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The road to Cariboo Reid, J. H. Stewart 1942

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THE ROAD TO CARIBOO by J. H. Stewart Reid. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of History. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. « 3 9 W > 1942. FROM 'CARIBOO RHYMES'. And sae ye think o' coming here, And leavin 1 a your guids and gear, Your wife and bairns, and home, eh, Sawney, If ye wad liaten to advice, And sae ye w i l l i f ye be wise -Just bide at home and work awa' Ye mauna think we honk up gold, As ye the tatties frae the mould. Gude faith, y e ' l l maybe houk a twa'l mot And never ev'n get a glisk o'tl And then what comes o' us puir deevils, We get as thin and lean as weevils; 0' wark we canna get a stroke, We're what they ca' oot here 'dead broke *, Which means we hinna e'en a groat To line our stomach or our coat, Sae doon the country we may gang, And this the burden o* oor sang. To i l k a ane that comes alang, Freend, be advised and turn aboot, For Cariboo i s noo 'played oot 1I (Lines, written by James Anderson to a friend, in February 1864, at Richfield in the Cariboo.) TABLE OF CONTENTS. PREFACE. CHAPTER I . The D i s c o v e r y of Gold - - - - - p a g e 1 An account o f the d i s c o v e r y o f f i n e g o l d on the bars of the E r a s e r and o t h e r r i v e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER j r . The Gateway t o the Gold F i e l d s - page 10 The p r o v i s i o n of steamboat f a c i l i t i e s on the r i v e r , as f a r as Y a l e and Hope. CHATTER I I I . The D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t T r a i l - - - page 15 The b u i l d i n g o f the t r a i l and l a t e r the wagon road from P o r t Douglas by way o f the p o r t a g e s t o the town o f L i l l o o e t . CHAPTER IY. The Canyon Highway - - - page 48 The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the wagon road through the F r a s e r canyon t o L y t t o n and C l i n t o n , t o l i n k w i t h the wagon road from L i l l o o e t t h r o u g h C l i n t o n t o Soda Creek.- . CHAPTER Y. The Bute I n l e t Wagon Road - - - - - - - page 70 The attempts of A l f r e d Waddington and h i s a s s o c i a t e s t o b u i l d a r o a d from the head o f Bute I n l e t to connect w i t h the F r a s e r . CHAPTER Y I . The Amorleans and the G v e r l a n d e r s - - page 87 The attempt .to. b u i l d the: BelMngham, Bay ..-Trail from -WhateoHtitotthe':.Thompson...'River* and the a t t e m p t s t o open 'a;:.route '.overland from E a s t e r n Canada t o t h e Upper E r a s e r . CHAPTER 711. The T r a f f i c on t h e Road - - - page 98 A b r i e f account o f the o p e r a t i o n o f p a c k e r s , express companies and government s e r v i c e s on the road, and some notes on a few o f the e a r l y t r a v e l l e r s . APPENDICES _ - _ page 113 BIBLIOGRAPHY page 130 PREFACE. The b i t t e r n e s s which James Anderson e x p r e s s e s i n the l i n e s quoted on the f r o n t i s p i e c e was f o r t u n a t e l y n o t the f e e l i n g of a l l who came t o B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the g o l d r u s h . Otherwise the f i e l d o f t h i s work would have been much narrower and p r o b a b l y much l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . F o r i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s work, t h e w r i t e r has t o thank the s t a f f o f the A r c h i v e s o f . B r i t i s h Columbia at V i c t o r i a , B. C., and e s p e c i a l l y Dr. Kaye Lamb, f o r m e r l y P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , now L i b r a r i a n of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I n a d d i t i o n , the s t a f f of the n o r t h w e s t s e c t i o n , L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, gave the w r i t e r every a s s i s t a n c e p o s s i b l e . To Dr. W. U. Sage, head o f the Department of H i s t o r y a double debt i s due; f i r s t , f o r h i s d i r e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n the t a s k , second f o r the f a c t t h a t h i s s u g g e s t i o n has opened f o r t h i s w r i t e r a f i e l d of s t u d y which promises a g r e a t d e a l o f f u t u r e enjoyment. CHAPTER 1 , • 'THE DISCOVERY 01 GOLD. A new; . l i n k was f o r g e d I n the w o r l d - e n c i r c l i n g c h a i n of B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s when, on August 2, 1858, t h e r e was c r e a t e d by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t , the new Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia. E x a c t l y one month l a t e r , . James Douglas, a l r e a d y governor o f the o l d e r c o l o n y of Vancouver I s l a n d , was a p p o i n t e d governor o f the new t e r r i t o r y . These f o r m a l s t e p s had become n e c e s s a r y , a c c o r d i n g t o the framers o f the A c t , s i n c e so many B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s had "by the l i c e n s e and con-sent o f Her M a j e s t y , r e s o r t e d t o and s e t t l e d i n c e r t a i n w i l d , and 'unoccupied t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t o f America . . . f o r m i n i n g and o t h e r purposes." (1) What t h e s e o t h e r purposes c o u l d have been, i s v e r y d o u b t f u l ; c e r t a i n l y v e r y few o f Her M a j e s t y * s s u b j e c t s , o r o f ' t h e m o t l e y horde of a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s w hich poured i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858, were drawn by a n y t h i n g except the magic word " G o l d l " F o r a new I I Dorado had been discovered-. -. T h e l a n d s i n t o w h i c h m i n e r s were now p o u r i n g by the (1) An A c t t o P r o v i d e f o r t h e Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (on f i r s t r e a d i n g the name used was t h a t o f New C a l e d o n i a ) . Text of debates and f o r m a l n o t i c e o f r o y a l a s s e n t I n Hansard' P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, v o l . 17 o f i s s u e f o r s e s s i o n 1857-58. I n . h i s speech of f o r m a l i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the b i l l , S i r Edward Bulwer L y t t o n s a i d t h a t such a b i l l had become "nec-e s s a r y t o the maintenance of l a w and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of l i f e i n the d i s t r i c t " . He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t a l r e a d y 1000 ounces of g o l d had been t a k e n out o f the c o l o n y . (Hansard*s P a r l i a m e n t -a r y Debates, v o l . IV, I s s u e f o r s e s s i o n . 1 8 5 7 - 5 8 , pages'11Olff thousands, had been, p r i o r t o the g o l d d i s c o v e r y , s i m p l y B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y , i n w h i c h the o n l y v e s t i g e of B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y was the Hudson*s Bay Company* s e x c l u s i v e l i c e n s e t o t r a d e , and i n wh i c h the o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f B r i t i s h j u r i s d i c t i o n were t h e Company f a c t o r s a n d . t r a d e r s . Through-out the whole ma i n l a n d r e g i o n t h e r e were i n a l l , p r o b a b l y fewer t h a n two hundred w h i t e men, n e a r l y a l l Qowpecaj o f f i c i a l s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a few t r a p p e r s , and i n 1856 and 1857/ a v e r y few p r o s p e c t o r s , drawn t h e r e p r o b a b l y f rom the C a l i f o r n i a g o l d f i e l d s by rumors o f the e x i s t e n c e o f p l a c e r g o l d . A l t h o u g h i t was t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n the Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y , and on the r i c h l y a u r i f e r o u s b a r s of the l o w e r F r a s e r . w h i c h l e d t o the g r e a t r u s h o f 1858, t h i s was by no means the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e o f p r e c i o u s m e t a l i n , t h e ; t e r r i t o r y , i n 1851 a f l u r r y o f exc i t e m e n t had been caused by the news t h a t t h e Hudson's Bay Company v e s s e l , t h e "Una" had brought from t h e west c o a s t of t h e queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , some s i x t y ounces o f g o l d . (2) Two m i n i n g e x p e d i t -i o n s from American s e t t l e m e n t s on.Puget Sound, v i s i t e d the I s l a n d s , but the h o s t i l i t y o f the H a i d a I n d i a n s p r e v e n t e d any o p e r a t i o n s . I n 1852, a t l e a s t e i g h t s e p a r a t e p a r t i e s l e f t C a l i f o r n i a f o r the new s t r i k e , but none met w i t h any s u c c e s s . The Hudson's Bay Company i t s e l f s e n t an e x p e d i t i o n i n 1852 on (2) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , " B r i t i s h Columbia, From t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o the P r e s e n t " , Vancouver, B. C., 1914, Y o l . 2, page 1. the b r i g ".Recovery" t o G o l d Harbor on Moresby I s l a n d . G o l d q u a r t z t o the v a l u e of i 9 0 was o b t a i n e d , but the e x p e d i t i o n showed a l o s s t o the Company of almost £1000. (5) Hopes were s t i l l h i g h ^ a p p a r e n t l y , f o r i n A p r i l o f 1853, Governor Doug-l a s f e l t i t h i s duty t o i s s u e a p r o c l a m a t i o n and a serie's o f m i n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the i s l a n d s ; by t h a t t i m e , a p p a r e n t -l y ^  they were no l o n g e r needed, f o r t h e g o l d r u s h was o v e r . The Queen C h a r l o t t e e x c i t e m e n t d i d s e r v e one purpose, however. I n d i a n s o f the m a i n l a n d were made aware f o r the f i r s t t i me o f the g r e a t v a l u e of the y e l l o w m e t a l , • and i n w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d a r e a s , dust and nuggets were brought i n t o Hudson's Bay p o s t s . I n 1852, C h i e f T r a d e r McLean purchased g o l d from I n d i a n s who brought the dust t o t h e Hudson*s Bay p o s t a t Kamloops. (4) / White-- men, t o o , began t o l o o k f o r t r a c e s o f the g o l d . I n 1853, ;wnile s u r v e y i n g a r o a d t h r o u g h what, i s now n o r t h e r n Washington, between W a l l a W a l l a and F o r t S t e i l a c o o m , George M c L a l l a n found and washed g o l d on the banks of s e v e r a l streams i n t h a t area... (5) I n 1855 Hudson*s Bay Company .employees a t F 6 r t C o l v i l l e washed (3) Idem - page 6. Douglas r e p o r t e d on the a c t i v i t i e s o f 1852.to t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , s a y i n g t h a t the-miners had n o t - a l t e r e d t h e i r o p i n i o n o f t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e p r o s p e c t s . Douglas t o S i r John P a k i n g t o n , queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d P a p e r s , August 27, 1852. (4) Wade, M.S. - ^The Thompson Country**, Kamloops 1907,page 81 (5) G i l b e r t , Frank..T. " H i s t o r i c a l . S k e t c h e s o f W a l l a W a l l a , Whitman, Columbia and G a r f i e l d C o u n t i e s " , P o r t l a n d , 1882, page 136. g r a v e l and f o u n d g o l d on the beach near t h a t p o s t . (6) I n h i s d i a r y , Governor Douglas r e c o r d s t h a t i n 1856, an I n d i a n found a l a r g e nugget w h i l e d r i n k i n g from the Thompson R i v e r j u s t e a s t o f i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h the F r a s e r . (7) I n the summer o f t h a t same y e a r , a p a r t y o f American miners: a r r i v e d on the F r a s e r i t s e l f , camped on a b a r n e a r F o r t Hope, and began t o o b t a i n good r e t u r n s by washing the g r a v e l . (8) As a r e s u l t of these i n c i d e n t s , a p p a r e n t l y the number of g o l d s e e k e r s i n the m a i n l a n d i n c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a b l y . A t any r a t e , Governor Douglas now took o f f i c i a l c o g n i z a n c e of t h e i r presence f o r the f i r s t t i m e . I n J u l y , ' 1857 , he r e -p o r t e d t o Her M a j e s t y ' s c h i e f C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y the d i s -c o v e r y of g o l d i n what he c a l l e d "the Couteau c o u n t r y " , the t a b l e l a n d s l y i n g between the F r a s e r and Columbia. T h r e a t s jof f r i c t i o n between the p r o s p e c t o r s and the Thompson R i v e r I n d i a n s caused the Governor t o r e q u e s t , i n h i s r e p o r t , the appointment of. an o f f i c i a l w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o g i v e t h e n a t i v e s p r o t e c t i o n i f t r o u b l e d i d a r i s e , f o r , he s a i d the I n d i a n s "have l a t e l y t a k e n the h i g h handed / though p r o b a b l y not un-w i s e course o f e x p e l l i n g a l l p a r t i e s o f g o l d d i g g e r s , com-posed c h i e f l y o f persons from the American T e r r i t o r i e s , who ...(•6.) . Howay. and S c h o l e f i e l d - o p . c i t . - page 10. {7^|.v-'Vpiary, of S i r James D o u g l a s , A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. E n t r y made August 14, 1860. (8) John'Work t o Edward I r m a t i n g e r , August 8, 1856. I n c l u d e d i n the E r m a t i n g e r p a p e r s , a c o l l e c t i o n o f l e t t e r s t o E d w a r d - i r m a t i n g e r from Work, A r c h i b a l d . M a c D o n a l d and o t h e r s . M. S. S. i n A r c h i v e s o f . B r i t i s h Columbia. have f o r c e d an e n t r y i n t o t h e i r c o u n t r y . " ( 9 ) . L a t e r i n the same y e a r , Douglas a g a i n r e p o r t e d t o London co n c e r n i n g the new developments. "The r e p u t e d w e a l t h of t h e Couteau mines i s c a u s i n g much excitement among the p o p u l a t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s t e r r i t o r i e s of Washington and Oregon, and I"have no doubt t h a t a g r e a t number of p e o p l e . . . w i l l be a t t r a c t e d t h i t h e r w i t h the r e t u r n of. f i n e weather i n the s p r i n g . " (10) A t the same t i m e , Douglas r e p o r t e d t h a t a l -though d o u b t f u l o f h i s a u t h o r i t y and of h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n over the m a i n l a n d , he had a l r e a d y t a k e n s t e p s t o cope w i t h the e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were a r i s i n g , by i s s u i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r and c o l l e c t i n g l i c e n c e f e e s from wo^ld be mi n e r s . H i s prophecy r e g a r d i n g the i n f l u x o f the s p r i n g was f u l f i l l e d i n a degree w h i c h he h i m s e l f had p r o b a b l y deemed i m p o s s i b l e . The f i r s t shipment o f g o l d from V i c t o r i a t o San F r a n c i s c o by the Hudson's Bay steamer " O t t e r " c r e a t e d the i n t e r e s t t h e r e w h i c h a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n n o r t h e r n towns. The Olympia p u b l i c a t i o n , the " P i o n e e r and Democrat", on March 5 o f 1858 c a r r i e d a s t o r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e new d i g g i n g s under "'the h e a d l i n e "Reported G o l d D i s c o v e r i e s . " On March 12 a ^ f o l l o w - u p s t o r y was headed "Good News From G o l d M i n e s " . (9) Douglas t o Labouchere, Despatches t o London, J u l y 15, 1857.. Douglas' own c o p i e s a r e i n the A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (10) Douglas t o Labouchere, Despatches t o London,. Dec. 29, . 1857. . 6. For the r e s t o f the month and i n A p r i l I s s u e s , " H i g h l y F a v o r a b l e R e p o r t s " and " E n couraging News" crowded o t h e r m a t e r i a l from the f r o n t pages. (11) F a r t h e r s o u t h , the San F r a n c i s c o " H e r a l d " of A p r i l 20, 1858, d e s c r i b e d the d e p a r t -ure on t h a t day of the steamer "Commodore" w i t h 450 p assen-g e r s , "bound f o r the new d i g g i n g s i n F r a z e r ' s R i v e r . " (12) The " B u l l e t i n " o f San F r a n c i s c o , i n i t s i s s u e of June 4, p r i n t e d f o r i t s r e a d e r s a " f u l l v o c a b u l a r y o f Chinook j a r g o n , as used by the I n d i a n t r i b e s on the F r a z e r and Thompson R i v e r s " . (13) The same paper r e p o r t e d i n I t s marine i n t e l l i -gence t h a t i n the f i r s t two weeks of June, 15 s h i p s of a l l t y p e s s a i l e d from San F r a n c i s c o t o the new g o l d f i e l d , each one w i t h e v e r y a v a i l a b l e i n c h o f space o c c u p i e d . Nor was the i n t e r e s t i n the new f i e l d c o n f i n e d t o the -immediate v i c i n i t y . I t i s not t o be wondered a t t h a t t h o u s -ands of d i g g e r s , d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the C a l i f o r n i a f i e l d s , would f l o c k t o the new f i e l d , but I t i s a s t o n i s h i n g t o see how q u i c k l y the f e v e r s p r e a d t o o t h e r p a r t s of the w o r l d . The " P i o n e e r and Democrat" of November 26, devotes space t o comments from o t h e r j o u r n a l s i n such w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d c i t i e s (11) P i o n e e r and Democrat, Olympia. I s s u e s of March and A p r i l 1858. C o p i e s I n Northwest S e c t i o n , L i b r a r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. (12) Begg, A l e x a n d e r - " H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia", . .. Toronto, 1894. Page 265. (13) T h i s v o c a b u l a r y was r e p r i n t e d i n the Appendix t o l i a z l i t t , W. C. - " B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d " , London, 1858, "as c a l c u l a t e d t o be o f g r e a t use t o m iners and a l l p a r t i e s t r a v e r s i n g the c o u n t r y " . as Melbourne, Omaha and London. (14) E n g l i s h o p i n i o n was d e s c r i b e d by Kinah a n C o r n w a l l i s , who t o l d h i s E n g l i s h r e a d e r s i n 1858 t h a t " n a t i o n s have been awakened t o the knowledge o f another - a new - E l Dorado, o u t v y i n g a l l b e s i d e " , and t h a t as a r e s u l t " t h a t which but a b r i e f p e r i o d gone, reposed a s o l i t a r y , y e t r i a n t w i l d e r n e s s , i s now a l i v e w i t h the clamors of a r u s h i n g sea o f men, and the f o u n d a t i o n s of c i t i e s are a l r e a d y l a i d from the Rocky Mountains t o Vancouver, t h a t h i l l y and f o r e s t - c l a d i s l e o f a thousand b e a u t i e s and a n a t i o n ' s promise - the E n g l a n d of i t s ocean". (15) One can w e l l imagine the f e e l i n g s of the Englishman who r e a d t h a t "men who have been g r o p i n g i n the hazy .squalor o f p o v e r t y f o r y e a r s i n t h i s c o u n t r y , and might r e m a i n so f o r e v e r , may a t once take a plunge i n t o the arena of w e a l t h and a l l i t s a t t e n d a n t g l o r y by embarking f o r the g o l d e n shores of our d a z z l i n g E l Dorado". (16) These c l a i m s were not by any means the most f a n t a s t i c to be advanced about the new mines. Even the a u s t e r i t y of the London Times was d i s t u r b e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t a s p e c i a l c o rrespondent, Donald E r a s e r , was commissioned t o send r e p o r t s (14) I n New Y o r k e x c i t e m e n t was such t h a t a p r o s p e c t i v e g o l d -d i g g e r had t o s t a n d i n l i n e f o r a whole day t o get a t i c k e t " on a s h i p l e a v i n g f o r San F r a n c i s c o , (McCain, C. W. " H i s t o r y of the S. S. Beaver". Vancouver, 1894. Page 120.) (15) C o r n w a l l ! s , K. - "The New E l d o r a d o " , London,1858, page 147. O f f i c i a l s of the Vancouver I s l a n d T o u r i s t Bureau would"do w e l l t o r e a d o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . i n t h i s same volume. (16) Idem. Page 154. 8. from San F r a n c i s c o . (17) The g l o w i n g phrases of h i s l e t t e r s must have persuaded many t o embark f o r the new c o l o n y , and a p p a r e n t l y caused many, a y e a r o r so l a t e r , t o w i s h t h a t t h e y c o u l d l a y hands upon him. (18) V The. summer of 1858 saw the peak of the f i r s t r u s h t o B r i t i s h Columbia. D u r i n g the months from A p r i l t o August, s i x t y - s e v e n s c h e d u l e d s a i l i n g s were l i s t e d from the p o r t of San F r a n c i s c o t o V i c t o r i a and the E r a s e r R i v e r . (19) D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , a c c o r d i n g to the passenger l i s t s , over 15,000 s e t out f o r the new f i e l d s , but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e r e was always a d i s c r e p a n c y between the number of passengers o f f i c -i a l l y embarked, and the number who poured down the "gangplank a t V i c t o r i a . F o r example, t h e "Commodore" l e f t San F r a n c i s c o on A p r i l 20, w i t h 300 p a s s e n g e r s , but a r r i v e d a t V i c t o r i a w i t h 450 on b o a r d . (20) The " S i e r r a Nevada" l e f t on June 25 (.17) H i s l e t t e r s appeared r e g u l a r l y i n the Times, b e g i n n i n g on June 14, 1858. Much of h i s correspondence i s , quoted i n H s z l i t t , W. C. - op. c i t . , and t h e r e a r e q u o t a t i o n s from h i s l e t t e r s i n Johnson, R. B. - "Very F a r West Indeed". London, 1873. - . ~ .. (18) The Rev. John Sheepshanks met'them on the t r a i l i n 1862, and t h e i r , p l a i n t was n 0 , t h a t Times c o r r e s p o n d e n t ! I f I c a t c h him! 0, t h i s G od-forsaken c o u n t r y ! " T h i s i s the_same r e v -erend gentleman who h e l d the f i r s t , d i v i n e s e r v i c e , a t A n t l e r Greek, i n one end o f a s a l o o n which'had been c l e a r e d f o r h i s purposes. A t the o t h e r end the b a r t e n d e r c o n t i n u e d t o s e l l h i s ' w h i s k y and c i g a r s . ( D u t h i e , Rev. D. .W. - "A Bishop i n the Rough". London, 1909. (19) W r i g h t , E. W. ( E d i t o r ) - "Lewis and Dryden's M a r i n e H i s t o r y o f the P a c i f i c . N o r t h w e s t " , P o r t l a n d , 1895'. (20) Douglas t o Labouchere, May.8, 1858. Despatch p r i n t e d i n the Correspondence R e l a t i v e t o t h e D i s c o v e r y o f Gold i n the F r a s e r ' s R i v e r D i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h . N o r t h A m e r i c a . Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1858, 9. with. 900 p a s s e n g e r s , "but l a n d e d 1900 a t V i c t o r i a on J u l y 1. F a r e s on these v e s s e l s sometimes were as h i g h as §75.00 per passenger, hut deck room c o u l d be p r o c u r e d f o r h a l f t h a t sum. Accomodations, even f o r the c a b i n passengers must have been of the w o r s t , but t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f any who demand-ed a r e f u n d of h i s f a r e . A p p a r e n t l y almost a n y t h i n g c o u l d be endured, i f i t brought the g o l d seeker c l o s e r t o the f o r t u n e which awa i t e d him. 10. CHAPTER 11. THE GATEWAY TO THE GOLD FIELDS. The summer of 1858 was an e v e n t f u l time f o r the Hudson's Bay post a t V i c t o r i a , f o r t h a t town became the «jumping-off p l a c e " f o r the F r a s e r mines; tho s e months must have been t r y i n g ones f o r James Douglas, who f e l t i t h i s duty t o a c t i n a double c a p a c i t y - as the n e a r e s t r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e o f the B r i t i s h government and a t the same time as the o f f i c i a l g u a r d i a n of the Hudson's Bay Company's t r a d i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the main l a n d r e g i o n . The problems which c o n f r o n t e d him might have caused a man of weaker s t u f f t o throw up h i s hands i n d e s p a i r . Faced w i t h the f a c t t h a t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r the main-l a n d was shadowy a t b e s t , and w i t h the f a c t t h a t the miners who poured i n t o V i c t o r i a and thence t o the F r a s e r r i v e r b a r s , r e p r e s e n t e d the w i l d e s t and most l a w l e s s c r o s s - s e c t i o n of s o c i e t y , Douglas y e t s t r o v e t o i n t r o d u c e B r i t i s h laws and to pr o v i d e f o r t h e i r enforcement. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y he was en-dea v e r i n g t o g i v e a l l f a c i l i t i e s t o the m i n e r s , y e t s t i l l t o secure the t r a d e o f the g o l d r e g i o n s f o r h i s company. The g o vernor had s e t h i m s e l f a stupendous t a s k - the more so as i m m i g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d unabated, even though a l l but a few of the F r a s e r b a r s were s t i l l under water, w i t h . 11./ no p r o s p e c t of b e i n g worked u n t i l f a l l . As more and more men • ( e s t a b l i s h e d themselves on the r i v e r banks from L a n g l e y up t o :Yal e , and as- more and more reached V i c t o r i a ready t o b e g i n the l a s t l a p o f t h e i r j o u r n e y , i t soon became apparent t h a t the most urgent t a s k was to p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n of lmen and s u p p l i e s from V i c t o r i a t o the F r a s e r . And the government, as r e p r e s e n t e d by Douglas, must t a k e the l e a d i n t h i s m a t t e r i f t h e r e was t o be any s u p e r v i s i o n o f the i m m i g r a t i o n of miners t o the r i v e r "by b o a t s , canoes and every s p e c i e s of s m a l l c r a f t " ( 1 ) , i n most cases w i t h o u t the payment of the l i c e n c e f e e w h i c h was supposedly r e q u i r e d . j^s a s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , Douglas proposed an arrangement w i t h the agents o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s P a c i f i c M a i l Steamship Company, t o operate steamers between V i c t o r i a . a n d the f a l l s of the F r a s e r R i v e r . . The arrangement was t o be of one y e a r ' s d u r a t i o n , and would have g i v e n the American f i r m a monopoly of t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i n the r i v e r . I n r e t u r n , the steamship company would agree t o c a r r y no passenger who had not a l r e a d y purchased h i s m i n i n g / l i c e n s e from the Govern-ment of Vancouver I s l a n d , t o c a r r y up t h e r i v e r o n l y Hudson's Bay Company goods, and t o pay t o the Company i n a d d i t i o n two d o l l o r s f o r each p e r s o n c a r r i e d . (2) As a r e s u l t , no p e r s o n might e n t e r the F r a s e r t e r r i t o r y u n t i l he had p a i d , o v er and above h i s f a r e as a passenger, the sum o f seven d o l l a r s , o f which f i v e went i n t o p u b l i c revenue, and two i n t o the t r e a s u r y (1) Douglas t o Labouchere - Despatches t o London, May 8, 1858 (2) Douglas t o Labouchere - Despatches to Londo n,May 8, 1858 of the Company. O p p o s i t i o n t o Governor Douglas* p r o p o s a l was f r e e l y e x p r e s s e d (3) - so f r e e l y and so v o c i f e r o u s l y t h a t the governor was f o r c e d i n June t o extend h i s " s u f f e r a n c e " p l a n t o p r i v a t e l y owned c r a f t as w e l l . The o p p o s i t i o n was not merely v o c a l ; u n a u t h o r i z e d v e s s e l s were e n t e r i n g the F r a s e r i n such numbers t h a t l a t e i n June, H. M. S. ' S a t e l l i t e ' was sent t o p a t r o l the mouth of the r i v e r t o stop such un-a u t h o r i z e d t r a f f i c , w h i l e a f o r c e of marines was s t a t i o n e d on th e 'Recovery' anchored i n the r i v e r near L a n g l e y . When one reads i n the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e o f June 30 t h a t over one hundred s m a l l boats were b e i n g b u i l t i n " F r e n c h R a v i n e " , j u s t b e h i n d Johnson S t r e e t , one can see that, many were a p p a r e n t l y p r e p a r i n g to c i rcumvent the government's e d i c t . ' The f i n a l blow t o t h e . o p e r a t i o n o f the proposed scheme -came from the o f f i c e o f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . The new C h i e f S e c r e t a r y , S i r Edward B u l w e r - L y t t o n , o b j e c t e d i n no u n c e r t a i n terms t o an arrangement w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d e t e r r e n t t o i m m i g r a t i o n , and w h i c h was o b v i o u s l y d e s i g n e d (3) An e d i t o r i a l , ' i n the P i o n e e r and Democrat of Dec. '3,„ 1858, i s ; a good example. P r o b a b l y a good d e a l of the resentment which was e x p r e s s e d was d i r e c t e d at-Douglas as a_Company o f f -i c i a l , . " e x e r c i s i n g a l l t h e . p e t t y p r o h i b i t i o n s , r e s t r i c t i o n s , annoyances and pompous f o r m a l i t i e s of the l i t t l e t y r a n t s o f the Company". Perhaps, t o o , c e r t a i n of the Governor's p e r s o n a l i d l o s y n c r a c i e s may e x p l a i n -this w r a t h w h i c h h i s p o l i c i e s i n v a r -i a b l y aroused among the ."free• and easy American m i n e r s . Even the s c h o l a r l y E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r and s c h o o l m a s t e r , Mathew M a c f i e , .seems'to have been i r k e d by the Governor*s manner. I n h i s "Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia" p u b l i s h e d a t London i n 1865, M a c f i e , makes f u n of Douglas' pompous manner, h i s u n i -form, the o r d e r l y who always paced..behind him, and c a l l s him "an i m i t a t i o n , Birmingham Dr. Johnson". (Page 328) 13./' t o s a f e g u a r d Company i n t e r e s t s . S a i d the S e c r e t a r y , " I must, d i s t i n c t l y warn you a g a i n s t u s i n g t h e powers hereby e n t r u s t e d t o you, i n maintenance of the i n t e r e s t s of the Hudson's Bay Company i n the t e r r i t o r y . The Company i s e n t i t l e d , under i t s , e x i s t i n g l i c e n s e , t o the e x c l u s i v e t r a d e w i t h the I n d i a n s , and possesses'no o t h e r r i g h t o r p r i v i l e g e whatsoever". (4) By the time Douglas r e c e i v e d t h i s communication, however, the " s u f f e r a n c e p l a n " had been dropped. I n a d d i t i o n t o the P a c i f i c M a i l Steamship Company v e s s e l s , the p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d " S u r p r i s e " and " S e a - B i r d " , and soon a f t e r , the " U m a t i l l a " , the " E n t e r p r i s e " and the " M a r i a 1 3 were competing f r e e l y f o r p a s s -enger and f r e i g h t t r a f f i c on the r i v e r . (5) Rates were s t i l l h i g h ; i n October o f 1858 the f r e i g h t r a t e on the " E n t e r p r i s e " was£60 p e r t o n . (6) By 1861 r a t e s had dropped so t h a t p a s s -engers p a i d |10 f o r the t r i p t o New We s t m i n s t e r , and s h i p p e r s p a i d $20. on each t o n o f t h e i r merchandise. The s t o r y of t h e o p e r a t i o n of these p i o n e e r v e s s e l s t h r ough the s w i f t c u r r e n t s of the r i v e r , over i t s h i d d e n s h o a l s and around the murderous snags./ t h a t l a y i n i t s c h a n n e l , (4) L y t t o n t o Douglas, - B r i t i s h Columbia P a p e r s - J u l y 16., 1858. Despatches t o and from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e - t o g e t h e r w i t h r e l e v a n t documents, p u b l i s h e d l>j the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . I n A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. (5) Howay " E a r l y H i s t o r y of the E r a s e r R i v e r M i n e s " , V i c t o r i a , 1926, Page I V , I n t r o d u c t i o n . .. (6) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e . A d v e r t i s e m e n t October 16, 1858. F i l e o f i s s u e s J u l y 28, 1858 t o November 26, 1859, i n A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 14. i s a s t o r y t h a t r i c h l y deserves the t e l l i n g . (7) S u f f i c e i t here, however, t o note t h a t the steamboat s e r v i c e t o Hope o r Y a l e , w h i l e i t may have been r e p l e t e w i t h t h r i l l s and dangers, and c e r t a i n l y was c o s t l y , n e v e r t h e l e s s was a t l e a s t adequate t o meet the demand f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d u r i n g the next f o u r y ears of heavy t r a f f i c . But the miner who reached Hope, o r even Y a l e , by means o f these steamers, had s t i l l o n l y begun h i s jou r n e y ; the r e a l "road t o C a r i b o o " , o r a t l e a s t t h a t p a r t w h i c h was f r a u g h t w i t h the g r e a t e s t danger, s t i l l l a y b e f o r e him. (7) P a r t i c u l a r l y i s t h i s t r u e of the s t o r i e s of the steam-boat r a c e s on the r i v e r . R i v a l s k i p p e r s , j e a l o u s o f the r e p u t a t i o n s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c r a f t f o r speed, o f t e n p r e s s e d passengers i n t o s e r v i c e t o h e l p f i r e t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e b o i l e r s w i t h which most o f these v e s s e l s were equipped. On o c c a s i o n d u r i n g one of t h e s e Impromptu r a c e s , cargoes Were ran s a c k e d t o f i n d s i d e s of bacon w h i c h were t o s s e d i n t o the flam e s t o g i v e those e x t r a two o r three•pounds of steam w h i c h might mean v i c t o r y . N a t u r a l l y , the b o i l e r s sometimes blew up. The Jameson f a m i l y o f V i c t o r i a l o s t two o f i t s f o u r sons when t h e b o i l e r s o f the ' Y a l e ' exploded i n A p r i l o f 1860, and the r e -maining two when the • C a r i b o o ' m y s t e r i o u s l y blew up s h o r t l y a f t e r l e a v i n g the dock a t V i c t o r i a on i t s maiden voj^age on August 3, 1863. The a t t i t u d e o f the passengers i s perhaps b e s t i l l u s -t r a t e d by the s t o r y s t i l l t o l d by steamboat men on the r i v e r , of the Yankee s k i p p e r who, when asked about the s a f e t y o f a c e r t a i n v e s s e l , r e p l i e d "Wal, she may do v e r y w e l l f o r p a s s -engers, but I s a r t i n l y wouldn't t r u s t my g o l d on her'." 15. CHAPTER XXI THE DOUGLAS-LILLOOET TRAIL i n the p r o v i s i o n of means by w h i c h the miners c o u l d reach the banks of the E r a s e r I t s e l f , Governor Douglas p e r -s o n a l l y had p l a y e d a c o m p a r a t i v e l y minor r o l e . I n the i m -measurably g r e a t e r t a s k o f p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t t o the h i n t e r -l a n d of the t e r r i t o r y , t he governor was the l e a d i n g f i g u r e . I n May of 1S58, Douglas h i m s e l f went t o E o r t L a n g l e y on the Company steamer, the " O t t e r " * A f t e r a p p o i n t i n g a revenue o f f i c e r and a j u s t i c e o f the peace f o r t h a t p l a c e , he went on up the r i v e r . On the ba r s near Hope he found over two hundred m i n e r s , some few of whom had a l r e a d y made e x p e d i t i o n s p a s t the f a l l s and i n t o the g r e a t E r a s e r canyon i t s e l f . These men a l l t o l d of the c o a r s e r g o l d w h i c h was t o be found above the f a l l s . On the r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e ' d i g g i n g s on the b a r s l o f the L o w e r E r a s e r , m i n e r s who had been f o r t u n a t e enough t o secure a c l a i m , were making s a t i s f a c t o r y , a l t h o u g h by no means fa b u l o u s r e t u r n s . But by the v e r y n a t u r e of the o p e r a t i o n s , the number of c l a i m s a v a i l a b l e on the d r y b a r s , was l i m i t e d . A l r e a d y hundreds o f the d i s g r u n t l e d u n f o r t u n a t e s who had a r r i v e d too l a t e t o s t a k e c l a i m s , were r e t u r n i n g t o V i c t o r i a b i t t e r l y condemning the " E r a s e r R i v e r Humbug!" Only a few -a v e r y hardy few - were w i l l i n g t o f a c e the h a r d s h i p s o f the 1 6 . t r i p t h r ough the canyon t o the upper reaches of. the r i v e r . Some t h e r e were, however, who went on t h r o u g h the r o c k y gorge. Others reached the c o u n t r y above the canyons by the more devious o v e r l a n d r o u t e f rom the Washington towns of Whatcom and Secome, by way o f the o l d b r i g a d e t r a i l , t o Kamloops and thence down, the Thompson R i v e r t o the F r a s e r . ( 1 ) From p a r t i e s who had succeeded by e i t h e r method i n r e a c h i n g the upper F r a s e r , had come word, i f not p r o o f , of the r i c h e s w hich l a y above. These r e p o r t s , w h i c h Governor Douglas heard i n May, had become a c c e p t e d f a c t s by e a r l y f a l l , (2 ) and t h e c o n v i c t i o n grew t h a t the " E l Dorado" f o r w h i c h a l l were seek-i n g , l a y i n the c o u n t r y above the "Great Canyon". I n view of t h e s e f a c t s , the governor determined t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o t h a t c o u n t r y , r i g h t l y c o n c e i v i n g t h i s t o be h i s f i r s t and most p r e s s i n g duty. Of the two r o u t e s w h i c h up t o t h i s time had been most t r a v e l l e d , the f i r s t , the o v e r l a n d t r a i l from B e l l i n g h a m Bay, c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d by the government, s i n c e i t had i t s p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e i n American t e r r i t o r y and would c o m p l e t e l y by-pass the B r i t i s h p o r t of e n t r y a t V i c t o r i a . But the o t h e r 7 1 ) F u r t h e r mention i s made of t h i s r o u t e i n Chapter Y T . (2) A correspondent of the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , i n a l e t t e r pub-l i s h e d on January 2 9 , 1 8 5 9 , t o l d o f meeting a F r e n c h p r o s -p e c t o r a t the F o u n t a i n s ( j u s t above the p r e s e n t town o f L i l l o o e t ) , who had been 200 m i l e s f u r t h e r up the r i v e r . T h i s man t o l d g l o w i n g s t o r i e s o f the r i c h g o l d - b e a r i n g sands, and, b e s t of a l l , had i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , § 3 , 0 0 0 . i n v e r y c o a r s e g o l d . ( V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , January 2 9 , 1 8 5 9 ) . 17. - the d i r e c t r o u t e up the r i v e r i t s e l f - p r e s e n t e d almost i n s u p e r a b l e o b s t a c l e s . The r a p i d s i n the gorge were d i f f i -c u l t and dangerous enough; i n a d d i t i o n the h i g h , p r e c i p i t o u s rock w a l l s of the canyon made p o r t a g e s w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e . Simon F r a s e r , the f i r s t w h i t e man t o f o l l o w t h i s rugged pass-age, spoke e l o q u e n t l y of i t s n a t u r e i n the j o u r n a l of h i s e x p e d i t i o n . " I t i s so w i l d t h a t I cannot f i n d words t o des-c r i b e o ur s i t u a t i o n a t t i m e s . We have t o pass where no human b e i n g " s h o u l d v e n t u r e . " (3) N e i t h e r words, nor photographs and c e r t a i n l y not an i n s p e c t i o n of the canyon from the h e i g h t h s above, where p r e s e n t day t o u r i s t s stop t o gaze and wonder, can convey and adequate i m p r e s s i o n o f what Simon F r a s e r must have f e l t . One must s t a n d where the g o l d seekers s t o o d , on the edge of the r i v e r i t s e l f , one must f e e l the s o l i d r o c k beneath h i s f e e t t r e m b l e under the a w f u l surge of the c u r r e n t through the b o t t l e neck of the famous H e l l ' s Gate; t h e n o n l y c o u l d the r e a d e r a d e q u a t e l y a p p r e c i a t e the h a r d s h i p s and the dangers which l a y between the miner and h i s g o a l . I n s p i t e o f these dangers, and urged on by the l u r e o f "coarse g o l d above the f a i l s " , s c o r e s made the t r i p t h r o u g h the canyon, h a u l i n g canoes and r a f t s ."up the t o r r e n t of w h i t e (3) F r a s e r , Simon - J o u r n a l o f a voyage f r o m the Rocky mountains t o the P a c i f i c Ocean, p e r f o r m e d i n the y e a r 1808. O r i g i n a l i n the Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , R e f e r e n c e L i b r a r y , p h o t o s t a t copy i n L i b r a r y o f U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The document i s r e p r i n t e d w i t h some a d d i t i o n s i n Mas son, R. L. - "Les B o u r g e o i s de l a Compagnie du ITord-Ouest." Quebec, 1889. See a l s o Sage, W. N. "Simon F r a s e r '- E x p l o r e r and F u r T r a d e r " . P r o c e e d i n g s o f P a c i f i c . Coast Branch of the American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1928 - 1930. 18. water, f o l l o w i n g I n d i a n paths cut i n the s o l i d r o c k , p l a c i n g clumsy miner's boots i n f o o t h o l d s where o n l y the I n d i a n s moccasin had h e r e t o f o r e found s a f e t y . Wrecked canoes and broken b o d i e s r e c o v e r e d from the stream a t Y a l e bore mute te s t i m o n y t o the h o r r o r s of the passage. I n a d d i t i o n t o the n a t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the passage, the I n d i a n h o s t i l i t y of which Governor Douglas had a l r e a d y warned, (4) now t u r n e d t o a c t u a l v i o l e n c e and i n J u l y and August war p a r t i e s added to the dangers and d i s c o m f o r t s of the m i n e r s . One p i t c h e d b a t t l e took p l a c e , on J u l y 14, be-tween a l a r g e p a r t y o f n a t i v e s and a f o r c e o f some two hundred m i n e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , s m a l l e r groups of miners were on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s ambushed and many i n d i v i d u a l s l o s t t h e i r l i v e s . (5) On August 21, a mass m e e t i n g of miners and r e s i d e n t s a t Hope d r a f t e d a communication t o Governor Douglas a p p r i z i n g him of the dangerous s i t u a t i o n , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t " d e c a p i t a t e d , denuded corpses of u n f o r t u n a t e a d v e n t u r e r s are d a i l y p i c k e d up on the r i v e r " , and a s k i n g him t o f a k e s t e p s " t o check the (4) See page 4 above. . -(5) F i l e s of the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e f o r J u l y and August, 1858, I n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n t a i n many r e p o r t s of such i n c i d e n t s , some of w h i c h were p r o b a b l y e x a g g e r a t e d . l i e d S t d u t , one of the l a s t s u r v i v o r s o f the '58 r u s h , r e l a t e d t o many r e s i d e n t s of Y a l e the s t o r y of how he and t h r e e com-panions w i t h s t o o d a t h r e e day s i e g e i n a narrow cave i n the r o c k s b e h i n d China B a r . t • 19. e f f u s i o n of b l o o d " and t o r e s t o r e law^and ..order. (6) I n ^ ' response t o t h i s a p p e a l , the Governor h i m s e l f a r r i v e d a t Y a l e on August 29. H i s p r o c l a m a t i o n f o r b i d d i n g l i q u o r s a l e s t o the I n d i a n s , combined w i t h the c h a s t e n i n g e f f e c t o f an ex-p e d i t i o n up the canyon of a p a r t y of f i v e hundred well - a r m e d miners under C a p t a i n Snyder, d i d much t o q u i e t the stormy atmosphere. N e v e r t h e l e s s , d u r i n g 1858 and 1859, l a t e n t I n d -i a n h o s t i l i t y c o n t i n u e d t o be one of the many o b s t a c l e s t o saf e t r a v e l t h r ough the canyon t o the g o l d f i e l d s above. To b u i l d a r o a d which would f o l l o w the r i v e r t h r o u g h the mountains was o b v i o u s l y not i m p o s s i b l e , but j u s t as o b v i o u s l y i t would prove a v e r y d i f f i c u l t u n d e r t a k i n g and one w h i c h would i n v o l v e the e x p e n d i t u r e of much money, the employment of much l a b o r , and the passage o f much t i m e . No one o f the s e c o u l d be a f f o r d e d i n 1858, e i t h e r by the government o r by the min e r s . Another r o u t e t o the n o r t h e r n w a t e r s o f the E r a s e r must be found. I n a r e p o r t t o London i n J u l y , Governor Douglas h i n t e d a t h i s p l a n . "Another i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t w h i c h I have i n view, i s the improvement of the i n t e r n a l communications of the co u n t r y which a t p r e s e n t are f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , n e a r l y i n a c c e s s i b l e beyond F o r t Y a l e , i n consequence o f a range of mountains r u n n i n g n o r t h and s o u t h , w h i c h t h e r e (6) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , August 24, 1858. A l e t t e r f r o m C a p t a i n H. M. Snyder i n the same i s s u e s a i d t h a t a l l m iners were " o f f the r i v e r " because of the t r o u b l e s . 20. i n t e r p o s e an almost insurmountable b a r r i e r t o the p r o g r e s s of t r a d e . . . . ^ I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a good road through t h a t mountain b a r r i e r would be of p r o d i g i o u s advan-tage t o the c o u n t r y ; such a road m i g h t , I t h i n k , be c a r r i e d through the v a l l e y of H a r r i s o n ' s R i v e r , a t a moderate expense, t o a p o i n t near the Great F a l l s o f F r a s e r ' s R i v e r , t o the eastward of the mountains i n q u e s t i o n , from whence the coun-t r y i s easy of a c c e s s . S h o u l d no i n s t r u c t i o n s m i l i t a t i n g w i t h t h a t d e s i g n be i n the meantime r e c e i v e d f rom Her M a j e s t y ' s Government, I w i l l p r o b a b l y make the attempt t h i s summer"• (7) The r o u t e w h i c h Douglas mentioned i n h i s d e s p a t c h e s , w h i l e l e s s t r a v e l l e d t h a n the o t h e r two -which have been mentioned, was new n e i t h e r t o the miners n o r t o Douglas h i m s e l f . P r o s p e c t o r s who had succeeded i n f o r c i n g t h e i r way up the F r a s e r I t s e l f t o the g o l d f i e l d s above the F o u n t a i n s , had used t h i s r o u t e on t h e i r r e t u r n j o u r n e y r a t h e r than f a c e the a w f u l t r i p back down t h r o u g h the canyon. Douglas h i m s e l f had o f f i c i a l knowledge of t h i s r o a d t o the i n t e r i o r t h r o u g h the e x p l o r a t i o n s o f A l e x a n d e r G a u l f i e l d (7) Douglas to L o r d S t a n l e y , Despatches t o London, J u l y 26, 185S. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t even i f such i n s t r u c t i o n s had been s e n t , they c o u l d not p o s s i b l y have reached Governor Douglas b e f o r e t h e f i r s t o f October, by which time the t r a i l was p r a c t i c a l l y completed." I n f a c t , f i v e days a f t e r d i s p a t c h i n g t h i s communication, an a g r e e -ment was made c o n c e r n i n g the b u i l d i n g o f the t r a i l , and twelve days o n l y had passed when work s t a r t e d . 21. Anderson, some twe l v e y e a r s b e f o r e , and the same Anderson was ..now one o f Douglas* o f f i c i a l s a t V i c t o r i a . (8) A c t i n g on i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Hudson's Bay Company, Anderson had t r a v e r s e d the r o u t e from the upper F r a s e r t o F o r t L a n g l e y by way of a c h a i n of l a k e s w h i c h l a y c o n n e c t i n g streams w©st o f the r i v e r i t s e l f . The j o u r n e y took f i v e days, and the d i s t a n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s , was two hundred and s i x t e e n m i l e s . H i s o b j e c t , o f c o u r s e , was t o l o c a t e a t r a i l s u i t a b l e f o r the passage of the b r i g a d e s , but i n h i s r e p o r t he s t a t e d the r o u t e t o be i m p r a c t i c a b l e . The o n l y f e a s i b l e method o f u s i n g i t would be by a c o m b i n a t i o n of p a c k i n g on the t r a i l s by h o r s e s o r mules and on the l a k e s by r a f t s o r ba t e a u x . Such a c o m b i n a t i o n , r e q u i r i n g as i t would a g r e a t d e a l o f h a n d l i n g and r e p a c k i n g of goods, would be, a c c o r d i n g t o Anderson, " i n t r i c a t e and troublesome". I n part., h i s r e p o r t r e a d s : "Upon the whole I cannot recommend the r o u t e i n q u e s t i o n as e l i g i b l e under o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s .... I n an emergency, i t might, I c o n s i d e r , be r e n d e r e d a v a i l a b l e ; but a t b e s t would o f f e r a'' r o u t e e x t r e m e l y t e d i o u s and u n s u i t e d f o r the passage o f a l a r g e B r i g a d e . " (9) The emergency w h i c h Anderson had mentioned,~undoubtedly was p r e s e n t i n the summer of 1858. No l o n g e r was t h e r e (8) Anderson, A. C "Report o f E x p l o r a t i o n s 184-6". L e t t e r from F o r t L a n g l e y , May 25, 1846. M.S. i n A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. (9) Anderson, A. C. Report c i t e d above. 22. q u e s t i o n of the " t e d i o u s n e s s " of the t r a i l ; . raen already-above the F o u n t a i n s were i n d i r e need of s u p p l i e s , and other,men were g r i p p e d by a d e s i r e which was almost as s t r o n g as n e c e s s i t y , t o r e a c h the E l Dorado above. The. i n i t i a t i v e i n the m a t t e r of opening t h i s r o u t e was a p p a r e n t l y t a k e n by the m iners t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h Douglas when i n t e r v i e w e d by groups w a i t i n g a t V i c t o r i a , had spoken s e v e r a l times of the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g such a t r a i l as had been suggested. (10) To s e c u r e more r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h a t made a v a i l a b l e by Anderson's r e p o r t , a s p e c i a l voyage was made by the " U m a t i l l a " under C a p t a i n J . C. A i n s w o r t h , from V i c t o r i a up the E r a s e r , t h r o u g h H a r r i s o n R i v e r and up t o the most n o r t h e r l y end of H a r r i s o n Lake. On board was a " s p e c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t " of the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , who r e p o r t e d t o h i s paper t h a t the voyage proved the H a r r i s o n R i v e r and the Lake as w e l l , t o be " p e r f e c t l y n a v i g a b l e " . (11) The c o r r e s p o n d e n t n o t e s , however, t h a t near the mouth of H a r r i s o n R i v e r t h e r e were s h o a l s w h i c h might hamper n a v i g a t i o n i f the r i v e r * dropped t o any a p p r e c -i a b l e e x t e n t - the same s h o a l s w h i c h l a t e r caused so much of the d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s p o r t o ver t h i s r o u t e . W i t h f a c i l i t y of n a v i g a t i o n t o the head of H a r r i s o n Lake a p p a r e n t l y a s s u r e d , f u r t h e r p l a n s were soon l a i d . When the " U m a t i l l a " r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a , C a p t a i n A i n s w o r t h w a i t e d (10) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 28, 1858. (11) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 28, 1858. 23. upon Governor Douglas a t the o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e . The i n t e r -v iew took p l a c e on the p o r c h of Government House b e f o r e a k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d audience of s e v e r a l hundred m i n e r s . At i t s c o n c l u s i o n , Douglas addressed the crowd, " a s s u r i n g them of h i s i n t e r e s t " . (12) Three days l a t e r , on J u l y 31, the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e gave g r e a t prominence t o a s t o r y t h a t a group o f miners had approached the Governor w i t h a p r o p o s a l to b u i l d a t r a i l t h e m selves. (13) Douglas h i m s e l f , i n h i s r e p o r t t o London, s t a t e d t h a t the m i n e r s had v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s on terms so advantageous t h a t " i t would have been unwise o f me t o d e c l i n e them". (14) F i v e hundred miners were t o be e n r o l l e d as a w o r k i n g c o r p s , and each of them was to d e p o s i t w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company, the sum of twenty-f i v e d o l l a r s as a guarantee t h a t the work.would be completed. No pay would be g i v e n f o r the work, but the government, t h a t i s , James Douglas, undertook t o t r a n s p o r t the workers t o the commencement of the t r a i l , f r e e of charge, and t o r e f u n d t h e i r d e p o s i t when the t r a i l was completed, such r e f u n d t o be i n goods a t V i c t o r i a p r i c e s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e miners agreed to c o n s t r u c t bateaux on the l a k e , w i t h t o o l s and n a i l s supp-l i e d -by the government. F o r two weeks a f t e r the "completion of the t r a i l i t was t o r e m a i n c l o s e d t o promiscuous t r a v e l , so t h a t i t s b u i l d e r s might have a f o r t n i g h t ' s advantage i n (12) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 28, 1858. (13) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 31, 1858. (14) Douglas t o L o r d S t a n l e y , Despatches t o London, August 19, 1858. f i n d i n g - and s t a k i n g t h e i r c l a i m s . . ' T h i s r a t h e r unorthodox c o n t r a c t WBM agreed upon a t a miners' meeting h e l d on August 2, i n the Company F o r t . A l l next day a p p l i c a t i o n s and d e p o s i t s were r e c e i v e d . ' On Wednes-day , August 4, a n o t i c e appeared I n t h e . G a z e t t e t h a t r e g i s -t r a t i o n s were complete and t h a t no f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s - w o u l d be a c c e p t e d . On Thursday, under A l e x a n d e r C. Anderson, the f i r s t w o r k i n g p a r t y l e f t V i c t o r i a . Most o f i t s members were B r i t i s h o r American, but t h e r e was a decid e d s p r i n k l i n g of Danes,French, Germans, A f r i c a n s and Chinese. The workers were d i v i d e d i n t o groups o f t w e n t y - f i v e , each under an e l e c t -ed c a p t a i n who was i n t u r n r e s p o n s i b l e t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Adams, e l e c t e d by the miners to r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , and t o Commissioner Anderson, a p p o i n t e d by the gov e r n o r . The G a z e t t e of August 6, devoted most o f i t s space t o a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n Of the d e p a r t u r e of the m i n e r s , and t o an announcement t h a t i t had, a t complete d i s r e g a r d f o r ex-pense o r t r o u b l e , a r r a n g e d t o have a correspondent among the workers* so. t h a t those m i n e r s l e f t a t V i c t o r i a might have a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o the p r o g r e s s b e i n g made, q u i t e o b v i o u s l y the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the new t r a i l was the m a t t e r of g r e a t e s t importance t o the G a z e t t e ' s r e a d e r s o f the moment. I n a n o t h e r s e c t i o n of the same i s s u e t h e r e appeared a , b r i e f announcement t h a t M e s s r s . lonahoe and Company, of San F r a n c i s c o had a l r e a d y commenced the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s m a l l s t e r n w h e e l e r f o r use i n the H a r r i s o n R i v e r . The w o r k i ng p a r t y a r r i v e d a t the head o f H a r r i s o n Lake on August .7. Here they found a p a r t y of a t l e a s t two hundred miners encamped, w a i t i n g u n t i l the L i l l o o e t R i v e r , •which.empties I n t o H a r r i s o n Lake a t t h a t p o i n t , s h o u l d f a l l i n l e v e l and s t r e n g t h t o a p o i n t where I t . would be p o s s i b l e to p u l l o r tow t h e i r canoes up i t s l e n g t h t o L i l l o o e t Lake.(15) Wi t h o u t ••'further d e l a y the p a r t y f e l l t o work,. On August 8 a st o r e h o u s e was e r e c t e d , not a t the mouth of the L i l l o o e t R i v e r i t s e l f , but a t a p o i n t some thousand y a r d s t o the e a s t , on the shore of a s m a l l e r l a k e opening out of t h e H a r r i s o n , and j o i n e d t o I t by a s h o r t , n a v i g a b l e c r e e k . L a t e r r e p o r t s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e . c h o i c e of the road t e r m i n u s was most unwise;, f o r t h i s and a l l o t h e r e r r o r s In. judgsxment on the p a r t o f the r o a d - b u i l d e r s , the excuse t h a t must be o f f e r e d would be' t h e i r i m p a t i e n t z e a l - a n d t h e i r d r i v i n g urge t o h u r r y on the r o a d t o . t h e upper mines.- To i l l u s t r a t e b o t h t h e i r speed and t h e i r methods,,we can t u r n t o t h e proud r e p o r t s s e n t back t o V i c t o r i a by t h e G a z e t t e c o r r e s p o n d e n t . On the morning o f August 9, work s t a r t e d on the a c t u a l c u t t i n g of the t r a i l . By n i g h t f a l l two, and a h a l f m i l e s had been opened, and o p t i m i s m r a n h i g h * Oh the t e n t h a heavy r a i n f e l l , and (15) C. G. G a r d i n e r , a. m i n e r who had made such a j o u r n e y some s i x weeks p r e v i o u s l y , r e c o r d e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n a l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r o f h i s home newspaper, the " I s l a n d e r " of C h a r l o t t e t o w n , P. E. I . T h e . l e t t e r w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R. L. R e i d , was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Quart- -e r l y f o r October, 1937 ( V o l . 1, No. 4 ) . W i t h two companions, G a r d i n e r spent 23 days, c o v e r i n g the 35 m i l e s of the L i l l o o e t R i v e r , and a r r i v e d on L i l l o o e t Lake w i t h a wrecked canoe, and f l a c k i n g |350 w o r t h of s u p p l i e s l o s t i n the t u r b u l e n t stream. S m a l l wonder t h a t he s t r o n g l y advised- the r e a d e r s , of the " I s l a n d e r " t o s t a y away f r o m F r a s e r R i v e r . 2 6 . l i t t l e work was done, but a d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g s u p p l i e s and t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y brought the sudden r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t u n l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s would be n e c e s s a r y back a t the t e r m i n u s , so a group o f workers were sent back t o commence the con-s t r u c t i o n of a wharf. A t the same t i m e , a name was chosen f o r the s i t e , and the town o f P o r t Douglas f o r m a l l y came i n t o b e i n g . (16) By the t h i r t e e n t h of the month, t e n m i l e s o f t r a i l had been completed; on the n i n e t e e n t h , Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t (17) a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a and s t a t e d t o the e d i t o r o f the G a z e t t e t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n f i v e weeks of work s h o u l d see the road completed. Not a l l comments were as o p t i m i s t i c , however, f o r as work p r o g r e s s e d , the d i f f i c u l t i e s of g e t t i n g s u p p l i e s to men engaged i n work on upper p o r t i o n s of the t r a i l , I n c r e a s e d tremendously. E v e n t u a l l y Commissioner Anderson p r o c u r e d mules t o pack s u p p l i e s i n , but not b e f o r e much b i t t e r r e c r i m i n a t i o n had been h u r l e d a t him, and a t Governor Douglas f o r t h e i r c a r e l e s s n e s s . By September 3, the advance parity had reached L i t t l e L i l l o o e t , o r Tenass, Lake. By t h i s time the d i f f i c u l t i e s and dangers of t h e i r self-Imposed t a s k had been impressed upon the b u i l d e r s . The p a r t y was c o m p l e t e l y out of p r o v i s i o n s , and t h r e e men who had been sent back down the t r a i l t o speed (16) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , August 20, 1858. (17) L a t e r and more i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the b u i l d i n g of the r o a d from L i l l o o e t t o A l e x a n d r i a . ( c f Chapter I V ) . H i s comment on the road appears i n the above i s s u e o f the G a z e t t e . 27/ ^up the promised m u l e - t r a i n , had f a i l e d t o r e t t i r n . S t o r i e s of the h o s t i l i t y of the L i l l o o e t I n d i a n s above them found r e c -e p t i v e e a r s among men who a l r e a d y had heard of the r e p o r t e d massacres of miners by the Thompson I n d i a n s i n the E r a s e r canyon. (18) Fe a r t h a t the p a r t y was c u t o f f spread from an e n t i r e l y i m a g i n a r y r e p o r t . t h a t p o r t Douglas i t s e l f had been burned by h o s t i l e n a t i v e s . (19) Two e x t r e m e l y nervous days /passed, but l a t e i n the a f t e r n o o n of September 4, a pack t r a i n I of f i v e mules a r r i v e d a t the camp. Occurrences such as t h i s i n e v i t a b l y l e d t o s t r i f e and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the m i n e r s . The mule team s e r v i c e had not a s s u r e d , i n d e e d never d i d a s s u r e , a s a t i s f a c t o r y means of h a u l i n g s u p p l i e s . Commissioner Anderson, who might, have a c t e d as a l i a i s o n o f f i c e r between the men on the t r a i l and the o f f i c i a l s i n V i c t o r i a , found I t n e c e s s a r y t o precede the wo r k i n g p a r t i e s a l o n g most o f the r o u t e , b l a z i n g t r e e s o r o t h e r w i s e o u t l i n i n g the p a t h . I n h i s absence, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Adams, a mine r , became t h e r e c i p i e n t of g i b e s , p r o t e s t s and e p i t h e t s . One of the w o r s t s p o t s on the t r a i l was named, i n h i s honor, "Adams, * H o l e " . [ As work p r o g r e s s e d on the nex t s e c t i o n of t r a i l , t h a t (18) See above, page 18. (19) F o r t u n a t e l y none o f the b u i l d e r s seem t o have heard the H a r r i s o n I n d i a n s 8 s t o r i e s about the g i a n t Susquatches - h a i r y monsters who i n h a b i t the remote v a l l e y s b e h i n d H a r r i s o n Lake. Perhaps one would be u n k i n d i n assuming t h a t the I n d i a n s them-s e l v e s d i d not know the l e g e n d - y e t . " . 2 8 . ' i between L i l l o o e t Lake and Anderson Lake, the d i f f i c u l t i e s • s t i l l m u l t i p l i e d , even,though the c o u n t r y through w h i c h the roa d passed was much more l e v e l , and p r e s e n t e d a p p a r e n t l y fewer b a r r i e r s . I n s t e a d , .-swamps l a y b e f o r e the b u i l d e r s and methods o f b u i l d i n g o v er them had t o be d e v i s e d t h e n and t h e r e . (20) Then t o o , as a r e s u l t of the murder o f a 1 L i l l o o e t n a t i v e by two "B o s t o n men",, the I n d i a n s c a r e r o s e a g a i n . F i r e s w h i c h broke out ne a r P o r t Douglas made n e c e s s a r y almost com-p l e t e r e b u i l d i n g o f some s e c t i o n s . Even the weather seemed to t u r n a g a i n s t the crews, t o make the inadequacy of s u p p l i e s more c r u e l l y e f f e c t i v e . y i n s p i t e of a l l t hese d i f f i c u l t i e s , by the m i d d l e of .-' October the t r a i l was- completed except f o r a s t r e t c h of s e v e r a l m i l e s from the e a s t e r n end o f Seton Lake to the banks of t he F r a s e r . J u s t a s . t h e end*of t h e i r l a b o r was so n e a r l y i n s i g h t j t h e miners r e c e i v e d what t o them was" the s e v e r e s t I blow o f a l l . F o r o r d e r s a r r i v e d t h a t the miners, upon com-•i p l e t i o n o f the t r a i l , s h o u l d r e p o r t back t o P o r t Douglas f o r !• • • ' : - , I j f u l l s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c o n t r a c t s . Men who had been w o r k i n g . ( ' ' . • • - • - . jf o r --two months, w i t h o u t pay, and who were now w i t h i n a few •'miles o f t h e r i c h c l a i m s w h i c h t h e y - s o u g h t , c o u l d h a r d l y be (20) p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n runs t h r o u g h the v a l l e y now.'known as Pemberton. Meadows. I n s p i t e o f the assurances of l o y a l Pemberton s e t t l e r s , the ."Meadows can be d e c i d e d l y m o i s t e a r l y i n the f a l l o f t h e - y e a r , as the w r i t e r found t o h i s sorrow when a t t e m p t i n g t o r e t r a c e t h e s t e p s o f the t r a i l b u i l d e r s i n Aug. 1937. The p r e s e n t town of Pemberton Meadows l i e s about e i g h t .miles up the v a l l e y of t h e L i l l o o e t , n o r t h w e s t o f the o l d town, and on the l i n e o f the P. G. E. R a i l w a y . 29 < made t o see the n e c e s s i t y of r e t r a c i n g t h e i r s t e p s t o P o r t Douglas, t h e r e t o r e c e i v e s u p p l i e s which t h e y had a l r e a d y p a i d f o r , and th e n t o pack those s u p p l i e s back up the t r a i l once more. Demands were made t h a t the t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r d e p o s i t s h o u l d be refunded i n s u p p l i e s a t V i c t o r i a p r i c e s and d e l i v e r e d , not a t P o r t Douglas, but a t t h e , o t h e r end of the t r a i l . The government a t V i c t o r i a was u n w i l l i n g t o meet t h i s demand t F i n a l l y a compromise was reached a f t e r much b i t t e r r e c r i m i n a t i o n . The r o a d - c u t t e r s were o f f e r e d the a l t e r n a t i v e o f a c c e p t i n g goods i n P o r t Douglas a t V i c t o r i a p r i s e s , l e s s $100 p e r t o n , o r of r e c e i v i n g t h e s e goods a t the o t h e r end of the t r a i l w i t h t h e $100 per t o n charge added t o V i c t o r i a p r i c e s . ( 2 1 ) (21) C e r t a i n h i s t o r i a n s have s t a t e d t h a t the d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d by d e l i v e r i n g the goods a t a s p o t . h a l f - w a y up the. t r a i l . I t i s h i g h l y p o s s i b l e t h a t such a compromise was suggested, a l t h o u g h t h i s w r i t e r o o u l d f i n d no evidence o f such a p l a n e i t h e r i n o f f i c i a l correspondence o r i n the newspapers o f t h a t p e r i o d . On,the o t h e r hand, t h e s e t t l e -ment o f the d i s p u t e on the l i n e s suggested above, was a p p a r e n t l y a c c o m p l i s h e d , s i n c e t h e correspondence columns of the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e c a r r i e d l e t t e r s f r om miners who l a t e r r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a s t i l l p r o t e s t i n g t h a t t h e y had: been cheated by the terms o f the above agreement. ( c f . : V i c t o r i a Gazette,.December 15, 1858, F e b r u a r y 18, 1859 and March 6, 1859 .) T h i s ea?ror, i s such i t i s , appears i n s e v e r a l works B a n c r o f t , H. H. - " H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia,' 1792 -1887" - San F r a n c i s c o , - 1 8 8 7 ; page 366. Begg, A l e x a n d e r - "The H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia" T o r o n t o , 1894; page 237. Co a t s , R. H. and G o s n e l l , R. E. - " S i r James Douglas*, T o r o n t o , 1908; page 251, - ^ . 30 y S i n c e the p a c k e r s who i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r "began t o op e r a t e over ' the t r a i l , charged §560 per t o n , i t w i l l be seen t h a t the miners who a c c e p t e d the l a t t e r o f f e r were perhaps the w i s e r . Though the t r a i l was now v i r t u a l l y completed, the s t o r y of the w r a n g l i n g s and the b i t t e r n e s s connected w i t h i t s b u i l d i n g , had j u s t begun. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the t r a i l , : i t s e l f was soon t o prove Inadequate, p a r t l j r because of the f a c t t h a t the men who b u i l t i t were much more concerned w i t h f o r c i n g t h e i r way t h r o u g h the d i f f i c u l t s p o t s t h a n w i t h road I making t h e ^ e a s y f o r those t o f o l l o w . I n a d d i t i o n , the t r a i l had been, i n t e n d e d f o r use by men and pack t r a i n s o n l y , but the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of men soon e s t a b l i s h e d above the F o u n t a i n s , made a wagon r o a d an e s s e n t i a l i f s u f f i c i e n t i s u p p l i e s were t o be f r e i g h t e d . I n the words of the g o v e r n o r , penned soon a f t e r the t r a i l opened, "A c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a f f i c i s now b e i n g s t a r t e d by way of H a r r i s o n ' s R i v e r , w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become the g r e a t ' c o m m e r c i a l t h o r o u g h f a r e of the c o u n t r y " . (22) The e x p e n d i t u r e ' o f 514,000 f o r the c o m p l e t i o n of the t r a i l had been a s e v e r e d r a i n upon the r e s o u r c e s of the i n f a n t c o l o n y , but by the s p r i n g of 1859 f u r t h e r e x p e n d i t -u r e s had become n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e w i d e n i n g and i m p r o v i n g of the r o a d . F r e i g h t charges were s t i l l h i g h - p a c k e r s were now c h a r g i n g 9d. p e r pound of merchandise ( e i g h t e e n c e n t s i n (22) Douglas to B u l w e r - L y t t o n , Despatches to London, November 30, 1858. <American c o i n ) . (23) i n a d d i t i o n , steamboat p r o p r i e t o r s J had found i t almost i m p o s s i b l e t o n a v i g a t e the s h o a l water | a t the mouth of the H a r r i s o n , where' i n the w i n t e r a t "times •I . ' . • • . . • ' • • . |'the water had dropped t o a l e v e l of o n l y e i g h t e e n i n c h e s . j F o r t u n a t e l y f o r Governor Douglas, the problem Of the | improvement of the H a r r i s o n t r a i l was s i m p l i f i e d somewhat ;{ by the a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s . (24) T h i s corps now assumed charge of s u r v e y i n g d u t i e s i n the new c o l o n y , and I t s Commanding o f f i c e r , C o l o n e l R i c h a r d Clement Moody, became C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and'Works. Among j h i s o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was t h a t o f w i d e n i n g and improve l i n g the t r a i l from P o r t Douglas t o the new town of L i l l o o e t ^on the E r a s e r . Governor Douglas was a p p a r e n t l y a t f i r s t s k e p t i c a l of t h e v a l u e of the E n g i n e e r s as an a i d t o h i s r o a d - b u i l d i n g program f o r 1859 and 1860, f e e l i n g t h a t " t h e day would be f a r d i s t a n t When the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s c o u l d s u p p l y the c o u n t r y ' s needs"; (25) I n the m a t t e r o f i t s communications. Of some of C o l o n e l Moody's s u b o r d i n a t e o f f i c e r s / a p p a r e n t l y , the governor (23) Douglas t o B u l w e r - L y t t o n , Despatches t o London, November 3 0 , 1 8 5 8 . c f G a z e t t e Nov. 26, 1858. ' I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t these, s o u r c e s b o t h mention t h a t p a c k e r s were s t i l l t a k -i n g goods t h r o u g h the canyon r o u t e , and c h a r g i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o / D o u g l a s , 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r pound._ The G a z e t t e g i v e s the charge i n American c u r r e n c y a t 46-| c e n t s p e r pound. (24) The f i r s t detachment of R o y a l E n g i n e e r s l e f t Southampton on t h e "La P l a t a " oh September 2, 1858, and were f o l l o w e d by the main body on.the "Thames C i t y " on September 17. I n a l T , 156 o f f i c e r s and men were d i s p a t c h e d to. t h e new c o l o n y . (25) Douglas t o Duke of N e w c a s t l e - Despatches t o London, F e b r u a r y 25, 1860. h e l d a much h i g h e r o p i n i o n - c e r t a i n l y of the work of L i e u t e n a n t Palmer i n s u r v e y i n g the whole t r a i l , and o f C a p t a i n Grant i n deepening the d a n g e r o u s l y s h a l l o w mouth of the H a r r i s o n . .. To the f i r s t o f these men we are i n -debted f o r what i s s t i l l t h e most a c c u r a t e and most d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t r o a d . (26) As an e n g i n e e r and s u r v e y o r , L i e u t e n a n t Palmer was s u r -p r i s e d by the l a c k o f care w i t h which the r o u t e of the t r a i l had been chosen. He o b j e c t e d f i r s t of a l l t o the s i t e chosen f o r P o r t Douglas, s i t u a t e d as i t was on a s m a l l l a n d - l o c k e d i n l e t , connected w i t h H a r r i s o n Lake i t s e l f by a creek w h i c h was n a v i g a b l e as t o depth, but which was so narrow and t o r t u o u s as t o p r e s e n t s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y f o r any steam-boat l a r g e r t h a n 'the l i t t l e " U m a t i l l a " w h i c h had p i o n e e r e d the c o u r s e . The t r a i l from p o r t Douglas t h e r e began, r i s i n g a b r u p t l y from t h e town t o a t t a i n a' h e i g h t of f i v e hundred f e e t i n the f i r s t two m i l e s . Many a " t e n d e r f o o t " on h i s way t o a f o r -tune i n the g o l d f i e l d s must have g u l p e d when he f i r s t saw the t o i l s o m e s l o p e ahead of him. The miners themselves c a l l e d t h i s s l o p e " S e v a s t o p o l " , perhaps because I t was so f i e r c e l y defended by i t s g a r r i s o n of g i a n t m o s q u i t o e s . The t r a i l t h e n f o l l o w e d the e a s t bank o f the L i l l o o e t R i v e r a l o n g i t s course from L i l l o o e t L a k e , some t h i r t y - f o u r (26) Palmer - L i e u t . H. Spencer, R. E., - "Report on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t Route", p u b l i s h e d a t London I n J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l . Geographic S o c i e t y , Volume 31,, 1861. 33. m i l e s t o the n o r t h . L i e u t e n a n t Palmer was of the o p i n i o n t h a t a more s e n s i b l e p a t h l a y along, the w e s t e r n bank, where a l r e a d y r a n the o l d I n d i a n t r a i l . A c c o r d i n g t o L i e u t e n a n t Palmer " i t i s a well-known c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t the I n d i a n i t r a i l s throughout N o r t h America i n v a r i a b l y f o l l o w the b e s t ' l i n e of t r a v e l t h r o u g h a w i l d c o u n t r y " . (£7) S h o r t of r e -l o c a t i n g the e n t i r e r o a d , however, n o t h i n g c o u l d now be done :to remedy t h i s e r r o r . About tw e n t y - n i n e m i l e s from P o r t Douglas, the t r a i l reached L i t t l e L i l l o o e t , o r Tenass, Lake, where a t e r m i n u s e v e n t u a l l y was b u i l t . Over low marshy ground the r o a d con-t i n u e d about h a l f a m i l e t o the shore o f L i l l o o e t Lake i t s e l f . I n 1860, the y e a r a f t e r palmer's survey was made, bo a t s were ;being used on Tenass Lake, t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g the boggy t r a i l around i t , but i n the same y e a r by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f R o y a l E n g i n e e r and c i v i l i a n l a b o r , the s h o r t d i s t a n c e between th e two l a k e s was covered by a road of wooden c o r d u r o y c o n s t r u c -t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n was by boat t h r o u g h the e n t i r e l e n g t h of L i l l o o e t Lake - some t h i r t e e n m i l e s i n a l l . A t f i r s t f l a t -bottomed bateaux were used, but by October of 1860 the s t e r n -wheeled steamer " H a r t z e l l e " , owned by V / i l l i a m G-oulding, was (27) Palmer, L i e u t . H. Spencer, R. E. - op. c i t . , p a g e 230. Perhaps L i e u t . Palmer changed h i s mind a f t e r l o n g e r r e s i d e n c e i n the c o l o n y . I t has been t h i s w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t I n d i a n t r a i l s i n v a r i a b l y f o l l o w the s h o r t e s t but not nec-e s s a r i l y the e a s i e s t l i n e t h r o u g h ' w i l d c o u n t r y ' . i n o p e r a t i o n f rom P o r t Pemberton a t the n o r t h e r n end of the l a k e . Governor Douglas made a t r i p t h r o u g h t h i s d i s t r i c t i n " 1860 and r e p o r t e d t h a t s e t t l e r s had a l r e a d y t a k e n up r e s i d e n c e i n and around t h i s new town. "I never saw", he s a i d , " b e t t e r garden s t u f f s - o f a l l k i n d s , e s p e c i a l l y tomatoes and cucumbers, 5 which were e x c e e d i n g l y f i n e " . (28) From Pemberton t o Anderson Lake the t r a i l w h i c h L i e u t e i i -- a n t Palmer f o l l o w e d r a n i n a g e n e r a l n o r t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n f o r about t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s . Over Anderson Lake rowboats and bateaux c a r r i e d the t r a f f i c u n t i l O ctober of 1860 when the s t e r n w h e e l e r "Lady o f the Lake" commenced o p e r a t i o n . The g o v e r n o r i n h i s despatches t o London, commented on the b u i l d -i n g o f t h i s and o t h e r l a k e steamers. One such q u o t a t i o n w i l l s erve t o i l l u s t r a t e the s p i r i t and d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the p i o -neers o f t h i s r o a d . **Two l a r g e s t e r n w h e e l steamers, i n t e n d i n g t o p l y on Lakes Anderson and S e t o n , are n e a r l y completed, by an a s s o c i a t i o n o f s e t t l e r s , who, a t much l a b o r and expense, packed the b o i l e r s and the engines f r o m Douglas over the H a r r i s o n r o a d . To g i v e an i d e a of the d i f f i c u l t y o f the u n d e r t a k i n g , I may m e n t i o n t h a t the b o i l e r s , b e i n g " t o o l a r g e and too heavy t o c a r r y on mules, were cut i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s and r o l l e d o v e r t h e t r a i l as f a r as the '28 M i l e House*". (29) (28) Douglas t o Duke of N e w c a s t l e - Despatches t o London, October 9, 1860. . (29) Douglas t o N e w c a s t l e - Despatches t o London, A p r i l 23, 1860. i ; From the end of Anderson Lake, a s h o r t portage of one and j.a h a l f m i l e s l e d t o Seton Lake. T h i s s t r e t c h o f t r a i l had not ' been.completed by the miners of '58, f o r when t h e y became i n -v o l v e d i n t h e i r d i s p u t e w i t h V i c t o r i a o f f i c i a l s over the d e l -i v e r y of s u p p l i e s , an e n t e r p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l named C a r l Dozer had completed the ro a d h i m s e l f , e s t a b l i s h e d a wagon s e r v i c e of j h i s own, and was a l r e a d y r e a p i n g p r o f i t s from a charge o f one \cent p e r pound of merchandise. (30) i Tk-e l a s t s tage of the j o u r n e y was once more by boat down ISeton"Lake t o i t s most e a s t e r l y p o i n t , and thence by t r a i l 'again t o the new town o f L i l l o o e t on the banks o f the F r a s e r :near the p o i n t where Cayoosh Creek empties I n t o t h e l a r g e r stream. Upon c o m p l e t i o n of h i s s u r v e y and h i s r e t u r n t o head-/ q u a r t e r s , L i e u t e n a n t palmer made h i s r e p o r t t o C o l o n e l Moody |and t o Governor Douglas, (31) and many of the recommendations [of: t h a t r e p o r t were soon implemented. To change the l o c a t i o n |of P o r t Douglas, i n w h i c h town l o t s had a l r e a d y been sold", 'was m a n i f e s t l y i m p o s s i b l e , and t o r e - r o u t e the whole t r a i l on the west bank "of the L i l l o o e t R i v e r would i n v o l v e e x p e n d i t u r e s w h i c h a t t h a t time c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d . Widening o f the (30) • • " ; V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , Feb.. 14, 1859. L e t t e r t o the e d i t o r s i g n e d by W a l t e r Hoberley.' Dozer l a i d down a §rack o f wooden r a i l s and employed h e l p e r s t o . p u s h wheeled c a r t s over t h e s e r a i l s . S e c t i o n s o f t h i s famous wooden tramway are t i n the p o s s e s s i o n of the p r e s e n t p u b l i s h e r s of the B r i d g e R i v e r -L i l l o e e t News.. (31) Report a l r e a d y c i t e d , page 32 above. y' 36, • o r i g i n a l t r a i l , c o n s t r u c t i o n of h e a v i e r b r i d g e s and r e -.' r o u t i n g of some . s e c t i o n s , were however, t a s k s w h i c h the i n -I c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c made n e c e s s a r y . E a r l y i n the s p r i n g of 1860, the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s began t h i s work. C a p t a i n Grant and a p a r t y of e i g h t y men were en-gaged by A p r i l , i n deepening the channel o f H a r r i s o n ' s R i v e r , a t the p o i n t where s h o a l s had so h i n d e r e d n a v i g a t i o n i n the two p r e c e d i n g w i n t e r s . A system of coffer-dams was employed by Grant t o f o r c e the s t r e a m i n t o one main channel a c r o s s the s h a l l o w s . T h i s work, though not permanent i n form, proved of tremendous v a l u e d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r and s p r i n g , s i n c e i t f a c i l i t a t e d the shipment of t h e g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s of goods r e q u i r e d by the hordes of miners on t h e i r way t o the new s t r i k e s a t A n t l e r and W i l l i a m s Creeks. Upon the c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s t a s k , the p a r t y moved to a n o ther e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t , - the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a wagon roa d o ver the Douglas P o r t a g e . On t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s were not a l o n e , f o r Governor Douglas had a l s o en-gaged the s e r v i c e s of a c i v i l i a n c o n t r a c t o r , Joseph W. T r u t e h , who u n d e r t o o k ' t h e b u i l d i n g o f a s e c t i o n from the 10 M i l e House to the 16 M i l e House, a t a c o s t of £550 p e r m i l e . _ ( 3 2 ) T r u t c h commenced the b u i l d i n g o f I l l s p a r t of the road a t the same .(32) Douglas t o N e w c a s t l e - B. C. Despatches, A p r i l 23, 1860. Of V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , J u l y 26, 1860. A c o r r e s p o n d e n t who s i g n e d h i m s e l f "Nuncio" p r o t e s t e d about t h i s c o n t r a c t , c l a i m i n g t h a t T r u t c h was paid,.§3000 p e r m i l e f o r a job w h i c h he f i n i s h e d I n s i x weeks w i t h a.crew of f o r t y men. J . W. T r u t c h was even more prominent i n "the b u i l d i n g o f the C a r i b o o Highway, and l i v e d t o become the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r of the p r o v i n c e . . 37. ; time as t h e . E n g i n e e r s on the f i r s t s e c t i o n . The l a s t t h i r t e e n m i l e s of the wagon road were then completed by the E n g i n e e r s w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of a crew of d a y . l a b o r e r s . Under t h i s scheme c o n s t r u c t i o n was so pushed f o r w a r d t h a t by October t h e Douglas.Wagon. Soad was ready f o r the governor's p e r s o n a l i n s p e c t i o n . (33) To f i n a n c e t h i s job,, as w e l l as o t h e r road work i n the co l o n y , Douglas* i n g e n u i t y was o f t e n t a x e d t o the utmost. F o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Douglas Wagon Road the s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t E n g l i s h c a p i t a l might be u s e d i The C h l e . f - J u s t i c e o f the c o l o n y , Mathew B a i l l i e B e g b i e , a f t e r making h i s f i r s t j o u r n e y up the Y a l e - L y t t o n t r a i l and back by way of the H a r r i s o n , proposed a scheme f o r i n t e r e s t i n g E n g l i s h c a p i t a l -i s t s on a b a s i s of b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o l e v y a t o l l of f i v e c e n t s p e r pound on the goods c a r r i e d o v e r the r o a d . (54) Douglas, however, p r e f e r r e d t o f i n d h i s own way out of h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e work had a l r e a d y s t a r t e d and he was e x p e c t i n g i t s c o m p l e t i o n by the s p r i n g of 1861. I t was t y p i c a l o f t h e governor and" h i s p u b l i c works program, t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n I t s e l f was always t h e f i r s t s t e p i n any u n d e r t a k i n g , f i n a n c i n g always the second. A l r e a d y the gov-ernment . had by p r o c l a m a t i o n of. December 10, 1859, imposed a l e v y o f t w e l v e s h i l l i n g s p e r t o n on " a l l wares, goods and (35) See page 34-above. (34) Begbie,, M. B. -"Journey i n t o the I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia" - p u b l i s h e d . a t London i n J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l Geographic S o c i e t y , Volume 31 a p p e a r i n g i n 1861. 38. merchandise t r a n s p o r t e d o r t a k e n from New Westminster t o any p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia", such l e v y t o become e f f e c t i v e on J a n u a r y 1 o f 1860. (35) By t h i s means, and a i d e d by a r a p i d ..increase i n the revenue from customs d u t i e s , (36) the work on the Douglas Road was e v e n t u a l l y f i n a n c e d . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the wagon ro a d from P o r t Pemberton t o the shore of Anderson Lake was a l s o u n d e r t a k e n i n 1860, when the government awarded a c o n t r a c t t o J . C. Colquhoun o f V i c t o r i a . (37) By the s p r i n g of 1861, t h i s c o n t r a c t was com-p l e t e d , and the "r o a d t o C a r i b o o " was a t l a s t a r e a l i t y . I n the p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n almost t h r e e y e a r s had e l a p s e d ; i t i s perhaps c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the new c o l o n y t h a t the. / h e a v i e s t t r a f f i c on the r o a d o c c u r r e d d u r i n g those t h r e e i • •' . • •  • • .. • y e a r s , and t h a t d u r i n g the same time government p l a n s were \ a l r e a d y under way f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a more d i r e c t h i g h r o a d t o the Upper F r a s e r . I n 1862 the heavy r e v e r b e r a t i o n s o f ..i ^ b l a s t i n g i n the F r a s e r Canyon s i g n a l l e d the b e g i n n i n g of the (35) : Douglas t o N e w c a s t l e D e s p a t c h e s t o London, F e b r u a r y 9, I86 0 , iAn attempt was made a l s o t o , l e v y the famous "mule t a x " . by t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f January 31, 1860. By this.means the .. government hoped t o c o l l e c t , a f e e of £1 s t e r l i n g on every horse o r mule' l e a v i n g L y t t o n o r Douglas f o r the I n t e r i o r . I t was d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r o n l y £150 had been c o l l e c t e d . ( V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t / F e b r u a r y 9, 1860). (36) S e e p a g e 55 below. (37) V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t - September 14, 1860. T h i s c o n t r a c t o r seems t o have been s i n g u l a r l y f i t t e d f o r h i s job by h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . a s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the c h a i n gang a t V i c t o r i a . . 59 . ' end f o r the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t Road. (38) The l a t t e r h i g h r o a d had proven, as A l e x a n d e r Anderson had c l a i m e d i t would, too t e d i o u s and troublesome t o be of : r e a l commercial i m p o r t a n c e . Goods were handled, i n t h e i r passage f r o m V i c t o r i a t o the Cariboo f i e l d s , a t l e a s t e i g h t t i m e s ; the m u l t i p l i c i t y of charges (39) f o r t h i s h a n d l i n g and p o r t a g i n g i n e v i t a b l y i n c r e a s e d p r i c e s o f goods t o such an e x t e n t t h a t f l o u r , as one example, never f e l l below 500 per pound, and b u t t e r never l o w e r t h a n i|1.25. I t i s l i t t l e wonder t h e n t h a t even w h i l e the H a r r i s o n Wagon Road was b e i n g b u i l t t h a t demands were heard t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e t h r o u g h the canyon s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e . D u r i n g i t s v e r y b r i e f heyday o f importance as t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a b l e approach t o the C a r i b o o , the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t (385 M i l e - p o s t s on the p r e s e n t C a r i b o o Highway s t i l l are reckoned from L i l l o o e t , however, not f r o m any p o i n t on the Y a l e - L y t t o n - A s h c r o f t r o a d . I n view of the f a c t t h a t the names o f the m i l e - h o u s e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d were so w e l l known, and a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t , i t would p r o b a b l y have been unwise t o change them. I t i s d o u b t f u l , t o o , i f the miners would have p a i d any a t t e n t i o n t o o f f i c i a l change, and t h a t t h e 7 0 - M i l e House o r the 10 0 - M i l e House would have c o n t i n u e d t o be c a l l e d by those names. (39) P a c k i n g charges on the H a r r i s o n road i n 1859 a r e l i s t e d I n a l e t t e r t o the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e f r o m W a l t e r M o b e r l e y on Fe b r u a r y 14, as f o l l o w s - • Douglas t o L i l l o o e t Lake 120 t o 140 p e r pound. On L i l l o o e t Lake - §2 p e r passenger - t?0 p e r pound f o r f r e i g h t P o r t Pemberton t o Anderson Lake 100 p e r pound On Anderson and S e t o n Lakes. §2 p e r passenger and 3/40' . p e r pound f o r f r e i g h t C a r l Dozer's P o r t a g e - 10 p e r pound Seton.Lake.to L i l l o o e t - 30 p e r pound I n o t h e r words a t l e a s t 280 p e r pound must be added t o the co s t of goods. Even a f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the wagon r o a d packers were s t i l l c h a r g i n g 180 per pound o f merchandise. 40. road was the stage f o r many a drama of s t a r k t r a g e d y ,. and f o r some of most v u l g a r comedy. Towns of s u r p r i s i n g v i g o r | appeared a l o n g i t s r o u t e , f l o u r i s h e d b r i e f l y , had r e a l e s t a t e booms, and passed.away - a l l w i t h i n the.space of one decade. F o r t u n e s were won and l o s t i n the " m i l e - h o u s e s " which sprang up a l o n g the r o a d . Of a l l t h i s , however, p i t i f u l l y l i t t l e remains today i n the form of any permanent r e c o r d , f o r t o the miners o r government o f f i c i a l s who t r a v e l l e d t h a t way, t h i s was s i m p l y " t h e road t o C a r i b o o " , and f o r t u n e s were made o n l y a f t e r one had passed over i t . However, Borne few p a i n s t a k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , such as C a p t a i n John Evans of the famous "Welsh Miners"., d i d r e c o r d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s of the r o a d , and from t h e i r l e t t e r s and d i a r i e s (40) one can t r a v e l the r o a d i n one's imagination-. (40) D i a r y of John Evans, "The B. G. M i n i n g A d v e n t u r e , 1862-1864. %> S. and typed c o p i e s i n A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. D i a r y of Clement F. C o r n w a l l , who made the t r i p over t h i s r o a d i n June of 1862. Typed c o p i e s are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. M a c f i e , ffiathew "Vancouver I s l a n d / and B r i t i s h Columbia" c o n t a i n s I n f o r m a t i o n - f r o m the j o u r n a l of a. miner who had made the t r i p i n May o f 1863. G-ardiner, C. C. L e t t e r t o the " I s l a n d e r " has a l r e a d y been c i t e d . Champness, W. - "To C a r i b o o and Back", a p p e a r i n g i n s e r i a l i z e d form i n "The L e i s u r e Hour" i s s u e s A p r i l 1 t o A p r i l 29, 1865. T h i s i s perhaps the ..most Widely-known of the p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h i s t r a i l , and the o n l y one accompanied by s k e t c h e s t o i l l u s t r a t e . (Some of the s k e t c h e s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y one i l l u s t r a t i n g -the steep c l i m b out o f P o r t Douglas, a r e , t o put i t m i l d l y . , e x a g g e r a t e d ) . F o l l o w i n g page shows a copy of one of the maps used t o I l l u s t r a t e : t h i s s e r i e s . S k e t c h t o i l l u s t r a t e . "To f i a r l h o n . nnrt tinn.vw 'it comparison o f t h i s s k e t c h w i t h the map on page 50 w i l l I n d i c a t e the many m i s t a k e s w h i c h Champness made. " L e i s u r e Hour", A p r i l 22/ 1865. 4 2 . R i v e r steamers f o r some y e a r s p l i e d between V i c t o r i a or F o r t L a n g l e y and the town of P o r t Douglas. A t t h a t town were c o n s t r u c t e d wharves, warehouses, s t o r e s and the I n e v i t a b l e h o t e l s and s a l o o n s . Two y e a r s a f t e r i t s f o u n d i n g , the town had a permanent p o p u l a t i o n o f over t h r e e hundred, and a f l o a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f many times t h a t number i n the seasons when mi n e r s were moving t o and from t h e i r c l a i m s i n the Cariboo P a c k e r s , s t o r e k e e p e r s and hangers-on l i v e d i n t h e i r square l o g huts h u d d l e d a t the f o o t of the l o n g Douglas h i l l . Up t h a t s l o p e t o i l e d the m i n e r s , on f o o t , on horseback, o r , v e r y seldom, i n wagons. When the Welsh m i n e r s went th r o u g h on t h e i r way t o B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1863, so steep was the i n c l i n e and so heavy the l o a d s i n t h e i r wagons, t h a t the Welshmen had to l a b o r i n the t r a c e s ahead of the h o r s e s , and o n l y the com-b i n e d e f f o r t s o f men and b e a s t s brought t h e i r c a r t s t o the top of the h i l l . (41) A n o t h e r p a r t y which made the t r i p I n the same y e a r c o v e r e d o n l y e i g h t m i l e s i n the f i r s t day out of P o r t Douglas, "as the r o u t e was e x c e e d i n g l y steep and rugged,, and the heat o p p r e s s i v e . A t n i g h t f a l l we s l e p t I n s p i t e of the mosquitoes. Next day we stopped a t the Hot S p r i n g s where-we enjoye d a good meal of bacon and ;beans, and a good wash - t h i s l a s t the o n l y r e a l l y cheap comfort o b t a i n -a b l e i n B. C." (42) (41) D i a r y of John Evans - "The B. C M i n i n g Adventure,1862-64. (42) champness, W. - "To C a r i b o o and Back" i n "The L e i s u r e Hour" 1865, No. 693, page 219. ' . . . 43. Back i n Douglas the c i t i z e n s were wont t o blame govern-ment o f f i c i a l s i n V i c t o r i a o r New Westminster f o r many of the drawbacks of the r o a d oxxt of t h e i r town. A f i e r c e c i v i c p r i d e seems t o have burned i n the b r e a s t of a correspondent to the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n 1359 when he c l a i m s t h a t "the -town, i n my o p i n i o n i s d e s t i n e d e'er l o n g , t o rank w i t h Sacramento i n C a l i f o r n i a " , but a t the same time he censured a government which kept s i x t y - e i g h t men o c c u p i e d i n mainten-ance -of a r o a d w h i c h needed a t l e a s t t h r e e hundred. ( 4 3 ) . The correspondence columns of the C o l o n i s t d u r i n g the next two y e a r s echo the same c o m p l a i n t . f . A t the end o f the Douglas P o r t a g e on Tenass Lake was the most p r e t e n t i o u s o f the many r o a d houses, the famous "29 M i l e | House", and a t the o t h e r end o f L i l l o o e t Lake the town of . | . . - ' -! I P o r t Pemberton. I n the r i c h meadow l a n d above t h i s - t o w n ' s e t t l e r s a l r e a d y had t a k e n l a n d , and a t l e a s t two f a r m e r s , known t o the m i n e r s o n l y as. " S c o t t y " and " W a t t l e " were making huge p r o f i t s by the s a l e of t h e i r p o t a t o e s and veg-e t a b l e s t o the t r a v e l l e r s p a s s i n g through the town. From P o r t pemberton a c r o s s the "meadows" and a l o n g the B i r k e n h e a d E l v e r , the road r a n o v e r h i g h ground, =for the (43) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J u l y 27, 1859. t r a v e l l e r was now c r o s s i n g the Cascade Mountain d i v i d e . (44) S k i r t i n g Summit Lake, the way c o n t i n u e d t o the town of Anderson, g l o r i f i e d by name a p p a r e n t l y , o n l y by r e a s o n of i t s roadhouse and wharves. A t the e a s t e r n end o f t h e lake-was the town of Wapping, j o i n e d t o i t s " s i s t e r c i t y " , o f H u s h i n g on Lake J * •Seton, by c a r l Dozer's wooden tramway, From F l u s h i n g , t r a v e l was once more by w a t e r t o Seton, and from thence by r o a d a g a i n e a s t t o the F r a s e r . A t the end o f the road l a y the town of L i l l o o e t . I n the I ^ p e r i o d f r o m 1860 t o 1865, r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s town must have been o f a c o n v i v i a l n a t u r e , s i n c e i t s u p p o r t e d no fewer t h a n t h i r t e e n s a l o o n s and . t w e n t y - f i v e houses l i c e n c e d t o s e l l L i q u o r . I n 1860 s o l a c e f o r the s p i r i t u a l t h i r s t was p r o v i d e d i n S t . Mary's Church w h i c h was t h e n b u i l t * No b e t t e r i l l u s -t r a t i o n o f the c o s m o p o l i t a n n a t u r e o f L i l l o o e t ' s p o p u l a t i o n can he found t h a n i n the r e c o r d s o f t h a t c h u r c h . The f i r s t (44) The a c t u a l d i v i d e i s a t the w e s t e r n end of Summit Lake. Here t h e t r a v e l l e r c o u l d s t a n d on the shore o f the lake,.; whose w a t e r s d r a i n eastward..,into. Gates R i v e r , , and t h e n c e , by way o f Anderson and S e t o n Lakes i n t o the upper Fraser., and; l i t e r a l l y , throw a stone i n t o the w a t e r s of a s m a l l creek, f l o w i n g westward i n t o t h e B r i k e n h e a d R i v e r , thence i n t o the L i l l o o e t R i v e r , L i l l o o e t Lake and on,. I n t o t h e H a r r i s o n and l o w e r F r a s e r . Summit Lake, mentioned h e r e , i s known t o r e s i d e n t s o f the c o u n t r y around, and i s marked on some maps, as B i r k e n h e a d Lake.; Government maps, however, use B i r k e n h e a d as the name f o r the l a r g e l a k e some twenty m i l e s n o r t h , out o f w h i c h the B i r k e n h e a d R i v e r d r a i n s . To the s e t t l e r s t h i s l a k e '.was, and i s , B l a c k w a t e r Lake, b u t government maps use t h i s l a t t e r name f o r the s t i l l l a r g e r l a k e d r a i n e d by one o f the main branches of the B r i d g e R i v e r . ' E x i g e n c i e s o f time made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the w r i t e r t o c o n t i n u e t h i s s u b j e c t f u r t h e r , but the con-f u s i o n i s t y p i c a l o f many place-name d i f f i c u l t i e s - w h i c h the p r o v i n c e s t i l l h as, c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f w h i c h might.be most valuable.' 45.-p u b l i c ceremony performed, was the wedding o f a Mexican c o u p l e , immigrants from San S a l v a d o r , w h i l e a few weeks l a t e r b u r i a l s e r v i c e was re a d f o r the i n t e r m e n t of a negro. (45) S p o r a d i c m i n i n g a c t i v i t y i n the B r i d g e R i v e r a r e a kept L i l l o o e t i n the p u b l i c eye even though the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the new Caribo o r o a d some m i l e s e a s t o f the E r a s e r s h i f t e d the i m p o r t a n t t i t l e of " j u n c t i o n c i t y " t o C l i n t o n . Of the o t h e r towns which we have mentioned, l i t t l e o r no t r a c e r e -mains. A town of Pemberton s t i l l e x i s t s , some e i g h t m i l e s up the v a l l e y from i t s o r i g i n a l s i t e , but Anderson, Wapping, F l u s h i n g and Douglas have a l l d i s a p p e a r e d . W i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the F r a s e r Canyon highway, t r a f f i c ;began t o d i m i n i s h on t h e o l d e r r o a d . The merchants and h o t e l ikeepers a l o n g t h a t road n a t u r a l l y d i d what they c o u l d t o en-courage t r a v e l t h e i r way, to. m a g n i f y the h a r d s h i p s and d i f f i -c u l t i e s of t h e o t h e r highway and t o p r o d u n w i l l i n g government o f f i c i a l s i n t o a c t i o n t o keep t h e o l d road open. A l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r o f the New Westminster B r i t i s h Columbian i n March of 1864 c l a i m e d t h a t the p o r t Douglas merchants had f o u r hundred tons o f merchandise ready f o r shipment as.soon as the government would take a c t i o n t o open the r o a d , s t i l l c l o s e d by reason of the w i n t e r ' s s l i d e s and s n o w f a l l . (46) An e d i t o r i a l i n the same i s s u e p o i n t e d out "The D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t (45) Murray, M a r g a r e t L. - S t . Mary's of L i l l o o e t . A brochure p r e p a r e d f o r and p u b l i s h e d by the B r i d g e R i v e r -L i l l o o e t News, L i l l o o e t , B. C., 1935. ((46) B r i t i s h Columbian - March 16, 1864. The most complete f i l e o f i s s u e s i s i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. -. r o u t e may or may not be the b e s t r o a d t o C a r i b o o . . . .But, now .the roads are made, t h e r e can be h u t one. o p i n i o n as t o the .duty of the E x e c u t i v e i n k e e p i n g these roads I n r e a s o n a b l e s t a t e of r e p a i r " . (47) Perhaps i n - r e s p o n s e t o t h i s a g i t a t i o n , the new C h i e f -^f< Commissioner o f Lands and Works, C h a r t r e s Brew, (48) on March 22, 1864, concluded a c o n t r a c t w i t h W i l l i a m Robert G i b s o n of P o r t Douglas n t o r e s t o r e and r e p a i r " the por t a g e from Pem-; b e r t o n t o Anderson Lake a t a cost, o f £1200 * and a s i m i l a r c o n t r a c t w i t h R i c h a r d Bridgeman of New Westminster t o r e -,. open the road from Douglas t o Tenass Lake, a t a c o s t o f £1180. (49) ,. The e x p e n d i t u r e o f p u b l i c money on t h i s r o a d even by t h i s t i m e was p r o b a b l y n e i t h e r necessar3r n or w i s e , and thes e c o n t r a c t s Were the l a s t t o be con c l u d e d . •'. I n the summer of 1864, the proprietor'o£ P o r t . Douglas' ,(47) B r i t i s h Columbian - March" 16, 1864. v.:j" (48) The R o y a l E n g i n e e r s w e r e disbanded d u r i n g the summer o f 1863, and C o l o n e l : Moody l e f t the c o l o n y i n , October o f t h a t . y e a r . H i s s u c c e s s o r ' C h a r t r e s Brew, had a r r i v e d i n t h e c o l o n y a l o n g w i t h Judge B e g b i e , w i t h ah appointment a"s,inspector o f P o l i c e , , had t a k e n over the a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s of C h i e f Gold-Commissioner and now assumed s t i l l f u r t h e r ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Howay, E. Wi - "The R o y a l E n g i n e e r s i n B r i t i s J x . C o l u m b i a " , V i c t o r i a , . 1910.:, Page 10.. Howay, E. W...and S c h o l e f i e l d , I . 0. S. -" B r i t i s h Columbia, Erom the E a r l i e s t Times t o the P r e s e n t " . Pages 51, 64,' 184, 6.59. •' . (49) Department o f Lands and ?/orks, C o n t r a c t s and Agree- :• ments,.1864. Si g n e d c o p i e s o f t h e Department's c o n t r a c t s are i n the A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 4.7. " l e a d i n g h o s t e l r y " c l o s e d i t s doors and moved t o C l i n t o n . (50) F o l l o w i n g h i s l e a d , the owners of most o f the t h i r t e e n " m i l e -houses" w h i c h had e x i s t e d a l o n g the r o a d , moved to. more p r o f -i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s . McDonald's H o t e l a t P o r t Douglas was s t i l l a d v e r t i s i n g i n the Cariboo S e n t i n e l i n 1866, but the l a s t ad-v e r t i s e m e n t i s i n October of t h a t y e a r . The p r o s p e c t u s of a proposed company t o opera t e steam t r a c t i o n engines on B r i t i s h Columbia's r o a d s i n 1865, does not even mention the Douglas-L i l l o o e t highway. (51) On government maps of today, a t r a i l i s s t i l l i n d i c a t e d as f o l l o w i n g the o l d r o u t e , but i t s . d o t t e d r e d l i n e i s p i t i -f u l l y t h i n and u n i m p r e s s i v e compared w i t h the f i n e s c a r l e t -r i b b o n o f the C a r i b o o Highway t o the e a s t . W i t h the b u i l d i n g of t h a t new highway we come t o - a l e s s romantic but i n f i n i t e l y more i m p o r t a n t c h a p t e r i n the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia* s roads. • (50) Joe S m i t h , who moved t o C l i n t o n and bought Robert Watson's H o t e l . . He became b e s t known as the founder of the C l i n t o n B a l l , o f f e r i n g "bed, meal, h o r s e f e e d and dance - a l l f o r f i v e d o l l a r s a couple*." (51) P r o s p e c t u s . o f the B. Steam T r a c t i o n Engine Company January, 1865. Copy i n the A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 8 . CHAPTER IV. THE CANYON HIGHWAY." By- the autumn of 1859, the excitement o f the f i r s t r u s h to the F r a s e r was o v e r . Over the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t t r a i l t h a t y e a r , the number of miners r e t u r n i n g was almost as g r e a t as t h a t of the new a r r i v a l s moving up t o the f i e l d s . Hundreds of d i s -a p p o i n t e d men r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a and to San F r a n c i s c o once a g a i n , b i t t e r l y denouncing the " F r a s e r R i v e r Humbug". F o r i n the s p r i n g and summer .of the y e a r most of the bars of the r i v e r were under water and c o u l d not be worked; d i g g i n g s on the banks of o t h e r l e s s a c c e s s i b l e streams above the Fount-a i n s were p r o d u c i n g wages,, but l i t t l e e l s e , f o r the men work-in g t h e r e . The inadequacy o f the t r a i l from H a r r i s o n t o L i l l o o e t had, as we have a l r e a d y seen, c r e a t e d a s c a r c i t y of s u p p l i e s f o r men above, w h i l e those goods w h i c h were l a b o r ! - * o u s l y packed i n , were s e l l i n g a t p r o h i b i t i v e l y h i g h p r i c e s . F o r t u n a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h some c a p i t a l were a b l e t o work the "dry d i g g i n g s " i n the benches a l o n g the E r a s e r and Thompson R i v e r s , but t o most of the miners who s t r u g g l e d i n t o the Cariboo c o u n t r y , c a p i t a l was the t h i n g t h e y had come t o seek -very few had brought i t w i t h them. D r i v e n on by t h e i r f a i l u r e s however, some few hardy i n d i v i d u a l s , ever h o p e f u l of " s t r i k i n g i t r i c h f u r t h e r up", moved s t i l l deeper i n t o the w i l d i n t e r i o r . 49. Some went up the Thompson River., some up Cayoosh Creek, and some up B r i d g e R i v e r t o the s i t e of the p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n s . Best f o r t u n e , however, awai t e d those "who kept on up the F r a s e r i t s e l f t o i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h the Quesnel R i v e r , and up t h a t stream t o Cariboo.Lake. Here the bars p r o v e d r i c h e r than any y e t p r o s p e c t e d ; By the f a l l of 1859, at l e a s t a: thousand m i n e r s were i n the Quesnel a r e a , and by the summer of the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a t l e a s t t h r e e times t h a t number were d i g g i n g f o r g o l d . ( I ) . " I t was e a r l y i n 1860 t h a t the f i r s t of the famous Cariboo c r e e k s was d i s c o v e r e d by a p a r t y .headed by "Doc." K e i t h l e y . and George Weaver. K e i t h l e y Creek was but the f i r s t o f t h a t s e r i e s of streams.; which made the name of C a r i b o o , famous the w o r l d o v e r . These streams have t h e i r s o u r c e s i n the h i g h l a n d s o f B a l d M o u n t a i n o r Mount Agnes; some f l o w s o u t h i n t o C a r i b o o Lake, and thence i n t o the F r a s e r , o t h e r s n o r t h t o -j o i n the ...Willow o r Bowroh R i v e r s and so i n t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f a r t o the n o r t h . (2) A l l were r i c h i n coar s e g o l d . The s t r i k e a t K e i t h l e y Creek caused a minor r u s h t o the s p o t , but the number of c l a i m s w h i c h . c o u l d be s t a k e d was of cours e l i m i t e d . Some p a r t i e s pushed on over the d i v i d e , among them t h a t o f John Rose and Edwari: McDonald, who t h e n (1) Almost 30,000 had come, i n t o the F r a s e r i n the summer of 1858, and some were r e a p i n g r i c h rewards. I"on Snyder's Bar i n the % u e s n e l R i v e r , t h r e e men. washed §1000 i n coar s e g o l d i n one-day. ( M o r i c e , Rev. A. G. "The H i s t o r y o f • t h e N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia",.Toronto, 1904, page 291.,(See a l s o f i l e s o f the B r i t i s h . C o l o n i s t f o r t h a t period):.". ,':•„. • (2) See map on f o l l o v / i n g page. • . V- THE "•CARIBOO: DISTRICT. .Showing, the >creeks on which the g o l d s t r i k e s were made. 5 1 . / s t r u c k even r i c h e r r e t u r n s a l o n g A n t l e r Creek. A vexy h a r d w i n t e r ..made a c t u a l m i n i n g I m p o s s i b l e f o r a t i m e , but when . G o l d Commissioner Mind a r r i v e d a t A n t l e r Creek i n January of 1861, he found over f o u r hundred m i n e r s camped i n what he c a l l e d " h o l e s dug i n the snow", w a i t i n g t o work the c l a i m s which t h e y p l a n n e d toy s t a k e * . Rose and McDonald, he found, w e r e l i v i n g i n the s t y l e t o which they were e n t i t l e d , i n the o n l y c a b i n on the c r e e k . (3) That same w i n t e r , a p a r t y l e d by lied S t o u t and W i l l i a m D i e t z (the Dutch B i l l o f C a r i b o o i m m o r t a l i t y ) c r o s s e d Mount Agnes t o the n o r t h - w e s t e r n s l o p e o f the d i v i d e and descended upon W i l l i a m * s Creek, - the r i c h e s t and most famous of a l l . Dutch B i l l h i m s e l f made l i t t l e f rom h i s c l a i m , but o t h e r s , the S t e e l e , the S r i c s o n and the Cameron c l a i m s , became World famous. (4) Nearby cre e k s such as the L i g h t n i n g and the Lowhee, proved o n l y a l i t t l e l e s s v a l u a b l e . Once a g a i n the c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a found the " C a r i b o o f e v e r " r a g i n g f i e r c e l y i n t h e i r m i d s t . A Government S t r e e t j e w e l l e r d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i n h i s window r e a d i n g " S e l l i n g o f f a t c o s t ' H u r r a h f o r the Cariboo'.". Once a g a i n steamers runn-i n g from V i c t o r i a t o t h e E r a s e r found t h e i r accommodation (3) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . March 24, 1861. (4) The E r i c s o n c l a i m was r e p o r t e d t o have y i e l d e d §53,000 i n s i x days; the D i l l e r c l a i m on W i l l i a m * s Creek p a i d §10,000 each week i n 1862, and " C a r i b o o " Cameron's c l a i m produced i n the p e r i o d between November,1862 and,June 1863, • the sum of §384,000. These f i g u r e s are r e p o r t e d i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i s s u e s i n 1862 and 1863. 52. t a x e d t o the utmost; once a g a i n a V i c t o r i a newspaper found i t n e c e s s a r y t o engage a s p e c i a l c orrespondent t o r e p o r t the news d i r e c t from the f i e l d s . (5) "There can be no m i s t a k e t h i s t i m e ! " d e c l a r e d an e d i t o r i a l i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t f o r F e b r u a r y 26, 1861. M i n e r s who had t a k e n p a r t i n the r u s h of 1858 found an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g them when they r e t u r n e d [ to the new s t r i k e s i n 1861 and 1862. They had a much l o n g e r ; and a'much h a r d e r road t o t r a v e l ; t h e y found a t i t s end i c l a i m s w h i c h i n most cases had t o be worked a t c o n s i d e r a b l e depth, thus n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f much time and the investment of much c a p i t a l b e f o r e the p r e c i o u s dust c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . T h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s were i n c r e a s e d because of the f a c t t h a t they were f o r c e d e i t h e r t o pack t h e i r own s u p p l i e s i n , or t o pay p a c k e r s heavy charges t o do the job f o r them. I n 1862 the u n f o r t u n a t e miner a t W i l l i a m ' s cree|^ had to pay $5 p e r pound f o r c a n d l e s , and §1.50 p e r box f o r matches. B u t t e r s o l d f o r §5 and f l o u r f o r §2 per pound. When t h e y were a v a i l a b l e a t a l l , p o t a t o e s brought $115 f o r a 100 pound l o t . These p r i c e s i n no way r e p r e s e n t e d an e x o r -(5) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ' g F e b r u a r y 26, 1861. The s p e c i a l c orrespondent d i d a good j o b . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the scene a t A n t l e r Creek when the c l a i m s were s t a k e d i s most i n t e r e s t i n g . The m i n e r s a p p a r e n t l y agreed amongst them-s e l v e s not t o stake- c l a i m s b e f o r e a p r e - a r r a n g e d d a t e . E a r l y on t h a t s p r i n g day, he t e l l s h i s r e a d e r s , the miners g a t h e r e d ; t h e n the c r y went up, " I s .evarybody h e r e ? . . . .There's the c r e e k , boys'. S t a r t . . f a i r ! " b i t a n t . p r o f i t f o r the packer o r the merchant; t h e y si r a p l y r e s u l t e d from the d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h l a y i n . t h e p a t h of any commercial t r a f f i c . We have a l r e a d y spoken of the i n a d e q u a c i e s of the o n l y e x i s t i n g wagon r o a d , o f the co n s t a n t h a n d l i n g of goods n e c e s s i t a t e d by i t s p a c u l i a r n a t u r e , and o f the f a c t t h a t the r o a d r a n o n l y as f a r as L i l l o o e t , a p o i n t r o u g h l y o n e - t h i r d o f the way t o the new f i e l d . To make the l o t of the Car i b o o miner even more d i f f i c u l t , d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1861-62, the most severe w i n t e r r e c o r d e d i n the co l o n y ' s h i s t o r y , (6) the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t r o a d was c l o s e d f o r almost f o u r months by snow and l a n d s l i d e s . A more p r a c t i c a l and more permanent road t o the Ca r i b o o was an e s s e n t i a l , and i t became the duty of the government t o p r o v i d e t h a t r o a d . The d i r e c t r o u t e through- the F r a s e r Canyon had been a v o i d e d i n 1858 because i t s n a t u r e was such t h a t t o c o n s t r u c t a r o a d t h r o u g h i t . would have t a k e n more time t h a n c o u l d be sp a r e d , and would have r e q u i r e d the e x p e n d i t u r e of much g r e a t e r sums th a n the governor had a t h i s d i s p o s a l i n 1858. 'With the r i c h n e s s and permanence o f t*he C a r i b o o mines a s s u r e d , such e x p e n d i t u r e s c o u l d how be c o n s i d e r e d . I t must not be assumed t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the D o u g l a s - H a r r i s o n t r a i l i n 1858 had r e s u l t e d i n r o u t i n g a l l t r a f f i c away from the Y a l e - L y t t o n t r a i l w h i c h had a t f i r s t been used. Some p a c k e r s c o n t i n u e d t o take i n s u p p l i e s by the \ (6) The P i o n e e r and Democrat i n i t s i s s u e of F e b r u a r y 8.th, 1862, p r i n t s the almost i n c r e d i b l e r e p o r t t h a t the F r a s e r Canyon i t s e l f was f r o z e n except f o r a s m a l l stream i n the c e n t r e of the r i v e r - b e d . 54. / l a t t e r r o u t e t o the miners on the b a r s between the canyon' and L y t t o n , p r e f e r r i n g t h a t much more d i f f i c u l t t r i p t o the l o n g roundabout journey up t o . L i l l o o e t from H a r r i s o n and back down the F r a s e r t o L y t t o n . Nor must i t be assumed t h a t the government had c o m p l e t e l y l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g a wagon road t h r o u g h the canyon. A t Governor Douglas' r e q u e s t , C h i e f J u s t i c e Mathew B a i l l i e Begbie made a t r i p up the F r a s e r canyon t r a i l , i n 1859; h i s r e p o r t to Douglas p r o b a b l y merely c o n f i r m e d t h e governor i n the o p i n i o n t h a t i t was " e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l whether i t would be w o r t h -w h i l e a t p r e s e n t t o engage i n any improvements on t h i s p a r t of the l i n e . . " (7) The t r a i l w h i c h had been cut from Y a l e to L y t t o n , (8) r u n n i n g a l o n g the e a s t bank of the stream, was a p p a r e n t l y the o n l y f a c i l i t y w h i c h the government a t t h e moment i n t e n d e d to s u p p l y . A mass meeting o f miners a t Y a l e on January 20, 1859, (9) passed r e s o l u t i o n ' s c a l l i n g f o r the w i d e n i n g of the e x i s t i n g t r a i l and f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b r i d g e a c r o s s Anderson Creek,' n e a r Boston B a r , and p r e s e n t e d a memorial o f t h e i r demands t o Governor Douglas. Perhaps i n answer t o these demands, a p a r t y under Sergeant M c C o l l o f the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s made some improvements d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g summer, but p a c k e r s i n 1861 were s t i l l h a u l i n g s u p p l i e s by boat and tow-(7) Begbie t o Douglas, A p r i l 25, 1859. Report i n J o u r n a l of R o y a l Geographic ..Society, c i t e d above, pages 37 and 38. (8) T h i s t r a i l - w a s ' completed on September 10, 1858, a c c o r d i n g t o C a p t a i n Snyder i n a l e t t e r t o the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , September 13, 1858. (9) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , January 27, 1859. l i n e up the canyon, r a t h e r t h a n f a c e the t r a i l on the c l i f f s above. (10) The g o l d s t r i k e s . I n the C a r i b o o a p p a r e n t l y changed the [ a t t i t u d e of the. government towards the scheme f o r c o n s t r u c t -i n g a r o a d through the canyon. As miners poured i n t o the upper c o u n t r y t o the new d i g g i n g s a t W i l l i a m ' s c r e e k , or A n t l e r c r e e k , the problem o f t h e i r s u p p l y became a p r e s s i n g j one, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t r o a d was closed; 1 d u r i n g the w i n t e r . Once a g a i n an emergency f a c e d the govern-'; Bient a t V i c t o r i a - once a g a i n t h a t government took immediate s t e p s t o meet the emergency. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r Governor Douglas, the f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g -ency which had h i n d e r e d h i s r o a d schemes of 1858, had been r e l i e v e d to a g r e a t e x t e n t by 1861. The f i s c a l y e a r of 1860 had shown a s u r p l u s o f some $30,000 as compared t o a d e f i c i t o f some §11,000 f o r t h e . p r e v i o u s y e a r . (11) I n c r e a s e d revenues (10) R. Byron Johnson worked f o r a f i r m of p a c k e r s engaged i n h a u l i n g s u p p l i e s by t h i s method, and r e c o r d e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n h i s bood "Very F a r West Indeed", London, 1873. He t e l l s how the boats were ha u l e d f rom p o i n t t o p o i n t by t o w l i n e s . H i s p a r t y took t w e l v e days t o make the h a u l from Y a l e t o L y t t o n . On the r e t u r n t r i p , s h o o t i n g the r a p i d s i n a l l but the worst p l a c e s , the p a r t y took o n l y n i n e fours'. (11) Palmer, P. F. " F i s c a l H i s t o r y o f . B r i t i s h Columbia i n ' t h e C o l o n i a l P e r i o d " . Ph.D. T h e s i s f o r S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . Typed copy i n A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i e f l y , the f i n a n c i a l statement of 1859 showed a t o t a l revenue of §229,499, w i t h the c i v i l c o s t s o f the government s e t a t §241,211-. I n a d d i t i o n , d r a f t s on the Crown were made, t o t -a l l i n g §191,488 f o r the m i l i t a r y expenses of the c o l o n y ( s a l a r -i e s and expenses f o r the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s were the l a r g e s t i t e m s ) . I n 1860, t o t a l revenue was §260,545 and the c o s t s of the government amounted t o §229,733. I n a d d i t i o n , the d r a f t s on the Grown f o r m i l i t a r y expenses i n 1860 had been reduced t o §119,393.. from customs d u t i e s had brought about t h i s happy s t a t e of a f f a i r s , and t h e r e was every r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h the heavy i n f l u x of men and s u p p l i e s i n 1861, t h a t the f i n -a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h a t y e a r might be even b e t t e r . W i t h t h i s assurance b e h i n d him, the governor a l r e a d y , even b e f o r e the most s t a r t l i n g news had come from the Cariboo mine, had made h i s f i r s t moves. I n June of 1860, F r a n k l i n Way and Joseph Beedy had begun the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n e w - t r a i l from T a l e t o Spuzzum, a t a c o s t of £4300, w h i l e i n August a c o n t r a c t was made w i t h Mess'rs Powers and McRoberts f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p r a c t i c a b l e mule t r a i l f rom spuzzum t o Boston Bar. But t r a i l s , no m a t t e r how w e l l -c o n s t r u c t e d , would not meet the demands of the heavy t r a f f i c w h i c h , the news from t h e C a r i b o o would suggest, might occur d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . P r o b a b l y no one r e a l i z e d t h i s f a c t more c l e a r l y than the g o v e r n o r h i m s e l f . A t any r a t e , on August 10 of 1860, the governor p r e s e n t e d the Spuzzum Road Bonds A c t , t o a u t h o r i z e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a wagon ro a d through the canyon.. C ont r a c t o r s'who undertook a l l or any p a r t of the work were t o be p a i d i n 6ff0 bonds m a t u r i n g s e r i a l l y - and the payment o f those bonds was t o be i n s u r e d by the payment of road t o l l s l a t e r f i x e d by the Road T o l l s P r o c l a m a t i o n o f November 10, 1860. F u r t h e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the p u b l i c works program f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the government had already'made arrangements f o r the f l o a t i n g of an i n i t i a l l o a n o f £25,000 t o be used f o r the 57. p u b l i c works program (IS) These v a r i o u s a c t i o n s p r o v i d e d the a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r Douglas' l a t e r s t e p s , but o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the sums which would be r e q u i r e d f o r the new program of p u b l i c works. I n March of the f o l l o w i n g y e a r the governor appealed t o the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o r the a u t h o r i t y t o o f f e r t o the p u b l i c •? another l o a n of £50,000. (13) When t h i s was g r a n t e d , he appealed f o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n of a f u r t h e r l o a n o f £15,000 t o £20,000. (14) Without w a i t i n g f o r t h i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n , the governor on November 14, 1861, p r e s e n t e d the B r i t i s h Columbia Roads Loan A c t t o h i s l e g i s l a t u r e , p r o v i d i n g f o r a l o a n of £100,000. On the f o l l o w i n g day he appealed t o the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o do t h i s . (15) S u b s c r i p t i o n s t o the v a r i o u s l o a n s were f i n a l l y l e g a l i z e d , a f t e r some debate w i t h the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , by the B r i t i s h Columbia Loan A c t of August 12, 1862, by wh i c h A c t the, maximum o f the l o a n s was; s e t a t the o r i g i n a l £50,000. (16) By the time t h e funds f o r t h e government's p u b l i c works program had been l e g a l l y s e c u r e d , much" of these sums had (12) The p u b l i c announcement of t h i s l o a n i s reproduced i n f u l l i n Appendix C, as i t appeared i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t of J u l y 21, 1860. (13) Douglas t o N e w c a s t l e , Despatches t o London, March 1,1861. (14) Douglas t o N e w c a s t l e , Despatches t o London, Oct. 24,1861. (15) Douglas t o N e w c a s t l e , Despatches t o London, Nov, 15,1861. One.can d e t e c t some j u s t i f i a b l e e x a s p e r a t i o n i n the r e p l y from the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y f o r b i d d i n g f u r t h e r a c t i o n on t h i s bond i s s u e f o r t h e l a r g e r amount. (Newcastle t o Douglas, B r i t i s h Columbia P a p e r s , March 1, 1862). (16) Palmer, P. F. - op c i t - page 120. 58. a l r e a d y been expended. The v e r y severe w i n t e r of 1861-1862 had e f f e c t i v e l y stopped any road c o n s t r u c t i o n , but e a r l y i n \ the s p r i n g o f 1862, c o n t r a c t s were l e t f o r the most a m b i t i o u s ; u n d e r t a k i n g of the new c o l o n y - the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the wagon road from Y a l e up through the canyon t o the C a r i b o o g o l d ' f i e l d s . Gn A p r i l 3, 1862 the f i r s t c o n t r a c t was l e t - t o ! iphomas Spence, (17) f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a wagon r o a d , | e i g h t e e n f e e t i n w i d t h , t o r u n from Boston Bar t o L y t t o n . / T o t a l c o s t as agreed i n the c o n t r a c t , was £17,600. (18) On October 28 of the same y e a r the r o a d was completed, Spence se c u r e d a cash s e t t l e m e n t of h i s bonds and t\m C h i e f Commiss-i o n e r o f Lands and Works e n t e r e d i n t o a new agreement w i t h George L a n d v o i g h t f o r the maintenance and r e p a i r of the road.(19) (17) Thomas Spence and Joseph T r u t c h were a c t u a l l y i n p a r t -n e r s h i p , though the c o n t r a c t s were g r a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . Spence a l s o s e c u r e d , i n F e b r u a r y of 1864, a c o n t r a c t f o r the b u i l d i n g of a b r i d g e a c r o s s the Thompson R i v e r a t t h e p o i n t known as Cook's F e r r y , but now as Spence's B r i d g e . S p r i n g f r e s h e t s caused u n l o o k e d - f o r d e l a y s , but Spence was a b l e t o s e c u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n h i s t o l l c h a r t e r t o compensate him f o r h i s added expenses. (Not many c o n t r a c t o r s r e c e i v e d such generous t r e a t m e n t ) . Department of'• Lands and ?forks ~ C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1864. (18) The o r i g i n a l c o n t r a c t , C o l o n e l Moody's copy, and a copy of i t s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are b o t h i n Lands and'Works Department, Agreements and C o n t r a c t s 1862. A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l c o n t r a c t s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e o b t a i n a b l e i n these f i l e s . (19) Thomas Spence t o C o l o n e l Moody, R. 3., October 24, 1862. 'Agreement between C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works and George L a n d v o i g h t , October 28, 1862. . Copies o f b o t h i n Lands and Works Department,'" C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1862. 59. W h i l e t h i s s e c t i o n of the road was be'ipg completed, the much more d i f f i c u l t t a s k of b u i l d i n g the road from Y a l e t o Boston Bar was a l s o begun. A p a r t y of R o y a l E n g i n e e r s under C a p t a i n Parsons, and Sergeant M c C o l l began the work of survey-i n g t h a t r o a d , and by e a r l y summer, road gangs under the d i r e c t i o n o f these men were busy a t the Y a l e end of the r o u t e , f u r t h e r t o e x p e d i t e i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , a c o n t r a c t f o r the con-s t r u c t i o n o f the n o r t h e r n end, from Chapman's Bar tB Boston Bar, had a l r e a d y been s i g n e d between the C o l o n e l Moody and Joseph W i l l i a m T r u t c h . I n t h i s agreement the government of the c o l o n y agreed t o advance a t o t a l o f £15,000, and T r u t c h t o i n v e s t £9000. I n r e t u r n , the l a t t e r s ecured a c h a r t e r f o r f i v e years e n t i t l i n g him t o the c o l l e c t i o n of t o l l s f o r the use of the r o a d . (20) L a t e i n the y e a r , i n an e f f o r t t o connect the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d by these c o n t r a c t o r s , w i t h t h a t p a r t of the ro a d w h i c h the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s were b u i l d i n g from Y a l e , the Department of LandB' and Works s i g n e d the l a s t i n t h i s * s e r i e s of c o n t r a c t s , when Joseph T r u t c h and Thomas Spence agreed t o b u i l d the ro a d f rom P i k e ' s R i f f l e ( a c r o s s the r i v e r from Spuzzum and j u s t below the e a s t e r n approach t o the p r e -ent S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e ) t o Chapman's B a r , a t a t o t a l c o s t o f (20) T o l l charges were t o be 1 f a r t h i h g p e r pound of merch-andise and 1 s h i l l i n g f o r each a n i m a l (even I n c l u d i n g g o a t s ) . The o r i g i n a l c o n t r a c t and two a t t e s t e d c o p i e s a re i n the A r c h i v e s .of B r i t i s h Columbia i n Department of Lands and Works -Contracts' and Agreements - 1862.. T r u t c h a l r e a d y had had some exp e r i e n c e ( p r o f i t a b l e e x p e r i e n c e , . t o o , ) i n r o a d - b u i l d i n g under government c o n t r a c t . See above page 36. 60. r £9,400, payable i n 6fo bonds i n f i v e i n s t a l l m e n t s . (21) By the b e g i n n i n g of the f o l l o w i n g y e a r these c o n t r a c t s were p r a c t i c a l l y a l l completed. When C a p t a i n Grant i n s p e c t e d the work which had been done he found t h a t the r o a d from Y a l e t o Spuzzum was completed and i n good shape, t h a t a c r o s s the the r o a d r i v e r f v t o chapman's Bar was s t i l l not completed, s i n c e the con-t r a c t o r s had had to'suspend work i n November because of the c o l d , t h a t some s e c t i o n s of the road from Chapman's Bar t o Boston. Bar had not been completed, f o r the same r e a s o n , and t h a t the Boston Bar to. L y t t o n road was completed, and i n f i n e shape. (22) I n o t h e r words, a wagon road was now v i r -t u a l l y completed, r u n n i n g f rom Y a l e t o Spuzzum on the west bank of the canyon, and from a p o i n t almost o p p o s i t e on the e a s t bank, up t h e r i v e r as f a r as L y t t o n . There remained now t h e i m p o r t a n t t a s k o f l i n k i n g t h e two s e c t i o n s . T h i s p r o j e c t , the e r e c t i o n o f the famous Spuzzum sus- '> p e n s i o n b r i d g e , was a s s i g n e d t o Joseph T r u t c h and h i s a s s o c -i a t e s . On F e b r u a r y 2, 1863, t h a t c o n t r a c t o r agreed t o b u i l d the r e q u i r e d b r i d g e i n r e t u r n f o r a - f i v e y e a r c h a r t e r of t o l l (21) These i n s t a l l m e n t s were t o be p a i d as the road p r o -g r e s s e d . C o l o n e l Moody's and a t t e s t e d c o p i e s i n Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1362. T h i s c l a u s e or one v e r y s i m i l a r appears i n most of the c o n t r a c t s c i t e d . (22) C a p t a i n G r a n t , fi. S. t o C o l o n e l Moody - December 31, 1862. The r e p o r t i s i n c l u d e d i n Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1862. 61. p r i v i l e g e s . (23) Two days l a t e r T r u t c h secured a cash s e t t l e -ment of£2000 f o r h i s work on the uncompleted road from Chap-man' s ' t o Boston B a r , so t h a t he might devote h i s f u l l r e s o u r -ces t o h i s new c o n t r a c t . (24) Had the' Lands and Works Department done n o t h i n g e l s e i n 1862, i t would s t i l l have a c c o m p l i s h e d a g r e a t d e a l . To con-s t r u c t , o r r a t h e r , t o arrange and s u p e r v i s e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s wagon road from Y a l e t o L y t t o n , was i n I t s e l f a huge u n d e r t a k i n g . But the s t o r y of the r o a d - b u i l d i n g program of ! • • I i 1862 I s by no means y e t complete,. From L y t t o n a t the end of ! the canyon r o a d , or f rom L i l l o o e t a t the end o f the Douglas Road, t h e r e s t i l l would s t r e t c h l o n g m i l e s to the Cariboo • i t s e l f . Hence, even w h i l e the t a s k o f b l a s t i n g a r o a d through the r o c k s o f the canyon was g o i n g on, o t h e r c o n t r a c t o r s were \ w o r k i n g t o j o i n L y t t o n and L i l l o o e t t o each o t h e r and t o the s, g o l d f i e l d s above. . ; On March 24, 1862, the f i r s t of these c o n t r a c t s was con- 1' eluded between the Lands and Works Department, and Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t . -By the terms of t h i s c o n t r a c t Wright a g r e e d t o c o n s t r u c t a wagon ro a d from a p o i n t a c r o s s the r i v e r from (23) Department of Lands and 'Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements 1863. T r u t c h ' s c h a r t e r gave him the r i g h t t o c o l l e c t t o l l s a t the r a t e of o n e - t h i r d of a h a l f p e n n y p e r pound on merchand-i s e , and one s h i l l i n g p e r head on a l l . a n i m a l s p a s s i n g over o r underneath t h e b r i d g e . C o n t r a c t dated F e b r u a r y 4, 1863. (24) Joseph T r u t c h t o Henry P. Crease, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , February 4, 1863. Department of A t t o r n e y ^ G e n e r a l - C o r r e s -pondence January - A p r i l , 1863. Moody t o I I A. G. Young, C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia - March 12, 1865. Department of Lands and Works -Correspondence 1863. L i l l o o e t , a l o n g the east bank of the F r a s e r t o A l e x a n d r i a . (25) Government advances f o r the work were t o be made on a b a s i s of £60 p e r m i l e f o r the f i r s t f i f t y m i l e s and i l 2 0 p e r m i l e t h e r e -a f t e r . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of the r o a d , Wright was t o have a \ c h a r t e r f o r f i v e y e a r s e n t i t l i n g him t o the c o l l e c t i o n of t o l l s at the r a t e o f a h a l f - p e n n y p e r pound on a l l f r e i g h t and f o u r s h i l l i n g s per head on a l l c a t t l e moving on the r o a d . The government r e t a i n e d the r i g h t t o a p p o i n t a T o l l C o l l e c t o r and to deduct from these t o l l s sums s u f f i c i e n t t o repay the cash advances made as s p e c i f i e d above, and l i k e w i s e r e t a i n e d the r i g h t t o repurchase t h i s c h a r t e r w i t h i n the f i r s t e i g h t e e n months a f t e r t h e road had been completed, a t a p r i c e t o be f i x e d by an a r b i t r a t o r a g r e e a b l e t o bo t h p a r t i e s . I n t o t h i s c o n t r a c t t h e r e was w r i t t e n a c l a u s e which p r o -v i d e d t h a t i n the event t h a t the r o a d s h o u l d j o i n w i t h another b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d a t the same t i m e , from L y t t o n northward by way o f the Thompson and Buonaparte R i v e r s , t h a t e i t h e r W r i g h t or the f i r m vrtiich had u n d e r t a k e n t h i s c o n t r a c t s h o u l d have freedom of use o f any s e c t i o n o f ro a d a l r e a d y b u i l t , upon payment o f o n e - h a l f the c o s t o f b u i l d i n g , and o n e r h a l f the c u r r e n t c o s t o f upkeep. (25) Three a t t e s t e d c o p i e s of the agreement a r e i n the Department o f Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1862. Th i s c o n t r a c t i s reproduced i n f u l l i n App e n d i x A. M o d i f i c -a t i o n s of t h i s c o n t r a c t as found n e c e s s a r y were made on J u l y 23, 1862 and on August 16, 1862. Copies of these m o d i f i e d c o n t r a c t s a re a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n Department of Lands and Works -Co n t r a c t s and Agreements 1862. 63. / Through the summer and f a l l of 1862, work progressed; j r a p i d l y on t h i s r o a d . However, because of u n f o r e s e e n I d i f f i c u l t i e s , Wright was f o r c e d t o a p p l y f o r f u r t h e r govern-mental a s s i s t a n c e , and as a r e s u l t a f u r t h e r advance of £5000 was made t o him on January 5 of 1863. (26) W i t h t h i s a s s i s t -ance, the c o n t r a c t o r was a b l e t o p r e s s f o r w a r d w i t h the work and November of 1863 saw i t s c o m p l e t i o n . (27) The work of e f f e c t i n g a j u n c t i o n between the L i l l o o e t -A l e x a h d r i a road and the town of L y t t o n was a t f i r s t e n t r u s t e d to the f i r m o f C h a r l e s Oppenheimer, Thomas Lewis and W a l t e r 1 Moberley. These men, by a c o n t r a c t dated A p r i l 2, 1862, agreed to b u i l d a wagon r o a d , e i g h t e e n f e e t i n w i d t h from L y t t o n a l o n g the Thompson R i v e r and up the Buonaparte V a l l e y , t o j o i n the L i l l o o e t - A l e x a n d r i a r o a d . They, l i k e Wright were t o r e c e i v e government advances f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and were g r a n t e d a c h a r t e r f o r f i v e y e a r s e n t i t l i n g .them t o a t o l l of a h a l f - p e n n y per pound of f r e i g h t and one s h i l l i n g p e r head on a l l c a t t l e w h i c h t r a v e r s e the. r o a d . (28). (26) C o l o n e l .Moody to W. A. G. Young, Jan. 13, 1863. Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence - 1863. (27) Douglas t o Newcastle - B r i t i s h Columbia Papers,Nov.14,1863 (28) Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements; 1862. W r i g h t ' s c h a r t e r . g a v e him the r i g h t t o charge., a t o l l of 4 s h i l l i n g s p e r head but h i s cash g r a n t s "were much l o w e r . The c o n t r a c t o r s i n the l a t t e r agreement were t o r e c e i v e a g r a n t of £533 per m i l e f o r the f i r s t twenty-one m i l e s , and £22,000 f o r the t o t a l r e m a i n d e r . The W a l t e r Moberley of t h i s c o n t r a c t was e l e c t e d t o member s h i p i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n September 1864, r e s i g n e d h i s seat t o become A s s i s t a n t S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l , i n which c o n n e c t i o n he was one of the e a r l i e s t advocates of r a i l r o a d and c o n s t r -u c t i o n . 64./ The p a r t n e r s i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g were a p p a r e n t l y l e s s f o r t u n a t e than G. B. Wright.- Lewis withdrew from the p a r t n e r -s h i p , and Oppenheimer and Moberley, a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g some f o r t y - f i v e m i l e s of the road were f o r c e d t o suspend o p e r a t i o n s because of la-ck of funds or c r e d i t . The government took over a l l m a t e r i a l s and W a l t e r Moberley h i m s e l f was p l a c e d i n charge of c o n t i n u i n g the work on t h i s new b a s i s . The d i f f i c u l t y o f s e c u r i n g men t o p e r f o r m the p r o s a i c t a s k of r o a d - b u i l d i n g , t h e . r e s u l t a n t h i g h l a b o r ' c o s t s , (29) and the expense of s u p p l y i n g crews,combined t o make the c o n t r a c t o r s * t a s k even more d i f f i c u l t , w h i l e the i n c r e a s i n g c o s t of c i v i l a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n caused the government o f f i c i a l s i n V i c t o r i a o r Hew Westminster t o be v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o make any f u r t h e r cash advances. (30) However, the Roads T o l l s E x t e n s i o n A c t of F e b r u a r y 24, 1 8 6 3 . i n c r e a s e d the t o l l on goods l e a v i n g L i l l o o e t o r L y t t o n by one f a r t h i n g per pound of merchandise. W i t h the p r o s p e c t o f i n c r e a s e d revenue i n s i g h t , W i l l i a m Hood agreed to' complete the t a s k which M o b e r l e y and^Oppenheimer had under-t a k e n , and a - c o n t r a c t was s i g n e d w i t h him on A p r i l 17, 1863.(31) (29) A d v e r t i s e m e n t s appeared I n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t d u r i n g A p r i l o r May o f f e r i n g work to 1000 men. F a i l u r e t o v r e c r u i t even h a l f t h a t number caused the f i r m t o e n t e r i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h Ho Hang and Ah Yep t o s u p p l y Chinese L a b o r e r s . A copy of t h i s agreement i s i n Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1862. I t i s dated June 23, 1862. (30) I n f a c t , the p o l i c y o f b o t h Moody and Douglas was t o get the.roads b u i l t w i t h as l i t t l e o u t l a y of cash as was p o s s i b l e . (31) Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1863. See a l s o page- 76 below... 65. By t h i s means the L y t t o n road was completed to C l i n t o n , f o r /' S>Ji J u n c t i o n C i t y , and was i n c o n s t a n t use by the summer of t h a t y e a r . For h i s work i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , Hood r e c e i v e d the sum o f £12,500 p a i d i n 6% bonds. By the w i n t e r o f 1863 Governor Douglas' road scheme had so f a r p r o g r e s s e d t h a t t h e r e were now two roads to the i n t e r i o r . To supplement the D o u g l a s - L i l l . o o e t - r o a d , now b e i n g used l e s s and l e s s as time went on, t h e r e was a f i n e wagon ro a d extend-i n g from Y a l e a t the head of steamboat n a v i g a t i o n , t h r o u g h Spuzzum and a c r o s s the r i v e r , t h r o u g h Boston B a r , Lytton., Cook's F e r r y and on/o C l i n t o n . There the two roads j o i n e d , t o f o l l o w the r i v e r once more as f a r as A l e x a n d r i a . The scheme was, however, not y e t complete. From A l e x a n d r i a , steamboat t r a v e l was once more p o s s i b l e on the r i v e r , as f a r n o r t h as the mouth of the Quesnel R i v e r ; i n f a c t a steamer was oper-a t i n g even b e f o r e the road was completed t o A l e x a n d r i a . (52) The miner who thus reached the town of Quesnel, now had o n l y a d i s t a n c e of some s i x t y m i l e s between h i m s e l f and the town 0 f R i c h f i e l d i n the c e n t r e o f the d i g g i n g s . B u t , as one of the miners has s a i d , "OhI those s i x t y m i l e s I " The o n l y e x i s t i n g t r a i l , he s a i d , r a n t h rough "a sea of mud, w i t h a bottom composed of r o o t s of t r e e s " . T h i s same t r a v e l l e r r e -(32) The boat s e r v i c e a c t u a l l y began a t Soda Creek, about twenty-one m i l e s s o u t h of A l e x a n d r i a , a n d . C o l o n e l Moody p r o -posed a t one time t h a t G. B. Wright s h o u l d complete h i s road o n l y t h a t f a r , t h e n b u i l d twenty-one m i l e s o f r o a d from Quesnel down towards Van W i n k l e i n the C a r i b o o . ( C o l o n e l Moody t o W. A. G. Young, March 13, 1863. Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1863). 66. y l a t e s t h a t he spent s i x t e e n days i n c o v e r i n g the s i x t y m i l e s to W i l l i a m s Creek. (33) O b v i o u s l y here was the next t a s k f o r the Department of Lands and Works. I n January of 1863 the department had i s s u e d a p u b l i c | n o t i c e c a l l i n g f o r t e n d e r s on the two p r o j e c t s not y e t arranged; the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a wagon ro a d from A l e x a n d r i a t o the mouth of the CJuesnel R i v e r and thence up t h a t r i v e r t o the town of\ Tan W i n k l e , and the b u i l d i n g of a b r i d l e t r a i l from t h a t town to R i c h f i e l d . (34) On the f i r s t of these jobs no o f f i c i a l | t e n d e r s were r e c e i v e d , a l t h o u g h Major W i l l i a m Downie (35) p e r s o n a l l y o f f e r e d t o b u i l d the t r a i l f o r $25,000,a sum which C o l o n e l Moody c o n s i d e r e d much too h i g h . On the second of the p r o j e c t s , o n l y one t e n d e r was r e c e i v e d , t h a t o f Edward J . Campbell who s p e c i f i e d , however t h a t he wanted a f l a t payment of some $47,000 w i t h no c h a r t e r o r t o l l p r i v i l e g e s to be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s t e n d e r the department c o u l d not c o n s i d e r . ( 3 6 ) (33) Johnson, R. Byron - op.'cit. - page 10g' f f . (34) Copy o f p u b l i c n o t i c e , dated January 22, 1863. Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1863. (35) T h i s i s the same Major Downie who had performed v a l u -a b l e s e r v i c e f o r the government i n 1859 i n e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h the view t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a d i r e c t road between the coast and F r a s e r R i v e r . Downie 5s e x p e r i e n c e s i n C a l i f o r n i a b e f o r e coming to B r i t ! o h Columbia are t o l d i n most i n t e r e s t i n g f a s h i o n i n h i s "Hunting f o r G o l d " p u b l i s h e d a t San F r a n c i s c o i n 1893. (36) C o l o n e l Moody t o W. A. G. Young, March 13, 1863. D e p a r t -ment of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1863. 67. I n the absence of anyone w i l l i n g t o undertake the t a s k of c o n n e c t i n g the Cariboo mines w i t h the road now b e i n g completed t o A l e x a n d r i a , C o l o n e l Moody proposed t o employ h i s own R o y a l E n g i n e e r s on t h a t work,, e s t i m a t i n g t h a t t h e y c o u l d do about h a l f the n e c e s s a r y work at an e s t i m a t e d expense of about $23,000 and t h a t c i v i l i a n l a b o r under R o y a l E n g i n e e r d i r e c t i o n c o u l d complete the o t h e r h a l f f o r abotit f33,000. (37) Governor Douglas however, vetoed t h i s p r o p o s a l (38) and e v e n t u a l l y the d e c i s i o n was made t o b u i l d under \ R o y a l E n g i n e e r s u p e r v i s i o n , the whole of the wagon road fromj A l e x a n d r i a t hrough Quesnel and Van W i n k l e down to R i c h f i e l d < and Camerontown. I n September of 1864, the work was com-p l e t e d when Gustavus B. Wright undertook t o c o n s t r u c t c e r t a i n n e c e s s a r y b r i d g e s a l o n g t h i s new r o a d . (39) I n the same year work was begun on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a wagon-road between Y a l e and Hope, t o o b v i a t e the e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k of n a v i g a t i n g the r i v e r steamboats over t h a t dangerous s t r e t c h of w a t e r . A t l a s t the r o a d t o C a r i b o o was complete. J u s t as i n the case o f the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t r o a d , by the time t h e f u l l program of c o n s t r u c t i o n was completed, the t r a f f i c over the new; road began to dwindle i n .volume. The (37) C o l o n e l Moody to Douglas - March 28, 1863. Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1863. (38) P r o b a b l y m a i n l y because i t was made by C o l o n e l Moody, w i t h whom the Governor a l r e a d y had had some d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n . (Douglas t o C o l . Moody, A p r i l 3, 1863) Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence - 1863. (39) C o n t r a c t s i g n e d by W r i g h t and W a l t e r M o b e r l e y , now. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of P u b l i c Works, September 29, 1864. Depart-ment of Lands and Works, C o n t r a c t s and Agreements, 1864. 6 8 . r i c h c l a i m s of the Cariboo became permanent o p e r a t i o n s , con-ducted by f i r m s which possessed the c a p i t a l n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n , and the t i d e of i n d i g e n t but hope-f u l p r o s p e c t o r s ebbed away from the C a r i b o o . Gold s t i l l i came from the mines, but i t was not g o l d e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l g o l d - d i g g e r . B e f o r e the Cariboo Highway through the mountains s e t t l e d down t o i t s d u l l t a s k s as handmaiden t o the r e s p e c t a b l e inc-• d u s t r i e s of the c o l o n y , i t had, l i k e the Douglas r o a d , i t s b r i e f span of r o m a n t i c e x i s t e n c e . I n t o i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n went the e f f o r t s of thousands, and the l i v e s of hundreds. The t r a v e l l e r who w i l l l e a v e h i s automobile on the f i n e new h i g h -way above Spuzzum, and scramble down the r o c k y banks t o the p a t h of the o l d r o a d w i l l f i n d a t almost any p l a c e he happens t o choose, examples of e n g i n e e r i n g s k i l l t h a t w i l l a s t o n i s h him. Over deep chasms he w i l l see the remains of i n t r i c a t e l o g b r i d g e s , around the f a c e o f sheer c l i f f s he w i l l f i n d s p o t s where the road was s i m p l y b u i l t a g a i n s t the c l i f f by the e x p e d i e n t of l a y i n g stone upon s t o n e , a l l chipped t o f i t u n t i l a l e v e l causeway was c r e a t e d . I f he w i l l f o l l o w the r o a d where s e c t i o n s s t i l l remain, around r o c k y abutments and down steep grades, and t h e n imagine h i m s e l f i n a s i x -horse stage coach r o c k e t i n g around those curves and down those grades a t top speed - then w i l l he have caught some-t h i n g of t h e romance of the highway. O^er the highway went those of the passengers from the famous " b r i d e - s h i p s " who had not been a l r e a d y a p p r o p r i a t e d by the men of V i c t o r i a and 69. New Westminster. (40) Over the road t o o , and p r o b a b l y f o r a much l e s s r e s p e c t a b l e purpose went the "hurdy-gurdy g i r l s " t o pursue t h e i r c a l l i n g as e n t e r t a i n e r s a t the sa l o o n s of Van w i n k l e , B a r k e r v i l l e o r Camerontown. A l o n g the road t r a v e l l e d the agents of the express companies - of W e l l s Fargo and Company, or o f D i e t z and N e l s o n , o r of Barnard's C a r i b o o E x p r e s s . Up t o the mines over the highway went the men who were t o become the founders of the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, men l i k e Tom Cunningham, C h a r l e s Augustus S e m l i n , A l e x a n d e r Ewen, the o p e r a t o r of the f i r s t salmon cannery i n the E r a s e r , and W i l l i a m Ladner, who r e t u r n e d from' the mines t o t a k e up l a n d a t the mouth of the r i v e r , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f which he had noted on h i s way i n t o the mines i n 1859.(41) As men l i k e t h e s e r e t u r n e d t o the coast t o become f a r m e r s , o r hardware merchants, o r took up some r e s p e c t a b l e b u s i n e s s a l o n g the road, the permanent c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Columbia was born, even though i t was t o remain f o r some t i m e , s i m p l y "a ro a d w i t h the mines at one end and New Westminster a t the o t h e r " . (40) Aghast .at t h e r e p o r t s t h a t i n the Caribo o i n 186S t h e r e were over s i x thousand men and o n l y t h r e e o r f o u r m a r r i e d women, the B r i t i s h Columbia E m i g r a t i o n S o c i e t y , founded by such h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s as the B i s h o p s of Oxford and London and by Lady B u r d e t t - C o u t t s , arranged i n A p r i l of 1862 f o r the departure t o the new c o l o n y , o f some twenty g i r l s from orphan asylums. I n June a f u r t h e r c o n t i n g e n t l e f t London on the"Tyne-mouth". The scenes i n V i c t o r i a when they a r r i v e d w e l l can be imagined. The s t o r i e s of some of t h e s e immigrants are t o l d by N. de 3. L u g r i n i n ."The P i o n e e r Women of Vancouver I s l a n d " , V i c t o r i a , 1928, pages 146 f f . (41) S h o r t b i o g r a p h i e s of these and many o t h e r s are g i v e n i n Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op. p i t . - , and K e r r , J . B. , " B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of W e l l Known B r i t i s h Columbians". 70. CHAPTER Y THE BUTE INLET WAGON ROAD. I n p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s has been t o l d the s t o r y o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's two e a r l i e s t r o a d s . There s t i l l remains to be t o l d , however^ the s t o r y of the road t h a t was never b u i l t - the road from the head of Bute I n l e t on the coa s t over the Cascade Mountains and down t o the E r a s e r i t -s e l f and the g o l d f i e l d s o f the C a r i b o o . When one c o n s i d e r s , as the e a r l y g o l d seekers must have, the d i f f i c u l t i e s of r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n I n the E r a s e r Canyon, and the onerous t a s k of h a n d l i n g goods on the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t r o a d , one can e a s i l y see t h a t i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the con-s t r u c t i o n of some o t h e r highway s h o u l d a t l e a s t be proposed, ^nd even a c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n of a map o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l suggest now, as i t d i d t h e n , a n . a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e which seems t o possess many advantages. Even i n the summer of 1858, co r r e s p o n d e n t s t o the " V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e e x p r e s s e d t h e i r b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f opening communications between the upper E r a s e r v a l l e y and the head of any of f o u r o r f i v e i n l e t s on the mainland c o a s t , a l l e x t e n d i n g d e e p l y i n t o the i n t e r i o r . Not o n l y would such a r o a d , I f p r a c t i c a b l e , be s h o r t e r than t h a t f o l l o w i n g the F r a s e r , but a l s o i t would make f o r cheaper f r e i g h t r a t e s , s i n c e t h e r e would be a much l o n g e r h a u l by sea 71. and a much s h o r t e r h a u l by l a n d than over the F r a s e r R i v e r roads. (1) T h i s , of c o u r s e , was an ext r e m e l y Important con-s i d e r a t i o n w i t h merchants and s h i p p e r s of V i c t o r i a , s i n c e shipment of goods through a p o r t up the co a s t would mean t h a t V i c t o r i a would remain the o n l y permanent p o r t of e n t r y , w h i l e the continuance o f shipment of goods by the F r a s e r r o u t e would mean the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a commercial c e n t r e somewhere near the mouth of the r i v e r , t o wh i c h ocean v e s s e l s would proceed d i r e c t l y . I t i s not t o be wondered a t , t h e n , i f V i c t o r i a people s h o u l d even on o c c a s i o n s u b s c r i b e t o p r i v a t e e x p e d i t i o n s up the c o a s t t o survey the v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r the terminus o f a ro a d o v e r l a n d t o the g o l d f i e l d s . The f i r s t such r e c o n n a i s s a n c e was c a r r i e d out . i n 1858 a t the expense o f the government, by a p a r t y headed by John W. ]ypKay, w h i c h made a jo u r n e y from the head of L i l l o o e t L ake, on the P o r t D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t t r a i l , westward t o the head of Howe Sound by f o l l o w i n g the " S i a k a m i s h and Skowhomish v a l l e y s " ( 2 ) (1) Comparative d i s t a n c e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y as f o l l o w s ; By the F r a s e r r o u t e , from V i c t o r i a t o ' T a l e by b o a t , 180 m i l e s , a n d by road t o q u e s n e l R i v e r 360 m i l e s ; a t o t a l of about 540 m i l e s . By the Bute I n l e t r o u t e , f rom V i c t o r i a t o the head o f nav-i g a t i o n on the i n l e t , 300 m i l e s , and-by r o a d p r o b a b l y about 160 m i l e s ; a t o t a l of about 460 m i l e s . A l e x a n d e r R a t t r a y g i v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y these f i g u r e s and e s t i m a t e s 37 days f o r shipment by the F r a s e r and 22 days by the Bute I n l e t Road. R a t t r a y , A l e x a n d e r - "Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia". London, 1862, page 180. (2) The ..present r o u t e of the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n R a i l w a y , f o l l o w i n g the Squamish and Cheakamus R i v e r s . The d i s t a n c e covered was 55 m i l e s . A f u l l r e p o r t o f the p a r t y ' s f i n d i n g s appeared i n the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e of October 5, 1858.. I n the p a r t y was M a j o r W i l l i a m Downie (Downie, W. - "Hunting f o r Gol d " , San F r a n c i s c o , 1893. Although, the r e p o r t of t h i s p a r t y was h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e , the r o u t e which they had e x p l o r e d d i d not e l i m i n a t e the n e c e s s i t y of h a n d l i n g goods s e v e r a l times on the P o r t D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t t r a i l above the p o i n t where the new t r a i l would meet i t . E a r l y i n the s p r i n g o f 1859, a p a r t y headed by the famous Major W i l l i a m 'Downie e x p l o r e d b o t h J e r v i s I n l e t and D e s o l a t i o n gound and made f a v o r a b l e r e p o r t s t o Governor Douglas, t e l l i n g of c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h I n d i a n s which suggested t h a t a r o a d from the head of e i t h e r i n l e t t o the E r a s e r would not p r e s e n t g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n . (3) A t a p u b l i c meeting h e l d i n " V i c t o r i a on March 19, 1859, M a j o r Downie t o l d h i s audience (4) not o n l y of h i s own f i n d i n g s , but a l s o t h a t the I n d i a n s w i t h whom he t a l k e d had t o l d him t h a t i n Bute I n l e t , n a v i g a t i o n was p o s s i b l e not o n l y i n the i n l e t but a l s o f o r some d i s t a n c e up the r i v e r which f l o w e d i n t o t h a t i n l e t . I n t e r e s t was o b v i o u s l y h i g h i n V i c t o r i a , but the e a r n i n g s from the bars of the r i v e r a l r e a d y had begun t o d w i n d l e , and the exodus of m iners had a l r e a d y begun. I n the chorus of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t w h i c h a r o s e , one v o i c e alone c o n t i n u e d t o sound a note of c o n v i c t i o n i n the r i c h e s of the E r a s e r mines. A l f r e d Waddington of V i c t o r i a , merchant and p u b l i c l e a d e r i n t h a t c i t y , seems t o have been almost a l o n e i n h i s f i r m b e l i e f t h a t the mines of the E r a s e r would one day l i v e (3) fflayne, R. C. - "Four Y e a r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d " . London, 1862. M a j o r Downie's r e p o r t i s r e p r i n t e d as an Appendix. Commander Mayne e x p l o r e d these i n l e t s h i m s e l f i n 1861. (4) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e - March 19, 1859. M a j o r Downie had not v i s i t e d Bute I n l e t h i m s e l f . 73. up t o a l l the c l a i m s t h a t had been advanced f o r them. (5) And i n 1861 when the news came of the s t r i k e s a t K e i t h l e y and A n t l e r Creeks, Waddington* s o p i n i o n s seemed v i n d i c a t e d . Once a g a i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i n g a road from a p o i n t on the coast d i r e c t l y a c r o s s the Cascades t o the new f i e l d s , l e a p e d i n t o the minds of o f f i c i a l s and i n t o the c o l -umns of V i c t o r i a papers. I n J u l y of 1861 Governor Douglas commissioned M a j o r Downie t o o u t f i t another e x p e d i t i o n t o ex-p l o r e the p o s s i b l e s i t e s f o r the t e r m i n u s of such a r o a d , i n August the p a r t y r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a , where Downie r e p o r t -ed t o the governor and addressed a p u b l i c m e e t i n g i n Moore's H a l l . (6) M a j o r Downie h i r e d the h a l l h i m s e l f i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t h i s view s . I n h i s o p i n i o n , he s t a t e d , the c o n s t r u c t -i o n of a road from Bute I n l e t was not a d v i s a b l e , p a r t l y because of the d i f f i c u l t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the c o u n t r y which he had examined, p a r t l y because.-he deemed i t the w i s e p o l i c y a t the moment t o spend what sums c o u l d be a f f o r d e d by the government, on the Improvement o f the e x i s t i n g r oad from P o r t Douglas. The announcement o f h i s views wds met w i t h c r i e s from the audience o f "Throw him o u t ! " "He's w o r k i n g f o r the West-(.5) Waddington, A l f r e d - "The E r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d " . V i c t o r i a , 1858. A l f r e d Waddington was much o l d e r t h a n . t h e average o f the men of '58, and h i s background would suggest t h a t he was a man of much g e n t l e r s t u f f . &n account of h i s l i f e appears i n R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada T r a n s a c t i o n s , Volume IXVT f o r 1932. " A l f r e d Waddington" by Robie L. R e l d . (6) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - August 15, 1861. Downie W., op c i t page 266. 74. m i n s t e r crowd'." The Bute I n l e t p r o j e c t a l r e a d y was ,,a f a v o r -i t e . ' w i t h ' V i c t o r i a p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h ' p e o p l e l i k e A l f r e d Waddington, Robert Burnaby and o t h e r s who had a l r e a d y i n v e s t e d money i n the scheme. However, o t h e r e x p e d i t i o n s were a l r e a d y out - e x p e d i t i o n s i n most cases f i t t e d out a t p r i v a t e expense. One such p a r t y , l e d by Ranald 'McDonald. (7••;)' and John B a r n s t o n , l e f t A l e x a n d r i a on the E r a s e r R i v e r on May 24,'; 1861 and reached the c o a s t a t (7) The e x p l o i t s o f Ran a l d MacDonald, and the b i z a r r e n a t u r e of;.his c a r e e r a re o n l y now being, p u b l i c i z e d . He was born i n A s t o r i a , h a l f - b r e e d son o f A r c h i b a l d McDonald (the f a t h e r used t h i s s p e l l i n g ) and P r i n c e s s Sunday, youngest daughter of the o l d ; K i n g Com-Gomly. Young Ra n a l d r a n away from the s c h o o l t o w h i c h h i s f a t h e r and h i s step-mother, (the Jane K l y n e McDonald of the E r m a t i n g e r correspondence) had.sent him. I n 1847 the;young a d v e n t u r e r s a i l e d on the 'Plymouth' to.--China. I n June of 1848 he persuaded the s k i p p e r , o f the w h a l e r i n which he was s e r v i n g , t o s e t him a d r i f t i n a s m a l l boat.a few m i l e s o f f the c o a s t o f the t h e n f o r b i d d e n . J a p a n e s e i s l a n d s . He vreis s e i z e d by n a t i v e Japanese when he l a n d e d , and e v e n t u a l l y was brought b e f o r e t h e Shogun's C o u r t . A l t h o u g h the u s u a l f a t e o f American s a i l o r s u n f o r t u n a t e enough t o be c a s t ashore i n Japan, was summary e x e c u t i o n , young MacDonald e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a t u t o r a t the c o u r t and began t o g i v e E n g l i s h l e s s o n s t o some•fourteen young Japanese noblemen. (One of :his former p u p i l s a c t e d as the o f f i c i a l i n t e r p r e t e r i n . t h e neg-o t i a t i o n s w h i c h enstte&fwhen.'..aoi&mand©r "•pe.2*ry -of,- the U n i t e d S t a t e s Navy a r r i v e d i n 1857 t o "open up" Japan. ;. MacDonald was r e l e a s e d f r o m h i s p l e a s a n t c a p t i v i t j r by ;the a r r i v a l of an American-.war-ship i n A p r i l of 1849 and .e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n e d to- the P a c i f i c Northwest. H i s j o u r n a l o f h i s Japanese adventure was p r e p a r e d f o r , p u b l i c a t i o n , but was n o t . p r i n t e d u n t i l 1923 when the documents were e d i t e d by W i l l i a m L e w i s and Nao;g.iro Murakani and p u b l i s h e d w i t h b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e s . From t h i s source a p o p u l a r work ( N i c h o l s M a r i e Leona, R a n a l d MacDonald - A d v e n t u r e r , C a l d w e l l , . I d a h o , 1940) has been t a k e n . L e w i s , W i l l i a m and' Murakami, N a p j i r o (edj "Ranald MacDonald - . N a r r a t i v e o f h i s e a r l y l i f e " . ' Spokane, Washington, 1923* 75. the head of B e l l a C oola I n l e t on June 19. The r e p o r t of t h i s p a r t y was h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e , (8) but i t n e v e r t h e l e s s was ob-v i o u s t h a t the i n l e t t o w h i c h they had come, s i n c e i t l a y n o r t h of the d i f f i c u l t n a v i g a t i o n of Seymour Narrows and the S u c l a t a w R a p i d s , might b e t t e r be a v o i d e d . I n s p i t e of t h i s drawback, i n A p r i l of 1862, Ranald McDonald secured an agree-ment w i t h the government through C o l o n e l Moody, f o r the con-s t r u c t i o n o f a mule r o a d from B e l l a C o l l a t o the mouth o f the n uesnel R i v e r , i n r e t u r n f o r the p r i v i l e g e of c o l l e c t i n g a t o l l of 3 f a r t h i n g s per pound of merchandise and 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r head on a l l t r a v e l l e r s . (9) The c o n t r a c t f u r t h e r s t i p u -l a t e d t h a t McDonald s h o u l d a s s i g n h i s own c h a r t e r t o a comp-any t o be formed by June 25, 1862. I n h i s attempts to s e t up such a company and i n h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h W i l l i a m Hood, i t s c h i e f s h a r e h o l d e r , McDonald met more d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n he had encountered i n h i s arduous o v e r l a n d t r i p , and as a (8) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - August 16, 1861. The r o u t e o f MacDonald and his'' p a r t y f o l l o w e d the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r up t o T a t l a L a k e , thence almost due n o r t h t o the Dean R i v e r headwaters, t h e n west t o the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r and a l o n g t h a t stream t o the N o r t h B e n t i n c k Arm. (See"map,Appendix j ) . (9) Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and A greements 1862. 76. r e s u l t h i s c o n t r a c t l a p s e d . (10) I n the meantime, b e t t e r f o r t u n e a w a i t e d another p r o j e c t under-t a k e n a t about the same ti m e . I n June of 1861, a p u b l i c meeting of c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a h e l d in.Moore's H a l l , heard an eloquent address by A l f r e d Waddington u r g i n g the a d v i s a -b i l i t y of once more c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t -i n g a road from the head o f Bute I n l e t t o the new f i e l d s . As a r e s u l t , a committee of prominent c i t i z e n s was a p p o i n t e d (11) to p l a n an e x p e d i t i o n up the c o a s t t o re-examine the l o c a t i o n about w h i c h M a j o r Downie had spoken a t f i r s t so h i g h l y , then l a t t e r l y so d i s p a r a g i n g l y . T h i s committee met on June 10 and d e c i d e d to send such an e x p e d i t i o n as soon as the sum of i1000 c o u l d be r a i s e d . Some £200 was s u b s c r i b e d on the s p o t , and the government soon l e n t i t s a p p r o v a l by making a c o n t r i b u t i o n of £500. (12) On September 9, 1861, Waddington. wrote t o Governor Douglas (10) The c h i e f weakness of MacDonald's p r o j e c t was of course t h e - f a c t t h a t a somewhat s i m i l a r c o n t r a c t had a l r e a d y been g r a n t e d to A l f r e d Waddington, and t h a t the r o u t e proposed by ?/addington a l s o f o l l o w e d the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r between T a t l a Lake and t h e F r a s e r . Waddington's c o n t r a c t f o r the c o n s t r u c t -i o n of a b r i d l e p a t h was s i g n e d on March 28, 1862 and was amended t o cover c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a wagon r o a d , oh A p r i l 16. (See page 78below). The W i l l i a m Hood here mentioned d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1863, was g i v e n a c o n t r a c t t o complete the l a s t s e c t i o n of the road from Spence's B r i d g e t o C l i n t o n . (See page 64 above) (11) The names of the members of t h e committee augured w e l l f o r i t s s u c c e s s , f o r " i t i n c l u d e d such prominent men as J . Despard Pemberton, Amor de Cosmos, Joseph W. T r u t c h , A l e x a n d e r C. Anderson and Robert Burnaby, i n a d d i t i o n t o A l f r e d Wadding-t o n . (12) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , June 12, 1861. 77. on b e h a l f of t h i s committee, (13) a s k i n g f o r the p r i v i l e g e of opening a mule t r a i l t o the g o l d f i e l d s ; from the head of any one of f i v e i n l e t s , ( J e r v i s , Toba, Bute, Loughborough or K n i g h t ' s ) and t e l l i n g the governor t h a t the e x p e d i t i o n t o e x p l o r e these p o s s i b l e t e r m i n i had been ar r a n g e d . On September 18, 1861, the p a r t y l e f t f o r the n o r t h on the ' H e n r i e t t a 5 . On November 8 the f i r s t communication a r r i v e d ' f r o m Wadding-t o n , a p p r i z i n g the governor t h a t the p a r t y had proceeded to Bute I n l e t and found t h a t I t was p o s s i b l e to take the H e n r i e t t a not o n l y t o the head of the I n l e t but a l s o some f o r t y m i l e s f u r t h e r up the Homathco R i v e r , and had proceeded by s m a l l boat some t e n m i l e s f u r t h e r . (14) From the evidence of h i s own i n s p e c t i o n and from c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h the I n d i a n s o f the l o c a l i t y , Waddington had become c o n v i n c e d of the f e a s i b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n of a road f o l l o w i n g the Homathco V a l l e y , then a c r o s s the d i v i d e and down the C h i l c o t i n V a l l e y to the F r a s e r . P l a n s a l r e a d y had been made t o s t a r t the s u r -vey f o r t h i s r o a d as soon as weather c o n d i t i o n s would p e r m i t . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months n e g o t i a t i o n s proceeded between Waddington and v a r i o u s government o f f i c i a l s , w i t h such success that,.on March 28, 1862, an agreement was s i g n e d . By i t s terms, (13) Waddington t o Douglas, Sept. 9, 1861. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department - Correspondence 1861. The l e t t e r s t r e s s e d the advantages o f the proposed r o a d " e s p e c i a l l y f o r V i c t o r i a " . (14) Waddington t o Douglas, November 8, 1861. A t t o r n e y -General's Department, Correspondence - 1861. V a r i o u s s p e l l i n g s of the name "Homathco" appear i n t h e correspondence and i n newspaper a c c o u n t s , but the form used here o c c u r s most o f t e n . 78. Waddington was t o c o n s t r u c t a b r i d l e road from the head of Bute I n l e t t o the p o i n t where the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r meets the F r a s e r . One y e a r was g i v e n f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a t e n f o o t r o a d , and i n r e t u r n Yifaddington was t o be g r a n t e d a f i v e y e a r c h a r t e r a u t h o r i z i n g the c o l l e c t i o n of a t o l l of 3 f a r t h i n g s per pound of f r e i g h t and 4 s h i l l i n g s per head on a l l a n i m a l s moved over the r o a d . On A p r i l 16, the c o n t r a c t was amended, w i t h the c o n s e n t . o f b o t h p a r t i e s , t o p r o v i d e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a wagon r o a d , s i x t e e n f e e t w i d e . The time l i m i t was ex-tended f o r a f u r t h e r s i x months, and the t o l l on merchandise i n c r e a s e d t o 2-|- d p e r pound. (15) Two days a f t e r the amended c o n t r a c t had been s i g n e d , Waddington's men began t h e i r work. . D u r i n g May and June of 1862, an advance p a r t y under H. 0. Teidemann covered the whole r o u t e and made p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y s , w h i l e c o n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f began from the end o f Bute I n l e t . The survey p a r t y reached A l e x a n d r i a on June 25, and proceeded t o V i c t o r i a by way of the F r a s e r . A p p a r e n t l y the r e p o r t of t h i s survey was of a somewhat s o b e r i n g n a t u r e , f o r Waddington a p p l i e d t o the government f o r a time e x t e n s i o n o f a f u r t h e r y e a r on h i s c o n t r a c t , (16) w h i c h r e q u e s t was g r a n t e d by the Governor on August 15, 1862. (17) (15) Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements 1862. Separate s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d w i t h b o t h these c o n t r a c t s . (16) - Waddington t o Moody - August 13, 1862 - Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence - 1862. (17) Douglas t o Moody - August 15, 1862 - Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1862. 79. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s l a y ahead of the road-b u i l d e r s , and t h a t I n d i a n t r o u b l e s a l r e a d y had d e l a y e d opera-t i o n s , Waddington remained f i r m i n h i s e s t i m a t e of the v a l u e of the work he was d o i n g . By December; of 186S he had succeed-ed i n " o r g a n i z i n g the Bute I n l e t Wagon Road Company, L i m i t e d , w i t h a normal c a p i t a l of $60,000. (18) A p p a r e n t l y the company had some d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l l i n g i t s s h a r e s , s i n c e i n January of 1863, Waddington a p p l i e d to C o l o n e l Moody f o r the e x t e n s -i o n of the term of h i s c h a r t e r from f i v e y e a r s to t e n , (19) g i v i n g as the r e a s o n f o r h i s a p p l i c a t i o n the f a c t t h a t c a p i t a l i s t s would not s u b s c r i b e under the e x i s t i n g c h a r t e r . I n March t h e new agreement was drawn up by A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Crease, embodying the change r e q u e s t e d by Waddington and r e -d u c i n g the t o l l from f i v e c e n t s (2-| d) t o t h r e e c e n t s per pound o f merchandise. (20) The new agreement was s u b m i t t e d by the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l t o C o l o n e l Moody, but not u n t i l November of 1863 d i d the C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works f i n a l l y f i x h i s s i g n a t u r e t o the new c o n t r a c t . (18) P r o s p e c t u s f o r the company appeared i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , December 7, 1863. A t t h a t time W. F. Tolmie was Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s . Of the o r i g i n a l committee of 1861, o n l y R o b e r t Burnaby appears as a d i r e c t o r i n the company. (19) Waddington t o Moody, January 19, 1863. Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence, 1863. See a l s o Moody to W. A. G. Young, C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , June 21, 1863. A t t o r n e y -General's Department - Correspondence, 1863. C o l o n e l Moody recommended r e f u s i n g " the r e q u e s t , but n o t a t i o n s on the document i n Governor Douglas' h a n d w r i t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h i s , as i n o t h e r m a t t e r s , the governor would o v e r r u l e the C o l o n e l . (20) Department of Lands and Works - C o n t r a c t s and Agreements 1863. -80. Waddington n a t u r a l l y was h i g h l y i n c e n s e d a t the d e l a y and expressed h i s resentment i n no u n c e r t a i n terms i n l e t t e r s t o the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . (21) Disagreement among the o f f i c i a l s w i t h whom he had t o cooperate was not by any means the most s e r i o u s of the d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h Waddington had t o f a c e . D u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n s o f the f i r s t summer heavy r a i n s and h i g h w a t e r i n the Homathco R i v e r g r e a t l y h i n d e r e d the work crews. On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s b r i d g e s were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e s of m y s t e r i o u s o r i g i n . I n a l e t t e r t o the V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , Waddington gave ah account of some of h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , m e n t i o n i n g es-p e c i a l l y the rugged n a t u r e of the canyons some f i f t y m i l e s from the mouth of the r i v e r . (22) Work had to be suspended e a r l y i n the f a l l , but the s p r i n g of 1863 saw o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n resumed. Lack of f u n d s , t o o , s e r i o u s l y hampered the f u l l o p e r a t i o n o f a l l of Waddington's p l a n s , but by the f a l l a b r i d l e t r a i l e x i s t e d o v e r ' p r a c t i c a l l y the f u l l r o u t e . Of c o u r s e , Waddington's c h a r t e r c a l l e d f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f a wagon road and as a consequence, the m e r c h a n t - b u i l d e r was as y e t n o t l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d t o the c o l l e c t i o n of t o l l s . The Governor f i n a l l y consented t o the c o l l e c t i o n o f a p r o v i s i o n a l (21) Waddington t o Young, November 28, 1863. The l e t t e r was forwarded t o C o l o n e l Moody by the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . One wonders how much of the d e l a y was caused b y . C o l o n e l Moody's resentment a t b e i n g o v e r r u l e d by the Governor, Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1863. (22) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - August 27, 1862. 81. t o l l on those who might use the t r a i l , (23) but t h e r e was p r a c t i c a l l y no t r a f f i c over the t r a i l t h a t y e a r . More important t h a n the p r o v i s i o n a l t o l l , from Waddington*s p o i n t of view, was the f a c t t h a t he was a t the same time g r a n t e d another y e a r ' s e x t e n s i o n o f the time l i m i t of h i s c o n t r a c t . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t , he was a t l a s t s u c c e s s f u l i n making s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangements f o r the f i n a n c i n g of h i s p r o j e c t , by t a k i n g a c o n t r a c t from the Bute I n l e t Wagon Road Company to complete the r o a d f o r , a t o t a l sum of §15,000. S a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s was made a g a i n s t s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e s during, the summer of 1863; the f a l l f r e s h e t s c a r r i e d away many of the 40 b r i d g e s a l o n g the f i r s t 30 m i l e s of the r o a d , the o n l y s e c t i o n y e t completed. Weather c o n d i t i o n s made i t i m p o s s i b l e even t o attempt t o r e p a i r the damage and the work p a r t i e s r e t u r n e d to V i c t o r i a i n November. I n A p r i l of 1864 Waddington*s men r e t u r n e d to t h e i r t a s k . T h i s t i m e , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t wrecked b r i d g e s and r u i n e d r o a d l a y b e f o r e them, Waddington's p r o s p e c t s l o o k e d b e t t e r t h a n ever b e f o r e . A t l a s t he had c a p i t a l i n the n e c e s s a r y amounts; town l o t s were already/ - b e i n g s o l d I n the t o w n s i t e l a i d out a t the head of Bute I n l e t ; (24) enough men (23) Young t o Moody, A p r i l 1,' 1863. Department of Lands and Works - Correspondence 1863. (24) The town p l a n p r e p a r e d by C o l o n e l Moody and the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s had been s e t a s i d e I n f a v o r of the p l a n p r e p a r e d by Waddington h i m s e l f . One wonders I f G-overnor Douglas enjoyed making t h i s change. Waddington t o Young, Department of Lands •and Works, Correspondence 1864. 82. had been h i r e d so t h a t i t was. p o s s i b l e t o send a second work' gang up t o the head of B e n t i n c k Arm and thence o v e r l a n d t o puntzeen (now Puntze) Lake t o work back a l o n g the t r a i l . J u s t as the t i d e of f o r t u n e seemed.to have t u r n e d f o r the g r o c e r t u r n e d r o a d b u i l d e r , the f i n a l c r a s h came. I n Hay o f 1864 o c c u r r e d the famous O h i l c o t i n massacres. The t h i e v i s h n a t u r e of the I n d i a n s of t h a t t r i b e a l r e a d y had caused the road crews much t r o u b l e ; now i t was t o b r i n g death t o many of the b u i l d e r s and r u i n t o a l l of A l f r e d Waddington* s g r e a t "ambitions. From the evidence a t the t r i a l of the s u s p e c t s l a t e r the t r a g i c s t o r y can be p i e c e d t o g e t h e r . Two O h i l c o t i n I n d i a n s , i t a ppears, approached a ferryman i n Waddington*s employ on the Homathco R i v e r , w i t h the u s u a l r e q u e s t f o r f o o d . When the f e r r y m a n , one Jem S m i t h , r e f u s e d , one of the I n d i a n s produced a gun and shot and k i l l e d S m i t h . That n i g h t the C h i l c o t i n t r i b e a t t a c k e d the main p a r t y of roadmen. Out of s i x t e e n men i n the gang, t h i r t e e n were k i l l e d . The road boss, George B r e w s t e r , who had a p a r t y of f o u r men f u r t h e r up the r i v e r , was a t t a c k e d the f o l l o w i n g day and t h r e e of the f i v e were k i l l e d . When the s u r v i v o r s reached the c o a s t word of the massacre (24) The town p l a n p r e p a r e d by C o l o n e l Moody and the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s had been'set a s i d e i n f a v o r of the p l a n p r e p a r e d by Waddington h i m s e l f . One wonders i f Governor Douglas en-joyed making t h i s change. ?Jaddington t o Young, Department of Lands and Works, Correspondence 1864. 83. was sent t o V i c t o r i a . R e t r i b u t i o n was prompt;(25) on June 13 a v o l u n t e e r f o r c e from New Westminster and V i c t o r i a under Governor Seymour H i m s e l f , s a i l e d on H. M. S. * S u t l e j ' , The f o r c e t r a v e l l e d o v e r l a n d from the head of B e n t i n c k Arm and e f f e c t e d a j u n c t i o n w i t h a n other f o r c e of miners from the Carib o o under Judge Cox. The show of such f o r c e was s u f f i c -i e n t t o q u e l l the d i s t u r b a n c e ; e i g h t l e a d e r s o f the C h i l c o t i n t r i b e were a r r e s t e d , brought t o j u s t i c e and f i v e of them c o n v i c t e d and hanged, a l t h o u g h i t i s h i g h l y p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e a l c u l p r i t s were never apprehended. A l f r e d Waddington h i m s e l f seems t o have: p l a n s had c r a s h e d . Even b e f o r e the t r i a l of I n d i a n l e a d e r s , he attempted t o salvage something out o f the wreck of h i s schemes - a not i n s i g n i f i c e n t something. I n a l e t t e r t o the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y he proposed t o s u r r e n d e r h i s c o n t r a c t , under which he,had u n t i l December of 1866 t o com-p l e t e the r o a d , and proposed an i n d e m n i t y of §100,000 i n com-p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e work a l r e a d y done. (26) When t h a t was r e -f u s e d , Waddington a p p l i e d f o r government p r o t e c t i o n on the road f o r the crews w h i c h he might h i r e t o go on w i t h t j i e work. ( r e a l i z e d t h a t h i s the C h i l c o t i n (25) A complete account i s g i v e n i n Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op c i t - pages 177 f f . , w h i l e a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s t o r y appears i n Walkem, W. W. - " S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia", Vancouver, 1914. See a l s o Downie, W. op c i t . (26) Waddington t o Young, May 28, 1864. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department, Correspondence, 1864. (27) Waddington t o Young, June 9, 1864. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department, Correspondence, .1864. 84. Even I f h i s r e q u e s t had been g r a n t e d i t i s d o u b t f u l i f he c o u l d have secured e i t h e r a crew or the f i n a n c i a l ba.cking t o enable him t o go on w i t h h i s t a s k . (28) A l f r e d Waddington was not one t o be e a s i l y d i s s u a d e d from a p l a n which a p p a r e n t l y had come t o be h i s whole l i f e - I n May of the f o l l o w i n g year, he made f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r r e v i s i o n of h i s case, accompanying h i s l e t t e r w i t h a copy of a p e t i t i o n s i g n e d by 1031 c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a , a s k i n g f o r the r e - o p e n i n g of the Bute I n l e t road.(29) The answer t o h i s r e q u e s t was f i r m and f i n a l . The government would agree t o no payment of i n d e m n i t y f o r h i s work, and would g i v e no encouragement i n an u n d e r t a k i n g which had ' l e d t o such l a m e n t a b l e r e s u l t s ' . (30) On June 7, 1866, a f t e r a y e a r of r o a d c o n t r a c t i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d , d u r i n g w h i c h he managed t o c o l l e c t from the government the t o t a l sum' of $260 f o r h i s s e r v i c e s i n p a c k i n g s u p p l i e s t o the ' S u t l e j ' e x p e d i t i o n , A l f r e d Waddington was consigned t o the limb o o f d i s a p p o i n t e d m i n i s t e r s and d i s c a r d e d statesmen, when he was a p p o i n t e d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n f o r Vancouver I s l a n d . (31) One l a s t attempt t o s a l v a g e h i s p r o j e c t was made by (28) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , S t o r i e s and e d i t o r i a l s of J u l y and August 1864 condemned the p l a n u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y . '(29') Waddington to A. 11. B i r c h , C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , May 29, 1865. Attorney-Ge n e r a l s Department, Correspondence, 1865. (30) B i r c h t o Waddington, Dec. 15, 1865. Attorney-General's Department, Correspondence 1865. I n the absence of Governor Seymour, the Honorable A. N. Bi r c h . w a s a l s o a c t i n g as A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Government. (31) H e l d , R. L. - A l f r e d Waddington. D u r i n g 1866, Wadding-ton. c o n t r a c t e d f o r c e r t a i n work on the ro a d from V i c t o r i a t o Sooke H a r b o r . 85. Waddington, whose d e t e r m i n a t i o n a t l e a s t must be admired. I n 1867 he proposed the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a steam t r a c t i o n road over the r o u t e he had surveyed, w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of even-t u a l l y making i t a r a i l r o a d , but the answer of the government was f l a t l y a i n the n e g a t i v e . (.32) A l r e a d y the thought of r a i l -r o a d b u i l d i n g was i n the a i r , and the Bute I n l e t r o u t e was a p p a r e n t l y no p l a c e f o r a r a i l r o a d , s i n c e I t " r a n through n o t h i n g and ended nowhere". Today a l l t h a t remains i s a t r a i l f o l l o w i n g t h e Homathco, around the n o r t h end of G h i l c o Lake and down the C h i l c o t i n t o the F r a s e r , a t r a i l t h a t i s but a f a i n t reminder of the commercial highway so l o n g dreamed of by the s c h o l a r l y V i c t o r i a g r o c e r . (33) The town of P o r t Waddington at the head of Bute I n l e t s t i l l e x i s t s as a memorial t o the memory of t h i s man, who a t f i f t y - s e v e n y e a r s of age, a p a r t n e r i n the r e s p e c t e d f i r m of D u l i p and Wadding-(52) W. A. G. Young t o Waddington, August 26, 1867. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department, Correspondence, 1867. Waddington proposed t o f i n i s h ,the road under a 25 year c h a r t e r , w i t h a l a n d g r a n t of 320 a c r e s p e r m i l e of roa d . ' (33) The ro a d w h i c h Waddington hoped to b u i l d vifould f o l l o w the e a s t bank o f the Homathco R i v e r from P o r t Waddington, around T a t l a y o k o Lake and the n s t r i k e n o r t h to the shore of T a t l a Lake. The t r a i l f o l l o w e d the south bank o f t h i s l a k e t h e n c r o s s e d t o the n o r t h bank of the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r . A t a p o i n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s from the j u n c t i o n of t h a t r i v e r w i t h the F r a s e r , the t r a i l l e a v e s the ; C h i l c o t i n and s t r i k e s almost due west, th e n up t h a t r i v e r and a c r o s s i t j u s t southi of W i l l i a m ' s Lake. (See map, Appendix F) t o n , Wholesale G r o c e r s , l e f t the c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy p a t h which l a y b e f o r e him t o f o l l o w another c o u r s e . L e a s t s u c c e s s f u l of a l l the 1858 p i o n e e r s , perhaps because he was l e a s t w e l l - e q u i p p e d by physique and t r a i n i n g , he e x e m p l i f i e s , b e s t the q u a l i t i e s of f a i t h and p e r s e v e r a n c e which have made the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER YT SHE AMERICANS-A2JD-THS-- 0VERLANB3RS. 'Thus f a r we have d e a l t o n l y w i t h r o a d - b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s u n d ertaken by government a u t h o r i t y , e i t h e r d i r e c t l j ? - o r by means o f a c o n t r a c t embodying t o l l p r i v i l e g e s . But B r i t i s h Columbia, l i k e e very p a r t of Western A m e r i c a , had i t s rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s t s who sought alone o r i n companies and without, e i t h e r government a s s i s t a n c e o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n , t c p i e r c e the winderness which l a y between them and t h e i r g o a l . Of the v a r i o u s attempts made to- e s t a b l i s h communications w i t h the g o l d - f i e l d s , by o t h e r than government-authorized a g e n c i e s , two o n l y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . One such p r o j e c t had i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n t e r r i t o r y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the o t h e r i n a m i s t a k e n t h e o r y t h a t the mountain b a r r i e r e a s t o f the g o l d f i e l d s might be e a s i e r t o p e n e t r a t e than t h a t t o the west, and t h a t o v e r l a n d t r a v e l from the s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g the Saskatchewan R i v e r would be easy and p r a c t i c a b l e . The s t o r y o f the f i r s t of the s e schemes can e a s i l y and q u i c k l y be t o l d , f o r t h e e f f o r t s t o l i n k the Caribo o g o l d f i e l d s w i t h American t e r r i t o r y on the P a d i f i c C oast, had b u t a v e r y b r i e f l i f e . I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the r e g u l a t i o n s of 88. the governor a t V i c t o r i a , h i s e f f o r t s t o c o l l e c t l i c e n c e f e e s and the obvious d e s i r e of the V i c t o r i a o f f i c i a l s and merchants t o monopolize the b u s i n e s s of i m p o r t a t i o n o f miners* s u p p l i e s , s h ould a l l combine t o suggest to American i n t e r e s t s the ad-v i s a b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up a p o r t i n American t e r r i t o r y and e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n n e c t i o n s between t h a t p o r t and the g o l d f i e l d s . Even i n the e a r l y days of the r u s h of 1858, some American miners had attempted t o r e a c h the E r a s e r b a r s by t r a v e l l i n g o v e r l a n d from the W i l l & a m e t t e s e t t l e m e n t s . The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d one such e x p e d i t i o n , headed by a p a c k e r named Tucker, from Lehama, C a l i f o r n i a , who l e d a l a r g e p a r t y of men and a n i m a l s from The D a l l e s on the Columbia t o the f o r k s of the E r a s e r and Thompson. On the j o u r n e y almost h a l f of the f o u r hundred a n i m a l s were l o s t , and.three men were k i l l e d i n engagements w i t h h o s t i l e I n d i a n s . (1) A more p r a c t i c a b l e r o u t e from American t e r r i t o r y t o the E r a s e r was e a r l y suggested.' The p o r t s o f Puget Sound were too f a r from t h e g o l d - b e a r i n g bars of the E r a s e r ; the more n o r t h -e r l y w a t e r s o f B e l l i n g h a m Bay seemed"more s u i t a b l e . The news-papers of Washington T e r r i t o r y began e a r l y t o a d v e r t i s e the n e c e s s i t y o f making t h a t bay the jumping o f f p l a c e f o r the m i n e r s , l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s began t o buy the l a n d around i t , and hy June of 1858, two towns had appeared. When James G a r d i n e r (2) (1) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e - A u g u s t 17, 1858. (2) See page 25 above. 89. a r r i v e d i n the bay on the 25th o f t h a t month, he found the town of Seahome on the s o u t h e r n shore of the bay and the more a m b i t i o u s town o f Whatcom on the h i g h l a n d a t the e a s t e r n edge. Of the l a t t e r , G a r d i n e r s a i d , " t h e r e is.some t a l k o f i n c o r p -o r a t i n g , i t now b e i n g f o u r weeks o l d " . (3) On J u l y 29, the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n t r a c t s had been l e t f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a wharf a t the town of Whatcom, and t h a t d r i v i n g o f p i l e s had a l r e a d y begun. (4) 'Perhaps even more i m p o r t a n t t o the -American miners than t h i s news c o n c e r n i n g the growth of the new town on B e l l i n g h a m Bay, was the news i n the same Is s u e i n the G a z e t t e , t h a t the survey of the road f rom Whatcom to the E r a s e r , would now be begun. I n the correspondence column appeared a l e t t e r from W. W» DeLacy, s e l f - s t y l e d e n g i n e e r and s u r v e y o r , who r e p o r t e d t h a t he had a l r e a d y e x p l o r e d two p o s s i b l e r o u t e s f o r t h i s new " B e l l i n g h a m Bay T r a i l " . . • One r o u t e , he suggested, might s t r i k e n o r t h - e a s t t o meet t h e E r a s e r a t the Hudson's Bay post a t E o r t L a n g l e y , and t h e n f o l l o w the r i v e r t o Hope. I n view of i t s p r o x i m i t y t o the e x i s t i n g b a s t i o n s o f Hudson's Bay Company's (and Governor Douglas') a u t h o r i t y , t h i s r o u t e was h a r d l y to be c o n s i d e r e d . The second a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e t r a v e l l e d o v e r -l a n d t o a p o i n t known as 'B l a c k e y e ' s P o r t a g e ' , where I t connected w i t h the o l d b r i g a d e t r a i l of the Hudson's Bay t r a d e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o D e L a c y , 1 t h e t r a i l was p r a c t i c a b l e , the d i s t a n c e (3) H e l d , R. L. - "The G a r d i n e r L e t t e r " , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , Oct. 1937, page 245. (4) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 29, 1858. 90. f a i r l y s h o r t , the chances of s u c c e s s f u l l y b u i l d i n g - a road good.(5 On the day t h a t t h i s r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d , a p a r t y of s u r v e y o r s l e f t Whatcom t o f o l l o w i n DeLacy's f o o t s t e p s , w i t h s e v e r a l would-be c o n t r a c t o r s numbered i n the p a r t y . Behind them they l e f t a town which was r e m i n i s c e n t o f San F r a n c i s c o i n i t s heyday. Homes, s t o r e s , warehouses and o f f i c e r were s p r i n g i n g up l i k e mushrooms on a l l s i d e s . On a l l s i d e s the p r o s p e c t i v e s e t t l e r • h e a r d t a l k o f the f u t u r e o f Whatcom, the new m e t r o p o l i s o f the west. (6) A t a p u b l i c meeting h e l d i n the new town on August 2, Governor M c M u l l i n of Washington T e r r i t o r y gave the town h i s o f f i c i a l b l e s s i n g and e x p r e s s e d the hope t h a t a l l l o y a l Americans would use t h i s p o r t and the new t r a i l i n p r e f e r e n c e t o any which would l e a d them through a B r i t i s h p o r t of e n t r y . ( 7 ) Encouraged by the g o v e r n o r ' s a t t i t u d e , and by the f a c t t h a t Mr. I s a a c S t e v e n s , the T e r r i t o r y ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t Washington (5) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , J u l y 29, 1858. DeLacy was u s i n g the map p r e p a r e d by A. C. Anderson, which appears i n "Haiidbood and Map t o the G o l d Region of F r a s e r ' s and Thompson's.Rivers". San F r a n c i s c o , 1358. The r o u t e f o l l o w e d was a l o n g the No oksack R i v e r . t o i t s s o u r c e , e a s t t o the S k a g i t R i v e r and n o r t h a l o n g t h a t v a l l e y . A f t e r c r o s s i n g the 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l the t r a i l t u r n e d e a s t t o the Similkameen R i v e r , n o r t h o v e r l a n d through the N i c o l a V a l l e y and a c r o s s the t a b l e l a n d s t o the Thompson at. F o r t Kami oops (See map, Appendix F ) . (6) A few m i l e s t o the n o r t h , two-other towns appeared, on the shores of Semiahmoo Bay, and t h e r e , t o o , was t a l k o f a new c i t y which was t o be the t e r m i n u s of the t r a i l . John S. Titcomb, a -correspondent of t h e - G a z e t t e , v i s i t e d Semiahmoo on J u l y 29 and found town r e a l e s t a t e s e l l i n g b r i s k l y . V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , August 5, 1858. (7) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , August 5, 1858. 91. i - -t I ! had a l r e a d y secured f o r the p r o j e c t the support of the S e c r e t -j a r y of S t a t e , the townspeople r e d o u b l e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . By I August 14, a f i n e wharf extended 1400 f e e t out a c r o s s the mud-f l a t s of the bay t o deep w a t e r . (8) , In. the town i t s e l f f i n e new b r i d g e s spanned the many r a v i n e s and g u l l i e s r u n n i n g down t o the beach. On the evening of August 17, the sound of guns on the h i l l b e h i n d Whatcom h e r a l d e d the news from the t r a i l -b u i l d e r s . The next day the whole town buzzed w i t h the r e p o r t t h a t the s u r v e y of the road had been completed and t h a t the t r a i l was open. The f o l l o w i n g day s p e c i a l e d i t i o n s of the ''Northern L i g h t " announced i n h e a d l i n e s the ' F i n a l Completion of the B e l l i n g h a m Bay T r a i l ' . I n t h i s ' e x t r a ' number appeared a l e t t e r from DeLacy d e s c r i b i n g the t r a i l from Whatcom t o B l ackeye* s P o r t a g e and thence by way of the b r i g a d e t r a i l t o the Thompson R i v e r . (9) F o r the n e x t few weeks t r a f f i c over the t r a i l was heavy, a l t h o u g h most of the. t r a v e l l e r s found t h a t i t s b u i l d e r s had been o v e r - o p t i m i s t i c . One p a r t y of /twenty-two men a r r i v e d a t the Thompson R i v e r a f t e r t a k i n g e i g h t weeks t o cover the d i s t a n c e . (10) E a r l y i n September a p u b l i c meeting i n Whatcom -fea-d s u b s c r i b e d an amount s u f f i c i e n t t o improve the t r a i l as (8) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , August 17, 1858. (9) V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , August S I , 1858. (10) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d - op c i t - Volume 2, page 30. 92. f a r as the head of C h i l l i w a c k Lake, (11) but f u r t h e r expend-i t u r e s were not deemed a d v i s a b l e a t t h a t l a t e season. The d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a v e l i n c r e a s e d as w i n t e r approached; f i n a l l y heavy snows c l o s e d down a l l t r a v e l . When s p r i n g once more made t r a v e l over the B e l l i n g h a m Bay t r a i l a p o s s i b i l i t y , two t h i n g s had happened. I n the f i r s t p l a c e the F r a s e r R i v e r "bubble" seemed t o have b u r s t and more mi n e r s were l e a v i n g the F r a s e r than were e n t e r i n g i t . • I n the second p l a c e , through the e f f o r t s o f Governor Douglas a s a t i s f a c t o r y steamboat s e r v i c e was now o p e r a t i n g t o p r o v i d e communication w i t h P o r t Douglas and the entrance t o the L i l l o o e t r o a d , a r o a d w h i c h , f o r 1859 and 1860 a t l e a s t , was e n t i r e l y adequate f o r a l l the demand. There was no p o s s i b i l i t y of l i n k i n g the B e l l i n g h a m Bay t r a i l w i t h t h i s D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t highway; i n any event the former t r i p was too l o n g and too a r d u o u s ' T h u s ' , says F. W. Howay, 'ended the much-vaunted Whatcom t r a i l . Grass grew I n Whatcom's s t r e e t s ' . (12) Of the attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a p r a c t i c a b l e l i n e of sommunications between the g o l d f i e l d s of C a r i b o o and the (11) V i c t o r i a Gazette., September 8, 1858. C h i l l i w a c k appears as ' C h i l i w h e o k ' i n t h i s account, w h i c h i s a r e p r i n t of a s t o r y i n the 'Northern L i g h t ' f o r September 4, 1858. (12) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d . op c i t Volume 2, page 30. B e l l i n g h a m (as i t now i s named) had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 800 i n 1870, so the g r a s s must.have been growing i n some of the "back s t r e e t s E 93. s e t t l e m e n t s east of the R o c k i e s , l i t t l e remains to be t o l d . The excitement of the s t r i k e s i n the Cariboo i n 1861, which, we have a l r e a d y seen, caused so much a c t i v i t y i n the c o l o n y i t s e l f , had i t s r e v e r b e r a t i o n s abroad as w e l l , Newspapers i n New Y o r k , i n M o n t r e a l , and i n London, once more began t o s i n g the p r a i s e s o f the new f i e l d ; once more a r u s h s t a r t e d t o the f a r - w e s t E l Dorado. As one r e s u l t , a company - the B r i t i s h Columbia O v e r l a n d T r a n s i t Company - was formed i n England f o r the purpose of a r r a n g i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the C a r i b o o mines, and i t s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n B r i t i s h papers announced the c h a r t -e r i n g o f steamships t o c a r r y passengers from London t o the p o r t of Quebec. . From that, p o i n t the company guaranteed t o c a r r y i t s c l i e n t s by r a i l w a y t o S t . P a u l , v i a Chicago. From S t . P a u l the passengers would be t r a n s p o r t e d by stage coach or c overed wagon t o B r i t i s h Columbia by way of the Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t s . That the company was founded a t l e a s t on i g n o r -ance, i f not on f r a u d u l e n c e , becomes apparent when one r e a d s t h a t t h i s scheme o f f e r e d "the s p e e d i e s t , s a f e s t and most economical r o u t e t o the g o l d d i g g i n g s , through a c o u n t r y uh-e q u a i l e d f o r i t s beauty and the s a l u b r i t y of i t s c l i m a t e " . (13) E a r l y i n 1862 the f i r s t p assengers l e f t E n g l a n d . True t o i t s g u a r a n t e e s , the company t r a n s p o r t e d hundreds of would-be g o l d d i g g e r s t o S t . P a u l , but when t h e y a r r i v e d a t t h a t p o i n t (13) Q u o t a t i o n s from t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s appear i n Wade, M. S. - "The O v e r l a n d e r s " . Memoir I X of A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , 1931. 94. t h e y found no p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e i r j o u r n e y . Most of them r e t u r n e d t o En g l a n d , where some were s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o s e c u t i o n of the company f o r f r a u d . A few hardy i n d i v i -d u a l s , however, d e c i d e d t o j o i n one or o t h e r of s e v e r a l ex-p e d i t i o n s a l r e a d y o r g a n i z e d i n e a s t e r n Canadian or American towns. . I n d i v i d u a l p a r t i e s from Toronto, M o n t r e a l , Queenston and S t . Thomas, and from s e v e r a l towns i n n o r t h e r n New York S t a t e had a l r e a d y a r r i v e d i n F o r t G a r r y o r a t Pembina, and some of the d i s a p p o i n t e d E n g l i s h immigrants t r a v e l l e d n o r t h from St-. P a u l t o j o i n them. From F o r t G a r r y the l a r g e s t of the p a r t i e s of the "Over-l a n d e r s " s e t out on June 5 of 1862. The p a r t y i n c l u d e d one hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t men and two women, one of whom was Mrs. M a r g a r e t McNaughton who l a t e r p u b l i s h e d h er d i a r y of the jou r n e y . (14) The whole e x p e d i t i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s , each under an e l e c t e d c a p t a i n , and each c a p t a i n s e r v e d on a c e n t r a l committee w h i c h drew up r u l e s of t r a v e l and dec-i d e d upon the r o u t e t o be f o l l o w e d . Leader of the whole ex-p e d i t i o n was Thomas McMicking o f Q,ueehston. The r o u t e which t h i s p a r t y f o l l o w e d a c r o s s the p r a i r i e s f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the p a t h t a k e n by s m a l l e r p a r t i e s which had (14) McNaughton, Margaret - " O v e r l a n d t o C a r i b o o " , An E v e n t f u l Journey t o the G o l d F i e l d s i n 1862. The account of the o v e r l a n d e x p e d i t i o n s i n Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op c i t pp. 157 - 140 i s drawn l a r g e l y f r o m t h i s s o u r c e . 95. made the c r o s s i n g i n 1859. (15) From F o r t G a r r y the t r e k l e d t o the South Saskatchewan and a l o n g the bank of t h a t stream, vfading the s m a l l e r streams which f e d t h a t r i v e r , b r i d g i n g those too deep t o wade, the g o l d - s e e k e r s s t r u g g l e d on, Edmon-t o n was reached on J u l y 21, and t h e r e the e x p e d i t i o n was r e -i n f o r c e d by f u r t h e r r e c r u i t s , i n c l u d i n g another woman and her t h r e e c h i l d r e n . A t Edmonton the Red R i v e r c a r t s w h i c h had so f a r t r a n s -p o r t e d the o v e r l a n d e r s , were abandoned, s u p p l i e s were packed upon the backs o f the h o r s e s and mules, and the e x p e d i t i o n s t r u c k n o r t h t o the bank of the At h a b a s c a R i v e r . F o l l o w i n g t h a t stream west the p a r t y reached Tete Jaune Cache on August 26. Food s u p p l i e s were by t h i s time almost exhausted, and the morale of the p a r t y was a t a low ebb. A f t e r c r o s s i n g t h r ough the pass, the main body c o n t i n u e d down the F r a s e r by r a f t , but a s m a l l e r group was sent o v e r l a n d w i t h those h o r s e s which had not been s l a u g h t e r e d , t o s t r i k e the Thompson R i v e r . B oth p a r t i e s s u f f e r e d i n c r e d i b l e h a r d s h i p s and many c a s u a l t i e s . That which came down the F r a s e r made t h i s l a s t stage of t h e i r j o u r n e y on clumsy r a f t s f i t t e d w i t h r o w l o c k s and l o n g sweeps, w i t h w h i c h these c r a f t were s t e e r e d t h r o u g h canyons, and over the t u r b u l e n t r a p i d s o f the Upper F r a s e r . E v e n t u a l l y , on September 11, th e y reached the town o f Quesnelmouth. The men (15) One group, i n c l u d i n g C h a r l e s Cooney and Sam and John Moore had reached F o r t C o l v i l l e on the Columbia i n J u l y 1859. Another group i n the same y e a r i n c l u d e d John J e s s o p , l a t e r t o become S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. 96. ' who had s t r u c k o v e r l a n d from T@te jaune Cache t o the N o r t h Thompson R i v e r a l s o reached t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , but t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s were no l e s s arduous. Two of t h e i r number were drowned i n the r a p i d s o f the Thompson and the p a r t y was p r a c -t i c a l l y w i t h o u t f o o d when i t f i n a l l y a r r i v e d a t Kamloops. The e x p e r i e n c e s of the McMieking e x p e d i t i o n were such as to daunt the s p i r i t s of any who might essay t o f o l l o w . S m a l l e r groups which had s e t out on the h e e l s of t h i s advance p a r t y a l s o ' r e a c h e d t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n (16) but a l l had the same ex-p e r i e n c e s t o r e l a t e . One such s m a l l p a r t y l o s t a l l of i t s s u p p l i e s i n the Grand Canyon n o r t h of P r i n c e George, and t h r e e of i t s f i v e members d i e d of exposure and s t a r v a t i o n . (17) A l l had the same s o r t of s t o r y t o t e l l when they f i n a l l y reached the g o l d f i e l d s ; i t i s f a i r l y i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t h a t none chose to r e t u r n t o E a s t e r n Canada by the r o u t e over w hich t h e y had come. U n t i l the r a i l w a y s cut t h e i r s t e e l p a t h -ways t h r o u g h the R o c k i e s and down the gorges o f the E r a s e r and Thompson r i v e r s , the o n l y p r a c t i c a b l e approach t o B r i t i s h (16) N o t a b l y t h a t o f V i s c o u n t M i l t o n and Dr. W. D. Cheadie who made t h e c r o s s i n g through the Tete Jaime Cache and down the Thompson i n 1863. T h e i r work, "Northwest Passage by Land" g i v e s a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the o v e r -l a n d r o u t e t o t h e C a r i b o o . (17) M i l t o n , V i s c o u n t and Cheadle, Dr. W. D. - "Northwest Passage" pages 280-281. T h i s p a r t y a p p a r e n t l y met a gruesome f a t e , i f the s t o r i e s w hich M i l t o n and Cheadle h e a r d , were a t a l l t r u e . The account of t h e i r p r i v a t i o n s even i n c l u d e s a h i n t o f c a n n i b a l i s m . 97 . Columbia remained the l o n g s e a - r o u t e around the Horn t o the new c i t i e s on the P a c i f i c c o a s t . 98. CHAPTER V I I THE TRAEEIC ON THE ROAD. No account of the roads i n and t o the Cariboo g o l d raines would be complete w i t h o u t a b r i e f account of the t r a f f i c over those r o a d s . The roads were b u i l t f o r the m i n e r s ; t h e y a l s o s erved the purposes of the hundreds of merchants, p a c k e r s , e x p r e s s companies and a l l o t h e r s engaged i n c a t e r i n g t o the needs of those m i n e r s . Vast q u a n t i t i e s of goods o f a l l k i n d s from p i a n o s t o p i n s and even i n c l u d i n g b a l e s of hay, came from San F r a n c i s c o t o V i c t o r i a o r New Westminster, from those p o r t s by r i v e r steamer t o P o r t Douglas o r Hope and thence t o the C a r i b o o mines. (1) A l t h o u g h V i c t o r i a c o n t i n u e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t p o r t of e n t r y f o r these goods the new town of New (1) Whereas t o t a l e x p o r t s from San F r a n c i s c o t o Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1856 t o t a l e d §25,000, the v a l u e of e x p o r t s from t h a t c i t y t o the new B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y i n 1858 amounted t o over §1,500,000, more th a n the v a l u e o f shipments t o any o t h e r port,, e v e n ' i n c l u d i n g New Y o r k . Pemberton, J . D., " F a c t s and F i g u r e s R e l a t i n g t o Vancotiver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia", London 1860, page 69. -- I n 1861, a c c o r d i n g t o Mathew M a c f i e , the t o t a l v a l u e of import s i n t o V i c t o r i a was §2,018,424. Of t h e s e goods more than o n e - h a l f ( v a l u e §1,153,413) came from San F r a n c i s c o . I n 1862, out o f t o t a l i m p o r t s o f §3,550,242 v a l u e , §2,389,861 worth of s u p p l i e s came from the C a l i f o r n i a c i t y . M a c f i e , Mathew - op c i t - page 109. 99. Westminster, even b e f o r e i t s I n c o r p o r a t i o n on J u l y 16, 1860 (2) began to share t o an i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t i n the l u c r a t i v e b u s i n -ess of s h i p p i n g t o the g o l d - f i e l d s . When the town was f i r s t l a i d out by the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s , ( 3 ) h i g h hopes were h e l d by I t s e a r l y r e s i d e n t s , but i n i t s f i r s t few jrears o f growth the town resembled more an American f r o n t i e r town than the w e l l - p l a n n e d model c i t y f o r w h i c h the w o r t h y Sappers had l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s . I n 1862 i t was s t i l l p o p u l -a r l y 'known as «Stumpville*; the i n n s and p u b l i c houses were s t i l l d i r t y and u n c o m f o r t a b l e and the t r a v e l l e r who stopped o v e r n i g h t might complain of the n o i s e s o u t s i d e as r e t u r n i n g m i ners c e l e b r a t e d on the s t r e e t s a l l n i g h t . (4) To a s s i s t i n the p r o f i t a b l e b u s i n e s s of t r a n s p o r t i n g the ( f l o o d o f m i n e r s ' s u p p l i e s which a r r i v e d a t New Westminster : or T a l e , many expr e s s companies soon came i n t o b e i n g . E i r s t j (2) P r o c l a m a t i o n by Governor Douglas, B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , J u l y 19, 1860. (3) . See Appendix S, a copy o f a map showing some of the -ambitious p r o j e c t s o f the Engineers."* T h i s map was g i v e n t o E. C. Magowan of New W e s t m i n s t e r by Joseph Armstrong, whose f a t h e r t o l d him i t was R o y a l E n g i n e e r s ' map. (4) Johnson, R. B., "Very E a r West Indeed", and D u t h i e , Rev. D..-W. - "A Bishop i n the Rough" b o t h , c o n t a i n eloquent d e s c r i p -t i o n s o f , t h e R o y a l C i t y . S t o r i e s o f the S a t u r d a y n i g h t h o r s e -r a c e s on what i s now Columbia S t r e e t were t o l d t o the w r i t e r by Frank B a r b e r , whose f a t h e r o p e r a t e d a s a l o o n i n New West-m i n s t e r d u r i n g the I860's . 100, among them was t h a t o f the famous B i l l y B a l l o u , (5) who e s t -a b l i s h e d h i s s e r v i c e between V i c t o r i a and the E r a s e r r i v e r d i g g i n g s i n June, 1858, Soon a f t e r Kent and Smith's Express w a s - e s t a b l i s h e d , and on the newly opened D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t t r a i l M e s s r s . L i n d h a r t and Bernard began to o p e r a t e . F o r the f i r s t few y e a r s , however, B a l l o u ' s E x p r e s s remained the c h i e f l i n k between the miners and the o u t s i d e w o r l d , and the agency upon wh i c h they depended f o r p a r c e l s e r v i c e , f o r newspapers and l e t t e r s , and by means of which t h e y sent t h e i r t r e a s u r e out of the c o u n t r y . I n 1860 Frank J". Barnard e n t e r e d the f i e l d as a compet-i t o r of B a l l o u ' s , o p e r a t i n g from Y a l e t o the Cariboo mines. ] H i s f i r s t t r i p was made on f o o t through the canyon, c a r r y i n g h i s e x press i n a pack on h i s back. F o r t r a n s p o r t i n g a l e t t e r i t o C a r i b o o , Barnard's f e e was two d o l l a r s , and f o r newspapers' one d o l l a r a p i e c e . I n 186S he e s t a b l i s h e d a pony e x p r e s s between Y a l e and B a r k e r v i l l e and completed arrangements f o r aj c o n n e c t i o n of h i s s e r v i c e w i t h t h a t of the f i r m of D i e t z and N e l s o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a E x p r e s s , w h i c h i n t u r n connected a t V i c t o r i a w i t h the famous W e l l s - F a r g o (5) B i l l y B a l l o u had been an expressman i n C a l i f o r n i a b e f o r e coming'to B r i t i s h Columbia. F o r a b r i e f p e r i o d h i s express s e r v i c e enjoyed a v i r t u a l monopoly o f t r a f f i c i n the canyon and over the Hope-Similkameen t r a i l t o t h e Rock Creek mines. When he r e t i r e d from b u s i n e s s i n October of 186E, he had l e f t , a c c o r d i n g t o one h i s t o r i a n , o n l y "an empty purs e and a broken c o n s t i t u t i o n " . Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op c i t - page 129, S t o r i e s of B i l l y B a l l o u , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f h i s g e n e r o s i t y are t o l d by many of the c h r o n i c l e r s of g o l d r u s h days. (Sq. Walkem, W. W. " S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia". 101. Company. (6) I n t h a t same y e a r of 1862, Barnard secured the govern- I ment c o n t r a c t t o c a r r y the m a i l i n t o the g o l d f i e l d s as f a r j as W i l l i a m ' s Lake, and by thus s u c c e s s f u l ^ u n d e r - b i d d i n g j B a i l o u t s E x p r e s s , p r a c t i c a l l y f o r c e d the l a t t e r f i r m out of 1 b u s i n e s s . As the wagon roads were b u i l t , from T a l e t o C l i n t o n and from L i l l o o e t t o Soda Creek, Barnard's E x p r e s s c o n t i n u e d j t o grow. I n 1863 express'wagons went i n t o s e r v i c e , and i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r the f i r s t stage coach went on the r o a d . An a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n the B r i t i s h Columbian i n May, 1864 (7) d e s c r i b e s the express s e r v i c e t h e n a v a i l a b l e , - by coach from T a l e t o Soda Creek t o connect w i t h the s t e r n wheel steamer ' E n t e r p r i s e ' f o r the remainder of the j o u r n e y to Quesnel. The coaches i n use were f i n e , s i x - h o r s e , f o u r t e e n passenger ( c a r r i a g e s , drawn by f r e s h r e l a y s of h o r s e s every t w e l v e o r t h i r t e e n m i l e s . Each was equipped w i t h a b u r g l a r - p r o o f s a f e , and each c a r r i e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the d r i v e r , a w e l l - a r m e d ) agent of t h e company. Eor many y e a r s Barnard's E x p r e s s , l a t e r known as the B r i t i s h Columbia E x p r e s s , and p o p u l a r l y as the 3. X., oper-a t e d the famous C a r i b o o coaches. W i t h such well-known whips as Steve T i n g l e y and B i l l y Humphreys a t the r e i n s , the t r i p j from T a l e t o Soda Creek c o u l d be made u s u a l l y I n about f o u r \ days. On o c c a s i o n o f emergency t h i s time c o u l d be cut to two (6) A d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbian, February.24, 1864. (7) B r i t i s h Columbian, May 4, 1864. 102. days, and once the down t r i p was completed i n the almost i n -c r e d i b l e time of t h i r t y hours f o r the three-hundred and e i g h t y m i l e s . (8) W i t h the s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the t w i c e - w e e k l y stagecoach s e r v i c e t o Soda Greek from Y a l e , passenger and express s e r v i c e was more t h a n adequate. F o r the more p r o s a i c ' t a s k o f h a u l i n g s u p p l i e s i n t o the C a r i b o o , s c o r e s of f i r m s \ of p a c k e r s o f f e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s . U n t i l 1864 the Watson \ B r o t h e r s and John MacDonald, among o t h e r s , were t r a n s p o r t i n g goods t o C l i n t o n over the H a r r i s o n Road at a c o s t of twenty cents p e r pound of merchandise, t o w h i c h must be added the t o l l p a i d a t L i l l o o e t . W i t h the c o m p l e t i o n o f the highway from Y a l e t o Soda Creek, s c o r e s of f i r m s be^an t o op e r a t e on on t h a t r o a d . Where mule t r a i n s f o r m e r l y had t o i l e d , f i n e [ f r e i g h t wagons now c l a t t e r e d a l o n g . Dustan and J e r r o l d , John i Q a r r a g e r , Edwards and Company and D. D. Duhig were a d v e r t i s i n g (8) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . - page 131. To the miners w a i t i n g f o r t h e i r p r e c i o u s m a i l , the BX was viewed i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . James Anderson, the poet of the Cariboo, mentions the E x p r e s s on two o c c a s i o n s . I n February, 1864, he vncites t o h i s f r i e n d , Sawney, Your l e t t e r cam by the E x p r e s s , l i g h t s h i l l i n ' s c a r r i a g e - n a e t h i n * l e s s , . . Y o u ' l l t h i n k t h i s awfu' - ' t i s , nae doot -(A dram's twa s h i l l i n ' s h e r e - a b o o t ) ; I'm sure, i f Tamie Ha'. - the buddy,. Was here w i * h i s t h r e e - l e g g e d cuddy He h a u l s a h i n t him w i * a t e t h e r , He'd beat the E x p r e s s ^ f a i t h , a* t h e g i t h e r . To. speak o'f i n ' t h e ' t r u e s t ' w a y . " S i s B a r n a r d ' s C a r i b o o D e l a y . I n June, 1868, however, Anderson makes a c o n c e s s i o n , Your l e t t e r s , Sawney, are a boon And postage now i s l e s s And B a r n a r d ' s C a r i b o u 'Delay' Can f a i r l y c l a i m E x p r e s s . Sawney's L e t t e r s , Or C a r i b o o Rhymes, by James Anderson, P h o t o s t a t copies i n L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , Vancouver,B.C. 103. i n V i c t o r i a papers t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s f o r the t r a n s p o r t of f r e i g h t t o the C a r i b o o mines. (9) Though t h e i r charges were o n l y l i t t l e l e s s than those of the o l d e r f i r m s , h a u l i n g over the o l d e r r o u t e by the l a k e s , and a l t h o u g h t o l l s must be p a i d on the road and over the b r i d g e s a t Spuzzum and a t Sper.ce's B r i d g e , (10) ' n e v e r t h e l e s s these packers were a b l e t o guarantee s h i p p e r s a g a i n s t l o s s or delay,, and c o u l d always d e l i v e r goods i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f the time i n v o l v e d i n shipment through P o r t • D o u g l a s . For t h a t r e a s o n , the l i o n ' s share of the t r a f f i c was r o u t e d through T a l e . F o r y e a r s the h i g h , covered f r e i g h t ; i • • ! wagons, h a u l e d by, e i g h t - t e n - o r twelve-mule teams were a j f a m i l i a r s i g h t on the Cariboo Highway. I One can h a r d l y conclude even a b r i e f account of the roads i n t o the C a r i b o o w i t h o u t a t l e a s t m e n t i o n i n g two r a t h e r b i z a r r e experiments i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w h i c h were made on B r i t i s h Columbia's roads,. I n May of 1862, Frank L a u m e i s t e r , < packer and merchant of New W e s t m i n s t e r , imported I n t o the c o l o n y a " s t r i n g " o f twenty-one camels, (11) which were a t once sent t o Douglas. A l t h o u g h the camels c o u l d c a r r y a burden a t l e a s t t w i c e as g r e a t as t h a t o f a mule, and a l t h o u g h 1 the o p e r a t o r s had p r a c t i c a l l y no f o r a g e problem, t h e r e were 1 o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s . The r o c k y t r a i l s between Douglas and (9) A d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l 1864 and f o l l o w i n g . (10) See Chapter IV above. (11) B r i t i s h Columbian. I s s u e s of May, 1862. As would be expected, t h i s was an event of tremendous I n t e r e s t i n New Westminster. 104. L i l l o o e t were too much f o r the s o f t f e e t of the camels; i n . a d d i t i o n the u n f a m i l i a r odor o f the strange b e a s t s wrought ',. havoc i n every mule-or h o r s e - t r a i n w h i c h they happened t o meet. A f t e r one seasons t r i a l the camels were d i s p o s e d of by t h e i r owners. (12) I n 1864 another experiment I n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was begun when E. 0. J a n i o n , W. L. Green, Henry Rhodes and Joseph T r u t c h s e c u r e d a c h a r t e r t o i n t r o d u c e steam t r a c t i o n engines on the roads o f the c o l o n y . (13) The o r i g i n a l company was unable t o f u l f i l the terms of the c h a r t e r and I t s r i g h t s were bought i n 1870 by F. J . B a r n a r d and J . G. Beedy of Van W i n k l e . With the energy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s e n i o r p a r t n e r i n t h i s f i r m , (14) the scheme was pushed t o a c o n c l u s i o n , the t r a c t i o n engines i m p o r t e d from S c o t l a n d , and one went i n t o s e r v i c e from y a l e . I t s f i r s t t r i p was i t s l a s t ; machine r e p a i r s were too (, c o s t l y , and i n any event the mules and horses a l r e a d y i n s e r v i c e c o u l d h a u l goods more q u i c k l y and more c h e a p l y . Some of the engines found s e r v i c e as s t a t i o n a r y engines I n the c o l o n y ; the r e s t were sent back t o "'their m a n u f a c t u r e r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t A l f r e d Waddington a l s o dreamed of t r a c t i o n e n gines on h i s Bute I n l e t r oad and a p p l i e d I n (12) A few were t u r n e d l o o s e i n the c o u n t r y behind the p r e s e n t c i t y of Kamloops, and some of them at l e a s t , were s t i l l a l i v e f o r t y y e a r s l a t e r . (15) P r o s p e c t u s of the company was i s s u e d January 1865. Copy i s i n P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. (14) See page 100 above. 105. February of 1867 f o r p e r m i s s i o n . t o complete the road f o r t h a t purpose. (15) « « • « • The most p r e c i o u s cargo which e i t h e r the express compan-i e s o r the f r e i g h t men c o u l d h a n d l e , was of c o u r s e , the g o l d shipment from the mines. I n the e a r l y r u s h , the t a s k of g e t t i n g t h e i r g o l d out o f ' t h e c o u n t r y had t o be undertaken by the miners t h e m s e l v e s , but i n many cases the p r e c i o u s dust was i n t r u s t e d t o B a l l o u or t o B a r n a r d f o r s a f e d e l i v e r y a t V i c t o r i a . Even Governor Douglas h i m s e l f seemed t o f e e l t h a t i f the f l o w of g o l d from the i n t e r i o r s h o u l d r e a c h h i g h p r o -p o r t i o n s , a more s a t i s f a c t o r y method of e n s u r i n g s a f e d e l i v e r y of the t r e a s u r e would have t o be found, f o r the r e s o u r c e s of the express companies were not s u f f i c i e n t e i t h e r t o i n s u r e the s h i p p e r a g a i n s t l o s s , o r t o t a k e adequate measures to prevent t h a t l o s s . Consequently the Governor, sought a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e t o e s t a b l i s h a " g o l d e s c o r t " . By the time he had r e c e i v e d the a u t h o r i z a t i o n the miners them-s e l v e s were l e a v i n g the c o u n t r y , and the e s c o r t , even i f Douglas had been a b l e t o f i n d the r i g h t men t o o p e r a t e i t , was no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y . (16) (15) H i s a p p l i c a t i o n and the l e t t e r r e j e c t i n g h i s p r o p o s a l are i n Lands and Works Department - Correspondence, 1867. See page 85 above. (16) Bouglas t o Bulwer L y t t o n , Despatches t o London, October 11, 1858. 106. The s t r i k e i n the Rock Creek and Similkameen c o u n t r y i n the summer of 1860 once more brought to the f o r e the q u e s t i o n of a government g o l d e s c o r t . I n August of t h a t y e a r , B a l l o u ' s express on one t r i p brought out t o Hope, §50,000 i n g o l d dust from t h a t r e g i o n . (17) I n t h a t same y e a r the s t r i k e a t K e i t h l e y Creek was r e p o r t e d and i n the s p r i n g of 1861, w i t h the s t r i k e s a t W i l l i a m ' s Creek and A n t l e r Creek, the r e a l r u s h was on. I n J u l y of 1861, Governor Douglas bowed t o the demand and e s t a b l i s h e d the o f f i c i a l g o l d e s c o r t , by means of which the government undertook the t r a n s p o r t o f g o l d , f r o m Quesnel, g o l d would be s h i p p e d t o New Westminster a t the r a t e o f 1 s h i l l i n g p e r ounce, o r from W i l l i a m ' s Lake f o r 10 d. p e r ounce, prom L i l l o o e t the charge was 6 d., and from Douglas 3 d . At New Westminster the government agreed t o h o l d the t r e a s u r e i n s a f e k e e p i n g f o r a f u r t h e r charge of 3 d, per ounce of gold.(18) I n many ways t h i s arrangement seemed h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the m i n e r s ; c e r t a i n l y the charges were not e x c e s s i v e . But i n the a l l - i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r of g u a r a n t e e i n g s a f e d e l i v e r y , and i n s u r i n g the s h i p p e r a g a i n s t l o s s , the governor would make no committment. As a r e s u l t , a l t h o u g h the e s c o r t was e s t a b l i s h e d , and made i t s f i r s t t r i p i n August 1861, (19) i t was never p o p u l a r w i t h the m i n e r s . L a c k i n g the guarantee of i n s u r a n c e , (17) B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , August 7, 1860. (18) Announcement i n B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 25, 1861. (19) B r i t i s h Columbian - I s s u e s of J u l y , August and September 1861. 107. the miners s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t o hoard t h e i r g o l d and b r i n g i t out themselves, o r send i t by the express companies. S e v e r a l more t r i p s were made by t h e e s c o r t , but i n a l l o n l y about §50,000 i n dust was brought o u t . The e s c o r t corps must have p r e s e n t e d a handsome s i g h t on the road; well-mounted, w e l l -armed and s m a r t l y - u n i f o r m e d , t h e y rode s u r r o u n d i n g the l i g h t c a r t s on which were p l a c e d the heavy iron-bound c h e s t s f o r the t r e a s u r e . (20) Thomas Elwyn, e x - j u s t i c e of the c o l o n y , was the command of the t r o o p , w i t h George Hankin as h i s second-in-command. The whole e n t e r p r i s e , i t i s r e p o r t e d , c o s t the government some §30,000 and the t o t a l revenue was perhaps §300. (21) No e s c o r t o p e r a t e d i n 1862, as was perhaps t o be expected. P o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t , s e v e r a l b r u t a l a t t a c k s were made on miners l e a v i n g the C a r i b o o w i t h l a r g e sacks of d u s t . Three miners w i t h a "poke" of'§12,000 were murdered i n J u l y j u s t below W i l l i a m s ' s L a k e , and j u s t a few weeks l a t e r a W e l l s -j a r g o agent was k i l l e d and robbed a day's journey out of R i c h f i e l d . (22) Once more the need f o r a "gold e s c o r t became apparent, a t l e a s t t o the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the c o l o n y , and once more the corps was sent out on the r o a d s . I n June of 1863 Thomas Elwyn a g a i n l e d out h i s men. T h i s time the r a t e s charged (20) B r i t i s h Columbian, I s s u e s a l r e a d y n o t e d . (21) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op c i t - page 136. (22) D u t h i e , op c i t . The Rev. Dr. Sheepshanks was aghast a t the.summary c o n v i c t i o n and e x e c u t i o n , on v e r y f l i m s y e v i d e n c e , of the two men charged w i t h t h i s l a t t e r c r i m e . 108. were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r , but once a g a i n the government r e -f u s e d t o a c cept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l o s s . Once a g a i n t 11© 3?0"11C© f o l l o w e d was the D o u g l a s - L i l l o o e t road; once a g a i n the s e r -v i c e was so much s l o w e r than t h a t o f f e r e d by the e x p r e s s companies t h a t t h i s time as b e f o r e , the m iners r e f u s e d t o p a t r o n i z e the e s c o r t . I n f a c t , even the manager of MacDonald's Bank a t W i l l i a m * s Creek r e f u s e d to s h i p h i s d e p o s i t s by the g o l d e s c o r t . (S3) On i t s f i r s t t r i p i n June the e s c o r t brought out'some $40,000 i n g o l d ; a t the same time Barnard's E x p r e s s brought out a t l e a s t t w i c e t h a t sum. I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of t h e p r e c i o u s m e t a l s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t o guard i t themselves r a t h e r t h a n t r u s t i t t o an agency which would not guarantee i t s s a f e t y . F i n a l l y , a t the end of the season, when the balance of the e n t e r p r i s e was s t r u c k , i t was found t h a t the e s c o r t had c o s t the c o l o n y some $60,000, w i t h a t o t a l revenue of but $9,000. The a u t h o r i t i e s at llew Westmin-s t e r and V i c t o r i a had the good sense not t o p e r s i s t i n t h i s c o s t l y experiment and the handsome uni f o r m s of the g o l d e s c o r t v a n i s h e d from the roads of B r i t i s h Columbia. Much has been w r i t t e n of the f a b u l o u s amounts of g o l d brought out of the I n t e r i o r by t h i s and o t h e r a g e n c i e s ; the t r u e f i g u r e s w i l l of course never be known. A miner r e t u r n i n g w i t h h i s sack of dust was q u i t e n a t u r a l l y r e t i c e n t about the (23) B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 29, 1863. 109. v a l u e of h i s pack. (24) V a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s however have "been made. A c c o r d i n g t o A l e x a n d e r c. Anderson, the W e l l s - F a r g o o f f i c e s I n V i c t o r i a handled f o r e x p o r t , i n the f i v e y e a r s from 1858 t o 1862, a t o t a l sum of $6,656,486 i n g o l d . (25) 1863 was t h e peak y e a r , the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e y e a r s p r o b a b l y showed amounts o n l y a l i t t l e l e s s . Mathew M a c f i e found t h a t i n the same p e r i o d , W e l l s - F a r g o , Macdonald and Company, the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Bank of B r i t i s h N o r t h America, the Hudson's Bay Company and o t h e r a g e n c i e s , e x p o r t e d from the c o l o n y , g o l d t o the t o t a l v a l u e o f §10,200,183, w h i l e he e s t -imated t h a t a t l e a s t another §5,000,000 was t a k e n out p r i v a t e -l y by s u c c e s s f u l m i n e r s . (26) The o f f i c i a l f i g u r e f o r the ye a r of 1863 was §3,913,563, a l t h o u g h u n o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s have put the f i g u r e as h i g h as §6,000,000. (27)- T h i s much a t l e a s t i s known; a mort of t r e a s u r e came down the Cariboo r o a d s . (24) The r e f r e s h m e n t s i n the mi l e - h o u s e s a l o n g the wa.y, l o o s e n e d the tongues of some, w i t h d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s . Many managed t o c a r r y t h e i r dust s a f e l y as f a r as V i c t o r i a , o n l y to f a l l i n t o the snares and p i t f a l l s of t h a t w i c k e d c i t y . (25) The f i g u r e s were s u p p l i e d to him by Mr. F. Garesche, company agent a t V i c t o r i a . The t a b u l a t e d sums were 1858 - - - - - § 337,765. 1859 -§1,211,339. 1860 - - - - - - -§1,303,329. " - 1861 §1,636,870. 1862 - - - - - - - - - - -§2,167,183. Anderson, A. C. - " H i s t o r y of the Northwest C o a s t " , Appendix F. Typed copy of o r i g i n a l essay i n A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. (26.) M a c f i e , M. - op c i t - page 109. (27) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op c i t , page 116. 110. " Of the many p i c t u r e s q u e i n d i v i d u a l s who shared i n t h a t t r e a s u r e and of the c o u n t l e s s l u c k l e s s ones who d i d n o t , a s e p a r a t e s t o r y s h o u l d be t o l d . The f o u n d a t i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y were l a i d by the men of the Cariboo, ; and they l i v e d i t s most romantic c h a p t e r . Many of them, a l t h o * f drawn t o B r i t i s h Columbia by the l u r e of g o l d , s t a y e d i n the j c o l o n y to become w e a l t h y by o t h e r means. Some amassed f o r t u n e s i and q u i c k l y l o s t them; some l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s upon w h i c h the p r o v i n c e now depends. Some became j the f i r s t f a r m e r s ; W i l l i a m Ladner, f o r example, who s e r v e d I as a p a c k e r d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the g o l d r u s h , then r e t u r n e d t o t a k e up broad a c r e s of the l u s h d e l t a l a n d a t the mouth of the E r a s e r -which he had noted even on h i s f i r s t t r i p t o the r i v e r . L i k e him was C h a r l e s Augustus S e m i i n , who gave up s c h o o l t e a c h i n g i n New England t o j o i n the r u s h i n '62, and a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s i n the 1 C a r i b o o , r e t u r n e d to the f e r t i l e Buonaparte V a l l e y , took l a n d t h e r e and became "the L a i r d of Cache Creek". Somewhat s i m i l a r was the s t o r y of Tom Cunningham. A r r i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a i n J u l y 1859, he was soon on h i s way to the upper c o u n t r y . From P o r t Douglas t o A n t l e r Creek he walked t h a t f a l l , w i t h a n i n e t y pound pack on h i s back. (28) (28) The c o n t e n t s of h i s pack he s o l d i n the Cariboo a t a. handsome p r o f i t . R e s i d e n t s o f New Westminster who remembered him and h i s son James, c l a i m e d t h a t the cash proceeds of t h a t s a l e were s t i l l i n the f a m i l y p o s s e s s i o n . 111. F a i l i n g t o make h i s f o r t u n e a t the mines, young Cunningham r e t u r n e d t o the c i t y of New Westminster and from then u n t i l h i s death h i s name i s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the development of t h a t c i t y . There he founded the hardware b u s i n e s s which s t i l l b ears h i s name, became a h o l d e r o f e x t e n s i v e r e a l - e s t a t e e s t a b l i s h e d the Pelham Gardens f o r the c u l t u r e of f r u i t and was one of the founders o f the R o y a l A g r i c u l t u r a l and I n d u s t -r i a l S o c i e t y . Many were l e s s f o r t u n a t e than those; John Jessop, f o r example, who came o v e r l a n d from F o r t Garry i n 1659, and be-came i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n , miner, p a c k e r , c l e r k , t y p e s e t t e r , p u b l i s h e r , s c h o o l t e a c h e r and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of S c h o o l s f o r the p r o v i n c e . I n 1868, f r i e n d s i n V i c t o r i a had to arrange a b e n e f i t c i r c u s performance f o r him. More s p e c t a c u l a r I s the s t o r y of the f o r t u n e s o f " C a r i b o o " Cameron, who was r e p o r t e d t o have made §300,000 from h i s c l a i m s , and who r e t i r e d from the C a r i b o o i n 1863. I n 1888 " C a r i b o o " Cameron was back a t the mines, d e s t i t u t e . (29) More r a p i d was the r i s e and f a l l o f the l u c k y s t a r o f the famous B i l l y B a r k e r , who made and spent the l a r g e s t share I n a mine which y i e l d e d §600., 000. I n 1866, when the mine c l o s e d down he was "broke" and^a p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n was t a k e n t o send him out . I n 1894 he d i e d i n the O l d Men's Home a t V i c t o r i a . (50) (29) Not so h i s p a r t n e r Robert Stevenson, who i n v e s t e d h i s w e a l t h i n C h i l l i w a c k r e a l e s t a t e . (Walkem W. W. - " S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h C o lumbia"). (30) L e b o u r d a i s , L o u i s - " B i l l y B a r k e r of B a r k e r v i l l e " . B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . J u l y 1937. 112. More romantic was the s t o r y o f Joanna Maguire, an I r i s h -woman of bad h a b i t s and i r a s c i b l e d i s p o s i t i o n who was one of Y a l e ' s many problem c a s e s . The legends about here were num-erous, among them one t h a t she was t h e l o s t daughter of Dan 0' Connell,. "the Great L i b e r a t o r " . (31) Perhaps, i n s t e a d o f w r i t i n g of these c o m p a r a t i v e l y w e l l -known i n d i v i d u a l s , a s t o r y c o u l d be made of the h i g h s p i r i t and dangerous deeds o f the thousands of l e s s famous men and women who t r a v e l l e d the ro a d t o the g o l d f i e l d s , met v a r y i n g f o r t u n e and l i v e d t h e i r l i v e s i n comparative o b s c u r i t y . A l l had c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s t o r y so f u l l of romance, so r i c h i n human i n t e r e s t , t h a t I t s h o u l d be t o l d a g a i n and y e t a g a i n -the s t o r y of the "many weary m i l e s on the road t o C a r i b o o " . (31) H i g g i n s , D. W., "The M y s t i c S p r i n g " . Toronto 1904. Walkem, W. W., op c i t . ~ , 115. APPENDICES Appendix A - - - - - Table of d i s t a n c e s from V i c t o r i a on the H a r r i s o n r o u t e t o L i l l o o e t , as p u b l i s h e d i n the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e f o r September 29, 1858. Comparative d i s t a n c e s on o t h e r r o a d s . Appendix B - - - - - L i s t s of p r i c e s of common a r t i c l e s i n the • C a r i b o o , a t s e v e r a l times d u r i n g the g o l d r u s h . Appendix C - - - - - Sample of l o a n announcement, dated J u l y 20, 1860 and a p p e a r i n g i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t on f o l l o w i n g d a t e s . Appendix D - - - - - Copy of c o n t r a c t between R i c h a r d Clement Moody R. S., C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works, and Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r o a d be-tween L i l l o o e t and A l e x a n d r i a , dated March 24, 1862. Appendix E - - - - - Map of e a r l y New Westminster, from o r i g -i n a l i n p o s s e s s i o n o f Mrs. E. C. Magowan of New, West-m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia. Appendix E - - - - - Map of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h roads and t r a i l s shown i n i n k . 114. APPENDIX A TABLE-OF DISTANCES I . On the H a r r i s o n - D o u g l a s r o u t e , as r e p o r t e d I n the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e , September 29, 1858. V i c t o r i a t o Sandheads 65 m i l e s Sandheads t o L a n g l e y 35 m i l e s L a n g l e y to H a r r i s o n R i v e r 30 " H a r r i s o n R i v e r 10 " H a r r i s o n Lake 40 " A i n s w o r t h I n l e t t o P t . Douglas 2 i " T o t a l m i l e a g e by boat 182-g- m i l e s P o r t Douglas t o L i l l o o e t Lake 38 « L i l l o o e t Lake 20 » Pemberton to Anderson Lake 30 " Anderson Lake 19 n Portage t o Seto n Lake i | - " Seton Lake 21, » Seton Lake t o L i l l o o e t 3 " T o t a l m i l e a g e by the l a k e s 132s m i l e s T o t a l d i s t a n c e 515 m i l e s . 115. 2. On t l i e H a r r i s o n - D o u g l a s r o u t e , as on government maps today. From P o r t Douglas " Tenass Lake " P o r t Pemberton " Anderson Wapping *» F l u s h i n g ** Seton to Tenass Lake M P o r t Pemberton " Anderson " Wapping " F l u s h i n g " Seton " L i l l o o e t 33 3/4 m i l e s 13 « 24 3/4 « 15 » 1 i 16 4 T o t a l d i s t a n c e 108 m i l e s Road covered a d i s t a n c e of 108 m i l e s , c r o s s i n g en r o u t e s i x t y - t w o b r i d g e s o f from t w e l v e t o e i g h t y f e e t i n l e n g t h . 3. On the C a r i b o o Highway. T a l e t o Spuzzum 12 m i l e s Spuzzum u Boston Bar 12 n B o s t o n Bar 15 L y t t o n 29 « L y t t o n « Spence's B r i d g e 29 n S pence 5s B r i d g e C l i n t o n 57 n C l i n t o n « A l e x a n d r i a 160 n A l e x a n d r i a n Q u e s n e l 35 « Quesnel w B a r k e r v i l l e 43 4, R a n a l d MacDonald's t r a i l ( B e l l a C oola t o W i l l i a m ' s Lake - - - 275 m i l e s . 5. Waddington*s t r a i l (Bute I n l e t t o W i l l i a m ' s Lake - 234 m i l e s n s . APPENDIX B. I n view o f the f a c t t h a t the h i g h p r i c e s of s u p p l i e s was i n most cases the reason f o r the r o a d - b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h a t t h i s f a c t had been s t r e s s e d a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t h i s account of C a r i b o o r o a d s , a few p r i c e s are here s e t down. • (1) I n June of 1858, the f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s were b e i n g charged a t S a i l o r ' s B ar, some t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s above Hope on the E r a s e r . F l o u r - - - - - - - - - - $ 1 . 0 0 p e r pound. Sugar - - - - - - - - - - $2.00 per pound. Bacon - - - - - - - - - - $1.00 p e r pound. Tea - - - - - - - - - - - $4.00 per pound. A miner's p i c k s o l d f o r $6.00 and a r o c k e r i r o n f e t c h e d $30.00. (A r o c k e r i r o n was a p i e c e of c a s t m e t a l u s u a l l y some 20 i n c h e s by 18 i n c h e s , p e r f o r a t e d w i t h •§- i n c h h o l e s , which the miner i n s t a l l e d at the bottom o f h i s s l u i c e box. The i r o n c o s t 2 s h i l l i n g s i n E n g l a n d , and $2.50 at San F r a n c i s c o ) . These p r i c e s were r e p o r t e d by Kinahan C o r n w a l l i s I n h i s work "The New E l Dorado, or B r i t i s h Columbia". The "Times" c o r r e s p o n d e n t , Donald F r a s e r , r e p o r t e d the same p r i c e s , which are quoted i n - H a z l i t t , W. C., " B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d " . 117. (2) I n the w i n t e r o f 1858 - 1859, the f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s were charged a t B r i d g e R i v e r F l o u r - - - - - - - - - $ . 5 0 p e r pound Bacon - - - - - - - - - - - - - $ .75 " » B u t t e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - $ 1.25 " » B l a n k e t s _ _ _ _ _ _ $25.00 ** p a i r . The lower p r i c e s and the f a c t t h a t such a l u x u r y as b u t t e r c o u l d now be o b t a i n e d was p r o b a b l y due to the f a c t t h a t steamboats were by t h i s time making f a i r l y r e g u l a r t r i p s t o Hope and even sometimes t o Y a l e . These p r i c e s a re g i v e n by the V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e f o r December 21, 1858. (3) When the s t r i k e s were made i n the Cariboo c o u n t r y i n 1862 and the c o s t s of the added p a c k i n g a l s o p a i d , p r i c e s r o s e t o an even h i g h e r l e v e l . A t W i l l i a m ' s Creek i n 1862, the f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s were b e i n g o b t a i n e d (when the goods c o u l d be o b t a i n e d a t a l l ) . F l o u r - - - - - - - - - - - - $ 2.00 per pound. B u t t e r _ _ _ - - - _ _ - - - $ 5.00 p e r pound. Matches - - - - - - - - - - - $ 1.50 per box. P o t a t o e s - - - - - - - - - - $115.00 p e r cwt., but r a r e l y o b t a i n a b l e . N a i l s - - - - - - - - - - - - $ 5.00 per pound. These p r i c e s a re g i v e n by v a r i o u s c o r r e s p o n d e n t s whose l e t t e r s were p u b l i s h e d i n the ' B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ' i n i s s u e s o f 1862. 118. (4) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare these p r i c e s w i t h those charged by merchants i n Washington T e r r i t o r y . Gold was d i s c o v e r e d i n the W a l l a W a l l a d i s t r i c t . i n the w i n t e r of 1861-1862 and a minor r u s h ensued. I n Fe b r u a r y o f 1862, the f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s were charged a t F l o r e n c e . f l o u r - - - - - - - - - - - § 1 . 0 0 per pound. Bacon - - - - - - § 1 . 2 5 " " S u t t e r - - - - _ _ _ § 3.00 » »' Sugar - - - - - - - - - - §1.25 " « Tea - - - - - - - - - - - § 2.50 " " Gumboots - - - - - - - - - §30.00 " p a i r . These p r i c e s a re g i v e n i n G i l b e r t , F., " H i s t o r i c Sketches of W a l l a W a l l a , Whitman, Columbia and G a r f i e l d C o u n t i e s " , page 227. (5) A f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n of the highway through the canyon, the f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s p r e v a i l e d i n the Ca r i b o o I n 1863 and 1864. F l o u r - - - - - - - - - - § .32 t o §.35 p e r pound. Bacon - - - - - - - - - - § .50 to§ .75 per pound. B u t t e r - - - - - - - - - -§1.25 per pound. suga r - - - - - - - - - - § .50 t o § .60 p e r pound. Tea - - - - - - - - - - - §1.00 t o §1.50 p e r pound. These p r i c e s are quoted i n Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op c i t page 111. j 119. | j ( APPENDIX C. I SAMPLE OE LOAN ANNOUNCEMENT | PUBLIC NOTICE . i j GOVERNMENT LOAN ! I t b e i n g i n t e n d e d t o o b t a i n a Loan i n a i d o f Revenue f o r the p r o s e c u t i o n of P u b l i c Works of acknowledged p u b l i c u t i l i t y , and t o the amount i n the p r e s e n t y e a r , of£25,000,- £5,000 b e i n g r e q u i r e d on the 25th of August n e x t , and £5,000 monthly a f t e r -wards . To be r e p a i d by the Government C l a s s 1 -£1,000 on the 30th o f June 1861. 1,500 on the 31st of Dec. 1861. 2,000 on the 30th o f June 1862. 2,500 on,the 3 1st of Dec. 1862. 3,000 on the 30th of June 1863. 4,000 on the 31st of Dec. 1863. 5,000 on the 30th of June 1864. 6,000 on the 31st of Dec. 1864. Tenders are i n v i t e d f o r e i t h e r the whole o r any p a r t of s a i d l o a n o r . . a p p l i c a t i o n f o r any number (however s m a l l ) of debentures i n e i t h e r c l a s s ; p a r t i e s t o name t h e i r o f f e r s -under e i t h e r o r b o t h of the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s - each debenture b e i n g for£50. 1. Supposing t h a t the Debentures s h a l l bear i n t e r e s t a t the r a t e of 6 p e r cent p e r annum, pa y a b l e h a l f - y e a r l y , on s u c c e s s i v e S l s t s December and 30ths June. Tenderer t o s t a t e WHAT CASH he w i l l g i v e (and a t wh i c h of the dates proposed by » 2 -» 3 -" 4. -» 5 _ » 6 -n 7 _ « 8 -120. the Government f o r r e c e i v i n g money) f o r each £100 worth of Debentures. 2. Supposing Tender t o g i v e p a r , or £100 cash f o r each 100 w o r t h of Debentures; Tenderer t o s t a t e WHAT RATE 0E INTEREST (payable t o him h a l f - y e a r l y ) he i s p r e p a r e d t o accept f o r each s a i d £100. •Terms to be s t a t e d under each c l a s s o f f e r e d i n . Tenders ( i n w r i t i n g ) w i l l be r e c e i v e d by me, up t o noon on the 1 5 t h o f August n e x t . T r e a s u r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y 20, 1860. W. D r i s c o l l Gosset, T r e a s u r e r . ' P u b l i c N o t i c e i n B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t * J u l y 51, 1860 and f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s . 121. APPENDIX D. COPY W. Gap e l M o r r i s o n , A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l March 24,1862. Memorandum of agreement made t h i s 24th day of March, one thousand e i g h t hundred and s i x t y two. Betvreen R i c h a r d Clement Moody, C o l o n e l i n the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s and C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, A c t i n g on b e h a l f o f the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia of the f i r s t p a r t and Gustavus B l i n Wright of Douglas i n B r i t i s h Columbia a f o r e s a i d o f the o t h e r p a r t : 7/hereas t h e s a i d Gustavus B l i n Wright h a t h a p p l i e d t o the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia t o gra n t him the p r i v i l e g e of making a waggon r o a d from a p o i n t oil F r a s e r R i v e r i m m e d i a t e l y o p p o s i t e the town of L i l l o o e t .in B r i t i s h Columbia a f o r e s a i d , ' to t he F r a s e r R i v e r a t A l e x a n d r i a i n the same c o l o n y d u r i n g the p e r i o d of one y e a r from t h e date h e r e o f ; And h a t h a l s o a p p l i e d f o r l i c e n s e and a u t h o r i t y t o r a i s e and l e v y a t o l l o f one h a l f p e n n y p e r pound a v o i r d u p o i s upon a l l goods c a r r i e d on o r a l o n g any p a r t o f the s a i d r o a d , o t h e r t h a n goods and c h a t t e l s c a r r i e d a c r o s s the s a i d road o r b e l o n g i n g t o o r used i n the s e r v i c e of the s a i d Government; And a t o l l of one* s h i l l i n g p e r head on a l l c a t t l e of a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s n o t be-l o n g i n g t o or used i n the s e r v i c e of the Government; and p a s s i n g o r c a r r i e d a l o n g , (but not a c r o s s ) any p a r t of the * O r i g i n a l l y two s h i l l i n g s p e r head. Amended and i n i t i a l e d by R. c. Moody. 122. s a i d road f o r a term of f i v e y e a r s from the due c o m p l e t i o n i n manner h e r e i n a f t e r mentioned of the s a i d road or o t h e r e a r l i e r -p e r i o d as h e r e i n a f t e r p r e s c r i b e d ; And whereas the s a i d Government h a t h agreed t o g r a n t the s a i d p r i v i l e g e s upon the terms and c o n d i t i o n s h e r e i n a f t e r more p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p r e s s e d . Now these p r e s e n t s w i t n e s s t h a t the s a i d R i c h a r d Clement Moody, a c t i n g on b e h a l f of the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i n con-s i d e r a t i o n of the agreement h e r e i n a f t e r on t h e p a r t of the s a i d Gustavus B l i n Wright c o n t a i n e d hereby agrees as f o l l o w s ; F i r s t - That a f t e r t h e exact t e r m i n i and g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f the r o a d have been f i x e d by and t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n manner h e r e i n a f t e r a p p e a r i n g and s e c u r i t y s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the s a i d Government g i v e n f o r the due e x e c u t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n t h e r e o f as h e r e i n a f t e r p r e s c r i b e d , the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s , s h a l l have, possess and e n j o y d u r i n g the p e r i o d of one y e a r from the date h e r e o f , f u l l power and a u t h o r i t y t o c o n s t r u c t and make a good and s u b s t a n t i a l waggon road of the u n i f o r m w i d t h , f o r the whole l e n g t h , w i t h i n the time i n the manner a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and s u b j e c t as h e r e i n a f t e r more p a r t i c u l a r l y mentioned, commencing from the s a i d p o i n t on the F r a s e r R i v e r o p p o s i t e L i l l o o e t t o the o t h e r p o i n t on the F r a s e r R i v e r a t A l e x a n d r i a , the exact p o s i t i o n s of which p o i n t s s h a l l be f i x e d by the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works as h e r e i n a f t e r mentioned. Upon the c o m p l e t i o n o f the. s a i d waggon road o r the f i r s t f i f t y 1S3. m i l e s t h e r e o f , w i t h i n , the t i m e , i n the manner and t o the s a t -i s f a c t i o n h e r e i n a f t e r mentioned w i t h r e s p e c t t o the same r e s -p e c t i v e l y , the Governor f o r the time b e i n g of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the name of the Queen and by a l l o t h e r and proper means and forms s h a l l and w i l l g r a n t unto the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s , a C h a r t e r o r Grant g i v i n g power and a u t h o r i t y , from the due c o m p l e t i o n of whole of the s a i d waggon road o r o t h e r p o r t i o n t h e r e o f as h e r e i n -a f t e r mentioned i n manner a f o r e s a i d f o r and d u r i n g the term of f i v e y e a r s - n e x t e n s u i n g a f t e r such t o t a l o r p a r t i a l c o m p l e t i o n as a f o r e s a i d , t o ask, demand, sue f o r , r e c e i v e and r e c o v e r by way o f t o l l from a l l persons whatsoever the sums f o l l o w i n g ( t h a t i s t o say) F o r every pound a v o i r d u p o i s of goods, merch-a n d i s e , s t o r e s , p r o d u c t i o n s , and c h a t t e l s o t h e r than those be-l o n g i n g t o o r employed i n the s e r v i c e of the Government, t a k e n or c a r r i e d a l o n g (but not a c r o s s ) the s a i d r o a d o r any p a r t t h e r e o f the sum o f one h a l f p e n n y s t e r l i n g ; And f o r eve r y head of c a t t l e p a s s i n g on o r a l o n g (but not a c r o s s ) any p a r t of the s a i d r o a d the sum of one s h i l l i n g s t e r l i n g ; Such t o l l s not t o be demandable on goods, c h a t t e l s o r c a t t l e s i m p l y c a r r i e d o r p a s s i n g a c r o s s any p a r t o f such road o r b e l o n g i n g t o o r employ-ed i n the s e r v i c e of the Government, Upon C o n d i t i o n however, t h a t the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s , s h a l l and w i l l w e l l and s u f f i c i e n t l y p e r f o r m a l l and s i n g u l a r the s t i p u l a t i o n s on h i s and t h e i r p a r t h e r e i n a f t e r mentioned and i n such C h a r t e r o r Grant t o be c o n t a i n e d . And the s a i d Gustavus. B l i n W r i g h t d o t h 124. hereby f o r h i m s e l f , h i s h e i r s , e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s covenant and agree w i t h the s a i d I d chard Clement Moody and h i s S u c c e s s o r s i n o f f i c e t h a t the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s h e i r s , e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s w i l l immedi-a t e l y a f t e r the e x e c u t i o n h e r e o f proceed t o l a y out the l i n e of the s a i d r oad from end t o end b l a z i n g i t o r o t h e r w i s e marking i t d i s t i n c t l y on the groung; And t h a t the e x a c t p o s i t i o n o f the t e r m i n i o f the s a i d road a t o r near L i l l o o e t and A l e x a n d r i a r e s p e c t i v e l y as a f o r e s a i d s h a l l be f i x e d as the C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works f o r the time b e i n g of the s a i d c o l o n y o r h i s agent s h a l l d i r e c t . And t h a t the s a i d l i n e of road s h a l l be examined and m o d i f i e d i n d e t a i l by the s a i d Commissioner o r h i s agent from time t o time s h o u l d he so deem n e c e s s a r y ; And f o r t h a t end, i n t e n t and purpose the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , ad-m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s s h a l l f i n d the n e c e s s a r y means of Conveyance f o r and repay t o the Government the r e a s o n a b l e ex-penses of such competent agents as the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner hereby agrees t o send t o be c o n s t a n t l y on the l i n e as the works proceed i n o r d e r t o pre v e n t d e l a y s i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n and a p p r o v a l o f the same. And t h a t the l i n e of road between the t e r m i n i a f o r e s a i d s h a l l be d e f i n i t i v e l y f i x e d t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n a f o r e s a i d on o r be-f o r e the 1 s t day of June now n e x t . And t h a t he o r t h e y w i l l , on o r b e f o r e the 1 s t day o f December now n e x t , make and con-s t r u c t a good and s u b s t a n t i a l waggon r o a d f o r the whole l e n g t h , between the p o i n t s a f o r e s a i d a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , • 1S5 and s u b j e c t to the w r i t t e n a p p r o v a l of the s a i d C h i e f Comm-i s s i o n e r of Lands and Works; And s h a l l b e f o r e commencing the c o n s t r u c t i o n of ' the s a i d road g i v e good and s u f f i c i e n t Bonds t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the s a i d Government i n the p e n a l sum of f i v e thousand pounds s t e r l i n g as a s c e r t a i n e d and l i q u i d a t e d damages t o be p a i d i n case the s a i d road or any p a r t t h e r e o f s h a l l not be completed w i t h i n the t i m e , i n the manner and to the s a t i s f a c t i o n a f o r e s a i d ; and i t i s hereby f u r t h e r agreed, by and between the p a r t i e s h e r e t o , t h a t any such C h a r t e r o r Grant as a f o r e s a i d , s h a l l c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s s a v i n g and ex-c e p t i n g from the o p e r a t i o n s t h e r e o f , a l l e x i s t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , and a l l f u t u r e p u b l i c r i g h t s whether of way > w a t e r , t h o r o u g h f a r e , o r f o r m i n i n g o r e n g i n e e r i n g purposes, o r o t h e r -w i s e , and whether c r o s s i n g the s a i d road o r o t h e r w i s e ; And a l s o a p r o v i s i o n t h a t the s a i d Government s h a l l have the o p t i o n a t any time w i t h i n e i g h t e e n c a l e n d a r months from, the date of such C h a r t e r t o redeem and repurchase s a i d r oad and the p r i v i l e g e s t h e r e b y c o n f e r r e d or t o be c o n f e r r e d a t a p r i c e not l e s s t h a n t h i r t y two thousand pounds s t e r l i n g , o r g r e a t e r t h a n f o r t y thousand pounds s t e r l i n g t o be f i x e d by such one a r b i t r a t o r as s h a l l be m u t u a l l y agreed upon by t h e v s a i d Gust-avus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s h e i r s , e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o r a s s i g n s , and the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works, and i n case they cannot agree upon a s i n g l e a r b i t r a t o r , then a t such p r i c e between the s a i d l i m i t s as the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner s h a l l f o r the time b e i n g s p e c i f y by any w r i t i n g under h i s hand, such d e c i s i o n t o be f i n a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s ; 126. And t h a t any such C h a r t e r or Grant s h a l l a l s o c o n t a i n ample p r o v i s i o n s w i t h s e c u r i t y s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the s a i d Government f o r the c o m p l e t i o n of the whole of the s a i d r o a d w i t h i n the time and the manner, a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n a f o r e s a i d , and f o r k e e p i n g the same i n con-s t a n t and thorough r e p a i r t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n a f o r e s a i d , d u r i n g the e x i s t e n c e of t h e s a i d C h a r t e r and so l o n g as the same s h a l l remain i n f u l l f o r c e and undetermined i n manner h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d f o r making s a i d the same; And t h a t such C h a r t e r o r Grant s h a l l a l s o c o n t a i n a c o n d i t i o n f o r the u n r e s t r i c t e d use of any p o r t i o n of the s a i d road by any o t h e r road w h i c h may be c o n s t r u c t e d from o r th r o u g h L y t t o n t o or towards A l e x a n d r i a , upon payment by the owners, l e s s e e s o r o c c u p i e r s o f such road from L y t t o n , o f h a l f of the c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i n g and of the c u r r a n t c o s t of r e p a i r i n g such p o r t i o n so used. Such c o s t s t o be e s t i m a t e d and f i x e d by the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner f o r the time b e i n g ; And t h a t i n the event of repu r c h a s e by the Government as a f o r e s a i d o f the road t o be made under th e s e p r e s e n t s t h e n a l l payments r e c e i v e d o r coming t o the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o r a s s i g n s under t h i s p r o v i s i o n s h a l l be refu n d e d and p a i d o ver t o the s a i d Government; And t h a t any such C h a r t e r o r Grant s h a l l a l s o c o n t a i n a p r o -v i s i o n t h a t any n e c e s s a r y s h o r t d e v i a t i o n f o r the improvement of the road hereby a u t h o r i z e d t o be made s h a l l be executed by and a t the expense o f the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s ex-e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s , upon the d i r e c t i o n and 127, a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works f o r t h e time b e i n g , o r h i s agent,- And t h a t any such C h a r t e r or Grant s h a l l a l s o c o n t a i n a p r o v i s i o n en-a b l i n g the Government to a p p o i n t a C o l l e c t o r of a l l t o l l s w h i c h s h a l l be l e v i e d under, o r by v i r t u e t h e r e o f and f o r the r e t e n t i o n of t h r e e q u a r t e r of the whole t h e r e o f by the s a i d Government t o be a p p l i e d and p a i d t o the use o f Her M a j e s t y , Her h e i r s and s u c c e s s o r s u n t i l the whole of the sums of money advanced or t o be advanced under the p r o v i s i o n i n t h a t b e h a l f h e r e i n a f t e r c o n t a i n e d , w i t h such i n t e r e s t and charges upon such r e s p e c t i v e advances as the Government may have been themselves c a l l e d upon t o pay i n r e s p e c t of such sums t o be advanced, and f o r t h e payment of a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e m a i n i n g q u a r t e r p a r t of the whole t o the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s . And a l s o a p r o v i s i o n t h a t advances i n the sums and p r o p o r t i o n s and manner h e r e i n a f t e r s p e c i f i e d s h a l l be p a i d by the Govern-ment upon or towards the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f any p o r t i o n s o f the s a i d r o a d from L i l l o o e t w h i c h at the time of making such C h a r t e r o r Grant s h a l l be u n f i n i s h e d ; And such C h a r t e r o r Grant s h a l l a l s o c o n t a i n a c o n d i t i o n f o r the f o r f e i t u r e of a l l and s i n g u l a r the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s c o n f e r r e d by such C h a r t e r o r Grant and the avoidance t h e r e o f upon b r e a c h of a l l or any p a r t o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s , terms o r i p r o v i s i o n s t h e r e i n c o n t a i n e d . And i t i s hereby f u r t h e r agreed and d e c l a r e d t h a t upon the c o m p l e t i o n i n t h e manner and t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n a f o r e s a i d of e v e r y t e n or more of the f i r s t f i f t y m i l e s of the s a i d r o a d , commencing a t the L i l l o o e t t e r m i n u s a f o r e s a i d , the s a i d Govern-ment s h a l l advance t o the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s ex-e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s a sum of money a f t e r the r a t e of s i x t y pounds S t e r l i n g p e r m i l e ; And f o r every t e n o r more m i l e s of t h e remainder of the whole of the s a i d r o a d , hereby agreed t o be made as a f o r e s a i d , t h e sum of one hundred and twenty pounds S t e r l i n g p e r m i l e and the same s h a l l be r e s -p e c t i v e l y p ayable a t the T r e a s u r y upon the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c e r t i f i c a t e of the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works or h i s agent t h a t such r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n s of t e n or more m i l e s have, been d u l y completed i n the manner and t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n a f o r e s a i d . And i t i s hereby f u r t h e r d e c l a r e d and agreed t h a t p r e v i o u s t o making any such C h a r t e r o r Grant as a f o r e s a i d , upon the con-s t r u c t i o n i n the manner a f o r e s a i d of the f i r s t f i f t y m i l e s a f o r e s a i d , i t s h a l l be n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n from the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works a c e r t i f i c a t e under h i s hand t h a t so much of the work has been completed w i t h i n the time f i x e d and a c c o r d i n g t o h i s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and t o h i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n . And i t i s hereby f u r t h e r agreed and d e c l a r e d t h a t f u l l t r u e and r e g u l a r a ccounts _ r h a l l be k e p t b o t h of r e c e i p t s and d i s b u r s e -ments i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s a i d r o a d , and of a l l t o l l s r e c e i v e d hereunder and such books of account s h a l l be open a t a l l t i mes t o e i t h e r p a r t y r e q u i r i n g t o see copy o r e x t r a c t t h e same or any p a r t t h e r e o f ; And i t i s hereby l a s t l y and e x p r e s s l y d e c l a r e d and agreed t h a t 1 £ 9 . upon f a i l u r e of the s a i d Gustavus B l i n W r i g h t , h i s e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s i g n s t o observe o r f u l f i l l a l l or any of the terms, c o n d i t i o n s , p r o v i s i o n s , s t i p u l a t i o n s and a g r e e -ments of t h i s agreement o r any p a r t t h e r e o f r e s p e c t i v e l y o r a t any time o r t i m e s d u r i n g t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f these p r e s e n t s t o make p r o g r e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works f o r the time b e i n g , then upon n o t i c e t o t h a t e f f e c t ( p u b l i s h e d by o r d e r of the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works i n any newspaper p u b l i s h e d i n the s a i d Coloiry (which s h a l l be deemed a good and s u f f i c i e n t n o t i c e ) o r by any w r i t i n g d e l i v e r e d under h i s hand (which s h a l l a l s o be deemed s u f f i c i e n t reason) t o t h a t e f f e c t ) , and subsequent d e f a u l t f o r t e n days i n obeying such n o t i c e , of which d e f a u l t the s a i d C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works s h a l l be s o l e judge, t h i s agreement and a l l powers and p r i v i l e g e s c o n f e r r e d o r t o be c o n f e r r e d s h a l l thereupon i p s o f a c t o cease and be o f no e f f e c t as i f t h i s agreement had not been made. I n w i t n e s s h e r e o f the s a i d p a r t i e s have hereunto s e t t h e i r hands and s e a l s , the day and y e a r f i r s t above w r i t t e n . SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED by the w i t h i n named RICHARD CLEMENT MOODY, a c t i n g . a s . a f o r e s a i d , i n the presence of R. C. Moody, Col.^R. E., C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works. ARTHUR T. BUSIIBY SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED by the w i t h i n named GUSTAVUS BLIN WRIGHT i n the presence of Gustavus B. W r i g h t . ARTHUR T. BUSIIBY L A N D R E C O R D I N G D I S T R I C T S I N D E X OF D E P A R T M E N T A L R E F E R E N C E M A P S ? lie us i n 113 i e D e p a r t m e n t a l Reference Maps s h o w :-S u r v e y e d L a n d s C r o w n G r a n t e d Lands Appl icat ions t o Purchase Lands Appl icat ions t o Lease Lands T i m b e r L icences Timber Sail Hand- logger Licences Foreshore Leases Coal L icences Lands resumed under "Soldiers' Homestead A c t " Placer Min ing Leases Compiled from all available data and constantly being amended, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Departmental Reference Maps are designated by number. "B lue"or "O ia l id "p r ln ts can be obtained for * l . per copy. List supplied upon application. O r d e r s , o r inquir ies,should s t a t e map number, and be addressed to-.-S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l L a n d s D e p a r t m e n t | 3 b A \ V i c t o r i a , B . C . G e o g r a p h i c D i v . , D e p t . o f L a n d s , B . C M A P N o . 1 C X ISO . BIBLI0 GRAPHY I . P r i m a r y Source M a t e r i a l ( M a n u s c r i p t s ) . A' C o n t r a c t s and Agreements. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Works. Copies of c o n t r a c t s and agreements e n t e r e d i n t o by the government t h r o u g h the C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works. F i l e d by y e a r of t h e i r dates» F o r purposes of t h i s work, the f i l e s f o r 1861-1865 were most v a l u a b l e . A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. B. Correspondence. 1. Governor, Vancouver I s l a n d ; ' Despatches to London, 1855-1859. 2. Governor, B r i t i s h Columbia; Despatches t o London, 1858-1865. L e t t e r book c o p i e s of these despatches, o r p h o t o s t a t c o p i e s are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, a t V i c t o r i a , B. C. 5. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , London; Despatches t o Governor, Vancouver I s l a n d , 1858. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , London; Despatches t o Governor, B r i t i s h Columbia 1858-1865. O r i g i n a l l e t t e r s o r p h o t o s t a t : c o p i e s are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 4. B r i t i s h Columbia - Department of Lands and Works. Correspondence between the C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works and v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n i n g departmental b u s i n e s s . O r i g i n a l s and c o p i e s of t h i s correspondence, i n many cases a n n o t a t e d by C o l o n e l Moody, are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, c a t a l o g u e d by the y e a r of t h e i r d a t e . • The f i l e s f o r 1861-1865 were most v a l u a b l e . 131. 5. B r i t i s h Columbia - Department of the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . Correspondence of t h i s department i s i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, f i l e d a c c o r d i n g t o y e a r . T h i s correspondence had t o be c o n s u l t e d i n some cases where r e p l i e s t o l e t t e r s from the Department of Lands and Works c o u l d not be found i n the f i l e s of the l a t t e r . P a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e I s the f i l e f o r the p e r i o d of January t o A p r i l 1863. 6. L e t t e r s t o Edward E r m a t i n g e r from John Work, A r c h i -b a l d McDonald, Jane E l y n e McDonald and o t h e r s . C o l l e c t i o n of o r i g i n a l s and typed c o p i e s are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h • Columbia and known as the •Ermatinger Papers'. -.• — V a l u a b l e f o r any work on the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d I n B r i t i s h Columbia. G. D i a r i e s . 1. D i a r y of Clement E. C o r n w a l l of A s h c r o f t Manor, B r i t i s h Columbia. Typed c o p i e s of the d i a r y are i n the A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. E n t r i e s made i n June, 1862, d e s c r i b e a t r i p over the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t Head. g. D i a r y of Governor James Douglas. O r i g i n a l books i n a r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Books f o r the p e r i o d from 1858-1860, i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the governor's t r i p t o L i l l o o e t were of v a l u e . 5. D i a r y o f C a p t a i n John Evans - "The B. C. M i n i n g A d v e n t u r e , 1862-1864". The o r i g i n a l d i a r y and two typed c o p i e s are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 132. D. O f f i c i a l r e p o r t s . 1. Anderson, A l e x a n d e r C a u l f i e l d . a. Report o f E x p l o r a t i o n s i n 1846. O r i g i n a l j o u r n a l and r e p o r t are i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. b. H i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast. A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia has typed copy drawn from o r i g i n a l essay i n the Academy of P a c i f i c Coast H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . 2. P a r s o n s , C a p t a i n R. M., R o y a l E n g i n e e r s . Report on Country between New Westminster and Lake l a Hache, September 16J, 1862. • Copy of the r e p o r t i n A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. E r a s e r , Simon. J o u r n a l of a voyage from the Rocky Mountains t o the P a c i f i c Ocean, performed i n the y e a r 1808. P h o t o s t a t copy of t h i s j o u r n a l i s i n the L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; the o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t i s the p r o p e r t y of the Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . 133 I I - P r i m a r y Source M a t e r i a l ( p u b l i c a t i o n s by a u t h o r i t y of government at London, or of L e g i s l a t i v e A s s i m b l y at V i c t o r i a , B . C . ) . 1. Anderson, A l e x a n d e r C a u l f i e l d - "The Dominion at the West". 'A-.brief d e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . The Government P r i z e Essay, 1872. P r i n t e d by R i c h a r d Wolfenden, a t V i c t o r i a , 3. C., 1872. 2. B r i t i s h ' Columbia papers - Despatches to and from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , w i t h r e l e v a n t documents. P u b l i s h e d by-the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e a t London. M a t e r i a l used from p e r i o d 1858-18G2 3. D i s c o v e r y of G o l d a t Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d , Copies o r E x t r a c t s of Correspondence R e l a t i v e To P u b l i s h e d by C o l o n i a l O f f i c e J u l y 18, 1853 - R e f e r r e d t o as q>ueen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d P a p e r s . 4. D i s c o v e r y of Gold i n the E r a s e r ' s R i v e r D i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , Copies of Correspondence R e l a t i v e To P u b l i s h e d by Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1858, 5. Hansard - P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates f o r the s e s s i o n 1857-1858, jolxme I V : P u b l i s h e d by O f f i c e f o r Hansard's Debates, 23 P a t e r n o s t e r Row, London. 6. Howay, E. W. "The E a r l y H i s t o r y of the F r a s e r R i v e r Mines-". S e l e c t e d documents, w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n . E d i t e d by F. W. Howay. P r i n t e d by a u t h o r i t y of L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, V i c t o r i a , B. C., 1926. Memoir V I of A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 7. Wade, Mark 8. "The O v e r l a n d e r s of '62". P u b l i s h e d ' b y a u t h o r i t y of L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly a t V i c t o r i a , 1931. Memoir I S o f A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 134. I I I . E r i m a r y Source M a t e r i a l ( P u b l i s h e d contemporary r e p o r t s ) J o u r n a l of The R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , p u b l i s h e d a t London under the e d i t o r s h i p of Dr. Norton Shaw, has s e v e r a l r e p o r t s o f v a l u e . a. Palmer, L i e u t e n a n t H. Spencer, R. 2. Report on the H a r r i s o n and L i l l o o e t r o u t e from the j u n c t i o n of the E r a s e r and H a r r i s o n R i v e r s , t o the j u n c t i o n of the E r a s e r and Kayoosh R i v e r s , w i t h notes on the c o u n t r y beyond. Volume 2X21,1862. b. Begbie, Mathew B. A j o u r n e y i n t o the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Volume 2XEL, 1862 c . Y/ad d i n g t o n , A l f r e d On the geography and mountain passes of B r i t i s h Columbia i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h an o v e r l a n d r o u t e . Volume XXXVTII, 1868. 135. P r i m a r y Source M a t e r i a l (Contemporary Newspaper F i l e s ) . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - P u b l i s h e d by Amor de Cosmos at V i c t o r i a , B. C. ' • A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia has complete f i l e of i s s u e s from June 13, 1859 to December 30, 1864. 2. B r i t i s h Columbian - p u b l i s h e d a t New Westminster,B.C• A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia has f i l e of i s s u e s from F e b r u a r y 13, 1861 t o December E5, 1864, and ' an incomplete f i l e of i s s u e s from 1865 t o 1869. New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y has f i l e of i s s u e s from F e b r u a r y 1864 to January 1866 and from March 1866 t o F e b r u a r y 1868. 3. Cariboo S e n t i n e l - P u b l i s h e d a t B a r k e r v i l l e , B. C. A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia has an incomplete f i l e of i s s u e s from May 1866 t o October 1875. 4. D a i l y C h r o n i c l e - p u b l i s h e d a t V i c t o r i a , B. C. A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia has f i l e o f i s s u e s f o r October 28, 1862 t o June 30, 1866. (Copies f o r March 8 and May 26, 1865, are m i s s i n g from the f i l e ) • 5. G a z e t t e - P u b l i s h e d a t V i c t o r i a , 3. C. A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia has f i l e of i s s u e s f o r J u l y 28, 1858 t o November 26, 1859. 6 > . Northwest - P u b l i s h e d at P o r t Townsend by J . F. Damon Northwest s e c t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y of Washington L i b r a r y has f i l e of i s s u e s from J u l y 5,1860 t o November 20, 1862. 136. 7. Overland P r e s s - P u b l i s h e d a t Dlympia by A. M. Poe. Northwest s e c t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y of Washington L i b r a r y has f i l e of i s s u e s f o r J u l 1 / 29, 1861 to March 16, 1863. , 8. P i o n e e r and Democrat - p u b l i s h e d a t Olympia by S. M. F u s t e . Northwest s e c t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y of Washington L i b r a r y has f i l e of i s s u e s from September 11, 1852 t o May 31, 1861. 137. V. P r i m a r y Source M a t e r i a l (Books by contemporary a u t h o r s , o r books c o n t a i n i n g p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l ) . 1. Anderson, A l e x a n d e r G a u l f i e l d , "Handbook and Map o f the Gold Region of F r a z e r ' s and Thompson* s R i v e r s " . San F r a n c i s c o , J". J . Le Count, 1858. T h i s book has the map used by W. W. DeLacy i n h i s attempt t o open the Whatcom T r a i l . 2. B a l l a n t y n e , Robert W. ^Handbook t o the Hew G o l d F i e l d s " . London, H a m i l t o n , Adams; and Co., 1858. Co n t a i n s a c c u r a t e g e o g r a p h i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . 5. C o r n w a l l i s , Kinahan, "The New E l Dorado, o r B r i t i s h Columbia". London, : Thomas C a u t l e y Newby, 1858. Recommended f o r anyone i n s e a r c h of s u p e r l a t i v e s . 4. Downie, W i l l i a m , "Hunting f o r G o l d " . San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1893. p e r s o n a l r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a and e x p l o r a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1858-1864. Very i n t e r e s t i n g comments on Douglas, Waddington and o t h e r s . 138. 5. H a z l i t t , W i l l i a m C. " B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d " . London, Routledge and Co., 1858. Good d e s c r i p t i o n of the excitement caused by the 1858 r u s h . 6. H i g g i n s , D. W. "The M y s t i c S p r i n g " . Toronto, W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1904. "The P a s s i n g of a Race". Toronto, W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1905. Anecdotes and s t o r i e s of the a u t h o r • s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s as p u b l i s h e r of the V i c t o r i a D a i l y C h r o n i c l e , 1862-1866. The i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e d are p r a c t i c a l l y a l l second-hand and v e r y h i g h l y c o l o r e d , but i n t e r e s t i n g . 7. Johnson, R. Byron, "Very F a r West i n d e e d " . London, Sampson, Low, M a r s t o n , Low and S e a r l e , 1873. " iji account o f t h e a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s as miner and p a c k e r on the C a r i b o o roads i n 1862. Good account o f the steamboat t r a f f i c and of the packers through the canyon. 8. K e r r , J . B. " B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of Well-Known B r i t i s h Columbians". Vancouver, K e r r and Begg, 1890. I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g some of the men mentioned i n t h i s work. 139 . 9. McCain, C. W. " H i s t o r y o f the 3. S. Beaver". Vancouver, Evans and H a s t i n g s , 1894. C o n t a i n s a n a r r a t i v e by C h a r l e s H. Woodward, of P o r t l a n d , Oregon, d e s c r i b i n g the excitement i n New York i n 1858, and t e l l i n g of h i s t r i p from t h a t c i t y t o P o r t L a n g l e y t o j o i n the g o l d r u s h . 10. L e w i s , W i l l i a m S., and Murakami, N a o j i r o ; E d i t o r s . "Ranald MacDonald; N a r r a t i v e o f H i s E a r l y L i f e ' * . ' spokane, Washington, I n l a n d American P r i n t i n g Company, 1923. An e d i t e d and annotated v e r s i o n o f MacDonald*s own documents p r e p a r e d f o r E a s t e r n Washington S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . The book d e a l s p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h MacDonald's Japanese adventure, but mention i s made of h i s B r i t i s h Columbia r o a d - b u i l d i n g adventure. (The e d i t o r s say t h a t MacDonald's venture f a i l e d because a "more i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n " secured a con-t r a c t t o b u i l d a wagon road over h i s t r a i l . A l f r e d Waddington would have enjoyed b e i n g c a l l e d i n f l u e n -t i a l ) . 11. Macfie,-Mathew, E. R> G. 3. "Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia". London, Longman, Green, Longman, R o b e r t s and Green, 18S5. As a d e s c r i p t i o n i s v e r y l i m i t e d i n i t s scope. 12. Masson, S e n a t o r R. L. "Les B o u r g e o i s de l a Compagnie du Hord-Ouest". Quebec, P r i v a t e l y p u b l i s h e d , 1889-1890. Volume I c o n t a i n s Simon E r a s e r ' s " J o u r n a l of a voy-age from the Rocky Mountains t o the P a c i f i c Ocean, performed i n the y e a r 1808". 140. 13. Mayne , "'R. -Q. "Four y e a r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver i s l a n d " . London, John Murray, 1862. An e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of g o l d m i n i n g methods on the bars i n the e a r l y r u s h . 14. M i l t o n , W i l l i a m F i t z w i l l i a m , V i s c o u n t , and Gheadle, W.B. »The Northwest Passage by Land. B e i n g the n a r r a t i v e of an e x p e d i t i o n from the A t l a n t i c t o the P a c i f i c " . London, G a s s e l l , P e t t e r and G a l p i n , 1865. The a u t h o r s f o l l o w e d the MoMieking•party t o Tete Jaune Cache on an o v e r l a n d j o u r n e y , and then down the Thompson R i v e r t o F o r t Kamioops. The s t o r y of the Rennie p a r t y (see page 96 above). 15. Pemberton, J . Despard; S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l of Vancouver I s l a n d , " F a c t s and F i g u r e s R e l a t i n g t o Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia". London, Longman, Green, Longman and R o b e r t s , 1860. Pemberton i s h i g h l y c r i t i c a l of the d e s c r i p t i o n s a l r e a d y p r i n t e d , and c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o obvious e r r o r s i n many of the works mentioned here. 16. R a t t r a y , A l e x a n d e r . - -"Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia". London, S m i t h , E l d e r and Company, 1862, Has some l i t e r a r y but v e r y l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . 141. 17. Waddington, A l f r e d . "The F r a s e r Mines V i n d i c a t e d " . V i c t o r i a , P. de Ga r r o , 1858. Waddington's expressed c o n v i c t i o n i n the permanent worth of the new g o l d f i e l d s . The f a c t t h a t at the time he was one of V i c t o r i a ' s prominent merchants, . and p r o b a b l y p r o f i t e d by the t r a f f i c t o the r i v e r , may have had something t o do w i t h h i s c o n v i c t i o n , but one must assume h i s s i n c e r i t y when one c o n s i d e r s Waddington*s l a t e r v e n t u r e s . 18. Walk em, W. Wymond, M. 0. n g t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia". Vancouver, The News A d v e r t i s e r , 1914. Con t a i n s some i n t e r e s t i n g anecdotes, s t o r i e s t o l d by the e a r l y miners and some i n t e r e s t i n g accounts of I n d i a n customs. 19. W r i g h t , 3. W. ( E d i t o r ) . "Lewis and Dryden*s M a r i n e H i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c N orthwest". P o r t l a n d , Lewis and Dryden P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1895. An I l l u s t r a t e d r e v i e w of the development of the marine i n d u s t r y of the P a c i f i c Northwest. Has l i s t i n g s of s a i l i n g s from San F r a n c i s c o and o t h e r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . 142. SECONDARY SOURCE MATERIAL , I . A r t i c l e s i n J o u r n a l s o r P e r i o d i c a l s . 1. ChampnesSj W. "To C a r i b o o and Back". L e i s u r e Hour, a weekly j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e d i n London. I n numbers 692 - 696, a p p e a r i n g from A p r i l 1, t o A p r i l 29, 1865, t h e r e appears a s e r i a l i z e d account of a t r i p t o the g o l d f i e l d s made by the a u t h o r . 2. Dunn, R o b e r t . "A H i s t o r y of M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia". Canadian M i n i n g J o u r n a l , p u b l i s h e d a t Gardenvale, Que. August, 1929 number. 3. E o r s y t h , J . '"The P i o n e e r P r e s s o f B r i t i s h Columbia" . B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Reports- and P r o c e e d i n g s , October 1923.. ... 4. L e b o u r d a i s , L o u i s . " B i l l y B a r k e r o f B a r k e r v i l l e " . B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . Volume I No. 3, J u l y 1937. 5. N e l s o n , Denys. " E o r t L a n g l e y , 1827 - 1927, A Century o f S e t t l e m e n t i n the V a l l e y o f the Lower E r a s e r R i v e r " . A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n of Vancouver,B.C. R e p o r t s and P r o c e e d i n g s J u l y 1927. R e i d , R. L. " A l f r e d Y/addington". R o y a l S o c i e t y of Canada T r a n s a c t i o n s . T h i r d s e r i e s , Volume 2XVI, 1932. Reid,,, R. L. " L e t t e r of- C. C. G a r d i n e r t o the e d i t o r o f 'The j s l a n d e r ' o f C h a r l o t t e t o w n , P. E. I . " B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , Volume I No. 4 October 1937. R i c h a r d , T. A. " I n d i a n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Gold D i s c o v e r i e s " . B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , Volume 2 No. 1 January 1938. Sage, W. N. "Simon E r a s e r , E x p l o r e r and Eur Tr a d e r " . American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , P a c i f i c Coast Branch, P r o c e e d i n g s 1928 - 1930. 144. SECONDARY SOURCE MATERIAL« Theses on r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . B.escoby, I s o b e l - " S o c i e t y i n C a r i b o o , 1862 - 1871". G r a d u a t i n g essay f o r B. A. degree. Copy i n L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. "Some S o c i a l A s p e c t s of the American M i n i n g Advance i n t o C a r i b o o and Kootenay". T h e s i s f o r M. A. degree. Copy i n L i b r a r y o f U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Cope, M. C. L. - " C o l o n e l Moody and the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s " . T h e s i s f o r M. A. degree. Copy i n L i b r a r y of U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Murray, M a r g a r e t L. - " S t . Mary's of L i l l o o e t " . A s h o r t r e c o r d of the A n g l i c a n Church a t L i l l o o e t . P r i n t e d by B r i d g e R i v e r - L i l l o o e t News, August 8, 19S5. Palmer, P. v. - "A F i s c a l H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the C o l o n i a l P e r i o d " . T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d t o S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a , f o r Ph. D. degree. P u b l i c a r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia has typed copy o f t h i s e s say. Ross, Margaret - "Amor De Cosmos". T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r M. A. degree. Copy i n L i b r a r y of U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 145. SECONDARY SOURCE MATERIAL. I I I . S tandard works on B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r y . 1. B a n c r o f t , Hubert H. " H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1792-1887". Volume 2XXEI of the "Works of Hubert Howe B a n c r o f t " . San E r a n c i s c o , The H i s t o r y Company, 1887. L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t of t h i s work. See f o o t n o t e page 29. 2. Begg, A l e x a n d e r . "The H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia". T o r o n t o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1894. T h i s i s by no means the most r e l i a b l e work a v a i l a b l e . 3. Caughey, John W. "A H i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c Coast". Los A n g e l e s , P r i v a t e l y p u b l i s h e d , 1933. R e s i d e n t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia would be i n t e r e s t e d t o l e a r n from t h i s volume t h a t a f t e r t he c o n s t r u c t i o n of the C. P. R. , t h a t the" town of P o r t Moody grew r a p i d l y and was renamed Vancouver. Even more s t a r t -l i n g was the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t Vancouver then developed t o such an e x t e n t t h a t New Westminster i s now a suburb. 4. Co a t s , R. H. and G-osnell, R. E. " S i r James Douglas". T o r o n t o , Morang and Co., 1908. Some o f the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn i n t h i s work are d e b a t a b l e . See page 29 above f o r one example of p o s s i b l e i n a c c u r a c y . 14.6. 5. D u t h i e , Rev. D. W a l l a c e . "A Bishop i n the Rough". London, Smith, E l d e r and Go., 1909. D u t h i e e d i t e d the j o u r n a l of•the•Reverend John Sheepshanks, l a t e r Bishop o f Norwich. The book covers Sheepshank's work at New Westminster and R i c h f i e l d i n the y e a r s between 1859 and 1867. 6. E l e n l e y , R a l p h ( E d i t o r ) "Essays i n Canadian H i s t o r y " . T o r o n t o , The M c M i l l a n Company, 1939. One of the esaays i n t h i s work, - Sage, W. N., "The P o s i t i o n of the Lieutenant-C-overnor i n B r i t i s h . . . . Columbia i n the Y e a r s F o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n " , throws a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on the c a r e e r . o f Joseph W. T r u t c h , mentioned i n t h i s work on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , and p o s s i b l y e x p l a i n s the f a v o r e d t r e a t -ment which T r u t c h r e c e i v e d . 7. F u t c h e r , W i n n i f r e d M. "The oreat N o r t h Road to the C a r i b o o " . Vancouver, Roy W r i g l e y P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1938. A p o p u l a r s k e t c h of the r o a d , p a s t and p r e s e n t . 8. G i l b e r t , Frank T. " H i s t o r i c Sketches of W a l l a W a l l a , Whitman, Columbia and G a r f i e l d C o u n t i e s " . P o r t l a n d , A. G. W a l l i n g , 1682. Copy of t h i s work i n the Northwest s e c t i o n , L i b r a r y o f U n i v e r s i t y of Washington at S e a t t l e . The volume p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison between the F r a s e r R i v e r r u s h and s i m i l a r excitement on the Columbia R i v e r . 147. G r a n t , F. J . ( E d i t o r ) . " H i s t o r y of S e a t t l e , Washington" . New Y o r k , American P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1891. A s e r i e s of s k e t c h e s d e a l i n g . w i t h the growth of S e a t t l e as a s h i p p i n g c e n t r e . B r i e f mention i s made of the g o l d excitement on the F r a s e r . I n the N o r t h -west S e c t i o n , L i b r a r y of U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. Howay, F. W. and S c h o l e f i e l d , 3. 0. S. " B r i t i s h Columbia, From the E a r l i e s t Times t o the P r e s e n t " . Vancouver, 3. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1914. Volumes I and I I comprise p r o b a b l y the best known and most a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e x t on B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y , w h i l e volumes I I I and IV f u r n i s h i n t e r e s t -i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about prominent B r i t i s h Columbian r e s i d e n t s . Howay, F. W. "The R o y a l E n g i n e e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia". V i c t o r i a , R i c h a r d Wolfenden, 1910. An e x c e l l e n t account of the E n g i n e e r s * work i n B r i t i s h Columbia. L u g r i n , N de B e r t r a n d (John H o s i e , E d i t o r ) "The P i o n e e r Women of Vancouver I s l a n d , 1643-1865". V i c t o r i a , The C o l o n i s t P r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g Co. 1928. P u b l i s h e d f o r the Women's Canadian Club of V i c t o r i a , • B. C Much i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , s u p p l i e d by a number of V i c t o r i a r e s i d e n t s , but the w r i t e r would h e s i t a t e t o use much of i t w i t h o u t c h e c k i n g c a r e f u l l y where t h a t i s p o s s i b l e . 143. 13. MacNab, F r a n c e s . " B r i t i s h Columbia f o r S e t t l e r s , I t s L l i n e s , Trade and A g r i c u l t u r e " . London, Chapman and H a l l , Ltd.., 1898. The a u t h o r v i s i t e d P o r t Douglas I n 1898 and found I t d e s e r t e d except f o r I n d i a n s . New Westminster was th e n a "second-rate l i t t l e town w i t h a v i l e In n " , (page. 217). 14. Meany, Sdmond 3. "A H i s t o r y of the S t a t e of Washington". New York, The M c M i l l a n Company, 1909. Co n t a i n s some i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g Whatcom and i t s l a t e r h i s t o r y as B e l l i n g h a m . 15. M o r i c e , Rev. A. G., 0. M. I . "The H i s t o r y o f the N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia". T o r o n t o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1904. . An i n t e r e s t i n g account w h i c h g i v e s the I n d i a n s ' p o i n t of view b e t t e n than any o t h e r work. D e s c r i p -t i o n o f the s m a l l - p o x epidemic i n 1862 i s ex-c e l l e n t w r i t i n g . 16. N i c h o l , M a r i e Leona. "Ranald MacDonald, A d v e n t u r e r " . C a l d w e l l , Idaho, Caxton p r i n t e r s , 1940. A p o p u l a r account of MacDonald's l i f e . Repeats the remark r e the f a i l u r e of MacDonald* s ro a d -b u i l d i n g scheme whi c h has been mentioned i n Lewis and Murakami's work on MacDonald*s l i f e . 149. 17. Sage, W a l t e r IT. " S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia." Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto p r e s s , 1930. I n b e g i n n i n g t h i s t h e s i s , the w r i t e r found Dr. Sage's account of Governor Douglas and the e a r l y c o l o n y of Tancouver I s l a n d a most v a l u a b l e - f o u n d a t i o n and a work which p o i n t e d many i n t e r e s t -i n g avenues of r e s e a r c h . 18. S c h o l e f i e l d , E. 0. S. and G o s n e l l , R. E. "A H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia". Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1913. A s h o r t e r and l e s s v a l u a b l e work t h a n t h a t o f Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d . 19. S h o r t t , A., and Doughty, A. "Canada and I t s P r o v i n c e s " . T o r o n t o , E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P u b l i s h e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, 1914. Volume SI i n c l u d e s an a r t i c l e by R. E. G o s n e l l , ."The C o l o n i a l H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia". 20. S t . John, Molyneux. / "The Sea o f Mountains". An Account of L o r d B u f f e r i n g s Tour Through B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1876. London, H u r s t and B l a c h e t t , 1877. Has an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of stage coach t r a v e l over the Cariboo Highway, i n a s i x - h o r s e coach w i t h the famous Steve T i n g l e y a t the r e i n s . 150. 21. Wade, Mark S., H. D. "The Thompson Country, notes on the H i s t o r y of Southern B r i t i s h Columbia and P a r t i c u l a r l y of the C i t y of Kamloops". Kamioops, B. C., I n l a n d S e n t i n e l P r e s s , 1907. "The Pounding of Kamloops, A S t o r y of 100 Years Ago". Kamloops, B. C., I n l a n d S e n t i n e l p r e s s , 1912. A S o u v e n i r of the Kamloops Centenary C e l e b r a t i o n , September 17, 1912. These a r t i c l e s g i v e an account of the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d on the Thompson R i v e r . 22. Watson, Norman, B t . , and.King, IS. J". "Round M y s t e r y Mountain". London, Longman, Green and Co., 1935. A g r a p h i c account of the d i f - f i c u l t i e s of t r a v e l i n the c o u n t r y which Waddington* s men t r i e d t o tame i n t h e 1860»s. 

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