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The geology and mineralogy of the Little Billy mine, Texada Island, B.C. De Leen, John L. 1946

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L  &  3  &7  THE GEOLOGY AID MINERALOGY OF THE LITTLE BILLY MIHE TEXADA ISLAM), B . C .  by  John L i De Leen  -o-  A t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d t o the Department  o f G e o l o g y and  Geography o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, as fulfillment  partial  o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the Degree o f M a s t e r  o f A p p l i e d Science* -o-  Vancouver, B . C .  April  1946  C0ITE1TS  Page  Acknowledgments  1  Chapter I . 3 4 5 7  Introduction •• • P r e v i o u s Work and Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n H i s t o r y o f M i n i n g on Texada I s l a n d M i n e r a l Deposits Chapter I I .  Topography and Geology o f Texada  Island  Topography Relief Geology o f Texa&a I s l a n d i Anderson Bay f o r m a t i o n Texada f o r m a t i o n i n t r u s i v e Rook a) Stocks * b) Dykes Chapter I I I .  The Geology o f the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e .  M a r b l e Say Limestone Quartz-Diorite A l a s k i t e Dykes A n d e s i t e Dykes Chapter I V .  Ore o f the L i t t l e  •  i 16 I 18 19 7  Billy.  K i n d s o f Ore • The P r o s s e r Ore Body L o c a t i o n o f t h e L i t t l e B i l l y Ore Related Deposits • Summary Chapter V .  9 9 11 12 14 14 14 15  20 21 22 22 22  Mineralogy.  C o n t a c t Metasomatle M i n e r a l s The Ore M i n e r a l s • Method o f D e t e r m i n i n g W e h r l i t e and H e s s i t e • • • Note on W e h r l i t e • • l o t e on H e s s i t e M i n e r a l s o f P o l i s h e d S e c t i o n s «• • • Summary  23 25 26 28 28 29 34  COM'SNTS ( c o n t » e d } Page Chapter ' V I ,  Paragenesis-  The W o l l a s t o n i t e - B o r n i t e Ore The B o r n i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore Source o f S o l u t i o n s Mode o f T r a n s f e r Conclusions  35 36 37 38 39  Chapter V I I . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore by the H a u l t a i n Super-pannexi T a b l e I - G o l d i n B o m i t e - W o l l a s t o n i t e Ore Table I I - S i l v e r i n " " T a b l e I I I - Comparison o f G o l d and S i l v e r i n s i z e d products* T a b l e IV - G o l d I n B o r n i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore Table V - S i l v e r i n S o m i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore T a b l e V I - Copper i n t i p s ••• O b s e r v a t i o n s o f Super-panner r e s u l t s . • • •  40 44 45  n  4  47 48 4  •••  Conclusion. Appendix-  6  9  50 52  Photomicrographs.  Bibliography.  • .  53 70  1 ACKHOWLBDGMEgTS. The a u t h o r would l i k e to acknowledge h i s i n d e b t edness t o M r . P r o s s e r , manager and owner o f t h e  Industrial  M e t a l Company, f o r h i s k i n d p e r m i s s i o n t o e o l l e c t specimens and t o s t a y a t the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e .  He would l i k e  thank D r . V.Dolraage f o r h i s k i n d a s s i s t a n c e  to  and f o r t h e  use  o f h i s Marble Bay s p e c i m e n s . The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s r e p o r t was conducted I n the l a b o r a t o r i e s o f the Department o f Geology and Geography a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  D r . H.V.Warren,  A & s o e i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f M i n e r a l o g y and P e t r o g r a p h y , j p v e h i s u s u a l e n t h u s i a s t i c a s s i s t a n c e w h i c h was v e r y much a p p r e ciated. The a u t h o r w i s h e s to.--, thank D r . H . C . G u n n i n g , P r o f e s s o r o f Economic Geology, f o r h i s h e l p and c r i t i c i s m . He would a l s o l i k e t o thank D o c t o r s M . Y . W i l l i a m s and V . J , O k u l i t c h f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s and c a r e f u l c r i t i c i s m of this  thesis.  Mr.James P a t r i c k D o n n a n , L a b o r a t o r y T e c h n i c i a n o f the Department o f Geology and Geography, gave h i s v a l u a b l e assistance  i n the making o f t h i n and p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s . The  w r i t e r f u r t h e r w i s h e s t o thank M e s s r s .  EM.Thompson and E i c h a r d Manning;  Mr.Thompson f o r h i s x - r a y  2 powder p h o t o s , silver  and M r . M a n n i n g f o r h i s copper, g o l d ,  analyses.  and  3 Chapter I .  IITR0PUCTI03U  The o b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o summarize t h e p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the g e o l o g y o f the L i t t l e  Billy  mine, and t o augment t h i s d a t a by a f u r t h e r s t u d y o f the gangu© and the S r e m i n e r a l s and t o d e s c r i b e the of ore.  types  I n a n s w e r i n g the above p r o b l e m , f r e q u e n t use has  been made o f t h e o r e o f the nearby M a r b l e Bay m i n e . o r e i s massive and the m i n e r a l s a r e r e a d i l y v i s i b l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , whereas the ore o f the L i t t l e B i l l y  This for is  d i s s e m i n a t e d , a f a c t w h i c h made t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f m i n e r a l s and p a r a g e n e s l s d i f f i c u l t  and u n c e r t a i n .  The r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was i n t e n d e d t o answer the f o l l o w i n g 1.  questions:  The mode o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e g o l d and s i l v e r i n the ore o f t h e L i t t l e B i l l y m i n e .  2.  The n a t u r e o f the v o l a t i l e s o r m i n e r a l i z e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the contact-metasomatism o f the L i t t l e B i l l y m i n e .  3.  The s i z e o f s c r e e n e d p r o d u c t w h i c h w i l l g i v e the b e s t separation of gold,  s i l v e r and c o p p e r .  4 The L i t t l e B i l l y mine i s l o c a t e d about a q u a r t e r o f a m i l e west o f Vananda on Texada I s l a n d ,  w h i c h i s about  seventy m i l e s n o r t h - w e s t o f Vancouver and about two m i l e s from the m a i n l a n d  ffig.l).  PREVIOUS WORK, A33D SOURCES OF IHFORiATIOI The f i r s t r e p o r t on Texada I s l a n d was g i v e n by M r . J . R i c h a r d s o n o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n the A n n u a l Report o f 1873-84,  a f t e r he made a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f  i r o n range on the west c o a s t o f the I s l a n d . G.M.Dawson examined the e n t i r e c o a s t l i n e . p u b l i s h e d i n the A n n u a l R e p o r t , Reference  V o l . II,  Two y e a r s  later  H i s work was  1887.  to the m i n i n g p r o g r e s s on Texada  was g i v e n i n the R e p o r t s o f the M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , Columbia, and the Summary r e p o r t s o f the Department Ottawa.  the  Island British of Mines,  D e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f the m i n i n g p r o g r e s s and g e n e r -  a l g e o l o g y was p u b l i s h e d by W.M.Brewer o f V i c t o r i a i n  the  E n g i n e e r i n g and M i n i n g J o u r n a l s from 1900 to 1906. The f i r s t g e n e r a l  s u r v e y o f the I s l a n d was made by  O . B . Le R o i o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n 1906. was p u b l i s h e d i n 1908 as  n  This report  A p r e l i m i n a r y Report on a P o r t i o n  o f the I a i n Coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A d j a c e n t  Islands".  I n the same y e a r an a c c u r a t e g e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f the  Island  5 was made by the l a t e B . C . M c D o n n e l l .  H i s work was p u b l i s h e d  i n Memoir 58, 1914, a s "Texada I s l a n d , B . C . " - Mr.MoConn©11'S Memoir was the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n t o g i v e a d e t a i l e d on the g e o l o g y and the mines o f Texada The f i r s t  report  Island.  d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f the "Marble Bay M i n e "  was p u b l i s h e d i n 1921 by D r . f . D o l m a g e i n "Bednoffiie Geology"* A c a r e f u l study o f the g e n e s i s o f th© M a g n e t i t e d e p o s i t s Texada I s l a n d was made by D r . C O . S w a n s o n i n 1923. r e p o r t "The G e n e s i s o f the Texada I s l a n d M a g n e t i t e  of  His Deposits"  was p u b l i s h e d i n the Summary R e p o r t o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey, 1924. The p u b l i c a t i o n s mentioned above,  and o t h e r s i n  the " S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y " , have been c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h  f o r t h i s r e p o r t , and f r e e use has been  made o f M c D o n n e l l s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f topography, 1  general  frequently  relief,  and  geology.  HISTORY OF MIBfllG 01 TEXADA I S L A f B . The f i r s t d i s c o v e r y o f b o r n i t e on Texada I s l a n d was made i n t h « e a r l y n i n e t i e s , attention  but a t t r a c t e d v e r y l i t t l e  because the ore was d i s s e m i n a t e d i n l i m e s t o n e and  was o f a l o w g r a d e . The ore body o f the M a r b l e Bay Mine was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1897, d u r i n g the ownership o f P a l m e r & C r i s t i © o f T o r o n t o .  6 A f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y s u r f a c e work the s h a f t was sunk t o 500 f e e t and  p r o v e d t h e presence o f a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f b o r n l t e o r e .  By 1901 t h e M a r b l e Bay Mine had become the l a r g e s t mine on Texada I s l a n d , and i t was worked c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l 1924. By t h i s time the a v a i l a b l e o r e was mined, and e x p l o r a t i o n f a i l e d t o show any new o r e .  Approximately twenty-five  m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n copper, g o l d , and s i l v e r o r e had been e x t r a c t e d from the M a r b l e Bay M i n e . i m a t e l y 6* copper,  The o r e y i e l d e d a p p r o x -  . 3 o s s . g o l d and 4 e s s . o f s i l v e r ,  with  no d e c r e a s e o f the g o l d o r s i l v e r v a l u e s w i t h d e p t h . A t t h e same time a s development was s t a r t e d on t h e M a r b l e Bay l i n e ,  work was s t a r t e d on the Copper Queen,  C o r n e l l , and L i t t l e B i l l y mines by the Vananda Copper and G o l d Companies L i m i t e d .  These mines a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n a  m i l e and a h a l f o f Vananda.  A l t h o u g h t h e y c o n t a i n e d the  same m i n e r a l s , and were a s i m i l a r t y p e o f d e p o s i t ,  they d i d  n o t have t h e same q u a n t i t y o r q u a l i t y o f o r e a s the M a r b l e Bay.  To u t i l i z e t h i s l o w - g r a d e o r e , the Vananda Copper  Company b u i l t a 5 0 - t o n copper s m e l t e r .  These mines were  worked u n t i l 1903 and t h e n were l e a s e d and worked i n t e r m i t t e n t l y u n t i l t h e y were abandoned i n 1920. I n 1943 the abovementioned mines were p u r c h a s e d by the I n d u s t r i a l M e t a l M i n i n g Company, and the f i r s t t o be r e c o n d i t i o n e d was the L i t t l e B i l l y ,  (Fig.2).  Extensive  7 diamond d r i l l i n g from the o l d w o r k i n g s and from the l o c a t e d the " P r o s s e r Ore Body",  (lap i n f o l d e r ) .  surface  Encouraged  by f i n d i n g the new o r e body, the I n d u s t r i a l M e t a l Company s t a r t e d t o r e c o n d i t i o n t h e Copper Queen l i n e , s o u t h o f the L i t t l e  half a mile  Billy.  I n December 1944, the L i t t l e B i l l y ,  the Copper  Queen and the C o r n e l l Mines were l e a s e d by P i o n e e r G o l d Mines L t d . o f Vancouver, B . C .  I n J a n u a r y 1945 the  Indus-  t r i a l M e t a l M i n i n g Co. s t a r t e d to d e - w a t e r the M a r b l e Bay M i n e , and by March 1945 the f i r s t t h r e e l e v e l s were de-watered and r e c o n d i t i o n e d .  An e x t e n s i v e diamond d r i l l -  i n g and development programme i s p l a n n e d f o r the  future.  S i n c e the purchase o f t h e L i t t l e B i l l y mine the P i o n e e r G o l d M i n i n g Company has deepened the s h a f t 200 f e e t and has s t a r t e d the development o f the 480 l e v e l .  MIIIB1AL DEPOSITS Off TEXADA ISLAND "The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t o f r e p l a c e m e n t dep o s i t s o f the c o n t a c t metamorphic t y p o , and a few g o l d quartz v e i n s .  The former a r e the more i m p o r t a n t and may  be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o d e p o s i t s worked p r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h e i r copper c o n t e n t ,  and t h o s e worked f o r i r o n .  These groups  a r e n o t s h a r p l y d i v i d e d s i n c e m a g n e t i t e ore i n v a r i a b l y c o n t a i n s c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r a i t e , and c h a l c o p y r i t e - b o r n i t e  8 ore c o n t a i n s minor amounts o f m a g n e t i t e . " ^  2 8  ^  I n a d d i t i o n t o the copper and i r o n d e p o s i t s , l i m e s t o n e s , m a r b l e s , c l a y s and sands a r e i m p o r t a n t .  the The  l i m e s t o n e o f the M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h c o n t a i n s o v e r 95 p e r c e n t c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e , c o a s t as a s o u r c e o f l i m e .  i s w i d e l y used on the  Pacific  9 Chapter  II.  TOPOGRAPHY and GEOLOGY o f TEXADA ISLAND. TOPOGRAPHY.* * 28  Texada I s l a n d i s a p a r t i a l l y submerged  ridge  p a r a l l e l i n g the m a i n l a n d a t a d i s t a n c e o f two t o f o u r m i l e s . I t has a l e n g t h o f t h i r t y m i l e s , a maximum, w i d t h o f m i l e s , and an average w i d t h o f t h r e e m i l e s . is  i n d e n t e d by few deep bays,  five  The shore l i n e  except a t Long Beaoh on the  e a s t e o a s t and Lower S i l l i e s Bay on the west c o a s t .  The c o a s t  c o n s i s t s m o s t l y o f l o w r o c k c l i f f s worn and broken by t h e i n c e s s a n t a c t i o n o f the  ocean. RBLUF.  f 2 8 )  E x c e p t f o r l i m i t e d movements o f e l e v a t i o n and depression,  Texada I s l a n d has not been n o t i c e a b l y  s i n c e Cretaceous t i m e s .  disturbed  The p r e s e n t t o p o g r a p h i c forms a r e  the r e s u l t s o f l o n g c o n t i n u e d e r o s i o n .  The s o f t e r  r e p r e s e n t e d by C r e t a c e o u s s a n d s t o n e s and s h a l e s , s t o n e s o f l o w e r M e s o z o i c age,  rocks,  and l i m e -  have been worn down i n t o  b a s i n s and rough s e a w a r d - s l o p i n g p l a i n s . r o c k s , s u c h as p o r p h y r i t e s , p r o j e c t  The more r e s i s t a n t  as h i l l s and r i d g e s .  The v e r t i c a l r e l i e f i n the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f i s l a n d , where the r o c k s c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f p o r p h y r i t e s , i n strong contrast  to t h a t i n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n ,  the is  where  10 •fee r o c k s are l a r g e l y l i m e s t o n e * sandstone,  and s h a l e .  The  s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d i s a s i n g l e s t e e p - s i d e d ,  rock-  c r e s t e d rtdge r i s i n g from the waters edge on b o t h s h o r e s and c u l m i n a t i n g i n M t . S h e p h e r d , E892 f e e t above sea l e v e l . the c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e i s l a n d ,  In  the h i g h l a n d w h i c h c o n t i n u e s  n o r t h w a r d from M t . S h e p h s r d , broadens o u t , becomes more i r r e g ular,  and i s i n t e r r u p t e d on b o t h s i d e s by wide d e p r e s s i o n s .  The prominent e l e v a t i o n s h e r e a r e M t . D a v l e s , Grant,  2450 f e e t ,  2484 f e e t , M t .  and Pocahontas M o u n t a i n , 1800 f e e t .  H o r t h and west o f Pocahontas M o u n t a i n the g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n s i n k s a b r u p t l y s e v e r a l hundred f e e t ,  and from  this  p o i n t t o the n o r t h e r n end o f the i s l a n d the r e l i e f i s compara t i v e l y low.  The h i g h rugged peaks and r i d g e s w h i c h c h a r a c -  t e r i z e the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d a r e r e p l a c e d by r o u n d - t o p p e d h i l l s and r i d g e s n o t e x c e e d i n g a thousand in height.  feet  S u r p r i s e M o u n t a i n , a l o n g r i d g e r i s i n g from  west c o a s t t o a h e i g h t o f n e a r l y a thousand f e e t ,  the  i s the most  c o n s p i c u o u s e l e v a t i o n i n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the  Island.  Comet M o u n t a i n , ^ust s o u t h and e a s t o f the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e , a t t a i n s a h e i g h t o f 750 f e e t . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a few s m a l l d r i f t - c o v e r e d a r e a s , the s u r f a c e o f Texada i s everywhere rough and b r o k e n . The l o w - l y i n g p o r t i o n s a r e i n c i s e d by s h a l l o w r o c k canyons, and worn hummocks and r i d g e s p r o j e c t above the t h i n l y d i s -  11 tiributed boulder c l a y s . The g e n e r a l deepening o f the v a l l e y s n e a r the i s a p o s t - g l a c i a l feature,  and i s a t t r i b u t e d  coast  to an u p l i f t o f  the i s l a n d w h i c h o c c u r r e d a t the c l o s e o f the g l a c i a l p e r i o d . Beaches w i t h marine s h e l l s a r e found a t a number o f p o i n t s , a t e l e v a t i o n s 428 f e e t Above the p r e s e n t sea  level.  GEOLOGY OF TEXADA ISLA1ID. The Anderson Bay f o r m a t i o n i s the o l d e s t on Texada Island.  This formation,  a volcanic series,  M c C o n n e l l ^ ) i n the T r i a s s i c . 2 8  was p l a c e d by  The youngest M e s o z o i e r o c k s  a r e a group o f upper Cretaceous r o c k s composed o f s o f t s t o n e s , sands, c l a y s and  sand-  shales.  G l a c i a l and r e c e n t d e p o s i t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by b o u l d e r c l a y s , sands, s i l t s , and c r e e k  The F o r m a t i o n s o f Texada Quaternary  Recent - Creek g r a v e l s ,  gravels.  I s l a n d (28) peat,  etc.  G l a c i a l - B o u l d e r c l a y s , sands, s i l t s , Mesozoie  etc.  Upper C r e t a c e o u s - S o f t s a n d s t o n e , sands, and Lower Cretaceous } or ) Upper J u r a s s i c ) )  clays  shales.  D i o r i t e s and d i o r i t e porphyrites i n small s t o c k s and d y k e s .  12 Upper J u r a s s i c {?) - Q u a r t z - d i o r i t e s (Coast Range b a t h o l i t h ? ) Lower J u r a s s i c (?) - Texada g r o u p , p o r p h y r i t e s , Texada Group o f L e R o i *  2 &  )  ( i n Part ) T r i a s s i c or J Jurassie ) Triassic  _  -  M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n ( L i m e stone). Anderson Bay f o r m a t i o n : s c h i s t s , t u f f s , agglomerates, araygdaloids, and m a r b l e s . (Texada group o f Le R o i i n part).  AHMRSOS BAY FORMATION.  f 2  8  *  The r o o k s o f the Anderson Bay f o r m a t i o n a r e exposed o n l y on the s o u t h - e a s t e r n  edge o f the i s l a n d ( f i g . l ) .  f o r m a t i o n i s made up o f an a l t e r n a t i n g s e r i e s o f quartzites,  conglomerates,  marbles* t u f f s ,  d a l o i d s , and l e a d - g r e e n s c h i s t s .  The  slates,  agglomerates,  amyg-  These beds r e s e m b l e l i t h e o l -  o g i c a l l y the S i c k e r s e r i e s o f the Vancouver group w h i c h nave been p l a c e d by C l a p p * * - i n the T r i a s s i c o r Lower J u r a s s i c . 1 3  MARBLE B/SY FORSJATIOfl. *  2 8  *  The l i m e s t o n e s o f the M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n o c c u r i n two b e l t s ; one b e l t j u s t s o u t h o f Lower G i l l i e s Bay, and t h e o t h e r a c r o s s the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d  (fig.l).  13 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e a r e a s , M c D o n n e l l * ^ r e p o r t s numerous 2 8  l i m e s t o n e i n c l u s i o n s i n the p o r p h y r i t e s o f the Texada f o r m ation.  These i n c l u s i o n s v a r y i n s i z e and shape,  ranging  from a n g u l a r shreds a few y a r d s i n l e n g t h t o rounded o r  lent-  i c u l a r a r e a s a q u a r t e r o f a m i l e o r more i n l e n g t h . The bedding p l a n e s o f the M a r b l e Bay l i m e s t o n e , e x c e p t i n a few u n a l t e r e d p l a c e s , a r e u s u a l l y obscured*  The  p r i n c i p a l partings consist of strong v e r t i c a l jointag© planes.  I n the l e s s a l t e r e d a r e a s t h e beds u n d u l a t e i n l o w  f o l d s w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l sharp u p t u r n n e a r dykes and  other  igneous b o d i e s . The M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n s the  important  c o n t a c t metamorphic copper d e p o s i t s o f the M a r b l e Bay, C o r n e l l , Copper Queen and L i t t l e B i l l y l i n e s . deposits,  As w e l l a s t h e s e c o p p e r  the M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n s the  important  m a g n e t i t e d e p o s i t s o f the L a k e , P s x t o n and P r e s t o n M i n e s ;  *  The M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n was p l a c e d by M c D o n n e l l * ^ 2 8  i n the Lower J u r a s s i c o r T r i a s s i c .  T h i s would c o r r e s p o n d t o  the S u t t o n l i m e s t o n e o f the Vancouver g r o u p . * * ^ l s  Island,  f o r t y m i l e s n o r t h o f Texada I s l a n d ,  1 4  On Quadra  i s a massive l i m e -  stone w h i c h i s s i m i l a r , and bene© has been c a l l e d t h e M a r b l e Bay f o r m a t i o n . . * ^ 25  '  14 TEXADA FORMATION. (28.) The Texada f o r m a t i o n , o f Texada I s l a n d ,  w h i c h c o v e r s the g r e a t e r p a r t  c o n s i s t s m o s t l y o f b a s i c , massive  r o c k s o f v a r y i n g c o m p o s i t i o n and t e x t u r e , b u t g e n e r a l l y as p o r p h y r i t e i ^ 2 8  thousand f e e t t h i c k ,  classified  The f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h i s  to the a n d e s i t e t h e r e a r e d i a b a s e and hornblende-porphyrite  augite-porphyrite,  and some b a s a l t .  The r o c k s a r e  w h i c h g i v e s them a g r e e n i s h c o l o u r .  r o c k s o f the Texada f o r m a t i o n a r e a group o f flows,  In a d d i t i o n  and u s u a l l y c o n t a i n l a r g e amounts o f secondary  i t e and e p i d o t e ,  several  comprises a s e r i e s o f v o l c a n i c rocks  i n c l u d i n g much a n d e s i t e and a n d e s i t e p o r p h y r y .  fresh,  igneous  chlorThe  superimposed  f o l d e d s t e e p l y i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the  a l o n g an a x i s h a v i n g a n o r t h w e s t t r e n d ,  seldom  island  'and a r e  probably  o f the same p e r i o d o f v o l c a n i s m a s the Vancouver V o l c a n i c s i ^ 1 2  I1TRUSIVE ROOKS. (a)  Stocks. The q u a r t z - d i o r i t e  o c c u r s i n s m a l l s t o c k s and dykes,  i n t r u d i n g b o t h the M a r b l e Bay and Texada There a r e touf  areas o f q u a r t z - d i o r i t e  the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e .  formationsf28).  exposed,  one b e i n g a t  I n p a p e r s by D r . D o l m a g ® * ) and 18  D r . S w a n s o n * ) t h e s e i n t r u s i o n s have been f u r t h e r 32  Dr.Swanson c a l l e d the more a c i d i c phase o f the  described.  quartz-diorite  15 the " S i l l i e s i n t r u s i v e " , w h i c h i s a t o n a l i t © i n c o m p o s i t i o n . (b) Dykes. S e v e r a l t y p e s o f dykes o c c u r ,  such as  syenite(28)  porphyrite,  augite-syenite,  d i o r i t e s , and  diorite-porphyrites.  The d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r i t e dykes a r e o f i n t e r e s t :  Some o f the  ore b o d i e s o f Copper Queen and M a r b l e Bay M i n o s were c u t by iPR fi)  t h e s e dykes , diorite intrusive.  which are g e n e r a l l y l a t e r than the  ouartz-  16 Chapter  III.  THE GEOLOGY OF THE LITTLE BILLY MIHB  The two main f o r m a t i o n s a t t h e L i t t l e B i l l y mine are the M a r b l e Bay l i m e s t o n e and the  quartz-dlorit©.(fig.2)  The ore b o d i e s , w h i c h have been formed a t the c o n t a c t o f these f o r m a t i o n s ,  a r e o f c o n t a c t metamorphic  origin.  MARBLE BAY LIMESTONE. The M a r b l e Bay l i m e s t o n e i s the o l d e s t a t the mine and i s c u t by the q u a r t z - d l o r i t e a l a s k i t e and some a n d e s i t e d y k e s . suggested by t h e i r a l t e r a t i o n t o be  formation  Intrusive,  The a n d e s i t e dykes a r e pre-quarts-diorite.  The hand specimens o f u n a l t e r e d l i m e s t o n e a r e composed o f c o a r s e g r e y c r y s t a l s o f c a l e i t e up t o 10 c e n t i meters i n l e n g t h , b u t specimens o f l i m e s t o n e from the contact-metamorphic areas are u s u a l l y white or l i g h t grey i n c o l o u r and o c c u r as s u b h e d r a l c r y s t a l s n o t more t h a n a centimeter i n length.  I n t h i n s e c t i o n , the l i m e s t o n e o f the  c o n t a c t a r e a s i s composed o f 80 p e r c e n t c l e a r c l o u d y a n h e d r a l c r y s t a l s o f c a l e i t e and 20 p e r c e n t o f i r r e g u l a r l y shaped areas o f serpentine, material.  containing i n t e r s t i t i a l  carbonaceous  17  QUARTZ-DIORITE The q u a r t z - d i o r i t e c r o p s out i n t h e L i t t l e  Billy  mine a r e a as a s t o c k o f r o u g h l y r e c t a n g u l a r o u t l i n e , h a l f a m i l e l o n g by a q u a r t e r Bay l i m e s t o n e . andesite  o f a m i l e w i d e , i n t r u d i n g the M a r b l e  The q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i s a l s o c u t by numerous  dykes.  Lithology.  I n hand s p e c i m e n , the q u a r t z - d l o r i t e i s , i n  g e n e r a l , a l i g h t grey h o l o e r y s t a l l i n e r o c k composed o f q u a r t z , f e l d s p a r , and m i n o r amounts o f b i o t i t e and hornblende.  The f e l d s p a r s are g e n e r a l l y s u b h e d r a l c r y s t a l s ,  w h i l e the q u a r t z i s i n t e r s t i t i a l .  I r r e g u l a r masses o f  p y r i t e , c h a l e o p y r i t e , and m o l y b d e n i t e are throughout  the s p e c i m e n .  scattered  I n t h i n s e c t i o n the  quartz-diorite  i s composed of 35 p e r c e n t p l a g i o e l a s e f e l d s p a r (Ab^^A^o) , 17 p e r c e n t h o r n b l e n d e , 15 p e r c e n t q u a r t z , 10 p e r c e n t o r t h o c l a s e , 2 p e r c e n t b i o t i t e , and s u b o r d i n a t e amounts o f m a g n e t i t e , a p a t i t e and a u g i t e .  F e l d s p a r s o c c u r as  s u b h e d r a l c r y s t a l s up t o 1 m i l l i m e t e r i n l e n g t h , w i t h a n abundance  o f e q u i - d i m e n s i o n a l zoned f e l d s p a r s .  Quartz -  i s l a r g e l y i n t e r s t i t i a l i n i n t e r l o c k i n g g r a i n s up to .7 m i l l i m e t e r s i n d i a m e t e r .  B i o t i t e and hornblende o c c u r  as s u b h e d r a l g r a i n s , w i t h some of the former M a g n e t i t e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n and around the mafic m i n e r a l s .  chloritized. other  The e a r l y c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and  18 consequent  s e t t l i n g o f the c r y s t a l s would e x p l a i n the c o n c e n -  t r a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i t e w i t h the m a f i c m i n e r a l s . S e c t i o n s o f q u a r t z - d i o r i t e t a k e n from t h e  contact  zones show t h a t the hoxnhlende a n d b i o t i t e have been a l t e r e d ?  to c h l o r i t e .  The f e l d s p a r s show a l t e r a t i o n s t o s e r i c i t e .  I n the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e a r e rounded d i o r i t i c i o n s up t o I E i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r ,  inclus-  which are s i m i l a r to i n -  c l u s i o n s n o t e d by D r . S w a r i s o n ^ ^ i n the G i l l i e s  Intrusive.  33  C o n c e r n i n g t h e s e i n c l u s i o n s , he suggested t h a t t h e y " p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t some o f the e a r l i e s t p r o d u c t s o f the  crystalliza-  t i o n o f the d i o r i t i c magma".  1.  ALASKITS  Ilthology. ilar.  Hand specimens from b o t h dykes were v e r y s i m -  The specimens were w h i t e w i t h a w a t e r y appearance,  posed o f f e l d s p a r ,  i n t e r s t i t i a l q u a r t z and a few  com-  scattered  g r a i n s o f b i o t i t e and h o r n b l e n d e . I n t h i n s e c t i o n the a l a s k i t e i s composed a p p r o x i m a t e l y as f o l l o w s : p l a g i o e l a s e {AbggAn^g),  2  40 p e r c e n t q u a r t z , 5  35 p e r c e n t  p e r c e n t o r t h o c l a s e ana a few c r y s t -  a l s o f b i o t i t e and h o r n b l e n d e .  The q u a r t z o c c u r s as a n h e d r a l  c r y s t a l s and the f e l d s p a r s as s u b h e d r a l c r y s t a l s up t o 1 millimeter i n length.  There i s an abundance o f e q u i - d i m e n s -  i o n a l zoned p l a g i o e l a s e , the c e n t r e s o f whieh a r e a l t e r e d  to  19 s e r i c i t e and have a c l o u d y a p p e a r a n c e .  The s l i d e c o n t a i n s  no m e t a l l i o m i n e r a l s .  2.  AIDESITE DYKES. ( D i o r i t e - p o r p h y r i t e o f M e C o n n e X l *  Llthology:  ).  2 e i  Hand specimens o f t h e s e dykes a r e medium t o  dark g r e e n i n c o l o u r and a p h a n l t i c .  Some specimens have a  f e w s c a t t e r e d c r y s t a l s o f p l a g i o e l a s e about 2 m i l l i m e t e r s in length.  The m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s seen i n the hand s p e c i -  mens are p y r i t e , m o l y b d e n i t e and m a g n e t i t e . I n t h i n s e c t i o n , t h e s e dykes a r e composed a p p r o x i m a t e l y as f o l l o w s :  53 p e r c e n t p l a g i o e l a s e ( A b ^ A H ^ ) , .  17 p e r c e n t h o r n b l e n d e , quartz,  12 p e r c e n t o r t h o c l a s e ,  10 p e r c e n t  5 p e r c e n t b i o t i t e , and s u b o r d i n a t e amounts o f s e r i -  c i t e , magnetite*  p y r i t e , a p a t i t e and c a l e i t e .  The p l a g i o -  e l a s e o c c u r s a s s u b h e d r a l c r y s t a l s about 1 m i l l i m e t e r i n l e n g t h , w h i c h have been p a r t i a l l y a l t e r e d t o s e r i c i t e .  The  h o r n b l e n d e o c c u r s as l a t h - s h a p e d c r y s t a l s , b o t h s i n g l y and in clusters.  Biotite,  quartz, a p a t i t e ,  o r t h o c l a s e and c a l -  e i t e o c c u r as s u b h e d r a l c r y s t a l s l e s s than . 2 m i l l i m e t e r s i n diameter.  The m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s a r e i n t e r s t i t i a l and  a r e i r r e g u l a r l y s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the s l i d e . The p r e - q u a r t z - d i o r i t e dykes have been a l t e r e d by the development o f g r o s s u l a r i t e .  A s e c t i o n a c r o s s an  a l t e r e d zone shows t h a t hornblende and b i o t i t e have been  20 a l t e r e d to c h l o r i t e .  There i s a v e i n o f g r o s s u l a r i t e  4 m i l l i m e t e r s wide and a d j a c e n t  about  to i t t h e r e i s a n o t a b l e  i n c r e a s e i n c a l e i t e and magnetitew  F l a k e s o f molybdenite  appear i n t h e v e i n w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e .  I n the c h l o r l t i z e d  a r e a s a r e two s m a l l v e i n s o f a x i n i t e . . Dykes o f s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n were found i n the Copper QueenfG) and M a r b l e Bay mines-. investigators, deposition.  these a n d e s i t e  Similarly,  According to  the  dykes had no c o n t r o l o v e r the  i n the L i t t l e B i l l y mine t h e s e dykes  appear to have no c o n t r o l o v e r the d e p o s i t i o n o f the  ore.  20 Chapter IV. V KIIDS OF ORE.  The i n t r u s i o n o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t o the stone has formed a r e a s o f akarn up t o 100 f e e t  lime-  i n width,  w h i c h c o n t a i n the ore b o d i e s o f the L i t t l e B i l l y m i n e . These ore "bodies can be c l a s s i f i e d as 1.  A bornite-magnetite  follows:  ore i n a s k a r a gangue,  as a l e n t i c u l a r body about f i f t e e n f e e t  which occurs  i n w i d t h and r o u g h l y  p a r a l l e l t o the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t r u s i v e a t the e a s t end o f the 180 l e v e l .  Mine a s s a y s o f t h i s o r e a r e as Copper ± Gold i Silver ±  2.  follows:  1.5 p e r c e n t 0.05 oz/Ton 1.5 oz/Ton  A disseminated b o r n i t e - c h a l c o p y r i t e ore i n a f i b r o u s  w o l l a s t o n i t e gangue,  the " P r o s s e r o r e body" and the ore i n  the o l d s t o p e s on the west end o f the 180 l e v e l a r e o f t h i s t y p e , a s s a y i n g as  follows: Copper * Gold • ± Silver ±  2 percent 0.2 oz/Ton 0.6 oz/Ton  Hand specimens show b o r n i t e and c h a l e o p y r i t e i n l o n g narrow bands one o r two m i l l i m e t e r s i n w i d t h i n t h e w o l l a s t o n i t e .  21 THE "PROSSER ORE BODY". The " P r o s s e r ore body was l o c a t e d by a v e r t i c a l diamond d r i l l h o l e d r i l l e d from the s u r f a c e some t h r e e hundred f e e t  s o u t h and west o f the c o l l a r o f the  shaft.  T h i s h o l e was known as the P r o s s e r h o l e and showed 60 f e e t o f ore 273 f e e t below the s u r f a c e . core  Average v a l u e s f o r  this  are: Silver Gold Copper  :—  .2 oz/Ton .6 o z / T o n 2 percent h  F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by diamond d r i l l i n g t h e e a s t end o f 280 l e v e l .  from  The copper, g o l d and s i l v e r  v a l u e s were s l i g h t l y l o w e r than the above  assays.  Two t h i n s e c t i o n s from the P r o s s e r h o l e show t h a t the copper m i n e r a l s a r e b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e ; the gangue m i n e r a l s a r e w o l l a s t o n i t e , s e r p e n t i n e and q u a r t a . The t h i n s e c t i o n s have a banded appearance  (fig.9).  The  b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e appear t o be i n t e r s t i t i a l and have p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c e d the w o l l a s t o n i t e c r y s t a l s ,  (fig.8).  T h i n s e c t i o n s o f ore from margins o f o l d s t o p e s on t h e 180 l e v e l and from t h e P r o s s e r or© show t h a t the bodies are  similar.  ore  22 LOCATION OF THE LITTLE BILLY ORE The ore of t h e L i t t l e B i l l y o c c u r s i n the l i m e s t o n e and a t t h e margins o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , and i s o f c o n t a c t metamorphic o r i g i n .  The b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e  o c c u r s a s a l e n t i c u l a r body p a r a l l e l t o the  ore  quartz-diorite  i n t r u s i v e , and the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e , which  comprises  the b u l k o f o r e , o c c u r s i n a n embayment i n the  quartz-diorite.  (See map i n f o l d e r ) . Related Deposits. In  the M a r b l e Bay m i n e , the ore b o d i e s were i n  l i m e s t o n e and when mined to a d e p t h o f 1700 f e e t ,  the  ore (18)  was bottomed a t t h e c o n t a c t o f a g r a n o d i o r i t e i n t r u s i o n (2?)  A t the P r e s e o t and P a x t o n mines  , four miles south of  Vananda, a r e copper magnetite d e p o s i t s  s i m i l a r to that i n  the e a s t end o f the 180 l e v e l o f the L i t t l e B i l l y .  These  d e p o s i t s were a l s o formed a t t h e c o n t a c t o f the M a r b l e Bay l i m e s t o n e ana the  quartz-diorite. Summary.  The copper and i r o n d e p o s i t s  o f Texada I s l a n d  o c c u r a t or n e a r the c o n t a c t o f the d i o r i t i c  intrusions  o f t h e Coast Range b a t h o l i t h and the M a r b l e Bay l i m e s t o n e . A c l o s e g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d by the p r o x i m i t y o f each d e p o s i t t o a d i o r i t i c  intrusion.  .  £3 Chapter V .  MINERALOGY.  C o n t a c t Metasomatie M i n e r a l s * In the a r e a s a d j a c e n t  to the q u a r t z - d l o r i t e i n -  t r u s i o n are developed the f o l l o w i n g oontaot  metasomatie  minerals: Caloite.  The c a l e i t e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h t y p e s o f o r e ,  i s u s u a l l y a n h e d r a l and w h i t e t o g r e y i n c o l o u r . Grossularite.  G r o s s u l a r i t e o c c u r s as l a r g e masses and  i n d i v i d u a l cinnamon-coloured garnets. v a r i e d from 3.64 to 3 . 7 6 .  The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y .  Although g r o s s u l a r i t e i s  c i a t e d w i t h both types o f ore,  asso-  i t i s much more abundant  the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e t h a n w i t h the b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t ©  with ore.  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r o s s u l a r i t e are dark green a c i c u l a r crystals of epidote.  Some o f t h e s e g a r n e t s show double r e -  fraction. Dlopside.  D i o p s i d e i s a common gangue m i n e r a l and o c c u r s as  well-formed c r y s t a l s with garnets, them.  b e i n g contemporary w i t h  I n some t h i n s e c t i o n s the d i o p s i d e forms about 30  p e r c e n t o f t h e gangue and shows replacement by c h a l c o p y r i t e  24 and  bornite.  Wollastonite.  W o l l a s t o n i t e forms about 60 p e r c e n t o f  gangue o f the P r o s s e r ore body, and o c c u r s as f i n e  the  acicular  intergrown c r y s t a l s l e s s than three m i l l i m e t e r s i n l e n g t h . L a r g e w h i t e c r y s t a l s o f w o l l a s t o n i t e . w i t h no b o r n i t e c h a l c o p y r i t e replacement, stopes.  or  were found on t h e margins o f o l d  However, i n the M a r b l e Bay mine, t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f  a m i l e west o f L i t t l e B i l l y ,  b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e  replaoe  a s i m i l a r type o f c o a r s e w o l l a s t o n i t e . The w o l l a s t o n i t e c r y s t a l s have formed n o r m a l t o s i d e s o f the g r o s s u l a r i t e ,  d i o p s i d e and a n d r a d i t e ,  t h a t the w o l l a s t o n i t e i s o f a l a t e r p e r i o d o f Andradite.  A n d r a d i t e o c c u r s as s m a l l green  f s p . g . 3.85) a t the edges o f o l d s t o p e s . d i t e i s associated w i t h both types o f ore, ant w i t h the b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e wollastonite. as the  suggesting  deposition. crystals  A l t h o u g h the  andra-  i t i s more abund-  t h a n w i t h the  bornite-  The a n d r a d i t e was developed a t the same time  grossularite.  Bpldote. als.  the  It  E p i d o t e formed i n s m a l l bunches o f a o i c u l a r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e ,  white c a l e i t e , Quartz.  a n d r a d i t e and  and formed about the same t i m e .  Quartz o c c u r s as s m a l l s u b h e d r a l to  cryst-  anhedral  25 c r y s t a l s i n t e r s t i t i a l w i t h the o t h e r gangue m i n e r a l s .  In  p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s t h e edges and c e n t r e s o f s e v e r a l q u a r t z c r y s t a l s have been r e p l a c e d by b o r n i t e o r c h a l c o p y r i t e . There a r e r e p e a t e d i n s t a n c e s o f q u a r t z c r y s t a l s b e i n g r e p l a c e d by i r r e g u l a r masses o f q u a r t s ,  s u g g e s t i n g more t h a n one g e n e r -  ation of quartz. Serpentine.  Serpentine ( v a r . a n t i g o r i t e ) appears i n t h i n  s e c t i o n s o f the w o l l a s t o n i t e - b o m i t e ore as s h o r t f i b r o u s flakes,  l i g h t green to c o l o r l e s s .  The s e r p e n t i n e  t o be one o f the l a t e s t m i n e r a l s t o Axinite.  H ( f e , Mn) C a A l B 2  g  appears  form.  ( s i 0 ) 4. 4  -  Small v e i n s  o f a x i n i t e were i d e n t i f i e d i n the t h i n s e c t i o n t a k e n from the a l t e r e d zone o f an a n d e s i t e dyke and from some t h i n sections of c a l e i t e .  The a x i n i t e a p p e a r s t o have formed a t  the t i m e o f the r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f the l i m e s t o n e .  TEE ORB MINERALS.  The s t u d y o f the m i n e r a l o g y o f t h e L i t t l e  Billy  mine was made from ore specimens c o l l e c t e d by the w r i t e r . P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were made o f o r e t y p i c a l o f t h e " P r o s s e r Ore Body", m a g n e t i t e - b o r n i t e or© and some ore composed e n t i r e l y of chalcopyrite.  P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were a l s o made from  26 D r . G u n n i n g ' s M a r b l e Bay s u i t e o f s p e c i m e n s . I n the p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g m i n e r a l s were n o t e d : p y r r h o t i t e , magnetite, galena,  pyrite,  tetrahedrite,  sections,the  chalcopyrite,bornite,  molybdenite,  c h a l c o l i t e , c o v e l l i t e , s i l v e r and g o l d .  the f o r e m e n t i o n e d m i n e r a l s ,  sphalerite, As w e l l  t h e r e were d i s s e m i n a t e d  out the c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e s m a l l a n h e d r a l to  as  throughsubhedral  masses o f s i l v e r - w h i t e and g a l e n a - g r e y c o l o u r e d m i n e r a l s . These two m i n e r a l s o c c u r r e d i n masses n e v e r l a r g e r than 40 microns i n diameter.  The s i l v e r - w h i t e m i n e r a l was w e h r l i t e  ( B i g Teg) and the g a l e n a - g r e y m i n e r a l was h e s s i t e  Method o f D e t e r m i n i n g  T  (Ag2 T e ) .  7 e h r l i t e and H e s s i t e .  The s i z e o f the m i n e r a l s p r e v e n t e d the w r i t e r from o b t a i n i n g d e f i n i t e e t c h r e a c t i o n s and m i c r o c h e m i c a l t e s t s . Furthermore,  these m i n e r a l s appeared to be i s o t r o p i c under  crossed n l c o l s .  A s t u d y was t h e r e f o r e  s e c t i o n s o f the M a r b l e Bay o r e , bornite or c h a l c o p y r i t e .  made o f some twenty  which i s c h i e f l y m a s s i v e  The massive b o r n i t e s e c t i o n s c o n -  t a i n e d the same s i l v e r - w h i t e and g r e y m e t a l l i c l u s t e r e d m i n e r a l s i n masses up to 40 m i c r o n s i n d i a m e t e r ,  and t h e massive  c h a l c o p y r i t e c o n t a i n e d the same m i n e r a l s i n masses up to 300 microns i n diameter,  (fig.17, 18).  The h e s s i t e  occurred  27 a l w a y s i n t e r g r o w n w i t h w e h r l i t e , w h i l e the w e h r l i t e occurred alone,  often  (fig.21).  Etch reactions  on the m i n e r a l s were as HNOJJHCL  KCH  Silver-white (Wehrlite) +  -  -  Galena-grey (Hessite)  -  + i n one min.or longer  -v-  From the foILowing c h a r t ,  FECLg  H  HGCLg  .+ +•  -  —  t h e w r i t e r assumed t h a t the silver -  w h i t e m i n e r a l was t e t r a d y m i t e .  However, m i c r o c h e m i c a l and  s p e c t r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s o f a c l e a n fragment good t e s t f o r s i l v e r .  KO  follows:  a l w a y s gave a  S p e c t r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s showed t h a t  s i l v e r was always p r e s e n t i n an amount g r e a t e r t h a n one cent.  per-  As no e t c h r e a c t i o n s are g i v e n f o r w e h r l i t e i n the  literature,  the w r i t e r assumed the m i n e r a l t o he an a r g e n -  tiferous variety of  tetradymite.  Spectroscopic analysis,  e t c h r e a c t i o n s and anomal-  ous a n i s o t r o p i s m o f the g a l e n a - g r e y m i n e r a l r e a d i l y s u g g e s t ed t h a t the m i n e r a l was Two fragments  hessite. o f the f o r e m e n t i o n e d m i n e r a l s were  sent to M r . R o b e r t Thompson o f the Department the u n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto f o r x - r a y a n a l y s i s .  o f Geology a t He c o n f i r m e d  the w r i t e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h e s s i t e and p o i n t e d out t h a t the s i l v e r - w h i t e m i n e r a l was w e h r l i t e . for  The e t c h  reactions  w e h r l i t e have been i n c l u d e d on t h e accompanying  chart.  Mmar-ct/  fief;  fticAai-c/it-e  Te?, )  We-iistfe  (C"  ?  2J  1  7c )  z  \  Ale/on<.te (fVi're X 1  Sjs tor?  ZS  )  zs  e  ?  a  Z  B  ?  B  n  finiso  Co/a vr  Hard.  fit/rfi/c  - red simi/or  to  bornijc  //yJt-r j/-ey Co/our /it<e- cAa/coc'fe  Strony  lA/ea*  -  t-fofsiam  .4-  rn S6C*  - coSoisr-j  HNQ  - fiery  J"*i//or  orortye  hloc K  e/ortc  joa/e jre//ew  -Creamy  J'/Vc/- -  B  •s/rony  pinm.  Sr-ty  hrou.*,  /o cfro/coct :/c  h~£Cl  HCN  3  ftGCC^  2  yrey Sfo tAj fy ^ro  6rot*>n  It-rect /• ney  S/o V\// o-rawrj r  IrreeC  ?om*3h  •  bro<~ii  ney Jose it e  f 7 i  Wehr-titc  36  5^)  3  re fra dymlf-e  fsf, Te s)  J  Ca/urer'f*  (At,, /ty /i^ )  Hrenne.r-rfe (  H  a  3C  H  3  yo/ena.  *y  H  &  sS/yer- r*hife>  35-  H  a  J/'/KC - white.  2Sj 33-  M  c  33.  Nf/tyTe^)  (/toffy Te+ )  ttessife  ffljT*.)  ( 5, petzi-re  z  1  C ff,r 7%^ )  /Vect/ey.re  Sylv onrte  e  Bij Te^  7~e //ui-bisfrrvS/t fB,^ r* )  re} .4.  me.c(iur*n  H  Z3,  39.  c  AJ  c  Z  13  X  c  X  A  *>fyre^  -to creoi*iy  ye/to^  uuh'tc  r  r"o f~ ey  j/r-ony y/-*y »&rov*f>  II  •i  hrom-xy  '>  ,i  i>  show  /•wtntnj  - sAa^S  ,i  ir  "  onomofous  C"6/c  perf.  hfOCfL  —  h/ac /<  —  arowf f-o Dry  Matte  rrey  —  ye//tyy  —  "  /rreei.  ye'/ow •ho nej  —  Q/ottc lo~y r *rfy*n f rrn'n Arc*"?  yrty  s  &r.e£0/e*/)€L  -  <nerrr  for  /VS /-e>oc/r'/y  C/.  \  Jhovu  - f>oo& f; "< ro c/re-for-  fly*  / »/i/A'«//OV3 af 60° Ori CJ.  fr-icti-ty.  pfo/y  & brCwn  >-»ici-o  X s> « r-c e ft/- Sfj  e? /if>«  o  fl>rnes  co/oV  4y  s y^rafihieL  f?>*e*y+ro  fr-o m in en 7*  c/evts&pc  \  6/oc/<  6/o<K.  J  she?c/  —  •i  or>'Sofr*/>'*m  »/ue  t>/v<?.  S  pr''a/*?Orie  rfjo y ex/ji&,'f  —  6/t>ei  —yi~i:s  Can/o/ns  ti/ae  f/i s r.npis'  c/. — /Va  —  o/oc/t  h/uc  o/ujoy S ? S5o<ra.r*€l  rare  —  tt/OCK.  \  —  t>/"C  6/octe  Shot, f-  ;  Liyht  Jb/OCK  O/OCK  Creomy - white..  c-reon*y ~tvhi *  O/OCAC  *t*t interyrouji-h  - ?rey  May  ZS  s  frtedii/m to strorvj • sho<A*s  liyht  O  co/vv  \  —  bfo^n  A/arM. •  I.''  irreet 6*/oc*e  brouurts  usft'fe;  /./  tip  /••red.  ) r-eS*r*> A/* S  hf  ftssoc,  /orr? i-,h f  oryen-r/r^et  <~u //fr  ct/freio  co/?/> <e>  ^ <r r- <y/-<: /> e-c/.  ayes  ey f  &e,//-ez.  3  f/fjft")I  2.3, 3Z  Te  {ffy 7e y  Co/or a Uoire *  X9  I  c  ya/eu a.  ptnKish  rrr ed-  cf/rire  Graven  prey  sief  Go/ot fte/ct/tc f 6C»s,**  x  )  <*ayya.j/fe (P6 Au}T<> 5)? f  B  ZS  /rtreet f-o ney  irreoL  yrey /o b/ocfc  8  &/o" -b  white.  i/yftf-  /•» atari*  grey  /rretS  rre<r  Ror-e  c/.  ~i T/c/r  /ess-  forr/-  usJt-Ai  9  —  —  —  CC jss a c  OL,/'/-'*>  /^w/? pep/em*.  r^eel-^ or*</c/eor?  rfrony  /Try  0  Cf&'<  •  troujn  fey  .  tyn is o fr*tor\s tcrra'/lc ,c//-/f 4ei  ujl/ri rr>  *ferc  sr\e)vS  Wote on Wehrlite*  28  (38)  Wehrlite ia a memher of the tetradymite group. The mineral was f i r s t found by Wehrle i n the Deutseh-Pilsen, Hungary, in I8j51, and was the only known authentic occurrence.  In 1944, B r . H.V. Warren, of the Department  of Geology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, noted a second occurrence of wehrlite  In the ore of the White  Elephant mine, near Vernon, B . C . The wehrlite of the L i t t l e B i l l y and Marble Bay mines of Texada Island i s  the  third authentic occurrence* Wehrlite  (38)  contains the following :  Bismuth 59.47 Tellurium 28.52 S 0 Ag 0.48 -  70 02 percent percent 2.35 percent 2.07 percent  35.47  Wehrlite i s a medium temperature mineral and is not common  (27) i n contact metamorphic deposits. Hote. on Hessite.  (38) Hessite  i s associated with other t e l l u r i d e s ,  gold, s i l v e r and native t e l l u r i u m .  I t has a rather  widespread occurrence and i s found i n L i b e r i a , Roumania, Western A u s t r a l i a , Mexico, the United States and Canada. In B r i t i s h Columbia i t has been found at North Star Mine, near Rossland, the Conwest claims, Taseko Lake and the L i t t l e B i l l y and  Marble Bay mines, Texada I s l a n d , Hessite contains the following : J?9.4 - 6 2 . 8 percent  Ag  Te  3 5 . 9 - 37o7  percent  Hessite, l i k e w e h r l i t e , Is a medium temperature mineral and i s not common i n contact wet amorphic  deposits.  Minerals of the Polished Section. The polished sections of the L i t t l e B i l l y ore contain the following z  p y r i t e , molybdenite,  bornite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, wehrlite, s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , galena, t e t r a h e d r i t e , gold and s i l v e r .  magnetite, hessite, covellite,  The minrjeals are described i n the probable  order of their age. P y r i t e . (Fe Sg) - Pyrite occurs as cubes up to two centimeters i n r / i d t h i n hand specimens taken from the margins of old ore bodies*  In polished section of both  types of ore, i t .occurs as crystals and irregularly-shaped masses scattered unevenly throughout.  Two generations  are suggested by cubes of pyrite being replaced by irregular masses of pyrite*  In almost every specimen,  quartz accompanies and occurs as hexagons or i r r e g u l a r l y shaped masses within the p y r i t e .  P y r i t e i s the e a r l i e s t of the metallic  30 l u s t e r e d m i n e r a l s o f the L i t t l e B i l l y o r e .  The d e p o s i t i o n o f  p y r l t e ceased b e f o r e the o t h e r s u l p h i d e s were d e p o s i t e d . The b o r n l t e and c h a l c o p y r l t e t e n d t o s u r r o u n d and r e p l a c e pyrite. Molybdenite  (Mo S g ) .  l o d e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e  m o l y b d e n i t e c o u l d be deduced from the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s , the m o l y b d e n i t e was n o t i n c o n t a c t w i t h any o f the minerals*  other  F l a k e s o f m o l y b d e n i t e were n o t e d i n hand specimens  and t h i n s e c t i o n s o f g r o s s u l a r i t e formed I n t h e dykes.  as  andesite  M o l y b d e n i t e a p p e a r s i n t h e s k a r n , q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , and  l i m e s t o n e o f the upper l e v e l .  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e m o l y b -  d e n i t e w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e would suggest t h a t i t i s e a r l i e r t h a n the c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e and about the same ag© as the p y r i t © . Magnetite  ^©304).  In p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s the  magnetite  a p p e a r s t o be about the same g e n e r a l age as t h e b o r n i t e and chalcopyrlte.  However, the a s s o c i a t i o n o f the m a g n e t i t e  with  the p y r i t e and m o l y b d e n i t e i n t h e s k a r n would suggest t h a t i s e a r l i e r t h a n t h e c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e .  Magnetite  composes about one p e r c e n t o f the b o r n i t s - w o l l a s t o n i t e o r e , and about f o r t y p e r c e n t o f the b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e Bornite  (Gug Fe S ) . 4  ore.  B o r n i t e i s the most i m p o r t a n t copper  it  m i n e r a l o f the L i t t l e B i l l y o r e .  I n t h i n and p o l i s h e d  s e c t i o n s the "bornite has r e p l a c e d the gangue m i n e r a l s wollastonite,  diopside,  etc.  (Fig.20).  Intergrowths  the b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n d i c a t e e s s e n t i a l aneity bornite,  ( Fig.15).  between  contempor-  A l l gangue m i n e r a l s a r e e a r l i e r t h a n  except the s e r p e n t i n e and the l a t e  C h a l c o p y r i t e (Cu Fe S g ) .  the  caleite.  C h a l c o p y r i t e i s the second i n  importance o f copper m i n e r a l s i n the ore o f the L i t t l e  Billy.  A l t h o u g h the c h a l c o p y r i t e appears to be contemporaneous w i t h the b o r n i t e  i n most o f the s e c t i o n s ,  t h e r e a r e a few  w h i c h show c h a l c o p y r i t e i n l o n g narrow v e i n s i n the  bornite.  The c h a l c o p y r i t e a p p e a r s i n i r r e g u l a r masses r e p l a o i n g  the  w o l l a s t o n i t e and d i o p s i d e . Chalcocite i n the o r e .  (Cu S). g  C h a l c o c i t e i s n o t an abundant m i n e r a l  I t i s u s u a l l y i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  b o r n i t e and o c c u r s as I r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r i e s p l a c i n g the b o r n i t e .  and v e i n s  re-  The w r i t e r d i d not see any g r a p h i c  i n t e r g r o w t h o r " g r a t i n g " s u g g e s t e d by B a s t i n ^ ^ as common 4 2  to hypogene d e p o s i t s  o f b o r n i t e and c h a l c o c i t e .  c h a l c o c i t e was found i n i n c r e a s e d q u a n t i t i e s l e v e l s o f the M a r b l e Bay m i n e .  However,  i n the  The depth below the  lower sea  l e v e l and consequent l a c k o f ground w a t e r c i r c u l a t i o n , u n d i m i n i s h e d q u a n t i t y o f c h a l c o c i t e w i t h depth,  and  the  the  32 a s s o c i a t i o n o f o h a l o o o i t e w i t h b o r n i t e were c r i t e r i a u s e d by Dr.  Do Image * ^ t o prove c h a l o o e i t e t o be hypogene. 1 8  Wehrllte  (Bi Te ). g  2  W e h r l i t e o c c u r s as a n h e d r a l t o sub-  h e d r a l masses i n the c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e , u s u a l l y l a r g e r t h a n 70 m i c r o n s i n d i a m e t e r . blebs o f hessite,  I t i s often associated with  suggesting a simultaneous c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n .  A few c r y s t a l s o f w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e , were n o t e d i n the g a n g u e . ( f i g . 2 0 , 2 1 ) .  associated with gold, W e h r l i t e i s the most  abundant o f the s i l v e r m i n e r a l s i n the L i t t l e B i l l y Hessite  (AggTe).  ore.  I n the m a t e r i a l u s e d f o r the p o s i t i v e  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the t e l l u r l d e s , h e s s i t e a l w a y s appeared i n contact with  wehrlite (fig.17).  However, one specimen from  the 180 l e v e l o f the L i t t l e B i l l y shows h e s s i t e as i r r e g u l a r masses w i t h i n the gangue  ( f i g . 2 0 ) about 90 m i c r o n s i n d i a -  meter. Sphalerite  (Zn S ) .  A m i n o r amount o f s p h a l e r i t e  one pe r c e n t  ) o c c u r s i n t h e p o l i s h e d s e e t i o n s as i r r e g u l a r  masses w i t h i n and b o r d e r i n g t h e c h a l e o p y r i t e . sphalerite,  ( less  than  Blebs of  s p o t t e d w i t h specks o f c h a l c o p y r l t e formed by  "ex s o l u t i o n " o f t e n o c c u r i n the c h a l c o p y r l t e ,  suggesting  t h a t the s p h a l e r i t e i s about the same g e n e r a l age as  the  chalcopyrlte. Pyrrhotite  ( Pe S ) .  P y r r h o t i t e o c o u r s as s m a l l i r r e g u l a r  33 masses about 100 m i c r o n s o r l e s s w i t h i n the c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e , and appears t o be the same g e n e r a l age a s  the  b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Galena  (3?b S ) .  Galena was not seen i n t h e p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s .  However i t was n o t i c e a b l e i n the supar-panner  t i p s o f both  types o f o r e . T e t r a h e d r l t e 6 ( C u S ) . 2 (Cu F e ) . 2 ( S b S ) . 2  2  s  T e t r a h e d r l t e o c c u r s as s c a t t e r e d i r r e g u l a r b l e b s l e s s t h a n 70 m i c r o n s i n d i a m e t e r . abundant  i n the b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e  wollastonite. for  I t a p p e a r s t o be more ore than i n the  bornite-  Eo d e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n can be d e t e r m i n e d  tetrahedrite.  O o v e l l i t e (-Cu-K  Covellite i s sparsely scattered  through-  out the b o r n i t e as s m a l l v e i n s o r r o s e t t e s o f s m a l l a l o n g seams o r gangue b o u n d a r i e s . cite,  Covellite,  Hence the same r e a s o n i n g can be  u s e d t o prove t h a t c o v e l l i t e i s o f hypogene (An),  origin.  llo d e f i n i t e age can be g i v e n f o r t h e g o l d .  was found o n l y i n one s e c t i o n . I n the gangue a l o n e , ( f i g . 2 3 ) SiIvor  l i k e chalco-  i n t h e M a r b l e Bay m i n e f i ® ) w a s found t o be more abund-  ant i n t h e l o w e r l e v e l s .  Gold  plates,  (Ag).  It  I n t h i s s e c t i o n i t was found  w i t h w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e f 2 2 i i S  S i l v e r o c c u r s as v e i n l e t s ( f i g . 1 3 ) and b l e b s  &  34 (fig,16)  i n t h e c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e and a p p e a r s t o b©  deposited a l i t t l e l a t e r than the sulphides  (fig.13)*  Summary*  D e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n s o f the s u l p h i d e s were r e a d i l y v i s i b l e i n the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s .  The  sulphides  a p p e a r t o be o f the same g e n e r a l age w i t h the p y r i t e a l i t t l e earlier. the b o r n i t e .  not  being  S i l v e r was the o n l y m i n e r a l t h a t v e i n e d  S o l d was found i n a s m a l l i r r e g u l a r mass i n a  gangue-filled fracture  i n some p y r i t e ,  was p r o b a b l y o f a l a t e r p e r i o d o f  suggesting that  it  deposition.  The g o l d o f the L i t t l e B i l l y o c c u r s a s n a t i v e g o l d < and the s i l v e r o c c u r s as n a t i v e s i l v e r and s i l v e r  tellurldes.  36 Chapter V I .  PAHAGBMSIS. The p a r a g e n e s i s o f the s i l i c a t e and the m i n e r a l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d u n d e r the f o l l o w i n g the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore,  sulphide  headings:  the b o m i t e - m a g n e t i t e  source o f s o l u t i o n s , and the mode o f  ore,  transfer.  The B o r a i t e - W o l l a s t o n i t e O r e . The l a r g e s t  ore body i s composed o f b o r n i t e  and  chalcopyrlte replacing fibrous wollastonite ( f i g . 7 ) .  The  f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s ore s u g g e s t s the f o l l o w i n g sequence o f events: 1.  The f o r m a t i o n o f the s k a r n m i n e r a l s a t the  o f the q u a r t s - d i o r i t e and the l i m e s t o n e .  The s k a r n b e i n g  composed o f d i o p s i d e , e p i d o t e and q u a r t z d e p o s i t e d grossularite,  andradite  contact  first,  and w h i t e c a l c i t e d e v e l o p e d  later,  and f i n a l d e p o s i t i o n o f p y r i t e , m a g n e t i t e and m o l y b d e n i t e . 2.  The p a r t i a l replacement  and g r o s s u l a r i t e  by w o l l a s t o n i t e .  o f the e p i d o t e ,  diopside  A s m a l l amount o f  caleite  and q u a r t z was d e p o s i t e d w i t h t h e w o l l a s t o n i t e . 3.  A g e n e r a l replacement  and g a r n e t by t h e b o r n i t e ,  o f the w o l l a s t o n i t e ,  c h a l c o p y r l t e and the  diopside  tellurldes.  36 A e m a i l amount o f q u a r t z a p p e a r s t o have been d e p o s i t e d w i t h the s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s * ^ . 3  The g o l d and s i l v e r  appear  t o be d e p o s i t e d a l i t t l e l a t e r t h a n t h e s u l p h i d e s . 4.  A g e n e r a l f r a c t u r i n g and c r u s h i n g o f the s i l i c a t e  and s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s .  I n the openings caused by the  movement, t h e r e was d e p o s i t e d q u a r t z , c a l c i t e and s e r p e n t i n e . The S o m i t e - M a g n e t i t e O r e . The o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i s s m a l l l e n s e - l i k e d e p o s i t o f b o r a i t e - m a g n e t i t e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o those on the west o f t h e P a x t o n , L a k e , and P r e s c o t t m i n e s .  coast  The same c o n d i t i o n s  and f o r m a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e L i t t l e B i l l y a s i n t h e s e mines: t h a t i s , the p r o x i m i t y o f the b o m i t e - m a g n e t i t ©  to  the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e I n t r u s i o n , t h e l a t e a l a s k i t e dykes, and t h e replacement o f the s k a r n r o c k s by m a g n e t i t e w i t h  lesser  amounts o f b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . D r . S w a n s o n * ^ 32  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the m a g n e t i t e d e p o s i t s o f t h e west  coast"were  formed by magmatic s o l u t i o n s i n w h i c h the m a t e r i a l s were c o n c e n t r a t e d by t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n t r u s i v e . . . . . .  (x) In the c o n t a c t metamorphic d e p o s i t s o f the D o l o r e s p i n e i n M e x i c o , Fenner (41) found t h a t q u a r t z was one o f the most i m p o r t a n t m i n e r a l s w i t h r e g a r d t o o r e d e p o s i t i o n . The r e p e a t e d i n s t a n c e s o f i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n o f the q u a r t z w i t h the s u l p h i d e s suggested a c l o s e g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n .  37 The r e l e a s e o f  s o l u t i o n s from t h e i n t r u s i v e was  effected  by f r a c t u r i n g caused by c o o l i n g o f t h e mass, and, a s a c o n sequence, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the d e p o s i t s  i s mainly con-  t r o l l e d by s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s a t the t i m e o f  replacement  w h i c h f a v o r e d the movements o f s o l u t i o n s a l o n g the contact  general  zone". Source o f S o l u t i o n s . The o r e - f o r m i n g s o l u t i o n s p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t e d a s  the end p r o d u c t s o f the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g d i o r i t i c magma. The f o l l o w i n g evidence supports t h i s 1.  The o c c u r r e n c e o f the ore body i n an embayment  the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . 2.  statement:  (See p l a n o f 280 l e v e l i n f o l d e r ) .  The p r e s e n c e o f d i s s e m i n a t e d masses o f p y r i t e ,  m o l y b d e n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n the 3.  in  quartz-diorite.  The f a c t t h a t the o r e b o d i e s o f the M a r b l e Bay mine  when f o l l o w e d down t h r o u g h the l i m e s t o n e , stock o f granodiorite,  which i s i t s e l f  l e a d d i r e c t l y to a  considerably mineral-  ized'^). 4.  The o c c u r r e n c e o f c o n t a c t metamorphic d e p o s i t s on  Vancouver I s l a n d '  1 3  ),  d e p o s i t s w h i c h a r e formed a t  the  c o n t a c t o f t h e c o a s t range i n t r u s i v e and the l i m e s t o n e o f t h e Vancouver Group.  38  MODE OF TRAHSFER.  The a l t e r a t i o n o f the M e r b l e Bay l i m e s t o n e , a t  the  c o n t a c t o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e by the development o f the c o n t a c t metasomatic m i n e r a l s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V, has i n v o l v e d the t r a n s f e r  o f carbon d i o x i d e , and the a d d i t i o n  o f i r o n , a l u m i n i u m and s i l i c a .  M i n e r a l i z e r s or v o l a t i l e s  w h i c h a i d i n t h i s t r a n s f e r have been suggested by L i n d g r e n '  2 7  t o be s u l p h u r , c h l o r i n e , b o r o n , f l u o r i n e and a r s e n i c . I n the c o n t a c t metamorphic d e p o s i t s a t  Hedley,B.C.,  Dolmage and B r o w n ' ) f o u n d s o a p o l i t e d e v e l o p e d i n l a r g e  quan-  2 0  t i t i e s a t the marble l i n e -  the edge o f the a l t e r e d  From t h i s t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t the c h l o r i n e o f the was one o f the v o l a t i l e s .  zone.  soapolite  The s e a p o l i t e formed a t t h e marble  l i n e when the a v a i l a b l e s i l i c a had been u s e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the s k a r n .  W i t h the above i d e a i n mind, t h e w r i t e r made  a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the t h i n s e c t i o n s o f the L i t t l e  Billy  ore f o r minerals c o n t a i n i n g c h l o r i n e , f l u o r i n e o r boron, seapolite,  chondrite,  and a few s c a t t e r e d  e.g.  o r a x i n i t e , and o n l y two s m a l l v e i n s  c r y s t a l s o f a x i n i t e were f o u n d .  However,  s p e c t r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s o f 19 samples o f c a l c i t e from the s k a r n and a d j a c e n t  a r e a s showed t h a t the c a l c i t e c o n t a i n e d  v a r y i n g amounts o f b o r o n , a l l l e s s t h a n one p e r c e n t . largest  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b o r o n were found i n the  The  calcite  39 from a r e a s c l o s e to the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e o r marble from the a d j a c e n t a r e a s , o f b o r o n . (See map i n f o l d e r ) .  intrusive.  Calcite  contained only traces  Hence i t a p p e a r s t h a t one  o f the v o l a t i l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n t a c t  metasomatism  o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine was b o r o n .  COHCLPSIOH. The sequence o f e v e n t s t h a t l e d t o t h e  formation  o f t h e L i t t l e B i l l y ore b o d i e s can be summarized a s f o l l o w s : 1.  The g e n t l e f o l d i n g o f the a r e a i n a  north-westerly  direction. 2.  The i n t r u s i o n o f t h e q u a r t z - d i o r i t e  i n t o M a r b l e Bay  limestone. 3.  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  o f the d i o r i t i c magma t o a  s i l i c e o u s magma and the consequent f o r m a t i o n o f alaskite 4.  dykes.  The e x p u l s i o n o f the v o l a t i l e s ( c o n t a c t  metasomatism)  and the s o l u t i o n s o f I r o n , a l u m i n i u m , s i l i c a and b o r o n , w i t h the f o r m a t i o n o f the s k a r n m i n e r a l s . 5.  The replacement  o f the s k a r n m i n e r a l s by b o r n i t e ,  c h a l c o p y r i t e , and the g o l d and s i l v e r m i n e r a l s . 6.  The f i n a l f r a c t u r i n g and c r u s h i n g , and the o f t h e s e f r a c t u r e s by q u a r t z and c a l c i t e .  filling  40 Chapter V I I .  EXAM ISAT1011 OF THE LITTLE BILLY ORE BY HAULTAIH SPPBR-PABHSR.  The o b j e c t o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n i s t o  determine  w h i c h p a r t i c l e s i z e w i l l g i v e the b e s t g r a v i t y s e p a r a t i o n * The H a u l t a i n s u p e r - p a n n e r was u s e d f o r t h i s g r a v ity  s e p a r a t i o n and was chosen i n p r e f e r e n c e  table,  to a W i l f e y  the a l t e r n a t i v e machine* because the f e e d can be  worked u n t i l a good s e p a r a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d .  The s u p e r -  panner s e p a r a t e s t h e f e e d i n t o t h r e e p r o d u c t s ;  a tip, a  m i d d l i n g s p r o d u c t and a s l i m e , and i s d e s i g n e d t o h a n d l e low-grade ores o r m i l l  tailings.  The L i t t l e B i l l y ore  a h i g h e r grade than n o r m a l l y u s e d on a s u p e r - p a n n e r ;  is  con-  s e q u e n t l y l a r g e amounts o f copper, g o l d and s i l v e r were h e l d i n the m i d d l i n g s p r o d u c t . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the t a b l e o f r e s u l t s w i l l show a s e r i e s o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the amount o f g o l d o r s i l v e r i n t h e f e e d and t h e sum o f the v a l u e s i n the t i p , m i d d l i n g s p r o d u c t and s l i m e i n each g r o u p . o f f r e e g o l d and s i l v e r ,  The presence  combined w i t h t h e s m a l l n e s s o f  t h e a s s a y samples, has caused t h i s e r r a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f values.  41 Two l a r g e samples were p i c k e d ; one sample o f b o r n i t e w o l l a s t o n i t e ore from the west end; the o t h e r sample a b o r n i t e m a g n e t i t e ore from the e a s t end o f the 180 l e v e l .  These were  c r u s h e d and s c r e e n e d . F o u r s i z e groups were o b t a i n e d as v -  follows:  100 + 150 mesh 150 + 200 mesh 200 + 326 mesh 325 mesh  A f t e r w e i g h i n g , t h e s e p r o d u c t s were s e p a r a t e d on t h e panner.  super-  Bach s i z e o f the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e o r e gave  t h r e e p r o d u c t s ; a b o r n i t e t i p , a m i d d l i n g s p r o d u c t and a t a i l i n g s or slime.  The same p r o c e d u r e was u s e d f o r the  b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e o r e , and a f o u r t h p r o d u c t * m a g n e t i t e  -  was s e p a r a t e d from the ore by moving a magnet i n a b e a k e r o v e r the s u p e r - p a n n e r .  The p r o d u c t s were d r i e d , weighed,  examined under the u l t r a - p a k and a s s a y e d . Ore u s e d f o r t h e s e t e s t s was o r i g i n a l l y p i c k e d f o r the making o f p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y g o l d , s i l v e r and copper v a l u e s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e mine ore would average,  aB shown i n t h e  following Sample  B o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e o r e : mine average Super-panner  Au, oar/Ton 0.3 0.7  Ag. oz/Ton 0.9 1.9  Cu. percent 2% 9.16$  42 Sample  Au. oz/Ton  Ag. oz/Ton  Cu. percent  B o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e o r e : Mine ore  0.04  1.4  2%  Super-panner  0.07 0.08  4.72 2.52  5.2% 5.J  E x a m i n a t i o n o f the ' b o r n i t e t i p s under the " u l t r a pak" i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g approximate p e r c e n t a g e s b y area o f constituents: The b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore 96$ 2% 1$  (tips)  Bornite Chalcopyrlte Pyrite Chalcocite Covelllte Galena Sphalerite Magnetite Gold Silver Wehrlite Hessite  The b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t e o r e  (tips-magnetite  removed)  Bornite Chalcopyrite Pyrite Galena Sphalerite Tetrahedrite Barits ? Gold Silver Tellurldes The g a l e n a and t e l l u r l d e s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by f o r m a t i o n o f  43 a t e l l u r i u m p o o l upon h e a t i n g the t i p s on a p y r e x s l i d e , (fig.17). I n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r a p h s , w h i c h were computed from t h e r e s u l t s o f o r e s e p a r a t i o n on the super-panner,  the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore has been  c a l l e d the d i s s e m i n a t e d b o r n i t e  ore.  TABLE 1. GOLD IK DISSEMINATED BORNITE ORE Distribution i n -100 feed.  Product  ;  -100 * 150 Bornite Tip Middling Slime  Corrected Weight in Grams  Oz/Ton.  124.3•  0.7  2.98  11.8  3.04  1.230  9.5  109.4 '  0.16  0.600  87.9  32.4  3.1  0.20  0.021  2.G  1.1  .  ^150  Total (Mg)  In Each In Total -100 Feed Size m.% A u . iitt.% Au. t 18.8  7.2 0.5  0.4 28.2  13.2  19,1  68.3  1.3  15.3  81,5  25.4  10.7  5.7  8.9  6.3  1.2  .1.4.  86,7  0.56  1,675  Bornite Tip  88.3  3.2  0.910  9.6  Middling  70.7  0.14  0,339  7.7  0.30  0.084  Slime  1>8 20.6  1.851 100.0 100.0  -  200  4  66.5  38.7  1,333 100,0 100.0 - 200  4  325  Bornite Tip  125.3 2.1  0.24  1.030  6.6  0.450  1.8 67,8  Middling '  85.2  0.14  0.408  Slime  38,0  0.08.  0.104 30.4  18.8  11.7  46,8  0.3  7.6  42.4  12.8  6.8  10,8  5,7  1.8  0.962 100.0 100,0 - 325  16.2  326.8  0.24  2.680  6.0  3.20  0,655  1.9  33.2  0.9  11.0  Middling  110.8  0.12  0.455  33.8  23.1  16.7  7.7  Slime  210,0  0.12  0.863  64,3  43.7  31.6  14.5  Bornite Tip  49.2  1.973 100.0 100.0 Total  663.1  6.119  33*2 100.0 100.0  SO  Graph Show/nc} of Go/d in Di  D/'s fr/bu f/on ssemiaafed  TABLE 2. SILVER IH DISSEMINATED BORBITS ORB Distribution in -100 feed.  Product -100  4.  150  Bornite Tip Middling Slime  -150 « 200 Bornite Tip Middling Slime  -200 i 325  Corrected Weight in Grams,  Total Oz/Ton  Mg.  124.3  2.32  9.950  11.8  25.00  10.100  109.4 3.1  Total -100 Feed % m.Ag.i % Wt. Ag. %. 18.8  19.5  9.6  59.0  1.8  13.7  1.84  6.900 87.9  40,3  16,5  9.3  1,00  0.106  2.5  0.7  0.5  0.1  17.106 100.0  100.0  86.7  2.52  7.500  8.3  37.80  10.750  70.7 7.7  23.1 13.2  14.7  9.6  63.0  1,3  14.5  1.86  4.500 81.5  26.4  10.7  6.1  6.88  1.810  8.9  10.6  1.2  2.5  17.060100.0  100.0  125.3  2.16  9.270  2,1  25.40  1.745  Middling  85.2  Slime  38.0  Bornite Tip  In laeh Si se  23.1 18.8  18.2  1.8  17.1  0.3  2.4  2.26  6,600 67.8  64.6  12.8  8.4  1.44  1,870 30.4  18.3  5.7  2.5  10.215 100*0 100.0 326.8  2.16  6.0  26.80  Middling  110,0  Slime  210,0  -325 Bornite Tip  Totals  663.1  24,20 5.500  13.3 49.2  47.5  1.8  18.4  0.9  7.5  2,88  10,901 33,8  36.4  16.7  14,8  1,88  13.500 64.4  45.2  31.6  18.2  29.901 100.©  100.0  73.382  40.5 100.0 100.0  TABUS .3. COMPARISON OF GOLD AND SILVER IK SIZED PRODUCTS TO TOTAL -100 FEED 1 DISSEMINATED BORHITE ORE Distribution in -100 Oz/Ton Product  Au.  Ag.  Total (Mg. ) Au.  Ag.  wt.  t  % Au.  % Ag.  0.40  2.60  9.05  58.00  100  100  100  -100 * 150  0.80  2.32  3.40  9.95  18.8  38.7  19.5  -150  200  0.52  2.52  1.68  7.50  13.2  19.0  14.8  -200 « 325  0,24  2.16  1.03  9.27  18.8  11.7  18.2  - 325  0.24  2.16  2.68  24.20  49.2  30.6  47.5  8.79  50.92  100.0  100.0  100.0  Sample  4  2 MAGNETITE-BORNITE ORB (following 2 Pages.) Distribution, in -100 Product  Oz/T©tt Au, Ag.  Total (Mg,) Au. Ag. %  Sample  0.08  3.9  3.3  -100 *150  0.10  4.16  1.79  150  0.08  4.56  0.06 0,07  4  -200 -325  200  4  325  m.  % Au.  i  Ag.  100  100  100  74.90  43.9  50.2  41.2  0.76  43.71  23.1  21,3  24.2  4.64  0.61  35.79  18.6  17.1  19.8  4.46  0.41  26.80  14.4  11.4  14.8  3.57  181.20  100.0  100.0  100.0  160.5  p i\  TABLE 4*•• •—— —•" !  GOLD IB BORNITE-MAGNETITE! ORB Distribution of -100  Product  Oorrecjted Weight\in Grams,  In Each Size % Wt. Au. %,  Total Qz/Ton Mg.  Total -100 Pead %Wt, Au.%  524.3 8,0  0.10 2.10  1.790 0^575  1.6  40.4  43.9 ro.6  50.2 15,3  Middling (HP) 280.7  0.04  0.386  53.4  27.1  23.8  10i3  202.0  0.06  0.415  38.6  29.2  16.7  11.1  33.6  0.04  0.046  6.4  3.3.  2.8  1.2  1.422  100.0  43.9  37.9  23.1  21.3  -100 * 150 Bornite Tip  Magnetite Slime  -150  4  200  Bornite Tip  280.3 9.1  100.0  0.08  0.766  2.6  0.800  3.2  61.4  0.8  21,3  Middling  188.8  0.06  0.389  67.3  29.8  15.6  10.4  Magnetite  51.2  0,04  0.070  18,1  5.5  4.2  1.9  31.2  0.04  0,043  11.4  3.3  2.5  1.1  1*302  100; 0  100,0  23.1  34.7  18;6  17.1  Slime  -200  4  325  Bornite Tip  225; 8 1*5  0.08  0,617  3.4  0,175  0.6  29,3  0;1  4.7  Middling  75.3  0.08  0,201  u 33*4  33.6  6,2  5,4  Magnetite  52.4  0.05  .0.089  23.2  14.9  4,3  2.4  Slime  96;6  0.04  0.132  »  22,2  8.0  3.5,  100,0  18.6  16.0 11.5 3.3  0,597 -325  4  2  8  100.0  175.4 1.2  0.07 3.0  0.415 0.123  0.8  28,7  14.4 0,1  Middling  58,4  0.06  0.120  33.2  28.0  4,8  3.2  Magnetite  38.5  0.06  0.079  21.9  18.5  3.1  2.1  Slim©  77.3  0.04  0.106 6,428  44.1 lt553  24,8 loCo"  6,4 1474*  T O  100  100  Bornite Tip  TOTAL  1205.2  3; 750  2.8  £r0/3/7 Sn-owir/cj Distribution of~ Gold in A/iagnetife Ore °/o %  flu A o  Co/cffated C o / c t , / o - / e d  o n o n  S / z e o f f o t - o /  p r o d u c e s ~ / O O - f e e d  1—h  60  so  VoWtfor in - too  40  s/zes feed  Borniie  Tip  To+a/ fiu in -too /?eaa£  AT-  P.  20  j&orni-fc Tip fiKiffiefite  t xx \*  70  ISO -1601  /J"o  tit  Groin  J o  sxJr  -I TO I-ZOO  ">csh  s5/ze  in  Microns  vmiE  5,  SIMER IH BQRKITE-MAGNETITE QBE Distribution in - lOOFeed In Bach Size. % Wt. % Ag.  Oz/Ton  Total (Mg.)  524.3  4.16  74,90  8.0  16.90  4.63  1.6  Middling  280.7  3.96  38.20  Magnetite  202.0  2.14  33.6  4.16  Product 8100  4  150  Bornite Tip  Slime  Weight in Grams  43.9  41.3  7.4  0,6  3.1  53.4  61.2  23. 8  25.7  14.80  38.6  23.7  16.7  10.0  4.78  6.4  7.7  2.8  3.2  100,0 100.0  43.9  42,0  23.1  24.2  0,8  5.4  62.41 -150  200  Total -100 Feed % Wt. Ag.  280.3  4.56  43,70  9.1  25.84  7.95  3.2  25,2  188,8  2.54  16,40  67.3  52.0  15.1  11.2  Magnetite  51.2  1.46  2.55  18.1  8,1  4.2  1.7  Slime  31.2  4.36  4.66  11.4  14.7  2.5  3.2  100,0 100,0  23.1  21.5  18,6  19.8  i  Bornite Tip Middling  31.56 -200* 325  225.8  4.64  35.80  1*5  27.60  1.42  0.6  5,2  0,1  1,0  Middling  75,3  4,40  11.01  33.4  39,3  6.2  7.5  Magnetite  52,4  1,39  2,49  23.2  8.9  4.3  1.8  Slime  96,6  3.96  13.10  42.8 46.6 100.0 100.0  3.0  8.9  18,6  19.2  14,4  14.8  Bornite Tip  28.02 -325  176.4  4.46  1.2  47.00  1.93  0.8  7.8  0.1  1.4  Middling  58.4  3.82  7,62  33.2  30.1  4.8  5.1  Magnetite  38.5  1.94  2,56  21.9  10.1  3.1  1;8  Slime  77.3  4.96  Totals  1205.8  13.10 25.21 149.2  44.1 100.0  52.0 100.0  6,4 14.4 100  8.9 17.3 1000  Bornite Tip  26.8  TABLE 6. COPPIR IN DISSEMINATED-BORNITE ORE (TIPS OHLY) i  Sample  gCu.  Wt.of T i p  Gms Cu, in Tip  Total -100 Samplo  f Cu.Feed  Gms,  i n Feed  3.5  663.1  cu.  6ms.Cu, Oonc.i! Feed  Tip.  23.9  -100 « 150 50.86  11.8  6.00  4.08  124.3  5,08  1181,  -150 • 200 45.16  8.3  3.74  4.05  86,7;  3.51  106£  -200 i 325 47.80  2.1  1.10  3.06  125.3  3.84  ZB%  -325  6.0  2,48  2.95  9,65  25g  41.44  326,8  22. 08 COPPER IHMAGHETITE-BORNITE ORE (TIPS ONLY. )  Sample  % Gu.  Wi.of T i p  Gms Cu, i n T i p % Cu.Feed  Sample  £Cu, Recovered Gms* Gms,Gu*for Each i n Feed i n Foed Size.  6,7  1205,2  74.2  -100 * 150 38,08  8.0  3.05  5.96  524,3  31.2  0.7  -150  4  200 42.86  9.1  3.89  6.65  280,3  18.9  20.6  -200  4  325 38.12  1.5  0.57  6.80  225.8  15.3  3.7  41.88  1.2  0.50  7.50  175.4  13.2  2-5  -325  8.01  78.6  50 OBSERVATIONS Off THE SUPER-PAHflER RESULTS.  1.  The b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o r f r e e i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e  h i g h e s t r a t i o by p e r c e n t o f g o l d o r s i l v e r t o the t o t a l w e i g h t , by p e r e e n t o f the m a t e r i a l , o r on the g r a p h by t h e maximum difference of ordinate. 2 (a). i t e ore,  I n the d i s s e m i n a t e d b o r n i t e o r the b o r n i t e - w e l l f t s t o n the b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f the g o l d was a t 110 m i c r o n s .  The maximum amount o f g o l d was i n the - 150 + 200 mesh. gold s t i l l  The  c o n t a i n e d minor amounts o f gangue a t 100 m i c r o n s ,  (fig.16). (b).  The b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was a t 90 m i c r o n s .  The g r e a t e s t percentage  o f s i l v e r was i n the - 150 + 200 mesh  product. 3 (a).  I n the m a g n e t i t e - b o r n i t e  g o l d was a t 90 m i c r o n s .  ore the b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f  T h i s i s shown c l e a r l y by the  sudden  r i s e o f the g r a p h o f the p e r c e n t a g e o f g o l d ( i n each s i z e d product). (b).  The b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was a t 22 m i c r o n s .  However a good s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was o b t a i n e d a t 90 m i c r o n s . 4.  The s l i m e o r t a i l i n g i n t h e + 150 mesh I s due t o  dry s c r e e n i n g .  Some o f the " f i n e s " have c o a t e d the  larger  p a r t i c l e s and have been s e p a r a t e d by the w a s h i n g w a t e r . 5.  The copper a s s a y s o f the b o r n i t e t i p ( t a b l e 6)  51 show that the best concentration o f eopoer, in the bornite-wollastonite ore was i n the - 100 •+ 150 mesh, or at an average grain s i z e , at about ?0 microns.  This  re s o l t wo aid be in agreement with the average size of the bornite masses seen in F i g , 8. 6,  For the boraite-niagnetite ore, the best  concentration was i n the - 150 *• 200 mesh. However t h i s recovery was only 20,6%.  A large percentage of bornite  was noted in middlings product. 7,  The graph of the s i l v e r i n the bornite-wollastonite  ore r i s e s suddenly for the - 325 mesh s i z e .  This i s due to  the presence of b r i t t l e s i l v e r t e l l u r i & e s - wehrlite and hessite - The graph of the s i l v e r f a l l s rapidly i n the - 325 mesh size of the bornite-magnetite ore, because the s i l v e r occurs c h i e f l y as native s i l v e r rather than as a silver telluride. 8,  The s i l v e r - g o l d r a t i o was not included in the  tables as the results were e r r a t i c owing to the presence of free gold and silver..  52  OOKCLUSIOf.  The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s have been r e a c h e d : 1.  The g o l d o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore o c c u r s c h i e f l y  native gold,  the s i l v e r o c c u r s as the s i l v e r t e l l u r l d e s ,  h e s s i t e and w h e r l l t e , and a s n a t i v e £.  as  silver.  One o f the v o l a t i l e s o r m i n e r a l i z e r s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h the c o n t a c t metasomatism o f the L i t t l e B i l l y o r e was boron. 3 (a).  I n the b o m i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e o r e ,  the b e s t  separ-  a t i o n o f g o l d was a t 110 m i c r o n s o r the - 1 5 0 + 2 0 0 mesh size.  The b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r Has a t 90 m i c r o n s . The  b e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o p p e r was i n t h e - 1 0 0 + 1 5 0 mesh s i z e . (b)  I n the bornite-magnetite ore,  the best  separation  o f g o l d was a t 90 m i c r o n s , w h i l e t h e b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was a t 22 m i c r o n s .  However, a good s e p a r a t i o n o f  s i l v e r was a l s o o b t a i n e d a t 90 m i c r o n s .  Hence the b e s t  s e p a r a t i o n o f g o l d and s i l v e r was i n the - 100 1 1 5 0 mesh size.  The b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f copper was I n the - 150 1-200  mesh s i z e .  APPEHDIX A  PHOTOMICROGRAPHS  •  fjgggg  7  T y p i c a l ore from the L i t t l e mine,  showing d i s s e m i n a t e d  Billy bornite  and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n a g a r a e t w o l l a 8 t o n i t e gangue.  I  I  FIGURE 8 Bornite replacing wollastonite. T h i n s e c t i o n from the P r o s s e r hody, 468 f e e t from the  X 67  ore  surface.  FTGUKE 9 Bornite replaoing wollastonite, the banded appearance o f the  showing  ore.  T h i n s e c t i o n o f the P r o s s e r ore body 443 f e e t from the  surface.  X 37  FIGURE 12 Gold w i t h quarts In b o r n i t e  t i p from  - 150 + 200 mesh o f b o r n i t e - w o l l a B t o n i t e ore. X 100  FIGURE 13 Silver  (Ag) and w e h r l i t e (w) Bornite.  X 1500  in  60  FIGURE 14  "Tellurium Pool" from h e s s i t e heated on p y r e x s l i d e -100  150  mesh t i p .  1  100  FIGURE  15  W e h r l i t e and b o r n i t e i n Chaleopyrite.  X  370  FIGURE 1 6 . Silver replacing  bornite  nnd c h a l c o p y r i t e .  I  250  FIGURE 17 W e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e i n c h a l c o p y r i t e Marble Bay M i n e . ( m a t e r i a l used f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e ) .  X  1EO  FIGURE 18 W e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e i n c h a l c o p y r i t e M a r b l e Bay M i n e . { m a t e r i a l used f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e ) . X 120  FIGURE 19 Silver i n wehrlite and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  X 350  FIGURE 20 Gold, w e h r l i t e ,  hessite  and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n  X  166  quartz  •  67  FIGURE 2 1 .  G o l d , w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e i n c h a l c o p y r i t e and  X 405  quartz.  FIGURE Eg G o l d , w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e I n quartz.  X  810  FIGURE 2g  Gold i n a quartz v e i n cutting pyrite.  X 470  70  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  71 BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 1.  Bancroft,  J . A . "Geology o f the Coast I s l a n d s " , C . G . S . Mem. 23, 1 9 1 3 .  etc.  2.  B l a k e , W . P . "Copper Ore and Garnet A s s o c i a t i o n " Am.Inst. Mg. Engrs. Trans. V o l . 34 pp 880 - 890 - 1904. ,  3.  Brewer, W.EL "The Copper D e p o s i t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d " Can. Mg. R e v , V o l . X V I I I p 270, 1899.  4.  "  "The West Coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d " E n g . & M g . J o u r . V o l . L X V I I p 176, 1 8 9 9 .  5.  "  " M i n i n g oh Vancouver and Texada I s l a n d s " E n g . & M g . J o u r . V o l . L X V I I p 529, 1899.  6.  "  "Vananda, Texada I s l a n d s " E n g . & M g . J o u r . V o l . L X I X p 250,  1900.  7.  "  " I r o n Ore D e p o s i t s o f Vancouver and Texada Islands" E n g . & M g . J o u r . V o l , LXX p 34, 1900.  8.  "  "Copper D e p o s i t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d " Am. I n s t . M g . T r a n s . V o l . XXIX p 983, 1900.  9.  "  "Texaaa I s l a n d , B . C . " Eng. & M g . J o u r . V o l . 72 p 665, 1901.  10.  "  " B o r n i t e A r e a s o f B . C . and Yukon T e r r i t o r y " Can. M g . Review V o l . 2 4 pp 76, 1905.  11.  "  "The O r i g i n o f B o r n i t e Ores o f Texada J o u r . Can. M g . I n s t . V o l . V I I , 1905.  12.  "  "Copper, S i l v e r D e p o s i t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and A d j a c e n t I s l a n d s " B. C. A n n . R e p . o f M i n . M i n e s 1916 - p 304.  13.  C l a p p , C . E . " S o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d " C. G . S . Mem. 13 - 1912.  Is."  72 14.  15.  16.  17.  18. 19.  C l a p p , C . H . "Geology o f t h e V i c t o r i a and S a a n l e h A r e a s , Vancouver I s l a n d , B . C . " . C . G . S . Mem. 36 - 1 9 1 3 . "  o  Deformation o f the Coast R e g i o n o f B r i t i s h ColumMa A b s . G e o 1 . S o c . Am. B u l l . V o l . X X V I p 406, 1915, Dawson, G . M . " On the S u p e r f i c i a l Geology o f B r i t i s h Columbia" Q u a r t . J o u r . G e o l . S o c . V o l . 34, 1 8 7 8 . "  Geology Part of Coasts.: Geology Canada,  and E x a m i n a t i o n s o f the n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d and A d j a c e n t and N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Survey o f 1887.  DoImage, V . "The M a r b l e Bay M i n e " E . C . G e o l . V o l . 16 p 372, "  1921.  Copper M o u n t a i n Ores C . I . M . M . B u l l . V o l . 22 p 788,  1922.  20.  Dolmage & Brown " C o n t a c t Metamorphism a t N i c k e l C.I.M.M. B u l l , p 31, 1945.  21.  Eakle, A . S i  22.  G r a t o n , L . C . & Murdoch, J . "The S u l p h i d e Ores o f Copper" A m . I n s t . M g . E n g . T r a n s . V o l . 4 5 pp 37 - 1 9 1 3 .  23.  Hardman  24.  Plate"  "Minerals Associated with C r y s t a l l i n e Limestone a t Crestmore, R i v e r s i d e County, Cal." University of Cal.Pub.Vol.10,Ho.19, pp 327, 1917.  "The G o l d F i e l d s o f Canada" C a n . M g . R e v . V o l . X V I I p 156-163 -  H a u l t a i n , H . E . & J o h n s t o n , W . E . "Some M i l l Under the M i c r o s c o p e " Trans.C.I.M.M. V o l . 3 6 p 221,  1898.  Products 1933.  73 25.  Le H o i , O . K . " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on a P o r t i o n o f t h e Main Coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A d jacent Islands? D e p t . o f M i n e s R e p t . 996 - 1 9 0 8 .  26.  L i n d g r e n , W.  27.  "  " C h a r a c t e r and G e n e s i s o f C e r t a i n Contact Deposits" T r a n s . Am. I n s t . M g . E n g . V o l . 3 1 p 226,190 "Mineral Deposits" M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. 4 t h E d .  1933.  28*  McConnell  "Teeada I s l a n d . B . C . " C . G . S . Mem. 58 - 1914.  29.  Short, M . I .  " M i c r o s c o p i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f Ore Minerals" U.S.G.S. B u l l . 914.  30.  Spurr, J . E .  "Theory o f Ore D e p o s i t s " E . C . G e o l . V o l . 7 p 485, 1912.  31.  "  "Study o f a C o n t a c t Metamorphic Ore Deposit" E . C . G e o l . V * l . V p 444 - 1912.  32.  Stlllwell,  F . L . "The Occurrence o f T e l l u r i d e M i n e r a l s at K i l g o o r l i e " . Austr. Inst, of M i n . & Met. How S e r i e s H o . 84 - 1931.  33.  Swanson, C O . "The G e n e s i s o f the Texada I s l a n d Magnetite Deposits" Sum. R e p t . P A p 106 - 1924.  34.  Dmpleby, J . B .  35.  Warren, H . V . and Peacock, ffl.A. " H e d l e y i t e , A Hew B i s muth T e l l u r i d e from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " e t c . U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , G e o l . S e r . Ho.49, pp 55-69 1945.  "The Occurrence o f Ore on the Limestone S i d e o f Garnet Zones" U n i v . o f C a l i f . Pub. V o l . 10 H o . 3 pp 25-37 1916.  74 36.  Warren, H . V . and D a v i s , P h i l i p "Some B i s m u t h M i n e r a l s from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto G e o l S e r i e s H o . 4 4 . pp 107-111, 1940.  37.  Weed, W . H . "Ore D e p o s i t s Hear Igneous C o n t a c t s " T r a n s . Am. I n s t . M g . E n g r s . V o l . 3 3 p 715, 1 9 0 3 . c Compilations  38.  Dana's System o f M i n e r a l o g y " P a l a c h e , Berman,Fronde1 7th E d i t i o n , V o l . I 1944  39.  "Ore D e p o s i t s o f the Western S t a t e s " Am. I n s t . M g . & M e t . E n g . -  1933.-  40.  "Milling  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Lake Shore" The S t a f f . T r n s . C . I . M . M . V o l . 3 9 , p E79, 1936.  41.  "Study o f a Contact Metamorphic Ore D e p o s i t " The D o l o r e s Mine a t M a t c h u a l a S . L . P . M e x i c o . J . E . S p u r r , G.H.Carrey, C.S.Penner E . G . G e o l . V o l . 7 p 444, 1912.  42.  " C o n t a c t Metamorphism.at Efiokel P l a t e " C.I.M.M. B u l l , p 69 1945.  43.  "Some S t u d i e s w i t h the H a u l t a i n Super-panner and Infrasizer" W a r r e n , H . V . , Madsen, C , fJhite, H.W. ' C.I.M.M, B u l l , p 143, 1938.  44.  "The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f G o l d i n C h e l a n T a i l i n g s " W a r r e n , H . V . , White, W . H . , and D a v i s , P . C . I . M . M . B u l l , p 143 1939.  45.  " I r o n Ores o f Canada * o l . I - B r i t i s h Columbia & Yukon" Young, G , A . and Uglow, W . L .  46.  " C r i t e r i a o f Age R e l a t i o n s o f M i n e r a l s w i t h E s p e c i a l Reference t o P o l i s h e d S e c t i o n s o f O r e s " . B a s t i n , E . S . and Others B e . G e o l . V o l . XXVI 1 9 3 ? .  Discussion  

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