UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cicero and the fall of the republic Walker, Day 1943

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CICERO AND THE FALL OF THE REPUBLIC 49 B.C. t o 43 B.C.  #—55-—>A—K—»  THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  L,;  ' BY  DAY WALKER, B.A.  APRIL  1 9 4 3.  CONTENTS:  CICERO AND THE FALL OF THE REPUBLICV 49 B. C. TO 43 B. C. Chapter I.  Page Cursus Honorum a. C i c e r o ' s t r a i n i n g b. H i s p r a e t o r s h i p c. H i s c o n s u l s h i p  II.  D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t 62 B. C. t o 49 B. C. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.  III  Weakness o f s e n a t o r i a l p a r t y First triumvirate C i c e r o ' s e x i l e and r e c a l l Conference a t Luca The f i f t i n the t r i u m v i r a t e Cicero's proconsulship of C i l i c i a The eve o f h o s t i l i t i e s  D e c l a r a t i o n o f war by senate Rome abandoned by Pompeians Clemency of Caesar C i c e r o ' s stand C i c e r o and Caesar. C i c e r o ' s d e p a r t u r e f o r Dyrrachium  14. 16.. 18. 18. 81. 28.  A Dark Outlook 48 B. C. t o September 47 B. C. •  a. b. c. d. V.  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13  C i c e r o ' s D e c i s i o n 49 B. C. a. b. c. d. e. f.  IV.  1. 3. 4.  - /  Pompeians defeated i n S p a i n Defeat and death of Pompey Cicero's r e t u r n t o Brundisium H i s a t t i t u d e t o t h e Pompeians  -  _.  31. 32. 32. 34.  C i c e r o Under a D i c t a t o r . a. b. c. d. e. f.  Caesar's g e n e r o s i t y Cicero's retirement Hope o f r e s t o r a t i o n o f r e p u b l i o Death of T u l l i a Caesar's d e s i r e t o be k i n g Murder o f Caesar  36. 36. 38. 38. 40. 41.  VI.  C i c e r o as Leader of t h e S t a t e . T  a. C i c e r o s r e a c t i o n t o the murder of Caesar b. G e n e r a l amnesty c. Antony's t r e a c h e r y d. O c t a v i u s . • e. Lack o f p l a n among L i b e r a t o r s f . C i c e r o a t t a c k s Antony g. V i c t o r y a t M u t i n a h. Second t r i u m v i r a t e i . Cicero proscribed V I I . A Personal Tribute Y I I I . Abbreviations IX. Bibliography  , .  42. 43. 44. 46. 47. 49. 53 e 56. 56. 57. 60. 61.  CICERO MP  THE FALL OF THE REPUBLIC 49 B. C.—-43 B; C.  '  Chapter I The Cursus Honorum.  ,1 **Homo vere natus ad prodessendum hominibus" ."'  '•  j  ' •  '"•  •  •  Marcus T u l l i u s C i c e r o has always been r e v e r e d wherever men have s t r i v e n t o g a i n freedom from t y r a n n y *  On December  seventh, 43 B. C., the grim s i g h t o f h i s head and r i g h t hand n a i l e d up i n the R o s t r a mutely proclaimed, t o the people of Rome t h a t t y r a n n y once more was t h e i r master; down through the ages the work o f t h a t g r e a t head and hand was t o be the i n s p i r a t i o n and i n c e n t i v e t o men working towards p o l i t i c a l  liberty.  Yet no one has ever - s u f f e r e d more from extravagant p r a i s e o r undeserved  criticism.  C i c e r o , the f i r s t o f h i s f a m i l y t o e n t e r p o l i t i c a l  life  at Rome, was born' on January 3, 106 B. C, on h i s f a t h e r ' s e s t a t e o u t s i d e Arpinum.  H i s f a t h e r was a Roman k n i g h t and  was f i n a n c i a l l y a b l e t o b r i n g h i s f a m i l y t o Rome and t o p r o v i d e the best t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n f o r h i s son.- C i c e r o was f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g the two o u t s t a n d i n g o r a t o r s o f the day, L u c i u s Crassus and Marcus A n t o n i u s , i n t e r e s t themselves  in  his education. H i s student days were i n t e r r u p t e d i n the y e a r 89 B. when he took p a r t i n the S o c i a l War.  C.  A f t e r h i s year of s e r -  v i c e , he a p p l i e d h i m s e l f a g a i n t o h i s t r a i n i n g , v i s i t i n g the 1. Leonardo B r u n i , quoted i n Z i e l i n s k i , " C i c e r im Wandel der Jahrhunderte" and r e f e r r e d t o by W. A. O l d f a t h e r i n C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l , Mar. 1928, V o l . X H I I , p. 424.  l a w c o a r t s and l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y t o t h e debates.  His father  i n t r o d u c e d him t o Quintus Mucius S c a e v o l a , t h e g r e a t e s t lawyer o f t h e day.  From him young C i c e r o gained a p r a c t i c a l  background o f law.  He was f o r t u n a t e t o o , i n being a b l e t o  study v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n and the more t e c h n i c a l s i d e o f o r a t o r y w i t h Molo, t h e eminent r h e t o r i c i a n o f Rhodes, who was v i s i t ing  Rome i n 88 B. C. From 88 u n t i l 81 B. C. Rome was s u b j e c t e d t o C i v i l War  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n f i s c a t i o n s and p r o s c r i p t i o n s .  A f t e r the  s t r u g g l e between the two l e a d e r s Marius the Democrat and S u l l a the Optimate ended i n the triumph o f S u l l a , C i c e r o entered upon h i s c a r e e r i n the law c o u r t s and e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a great advocate  i n h i s s u c c e s s f u l defence  o f Sextus R o s c i u s .  In u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s defence he showed g r e a t courage i n openly a t t a c k i n g S u l l a ' s Chrysogonus, and Strachan-Davidson  writes of  him as f o l l o w s : "He l e f t t h e court a man o f mark i n Rome. He had done more t h a n save h i s c l i e n t ; he had g i v e n v o i c e t o f e e l i n g s which a l l the w o r l d must needs smother i n s i l e n c e ; he had s t r u c k a keynote which v i b r a t e d i n a thousand h e a r t s , s i c k o f bloodshed and robbery and t e r r o r . " 2 S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s C i c e r o l e f t Rome f o r Greece t o recuperate and t o continue h i s s t u d i e s .  I n 76 B. C., t h e  year f o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n , he entered i n t o a c t i v e l i f e by h i s e l e c t i o n as q u a e s t o r .  political  His pro-quaestorship of  S i c i l y was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s freedom from e x t o r t i o n s and by the f a i r n e s s o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . There f o l l o w e d t h e 2. Strachan-Davidson,  " C i c e r o " p. 17, l i n e s 1 3 — 1 8  regular succession of p u b l i c o f f i c e s :  c u r u l e a e d i l e i n 70,  p r a e t o r i n 67, c u l m i n a t i n g i n the c o n s u l s h i p i n 63 B. D u r i n g h i s p r a e t o r s h i p C i c e r o made h i s f i r s t  C.  political  speech t o the people i n support of the M a n i l i a n Law.  This  b i l l which proposed t o g i v e Pompey supreme command of the f o r c e s i n the East t o i n f l i c t - ^ a - s p e e d y - d e f e a t on Mi t h r l d a t e s and Tigranes was  opposed by the c o n s e r v a t i v e s or Optimates.  They, i n accordance w i t h Roman t r a d i t i o n , were opposed t o man  one  h a v i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y m i l i t a r y powers beyond those h e l d by  the c o n s u l s .  At f i r s t i t seems strange t h a t C i c e r o , l a t e r the  champion of the Senate, should support a b i l l p l a c i n g such unprecedented power i n the hands of one man; the champion of the senate. of h i s own  but he i s not y e t  He i s here c l e a r l y the defendero  o r d e r , the e q u i t e s , who  had l a r g e investments  in  the p r o v i n c e o f A s i a , and the s u p p o r t e r o f the cause of a great s o l d i e r whom he The M a n i l i a n Law  idolized. and i t s predecessor  the G a b i n i a n  were important not o n l y because of the powers c o n f e r r e d  Law by  them but a l s o because these powers were granted t o Pompey by 3 the people a g a i n s t the wishes of the Senate. Thus the e  f f e c t of the concessions made by Pompey and Crassus i n 71 4  B. C. t o the p o p u l a r p a r t y  i n o r d e r t o w i n the  consulship,  namely the r e s t o r a t i o n of the t r i b u n a t e and of the on the j u d i c i a l c o u r t s , w a s ual,  3  c l e a r l y seen.  equites  A single individ-  t h e n , through compliant t r i b u n e s c o u l d a t t a i n mastery  3. P l u t . Pompey 27; 32. 4. P l u t . Pompey 24.  of the s t a t e .  C i c e r o supported  Pompey a g a i n s t t h e S u l l a n  c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 71 B. C. because t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n ha& g i v e n the Senate t o o much power.  I t was t h e n t h a t we see h i s admira~  t i o n o f the S c i p i o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f 154 B. C. w i t h i t s balance of power:  t h e Senate, t h e e q u i t e s , and t h e people, each p l a y 5 i n g i t s p a r t . I n t h i s connection W. A. O l d f a t h e r s t a t e s : "His best w i s h was t o have a great man i n a prominent s t a t i o n , t h e servant but a l s o t h e guardian of t h e s t a t e " " and he f e l t he might best f u n c t i o n as a d v i s e r t o t h e great man and t h e p u b l i c exponent o f h i s e n l i g h t e n e d p o l i c i e s . " C i c e r o was e a s i l y - head o f t h e p o l l s at, the elections.  The c o n s e r v a t i v e nobles supported  consular 9  the "novus homo'  not so much because o f h i s own worth but because t h e y were alarmed by t h e corruptness  o f t h e opposing c a n d i d a t e s .  As t h e  h y p e r c r i t i c a l Mommsen s n e e r i n g l y remarks, t h e n o b i l i t y gave " t h e i r v o t e s t o a candidate who, a l t h o u g h not a c c e p t a b l e t o • 6 .: them, was a t l e a s t i n o f f e n s i v e " . H i s p l a t f o r m , i n so f a r as he could be s a i d t o have one, was  n  a c o a l i t i o n of the equites 7 8 w i t h t h e moderate S e n a t o r i a l p a r t y " o r t h e " c o n c o r d i a ordinum" . " ... . • 8 l i n k e d w i t h the a p p r o v a l o f t h e people, t h e "consensus I t a l i a e " . f  To C i c e r o t h e Roman people d i d not j u s t mean the c i t y mob which could be b r i b e d o r i n c i t e d by an unscrupulous l e a d e r but i t meant t h e people o f t h e whole o f I t a l y . 5. C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l , March 1928, " C i c e r o . A Sketch*? 6. "Hi st o r y of-Rome , Book- V-,. Chapter 5, p. 159 . 7. (i. P. Baker. "Twelve C e n t u r i e s o f Rome", p. 313. 8. How, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C i c e r o ' s L e t t e r s . p. 39. 1  if il I  The f i r s t o b s t a c l e he had t o f a c e was t h e move by the democrats through t h e i r t r i b u n e t o put through an e x t e n s i v e " •• •  '  ;  agrarian b i l l ,  .:•  ;  -  .  • .  ' .  '  i t s p r o v i s i o n s t o be p r e s i d e d over by a board  f- o f t e n commissioners. i  • ' •  By means o f t h i s b i l l t h e democrats  hoped t o be on an equal f o o t i n g w i t h Pompey, t h e conqueror o f the E a s t .  The i m p l i e d i n f r i n g e m e n t on Pompey's p r e s t i g e  caused C i c e r o t o stand f a s t f o r h i s champion and a t t h e same 10 time t o appear as a defender o f t h e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s .  In  b r i n g i n g about t h e defeat o f t h e b i l l , C i c e r o r e v e a l e d t h a t j  t h e e x t e n s i v e powers o f t h e board o f t e n commissioners f o r f i v e years and t h e e x c l u s i o n o f Pompey from t h e board, were . . 11 the work o f t h e democrats who stood behind R u l l u s . To C i c e r o , however, t h e crowning achievement o f h i s cons u l s h i p was h i s d e f e a t o f the C a t i l i n a r i a n c o n s p i r a c y , a move by desperate men t o overthrow t h e government and t o r e s t o r e t h e i r d e p l e t e d f o r t u n e s i n t h e ensuing c o n f u s i o n . . I t was t h e hope o f C a t i l i n e and h i s a s s o c i a t e s t o copy Marius and S u l l a w i t h t h e i r p r o s c r i p t i o n s , massacres and c o n f i s c a t i o n s o f property.  When these a r c h t r a i t o r s had been taken  into  oustody, t h e senate met t o d i s c u s s t h e i r punishment.  The  m a j o r i t y o f t h e senate was i n f a v o u r o f t h e death p e n a l t y , 12 but Caesar proposed l i f e imprisonment i n s t e a d .  Cicero's  f r i e n d s favoured Caesar's p r o p o s a l , f o r by i t C i c e r o would have l e s s p e r s o n a l 9. De Lege A g r a r i a 10. De Leg. A g r . i i 11. De L e g . A g r . i i 12. P l u t . Caes. W,  r i s k , b u t i n h i s f o u r t h speeoh a g a i n s t Contra R u l l u m i , 2. , 6, 15; 10,25.  6 Catiline.;, C i c e r o s t a t e d t h a t he was ready tfco ren£qree  what-  ever punishment t h e senate d e s i r e d , w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o h i s own 13 safety.  Cato t h e n d e l i v e r e d a p a s s i o n a t e address . and so  whipped t h e wavering senate i n t o a c t i o n t h a t t h e death p e n a l t y went through.  L a t e r we a r e t o see how C i c e r o ' s i l l - w i s h e r s  would come back t o t h i s e x e c u t i o n i n o r d e r t o t u r n t h e people a g a i n s t him, b u t , a t t h e moment, a l l c l a s s e s h a i l e d him as t h e saviour of the s t a t e .  13. P l u t . Cato Minor 23.  Chapter I I D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t 68 B. C. t o 49 B. C. C i c e r o ' s achievements as consul now gave him a l e a d i n g p l a c e i n t h e senate.  H i s e f f o r t s and t h e f e a r o f r e v o l u t i o n  had k n i t t o g e t h e r t h e E q u i t e s and the S e n a t o r s .  H i s next hope  was t o r e c o n c i l e t h e c i v i l and m i l i t a r y powers through t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Pompey; but when he wrote t o Pompey t e l l i n g him of h i s s u p p r e s s i o n  o f the C a t i l i n a r i a n c o n s p i r a c y and o f h i s  d e s i r e s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Pompey, t h e g r e a t man p a i d 14 attention to h i s l e t t e r .  scant  I t has been f e l t t h a t Pompey was  h u r t t h a t he had not been r e c a l l e d t o Rome t o s e t t l e the matter: and wrongly put t h e blame on C i c e r o ; he would not commit him15 s e l f i n f a v o u r o f C i c e r o ' s measures. Meantime Pompey made h i s way home from t h e E a s t i n t h e 16 manner o f a r o y a l p r o g r e s s , ber 62 B. C.  and reached B r u n d i s i u m i n Decem-  He disbanded h i s army, thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he  was not going t o use m i l i t a r y power t o get what he wanted; but, a f t e r t h a t d e c i s i v e move he d i d n6t f o l l o w up w i t h a c l o s e a l l i a n c e w i t h and l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l party.  The s e n a t o r s , themselves, d i d not r a l l y round t h e i r  hero but d i d e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o d r i v e him over t o Caesar's side.  They r e f u s e d t o r a t i f y t h e l a n d g r a n t s f o r h i s t r o o p s  as a whole, and s u b j e c t e d him t o p e t t y q u e s t i o n i n g s .  They  made him f e e l t h a t i n d i s b a n d i n g h i s army he was a t t h e i r 14. Fam. V: 7, 2. 15. A t t . I : 14, 1, 2. 16. P l u t . Pompey 35.  mercy, and t h u s , i n t h e i r s h o r t - s i g h t e d j e a l o u s y , t h e y drove him t o use u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l methods t o g a i n h i s demands.  This  a l i e n a t i o n o f Pompey from the Senate could not hut have g r e a t l y disturbed Cicero. C i c e r o ' s hopes about t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f the government on a sound c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s r e c e i v e d another  setback: by t h e  a l i e n a t i o n o f the Senate and t h e E q u i t e s over t h e s c a n d a l o f the l a w c o u r t s r e v e a l e d i n the a c q u i t t a l o f C l o d i u s .  Cato  proved h i m s e l f t o be no p r a c t i c a l statesman by t h e way he hindered  a l l means t o w i n Pompey and t o r e c o n c i l e the E q u i t e s  and the S e n a t o r s . When Caesar r e t u r n e d from h i s triumphs i n S p a i n i n June 60 B. C , he found a d i s g r u n t l e d Pompey.  Thus, when he s e -  cured e l e c t i o n as consul f o r 59 Bv C , he knew he could w i n Pompey away from t h e Senate. side.  Crassus,  t o o , would be on h i s  C i c e r o , a l s o , was i n v i t e d t o j o i n them i n a a u a t t u o r 17 .  v i r a t e , and i f he had accepted he would have saved h i m s e l f . M  A p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c i a n would have embraced t h e o p p o r t u n i t y :  t h a t C i c e r o d i d not do so i s s t r o n g evidence of h i s s i n c e r i t y , 18 as w e l l as o f h i s courage."  Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o S i h l e r , t h e  t r i u m v i r a t e was launched, unhampered by t h e s c r u p l e s o f an i d e a l i s t , who, a l t h o u g h r e b u f f e d by t h e Senate a t t h i s 19 d i d not d e s e r t t h e i r cause.  time,  C i c e r o , as a statesman, was  e c l i p s e d by t h e workings o f t h e t r i u m v i r a t e and he cdid not 17. S t r a c h a n ^ - a v i d s o n " C i c e r o " p. 203 18. J . C. R o l f e " C i c e r o and H i s I n f l u e n c e " . 19. S i h l e r , "Marcus T u l l i u s C i c e r o o f Arpinum", p. 189  ;  H *••••.• fl - "  ?!  - . .  ' '-  "..  •• . • '  come i n t o M s  !  •  -  . '  own a g a i n u n t i l a f t e r the death o f Caesar.  The t r i u m v i r s now went ahead w i t h t h e i r land-scheme, (the u s u a l way o f g a i n i n g p o p u l a r f a v o u r ) , and Pompey and Caesar  j  Became more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d through Pompey's marriage t o  j  J u l i a , Caesar's daughter.  Pompey d e s e r t e d C i c e r o and p e r m i t t e d  C l o d i u s , C i c e r o ' s enemy, t o "become a p l e b e i a n so t h a t C l o d i u s might r u n f o r t h e t r i b u n e s h i p . C l o d i u s , as t r i b u n e , c a r r i e d through a b i l l C i c e r o because he had put t o d e a t h Roman c i t i z e n s 30 trial.  outlawing without  Pompey and the* senators d i d n o t h i n g t o save C i c e r o .  W i t h a heavy h e a r t he l e f t Rome and h i s p e r s e c u t o r burned h i s home on t h e P a l a t i n e . and  Clodius seized a l l a v a i l a b l e property  -harassed-. C i c e r o ' s w i f e T e r e n t i a . C i c e r o ' s m i s e r y and unmanly g r i e f have been s e v e r e l y  censured by h i s c r i t i c s .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r us t o a p p r e c i a t e  the e x t e n t o f h i s s u f f e r i n g s beoause t o him e x i l e was harder t o bear t h a n death.  Indeed, he r e g r e t s t h a t he d i d not choose 21  death r a t h e r t h a n endure t h e l o s s o f honour i n h i s banishment. He must have been t o r t u r e d by t h e thought t h a t he y i e l d e d t o the a d v i c e o f H o r t e n s i u s and o t h e r l e a d i n g senators t h a t he should l e a v e Rome i n s t e a d o f s t a n d i n g h i s ground a g a i n s t Clodius.  The oonsul f o r 57 B. C , L e n t u l u s S p i n t h e r , f i n a l l y  seoured t h e r e c a l l o f C i c e r o .  H i s journey home was l i k e a 22  t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n , f o r he was c o n g r a t u l a t e d on every hand. 20. App. B. C. I I , 3 21. Fam. X I V : 4, 5. A t t . I l l : 10, 2. 22. A t t . I V : 1, 5.  10 23 C i o e r o found t h a t he was s t i l l the l e a d e r o f t h e B a r . His  r e t u r n t o Rome brought t o the people a hope t h a t t h e con-  s t i t u t i o n , s h a t t e r e d by Caesar's a t t a c k s on i t , might be r e s t o r e d . The,Optimates a g a i n p l a y e d i n t o t h e absent Caesar's hands by t h e i r d i s t r u s t o f Pompey i n the m a t t e r of t h e corn 24 supply. the  They d i d not see t h a t t o o f f s e t t h e growing power o f  conqueror o f G a u l , they s h o u l d g i v e Pompey s u f f i c i e n t  power t o a c t as a check. C i c e r o ' s a t t a c k on the l a n d b i l l made Caesar r e a l i z e t h a t he must have a meeting w i t h h i s a s s o c i a t e s o r c i v i l war would break out b e f o r e he was ready f o r i t .  Thus Pompey and  Crassus met him a t L * c a : ( A p r i l 56 B. C . ) , and the c o a l i t i o n became s t r o n g e r t h a n e v e r . his  Caesar secured t h e e x t e n s i o n o f  p r o - c o n s u l s h i p o f G a u l , and Pompey and Crassus were t o be  consuls i n 55. F o l l o w i n g t h e c o n s u l s h i p Pompey was t o be governor o f S p a i n and Crassus governor o f S y r i a . As a r e s u l t of t h i s conference a w r i t t e n o r d e r came from Pompey t e l l i n g C i c e r o t o suspend a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e Campanian land b i l l .  Pompey made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t C i c e r o ' s r e c a l l  had been based on h i s b r o t h e r Q u i n t u s ' guarantee t h a t C i c e r o • • ••• ' 25 would not oppose the t r i u m v i r a t e . C i c e r o now found t h a t he had t o f a v o u r Caesar because •: :^ p o s i t i o n was l i n k e d w i t h t h a t 26 of Pompey. Hence C i o e r o was bound by f e e l i n g s o f g r a t i t u d e  23. 24. 25. 26.  Att. Att. ]?am. Earn.  IV: IV: I: I:  1, 3. 1, 7. 9, 9. 9, 9; I : 9, 12.  11 f o r h i s r e s t o r a t i o n t o stand by Pompey, and t o make good t h e pledges g i v e n t h e t r i u m v i r s by h i s b r o t h e r .  I f e e l that  C i c e r o ' s support o f the regents was based on the r e a l i z a t i o n - t h a t he could not make headway a g a i n s t them a t p r e s e n t .  He  would be ready t o u n i t e Pompey and the Senate whenever a break should occur i n the c o a l i t i o n .  T h i s ^etbaclb: does not  i n d i c a t e any change i n h i s p o l i c y but i n d i c a t e s an i n e v i t a b l e surrender o f h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e moment.  A f t e r a l l , the  Senate's s h o r t - s i g h t e d , narrow o u t l o o k had p r e c i p i t a t e d t h i s t r i u m v i r a t e , and i t had not helped C i c e r o i n h i s time o f need o r supported  h i s e f f o r t s t o make Pompey a powerful l e a d e r on  their side. The  defeat and murder o f Crassus near Carrhae on June 9,  53 d e p r i v e d Caesar of h i s most powerful a l l y , i f the s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p now e x i s t i n g between Caesar and Pompey s i n c e t h e death o f J u l i a ,  should r e s u l t i n c i v i l war.  C r a s s u s ' son  P u b l i u s was k i l l e d a day o r so before h i s f a t h e r , and i n h i s p l a c e C i c e r o was chosen augur.  T h i s honour gave C i c e r o much  pleasure. The y e a r 53 had ended w i t h o u t the e l e c t i o n o f consuls owing t o t h e i n t r i g u e s of the c a n d i d a t e s .  Cicero set aside  any advantages which might accrue t o h i m through support o f a candidate backed by the t r i u m v i r s and gave h i s support t o 27 MilOj who had championed him a g a i n s t C l o d i u s .  I n the r i o t s  e a r l y i n January, C l o d i u s was k i l l e d by t h e r e t a i n e r s o f M i l o 27. S i h l e r , "Marcus T u l l i u s C i c e r o o f Arpinum". p. 259  12 and i n t h e stormy days t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e Senate p r o c l a i m e d m a r t i a l l a w and c a l l e d on the i n t e r - r e x , Pompey and o t h e r m a g i s t r a t e s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s a f e t y of the country.  Pompey  was e l e c t e d s o l e c o n s u l , p e r m i t t e d t o r e t a i n h i s governorship of S p a i n , and became i n r e a l i t y , d i c t a t o r .  Here we see him  b r e a k i n g o f f from Caesar and once more becoming a l l i e d t o t h e Senate.  I t was i n t h i s y e a r , t o o , t h a t Caesar broke t h e l a s t  e f f o r t o f t h e Gauls t o r e c o v e r t h e i r l i b e r t y . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r saw C i c e r o c a l l e d on t o take t h e g o v e r n o r s h i p o f C i l i c i a i n accordance w i t h Pompey's l a w which s t a t e d t h a t f i v e y e a r s had t o e l a p s e between t h e h o l d i n g o f o f f i c e a t Rome and t h e g o v e r n o r s h i p o f a p r o v i n c e .  I n order  then t o f i l l the v a c a n c i e s abroad t h e former c o n s u l s , who had not served as governors, had t o serve i n the p r o v i n c e s . C i c e r o was u n w i l l i n g t o l e a v e Rome, and made sure t h a t h i s term o f o f f i c e should not be extended.  However, as governor,  he d i d a l l he could f o r the C i l i c i a n s , h e l p i n g them t o r e c o v e r 28 from h i s r a p a c i o u s p r e d e c e s s o r , Appius C l a u d i u s . a border r a i d w i t h such success t h a t he was h a i l e d  He p u t down as "Impera-  t o r " by h i s t r o o p s and h e n c e f o r t h e n t i t l e d t o s i g n t h a t t i t l e a f t e r h i s name and p e r m i t t e d t o wreathe h i s f a s c e s w i t h l a u r e l . The next step i n t h e honour would be t h e g r a n t i n g o f a triumph by t h e senate on h i s r e t u r n t o Rome. C i c e r o reached Brundisium on November 23, 50 B. C., t o f i n d t r o u b l e a g a i n i n the p o l i t i c a l arena. 28. A t t . V: 16.  The main c o n t e n t i o n  13 was w i t h r e g a r d t o Caesar's d e s i r e t o r e t a i n h i s p r o v i n c e u n t i l 29 he should e n t e r on h i s second c o n s u l s h i p b e g i n n i n g 48 B. C. H i s opponents, however, wanted an i n t e r v a l t o elapse between " h i s p r o - c o n s u l s h i p and h i s c o n s u l s h i p i n order t o b r i n g him to t r i a l f o r c e r t a i n i l l e g a l acts of h i s f i r s t consulship of 59 B. C.  Towards the c l o s e o f the y e a r , the consul M a r c e l l u s  moved t h a t Caesar should r e s i g n but opposed a motion a f f e c t i n g 30 Pompey i n t h e same way. Caesar had a staunch supporter i n C u r i o , the t r i b u n e , who vetoed t h e motion and proposed t h a t both Caesar and Pompey should r e s i g n t h e i r commands a t the 31 same t i m e . The p a s s i n g o f the motion p l a c e d Pompey i n an awkward p o s i t i o n because he was not sure what Caesar would do. The senate were a f r a i d t h a t Caesar and Pompey would u n i t e a g a i n and t h a t t h a t would s p e l l the end o f t h e nobles as a governing c l a s s .  They must be kept a p a r t .  A few days l a t e r ,  a w e l l - c h o s e n , f a l s e rumour r e p o r t e d t h a t Caesar had crossed the A l p s , and M a r c e l l u s moved t h a t Caesar be d e c l a r e d an enemy 32 and t h a t Pompey be p l a c e d i n charge o£ the s t a t e .  Pompey  accepted t h e commission and ordered a g e n e r a l l e v y . C u r i o sped t o Caesar's headquarters  29. 30. 31. 32.  a t Ravenna.  App. B. C. I I , 25, Earn. V I I I : 3. Caes. B. C. i , 2. P l u t . Pompey, 63. P l u t . C a e s a r 30. P l u t . Pompey. 64. App. B. C. I I : 4. f  Meantime  14 Chapter I I I C i c e r o ' s D e c i s i o n 49 B. C. The senate, convoked on January f i r s t 49 B. C. under t h e shadow o f c i v i l war, was tense ••with, stormy debate -and--curbed^ emotion.  Caesar had v e r y c l e v e r l y made the Pompeians take the  i n i t i a t i v e i n c i v i l s t r i f e and Rome was f u l l o f rumours about 33 Caesar's i n t e n t i o n s .  C u r i o , Caesar's v e r s a t i l e agent, a f t e r  a strenuous t h r e e days' journey from Ravenna had j u s t reached Rome w i t h a l e t t e r s t a t i n g Caesar's o f f e r t o r e s i g n a l l but C i s a l p i n e Gaul and two l e g i o n s i f Pompey would go t o S p a i n ; or, he would g i v e up h i s e n t i r e command i f Pompey would do 34 l i k e w i s e . Mommsen f e l t here t h a t Caesar knew he would n o t be c a l l e d on t o make good t h i s o f f e r because the Pompeians were ' 35 • a l r e a d y t o o f a r committed a g a i n s t him.  Lucius Lentulus, the  p r e s i d i n g c o n s u l , a l t h o u g h f o r c e d by t h e C a e s a r i a n t r i b u n e s A n t o n i u s and C a s s i u s t o permit t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e l e t t e r , was so i n c e n s e d by h i s h a t r e d toward t h e C a e s a r i a n s t h a t he would not s u f f e r any motion a r i s i n g out o f t h e l e t t e r .  Realizing  Caesar's peace o f f e r a t t h e c r u c i a l moment had made a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n on t h e t i m i d s e n a t e , he, i n a f u r y , f o r c e d t h e brow-beaten senate t o pass t h e r e s o l u t i o n t h a t Caesar s h o u l d give up h i s p r o v i n c e on a s p e c i f i e d d a t e .  Antony's s u g g e s t i o n ,  made t h e f o l l o w i n g daj, t h a t both Caesar and Pompey s h o u l d 33. A t t . VXI: 7 f . 34..Appian, B. C. i i , 32. 35. Mommsen. " H i s t o r y o f Rome". Bk. V, Chapter ftf, p. 336.  15 r e t i r e was s t r e n u o u s l y opposed. C i c e r o reached the neighbourhood o f Rome on t h e f o u r t h 36 and worked hard t o t r y t o preserve t h e peace. On t h e f i f t h o r s i x t h a f u r t h e r o f f e r by Caesar i n response t o C i c e r o ' s e f f o r t was t o r e t a i n o n l y C i s a l p i n e Gaul, I l l y r i c u m and one l e g i o n 37 i n s t e a d o f two. But owing t o t h e g e n e r a l f r e n z y which p r e vented the s e n a t o r i a l p a r t y from a c t i n g p r u d e n t l y , extreme measures p r e v a i l e d on January seventh.  Lentulus declared the  senate would take a vote on the "senatus consultum ultimum", and warned the t r i b u n e s t o i n t e r f e r e a t t h e i r p e r i l ,  Antony  and C a s s i u s p r o t e s t e d t h i s t h r e a t e n i n g o f the people's t r i bunes, and f l e d t o Caesar a l o n g w i t h C u r i o and C a e l i u s .  The  senate then c a l l e d on t h e m a g i s t r a t e s o f the people t o defend the s t a t e .  T h i s rashness i n t h r e a t e n i n g a d e c l a r a t i o n o f war  shows t h a t t h e l i n k between Pompey and the senate i s none t o o f i r m even a t t h i s important  j u n c t u r e , and each s i d e i s anxious 38  t o commit t h e o t h e r i r r e v o c a b l y . C i c e r o ' s dream o f a union between t h e Senate and Pompey was achieved a t l a s t but under circumstances  t h a t must have caused him t o d e s p a i r .  L o o k i n g a t the s t r e n g t h of. the t r o o p s on each s i d e we see t h a t Caesar had t e n o r e l e v e n v e t e r a n l e g i o n s and some a u x i l i a r i e s o f G a l l i c and German horse, but o n l y one l e g i o n i n 39 N o r t h e r n I t a l y . Pompey had seven l e g i o n s i n S p a i n , as many 36. 37. 38. 39.  Ad Jam. X V I ; 12, 2. P l u t a r c h : Caesar 31. Caesar: B. C. i , 1-5. A t t . : V I I : 7, 6.  16 40  a u x i l i a r i e s and f i v e thousand c a v a l r y ; i n I t a l y he had t e n 41 l e g i o n s , but o f these o n l y t h e two l e g i o n s taken from Caesar were v e t e r a n s .  He l e v i e d t h r e e l e g i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f  A s i a and c o u l d count on t h e E a s t e r n p r i n c e s f o r c a v a l r y ; from 42 the E a s t , t o o , he obtained a s u p e r i o r n a v a l f o r c e .  What Caesar  l a c k e d i n q u a n t i t y o f t r o o p s he made up i n t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s f o r c e s and h i s r a p i d a c t i o n . . On January e l e v e n t h , Caesar crossed t h e Rubicon and marched on Ariminum and sent f o r c e s ahead t o occupy Pisaurum, Eanum, and Ancona.  T h i s r a p i d i t y caught t h e Pompeians by s u r -  p r i s e , but was no excuse f o r l e a v i n g t h e untenable c i t y o f Rome January 17 so h u r r i e d l y t h a t t h e t r e a s u r y was l e f t f o r Caesar. C i c e r o , who had been w a i t i n g o u t s i d e Rome w i t h h i s l i c t o r s f o r a triumph t o be decreed by t h e senate, decided t o abandon h i s triumph*  I n a - l e t t e r t o A t t i c u s he r e v e a l e d h i s f a i l u r e t o  understand why t h e Pompeians had a c t e d so r a s h l y and s t a t e d t h a t , as m a t t e r s s t o o d , he was w i t h Pompey i f Pompey made a 43 stand i n I t a l y , but beyond t h a t he could n o t s a y . He f e l t t h a t Caesar i n l a u n c h i n g h i s a t t a c k on I t a l i a n c i t i e s should be c o n s i d e r e d an enemy n o t a c i t i z e n c l a i m i n g t o be a c t i n g 44 honourably.  The o n l y immediate g a i n t h a t C i c e r o could see i n  Pompey's l e a v i n g Rome was t h a t the people were to Pompey f o r t h a t reason. 40. 41* 42. 43. 44.  sympathetic  He, himself, was g i v e n a t r i f l i n g  Caesar, B. C. i , 39 Caesar, B. C. i , 15 f . Caesar, B. C. i i i , 4, 5. A t t . V I I : 10. A t t . V I I : 1 1 , 1.  17 commission, the charge o f t h e r e c r u i t i n g i n Campania.  I t was  so l i g h t a duty t h a t l a t e r he c o u l d say w i t h o u t f e a r o f o v e r 45 s t e p p i n g t h e t r u t h , "neque negotium s u s c e p i s s e . " About t h e end o f January came a peace o f f e r from Caesar. That Caesar, t h e a g g r e s s o r , s h o u l d o f f e r terms t o Pompey, seemed t o C i c e r o an i n s u l t i n i t s e l f .  The terms were t h a t i f  Pompey went t o S p a i n and disbanded h i s t r o o p s , Caesar would t u r n over F u r t h e r Gaul t o D o m i t i u s and C i s a l p i n e  Gaul t o  C o n s i d i u s Nonianus, and would stand f o r the c o n s u l s h i p i n 46 person.  The s e n a t o r s seem not t o have p l a c e d much confidence  i n the o f f e r f o r many f e l t t h a t a l l Caesar was d o i n g was h i n d e r i n g t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r war. Even i n t h e e a r l i e s t stages o f t h e war Pompey was hampered by t h e c o n c e i t and i n e f f i c i e n c y o f h i s o f f i c e r s .  Thus, a l t h o u g h  Pompey had urged D o m i t i u s Ahenobarbus, who was i n charge o f Picenum and Umbria, t o h a s t e n south w i t h a l l t h e s o l d i e r s he could muster, D o m i t i u s chose t o make a stand a g a i n s t Caesar at Corfinium.  Pompey's f e a r s about t h i s attempt were w e l l -  founded, and from h i s l e t t e r t o D o m i t i u s on F e b r u a r y 17 he made t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the s i t u a t i o n c l e a r t o D o m i t i u s , and p o i n t e d out t o h i s o f f i c e r what a chance Caesar had t o s e v e r 47 communications between them.  Pompey could not go n o r t h t o  h e l p D o m i t i u s as h i s newly r e c r u i t e d 45. A t t . ¥11: 17, 4 46. Earn. X V I : 12, 3. 47. A t t . V I I I : 12 C, 1 and 2.  s o l d i e r s would be no  18 match f o r Caesar's v e t e r a n s . - When the town f e l l t o Caesar on the t w e n t y - f i r s t , Caesar took t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o thank Domitius f o r d i s o b e y i n g Pompey by sending him w i t h h i s f e l l o w - o f f i c e r s back t o Pompey.  T h i s noble g e s t u r e won Caesar much  p o p u l a r favour,and may have been a source o f amusement t o him to send D o m i t i u s back where he could s t i l l be an annoyance t o Pompey. Meanwhile, a f t e r a b r i e f v i s i t t o Capua, C i c e r o r e t u r n e d to Formiae near t h e end o f January and made h i s head-quarters t h e r e f o r about two months.  I n r e p l y t o a l e t t e r from Caesar,  he thanked Caesar f o r t h e compliments p a i d him and a l s o p r a i s e d 48 Pompey t o Caesar. He.was, however, g r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d about Pompey's p l a n t o l e a v e I t a l y .  To C i c e r o ' s mind, i t would have 49 been more g l o r i o u s f o r Pompey t o have d i e d i n I t a l y . A l t h o u g h  he f e l t t h a t t h e r e was no hope f o r t h e s a f e t y o f the s t a t e i n Pompey's p r e s e n t course o f a c t i o n , y e t he. would g l a d l y d i e f o r 50 him. He d i d n o t agree w i t h A t t i c u s , a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t i f Pompey l e f t he  was bound t o go; he could not see t h a t such  a c t i o n would h e l p e i t h e r t h e s t a t e o r h i s f a m i l y .  He f e l t 51 he must s t a y i n I t a l y t o h e l p i n d i s c u s s i o n s f o r peace. I n a l e t t e r from C a l e s , w r i t t e n F e b r u a r y 18 o r 19, he o u t l i n e d t h e arguments f o r and a g a i n s t l e a v i n g I t a l y and j o i n 52 i n g Pompey. Here we have r e v e a l e d t h e i n n e r workings o f h i s 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.  Att. Att. Att. Att. Att.  VIII: VIII: VIII: VIII: VIII:  2,1. 2,2. 2,4. 2,4. 3.  19 quick mind.  The argument f o r j o i n i n g Pompey which was based J  on a sense.of g r a t i t u d e f o r Pompey s p a r t i n C i c e r o ' s r e c a l l v/as counterbalanced  by the f a c t t h a t , as p r e s i d i n g augur,  Pompey p e r m i t t e d the a d o p t i o n o f the n o t o r i o u s C l o d i u s i n t o a p l e b e i a n f a m i l y , thus e n a b l i n g C l o d i u s , a f t e r being e l e c t e d t r i b u n e , t o have h i s revenge on C i c e r o by e x i l i n g him.  Then,  a g a i n , Pompey's recent a c t i o n s were l a c k i n g both i n courage and i n f o r e s i g h t ; he had n e g l e c t e d C i c e r o ' s a d v i c e ; he had opposed M a r c e l l u s when he had t r i e d t o l i m i t Caesar's G a l l i c tenure a t March f i r s t , - 49.  The c h i e f argument, however, 53  a g a i n s t f o l l o w i n g Pompey, was Pompey's f l i g h t from Rome. C i c e r o looked on Pompey's r a l l y i n g p o i n t a t A p u l i a as having n o t h i n g t o recommend i t but i t s access t o the s e a . The Pomp e i a n s had no p o l i c y o r p l a n f i t t i n g f o r those who wanted t o save I t a l y . L a t e r , h i s comment on Pompey's f a i l u r e t o support D o m i t i u s a t C o r f i n i u r n was t h a t t h a t f a i l u r e crowned h i s d i s 54 grace. C i c e r o concluded h i s arguments w i t h t h e remark t h a t a l t h o u g h he had more reasons on one s i d e ( f o r remaining i n 55 I t a l y ) , he had more reason on the o t h e r . I n t h e l e t t e r s from F e b r u a r y t w e n t y - f o u r t h t o March e l e v e n t h when C i c e r o r e c e i v e d a message t h a t Pompey had crossed 56 to Greece on March f o u r t h , h i s peace o f mind. 53. 54. 55. 56.  Att. Att. Att. Att.  many c o n f l i c t i n g  thoughts t r o u b l e d  The d i s g r a c e f u l conduct o f t h e Pompeians,  V I I I : 3, 3. V I I I : 7, 1. V I I I : 3, 6. " . . r e s v e r b o s i o r haec f u e r i t , i l i a I X : 6, 3.  verior."  20 namely, the r e f u s a l o f peace, l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r war and 57 the l e a v i n g o f Rome, weighed h e a v i l y upon him. Caesar, i n h i s r o l e of a generous v i c t o r , seemed t o be the s a v i o u r of h i s 58 enemies, whereas Pompey seemed a t r a i t o r t o h i s f r i e n d s . Caesar had asked L e n t u l u s , the c o n s u l , t o remain i n I t a l y t o f i n i s h out h i s term of o f f i c e , o f f e r i n g him a p r o v i n c e a t the 59 completion o f h i s y e a r . Caesar a l s o made o v e r t u r e s t o C i c e r o s a y i n g t h a t he was p l e a s e d C i c e r o had remained n e u t r a l and 60 hoped he would continue t o remain n e u t r a l , C i c e r o r e c a l l e d h i s p o r t r a i t u r e o f the i d e a l statesman 61 and d e e p l y r e g r e t t e d t h a t Pompey had not acted the p a r t . He f e l t t h e r e was r e a l l y no choice between Pompey and Caesar as l e a d e r s , because b o t h wanted t o be r u l e r s ; n e i t h e r was 62 i n t e r e s t e d i n the w e l f a r e of the s t a t e . Pompey's one d e s i r e was t o a c t the p a r t o f S u l l a and. b r i n g b a r b a r i c e a s t e r n t o ravage I t a l y .  troops  C i c e r o shuddered a t the t h r e a t s coming from  L u c e r i a , t h r e a t s not m e r e l y of p r o s c r i p t i o n but o f u t t e r 63 extermination. I n c o n t r a s t , Caesar's 'studied clemency and 64 moderation  had won him many s u p p o r t e r s .  The people o f the  country towns were i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e i r p a l t r y farms and 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.  Att. Att. Att. Att. Att. Att. Att. Att.  V I I I : 8. V I I I : 9, 3. V I I I : 9, 4. V I I I : 11, 5. V I I I : 11, 1. V I I I : 11, 2. V I I I : 11, 4. I X : 7G.  SI fortunes.  Now t h a t t h e r e seemed t o he no immediate danger o f  l o s i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t y , they had changed t h e i r a t t i t u d e : t h e •one they t r u s t e d b e f o r e , they now £Sared; :and:' tiiey.-loved the.cone 65 whom they f e a r e d b e f o r e . I n a c t i n g the b e n e f i c e n t t y r a n t Caesar had earned as much g r a t i t u d e f o r the wrongs"he d i d not commit :: 66 as i f he had stopped someone e l s e from committing.them. Not o n l y A t t i c u s , but Balbus and Oppius, agents o f Caesar, wanted C i c e r o t o l o o k t o h i s own s a f e t y .  They would l i k e  C i c e r o t o be the m e d i a t o r f o r peace, w h i l e t h e r e might  still  be a chance o f n e g o t i a t i n g peace; but, even i f Caesar should war a g a i n s t Pompey, they urged C i c e r o not t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e 67 s t r u g g l e but t o remain n e u t r a l .  They gave him d e f i n i t e  assur-  ances t h a t Caesar was v e r y eager t o be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h Pompey, had no c r u e l thoughts a g a i n s t anyone, and esteemed C i c e r o highly.  C i c e r o , however, could not b e l i e v e t h a t Caesar would  be moderate, as h i s former conduct, h i s a s s o c i a t e s and h i s 68 present  e n t e r p r i s e d i d not p o i n t t h a t way. Caesar,  neverthe-  l e s s , i n a l e t t e r t o C i c e r o w r i t t e n from the neighbourhood o f B r u n d i s i u m about March 7, asked C i c e r o t o meet him on h i s r e t u r n t o Rome and t o g i v e him the b e n e f i t o f h i s a d v i c e and 69 experience i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s . A l t h o u g h , a t f i r s t g l a n c e , one might say t h a t C i c e r o 65. A t t . V I I I : 13, 2. . . i l i u m quo antea confidebant metuunt, .hunc amant quern timebant". 66. A t t . V I I I : 16,2. 67 . A t t . IX: 7A. 68. A t t . IX: 2A, 2. 69. A t t . I X : 6A. n  •|  2  2  i  d i d not seem t o know h i s own mind f o r one l e t t e r was f u l l o f  i  d e s i r e t o j o i n Pompey and another was f u l l o f c r i t i c i s m o f  j  Pompey, y e t t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y was not w i t h regard t o g e n e r a l  j  purpose.  I  p o r t Caesar i n s t e a d o f Pompey.  I  a d e c i s i o n q u i c k l y and a c t upon i t , was adequately  He d i d not e n t e r t a i n the thought t h a t he should supT h i s seeming f a i l u r e t o make explained  i n a l e t t e r t o A t t i c u s i n which he s t a t e d t h a t he was t a l k i n g t o A t t i c u s as i f he were t a l k i n g t o h i m s e l f .  Anyone faced  w i t h such an i s s u e a t a c r i t i c a l time had t o c o n s i d e r a l l pos70 s i b i l i t i e s before making a d e c i s i o n . Many senators were by t h i s time on t h e i r way back t o Rome; others a g a i n had d e f i n i t e 71 reasons and commissions t o f o l l o w Pompey.  C i c e r o had t o con-  s i d e r the i n t e r e s t s o f h i s f a m i l y ; f o r example, h i s b r o t h e r .7 . Quint us was s e t on j o i n i n g Pompey.' When the r e p o r t a r r i v e d t h a t Pompey had crossed over t o 73 . Greece, C i c e r o r e g r e t t e d t h a t he was not w i t h him. Two t h i n g s 2  had kept him from b e i n g w i t h Pompey; f i r s t , he hoped peace terms would be arranged; second, when he d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t Pompey  was e n t e r i n g on a war o f d e s t r u c t i o n , he f e l t t h a t i t d i d not 7.4 become a good c i t i z e n t o have a share i n such a t r o c i t i e s . F e r r e r o , commenting w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t o t h e f i r s t reason s a i d  t h a t i f C i c e r o had t a k e n a more a c t i v e p a r t and had been a t B r u n d i s i u m before Pompey had l e f t , he might have accomplished 70. A t t . V I I I : 14, 2. 71. A t t . I X : 6, 4. 72. A t t . I X : 1, 4. 73. A t t . I X : 6, 3 and 4. 74. A t t . I X : 6, 5; A t t . I X : 10, 3.  23 75 a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between t h e l e a d e r s and arranged peace.  Now  as matters stood, C i c e r o d e f i n i t e l y r e s o l v e d t o f o l l o w Pompey because Pompey was s u p p o r t i n g t h e r i g h t cause although he was u s i n g t h e wrong method.  The Pompeian programme i n c l u d e d t h e  b l o c k a d i n g o f I t a l y so t h a t t h e country would be s t a r v e d i n t o submission;  t h e n would come a r e i g n o f t e r r o r w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n 76 and c o n f i s c a t i o n s . As f a r as C i c e r o could f o r e s e e , a s i m i l a r 77 f a t e would b e f a l l I t a l y i f Caesar were t h e v i c t o r . a f t e r brushing aside lawcourts,  Caesar,  j u r i e s , and senate, would not  be a b l e t o r e s t r a i n t h e extravagance and requests o f h i s 78 daring associates. C i c e r o resented t h e l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r the o f f i c e o f consul Caesar was showing i n p r o p o s i n g  that Lepidus, a praetor, 79  should p r e s i d e over t h e c o n s u l a r e l e c t i o n s .  I n r e p l y t o Caesar  l e t t e r a s k i n g h i m t o come t o Rome, C i c e r o made i t v e r y c l e a r t h a t he would o n l y be t h e r e i f he were t o a c t as a mediator between Caesar and Pompey. undertaking  He was eminently  suited f o r that 80  as he had n o t t a k e n up arms,, i n the war.  Cicero  f u l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t Caesar wanted him i n t h e Senate a t Rome i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f an ex-consul  and as a member o f the c o l l e g e  of a n c t iGreatness o n a p r a e tand o r Dh eo cl ldiinneg o c ofn Rome". s u l a r e V. l e c 2, t i op. n s 240. or 75. augurs F e r r e r ot,o s"The 81 76. A t t . I X : 7, 2; A t t . I X : 9, 2. naming 77. A t t a . XX: d i c t a t7, o r 2. , b o t h o f these b e i n g u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s . 78. A t t . I X : 7, 3. 79. A t t . XX: 9, 3. 80. A t t . XX: 11A, 2. 81. A t t . XX: 15, 1.  24 C i o e r o was t r o u b l e d about h i s coming meeting w i t h Caesar 82 on March t w e n t y - e i g h t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a f t e r t h e meeting was over, he f e l t more p l e a s e d w i t h h i s own conduct than he had f o r a l o n g t i m e . A l t h o u g h he f e l t t h a t he had l o s t Caesar's 83 r e g a r d , he had won esteem i n h i s own eyes. The meeting was a d i f f i c u l t one f o r Caesar i n s i s t e d t h a t i f C i c e r o d i d not a t t e n d the  meeting o f the Senate on A p r i l f i r s t many o t h e r s e n a t o r s 84  would be l e s s ready t o come.  When Caesar t r i e d t o tempt him  to change h i s mind by a s k i n g him t o a t t e n d the senate t o d i s cuss peace terms, C i c e r o s a i d t h a t he would have t o make the f o l l o w i n g statements i n t h e house:  f i r s t , t h a t he d i s a p p r o v e d  of Caesar's e x p e d i t i o n t o S p a i n o r any t r a n s p o r t o f t r o o p s t o Greece; second, t h a t he would have t o express sympathy w i t h Pompey. N a t u r a l l y , Caesar d i s a p p r o v e d o f those statements being made, but asked C i c e r o t o g i v e t h e m a t t e r f u r t h e r oon85 s i d e r a t i o n . Caesar's a s s o c i a t e s a t t h a t time were a p p a r e n t l y 86 a desperate crew, and d i d n o t impress C i c e r o f a v o u r a b l y . As a r e s u l t o f t h a t meeting, C i c e r o r e a l i s e d t h a t he must a c t 87 more q u i c k l y s i n c e he had l o s t Caesar's f a v o u r . C i c e r o c e l e b r a t e d h i s son's coming o f age a t Arpinum as Rome was out o f bounds f o r him. The p o l i t i c a l 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87.  Att. Att. Att. Att. Att. Att.  IX: IX: LX: LX: IX: LX:  17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18,  1. 1. 1. li. 2. 3.  events s t i r r e d  25 him deeply and i n h i s next few l e t t e r s we f i n d him i n a r e f l e c t i v e mood.  The r e c r u i t i n g of men,  at a l l times a h a r d -  s h i p , seemed even more unendurable when i t was c a r r i e d out by ; ' 88 desperate men i n a wicked c i v i l war.  He thought t h a t Pompey  might welcome him a t t h i s stage of a f f a i r s more t h a n i f he had been w i t h him from the s t a r t , because, p r e v i o u s l y , the Pompeians had g r e a t hopes.but now they had none.  C i c e r o solemnly  d e c l a r e d t h a t he was not j o i n i n g Pompey f o r t h e sake of the R e p u b l i c , f o r , t o h i s mind, i t was u t t e r l y d e s t r o y e d ; but he . was g o i n g over t o Pompey from a sense of g r a t i t u d e t o the man who had e x t r i c a t e d him from the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t o which he had helped t o put him. to  Moreover, he dreaded the h o r r o r s t h a t were  follow i n Italy.  I l l t h a t the l o y a l i s t s had l e f t was l i f e , 89 and even t h a t had no l o n g e r any a t t r a c t i o n f o r C i c e r o . He was now, more than e v e r , eager t o be o f f t o Greece because he 90 f e l t h i s p o s i t i o n i n I t a l y was not honourable.  I n pondering  on h i s l i f e and comparing i t w i t h t h a t of Pompey and of Caesar, he found comfort i n the fact- t h a t he tiad not d e s e r t e d o r en91 s l a v e d h i s country but had always served i t l o y a l l y and w e l l . A l t h o u g h Caesar had a c t e d w i t h moderation - a t . f i r s t , C i c e r o d i d not f e e l t h a t Caesar was n a t u r a l l y adverse t o c r u e l t y but had merely r e s t r a i n e d h i m s e l f t o w i n p o p u l a r f a v o u r . his  s h o r t s t a y at Rome from A p r i l f i r s t ,  88. 89. 90. 91.  Att. Att. Att. Att.  IX: IX: XX: X:  19, 1. 19, 2. 19, 3; A t t . X; 4.  1,4;  Caesar showed h i s  A t t . X:  2, 2.  At  I  contempt o f the Senate by p e r s o n a l l y bestowing on C u r i o s i x  j  l i c t o r s and l a u r e l f a s c e s i n s t e a d o f t h a t honour coming from  i  the Senate.  j  from him not the senate.  j  the o t h e r side o f Caesar's n a t u r e .  j  Spain, when he wanted t h e money "out of:* t h e t r e a s u r y , he sent  He thus i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l a u t h o r i t y would proceed 92 Another i n c i d e n t showed the people  s o l d i e r s and b l a c k s m i t h s t o get i t .  Before h i s departure f o r  However, M e t e l l u s , the  t r i b u n e , opposed t h e i r a c t i o n and o n l y gave way when Caesar a r r i v e d i n person and threatened yield.  him w i t h death i f he d i d not  Here was the t y r a n t ' s hand.  Caesar had posed as the  p r o t e c t o r o f t h e r i g h t s o f t h e t r i b u n e s o f t h e people e a r l y i n January, but now t h a t one o f them opposed h i s wishes he had no s c r u p l e s about t h r e a t e n i n g him. Thus h i s b r i e f s t a y i n Rome seemed r a t h e r t o have harmed than helped h i s cause, and h i s v i o l e n c e toward t h e t r i b u n e overshadowed h i s clemency e a r l i e r i n the year. C i c e r o ' s f r i e n d C a e l i u s , a l o y a l C a e s a r i a n , was g r e a t l y alarmed by C i c e r o ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o Caesar i n r e f u s i n g t o a t t e n d 94 the senate a t Rome. He reminded C i c e r o t h a t he had h i s son, 95 h i s home, and t h e c a r e e r o f h i s son-in-law t o c o n s i d e r . He warned C i c e r o t h a t Caesar's p o l i c y would not remain generous. Now Caesar was t h o r o u g h l y  roused a g a i n s t the senate t h e r e would 96 be no p l a c e f o r p e t i t i o n s t o a v i c t o r i o u s Caesar. C a e l i u s 92. 93. 94. 95. 96.  A t t . X: 4, 5. P l u t . Caesar. 35. Earn. V I I I : 16, 1. Earn. V X I I : 16, 2. l a m . V I I I : 16, 1.  27 f u r t h e r argued t h a t t h e Pompeians would be d i s t r u s t f u l o f C i c e r o ' s a t t i t u d e because he had delayed so l o n g , and s t a t e d t h a t i f C i c e r o could not endure t h e t h r e a t s of t h e Pompeians and the i n s o l e n c e of the C a e s a r i a n s , he should r e t i r e t o some remote p l a c e u n t i l t h e war was over, 97 w r i t t e n en route t o S p a i n ,  Caesar's own l e t t e r ,  r e i t e r a t e d C a e l i u s ' arguments.  He suggested t o C i c e r o t h a t a l o y a l c i t i z e n and p e a c e f u l man could w e l l keep out o f c i v i l d i s t u r b a n c e .  C i c e r o , however,  could not r e c o n c i l e honour w i t h i n a c t i v i t y , and d i s p l a y e d great courage i n r e f u s i n g t o be n e u t r a l .  As he d e c l a r e d , he  was not i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a y i n g a c l e v e r r o l e ; he had made up h i s mind t o go t o Pompey whatever t h e outcome i n S p a i n should 98 be. 99 I n a l e t t e r t o A t t i c u s o f May 2,  C i c e r o made an adequate  defence a g a i n s t those c r i t i c s who have c a l l e d him a p o l i t i c a l trimmer. his  S i n c e i t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o save t h e R e p u b l i c ,  main d e s i r e was t o f u l f i l . ' ; , h i s debt o f g r a t i t u d e t o Pompey.  Once he was r e s o l v e d on g o i n g , no p l e a s could d e t e r him. his  Both  daughter and A t t i c u s wanted him t o w a i t u n t i l the outcome  of t h e b a t t l e i n S p a i n was known, and t h e n t o adopt a p l a n i n keeping w i t h t h a t r e s u l t .  C i c e r o had, o f course, o n l y one  wish w i t h r e g a r d t o S p a i n — t h e  d e f e a t o f Caesar,  Cicero pre-  f e r r e d t o abandon Caesar when Caesar was a v i c t o r n o t when h i s p o s i t i o n was more d o u b t f u l . 97. A t t . T i l l : 6. 98. A t t . X: 6, 1. 99. A t t . X: 8, 2.  A g a i n , Caesar's v i c t o r y would  28 mean s l a u g h t e r , t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , r e t u r n o f e x i l e s , c a n c e l l a t i o n o f d e b t s , men o f t h e lowest repute i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s , and a k i n d o f tyranny more l i k e E a s t e r n despotism 100 than Roman government. He reminded A t t i c u s o f t h e duty placed on a l l m a g i s t r a t e s and e x - m a g i s t r a t e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 101 year, t h e duty t o see t h a t t h e s t a t e should come t o no harm. How could he t h e n t a k e p a r t w i t h those a g a i n s t whom t h e s t a t e 102 had armed him? He s t a t e d h i s own r e s o l v e f i r m l y t h a t s i n c e t h e r e was danger whether he went o r stayed he p r e f e r r e d t h e 103 more honourable  course.  D u r i n g t h e r e s t o f May, C i c e r o ' s time was occupied his preparations f o r departure. ing  with  H i s main d i f f i c u l t y was a v o i d -  contact w i t h Antony,who had w r i t t e n t o him t o emphasize 104  the f a c t t h a t C i c e r o was not t o l e a v e .  C i c e r o pretended t o  be compliant, but, a f t e r a r r a n g i n g f o r h i s f a m i l y t o s t a y a t Arpinum, he eluded Antony's scouts and s a i l e d f o r Pompey's 105 headquarters on June seventh. I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y C i c e r o ' s stand w i t h regard t o t h e .•.republican form o f government I t h i n k i t i s w e l l t o review c e r t a i n "facts.; which determined h i s u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , s i n c e C i c e r o had been absent from I t a l y from 100. -51 A t B. t. May 101. Earn. 102. A t t . 103..Att. 104. A t t . 105. Earn.  X: 2. C. t8, o November 50 B. C. as governor o f C i l i c i a , he XVI: 1 1 . X: 8, 8. X: 8, 5. X: 10, 2. XIV: 7., 2.  29 had not f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r e c e n t  developments  i n Rome. As he t r a v e l l e d , n e a r e r t o Rome he gained a more complete p i c t u r e o f e v e n t s .  E a r l y i n December i n w r i t i n g t o  A t t i c u s from Trebulanum, he s a i d he was behind Pompey and t h e 106 government even i f Pornoey were t o blame f o r Caesar's present 107 power. H i s main e f f o r t s , hone t h e l e s s , would be d i r e c t e d 108 toward t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f peace. When he reached Eormiae a few days l a t e r , h i s f e a r s were roused, f o r the l o y a l i s t s o r 109 s u p p o r t e r s o f the government were n o t i n agreement. He d i d not grasp f u l l y what A t t i c u s meant i n s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e was 110 need t h a t he ( C i c e r o ) should support t h e r i g h t p a r t y . The way m a t t e r s stood a t t h a t p o i n t he s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be one course open t o him, namely, t h e support of Pompey and t h e 111 senate a g a i n s t Caesar the i n v a d e r .  The f i r s t duty of t h e  l o y a l i s t s should be t h e defence of the c a p i t a l ; t h e n , i f i t would be n e c e s s a r y , t h e y might l e a v e t h e c a p i t a l i n o r d e r t o cut  o f f Caesar's s u p p l i e s .  T h i s s u g g e s t i o n seems t o me t o be  i n the n a t u r e of a planned e v a c u a t i o n w i t h the s p e c i f i c purpose t h a t C i c e r o mentions and n o t a h a s t y d e p a r t u r e from the city.  On C i c e r o ' s a r r i v a l a t t h e o u t s k i r t s  of Rome he a t : 112  once began t o s t r i v e t o prevent t h e outbreak o f war. when 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112.  However,  Pompey and h i s a s s o c i a t e s f l e d from Rome at t h e news o f A t t . V I I : 3, 2, T 5 . A t t . VII: 3, 4. A t t . V I I : 6. A t t . V I I : 5, 4. A t t . V I I : 7, 5. A t t . V I I : 7, 5. 7. Ad Earn. X V I : 12, 2.  Caesar's advance, C i c e r o f a i l e d t o see why f l i g h t was  necessary  and s t a t e d d e f i n i t e l y t h a t he would support Pompey as l o n g as . 113 Pompey made a stand i n I t a l y . Then, when i t "became evident t h a t Pompey was p l a n n i n g t o l e a v e I t a l y and o r g a n i z e  Eastern  f o r c e s w i t h w h i c h t o invade h i s country, C i c e r o could not f e e l 114 t h a t Pompey was a c t i n g as the defender o f the s t a t e . The l a c k o f p l a n f o r t h e defence of I t a l y became e v i d e n t .  Pompey,  then,was i n no wise d i f f e r e n t from Caesar, i n t h a t he, t o o , was i n t e r e s t e d i n power f o r h i m s e l f and not i n s a v i n g c o n s t i t u 115 t i o n a l government. C i c e r o shrank from t h e t h r e a t s o f the Pom116 peians a g a i n s t t h e i r country and t h e i r countrymen. Thus, C i c e r o stayed i n I t a l y a f t e r Pompey l e f t i n order t o be ready i n case h o s t i l i t i e s could- be prevented,  and when he d i d go  over t o Pompey, he went from a sense o f p e r s o n a l g r a t i t u d e t o 117 Pompey.  He had no hope t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n was to be saved.  Thus, i t w i l l be seen l a t e r , t h a t a f t e r P h a r s a l i a C i c e r o d i d ' not j o i n t h e Pompeians i n t h e i r p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e war, because he was not i n sympathy w i t h t h e i r s t a n d .  He r e t u r n e d t o I t a l y  to be ready t o use whatever i n f l u e n c e he might have w i t h Caesar t o r e s t o r e some form o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government.  113. 114. 115. 116. 117.  Att. Att. Att. Att. Att,  V I I : 10. V I I I : 2, 2. A t t . V I I I : V I I I : 11, 2. I X : 7, 2. I X : 19, 2.  7, 1.  Att. VIII:  11, 4.  31 Chapter I T A Dark Outlook 4 8 — 4 7 B. C. A f t e r h a v i n g t o use t h r e a t s a g a i n s t t h e t r i b u n e M e t e l l u s 118 i n o r d e r t o g a i n access t o t h e t r e a s u r y ,  Caesar was more  anxious t h a n ever t o b r i n g the campaign i n S p a i n t o a successf u l c o n c l u s i o n t o o f f s e t t h e r e v e r s a l o f p o p u l a r f a v o u r , and 119 so he l e f t Rome about A p r i l 6 (49 B. C.) Owing t o t h e h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e o f t h e people o f M a s s i l i a , Caesar was delayed t h e r e 120 f o r about a month.  T h i s unexpected r e b u f f caused Caesar t o  c a r r y out a d a r i n g p l a n .  He l e f t t h e s i e g e o f M a s s i l i a t o  Gaius Trebonius and Decimus Brutus and hastened t o Spain himself.  There, a f t e r one s e r i o u s r e p u l s e , he compelled the Pom121 peians t o s u r r e n d e r on August 2, When he a r r i v e d back a t M a s s i l i a , he l e a r n e d t h a t a t Rome L e p i d u s , a p r a e t o r , had 122 named h i m d i c t a t o r . Then h u r r y i n g back t o Rome, he p r e s i d e d over the c o n s u l a r e l e o t i o n s and was h i m s e l f e l e c t e d consul f o r 123 the coming y e a r .  Hence, a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e y e a r , he was  ready t o d i r e c t t h e o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t Pompey i n Greece. E a r l y i n 48 B. C , Caesar crossed the A d r i a t i c and p r e pared n o t o n l y t o a t t a c k the Pompeians, but a l s o , as l e g i t i m a t e 124 oonsul,to propose peace terms.  However, peace was out of t h e  q u e s t i o n . The campaign between the two s k i l l e d g e n e r a l s was 118. A t t . X: 8, 6. 119. A t t . X: 8, 6. 120. Caes. B. C. i , 3 4 — 3 6 . 121. Caes. B. C. i , 4 1 — 8 7 122. Caes. B. C. i i . 21. 123. D i o Cass. 42. 124. Caes. B. C. i i i , 10.  32 on I n e a r n e s t . 125 follows:  Strachan-Davidson a b l y d e s c r i b e s t h e combat as  "The s t r a t e g y was admirable on both s i d e s , f a l l o f d a r i n g and genius on t h e p a r t o f Caesar, and o f s k i l l and prudence on t h e p a r t o f Pompey." I f Pompey could have e x e r c i s e d a f i r m enough c o n t r o l over h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c a s s o c i a t e s and pursued t h a t p o l i c y o f prudence, he might h o t have s u f f e r e d d e f e a t , a l t h o u g h h i s troops were h a r d l y a match f o r Caesar's seasoned v e t e r a n s .  As i t was, he  allowed h i m s e l f t o be persuaded t o abandon h i s own p o l i c y . Thus, a t P h a r s a l i a , t h e d i s c i p l i n e d western s o l d i e r s triumphed 126 over t h e e a s t e r n l e g i o n s  and Pompey f l e d t o Egypt where he  was murdered. Eor some time before t h e b a t t l e o f P h a r s a l i a C i c e r o had 127 N  been a t Dyrrachium i n poor h e a l t h .  When the news o f Pompey•s  defeat reached Dyrrachium, Cato, who had a f l e e t and c o n s i d e r able f o r c e s , wanted C i c e r o , t h e s e n i o r c o n s u l a r , t o take command.  When C i c e r o r e f u s e d t o do s o , he n a r r o w l y 128  k i l l e d by young Snaeus Pompey.  escaped being  C i c e r o , i n accordance w i t h  h i s own p o l i c y , a r r i v e d back a t B r u n d i s i u m i n October, not very w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s own d e c i s i o n and hoping he would not r e g r e t h i s r e t u r n . 125. 126. 127. 128. 129.  -Strachan-Davidson, He was t o be a t B r u n" dC ii sc ie ur mo " ,f o p. r t e339. n weary months i n a Caes. B. C. i i i , 8 5 — 8 9 . P l u t . P i c . 39 * P l u t . C i c . 39. Earn. X I V : 12.  33 wretched s t a t e of mind -and body. that p e r i o d was  His correspondence d u r i n g  m a i n l y on domestic m a t t e r s ; whenever he d i d  touch on p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s he was w i t h , Quintus had  u t t e r l y dejected.  To begin  shown great i l l - w i l l towards him a f t e r Phar-  s a l i a , and l a t e r sent h i s son t o Caesar not only t o g a i n f a v iso our but a l s o to accuse h i s b r o t h e r Marcus t o Caesar. shadow c l o u d i n g h i s s p i r i t s was  the t a l k of the Pompeians  before P h a r s a l i a of the f a r - r e a c h i n g p r o s c r i p t i o n s and t i o n s planned a g a i n s t those who  Another  had remained i n I t a l y .  confiscaCicero  g r i m l y reminded A t t i c u s t h a t h i s name was  c e r t a i n l y on the l i s t 131 of persons whose p r o p e r t y was to be c o n f i s c a t e d . Now t h a t these men were r a l l y i n g i n A f r i c a they would be l o o k i n g t o t h a t 132 booty a g a i n .  C i c e r o was  t r o u b l e d , too, about h i s l i c t o r s  and wrote to Balbus and Oppius t o see i f he might come n e a r e r Rome.  They were both c o n f i d e n t about Caesar's g o o d w i l l to  C i c e r o but  could not g i v e p e r m i s s i o n  on t h e i r own  authority.  I n t h a t same l e t t e r we f i n d a t r i b u t e t o the deceased Pompey. 133 C i c e r o had kept h i s h i g h p e r s o n a l regard t h i s time C i c e r o was of those who  had  f o r h i s hero.  At  s u b j e c t t o many c r i t i c i s m s ; the c r i t i c i s m  j o i n e d Caesar, and t h a t ' o f those who 134 -  were  now making a stand i n A f r i c a . The b e g i n n i n g of the y e a r 47 showed no l i g h t e n i n g of the 130. A t t . X I : 8, 1. burden 131. A t tof. XC Ii :c e r o6,' s 2. problems. Throughout i t a l l , however, he 132. A t t . X I : 6, 2. 133. A t t . X I : 6. 134. A t t . X I : 7, 3. A t t . X I : 8.  34 blames o n l y h i m s e l f .  135 " The  f a c t i o n a g a i n s t Caesar both i n 136  Spain and i n I t a l y had grown  so t h a t i t looked as i f the  Pompeians were going to be able t o r e a s s e r t themselves.  In  -Rome Caesar's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were having d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g to keep t h i n g s running smoothly.  A l l these f a c t s made 137  C i c e r o f e e l t h a t he should have gone to A f r i c a  and not  cluded t h a t the i s s u e had been decided w i t h the defeat Pompey.  of  Many of the l o y a l i s t s had a l r e a d y crossed over so 138.  t h a t he had no one to share h i s predicament. h i s own  con-  Notwithstanding  t r o u b l e s and the harm h i s b r o t h e r Quintus had been  doing him,  he wrote t o Caesar a s k i n g him to overlook  p a r t i n the war.  Quintus'  He was  a n x i o u s , t o o , about T u l l i a ' s h e a l t h 139 and about D o l a b e l l a ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n Rome. He looked f o r Caesar's departure from A l e x a n d r i a e a g e r l y so t h a t he might 140 o b t a i n the s o l u t i o n f o r some of h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s . 141 I n a l e t t e r to C a s s i u s Longinus  written just  before  Caesar's return, i n September, C i c e r o s e t f o r t h h i s reasons f o r not j o i n i n g the group i n A f r i c a :  ..he f e l t t h a t the q u a r r e l  between Caesar and Pompey should have been determined by  the  i s s u e of the one major b a t t l e ; he a l s o p r e f e r r e d t o t r y to r e b u i l d the s t a t e out of the fragments of the o l d , r a t h e r than pursue a p o l i c y which meant the p r o l o n g i n g of the 135. - A t t . X I : 9, 1. A t t . X I : 15, 2, 136. A t t . X I : 10, 2. 137. A t t . X I : 11, 1. 138. A t t . X I : 14, 1. 139. A t t . X I : 12, 3. 140. A t t . X I : 17, 3. A t t . X I : 18, 1. 141. Fam. XY: 15.  war  35 and o f the s u f f e r i n g s o f the people and which, perhaps, involved the u t t e r destruction  of the s t a t e .  Hence, C i c e r o  had h u r r i e d t o I t a l y a f t e r P h a r s a l i a t o see what he could do about the s t a t e , b u t , s i n c e Caesar had not y e t r e t u r n e d from the E a s t , he had been unable t o put any of h i s p l a n s i n t o action.  36 Chapter V C i c e r o Under a D i c t a t o r September 4 7 — M a r c h 44 B. C. J u s t b e f o r e Caesar r e t u r n e d t o I t a l y , C i c e r o r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from him s a y i n g t h a t he might r e t a i n h i s l i c t o r s and 142 his t i t l e of Imperator. When Caesar a r r i v e d a t Tarentum about September 25, C i c e r o went t o meet him and was k i n d l y r e e ~ ceived.  As C i c e r o gained p e r m i s s i o n t o l i v e where he wished, 143 he s e t out f o r h i s T u s c u l a n v i l l a and spent t h e remainder of the  y e a r near Rome. Caesar a l s o rewarded h i s own s u p p o r t e r s . F u f i u s Calenus  and P u b l i u s V a t i n i u s were e l e c t e d c o n s u l s f o r t h e coming y e a r . I n o r d e r t o g i v e s p e c i f i c rewards t o o t h e r s Caesar i n c r e a s e d the  number o f p r a e t o r s from e i g h t t o t e n , and f i l l e d many o f 144  the  vacancies i n the senate.  He showed, t o o , t h a t he would  l i k e t o have t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f some o f the moderate Pomp e i a n s : S e r v i u s S u l p i c i u s was made governor o f Greece, Gaius C a s s i u s was made a l e g a t e and Majfcus B r u t u s , governor o f C i s 145 alpine Gaul. I n t h e y e a r 46, C i c e r o a c t e d as a mediator between Caesar and h i s a s s o c i a t e s and t h e e x i l e d Pompeians, as t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f h i s correspondence r e v e a l s .  He devoted much o f h i s  time t o p h i l o s o p h y and some o f Caesar's f r i e n d s came t o him -146 to study d e c l a m a t i o n . 142. 143. 144. 145. 146.  P r o L i g a r i o 3: 7. Fam. XIV: 20. D i o Cass, x l i i , 51. Fam V I : 6, 10. Plut. Cic. Fam. I X : 18. 1, 3.  G i c e r o ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e a c t i o n s o f Caesar's a s s o c i a t e s was s e t f o r t h i n h i s correspondence w i t h Y a r r o .  In replying  to Y a r r o ' s i n v i t a t i o n t o v i s i t him a t B a i a e , C i c e r o s a i d he j f e l t he c o u l d not do so when t h e S t a t e was i n such a c o n d i t i o n 147 and those i n power degraded hy every s o r t o f crime and excess. Men l i k e C i c e r o were out of..favour n o t only- w i t h t h e Caesari a n s but a l s o w i t h t h e Pompeians.  The former l o o k e d on C i c e r o  and h i s f r i e n d s as d e f e a t e d men; t h e l a t t e r , whose f r i e n d s had l o s t t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e c o n f l i c t o r were e x i l e d , regarded them as h a v i n g no r i g h t to.be a l i v e .  I n s p i t e of t h a t , Cicero f e l t  t h a t men such as Y a r r o and h i m s e l f should h o l d themselves i n r e a d i n e s s t o be o f s e r v i c e t o t h e s t a t e , because much would 148 depend on Caesar's course of a c t i o n .  As i f i n answer t o t h e  c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t him, he s t a t e d t h a t those who had f o l l o w e d Pompey from a sense o f duty and had withdrawn when the s i t u a t i o n became h o p e l e s s , were more honourable t h a n those who had never l e f t I t a l y a t a l l , and were not so b i g o t e d i n t h e i r views as those who d i d not r e t u r n t o I t a l y when t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n was w i t h o u t a v a i l . The c r i t i c i s m , however, o f those who had done n o t h i n g a t a l l themselves, was t h e h a r d e s t 149 to bear. I n t h i n k i n g back t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C i v i l war, C i c e r o r e a l i z e d t h a t r i g h t from t h e s t a r t t h e Pompeians wanted war, whereas Caesar d i d n o t so much d e s i r e i t , as not dread 150 it. Caesar s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d a f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e t o C i c e r o 147. 148. 149. 150.  Fam. Fam. Fam. Fam.  IX: IX: LX: IX*  3, 1. 2, 4. 5, 2. 6,2.  58 but C i c e r o c o u l d make no d e f i n i t e p r e d i c t i o n s as to the a c t i o n s 151 of a man  who  had once made a departure  from law and  Towards the l a t t e r h a l f of 46 B. C ,  order.  C i c e r o was more  o p t i m i s t i c about Caesar's a t t i t u d e toward the s t a t e .  On  sev-  e r a l o c c a s i o n s he I n s i s t e d to h i s correspondents t h a t Caesar h i m s e l f showed d i g n i t y , good sense and a d e s i r e to see  justice 152  done, but t h a t he was h i n d e r e d by the demands of h i s a s s o c i a t e s . Caesar's moderation was more s u r p r i s i n g day by day, and i t seemed t h a t i t was  v i c t o r y i t s e l f and not the v i c t o r t h a t i n 153  f l i c t e d the h a r s h measures on the d e f e a t e d .  One  occasion,  the r e s t o r a t i o n o f Marcus M a r c e l l u s by Caesar, an a c t c a l l e d by C i c e r o the most d i g n i f i e d enactment of Caesar's senate, made C i c e r o hope t h a t once a g a i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n would come 154 to l i f e .  C i c e r o was  so moved t h a t he broke the r e s o l u t i o n  he had made to remain s i l e n t i n Caesar's senate and  thanked  Caesar f o r t h a t r e s t o r a t i o n . Meantime C i c e r o ' s f a m i l y t r o u b l e s were by no means over. 155 E a r l y i n 46 he had d i v o r c e d T e r e n t i a * and i n December he 156 m a r r i e d h i s r i c h young ward P u b i l i a .  This marriage was  a happy one, f o r C i c e r o had no a f f e c t i o n f o r her and  not  resented  her a t t i t u d e to h i s daughter T u l l i a . Perhaps the s e v e r e s t 151. Fam. IX: 16, 3. 152. he Fam. s u fIV: 3; the Fam.d e aV It :h of6; h i Fam. V I : 10; I : 17,1. blow f e r e 9, d was s beloved T u l l iFam. a i nX IFeb153. Fam. IV: 4, 2. 154. Fam. IV: 4, 2, 3. 155. - P l u t . C i c . 41. 156. Fam. IV: 14, 3.  39 r u a r y 45.  H i s p h i l o s o p h y and the c o n s o l a t i o n of h i s f r i e n d s 157 were unable to b r i n g him any r e a l comfort, and he r e t i r e d 158 to A s t u r a out of the b u s t l e of Rome. Throughout the year many of h i s l e t t e r s to A t t i c u s c o n t a i n h i s plans f o r a s h r i n e to T u l l i a ' s memory but we have no r e c o r d o f t h e i r having been fulfilled.  He f e l t t h a t he c o u l d never take h i s p l a c e again i n 159 p o l i t i c s as he had l o s t the o n l y t i e t h a t bound him to l i f e . 160 He r e f u s e d to see h i s young w i f e s i n c e he suspected t h a t she r e j o i c e d a t T u l l i a ' s death, and some time l a t e r , he 161 her. As the year 45 was  divorced  overshadowed by h i s g r e a t g r i e f ,  C i c e r o ' s a t t i t u d e to p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s was much l e s s o p t i m i s t i c than i t had been the p r e v i o u s y e a r , and he seemed more r e s i g n e d 162 to withdraw from p o l i t i c s as he was growing o l d .  Caesar,  engaged i n a war i n S p a i n a g a i n s t the f o r c e s under Pompey's sons, was  absent from Rome the g r e a t e r p a r t of the year.  d e c i s i v e b a t t l e , fought a t Munda, was f o r Caesar.  The  an overwhelming v i c t o r y  Pompey's e l d e r son was K i l l e d but the younger 163  made h i s escape.  While the war i n S p a i n was  i n progress,  C i c e r o summed up h i s d e c i s i o n about the outcome w i t h the s t a t e ment t h a t , i f Pompey's sons were v i c t o r i o u s there would be r u t h l e s s massacre; i f Caesar were the v i c t o r , t h e r e would be 164 slavery. that 157. 158. 159. 160.  His l a s t statement shows t h a t he must have now  seen  Caesar the conqueror would become Caesar the d i c t a t o r , A t t . X I I : 14, 3, 4. 161. P l u t . C i c . 41. A t t . X I I : 15; A t t . X I I : 21, 4. 162. Fam. VI: 4, 4. A t t . X I I : 23, 1; Fam. V: 15. 163. P l u t . Caes. 56. A t t . X I I : 32, 1. 164. Fam. IV: 14, 1.  and h i s chance o f i n t r o d u c i n g some measure o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government would he s l i g h t . settling  As always, he was opposed t o  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s hy means o f t h e sword i n s t e a d 165  of by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means.  Some time i n May, C i c e r o wrote  a l e t t e r o f p o l i t i c a l a d v i c e t o Caesar but i t was never sent to Caesar because Balbus and Oppius o b j e c t e d t o c e r t a i n sug166 g e s t i o n s C i c e r o had made. C i c e r o r e f u s e d t o make any changes 167 and withdrew t h e l e t t e r , p r e f e r r i n g t o g i v e up any form o f f l a t t e r y and r e t a i n some measure o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y . Toward t h e c l o s e .of the y e a r Caesar openly showed h i s d e s i r e t o be k i n g . He had h i s s t a t u e s e t up beside t h a t o f 168 Quirinus and then had h i s image c a r r i e d i n a p r o c e s s i o n among those o f t h e gods.  C i c e r o r e j o i c e d t h a t t h e people d i d n o t  applaud t h e s t a t u e of V i c t o r y because t h e s t a t u e o f Caesar was 169 with i t . However, C i c e r o d i d not r e f u s e t o a t t e n d t h e senate on August f i r s t as he p r e f e r r e d t o go r a t h e r than t o have h i s 170 absence a t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Although C i c e r o had dreaded Caesar's v i s i t t o him a t P u t e o l i , y e t , on t h e whole, t h e v i s i t passed o f f very w e l l . Caesar enjoyed h i s d i n n e r , and t h e t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n were i n no way s e r i o u s as t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s were on l i t e r a r y t o p i c s 171 not p o l i t i c a l ones. Caesar's subsequent mockery o f t h e con165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171.  Fam. Att. Att. Att. Att. Att. Att.  I V . 14, 2; Fam. V I : 1, 6. X I I I : 27, 1. X I I I : 31, 3. X I I : 45, 2 X I I I : 44, 1. X I I I : 47 B, 1. X I I I : 52, 1, 2.  41 s o l s h i p by having C a n i n i u s R e b i l u s e l e c t e d f o r a s i n g l e day h u r t C i c e r o deeply f o r he saw 172 of the o f f i c e .  i n i t an i n s u l t t o t h e d i g n i t y  Caesar had h i m s e l f e l e c t e d consul f o r 44 B. C. w i t h Mark Antony as h i s c o l l e a g u e , and spent the e a r l y months o f the year 173 p r e p a r i n g t o make an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t the P a r t h i a n s . His acceptance of the t i t l e o f p e r p e t u a l d i c t a t o r r e v e a l e d t h a t he 174 d i d not i n t e n d t o r e l i n q u i s h supreme power and h i s a d o p t i o n of h i s nephew O c t a v i u s would seem t o i n d i c a t e h i s d e s i r e t o 175 e s t a b l i s h a dynasty. . T h i s p a s s i o n f o r r o y a l power gained f o r 176 him much h a t r e d and r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s p i r a c y being formed a g a i n s t him.  Thus, when Caesar come t o the senate house on 177 March 15, the c o n s p i r a t o r s took h i s l i f e .  172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177.  Fam. V I I : 30. 1, 2. App. B. C. i i , 110. App. B. C. v i i , 4—5. App. B. C. i i i , 9. P l u t . Caes. 5 9 . P l u t . Caes". *<^>1, 1 — 4 .  42 Chapter V I . C i c e r o as Leader of t h e S t a t e . C i c e r o ' s immediate r e a c t i o n t o t h e murder o f Caesar was 178 one o f j o y t h a t t h e t y r a n t had been removed. Throughout, he was l a v i s h i n h i s p r a i s e of t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s whom he termed 179 as heroes even when he r e a l i z e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e t y r a n t had 180 been k i l l e d , t y r a n n y s t i l l l i v e d on. I n no r e s p e c t had t h e 181 c o n s t i t u t i o n been r e s t o r e d o r freedom recovered^ f o r t h e con182 s p i r a t o r s had l a c k e d a d e f i n i t e p l a n and course o f a c t i o n . The  c o n s p i r a t o r s d i d n o t see the danger o f l e a v i n g Antony a l i v e 183  as C i c e r o d i d ,  and he had an e x c e l l e n t r e t o r t f o r Antony when  Antony accused him o f b e i n g t h e r i n g l e a d e r o f t h e p l o t , by s t a t i n g t h a t he f e r v e n t l y wished he had been,for t h e n Antony 184 would n o t now be a l i v e t o t r o u b l e t h e l i b e r a t o r s . March f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h were days o f c o n f u s i o n a t Rome.  A f t e r Caesar had been murdered, Brutus attempted t o  address the assembled senators  but they, w i t h o u t s t o p p i n g t o 185  hear him, f l e d from t h e senate i n bewildered  fear.  On t h e  s i x t e e n t h the c o n s p i r a t o r s a g a i n made a formal speech t o t h e p e o p l e ; t h i s speech the people l i s t e n e d t o r e s p e o t f u l l y 178. Fam.VI: 15 179. A t t . X I V : 4, 2; A t t . X I V : 14, 2; A t t . XIV: 11, 1; Fam. X I I : 3, 1. 180. A t t . XIV: 9, 2; A t t . X I V : 14, 2; Fam. X I I : 1, 1. 181. A t t . XIV: 4, 1; A t t . XIV: 14, 2; A t t . XIV: 18, 3. 182. A t t . X I V : 21, 1. 183. A t t . XIV: 21, 1; A t t . XV: 4. A t t . XV: 1 1 . 184. Fam. X I I : 3, 1. 185. P l u t . Caes. 67: 1.  43 186 without showing any resentment a t t h e deed.  Through Decimus  Brutus t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s began n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Antony and 187 Lepidus.  Antony, even as e a r l y as t h i s , seemed t o have come  forward as a l e a d e r o f t h e C a e s a r i a n s .  To him, as t h e s u r v i v -  i n g c o n s u l , Caesar's widow C a l p u r n i a gave a c o n s i d e r a b l e sum of money and a l l o f Caesar's papers.  These papers not o n l y  had a r e c o r d o f Caesar's enactments but a l s o contained h i s p l a n s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n ; i n Antony's hands such papers would 188 p l a y an important p a r t i n any scheme he might work o u t . On t h e seventeenth o f March C i c e r o attended t h e meeting 189 of t h e senate i n t h e temple o f T e l l u s and proposed a g e n e r a l amnesty. peace.  I n so doing, he f e l t he was l a y i n g a sound b a s i s f o r  Antony added t o t h i s p r o p o s a l the r a t i f i c a t i o n o f  Caesar's a c t s , a measure he claimed e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p r e s e r v a 190 t i o n o f peace.  F o l l o w i n g t h e meeting o f t h e senate Brutus  and C a s s i u s were e n t e r t a i n e d by Lepidus and Antony r e s p e c t i v e l y so t h a t i t seemed t h a t a c i v i c d i s t u r b a n c e had been avoided.  The p r o v i n c e o f Crete was a s s i g n e d t o Brutus and 191  that of A f r i c a to Cassius. Meanwhile, i n s p i t e o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f C a s s i u s ,  Brutus  granted t o Caesar's f r i e n d s t h e r i g h t t o h o l d a p u b l i c f u n e r a l and t o p u b l i s h h i s w i l l . 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191.  As subsequent events were t o show  P l u t . Caes. 67, 4. Fam. X I ; 1, 1. P l u t . A n t . 15. P h i l . i . I , 1; i i . 35. 89; A t t . XIV: 14, 2. App. B. C. i i , 1 2 6 f . P l u t . A n t . 14 P l u t . B r u t . 23.  44 B r u t u s ' f i r s t m i s t a k e was i n s p a r i n g t h e l i f e o f Antony, and his  second was the g r a n t i n g o f the above requests t o Caesar's 19S  friends.  The r e a d i n g of the w i l l , w i t h i t s bequests t o t h e  - c i t i z e n s as w e l l as t o t h e s o l d i e r s and t o o f f i c i a l s , and Antonj'-'s f u n e r a l speech so roused t h e i n d i g n a t i o n o f t h e people 193 'against the c o n s p i r a t o r s t h a t they had t o l e a v e Rome. Antony and Lepidus as l e a d e r s o f t h e C a e s a r i a n p a r t y d i d not have a ready p l a n o f a c t i o n so t h a t Antony, t o my mind, p l a y e d f o r time.  Before going t o o f a r w i t h any p r o j e c t he had  to f i n d out j u s t w h a t - f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s had and make his  b i d f o r power a c c o r d i n g t o the v a r y i n g circumstances.  We  have a l r e a d y seen h i s e a r l y r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s coupled w i t h h i s s u b t l e a d d i t i o n t o C i c e r o ' s p r o p o s a l f o r a g e n e r a l amnesty.  Thus, on March seventeenth  Decimus Brutus h i s p r o v i n c e o f C i s a l p i n e G a u l .  he r e f u s e d 194 Decimus f e l t  a t t h e time t h a t Antony's r e f u s a l was based on h i s f e a r o f the c o n s p i r a t o r s g a i n i n g t o o prominent a p l a c e i n the s t a t e and o f /A.  h a v i n g no p a r t h i m s e l f .  Decimus here .warned Brutus and C a s s i u s A  t h a t Antony was l i k e l y t o be t r e a c h e r o u s .  A l i t t l e l a t e r , how-  ever, Antony proposed t h a t a d i c t a t o r s h i p such as Caesar h e l d should be a b o l i s h e d a l t o g e t h e r .  T h i s move seemed t o i n d i c a t e  t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l a chance f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government 195 192. P l u t . B r u t . 23. and C Pi lc ue rt o. Bp r ua ti .s e d26; h iAs natc.t 14; i o n .C i c About 193. . 42. A p r i l t h e e i g h t h o r 194. Fam. X I : 1, 1. 195. P h i l . i . 1, 2.  45 ninth. Antony was s t i l l a b l e t o conceal h i s r e a l i n t e n t i o n s because he gave t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f being more i n t e r e s t e d i n 196 banqueting t h a n i n p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t the c o n s p i r a t o r s . From A p r i l t w e n t y - s i x t h on, however, Antony's plans became v e r y c l e a r t o C i c e r o .  One t h i n g was c e r t a i n :  there 197 would be no hope of .remaining n e u t r a l i n t h i s coming s t r u g g l e . Antony had d e c l a r e d t h a t he would c o n s i d e r an enemy anyone who 198 had r e j o i c e d a t Caesar's death, and C i c e r o and h i s f r i e n d s had made no s e c r e t o f t h e i r j o y .  Antony, meanwhile, had been •  making such good use o f Caesar's papers t h a t C i c e r o f e l t t h a t they were more enslaved by Caesar's notes t h a t they had been 199 by Caesar h i m s e l f .  Antony, w i t h D o l a b e l l a ' s h e l p , had s e e -  cured the passage o f a l a w g r a n t i n g t o Caesar's veterans the l a n d promised them and he s e t out f o r Campania t o s u p e r v i s e 200 the a l l o t m e n t and c o l o n i z a t i o n o f t h a t l a n d . There he c o l 201 l e c t e d a l a r g e bodyguard o f v e t e r a n s and o t h e r s ; t h i s bodyguard had p r o b a b l y been granted t o him by t h e senate before he 202 l e f t Rome, but Antony's f r e e use o f Caesar's papers had made t h e senate s u s p i c i o u s and they decreed t h a t a commission 203 be appointed t o l o o k i n t o Caesar's a c t s . Before p r o c e e d i n g f u r t h e r , I f e e l t h a t i t i s w e l l t o 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203.  A t t . XIV: 3 , 2 . A t t . XV: 20, 2. A t t XIV: 13. A t t . XIV: 14, 2; Fam. X I I : 1, 1. P h i l . v i i i . 8. 25. App. B. C. i i i . 5 f . App. B. C. i i i . 4 f . A t t . XVI: 16A, 6. P h i l , i i . 3 9 .  46 made note of another c h a r a c t e r , d e s t i n e d t o p l a y the l e a d i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t r a g g l e f o r power. ing  Young O c t a v i u s , a f t e r hear-  of Caesar's d e a t h and of the w i l l which made him  h e i r , hastened to I t a l y to c l a i m h i s i n h e r i t a n c e .  Caesar's  Cicero  spoke of h i s b e i n g n e x t door to him at P u t e o l i ( A p r i l 21) and 204 of h i s f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e . When Octavius l e f t to go on to Rome, however, C i c e r o was h u r t t h a t he c o u l d go there but not 205 the men  who  had f r e e d t h e i r c o u n t r y from a t y r a n t ,  On h i s  a r r i v a l t h e r e , Octavius made a p p l i c a t i o n t o Antony f o r h i s legacy'but  Antony was  i t himself.  unable to g i v e i t to him, f o r he had  spent  A f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t and a f t e r b e i n g t r e a t e d con-  temptuously by Antony, Octavius borrowed money from h i s f r i e n d s to pay p a r t , a t l e a s t , of Caesar's l e g a c i e s to the people and to make p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the games to honour Caesar's v i c t o r y 206 at Pharsalus. C i c e r o f e l t a n x i o u s about the e f f e c t of the 207 c e l e b r a t i o n of these games, and a month l a t e r , w h i l e p r a i s i n g •scOot a v i a n ' s w i t and s p i r i t and n o t i n g t h a t he seemed w e l l disposed  to M. Brutus and the o t h e r s , y e t he f e l t t h a t he  not w h o l l y t r u s t a young man  whose name was  Caesar.  could  Octavian's  own f a t h e r - i n - l a w was not sure t h a t he c o u l d be t r u s t e d . One c o n c l u s i o n t h a t C i c e r o reached e a r l y was t h a t O c t a v i a n must be 208 d i s s o c i a t e d from Antony., C i c e r o , h i m s e l f , a f t e r the meeting of the senate on March 204. A t t . XVI: 11, 3. 205. A t t . XIV: 12, 3. 206. Fam. X I : 28, 6; A t t . XV: 2, 3. 207. A t t . XV: 2, 3. 208. A t t . XV: 12. -x O c t a v i u s ' a d o p t i o n was f o r m e r l y r a t i f i e d June 44, and hencef o r t h he was known as O c t a v i a n .  47 seventeenth,  d i d not have a p u b l i c p a r t i n p o l i t i c s f o r about  s i x months and d u r i n g t h a t time he devoted h i m s e l f t o l i t e r a 209 ture. He l e f t Home on A p r i l seventh and d i d not r e t u r n u n t i l he came back t o t a k e up t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t Antony i n August. We have seen how C i c e r o ' s f i r s t j o y i n the death o f Caesar gave way t o r e g r e t t h a t , as t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s had no d e f i n i t e  plans  t o c a r r y out a f t e r t h e murder, the c o n s t i t u t i o n was i n no sense restored.  The c o n s p i r a t o r s even l a c k e d money and t r o o p s t o  ensure t h e i r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y a f t e r Antony's f u n e r a l speech had 210 roused t h e people a g a i n s t them. Antony's i n t r i g u e s w i t h t h e 211 veterans, and t h e news t h a t he was i n t e n d i n g t o s e i z e f o r 212 himself t h e province of C i s a l p i n e Gaul, made C i c e r o see t h a t 213 once a g a i n c i v i l war was t o come t o I t a l y . He pledged h i s M' 214 support t o t h e cause o f B r u t u s , but was unable t o be o f any A  s p e c i f i c h e l p immediately  as B r u t u s c o u l d not make up h i s mind 215 whether t o go i n t o e x i l e o r n o t . Death was t h e e x i l e that appealed t o C i c e r o and he would g l a d l y have sgiv'eh up hi-s: l i f e: t o 216 ise.e• -.the;..'constitution:-.roes-torjed'. and' Brutus i n ' p r o s p e r i t y . I n l o o k i n g f o r support t o f u r t h e r h i s p l a n s f o r t h e much r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e R e p u b l i c , C i c e r o must have been v e r y d i s A  couraged a t t h i s t i m e . 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216.  The c o n s u l s - e l e c t , H i r t i u s and Pansa,  A t t . XIV: 4. A t t . XIV: 4. A t t . X I V : 21-, 2; A t t . XIV: 14, 4. A t t . X I V : 13, 2. A t t . XIV: 22, 2. A t t . XIV: 15. A t t . X I : 19 A t t . X I V : 18, 3. A t t . XIV: 19, 2. A t t . XV: 3, 1.  48 were n o t sure o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n as y e t ,  C i c e r o d i d w i n over  H i r t i u s t o s t a t e t h a t he would support t h e r e p u b l i c a n cause; Pansa, however, d e c l a r e d t h a t he was a g a i n s t c i v i l war but '-feared armed a c t i o n from the c o n s p i r a t o r s as much as he d i d 217 from Antony.  The one person i n whom C i c e r o could f i n d  satis-  f a c t i o n was Decimus Brutus,who s e t out f o r h i s p r o v i n c e o f 218 C i s a l p i n e Gaul and j o i n e d h i s troops t h e r e .  The h e l p l e s s n e s s  o f B r u t u s and C a s s i u s was f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e i r A  indeci-  s i o n whether o r not t o accept t h e commission Antony o f f e r e d 219 them, t h a t o f s u p p l y i n g I t a l y w i t h g r a i n .  Although  Cicero  r e s e n t e d the i n s u l t Antony was o f f e r i n g them by such a com- . m i s s i o n , y e t he a d v i s e d Brutus t o accept and t o keep away from Rome f o r h i s own s a f e t y .  He reproved both men f o r t h e i r  h e s i t a n c y a f t e r the k i l l i n g o f Caesar and p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e y and n o t Antony should have summoned t h e senate and taken 220 complete charge o f the s i t u a t i o n .  The u t t e r  hopelessness  o f the cause o f the s t a t e as r e v e a l e d by the meeting o f the l e a d i n g r e p u b l i c a n s almost convinced C i c e r o t h a t he should 221 take advantage o f the l e g a t e s h i p o f f e r e d him by D o l a b e l l a 222 and v i s i t h i s son a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Athens. He r e a l i z e d , 223 217. A t t .t XT: however, h a t a1A. f f a i r s were r e a c h i n g a c r i s i s , and t h a t he 218. A t t . XIV: 13, 2. 219. A t t . XV: 11. 220. A t t . XV: 11, 3 221. A t t . XV: 11, 4. 222. A t t . XIV: 16, 3. 223. A t t . XV: 11, 4; A t t . XV: 18, 2; A t t . XV: 19, 1  49 might be c r i t i c i z e d f o r l e a v i n g I t a l y and d e s e r t i n g the cause 224 of t h e r e p u b l i c . When C i c e r o f i n a l l y set s a i l from Pompeii on J u l y 17, he knew t h a t he was l e a v i n g I t a l y a t peace t o r e t u r n t o I t a l y 225 a t war. A f t e r r e a c h i n g S y r a c u s e , he s e t out f o r Greece but 226 was t w i c e d r i v e n back by unfavourable winds t o L e u o o p e t r a . W h i l e t h e r e , he r e c e i v e d word t h a t t h e r e was hope t h a t Antony 227 and t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s might be r e c o n c i l e d ,  and so he decided  t o r e t u r n t o Rome t o a t t e n d t h e meeting o f t h e senate on September f i r s t .  On h i s way t o Rome, a l t h o u g h he l e a r n e d t h a t a  break had occurred between Antony and the c o n s p i r a t o r s , he continued on h i s journey and reached Rome on August t h i r t y 228 first. Owing t o f a t i g u e a f t e r h i s journey, C i c e r o d i d not a t t e n d the senate on t h e f o l l o w i n g day.  This f a i l u r e  t o be present  caused Antony t o t h r e a t e n t o compel' h i s attendance and t o 229 speak a g a i n s t C i c e r o . his  C i c e r o appeared t h e next day, and i n  s t i r r i n g address ( F i r s t Eliilippdi.©)' he o f f e r e d l e a d e r s h i p  and guidance t o t h e senate.  He b o l d l y but calmly  criticized  Antony's r e c e n t p o l i c y , and appealed t o Antony t o s t r i v e f o r t r u e g l o r y and n o t p e r s o n a l power.  Antony's r e p l y was a  s c a t h i n g a t t a c k on C i c e r o ' s whole c a r e e r ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , he 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229.  A t t . XIV: 13, 4; A t t . XV: 25; A t t . XVI: A t t . XVI: 3. A t t . XVI: 7, 1. Fam. X I : 3, 3. P h i l . i . 3. P h i l . V. 7. P h i l . i . 5.  7, 1.  50 him  t r i e d t o rouse the v e t e r a n s a g a i n s t C i c e r o by c h a r g i n g . w i t h 230 the p l a n n i n g o f Caesar's a s s a s s i n a t i o n .  C i c e r o ' s answer, t h e  Second P h i l i p p i c , was n o t d e l i v e r e d but was p u b l i s h e d i n November.  I n i t , C i c e r o a t t a c k e d Antony's p r i v a t e and p u b l i c  l i f e and c h a l l e n g e d Antony t o do h i s worst t o him p e r s o n a l l y but t o be r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e r e p u b l i c .  C i c e r o counted h i s own 231  l i f e a s m a l l p r i c e t o pay f o r the l i b e r t y o f h i s country. That C i c e r o d i d not d e l i v e r the Second P h i l i p p i c w h i l e Antony was  s t i l l i n Rome does n o t t o me suggest l a c k o f courage on  C i c e r o ' s p a r t n o r does i t seem a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f the ing  statement.  preced-  My i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t C i c e r o knew t h a t t o  rouse Antony's w r a t h a t t h i s time would be t o s a c r i f i c e h i s l i f e w i t h o u t h a v i n g a chance t o t r y t o r e s t o r e l i b e r t y . I n October young O c t a v i a n acted b o l d l y t o check t h e power o f Antony by r a l l y i n g t o h i m s e l f the veterans o f J u l i u s 232 Caesar. So s u c c e s s f u l was he t h a t two o f the l e g i o n s Antony hoped t o e n r o l l , the M a r t i a n and the F o u r t h , decided t o j o i n 233 Octavian. Thus Antony l e f t Rome November 29, and marched t o 234 C i s a l p i n e Gaul t o oppose Decimus B r u t u s , a f t e r he had arranged  f o r h i s b r o t h e r Gaius t o be granted the p r o v i n c e o f 235 Macedonia and C a l v i s i u s the p r o v i n c e o f A f r i c a * Cicero 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235.  Fam. X I I : Phil. i i . A t t . XVI: Phil. i i i . App. B. C. Phil. i i i .  2, 1; P h i l . i i . 14. 46. 8, 1. 3, 6 f . i i i . 46. 10, 26.  51 p r a i s e d the prompt a c t i o n o f O c t a v i a n a t t h i s j u n c t u r e and urged t h a t the r e p u b l i c a n s support him; b u t , here a g a i n he was a s s a i l e d by d o u b t s . .man?  How c o u l d they f o l l o w so young a 236 H i s name, tooip was Caesar I N e v e r t h e l e s s , as Octavian  wanted t o a c t through the senate and have i t s a p p r o v a l , he wrote u n c e a s i n g l y  t o C i c e r o t o come t o him, f i r s t a t Capua, 237  then a t Rome, and once more t o save the s t a t e .  Repeatedly,  C i c e r o temporized, unsure o f t h i s young l e a d e r , and f e l t t h a t O c t a v i a n was presumptuous t o b e l i e v e t h a t he could convene 238 the senate b e f o r e January f i r s t .  L a t e r , the ominous s t a t e -  ment o f O c t a v i a n t h a t he hoped t o be p e r m i t t e d to a t t a i n t o 239 the honours o f h i s f a t h e r ,  d i s t u r b e d C i c e r o w i t h the thought  t h a t i f O c t a v i a n met w i t h s u c c e s s , Caesar's a c t s would be a f f i r m e d more f o r c e f u l l y than they were on March 17 (44 B. C.), and t h a t t h a t would be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the i n t e r e s t s o f Mo B r u t u s and h i s p a r t y . On the other hand, i f he l o s t , Antony would 240 be u n b e a r a b l e .  C i c e r o could n o t support Octavian whole-  h e a r t e d l y u n t i l he was reasonably  sure n o t o n l y t h a t  Octavian  would support the cause o f the s t a t e , b u t a l s o t h a t he would 241 be w e l l - d i s p o s e d t o the t y r a n n i c i d e s . 20 Atthte. tXVI: r i b u n e s9.convened the senate t o make 236. AOn t tDecember . X V I : 8; X V I : 11, p237. l a n s A ttto. ensure s a f e t6. y f o r the senate t o meet January f i r s t 238. A t t . X V I : 11, 6. 239. App. i i i , 41; A t t . XVI: 15, 3. 240. A t t . X V I : 11, 1. 241. A t t . X V I : 15, 3.  52 under the new c o n s u l s , H i r t i u s and Pansa.  I n h i s speech, C i c -  e r o , by a p a s s i o n a t e appeal t o the senate, r e c a l l e d the senate t o i t s former v i t a l i t y and l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r c o n s t i t u t 242 i o n a l government.  On t h a t day he stood as l e a d e r of the sen-  a t e , a post of honour but a l s o one f r a u g h t w i t h danger.  He  proposed t h a t the senate commend Decimus Brutus f o r h o l d i n g h i s p r o v i n c e a g a i n s t the t h r e a t s of Antony; he a l s o recommended t h a t a vote of thanks be g i v e n t o O c t a v i a n f o r h i s p r o m p t i tude i n r i d d i n g Rome of Antony, and he i n s t r u c t e d the c o n s u l s e l e c t t o see t h a t they should be a b l e t o h o l d the meetings o f the senate i n s a f e t y .  From now  on he had a double duty  t o perform; he had t o g i v e l e a d e r s h i p to the senate and t o keep the r a t h e r l o o s e l y - k n i t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r t y e n t h u s i a s t i c t o i t s cause..  The t a s k b e f o r e him was overwhelming, f o r , a l -  though the Roman people were showing wondrous courage  and  unanimity i n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r l i b e r t y , y e t t h e c o n s u l a r s were 243 e i t h e r weak or d i s l o y a l .  A g a i n s t C i c e r o ' s a d v i c e , an  em-  bassy was sent t o t r e a t w i t h Antony e a r l y i n January; i t was t o demand t h a t he evacuate C i s a l p i n e G a u l , remain two m i l e s from Rome, and  hundred 244  obey the senate and the Roman people.  I t f a i l e d owing t o t h e want of s p i r i t of i t s members; they hot o n l v f a i l e d i n s t r e s s i n g the demands s t a t e d but brought . 245 back e x t r a v a g a n t s demands from Antony. 242. Fam. X: 28; P h i l . i i i . 243. Fam. X I I : 4, 1; Fam. X I I : 5, 2; Fam. X I : 8, 1. 244. Fam. X I I : 4, 1; Fam. X I I : 5, 3; Fam. X I : 8, 1. 245. P h i l . v i i i . i , 25.  55 C i c e r o had a l s o t o encourage and c h e r i s h the a l l e g i a n c e of t h e governors abroad and g i v e support t o the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s . Marcus B r u t u s , a f t e r he l e f t I t a l y , seemed t o shake ,- o f f h i s i n d e c i s i o n ; he took over t h e p r o v i n c e o f Macedonia from Quintus H o r t e n s i u s and d e f e a t e d the s m a l l f o r c e o f Gaius 246 A n t o n i u s who had come t o c l a i m the g o v e r n o r s h i p , Cassius, 247 too,  held the troops i n S y r i a ,  but when D o l a b e l l a was o u t -  lawed f o r h i s savage k i l l i n g o f T r e b o n i u s , t h e governor o f A s i a , t h e senate would not put C a s s i u s i n charge t h e r e i n s p i t e o f C i c e r o ' s e f f o r t s on h i s b e h a l f .  Even a t t h i s time  of emergency p e t t y j e a l o u s i e s and a m b i t i o n s t i e d t h e hands of  those who g e n u i n e l y wanted t o serve the s t a t e .  In this 248  case, t h e consul Pansa wanted the" post i n A s i a h i m s e l f . In A f r i c a , Quintus C o r n i f i c i u s r e s i s t e d t h e attempt o f t h e o f f i c e r s o f Antony's nominee t o s e i z e t h e p r o v i n c e and won 249 f o r h i m s e l f the a p p r o v a l o f t h e s e n a t e . Pollio, writing 250 from S p a i n , d e c l a r e d h i s l o y a l t y t o the senate a t t h i s t i m e . Meanwhile, i n G a u l , iBe.dimus:,.Brutus, succeeded pa>h?eskizig Antony's s i e g e o f M u t i n a , bu;t-he l a c k e d t r o o p s ^and equipment 251 for  further.;action• = • a g a i n s t Antonyvc.  This i n i t i a l  at M u t i n a was c o s t l y because t h e one c o n s u l , H i r t i u s , i n b a t t l e , and the o t h e r , Pansa, d i e d a few days l a t e r 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251.  App. Earn. Earn. Earn. Earn. Earn.  B. C. i i i , 79. H I : 11. X I I : 7, 1. X I I : 25, 1. X: 3 1 , 5. X I : 13, 1.  victory fell from  54 h i s wounds.  £58  The r e p u b l i c a n p a r t y a t Rome  -.were,.cso-.elated,.with.:the  success o f Decimus Brutus and Octaviaia over Antony t h a t they f o r g o t t h a t the. danger was not y e t over and t h a t Antony was s t i l l alive. old  They acted as i f they had the f u l l power o f t h e  c o n s t i t u t i o n behind them, and not o n l y rewarded Decimus  Brutus w i t h a triumph whereas as O c t a v i a n o n l y r e c e i v e d an 253 ovation, but a l s o a s s i g n e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e f o r c e s o f the deceased consuls t o B r u t u s .  They angered the s o l d i e r s  when t h e i r g e n e r a l s were not g i v e n a p l a c e on t h e commission 254 of t e n t o d i s t r i b u t e the l a n d s granted t o the s o l d i e r s . 255 Then, t o o , s i n c e t h e commands o f Marcus Brutus i n Macedonia 256 and C a s s i u s i n S y r i a  had been r a t i f i e d , t h e moderate Caesar-  i a n p a r t y f e l t t h a t e v e r y t h i n g was being handed over t o t h e i r b i t t e r e s t enemies.  O c t a v i a n could not h e l p cre-al'iz'lrig;*;- t h a t  i f he wanted a p u b l i c c a r e e r , he would n o t w i n i t through debates i n t h e senate but through h i s own achievements.  He  knew f u l l w e l l how much a man w i t h an.army behind him could win. Meantime i n G a u l , L e p i d u s , who had sent many p r o f e s s i o n s 257 " of l o y a l t y t o C i c e r o , j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h Antony. I n h i s l e t t e r t o t h e senate he s a i d he was f o r c e d t o make peace w i t h 252 253 254 255 256 257  Fam. X: Brut. I : Fam. X I : P h i l . X: Brut. I : Fam. X:  33, 4. 15, 9. 20, 1; Fam. X I : 11, 26. 5, 1. 34A, 2.  21, 2.  55 Antony by h i s s o l d i e r s , f o r they were u n w i l l i n g t o take the l i v e 258 of c i t i z e n s . H i s excuses were i n v a i n and the senate d e c l a r e d 259 him a p u b l i c enemy; Antony and h i s f o l l o w e r s had a l r e a d y been 260 outlawed. C i c e r o wrote t o Decimus Brutus and Plancus u r g i n g them t o u n i t e and t o defeat Antony and he was heartened by the 261 news t h a t they had j o i n e d f o r c e s i n June. They were not i n a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n , however, as t h e i r repeated requests f o r 262 help  and t h e i r r e f u s a l t o take t h e o f f e n s i v e r e v e a l e d .  Oct-  a v i a n , who had been w a i t i n g f o r the r i g h t moment, had h i s s o l 263 d i e r s demand the c o n s u l s h i p f o r him.  Added t o t h i s , there  was a request t h a t Antony's outlawry should be c a n c e l l e d .  On  the r e f u s a l o f these demands Octavian. was o n l y too g l a d t o 264 l e a d h i s men t o Rome.  :The coincidence- o f these  requests  should have i n d i c a t e d t o the senate tthat'.':0ctavian.h.ad been c o n f e r r i n g w i t h Antony. Then t o add t o the m i s f o r t u n e s of the r e p u b l i c a n s , Marcus B r u t u s , j e a l o u s o f C i c e r o ' s treatment o f 265 Octavian, turned a deaf e a r t o C i c e r o ' s e n t r e a t i e s t o come w i t h a l l speed w i t h h i s t r o o p s t o Rome and urge C a s s i u s t o do 266 likewise.  Of the t r o o p s t h a t a r r i v e d from A f r i c a i n response  t o t h e summons o f t h e senate, t h r e e l e g i o n s went over t o O c t a v i a n . The senate was now d e f e n c e l e s s ; there was no 258. Fam. X: 35, 1. 259. Fam. X I I : 10,\1. 260. B r u t . L: 3, 4. 261. Fam. X: 23, 3. 262. Fam. X I : 26; Fam. X: 23, 6; Fam. X I : 13, 5. 263. Fam. X: 24, 6. B r u t . I : 14 264. App. B. C. i i i : 88 265. B r u t . I : 17; B r u t . I : 16. 266. B r u t . I : 16; B r u t . I : 17; B r u t . I : 4,-  56 a l t e r n a t i v e bat t o s u r r e n d e r .  Thus a l l C i c e r o ' s e f f o r t s to  r e s t o r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government had f a i l e d , f o r the whole structure  lacked true vigour.  - against selfishness,for s e r v i c e t o h i s country. him—his  He had to. f i g h t  continually  no one had h i s h i g h conception One more demand was  of  t o be made of  life. 267  O c t a v i a n gained h i s c o n s u l s h i p i n August out t o j o i n Antony and L e p i d u s .  and then set  At t h i s meeting of the Second  T r i u m v i r a t e near Bononia toward the end of October p l a n s were made f o r the d i v i s i o n of the western p r o v i n c e s among them and f o r the removal of t h e i r most f o r m i d a b l e opponents by pro~-~ . 268 scription. T h e i r most i l l u s t r i o u s v i c t i m was C i c e r o , f o r a l t h o u g h Octavian t r i e d t o save him, he had to g i v e way 269 Antony's demands.  to  C i o e r o was  at h i s v i l l a i n Tusculum when he r e c e i v e d 270 the news of h i s p r o s c r i p t i o n . He made a h a l f - h e a r t e d attempt t o escape from I t a l y by sea but landed a g a i n at C a i e t a . when he was  There,  b e i n g c a r r i e d to the sea An h i s l i t t e r the a s s a s s i n s  came upon him.  He would not permit h i s s e r v a n t s t o f i g h t o f f 271  the a s s a s s i n s and r e c e i v e d h i s death blow w i t h g r e a t f o r t i t u d e . The head t h a t conceived and the hands t h a t had w r i t t e n  out  the great speeches a g a i n s t Antony were taken t o Rome and up on the R o s t r a . 267. 268. 269. 270. 271.  Dio Cass. I v i . 30. App. B. C. i v . 2 f . P l u t . .Ant. 19. P l u t . C i c . 47. 1 P l u t . C i c . 48.  nailed  57 Chapter V I I A Personal Tribute When Antony's e m i s s a r i e s came upon C i c e r o December 7, 43. B. C.j they found n o t a man worn out w i t h years and p u b l i c s e r v i c e , b u t a man o f r e s o l u t e s p i r i t ready t o g i v e up h i s l i f e s i n c e a l l he c h e r i s h e d i n i t had passed away.  I t i s with  due h u m i l i t y , then, t h a t I should l i k e to pay a b r i e f t r i b u t e to my f a v o u r i t e L a t i n a u t h o r . aroused by the sympathetic  My enjoyment o f h i s work f i r s t  and i n s p i r i n g l e c t u r e s o f my  t e a c h e r , has grown as I have become more f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s l i f e and w r i t i n g s .  H i s wide and v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s r e v e a l e d b y h i s  remarkable achievements i n the realm o f l i t e r a t u r e , and h i s a c t i v i t y i n p r a c t i c a l s e r v i c e to h i s country make him one o f the world's o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s . The l a r g e number o f l e t t e r s l e f t behind g i v e us a v e r y i n t i m a t e p i c t u r e o f the man h i m s e l f .  In particular, i n h i s  l e t t e r s to T i t u s Pompomius A t t i c u s we a r e p r i v i l e g e d t o see not o n l y h i s high. I d e a l s o f s e r v i c e , b u t a l s o a l l the p e t t y v e x a t i o n s , g r i e f s and t r o u b l e s r e v e a l e d to h i s i n t i m a t e f r i e n d . H i s speeches, w h i c h were u s u a l l y o f p o l i t i c a l o r j u d i c i a l c h a r a c t e r , may seem f u l l o f exaggerations  and extravagances  a c c o r d i n g to modern standards, b u t p e r s o n a l l y I f i n d g r e a t enjoyment i n the majesty o f h i s ornate prose s t y l e . b e s i d e s , a number o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l  He wrote,  treatises  In w h i c h he made more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o h i s contempora r i e s the p h i l o s o p h y and c u l t u r e o f Greece.  He took an  i n t e r e s t , t o o , i n o u t l i n i n g the d e t a i l s o f r h e t o r i c .  Thus, i n  58 t r i b u t e t o b i s v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s , S i l l i e r c a l l s him "the 254 of the Humanists".  first  But s i n c e the p r e c e d i n g pages have d e a l t not w i t h C i c e r o , the master of L a t i n p r o s e , but w i t h C i c e r o the statesman, I would l i k e t o emphazise two q u a l i t i e s he possessed as a s t a t e s man.  The f i r s t of these i s h i s courage.  This q u a l i t y  was  r e v e a l e d e a r l y i n h i s career i n the defence of Sextus Rosoius a g a i n s t the calumnies of the great S u l l a ' s freedman Chrysogonus, and a l s o , t e n years l a t e r , by h i s p r o s e c u t i o n of Yerres f o r gross oppression- of S i c i l y . i n a r i a n c o n s p i r a t o r s was, his  The p r o s e c u t i o n of the  Catil-  he f e l t , the crowning achievement of  c o n s u l s h i p , and i t r e q u i r e d no s m a l l degree of courage t o  take upon h i m s e l f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which the e x e c u t i o n of the c o n s p i r a t o r s involved,, was  Here he proved t h a t c i v i c 255  the equal of m i l i t a r y courage.  when a l l hope o f Pompey's success was example.  The  oourage  H i s f o l l o w i n g Pompey, l o s t , was y e t another  supreme a c t of courage was,  however, h i s r e t u r n  to p o l i t i c a l s t r i f e a f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t d u r i n g J u l i u s Caesar's d i c t a t o r s h i p , t o l e a d the s t a t e i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o Antony, H i s f i g h t a g a i n s t Antony was  unceasing, and he needed every  b i t o f h i s enthusiasm t o keep the senators devoted t o the cause.  He was  q u i t e ready f o r the end when i t came,for he  had done h i s duty t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s  conscience.  254. S i h l e r , "M. T u l l i u s C i c e r o of Arpinum". p. 255. De O f f . 1: x x i l , 78.  464.  59 The  second o u t s t a n d i n g  q u a l i t y was  Cicero's  ness to h i s i d e a l , of s e r v i c e to h i s country.  steadfast-  His  administra-  t i o n s , f i r s t i n S i c i l y and l a t e r i n G l l l c i a , were b o t h r e markable f o r t h e i r f a i r n e s s . a f f a i r s won  His i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y i n public  f o r him the supreme p o s t of c o n s u l : as c o n s u l , he  f u l l y r e p a i d the honour bestowed on him by saving the s t a t e . I t was  h i s b e l i e f t h a t a l l persons w i t h a b i l i t y f o r the  ad-  m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c a f f a i r s should take p a r t I n c i v i c  life  so t h a t the s t a t e might r e c e i v e f u l l b e n e f i t from t h e i r 256 talents. To him the most honourable d e a t h was t h a t won 257  in  the s e r v i c e of one's country.  H i s u n s e l f i s h d e v o t i o n to what  he b e l i e v e d to be h i s duty as a good c i t i z e n stands i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the s e l f i s h p a s s i o n f o r power and advancement w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d so many of h i s contemporaries.  256. 257.  De O f f . 1: De O f f . 1:1  x x i , 72. x v i i , 57.  VIII LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS;  Ant.  Antonius.  App.  Appian.  Att.  Ad A t t i c u m .  B. C »  Bellum C i v i l e .  Brut,  Brutus.  Caes.  Caesar.  Cic.  Gicero.  De Leg. A g r .  De Lege A g r a r i a ,  De O f f .  De O f f i c i i s .  Dio Cass.  Dio C a s s i u s ,  Fam.  Ad F a m i l i a r e s .  M.  Marcus  Phil.  Philippic.  Plut.  Plutarch.  61  IX BIBLIOGRAPHY ANCIENT SOURCES: Appian  Be Hum C i v i l e , t r a n s l a t e d by Horace White, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y S e r i e s , M a o m i l l a n , 1905.  Caesar, C. J".  Commentarium. L l b r i I I I De B e l l o C i v i l i . e d i t e d by Du P o n t e t , Oxford P r e s s , 1901.  C a s s i u s , D. C.  Roman H i s t o r y , t r a n s l a t e d by E a r n e s t C a r r y , M a c m i l l a n , 1927.  C i o e r o , M. T.  The Correspondence o f C i c e r o , e d i t e d by R. Y. T y r r e l l and L. C. P u r s e r , Longmans Green and Company, 1914.  B  De O f f i c i i s . t r a n s l a t e d by W a l t e r M i l l e r , Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y S e r i e s , Putnam. Pro Lege A g r a r i a Contra P. S e r v i l i u m Rullum, Volume I I , Long's" M. T u l l i i C i c e r o n i s O r a t i o n e s , W h i t t a k e r and Company. Pro L i g a r i o , Volume I V , Long's M. T u l l i i C i c e r o n i s Orationes, Whittaker and Company. Plutarch  L i v e s , t r a n s l a t e d by Bernadotte P e r r i n , Putnam's Sons. 1919.  MODERN SOURCES: Baker, . P.  Twelve C e n t u r i e s o f Rome, B e l l and Sons, London, 1934.  H e i t l a n d , W. E,  The Roman R e p u b l i c , Volume I I I , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1909.  How, W. W.  Cicero. Select Letters with H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n s , Notes and Appendices O x f o r d , 1934.  G  t  MODERN SOURCES CONT'D Mommsen, T.  H i s t o r y o f Rome, t r a n s l a t e d by W. P. D i c k s o n , Dent and Sons,, 1911.  R o l f e , J . C.  C i c e r o and H i s I n f l u e n c e , Harrop and Company L i m i t e d , 1923.  S i h l e r , E. G.  M. T u l l i u s C i c e r o o f Arpinum, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1914.  StrachanDavidson, J". L. C i c e r o and the E a l l o f the Roman R e p u b l i c , Putnam's Sons, 1894 PERIODICALS:  " C i c e r o : A S k e t c h " , W. A. O l d f a t h e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , March 1928, C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l , Volume X X I I I , Wisconsin.  OTHER BOOKS OF, INTEREST: Bossierj  C i c e r o and H i s F r i e n d s , t r a n s l a t e d by A. D. Jones; New Y o r k , Putnam.  E e r r e r o , G.  A Short H i s t o r y o f Rome, New York, Putnam, 1 9 1 8 — 1 9 .  Long, G.  The D e c l i n e of the Roman R e p u b l i c Volume V, London, B e l l and Daldy, 1864—74.  M e r i v a l e , C.  H i s t o r y o f t h e Romans Under t h e Empire, London, Longmans, 1 8 6 2 — 6 4 .  T a y l o r , H.  C i c e r o : A S k e t c h o f H i s L i f e and Works, Chicago, McClury and Company, 1918.  PERIODICALS:  American J o u r n a l o f P h i l o l o g y , e d i t e d by C. W. E. M i l l e r , B a l t i m o r e , Johns Hopkins P r e s s . J o u r n a l o f Roman S t u d i e s , London, S o c i e t y f o r t h e Promotion o f Roman Studies.  

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