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The geology and mineralogy of the Little Billy mine, Texada Island, B.C. De Leen, John L. 1946

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L & 3 & 7 THE GEOLOGY AID MINERALOGY OF THE LITTLE BILLY MIHE TEXADA ISLAM), B . C . by John L i De Leen - o -A t h e s i s submit ted to the Department o f Geology and Geography o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, as p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the Degree o f Master o f A p p l i e d Science* - o -Vancouver, B . C . A p r i l 1946 C 0 I T E 1 T S Page Acknowledgments 1 Chapter I. I n t r o d u c t i o n • • • 3 Prev ious Work and Sources o f In format ion 4 H i s t o r y o f M i n i n g on Texada I s l a n d 5 M i n e r a l Depos i t s 7 Chapter I I . Topography and Geology o f Texada I s l a n d Topography 9 R e l i e f 9 Geology o f Texa&a I s l a n d i - 11 Anderson Bay fo rmat ion 12 Texada fo rmat ion 14 i n t r u s i v e Rook 14 a) Stocks * 14 b) Dykes 15 Chapter I I I . The Geology o f the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e . i Marble Say Limestone 16 Q u a r t z - D i o r i t e • I 7 A l a s k i t e Dykes 18 Andes i t e Dykes 19 Chapter I V . Ore o f the L i t t l e B i l l y . K i n d s o f Ore • 20 The P r o s s e r Ore Body 21 L o c a t i o n o f the L i t t l e B i l l y Ore 22 R e l a t e d Depos i t s • 22 Summary 22 Chapter V . M i n e r a l o g y . Contact Metasomatle M i n e r a l s 23 The Ore M i n e r a l s • 25 Method o f Determining W e h r l i t e and H e s s i t e • • • 26 Note on W e h r l i t e • • 28 l o t e on H e s s i t e 28 M i n e r a l s o f P o l i s h e d Sec t ions «• • • 29 Summary 34 COM'SNTS ( c o n t » e d } Page Chapter ' V I , Pa ragenes i s -The W o l l a s t o n i t e - B o r n i t e Ore 35 The B o r n i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore 36 Source o f S o l u t i o n s 37 Mode o f T r a n s f e r 38 Conc lus ions 39 Chapter V I I . Examinat ion o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore by the 40 H a u l t a i n Super-pannexi Table I - Gold i n B o m i t e - W o l l a s t o n i t e Ore 44 Table I I - S i l v e r i n n " " 45 Table I I I - Comparison o f Gold and S i l v e r i n s i z e d products* 4 6 Table IV - Gold In B o r n i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore 47 Table V - S i l v e r i n S o m i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore 48 Table V I - Copper i n t i p s • • • 4 9 Observa t ions o f Super-panner r e s u l t s . • • • • • • 50 C o n c l u s i o n . 52 A p p e n d i x - Photomicrographs . • 53 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . 70 1 ACKHOWLBDGMEgTS. The author would l i k e to acknowledge h i s i n d e b t -edness to M r . P r o s s e r , manager and owner o f the I n d u s t r i a l M e t a l Company, f o r h i s k i n d pe rmi s s ion to e o l l e c t specimens and to s t ay a t the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e . He would l i k e to thank D r . V.Dolraage f o r h i s k i n d a s s i s t a n c e and f o r the use of h i s Marble Bay specimens. The r e sea rch f o r t h i s r e p o r t was conducted In the l a b o r a t o r i e s o f the Department o f Geology and Geography a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia . D r . H.V.Warren , A&soeiate P r o f e s s o r of M i n e r a l o g y and Petrography, j p v e h i s u s u a l e n t h u s i a s t i c a s s i s t a n c e which was ve ry much appre-c i a t e d . The au thor wishes to.--, thank D r . H .C.Gunning , P r o f e s s o r o f Economic Geology, f o r h i s he lp and c r i t i c i s m . He would a l s o l i k e to thank Doctors M . Y . W i l l i a m s and V . J , O k u l i t c h f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i v e sugges t ions and c a r e f u l c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s t h e s i s . Mr.James P a t r i c k Donnan,Laboratory T e c h n i c i a n o f the Department o f Geology and Geography, gave h i s v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n the making o f t h i n and p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s . The w r i t e r f u r t h e r wishes to thank Mess r s . EM.Thompson and E i c h a r d Manning; Mr.Thompson f o r h i s x - r a y 2 powder photos, and Mr.Manning f o r h i s copper, g o l d , and s i l v e r a n a l y s e s . 3 Chapter I . IITR0PUCTI03U The ob jec t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to summarize the p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the geology o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine, and to augment t h i s data by a f u r t h e r s tudy o f the gangu© and the Sre m i n e r a l s and to desc r ibe the types o f o r e . In answering the above problem, frequent use has been made o f the ore o f the nearby Marble Bay mine . Th i s ore i s massive and the m i n e r a l s a re r e a d i l y v i s i b l e f o r de t e rmina t ion , whereas the ore o f the L i t t l e B i l l y i s d i ssemina ted , a f a c t which made the de te rmina t ion o f miner -a l s and paragenes ls d i f f i c u l t and u n c e r t a i n . The r e sea rch i n v o l v e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was in tended to answer the f o l l o w i n g ques t i ons : 1. The mode o f occurrence o f the g o l d and s i l v e r i n the ore o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine. 2 . The nature o f the v o l a t i l e s o r m i n e r a l i z e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the contact-metasomatism o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine . 3 . The s i z e o f screened product which w i l l g i v e the bes t s epa ra t i on o f g o l d , s i l v e r and copper . 4 The L i t t l e B i l l y mine i s l o c a t e d about a qua r t e r o f a m i l e west o f Vananda on Texada I s l a n d , which i s about seventy m i l e s nor th-wes t o f Vancouver and about two m i l e s from the mainland f f i g . l ) . PREVIOUS WORK, A33D SOURCES OF IHFORiATIOI The f i r s t r e p o r t on Texada I s l a n d was g i v e n by M r . J . R i c h a r d s o n o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n the Annual Report o f 1873-84, a f t e r he made a b r i e f examinat ion o f the i r o n range on the west coast o f the I s l a n d . Two yea r s l a t e r G.M.Dawson examined the e n t i r e coas t l i n e . H i s work was p u b l i s h e d i n the Annual Repor t , V o l . I I , 1887. Reference to the min ing progress on Texada I s l a n d was g i v e n i n the Repor ts o f the M i n i s t e r o f Mines , B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Summary r e p o r t s o f the Department o f Mines , Ottawa. D e t a i l e d accounts o f the min ing progress and gener-a l geology was p u b l i s h e d by W.M.Brewer o f V i c t o r i a i n the E n g i n e e r i n g and M i n i n g Jou rna l s from 1900 to 1906. The f i r s t gene ra l survey o f the I s l a n d was made by O . B . Le Roi o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n 1906. T h i s r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1908 as n A p r e l i m i n a r y Report on a P o r t i o n o f the I a i n Coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Adjacent I s l a n d s " . In the same yea r an accura te g e o l o g i c a l survey o f the I s l a n d 5 was made by the l a t e B . C . M c D o n n e l l . H i s work was p u b l i s h e d i n Memoir 58, 1914, as "Texada I s l a n d , B . C . " - Mr.MoConn©11'S Memoir was the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n to g i v e a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t on the geology and the mines o f Texada I s l a n d . The f i r s t d e t a i l e d study o f the "Marble Bay M i n e " was p u b l i s h e d i n 1921 by Dr . f .Dolmage i n "Bednoffiie Geology"* A c a r e f u l study o f the genes i s o f th© Magnet i te d e p o s i t s o f Texada I s l a n d was made by D r . CO.Swanson i n 1923. H i s r e p o r t "The Genesis o f the Texada I s l a n d Magnet i te D e p o s i t s " was p u b l i s h e d i n the Summary Report o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey, 1924. The p u b l i c a t i o n s mentioned above, and o the rs i n the " S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y " , have been c o n s u l t e d f r e q u e n t l y du r ing the r e sea rch f o r t h i s r e p o r t , and f ree use has been made o f M c D o n n e l l 1 s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f topography, r e l i e f , and gene ra l geo logy . HISTORY OF MIBfllG 01 TEXADA I S L A f B . The f i r s t d i s c o v e r y o f b o r n i t e on Texada I s l a n d was made i n t h « e a r l y n i n e t i e s , but a t t r a c t e d v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n because the ore was d isseminated i n l imes tone and was o f a low grade . The ore body o f the Marble Bay Mine was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1897, du r ing the ownership o f Palmer & C r i s t i © o f Toron to . 6 A f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y surface work the shaf t was sunk to 500 fee t and proved the presence o f a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f b o r n l t e o r e . By 1901 the Marble Bay Mine had become the l a r g e s t mine on Texada I s l a n d , and i t was worked c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l 1924. By t h i s t ime the a v a i l a b l e ore was mined, and e x p l o r a t i o n f a i l e d to show any new o r e . Approx imate ly t w e n t y - f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n copper, g o l d , and s i l v e r ore had been e x t r a c t e d from the Marble Bay M i n e . The ore y i e l d e d approx-i m a t e l y 6* copper, .3 oss . g o l d and 4 ess . o f s i l v e r , w i t h no decrease o f the g o l d o r s i l v e r va lue s w i t h dep th . A t the same time as development was s t a r t e d on the Marble Bay l i n e , work was s t a r t e d on the Copper Queen, C o r n e l l , and L i t t l e B i l l y mines by the Vananda Copper and Gold Companies L i m i t e d . These mines are l o c a t e d w i t h i n a m i l e and a h a l f o f Vananda. Al though they con ta ined the same m i n e r a l s , and were a s i m i l a r type o f d e p o s i t , they d i d not have the same q u a n t i t y o r q u a l i t y o f ore as the Marble Bay. To u t i l i z e t h i s low-grade ore , the Vananda Copper Company b u i l t a 50- ton copper sme l t e r . These mines were worked u n t i l 1903 and then were l e a s e d and worked i n t e r -m i t t e n t l y u n t i l they were abandoned i n 1920. In 1943 the abovementioned mines were purchased by the I n d u s t r i a l M e t a l M i n i n g Company, and the f i r s t to be r e c o n d i t i o n e d was the L i t t l e B i l l y , ( F i g . 2 ) . E x t e n s i v e 7 diamond d r i l l i n g from the o l d workings and from the su r face l o c a t e d the "P ros se r Ore Body", ( l ap i n f o l d e r ) . Encouraged by f i n d i n g the new ore body, the I n d u s t r i a l M e t a l Company s t a r t e d to r e c o n d i t i o n the Copper Queen l i n e , h a l f a m i l e south o f the L i t t l e B i l l y . I n December 1944, the L i t t l e B i l l y , the Copper Queen and the C o r n e l l Mines were l e a s e d by P ionee r Gold Mines L t d . o f Vancouver, B . C . I n January 1945 the Indus-t r i a l Me ta l M i n i n g Co. s t a r t e d to de-water the Marble Bay Mine, and by March 1945 the f i r s t three l e v e l s were de-watered and r e c o n d i t i o n e d . An ex t ens ive diamond d r i l l -i n g and development programme i s planned f o r the f u t u r e . S ince the purchase o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine the P ionee r Go ld M i n i n g Company has deepened the shaf t 200 f ee t and has s t a r t e d the development o f the 480 l e v e l . MIIIB1AL DEPOSITS Off TEXADA ISLAND "The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t o f replacement de-p o s i t s o f the con tac t metamorphic typo , and a few g o l d -quar tz v e i n s . The former are the more important and may be subd iv ided i n t o depos i t s worked p r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h e i r copper content , and those worked f o r i r o n . These groups are not s h a r p l y d i v i d e d s i n c e magneti te ore i n v a r i a b l y con t a in s c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r a i t e , and c h a l c o p y r i t e - b o r n i t e 8 ore con ta ins minor amounts o f magne t i t e . " ^ 2 8 ^ In a d d i t i o n to the copper and i r o n d e p o s i t s , the l imes tones , marbles , c l a y s and sands are impor t an t . The l imes tone o f the Marble Bay fo rmat ion , which c o n t a i n s over 95 percent c a l c i u m carbonate, i s w i d e l y used on the P a c i f i c coast as a source o f l i m e . 9 Chapter I I .  TOPOGRAPHY and GEOLOGY o f TEXADA ISLAND. TOPOGRAPHY.* 2 8* Texada I s l a n d i s a p a r t i a l l y submerged r i d g e p a r a l l e l i n g the mainland a t a d i s t ance o f two to f o u r m i l e s . I t has a l e n g t h o f t h i r t y m i l e s , a maximum, w i d t h o f f i v e m i l e s , and an average w i d t h o f three m i l e s . The shore l i n e i s indented by few deep bays, except a t Long Beaoh on the east eoast and Lower S i l l i e s Bay on the west c o a s t . The coast c o n s i s t s most ly o f low rock c l i f f s worn and broken by the i nces san t a c t i o n o f the ocean. R B L U F . f 2 8 ) Except f o r l i m i t e d movements o f e l e v a t i o n and de-p r e s s i o n , Texada I s l a n d has not been n o t i c e a b l y d i s t u r b e d s i n c e Cretaceous t imes . The present topograph ic forms a re the r e s u l t s o f l o n g con t inued e r o s i o n . The s o f t e r r o c k s , represen ted by Cretaceous sandstones and sha les , and l i m e -stones o f lower Mesozoic age, have been worn down i n t o bas ins and rough seaward-s lop ing p l a i n s . The more r e s i s t a n t r o c k s , s u c h as p o r p h y r i t e s , p r o j e c t as h i l l s and r i d g e s . The v e r t i c a l r e l i e f i n the southern p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d , where the rocks c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f p o r p h y r i t e s , i s i n s t rong c o n t r a s t to tha t i n the no r the rn p o r t i o n , where 10 •fee rocks are l a r g e l y l imestone* sandstone, and s h a l e . The southern p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d i s a s i n g l e s t e e p - s i d e d , r o c k -c r e s t e d rtdge r i s i n g from the waters edge on both shores and c u l m i n a t i n g i n Mt.Shepherd, E892 fee t above sea l e v e l . I n the c e n t r a l pa r t o f the i s l a n d , the h i g h l a n d which con t inues northward from Mt .Shephsrd , broadens out , becomes more i r r e g -u l a r , and i s i n t e r r u p t e d on both s i d e s by wide d e p r e s s i o n s . The prominent e l e v a t i o n s here are M t . D a v l e s , 2484 f ee t , M t . Grant , 2450 f e e t , and Pocahontas Mountain , 1800 f e e t . Hor th and west o f Pocahontas Mountain the gene ra l e l e v a t i o n s i n k s a b r u p t l y s e v e r a l hundred f ee t , and from t h i s p o i n t to the no r the rn end o f the i s l a n d the r e l i e f i s compar-a t i v e l y l ow. The h i g h rugged peaks and r i d g e s which charac-t e r i z e the southern p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d are r e p l a c e d by round-topped h i l l s and r i d g e s not exceeding a thousand f ee t i n h e i g h t . S u r p r i s e Mounta in , a l o n g r i d g e r i s i n g from the west coast to a h e i g h t o f n e a r l y a thousand fee t , i s the most conspicuous e l e v a t i o n i n the no r the rn p o r t i o n o f the I s l a n d . Comet Mounta in , ^ust south and east o f the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e , a t t a i n s a he igh t o f 750 f e e t . Wi th the excep t ion o f a few s m a l l d r i f t - c o v e r e d a reas , the surface o f Texada i s everywhere rough and broken . The l o w - l y i n g p o r t i o n s are i n c i s e d by sha l low rock canyons, and worn hummocks and r i d g e s p r o j e c t above the t h i n l y d i s -11 t i r i bu ted boulder c l a y s . The g e n e r a l deepening o f the v a l l e y s near the coas t i s a p o s t - g l a c i a l f ea tu re , and i s a t t r i b u t e d to an u p l i f t o f the i s l a n d which occu r red a t the c l o s e o f the g l a c i a l p e r i o d . Beaches w i t h marine s h e l l s are found a t a number o f p o i n t s , a t e l e v a t i o n s 428 fee t Above the present sea l e v e l . GEOLOGY OF TEXADA ISLA1ID. The Anderson Bay format ion i s the o l d e s t on Texada I s l a n d . T h i s fo rmat ion , a v o l c a n i c s e r i e s , was p l a c e d by M c C o n n e l l ^ 2 8 ) i n the T r i a s s i c . The youngest Mesozoie r ocks a re a group o f upper Cretaceous rocks composed o f s o f t sand-s tones , sands, c l a y s and s h a l e s . G l a c i a l and recen t depos i t s a re represented by bou lde r c l a y s , sands, s i l t s , and creek g r a v e l s . The Format ions o f Texada I s l a n d (28) Quaternary Recent - Creek g r a v e l s , peat , e t c . G l a c i a l - Boulder c l a y s , sands, s i l t s , e t c . Mesozoie Upper Cretaceous - Sof t sandstone, sands, c l a y s and s h a l e s . Lower Cretaceous } o r ) - D i o r i t e s and d i o r i t e -Upper J u r a s s i c ) p o r p h y r i t e s i n s m a l l ) s t ocks and dykes . 12 Upper J u r a s s i c {?) - Q u a r t z - d i o r i t e s (Coast Range b a t h o l i t h ? ) Lower J u r a s s i c (?) - Texada group, p o r p h y r i t e s , Texada Group o f Le R o i * 2 & ) ( i n P a r t ) T r i a s s i c o r J _ Marble Bay format ion (Lime-J u r a s s i e ) s t o n e ) . T r i a s s i c - Anderson Bay fo rma t ion : s c h i s t s , t u f f s , agglomerates , araygdaloids, and marb les . (Texada group o f Le R o i i n p a r t ) . AHMRSOS BAY FORMATION. f 2 8 * The rooks o f the Anderson Bay fo rmat ion are exposed on ly on the sou th-eas te rn edge o f the i s l a n d ( f i g . l ) . The format ion i s made up o f an a l t e r n a t i n g s e r i e s o f s l a t e s , q u a r t z i t e s , conglomerates, marbles* t u f f s , agglomerates , amyg-d a l o i d s , and l ead -g reen s c h i s t s . These beds resemble l i t h e o l -o g i c a l l y the S i c k e r s e r i e s o f the Vancouver group which nave been p l a c e d by C l a p p * 1 3 * - i n the T r i a s s i c o r Lower J u r a s s i c . MARBLE B/SY FORSJATIOfl. * 2 8 * The l imes tones o f the Marble Bay format ion occu r i n two b e l t s ; one b e l t j u s t south o f Lower G i l l i e s Bay, and the o ther ac ros s the no r the rn p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d ( f i g . l ) . 13 In a d d i t i o n to these areas , M c D o n n e l l * 2 8 ^ r e p o r t s numerous l imes tone i n c l u s i o n s i n the p o r p h y r i t e s o f the Texada form-a t i o n . These i n c l u s i o n s v a r y i n s i z e and shape, r ang ing from angu la r shreds a few yards i n l e n g t h to rounded o r l e n t -i c u l a r a reas a qua r t e r o f a m i l e o r more i n l e n g t h . The bedding p lanes o f the Marble Bay l imes tone , except i n a few u n a l t e r e d p l a c e s , a re u s u a l l y obscured* The p r i n c i p a l p a r t i n g s c o n s i s t o f s t rong v e r t i c a l j o i n t a g © p l a n e s . I n the l e s s a l t e r e d areas the beds undula te i n low f o l d s w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l sharp up turn near dykes and o t h e r igneous b o d i e s . The Marble Bay format ion c o n t a i n s the impor tant c o n t a c t metamorphic copper d e p o s i t s o f the Marble Bay, C o r n e l l , Copper Queen and L i t t l e B i l l y l i n e s . As w e l l a s these copper d e p o s i t s , the Marble Bay fo rmat ion c o n t a i n s the impor tant magnet i te depos i t s o f the Lake , P sx ton and P r e s t o n M i n e s ; * ' The Marble Bay format ion was p l a c e d by M c D o n n e l l * 2 8 ^ i n the Lower J u r a s s i c o r T r i a s s i c . T h i s would correspond to the Sut ton l imes tone o f the Vancouver g r o u p . * l s * 1 4 ^ On Quadra I s l a n d , f o r t y m i l e s n o r t h o f Texada I s l a n d , i s a massive l i m e -stone which i s s i m i l a r , and bene© has been c a l l e d the Marble Bay f o r m a t i o n . . * 2 5 ^ TEXADA FORMATION. 14 (28.) The Texada format ion , which covers the g r e a t e r p a r t o f Texada I s l a n d , c o n s i s t s mos t ly o f b a s i c , massive igneous rocks o f v a r y i n g compos i t ion and t e x t u r e , but c l a s s i f i e d g e n e r a l l y as p o r p h y r i t e i 2 8 ^ The fo rmat ion , which i s s e v e r a l thousand f ee t t h i c k , comprises a s e r i e s o f v o l c a n i c rocks i n c l u d i n g much andes i t e and andes i t e porphyry . In a d d i t i o n to the andes i t e there are diabase and a u g i t e - p o r p h y r i t e , ho rnb lende -porphyr i t e and some b a s a l t . The rocks are seldom f r e s h , and u s u a l l y c o n t a i n l a r g e amounts o f secondary c h l o r -i t e and ep ido te , which g i v e s them a g r e e n i s h c o l o u r . The rocks o f the Texada format ion are a group o f superimposed f l o w s , f o l d e d s t e e p l y i n the southern p a r t o f the i s l a n d a l o n g an a x i s hav ing a northwest trend, 'and a re p robab ly o f the same p e r i o d o f v o l c a n i s m as the Vancouver V o l c a n i c s i 1 2 ^ I1TRUSIVE ROOKS. (a) S t o c k s . The q u a r t z - d i o r i t e occurs i n s m a l l s t o c k s and dykes, i n t r u d i n g both the Marble Bay and Texada f o r m a t i o n s f 2 8 ) . There are touf a reas o f q u a r t z - d i o r i t e exposed, one be ing a t the L i t t l e B i l l y M i n e . In papers by D r . Do lmag®* 1 8 ) and Dr .Swanson* 3 2 ) these i n t r u s i o n s have been f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d . Dr.Swanson c a l l e d the more a c i d i c phase o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e 15 the " S i l l i e s i n t r u s i v e " , which i s a t o n a l i t © i n c o m p o s i t i o n . (b) Dykes. Seve ra l types o f dykes occur , such as s y e n i t e -(28) p o r p h y r i t e , a u g i t e - s y e n i t e , d i o r i t e s , and d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r i t e s . The d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r i t e dykes are o f i n t e r e s t : Some o f the ore bodies o f Copper Queen and Marble Bay Minos were cu t by iPR fi) these dykes , which are g e n e r a l l y l a t e r than the o u a r t z -d i o r i t e i n t r u s i v e . 16 Chapter I I I . THE GEOLOGY OF THE LITTLE BILLY MIHB The two main format ions a t the L i t t l e B i l l y mine are the Marble Bay l imes tone and the q u a r t z - d l o r i t © . ( f i g . 2 ) The ore bod ies , which have been formed a t the con tac t o f these format ions , are o f contac t metamorphic o r i g i n . MARBLE BAY LIMESTONE. The Marble Bay l imes tone i s the o l d e s t fo rmat ion a t the mine and i s cu t by the q u a r t z - d l o r i t e I n t r u s i v e , a l a s k i t e and some andes i t e dykes . The andes i t e dykes are suggested by t h e i r a l t e r a t i o n to be p r e - q u a r t s - d i o r i t e . The hand specimens o f u n a l t e r e d l imes tone are com-posed o f coarse grey c r y s t a l s o f c a l e i t e up to 10 c e n t i -meters i n l e n g t h , but specimens o f l imes tone from the contact-metamorphic a reas a re u s u a l l y whi te o r l i g h t grey i n c o l o u r and occur as subhedral c r y s t a l s not more than a cen t imete r i n l e n g t h . In t h i n s e c t i o n , the l imes tone o f the contac t a reas i s composed o f 80 percent c l e a r c loudy anhedra l c r y s t a l s o f c a l e i t e and 20 percent o f i r r e g u l a r l y shaped areas o f se rpen t ine , c o n t a i n i n g i n t e r s t i t i a l carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . Q U A R T Z - D I O R I T E 17 The q u a r t z - d i o r i t e crops out i n the L i t t l e B i l l y mine a r ea as a s tock o f rough ly r e c t a n g u l a r o u t l i n e , h a l f a mi le long by a quar te r of a m i l e w i d e , i n t r u d i n g the Marble Bay l i m e s t o n e . The q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i s a l s o cut by numerous andes i t e dykes . L i t h o l o g y . I n hand specimen, the q u a r t z - d l o r i t e i s , i n g e n e r a l , a l i g h t grey h o l o e r y s t a l l i n e rock composed o f q u a r t z , f e l d s p a r , and minor amounts o f b i o t i t e and hornblende . The f e l d s p a r s are g e n e r a l l y subhedra l c r y s t a l s , w h i l e the quar tz i s i n t e r s t i t i a l . I r r e g u l a r masses o f p y r i t e , c h a l e o p y r i t e , and molybdeni te are s c a t t e r e d throughout the specimen. I n t h i n s e c t i o n the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i s composed of 35 percent p l a g i o e l a s e f e l d s p a r (Ab^^A^o) , 17 percent hornblende, 15 percen t q u a r t z , 10 percent o r t h o c l a s e , 2 percent b i o t i t e , and subordinate amounts o f magnet i te , a p a t i t e and a u g i t e . Fe ldspa r s occur as subhedral c r y s t a l s up t o 1 m i l l i m e t e r i n l e n g t h , w i t h an abundance of e q u i - d i m e n s i o n a l zoned f e l d s p a r s . Quar tz -i s l a r g e l y i n t e r s t i t i a l i n i n t e r l o c k i n g g r a i n s up to .7 m i l l i m e t e r s i n d i ame te r . B i o t i t e and hornblende occur as subhedral g r a i n s , w i t h some of the former c h l o r i t i z e d . Magnet i t e i s concent ra ted i n and around the o ther mafic m i n e r a l s . The e a r l y c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and 18 consequent s e t t l i n g o f the c r y s t a l s would e x p l a i n the concen-t r a t i o n o f the magneti te w i t h the maf ic m i n e r a l s . Sec t ions o f q u a r t z - d i o r i t e taken from the contac t zones show tha t the hoxnhlende a n d ? b i o t i t e have been a l t e r e d to c h l o r i t e . The f e l d s p a r s show a l t e r a t i o n s to s e r i c i t e . In the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e are rounded d i o r i t i c i n c l u s -i o n s up to IE inches i n diameter , which are s i m i l a r to i n -c l u s i o n s noted by Dr .Swar i son^ 3 3 ^ i n the G i l l i e s I n t r u s i v e . Concerning these i n c l u s i o n s , he suggested tha t they "probably represen t some o f the e a r l i e s t p roduc ts o f the c r y s t a l l i z a -t i o n o f the d i o r i t i c magma". 1. ALASKITS I l t h o l o g y . Hand specimens from both dykes were very s i m -i l a r . The specimens were whi te w i t h a watery appearance, com-posed o f f e l d s p a r , i n t e r s t i t i a l quar tz and a few s c a t t e r e d g r a i n s o f b i o t i t e and hornblende . In t h i n s e c t i o n the a l a s k i t e i s composed approximate ly as f o l l o w s : 40 percent qua r t z , 35 percen t p l a g i o e l a s e {AbggAn^g), 2 5 percent o r t h o c l a s e ana a few c r y s t -a l s o f b i o t i t e and hornblende . The quar tz occurs as anhedra l c r y s t a l s and the f e l d s p a r s as subhedra l c r y s t a l s up to 1 m i l l i m e t e r i n l e n g t h . There i s an abundance o f equi -d imens-i o n a l zoned p l a g i o e l a s e , the cen t res o f whieh are a l t e r e d to 19 s e r i c i t e and have a c loudy appearance. The s l i d e con t a in s no m e t a l l i o m i n e r a l s . 2 . AIDESITE DYKES. ( D i o r i t e - p o r p h y r i t e o f M e C o n n e X l * 2 e i ) . L l t h o l o g y : Hand specimens o f these dykes are medium to dark green i n c o l o u r and a p h a n l t i c . Some specimens have a f e w s c a t t e r e d c r y s t a l s o f p l a g i o e l a s e about 2 m i l l i m e t e r s i n l e n g t h . The m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s seen i n the hand s p e c i -mens are p y r i t e , molybdeni te and magne t i t e . In t h i n s e c t i o n , these dykes are composed approx-i m a t e l y as f o l l o w s : 53 percent p l a g i o e l a s e ( A b ^ A H ^ ) , . 17 percent hornblende, 12 percent o r t h o c l a s e , 10 percen t qua r t z , 5 percent b i o t i t e , and subordinate amounts o f s e r i -c i t e , magnetite* p y r i t e , a p a t i t e and c a l e i t e . The p l a g i o -e l a se occurs as subhedral c r y s t a l s about 1 m i l l i m e t e r i n l e n g t h , which have been p a r t i a l l y a l t e r e d to s e r i c i t e . The hornblende occurs as l a th - shaped c r y s t a l s , bo th s i n g l y and i n c l u s t e r s . B i o t i t e , quar tz , a p a t i t e , o r t h o c l a s e and c a l -e i t e occur as subhedra l c r y s t a l s l e s s than .2 m i l l i m e t e r s i n d iameter . The m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s are i n t e r s t i t i a l and are i r r e g u l a r l y s c a t t e r e d throughout the s l i d e . The p r e - q u a r t z - d i o r i t e dykes have been a l t e r e d by the development o f g r o s s u l a r i t e . A s e c t i o n ac ro s s an a l t e r e d zone shows tha t hornblende and b i o t i t e have been 20 a l t e r e d to c h l o r i t e . There i s a v e i n o f g r o s s u l a r i t e about 4 m i l l i m e t e r s wide and adjacent to i t there i s a no tab le i nc rea se i n c a l e i t e and magnetitew F l a k e s o f molybdeni te appear i n the v e i n w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e . In the c h l o r l t i z e d a reas are two s m a l l v e i n s o f a x i n i t e . . Dykes o f s i m i l a r compos i t ion were found i n the Copper QueenfG) and Marble Bay mines-. A c c o r d i n g to the i n v e s t i g a t o r s , these andes i t e dykes had no c o n t r o l over the d e p o s i t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i n the L i t t l e B i l l y mine these dykes appear to have no c o n t r o l over the d e p o s i t i o n o f the o r e . 20 Chapter IV. V KIIDS OF ORE. The i n t r u s i o n o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t o the l i m e -stone has formed areas o f akarn up to 100 fee t i n w i d t h , which c o n t a i n the ore bodies o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine. These ore "bodies can be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : 1. A born i t e -magne t i t e ore i n a ska ra gangue, which occurs as a l e n t i c u l a r body about f i f t e e n fee t i n w id th and rough ly p a r a l l e l to the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t r u s i v e a t the east end o f the 180 l e v e l . Mine assays o f t h i s ore are as f o l l o w s : Copper ± 1.5 percent Go ld i 0.05 oz /Ton S i l v e r ± 1.5 oz /Ton 2 . A d issemina ted b o r n i t e - c h a l c o p y r i t e ore i n a f i b r o u s w o l l a s t o n i t e gangue, the "P rosse r ore body" and the ore i n the o l d stopes on the west end o f the 180 l e v e l a re o f t h i s type, a s s a y i n g as f o l l o w s : Copper * 2 percent Gold • ± 0 .2 oz/Ton S i l v e r ± 0.6 oz/Ton Hand specimens show b o r n i t e and c h a l e o p y r i t e i n l o n g narrow bands one o r two m i l l i m e t e r s i n w i d t h i n the w o l l a s t o n i t e . 21 THE "PROSSER ORE BODY". The "Prosse r ore body was l o c a t e d by a v e r t i c a l diamond d r i l l hole d r i l l e d from the surface some three hundred fee t south and west o f the c o l l a r o f the s h a f t . Th i s h o l e was known as the P r o s s e r h o l e and showed 60 fee t o f ore 273 fee t below the s u r f a c e . Average va lues f o r t h i s core a r e : S i l v e r .2 oz /Ton Go ld : — .6 oz /Ton Copper 2 percent h F u r t h e r i n fo rma t ion was ob ta ined by diamond d r i l l i n g from the east end o f 280 l e v e l . The copper, g o l d and s i l v e r v a l u e s were s l i g h t l y lower than the above a s says . Two t h i n s e c t i o n s from the P r o s s e r ho l e show tha t the copper m i n e r a l s a re b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e ; the gangue m i n e r a l s are w o l l a s t o n i t e , se rpen t ine and q u a r t a . The t h i n s e c t i o n s have a banded appearance ( f i g . 9 ) . The b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e appear to be i n t e r s t i t i a l and have p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c e d the w o l l a s t o n i t e c r y s t a l s , ( f i g . 8 ) . Thin s e c t i o n s o f ore from margins o f o l d s topes on the 180 l e v e l and from the P r o s s e r or© show tha t the ore bod ies are s i m i l a r . 22 LOCATION OF THE LITTLE BILLY ORE The ore of the L i t t l e B i l l y occurs i n the l imes tone and a t the margins of the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , and i s o f con tac t metamorphic o r i g i n . The bo rn i t e -magne t i t e ore occurs as a l e n t i c u l a r body p a r a l l e l to the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t r u s i v e , and the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e , which comprises the bulk of o r e , occurs i n an embayment i n the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . (See map i n f o l d e r ) . R e l a t e d D e p o s i t s . I n the Marb le Bay mine, the ore bod ies were i n l imes tone and when mined to a depth o f 1700 f e e t , the ore (18) was bottomed a t the contact o f a g r a n o d i o r i t e i n t r u s i o n . (2?) A t the Preseo t and Paxton mines , f o u r mi l e s south o f Vananda, a re copper magnetite depos i t s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n the eas t end of the 180 l e v e l o f the L i t t l e B i l l y . These depos i t s were a l s o formed a t the contac t of the Marble Bay l imestone ana the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . Summary. The copper and i r o n d e p o s i t s of Texada I s l a n d occur a t or near the con tac t o f the d i o r i t i c i n t r u s i o n s o f the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h and the Marble Bay l i m e s t o n e . A c l o s e gene t i c r e l a t i o n i s suggested by the p r o x i m i t y o f each depos i t to a d i o r i t i c i n t r u s i o n . £3 Chapter V . MINERALOGY. Contact Metasomatie M i n e r a l s * In the areas adjacent to the q u a r t z - d l o r i t e i n -t r u s i o n are developed the f o l l o w i n g oontaot metasomatie m i n e r a l s : C a l o i t e . The c a l e i t e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both types o f ore , i s u s u a l l y anhedra l and whi te to grey i n c o l o u r . G r o s s u l a r i t e . G r o s s u l a r i t e occurs as l a r g e masses and i n d i v i d u a l c innamon-coloured ga rne t s . The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y . v a r i e d from 3.64 to 3 .76 . Al though g r o s s u l a r i t e i s asso-c i a t e d w i t h both types o f ore , i t i s much more abundant w i t h the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e than w i t h the b o r n i t e - m a g n e t i t © o r e . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e are dark green a c i c u l a r c r y s t a l s o f e p i d o t e . Some o f these garne ts show double r e -f r a c t i o n . Dlopside. D iops ide i s a common gangue m i n e r a l and occurs as we l l - fo rmed c r y s t a l s w i t h garne ts , be ing contemporary w i t h them. In some t h i n s e c t i o n s the d iops ide forms about 30 percent o f the gangue and shows replacement by c h a l c o p y r i t e 24 and b o r n i t e . W o l l a s t o n i t e . W o l l a s t o n i t e forms about 60 percent o f the gangue o f the P r o s s e r ore body, and occurs as f i n e a c i c u l a r in t e rg rown c r y s t a l s l e s s than three m i l l i m e t e r s i n l e n g t h . Large whi te c r y s t a l s o f w o l l a s t o n i t e . w i t h no b o r n i t e o r c h a l c o p y r i t e replacement, were found on the margins o f o l d s topes . However, i n the Marble Bay mine, three qua r t e r s o f a m i l e west o f L i t t l e B i l l y , b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e replaoe a s i m i l a r type o f coarse w o l l a s t o n i t e . The w o l l a s t o n i t e c r y s t a l s have formed normal to the s i d e s o f the g r o s s u l a r i t e , d iops ide and a n d r a d i t e , sugges t ing t ha t the w o l l a s t o n i t e i s o f a l a t e r p e r i o d o f d e p o s i t i o n . A n d r a d i t e . Andrad i t e occurs as s m a l l green c r y s t a l s f s p . g . 3.85) a t the edges o f o l d s topes . Al though the andra-d i t e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both types o f ore , i t i s more abund-ant w i t h the bo rn i t e -magne t i t e than w i t h the b o r n i t e -w o l l a s t o n i t e . The andrad i t e was developed a t the same time as the g r o s s u l a r i t e . B p l d o t e . Ep ido te formed i n s m a l l bunches o f a o i c u l a r c r y s t -a l s . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e , and rad i t e and whi te c a l e i t e , and formed about the same t i m e . Quar tz . Quartz occurs as s m a l l subhedra l to anhedra l 25 c r y s t a l s i n t e r s t i t i a l w i t h the o ther gangue m i n e r a l s . I n p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s the edges and cen t res o f s e v e r a l quar tz c r y s t a l s have been r e p l a c e d by b o r n i t e o r c h a l c o p y r i t e . There are repeated i n s t ances o f quar tz c r y s t a l s be ing r e p l a c e d by i r r e g u l a r masses o f quar t s , sugges t ing more than one gener-a t i o n o f q u a r t z . Se rpen t ine . Serpent ine ( v a r . a n t i g o r i t e ) appears i n t h i n s e c t i o n s o f the w o l l a s t o n i t e - b o m i t e ore as shor t f i b r o u s f l a k e s , l i g h t green to c o l o r l e s s . The se rpen t ine appears to be one o f the l a t e s t m i n e r a l s to form. A x i n i t e . H ( fe , Mn) C a 2 A l g B ( s i 0 4 ) 4 . - Smal l v e i n s o f a x i n i t e were i d e n t i f i e d i n the t h i n s e c t i o n taken from the a l t e r e d zone o f an andes i t e dyke and from some t h i n s e c t i o n s o f c a l e i t e . The a x i n i t e appears to have formed a t the t ime o f the r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f the l i m e s t o n e . TEE ORB MINERALS. The s tudy o f the minera logy o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine was made from ore specimens c o l l e c t e d by the w r i t e r . P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were made o f ore t y p i c a l o f the "P ros se r Ore Body", magne t i t e -bo rn i t e or© and some ore composed e n t i r e l y o f c h a l c o p y r i t e . P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were a l s o made from 26 Dr .Gunn ing ' s Marble Bay s u i t e o f specimens. In the p r e l i m i n a r y examinat ion o f the s e c t i o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n e r a l s were no ted : p y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , b o r n i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , magnet i te , t e t r a h e d r i t e , molybdeni te , s p h a l e r i t e , ga lena , c h a l c o l i t e , c o v e l l i t e , s i l v e r and g o l d . As w e l l as the forementioned m i n e r a l s , there were d i ssemina ted through-out the c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e s m a l l anhedra l to subhedral masses o f s i l v e r - w h i t e and ga lena-grey co loured m i n e r a l s . These two m i n e r a l s occur red i n masses never l a r g e r than 40 microns i n d iameter . The s i l v e r - w h i t e m i n e r a l was w e h r l i t e ( B i g Teg) and the ga lena-grey m i n e r a l was h e s s i t e (Ag2 T e ) . Method o f Determining T 7eh r l i t e and H e s s i t e . The s i z e o f the m i n e r a l s prevented the w r i t e r from o b t a i n i n g d e f i n i t e e t ch r e a c t i o n s and mic rochemica l t e s t s . Fur thermore , these m i n e r a l s appeared to be i s o t r o p i c under c rossed n l c o l s . A s tudy was the re fo re made o f some twenty s e c t i o n s o f the Marble Bay ore, which i s c h i e f l y massive b o r n i t e o r c h a l c o p y r i t e . The massive b o r n i t e s e c t i o n s con-t a i n e d the same s i l v e r - w h i t e and grey m e t a l l i c l u s t e r e d min -e r a l s i n masses up to 40 microns i n diameter, and the massive c h a l c o p y r i t e con ta ined the same m i n e r a l s i n masses up to 300 microns i n d iameter , ( f i g . 1 7 , 1 8 ) . The h e s s i t e occur red 27 always in te rgrown w i t h w e h r l i t e , w h i l e the w e h r l i t e o f t en occur red a l o n e , ( f i g . 2 1 ) . E t c h r e a c t i o n s on the m i n e r a l s were as f o l l o w s : HNOJJHCL K C H FECLg KO H HGCLg S i l v e r - w h i t e (Wehr l i t e ) + - - . + Galena-grey (Hess i t e ) -v- - + in one +• - — m i n . o r l o n g e r From the foILowing cha r t , the w r i t e r assumed tha t the silver -white m i n e r a l was t e t r a d y m i t e . However, mic rochemica l and s p e c t r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s o f a c l e a n fragment a lways gave a good t e s t f o r s i l v e r . Spec t roscop ic a n a l y s i s showed tha t s i l v e r was always present i n an amount g r e a t e r than one per -cen t . As no e t c h r e a c t i o n s are g i v e n f o r w e h r l i t e i n the l i t e r a t u r e , the w r i t e r assumed the m i n e r a l to he an a rgen-t i f e r o u s v a r i e t y o f t e t r a d y m i t e . Spec t roscop ic a n a l y s i s , e t ch r e a c t i o n s and anomal-ous a n i s o t r o p i s m o f the ga lena-g rey m i n e r a l r e a d i l y suggest-ed tha t the m i n e r a l was h e s s i t e . Two fragments o f the forementioned m i n e r a l s were sent to Mr.Rober t Thompson o f the Department o f Geology a t the u n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto f o r x - r a y a n a l y s i s . He confi rmed the w r i t e r ' s de te rmina t ion o f h e s s i t e and p o i n t e d out t ha t the s i l v e r - w h i t e m i n e r a l was w e h r l i t e . The e t c h r e a c t i o n s f o r w e h r l i t e have been i n c l u d e d on the accompanying c h a r t . Mmar-ct/ fief; Sjs tor? Hard. Co/a vr finiso t-fofsiam HNQ3 HCN h~£Cl2 ftGCC^ /./ I.'' fticAai-c/it-e Te?, ) 2J ? 1 e fit/rfi/c - red simi/or to bornijc Strony - .4- rn S6C* - fiery orortye hloc K Sr-ty yrey Sfo tAj fy 6rot*>n irreet -6*/oc*e S/o V\//r o-rawrj Liyht \ o/ujoy S \ ? S5o<ra.r*€l f/i s r.npis' she?c/ 4y co/oV We-iistfe (C"z 7c ) ? a //yJt-r j/-ey Co/our /it<e- cAa/coc'fe lA/ea* - coSoisr-j J"*i//or /o cfro/coct :/c hrou.*, ^ro ; \ ZS Z B e/ortc It-rect / • ney IrreeC — C"6/c c/. — /Va S fl>rnes - &r.e£0/e*/)€L Ale/on<.te (fVi're ) 1 X ? B joa/e jre//ew -Creamy pinm. •s/rony brouurts bfo^n — rare —yi~i:s >-»ici-o <nerrr for /VS /-e>oc/r'/y zs n B J'/Vc/- - usft'fe; A/arM. • ?om*3h ney bro<~ii • — perf. pr''a/*?Orie C/. \ Jose it e f 7 i 5^) 36 H e me.c(iur*n co/vv s *>fyre^ O/OCAC Jb/OCK t>/"C — Wehr-titc Bij Te^ H a frtedii/m to strorvj • sho<A*s *t*t interyrouji-h o/oc/t hfOCfL — h/ac /< ti/ae Can/o/ns X s> « r-c e ft/- Sfj - f>oo& f; "< ro c/re-for- fly* 7~e //ui-bisfrrvS/t fB,^ r*3) 3C H 3 yo/ena. - ?rey O/OCK — rfjo y ex/ji&,'f fr-icti-ty. / »/i/A'«//OV3 af 60° Ori CJ. re fra dymlf-e fsf, Te s) J 1 z *y H & sS/yer- r*hife> 6/octe h/uc — rrey t>/v<?. J o e? /if>« s Jhovu s y^rafihieL f?>*e*y+ro /Vect/ey.re C ff,r 7%^ ) 35- H a J/'/KC - white. Shot, f- tt/OCK. 6/t>ei — »/ue & brCwn pfo/y c/evts&pc fr-o m in en 7* Ca/urer'f* (At,, /ty /i^ ) 2Sj 33- M c liyht ye/to^ -to creoi*iy uuh'tc j/r-ony y/-*y »&rov*f> - sAa^S /•wtntnj Matte arowf f-o Dry — \ Hrenne.r-rfe ( Nf/tyTe^) 33. O c Creomy - white.. II '> ,i ,i • i 6/oc/< ye//tyy — Sylv onrte (/toffy Te+ ) Z3, 39. AJ c c-reon*y ~tvhi r* r"o f~ey • i i> ir " " /rreei. ye'/ow •ho nej — ) ttessife ffljT*.) ZS Z May show onomofous or>'Sofr*/>'*m 6/o<K. Q/ottc lo~y r *-rfy*n f rrn'n /••red. tip hf r-eS*r*> A/* S oryen-r/r^et ct/freio ^ <r r- <y/-<: /> e-c/. ( 5, re}3.4. 13 X c hrom-xy yrty Arc*"? /orr? i-,h f ftssoc, <~u //fr co/?/> <e> ayes ey f &e,//-ez. petzi-re f/fjft")I Te 2.3, 3Z X A ya/eu a. cf/rire rrr ed- /rtreet f-o ney irreoL . Cf&'< c/. /ess- forr/- /^ w/? pep/em*. Co/or a Uoire {ffy 7e y * X9 I c ptnKish prey Graven sief yrey /o b/ocfc • Ror-e ~iT/c/r usJt-Ai r^eel-^ or*</c/eor? ujl/ri *ferc sr\e)vS rfrony tyn is o fr*tor\s rr> Go/ot fte/ct/tc f 6C»s,**x ) ZS B fey troujn /Try 9 — CC jss a c OL,/'/-'*> tcrra'/lc ,c//-/f4ei <*ayya.j/fe (P6f Au}T<> 5)? 0 8 &/o" -b white. i/yftf- /•» atari* grey /rretS rre<r — — (38) Wote on Wehrlite* 28 Wehrlite ia a memher of the tetradymite group. The mineral was f i r s t found by Wehrle i n the Deutseh-Pilsen, Hungary, in I8j51, and was the only known authentic occurrence. In 1944, Br . H.V. Warren, of the Department of Geology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, noted a second occurrence of wehrlite In the ore of the White Elephant mine, near Vernon, B . C . The wehrlite of the L i t t l e B i l l y and Marble Bay mines of Texada Island is the third authentic occurrence* (38) Wehrlite contains the following : Bismuth 59.47 - 70 02 percent Tellurium 28.52 - 35.47 percent S 0 2.35 percent Ag 0.48 - 2.07 percent Wehrlite i s a medium temperature mineral and is not common (27) in contact metamorphic deposits. Hote. on Hessite. (38) Hessite is associated with other te l lur ides , gold, s i lver and native tellurium. I t has a rather widespread occurrence and is found in L i b e r i a , Roumania, Western Austra l ia , Mexico, the United States and Canada. In B r i t i s h Columbia i t has been found at North Star Mine, near Rossland, the Conwest claims, Taseko Lake and the L i t t l e B i l l y and Marble Bay mines, Texada Island, Hessite contains the following : Ag J?9.4 - 6 2 . 8 percent Te 3 5 . 9 - 3 7o7 percent Hessite, l ike wehrlite, Is a medium temperature mineral and i s not common in contact wet amorphic deposits. Minerals of the Polished Section. The polished sections of the L i t t l e B i l l y ore contain the following z pyri te , molybdenite, magnetite, bornite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, wehrlite, hessite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, galena, tetrahedrite, cove l l i te , gold and s i l v e r . The minrjeals are described in the probable order of their age. Pyri te . (Fe Sg) - Pyrite occurs as cubes up to two centimeters i n r / i d t h in hand specimens taken from the margins of old ore bodies* In polished section of both types of ore, i t .occurs as crystals and irregularly-shaped masses scattered unevenly throughout. Two generations are suggested by cubes of pyrite being replaced by irregular masses of pyrite* In almost every specimen, quartz accompanies and occurs as hexagons or i rregular ly-shaped masses within the pyr i te . Pyrite is the earl iest of the metallic 30 l u s t e r e d m i n e r a l s o f the L i t t l e B i l l y o r e . The d e p o s i t i o n o f p y r l t e ceased before the o ther s u l p h i d e s were d e p o s i t e d . The b o r n l t e and c h a l c o p y r l t e tend to surround and r ep l ace p y r i t e . Molybdeni te (Mo S g ) . l o d e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the molybdeni te c o u l d be deduced from the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s , as the molybdeni te was not i n con tac t w i t h any o f the o the r minera l s* F l a k e s o f molybdeni te were noted i n hand specimens and t h i n s e c t i o n s o f g r o s s u l a r i t e formed In the andes i t e dykes . Molybdeni te appears i n the skarn , q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , and l imes tone o f the upper l e v e l . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f the molyb-deni te w i t h the g r o s s u l a r i t e would suggest t ha t i t i s e a r l i e r than the c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e and about the same ag© as the p y r i t © . Magne t i t e ^ © 3 0 4 ) . In p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s the magneti te appears to be about the same gene ra l age as the b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r l t e . However, the a s s o c i a t i o n o f the magnet i te w i t h the p y r i t e and molybdeni te i n the skarn would suggest t ha t i t i s e a r l i e r than the c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e . Magnet i t e composes about one percent o f the b o r n i t s - w o l l a s t o n i t e o re , and about f o r t y percent o f the bo rn i t e -magne t i t e o r e . B o r n i t e (Gug Fe S 4 ) . B o r n i t e i s the most important copper m i n e r a l o f the L i t t l e B i l l y o r e . In t h i n and p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s the "bornite has r e p l a c e d the gangue m i n e r a l s w o l l a s t o n i t e , d i o p s i d e , e t c . ( F i g . 2 0 ) . In tergrowths between the b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n d i c a t e e s s e n t i a l contempor-a n e i t y ( F i g . 1 5 ) . A l l gangue m i n e r a l s are e a r l i e r than the b o r n i t e , except the se rpent ine and the l a t e c a l e i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e (Cu Fe S g ) . C h a l c o p y r i t e i s the second i n importance o f copper m i n e r a l s i n the ore o f the L i t t l e B i l l y . A l though the c h a l c o p y r i t e appears to be contemporaneous w i t h the b o r n i t e i n most o f the s e c t i o n s , there are a few which show c h a l c o p y r i t e i n l o n g narrow v e i n s i n the b o r n i t e . The c h a l c o p y r i t e appears i n i r r e g u l a r masses r e p l a o i n g the w o l l a s t o n i t e and d i o p s i d e . C h a l c o c i t e ( C u g S ) . C h a l c o c i t e i s not an abundant m i n e r a l i n the o r e . I t i s u s u a l l y i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b o r n i t e and occurs as I r r e g u l a r boundaries and v e i n s r e -p l a c i n g the b o r n i t e . The w r i t e r d i d not see any g raph ic i n t e r g r o w t h or " g r a t i n g " suggested by B a s t i n ^ 4 2 ^ as common to hypogene depos i t s o f b o r n i t e and c h a l c o c i t e . However, c h a l c o c i t e was found i n i nc rea sed q u a n t i t i e s i n the lower l e v e l s o f the Marble Bay mine. The depth below the sea l e v e l and consequent l a c k o f ground water c i r c u l a t i o n , the und imin i shed q u a n t i t y o f c h a l c o c i t e w i t h depth, and the 32 a s s o c i a t i o n o f o h a l o o o i t e w i t h b o r n i t e were c r i t e r i a used by D r . Do Image * 1 8 ^ t o prove c h a l o o e i t e to be hypogene. W e h r l l t e ( B i g T e 2 ) . W e h r l i t e occurs as anhedra l to sub-h e d r a l masses i n the c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e , u s u a l l y l a r g e r than 70 microns i n d iameter . I t i s o f t en a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b lebs o f h e s s i t e , sugges t ing a s imultaneous c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . A few c r y s t a l s o f w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g o l d , were noted i n the g a n g u e . ( f i g . 2 0 , 2 1 ) . W e h r l i t e i s the most abundant o f the s i l v e r m i n e r a l s i n the L i t t l e B i l l y o r e . H e s s i t e (AggTe). In the m a t e r i a l used f o r the p o s i t i v e de t e rmina t ion o f the t e l l u r l d e s , h e s s i t e always appeared i n contac t w i t h w e h r l i t e ( f i g . 1 7 ) . However, one specimen from the 180 l e v e l o f the L i t t l e B i l l y shows h e s s i t e as i r r e g u l a r masses w i t h i n the gangue ( f i g . 2 0 ) about 90 microns i n d i a -meter . S p h a l e r i t e (Zn S ) . A minor amount o f s p h a l e r i t e ( l e s s than one pe rcen t ) occurs i n the p o l i s h e d s e e t i o n s as i r r e g u l a r masses w i t h i n and b o r d e r i n g the c h a l e o p y r i t e . B l e b s o f s p h a l e r i t e , spo t ted w i t h specks o f c h a l c o p y r l t e formed by "ex s o l u t i o n " o f ten occur i n the c h a l c o p y r l t e , sugges t ing t ha t the s p h a l e r i t e i s about the same gene ra l age as the c h a l c o p y r l t e . P y r r h o t i t e ( Pe S ) . P y r r h o t i t e ocours as s m a l l i r r e g u l a r 33 masses about 100 microns o r l e s s w i t h i n the c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e , and appears to be the same g e n e r a l age as the b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Galena (3?b S ) . Galena was not seen i n the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s . However i t was n o t i c e a b l e i n the supar-panner t i p s o f both types o f o r e . T e t r a h e d r l t e 6 ( C u 2 S ) . 2 (Cu F e ) . 2 ( S b 2 S s ) . T e t r a h e d r l t e occurs as s c a t t e r e d i r r e g u l a r b l ebs l e s s than 70 microns i n d iameter . I t appears to be more abundant i n the bo rn i t e -magne t i t e ore than i n the b o r n i t e -w o l l a s t o n i t e . Eo d e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n can be determined f o r t e t r a h e d r i t e . O o v e l l i t e (-Cu-K C o v e l l i t e i s s p a r s e l y s c a t t e r e d th rough-out the b o r n i t e as s m a l l v e i n s o r r o s e t t e s o f s m a l l p l a t e s , a l ong seams o r gangue boundar i e s . C o v e l l i t e , l i k e c h a l c o -c i t e , i n the Marble Bay mine f i®)was found to be more abund-ant i n the lower l e v e l s . Hence the same reason ing can be used to prove tha t c o v e l l i t e i s o f hypogene o r i g i n . Go ld (An), llo d e f i n i t e age can be g i v e n f o r the g o l d . I t was found o n l y i n one s e c t i o n . In t h i s s e c t i o n i t was found In the gangue a l o n e , ( f i g . 2 3 ) w i t h w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e f i S 2 2 i & S i I v o r ( A g ) . S i l v e r occurs as v e i n l e t s ( f ig .13) and b l ebs 34 ( f i g , 1 6 ) i n the c h a l c o p y r l t e and b o r n i t e and appears to b© depos i ted a l i t t l e l a t e r than the su lph ide s ( f i g . 1 3 ) * Summary* D e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n s o f the s u l p h i d e s were not r e a d i l y v i s i b l e i n the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s . The su lph ide s appear to be o f the same g e n e r a l age w i t h the p y r i t e be ing a l i t t l e e a r l i e r . S i l v e r was the o n ly m i n e r a l tha t v e i n e d the b o r n i t e . S o l d was found i n a s m a l l i r r e g u l a r mass i n a g a n g u e - f i l l e d f r a c t u r e i n some p y r i t e , sugges t ing tha t i t was p robab ly o f a l a t e r p e r i o d o f d e p o s i t i o n . The g o l d o f the L i t t l e B i l l y occurs as n a t i v e g o l d < and the s i l v e r occurs as n a t i v e s i l v e r and s i l v e r t e l l u r l d e s . 36 Chapter V I . PAHAGBMSIS. The paragenes is o f the s i l i c a t e and the su lph ide m i n e r a l s w i l l be d i s cus sed under the f o l l o w i n g headings: the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e o re , the b o m i t e - m a g n e t i t e o re , source o f s o l u t i o n s , and the mode o f t r a n s f e r . The B o r a i t e - W o l l a s t o n i t e O r e . The l a r g e s t ore body i s composed o f b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r l t e r e p l a c i n g f i b r o u s w o l l a s t o n i t e ( f i g . 7 ) . The format ion o f t h i s ore suggests the f o l l o w i n g sequence o f events : 1. The format ion o f the skarn m i n e r a l s a t the con tac t o f the q u a r t s - d i o r i t e and the l i m e s t o n e . The skarn be ing composed o f d i o p s i d e , ep idote and quar tz depos i t ed f i r s t , g r o s s u l a r i t e , andrad i t e and whi te c a l c i t e developed l a t e r , and f i n a l d e p o s i t i o n o f p y r i t e , magneti te and molybden i t e . 2 . The p a r t i a l replacement o f the ep ido te , d i o p s i d e and g r o s s u l a r i t e by w o l l a s t o n i t e . A s m a l l amount o f c a l e i t e and quar tz was depos i t ed w i t h the w o l l a s t o n i t e . 3 . A gene ra l replacement o f the w o l l a s t o n i t e , d i o p s i d e and garnet by the b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r l t e and the t e l l u r l d e s . 36 A emai l amount o f quar tz appears to have been depos i t ed w i t h the su lph ide m i n e r a l s * 3 ^ . The g o l d and s i l v e r appear to be depos i t ed a l i t t l e l a t e r than the s u l p h i d e s . 4 . A g e n e r a l f r a c t u r i n g and c r u s h i n g o f the s i l i c a t e and su lph ide m i n e r a l s . In the openings caused by the movement, there was depos i t ed q u a r t z , c a l c i t e and s e r p e n t i n e . The S o m i t e - M a g n e t i t e Ore . The occurrence o f t h i s s m a l l l e n s e - l i k e depos i t o f bo ra i t e -magne t i t e i s ve ry s i m i l a r to those on the west coas t o f the Paxton, Lake, and P r e s c o t t mines. The same c o n d i t i o n s and format ions are present i n the L i t t l e B i l l y as i n these mines: tha t i s , the p r o x i m i t y o f the b o m i t e - m a g n e t i t © to the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e I n t r u s i o n , the l a t e a l a s k i t e dykes, and the replacement o f the skarn rocks by magneti te w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Dr .Swanson* 3 2 ^ concluded tha t the magneti te depos i t s o f the west coast"were formed by magmatic s o l u t i o n s i n which the m a t e r i a l s were concent ra ted by the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f the i n t r u s i v e . . . . . . (x) In the contac t metamorphic depos i t s o f the Dolores p ine i n Mexico , Fenner (41) found tha t quar tz was one o f the most important m i n e r a l s w i t h regard to ore d e p o s i t i o n . The r e -peated i n s t ances o f i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n o f the quar tz w i t h the s u l p h i d e s suggested a c l o s e g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n . 37 The r e l ea se o f s o l u t i o n s from the i n t r u s i v e was e f f e c t e d by f r a c t u r i n g caused by c o o l i n g o f the mass, and, as a con-sequence, the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the d e p o s i t s i s ma in ly con-t r o l l e d by s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s a t the t ime o f replacement which favored the movements o f s o l u t i o n s a l o n g the g e n e r a l con tac t zone" . Source o f S o l u t i o n s . The o re - fo rming s o l u t i o n s p robab ly o r i g i n a t e d as the end products o f the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g d i o r i t i c magma. The f o l l o w i n g evidence supports t h i s s tatement: 1. The occurrence o f the ore body i n an embayment i n the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . (See p l a n o f 280 l e v e l i n f o l d e r ) . 2 . The presence o f d i ssemina ted masses o f p y r i t e , molybdeni te and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . 3 . The f a c t t ha t the ore bod ies o f the Marb le Bay mine when f o l l o w e d down through the l imes tone , l e a d d i r e c t l y to a s tock o f g r a n o d i o r i t e , which i s i t s e l f c o n s i d e r a b l y m i n e r a l -i z e d ' ^ ) . 4 . The occurrence o f contac t metamorphic d e p o s i t s on Vancouver I s l a n d ' 1 3 ) , depos i t s which are formed a t the contac t o f the coast range i n t r u s i v e and the l imes tone o f the Vancouver Group. MODE OF TRAHSFER. 38 The a l t e r a t i o n o f the Merble Bay l imes tone , a t the contac t o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e by the development o f the contac t metasomatic m i n e r a l s d i s cus sed i n Chapter V, has i n v o l v e d the t r a n s f e r o f carbon d i o x i d e , and the a d d i t i o n o f i r o n , aluminium and s i l i c a . M i n e r a l i z e r s o r v o l a t i l e s which a i d i n t h i s t r a n s f e r have been suggested by L i n d g r e n ' 2 7 to be su lphur , c h l o r i n e , boron, f l u o r i n e and a r s e n i c . In the contac t metamorphic depos i t s a t H e d l e y , B . C . , Dolmage and B r o w n ' 2 0 ) f o u n d s o a p o l i t e developed i n l a r g e quan-t i t i e s a t the marble l i n e - the edge o f the a l t e r e d zone . From t h i s they concluded tha t the c h l o r i n e o f the s o a p o l i t e was one o f the v o l a t i l e s . The s e a p o l i t e formed a t the marble l i n e when the a v a i l a b l e s i l i c a had been used i n the fo rma t ion o f the s k a r n . Wi th the above i dea i n mind, the w r i t e r made a c l o s e examinat ion o f the t h i n s e c t i o n s o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore f o r m i n e r a l s c o n t a i n i n g c h l o r i n e , f l u o r i n e o r boron, e . g . s e a p o l i t e , chond r i t e , o r a x i n i t e , and o n l y two s m a l l v e i n s and a few s c a t t e r e d c r y s t a l s o f a x i n i t e were found. However, s p e c t r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s o f 19 samples o f c a l c i t e from the skarn and adjacent areas showed tha t the c a l c i t e con ta ined v a r y i n g amounts o f boron, a l l l e s s than one pe rcen t . The l a r g e s t concen t r a t ions o f boron were found i n the c a l c i t e 39 from areas c l o s e to the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t r u s i v e . C a l c i t e o r marble from the adjacent areas , con ta ined o n l y t r a c e s o f b o r o n . (See map i n f o l d e r ) . Hence i t appears t ha t one o f the v o l a t i l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the con tac t metasomatism o f the L i t t l e B i l l y mine was boron . COHCLPSIOH. The sequence o f events tha t l e d to the fo rmat ion o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore bod ies can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. The g e n t l e f o l d i n g o f the area i n a n o r t h - w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . 2 . The i n t r u s i o n o f the q u a r t z - d i o r i t e i n t o Marble Bay l i m e s t o n e . 3 . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the d i o r i t i c magma to a s i l i c e o u s magma and the consequent fo rmat ion o f a l a s k i t e dykes . 4 . The e x p u l s i o n o f the v o l a t i l e s (contac t metasomatism) and the s o l u t i o n s o f I r o n , a luminium, s i l i c a and boron, w i t h the fo rmat ion o f the skarn m i n e r a l s . 5 . The replacement o f the skarn m i n e r a l s by b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and the g o l d and s i l v e r m i n e r a l s . 6 . The f i n a l f r a c t u r i n g and c rush ing , and the f i l l i n g o f these f r a c t u r e s by quar tz and c a l c i t e . 40 Chapter V I I . EXAM ISAT1011 OF THE LITTLE BILLY ORE BY HAULTAIH SPPBR-PABHSR. The ob jec t o f t h i s examinat ion i s to determine which p a r t i c l e s i z e w i l l g i v e the best g r a v i t y separa t ion* The H a u l t a i n super-panner was used f o r t h i s g r av -i t y s e p a r a t i o n and was chosen i n preference to a W i l f e y t a b l e , the a l t e r n a t i v e machine* because the feed can be worked u n t i l a good s e p a r a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d . The super-panner separates the feed i n t o three p roduc t s ; a t i p , a m i d d l i n g s product and a s l i m e , and i s des igned to handle low-grade ores o r m i l l t a i l i n g s . The L i t t l e B i l l y ore i s a h i g h e r grade than n o r m a l l y used on a super-panner; con-sequent ly l a r g e amounts o f copper, g o l d and s i l v e r were h e l d i n the m i d d l i n g s p roduc t . Examinat ion o f the t a b l e o f r e s u l t s w i l l show a s e r i e s o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the amount o f g o l d o r s i l v e r i n the feed and the sum o f the va lue s i n the t i p , m i d d l i n g s product and s l ime i n each group . The presence o f f r ee g o l d and s i l v e r , combined w i t h the smal lness o f the assay samples, has caused t h i s e r r a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v a l u e s . 41 Two l a r g e samples were p i c k e d ; one sample o f b o r n i t e -w o l l a s t o n i t e ore from the west end; the o the r sample a born i te -magnet i te ore from the east end o f the 180 l e v e l . These were crushed and screened. Four s i z e groups were ob ta ined as f o l l o w s : - 100 + 150 mesh v 150 + 200 mesh - 200 + 326 mesh - 325 mesh A f t e r we igh ing , these products were separa ted on the super-panner . Bach s i z e o f the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore gave t h ree p roduc t s ; a b o r n i t e t i p , a m i d d l i n g s product and a t a i l i n g s o r s l i m e . The same procedure was used f o r the bo rn i t e -magne t i t e ore , and a f o u r t h product * magnet i te -was separa ted from the ore by moving a magnet i n a beaker over the super-panner . The products were d r i e d , weighed, examined under the u l t r a - p a k and assayed . Ore used f o r these t e s t s was o r i g i n a l l y p i c k e d f o r the making o f p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s and consequent ly g o l d , s i l v e r and copper va lues are h i g h e r than the mine ore would average, aB shown i n the f o l l o w i n g Sample A u , A g . Cu. oar/Ton oz /Ton percen t B o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore : mine 0 .3 0 .9 2% average Super-panner 0 .7 1.9 9.16$ 42 Sample A u . oz /Ton Born i t e -magne t i t e o r e : Mine ore 0.04 Super-panner 0.07 0.08 A g . oz /Ton 1.4 4 .72 2.52 Cu. percent 2% 5.2% 5.J Examinat ion o f the 'borni te t i p s under the " u l t r a -pak" i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g approximate percentages by area o f c o n s t i t u e n t s : The b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore ( t i p s ) 96$ B o r n i t e 2% C h a l c o p y r l t e 1$ P y r i t e C h a l c o c i t e C o v e l l l t e Galena S p h a l e r i t e Magnet i t e G o l d S i l v e r W e h r l i t e H e s s i t e The bo rn i t e -magne t i t e ore ( t i p s - m a g n e t i t e removed) B o r n i t e C h a l c o p y r i t e P y r i t e Galena S p h a l e r i t e T e t r a h e d r i t e B a r i t s ? Go ld S i l v e r T e l l u r l d e s The ga lena and t e l l u r l d e s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by fo rmat ion o f 43 a t e l l u r i u m p o o l upon h e a t i n g the t i p s on a pyrex s l i d e , ( f i g . 1 7 ) . In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s and cor responding graphs, which were computed from the r e s u l t s o f ore s e p a r a t i o n on the super-panner, the b o r n i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore has been c a l l e d the d isseminated b o r n i t e o r e . TABLE 1. GOLD IK DISSEMINATED BORNITE ORE Distribution in -100 feed. Corrected In Each In Total Product ; Weight in Grams Oz/Ton. Total (Mg) Size m.% A u . i -100 Feed itt.% Au. t -100 * 150 124.3• 0.7 2.98 18.8 38.7 Bornite Tip 11.8 3.04 1.230 9.5 66.5 1>8 20.6 Middling 109.4 ' 0.16 0.600 87.9 32.4 7.2 Slime 3.1 0.20 0.021 2.G 1.1 0.5 0.4 . - 1.851 100.0 100.0 28.2 1^50 4 200 86,7 0.56 1,675 13.2 19,1 Bornite Tip 88.3 3.2 0.910 9.6 68.3 1.3 15.3 Middling 70.7 0.14 0,339 81,5 25.4 10.7 5.7 Slime 7.7 0.30 0.084 8.9 6.3 1.2 .1.4. 1,333 100,0 100.0 - 200 4 325 125.3 0.24 1.030 18.8 11.7 Bornite Tip 2.1 6.6 0.450 1.8 46,8 0.3 7.6 Middling ' 85.2 0.14 0.408 67,8 42.4 12.8 6.8 Slime 38,0 0.08. 0.104 30.4 10,8 5,7 1.8 0.962 100.0 100,0 16.2 - 325 326.8 0.24 2.680 49.2 Bornite Tip 6.0 3.20 0,655 1.9 33.2 0.9 11.0 Middling 110.8 0.12 0.455 33.8 23.1 16.7 7.7 Slime 210,0 0.12 0.863 64,3 43.7 31.6 14.5 1.973 100.0 100.0 33*2 Total 663.1 6.119 100.0 100.0 SO Graph Show/nc} D/'s fr/bu f/on of Go/d in Di ssemiaafed TABLE 2. SILVER IH DISSEMINATED BORBITS ORB Distribution in -100 feed. Corrected In laeh Total Product Weight in Grams, Oz/Ton Total Si se Mg. % m.Ag.i -100 Feed % Wt. Ag. %. -100 4. 150 124.3 2.32 9.950 18.8 19.5 Bornite Tip 11.8 25.00 10.100 9.6 59.0 1.8 13.7 Middling 109.4 1.84 6.900 87.9 40,3 16,5 9.3 Slime 3.1 1,00 0.106 2.5 0.7 0.5 0.1 17.106 100.0 100.0 23.1 -150 « 200 86.7 2.52 7.500 13.2 14.7 Bornite Tip 8.3 37.80 10.750 9.6 63.0 1,3 14.5 Middling 70.7 1.86 4.500 81.5 26.4 10.7 6.1 Slime 7.7 6.88 1.810 8.9 10.6 1.2 2.5 17.060100.0 100.0 23.1 -200 i 325 125.3 2.16 9.270 18.8 18.2 Bornite Tip 2,1 25.40 1.745 1.8 17.1 0.3 2.4 Middling 85.2 2.26 6,600 67.8 64.6 12.8 8.4 Slime 38.0 1.44 1,870 30.4 18.3 5.7 2.5 10.215 100*0 100.0 13.3 -325 326.8 2.16 24,20 49.2 47.5 Bornite Tip 6.0 26.80 5.500 1.8 18.4 0.9 7.5 Middling 110,0 2,88 10,901 33,8 36.4 16.7 14,8 Slime 210,0 1,88 13.500 64.4 29.901 100.© 45.2 100.0 31.6 18.2 40.5 Totals 663.1 73.382 100.0 100.0 TABUS .3. COMPARISON OF GOLD AND SILVER IK SIZED PRODUCTS TO TOTAL -100 FEED 1 DISSEMINATED BORHITE ORE Distribution in -100 Oz/Ton Total (Mg. ) Product Au. Ag. Au. Ag. t wt. % Au. % Ag. Sample 0.40 2.60 9.05 58.00 100 100 100 -100 * 150 0.80 2.32 3.40 9.95 18.8 38.7 19.5 -150 4 200 0.52 2.52 1.68 7.50 13.2 19.0 14.8 -200 « 325 0,24 2.16 1.03 9.27 18.8 11.7 18.2 - 325 0.24 2.16 2.68 24.20 49.2 30.6 47.5 8.79 50.92 100.0 100.0 100.0 2 MAGNETITE-BORNITE ORB (following 2 Pages.) Distribution, in -100 Oz/T©tt Total (Mg,) Product Au, Ag. Au. Ag. % m. % Au. i Ag. Sample 0.08 3.9 3.3 160.5 100 100 100 -100 *150 0.10 4.16 1.79 74.90 43.9 50.2 41.2 150 4 200 0.08 4.56 0.76 43.71 23.1 21,3 24.2 -200 4 325 0.06 4.64 0.61 35.79 18.6 17.1 19.8 -325 0,07 4.46 0.41 26.80 14.4 11.4 14.8 3.57 181.20 100.0 100.0 100.0 p TABLE 4*•• -i\ •——!—•" GOLD IB BORNITE-MAGNETITE! ORB Distribution of -100 Oorrecjted In Each Total Weight\in Total Size -100 Pead Product Grams, Qz/Ton Mg. % Wt. Au. %, %Wt, Au.% -100 * 150 524.3 0.10 1.790 43.9 50.2 Bornite Tip 8,0 2.10 0^ 575 1.6 40.4 ro.6 15,3 Middling (HP) 280.7 0.04 0.386 53.4 27.1 23.8 10i3 Magnetite 202.0 0.06 0.415 38.6 29.2 16.7 11.1 Slime 33.6 0.04 0.046 6.4 3.3. 2.8 1.2 1.422 100.0 100.0 43.9 37.9 -150 4 200 280.3 0.08 0.766 23.1 21.3 Bornite Tip 9.1 2.6 0.800 3.2 61.4 0.8 21,3 Middling 188.8 0.06 0.389 67.3 29.8 15.6 10.4 Magnetite 51.2 0,04 0.070 18,1 5.5 4.2 1.9 Slime 31.2 0.04 0,043 11.4 3.3 2.5 1.1 1*302 100; 0 100,0 23.1 34.7 -200 4 325 225; 8 0.08 0,617 18;6 17.1 Bornite Tip 1*5 3.4 0,175 0.6 29,3 0;1 4.7 Middling 75.3 0.08 0,201 u 33*4 33.6 6,2 5,4 Magnetite 52.4 0.05 .0.089 23.2 14.9 4,3 2.4 Slime 96;6 0.04 0.132 4 2 » 8 22,2 8.0 3.5, 0,597 100.0 100,0 18.6 16.0 -325 175.4 0.07 0.415 14.4 11.5 Bornite Tip 1.2 3.0 0.123 0.8 28,7 0,1 3.3 Middling 58,4 0.06 0.120 33.2 28.0 4,8 3.2 Magnetite 38.5 0.06 0.079 21.9 18.5 3.1 2.1 Slim© 77.3 0.04 0.106 44.1 24,8 6,4 2.8 6,428 lt553 loCo" 1474* T O TOTAL 1205.2 3; 750 100 100 £r0/3/7 Sn-owir/cj Distribution of~ Gold in A/iagnetife Ore °/o flu Co/cffated o n S / z e o f p r o d u c e s % A o C o / c t , / o - / e d o n f o t - o / ~ / O O - f e e d 60 1—h so VoWtfor s/zes in - too feed 40 Borniie Tip To+a/ fiu in -too /?eaa£ AT- P. 20 j&orni-fc Tip fiKiffiefite t \* xx ISO -1601 /J"o t i t -I TO I-ZOO 70 ">csh Groin s5/ze in Microns J o sxJr vmiE 5, SIMER IH BQRKITE-MAGNETITE QBE Distribution in - lOOFeed In Bach Total Product Weight in Grams Oz/Ton Total (Mg.) Size. % Wt. % Ag. -100 Feed % Wt. Ag. 8100 4 150 524.3 4.16 74,90 43.9 41.3 Bornite Tip 8.0 16.90 4.63 1.6 7.4 0,6 3.1 Middling 280.7 3.96 38.20 53.4 61.2 23. 8 25.7 Magnetite 202.0 2.14 14.80 38.6 23.7 16.7 10.0 Slime 33.6 4.16 4.78 6.4 7.7 2.8 3.2 62.41 100,0 100.0 43.9 42,0 -150 i 200 280.3 4.56 43,70 23.1 24.2 Bornite Tip 9.1 25.84 7.95 3.2 25,2 0,8 5.4 Middling 188,8 2.54 16,40 67.3 52.0 15.1 11.2 Magnetite 51.2 1.46 2.55 18.1 8,1 4.2 1.7 Slime 31.2 4.36 4.66 11.4 14.7 2.5 3.2 31.56 100,0 100,0 23.1 21.5 -200* 325 225.8 4.64 35.80 18,6 19.8 Bornite Tip 1*5 27.60 1.42 0.6 5,2 0,1 1,0 Middling 75,3 4,40 11.01 33.4 39,3 6.2 7.5 Magnetite 52,4 1,39 2,49 23.2 8.9 4.3 1.8 Slime 96,6 3.96 13.10 42.8 46.6 3.0 8.9 28.02 100.0 100.0 18,6 19.2 -325 176.4 4.46 26.8 14,4 14.8 Bornite Tip 1.2 47.00 1.93 0.8 7.8 0.1 1.4 Middling 58.4 3.82 7,62 33.2 30.1 4.8 5.1 Magnetite 38.5 1.94 2,56 21.9 10.1 3.1 1;8 Slime 77.3 4.96 13.10 44.1 52.0 6,4 8.9 25.21 100.0 100.0 14.4 17.3 Totals 1205.8 149.2 100 1000 TABLE 6. COPPIR IN DISSEMINATED-BORNITE ORE (TIPS OHLY) Sample gCu. Wt.of Tip Gms Cu, in Tip f Cu.Feed Gms, in Feed 6ms.Cu, Feed i cu. Oonc.i! Tip. Total -100 Samplo 3.5 663.1 23.9 -100 « 150 50.86 11.8 6.00 4.08 124.3 5,08 1181, -150 • 200 45.16 8.3 3.74 4.05 86,7; 3.51 106£ -200 i 325 47.80 2.1 1.10 3.06 125.3 3.84 ZB% -325 41.44 6.0 2,48 2.95 326,8 9,65 22. 08 25g COPPER IHMAGHETITE-BORNITE ORE (TIPS ONLY. ) £Cu, Recovered Gms Cu, Gms* Gms,Gu*for Each Sample % Gu. Wi.of Tip i n Tip % Cu.Feed in Feed i n Foed Size. Sample 6,7 1205,2 74.2 -100 * 150 38,08 8.0 3.05 5.96 524,3 31.2 0.7 -150 4 200 42.86 9.1 3.89 6.65 280,3 18.9 20.6 -200 4 325 38.12 1.5 0.57 6.80 225.8 15.3 3.7 -325 41.88 1.2 0.50 8.01 7.50 175.4 13.2 78.6 2-5 50 OBSERVATIONS Off THE SUPER-PAHflER RESULTS. 1. The best s epa ra t i on or f r e e i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by the h ighes t r a t i o by percent o f g o l d o r s i l v e r to the t o t a l we igh t , by pereent o f the m a t e r i a l , o r on the graph by the maximum d i f f e r e n c e o f o r d i n a t e . 2 ( a ) . In the d i ssemina ted b o r n i t e o r the b o r n i t e - w e l l f t s t o n -i t e o re , the best s epa ra t ion o f the g o l d was a t 110 m i c r o n s . The maximum amount o f g o l d was i n the - 150 + 200 mesh. The g o l d s t i l l con ta ined minor amounts o f gangue a t 100 mic rons , ( f i g . 1 6 ) . ( b ) . The bes t s epa ra t i on o f s i l v e r was a t 90 m i c r o n s . The g r ea t e s t percentage o f s i l v e r was i n the - 150 + 200 mesh p roduc t . 3 ( a ) . In the magne t i t e -bo rn i t e ore the best s e p a r a t i o n o f g o l d was a t 90 m i c r o n s . Th i s i s shown c l e a r l y by the sudden r i s e o f the graph o f the percentage o f g o l d ( i n each s i z e d p r o d u c t ) . ( b ) . The best s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was a t 22 m i c r o n s . However a good s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was ob ta ined a t 90 m i c r o n s . 4 . The s l ime or t a i l i n g i n the + 150 mesh I s due to dry s c r e e n i n g . Some o f the " f i n e s " have coated the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s and have been separated by the washing wa te r . 5 . The copper assays o f the b o r n i t e t i p ( t ab l e 6) 51 show that the best concentration o f eopoer, in the bornite-wollastonite ore was in the - 100 •+ 150 mesh, or at an average grain s ize , at about ?0 microns. This re s o l t wo aid be in agreement with the average size of the bornite masses seen in F i g , 8. 6, For the boraite-niagnetite ore, the best concentration was in the - 150 *• 200 mesh. However this recovery was only 20,6%. A large percentage of bornite was noted in middlings product. 7, The graph of the s i lver in the bornite-wollastonite ore rises suddenly for the - 325 mesh size. This is due to the presence of b r i t t l e s i lver tel luri&es - wehrlite and hessite - The graph of the s i lver fa l l s rapidly i n the - 325 mesh size of the bornite-magnetite ore, because the s i lver occurs chiefly as native s i lver rather than as a s i l v e r te l lur ide . 8, The si lver-gold rat io was not included in the tables as the results were errat ic owing to the presence of free gold and silver.. 52 OOKCLUSIOf. The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s have been reached: 1. The g o l d o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore occurs c h i e f l y as n a t i v e g o l d , the s i l v e r occurs as the s i l v e r t e l l u r l d e s , h e s s i t e and w h e r l l t e , and as n a t i v e s i l v e r . £ . One o f the v o l a t i l e s o r m i n e r a l i z e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the con tac t metasomatism o f the L i t t l e B i l l y ore was boron . 3 ( a ) . In the b o m i t e - w o l l a s t o n i t e ore , the best separ-a t i o n o f g o l d was a t 110 microns o r the - 150+200 mesh s i z e . The best s epa ra t i on o f s i l v e r Has a t 90 m i c r o n s . The best c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f copper was i n the - 100+150 mesh s i z e . (b) I n the bo rn i t e -magne t i t e ore , the bes t s e p a r a t i o n o f g o l d was a t 90 microns , w h i l e the best s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was a t 22 mic rons . However, a good s e p a r a t i o n o f s i l v e r was a l s o ob t a ined a t 90 m i c r o n s . Hence the best s e p a r a t i o n o f g o l d and s i l v e r was i n the - 100 1 1 5 0 mesh s i z e . The best s epa ra t i on o f copper was I n the - 150 1-200 mesh s i z e . APPEHDIX A PHOTOMICROGRAPHS • f jgggg 7 T y p i c a l ore from the L i t t l e B i l l y mine, showing d isseminated b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n a ga rae t -w o l l a 8 t o n i t e gangue. I I FIGURE 8 B o r n i t e r e p l a c i n g w o l l a s t o n i t e . Th in s e c t i o n from the P r o s s e r ore hody, 468 fee t from the s u r f a c e . X 67 FTGUKE 9 B o r n i t e r e p l a o i n g w o l l a s t o n i t e , showing the banded appearance of the o r e . Th in s e c t i o n o f the P ros se r ore body 443 f ee t from the s u r f a c e . X 37 FIGURE 12 Gold w i t h quar ts I n b o r n i t e t i p from - 150 + 200 mesh o f b o r n i t e - w o l l a B t o n i t e o r e . X 100 FIGURE 13 S i l v e r (Ag) and w e h r l i t e (w) i n B o r n i t e . X 1500 60 FIGURE 14 " T e l l u r i u m P o o l " from h e s s i t e heated on pyrex s l i d e -100 150 mesh t i p . 1 100 FIGURE 15 W e h r l i t e and b o r n i t e i n C h a l e o p y r i t e . X 370 FIGURE 16. S i l v e r r e p l a c i n g b o r n i t e nnd c h a l c o p y r i t e . I 250 FIGURE 17 W e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e i n c h a l c o p y r i t e Marble Bay M i n e . ( m a t e r i a l used f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e ) . X 1EO FIGURE 18 W e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e i n c h a l c o p y r i t e Marble Bay M i n e . { m a t e r i a l used f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e ) . X 120 FIGURE 19 S i l v e r i n w e h r l i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . X 350 FIGURE 20 Gold , w e h r l i t e , h e s s i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n quar tz X 166 • 67 FIGURE 21 . Gold , w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e i n c h a l c o p y r i t e and q u a r t z . X 405 FIGURE Eg Go ld , w e h r l i t e and h e s s i t e In q u a r t z . X 810 FIGURE 2g Gold i n a quar tz v e i n c u t t i n g p y r i t e . X 470 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 1. Banc ro f t , J . A . "Geology o f the Coast I s l a n d s " , e t c . C . G . S . Mem. 23, 1913. 2 . B l a k e , W.P. "Copper Ore and Garnet A s s o c i a t i o n " Am. Ins t . Mg. E n g r s . T rans . V o l . 34 pp 880 - 890 - 1904. , 3 . Brewer, W.EL "The Copper Depos i t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d " Can. Mg. Rev, V o l . X V I I I p 270, 1899. 4 . " "The West Coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d " E n g . & Mg. J o u r . V o l . L X V I I p 176, 1899. 5 . " " M i n i n g oh Vancouver and Texada I s l a n d s " E n g . & Mg. J o u r . V o l . L X V I I p 529, 1899. 6 . " "Vananda, Texada I s l a n d s " E n g . & Mg. J o u r . V o l . L X I X p 250, 1900. 7 . " " I r o n Ore Depos i t s o f Vancouver and Texada I s l a n d s " E n g . & Mg. J o u r . V o l , LXX p 34, 1900. 8. " "Copper Depos i t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d " Am. I n s t . Mg. Trans . V o l . XXIX p 983, 1900. 9 . " "Texaaa I s l a n d , B . C . " Eng . & Mg. J o u r . V o l . 72 p 665, 1901. 1 0 . " " B o r n i t e Areas o f B . C . and Yukon T e r r i t o r y " Can. Mg. Review V o l . 2 4 pp 76, 1905. 1 1 . " "The O r i g i n o f B o r n i t e Ores o f Texada I s . " J o u r . Can. Mg. I n s t . V o l . V I I , 1905. 12 . " "Copper, S i l v e r Depos i t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and Adjacent I s l a n d s " B. C. Ann . Rep. o f M i n . Mines 1916 - p 304. 1 3 . Clapp, C . E . "Southern Vancouver I s l a n d " C. G . S . Mem. 13 - 1912. 72 14 . Clapp, C . H . "Geology o f the V i c t o r i a and Saanleh Areas , Vancouver I s l a n d , B . C . " . C . G . S . Mem. 36 - 1913. o 1 5 . " Deformation o f the Coast Region o f B r i t i s h ColumMa A b s . Geo1.Soc. Am. B u l l . V o l . X X V I p 406, 1915, 16 . Dawson, G . M . " On the S u p e r f i c i a l Geology o f B r i t i s h Columbia" Quart . J o u r . G e o l . S o c . V o l . 34, 1878. 17 . " Geology and Examinat ions o f the n o r t h e r n P a r t o f Vancouver I s l a n d and Adjacent Coasts . : Geology and N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Survey o f Canada, 1887. 18 . DoImage, V . "The Marble Bay Mine" E . C . G e o l . V o l . 16 p 372, 1921. 19. " Copper Mountain Ores C . I . M . M . B u l l . V o l . 22 p 788, 1922. 20 . Dolmage & Brown "Contact Metamorphism a t N i c k e l P l a t e " C . I . M . M . B u l l , p 31, 1945. 2 1 . E a k l e , A . S i " M i n e r a l s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h C r y s t a l l i n e Limestone a t Crestmore, R i v e r s i d e County, C a l . " U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l . P u b . V o l . 1 0 , H o . 1 9 , pp 327, 1917. 22 . Gra ton , L . C . & Murdoch, J . "The Sulphide Ores o f Copper" A m . I n s t . M g . Eng .Trans . V o l . 4 5 pp 37 -1913 . 2 3 . Hardman "The Gold F i e l d s o f Canada" Can.Mg.Rev. V o l . X V I I p 156-163 - 1898. 24 . H a u l t a i n , H . E . & Johns ton ,W.E. "Some M i l l P roduc t s Under the Mic roscope" T r a n s . C . I . M . M . V o l . 3 6 p 221, 1933. 73 25 . Le H o i , O .K . " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on a P o r t i o n o f the Main Coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A d -jacent I s l ands? Dept . o f Mines Rept . 996 - 1908. 26 . L i n d g r e n , W. "Charac te r and Genesis o f C e r t a i n Con-t a c t Depos i t s " T rans . Am. I n s t . Mg. Eng . V o l . 3 1 p 226,190 27 . " " M i n e r a l Depos i t s " M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. 4 t h E d . 1933. 28* McConne l l "Teeada I s l a n d . B . C . " C . G . S . Mem. 58 - 1914. 29 . Shor t , M . I . " M i c r o s c o p i c Determina t ions o f Ore M i n e r a l s " U . S . G . S . B u l l . 914. 3 0 . Spurr , J . E . "Theory o f Ore Depos i t s " E . C . G e o l . V o l . 7 p 485, 1912. 3 1 . " "Study o f a Contact Metamorphic Ore Depos i t " E . C . G e o l . V * l . V p 444 - 1912. 3 2 . S t l l l w e l l , F . L . "The Occurrence o f T e l l u r i d e M i n e r a l s a t K i l g o o r l i e " . A u s t r . I n s t , o f M i n . & M e t . How S e r i e s Ho . 84 - 1931. 3 3 . Swanson, C O . "The Genesis o f the Texada I s l a n d Magnet i te Depos i t s " Sum. Rept . P A p 106 - 1924. 34 . Dmpleby, J . B . "The Occurrence o f Ore on the Limestone Side o f Garnet Zones" U n i v . o f C a l i f . Pub. V o l . 10 Ho. 3 pp 25-37 - 1916. 3 5 . Warren, H . V . and Peacock, ffl.A. " H e d l e y i t e , A Hew B i s -muth T e l l u r i d e from B r i t i s h Columbia" e t c . U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , G e o l . S e r . Ho.49, pp 55-69 - 1945. 74 36 . Warren, H . V . and Dav i s , P h i l i p "Some Bismuth M i n e r a l s from B r i t i s h Columbia" U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Geo l S e r i e s Ho.44 . pp 107-111, 1940. 37 . Weed, W.H. "Ore Depos i t s Hear Igneous Contac t s" Trans . Am. I n s t . M g . E n g r s . V o l . 3 3 p 715, 1903. c Compi l a t ions 38. Dana's System o f M i n e r a l o g y " Palache , Berman,Fronde1 7th E d i t i o n , V o l . I - 1944 39 . "Ore Depos i t s o f the Western S t a t e s " Am. I n s t . Mg. & Met . Eng . - 1933 . -40 . " M i l l i n g I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Lake Shore" The S t a f f . T r n s . C . I . M . M . V o l . 3 9 , p E79, 1936. 4 1 . "Study o f a Contact Metamorphic Ore Depos i t " The Dolores Mine a t Matchuala S . L . P . M e x i c o . J . E . S p u r r , G .H.Car rey , C.S.Penner E . G . G e o l . V o l . 7 p 444, 1912. 42 . "Contact Metamorphism.at Efiokel P l a t e " D i s c u s s i o n C . I . M . M . B u l l , p 69 1945. 43. "Some S tud ies w i t h the H a u l t a i n Super-panner and I n f r a s i z e r " War ren ,H .V. , Madsen, C , fJhite, H.W. ' C . I . M . M , B u l l , p 143, 1938. 4 4 . "The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Gold i n Chelan T a i l i n g s " War ren ,H .V . , White, W.H . , and Dav i s , P . C . I . M . M . B u l l , p 143 1939. 4 5 . " I r o n Ores o f Canada * o l . I - B r i t i s h Columbia & Yukon" Young, G ,A. and Uglow, W.L . 4 6 . " C r i t e r i a o f Age R e l a t i o n s o f M i n e r a l s w i t h E s p e c i a l Reference to P o l i s h e d Sec t ions o f Ores" . B a s t i n , E . S . and Others B e . G e o l . V o l . XXVI 193?. 

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