h e examination  are related  concerning  the custodian.  officials  may  mitigate  subjected  their  t o guard  external  to the prison  special prison  i n the custodial  that  i n other  are peculiar  the prison  that  o f t h e New  addicts, and t h e l i k e .  against  feel  not  t o many  import  the  society.  the inmates  f a i l  The argot  related  the prison  cohesiveness  social  inmates.  of a  reflects  are s u f f i c i e n t l y  a n d t h e ways i n w h i c h  of the prison  obvious  ian,  which  of imprisonment  Social  which  life  o f s p e c i a l names  Argot  group  of p a r t i c u l a r criminal  o f t h e day, jazz  social  o f any group,  and d e f i n i n g .  i n the generation The  to that  i s obviously  the argot  current  ROLES  the argot  which  naming  Prison  influences;  result  like  of l i f e  as t o warrant  ARGOT  institution  some  directly  deviate  from  within  of the  custod-  concerning  the inmate  of t h e inmates  i n opposition  group.  a n d who  to the  the expectations  and a r e s i n g l e d  i s that  o f t h e more  any and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n  the secrets  most  and t h e p r i s o n  to the rules  strictly  The  do  prison  of the rest  out and l a b e l l e d as  deviants  Special the  names  prison  are a p p l i e d which  fies any  staff-inmate information  prevent  b e o f some  value.  They  contemptuously are anything  value  from  disregard  to the  need  their  typi-  conduct  to attain  their  of the inmates group  of this  their own  to the of  prisoners  activities  ends,  selfish  but f l a t t e r i n g ,  that  custodians.  the solidarity  usually  because  of  i n the feeling  the f e l t  of information  and " r a t t i n g "  names  slight  disregard  and i n so doing  "squealing"  These  may  the flow  o f c a t a n d mouse w h i c h  relationships results  the flow  a dominant  regarded  i s primarily with  t h e game  and " r a t s "  custodians, as  t h e concern  information,  "Squealers" to  the uniqueness of  situation.  Although important  reflect  of  and a r e  motivation.  and a r e never  taken  lightly. "Center hut A  threaten  "center  inmates In  inmate  man"  what  find  coercion,  they  achieve  material  custodians.  a  by  special  identifying  threat  cohesion want  other  or the threat  their  own e n d s .  the hurt  others which  deprivation.  the o f f i c i a l s '  In this  goods.  by u s i n g  of coercion  they  point  the "center  to scarce  inmates  within  the  oriented of view.  man"  would  group.  i n relation  from  with  to the cohesively  group membership,  i n the opposing  goods f r o m  softening  solidarity  he a c t u a l l y s h a r e s  membership  take  scarce  secrets,  of h i s actual  Social  to  do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c l o s e i n m a t e  poses  because  spite  prefer  men"  force.  an e f f e c t i v e  case,  the goal  the prison  personally  "Gorillas" They weapon  i s to  as an attempt  s u f f e r because  secure at  of  26 "Merchants" inmates  when  they  conform  with  the  the  goods  Their  or  "pedlars" sell  should inmate  i n short  impersonal  ity  rejected.  the  Masculinity inmates most In  of  the  the  prison who  are  ship.  for of the  greater f a c i l i t y homosexuality allotted  role  he  primary  "wolf"  does  by  or  stigma s t i l l  toughness  unmoved  most  and  made a t  activity.  and  inward  i s evaluated. within  than  are  the  those sexual  nonetheless.  Social  i n accordance  homosexual  New  the  through  participants  the  o f f from  activities  i n the  The  Jersey  with  relation-  differentiates  " p a s s i v e " p a r t n e r s , and  the  tolerantly.  of h i s exhibit  and  the  solidar-  toughness  masculine  aggressive, active  as  the  share  of  heterosexual  for self-control  homosexual  perversion within some o f  aggressiveness.  inmates love  less  played  distinction  to  to  others.  unity  cut  is practised  the  " a g g r e s s i v e " and  the  other  to  habitually  i s regarded  escapes  be  of  fellow  and  not  w h i c h manhood  to  of  The  by  felt  between the former  indices  generally  But  The  "maleness",  i n homosexual  a  the  are  part  i s then  type  Prison  heterosexual activity, major  their  self-identification.  take  restraint.  the  of  do  needs  destructive  State of  of  to  solidarity  They  the  denial  are  index  Jersey  the  who  display  status  of  become  Those  an  exploit a  goods  inmate  g i v e them.  but  they  criterion  absence  stamina  as  New  important  code)  d e a l i n g s are  criminals;  of  (to preserve  supply,  imprisoned  scarce  merely  the He  masculine  to  prison  the  walls,  characteristics  i s frequently  seeking physical  is indifferent  the  almost  viewed  release;  emotions  of  he the  by is  27 partner  he h a s c o e r c e d ,  "Punks" of  bribed  are passive  the inmates,  homosexuals  o r f o r t h e sake  of quick  ment  made  favours  weak  and s o f t ,  f o r sexual  their  i n the sexual  guise  or  of speech  and grooming dye t h e i r  scorn  who  They  may  they  t o which They  actually  act from o f pay-  are thought  t o be  morally. who  doubly  adopt  take  on t h e  exaggerated  "feminize"  the homosexual  p r e f e r homosexual t o  feminine  their  cloth-  to a l l the  i s usually  t o be  out-  e v e n u s e make-up  are subjected  are believed  forfeit  become t h e p a s s i v e  but also  and c a r r i a g e , w i l l  They  they  i n the form  not only  relationship,  underclothing.  i n society.  sexuals  They  liaison.,  i n the estimation  a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , a n d may  and d e r i s i o n  jected  as  homosexuals  of femininity.  mannerisms ing  are passive  advantage  as w e l l  a  Because  granted,  claim to masculinity.  partner ward  physically  into  who,  a r e "made, n o t . b o r n " .  fear  "Fags"  o r seduced  "true"  sub-  homo-  heterosexual  relationships. Reactions blatantly and  verbal  within .. f o o l s , number  to official  disobey  the prison o f f i c i a l s  f o r their  They  actions  of controls being  sacrifice  the well-being  sake  childish,  The  "Ball  "Real  man"  are often frequently imposed  regarded result  of physical  disturbances by o t h e r s only  by t h e g u a r d s .  of the entire  emotional  busters"  by means  a s s a u l t , and c o n t i n u a l l y cause  the prison.  of a  oppression.  inmate  i n an "Ball  body  as increased busters"  f o r the  outburst.  i s admired  because  he  can "take i t " ,  whatever  "it"  may  a t t h e moment  plaint  he  denies  the custodian's  control  i s the inmates'  be.  Aloof  and without  v e r s i o n o f decorum.  power t o s t r i p  com-  H i s demeanor  him of h i s a b i l i t y  to  himself.  Inter-inmate  conflict.  The "Tough"  i s quick  to quarrel  with  h i s f e l l o w p r i s o n e r s , h i s a s s a u l t s f l o w i n g from  the fact  that  he f e e l s  a desire  to  exploit  but  he has been  others.  i s admired  He  of h i s actions  either  real  ine  courage prison  He  inmates,  of the disruptive  he w i l l He  not  tolerate  exhibits  the  and aggressiveness,  f o rh i s i n s t a b i l i t y  natural.  but h i s tendency  and p r o f e s s e s A l l i s done  w h i c h he does favour  is  regarded  of  social  mascul-  h i s raw  i n t h e eyes  to aggressiveness i s thought  to erect  bravery.  interests  i n an e f f o r t  not rightfully  by h i s s i m u l a t e d a s a phoney  of the  He  which  t o be a  a false assumes  interests  and s u f f e r s  facade.  front  also  attitudes,  a r e not w i t h him.  t o be a c c e p t e d  belong.  against  Although  into  cliques  he hopes t o  and c a p a b i l i t i e s ,  a c c o r d i n g l y from  he  a  loss  Aside  from  status.  Cohesive "Real  prone  but h i s toughness  beyond h i s simulated  mannerisms  the  because  impositions.  "Hipster" i s also  i s a bully,  gain  from  community.  extends  to  simply  i n spite  of bravery  compensating  The other  extent  o r imagined  characteristics  rather, than  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s " t o u c h i n e s s " ,  t o some  nature  insulted,  man",  idualistic"  and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c the argot  adjustments  roles  adjustments.  outlined  to the pains  above  depict  of imprisonment.  "indivThey  29 are  dysfunctional  inmates. social  the  The "cohesive"  roles  endurance  which  with  inmates.  cover  t o the reduction responses,  involve  on t h e other  d i g n i t y , and t h e m i n i m i z i n g T h e name  between t h e  loyalty, generosity,  of "Real  hand,  include  sexual  restraint,  of friction  man" t e n d s  between  t o be e m p l o y e d t o  a l l of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Sykes has p o s t u l a t e d  "cohesiveness" the  of f r i c t i o n  society  solidarity  that  i n the prison  of captives  imprisonment  will  the greater  will  and t h e g r e a t e r  the greater  move  t h e extent  the degree  to which  in' t h e d i r e c t i o n o f inmate  the l i k e l i h o o d that  be r e n d e r e d  of  less  severe  the pains  of  f o r t h e inmate  7  population the them  as a whole.  prisoners support  with  i n their  focal  the  transfer  was  previously  within and  But  amounts  sooner  essity  CRISIS  indicated, tend  so t h a t ,  to  social  AND  of r e g a i n i n g  group which their  change  provides will  the prison i s  t o t h e inmates. As  t h e s t r u c t u r a l weaknesses generate  a system  a period  the custodian control from  lend  condemnors.  within  the custodians  over  "^Sykes, T h e S o c i e t y  society  EQUILIBRIUM  of the custodian's  or later  inmate  against  of social  o f power f r o m  corruption  larger  battles  point  the prison  cohesive  a meaningful  V I .  The  A  will  be f a c e d  p.  l a r g e r and  are whittled  t h e inmates  of Captives,  o f compromise  of time,  control  o f power  107  with  away.  t h e nec-  i fhe i s t o  30  retain or  be  h i s job. subjected  corruption It  by  the guards  He  storm  a s o n e who  does n o t cause  job.  benefits  maintain  much  The  ing He  stands  custodian oriented i l l i c i t which  then  much  able  inmates within  of  much t o m a i n t a i n of keeping  f e e l s that  i s forced  o f h i s power  h i s influence)  population of prison  have  "respected", inmates.  "getting difficulty  to distribute he  committed  endurance  the unstable  s e t f o r i n s u r r e c t i o n and  riot.  t o the  and the curb-  the prison's  to strip  into  to  the prison.  the  (by destroying  and r i s e  i s able  things q u i e t .  an o p p o r t u n i t y  life,  most  i s seen  c a n be  of the  that  prisoner,  l o y a l t y , generosity,  prisoner  who  receives  f o r he  p r i v i l e g e s , of p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment,  tensions is  i s then  f o r the value  increase  prison  inmate  he  of the  i t i s p r e c i s e l y because the  cohesively-oriented  does  who  by e x p l o i t i n g o t h e r  reducing  of h i s influence  of f r i c t i o n  inmate  out t h e wisdom  among t h e o t h e r  o f inmate  institution  public.  of corruption,  trouble  And  up".the  i f knowledge  "co-operates",  inmates,  "cohesively-oriented"  values  becomes  on t o point  t o the other  the guard's  these  "tighten  of protests  o f any s y s t e m  c a n be c o u n t e d  along" of  to a  either  i s the cohesively-oriented  the benefits  who  must  of h i s authority  of  and  He  equilibrium.  When t h e cohesively-  the system of and  laxity  elements  i n the  to capitalize  on t h e  dominance.  The  stage  31  VII  The Sykes two  conceives  opposing  officials of  Tasks  their  and  SUMMARY  of the Prison. of'the  duties,  some  of which  The tasks t o dominate  require  o f custody  however,  tasks  o f the p r i s o n a r e pursued  istic tion  to-the  Pains  pains  represent  attacks  must  some m e a n s i f he  represent roles  special patterns  of  crucial  axes  develop  expense  them  general  society, of their  Because  that  they  character-  are related  These  control  control.  are five  to depriva-  o f goods and  deprivations and t h e inmate  o f f or rendering  of l i f e  the pains  T h e names  either  t o these  graphically  t o t h e Inmate  the inmates  them  fellows.  imprisonment  can seek  their  the  pains  social  are  define  given  specific  society.  by d e v e l o p i n g  o r by s e e k i n g  of  f o r t h e inmates,  as adaptations  names.  imprisonment  inmate  o f warding  and  relationships,  policies  i s to survive psychologically.  of behavior  In  There  oh the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l  Roles.  argot  o f custody  course  remaining  to the extent  and o f s e c u r i t y .  Argot  which  and i n t e r n a l  and these  of heterosexual  o f autonomy  The  requirements  of imprisonment  services,  harmless  only  i n the  The  into  The p r i s o n  contradictory  a l l the others.  o f Imprisonment.  of liberty,  find  several tasks  say t h a t  i s devided  and t h e c a p t i v e s .  t o perform  tend,  be a d a p t e d  one c o u l d  p r i s o n as a s o c i e t y which  are expected  The  I n summary  camps, t h e c a p t o r s  activities.  can  OBSERVATIONS.  to nullify  a  solidary,  own  The f o r m e r  advantage  pattern  of  the pains co-operative at the adaptation  is  that  "rat",  of  the  "real  man".  the  "merchant",  The  Defects  The  the  latter  "hipster",  pattern the  i s that  "ball  of  buster"  the  or  the  "wolf".  power and do  not  quiet use  and  "real  morally  the  the  and  authority  feel  Because  "real  of  man"  in  exchange  is  corrupted  for  Is  inmates  and  their  guards..  inmates  may  advantage  and,  i n the  power. change  In to  face the  of  of  their of  highly  disruptive,  precipitates a  becomes  a  to  obtaining Social  inmates  administrative  orders.  of  the  keeping guard  the  to  inmates.  The  some  guard The  guards  within  power strip  the  the  the  social  disorganization discontent,  inmate  Social  change  crisis  and  the  instithe  cohesively-  more d i s r u p t i v e  of  authority  between  power,  atmosphere  areas  compliance.  change of  in  guard's  inmate  the  riot.  learns  the  If  individualistic  things  custodian  flux  charged  their  between the  the  mass  that  because  from  to  f l u c t u a t i o n between sense.  prison,  in others.  increasing  quently  dramatic  the  to  find  the  value  agent  Equilibrium. related  the  support  of  simply  compliance  consideration  oriented take  for  bargaining  sake  guards  conform  i n the  secure  lending  directly  and  stands along  f o r the  Crisis tution  to  a  by  The  obliged  to  becomes  Power.  Imperfect  man"  man"  inmates  Total  i s very  getting  "real  the  of  elements  resulting, surge  into  prison  leadership within  the  equilibrium  in  this freprison a  very  0  CHAPTER  III  R E S E A R C H METHODS AND  To  afford  important  that  the  some  reader  some  comments  be  used  i n gathering the  uent  pages  tions  made  tion.  For  Unit  of  i n the  the  actual  time  was  spent  ment  to  another  and  primarily nately bage of  moving i n an  functioning,  cedures  cess  the  acting  to  At  matron.  shift The  each  This  was  group  first  assignment  sentenced housed  explicit  observaobserva-  the  Women's  three  year  from  varied  one  this  conmuch  depart-  picture  knowledge  During  gardening  of  time  I  3*00p.m.),  of proworked  alter-  supervising gar-  and  the  whitewashing  building  of  an  on  the  ac-  camp. summer  I was  11:00p.m.) t o was  to  f o r a very  i n an  subseq-  overall  involved i n the  (3:00p.m.'to  first  offenders,  this  the  employment  school teacher,  scrubbing,  of  of  (7:00a.m. t o  l a k e s i d e summer  end  at  during that  requirements.  became  methods  participant  employed  g a i n an  some  substitute  even  the  the  afternoon  a  of  institution  to  shift  the  d u t i e s performed  the  gain  on  perhaps  generalized  f o u r months  attempt to  floor  and  about  the  been  the  first  morning  as  disposal,  road  and  custodial  on  fences,  the  appear  result  a matronj of  concerning  will of  the  I have  nature  During  made  Many  are  capacity of  siderably.  its  study  perspective i t i s  which  study.  three years  i n the  period  this  data  EXPERIENCES  a  act  group  short  outside unit,  placed as  a  of Native  period of and  group  the  Indian  time.  relaxed,  free  atmosphere  was v e r y  enjoyable.  weeks  I was a s s i g n e d  t o a group  cotic  a d d i c t s housed  i n the upper  of  t h e Women's U n i t .  ally  by t h e g r o u p ,  front  office  Group  Three?"  difficult so  think  group,  obviously  group new with  and were  They  feeling  come t h e r e l i e f  and  time,  remained  As part  Classification  sending  somewhat should  of regret  insulted  i n that  almost  that  ate  history,  o f absence  that  until  granted  must  with  t h e-personal f i l e s  of each  the past  first into  this  Department,  f o r educational with the  i n t e r v i e w t h e new  pro-  attention.  t o become  months.  accur-  any major  familiar  o f the inmates h e l d  eighteen  offenders  the present  immediate  assignment a f f o r d e d an opportunity  their  t o be-  of obtaining a fairly  may r e q u i r e  "steady"  I t was  group  coming  and o f h e l p i n g t o r e s o l v e which  rather  as t h e i r  this  that  someone  o f younger  connected  a matron  purpose  a  does  by " a d o p t i n g "  I left  department  building  this to  protective.  This  during  like  the Classification  of the duties  f o r the dual  Women's U n i t  "What  be a s s i g n e d  f o r two g r o u p s  Department  o f t h e inmate  a baby  nar-  rather skeptic-  being,  s i x t e e n months a f t e r  admissions social  o f t h e main  to the occasion  b a r r i n g two l e a v e s  purposes.  blems  comment  I was t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o  I have  experienced  I was g r e e t e d  a n d became  matron  Approximately setting  rose  however,  a real  storey  approximately s i x  had the reputation of being  inexperienced  matron.  matron,  first  i t ' s doing  They  of fairly  Initially  their  After  a tthe  Formal  35  interviews during that of  and countless  the entire three  All made  inmates  readily  Manual^"  data  h a s been  (which has been  of view  has proved  sions  with  of  matrons  from  staff  backgrounds  service, previous t o be  these  Excerpts  and a l s o matrons  interviewed  source  appear  I n an  as an  the three  have  cross  according  and education. definite  been  appendix.  and d i s c u s -  year  period  interviews.  purposefully  a representative  before  official  occupational  This  interviewed  of  of the  this  were  f o r the  source  of sixty-five.'  o f t h e matrons  that  Matron  conversations  over  were  I n a d d i t i o n , The  from  informal  training,  structure  sources  a series of ten individual  population  encounters  and documents  by t h e C h i e f  members  t o be  f a r a s was p o s s i b l e ,  consented  records  when a n e x p r e s s i o n  through  and from  chosen  the total  personal of  various  employment,  The  so  gathered  held  gleaned.  t o be a v a l u a b l e  concerning  been  the s o c i a l  derived.  o f the study  Information was  these  written  was n e e d e d .  i n t h e body  group  and i t i s f r o m  concerning  has been  information, -particularly  used  have  a v a i l a b l e , and i t i s from  of a l l staff)  point  conversations  of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  statistical  use  years,  much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  the prison  the  casual  sample  selected included  section of t o age,  length  A l l matrons  arrangements  ^"Information found i n The Manual i s n e i t h e r dated n o r are the pages numbered. I t i s a l o o s e l e a f f o l d e r to which f r e q u e n t a d d i t i o n s a n d d e l e t i o n s a r e made a s p o l i c i e s a n d r o u t i n e s change. The e x c e r p t s quoted i n t h i s study comprise t h e more s t a b l e e n t r i e s . Since information i s not dated nor p a g e s o f t h e e n t r i e s numbered no f o o t n o t e r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made i n f u t u r e w h e n T h e M a n u a l i s m e n t i o n e d .  were  made,  tion  i n t h e p r o j e c t was t o be s t r i c t l y  deeply for  a n d were  indebted  lasting of  to these  so g e n e r o u s l y The  given  an average  i n t h e home  premises,  but during  used  i n t e r v i e w s were  throughout  the chapter  related  from  each.  Eight  hours,  own h o m e .  The  i n t h e Women's  and were  these  Unit  conducted  un-  tape  of the subjects  recorded  and were  i n t e r v i e w s have  dealing with  t h e more o b v i o u s  to the very  fact  that  worker  a t t h e Women's U n i t .  tained  i n t h e course  coloured  by t h e f a c t  entirely  theories  the role  education comfort taken  that  from  probably  Some  No  both  doubt  been  of the  being  that  ob-  was  interviewed  were  p r e j u d i c e s and pet  of a  designed  remarks  made  university to please  c o n s o l a t i o n can perhaps a few very  and a  the data  t h e matrons  and s u i t a b i l i t y  specifically  study i s  an observer  A n d some o f t h e k i n d  scientific  the fact  of this  some o f  to the personal  the usefulness  me.  I was  the matrons  by m y s e l f .  were  limitations  of interviews with  oblivious  held  concerning  be  nature,  The i n t e r v i e w s were  Excerpts  am  \ One[of  not  conducted  I  time.  off-duty  o r i n my  knowledge and consent  transcribed.  matron.  during  off-duty hours  and i n p r i v a c y .  the f u l l  free  semi-structured  of the subject  two  later  were h e l d  participa-  co-operation and  o f one- a n d a q u a r t e r h o u r s  remaining  with  of a  their  voluntary,  women f o r t h e i r  i n t e r v i e w s were  interrupted  that  contributing of their  the ten interviews  either  to understand  and  also  uncomplimentary  remarks  were  distortion  may  Most inmates  also  of  the  the  first  period  November  so  Women's U n i t ments were  1959  that  one  s e p a r a t e inmate  group  discussion.  each  group  tape  recorder  pose  of  an  the  attempt  like,  from  assured parts  addict prison, with  asked  groups and  imprisonment which  tapes,  and  that  gathered  In the  the  Classi-  be  the  being  are  to  a pur-  conducted  as  was  really  they  there like  were were  to  any  have  done. f o r the  primarily "culture of  made  general  i n prison  take part.  problems  being  objections  told  chosen  the major  groups  have  with each were  the  arrange-  a  they would  are  time  at  conduct  discussions,  were  groups  situation  Additionally  would  leave  of  were  which  the  evening with each  being  the  this  be  was  During this  to  of view.  secondly, the Indian  general  t h e y were  agreed to  seem t o  i n which  I took during  I worked  one  They  groups  the  e a c h week t h r o u g h o u t t h i s  o u t what  addict  the N a t i v e  to  ways  these arrangements  used.  a l lthree  three  with the  spend  these discussions  and  a l l .  i f they would  point  addict  after  with the  i f ,f o l l o w i n g  the  great  too  groups  finding  their  from  choosing  to  While  being  at  Three sions,  day  discussions;  that  of  erased  was  analysis  maintained.  f o r me  three  final  I960.  t o May  be  In the  o f absence  contact  could  made  been  adjust  leave  Department  absence  that  data dealing  e x p e r i e n c e and  fication  so  not have  during  of  made,  The  group  reasons. :for  two:  1  First,  bearers"  communication  such that  discus-  group  in  the this  involved  discussion  38  w o u l d n o t be t o o f r u i t f u l . do  n o t speak  silent  and d e f e n s i v e  their were  English with  grasp  of the addict  Group Pour  a  if a  discussions  group  a group no  to  Any  which  i t could  ually  leave  in  which  ordering the  of  each  issues  the three  later  and E i g h t the f u l l  age  the youngest,  flow  questions  would was  laid  five  to talk  otherwise  any one  detrimental within the would  act-  about the  have  been  the  semi-structured  case.  type  of the group, t h e to  and f a i r l y the tape  minutes  questions  the type  procedure  discussion.  good  o r on  against  concerning  this  asked  and a t times  Approximately  on a n o t h e r  be d i s p e l l e d  of a  question-  the interview  be  depending  o f the group was  that  rather  encountered  o r the possible  were  questions  groups,  problems  more f r e e  schedule  the groups  interviews' or  entertained  be p u t c o u l d  r a i s e d than  of these  within  could  individual  general  forgotten.  beyond  t o be a d v i s a b l e  By d i s c u s s i n g  I t was f e l t  interview  natural  tion  claim  thought  t o be o b t a i n e d ,  as a whole.  The  being  of "informing"  suspicions  group  specific  Group E i g h t  o f t h e many  setting.  such  information  use  Pour  represented  individual  i s suspected  In this  individual. of  they  women  t o become  extends  Groups Three,  were  p r i m a r i l y because  one i n m a t e  as  groups,  series of extensive  naires,  and tend  the conversation  because  Indian  the eldest.  Group than  when  chosen  of the Native  any f a c i l i t y ,  of the language.  ultimately  range  Many  some  extent  Inmate  participa-  general  i n each  recorder  of lively  upon  was  quite  conversation  39  was  missed  had  in  noticed  one that  Although process, for  and  be  As  been  has  at  each  the  forgotten  posed  too  the  a  administration,  all  right,  be  back  you're  i n white During  of  lesbianism  inmates. recorder tioned had  that  been  When t h e tape  in  was  been she  civvies  that  was  with  registered i t  member o f frpm  were h e l d , for  group  could  one  quite  day group  not  be  in  the  obviously  of  the  group  came f r o m  one  inmate,  next  the  one  point  staff.  but  w o r n when t h e role  but  the  against "That's  Saturday  you'll  again. group  then  to  discussions  abruptly was  the  this  want  remainder that  turned  on,  s u c h was and  the  by  the  the  the  group  issue,  but  such of  subject  and  member o f  not  the  dropped  completed  discuss  might  persuaded again  tape-recording  absence  At  security  o f f , one  I  of  were  tonight,  the  wanted  a  Women's U n i t  one  reply  interviewer,  matrons),  was  official  of  the  the  turned  had  g r o u p was  the  the  discussions  clothes  discussion  recorded  recorder  to  raised,  the  group  leave  i n the  asked  of  on  by  complaints  group members.  (uniform)  concerned  information  for  another  After had  the  their  group  or  f i l l e d .  their  was  held,  threat  the  of  civilian  question  great  I  working  by  Inmate  interviewer  inmate  being  one,  intrigued  have  the  earlier  Although  discussion  to  no  been  were  absence  that  time  were  had  inmates  when t h e  discussions  tape  ( i n the  same  because  anxious  stated  week.  entirely  the  forgotten  institution was  the  were  posterity  cannot  session  tape menthat  she  embarrassing  the  discussion.  not  the  case,  discussion  the  continued  on  this  played  topic Each  group  back  over  cussion, three and  f o r another  and  the  discussions  their  The  being  cribed  in full,  in  body  the  of  groups  this of  information  and  could  an  more  from  one  demanded with  that  study  have  been  original  tape  taken  this  The  to  one  hour  tapes  later  of nor  trans-  have  been  used  verbatim  from  these  recordings.  and  throughout  of  dis-  neither deletions  as  been  the  these  quotations  have  of  hour  inmate  interest  session  content.  such  staff  of  of  or the of  the  I t was  satisfactory  accuracy as  the  were  not  glossary  appendix..  footnotes some  completion  with  intact,  entire  support the  more  shown by  gathering  generous,  study  of  and  both this  the  meth-  cannot  claim  excuse  in  in this  study  appears  regard. A  in  the  recordings  the  the  hour.  The  odological' limitations this  a l l but  co-operation,  inmates  an  the  i n length  remain  and  at  pleased  permitted.  transcriptions The  well  of  upon h a v i n g  recorder  ranged  discussions  additions  the  insisted  seemed  a half.  quarter  to  the  contextual argot the  p o s s i b l e , by  argot felt  that  reader  this  than  definitions staff  are  given and  practice  would  explanations,  expressions  both  used  inmates  been v e r i f i e d , the  of  since  repeatedly.  of  prove  insertion  particularly  used has  the  would  Women's  The so  far  Unit.  CHAPTER  THE  WOMEN'S U N I T  Geographically could  probably  real  estate  side  of  (on of  a  much  of  The  imposing  also  of  Main  Gaol  Constructed  of  dull  ing  bars  of a  the  of  the  the  brown  window  traditional  some  considerable  Main  Gaol, of  the  pink  structure.  wood-frame  Panabode, Huts  and  beige  from  the  view  i n the  i s the  frankly  i t affords  found  the  a  prison  the  over  to  the  a  solid  to  upon  the  has  been  made t o  the  prison trees  as  a of  screen  the  and  boasts  six  details  by  eject.  concrete  to  located  strict  Women's U n i t  referred  strategically  -  austerity  variously  of  display-  depressing  are  depending  prison  i t necessary  contrast  of  most  the  building  rest  is  brick  of  the  immediate  this  Some a t t e m p t  of  presence  and  Lake  municipality  this the  the  Deer  on  paint  Surrounding  Cottages  architecture.  wooden f e n c e s  and  of  buildings  b u i l d i n g of  buildings  and  Women's U n i t  main  by  of  on  mountains  of  men  functions has  the  what  pieces  view  Men's U n i t  oldest  Presenting  smaller  the  however,  society  steel  their  cell  effect  whom  camouflage  and  each  of  the  on  Situated  panoramic  and  those  the  of  on  a  area.  borders),  of  grounds.  custody  choice  quarters  the  of  most  the  the  of  reminder  of  Vancouver  one  steel  i s located  Vancouver,  Much  SETTING  Farm  Women's U n i t ,  foreground.  ITS  Prison  property  sprawling  and  AND  i t commands  prison  the  one  Greater  beyond.  for  older,  been  h i l l ,  and  range  negated the  i n the  the  Burnaby  coast  have  long  which  Oakalla  IV  use  of  foliage.  This as  has been  done  "window  enter  or  employee  to  the prison  section ring one  between  must  within  iron  entrance  collectively leaving  either  side  clinic,  door  doors  discouraging  o f which  been  office  and c o n t a i n s  instruction.  into some  One c e l l  a lecture equipment  stead.  The inside  referred to  either  entering  entrance  of this  are directly  two  c o r r i d o r on  and main  half  the hot  but ornamental  i s a long  a long  and t h i r t e e n  some-  Building.  office"  houses  i s located  During  departments  the kitchen  t h e dayroom.  converted  u s e t h e basement  t o the Main  until  are directly  Inmates  t o the "front  area  wait  i s generally  and admitting  open  a dayroom  which  level  to the right,  open,  i n their  office".  entrance  angles  then  rooms  visitor  o f t h e men's  wooden d o o r .  o f f i c e s and v i s i t i n g wing  Gaol  left  a  at the entrance  driveway  building,  are locked  The ground  to  the Main  are usually  as the "front  Classification  past  t h e heavy  i n a short  right  wing.  Class,  t h e grounds  o f t h e Women's U n i t  up a short  doors  The r e c o r d s  storey  next  turn  unlocks  t h e basement At  walk  the institution  same w i n g . inside  and of  t h e gatehouse  o f the main  outer  administrative  building  through  grounds,  months t h e s e  wrought  the  pass  on t h e l e f t ,  from  this  as p o s s i b l e ,  o f making  t h e men a n d t h e women b y m e a n s o f  t h e main  the doorbell  summer  purpose  writing".  To  has  the dual  aesthetically pleasing  communication  or  for  cells.  dining The  way d o w n t h i s  area, small  corridor,  a t the end of t h e c o r r i d o r  room f o r for  t h e Home  Nursing  demonstration and  The various can  cells  pastel  are  colours.  accommodate  majority  are  room has  a  ous  lower  as  used  large  small,  small  Two  many as  as  steel-framed bars  the  Women's P e n i t e n t i a r y measures  remainder or  two  each  of  on  the  open, inside  there  of  outside  the  the  The sewing  upper and  two  are  identical  long  a  The no  in a storey  to  The  to  There those  on  are  located the  in a main  light  small  security cells,  of  There  this  the  be  room,  main  bed,  mirror  bright  each  in  bedspread,  other  kept  one  nicknacks. each  room  locked  room  or  from is  the located  box.  a  small  a  factory  cells  on  beauty  parlour,  sewing  this  room,  level  which  floor. gymnasium  storey  building.  these the  operated  for  wing has  for  and  to  extra  separates  switch  laundry,  three  can  fourteen  The  bunk  a  and  transfer  is a  e i t h e r be  switch  therapy are  of  numer-  well,  of  toilet  porthole  locked  as  of this  those  p i c t u r e s and  which  on  necessary than  sink,  must  latches  windows  the  Each  consists  awaiting  be  but  rooms.  rooms  in  section  time,  Ontario.  longer  glass  Doors  The  wing  to  doilies,  occupational  dayrooms.  are  small  cells.  room  and  units  are  are  a d d i t i o n a l touches  corridor.  as  Two  Kingston,  table,  windows,  one  double  the  population.  bedside  with  who  considered  inmate  the  the  wooden d o o r  are  of  painted  in this  at  panes.  inmates at  or  been  window w h i c h  outside  sentences  the  room, w i t h  from  a  their  chairs, a  curtains A  f o r those  rooms  inmates  window  reserved  as  six  the  either single  are  inmates  of  security-type  c o r r i d o r have  security  rooms w h i c h h a v e  The  block ten  at  and  two  the  end  living of  security cells  this are  in  t h e basement  size  of this  and g e n e r a l  much more descript  austere. buff  The s i n k  so  cannot with  The  The concrete  walls  a r e no  a  and t o i l e t  be damaged, sheet  laundry  are plain,  and t h e door  are  capable  a l l the laundry  doubles faith the  as a  chapel  with  steel  mirrors  issue  construction cell  i s rein-  and those  of this  wing, and  modern a p p l i a n c e s  i s directly  on Sundays,  i n t h e morning  hospital  t o each  i n t h e basement  which  non-  on t h e i n s i d e .  equipped  The gymnasium,  a  curtains, pictures,  r e c e n t l y been f u l l y  Unit.  they a r e  are painted  has  of handling  are similar i n  above,  are of special  of steel  i s also  they  described  and t h e bedspreads  white.  forced  and w h i l e  t o those  colour, there  or nicknacks,  they  design  wing,  which  needs  o f t h e Women's  above  the laundry,  s e r v i n g those  of the Catholic  of the Protestant  faith i n  afternoon. The  third design  two l i v i n g  storey  above  units  the security  t o one a n o t h e r .  end  of each unit  The  dayroom  and  serving counter  The  windows  security  which  living  area  style.  ,Each  from  There which  i s large, with  area  cells,  a r e on t h e second and and a r e i d e n t i c a l i n  i s a small  meals  kitchen  are served  and a l i v i n g r o o m  area  but are a t t r a c t i v e l y  c a n be drawn a t w i l l . a r e s i x rooms; of these  women, b u t a n a t t e m p t  units  three  prepared.  at the other end. are again  Surrounding single  a t one  to the kitchen  curtained with  can house  i s made  area  but not  a d i n i n g t a b l e next  a t t h e end of t h e l i v i n g r o o m area  style,  drapes  i n this  full  length  t h e d i n i n g and  and t h r e e  dormitory  a s many a s f o u r t e e n  to restrict  t h e number  toten  45 if  possible. While  leading the at  the  into  each  individual night  inmates  the  are  i s kept  room d o o r s  individual  unit  door  is left  hear  i f anyone  open  calls  i n these  or  units,  locked.  Within  are  unlocked.  room so  living  left doors  that  are  the  knocks  the  the  units,  matrons  however,  After  a l l locked, will  door  "lockup" but  be  the  able  f o r attention during  to  the  night. Forming building  are  of  huts  these  a  s e m i - c i r c l e around  four  wood-frame  have  dayroom-dormitory maximum own  breakfast  their is  capacity  dinner  minimal  allowing  the  bunk  beds  i s ten.  i n these  huts,  main k i t c h e n .  to  either  as  they  lawn  school  for. the  design  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r bunk beds  and  The  two  central  which  the  activities  This,  too,  security and Each  the of  cottages  is a  adjoin a  in either  wood-frame The  doors  windows  are  similar  the  cottages  two  are to  at  inside  three, and  office  locked  a  only  with  units night,  the  hut  fourth but  is  typewriters  tables.  those  contains  their  provided  other  dormitory  kept  The  make  The  b u i l d i n g , but  type.  walls.  i n these  stay  desks  Three  combination  please.  the  Women's U n i t ,  a  are  i s locked  to  main  huts.  the  Security  freedom  i n general  the  inmates  but  occupants  to•the  plus  The  door  on  of  lining  outside  is similar  being  bathroom  the  hut  a  the  i n that  and  each hut  supper  from  move o u t s i d e  as  for  with  front  b u i l d i n g s known a s  kitchen  area  and  or  used  a  the  may  be  i s of most  i n the  area  from  observed. a  medium  of  the  time,  main b u i l d i n g .  large, very  modern  kitchen  where  a l l meals  similar  t o but larger  spacious from  and b r i g h t ,  t h e main  permit  this.  if  necessary. The  of a  rest  that  and a l a r g e found  i f t h e r e were cottage  i s also  c a n accommodate  t h e more  o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n so t h a t  a concentrated rehabilitation k i t c h e n i n which  dining girl acy  area,  an a c t i v i t y  has a separate than  but less  The  o u t s i d e door  the  panabode  ing  under  ity  of this  These  than  unit  from  receiving  i n which  afford  i n the huts  more  priv-  andt h e  o f t h e main  i n front  each  building. although  of their  build-  T h e maximum  capac-  OP T H E WOMEN'S U N I T  t h e Women's U n i t i n British  at Oakalla Prison  Columbia  population of the institution  length  contains  a l i v i n g r o o m and  cubicles  matron.  from  advantage  locked to this unit,  of their  POPULATION  from  addicts  unit.  i s ten.  institution  range  inmates  The Panabode  t h e rooms  kept  members  security  take  and a dormitory  arrangements  i snormally  the supervision  Because  Ages  cubicle.  privacy  might  program.  m e m b e r s may u s e t h e l a w n  I.  the  they  autonomously  twelve  reformable  area  They a r e  staff  medium  are prepared,  room,  do t h e d o r m i t o r y  cottages,  only  a l l meals  quite  sufficient  a wood-frame,  t o segregate  day-dormitory  i n the huts.  a n d c o u l d be o p e r a t e d  Each  Panabode  was d e s i g n e d  the  than  building  to  It  c a n be p r e p a r e d ,  sixteen  three  days  sentences  i s the  f o r adult  female  offenders,  i s extremely  varied  i n nature.  t o seventy  years,  t o two y e a r s  less  o f two y e a r s  Farm  o r more  sentences one d a y .  range i n A l l women  a u t o m a t i c a l l y come  under  the jurisdiction  transferred But in  position  of their  type  small  towns,  of social  theft,  ment,  t o mention  A  who a r e a w a i t i n g  daily  130  farms,  Charges  forgery,  at Oakalla  i s completed.  setting  ranches,  tion,  between  cases  villages.  The  those  a t t h e Women's U n i t  every  fishing  existing Indian  include  population  and 90,  the long  or  younger. the on  (or  twenty  ll|5  themselves  three  average  were  while  previous  dis-  a r e drawn  from  the province: c i t i e s , and intoxica-  and c h i l d  abandon-  were  one N a t i v e  3^- (32.73  Indian  day  count  of  eighteen years  users years  were  on charges were  of the of o f age  convicted of liquor. Twenty-  f o r the f i r s t  women h a d a c c r u e d  convictions t o Oakalla  IOI4.,  involving  extraction. there  indic-  o f age o r  use o r possession Indian  120.  classed  p e r cent  t o be e x c e s s i v e  of narcotics, eighteen  i n t h e Women's U n i t  being  of the population)  convicted  of Native  fluctuates  count  Of a t o t a l  twenty-one  involving the i l l e g a l  of those  proper  on a sample  lOij. women w e r e  women w e r e  possession  Some t w e n t y - s e v e n  time,  p e r cent  of these  Forty-two  charges  five  58.65  considered  illegal  Ontario. are held  possession,  abortion  as n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s , and  younger;  within  of the population  61  Seven  Inmates  drug  range  some  population)  until  a t t h e Women's U n i t  the following distributions: women  trial,  reservations,  prostitution,  ated  alcohol.  anda r e  but a few.  c l o s e r examination  themselves  Government  t o t h e Women's P e n i t e n t i a r y i n K i n g s t o n ,  t h e s e , women, l i k e custody  of the Federal  P r i s o n Farm.  a total of The average  48 l e n g t h o f sentence  being served was 7.69 months, both the  median and modal sentence  l e n g t h s were s i x months.  twenty i n d i v i d u a l s were s e r v i n g sentences  Some  o f s i x months on  t h i s day. At any one time, from f i f t e e n t o twenty per cent.of the p o p u l a t i o n may be expected  t o be i n the O r i e n t a t i o n Group  because they a r e w a i t i n g t r i a l , w a i t i n g t r a n s f e r t o K i n g s t o n P e n i t e n t i a r y , are i l l ,  are mentally d i s t u r b e d , or are being  segregated from the r e s t of the inmate p o p u l a t i o n f o r d i s ciplinary  purposes.  II. On admission  BECOMING AN INMATE  each inmate i s r e q u i r e d t o give t o the  Records Department i n f o r m a t i o n concerning h e r age, address, r a c i a l o r i g i n , educational l e v e l , occupation, m a r i t a l status, dependents, h e i g h t , weight, and any i d e n t i f y i n g marks, t a t t o o s or scars which she may have.  She must at the same time  relinquish  any money, jewelery, l e g a l documents or other items of value which she may have i n h e r p o s s e s s i o n .  These a r t i c l e s are l o c k e d  i n the strong room u n t i l the owner i s t o be r e l e a s e d . The  new a r r i v a l then proceeds t o the A d m i t t i n g Department  where she must s t r i p , bathe and wash h e r h a i r under the w a t c h f u l eye of the A d m i t t i n g Matron.  At t h i s time n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s a r e  g i v e n a choice of e i t h e r spending t a k i n g the "drug r o u t i n e " .  t e n days i n i s o l a t i o n , o r  The drug r o u t i n e ( o r the "treatment"  as i t i s a l t e r n a t e l y known) i s designed to uncover any n a r c o t i c s  which  the  a d d i c t may  admission. an  enema  It  and  ment" w h i l e security  drug  consists  an  for a  her  a  three  no  period.  means  an  narcotics.  a  container  some t i m e  may  ular  be  time  of  All exchange  inaccessible arrival  inmates  are  for their  the  security  and  a  and  other  polo  cells  shirt,, items  are  A l l items  not.  Matron  before  ensure  that  considered personal ting  cells,  nothing be  and  she  the  cigarettes  also  a  are  are  be  allowed,  tract  prethe  for  to at  who  disin  Oakalla the  partic-  and  shoes  in  not  going  to  blue  Tobacco  i n s p e c t e d by to  take  the  the  the  "effects" i s ready  only  a  her  to  which  is  inmate's  i n the  admit-  for release.  i n the  night  always)  Admitting  institution of  and  cigarettes  them w i t h  remainder  she  jeans  toothbrushes  tailormade  in isolation  not  are  combs,  i n her  allowed  (but  towels  have  into  The  placed  placed  possibly  the  since  belongings.  i s allowed  be  in  swallowed  dress,  but  thoroughly  away u n t i l  will  be  green  to  personal  i s smuggled  locked  inmate  allowed  their also  given  contraband.  i s to  and  are  inmate  belongings  room, If  the  to  Those  are  treat-  Women's U n i t .  clothing.  are  can  digestive  her  additional  admission  own  from  papers  to  stay  procedure  Narcotics prior  the  essential  issued nightgowns,  and  cigarette  the  be  infallible  i n the  at  This  of  examination,  "take  day  to  time  physical  i s required to  concealed  and  the  a d d i c t does  i s considered  i s by  at  she  covering rubber  person  thorough  I f an  admitted  measure  routine  on  of  emetic.  being  cells  cautionary  have  security  clothing,  comb.  She  towels, is  not  allowed may Is  smoke  o r await  there  a  wants, light".  the pleasure  only  staff No  do  i s that  there  any  attract  the attention  knock  Inmates Group  who  i n the  a  chain  For  into  reasons  this  stationed  of a  area  in  Inmates  awaiting  Women may,  not  required  go  and  trial  to, t h e  this  particularly i f  Group  t o do  this  breakfast  i f they  n o r do  is a cell  The  whether  newly  she  admitted  i f she w i s h e s  security  they  cells  not have  a r e locked- i n time  i n the  to  of the Matron so d e s i r e , any  placed  on  the  any  their  morning.  to the Kingston  receive  are  i s located  S i x does  a l l members  or transfer  program  cells,  group which  at the d i s c r e t i o n  i n t h e work  she  of  matron..  building.  program  security  she  matron  either  staff..  checks,  the door of her  r o o m s f r o m 6:3Qp»m. u n t i l  Penitentiary  i n Charge,  but  they  take  are not  remuneration f o r  labours. Shortly  day,  prison  although  until  then  are allowed  or because  orientation  of the  recreational  on  need  Six, the  main.floor  their  must  make f r e q u e n t  f o r punishment must  part  She  and  wait  is specifically  inmate  addict,  for  lighter,  she must  of the  members  one  but matrons  or a  i s someone u n d e r g o i n g w i t h d r a w a l f r o m n a r c o t i c s .  result  in  matches  she  "have  institution.  section,  be  to  security,  the  either  a s much as  available  smoke of  t o have  t h e new  In  addition  by  someone  after  her admission,  usually  inmate  i s interviewed  and  to this, working  her  social  later  examined  history  i n the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i s taken  i n the by  the  and  Department.  same doctor.  recorded At  the  same t i m e and  the  inmate  regulations  description the  institution.  ment  to  which  made d u r i n g problems ing  care  In  this  and  an  o r team  theory  cation  and  matrons  should  one  of an  been  the  be  included a  these  Classification i n the  requires  and be  are  effected  considered  t o be  relatively  for  obviously easily.  refers  the  Custody Other  knowledge  case f o r  sometimes the  both  Classifi-  a minimum.  i n the  either  to  placement.  the  special  as  forth.  i s eligible  i n Charge,  are  so  the  by  as  and  s e n t e n c e d by  unit  made  or to f i l l  members.  has  counsel  living  Officer,  additional  i f a decision  legal  Team members  which  placements  someone  placements  Six f o r incoming inmates  special  finding  interest  Group  also  individual,  always  institution;  i s  inform-  i f t h e y have  special  place-  such as  the Matron  Classification  o r have  need  are  attempt  the  attention,  Classification or  by  work  any  a  is in  used  and  determine  physician,she  group  includes  An  interviewed,  the  and  group  rules  terms, she  is later  the  to  contacting  f i t by  In practice  of the  pressing  has  placement  Team, w h i c h  reason.  whereabouts  while  assigned.  immediate  these placements  inmate  be  of the  i n general  material  interview  children,  and,  determine  will  require  description  expected of her  classification.  Matron,  the  initial  declared or  be  to help  inmate  brief  interview  inmate  may  f o r her  "grouping" work  the  of the  Once court  The  a  institution  will  Team  which  family  the  o f what  Classification  to  of  i s given  of  any  made  by  of  some  result  t o make r o o m a  group  or  Neither  group  nor  in  team  sacred  or  been  poor  one,  changes  can  can  also  request  a  a  Inmates  irreversible  team however,  52  change  i n group  requesting changes  o r team p l a c e m e n t s  a change  can also  are considered  into  which  duplicate  separated as n e a r l y  atmosphere existence  refers  to  be known  from  inmates  "clustering"  o f inmates  for  criminally  first  offenders,  Women's U n i t . which  of dividing  groups  i tw i l l  h a s come  facilitate Because  o f ages,  and p e r s o n a l i t y  i s felt  problem.  social disorders,  t o be a p r a c -  One o f t h e p r i m a r y  b y t h e more c r i m i n a l l y  There  particularly  By segregating users  the  i s with preventing "contamination"  with narcotics  narcotic  and  a few dimensions which t h e  disposed  i n the Institution.  experimenting  in  this  f o r  o f the inmates.  are s i g n i f i c a n t  o f the institution  the less  while  feels  conditions  policy  an h e t e r o g e n e i t y  around  u n i t s are  rationale  living  i s that  sophistication  way o f a l l e v i a t i n g  concerns  (as this small  units  and a r e d e s i g n e d t o  A,further  System"  such  criminal  of  home.  living  the physical  and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  represent  These  one another,  up i n t o  backgrounds,  tical  t o the segregated l i v i n g  a t t h e Women's U n i t )  administration  such  PLACEMENTS  as p o s s i b l e  population  protection  to be legitimate,  are placed.  o f t h e "Group  inmate  the  GROUP  o f a normal  the  both  placement  the inmates  physically  reasons f o r  b e made.  111.  Group  and i f t h e i r  i s a disturbing the very  following  young,  release  the population  and n o n - n a r c o t i c  tendency to begin  from the  into  users  oriented  small  groups  are rather  rigidly  isolated  to  this  curb  to  The  groups  tion the  age  into  stage  and  the  "type"  may  be an  placed  which  i t is felt  ning units  age,  any  program own  she  The  groups  dependent  into  upon  may  present.  twelve  Each  inmates, sleep  and  f o r the  as  living well,  home u n i t s .  with  many  Members  associate  with  or  ing  leisure  i s through  g r o u p must  of  converse hours  and  some.  take  at  with this  group  a  to  and Most  that  not  accom-  the in  of  another  aspect  of  the  living work evening of  the  members  that in  allowed  members  from plan-  these  in their  group  risk  units,  taking place are  sent-  contains  2:30p.m.  f u n c t i o n as  one  placement  afternoon  so  inmate  of her  From  part  i s designed  activities  an  i s able  i n these  and  program  unit  eat  returning f o r lunch  one  ultimate  custodial  usually  to  day  in  the  but  day  evening  of  habitual  actual  length  and  the  and  adoption  the the  socializa-  which  the  the  sophistication  inmates  work  of  below.  socialization.  during  out  stages  represent  meals  when t h e  their  to  accord-  more f u l l y  Women's U n i t  own  go  roughly  progressive  their  afternoon of  being  preparing  they  program  the  alternative  criminal  ten.  program,  discussed  progressive  Within  approximately  and  be  segregated  c u l t u r e and  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n hopes  following classification,  her  to  are  i s considered  ten  ence,  eight  represent  process  individual  modate  will  the  extent.  inmates as  code.  are  another, some  delinquent  offender  in this  to  this,  roughly  There  of  to  delinquent  narcotic  one  tendency  Further ing  from  their to  group  "Group  dur-  System"  (or  " G r o u p i n g and  object  o f much  trouping"  derisive  as  the  comment  inmates  and  the  call  i t ) i s the  s o u r c e o f much  inmate  dissatisfaction. Groups housed of  on  Group  the  which  t h e members  do  so  staff.  room. their  own  members rule  groups  members group,  as  have  as  a  this  a  This  a  of  and  other.  group  any  end  Each  chesterfield  and  Seven The  members  of the  long  group has several  are  i t s own  soft  chairs  wish  to  congregate they  must  can  be  easily  by  they  group  go  are  into  observed  another  supposed  to  girl*s  stay  within  are not  a l l o w e d t o mix  with or t a l k  to  group.  The  of  a  i n an  area  physically  Three  served  "handle", enjoy  a  and  building.  a t one  i s allowed to  other  twenties,  tions.  the  Three  difficulty  such  as  separated  the  enforcing  "top h a l l "  from  one  where  another  can  the be  appreciated.  Group early  girl  are not  readily  at  rooms  dayroom where  o f any  such  i n the  Seven  Groups  of the main  of either  No  The  Seven.  contains  If  the  live  Group  i n the  and  top f l o o r  Three  corridor, dayroom  Three  group  but  like  has  young  addicts,  considered  a  amount  to  be  reputation  f o r being concede  to  exert  control  over t h e i r  They  are  to  take  part  to  i n sports  be and  staff.  t o the  an  their  The  right  activities active  to  members  bumptious of  the  i n the  group  recreational  who  institu-  difficult  s t u b b o r n and  usually  considered  in  i n various  of being  f o r inexperienced  notoriety  usually  r e f o r m a b l e , but  of time  will  institution  they  are  particularly  group,  run.  who  considerable  certain  long  contains  i n  that  programs  and  activities  has  some a s p i r a n t  not  uncommon  a thinly  vails  between Group  tional the  from  i s made  Some  t o undergo  u p o f many  chronic  histories are also physical  i s considered  cards  Group  and l e s b i a n s ,  Three  and i t  extended  i s  periods  and l e a d e r s h i p  i n pre-  placed  activities t o sports,  such  leaders  point  a n d who a r e  o f view,  alcoholics with i n Group  condition  t o be q u i t e  o l d addicts, but  inmate  the institution's  harmless.  individual ing  group  groups.  i t s members.  age o r poor  group  leaders  are not i n f l u e n t i a l  considered, atively  some o t h e r  v e i l e d b a t t l e f o r power  Seven  who  do  inmate  f o rthis  which  addicts  more t h a n  long  Seven.  o f many  t o be  They  going  f o r walks  this  prefer  as k n i t t i n g , crochet! hg  dancing,  institu-  Because o f  members,  inactive.  rel-  quiet,  or  or other  playsuch  activities. Groups situated  Four  and E i g h t .  i n the l i v i n g  units  this  building.  been  i n and out of p r i s o n s  wise" and in are  i n that  they  group  i n this  against  f o r many  and g e n e r a l l y  primarily  of less  likely  addicts  time".  aggressive  inmate  have  are "con  by t h e s e  Also  f o r the  rules  included  lesbians.  leaders  sophisticated  influenced  They  who  to institutional  as a p r o t e c t i o n  criminally  be g r e a t l y  and E i g h t a r e  years.  "do e a s y  a r e a number o f v e r y  unit  older  t o conform  potentially influential  protection quite  know h o w  Four  a t t h e e n d o f t h e m a i n x^ing o f  G r o u p F o u r h a s many  regulations this  Groups  They  institution  and f o r t h e  inmates women.  who  could  56  The  members  producing much  and  a home-like  of their  plaques  time  serve  sentences  their  attempts  tentment accused  absence  eighteen  t o twenty-one  on  second  which  produces These  experiences  many  young  or third  emotional  women h a v e  prevent  their  addicts  and t o attempt  They staff  are often  further  sistent  reaction  entations  articles  have  o f by t h e o t h e r  of the Institution  of rebelliousness They  rebel  i n the their  and p e t s , and  things.  been c o n v i c t e d  and  an u n s t a b l e  consequently or  another.  unit  both to  by a s s o c i a t i o n  their  i s felt  approximately  i s quite  assigned to this  to control  group who,  addicts,  ambivalences  con-  They a r e  homes, p l a n t s  This  contamination  of authority.  apparent  to justify  o u t b u r s t s o f one k i n d been  thought  as t h e " b r a t s "  charge. many  seek  i n these  of  contemptuously  of o l d maids  o f a g e who  Four  sympathet-  and t h e i r  up o f young  years  c a n be  the institution.  or children,  themselves  i n Group  so t h e i n t e n s i t y  f o rtheir  devotion to their  I s made  inmates  are rather  within  husbands  by t h e i r  Group E i g h t  group  goldfish  Most  r e m i n i s c e n t o f a group  to perpetuate  their  plants,  and inmates  lives  spend  House  "institutionalized",  of either  existence perhaps  their  of being  be v e r y  staff  q u a r t e r s , and  copper  o r more,  they  i n  pieces,  i n "comfortably  Still,  by b o t h  with  months  interest  ceramic  pieces.  abound.  to "settle  an a c t i v e  i n their  doilies,  also  of nine  understood.  criticized  to  making  birds  take  atmosphere  and s m a l l f u r n i t u r e  budgerigar  ically  o f Group Four  difficult inmates because  i n the face  with  older  behavior.  and by t h e of t h e i r  con-  o f any r e p r e s -  on p r i n c i p l e ,  whether i t  57  i s to t h e i r ultimate s t r a t e g i c a l advantage to rebel or not. The Huts.  There i s l i t t l e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e one hut  from another i n so f a r as the nature of t h e i r population i s concerned, except, perhaps, the length of sentence served by the members.  being  The huts are usually populated by  Native Indian womenwho have been charged either with i n t o x i cation under the Indian Act, or under the Government Liquor Act i t s e l f .  These offenders come to gaol repeatedly but s e l -  dom receive sentences of more than three months on any one conviction, the most usual sentence being ten days.  Many of  these women come from r u r a l and outlying d i s t r i c t s and do not become involved i n the more seriously delinquent a c t i v i t i e s . They are considered to be a good custodial r i s k because  their  sentences are so short, and because of the comparative naivete. Normally the Native Indian offenders remain aloof from, the other inmates within the i n s t i t u t i o n , but those who come from the Vancouver area,>and the very young from any d i s t r i c t , seem impressed with the addict group, and sometimes become enmeshed i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s both within and outside the institution.  Although they are also placed i n the huts, they  are scrutinized rather more closely by the i n s t i t u t i o n and are considered to be more easily influenced by the addicts, and more i n danger of succumbing t o the attractions of narc o t i c usage. . The Cottages. offenders.  Cottage D members are usually f i r s t  They are usually the lone-wolf type of casual  offenders;  cheque w r i t e r s , a b o r t i o n i s t s , b o o t l e g g e r s and so  f o r t h as a r u l e .  They are u s u a l l y not a c q u a i n t e d w i t h any  o t h e r inmates i n O a k a l l a p r i o r t o b e i n g i n c a r c e r a t e d , and serve sentences o f from t h r e e t o s i x months because of the n a t u r e of t h e i r c h a r g e s .  Because they have been f a i r l y  well  s o c i a l i z e d t o meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y , members of t h i s group a r e more c o - o p e r a t i v e and manageable t h a n most as a rule.  Some Cottage D o f f e n d e r s r e t u r n on n a r c o t i c  but n o r m a l l y they are j u s t "one time l o s e r s " ered t o be "Square Johns" i n comparison women w i t h i n the  charges,  and are c o n s i d -  t o the r e s t o f the  institution.  Cottage E houses young f i r s t o f f e n d e r s t o O a k a l l a , hut f i r s t o f f e n d e r s who have l o n g r e c o r d s of d e l i n q u e n c y , u s u a l l y as j u v e n i l e s .  Many have spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n the G i r l s  I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , and some are s t i l l o f j u v e n i l e . s t a t u s , but have been t r a n s f e r r e d t o a d u l t c o u r t because they are no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u i t a b l e c a n d i d a t e s f o r a j u v e n i l e institution.  T y p i c a l l y they have escaped from the  i n s t i t u t i o n innumerable  juvenile  t i m e s , and are c o n s i d e r e d by t h a t  i n s t i t u t i o n t o be i n c o r r i g i b l e .  I n the course o f t h e i r many  escapes t h e y have become w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h drug a d d i c t s i n Vancouver, and may ession.  have been charged w i t h n a r c o t i c poss-  They have u s u a l l y been sentenced t o serve s i x months  or more a t the Women's U n i t e i t h e r on charge o f E s c a p i n g L a w f u l Custody  or Possessing N a r c o t i c s .  T h i s group i s u s u a l l y v o l a t i l e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n the extreme.  They pose a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o custody  and  internal  control,  glamorous to  life  membership  such  narcotic addict.  i n the  ages  g r e a t l y enamoured  addict  group,  genuinely  and  be  rebellion  of  They  although fearful  becomes  the  exciting,  frequently many w i l l  of  their  the  aspire  deny  future.  keynote  of  activity. The and  Panabode. with  considered  a  the  ambivalence  daily  life  are  are  a s p i r a t i o n s and  Again,  of  of  and  to  and,  The  varying be  lengths  change  specifically,  to  stop  must  they  criminal  to  self-initiated  before  of  contains  motivated  selected for this  Applicants  Panabode  placement  request have  will  be  a  for  a  records  their  using  by  addicts  of who  narcotics.  psychiatrist  sentence  considered  to  be  are  delinquent  length  eligible  way They  following  consideration for this  minimum  mixed  of  placement.  six  months  for this  place-  ment . Having in  the  with (in  requested  f u t u r e , Panabode  any the  tution,  program  but  members  planned  estimation  of  by  the  i s certainly  difficulties other  assistance  inmates  must  maintain  this  loyalty  Members  of  wish  to  move  into  the  their with  this out  their  group of  avoid  institution inmate  to  scorn  and  in a  normative  delinquent  legitimate factions.  This  derision find  that  of  is  instiin from they  reconcile  dilemma  i s the  group  wanting  somehow  factions  co-operative  i n the  nor  girls  yet  This  best  reproach  these  loyalty,  the  be  d e s i r e f o r assistance from  are  the  among  above  To  expected  institution.  staff)  nonetheless. i n the  are  the  not  i n a v o i d i n g n a r c o t i c usage  the  staff.  because  society  obverse  of  they  and the  dilemma  encountered  by  first  offenders  and  aspirant  narcotic  addicts• The ten is  above  groups  a  represents  difficult,  conceived  of  for  stereotype  more  deliberately feels  rest  group  not  conform  an  be  given  should the  be  a  much  where  pace  John" of  the  a  and  the  in  favour  where  rest  of  of  a  situations.  offender very  may  of  addict the  they the  be to  subdued  Similarly,.a to  her  have  an  edifying  is  quite  administraor  i f  stable  a  inmate  members.  deliberately or  in  group  forced  (by  demeanor fairly  effect  of  the  their in  rela-  mature  that  where  one  members  abandon  dismay  group  place  sometimes  its  be  other  group)  more  of  It pre-  to  down",  more  the  particular  are  group  may  into  another  i f the  a  of  inmates.  one  then  rebellious  members.  any  "cooled  may  on  find  young,  maturity group  may  than  majority  settled  influence  of  arising  relative of  their  negligible,  inertia  to  older,  each  decision  group  benefit the  of  inmates  be  Inmates  in  the  to  unlikely  in  individuals  rather  The  active  member  her  one  another. in  out  frequently  troublesome,  "square a  to  sort  of  reckless tion  than  "types"  allocation  effect  huts  sheer  may  inmate  the  placed  will  to  individual  counteract  the  she  of  ideal  and in  placed  an  group needs  Very  course,  inmate  arbitrary,  to  the  categories,  particular  tion  description  she (it is upon  is hoped) the  61 IV.  WORK TEAMS  T h e r e a r e n i n e teams o r work p l a c e m e n t s t h e Women's U n i t , conceivably  possible  at  and t h e members o f any one w o r k t e a m c o u l d  be d r a w n f r o m any o r a l l o f t h e t e n l i v i n g  The i n m a t e s a r e  p l a c e d on a s p e c i f i c  team a f t e r  their  groups. inter-  e s t s and a p t i t u d e s h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i r l e n g t h of to f i t  sentence,  physical health,  i n t o a g i v e n t e a m and t h e  are b e l i e v e d t o  attitude  and a b i l i t y  c u s t o d i a l r i s k which they  present.  Maintenance.  The M a i n t e n a n c e t e a m t a k e s c a r e  c l e a n i n g and s c r u b b i n g w i t h i n the main b u i l d i n g . are  s c r u b b e d and p o l i s h e d t w i c e  week.  Windows a r e  cleaned,  a n d w a l l s a r e washed down a t  placed "on maintenance" for  a few days u n t i l  door knobs are  regular  intervals.  t o do t h i s t y p e  ( p r o n o u n c e d l o c a l l y as  they  all  Hall  floors  d a i l y , a n d a r e waxed t w i c e  brass  i n m a t e s who a r e p h y s i c a l l y a b l e  of  c a n be more c l o s e l y  polished A l l new of work  "Maintainance")  their  as t h e y  A d d i c t s s p e n d one o r two weeks on m a i n t e n a n c e are  a b l e t o w o r k , as  it  is felt  that  the  attitude,  t h e i r a b i l i t y , t o f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e i r g e n e r a l tude.  are  a s s e s s e d by  i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r work h a b i t s ,  a  apti-  as  t h i s type  soon of h a r d  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y h e l p s t o b u i l d up t h e i r b o d i e s most  quickly  f o l l o w i n g the  Inmates  r i g o u r s o f d r u g usage and w i t h d r a w a l .  w i t h sentences of maintenance  one m o n t h o r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y  team t h r o u g h o u t  some h a b i t u a l s h o r t  t h e i r sentence.  term offenders  r e m a i n on t h e  In t h i s  way,  s p e n d most o f t h e i r  time  62 in  prison  working  Sewing all  the  are  placed  mending on  instruction machines, is  and  an  from  but  a  be  Occupational degree for  of  the  of  the  erials  to the  trial  custodial  from  or for  period  sold  by  the  this  on  this  a  use  An  and  of  team, and  o r who  and  rather  who  are  a  interesting weaving,  or  The members  more  mat-  i s placed  upon  the  produced. staff  constructs  but There  their  are  primary  are u s u a l l y  voiced be  member everything  Team members  known t o  maximum  t o buy  a male  a l l o f whom h a v e  through  i n the  embroidery.  amount  tools, crew.  more  to visitors  work team  power  going  i t affords  and  r u n by  cabins.  are  in knitting,  emphasis  team  waiting  placed  are used  than the  construction  placement  Some  socks  inmates  i s also  is. given  This  shops  i n the  i s as  only  Crew.  furniture to  less  and  earned  rather  The  or  because  institution  profits  done  Carpentry  women  sewing  a productive  are frequently  supervision  department.  of work  of  of darning  as  inmates  department  f o r the  function  consists  does  older  strenuous.  the usage  Penitentiary,  Any  instructed  on  team  of the  i s not  l e a t h e r c r a f t , copperwork  are  Mending  Many  primarily  Instruction  Carpentry. the  staff  work  staff.  quality  is  the  and  department.  Therapy  crocheting,  Gaol.  incapacitated  inmate.  products  by  Sewing  t h e work  useful  instructive  waiting  as  of the  t o be  transferred  long  team  most  The  t h e Men's  i s given  Physically to  maintenance.  Mending.  this  considered  than  on  a  eight  preference  willing  and  hard  workers.  As  something  concrete  to  work w i t h  the  male  competition ment.  project  time  between  as  freedom  are, a  at  t h e r e f o r e , more  form  of  reward  formance.  The  for  for their  that  serious  any  Maples sonally ment.  would The  the  are  usually  and  behavioral  essity  there  be  given  this  added  promise  of  the  placed  considerably work  hard  are  teams,  and  a  work farm  Maples.  a week a t  a  constructing  on  the be  In  the  of  and  on  the  the  dropped  the  from  the  work  whole  that  per-  this  conformity  to  this  work  k i t c h e n the  emphasis  Twin  they work  Twin Maples  being  as  respon-  "institutional"  inmates  and  also  more  surrounding  production,  time  they  understanding  understanding  motivate  because  partly  assume  jeopardize  g r e a t l y reduced to  personal  partly  most  to  behavior may  more  conscientious  expected  good  expectation  upon  for  place-  for  on  to  keen  work  Twin  b u i l d i n g s and  supervised,  certainly  sufficient  Kitchen.  as  have  able  is  attraction  Farm  institution  their  also  a  time, are  been working  p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of  and  The  of  infractions  most  staff  i s known  enjoy  easily  own  p r o j e c t , and  the  Twin Maples  main  inmates  sibility  the and  crew has  farm  of  stead.  other the  an  deal  efforts  to  which  old  crew members  from  been  B.C.,  stays  any  good  of  inmates  Carpentry  in their  than  removed  member  has  t e a r i n g down t h e  These  a  show f o r t h e i r  the  Haney,  crew  dormitories  are  outdoors  there  the  near  entire  are  only  Recently  placement  The  they  the  perplace-  location atmosphere high  work  placement. i s of  selected  necfor  this  placement  either  of  productivity  in  need  i s some  chen,  a n d some  itional  food  primary The  the is  opportunity  Laundry.  completely  consequence work  general modern  group  laundry  useful experience  ment  ventures.  done  i n this  a by  Beauty  four  members  means  previously,  i s i n t h e basement o f  of the building. are placed  of segregating  The laundry  so that  Parlour.  there  could  As a  i n the laundry them f r o m t h e  i s equipped  with  i s an opportunity t o  be u s e d  for future  employ-  o f t h e Women's U n i t i s  instructrice  community.  To complete  with  o f s i x months  i nthis  i n which  and take  other  o r more,  their  with  the students  their  inmates  although  must some  as  are trained  examinations  quite i n the  be s e r v i n g students are  the understanding  courses  f o l l o w i n g release from  parlour operates  h a i r d r e s s i n g candidates  t h e course  department  t r y t o complete  The beauty  school  along  school  the rest  which  anonymously  will  and nutr-  department.  a qualified  placed  diet  a t t h e Women's U n i t , i t  A l l of the laundry  vocational training  sentences  within the kit-  concerning  from  equipment  them.  production.  building  population.  gain  The  i s given  level  demands u p o n  promotions  the laundry  as an a d d i t i o n a l inmate  great  high  t o be l a z y a n d  b u t a s was m e n t i o n e d  Since  isolated  many  makes  i s upon  o f the main  general  a r e thought  t o earn  instruction  emphasis  of their  they  which  preparation,  new w i n g  to  o r because  o f a placement  There  the  because  that  they  i n a regular hairdressing  t h e Women's U n i t .  The  students  practise on  the various processes  one a n o t h e r  according a  day  ently  o f t h e week  avail  t h e work done  department  High  standards  the students  in  their  Matrons  who  i n this  department.  institution  when t h e y  ing  conventions  and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s  ment at  Sewing.  requires students  least  students  a  limited  institution  cess.  Quality  instructrice. sewing  hours  of training  There  earned  a r e no  and  garment  time  and  to  leave,  to  sewing  depart-  and  with  The  techniques, i n the  emphasized  given f o r the  are credited  with  and a r e u s u a l l y  manufacturers  well  time.  and pyjamas i s again  do  hairdress-  skills  sewing  examinations  achieved  credit  or factory  jeans  but students  fee  and m a t e r i a l s  instructions.  production  frequ-  by t h e  usually  manipulative  blue  when t h e y  employment w i t h  from  cutting  dresses,  course,  thus  out t o s p e c i a l  to follow  shampoo  examinations.  sewing  some  factory  rather than  power  find  with  ability  are taught  making  the  The power  a  and a nominal  Students  are taken  depart  hairdressing  a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be a  the  that  are o f f duty  equipment  are writing  i s given  including  of the  Money  from  o f e x c e l l e n c e a r e demanded  examinations  Power  inmate  who  of the services  t o buy u p - t o - d a t e  students  by  one  trade  departments  work department  services  by t h e i n m a t e s .  of their  work  f o r any m a t e r i a l s u s e d  i s used  to'e q u i p  Each  hairdressing  themselves paying  other  on w h i c h  s e t and a manicure.  department,  and  from  schedule.  can r e c e i v e f r e e  haircut,  for  inmates  t o a weekly  specific  ment  and on  and techniques  i n the  their able  to  Greater  proby  66 Vancouver a r e a . at  T h i s department can accommodate s i x students  any one t ime. Home N u r s i n g .  A course  i n home n u r s i n g i s given t o a  group of f i v e or more students at a time. of  At the c o n c l u s i o n  the course examinations are w r i t t e n and c e r t i f i c a t e s are  i s s u e d t o the s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s . the members of t h i s team a s s i s t and  As part o f t h e i r d u t i e s  i n looking after sick  g e n e r a l l y provide a s s i s t a n c e t o the c l i n i c  inmates,  staff.  I t has  been the p r a c t i c e of t h i s department t o take a c e r t a i n number of  instalment  for they off  short p e r i o d s of time.  On r e - e n t e r i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n  c a r r y on w i t h t h e i r home n u r s i n g course where they at the e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s The  hut  students - students who come t o g a o l r e p e a t e d l y  School.  left  sentence.  The s c h o o l , which i s l o c a t e d i n the f o u r t h  o u t s i d e the Main B u i l d i n g , p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  inmates t o improve t h e i r academic standing by t a k i n g c o r r e s pondence c o u r s e s .  Inmates e n r o l i n t y p i n g , shorthand  and  other commercial s u b j e c t s , as w e l l as the t r a d i t i o n a l academic courses  such as mathematics and E n g l i s h .  The s c h o o l can  accommodate approximately  t e n students at any one time, and  many inmates are anxious  t o take advantage of both the acad-  emic and more p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d .  Some students  attend s c h o o l on a f u l l time b a s i s but many go t o s c h o o l f o r only h a l f a day, working i n some other department f o r the remainder of the day. There i s a great d e a l of controversy w i t h i n the Women's  Unit are  as  to  selected  that  to  ates  any  the is  the  advisability  from  allow mixing  during the  the  positive  working  day  i s finished.  "contamination" fact  policy time  different  of  sufficiently  The  many  o f h a v i n g work  policy  remains,  does  and of  of  any  however,  make n e c e s s a r y  effort the  justifying  institution  working of  Others  hours  the  taking that the  both  that hours  rather  expenditure  to  apparent the  members feel  completely System"  negafter  supervision to  p l a c e between  this  these  Many  "Group  feel  during working  type  whose  l i v i n g groups.  features  stringent  teams  prevent the  inmates..  contradictory of c o n s i d e r a b l e  anomalies  inmates  and  i n the  the  staff.  CHAPTER V THE Following Sykes, bear the it  regime  examine  who m u s t  the role  general  nature  Initially  care,  those  precedence tion.  x  afford  some  As  tasks  enforce t h e will  b e made  c l o s e l y t o s e e how matwithin  requirements.  the limit-  I t i s hoped  characteristics of this Increased  understanding o f  o f t h e Women's  "custody  i s expected been  i s quite  Unit.  comes f i r s t ,  coined  1  University  Press,  definitely  to i t s given  of the i n s t i t u -  but treatment  by t h e Warden,  come f i r s t .  to retain i n  committed  and f u n c t i o n i n g  i s most  and i t i s e v i d e n t  The p o s s i b i l i t y  G r e s h a m M. Sykes", : T h e S o c i e t y  Princeton  t h e many  an attempt  order  t h e Women's U n i t  h a s been does  live.'''  T H E R E G I M E OF T H E MATRONS  i n the structure  custody  must  to function  formal  responsibility  T h e maxim  important" that  and p r e f e r  i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e  and t h i s  that  framework  ;  of the social  I.  this  a n d i t i s s h e ; who m u s t  o f t h e m a t r o n more  role will  Unit  and t h e inmates  an I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e unique  occupational  by Gresham  o f t h e Women's  actually perform  a n d demands o f t h e s e  custody  derived  ( o rtasks)  of the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  actually function  that  the  her role  to the prison,  custodial  ations  of reference  requirements  play  i s t h e matron  rons  OP T H E MATRON  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o ri t i s w i t h i n  m a t r o n must  allotted  to  t h e frame  the formal  some  ROLE  of  of Captives,  1958, p p . 1 8 - 3 8 .  simultaneously  Princeton,  69 satisfying length ibly  both  below.  dogma  within  Custody no  an  guards  on. t h e p e r i m e t e r  the  been  escape  ually one  shoot  time  never  the  past fire  they  keys  and r e g u l a t i o n s ,  i n evidence  as they  grounds.  t o shoot  maintain  These  i fthey  refuted  and accomplished two a n d a h a l f  observe  o f both  presum-  anyone would  remains  making act-  an open  action has  debates.  A l l ofthe  o f women p r i s o n e r s w i t h i n failed  could quite  d i dnot observe the presence  have  posts  l e n g t h by t h e women  i n these  escapes  years  their  and have  t o escape  male  guards a r e  But t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f such  completely  to stir  easily  be  the guards because  the attempts. o f armed "guards  d e t e r r e n t t o a n y women who may b e  from  a n d armed  The q u e s t i o n o f whether they  any s h o t s , b u t t h i s  slight  escape  orders  but there i s  o f p r e v e n t i n g escapes  a n d i s d i s c u s s e d a t some  Although  interests  c o u l d be u s e d t o  i n the gaol,  a t a woman a t t e m p t i n g  actually  much  t h e Women's U n i t t h e r e a r e  which  remaining  of the gaol  to time.  been  attempted  a  much  attempt.  t o date  from  to  into  the responsibility  given  imposs-  a c t i v i t i e s and  m e n a n d t h e women o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n ,  ably an  with  i s perhaps  but i thas provided a  Within  instruments  of locks,  are very  charged  philosophy  f o r the diverse  and C o n t r o l .  t h e inmates  abundance  this  be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r  the institution.  firearms or other  coerce  will  and contradictory,  unifying  existing  wishes  Logically  ambiguous  needed  these  the i n s t i t u t i o n the staff  may  serve as  contemplating  o f t h e Women's U n i t  70  do  not feel  The  custodial  ensured  security new  ject The  which  contains  boards  must  the at  never  and w i l l  be l e f t  unlocked;  Materials  which  be k e p t  inmates eight turn  under  and i s sub-  I t i s known a s  be r e f e r r e d  t o as  doors  a careful could  which  and cup-  c h e c k must  be  be d a n g e r o u s t o  i fmalevolently  employed  a n d k e y , t o be d i s p e n s e d  discretion.  are counted hour  shift,  at several and s t a f f  i n performing this  jobwithin  c o u n t " a t 6:30&.m.  specified  duty,  regardless of Matrons  before the shift  a t 2:30p.m. ( s h i f t  must  each  "take  i s changed), change),  8:30p.ra. a n d 1 0 : 3 0 p » m . f o r s h i f t  the count, n o t only  times  members a r e r e q u i r e d  the institution.  (just  11:30a.m. ( n o o n c o u n t ) , count),  lock  loose-  o f t h e Women's  Matron  and r e v i s i o n s .  o r o t h e r inmates  specific  When t a k i n g  office  that  take their  (dinner  i n the main  to the effect  a t t h e matron's  their  i s a typewritten  are directives  only  to  manual.  prescriptions  always  each  a n d by means o f a  the custodial  must  during  and general  Among  matrons  The  and r e g u l a t i o n s  p r e p a r e d by t h e C h i e f  study.  measures.  are further  movements,  The Manual  remains  on a l l t o o l s .  either  above  additions  such  requirements a r e imparted t o each  a t t h e Women's U n i t  i nthis  of rules  both verbally  I t h a s been  Manual  kept  These  explained  to periodic  such  enforcement  behavior, routine  member,  document  Unit.  it  inmate  has been  upon  r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e Women's U n i t  measures.  staff  leaf  c a n be c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t  by v i g i l a n t  concerning  As  they  inmate  change  iji:lj.5p.m. again.  be a c c o u n t e d  for,  but  locks  Once sibility all  the  and,  ideally,  is  that  count  of  the  The  as  f a r as  be  taken  limits  the as  justification  are,  conversations for this  is possible  so  that  appropriate  to  keep  inmate  staff  minimum. amount  of  f o r they  cern  for  inmate  n a r c o t i c s are tend  to  sophisticated  or  versation  between  care  must  be  ages  between  the  taken the  inmates,  to  for  such  Information.  in  written  form  by  window w r i t i n g -  to  another  by  Overt  as  the  censorship The the  inmates  the  be  or  or  and  presumably  between  casual  also  passing  the  male  contain  "kites",  or  can  of  a  lighter  attempts  at  escape  are  be  a  not  less  con-  of  mess-  and  either  one  area  flashlight. the  that  transmitted  s i g n a l s from or  Con-  pertinent  transmitted  use  harm-  cautions  be  of  "street  criminally  can  flashing  internal  yenhy".  even  manual  could  can  procurement  "feel  of  of  gossip  particularly  the  may  control  precautions  writing or  messages Messages  notes  to  addicts  inmates.  female  they  discouraging  corruption of  prevent  strict  the  doing  expectation  conversation by  thought  a l s o prompts  where  are  which  discontent  concerning  make t h e  contamination  of  unrest  Conversations  keep  unit. respon-  plots',, i n t r i g u e s a n d  Censorship  of  the  they  latter  inmate  the  to  the  a l l times  what  of  well.  custodial  know a t  group  any  i t becomes  awareness  ful,  female  of  to  throughout  important  a  usage  checked  duty  inmate  checked  be  by  to  been  on  topic  be  to  an  stress  must  has  her  i t is felt  have  talk"  doors  each matron  members  having.  and  the  of  be  and  and  only  threats  72 to  good  custody.  maintaining rules  law and o r d e r  from  respect. helpful  i s thought  Contraband  i n small  cigarettes,  ant,  n a r c o t i c drugs  commodity searches  When  and inmate  Into  the inmates.  call  outside  f o ra g i r l  world  to bring strict  It i s similarly  f o r h e r without  t o do t h i s  felt  i n this Manual:  from  regard  first  make  import-  a  extensive of the day. be  easily  are applied  t o b r i n g any  directly member a  such  questionable  rules  having  the Chief Matron. i s evident  that  members m i g h t  to obtain permission  o r otherwise  tailor-  are a l l s t r i c t l y  t o suspect  and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r any s t a f f  sion  The  staff  potential  a n d , most  be t h e o r d e r  t h e Women's U n i t ,  items  phone  that  be  i t ' s exist-  Money,  the institution  will  i n this  i t may  of  the  another,  role  o r because  as a source  o r persuaded  i tnecessary  rules  plan,  because  w r i t i n g paper  into  i t i s felt  w h i c h make Into  as such  i s any r e a s o n  "frisks"  by t h e inmates  commodities  a significant  o f any d e s c r i p t i o n ,  has - p e n e t r a t e d  Because fooled  gum,  t o prevent  by one means o r  among t h e i n m a t e s .  chewing  there  Multitudinous  are designed  to play  an escape  and competition  forbidden.'  which  q u a n t i t i e s i s seen  made  the  within the gaol.  i s listed  i n completing  conflict  attention i s paid to  " g e t t i n g out o f hand"  contraband  ence  rigorous  and r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t  inmates and  Equally  against  t o make  contact  i nt h e  obtained  The degree  a  permisof  i n the f o l l o w i n g excerpt  concern from  73 Never mail a l e t t e r or a card f o r a girl. No m a t t e r how i n n o c e n t i t may seem, t h i s i s a v e r y f o o l i s h t h i n g t o do a n d i t c o u l d v e r y easi l y c o s t y o u y o u r j o b ... I t i s a l s o a g a i n s t the r u l e s f o r you t o pass a n y t h i n g to or r e c e i v e a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e men. This includes passing to and f r o m a g u a r d . I f a guard i s f o o l i s h e n o u g h t o a c c e p t s o m e t h i n g f r o m one o f t h e men a n d p a s s i t t o y o u , r e f u s e t o a c c e p t i t ... N e v e r meet a g i r l o n t h e o u t s i d e and b r i n g a n y t h i n g i n t o the b u i l d i n g f o r her. T h e y c a n make u p p l a u s i b l e s t o r i e s , b u t n e v e r , do this. This  regulation i s considered  importance  at  the  proportion  of  narcotic addicts  The  control  resulting ous  of  battle  of  concealment  distinct  wits  and  the  the  and  friendly certain  shift  concerning  the  girls  as  consistently.  favour  According  consistently  and  the  be  should  be  afternoon  rigid  as  should  the be  program.  continuthe  shift,  more  are,  matron  by  e n f o r c i n g these  Manual,  inmates  will  created.  o u t l i n e s those  i f the feel  The  aspects  of  however,  she  following  the is  not  regulations  rules  unsure  the  and  is told  that  that  (morning)  relaxed  i s assured  not  such  training  There  the  a difference  matron  t o The  the  tension will  Manual  there  r e g u l a t i o n s which  any  important,  narcotics.  afternoon  doing  population.  staff  and  the  large  and  inmates  the  f o l l o w , and  the  is a  during  and  inmate  of  there  Manual  not  because  that  atmosphere  must  f r o m The  be  particular  feeling  of  shift  of  especially  the  girls  ground  The  i n the  be  becomes  that  rules  enforced  to  morning  afternoon  shift,  between  discovery  According between  O a k a l l a Women's U n i t  contraband  i n the  to  of  are  not  their  excerpt  prison  policy  74 which  must  be a d h e r e d  t o at a l l times  and on a l l s h i f t s :  Kites and the k i t e - l i n e are absolutely illegal (as i s any form o f communication b e t w e e n t h e women and t h e m e n ) . A g r o u p l e a d e r s h o u l d n e v e r condone k i t i n g and should r e f r a i n from t a l k i n g about kites or joking about t h e k i t e - l i n e o r t h e g i r l s ' kitel i n e r o m a n c e s b e c a u s e t h i s t e n d s t o make t h e g i r l s b e l i e v e t h a t y o u do condone i t o r a t l e a s t do n o t think i ti s a serious thing. Kites are i l l e g a l a n d m u s t be t a k e n away f r o m a n y g i r l c a u g h t w r i t i n g one. T h i s . i s a must a t a l l t i m e s . Kiting i s i n some c a s e s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a n i d l e p a s s t i m e c a r r i e d o n f o r want o f s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r t o do and a l s o because i t i s i l l e g a l . H o w e v e r , i n some cases i t Is a very bad t h i n g f o r a g i r l t oget m i x e d u p w i t h some " c h a r a c t e r " d o w n b e l o w b e c a u s e s h e may m e e t h i m o n . t h e o u t s i d e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y get i n t o f u r t h e r t r o u b l e . One s i t u a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t i s s e r i o u s enough t o warrant a c o n s t a n t l o o k o u t f o r k i t e s a n d p i c k i n g them up a t e v e r y opportunity. I f a g i r l w i l l not give up a k i t e , o r d e r h e r t o do so a n d i f s h e s t i l l r e f u s e s s h e i s d i s o b e y i n g a m a t r o n ' s o r d e r s a n d t h i s must be r e p o r t e d t o t h e Matron i n Charge o f t h e s h i f t . Never w r e s t l e with a g i r l over a k i t e o r k i t e s . A l l g i r l s m u s t b e k e p t away f r o m t h e w i n d o w s at a l l times. Y o u c a n o r d e r a n y g i r l away f r o m any window. N o t h i n g l o o k s worse t h a n a l l t h e g i r l s l i n e d up a t t h e o u t s i d e windows s m i l i n g a n d s i g n i n g t o t h e men o n t h e f i e l d . The g i r l s a r e s u p p o s e d t o be k e p t busy a n d a r e n o t s u p p o s e d to have time f o r such i d l e p a s s t i m e s . I t does not matter whether they a r e a c t u a l l y signing t o t h e men o r n o t - t h e y a r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o b e at t h e windows. I f a g i r l has nothing better t o do f i n d h e r s o m e t h i n g t o do - h a v e h e r sweep the h a l l o r even s c r u b i t , and so o n . Any g i r l who i s a c t u a l l y c a u g h t w i n d o w - w r i t i n g i s t o be r e p o r t e d t o t h e m a t r o n i n c h a r g e o f t h e shift. . A n y c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e women a n d t h e men i s s t r i c t l y against regulations. The g i r l s c a n n o t t a l k t o t h e men, s i g n t o t h e men, o r  T?his statement i s i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o another d i r e c t i v e s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t , "No j o b s h o u l d b e j u s t t o k e e p someone b u s y " .  i n these an excuse  e v e n s t a n d o r s i t a n d w a t c h w h i l e a man s i g n s t o h e r . She i s o u t s i d e f o r a r e a s o n (watching a game, e t c . ) a n d s h o u l d b e d o i n g t h i s . I f you h a v e a g r o u p o u t s i d e a n d one o f t h e m b r e a k s t h i s r u l e , d o n ' t e v e n c h e c k h e r more t h a n once - but b r i n g t h e whole group i n . I f y o u do t h i s f o r a w h i l e , t h e g r o u p w i l l know y o u mean what you say and w i l l behave b e t t e r f o r i t . A g i r l I s n o t a l l o w e d t o swear i n t h i s institution. Always reprimand a g i r l f o r s w e a r i n g e v e n i f i t ' s j u s t a ''damn". I f a g i r l a c t u a l l y c u r s e s a t y o u , s h e c a n be c r i m e d f o r d o i n g s o . However, y o u must remember t h a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s are very f r u s t r a t i n g t o the inmates. If this f r u s t r a t i o n reaches a c e r t a i n p o i n t , the g i r l w i l l "blow h e r t o p " . I f y o u h a p p e n t o be t h e a u t h o r i t y who i s e n f o r c i n g t h e r u l e s , s h e w i l l n a t u r a l l y "blow" a t y o u . She i s n o t c u r s i n g you as a person, but r a t h e r t h e a u t h o r i t y you represent. Y o u must k e e p t h i s i n m i n d i n s u c h a situation. This i s not necessarily the case. A g i r l may d e l i b e r a t e l y c u r s e y o u k n o w i n g f u l l w e l l she s h o u l d n ' t . I t i s up t o y o u t o judge the s i t u a t i o n f o ry o u r s e l f . I f a girl "blows her top" at you In front of other g i r l s , i t i s u s u a l l y a wise t h i n g t o r e p o r t i t merely as a p r e v e n t a t i v e m e a s u r e - a g i r l must be t a u g h t n o t t o blow up a t e v e r y l i t t l e frustration. This i s a serious thing i n this setting a n d s h o u l d n e v e r be c o n s i d e r e d a game. A girl who h i d e s m u s t b e s e v e r e l y r e p r i m a n d e d and t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be f u l l y explained toh e r . Even pretation mat r o n ' s  of a  Matron  becomes  spite  instructions  situation  i s s t i l l  i n Charge  t h e deportment  charge in  these  t h e onus  placed  f o r inter-  primarily  on t h e  shoulde r s .  The for  given  a  of Custody.  and safekeeping  significant  of the fact  that  part  f o r each  Responsibility  o f the inmates o f each shift  matron's  i nh e r duties  one m a t r o n i s  76  assigned  t o be  i n charge  Although the  entire  tody  and  staff  shooter"  The i n the  cannot  ctions  cope  must  primarily becomes  is  to handle  possible.  ved  custody  be  to  the  Custody  with  supervise  oversees  work  various  recreational As  most  the  the  inmate,  an  the  the  or  of  facilities  experienced for  inmates  and  process.  " h e a l t h y " group  of  and  and  of  i s expected  far  as  "troubleinvol-  or  restri-  duties  her  are  shift.  the  She  arranges  grounds  for  to  the  groups  to  the  on  afternoon  the  i s very  cus-  inmates  inmate  of  so  activities,  leave  individual  she  She  dynamics  institution  the  a  her on  available  member  as  but  must  the  level  immediately  program  who  with  i f punishment  distribution  departments  classification  within  matron  or  entire  inmates  include planning  of  the  an  own  operate  c o - o r d i n a t o r o f movement  various  standing  does  responsibility,  concerned  their  i f the  upon  her  t o be  on  a situation  imposed  reason,  of  Matron  institution  any  programs  expected  difficulties  escorts f o r those  also  custody.  i s ultimately  also  for  program.  of  the  staff  her  duties  rehabilitation much i n v o l v e d i n to have  an  under-  Interpersonal relationships to  placement  assist and  i n determining  work  placement  the  for  each  quite  gen-  Inmate. The erally  accepted  sufficient do  not  Task  and  compete  of  Self-Maintenance.  that  penal  I t i s now  institutions  self-supporting  as  economically with  s h o u l d be, as  possible commercial  providing  selfthey  p r o d u c t s .or  the  services  produced  on t h e open market.  prison  i s expected  t o become  within  a community  with  will The  provide Women's  Building  as  a self-sustaining labour  tidy.  t o meet  I s no e x c e p t i o n  own m e a l s ,  this  expectation  sewing,  and keeping  force,  their  i nthis  regard  t h e inmates  quarters  There  does  n o t seem  t o be a n y e x p e c t a t i o n  Women's U n i t  make  a profit  i n any o f i t s work  there  _ls t h i s  assignment  expectation  there  vise  the inmates  that  t h e work  buted  fairly It  omically  from  shop. could  unsound, could  t h e Men's U n i t  t o produce  in  a l l government  to  recognize  o f male  some  that the  work  member t o s u p e r They  must s e e Is d i s t r i -  crew.  arrangement  i s econ-  i s a duplication of  could  be p r o v i d e d f o r serve  one laundry  the entire  a n d one  s p e c i a l i z e d commodity This,  p e c u l i a r problems  and female  own  clean and  a v a i l a b l e a t t h e Women's  institutions.  t h e many  their  projects but  t h e work  as adequately  as could  t h e work f o r c e  be f r e e  this  f o r there  just  that  are utilized  F o r each  o f t h e work  - one k i t c h e n  of Oakalla,  Thus  position  t h e members that  one s t a f f  t h e work.  and also  be a r g u e d  which  population  be a t l e a s t  done,  between  quite  i n t h e Men's U n i t .  a c t u a l l y doing  gets  could  functions  must  and i n  and serving  and mending  own l i v i n g  which  f o r i t s members.  preparing  laundering  each  community  departments  a l l the necessities of l i f e  attempt  clothing,  a self-contained  differentiated  an  their  Increasingly  prisons  however, faced  within  tailor Unit f o r use  would  f a i l  by t h e j u x t a -  a few hundred  yards the  o f one another  problems  Oakalla short  of the peculiar  Women's U n i t .  sentences,  trial.  These  becoming  bored  absorbed  into  of  giving  tenance taken  Prison  skill  training  who  Farm.  financial  some w o r k y e t they  i n such  duties  although  reimbursement  of the necessity The main-  supervision. i n their  such  both any  Many  cells  i s d e f i n e d as a  f o rtheir  are u s u a l l y  does n o t r e q u i r e  to serve  from  readily  to the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  staff  very recently  them  c o u l d n o t be  a situation.  to remain  are n o t sentenced Until  awaiting  t o keep  because  as t h e work  working  o fthe  extremely  of the institution  or specialized than  to reconcile  i n the gaol while  o f b y t h e new a r r i v a l s  hours,  those  are serving  a p r o d u c t i o n department  t o work r a t h e r  working  Inmates  and d i s s a t i s f i e d ,  some  f a i l  population composition  be g i v e n  and u n s e n t e n c e d ,  particular  additionally  or are merely  or housekeeping  sentenced  for  Many  women m u s t  them  care  choose  and w o u l d  inmates  during  "privilege"  their  term  at Oakalla  inmates  were  given no  labour unless  sentenced to  Oakalla. Prom i t  makes  from  good  sense  t h e Men's U n i t  laundry  or clothing  inmates, "planted tionally the  the point  t h e more 1 1  and  t o keep  o f custody  must  T h e more  be handled  opportunities  frequently  and i n t e r n a l  t h e Women's U n i t  as p o s s i b l e .  "kite-lines"  t h e more  circulation  o f view  by both  arise  to operate  o f contraband.  as autonomous  frequently male  t o be  efficiently,  By r e d u c i n g  will  food,  and f e m a l e  f o r"kites'*  opportunities  control  and a d d i -  arise f o r  the necessity  79  for  contact  lines  between  t h e two u n i t s  o f communication Although  autonomous which  developing  i t remains  dependent  Gaol.  T h e women m u s t  taken,  t o be p h o t o g r a p h e d  dental  and optometric  are  frequently  must  The  making one by  the  kites daily  the h i l l "  Electricians  t o t h e Women's U n i t ,  ulitize  laundry  these  of the Main t o have  x-rays  and plumbers  kitchen  from  o f by t h e men.  were  t h e two u n i t s  w h i c h was t a k e n  to find  formerly  Pillowcases  between  kit-  few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  k i t e s were  few days.  supplies  t h e main  now i t i s n o t u n u s u a l  i n one week,  and forwarded  ways i n  and f i n g e r p r i n t e d , and t o attend  b u t whereas  the b a g f u l l every  increasingly several  i s c o l l e c t e d and d i s p o s e d  o r two " k i t e s "  with  go "down  clinics.  undoubtedly  contact,  are s t i l l  t o t h e women's k i t c h e n  and garbage  inmates  i s becoming  there  of regular  reduced.  upon t h e f a c i l i t i e s  s t i l l  called  be d e l i v e r e d  chen,  Is greatly  t h e Women's U n i t  i n i t s operation  the possibility  found  stuffed  along  with  t o t h e Men's U n i t f o r  laundering. The munication matrons, a  crew  feel  difficulties o f messages  and f r e q u e n t l y  o f male  their  inmates  men g e t i n t o  the  male  inmates  the  women w i l l  and  make  of preventing i s recognized the officers  by both  trouble  frequently  take  t o t h e men.  a n d t h e como f f i c e r s and  are reluctant  t o t h e Women's U n i t while  do n o t I n i t i a t e  overtures  contact  because  around  they  t h e women. I f  communication  matters  to bring  with  into their  I t i sn o t unusual  t h e women  own h a n d s to hear  80 personnel refer  from  t o t h e Women's U n i t  ance  main  of  as being  work  program  "good  of authority  only  sections;  a t t h e Women's U n i t  those  departments  the 3elf-maintenance  with are  at a l l levels  f o ri t s nuis-  value". The  two  t h e Men's U n i t  primarily  concerned  t h e inmates.  placement  gradations), dual's  The inmate  the actual  general  conduct  which  vocational pay s c a l e  and those  o r academic  for  both  from  tento thirty  rate  o f pay depending  i n t h e department  into  a r e concerned  of the institution  with  i s t h e same;  i s divided  training  types  cents  which  o f work  ( i n t e n cent  upon t h e i n d i v i -  and performance  on  the j o b . Whether department utilize the  ories or  t h e work program  unwilling  weeks  continues from  the prison  can  a type become  Many  with  reasonably  inmates  i n which  agreed  pattern  return  I f the institution  o f work w h i c h  t h e inmate have they  a n y o n e j o b f o r more  I t i s generally  she w i l l  manner.  constructive  teach  employment  i n such an e r r a t i c  inevitably. to  t o stay  o r months.  will  of industry.  of unsatisfactory  that  proficient  that  after  to criminal i s able  she f i n d s  training  she i s expected t o  i n a "therapeutic"  the institution  and h a b i t s  of a vocational  department,  of the administration  within  trades  i s i n charge  o r a product ion  belief  ment  a matron  i s  employuseful long  were  than  histunable  a few  i ft h e inmate  she i s released activity  to assign  enjoyable  It  almost  t h e inmate  and a t which she  i ti s believed  t h a t she  81 will  not only  prove  ment  but w i l l  gain  ingful  work If  to  learn  length  the individual a skill  can  at least  ution's  work  executed  have  ion  as  with  does  within  attitudes  a  not particularly  The Manual  1. 2.  3.  i|.  5.  6. 7.  working  mean-  planned  some  work and  instit-  be " m e a n i n g f u l "  which  the matron's  t o t h e work program  she  skilfully  of satisfaction  t h e rewards  describes  that  i fthe  therefore,  sense  wish  institution  of the  and  work c a n responinstitut-  follows: During  place-  or i f the  i t i s believed  toward  Work must,  can derive  regard  from  the institution  purposes,  and can a p p r e c i a t e  i n itself.  sibilities  inmate  i s skilfully  matron.  t h e iiraate  and p r o f i t  or the resources of the  d e v e l o p new program  i n that  well.  f o r these  by e a c h  achievement,  t o the i n s t i t u t i o n knowledge  or trade  o f h e r sentence  insufficient  that  useful  experience as  are  so  useful  hours:  Keep c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n o f y o u r team, they are not t o leave t h e i r departments. You are responsible f o r the custody and conduct o f y o u r team w i t h o u t t o o obvious policing. Study y o u r team d u t i e s , g i v e each j o b a n a m e , make u p c l e a r a n d c o n c i s e r u l e s f o r e a c h j o b . Make a t i m e s c h e d u l e f o r each j o b . See t h a t y o u r department t e a c h e s good w o r k i n g h a b i t s a n d when p o s s i b l e g i v e t h e inmate a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Y o u t e a c h t e a m members t o w o r k I n s u c h a way t h a t t h e i r s e r v i c e s w o u l d b e a c c e p t able i n business and i n d u s t r y . No j o b s h o u l d b e j u s t a n e x c u s e t o k e e p someone b u s y . J o b s s h o u l d be r e a l i s t i c , c r e a t i v e a n d give each worker a sense o f achievement.  82 8.  Y o u r b e s t m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g i s by e x a m p l e . Morals, h a b i t s , p r i n c i p l e s , are not taught by l o g i c - t h e y a r e a b s o r b e d f r o m t h e e n v i r onment. The c a r e you t a k e i n d r e s s and grooming out o f r e s p e c t t o y o u r p r o f e s s i o n , t h e i n t e r e s t a n d i n i t i a t i v e y o u show o n t h e job, t h e c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s you d i s p l a y , and the p r i d e you t a k e i n a j o b w e l l done a r e a l l important l e s s o n s . Y o u c a n be s u r e t h a t y o u a r e u n d e r c l o s e s c r u t i n y by t h e i n m a t e s and y o u r e v e r y a c t i o n and a t t i t u d e a r e w e i g h e d a n d j u d g e d by t h e m . Do NOT o v e r - s t a f f to supply extra jobs. The p r o d u c t o f y o u r d e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d meet with standards of the " o u t s i d e " . You w i l l keep a l l equipment i n ^ y o u r department i n good r e p a i r . You w i l l a c q u a i n t y o u r s e l f w i t h the latest method of o p e r a t i n g y o u r type of department.  9. 10. 11. 12.  The  matron  i s required  work p e r f o r m a n c e  from  only  institution  the of  so  that  inmates the  fact  the with  a  that  they  ence  is also  pete  successfully release  standards  to  to  she  may  of able  the  belief  other must  compensate  under run  her  standards  to  do  smoothly,  a  that  good  but  f o r an  f o r the  higher fact  provide  Some  inmate  to  credcom-  employment  than  that  to  not  recognition  job.  applicants for  have  of  supervision,  self-worth through  are  with  demand h i g h  inmates  feeling  given  following  the  to  average  she  has  a  work gaol  record. Even w i t h i n the is  considerable  hard  work p e r  study  will  later  or  and  the  be  not.  vocational training  emphasis  se,  upon the  whether  utilized Emphasis  development  of  the  value  particular  f o r employment i s again  by  placed  self-respect.  of  program learning  vocation the upon  This  there and  under  individual good  work  emphasis  may  habits be  83 essential  to  ness  vocational  of  number  a of  women who  following  release  relation  to  Although  the  tional  counteract  the  fication  made f o r has  that  performance One  and  the  the  staff,  staff. and  do  bearing  upon t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  tain  some  sense  of  the  difference. one  member  member  of  a  do a  is arbitrarily  up  personal  to  some  by  member  group  high  at  in a  program.  of  institu-  adequacy be  the  some  to  level  of  and  between  inst-  work Farm. is  low  levels  the  inmates  expectations work  probably i s able  and  each.  to The  them  form  indifferent  i n many  frequsome  know a  pers-  Inmates  does  c o n s i s t e n t l y , even  of  has  to  s i t u a t i o n and  being  the  justi-  the  Prison  in their  ratio  remain  of  s e t t i n g which  exists  crew,  as  the  work h a b i t s  supervising  defined  to  Oakalla  her  to  in  visitors  matron  in this  meagre  program.  the  sort with  the  The  training  utilization  pride  staff-inmate  their  apparently  to  useful-  Women's U n i t .  exposed  the  which  live  is difficult small  with  slovenly  Identity  staff  It of  for  member o f  onal  still  phenomenon  factor, for  each  of  i n the  rather  exceptionally  rapport  favourable  understand  lack  been noted  this  take  be  been  women i n m a t e s  Inmates  The  opinion  must  i s an  i s the  the  unrelated  persistence  for  ently.  and  there  to  have  quite  notorious  achievement  found  who  frequently  explanation  within  for this  among t h e  disillusionment  actually utilized  been  be  there  historically of  has  may  received,  itution  have  numbers  training  It  program  reasons  training  staff  main-  find  the  make  a  toward  i f that respects  one  different  from the majority  frequently want  work h a r d  to please The  because  Task  institution  term  within  i t s confines  punishment i s enjoined  and  refrain  nance  f o r the  to  from  The  the  inmate  actual  Inmates  can  be  cells  until  chief  matron  the  security  the  the  attempt  entire  group  them  Inmates  matrons  are  be  and  to  to  c a n be  and  work  because  they  having  with  inmates,  loss  of  to the  As  spend  "problems"  the  assist  matron  evening or  security and  would  longest  are unwilling  problems.  to a  the  attitude  one  their  "days".  matron  inmate's  repug-  in  these  rooms f o r one  team.  Inmates  to the  available  removed  i n the  The  i n some way  the d i s c i p l i n i n g  change  addition  resulted  as  grips  measures  own  a  o t h e r w i s e showing  which has  coming  in  entails.  in relation or  philos-  sentenced to  punished  reprimands to a  as  general  are perceived  in their  group  cells  for their  an  their  of freedom  behavior  or  stubborn, proud  Since been  a  not  accepting  or they  think  to her  more  members.  i s the  to the matron  from  such time  the  trite  up  locked  hours,  loss  disciplinary  everything  return  be  in resolving  include  a  a  inmates  i t i s presumably  a few  like  t h o s e who  lecturing  and  The  group  It  should  particular  incarceration.  for  that  which  matron to  they  of Punishment.  of the  the  the  them.  ophy  to  of  warrants  expect, times i n  to appear  con-  there  also  misdemeanors. group at  s y s t e m was  insuring  i f one  group  member  established conformity  steps  out  by  has  punishing  of l i n e .  In  actual  85  practice, tion  of  however,  this  punished, ilege  there  policy.  In  i n others the  such  as  going  is little  to  some  i n s t a n c e s an  group a  consistency i n the  as  a whole  discovered "kiting"  to  others within  t h e Women's  as  insubordination,  influence being  where is),  of  an the  she  or his some  probability will  cases,  at  time  the  discharge. some d a y s " her  been  or  time  or  can  charged  of her  may  date  a  of  earned  remission.  able to  or  of  and  copper"  a  but  redeem more  the  (she The  is  i s the  at  the  sufficient outcome.  probable  may  have  Remission  the  inmate  receive  of  than h a l f  one  calcul-  date  of  "blows  months days  must  this  Court usually  is automatically  she  crime  Warden  rate  sentence  the  inmate  i n Warden's  days  long  discharge. back,  i n an  guilty,  i s given her  serving  such  being under  a warning  i s earned  behavior,  some  men  p l a c e d "on  appear  that  loss  time"  inmate  members  the  remission time.  feel  inmate  priv-  radio.  serious,  result  i f found  r e q u e s t t o the Warden t o  i s seldom  more  been  must  i s that,  "good  "loses  be  be  can  name h a s  usually  the  I f an  probable  lost  special and  but  to  or whatever  some  p e r week f o r good  ated  to  lose  representative  Remission day  thus  to  the  be  Unit.  is felt  When h e r  inmate  either  concealing contraband,  narcotics  "crimed".  sheet"  in  which  inflicted  will  some  when  the  Misbehavior  lose  frequently  of  are  wili  to  i s most  group  individual  concert or listening  Group punishment  applica  added  which submit  have a  consideration  of her  lost  86 The primarily and  Task  oriented  is in fact  "work" program are  s t i l l  under  ranging  from The  formed  known a s of the  their  small  a  living  substitute  d i d n o t , f o r one  herself The of  will  t o , and with the  best  be  group  and  family the  the  illustrated  and  per  become  opposed  shift  the  a l l matrons  custody  of  and  group  focal groups  point have  growth  of been  that  and  i s encouraged  role  of  the  quoting  of  to  group  once  are  disciplines.  the  matron  again  the  familiarize  these  concerning  these  development  therapy principles  principles  those  number n o r m a l l y  I t Is hoped  personal  to  matron.  These  unit.  expectations  by  as  Inmates,  reason or another, occur within  work  aims  actual  i s supposedly  of the  f o r the  the  shift.  the matron  of  During this  inmates  groups  foster  Group  multiplicity the  "socialization"  responsible  afternoon  program  rehabilitation  supervision,  which  referred  the  be  groups  unit.  the  afternoon  daytime.  small  family  The  seven t o twelve  f o r the  as  toward  expected to  inmates  activity  of Reform.  operation  can  f r o m The  perhaps Manual:  Your group i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . It i s up t o y o u t o see t h a t t h e y behave thems e l v e s w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s up t o y o u t o see t h a t t h e y have group a c t i v i t y p l a n n e d f o r t h e t i m e y o u a r e t o be w i t h them. I t i s u p t o y o u t o make t h i s a c t i v i t y as i n t e r e s t i n g and as v a r i e d as possible. I f a g i r l d o e s s o m e t h i n g y o u do not a p p r o v e o f , u s e y o u r own j u d g e m e n t but try t o h a n d l e i t o n y o u r own l e v e l . Talk to the g i r l , t a k e away some p r i v i l e g e , h a v e a group d i s c u s s i o n about i t , and so on. However, i f you f e e l i t i s too serious to handle on t h e group l e v e l , r e p o r t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o the matron i n charge.  The g r o u p s y s t e m a n d g r o u p a c t i v i t y h a s several advantages. T h e g i r l s c a n be k e p t under s u p e r v i s i o n almost c o n s t a n t l y , thus k e e p i n g t h e m f r o m some l e s s d e s i r a b l e a c t ivity; the g i r l s l e a r n t o l i v e with each other and get a l o n g with each o t h e r . Since t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n a p l a c e l i k e t h i s i s made u p o f p e o p l e who a r e a n t i - s o c i a l , t h a t i s , they cannot get a l o n g i n s o c i e t y , t h i s p o i n t is very important. I n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e groups a r e f o r c e d , through encouragement and p r e s s u r e , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n games a n d s p o r t s . T h i s i s good i n t h a t they l e a r n sportsmanship and f a i r p l a y as w e l l as c e r t a i n s k i l l s which may"add t o t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . With t h i s i n mind i t i s y o u r j o b as a group l e a d e r t o see t h a t t h e o n e who n e e d s e n c o u r a g e m e n t g e t s i t , t h a t p r a i s e i s g i v e n t o t h e o n e who n e e d s i t and'not n e c e s s a r i l y t o the best p l a y e r a l l t h e t i m e , a n d so o n . Because o f these t h i n g s and b e c a u s e s u p e r v i s i o n i s so i m p o r t a n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r y o u t o have t h e whole group under your s u p e r v i s i o n at a l l times. Theref o r e , i f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g i r l s want t o go o u t , t h e w h o l e g r o u p m u s t g o . Legitim a t e l y s i c k g i r l s a r e exempt f r o m t h i s , o f course. Y o u m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e g i r l who n e v e r w a n t s t o go w i t h t h e g r o u p - t h e one who w a n t s t o b e b y h e r s e l f a l l t h e t i m e i s t h e o n e who i s g o i n g t o b e n e f i t t h e m o s t f r o m having to learn t o get along with others. E v e n t u a l l y s h e may e v e n l i k e t o g o o u t a n d p l a y b a l l and so on, e s p e c i a l l y i f she becomes a fair ball player. T h e r e f o r e , she has gained m u c h m o r e t h a n t h e g i r l who w a n t e d t o b e o u t and f o u n d i t easy t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e y o u must work t h e h a r d e s t w i t h t h e m o s t u n c o - o p e r a t i v e members of y o u r group. , I t i s a good p o l i c y t o t a l k t o t h e g i r l s i n d i v i d u a l l y w h e n t h e y f i r s t come i n t o t h e group. I n t h i s way y o u c a n l e a r n w h a t k i n d o f g i r l y o u a r e g e t t i n g , what h e r n e e d s w i l l be a n d , t h e r e f o r e , how y o u w i l l t r e a t h e r . Y o u c a n a l s o i n f o r m h e r what i s e x p e c t e d o f her. Make i t f r i e n d l y a n d c a s u a l . Iti s a l s o a good i d e a t o have a q u i e t chat w i t h each g i r l o c c a s i o n a l l y while they are i n the group. A f t e r they have r e t i r e d i s u s u a l l y a good time f o r a chat, but i f t h e g i r l i s i n  83 w i t h o t h e r s , and t h i s t i m e i s n o t suitable, t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s as l o n g as you a r e n o t s a c r i f i c i n g t h e r e s t o f y o u r group f o r one p e r s o n . I f a g i r l wants t o t a l k about h e r t r o u b l e s i t i s your job to enable h e r t o do t h i s a f t e r t h e g r o u p h a s b r o k e n u p . I t u s u a l l y h e l p s a g i r l t o t e l l someone a b o u t her w o r r i e s and t r o u b l e s - i t r e l e a s e s a c e r t a i n amount o f a n x i e t y a n d t e n s i o n . These disc u s s i o n s and a n y t h i n g you l e a r n about the girl s h o u l d be p u t d o w n i n y o u r r e c o r d i n g s . A s a g r o u p m a t r o n y o u m u s t be a b l e t o work w i t h a group i n r e s p e c t t o a l l t h e t h i n g s l i s t e d above. Y o u must be a b l e t o k e e p y o u r group t o g e t h e r , p l a n t h i n g s f o r y o u r group to do,: k e e p d i s c i p l i n e , i n y o u r g r o u p , k e e p h a r m o n y i n y o u r group, and so o n . Y o u m u s t a l s o be a m a t r o n o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h a t y o u must e n f o r c e the r u l e s on a l l inmates, not j u s t y o u r own group. A and  number  means  clear  that  solely also  of  themes  achieving  just  as  concerned  no  cerned  of  matron  Is  no  is  by  examining  important  themselves the of  many  also  actually  tasks they  excellence  patterns  to  of  custody  luxury or  of  OF  o c c u p a t i o n cannot  aware  view  of  their  or  control,  being  solely  being so con-  TASKS  be  fully of  understood the  role.  It  ways  i n which  the  role;  the  priority  given to  to perform,  i n evaluating these  of  the  expected  from  abundantly  luxury  formal requirements  be  are  is  goals  rehabilitation.  CONFIGURATION  utilized  deviance  of  of therapy  the  but  prescribed  i s allowed the  allowed the  matron's  these  rehabilitation, matron  .II.  merely  through  with matters  with matters  The  run  their  the  standards  performance,  s t a n d a r d s and  the  matrons  the  rewards  and  strains To  their  of  the  determine  role;  how  the  these  were  ten  were  i n t e r v i e w s has and  the  "make  them,  Women's U n i t  Custody who  how  they  d e m a n d s made u p o n of  work. matrons sense"  tape  Control.  interviewed f o r this responsibility,  welfare  and  with  out  of  Interviews  the  with  recorded.  been used  primary  themselves  Without study the  content  i n the  custody  insurance of  safe-keeping ranking a  members of  following:  exception those felt  close  of  conflicting  staff  The  extensively  conceive  the  to  matrons be  their  inmates'  second:  -:V F i r s t and f o r e m o s t a matron's duty i s t o s e e t h a t t h e i n m a t e s who a r e p u t . i n t o g a o l s t a y t h e r e u n t i l t h e i r r e l e a s e t i m e , so c u s t ody i s f i r s t . ... w i t h o u t c u s t o d y y o u h a v e n o t h i n g e l s e , s o we m u s t a l w a y s p u t c u s t o d y first ... a n d t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e g i r l s i s n e x t . You are r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t person's l i f e . She h a s b e e n d e p r i v e d o f h e r l i b e r t y , and y o u r e a l l y become r e s p o n sible f o r her safety. Maintaining apparently any  further  felt  good  custody  within  to  be  prerequisite  duties  or  the  to  achievement  the the of  institution performance  any  further  is of  goals.  ^ T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e s . o f an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i s t a k e n f r o m K a s p a r D. N a e g e l e a n d E l a i n e C u l l e y S t o l a r , "The L i b r a r i a n o f t h e Northwest" i n M o r t o n K r o l l , ed.,. L i b r a r i e s a n d L i b r a r i a n s of the P a c i f i c Northwest, P a c i f i c . Northwest L i b r a r y Associ a t i o n L i b r a r y Development P r o j e c t Reports, v o l . I4., S e a t t l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , I 9 6 0 , pp.51-137. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s a n a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n o f an e a r l i e r u n p u b l i s h e d report.  90  Whether conceptions due  to  of  the  consensus functions  socialization  combination one  this  of  the  matron had  conception  of  two)  what her  within  i s due of  the  i s not  she  a  to  prevailing  prison,  or  institution, too  believed  clear.  to  be  an  public  whether (or  But  a  at  i t is  subtle least  accurate  pre-  responsibilities:  My i d e a s h a v e n ' t c h a n g e d b e c a u s e my impress i o n s o f a g a o l b e f o r e coming t o work t h e r e was of a place f o r custody. When s o m e b o d y i s s e n t to g a o l the main t h i n g i s t o keep them i n g a o l . That i s the main purpose of a j a i l , t o keep p e o p l e away f r o m s o c i e t y . I s t i l l think that custody Is our main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . But.the to  m a n y who  and  with  Image  are  being  of  a  "custodian"  concerned  with  being  associated  with  a  i s somewhat considered  embarrassing  "progressive"  "progressive"  institution.  Y o u m u s t be o n y o u r t o e s , a n d y o u can't be c a r e l e s s , b u t t h e r e i s n o p l a c e i n a m o d e r n i n s t i t u t i o n f o r p e o p l e who are s t r i c t l y c u s t o d i a l . There matron  should Other  internal tion in was  i s , nevertheless,  of  be  matron  to  She  demanded  by  herself  of  vary  becomes  inmate.  and  the  a  from  i f she  included  The  rules one  a mediator  must the  the  of  and  between  them  to  of  that  each  to  the  be  set  upon  of  another,  the  permissible  the so  institution that  restrictions additional  appropriate  of  popula-  administration  enforce and  maintenance  latitude  regulations  situation  administration  the  limits  degree  i n t e r p r e t and  believes  expectation  custodian.  imposition  institution.  enforcement felt  least  responsibilities  order the  at  every  to  and  the the  explicitly  limits the  situation:  91 Impose c o n t r o l s , s e t l i m i t s and so on. T h e l i m i t s a r e s e t f o r u s ( t h e m a t r o n s ) t o some e x t e n t , b u t o u r own interpretation i s possible i n some a r e a s . S t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o n t r o l s i s n e c e s s a r y i n some a r e a s . Some m a t r o n s be  very  rigidly  of  c o n v e r s a t i o n and  requirements  of  felt  that  controlled  even  personal  polite  ents  were  onment  by  imposed  upon the  difficult  enough  having  be  ent  to  the  be  further  expectations  extent should  that meet  should topics  with  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are good manners. Improve cut out s t r e e t t a l k and them w i t h worthwhile and no s t r e e t talk.  with  number  inmates.. to  the  contrast to  concerned  minimizing  to  behavior  society:  r a t h e r sharp greatly  Inmate's  demeanor  To h e r group h e r t e a c h i n g e t i q u e t t e and t h e i r way of t a l k i n g , filthy talk. Provide topics. Good manners In  the  The  concerning  view,  reducing of  rules  feeling  deprived  badgered  this  of  by  one's  and  being  one's  staff  the  other  respond-  pains  of  impris-  restrictions that  freedom  anxieties  i t is without and  string-  behavior:  A g i r l ' s t i m e i n g a o l s h o u l d be made a s p l e a s ant as p o s s i b l e f o r h e r . It's a hard l i f e and we s h o u l d n ' t make I t t o o o b v i o u s ! - t h a t we are w o r r i e d a b o u t h e r r u n n i n g away o r d o i n g s o m e t h i n g wrong. Punishment. cussed  as  probably concept over  the  a  responsibility  because has  of  the  i n modern  inmates  punishment,  Punishment  and  was even  by  very  day  of any  the of  inmates the  negative  discipline  on were  matrons  not  Exercising  s e v e r a l counts, avoided  as  dis-  interviewed  connotations  criminology.  legitimized  was  which  this  control but  considera-  92 tions  i n the  performance  There does not easy  been  i n which  directly  touch  the  and  to  behavior.  outside  the  not  had  direct  any  style  getful Under  of  these  offender ably  be  within Nor  the  resulting  i n arrest  and  i s i n the  legal  matrons  way be  of  institution  the  example,  unfortunate  i n the  staff  drug and  a d d i c t who  addict procures  than  she  be  will  not  only  be  removed  probably  also  be  required to  she  likely  lose  usage  to  some o f  by  the  will  difffor-  of  be  occurs  by  the.,staff.  much  members  less  of  community. by  somewhat  society.  i n the  the  understand-  i n the  but  security  too  even  which  to  the  severe  appear her  not  i s considered  i s i n free  to  matron's  incarceration.  apt  pitiable,  subjected  the  lightly  occurs  n a r c o t i c s while  however,  will  will  so  has  probably  perhaps  deviance  viewed  p r o f e s s i o n when d e v i a n c e  to  standable  by  has  i s then  Women's U n i t  i s not  inmate  f o r punishment  However,  w i t h i n the  handled  It  char-  institution  either  and  concern  the  and  forgiving  institution  i s deviance  sphere,  inmate  inmate's  the  be  quite negligible.  By  same  she  outside  the  relatively  the  f o r which  whatever upon  circumstances,  while  punitively the  act  of  values.  to  of  making.it  of  matron  the  social  affect system  both  role.  deviance  aspect  deviance  occurred  matron's  or her  f o r the  The  the  matron,  disregard this  and  icult  matron's  sense  c o n v i c t e d has  life  the  is a  f o r her  acter  of  If  most under-  this  institution  sanctions. cells,  i n Warden's  remission time.  but  She will  Court, The  where matrons  excuse be  an  punishment  e f f e c t i v e means  similar  deviant,  re-establishes these on  within  same  the  the  of  deterring  activities the  of  and  authority  justifications  part  society  are  the  preted  matron  as  an  antagonized  by  the  which  is  within  which  usage  is  the  interpreted  deceitfulness in  a  rather  and,  drug  recognized has  from  a  In  more  an  user.  within  and  staff  the  therapeutic  point  internal order  of  and  and  can  be  social  prison,  the  which  of  the  anomalous  evolve  milieu narcotic  date  would  view,  yet  control  at  represents  have  little  means  of  be  to  been progress  coping  with  acceptable  effective a  and  attitudes  prison  to a  inter-  ungratefulness  of  be  weakness  staff  but  reaction  s t a f f ) to  the  the  Yet  failure  outside  institution  presumably  i t  These  to  in  significantly,  members,  attempting  engaging  personal  i n d i c a t i o n of  manner the  the  addiction  Within  most  to  attitude  (by  harshness  drug  many  within  maintaining high  by  b e e n made  deviance  the  usage  as  from  i t  administration.  i n d i c a t i o n of  lives.  believe  punishment  punitive  community,  perhaps  dramatic  "rehabilitate" toward  addict  the  a  they  others  considered  Within  the  for  because  of  for  unrealistic. by  prison  in  sufficiently  level.  III.  The frequently etically  task  of  known a t  most  REHABILITATION  reform, the  important.  or  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as  Women's U n i t , But  one  i s at  might  well  i t is  least be  more  theor-  dubious  9A about both of,  the various  place  the inmates.  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n  because  of their  example,  legal  custody  as  rehabilitative  the patient  it  i s somehow  be  a fugitive.  damaging  pre-occupation doubts  which  mixing  Most with  many  at least  which  simply  take  i n part,  as a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e  the administration  i n order  the intention  of the processes  are justified,  tool.  and r a t i o n a l i z e d  with  of the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  by b o t h  hold  Many  is justifiable  responsibility  a good  honestly  p o t e n t i a l value  supported  of  are u t i l i z e d  i n t h e name o f , a n d q u i t e reforming  For  means w h i c h  because  tool.  i t i sthe  but custody  i s also  a n d by i n d i v i d u a l m a t r o n s  The f e e l i n g  i s that  y o u must  t o treat him, and a d d i t i o n a l l y , t h a t  from  a therapeutic  matrons  point  a p p e a r t o be r e s i g n e d  custodial procedures,  authorites  o f view t o  feel  i n spite  concerning  c u s t o d i a l and t h e r a p e u t i c  to  the  functions  their  of the  usefulness  i n one  social  milieu. W i t h i n : . t h e Women's U n i t , least  verbally  tion,  a l l activities  relationship Because the or  program  no  matron  she;-  one o f t h e p r i m a r y  goal  t o have  meaning  i s quite  frankly  grasping  justified  i s free  i s v pressured  regardless  objectives  apparently  setting, there t o be  rehabilitation  must  to this  everyone  prison  where  o f whether  some  a s some k i n d  giving  the task  task  perceived  f o r answers i n f o r any  activity  o f "answer". of  l i p service  the specific  organiza-  and s i g n i f i c a n c e .  i s an opportunity  to disregard into  bear  of the  i sat  Because  rehabilitation, to this  a t hand  goal  Is the main-  95 tenance  of custody  or internal  control,  o r the., m e t i n g  out o f  punishment. Group  and Team M a t r o n s .  actually  played  by  responses  their  all  shifts  cerning  felt as  t o the question,  equally  well?".  between  (nights)  was  doors  incoming There  "Can a good  from  a t much  the matrons  r o l e s was  clarified  matron  were  one s h i f t  and a f t e r n o o n  more t h a n  and l o c k s ,  their  o f how  observations  not discussed  made to  The  inmates  third  f o r i t was  custodial activities  counting  con-  another,  shifts.  length,  work  and  such  censoring  mail. was  general  consensus  the  day s h i f t  i s (and should  The  afternoon  shift  matron  Many  t h e morning  to involve nothing  checking  the  to play  d i f f e r e n c e s i n "atmosphere"  especially shift  and p r e f e r r e d  The q u e s t i o n  among t h e m a t r o n s  be) r e l a t i v e l y  i s more f l e x i b l e  strict  and r e l a x e d .  that  and  rigid.  As one  has described i t : Y o u n e e d some i m a g i n a t i o n t o w o r k o n afternoons. On d a y s y o u j u s t n e e d t o b e a b l e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h o n o r d e r s , m a y b e be a b l e t o do o n e t h i n g w e l l a n d t e a c h i t , b u t o n a f t e r n o o n s y o u must know a b i t a b o u t c o o k i n g , cleaning, r e c r e a t i o n and so on. T h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a more r e l a x e d atmosphere on evenings ( a f t e r n o o n s ) . I t ' s n o t so m u c h a m a t t e r o f l a x c u s t o d y , . y o u h a v e t h e same c u s t o d y b e c a u s e y o u h a v e t h e same n u m b e r o f g i r l s t o look a f t e r , but there i s just a d i f f erence i n atmosphere.  This erent  d i f f e r e n c e i n "atmosphere" type  o f matron,  was  a different  seen  "style"  F o r d a y s y o u h a v e t o be a b e c a u s e w o r k means d i s c i p l i n e .  t o demand a  diff-  of playing the  real disciplinarian I f teaching,  role.  96 e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e k i d s , y o u m u s t be s t r o n g , o r they j u s t don't l e a r n . Discipline is good f o r t h e s e k i d s when t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g . .... F o r a f t e r n o o n s y o u h a v e t o b e p a t i e n t , n o t s c r e a m w h e n t h e y d o n ' t know how t o d u s t a c o r n e r , b u t go a n d s h o w t h e m w h a t t o d o . ... T h i n g s a r e more e a s y g o i n g o n a f t e r n o o n s , t h e r e f o r e y o u must be m o r e p a t i e n t . When y o u are a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n you can j u s t say, "You do i t " , ... ( b u t ) t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g t o r e l a x i n the afternoons. Some ( m a t r o n s ) t e n d t o b e b e t t e r g r o u p than team p e o p l e ; F o r t e a m s y o u n e e d some degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the work a r e a and o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the person; know w h a t t h e y w a n t t o d o a n d how t o get i t done, f o r example d i s t r i b u t i n g v a r i o u s d u t i e s among t h e girls, s h o w i n g a n d t e a c h i n g t h e m . ... G r o u p m a t r o n s m u s t be a b l e t o t a l k , t o b r i n g t o l i g h t as many o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s t h e y c a n . I f you can d e a l w i t h t h e m a d e q u a t e l y , f i n e , o r make . r e f e r r a l s or something. T h i s y o u must do on days, t o o , but w i t h i n a t e a c h i n g program you d o n ' t h a v e as much t i m e t o spend I n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h each person t a l k i n g out t h e i r problems as y o u w o u l d on a f t e r n o o n s where i t ' s more i n f o r m a l , you have more'time to s i t around and c h a t - have t e a , get i n v o l v e d i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h m i g h t s u g g e s t t o t h e m by y o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n s o t h e y may w a n t t o r e l a t e m o r e . Value  judgements  necessarily a  as  implicit  to  which  approach  was  better  i n most  answers,  but  there  m a t t e r - o f - f a c t statement  were  necessary  to  f u l f i l  that  the  different  different  were was  "types"  needs  of  of  the  not  rather matrons two  I t ' s n i c e t o work b e s i d e matrons ... who take care of manners, c l e a n l i n e s s , e t c . , but you couldn't have s i x t y matrons l i k e that. Take y o u r young u n i v e r s i t y g i r l s f o r example, (matrons), o b v i o u s l y the g i r l s ' t a b l e manners a r e a l l o w e d t o go, b u t t h e u n i v e r s i t y girls c r e a t e a happy, p l e a s a n t atmosphere, and t h a t ' s f i n e , but they don't t h i n k to look under the s i n k and c h e c k t o see i f the garbage has been l o o k e d a f t e r and so on. They are a f r a i d t o get f i r m with the g i r l s . You. h a v e t o h a v e b o t h k i n d s of matron, you c o u l d never have j u s t the strict type.  shifts.  97  The as  two  types  of  approach  were  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  one  matron  follows: The e x p e r t s f e e l t h a t a p e r s o n ' s relati o n s h i p s w i t h the g i r l s i s more i m p o r t a n t than t h e j o b o r w h a t e v e r t h e y h a p p e n t o be d o i n g .. ( b u t ) ... i t w o u l d b e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t e x p e r t h a i r d r e s s i n g done i f y o u must p u s s y f o o t around because of people's f e e l i n g s . I f you have one, y o u a r e g o i n g t o have t o s a c r i f i c e the o t h e r ... I n s t r u c t r i c e s s h o u l d know w h e t h e r p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h them have a n y t h i n g v e r y u p s e t t i n g happen, such as a death o r something, o r s h o u l d b e a w a r e o f o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h may be t r o u b l i n g them so t h e y don't u n n e c e s s a r i l y p i l e i t on. Be t a c t f u l e n o u g h t o t a k e i t e a s y on o n e o r two p e o p l e i n y o u r t e a m i n t h e m o r n i n g , t h e n i f t i m e w a r r a n t s i t , be more d e m a n d i n g o f them a n o t h e r time. The  despotism  general i s the  requirements with the  a more  on  more  things  which  a  staff  of  but  then  permissive This  integrative  to  the  this  to  the  bear  realizing  the  benevolent  the  being  morning  reserved  staff  necessary  the  views  shift many  because  them.  shift,  for  must  the  he  when "get  strains  of  for  prison  institution,  produces  upon  task  morning  stated similar  inmates  ruffled  that  of  The  functions of  the  that  handle  approach  in turn  i n the  to  be  during the  Warden  occasion  afternoon  provide  inmates,  the  to  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  meeting.  tension  smooth  way  institution  one  :are, b r o u g h t  Warden, ing  than  appears  effective  shift.  done",  feelings  the  the  i s f o s t e r e d by  addressing  must  most  kindly,  afternoon  world has  of  consensus  and  pressures  The  afternoon  shift  f e a t h e r s , and  generally  perform  this must  society. be  kind  reassurance  expressions  and of  According  to  accepting, love  of h o s t i l i t y  the will-  for  the  and  resentment  98  will  probably  overcoming This  be  the  duality  made b y  the  frustrations  of  approach  prevailing  i n free  atmosphere  of  own  produced  supposedly  society  their  inmates  where  homes  achievement-oriented  business  they  the  return again  homes  at  the  The felt the  end  to of  actual  t o be  the  a necessary  way  on  the  program.  to  morning  d u p l i c a t e s the  people  must  leave  participate  world.  sanctity  Prom  and  situation the  i n the  this  relaxed  demanding,  harsh  tranquility  of  milieu  of  their  day.  work placement  primarily  as  the  result  which of her  a matron w i l l own  personal  have  was  choice  i n  matter: Whether they are i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i v i d e d u p t h i s way o r n o t t h e y d o d i v i d e t h i s way. The s t r i c t e r people p r e f e r mornings because i t i s cut and d r i e d , a r u l e i s a r u l e , i n t e r p r e t e d as i t i s written. Y o u c a n ' t do t h i s on a f t e r n o o n s . I break a l o t of r u l e s myself because i t just w o u l d n ' t work t o f o l l o w the r u l e s a l l the time. Y o u w o u l d n ' t h a v e much p r o g r a m . Somebody has to s t i c k her neck out. Matrons  morning settle  shift  on  by  family  life  member  choice, or  working.  a matron  tends  afternoons  nights  from  feel  afternoon  shift  i f a staff  either  while  or  rather permanently Night  ment  apparently  any  on t o be  are  night  extensive  and  the  because  they  comfortable tend,  on  over  either  time,  to  one. ultimate place  to  mornings,  either  Working  shift,  i s found  or  because  more  create gross but  taking  shift  do  work  i n better with  some c o u r s e  of  quite definitely  contact with  banish-  difficulties  some m a t r o n s  i t fits  of  the  inmates  their  study isolates so  that  anyone  working  in  field  the  Matrons ainly the  who  do  working be  of  a  of  skill  enjoy  almost  or  t o h e .a t e a m general and  seems of  and  the  working  on  the  morning  primary  responsibility of  conform  to authority  control  the  the  inmate  set  down  a  rules  will  by  motivations  she  Actually  of  so  much  the  a  a  matrons  They and  seems  capacity  exist  at  amount  to  t o work.  Those  that  the  i t i s the the  she  live  is released.  is i n  This  the  limits  i s essentially  approach  i s insuring  i n d i v i d u a l comes t o be  can  prison,  changing a t t i t u d e s , values as  to  of  prison  within  habit-forming  inmates  confines  I f the  while to  matron  teach  within  goal  the  a  more  to  and  that  the  socially  acceptable:  there  among  limited  to which  to feel  able  the  cert-  c o r r e l a t i o n between  prefers  inmate be  do  i n the  least  regulations.  (non-cognitive)  i s not  behavior  when  nights  at  prison  live  of the  presumably  society  human b e h a v i o r .  and  time  either  as  correction  she  tend  the  of  prevailing opinion  corrections  shift  to  of  t o be  which  and  behavior  physiological  outward  shift  interest  matron.  philosophies there  prestige  work on  o r group  subscribes  stringent  The  an  unsatisfactory.  period  inmates  i t requires  p a r t i c u l a r philosophy  rather  among t h e  could  that  of  of  i t most  extended  shift.  anyone  hut  find  same d e g r e e  or afternoon  Women's U n i t , the  the  would  f o r any  members  custodian,  Two  primarily.because  corrections  staff  that  gaol  work n i g h t s  day  to  of  not  other  i n the  s h o u l d have e t i q u e t t e books around we s h o u l d h a v e t h e g i r l s r e a d i n g and  100 p r a c t i s i n g i t a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s .... t h e y should enact d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , then t h e y w o u l d k n o w how t o a c t when t h e y g e t o u t .... I f a g i r l k n o w s how to conduct h e r s e l f i n s o c i e t y and i s g i v e n a t r a d e a t O a k a l l a a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y a f t e r - c a r e .. i t s h o u l d e n a b l e h e r t o g e t a j o b , a n d t o make the necessary s o c i a l contacts. This  view  pre-occupation ment is  of  to  of  rehabilitation  with  matters  multitudinous  formulate  rules  habits  presumably  of  of  internal  and  will  persist  "Good  h a b i t s " should  be  work,  r e c r e a t i o n and  social  the  control  -  existing the  r e g u l a t i o n s , f o r the  behavior  which  legitimizes  while  i n the  i n a l l spheres  objective  institution  f o l l o w i n g release from  fostered  enforce-  of  the  prison.  endeavor:  participation:  We s h o u l d g i v e them l o n g e r work h o u r s a n d n o t s o many b r e a k s n o r s o m u c h f o o d d u r i n g working hours. T h e y s h o u l d l e a r n t o do a f u l l d a y * s w o r k , o t h e r w i s e t h e y w i l l be exhausted when t h e y f i r s t s t a r t t o w o r k a n d t h e y a r e n ' t g o i n g t o be a b l e t o s t i c k i t o u t . We should f i n d w o r k f o r t h e m o n t h e o u t s i d e . . . Some o f them have deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , but most j u s t d o n ' t h a v e any r o o t s . Another seeing  the  matron  primary  post-release  habit  carried  value  of  this  view  release  on  one  step  parole  farther,  i n terms  of  formation:  I f t h e y were g i v e n a j o b f o r s i x months t h e y would t h i n k t w i c e b e f o r e g i v i n g i t up, they would sort of set a p a t t e r n , they wouldn't mind i t so much. I f i t i s years since they have worked the very thought of i t would scare t h e m . . . . R e a l l y we s h o u l d l e a d t h e m by t h e h a n d ... T h e y s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d , p l a c e d i n a j o b , and a p l a c e f o u n d f o r them t o l i v e . Having to  the  learned  expectations  of  good the  work h a b i t s , e t i q u e t t e and institution,  the  conformity  probability  101  apparently within the  "good  l i f e "  revolves change  an  style  members  that  ved  "sick"  set of values  a matter more  by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  successful  i n narcotic  to this  shift  o r are perhaps  and standards.  a  fundamental inmates  committed t o Rehabilitation of the worthi-  accurately, of the enjoyability There  i s a r e c o g n i t i o n among  o f the inmates,  tend  rehabilitation  philosophy  o f c o n v i n c i n g the inmates  of l i f e . the l i f e  to l i v e  on the a f t e r n o o n  that  According  adjustment  continue  the n e c e s s i t y o f b r i n g i n g about  or perhaps  another  could  t o them  working  the view  individually  becomes  inmates  introduced  i n t h e Inmate.  anti-social  ness,  most  t o support  around  either  then  first  a period of supervised  contrast, those  t h e main  are  given  t h e community,  By in  i s that  especially  of the staff  those  invol-  offencesi s :  A r e a l l i v e game o f c o p s a n d r o b b e r s ' , a n e x c i t i n g l i f e , a n d how t a m e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e must be i n c o m p a r i s o n I They f e e l square people a r e r e a l l y stuffy. They l o v e t o have t h e i r f u n ; childish pleasures, not a d u l t p l e a s u r e s . They don't t h i n k i t ' s f u n t o l i s t e n t o some k i n d s o f m u s i c o r t o h a v e a good c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h e y d o n ' t want t h e i r m i n d s t o work, t h e y j u s t want t o d r i f t a l o n g , l i k e t e e n a g e r s w i t h no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . We s h o u l d show t h e m t h a t b e i n g good c a n be l o t s o f f u n , t h e n t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t o go a r o u n d f e e l i n g guilty all t h e t i m e . . . No w o n d e r some o f t h e m d r i n k and u s e d r u g s w i t h a c o n s c i e n c e l i k e t h a t I It example  then  becomes  o f a good  whom t h e i n m a t e s The  m a t r o n must  the task  and f u l l could  life,  identify  not only  sell  of the matron  to provide  t o be an i n d i v i d u a l a n d t o a s p i r e t o be  herself,  but s e l l  an  with like.  her style  of  102 life  as  well.  or  growth,  as  well:  She  but  must  provide  provide the  not  only  motivation  the  for  means  changing  for  change  and  growing  W i t h t h e m e t h o d s h e r e i t g o e s so much more b e y o n d t h e c u s t o d y and s a f e k e e p i n g o f the i n m a t e s , w h i c h i s as i t s h o u l d be. You a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t p e r s o n ' s way of t h i n k i n g and h e r outlook. Y o u m u s t t r y t o make t h e m t h i n k , a n d t o c h a n g e t h e i r way o f t h i n k i n g , w h i c h i s p r e t t y h a r d t o do. T h i s i s what got them i n t o t r o u b l e i n the f i r s t p l a c e . I f you change t h e i r way of t h i n k i n g then it.changes their p e r s o n a l i t i e s and ways o f behaving. The  matrons  rehabilitation for  are  p r o v i d i n g the  phere  i n which  basic  changes  their  philosophy  the  suspect from  of  these  shift  for  months  two  tends  will  Is  to  in  and  are  unco-operative  or  not  some  cases  down,  and  supportive  to  to  grow and  the  To  make  of  on  the  prison.  One  would  would the  inter-shift  members  years. each  of  the  between  result  work.  rivalry  day  the  Communication claims- t h a t  toward  the  the  of  usual  o u t r i g h t antagonism.  rotated  unsympathetic  extent  objective  with  orientations to  atmos-  these  this  general  within a  of  necessity  misunderstandings  those  been  i n the  i n harmony  amount  borders  change" view  permissive,  with  not  and  "basic  structure.  control  between  break  a  attitude  certain  have  a  able  incongruous  true  or  with be  but  sometimes  who  to  i n harmony  shift,  JLs a  particularly noon  they  rather  which  belief  frustrations  There enced  committed inmates  custody  that  the  in their  afternoon  concepts  subscribing to  This  and  two  evid-  after-  shifts  between other  specific  is  the  Is  goals  of  103 their  shift: One h a l f o f t h e s t a f f d o e s n ' t know w h a t t h e o t h e r h a l f i s t r y i n g t o do. -The afternoon s t a f f has a b e t t e r i d e a o f what t h e m o r n i n g s t a f f i s doing because i t i s b e t t e r w i t h i n t h e i r scope. I t ' s e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d what y o u are t r y i n g t o do when y o u a r e t e a c h i n g h a i r d r e s s i n g , etc. B u t who c o u l d e v e r f i g u r e o u t what g r o u p w o r k was t h e i r own? Most p e o p l e f e e l t h a t worki n g on a f t e r n o o n s i s j u s t a m a t t e r o f p l a y i n g b r i d g e .... t h i s i g n o r a n c e i s (now) perhaps my fault. I s h o u l d s a y I am g o i n g t o h a v e a l e c t u r e and t e l l . e v e r y b o d y what g r o u p w o r k i s . Somebody s h o u l d be t e l l i n g t h e m . One  to  way  encourage  arly.  of  overcoming  staff  Another  to  provincialism  r o t a t e between  recommendation  was  of  a l l three  expressed  as  view  would  shifts  be  regul-  follows:  . Have more o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s where a l l . s t a f f of an a r e a , group, s t a f f or team s t a f f come t o g e t h e r ... ( f o r ) ... i n t e g r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two s h i f t s . S o m e t i m e s t h i s r e a l l y seems t o be l a c k i n g . S h o u l d s t r e s s more o f a c o n s t a n t g o a l , not " w e l l t h i s s h o u l d h a v e been done on the morning s h i f t " , e t c . An o p e n a t t i t u d e , this i s w h a t we a r e a i m i n g f o r ; f o r the g i r l s , f o r t h e a c t i v i t y , f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . . . we s h o u l d n ' t l e t m i n o r t h i n g s d e t r a c t and bother. T h i s can.only conferences, short s t a f f k n o w i n g what At  present  communication, pertinent  there  although  information to  report  book  within  the  institution  few  the  units  keep  and  teams.  dual  of  groups  i s read  Corruption  by  be d o n e through,constant organized meetings, general i s going on.  is little  provision  staff  supposed  are  their  relieving  a l l and and a  of  contains any  record of  of A u t h o r i t y .  major the  a  for this to  pass A  record  of  incidents,  Although  the  of  along  matron.  activities  type  of  any  daily movements but  only  the  matrons  a  indivi  justify  104 many  of their  terms  a c t i v i t i e s t o themselves  of rehabilitation,  they  apparently  sanne  j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e inmates.  that  the prison  retaining that  debt  obliged comes  before  the courts, not as t h e result t o become At  with ply  with  a conforming  t h e Women's U n i t  t h e matron  There  with  pattern  seems t o be t h e a b o v e .  or  i t more  nature Unit  matrons, and  convenient  i n terms  Release imposed  o r a professed  t o make a  ( t h einmates)  system  to legitimize  of custody  bargain will  com-  the inmates f o r matrons  between seek  staff  this  kind  and m o t i v a t i o n s .  a very  tothe  are either  forced  function to  rather than o f  of the very  and inmates  close  a t t h e Women's  of a bargain with the  are i n continuous provide  rationalization.  but the usual  their  and c o n t r o l because  of  the staff  The matrons  I t i s perhaps  c o u l d presumably  attitudes  behavior  o f s e c u r i n g compliance,  o f the contact  that  are not  are released.  seem  o f power f r o m  a s a means  rehabilitation.  but they  society.  they  t h e inmates'  inmates  inmates  o f good  that  They pay  of t h e sentence  t h e inmates  may b e some t r a n s f e r  find  believe  o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e matrons  n o t t r yt o tamper  the  they  member o f  to the effect  the wishes  t o pay".  i n the institution, ways  inmates  are resigned to the fact  automatically at the expiration  desire  do  their  this  c o n v i c t e d o f f e n d e r s by  t o p l a y , y o u have  by r e m a i n i n g  t o change  They  do n o t p r e s e n t  Traditionally  to punish  i n custody.  " i f you are going  their  by  them  i s intended  and t o one a n o t h e r i n  contact  real  threat  with  the  to their  inmates, basic  105 Evidence  of  adoption  of  matrons'  expressed  the  the  inmates.  sentence ularly  imposed  sportsmanlike usage, has  difficult matrons court  really  imprisonment conviction  police an  have  the  with  staff  may  be  inmate's find  frequently  arrest her  wish  to  the  aware  than  drug  that  but  that  partic-  less  regard to  an  inmate  i f the  cir-  i t would  possessing  individual  in  i f a  be  something  such  seen  inmates  illegally,  of  be  to  sentencing of  seems  fully  guilty  the  and  With  are  matrons  can  the  been  arrest.  of using narcotics  feel  validity of  imposed  of  "luck"  be  narcotics in  just  as  would  be  remaining  they  as  matrons  and  pattern  of  her  the  inmates  discuss  i t s practicability can  be  may  persuaded  find  inmates'  i n order to secure  refuted.  or  of  well  off  return-  i n the  prison.  effecting  When the as  that  reforma-  sentences  are  f a i r n e s s ,of  the  a  period  coerced  of  into  time  changing  life.  The'-matrons by  a means  as  imply  be  the  inmate  matrons  would  imprisonment  than  the  Inmates  i s thereby  the  to  luck  inmates  in  seduced  inmates  the  rather  which  the  community  sentence  and  the  wishing the  The  tion  to  the  case.  to the  her  of  o f f e n c e committed  i f the  actually  will  ing  tion  or  seduction of  sympathize  i n securing  of to  By they  matrons f o r an  guilty  cumstances  view  reactions  f o r example,  been  apparent  inmates'  The  severe,  the  form  view  i t necessary and  a workable  compliance  i n some  to  appear  justification relationship important  of  to  be  Incarcera-  with  matters.  the  inmates  But  the  106 failure roles  of the staff  i n terms  places  some  t o openly  of an i n t e n t i o n  grave  limitations  justify  and l e g i t i m i z e  t o change on t h e i r  the inmates  ability  their certainly  to achieve  this  goal.  . IV.  In peculiar kind  R E L A T I O N S TO  the performance type  of her role  of alliance  of service.  participating  OTHERS  the matron  w i t h t h e "consumer"  But she i s u l t i m a t e l y  public  which,  must  of her  responsible  has provided  t h e matron  In  the client  b e l o n g s more  completely to the  tion  than  tution hours  does  t h e employee,  t h e inmate  stays  duration  the  o t h e r hand,  i t s confines throughout  i s free  of her eight  to  her role  to leave  hour  shift,  as a matron  Many  o f the inmates  much  longer  period  have  when  o f time  she leaves  can n o s t a l g i c a l l y  refer  sentence,  before t h e advent  As group, both  usually  a voluntary  the matron  those  must  most  define  on the " i n s i d e "  insti-  f o r twenty-four time,  and f o r on  a t t h e com-  (and expected) the  institution.  t o the i n s t i t u t i o n  t o t h e "good  member  institu-  The matron,  and i s able  than have  "client".  of a total  the institution  "belonged"  and  with her  that  o f h e r sentence, an "inmate".  pletion drop  f o r a s a member  within  o f t h e day, and remains  the  special  by a p r o c e s s o f s y s t e m a t i c  rejection,  sense  matrons  o l d days"  for a  t o o , and  of a previous  o f " t h e group  system".  of an otherwise involuntary herself  and those  a  t o a non-  formalized a  form  social  t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h e " o u t s i d e " .  of  Because  107  of t h i s complicating r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n which the matron must o f f e r some type of " s e r v i c e " to a consumer which has been ;  defined by her employer (the p u b l i c ) as at l e a s t l e g a l l y an "enemy", the matron has to  somehow s a t i s f y two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  demands, and must somehow r e c o n c i l e the two.^" To some extent she can be l e f t f r e e to perform her r o l e as she sees f i t by i n s u l a t i n g her a c t i v i t i e s from o b s e r v a b i l i t y . f a c t be one of the reasons why  This may  in  prisons as such have p e r s i s t e d  i n the face of i n c r e a s i n g awareness of t h e i r l i m i t e d u s e f u l ness as deterrents or r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l s . workers f e e l  Perhaps p r i s o n  the n e c e s s i t y of being both i n s u l a t e d and  isolated  from s o c i e t y when p l a y i n g t h e i r r o l e , e i t h e r because of t h e i r self-consciousness about t h e i r a b i l i t y to " r e h a b i l i t a t e " , or because the p u b l i c i s not as yet prepared to condone a t h e r a p e u t i c approach to penology.  Whatever the " r e a l " reason may  be, the Women't U n i t i s q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the community, but s o c i a l workers from any  recognized  s o c i a l work agency have no d i f f i c u l t y i n penetrating the b a r r i e r i f they wish to e i t h e r continue or e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t ionship with any  inmate.  The Matron's R e l a t i o n s h i p t o S o c i e t y . members reported that when engaged i n casual  Many s t a f f conversation  or when at a s o c i a l gathering, i f the question of  occupation  arose they f r e q u e n t l y demurred,or described themselves i n  ^ T a l c o t t Parsons, Structure and Process i n Modern S o c i e t i e s , I l l i n o i s , The Free Press of Glencoe, I960, pp.ij.7-56.  108  h a l f - t r u t h s , s a y i n g that they worked f o r the Attorney Department or something s i m i l a r . r e l u c t a n c e was  The  General's  r a t i o n a l e given f o r t h i s  t h a t they f e l t the p u b l i c would not  "understand",  n e c e s s i t a t i n g an o v e r l y long e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r d u t i e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s while  i n an i n a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l  and  setting.  Others mentioned t h a t when they d i d e x p l a i n where they worked people u s u a l l y r e g i s t e r e d great shock, and f r e q u e n t l y would remark i n c r e d u l o u s l y , "But how a place l i k e t h a t ? "  could someone l i k e you work i n  They would r a t h e r circumvent the whole  i s s u e than f i n d themselves on the d e f e n s i v e  concerning  their  work. In many r e s p e c t s the matron i s a member of a f r i n g e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e , one which i s not q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e s o c i e t y because of the d i s t a s t e f u l connotations mention of p r i s o n s , p r i s o n e r s and types do e x i s t  guards.  in polite  elicited  Negative s t e r e o -  i n r e l a t i o n to p r i s o n e r s i n which they  d e p i c t e d as r a t h e r savage, corrupt i n d i v i d u a l s who them a general aura of decadence.  r a t h e r d u l l - w i t t e d , u s u a l l y s a d i s t i c and o p p o r t u n i s t , who  he  are  have about  E q u a l l y negative  types of the p r i s o n guard are p r e v a l e n t ;  by  stereo-  i s d e p i c t e d as a  f r e q u e n t l y corrupt  makes h i s l i v i n g by making o t h e r s  miserable.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e seems to be a g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t prolonged  and  r a t h e r i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n with the m i s f i t s  society w i l l inevitably result  i n a c e r t a i n amount of " t a k i n g  on" of the a t t r i b u t e s of the o t h e r . are probably  of  Lawyers and  psychiatrists  the most v i s i b l e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s which are  viewed somewhat ambivalently by society f o r similar The Matron's Relationship to the Inmates.  reasons.  109  It i s  i n t e r e s t i n g to note that much the same f e e l i n g of defensiveness was  evidenced  i n the responses given by the matrons to  the general question: "How  would you describe the inmates?"  Most matrons had two d i s t i n c t opinions to express:  a "public  opinion" which they would use to answer such a question posed by someone outside the i n s t i t u t i o n , and a "private opinion" which they f e l t free to discuss only with someone on the " i n s i d e " . For the benefit of the general public the matrons again expressed reluctance i n discussing the topic at a l l , and stated i n fact that: It i s best not to describe them at a l l , because i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r most people to r e a l i z e what i t i s a l l about. If pressed to discussion, the tendency was then apparently to make the inmates appear i n as favourable a l i g h t as possible.  They would be described i n terms denoting t h e i r pre-  dominant normality rather than t h e i r abnormality or deviance, and would be excused of t h e i r maladaptive  behavior on grounds  which tended to place the onus f o r t h e i r behavior on society rather than on the offender h e r s e l f .  They would be character-  ized as being the innocent victims of under-privileged homes and unfavourable  environments i n which they would have no  opportunity to develop into more normal, contributing members of society. Their " r e a l " opinions were, by contrast, considerably less f l a t t e r i n g to the inmates, and frequently charged  110 them w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r  own  actions: My pat answer i s that they are people who have never had a chance. My r e a l f e e l ings are t h a t they are weak people and we add t o t h i s . I never do ( d e s c r i b e the inmates) because most people t h i n k they have two horns -• so I t e l l them they only.have one horn. I don't, u s u a l l y t a l k about them u n l e s s i t ' s t o another matron or t o someone e l s e i n the f i e l d . .. F o r my own s a t i s f a c t i o n , I l i k e most of them, I t h i n k they are j u s t mixed up and s i c k .. I t e l l them they are n i c e people, but they don't.understand that you can l i k e a person even though they have done every r o t t e n t h i n g i n the book .I f I were t a l k i n g to a t o t a l s t r a n g e r i t would.be.a hard t h i n g to do because I have such a b l o c k about d i s c u s s i n g these people with anyone o u t s i d e the b u s i n e s s . Without a b i t of experience i n these l i n e s nobody has any c o n c e p t i o n of what these people are l i k e . I f I were d e s c r i b i n g them f o r my own satisf a c t i o n , they g i v e you the impression of being l i t t l e c h i l d r e n i n l o t s of ways, and y e t underneath ... something wrong i s t h e r e . Others d i s s o c i a t e the deviant behavior which o r i g i n a l l y p l a c e d the g i r l  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n from the i n d i v i d u a l with whom they  must cope, and f i n d the inmates t o be q u i t e normal w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  people  They d e s c r i b e them i n  these terms both f o r the p u b l i c and f o r t h e i r own  satisfaction:  I just say that once you have them i n t h e r e , away from t h e i r o l d way of l i f e they don't seem t o be much d i f f e r e n t from the average, run of people. But of course t h a t ' s probably c l o s i n g your eyes to a l o t ... I never r e a l l y t h i n k too much about some of the awful t h i n g s they do, you j u s t take them as you f i n d them.  Ill  By but  describing  under-privileged  their  self  and  the  normal  her  work w i l l  increase by  the  in  the  is  onus  somewhat  phenomenon  also  have  view  the  normal  in  do  as  much t o  people  primarily  on  while the  for  being  at  least  One  matron  on  the  her  her  self-image.  or  i n the  institution  who  i f they  to  these  absolve but  recalled her  can must  herself  she  can  she  that  opinions can  she  view be  the  "curing"  private  avoid  exists  cannot  them  recidivism. of responsibility the  burden  surprise  the  relaxed as  institution and  pleasant.  follows:  J u s t t o l o o k a t the p l a c e I t h i n k i t i s quite amazing; the p h y s i c a l appearance, girls t a l k i n g t o the m a t r o n s i n an o f f h a n d manner as t h e y w o u l d t o a n y o n e . . . I t h o u g h t i t was amazi n g w h e n I f i r s t saw t h e m . I always f e e l like d e f e n d i n g t h e p l a c e i n a way, because i t i s n ' t that bad. There between  the  is  considerable  inmates  and  the  as  assisted  lighten  within  surprisingly  initial  Secondly,  ways.  f e e l i n g which surface,  are  she  of  an  public,  Either  change,  inmates,  enjoy  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  a  completely  "dirtiness"  upon the  Her  nice,  emphasizing  consequence.  gesture.  as  influence  by  will  effect  responsibility in general  she  the  disturbed  r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the  is,  of  of  greatly  for  The.  a  matrons  so  probably  her  as  public  First,  some  s o c i a l deviance  "outside"  cannot  the  possibly,  omniscient  She  of  and,  general  ways.  inmate,  absolved one  the  society  prestige  for  consequences inmates  possibly  reduced  to  i n two  the  occupational the  of  image  q u a l i t i e s of  placing  matron  victims  public  be  inmates  warmth matrons,  in  the  and  on  relationships the  whole  the  112 staff  feels  that  almost  childlike  ness.  The  the  the  in their  amount  institution  they  ascribed  are  was  this  responsibility  and  as  and  commented  by  on  by  which  mischievious-  matrons,  the  in  and  absence  from  many  and  i s evident  to an  removal  of the  and  several  phenomenon v a r i o u s l y brought  friendly  noise  joking  upon  a mechanism f o r r e l e a s e  microcosmic  likeable,  enthusiasm,  of laughing  and  by  inmates  of  care  community,  strains  produced  living:  They a r e a l l q u i t e l i k e a b l e and a l l seem q u i t e . y o u n g ... b u t O l i v e f o r i n s t a n c e i s p r o b a b l y n o t q u i t e a s y o u n g i n h e r own home a s s h e is In j a i l . T h e i r g i g g l i n g , e t c . , may be a m e a n s o f t e n s i o n r e l e a s e , o r i t may be t h e y a c t young because they have a mother f i g u r e here i n the matron. Certainly "treated  like  the  notion  be  difficult  matron  of  many  inmates  children",  which  dependency  within  to  say  which  are  a matter  of  commented  would the  lend  but  that  some  they  the  inmate  It  to  would  dependency  resultant  concern f o r both  are  support  institution.  came f i r s t ,  over-protectiveness,  behavior  have  the  patterns inmates  or of  and  the  staff. Undoubtedly good  materially  who  find  for  one  reason or respite  a  that  ask  to  as  they  themselves  welcome fact  f o r some  stay  another,  inmates i n the  life  has  never  experience i t i n prison,  unable  from  inmates  their seek  prison  to a  cope  with l i f e  sojourn  to  from  time  over Christmas  and  i n the  so  f o r many free  t h e Women's U n i t  responsibilities arrest  been  and to  and  problems.  time, that  that  some  society is a It is some  frankly  admit they  that  they  get better  could  hope  f o relsewhere.  pointed the  inmates,  usually among vity go  t o as the reason  come  social  areas,  grossly  staff.  tution  owe t h e i r which  seven  constant  predominately  o'clock  contact  work t o g e t h e r  group u n t i l  with  will  must  t h e same  they  under-  "group  bedtime  eight  be k e p t  and joking  inmates  and t h e s t a f f ,  t o remain  obtains  serves  life i n  and  concentra-  one another  eight-  and with  throughout  the insti-  and troup" at night.  or nine  together Eating,  tolerable,  Life  assigned  i s s o com-  inter-personal  The prevalence o f  between,  inmates  a s one mechanism  and between  t o release  tensions,  and a d d i t i o n a l l y a l l a y s at l e a s t  temporarily  necessity  of taking  Laughing  and  predicament  i ta l l too seriously. may e f f e c t i v e l y  working  surrounding, and  arbitrarily  tensions.  t o a minimum.  which  that  n i n e - t h i r t y ) , t h e Inmates  with  i n e v i t a b l y produce  kidding  Insular  i n t h e same p h y s i c a l  and c o n s t r i c t e d that  one's  longe-  I n the morning u n t i l  i n teams  t h e d a y , a n d must  continuously  be f o r g o t t e n  i s extremely  ( a n d i n some u n i t s  living  playing  grievances  reconstruction  i t cannot  at Oakalla  They  their  hand,  Prom  into  during  associates  physical  measure  and  i n the institution.  at night,  the  among  under-privileged  i n nature.  thrown  of recidivism  from  ted  are  are frequently  women who  to the periodic  thirty  rate  than  Indian  Women's U n i t  pact  f o r thehigh  t h e a l c o h o l i c s who i n n o s m a l l  while  facts  i n Oakalla  among t h e n a t i v e  the  and  These  care  particularly  On t h e o t h e r  with  nursing-home  at  the oneself-  insulate the tragedy of  114.  the  situation  ionally  at least  witnessed  indications  group  members  the  final  check  and t a l k have  but  a matron  the  girls  own"  a  which  i s frequently their  gives which  some i s being  to find  reason  occas-  one o f  when  making  a  sympathetic  belies  employed  companions  disloyalty  as a  have  sounding  enough  burdened  ear.  The  t o one  another,  board, f o r  "troubles  by t h e t r o u b l e s  of  their  of  friends. The  point  despair  o r f o r someone t o b e g t h e m a t r o n t o  - t o bend  solidarity  feel  f o r a matron  f o r no apparent  of her unit,  f o ra while  "lockup"  of the facade  a n d s h o u l d n o t be f u r t h e r  their  the  In tears  The q u i e t  after  I t i s n o t uncommon  her  inmates  by t h e s t a f f  of the shallowness  maintained.  stay  .temporarily.  tendency  f o r something"  extent  inmates  t o which  as b e i n g  f o r the inmates was they  noted,  t o be  but t h e matrons  interpreted  primarily  c o n s t a n t l y "on t h e  these  indicative  differed i n  actions  o f immaturity  of the or of  *  malevolence: They put up a f r o n t . They.have an almost c h i l d l i k e a p p r o a c h t o e v e r y t h i n g . T h e way t h e y l o s e t h e m s e l v e s i n a ~ b a l l game e t c . , a n d y e t even though they are k i b i t z i n g around on t h e b a l l f i e l d t h e i r eyes a r e always wandering, noti c i n g e v e r y t h i n g . They a r e always t h i n k i n g and t h e i r thinking Is devious. We h a v e t o a c c e p t t h a t o n t h e s u r f a c e b e h a v i o r , y e t h a v e t o be aware o f t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t a l l t h e t i m e , and i t ' s such a c o n f l i c t ... T h e y h a v e an a l e r t n e s s , a l m o s t a n a n i m a l a l e r t n e s s ... a n a w a r e n e s s , a keenness. The  addicts  being  i n particular  were  c o n s t a n t l y on t h e watch  interpreted f o r some  by t h e s t a f f  unspecified  as  "opportunity".  115 On t h e w h o l e t h e y a r e v e r y f r i e n d l y . The I n d i a n g i r l s a r e r a t h e r shy and withdrawn a t first. The a d d i c t s a r e v e r y s l y . They a r e a l w a y s t h i n k i n g o f how b e s t t o g e t t h e b e s t o f anyone i n t h e b u i l d i n g . Y o u always have t o be j u s t o n e jump a h e a d o f t h e m . . . I f t h e y a r e g o i n g t o want a n y t h i n g f r o m y o u t h e y a r e so n i c e t o y o u , t h e n a b o u t a n h o u r l a t e r t h e y a r e down t o t h e c l i n i c a s k i n g y o u f o r some m e d i c a t i o n . This the an  part  perceived  wits.  disease  game  entatives Playing  b y many m a t r o n s  population  game  between  unwritten  does staff  agreement  obligation  are only  outside  these  must  i s a  A vicious,,  the  making  extremely  rigidly  but there  attitudes of loyalty  operative  within  certain  d e l i m i t e d areas  o f the  institution  o f a c t i o n and  not n e c e s s a r i l y preclude  that  of  presumably i s  the establish-  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  and inmates,  by  justification  on t h e p a r t  circle  on  t o be  live  feeling  i s fostered within  o f a u t h o r i t y and t h e d e v i a n t  this  feelings  pattern  who  general  i s e s t a b l i s h e d and perpetuated,  o f any o t h e r  (especially  o f c a t and mouse w h i c h  of the disorder  of the disorder.  reaction  and  i n the inmate  The very  genesis  because  ment  of this  a predisposition of suspiciousness  matrons. the  "slyness"  s u f f e r e d by t h o s e  The consequence  untrustworthiness for  toward  o f the addicts), i s considered  occupational  their  tendency  the repres-  difficult. friendly  i s rather an and mutual prescribed  e a c h must  spheres,  fend f o r  herself. As  an i l l u s t r a t i o n  institution's school  inmates  school  o f the above,  provides  the operation  a pertinent  are enrolled i n various  example.  of the  Within the  correspondence  courses  116  which a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department  of E d u c a t i o n .  C h e a t i n g on t h e s e courses i s , of c o u r s e , p o s s i b l e , but i s not condoned  by the i n m a t e s , p a r t l y we would s u s p e c t , because the  s t a f f a r e unable t o e x e r c i s e e f f e c t i v e e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and must, t h e r e f o r e , charge the inmates w i t h assuming t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y themselves.  W i t h i n the same department,. however,  inmates w i l l be unashamedly  d i s h o n e s t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t they  w i l l , whenever t h e o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f , to be used a t a l a t e r date f o r w r i t i n g " k i t e s " .  s t e a l paper By  making  p e r i o d i c checks o f t h e inmates t o determine the presence o f i l l e g a l paper the s t a f f I s i n e f f e c t d e m o n s t r a t i n g t o the inmates t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t paper w i l l be s t o l e n .  In this  c a s e , as i n most, i n d i v i d u a l performance u s u a l l y conforms w i t h the  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the o t h e r .  I n t h o s e a r e a s of b e h a v i o r  and a c t i v i t y i n which the matron does e x t e n d h e r t r u s t  she  i s seldom d i s a p p o i n t e d , but where r u l e enforcement i s a r e l a t i v e l y a u t o m a t i c p r o c e s s and i s t h e o b j e c t o f c o n s t a n t reminder on the p a r t o f s t a f f , t h e inmates a p p a r e n t l y do n o t f e e l m o r a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o e x e r t any s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , f o r they susp e c t (and r i g h t l y so) t h a t d i s c i p l i n e w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g externally.  I f t h e matron i s r e m i s s .in the performance of h e r  d u t i e s of r u l e enforcement o r i s n o t d i l i g e n t enough t o i n t e r cept k i t e s and messages, the inmates a r e "one up" on h e r . the  If  inmate i s d e t e c t e d and p u n i s h e d f o r such a misdemeanor,  t h e n she has been caught o u t , and by t h e r u l e s of good s p o r t s manship w i l l p r o b a b l y not h o l d any p e r s o n a l grudge  against  117  t h e m a t r o n who h a s conformity  caught h e r .  J u s t how f a r  c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e  inmate groups from the matron i s , Some a w a r e n e s s t i o n of  staff  of the  of  responsibility  individual  course,  or to  a moot  the  point.  i m p l i c a t i o n s of l a t e n t  expecta-  r e g a r d i n g i n m a t e p e r f o r m a n c e was e v i d e n c e d  t h e m a t r o n who d i s c u s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e behavior of the  inmates from t h a t  between  the  by  "inside"  "outside";  Once t h e y a r e i n t h e g a o l s e t t i n g t h e y react quite normally. I guess they f e e l a b i t of s e c u r i t y or something i n g a o l , o r w h e t h e r t h e y j u s t do what we e x p e c t t h e m t o do i n g a o l . Me e x p e c t t h e m t o a c t t h i s w a y . I t t h e y c a n g e t up and do a j o b i n g a o l e v e r y m o r n i n g , why c o u l d n ' t t h e y do t h a t when t h e y were o u t ? . . . I - g u e s s n o b o d y c a r e s what t h e y do on t h e o u t s i d e . Similarly, t u t i o n were  problems w i t h l e s b i a n i s m w i t h i n the  s e e n t o be a t l e a s t  prevailing attitude  of the  t e n d e d t o be o v e r l y  suspicious  the  p a r t i a l l y the f a u l t  staff  insti-  of  which, the observer  o f any f r i e n d s h i p s  the  felt,  between  girls. I t h i n k we make t o o much o f i t i n a w a y . Y o u know t h e s e g r e a t f r i e n d s h i p s a r e n o t a l w a y s l e s b i a n , b u t we jump on t h e m and s t i r t h e m u p . T h e n t h e y o u n g k i d s become c u r i o u s a b o u t i t , t h e r e ' s so much i n t r i g u e s u r r o u n d i n g i t . Some m a t r o n s a r e h i g h l y  ivity  w h i c h m i g h t be e v e n v a g u e l y  are very  strict  o n one a n o t h e r ' s considerable  girls.  Inmates  l a p o r even t o difference  inmate  act-  r e l a t e d t o l e s b i a n i s m and  i n t h e i r enforcement  i n t i m a c y between the  is  s u s p i c i o u s o f any  of r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g are not a l l o w e d t o  share the  i n the extent  same  for  chair.  to sit  There  to which matrons  118 enforce ment  to  rules,  is essential  rigid the  these  to  enforcement  inmates defy  at  some f e e l i n g  prevent  produces  into  the  however,  least  "episodes",  at  rigid  others  artificiality "playing"  that  and  being  enforce-  feeling  almost  that  forces  lesbians  just  staff.  We a r e t o o l a x i n many w a y s . . . T h a t episode of Lorna necking i n the h a l l s , e t c . , w o u l d n e v e r . h a v e gone t o t h o s e l e n g t h s i f we h a d m o r e m a t r o n s l i k e on t h e staff. I saw M i s s l e t (both g i r l s ) out (of t h e i r rooms) and watched w h i l e t h e y w a l k e d down t h e h a l l w i t h t h e i r arms a r o u n d each other. T h i s s o r t o f t h i n g was g o i n g o n a l l the time. They s h o u l d n e v e r have been a l l o w e d to r e a c h t h a t p o i n t where t h e g i r l i s so f r u s t r a t e d a n d w o r k e d u p s e x u a l l y t o be i n a s t a t e t o ( c r e a t e an i n c i d e n t ) . I know t h a t wasn't premeditated. Some m a t r o n s between are  the  separated  other  outlet  strations it  their  avior. to  girls  a  to  that  demonstrations  q u i t e normal,  their  for their  duty  husbands  emotions.  women a r e  the  staff  The  inmates  position having  by  (the  children  Others  unevenness  too  able  sure to  minds",  impression  or  they  inmates) have  of  who  can  give  feel  she  really  and  they  have  that  any  of  in a  the more  outsmarted  her  beh-  inmates  policy i s . awkward  rigidly  lenient  i s rather naive  feel  leads  rather  rules  demon-  such  n e i t h e r the existing  little  and  enforcement  matrons  the  since  evidences  the  enforce  affection  abhorrent,  rule  what  the  feel  and  i n which  just  place  accusing those  "dirty  distinct  are  are  and  s e v e r e l y s a n c t i o n any  resultant  of  especially  abnormal  r a t h e r confusing s i t u a t i o n  nor  they  are  from  between  The  feel  of  matron and  i n some  the  that small  way.  119 Satisfactory for  specific  means.  c a t e g o r i e s o f inmates  Some  staff  (who  normally  them  quiet  Their to  short  seen  Others because  spent  attempts Still many  many  years  d i d not have  with  others problems  matrons toward  were  Matrons  stated  were  personality very  hostile  also  because primarily  d i d require continuous  or  another. who  presented  provide the those  orientation to One  inmates such  matron  t h e more  antagonized  i n delving  structures  t h e most  constantly  to deal with  she o n l y  interested  and a t t i t u d e  disturbed girls  having  she f e l t  gaol-wise  On t h e w h o l e  t o be a s s i g n e d  offenders,  across the  inmates  or disturbed.  she d i d not l i k e  inmates  who  could  talents.  d i dnot l i k e  exceptionally  disturbed  of their  i n o n e way  b u t who  f o rtheir  addict  they  subscribed to the "habit-forming"  corrections  contrast to the  t h e more  the young, h o s t i l e  t o the s t a f f ,  challenge who  frankly  into  the institution"  favoured  or negative,  t o be r e m i n d e d  because  found  demonstrative.  gaols  although  girls  they  and  positive  i n many  working  surveillance  t o "beat  greatest  who  more  open  i n refreshing  the routine of the institution,  considerably  because  "institutionalized"  preferred they  either  by any  the native  sentences)  as b e i n g  o f t h e more  o f whom h a v e  inmates  with  and c o - o p e r a t i v e , and f a i r l y  approach  country.  the  very  Preference  was n o t u n i v e r s a l  working  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d response,  "con"  of  preferred  serve  s u p e r v i s i o n was  most  and U n s a t i s f a c t o r y Encounters.  more  deeply  o f the inmates  interesting:  them.  found  I would l i k e t h e GIS g i r l s ( G i r l s Industrial S c h o o l ) b e c a u s e t h e y a r e y o u n g a n d t h e r e i s more hope o f d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w i t h them ... i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s o m i x e d u p , t h e y f e e l "what h a s a n y o n e e v e r d o n e f o r me", t h e y h a v e b e e n i n t h i s r a t r a c e e v e r s i n c e t h e y c a n remember, w i t h c r u e l f a t h e r s , b e i n g abandoned and so o n . I guess I p r e f e r t h e m b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more l i k e c h i l d r e n a n d n e e d h e l p ... t h e y a r e more damaged p e r s o n a l i t i e s . ;  Presumably concerned a  with  this  type  effecting  rather graphic  o f inmate  a basic  justification  provides  change  the matron  i n attitudes  for.her philosophy  with  of cor-  rections .  ..V.  MATRONS A S AN O C C U P A T I O N A L  Recruitment a  wide  variety  tional  selected  pre-employment  at the present  of a personal  t o conduct  usually  first  heard  acquaintance This  acceptance  experience  who  factor,  examinations  for a position,  and voca-  Matrons a r e attention  and t h e " s u i t '  and i n t e r e s t s .  Because  o f t h e Women's U n i t t o  f o r a p p l i c a n t s when a v a c a n c y  formal  who d o a p p l y  time.  personality  from  training i s  i n t e r v i e w i n which  the general policy  publicly  are recruited  occupational, education  specific  o f h e r previous  has n o t been  those  or  Matrons  paid t o the applicant's general  advertise or  No  t o be m a n d i t o r y  by means  ability" it  of previous  backgrounds.  considered  is  and Choice.  GROUP  occurs,  and competitions matrons  employed  among have  o f t h e work t h r o u g h  a personal  i s already  at the i n s t i t u t i o n .  employed  i n conjunction with  of psychiatric  friend  the prevailing  nursing training  as a  "suitable"  121  orientation bias  to prison  i n favour  lation  sary and  with  occupational  I t i s presumed  the c u s t o d i a l  t r a i n i n g concerning  with  will  staff,  nurses  so t h a t  sixty—five tutional A  sewing.  up  small  have  disturbed  nurse's  neces-  as h e r e x p e r i e n c e  with them-  orientation to prison  work,  per cent  sixteen  o f the matrons  Practical per cent  per cent  h a d some n u r s i n g  proportion  parlour  o f the s t a f f  occupational  and  of the  of the staff  t r a i n i n g and  operation,  i n  dressmaking  matrons  recreation,  A l l o f these matrons a s summer  form  Women's U n i t  appear  embarked  that  of  of  insti-  specialists  and i n s t r u c t o r s  and power  a heterogeneous  education  (factory) group  and j u v e n i l e  club  t r a i n i n g i n the  had been h i r e d  relief  a t the end o f the h o l i d a y would  consists  therapists,  A.few have h a d u n i v e r s i t y  initially  It  the p s y c h i a t r i c  patients  twenty-one  another  popu-  experience.  experience  tution  as w e l l  i n a l l thirty-seven  matrons  leadership.  work  make  The r e m a i n i n g  sciences.  that  f o r the heavy  i n the t o t a l  are p s y c h i a t r i c nurses.  as c a s e w o r k e r s ,  beauty  group  the mentally  some  accounts  and s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s  as a g o o d b a s i c  employed  registered  with  serve  the r e s u l t that  currently  such  probably  i n the mental h o s p i t a l ,  selves  in  of this  o f matrons.  familiarity  work,  staff,  by the  b u t remained  social insti-  i n the  season.  no one c u r r e n t l y  upon h e r occupational  employed career  intention  o f becoming  a matron  i n a correctional  Decisions  and a c t i o n s  r e s u l t i n g i n employment  by the  with  the  institution.--  i n this  capacity  122 appeared hazard some  to  those  and. a c c i d e n t a l  similarity Typical  did  matrons  you  chose  following  with of  i n nature, one  the  by  a  but  to  have  these  been  quite  patterns  do  hap-  present  another.  responses  Oakalla  given  interviewed  given  P r i s o n Farm practical  as  to a  the  place  question, to  work"  "Why is  the  nurse:  I k n e w M r s . L . , a n d o u r h o s p i t a l was closing. We w e r e a l l b e i n g . t r a n s f e r r e d some p l a c e , s o I applied at Oakalla. I knew a l i t t l e a b o u t t h e p l a c e a s I h a d met some o f t h e s t a f f f r o m t h e old days. Another matron, described  her  with  a  university  introduction  to  the  background work  i n Home  Economics,  thus:  I came t o w o r k a t O a k a l l a a s s o m e w h a t o f a fluke. I had no j o b a f t e r t h i r d y e a r ( a t u n i v e r s i t y ) , a f r i e n d was w o r k i n g a t O a k a l l a a n d knew o f a n o p e n i n g , s o s u g g e s t e d I a p p l y . I went on l e a v e o f a b s e n c e t o c o m p l e t e my f o u r t h y e a r a t U.B.C. I d e c i d e d t o s t a y on b e c a u s e ... t h e i d e a o f o p e n i n g a p o w e r s e w i n g d e p a r t m e n t (was s u g g e s t e d ) a n d I was interested, so d e c i d e d t o s t a y . A  few  with  previous  social  rehabilitation  to  the  position  to  do  work  elsewhere  centres  because  similar  to  experience  they  that  of felt  which  in psychiatric  various  kinds  i t offered they  had  an  found  were  and attracted  opportunity enjoyable  j  I had h e a r d about ( t h e Warden) and h i s emphasis upon r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I had done c o n s i d e r a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l t h e r a p y i n ( a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l ) - I was i n t e r e s t e d , came t o s e e h i m , a n d was hired. I h a d t o l e a v e my job i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s because I d i d n ' t have a working v i s a . I was d o i n g s i m i l a r work w i t h c h i l d r e n t h e r e . . I l i k e d working with the c h i l d r e n b e t t e r than  123 w i t h a d u l t s , however, as you c o u l d r e a l l y y o u r r e s u l t s ... I t h o u g h t I was going to t h e w o r l d o n f i r e t h e same way here. Training formal unity of  training to  peruse  employment.  limits of  of  the  go  through  i s very  little  new  aside  from  opport-  staff  Manual  sometime  during  The  Manual  contains  a  the  matron  s u b t l e dynamics a  formalized  and  patory  or  they upon  must  usually  the  into  the  a  due  to  the  enjoyed  by  both  Actual  socialization  factum matron  supervisor  role  i n nature,  f o r the  new  matron  before  has  an  she  actually Because  instruct  had  days  the but  indication  Matrons they  do  not  are  full-fledged almost  work  Antici-  situation.  community,  of  specifi-  community  the  i s most  is from  prison  worker.  f r e q u e n t l y ex  finds  opportunity  and  insulation  p r i s o n and  the  some  becoming  i n that  into  of  duties,  process;  degree  the  few  responsibilities  prison  high  role.  before  new  first  her  seeking  new  assume h e a v y  of  view  that  to  she  is  discover  post  a  how  behave.  no  one  the  new  the  more  "tips"  from  novice  considerable  her.  matrons  entering their  public  matrons  of her  an  outline  perform  the novice  role  minimal  must  the  broad  socialization  student  socialization into  members  The  more  immediately  to  There  assistance to  matrons,  to  Qualifications.  little  apprentice  cally  of  w i t h i n which  is  not  and  see set  Experienced  on  staff  matron  has  been  concerning  experienced hardship matrons  formally  how  matrons  she which  are  not  may  unconsciously  designated  should could  "behave", save  n e c e s s a r i l y passed neglect  the  along to  pass  124 along the  or  consciously withhold  peculiar  pattern and  of  their  pose  a  of  not  member t o group,  to  long  Although  has  she  relationships  significant  acute.  structure of  supervisors.  employees  it  social  been be  and  I f new  standing, the  uncommon  requested  reports f o r duty. the  work  as  this  danger  past  of  keys,  to  One  may  i s becoming  "be  and  between are  thought  a  be  matron"  matron  become  somewhat  years  for  a  of  even  new to  first  described her  to  more  modified,  assigned the  the  inmates  occupational security  the  to  exist  members  over  set  concerning  p r i s o n community  staff  the  pattern  a  the  which normally  threat to  handed  be  pertinent information  staff  an  iinmate  morning  initiation  follows:  E v e r y t h i n g was w r o n g w i t h me. No o n e so m u c h a s g a v e me a f i v e m i n u t e c h a t o n w h a t was e x p e c t e d o f me. I h a d t o a s k t h e i n m a t e s what to do. T h e r e was.none o f t h i s b u s i n e s s o f g o i n g with another matron f o r l u n c h i n the hut to l e a r n a b o u t i t . . . u n t i l we g e t e x t r a s t a f f f o r summer relief. Another  reported her  experience  thus;  I was t o o c o n f u s e d w h e n I f i r s t started w o r k i n g h e r e t o be a w a r e o f w h a t I e x p e c t e d . A d a p t i n g and l e a r n i n g h e r e i s a l l done by feel. You t e s t your l i m i t s . Y o u o i i l y f i n d o u t what y o u c a n ' t do, n o t what y o u s h o u l d o r c a n d o . Orientation role  has  been  to  the  work  accomplished error.  i n these  arily  responsible for  s c h o o l i n g the  matron  daily  routines of  institution.  There  the  opportunity  Often  the  for either  into  the  instances primarily  of  obvious  and  socialization  means  very  trial  and  inmates  have  been  by prim-  i n the  norms  and  i s once  again  a  neglecting to  pass  along  125 certain  pertinent  erately  misinforming Learning  requirements matron, means  and  of  ability  information to  the  of her  of  new  matron,  or f o r  delib-  her. proper role  new  deliberate  "manner" as  may  in outlining  orienting  the  be  a  well  difficult  as  the  task  what  she  considered to  staff,  one  matron  formal  f o r the be  a  pointed to  new  desirable the  desir-  instruction:  I t h i n k t e a c h i n g ( t h e new m a t r o n s ) a n a t t i t u d e i s a v e r y good t h i n g - and showing them, w i t h o u t b e i n g a s h o w - o f f as y o u a r e d o i n g i t , j u s t t h e a n s w e r s a n d how t o g i v e them w i t h o u t o f f e n d i n g e i t h e r t h e s t a f f i n v o l v e d or the program i n v o l v e d . T h i s i s one o f t h e I m p o r t a n t t h i n g s , because you just d o n ' t k n o w how t o t a l k t o t h e s e p e o p l e w h e n you f i r s t get h e r e . The this  matron  who  has  type  of  orientation  difficult  to  form  With ioned for to  the  such the  these  a  experience of  been  to her  of  previous  apparently  the  work  f o r t u n a t e enough  new  satisfactory  difficulties  advantage  demands  not  j o b may  find  relationship  i n mind,  institutional greatly  i n the  i t  with  several  to  receive  extremely the  matrons  inmates. ment-  experience,  facilitates  adaptation  Women's U n i t :  When a n y b o d y c o m e s i n t o t h i s setting, i f t h e y have an i n s t i t u t i o n a l background they f i t i n q u i t e e a s i l y because a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e r u n p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same - t h e same i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l p r o b l e m s e x i s t , e t c . N u r s e s who h a v e h a d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p a t i e n t s have an a d v a n t a g e i n coming t o work, as they are used to working with people. They h a v e m o r e o f a n i d e a o f how t o go a b o u t , i t . They tutional  stated  experience  that in  they new  would staff  definitely i f they  were  look f o r in a  insti-  position  126 to  do  terms  the of  f o r the  institution.  i n s t i t u t i o n a l experience  important had  recruiting  than  academic  were  considered  qualifications  i n s t i t u t i o n a l backgrounds  Qualifications  by  r a t h e r than  many  to  be  ( a l l of  academic  in  more whom  training  themselves): I would l i k e to f i n d people with similar b a c k g r o u n d t o mine - t h e p s y c h i a t r i c training. Not j u s t t h e t h r e e y e a r s , but e x p e r i e n c e i n more t h a n one i n s t i t u t i o n . You are w o r k i n g i n t h e s a m e k i n d o f a r e a , i t ' s t h e same a s adapting n u r s i n g procedures from broken l e g s to those f o r broken arms. I t i s t h e same s o r t o f t h i n g , y o u a r e d e a l i n g w i t h damaged s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s b o t h i n p r i s o n s and i n m e n t a l hospitals. I t i s a good i d e a t o h a v e them on proba t i o n a r y s t a f f a t f i r s t , a s i t i s h a r d t o know who i s g o i n g t o f i t i n . The u n i v e r s i t y students seem t o be t h e o n e s s u f f e r i n g f r o m t e n s i o n , t h a t ' s why t h e y s h o u l d h a v e some e x p e r i e n c e i n a n instil t u t i o n b e f o r e coming t o work h e r e . Oakalla i s among t h e h a r d e r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o w o r k i n - when they (the inmates) are a l l at you i n the evening w i t h d i f f e r e n t problems i t ' s p r e t t y h a r d t o cope w i t h them. !  These new of  matron's her  immediate  adaptation  siderable the  observations  experience,  could  to  usefulness  the  reflect  a  and  Immediate  be  minimum  become  f o r others able of  to  the  s t a t u s quo  of  the  and  a c t i v i t i e s were  who  assume  Initial  adequate  the  institution.  i n s t i t u t i o n a l experience  prison look  similar  to  tend  the  strain  custodians  Matrons  before  would,  of  readily,  The  of  and  had  f a r as  their  folk-lore  least  daily of  the  con-  work  S u c h new at  the  success  a matron with  anxiety.  i n s t i t u t i o n i n so  concerned.  who  for  coming t o  because  role and  concern  at  similar a matrons maintain  routines  127 institution  i s , on  "enlightened" errors, of  been  a maintenance  A  other hand,  university  or have  experience  the  or  i n these  more  students  inadequate sewing  their  most  desirable  who  with  have  i n the  roommatron  tales  made  the  custodial  performance because  of  of  of  the  their  role  lack  of  spheres.  compromising  felt  rich  o p i n i o n s had training  view  was  changed and  held  with  by  a  regard  background  few  to  the  matrons "best"  who or  among p r o s p e c t i v e  matrons: I used t o t h i n k t h a t n u r s e s worked out t h e b e s t h e r e , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k so any m o r e . I. t h i n k now t h a t t e a c h e r s d o . . . t h e y h a v e a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e g i r l s — especially h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s work out w e l l w i t h the younger g i r l s . There  were  educated  matrons  fulness,  as  some  concessions  i n terms  distinct  from  of  their  their  given  to  the  ultimate or  immediate  university eventual  contribution  useto  the  institution: You can't s u b s t i t u t e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e for book l e a r n i n g , but p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i l l o n l y take you so f a r u n l e s s you have the o t h e r to go o n w i t h f r o m t h e r e ... A s f a r a s t h e u n i v e r s i t y k i d s are concerned, g i v e them a l i t t l e b i t of t i m e and t h e y ' v e got i t a l l o v e r t h e o t h e r s . It just stands to reason. T h e o n e s who aren't ( s u c c e s s f u l ) ... i t ' s j u s t a p e r s o n a l i t y m a t t e r , and i t wouldn't m a t t e r where they worked, t h e y s t i l l wouldn't f i t i n .  a  need  In-Service  Training.  for a  scale  f u l l  course  actually  becoming  matrons.  training  would  more  be  Only  or  two  f o r matrons  Most  useful.  one  seem  to  to f e e l  Specific  matrons  mentioned  complete that  problems  before  in-service existing  128 i n the i n s t i t u t i o n could be d i s c u s s e d , awareness  and general  staff  increased:  We should go every day t o l e a r n , f o r an hour o r so t o t a l k about t h i n g s that happen, e t c . We should have sort of c l i n i c d i s c u s s i o n s on people. When t h i n g s happen you should d i s c u s s those t h i n g s . F i n d out what the g i r l s ' d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s are from the o t h e r matrons, e t c . That way youf.could f i n d out r e a l l y what i s going on. When the q u e s t i o n  of becoming b e t t e r matrons was posed  to the s t a f f , there was a g e n e r a l  consensus that  experience  would only b r i n g about improvement i n performance up t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t , then one must, f o r the sake of refreshment of i n t e r e s t and of i n c r e a s i n g c a p a b i l i t y , take some a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r attend  some courses d e a l i n g with the g e n e r a l  f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n s . Speaking f o r myself, I would be b e t t e r now because of some o f t h e . l e c t u r e s I've had and the i n t e r e s t s t i m u l a t e d from t h i s which l e d t o my reading more about i t e t c . I wasn't concerned about who the l e a d e r of the group was, o r i n a n a l y z i n g the group at a l l . We were a l l j u s t having a wonderful time ... We'd take a walk, and they would be dropping k i t e s a l l along the road ... I never thought about a n a l y z i n g the f r i n g e members of the group and so on. I j u s t went f u l l p e l t ahead and i f anybody wasn't p l a y i n g I saw t o i t t h a t they d i d without knowing why they were out of i t . Your work would be more e f f e c t i v e with a background or some idea of what you were supposed to be d o i n g . I t ' s l i k e b u i l d i n g a house without a p l a n . Some of the l e c t u r e s we've had give a very c l e a r i d e a of what group work i s a l l about ... A f t e r t a k i n g those l e c t u r e s you get a b e t t e r look at y o u r s e l f t o o , you see where you f a l l down i n a l o t of t h i n g s .  129 There enthusiasm  i s apparently  f o r the  over  time.  ment  and  were  thought  ness  which  work,  Evening  intended  to  primarily  re-vitalized  courses  lagging  tendency become  courses  v a l u a b l e not  these  a  for staff  "stale"  or  to  lose  less  sympathetic  sponsored  by  the  Provincial  for staff  of  the  various  only gave  interest  because the  of  staff,  In the  the but  their  Govern-  institutions  i n c r e a s e d awarebecause  they  work:  I t h i n k I h a d more c o n c e r n f o r t h i n g s before. T h a t ' s why I t h i n k you should have a good brush-up once i n a w h i l e . I had more time then. I p r o b a b l y was b e t t e r t o t h e i n m a t e s - more u n d e r s t a n d i n g . You should have a change o r s o m e t h i n g on t h e j o b . Even the c l a s s e s we t a k e i n t h e w i n t e r make me feel d i f f e r e n t toward the i n m a t e s . T h e y make me t h i n k what a h e e l I've b e e n . I get to f e e l l i k e I s h o u l d spend-more t i m e w i t h the poor l i t t l e t h i n g s ... T h e r e s h o u l d be something, maybe.just s w i t c h i n g around a b i t , but I s u p p o s e t h a t w o u l d n ' t be g o o d f o r t h e girl. B u t i t m i g h t do w o n d e r s f o r t h e s t a f f I Personal the  staff  personal staff  qualifications  to  of  a  on  paper  be  rather the  are  work  not  they  than  most  general feeling  actual  of  Good M a t r o n s ,  i n t e r v i e w e d were much h a p p i e r  members  sidered  Attributes  the  felt  most  specific  effective.  that  were  to  This  indicative  the  discuss  whole, the  important  training  qualifications  necessarily  .Gn  they  i s probably which of  can  conthe  be  I d o n ' t know a b o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Many p e o p l e who h a v e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o n p a p e r j u s t can't g i v e out t h e i r knowledge. p e o p l e we would o f f e r them now on individual  result  listed  usefulness in  situation:  You can't a t t r a c t a l l the l i k e t o h a v e w i t h what y o u can i n the system. Y o u h a v e t o go  in  an  q u a l i t i e s t o a good e x t e n t . Hopefully with as much e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d as p o s s i b l e , t h e n y o u go o n f r o m t h e r e t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e y are s u i t a b l e or not ... I t h i n k t h e r e h a v e b e e n some t e r r i f i c s t a f f m e m b e r s t h e r e who have had very l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n f o r m a l l y , but h a d a t e r r i f i c i n t e r e s t and i n s i g h t , a n d enough e x p e r i e n c e o n t h e i r own t o b e p r e t t y understanding people. Sometimes they are f a r s u p e r i o r t o some u n i v e r s i t y p e o p l e we h a v e had. Personal were  qualities  of  s t r e s s e d most  happiness,  consistently  patience by  the  and  "understanding  staff.  I would ask, "Are you happy y o u r s e l f , a r e you l e a d i n g a n o r m a l , happy s o c i a l l i f e : fairly active, f a i r l y well-balanced" ... F i r s t o f a l l y o u y o u r s e l f must be a b l e t o , h a n d l e y o u r own l i f e w e l l , y o u must h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y o f m a k i n g a good l i f e f o r y o u r s e l f . A matron should have a great understanding of people. I f y o u d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d how a person f e e l s or even t h i n k s , you are a l o s t cause. You w i l l n e v e r c h a n g e t h e m o r t h e i r way of t h i n k i n g . Qualities suit  a  matron  Include  those  institution  of  character  f o r employment which  will  and at  the  make h e r  easier according  to  p e r s o n a l i t y which Women's U n i t  own  one  adjustment  would  should to  the  respondent:  Someone w i t h a g o o d s e n s e o f humour, a pleasant p e r s o n a l i t y , not quick tempered. S o m e o n e w i t h m u c h p a t i e n c e ... T h e y r e a l l y s h o u l d be p a t i e n t , and c a l m , c o o l and c o l l e c t e d n o t s o m e o n e who i s g o i n g t o be s u f f e r i n g f r o m t e n s i o n i n a b o u t a week. Standards certain must  standards  adhere  ated, tution  of  but to  and  there  Excellence.  of  custody  against are  evaluate  no  The  and  definite  a matron's  institution  control  which her  also  to  which  performance  standards  set  rehabilitative  can by  has a  -  set matron  be  evalu-  the  insti-  performance.  Admittedly, deliberate to  leave  forming the to  eral  part  matron  her  that  i s not role,  could It  itself  they  reason  -  they  are  whole,  periodic later  even  welcome  that most  not  the  means  can  per-  of  relating  their  degree  feel  standard  of  way  with a  wish  appreciate  own  such  may  gen-  of  lat-  comfortable  against  which  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s not  efficient  given  their  such  a  are  made  the  that  specific  work.  adequacy  means  feel  The  criteria  f o r promotions of  that  some  many m a t r o n s  are  the  their  be  themselves.  the  and  best  i s i n keeping  and  reports  sure  find  a matron  appraise  used  to  may  f o r they  Many m a t r o n s  before  what  standard  own  essential  a l s o be  about  her  duties.  a manner which  appreciate  anxious  find  allowed  would  a  institution,  feel  they  could  to  set  others  are,  why  the  to  But  may  ilitation  of  free  evaluate  just  failure  rehabilitative  inmates  her  they  not  the  personality.  itude in  the  fact the  on  this  of  of  their  pursuing  this  matrons  work.  on  the  f o r they  do  become  They  know  and  i n c r e a s e s , but  which  these  which  would,  themselves  b a s i s upon  real  against  concerning salary  rehab-  i s the  criteria  however,  sure  that  which  are  they  evaluations  are are  made. One ard  of  seems  of  the  consequences  performance to  matron. formance,  be  a  gradual  Matrons and  with  are  are  f o r the  failure  to  regard  to  rehabilitative  increase  of  custodial  able  to  evaluated  evaluate by  others  their  set  stand-  functions  concern  of  custodial  in this  a  regard  the per-  continually.  132 They in  come t o  these  just  feel  aspects  how  they  This present  too  the  need For  basic  change  a  succeeding  of  a  who  with  As  the  i t an  of  support  the  this and  the  matron  custodial  change  matrons  inmates  or  compromise  behav-  of  and  support  find  specific  at  which  seems t o or  view  formal  least  institution,  involve real  con-  she  permissiveness  into  a  former  custodial,  to  of  supports  custodial  rehabilitation  the  entered  necessitates  to  pressured  may  who  increased  practices  sure  hot  outward  1  increasingly  of  <too  which  rehabilitation  permissiveness  demands  not  and  conform-  but  for  feelings  of  some guilt  anxiety.  ardization  of  identify "too  to  Broadly some  lenient", are  of Deviance.  the  is difficult  formance.  who  the  attitudes,  feel  in orientation  Patterns  it  may  proficient  tasks.  those  of  Unable  for rehabilitative  are  rehabilitation  orientation  practice.  become  c u s t o d i a l i s m does  abandonment  support  to  of  m a t r o n becomes  abandon p r a c t i c e s  essential  with  that  and  least  i n other  control  feel  at  since they  dilemma: t o  i n ideas  " b a s i c change"  ing  should  role,  philosophy  those  carries  beliefs.  as  their  f o r rigorous  ior.  the  are  much  work w i t h  must  of  they  increased concern  the  cern  that  matron's  but  role  positively speaking,  staff  as  the  lack  (outside the  both  greatest to  of  Identify  m e m b e r s who  the  inconsistent  Because  are  and  either  public  leniency or  stand-  custodial  deviance  matrons  of  of  censure  role  inmates  "too  realm) per-  can  strict"  falls  strictness.  or  upon The  those  inmates  133 and  other  a matron erament  staff who  like  t o know  "where  i s inconsistent  i n rule  enforcement  creates Matrons  too  much,  general degree rule  members  considerable feel  uneasy  that  of social  of practice  about  others  have  o r i n temp-  some  whom t h e y  the inmates.  i t i s essential  d i s t a n c e , and t h a t may  stand" and  strain.  o r get too i n v o l v e d with  feeling  they  to maintain violation  feel  tell  There  i s a  a  certain  of this  rather unfortunate  general  results:  T h e y s h o u l d know v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t y o u r personal l i f e . Y o u r p r o b l e m s e t c . s h o u l d be •kept away. I f you t e l l them a n y t h i n g t h e y b u i l d i t u p much m o r e . I t ' s okay t o t e l l them y o u h a v e b e e n t o a s h o w , b u t n o t who y o u w e n t with. One m a t r o n I k n o w o f h a s t o l d t o o m u c h . She h a s b e e n t e l l i n g h e r p r o b l e m s t o t h e i n m a t e s . Discussing experiences, part of your personal l i f e i s okay, b u t i t s h o u l d be n o t h i n g they c a n g e t h o l d o f o r make a n y t h i n g o f . T e l l i n g y o u r problems i s going t o o f a r . I d o n ' t know why, but I j u s t f e e l t h a t i t i s . . I t h i n k y o u s h o u l d be f r i e n d l y , b u t y o u s h o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e i r r e s p e c t ... k e e p y o u r distance. I f they get too close they can take advantage o f y o u . I agree with not being f r i e n d l y w i t h them on t h e o u t s i d e . They w i l l use y o u v e r y q u i c k l y i f t h e y t h i n k they c a n . I heard a g i r l talking m a t r o n s h e d i d n ' t l i k e down l o o k i n g v e r y s l o v e n l y . The m a t r o n s a i d s h e was l o o k i n g do y o u t h i n k I b e l i e v e d h e r ? just going to.get a beer." There through of  seem  these  the fact  position,  t o be two g e n e r a l  observations.  that  either  i f staff by  about s e e i n g a on s k i d road, g i r l s a i d , "The f o r someone,.but I t h i n k s h e was  currents o f concern  F i r s t , there  place^themselves  "telling  running  i s a recognition i n a vulnerable  t o o much" o r b e h a v i n g  indiscreetly  134 on  the  being  " o u t s i d e " they ripe  requiring the  matron  to  tions. by  to  secure  or  this  and  occasional  of  a message" which  "kites"  which  thus  members, exist,  to  The  second  those  whom s h e  the  uprightness  the  proof  loss  of  result  must  will to  acity),  any  specialized  indication  that  to  by  an  individual  siders  to  be  the  orientation  to  good  life  life, a  by  and  be  f o r her training may  o r by very  be  morally  portrayal  who  general  great  threat  If  the  a  similar  within  the  inmates  begin  role.  moral  be  a  matron  i n some suspect  has  been  o f what  the  of  respect  skills  A.matron  staff  role.  upon h e r  or  is  employment.  guide  to  the  activities  the  that  right  who  other  authoritative  so h e a v i l y  she  of  to  some o f  corruption  significant  probably  inmate's  poses  with  direct  devastating repercussions.  either  be  assume t h e  rely  trusted  to terminate her  i n some  i s expected  be  "illegal"  legitimation  justification  than her  of her  descrip-  A matron  pitied  a  evidenced  of  of  both  is  context  time.  be  seems t o  behave  matron as  probably  "can  of  form  requiring  of v a r i o u s  who  to  the  inmates,  occur  i n the  time  required  "right"  (rather  have  a  to  question her  Because  from  concern  through  staff  position  take  o u t s i d e , or  contraband  appears  i f definite  i s found  the  f o r the  c o e r c i o n must  will  i s usually  institution, to  found  she  authority matron  are  exploited  but  to  reference to  deliver  being  messages  transport  type  i n the  T h i s b l a c k m a i l may  carry  institution  That  the  place themselves  for blackmail. a matron  within  may  she  capmay seduced con-  "rounder" to  the  legitimacy  135 of  the  p r i s o n as  epitome the  way  life, of  particular  also  be  the  A  inmate  or  about  type,  and  leave  ever  The  in  such her  evaluated,  say  matron with  who  a  be  (presumably  persuaded  i t i s not  does  tend  inmate  sharply  job.  i f she  to  in fact  to  group  suitable  nor  placement  is  to  other  the pursue  the  identify  as  a  with  whole  i s to  w i t h i n which  does  from  the  selves  not  no  i n any  must  remain  way  as  the  custodial  make  Staff  "matrons"  on  are  minimum  they  p u b l i c image  matrons of  as  their  a  work.  so  by  reformer,  at  easily Wo  one  type.  seeking  one  the  aside title  which  cannot to  and  the  in association  describe  have  the  "matron"  them-  identified  e l u c i d a t e by  to  Oakalla  from of  i f divorced  must  This  forced  this  connotations  expect  where  of  situation  The  members  They  be  i s not  members  work.  occupationally.  significant  sanctioned.  identity  themselves  act-  enforcement.  Staff  sense  and  a more  inadequacy  ineffectual  they  which  definitely  in descriptive  institution.  solely  of  occupational  lacking  of  strictly  with  Identity.  organization  role  cope  deviance  incompetence  because  than  have  quite  i t as  f o r an  Women's U n i t  singularly  violations  would  simply  tends  little  tolerate  Therapeutic  however,  institution  cannot  deviant  Occupational  of  member  can  that  the  rather  custodial  dismissed  requires  is  staff  sobriety)  i s to  institution  results  a  who  a  staff.  ually  is  If  and  life?  brought  The  to  whole.  conformity  deviant  better a  of  a  explaining  establishing  dependence  upon  any the  kind  136 institution public their no  identification very  market  private owned the  purposes  operative  of the role,  No o n e h i r e s  were  resulting  i n complete  services  a matron  the last  disbanded  to their  i n relation to  f o rt h e i r  not since  prisons  i n relation  have  for  of the privately  i n England  dependence  during  u p o n one  o f employment. matron  i n part,  previous  that  groups  because  recruits  training  before  of  between  staff  i nthis  currently  underwent becoming  diverse  a variety training  the role,  the Oakalla  a special  find  from  have  afield.  had previous of these  period  i n that  of training  and o f  n  mobility  and other Only  prisons,  two members i n  England  correctional  where  and o r i e n t a t i o n  they before  setting.  O C C U P A T I O N A L S T R A I N S AND  being  Because  i slittle  experience  came f r o m  group  of occupational  programs.  Women's U n i t  or further  training  a pseudo-profession  there  Occupational matrons  form  assuming  and both  VI  any s p e c i a l i z e d  o f "matronhocd  country  matrons  Matrons  at  standard o f  of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  on s t a f f  institutions,  identity,  she h a s no one s p e c i f i c  a r e drawn  represent  i s a lack  of occupational  and i s n o t g i v e n  employment.  which  either  i s stripped  training  following  there  but i s also  (atleast  century)  The  in  i s not merely  the prison.  and operated  source  them  performance outside  last  least  employing  Strains. a matron  There i s hard  REWARDS.  i s little work,  and  doubt  that  additionally  137 there  is a  belief  difficult, eral the  you  question  prevalent  are "Do  not you  that  doing  a  unless  good  think that  f o l l o w i n g comments  were  you  job.  being  do  In  a  find  your  reply  matron  to  work  the  gen-  i s a hard  job?"  made:  Yes I I f y o u a r e g o i n g t o be a g o o d s t a f f member i t i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t job. It's harder t o be a g r o u p m a t r o n t h a n "to be w o r k i n g on custody a s I am now, a n d h a r d e r t o b e a t e a m m a t r o n t o o ... Group work i s v e r y demanding. T h e r e i s a l o t o f l e g work, w a l k i n g up and down t h o s e h a l l s . Also i f the kids are tense, you'get tired. Sometimes I t h i n k you have done y o u r b e s t job o f w o r k w h e n y o u come o f f d u t y f e e l i n g you have a c h i e v e d a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g . I n o t h e r words i t s h o u l d n ' t be e a s y . As s o o n as y o u f i n d i t e a s i e r , you are not doing anything, not getting anywhere. Y o u s h o u l d r e a l l y be m e e t i n g d i f f i c ulties. Some o f physical skills in  demands  and  order  revolve the  kinds  to  around  staff  the  work,  and  others  of  knowledge  the  staff  adequately.  rather  because  neither having  which  of  and  western  nature  or  itself more  training  acute by  revolve  around felt  work  the  of  should  the  total  value  have  seem  to  by  institution conflicts,  supervisor is  being  supervised  -  some v e r y  number  experienced  or qualifications the  the  itself.  certain  those  around  "difficulties"  Within  when  the  they  strains  the  implies  legitimize  society  of  Norms.  himself nor  professional  In  the  Special  d e f i n e d by  Other  characteristic  become  authority to  "difficulties"  of  supervisory role  conflicts  lend  expressed  perform  General the  the  performance definite  which of  ideas  as  could  this and  role. ideals  138  are  in existence  w h i c h must  exist  legitimately essions  of  another.  and  with  privilege  body  or  violate under best  the  very  In infringe of ing  specific  the  the  of  personal history  of  the  m a t r o n may  with  enter  any  written  and  a l l letters  and  the  authority to  of  these  letters.  matron  any  two  between  inmates  associate with  judgements to  be  and  concerned  standards with  the  will  upon  poss-  oblig-  of  the  are  even  given  they  cannot  but  presumably  of  only  be  in  the  time,  may  for  purposes  knowledge  concern-  must  another,  and  read  formation  thus  i n her  censor  of  no  private  care, any  a l l con-  to. a l l o w  forcing  have  The  a l l letters  delivery  refuse  who  closely  the  inmates  similarly or  and  inmates,  withhold  activities  must  institution.  those  others  matron  observing  i n the  or  the  others,  and  inmates, one  the  another's  random,  individual  any  censor  The  And  deal  r e c e i v e d by  versations to  at  few  lawyers  however,  great  inmates  room  and  to  of mutual  very  p r i v a c y at  activities  other  a  can  of i n t e r p e r s o n a l  privacy of  privacy of a  daily  degree  doctors  custody,  to  their  one  ultimately.  access  attachments  has  of  before  type  only  the  relationship  claim access  activities.  client  physical  treatment"have  high  upon  and  the  familial  c o n d i t i o n s which  their  the  as  norms  interests  upon  scrutinizing of  of  or  loyalty,  such  affairs  prevailing  interest  the  i t s incumbent of  of  individuals  p r i v a c y of  infringing  personal  nature  two  Outside  employed of  the  any  the  expectations  professionally the  between  violate  relationships ations  concerning  certain  her  similar affairs  value right of  the  139  matron. Differential tion  i n legal  worthiness our  quence, guilt to  the  lack  both  accepted without  either  tution  or  to  these  In  mail  sent  addition, will  and  the  the  these  of  feelings  inmates  under  Is  performed bene-  w i t h i n the of  the  insti-  inmates.  of distaste  her  unable  of  particularly  rehabilitation her  conse-  patterns  t o be  security  in  strong  breaches  have  t o be  a  as,', s h e  usual  or  accept  As  quite  acts,  probably  proving  expressed to  forget  maintenance  welfare  matron  or  to  a matron.  performs  the  the  as  founda-  inferiority,  i s difficult  she  etiquette  to  and  i t s only  and  experience  consolation of  ficial  One  inmate  de-socialize  social  superiority  probably  i n society.  the  read  an  has  will  when  Immediately  of  which  of worthiness,  as  matron  feelings  operative  to  definitions  and  society,  accessibility  at  having  supervision:  The o n l y t h i n g I d o n ' t l i k e about t h e j o b i s having to read t h e i r m a i l . . . ( I ) . . . s o r t o f had a g u i l t y f e e l i n g about i n f r i n g i n g upon t h e i r p r i v a c y at f i r s t . She this  feeling  after she  of  "having  s t i l l  on  to  guilt  the  wool  say  that  pulled  uneasy  about  Another  source  of  community  of  deference  usually  fairly  she  concerning  felt  patterns  nity  went  and  their  over  reading  strain  managed  my  eyes  their  the  elderly  respectfully,  and  refer  to  over"  a few  spheres  times",  but  correspondence. around  whereby  address  "get  p r i v a c y i n some  revolves  demeanor  to  the  members them  as  the young  of  the  "Mr."  normal in  the  commuor  "Mrs."  rather  than  however, Young  by t h e i r  a l l inmates  matrons  rather  too;  system  older people  are given  with  the private  expected  or allowed  of the old.  counsel  and guide  because  of their  he a  also very  what  she should  between  the p r i v i l e g e  this  differences  individuals  of being  o f t h e young with  more  than  status.  the "older" a person  from  are  This  advises  to  i n age,  refutes  becomes  situation  the  the private  by c o n t r a s t , a r e expected  Inlegal  do, but a l s o  names.  the "wiser"  arises  i n which  a n o l d e r women a s t o  actually  places  ( t h einmate)  limits  on t h e  and r e q u i r e s  t h e o l d e r women w h i l e  certain  she i s  i n  institution. Because  role my  t o adopt  regardless of differences  not only  of behavior  Christian  Age  t o be c o n c e r n e d  o f t h e o l d e r woman  standards  enjoyed  The incongruous  young matron  behavior  the  that  becomes.  i td i f f i c u l t  Matrons,  inmates  t h e Women's U n i t ,  t o by t h e i r  matters  difference  g e n e r a l norm  Within  o f nomenclature.  the freedom  matters  the  find  determine  concerned young  names.  are referred  especially  "levelling"  usually  first  o f a matron,  age a g a i n s t  that enced less  she f e l t  one m a t r o n m e n t i o n e d  me.  t h e inmates  I don't  would  t o be u s e f u l  feel  t o them  o f how m u c h f o r m a l  credit,  the i n c o n g r u i t y o f h e r youth  inspire  was, i n t h i s  Matrons  apparently  "I f e e l  confidence."  s h e was t o o n a i v e i n effecting  training  which  that,  case, find  i n the I have  She  and i n e x p e r i -  rehabilitation,  and study  expected  regard  she h a d t o h e r  considerable.  i tdifficult  to unlearn  certain  general to  the  prison  formal much  norms  and  socialization  become  into  behavior  Custody  the  are  and  custodial  and  whether  she  to  show  view  group.  to  given  be  and  executing  ence  from  views  of  good  essary  the  could  to  whether  own  matron  strict she  the  will and  should  of  Autonomy  the  not  good  of  with  (according  periods  of  just  the  material, write  as  consistent to  make to  good  an  whether the  discipline  of means  treatment  for a  matron  or  in  to  for long  a  parti-  would  no  interfer-  prevailing detrimental unsupervised  opportunity illegal escape matron  each  have  arranging  nec-  notes,  plan. should  f o r misbehavior  "understand"  of  a  or  are  be  demands  group  privacy  provide  may  treatment  from  autonomy little  to  discussed  individual or  have  general  dilemma  imperative an  little  inappropriate.  w h i c h were  solve  is  when t h e  and  actually  attempt  be  apply  seem  conflicting  individual  forthcoming  arise  to  do  They  only  example,  degree  contraband  cases,  the  For  affairs  however,  there  matrons  c u s t o d i a l or  trust  conceivably  secure  problems  impose  this,  their  of  techniques  considerable  custody,  i n extreme  Other  do  the  norms  considered  i n and  because  Ideological conflicts  good  be  "therapy").  activity  or  To a  special  Inmates.  i t may  norms w h i c h  transition.  m a t r o n must  chose the  role,  because  the  confidence  cular  to  will  d e a l i n g with of  again,  this  therapeutic  Frequently  point  Once  Therapy.  additionally  above.  special  somehow p r o v e n  operative  of  by  the  i n making  r e c o n c i l e d to of  them  situation.  assistance  norms  replace  inmate,  or  giving  a more  individualized  dilemmas  such  oriented  matron  cussions  since  are  as  as  into  being  matron  the  will  some m o r e matron  be  rejected  as  a  she  role  as  the  good  good  rather  definite  good  of  success  or  of  of  R e j e c t i o n of i n which  case  which  personality and  the  matron  new of  the  the  of  The  she she  may as  rather  by  by  normally  rather  than  of  which who  are  inmates  and  may  in  fact  represents,  inadequacy  which  a  skill  specific  physical  and  experiences  intense nature  the  those  the  feel,  than  extreme  role  which  a matron  feelings  in  suggestion,  matron  the  success  skills  acceptance  the  are  socializathat  attribute  p e r s u a s i o n and  degree  that  lack  personality  result,  index  process  her some  measures  mandatory.  that to  reper-  measures  i t i s probable  S e l f - d o u b t s and  which  custodial  treatment  than  treatment-  significant  matron,  both  whole  for-the  the  certain  of the  and  mental are  prob-  strain  which  feels. Rewards  tion  time  a  and  Performance  of  a  occurs  attention.  particularly  while  i s not  those  probably  a  present  are  person.  fatigue ably  there  persuaded.  frequently  will  have  de-personalized " s k i l l " .  uses  involve  the  i s due  necessitates being  will  of  manifold,  desirable  feel  performance  are  mandatory,  Because tion  they at  d e f i n e d as  defined  these  type  f o r good  taking  more  sanctions.  of  the  service  frequently These  Occupation. are  seldom  than  latter  can  not be  Rewards concrete  the  form  i n the  from or  the  overt  institui n nature,  of  an  absence  form  of  verbal  of  H3 reprimands  from  the senior  staff  such  as being assigned t o poor  poor  work  work  performance  groups all  areas.  and work  and work  assignments,  a r e a s must  f o r the purpose  formance  have  were  discussed  primary ial  wages  training which  felt  them  consideration  pleased  feel  groups  or  between  fora l l shifts,  will  sanctioning  not always the poor  be  per-  matron.  i t gave than  earn elsewhere.  made  assignments  One f r a n k l y  at Oakalla  nature  a s s i g n e d t o them a t  by t h e m a t r o n s .  which  inmate  however,  the nature  motivating  subtle  c a n be drawn  experienced from  independence  better  poor  a matron  of negatively  of a particular  Rewards  shifts,  correlation  times, and the undesirable  made  or  No d i r e c t  o r o f a more  that  with their  that  with her  mentioned  h a d "done  day's  admitted that  She f e l t  she c o u l d ,  they  itself a  i n h e r w o r k was t h e f i n a n c -  her.  Others  o f t h e work  she e a r n e d particular  the specific  a good  day's  events  work"  work.  I used t o t h i n k on maintenance t h a t I h a d done a g o o d d a y ' s w o r k when t h e k i d s w e r e a l l e a g e r a n d h a p p y . t o w o r k f o r me. When t h e y h a d c l e a n e d up w e l l a n d t h e r e h a d been no h a r d f e e l i n g s o r no g r u m b l i n g - when e v e r y b o d y went home h a p p y . . . . I f y o u h a v e a g r o u p o f g i r l s and a r e w o r k i n g w i t h them i t i s e a s i e r t o h a v e a g o o d d a y . When t h e w o r k g e t s d o n e , y o u c a n see s o m e t h i n g h a s been a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e k i d s are a l l happy. I t ' s h a r d t o have a r e a l good day (when y o u d o n ' t h a v e a g r o u p ) . Both than  actual  inmates now.  matrons duties  indicated  who h a d a s s u m e d which  that  involved  they  A p p a r e n t l y a warm,  more  them  found t h e i r  friendly  administrative  directly work  duties  with the  less  social-emotional  satisfying climate  satisfies they this  most  have  staff  somehow  members, e s p e c i a l l y  been  i f they  feel  that  responsible f o r the production of  feeling. One m a t r o n m e n t i o n e d  relationship",  either  with  her pleasure an Individual  at "forming or with  a  a group:  When I h a v e r e a c t e d w i t h t h e w h o l e group, e i t h e r i n a positive or a negative sense. When I r e a l l y get through to a g i r l . When w o r k i n g w i t h G a i l I f e l t r e a l l y g o o d when I f i n a l l y g o t t h r o u g h t o h e r ... t h e g i r l d i s c o v e r s where she s t a n d s , who a n d w h a t I am. Matrons satisfactions the  involved i n vocational from  both  the realm  social-emotional realm  training  can glean  o f achievement,  and  their  from  thus:  When I h a v e c o - o p e r a t i v e s t u d e n t s who d o well. I don't r e a l l y f i t i n w i t h the r e a l l y d i s t u r b e d p e o p l e , I j u s t seem t o a n t a g o n i z e them. When I c a n w a l k d o w n t h e h a l l a n d e v e r y sick room i s n e a t a n d c l e a n , (when) t h e w h o l e a r e a i s q u i e t a n d u n d e r c o n t r o l , e t c . ... S o m e t i m e s l i k e w h e n a m a t r o n ( f r o m t h e J u v e n i l e home) s a i d M a r g a r e t was i n c a p a b l e o f l e a r n i n g , s h e came t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r working with h e r f o r f i v e y e a r s , a n d I was a b l e t o h a n d h e r a n e x a m p a p e r on w h i c h M a r g a r e t p r o v e d h e r s e l f v e r y capable of l e a r n i n g . Rewards coming managed  from  and s a t i s f a c t i o n s  reports of former  to avoid  were  inmates  continuing i n their  also  felt  t o be  forth-  who h a d a p p a r e n t l y delinquent  career  pat-  terns . When a g i r l c a n come t o me a n d s a y s h e i s g o i n g t o make a c h a n g e f o r t h e b e t t e r , t h a t s h e I s g o i n g t o make a n e f f o r t . .. B u t w h e n t h e y r e a l l y t r y , e s p e c i a l l y ' s o m e o n e we h a v e t h o u g h t was h o p e l e s s . Or i f y o u h e a r t h e y a r e d o i n g f i n e on t h e o u t s i d e .  145 When a g i r l w r i t e s i n a n d s a y s s h e i s s t i l l o u t , s t i l l b e h a v i n g , a n d I u s u a l l y know i f they are l y i n g . O r when I g e t a p h o n e c a l l from them. Many following their  their  pleased an  release,  as to  well  as  receive  indication  other"  to  the  at  the  similar  generally  their  that  inmate  Matrons  is  and  they  a  their  calling,  to help  on  relaying  their their  the  and  difficulties  and  are  probably  really  institution  whereabouts  Matrons  calls,  have  at  become  always  because a  this  "significant  involved.  Women's U n i t to  members  report  and  COMMITMENT  view  staff  triumphs.  letters  VII  work  write to  a c t i v i t i e s , frequently  mistakes  is  inmates  TO  THE  attachment  OCCUPATION  or  differently. although  people,  not  commitment Some f e e l  the  "calling"  necessarily  to  the is  in this  their work  rather particular  setting: I f e e l my w o r k i s a c a l l i n g , a d e s i r e t o help people. I t ' s a career too, of course, but i t i s more o f a c a l l i n g . T h i s f e e l i n g i s toward people i n general. I don't mind where i t i s , or w i t h whom I d e a l s o l o n g a s I am d o i n g something to h e l p people. One vocation ific  task  task  and  of  the  matron viewed  and at the  task.  calling, hand, nature  the of  her  work  depending  a  combination  upon t h e  particular the  as  rewards  strains gained  nature  of  implicit from  of the in  job, specthe  performance  146 There are days I f e e l l i k e a J a c k - o f - a l l trades, and master o f none. I unplug sinks, fix e l e c t r i c p l u g s , e t c . , b u t i f I were p a i d t e n t i m e s a s much, a n d i f I w e r e n ' t h a p p y i n t h i s , I c o u l d n ' t do i t . T h e demands, t h e t h i n g s i t d o e s t o me e m o t i o n a l l y a r e t e r r i f i c . ... B u t t h e n I r e a l i z e t h a t m a y b e I . d o a l i t t l e m o r e s o m e t i m e s t h a n i s c a l l e d f o r , a n d I know the government c e r t a i n l y d i d n ' t w r i t e a l o t o f t h i n g s i n t o t h e c o n t r a c t I s i g n e d with them. So i s i t a j o b , a c a l l i n g , a v o c a t i o n ? I t ' s just a combination. I r e a l l y can't imagine b e i n g happy any o t h e r p l a c e . I n my o t h e r j o b s I h a v e a l w a y s d r e a m e d o f some o t h e r t y p e o f work; a dream j o b . I t ' s a l i t t l e b i t o f e v e r y t h i n g , and I see i t as such. Those features  who  of a  some t a n g i b l e people" their  matrons. least goals,  calling  their  of their  and/or Their  work  seem t o f e e l  contribution to  because  life  consider  that  they  the general  specific  institutional  goals  t o have  are high,  but they  from  Others  less  by t h e work,  interesting exchange  of "helping  they  job well  of  becoming had at  t o achieve  satisfactions inspired  t o make  before  and t o g a i n were  a  are able  and because  feel  some o f t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s n e c e s s a r y  some  goal  training,  experience  at least  their  done.  but found i t  a n d c h a l l e n g i n g , a n d w o u l d n o t be w i l l i n g  to  i t f o r another:  Do y o u m e a n how c o m m i t t e d am I ? I enjoy i t , a n d w o u l d m i s s i t i f a n d when I do l e a v e . At times I g e t t i r e d o f i t because i t gets very f r u s t r a t i n g , but I don't e x a c t l y f e e l d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p o i n t . w h e r e I f e e l we a r e r e a l l y reforming people, o r making great strides. I l o o k f o r w a r d t o coming t o work, and v e r y s e l dom i f e v e r come a n d am b o r e d b y w h a t g o e s o n a r o u n d me. I which  would r a t h e r work t h e r e t h a n a t a i s w h a t I was t r a i n e d f o r . I. l i k e  hospital nursing  U7 b u t I t h i n k I w o u l d work f o r much l e s s pay a t O a k a l l a . .1 w o u l d n ' t c h a n g e O a k a l l a f o r more money. I c a n ' t s e e w h e r e I c o u l d go a n d be a s h a p p y a n d a s - i n t e r e s t e d a s I am t h e r e , w h e r e i t w o u l d n ' t be j u s t a j o b a f t e r a w h i l e . I l o o k f o r w a r d to going t o work. I f e e l l i k e a d e d i c a t e d o l d mother. I w o u l d n ' t s a y i t was a c a l l i n g , b u t I l i k e i t . I'm m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s t h a n i n a n y o t h e r j o b I've had . . . I r e a d u p o n my job here, books-on p s y c h o l o g y and c r i m i n o l o g y .  ience,  All  had  some t r a i n i n g  but  found  previous  roles  to  former  their  There and  were  they  previous  a m a t r o n more  had  played.  In  occupational role  able  to  be  as  much  as  to a  institution  their  sense  rather they  liking  they  than  had  experthan  were  the •  adding  abandoning i t .  been  trained for,  more. All  and  being  and  with  of  the  their  own  less  satisfied,  that  they  are  above  seem w e l l  contribution  however,  and  disillusioned  to  feel and  satisfied the  with  prison.  frustrated  their Others  to  plan eventually  the to  work are  point leave  the  work: At f i r s t I had the f e e l i n g t h a t e v e n t u a l l y I would f i n d myself i n the job. Well I found m y s e l f a l l r i g h t , and f o u n d I had n o t h i n g . I j u s t can't c o n t r i b u t e enough t o s t a y i n the f i e l d . I'm s o m u c h o f a b a b y s i t t e r a n d s o l i t t l e o f a n y thing else. I t was a w o r t h w h i l e e x p e r i e n c e . , h o w e v e r . . . . I'm d i s i l l u s i o n e d now, so a t p r e s e n t i t i s j u s t a j o b ... i f y o u c o u l d r e a l l y learn g r o u p w o r k a n d d e v e l o p y o u r s e l f i n t o some s o r t o f a s c i e n t i f i c t o o l , i t w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e . There a r e s o many s t o n e w a l l s , y o u a r e j u s t b u c k i n g a l l t h e t i m e ... I f e e l c o m p l e t e l y i n c o m p e t e n t a s a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p e r s o n i n a more s c i e n t i f i c sense. The come  into  above the  comment  work  is typical  convinced  of  the  of  those  validity  matrons of  who  have  permissiveness  and  supportiveness as p r a c t i c e s  ation able  o f inmates.  education and have  but  have  the  specific  goals, to  training  and have  Because custodians, their  such  they  these  philosophy  matrons  matron a  from  insulated. physically dispel her  therefore, her  work,  Presumably fit,  which  unique  and f i g u r a t i v e l y , shield  S h e may w i s h  position,  she would  from  than  n o t compromise t o abandon  of public  and,  and understanding of  t o work u n d e r  the p u b l i c  gaze.  t o a c t as she sees  any g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  for her actions.  a r e misunderstood  concerning  t o experiment  support  both  does n o t wish t o  ignorance  g r e a t e r freedom  t o have  that the  are systematically  t h e community  g r e a t e r freedom  like  but i s not w i l l i n g  h e r work  other  f o r she i s employed by  and the matron  but she i s n o t w i l l i n g  and  Unit.  i t was f o u n d  activities  desire .greater p u b l i c  general public  and support  OBSERVATIONS  Prisons are isolated  the  little  compelled  In general  her daily  the protective  work.  SUMMARY  t o Society.  i s i n a rather  public  feel  lack  role.  VIII  Relations  become  They  rehabilitative  guidance  ( a n d o t h e r s who w i l l  o f reformation)  occupational  their  a t t h e Women's  have  sciences,  as t h e r a p i s t s .  the necessary  they  t o reform-  had consider-  i n the social  t o pursue  practices  find  are essential  matrons have  training  essential  n o t found  with  these  specialized  n o t h a d any a c t u a l  experiment  this  Typically  which  The matron  by s o c i e t y ,  feels  t h a t she  but she does  little  to  rectify  her  work  the  to  casual  conversation clients she  situation.  she  rather  than t h e i r  herself  of her  prone  the  the  inmates  inmates  demands this in  to the  t o do  to-day  cells  that  part  ment  or  in active  and  The  playing  The  matrons  In  private  justifying  way  of  success i n  in  her  a of  very  of  her to  actually  (because  actually  group.  To  arrival  programs,  deviance, or to not  ratio  of matrons  this  threat  the  must  punish-  to  activity  will  again  have  with  to  expectation shell  inmates  to  effect  because  protective  com-  and  adverse  the high  the  the  as  somehow  before they  i t an  merely s i t  either  they  permeate  justify  prevalent  which  with  custodial  t o work  entirely  partially  expects  until  contact  carries  meet  somehow  f o r " inmates  are  the  is a belief  t h e many h o u r s  of  with  she  presumably,  their  There  relationship  Because  must  could,  of  inmates  close  matron's  comply  she  strenuously,  institution), may  date  f o r past  free.  Inmate  and  features  The  recreational  be  matrons  work  abnormal  complex.  inmates  sentences.  such helps to f i l l  the  as  lack  status,  the  as  in  the  possibly  i t i s somehow " g o o d  rehabilitation.  the  stress  about  i s engaged  features.  abnormal  than merely  The  repayment  working  she  more  Inmates.  social  from  of t h e i r  take  when  to talk  of her  rather  more  expectation.  pletion  like  the normality  peers) her  i s also  of t h e i r  their  not  prisoners.  Relations to  to  clients,  (and t o h e r  reforming  does  a c q u a i n t a n c e s , and  stresses  i s much more  work and  She  inmates that  of  corrupt  the  the the  150  authority  of  the  matrons seem  inmates  and  staff  whereby  the  inmates  ional at  activities  such  atimes  scrutiny), matrons with at  their  least  just be  will  solely  not  to  tasks  of  the  ation.  The  an  work and the  unwritten to  matrons does  the  inmates  The  matron  who  are  f o r imprisonment  at  and  Matron. the  control  requirements,  further  administration  can  be  are  Along an  internal  these  expectation that  reform  inmates,  ultimately this  the  purpose  groups  within  o r d e r and  commensurate with  there  can  objective  and most  this  should  is  the  are  task  divided  matron  can  the  must  only  at  to  i s at  into  and  the  a l l times of  the  the  one  extent  finds  attempt  least  small,  to  verbally,  institution.  presumably  reform-  procedures.  a l l times  the  priority  extension,  requirements  of  actual  inmates  custodial  at  the  objectives  pursued  consideration  important  by  control)  good  custodial  matrons  t h e .Inmates which  with  of  the  (and  and  they  into  perhaps  that  indicated  of  consideration,  that  is  i f the  Women's U n i t  internal  custodial  the  but  the  tampering  i s seduced  Examination  be  or  that  deviant.  of  staff  by  imprisonment caught,  recreat-  public  disrupt  that  in  embarrassment  understanding  agreement  matron  first  part  from  The  agreement  come u n d e r  requirements the  take  them.  the  or values.  of the  custody  bargain with  with  f o r those  Tasks  the  two;  further  a  at  institution  i s done  outward  cure  to  saves  justification  The  of  this  punishment  little  the  making  arrive  agree  attitudes  an  to  (which  as  but  by  For  homogeneous  perform  the  151 requisite  therapeutic functions.  Two  O r i e n t a t i o n s to  primary  orientations  be  as  seen  two  two. s t y l e s  primary  views  rehabilitation inmates  must  society, lesson  to  or  of  and  that  i s to  of  type  not  of  concerned  may  philosophy  based  on  seems  to  be  a  the  most  efficient  adherence  to  prison.  and  object  subtler  strict  -  imposed  rules  of  the  with  this  and  matron  overt  admini-  high  achievement  of  by  supporting the and  to  that  teaching  obedience  i n the  deals  of  concern  system  demanding  control the  rather The  lessons  means  related  belief  w i t h i n the limitations  with  These  first  live  social  two  The  requirements  This  be  rehabilitation.  p e r p e t u a t i n g the  as  matron.  to  demand  work  the  to  are  of  of  of  seem  which  becomes  ards  role  There  role  w i t h i n the  strative  Role.  p l a y i n g the  regulations one  the  reform  learn  the  of  stand-  reformation.  behavior,  and  underlying motivational  is  aspects  5 of  deviant  behavior.  The belief  that  attitudes be  second  inmates  and  tion  the  standing  of  1951,  before  seen  to  be  any  reformation a  the  important This  and  concern  Parsons,  The  Social  System,  on  a  in  behavior support  than  underlying motivational aspects  p.299.  change  i n overt  permissiveness more  i s founded  fundamental  change  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system.  ^Talcott Press,  are  of  undergo  Understanding,  individual of  must  beliefs  achieved.  the  philosophy  can  of  perpetuawith  of  Glencoe,  under-  the The  Free  152  deviant's a means  behavior  of  i s , according  breaking  through  the  to  Parsons,  more  vicious-circle  effective  pattern  as  of  6 deviance.  And  presumably  the  been involved  in  a pattern  that  attempts  at  controlling  only  i n driving It  matrons  i s not  and  as  seem  against  to  the  permitted  fact  (and  general  patterns  usefulness favours  of  motivations The  of  and  standards  rated.  of  her  have  the to  or  therapy, of  succeeded  have her  own  modus  the  own  matron  operandi,  c o n t r o l on  overt  behavior,  in  the  to i s  philosophy  seems  change  con-  "goodness"  i s merely  i n which  to  cus-  these  implicit  objective  fact  norm.  for  group  a basic  the  categorize  One  to  the  favour the  above the  other  attitudes  and  Inmates. i s given  in  i s intended  institution, any  found.  goals,,  performance  which  were  about  study  setting  expected)  normally  a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m or  The  this  devise  the  away f r o m  this  of  years. in  behavior  connotations  to  matron  rehabilitative own  acquired  imposing  bringing  further  c r i m i n a l has  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  overt  permissiveness  that  and  his  dimensions  perhaps  corrections  activity  i n t e n t i o n of  "badness* i n recent  point  of  to  to have  of  deviant  the  according  todialism cepts  the  convicted  and  this to  the  little has  training  difficulty  regard.  f o s t e r the  There  Although  the  absence  Parsons,  The  Social  achieving  evaluating close  rehabilitative  against of  in  i s no  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has  excellence  in  which  these  System,  not  p.  set  299.  of in  performance  standards  of  her  supervision  goals out  these  the detail could  excellence  be  153 (with  regard  designed the  to  to  rehabilitation)  permit  absence  of  such  administration. really  that  the  best  this  matrons  but  i n actual  The  matron  feels  her  inmate  group;  and  energy  spent,  any  failure  assume to  as  the  the  left  they  this  free  does  to  have  particularly  produce with  to  massive  numbers  the  merits  policies  those  the  with  a  comfortable  to  seems  approach.  the  saw  the  f i t ,  case. with time  attribute  imposed  inmates.  by  She  Institution, both  respect. by  either.  something  cannot  her  must  and  peers  Unable  to  appealing to  is and  support  admini-  successes  gained  by  doomed  become  more  She  can  to  then  at  not  least  g r e a t e r degrees  use and  justify of  com-  i s such  that  charges.  concern  f o r basic  matron  from  either  pointing  do  of  the  e x a c t i n g g r e a t e r and  moment  on  by  the  i n her  her  At  concern  or  technique,  from  in this  permissiveness  e x i s t e n c e by  pliance  fails  be  limitations  of  the  presume  show f o r h e r  she  results  and.evaluation  s u p e r i o r s i f she  to  to  since  criticism  her  as  seem t o  something  to  her  act  considerable pressure  contend  custodial  to  not  of  reformation  be  requirements  more  of  would  custodial  this  part  might  the  of  the  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n one  f u l f i l  strative  on  interpret  of  to  of  matrons  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does  goal  having  subject  the  failure  that  attain  been p u r p o s e f u l l y  lack  practice  to  have  freedom,  standards  They  k n o w how Given  individual  may  the  structure  of  for controlling  morning changes  (work)  the  prison  overt  shift,  in attitudes  behavior  and  feel  those most  feel with  most a  comfortable  154 working  on  migration in  and  accordance  appear  that  greater  there  then  be  the  ually  to  (socialization)  shift.  Given  attraction  of  the  main  with  basic orientation  at  moment  toward  i s toward  work  abandoned, shift  working  on  become more  there  staff  to  i s , even  demanding  that  (even and  may  the  two  to  on  the  the  compliance  on  that  remain  the  over the  the  the  relatively shift,  with  more  they  securing  One  shift)  components  would on  permissive tend  control  and  shift,  would  working  would  i t would  inmates  permissive  matrons  shifts  afternoon  from  afternoon  although  morning  concerned  time  this  role,  allowing f o r permissiveness.  predict  matron's be  their  the  led to  afternoon those  afternoon  pressure  than  of  the  gradthe  than  actually overt  com-  pliance . Under these there who  circumstances  i s some e v i d e n c e  were  unable  permissiveness matron  to  support  compromise  would  entirely.  to  be  one  Powelson  the  their  f o r c e d to and  would  also  fact)  belief  abandon  Bendix  expect  that  those  i n the the  have  (and matrons  merits  role  of  reported  of  the a  similar  7 finding  in their  study  psychiatrists  as  and  philosophy  in  custodial that  setting.  were  of  As  prison psychiatrists.  able  soon  to  of as  accept  the the  the  Only  custodial  prison could  remain  those  regime happily  non-authoritarian  H a r v e y Powelson and R e i n h a r d Bendix, "Psychiatry i n P r i s o n ' , ' i n A r n o l d M. . R o s e , e d . , M e n t a l H e a l t h „ a n d M e n t a l D i s o r d e r s , New Y o r k , ¥ . W. N o r t o n a n d Co:i I n c . , 1955, pp.1+59  1+81.  psychiatrists between practise  "become:aware  -  Custody  and  "  of the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e  Psychiatry"  8  they  leave  conflict  the prison  to  elsewhere.  Powelson  and  Bendix,  "Psychiatry  i n Prison",  p.  I+73*  CHAPTER V I  WOMEN A S  One  o f t h e more  information has as  been  been  t h e apparent  by  with  focused  Pollak most  ently  that  attention  extent  Further  to this,  press  court  charges  there  are then Is very  deviance i s  carried good  agencies  indicate. of crimes  less  easily  women  frequ-  o u t b y men."*"  reason  toward  to believe  women  pre-  and law courts tot h e  to incarceration with  a female  against her.  male  apparent,  the types  attitude  leading  t o warn  she i s seldom  become  b y men, a n d t h a t  t o be l e n i e n t  be c o n t e n t  formal  which  stage  committed  b y women a r e u s u a l l y  law enforcement a t every  o f t h e male  records  out that  reasons,  t o which  o f female  the o f f i c i a l  chivalrous  a g r e a t e r tendency  frequently  Incidence  committed  crimes  that  the nature  I t has recently  pointed  instigate  within  upon  of the institutions  committed  crimes  f o r practical  of the offences habitually  greater than  than  has,  exclusively  the traditional  vails  in  by men.  and o t h e r s have  detected  is  committed  the actual  frequently  sphere  the incidence o f crimes  are banished.  considerably  i n the legal  b y women  almost  that  deviance  low rate  men a n d t h e n a t u r e  however,  f o r the dearth of  committed  the nature  offenders  reasons  o f crimes  and p u b l i c  offender,  obvious  concerning female  compared  Academic  CAPTIVES  women.  there  Police  offender rather  I f a women d o e s  c o n v i c t e d on. h e r f i r s t  O t t o P o l l a k , T h e C r i m i n a l i t y o f Women, U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1950, p . 1 5 1 .  will than  appear  appearance  Philadelphia,  before than  a magistrate.  prison  women t h a n are of  terms  similar usually  men  when  they  for  receive  prison  imprisonment  accompanies f o r men.  i s viewed  men, t h e m o r a l  than  by  less  to  forgive.  punitive  facilities  expected  ideals  Society  f o r imprisoned  integration  positive  less  from  willing  The nature rather  be l e s s  primary  with  greater among  society  among  of this  milieu  men,  closely  aspires. less  and a r e expressed  by overtly  but a greater reluctance  t o permit  grounds, but  social re-  of t h e male  physical  surroundings  of the f i r s t  study  within  offender  of the probable  offender  f a v o u r a b l e f o r women t h a n  concern  of the social than  which  In spite  f e a t u r e s o f more p l e a s i n g  presumably,  social  i s deviance  offender than  prison.  women  t o p r o v i d e more e l a b o r a t e  prognosis f o r rehabilitation  then,  i s probably  women o n h u m a n i t a r i a n  o f t h e female  release  and  are characterized  procedures,  i swilling  that  sentence.  t o r e p r e s e n t , more  and r e j e c t i o n ,  legal  then  respect, deviance  toward  delinquency  a t t h e same t i m e ,  following  In this  are levied,  f o r men c o n v i c t e d  of prestige  much more h a r s h l y t h a n  by d i s g u s t  live  first  when t h e y  i n deviant h a b i t s than a r e  which  fear  the  established  their  to convicted  be a r g u e d  the loss  t o female  the  well  sentences: r a t h e r  given  given  On t h e o t h e r h a n d  Reactions  is,  those  I t might  women a r e somehow  than  sentences,  than  more f i r m l y  women t h a n  women  severe  offences.  are  for  less  and suspended  a r e more f r e q u e n t l y  men, a n d p r i s o n  usually  status  Pines  f o r men.  i s , however,  which  speculations concerning  female their  would  with  prisoners social  prognosis. reference of  The w r i t e r has r e l i e d derived  Captives  and  adapt  by Gresham  t o determine  t o t h e pains  I.  The inmates the  most  maximum  THE DEPRIVATION  p a i n f u l aspect  the institution  by  default  become of  rather  inmates.  severed  members than  therefore,  ally  individuals will a period  of time,  situation  outside  the  that  point  a  brief  A  few requests  who  wish  In  such  of a prison  resented.  a period  occurs  t h e demands  t o withdraw  from  i s the  of t h e nature  b e made  I t i s true  members  admission  of activity that  occasion-  when t h e i r  h a s become  of l i f e  i n terms  t o t h e Women's  only  of institutional  f o r temporary  Unit  life  intolerable to  living  would  provide  on t h e " o u t s i d e " .  have  come f r o m  addicts  n a r c o t i c s , b u t who d o n o t h a v e t h e  or the will-power  instances,  Jersey,  and do n o t w i l l i n g l y  a s k t o be a d m i t t e d but t h i s  f o r the  s o c i e t y become  w h i c h must  the institution  r e s p i t e from  facilities  New  Regardless  achievement,  deeply  experience  as f o rt h e inmates o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p a t t e r n s  are,  for  women  2  at Trenton,  The s a c r i f i c e s  social  book T h e S o c i e t y  o f imprisonment  liberty.  t h e frame o f  OP L I B E R T Y  Women's U n i t ,  of personal  of  i nhis  imprisonment.  security prison  deprivation  Sykes  t h e ways i n w h i c h  of  of the Oakalla  h e a v i l y upon  necessary  i fpermission  t o do sp on t h e i r  i s granted  own.  by t h e Warden,  Gresham Sykes, The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, pp.63-10tS.  Princeton,  159 the  individual  leave  again  those  i n which  a  becomes  at  period of  will. the  time  a  guest  Such  of the  cases  inmate must  which has  can  institution, scarcely  remain  been  i n the  arbitrarily  and  can  be. c o m p a r e d institution  designated  with for  by  the  court s. The only the  through approval  tion of  the  to  right  one  good  reason  than  four  letters noon.  to  of  the  Sunday  f o r making  letters  This  not  be  ruling  control  institution.  are  allowed  is  may  be  her  defence  censored  by  i n the the  to  be  to  Unless  any  one  time  m a t e r i a l s and who  are  to write  necessary courtroom.  to  the  or  there  is a  ruling  than  to  a f t e r n o o n Group Matron,  then  the  sent in  by  the  afterrecord-  from  the  the  a week,  letters  each  more  Sunday  to  policy  very  facilitate  inmate  A l l outgoing  no and  letters  the  continuation  four letters  letters  allow  also  general  waiting t r i a l  two  encourage  detrimental to  The  other  to  institu-  to  i t  inmate,  designed  subject  The  but  "bad"  write  any  presumably  inmates  are  world  relationships  prohibit  exception to the  allowed  outside  i s anxious  involved.  inmates  an  are  this  to  inmate  of w r i t i n g  Those  and  afternoon.  Women's U n i t felt  felt  w r i t t e n at was  and  i s possible,  discourage are  of which  of m a i n t a i n i n g  f a r as  a l l sentenced  may  and  so  the  institution.  circumstances  which  every  both  the  difficulty  these  interests  allow  month,  ing  the  contact with  visits,  censorship of  relationships best  maintain  and  relationships  reserves  is  and  worth under  the  can  letters  recognizes  "good"  of  inmates  as i t prepare  must  be  censor  in  the Main  Gaol.  name, n o t h i n g tion  enough,  case  with  write  While there  mail  matron  from  unsuitable, will  The  inmate  i s a l l placed until  another  mail  inmate. for  into  lost  contact  tion  this  which  they  regulation inmates from  into  either  three  months  the inmate's  the institution.  from  will  with  relatives  are able  t o maintain  rather  bitterly  limits with  wonder  what  can do, p a r t i c u l a r l y  discharged  be " o n t h e s t r e e t  inmates  t h e number the outside  harm  a card have  will who  be  have  the instituof contacts world.  grievance  i fthey  mail  which has  correspondence  of considerable  where  n o t be d e l i v e r e d  and f r i e n d s o u t s i d e  severely  i s t h e source  their  must  t o be  the prison.  Mail  And f o r those  limitation  a friend  "effects"  i f she h a s r e c e i v e d  or female  before  Unit,  who a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e  institution  male  writ-  i n t h e Main  a t t h e Women's  her "effects".  penal  from  w h i c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n by a r e c e n t l y  Friends,  at least  allowed  with  which a r e  the censor  t h e day she i s r e l e a s e d  been  will  ironic-  i snot the  correspondents  the mail  h a s n o way o f k n o w i n g  from  Such  please.  either  correspondents  diverted  nor  undesirable  censoring  which has been sent  t othe  t h e women may,  and s t i p u l a t i o n s  do n o t p a s s  those  remain  be d e t r i m e n t a l  i s u n r e s t r i c t e d as t o quantity  restrictions  t o discourage  or-the  the institu-  mail.  L e t t e r s which  Gaol  might  i s m e n t i o n e d by  concerning  i sdivulged,  incoming m a i l  are certain  designed ing.  which  t o whomever t h e y  incoming  inmate  i s mentioned  of the institution  ally  it  derogatory  and no i n f o r m a t i o n  custody  and  P r o v i d i n g no o t h e r  or  This  and t h e letter  associated  with to  one a n o t h e r t h e friend's Men  relatives if  both  are allowed  resulting  from  from  such  of policy letters  are legally  currently  than a  legal  nor v i s i t s  the  designed  romances"  i s an u n f a i r between  process  n o t make  merits  of each  b u t many  Unless  one  another  of the marital  there  are of  are  children  the relationship  during  a  resulting  discussion,  categorical  case  One  more  such  as a  inmate that  couple,  Although of  t h e inmates  i n unnecessary  ruling,  a  the development  incarceration,  couples.  group  between  relationship.  to discourage  ruling  some  of a  should  with  are allowed  was  anxiety  and v i s i t  are blood  i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  the  this  o r who  union,  of the duration of their  "gaol-house  prior  i n t h e Women's U n i t  regardless policy  married  status.  common-law  o f months  gaol.  a t t h e same t i m e ,  of those  rather  the  t o correspond  are i n prison  common-law  Neither  release  a n d women who  relationships  matter  continuously f o r a period  feel  worry  and  has observed, i n  the  institution  but should  consider the  closely.  There have been g i r l s i n here t h a t have c o m m o n - l a w h u s b a n d s down b e l o w t h a t h a v e b e e n w i t h them o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , n o t months not a romance o f any k i n d . S t i l l , they are n o t a l l o w e d t o v i s i t them because t h e y haven't a marriage l i c e n c e t o produce. But something s h o u l d be done t o l o o k i n t o t h i n g s l i k e t h a t a n d a l l o w t h e m t o v i s i t , t o make s u r e i f i t ' s on t h e l e v e l o r o t h e r w i s e . Because t h a t g i r l i s g o i n g t o worry h e r whole time i n h e r e . Visits monthly have  between  o n Sunday  been  approved  inmates  mornings  at Oakalla take  i n the Main  f o rwriting  Gaol,  and v i s i t i n g  place  once  f o r those privileges.  who The  162  visitors speak to  are separated  t o one a n o t h e r  twenty  the  minutes,  Unit: most  as are those  visits,  frequent  by a g l a s s  These  i n which  main  types  visits  w a l l and are  outsiders  of v i s i t s  table visits  limited  come t o  of these,  screen  visits,  o f t h e main  building.  any inmate  are "screen  visits"  The  behind  a wire  visitor's one t i m e ,  visits. for  room  concern,  visitor,  only  i s always  For either  only  once  only  twenty  will  screen  may  four  or five  also  or table v i s i t s ,  Visitors  p r o v i d i n g they  i s an a v e r a g e  Inmate, may  visitors  i s no  cause  to "table  visits"  barrier.  Still  t h e inmate  be p r e s e n t  guest.  to supervise the  there  graduate  i n the  t h e inmate  her  that  The  visits  with  present  between  a month f o r each  minutes.  Sunday,  inmates  i s allowed  and a matron  come  There  talking  few  which  the necessity of the screen  p h y s i c a l contact  except  The f i r s t  I f the administration f e e l s  eliminate  visit.  while  visits.  a r e conducted  during  c a n accommodate  and a matron  custodial  which  screen  a t t h e Women's  and f a m i l y  Room  sits  no  by t e l e p h o n e s .  are three  screen  Visiting  at  the inmates  institution. There  of  from  and h e r  throughout visitors  a n d may  the may  visit f o r  come a n y d a y o f t h e w e e k  phone  o f two o r t h r e e  first visits  f o r an  appointment.  scheduled  every  day. Family table the  visits  immediate  visits  a r e much  less  b u t a r e , a s t h e name family,  including  formal  screen  or  implies, restricted  to  children.  than  On  special  occasions  such  carefully  screened  their have  presence been  vision are  by t h e s t a f f  eighteen years as v i s i t o r s  their  children  however,  will  f a i l  often  birthdays munity.  and  frequently  provide in  of giving  prison  home  their  care  reports  and photographs  religious  similar children  motives  children  time  busily  while  the care have  which  their  they  letters  demanding children. -  i n the  negligence they  institution i n relation may  themselves  Although  spent  a n d many  f o rtheir  while  require  and  The time  however,  concerning  imprisonment.  individuals  to interfere  writing  Many  offenders are  children.  f o rtheir  kind.  a r e i n t h e com-  i n t h e community;  f o r zealously  during their  same  habitual  that  t h e Women's  f o r the welfare  they  of and a t t e n t i o n remark  into  o r observe  for reflection,  t o compensate  duties  many  f o r these  offenders often  they: endeavour  children  that  guests  are i n prison.  these  when  super-  Children  of this  concern  authorities  spend  to  their  true  mothers  Habitual  are sent,  and t h e i r  visits  out that  invitations  a r e s e r v e d , and  themselves  anniversaries  provides time their  grave  they  point  welfare  foster  refreshments  express  It i s quite  incapable  they  Inmates  f o r family  to visit  or other  As the  o f age a r e n o t a l l o w e d  while  observers,  before  send out  requesting  provided f o r the children.  except  inmates  families  visits.  Is minimal.  a r e sometimes  t h e inmates  to their  two-hour  t o mix f r e e l y ,  Most of  at these  of the v i s i t s  favours  Unit  invitations  screened  allowed  under  as E a s t e r and Christmas  have  with  their  more r e s p o n s i b l e  members by  of society  women who  dren to  the anguish  they  may  themselves,  their  own  must  child  the  I f the child  they  within  mother  General are  Hospital  period keep  prove  face  will  will  own  i n the best  children. interest  relinquishing  placed  delivery,  of t h e i r  refer  from  may  children, t o them  to welfare  home.  Mothers  period i n  f o rthe child  that  by t h e  such  a  trial  allowed to  admit most  policy  mothers  difficult workers  this  from  t h e community  places an  find  i nt h e as  "baby  snatchers". Isolation  time  the Vancouver  trial  are never they  their  a t which  i n a foster  unlikely  Although  child  f o r the  be e n t r u s t e d t o t h e m  of a l l rights  and r e s e n t f u l l y  authorities  are separated from  f i t t o care  a n d many  of  additional  and care  a t h r e e month  , i t i shighly  be s u c c e s s f u l ,  an  welfare  t o keep  following  t o pass  claim  be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e  mothers  themselves  of the child  F o r many  their  extreme  days  and h e r baby  required  must  care  welfare.  five  of or  chil-  t o be d e l i v e r e d  i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e Women's U n i t  they  before  the  four  genuine.  t o most.  and e x p e c t  will  maternal  f o rtheir  custody  tragic  a l l o w t h e mother I n any e v e n t ,  frequently  which  Is  will  of losing  expressed  i s quite  provisions  incarceration  home  of t h e i r  b y some  i s illegitimate,  a proper  herself.  babies  are pregnant  o f concern  conscious  adequate  i s indeed  during their  be a s s u r e d  before  n o t make  children  babies  dilemma.  the s i n c e r i t y  experienced  t h e thought  Women who their  doubt  are not consistently  obligations, Although  may  additional  165 hardship  on those  who  are addicted  narcotics,  f o r these  Aside  the psychological  from  narcotic loss. must  addicts  The contact  loss  with  rejection  by  which  society  as well,  ment,  or  trips  which  which  inmates.  to  society.  the loss  of  o f goods and  living,  i t also  As Sykes  society,  they  they  membership  new  may  has  implies  observed,  but i s rejected to this  learn  have  rejec-  offender  the loss  concomitant o f t h e i r new  tours  t o make  be e a s i l y  with  social  i s fraught  some  her rejectors  The S o c i e t y  status.  of the i n s t i t u t i o n s  outside  the  with  institution  time  f o r h e r new  of Captives,  time  and membership i n  f o r the f i r s t  as have  as  ambivalence,  responsible  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with take  imprison-  i d e n t i f i e d by t h e p u b l i c  of the society  I t may  to reject  Sykes,  about  from  a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , y e t i s a t t h e same  to accept  group.  self-conscious  may  she i s r e s e n t f u l  suffer  publicity  apprehensive  The f i r s t  unwilling the  to daily  i n particular  and the adverse  are often  group  mean  or the loss  i s o l a t e d from  offenders  and a r e a c u t e l y  during  for  not only  3  prestige  They  of withdrawal.  a n d she i s n o t i n s e n s i t i v e  r  First of  f o r she  does  from  loss,  f e a r f u l to the addict,  meaning  i s not only  of their  abruptly.  to t h i s  and f a m i l y ,  give  inaccessible  or  reactions  period  by a n d r e m o v a l  inmate  tion.  friends  become  physiological  i s doubly  of liberty  the use of a l c o h o l  implications  severe  a prolonged  commodities  the  have  Imprisonment endure  commodities  to  t h e more  p.  67  offender  experienced,  and  to rely  upon  the acceptance  positive  predisposition  Adoption  o f t h e inmate  new  self-image  toward role  and support a v a i l a b l e membership  i n t h e inmate  i s presumably  less  enjoys the support of others  identify,  and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  rejection  of society  painful  w i t h whom  w i t h t h e inmate  i n general,  with a  group  group. i f the  one c a n  necessitates  and t h e custodians  i n part-  icular . It ment  i s probably easier  from  the point  o f view  strong  for  support and acceptance. of narcotic  group  addicts  upon which I n view  addicts  ulation,  examination of the addict  further  attempted. as  community The  any  drug  are  addict,  satisfied  statements sub-culture particular Then,  are able  group  to rely  concentra-  and the f a c t  element  o f t h e pop-  may p r o v e  fruitful  social  structure i s  see themselves, and a r e seen  group  within  the institution  by  others  and within  at large.  Addict  hypotheses  consistent  imprison-  because o f  o f t h e heavy  o f t h e inmate  The a d d i c t s  an i d e n t i f i a b l e  the  a  f o r m t h e most  analysis  they  i n t h e Women's U n i t  that.the  before  to accept  of self-definition  the  tion  reference  f o r addicts  Group.  concerning o r what  Without  attempting t o present  t h e r e a s o n s why o n e m i g h t  particular  social  by t h e u s e o f n a r c o t i c s ,  c a n b e made itself, group  about  that  which  h a v i n g examined  or personal  some f a i r l y  the nature of the drug  i s , about  i s defined  the structure by s o c i e t y  the structure  become  of this  needs  concrete addict  of this  as being group,  deviant.  some  167 assumptions can be made about the f u n c t i o n s which the w i l l perform f o r the reason why The  group  i n d i v i d u a l members, r e g a r d l e s s of  that i n d i v i d u a l f i r s t  j o i n e d the  the  group.  most s i g n i f i c a n t norm shared by the members of  the drug- a d d i c t group i s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l need not always be confronted  by or contend with r e a l i t y .  While the h a b i t u a l  r e j e c t i o n of r e a l i t y  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n e d as the most  desirable adaptation  t o the  situation, i t is similarly  d e f i n e d as a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n d e s i r a b l e either.  means of  not  adaptation  The- s p e c i f i c method which t h i s group employs to  reject reality  i s t h a t of becoming "high" or " c o a s t i n g "  the r e s u l t of an i n j e c t i o n of h e r o i n . a habit-forming  n a r c o t i c , so t h a t one  Heroin  as  i s , however,  must e v e n t u a l l y e i t h e r  continue  to have i n j e c t i o n s at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s or f a c e  prospect  of having  the  withdrawal symptoms develop r a p i d l y .  Developing a " h a b i t " or dependency upon the drug i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n t e r p r e t e d as something of an o c c u p a t i o n a l it  hazard;  i s not d e s i r a b l e to have a h a b i t because of the d r a s t i c  repercussions  which a d d i c t i o n has upon the  shaping of the  whole l i f e p a t t e r n , but the enjoyment of being ently s u f f i c i e n t l y  compensates f o r the negative  " h i g h " apparcorollaries  of a d d i c t i o n . A d d i c t s who  v o l u n t a r i l y withdraw from drug usage are  admired because of the  intense p h y s i c a l discomfort  t o which  they are s u b j e c t i n g themselves, r e g a r d l e s s of whether the withdrawal i s accomplished with medical a s s i s t a n c e or  not.  Similarly, usage  for  sidered  a  by  but  there  who  begins  A  any  toward ing  period fellow  i s . no  can  approval to  do  will  of  the not  the  the  group,  can  be  who  have  or  the  will  are  drug  those  after a  of  a  habit  grave  There  In  addicts  or,  disposed "play" or  of or  by  means  of  injection,  point  where  they  as  they  their "chippy  may  directly  drug  Is  a  are  their a  i t  very  dis-  within  and  who  outside  those  potential  f i x " , but  have  not  symptoms  assimilate  rapidly  habitually.  A  into a  as  vein,  define  members  defined, and  wish  failure.  "users"  these  habit,  most  involved,  i s always  within  to  annoy-  resumed  form  addicts  sustain  express  withdrawal  and  abstinence.  voice  i n Vancouver  "mainline"  narcotics  both  addition  experienced  A l l addicts  of  his habit  identifiable  others  addicts.  individual  personal  s o l i d a r y group.  by  the  even  least,  readily  con-  difficulties  may  i f the  drug  will-power,  smokers  at  of  is  of  period  smokers  and  as  to  find  the  Other  viewed  deal  which  s m o k e r may  but  weeks  a t t i t u d e which  that  time  defined  who  even  attached  i n Vancouver  a habit  the  a  the  and  the  be  injections.  inject  great  habit.  core  former  formed  have  spite  themselves,  and as  in  at  temporarily  narcotics to  act  solid  found  addicts,  between  this  addicts,  a  or  between  and,  i n r e f r a i n i n g from  months  again  habitual  relatively  group  to  habit,  necessarily  and  yet  An  of  same  themselves,  as  their  this  Drug tinct  drawn  cumbersome  break himself  years,  narcotics  smoking.  and  of  succeeds  addicts  be  toward  who  p a r t i c u l a r stigma  using  parallel  sustain  addict  their  graduate "mainliner" the  reaction  to  the  i n j e c t i o n i s then  achieved.  Those  invariably  use  sidered  to  he  addicts  have  of  ment  and  fact  opposed They  of  the  which  drugs,  the and  the  group  addict which  covers  more  are,  are  of  the  solidarity  those  many  of  defined  within  norms  a  deviant  their  of  the  the  as  f e e l s that  as  well.  stages  the  addict  group  and  find  values  portion  deviance  of  of  should  the  the he  themselves  and  permit  degree  of  preferred  measures  and  demand  group.  renegade  infrequently  or  by  i s not  take of  the  nature  must  on  occasions.  so  interact with  drugs, an  as  Pew each  average  a united  meets  form  addicts  react  of  the  much one  capsule  costs  directlysociety. and severely  in  the  these  sup-  society,  absolute  loyalty  this  context  which,  not  violence.  drug  habit,  and  also  condemnation,  frequently  afford  to  about  but  amass  approximately  requires  from"  protect  to  within  enforced  can  to  sanctions  another  addicts  habit  with  physical of  To  front  members m a i n t a i n  the  to  must  stems  least  persistence  surprising that  "informer"  i t i s subject  and  addicts  their  because  dollars,  the  presenting  that It  Because  of  some  activities,  pressive  pile  form '  procure-  larger  at  eliminated.  most  drug  society,  i f not  the  The  themselves  discouraged  the  con-  their  group  and  to  to  of  restricted  must  almost  therefore,  is peculiar  a l l the  rapidly-  "pushers",  themselves  s p e c i a l argot  and  that to  society  members  p o s i t i v e and  usage.  Part the  sell  narcotics  a  deviance,  who  more  four  a  secretly stock-  three capsules  170 of h e r o i n each day.  They must keep i n c o n t a c t w i t h one  a n o t h e r , t h e n , t o f i n d out who does and who does n o t have drugs f o r s a l e , where c o n t a c t s  can be. made, and w h i c h l o c a -  t i o n s a r e c u r r e n t l y under the s c r u t i n y of t h e p o l i c e .  Daily  a c t i v i t i e s r e v o l v e around t h e f a c t t h a t h e r o i n must be purchased a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , and t o a t t a i n t h i s g o a l t h e a d d i c t s must become i n v o l v e d i n i n t r i g u e s , p l o t s and c o u n t e r p l o t s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r waking h o u r s .  As one a d d i c t has  observed: We a r e used t o l e a d i n g such e x c i t i n g , a c t i v e l i v e s t h a t i f y o u don't use ( n a r c o t i c s ) t h e r e j u s t doesn't seem t o be a n y t h i n g e l s e t o do. The  average a d d i c t must have a t l e a s t t w e l v e d o l l a r s  each day t o spend " s u p p o r t i n g what may be r e q u i r e d f o r f o o d ,  t h e h a b i t " above and beyond c l o t h i n g and l o d g i n g , and  the l a t t e r needs a r e f r e q u e n t l y o n l y h a p h a z a r d l y met. Even i f s t e a d i l y employed, t h e a d d i c t f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y t o use I l l e g a l means of o b t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s , and so shopl i f t i n g , p i c k i n g p o c k e t s , con r a c k e t s , gambling, and i n v a r i i a b l y f o r t h e women, p r o s t i t u t i o n become t h e order o f t h e day.  Many a d d i c t s a l s o s e l l n a r c o t i c s so t h a t they can  support t h e i r own h a b i t s , but the dangers of a r r e s t a r e such, and  the p e n a l t y f o r c o n v i c t i o n so much more severe f o r " p u s h i n g "  than f o r j u s t "possessing"  n a r c o t i c s , t h a t only t h e v e r y  f i n d " p u s h i n g " worth t h e i r w h i l e . fully  astute  A woman who can success-  support h e r s e l f by " p u s h i n g " r a t h e r t h a n p r o s t i t u t i n g  e n j o y s more p r e s t i g e t h a n the women who i s "on t h e s t r e e t " ,  171  but f o r the average female addict p r o s t i t u t i o n i s considered to be a more p r a c t i c a l means of earning the r e q u i s i t e amount of'money.  I t i s not uncommon f o r a woman t o support not only  her own h a b i t but her husband or boyfriend's habit as w e l l , although the " o l d man" who i s able and w i l l i n g t o support himself and does not expect h i s wife t o "work" f o r him i s highly prized. Addicts w i l l f r e q u e n t l y claim they are not r e a l l y c r i m i n a l s at h e a r t ;  they would not r e s o r t t o t h e f t or pros-  t i t u t i o n i f they could o b t a i n n a r c o t i c s on the l e g a l market at a reasonable  cost.  They argue that a d d i c t i o n i t s e l f  should  not be considered a crime, f o r the only person i n j u r e d by drug usage i s the addict h e r s e l f and even t h i s i n j u r y i s not i n e v i t able.  A comprehensive set of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s e x i s t as part  of the addict f o l k l o r e which tends t o place the onus f o r her deviance upon s o c i e t y , and sublimate a n x i e t i e s and c o n f l i c t s which such a s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n may otherwise e l i c i t .  Addicts  at the Women's Unit f r e q u e n t l y state that although i t may be unpleasant  and.undesirable  i t i s a necessary  t o p r o s t i t u t e , f o r example, they f e e l  e v i l which must be t o l e r a t e d when you become  an a d d i c t . I am an a d d i c t , so I must p r o s t i t u t e ( s t e a l , s h o p l i f t , etc.) whether I l i k e i t or not. I f , on the other hand, the m o r a l i z i n g p u b l i c challenges the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r using drugs i n the f i r s t instance, the addict can again place the onus f o r her behavior on the p u b l i c by presenting h e r s e l f as an u t t e r l y resourceless and u n w i l l i n g  172 product  of the e v i l s  of the  social  system.  When I g e t o u t o f g a o l I h a v e no money a n d no p l a c e t o go i f I want t o go s t r a i g h t and s t a y o f f d r u g s . The o n l y way I know o f i n w h i c h I c a n make t h e money I n e e d t o g e t a start i n l i f e i s to p r o s t i t u t e . I hate p r o s t i t u t i n g , so I t a k e a " c h i p p y f i x " t o k e e p f r o m , h a t i n g my s e l f t o o b a d l y , and t h e n I ' m o f f on d r u g s a g a i n . A d d i c t s who h a v e s p e n t no l o n g e r r e q u i r e n a r c o t i c s begin using narcotics their release. habitually  in self  a niche  circumstances  will  characterizes  that  and d r u g p u s h e r s ,  drug r e c o r d .  v i c t i m of  but  generally  again w i t h i n twenty-four hours  around the f a c t  know a r e d r u g a d d i c t s  previous  physiologically,  Justifications for this  revolve  unable to f i n d  a p e r i o d of time I n p r i s o n  in legitimate  re-embarkation the only people or that  society  A g a i n the a d d i c t  they  sees h e r s e l f  a s t h e p u b l i c most  they  are  because of  r a t h e r t h a n as an i n d i v i d u a l  or moral f i b r e  after  as  their the  lacking  frequently  them:  On my y e a r , when I l e f t , I g o t a c a b . I went i n t o a h o t e l , c h e c k e d I n , and I d i d n ' t h a v e t h a t much money r e a l l y , y o u know how much ( y o u h a v e ) when y o u l e a v e h e r e . And a l l t h a t day I j u s t w a n d e r e d a r o u n d a n d I was r e a l l y m i s e r a b l e . Y o u ' r e j u s t l o s t , and • then I thought, " W e l l , to heck w i t h i t , I'm g o i n g where t h e r e s t o f t h e m a r e . " Sol.went down and s c o r e d and h a d a f i x , j u s t a f t e r d o i n g . . . (a y e a r ) . L o n e l i n e s s was a l s o m e n t i o n e d by a n o t h e r as a motivating factor  i n a return to  a s s o c i a t i o n with drug  Y o u ' d be s u r p r i s e d how l o n e l y i t i s on the o u t s i d e . Y o u c a n know a m i l l i o n p e o p l e a n d s t i l l be l o n e l y when y o u ' r e l o o k i n g f o r the r i g h t k i n d of p e o p l e .  strong users.  173  I t i s generally conceded that a former addict cannot long associate with current drug users without again  beginning  to use drugs h e r s e l f . The d i f f i c u l t y of l o s i n g the r e p u t a t i o n gained by once using n a r c o t i c s i s f r e q u e n t l y commented upon, and there i s a tendency to r e s i g n oneself to the Idea that once you are an addict the p u b l i c considers you always w i l l be an a d d i c t , and " i f you are going t o have the name, you may  as w e l l play the  game". The v i g i l a n c e of the p o l i c e f o r c e i s thus f r e q u e n t l y blamed f o r a r e t u r n to n a r c o t i c s usage, e i t h e r because they inform new employers and associates of the previous h i s t o r y of drug usage, or because they w i l l not leave the former addict alone. When I went out ( a f t e r my eighteen months) I went out w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of l e a v i n g drugs. alone. I didn't want to use junk. I was determined. I wasn?t using and I never touched i t f o r three weeks. And I got picked up ( f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) just the same, so I thought, "The heck w i t h i t " ... and s t a r t e d using again. Every c i t y you get i n t o , as soon as the l o c a l p o l i c e f i n d out you're there, the f i r s t t h i n g they do i s jump you.and choke you because you are a known a d d i c t . They don't give you a chance to see i f you want to stop. They take i t f o r granted that you're s t i l l using before f i n d i n g out i f you are or not. They're the worst of a l l . The "choking" mentioned above i s part of the r e g u l a r t a c t i c s used by p o l i c e i n Canada who  are attempting to make  an a r r e s t and have s u f f i c i e n t evidence of drug possession to warrant a c o n v i c t i o n . Addicts normally carry any n a r c o t i c s i n t h e i r possession i n rubber containers i n t h e i r mouths so  174  they can "swallow" and thus get r i d of any evidence i n the event of an a r r e s t .  The  p o l i c e "choke" t h e i r suspects t o  prevent t h e i r swallowing the n a r c o t i c s .  Under Canadian  the o n l y grounds f o r c o n v i c t i o n of a drug a d d i c t p o s s e s s i o n of n a r c o t i c s . marks" are s u f f i c i e n t Those who themselves  law  i s actual  In some other areas, f r e s h  "needle  grounds f o r c o n v i c t i o n , but not i n Canada.  t r y to f i n d new  a s s o c i a t e s , or t r y t o a v a i l  of a s s i s t a n c e p r o f e r e d by the " r i g h t kind of people"  i n d i c a t e that they are always suspected of u s i n g n a r c o t i c s anyway, and they resent the f a c t t h a t they are not shown more trust. I went t o see t h i s woman and a l l she s a i d was, "Well, I'm glad you came", but I could see her watching me a l l the time to see that I wasn't going t o sneak i n t o the bathroom and take a f i x or something. And another t h i n g - we're not accepted by s o c i e t y . L i k e f o r being a h a i r d r e s s e r , you can't own your own shop because you are or have been a drug a d d i c t . You can't leave the country. ... i f you wanted t o l e a v e the country, you couldn't go t o the S t a t e s because you're a drug a d d i c t . So what chance r e a l l y do you-have to get away from your environment, to meet new people when you're r e s t r i c t e d because you have been a drug a d d i c t ? Again, the r e a c t i o n seems t o be one of r a t h e r h o p e l e s s resignation to iety  i s almost  the f a c t that acceptance  into legitimate  impossible and the f e e l i n g that one may  soc-  as w e l l  f i n d what c o n s o l a t i o n one can i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n s and p l e a s u r e s of "having a f i x " . A d d i c t s are a c u t e l y aware t h a t non-addicts view them w i t h a mixture of f e a r and f a s c i n a t i o n , and are probably  175 somewhat ations  proud  its of  protest-  o f mystery  around  so f a r a s t h e o r d i n a r y  as drug  seductiveness  usage  which  of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o have  others  because  i s an aura  of their  citizen i s  t o have  and drug  this  mys-  addiction  i n e x p l i c a b l e , some l e g i t i m a t i o n c a n b e c l a i m e d f o r  compulsion  have  i n spite  are not too anxious  As l o n g  overpowering  willing a  and a d d i c t s  dispelled.  some  There  and the a d d i c t  concerned,  remains  reputation  to the contrary.  addiction  tery  of this  others  believe  of their  they  absolves  f o rh e r a c t i o n s .  t o use n a r c o t i c s , believe  again  that  they  but they  the addict  Addicts  are  are the victims  of  are not w i l l i n g t o  become l e s s w o r t h y  a s human  beings  addiction:  I f y o u ' r e a n a d d i c t y o u ' r e o s t r a c i z e d comp l e t e l y from society. They (people, citizens, square Johns) t h i n k t h a t you!re w i l d . L i k e my f a t h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , he wonit t u r n h i s back on me i n t h e h o u s e ' c a u s e h e t h i n k s I'm g o i n g t o k i l l h i m f o r a n a s p i r i n o r s o m e t h i n g ... p e o p l e t h i n k o f a d r u g a d d i c t as n o t l o o k i n g l i k e any o t h e r human b e i n g s ... T h e y t h i n k y o u ' r e g r e e n or something. They t h i n k you're a n i m a l s . Even  among o t h e r  the  addicts  the  inference  cheques  claim  they  that  or perform  they  criminals,  and w i t h i n  are discriminated a r e worse  than  the prison  against,  people  who  and  resent  forge  abortions:  T h e y come i n ( t o t h e p r i s o n ) a n d t h e y t h i n k w e ' r e some k i n d o f t h i n g , s o m e t h i n g w i t h l e p r o s y or something. T h e y l o o k a t u s l i k e we w e r e something e l s e . I n t h e meantime t h e y ' v e done s o m e t h i n g t e n t i m e s w o r s e t h a n we h a v e . We haven't harmed anybody but o u r s e l v e s . Prison against  matrons  the addicts  are also  by t h e i r  accused  general  of discriminating  attitude,  and by t h e  176 fact  that  spend  addicts  their  are subjected t o the drug  first  days  o f imprisonment  treatment,  a n d must  i n isolation;  In t h e meantime, what's worse, d r u g a d d i c t s o r somebody t h a t ' s g i v e n p e o p l e a b o r t i o n s ? That's murder ... The (matrons) t r e a t them a s i f t h e y ' r e human b e i n g s . They don't t r e a t us l i k e t h a t . Addicts and  activities  refute iety  feel  that  of which  they  they  the negative picture  concerning drug  The  following  the  Women's U n i t A.  f o r many  are not really held  addicts  discussion  a r e blamed  guilty,  by members  i s an attempt  four  young  and a g a i n  of legitimate  and the nature  between  crimes  of their drug  at vindicating  behavior.  addicts  addicts  soc-  within  as a  group:  . . . p e o p l e t h a t d o n ' t come f r o m V a n c o u v e r o r d o n ' t h a n g a r o u n d t h e c o r n e r , t h e y d o n ' t v. k n o w n o d r u g a d d i c t s t i l l t h e y come h e r e . . . . T h e y r e a d t h e p a p e r s a n d t h a t ' s a l l t h e y know a b o u t d r u g a d d i c t s , j u s t what t h e y r e a d i n t h e p a p e r s . 7  B.  They don't you'd beat  trust you or nothing. them f o re v e r y t h i n g .  They  think  A.  They're scared t o t u r n t h e i r back. They t h i n k y o u ' l l s t i c k a k n i f e i n t o them o r something, just l i k e you read i h the papers. You read the papers; somebody g e t s a t t a c k e d , i t must h a v e been a d r u g a d d i c t , i t must have b e e n a drug addict I I n t h e meantime, h a l f t h e t i m e the person t h a t d i d i t i s n ' t even a drug a d d i c t .  G.  I think addicts  i t ' s common k n o w l e d g e t h a t d r u g d o n ' t u s u a l l y commit c r i m e s o f v i o l e n c e .  D . A n d e s p e c i a l l y w h e n t h e r e ' s b e e n some r e a l gruesome murder o r e a z a p e - ( s l a n g f o r r a p e ) , t h e y a l w a y s t h i n k , "Oh, a n a d d i c t ! " Meanwhile, an a d d i c t hasn't got t h e energy 1  addicts  Rejected,  persecuted and misunderstood  rely  one a n o t h e r  come t o t h i n k  upon  of their  group  f o r acceptance as a n assemblage  by  society,  and support, and of martyrs.  Within the  t h e Women's U n i t ,  addicts  they  are probably  receive  t h e most  is  obviously  t h e most  Although  influence addicts and  upon  short  probably  them.  the  population.  with  ing  l o y a l t y toward  t o the inmates,  activities  "squealing"  prefer  serve  expressed  inmates  by inmates o f segments o f  To  face  relationships  important  " t o keep your  shut",  mouth  aloof  demand a n d m a i n t a i n  i n their  a n d most  such  t o remain  must  learn  lesson  i s ,  accord-  and t h a t :  i s a n enemy f r o m t h e m i n u t e (institution) door.  who d o n o t k e e p  "pigeon  influence  a n d H a c k Lover3.  The f i r s t  some  t o partake of  of the addict  one a n o t h e r  and information  "squealers",  able  t o t h e Women's U n i t  Your matron come i n t h a t  Those  of  staff.  a new a r r i v a l  you  Birds  of the custodians,  the prison  which  Pigeon  have  of the institution  and t h e most  and g e n e r a l l y  those  the institu-  undoubtedly  core  prestige  opinions,  ideology  o f t h e Women's U n i t , t h e  are scarcely  a r e mainly  Squealers.  fierce  they  from the  within  The a l c o h o l i c offenders  The f o l l o w i n g  Women's U n i t  a  t h e most  that  the  the hard  body, f o r  The a d d i c t  ideology  structure  represent  politics,  oppression  and a r e , aside  offenders.  discernable  the institution.  institutional  the  habitual  the social  sentences  from  sentences  mentioned,  o f t h e inmate  the alcoholic offenders  c e r t a i n l y have  within  previously  t h e backbone  the longest  alcoholics,  tion.  as h a s been  birds"  t h e enemy  i n t h e group o r "squeak  i s , as f a r as t h e s t a f f  o u t by k e e p i n g  inmate  a r e known a s " r a t s " , birds".  The  can ascertain,  incidence extremely  178  low, which could be attributed to the fact that there r e a l l y i s not much to t e l l or that there i s not much that the s t a f f does not already know about the inmates and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s within the i n s t i t u t i o n .  A more r e a l i s t i c appraisal would  probably reveal, however, that the sanctions against the "squealer" are s u f f i c i e n t l y stringent that few are tempted to indulge i n i t .  The addicts presume that any squealing  which does occur i s originated by non-addicts who do not r e a l l y belong, and who have not adopted the "Rounder" code of ethics p r o h i b i t i n g such action.  The "Rounder" code of ethics prohibits  the divulgence of any information whatsoever which could lead to the arrest or conviction of another "Rounder", and as one inmate has observed: When you're l i v i n g on the wrong side of the fence you-have your own set of rules everyone, no matter who i t i s - that you l i v e by, regardless of whether you're i n or out, you l i v e by them. You' re on the other side of the side of the fence, you see. Regardless  of the personal animosity which may exist  between two i n d i v i d u a l members of a group, against the s t a f f the s i t u a t i o n can only be handled by the presentation of a s o l i d front according to the "Rounder" (and i n t h i s instance, the inmate) code. Even i f everyone i n the whole group never raps (talks) to each other, i f there's a beef with the matron ... they usually stick together even i f they hate each other ... I don't think there's any ( t a t t l i n g ) . Maybe i n some-(groups) ... there Isn't any i n t h i s group, I know that ... Rounders aren't made that way. I f you'd do that, you'd be a stool pigeon.  179  The seriousness with which squealing or t a t t l i n g i s viewed i s r e f l e c t e d i n the following observation; My God, that ( t a t t l i n g ) i s just l i k e taking the stand against somebody e l s e . I f you're a stool pigeon i n here you're going to.be one on the street too. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n passing that the recent i n s t a l l a t i o n of a two-way intercommunication the I n s t i t u t i o n was by the inmates.  system throughout  greeted with fear, h o s t i l i t y and  outrage  They feared that t h e i r conversations could  be overheard regardless of where they were being held or what precautions were made. The loudspeakers were, quite s i g n i f i c a n t l y , immediately  given the name "squeak boxes".  The inmates event-  u a l l y devised a means of r e t a l i a t i o n which they f e l t would meet the challenge of the intercommunication h a l f way.  system at least  Wherever possible, unit radios were placed d i r e c t l y  beneath the loudspeakers  so that, with the radio volume turned  to f u l l capacity, the "squeak boxes" would be able to receive only the noise of the radio.  Confidential conversations could  then be completed i n other parts of the unit without fear of being  overheard. Sanctions against anyone suspected of squealing to  the s t a f f vary from ostracism by the rest of the group to the threat of physical violence i f the situation i s f e l t to present a serious enough threat to the inmate body. have been instances i n which inmates who  There  are known stool  pigeons, both within and outside the i n s t i t u t i o n , have had to be transferred to other p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r  own  180 protection.  T h i s d r a s t i c a c t i o n has  only had  when the i n f o r m a t i o n d i v u l g e d has had drug market o r the a d d i c t The  to  be taken  some e f f e c t upon the  group.  "hack l o v e r " as d i s t i n c t from a " s q u e a l e r "  actually  p r e f e r s to a s s o c i a t e w i t h and t a l k t o the matrons r a t h e r than the other members of the  inmate group.  She  r e j e c t s other  inmates by d e l i b e r a t e l y i d e n t i f y i n g h e r s e l f w i t h the She  may  o r may  s t a f f , but  staff.  not pass on s e c r e t inmate Information t o  the  I f she does, i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t h e r  are not motivated by any  malicious  f a v o u r s from the  The  staff.  h e r s e l f t o be a member of the  i n t e n t or d e s i r e to  hack l o v e r simply Inmate group.  members contemptuously d e s c r i b e  actions obtain  does not  The  consider  group e i g h t  a hack l o v e r i n the  following  terms: (She i s ) someone who "fawns" over the hacks; agrees w i t h e v e r y t h i n g the.hack says ... Maybe a matron w i l l s i t i n a c h a i r or somewhere and s h e ' l l s i t r i g h t beside her and t a l k away. Some of them w i l l t e l l her t h i n g s , some of them won't, but they're always on the matron's s i d e and they're always d o i n g l i t t l e t h i n g s f o r the matron combing h e r h a i r , complimenting her, g i v i n g h e r the j u i c e a l l the time. ... She'd r a t h e r t a l k to the matron than t o the r e s t of the inmates ... but the r e s t of the k i d s don't l i k e i t . The for  the  inmates resent  a hack l o v e r ' s obvious  s t a f f , f o r t h i s preference  t i o n upon themselves. s h i p i n the  preference  involves a negative  reflec-  The hack l o v e r i s e l i g i b l e f o r member-  inmate group but  she apparently  does not  care  to  assume t h i s membership, s c o r n i n g i t i n f a v o u r of the matrons.  Her behavior r e p r e s e n t s a s l i g h t t o the inmates and r e f u t e s the l e g i t i m a c y o f the t r a d i t i o n a l animosity between inmates and the p r i s o n s t a f f .  Although  the hack l o v e r has been  r e j e c t e d by s o c i e t y by b e i n g committed t o the p r i s o n , she has not adopted the u s u a l p a t t e r n o f r e j e c t i n g the r e j e c t o r s by j o i n i n g t h e group. II.  DEPRIVATION OP GOODS AND SERVICES  L i f e i n the Women's U n i t c o u l d not be considered t o be austere from the p o i n t o f view of e i t h e r p h y s i c a l s u r roundings, The  the c l o t h i n g p r o v i d e d o r the food which i s s e r v e d .  rooms a r e a t t r a c t i v e l y p a i n t e d and have t i l e f l o o r s which  are kept h i g h l y p o l i s h e d .  There are c u r t a i n s , bedspreads and  m i r r o r s i n each room, and inmates may, a t t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n , a l s o have ornaments, p l a n t s and even g o l d f i s h i n t h e i r rooms as w e l l .  The i n s t i t u t i o n can p r o v i d e a l l the c l o t h i n g  needed i n c l u d i n g d r e s s e s , blue jeans, p o l o s h i r t s , pyjamas, e t c . , and s u p p l i e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t h a t these may  be laundered  items  and r e - i s s u e d a t l e a s t once, and u s u a l l y  twice, each week. The food s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o more than adequate, and because the Women's U n i t i s broken down i n t o small l i v i n g groups, the f o o d i s g e n e r a l l y prepared i n these i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . mentation  i n small q u a n t i t i e s  There i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i -  and i n n o v a t i o n i n food p r e p a r a t i o n , and t h e r e i s  c o n s i d e r a b l e c o m p e t i t i o n between the women t o see who can  182 prepare the best meals. i s prepared for  In the main b u i l d i n g , where food  i n l a r g e r q u a n t i t y , there i s l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y  i n n o v a t i o n , but t h e r e can nonetheless  about the c a l i b r e of food s e r v e d .  be l i t t l e  complaint  Some commodities such as  c o f f e e and b u t t e r are r a t i o n e d , but t h e r e i s l i t t l e  opportun-  i t y f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o s t e a l or take more than h e r  share,  for  these s u p p l i e s are c l o s e l y guarded by the s t a f f .  Such  s u p p l i e s as are " s t o l e n " by the inmates are u s u a l l y of the v a r i e t y which would form the b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s f o r a "brew". Aside from such o c c a s i o n a l c l a n d e s t i n e u n d e r t a k i n g s , is little  there!  reason f o r c o n f l i c t or c o m p e t i t i o n between the  inmates f o r p o s s e s s i o n of the goods and s u p p l i e s p r o v i d e d by the  institution. S u p p l i e s which inmates may  i n c l u d e c a r d i g a n sweaters,  flat  p r o v i d e f o r themselves  shoes, make-up and e a r r i n g s .  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e swapping and borrowing  of these  o r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f a g i r l i s to have a v i s i t on an e x c u r s i o n o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r any Inmates may t h e i r own of  a l s o make purchases  funds.  of canteen  or i s going reason.  s u p p l i e s from  Each inmate Is l i m i t e d t o a weekly maximum  s i x packages of tobacco,  s i x packages of c i g a r e t t e  and  s i x c h o c o l a t e bars or packages of l i f e s a v e r s .  may  be purchased  canteen,  papers,  Magazines  i n u n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y from a s e l e c t i o n of  t w e n t y - f i v e which are approved by the i n s t i t u t i o n . t o o t h p a s t e and  access-  Soap,  other t o i l e t r i e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e from the  but t h e r e i s no s t r i c t  l i m i t a t i o n upon the q u a n t i t y  183 which can be purchased, the d i s c r e t i o n  although an order may be r e f u s e d a t  of the s t a f f i f i t appears t h a t one inmate i s  o b v i o u s l y p r o v i d i n g f o r s e v e r a l others as w e l l . The  a c c e s s o r i e s and s u p p l i e s which the inmates must  provide f o r themselves are h i g h l y p r i z e d , but t h e r e i s l i t t l e theft  of these items.  When something i s s t o l e n , the c u l p r i t  i s f r e q u e n t l y assumed t o be "someone i n group s i x " . A t y p i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s the f o l l o w i n g : Most k i d s i n g a o l r e a l i z e t h a t they've got something and they need i t . They r e a l i z e t h a t i n g a o l t h i n g s are hard t o come by. I t happens, ( s t e a l i n g ) . I t has happened ... but mostly i n group s i x though. One o f the f a c t o r s i n the apparent theft  i n a situation  low i n c i d e n c e o f  i n which " t h i n g s are hard t o come by"  i s the s m a l l group f o r m a t i o n s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  It  would be d i f f i c u l t t o s t e a l from another member of the same group without and t h e f t  others i n the group being aware of the s i t u a t i o n  o u t s i d e y o u r own l i v i n g group i s d i f f i c u l t ,  because  of the r i g i d p o l i c i e s of s e g r e g a t i o n e n f o r c e d by the s t a f f . The  s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t a known t h i e f w i t h i n a l i v i n g group c o u l d  be s u f f i c i e n t l y severe as t o e f f e c t i v e l y deviance. extremely  curb t h i s type of  W i t h i n group s i x , however, the group f o r m a t i o n i s l o o s e and there i s l i t t l e  group t r a d i t i o n , f o r many  members of the group a r e t h e r e f o r very short p e r i o d s o f time w h i l e a w a i t i n g t r i a l o r while s e r v i n g f i v e day sentences. Consequently  there i s l i t t l e  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o t h e r members of  the group t o be a b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y pressure a d e v i a n t  into  conformity. Group in  relation  who  are  S i x members  to  not  their  drug  observations  a l s o have  belongings,  addicts.  based  on  her  A  a  at  young  reputation for  least addict  experiences  those  i n Group  made t h e  while  stingines Six  following  i n Group  Six:  B u t y o u k n o w i n g r o u p s i x - l i k e I came i n o n a t h e f t c h a r g e a n d a l l my m o n e y was left a t t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n - . . . I c o u l d n ' t go a m o n g the g i r l s i n t h e r e that are mostly i n there f o r drunk charges and t h a t a r e kept i n group s i x for cigarettes. But t h e k i d s i n f o r d r u g s ... t h e y h a v e n ' t g o t m u c h m o r e t h a n me, but they a l l g a v e me c i g a r e t t e s a n d made s u r e I h a d stuff. B u t p e o p l e t h a t a r e u p o n d r u n k c h a r g e s and that, they're stingy. Again, categorically in  the  the  liquor  and  is a  more  Institution,  non-addicts, with  there  the  distinct  positive  tendency  to  attribute  characteristics  more n e g a t i v e  especially  to  those  to  the  characteristics who  have  been  addicts to  the  charged  offences.  I t seems a d r u g a d d i c t w i l l h e l p a n y b o d y . A n a d d i c t w i l l be i n f o r a l o n g t i m e so t h e y h a v e s o m u c h money t o l a s t t h e m a l o n g t i m e and they can't get anymore. You'd t h i n k they'd be h a n g i n g o n t o t h e i r t h i n g s s i n c e t h e y t h i n k , "Gee, t h i s h a s g o t t o l a s t me." Where d r u n k s a r e i n t e n d a y s - what's t h e d i f f e r e n c e t o them? In t e n d a y s t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o be o u t a n y h o w , s o w h a t d o t h e y c a r e ? - Y o u ' d t h i n k t h e y ' d be g e n e r o u s with i t . The are  usually  for  they  someone longer  non-addict at  are on  offenders  i n f o r very  a  financial  disadvantage  not  i n prison  l o n g enough  the  " o u t s i d e " , whereas  sentences,  do  have  time  to  the  short  w i t h i n the to  solicit  addicts,  solicit  institution funds  with  funds,  sentences  their  contrary  from  185 to  t h e above  comments.  Cigarettes Unit,  a n d c a n be u s e d  favours the  from  financial  resources  stratification short  Indian Even  of three  send  have  out long  not  i n long  enough enough  The  to write  addicts,  clothing.  T h e "mark"  frequently  probably but  a husband  t h e "mark" Because  the  addicts  other  than  i s relied  timer"  have  of this  can " o f t e n  discrepancy  Native  offence.  money w h i c h  provider  they  shei s andi s  from h e r family. usually  when  have  i n need  jealously  well  o f cash o r by t h e  because o f  you, please  i s achieved. t o whom t h e y  send  They  will  also  write,  assistance.  i nfinancial  from  a  "marks" t h e inmates  for financial  buy f a v o u r s  i sa  o f imprisonment,  " I love  effect  with-  from the  some l i q u o r  to their  o r boyfriend upon  the social  contemptuously  i s guarded  but the desired  have  write  When w r i t i n g  say l i t t l e  money",  they  unevenly  are chronically  hand,  I s regarded  but nevertheless utility.  did  above,  who a r e s e r v i n g  t o them  with  f o r money  on t h e o t h e r  t o buy  a r e spread  to cultivate a reliable  " m a r k " t o whom  more  sent  her "period  cultivated  great  or less  charged  provided  to reflect  Those  funds  i n t h e Women's  A s was m e n t i o n e d  generally  or associates  to h e r during  not  his  endowed.  months  woman who h a s b e e n  inmates,  who a r e w e l l  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the "short  i fh e r f r i e n d s  could  of barter  of the institution  and tend  a n d seldom'  "outside".  form  of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  sentences  funds,  by t h o s e  t h e n o t so w e l l  among t h e i n m a t e s ,  out  a r e the main  the "short  position, timers"  in  exchange  delivery or  for  o f a message  t h e promise  time  cigarettes.  view  view  "marks",  argot  roles  of  commodities  recognition that  to  some  extent  loaders" of  others.  return of  They  them,  their  own, w i l l  scarcely  avoid  selves.  A  however,  f o r once  retaliate  cigarette then  using  hand.  a r e few well  but there i s does  goods.  "Free-  off the generosity  do n o t have  neglect to any c i g a r e t t e s  i n a p o s i t i o n where  career  depend  losing  they can face  them-  i susually short-lived,  a r e o n t o t h e game, t h e i n m a t e s  will  out any s i t u a t i o n s and f o r c i n g t h e I n t i m i d a t i o n and p h y s i c a l of obtaining  scarce  coercion are  goods  atthe  Unit. The  She  they  live  a c i g a r e t t e without  loader's"  unknown a s means  Women's  of these  cigarettes then  others  "had".  the institution  honestly  place  by b r a z e n i n g  "freeloader's" almost  borrow  offering  "free  within  they  for the distribution  t h e Women's U n i t ,  who p a r a s i t i c a l l y  o r i f they  The a d d i c t s  There  a concern  the possession  will  the next  i n m u c h t h e same way a s  reflecting  status  upon  a r e those  the institution  are u s e f u l , but easily  within  involve  of the "outside"  and Butt-snatchers.  developed  a  timers"  they  Freeloaders  scarce  outside  often  comes t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  the "short  their  someone  favours  o f some d e s i r e d n e w s  the individual  often  to  These  ^butt-snatcher"  butts  which  re-rolls  papers  which  makes a h a b i t  are left  the tobacco  i n ashtrays accumulated  she h a s e i t h e r borrowed  of collecting around from  old  the Unit.  these  butts  o r "found".  The  187 "butt-snatcher" for  most  than  i s considered  women c l a i m t h e y  be s e e n  thus  (if  would  collecting  "butt-snatcher's"  plight  t o be  and smoking  i s considered  dependent  may  o f h e r group  then  t r y to help  notice long a  h e r save  her activities,  butts  less  face  Group  of  fund for  each  which those  who  among  date,  again  that  purchase  that  of a  i t h a s more  suitable their  "marks"  support  a  s i x packages joint  t o buy  sports  cigarettes  i s considerable  they  new  would,  they  may  "effects",  them w i t h  a  fairly  civilian  clothing  placed  out" outfit  have  f o r their  months o f  emphasis  t h e pure  covert  served  after  t o wearing  "going  than  themselves  who h a v e  The tremendous  i n their  provide  have  into  There  forward  implications  clothing  often t r y to  on only  also  among t h o s e  look  Although  extra  but since a l l normally  i n outfitting  completely  vanity.  not t o  whatsoever.  Understandably  time.  will  providing her with  be d e l v e d  the g i r l s  anxiously  one  or i s  The group  by p r e t e n d i n g  t o manage  Out" O u t f i t .  f o r the f i r s t  feminine and  either  groups  n o money  particularly  sentences.  incarceration  the  have  "Going  competition  long  Some  can occasionally  The  release  week.  t o serve,  members.  f o r t u n a t e member o f a g r o u p ,  tobacco  t o be a l e g i t i m a t e  members w i l l  smoke h e a v i l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t  I f the  upon h e r smoking h a b i t ) she  o r by q u i e t l y  themselves.  i n pride,  cigarettes  old butts.  sentence  known t o be e x t r e m e l y t h e sympathy  lacking  r a t h e r go w i t h o u t  she h a s an e x c e p t i o n a l l y l o n g  gain  completely  suggest  satisfaction  perfectly most  of  adequate  inmates  completely  upon  new  insist ensemble  including is  a dress,  obvious  becomes  that  shoes,  the quality  an important  institution. would  coat,  symbol  The o u t f i t  be w a r r a n t e d  at  h e r "coming  is  rather different  handbag  of the "going of financial  i s selected  i n the selection  out"  ball,  and a c c e s s o r i e s .  although  i n these  with  out"  clothing  status within the a s much  care as  o f a gown b y a the function  two i n s t a n c e s .  debutante  o f t h e costume  The  debutante  presumably  seeks  t o impress  those  she i s "coming  out"  the  seeks  t o impress  those  she i s l e a v i n g  behind.  inmate  Certainly as  the reception given  grandiose  This  as the send-off  discrepancy  depression fairly  probably  traditionally  long  This  It  relationships  deprivation grave,  i s true  isolated male  from  which  pose  poses  paid  who h a v e  served  RELATIONSHIPS  i n criminological  the deprivation  f o r men  f o r women  l i t -  of hetero-  i n correctional  rather different,  problems  that  doctors  inmates  of the post-release  by those  OP H E T E R O S E X U A L  h a s been  t o t h e problems  equally  i s seldom  by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  f o r some  experienced  THE DEPRIVATION  Much a t t e n t i o n  sexual  accounts  t o meet;  sentences.  III.  erature  t o t h e r e l e a s e d inmate she i s g i v e n  It  institutions.  but nonetheless  i na correctional  institution.  a t O a k a l l a t h e women a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y  men, f o r t h e r e make d a i l y  and guards  visits  are fairly  women a r e n o n e t h e l e s s  i s o n e m a l e member o f t h e s t a f f ,  unable  t o t h e Women's U n i t , a n d m a l e visible  t o form  t o t h e women, b u t t h e relationships  with  these  189  men, o r even t o have prolonged a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them. R e l a t i o n s h i p s with male inmates.  Those women who  have b o y f r i e n d s o r common-law husbands "down the h i l l " i n the men's s e c t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n f r e q u e n t l y t r y t o c o r r espond w i t h them by means of i l l e g a l " k i t e s " .  Window w r i t i n g  i s another form of communication between the two u n i t s , but is  l e s s e f f i c i e n t and more e a s i l y d e t e c t e d by s t a f f than are  k i t e s , so i s seldom used. a suitable "kite l i n e "  Much i n g e n u i t y i s r e q u i r e d t o d e v i s e  (route) which w i l l ensure d e l i v e r y of  the " k i t e s " t o the p r o p e r p e r s o n n e l without s t a f f Inmates who are r e g u l a r l y  intervention  at  either unit.  "on the k i t e  line"  or  who a c t u a l l y run the k i t e l i n e w i l l sometimes make arrange-  ments t o f i n d correspondents f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s so they may a l s o get on the k i t e l i n e . e l o p a f t e r one inmate  A k i t e l i n e romance may a l s o dev-  sees, and i s a t t r a c t e d t o another,  makes i n q u i r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h i d e n t i t y and probable r e a c t i o n s to  advances,  then sends a " k i t e " r e q u e s t i n g r e t u r n c o r r e s -  pondence . A f t e r the i n i t i a l f o r m a l i t i e s have been dispensed w i t h , notes between the correspondents r a p i d l y f l o u r i s h t o i n c l u d e extravagant promises of undying l o v e and p l a n s f o r a future l i f e together.  They a r e r i c h i n pornography and  r e f e r e n c e s t o e r o t i c daydreams which they have e n t e r t a i n e d of  one another. Information o f s t r i c t l y  custodial significance i s  r a r e l y i n c l u d e d i n the " k i t e s " , a t l e a s t not i n those which  r  190 are  successfully intercepted  The  rationale f o r the preoccupation  the  writing  a  concern  of  and d e l i v e r y o f these  f o r the moral  the staff  functions that  feel  there  of "kiting"  as long  remains  and c o n f i s c a t e d  welfare  of staff "kites"  stress  which  preventing  can only  laid  t h e n be  Some  upon  members  the negative  t h e men a n d women, a n d f e e l  a s t h e women a r e " k i t i n g "  heterosexual  with  of the inmates.  i s undue  between  by t h e s t a f f .  t o men t h e i r  i s , i nthis  interest  s e t t i n g , no  small  achievement. Relationships  between  a m o n g t h e women p r i s o n e r s among the or  those  major  another.  "gaolhouse over  Many  within  partner "my of  i slittle  denotes  other  ine  partner  particularly  o r have  i n institutions  spent  o f one k i n d  are purely  does n o t d e t r a c t  i n or carry from  their  the gaol.  t h e two w i l l  haircut  but this  differentiation  or the staff Those  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y a s "my  the  extensive,  sentences  lives  i n the institution.  girl"  Lesbianism  and do n o t e i t h e r o r i g i n a t e  e i t h e r t h e inmates  cussed  long  inmates.  o f the l e s b i a n attachments  romances"  There by  of their  to the "outside",  fervor  i sfairly  who a r e s e r v i n g  portion  female  the active  quite  the feminine being  adopted,  identified the lack  lesbianism  involved  girl"  assume  used i s dis-  refer to their  regardless  o r the passive  definitely role  when  terminology  o f whether  partner.  One  the masculine and  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p , the masculby t h e v e r y  o f makeup,  short  ("butch")  and t h e f a c t  that she  191 wears  blue  cuffs  turned  itory  (in spite  partly  jeans  at  down.  because  The  of of  the  institution.  the  remaining  the  p a r t n e r may  sex  roles  as  they  the  accoutrements  the  curled hair  of  course,  feminine  those  role,  partners,  of  former  Those  few  individuals  (they  continue  are  almost  preferred  i n her the  never  there  lesbian  heterosexual  her  and  masculine  and  role  new  They  be  girls a  and  resumed change  use from be  are  to  more  are  "little alone  which out  as  time  their  boy"  may  drop  transformed is  makeup.  evidenced There  masculine stability  to  of  by  change  become  the  considered  at  "little  of  trans-  contrary),  sought  relationship  p r e f e r homosexual  invariably  or  the  population  released,  than yin i t s f e m i n i n e who  the  i n the  thus  role  seems t o  relationships  role.^"  out,  change  who  and  seek  be  with  frequently very  changes  uncommon f o r t h e  girl"  opportunity,  p r o t e s t a t i o n s made t o  partner w i l l  "little  are  One  i s not  by  romances  constant  It  a  conceivable  the  another.  into  every  to in  are, the  the  counterpart. be  "real"  relationships  lesbians  even  when  possible following release) boys"  are  and  never  considered  by  forego the  this  staff  to  ^Some o f t h e t r a g i - c o m e d y o f l i f e a t t h e Women's U n i t was i l l u s t r a t e d by r e a c t i o n s g e n e r a t e d when one o f thedrug a d d i c t s who i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " r e a l " l e s b i a n , b e c a m e p r e g nant. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r woman i s v e r y m a s c u l i n e i n appearance and c o n s c i o u s l y f o s t e r s h e r m a s c u l i n e image w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . A r o u n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n she s p e c i a l i z e s i n b e i n g a handyman and d o i n g t h e h e a v i e s t t a s k s on any work team a s s i g n m e n t . Although she i s g r e a t l y sought a f t e r as a p a r t n e r i n the institution, b o t h because o f h e r v e r y mannish demeanor and because o f h e r p l e a s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and p r e s t i g e w i t h i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n , she, l i k e most d r u g a d d i c t s , p r o s t i t u t e s t o s u p p o r t h e r h a b i t when released. When i t b e c a m e a p p a r e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f o n e of  have  a legitimate  tolerantly or  seducing  p r o v i d i n g they the very  Although and  shocked  there become of  problem,  d o n o t become  young,  by any e v i d e n c e s  intrigued  t o become  as time  t h e phenomenon.  goes  of lesbianism, more by  In a discussion with  involvement  sees a  claim  perhaps  more  observations  molesting  horrified  then  group  more  unwilling.  inmates  tolerant,  a n d one  by  or the  are quite frankly  the following rather astute  concerning  a menace  the uninitiated  a few inmates  i s a tendency  addicts,  and a r e t r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y  evidences  of young were  made  i n lesbianism:  A.  I f y o u c o u l d w r i t e o r v i s i t t h e guy y o u ' r e going with, you wouldn't have the d e s i r e t o go w i t h a n o t h e r g i r l .  B.  I f y o u c o u l d w r i t e t o ... ( b o y f r i e n d s ) a n d e v e r y t h i n g , you c o u l d t e l l , them e v e r y t h i n g you f e l t . But y o u c a n ' t e v e n see them, y o u d o n ' t know what t h e y ' r e t h i n k i n g a b o u t . Maybe t h e y d o n ' t e v e n want n o t h i n g t o do w i t h y o u ... y o u d o n ' t e v e n know. You s t a r t t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t a n d t h e n y o u t h i n k , "To h e c k w i t h it". Next t h i n g t h e g i r l i s going with some ( o t h e r ) g i r l because she h a s no o t h e r o u t l e t for h e r emotions.  C.  A n d a s "A" s a y s , w h e n t h e g i r l s f i r s t come i n they-see i t and they laugh a t i t , and y o u keep on s e e i n g i t and y o u t h i n k , " W e l l , maybe t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g t o i t . " And so y o u f i n d a g i r l you l i k e and the g i r l l i k e s you and you s t a r t going w i t h h e r and t h a t . And l i k e , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g r e a l l y t h a t g o e s o n i n h e r e ..  h e r s e n t e n c e s t h a t t h i s woman was p r e g n a n t , a l l a t t a c h m e n t s and l e s b i a n a c t i v i t i e s were i m m e d i a t e l y suspended. After t h e c h i l d w a s d e l i v e r e d she" q u i c k l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d h e r f o r m e r s t a t u s and resumed h e r f o r m e r r o l e . B o t h she and h e r p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t n e r s f e l t t h a t some d e f e r e n c e m u s t b e g i v e n t o t h e appearances o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , and the i n c o n g r u i t y o f a pregn a n t " l i t t l e b o y " c o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .  A.  T h e r e ' s no p h y s i c a l purely emotional.  There to  b e much  as  much  who  i s actually  more t h a n  attention  appear  The  inmates  dirty  mind"  of  that  "the lesbian  easily  there  this.  Those  are  carefully  and s t a f f  do n o t l i k e problem"  sur-  to  as i t i s ,  be p l a c e d o n t h e d e f e n s i v e .  accuse  a matron  of "having  can be no a d e q u a t e  specific may  Matrons  another,  matron  also  i s particularly  feign  i n t h e matron)  reply.  an i n t e r e s t  a  I f the anxious  i n one  with the specific  intention  upsetting her. partners usually  see and speak  into  with  one a n o t h e r ' s  reluctantly  another, some  girls  a t which  matrons, As  bands  another.  clothing  eyes,  boast  will time  perhaps  They  they  will  effort  will  h o l d hands,  endeavours be f o u n d  every  t o move  kissing  possible  gaze then  them  longingly part  apart.  or petting  be s e v e r e l y  one  reprimanded  by  and i g n o r e d by o t h e r s .  tokens  o r gold  make  one a n o t h e r .  as t h e s t a f f  Occasionally  one  a  ( o r even  Lesbian to  about  can then  t o which  on one a n o t h e r  vigilant.  l e s b i a n i s m , they  another  f o r one  as f a r as p o s s i b l e ,  can c o n v i n c i n g l y  Inmates f e e l about  groups  anxious  known, f o r t h e y  opportunity f o r relationships  attachments  "crushes"  i s extremely  overly  i n here, I t ' s  i s given t o preventing just  i n separate  veillance  little  emotional  a r e known t o have  placed  part  of their  involvement  c r o s s e s a r e sometimes Cigarette  cases,  the i n i t i a l s  with  one a n o t h e r  exchanged  lighter  cases  wedding  and "wished and  sometimes  o f t h e p a r t n e r s , and f o r the  on"  194 extremely  devoted,  Tattooing  i s punishable  so  few  these and  are  lengths.  protective  toward  so  Love  forth.  and  "kites"  are  exchanged the  involved the  case in  are  the  at  do  The  secrecy  will  from be  these  ation  are  primarily  as  also  written  approve  and  making a  to  change  men  o t h e r inmates  and  lesbian remain  i n the  women  attempt  who  activities,  are  not  or from  keep  this  and  friends,  i s little  i n which  and  has  mutual  to  to  another  the  advantageous  wish  of  placed upon the  relationships  the  an  are  I f we  inmates,  some  sense  as  distinct  from  institutional to  of  at  not  the  would  ,  matrons be  the  relationship  are  together.  group  emotional possibly more  accept  these  opportunity to  important  the  relationship  maintain  and  There  partners i n a  group  other  f o r one  through  these  circumstances  to  cant  of  however,  devotion  the  between  from  attempted»  possessive of  insuring  sent  be  their  cigarettes  either  non-participants. g i v e n by  carry  extremely  i t i s deemed  emphasis  part  the  to  also  Then  to  composition,  attempted.  aspects  by  as  opportunity.  i n which  physical why  remission time,  of  another,  those  not  only  living  staff  The  to  every  unless  prevent  loss  rolling  relationship  those  same  one  or  similar  uninformed.  may  brave  messages  o r who  matrons  a  tattoos  P a r t n e r s become  tobacco,  hide  by  sufficiently  sufficient  to  home-made  be  the  to  anonymity, one  other  may  another  by  the  censored  "emotional"  relationships close  than  explains i n  strongly  self-identification  least  rather  and  be  viewed  individual, importance,  becoming  i n the  explan-  signifi-  institution.  195  The of  implication  i s that  i fo t h e r  i n t i m a c y and e m o t i o n a l  would  cussion,  inmate  "C" i n d i c a t e d  The degree  f o r another  f o rexpressions  were  available,  of their  affection.  women  i n a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e above  c o u l d be more  relationship. have  object  t h e other hand,  relationship  may  involvement  n o t be t h e p r e f e r r e d On  opportunities  that  she thought  gratifying  than  that  a  dis-  lesbian  a heterosexual  of understanding  which  i s , i n h e r o p i n i o n , what  o n e woman  makes  the diff-  erence: ...you c a n t a l k t o t h i s g i r l a n d she u n d e r s t a n d s y o u and she a g r e e s w i t h y o u a n d you can t e l l a l l your troubles t o h e r . You get o n t h e s t r e e t a n d y o u w a n t t h e same g i r l around and you f i n d another g i r l and i t just b u i l d s up t o that and there's n o t h i n g but t h a t a n d y o u d o n ' t e v e n s e e men a n y m o r e . You d o n ' t want y o u r h u s b a n d . You've had a husband and-he's been i n g a o l . Y o u d o n ' t want h i m anymore a n d he d o e s n ' t want y o u , so y o u k e e p g o i n g w i t h g i r l s ... Do y o u t h i n k t h a t a man u n d e r s t a n d s ? I t h i n k a woman u n d e r s t a n d s a woman b e t t e r t h a n a man d o e s . Y o u c a n s a y t h i n g s t o a woman y o u c a n ' t s a y t o a man. You can t e l l h e r your t r o u b l e s a n d s h e ' l l u n d e r s t a n d , w h e r e a s a man, to them i t ' s j u s t n o t h i n g . She  feels  that  men d o n o t r e a l l y  o t h e r women; a n d t h e r e tain it  has been  this it  a close  type  Is a definite  "understanding" found.  of relationship  which  i snot only  she might  tendency  relationship  She h a s n o t , with  i s impossible t o attain.  tionship  "understand"  with  a s do  t o want  t o main-  a woman  once  b y h e r own a d m i s s i o n , h a d  a man h e r s e l f ,  For this  a situational  consider carrying  as well  inmate  and f e e l s a lesbian  development over  into  but  her life  that rela-  something on t h e  196 "outside"  as well.  There Oakalla for  of  P r i s o n Farm  i t must  cerated  o f greed  extended ment  a r e i n sympathy  with  inmate  The double  themselves  sexual  given  h e r needs  physical Lowell  juvenile  by and  nature  t o another.  arrested  with  a mixfavours  or involve-  the prostitute of prostitution  men b e c a u s e  they  o f commit-  Habitually dealing  emotional  f o r emotional  gratification, the  attachment  should  arise)  by h a v i n g  love  expression.  S. S e l l i n g  female  has reported  offenders  the girls  They  fondling, occasional kissing  Journal  been  attachment  ( i f the opportunity  on one another.  obscene  regardless  i n o r are not capable  without  to  "crushes"  exploitative  incar-  f o rt h e sexual  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with  seems w i l l i n g ,  satisfy  have  "mark" i s v i e w e d  but emotional  emotionally  favours  habitually,  they  f o rhe pays  are not interested  " C s " comments,  o f those  n o r d e s i r e d by e i t h e r  prostitute  for  f o r which  and contempt,  t o a general  apparently  the majority  prostitute  by t h e p r o s t i t u t e ,  lead  without  that  offence  i sn e i t h e r expected  might  in  o f t h e women a t  The p r o s t i t u t e ' s  t h e "mark".  ting  many  i n t h e Women's U n i t  convicted.  ture  that  be remembered  the particular  and  or  i sa possibility  notes,  but there  found  that  i n an  developed emotional  and t h e exchange  institution violent expression  of presents  was n o a c t u a l p h y s i c a l homo-  ^ L o w e l l S. S e l l i n g , "The P s e u d o F a m i l y " . A m e r i c a n of Sociology, V o l . 3 7 , (193D pp.21^7-253.  197 sexuality. tion  for  These  sexual  those  There at  These  which  activities  from  f o r them  i n the free  lesbianism  i n t e r e s t become  of  having  their  that  less  girlfriend  because  o f sexual It  statistics bianism,  of a lesbian  discussing My  t o hold  peers. his  i fthey  both  6  prospect  a fear  of of  The inference  romance".  having being  may b e made  interest,  possibly  Inadequacy. difficult  to establish  reliable  o f e i t h e r homosexuality more  question  involved  their  that  per  i n any  imprisonment. I n  of homosexuality  Wilson has stated  or les-  than- t w e n t y - f i v e  become  relationship during  the general  i n prisons  Donald  or  any k i n d  i nhis  lesbianism  Powell  than  i shomosexuality.  Wilson,  My  S i xConvicts,  Wilson has  New  book,  i s more  6  prevalent  a  t h e women  at the  and a f e a r  their  have  at Oakalla  men who h a v e  girlfriend's  i n t h e Women's U n i t  S i x Convicts,  to insulate  Although  disturbed  reflects  but i ti s u n l i k e l y that  type  try  particularly  alienated,  on t h e i n c i d e n c e  o f those  lesbianism  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a "gaolhouse  probably  i s , o f course,  cent  similar  of the non-participat-  will  community.  o f a man b y h i s  h e was u n a b l e  pseudohomosexual  Unit.  on t h e part  greatly  a f f e c t i o n of the other  thought  compensa-  a t t i t u d e toward  among t h e m s e l v e s ,  vested  concern  find  e i t h e r I n t h e Men's U n i t  of  the  tolerant  t h e men, h o w e v e r ,  waiting  grave  intimate  Women who a r e i n v o l v e d  or a boyfriend  Their  i n these  at least  husband  tolerate  apparently  a t t h e Women's  i sa fairly  inmates.  could  r e l a t i o n s h i p s seem t o be v e r y  develop  t h e Women's U n i t ,  ing  girls  frustration  relationships. to  young  York,  198 postulated incidence as  that  part  i s related  more n a t i v e l y  in  i s less  lesbian  to the fact  bisexual  scientifically. there  of the reason  than  F o r these  concern  over  relationships.  more  i s more  i n p r i s o n s f o r women t h a n  for  men.  for  such  there  seem a p p a r e n t  l e s b i a n i s m as I s apparent The  feminine  encompassing sidered  role  characteristics  t o be a d m i r a b l e  i s p l a c e d upon  strength  i s more  emotionality,  dependency  o f view,  the  luxury  are  available  Therefore,  however,  of their  women  participation time  state  i s homosexuality that  there  with  i n prisons  is_ l e s s  concern  i n p r i s o n s f o r women. i n our society, which  traits.  can only  a r e con-  In general a higher  attributes  of rationality, attributes of  From  a  practical  be p e r m i t t e d t o e n j o y  "feminine" attributes  as a f o i l  that  lesbianism exist-  the feminine  when  and t o get t h i n g s  men  done.  i s expected  t o be p r o t e c t i v e  and compet-  when h e r h u s b a n d  i s n o t around,  ent  i n relation  to her children  and  an unmarried  c a r e e r woman  and  a g g r e s s i v e i n t h e absence  play  or less  and t i m i d i t y .  purely  t o serve  a mother  upon  i s regarded  s o c i a l l y and  at this  and a t t i t u d e s  "masculine"  higher  he s u g g e s t s  bisexual  masculine  a n d courage, t h a n  both  extensive  One c a n n o t  ent  point  t h e male,  this  whether there  claimed  the female  reasons  certainty  value  that  same  any  But i t does  for this  i s expected  t o be  o f a masculine  self-reliant  social  partner.  Whereas  men a r e s c o r n e d  and r i d i c u l e d  "feminine"  characteristics  o f e m o t i o n a l i t y and dependency,  women a r e a d m i r e d  Rinehart  i fthey  a n d Company,  display,  Inc.,  19^1,  within  when t h e y  limits,  pp.1^2-153•  dis-  "masculine"  199 traits for  of rationality  The same  stigma  ionship. ine  long are  masculine as does  lesbian  the feminine  displays  refute  does n o t c a r r y  role  than  the broader  relationship  one,  and t h e masculine  able  prestige,  man"  role  petence female  tution,  particularly  concurrently.  society.  Both  lesbian  although  systematically t h e female  lesbian  role  i n the masculine  masculine  role  concepts  play  thwart  to play  t h e emergence The  earlier,  i fthey  spheres  of the r e l a -  t h e most  role  "handycom-  i n an a l l  to l e t the the i n s t i -  the staff  may  The general passive  allows the aggressive masculine  a  t o display  o f t h e man a r o u n d  endeavors.  consider-  t o play  tend  of sexuality  role  (aggressive)  useful  and matrons  support  stable  enjoy  are able  are very  of the masculine  unconscious  So  role.  players usually  a generalized  role.  p l a y e r does n o t t o o b l a t a n t l y  the role  not only  components  Women who a r e a b l e  their  the mascul-  i n t h e mother  i s t h e masculine  i n the realm  relat-  partner are not too  of the feminine  inmates  i t the  o f p r o t e c t i v e n e s s and a f f e c t i o n  the erotic  h a s been mentioned  the lesbian  with  i n a homosexual  h e r feminine  traits  the "masculine"  As  t o b e a woman  o f protectiveness which  toward  as the "mothering" more p r e d o m i n a n t  ages  role  t o the expectations of society  tionship,  important  i t i s t o b e a man a m o n g men.  Characteristics  lesbian  alien  of  I t i s less  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f self-image and prestige  a m o n g women t h a n  in  and s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  role  role  "masculine" but also  encour-  player.  given t o the masculine  role  200  player  probably  lesbian  role  involved  accounts  and u l t i m a t e  i n lesbian The  ionships  f o r the stability  activities  woman a s s u m i n g  i s subject  Although  role  entirely  by assuming  be a c c u s e d  of being  in  the relationship  tective  "male"  be  viewed  in  fact  iveness  counterpart inmate;  IV.  One Women's U n i t tions  o f course)  motivated  h e r feminine o f behavior, she and i n t e r e s t e d  than  the affection  OP  AUTONOMY  o f the inmates  t h e number  of rules  of interpretations  c o v e r most a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r w i t h i n  is  unclear both  Pour  that  t o themselves  member h a s c o m m e n t e d :  staff  members.  the objective  a tt h e  and r e g u l a -  regulations  feel  fellow  of the other.  g i v e n by d i f f e r e n t  t h e inmates  of protect-  the feminine  regulations  tution,  may  may n o t  a "mark" o u t o f a  complaints  b u t t h e number  lesbian  (this  mothering),  T H E DEPRIVATION  i s n o t so much  i s the pro-  by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  o f making  relat-  i sher aggressive  reasons  (not u n l i k e  o f t h e primary  existing,  i n such  Whereas t h e masculine  may b e a c c u s e d  exploiting  noble  f o r those  of years.  opportunistic,  altruistically  another  than  new p a t t e r n  rather  f o r less  be t h e c a s e , toward  censure  this  role  a period  she does n o t r e j e c t  partner.  as being  over  of this  the passive role  t o more  counterpart.  may  assumption  of the masculine  ofthe  Although the i n s t i -  of the regulations  and t o t h e matrons.  One G r o u p  201 I d o n ' t mind r o u t i n e and d i s c i p l i n e i f i t a p p l i e s - t o e v e r y o n e i n t h e same way because I can a d j u s t m y s e l f t o any r o u t i n e . I like the r u l e s t o apply to everyone. I l i k e each i n d i v i d u a l t o be t r e a t e d e q u a l l y ' c a u s e w e ' r e all prisoners. Oakalla  apparently  institutions  in  the  have  inmates)  this  regard.  one  set  under  a l l circumstances.  claim  i s made  the  inmates,  erent the  that that  matrons  the the  expect  compares Other  policy At  rules staff  unfavourably prisons  which  Oakalla, are play  different  not  the  always  favourites  standards  of  other  (according  applies on  with  to  to  a l l inmates  contrary,  the  made k n o w n and  that  to  diff-  behaviour  from  girls: As f a r as g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e k i d s , I t h i n k I get a l o n g p r e t t y good, but h i t t i n g i t off w i t h t h e m a t r o n s i s p r e t t y h a r d f o r me ' c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t t e l l me w h a t I'm supposed t o d o , w h a t i s e x p e c t e d o f me, w h a t i s my duty. A n d t h e n t h e y j u m p o n me b e c a u s e i t ' s n o t d o n e a n d I d o n ' t k n o w I'm supposed to do it ... I t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d g i v e ( a g i r l ) ... a l i s t i n h e r r o o m o f w h a t .. ( i s e x p e c t e d of h e r ) . • The m a t r o n s k i n d o f t h i n k t h a t you just a u t o m a t i c a l l y know i t a l l e v e n i f i t ' s y o u r f i r s t t i m e i n , because most of t h e k i d s t h e y ' v e a l l b e e n h e r e q u i t e a few t i m e s and t h e y do know t h e r o u t i n e s . So, when a new g i r l comes t h e y p r o b a b l y f i g u r e t h a t she knows the gaol. It  lishment so  that  ably  as  may  well  a  highly  of they  will  possible  Similarly,  be  be  that  the  predictable able  within  to  this  predictability  inmates  framework  adjust  of  the  afford  and a  estab-  regulations  themselves  framework  would  desire  "do  better  as  comfort-  easy  time".  opportunity  for  the  development  institutional  of  evading  the  requirements.  Inconsistency standardization considerable  systematic patterns of  of  of  rules  enforcement  as  was  one  tension within  felt the  by  well  as  lack  inmate  to  of  result  in  institution:  I t h i n k they should have standard r u l e s f o r a l l t h e m a t r o n s o n a l l s h i f t s t o h a v e t h e same r u l e s f o r a l l t h e g i r l s ... n o t d i f f e r e n t girls have d i f f e r e n t r u l e s . We're a l l d o i n g t i m e . We s h o u l d a l l be t r e a t e d a l i k e . . . I f I a s k t o d o s o m e t h i n g and t h e y s a y "no" and t h e n someone e l s e a s k s t o do i t a n d t h e y c o u l d t u r n r i g h t a r o u n d a n d l e t t h e m d o i t , I'm g o i n g t o f e e l bad about i t , a r e n ' t I? And-I'm g o i n g t o t a l k t o h e r a b o u t i t a n d n e x t ' t h i n g y o u know t h e r e ' s g o i n g t o be t h a t tension. Although in  terms  of  is a valid  pret  differences one  also  inmate  produce  never  sure  matrons  Individualized  this  for  the  In  latitude  over  another.  a n x i e t y , f o r the  G r o u p E i g h t , members  justify  treatment,  justification  whether they  may  will  commented  for  Day  the  such  allowed  "get on  inmates  signify  day  inmates  do  not  They  feel  inter-  favouritism  Inconsistencies  feel  that  away w i t h " this  circumstances  behavior.  to  to  these  dilemma  they  are  something i n the  or  not.  following  terms: One d a y . . . and the n e x t day t h i n g t o y o u ... something. Most consistent .  with Not  knowing  ately,  not  I can r e a l l y t e l l you o f f , I ' l l s a y e x a c t l y t h e same and bang - y o u ' r e c r i m e d o r of the matrons-are real in-  Y e s , o n e d a y t h e y ' l l l e t y o u g e t away s o m e t h i n g and the,-next day t h e y won't. what  i s expected  k n o w i n g how  of  f a r they  them can  (or perhaps go  more  in reaction  to  accurthe  203 system There away  the  they  rules),  i s agreement with"  other  ere  or  that  considerably  penal feel  the  i n many more  institutions,  are  inmates  would  that  to  caught  respects  than  but  insignificant  are  the  the he  in a  dilemma.  Inmates  "get  tolerated  some o t h e r  in  actions  institution  meet  which  with  sev-  sanctions. Y o u g e t away w i t h so much h e r e t h a t you w o u l d n ' t g e t away w i t h i n a n o t h e r g a o l , and some t h i n g s y o u c a n g e t a w a y w i t h i n a n o t h e r g a o l ... what seems q u i t e n a t u r a l t o y o u here, bang, y o u ' r e i n t r o u b l e . ... Y o u t e l l t h e m ( t h e m a t r o n s ) t o g e t o u t o f y o u r room o r s o m e t h i n g ! cause t a l k i n g i s so f r e e , I know m o s t g a o l s a r e a l o t s t r i c t e r i n a l o t o f ways t h a n t h i s one, y o u got t o a d m i t t h a t , b u t y e t t h e y ' r e so p e t t y a b o u t little things. ;  At y o u know w h a t y o u r p r i v i l e g e s a r e , " e p i s " , so y o u d o n ' t e x p e c t a n y t h i n g . Not like h e r e ... Y o u know y o u c a n ' t t e l l a m a t r o n t o s h u t up and g e t away w i t h - i t a n d maybe t h e n e x t matron you t e l l them t o s h u t up a n d y o u ' r e blowing time. T h e r e y o u c a n ' t do n o t h i n g so y o u d o n ' t do nothing. The erred  to  above  system". to  Group  The  facilitate  breaking  the  manageable  System.  concern group the  s y s t e m was  achievement of  These  the  similar  to  small  number o f  found  i n the  inmates  "petty"  demanded by  the  ref-  the  "group  administration  some t h e r a p e u t i c into  groups not  only  but  family  interact  rules  by  institution  small  custodial supervision,  the  devised of  greater  that  of  restrictions  population  groups.  Many  provide as  with  a  well. one  goals  small  by  more  permit  living By  another  situation  having over  a a  long  period  of time,  (and w i t h  re-socialization sumably  be more  inmates  would  t o more readily  l e a r n how  assumption  being  would  learned  have  learning  that  the  living  group.  for  others  would  inmate made  would  the  a  basis  i f an  vocational  group's refer  inmates  own  time".  activities at  training  entirely  a l l times.  objective  else by  they  first  o f one a n o t h e r i n  ultimately this  respect  that the  a n d demands  of the i n s t i t u t i o n  i s based  must  upon  be u n d e r t a k e n  i n the l i v i n g  o r must will  remain spend  much  inmates  The inmates  prefer resent  according  One G r o u p P o u r system  time  increased  t o be l e f t  unit.  from the  and  trouping  activity f o r alone  t o schedule  t o the wishes member  walk,  disparagingly  as "grouping  having  on  studying f o r  s h e be e x c u s e d  policy  (as  these  o r a l l must  i n considerably  o f t h e group  entirely  go f o r a  course  would  The  this,  e i t h e r a l l members  a l l or nothing  who  one a n o t h e r ( t h e  t o the extent  program  activities.  practice results  some my  to this  that  A l l activities  Is i l l ,  scheduled  with  the limitations  i s known)  etc.,  inmate  pre-  whole.  so t h a t  Only  could  Theoretically the  i n society),  become g e n e r a l i z e d  groups.  badminton,  The  I t i s assumed  shift  play  a  t o get along  matrons),  values  have n o t l e a r n e d  "Socialization"  living  group  t o get along  come t o r e s p e c t  afternoon  small  accomplished.  t h e r i g h t s and needs  by s o c i e t y a s a The  "steady"  positive societal  they  how  t o respect  one o r two  of the  t o "do their majority  has i n t e r p r e t e d the  as being  a desire  f o runiversal  205  conformity  among t h e  inmates:  They n o t o n l y want u s t o d r e s s a l i k e , to look a l i k e , they a l s o want u s t o t h i n k a l i k e and a c t a l i k e . We' r e s u p p o s e d t o s t o p t h i n k i n g and l e t them do o u r t h i n k i n g . Restrictions and  the  upon  inmates  personal  feel  that  autonomy there  are very  i s also  far  reaching,  a drastic  loss  of  individuality. To  perpetuate the  punishments  as  institution  are  the  are a v a i l a b l e  the  offence.  I t i s hoped  groups  for  the  f o r conformity  external be  earned well  (usually  a  stay  a l l may  solely  member  practice  assume  individual f o r the  attend  than  to  i s caught  as a by  to  event.  be  the  mean  responsibility  members,  general  from  will  greater  exerting of the  more  effective  than  Rewards  must  whole  group  staff. I f the  desirable  program  group  Achievement  group.  event  semi-professionals  indiwidual  greater  good  a whole.  member o f t h e  upon  rather  the  that  group  the  to  this  performed  home f r o m  group  and  and  f o r this  i s thought  I f one  level  rewards  i s p u n i s h e d i n some way  coercion  the  concert  dependent  group  or  by  community).  must not  pressure  pressure  performs  the  that  themselves w i l l  internal  also  group  behavior of the  pressure Such  entire  i f a  such  matron  group  F o r example,  "kiting",  system,  to the  geared t o the  individual.  the  group  from  misbehaves, a l l of  rewards  performance,  but  performance. The  inmates  object  to this  policy  of  collective  Is upon  206 treatment and  because  because  as  of the principle  Group E i g h t  members  aired  individuals,  i s not completely  their  views  on t h e  And a n o t h e r t h i n g , g e t t i n g s l a s h e d because s o m e b o d y i n y o u r g r o u p d o e s s o m e t h i n g .. they give themselves a tattoo o r they write a k i t e , so y o u r s l a s h e d from a concert o r something. I n t h e meantime, somebody's b e h i n d t h e i r own d o o r l o c k e d i n a n d y o u ' r e l o c k e d i n y o u r r o o m , how ( w o u l d y o u ) s t o p them f r o m w r i t i n g a k i t e , even i f y o u were going t o ? You can't I  B.  I t s h o u l d n ' t be u p t o u s t o s t o p t h e m anyway. I t ' s - n o t up t o (one) inmate t o t e l l a n o t h e r i n m a t e , " d o n ' t d o . t h a t " , y o u know.  A.  Y o u know what t h e y t h i n k . I t ' s like (the warden's) i d e a o f t h e grouptsystem because i f somebody m i s b e h a v e s i n t h a t g r o u p , t h e n the w h o l e g r o u p c a n be p u n i s h e d f o r I t . S o the whole group i s g o i n g t o give t h a t girl a r o u g h t i m e a n d s h e ' s n e v e r g o i n g t o do i t again. B u t i t d o e s n ' t w o r k t h a t way 'cause w e ' r e n o t made t h a t way . . . I f writes a k i t e ' c a u s e s h e ' s g o t a n o l d man d o w n t h e h i l l , maybe s h e ' s - r e a l l y w i r e d f o r t h e g u y , we a r e n ' t g o i n g t o s a y , " L o o k , we d o n ' t c a r e i f y o u a r e w i r e d f o r t h e guy o r n o t , y o u ' r e n o t g o i n g t o w r i t e t o h i m . We w a n t t o g o t o t h e c o n c e r t " . . . We know how s h e f e e l s and we're c e r t a i n l y n o t g o i n g t o g i v e her a rough t i m e f o r i t ... so where does the group system work? T h a t was t h e i d e a o f i t a n d i t d o e s n ' t w o r k , s o why h a v e o n e ? claim  a s i t may  throughout  ocally  to the  A.  flawless  enjoy  i t i s unfair  follows:  This  not  feel  application  consistent. topic  they  this  to monolithic appear  the entire  same  level  at f i r s t  sight,  institution.  however,  Other  at  groups  least  do n o t  o f c o h e s i v e n e s s , a n d do n o t u n e q u i v -  support the actions  effectiveness  " t o g e t h e r n e s s " I s n o t as  o f t h e group  of their system  fellow  members.  f o r insuring  The  group con-  207 formity the  seems  group  to  members  primarily  differences  has  resulted  not  which  exists  withhold group. them  norms  also  objected  i n t h e Women's U n i t  felt  experience of  groups have  (made u p arguments  t h e b e h a v i o r o f o n e member upon  all.  of the addict  In these  groups  have  developed.  Eight  (the inmates)  persuaded  because  anti-staff  privileges They  frequently  i n a h a r d s h i p b e i n g imposed  so h i g h l y  Group  The Cottage  offenders),  of opinion  the strong  been  increases..  of first  and  groups  decrease as i n s t i t u t i o n a l  t o the form whereby  i n accordance  this  method  of bribery  the staff  with the behavior of the  of gaining  compliance  i n the category of children  t o "eat your  supper  g i v e and  who  place could  and then y o u can have  be  your  cake": I d o n ' t l i k e t h e way t h e y b r i b e y o u . . . "Now y o u g u y s b e g o o d k i d s o r y o u c a n T t g o t o t h e c o n c e r t " ... H e r e y o u g o t p r i v i l e g e s b u t t h e n you've a l w a y s g o t t o do s o m e t h i n g l i k e — you know-— y o u always g o t t o do something f o r them. You're always b r i b e d . Y o u ' v e g o t t o be g o o d , a n d g o o d f o r a week o r y o u d o n ' t go t o a concert.  going The system  second  revolves  population of  They've got a l o t o f s t r i n g s , and t h e y ' r e t o p u l l them i f y o u say s o m e t h i n g (wrong).  around  f o r t h e development  t h e extremely varied  i n t h e Women's U n i t .  the population  thirty-three range  rationale  i s made u p o f n a r c o t i c  sixteen  nature o ft h e  Although f i f t y - n i n e  p e r cent a r e problem  i n age from  o f t h e group  to sixty  users,  drinkers, years,  p e r cent  and another  these  offenders  and r e f l e c t ,  even  208 across  these  age  sophistication. relatively  tem  the  narcotic  homogeneous and  is a the  inmates,  i s , then,  ent  There  naive from  sophisticated arate  differences,  also  groups  insulate  time  own  groups  they  are  placement. separated physical  from  of  to protect  t h e more  additional  criminal  felt  the  criminally  need  to  sep-  The  an  at d i v i d i n g  institution  attempt  which  will  simultaneously protect  expected to during  to  another, they  the  remain  means t h a t  Group Pour  the  group  sys-  the  into Innoc-  knowledgeable.  except  one  need  in  the non-users.  the  proximity  another.  an  differences  users from  expected  This  definite  influence  and  G r o u p members a r e their  marked  remain  work program,  strictly  the  inmates  but  i n those  are not  observed  strictly at  within  are not  which  their only  instances  allowed to talk  within  to  work,  physically  which  afford  one  that:  We h a v e n ' t e v e n g o t t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t a l k i n g t o other groups. We go t o t h e l i b r a r y we go u p t o t h e t o p f l o o r a n d t h e f i r s t t h i n g our m a t r o n s a y s a s she o p e n s t h e d o o r i s " S s h h , don't stop, don't v i s i t , g i r l s . " You're supp o s e d t o w a l k r i g h t down t h a t h a i l , l o o k n e i t h e r t o t h e r i g h t o r l e f t , a n d go t h r o u g h t h e d o o r into the l i b r a r y . N a t u r a l l y y o u ' r e g o i n g t o want t o say " H i " . The particular no  inmate  that  group  one  Seven  and  friends  another. on  the  top  i n many  i s very  reasonable explanation  associates to  women f e e l  of  arbitrary,  f o r insistence long  Group T h r e e , story  cases placement  standing which  of the main  and  that no  can  see  suddenly  longer  i s situated building  in a  speak  with  Group  observed  that:  209  . . . t h e way i t i s on t h e t o p f l o o r h e r e .. somebody y o u work w i t h a l l day, o r h a v e known for f i f t e e n years - suddenly you can't t a l k to them because t h e y are i n a n o t h e r group. Aside regulations by  the  not  be  annoying  which  the  inmates  system,  able to  associates, available  are  the  group  to  that  from  certain not  would  good  like  ionships  choose  be  which  of  the  inmates  Non-Indians  the  placed  short huts  be  elements  the  of  also  who be  liquor  well,  explains  Native  too  in  the  occas-  receive  provisions  for this  maximum  relat-  f o r them.  offences are  adequate  they  inmates  together  security  them  and  those  the  f o r they  that  first  group  of of  securi ty u n i t s are  considered  offenders,  previous experience particularly  first  immediately  the  good  that  kept  population which  feel  segregated,  non-addict  almost  no  not  i s such  and  to  choice  institution  are  minimal be  of  f o r themselves  with as  sphere  on  for to  risks.  inmates  have  frustrating  involved,  which  and  f o r b i d d e n because  normally  medium  the  greater security  those  The  considered to  leaving  Most  for  In the huts  sentences.  are  inmates, those  offenders are charged  the  members  those  huts.  and  are  choose  rules  extras brought  restrictive  and  liquor  very  to  of  personal friends  Although  group  able  Indian  ionally  the  are  Division  are  own  associations  f o r the  to  their  prison.  group  feel  i t i s annoying  even w i t h i n  i n the  proliferation  i n view  offenders to  following  with  their  of  narcotics, the  begin using first  especially should  tendency  narcotics  release  from  Oakalla.  210 Addicts first  i n t h e Women's U n i t  offenders  curiosity  to begin  which has been  versations  which have  a t t r i b u t e the tendency  experimenting engendered  been  with  narcotics  as a r e s u l t  overheard  f o r young  between  to  of t h e con-  addicts:  They h e a r us t a l k i n g , get c u r i o u s , wonder what i t ' s l i k e and t r y I t . C u r i o s i t y I s t h e m a i n t h i n g . - U s u a l l y no amount o f t a l k i n g y o u do c a n d i s c o u r a g e them. A l s o , n o n - u s e r s who a r e a r r e s t e d f o r n a r c o t i c s f e e l t h a t they w i l l have t h e name f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s , s o t h e y m i g h t a s w e l l be u s i n g . Most o f us s t a r t e d out o f c u r i o s i t y , a l t h o u g h we w e r e p r o b a b l y w a r n e d . The begin that  addicts  to use n a r c o t i c s , an addict  first  f i x " .  will  They  responsibility about  users  system.  quate  at present,  in  addicts  where  feel  this  however,  seeing  i n their  "give  extend they  this  would  the addicts be r i g i d l y  extent  they  segregation  i n view  f o r intermingling  a  non-user  belief  a non-user h e r feeling of  avoid  of a non-user.  should  and t o t h i s  They  allow  talking  To  feel  prevent  that  non-  segregated  approve  of the  Is grossly  of the f a c t  inade-  that the  o f t h e two b r o a d  groups  question. Some  relation strong  of the a t t r a c t i o n f e l t  to narcotic  group  offender and  r a r e l y knowingly  of the non-users,  group  dislike  a n d a r e adamant  i n the presence  and n a r c o t i c  teams  they  do n o t , h o w e v e r ,  one a n o t h e r ,  work  that  to the point  narcotics  contamination  from  claim  can probably  f e e l i n g e x i s t i n g among  considers  unless  usage  herself  she f e e l s  strong  by t h e n o n - a d d i c t be e x p l a i n e d  the addicts.  t o be a n o u t c a s t ties  i n by t h e  The  first  of society,  t o some n o n - a d d i c t  group  211 outside  the  i n s t i t u t i o n , e i t h e r h e r f a m i l y o r a group  f r i e n d s who c o n t i n u e t o be s u p p o r t i v e t o w a r d h e r i n of  h e r i m p r i s o n m e n t , she may w i s h t o  that  she w i l l  group at she of ing  be a c c e p t a b l e  least.  i s not of N a t i v e I n d i a n parentage)  o f f e n d e r who d o e s n o t a s p i r e t o a good c h a n c e offender  of never  and a t t i t u d e s .  j o i n the a d d i c t  are very young.  be e a s i e r f o r a d d i c t s  first  poor  offenders,  emeshed o l d e r a d d i c t s .  of  staff  short  effort  associated  i s that  c a s e f o r t h e more  Older addict offenders  claiming that  such  grave i t would  s t a n d i n g t o move away f r o m  t h e new a d d i c t  i n a b a n d o n i n g h e r h a b i t a s !she i s  by t h e l i f e not  Narcotics.  particularly  The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s  d r u g u s a g e t h a n w o u l d be t h e  ested  first  The  i s u s u a l l y quite anxious to t r y to deflect  however,  hav-  to i n d i v i d u a l addict  a f e w i n m a t e s who a r e f i r s t  c o n c e r n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f  theory,  of  has  prison.  i n d i v i d u a l s away f r o m f u r t h e r n a r c o t i c u s a g e , they  pains  group  but have been charged w i t h b e i n g i n P o s s e s s i o n of  if  if  prognosis.  There are  The s t a f f  this  the  The  as a c o l l e c t i v i t y p r o b a b l y has a v e r y  rehabilitative  to  compensations  r e t u r n i n g t o the  so  (particularly  she s u f f e r s  of the  who a d m i r e s a n d i s a t t r a c t e d  or addicts  she b e l o n g s  As a n o n - a d d i c t o f f e n d e r  group support f o r h e r a c t i o n s  spite  j o i n the addicts  t o and f e e l  imprisonment without b e n e f i t  of  with addiction.  s e e n many o f t h e more n e g a t i v e  still  deeply refute i s not too  this inter-  intrigued  The new a d d i c t  has  f e a t u r e s of a d d i c t i o n ,  212  so w i l l probably continue using and wanting to use narcotics for  some time to come.  Empirical facts tend to bear out  the more pessimistic predictions of the inmates i n t h i s regard: ... the kids that f i r s t come, I don't care what anybody says, they think they're big wheels. They l i k e i t (using narcotics) so they're going to come back whether they, go over-to the Panabode (Narcotics Rehabil i t a t i o n Unit) or where they go, they're going to be back two or three more times before they get fed up, and then they might not get fed up. But there's l o t s of kids .. maybe i n group three, that have s t i l l got a chance ... they're fed up with coming to gaol ... some of them would r e a l l y l i k e the chance but they won't get the chance (to go to the Panabode). They put the f i r s t offenders i n and those kids w i l l a l l be back. The inmates f e e l that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can only be accomplished  i f the subject i s sincerely motivated to be  r e h a b i l i t a t e d h e r s e l f , and that It i s pointless to t r y to r e h a b i l i t a t e someone who  i s not so motivated.  There are  d e f i n i t e overtones of resentment i n the following commentary upon the means of selecting the Panabode group members which they f e e l i s employed: Most of them go against t h e i r w i l l . They're t o l d , "You gol" People don't get r e h a b i l i t a t e d here of t h e i r own free w i l l . I t ' s up to you i f you're going to be rehabilitated, not the front o f f i c e . The front o f f i c e picks a l i k e l y looking suspect that's a l l . Annoyance and perhaps fear at the p o s s i b i l i t y of being forced to  change a l i f e style and system of values i s evident i n  the above.  If the g i r l s decide of t h e i r own v o l i t i o n that  213 they of  want  the  pay  to  debt  former  to feel  that  except  forgers  or  i s a  they  "doing of  drug  made a t  like  want  then  most  are  addicts  not  to  meagre  be  return  left  resources alone  unmolested  of  a  d e v i a n t s , we really  I f they  they  some t i m e ,  psychological  they  time",  choice.  reflection  r e s e n t the  to  to  life.  they  by  they  Otherwise  Inmates,  people,  ior  by  way  These like  rehabilitated  institution.  their  their  be  like  conscious, not  a  different  are to  As  rational  one  suspect,  from  alcoholics,  think that  symptom  maladjustment.  would  of  group  cheque  their  choice  deep  other  social  three  behav-  which or  member  stated: M o s t o f u s l i k e t o t h i n k we d o n ' t n e e d a psychiatrist. There i s r e a l l y nothing to be g a i n e d f r o m t e l l i n g a p e r s o n why t h e y d o it. That's not going to stop you from l i k i n g i t , and t h a t ' s the main t h i n g . You l i k e i t ( i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , u s i n g n a r c o t i c s ) and you d o n ' t want t o q u i t . Inmates tempt or  f o r the  any  part  exhibit  rehabilitative  of  the  general topic.  they  would  require  Inmates  stated  release  from  to  tide  them  a  before  that  the  to  until  apprehension of  they  needed  they  clothing could  con-  discussing they  felt  rehabilitated,  most  was  following  This assistance  live,  and  institution  asked  c o u l d be  was  the  p r o g r a m when  specifically  a l l that  prison.  place over  When  of  ability  institution's  this  employment,  a mixture  and  support  what  assistance  would  include  sufficient  money  themselves:  We n e e d a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f h e l p b a c k i n g , m o n e y , e t c . , w h e n we a r e o n t h e s t r e e t , a n d n o n - a d d i c t f r i e n d s ... When a l l your f r i e n d s are addicts you get bored a l l by y o u r s e l f . Y o u go t o s e e what y o u r friends are doing, a n d boom, t h a t ' s i t . They,  like  t h e matrons,  a r e not t o o sure  what  ilitation  i s o r should  b e , a d i t i s n o t uncommon  an  remark  " I was  inmate  that,  and  I never  one  c a n somehow b e g i v e n  or  a pill)  feeling unless of  got i t " .  whether  that  s h e h a s made  h e r own,  would  there  type  given,  rehabilitation  between  rehabilitation  a feeling  (like  o r n o t , and a  t h e i n d i v i d u a l wants u p h e r own m i n d which  a  and R e b e l l i o n .  classification  of offence  but also  that  an i n j e c t i o n contradictory  t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d ,  and has enough w i l l anyone  else  representing also  stages  represent  The group  o f the inmates  committed  represents  the deprivation  they  to  c a n do  power  which  be o f any u s e .  represents  to  are torn  i s nothing  Conformity  the  They  i t i s wanted  unless  to hear  n  sentenced  rehab-  o f autonomy.  stages  of the  distinct  types  The groups  may  of socialization  into  not  according  and d u r a t i o n  fairly  system  only  to  sentence  of reaction be s e e n a s  deviance, but  of socialization  into  the prison  7 society. tion  Clemmer  within  has described  the prison  socialization  as a process  and  adapta-  of "prisonization",  'Donald Clemmer, T h e P r i s o n Community, C h r i s t o p h e r P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 191+.0.  Boston,  The  215  and of  this  concept  may b e o f some v a l u e  t h e Women's U n i t .  rather  Reactions  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f each  groups,  Group E i g h t  Group E i g h t ,  the least  by  by o v e r t  the staff  "prisonized" by  apparent  Pour but  overt  complies  They  disobedient ioned  Defiance  rebellion.  the staff  group  polar  reacts  Group Pour,  appear  reacts  but covert  on important  where  but t h e i r  and deviance  i snonetheless  could  attitudes  i s consistent  satisfying  the rule  they  against  small  to  to  matters  oppression  oppression Group  of policy  i n the smaller  and a r e seldom a c t u a l l y be  and values  i nthis  as the f o l l o w i n g  sanct-  remain  i n the "safe"  scale  smoking  extremes.  resistance.  t o be c o - o p e r a t i v e ,  t o the point  become  t h e most  the s u b t l e t i e s of nonconformity  i s c a r r i e d out on a  concerning  represent  "prisonized"  conformity  o r punished,  untouched,  Pour  o f autonomy  a n d among t h e a d d i c t  i n t h e Women's U n i t ,  with  has learned  matters.  It  group  to the loss  group,  and Group  t o us i n consideration  spheres.  group, b u t  discussion  i n the hallways  indicates:  • Now t h i s i s v e r y s m a l l a n d p e t t y , b u t I ' l l w a l k down t h a t h a l l e v e r y m o r n i n g w i t h a . c i g a r e t t e i n ray h a n d a n d j u s t w a i t f o r s o m e o n e t o s a y s o m e t h i n g t o me. And i f they don't I ' l l t a k e a p u f f a s s o o n a s I go i n t h e d o o r ( o f t h e d a y r o o m ) . T h a t ' s j u s t how s m a l l a n d s n e a k y I g e t . . . I d o n ' t know i f i t ' s t o a n t a g o n i z e them o r d e f y them o r something, b u t i n the morning, i t s a t i s f i e s y o u .  not It  I k n o w s o m e b o d y who w a l k s d o w n w i t h o n e l i t and she does i tp r e t t y near every day. i s rather  interpretation Eight  given  a n d members  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t o inmate  behavior  o f Group Pour.  the discrepancy b y members  Group E i g h t ,  of  o f Group  as h a s been  216  mentioned ent  narcotic  early this to  above,  be a  ially  from  at least  rather proudly  teens  i s almost  and must  questioned.  late  ambivaland  o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . To  the staff  challenge t o the inmates,  they  i n their  known a s t h e " b r a t s "  a directive  rejected,  selves  of rather rebellious,  offenders, typically  twenties, group,  i s composed  considered  be, i f n o t  In speaking  init-  o f them-  note:  Nobody g e t s a l o n g i n h e r e r e a l l y . You c a n ' t b e c a u s e ... y o u n o t i c e a l l G r o u p E i g h t make f r e q u e n t v i s i t s d o w n s t a i r s ( t o t h e I s o l a t ion unit). In  t h e o p i n i o n o f G r o u p E i g h t members t h e i n m a t e s  P o u r were and  considered  i n comparing  pointed  t o be " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ,  t h e two g r o u p s ,  they  made  my  i n Group dearl",  the f o l l o w i n g  observations: A.  T h e y n e v e r go t o t h e h o l e . n o t h i n g wrong.  They  never  do  B.  T h e y make me l a u g h ' c a u s e t h e y s i t a n d t a l k about the o l d days and t h e t h i n g s they d i d . . . how t h e y a r e r e a l l y b l g s h o t s . T h e n y o u go a n d d o t i m e w i t h t h e m i n t h e i r g r o u p a n d t h e y ' r e s o meek a n d m i l d , t h e m a t r o n s a y s ( s n a p ) ... a n d t h e y jump, j u s t l i k e t h a t . When t h e y go o u t o n t h e s t r e e t ... they don't e v e n want t o go o u t t h e r e . T h e y d o n ' t know what t o do w i t h t h e m s e l v e s . They're used t o h a v i n g someone t h e r e t o s a y , " G e t up ... have b r e a k f a s t . A l l r i g h t , i t ' s lunch time . . . come o n a n d e a t . A l l r i g h t now, g e t y o u r work done." T h e y ' r e so u s e d t o t h a t . They g e t o u t t h e r e a n d t h e y d o n ' t know what t o d o . T h e y l o o k a r o u n d a n d t h e y t h i n k , "Gee, t h i s i s a w f u l " , s o t h e y t a k e a c o u p l e o f f i x e s and t h e y t h i n k , " G e e , I w i s h I c o u l d go b a c k t o g a o l . . . I d o n ' t know w h a t I'm g o i n g t o d o w i t h m y s e l f " , a n d boom, t h e y ! r e p i n c h e d . A n d t h e n t h e y come b a c k . They beef a t f i r s t and  t h e n t h e y s e t t l e down and t h e y ' r e q u i t e h a p p y i n t h e i r l i t t l e r u t . T h e n t h e y do a couple o f y e a r s and t h e n they get out and t h e y l o o k a r o u n d a g a i n a n d t h e y d o t h e same thing over again. Because they never f i g h t b a c k o r ... I t h i n k o n c e a p e r s o n l o s e s their w i l l t o f i g h t b a c k , ... t h e y m i g h t a s w e l l g i v e u p b e c a u s e t h e y ... l i k e u s k i d s , .... I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a c h a n c e f o r any o f t h e s e k i d s h e r e ...-Maybe t h e y ' l l n e v e r straighten up b u t a l l o f t h e k i d s h e r e ... d o n ' t just s i t b a c k and l e t t h i n g s h a p p e n and say n o t h i n g . . . w h e r e a s G-roup P o u r d o e s . The m a t r o n t e l l 3 t h e m t o do s o m e t h i n g a n d t h e y do i t , a n d t h a t ' s i t . T h e r e ' s no q u e s t i o n a b o u t i t . T h e y do e v e r y t h i n g t h e y ' r e t o l d .  lessly  A.  The m a t r o n t e l l s "How high?"  B.  B u t u s , m o s t t h i n g s we do a s w e ' r e t o l d , b u t some t h i n g s , i f we d o n ' t f i g u r e we should, o r c a n ' t s e e a r e a s o n why . . . We w a n t t o k n o w why a n d we a r g u e a b o u t i t a n d t h a t . But they d o n ' t . T h e y don't" t a l k about the o u t s i d e a t a l l . A l l they t a l k about i s g a o l , t h e p e n , a l l t h e s e g a o l s t h e y ' v e b e e n i n ... how m u c h t i m e t h e y ' v e d o n e . . . We t a l k about the o u t s i d e s t i l l . - Those people, they h a r d l y e v e r t a l k about the o u t s i d e .  The  G-roup E i g h t  told is  and  cannot  the  consistently  that  to  you  reject  as  deviants from  of  this  show  To  staff  norms  rejection,  a  they  say,  Group Pour  i s hope  they  apparently  conform  staff any  and  and  Eight  that the  you  institu being  members, i t openly  and  institution.  concerning  probably  the  more w i t h o u t  Group  some f i g h t ,  the  and  that  the  the  ambivalence  societal  compulsive  of  adequately  do.  both  u n c e r t a i n t y and  jump,  because  demands  function  e x p l i c i t l y what  essential  Their  to  to  members f e e l  "institutionalized",  unquestionably tion,  them  their  accounts  p a t t e r n which  roles f o r some  obtains  even  218  when i t i s o b v i o u s ment.  They  rejection sively.  have  of  that  accepted  the  employed  by  Group Pour, the  that there  adapt  tion  with  the  they  prison  to  must  extent  presented  the  School  In  by  the  as  an  young  the  done.  the  merits  of  views and  to  ethics  the  punish-  demanding  and  too  more  exten-  subtle  They  have  strain are  a l l aspects  of  being  demands  the  of  seduced  the by  the func-  demands to  any  institutions  Eight feels  of  cannot  learned to  affected  of  They  who  within the  not  Group  behavior  anyone  gross  and  the  pointless.  more  ideology which  reject  program the  that to  guard  ideology  staff.  stated  indication girls  lead  literally  brash  a l l inmates.  prison  too  of  wrong" w i t h  stress  possibility  Group Pour "adjust"  by  forcibly  the  being  to  have of  only  code  o t h e r hand,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but  inculcate  against  out  the  least  they  a minimum  -significant try  as  at  can  Pour.  i s "something  themselves  environment,  of  perhaps  G r o u p E i g h t members as  feel  inmate  l e a r n e d the  Group on  behavior  the  rejectors  They have not  tactics  such  t h a t they of  recently  (school f o r juvenile  viewed  an  inability  personal pathology, from  the  offenders)  Girls' as  and  to singled  Industrial  such  unfortunate  individuals: T h a t ' s why t h e k i d s f r o m G . I . S . a r e h e r e , because they c o u l d n ' t h a n d l e them i n G.I.S. They c o u l d n ' t a d j u s t t h e m s e l v e s . That'3 the k i n d of k i d t h e y s h o u l d t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n . S e t a p a r t , f i n d o u t w h a t ' s w r o n g w i t h t h e m ... I t h i n k i t ' s bad t h a t t h e y can't ( a d j u s t ) b e c a u s e t h e r e i s some m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e t h e r e  219  t h a t ' s h o l d i n g them back, i s n ' t t h e r e ? Even you, i f you haven't been i n g a o l b e f o r e , i f y o u w e r e t o come t o g a o l f o r t h e f i r s t time, You'd n a t u r a l l y get i n t o a r u t too, wouldn't y o u ? - w i t h the r e s t o f them? I f you were t o r e b e l r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t , t h e r e w o u l d be s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h y o u r make u p . You'd need some k i n d o f h e l p . Trust  and  affects  one's  vides  constant  a  trustworthy. the  self-image reminder  Constant  ultimate intention  provokes were would Pour  Mistrust.  hostility  shown more justify remarked  such  deprivation  i n another that  you  supervision behind  i n the  trust,  The  they  action  would  on  the  autonomy  manner a l s o , are not and  inmate  inmates.  of  considered to  be  skepticism concerning  requests They  react part  f o r i t pro-  of  and  feel  behavior  that  i f they  in a  manner  which  the  staff.  Group  that:  T h a t ' s one Show m o r e t r u s t  thing they should i n the girls.  do  here.  When a p e r s o n knows t h e y ' r e t r u s t e d , t h e y ' r e g o i n g to bend over backwards t o keep that t r u s t . But when t h e y know someone i s watching them every minute of every h o u r of t h e d a y , t h a t m a k e s y o u mad. T h a t makes y o u want t o do s o m e t h i n g . 'Cause I d o n ' t c a r e , e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l , n o m a t t e r w h e r e o r who they a r e have the f i n e r i n s t i n c t s i n them. They j u s t n e e d t o be b r o u g h t out. There skeptical from  the  is a  s t r o n g tendency  c o n c e r n i n g any addict  stereotype  of  segments  these  Requests  for aspirin  requests  to.see  the  f o r matrons  to  be  requests f o r medications of  the  individuals or night doctor.  which  p o p u l a t i o n , f o r they as  being  "pill  sedation are The  very  matrons  have  happy".  suspect,  feel  come  that  as most  are of  a  220 the  visiting  screen an  any  inmate  will the  medical  requests i s being  remain request.  The  i s an  of  are  to  give  matrons  the  doctors'  unjustifiable  nurses,  the  feel  that  claims  to  psychosomatic  •  in  even The  to  clinic  upon  evaluation to  their  of  prevent  inmates  are  staff  feel  rights  to  psychiatric  (the matrons)  automatic-  physical discomfort  as  being  nature:  Another thing that's rotten i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e i r m e d i c a l set up. You p r e t t y n e a r have t o have a r e q u e s t s l i p f r o m Ottawa t o get i n t o see a doctor. T h e n when y o u see t h e d o c t o r , w h a t g o o d d o e s i t do y o u ?  B.  I t h i n k they should have a r e g i s t e r e d nurse i n the c l i n i c a l l the time... How can a ( p s y c h i a t r i c nurse), f o r i n s t a n c e , l o c a t e ... s o m e o n e s a y s s o m e t h i n g ' s wrong w i t h them. She'll look a t y o u a n d s a y , "Oh, I don't t h i n k there's a n y t h i n g wrong w i t h you. You don't havet o see a d o c t o r . " ... Who i s she-to tell w h e t h e r you s h o u l d see a d o c t o r o r n o t ?  C.  Every time they laugh other  service to  acceptance  their  while  A.  Again, better  any  Similarly,  the  many m a t r o n s they  heavily  is essential  infringement  Because  interpret  doctor  this  so  Women's U n i t  sympathy;  attention. inmates  the  the  feel  gullible,  attention.  interviewed,  medical  ally  very  f o r medical  c l o s e by  exploitation this  staff  of  the  gaols  the  I a s k t o see one o f t h e and say t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g i n Canada  inmates,  inmate's  d e c i d i n g whether  were  felt  and  to  indicate  ability  to  conduct  she  needed  d i f f e r e n c e i n "atmosphere"  medical  resulting  doctors, wrong.  to  provide  a  greater  her  own  affairs,  a t t e n t i o n or  from  a  greater  not. degree  221 of  trust  Maples was  was  felt  by  Farm which  felt  to  the  inmates  i s associated  approximate  this  to  be  very  great.  with  the  Oakalla  freedom  and  trust  The  Twin  Women's  most  Unit  closely:  I t h i n k i t (Twin Maples) i s a wonderful t h i n g . b e c a u s e you've got freedom. You haven't got. h a l f a d o z e n d o o r s a n d l o c k s t o go t h r o u g h . I t • s an o r d i n a r y h o u s e . Y o u h a v e n ' t g o t two or t h r e e p e o p l e ( m a t r o n s ) on y o u r b a c k a l l t h e t i m e ... y o u d o n ' t f o r e v e r h e a r k e y s j i n g l i n g ... the atmosphere i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . No bells ringing, l o t s of f r e s h a i r .  V.  To of and  a  the  inmate  initial  who  which  reactions  during  comers.  their  Actual  are  the  or  wounds a r e  threats  attacks  u p o n one  being  so  to  abnormal  psychotic.  some t y p e  eutically. weapon  by  the  of  for their not or  person  are of  upon  more  attacker  of  inmates  to  this who  ominous, physical  threats are,  others. staff  are  of  Actual  can,  feel  of  they  would  physical  at  to  considered  be  be  pharmac-  used  rather  of  remove  least  behavior  course,  not  suspected  started  control her  rare  smashed  do  are  i s usually  will  are  but  new-  violence  however,  members  not  stereotype  uncommon among  common,  a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l , she sedation  is  i n w h i c h windows  If procedures  Knowledge those  or  popular  population  are  another  safety  that  the  violence  Incidents  another  individual to  given  of  toward  the  SECURITY  apprehension  self-inflicted  involve  be  of  prison  imprisonment  Women's U n i t .  OF  i s a novice,  incidents  directed  in  the  DEPRIVATION  violent, unpredictable  safety  to  THE  be  as  a  in  a  1 222  mental for  hospital,  some  o r who w a n t  reason.  Although  acteristic  o f t h e whole  that  personal  their  istics the  which  they  determining  to  this  be g i v e n absence  Women's U n i t ,  characteristics  regular  of violence  the addicts  ( a tl e a s t  attribute to addicts  medications Is  char-  again  feel  the character-  as a group)  provide  factors:  The a d d i c t •.. c u t s h e r l i t t l e capers and h a s h e r jokes, h u t (she doesn't) d e l i b e r a t e l y go o u t t o h u r t a n y o n e b e c a u s e v i o l ence i s n ' t i n a n a d d i c t ' s make-up. At least I haven't seen an a d d i c t y e t , t h a t would a c t ually resort to violence. A quick fired temper a n d a few n a s t y words a n d i t ' s g e n e r ally a l l right again. One aggression  explanation  for  the low incidence  i n t h e Women's U n i t  ( a s compared  of inter-personal to thehigh  incid-  8, ence be  of aggression  related t o the fact  are  symbolically  obviously able  and  aware  t o coerce  means of  that  of l i t t l e  demonstrations importance  their  which  are i n keeping  arewell so that  much a t h r e a t  id l o g i c a l  of other  Sykes,  developed  the threat  The inmates inmates  The a r t s  t o personal  Society  must  who s e e k  of Captives,  implicit  with  and r e l i e d  upon  i n being  image  persuasion almost  security  i s not o f psycho-  against the  advantages.  p.77  prowess  Women a r e  the public of  could  indirect  but rather  guard  )  of physical  upon more  of physical aggression,  aggression.  conniving  role.  f o r men  a m o n g women.  advantages  fellows,, but rely  f e m i n i n i t y and the female wheedling  i n institutions  of the personal  of coercion  exclusively, so  mentioned  The argot  223 roles  distinguished  reflective rather  of t h i s  "marked-in"  of  by  personal  The more  feels  within  by  the  but  "playing  designed  be  to fool  resentment. "part  dull  and  A  psychological  Cry  has  duped  p e e r s , she and  as  staff,  but  be  prison,  and  although  by  "part  and by  the loss  be  i f her  loss  physical  the  victim.  prostitute of  prestige  "marked-in"  at her  own  player"  a phoney. her  a  another i s the  which  beaten A  entail  time  In the  been  Babies.  the  may  enough t o  identified  definition  of  contempt  o r unwary She  inmate  keenly f e l t  i s reflected  legitimate,  player"  therefore,  a n o t h e r may  most  The  an  the  loss  to fool  her  by  at h a v i n g been  ambivalently part"  within  sacrifice  "mark"  Players  to  i n which  or a  institution.  the  considered  own  concern with  duped  consequence.  anyone  Part easily  the  of p r e s t i g e  f o r her  suffered  a  i s not  serious  ways  of being  possessions  this  loss  several  are,  vulnerability.  her associates  consequences  energy,  to  are  Women's U n i t  predominant  than physiological There  the  at the  is  I f she  performance  performance  game.  i s  i s  i s  i s regarded with anxiety  observation  on  inmate  and  reactions  follow:  (A p a r t p l a y e r I s ) s o m e t h i n g I ' d l i k e t o be. S o m e o n e who r u n s a r o u n d a s i f t h e y ' r e k i l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h work, and d o n ' t do anything. ... B u t i f a n o t h e r i n m a t e i s g o i n g t o s u f f e r l i k e o n m a i n t e n a n c e , e v e r y b o d y h a s t h e i r own j o b . I f y o u d o n ' t do i t , n o b o d y e l s e i s g o i n g t o h a v e t o do i t . - I t ' s y o u r j o b ... y o u f i n i s h (those jobs) i n ten minutes then you pretend you're d o i n g s o m e t h i n g ... B u t o n a j o b , l i k e i n t h e  224  k i t c h e n ( a t ) night o r something l i k e t h a t , w h e r e t h e r e ! s maybe s i x k i d s i n t h e g r o u p , e v e r y b o d y ' s - got t o p i t c h i n o r t h e work doesn't get done. So i f s o m e b o d y p l a y s t h e p a r t , - t h e r e s t o f t h e work i s f a l l i n g on t h e o t h e r k i d s ... a n d t h a t g i r l d o e s n ' t do a n y thing. Typically,  the part  player  i s t r y i n g to avoid  work:  T a k e t h i s g i r l i n t h e k i t c h e n one n i g h t . She w a s h e d n i n e t e a p o t s a n d i t t o o k h e r o v e r an h o u r . She r a n b a c k a n d f o r t h , q u i t e f a s t , waving h e r d i s h r a g . Meanwhile, and I were w a s h i n g d i s h e s . We w i p e d a b o u t f i f t y million dishes. F i n a l l y we r e a l i z e d , " H e y , we're r e a l l y s u c k e r s , she i s n ' t d o i n g anything", so-we a c c u s e d h e r o f i t q u i t e - b l u n t l y , a n d s o she s t a r t e d c r y i n g a n d r a n t o t h e m a t r o n a n d s a i d we w e r e p i c k i n g o n h e r , a n d s o t h e m a t r o n went a n d washed a n d d r i e d h e r t e a p o t s ... t h e m a t r o n t o o k h e r s i d e a n d s h e was a p a r t p l a y e r l She w a s n ' t d o i n g anything. Insult side of  was  with  apparently the "part  t h e work,  now  to  the "part  babies"  t h e sympathy  from  both  sorry  This  staff  gain  made  the  They  anyone  sensitivities.  Crying  and s u l k i n g  they  used  do n o t l i k e  b y women to think  taking  victory,f o r  have  by  appealing  special privileges make  others  hypersensitive with  advantage  dealings  feel  to the  by t h e w o r l d .  f o ra while,  are again  i n their they  they  dealt  value  resent  commonly  receive  and a r e badly at face  d i d some  teapots.  because  deeply  are  a double  are apparently  be t a k e n  the matron  t h e matron  a t t e n t i o n and favours  and inmates  of others,  act will  inmates  washing  They  Although  player"  of others.  f o r them.  reactions  t o i n j u r y by h a v i n g  player".  s h e was n o t e v e n "Cry  added  but the  of their  weapons with  finer  which  men, b u t  been hoodwinked  by  these  225  tactics really  when t h e y rankles  smarted, esteem  forms  s p e c i a l argot cognizance  ional  choice  "Part  players"  taking  internal  her of  of bribery  Again,  have  what  been  of prestige  t h e importance  names.  Bribery  out-  and s e l f -  oh t h e part  own c o u r s e  better  must by  enjoy  degree  of the individual  inmate  of rat-  bribed. solidarity  The n e c e s s i t y f o r  i n the face  and the "part  t o gain  a certain  as a matter  threaten  o f one a n o t h e r .  co-operativeness  i s refuted,  implies  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l being  and "Cry babies"  advantage  obviously  o f t h e above  on t h e part  so c a n be d e f e n d e d  of the external  player"  o r "cry  i n d i v i d u a l advantages  baby"  oppresplots  a t t h e expense  the group.  VI.  The en  they  and i n f l u e n c e  and co-operation  bribed,  sion  that  t h e redemption  but are not given  being  by  case  women.  are d i f f i c u l t .  exist,  of  by a n o t h e r  i s t h e knowledge  i n which  Other  ing  are used  masse  heavily  deprivation  and constant on the inmates  Reckless  has observed  more p r i v a c y ories  THE DEPRIVATION  than  of privacy  PRIVACY  which  accompanies  s u r v e i l l a n c y by s t a f f  members  o f t h e Women's U n i t .  Walter  that  women  seem t o r e q u i r e  d o men; a l t h o u g h  and barracks,  OP  men t h r i v e  women a p p a r e n t l y  need  life weighs C.  considerably  i n open  dormit-  an opportunity  do  9 things  out o f the public  gaze.  Certainly  t h e women a t  Survey  W a l t e r C. R e c k l e s s , "How t o T r e a t Women P r i s o n e r s " , M l d m o n t h l y , V o l . 82 ( O c t o b e r , 19i+6), p p . 2 5 9 - 2 6 1 . -  Oakalla of  have  privacy  dignity,  stated  embarrassing  particularly  manipulation The because ional  of  of  lack  of  of  two  or  insure  to  smuggle  given The  toms,  but  the  the  observable  and  a  sense  the of  interference  i s very the  the an  lack personal  with  and  must  of  another  f o r the  priv-  admissions Drug being  circumstances.  distasteful,  their  s u c c i n c t l y observe  at  expected  of  public  intensely  i t antagonizes  for  new  additional humiliation  procedure  and  is  not  withdrawal  that,  in  bathe  institution.  these  funct-  Women's U n i t  Matron  the  tradit-  body  provision  Admitting  into  the  undress,  one  opportunity  to  painful,  and  the  little  enema u n d e r  feel  body  to  and  presence  as  accorded the  time,  articles  rather  "It  symp-  ruins  completely!"  loss  of  physical  procedures,  rooms are at  regard  admitted  a  i s no  this  they  also  admitting  ioned,  there  find  dignity The  There  undergo  because  at  process  emetic  to  find  i n p a r t i c u l a r are  concerning  i n the  contraband  inmates  only  your  that  must  an  three  hair  this  of  normally  matron.  to  addicts  privacy are  wash t h e i r  during  i t involves  they  body.  total  groups  acy  when  that  detrimental  the  Inmates  one  and  procedures  rights  least  the  definitely  admission  ions.  and  quite  custody,  matrons  they  please.  The  f o r , as  designed  a l l times  good  privacy  lack  and,  can of  and  so  prevails  has that  been the  presumably do  enter  privacy,  and  even  previously occupants  i n the the  following  are  interests  rooms  apparent  ment-  whenever disregard  of  227 given  to  source  the  of  inmates'  great  sensitivities  by  the  matrons  is  a  annoyance:  You got no c h a n c e . You c a n ' t e v e n go to the bathroom. They stand t h e r e ... Gee, that's awful. T h e y won't leave. Although indignant anted one  as  reactions  i n view  of  considers  remains one  They  that of  are  that  the  ification  that  the  to  loss  of  freedom  nity  and  are to  the  point  removal a  debt  they but  the  in their the  Discussion  the  to  which  unwarrwhen  not  such  perhaps do  and  the  can  a  see  to  agree  loss  same  these.  deserve not  privacy  imprisonment.  enjoy  as  of  fact  of  rights  no  just-  They lose  that  will  their  this  personal  dig-  institution. the  constant  surveillance  m e m b e r s who  attempts  staff  try  i n the  they  their  enjoy,  involve  is  ironical  deprivation  do  they  inmates'  p r o s t i t u t e s , the  of  rights  Group E i g h t  that  A.  of  also  level,  thoughts. extent  they  automatically  should  annoys the  the  the  privacy  perhaps  habitual  that  community,  another  persistent  are  that  physical  and  experience  worth within  On  of  feel  painful aspects  pay  i n the  lack  may  status,  reminded  freedom  staff  do  adults  for  a  many  more  again  to  their  they  which normal  concur  some o b s e r v e r s  feel  at to  group this  feel  the  of  matrons  c o n t r o l l i n g the invade gives  upon t h e i r an  the  inmates private  indication  infringement  of  prevails:  I used to l a y on the f l o o r a l l the t i m e a n d d r e a m ... j u s t l o o k a t the c e i l i n g , and t h e m a t r o n k e p t saying, " T e l l me w h a t y o u ' r e t h i n k i n g a b o u t , t e l l me w h a t y o u ' r e t h i n k i n g a b o u t " .  I c o u l d n ' t even t h i n k t o m y s e l f . She k e p t s a y i n g , "What a r e y o u t h i n k i n g about?"  In staff no a  B.  I n t h e meantime, i f y o u e v e r t o l d them what y o u were t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e y ' d p r o b a b l y be so s h o c k e d t h e y ' d p u t y o u in the hole.  G.  I f you're t a l k i n g want t o know what  A.  I f y o u go i n t o y o u r room a l o n e and shut t h e d o o r , t h e y make y o u come o u t a n d lock the door .'cause t h e y t h i n k y o u ' r e g o i n g t o go b a c k i n y o u r room a n d l a y down ( a n d d a y d r e a m ) .  addition  to this  surveillance,  lack  most as  being  many  bode  rooms  double  as four  share  sence  of others  ise  i n t h e main o r dormitory  inmates.  are a l l dormitory  group  of privacy  a communal  i spainful,  and patience with  There  will  are only Unit,  accommodate  all.members  room.  o ft h e  The constant  f o r i t demands  one another.  there i s  cottages and t h e pana-  i n which  bed-living  from  o f t h e Women's  rooms w h i c h  The huts,  style  that  one a n o t h e r . building  they about.  resulting  t h e women a l l c o m p l a i n e d  o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t away f r o m few single  t o one a n o t h e r you're t a l k i n g  constant  Group Pour  precomprom-  observed;  A.  Y o u a s k t h e m how t h e y c l a s s i f y h e r e , how t h e y p i c k e d y o u r g r o u p s , i t ' s n o n e of your business, which i ti s your b u s i n e s s ' c a u s e we h a v e t o l i v e t o g e t h e r . We g e t i n t o a n a r g u m e n t , t h e n t h e y f i g u r e we're h a r d t o g e t a l o n g w i t h . They f o r get there a r e twelve p e r s o n a l i t i e s here ... t h r o w n t o g e t h e r . . . n o t l i v i n g t o g e t h e r .  B.  The majority doing a year and over. Put t h a t many p e o p l e t o g e t h e r f o r t h a t l e n g t h of time, you're together a l l t h e time, n a t u r a l l y some p e r s o n a l i t i e s a r e g o i n g to clash, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f you're completely opposites.  229  A.  Everybody i n t h i s group i s more o r l e s s set i n t h e i r ways, and i t ' s darn hard t o have t o bend, yet i t ' s done every day.  The s t r a i n of l i v i n g as a group i s i n t e n s i f i e d because there i s no opportunity t o escape from the group;  no chance  to have a few minutes t o y o u r s e l f . There are times when everyone has t o be alone. You just have t o l Like these g i r l s three i n a room, where can they go? They can't even be alone when they're t a k i n g a bath. I t stands t o reason i t ' s going to work on t h e i r nerves. At the Twin Maples Farm oh the other hand there i s an opportunity t o have some p r i v a c y ; another from time t o time.  t o get away from one  A Group Four member who had been  working at the Twin Maples Farm project f o r a time explained the d i f f e r e n c e which she f e l t t h i s opportunity f o r privacy made t o d a i l y  living:  I f you're f e e l i n g blue o r you get a l e t t e r or something that upsets you and yoU want t o go s i t Von the back porch you can do 3 0 , and s i t alone. Someone doesn't come and say, Hey, t h i s way." You'can't go f a r , no, but s t i l l you have the f e e l i n g of.being able t o go by y o u r s e l f . You might go pick a few f l o w e r s , you might go draw two o r three p a i l s of water. I t ' s a wonderful t h i n g . M  This i s not a sphere i n which argot r o l e s are l i k e l y to be generated as a means of adapting t o a p a i n f u l  situation,  yet resentment caused by the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s apparent d i s r e g a r d f o r the needs of privacy represents one of the more important axes of l i f e at the Women's U n i t .  The concern w i t h privacy  may be, as Reckless suggests, greater among women than among  230 men. of  But i t i s a l s o p r o b a b l e  autonomy  the  whole  Farm is  than  which  that  accompanies  problem  i n sharper  I s the case  perspective where  system"  deprivation may  place  at the Oakalla  more p e r s o n a l  Prison  latitude  allowed.  Gresham which  confront  Prison tion  Sykes  SUMMARY  has distinguished f i v e  t h e male  i n Trenton.  inmates  These  1 0  or frustration  OBSERVATIONS  heterosexual  onomy  and personal  security.  inmates  deeper  of these  significance  inmates argot  some  must  these  pains  modes  of adapting  sumed  under  some  which  these  of "real  of special  ment  indication  r o l e s have  Sykes,  acceptance,  Society  mat-  personal  the viewpoint  others,  of  aut-  partic-  refer,  problems.  argot  a r e a l l sub-  environment.  names f o r t h e v a r i o u s to the pains  of the very  f o r the prison of social  to  (group-oriented)  of imprisonment i n this  The  i n general,  The "cohesive"  man"  have  but i n general a l l  a l l of these  of adaptation  disruptive patterns  1 0  depriva-  ( s e l f - o r i e n t e d ) modes o f a d a p t i n g  the label  patterns  State  involve  relationships,  From  problems  Jersey  of social  has described  t o the pains  alienative gives  with  of imprisonment.  development  major  deprivations or frustrations  have  cope  Sykes  the "alienative"  The  than  somehow  r o l e s which  problems  i n t h e areas  possessions,  ular  a t t h e New  five  erial  the  extensive  t h e "group  elsewhere  VII.  to  very  great  of  importance  society.  These  I n t e r a c t i o n , and  of Captives,  p.106  imprison-  are  they  tend  t o make l i f e  difficult,  although  some p e r s o n a l In of  gains  comparing  adaptation  ing  f o r t h e inmate  the individual from  existing  d i f f e r e n c e s between  account.  Unit  i snot as austere  Prison.  but  and d o i l i e s  deal  members  offenders, month  Although tinct  into  who a r e n o r m a l l y  these  the rest  with  sophisticated considered  rooms.  addict  t o be good  taken  a t t h e Women's State  windows,  The food  bedspreads,  provided i s  nonetheless. population  No i n m a t e s the majority There  group  i s rather  a r e kept  i n this  remaining  less  i s consequently  are the Native  sentenced  to periods  o f one k i n d  a group  o f t h e inmate  foiling  exist-  the clothing i s standardized,  infractions  women d o h a v e  enjoy  funda-  be  a  a n d o u t o f t h e Women's U n i t .  o f t h e inmate  for liquor  from  obsessed  two y e a r s ,  a t any one t i m e .  o f movement  mobile  one  than  o f t h e more  c u r t a i n s on t h e i r  i ntheir  those  i n t h e New J e r s e y  structure of the inmate  longer  some  with  two p r i s o n s must  as i s l i f e  a t t h e Women's U n i t .  may  and patterns  and m a t e r i a l l y l i f e  and p l e n t i f u l  months  o f imprisonment  these  attractive  unit  playing the role  Prison,  and a p p e t i z i n g ;  unique  more  behavior.  adequate  The  six  Physically  T h e women h a v e  ornaments  a s a whole  a t t h e Women's U n i t State  into  both  his  the pains  a t t h e New J e r s e y  mental  group  or  identity  population,  than  great  The most Indian  of less  than  another.  which they  i s disare not as  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s a r e t h e more offenders. security  The Native risks,  Indian  (because  women a r e  of their  232 s h o r t , though repeated, sentences), allowed g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l  freedom w i t h i n the  than are the a d d i c t o f f e n d e r s . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e pressure  and are  T h i s very  ial  relaxation of  Indian  inmate groups.  l a r g e s t , most s t a b l e and c e r t a i n l y most i n f l u e n t -  segment of the inmate p o p u l a t i o n  group.  institution  may account a t l e a s t i n p a r t f o r the  more t r a c t a b l e nature of the N a t i v e The  consequently  i s the n a r c o t i c a d d i c t  The n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s r e c e i v e the longest  at the Women's U n i t , and t h e r e f o r e  remain i n the Women's U n i t  l o n g e r than any o t h e r inmate group. p r i s o n f o r the f i r s t been w e l l schooled  sentences  Even before  coming t o  time, however, the n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s have  i n the m e r i t s  o f group s o l i d a r i t y as a means  of r e s i s t i n g o f f i c i a l . o p p r e s s i o n . which they develop o f n e c e s s i t y  The strong group l o y a l t y ;  i n the community i s c a r r i e d  over i n t o the p r i s o n s i t u a t i o n , as i s t h e i r group code. The a d d i c t s see themselves as "rounders" who a r e oppressed by the world of "square Johns".  "Square Johns" are n o t only p o l i c e  and  other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  o f a u t h o r i t y , but a l l i n d i v i d u a l s  who  are n o t committed t o t h e i r set of shared r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s .  The  "rounder" s u b - c u l t u r e  supports a code o f b e h a v i o r which  seems t o be common among groups o f d e v i a n t s  who f i n d they a r e  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y oppressed by a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . The  f e e l i n g that "we" (the a d d i c t s , o r the  must stand t o g e t h e r  against  over i n t o the p r i s o n .  "rounders")  "they" (the "square Johns") c a r r i e s  The a d d i c t s f e e l they must stand  together  a g a i n s t t h e s t a f f o f the p r i s o n , and t h a t they cannot t r u s t  233 non-addict inmates much f a r t h e r than they can t r u s t the s t a f f . They a t t r i b u t e d i s r u p t i v e inmate behavior t o t h e "square Johns" w i t h i n the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n , i s t i c patterns  and a t t r i b u t e the more a l t r u -  o f inmate behavior t o the n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s .  T h e i r s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a d d i c t s and n o n - a d d i c t s i s not e n t i r e l y borne out by o b j e c t i v e f a c t , but c e r t a i n l y the s t a f f have found that as a general  r u l e the a d d i c t groups tend t o  enjoy a g r e a t e r degree o f group s o l i d a r i t y than do the nonaddict  groups. The  group system a l s o has come i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  s p e c i f i c nature o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e e x i s t i n g a t the Women's Unit.  O r i g i n a l l y intended  therapeutic  t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e achievement o f  goals, the group system a l s o c a r r i e s with i t  the p o s s i b i l i t y of g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d of the c l o s e r contact The very  between the  c u s t o d i a l c o n t r o l because  custodian  and t h e c a p t i v e s .  inmates f e e l t h a t t h e group system Is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the great  l o s s of p e r s o n a l  autonomy which they experience  i n the Women's U n i t .  Those inmates who have served  imprisonment i n other  i n s t i t u t i o n s are adamant In t h e i r  t h a t they have l e s s p e r s o n a l  terms o f claims  autonomy a t the Women's U n i t  than a t any o t h e r p r i s o n w i t h i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . The  group system has r e s u l t e d i n the s e g r e g a t i o n o f  the inmate p o p u l a t i o n population  is first  i n t o v a r i o u s l i v i n g groups.  d i v i d e d i n t o two main s e c t i o n s  The inmate separating  those who a r e n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s from the n o n - a d d i c t s . to t h i s , group c l a s s i f i c a t i o n tends roughly  Further  to r e f l e c t the  234  stage of  s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e p r i s o n community  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n m a t e . the l e a s t  sophisticated  The c o t t a g e s a n d t h e h u t s  sophisticated.  e m e r g i n g as a d a p t a t i o n s  onment a r e n o t a l w a y s  given argot  to the p a i n s of impris-  names a t t h e Women's  p o s s i b l y because of the t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e of the ulation.  Such a r g o t  as  u s e d by t h e a d d i c t s ,  outside  There does not  Unit,  inmate  i s employed i s based almost  i v e l y upon the a r g o t the p r i s o n .  contain  inmates, the main b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n i n g  t h o s e w h i c h a r e t h e most The r o l e s  achieved  pop-  exclus-  b o t h w i t h i n and  seem t o be any  argot  e x i s t i n g a t t h e Women's U n i t w h i c h i s u n i q u e t o t h a t u n i t which cannot  be f o u n d e i t h e r  Men's Unit at  i n the addict  sub-culture,  O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, or i n p r i s o n s i n  and  the  general  throughout North America. The f a i l u r e f o r argot are  roles  of  less  significance State  and "hack l o v e r s "  that Unit, of  in this  Prison.  rejector  is  or e x p l o i t a t i o n of a n o t h e r ' s  with possessions  in  as  indicating  important i n the  i s not too d r a s t i c  The women t e n d t o  pains  readily differentiated  p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e a d d i c t g r o u p s .  common.  these  "pigeon b i r d s "  coping w i t h the d e p r i v a t i o n of freedom,  r e j e c t i o n of the  develop  s e t t i n g than they are  "Squealers",  c o u l d be q u i t e  goods a n d s e r v i c e s  theft  imprisonment to  I n t h e Women's U n i t may i n d i c a t e t h a t  t h e New J e r s e y  means o f  some p a i n s o f  Women's  The d e p r i v a t i o n  i n t h i s p r i s o n , and  possession  i s not  compete f o r p r e s t i g e  r a t h e r than f o r the possessions  too  associated themselves,  235 as  i s evidenced  by t h e h e a v y  of  an impressive Although  response there  between  the general  tolerance  Unit  than  toward  frustration  associated  the polar  alized"  so t h a t  the various  openly,  t o be and  reflective  expectations  There  i s much  t h e Women's  f o r men.  i sa significant Prison  to this groups,  "type"  Farm,  rather  case.  but the  than  Four  Group  i s apparently  a t l e a s t . o v e r t l y they  source  frustration  and Group  i nthis  Group Four  deprivation  conform  as with  "type"  Eight  "institutiont o t h e demands  o f s e c u r i t y does n o t cause  a t t h e Women's U n i t or integrity.  coercion and  seems  relationships within  o f autonomy  rela-  custodians. The  safety  roles  institutions  extremes  these  names t o be a p p l i e d a n d  i n our society.  The Group E i g h t  rebel  the  argot  of adaptation  with  procurement  relationships,  of roles within  t o t h e women a t O a k a l l a  members  cern  i n most  see patterns  represent  these  deprivation  individuals.  of heterosexual  for  role  upon  a t t h e Women's U n i t i n  blurring of the definition  exists  The  being  develops  lesbian  the female  more  inmates  failure  placed  outfit.  differentiation  This  surrounding  of  lesbianism  i s little  differentiate  of  out"  to the deprivation  tionships.  of-  "going  emphasis  "part  advantage  evident,  I f one t h i n k s  There  i slittle  i n terms violence  but e x p l o i t a t i o n does  players" by d u p i n g  pose  a threat  their  They  occur.  seek  con-  of physical or physical "Cry babies"  t o the inmates  fellows:  much  f o r they  to find  gain  suckers  236  as t h e i r male counterparts seek cowards. One pain of imprisonment apparently not experienced by the men at the New Jersey State P r i s o n i s the d e p r i v a t i o n of p r i v a c y .  Perhaps privacy becomes more important with  i n c r e a s i n g l y comfortable standards of l i v i n g , or i t could be, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , that women a c t u a l l y are more concerned with securing p r i v a c y than are men. open question at the present  This w i l l have to remain an  time.  CHAPTER V I I  CONCLUSIONS  Using his  study  the  social  Farm.  nature  i n British i s small  of this  addicts,  Sentences  holds  The  from  hand,  by Gresham  Tasks  offenders  two y e a r s .  between  a t a n y one t i m e , varied.  days  t h e New those  t o two y e a r s  Jersey  State  inmates  but the  Narcotic  which  Sykes  o f custody,  o f custody  i s much  are thought custodial  larger,  t o be risk.  order,  self-  A t t h e New  Jersey  State  way a g u a r d level  one day.  internal  comes l a s t .  a high  are found.  has o u t l i n e d t h e f i v e  and i n t e r n a l  Reformation  less  Prison  the greatest  and reform.  the best  The  one h u n d r e d  of criminal sophistication  five  i s t o see that  Prison  w r i t e r s , a b o r t i o n i s t s and a r s o n i s t s  of the Prison.  indicated that  than  i s extremely  cheque  punishment  priority.  to less  female  Sykes i n  examined  Oakalla  a l l those  fluctuating  o r t o present  the tasks  inmates  used  STUDY  p r i s o n f o r men, I  inmates  o f a p r i s o n as those  Prison  has  population  i n custody  maintenance,  first  and t h i r t y  range  dangerous  houses  Columbia  and degrees  On t h e o t h e r  tasks  security  i n size,  alcoholics,  a l l ages  most  of reference  T h e Women's U n i t  1  one h u n d r e d  and  S U G G E S T I O N S FOR F U R T H E R  s t r u c t u r e a t t h e Women's U n i t ,  population  of  t h e frame  o f a maximum  sentenced  and  AND  order  are given  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can go about  of discipline  reforming  and c o n t r o l  Gresham M. Sykes, The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958.  238  is  maintained At  similar and  within  t h e Women's U n i t ,  t o those  o f t h e New  t h e maintenance  setting  as w e l l .  and  t h e matrons  and  to their  the"inmates however,  justify  peers  most  as b e i n g  only  Sykes  prison,  conform they is his  care. than finds  He  be f o r c e d ,  that  their  to  like  humanity  t o be t h o u g h t  instrumental authority.  they  all,  themselves "good f o r "  fact,  a r e commensurate  n o t have  do n o t f e e l  demands.  from  because  o f as a good  The inmates  that,  t o be l i k e d  and t h e g u a r d s  to retain  assigned to h i s  the custodian  as being  are inmates. by them  These  to the corruption  performed  o f t h e c a p t i v e s more  charges  fellow.  obliged to  t o be  In addition,  they  within  c a n be l e d , b u t  inmates  t h e work  ofthe  power