UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

British public opinion with regard to Germany Boroughs, Robert Joseph 1943

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BRITISH PUBLIC OPINION WITH REGARD TO GERMANY 1890 t o 1914". - by -Robert Joseph. Boroughs A t h e s i s s ubmitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e req u i r e m e n t s f o r the degree o f Master of Ap t s i n t h e Department/of H i s t o r j r . UNIVERSITY 0E BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1 9 4 3. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Chapter I P u b l i c O p i n i o n and The P r e s s . . . . .• 1 - 6A Chapter I I I n f l u e n t i a l P u b l i c O p i n i o n 1890-1914- 7 - 13 Chapter I I I B r i t i s h F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1890-1914. . . 14 - 29 Chapter IV E x p r e s s i o n s of O p i n i o n I n Regard To Germany . . . 30 - 57 Chapter V P u b l i c O p i n i o n and F o r e i g n P o l i c y . . . 58 - 62A Appendix I B i b l i o g r a p h i c Notes on t h e B r i t i s h P r e s s 6 3 - 6 9 Appendix I I Key t o t h e R e l a t i o n between P o l i t i c a l and F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1890-1914 . . . . . 69A- 690-CHAPTER ONE " P u b l i c o p i n i o n i s no more than t h i s , What people t h i n k t h a t o t h e r people t h i n k . " A l f r e d A u s t i n , P r i n c e L u c i f e r , A c t V I , Sc.2 PUBLIC OPINION AND THE PRESS One of the v a g a r i e s of our E n g l i s h language i s t h a t we may use terms which a t once convey t o our r e a d e r s our com-p l e t e Idea and y e t w h i l e c o n n o t i n g a l l so hedge our thought w i t h an aura of g e n e r a l i t y t h a t no t a n g i b l e i m p r e s s i o n i s made. The term " p u b l i c o p i n i o n " may be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c l a s s i c example of such s p e c i f i c vagueness. James Bryce once d e s c r i b e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n as, " a c o n g e r i e s o f a l l s o r t s of d i s c r e p a n t n o t i o n s , b e l i e f s , f a n c i e s , p r e j u d i c e s , a s p i r a t i o n s . I t i s c o n f u s e d , i n c o h e r e n t , amorphous, v a r y i n g f r o m , day t o day and week t o week."1 We need not be t o o nonplussed by L o r d B r y c e ' s d e f i n i -t i o n , however, f o r P r o f e s s o r C a r r o l l has d e f i n e d I t s i m p l y as "the composite r e a c t i o n s of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , " T h i s i s an. i n t e r e s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n more f p r what i t suggests t h a n f o r what, i t e x p l a i n s . A d e t a i l e d s tudy o f t h e words ''composite r e a c t i o n s " y i e l d s a t l e a s t two o p i n i o n s or a t t i t u d e s i n r e g a r d t o a s p e c i f i c event or happening w h i c h i n t e r e s t s t h e c i t i z e n i n h i s l a r g e r g r o u p i n g s . There i s b o t h a m i n o r i t y 1 James "Bryce y AmeliTclm^^ G a l l u p and S a u l 'Forbes'"R'aeT^The^iiTse of Democracy, New1 York, Simon and S c h u s t e r , 194-0, 16. 2 E, Malcolm C a r r o l l , F r e n c h P u b l i c O p i n i o n and F o r e i g n A f f a i r s 1870-1914, New York, The Century Co., 1931, 4. - 2 -and a m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . The former i s the common d e c i s i o n shared by o n l y a few of t h e c i t i z e n s ; the l a t t e r i s t h e d e c i s i o n , f o r t h e most p a r t , agreed upon by t h e l a r g e r num-be r . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , we use the term p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o mean the m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n but i t must be resJ_ized t h a t w i t h i n t h i s o p i n i o n there.may o f t e n be i n d i v i d u a l d i v e r g e n c e s , common agreement o n l y b e i n g expressed on t h e problem i n t o t o . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n the sense of. a m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n , t h a t t h e term p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i l l be used i n t h i s essay due a p p r e c i a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e f a c t t h a t m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n i s g e n e r a l l y the more v o c a l and t h e r e f o r e more e v i d e n t . I f t h i s be p u b l i c o p i n i o n s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s a t once p r e s e n t themselves; how i s i t aroused, and how does i t seek e x p r e s s i o n ? To .answer t h e f i r s t query t h r e e b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s must be f u l f i l l e d . There must f i r s t be some event s u f f i c i e n t -l y i n t e r e s t i n g , e i t h e r i n h e r e n t l y or c a u s a l l y , t o a c t u a t e t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e c i t i z e n . Second, the a t t e n t i o n of t h e c i t i -zen must be sec u r e d , o r , i n o t h e r words, he must be made aware of t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i r d , t h e r e must be a d e f i n i t e r e a c t i o n on the p a r t of t h e c i t i z e n , f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n Tamely emerges w i t h o u t s e e k i n g an e x p r e s s i o n e i t h e r t o a c t or t o r e s i s t . The a g e n c i e s which today seek t o d i s c o v e r , t o i n f l u e n c e , or t o c a n a l i z e p u b l i c o p i n i o n are b o t h numerous and v a r i e d . The purpose of t h i s essay i s t o examine p u b l i c o p i n i o n as g i v e n i n the B r i t i s h p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f 1890 t o 1.914 on a s e r i e s of events a r i s i n g out of A n g l o -German r e l a t i o n s . T h i s p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n o t a b l e developments i n the p o p u l a r p r e s s w h i c h had throughout t h e p a s t two c e n t u r i e s become i n c r e a s i n g l y prominent as a sound-i n g board f o r v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The E d u c a t i o n A c t which had been passed i n 1870 p r o v i d -ed - f o r compulsory e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l between the ages of f i v e and t h i r t e e n y e a r s . The r e s u l t of such compulsory e d u c a t i o n was t h a t i n time the r e a d i n g p u b l i c of England was v a s t l y en-larged.. .'. The e x i s t i n g p r e s s o f t h e time d i d n o t , however, c a t e r t o t h i s new r e a d i n g p u b l i c and so i t was t h a t a new type o f press, sprang up i n England,. T h i s was the p r e s s c r e a t e d by Harrasworth, Pearson, and t h e i r c o p i e r s . The Even-i n g News, The D a i l y M i r r o r , and Answers are some of the names connected w i t h t h i s newer type of j o u r n a l i s m which s p e c i a l -3 i z e d i n s e n s a t i o n a l a r t i c l e s and p i c t u r e s . T h i s p r e s s had g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y w i t h t h e masses because as Norman A n g e l l d e s c r i b e s i t "Harmsworth knew t h a t ' p u b l i c a f f a i r s ' were, f o r t h e m i l l i o n s , not a m a t t e r of p o l i t i c s and a f f a i r s o f S t a t e : p u b l i c a f f a i r s were t o women, f o r I n s t a n c e , t h e f a s h i o n s , ' S o c i e t y " , what p e o p l e wear: t o men s p o r t , the 'human element' i n p o l i c e cases - p e r s o n a l -i t i e s i n p o l i t i c s . The s t u d y of the i n a t t e n t i o n s and the t r i v i a l i t i e s became w i t h N o r t h c l i f f e a profound science.'"^ I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the s o - c a l l e d p o p u l a r p r e s s expressed o n l y i n d i r e c t l y a p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n c e on f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 3 I n 1905 t h e P e a r s o n p r e s s c o n t a i n e d ; t h e f o l l o w i n g p a p e r s : " D a i l y .Express, S t a n d a r d , S t y James .Gazette., Birmingham' Even-/ i n g Despatch, L e i c e s t e r E v e n i ng News, N o r t h Mail.,. M i d l a n d E x p r e s s , and the Newcastle Weekly Leader. The m r m s worth p r e s s had;,among i t s many pap e r s , D a i l y ; . M a i l , Evening News, D a i l y M i r r o r , Observer, Weekly Despatch. 4 Norman A n g e l l , The P u b l i c Mind, London, Unwin B r o s . L t d 1926, 157. I t must be a d m i t t e d , however, t h a t w r i t e r s on the p r e s s a r e . d i v i d e d on the q u e s t i o n of whether or not; t h e p r e s s can mold p u b l i c o p i n i o n or whether i t . m e rely r e f l e c t s such o p i n i o n ; The q u e s t i o n i s v i t a l i f we agree w i t h Norman A n g e l l t h a t , "we are. r u l e d u l t i m a t e l y , of c o u r s e , by p u b l i c o p i n i o n . " P r o f e s s o r C a r r o l l , who has made a study of p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n F r a n ce, s t a t e s t h a t , "The newspaper p r e s s was by a l l odds the most e f f e c t i v e instrument f o r i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n and t h e most Important medium f o r ' I t s e x p r e s s i o n . " ^ A nother w r i t e r o f n o t e , W i l l i a m D i b e l l u s , f e e l s t h a t o f t h e thousands of ways and means of f o r m i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h e "Most p o t e n t , however, i s t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e P r e s s " D i s r a e l i , t o o , was c o n v i n c e d of t h e power of t h e press;. He s a i d , t h a t , " P u b l i c o p i n i o n has a more d i r e c t , a more comprehensive, a more e f f i c i e n t organ f o r i t s u t t e r a n c e , t h a n a body of ;meh s e c t i o n a l i y chosen. The p r i n t i n g - p r e s s i s a; p o l i t i c a l e l e m e n t : u n k n o w n t o c l a s s i c or f e u d a l t i m e s . I t a b s o r b s - i n a g r e a t degree t h e d u t i e s of, t h e s o v e r e i g n , the. p r i e s t , ' t h e p a r l i a m e n t , i t c o n t r o l s , i t educates, i t d i s c u s s e s . " • An a u t h o r i t a t i v e e s s a y on "Public" O p i n i o n " by W i l h e l m Bauer i n t h e E n c y c l o p a e d i a of the S o c i a l , S c i e n c e s has t h i s t o say o f t h e p r e s s and p u b l i c o p i n i o n : ?: 5 C a r r o l l , op c i t . , 8 6 W i l l i a m D i b e l i u s , England, p. 314, Quoted by Wm. P, Maddox, F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Labour P o l i t i c s : . Cam-b r i d g e , H arvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934V, 85. 7 Quoted by L, M. Salmon, The Newspaper and Authority» New Y o r k , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , '1925,. .384*-- 5 -"The p o p u l a r i z a t i o n , o f t h e p r e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n .England and F r a n c e , accompanied' by the r a p i d spread j§j|) , o f elementary e d u c a t i o n , gave t o t h e newspapers a f a r g r e a t e r h o l d on p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h a n t h e y had en-joyed i n the. days when t h e y had p e r f o r c e d i v i d e d honors w i t h t h e cheap pamphlet." 8 , The c h i e f counter-argurnent c e n t e r s on t h e t h e s i s t h a t t h e p r e s s m e r e l y f o l l o w s p u b l i c o p i n i o n r a t h e r t h a n l e a d s i t . That, i s , the p r e s s tends t o g i v e t h e p e o p l e what t h e y want i / when th e y want i t . As Norman A n g e l l e x p r e s s e s i t , " . . . . I f a p u b l i c has been c a p t u r e d by a g i v e n f o l l y \ o r p a s s i o n . *.. .the paper w h i c h hopes, t o w i n or r e -t a i n l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n s must so shape i t s s e l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of news as t o appear t o c o n f i r m the p r e p o s s e s s i o n of t h e moment." 9 •;•'•• I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n the success, o f the p r e s s depends on i n t e r p r e t i n g a c c u r a t e l y what the p u b l i c t h i n k s and f e e l s and t h e n g i v i n g e x p r e s s i o n t o i t s f i n d i n g s . R e g a r d i n g t h i s t h e o r y ... S i r Wemyss R e i d was of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t , ^ "Men r e a d The Times,not so much t o l e a r n what may be"', t h e o p i n i o n s o f i t s E d i t o r s upon any p a r t i c u l a r ques-t i o n as t o d i s c o v e r what, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s judgment, i s the p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n o f t h e p u b l i c upon t h a t q u e s t i o n . n J-° The r o o t o f t h i s argument l i e s i n a sound economic approach t h a t , i f a newspaper i s tt> be f i n a n c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , i t must p r i n t m a t e r i a l f a v o u r a b l e t o i t s r e a d i n g audience. A man f e e l s heartened when he reads i n the newspaper o p i n i o n s w h i c h c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s own* He r a r e l y l i k e s t o r e a d t h a t 8 VVillTam^aueTT^noyclapaedia of the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s T New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n , 1934, v o l . 12, 669-674, " P u b l i c O p i n i o n " , 674. 9 Norman A n g e l l , op. c i t . , 138-139. 10 Quoted by L. M. Salmon, The Newspaper and The H i s t o r i a n , New. Y o r k , Oxford P r e s s , 1923, 439. •: ^ h i s o p i n i o n s a re i l l - f o u n d e d and f o o l i s h . The e d i t o r , b e i n g w e l l aware of t h i s b a s i c f a c t o r , s t r i v e s t h e r e f o r e t o so pres e n t h i s m a t e r i a l t h a t i t w i l l a p p e a l as much as p o s s i b l e t o an a l r e a d y formed p u b l i c : o p i n i o n r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o reshape i t . I n some cases where t h i s o p i n i o n i s not y e t formed the p r e s s may w i e l d g r e a t weight i n d e t e r m i n i n g what i t w i l l be. T h i s i s more g e n e r a l l y t r u e i n r e g a r d t o l o n g t e rm m a t t e r s such as f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s where an a l r e a d y p r e c o n c e i v e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s l a c k i n g . Here the p r e s s can mold an o p i n i o n by c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g news t o conform t o t h e p r e - a r r a n g e d -patt e r n d e c i d e d upon by t h e p r i v a t e o p i n i o n o f the e d i t o r o r owners. Such i s t h e case f o r the two arguments and as y e t t h e r e i s t oo l i t t l e d e f i n i t i v e r e s e a r c h t o r e n d e r c o n c l u s i v e e v i -dence f o r e i t h e r p o i n t o f view. However, from the p o i n t o f view of t h i s essay t h e v i t a l and i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t w h i c h emerges i s not i n t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y of t h e arguments but r a t h e r i n t h e common c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h t h e y i n d i c a t e . Regard-l e s s of whether t h e p r e s s makes p u b l i c o p i n i o n o r me r e l y f o l l o w s i t , i t s pages, a t a l l t i m e s , r e f l e c t e i t h e r what t h e p u b l i c i s t h i n k i n g o r what t h e p u b l i c i s g o i n g t o t h i n k . And from t h o u g h t s o p i n i o n s grow, f o r are not o p i n i o n s m e r e l y c o n f i r m e d t h oughts? So, e i t h e r as t h e pedagogue or as t h e demagogue the p r e s s does r e f l e c t p u b l i c o p i n i o n . - 6A -There are s e v e r a l a s p e c t s t o a p o p u l a r study o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l e v ents. The f i e l d i s r e l a t i v e l y u n e x p l o r e d and t h e r e are s e v e r a l l i n e s a l o n g w h i c h an approach c o u l d be made, F o r example t h e type of i s s u e w h i c h was t r e a t e d i n a s e n s a t i o n a l manner by the p o p u l a r p r e s s might be examined, or a g a i n , the type of i s s u e t r e a t e d i n a calmer and more r e f l e c t e d manner. T h i s essay w i l l attempt a p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t o r y survey d e a l i n g w i t h t h e study of c e r t a i n i s s u e s as they were handled i n the calmer f a s h i o n of t h e weekly, monthly, and q u a r t e r l y r e v i e w s of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s where d i s c u s s i o n may c o n c e i v a b l y be expected t o be on a d i f f e r e n t p l a n e from t h a t of t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s . - 7 -CHAPTER TWO ^ ) "The p r e s s u r e of p u b l i c o p i n i o n I s l i k e t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e atmosphere: you can't see i t - hut, a l l the same, i t i s . s i x t e e n pounds t o . t h e square i n c h , " • ••^'IN^UEM'IAL PUBLIC OPINION 1890-1914 1890 t o 1914 i s a c r u c i a l p e r i o d i n the development of B r i t i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n r e g a r d t o p o l i t i c s because o f the i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t t a k e n i n p o l i t i c s by the working c l a s s . B e f o r e 1832 t h e House o f Commons was p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n the hands o f the land e d c l a s s e s . I n t h e year of t h e f i r s t Reform A c t t h e r e were 489 landowners;;in P a r l i a m e n t . J , A, Thomas, who has made an a n a l y s i s of t h e "economic and f u n c - :, t i o n a l " c h a r a c t e r of t h e House o f Commons, concludes t h a t the f e e l i n g w h i c h pervaded the House up t o 1832 was t h a t , (BP "the o b j e c t o f a law g o v e r n i n g t h e f r a n c h i s e s h o u l d be t o ensure t h a t p r o p e r t y s h o u l d have i t s due and p r o p e r weight and i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c o u n s e l s of the " n a t i o n . " ^ -However, t h e Reform A c t of 1832 was passed w h i c h a d m i t t e d t h e merchant, the manu f a c t u r e r , and t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t t o a share i n p o l i t i c a l power. I n 1867 the town worker was ad m i t t e d and, i n 1884, t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l c l a s s e s , t o o , g a i n e d en-t r a n c e . The passage o f the s e l a t t e r two b i l l s i s a d e l i g h t -f u l example o f p o i n t and c o u n t e r p o i n t . The landowning c l a s s e s o f 1867 were w i l l i n g t o see the admittance of the town workers t o P a r l i a m e n t because t h e y would p r o v i d e a iT""^ . R»: L o w e l l , i n . i n t e r v i e w w i t h J u l i a n Hawthorne, Brander Matthews,; New Y o r k Times, 2 A p r i l , 1922, 2 J . A. Thomas, The House o f Commons, 1832-1901, London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939, 161. c o u n t e r "balance t o the p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e o f the employers and shopkeepers. On t h e o t h e r hand, the s e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s were agree a b l e t o the admittance of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s e s as o f f s e t t i n g the p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e of t h e landowning c l a s s -es. W i t h t h i s e x t e n s i o n o f the f r a n c h i s e a change t o o k p l a c e i n the c h a r a c t e r of t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . F o r m e r l y t h e Whigs, or as t h e y became known, the L i b e r a l s , had .stood f o r the s i d e o f Commerce, I n d u s t r y , and F i n a n c e , w h i l e t h e 3 T o r i e s , or C o n s e r v a t i v e s , stood f o r the Landed groups. The b e g i n n i n g of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , however, r e v e a l e d a two-p a r t y system w i t h no c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e s between the econ-omic i n t e r e s t s o f each p a r t y . Thus i t was t h a t the L i b e r a l -C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r i t e s r e p r e s e n t e d b o t h i n d u s t r y and l a n d . There was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a v a s t group of v o t e r s who were f i n d i n g t h a t t h e o l d p a r t i e s d i d not v o i c e f u l l y enough t h e i r p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic hopes, and c o n s e q u e n t l y a new v o i c e i n E n g l i s h p o l i t i c s was i n t r o d u c e d . ' . As e a r l y as 1893 an Independent Labour P a r t y was formed b u t , w h i l e the name was a m b i t i o u s , i t c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d a r e a l p a r t y . I n 1900 the r e a l l a b o u r p o l i t i c a l group s t a r t e d and by 1916 became Important enough t o assume the name, Labour P a r t y . By 1914 out o f the 670 members of t h e House of Commons o n l y 37 were L a b o r i t e s . T h i s meant t h a t o n l y 5 s % o f the main p o l i t i c a l organ of t h e e n t i r e B r i t i s h I s l e s was v o i c i n g i n 3" J . A. Thomas, pp. c i t . , 10-11 4 See i b i d . , 159-160. p a r t i c u l a r f a s h i o n t h e p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n of the wo r k i n g c l a s s . . The l a b o u r group had a l s o found t h a t t h e p r e s s o f the day d i d not ad e q u a t e l y express t h e i r o p i n i o n s and so i n answer t o t h i s f e l t need t h e D a i l y C i t i z e n began p u b l i c a t i o n i n October, 1912. 5 The power o f Government was t h e r e f o r e , d e f i n i t e l y i n the hands of the L i b e r a l s and the C o n s e r v a t i v e s and from an a n a l y -s i s of the c o m p o s i t i o n of P a r l i a m e n t f o r the y e a r 1900, as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e y e a r , t h e e l e c t e d members were l a r g e l y l a n d -h o l d e r s , l a w y e r s , men o f f i n a n c e , men o f l e t t e r s , and academic p e o p l e . We may say t h e n , t h a t P a r l i a m e n t up t o 1914 was d e f i n i t e l y upper and m i d d l e c l a s s i n c h a r a c t e r , and i t was t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n w h ich, i n t h e main, predominated. Perhaps James M i l l ' s e x p l a n a t i o n may show how t h i s s i t u a t i o n was p o s s i b l e 5 There had been v a r i o u s l o c a l papers r e p r e s e n t i n g the l a b o u r p o i n t of vievj p r i o r t o 1912 but t h e i r i n f l u e n c e had been l o c a l -i z e d and t h e i r importance l i m i t e d . Most of them had had a v e r y b r i e f span o f l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. K. Lamb the l a b o u r papers p r i o r t o 1890 had been p r e d o m i n a n t l y Trade, U n i o n w h i l e t h o s e a f t e r t h a t date were more and more i n t h e c o n t r o l of t h e s o c i a l i s t p r e s s . v 6 J . A. Thomas,pp o l t . , made an a n a l y s i s on the b a s i s o f members* i n t e r e s t s . H i s c o n c l u s i o n s , which he s e t s f o r t h i n an e x p l a n a t o r y note t o the t e x t were, t h a t , " I n d i v i d u a l s r e -t u r n e d t o s i t as members i n the Houseof Commons were almost i n v a r i a b l y men of p r o p e r t y . " (No page g i v e n as note i s i n f o r -ward o f t h e book.) . 7 Regarding t h i s p o i n t ; Mr.. N o e l Buxton (now L o r d Noel-Buxton) had t h i s t o say: "The upper c l a s s , w h i c h has l o n g l o s t i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d o m i n a t i o n over home government, r e t a i n s i t i n f o r e i g n . a f f a i r s Q u o t e d , by T. P. Conwell-Evans, F o r e i g n P o l i c y From A Back Bench 1904-1918, London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1932, 78. - 10 -"The o p i n i o n s of t h a t c l a s s o f the p e o p l e , who are ^.b.elow''the. middle, rank, • are .formea, and t h e i r minds are d i r e c t e d by t h a t i n t e l l i g e n t , t h a t - v i r t u o u s , rank, who come the most immediately i n c o n t a c t w i t h them...... .There can be no doubt t h a t t h e m i d d l e rank, which g i v e s t o s c i e n c e , t o a r t and t o l e g i s l a t i o n i t s e l f , t h e i r most d i s t i n g u i s h e d ornaments, the c h i e f source of a l l t h a t has e x a l t e d and r e f i n e d human n a t u r e , i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f the community of w hich, i f t h e b a s i s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n were ever so f a r extended, the o p i n i o n would u l t i m a t e l y d e c i d e of the people beneath them, a v a s t m a j o r i t y would be sure t o be guided by t h e i r a d v i c e and example." 0 We have seen the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h wast independent of t h i s upper and m i d d l e c l a s s group, but by 1914 i t had not gained s u f f i c i e n t momentum o r c o n t r o l t o determine p u b l i c , o p i n i o n . I t s own p r e s s had j u s t r e c e n t l y begun p u b l i c a t i o n and t h e p r e s s of iiarmsworth and P e a r s o n which c i r c u l a t e d w i d e l y among; the w o r k i n g c l a s s was. l a r g e l y of t h e s e n s a t i o n a l and e n t e r t a i n i n g t y p e , presumably, because t h i s was c o m m e r c i a l l y more s u c c e s s f u l among t h i s r e a d e r group. . I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , w h i c h was v o c a l and i n f l u e n t i a l , and w h i c h c o u l d be implemented I n t h e p o l i t i c a l sphere, was m i d d l e and upper c l a s s . I t might, of c o u r s e , a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t g i v e n t i m e s and on g i v e n q u e s t i o n s t h e o p i n i o n o f o t h e r c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y , as w e l l as i t s own. The p r e s s -read by t h i s c l a s s f a l l s i n t o two l a r g e . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , the newspapers and t h e p e r i o d i c a l s . Of t h e newspapers the Times was p r o b a b l y t h e most prominent, h o l d i n g a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t e r importance t h a n mere c i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s would i n d i c a t e . P e r i o d i c a l s devoted t o p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y q u e s t i o n s , had h e l d a h i g h p l a c e throughout t h e 1 9 t h century., P u b l i s h e d -8 " ;Q,uoted b y J . A. Thomas, op. c i t . , ; 54-55. - 11 -weekly or. monthly t h e y p r o v i d e d a ' p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e news. T h e i r more s o l i d and s u b s t a n t i a l format c a r r i e d an a i r of r e l i a b i l i t y and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s .which rendered them t r u l y f o r m i d a b l e as an important f a c t o r i n i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the s i g n i f i c a n c e w hich the Germans a t t a c h e d t o t h i s p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s . P a u l M e t t e r -n i c h j t h e German ambassador t o England, w r i t i n g t o h i s super-i o r , Von Buiow, once commented, "The Englishman, even t h e educated Englishman, i s apt t o t h i n k t h a t h i s monthly r e v i e w s e x e r t no p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e because t h e y are o n l y r e a d by the few. I am not o f t h a t o p i n i o n . The impulse t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e masses proceeds from t h e few, and even s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t s , i f t h e y are deep and s t i r r i n g , and c o n t a i n a new t r u t h , w i l l form t h e minds of a new g e n e r a t i o n . " 9 The same sentiment has a l s o been exp r e s s e d , though i n d i f f e r -ent terms, by t h e E n g l i s h w r i t e r , L. M, Salmon, She com-pared t h e i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d by t h e p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s , " L i k e t h e .perfume of a f r a g r a n t f l o w e r o r t h e unsavory odor of a r e n d e r i n g p l a n t i t s source can be l o c a t e d , w h i l e i t s n a t u r e d e f i e s a n a l y s i s ' a n d the e x t e n t o f t h e a r e a t h r o u g h w h i c h i t permeates remains a b s o l u t e l y unknown. Some of the more imp o r t a n t o f t h e s e p e r i o d i c a l s were The N a t i o n , The S p e c t a t o r , The Contemporary Review,The F o r t -n i g h t l y Review, and The N a t i o n a l Review. The l a t t e r was v e r y d e f i n i t e l y anti-German and i t s e d i t o r , Leo Maxse, w i e l d e d a v i t r i o l i c pen w h i c h d i d not t i r e o f r e p i t i t i o n on t h e theme 9 , Bul.ow, Memoirs I I , p. 41. Quoted by Or on James H a l e . P u b l i c i t y and Diplomacy, New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., 1940, 294, f n . 6 . 10 L. M. Salmon, The Newspaper and A u t h o r i t y , op. o i t . , 385. - 12 -of German emnity of B r i t a i n . I t was t h i s magazine which M e t t e r n i c h d e s c r i b e s as "the c r u d e s t of t h e a g i t a t o r s " ( a g a i n s t Germany) and one o f t h e most w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d p e r i o d i c a l s among the B r i t i s h e l i t e " . The words o f C o n f u c i u s t h a t "one p i c t u r e i s w o r t h t e n thousand words" may w e l l be t h e motto of Punch, a p e r i o d i c a l w h i c h can be regarded as p e c u l i a r l y an E n g l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n . P o r t r a y i n g c u r r e n t events i n b r i l l i a n t c a r t o o n s which have been r e p r i n t e d throughout t h e w o r l d , Punch has done much t o c r y s t a l l i z e the p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f i t s r e a d e r s . Edgar S t e r n -Rubarth, a former German j o u r n a l i s t , was of the o p i n i o n t h a t , "The somewhat moderated s a t i r e of the London Punch has many a t i m e h e l p e d by i t s c a r t o o n s t o f u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l c a u s e s . . . . . . . " 1 2 The source m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s essay has been l i m i t e d t o f i l e s o f c e r t a i n i n f l u e n t i a l p e r i o d i c a l s . The N a t i o n a l Review, t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y and A f t e r , t h e Q u a r t e r l y Review, the Round T a b l e , t h e N a t i o n , the Economist, t h e S p e c t a t o r , the New Statesman, and Punch, have been r e f e r r e d to,-*- 3, I t was .also p o s s i b l e t o some ex t e n t t o cheek and supplement c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from these sources by some secondary study of newspaper sources and a l s o by H k e t t e r n i c h t o Bulow, luay 8, 1906; G.P., X X I , 427-31. Quoted by Oron James H a l e , op. c i t . , 294.. 12 ' Quincy W r i g h t ( E d i t o r ) , P u b l i c O p i n i o n and World P o l i t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1933, S t e r n - R u b a r t h , "Methods of P o l i t i c a l Propaganda,'; p. 132. 13 See APPENDIX I f o r b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l notes on t h e c h i e f nev\rspapers and r e v i e w s quoted i n t h i s t h e s i s . P a r l i a m e n t a r y d i s c u s s i o n s as r e c o r d e d i n Hansard. I n a d d i t i o n books p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1890 t o 1914 d e a l i n g w i t h Anglo-G-erman r e l a t i o n s have been used. Represent-a t i v e of t h i s group a r e Sidney Whitman's I m p e r i a l Germany, W. H. Dawson's The E v o l u t i o n of• Modern Germany, and I , A. Cramb's, Germany and England. M a t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d s i n c e t h i s p e r i o d r e l e v a n t t o the t o p i c was a l s o examined. Some of the more important events i n Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s w i l l now be examined, f i r s t from the p o i n t of view of t r a d i t i o n a l d i p l o m a t i c h i s t o r y , and t h e n from t h e p o i n t o f view of t h e B r i t i s h p u b l i c . - 14 --: • CHAPTER THREE • " I n t h e past t h e main r e a s o n f o r t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e has l a i n i n our g e o g r a p h i -c a l - p o s i t i o h . We are of Europe, "but y e t not i n i t . " 1 BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY 1890-1914' The c o n v e n t i o n a l study o f B r i t i s h d i p l o m a t i c h i s t o r y p r e s e n t s t h e r e a d e r w i t h a somewhat c o n f u s i n g k a l e i d o s c o p i c p i c t u r e of f o r e i g n a f f a i r s c a r r i e d out i n every p a r t o f t h e w o r l d . I n o r d e r , t h e r e f o r e , b e t t e r t o u nderstand B r i t i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o Germany, a b r i e f resume of Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s as seen i n t h e i r European s e t t i n g w i l l prove u s e f u l . The y e a r 1890 w i t n e s s e d the r o u n d i n g out o f v a s t c o l o n -i a l empires and t h e r i v a l r i e s t h a t such empires engendered. B r i t i s h , F r e n c h , B e l g i a n and D u t c h h o l d i n g s were a l r e a d y e x t e n s i v e w h i l e t h o s e o f Germans were r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Germany under B i s m a r c k had s t a r t e d l a t e I n t h e r a c e f o r ,. c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s . Bismarck had not been v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of t e r r i t o r j r abroad but r a t h e r had c e n t e r -ed h i s e f f o r t s on t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f Germany and t h e c o n s o l i -d a t i o n o f Germany's p o s i t i o n as a European Power. To t h i s end-he had c r e a t e d t h e most p o w e r f u l army i n Europe. The , new K a i s e r , W i l h e l m I I , on t h e o t h e r hand, d e s i r e d t o make Germany a w o r l d Power w i t h a c o l o n i a l empire and a navy t o 1 M a u r i c e Bruce, B r i t i s h F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 11-12T 2 See APPENDIX I I f o r a t a b u l a r account of t h e i m p o r t a n t events i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o B r i t i s h , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and German c h a n c e l l o r s . - 15 -p r o t e c t i t . Here was d e f i n i t e l y a d i f f e r e n c e i n p o i n t of v i e w . The K a i s e r f e l t t h a t i t was the d i f f e r e n c e of age and o f y o u t h and t h a t ever s i n c e h i s assumption o f power i n 1888 he had been, " f o r c e d t o d e a l c o n s t a n t l y w i t h o l d d e s e r v i n g .men, who l i v e more i n t h e . p a s t t h a n i n t h e p r e s e n t , and cannot grow i n t h e f u t u r e . " 3 Consequently when the o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f i n 1890v. on t h e m a t t e r o f a d i f f e r e n c e i n domestic p o l i c y t h e K a i s e r accepted, Bismarck's r e s i g n a t i o n . The alignment o f World Powers a t t h i s moment was i n t e r - . e s t l n g . The T r i p l e ' A l l i a n c e c o n s i s t i n g of Germany, A u s t r i a and I t a l y had been, formed by B i s m a r c k and i n a d d i t i o n , i n o r d e r t o p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a war on two f r o n t s , he had made a R e i n s u r a n c e T r e a t y w i t h R u s s i a . I n ' t h i s way he f e l t t h a t Germany was a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d from any p o s s i b l e p o l i c y o f revanche by F r a n c e . Prance was t h u s i s o l a t e d and B r i t a i n a l s o a t t h e same time was v o l u n t a r i l y f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r . p o l i c y . ^There was l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y though of an a l l i a n c e between t h e s e two n a t i o n s f o r i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g t r a d i t i o n a l enemies c o l o n i a l r i v a l r y i n Siam, -Egypt, and A f r i c a kept them a p a r t . The K a i s e r and Bismarck's s u c c e s s o r , C a p r i v l , however, were u n w i l l i n g t o m a i n t a i n Bismarck's c o m p l i c a t e d system o f a l l i a n c e s and t h e r e f o r e a l l o w e d t h e R u s s i a n R e i n s u r a n c e T r e a t y t o l a p s e . T h i s o f f e r e d , t o F r a n c e o p p o r t u n i t y t o end her p o s i t i o n o f i s o l a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n August, 1891 she and R u s s i a came, t o g e t h e r f o r mutual a i d - 16 -and p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e Du a l A l l i a n c e . T h i s l e f t England i n a p o s i t i o n of i s o l a t i o n w h i c h i n t h e f a c e o f two c o n t i n e n t a l a l l i a n c e s was dangerous t o her c o l o n i a l empire. England, t h e r e f o r e , began t o l o o k f o r f r i e n d s . , The l o g i c a l p l a c e t o seek was Germany. The E n g l i s h and .the German r o y a l f a m i l i e s were connected by f a m i l y t i e s . The two n a t i o n s had fought t o g e t h e r a t Waterloo,,: and t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n s were s i m i l a r . A b e g i n n i n g a t a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n -ship- was begun i n June 1889 when:Wilhelm was: made an a d m i r a l of >the. B r i t i s h f l e e t and a g a i n i n J u l y 1890 w i t h t h e H e l i g o -•5.- • l a n d Z a n z i b a r T r e a t y . 'The D u a l A l l i a n c e and t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e c r e a t e d an. uneasy b a l a n c e o f power oh t h e c o n t i n e n t i The c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t s o f each group p l a c e d England's empire I n a p o s i t i o n of c r o s s f i r e and i n o r d e r t o e x t r i c a t e h e r s e l f from her dubious " s p l e n d i d , i s o l a t i o n " E ngland,through h e r F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y , 4/-The Du a l A l l i a n c e was p r i m a r i l y a j o i n t d e f e n s i v e agree-ment I n case o f a t t a c k by members o f ; t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e . Terms o f t h e document g i v e n i n G. B. Mahhart, A l l i a n c e and Enten t e 1871-1914, New York, F. S. C r o f t s & Co.,1932, 28-50. 5 The main terms o f t h e ' t r e a t y gave' Germany t h e i s l a n d ' o f H e l i g o l a n d i n exchange f o r h er r e s i g n a t i o n of the p r o t e c t o r -.ate over Z a n z i b a r . F o r f u l l d e t a i l s o f t h e agreement see E;.T.S. Dugdale ( t r a n s l a t o r ) , German D i p l o m a t i c Documents 1871-1914, London, Methuen & "Co., 1929^ I I , 25-52. 6 C u r i o u s l y enough t h i s t e r m w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o L o r d S a l i s b u r y was f i r s t c o i n e d by S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r i n a sp.eeeh t o t h e Canadian House of Commons on F e b r u a r y 5, 1896 when d i s c u s s i n g England's i s o l a t i o n , " . . . . I t h i n k s p l e n d i d l y i s o l a t e d , because t h i s i s o l a t i o n of England comes from h er s u p e r i o r i t y . " On F e b r u a r y 26, 1896, L o r d Goschen i n a speech at Lewes r e f e r r e d t o "....our s p l e n d i d i s o l a t i o n , as one o f our C o l o n i a l f r i e n d s was good enough t o c a l l i t . " L o r d S a l i s bury a l s o i n a speech i n 1896 r e f e r r e d t o the term i n c i d e n t l y ;Tjm O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . L o r d Rosebery, i n 1895 approached Germany w i t h t h e sugges-t i o n t h a t t h e time may have a r r i v e d f o r a quadruple a l l i a n c e . England a t t h i s time was undergoing a c r i s i s w i t h F r a n c e i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s i n Siam and because of her apparent s u r r e n d e r t o France she l o s t p r e s t i g e i n Europe and as a r e s u l t Germany, dubious of the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e of the B r i t i s h ' 7 a l l i a n c e , d e c l i n e d . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s were worse because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o l o n i a l m a t t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e Samoan i s l a n d s , w h i l e B r i t a i n and F r a n c e were a t logger-heads over.Egypt. The s i t u a t i o n was i n no w i s e improved i n 1895 under the new U n i o n i s t government of S a l i s -b ury. B r i t a i n was e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n South A f r i c a and t h e a b o r t i v e Jameson R a i d i n 1896 and t h e K a i s e r ' s i l l -t i m ed K r u g e r t e l e g r a m aroused B r i t i s h f e e l i n g so t h a t f o r the time b e i n g a l l i d e a o f a rapprochement w i t h Germany was dropped. I n March of 1898, however, A r t h u r B a l f o u r , Chan-c e l l o r o f t h e Exchequer, a c t i n g f o r Prime M i n i s t e r S a l i s b u r y , proposed anew an Anglo-German u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The p r o p o s a l was: f u r t h e r r e i t e r a t e d w i t h i n a few days by Joseph Chamber-l a i n , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , who had p r e v i o u s l y made advan-ces t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Japan w i t h o u t r e s u l t s . Germany, n e v e r t h e l e s s , d i d not f e e l t h e need f o r a B r i t i s h a l l i a n c e a t the time and turned, down the o f f e r . B r i t a i n ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h R u s s i a on the F a r E a s t were s t r a i n e d and t h e Fashoda i n c i d e n t r a i s e d a c r i s i s w i t h F r a n c e . Germany, however, V~~~liC~MT"'Oar:^ Grea T T o w e r s 1866-1914, • New York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1938, 323, g i v e s f u l l e r d e t a i l on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t . - 18 -counted too much on t h e permanence o f these h o s t i l i t i e s . The passage of t h e German N a v a l Laws of 1898 and 1900 brought i n t o b e i n g a German navy and i t s c r e a t i o n w h i l e not a c t u a l l y b r i n g i n g about f u r t h e r i l l - f e e l i n g a t the time was t o s t o r e up f u t u r e t e n s i o n . On January 22, 1901, Queen V i c t o r i a d i e d and t h e prompt a r r i v a l o f K a i s e r W i l h e l m a t t h e bedside o f h i s grandmother d i d much t o r a i s e h i s p o p u l a r i t y I n England. I t a l s o proved an opportune moment f o r r a i s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n once a g a i n o f an Anglo-German e n t e n t e . England was i n the mid s t of t h e South A f r i c a n war and Germany thought t h a t she was t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o d i c t a t e t h e terms. England, on the o t h e r hand, was not w i l l i n g t o assume the s p e c i f i c o b l i g a t i o n s o f an a l l i a n c e and I n s p i t e o f t h e e f f o r t s o f E c k a r d s t e i n , t h e German ambassador t o England, the p r o p o s a l s f e l l t h r ough, e s p e c i a l l y as Germany r e f u s e d t o d i s c u s s any o t h e r b a s i s f o r an agreement o t h e r t h a n a g e n e r a l a l l i a n c e . ^ Baron E c k a r d s t e i n was i n s t r u m e n t a l , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n •suggesting t o t h e Japanese ambassador, Count H a y a s h i , i n March 1901, an a l l i a n c e between Great B r i t a i n , Germany and Japan. As a r e s u l t Count H a y a s h i made p r o p o s a l s t o L o r d Lansdowne, the F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y . These p r o p o s a l s were w e l -come, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l i g h t of R u s s i a n p r e s s u r e i n t h e Ear E a s t . The outcome; was t h e Anglo-Japanese Agreement w h i c h was 8 C a r r o l l , op., c l t . , 46lT 9 See Ecka r d s t e i n . , Ten Y e a r s A t The Court o f S t . James .London, Thornton B u t t e r w o r t h L t d . , 1921, 184-221 f o r a f u l l account o f h i s e f f o r t s and the rea s o n s why t h e agreement was not r e a c h e d . He i s v e r y c r i t i c a l o f Germany's a t t i t u d e . - 19 -signe d on January 30, 1902,• but L o r d : Lahsdowne was u n w i l l -i n g t o i n c l u d e Germany i n i t s terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Great •Britain.-;had f i n a l l y broken away from her p o s i t i o n o f i s o l a t i o n . With; t h e growing s t r e n g t h o f t h e German navy and t h e un-doubted power o f the, German army' i t became more and more p o s s i b l e t h a t the T r i p l e A l l i a n c e might soon be i n a p o s i t i o n t o dominate t h e Dual A l l i a n c e . W h i l e t h e r e was a b a l a n c e of power between the two, England c o u l d a f f o r d t o remain a l o o f f r o m " c o n t i n e n t a l entanglements, but once t h e r e was even t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a u n i o n England's p o s i t i o n on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f Europe became e x c e e d i n g l y u n c e r t a i n . Faced w i t h dangerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s England sought t o d e f i n e her p o s i t i o n . " She had: made o f f e r s t o Germany on a t l e a s t f o u r o c c a s i o n s and had been r e f u s e d , o r had been unable t o come t o terms each time.. On t h e o t h e r hand A n g l o - E r e n c h i : r e l a t i o n s were none t o o good, but France had a s p i r a t i o n s I n Morocco and, t h r o u g h a common .agreement not t o h i n d e r each o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c -t i v e spheres o f i n f l u e n c e , England and France-were a b l e t o -come t o g e t h e r I n A p r i l , 1904, t h r o u g h t h e E n t e n t e O o r d i a l e . Germany a t f i r s t showed a f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e toward t h e E n t e n t e G.ordlale. She had. commercial i n t e r e s t s i n Morocco but t h e s e had been r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d by F r a n c e and a s s u r e d -p r o t e c t i o n . However, the Russo-JapaneseWar of 1905 w h i c h c o n v e n i e n t l y d i s p o s e d of F r a n c e ' s a l l y , p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t Germany was supposedly a f r a i d t h a t F r ance was g o i n g t o t a k e over Morocco as she had t a k e n T u n i s , caused a change of h e a r t i n B e r l i n , - and t h e r e s u l t was t h e K a i s e r ' s p r o v o c a t i v e v i s i t - so -t o T a n g i e r . • L 0 The r e s u l t was t h e summoning of t h e A l g e c i r a s Conference t o s e t t l e t h e m a t t e r of i n t e r e s t s i n Morocco. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Conference a c t u a l l y l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t ,the bonds o f t h e Entente O o r d i a l e were strengthened, and t h a t England t h e n d e f i n i t e l y d e c i d e d .to c a s t h er weight on t h e s i d e of France i n m a i n t a i n i n g the b a l a n c e of power. Of s i g n i f i c a n c e , , . t o o , i s t h e f a c t t h a t the d o w n f a l l o f the B a l f o u r U n i o n i s t Government i n 1905, and, t h e a c c e s s i o n to,power of t h e L i b e r a l s under Campbell-Bannerman made no d i f f e r e n c e i n B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y . R e garding f o r e i g n p o l i c y . S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman, s a i d , * , " I w i s h e m p h a t i c a l l y t o reaffirm..my adhesion t o t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Entente O o r d i a l e " 1 1 Indeed, under t h e new government t h e bond w i t h France was . f u r t h e r . s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e m i l i t a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n s , w h i c h were i n i t i a t e d i n 1906 and w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h 1908, 1909, and! 1911. -They c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e Grey-Cambon l e t t e r s , o f 1912 by w h i c h , . " I f e i t h e r Government had grave r e a s o n t o expect an unp r o v o k e d : a t t a c k by a t h i r d Power o r something t h a t t h r e a t e n e d t h e g e n e r a l peace, i t s h o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y d i s c u s s w i t h t h e o t h e r whether b o t h Governments s h o u l d a c t t o g e t h e r t o pr e v e n t a g g r e s s i o n and t o p r e s e r v e peace, and i f so, what measures t h e y would be p r e -pared t o t a k e i n common, H " I f t h e s e measures i n v o l v e d a c t i o n , the p l a n s o f t h e G e n e r a l S t a f f would a t once be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .and "the Government would t h e n d e c i d e what e f f e c t s s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e m . " 1 2 10 I n h i s Memoirs t h e K a i s e r c l a i m s t h a t t h i s v i s i t was f o r c e d on him by C h a n c e l l o r Bulow. K a i s e r , op. c i t . , 107-108 11 Quoted by Ward and Gooch, Cambridge H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y "Press,, 1923, I I I , 344. 12 Quoted by Conwell-Evans; F o r e i g n , P o l i c y From A Back Bench 1904-1908, London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932, 49. - 21 -The E n g l i s h p u b l i c , n e v e r t h e l e s s , was not made c o g n i z a n t o f the c l o s e n e s s of the,, A n g l o - F r e n c h t i e o r how t h e m i l i t a r y agreements p r a c t i c a l l y imposed on B r i t a i n t h e n e c e s s i t y t o hack France w i t h f o r c e . o f arms i f need he. A n g l o - R u s s i a n r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d a v e r y s i m i l a r p i c -t u r e t o those o f A n g l o - F r e n c h r e l a t i o n s b e f o r e 1904. I n the l a t t e r case %yp' f c kafl. proven t h e s t u m b l i n g b l o c k w h i l e i n th e former A f g h a n i s t a n , P e r s i a , and T i b e t served as c o n s t a n t • sources of s u s p i c i o n . England l o o k e d on these c o u n t r i e s as o u t p o s t s of I n d i a and regarde d R u s s i a n p e n e t r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y • f i n a n c i a l i - . as a t h r e a t t o her p o s i t i o n i n I n d i a . The Con-f e r e n c e of A l g e r i c a s , however, p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o o p e r a t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e i r common . f r i e n d , F r a n c e . : B r i t i s h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l o a n t o R u s s i a i n 1906 f u r -t h e r eased the t e n s i o n and smoothed,the way i n August, 1907, f o r an A n g l o - R u s s i a n t r e a t y . As a r e s u l t t h e T r i p l e Entente came i n t o b e i n g , and B r i t a i n had d e f i n i t e l y thrown i n her l o t w i t h the D u a l A l l i a n c e . •^.;^'.;,i'3?^lis;. d i d not p r e c l u d e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Germany. I n t h e . autumn o f 1907 t h e K a i s e r p a i d a f r i e n d l y v i s i t t o Windsor and on October 28, 1908, t h e r e appeared an anonymous i n t e r -view, w i t h , t h e K a i s e r I n The D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , t h e dominant theme o f whichjwas f r i e n d s h i p f o r B r i t a i n y However, t h e an n e x a t i o n of B o s n i a - H e r z e g o v i n a by A u s t r i a i n 1908 and Ger-man support f o r A u s t r i a i n t h e f a c e o f R u s s i a n p r o t e s t a t i o n s showed c l e a r l y t h a t f o r B r i t a i n a m i d d l e course o f f r i e n d -l i n e s s f o r a l l combined w i t h e n t e n t e r e l a t i o n s w i t h France and R u s s i a was t o be a d i f f i c u l t , i f not an i m p o s s i b l e , - 22 -p o s i t i o n . Germany regarded the s i t u a t i o n i n somewhat t h e same l i g h t as t h e words o f t h e new C h a n c e l l o r , Von Bethmann-Ho l l w e g , would suggest, " I n the year 1909 the s i t u a t i o n was based on the f a c t t h a t England had f i r m l y t a k e n i t s s t a n d on t h e s i d e of France and R u s s i a i n p u r s u i t of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y of opposing whatever C o n t i n e n t a l Power f o r t h e time b e i n g was t h e s t r o n g e s t ; and t h a t Germany h e l d f a s t t o i t s n a v a l programme, had g i v e n a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n t o i t s E a s t e r n p o l i c y , and had moreover t o guard a g a i n s t a F r e n c h antagonism t h a t had i n no w i s e been m i t i g a t e d by i t s p o l i c y i n ' l a t e r y e a r s . And i f Germany saw a f o r m i d a b l e a g g r a v a t i o n o f a l l t he 'aggressive t e n d e n c i e s o f F r a n c o - R u s s i a n p o l i c y i n England's pronounced f r i e n d s h i p w i t h the D u a l A l l i a n c e , England on i t s s i d e had grown t o see a menace i n t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the German F l e e t and a v i o l a t i o n o f i t s a n c i e n t r i g h t s i n our E a s t e r n p o l i c y . "Words had . a l r e a d y passed on b o t h s i d e s . The atmosphere was c h i l l y and clouded w i t h d i s t r u s t . " ! * 3 T h i s f e e l i n g was emphasized i n 1911 when Germany once a g a i n i n t e r f e r e d i n Moroccan a f f a i r s . A s t a t e of anarchy had broken out i n Morocco and France had undertaken m i l i t a r y measures t o r e s t o r e o r d e r . Germany, f e a r i n g t h a t France would use t h i s as a p r e t e x t f o r annexing Morocco o u t r i g h t , sent a gunboat, t h e P a n t h e r , and l a t e r a c r u i s e r t o A g a d i r , presumably t o p r o t e c t German n a t i o n a l s . 'X'his was a v i o l a t i o n of the terms of t h e i i l g e c i r a s Conference w h i c h , however, t h e Germans termed t o be w i t h o u t v a l i d i t y . The s i t u a t i o n was c r i t i c a l and England, d e s i r i n g t o i n f o r m Germany t h a t she would s t a n d by F r a n c e , d i d so t h r o u g h the medium o f t h e C h a n c e l l o r of the-Exchequer's speech a t t h e Mansion House. L l o y d George was w e l l known f o r h i s p a c i f i c i s m and h i s speech, t h e r e f o r e , was t h a t much more e f f e c t i v e . The r e s u l t was t h a t 13 Quoted by Winston C h u r c h i l l , The World C r i s i s , New Y o r k , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1923, I , 37. - 23 -German demands became r e a s o n a b l e and e v e n t u a l l y a s e t t l e m e n t was reached. S i r Edward Grey i n r e v i e w i n g t h e c r i s i s de-c l a r e d t h a t , "There i s another f o r e i g n p o l i c y w hich would be s i m p l y d i s a s t r o u s - t h a t we s h o u l d g i v e i t t o be understood t h a t i n no c i r c u m s t a n c e s , however wantonly a f r i e n d o f ours was a t t a c k e d , would we g i v e any a s s i s t a n c e . That would be an attempt t o r e v e r t t o a p o l i c y of s p l e n d i d i s o l a t i o n . I t would d e p r i v e us o f the p o s s i -b i l i t y of h a v i n g a f r i e n d i n Europe and i t would r e s u l t i n t h e o t h e r n a t i o n s of Europe, e i t h e r by c h o i c e o r n e c e s s i t y , b e i n g brought i n t o t h e o r b i t o f a s i n g l e diplomacy from which we.should be e x c l u d e d . I n o t h e r words B r i t a i n was d e f i n i t e l y s t a n d i n g by her rapprochement w i t h France and t h e r e b y hoped t o prev e n t t h e dom i n a t i o n o f Europe by t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e . The growth.of t h e German navy was l o o k e d upon w i t h some apprehension by B r i t a i n whose main l i n e o f defence was her navy, and whose p o l i c y I t was t o have a f l e e t t w i c e as power-f u l as t h e next s t r o n g e s t navy. A f t e r A g a d i r t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t ; f e l t t h a t Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s might, be improved i f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d be reached r e g a r d i n g n a v a l s t r e n g t h . A; new Germany. Bavy Law was i n - p r e p a r a t i o n and an attempt was made, t h e r e f o r e , t o t r y t o o b v i a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y of m a i n t a i n -i n g t h e n a v a l r a c e . A s u g g e s t i o n was; made t o Germany by S i r E r n e s t C a s s e l l and l a t e r by L o r d Haldane e a r l y i n 1912 t h a t B r i t a i n would not impede German c o l o n i a l expansion i f an agreement c o u l d be reached i n n a v a l m a t t e r s . But, whereas the t a l k s had been i n i t i a t e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t f r i e n d l i n e s s on b o t h s i d e s , each s i d e was s u s p i c i o u s o f the i n t e n t i o n s o f the o t h e r and n e g o t i a t i o n s f e l l t h r o u g h . 14 Ward and Gooch, op. cit7~, H I , 453T : "• - 24 -As a: r e s u l t t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of the B r i t i s h F l e e t was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n home w a t e r s . B r i t i s h " b a t t l e s h i p s were r e -c a l l e d f r om China w a t e r s and a l s o from t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n , T h i s r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h F l e e t c o i n c i d i n g as i t d i d with-changes I n t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h F l e e t had i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s . I n t h e words of t h e F i r s t L o r d o f the A d m i r a l t y , -"Under t h e growing p r e s s u r e o f German armaments B r i t a i n t r a n s f e r r e d her whole B a t t l e F l e e t t o t h e •North Sea, and France"moved a l l h er heavy s h i p s I n t o the M e d i t e r r a n e a n and t h e sense o f mutual r e l i a n c e grew s w i f t l y between b o t h n a v i e s . . . . . . . . .The o n l y 'trump c a r d ' w h i c h Germany secured by t h i s p o l i c y was t h e d r i v i n g o f B r i t a i n and France c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . From th e moment t h a t t h e F l e e t s of F r a nce and B r i t a i n were d i s p o s e d i n t h i s new way our common n a v a l i n t e r e s t s became v e r y impor-- t a n t . And t h e m o r a l c l a i m s w h i c h France c o u l d , make upon Great B r i t a i n i f a t t a c k e d by Germany, whatever we had s t i p u l a t e d t o t h e c o n t r a r y were enormously extended. Indeed my a n x i e t y was aroused t o t r y t o p r e v e n t t h i s n e c e s s a r y r e c a l l of s h i p s from t y i n g us up ;too t i g h t l y w i t h France and d e p r i v i n g us o f t h a t l i b e r t y o f c h o i c e on which our power t o s t o p a war might w e l l depend."•'-^ T h i s n a v a l r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n a v a l con-v e r s a t i o n s between t h e B r i t i s h and F r e n c h A d m i r a l t i e s s i m i l a r t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e G e n e r a l S t a f f s and the Grey-Cambon l e t t e r s meant t h a t i n 1912 t h e E n t e n t e C o r d l a l e had become i n s p i r i t , i f not i n the l e t t e r - , p r a c t i c a l l y an a l l i a n c e . And when we c o n s i d e r how France was t h e a l l y of R u s s i a i t w i l l be seen t h a t the f u t u r e a c t i o n s of Great B r i t a i n would u n d o u b t e d l y be a f f e c t e d by t h e f o r t u n e s of b o t h t h e s e n a t i o n s . I n 1912 t h e Second B a l k a n War broke o u t . R u s s i a and 15 "Winston C h u r c h i l l , "op. c I t . , I , 114-115. - 25 -A u s t r i a were b o t h v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , i n d i r e c t -l y so were Fr a n c e and Germany, and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t Great B r i t a i n . L u c k i l y Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y f r i e n d l y d u r i n g 1912 and 1913 and as a r e s u l t c o o l heads and con f e r e n c e s were a b l e t o s e t t l e a ma t t e r w h i c h might w e l l have caused a w o r l d c o n f l i c t . The r e f u s a l o f B r i t a i n and France t o a s s i s t R u s s i a i n e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on Germany had much t o do w i t h b r i n g i n g about the p e a c e f u l s e t t l e m e n t but Russo-German r e l a t i o n s , however, were not by any means f r i e n d l y . I n June o f 1 9 1 4 . B r i t i s h n a v a l f o r c e s made simultaneous v i s i t s t o E r o n s t a d t and K i e l and t h e r e was g e n e r a l f r a t e r -n i z i n g among t h e crews. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e F i r s t L o r d o f the A d m i r a l t y " n a v a l r i v a l r y had a t t h e moment ceased t o be a cause of f r i c t i o n * I t was a g a i n s t t h i s p e a c e f u l back-ground, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e f a t a l s h o t s rang out on June 28 w h i c h t o o k t h e l i v e s o f Archduke F e r d i n a n d , h e i r t o t h e A u s t r i a n t h r o n e , and h i s w i f e , and t h e p e r n i c i o u s system' of a l l i a n c e s went" i n t o e f f e c t . The A u s t r o - S l a v p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was e x t r e m e l y com-p l i c a t e d . The Austro-HungarIan empire was an e x c e e d i n g l y hetrogeneous one, composed of many n a t i o n a l i t i e s among w h i c h A u s t r i a h e l d t h e key p o s i t i o n of dominance o n l y t h r o u g h an uneasy b a l a n c e o f power w h i c h she m a i n t a i n e d by t a k i n g advantage of t h e v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s . Of t h e B a l k a n c o u n t r i e s t o t h e s o u t h none had s t r o n g e r n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - 26 -t h a n S e r b i a . A u s t r i a had t a k e n g r e a t e f f o r t s t o curb these e x p r e s s i o n s . I n 1908 she had annexed B o s n i a and Herzegovina,'' t e r r i t o r y w hich S e r b i a f e l t she had a c l a i m t o on the b a s i s of t h e n a t i o n a l i t y of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . , A g a i n , i n the B a l k a n 'War of, 1912-1915 A u s t r i a had p r o h i b i t e d S e r b i a f rom o b t a i n -i n g a d i r e c t economic o u t l e t t o t h e A d r i a t i c . The motive behind A u s t r i a ' s a c t i o n s was s i m p l e . .She f e a r e d t h a t a s t r o n g S l a v n a t i o n a l i s m developed around the S e r b i a n n u c l e u s would cause u p r i s i n g s , among t h e many S l a v n a t i o n a l s w i t h i n her avm empire and might,. t h e r e f o r e , cause her d o w n f a l l . ; R u s s i a and t h e B a l k a n s were bound t o g e t h e r by t i e s of n a t i o n a l i t y , , R u s s i a regarded h e r s e l f as the " B i g S l a v B r o t h e r " but so f a r had p l a y e d a v e r y . p o o r r o l e . I n 1908 t h e . dealing's o f her F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , I s v o l s k y , i n t r y i n g t o , o b t a i n t h e passageway o f t h e D a r d a n e l l e s w i t h t h e a i d .of A u s t r i a had checkmated her i n any attempt t o secure B o s n i a o r H e r z e g o v i n a f o r S e r b i a , Then i n t h e war o f 1912-1913 she Was. c o n f r o n t e d by t h e combined e f f o r t s of A u s t r i a and her k n i g h t " i n s h i n i n g armour," Germany^ and,,:. i n f a c e of such combined s t r e n g t h had had t o back down. The. a s s a s s i n a t i o n of t h e A u s t r i a n h e i r and,,.his w i f e p r o -v i d e d A u s t r i a w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y of w i p i n g out once;and f o r a l l t h e B a l k a n menace. R u s s i a was l i k e w i s e determined t h a t f o r once she wou^-d not d e s e r t her S l a v b r o t h e r s , but would . m a i n t a i n h e r p r e s t i g e i n the Near E a s t . Germany wa.s. p ledged t o a i d A u s t r i a and F r a n c e was p l e d g e d t o a i d R u s s i a . I n v a i n d i d B r i t a i n and I t a l y propose c o n f e r e n c e s . The war w h i c h had been b a u l k e d t h r o u g h c o n f e r e n c e s i n 1912 and 1915" - 27 -was t o be f o u g h t , and t h r o u g h t h e o p e r a t i o n of a l l i a n c e s i t was t o i n v o l v e a l l Europe. B r i t a i n c o u l d s t a y out o f a war t h a t i n v o l v e d o n l y R u s s i a but her entente i n honor bound her t o a i d F r a n c e . I n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s h er c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by the German v i o l a t i o n of B e l g i a n n e u t r a l i t y , but t h e r e c o u l d r e a l l y have been l i t t l e doubt as t o her o b l i g a t i o n t o a i d F r a n c e . The obvi o u s c o n f u s i n g f a c t o r . i n t h i s s e r i e s of events i s t h a t t h e system o f a l l i a n c e s gave the" whole matter, an a i r o f def i n i t i v e n e s s w h i c h i n a c t u a l i t y i t d i d not p o s s e s s . -The p a t t e r n o f B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s r e v e a l e d , t h e r e f o r e , as one of i s o l a t i o n as l o n g as t h e Dual A l l i a n c e and t h e T r i p l e - A l l i a n e e c o n s t i t u t e d a Bal a n c e o f Rower. True, England made advances t o e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h Germany b e f o r e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p o w e r f u l German navy upset t h e balance-, but h e r advances were r e j e c t e d N e v e r t h e l e s s , once .' t h e r e was.a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Germany c o u l d p o s s i b l y d i c t a t e European p o l i c y B r i t a i n , f o r t he s e c u r i t y of h e r own p o s i t i o n , t h rew i n h e r l o t f i r s t w i t h Japan, /then w i t h F r a n c e , and : f i n a l l y w i t h R u s s i a . A t f i r s t t h e r e was n o t h i n g more t h a n an e n t e n t e c o r d i a l e , b u t , as Germany c o n t i n u e d - t o mishandle s i t u a t i o n s such as t h e P a n t h e r i n c i d e n t , the first'''/Balkan war, and t h e A g a d i r i n c i d e n t , and, a t the same time c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e h er navy, England developed h e r entente more and more d e e p l y u n t i l i t m o r a l l y became an a l l i a n c e . When, t h e r e -f o r e , war c a m e , : B r i t a i n found t h a t t h r o u g h h e r . f o r e i g n p o l i c y , w h i c h I n l a r g e measure had been t h e r e s u l t o f c i r -cumstance, she no l o n g e r possessed the f u l l measure of - 28 -freedom of a c t i o n which, she had d e c l a r e d t o have. L u c k i l y t h e i n v a s i o n of B elgium gave her b o t h a d i p l o m a t i c excuse f o r e n t e r i n g t h e war and a l s o c r e a t e d s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o make a d e c l a r a t i o n of war p o p u l a r so t h a t she was t h u s a b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n w h i c h had been c r e a t e d . I t i s obvious from t h i s n a r r a t i v e of events t h a t a l l i a n c e s served t h e v e r y u s e f u l purpose o f : p r o v i d i n g mutual support i n t h e absence of any agency f o r c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y . They a l s o h e l p e d t o m a i n t a i n a p r e c a r i o u s b a l a n c e of power i n a w o r l d i n w h i c h th e r a p i d developments i n i r o n and s t e e l t e c h n o l o g y were-being a p p l i e d t o armaments as w e l l as t o commerce. Then t o o , the g r e a t economic p r o g r e s s had c r e a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l o o k i n g f o r f u t u r e markets and thus p r o -duced obvious c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n every c h a p t e r , o f i n c i d e n t s by apparent c l a s h e s o f economic i n t e r e s t s . Indeed H a r o l d N i c h o l s o n , whose f a t h e r was connected w i t h .the B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , has d e s c r i b e d t h e B r i t i s h c o n c e p t i o n of p o l i c y as m e r c a n t i l e , . "We conduct our diplomacy, not as h e r o i c w a r r i o r s , but as r a t h e r t i m i d shopkeepers. Except i n r a r e moments o f a b e r r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . w e are not out f o r s p e c t a c u l a r d i p l o m a t i c v i c t o r i e s or s e n s a t i o n a l t r i a l s o f s t r e n g t h . What we are a f t e r i s a p r o f i t -a b l e d e a l . And we know from l o n g b u s i n e s s exper-i e n c e t h a t no d e a l i s p r o f i t a b l e w h i c h imposes • c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e i n c a p a b l e o f e x e c u t i o n , o r l e a v e s our customers d e v o i d of a l l powers of purchase."17 17 H a r o l d Nichblson., 'The Cleaning o f P r e s t i g e , Cambridge^" " U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937, 22. . - 29 -The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the economic f a c t o r was c e r t a i n l y not l o s t on e i t h e r Germany, R u s s i a , o r F r a n c e , and p o w e r f u l armies and navies.were f e l t n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t t h e i r economic i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as t o up h o l d t h e i r n a t i o n a l p r e s -t i g e . I n t h e i r t u r n such armaments produced d i s t r u s t and h a t e . An i n c i d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , was a l l t h a t was n e c e s s a r y t o . produce a w o r l d c o n f l a g r a t i o n . The i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n w h i c h a r i s e s i s what t h e p e o p l e who were caught up i n such a maelstrom of events thought of them. L e t us t h e n view the European s p e c t a c l e from 1890 t o 1914 from t h e p o i n t of view of t h e p u b l i c . ; - 30 -CHAPTER FOUR " P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n England, w h i c h i s g r a d u a l l y . g a i n i n g a h e a r i n g t hrough-the P r e s s , has so much t o say, even on f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , t h a t B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i s l a r g e l y dependent on t h i s i r r e g u l a r f a c t o r . I n the. same measure t h a t the House, of Commons has* l o s t I n i n f l u e n c e and s t a n d -ing,- P u b l i c O p i n i o n has gained i n p o l i t i c a l po¥/er. Thus an i n c a l c u l a b l e element- has f o r c e d i t s way . - i n t o E n g l i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y which o t h e r n a t i o n s •" have t o r e c k o n with."-*-"• IMPRESSIONS OF OPINION IN REGARD TO GEP1/ANT 1890-1914 -• The most imp o r t a n t s t o r y t o come from the c o n t i n e n t i n n e a r l y f i v e y e a r s was the news o f Bismarck's r e s i g n a t i o n , on March 18, 1890, as*German Ch a n c e l l o r . . The u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h w h i c h B r i t a i n r egarded the f u t u r e of German p o l i c y was summed up by Punch's well-known two-page c a r t o o n , "Dropping The P i l o t " . Undoubtedly, however, Bismarck's f a l l was a l s o accompanied by a f e e l i n g t h a t r e l a t i o n s w i t h Germany would .be smoother. An a r t i c l e I n the N a t i o n a l Review e n t i t l e d "The R e a l Cause o f P r i n c e B i smarck's R e t i r e m e n t " was of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t , ./" "England has no r e a s o n t o dread or r e g r e t t h e change, .so f a r as r e l a t i o n s .'of t h i s c o u n t r y w i t h .the German Empire a r e i n v o l v e d i n i t . P r i n c e Bismarck was a somewhat' e x a c t i n g f r i e n d , o f t e n , p e r s o n a l l y i n a c c e s s -i b l e , , and sometimes employing methods of n e g o t i a t i o n p e c u l i a r . ; t o h i m s e l f , not w h o l l y a g r e e a b l e t o t h e o t h e r p a r t y t o t h e b a r g a i n . There i s every r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e Emperor w i l l be l o y a l and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n a l l h i s d e a l i n g s . " 2 1 - i 5 c B n e r " A I l s e m e i n e Z e i M n g ' r i u o t e d by the N a t i o n a l ' R e v i e w June, 1904, 43, 530. T h i s q u o t a t i o n appeared i n a German newspaper j u s t a f t e r t h e s i g n i n g o f the A n g l o - F r e n c h agreement. I t seems i n d i c a t i v e t h a t many Germans were of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t anti-German s e n t i -ments w h i c h appeared i n s e v e r a l organs of t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s vjere s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n g u i d i n g B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y 9 2 Nat i o n a l Re view, May 1890, 15, 294. - 31 -Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s were indeed v e r y good i n 1890. P r i o r t o t h e H e l i g o l a n d - Z a n z i b a r t r e a t y between the two n a t i o n s the Emperor had v i s i t e d England. T h i s v i s i t brought f o r t h t h e warm commendation t h a t , "though o s t e n s i b l y h i s v i s i t was o n l y t o t h e Queen, everybody p e r c e i v e d t h a t i t has g i v e n f r e s h f o r c e and s o l i d i t y t o the e x c e l l e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g between Germany and Great B r i t a i n . " 3 A c t u a l l y t h e exchange of H e l i g o l a n d f o r p o s s e s s i o n s i n A f r i c a met w i t h a v a r i e d response i n B r i t a i n . One o p i n i o n was t h a t i t was "an i s l a n d of not t h e s l i g h t e s t r e a l v a l u e t o our E m p i r e . " 4 The same o p i n i o n was expressed by the Times of June 18 w h i c h used th e terms " n a t u r a l and n e c e s s a r y a l l i e s " and spoke of t h e agreement as "one of the main guarantees of t h e peace of the w o r l d . " 5 The C o n s e r v a t i v e Standard and Morning P o s t l i k e w i s e u p h e l d t h e t r e a t y but t h e L i b e r a l p r e s s was not so s y m p a t h e t i c . The D a i l y C h r o n i c l e spoke of "England's h u m i l i a t i o n " . The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a l l M a l l G a z e t t e f o l l o w e d t h e g e n e r a l l i n e o f t h e L i b e r a l p r e s s and spoke i n terms as s t r o n g as " S a l i s b u r y ' s s u r r e n d e r t o Ger-many i s shameful t o the l a s t degree' 1. On t h e whole, how-ever, t h e g e n e r a l consensus o f B r i t i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n was 3^J'"Na*tTonai Review",September 1890, 16,""129. Q u o t a t i o n s from t h i s source u n l e s s t i t l e d a re t h e comments made by t h e e d i t o r , Leo Maxse, i n h i s monthly a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Episodes o f t h e Month." _ 4 N a t i o n a l Review, J u l y 1890, 15, 846. 5 Quoted by E. M. C a r r o l l : Germany And The G r e a t Powers 1866-1914, New Y o r k , P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1938, 296. 6 I b i d . , 297 7 I b i d . . 296-297. q u i t e i n f a v o r of t h e exchange and was p l e a s e d a t the c o r -8 d i a l i t y of Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s . The B r i t i s h p u b l i c were not aware i n 1891 o f t h e f u l l terms of t h e F r a n c o - R u s s i a n a l l i a n c e and c o n s e q u e n t l y v e r y l i t t l e appeared i n the papers or r e v i e w s . There was every i n d i c a t i o n , ^however, t h a t a c o u n t e r a l l i a n c e t o the T r i p l e A l l i a n c e had been s e t up. An a r t i c l e ,on F r e n c h p o l i t i c s i n t h e Contemporary Review by G. Monod s t a t e d t h a t R u s s i a and F r a n c e , •.;•;{ / -. . ".v....have, a t .the same time demonstrated t o a l l * Europe t h a t : a c h a n g e has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e e q u l l -. i b r i u n i of p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , and t h a t the p e r i o d of t h e a b s o l u t e hegemony of Germany i s ended. • I n 1895 t h e death of A l e x a n d e r I I I o f R u s s i a brought t h e r o y a l f a m i l i e s of b o t h R u s s i a and England t o g e t h e r and t h e s u g g e s t i o n of an Anglo-^Russian e n t e n t e was made. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n met w i t h a . c e r t a i n amount of p u b l i c a p p r o v a l . "An .entente w i t h R u s s i a , i s c e r t a i n l y d e s i r a b l e , and i t would a s s u r e t h e peace o f Europe f o r another g e n e r a t i o n . Y e t we would j o i n i n no entente t h a t was i l l - d i s p o s e d toward Germany." 1 0 T h i s statement I s i n d i c a t i v e of a v e r y "middle of t h e r o a d " a t t i t u d e ; and t h i s i s p r o b a b l y an a c c u r a t e summation of B r i t i s h o p i n i o n a t t h e . t i m e . There was a f e e l i n g p r e v a l e n t t h a t t h e p o l i c y , of i s o l a t i o n s h o u l d be d i s c o n t i n u e d , but on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c t h e r e was l i k e w i s e no s t r o n g f e e l i n g •8:" Orbn J. : Wdle,J~¥iIbli^itj^ii&. ^JJj^l^Kcf^&dO-ldT^, New Y o r k , D. A p p l e t on, - C e n t u r y , 1940. H a l e l i s t s , t h e Times, D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , S t a n d a r d and Morning P o s t as being, i n f a v o r of t h e t r e a t y w h i l e o n l y t h e P a l l M a l l G a z e t t e and t h e S t a r opposed i t . See pages 88-89. 9 Contemporary Review, December 1891, I X , 917. 10. N a t i o n a l Review, January 1895, 24, 586. - 53 -as t o "the d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h B r i t a i n s h o u l d a l l y h e r s e l f . On June 10, 1895, t h e terms o f the F r a n c o - R u s s i a n a l l i a n c e were made p u b l i c . A t t h i s t i me A n g l o - F r e n c h r e l a t i o n s were d e f i n i t e l y s t r a i n e d over. Egypt and s i n c e R u s s i a was now seen t o be d e f i n i t e l y a l l i e d w i t h France t h e 'chance of an a l l y f o r B r i t a i n was s i m p l i f i e d . The N a t i o n a l 'Review i m m e d i a t e l y suggested t h a t , TtV:... . i t i s expedient England s h o u l d j o i n t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e . . . . . . . W e would r a t h e r , remain a l o o f from " a l l i a n c e but we cannot b l i n d o u r s e l v e s t o the g a t h e r -i n g \animoSity, o f the F r e n c h , nor t o the dangerous p o s i t i o n we occupy s i n c e R u s s i a has p l a c e d h e r s e l f . under an o b l i g a t i o n t o them, and may be c a l l e d on t o r e n d e r s e r v i c e - f o r s e r v i c e . 1 ( 1 1 Seen i n t h i s l i g h t the a l l i a n c e was b e i n g suggested t o the p u b l i c i n a manner which.would no doubt prove a c c e p t a b l e t o . them, namely t h a t t h e y c o u l d ensure t h e i r p o s i t i o n , espec-i a l l y i n Egypt. An a r t i c l e i n the .October i s s u e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Review c l a r i f i e s t h i s point,. I t says, "Why s h o u l d not England t a k e h e r share i n guarantee-i n g , one may ,say i n d o u b l y g u a r a n t e e i n g , t h e peace . by f o r m i n g ' a Quadruple A l l i a n c e ? . I t i s c e r t a i n t h e r e would be ho dangerous d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e E g y p t i a n Q u e s t i o n i f England were a l l i e d w i t h . Ger-m a n y / A u s t r i a , and I t a l y . " 1 2 / -The E r u g e r Telegram o f 1896, however, s i l e n c e d a l l e x p r e s s -i o n s o f a d e s i r e :f o r an Anglo-German accord.. B r i t i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n was t h o r o u g h l y aroused by the K a i s e r ' s t e l e g r a m t o 11 N a t i o n a l Review, J u l y 1895, 25, 522. 12 N a t i o n a l Review, October 1895, 26, 150. - 54 -13 P r e s i d e n t K r u g e r . G h i r o l , t h e Times f o r e i g n correspondent i n B e r l i n , wrote t h a t t h e o c c a s i o n had been made f o r the pur-pose of s u b j e c t i n g "England t o t h e w e l l - d e s e r v e d h u m i l i a t i o n o f a b i t t e r l y severe l e s s o n . " 1 4 The Times d e s c r i b e d the Kruge r t e l e g r a m as " d i s t i n c t l y u n f r i e n d l y t o t h i s c o u n t r y . " 1 5 The Morning P o s t d e c l a r e d , " I t was hard t o speak.of t h e Telegram w i t h c o o l n e s s . The E n g l i s h n a t i o n would never f o r g e t i t and would always t h i n k of i t i n t h e f u t u r e when d e c i d i n g on i t s . f o r e i g n p o l i c y , " 1 6 The S a t u r d a y Review w r o t e , "Even i f i t be t r u e t h a t the D r i l l - S e r g e a n t A u t o c r a t /would be supported i n h i s remonstrance by the Govern-ments of France and R u s s i a , we s t i l l say t h a t t h e i r I n t e r f e r e n c e i s i m p e r t i n e n t and not t o be t o l e r a t e d . . • • . . . . . . L o r d S a l i s b u r y s h o u l d not t e l l Germany and her a l l i e s t o mind t h e i r own b u s i n e s s . " 1 " The f e e l i n g o f t h e - e n t i r e B r i t i s h p r e s s i s p r o b a b l y as w e l l summarized by t h e Economist as any o t h e r s o u r c e . I t s summa-t i o n was t h a t , " R a r e l y , perhaps never s i n c e Napoleon was sent t o S t . He l e n a , has t h e i n d i g n a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h p u b l i c been so p r o f o u n d l y e x c i t e d as by t h e t e l e g r a m ~ o f t h e German Emperor t o t h e Boer P r e s i d e n t . The t e l e g r a m of t h e German Emperor.. was^regarded as a d e l i b -e r a t e a f f r o n t t o t h e / B r i t i s h N a t i o n There never 13 The t e x t o f t h e t e l e g r a m was, " I expr e s s t o you my s i n -c e r e c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s t h a t you and your p e o p l e , w i t h o u t a p p e a l -i n g ^o t h e h e l p of f r i e n d l y powers, have succeeded, by your own e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e armed bands w h i c h invaded your c o u n t r y as d i s t u r b e r s of the peace, i n r e s t o r i n g peace and i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e independence of t h e c o u n t r y a g a i n s t a t t a c k s from w i t h o u t . " Quoted i n W. L. Langer, The Diplomacy of I m p e r i a l i s m , New Y o r k , A l f r e d A, Knopf, 1935, I , 237. 1 4 T l m e s , January 4, 1896. Quoted by Langer, op. c i t . , 1 , 2 5 8 . 15: Quoted by Langer, op. c i t . , I,/ 240| 16 Quoted by Langer, op. c i t . , I , 241, 17 Quoted by Langer,- op. P i t . , I , 241. - 35 -was a. more g r a t u i t o u s o r w i l f u l a f f r o n t t o a f i r s t - c l a s s S t a t e . " 1 8 S i n c e Germany d i d n o t h i n g more t a n g i b l e t o a i d the Boers o t h e r than-the sending of the t e l e g r a m the o u t b u r s t of B r i t i s h anger may w e l l appear to'be "out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n .to t he event;, whieh caused i t . C e r t a i n l y , t h o u g h , . I t was a blow t o B r i t i s h p r e s t i g e and d i d c a r r y every appearance of a .rebuke t o - t h e E n g l i s h a c t i o n . There, i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s o u t b u r s t had as . i t s r e a l b a s i s an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r -ent cause, t h a n the mere sending of t h e t e l e g r a m . There i s evidence f o r such a s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e predominance of a r t i c l e s on; Anglo-German commercial r i v a l r y i n t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s of the t i m e . Punch was p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h Germany's success and expressed t h e f e e l i n g e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l i n a c a r t o o n e n t i t l e d , "Napping", t o w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g rhyme was appended, "There was a n " o l d Lady (England) as I've heard t e l l She went t o market her goods f o r t o s e l l . S h e went t o market on a market day ';•. And she f e l l a s l e e p on t h e w o r l d ' s highway ; By came a p e d l a r - German - and s t o u t , q Q And he c u t her p e t t i c o a t s a l l round a b o u t . " 1 9 Then too: I n J u l y , 1896, L o r d itosebery: made a speech i n .which he d e c l a r e d t h a t , "Year a f t e r y e a r our C o n s u l s and our v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s o f the Board o f Trade have c a l l e d the. . a t t e n t i o n o f t h e community t o t h e f a c t t h a t we -are no l o n g e r , as we once were, u n d i s p u t e d mis- -t r e s s : o f t h e w o r l d o f commerce, but t h a t we are „ .,.'"' t h r e a t e n e d by one v e r y f o r m i d a b l e r i v a l - Germany..." 18 ; jicSomigl;~" J a n u a r y 11; 18"967""3"?r" ~*~ ~~ ~ 19 Punch, September 5, 1896, v . i i i , 115. 20 Quoted by N a t i o n a l Review, A p r i l 1897, 29, 169-188. Such, sentiments were f u r t h e r p o p u l a r i z e d , by the p r i n t i n g of a pamphlet w r i t t e n by E. E. W i l l i a m s e n t i t l e d , Made- I n Germany, and the support g i v e n t o h i s campaign by t h e S a t u r -day Review, D a l l y , M a i l , and C h r o n i c l e . T h i s a l l g i v e s c r e d -ence t o t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t the o u t b u r s t over the Kruger Telegram l a y not so much i n the a c t u a l t e l e g r a m I t s e l f but i n t h e resentment at German t r a d e r i v a l r y and t h a t such resentment found an o u t l e t i n i t s e x p r e s s i o n s over t h e t e l e -21 gram. The B r i t i s h Government too k no o f f i c i a l a c t i o n / o n t h e K r u g e r Telegram and o u t w a r d l y t h e anger of the B r i t i s h p u b l i c over t h e a f f a i r soon passed. T h i s was t o be expected f o r t h e p u b l i c had ho d e f i n i t e t r e n d i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . : Indeed, i m m e d i a t e l y r e l a t i o n s had become s t r a i n e d w i t h Germany they, were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , , " t h a t F r e n c h statesmen may s e i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y .of., e n d e a v o r i n g t o a t t a c h her (England) t o F r a n c e . , " 2 2 T h i s was i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no e v i d e n t b a s i s o f agreement on w h i c h the two c o u l d come t o terms. Even Punch t o o k up t h e i d e a o f an A i i g l o - F r e n c h rapprochement. I n a c a r t o o n e n t i t l e d "Rapprochement" i t showed John B u l l and Madame France s i t t i n g t o g e t h e r on a bench,;; "John B u l l ( a s i d e ) ' She's r a t h e r an a t t r a c t i v e woman.'* : Madame La R e p u b l i q u e ( a s i d e ) 'TlensS Apres t o u t , i l n 'est pas s i m a l l ' " 2 3 "21" A r a t h e r amuS Ting s i d e l i g h t t o the whole q u e s t i o n of "Made In' Germany" came d u r i n g t h e Diamond J u b i l e e o f Queen V i c t o r i a . L i k e many o t h e r newspapers t h e Times i s s u e d a c o l o r e d p o r -t r a i t o f t h e Queen t o i t s r e a d e r s . Imagine th e s u r p r i s e o f many who d e s i r e d t o have i t framed t o f i n d p r i n t e d on I t the f a t a l words, "Made I n Germany"'. 22 N a t i o n a l Review, F e b r u a r y , 1896, 26, 720. 23 Punch, January 25, 1896, v . i i o , 43. - 37 -N o t h i n g came of t h e s e A n g l o - F r e n c h f e e l e r s and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t I n t h e p r o p o s a l v e r y soon d e c l i n e d . The next m a t t e r t o arouse B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t i n Germany was t h e proposed Ger-man N a v a l B i l l w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e R e i c h s t a g i n 1898. The p u b l i c r e a c t i o n i n B r i t a i n c o u l d v e r y w e l l be summed up as,'' "We cannot a f f o r d t o a l l o w the German Emperor t o h o l d t h e b a l a n c e o f sea power i n Europe . i n t h e '•, e a r l y y e a r s of t h e - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . " Y e t , . o n th e o t h e r hand, t h e p u b l i c was not unduly alarmed. 25 The press,' i n g e n e r a l was moderate I n tone but i t was sus-p i c i o u s of Germany's i n t e n t i o n , and so t o commercial r i v a l r y we might add n a v a l r i v a l r y as a means of k e e p i n g a l i v e a c a u t i o u s a t t i t u d e I n r e g a r d t o Germany. P a r l i a m e n t a l s o showed the same a t t i t u d e of calmness combined, w i t h w a t c h f u l -n e s s . L o r d C h a r l e s B e r e s f o r d asked i n P a r l i a m e n t i f our n a v a l e s t i m a t e s were adequate and he was a s s u r e d by the F i r s t L o r d t h a t a c a r e f u l watch was b e i n g kept on f o r e i g n c o n s t r u c -t i o n . 2 6 By 1899, however, we,do f i n d some c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f o p i n i o n among c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the p u b l i c t h a t any f u t u r e rapprochement w i t h Germany was an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . . I n g r e a t measure t h i s f e e l i n g was due t o t h e despatches o f Chi-ro l t o ~M i%tiohaT^"evi ' e w 7 January, 1898, 50, 679.. ' ~~~ 25 Times, B|ally T e l e g r a p h , Standard, D a i l y News, were a l l moderate. The Morning P o s t saw i n t h e German navy a t h r e a t t o B r i t a i n . F o r f u l l e r d e t a i l see C a r r o l l , op. c i t . , 390. 26 P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, 3 May, 1898, v o l . 57, 179-180. - 38 -27 t h e Times.. S i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s were t o be found i n t h e N a t i o n a l Review w h i c h was g r a d u a l l y becoming anti-German and we f i n d e x p r e s s i o n s o f o p i n i o n such as, .VThe sooner we r e a l i z e t h a t any attempt at a rapproche-.ment w i t h Germany must be l a i d a s i d e as our i n t e r e s t s i n e v e r y q u a r t e r of t h e g l o b e are v i t a l l y opposed, _ t h a t a n a t i o n a l d i s l i k e has a r i s e n on b o t h s i d e s . . . . . " 2 8 B e s i d e s t h i s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e i n r e g a r d to.Germany the N a t i o n a l Review a l s o put f o r w a r d a v e r y s t r o n g p o s i t i v e s t a n d f o r c l o s e r f r i e n d s h i p w i t h R u s s i a . T h i s i s i n t e r e s t -i n g . as i t runs c o u n t e r t o t h e a t t i t u d e of members of t h e Government. L o r d S a l i s b u r y I n a speech on November 9, 1899, d e s c r i b e d our r e l a t i o n s w i t h the German peopl e as a l l t h a t could-be d e s i r e d . The same t e n o r was sounded by Joseph Ghamberlain i n a speech at L e i c e s t e r on November 30, 1899, i n w h i c h he s a i d , I t h i n k any f a r - s e e i n g E n g l i s h statesman must have l o n g d e s i r e d . . . . . . . t h a t , we s h o u l d not remain permanently i s o l a t e d oh t h e C o n t i n e n t o f Europe; and I t h i n k t h a t t h e moment t h a t a s p i r a t i o n was formed i t must have appeared e v i d e n t t o everybody t h a t t h e n a t u r a l a l l i a n c e i s between o u r s e l v e s and t h e g r e a t German Emp i r e . " 2 9 We have seen t h a t such, however^ was not t h e f e e l i n g o f c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the p u b l i c . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a t the r o o t of a l l such s u g g e s t i o n s t h e r e was the f e e l i n g t h a t B r i t a i n would have t o end her p o l i c y o f i s o l a t i o n , . a c t u a l l y t h e r e "27 V a l e n t i n e C h i r o l (185lKr929) . Was ' f o r e i g n correspondent f o r t h e Times i n Germany from 1892 t o 1897. A f t e r 1897 he was i n charge o f t h e f o r e i g n department o f the paper and i n t h i s p o s i t i o n he was w e l l a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Eor f u l l e r d e t a i l see D.N.B, 1922-1930, 182-185. 28 N a t i o n a l Review, November 1899, 34, 326. 29- Q,uoted by the N a t i o n a l Review, J a n u a r y , 1900, 34, 655. - 39 -does not seem t o have been any s t r o n g o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r o f an a l l i a n c e w i t h Germany. E d i t o r i a l l y the Times s c a r c e l y 50 mentioned t h e suggested rapprochement. The Saturday Review was d e f i n i t e l y opposed, and t h e N a t i o n a l Review d e c l a r e d t h a t , .As u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i t h t h a t Rower so s w i f t l y - t u r n i n t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , w h i c h breed f u r t h e r I l l - w i l l , t h e fewer such arrangements t h e b e t t e r . " . Mr. B a l f o u r was w e l l aware of t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o such an a l l i a n c e f o r he s t a t e d t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n would have t o be improved i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s b e f o r e i t would be f e a s i b l e . 3 2 Y e t t h e German Navy B i l l of June 1900 w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r a. f l e e t , of 58 b a t t l e s h i p s w i t h i n 20 y e a r s d i d not un-d u l y arouse the B r i t i s h . T h i s may be because t h e B i l l p r o -v i d e d f o r a p o w e r f u l navy o n l y on a l o n g term b a s i s . As -one magazine d e c l a r e d , . " A s v f a r : a s t h i s c o u n t r y i s concerned, we can a f f o r d t o watch t h e growth of t h e German navy, w i t h sym-p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t . . I t does not f o l l o w t h a t because i t r has Shot up i n h e i g h t so Suddenly t h a t t h e same " r a t e of growth w i l l be always m a i n t a i n e d . : The death of Queen V i c t o r i a in,. J anuary 1901 and t h e German Emperor's r a p i d t r i p t o England undoubtedly r a i s e d h i s p o p u l a r i t y i n B r i t a i n , as Punch's c a r t o o n e n t i t l e d 34 •"' " A p p r e c i a t i o n " c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e d . As we know, t h e Government t o o k advantage of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s an 50 See Langer, op". c i t T , Il",~499. : : 31 ./National Review, J a n u a r y , 1900, 54, 6B4.' 32 Langer, op. c i t . , I I , 498* 55 N a t i o n a l Review, J u l y , 1900, 35, 715, 34 Punch, J a n u a r y , 1901, 119, 99. - 59A-,anglo-German en t e n t e , but s i n c e n e g o t i a t i o n s broke down the p u b l i c was not made av^are of the attempt. However, by t h i s time t h e Boer War, as w e l l as the Boxer R e b e l l i o n , were under way, and the p u b l i c mind was more v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n these t o p i c s t h a n whether o r not an entente was p o s s i b l e between England and Germany. N o t h i n g s p e c t a c u l a r o c c u r r e d i n the f i e l d o f f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s u n t i l January 30, 1902, when the Anglo-Japanese f i n a n c e was s i g n e d . T h i s t r e a t y was made known t o the pub-l i c on F e b r u a r y 11 and the r e a c t i o n t o i t was most i n t e r e s t -i n g . - • The Economist t o o k a v e r y r e s e r v e d p o i n t of view on the a c t u a l b e n e f i t s of t h e a l l i a n c e but d i d s t r e s s t h a t ".....we ar e not b l i n d t o t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e o f p r e s t i g e w h i c h the T r e a t y b r i n g s us, not o n l y i n P e k i n , where the Japanese s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r i n -f l u e n c e week by week, but on t h e C o n t i n e n t of Europe.. I t was an unwholesome, because f a l s e , i d e a w h i c h had spread t h e r e , t h a t Great B r i t a i n was h o p e l e s s l y f e t t e r e d by the South A f r i c a n war, and c o u l d no l o n g e r attempt a n y t h i n g g r e a t even i n s e l f - d e f e n c e , and the A l l i a n c e d i s s i p a t e s t h a t i d e a . " ^ The N a t i o n a l Review was much more outspoken. I t s comment vras " I t would be more a c c u r a t e t o say, and t h i s i s one o f t h e c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n s from th e B r i t i s h p o i n t o f v i e w , t h a t t h e A l l i a n c e w i t h Japan s i g n i f i e s our e m a n c i p a t i o n from t h e German yoke w h i c h we have borne so meekly f o r many y e a r s . B o t h t h e s e a c c o u n t s , as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of what was w r i t t e n , s t r e s s t h e f a c t t h a t B r i t a i n had t a k e n a d e c i s i v e step a t a 55 Economist, F e b r u a r y 15, 1902, 242. 36 N a t i o n a l Review, March, 1902, 59, 1. - 40 -time when she would n o r m a l l y not have been expected t o , and had t h e r e b y proven t h a t she was capable of a c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , B r i t a i n ' s p r e s t i g e both at home and abroad was i n -c r e a s e d . I t was about t h i s t ime t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g number of a r t i c l e s began t o appear i n the B r i t i s h p r e s s which expressed the f e e l i n g t h a t the growing German navy was a d i s t i n c t menace. The appearance of t h e s e a r t i c l e s c o i n c i d e d w i t h a f e e l i n g of almost s u p e r - s e n s i t i v e n e s s among the B r i t i s h r e -" 37 g a r d i n g t h e o p i n i o n of o t h e r n a t i o n s on t h e South A f r i c a n war, German o p i n i o n d u r i n g t h e war had been l a r g e l y pro-Boer and t h e German p r e s s had p r o b a b l y been t h e worst i n i t s comments. i±s t h e s e comments were r e p r i n t e d i n the B r i t i s h p r e s s i t was Germany c o n s e q u e n t l y , which r e c e i v e d the brunt o f E n g l i s h i l l -f e e l i n g , and t h e f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e B r i t i s h a t t a c k was t h e German navy. I n May, 1902, a book e n t i t l e d The German Empire Of Today appeared. I t s author w r i t i n g under the pseudonym of T e r i t a s emphasized the importance of t h e German navy and p o i n t e d out t h a t a t the end of s i x t e e n y e a r s Germany would posses s t h i r t y - e i g h t b a t t l e s h i p s , f o u r t e e n l a r g e and t h i r t y -e i g h t s m a l l c r u i s e r s . The Morning P o s t had a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on t h e German menace, and t h e N a t i o n a l Review d e c l a r e d i t s i n t e n t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g t o shout, "..,.month by month u n t i l t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e A d m i r a l t y has been roused from, the Teu-t o p h i l e t o r p o r . " 3 8 57 See Economist, January 51, 1903T"186-187,' f o ? ~ a n ~ a r t i c l e on t h i s v e r y p o i n t , 38 N a t i o n a l Revle\v, May, 1902, 59, 557. - 41 -The N i n e t e e n t h Century And A f t e r took a most s e r i o u s I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of Germany's p o l i c y and I n a r t i c l e "Great B r i t a i n And Germany" by J . L. B a s h f o r d s a i d , "For many months - nay, f o r t h e l a s t few y e a r s -t h e b e l i e f t h a t Germany's K a i s e r and C h a n c e l l o r have been, and are s t i l l , p l a y i n g a h o s t i l e game a g a i n s t Great B r i t a i n , , and are c y n i c a l l y l a y i n g an e l a b o r a t e p l o t f o r t h e u l t i m a t e r u i n of our c o u n t r y ' s power, has been g a i n i n g ground i n a l l spheres o f B r i t i s h S o c i e t y , and not amongst the masses, of u n t h i n k i n g , p e o p l e a l o n e , who,perhaps, t a k e t h e i r cue from t h e u n r e l i a b l e l u c u b r a t i o n s of s e n s a t i o n a l j o u r n a l i s m . The c u l t u r e d c l a s s e s of the U n i t e d Kingdom a l s o have become impregnated w i t h s i m i l a r v i e w s , and many person from among the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of the K i n g ' s s u b j e c t s speak of Germany as England's b i t t e r e s t and most danger-ous f o e . I n v e r x e x a l t e d : c i r c l e s , t o o , we f i n d p e r -sons who. t h i n k t hey are j u s t i f i e d i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t Germany wants t o r u l e the N o r t h Sea; t o Wrest the ...'whole s h i p p i n g t r a d e out o f our hands; t o invade England; and t o a n n i h i l a t e the world-power.-.of Great B r i t a i n . " 3 9 T h i s i s p r o b a b l y an extreme view but i t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e f e e l i n g towards Germany which was f e l t by many. I t was f e l t t h a t a - r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y was n e c e s s a r y . The, Anglo-Japanese agreement had shown t h a t B r i t a i n was not g o i n g t o p e r m i t f u r t h e r R u s s i a n advance i n t h e P a c i f i c . , and c o n s e q u e n t l y the l i n e of>"rapprochement d i d h o t p o i n t i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . I n s t e a d , t h e p r e s s began t o p o p u l a r -i z e , b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F r a n c e . -In!May, 1905, K i n g Edward v i s i t e d P a r i s and by h i s t a c t - , f u l speeches d i d much t o b r i n g about f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . The change i n f e e l i n g was q u i t e e v i d e n t and brought f o r w a r d t h e comment i n t h e Economist t h a t , - 42 -;"The genuine q u a l i t y o f t h e improvement i n Anglo--Erench r e l a t i o n s i s a g r e e a b l y i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e a t t i t u d e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t h i s c o u n t r y i n r e -gard, t o the approaching e x p e d i t i o n from A l g e r i a f o r t h e chastisement o f troublesome t r i b e s a cross t h e Moroccan f r o n t i e r . " 4 0 The f i n a l r e s u l t was t h a t by t h e end, o f 1903 t h e r e was "a u n i t e d E n g l i s h p r e s s championing an Anglo-Erench understand-• I f t h e . p u b l i c r e q u i r e d any f u r t h e r p u b l i c i t y as t o t h e advantages o f an A n g l o - E r e n c h e n t e n t e i t was f u r n i s h e d by t h e i n v a s i o n s c a r e w h i c h swept the E n g l i s h p r e s s e a r l y i n 1904. The Westminster G a z e t t e had an a r t i c l e on "The I n v a s -i o n o f Germany - I s I t P r a c t i c a b l e ? The P l a n s o f German S t r a t e g i s t s . " - Then a p o p u l a r book appeared by Mr. E r s k i n e C h i l d e r s e n t i t l e d , The R i d d l e Of The Sands, A Record Of AO S e c r e t S e r v i c e R e c e n t l y A c h i e v e d . Commenting on t h i s book and i t s ; a u t h o r t h e N a t i o n a l Review s a i d , "„..,.there can be no doubt but t h a t he has rendered •a r e a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o arouse t h e ; B r i t i s h S l u g g a r d w h i l e t h e r e i s y e t t i m e . " 4 S Thus, i t was no s u r p r i s e t h a t on A p r i l 8, 1904, t h e A n g l o - E r e n c h Agreement was' s i g n e d . P u b l i c f e e l i n g was gener a l l y --In f a v o r o f t h e entente.. E a r l Spencer speaking i n t h e : House of L o r d s s a i d t h a t , " I t i s not o f t e n t h a t an O p p o s i t i o n can g i v e un-s t i n t e d c o n g r a t u l a t i o n on any a c t i o n i t "(the Govern-. , ment) may t a k e . . I r e j o i c e t o t h i n k t h e r e a r e except t i o n s t o t h i s r u l e , and t h e p r e s e n t i s an o c c a s i o n 40 Economist, June 6, 1903, 999. 41 Ha-le~, op. c i t . , 265. , 42 There a r e no r e v i e w s a v a i l a b l e o f t h i s book but i t s popu-l a r i t y i s e v i d e n t from t h e f a c t t h a t by 1913 i t was i n the 1 0 t h I m p r e s s i o n and 2nd, e d i t i o n . I t was l i k e w i s e i n t h e N e l s o n l i b r a r y s e r i e s . 45; "'•'National Review, F e b r u a r y , 1904, 42, 840. . "when- we may of f'er c o n g r a t u l a t Ion......... I t i s a m a t t e r of t h e utmost importance t o us to.have f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h F r a n c e . I t i s t h e best p ledge of peace f o r t h i s c o u n t r y . " 4 4 The Marquess of Landsdowne, t h e F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y , i n acknow-l e d g i n g the c o n g r a t u l a t i o n r e p l i e d t h a t , "....throughout t h e l o n g months d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s have been c o n t i n u e d , we had t h e a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y t h a t we had b e h i n d us the g e n e r a l p u b l i c f e e l i n g of t h i s c o u n t r y , and t h a t the p u b l i c f e e l i n g would be g r i e v o u s l y d i s a p p o i n t e d i f we had had t o b r i n g t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s t o a c l o s e w i t h o u t f i n d i n g a f r i e n d l y and s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n t o t h e s e i n t e r -{ r a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . ' " * 5 The p r e s s l i k e w i s e was, i n g e n e r a l , v e r y much p l e a s e d w i t h the t r e a t y . The C o n s e r v a t i v e Morning P o s t was an ex-c e p t i o n and was of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t F r ance had had: much the b e t t e r o f t h e b a r g a i n . 4 6 The Economist however f e l t t h a t , "we s h a l l not have much d i f f i c u l t y i n g i v i n g i t (the t r e a t y ) a warm welcome." 4^ The N a t i o n a l Review was " a c t u a l l y e f f u s i v e i n i t s p r a i s e and spoke of few'events i n our time c a u s i n g such "genuine s a t i s -f a c t i o n . " I t a l s o t o o k t h e o c c a s i o n t o p o i n t out a g a i n t h a t B r i t a i n was now e n t i r e l y emancipated from th e "German yoke." . The a c t u a l d i s l i k e w h i c h c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f the B r i t i s h p r e s s f e l t f o r Germany was a g a i n p l a i n l y shown by t h e T a n g i e r i n c i d e n t of March 31, 1905...The D a i l y C h r o n i c l e p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The K a i s e r ' s Gambit" i n which i t attempted t o show how t h e Moroccan v i s i t f i t t e d i n t o t h e scheme of W e l t p o l i t i k . There was a l s o expressed t h e o p i n i o n t h a t Germany 44, P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, 19 A p r i l , 1904, ¥.153, 485-486. 45 P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, 19 A p r i l , 1904, ¥.135, 487. 46 See C a r r o l l , op. o i t . , 496. 47 Economist, A p r i l 16, 1904, 642. 48 N a t i o n a l Review, May, 1904, 45, 549. - 44 -was 'trying,'ito' " d r i v e a wedge i n t o t h e Anglo-French under-s t a n d i n g . " " . A c t u a l l y what d i d occur was a t i g h t e n i n g o f the f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p o r , a s the Economist d e s c r i b e d i t , "an e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e genuine and i n t i m a t e c h a r a c t e r o f the under-s t a n d i n g . " 5 0 The " v i s i t " of t h e K a i s e r was d e f i n i t e l y a f a i l u r e and i n h i s Memoirs he ad m i t s , h i m s e l f , t h a t he d i d not i n t e r e s t t h e r i g h t p e o p l e . " . " . . . . . i t met," he. says, " w i t h a c e r t a i n amount o f f r i e n d l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by I t a l i a n and Southern F r e n c h a n a r c h i s t s , rogues, and a d v e n t u r e r s . " 5 1 What he d i d accomplish-was t o b r i n g about f o r B r i t a i n and France t h e b u r i a l of t h e h a t c h e t under German a u s p i e e s . 5 2 The c o n c l u s i o n of t h e Russo-Japanese war by t h e T r e a t y of Portsmouth brought f o r t h i n the B r i t i s h papers t h e advocacy of an A n g l o - R u s s i a n e n t e n t e . The O u t l o o k , . S p e c t a t o r , and the Westminster .Gazette were ..among the l e a d e r s o f t h i s p r o p o s a l . However, t h e time was not y e t p r o p i t i o u s f o r such an a l i g n -ment and I n s t e a d i n August, 1905, a new agreement was made ,.:, w i t h R u s s i a * s e r s t w h i l e enemy, Japan.*,' T h i s agreement was e h t h u s i a s t l c a l l y g r e e t e d by t h e p r e s s which, however, d i d not cease t o p o i n t out t h a t i n time B r i t a i n would be : a b l e t o come t o terms w i t h R u s s i a , The Times correspondent on R u s s i a 49 N a t i o n a l Review, June 1905, 45, 569"^ ~ : ~ ' " 50 Economist, A p r i l 1, 1905, 516. 51 K a i s e r W i l h e l m , op. c i t . , 108 52 N a t i o n a l Review, September 1905,. 46, 7. . - 4 5 -wr'o'te t h a t , "time, p a t i e n c e , and c o r d i a l g o o d w i l l on t h e p a r t - o f ' R u s s i a and Great B r i t a i n w i l l overcone appre-h e n s i o n s , and t h e r e b y p a v e the way t o an under-s t a n d i n g between the two c o u n t r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n A s i a . " 5 3 The A l g e c i r a s Conference p r o v i d e d b o t h B r i t a i n and R u s s i a w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y of a c t i n g t o g e t h e r and t h e r e b y l a i d t h e b a s i s f o r the entente suggested by t h e p r e s s . I n June", 1907, Germany i n v i t e d B r i t i s h e d i t o r s t o v i s i t Germany. The purpose of t h i s v i s i t was o s t e n s i b l y a good w i l l t o u r and the r e s u l t which the Germans hoped t o o b t a i n was a more c o r d i a l a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t of the B r i t i s h p r e s s towards Germany. However, many important papers and r e v i e w s f e l t so s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t Germany t h a t t h e y would have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the attempted rapprochement. I n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t were t h e Times, Morning.Post, D a i l y M a i l , . E v e n i n g News, Globe, S p e c t a t o r . O b s e r v e r . N i n e t e e n t h Century And A f t e r , t h e F o r t n i g h t l y Review, and t h e N a t i o n a l Review. Punch a l s o had a s a t i r i c a l note on t h e v i s i t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t , "The K a i s e r has i n v i t e d the B r i t i s h j o u r n a l i s t s on t h e i r v i s i t t o B e r l i n 'to w i t n e s s ^ bhe s p r i n g parades of t h e Potsdam g a r r i s o n . I f t h e K a i s e r imagines t h a t B r i t i s h j o u r n a l i s t s a r e e a s i l y overawed he i s m i s t a k e n . " 5 5 T h i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , I n d i c a t i v e of t h e se n t i m e n t s which a p o w e r f u l s e c t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s f e l t towards Germany. 'In August of t^he same y e a r t h e agreement between B r i t a i n and R u s s i a , w h i c h t h e p r e s s had been so anxi o u s t o b r i n g a b o u t i r w S s a c h i e v e d . P r e s s comments on t h e t r e a t y show how 55 Quoted by N a t i o n a l Review, November., 1905, 46, 579. ' 54 This,; l i s t g i v e n i n t h e N a t i o n a l Review, June 1907;, 49,, '••.•'519-520.. . 55 Punch,. May 15., 1907, Y152, 349. ^popular i t was. S a i d t h e N a t i o n a l Review, "The overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e ..throughout the Empire are d e l i g h t e d t h a t the p r o -longed Anglo-Russian, n e g o t i a t i o n s have c u l m i n a t e d i n an Agreement.... . . ."55 The comment of t h e Economist was evidence of t h e u n a n i m i t y o f t h e p r e s s s u p p o r t , f o r i t spoke of the " s m a l l band of e n t h u s i a s t s who have been u r g i n g , w i t h such stubborn and i n s i s t e n t eloquence i n a s e c t i o n of the P r e s s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h Government sho u l d have no d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e R u s s i a n Govern-ment ..... ."57 A n g l o - E r e n c h r e l a t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y c o r d i a l i n 1908. E a r l y i n t h e year, the: F r e n c h P r e s i d e n t v i s i t e d England and h i s v i s i t was t h e o c c a s i o n f o r e x p r e s s i o n as t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y of t h e E n t e n t e O o r d i a l e . Then M. Clemenceau added another g r a c e f u l g e s t u r e t o t h e f e e l i n g of amity by h i s presence a t t h e f u n e r a l of. t h e l a t e Prime M i n i s t e r j' S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman. H o w e v e r , c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r e s s f e l t t h a t t h e two n a t i o n s were, "...,. . . c o n t i n u a l l y t e m p t i n g P r o v i d e n c e by p o s t -.poning t h o s e m i l i t a r y and n a v a l c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h are t h e n e c e s s a r y complement of t h e entente c o r d i a l e . " 5 8 From t h i s comment, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s evidence t h a t t h e p u b l i c were unaware of t h e m i l i t a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h had a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e . The y e a r 1908 a g a i n w i t n e s s e d ' a r e v i v a l of t h e f e a r of German armaments. I n F e b r u a r y an I m p e r i a l M a r i t i m e League was founded by; H a r o l d F. Wyatt and L. Graham ,H. H o r t o n -56 N a t i o n a l Review, August 51, 1907, 50, 165,. , 57 '•; Economist, September 28, 1907, 1618-1619. 58 N a t i o n a l Review, June, 1908, 51, 504. - 47 -59 Smith. The purpose o f t h i s League was t o arouse the n a t i o n t o t h e menace which Germany p r e s e n t e d t o the B r i t i s h navy. The Westminster G a z e t t e was e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n th e growth of t h e German navy and i n June p u b l i s h e d com-p a r a t i v e t a b l e s t o show t h a t w i t h i n f o u r y e a r s England would o n l y have e l e v e n Dreadnought t y p e s h i p s t o German's t h i r t e e n . The Observer c a r r i e d the p r o p o s a l t h a t B r i t a i n r e q u i r e d a .naval law such as Germany had i n o r d e r t o meet t h e c r i s i s . . The theme was an e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r one and some o f t h e a r t i c l e s went i n t o g r e a t d e t a i l . The Q u a r t e r l y .Review i n J u l y had an i t e m on-the "German P e r i l " I n which i t p o i n t e d out t h a t . , ".. . t h e K a i s e r ' s s u b j e c t s , now numbering over s i x t y -two m i l l i o n o f p e o p l e , i n c r e a s e by n e a r l y a m i l l i o n s o u l s a y e a r . . . . ...a f a r .more f o r m i d a b l e increment t h a n . i s now a n n u a l l y added t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f any :other two Western c o u n t r i e s " ^ A S o c i a l i s t paper, t h e C l a r i o n , a l s o r a i s e d t h e o l d f e a r of a German i n v a s i o n o f England and t h e Westminster G a z e t t e and N a t i o n a l Review f o l l o w e d i n t h e same theme. There was a l s o a growing f e e l i n g t h a t B r i t a i n r e q u i r e d an army as w e l l . .as a navy i n o r d e r t o have adequate p r o t e c t i o n . B a l f o u r , t h e f o r m e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r , i n a speech o f November 19, 1908, 59 H a r o l d E. Wyatt - a speaker and w r i t e r on N a v a l and I m p e r i a l matters., J o i n e d t h e Navy League E x e c u t i v e i n 1895. A U n i o n i s t I n p o l i t i c s . Wrote England's Threatened R i g h t s a t S e a , i n 1906, and God's Test By war, i n 1912. Di e d May 20, 1925. Who Was Who. 1916-1928 London, A. & C. B l a c k , 1929. L. 'Graham H. Ho r t o n - S m l t h - a l a w y e r and j o i n t founder of t h e I m p e r i a l M a r i t i m e League, J o i n t author, o f many a r t - . i c l e s on t h e importance o f t h e navy, such as, The P a s s i n g of the Great E l e e t , 1909, Keep t h e E l a g P l y i n g , 1 9 1 0 , a n d T B r i t a i n ' Imminent Danger, 1912.. Who's Who 1940, London, A.& C.Black, 1941. 60 Q u a r t e r l y . Review., J u l y 1908, 209, 265 - 48 -s a i d t h a t t h e navy must be implemented by an adequate home f o r c e . L o r d M i l n e r was of t h e same o p i n i o n , and L o r d 'Robert's motion i n P a r l i a m e n t f o r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f ah adequate army was c a r r i e d 74 t o 32. The Times gave f u l l support t o the demand f o r a home army and i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The Duty of England" v o i c e d a demand f o r n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .and t h e c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n i n a r m s . 6 1 The Spec-t a t o r f o l l o w e d w i t h a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s , t h e motto of which was,"prepare, p r e p a r e , and a g a i n p r e p a r e . On November 5, 1909, t h e S o c i a l i s t paper, C l a r i o n , 'commented.on t h e growing; g r a v i t y o f t h e German danger. The e d i t o r , Robert B l a t c h f o r d , i n a s e r i e s of e d i t o r i a l a r t i c l e s s a i d - . "Those,; who deny the danger of an Anglo-German war - d e c l a r e .that the B r i t i s h : p eople have no d e s i r e f o r war, t h a t t h e German people have,no d e s i r e f o r war, and t h a t we who i n s i s t upon t h e presence o f t h e war 'danger a r e r e a l l y h e l p i n g to.make war p o s s i b l e . " I admit t h e two arguments and deny t h e t h i r d . . . . . 1 am. more t h a n ever c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a l and a growing danger o f w a r . " ^ '.. '.• ' r These a r t i c l e s were r e p u b l i s h e d i n t-he D a i l y , M a l l and a l s o came .out i n penny pamphlet form So t h a t t h e y must have had a f a i r l y wide c i r c u l a t i o n i . . ' . . . Y e t , w h i l e B r i t a i n was alarmed a t t h e growing m i l i t a r y and n a v a l s t r e n g t h of Germany, t h e B r i t i s h p u b l i c were not •" o v e r l y aroused by t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f B o s n i a and H e r z e g o v i n a . The s t o c k market d i d show, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a d e f i n i t e r e a c t i o n . 61 Times, March~21, 1909. • "~ "~ ~ • ~ ~ ~ " 62 Quoted by N a t i o n a l Review, December, 1909, 54, 528. . - 49 -The Economist noted t h a t , " P r i c e s meanwhile were g i v i n g way i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . . -.Consols t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e d e c l i n e , and K a f f i r s f a l l i n g l i k e the l e a v e s i n an autumn g a l e . n 6 3 However, w i t h i n a week the s t o c k market .had r e c o v e r e d from the momentary p a n i c . The a n n e x a t i o n had been the a c t i o n p r i m a r i l y o f A u s t r i a , though she had been supported by Ger-many, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e B r i t i s h d i d not view th e move w i t h alarm.' '". 'Such was; n o t . t h e case, though, of t h e A g a d i r i n c i d e n t of. J u l y , 1911.. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e the B r i t i s h p r e s s was f u l l y a l i v e t o t h e p o s s i b l e danger from Germany and many were the comments w h i c h were made. There was a d e f i n i t e f e e l i n g t h a t the B r i t i s h M i n i s t e r s , ":,,»;.. have f o r once done t h e i r duty, as t h e i r v i g o r o u s - a t t i t u d e - w e n t f a r t o p r e s e r v e t h e peace o f E u r o p e . . . " 6 4 C o n c e r n i n g t h e Mansion House Speech i t was f e l t by many t h a t , .".,.. t h e C h a n c e l l o r o f the Exchequer made some;atone-ment f o r p a s t i n d i s c r e t i o n s - by a speech at t h e Mansion House as' I r r e p r o a c h a b l e i n terms as i t was unmistak-a b l e i n t o n e , w h i c h , backed as i t was by the. d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f t h e C a b i n e t , saved t h e peace of Europe, w h i c h does not depend,, as i l l u s i o n i s t s p r e t e n d t o imagine, upon honeyed words o r a v e r s i o n t o war, but upon the amount o f b e l l i g e r e n t power beh i n d p e a c e f u l " i n t e n t i o n s . The speaker merely d e c l a r e d t h a t we were n e i t h e r a q u a n t i t e n e g l i g e a b l e nor a f a i t h l e s s f r i e n d . " On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e were, some who, w h i l e not d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h what L l o y d George had s a i d , f e l t t h a t he was not t h e p e r s o n t o sa.y i t , b u t , t h a t i t s h o u l d have been s a i d by t h e 63 Economist, Qcto^eTToT^90^7~659, ' ' ~ 64 N a t i o n a l Review, November 1911, 58, 529. 65 N a t i o n a l Review, December 1911, 58, 501-502, S p e c t a t o r , J u l y 29, 1911, 107, 165 expressed t h e same - s e n t i m e n t . . - 50 -P r i m e M i n i s t e r , or by Edward Grey, t h e F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y . I t has been charged by one magazine t h a t the g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f B r i t a i n was i n a "semi-comatose c o n d i t i o n . " e S But when we remember t h a t 1911 was a y e a r of s t i r r i n g events i n domestic a f f a i r s we can understand why f o r e i g n a f f a i r s d i d not loom as l a r g e i n t h e p u b l i c mind as might be expected. A f t e r a l l t h e r e i s such a t h i n g as. a s u r f e i t o f excitement. A t any r a t e , t h e r e was no r e s p i t e on the p a r t o f the maga-z i n e s i n i s s u i n g c o n s t a n t warnings t o be a l e r t . The Spec-t a t o r e s p e c i a l l y urged t h a t B r i t a i n keep her navy s t r o n g and supreme. I n an a r t i c l e on "The Navy Debate" i t c l a i m e d , "We are engaged I n competing w i t h Germany f o r t h e ..command of t h e sea, and i t i s a b s o l u t e l y v i t a l t h a t we s h o u l d w i n i n t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n and induce our r i v a l s t o g i v e up the, game as not w o r t h th e c a n d l e . Now, i n our o p i n i o n , t h e b e s t way and cheapest way t o do t h i s i s t o make i t q u i t e c l e a r t o Germany t h a t whatever happens we s h a l l o u t b u i l d her and so o u t s t a y her i n t h e r a c e . " 6 ? I n t h e o p i n i o n o f some B r i t i s h e r s t h e r e was too much d e f i n i t e anti-German f e e l i n g p r e v a l e n t i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . The S p e c t a t o r had s e v e r a l l e t t e r s t o t h e e d i t o r c l a i m i n g - t h a t Germany had a s i d e t o the argument and t h a t she s h o u l d CO be p e r m i t t e d t o expand. 66 N a t i o n a l Review, January 1912, 58, 693. See a l s o S p e c t a t o r ^ December 2, 1911, 107, 948. 67 S p e c t a t o r , May 18, 1911, 106, 389. 6 8 S p e c t a t o r , F e b r u a r y 12, 1910, 105, 258. March, 19, 1910, 105, 462. October 21, 1911, 107, 639. December 30, 1911, 107, 1150. J a n u ary 6, 1912, 108, 13. J anuary 13, 1912, 108, 54-55. November 16, 1912, 109, 806. J a n u ary 4, 1915, 110, 15. These i s s u e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , have l e t t e r s on t h i s v e r y p o i n t . - 51 -S u g g e s t i o n s were made t o the e f f e c t t h a t Germany sh o u l d have., f o r t h e purpose o f development, B r a z i l , the Amazon V a l l e y , and one w r i t e r . e v e n suggested g i v i n g her h a l f of A u s t r a l i a I On t h e whole, however, th e B r i t i s h p u b l i c seemed t o be q u i t e complacent a t t h e a t t i t u d e o f i n t o l e r a n c e which a g r e a t number of the p r e s s t o o k i n r e g a r d t o Germany. The. Round T a b l e i n i t s v e r y f i r s t volume made the s t a t e -ment t h a t , . "The c e n t r a l f a c t i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n today i s t h e antagonism between England and Ger-many. ... .and i t i s t h e t o p i c which dominates a l l o t h e r s i n t h e columns of t h e w o r l d ' s p r e s s which are devoted t o t h e , d i s c u s s i o n o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . Anglo-German r i v a l r y does not e x i s t s o l e l y i n the minds of panic-mongers and C h a u v i n i s t s I t i s an a l l - p e r v a d i n g r e a l i t y . " " 9 N a t u r a l l y such f e e l i n g s were not improved by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f B e r n h a r d t ' s Germany And The Next War. T h i s book r e c e i v e d wide p u b l i c i t y i n England. C h a r l e s S a r o l e a i n w r i t i n g The 70 Anglo-German Problem, c o n s i d e r e d i t important enough t o devote an e n t i r e c h a p t e r t o i t . The major magazines c a r r i e d r e v i e w s o f i t and they, a l l s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o B e r n h a r d t , Germany c o n s i d e r e d war/as ah i n s t r u m e n t of 71 p o l i c y . The B a l k a n War of 1912-1913 d i d not r e c e i v e much a t t e n -t i o n i n the p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s . A g a i n , as i n 1908, A u s t r i a was 69 TW^ound~TJable, 1910-1911, volT~T7"'7~7~ : ' 70 C h a r l e s Sarolea,-The Anglo-German Problem, London, Thomas N e l s o n and Sons, 1912, 156-181. [Note t h i s book a l s o appeared i n a cheap paper-covered e d i t i o n s e l l i n g a t a s h i l l i n g . ) 71 Reviews were c a r r i e d by N a t i o n a l Review, December 1912, 60, 543; Athenaeum, October 19, 1912, 2, 447; S p e c t a t o r , . November 50, 1912, 109, 902. The r e v i e w s o f t h i s book c a r r i e d i n t h e Book Review D i g e s t are a l l d e f i n i t e l y u n f a v o r a b l e . See Book Review D i g e s t , New Y o r k , H. W.'Wilson Co., 1913. t h e c h i e f f i g u r e and Germany p l a y e d a r o l e w hich kept her :rather much i n t h e "background. A c t u a l l y t h e r e appeared t o be evidence of a f r i e n d l i e r f e e l i n g i n . r e g a r d to Germany. The -N a t i o n d i s c u s s i n g the. B a l k a n war and peace f e l t t h a t , "Now t h a t peace i s p r a c t i c a l l y secured, l e t us a l l -remember=our .debt, f i r s t , t o S i r Edward Grey, and t h e n t o the K a i s e r . Not f o r t h e f i r s t o r second time has the. l a t t e r g i v e n a c a s t i n g v o t e a g a i n s t .'> ' war. I t a l s o went on t o say t h a t the Times and Morning P o s t were c a u t i o u s but we're, w r i t i n g , w i t h , good f e e l i n g and welcomed the 73 change:, i n Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s . The o n l y comment of t h e S p e c t a t o r was t h a t , - . . "freedom w i t h w a t c h f u l n e s s has produced the p r e s e n t - f o r t u n a t e s i t u a t i o n o f mutual s e l f - r e s p e c t . " 7 4 C e r t a i n l y t h e s i t u a t i o n was not a t a l l t o the l i k i n g of the N a t i o n a l Review, w h i c h viewed Germany w i t h c o n s t a n t s u s p i c i o n , and t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g ' o f q u i e s c e n c e prompted th e e d i t o r , Leo Maxse,:to w r i t e , •'*••• " A p p a r e n t l y t h e . B r i t i s h P r e s s , w h i c h has l o s t n e a r l y a l l i t s spunk of l a t e y e a r s , i s a f r a i d t o c a l l a t t e n --w, t i o n t o t h e s e d i s a g r e e a b l e f a c t s . ( i . e . . Germany a c c e l -e r a t i n g her p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r war/. They are t o o a l a r m i n g . They w o u l d ' s p o i l t h e " t r a d e boom."' 5 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e . f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s between B r i t a i n and Germany were m a i n t a i n e d throughout t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1914. As l a t e as June 20, -the" New Statesman c o u l d w r i t e "For t h e f i r s t time s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y '.  :: our r e l a t i o n s Y^ith Germany, we. are t o l d , are t h o s e o f 'complete c o n f i d e n c e ' . " 1 " ^ 72 "Nation, January".25, 1915, 12, 695." "~ ~~~ ~~~ " " :73 . N a t i o n , F e b r u a r y 15, 1913, 12, 802. 74 S p e c t a t o r , F e b r u a r y 15, 1913, 110, 257. 75 N a t i o n a l Review,. February,. 1915, 60, 880. 7 6 . T h e New Statesman, June 20, 1914, 3, 327. - 53 -The B r i t i s h p u b l i c were f a r t o o engrossed i n such v i t a l domestic m a t t e r s as t h e q u e s t i o n o f Home Rule f o r I r e l a n d w i t h i t s p o s s i b i l i t y o f c i v i l w a r , and the Marconi s c a n d a l , t o have much time f o r a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o n t i n e n t a l a f f a i r s . C e r t a i n l y t h e p r e s s d i d not " p l a y up" the European s i t u a t i o n . The N a t i o n commenting on t h e murder o f t h e A r c h -duke and h i s w i f e i n Events o f the Week" p l a c e d i t i n the. s i x t h paragraph,showing how unimportant t h e y f e l t t h e ma t t e r t o be". Then too,, i n a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e on "The Blow A t Au s t r i a , , t h e r e was not t h e s l i g h t e s t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t ; B r i t a i n might be a f f e c t e d . Indeed, the. N a t i o n made no s e r i o u s a p p r a i s a l o f the s i t u a t i o n ; u n t i l August 1. C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e f o r e , i t s comment I n t h e August 8 i s s u e t h a t , "The war broke so" r a p i d l y upon p u b l i c o p i n i o n , w h i c h a t f i r s t .refused t o b e l i e v e t h a t we-could be con-cerned i n a q u a r r e l over S e r v i a , t h a t l i t t l e attempt t o o r g a n i z e f o r peace c o u l d w e l l be made." 7 7 was indeed most a p t . A c a r e f u l study o f t h e S p e c t a t o r , t h e N a t i o n a l Review, and t h e New Statesman r e v e a l i d e n t i c a l t r e n d s . The i s s u e o f . t h e S p e c t a t o r w h i c h co v e r e d t h e events of t h e week o f the a s s a s s i n a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t "The f i e l d of f o r e i g n a f f a i r s i n t h i s week b a r r e n o f i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s . " 7 8 P r o o f t h a t domestic a f f a i r s were more imp o r t a n t t h a n f o r e i g n events i s g i v e n i n t h e comment, 77 N a t i o n " August. 8, 1914,, 15, 691. ,., \ " • • " — 78 S p e c t a t o r , J u l y 11, 1914, 113, 41. The S p e c t a t o r was a weekly p u b l i c a t i o n and t h e r e was t h e r e -f o r e v e r y l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e "copy" was completed much ahead o f the p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e . "The n a t i o n ' s deep a n x i e t i e s c o n c e r n i n g home - p o l i t i c s have t o a v e r y g r e a t e x t e n t obscured f o r them the European p r o s p e c t . " " 9 The f i r s t date on which t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e European s i t u a t i o n was f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s was August 1, The p r e s s , however, made no attempt t o f o r m u l a t e p u b l i c o p i n i o n f o r i t seemed t o be e q u a l l y confused by the r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h the s i t u a t i o n had so d e t e r i o r a t e d t h a t war was p r a c t i c a l l y unavoidable.. The S p e c t a t o r suggested t h a t , " I f t h e - w o r s t comes t o the worst we s h a l l s t a n d - l o y a l l y by our f r i e n d s and our v i r t u a l engage-merits— a p o l i c y d i c t a t e d a l i k e by honour and by s e l f - i n t e r e s t . " 0 0 The Mew Statesman was not so d e f i n i t e , " I f t h e B r i t i s h . G o v e r n m e n t a l l o w s i t s e l f t o be .dragged, i n t o t h e c o n f l i c t at t h e h e e l s o f France and R u s s i a , I t may c o n c e i v a b l y be a d o p t i n g t h e : o n l y c o u r s e , which,under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i s . o p e n t o . i t ; but i t i s no/use t o p r e t e n d t h a t i t -w i l l have any s o r t of n a t i o n a l mandate beh i n d i t . " 8 1 A c t u a l l y b o t h the p r e s s and t h e pe o p l e seemed t o be l o o k i n g t o t h e Government f o r l e a d e r s h i p and were i n no. p o s i t i o n t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h l i n e of a c t i o n t h e y p r e f e r r e d . A most i n t e r -e s t i n g a r t i c l e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s f e e l i n g appeared i n t h e S p e c t a t o r under t h e t i t l e , " P u b l i c D i s t r a c t i o n and Concen-t r a t i o n . " I n p a r t i t s a i d , " I t has been remarked t h a t w h a t h o l d s a man's mind ; i n t h e h e i g h t o f a n a t i o n a l c r i s i s i s s t i l l t h e .plaguy problem o f c h o o s i n g h i s next, p a i r o f t r o u s e r s . . . ;"The. c h a r a c t e r o f p u b l i c f e e l i n g i s not an unimportant • t h i n g ; i t i s not- a mere " c u r i o s i t y " f o r o n l o o k e r s . A 79 ^Spectator, J u l y ^ 2 5 , 1914:, 115, 121. 8 0 Spectator,. August 1, 1914, 113, 154. - 55 -"Government who mean t o govern are bound t o study i t and l a y t h e i r , p l a n s so as t o c a t c h the r e a d i e s t response t o t h e i r p o l i c y . . . . . . . The Government have now a r a t h e r b e w i l d e r e d and c r i s i s - d i s t r a c t e d n a t i o n t o g u i d e , not y e t f u l l y awake t o the meaning o f a l l t h a t i s happening. The Government cannot at the moment, ask f o r i n s p i r a t i o n o r a d v i c e from the p e o p l e . They must themselves d e f i n e t h e s i t u a t i o n ; t h e y must themselves c r e a t e a p o l i c y and themselves guide the people.- T h e _ o p p o r t u n i t y belongs t o them and t o no-body e l s e , i f they are p l a i n l y honest and p a t r i o t i c t h e y w i l l f i n d a c o u n t r y e x c e p t i o n a l l y ready t o support them i n do i n g what i s r i g h t . "82 The i n v a s i o n o f Belgium, as we know, s o l v e d the d i f f i -c u l t y f o r t h e Government. B r i t a i n d e c l a r e d war on August 4, and t h e New Statesman was a b l e t o d e c l a r e , "But i t i s not p o s s i b l e , on t h e f a c t s as t h e y are -'known t o us, f o r any man not b l i n d e d by h i s p r e -p o s s e s s i o n s t o deny t h a t B r i t a i n has never gone t o war w i t h c l e a n e r h a n d s . " 8 3 • Such, t h e r e f o r e , was t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s handled t h e major events o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s between the y e a r s 1890 and 1914. And inasmuch as p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e p r e s s i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p u b l i c were v e r y k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n B r i t a i n ' s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n t i n e n t and t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d concerned t h e y d i d not u p h o l d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y of i s o l a t i o n . I n f a c t t hey ••-displayed gr.eat eagerness t o have B r i t a i n a l l y h e r s e l f w i t h some c o n t i n e n t a l Power. T h e i r c h o i c e of a p a r t n e r f l u c t u a t e d c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g 1890 t o 1901 between Germany, R u s s i a , and F r a n c e . They had no d e c i d e d p r e f e r e n c e but r a t h e r were 82 S p e c t a t o r , August';'!, 1914, 115, 161. ' 83 Mew S t a t esman, August 8, 1914, 3, 545. - 56 -guided i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l s by the p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g at the moment. Thus i n t u r n , theywooed the T r i p l e A l l i a n c e and t h e Dual A l l i a n c e . True, a f t e r 1899, the gen-e r a l f e e l i n g w h i c h was expressed was, t h a t t h e r e was no p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t y o f an a l l i a n c e w i t h Germany. Y e t , on the o t h e r hand, n e i t h e r was t h e r e a d e f i n i t e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e members o f t h e Dua l A l l i a n c e o f f e r e d a c o u n t e r a t t r a c t i o n . On one p o i n t , however, t h e p u b l i c seemed t o be g e n e r a l l y agreed - end i s o l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y a c c l a i m e d t h e An g l o -Japanese Agreement o f 190S as t h e f i r s t s t e p . The An g l o -F r e n c h Agreement o f 1904 was t h e second step and, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f some of t h e L i b e r a l s , t h e entente was'Welcomed w i t h enthusiasm. The t r e a t y w i t h R u s s i a i n 1907, l i k e w i s e , was r e c e i v e d i n much t h e same s p i r i t . Y e t , w h i l e B r i t a i n was o s t e n s i b l y i n the camp of t h e Dua l A l l i a n c e , and had entered t h e r e not o n l y w i t h g e n e r a l p u b l i c a p p r o v a l but a t the i n s i s t e n c e of many i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t i o n s o f the p u b l i c , t h e r e was a f e e l i n g t h a t such a c o n n e c t i o n must not prevent f r e e and f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h Germany. T h i s i d e a l p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g f r i e n d l y w i t h a l l major Powers was p r a c t i c a l l y a c h i e v e d i n 1914 when t h e powder-keg o f Europe began t o blow up. ' The s i t u a t i o n was so c o m p l i c a t e d t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p u b l i c t o see why a q u a r r e l between A u s t r i a and S e r b i a s h o u l d i n v o l v e them. Then a g a i n , many wished t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y had freedom t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . And w h i l e t h e i r agreements w i t h F r a n c e and R u s s i a had been welcome, y e t th e y f e l t t h e y d i d not i r r e v o c a b l y b i n d them t o - 57 -go t o war. On t h e o t h e r hand, at t h e hack of many minds t h e r e was t h e f e e l i n g t h a t honor bound them t o a i d t h e i r f r i e n d s i n , t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . These, a t l e a s t , are t h e t r e n d s of p u b l i c thought w h i c h a re e v i d e n t i n the p r e s s a c c o u n t s . A c t u a l l y , however, the p u b l i c were so engrossed i n domestic m a t t e r s t h a t a s e r i o u s a p p r a i s a l of f o r e i g n a f f a i r s was momentarily i m p o s s i b l e . When the c r i s i s came the Government c o u l d not g i v e adequate l e a d e r s h i p immediately because o f t h e compromised r e l a t i o n s w i t h F r a n c e . The pr e s s c o u l d not g i v e a l e a d because I t knew o f no s o l u t a i o n a c c e p t -a b l e t o i t s p u b l i c . .The c r u x of t h e d i f f i c u l t y of b o t h Government and p r e s s was how t o f i n d some e v i d e n t and t a n g i b l e r e a s o n t o bear our and re n d e r j u s t i f i a b l e t h e i r s u p p o r t , even •with arms, of France and R u s s i a a g a i n s t Germany and A u s t r i a . The i n v a s i o n o f Be l g i u m s o l v e d t h a t d i f f i c u l t y and p r o v i d e d a s o l u t i o n t o t h e whole s i t u a t i o n . - 58 -CHAPTER FP7E " P r i v a t e p u b l i c i t y , whether news, i n t e r p r e t a t i v e comment, or s t r a i g h t e x h o r t a t i o n , c o u l d not be e n t i r e l y i g n o r e d by those who shaped p o l i c i e s . F o r the f o r e i g n s e c r e t a r y and h i s s t a f f the domestic and f o r e i g n p r e s s was a p r i m a r y source of i n f o r m a t i o n . u l PUBLIC OPINION AND FOREIGN POLICY An e v a l u a t i o n of the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , as expressed t h r o u g h t h e medium of the p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s , and B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Government departments, on the one hand, a r e r e t i c e n t t o admit t h a t t h e y can be swayed by the p r e s s w h i l e , on t h e o t h e r hand,, the p r e s s i s ever too ready t o . l a y c l a i m t o i t s power t o I n f l u e n c Undoubtedly, however, a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d e x i s t between the two. I n the. f i r s t i n s t a n c e a study of t h e p r e s s r e v e a l s t h a t w i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s most papers and p e r i o d i c a l s had s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l a l i g n m e n t s (See Appendix I ) . Yet t h e r e i s a l s o v e r y l i t t l e e vidence t h a t p a r t y papers were o b l i g e d t o f o l l o w s l a v i s h l y i n support o f t h e p o l i c i e s of t h e i r p a r t y . The Manchester G u a r d i a n i s a case i n ' ' p o i n t . L i b e r a l t o the c o r e , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s , from 1906 on, campaigned f o r b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Germany and w i t h d r a w a l from c o n t i n e n t a l commitments. Another L i b e r a l paper, the N a t i o n , . b i t t e r l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f Grey as b e i n g too a n t i -German. Most papers and r e v i e v j s seem a l s o t o have had v e r y d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n s on f o r e i g n a f f a i r s but t h e i r a t t i t u d e was q u i t e independent and e x p r e s s i v e l a r g e l y o f t h e p o i n t o f view __ Q r o n jt HaTeY'op. olt " ~ 7 "59. ' - 59 -o f t h e e d i t o r s and t h e i r • r e a d i n g p u b l i c . Leo Maxse, e d i t o r of t h e N a t i o n a l Review, and S t . Loe S t r a c h e y , e d i t o r of the S p e c t a t o r , were b o t h s u s p i c i o u s of. Germany and welcomed the alignment w i t h F r ance and R u s s i a . L o r d N o r t h c l i f f e , on be-coming' owner of t h e Times i n 1908 d e c l a r e d t h a t he would not i n t e r f e r e i n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e paper as l o n g as i t c o n t i n u e d t o warn the people o f B r i t a i n of the/ German menace. The independence of t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s was f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e Inasmuch as t h e r e was no Government P r e s s Bureau, such as e x i s t e d I n Germany. The F o r e i g n O f f i c e had no r e g u l a r means of g i v i n g out news and S i r Edward Grey was t h u s a b l e t o r e p o r t i n P a r l i a m e n t t h a t , "There i s no r e g u l a r ' o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e f o r i n s p i r i n g any P r e s s agency o r newspaper I n o r d e r t o put f o r w a r d e i t h e r o f f i c i a l l y o r s e m i - o f f i c i a l l y , t h e views of H i s M a j e s t y ' s Govern- . ment w i t h r e g a r d t o f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . " ^ A lthough^ t h e r e was no o f f i c i a l ' c o n n e c t i o n between the p r e s s and t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e t h e r e were many u n o f f i c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p s . Henry' Spenser W i l k i n s o n , f o r example, who was the,, c h i e f w r i t e r on f o r e i g n a f f a i r s f o r t h e Morning P o s t from 1895 t o 1909 was m a r r i e d t o a s i s t e r of S i r Eyre Crowe, one of t h e a d v i s e r s t o t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e . C. P. S c o t t , e d i t o r - p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e Man-c h e s t e r G u a r d i a n , had c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h C a m p b e l l -Banherman. L i k e w i s e , S i r C e c i l S p r i n g R i c e , who had h e l d t h e o f f i c e o f t h e B r i t i s h s e c r e t a r y i n B e r l i n and l a t e r I n . S t . P e t e r s b u r g , corresponded w i t h Leo Maxse, S t . Loe S t r a c h e y , g. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, 5 t h S e r i e s , v o l . 52," 564T~~~ — — - 60 -and T a l e n t I n e C h i r o l . B e s i d e s such u n o f f i c i a l c o n n e c t i o n s t h e r e was a l s o some c o o p e r a t i o n on the p a r t o f the p r e s s i n f o r w a r d i n g c e r t a i n governmental p o l i c i e s . H a l e p u t s t h i s v e r y a p t l y when he says t h a t , " C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of h i g h n a t i o n a l p o l i c y f r e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d the work of t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n t s . A good example o f t h i s i s a f f o r d e d by t h e c o n t r a s t i n g tone of B r i t i s h r e p o r t i n g from P a r i s end B e r l i n between 1904 and 1 9 1 4 . n 6 I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d t h e amount o f c o o p e r a t i o n g i v e n depended l a r g e l y on t h e f a v o u r shown, t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y by the. p r e s s concerned. The F o r e i g n O f f i c e was k e e n l y aware of t h e p r e s s and p a i d c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e o p i n i o n s which i t expressed. I t i s known t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e Times, Morning P o s t , Westmin-s t e r G a z e t t e , and t h e Manchester Guardian, were c a r e f u l l y r e ad by t h e f o r e i g n s e c r e t a r y and h i s s t a f f . 4 A p o i n t of i n t e r e s t t o n ote i s t h a t these were not the papers w i t h the l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n s but were t h o s e which were r e a d by the 5 " p o l i t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e " s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . A c t u a l l y the government c o u l d h a r d l y i g n o r e t h e p r e s s . I n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e i n i t s r o l e as the mouthpiece or i n t e r p r e t e r of p u b l i c o p i n i o n i t commanded some a t t e n t i o n . Secondly, i t c o u l d always p r i n t r e p o r t s w h i c h would r e s u l t i n the r a i s i n g of q u e s t i o n s i n p a r l i a m e n t . 3 H a l e , op. c i t . ~ 5 6 T T h i s statement is~aTs~o borne out by ' C own e l l - Evan s~, ~"~~op. c i t . , 41. See a l s o an a r t i c l e on t h i s v e r y p o i n t i n New Statesman,' May 30, 1914, e n t i t l e d "Germany And The B r i t i s h P r e s s . " 4 H a l e , op. c i t . , 39. 5 i b i d . , 39. C i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the v a r i o u s newspapers and r e v i e w s have been almost i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n from a v a i l -a b l e s o u r c e s . Statements, such as those made above, a r e on t h e a u t h o r i t y o f secondary sources c o n s u l t e d . -.61 -The p r e s s , t o o , o f t e n t r i e d d i r e c t l y t o change a g i v e n government p o l i c y . The N a t i o n a l Review d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e d i n 1901 t h a t i t was engaged " i n t r y i n g , so f a r as o u t s i d e r s . c a n e x e r c i s e ..influence i n such m a t t e r s , t o c o n v i n c e our Govern-ment of t h e wisdom of e s t a b l i s h i n g our f o r e i g n fi p o l i c y on w i d e r l i n e s t h a n i t has l a t e l y h eard," One o f t h e e f f e c t i v e ways i n w h i c h t o g a i n p u b l i c a t t e n -t i o n and i n t e r e s t was by t h e c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n of. an argu-ment. I n r e g a r d t o Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s c e r t a i n a n t i -German members of t h e p r e s s c o n s t a n t l y repeated two arguments i n o r d e r t o f o r e s t a l l c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n . Foremost among thes e was "the German n a v a l menace, p r o b a b l y one of t h e most pot e n t arguments f o r a B r i t i s h e r . The Round T a b l e t o o k the a t t i t u d e t h a t , "'Our man on t h e omnibus' has never f a i l e d as y e t „ t o respond t o an a g i t a t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e F l e e t . " The second argument most commonly used, and one w h i c h was capable o f a r o u s i n g immediate i n t e r e s t , was t h e growing commercial r i v a l r y between t h e two n a t i o n s . I t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t b o t h t h e s e arguments brought f o r w a r d e x p r e s s -i o n s of o p i n i o n t h a t were u n c r i t i c a l and a t times e n t i r e l y u n r e a s o n a b l e . Y e t w h i l e t h e government was a p p a r e n t l y aware of t h e o p i n i o n s expressed by t h e p r e s s c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s a t l e a s t , were q u i t e c a p a b l e • o f t a k i n g a c t i o n c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y of p u b l i c o p i n i o n as v o i c e d t h r o u g h the p r e s s . . T h i s was p a r -6 NalH^o^^ 7 Round T a b l e , December, 1912, 5, 680. t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n r e g a r d t o the e x t e n s i o n o f the Anglo-French entente t h r o u g h m i l i t a r y and n a v a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s t o the p r a c -t i c a l e x t e n t of an a l l i a n c e . Indeed t h i s was done w i t h o u t even th e f u l l knowledge of p a r l i a m e n t . •Conwell-Evans i n h i s p r e f a c e , t o F o r e i g n P o l i c y From A Back Bench expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t , "The r e a d e r w i l l p r o b a b l y be impressed w i t h t h e s m a l l p a r t w h i c h the House of Commons was a l l o w e d t o p l a y i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y and w i t h the l i t t l e c o n t r o l w h i c h democratic England c o u l d exer-c i s e over her . d e s t i n y . " 8 T h i s was n a t u r a l l y so inasmuch as I n t e r n a t i o n a l n e g o t i a -t i o n s have always been l a r g e l y s e c r e t and s i n c e no f o r m a l e f f e c t i v e machinery f o r p u b l i c c o n t r o l has ever been developed. As a r e s u l t t h e r e has of n e c e s s i t y been a l i n g e r i n g a u t o c r a t i c c o n t r o l of f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Even a measure of p u b l i c d i r e c t i o n of p o l i c y i s beset w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s as i s seen i n the d i v e r -gences between e x p r e s s i o n s of agreement o f I n f l u e n t i a l j o u r -n a l i s t s and t h e alignment o f p o l i c y . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e study o f c e r t a i n m a t t e r s of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l importance i t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t even the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r e s s of t h e more educated c l a s s e s showed l i t t l e e v i d e n t d e s i r e t o a n a l y z e t h e q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of two p a r t i c u l a r l y important problems, the commercial and n a v a l a s p e c t s of Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s . I n t h e p e r i o d i c a l s --checked t h e r e was no r e a l l y c o n s i d e r e d and sane a n a l y s i s of t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of danger from German c o m p e t i t i o n . There was a l s o e v i d e n t a c e r t a i n e m o t i o n a l i s m , - 62 A -and at t i m e s even h y s t e r i a , w i t h r e g a r d t o the n a v a l t h r e a t . True, t h e r e was some d i s c u s s i o n on an academic plane but i t seems t o have had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d . The pe o p l e who were f r i e n d l y t o Germany seem t o have had as l i t t l e r e a s o n t o be so as the people who d i s l i k e d Germany. In g e n e r a l the study seems s u g g e s t i v e of the g e n e r a l a i r of u n r e a l i t y w i t h w h i c h people t e n d t o r e g a r d p o l i t i c s . The p r e v a l e n t tendency was t o f o l l o w a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s . The r e s u l t of such an a t t i t u d e was t h a t the f i n a l c r i s i s t o o k the p u b l i c c o m p l e t e l y by s u r p r i s e . - 63 -APPENDIX I | B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l notes on t h e most important of t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s used or r e f e r r e d t o i n the t h e s i s . 1. THE INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPERS THE 'TIMES T h i s i s p r o b a b l y the most o u t s t a n d i n g of a l l B r i t i s h newspapers. I t was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n January 1, 1785, as the D a i l y U n i v e r s a l R e g i s t e r and became the Times on J a n -u a r y 1, 1788. The e d i t o r d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1890-1914 was George E a r l e B u c k l e who i s a l s o well-known as the c o l l a -b o r a t o r i n t h e l i f e of D i s r a e l i . I n 1908 the Times was purchased by L o r d N o r t h c l i f f e but though t h e r e was e. change i n ownership t h e p o l i c y of t h e paper, t o m a i n t a i n an independ- [ 'i ent a t t i t u d e on p o l i t i c a l - q u e s t i o n s remained unchanged. The importance of the'Times i n m a t t e r s o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s r e s t s c h i e f l y on t h e e x c e l l e n c e of i t s r e p o r t e r s , such as V a l e n t i n e C h i r o l , George Saunders, Wickham Steed, and W a l t e r H a r r i s , t o mention but a few whose a r t i c l e s were so • important from 1890 t o 1914. THE DAILY MAIL " T h i s newspaper was s t a r t e d by t h e Harmsworths i n 1896. as-a h a l f p e n n y d a i l y . I t s c i r c u l a t i o n has always been e x t r e m e l y l a r g e b e i n g , on t h e average, about one m i l l i o n '. .' 1 c o p i e s . T T m s F i g u r e is~^uot'ed" 5y^Eh~e^ncyc'Ibpaedia E r i t a n n i o a ^ 1 4 t h E d i t i o n , v o l * 16, New York, 1937. a r t i c l e on "News- A p a p e r s " by S i r Robert Donald, 334-360. i f / • - 64 -Both, th e s e independent newspapers took a r a t h e r un-f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e t o Germany and viewed w i t h s u s p i c i o n her a c t i o n s i n the f i e l d of f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 2. THE LIBERAL NEWSPAPERS THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN T h i s i n f l u e n t i a l paper was f i r s t p r i n t e d on J u l y . 2 , 1855. Throughout i t s l o n g h i s t o r y i t has been c h i e f l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y . The e d i t o r d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1890 t o 1914 was C. P. S c o t t , whose .g e n e r a l p o l i c y was one of d i s a p p r o v a l of the anti-German campaign conducted I n t h e p r e s s . THE DALLY CHRONICLE A morning newspaper w h i c h f i r s t s t a r t e d as a weekly i n 1855 as The O l e r k e n w e l l News and Ge n e r a l A d v e r t i s e r . I n 1904 i t i n c r e a s e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y and r e a d i n g p u b l i c by r e -d u c i n g i t s p r i c e t o a h a l f - p e n n y . D u r i n g the l o n g L i b e r a l regime.of 1906 to- 1915 the C h r o n i c l e was regarded, as t h e c h i e f s u p p o r t e r of t h e L e f t Wing o f the Government. I n g e n e r a l i t was not u n f r i e n d l y t o Germany but d i d on o c c a s i o n have a r t i c l e s w h i c h . v o i c e d s u s p i c i o n o f Germany's p o l i c y . E d i t o r s from 1890 t o 1914 ?/ere, A l f r e d Ewen E l e t c h e r , 1889-1894 ' H. W, Massingham, 1894-1899 •W. J . E i s h e r , 1899-1903 (No a v a i l a b l e I n f o r m a t i o n on e d i t o r s t o 1914) THE WESTMINSTER GAZETTE ' •' S t a r t e d i n January 31, 1893, and i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the D a i l y News i n 1928. Only two, e d i t o r s guided t h e p o l i c y o f t h i s paper d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1890 t o 1914, t h e y were - 65 -E. T„ Cook, 1893-1896 J". A. Spender,1896-1932 Spender d e f i n i t e l y d i s a p p r o v e d of the anti-German campaign "but y e t the G a z e t t e c a r r i e d a r t i c l e s , on the danger of the growing German navy and t h e f e a r of i n v a s i o n . The paper was read by e d i t o r s and p o l i t i c i a n s and i t s i n f l u e n c e was out o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o i t s c i r c u l a t i o n w h i c h was o n l y around 50,000. THE DAILY NEWS T h i s i s t h e o l d e s t L i b e r a l newspaper i n London. I t was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d on January 2, 1846. I n 1868 i t became a penny paper and i n 1904 a f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n p r i c e was made t o b r i n g i t t o a h a l f - p e n n y . I n 1930 i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the D a l l y C h r o n i c l e . A v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e s o n l y two e d i t o r s f o r t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d . They a r e , S i r John R. Robinson, 1886-1895 ,E, T. -Cook, 1895-1901 Up t o t h e l a s t minute i n 1914 t h i s paper was opposed t o g o i n g t o war w i t h Germany. . THE CONSERVATIVE NEWSPAPERS THE DAILY TELEGRAPH E i r s t p u b l i s h e d on June 29, 1855, i t was the f i r s t d a i l y newspaper t o be s o l d a t a penny (1856). I t came t o be t h e s p e c i a l organ of t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s and b e f o r e t h e coming of t h e h a l f - p e n n y p r e s s i t c o u l d c l a i m t h e l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n i n the w o r l d . I n p o l i t i c s i t was L i b e r a l up t o 1878 when i t opposed G l a d s t o n e ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y and - 66 -d u r i n g t h e I r i s h Home-Rule s p l i t i n 1866 i t changed i t s a f f i l i a t i o n . Of the C o n s e r v a t i v e p r e s s i t was t h e l e a s t anti-German. J". M. Le Sage, editor,-1890-1914. THE OPENING POST T h i s o l d e s t C o n s e r v a t i v e paper s t a r t e d p u b l i c a t i o n on November 2, 1772. I n r e g a r d t o Germany the P o s t appears t o have f o l l o w e d v e r y c l o s e l y the a t t i t u d e of the Times. I t supported s t r o n g l y t h e T r i p l e Entente and c r i t i c i z e d Germany's w o r l d p o l i c y . There i s v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s paper. I t s e d i t o r s f rom 1890 t o 1914 were, A l e x a n d e r Leys Moore, 1890.-1894 A l g e r n o n L o c k e r , 1895-1897 J". N. Dunn, 1897-1905 Fabian-Ware and Henry S. W i l k i n s o n ; 1905-1910 H.. A. Gwyime, 1910-THE PALL-MALL' GAZETTE Ah evening p u b l i c a t i o n w h i c h s t a r t e d on F e b r u a r y 1865. U n l i k e t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e papers the G a z e t t e does not seem t o have been too anti-German i n p o l i c y a l t h o u g h i t d i d not agree w i t h H e l i g o l a n d - Z a n z i b a r t r e a t y . The f o r e i g n p o l i c y of the paper was s t r o n g l y I m p e r i a l i s t i c , and i t supported t h e navy and n a t i o n a l con' s c r i p t i o n as w e l l as Grey's p o l i c y o f e n t e n t e s . I t s e d i t o r s from'1890 t o 1914 were, E. T. Cook, 1889-1892 K i n l o c h Cooke, 1892-1893 H. C. Oust, 1893-1896 S i r Douglas S t r a i g h t , 1896-1909 E. J . H i g g i n b o t t o m , 1909-1912 J", L. G a r v i n , 1912-- 67 -THE STANDARD A morning and evening e d i t i o n paper which s t a r t e d on June 29, 1857. I t belonged t o t h e Pearson P r e s s which, g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , was not u n f r i e n d l y t o Germany. I t s e d i t o r s from 1890 t o 1904 were, W. H. Mudford, 1874-1900 G. B. C u r t i s , 1900-1904 4. THE. MAGAZINES THE NATIONAL REVIEW ' T h i s magazine was f i r s t p r i n t e d i n 1883. I t i s a . -monthly r e v i e w of 150-180 pages w h i c h from 1894 has been e d i t e d by Leo. J . Maxse. One of t h e f e a t u r e s of t h i s maga-z i n e i s a 20-30 page s e c t i o n devoted t o "The Episodes o f The Month". . I t was U n i o n i s t i n p o l i t i c s and a f t e r 1899 markedly anti-German i n p o l i c y . THE SPECTATOR .-. T h i s weekly r e v i e w was f i r s t p r i n t e d i n J u l y , 1828. Up t o 1925 i t had had o n l y f o u r e d i t o r - p r o p r i e t o r s and c o n s e q u e n t l y i t was a b l e t o f o l l o w a c o n s i s t e n t e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y . The e d i t o r from 1897 to'1925 was t h e famous John S t , Loe S t r a c h e y . S t r a c h e y f e l t I t was h i s d u t y . t o warn Great B r i t a i n of t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of t h e European war w h i c h he foresaw. The S p e c t a t o r was t h e p r i n c i p a l medium whereby he i s s u e d such warnings and i t t h e r e f o r e had a s t r o n g l y anti-German b i a s . I t was undoubtedly a v e r y I n f l u e n t i a l magazine and i t has been s a i d t h a t up t o the war i t was almost w i t h o u t a s e r i o u s r i v a l i n c i r c u l a t i o n 2 among t h e .London w e e k l i e s . 2 W. B. Thomas: The S t o r v ognEEe~Speotator.. .18£BMa7~" London, Methuen & "Co. 1928, 91. - 68 -THE NATION P r o b a b l y the most important o f the weekly magazines de-voted t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y . I t had a u s e f u l " D i a r y uf The Week" which d i s c u s s e d c u r r e n t e v e n t s . The e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y was d e f i n i t e l y opposed t o the anti-German.tendencies p r e v a l e n t i n the B r i t i s h p r e s s . I t s e d i t o r from 1907 t o 1923 was ^ r . H. W. Massingham. THE NEW STATESMAN T h i s weekly j o u r n a l e x p r e s s i n g a moderate S o c i a l i s t v i e w p o i n t was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l , 1913. I t s e t f o r t h as i t s p o l i c y , t o be, "....'bound by no t i e s o f p a r t y c l a s s o r c r e e d 5 -y e t h a v i n g , w i t h a l , a d e f i n i t e i d e a l , 'to a p p l y t o s o c i a l problems something of the,detachment of the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t . ' " * I t s a t t i t u d e t o Germany was moderate and even f r i e n d l y . C l i f f o r d Dyee Sharp was t h e e d i t o r from 1913 t o 1930. PUNCH ' - . E i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1841 t h i s famous E n g l i s h humorist magazine has enjoyed c o n s i s t e n t p o p u l a r i t y . I t s c a r t o o n s a r e w o r l d famous f o r t h e i r p i c t o r i a l summations of events. W h i l e i t would not be a c c u r a t e t o say t h a t Punch had any s e t p o l i c y I n r e g a r d t o Germany i t d i d on o c c a s i o n c a r r y c a r t o o n s w h i c h p r e c l u d e d i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Germany. I n p a r t i c u l a r i t d i d s t r e s s t h e .growing commercial a c t i v i t y of Germany w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d t o o f f e r s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t i o n t o B r i t a i n . Two of i t s most famous c a r i c a t u r i s t s are Mr.,. I . B e r n a r d P a r t r i d g e and S i r John T e n n i e l . "3~ ; Qiuot,ed"Ty^a*iter Graham, E n g i i s h ~ L i t e r a r y P e r i o d i c a l s , . New York, N e l s o n & Sons, 1930, 339. - 69 -THE ECONOMIST A weekly j o u r n a l devoted p r i m a r i l y t o f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s but c o n t a i n i n g a l s o comments and a r t i c l e s on w o r l d events. I n g e n e r a l I t s o p i n i o n on f o r e i g n a f f a i r s was both, moderate and r e s t r a i n e d . I t f i r s t began p u b l i -c a t i o n on September 12, 1843. APPENDIX II KEY TO THE RELATION BETWEEN 'POLITICAL. PARTIES AND FOREIGN POLICY 1890-1914 PERIOD POLITICAL PARTY IN POWER IN GREAT BRITAIN FOREIGN SECRETARY GERMAN ' CHANCELLOR ".'].. • ... SIGNIFICANT EVENT 1886-1892 UNIONIST GOVERNMENT SALISBURY-PRIME MINISTER SALISBURY : " V V V ; CAPRIVI MARCH 1890 -OCTOBER 1894 JULM-1890 - Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty AUGUST-1894-Franoo-Russian Alliance 1892-1894 1894-1895 LIBERAL GOVERNMENT GLADSTONE-PRIME MINISTER ROSEBERY -PRIME MINISTER ROSEBERY 1895 - Lord Rosebery approaches Germany with a view to an Anglo-German agreement. 1895-1902 UNIONIST GOVERNMENT SALISBURY -PRIME MINISTER KHffiERLEY HOHENLOHE OCTOHER-I894-OCTOBER-1900 January 1896 - KRUGER Telegram 1898 - Two proposals made to Germany for an Anglo-German Agreement by Balfour and Chamberlain PERIOD POLITICAL PARTY 1 IN POWER IN GREAT BRITAIN ; I-: FOREIGN GERMAN SECRETARY- | CHANCELLOR SIGNIFICANT EVENT 1895-1902 1 BULOW OOTOBER 1900-JULY 1909 JULY-SEPTEMBER 1898 - Fashoda Incident NOVEMBER,I898 - F i r s t German Naval Law OCTOBER 1899 - Outbreak of the South African War JANUARY 1900 - German Naval Law MARCH 1900 - Outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion JANUARY 1901 - Death of Queen V i c t o r i a JANUARY 1901 - Anglo-German Agreement proposed JANUARY 1902 - Anglo-Japanese Agreement JUNE 1902 - End of the Boer War to 1902-1905 = . . . W UNIONIST GOVERNMENT BA1F0UR-PRIME MINISTER 1 ' LANSDOINE [ APRIL 1904 - Anglo-French Agreement 1 MARCH 1905 - Tangier Incident NOVEMBER 1905 - Supplementary German Naval Law 1905-1908 LIBERAL GOVERNMENT CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN PRIME MINISTER . .1 (.JANUARY. 1906 - Algeoiras Conference AUGUST 1907 - Anglo-Russian Agreement OCTOBER 1908 - Bosnia-Herzegovina annexed. GREY 1 OCTOBER 1908 - Daily Telegraph Interview 1 1 PERIOD POLITICAL PARTY IN POWER IN . GREAT BRITAIN EOREIGN SECRETARY GERMAN CHANCELLOR | SIGNIEICANT EVENT 1908 -1915 . LIBERAL GOVERNMENT ASQUITH ~ PRIME MINISTER GREY BETHMANN-HOLLWEG JULY 1909-MAY 1910 - Death of Edward VII DECEMBER 1910 - Reorganization of British* Home Fleet JULY 1911 - Lloyd George's Mansion House Speech-JULY 1911 - Agadir Incident FEBRUARY 1912 - Haldane's Mission to Germany re naval limitations MARCH 1912 - Churchill suggests a naval holiday MARCH 1915 - Churchill renews suggestion for a naval holiday JUNE 1914 - Sarajevo murder AUGUST 5, .1914.- B r i t a i n declares war. - 70 -B I B L I O G R A P H Y PRIMARY SOURCES I. MAGAZINES The Economist - March., 1890, volume 48 t o December, 1911, volume 69. L i b r a r y l a c k s volume 53 (1906) and a l s o the volumes from 1912-1918 i n c l u s i v e . 2. Hansard, 'Parliamentary Debates, 3 r d , 4 t h , and 5 t h S e r i e s r e f e r r e d t o on s p e c i f i c e v ents. 3. The N a t i o n , -- October 5, 1912, volume 12 t o August 8, 1914, volume 15 - i n c l u s i v e Volume 12 i s t h e f i r s t volume i n the L i b r a r y . 4. The N a t i o n a l Review - March, 1890, volume 15 t o September, 1914, volume 64 -i n c l u s i v e 5. The New Statesman - A p r i l , 1914, volume 3 t o August, 8, 1914. Volume 3 i s t h e f i r s t volume i n the L i b r a r y . 6. Punch -- March, 1890, volume 98 t o ~ October, 1914, volume 147 - i n c l u s i v e 7. The Round T a b l e 191'0, volume 1 t o September, 1914, volume 4 - i n c l u s i v e . 8. The S p e c t a t o r - June 18, 1910, volume 105 t o August 8, 1914, volume 113 - i n c l u s i v e . Volume 105 i s t h e f i r s t volume i n t h e L i b r a r y . I I . DOCUMENTS 1, Dugdale, E. T. S. ( t r a n s l a t o r ) , German D i p l o m a t i c Documents 1871-1914, volume I I , London, Methuen & Co., 1929. - 71 -DOCUMENTS (Continued) 1. (Continued) U s e f u l f o r German p o i n t o f view i n r e g a r d t o -.nglo-German agreements. Used p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e H e l i g o l a n d - Z a n z i b a r Agreement. 2. Manhart, G. B., A l l i a n c e And Entente 1871-1914, New York, C r o f t s & Co., 1932. E x c e r p t s from documents b r i n g i n g i n t o b e i n g t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e and the T r i p l e E n t e n t e , ' « . SECONDARY SOURCES BOOKS 1. A n g e l l , Norman, The P u b l i c Mind, London, Unwin B r o t h e r s L i m i t e d , 1926. Chapter V I on t h e P r e s s was v e r y good, espec-i a l l y on t h e r i s e of the p o p u l a r newspaper. 2. A l b i g , W i l l i a m , P u b l i c O p i n i o n , New Yo r k , McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1939. A most u s e f u l book f o r /the d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h i t g i v e s . Chapters I and X X I p a r t i c u l a r l y good. 3. Bateson, E. W. ( e d i t o r ) , The Cambridge B i b l i o g r a p h y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 1800-1900, volume I I I , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1940. G i v e s s h o r t b i o g r a p h i c a l notes on a l l t he famous B r i t i s h newspapers and magazines. U s e f u l f o r i t s i n f o r m a t i o n on dates of p u b l i c a t i o n and e d i t o r s . 4. Bruce, M a u r i c e , B r i t i s h F o r e i g n P o l i c y , London, Thomas N e l s o n & Sons L t d . , 1939. A u s e f u l s u r v ey of f o r e i g n p o l i c y from 1485-1938. BOOKS (Continued) 5. C a r r o l l , E, Malcolm, Germany And The Great Powers, 1866-1914, New York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1938. A s c h o l a r l y study of German r e a c t i o n s t o t h e r e l a -t i o n s o f Germany'with o t h e r World Powers. G i v e s , I n c i d e n t a l l y , some B r i t i s h r e a c t i o n s t o Anglo-German r e l a t i o n s . 6. C a r r o l l , E. Malcolm, F r e n c h P u b l i c O p i n i o n And F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , 1870-1914. New York, The Century Co., 1931. Used c h i e f l y f o r i t s f i r s t c h a p t e r which d i s c u s s e s p u b l i c o p i n i o n . 7. C h u r c h i l l , W inston S., The World C r i s i s , volume 1, New Y o r k , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 19£3. P a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l on account of t h e a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e as F i r s t L o r d of t h e A d m i r a l t y . 8. Conwell-Evans, T. p., F o r e i g n P o l i c y From A Back Bench, 1904-1918, London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1932. Takes t h e p^oint of view t h a t P a r l i a m e n t was not s u f f i c i e n t l y informed of t h e otioseness of the Anglo-F r e n c h bond. 9. C a n t r i l , Hadley, The P s y c h o l o g y Of S o c i a l Movements, New York, John W i l e y and Sons, 1941. S t r e s s e s t h e f a c t t h a t o u t s i d e events w h i c h a r e immeasurable f o r t h e most p a r t , can i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n months o r even y e a r s l a t e r . ' • - 73 -1- BOOKS (continued) 10. Cramb, J . A., Germany And England, London, John Murray, 1914. A c o m p i l a t i o n o f a s e r i e s , o f - l e c t u r e s g i v e n i n 1913 i n which the author t r a c e s the o r i g i n and develop-ment o f German j e a l o u s i e s o f B r i t a i n . 11. Dawson, W i l l i a m II. , The E v o l u t i o n o f modern Germany, • London, T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1909. A g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l background of Germany. I S . E c k a r d s t e i n , v Baron von, Ten Y e a r s A t The Court o f ..St. James,1895-1905, London, Thornton L u t t e r w o r t h L t d . A review,by the German ambassador t o Great B r i t a i n , o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y . V e r y c r i t i c a l of a t t i t u d e . 13. E s c o t t , T. H. S., Masters of E n g l i s h J o u r n a l i s m , London, T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1911. A g e n e r a l survey of B r i t i s h newspapers and p e r i o d -i c a l s . 14. F i r t h , S i r C h a r l e s , Modern Languages At Oxford, London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1929. Used t o determine t h e importance of German a t Oxf o r d . I t appears t o have been c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e important modern languages and was taught through-out t h e p e r i o d of t h e war. 15. G a l l u p , George and Rae, S a u l F., The P u l s e o f Democ-r a c y , New Y o r k , Simon & S c h u s t e r , 1940. An a n a l y t i c a l account o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i t h r e f e r -. ence t o the p a r t p l a y e d i n i t s f o r m a t i o n by t h e p r e s s . '1 - 74 -BOOKS (Continued) 16. Graham, W a l t e r , E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y P e r i o d i c a l s , New York , Thomas. N e l s o n and Sons, 1930, A g e n e r a l survey hook which does not g i v e v e r y much i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p e r i o d i c a l s used i n t h i s t h e s i s . 17. Gooch, G. P., H i s t o r y o f Modern Europe, 1878-1919, London, C a s s e l l & Co. L t d . , 1923. A good, g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d . 18. H a l e , Oron James, Germany And The D i p l o m a t i c R e v o l u -t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1931. A s t u d y of t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t h e p r e s s i n shaping, t h e events o f 1904 t o 1906. 19. H a l e , Oron James, P u b l i c i t y And Diplomacy, New York, D.. Ap p l e t o n - C e n t u r y L t d . , . 1940. The t h e s i s , o f t h i s book i s t h a t B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y was determined not so much by the f e a r of Ger-many as by t h e d e s i r e t o r e t a i n t h e g o o d w i l l and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f F r a n c e . 20.Hammann, O t t o , The World P o l i c y o f Germany, 1890-1912, London, George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1927. Trans-l a t e d by Maude A. Huttman, Hammann was head o f th e P r e s s D i v i s i o n of the German F o r e i g n O f f i c e from 1899 t o 1917. H i s o p i n i o n as t o t h e f a i l u r e o f Germany i s that' i t was due p r i m -a r i l y t o p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n t h e K a i s e r ' s p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h d i d not p e r m i t him t o s t e e r a c o n s i s t e n t c o u r s e . - 75 -BOOKS.(Continued) 21. I r w i n , Wm., Propaganda And The News, New York, M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1956. A g e n e r a l hook on propaganda w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t o the propaganda of World War I . 22. K i e r , D. L., The. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Modern . B r i t a i n , 1485-1957, London, A. & C. Black,1958. U s e f u l as t h e documents have an accompanying h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e . 23. Lichnowsky,- P r i n c e , My M i s s i o n To London, 1912-1914, New York, C a s s e l l and Co. L t d . , 1918. German ambassador i n London who f e l t t h a t he had t o support, a p o l i c y , t h e h e r e s y o f which he r e c o g n i z e d . , 24. Langer, W. L., The Diplomacy of I m p e r i a l i s m , 1890-1912, volumes I and I I . New Y o r k , A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1935. A u s e f u l h i s t o r y of the p e r i o d w h i c h quotes e x t e n s i v e l y from p r i m a r y s o u r c e s . 25. L a s s w e l l , H a r o l d D., Propaganda Technique I n The ' World War, New Y o r k , A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1927. The t h e s i s of t h i s book I s t h a t good propaganda must keep, w e l l ahead of p o l i t i c a l events and mould p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i t h o u t a p p e a r i n g to-do so. 26.. Lipmann, W a l t e r , P u b l i c O p i n i o n , New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & Co., 1921. - 76 -I . BOOKS (Continued) , . 26. (Continued) Suggests t h a t the a n a l y s t of p u b l i c o p i n i o n raust r e c o g n i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the scene of the a c t i o n , t h e human p i c t u r e of t h a t scene, and the human response t o t h a t p i c t u r e working i t s e l f out upon the scene of a c t i o n . 27. Lowe, Adolph, The P r i c e o f L i b e r t y , London, The Hogarth P r e s s , 1937. A b r i e f but acute a n a l y s i s o f the B r i t i s h and t h e i r customs by a, f o r e i g n e r who found them hard t o under-stand u n t i l he studied, the men, i n s t i t u t i o n s and back-ground, and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was an u n d e r l y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e t h r e e . --\ 28. Maddox, Wra. P., F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s I n B r i t i s h Labour P o l i t i c s , Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. ' P o i n t s out t h a t the D a i l y C i t i z e n was e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r e s e n t the p o i n t of view of l a b o u r . Emphasizes t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e p r e s s i n f o r m i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n . -29.Makower., S. V., The H i s t o r y of The Times 1785-1904, London, 1904. A s h o r t , i l l u s t r a t e d pamphlet on the Times. Devoted c h i e f l y t o t h e e d i t o r s , famous c o r r e s p o n d e n t s , and growth of t h e paper t o 1875. J - 77 -I . BOOKS (Continued) 30. Murray, G i l b e r t , The F o r e i g n P o l i c y of S i r Edward Grey, 1906-1915, Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1915. A v e r y f a v o u r a b l e survey of Grey's p o l i c i e s . 31. Nowak, K a r l P., Germany's Road To R u i n , London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1952. T r a n s l a t e d by E. W. D i c k e s . A h i s t o r y o f t h e m i d d l e y e a r s of t h e r e i g n of Sniper o r W i l h e l m I I . 32. Nowak, K a r l P., K a i s e r And C h a n c e l l o r , New York, The M a c m i l l a n Co-.," 1930. T r a n s l a t e d by E. W. D i c k e s . . A study of the K a i s e r from a f r i e n d l y German p o i n t o f v i e w . 33. N i c o l s o n , H a r o l d , The Meaning of P r e s t i g e , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937. An I n t e r e s t i n g account of t h e d i f f e r e n t meanings of p r e s t i g e I n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . B r i n g s out c l e a r l y t h e r e l a t i o n between f o r e i g n p o l i c y and n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . 34. P r o t h e r o , G. W., German P o l i c y B e f o r e The Vfar, London, John Murray, 1916. Anti-German inasmuch as author t a k e s p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t -Germany p l a n n e d t o maim Prance and R u s s i a i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e h e r p o s i t i o n of i n f l u e n c e i n t h e , B a l k a n s and T u r k i s h Empire. J - 78 -BOOKS (Continued) 35. Salmon, Lucy k., The Newspaper And A u t h o r i t y , New York, O x f o r d P r e s s , 1923. -P o i n t s out t h a t a u t h o r i t y , which o f t e n t a k e s the form of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , . i s one f a c t o r w h i c h may curb t h e power of the p r e s s t o mould p u b l i c o p i n i o n , 36. Salmon, Lucy M., The Newspaper And The H i s t o r i a n , New York, O x f o r d P r e s s , 1923. Takes t h e p o i n t o f view t h a t the newspaper r e p r e s -ents o n l y minor groups a t the b e s t and cannot t h e r e -f o r e be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x p r e s s i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n 37. Sontag, Raymond J"., Germany And England, Background of C o n f l i c t 1848-1894, New York, D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., 1938, An e x c e l l e n t p r e f a c e . I n t e r p r e t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n f a c t u a l and u s e f u l f o r background m a t e r i a l . 38. S c h r a i t t , B e r n a d o t t e E., England And Germany 1740-1914, P r i n c e t o n , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1916. The a u t h o r expresses t h e p o i n t o f view t h a t Germany p r o v i d e d a s t i m u l u s t o a l e t h a r g i c B r i t a i n . Chapters V, IX, and X were v e r y u s e f u l . 39. S a r o l e a , C h a r l e s , The Anglo-German Problem, London, Thomas N e l s o n & Sons, 1912. E x p r e s s e s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t the c o n f l i c t between England and Germany i s t h e o l d c o n f l i c t between L i b e r -a l i s m and despotism, between i n d u s t r i a l i s m and m i l i t a r ism, between p r o g r e s s and r e a c t i o n , and between th e masses and t h e c l a s s e s . - 79 -I . BOOKS (Continued) 40.. Thomas, Wm. Beech, The S t o r y of The S p e c t a t o r 1828-1928, London, kethuen & Co., 19.28. A c e n t e n a r y account of t h e e d i t o r s and p o l i c y of th e S p e c t a t o r . 41. Thomas, J". A., The House of Commons 1852-1901, London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , 1957. A most u s e f u l book wh i c h e x p l a i n s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e House o f Commons a c c o r d i n g t o the b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s of i t s members. 42, Ward, A. W, and G-ooch, G. p. ( e d i t o r s ) , The Cambridge H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 1785-1919, v o l -ume I I I , Cambridge,. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925. A d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 45. W i l h e l m I I , Comparative H i s t o r y , London, H u t c h i n s o n & Co., 1921. T r a n s l a t e d by P. Appleby H o l t . A b r i e f c h r o n o l o g i c a l account of b i o g r a p h i c a l e v e n t s . 44. W i l h e l m I I , K T h e K a i s e r ' s Memoirs, New Yo r k , Harper B r o t h e r s , 1922, T r a n s l a t e d by Thomas R. Y b a r r a . An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t , from the K a i s e r ' s p o i n t of view, on European p o l i t i c s . He s e t h i m s e l f up as a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarch and c l a i m s t h a t the Krug e r Telegram and h i s P a n t h e r v i s i t o n l y r e c e i v e d h i s a s s e n t because of p r e s s u r e from h i s m i n i s t e r s . 45. W r i g h t , Quing ( e d i t o r ) , P u b l i c O p i n i o n And World P o l i t i c s , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1955. - 80 -I . BOOKS (Continued) 45. (Continued) The w r i t t e n account of l e c t u r e s g i v e n a t the H a r r i s F o u n d a t i o n "by o u t s t a n d i n g newspapermen. V a l u a b l e f o r t h e number of d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e term " p u b l i c o p i n i o n " . 46. Woodward, E., L., Great B r i t a i n And The German Navy, O x f o r d , Clarendon P r e s s , 1935. An e x c e l l e n t t r e atment o f the n a v a l problem from 1898 t o 1914. A u s e f u l p r e f a c e . 47. Whitman, S i d n e y , I m p e r i a l Germany, London, W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1891. A v e r y f a v o u r a b l e survey of Germany but u s e f u l o n l y as background m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s . I I . MAGAZINE ARTICLES ' 1. A n n a l s o f the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e - May, 1935, 179: 82-87, E. L. Bernays "Moulding P u b l i c O p i n i o n . " 2. A n n a l s o f t h e American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e - fey, 1955, 179: 201-210. 0. W. R i e g e l "Propaganda and t h e P r e s s . " 3. The Q u a r t e r l y Review - A p r i l , 1896, 183: 545-569. "Our R e l a t i o n s w i t h Germany." 4. - J u l y , 1908, 209:. 264-298. "The German P e r i l . " 5. - October, 1908, 209: 576-598. "The German P e r i l : A R e j o i n d e r t o P r i n c e Bulow." - 81 -I I . MAGAZINE ARTICLES (Continued) 6. The Q u a r t e r l y Review - J u l y , 1918, 250: 70-88. Lewis M e l v i l l e . "German Pr o p a -. g a n d i s t i c S o c i e t i e s . " 7. The Contemporary Review_ .- A p r i l , 1904, 85: 592-595. E. J . D i l l o n . " F o r e i g n Compli-c a t i o n s and the German P r e s s Campaign." 8. Jan u a r y , 1905, 87: 11-21. J u l i u s . "The Anglo-German Paper War." 9. June, 1907, 91: 767-773. Sigma. "England and Germany, the Tu Quoque Q u a r r e l . " 10. J u l y , 1907, 92: 1-15. Si d n e y Low and P e r c y B u n t i n g . "The J o u r n a l i s t i c Tour i n Germany." 11. ' March, 1910, 97: 315-325. G. V a l e n t i n e W i l l i a m s . "The German P r e s s Bureau." 12. The N i n e t e e n t h Century And A f t e r -January, 1890, 27: 24-37. R. Bamberger. "The German D a i l y P r e s s . " 15. December, 1891, 30: 853-871. C h a r l e s Lowe. "The German Newspaper P r e s s . " 14. , December, 1904, 56: 873-881. J . L. Bachford.. "Great B r i t a i n and Germany." 15. December, 1908, 64: 908-923. J . L. B a c h f o r d , "The B e r l i n C r i s i s . " - 82 -1 1 •• MAGAZINE ARTICLES (Continued) 16. The N a t i o n a l Review - May, 1890, 15: 289-294,, "The R e a l Cause of P r i n c e Bismarck's R e t i r e m e n t . " 17. F e b r u a r y , 1896, 26: 741-757. ' . I . S t . Loe S t r a c h e , "The Key-note of Our F o r e i g n P o l i c y " 18. F e b ruary, 1896, 26: 758-769. Spenser W i l k i n s o n , "The Command of t h e Sea:and B r i t i s h P o l i c y . " 19. " F e b r u a r y , 1896, 26: 798-810. A r t h u r S h a d w e l l . "The German Colony I n London." 20. " March, 1896, 27: 21-32. "Balance of Power - Should We Seek an A l l i a n c e ? " 21. . October, 1896, 28: 180-188, F r e d e r i c k A. Maxse. "Anglophobia." 22. A p r i l , 1897, 29: 169-188. P h i l i p Magnus. "Trade and T r a i n i n g i n Germany." 23. August, 1899, 33: 892-901. I g n a t u s . "The Rapprochement Between France and Germany." 24. March, 1900, 35: 28-39. Rowland B l e n n e r h a s s e t t . "Great B r i t a i n and t h e European P o w e r s " 25. September, 1900, 36: 57-51* Rowland B l e n n e r h a s s e t t , "The F o r e i g n P o l i c y o f t h e . German Empire," - 85 -I I . . MAGAZINE ARTICLES (Continued) 26. The N a t i o n a l Review - October, 1900, 36: 178-195. "The German Danger i n the E a r E a s t . " • . . 27. December, 1900, 36: 557-567. . C . I , Dodd. "Comparison of German and E n g l i s h S c h o o l -C h i l d r e n , " 28. J u l y , 1901, 56: 692-709. Germanicus. "The R e l a t i o n s between Germany and R u s s i a , " 29. '" September, 1901, 38: 130-144, E r n e s t E, W i l l i a m s , "Made i n Germany - E i v e Y e a r s A f t e r . " 30. May, 1905, .41: 495-502. Rowland B l e n n e r h a s s e t t . "The . German March t o t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . " 31. - January, 1902, 58: 705-715. • C. P. "A P l e a f o r the I s o l a t i o n of Germany." 32. - March, 1903, 41: 28-43. S c r u t a t o r , "The K a i s e r s . " 35. ' May, 1903, 41: 495-502, Rowland B l e n n e r h a s s e t . "The German March t o the P e r s i a n ' G u l f . " 34. June, 1903,-41: 662-667. A R e t i r e d P o l i t i c i a n . "Teutophobia." 55. September, 1910, 56: 166-173. H a r o l d E. Wyatt and L. Graham H. Horton-Smith. " L e t t e r Sent by the I m p e r i a l M a r i t i m e League." - 84 -I I I . ENGYOLOPAEDIAS.AND GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS _^ 1. D.-N.'B. 1922-1930. A r t i c l e on John S t . Loe S t r a c h e y by W. V. Cooper, 816-818.. 2. E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1 1 t h E d i t i o n , Cambridge, A t The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , v o l , XIX, 1911. "Newspapers" by Hugh Chisolm, 544-581. 5. E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1 4 t h E d i t i o n , New York, Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a P r e s s , v o l . XVI, 1937. "Newspapers"' by S i r Robert Donald, 334-360. 4. E n c y c l o p a e d i a of t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , New York, Macmillan, v o l . 12, 1934. " P u b l i c O p i n i o n " by W i l h e l m Bauer, 669-674, 5. Who Was Who 1916-1918, London, A. & C. B l a c k Ltd.,1929. 6. Who's Who 1940, London, A. & C. B l a c k L t d . , 1941. 

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