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Commercial rehabilitation within the central business district : policies for future use Wood, Sandra Eileen 1967

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COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION WITHIN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT: POLICIES FOR FUTURE USE  by SANDRA EILEEN WOOD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967  In p r e s e n t i n g for  this thesis  an a d v a n c e d  that  thesis  shall  I further  agree that  forscholarly  publication  permission  Date  April,  Columbia  1967.  Vi  copying of t h i s  by t h e Head o f my  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  D e p a r t m e n t o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  I agree  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I t i s understood  pe rrn i ss i on ,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Columbia,  f o rextensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  of this thesis  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  of British  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . or  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  the Library  study,  in partial  shall  that  copying  n o t be a l l o w e d  ABSTRACT  W i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s o f many N o r t h American c i t i e s a r e t o be found b l i g h t e d commercial a r e a s which have d e t e r i o r a t e d through t h e p r o c e s s o f t i m e , market changes, and l o c a t i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e . O l d b u i l d i n g s , some b e a u t i f u l , a r e l e f t t o d e t e r i o r a t e o r a r e t o r n down and r e p l a c e d by c h a r a c t e r l e s s new f a c a d e s i n an attempt t o compete w i t h t h e i n t e g r a t e d 'shopping c e n t e r ' approach.  Such changes do n o t make a  city. I n r e c e n t y e a r s a number o f c i t i e s have u t i l i z e d  rehabilitation  t e c h n i q u e s i n an attempt t o r e v i t a l i z e b l i g h t e d commercial a r e a s . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n may be b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as r e m o d e l i n g , a l t e r i n g ,  repairing  and o t h e r w i s e i m p r o v i n g s u b s t a n d a r d , d e t e r i o r a t e d , or o b s o l e t e a r e a s , o r i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n these a r e a s so t h a t a d e c e n t , s a f e , and s a n i t a r y environment may be a c h i e v e d .  I n t h e case o f commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h e r e i s o f t e n more emphasis p u t on t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s o f improvement t h a n i n r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Commercial e n t e r -  p r i s e s , f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , may r e f e r t o p l a c e s o f entertainment, r e s t a u r a n t s , or o f f i c e s , but r e f e r p a r t i c u l a r l y t o retail  outlets. I t i s t h e b a s i c a i m o f t h e t h e s i s t o examine t h e s u b j e c t o f  commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o determine i t s p r o g r e s s and i t s problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y under p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s .  iii  P o l i c i e s a r e then proposed rehabilitation  t o enable s u c c e s s f u l f u t u r e use o f  i n Canadian c i t i e s .  of b l i g h t e d commercial  On the assumption  a r e a s o f the c e n t r a l  that r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  business d i s t r i c t s of  Canadian and American c i t i e s i s a d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e , as a b a s i s f o r investigation  i t i s hypothesized that  I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a comprehensive program o f c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t renewal u t i l i z i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e be c o o r d i n a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f F e d e r a l and l o c a l "governments a t the a d v i s o r y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and f i n a n c i a l l e v e l s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the e f f o r t s of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e .  Study i s c a r r i e d  out i n t h r e e major ways.  l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s used t o determine  F i r s t , an e x t e n s i v e  the main p h y s i c a l ,  economic, and l e g i s l a t i v e a s p e c t s o f commercial  social,  rehabilitation.  Second, response from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent t o Canadian and American c i t i e s having central business d i s t r i c t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s w i t h i n a government-sponsored "urban renewal scheme" a r e t a b u l a t e d t o show t h e meaning a t t a c h e d t o commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by t h e i n v o l v e d  authorities;  the e x t e n t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n e x e c u t i o n or p l a n n e d ; source o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s ; and problems  the  encountered.  The h y p o t h e s i s i s examined s p e c i f i c a l l y t h r o u g h the use o f a c a s e - s t u d y of the C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  Through a r a t h e r  special  c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i v i c and l o c a l b u s i n e s s concern c o u p l e d w i t h an i m p o r t a n t t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y and a h e r i t a g e o f h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , V i c t o r i a has been t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n The most s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c a s e - s t u d y i s t h a t  iv  effort.  Victoria's  c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t does n o t e x h i b i t t h e extreme and f a r - r e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f b l i g h t w h i c h a r e found i n many c i t i e s . Throughout t h e t h e s i s emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h e r o l e o f l o c a l and  f e d e r a l governments i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e .  From i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d i n t h e manner p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d f o r u t i l i z a t i o n by Canadian c i t i e s a r e proposed.  policies  B r i e f l y t h e y recommend  t h a t commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n be m a i n l y a l o c a l r a t h e r t h a n f e d e r a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; t h a t t h e l o c a l government o p e r a t e m a i n l y i n an a d v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y ;  that  p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e e f f o r t s be encouraged wherever p o s s i b l e ; and t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n be c a r r i e d out on a comprehensive s c a l e .  It i s felt  t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l r o l e p l a y e d by l o c a l and f e d e r a l governments be most a c t i v e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c w o r k s . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n proves impossible yet i s considered  other areas.  111  t o be o f genuine b e n e f i t t o t h e community,  recourse  f o r "urban  o r t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank o f Canada f o r  Subject  t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n p l a c e d on t h e f i n a n c i a l r o l e  of government i n commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s considered  Where  t h r o u g h p r i v a t e investment s o u r c e s and  may be made t o C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n r e n e w a l schemes  should  valid.  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many p e r s o n s have g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s and thus I remember g r a t e f u l l y : For encouragement and i n t e r e s t i n my p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , Dr. H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , Head o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . For concern and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , P r o f . Robert C o l l i e r o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . For guidance, a s s i s t a n c e , and c r i t i c i s m , my former a s s o c i a t e s a t t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board o f B.C.: Mr. Anthony R o b e r t s , Mr. George Atamanenko, Mr. J o h n N o r t h e y , Mr. James T r i m b l e , and Mr. M i c h a e l Bennet; and the M u n i c i p a l P l a n n e r f o r S a a n i c h , B.C., Mr. T.W. Loney. F o r a s s i s t a n c e , M i s s Melva Dwyer and t h e s t a f f o f t h e F i n e A r t s L i b r a r y ; and Mrs. E m i l y F. S t e w a r t , S e c r e t a r y t o t h e D i v i s i o n o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . F o r time f r e e l y g i v e n i n i n t e r v i e w s and t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a much l a r g e r number o f persons than i t i s p o s s i b l e t o mention here. For f i n a n c i a l a i d d u r i n g my f i n a l year as a p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t , t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n o f Canada.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Chapter I. THE PROBLEM DEFINED  1  U r b a n i z a t i o n and t h e Need f o r R e v i t a l i z a t i o n Assumptions o f t h e Study Objectives Definitions P r e s e n t a t i o n of the Hypothesis Organization of the Thesis Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s Footnotes II.  TRENDS IN RETAILING - THE CASE FOR COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION  8  Downtown's H i s t o r i c a l Development The Suburban Shopping C e n t e r The E f f e c t on Downtown Blight Hope f o r the Downtown A r e a Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Examples o f Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Summary Footnotes III.  ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION P h y s i c a l Aspects P r i n c i p l e s of r e t a i l Transportat ion The p e d e s t r i a n Aesthetic aspects The shopping s t r e e t The downtown m a l l  location  S o c i a l Aspects S o c i a l importance o f downtown Customer consumption p a t t e r n s The i n i t i a t i v e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  vii  22  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter Economic A s p e c t s R e t a i l sales Land v a l u e , r e n t , and Daytime p o p u l a t i o n Economic c o s t s Economic e f f e c t s Economic a i d s  taxes  L e g i s l a t i v e Aspects Great B r i t a i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s Canada Summary Footnotes IV.  COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION PROJECTS UNDER PRESENT LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS Methodology R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Sponsored by P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e A n a l y s i s of Questionnaires L o s s i n S a l e s Volume The Meaning of Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n The E x t e n t of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s The Cost o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Source of I n s p i r a t i o n Problems E n c o u n t e r e d The T o t a l P r o c e s s Summary Footnotes  V.  EXAMINATION OF A FRAMEWORK FOR REHABILITATION: A CASE-STUDY OF VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBIA . . G o a l s and Reasons f o r R e v i t a l i z a t i o n R o l e o f L o c a l and F e d e r a l Governments P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e Investment Summary Footnotes  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Chapter V I . POLICIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION  98  Program f o r A c t i o n The M u n i c i p a l Government R o l e The R o l e o f P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e Summary Footnotes VII.  REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE STUDY  105  Summary o f t h e Study E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Study The H y p o t h e s i s : L i m i t a t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s The Study: L i m i t a t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s Further research V a l i d i t y o f F i n d i n g s and H y p o t h e s i s APPENDIXES  I l l  BIBLIOGRAPHY  142  ix  LIST OF TABLES  Page Table 1.  P o p u l a t i o n Expansion  2.  P o p u l a t i o n S i z e and Stage o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t . . f o r S e l e c t e d C i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada  3.  CBD S a l e s o f G e n e r a l Merchandise f o r S e l e c t e d American C i t i e s 1958-1963  4.  R a t i o and Change i n CBD  Sales . . .  32 53  55  Methods Used f o r Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n W i t h i n the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t  5.  The E x t e n t o f CBD  6.  Commercial Land Use F u n c t i o n s I n v o l v e d i n  57  Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  61 CBD  Revitalization Projects  63  7.  The Cost o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  65  8.  Source o f I n s p i r a t i o n f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s  9.  E s t i m a t e d C o s t s , B a s t i o n Square P r o j e c t Phases 1 and 2 .  86  Cost o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , o f S e l e c t e d S t r u c t u r e s W i t h i n the V i c t o r i a CBD R e n t a l V a l u e s and A l t e r a t i o n C o s t s  92 93  10. 11.  x  ...  ....  67  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Page Figure 1.  S a l e s per Square Foot o f S e l l i n g Space i n Downtown Department S t o r e s , 1940-1959  12  2.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania  3.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t , E r i e , Pennsylvania  4.  B a s t i o n Square, V i c t o r i a , B.C  xi  . .  . . . . . .  59 71 84  LIST OF MAPS  Page Map 1.  Victoria  i n Relation  2.  The Core o f the C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t , Victoria,  t o the C a p i t a l Region  76  B.C  77  3.  Major Highway - Concept f o r t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n  4.  R e n t a l V a l u e s i n t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t 1964  5.  Rehabilitation Projects  i n V i c t o r i a ' s CBD  xii  79 ...  90 91  1  CHAPTER ONE  THE PROBLEM DEFINED The c r e a t i v e c i t y environment e v o l v e s as a r e s u l t o f b o t h new and o l d b u i l d i n g s and a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e c i t y i s a continuum r e l a t i n g b o t h t o our past and t o our f u t u r e .  Lawrence H a l p r i n i n C i t i e s ' U r b a n i z a t i o n ' and i t s p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h e ' c i t y ' have become keywords o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  Seventy p e r c e n t  p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i s u r b a n i z e d .  of the I t has been  p r e d i c t e d t h a t by 1990 more t h a n h a l f o f t h e w o r l d ' s p e o p l e w i l l be l i v i n g i n c i t i e s o f 100,000 o r more.*  Of e a r l y c i t i e s A r i s t o t l e  "Men come t o c i t i e s t o l i v e ; t h e y s t a y t o l i v e a good l i f e . " words a r e echoed w i t h renewed d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  said:  Today those  " I n a democracy t h e c i t y  t o s t r i v e f o r i s one i n w h i c h human b e i n g s can l i v e f r e e l y  together,  r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s v a r y i n g t a s t e s and share t h e immense power o f their differences."  C i t i e s are not u n l i k e t h e i r inhabitants f o r ,  from e a r l y t i m e s , t h e y have been b o r n , t h e y have grown, and t h e y have matured.  Some, such as London, P a r i s , and Rome, have become  o t h e r s have d i e d when t h e i r r e a s o n f o r e x i s t e n c e has ceased. have been r e b u i l t .  immortal; Many  Never b e f o r e , however, has t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f  2  c i t i e s r e c e i v e d so much a t t e n t i o n and i n p a r t i c u l a r  the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  of t h e h e a r t o f t h e c i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e market p l a c e o r downtown a r e a o f t h e c i t y has been t h e c e n t e r f o r t h e exchange o f goods and s e r v i c e s as w e l l as f o r ideas. their  'Downtowns' t o d a y s t r i v e t o r e t a i n  both t h e i r  importance and  mystery.  Downtown i s t h e b u s i n e s s c e n t e r , t h e p l a c e o f work, t h e museum o f s t y l e , t h e change o f scene, t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f d i v e r s i t i e s , t h e escape t o anonymity. I t i s t h e scene o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , o f c o u r t s , o f d o c t o r s and l a w y e r s , t h e p l a c e i n w h i c h t h e deeper human problems a r e exposed and a l l a y e d . I t h a s become t h e l o c u s o f t h e g r e a t modern i n s t i t u t i o n o f Lunch, i n w h i c h you can make a s a l e o r l o a n o v e r t h e c o f f e e c u p . I t i s where a man can meet a l a d y w i t h o u t b e i n g accused o f h a v i n g a r e n d e z v o u s . I t i s t h e p l a c e t h a t draws t h e masses and t h a t t h e masses have made.^  But 'downtowns' do n o t c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t w i t h o u t t h r e a t s t o t h e i r i n t h e form o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e , t h e suburb, and b l i g h t .  life  I t i s t h e con-  t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e h e a r t o f our c i t i e s w h i c h i s t h e c o n c e r n o f this thesis.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s t h e i r c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e t h r o u g h  the u t i l i z a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r  that of  'rehabilitation'. Assumptions o f t h e Study The t e c h n i q u e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n blight  i s d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e urban  and i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g employed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e n e w a l  measures i n r e s i d e n t i a l ,  i n d u s t r i a l , and commercial a r e a s .  projects involving rehabilitation  Support f o r  i s b e g i n n i n g t o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n from  b o t h t h e p r i v a t e and t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r s o f t h e economy.  This i s  3  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n t h e case o f commercial 'downtown' a r e a s .  The acceptance  r e s t s upon t h e acceptance  rehabilitation within  o f programs t o r e v i t a l i z e such a r e a s  o f c e r t a i n assumptions.  They a r e , f i r s t l y ,  t h a t downtown p r o s p e r i t y i s d e s i r a b l e ; s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n which a commercial  d i s t r i c t must a c h i e v e  i n o r d e r t o be a c c e p t a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e p u b l i c ; and f i n a l l y , t h a t c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t f u n c t i o n s which a r e o f b e n e f i t t o t h e p u b l i c must be r e t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a . retailing,  These f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e  o f f i c e s , f i n a n c e , entertainment, p u b l i c service, wholesaling,  and i n some c a s e s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s .  O b j e c t i v e s and H y p o t h e s i s A c c e p t i n g t h e s e assumptions  t o be t e n a b l e , i t w i l l be t h e  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y t o examine t h e t e c h n i q u e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as i t i s b e i n g used i n commercial of  a r e a s ; t o r e v i e w and e v a l u a t e t h e p r o g r e s s  government-sponsored commercial  business d i s t r i c t s  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs i n c e n t r a l  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada; and by t h e c a s e - s t u d y  method t o determine t h e b a l a n c e o f achievement by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and p u b l i c endeavour i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s o f one s p e c i f i c  city.  A t t h e o u t s e t i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE A COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM OF CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT RENEWAL UTILIZING REHABILITATION MEASURES, IT I S ESSENTIAL THAT THERE BE COORDINATED PARTICIPATION OF FEDERAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AT THE ADVISORY, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND FINANCIAL LEVELS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE EFFORTS OF PRIVATE ENTERPRISE.  4  Definitions For the purpose of c l a r i t y a number o f terms t h a t w i l l f r e q u e n t l y employed a r e  be  defined.  ' U r b a n i z a t i o n * r e f e r s t o "the p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d i n u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s , or e l s e t o a r i s e i n t h i s proportion.' ' C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t * i s "the f o c u s o f c o m m e r c i a l , s o c i a l , and c i v i c l i f e , and o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " 'Downtown' . . . r e a l l y a c o l l o q u i a l i s m , r e f e r s t o the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . 'Urban renewal* i s "the c o l l e c t i v e s e r i e s of a c t i o n s , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , the t o t a l e f f e c t o f w h i c h might be the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h of the community." 'Redevelopment' r e f e r s t o the c l e a r a n c e o f e x i s t i n g outmoded s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r replacement w i t h new c o n s t r u c t i o n . 'Rehabilitation involves^"the remodelling, a l t e r i n g , r e p a i r i n g and o t h e r w i s e i m p r o v i n g s u b s t a n d a r d , d e t e r i o r a t e d , o r o b s o l e t e a r e a s , or i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s , so t h a t a g e c e n t , s a f e , and s a n i t a r y environment may be a c h i e v e d . " 1  ' C o n s e r v a t i o n ' i s m a i n t a i n i n g i n good o r d e r t h a t which i s a l r e a d y i n good c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n t r o l s and the encouragement o f a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n program. ' H i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n ' devotes i t s e l f t h r o u g h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n t o the r e s t o r a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t placed i n s u i t a b l e surroundings. A l l of the a s p e c t s of u r b a n renewal which have been mentioned  involve  the c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s o f improvement and must t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n framework of an o v e r a l l community p l a n .  the  5  Organization of the Thesis Trends i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f commercial e n t e r p r i s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two w i t h p a r t i c u l a r development  a t t e n t i o n being given to the  o f t h e suburban shopping c e n t e r and what appears t o be t h e  concomitant phenomenon o f commercial b l i g h t  i n the core.  Commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , as a method t o combat t h i s b l i g h t , w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h examples from Great B r i t a i n , from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and from Canada.  F o r convenience t h e many a s p e c t s o f commercial  rehabilitation  w i l l be examined under t h e headings o f p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, and legislative-administrative  a s p e c t s i n Chapter Three.  I n Chapter Four  an attempt w i l l be made t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r o g r e s s o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s under p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s . A c a s e - s t u d y i n v o l v i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures u t i l i z e d i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f Chapter F i v e ; and t h e p o l i c i e s f o r commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f Chapter S i x . Summary and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w i l l comprise t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r .  Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s The emphasis i s p l a c e d throughout t h e s t u d y on development o f p o l i c i e s f o r Canadian c i t i e s .  However, s i n c e c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e  i n t h e f i e l d o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been gained by o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t h e scope o f t h e t h e s i s i s extended t o i n c l u d e examples from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n .  The scope i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by  the methods o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h i n c l u d e d a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s .  L i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e s t u d y a r e found i n c e r t a i n  6  a s p e c t s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may The  case-study  case-study  methods.  Problems w i t h  a r i s e from the manner i n w h i c h q u e s t i o n s a r e asked.  has two weaknesses.  The  choice of V i c t o r i a ,  C o l u m b i a , i s l i m i t i n g i n t h a t t h i s c i t y does not c o n t a i n any  British extremely  b l i g h t e d commercial a r e a s , f o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n has u s u a l l y been a r r e s t e d . F i n a l l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n against which one  can e v a l u a t e the p o l i c i e s e v o l v e d by a p a r t i c u l a r  city.  7  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter  One  •^Kingsley D a v i s , "The U r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Human P o p u l a t i o n , " S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n , C C X I I I , No. 3 (September, 1965), p. 41. P a u l Y l v i s a k e r , "The V i l l a i n s a r e Greed, I n d i f f e r e n c e And You," L i f e Magazine. L I X , 6 (December 24, 1965), p. 96. z  ^ C h a r l e s Abrams, "Downtown Decay and R e v i v a l , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X V I I I , No. 1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1961), p. 3. ^Davis, l o c . c i t . ^Chauncy D. H a r r i s and Edward L. Ullman,"The Nature o f C i t i e s , " Readings i n Urban Geography, ed. H a r o l d M. Mayer and C l y d e F. Kohn, (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1959), p. 282. ^ S t a n l e y H. P i c k e t t , "Urban Renewal, t h e Fundamentals P l a n n i n g , " O n t a r i o H o u s i n g , X I , No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1966), p. 11.  of  Ibid. 8 j a c k M. S i e g a l and C. W i l l i a m B r o o k s , Slum P r e v e n t i o n Through C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Report o f t h e Subcommittee on Urban Redevelopment, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and C o n s e r v a t i o n t o t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s A d v i s o r y Committee on Government Housing P o l i c i e s and Programs (Washington, D.C.: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1953), p. 12.  Pickett, loc. c i t .  CHAPTER  TWO  TRENDS IN RETAILING THE  CASE FOR  COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION  We must r e s t o r e t o the c i t y t h e m a t e r n a l , l i f e n u r t u r i n g f u n c t i o n s , the autonomous a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s y m b i o t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t have l o n g been n e g l e c t e d or s u p p r e s s e d . For t h e c i t y should be an organ o f l o v e ; and t h e economy o f c i t i e s i s the cure and c u l t u r e o f men.  L e w i s Mumford D u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the development o f i n t e g r a t e d shopping c e n t e r s t o f u l f i l l the need f o r r e t a i l trade f a c i l i t i e s . partial  The  shopping c e n t e r a d m i t t e d l y p r o v i d e s a  s o l u t i o n t o a need c r e a t e d by urban growth.  A t t e n t i o n has  now  t u r n e d , however, t o the c o r e o f the u r b a n a r e a , the downtown o r c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . The  importance  a t t a c h e d t o t h i s a r e a i s not a r e c e n t phenomenon.  E a r l y s o c i e t i e s formed c i t i e s some 5,500 y e a r s ago and a t t a c h e d  special  s o c i a l and c e r e m o n i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i r communal m e e t i n g p l a c e s i n t h e c l e a r e d a r e a surrounded  by t h e i r homes.  Babylon  i n Mesopotamia;  Thebes i n Egypt; Mohenjo-Daro i n the v a l l e y o f t h e Indus R i v e r ; Anyang i n C h i n a ; T e o t i h u a c a n near modern Mexico C i t y a l l developed 3,500 B.C.  and the f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D.  8  between  and showed the c e n t e r o f t h e  city  9  as the p r e s t i g e a r e a , the s e t t i n g f o r m a g n i f i c e n t r e l i g i o u s governmental c e n t e r s and the c e n t r a l market a r e a .  and  F o u r t h c e n t u r y Athens  c o n t r a s t e d the b u s t l i n g a c t i v i t y o f the agora a g a i n s t the backdrop o f the d e e p l y s y m b o l i c A c r o p o l i s .  The m e d i e v a l  inward upon t h e commercial square.  The  European c i t y converged  examples a r e many but p o i n t t o  the f a c t t h a t the market p l a c e has been h i s t o r i c a l l y a p l a c e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r many o f the w o r l d ' s c i t i e s . S t a t e s have been no e x c e p t i o n .  Canada and the U n i t e d  U n t i l the 1920's, Main S t r e e t was  c i v i c c e n t e r f o r the p o p u l a t i o n o f most c i t i e s .  the  W h i l e many s t u d i e s have  p o i n t e d t o the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t as the core o f r e t a i l  and  s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y because o f i t s u n i q u e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the e n t i r e  city  p o p u l a t i o n , 1 the c r y t h a t 'Downtown i s d y i n g ! ' has become an a l l too f a m i l i a r one w i t h i n the l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s .  T h i s demise o f downtown i s  caused by a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f f a c t o r s .  Development o f the Suburban Shopping C e n t e r The  1890's saw the f i r s t s t r e e t r a i l r o a d s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and  w i t h them the growth o f o u t l y i n g b u s i n e s s c e n t e r s a l o n g s i d e the s e c t i o n s of p u b l i c t r a n s i t l i n e s . appeal s t o r e s .  when t h e i n v e n t i o n  a l l o w e d a r e l e a s e from the f i x e d p a t t e r n o f t r a c k s .  P r e v i o u s l y the o n l y c o n v e n i e n t way was  These c e n t e r s housed m a i n l y mass  F u r t h e r b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s developed  o f the automobile  inter-  on t r a c k s but w i t h the new  t o get t o the c e n t r a l shopping  area  emphasis on p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  on motor bus l i n e s the o u t l y i n g b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t gained and a p p e a l over the c e n t r a l a r e a .  accessibility  In a d d i t i o n , several other f a c t o r s  10  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e v o l u t i o n o f the suburban shopping c e n t e r as we know i t t o d a y . The 'New  Town' or 'Garden C i t y ' p h i l o s o p h y f i r s t suggested by  Ebenezer Howard i n 1898 gave weight t o arguments i n f a v o u r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t s m a l l towns.  H i s t h o u g h t s were developed f u r t h e r by  S i r P a t r i c k Geddes i n terms o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and Le C o r b u s i e r i n h i s Radiant C i t y .  They a r e seen today i n E n g l i s h and Swedish s a t e l l i t e towns  and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i n N o r t h American s u b u r b i a .  They may  detract  from t h e importance a t t a c h e d t o a c i t y ' s c e n t r a l a r e a . The g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n and t h e p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t t o t h e suburbs have combined w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l y more ' a f f l u e n t  society'  t o make t h e f a m i l y u n i t s w i t h t h e i r c a r s t h e customers o f t h e new centers.  shopping  W h i l e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t employment r e t a i n s i t s importance  many a downtown worker i s a s u b u r b a n . r e s i d e n t and shopper.  Further, a  number o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s and governmental a g e n c i e s have f o l l o w e d the f l i g h t t o the suburbs.  M e r c h a n d i s i n g , t o o , has changed.  The t r e n d i s  toward l a r g e r m e r c h a n d i s i n g u n i t s , c r o s s l i n e s i n m e r c h a n d i s i n g , the use o f t r a d i n g stamps and o t h e r a d v e r t i s i n g gimmicks, rearrangement i n the h o u r s o f b u s i n e s s w i t h n i g h t hours c a t e r i n g t o t h e f a m i l y as a shopping u n i t , and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f no c o s t o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g .  The cause of  c o n c e r n t o c i t y merchants i s demonstrated by the diagram on t h e f o l l o w i n g page.  2  30 I  1 1944  1940  IG.  2  SALES  PER  D O W N T O W N UNITED  1 [948  SQUARE  FOOT  DEPARTMENT  STATES,  1940-1959  1 (952  OF  I 1956  SELLING  STORES  IN  SPACE  THE  IN  I  I960  ,12  B l i g h t Within the Central Business D i s t r i c t  Urbanization  and i t s companion s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  d e c i d e d e f f e c t on t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t .  have had a  The s e r i o u s n e s s o f  the e f f e c t h a s been dependent on a number o f f a c t o r s .  The e f f e c t appears  t o be more severe i n l a r g e r c i t i e s than i n s m a l l e r c i t i e s .  I t depends on  the a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and competence o f suburban d e v e l o p e r s as compared t o the owners o f t h e downtown b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t .  The main type o f h o u s i n g  i n a c i t y , s i n g l e f a m i l y o r m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , may be a f a c t o r as i s t h e s t a t e o f t h e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t  s i n g l e source o f t r o u b l e .  The a u t o m o b i l e i s  W h i l e volume o f t r a f f i c  t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e , t h e h i g h c o s t o f l a n d a c c e n t u a t e s t h e problem o f p r o v i d i n g parking of t i m e .  facilities.  Added t o t h i s i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e passage  Commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s which may once have been q u i t e  adequate a s w e l l a s a e s t h e t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , may have d e t e r i o r a t e d and become  obsolete. " B l i g h t e x i s t s where d e t e r i o r a t i o n has s e t i n and where.a l o s s  of v a l u e e x i s t s . . . ."^ r e s u l t s from t h e n e g l e c t  B l i g h t i s t h e name g i v e n t o t h e d i s e a s e  o f t h e p h y s i c a l maintenance o f s t r u c t u r e s and  improvements and from a f a i l u r e t o adapt t o modern c o n d i t i o n s . physical manifestations e f f e c t s a r e many and, - as obvious.  which  o f commercial b l i g h t a r e o b v i o u s .  apart  The  The economic  from t h o s e a f f e c t i n g o w n e r s h i p , may n o t be  Among them a r e lowered p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and assessment w i t h  subsequent l o s s o f revenue t o l o c a l governments; e x t r a c o s t i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o run-down a r e a s ; l o s s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h o s e w o r k i n g i n an  13  u n a t t r a c t i v e and u n h e a l t h y environment; and g e n e r a l l o s s and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f businesses.-* i s g i v e n by V i c t o r Gruen who  An example of the above-mentioned f a c t s t a t e s t h a t i n C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o , the  number o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s dropped from 1,054 and  t o 854 between  1948  1958 and t h e assessment t o t a l o f these e s t a b l i s h m e n t s dropped from  21 p e r c e n t t o 17 p e r c e n t between 1945 and 1955.^  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were  found i n D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n ; Milwaukee, W i s c o n s i n ; and Massachusetts.  Boston,  B e r r y i n h i s book Commercial S t r u c t u r e and Commercial  B l i g h t i d e n t i f i e s two f u r t h e r forms o f b l i g h t . ^  They a r e f u n c t i o n a l  b l i g h t w h i c h r e f e r s t o changes i n e i t h e r t h e s u p p l y o r demand f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f commercial s t r u c t u r e s and f r i c t i o n a l b l i g h t w h i c h r e f e r s t o the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t w h i c h a b u s i n e s s may  have on i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s .  I n d i c a t i o n s of R e b i r t h i n C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s  Districts  I f i t i s t r u e t h a t suburban shopping c e n t e r s have grown t o fill  t h e needs o f a suburban-based p o p u l a t i o n a d e q u a t e l y , and i f down-  town i s i n a s t a t e o f decay, then perhaps t h e r e i s no hope.  This i s  not the case f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h i n v o l v e not o n l y the b u s i n e s s  interests  w h i c h o p e r a t e i n the downtown a r e a but a l s o the consumers who  demand a  v i t a l downtown a r e a .  P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e has r e a c t e d i n such a way  Good, bad, o r " i n d i f f e r e n t , t h e f a c t remains t h a t b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f the c i t y the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s district i n most a r e a s o f w e s t e r n c u l t u r e have adopted a d e t e r m i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e as t o the v a l u e o f a s t r o n g C.B.D., and a r e s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s by b o t h p r i v a t e a c t i o n s and c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s through t h e i r downtown a s s o c i a t i o n . ^  that  14  F o r the consumer, two elements a r e i m p o r t a n t . p u b l i s h e d a study which i n d i c a t e d t h a t " . . .  I n 1955, Mr. C.T.  Jonassen  i f the C.B.D. d e c l i n e d ,  the s o c i a l change would i n v o l v e a r a d i c a l r e o r d e r i n g o f the e c o l o g i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f u r b a n communities"  and f u r t h e r t h a t t h e  c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t has c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e advantages.^  Downtown  h e l d advantages over suburban shopping c e n t e r s i n s i x t e e n out o f twenty-three f a c t o r s t e s t e d i n h i s study.  Among the d i s a d v a n t a g e s  were d i f f i c u l t . p a r k i n g , crowds, and t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n .  listed  Advantages  i n c l u d e d t h e l a r g e s e l e c t i o n o f goods, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d o i n g s e v e r a l e r r a n d s a t once, and cheaper p r i c e s .  Advantages of shopping  centers  o f t e n r e s u l t e d from n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s o f the downtown s i t u a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y a second phase has become o b v i o u s . n o t d y i n g but i t i s c h a n g i n g .  Downtown i s  C e n t r a l o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s are i n c r e a s i n g  and the r e t a i l f u n c t i o n i s changing i n i t s emphasis. i s on s p e c i a l t y goods and on s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s .  T h i s new  emphasis  The t h e o r i e s which  support  these i d e a s a r e the e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r y w h i c h suggests t h a t b u s i n e s s e s compete f o r l o c a t i o n i n terms o f r e n t - b i d d i n g and thus those which a s i t e i n the c o r e a r e t h o s e which demand c e n t r a l i t y .  secure  The c e n t r a l p l a c e  t h e o r y suggests t h a t the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t can be t h e o n l y l o c a t i o n f o r h i g h - o r d e r goods, t h o s e which a r e demanded l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y , and so must have a w i d e r consumer a r e a from which t o draw. Suburban development w i l l c o n t i n u e but the c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g p l a n n e r s , c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s a l i k e i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a b a l a n c e between suburban a r e a s and t h e downtown a r e a i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the consumer w i t h maximum c h o i c e and maximum  convenience.  15  G o a l s f o r the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t must be c l e a r l y  enunciated  and then t a i l o r e d t o f i t t h e means a v a i l a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h them.  Among <  t h e s e g o a l s must be t h e r e t e n t i o n , s t r e n g t h e n i n g , and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f c e n t r a l a r e a a c t i v i t i e s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r r e - i n t e g r a t i o n ; the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r automobile  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; and p h y s i c a l  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e n e w a l w h i c h w i l l r e t a i n and i n c r e a s e c e n t r a l a r e a v a l u e by c o n t r o l l i n g o b s o l e s c e n c e  and  stabilizing  location.  To enumerate g o a l s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t implement p l a n s w h i c h w i l l a c h i e v e them.  than t o  W i t h i n the c e n t r a l business  d i s t r i c t s o f c i t i e s t h e r e a r e many o b s t a c l e s .  Among these a r e t h e l a c k  o f c o r e l a n d , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r hand t h e r e may  be easy a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  l a r g e p l o t s o f l a n d f o r suburban development, and t h e r e may  be  apparent  r e s i s t a n c e t o improvement on t h e p a r t o f downtown p r o p e r t y owners. Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , b o t h on a s i n g l e b u s i n e s s b a s i s and on  an  a r e a l b a s i s , i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used t o combat t h e problems o f the downtown a r e a .  Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s by no means the o n l y  answer t o downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  I t must be c o u p l e d w i t h an adequate  program o f c o n s e r v a t i o n ; i t must be c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h an a c t i v e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ; and i t must o n l y be undertaken where, i n i t s implementation,  complete redevelopment would not be more economic and  successful. Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s have been c a r r i e d out  and  a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n Great B r i t a i n , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and i n Canada.  They v a r y g r e a t l y i n t h e i r scope but t h e i r g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e  o f downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s c o n s t a n t .  The time has come t o re-examine  16  the  p r o g r e s s , t h e s u c c e s s , and the problems which have been encountered  and t o determine how r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can b e s t be extended i n t h e f u t u r e . R i c h a r d N e l s o n and F r e d e r i c k Aschman have l i s t e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r a program o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n "under maximum cond i t i o n s o f need and f e a s i b i l i t y . " ^  They a r e :  1. UNIFICATION o f the d i s t r i c t , a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y and planning-wise, i n t o a d e f i n i t e e n t i t y which w i l l not s h i f t i t s " l o c a t i o n but w i l l remain as a t r u e ^ c e n t e r " w i t h p e r p e t u a l r e b u i l d i n g or s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t . 2. IMPROVEMENT OF SITE LAYOUT through e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t o r e s , p a r k i n g , p e d e s t r i a n s , m o t o r i s t s , t r u c k and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . 3. ELIMINATION OF BLIGHT i n the form o f n o n c o n f o r m i n g u s e s and d e t e r i o r a t e d s t r u c t u r e s . 4. PROVISION o f new a m e n i t i e s i n terms o f b o t h a e s t h e t i c s and c o n v e n i e n c e . 5. ACHIEVEMENT OF COHESION OF MANAGEMENT/OPERATION through cooperation of m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s a c t i n g j o i n t l y t o m a i n t a i n s c i e n t i f i c management p r a c t i c e i n a r e a s of m u t u a l i n t e r e s t and n e c e s s i t y . Some o f the o b j e c t i v e s of commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can perhaps b e s t be seen i n p r o j e c t s w h i c h have been u n d e r t a k e n .  For t h i s reason three  examples have been chosen.of p r o j e c t s w h i c h have a t t r a c t e d attention.  substantial  They a r e found i n N o r w i c h , England; i n F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a ;  and i n T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o .  17  Examples o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s  In 1957,  t h e N o r w i c h C i t y C o u n c i l was approached by t h e C i v i c  T r u s t w h i c h proposed t h a t a p r o j e c t be u n d e r t a k e n t o show how a g i v e n a r e a i n a c i t y c o u l d be improved w i t h o u t major a l t e r a t i o n o r expense, i f a l l concerned c o u l d be persuaded t o work t o g e t h e r .  The a r e a chosen  was Magdalen S t r e e t because i t s problems were f e l t t o be t y p i c a l .  The  p l a n was t o emphasize good p o i n t s and camouflage bad ones, a t a s k w h i c h i s made d i f f i c u l t under c o n d i t i o n s o f m u l t i p l e ownership. t h e scheme was secured  Support f o r  t h r o u g h a p u b l i c m e e t i n g and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  What was a c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d ?  As a m a t t e r o f r e c o r d , 66 p r o p e r t i e s f a c i n g t h e s t r e e t , t o g e t h e r w i t h a number o f a l l e y s and c o u r t y a r d s , were r e p a i n t e d i n a c o - o r d i n a t e d scheme; 17 s i g n b o a r d s over the shops were r e d e s i g n e d and 38 were r e l e t t e r e d ; 22 proj e c t i n g name s i g n s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were removed; 26 shops i n s t a l l e d new b l i n d s ; 16 added new c u r t a i n s t o t h e i r upper windows; 6 lamp standards were removed and r e p l a c e d by new l i g h t i n g ; 2 new bus s h e l t e r s o f a s t a n d a r d d e s i g n prepared by t h e c i t y a r c h i t e c t , and 1 e s p e c i a l l y designed c r u s h b a r r i e r were e r e c t e d ; 5 new bus stop s i g n s superseded t h e o l d ones; 11 p a i r s o f No W a i t i n g and No L o a d i n g s i g n s were r e d e s i g n e d as one; a n o t h e r p a i r was removed a l t o g e t h e r ; overhead w i r e s were r e s i t e d so t h a t they would not c r o s s t h e s t r e e t ; S t . S a v i o u r ' s Church was f l o o d l i t , and a c o r n e r l o t was p l a n t e d b y t h e C i t y P a r k Department. Some 40 o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s and o b j e c t s i n t h e s t r e e t were removed, r e p l a c e d , o r o r e p a i n t e d - an e l e c t r i c i t y box h e r e , a n o t i c e b o a r d t h e r e , a fence somewhere e l s e , and so o n . *  Upon c o m p l e t i o n The  t h e average c o s t t o each merchant was l e s s than $200.00.  t o t a l r e s t o r a t i o n c o s t was $22,500.00 w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s '  p o r t i o n and t h a t o f t h e C i v i c T r u s t a t about $15,000.00.  18  I n 1958, t h r o u g h an o r g a n i z a t i o n known as t h e Downtown A s s o c i a t i o n , Fresno, C a l i f o r n i a , h i r e d the a r c h i t e c t u r e - p l a n n i n g f i r m of V i c t o r Gruen A s s o c i a t e s i n an attempt t o r e s c u e t h e i r downtown a r e a . A l o n g F u l t o n S t r e e t , t h e main s t r e e t o f F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a , i n an a r e a s i x b l o c k s l o n g and t h r e e b l o c k s w i d e , a u t o m o b i l e s were b a n i s h e d and a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l was c r e a t e d .  Featured  i n the m a l l are fountains,  p o o l s , and many p i e c e s o f s c u l p t u r e as w e l l as p l a y g r o u n d s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and benches f o r t h e e l d e r l y o r l e i s u r e l y .  Parking areas are  p l a c e d around t h e m a l l so t h a t no b u i l d i n g i s more than f o r t y y a r d s from t h e n e a r e s t The  p a r k i n g p l a c e and s m a l l e l e c t r i c trams a r e p r o v i d e d .  c o s t o f t h e m a l l was t o be about $1,500,000.00.  A merchants*  assessment p a i d $600,000.00, t h e f e d e r a l government p a i d $900,000.00 and  t h e c i t y c o n t r i b u t e d maintenance c o s t s .  j e c t has been measured i n a 20 percent  The success o f t h i s  increase i n business  m a l l opened as w e l l as by t h e f a c t t h a t assessed sharply.  pro-  since the  v a l u a t i o n s have r i s e n  J  Y o r k v i l l e V i l l a g e o f Toronto i s more t r u l y a 'happening' than a preconceived  plan.  An a r e a o f t a l l V i c t o r i a n houses, i t was i n  danger o f becoming t h o r o u g h l y  b l i g h t e d when, i n 1950, i t was t a k e n  over by a number o f i n t e r i o r d e s i g n e r s and shop-keepers who the a r e a i n t o a s e r i e s o f a t t r a c t i v e shops and s t u d i o s .  turned  Soon a number  of l u x u r y shops moved i n t o t h e a r e a and were f o l l o w e d by r e s t a u r a n t s , s i d e w a l k c a f e s , and d i s c o t h e q u e s .  I n 1962 a group known as t h e V i l l a g e  of Y o r k v i l l e A s s o c i a t i o n was formed t o c o n t r o l t h e neighbourhood's character.  The c i t y o f Toronto has c o n t r i b u t e d d i s t i n c t i v e s t r e e t  19  s i g n s , new  s i d e w a l k s , b e t t e r l i g h t i n g , and underground w i r i n g .  All  these f a c t o r s have c r e a t e d an e x c i t i n g and unique shopping p r e c i n c t . Suburban shopping  c e n t e r s have grown up t o f i l l  a c e r t a i n need  o f the suburban populace but as can be seen by t h e above examples, the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s a r e f i g h t i n g t o r e g a i n t h e prominence t h e y once h e l d . shopping  Not o n l y must t h e y r e c o v e r from t h e b u s i n e s s l o s t t o  c e n t e r s but a l s o from t h e ravages o f t i m e .  Commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n used as a method t o speed r e c o v e r y has many a s p e c t s and t h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e next  chapter.  20  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter  Two  ^ l c o l m Proudfoot, " C i t y R e t a i l Structure," Geography, X I I I ( O c t o b e r , 1937), p. 425.  Economic  R i c h a r d R a t c l i f f , Urban Land Economics (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1949), pp. 386-397. J . Vance, "Emerging P a t t e r n s o f Commercial S t r u c t u r e i n A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , " I.G.U. Symposium i n Urban Geography, Lund, 1960, e d . K. N o r b e r g (Lund: G l e e r u p , 1962), p. 485 f f .  ^George S t e r n l i e b , "The F u t u r e o f R e t a i l i n g i n t h e Downtown Core,"' J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXIX, No. 3 (May, 1963), p. 110.  ^ L a r r y S m i t h , "Commercial R e a l E s t a t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s , Downtown and Suburban," Urban L a n d , XV, No. 3 (March, 1956), pp.  3-4.  ^ U n i t e d S t a t e s Chamber o f Commerce, Urban Development Guidebook (Washington: Chamber o f Commerce C o n s t r u c t i o n and C i v i c Development Department, November, 1955), p. 3.  5  I b i d . , p. 4.  ^ V i c t o r Gruen, The Heart o f Our C i t i e s (New Y o r k : and S c h u s t e r , 1964), p. 89.  Simon  ^B.J.L. B e r r y , Commercial S t r u c t u r e and Commercial B l i g h t ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1963), p. 179. E d g a r M. Horwood, "The Core o f the C i t y : P l a n Canada, I I , No. 3 (December, 1961), p. 111. 8  Emerging Concepts,"  ^C.T. J o n a s s e n , The Shopping C e n t e r V e r s u s Downtown (Columbus, O h i o : Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1955), p. 94.  21  R . L . N e l s o n and F r e d e r i c k T. Aschman, C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s , Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 22 (Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , F e b r u a r y , 1964), p. 8. 1 U  u  Ibid.  ^ N o r w i c h U n i o n I n s u r a n c e Group, The N o r w i c h P l a n f o r Downtown R e s t o r a t i o n ( T o r o n t o : The Norwich U n i o n I n s u r a n c e Group, no d a t e ) , p. 3. 1  B e r n a r d Taper, "The C i t y t h a t P u t s P e o p l e F i r s t , " M c C a l l ' s Magazine. XCV, No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1966). 1 3  1  CHAPTER THREE  ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION Our e f f o r t s must be towards c r e a t i n g environmental q u a l i t i e s that w i l l help f u l f i l l t h e human h e a r t ' s d e s i r e i n t h e c i t y ' s h e a r t , and on t h e o t h e r hand make i t p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h e h e a r t w i t h speed and c o n v e n i e n c e . V i c t o r Gruen i n The Heart o f Our C i t i e s The s t u d y o f any method o f c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s e x a m i n a t i o n o f a number o f d i f f e r e n t aspects.  functional  I n reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e of the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t  S h i r l e y F. W e i s s has n o t e d t h a t t h e f i e l d s o f urban s o c i o l o g y , human e c o l o g y , economic geography, economic h i s t o r y , urban l a n d  economics,  marketing, s o c i a l behaviour, t r a f f i c engineering, p u b l i c administration, urban d e s i g n , a n d - c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a l l have an i n t e r e s t . ^ R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f commercial  l a n d uses i n c e n t r a l a r e a s a l s o i n v o l v e s  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f many o f t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d i n t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o determine what t h e p h y s i c a l , and economic r e a s o n s , methods, and e f f e c t s " o f commercial  social,  rehabilitation  a r e , a s w e l l as t o u n d e r s t a n d what l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s have been made f o r t h i s type o f renewal.  22  23  P h y s i c a l Aspects The n e c e s s i t y f o r improvement i n t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f today's c i t i e s i s most apparent  i n downtown a r e a s .  I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o  f i n d a c i t y which does n o t s u f f e r from a r e a s made u g l y by t h e passage o f time and t h e ravages o f b l i g h t .  I n many cases t h e s t r e e t s a r e i n poor  c o n d i t i o n , narrow, and c l u t t e r e d w i t h c a r s . almost a r o o f over t h e s t r e e t . for  Shop s i g n s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s compete  a t t e n t i o n and c o m p l e t e l y o b l i t e r a t e what might have once been  architecturally attractive buildings.  The b u i l d i n g s themselves  s t r u c t u r a l l y unsound and have dim l i g h t i n g . of renewal  i s not d i f f i c u l t  to identify:  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs a r e u n d e r t a k e n , met  Overhead w i r i n g may form  t o ensure s u c c e s s .  are often  The a r e a r e q u i r i n g some t y p e  however, b e f o r e  commercial  c e r t a i n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s must be  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n t h e case o f  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s opposed t o t o t a l redevelopment which o f t e n i n v o l v e s a change i n l a n d u s e . Most i m p o r t a n t i n any a r e a where r e t a i l i n g i s t o t a k e p l a c e i s the need t o s a t i s f y t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f r e t a i l  location.  R i c h a r d L. N e l s o n  has i d e n t i f i e d e i g h t f a c t o r s which must be c o n s i d e r e d .  They a r e :  1. There must be an adequate t r a d i n g a r e a p o t e n t i a l . 2. The r e t a i l a r e a must be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h e t r a d i n g a r e a . 3.&4. The s i t e o f t h e r e t a i l l o c a t i o n must c o n t a i n room f o r p o t e n t i a l growth and must be i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n t e r c e p t business. 5.&6. W i t h i n t h e r e t a i l a r e a i t s e l f , s t o r e s should p r o v i d e c o m p a t i b i l i t y between themselves and s h o u l d p r o v i d e cumulative a t t r a c t i o n .  24  7. The h a z a r d s of c o m p e t i t i o n s h o u l d be  minimized.  8. The s i t e must be a n a l y z e d i n terms of the r e l a t i o n of i t s cost to i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . 2  Two  o f t h e s e f a c t o r s need f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n .  According to Nelson  the  t h e o r y of c u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n means t h a t : . . . a g i v e n number o f s t o r e s d e a l i n g i n the same merchandise w i l l do more b u s i n e s s i f t h e y a r e l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t or i n p r o x i m i t y t o each o t h e r than i f t h e y a r e w i d e l y separated.3  The r u l e o f r e t a i l  compatibility states that:  . . . two c o m p a t i b l e b u s i n e s s e s l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y w i l l show an i n c r e a s e i n b u s i n e s s volume d i r e c t l y prop o r t i o n a t e t o the i n c i d e n c e of t o t a l customer i n t e r c h a n g e between them, i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e r a t i o of the b u s i n e s s volume of the l a r g e r s t o r e t o t h a t o f the s m a l l e r s t o r e , and d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o the sum o f the r a t i o s o f p u r p o s e f u l p u r c h a s i n g t o t o t a l p u r c h a s i n g i n each o f the two s t o r e s . ^ S i n c e downtown a r e a s have a l a r g e c u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n i n t h e i r high-density r e t a i l  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and s i n c e they serve t h e downtown  w o r k i n g and t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , they would appear t o p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s on which t o b e g i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The  second f a c t o r w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d i s the  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the l i f e o f the c e n t r a l a r e a s of our  importance cities.  W i t h o u t a good system o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n and t o the downtown a r e a , and w i t h o u t adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r p a r k i n g , any renewal o f downtown w i l l fail.  I t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s t o d i s c u s s the problems of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f u r t h e r , but these problems must be r e c o g n i z e d and d e a l t w i t h i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a l l renewal p r o p o s a l s .  Individual  25  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each c e n t r a l a r e a and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n , such as l a n d a r e a , f l o o r - s p a c e a r e a , t y p e s of a c t i v i t y , daytime p o p u l a t i o n , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s must be measured and i n t e r r e l a t e d i n any p r o p o s a l f o r change i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the most e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.5 I r r e t r i e v a b l y u n i t e d w i t h the importance of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s the importance o f p r o v i d i n g f o r the p e d e s t r i a n i n downtown a r e a s . a c a r i s brought  Once  t o the c e n t r a l a r e a and p a r k e d , w a l k i n g becomes t h e  h i g h l y f l e x i b l e means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  In c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s  o f l a r g e r c i t i e s , 90 p e r c e n t o f a l l d a i l y t r i p s w i t h i n t h e a r e a a r e walking t r i p s . ^  F u r t h e r , one study has shown t h a t as many as a t h i r d of  a l l downtown purchases a r e a r e s u l t o f " i m p u l s e - s h o p p i n g " on the p a r t o f passers-by.^  By p r o v i d i n g p l e a s a n t p e d e s t r i a n p r e c i n c t s , the c i t y ' s  r e t a i l a r e a s w i l l b e n e f i t when people go out of t h e i r way  t o use them.  Among the most a t t r a c t i v e o f p e d e s t r i a n a r e a s a r e those which  provide  squares o f f t h e s t r e e t a r e a , an element of s u r p r i s e through t h e c u r v i n g of s t r e e t s , and a r c h i t e c t u r e which i n c l u d e s b u i l d i n g s s y m p a t h e t i c t o each o t h e r and t o the p r o v i s i o n o f sun, shade, and shadow.**  A number o f  s u g g e s t i o n s have been advanced t o s a t i s f y some o f t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s many, such a s - m a l l s , a r c a d e s , and w i d e r s i d e w a l k s a r e i n v o l v e d i n commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n schemes.  Once the p r i n c i p l e s of r e t a i l l o c a t i o n a r e thought t o be s a t i s f i e d and needs f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system are r e c o g n i z e d , the p l a n n e r i s t h e n f a c e d w i t h a r e a s w i t h i n the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t w h i c h , n e e d i n g more t h a n c o n s e r v a t i o n , would n e v e r t h e l e s s l o s e t h e i r  and  26  a p p e a l through t o t a l redevelopment or w h i c h are unacceptable f o r t o t a l renewal.  They are  economically  often  . . . anonymous s t r u c t u r e s which served w e l l i n t h e i r time and by some happy chance have come down t o us i n t a c t . They may even be u g l y by contemporary t a s t e . But t h e i r h o n e s t y i s s p l e n d i d ; t h e i r wholeness can make them sweet. Touch t h e s e , and you d e s t r o y much t h a t makes the c i t y human. Keep them and you keep the q u a l i t y of l i f e i t s e l f  There i s t h u s a m y s t e r i o u s a e s t h e t i c i n the r e p l a n n i n g of c e n t r a l a r e a s . P e o p l e today are becoming v e r y aware of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and them as p a r t of the d e s i g n o f c i t i e s .  I t may  thus demand  be t r u e as Jane J a c o b s  has  said that: . . . When we d e a l w i t h c i t i e s we are d e a l i n g w i t h l i f e at i t s most complex and i n t e n s e . Because t h i s i s so, t h e r e i s a b a s i c a e s t h e t i c l i m i t a t i o n on what can be done w i t h c i t i e s : A c i t y cannot be a work of a r t . ^  and  further that: . . . For a l l our c o n f o r m i t y , we are t o o a d v e n t u r o u s , i n q u i s i t i v e , e g o i s t i c and c o m p e t i t i v e t o be a harmonious s o c i e t y of a r t i s t s by consensus, and, what i s more, we p l a c e a - h i g h v a l u e upon the v e r y t r a i t s t h a t p r e v e n t us from b e i n g s o . - ^  However, the c h a l l e n g e  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t o c r e a t e an atmosphere  w h i c h i s p h y s i c a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e and by augmenting and  e f f i c i e n t t h a n the p r e s e n t  i m p r o v i n g the e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e .  And  one by  c h o o s i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , b e n e f i t s o f t e n a c c r u e i n terms of p o p u l a r support f o r p r o j e c t s s i n c e sentiment and p r i d e of p l a c e a r e  involved.  A t t e n t i o n t o the v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s of o l d e r a r e a s w i l l a l s o b r i n g b e n e f i t by p r e s e r v i n g t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e of h i s t o r y , by p r o v i d i n g a sense o f  27  l o c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and by making t h e b e s t u s e o f e x i s t i n g structures.I  2  Improvement o f t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f r e t a i l a r e a s must be seen from t h e vantage p o i n t o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e s i n g l e s t o r e a s w e l l as t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a complete commercial a r e a . been a composite o f t h r e e p a r t s :  S t o r e s have always  t h e e n t r a n c e a r e a and f r o n t which  d i s p l a y s t h e b u s i n e s s w i t h i n , t h e s a l e s r o o m where t h e p r o d u c t can be i n s p e c t e d and bought by t h e customer, and t h e s e r v i c e e n t r a n c e f o r incoming and o u t g o i n g m e r c h a n d i s e .  I n o r d e r t o be s u c c e s s f u l t h e s t o r e  f r o n t must c a t c h t h e eye o f t h e p a s s e r - b y and must i d e n t i f y t h e s t o r e . I t s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e a means o f d i s p l a y i n g merchandise and s h o u l d p u l l customers i n t o t h e s t o r e .  I n designing the s t r u c t u r e of the store  b u i l d i n g s i x elements a r e i m p o r t a n t .  1. I t s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f e n c l o s i n g i n t e r i o r space w i t h t h e fewest p o s s i b l e f i x e d p o i n t s o f o b s t r u c t i o n on s a l e s f l o o r s , s e r v i c e a r e a s , o r s t o r e f r o n t d i s p l a y zones. 2. I t s h o u l d be a d a p t a b l e t o t h e f l e x i b l e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f c i r c u l a t i o n elements. 3. I t s h o u l d be f i r e p r o o f . 4. I t s h o u l d p e r m i t maximum c o n s t r u c t i o n speed. 5. I t s h o u l d be e c o n o m i c a l i n i n i t i a l and maintenance  cost.  6. I t s h o u l d form an a t t r a c t i v e p a t t e r n when exposed t o v i e w i n t h e s a l e s space o r on t h e s t o r e f r o n t b u t s h o u l d never o f f e r u n n e c e s s a r y v i s u a l c o m p e t i t i o n t o t h e merchandise on d i s p l a y . ^  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e s h o p p i n g s t r e e t can o f t e n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h s i m p l y removing t h e c l u t t e r w h i c h a c c u m u l a t e s , arid by r e - d e s i g n i n g t h e  28  e s s e n t i a l elements i n a more u n i f i e d p a t t e r n .  S t o r e - f r o n t s are  often  c l u t t e r e d w i t h awnings, marquees, o v e r h a n g i n g s i g n s , banners and window d i s p l a y s w h i c h compete f o r a t t e n t i o n . d i f f e r e n t t e x t u r e s and elevators.  Pavement i s o f t e n b r o k e n up  t r e a t m e n t s and by man-hole c o v e r s and  Added t o t h i s i s the g e n e r a l  m e t e r s , l i t t e r b a s k e t s , and  sidewalk  s t r e e t c l u t t e r of l i g h t  h y d r a n t s , s t r e e t s i g n s , t r a n s i t s i g n s , p o l i c e and  by  fire-boxes,  standards,  parking  c u r b - r a i l i n g s . A l l these elements may  n e c e s s a r y but a l l can u n d o u b t e d l y be improved by u n i f i c a t i o n i n  be  design.  Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be c a r r i e d out on a s i n g l e s t o r e b a s i s , on a b l o c k b a s i s , or on an a r e a l b a s i s .  The most comprehensive  of a l l forms of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s found i n the downtown m a l l . p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s type of development a r e s i m p l e :  one  The  street, a  s t r e e t s , a few b l o c k s , or an e n t i r e downtown are t a k e n and p r i v a t e and  few cars  t r u c k s are banned except f o r some t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s ; the e n t i r e m a l l  i s modernized and made more a t t r a c t i v e ; and a m e n i t i e s are i n s t a l l e d f o r shoppers and  the b u s i n e s s community.  S p r i n g f i e l d , Oregon, i n 1957 permanent m a l l was  The  f i r s t of these was  d u r i n g a 10 day  t r i a l and  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Kalamazoo, M i c h i g a n .  Sparks S t r e e t M a l l i n Ottawa has become w i d e l y known.  the  seen i n first  I n Canada, the M a l l s have been  c r i t i c i z e d on the b a s i s t h a t t h e y a r e s p a t i a l l y l i m i t i n g and  often  h a s t i l y executed w i t h o u t thought t o the consequences but t h e y have a l s o provided  a s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t i n g ground f o r a r e a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  29  S o c i a l Aspects The s o c i a l a s p e c t s and importance o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n are  c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e p e c u l i a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h any i n d i v i d u a l may  have w i t h t h e commercial f u n c t i o n o f t h e c i t y .  The customer, t h e s m a l l  shop-keeper, t h e businessman, and t h e c i t y o f f i c i a l s a l l have v a r y i n g interests.  The c e n t r a l c i t y i s b u i l t by t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f any one  a r e a and i s meant f o r t h o s e p e o p l e .  I f i t i s t o s e r v e i t s fundamental purpose, a c i t y must be m e a n i n g f u l t o i t s human d w e l l e r s i n terms o f h e l p i n g them to l e a d t h e good l i f e . I t must p r o v i d e a t l e a s t s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y f o r a l l t h o s e who l i v e i n i t o r v i s i t i t . I t must h o l d out t h e p r o s p e c t t o i t s i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to e a r n t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s . I t must p r o v i d e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n , f o r c u l t u r a l c r e a t i v e n e s s , f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , f o r r e s t , d i v e r s i o n , r e l a x a t i o n and freedom o f movement. No c i t y has perhaps s e r v e d t h e s e ends p e r f e c t l y . But t h e c l a i m o f any c i t y t o d i s t i n c t i o n can o n l y be based upon t h e degree t o w h i c h i t e n a b l e s t h o s e who dwell w i t h i n i t s confines t o achieve the desirable goals of life. 1 4  The c o n c e p t s e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n a r e perhaps ideal:, however, t h e y emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e downtown a r e a where many p e o p l e a r e brought t o g e t h e r d a i l y , communication, exchange o f goods, and exchange o f i d e a s a r e maximized.  I t i s t h i s u n i q u e t y p e o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e spawned  by t h e c i t y w h i c h must be encouraged i n any downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . To r e l a t e t h e commercial f u n c t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f c i t y l i f e i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t two d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s a r e performed.  From t h e c i v i c and s o c i a l v i e w p o i n t t h e v a r i o u s shops, s t o r e s ,  and o f f i c e s n o t o n l y s e r v e t h e p u b l i c b u t a l s o p r o v i d e a f o c a l p o i n t i n  30  their individual area.  Each s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t type o f  t e x t u r e i n the l i f e o f t h e  city.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e customer and the downtown r e t a i l o u t l e t i s one which has been much s t u d i e d i n p a s t years.*-' The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s must be a p p l i e d i n any commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  J u s t as  merchants s t r i v e f o r a u n i q u e q u a l i t y i n t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s , so t h e i r customers  tend t o s e p a r a t e themselves i n t o v a r i o u s s o c i a l c l a s s e s as  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i r consumption symbols.  p a t t e r n s and p u r c h a s i n g o f p r e s t i g e  The most e v i d e n t form o f b u y i n g b e h a v i o u r i s p r o b a b l y found i n  t h e p a t r o n i z a t i o n o f e x c l u s i v e " c a r r i a g e t r a d e " o r s p e c i a l t y shops by t h e upper-middle  and upper s o c i a l c l a s s e s .  There a r e a l s o a number o f  o t h e r f a c t o r s which must be t a k e n i n t o account and t h e s e have been documented by George S t e r n l i e b i n h i s study The F u t u r e o f t h e Downtown Department S t o r e . ^  The average consumer today has more l e i s u r e t i m e ,  more means t o e n j o y i t , and more goods and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t compete f o r his  attention.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e downtown a r e a must work h a r d e r t h a n  ever b e f o r e t o a t t r a c t t h e customer. on g e n e r a l merchandise  The consumer i s now  and more on n o n - r e t a i l o u t l e t s .  spending  While  less  shopping  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e g a r d e d as one o f the most p l e a s u r a b l e a c t i v i t i e s of  a woman's l i f e ,  other a c t i v i t i e s .  i t s p o s i t i o n i s now Women now  c h a l l e n g e d by an assortment  demand an i n t e r e s t i n g and  attractive  atmosphere as w e l l as t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n guaranteed by comparison to  f i n d a good b a r g a i n .  of  shopping  I n a d d i t i o n , demand f o r convenience and a f a m i l y  o r i e n t a t i o n t o shopping have brought  success t o the suburban  c e n t e r t o t h e d i s c r e d i t o f the downtown a r e a .  shopping  Downtown h a s , however,  31  r e t a i n e d i t s l e a d i n terms o f the e n t e r t a i n m e n t f u n c t i o n and hoped t h a t t h i s may  i t is  be c a p i t a l i z e d upon i n downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  programs. From the v i e w p o i n t  o f c i v i c and b u s i n e s s o f f i c i a l s the t a s k o f  commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n becomes a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must f i r s t be r e c o g n i z e d cities.  For example, i n a L a n c a s t e r ,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the men s u r v i v a l and  The need f o r  and t h i s has been done i n many  Pennsylvania  businessman's  i n d i c a t e d a knowledge o f downtown's s t r u g g l e f o r  f e l t t h a t downtown improvement must be the j o i n t  b i l i t y o f b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b o d i e s . 1 7  The  responsi-  i n i t i a t i v e may  also  come from t h e l o c a l government a u t h o r i t y ; the l o c a l Board o f Trade, Chamber of Commerce, or a p a r t i c u l a r s t r e e t a s s o c i a t i o n ; a l o c a l  civic  or p l a n n i n g a s s o c i a t i o n ; a l o c a l group o f a r c h i t e c t s ; the l o c a l  press,  r a d i o , or t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n ; or f r o m a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t group.  Once  the p r o j e c t i s under way coordinate  i t i s important that a r e s p o n s i b l e  group  the work o f t h e p r o j e c t t o a c h i e v e a s u c c e s s f u l t o t a l e f f e c t  as w e l l as t o s a t i s f y each "of t h e i n v o l v e d merchants.  32  Economic A s p e c t s  The  f i e l d of u r b a n l a n d economics and  of a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e renewal p r o j e c t s . o f t e n s p e l l out  i t s s o p h i s t i c a t e d methods  an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f urban The  economics of a commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t  i t s success or f a i l u r e .  For the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t  t h e r e a r e t h r e e methods w h i c h a r e commonly used t o determine i t s s t r e n g t h : r e t a i l s a l e s v a l u e , l a n d v a l u e s , and daytime  population. ** 1  R e t a i l s a l e s are a measure of the economic v i a b i l i t y of CBD  s i n c e shopping goods are o f t e n c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n t h i s area.  the Figures  quoted by John R a n n e l s i n h i s a r t i c l e "Approach t o A n a l y s i s " i n d i c a t e the economic r e a s o n s f o r c o n c e r n i n many c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s i n 19 1954.  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e from h i s work i s of  interest.  TABLE 1 POPULATION EXPANSION RATIO AND  Number of CBD's  7 7 9 7 10 8  CHANGE IN CBD  Population Expansion R a t i o  0.70-0.99 1.00-1.39 1.40-1.79 1.80-1.99 2.00-2.99 3.00 or more  SALES Percentage Change CBD S a l e s 1943-1954 +5.7 +4.7 +3.8 +2.6 -0.9 -0.9  SOURCE: U.S. O f f i c e of A r e a Development, C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t s and T h e i r M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : A Summary o f ^ G r a p h i c S h i f t s i n S a l e s Volume, 1948-1954, S t a f f Paper Number 5 (Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce, 1957)  33  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t g a i n s were g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n a r e a s w i t h l e s s t h a n 250,000 p o p u l a t i o n , r a p i d l y expanding a r e a s h a v i n g s u f f e r e d from the e f f e c t s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . ^ 2  r e f e r s t o the percent percent  ratio"  growth i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a d i v i d e d by t h e  growth i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a .  i n smaller c i t i e s  The "'population e x p a n s i o n  As shopping c e n t e r s have been  built  i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , t h e y t o o have f e l t a l o s s i n  CBD s a l e s . Use o f l a n d v a l u e as a measure o f CBD s t r e n g t h i s o f t e n h e l p f u l s i n c e t h e h i g h e s t l a n d v a l u e i s most o f t e n found i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e retail  shopping d i s t r i c t  where t h e p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c  i s heaviest.  A study o f t h e h i e r a r c h y o f CBD l a n d uses i n terms o f l a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o f f i c e core o f a c i t y prestige r e t a i l  values  i n c l u d i n g prime o f f i c e space,  s t o r e s , and s e r v i c e and r e s t a u r a n t f u n c t i o n s supports a  l a n d v a l u e o f f r o m $50.00 t o $25.00 p e r square f o o t . l a n d v a l u e i s from $25.00 t o $15.00 per square f o o t . 2 1  The r e t a i l  core  Connected w i t h  the v a l u e o f l a n d and improvements a r e t h e f a c t o r s o f r e n t and t a x e s . The p r o d u c t i v i t y o f any u s e w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t  will  determine t h e r e n t w h i c h i t i s a b l e t o pay and t h u s t h e l a n d w h i c h i t can " a f f o r d t o occupy and t h e k i n d o f improvements w h i c h i t can a f f o r d t o make.  Programs f o r e x p e n s i v e  improvements may f o r c e low p r o d u c t i v i t y  uses t o r e l o c a t e i n other parts of the c i t y .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the cost of  improvements r e n t e r s must o f t e n f a c e i n c r e a s e d c o s t s i n t h e form o f i n c r e a s e d assessment on a l l improvements made.  C i t i e s depend on t h e  CBD f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t a x base and t h u s cannot a f f o r d t o have b l i g h t e d a r e a s w h i c h d e c r e a s e assessment and i n c r e a s e s e r v i c e  34  costs.  The  e f f e c t o f t o t a l redevelopment i s g r a p h i c a l l y demonstrated  i n i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by the American M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h r e p o r t s t h a t i n a survey o f 123 c i t i e s h a v i n g a t o t a l o f 294 urban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s , t a x e s b e f o r e redevelopment were $26 m i l l i o n w h i l e t a x e s a f t e r redevelopment were e s t i m a t e d a t $93 m i l l i o n . ^ 2 businesses  cannot, however, a f f o r d the i n c r e a s e d t a x e s which a r e  on improvements.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e s one  a r e a s can h e l p the CBD The  Many levied  time when o u t l y i n g b u s i n e s s  f o r t h e y c a r r y p a r t o f the t a x l o a d .  importance o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n t o the CBD  mentioned as a source o f s t r e n g t h .  has a l r e a d y been  The daytime p o p u l a t i o n a t t r a c t e d t o  v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e downtown a r e a i s a good i n d i c a t i o n o f a r e a s o f high land value. P r i m a r y among c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s a r e the economic c o s t s and the economic e f f e c t s . p r o j e c t s a r e u s u a l l y borne a t t h r e e l e v e l s . for  new  C o s t s o f such  F i r s t are municipal  s e r v i c e s , s t r e e t c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  costs There  w i l l be c o o p e r a t i v e c o s t s f o r improvements w h i c h a r e b e i n g made j o i n t l y by p r o p e r t y owners as i n the case o f an a r c a d e .  F i n a l l y there w i l l  be  i n d i v i d u a l c o s t s f o r improvements made t o i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s . Problems o f t e n a r i s e when bond i s s u e s must be f l o a t e d  by c i t i e s or  t a x e s must be i n c r e a s e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c e s f o r downtown a r e a improvements.  For the i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owner and the m e r c h a n t s ,  l o a n s a r e o f t e n needed t o make improvements.  I t i s at t h i s point that  the r o l e s o f the p u b l i c s e c t o r o f the economy and the p r i v a t e s e c t o r  35  become c l e a r .  As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n the next s e c t i o n , the p u b l i c  sector p r e s e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e s l a r g e l y at the m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  l e v e l under p r e s e n t The  r a t i o of  e x p e n d i t u r e between the p u b l i c and t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r t o t a l redevelopment was  p o i n t e d out by W i l l i a m S l a y t o n i n 1965  when he  stated  t h a t f o r e v e r y d o l l a r t h a t has been spent f o r the f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d Urban Renewal Program i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , $6.50 has been spent f o r p h y s i c a l improvements by r e d e v e l o p e r s The  i n the redevelopment a r e a s . ^ 3  p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f the economy i s t h u s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n r e n e w a l  p r o j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t has been e s t i m a t e d  t h a t t o renew a l l  A m e r i c a n c i t i e s w i t h i n a t w e l v e year p e r i o d (by the c u r r e n t t h e o r y u r b a n r e n e w a l ) would c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  trillion dollars.^  of  Private  e n t e r p r i s e does not h e s i t a t e t o t a k e p a r t i n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s i f t h e s e p r o j e c t s are c l e a r l y economically commercial p r o p e r t y ,  feasible.  C a p i t a l investment i n  i n comparison t o o t h e r forms o f i n v e s t m e n t , can  be  v e r y p r o f i t a b l e . C a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i n the improvement o f commercial p r o p e r t y may increase.  p e r m i t i n c r e a s e d r e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when merchants*  sales  A major problem f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n p r e s e n t government-  sponsored r e n e w a l e f f o r t s i s t h a t f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s are slow i n coming i n renewal p r o j e c t s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , when p r o j e c t s are announced w h i c h  i n v o l v e a d e v e l o p e r , i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owners may maintenance t h u s i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s .  neglect b u i l d i n g  F i n a l l y , i n i t i a t i o n of t h e s e p r o j e c t s  i s o f t e n not a d e q u a t e l y r e l a t e d t o the immediate c a p a b i l i t i e s of p r i v a t e f i n a n c i a l market.  the  36  There a r e many economic e f f e c t s of commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , some o f w h i c h have been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  Such p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e  changes i n t h e c a p i t a l c o s t s t o t h e c i t y and i n t h e i r t a x r e v e n u e s . They a l s o i n v o l v e adjustment o f p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c i t y ' s budget. There w i l l be e f f e c t s on e x i s t i n g r e n t e r s and p r o p e r t y owners, on s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , and on r e a l e s t a t e v a l u a t i o n w i t h i n t h e whole downtown a r e a .  A l l t h e s e f a c t o r s must be t a k e n i n t o account i n  d e t e r m i n i n g a p r o j e c t ' s economic  feasibility.  S e v e r a l economic a i d s have been suggested t h a t may commercial r e n e w a l .  Among t h e s e a r e r e g i o n a l r e n e w a l banks, t a x  s u b s i d i e s , cumpulsory p u r c h a s e o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s , and ownership.  encourage  condominium  I t has been suggested t h a t a r e g i o n a l system o f r e n e w a l  and development banks, s i m i l a r t o the A m e r i c a n F e d e r a l Home Loan Bank, would p e r m i t more r a p i d and e f f e c t i v e l o c a l r e n e w a l programs.25 Tax s u b s i d i e s t o a v o i d problems o f i n c r e a s e d assessment have been t r i e d i n some redevelopment p r o j e c t s .  F o r example, i n t h e Kansas  C i t y , M i s s o u r i Parade P a r k p r o j e c t , assessment was s e t a t the l a n d assessment o f t h e o r i g i n a l p r o p e r t i e s b e f o r e a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t e n y e a r s , and a t 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t h e l a n d and new  improvement  f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e f u l l assessment a f t e r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . 2 6 I n Canada, t h e budget o f June 2 1 s t , 1961, i n t r o d u c e d a s p e c i a l  section  ( S e c t i o n 1109 o f t h e amendments t o t h e Income Tax A c t ) t h e s t a t e d purpo o f w h i c h was t o encourage Canadian b u s i n e s s t o become more c o m p e t i t i v e . W h i l e a l l o p e r a t i n g expenses f o r each y e a r may be c l a i m e d , c a p i t a l expenses such as b u i l d i n g s can o n l y be c l a i m e d over a p e r i o d o f t i m e .  37  T h i s i s known as c a p i t a l c o s t a l l o w a n c e .  T h i s amendment a l l o w e d f o r a  15 p e r c e n t r a t h e r than 10 p e r c e n t r a t e on t h e y e a r l y c a p i t a l a s s e t s allowance.  The l a r g e r expense c l a i m p e r m i t t e d b u s i n e s s t h e use o f more  money f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n p u r p o s e s . o f 1964. through The  T h i s amendment was r e s c i n d e d i n March  Because o f t h e s m a l l percentage  change ( o n l y f i v e p e r c e n t ) and  i g n o r a n c e , t h i s amendment was n o t w i d e l y used by s m a l l b u s i n e s s .  government s i n t e n t was undoubtedly 1  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of large businesses.  t o encourage t h e e x p o r t  However, t h i s type o f l e g i s l a t i o n  i l l u s t r a t e s a type o f t a x s u b s i d y w h i c h has been t h e source o f both a p p r o v a l and d i s a p p r o v a l . I n Great B r i t a i n , L o c a l P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t i e s have t h e r i g h t t o secure u n i f i e d ownership o f l a n d by cumpulsory purchase w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g .  I n t h e case o f commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h i s p r o c e s s has been a v o i d e d s i n c e i t i s e l a b o r a t e and cumbersome, i n v o l v e s heavy c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e and may mean t h a t c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r a number o f y e a r s b e f o r e income i s r e c e i v e d t o repay l o a n s t a k e n . ^ 2  A n o t h e r more r e c e n t l y advanced concept,  l e g i s l a t i v e and economic, i s t h a t o f Condominium i n w h i c h an  both  individual  u n i t o f l a n d o r a b u i l d i n g can be owned o u t r i g h t by i t s i n d i v i d u a l  occupant,  w h i l e o t h e r p o r t i o n s i n t e n d e d f o r common use a r e j o i n t l y owned by t h e owneroccupants unified  o f a l l t h e u n i t s w i t h i n t h e Condominium p r o j e c t .  a c t i o n on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs.  Suggestions  T h i s may p e r m i t  f o r economic  remedies t o u r b a n renewal problems w i l l p r o b a b l y be f r e q u e n t l y advanced i n the f u t u r e .  Economic s o l u t i o n s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l e g i s l a t i v e and  o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s a r e now p r o v i d i n g f o r many t o t a l redevelopment programs and s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s may be used f o r commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n future.  i n the  38  Legislative  Aspects  As i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t f o r many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o undert a k e any f o r m o f comprehensive downtown r e n e w a l w i t h o u t f i n a n c i a l  help,  l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s a r e now b e i n g made i n t h e Canadian and American f e d e r a l urban r e n e w a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o h e l p CBD r e n e w a l programs. contrast t o the situation  In  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, c i t i e s i n  Great B r i t a i n have been g i v e n e x t e n s i v e means t o c a r r y out r e n e w a l p r o grams.  They p o s s e s s f a r - r e a c h i n g powers o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n and, w h i l e  t e n d e r s a r e s o l i c i t e d from p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e f o r redevelopment the  c i t y often r e t a i n s the freehold of the site.28  projects,  Although the subject  of commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d t o any g r e a t e x t e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o Great B r i t a i n , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e N o r w i c h , England r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  p r o j e c t s t a n d s as an e x c e l l e n t monument t o l o c a l  government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e c o o p e r a t i o n . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , urban r e n e w a l l e g i s l a t i o n has u n t i l r e c e n t l y d e a l t m a i n l y w i t h slum c l e a r a n c e and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g . The y e a r 1892 saw t h e f i r s t government s t u d y made o f slums, w i t h 1929 b r i n g i n g laws t o promote t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g .  The Emergency  and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n A c t o f 1932, t h e N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l  Relief  Recovery A c t o f  1933, and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Housing A c t o f 1937 extended t h e s e p r o visions,  w i t h t h e l a t t e r A c t d e a l i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h slum c o n d i t i o n s .  B e f o r e 1949, urban redevelopment and t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia.  s t a t u t e s were adopted i n 23 s t a t e s  The Housing A c t o f 1949 o r g a n i z e d and  a m p l i f i e d p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o v i d e d a statement o f n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g  39  p o l i c y , and p e r m i t t e d F e d e r a l advances t o f i n a n c e t h e p l a n n i n g o f u r b a n redevelopment p r o j e c t s a s w e l l a s i n t e r i m l o a n s t o p r o v i d e capital.  working  The Housing A c t o f 1954 a g a i n d e a l t o n l y w i t h h o u s i n g  policy  but i t d i d encourage t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l renewal. undertaken  through  P r e v i o u s t o 1954 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs were  s y s t e m a t i c enforcement o f h o u s i n g codes and o r d i n a n c e s .  An amendment t o t h e 1954 l e g i s l a t i o n p e r m i t t e d 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e F e d e r a l g r a n t fund t o be used f o r o t h e r than r e s i d e n t i a l  renewal.  In 1959, a u t h o r i z a t i o n was g i v e n t o g r a n t s f o r r e n e w a l  studies  o f e n t i r e communities and p e r m i t t e d 20 p e r c e n t o f F e d e r a l g r a n t s f o r p r o j e c t s o t h e r than r e s i d e n t i a l .  T h i s percentage was r a i s e d t o  30 p e r c e n t i n 1961 r e f l e c t i n g t h e government's i n c r e a s e d awareness o f t h e importance for  of central c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  The t o t a l sum a u t h o r i z e d  t h e u r b a n renewal program was f o u r b i l l i o n d o l l a r s , c o m p l e t i o n o f  t h e 1963 f i s c a l y e a r b e i n g t h e end o f t h e grant p e r i o d .  The H o u s i n g and  Urban Development A c t o f 1965 c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l new p r o v i s i o n s which a r e of i n t e r e s t :  1. A program o f r e n t supplements has been a u t h o r i z e d t o make h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e t o low-income i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . ( S e c t i o n 101); 2. G r a n t s can be made t o a s s i s t i n l o c a l programs f o r t h e g r e a t e r use and enjoyment o f open-space and o t h e r p u b l i c land i n urban areas ( S e c t i o n 906); 3. T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l grant a u t h o r i t y i s t o be used f o r a r e a s which a r e n o t p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l i n c h a r a c t e r and which w i l l be r e d e v e l o p e d and r e h a b i l i t a t e d f o r uses n o t p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l (Section 308);  40  4. An a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n s o f up t o $100 m i l l i o n per year i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e l o w - i n t e r e s t r a t e F e d e r a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l o a n s f o r homes and b u s i n e s s e s i n urban r e n e w a l a r e a s and code-enforcement a r e a s . (Section 312); 5. A program o f l e a s e guarantees i s a u t h o r i z e d under which c e r t a i n l e a s e s w i l l be guaranteed where t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r d i s a s t e r l o a n s under t h e S m a l l B u s i n e s s A c t o r f o r l o a n s under t h e a n t i p o v e r t y l a w . ( S e c t i o n 316).29  On A p r i l t w e n t y - s e v e n t h , 1966, S e n a t o r John Sparkman i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n t o " a u t h o r i z e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r urban r e n e w a l proj e c t s i n v o l v i n g the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t .  . . ."  Among h i s  suggestions a r e :  1. o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and c u l t u r a l functions of the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t are e s s e n t i a l t o a v i a b l e and sound c i t y ; 2. a u t h o r i t y f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n o f h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e CBD; 3. s t a g i n g o f downtown p r o j e c t s on a f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s r a t h e r than a geographic b a s i s ; 4. e x t e n s i o n o f t h e t i m e a l l o t t e d f o r e x e c u t i n g downtown p r o j e c t s . 3 0  complicated  I n t h e Canadian c a s e , a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e i n i t i a t i v e f o r urban renewal a c t i v i t y i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the s e n i o r governments h e l p i n g i n ways s p e c i f i e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . l e g i s l a t i o n governing  r e n e w a l i s p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l .  The  An '"urban  r e n e w a l a r e a " i s d e f i n e d by S e c t i o n 23 o f t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t t o be " a b l i g h t e d o r s u b s t a n d a r d a r e a o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r w h i c h t h e government o f t h e p r o v i n c e  i n w h i c h t h e a r e a i s l o c a t e d has approved  the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an u r b a n r e n e w a l scheme."  Early legislation  41  f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i s b r i e f l y summarized h e r e . The Dominion H o u s i n g A c t passed i n 1935 empowered t h e government t o j o i n w i t h l e n d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s t o a i d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g and t h i s A c t was r e p l a c e d i n 1938 by t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t .  The Home  Improvement Loans G u a r a n t e e i n g A c t adopted i n 1937 c o n t a i n e d a g u a r a n t e e , l i m i t e d t o 15 p e r c e n t  o f t h e l o a n s made by any one i n s t i t u t i o n ,  against  l o s s e s w h i c h t h e y might i n c u r as a r e s u l t o f home improvement l o a n s made by them.  When i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n d i d n o t p r o v i d e  f o r those who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d homes, the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t o f 1944 p r o v i d e d F e d e r a l government a s s i s t a n c e f o r slum c l e a r a n c e i n c o n j u n c t i o n with private f i n a n c i a l corporations.  Between 1944 and 1949 f u r t h e r  l e g i s l a t i o n was added t o persuade p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e t o c o n s t r u c t r e n t a l housing.  Amendments t o t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i n 1949 gave a i d  d i r e c t l y t o slum c l e a r a n c e and amendments i n 1954 i n c l u d e d p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s as an a c c e p t a b l e r e - u s e o f l a n d , r e - u s e p r e v i o u s l y h a v i n g been r e s t r i c t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l development. The  1956 amendments began t o broaden t h e scope o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n  and remove i t from t h e s t r i c t l y h o u s i n g  concept.  They a l l o w e d t h a t t h e  F e d e r a l government would match amounts spent by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e i n v o l v e d p r o v i n c e on " c l e a r a n c e , r e p l a n n i n g , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and modernization  of b l i g h t e d areas."  ( N a t i o n a l Housing A c t 1954,  Chapter 23, P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n 2 3 ( 1 ) ) .  The r e - u s e p r o v i s i o n was r e s t r i c t e d  o n l y t o t h e most e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e l a n d and f i n a n c i a l a i d was t o be g i v e n f o r s p e c i a l s t u d i e s o f urban c o n d i t i o n s .  42  The  1964 amendments t o t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t have widened  the r o l e o f t h e F e d e r a l government p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f i e l d o f rehabilitation.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s now supported  t h r o u g h a system o f  loans o r grants t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , with p r o v i s i o n f o r insured or d i r e c t loans t o i n d i v i d u a l s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n a designated urban renewal scheme. I n summary t h e n , t h e F e d e r a l government i s now p e r m i t t e d : 1. t o b e a r h a l f t h e c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g a subs t a n d a r d a r e a and a l s o o f p r e p a r i n g t h e s i t e f o r d i s p o s a l even where t h e r e i s no h o u s i n g c o n t e n t , e i t h e r e x i s t i n g o r proposed; 2. t o b e a r h a l f t h e c o s t o f i n s t a l l i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s or w o r k s , o t h e r t h a n b u i l d i n g s , i n any r e n e w a l a r e a i n c l u d i n g a r e a s scheduled f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r a t h e r than clearance; 3. t o b e a r h a l f t h e c o s t o f employing s t a f f o r c o n s u l t a n t s i n connection with a c q u i s i t i o n , clearance, r e l o c a t i o n , p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a f f e c t e d p r o p e r t y owners; 4. t o l e n d t o a p r o v i n c e o r m u n i c i p a l i t y up t o t w o - t h i r d s o f the a c t u a l c o s t o f implementing a r e n e w a l scheme, a f t e r the d e d u c t i o n o f f e d e r a l g r a n t s , and 5. t o i n s u r e l o a n s made by approved l e n d e r s t o t h e owners o f h o u s i n g scheduled f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n urban r e n e w a l a r e a s . These l o a n s , up t o 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e l e n d i n g v a l u e a f t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a r e secured by f i r s t mortgage and a l l o w f o r t h e d i s c h a r g e o f e x i s t i n g encumbrances. Should l e n d e r s be u n w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t i n a r e n e w a l a r e a CMHC i s empowered t o make a d i r e c t l o a n . 3 1  Seventy-five percent  o f t h e c o s t o f u r b a n r e n e w a l s t u d i e s had been  a v a i l a b l e t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s under t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t and i n 1964 a 50 p e r c e n t  f e d e r a l g r a n t was announced f o r s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l  u r b a n r e n e w a l schemes, schemes w h i c h were o f t e n suggested by e a r l i e r renewal  studies.32  43  Summary t o Chapter  Three  In r e c e n t y e a r s s o l u t i o n s t o the problems o f t h e downtown a r e a s of our c i t i e s have d w e l t t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and on urban renewal measures. j u s t one p a r t o f t h e s e measures.  Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s  The r e a s o n s , methods, and  effects  i n v o l v e d i n commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have been p r e s e n t e d , o f t e n w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l comment, i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  F o r the sake o f convenience  have been d i v i d e d i n t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic and  they  legislative  f a c e t s but i t must be remembered t h a t t h e s e f a c e t s a r e a l l i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . I t w i l l be the t a s k o f t h e n e x t c h a p t e r t o examine the p r o g r e s s o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s under p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s i n the l i g h t o f f a c t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  44  F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r Three ^ S h i r l e y F. W e i s s , The C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t i n T r a n s i t i o n : M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approaches t o CBD A n a l y s i s and F o r e c a s t i n g F u t u r e Space Needs, C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s , Research Paper No. 1 (Chapel Hill: Department of C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1957), p. 5.  ^ R i c h a r d L. N e l s o n , The S e l e c t i o n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n s (New Y o r k : Dodge, 1958), p. 52 f f .  3  I b i d . , p. 58.  I b i d . , p. 66.  -\J. Douglas C a r o l l , J r . , Roger L. C r e i g h t o n , and J o h n R. Hamburg, " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g f o r C e n t r a l A r e a s , " J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , X X V I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1961), p. 26.  Robert L. M o r r i s and S.B. Zisman, "The P e d e s t r i a n Downtown, and t h e P l a n n e r , " J o u r n a l of the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X V I I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1961), p. 152.  -Real E s t a t e R e s e a r c h C o r p o r a t i o n , Economic A n a l y s i s o f R e t a i l F a c i l i t i e s o f t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t of C l e v e l a n d , Ohio ( C l e v e l a n d : C l e v e l a n d C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, 1958), p. 13. 7  °M.R. W o l f e , "Shopping S t r e e t s and t h e P e d e s t r i a n R e d i s c o v e r e d , " American I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t s J o u r n a l , XXXVII (May, 1962), p. 33-42.  the  9August H e c k s c h e r , a s s q u o t e d i n M a r i a n Page, "Shopping O a s i s i n I m p e r s o n a l C i t y , " I n t e r i o r s , XXV ( J u l y , 1966), p. 75.  J a n e J a c o b s , "A C i t y i s Not a Work of A r t , " M e t r o p o l i s : v a l u e s i n c o n f l i c t , C.E. E l i a s , J r . , James G i l l i e s , and Svend Reimer, E d i t o r s , (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964), p. 106. i U  45  •'•'•Patrick H o r s b r u g h , " P r i d e of P l a c e . An Argument i n Favour o f V i s u a l D i v e r s i t y i n the Urban Scene," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y . L X V I I , 4, ( W i n t e r , 1961), p. 620. 13 M o r r i s Ketchum, J r . , shops and s t o r e s (New Y o r k : P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1948), p. 118. i J  O.H. S t e i n e r , Downtown, U.S.A. (Dobbs F e r r y , New Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964), p. 21. 14  Reinhold  York:  P . M a r t i n e a u , "The P e r s o n a l i t y of t h e R e t a i l S t o r e , " H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review. XXXVI, 1 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1956),pp. 47-55. 1 5  P. M a r t i n e a u , " S o c i a l C l a s s and Spending B e h a v i o u r , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g . X X I I I , 2 ( O c t o b e r , 1958), pp. 121-130. ^ G e o r g e S t e r n l i e b , The F u t u r e o f t h e Downtown Department S t o r e , (Cambridge: J o i n t C e n t e r f o r Urban S t u d i e s o f t h e MIT and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1962), pp. 23-27.  ^ L a n c a s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, L a n c a s t e r ' s C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . A Study ( L a n c a s t e r , P e n n s y l v a n i a : The C i t y , 1958), pp. 49-51. l % e i s s , op. c i t . . p. 17. ^ J o h n R a n n e l l s , "Approaches t o A n a l y s i s , " J o u r n a l of t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . X X V I I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1961), p. 19. 20 I b i d .  L a r r y S m i t h , "Space f o r the CBD's F u n c t i o n s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXVII ( F e b r u a r y , 1961), p. 19. 2 1  M. C a r t e r M c F a r l a n d , The C h a l l e n g e o f Urban Renewal, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 34 (Washington: The Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1958), p. 19. 22  46  l k e r and Murray A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , C e n t r a l C i t y A c t i o n Development P l a n f o r a b e t t e r A k r o n , Ohio ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . : Walker and Murray A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , 1965), p. 33.  J o h n W. Dyckman and R e g i n a l d R. I s a a c s , C a p i t a l Requirements f o r Urban Development and Renewal (New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l Book Co., 1961). 2 4  25  A r  t h u r M. Weimer, "A R e g i o n a l Bank System f o r Urban Renewal and Development,™ The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , XXIX, 1 (1961), p. 7. Hunter Moss, "Economic A s p e c t s o f Town C e n t e r Development," Urban Land, XXIV, 7 ( J u l y - A u g u s t , 1965), p. 11.  1  i v i c T r u s t , R e b u i l d i n g C i t y Centres, Report o f Conference h e l d a t M i d d l e s e x G u i l d h a l l F r i d a y , J u l y 15, 1960 (London: The C i v i c T r u s t , 1960),pp. 6-7.  2 8 j o u r n a l o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , " C o m p l e x i t i e s o f Town C e n t r e Development," The J o u r n a l o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , L I , 6 (June, 1965), p. 230.  2 9 i n f o r m a t i o n on U n i t e d S t a t e s u r b a n r e n e w a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s from summaries g i v e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : M. C a r t e r M c F a r l a n d , The C h a l l e n g e  o f Urban Renewal, op. c i t .  W i l l i a m L. S l a y t o n , R e p o r t on Urban Renewal, Statement o f W i l l i a m L. S l a y t o n , Commissioner, Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e f o r e the U n i t e d S t a t e s House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Committee on B a n k i n g and C u r r e n c y , Subcommittee on H o u s i n g (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , November 21, 1963). U n i t e d S t a t e s , House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Committee on B a n k i n g and C u r r e n c y , H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e H o u s i n g and Urban Development A c t o f 1965 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , August 11, 1965).  30  Downtown I d e a Exchange, X I I I , 4 ( J u l y 15, 1966).  47  • ^ S t a n l e y H. P i c k e t t , "An A p p r a i s a l of t h e Urban Renewal Program i n Canada," A Paper r e a d a t the Graduate S c h o o l of P u b l i c and I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , March 17 and 18, 1965, p. 3. • ^ I n f o r m a t i o n on Canadian Urban Renewal l e g i s l a t i o n i s from summaries g i v e n i n the f o l l o w i n g : M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , The R o l e o f P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e -in Urban Renewal, A Study c a r r i e d out by Murray V. Jones under c o n t r a c t w i t h the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board (Toronto: M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , March, 1966). U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Graduate S t u d e n t s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The P r o g r e s s o f Urban Renewal i n Canada: A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n (Vancouver, B.C.: D i v i s i o n of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., December, 1965).  CHAPTER FOUR COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION PROJECTS UNDER PRESENT LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS  . . . We w i l l t r a n s m i t t h i s c i t y n o t o n l y not l e s s , b u t g r e a t e r , b e t t e r , and more b e a u t i f u l t h a n i t was t r a n s m i t t e d t o u s .  from t h e Oath o f t h e A t h e n i a n C i t y S t a t e The p r o c e s s o f r e c r e a t i n g environments f o r l i v i n g and w o r k i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f u r b a n r e n e w a l - i s p r e s e n t l y employed i n most major c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.  I t i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h i s as  c o s t l y as i t i s e x p a n s i v e and i s , o f n e c e s s i t y , n e v e r - e n d i n g . V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e methods and approaches o f urban r e n e w a l a r e cons i d e r a b l e and may i n v o l v e redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i o n and, i n most c a s e s , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h r e e . it  i s d i f f i c u l t t o examine any one p a r t i c u l a r  For t h i s reason  a s p e c t ; f o r example, t o  i s o l a t e t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f commercial s t r u c t u r e s and study t h e process o f t h i s type o f renewal.  Although i n t h i s chapter the r e s u l t s  of an attempt t o study commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e s e programs a r e p a r t o f a l a r g e r renewal program.  T h e i r s u c c e s s depends n o t o n l y on what t h e y a c c o m p l i s h i n  themselves b u t on what t h e t o t a l program a c c o m p l i s h e s and on how s u c c e s s f u l l y t h e program i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e needs o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r city. 48  49  Methodology E x a m i n a t i o n o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s has been c a r r i e d out by t h e f o l l o w i n g method.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (see Appendix A)  were sent t o Canadian and American c i t i e s t o d e t e r m i n e :  1. t h e meaning a t t a c h e d t o ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f commercial areas w i t h i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t ; 2. t h e e x t e n t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n e x e c u t i o n o r b e i n g p l a n n e d f o r Canadian and A m e r i c a n c i t i e s ; 3. t h e s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s ; 4. t h e problems e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e s e p r o j e c t s . The s e l e c t i o n o f c i t i e s t o be s t u d i e d was made as a r e s u l t o f correspondence w i t h t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n o f Canada and w i t h t h e Department United States.  o f Housing and Urban Development  of the  Names o f seven Canadian c i t i e s and twenty-one American  c i t i e s were s u p p l i e d , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e a g e n c i e s , had governmentsponsored r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s .  Of t h e twenty-one A m e r i c a n  cities  c o n t a c t e d , seventeen r e p l i e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b u t i n t h e Canadian group o n l y T o r o n t o f e l t t h a t i t was s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced i n i t s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program t o r e p l y .  Appendix B c o n t a i n s t h e names o f  i n d i v i d u a l s who r e p l i e d by l e t t e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The r e p l y  r e c e i v e d from O a k v i l l e , O n t a r i o gave some i d e a o f a p r i v a t e l y sponsored r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t i n a Canadian c i t y .  I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e  government-sponsored r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t , B a s t i o n Square, i n V i c t o r i a , B.C., w i l l be g i v e n i n Chapter F i v e .  50  Before c l o s e r examination i s made two  o f the r e s u l t s o f the  s u b j e c t s must be d i s c u s s e d .  questionnaires  They a r e the r e a s o n s f o r the  t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s asked and the c i t i e s s e l e c t e d f o r s u r v e y , and  the  p l a c e o f the government-sponsored p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o p r i v a t e efforts.  As has been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i t was  hoped t h a t the meaning  a t t a c h e d t o the word • r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' by the v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d .  The  f i r s t q u e s t i o n was  asked i n o r d e r t o d i s c e r n  whether p l a n n i n g b o d i e s r e c o g n i z e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as d i s t i n c t from redevelopment or c o n s e r v a t i o n , as w e l l as the n e c e s s a r y a l l three aspects. considered  i n t e g r a t i o n of  The p l a c e of m u n i c i p a l improvements - were they  s e p a r a t e l y or as a p a r t o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program -  a l s o questioned.  The  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs o f each c i t y were examined  i n o r d e r t h a t t h e a r e a l and  f u n c t i o n a l e x t e n t o f such p r o j e c t s might  be d e t e r m i n e d as w e l l as t h e i r c o s t . t h e s e p r o j e c t s was  was  The  f e l t t o be important  immediate and c o n t i n u e d  sourcS o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  f o r i t o f t e n d e t e r m i n e s the  success o f such p l a n s .  F i n a l l y , the few  cities  w h i c h a l r e a d y had programs i n e x e c u t i o n were asked what problems they had e n c o u n t e r e d .  F u t u r e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s can be a i d e d by  a  p r e v i o u s knowledge o f t h e s e problems. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of O a k v i l l e , O n t a r i o , o n l y c i t i e s w i t h government-sponsored p r o j e c t s were examined. for t h i s choice.  First,  i t was  There a r e t h r e e r e a s o n s  f e l t that agencies  involved i n  government-sponsored r e n e w a l would have the most i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s and t h u s would be a b l e t o answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t y .  Second, p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n  51  w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a government-sponsored u r b a n r e n e w a l scheme must, by t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s e programs, be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a g e n e r a l p l a n f o r t h e community.  F i n a l l y , i t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s t o make  recommendations about r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l and t h e f e d e r a l government  government  level.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Sponsored by P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e  Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  i s by no means the e x c l u s i v e a c t i v i t y  of c i t i e s w h i c h have government-sponsored p r o j e c t s .  Legislation  in  the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada has o n l y r e c e n t l y p e r m i t t e d e x p e n d i t u r e f o r t h i s t y p e o f r e n e w a l b u t t h e r e a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , many c i t i e s w h i c h have t a c k l e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a t t h e i r own expense and t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l businessmen.  Many examples may be g i v e n .  Iowa, has an e x t e n s i v e program f o r a l l e y b e a u t i f i c a t i o n .  Cedar R a p i d s , Champaign,  I l l i n o i s , p l a c e s f l o w e r b a s k e t s on downtown s t r e e t l i g h t p o l e s . T h o m a s v i l l e , G e o r g i a , u n d e r t o o k a program c a l l e d  'Operation F a c e l i f t '  i n w h i c h p h y s i c a l improvements were made t o over one hundred b u s i n e s s e s . The Newton, New J e r s e y Improvement A d v i s o r y Committee has commissioned a s t u d y t o show how t h e f a c a d e s o f s t o r e s and o t h e r b u i l d i n g s can be harmonized and b e a u t i f i e d .  In Freeport, I l l i n o i s , a free-standing  canopy was b u i l t around one o f t h e p r i m a r y downtown b l o c k s , thus a l l o w i n g s t o r e s t o do what t h e y wished on t h e i r own f a c a d e s w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e canopy.*  -  Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has been  the  s i t e o f s e v e r a l p r i v a t e l y - s p o n s o r e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s such as  the  improvement o f t h e Richmond B l o c k on Robson S t r e e t by a program  s i m i l a r t o t h a t used i n N o r w i c h , E n g l a n d .  52  A n a l y s i s of  The  Questionnaires  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d i n response to i n q u i r i e s  r e g a r d i n g commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s r e p r e s e n t twenty-two c i t i e s s i t u a t e d i n t h i r t e e n s t a t e s and f o u r p r o v i n c e s .  As e x a m i n a t i o n  T a b l e 2 w i l l show a l l the American c i t i e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a , a r e i n the e a s t e r n h a l f o f the U n i t e d Populations given i n Table 2 represent the Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a .  of of  States.  j u s t the c i t y p r o p e r and  not  There i s a g r e a t range i n p o p u l a t i o n  shown, w i t h the s m a l l e s t c i t y h a v i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f j u s t over 10,000 p e r s o n s and the l a r g e s t o f over two m i l l i o n . 10,000 and and  100,000 p e r s o n s ,  E i g h t c i t i e s a r e between  t e n a r e between 100,000 and  f o u r a r e over 500,000 p e r s o n s .  The  500,000  persons,  c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e i r urban  r e n e w a l programs tend t o i n c r e a s e i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the s i z e o f the  cities  and t h u s , i n the case o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , i t becomes almost i m p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e such f a c t s as the c o s t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or the number o f b u i l d i n g u n i t s being r e h a b i l i t a t e d .  D i f f i c u l t y was  encountered i n d e t e r m i n i n g  the  e x t e n t o f government-sponsored r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s because l e g i s l a t i o n a l l o w i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d i s so r e c e n t . were a t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n still  i n the p l a n n i n g  Thus, o n l y twelve  cities  stage o f t h e i r p r o j e c t s , w h i l e o t h e r s were  stage.  53 TABLE 2 POPULATION SIZE AND STAGE OF REHABILITATION PROJECT FOR SELECTED CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA State/Province  Population*-  P r o j e c t Stage  United States Boston Erie Flint Fresno Johnson C i t y Joplin L i t t l e Rock Louisville Manchester New Haven Oklahoma C i t y Philadelphia Sylacauga Tulsa Utica WilkesBarre  Massachusetts Pennsylvania Michigan California Tennessee Missouri Arkansas Kentucky New Hampshire Connecticut Oklahoma Pennsylvania Alabama Oklahoma New Y o r k Pennsylvania  697,197 138,440 196,940 133,929 31,187 38,958 128,929 389,044 - 88,282 152,048 324,253 2,002,512 -12,587 261,685 38,629 63,551  in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in  Canada Calgary Edmonton Montreal  Alberta Alberta Quebec  249,641 281,027 1,191,062  Oakville Toronto  Ontario Ontario  10,366 672,401  proposal proposal general a i d given^ i n execution5 in execution^  City  execution execution planning execution planning planning execution execution planning execution planning execution planning execution execution planning 2  3  •'•Population Source: U n i t e d S t a t e s 1960 Census, Canada 1961 Census, r e f e r s t o p o p u l a t i o n o f c i t y proper and n o t Census Standard Metropolitan Area. M a n c h e s t e r study i s s t i l l tion i s limited. 2  i n t h e survey stage and t h u s  informa-  C a l g a r y and Edmonton propose r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n CBD a r e a s but have y e t t o b e g i n s t u d i e s . 3  ^ M o n t r e a l a s s i s t s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f commercial e n t e r p r i s e s i n r e h a b i l i t a t e d b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f i t s c h a r t e r b u t i t has no government-sponsored p r o j e c t . % o t a government-sponsored p r o j e c t but i n c l u d e d f o r comparison purposes. ^ F u r t h e r d e t a i l s on t h e V i c t o r i a p r o j e c t w i l l be g i v e n i n Chapter F i v e .  54  L o s s i n Sales. Volume A s t u d y w h i c h was U.S.  undertaken  by Homer Hoyt on t h e s u b j e c t o f  M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a R e t a i l Shopping P a t t e r n s p r o v i d e s t h e d a t a shown  i n Table 3.  2  An a n a l y s i s o f c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t  sales of general  merchandise i n e l e v e n o f t h e twenty-two c i t i e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r q u i c k l y shows t h e cause f o r concern over t h e economic s t r e n g t h o f t h e downtown a r e a .  Five c i t i e s a c t u a l l y lost sales value  over t h e f i v e y e a r p e r i o d and f o r o t h e r c i t i e s i n c r e a s e s i n s a l e s v a l u e were m i n i m a l .  The f a c t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g when p l a c e d i n  comparison w i t h t h e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n s a l e s o u t s i d e the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t which ranged from 19 p e r c e n t t o 128 p e r c e n t .  Other  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study showed t h a t s a l e s o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s o f A m e r i c a n c i t i e s r o s e 89 p e r c e n t on the average compared w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f 54 p e r c e n t from 1954 t o 1958.  I n 1963  the s a l e s  o f s t o r e s i n the CBD were o n l y h a l f the s a l e s o f g e n e r a l merchandise beyond t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e c e n t r a l a r e a s .  3  55  TABLE CBDJSALES FOR  OF  3  GENERAL MERCHANDISE  SELECTED AMERICAN  CITIES  1958-1963  1960 SMA Population  Percent Increase O u t s i d e CBD  No. o f „ Regional Centers  (000»s) 1963  (000's) 1958  2,589,303  $205,430  $201,702  62.12  13  Erie  250,682  25,310  24,395  19.13  1  Flint  374,315  31,884  23,291  128.00  3  Fresno  366,945  23,998  21,298  76.54  1  L i t t l e Rock  249,980  40,298  36,555  68.75  1  Louisville  725,139  51,535  53,538  110.19  4  New Haven  311,681  19?§022  21,808  58.70  2  Oklahoma C i t y  511,833  21,863  29,896  121.37  1  4,342,897  220,808  259,136  70.53  14  Tulsa  418,974  19,391  22,693  60.59  3  Utica  330,771  17,626  16,698  62.38  1  City Boston  Philadelphia  1  S t a n d a r d Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a  Population.  ^Planned r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s w i t h s a l e s i n excess o f $10,000,000 i n 1963. Source:  Homer Hoyt, "U.S. M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a R e t a i l Shopping P a t t e r n s , " Urban Land, v o l . 25, no. 3, March 1966.  56  The Meaning o f Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n E i g h t e e n o f the twenty-two c i t i e s s t u d i e d r e p l i e d t o the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the meaning o f 'commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . ' important  It i s  i n government-sponsored p r o j e c t s t h a t p l a n n i n g b o d i e s have  not o n l y a s i m i l a r v i e w o f the meaning o f a r e n e w a l t e c h n i q u e but a l s o t h a t t h e i r v i e w be r e a s o n a b l y comprehensive.  I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the  scope o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , s e v e r a l c h o i c e s were g i v e n as shown i n Appendix A and Table 4.  The p r o v i s i o n of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s u l t a n t  was not i n c l u d e d as one o f these c h o i c e s but i t was  i n c l u d e d by  s e v e r a l p e o p l e as an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. p r o v i s i o n o f a management c o n s u l t a n t was  g i v e n as one o f the  The  choices  i n o r d e r t o f i n d out whether h e l p i s g i v e n t o b u s i n e s s e s whose problems i n v o l v e more t h a n j u s t the need f o r p h y s i c a l improvement. o n l y f o u r c i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s suggested i t may  be p r e s e n t  Although  t h a t such a i d was  i n o t h e r c i t i e s through the a u s p i c e s o f the  Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  given  Small  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i r t e e n of  the e i g h t e e n c i t i e s i n c l u d e d most of the suggested  provisions while  the o t h e r s i n c l u d e d l e s s t h a n h a l f o f the p r o v i s i o n s .  There would  appear t o be a g e n e r a l consensus on p a i n t i n g and c l e a n i n g o f b u i l d i n g s and on a r e d e c o r a t i o n o f i n t e r i o r s .  A number o f c i t i e s mentioned t h a t  p a i n t i n g and c l e a n i n g were r e a l l y o n l y c o n s e r v a t i o n or maintenance items by t h e m s e l v e s . improvements, and  The  improvement o f t r a f f i c a c c e s s , p a r k i n g  s t r e e t l i g h t i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d m u n i c i p a l improvements  i n many c i t i e s and a r e p r o v i d e d f o r s e p a r a t e l y i n f e d e r a l r e n e w a l g r a n t s .  57  TABLE U  Boston  X  Erie  X  X  X  X  X  X  Flint  X  X  X  X  X  X  Fresno  X  X  X  X  Johnson C i t y  X  X  X  Joplin  X  X  X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  : x  X  X  X  Louisville  X  X  X  X  X  X  New Haven  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Oklahoma C i t y  X  X  X  X  Philadelphia  X  X  X  x:;  X  X  X  Sylacauga  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Tulsa  X  Utica  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  WilkesBarre  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Montreal  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Oakville  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Toronto  .X  X  X  X  L i t t l e Rock  Architectural Consultant  Street Lighting  Sign Control  Management Consultant  Redecorate Interiors  Street Furniture Trees  Improve Parking  Improve Traffic Access  City  Painting & Cleaning  METHODS USED FOR COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION WITHIN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT  X  X  X  X  X  58  Mr. James Y i e l d i n g , t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e Oklahoma C i t y Urban Renewal A u t h o r i t y d e f i n e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as " t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s t o e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s o f s t r u c t u r a l adequacy w h i c h i s but a p a r t o f t o t a l r e n e w a l ; o t h e r p a r t s b e i n g t o t a l c l e a r a n c e and new redevelopment, and improvement o f e x i s t i n g p u b l i c w o r k s , i . e . sewers, water l i n e s , s t r e e t s , p a r k s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , s t r e e t t r e e s and f u r n i t u r e , etc."  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n p o i n t s out an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  most e v i d e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on  improvement t o meet code s t a n d a r d s o f s t r u c t u r a l adequacy r a t h e r than j u s t improvement t o a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s .  An example o f such improvements  considered necessary f o r a property i n E r i e , Pennsylvania, i s given i n Appendix C and t h e even more r i g o r o u s s t a n d a r d s proposed f o r S y l a c a u g a , Alabama, a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x D.  As Mr. C l i n t o n M u l l e n o f t h e  P h i l a d e l p h i a Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y e x p l a i n e d :  " R e h a b i l i t a t i o n means  r e p a i r s , a l t e r a t i o n s , p a r t i a l r e b u i l d i n g , r e f i n i s h i n g e t c . t o produce a t i g h t , clean, safe, well-appearing structure."  Emphasis on a u n i q u e  type o f d e c o r a t i o n seems t o be found o n l y i n a r e a s w h i c h a r e p r e s e r v e d f o r reasons of h i s t o r i c a l  importance.  60  The  Extent of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s  T a b l e s 5, 6 and  7 attempt a summary o f the e x t e n t  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s p r e s e n t l y under way and American c i t i e s .  of  or completed i n Canadian  T a b l e 5 shows the a r e a l e x t e n t o f the p r o j e c t or  whether the p r o j e c t i s u n d e r t a k e n on a b l o c k by b l o c k b a s i s , or on b a s i s o f improvements t o s i n g l e b u s i n e s s e s .  the  I t a l s o shows whether  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r program o f r e n e w a l .  Most  cities  d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n on an a r e a l b a s i s , the a r e a v a r y i n g from U t i c a , New  Y o r k ' s 11.7  j e c t s and B o s t o n ' s t o t a l o f 349  a c r e s t o P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s many pro-  acres.  Only E r i e , Pennsylvania  and  T u l s a , Oklahoma s t a t e d t h a t t h e y u n d e r t o o k p r o j e c t s on the b a s i s o f improvements t o s i n g l e b u s i n e s s e s .  A l l but two of the c i t i e s have  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s w h i c h are p a r t of l a r g e r r e n e w a l programs. I n the case o f L o u i s v i l l e , K e n t u c k y , commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t i s a p r i v a t e v o l u n t a r y program by  the  L o u i s v i l l e C e n t r a l A r e a Downtown P r o p e r t y Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n .  East  and west o f the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t i s i n v o l v e d i n a C i t y Urban Renewal P r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g c l e a r a n c e s e r v a t i o n and  and redevelopment w i t h spot con-  scattered r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  program, o f which r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  Frequently  the l a r g e r r e n e w a l  a p a r t , i n v o l v e d redevelopment  r a t h e r t h a n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o t h e r l a n d uses or c o n s e r v a t i o n . s u r p r i s i n g t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n was  It is  not mentioned as an i n t e g r a l " p a r t  a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs, however, many p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s may sider conservation maintenance.  t o be a m a t t e r of p a i n t i n g , c l e a n i n g , and  of  con-  general  61 TABLE 5 THE EXTENT OF CBD COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION i ( Part of ' L a r g e r Program  Elements i n L a r g e r Program i  Boston^"  349  Ac.  Erie  X  >*  Redevelc ment  CO fll  u  55  X  X  X  X  Flint  200  Ac.  X  X  Fresno  85  Ac.  X  X  Johnson C i t y  79  Ac.  X  Joplin  50  Ac.  427  Ac.  L i t t l e Rock Louisville  i >  u  CO o (3 •<* O 4-> o X  X  X  X  X  X X  30 B l o c k s  3  i t-H  1  PQ  Single Busines; Basis  Block Basis  y Area  City  Other Rehabi tat ion  A r e a l Extent of Project  X  X  Manchester  138  Ac.  X  X  New Haven  120  Ac.  X  X  Oklahoma C i t y  X  X  Philadelphia  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Sylacauga  4  51  Ac.  X X  Tulsa 11.7 Ac.  Utica  'X  WilkesBarre  X  Oakville Toronto  170  Ac.  •••Boston: W a t e r f r o n t - 104 A c ; CBD - 245 A c . 0 f t h i s t o t a l , t h e M a l l c o n s i s t s o f 36.5 A c . S e e accompanying t e x t . T h e r e a r e seven r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e CBD, r a n g i n g i n s i z e from a few t o 129 A c . 2  3  4  62  T a b l e 6 showing t h e t y p e s o f commercial  l a n d use w h i c h were  i n v o l v e d i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t a g a i n demonstrates comprehensiveness  o f approach o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s .  the general  They a r e by no means  s i m p l y a e s t h e t i c improvements f o r an a r e a o f s p e c i a l t y shops.  They take  i n t o account a l l t y p e s o f shopping i n c l u d i n g t h e department s t o r e s which have s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s e s i n p a s t y e a r s . commercial  The o n l y type o f  l a n d use which was n o t i n c l u d e d i n almost a l l c i t i e s was t h e  t h e a t r e and t h i s may be caused by ' t h e a t r e - r o w s ' n o t b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n the p r o j e c t a r e a .  S e v e r a l c i t i e s i n c l u d e d a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t e r such  as a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n o r bus t e r m i n a l .  A l t h o u g h they a r e more  s p e c i f i c a l l y o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f u n c t i o n than t h e commercial  function  t h e y a r e c e r t a i n l y s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h can be p r o f i t a b l y i n c l u d e d i n a CBD r e n e w a l scheme. Among t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x t e n t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was one i n which t h e v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h i s t y p e o f r e n e w a l were l i s t e d i n the same way as i n t h e f i r s t  s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which  w i t h t h e meaning o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  dealt  I n a l l b u t two cases t h i s q u e s t i o n  was answered i n e x a c t l y t h e same manner as t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n .  For t h i s  r e a s o n , t h e s e r e s u l t s have n o t been documented i n a s e p a r a t e t a b l e . S i m i l a r i t y i n t h e two answers may have been due t o a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e q u e s t i o n s o r may r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s based upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i r p r e s e n t program.  63  TABLE 6 COMMERCIAL LAND USE FUNCTIONS INVOLVED IN CBD REHABILITATION PROJECTS  City  >>  4J  r-l at u a O •H  CO  u  01  CD  O . X !  co co  v o o c •r-l .rl > u 0) 3  ti 6 4U-1 rJ a o 4-> Q  r-l CO  a  CO U  CO CO  CO  CO <D  CD  CO  60 pi  CD  CO CD  CO  CD  CO  U  Q.  a. x o CD  O  CO  CO  60 a O T3 •rl i-l <*4 3 O  u CO CO  CD  -H  u  CW  " H  cd  PQ  CD  J C  ti CO  u  3 4J CO  r-lu  0)  XI  CD  E-J  erf  CD  4-1  O  Boston  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Erie  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Flint  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Fresno  X  X  X  X  X  Johnson C i t y  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Joplin  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  L i t t l e Rock  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Louisville  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  New Haven  X  X  X  X  Oklahoma C i t y  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Philadelphia  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Sylacauga  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Tulsa  X  X  X  X  X  Utica  X  X  X  X  X  WilkesBarre  X  X  Oakville  X  X  X  X  X  Toronto  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  ^Other u s e s mentioned were w h o l e s a l i n g , w a r e h o u s i n g , a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n , and a bus t e r m i n a l .  64  The  C o s t of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  Included i s the average age  i n T a b l e 7 w h i c h d e a l s w i t h the c o s t of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s w h i c h are b e i n g  of b u i l d i n g u n i t s which are i n v o l v e d . twenty-six  The  y e a r s t o over two hundred and  age  improved and  the number  of b u i l d i n g s v a r i e s from  f i f t y years.  Rehabilitation  p l a n s a r e t h u s t a k i n g i n t o account b u i l d i n g s which have been p o o r l y constructed i n recent  t i m e s as w e l l as s t r u c t u r e s which have stood the t e s t  of time but need improvements f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y by modern t a s t e . average age  The  of b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s e programs i s about s e v e n t y y e a r s ,  construction period being  j u s t b e f o r e o r at the t u r n of t h e  their  century.  The number o f b u i l d i n g u n i t s i n v o l v e d i s i n most cases a r e f l e c t i o n of the s i z e of the c i t y but  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the c a u t i o u s  approach  o f Oklahoma C i t y w i t h o n l y n i n e t e e n b u i l d i n g s i n the f i r s t phase of i t s program compared w i t h P h i l a d e l p h i a w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t w e l l over a thousand b u i l d i n g u n i t s are i n v o l v e d .  The  q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the c o s t  of  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s u f f e r e d from the f a c t t h a t most government-sponsored p r o j e c t s a r e e i t h e r i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n stage or s t i l l stage.  i n the  Of the t w e l v e c i t i e s t h a t gave d e t a i l s about the  b a s i s f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s , seven s t a t e d t h a t i t was the expense of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . i n c i t i e s i n b o t h the U n i t e d  t o be  planning  cost-sharing 100 p e r c e n t at  There are two r e a s o n s f o r t h i s .  First,  S t a t e s and Canada, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l  b u i l d i n g s i s t o t a l l y a t the owner's expense.  The  owner can a p p l y t o  F e d e r a l government f o r an i n s u r e d l o a n f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n purposes i f the b u i l d i n g i s w i t h i n an u r b a n r e n e w a l scheme but the owner i s s t i l l  the  65 TABLE 7 THE COST OF REHABILITATION  Average Age of B l d g s .  City Boston  80-130 y r s . '  Erie  60-65 y r s .  Flint  75  No. o f Units 222  J  $10,000,000  (1)  (3)  100%  Information not a v a i l a b l e at present Unknown 33% 66%  59  $1,500,000  30-50 y r s .  145  Unknown  100%  Joplin  45  yrs.  100  Unknown  100%  L i t t l e Rock  35-40 y r s .  600  Unknown"*  100%  Louisville  40  yrs.  New Haven  65  yrs.  Oklahoma C i t y  50  yrs.  Philadelphia  26-266 y r s .  Sylacauga  50+  yrs.  Tulsa  25  yrs.  59  Utica  40  yrs.  58  WilkeslBarre  80  yrs.  34  Oakville  60-120 y r s .  Toronto  70  Unknown  60%  40%  Johnson C i t y  yrs.  (2)  74  yrs.  Fresno  Total Cost  90%  10%  Information not a v a i l a b l e at present 19  3  1000+  Unknown  100%  Unknown  33%  66%  Information not a v a i l a b l e a t present $413,000 Unknown $86,000 Unknown 381  100%  100% 100%  Unknown  ^ T o t a l c o s t i s broken down i n t o (1) % P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e ; C2)_% M u n i c i p a l ; (3) % F e d e r a l . _ . 2jj f b u i l d i n g s - 130 y r s . CBD b u i l d i n g s - 80 y r s . 222 w a t e r f r o n t b u i l d i n g s a r e i n v o l v e d , number i n CBD p r e s e n t l y unknown. P h a se 1 o f p r o j e c t . ^ T o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t w i l l be $32,000,000; $20,000,000 t h r o u g h local contribution. ^ P h i l a d e l p h i a i s p r e s e n t l y engaged i n over 70 urban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s , spends over $30 m i l l i o n f e d e r a l funds p e r annum, over $10 m i l l i o n l o c a l funds. ^ T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f work a l r e a d y completed has c o s t i n excess of $12 m i l l i o n . a t e r  3  r o n t  66  100 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o s t o f improvements. improvements a r e c o n s i d e r e d  Second, p u b l i c  s e p a r a t e l y and n o t a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e b u d g e t i n g o f many c i t i e s . however, o f t e n u n d e r t a k e n by m u n i c i p a l  They a r e ,  governments w i t h F e d e r a l  govern-  ment a i d and add" t o t h e improvements made i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n schemes. I n almost a l l c a s e s b u i l d i n g s t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d a r e t o be r e t a i n e d by t h e p r e s e n t owners.  Boston, E r i e , F l i n t , P h i l a d e l p h i a ,  S y l a c a u g a , and U t i c a have made p r o v i s i o n s t h a t w i l l a l l o w b u i l d i n g s t o be a c q u i r e d by p u b l i c money then e i t h e r l e a s e d o r s o l d back t o p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s i f t h e p r e s e n t owner r e f u s e s t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme. The  Source o f I n s p i r a t i o n f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s As was s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h e source o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was s t u d i e d because, i n p r o j e c t s which i n v o l v e government s p o n s o r s h i p and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , i t i s important t h a t t h e r e be a b a s i c understanding as t o the goals o f the p r o j e c t . c i t i e s studied  I n most o f t h e  ( a s shown i n T a b l e 8) p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t and l o c a l  government were t o g e t h e r  responsible f o r the project idea.  In only a  few cases d i d i n s p i r a t i o n come from t h e redevelopment a u t h o r i t y o r t h e l o c a l p l a n n i n g board as p a r t o f t h e i r t o t a l renewal program.  It is  s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e p l a y s such an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e o r i g i n a l i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s type o f r e n e w a l scheme.  I t shows n o t o n l y  t h e i r awareness o f t h e problem b u t a l s o t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o do something about i t . I t may a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e e f f o r t s i n r e l a t i o n t o those of p u b l i c  bodies.  67 TABLE 8 SOURCE OF INSPIRATION FOR REHABILITATION PROGRAMS  Private Business  City  Chamber o f Commerce  Local Gov't  Boston  Redev't Authority  Local P l a n . Bd.  Other  X  Erie  X  X  Flint  X  X  Fresno  X  Johnson C i t y  X  X  Joplin  X  x  L i t t l e Rock Louisville  X  New Haven  X  Oklahoma C i t y  X  X  X  X  Philadelphia  X  Sylacauga  X  X  Tulsa  X  X  X  1  2  X X  Utica WilkesBarre  X  Oakville  X  3  X  Toronto  •"•A m u n i c i p a l garage was c o n s t r u c t e d on l a n d w h i c h t h i s A u t h o r i t y had s o l d t o t h e P a r k i n g A u t h o r i t y , t h e r e f o r e the s u r r o u n d i n g CBD was i n c l u d e d for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . ^ P h i l a d e l p h i a e l e c t e d a r e f o r m government i n t h e e a r l y 1960's and t h u s was a b l e t o b r i n g i n t h e b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t v e r y e a r l y i n the development o f v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s . A r k a n s a s Chapter o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t s and the N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s P l a n n i n g Conference o f 1957. 3  68  Problems Encountered i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programs  The  l a s t s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  w h i c h have been met execution.  d e a l t w i t h the problems  by t h o s e c i t i e s whose p r o j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t l y i n  A l t h o u g h o n l y e i g h t c i t i e s were a b l e to respond t o t h i s  q u e s t i o n t h e i r answers are w o r t h r e p e t i t i o n i n f f u l l and, echo the h y p o t h e s i s  of t h i s t h e s i s .  The B o s t o n Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y  encountered c o n s i d e r a b l e  difficulty  the economic f e a s i b i l i t y  of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s .  Pennsylvania,  i n some c a s e s ,  i n demonstrating to property  owners  In E r i e ,  the problems came i n f i n a n c i n g the p r o j e c t .  The  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r of the F r e s n o Redevelopment Agency f e l t t h a t a l a c k o f p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g and g r e a t e s t problem.  t h e r e b y l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n  was  the  There seemed t o be a f e a r or at l e a s t a f e e l i n g  t h a t the Agency, and  perhaps the F e d e r a l government, was  t r y i n g to  d i c t a t e o p e r a t i n g p o l i c y and methods t o the businessman and was  trying  t o e l i m i n a t e the s m a l l businessman.  was  Some f e l t t h a t the Agency  t r y i n g t o t u r n over the a r e a t o l a r g e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s . A s t u d y of the F r e s n o m a l l p r o j e c t showed t h a t i n a survey of businessmen o u t s i d e the  1  superblock*  brought them b e t t e r b u s i n e s s , b u s i n e s s had  declined.  4  141 had  follow-up 332  a r e a , 163 f e l t the p r o j e c t equal business,  and  had  28 f e l t  I n L i t t l e Rock, A r k a n s a s , c o o r d i n a t i o n of  and m a t e r i a l s between a d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g s proved d i f f i c u l t .  their design  In  P h i l a d e l p h i a the q u a l i t y o f work and e n c o u r a g i n g v o l u n t a r y work were problems. but not bad  A l s o mentioned was  the problem of p r o p e r t y w h i c h was  marginal  enough t o condemn and where the owners r e f u s e d t o u n d e r t a k e  69  the n e c e s s a r y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  The Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y o f  P h i l a d e l p h i a a l s o f a c e d t h e problem o f r e l o c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y of b a r s , and o t h e r u s e s , which c e r t a i n neighbourhoods  considered objectionable.  U t i c a , New Y o r k , had d i f f i c u l t y e x p l a i n i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n g o a l s t o r e t i r e d or e l d e r l y persons and T o r o n t o found problems w i t h the land ownership  pattern.  F o r most o f t h e c i t i e s s t u d i e d i t i s too e a r l y t o determine whether t h e r e w i l l be any change i n use o r change o f ownership w i t h i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a .  However, f o r the few c i t i e s w h i c h answered  this  q u e s t i o n t h e r e appeared t o be about a 10 p e r c e n t change i n use and no change o f o w n e r s h i p .  L i t t l e Rock, A r k a n s a s , was the e x c e p t i o n i n t h i s  case where a 40 p e r c e n t change i n use has been r e c o r d e d and a 10 p e r c e n t change o f o w n e r s h i p .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not r e q u e s t  t h e number o f b u s i n e s s e s w h i c h have r e l o c a t e d because t h e y d i d not w i s h o r c o u l d not a f f o r d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e .  The T o t a l P r o c e s s Response t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been almost e x c l u s i v e l y from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and has shown t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s o n l y p a r t o f the t o t a l renewal p r o c e s s i n government-sponsored  projects.  For t h i s  r e a s o n , i t i s v a l u a b l e t o c o n s i d e r the t o t a l p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o understand the p l a c e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  U s i n g the c i t y o f F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a ,  and t h e Redevelopment Agency o f the C i t y o f Fresno as an example, p r o c e d u r e i s as f o l l o w s . - *  the  The C i t y o f F r e s n o , r e c o g n i z i n g an a r e a ' s  need f o r r e n e w a l , e s t a b l i s h e s a p r o j e c t by a c t i o n o f the C i t y C o u n c i l .  70  The p r o j e c t i s t h e n t u r n e d over t o t h e Redevelopment Agency o f the C i t y o f Fresno f o r study and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  T h i s agency i s a p o l i t i c a l  s u b d i v i s i o n o f the S t a t e c r e a t e d by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , and o p e r a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y under F e d e r a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l laws.  The  Redevelopment  Agency works w i t h c i t y a g e n c i e s and w i t h i n t h e framework o f the planning goals. projects. w h i c h may  I t s c r e a t i o n p e r m i t s F e d e r a l involvement  city's  i n renewal  The p r o j e c t a r e a b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d , a study i s u n d e r t a k e n , be p a r t i a l l y f i n a n c e d by F e d e r a l f u n d s , t o determine  the a r e a q u a l i f i e s as 'a b l i g h t e d a r e a . '  whether  I f an a r e a i s d e s i g n a t e d f o r  renewal a p l a n i s p r e p a r e d and s u b m i t t e d t o the F e d e r a l government and the p u b l i c f o r a p p r o v a l , t h e C i t y C o u n c i l making t h e f i n a l  decision.  A f t e r a d e t a i l e d f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s i s made and a f e d e r a l l o a n and c o n t r a c t i s approved,  the Agency i s f r e e t o proceed w i t h t h e p l a n .  grant In  the case o f t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t of F r e s n o , t w o - t h i r d s of the t o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t was  p a i d by l o c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n .  The g r e a t e r p a r t of  the funds came from p a r k i n g a u t h o r i t y bonds and s p e c i a l assessments on the downtown d i s t r i c t , v e r y l i t t l e from the g e n e r a l t a x p a y e r ' s  pocket.  There i s p a r t i c u l a r emphasis put on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and owners o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s a r e encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o j e c t by b r i n g i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s up t o s t a n d a r d . The owners have t h r e e c h o i c e s : may  t o r e l o c a t e , a process f o r which  they  be g i v e n F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e ; t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , f o r w h i c h the F e d e r a l  Housing A c t o f 1964 makes a v a i l a b l e low i n t e r e s t l o a n s t o t h e v a l u e o f $50,000; or t o s e l l t h e i r p r o p e r t y t o the Redevelopment Agency. P r o p e r t y owners must agree t o one o f t h e s e p r o v i s o s i n o r d e r t o  Downtown renewal will be accomplished through a combination of reconstruction and rehabilitation techniques. In this Concept Model of the northern half of the 24-block project, new buildings are shown in white. Existing buildings, which will be rehabilitated, are shown in gray. THIS  FIG.  3  D O W N T O W N  RENEWAL  IS A  -  CONCEPT  ERIE  MODEL,  SUBJECT  TO  CHANGE  PENNSYLVANIA  72  p r e v e n t a s i n g l e p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y from c a u s i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n t o an entire area. A s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e i s f o l l o w e d i n most o t h e r U n i t e d S t a t e s ' government-sponsored  projects.  The procedure w h i c h Canadian  cities  must f o l l o w w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n Chapter F i v e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a p r o j e c t f o r B a s t i o n Square. Summary t o Chapter Four  Review o f r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s o f seventeen American and two Canadian c i t i e s has shown t h a t t h e y a r e u s u a l l y v e r y comprehensive  i n terms o f t h e i r  p h y s i c a l p r o v i s i o n s and t h a t t h e y a c t a s one p a r t o f a t o t a l r e n e w a l program.  They a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t p r o j e c t s must be w i t h i n  a s p e c i f i c area.  I t would appear t h a t t h e y a r e s u p p o r t e d by b o t h p r i v a t e  b u s i n e s s and l o c a l government.  I n almost a l l cases i t i s t o o e a r l y t o  judge whether t h e y have been o r w i l l be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e .  For  completed p r o j e c t s , t h e i r p r e s e n t rewards a r e i n t h e form o f improved appearance and v i t a l i t y o f t h e downtown a r e a s .  The g r e a t e s t problem  i n t h e use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would seem t o be f i n a n c i a l  difficulties  encountered by many o f t h e b u s i n e s s e s d e s i g n a t e d as p a r t o f t h e r e n e w a l areas.  73  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter Four  I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d from n e w s l e t t e r s o f t h e Downtown Idea Exchange (New York: The Downtown Idea Exchange, J a n u a r y t o June, 1966)  "Homer Hoyt, "U.S. M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a R e t a i l Shopping P a t t e r n s , " Urban Land, XXV, No. 3 (March, 1966), pp. 3-5. I b i d . , p. 1  ^Downtown A s s o c i a t i o n o f F r e s n o , I n c . , The F r e s n o P l a n (Fresno, C a l i f o r n i a : The A s s o c i a t i o n , A p r i l , 1966), p. 5.  ^Redevelopment Agency o f t h e C i t y o f F r e s n o , c r e a t i n g new environments . . . a p r i m e r ( F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a : The Redevelopment Agency, no d a t e ) .  74  CHAPTER FIVE EXAMINATION OF A FRAMEWORK FOR REHABILITATION: A CASE STUDY OF VICTORIA, BRITISH  COLUMBIA  V i c t o r i a has t h r e e f a c e s . The f i r s t i s a f a c e o f mellowed charm and a d i g n i t y a c q u i r e d - o v e r one hundred y e a r s - a q u i e t m a t u r i t y t o be seen i n p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p a r k s and many r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The second f a c e i s t h a t o f y o u t h f u l a c t i v i t y symbolized by t h e c o n f i d e n t new b u i l d i n g s o f t h e l a s t decade. From these two f a c e s comes t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f V i c t o r i a as an h i s t o r i c p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l , a c i t y o f gardens and h e a l t h y p r o s p e r i t y . But t h e r e i s a t h i r d f a c e w h i c h i s n o t always r e c o g n i z e d . I t i s t h e f a c e o f t i r e d age, weary w i t h t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and n e g l e c t which mar t h e appearance and e f f i c i e n c y o f b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . This t h i r d face i s c a l l e d b l i g h t and i t i s s l o w l y c o r r o d i n g t h e f a i r f a c e s o f t h e c i t y and c r e a t i n g b o t h a t h r e a t and a c h a l l e n g e .  C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board o f B.C. Urban Renewal Study f o r V i c t o r i a . 1961  The p a s t h e r i t a g e o f t h e C i t y i s an a s s e t t o i t s f u t u r e and i s n o t i n any way an impediment t o growth and prog r e s s . A c i t y w i t h a h i s t o r y , and w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e o f i t s h i s t o r y , has a s t a b i l i t y o f f o u n d a t i o n w h i c h encourages c a r e and q u a l i t y i n i t s new development. I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t a measure o f a c i t y ' s m a t u r i t y i s the e x t e n t t o which i t w i l l on t h e one hand encourage i n the p r o p e r s e t t i n g w e l l - p l a n n e d modern o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s o r h i g h - r i s e apartments and on t h e o t h e r hand p r e s e r v e a b u i l d i n g constructed i n the l a s t century.  C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board o f B.C. O v e r a l l P l a n f o r V i c t o r i a , 1965  75  G o a l s and Reasons f o r R e v i t a l i z a t i o n Through a r a t h e r s p e c i a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i v i c and l o c a l b u s i n e s s concern c o u p l e d w i t h an i m p o r t a n t t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y and a h e r i t a g e of h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l o c a t i o n shown on Map 1, has been and c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  effort.  The v i t a l i t y o f t h e downtown a r e a has been a major source o f concern i n V i c t o r i a i n r e c e n t y e a r s and i t i s v a l u a b l e t o examine i n depth t h e p r o p o s a l s and p r o j e c t s o f t h i s c i t y .  F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s  thesis  t h e s t u d y a r e a has been e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e major commercial l a n d use a r e a w i t h i n V i c t o r i a Census T r a c t F i v e - t h e Downtown T r a c t a r e a . Approximate  l o c a t i o n o f t h e downtown commercial a r e a and c o r e commercial  a r e a a r e shown i n Map 2.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e h i g h e s t l a n d  v a l u e i n t h e downtown c o r e i s today found l e s s than f o u r - h u n d r e d y a r d s from t h e s i t e o f t h e o r i g i n a l 1843 B a s t i o n . P r o p o s a l s and p r o j e c t s f o r t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a ' s downtown i n v o l v e t h r e e major a s p e c t s :  the p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s i b i l i t y  t o t h e downtown a r e a ; t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p a r k i n g , and t h e renewal o f downtown i n many o f t h e ways d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s .  Reasons  f o r concern o v e r t h e v i a b i l i t y o f downtown were f i r s t e x p r e s s e d i n 1956 w i t h t h e appearance o f a growing t r a f f i c and p a r k i n g problem and l a t e r i n t h e urban r e n e w a l s t u d y by t h e C a p i t a l Regionc.Planning Board o f B.C. w h i c h emphasized  t h e amount o f v a c a n t and d e r e l i c t space as  w e l l as t h e p a r k i n g problem.  These r e p o r t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n l a t e r  VICTORIA IN RELATION TO T H E CAPITAL R E G I O N MAP. 1 S O U R C E - CAPITAL REGION PLANNING BOARD  COMMERCIAL AREA . MM CORE  T H E C O R E O F T H E C E N T R A L B U S I N E S S DISTRICT V I C T O R I A . B.C. M  A  P  2  S O U R C E - CAPITAL REGION PLANNING BOARD  78  sections.  Concern deepened w i t h the development o f two r e g i o n a l  shopping c e n t e r s , one i n 1962 and t h e o t h e r i n  1965.  P r e v i o u s t o examining r e n e w a l e f f o r t s i n downtown V i c t o r i a , a framework f o r achievement s h o u l d be developed g o a l s f o r such a c i t y .  i n the form o f  suggested  A l t h o u g h many might be suggested, f o u r g e n e r a l  g o a l s w i l l be proposed as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . 1. Downtown s h o u l d be a e s t h e t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , i n s p i r i n g , and s t i m u l a t i n g w h i l e a t t h e same time p r o v i d i n g r e l a x a t i o n i n some a r e a s . 2. Downtown must be compact and e f f i c i e n t i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e most a c c e p t a b l e atmosphere f o r b u s i n e s s and commerce. I t s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and have good c i r c u l a t i o n throughout t h e a r e a . 3. Downtown s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d i n such a manner t h a t i t w i l l be e c o n o m i c a l l y h e a l t h y not o n l y w i t h i n i t s own b u s i n e s s community but f o r i t s t r i b u t a r y r e g i o n . 4. F i n a l l y , downtown s h o u l d p r o v i d e the b e s t t h e r e i s of u r b a n l i v i n g i n terms of r e c r e a t i o n , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , c u l t u r a l , and commercial f a c i l i t i e s . G i v e n such a set o f g o a l s a c i t y must have s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n t o improve i t s p r e s e n t c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t a r e a r a t h e r than attempt c r e a t i o n o f an e n t i r e l y new several  town c e n t e r .  the  For V i c t o r i a , t h e r e are  reasons. F i r s t , a l t h o u g h a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s p r e s e n t l y a problem, r e f e r e n c e  t o Maps 1 and 3 w i l l show t h a t the p r e s e n t c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s  district  forms a d e f i n i t e f o c a l p o i n t f o r the b u i l t up a r e a of the C a p i t a l Region.  As shown i n Map  3, downtown c o u l d be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and  p r o v i s i o n o f an adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system would g r e a t l y r e l i e v e t h e C i t y s p r e s e n t t r a f f i c problem. 1  Further d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s point  Q7TTTTJ « M >  URBAN  ARIA  MAJOR M W V  MAJOR HIGHWAY-CONCEPT FOR THE CAPITAL REGION MAP. 3  S O U R C E - C A P I T A L REGION PLANNING  BOARD  80  w i l l not be u n d e r t a k e n s i n c e improvement of the s i t u a t i o n depends t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on d e c i s i o n s by the p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r t h a n l o c a l government.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t , however, t h a t the need be r e c o g n i z e d  in a total  p l a n n i n g program. Second, the core i s p r e s e n t l y w e l l d e f i n e d and  appears  e c o n o m i c a l l y h e a l t h y d e s p i t e the c h a l l e n g e o f the two r e g i o n a l shopping centers.  The p r e s e n t v a l u e o f development i n downtown i s  90 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and downtown p r o v i d e s 25 percent assessment. o f f i c e and  approximately  o f the C i t y ' s  F u t u r e y e a r s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y show a t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d specialized r e t a i l  North American  use as has been the s i t u a t i o n i n most  cities.  T h i r d , the downtown a r e a i s most adequate i n terms o f  the  p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f the C a p i t a l R e g i o n and t h a t o f the near future. 1910  V i c t o r i a C i t y supported  t h i s i n c r e a s e d t o 30,000.  i n c r e a s e d t o 56,464 i n 1966.  a p o p u l a t i o n o f 21,000 i n 1900 S i n c e t h a t t i m e the p o p u l a t i o n  and  by  has  I n a t r e n d w h i c h has a l r e a d y begun  f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e w i l l take p l a c e m a i n l y  i n other p a r t s of  m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n w h i c h had a p o p u l a t i o n of 175,000 i n  the  1966.  F i n a l l y , i t i s o f v e r y g r e a t importance t h a t V i c t o r i a  maintain  a h i g h q u a l i t y core f o r b e s i d e s b e i n g the p r i n c i p a l source o f government i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s a l s o an important  tourist  center.  81  The R o l e o f L o c a l and F e d e r a l Governments i n V i c t o r i a ' s CBD R e v i t a l i z a t i o n '  D u r i n g the p a s t t e n y e a r s t h e r e has been s u b s t a n t i a l e f f o r t the p a r t o f b o t h government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n renewal which c o n f i r m t h e i r f a i t h i n the t h o u g h t s e x p r e s s e d above. r e n e w a l e f f o r t s have i n c o r p o r a t e d t o t a l redevelopment  on  efforts  Although  as w e l l as  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , o n l y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d h e r e .  Earliest  c o n c e r n came i n 1956 over t r a f f i c and p a r k i n g problems and a study  was  made whose p r o p o s a l s l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a V i c t o r i a Downtown Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n . * -  I n 1958, a t the r e q u e s t o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  and t h e V i c t o r i a C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e C i t y ' s E n g i n e e r i n g Department  was  c a l l e d upon t o d e v e l o p a p l a n f o r the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t ;  the  r e s u l t b e i n g t h e V i c t o r i a Downtown Improvement P l a n ,  2  I t s proposals  suggested t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h r e e p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s and a l a r g e p a r k i n g garage.  A money by-law p r e s e n t e d t o the e l e c t o r a t e i n December o f  1958  was r a t i f i e d but l e g a l and o t h e r impediments p r e v e n t e d i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A p a r k i n g garage about o n e - h a l f t h e s i z e o f the one proposed has s i n c e been c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e suggested  site.  The C a p i t a l Region P l a n n i n g Board o f B.C.  was  commissioned i n  1960 t o make an urban r e n e w a l study o f t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a f o r i t was f e l t t h a t b l i g h t e d a r e a s gave t h e c i t y a poor r e p u t a t i o n i n terms o f a d e p r e s s i n g and u n p l e a s a n t environment,  drained c i v i c finances, yielded  l e s s i n t a x r e t u r n s , and i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the economic and e f f i c i e n t of l a n d .  3  use  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the downtown a r e a comprised a s i g n i f i c a n t  p a r t of t h i s study.  Among s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h i s r e p o r t were a p e d e s t r i a n  82  m a l l as proposed e a r l i e r ; a p r e c i n c t of c i t y p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ; the development o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t a r e a i n c l u d i n g B a s t i o n Square; p a i n t i n g , p l a n t i n g , and p o l e r e m o v a l ;  and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of t h e Chinatown a r e a  w h i c h i s on the n o r t h e a s t f r i n g e o f downtown. t h a t t h e s e p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d  and  I t f u r t h e r recommended  i n c l u d e d i n the  capital  budget program. Between 1961 and 1965  t h e r e were a number of p u b l i c improvements  w h i c h have made a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t o the downtown a r e a . e l e c t r i c a l w i r i n g and wooden s t r e e t p o l e s were removed through  Overhead combined  c o o p e r a t i o n on the p a r t o f C i t y O f f i c i a l s and the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y .  I n May  o f 1961,  V i c t o r i a ' s famous c l u s t e r l i g h t s .  $58,000 was  spent t o r e f u r b i s h  Commencing i n 1964 and c o n t i n u i n g t o  the p r e s e n t time i s the Downtown Paint-Up c i t i z e n and c i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n attempts  P l a n w h i c h through  joint  a program o f c o n s e r v a t i o n  and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n u s i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d scheme based on i m p r o v i n g the e x t e r i o r appearance o f b u i l d i n g s .  4  The  1964 program c a t e r e d m a i n l y t o the  i n d i v i d u a l p a i n t - u p job but the e x t e n s i o n o f these p l a n s t o f o l l o w i n g y e a r s recommended t h a t more c o o r d i n a t e d p a i n t i n g , l e t t e r i n g and would p r e s e n t a b e t t e r v i s u a l p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t f r o n t a g e . the P a i n t - U p implementation  signs  Briefly,  i n v o l v e d t h e C i t y making a v a i l a b l e f r e e s u p e r v i s i o n i n the o f a c o l o u r p l a n ; complete b u i l d i n g c o l o u r recommenda-  t i o n s ; and recommendations on s i g n s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s  f i x t u r e s i n order  t o a s s i s t i n c r e a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y and a s t o r e "image".  Further  t o the improvements o f p a i n t t h e r e has been a t r e e - p l a n t i n g program on t h e m a i n s t r e e t and w e l l - d e s i g n e d l i t t e r c o n t a i n e r s have been p l a c e d  83  throughout t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t .  The C i t y ' s C e n t e n n i a l Square  p r o j e c t included the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g C i t y H a l l a t a cost o f about $250,000 and o f a t h e a t r e . The O v e r a l l P l a n f o r V i c t o r i a , as p r e p a r e d P l a n n i n g Board i n 1965,  by t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n  w h i l e e m p h a s i z i n g t h e importance o f p r i v a t e  investment i n t h e downtown a r e a , made a number o f p r o p o s a l s which i n v o l v e the use o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n techniques.-*  Among these were t h e r e h a b i l i t a -  t i o n o f Chinatown and B a s t i o n Square, and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f semim a l l s on one o f t h e downtown s t r e e t s .  Adjuncts  t o t h e s e were z o n i n g ,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p a r k i n g p r o p o s a l s as w e l l as o t h e r p u b l i c works projects. Of t h e p r o j e c t s recommended, B a s t i o n Square i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g implemented. Square.  F i g u r e 4 shows g l i m p s e s o f p r e s e n t accomplishment i n t h e  I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e o f l o c a l and f e d e r a l govern-  ments i n such a p r o j e c t , t h e d e t a i l s o f development w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in f u l l .  B a s t i o n Square i s an a r e a w h i c h has a l t e r n a t e l y been t h e  scene o f major a c t i v i t y and complete n e g l e c t d u r i n g t h e p a s t one hundred years.  F i r s t a p l a c e o f m e r c a n t i l e importance b e s i d e t h e o r i g i n a l  p a l i s a d e s o f F o r t V i c t o r i a , B a s t i o n gained p r e s t i g e w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f two c o u r t house b u i l d i n g s . When a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  century  t h e r e was an economic s h i f t o f i n f l u e n c e away from B a s t i o n Square, t h e o f f i c e s and h o t e l s became w a r e h o u s i n g , and b l a c k t o p over t h e s t r e e t a r e a s p r o v i d e d more room f o r p a r k i n g .  W i t h t h e removal o f t h e Court  House f a c i l i t i e s t o another p a r t o f t h e C i t y , B a s t i o n Square f i n a l l y died.  85  The  first  s t e p towards complete r e b i r t h o f B a s t i o n Square came  on May 5, 1965 w i t h an a p p l i c a t i o n t o C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n under S e c t i o n 23 o f t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t f o r a p r o j e c t w h i c h would a l l o w t h e Square " t o be developed t o c r e a t e a p e d e s t r i a n concourse where a s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t e x t u r e s and c o l o u r s o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d l a n d s c a p i n g foreground  f o r t h e harbour v i e w . "  6  (would) p r o v i d e a  E x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r  renovation  o f b u i l d i n g s a d j o i n i n g t h e Square was t o be c a r r i e d out by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n t e r e s t s f o r o t h e r t h a n City-owned b u i l d i n g s .  F i n a l agree-  ment f o r t h e f i r s t phase o f t h i s p r o j e c t came on October 19, 1965 i n the form shown i n Appendix E'.  B a s t i o n Square was o f f i c i a l l y opened a t  the end o f J u l y , 1966, and f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n was made t o C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n a s shown i n Appendix F l f o r f i n a n c i a l support  t o c a r r y out t h e p r o j e c t ' s second phase.  The c o s t s f o r Phase 1  and e s t i m a t e d c o s t s f o r Phase 2 a r e shown i n T a b l e 9.  When t e n d e r s were  r e c e i v e d f o r Phase 1, they were found t o exceed t h e o r i g i n a l agreement by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  $70,000.00 and t h u s t h e e s t i m a t e o f c o s t was r e v i s e d  upward and t h e i n c r e a s e agreed t o by b o t h p a r t i e s . Today B a s t i o n Square, b e s i d e s f o r m i n g an a t t r a c t i v e promenade a r e a , i s a l s o f o r m i n g a f o c a l p o i n t f o r much b u s i n e s s and c u l t u r a l activity.  O f f i c e s , a f u r n i t u r e s t o r e , a r e s t a u r a n t , and t h e M a r i t i m e  Museum, a r e p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g .  One b u i l d i n g i s b e i n g  completely  r e h a b i l i t a t e d f o r o f f i c e s , another f o r a s e r i e s o f s m a l l b o u t i q u e s o f f i c e s above.  with  A f u r t h e r b u i l d i n g : has been proposed f o r a c q u i s i t i o n  86  TABLE 9 COST ESTIMATES BASTION SQUARE RESTORATION PROJECTS  PHASE 1 1. S u r f a c e and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Treatment  $ 75,000.00  Made o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y o f : a. b. c. d. e. f.  S i t e preparation, excavation, grading, f i l l Foundations f o r r e t a i n i n g w a l l s , e t c . Paving: B r i c k , precast concrete, concrete, steps R e t a i n i n g and d e c o r a t i v e e n c l o s i n g w a l l s L a n d s c a p i n g : T r e e s , p l a n t e r t u b s , t u b pads, lawn S p e c i a l s t r u c t u r e s : " b r i d g e " , s t a i r w a y , pond, flag-pole, kiosk, etc. g. M i s c e l l a n e o u s  8,000.00 6,000.00 36,000.00 8,000.00 6,000.00 8,000.00 3,000.00  2. B.C. Hydro Remove overhead power l i n e s and r e p l a c e w i t h underground s e r v i c e i n d u c t .  50,000.00  3. S t r e e t L i g h t i n g 30 L u m i n a i r e s - 300 w a t t e l e c t r i c on b r a c k e t s ) 10 Gas l a n t e r n s _ o n 10' p o s t s ) Underground gas and e l e c t r i c s e r v i c e s )  6,000.00  4. Underground S e r v i c e s Replacement a. b. c. d.  S a n i t a r y sewer c o n s t r u c t i o n 107' o f 8" Storm d r a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n 174' o f 8"' Cost o f r a i s i n g c a s t i n g and c a t c h b a s i n s R e l o c a t e low p r e s s u r e gas main (Cost t o p r o j e c t i s undepreciated value plus rock b l a s t i n g ) e. C o n s t r u c t 6 water main (New l o c a t i o n ) t o replace e x i s t i n g  2,035.00 1,165.00 1,500.00 800.00  n  5. P r o f e s s i o n a l Fees and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 107. T o t a l cost t o p a r t n e r s h i p 6. Recovery. E s t i m a t e d 5 0 % share o f underground E l e c t r i c u t i l i t y c o s t by B.C. Hydro 7. Net l o s s t o P a r t n e r s h i p  4,500.00 $140,000.00 14,000.00 $154,000.00  $ 25,000.00 $129,000.00  87  TABLE 9 - C o n t i n u e d  I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of l o s s t o P a r t n e r s h i p F e d e r a l Share 5 0 % P r o v i n c i a l Share 2 5 % C i t y Share 2 5 % Total  $ 64,500.00 $ 32,250.00 $ 32,250.00 $129,000.00  PHASE 2 1. A c q u i s i t i o n o f D o w e l l B u i l d i n g 2. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c c e s s i n c l u d i n g d e m o l i t i o n , new w a l l s , e t c . 3. G r a d i n g and R e s t o r i n g t h e South Lanes 4. E n t r a n c e and L o a d i n g Dock a t Humber's 5. G r a d i n g and R e s t o r i n g t h e N o r t h Lanes 6. E x t e n s i o n o f Commercial A l l e y 7. R e i n s t a t i n g Wharf and L a n g l e y S t r e e t s P r o f e s s i o n a l Fees 10%  $ 50,000.00 22,500.00 9,500.00 2,000.00 7,500.00 2,800.00 11,000.00 $105,300.00 10.500.00 $115,800.00  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cost F e d e r a l Government 5 0 % P r o v i n c i a l Government 2 5 % M u n i c i p a l Government 2 5 % Total  SOURCE:  $ 57,900.00 $ 28,950.00 $ 28.950.00 $115,800.00  W i l l i s and C u n l i f f e E n g i n e e r i n g L t d . A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Urban Renewal P r o j e c t . B a s t i o n Square R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t Phase 2. V i c t o r i a , B.C.,1966.  88  by t h e C i t y , f o r f u t u r e r e s a l e t o a p r i v a t e owner.  The use suggested  f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g i s commercial below and r e s i d e n t i a l above. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s a t t h e l o c a l government l e v e l i n V i c t o r i a have, a s i s demonstrated i n t h e examples g i v e n above, been implemented t h r o u g h a d v i s o r y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and f i n a n c i a l t e c h n i q u e s .  In i t s  c a p a c i t y a s a d v i s o r t h e C i t y has commissioned two s t u d i e s w h i c h have suggested programs f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and has encouraged l o c a l b u s i n e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n through a paint-up  campaign.  The c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  b e s i d e s e n f o r c i n g such by-laws as t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h s i g n s and b u i l d i n g standards,  h a s c o n t r a c t e d w i t h t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments  i n t h e improvement o f B a s t i o n Square and t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e C i t y Hall.  T h e i r attempt t o improve t h e p u b l i c a r e a s o f t h e C i t y has. l e d  to considerable  p r i v a t e investment.  Throughout t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f  the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , f i n a n c i a l investment has been made i n such a way a s t o encourage r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r f e r e w i t h p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . V i e w i n g t h e t o t a l program, i t i s seen t o be one o f comprehensive improvements w i t h s p e c i a l programs f o r a r e a s o f s p e c i a l need.  P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e Investment i n V i c t o r i a ' s R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  I n response t o t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t r e v i t a l i z a t i o n was needed i n t h e V i c t o r i a downtown c o r e and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e f f o r t s o f the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e has c o n t r i b u t e d enthusiastically to rehabilitation efforts. u n d e r t a k e n i n many forms:  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a pedestrian  precinct  known as Trounce A l l e y ; a r c a d e s on two s i d e s o f one b l o c k and on one  89  s i d e o f a n o t h e r ; the c r e a t i o n of shops and o f f i c e s w i t h i n the o l d b u i l d i n g s o f B a s t i o n Square; s i n g l e b u s i n e s s improvements; and  areas  w h i c h have been p a r t o f t h e "Paint-Up"' campaign. R e f e r e n c e t o Map i n 1964,  14/ w i l l  show r e n t a l v a l u e s as t h e y appeared  t h e i r range b e i n g v e r y wide from a p p r o x i m a t e l y $25,00' t o  $360.00 a f r o n t f o o t .  For r e t a i l  trades there i s admittedly a close  c o n n e c t i o n between r e n t a l s and l o c a t i o n a l advantage, however the r e n t a l v a l u e s p r o v i d e a good i n d i c a t i o n o f downtown p r o s p e r i t y . Map  V will  show t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been undertaken  r e n t a l areas.  Reference  to  i n a l l of these  B u i l d i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d f o r the p a s t t e n y e a r s were  examined f o r twenty-one s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h have been a l t e r e d and t h e c o s t of  a l t e r a t i o n s i s shown i n Table 10.  For t h e most p a r t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e r e n t a l a r e a which highest rent.  i s a t about 50 p e r c e n t o f the  A l t h o u g h c o s t s examined v a r i e d w i t h t h e type o f  improve-  ments, t h e y can be seen t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e . S i n c e i t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be c a r r i e d out near a r e a s o f h i g h r e n t a l v a l u e but n o t a t the edge of the c o r e , c o s t of  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e n t a l v a l u e s have been examined f o r two b l o c k s  w h i c h a r e a t the o u t s k i r t s o f t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . No.  22 and No.  23 on Map '5)  These c o s t s and r e n t a l v a l u e s a r e shown  i n T a b l e 11 and p r e s e n t an i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e . would appear v e r y u n e c o n o m i c a l . T r u s t Company w h i c h u n d e r t o o k  (See  At f i r s t glance they  They were j u s t i f i e d  a c c o r d i n g t o the  them by the f a c t t h a t had t h e y not been  r e h a b i l i t a t e d , t h e i r r e n t a l r v a l u e s would have c o n t i n u e d t o drop.'' Although i t represents a long-term a m o r t i z a t i o n , r e n t s w i l l  rise  1  *  >*  RENTAL VALUES IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT 1964 MAP. A S O U R C E . - C A P I T A L REGION  PLANNING  BOARD.  TT  I 2 2-2 BLOCKS  EAST-f*'  20  1  FORT 3E  2E  3  21  r  TEST  3>4  23  to I  pHl  GOVT  SPONSORED  PRIVATE SEE  REHABILITATION M A P  5-  PROJECTS  SOURCE - CAPITAL  ENTERPRISE  TABLE  1 1  IN VICTORIAS  REGION  PLANNING  N  PROJECTS  C.B.D.  BOARD  0 I  250  500  I .  Scale  in  teet  92  TABLE 10 COST OF REHABILITATION OF SELECTED STRUCTURES WITHIN THE VICTORIA CBD  1 No/ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  Use  Year o f Permit  Original B u i l d i n g Permit  1962 1966 1965-66 1962 1966 1965 1960-67 1966 1966 1963 1963 1963 1957-66 1964-66 1963  1893 1893 1895 1910 1895 1896  2,000  1965  1912  14,000 4,500 4,075  1966 1965 1965  1912 1893 1930  6,000 17,000  1966 1965  1927 1909  Cost  R e t a i l Furs Charm S c h o o l Realty Restaurant Realty Realty Dep't S t o r e Shoe S t o r e Shoe S t o r e Fabrics Store Shoe S t o r e Shoe S t o r e Drug S t o r e Realty Delicatessen S p e c i a l t y Store Drycleaners Realty Bakery Restaurant Shoe R e p a i r T r a v e l Agency Hat Shop Shoe R e p a i r Drycleaners Accountants  $18,600 500 4,300 5,750 20,000 11,930 33,689 4,200 3,500 2,500 5,375 4,000 8,094 8,800 20,850  1899 1899 1895 1895 1895 1911 1895 1949  •Number o f b u s i n e s s r e f e r s t o number as shown on Map V. Source:  C i t y of V i c t o r i a B u i l d i n g Permits.  93  TABLE 11 RENTAL VALUES AND ALTERATION COSTS  M e l l o r B l o c k - 827 Broughton S t r e e t Rents Before A l t e r a t i o n s : 819 823 825  $120.00 85.00 185.00 $390.00 x 12 = $4680 Per Year  Broughton S t . Broughton S t . Broughton S t .  R e n t s A f t e r A l t e r a t i o n s : 31.3.67 $133.00 138.50 120.00 88.00 138.00 150.00 $767.50 x 12 = $9210 Per Year  819 Broughton S t . 819-A Broughton S t . 823 Broughton S t . 825 Broughton S t . 827 Broughton S t . 829 Broughton S t .  Cost of A l t e r a t i o n s : December 1961  Main F l o o r A l t e r a t i o n s New F r o n t s W i r i n g , Plumbing, D i v i d i n g Stores, Architect T o t a l Cost  F o r t B l o c k - 1101-19 F o r t S t .  $25,013.96 1023-33 Cook S t .  Rents Before A l t e r a t i o n s : 1025, 1027 & 1029 Cook S t . 1031 Cook S t . 1033 Cook S t . 1101 F o r t S t . 1109 F o r t S t . 1111 F o r t S t . 1113 F o r t S t . 1115-1117 F o r t S t . 1119 F o r t S t .  $180.00 60.00 60.00 160.00 68.00 68.00 68.00 180.00 90.00 $934.00 x 12 = $11,208 P e r Year  94  TABLE 11 - C o n t i n u e d  Rents A f t e r A l t e r a t i o n s : 31.3.67 $230.00 90.00 130.00 120.00 300.00 105.00 105.00 105.00 295.00 175.00 $1,655.00 x 12 = $19,860 Per Year  1025, 1027 Cook S t . 1029 Cook S t . 1031 Cook S t . 1033 Cook S t . 1101 F o r t S t . 1109 F o r t S t . 1111 F o r t S t . 1113 F o r t S t . 1115, 1117 F o r t S t . 1119 F o r t S t .  Cost o f A l t e r a t i o n s :  Source:  1962  $115,584.37  R o y a l T r u s t Company, V i c t o r i a ,  B.C.  95  w i t h i n coming y e a r s and t h u s be a w o r t h w h i l e  investment.  I t would seem from t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t f i n a n c i n g has not been a major problem, however, t h i s i s n o t always t h e c a s e .  As  o n l y t h e B a s t i o n Square a r e a i s p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n a r e n e w a l scheme the o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s must f i n d f i n a n c i n g from o t h e r  sources than through  l o a n s from C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n .  F i n a n c e companies  c o n t r i b u t e much o f t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . be suggested.  For other  sources,  two may  S m a l l b u s i n e s s l o a n s a r e a v a i l a b l e from banks a t  5% p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t b u t a r e a p p a r e n t l y  used i n f r e q u e n t l y . * *  Secondly,  the F e d e r a l Government has c r e a t e d a body known as t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank  t o promote t h e economic w e l f a r e o f Canada by i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f monetary a c t i o n through e n s u r i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c r e d i t t o i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s which may r e a s o n a b l y be expected t o prove s u c c e s s f u l i f a h i g h l e v e l o f n a t i o n a l income and employment i s m a i n t a i n e d , by s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f o t h e r l e n d e r s and b y p r o v i d i n g c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e to industry with p a r t i c u l a r consideration t o the financing problems o f s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s . 9  I t i s now p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s Bank t o l e n d t o s m a l l b u s i n e s s such a s r e t a i l o u t l e t s or r e s t a u r a n t s r a t h e r than j u s t i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . Loans a r e made a t 7% p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t r a t e and a r e made where e v i d e n c e i s shown o f r e f u s a l by two o t h e r and  s o u r c e s and where t h e amount i n v e s t e d  t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h a t i n v e s t m e n t a f f o r d s t h e Bank r e a s o n a b l e p r o -  tection. ^ 1  Loans from such a bank r e p r e s e n t  a good source o f funds f o r  b u s i n e s s e s w h i c h a r e n o t p a r t o f a r e n e w a l scheme and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e should be g r e a t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank and C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  Corporation.  96  Summary t o Chapter F i v e L o c a l government and p r i v a t e investment have each c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of V i c t o r i a ' s c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the p a s t t e n y e a r s .  I t would appear t h a t t h e i r p a r t n e r s h i p has  a s u c c e s s f u l one  t h u s worthy o f f u t u r e  and  emulation.  been  97  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter F i v e  *"D.J. Faustman, T r a f f i c and P a r k i n g Improvement P l a n . C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t . C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , B.C. P a r t s One and Two ( V i c t o r i a : The C i t y , 1956). ^ C i t y o f V i c t o r i a E n g i n e e r i n g Department, Downtown V i c t o r i a Improvement P l a n ( V i c t o r i a : The C i t y , October 28, 1958). ^ C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board o f B.C., f o r V i c t o r i a ( V i c t o r i a : The B o a r d , 1961).  Urban Renewal Study  ^ C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , Downtown P a i n t - U p P l a n '65 The C i t y , 1965).  Victoria  ^ C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board o f B.C., ( V i c t o r i a : The B o a r d , 1965).  (Victoria:  Overall Plan f o r  % i l l i s and C u n l i f f e E n g i n e e r i n g L t d . A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Urban Renewal P r o j e c t . B a s t i o n Square R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t Phase 2 ( V i c t o r i a : W i l l i s and C u n l i f f e , 1966), p. 7.  ''Personal I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J a c k F r a s e r , R o y a l T r u s t Company, V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l , 1967. ^ P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. A. Watt, Canadian I m p e r i a l Bank o f Commerce, Main B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l , 1967.  (Ottawa:  9Government o f Canada, I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank A c t 1944-45 The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961) C.44, S . l , p. 3.  ^ P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J . A u l d , I n d u s t r i a l Bank, V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l , 1967.  Development  CHAPTER SIX  POLICIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION The c h a l l e n g e s o f u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e t o a t t a i n s o c i a l harmony, t o c r e a t e a p h y s i c a l s y n t h e s i s , t o b u i l d b e a u t i f u l l y , and t o work out a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e activity ...  P a r a p h r a s e d from S t a n l e y R. P i c k e t t , "Urban Renewal - The Fundamentals o f P l a n n i n g " O n t a r i o H o u s i n g , V o l . 11, No.  4.  I n C h a p t e r s Four and F i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n a t i o n has been made o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s w h i c h have 'urban r e n e w a l schemes', and o f an e v i d e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , B.C.  A r i s i n g out o f t h e s e c h a p t e r s and i n  f u l l c o g n i z a n c e of t h e many f a c e t s o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o propose a program f o r commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o be used i n the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s o f Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h w i l l t a k e b e s t advantage o f t h e e f f o r t s o f government  and  private  enterprise. The need f o r r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f our c i t y c e n t e r s has o c c u r r e d and w i l l o c c u r f o r t h r e e major r e a s o n s :  the b l i g h t i n g e f f e c t of age  and o b s o l e s c e n c e ; the i n c r e a s i n g needs o f a r a p i d l y growing urban population;  and t h e importance t o an e n t i r e c i t y of economic h e a l t h i n  98  99  t h e downtown a r e a .  To d a t e most renewal e f f o r t s i n c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s  d i s t r i c t s have been a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e u n d e r t a k i n g what was p r o f i t a b l e and o f government s u p p l e m e n t i n g such e f f o r t s i n t h e framework o f the p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n .  The use o f  commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e s a program i n w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s can be a c h i e v e d by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w h i l e i n v o l v i n g government at the a d v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e financial levelv  I t has been s t a t e d t h a t  The p r i m a r y concern o f government sponsored renewal i s t h u s w i t h below average a s p e c t s o f the p r e s e n t ; the p r i m a r y conc e r n o f renewal by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s w i t h t h e above average a s p e c t s o f the f u t u r e . 1  Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a method by which b o t h government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e can improve upon 'the below average a s p e c t s o f the p r e s e n t ' i n o r d e r t o reap f u l l b e n e f i t o f t h e 'above average a s p e c t s o f the f u t u r e . ' Program f o r A c t i o n The f i r s t s t e p i n any p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a problem t h r o u g h c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I n the case o f the d e t e r i o r a -  t i o n o f downtown a r e a s t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be touched o f f by the combined c o n c e r n o f l o c a l government and l o c a l b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s . R e s e a r c h must determine i f t h e downtown a r e a i s worthy o f r e n e w a l , whether  i t can meet the commercial and c u l t u r a l needs o f t h e urban  p o p u l a t i o n and whether  i t can be made e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e .  100  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n then b e i n g the d e s i r e d and p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s may  stated objective,  be formed f o r a w o r k a b l e program.  After  a r e v i e w of p r e s e n t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e s e p o l i c i e s must c o o r d i n a t e  government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n the  s p e c i f i c manner which w i l l be d e t a i l e d below. The M u n i c i p a l Government R o l e  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s w i t h i n a c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t be  l a r g e l y the r o l e of m u n i c i p a l  governments w i t h the F e d e r a l  p a r t i c i p a t i n g as l e g i s l a t i o n a l l o w s .  must  government  T h i s r o l e can be e x p r e s s e d i n  terms of a d v i s o r y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and  financial responsibilities.  It  would appear from the c a s e - s t u d y t h a t the a d v i s o r y r o l e i s e x t r e m e l y significant.  Through c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g  the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the downtown  a r e a can be checked i n a comprehensive manner and by i n c o r p o r a t i n g a l l of the r e n e w a l t e c h n i q u e s of redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and tion.  conserva-  I n terms of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a l o n e , a d v i c e on programs such as  V i c t o r i a ' s ' P a i n t - U p ' campaign can be g i v e n , m u n i c i p a l  s e r v i c e s can  improved throughout the downtown a r e a , and  s p e c i a l p r o j e c t areas  be d e s i g n a t e d  A l t h o u g h the d e s i g n  as 'urban r e n e w a l schemes' .  be  may  solution  of a shopping m a l l surrounded by p a r k i n g has f r e q u e n t l y been u s e d , i t i s f e l t t h a t d e s i g n must be i n d i v i d u a l t o each c i t y , and a s e r i e s of s m a l l p r o j e c t s may w i l l one  further that  b e t t e r encourage p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e than  large project. The m u n i c i p a l  government may  t a k e advantage of s e v e r a l of i t s  powers i n the encouragement of commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  As i s  101  f r e q u e n t l y t h e case i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and as shown i n Appendices and D, code s t a n d a r d s may  be e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r d e r t o improve  C  conditions.  I f the a r e a i n which t h e s e s t a n d a r d s are b e i n g e n f o r c e d has been d e s i g n a t e d f o r urban r e n e w a l , p r o v i s i o n i s o f t e n made t o a l l o w b u i l d i n g s t o be a c q u i r e d by p u b l i c money t h e n e i t h e r l e a s e d or s o l d back t o p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s i f t h e p r e s e n t owner r e f u s e s t o c o o p e r a t e . m u n i c i p a l government may  Second, the  h e l p the improvement o f an a r e a by e s t a b l i s h i n g  a h i g h - q u a l i t y program o f p u b l i c works.  F i n a l l y , the m u n i c i p a l govern-  ment i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the F e d e r a l government may  e s t a b l i s h an  "urban  r e n e w a l scheme" t h u s e n a b l i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o be g i v e n . code s t a n d a r d s may  While  meet p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s t h e y do not a c h i e v e a  c o o r d i n a t e d or p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e downtown a r e a and  public  a c q u i s i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s t o o o f t e n causes unnecessary h a r d s h i p t o p r i v a t e enterprise.  W h i l e i t i s g r a n t e d t h a t p u b l i c a c q u i s i t i o n w i t h i n an  r e n e w a l scheme" may shows how  o f t e n be a b s o l u t e l y i m p e r a t i v e , t h e V i c t o r i a  case-study  e f f e c t i v e l o c a l government can be when i t o p e r a t e s as a d v i s o r  and p r o v i d e r o f p u b l i c w o r k s . I t i s w i t h i n the r e a l m o f f i n a n c i a l encouragement t h a t most urban r e n e w a l p o l i c i e s have been suggested i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  As  has  been shown i n Chapter F i v e , p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e would appear t o be c a p a b l e of c o n s i d e r a b l e accomplishment  i n terms o f  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h o u t government i n t e r v e n t i o n . i n c e n t i v e s i n t h e form of exemption  commercial  Encouragement by  from p r o p e r t y t a x , from income  t a x , or from s a l e s t a x on b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s i s r e j e c t e d a l t h o u g h t h e y may  "urban  be u s e f u l f o r o t h e r than commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Tax  102  p e n a l t i e s on b u i l d i n g s n e e d i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r l y r e j e c t e d as b e i n g t o o d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i n i s t e r and n o t i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f a comprehensive  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n program.  F i n a n c i a l a i d t o improvements  as i n t h e B a s t i o n Square example i s ; condoned f o r they pave t h e way f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n an a r e a which would o t h e r w i s e be u n e c o n o m i c a l .  F i n a n c i a l a i d may a l s o be g i v e n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l  owner b u t t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s thus seen t o be most e f f e c t i v e i n i t s a d v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y . F i n a n c i a l a i d s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d wherever p o s s i b l e t o p u b l i c works. The R o l e o f P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e  P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e may be c o n s i d e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t two l e v e l s o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  The f i r s t l e v e l i n v o l v e s t h e  c o n t i n u a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n and improvement o f b u s i n e s s premises and i s c a r r i e d on a t a l l t i m e s i f b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s f e e l t h a t an economic climate e x i s t s .  The second l e v e l i n v o l v e s t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f " g r a y  a r e a s o f a c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and o f t o t a l l y b l i g h t e d a r e a s . As has been shown i n t h e c a s e - s t u d y , f i n a n c i a l a i d w i l l o f t e n be f o r t h c o m i n g t o r e h a b i l i t a t e '"gray™ a r e a s i f t h e y appear t o have an economic p o t e n t i a l .  P r o f i t s from such r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may i n v o l v e a  l o n g - t e r m a m o r t i z a t i o n o f c o s t s b u t t h e y w i l l come and t h e y w i l l prevent complete d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n renewal o f extreme  b l i g h t may o f t e n r e q u i r e t h e use o f C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n l o a n s i f p r o p e r t y i s w i t h i n an "urban r e n e w a l scheme"' o r  11  103  l o a n s from an agency such as t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank i n o t h e r than urban renewal areas. Summary t o Chapter S i x Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h u s seen t o be most e f f e c t i v e i n i t s a d v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  capacity.  F i n a n c i a l a i d s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d wherever p o s s i b l e t o p u b l i c works. Through c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g f o r an a t t r a c t i v e and e c o n o m i c a l l y h e a l t h y downtown, p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w i l l be encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n comprehensive r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  104.  F o o t n o t e s t o Chapter S i x  •'•Murray V. J o n e s , The R o l e of P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e i n Urban Renewal ( T o r o n t o : M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g B o a r d , March, 1966), p. 6.  105  CHAPTER SEVEN REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE STUDY Summary o f t h e Study  The be f o l l o w e d  b a s i c a i m o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e v o l v e p o l i c i e s w h i c h may i n t h e use o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s a t e c h n i q u e f o r  the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n Canada's c i t i e s . I t i s considered  n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e s e p o l i c i e s be e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e  l o c a l government l e v e l , t h a t t h e y be c o o r d i n a t e d and  within the federal  l o c a l government l e v e l s , and t h a t t h e y be e s t a b l i s h e d so as t o  p r o v i d e maximum encouragement t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . hypothesized  I t i s thus  that  I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a comprehensive program o f c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t renewal u t i l i z i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e be c o o r d i n a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e d e r a l and l o c a l governments a t t h e a d v i s o r y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and f i n a n c i a l l e v e l s i n conjunction with the e f f o r t s of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . I n h e r e n t i n t h e development o f p o l i c i e s f o r t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  i s the necessity f o r a f u l l understanding of  the problems c r e a t i n g commercial b l i g h t technique of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i t s e l f .  i n downtown a r e a s and o f the  For t h i s reason, trends i n the  l o c a t i o n o f commercial e n t e r p r i s e were examined i n o r d e r t o demonstrate the e f f e c t w h i c h t h e suburban shopping c e n t e r and t h e a u t o m o b i l e have  106  had upon c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s .  The p h y s i c a l improvement p o s s i b l e  t o downtown a r e a s through r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was  i l l u s t r a t e d by r e f e r e n c e  t o p r o j e c t s i n Great B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Canada. As t h e s e examples showed, commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e s many f a c e t s o f the l i f e o f c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s districts.  P h y s i c a l improvement t o be s u c c e s s f u l must be c a r r i e d out  i n a r e a s w h i c h meet the p r i n c i p l e s o f r e t a i l or b u s i n e s s l o c a t i o n and w h i c h a r e b o t h a c c e s s i b l e by t h e a u t o m o b i l e and e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e pedestrian.  A l t h o u g h i t may  be d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h a u n i f o r m l y  p l e a s i n g atmosphere i n a e s t h e t i c terms, commercial  rehabilitation  s t r i v e s t o a c h i e v e b o t h good d e s i g n and a d e c e n t , s a f e , and environment.  sanitary  The s o c i a l importance o f downtown as a f o c u s f o r an urban  p o p u l a t i o n must be emphasized  i n any program f o r downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  w h i l e s t i l l r e c o g n i z i n g the need f o r a s t r o n g r e t a i l t r a d e and t h u s t h e importance o f customer  consumption p a t t e r n s .  Economic a s p e c t s a r e  p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e y p r o v i d e a d i s c r e e t measure f o r the s t r e n g t h of a c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t as w e l l as f o r t h e c o s t s o f revitalization.  Finally, rehabilitation  i n t h a t i t i s a renewal  measure,must be p l a c e d i n t h e c o n t e x t of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r governmentsponsored r e n e w a l .  I t i s seen t h a t commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  presently  forms o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p a r t o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n and i s dependent upon i n v o l v e d a r e a s b e i n g p a r t o f a d e s i g n a t e d "urban r e n e w a l scheme." Commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been implemented  i n a number o f  Canadian and American c i t i e s and thus q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o c i t i e s which a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f e d e r a l renewal a g e n c i e s had urban r e n e w a l  107  schemes i n v o l v i n g t h i s t y p e o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . questionnaires  t o government-sponsored  By r e s t r i c t i n g t h e  p r o j e c t s i t was hoped t o determine  b e t t e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . Response t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  came m a i n l y from American c i t i e s and  showed a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s .  The problem o f commercial b l i g h t  does n o t r e s t r i c t i t s e l f t o any p a r t i c u l a r c i t y s i z e f o r p r o j e c t s were b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n c i t i e s from 10,000 t o over two m i l l i o n  population.  There does n o t appear t o be any one c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n commercial a r e a s f o r some c i t i e s i n c l u d e p u b l i c works' w h i l e o t h e r s do n o t .  improvements  The emphasis was e i t h e r on an improvement t h r o u g h  r e a l i z a t i o n o f code s t a n d a r d s o r on a s i n g l e p r o j e c t such as t h e cons t r u c t i o n o f a shopping m a l l .  Most p r o j e c t a r e a s were v e r y l a r g e ,  r e p r e s e n t i n g a good p o r t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , b u t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o determine how much o f t h i s a r e a was i n v o l v e d i n redevelopment and how much i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  I n terms o f t h e t y p e s  of commercial l a n d use r e h a b i l i t a t e d t h e p r o j e c t s were v e r y comprehensive. T h e i r c o s t s were s t a t e d t o be one hundred p e r c e n t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w i t h any government p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o b a b l y b e i n g t h r o u g h p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s o r l o a n programs.  Original inspiration  f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s came p r i m a r i l y from a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o c a l government and l o c a l b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n r a t h e r t h a n from any p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . F o r the few c i t i e s whose p r o j e c t s were completed t h e problems encountered seemed t o be e i t h e r f i n a n c i a l o r t h e r e s u l t o f f r i c t i o n between government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e .  108  A c a s e - s t u d y approach i s used i n the s t u d y o f V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, as an example o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Programs  used a r e examined i n o r d e r t o i s o l a t e t h e p o l i c i e s w h i c h form an e v i d e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  The l o c a l  government  r o l e i s f i r s t examined and i s seen t o be one o f e n t h u s i a s m and p e r s u a s i v e n e s s combined w i t h comprehensive p u b l i c works t o make the downtown a r e a more a t t r a c t i v e .  P r i v a t e investment i s studied i n order  t o demonstrate what can be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t government when a h e a l t h y b u s i n e s s community i s encouraged. I n d u s t r i a l Development  financial aid  The r o l e o f t h e  Bank o f Canada i s suggested as a t y p e o f  ' m i s s i n g l i n k ' t o be used by b u s i n e s s e s which a r e n o t p a r t o f u r b a n r e n e w a l schemes. From i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d  i n the methods d e s c r i b e d above  f u t u r e p o l i c i e s a r e suggested t o u t i l i z e more e f f e c t i v e l y the t e c h n i q u e s o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s o f Canadian cities.  B r i e f l y t h e y recommend t h a t the government  r o l e be extended  i n a d v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c works b u t t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e be a l l o w e d t o o p e r a t e f r e e l y i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l  structures.  E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Study  The H y p o t h e s i s : L i m i t a t i o n s and  Criticisms  The h y p o t h e s i s o f the s t u d y would appear t o be  essentially  c o r r e c t w i t h a p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n b e i n g t h e r o l e o f government f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  i n the  Its limitations  arise  109  l a r g e l y from the assumptions a program o f commercial  which a r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p r e s c r i b e  rehabilitation.  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o t h e r forms o f renewal may  In an attempt t o s t u d y o n l y appear l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  and  y e t they a r e o f t e n e s s e n t i a l i n a comprehensive program o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e h y p o t h e s i s f a i l s t o s t i p u l a t e which t y p e s o f l a n d use be r e t a i n e d i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and thus be  The Study:  L i m i t a t i o n s and  should  rehabilitated.  Criticisms  The s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e major s e c t i o n s :  an e x t e n s i v e  l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s used t o examine t h e main p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, and l e g i s l a t i v e a s p e c t s o f commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; response  to  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t a b u l a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e v i e w and e v a l u a t e the p r o g r e s s of government-sponsored commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada; and the c a s e - s t u d y method i s used t o examine interaction  between government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  efforts. There i s no assurance- t h a t a l l o f t h e a s p e c t s o f  commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have been c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c t u a l p h y s i c a l change and t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d .  The government r a t h e r than the  p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e r o l e b e i n g the most f r e q u e n t l y documented, t h i s study may  have been g u i l t y o f n e g l e c t o f t h e i d e a s o f p r i v a t e  investors.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e method o f s t u d y , w h i l e i t g a t h e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , has weaknesses because o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f q u e s t i o n s and  by  a s k i n g f o r s p e c i f i c f a c t s where i d e a s and p o l i c i e s might have been more useful.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the c a s e - s t u d y a r i s e from the f a c t t h a t V i c t o r i a  does not r e p r e s e n t and never has r e p r e s e n t e d the worst examples o f  110  commercial  b l i g h t w i t h i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t .  Victoria i s  a l s o most f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g a s t o c k o f v e r y f i n e and a t t r a c t i v e o l d b u i l d i n g s which may be used a s a b a s i s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Further  Research The  study has d i s c l o s e d a number o f a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  Paramount among t h e s e i s t h e need f o r an economic c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s o f commercial  rehabilitation.  p o s s i b l e t o determine redevelopment,  Through t h i s a n a l y s i s i t s h o u l d be  t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e between t h e need f o r  for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , or f o r conservation.  I t might a l s o  suggest t h e most p r a c t i c a b l e economic c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e measures.  F u r t h e r study i s needed t o determine  j u s t how much o f a  c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t can be r e h a b i l i t a t e d , and how much must be l e f t i n i t s p r e s e n t form i n o r d e r t o a c t as a p l a c e f o r t h e i n c u b a t i o n o f new commercial  activities.  The p l a c e o f t h e m a r g i n a l b u s i n e s s i n t h e  c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t must be examined.  F i n a l l y , much  commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d through n a t u r a l market p r o c e s s e s r a t h e r than c o n s c i o u s l y d i r e c t e d e f f o r t and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two needs closer  definition.  V a l i d i t y o f F i n d i n g s and t h e H y p o t h e s i s S u b j e c t t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s suggested above, i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t commercial  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s h o u l d be encouraged as a t e c h n i q u e f o r  renewal w i t h i n downtown a r e a s , and t h a t i t i s f a i r t o u p h o l d t h e b a s i c v a l i d i t y of the hypothesis.  APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE CONCERNING COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION SENT TO CANADIAN AND AMERICAN CITIES WITH ACCOMPANYING LETTER OF EXPLANATION  112  QUESTIONNAIRE The  purpose o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e  1.  The meaning a t t a c h e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e CBD commercial area The e x t e n t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n e x e c u t i o n o r planned f o r Canadian and A m e r i c a n c i t i e s The source o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s Problems encountered w i t h t h e s e p r o j e c t s  2. 3. 4.  i s t o determine:  Name o f C i t y 1.  ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' as d e f i n e d by your p l a n n i n g t o CBD commercial a r e a s r e f e r s t o : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.  office with  regard  p a i n t i n g and c l e a n i n g b u i l d i n g s improvement o f t r a f f i c a c c e s s improvement o f p a r k i n g s t r e e t improvements such a s p l a n t i n g of t r e e s , p r o v i s i o n o f s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e redecoration of i n t e r i o r s of buildings. management c o n s u l t a n t s e r v i c e f o r b u s i n e s s c o n t r o l of signs provision of street l i g h t i n g other (please specify)  Comment s:  2.  Commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t o f your c i t y i s p r e s e n t l y i n e x e c u t i o n o r p r o j e c t e d : a. on an a r e a l b a s i s business basis  .  ; on a b l o c k b a s i s ; on a s i n g l e I f on an a r e a l b a s i s , how l a r g e an area?  113  b. I s t h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p a r t o f a l a r g e r program? Yes No I f y e s , does t h i s l a r g e r program a l s o i n v o l v e : redevelopment ; other r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; or conservation c. I t i n c l u d e s such commercial l a n d u s e f u n c t i o n s a s : s p e c i a l t y shops p e r s o n a l and b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s department s t o r e s o t h e r shopping office buildings theatres restaurants other (please s p e c i f y )  d. The average age o f b u i l d i n g s b e i n g r e h a b i l i t a t e d i s e. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.  include:  p a i n t i n g and c l e a n i n g b u i l d i n g s improvement o f t r a f f i c a c c e s s improvement o f p a r k i n g s t r e e t improvements such as p l a n t i n g of t r e e s , p r o v i s i o n o f s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e redecoration of i n t e r i o r s of b u i l d i n g s management c o n s u l t a n t s e r v i c e f o r business c o n t r o l of signs provision of street l i g h t i n g other (please s p e c i f y )  f . The number o f b u i l d i n g u n i t s i n v o l v e d i s  .  g. The t o t a l c o s t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l be $ t o be shared % by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e % at the municipal l e v e l % at the s t a t e / p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l % at the Federal l e v e l  ...~)  h. W i l l t h e b u i l d i n g s t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d be a c q u i r e d by p u b l i c money t h e n e i t h e r l e a s e d o r s o l d back t o p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s ?  114  Comments:  3.  Original  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s p r o j e c t came from:  private business interests Chamber o f Commerce l o c a l government Other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y )  b. What c r i t e r i a d i d you u s e t o s e l e c t your r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a ? ( i f t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a was n o t suggested by one o f t h e above)  4.  a . W i t h w h i c h p a r t o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program have you encountered the most d i f f i c u l t y ? "  b. I n how many o f t h e commercial u n i t s r e h a b i l i t a t e d has t h e r e been or i s t h e r e i n d i c a t e d i. ii.  a change o f u s e a change o f ownership  APPENDIX B PLANNING OFFICIALS WHO REPLIED TO LETTERS AND QUESTIONNAIRES CONCERNING COMMERCIAL REHABILITATION PROGRAMS  116  United States Mr. Gordon E. Howard Director O f f i c e o f Program P l a n n i n g Renewal P r o j e c t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Department o f H o u s i n g and Urban Development W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 20410 Mr. John T. S a y e r s , J r . S e n i o r Development S p e c i a l i s t Downtown W a t e r f r o n t P r o j e c t B o s t o n Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y Boston, Massachusetts Mr. Thomas C. Hoffman Executive Director E r i e Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y E r i e , Pennsylvania Mr. Leo W i l e n s k y Urban Renewal D i r e c t o r F l i n t , Michigan Mr. C l y d e N. B r a d l e y Rehabilitation Officer Redevelopment Agency o f t h e C i t y of Fresno Fresno, C a l i f o r n i a Mr. A.E. C o r n e t t Executive Director Johnson C i t y H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y Johnson C i t y , Tennessee Mr. M i c h a e l R. Chitwood Executive Director Land C l e a r a n c e f o r Redevelopment Authority Joplin, Missouri Mr. George M i l l a r , J r . Executive Director Housing A u t h o r i t y of the C i t y o f L i t t l e Rock L i t t l e Rock, A r k a n s a s  Mr. J a c k D. L e e t h Executive Director Urban Renewal and Community Development Agency L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky Mr. R o b e r t H. McCann A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of Urban Renewal Manchester H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y M a n c h e s t e r , New Hampshire Mr. Samuel K a p l a n Downtown Renewal D i r e c t o r New Haven Redevelopment Agency New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t Mr. James T. Y i e l d i n g Oklahoma C i t y Urban Renewal Authority Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma Mr. C l i n t o n B. M u l l e n Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y o f t h e C i t y of P h i l a d e l p h i a P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania M i s s V i r g i n i a S. West Executive Director Sylacauga Housing A u t h o r i t y S y l a c a u g a , Alabama Mr. P a u l D. Chapmen Executive Director T u l s a Urban Renewal A u t h o r i t y T u l s a , Oklahoma Mr. Howard L. Zacks R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Coordinator U t i c a Urban Renewal Agency U t i c a , New Y o r k Mr. Leon E. Case, J r . Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y o f t h e C i t y of Wilkes-Barre Executive Director Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania  117  Canada  Mr. T.P. M o r r i s Branch A r c h i t e c t and P l a n n e r C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n Vancouver O f f i c e Vancouver, B.C. Mr. A.G. M a r t i n D i r e c t o r of Planning C i t y of Calgary, A l b e r t a Mr. S.C. Rodgers C h i e f Planner The C i t y o f Edmonton Edmonton, A l b e r t a Mr. R.B. Grant Development O f f i c e r C i t y of H a l i f a x H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a  Mr. N.S. S i b b i c k A s s i s t a n t Planner O a k v i l l e P l a n n i n g Board O a k v i l l e , Ontario Mr. W.F. Manthorpe Commissioner o f Development Development Department C i t y of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Mr. E r n e s t L a n g l o i s Super i n t endent Urban Renewal D i v i s i o n C i t y P l a n n i n g Department C i t y of Montreal M o n t r e a l , Quebec  APPENDIX C REDEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OF THE CITY OF ERIE 405 MUNICIPAL BUILDING ERIE, PENNSYLVANIA DOWNTOWN ERIE URBAN RENEWAL PROJECT HHFA-URA PROJECT NO. PENNA. R-136 PA. DEPT. OF COMMERCE PROJECT NO. R-159  REHABILITATION REQUIREMENTS for 926-932 PEACH STREET - LPA PARCEL NO. 30-13  119  for I.  Objective:  S p e c i f i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Requirements 926-932 Peach S t r e e t , LPA P a r c e l No. 30-13 To p r o v i d e , t h r o u g h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a s a f e , s t r u c t u r a l l y sound, m e c h a n i c a l l y and e l e c t r i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t , proper c i r c u l a t i n g b u i l d i n g o p e r a t i o n , and a u n i f i e d , a e s t h e t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r image w h i c h w i l l b l e n d h a r m o n i o u s l y w i t h the d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s of E r i e ' s new and r e j u v e n a t e d Downtown.  I I . S p e c i f i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Requirements: * 1.  S t r u c t u r a l and a.  General  Construction  B u i l d i n g i s i n F i r e D i s t r i c t No. c o n s t r u c t i o n " i s Type 3-B.  1 and minimum a l l o w a b l e  (1) A l l wood framed e x t e r i o r w a l l s - ( i n c l u d i n g those i n l i g h t and v e n t i l a t i o n c o u r t s ) must be r e p l a c e d w i t h n o n - c o m b u s t i b l e masonry c o n s t r u c t i o n . (2) A l l wood f l o o r s t r u c t u r e and f l o o r f r a m i n g throughout the b u i l d i n g must be f i r e p r o o f e d by an approved means w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e the r e q u i r e d f i r e - r e s i s t a n c e r a t i n g of 3/4 h o u r . (3) A l l wood framed i n t e r i o r b e a r i n g w a l l s and p a r t i t i o n s must be f i r e - p r o o f e d t o p r o v i d e the r e q u i r e d f i r e r e s i s t a n c e r a t i n g of 3/4 h o u r . (4) A l l f i r e w a l l s and f i r e d i v i s i o n s must have a f i r e r e s i s t a n c e r a t i n g of 3 hours. (a) F i r e w a l l between 926 and 928 Peach S t r e e t has been b r o k e n through and an a l c o v e formed w i t h i l l e g a l construction. (5) A l l wood r o o f s t r u c t u r e must be p r o t e c t e d by m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d i n g a f i r e - r e s i s t a n c e r a t i n g of 3/4 h o u r . (6) A t t i c space over second f l o o r apartment a r e a i s b a d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d , g e n e r a l l y u s e l e s s and c o n s t i t u t e s a f i r e h a z a r d . T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n should be removed and new r o o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ( i n accordance w i t h the codes) a t the second f l o o r c e i l i n g l e v e l .  120  b.  930 Peach S t r e e t s e c t i o n o c c u p i e d by Thayer M c N e i l has an opening i n a masonry w a l l between t h e showroom a r e a and s t o c k a r e a , w i t h p l a s t e r c r a c k s a t t h e l i n t e l a r e a . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d be made t o d e t e r m i n e cause (weakened l i n t e l o r improper o r m i s s i n g p l a s t e r r e i n f o r c i n g ) and r e p a i r e d as r e q u i r e d .  c.  F i r s t and second f l o o r s : wood f l o o r s t r u c t u r e s a r e s a g g i n g b a d l y and a r e d e t e r i o r a t e d beyond p r o p e r l o a d b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y ; j o i s t b e a r i n g ends a r e r o t t e d o u t i n some a r e a s . E x i s t i n g wood f l o o r s t r u c t u r e s s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d w i t h minimum Type 3-B c o n s t r u c t i o n a s p e r t h e c i t y code.  d.  E x t e r i o r b r i c k has been t r e a t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a w a t e r - p r o o f i n g type p a i n t t o e l i m i n a t e t h e cause o f i n t e r i o r water damage. Major cause o f water damage would appear t o be t h r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n as f o l l o w s : (1) D e t e r i o r a t e d r o o f i n g . (2) D e t e r i o r a t e d and improper f l a s h i n g . (3) I n a d e q u a t e l y s i z e d o r p a r t i a l l y plugged r o o f d r a i n s and c o n d u c t o r s . (4) A r e a s o f r o o f (such a s l i g h t and v e n t i l a t i o n w e l l s ) w h i c h have no d r a i n s and a c t as water r e s e r v o i r s , depending on e v a p o r a t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g f o r water r e m o v a l .  e.  2.  Wood sash and t r i m show minor d e t e r i o r a t i o n ; should be c l e a n e d and p a i n t e d , w i t h r e p a i r and/or replacement o f members as r e q u i r e d .  Egress a.  A l l stairways w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g are i n v i o l a t i o n of both the C i t y and S t a t e codes and must be r e p l a c e d o r r e v i s e d i n accordance w i t h t h e codes.  b.  C i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e b u i l d i n g must be r e v i s e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e p r o p e r number o f e x i t s and a c c e s s t h e r e t o . (1) I n d i v i d u a l shops and s t o r e s , w i t h i n t h e b u i l d i n g and which a r e n o t i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , a r e r e q u i r e d by C i t y and S t a t e codes t o have two (2) e x i t s r e a s o n a b l y remote from one a n o t h e r .  121  3.  4.  F i r e Alarm; and F i r e P r o t e c t i v e Systems a.  No f i r e a l a r m system i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r building.  b.  F i r e p r o t e c t i o n equipment i n t h e form o f an a u t o m a t i c s p r i n k l e r system w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n the-basement, and the remainder o f the b u i l d i n g s h a l l be f u r n i s h e d w i t h f i r e p r o t e c t i v e equipment and e x t i n g u i s h e r s , a l l as r e q u i r e d by S t a t e and C i t y codes.  Emergency L i g h t i n g a.  5.  7.  Emergency l i g h t i n g f o r e x i t s , s t a i r s , e t c . must be p r o v i d e d as r e q u i r e d by t h e S t a t e and C i t y c o d e s .  Plumbing a.  6.  Equipment  Plumbing i s adequate and s e r v i c e a b l e g e n e r a l l y , a l t h o u g h d e t e r i o r a t i o n due t o age i s s e t t i n g i n . System s h o u l d be t h o r o u g h l y checked f o r r e p l a c e m e n t s and r e p a i r s r e q u i r e d .  H e a t i n g , V e n t i l a t i n g and A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g a.  H e a t i n g i s by means o f metered " C i t y Steam" w i t h m a n u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d c a s t i r o n r a d i a t o r s . A l t h o u g h the system d e s i g n i s an o b s o l e t e t y p e , h e a t i n g o f the b u i l d i n g i s adequate, but f a r from i d e a l .  b.  Bathrooms and t o i l e t rooms a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y v e n t i l a t e d and a p o s i t i v e m e c h a n i c a l system s h o u l d be i n s t a l l e d .  c.  E x i s t i n g a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t s a r e window t y p e - see " N o n - R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Requirements" e x c e r p t from the Urban Renewal P l a n .  Electrical  (See a l s o Paragraph 4 - "Emergency L i g h t i n g System")  a.  E l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e i s adequate and g e n e r a l l y i n good condition.  b.  E x t e n s i v e amount o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n system i s o b s o l e t e and d e t e r i o r a t i n g ; w i t h f r a y i n g and i l l e g a l s p l i c e s i n e v i d e n c e . A l l such w i r i n g s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d .  122  8.  c.  L i g h t i n g i n s t a i r s and c o r r i d o r s i s inadequate and s h o u l d be brought up t o I l l u m i n a t i n g E n g i n e e r s S o c i e t y s t a n d a r d s .  d.  Convenience and u t i l i t y o u t l e t s a r e inadequate i n number and s h o u l d be supplemented - r a t i o s h o u l d be 1 t o 72 square feet of f l o o r area.  I n t e r i o r M a t e r i a l s and F i n i s h e s a.  F i r s t f l o o r has s e v e r a l a r e a s r e q u i r i n g p a t c h i n g and painting.  b.  Second f l o o r throughout and e s p e c i a l l y i n p r e s e n t l y unused p o r t i o n s , needs e x t e n s i v e p a t c h i n g and p a i n t i n g .  c.  F l o o r s ( f i r s t and second) - see Paragraph 1 - " S t r u c t u r a l and G e n e r a l C o n s t r u c t i o n "  d.  E l i m i n a t i o n o f water damage causes - see Paragraph 1 " S t r u c t u r a l and G e n e r a l C o n s t r u c t i o n "  NOTE "A" Codes r e f e r r e d t o h e r e i n a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  C i t y o f E r i e B u i l d i n g Code C i t y o f E r i e Plumbing Code N a t i o n a l E l e c t r i c Code F i r e P r e v e n t i o n Code - N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s C i t y and County o f E r i e Department o f H e a l t h and S a n i t a t i o n P e n n s y l v a n i a Department o f Labor and I n d u s t r y R e g u l a t i o n s f o r P r o t e c t i o n from F i r e and P a n i c  NOTE "B" If further explanation, Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y  guidance, or d i s c u s s i o n i s d e s i r e d , s t a f f w i l l be a v a i l a b l e .  APPENDIX D CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT URBAN RENEWAL AREA PROJECT ALA R-75 ATTACHMENT NO. 1 TO THE URBAN RENEWAL PLAN SUGGESTED PROPERTY REHABILITATION STANDARDS SYLACAUGA, ALABAMA  124  NON-RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY REHABILITATION STANDARDS PART 1 INTRODUCTION Objective: The o b j e c t i v e o f these p r o p e r t y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t a n d a r d s i s t o p r o v i d e a p r a c t i c a l b a s i s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s on t h e p a r t o f p r o p e r t y owners, t h e m u n i c i p a l government, and t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , i n a c h i e v i n g a maximum degree o f s t r u c t u r a l improvement, u n i f o r m i t y o f d e s i g n , s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , l a n d s c a p i n g and g e n e r a l a m e n i t i e s w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s u b j e c t p r o j e c t a r e a . These P r o p e r t y R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Standards s h a l l a p p l y t o a l l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t a r e a . Where r e f e r e n c e i s made t o e x i s t i n g Codes and O r d i n a n c e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g s h a l l apply: N a t i o n a l E l e c t r i c a l Code, 1965 E d i t i o n , Adopted August 16, 1966 F i r e P r e v e n t i o n Code, 1965 E d i t i o n , Adopted August 16, 1966 Southern Standard Gas Code, 1965 E d i t i o n , Adopted August 16, 1966 Southern Standard B u i l d i n g Code, P a r t I I I , Plumbing, 1962-63 E d i t i o n , Adopted J u l y 2, 1963 Amendments t o Southern Standard B u i l d i n g Code, P a r t I I I , P l u m b i n g , 1965 R e v i s i o n t o 1962-63 E d i t i o n , Adopted-August 16, 1966 Southern Standard B u i l d i n g Code, 1965 E d i t i o n , Adopted October 4, 1965 S o u t h e r n Standard H o u s i n g Code, 1965 E d i t i o n , Adopted October 4, 1965 P a r t I I o f these s t a n d a r d s a r e t h e mandatory r e q u i r e m e n t s as i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e Urban Renewal P l a n and adopted by t h e c i t y . These s t a n d a r d s i n p a r t I I r e f e r t o e x i s t i n g codes and o r d i n a n c e s o f t h e c i t y and a r e supplemented by a d d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and w e l f a r e o f those p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a . P a r t I I I o f t h e G e n e r a l Improvement S t a n d a r d s p e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l l y to t h e improvements t o be p r o v i d e d by p r o p e r t y owners and t e n a n t s t o upgrade t h e i r b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e purpose o f p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r appearance, convenience, and a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r customers, and an improved b u s i n e s s c l i m a t e f o r t h e p r o j e c t a r e a . B o t h p a r t I I and p a r t I I I have been reviewed by t h e committee o f owners and t e n a n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t and a r e considered e s s e n t i a l t o the s u c c e s s f u l execution of the o v e r a l l plan for the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t .  125  enforced  P a r t IV o f these s t a n d a r d s c o n t a i n s w i t h i n the project area.  s i g n r e g u l a t i o n s t o be  P a r t V o f t h e s e s t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e s a D e s i g n Review Board w h i c h s h a l l a d v i s e and a s s i s t t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r i n c a r r y i n g out the c o n s e r v a t i o n program. PART I I MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS  A.  Codes and O r d i n a n c e s Where t h e l o c a l code, r e g u l a t i o n o r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r m i t s lower s t a n d a r d s t h a n r e q u i r e d h e r e i n , t h e s e Minimum P r o p e r t y Standards s h a l l apply.  B.  B u i l d i n g Requirements (1) S t r u c t u r a l - A l l s t r u c t u r a l components o f t h e b u i l d i n g s h a l l be i n sound c o n d i t i o n and c o n s i d e r e d s e r v i c e a b l e f o r t h e expected u s e f u l l i f e o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t e d b u i l d i n g . (2) W a l l s (a) E x t e r i o r w a l l s s h a l l p r o v i d e s a f e and adequate support f o r a l l l o a d s upon them. Masonry w a l l s , e i t h e r s o l i d o r v e n e e r , s h a l l p r e v e n t t h e e n t r a n c e o f water o r e x c e s s i v e moisture. (b) P a r t y o r l o t l i n e w a l l s s h a l l be o f i n c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l s and s h a l l e x t e n d t h e f u l l h e i g h t o f t h e b u i l d i n g from f o u n d a t i o n t o o r through t h e r o o f . The w a l l s h a l l e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t t h e passage o f f i r e a t a l l f l o o r c e i l i n g i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e w a l l . The f i r e r e s i s t a n c e r a t i n g o f t h e w a l l , where i t i s new c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s h a l l be n o t l e s s t h a n 2-hours, except as o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e d by t h e p r e v a i l i n g code. Any openings t h r o u g h p a r t y w a l l s s h a l l be p r o t e c t e d by c l o s u r e s , as r e q u i r e d by t h e w a l l i n accordance w i t h t h e a p p l i c a b l e code. ( c ) E x t e r i o r basement and f o u n d a t i o n w a l l s s h a l l p r e v e n t t h e e n t r a n c e o f water o r m o i s t u r e i n t o a basement o r c r a w l space a r e a . C r a c k s i n t h e w a l l s s h a l l be e f f e c t i v e l y s e a l e d , and l o o s e o r d e f e c t i v e mortar j o i n t s s h a l l be r e p l a c e d . Where necessary, the i n t e r i o r or e x t e r i o r face of the w a l l s s h a l l be dampproofed by b i t u m i n o u s c o a t i n g and cement p a r g e t i n g .  126  (3) R o o f s and M o i s t u r e P r o t e c t i o n (a) A l l r o o f s s h a l l have a s u i t a b l e c o v e r i n g f r e e o f h o l e s , c r a c k s or e x c e s s i v e l y worn s u r f a c e s w h i c h w i l l p r e v e n t the e n t r a n c e o f m o i s t u r e i n t o the s t r u c t u r e and p r o v i d e reasonable d u r a b i l i t y . (b) A l l c r i t i c a l j o i n t s i n e x t e r i o r r o o f and w a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be p r o t e c t e d by sheet m e t a l or o t h e r s u i t a b l e f l a s h i n g m a t e r i a l to prevent the entrance of water. ( c ) Each b u i l d i n g s h a l l have a c o n t r o l l e d method o f d i s p o s a l o f water from r o o f s where n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t damage t o the p r o p e r t y , and a v o i d c a u s i n g an u n s i g h t l y appearance o f w a l l s and windows where adequate r o o f overhangs a r e not p r o v i d e d . (d) Any d e f i c i e n c i e s i n p r o p e r g r a d i n g or p a v i n g a d j a c e n t t o the b u i l d i n g s h a l l be c o r r e c t e d t o a s s u r e s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e away from b u i l d i n g . (4) F i n i s h e s - The e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r f i n i s h e s o f the b u i l d i n g s h o u l d a s s u r e a g a i n s t the e n t r a n c e or p e n e t r a t i o n o f m o i s t u r e and extremes of t e m p e r a t u r e ; p r o t e c t from damage by decay, c o r r o s i o n , i n s e c t s and o t h e r d e s t r u c t i v e elements by a p p r o p r i a t e means, and p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e d u r a b i l i t y and economy o f maintenance. (5) S t a i r w a y s - E x i s t i n g s t a i r w a y s i n sound c o n d i t i o n to be r e p a i r e d , s h a l l not be d a n g e r o u s l y or t o any e x t e n t below minimum code standards as t o r i s e and headroom, o b s t r u c t i o n s , s t a i r w i d t h , l a n d i n g s , or t e c t i o n . S t a i r w a y s p r o v i d e d f o r the p u b l i c s h a l l code s t a n d a r d s .  to remain, or serious run of steps, r a i l i n g proconform t o  (6) V e n t i l a t i o n of S t r u c t u r a l Spaces - N a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n o f spaces such as a t t i c s and e n c l o s e d b a s e m e n t l e s s spaces s h a l l be prov i d e d by a p p r o p r i a t e p r e v e n t i v e measures t o overcome dampness and m i n i m i z e the e f f e c t of c o n d i t i o n s conducive t o decay and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , and t o prevent e x c e s s i v e heat in a t t i c s . (7)  I n f e s t a t i o n - Each b u i l d i n g and a l l e x t e r i o r appurtenances on the p r e m i s e s s h a l l be a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t r o d e n t s , t e r m i t e s or o t h e r v e r m i n i n f e s t a t i o n . An e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g where found t o have d e f e c t s w h i c h w i l l permit the e n t r a n c e i n t o the s t r u c t u r e o f r o d e n t s , t e r m i t e s or o t h e r v e r m i n s h a l l be c o r r e c t e d by a p p r o p r i a t e p r e v e n t i v e measures.  127  (8) M e c h a n i c a l (a) H e a t i n g - Each p r o p e r t y s h a l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h a c e n t r a l i z e d h e a t i n g f a c i l i t y , or a p p r o p r i a t e and s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l space h e a t e r s , c a p a b l e o f m a i n t a i n i n g a temperature o f a t l e a s t 70 degrees F. when t h e o u t s i d e temperature i s a t the d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e , i n a l l p u b l i c s p a c e s . A l l h e a t i n g d e v i c e s o r equipment s h a l l have an a p p r o p r i a t e r e c o g n i z e d a p p r o v a l f o r s a f e t y and performance, o r s h a l l be so determined by p r o p e r a u t h o r i t y . A l l h e a t e r s except e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s s h a l l be vented. (b) E l e c t r i c a l - A l l a p p r o p r i a t e spaces i n each b u i l d i n g s h a l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h e l e c t r i c s e r v i c e by a system o f w i r i n g and equipment t o s a f e l y s u p p l y e l e c t r i c a l energy f o r p r o p e r i l l u m i n a t i o n and f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n and use o f a p p l i a n c e s or o t h e r equipment. I n s t a l l a t i o n o f new, w i r i n g and replacement o f f a u l t y w i r i n g s h a l l be i n conformance w i t h E l e c t r i c a l Code. (c) Plumbing - The plumbing system and i t s appurtenances f o r each b u i l d i n g s h a l l p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y water s u p p l y , d r a i n a g e , v e n t i n g , and o p e r a t i o n o f f i x t u r e s . (d) Chimneys and V e n t s - Chimneys and v e n t s s h a l l be s t r u c t u r a l l y s a f e , d u r a b l e , smoketight and c a p a b l e o f w i t h s t a n d i n g the a c t i o n of f l u e gases. (e) V e n t i l a t i o n of U t i l i t y Spaces - U t i l i t y spaces which cont a i n heat p r o d u c i n g , a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g and o t h e r equipment s h a l l be v e n t i l a t e d t o the o u t e r a i r , and a i r from such spaces s h a l l n o t be r e c i r c u l a t e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e building. ( f ) V e n t i l a t i o n o f T o i l e t Spaces - E v e r y t o i l e t room s h a l l have windows p r o v i d i n g i n no case l e s s than t h r e e (3) s q . f t . of open space, o r s h a l l have approved, e q u i v a l e n t m e c h a n i c a l v e n t i l a t i o n , e x h a u s t i n g o u t s i d e the b u i l d i n g . Where v e n t i l a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by m e c h a n i c a l means, l a v a t o r i e s , t o i l e t s , bathrooms, and r e s t rooms s h a l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h a t l e a s t two (2) c u b i c f e e t o f f r e s h a i r per minute per square f o o t of f l o o r a r e a . C.  E g r e s s and F i r e  Protection  No e x c e p t i o n t o a p p l i c a b l e codes p e r m i t t e d .  128  D.  Sanitary  Facilities  Each commercial u n i t s h a l l have a t l e a s t one f u l l y e n c l o s e d room w i t h a t l e a s t one water c l o s e t and one l a v a t o r y .  toilet  PART I I I GENERAL IMPROVEMENT STANDARDS  P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n c e w i l l be p r o v i d e d by t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y as f o l l o w s A.  I n s p e c t i o n - Each p r o p e r t y w i l l be i n s p e c t e d b y t h e S y l a c a u g a H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y t o d e t e r m i n e i t s conformance w i t h these s t a n d a r d s and a l i s t o f d e f i c i e n c i e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o t h e owner.  B.  F i n a n c i a l - A f i n a n c i a l a d v i s o r w i l l be r e t a i n e d as needed by t h e S y l a c a u g a Housing A u t h o r i t y t o d i s c u s s problems o f f i n a n c i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y improvements t o p r o p e r t i e s . A complete f i l e o f a p p l i c a t i o n forms and i n f o r m a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e o f government a g e n c i e s such as SBA and FHA w i l l be p r o v i d e d , and a l i s t o f l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l i n g t o l e n d money i n t h e p r o j e c t w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d .  C.  Contracting - A l i s t o f q u a l i f i e d contractors, i n t e r e s t e d i n doing work i n t h e p r o j e c t w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d and a f o l l o w - u p w i l l be made by t h e S y l a c a u g a H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f any c o m p l a i n t s by owners o f workmanship and p r i c e s .  D.  A r c h i t e c t u r a l - A p r o j e c t a r c h i t e c t w i l l be r e t a i n e d by t h e S y l a c a u g a H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y t o a d v i s e owners and t h e D e s i g n Review Board upon t h e e x t e r i o r appearance and t h e g e n e r a l e x t e n t o f r e m o d e l i n g d e s i r a b l e t o b r i n g t h e p r o p e r t y up t o a l a s t i n g s t a n d a r d of q u a l i t y and a e s t h e t i c a p p e a l . T h i s a d v i c e w i l l be l i m i t e d t o p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n s . No w o r k i n g drawings o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be p r o v i d e d as a p r o j e c t s e r v i c e . Owners who need f u r t h e r development of p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes w i l l be expected t o s e c u r e t h e s e s e r v i c e s a t t h e i r own expense.  B u i l d i n g s and Grounds - The f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s a p p l y t o a l l p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e p r o j e c t a r e a and a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e improvement o f b u i l d i n g s t o a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f appearance and conv e n i e n c e t h a n would be p o s s i b l e under e x i s t i n g codes- and o r d i n a n c e s . A.  S i t e Improvements Walks and s t e p s s h a l l be p r o v i d e d f o r c o n v e n i e n t a l l weather a c c e s s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t r u c t e d so a s t o p r o v i d e s a f e t y , r e a s o n a b l e d u r a b i l i t y , economy o f maintenance and p l e a s i n g appearance.  129  (2) The  open space o f each p r o p e r t y  should  provide  (a) f o r the immediate d i v e r s i o n of water away from b u i l d i n g s and d i s p o s a l from the l o t , (b) p r e v e n t s o i l s a t u r a t i o n d e t r i m e n t a l l o t use, and  to structures  and  ( c ) where needed, a p p r o p r i a t e paved w a l k s , p a r k i n g a r e a s , d r i v e w a y s , e x t e r i o r s t e p s , p l a n t i n g of t r e e s , shrubs and herbaceous m a t e r i a l s , s t a t u a r y , d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s , s h e l t e r s benches and o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l and l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s . C o n t r a c t drawings f o r landscape a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e a t m e n t proposed as p r o j e c t improvements s h a l l be prepared by a q u a l i f i e d l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t whose s e r v i c e s s h a l l be r e t a i n e d on a c o n s u l t i n g b a s i s d u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d of p r o j e c t development. (3) A l l e x t e r i o r appurtenances or a c c e s s o r y s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h serve no u s e f u l p u r p o s e , or t h o s e i n a d e t e r i o r a t e d c o n d i t i o n which a r e not e c o n o m i c a l l y r e p a i r a b l e , s h a l l be removed. Such s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d e p o r c h e s , t e r r a c e s , marquees, s i g n s , e n t r a n c e p l a t f o r m s , garages, c a r p o r t s , w a l l s , fences, miscellaneous sheds. Where a s t r u c t u r e i s needed f o r u t i l i t y or p r i v a c y and the e x i s t i n g one r e q u i r e s r e m o v a l , i t s h a l l be r e p l a c e d w i t h a s t r u c t u r e t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e r v e s the b u i l d i n g . B.  B u i l d i n g Improvements (1) M a t e r i a l s - E v e r y b u i l d i n g s h a l l be c o n s t r u c t e d o f such k i n d and q u a l i t y which w i l l p r o v i d e : (a) a p p r o p r i a t e  of  materials  s t r u c t u r a l s t r e n g t h , and p l e a s i n g appearance,  (b) adequate r e s i s t a n c e t o weather and m o i s t u r e , ( c ) r e a s o n a b l e d u r a b i l i t y and  and  economy of maintenance.  (2) Windows and Doors - E x i s t i n g windows and d o o r s , i n c l u d i n g i t s hardware, s h o u l d o p e r a t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and g i v e e v i d e n c e of continuing acceptable service. (3) E x t e r i o r W a l l s - R e p a i r s t o e x i s t i n g s i d i n g , s t u c c o , or o t h e r e x t e r i o r w a l l f i n i s h method s h o u l d use s t a n d a r d s f o r new work as a g u i d e .  130  (4) I n t e r i o r W a l l s and C e i l i n g s - A l l i n t e r i o r w a l l s and c e i l i n g s o f rooms and h a l l w a y s s h o u l d p r o v i d e (a) a s u i t a b l e base f o r d e c o r a t i v e f i n i s h , (b) a w a t e r p r o o f and h a r d s u r f a c e i n spaces s u b j e c t t o m o i s t u r e , and ( c ) There s h a l l n o t be n o t i c e a b l e s u r f a c e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s or c r a c k i n g . (5) F l o o r s - F i n i s h f l o o r s s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e u s e o f . t h e space and p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e d u r a b i l i t y and economy o f maintenance. (6) E l e v a t o r s - Where p r o v i d e d , an e l e v a t o r s h o u l d f u r n i s h conv e n i e n t and s a f e a s c e n t and descent t o a l l p u b l i c spaces and s e r v i c e a r e a s . The c h a r a c t e r and type o f e l e v a t o r s e r v i c e and equipment s h a l l be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e b u i l d i n g b e i n g r e h a b i l i t a t e d and t o i t s occupants and conform t o Chapter XXIV o f Southern Standard B u i l d i n g Code, 1965 E d i t i o n . (7) L i g h t - Adequate a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t s h a l l be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l p u b l i c spaces. L i g h t sources s h a l l t o t h e maximum e x t e n t be concealed, ( l i g h t shelves, recessed f l o o d s , etc.) (8) V e n t i l a t i o n - Windows o r v e n t i l a t o r s s h a l l be p r o v i d e d o f such s i z e t h a t t h e aggregate a r e a t h e r e o f w i l l be n o t l e s s than 4 p e r c e n t o f f l o o r a r e a o r adequate m e c h a n i c a l v e n t i l a t i o n s h a l l be p r o v i d e d t o a l l p u b l i c spaces. C.  A d d i t i o n a l Requirements (1) T o i l e t Rooms - Each commercial u n i t s h a l l p r o v i d e t o i l e t rooms f o r employees as f o l l o w s : (a) One t o i l e t room up t o 6 employees, (b) One t o i l e t room f o r each sex w i t h one water c l o s e t p e r 15 employees f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f more than 6 employees. ( c ) Each t o i l e t room s h a l l c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) i m p e r v i o u s f l o o r s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l , 2) m i r r o r and l i g h t ,  131  3) paper t o w e l d i s p e n s e r ,  soap and waste r e c e p t a c l e ,  4) garment hook. (2) S u r f a c e t r e a t m e n t - Where p a i n t i n g i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e w a l l m a t e r i a l s such as b r i c k o r stone t h e s e s u r f a c e s should be c l e a n e d o r s a n d b l a s t e d , r e p o i n t e d , and w a t e r p r o o f e d w i t h appropriate materials. (3) C o n t i n u i t y and u n i f o r m i t y o f d e s i g n and c o l o r schemes A d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s of the p r o j e c t a r c h i t e c t , c o l o r c o n s u l t a n t , and D e s i g n Review Board s h a l l i n c l u d e s k e t c h e s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r use o f g r i l l e s , s c r e e n s o r o t h e r s u i t a b l e methods o f c o n c e a l i n g and/or c o o r d i n a t i n g treatment o f o b s o l e t e d e s i g n and m a t e r i a l s o f b u i l d i n g f a c a d e s t o p r e s e n t harmonious s t r e e t s c e n e s . T h i s s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f b a s i c c o l o r s and c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s and recommendations f o r c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s i n each b l o c k o r p o r t i o n o f b l o c k s . F u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a l l be g i v e n t o t h e type o f s c r e e n s o r o t h e r t r e a t m e n t o f b u i l d i n g f a c a d e s and t o adopted c o l o r schemes i n t h e d e s i g n and s t r u c t u r a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r canopies, m a l l or sidewalk s h e l t e r s , and o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d at p r o j e c t o r p u b l i c expense. (4) C o l o r treatment - C o l o r scheme s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e D e s i g n Review Board and P r o j e c t A r c h i t e c t f o r r e v i e w and determination of conformity t o o v e r a l l objectives r e f e r r e d t o i n preceding paragraph. (5) Rear Facades - Where t h e r e a r and s i d e w a l l s o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s become exposed t o p a r k i n g l o t s and o t h e r u s e s i n the i n t e r i o r o f a b l o c k , t h e exposed w a l l s s h a l l be r e f u r b i s h e d t o p r e s e n t a f i n i s h e d appearance. Where f e a s i b l e , r e a r e n t r a n c e s and d i s p l a y s t o shops from p a r k i n g a r e a s should be provided. PART IV SIGN CONTROLS  Scope The f o l l o w i n g r e g u l a t i o n s s h a l l a p p l y t o a l l s i g n s w i t h i n t h e p r o j e c t a r e a and/or adopted as a p a r t o f t h e Urban Renewal P l a n .  132  B.  Definition S i g n : Any d i s p l a y o f c h a r a c t e r s , l e t t e r s , i l l u s t r a t i o n s , ornaments of a d j u n c t s t h e r e t o d e s i g n e d t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n or t o i n d i c a t e t h e name, use o r k i n d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t and/or used as an announcement t o promote the i n t e r e s t of any one or more persons or t o i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n or d i r e c t i o n s .  C.  General P r o v i s i o n s (1) B u i l d i n g P e r m i t - A b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s h a l l be r e q u i r e d f o r e r e c t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n , r e l o c a t i o n or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f any s i g n u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e h e r e i n s e t f o r t h and t o be i s s u e d by the b u i l d i n g o f f i c i a l so d e s i g n a t e d i n accordance w i t h the a p p l i c a b l e l o c a l Laws and Codes. (2) M a t e r i a l s - S i g n s must be c o n s t r u c t e d o f d u r a b l e m a t e r i a l m a i n t a i n e d i n good c o n d i t i o n and n o t p e r m i t t e d t o become dilapidated. (3) S i g n A r e a - The a r e a o f a s i g n i s the a r e a o f the f a c e o f a s i g n formed by a p e r i m e t e r c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e r i e s o f s t r a i g h t l i n e s e n c l o s i n g a l l p a r t s o f the s i g n . The a r e a o f a f r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n s t r u c t u r e i s the a r e a of f a c e or f a c e s on one side only. (4) I l l u m i n a t e d S i g n s - S i g n s s h a l l be i l l u m i n a t e d by back l i g h t i n g or f l o o d l i g h t i n g e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d over the s i g n f a c e o r background m a t e r i a l and s h a l l be so p l a c e d and so s h i e l d e d t h a t r a y s t h e r e f r o m o r from the s i g n i t s e l f w i l l not p r e s e n t a n u i s a n c e t o o t h e r p r o p e r t y owners o r a h a z a r d t o d r i v i n g a u t o m o b i l e s or o t h e r v e h i c l e s . (5) A p p r o v a l - A l l s i g n d e s i g n s and l o c a t i o n s s h a l l be submitted t o the D e s i g n Review Board f o r a p p r o v a l p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n or i n s t a l l a t i o n .  D.  S i g n s F o r Which A P e r m i t I s Not  Required  (1) T r a f f i c , d i r e c t i o n a l , w a r n i n g o r i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n s a u t h o r i z e d by any p u b l i c agency. (2) O f f i c i a l n o t i c e s i s s u e d by any c o u r t , p u b l i c agency or o f f i c e r . (3) One n o n - i l l u m i n a t e d " f o r s a l e " , " f o r r e n t " or " f o r l e a s e " s i g n not e x c e e d i n g 20 s q . f t . i n a r e a l o c a t e d not l e s s t h a n 10 f t . back from the s t r e e t r i g h t - o f - w a y l i n e u n l e s s a t t a c h e d t o the f r o n t o r new f a c a d e o f a b u i l d i n g .  133  E.  R e g u l a t i o n s A p p l y i n g t o S p e c i f i c Types of S i g n s (1) Roof S i g n s - Roof s i g n s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e may remain i n p l a c e u n t i l such time as a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t becomes n e c e s s a r y under paragraph designated " B u i l d i n g Permit" h e r e i n . (2) W a l l S i g n s - S i g n s on the w a l l s o f a b u i l d i n g ( i n c l u d i n g s i g n s a t t a c h e d f l a t a g a i n s t t h e w a l l , p a i n t e d w a l l s i g n s and proj e c t i n g s i g n s ) s h a l l meet the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s : The t o t a l a r e a of a s i g n on each facade o f a b u i l d i n g f r o n t i n g on a p u b l i c a r e a ( s t r e e t , highway or p u b l i c p a r k i n g a r e a ) s h a l l be l i m i t e d t o 1 s q . f t . of s i g n a r e a per one f o o t o f l i n e a l f r o n t a g e f o r each b u i l d i n g facade.  F  *  Prohibited  Signs  (1) S i g n s I m i t a t i n g W a r n i n g S i g n a l s - No s i g n s h a l l d i s p l a y i n t e r m i t t e n t l i g h t s r e s e m b l i n g the f l a s h i n g l i g h t c u s t o m a r i l y used i n t r a f f i c s i g n a l s o r i n p o l i c e , f i r e , ambulance or r e s c u e v e h i c l e s nor s h a l l any s i g n use t h e words " s t o p " , "danger", or any o t h e r word p h r a s e , symbol or c h a r a c t e r i n a manner t h a t might m i s l e a d o r confuse an a u t o m o b i l e o r o t h e r vehicular driver. 1  (2) S i g n s W i t h i n S t r e e t o r Highway Rights-Of-Way - Except as h e r e i n p r o v i d e d , no s i g n whatsoever, whether temporary or permanent, except t r a f f i c s i g n s and s i g n a l s and i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n s e r e c t e d by a p u b l i c agency a r e p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n any s t r e e t or highway r i g h t - o f - w a y . (3) S i g n s A l r e a d y I n P l a c e - S i g n s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e w i t h i n o r o v e r h a n g i n g s t r e e t o r highway r i g h t s - o f - w a y may remain i n p l a c e u n t i l such t i m e as i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r work as s e t f o r t h under paragraph d e s i g n a t e d " B u i l d i n g P e r m i t " h e r e i n , except t h a t s i g n s p r e s e n t l y i n p l a c e e x t e n d i n g p a s t the s t r e e t curb l i n e s h a l l be r e l o c a t e d w i t h o u t b u i l d i n g p e r m i t t o extend not c l o s e r t h a n 18 i n . t o a v e r t i c a l p l a n e a t t h e s t r e e t curb l i n e . (4) C e r t a i n A t t a c h e d and P a i n t e d S i g n s - S i g n s p a i n t e d on o r a t t a c h e d t o t r e e s , f e n c e p o s t s , and u t i l i t y p o l e s or s i g n s p a i n t e d on o r a t t a c h e d t o r o c k s o r o t h e r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s o r p a i n t e d on the r o o f s o f b u i l d i n g s a r e p r o h i b i t e d except a i r d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s v i s i b l e o n l y from overhead.  134  (5) F l u t t e r i n g Ribbons and Banners - F l u t t e r i n g r i b b o n s and banners and s i m i l a r d e v i c e s a r e p r o h i b i t e d , except t h e f l a g s of governments and t h e i r a g e n c i e s . G.  P r o j e c t i n g Signs (1) W a l l s i g n s a t t a c h e d f l a t , a g a i n s t a w a l l may n o t extend more t h a n 10 i n . from t h e w a l l . Background m a t e r i a l o t h e r t h a n w a l l o f a b u i l d i n g s h a l l be counted i n t h e a r e a o f a s i g n . (2) S i g n s a t t a c h e d a t any a n g l e a t a w a l l may extend o u t s i d e t h e w a l l o f a b u i l d i n g n o t more than 5 f t . and may be l o c a t e d n o t c l o s e r than 18 i n . t o a v e r t i c a l p l a n e a t t h e s t r e e t curb line. I n no case s h a l l s i g n s p r o j e c t beyond p r o p e r t y l i n e s except t h a t s i g n s may p r o j e c t over p u b l i c s i d e w a l k s p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e minimum h e i g h t above t h e grade o r s i d e w a l k l e v e l o f such s i g n s h a l l be no l e s s t h a n 9 f t . (3) A p r o j e c t i n g s i g n may n o t extend above t h e main r o o f l i n e more than 5 f t . (4) Where a p e r i m e t e r canopy i s i n s t a l l e d each e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a l l p r o v i d e one s i g n below t h e canopy which conforms t o t h e format s e l e c t e d by t h e D e s i g n Review B o a r d .  H.  Free Standing Signs F r e e s t a n d i n g s i g n s s h a l l be l i m i t e d t o one p e r s t r e e t f r o n t and s h a l l n o t exceed 30 s q . f t . i n a r e a and 20 f t . i n h e i g h t . C l e a r a n c e beneath t h e s i g n s h a l l be a t l e a s t 10 f t . No p o r t i o n o f t h e s i g n s h a l l extend c l o s e r t o the property l i n e than 5 f t . PART V DESIGN REVIEW BOARD  A D e s i g n Review Board o f t h r e e members s e l e c t e d from names s u b m i t t e d by t h e S y l a c a u g a Chamber o f Commerce s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d by the Mayor and C o u n c i l . T h i s Board s h a l l have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e v i e w i n g a l l p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e improvements i n t h e Urban Renewal Area.  135  A l l proposed s t r u c t u r e s , s i g n s , p u b l i c improvements and a l t e r a t i o n s t o e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o be made by p r o p e r t y owners, t e n a n t s , o r p u b l i c b o d i e s s h a l l be reviewed by t h i s Board b e f o r e work i s s t a r t e d . The P r o j e c t C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r , P r o j e c t A r c h i t e c t , t h e C i t y E n g i n e e r and the C i t y B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r s h a l l a s s i s t the D e s i g n Review Board i n the e x e c u t i o n o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . P r o c e s s i n g o f p r o p o s a l s s h a l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e S y l a c a u g a H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r who w i l l r e v i e w p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l s t o determine the scope and g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f the p r o p o s a l , and a c t as G e n e r a l C o o r d i n a t o r t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l a f f e c t e d c i t y o f f i c i a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i s o r s a r e informed o f m a t t e r s b e f o r e the D e s i g n Review Board.  APPENDIX E AGREEMENT BETWEEN CENTRAL MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION AND THE CITY OF VICTORIA FOR THE BASTION SQUARE RESTORATION PROJECT PHASE 1  137  THIS AGREEMENT made t h e 19th day o f October  1965,  B E T W E E N CENTRAL MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION (hereinafter c a l l e d the Corporation") ct  OF THE FIRST PART: - and THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA (hereinafter c a l l e d "the M u n i c i p a l i t y " ) OF THE  SECOND PART:  Whereas t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y i n t e n d s t o implement an urban r e n e w a l scheme i n t h e B a s t i o n Square a r e a of t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , w h i c h scheme has been approved by the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia and i s a c c e p t a b l e t o the C o r p o r a t i o n , . . . p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e scheme may be amended by the M u n i c i p a l i t y from time t o time w i t h the consent o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the C o r p o r a t i o n ; AND WHEREAS t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l pursuant t o S e c t i o n 23B o f t h e N a t i o n a l ^ H o u s i n g A c t , 1954, has approved e n t r y i n t o an agreement by the C o r p o r a t i o n w i t h t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y t o p r o v i d e _for payment o f cont r i b u t i o n s e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f of the a c t u a l c o s t , as-determined by the C o r p o r a t i o n ^ o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and works, . . . NOW THEREFORE.THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH t h a t the p a r t i e s h e r e t o m u t u a l l y agree as f o l l o w s : 1. (1) The M u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l c o n s t r u c t , i n s t a l l and complete the municipal services . . . (2) The M u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l c a l l f o r p u b l i c t e n d e r s f o r any and a l l p a r t s : o f t h e s e r v i c i n g t o be u n d e r t a k e n pursuant t o C l a u s e 1 ( 1 ) . When t e n d e r s have c l o s e d on any p a r t of t h e s e r v i c i n g , the M u n i c i p a l i t y i s t o submit t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n a summary o f a l l t e n d e r s r e c e i v e d . The C o r p o r a t i o n ' s p r i o r concurrence t o an award w i l l be r e q u i r e d i f :  138  (a) t h e c o n t r a c t v a l u e exceeds t h e e s t i m a t e ; o r (b) i t i s proposed t o make t h e award t o o t h e r than t h e lowest tenderer. (3) The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l p r o v i d e t h e C o r p o r a t i o n w i t h a copy o f a l l c o n t r a c t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e r v i c i n g a s soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r c o n t r a c t s a r e awarded. (4) The M u n i c i p a l i t y , i f i t d e s i r e s t o c a r r y out any p a r t o f t h e work i t s e l f , s h a l l submit a t e n d e r . 2. (1) The a c t u a l c o s t o f i n s t a l l i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and works i n t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a s h a l l be deemed t o i n c l u d e : (a) t h e c o s t s o f i n s t a l l i n g t h e v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s and works and commuting t h e o u t s t a n d i n g l o c a l improvement charges as o u t l i n e d in . . . (b) amounts p a i d f o r f e e s and d i s b u r s e m e n t s f o r s o l i c i t o r s , s u r v e y o r s , a p p r a i s e r s , b r o k e r s and o t h e r s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l works and s e r v i c e s ; ( c ) such o t h e r expenses i n c u r r e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o r by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and works as may be approved b o t h by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n prior to their incurrence. (2) The C o r p o r a t i o n w i l l pay c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f o f t h e a c t u a l c o s t , as determined by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , pursuant t o s u b c l a u s e ( 1 ) above, upon r e c e i p t o f statements o f account i n a c c o r d ance w i t h C l a u s e 3. 3. ( 1 ) The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e d i s b u r s e a l l items forming part of the a c t u a l cost. (2) Any commitment made b y t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o r t h e C o r p o r a t i o n w h i c h d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e a c t u a l c o s t s h a l l be made o n l y a f t e r the M u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n have c o n c u r r e d i n such commitment. (3) Not l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than q u a r t e r l y t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l prep a r e and submit t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n a statement o f account supported by such books, r e c o r d s o r o t h e r d a t a a s t h e C o r p o r a t i o n may r e q u i r e , showing: (a) amounts d i s b u r s e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y toward t h e a c t u a l c o s t o f i n s t a l l i n g m u n i c i p a l works and s e r v i c e s ; and (b) amounts r e q u i r e d t o commute l o c a l improvement charges o u t s t a n d i n g a g a i n s t l o t s a c q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d covered by t h e c l a i m . (4) The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l p r o v i d e t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n such b o o k s , r e c o r d s o r o t h e r d a t a s u p p o r t i n g such accounts as t h e C o r p o r a t i o n may from time t o time r e q u i r e and t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l m a i n t a i n s e p a r a t e  139  a c c o u n t s i n r e s p e c t o f t h e p r o j e c t and w i l l p e r m i t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , i n s p e c t i o n and a u d i t o f such a c c o u n t s by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o r by a u d i t o r s a p p o i n t e d by i t a t a l l r e a s o n a b l e t i m e s . 4. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l r e t a i n a l l documents, v o u c h e r s , r e c o r d s and account p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c o s t o f supplementing and implementing t h e scheme f o r n o t l e s s than seven y e a r s from t h e d a t e o f c o m p l e t i o n of t h e scheme a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p a r t i e s h e r e t o . IN WITNESS WHEREOF t h e p a r t i e s h e r e t o have h e r e u n t o a f f i x e d t h e i r c o r p o r a t e s e a l s as w i t n e s s t h e hands o f t h e i r p r o p e r o f f i c e r s i n that behalf. CENTRAL MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION  THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA  APPENDIX F APPLICATION FOR BASTION SQUARE RESTORATION PROJECT PHASE 2  141  Whereas t h e r e n e w a l works f o r B a s t i o n Square which a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f an agreement made on t h e 19th day o f October 1965, between C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , and t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a a r e now s u b s t a n t i a l l y complete, and Whereas a prime o b j e c t i v e o f t h e scheme i s t o encourage r e s t o r a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s f r o n t i n g onto t h e Square and Whereas i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e v e h i c u l a r and o t h e r s e r v i c e a c c e s s t o t h e b u i l d i n g s t o enable them t o be used t o b e s t advantage and Whereas t h e C o u n c i l and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a has caused t o be p r e p a r e d an Urban Renewal Scheme f o r t h e a r e a c e n t r e d between Y a t e s , Government, F o r t and Wharf S t r e e t s , known as B a s t i o n Square . . . Now t h e r e f o r e C o u n c i l o f t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a r e s o l v e s t h a t : 1. The u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s t o be known as B a s t i o n Square R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t Phase 2, s e t o u t i n t h e accompanying A p p l i c a t i o n be adopted. 2. A p p l i c a t i o n be made t o C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o Sec. 23B o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t 1954, f o r an Agreement p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e payment o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s e q u a l t o one h a l f o f t h e a c t u a l c o s t o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e B a s t i o n Square R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t Phase 2. 3. A p p l i c a t i o n be made t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l o r the M i n i s t e r a p p o i n t e d by h i m f o r t h a t purpose f o r an agreement pursuant t o Sec. 15 o f t h e H o u s i n g A c t 1960 p r o v i d i n g f o r a g r a n t by t h e P r o v i n c e t o t h e C i t y e q u a l t o f i f t y percentum o f t h e amount o f t h e g r a n t agreed t o be p a i d t o t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f Labour f o r Canada f o r t h e purpose o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e B a s t i o n Square R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t Phase 2. 4. The p r o p e r o f f i c e r s o f t h e C i t y be a u t h o r i z e d t o n e g o t i a t e the terms o f t h e Agreements w i t h C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s and payments a s a f o r e s a i d .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY Public  Documents  B r i t i s h Columbia, Province o f . M u n i c i p a l A c t . V i c t o r i a : P r i n t e r t o t h e Queen, 1964. Canada.  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961.  A. S u t t o n ,  Census o f Canada.  Canada, Government o f . The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , 1954. Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962.  Ottawa:  Ottawa:  Canada, Government o f . I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank A c t 1944-45, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961. S l a y t o n , W i l l i a m L. R e p o r t on Urban Renewal. 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Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , J a n u a r y , 1963. Books and Theses B a r n e s , M i c h a e l P. R e t a i l i n g and the S p e c i a l t y Shop. A P r o p o s a l f o r Water S t r e e t . Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver: U n p u b l i s h e d Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e Thesis, School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , May 16, 1966.  143  144  B l a k e , P e t e r . God's Own J u n k y a r d . The planned d e t e r i o r a t i o n of A m e r i c a ' s l a n d s c a p e . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1964. Dyckman, John W. and I s a a c s , R e g i n a l d R. C a p i t a l Requirements f o r Urban Development and Renewal. New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l Book Co., 1961. F i t z p a t r i c k , G e r a l d W. Towards a P o s i t i v e L o c a l Government P o l i c y f o r R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 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