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The development of communications in colonial British Columbia Ferguson, Helen 1939

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THE: DEVELOPMENT OF GOMMUNIGATTONS IN COLONIAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by Helen Ferguson A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of Ar t s i n the Department of History, 7 . 14 3 ^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1939 THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS IN COLONIAL BRITISH COLUMBIA Chapter One The Second Empire and the- P a c i f i e V i c t o r i a n decline i n c o l o n i a l i s m - a new imperialism on the P a c i f i c - The Oregon and the fur-trade - Hudson's ' Bay Company charter - the Select Committee of 1853 •> •. • Pages 1 - 6 Chapter Two No Thoroughfare The report of 1857 - population, Indian and white -communications - the f u r trade -Pages 7 - 1 7 Chapter Three Trespassers G-old p r i o r to 1858 - Bulwer Lytton as Secretary f o r the Colonies - erection of a gold colony - the rush -Pages 18 - 28 Chapter Four The 'Couriers" Prove a Costly Ornament The Royal Engineers as 'couriers' - o r i g i n of the idea of a m i l i t a r y force f o r the P a c i f i c coast -Lytton's plans and execution - the van-guard a r r i v e s -Moody chooses a c a p i t a l s i t e - the main body - e a r l y operations - H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t and Cariboo - end of the Engineer era - n Pages 29 - 45 Chapter Five The 'Couriers' Recalled C o l o n i a l O f f i c e opinion of the Engineers - c o l o n i a l resentment - minor obstacles -Pages 46 - 54 Chapter Six C i v i l i a n Roads - Cariboo Rush - C o l o n i a l R i v a l s I . C i v i l i a n s on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t - under the Engineers - contractors - finance - II.Cariboo discov-e r i e s - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems - route controversies -B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t and c a p i t a l - III.Douglas and Moody -Pages 5 5 - 9 0 Chapter Seven P r i v a t e Enterprise Carries on Seymour - Construction 1864-1866 - a l i n k with the east-Pages 91 - 103 Chapter Eight Un Mariage de Convenanee Union - debts - construction and r e p a i r s 1867-1871. Pages 104 - 118 Chapter Nine Conclusion. Pages 119-120 gIBLIOG-RAPHY Pages 121-126 {. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS IN COLONIAL BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER ONE THE SECOND EMPIRE AND THE PACIFIC' A young Canadian h i s t o r i a n , g e n e r a l i z i n g r e c e n t l y i n an attempt to e x p l a i n the phenomenal growth of D i s r a e l i -Rhodes imperialism, claimed that 1871 marks the death of the Second B r i t i s h Empire and the b i r t h of the T h i r d . P r i o r to that date l i e s "the slow sombre d e c l i n e " of the c o l o n i a l i s m which marSed the f i r s t decades of V i c t o r i a ' s r e i g n . ( 1 ) The c o l o n i a l p e r i o d of. the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia c o i n c i d e s with the f i n a l t h i r t e e n years of that " d e c l i n e " and f o r the most part i l l u s t r a t e s the t r u t h of Mr. Greighton 1s g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n . However the development of communications on the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia f u r n i s h e s one example at l e a s t of a s u r v i v i n g B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t i n c o l o n i a l development. To achieve a proper p e r s p e c t i v e f o r a study of t h i s s u r v i v a l and i t s e f f e c t s , i t i s : n e c e s s a r y to r e t u r n to the b i r t h of the Second Empire at the c l o s e of the American Revolution. At that date B r i t a i n ' s claims upon the shores of the B a c i f i c Ocean were those e s t a b l i s h e d by Captain James Cook, but they were n e i t h e r recognized: i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y nor h i g h l y p r i z e d at home. However the B r i t i s h East Indian .Company was absent-mindedly laying.the foundations of the 1. Greighton, D.G-. "The V i c t o r i a n s and the Empire . "Canadian H i s t -o r i c a l Review.June 1938.XIX:138 f f . 2 I , j B r i t i s h r a j i n India so that, sooner or l a t e r , the c i r c l e of I B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t would of n e c e s s i t y include the P a c i f i c Ocean. During the p e r i o d of the Napoleonic wars the o b s t r u c t i o n of B r i t a i n ' s European trade, stimulated the extension of trade with the c o l o n i e s . Stimulated by t h i s trade expansion a group of c o l o n i a l reformers began to advance new i m p e r i a l t h e o r i e s based on f r e e trade and the need f o r emigration to r e l i e v e p opulation pressure a t home. Perhaps the most famous of t h i s group were B u l l e r , Wakefield and Durham whose concerted e f f o r t s c o n s t i t u t e so important a chapter i n Canadian h i s t o r y , While Wakefield's name_is one of great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the h i s t o r y of A u s t r a l i a . The slow working of the leaven of « < ^ o t W : * n W £ j through the lump of p u b l i c i n d i f f e r e n c e . i s the t a l e of B r i t i s h imperialism during the^ nineteenth century; t This leavening was aided g r e a t l y by the n e c e s s i t y of a c q u i r i n g naval s t a t i o n s and points' of c a l l to p r o t e c t the new trade routes along which B r i t i s h Vessels were t r a n s p o r t i n g the wealth of the o r i e n t . But trade on the American side of the P a c i f i c was slow i n developing; consequently any i n t e r e s t ' d i s p l a y e d there by B r i t a i n was perfunctory i n comparison with the e f f o r t s to acquire and hold, such vantage p o i n t s as Malta, Capetown, T r i n i d a d and Ceylon. The f i r s t phase of the new imperialism on the P a c i f i c was the withdrawal of Spain. By the terms of the Nootka Con-vention of 1790 her proud claim to "sovereignty of the P a c i f i c and her r i g h t . . . to exclude other peoples from that ocean " ( 2 ) was set aside, under B r i t i s h pressure. • • rj . . • '• g.Howay,F.W.British Columbia:The Making of a Province.Toronto 1 9 2 8 . p.33 3 "The r e s u l t i s that the north-west, coast,.outside of such s c a t t e r e d occupancy, was l e f t without sov-ereignty i n any c i v i l i z e d s t a t e ; and thus i t could become the t e r r i t o r y of any nation that entered and occupied i t . " ( 3 ) When, i n 1819, the n o r t h e r l y l i m i t of Spanish t e r r i t o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d by t r e a t y at 42 degrees North l a t i t u d e , the con-t e s t f o r sovereignty over the region northward to 54 40' and eastward to the Rocky Mountains re s t e d with Great B r i t a i n and the United States. Expansionist tendencies i n the United States were evident from the Revolution onward. F r a n k l i n had gone to the peace conference with dreams of a North American r e p u b l i c and upon those dreams succeeding generations of American p a t r i o t s e s t a b l i s h e d a philosophy of "manifest d e s t i n y " . Very e a r l y the scope of t h e i r proposed expansion included the e n t i r e P a c i f i c coast. Although as ,early as 1818 p r o v i s i o n was made by convention between Great B r i t a i n and the United States f o r the s o l u t i o n of the.Oregon Boundary problem, f i f t y - f o u r years were to elapse before the boundary as i t now e x i s t s could be e s t a b l i s h e d . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s t r a i n e d Anglo-American r e l a t i o n s which p e r s i s t e d throughout t h i s p e r i o d i s provided by the f i l e s of the "Economist". In 1853 .when 'President P i e r c e d e l i v e r e d h i s in a u g u r a l address lie s a i d : "The r i g h t s , s e c u r i t y , and repose of t h i s confederacy r e j e c t the idea of i n t e r f e r e n c e or c o l o n i s a t i o n on t h i s side of the ocean by any f o r e i g n Bower, beyond present j u r i s d i c t i o n , as u t t e r l y I n a d m i s s i b l e . " ( 4 ) This "dogma" the Economist found not only " i n c o n s i s t e n t . . . 3 . Noway o p . c i t . 0 p.33 • 4 . "The New Presi d e n t ' s Inaugural Address."The Economist.March 19, 1853. XI:307 4 w i t h h i s ( P i e r c e ' s ) o t h e r p r i n c i p l e s , " hut s a v o u r i n g "too much o f P a p a l u s u r p a t i o n , which gave away America, or.iSpahish grasp-i n g , which, on such a " g i v i n g , c laimed c o u n t r i e s i t c o u l d never occupy.". The e d i t o r i a l c l o s e d w i t h t h i s d e f i a n t warning: " I f our v o i c e can reach a c r o s s the A t l a n t i c , we would suggest to P r e s i d e n t P i e r c e t h a t he should c o n f i n e the r e s t r i c t i o n on f o r e i g n , c o l o n i s a t i o n to the t e r r i t o r i e s c l a i m e d and occ u p i e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s .."(5) . P r o b a b l y the Oregon was one of the t e r r i t o r i e s which the Economist had In mind. An e x t e n s i v e and p r o f i t a b l e f u r -t r a d e , b oth maritime and i n t e r i o r , • had been c a r r i e d on west of the R o c k i e s ever, s i n c e Alexander Mackenzie's memorable e x p l o r -a t i o n s on b e h a l f of the North-West Company i n 1792. The ' Hudson's Bay Company, a f t e r amalgamation w i t h the North-West Company i n 1821 had a l a r g e stake i n t h i s t r a d e . By 1846 the Columbia Department which extended from 55. n o r t h to 41 30 1 and from the Rocky Mountains to the. P a c i f i c (6) was b e i n g e x p l o i t e d by the Company's agents working through an e x t e n s i v e system of t r a d i n g p o s t s . Those i n c l u d e d i n t h e . f u r r e t u r n o f the'Department f o r t h a t year were: New C a l e d o n i a , G o l v i l l e , Thompson's R i v e r , Nez P e r c e s , Langley, N i s q u a l l y , Snake Country, Simpson, and : S t l k i n e . (7) So e x t e n s i v e a c a p i t a l investment warranted a con-s i d e r a b l e a l a rm when i t became apparent t h a t the onrush of a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s i n t o Oregon foreshadowed the end o f the , f u r e r a . . But though alarmed, the Company e v i d e n t l y d i d not 5. The Economist, March 19,1853. XI:307. 6. McLean J . Noi.es o f a Twenty-five Years S e r v i c e i n Hudson's  Bay T e r r i t o r y . London, l849..(Champlain S o c i e t y , Toronto 1932) 1:21 7. Hudson's Bay Co. A r c h i v e s ( h e r e a f t e r HBC) B223 d. "Vol. 212 p.125 • •' • ^expect much support from the B r i t i s h Government and when the compromise'* .settlement was e f f e c t e d In 1846, .Douglas' could write: " A l l things considered, the y i e l d i n g - mood of the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y and the concessions made,.we have come o f f b e t t e r than I expected. I looked for'nothing short of an u t t e r s a c r i f i c e of our e n t i r e i n t e r e s t . " ( 8 ) . - . The B r i t i s h government, - having taken the plunge,. began, eyen before the gold era, to give some "thought to the future settlement of t h i s c o l o n i a l wilderness. At l e a s t prospects of settlement by immigration were b r i g h t enough that the Hudson's Bay Company was unable to gain an o b j e c t i v e which might have provided a r e s p i t e f o r t h e i r f u r - t r a d e . Immediately a f t e r the boundary settlement i n 1846 they had p e t i t i o n e d f o r a blanket c h a r t e r covering settlement, government and e x c l u s i v e trade f o r most of what i s now Western Canada. (9) Shrewdly suspecting tjaat the Company's aim was to discourage c o l o n i s a t i o n r a t h e r than to husband i t , the B r i t i s h Government reduced the scope of the c h a r t e r which was f i n a l l y given January 13, 1849 to i n c l u d e only Vancouver Island; and t h i s merely because there seemed no other way of inaugurating B r i t i s h r u l e i n the t e r r i t o r y U n t i l 1849 the p r o p o r t i o n of the B r i t i s h p u b l i c which gave any heed to the prospects of developing the Empire on the 8. Jas.Douglas-Dr.W.P.Tolmie,Apr 1 9 , 1 8 4 7.B.C.Archives Report 1913 pp. 82-85. d. Sovocrl 9 . I beg leave to say that i f Her Majesty's'Ministers would be' of the o p i n i o n that the t e r r i t o r y i n question would be more conveniently governed and c o l o n i z e d (as f a r as may be p r a c t i c -able) through the Hudson's Bay Company, the Company are w i l l i n g to undertake i t , :and w i l l be ready.to r e c e i v e a grant of a l l the t e r r i t o r i e s belonging to the Crown which are s i t u a t e d to the north and west of Rupert's Land." S i r John P e l l y - E a r l Grey. Parliamentary Paper (1848) No.619 p.9. Also c f . Howay and S c h o l f i e l d B r i t i s h (Dolufiib;la.|i.riErom the: E a r l i e s t Times to the  Present.Vancouver/ 1914. I:498 and Begg,A.History of B r i t i s h  Columbia. Toronto'", 1894. p. 184 , i n Aaa<* •VMA 4 8 C T O . t o KM . W e o v v ^ U o l c S c \ \ \ C C o ' t o ^ a . - n ^ -nor <H>viSiS.t<!i\t IAJ e A U m r 6 ; other side of the world must have been n e g l i g i b l e . But when the f o r t y - n i n e r s uncovered the treasures of the C a l i f o r n i a camps, and the gold-rush to A u s t r a l i a two years l a t e r revealed new sources of wealth, those prospects must have seemed more ta n g i b l e . When In the e a r l y f i f t i e s news was r e c e i v e d that gold s t r i k e s had been made i n the Queen Charlotte Islands, estimates of the value of the t e r r i t o r y soared far'beyond the canny f i g u r e set by a Glasgow M.P. i n 1846. I t had been h i s opinion that the Queen, was fortunate i f her new estate was worth £ 2 0 , 0 0 0 . ( 1 0 ) By 1853 however, the estate was considered valuable enough to merit the e r e c t i o n of a s e l e c t committee,from;the B r i t i s h House of Commons to i n v e s t i g a t e c o n d i t i o n s i n the B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y under the r u l e of the Hudson's Bay Company. The committee reported i n 1837 that the time was r i p e f o r taking the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n over from the- Company. Gladstone, who had been one o f the- Company's most vigorous opponents i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the blanket charter i n the f o r t i e s now attacked the idea of renewing the e x c l u s i v e trade l i c e n s e . "Here i s a large p o r t i o n of the surface of the earth with regard to the character of which we have been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y kept i n darkness, because those who had information to give had i n t e r e s t s against imparting i t . . . Now the t r u t h i s beyond question that a great p a r t of the country i s h i g h l y valuable f o r c o l o n i z i n g purposes, and i t i s impossible to s t a t e i n too strong language the p r o p o s i t i o n that the Hudson's Bay Company i s ; the enemy of c o l o n i z a t i o n . " ( 1 1 ) 10. V B r i t i s h Oolonls t , V i c t o r i a B.C. Aug. 8,1862. 11 .Hansard's Parliamentary. Debates, 3rd Series (hereafer Hansard) CLI:1803 ( J u l y 20,1858) ' " ' ~ ~ 7 CHAPTER.TWO . y NO THOROUGHFARE I The report of the s e l e c t committee (1) which was mentioned i n the previous chapter ushered i n a new era i n the h i s t o r y of the colony. The nineteen members forming the committee under the chairmanship of Henry Labouchere included Gladstone, Roebuck, Pakington, and Lords R u s s e l l and Stanley.(2) During s i x months they addressed more than s i x thousand questions to the twenty-four witnesses who were summoned to appear before them. An honest attempt was made to include a l l s s h a d e s of opinion i n the course of the committee's d e l i b e r a t i o n s . S i r George Simpson, though he presented an accurate p i c t u r e of the coast area, was suspected of being over—gloomy i n order to a i d the Company's cause.(30 When he pointed out that the west coast of the^ mainland was l e s s favourable f o r settlement than Van-couver's I s l a n d with, the exception of. a c u l t i v a b l e area on the Fraser, east of F o r t Langley, he was confronted with passages from b i s "journey Round the World", a t r a v e l book he had pub-l i s h e d i n which he ;had expressed enthusiasm f o r the t e r r i t o r y i n g e neral. There i s l i t t l e doubt that Simpson's evidence was biased i n favour of the company and'there were others who t e s t i f i e d i n -the same s t r a i n . But t h e i r e f f o r t s to Save the country for,the f u r - t r a d e were o f f s e t by those of other witnesses. 1. Report from the S e l e c t Committee on the Hudson's Bay Co. London 18577 2, Begg op.cit.- p.220 • 3.Imperial Blue Book.Minutes of evidence taken before the S e l e c t Committee on the Hudson's Bay, Co. 1857.••Quest. 761-71. James Cooper, f o r example, who had set himself up as a Vancouver ^Island farmer independent of the Company drew a t t e n t i o n to the wealth of a g r i c u l t u r a l land w i t h i n the "barriers of the coast range. ( 4 ) He claimed to have r e c e i v e d h i s i n f o r -mation from people who had l i v e d i n the Thompson River country from t h i r t y to f o r t y years. According to him it.was p o s s i b l e to grow a l l the crops of England and he considered the land b e t t e r than i n Canada or Vancouver I s l a n d . Another witness, Chief J u s t i c e Draper, had been appointed by the Canadian government as t h e i r o f f i c i a l rep-r e s e n t a t i v e at the hearing. (5) His appointment marks the dev-elopment of the expansionist sentiment which was la.ter to play an important p a r t i n Canadian f e d e r a t i o n . ( 6 ) John Ross, a l s o from Upper Canada, a member of parliament and an' o f f i c i a l o f the Grand Trunk Railway struck a prophetic note i n h i s evidence. He was asked i f i t were true that "the idea of a r a i l r o a d u l t i m a t e l y (was) not so much f o r the b e n e f i t of the i n t e r i o r of,the country as f o r - a means of thoroughfare and access to harbours on the ; western coast of America?" He r e p l i e d , . ' • "That i s so,- and f o r the through trade from China and I n d i a the c o n s t r u c t i o n of that railway i s a. most impor- • tant subject apart e n t i r e l y from the opening of the country through, which i t would pass. " ( 7 ) The p r e j u d i c e which the b i g men of the committee, Gladstone and R u s s e l l , f e l t - a g a i n s t the Company was stimulated 4.1mpe'rial Blue Book op. c i t . Ques. 3306 seq. 5 . i b i d . Ques. 4102, 4173. 6 . ef... T r o t t e r , E.G. Canadian Federation. Toronto 1934. /p.311 7 . I m p e r i a l Blue Book'op.cit. Ques. 72 9 by the evidence presented. They deemed a change i n the form of government e s s e n t i a l . While the committee was p u z z l i n g at a distance over the true value of t h i s uncut jewel i n Her Majesty's i m p e r i a l . crown, the a c t u a l s o c i a l and economic state of the colony was something of a mystery to@ them. One of the subjects upon which they were anxious'to be informed was the native population of the r e g i o n . Chief J u s t i c e Draper estimated that there were 80,000 Indians between the Rockies and the coast i n the Hud-sons Bay Company t e r r i t o r y . ( 8 ) Four years l a t e r Governor Douglas estimated "an Indian population exceeding 20,000."(91 The Canada Year Book suggests that there were, probably 23,000 Indians at Confederation.(10) Therefore a quarter of Draper's estimate ?>/ould probably have been more accurate. - The white population, was almost n e g l i g i b l e . With the exception of the h a n d f u l ! of o p t i m i s t s engaged i n the 'I beginnings of,the naval supply trade and the growing of . a g r i c u l t u r a l produce (some of which went to pay the Hudson's Bay Company's r e n t a l of the Russian s e a l f i s h e r i e s ) ' the e n t i r e white population of s i x hundred west of the Rockies was engaged d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n the fur-trade.(11) With the exception of a s m a l l group from the Red River Colony who came i n the f o r t i e s there were .no B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s or overlanders unconnec-t e d with, the Company. This settlement i n e r t i a may be diagnosed as the r t s u l t .8-.Imperial Blue Book op. g i t . Ques. 388 . % '•. .' 9. J.Douglas^Nevvcastle, Apr. -22, l86l(Despatches to Downing St. V i c t o r i a Archives) 10. Canada Year Book 1938. p.. 1051 11.Sage, W.N.Sir James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto 1930 p. 1.;.8. 10 of the Hudson's Bay Company's f u r - t r a d i n g ' monopoly. The Company 1s .great a l l i e s were the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the i n t e r i o r and the ' l a i s s e z - f a i r e ' p o l i c y of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . -While ; the s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f of t h a t department and' those o f the A d m i r a l t y and War Department d i d take some cognizance o f the. a f f a i r s of Vancouver I s l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1849, i t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t B r i t i s h I n t e r e s t would extend i t s e l f to the f o s t e r i n g ,of s e t t l e m e n t and communications upon the mainland. An e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the inadequacy of the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and of B r i t i s h I n d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n /the f a c t t h a t , i n theory, the l a w - c o u r t s o f Canada had j u r i s -d i c t i o n over the mainland a r e a u n t i l i t s e r e c t i o n as a separate .colony i n 1858..(12) - i :';•! •,... ^ -v -v :' ' , The i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the i n t e r i o r which Cooper had s t r e e s e d ( 13). was due p a r t l y to the l a c k of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system adequate f o r a- s e t t l e m e n t c o l o n y . The main t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s , p r i o r to the g o l d era,, were, l i k e the white p o p u l a t i o n , i n the s e r v i c e of the f u r - t r a d e . By p a c k - t r a i l and bateau they l e d from the n o r t h e r n f o r t s and- the Kootenay 'te-feM -^f6 T~feett&« down the Okanagan to the Columbia and the sea.. The r o u t e to the i n t e r i o r v i a the F r a s e r R i v e r was not s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d as a f r e i g h t r o u t e b e f o r e 1847 a l t h o u g h i t had been e x p l o r e d by Simon F r a s e r i n 1808,. S i r George. Simpson i n 1828 and A. C. Anderson i n 1846.(14) By 1846 the Hudson's Bay Company r e c o g n i -zed^, the expediency o f f i n d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e to the r o u t e 1.2.21 & 22 V i c t o r i a C 99 Sec 4 (An A c t to p r o v i d e f o r the Gov-ernment of B r i t i s h Columbia,- August 2,1858.) 13'. I m p e r i a l 'Blue Book op. c i t . : & B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , June 29,1859. l4.Howay & S . c h o l f i e l d op. c i t . Chapter X,pp 235-282; Howay,F.W. . "The R a i s o n d'Etre of F o r t s Yale.and'Hope."Transactions o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y of Canada, 3 r d . S e r i e s . XVI,'52 (1922); and Sage op. c i t . pp 133-135. eft AwUr«,t>* A . L \\\>,\O<M C\ tJaA-\iLi\ ^t-i&dogw ivn. 11 , which now l a y through American t e r r i t o r y - even though the Hudson's Bay Company had r i g h t s to n a v i g a t i o n on the Columbia a c c o r d i n g to the boundary settlement.( 1 5 ) As a matter o f f a c t , t h i s p r i v i l e g e soon became a dead l e t t e r , (16'), By 1857 the p r i n c i p a l r o u t e used by the f u r b r i g a d e s was up the F r a s e r to Hope, up the d e f i l e of the Coquehalla, a c r o s s the Cascade Mountains to the Tulameen R i v e r , over Blackeye's Portage, and northward through the p l a i n country to Kamloops, the p r i n c i p a l depot.(17) An o l d e r system o f t r a i l s connected the t e r r i t o r y o f Thompson-'s R i v e r and New C a l e d o n i a w i t h - t h e Hudson's Bay Company p o s t s on the p r a i r i e v i a the Athabasca or Yellowhead -Pass. U n t i l 1824 s u p p l i e s and f u r s w e r e . t r a n s p o r t e d by t h a t r o u t e e x c l u s i v e l y . In t h a t year Governor Simpson r e o r g a n i z e d the t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e , making F o r t Vancouver on the Columbia the supply depot f o r the area succeeding York F a c t o r y . ( 1 8 ) Thenceforward, the v a r i o u s r o u t e s through the R o c k i e s , based f o r the most.part on I n d i a n t r a i l s , ( 1 9 ) were kept open i n the I n t e r e s t s o f the pemmican and l e a t h e r t r a d e . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e were I n d i a n t r a i l s l e s s w e l l known t o the white.men which must.be i n c l u d e d i n an i n v e n t o r y o f the t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s 15. Treaty E s t a b l i s h i n g Boundary West of the Rocky Mountains,1 8 4 6. A r t i c l e I I (Ho way & S c h o l f i e l d o p . c i t . V o l I A'pp X I I p. 676) 16. Carey, C.H. H i s t o r y of Oregon p.515 17 ..Howay, F. W. "The R a i s o n d'Etre of F o r t s Y a l e and Hope"(note 14) and Reid,R.L. i n Washington H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y XVIII : 2 7 3 - 4 . i8.Boway l o c . c i t . p . 4 9 19.. e f. Mayne, R. C. Four Years i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver's  I s l a n d . London, 1862 p.360~7 H i s l i s t of. known passes, o m i t t i n g Mackenzie's used i n 1793 i n c l u d e s l . t h e Cowdung Lake Portage or Le a t h e r Pass --54*0'N, 2 .Boat Encampment .'on o r i g i n a l Athabasca portage - 53*0'N, 3.Howse , :s-Pass - 51*45 1N, ' 4 , K i c k i n g Horse Pass .-51*25'N, 5 . V e r m i l i o n - P a s s - -51*10',• 6.Kananaski's or Emigrant Pass - 50*40'N, 7 .Crow's Nest Pass - 49*40'N, 8.Kootenay Pass -49*25-'rN. .'' ; • .12 of the r e g i o n . As f a r hack as h i s t o r i a n s have been able to trace the* Indians of the i n t e r i o r had i n t e r c o u r s e with the P a c i f i c slope and i s l a n d s . From the'Shuswap country westward and from the country surrounding the Nass and B e l l a Coola r i v e r s they c a r r i e d on a trade i n f i s h - o i l , f u r s , game and b e r r i e s with the Chilc-otin's, c o a s t a l t r i b e s and the i s l a n d e r s . (20) The t r a i l s used by these a b o r i g i n a l traders formed the basis of the Bentinck and Bute I n l e t routes i n the s i x t i e s but on the eve of the gold rush they were of no s i g n i f i c a n c e to the white population. I t should be' noted here that the area which has been considered i n t h i s s e c t i o n extended no f a r t h e r north than f i f t y - f o u r degrees. From that extremity southward, to the f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l , and from the Coast "Range on the West to the Rockies on the east i s , g e n e r a l l y speaking, the l o c a l e of. • the development' of i n l a n d communications during the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . By 1857,''then, t h i s area had egress by: 1 .the o l d Indian trade route to the sea - followed by Mackenzie i n 1 7 9 2 and l a t e r developed i n t o the Bentinck Arm route; 2 .the o r i g i n a l f u r - t r a d e routes through the Rockies; 3 .the New Caledonia brigade routes southward, to Fort Okanagan on the Columbia; and 4 . t h r e e routes to the mouth of the Fraser, two of them i n d i s f a v o u r - the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t condemned by A. C. Anderson, the Fraser canyons' route abandoned In 1849, and f i n a l l y the current fur-brigade route up the Coquehalla.(2 1 ) 20..Jeness,Diamond. The Indians'of Canada. 2nd ed. (Dept of Mines,'. .National Museum of Canada,Bulletin 6 5,Anthropological Series No 15) 1934 p.351 2 1.cf Howay's a r t i c l e c i t e d i n note 17 above. 13 The.forces which shaped the d i r e c t i o n and character of the rude system of communication were not e n t i r e l y p h y s i c a l . I t i s true that the o l d brigade route had been se l e c t e d because i t l a y through a p r a i r i e - l i k e country which required l i t t l e 1, t r a i l b u i l d i n g and furnished feed f o r the pack animals. Furthermore, i t followed the n a t u r a l trough of the region. ' The routes from the east a l s o 'followed the l i n e s of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e through the mountain passes. But the l a t e r brigade route v i a the Fraser and the Coquehalla, c u t t i n g d i r e c t l y across the geographical g r a i n , owed i t s o r i g i n to the establishment of an east-west i n t e r -n a t i o n a l boundary and i t s d i r e c t i o n , i n part, to'the presence of h o s t i l e Indian t r i b e s along the more desirable,, i f more d i f f i c u l t , Fraser Canyon route. The moment•• these consider-a t i o n s emerged, the problem became one of r o a d - b u i l d i n g r a t h e r than r o a d - f i n d i n g . During the decade preeeeding the gold rush, therefore, more and more frequent references to roads appear i n the Company and o f f i c i a l correspondence. The p e r t i n e n t l e t t e r s regarding the successive foundations of Yale and Hope and the e a r l i e r r o a d - b u i l d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s form an appendix to the a r t i c l e by Judge Howay to which much of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s indebted. ( 2 2 ) But much other evidence of a, growing i n t e r e s t i n r o a d - b u i l d i n g i s to be found i n the inter-department and i n t e r - p o s t correspondence of the p e r i o d . 1 For example, three l e t t e r s from the Company's archives.in"London (23) i n conjunction with two from the 2 2 . c f note 17 above. _ ' 23 .-Western Dept. L e t t e r Book, ( c h i e f l y to the Secty.Hudson's Bay Co,London, h e r e a f t e r WDLB)HBCo Archives, London. B226b. Jas. Douglas-W.Q.Smith,Aug~I755,XIII:34,Apr 1 / 5 6,XIII:104,July 8/56, 14 l e t t e r book of James Douglas i n the V i c t o r i a Archives (24) r e l a t e the, story of a r o a d - b u i l d i n g f i a s c o , probably more amusing to the modern reader than i t was to Douglas. In 1855, a group of three white men and some Indians, under Gavin Hamilton began a reconnaisance of the country - between Langley and Hope f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g a new route to the i n t e r i o r which would •obviateethe water transport from Langley to Hope.(25) The work was prosecuted during the season of 1855, but i n 1856 the t r a i l was f a r from completion and a party was s e t " t o work from the Langley end of the route to augment the labours of-the party f a r t h e r along. The new-party was commanded by Chief Trader Yale. .- ... The'denouement occurred when t h i s party reached the shores of Lake Chilwayhook ( C h i l l i w a c k ) and discovered what. had been "overlooked" by the e x p l o r e r s ; they could b u i l d n e i t h e r over nor around i t . The p l a n was abandoned. I t should not be supposed, however, that the so-c a l l e d "roads" with which the Company wa,s concerned were more than very rude p a c k - t r a i l s . When the question was put to James Cooper by the Gommittee of the House of Commons, "Have you t r a v e l l e d on the mainland i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y ? " he r e p l i e d , "I have t r a v e l l e d by water: there are no roads."(26) That was an exaggeration; c e r t a i n l y there was no waggon road but the nucleus of what l a t e r became the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system was already there. The e x p l o i t a t i o n - o f . the f u r - t r a d e . would otherwise have been impossible. 24. J.Douglas-D.Mans,on,Mar 4/56 & J. Douglas-McLean, Mar 21/56 (Douglas L e t t e r Book," V i c t o r i a Archives) 2 5 . W.G. Smith-Board, of Management, Dec. IO/55.. (HBCO Archives) B2.26; 0/1 p."472 2 6 . B r i t i s h "Colonist, June:29/59•"Testimony of Mr. James Cooper." 15 The exact extent of that fur-trade cannot, unfortun-a t e l y , be 'presented s t a t i s t i c a l l y . While records are a v a i l a b l e i n the Hudson's Bay Company Archives, they are of such a nature that I t i s impossible-to a s c e r t a i n the exact p r o f i t s or losses of operations'west of the "Rockies. A l l that can be done i s to i n d i c a t e by reference to the opinions of the Company's execut-iv e s , the general trend of that trade. The opinions of S i r G-eorge Simpson deserve p r i o r treatment. For more than t h i r t y - f i v e years he was i n intimate touch, not only with the fu r - t r a d e west of the Rockies, but with the a f f a i r s Of the Company as a whole. With-his oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n and Comparison, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that, with respect to the fu r - t r a d e of New Caledonia, he was uniform-l y u n e n t h u s i a s t i c during the p e r i o d 1850 to 1857. At l e a s t , so would h i s e n t r i e s i n the Western Department l e t t e r books Ind i c a t e . ' . --- • In -1850 he wrote of the " r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g s t a t e of trade" and "the p r o d i g i o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g demands" of New Caledon-i a . (2T3) In 1852 he warned the Board of Management of the Col-umbia D i s t r i c t that "unless returns from the west side increase as r a p i d l y as the"shipping and other outlay to that quarter," serious l o s s would be involved. ( 2 8) In 1855 he complained that a comparison between the o u t f i t s of 1827 and 1852 revealed a d e c l i n e In value of £ 6 , 0 0 0 .{2%) When he confided to a corres-pondent i n I856 that the"days of the trade i n Oregon were 27. S i r •G-. Simpson^Peter Skfene "Ogden, Norway House, June 2 5 / 5 0 . WDLB B226 g f l p.31 28; S i r G-, Simpson-Brd of Managementof Columbia B i s t . , Lachine , Aug gO/52. WDLB B226 .0/1 p.227 . 29.".Sir-Gr.Simpson-Eden C o l v i l l e , L a c h i n e , A p r 27/55 .( London Locked P r i v a t e L e t t e r Books, HBCo Archives) A 7/2 p.28 numbered, that there was "but one remedy . . . - the i n t r o -duction* of a m i l i t a r y f o r c e , " and that he. was "doubtful that the B r i t i s h t parliament and people would sanction" such a means - then h i s opinion of the remnant of trade north of the Columbia must have been low indeed. (30.) Counterbalancing a l l t h i s pessimism of Simpson's i s the f a c t of h i s biased evidence before the S e l e c t Committee which was intended, presumably, to prolong the f u r era. Turning from Simpson to another Hudson 1s Bay Company servant, James Douglas, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c note i n h i s expressed opinions i s not pessimism but optimism. -Throughout the period with which we are concerned he maintained h i s f a i t h i n the worth of the t e r r i t o r y which he supervised on behalf of the Company. In;March 1854, both Simpson -and Douglas' wrote to the Secretary of the Company i n London within two days of each other. Whereas the former pointed out that "the p r o f i t s of the Western Department would have been over £-12,000" had they not been so.unfortunate as to lose the v e s s e l "Vancouver"(31) Douglas boasted, " I f 1 could throw o f f a l l encumbrances the Western Department should turn out from seventeen to eighteen thousand pounds per year or I would f o r f e i t my e n t i r e i n t e r e s t i n the trade* " ( 3 2 ) On the eve of the gold-rush Douglas could s t i l l write home to England that the fur - t r a d e of the Thompson was good.(33) Some of Douglas 1 optimism may have been derived from 30 . S i r G.Simpson-J.Shepherd,Lachine, Aug 2/56 (London Locked Private" L e t t e r Books,HBCo Archives) A 7/2 p.42 31.Sir G.Simpsbn-Secty, March 20/54 WDLB B226b XI-;38 3 2 . James Douglas-Secty, March 22/54 WBLB B226b XI-:39" -3 3 . James Douglas-W.G.Smith,May 26/57 WDLB B226b XIII:114. 17 the f a c t that the fur-trade was not the only Hudson's Bay i r o n Gompany/iri the New Caledonia f i r e by 1857. I t Is true that the fur - t r a d e was the "r a i s o n d'etre" of the Company's existence. on the P a c i f i c coast. But as R. L. Reid has pointed out, " A g r i c u l t u r e , the .salmon f i s h e r y , and the, f o r e i g n commerce o f . B r i t i s h Columbia had t h e i r o r i g i n and e a r l y development i n the almost forgotten settlement of Fort Langley on the lower Fraser River, during the years 1827 to 1864,"(34) And. s t i l l no mention has been made of the p r o f i t s accruing to the Company through the purchase of gold from the Indians. This must be l e f t f o r the f o l l o w i n g chapter. No doubt the Select Committee of 1857 would have been g r a t e f u l f o r even so inadequate an economic sketch as has j u s t been given here. But even although no such f a c t u a l b a s i s was then a v a i l a b l e , Viscount Bury d i d not hesitate., d u r i n g the debate on the Government of New Caledonia b i l l , to a t t a c k the Hudson's Bay Company monopoly i n these vigorous terms: "Surely the Hudson's Bay Company can not,, expect by t h e i r e f f e t e and st u p i d c h a r t e r to shut up f o r evef the route to the great west,"(35) But as long as the system of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication remained i n so p r i m i t i v e a state, the Company was not l i k e l y to f i n d great d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining t h e i r p o l i c y of "No T r e s p a s s e r s i " •"3'4:. Held, R. L-. Economic Beginnings i n B r i t i s h Cblumbia( Transactions of Boyal "Society of^lahada) 1936" Il759 ' . 35.Hansard CLI:1801-2 " (Govt., of New Caledonia B i l l , J u l y 20/58) 18 CHAPTER THREE ' 1 TRESPASSERS .' Gold, as was suggested i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, had become a f a c t o r i n the economy of New C a l e d o n i a before the r u s h of 1 8 5 8 . Then i t became the dominant f a c t o r . While i t remained s u b o r d i n a t e i t d i d not m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the develop-ment of communications, but some account of the r o l e p l a y e d by g o l d d u r i n g . t h e f u r era w i l l p r o v i d e a background f o r the study of l a t e r developments. I t w i l l h e l p , a l s o , to account f o r the abandonment of the "No T r e s p a s s e r s " p o l i c y . Among the m i s c e l l a n e o u s unsorted papers - of the Hudson's Bay Company i n t h e i r London a r c h i v e s , there i s a statement c o v e r i n g a shipment of g o l d dust to England on board the "Norman M o r r i s o n " f o r account o f the 1850 o u t f i t . ( 1 ) , The t o t a l of the shipment was . 4 , 0 0 5 ounces and the v a l u e , l a t e r a s c e r t a i n e d by "the Bank" was £l4,018/5/-.(2) Seven-e i g h t h s o f the amount had been sent to F o r t V i c t o r i a from F o r t Vancouver f o r re-shipment but a c c o r d i n g to the statement 3 1 0 ounces were to be c r e d i t e d to the V i c t o r i a I n d i a n t r a d e . This i s the e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e I c o u l d f i n d to the trade i n g o l d dust and i t i s p r o b a b l y connected w i t h the d i s c o v e r y r e p o r t e d by R i c h a r d B l a n s h a r d , f i r s t governor of Vancouver I s l a n d , to E a r l Grey a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . In August, 1850 1. "Statement of Gold, . e t c . " ( s i g n e d E.E.,Fort Vancouver) March 1, 1851. M i s c e l l a n e o u s Unsorted Papers. HBCo A r c h i v e s , c f Recap. of FursoIBJ8-59. - B223d. V o l . 212. p.142 & over. 2. A.Barclay-0gden &' Work, March 1 , 1 8 5 1 . i b i d . 3. Blanshard-Grey, Aug 1 8 , 1850. PRO CO 5 0 5 #2b p.77 19 he wrote of "a very r i c h speeiman of gold ore brought by the Indians of Queen Charlotte's Island."(3) The Hudson's Bay Company knew of the existence of gold on the mainland as e a r l y as 1852 when t h e i r agent at For t Kamloops on the-Thompson River obtained gold dust i n Lhe course of trade with the n a t i v e s . ( 4 ) By 1857 Douglas was frequently r e f e r r i n g to the Thompson v a l l e y as the "gold country" and there i s evidence of c o n s i d e r a b l e - a c t i v i t y on the part of the Company's agents i n c o l l e c t i n g gold dust. Douglas wrote to Dugald McTavish on December 18, 1857 that a company servant named Todd was "running constantly among the gold diggings with goods and p i c k i n g up the gold almost as f a s t as found."(5) Nor was the outside world' i n ignorance of the p o t e n t i a l wealth; f o r Cooper, i n the course of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Thompson River country, t o l d the S e l e c t Committee that miners there were earning from -$4 to §20 per day.(6) N a t u r a l l y the rumours upon which Cooper had based h i s evidence leaked out to miners across the boundary. Douglas soon became aware of t h e i r excitement and although he probably coveted the gold f i e l d s f o r e x c l u s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n by the Company, he foresaw that the i n e v i t a b l e e f f e c t of the gold d i s c o v e r i e s would be an i n f l u x of fortune hunters. On Septem-ber 20, 1857 he p r e d i c t e d "ere long a rush of people i n t o the d i s t r i c t of Thompson's R i v e r " and warned that "nothing but 3. Blanshard-Grey,Aug 18,1850. PRO CO 305 £2b p.77 #9564. 4. Rickard,T.A."Indian P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Gold D i s c o v e r i e s . " B . C . H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Jan 1938.- 11:1:9 5 .Douglas-Mctavish, Dec- 18,1857 .( Douglas L e t t e r Book #4,Victoria) 6.Imperial "Blue Book o p . c i t . Ques, 3606 20 the most e n e r g e t i c measures w i l l s u f f i c e to p r o t e c t our i n t e r -e s t . "(7) * i The s i t u a t i o n was complicated by the f a c t that , i n Douglas ' own words, the Indians had "expressed a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to r e s e r v e the gold f o r t h e i r own b e n e f i t . " ( 8 ) By A p r i l 6, 1858 e i g h t hundred ounces of gold had been exported from New C a l e d o n i a , most of which had been procured from the I n d i a n s . ( 9 ) Of the -white men who e x t r a c t e d the balance of the g o l d , Douglas wrote that they were " c h i e f l y r e t i r e d servants of the Hudson's Bay Company," and that "though w e l l acquainted with Indian c h a r a c t e r " they were " o b s t r u c t e d by the n a t i v e s i n a l l t h e i r attempts to search f o r g o l d . " ( 1 0 ) In J u l y 1857 Douglas had w r i t t e n to Simpson that the o b s t r u c t i o n arose " p a r t l y because they want the g o l d and because of f i s h m i g r a t i o n s . " ( 1 1 ) He went on to say that he c o u l d not h e l p " a d m i r i n g the wisdom and f o r e s i g h t of the I n d i a n s " and had " g i v e n d i r e c t i o n s to the o f f i c e r s i n charge of the Company's Posts to respect t h e i r f e e l i n g s and to permit them to work- the g o l d f o r t h e i r own b e n e f i t and to b r i n g i t i n as an a r t i c l e of t r a d e . " ( 1 2 ) However, by the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g Douglas ' humane sentiments seem to have been r e p l a c e d by o t h e r s . In A p r i l , 7. D o u g l a s - G . B l e n k i n s o p , Sep 20,1857 (Douglas L e t t e r Book #4) . 8. D o u g l a s - C o l S e c t y , J u l y 15,1857 (Correspondence R e l a t i v e to the D i s c o v e r y of Gold i n the F r a s e r ' s R i v e r D i s t r i c t . L o n d o n 185oT h e s e a f t e r Gold D i s c . P a p e r s . ) 9 . i b i d p.10 1 0 . i b i d p.10 1 1 . D o u g l a s - S i m p s o n , J u l y 17,1857 (WDLB 11:119 over) 1 2 . i b i d . 21 1858 "such) conduct was unwarrantable and e x c e e d i n g l y t r y i n g to the temper of s p i r i t e d men, but the savages were f a r too numerous f o r r e s i s t a n c e , and they had to submit to t h e i r d i c t a t i o n . " ( 1 3 ) I t was obvious t h a t some a d d i t i o n to the white p o p u l a t i o n was necessary i f c o n t r o l was to be gained over the g o l d d i g g i n g s . .Thus on November 23, 1857 Donald McLean r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from Douglas s a y i n g t h a t , s i n c e the Company had a monopoly of trade west of the Rockies and stood to p r o f i t from an i n f l u x of American miners, McLean need not be too alarmed a t the p r o s p e c t . While he might warn the Americans o f f , he should a v o i d " c o l l i s -i o n s which (might) end i n s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y and blood-shed."(14) Douglas f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t e d McLean to "be c a r e f u l to encourage the I n d i a n s not to r e s i s t the i n f l u x of Americans to the: d i g g i n g s . " ( 1 5 ) F i v e years e a r l i e r when o v e r - r a t e d g o l d d i s c o v e r i e s i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s had l u r e d American and Hudson's Bay Company e x p e d i t i o n s , Douglas had requested and r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s from the home government to cope w i t h the t h r e a t of an i n v a s i o n of miners. The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e had e r e a t e d a unique p o l i c y . In September 1852 Douglas was commissioned l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r of the new colony of Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d " s o l e l y to meet the circumstances of the times."(16) He was g i v e n "no power to make laws or c o n s t i t u t e a r e g u l a r 13. GoId D i s c . Papers, p.10 14. Douglas-Donald McLean,Nov 23,1857 (Douglas L e t t e r Book #4) 1 5 . i b i d 16.Correspondence r e l a t i v e to the D i s c o v e r y of Gold in-Queen  C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d . London 1853. p.12-13 22 government. " ( 1 7 ) H i s powers were l i m i t e d to " g r a n t i n g l i c e n s e s on such terms and f o r such p e r i o d as you may t h i n k proper to persons i n t e n d i n g to searhh f o r g o l d on the I s l a n d ; and . . . In case of v i o l a t i o n o f the r i g h t which such l i c e n s e s g i v e , or any unauthor-i z e d search t a k i n g p l a c e , you are to c l a i m the support of Her Majesty's o f f i c e r s who may he w i t h i n reach to e n f o r c e your a u t h o r i t y . " ( 1 8 ) I t was planned to despatch a n a v a l f o r c e to the I s l a n d s to m a i n t a i n and i n s u r e the continuance of B r i t i s h s o v e r e i g n t y . ( 1 9 ) A c c o r d i n g l y Douglas i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n i n March 1853 which e s t a b l i s h e d crown ownership of any g o l d found i n the colony and i n A p r i l he p u b l i s h e d r e g u l a t i o n s p r e s c r i b i n g a l i c e n s e fee " f i x e d a t 1 0 s . per month, to be p a i d i n advance," and p r o v i d i n g f o r the appointment of a commissioner to s e l l l i c e n s e s and r e g u l a t e "the e x t e n t and p o s i t i o n of l a n d to be covered by each l i c e n s e . " ( 2 1 ) A l l these c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n s came !to naught f o r i t was d i s c o v e r e d that the g o l d of the I s l a n d s was not a v a i l -a b l e i n p a y i n g q u a n t i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s the- experience d i d p r o v i d e Douglas w i t h a precedent f o r the s o l u t i o n of the problem of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the new g o l d - f i e l d s on the mainland a f t e r 1 8 5 7 . . H i s I n t e r e s t i n the mainland g o l d - f i e l d s was not r e a l l y an o f f i c i a l one. Although he ?*as C h i e f F a c t o r of the Hudson's Bay Company, h i s commissions as Governor of Vancouver I s l a n d and L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r of Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d 1 7.Correspondence r e l a t i v e to the D i s c o v e r y o f Gold i n Queen  C h a r l o t t e ^ s Island.London, 1 8 5 3 . p.12-13 1 8 . i b i d p.12-13 1 9 . i b i d p.13 2 0. Howay & S c h o l e f i e l d o p . c i t . 1 1 : 7 2 1 . i b i d p.8 23 gave him no a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over the mainland. So determined was he however, that the i n t e r e s t s of the Crown -and the Company - should not be j e o p a r d i z e d t h a t , a c t i n g on h i s ow i n i t i a t i v e , he a p p l i e d the p o l i c y which the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e had s a n c t i o n e d i n 1 8 3 3 . On December 29, 1857 he i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n f o l l o w e d by r e g u l a t i o n s i d e n t i c a l to those i s s u e d i n 1853 f o r Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d . ( 2 2 ) Douglas then looked to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n a l t h o u g h he r e a l i z e d t h a t he had exceeded h i s a u t h o r i t y . He defended h i m s e l f i n these t e r E i s : "My a u t h o r i t y . . . may, perhaps, be c a l l e d i n q u e s t i o n ; but I t r u s t t h a t the motives which have i n f l u e n c e d me on t h i s o c c a s i o n and the f a c t of my b e i n g i n v e s t e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y over the premises of the Hudson's Bay Company, arid the o n l y a u t h o r i t y commissioned by Her M a j e s t y w i t h i n reach, w i l l p l e a d my excuse. " ( 2 3 ) I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g a c c i d e n t that t h i s appeal, addressed as i t was. to the S e c r e t a r y of the C o l o n i e s , should have f a l l e n w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of one who h e l d t h a t o f f i c e v e ry b r i e f l y yet l e f t a s i g n i f i c a n t impress upon the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Bulwer L y t t o n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r was but an episode i n h i s l i f e as a man of l e t t e r s . He was, as a b i o g r a p h e r has s a i d , not a normal p o l i t i c i a n , 1,24) a l t h o u g h he conformed to type i n t h a t h i s p o l i t i c a l course veered s u r e l y from the r a d i c a l l e f t to the t o r y r i g h t . E n t e r i n g p o l i t i c s i n 1831 as a reformer, he opposed w i t h mounting c o n v i c t i o n , ungentlemanly money-mongerers i n p o l i t i c s , u n r e s t r i c t e d f r e e 22.Gold D i s c Bapers. p. 9 2 5 . l b i d p.9 2 4 , - F e i l i n g , K e i t h . Sketches i n N i n e t e e n t h Century Biography. London 1930. pp 121-133 ( t o which t h i s paragraph i s indebted.) 24 trade and a democratic f r a n c h i s e . D i s r a e l i c o n s i d e r e d him c o n c e i t e d put Gladstone p r a i s e d h i s c a b i n e t performance. He o f t e n d i s p l a y e d a r i g h t n e s s o f judgement and among p o l i t i c i a n s "he was one of those w i t h whom p o s t e r i t y u s u a l l y agrees."(2b) Although h i s almost endless n o v e l s are concerned wi t h t h i n g s ending or i n d e c l e n s i o n - The La s t of the Barons, Last Days of Pompeii, H a r o l d , the La s t of the Saxon Kings - h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia was the happy r e v e r s e . When L y t t o n r e c e i v e d from Douglas the despatch quoted above, he d i d c a l l Douglas' a u t h o r i t y i n q u e s t i o n . " I am compelled, t h e r e f o r e , to disapp r o v e , and to d i s -a l l o w , i f s t i l l i n f o r c e , the P r o c l a m a t i o n of which your Despatch t r a n s m i t t e d a copy."(25) He went on to e x p l a i n t h a t the Hudson's 3ay Company had no r i g h t to prevent the entrance i n t o F r a s e r ' s R i v e r of non-Company v e s s e l s merely on the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t those v e s s e l s were i n t e n d e d f o r trade w i t h the I n d i a n s . Nor had the Company any r i g h t to r e q u i r e a l i c e n s e from persons l a n d i n g i n the t e r r i t o r y . I n a d d i t i o n L y t t o n threw c o l d water upon another of Douglas' schemes. The l a t t e r had planned to enter i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h the P a c i f i c M a i l Company, a San F r a n c i s c o steam-s h i p l i n e , so t h a t the two companies c o u l d between them command a monopoly o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a d e . In a day when c o l o n i e s were regarded w i t h pessimism i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t L y t t o n ' s o p p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be expressed i n terms r e c a l l i n g h i s 25. F e i l i n g o p . c i t . p.126 26. Lytton-Douglas, J u l y 16, 1858. 25 e a r l y Intimacy with Durham,(2?) " A l l claims and i n t e r e s t s must he subordinated to that p o l i c y which Is to be found i n the peopling and opening up of the new country with the i n t e n t i o n of c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t as an i n t e g r a l and important part of the B r i t i s h Empire."(28) In a n t i c i p a t i n g t h i s c o n s o l i d a t i o n , Lytton placed l i t t l e f a i t h i n gold as the economic b a s i s ; o f the colony. Speaking i n the House, he s a i d : "Though gold i s the a t t r a c t i o n , we hope to add a permanent and f l o u r i s h i n g race to the great family of nations, not by gold but c u l t u r e of the s o i l and i n the exchange of commerce."(29) The p r i n c i p a l means which the B r i t i s h government employed to give e f f e c t to t h i s dream was the e r e c t i o n of a separate mainland colony by act of parliament, August 2, 1858. The act contained temporary p r o v i s i o n f o r the government of the colony u n t i l permanent settlement and the number of c o l o n i s t s increased. The suggested r e v i s i o n date was the end 1 of the f i r s t parliamentary session of 1863. The boundary p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d that the colony was "bounded to the South by the f r o n t i e r of the United States of America, to the East by the main chain of the Rocky Mountains, to the North by Simpson's River and the F i n l a y branch of the Peace River, and to the West by the P a c i f i c Ocean, and s h a l l i n clude Queen C h a r l o t t e 1 s ' I s l a n d and a l l other i s l a n d s adjacent to the s a i d t e r r i t o r i e s except . . . . no part of the Colony of Vancouver Island, as at present e s t a b l i s h e d s h a l l be comprised wi t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia."(30) This temporary arrangement was defended by Lytton who s a i d that while "Geography and Circumstance are imperious D i c t a t o r s 28^ Lyt ton-Douglas,July 1,1858.(B.C.Papers Pt. 1 p.41) 29. Quoted i n . "The Future of Caledonia" Vlcto"ria Gazette Sept 22,1858. 30. 21 & 22 v i c t o r i a , C 99. 26 and c o n t r o l the t h e o r i e s by which, a t a d i s t a n c e , we would map out Commonwealths," n e v e r t h e l e s s i t was "probably b e t t e r to keep Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia under separate govern-ments" f o r the time being. ( 3 1 ) The ot h e r p r o v i s i o n s may be summarized as f o l l o w s : d e t a i l s of government were l e f t i n abeyance and f u t u r e admin-i s t r a t i o n might be by governor and c o u n c i l or by governor, c o u n c i l and assembly w i t h no guidance f o r an e l e c t i v e system and no mention of r e s p o n s i b l e government; l o c a l c o u r t s were to be set up w i t h a ppeal d i r e c t to the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n London thus removing the anomaly whereby the c o u r t s of Upper Canada had j u r i s d i c t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , the f u t u r e union of the i s l a n d and mainland c o l o n i e s r e c e i v e d the b l e s s i n g of the home government.(32) The r u s h of American miners which Douglas had a n t i c - , i p a t e d was f u l l y r e a l i z e d . The g o l d d i s c o v e r i e s on the F r a s e r and Thompson R i v e r s caused f e v e r i s h excitement up and down the P a c i f i c c o a s t i n the s p r i n g of 1858. In England, however, the news of the d i s c o v e r i e s caused l i t t l e excitement. On the c o n t r a r y , the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from "The Economist" p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t to the w i l d enthusiasm w i t h which news of the g o l d s t r i k e s i n C a l i f o r n i a and A u s t r a l i a had been r e c e i v e d . "Cold d i s c o v e r i e s have become so common of l a t e y e a r s , t h a t we o f t e n f o r g e t i n England what i t i s that c o n s t i t u t e s t h e i r r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The news r e c e i v e d l a s t week o t h a t g o l d had been d i s c o v e r e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s 31.Lytton-Moody, Oct 29,1858.(PRO CO 61) 32.21 & 22 V i c t o r i a C .99 . 27 i n B r i t i s h North American t e r r i t o r y o p p o s i t e Vancouver's I s l a n d , has c a l l e d f o r t h s c a r c e l y a word of remark from the ' E n g l i s h p r e s s . Now no doubt the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d I s s u f f i c i e n t l y unimportant. The o n l y f e a r i n the p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n of the g o l d - f i e l d s , i s t h a t the v a l u e o f g o l d may be g r e a t l y d e p r e c i a t e d . . . and that d e p r e c i a t i o n i s i n every way an event to be dreaded."(33) With t h i s atmosphere i n England, L y t t o n was probably not s e r i o u s l y t r o u b l e d by meddlers w h i l e p l a n n i n g h i s p o l i c y . The f e e l i n g s of those on the spot were more a g i t a t e d . E s t i m a t e s of the t o t a l number who f l o c k e d to the d i g g i n g s d u r i n g the l a t e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer of 1858 vary from twenty to t h i r t y thousand.(34) T h e i r number was s u f f i c i e n t to a larm those i n t e r e s t e d i n San F r a n c i s c o t r a d e . I t was r e p o r t e d i n "The Economist" t h a t "many quartz m i n i n g and t u n n e l l i n g Companies had been o b l i g e d to suspend o p e r a t i o n s from want of hands, and the wages had n e a r l y doubled."(35) The c o l o n y ' s new i n h a b i t a n t s were a motley crew. Some were the c h a f f from the C a l i f o r n i a camps borne northward by the winds of c u r i o s i t y and greed; many were thorough greenhorns. B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , n a t i v e born Americans, Germans, French, I t a l i a n s and even a c o n s i d e r a b l e group o f negroes (36) j o s t l e d each ot h e r i n t h e i r scramble to the g o l d d i g g i n g s . ( 3 7 ) Many of the a b o r i g i n e s j o i n e d the rush, h i r i n g out under the miners: and the Indians d i d so, a l r e a d y d i s t r u s t i n g the newcomers as exponents of the popular American sentiment, "The o n l y good I n d i a n i s a dead I n d i a n . " 33. d!The Gold D i s c o v e r i e s i n B r i t i s h North America. "The Economist June 12,1858. XVI:772:642. 34. c f Sage o p . c i t . p.204; Coats and G o s n e l l , S i r J a s . Douglas Toronto 1909 p.224; Howay and S c h o l f i e l d o p . c i t . I I : 1 8 ; R i c k a r d o p . c i t . p.13. However l a r g e t h e o r i g i n a l number, by November Douglas e s t i m a t e d the mining p o p u l a t i o n at 10,600./ Douglas-Lytton,Nov. 9,1858.(PRO CO No.651 p.b48) 35. The E c o n o m i s t , J u l y 17,1858. 28 Nor were the Hudson's Bay Company's white employees immune from the g o l d - f e v e r , Douglas had f o r s e e n t h i s and had w r i t t e n to Ogden i n September 1 8 5 7 : "the d i s c o v e r i e s w i l l g i v e us no end of t r o u b l e so f a r as the Company's s e r v a n t s are concerned, and leave us more than ever dependent upon the n a t i v e s f o r g e t t i n g through w i t h the b r i g a d e and o t h e r i n t e r i o r works. " ( 3 8 ) At home the d i r e c t o r s were d i s t u r b e d , not only by the l o s s of these employees but by d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s o f e f f i c i e n c y from Douglas h i m s e l f whom they would have p r e f e r r e d to be more f a c t o r and l e s s governor.( 3 9 ) The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , however, i n s i s t e d that he be a l l Governor, and Douglas, a l b e i t r e x u c t a n t l y , withdrew from the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Companies i n the summer of 1 8 5 8.(40) Divorced from the f u r - t r a d e and faced w i t h the e x i g e n c i e s of a new economy based on g o l d , Douglas e n t e r e d a phase i n h i s c a r e e r d u r i n g which he earned the t i t l e o f "the Road King".(41) During the s i x years p r i o r to h i s r e t i r e m e n t the network of I n d i a n and f u r t r a i l s developed i n t o a system of crude waggon roads eked out by mule t r a i l s . In ifehis work Douglas r e c e i v e d two a i d s , both evidences of B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t . The f i r s t was the despatch of a company of Royal E n g i n e e r s ; the second was the investment of E n g l i s h c a p i t a l ; and the s t i m u l u s was- g o l d . 3 6 . A v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n would be a study of these negroes whom The Economist, June 1 2 , 1 8 5 8 , r e p o r t e d had been d r i v e n from C a l i f o r n i a by d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n and about whom much appears i n the e a r l y c o l o n i a l newspapers. 3 7 . Douglas-Labouchere, May 8 , 1 8 5 8 . PRO CO 6 0 . 3 8 . Douglas-B.S.Ogden, Sept 2 1 , 1 8 5 7 . DLB p.198 3 9 . e.g. B e r e n s - D a l l a s , ' Dec 1 0 , 1 8 5 8 . HBCo A r c h i v e s A / 7 f 2 p.196 40,Sage o p . c i t . p.218 4 l . G o s n e l l , R . E . Year Book of 1 8 9 7 . p.3 4 . 29 ' CHAPTER FOUR - , THE 'COURIERS1 PROVE A COSTLY ORNAMENT "I consider that the discharge of menial s e r v i c e s i s incompatible with the duties of c o u r i e r s . " ( 1 ) The lady of property who went t r a v e l l i n g i n Europe during the nineteenth century was l i k e l y to have c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a c l a s s of servants c a l l e d c o u r i e r s , upon whom devolved the duty of f a c i l i t a t i n g the lady's progress through the country. In 1 8 3 8 , one of these c o u r i e r s sued h i s employer f o r breach of agreement and the judgement which was handed down i n the Court of Exchequer came from no l e s s a personage than S i r Robert P e e l . He said, among other things, what appears at the head of t h i s chapter. Twenty years l a t e r a corps of the Royal Engineers was sent by the home government - the lady of property - to perform the duties of 'cour i e r s ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Peel's judgement expresses a sentiment which soon came to be widely h e l d with respect to the engineers. Behind the idea of b o l s t e r i n g up the c i v i l adminis-t r a t i o n on the P a c i f i c with a m i l i t a r y force l a y three motives: f i r s t , to provide p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n ; second, to safe-guard the colony from Indian- attacks and f o r e i g n aggressors; and t h i r d l y , to supply the colony with a force which "would immediately become instrumental In the work of c i v i l i z a t i o n by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads and bridges and the foundation of a future c i t y . " ( 2 ) P r i o r to the gold rush and the e r e c t i o n of the main- • land colony the f i r s t two motives -predominated. In 1 8 4 8 i t 1. The Times,London, web 2 1 , 1 8 3 8 . From evidence given i n the Court of Exchequer i n an a c t i o n bro -ight -by a c o u r i e r against a 'lady ' of property' f o r breach of agreement. 2 . Lytton-Douglas, 2 n d Minute, 1858.(PRO CO 6 0 ) 30 was suggested "by someone i n the F o r e i g n O f f i c e t h a t w h i l e Vancouver, I s l a n d was f a r too d i s t a n t to he c o l o n i s e d by emigra-t i o n , " i t would be the p l a c e of a l l others f o r a m i l i t a r y colony. " ( 3 ) At the same time the Hudson's Bay Company was b e g i n n i n g to suggest t h a t n a v a l squadrons make p e r i o d i c v i s i t s to the P a c i f i c c o ast, p o i n t i n g out jshat a f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n would be made upon B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , I n d i a n s and Americans a l i k e . These requests continued u n t i l 1850 when Governor B l a n s h a r d p o i n t e d out t h a t n a v a l v i s i t s o f f e r e d no adequate p r o t e c t i o n f o r Vancouver I s l a n d a l t h o u g h he suspected t h a t the Company pre s s e d f o r them on b e h a l f of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s on the Columbia.(5) B l a n s h a r d advocated the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a perm-anent m i l i t a r y f o r c e s i n c e the expense c o u l d be charged to the Company under the terms of t h e i r l i c e n s e . ( 6 ) But P e l l y c o n s i d e r e d a m i l i t a r y f o r c e unnecessary. In t h i s he may have been i n f l u e n c e d as much by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of economy as by a b e l i e f that Douglas was not i n favour of a n y t h i n g more than the appointment of m a g i s t r a t e s . ( 7 ) However, i n A p r i l 1851, a t the time of Blanshard's r e s i g n a t i o n , Douglas a l l u d e d to the need f o r p r o t e c t i o n . ( 8 ) A s t r o n g e r advocacy, the d i s c o v e r y of gold i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , prompted the home government to arrange f o r a n a v a l f o r c e to safeguard B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s . ( 9 ) The c o l l a p s e of the g o l d r u s h , as a l r e a d y mentioned, made the step 3. Win M i l l e r - H . A . A d d i n g t o n , Oct 23,1848 (PRO CO 305 .3 p.224) 4. Pel±y-Earl Grey, May 26,1849 (HBCO A8.4 p.173) 5. B l a n s h a r d - E a r l Grey, Aug 18,1850 (PRO CO 305 . 3 p.77) 6. C h a r t e r of Grant of Vancouver I s . to H.B.Co. Jan 13,1849. 7.. Erie, i n P e l l y - ? , Jan 14,1852. ' (HBCo A r c h i v e s ) 8. Douglas-Downing St. Apr 16,1851 (cPRO CO 305 .3) 9. Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d Papers, pp 12 , 13 . 31 unnecessary. . Douglas a l s o favoured the a l l o t m e n t of a defence f o r c e a g a i n s t Russian a g g r e s s i o n d u r i n g the Crimean War, but no response was e l i c i t e d from the home government.(10) How-ever, the g a r r i s o n i n g of new c o l o n i e s was q u i t e i n a c c o r d w i t h the c o l o n i a l p o l i c y of the day, e s p e c i a l l y i n the p r o x i m i t y of o t h e r powers. • "Whenever Her Majesty's Government want a body of s k i l -f u l , i n t e l l i g e n t , and i n d u s t r i o u s mechanics to perform any t a s k r e q u i r i n g p e c u l i a r judgement, energy and accuracy, such as . . . the e x e c u t i o n of an.accurate survey, or even the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses, roads and b r i d g e s , i n a new colony, they have only to t u r n to the corps of Royal Engineers, and they f i n d a l l the m a t e r i a l t h a t they want. "'('11) A detachment of the E n g i n e e r s , s i x t y - f i v e s t r o n g , was sent out i n 1858 under C o l o n e l J. S. Hawkins to cooperate w i t h a s i m i l a r U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n d boundary. Of these, a group of f i f t e e n were commandeered to a s s i s t In r e s t o r i n g law and o r d e r d u r i n g I n d i a n t r o u b l e s of t h a t year i n the B i g Canyon beyond Y a l e . I t i s not strange t h a t L y t t o n turned to the same corps f o r a s s i s t a n c e In e s t a b l i s h i n g the g o l d colony and " c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t as,an i n t e g r a l and important p a r t of the B r i t i s h Empire." (12) N e v e r t h e l e s s h i s p o l i c y was c r i t i c i z e d a t some l e n g t h by the Duke of Newcastle d u r i n g the debate on the Government of New C a l e d o n i a B i l l on J u l y 26, 1858.(13) Newcastle, who was soon to succeed L y t t o n as S e c r e t a r y f o r 10. Minutes of C o u n c i l o f Vancouver I s . pp 26-27 .(Sage op.cit.p. 1 8 2 ) 11. The Times, LorTdon. Sept 2 , l 8 5 8.(Begg op. c i t . pp 229-230) 12. supra p.25 13. Hansard V o l . 151 p.2101 seq. 32 the Colonies, sympathized with Lytton's ambition to increase the population and to develop- a g r i c u l t u r e within the colony, and he saw that a m i l i t a r y force was e s s e n t i a l f o r such a development. At the same time he foresaw d i f f i c u l t i e s . - " i f s o l d i e r s were sent out, they must, be accomodated i n winter, which he b e l i e v e d was-not severe, and' i n summer, which he b e l i e v e d was not u n f r i e n d l y to.the E n g l i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n . P r o v i s i o n s would also have to be procured and a l l p r o v i s i o n s f o r maintaining" the required force must be c a r r i e d up the country and kept i n constant supply. This, owing to the distance of the colony from England would be.a matter of considerable d i f f i c u l t y . " ( 1 4 ) He wondered whether organized regiments or some other kind of force would- be sent. "He d i d not apprehend that they could transport s o l d i e r s or r e l i e v e garrisons; with f a c i l i t y even i n times of ' peace but unquestionably not i n times of war, so that, '• p r a c t i c a l l y ' a s f a r as-the advance of t h i s colony was concerned i n time of war, the Government could only r e i n f o r c e and- strengthen any g a r r i s o n by way of Cape Horn . . . .'Bear i n mind that any m i l i t a r y force you would be p l a c i n g i n Caledonia would be i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n to that of any m i l i t a r y force h i t h e r t o i n any of our c o l o n i e s . 1 " ( 1 5 ) But d i f f i c u l t i e s notwithstanding, Lytton proceeded with h i s plans. In a despatch dated July 31, 1858, he informed Douglas that "a party of Royal Engineers w i l l be despatched to the colony immediately. I t -will devolve upon therti. to survey those "parts of the.Country which may be considered most s u i t a b l e f o r settlement, to 'mark, put allotments of land for- p u b l i c purposes, to suggest a 'site f o r the seat of government-, to p o i n t out where roads should be made, and to render you such assistance as may be i n t h e i r power, on the d i s t i n c t understanding, however, that t h i s force i s to be maintained' at the Imperial cost f o r only a l i m i t e d period, and that i f r e q u i r e d afterwards, the Colony w i l l have to defray the expense thereof. . . . I 14. Hansard V o l . 151 p.2101 seq 15. I b i d 33 s h a l l endeavour to secure, i f p o s s i b l e , the s e r v i c e s of an O f f i c e r i n command of the Engineers who w i l l be • capable of r e p o r t i n g on the val u e of the m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . This f o r c e i s sent f o r s c i e n t i f i c and p r a c t i c a l purposes, and not s o l e l y f o r m i l i t a r y o b j e c t s . " ( 1 6 ) G r o s s i n g t h i s despatch i n the m a i l s was a l e t t e r from Douglas i n which he made an appeal, f o r "even a s i n g l e company of i n f a n t r y "(1'7) to add p r e s t i g e to the framework o f government which he had e r e c t e d , and to a s s i s t the newly a r r i v e d white p o p u l a t i o n to gain c o n t r o l of the g o l d - d i g g i n g s , the t r a n s f e r of which was a g g r a v a t i n g the I n d i a n s . L y t t o n showed h i s good sense i n t h a t he arranged t h a t the p e r s o n n e l of the Detachment s e l e c t e d from v o l u n t e e r s s h o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of as many trades and p r o f e s s i o n s as p o s s i b l e . "Carpenters, masons, b r i c k l a y e r s , smiths . . . a r t i f i c e r s most competent and not so expensive as the t r a i n e d Engineer,"(13) The month of August and p a r t of September were devoted to assem b l i n g the Engineers and t h e i r equipment. Even the advance guard - r e q u i r e d to be s u p p l i e d w i t h e s s e n t i a l f i e l d s t o r e s . These i n c l u d e d " t e n t s , c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s , t o o l s (a few), c l o t h i n g , bedding, waterproof m a t e r i a l s , the arms o f the p a r t y , a s m a l l q u a n t i t y of amunition and sundry m i s c e l l a n e o u s a r t i c l e s a l l packed i n cases and b a l e s . " ( 1 9 ) " A l l , " wrote Moody, "are i n d i s p e n s a b l e . " ( 2 0 ) The more bu l k y equipment was shipped w i t h the main body aboard the "Thames 16 . L y t t o n - D o u g l a s , J u l y 31, 1858 (B.C.Papers p t . l , p . 5 8 ) 17^Douglas-Lytton,Aug 19,1838 (B.C.Papers p t . l , p . 5 5 ) 18. Moody's r e p o r t enc. i n Douglas-Lytton,Feb 9,1859 (PRO C060 ^3269) " , 19. Moody-Carnarvon,'Sept 1 5 , 1 8 5 - 8 (PRO CO 60) 2 0 . i b i d . 34 C i t y " which s a i l e d on October 10,1858. This vessel's cargo, may have,included "immense q u a n t i t i e s of c l o t h i n g and m a t e r i a l of every d e s c r i p t i o n l i k e l y to be r e q u i r e d by the expedition, " but, the guesses of the Gazette to the contrary, "steam-engines, railway r a i l s and other mechanical appliances" were not sent a f t e r the party. ( 2 1 ) By November 20, 1858, when the a r t i c l e just quoted appeared i n the "Gazette", two advance, p a r t i e s of the Engineers had already a r r i v e d i n ' the colony. Colonel Moody, t r a v e l l i n g alone, and the main body aboard the "Thames C i t y " were on t h e i r way. The f i r s t detachment of twenty men, c h i e f l y surveyors, under Captain Parsons, l e f t England on September 2 and a r r i v e d i n v i c t o r i a on October 29. The second, c o n s i s t i n g of twelve men under Captain Grant embarked on September 17 and a r r i v e d November 8. The two detachments were thus on: hand to provide a dash of i m p e r i a l colour to the o f f i c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n of the e r e c t i o n of the gold colony on November 19. Both groups had reached the colony v i a the England-Panama-Victoria route and Moody a l s o followed t h i s route, l e a v i n g England October 30. and a r r i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a on .Christ-mas Day. The "Thames C i t y " however, took the longer route around the Horn, touching at V a l p a r a i s o and the Falkland Islands, and d i d not reach V i c t o r i a with i t s f r e i g h t of 121 men, 31 women and 34 c h i l d r e n u n t i l A p r i l 12, 1859. In the meantime, that is,, between October 29, 1858 and A p r i l 12, 1859, the advance guard-of Engineers i n the 2 I . V i c t o r i a Gazette, November 20,±858. 35 colony busied themselves making preparations f o r the main group. During the f i r s t two months, Moody not having a r r i v e d , •Parsons and Grant were i n charge. Both had received w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e i r c h i e f before s a i l i n g . To Parsons Moody wrote: "I have no apprehension i n my own mind that i f you .frankly place y o u r s e l f i n unreserved communication with him (Douglas) you w i l l f i n d d i f f i c u l t i e s q u i c kly mastered. . . . Your main duties are: to house and feed your party, prepare f o r those to follow, reconnoitre the Fraser banks to Yale or f a r t h e r , pay s p e c i a l a t t e n -t i o n to such distance up the River as ordinary merchant v e s s e l s can proceed conveniently and get a s s i s t a n c e from the Governor and the Naval O f f i c e . . . . The s i t e of the c h i e f town should be e a r l y s e t t l e d . M i l i t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are of the greatest importance seeing the nearness of the F r o n t i e r . " ( 2 2 ) In general, Grant's I n s t r u c t i o n s d u p l i c a t e d Parsons'. Moody required the examination of land around P i t t River at the j u n c t i o n with the Fraser, e x p l o r a t i o n f o r the best route from P i t t River to the deep inlet'northward (probaoly Burrard I n l e t , although the chart which Moody supplied i s not a v a i l -a b l e ) , and he s t r e s s e d the importance of barracks. In t h i s connection he advised the temporary use of a ship, p a r t l y that the force might act as r i v e r p o l i c e and p a r t l y because of f a c i l i t y f o r storage. "This w i l l be s e l f - e v i d e n t to His Excellency's w e l l known sa g a c i t y . " In c l o s i n g , he emphasized s t r o n g l y the n e c e s s i t y , as he had i n Parsons' l e t t e r , of m i l i t a r y strength upon the Fraser.(23) There are two features present i n both of the l e t t e r s discussed above which are p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n the l i g h t 22. Moody-Parsons,Sept 1,1858. (Moody Correspondence, h.G.Archives 1149b) 23. Moody-Grant, Sept , 1858.(ibid.) 36 o f the l a t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between Governor Douglas and C o l o n e l Moody. One i s the h i g h o p i n i o n of Douglas which Moody had formed on hearsay; the oth e r i s Moddy 1s s t r o n g m i l i t a r y b i a s . The presence of t h i s b i a s i s noteworthy a l s o because of L y t t o n ' s a t t i t u d e toward the" m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s of the corps. This i s expressed i n a despatch which he wrote on July'16, 1858. "This f o r c e i s sent f o r s c i e n t i f i c and p r a c t i c a l purposes, and not s o l e l y f o r m i l i t a r y o b j e c t s . As l i t t l e d i s p l a y as p o s s i b l e should, t h e r e f o r e , be made o f i t . I t s mere appearance, i f p r o m i n e n t l y obtruded, might serve to i r r i t a t e , r a t h e r than appease the mixed p o p u l a t i o n which w i l l be c o l l e c t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia." I t hhould be remembered t h a t your r e a l s t r e n g t h l i e s i n the c o n v i c t i o n of the emigrants- t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of the Government, which should be c a r r i e d on i n harmony w i t h , and by means of the people of the c o u n t r y . " ( 2 4 ) N e v e r t h e l e s s , L y t t o n was not b l i n d to' the danger of American e x p a n s i o n i s t tendencies-. On October 29, I858 he i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g i n a l i s t of g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to Governor Douglas: "You w i l l n o t f a i l to r e g a r d w i t h a m i l i t a r y eye the be s t p o s i t i o n f o r such towns' and c i t i e s as w e l l as f o r the- e n g i n e e r i n g of roads and passes, or the l a y i n g of fou n d a t i o n s of any p u b l i c works."(25) A few days p r e v i o u s l y he had w r i t t e n : "From England we send, s k i l l and d i s c i p l i n e ; the raw m a t e r i a l ( t h a t i s , the mere men) a colony i n t e n d e d f o r f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s , and on the border of so po w e r f u l a neighbour as the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America, should l e a r n betimes of i t s e l f to supply. " ( 2 6 ) However s k i l l e d and d i s c i p l i n e d the men under Grant and Parsons might have been, the p r e p a r a t i o n s they made a t o l d F o r t Langley (Derby) were rendered v a l u e l e s s when the o 24. L y t t o n - D o u g l a s , J u l y 16, 1858 (Begg o p . c i t . p.224) 25. Lytton-Douglas,Oct 29,1858 (B.C.Papers p.41) 26. Lytton-Douglas,Oct 16,1858 (Begg o p . c i t . p.236) 37 s i t e of the main barracks was t r a n s f e r r e d by Colonel Moody to what l a t e r became New Westminster s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n the colony. The reason f o r the change was the d i f f i c u l t y of defending the chosen s i t e i n the event of attack from the south. I t had been Douglas 1 i n t e n t i o n that Old Fort Langley should be the c a p i t a l of the mainland colony. Howay suggests that Douglas was i n f l u e n c e d to a large extent i n h i s choice by the p o s s i b i l i t y of gain f o r the-Hudson's Bay Company.(27) At any r a t e he d i d not take very s e r i o u s l y the admonitions of Lytton quoted above. Nor were Parsons and Grant c a r e f u l to consider the defence p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the f i r s t s i t e , although Moody's i n s t r u c t i o n s recommending confidence i n Douglas might w e l l be quoted i n t h e i r defence. The i n c i d e n t f u r t h e r reveals that Moody, from the f i r s t , d i d not h e s i t a t e to d i s r e g a r d the Governor's d e c i s i o n s . The date of the Colonel's report c o n t a i n i n g h i s condemnation of the Langley s i t e was January 28, 1859 and that of the Governor's proclamation, the o f f i c i a l facade of a surrender which was none too g r a c e f u l i n p r i v a t e , was February 14. Probably Moody's a c t i o n would have been s t i l l more prompt had not the a f f a i r c a l l e d "Ned McGowan's War" intervened. 'This a f f a i r was a f a r c i c a l q u a r r e l between the l o c a l magistrates of H i l l ' s Bar and Yale which occasioned alarm because of the presence at the former place of a group of C a l i f o r n i a n malcontents headed by Ned McGowan. The l a t t e r had 27.Howay and S h h o l f i e l d o p . c i t . 11:60 38 entered the colony b e a r i n g an unsavoury r e p u t a t i o n accumulated from P e n n s y l v a n i a to C a l i f o r n i a and crowned by a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d which had n e c e s s i t a t e d a h u r r i e d r e t r e a t before the V i g i l a n c e Committee.(28) The importance o f the a f f a i r i s c o n t a i n e d i n the v a l u a b l e i m p r e s s i o n of the adequacy of B r i t i s h law and order made upon the mining communities by the prompt a c t i o n of the governor, the marines, b l u e j a c k e t s , and C o l o n e l Moody's En g i n e e r s . " B r i t i s h Columbia was not to be a second C a l i f o r n i a i n the sense t h a t the miners c o u l d conduct themselves as they p l e a s e d and defy c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t y . " ( 2 9 ) I t was immediately a f t e r h i s r e t u r n from "the war" t h a t Moody made the condemnatory r e p o r t mentioned above and perhaps the d e c i s i o n and a b i l i t y he displayed,made Douglas' c a p i t u l a t i o n e a s i e r . But i t must have been hard to abandon the Langley s i t e where the l a n d had been c l e a r e d , surveyed, and d i v i d e d i n t o town l o t s and where the b a r r a c k s and o t h e r b u i l d i n g s had been r a i s e d almost to a p o i n t of completion; f o r one reads t h a t "the r o o f was l a i d by W i l l i a m C l a r k s o n from Oshawa, O n t a r i o . " (30 )• Work on"the new headquarters at Sapperton, now p a r t of New Westminster, went on apace; but when the main body a r r i v e d on the " E l i z a Anderson" from E s q u i m a l t where the "Thames C i t y " had docked on A p r i l 12, 1850, p r e p a r a t i o n s were s t i l l i n c o mplete. This was p a r t l y due to the d i f f i c u l t y of c l e a r i n g 2 8 . D e t a i l s o f the i n c i d e n t are e f f e c t i v e l y presented i n Sage o p . c i t . p . 2 5 3 f f and Howay and S c h o l f i e l d o p . c i t . I I : 6 l f f 29.Sage o p . c i t . p.255 30.Begg o p . c i t . p.287 39 the heavy t a n g l e of w i l l o w and a l d e r but probably the change of s i t e c o n t r i b u t e d most to the d e l a y . Some of the newcomers were b i l l e t e d upon the Hudson's Bay Company b r i g a n t i n e "Recovery"; o t h e r s found temporary homes i n t e n t s . Then began t h e i r t a s k as "pioneers i n the work o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , i n opening up .the r e s o u r c e s of the country by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads and b r i d g e s , i n ' l a y i n g the foundations of a f u t u r e c i t y or seaport and i n c a r r y i n g out the numerous e n g i n e e r i n g works which, i n the e a r l i e r stages of c o l o n i z a t i o n , are so e s s e n t i a l to the p r o g r e s s and w e l f a r e of the community."(31) The work of the f i r s t year was much d i s o r g a n i z e d and p i o n e e r i n c h a r a c t e r . W r i t i n g on May 1, i 8 6 0 i n r e t r o s p e c t , Moody t o l d Douglas: "The work has been extremely miscellaneous.. Now I hope to methodize. I hope the accounts and vouchers sent i n but r e t u r n e d f o r rearrangement w i l l meet w i t h a p p r o v a l because now they show the ex p e n d i t u r e i n d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s . The l a r g e m i l i t a r y expense i s because the m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s are doing c i v i l work. From now on the work w i l l be mostly c i v i l . From now on the economic v a l u e of the Royal Engineers i n the p r o v i n c e w i l l be g r e a t i f the revenue a l l o w s expenditure equal to the amount of c o l o n i a l pay and c o s t o f s u b s i s t e n c e f o r e x e c u t i o n o f works o f f e r i n g a r e t u r n of revenue by t o l l s on roads, r a t e s on improved n a v i g a t i o n and lands sales." 8 3 2 ) The accomplishments of the year Moody l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : " l . B a r r a c k s , e t c . 2 , H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t (Grant) Waggon L i n e . 3 . H o p e t o Boston Bar (Lernpriere) 4 . Navigationod'f the H a r r i s o n (Grant) c o n t i n u i n g No.2. 5 .Survey (Parsons) Towns e t c . . . . 8 . C l e a r i n g Headquarters etc. " ( 3 3 ) On December 31, i 8 6 0 Moody presented a formal r e p o r t of the "Expenditure on Roads, S t r e e t s and B r i d g e s and Works and B u i l d i n g s from the Beginnings of the Colony." The p e r i o d 3 1 . Lytton-Douglas, Oct 16,1858 ( P R C C O . G O -1^ 3 2 . Moody-Douglas, May 1,1860 (Moody Correspondence,B.C.Archives) 5 3 . I b i d . 40 covered was halved at the close of 1859. For the f i r s t h a l f the t o t a l c i v i l expenditure was shown as £16 ,911 .12,6 while' m i l i t a r y expenditure amounted to £70 f o r a t r a i l from the Royal 'Engineers camp to Burrard I n l e t . Of the c i v i l expend-i t u r e , more than nine-tenths was devoted to the Harrison-L i l l o o e t route - or, as government c r i t i c s claimed, "squandered on what they f e l t was the Governor's pet obsession. The only otoher considerable item shown was £638.7.8 spent on the Boston Bar t r a i l . During the second h a l f the c i v i l expenditure was £21,076.16.10 but t h i s time the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route r e c e i v e d only £-5,719.1.3 f o r the waggon road over the f i r s t portage and f o r r e p a i r s . On the a l t e r n a t i v e route to the gold f i e l d s f o l l o w i n g the Fraser, £9,354.16.9 was expended while an a d d i t i o n a l £4,574.9.6 went i n opening up the Hope-Similkameen route f o r the Bock Creek gold rush.(34) Nevertheless the government c r i t i c s s t i l l complained of the f a v o u r i t i s m shown the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t . But before d i s c u s s i n g the route controversy, the general o u t l i n e of the Engineers' a c t i v i t i e s during the remainder of t h e i r term i n the colony w i l l provide the background. Although Moody had written that he hoped to method-ize the Engineers' a c t i v i t i e s from i860 on, the scanty evidence a v a i l a b l e f o r the three years f o l l o w i n g suggest that the work continued to be miscellaneous i n character. C e r t a i n l y the Colonel l e f t no graphic account of operations such as one might have expected to f i n d had Douglas or Seymour been i n the same 54. Expenditure or£ Roads, etc. Dec 31, i860 (B.C.Archives F 1154) 41 p o s i t i o n . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Iloody t h a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e should have found i t necessary to complain of h i s f a i l -ure to supply them w i t h r e p o r t s . ( 3 5 ) The i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , which here f o l l o w s can only i n d i c a t e , not comprehend the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by the Engineers to the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of the colony. Moody's g u i d i n g p r i n c i p a l appears to have been to employ h i s s p e c i a l -i s t s o n l y where the c o l o n i s t s themselves were unequipped or incompetent. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a p p o r t i o n the c r e d i t f o r much of the r o a d - b u i l d i n g of the p e r i o d , but c l e a r l y many s e c t i o n s were completed by c i v i l i a n c o n t r a c t o r s without the a s s i s t a n c e of the corps and these w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r . The year 1861 marks the g r a d u a t i o n of the Cariboo t r a i l i n t o a wagon road, the famous Cariboo Highway, so dear to romantic h i s t o r i a n s . An October i s s u e of the B r i t i s h (36) C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t a p a r t y o f engineers under M c C o l l were s u r v e y i n g the s e c t i o n from Yale to L y t t o n . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s we're made i n t o the f e a s i b i l i t y of e r e c t i n g a b r i d g e a t H e l l ' s Gate In B i g Can8n above Spuzzum F e r r y . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the b r i d g e was d e f e r r e d u n t i l • t w o years l a t e r when the c o n t r a c t -was awarded to Joseph T r u t c h . The Engineers were a l s o a c t i v e d u r i n g 1861 a l o n g the Hope-Similkameen which Douglas had e a r l y e n v i s i o n e d as a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r o u t e though h i s enthusiasm i n t h i s 35. The f i r s t r e p o r t , and from Palmer, not Moody, was r e c e i v e d Oct 10, 1859 and prompted Blackwood-Merrivale, Oct 12:"i know not to what i t i s owing. . . . They have been nine months i n the c o l o n y . " Sept'12, 1859, G-ossett-Aciing Col.Secty:"No account from Moody has a r r i v e d . " 36. C o l o n i s t Oct 18, 1861. 4 2 respect (-37) was curbed by the press of more urgent work. In i860 Dewdhey and Moberly had n i b b l e d seven miles from the long s t r e t c h of wilderness and now the Engineers under Grant (38) assumed the task where dearth of finance had blocked the unfortunate c o n t r a c t o r s . One happy circumstance was the discovery of a pass south of the Punch Bowl (39) which not only lowered the summit a thousand f e e t "but shortened the route by ten miles. So much f o r Douglas' " t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l route". Turning to another of h i s enthusiasms, the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t , one notes that during 1861 the Ingineers shortened the Douglas Bortage,(40) graded G i b r a l t a r H i l l , ( 4 l ) and re-dredged the • Harrison r i f f l e s . The shreds of-evidence of the operations of 1862 suggest that the main a c t i v i t y continued to be on the Cariboo road f o r no memtion i s found of the other two routes. On the former the work was fu r t h e r e d by Grant and a mixed party of Engineers and c i v i l i a n s . The work done was c r e d i t a b l e although Grant.was forced'because of inadequate funds to dismiss the c i v i l i a n l a bourers. For, ' o f f s e t t i n g the resentment of the d i s g r u n t l e d c o l o n i s t s was the unaccustomed p r a i s e of the " C o l o n i s t " f o r the short s t r e t c h of eighteen-foot macadamized road between Yale and Bike's R i f f l e . ( 4 2 ) 37.e.g. Douglas-Newcastle, (Bet 18, 1859. (CO 60.17) , 5 8.Colonist August 5, 1861. 3 9 . i b i d . August 31, 1861. 4 0 . i b i d . October 8, 1861 4 1 . i b i d . A p r i l 9 , l 8 6 l 4 2 . i b i d . December 15, 1861 43 In a d d i t i o n to t h i s work on the 'lower Cariboo, an e x p l o r a t o r y survey was conducted by Palmer and h i s p a r t y of Engineers.(43) Toward F o r t A l e x a n d r i a i n the n o r t h , eastward •toward W i l l i a m ' s Creek, and'down the B e l l a Coola R i v e r to B e n t i n c k Arm they f o r c e d back the f r o n t i e r of surveyed t e r r i -t o r y . With Palmer as w i t h Grant, however, the s c a r c i t y . o f funds proved an embarrassing handicap. The f o l l o w i n g May, i n the course of a despatch to Downing S t r e e t , Douglas r e f e r r e d to Palmer's r e p o r t on these e x p l o r a t i o n s . - " i r e g r e t t h a t I cannot employ the Royal E n g i n e e r s c o n t i n u a l l y on l i k e s e r v i c e s , 11 he wrote, and l a i d the blame upon shortage o f funds. (44) Perhaps i t was- on t h i s account t h a t Palmer's assignment f o r 1863 was to proceed w i t h accompany o f 60 R o y a l Engineers to work upon Oppenheiimer' s d e f a u l t e d s e c t i o n of the L y t t o n - A l e x a n d r i a road to connect Cook's F e r r y w i t h the s e c t i o n upon which Hood was then working. (45) The' l a t t e r , i n the course o f h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Douglas had tendered two p r i c e s , £13,917-.15.0 and £12,783. The spread was to cover a s t r e t c h of two and a h a l f m i l e s which was e i t h e r to be I n c l u d e d i n Hood's c o n t r a c t o r to be done by the R o y a l * E n g i n e e r s . I t was decide d t h a t the Govern-ment would ' save'-the £.1,134.15.0 by employing the ' c o u r i e r s '.(46). With t h i s i n view I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the " B r i t i s h Columbian" on August 6 was quoted i n the " C o l o n i s t " because of an a r t i c l e a t t a c k i n g the p o l i c y of Palmer's group: 43. Palmer-Fountain, J u l y 10 ,1859. (00 60.2 #18048 p.196) 44. gpuglaffg^ol'OB4al r;0)f flee,Iffi&y. 21,1863. (B.C.Archives Despatches) 45. C o l o n i s t , Apr 25, 1863. 46. Douglas-Colonial Of fice, Jan 9,1864 (B.C.Archives Despatches) 44 "The- Royal Engineers from Cook's Ferry to Hood's . s e c t i o n have got through except b l a s t i n g the rocky b l u f f s and are- unable to f i n i s h t h i s season with the present f o r c e . I t would have been wiser to begin at the b l u f f s and s t a r t ' c i v i l i a n s on parts r e q u i r i n g no Such s k i l l . As i t i s w e hope the government sees the p r o p r i e t y of i n c r e a s i n g the force and completing the work before winter."(47) "The discharge of menial s e r v i c e s i s incompatible with the duties of c o u r i e r s . " But while Palmer and h i s party were being thus abused, h i s colleague Grant was h a i l e d on a l l sides " f o r h i s push and s k i l l . " ( 4 8 ) I t appears that Grant had won the respect and a f f e c t i o n of the c o l o n i s t s i n t h e . d i s t r i c t -where he had been employed... September 14 the f o l l o w i n g note appeared i n the C o l o n i s t : ; -"Grant has j u s t a r r i v e d from Cariboo, the scene of h i s valuable labours i n road-making. Quesnelle Mouth to : R i c h f i e l d i s done. -I need not say more about the, q u a l i t i e s except that Grant rode over i t ; sixty-two miles i n one day.; Therefore a r i d e r can go from Rich-f i e l d to New ^Westminster In f i v e days. -"What a rev o l u -t i o n i n t r a v e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia!"(49) . ; ' ; ' Further d e t a i l s of the p u b l i c works which'occupied the Engineers d u r i n g 1863 cannot be given. However an event of more h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the change of c o l o n i a l p o l i c y w h i c h ' C a l l e d ' M o o d y back to England and disbanded h i s men. As the p a r t i c u l a r tasks upon which theypwere engaged were f i n i s h e d ' o r abandoned f o r the season, the sappers and miners were given the a l t e r n a t i v e of r e t u r n i n g with Moody or of remaining i n the colony e i t h e r as s e t t l e r s on 150 acre 47. C o l o n i s t , August 6, 1863. 48. C o l o n i s t , August 12, 1863. 49-. C o l o n i s t , Sept 14, 1863-45 : grants or as tradesmen and a r t i s a n s i n the p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s e r v i c e .*( 50) The party of twenty odd who decided to return to England assembled i n V i c t o r i a where the c o l o n i s t s paid them the customary compliments on t h e i r "remarkably good conduct, i n t e l l i g e n c e . a n d trustworthiness," and bade them God-speed with l i g h t hearts.(51) . Before proceeding to' discuss the reasons and circum-stances of the withdrawal i t i s only f a i r to sum up the cont-r i b u t i o n of the Engineers to the i n f a n t colony. They provided maps and surveys of the main roads of which they themselves b u i l t respectable p o r t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y where b l a s t i n g or b r i d g e - b u i l d i n g were r e q u i r e d . C e r t a i n l y they were more r e l i a b l e than Oppenheimer and Dewdney whose l e f t - o v e r tasks they .were required to complete. Perhaps the p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t i o n made by the Engineers was not i n l a y i n g foundations and i n arousing an . i n t e r e s t i n the development of communications. They and t h e i r red coats helped to i n s t i l and preserve among an American population a'respect f o r B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s and law which i t might be suggested was "not without value during the annexation movement which preCeeded confederation. 50;Moody-Douglas,' Nov 13,1863 (PRO CO 60.3) 51.Colonist, Nov 13, 1863. " 46 CHAPTER FIVE ' THE COURIERS RECALLED * The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e never placed a high value on the empire b u i l d i n g of the Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Oh the other hand, C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f f i c i a l s became increas-i n g l y anxious about the f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n of the colony. • Even i n 1859 and i860 the d r a f t s of the C o l o n i a l government on account of the Royal Engineers exceeded parliamentary grants by £22,026 and the accomplishments of the corps seemed sc a r c e l y to merit such expenditure. Note- the remarks attached by Blackwood to a report made by Palmer-and sent i n by Douglas onnAugust 18, 1859: "I know not to what i t i s owing but- t h i s i s the f i r s t r e p o r t from an Engineer O f f i c e r on the i n t e r i o r of the country which we have received, and t h i s only r e f e r s to a s e c t i o n up the Harrison River. The Engineers were sent out to explore, survey, lay out lands, make roads and bridges. They have been f o r nine months In the Colony and with the exception of l a y i n g out some l o t s of land at Langley' and New Westminster (and making only -a few rods of road) t h i s i s a l l the produce' of t h e i r labours."(2) A' few days l a t e r I r v i n g added t h i s comment: "I have f o r some time thought that the labours of the Engineers make very l i t t l e show. "(3) :- ' Time Improved the s i t u a t i o n not at a l l . On the 28th of March, 1863 the Duke of Newcastle sent an o f f i c i a l note to the Under-Secretary of the War O f f i c e : <-3'The Royal Engineers e n t a i l heavier cost than the C o l o n i a l 1- Government has shown any d i s p o s i t i o n to a s s i s t m a t e r i a l l y i n p r o v i d i n g w h i l s t i t i s more than appears r i g h t to apply to Parliament permanently to bear."(4) 1. Peel-Rogers,Sept 11,1863.(PRO CO 60.17 #8824) 2. D o u g l a s - C o l , 0 f f i c e , Aug 18,1859.(PRO CO 60.2 #10,048) 3 . i b i d . 4.Newcastle-War Office.,March 28,1863 (PRO CO 60.17) 47 It, i s p o s s i b l e to connect t h i s opinion with Newcastle's p o l i c y of retrenchment forced.upon him by a general trade depression, a t t r i b u t e d u s u a l l y to disturbances i n the cotton market during the American C i v i l War. "These troops," wrote Newcastle, "have supplied a sense of s e c u r i t y i n the e a r l i e r days of the settlement and have been a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r any p u b l i c works, but the Colony must now be considered w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and . . . a b l e to provide. " ( 5 ) And-other-members of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e were i n complete agreement. I r v i n g wrote to E l l i o t as e a r l y as January 1863: "the opinion has been long entertained at t h i s o f f i c e that the corps of Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia . i s too c o s t l y and does not y i e l d commensurate advantages. In March I r v i n g wrote to Douglas: "Cannot permit the- C o l o n i a l Agent General to draw,upon the funds of other colonies to provide B r i t i s h Columbia s e r v i c e s , or of any other colony which does not provide money f o r i t s own wants."(7) I t must have been g a l l i n g to Douglas to be c l a s s e d as the poor r e l a t i o n when he himself was only too eager to free "the Colony from the encumbering corps. He had p r e d i c t e d before the Engineers a r r i v e d : "I have no doubt that i n time and when there i s a f i x e d population having vested r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s at stake i n the. country^ that a m i l i t a r y force may i n a great measure become unnecessary." (8) When-that a r r i v a l inaugurated h i s f i n a n c i a l troubles he soon made i t c l e a r that ' "the Colony can and w i l l support a i l her c i v i l s t a f f o*. . ;. but'the cost, of the m i l i t a r y she cannot meet. It alone would'absorb the e n t i r e revenue.:" (9) 5-.Newcastle-War /Office, March 28,1863 (PRO CO 60.17) 6 . I r v i n g - E l l i o t , Jan 22,1863 (PRO CO 60.17) 7 .Irving-Douglas, March 14,1863 (PRO CO 60.17 #2390) 8. Douglas-Lytton, Nov 27, 1858 (PRO CO 60.2 #1053) -9. -Douglas-Newcastle, J u l y 2, 1859 (B.C. A r c h i v e s D e s p a t c h e s ) 48 As time went on and budgets became more and more d i f f i c u l t to balance and as Newcastle attempted to s h i f t more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the Colony, Douglas' c o n v i c t i o n that he could dispense with the Engineers' s e r v i c e s grew. The growth was a c c e l e r a t e d by- the antagonism which ea r l y developed between Douglas and Moody. But that i s -another story which must be postponed f o r a - l a t e r ' c h a p t e r . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate, however, on any d i f f e r e n c e i n attitude- which Douglas might have had i f Grant, rather than Moody had been commanding o f f i c e r . Contrast the follow-ing from a despatch to Downing Street with the reference to Moody which follows i t : . ". . . a work of magnitude and of utmost p u b l i c u t i l i t y done by Grant and the Royal Engineers with a degree of care and p r o f e s s i o n a l a b i l i t y r e f l e c t i n g the highest c r e d i t on that a c t i v e and i n d e f a t i g a b l e o f f i c e r . " ( 1 0 ) "His (Moody's) management as a p u b l i c administrator i n t h i s "Colony.has not been s a t i s f a c t o r y to me. . . . I have found i t necessary to exercise the utmost v i g i l a n c e over h i s p u b l i c a c t s . " ( 1 1 ) Douglas' was not the only c o l o n i a l voice r a i s e d i n p r o t e s t against the superfluous and c o s t l y ornament. Amor de Cosmos abused the Engineers e d i t o r i a l l y on March 2, 1863: "We b e l i e v e that the establishment of a m i l i t a r y - c i v i l f o r c e with a m i l i t a r y commander and o f f i c e r s to perform c i v i l duties . . . was a blunder p o l i t i c a l l y or economi-c a l l y . . . . As a u x i l i a r i e s to a s s i s t the c i v i l magis-t r a t e i n p r e s e r v i n g order they strengthened the executive but f o r a l l the p r a c t i c a l and everyday d e t a i l s of c i v i l a f f a i r s they have weakened, lessened the power and i n f l u -ence of the executive and retarded the p o l i t i c a l progress (6f B r i t i s h Columbia. The p o l i c y of S i r Edward Bulwer-10. Douglas-Colonial O f f i c e , Oct 9 , i 8 6 0 .(B.G.Archives Despatches) 11, " C o n f i d e n t i a l Report on B u b l i c Servants." 1863 (PRO CO 60.15) 49 "Lytton sending out the 'Engineers to engage'in c i v i l d u ties i s a "blunder t h a t no p r a c t i c a l c o l o n i a l s t a t e s -man *v/ou Id ever have committed. . . • . A hatch of m i l i t a r y c o l o n i s t s ' to B r i t i s h Columbia bound down by the a r t i c l e s of war to the s t r i c t r u l e s of m i l i t a r y obedience, t h e i r mouths gagged, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e c u r t a i l e d , human machines f i t forces to r e s i s t force, but unable to u t t e r a word or i n f l u e n c e opinion, or balance p a r t i e s , at variance a l i k e with c i v i l and m i l i t a r y science,, a c l o g to the executive and a drag on the progress of the colony..(12) The other c o l o n i s t s , not. g u i l t y of clogging or dragging at c o l o n i a l progress were probably i n d i f f e r e n t to the change i n p o l i c y since t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were more c l o s e l y bound up with the development of communications rather than with the means toward that end. Ever since 1859, however, the c o l o n i a l newspapers had received l e t t e r s from t h e i r sub-s c r i b e r s complaining of the extravagance and i n e f f i c i e n c y o f the Engineers . (13 ) The e d i t o r s themselves had indulged i n a duel over the scandal of the Engineers winter-quartering' i n New Westminster at f u l l pay - a. duel, that i s to say, of e d i t o r i a l s h u r l e d from c a p i t a l to- c a p i t a l . (14) Perhaps Eiore s i g n i f i c a n t than t h e abuse which t h e , c o l o n i s t s furnished during the Engineer era ; i s the lack of any comment i n the correspondence columns expressing' reg r e t at the disbanding of the corps. Nor were these expressions forthcoming elsewhere. When Newcastle r e c e i v e d a note from the War O f f i c e on the-tenth of January, 1863-, he had. h i s cue. (15) Moody and s e v e r a l of h i s 12.Colonist March 2, 1863. 1 3 . i b i d . June 6, 1859; August 1, 1859; November 21, i860. 1 4 . i b i d . February 5, 1862. " 15.War Office-Newcastle, January 10, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 50 o f f i c e r s were to complete the u s u a l term of f o r e i g n s e r v i c e • the October f o l l o w i n g and the note i n q u i r e d -whether or not steps needed to be taken f o r t h e i r r e l i e f . Newcastle decided t h a t even though there might - be "some r i s k i n having no m i l i t a r y f o r c e a t a l l where the San Juan a f f a i r was so r e c e n t " yet I t was "an experiment w e l l worth t r y i n g as an encourage-ment to V o l u n t e e r s . " ( 1 6 ) And a t any r a t e , the A d m i r a l t y now had a s t a t i o n a t Esquimault.- This weakening of the Colony's defences t r o u b l e d Carnarvon a l i t t l e . He suggested t h a t the l e a s t safeguard would be to l o c a t e the disbanded Engineers a l o n g "the f r o n t i e r or i n the neighbourhood of f u t u r e n a v a l and m i l i t a r y p o s t s . " ( 1 7 ) C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h i s n ature d i s t u r b e d the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e s t a f f v e r y l i t t l e but some minor o b s t a c l e s r e q u i r e d a t t e n t i o n . What about the f a c t that the sappers and miners had a s i x - y e a r terra to complete i n c o n t r a s t to the o f f i c e r s ' f f v e years? This p r e s e n t e d l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y ; I r v i n g wrote to E l l i o t t h a t to gr a n t the l a n d a t the end of f i v e years i n s t e a d of s i x "would be a boon ( to the men) w h i l s t to the colony i t would g i v e the advantage of be i n g r e l i e v e d so much the sooner of the"heavy c o s t of t h e i r pay."(18) Would not the sudden wit h d r a w a l of these t e c h n i c i a n s leave a v o i d which the Colony would f i n d d i f f i c u l t to f i l l ? ( 1 9 ) F o rtescue suggested that some of the Engineers might be r e t a i n e d f o r the lands o f f i c e , say t w e n t y - f i v e of the men. Newcastle agreed to t h i s number p l u s three o f f i c e r s , i n s p i t e 16. Newcastle's note, March 27,1863 (PRO CO 60.17) 17. Carnarvon-Newcastle, Sept 1, 1858 (PRO CO 60.17) 1 8 . I r v i n g - E l l i o t , June 20,1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 19.Fortescue, May 30, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 51 of the f a c t that Lugard was not i n favour of separating t h i s p a r t i c u l a r .company of Engineers.(20) In a d d i t i o n to t h i s p r o v i s i o n , Newcastle asked Douglas, "Would you wish any persons from England to f i l l the Royal Engineers' services?(21) Thus i t was planned that no embarrassment should ensue i n the colony, but there i s no record that e i t h e r of the proposals was acted upon. Was Moody to remain i n the colony as Chief Commiss-ioner of Lands and Works into which c i v i l appointment he had entered on October 12, 1858? The appointment had not been a permanent one, however, and Newcastle d i d not consider Moody's continuance i n the post necessary. Blackwood f e l t that "the O f f i c e hasn't s u f f i c i e n t l y considered the case of Moody."(22) C e r t a i n l y they were not anxious to have him "on t h e i r hands again" but a c h i e v i n g the l e s s e r of two e v i l s demanded that they deprive 'the colony of h i s s e r v i c e s . "Take care to make the announcement of the termination of Moody's employment as l i t t l e unpalatable to the Colony as we can," ( 2 3 ) warned Blackwood, r e v e a l i n g that he considered the appoint-ment of an Englishman, however i n e f f i c i e n t , would be held e s s e n t i a l by the c o l o n i s t s . And t h i s , even though i t was no 20. Par they appeared "by a l l accounts that we r e c e i v e to have been somewhat" over-indulged. Retaining a part of them might only prolong heart-burnings and d i f f i c u l t i e s . " E l l i o t , J u l y 4,1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 21. Newcastle-Douglas, J u l y 20, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 22. Blackwood, A o r i l 14, 1863. (PRO CO 60 .17) 23. Blackwood, May 29, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 52 longer necessary that h i s c i v i l e f f i c i e n c y coincide with m i l i t a r y " rank and experience. The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was mostly apprehensive of Moody a s p i r i n g , Micawber-like, to a p o s i t i o n of eminence i n the colony. : "Be c a r e f u l , " Blackwood cautioned "not .to employ any terms which w i l l give Colonel Moody • the opportunity of o f f e r i n g to s t a y ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia in.the capacity of Chief Commissioner. He i s not u n l i k e l y to o f f e r to leave the Army i f he could be continued i n h i s present o f f i c e , an arrangement which I judge the Duke would not l i s t e n to."(24) A c t u a l l y the Duke had already s a i d of Moody; "I have no doubt he Is looking fo the Governorship -( f o r which he i s — n o t f i t ) and would be a discontented subordinate- to Mr. Douglas' successor,"( 25) E l l i o t too suspected that the bug of ambition -had been -worrying Moody. "He has not seemed very contented with h i s sphere i n B r i t i s h Columbia; and to leave him there with nothing but a subordinate C i v i l O f f i c e would be to expose the governor of the colony, e i t h e r present or future, to the inconvenience of a r i v a l -without even the b e n e f i t of a very e f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n t . " ( 2 6 ) -No, some sjphere .with, l e s s scope f o r Moody' s - i n e f f i c i e n c y had to be found. = Notice that both E l l i o t and Newcastle speak of a successor f o r Douglas as' though h i s retirement a l s o may have "long been considered-in t h i s o f f i c e . " Perhaps Douglas' -background as a Hudson's Bay Company employee rather than a Colonial- O f f i c e servant may have .worked to h i s disadvantage. n> , - -Perhaps too, Douglas 1 despatches contained more of h i s worries 24. Blackwood, May 29,-1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 25. Newcastle,. A p r i l 22,- 1863 -(PRO CO 60.17) 26. E l l i o t , A p r i l 21, 1863 (PRO CO. 60.1-7) 53, and demanded more c o n s i d e r a t i o n than was warranted by the r e l a t i v e ' i m p o r t a n c e of the colony. Consider, f o r example, the Governor's expose of the r a t i o n s ' r a c k e t ' as he sa¥/ i t . .He was anxious to place before Newcastle "the numbers of the d i f f e r e n t persons r a t i o n e d , e s p e c i a l l y the wives and f a m i l i e s - o f the O f f i c e r s . " ( 2 7 ) The expenses of the Detachment i n 1862 exceeded those of 1861 by £2271. The i n c r e a s e was to be found mainly under the heading, " p r o v i s i o n s and F u e l . " I n 1862 these r a t i o n s had exceeded the £-6,020 o f 1861 by £-1,785. Douglas charged t h i s i n c r e a s e to. the f a c t t h a t the number of women and c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g r a t i o n s rose from s i x t y - f i v e to one hundred and f i f t y and t h a t the number of c h i l d r e n had more than t r e b l e d d u r i n g the f i v e year p e r i o d . " I b e l i e v e t h i s i s out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n to what i s a u t h o r i z e d by the r e g u l a t i o n s of the Srmy . " ( 2 8 ) Douglas proposed to d i s c h a r g e a l l who had l a r g e f a m i l i e s , g i v i n g them the o p t i o n of remaining In the colony I f they so d e s i r e d . E l l i o t ' s comment on the Governor's expose was: "The f a c t t h a t the whole of the numerous wives and f a m i l i e s of these Engineers were drawing r a t i o n s a t immense c o s t " t o the p u b l i c w h i l s t the Governor c o u l d not o b t a i n so much as even a l i s t .of the r e c i p i e n t s . . w i l l not have escaped the a t t e n t i o n of Newcastle." (29) Blackwood too, c o n s i d e r e d t h a t : " T his r e p o r t s t r e n g t h e n s the p r o p r i e t y of the measure °resolved upon by the Duke of Newcastle to withdraw the 2 7 .Douglas-Newcastle, 1863 (PRO CO 60.15 #5956) 28.. i b i d . 2 9 . . E l l i o t - F o r t e s c u e , J u l y 4, 1863- (PRO CO 60.17) 54 "Engineers from B r i t i s h Columbia. I understand that s h i p p i n g has been taken up f o r the conveyance of the detachment to England."(30) So Douglas was r i d o f : h i s "incubus," h i s " o l d man of the sea."(31) In a c c o u n t i n g f o r the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ' c o u r i e r s ' and the ward of the 'Lady of P r o p e r t y ' , c l e a r l y one cannot adopt the s i m p l i -f i c a t i o n which seemed adequate to Hugald M c l a v i s h at the time (and to Judge Howay l a t e r ) . " I dare say," wrote McTavish, "there i s some t r u t h i n i t , as i t i s shrewdly surmised, t h a t His E x c e l l e n c y has had more to do.with the r e c a l l of the Engineers home than anyone e l s e . " ( 3 2 ) Quite o b v i o u s l y the t e r m i n a t i n g of L y t t o n ' s experiment i n e m p i r e - b u i l d i n g was e f f e c t e d by Newcastle's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w ithout much deference to c o l o n i a l o p i n i o n . 3 0..Blackwood-Elliot, June 18, 1863 (PRO CO 50.15 #5956) 31., D o u g l a s - E l l i o t , A p r i l 17, 1865 (B. C . A r c h i v e s , Douglas L e t t e r Book, p.96) 52.Howay and S c h o l f l i e l d o p . c i t . p.109 55 CHAPTER SIX CIVILIAN ROADS - CARIBOO RUSH - COLONIAL RIVALS The disbanding and withdrawal of the Royal Engineers from B r i t i s h Columbia marked the end of an era i n the develop-ment of communications. Before proceeding to a d i s c u s s i o n of the p e r i o d which followed, however, three aspects of the Engineer era, h i t h e r t o avoided i n the i n t e r e s t s of c l a r i t y , must be considered. These are: the a c t i v i t i e s and f i n a n c i n g of c i v i l i a n r oad-builders, the consequences of the Cariboo rush, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Douglas and Moody. Each of these .has a bearing upon the c o n d i t i o n of the colony on the eve of the new regime. I When the onrush of gold-seekers i n 1858 necessitated the establishment of communications with the i n t e r i o r , the f i r s t important step taken was a c i v i l i a n e f f o r t unique i n character. When, on August 19, Douglas a p p l i e d to Stanley f o r "even a s i n g l e company of i n f a n t r y " f o r defence purposes i n the colony, he r e f e r r e d 'to t h i s c i v i l i a n e f f o r t as part j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r n i s request. ( 1 ) A beginning, he wrote, was being made toward i n t e r n a l communications; a party of f i v e hundred men were b u i l d i n g a road i n t o upper Fraser's River by the v a l l e y of the Harrison River. The group to whom Douglas o r e f e r r e d were miners who had assembled i n V i c t o r i a . To them the governor had presented the problem of t r a n s p o r t i n g supplies I.Douglas-Stanley, Aug 19, 1858. (PRO CO 60 #10,342) 56 to the g o l d - f i e l d s and d i r e c t e d them to the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route a l r e a d y known to the Hudson's Bay Company f o r whom Anderson had e x p l o r e d i t i n the f o r t i e s . "The men employed are of many n a t i o n s - B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , Americans, French, Germans, Danes, A f r i c a n s , and Chinese who v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s immediately on our wish to open a p r a c t i c a b l e route i n t o the i n t e r i o r of E r a s e r ' s R i v e r D i s t r i c t b e i n g made known to the P u b l i c . They moreover p r o f f e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s on terms, so p e c u l i a r - i n themselves and so' advantageous f o r the country t h a t i t would have been unwise of me to d e c l i n e them. . . . The c o s t of the work w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , not be heavy, nor exceed our means of repayment out of the revenues of the Gold D i s t r i c t . " ( 2 ) A l a s f o r Douglas' e x p e c t a t i o n s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t r a i l proved f a r more expensive than he had a n t i c i p a t e d . Howay (3) g i v e s the a c t u a l c o s t as £-12,064.17.8 and t h i s e v i d e n t l y d i d not i n c l u d e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n allowance made to the r o a d - b u i l d e r s on the conveyance o f t h e i r s u p p l i e s from V i c t o r i a t o the t r a i l ' s end, which, a f t e r some squa b b l i n g , was d e f i n e d by Douglas a t e i g h t e e n cents per pound. Probably the rumour r e p o r t e d by the V i c t o r i a Gazette was not much out when i t suggested s e v e n t y - f i v e to a hundred thousand d o l l a r s as the t o t a l c o s t. ( 4 ) U n f o r t u n a t e l y the q u a l i t y of the work d i d not j u s t i f y the unpremeditated expense. Douglas wrote to L y t t o n i n December: " H a r r i s o n ' s R i v e r road i s a f t e r an endless d e a l of t r o u b l e and a n x i e t y from the want of honest and ab l e men to c a r r y out the p l a n s of government f a i r l y open ° to t r a f f i c . " ( 5 ) 2. D o u g l a s - S t a n l e y , Aug 19, 1858 (PRO CO 60 #10,342) 3. Howay and S c h o l f i e l d o p . c i t . 11:89 4. A 3 - E d i t o r , Sep 30,1858."Letter from P o r t D o u g l a s . " V i c t o r i a  Gazette. Oct 7, 1858. 5. Do u g l a s - L y t t o n , Dec 24, 1858 (PRO CO 60 #52 B.C. 1527) 57 A r e p o r t on the completed p r o j e c t prepared f o r the Governor suggested- t h a t the road might not be " f a i r l y open" v e r y long. "The b r i d g e s c o n s t r u c t e d by the Road Makers are In ge n e r a l too low. Most of them w i l l be swept away by the f r e s h e t s . " ( 6 ) So i n a u s p i c i o u s l y was f r e e trade i n r o a d - b u i l d i n g inaugurated i n the i n f a n t colony o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The w r i t e r of the' r e p o r t j u s t quoted had accounted f o r the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . o n the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t by the l a c k of competent s u r v e y o r s . That l a c k was f i l l e d s h o r t l y by the a r r i v a l of the Engineers on whom, .according to a s p e c i a l despatch from L y t t o n to Douglas, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l road surveys i n the colony was to r e s t , a t l e a s t so l o n g as the amount of necessary work remained w i t h i n t h e i r scope. (7) Douglas knew w e l l t h a t p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s who had been a l l o w e d to l o c a t e and survey roads had got out of hand i n Oregon and he was q u i t e w i l l i n g to cooperate. ( 8 ) Throughout the Engineer p e r i o d , however, r o a d - b u i l d -i n g by c i v i l i a n c o n t r a c t o r s , packers and p r o p e r t y - h o l d e r s c o n t i n u e d . The two l a t t e r groups were drawn i n t o the- road-b u i l d i n g program u s u a l l y because government a c t i o n was too slow to cope w i t h the r a p i d development of the g o l d country and because, as Moody h i m s e l f seon p o i n t e d out, the Engineers ( were i n c a p a b l e of a c c o m p l i s h i n g the whole-of the works contemplated and a s s i g n e d to them on t h e i r departure from 6. McKay's Report to Douglas, Oct 2, 1858 (B.C.Archives) 7. Lytton-Douglas, Oct 16,1858 (Douglas L e t t e r Book -4 p.8) 8. "Trutch's Report, 1868." Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l Association. 1 9 3 5 9. D o u g l a s - L y t t o n , Mar 19,1859 (PRO CO 60747 58 England. Thus s h o r t - c u t s , and makeshift t r a i l s e a r l y appeared as t r i b u t a r i e s to the main routes and on these too, much v o l u n t a r y a s s i s t a n c e was rendered to the Engineers by those who stood to ga i n most from a speeding-up of o p e r a t i o n s . There are many i n s t a n c e s to be gleaned-from the \ c o l o n i a l p r e s s of p r i v a t e I n d i v i d u a l s doing v o l u n t a r y work\ and c o n t r i b u t i n g money toward the upkeep or c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e c t i o n s of road a l o n g the main r o u t e s . I n 1859 p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s a t Douglas c o n t r i b u t e d amounts v a r y i n g from §15 to §40 i n o rder that the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t wagon road might be com-p l e t e d . (10) And i n the same year the c i t i z e n s of Hope sub-s c r i b e d $2,000 f o r a t r a i l from Hope to "a p o i n t above the K e n y o n . " ( l l ) I n 1861, so i t was r e p o r t e d , a p a r t y of Frenchmen l e f t L y t t o n "to cut a new t r a i l from above Lake Le Hache to Beaver Lake c u t t i n g o f f t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s . " "They ! lcross F l y Creek and have got f o u r - b r i d g e s to make, doi n g i t f o r t h e i r chances a t new houses on the route."( 1 2 ) While these men were prompted by hopes of g a i n , o t h e r s were s p u r r e d on by.hopes of a v e r t i n g l o s s . The packers, f o r example, who i n 1863 r e p a i r e d the Pernberton Portage which was i n a " d e p l o r a b l e s t a t e " because of h i g h water, had befo r e them the case of the packer who, w a i t i n g f o r the government '-to do something, spent |2 ,000 on feed.(13) Small wonder t h a t \ the L y t t o n correspondent wrote to h i s e d i t o r , tongue i n cheek: 1 0 . C o l o n i s t , J u l y 22,1859- - • I I . i b i d . J u l v 27,1859. 1 2 . i b i d . Dec 29,1861 & June 28 ,1862. 1 5 . i b i d . J u l y 13,1863. 59 "Perhaps when the-miners get to the Rockies the Government w i l l CONSIDER roads to the Cariboo."(14) In the same v e i n he added: "The system of a l l o w i n g p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s to cut t r a i l s and make roads f o r the p r i v i l e g e of c h a r g i n g a t o l l f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d was no good i n a B r i t i s h c o lony; very good f o r a C a l i f o r n i a , but i n B r i t i s h Columbia we must not do t h i n g s i n a h u r r y , but proceed s l o w l y w i t h due regard to w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d form, and p recedents."{15 ) The p r i v i l e g e r e f e r r e d t o , t h a t of t u r n i n g the p u b l i c communica-t i o n s system i n t o a network of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s was l a t e r granted to the c o l o n i s t s when development seemed p o s s i b l e no other way. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g however t h a t the i n n o v a t i o n should have been r e s i s t e d , f o r i t was l e s s than a decade s i n c e E n g l i s h r e f o r m e r s had waged t h e i r b a t t l e f o r the a b o l i t i o n of t h a t v e r y p r i v i l e g e i n England. From the o u t s e t the awarding of c o n t r a c t s was a v e r y ' h i t and miss' a f f a i r . This was due i n p a r t to Douglas' l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e as a "road-king", i n p a r t to h i s eagerness to have communications opened w i t h the i n t e r i o r , and i n p a r t to the s p i r i t of p r o d i g a l i t y , the v e r y atmosphere of the g o l d c o l o n y . These had a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to the- break-down of the r o a d - c u t t i n g scheme on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t the season p r i o r LO the a r r i v a l of the Engineers and t h a t f i a s c o formed p a r t of the background f o r the new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under Moody. Douglas h i m s e l f had been aware of the weaknesses i n h i s scheme -at l e a s t by the end of the season when he wrote to Downing S t r e e t the despatch a l r e a d y quoted i n which he blamed the 14. A r g u s - E d i t o r , May 28, 1861. I'Le U e r from F o r e s t C i t y #11." C o l o n i s t June 17,1861. 1 5 . i b i d . 60 f a i l u r e on "the want of honest -and a b l e men to c a r r y out the p l a n s of'government."(16) He had gone on to say that the miners were very d i s s a t i s f i e d and, i f the f o l l o w i n g from the 'Gazette' i s t r u e , t h i s i s not to be wondered a t . "A hundred and f i f t y men are doing- n o t h i n g because there are as many a t work a t the f u r t h e r end of the r o u t e as can be s u p p l i e d w i t h p r o v i s i o n s . " ( 1 7 ) I t might be q u e s t i o n e d whether or not even honest and a b l e men c o u l d have accomplished much under t h i s arrangement. At any r a t e , G-ustavus B l i n Wright, who l a t e r became a c t i v e as a road c o n t r a c t o r , recommended the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g t h a t the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t road be done by c o n t r a c t , suggest-i n g t h a t the road should be d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s l e t t i n g r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i e s b i d on each s e c t i o n . ( 1 8 ) He even s t i p u l a t e d the p r o b a b l e t o t a l c o s t , $20,000, and the l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n , two months. Whether or n o t ' h i s s u g g e s t i o n c a r r i e d any weight w i t h Douglas or Moody, i t was a l o n g the l i n e s he i n d i c a t e d t h a t the development took p l a c e . I t cannot be s a i d however t h a t the c o n t r a c t arrangements l o s t t h e i r ' h i t and miss' c h a r a c t e r . Yet w h i l e i t i s easy to p o i n t to numerous fla w s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the department of lands and works, there Is much to exonerate the p f f i c i a l s . I t i s true t h a t the Engineers d e l a y e d so l o n g i n p e r f o r m i n g necessary s e r v i c e s t h a t even as l a t e as i860 many of the c o n t r a c t s awarded were 16. c f . p.56 above. 17. " L e t t e r from P o r t Douglas." V i c t o r i a Gazette, Sept 28,1858 18. C o l o n i s t , May 27, 1859 61 v i r t u a l l y b l a n k cheques. For example, the c o n t r a c t which Dewdney h e l d In the Hope-Similkameen i n that year contained no d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n s as to the d e t a i l s of the route and caused almost endless c o n t r o v e r s y between Douglas, Moody and the contractor. ( 1 9 ) But the l a y i n g out of a c a p i t a l , the b u i l d i n g of b a r r a c k s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Ned McG-owan War were unavoidable o b s t a c l e s ; and i t was no f a u l t of the Governor's t h a t the Engineers should make blunders because of t h e i r l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the country. B Again, the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the c o n t r a c t i n g system can be excused because communications' were always slow and o f t e n spasmodic and i t was. no simple task to p r o v i d e adequate s u p e r v i s i o n over so v a s t and so rugged a w i l d e r n e s s . And the s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t an area which one day might clamour f o r roads might be d e s e r t e d on the day f o l l o w i n g . I t came to a p o i n t where the govern-ment simply v o t e d an a p p r o p r i a t i o n to eke out l o c a l c o n t r i b u -t i o n s and l e f t the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s to get the most f o r t h e i r money. For example, Douglas requested i n 1861 a committee of l o c a l c i t i z e n s to spend-an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of §2,000 to the best advantage on a t r a i l from W i l l i a m s Lake to Quesnelle Forks. ( 2 0 ) In depending on the s e l f - i n t e r e s t of the c o l o n i s t s as a spur to road development the Governor Wc.s not d e a l i n g w i t h a n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r c e ; he was only mistaken w i t h r e s p e c t 19•Moody's Ms8. #1154, J u l y 6, 17, Aug 23, Oct 9, Nov 9, 13, 21, 27. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 2 0 . C o l o n i s t , May 22, 1861. 62 to i t s d i r e c t i o n . A c a s u a l r e a d i n g of the c o l o n i a l press a c c o u n t s ' o f the a c t i v i t i e s of the c i v i l i a n r o a d - b u i l d e r s i s l i k e l y to leave one w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the t e n who undertook to b u i l d a t r a i l here or a b r i d g e there were p u b l i c b e n e f a c t o r s . In.most cases however the i l l u s i o n i s l a t e r d e s t r o y e d by some news item r e v e a l i n g t h a t the b e n e f a c t o r owned a convenient s t o r e or h o t e l , the custom of which c e r t a i n l y d i d not s u f f e r from i t s p r o x i m i t y to the t r a i l or b r i d g e . T y p i c a l o f many such cases i s the d i s p u t e which arose between Captain.Grant of the Royal Engineers and G. B. Wright as to the course of the road to YiTilliams .take. Wright advocated abandoning the f u r brigade route which .proceeded to A l e x a n d r i a o v e r l a n d f o r one which f o l l o w e d the r i v e r . He c l a i m e d e a r l y i n May, 1863 t h a t h i s change would save ten m i l e s on the t o t a l d i s t a n c e as w e l l as o f f e r i n g the t r a v e l l e r the a l t e r n a t i v e of three-days-a-week steamship s e r v i c e on the r i v e r s a v i n g s i x t y m i l e s l a n d t r a v e l . ( 2 1 ) Grant however h e l d out f i r m l y f o r the o l d b r i g a d e t r a i l . Toward the end of the month when the smoke of b a t t l e wt.s b e g i n n i n g to c l e a r ' i t was r e v e a l e d by the ' C o l o n i s t ' t h a t Wright had r e c e i v e d a h a l f -i n t e r e s t - i n a ranch a t Deep Creek, rumoured to be "the p r i c e of t a k i n g the road t h a t way."(22) At the same time, Judge Elwyn who owned a t h i r d i n t e r e s t i n M i s s i o n Claim which had c o s t him $7,000 and which would d e p r e c i a t e i f Wright had h i s 2 1 . C o l o n i s t , May 4,1863. 2 2 . i b i d . May 28, 1863-63 way, hurried, to pour i n t o o f f i c i a l ears h i s advocacy of the o l d r o u t e . ; But n e i t h e r h i s p l e a s nor t h a t which should have c a r r i e d more weight, the a d v i c e of Grant, were s u f f i c i e n t to d e f e a t Wright. The ' C o l o n i s t ' had hoped t h a t the C h i e f 1 Commissioner, to whom the matter was r e f e r r e d , w o u l d be guided by the r e p o r t of Captain Grant who was "probably b e t t e r Q u a l i f i e d than any o t h e r o f f i c e r i n the country to determine the matter."(23) The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g the E d i t o r was s t i l l v i e w i n g the s i t u a t i o n w i t h alarm ana p o i n t i n g to a d d i t i o n a l evidence of " t r i c k e r y , f a v o u r i t i s m and m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " "Why d i d the Government a l l o w the road to be taken that way? Echo s t i l l answers why? Why were the c o n t r a c t -ors a l l o w e d to take the road to Soda Creek and s t a r t a steamboat on the Eraser? . . . Of course the c o n t r a c t -ors hadn't made any d o l l a r s out of the road or steamboat? Oh no I . . . D u r i n g the time the road was being b u i l t --'We' heard from r e l i a b l e sources t h a t the managing c o n t r a c t -or expressed to the W i l l i a m s Lake s e t t l e r s (on the o l d t r a i l ) h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to take the road by way of t h e i r ranches i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a small donation of $15,000! How k i n d ! But the next news the strange person l a b o u r i n g so h a r d f o r the g e n e r a l weal had become possessed of a h a l f - s h a r e i n Deep Creek Ranch .. . .(one of the b e s t stands f o r b u s i n e s s ) and not w i t h s t a n d i n g the many v i r t u e s V i c t o r i a j o u r n a l s had so f r e q u e n t l y found i n t h i s gentleman the road e v e n t u a l l y took the course by way of Deep Creek. Another t h i n g .- . . t h e steamboat r e t u r n s at such an hour t h a t the miner on h i s way down can j u s t make the f o u r t e e n m i l e s and stay a t Deep Creek House."(24) The e d i t o r went on to express a f a i n t hope t h a t the government would "'keep t h e i r weather eye l i f t i n g 1 a l i t t l e more on the next' o c c a s i o n of g i v i n g out c o n t r a c t s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads, t a k i n g care t h a t the l i n e i s f i x e d by d i s i n t e r -e s t e d , competent men and that the c l a u s e s i n the deed 23. C o l o n i s t , May 28,1863. 24. " " J o t t i n g s on B.C.'s P r o j e c t e d Road." i b i d . • L a r c h 4,1864 64 of c o n t r a c t are s t r i n g e n t enough to prevent the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s scheming and t r i c k i n g to b e n e f i t themselves a t the expense of the country."(25) C e r t a i n l y the country c o u l d i l l stand the expense. The h i s t o r y of the f i n a n c i n g necessary f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c i v i l i a n b u i l t roads i s complex and r e f l e c t s the mush-room nature of the colony's development and the craze f o r s p e c u l a t i v e investment which was s t r o n g l y p r e v a l e n t . At the o u t s e t Douglas favoured a p o l i c y of "pay as you go." H i s attempts to r a i s e s u f f i c i e n t revenue to pay f o r the r a p i d l y expanding road system n a t u r a l l y a ntagonized the c o l o n i s t s . The s u c c e s s i o n of customs d u t i e s , l i c e n s e s , head tax, mule tax and road t o l l s both governmental and p r i v a t e , grew from year t o - y e a r and bore down upon p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e l i k e a s n o w - s l i d e . Or so the tax-payers would have i t ; ~ but Douglas p o i n t e d out t h a t they were not so h e a v i l y taxed as t h e i r neighbours I n Tsashlngton t e r r i t o r y and by a s l e i g h t of hand under cover of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s he showed the taxes per head to be reasonable indeed. The. success of h i s d e v i c e depended upon h i s i n c l u d i n g i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s c f the- e n t i r e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n whether i n contact, w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n or not.(26) But though he may have decei v e d h i s correspondents i n England, the c o l o n i s t s were under no i l l u s i o n s as to the r e a l i t y of t h e i r t a x burden. On December 10, 1859 Douglas opened f i r e w i t h a p r o c l a m a t i o n s e t t i n g up customs dues on 2 5 . C o l o n i s t , March 4, 1364. §6.cf. Sage o p . c i t . p.297 65 f r e i g h t passing through New Westminster. In the preamble i t was set f o r t h that i t was • "expedient to r a i s e f u r t h e r revenue f o r the purpose of opening and improving communications, navigation and roads i n B r i t i s h Columbia."(27) At the same time and with the same end i n view Douglas conceived -a plan of taxation which well-nigh proved h i s undoing. W r i t i n g to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e on February 25, i860 he s a i d : "Because the Royal Engineers are unable to grapple with the great d i f f i c u l t i e s or to make any impression on the mountains, therefore I have used c i v i l labour a l s o and f a i l i n g help from Her Majesty's Government I re s o r t e d to a s s i s t a n c e by-way of a tax of £'i s t e r l i n g o n - a l l pack animals l e a v i n g Douglas and Yale. . . .' The tax i s unpopular but a l l -taxes are and t h i s i s urgent."(28) Urgent or not, i t brought as compensation f o r i t s lack of p o p u l a r i t y only £30 to the c o l o n i a l revenues (29) and worse still,""drew upon the governor a storm of c r i t i c i s m which culminated i n a popular a g i t a t i o n f o r h i s dismissal. ( 3 0 ) Amor de Cosmos, one of the committee to choose a spokesman to voice' i n London the. indignation- of the tax-payers, devoted considerable space i n the 'Colonist' to heated d i s c u s s i o n on "the present c r i s i s . " ( 3 1 ) On March 10, i n an a r t i c l e headed "Mule Tax T a c t i c s " he gloated over the spectacle of the arch-autocrat e x t r i c a t i n g himself from the "horns of the dilemma." "How to f i n d a pretext f o r repeal?" De Cosmos al s o quoted with some glee the e d i t o r of the Port 27. B.C.Papers, part I I I . 28. Douglas-Downing Street, Feb 2 5 , i 8 6 0 . ( V i c t o r i a Archives Desp.) 29. C o l o n i s t , March 10, i860. 5 0 . C o l o n i s t , Feb 2 8 , i 8 6 0 . 31.Colonist, Feb 23,1860. 66 < Townsend R e g i s t e r whom, he s a i d , "handled our governor w i t h -out g l o v e s . " The d i a g n o s i s o f f e r e d by the American e d i t o r was t h a t the l e v y i n g of the mule tax was "a case of murdering the goose t h a t l a y s the egg."(32) But however u n w i l l i n g to pay a mule-tax, the c o l -o n i s t s s t i l l clamoured f o r roads and Douglas tunned to other methods.of r a i s i n g the necessary revenue. There i s evidence t h a t the Governor a p p l i e d i n March f o r a l o a n , presumably intended f o r p u b l i c works.(33) And i t i s probable t h a t p e r m i s s i o n was r e f u s e d because the Royal Engineers had been despatched to the Colony f o r the purpose of d e v e l o p i n g communications and no a d d i t i o n a l e x p enditure was c o n s i d e r e d necessary. At any r a t e Douglas a p p l i e d a g a i n f o r a l o a n on October 13.(34) Two days l a t e r he i s s u e d an ordinance estab- ] f l i s h i n g t o l l s a t Y a l e , Douglas, and Hope - t h a t i s to say j i a t the p o i n t of departure of each of the three r o u t e s to the j upper country. ( 3 5 ) In the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e i t i s worth n o t i n g that the mule-tax had not a p p l i e d on the f u r - b r i g a d e r o u t e from Hope and t h i s had drawn c r i t i c i s m upon Douglas f o r h i s pro-Company p o l i c y . C e r t a i n l y " the proceeds of the &1 mule-tax would have been c o n s i d e r a b l y augmented had the tax been l e v i e d on the Hudson's Bay Company brig a d e of 400 animals which l e f t Hope a n n u a l l y . 32. Colonist,- Feb 23,1860. 33. Douglas-Downing S t r e e t , Oct 13,1860 ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s Desp) 3 4 . i b i d . . . 35..Broclama11on, October 15, i860. 67 The system of p r i v a t e t o l l s had already heen instituted.:. For example, i n the 'Colonist' of September 27, i 8 6 0 i t was reported that a bridge had been b u i l t ' at L i l l o o e t by p r i v a t e p a r t i e s and that t o l l s were being charged. Furthermore, Douglas reported to Downing- Street on October 9 that he had given permission while on tour to a p r i v a t e company who proposed throwing "a bridge at t h e i r own expense over the Thompson at Lytton to be r e p a i d by t o l l s . " ( 3 6 ) And the Governor considered the scheme "desirous". During the next three years the p o l i c y became more and more "desirous" and a number of bridges, notably Spence's and Trutch's Alexandra bridge, were constructed on t h i s basis. And Wright even c o l l e c t e d t o l l s on the s t r e t c h of road from L i l l o o e t to Alexandria. The arrangements seem to have proved p r o f i t a b l e ' ' f o r the c o n t r a c t o r s . I t was claimed i n 1863 that the returns were as high as 25/o,(37) This s e c t i o n devoted to the a c t i v i t i e s of c i v i l i a n r o a d - b u i l d e r s during the Engineer era may be concluded with b r i e f references to the 'p r i n c i p a l contractors and the d i s t r i c t s with which t h e i r names are -connected. Mention has already been made of the a c t i v i t i e s of G. B. Wright above L i l l o o e t and i n Cariboo. Joseph W. Trutch constructed a small sector on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t road as w e l l as the bridge mentioned above. Edgar Dewdney's memorial i s the Dewdney T r a i l from Hope into the Similkameen d i s t r i c t . Spence's Bridge commemorates 36.Douglas-Downing Street, Oct 9 , I 8 6 0 . ( V i c t o r i a Archives Desp) 37-,-Colonist, Sep 23,1868. 68 Thomas Spence who a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d the wagon-road from Boston Bar'to L y t t o n . Walter Moberly, who l a t e r became Trutch's r i g h t hand man, had the m i s f o r t u n e i n 1862 to go i n t o p a r t n e r s h i p with Charles Oppenheimer and T. B. Lewis to c o n s t r u c t the p a r t of the Cariboo wagon-road from j_ytton to A l e x a n d r i a . Oppenheimer "absquatulated"(38) before the task was f i n i s h e d . W i l l i a m Hood assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and completed a l l but a s m a l l s e c t i o n b u i l t by the Royal Engineers. II . Douglas had w r i t t e n to Lord S t a n l e y i n June 1858 t h a t , j u d g i n g from r e p o r t s c o l l e c t e d from H a r r i s o n ' s R i v e r , Hope, Thompson's R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , the upper F r a s e r , and Okanagan Lake, the g o l d d e p o s i t s of the mainland were not r e s t r i c t e d to the c u r r e n t d i g g i n g s on the lower F r a s e r . "The c o n v i c t i o n i s g r a d u a l l y f o r c i n g i t s e l f upon my mind t h a t not only F r a s e r ' s R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r y streams, but a l s o the whole country s i t u a t e d to the eastward of the G u l f o f Georgia as f a r n o r t h as John-stone 's S t r a i t s , i s one c o n t i n u e d bed of Gold of i n -c a l c u a b l e v a l u e and extent."(39) Three years proved t h a t the d e p o s i t s , i n e x t e n t i f not i n v a l u e , exceeded the Governor's e s t i m a t e . By 1859 the d e p o s i t s of the lower F r a s e r had been "worked'out" from the p o i n t of view of the g e t - r i c h - q u i c k p r o s p e c t o r s , a l t h o u g h ' O r i e n t a l g l e a n e r s remained to e x t r a c t a modest h a r v e s t throughout the g p l d p e r i o d . T h i r t y - f i v e d o l l a r g o l d and an embarrassing 5 8 . C o l o n i s t , Sep 24 , 1862. 39.Douglas-Stanley, June 10,1838. (FRO CO 60) 69, unemployment problem have, i n our own day, r e c a l l e d i nto use the despised lower Fraser diggings as p r o v i n c i a l government youth t r a i n i n g schools. The gold-seekers of 1859, however, were i n t e r e s t e d i n bigger money and penetrated f o r t y miles beyond Alexandria. Some new f i n d s were made but on the whole 1859 had a sobering e f f e c t . Nor d i d i860 bring' word of the awaited Eldorado. But i n 1861 prospectors found t h e i r way over the d i v i d e from ^Cariboo Lake to William's Creek where they worked q u i e t l y for a season. • In s p i t e of t h e i r precautions, news leaked out by the end of the season that t h e i r deep diggings f a r surpassed i n r i c h n e s s any d i s c o v e r i e s made heretofore. The Cariboo rush of 1862 was the consequence.(40) In i t s t r a i n came new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems and, f o r the f i r s t time, some enthusiasm on the part of the B r i t i s h p u b l i c . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems were complicated at the outset by the f a c t that the 'winter of 1861-2 was unusually severe. In s p i t e of the f a c t that the 'Colonist' apologized f o r the weather on the grounds t h a t i t had been "not h a l f as severe as winters i n general i n Canada and the Northern States,"(41) i t was a subject f o r lamentation that as l a t e as March 6, "communication between New Westminster and the upper country had v i r t u a l l y ceased" and was s t i l l impossible.(42) From the middle of January the r e s i d e n t s of Yale had been deprived of 40. A c o l o u r f u l account of the William's Creek pioneers i s to be found i n lewis, Lebourdais 1 " B i l l y Barker of B a r k e r v i l l e , " B . C . H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, July, 1937. 1:3:165-177. 41. C o l o n i s t , March 6, 1862. 4 2 . i b i d . 70 beef and potatoes while the s c a r c i t y of f l o u r had driven the p r i c e to | o 2 per b a r r e l . ( 4 3 ) A packer wrote from L i l l o o e t on March 4 that h a l f the pack animals had died and that sno?<r was four f e e t deep on the portages.(4 4 ) A l l t h i s helped to bear home to those who were i n t e r e s t e d i n up-country trade that they could not depend e n t i r e l y upon the Fraser gate-vi/ay. The a l t e r n a t i v e of opening trunk roads from the seaboard to the i n t e r i o r began to receive considerable a t t e n t i o n . The enthusiasm of V i c t o r i a p a r t i s a n s on b e h a l f of a, new route began to outweigh the skepticism of those who placed t h e i r f a i t h i n New Westminster as the l o g i c a l trade depot. The embattled e d i t o r s of the 'Colonist' and the 'Columbian' had found .a f i n e bone of contention; and the p u b l i c , according to Douglas, began making e n t h u s i a s t i c plans f o r opening roads " i n t o Cariboo from Bute I n l e t and North Bentinck Arm . . . e n t i r e l y at t h e i r own expense on c o n d i t i o n of the r i g h t to levy t o l l s . " ( 4 5 ) The degree of enthusiasm may be measured by the f a c t that on one occasion three hundred r e s i d e n t s of V i c t o r i a attended a meeting to hear A l f r e d Waddington discuss the Bute I n l e t route.(46) Much of the i n t e r e s t was based on a controversy about the r e s p e c t i v e merits of the Bute I n l e t and Bentinck Arm routes. T r a v e l l i n g by ,thedformer, one landed at the mouth of the 'Bomathco River on Bute I n l e t , followed the r i v e r v a l l e y 4 3 . C o l o n i s t , March 1 7 , 1 8 6 2 . 4 4 . i b i d . March 2 1 , 1 8 6 2 . 4 5. Douglas-Downing Street, Apr 1 5 , 1 8 6 2 . ( V i c t o r i a Archives) 46. C o l o n i s t , August 2 7 , 1 8 6 2 . 71 to what i s now c a l l e d Waddington Mountain, whence i t was necessary 'to climb to the C h i l c o t i n p l a i n s and so across by the h i s t o r i c Indian route to the Fraser. The only v a r i a t i o n i n the Bentinck Arm route was that i t began at the mouth of the B e l l a Coola on the North Bentinck Arm of Dean's Channel, whence i t proceeded south-east to the C h i l c o t i n p l a i n s . • Waddington claimed that h i s preference for the Bute I n l e t route was derived from a systematic study of a l l the p o s s i b l e coast routes of which he l i s t e d a dozen.(47) With l e s s fanfare, numerous packers, presumably not having engaged i n any .such research, were content to employ the North Bentinck Arm route which had been p r o f i t a b l y employed by the Hudson's Bay Company pack t r a i n s during the seasons of i860 and 1861.(48) I t was i n an e f f o r t to solve the problem of f i n d i n g the "most expeditious route that palmer and h i s party of Engineers were despatched on an exploratory survey during the summer of 1862.(49) No engineer, however, could solve the problem of the sharp r i v a l r y which e x i s t e d between V i c t o r i a and New Westminster, based as i t yvas. on a struggle f o r commercial supremacy. When the p o s s i b i l i t y became apparent that some northern i n l e t would d i s p l a c e the Fraser as the means of entry to the g o l d - f i e l d s , a correspondent of the 'Colonist' voiced the j u b i l a t i o n of the i s l a n d e r s as he.derided "the o 47.Colonist, A p r i l 13,1861. 4 8 . i b i d . Feb 8, 1861. 49.Palmer, L i e u t . H.S., R.E. Report of a Journey of Survey. New Westminster, 1863. 72 h i g h l a n d home" of C o l o n e l Moody and h i s s t a f f of " f i n e o l d E n g l i s h gentlemen."(50) The correspondent was convinced t h a t the " F o r e s t C i t y " would soon he regarded as a had investment and a poor p e d e s t a l f o r the d i g n i t y of a c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l , now t h a t i t was so f a r removed from the g o l d - f i e l d s . An i n c i d e n t which t e m p o r a r i l y s o l v e d the route c o n t r o v e r s y so f a r as the F r a s e r and n o r t h e r n i n l e t s were concerned, was the Bute I n l e t massacre of A p r i l 1864. A p a r t y of Waddington's r o a d - b u i l d e r s were a t t a c k e d and murdered b y I n d i a n s who sought, a c c o r d i n g to some, revenge f o r white c o n t a m i n a t i o n of I n d i a n women, or, a c c o r d i n g to ot h e r s , the food s u p p l i e s of the road party. ( 5 1 ) The r i v a l r y , however, between New Westminster and V i c t o r i a was by no means q u e l l e d as should be e v i d e n t when the i n c i d e n t s of the years immediately f o l l o w i n g are passed I n review i n a l a t e r chapter. T r a f f i c , as i t passed up the Fr a s e r . f r o m New West-m i n s t e r , was c o n f r o n t e d by a choice of three r o u t e s to the i n t e r i o r : the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t , Yale-Lytton, and Hope-Similkameen. On b e h a l f of each a t e r m i n a l ' c i t y ' was an advocate and o f f e r e d inducements. The r i v a l r y between them dates from the f i r s t r u s h of I858 and had reached, by 1861, a p o i n t o f " s p i t e f u l j e a l o u s y " a c c o r d i n g to the L i l l o o e t correspondent of the ' C o l o n i s t ' . He viewed w i t h d i s g u s t "the p i t i f u l whine o f the Hope people" who f e l t t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w e r e r b e i n g s l i g h t e d . ( 5 2 ) 50.. C o l o n i s t , Dec. 27,1861. 51. F u l l d e t a i l s i n Howay and S c h o M i e l d op. c i t . 11:178 f f . 52. C o l o n i s t , Aug. 23,1861. 73 The Cariboo rush of 1862 w i t h i t s promise of increased" t r a f f i c and b u s i n e s s added f r e s h f u e l to the f i r e s o f r i v a l r y so t h a t the e d i t o r of the ' C o l o n i s t ' was moved to r e g r e t the " f e e l i n g of r i v a l r y between the d i f f e r e n t towns i n the Colony, . . . not the honest f e e l i n g of commercial c o m p e t i t i o n , but one, the o b j e c t of which i s to b u i l d up and f o s t e r one-at the expense and d e t r i m e n t of the others. " ( 5 3 ) So eager d i d the p a r t i s a n s become d u r i n g 1862 t h a t l a r g e advertisements e x t o l l i n g the m e r i t s of the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t or the Y a l e - L y t t o n r o u t e s made t h e i r appearance i n the c o l o n i a l p r e s s . F r e i g h t r a t e s , c r e a t u r e comforts, and t i m e - s a v i n g f e a t u r e s were thrown i n t o the s c a l e s i n the hopes of t i p p i n g i t toward e i t h e r t r a d i n g depot. C r a z i n g and l a r d e r i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s - were weighedeagainst chances f o r road-work or even g o l d - s l u i c i n g en route. ( 5 4 ) The r i v a l r y which has been d e s c r i b e d was not l i m i t e d to the lower t e r m i n i but was shared by the r e s i d e n t s of L i l l o o e t and L y t t o n who seemed to r e g a r d any b u s i n e s s done i n the o t h e r town as r i g h t f u l l y t h e i r own, f i l c h e d from them by d e c e i t . A f t e r 1862 the venom spread even to the new camps i n the Cariboo country; a t L y t t o n the t r a v e l l e r must choose between the b r i g a d e t r a i l a l o n g the Thompson and the r i v e r t r a i l " a l o n g the F r a s e r ; a t C l i n t o n he might t u r n o f f toward Davidson's Ranch a t W i l l i a m ' s Lake; h a v i n g a r r i v e d a t the l a k e he might go n o r t h - e a s t to Quesnelle Forks or west 5 5 . C o l o n i s t , March 25,1862. 54.e.g. i b i d . A p r i l 1,1862. 74 to the F r a s e r r i v e r t r a i l and so to Quesnelle Mouth. And i n i t a l l those who stood to g a i n from h i s custom were eager persuaders. W r i t i n g i n A p r i l 1862, the e d i t o r of the ' C o l o n i s t ' commented t h a t there were " f o u r r o u t e s to the Northern mines p r o j e c t e d and f i v e companies engaged to c o n s t r u c t them. . . . Nearly two thousand men are' engaged on those p u b l i c works to complete them i n time. . . . In no country on the P a c i f i c c o a st can there be such an amount of p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e shown as i n B r i t i s h Columbia at the present time. In v*3 p r o p o r t i o n to the p o p u l a t i o n i t i s u n e q u a l l e d the world over. With a p o p u l a t i o n of f i v e thousand there w i l l be' f o u r l i n e s of road t o t a l l i n g n e a r l y e i g h t hundred m i l e s i n l e n g t h . " ( 5 5 ) S i n c e ' t h e f i v e thousand i n h a b i t a n t s seemed r e l u c t a n t to p r o v i d e f o r the e i g h t hundred m i l e s o f road through t a x a t i o n , c a p i t a l from the o u t s i d e w o r l d was e s s e n t i a l . Since 1858, the primary source of c a p i t a l had been San F r a n c i s c o , not i n the form of government borrowings but as c a p i t a l f o r p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s . The only B r i t i s h f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n e i t h e r colony, the Bank of B r i t i s h North America, had a s i n g l e branch a t V i c t o r i a , which the d i r e c t o r s contem-p l a t e d c l o s i n g because o f - t h e p a l t r y p r o f i t s made, up to and i n c l u d i n g 1861. " The d i s c o v e r i e s of t h a t year a l t e r e d the s i t u a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y . In London- the news of the r i c h s t r i k e s r e c e i v e d the amount of newspaper a t t e n t i o n which today would have c a l l e d f o r h e a d l i n e s . Donald F r a s e r , o v e r - o p t i m i s t i c correspondent of the London 'Times'' and r e s i d e n t i n V i c t o r i a , wrote glowing 5 5 . C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 7,1862. 75 accounts which were- l a t e r r e p r i n t e d i n pamphlet form and widely c i r c u l a t e d i n Canada and Great B r i t a i n . ( 5 6 ) Commenting e d i t o r -i a l l y on these accounts the 'Times' s a i d : "According to our correspondent the gold diggings of B r i t i s h Columbia i s a l o t t e r y In which there are no blanks; and the p r i z e s are indeed splendid. The law i s strong, and p u b l i c opinion i s sound under B r i t i s h r u l e . B r i t i s h Columbia, thus, we are t o l d , o f f e r s a good investment both f o r labour and capital." ( 5 7 ) On Hew Years Day, 1862, a l e t t e r appeared i n the 'Times' which had been o f f e r e d by a subscriber who had- l a t e l y r eceived i t from Vancouver Island. "I have t o l d you before of the almost fabulous richness of the mines of B r i t i s h Columbia; recent accounts place this- beyond a doubt. Many men are making $100 per day and not a few have picked up one hundred ounces i n the same space of time. . . . Want i s unknown, pr o v i s i o n s afe p l e n t i f u l , and hardships are among things of the past." ( 5 8 ) The s u b s c r i b e r who supplied the l e t t e r guaranteed that h i s correspondent v/as "a gentleman possessed of the best means of information, and who i s more l i k e l y to understate than to exaggerate the case."(59) The same is s u e of the 'Times' contained, i n the long l i s t of c l a s s i f i e d advertisements of ocean-going v e s s e l s , j u s t two o f f e r i n g passage to B r i t i s h Columbia and those by way of San F r a n c i s c o . But i n mid-January the Royal M a i l Steam Packet Company had a c t u a l l y opened an agency i n the o f f i c e s of Macdonald and Company, bankers of V i c t o r i a . ( 6 0 ) By March 31, 5.6.Ross/Victor.A H i s t o r y of the Canadian Bank of Commerce. Toronto," 1920. p.252-3. ~ 57. The Times, London. (Quoted i n Ross op.cit.p.232-5) 58. A. G-. D a l l a s - E d i t o r . i b i d . Jan 1,1862. 5 9 . i b i d . 60. C o l o n i s t , Jan.' 17,1862. 76 the 'Times' l i s t e d no l e s s than s i x , s e v e r a l of them s a i l i n g to B r i t i s h ' Columbia d i r e c t . ( 6 1 ) Another company-interested i n t r a n s p o r t i n g people to the new g o l d f i e l d s had the remarkable, p r o j e c t of s h i p p i n g t h e i r c l i e n t s to Canada and thence o v e r l a n d to the Cariboo. In the face of s t r o n g r i d i c u l e from those who knew the country, the Overland T r a n s i t Company a c t u a l l y entrapped s u f f i c i e n t i n n o c e n t s f o r one cargo. (62) The same promoters sponsored the f l o t a t i o n of the f i r s t j o i n t - s t o c k bank i n t e n d e d to operate s o l e l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d . On March 3, 1862 an a d v e r t i s e -ment appeared i n the 'Times' o f f e r i n g shares i n the "West-End J o i n t - S t o c k Bank ( L i m i t e d ) and Branch Bank, f o r V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia: f u l l y I n c o r p o r a t e d under the p r o v i s i o n s of the J o i n t -Stock Banking Companies A c t s of 1857 arid I 8 5 8 . C a p i t a l H a l f a M i l l i o n S t e r l i n g w i t h power to Increase to One M i l l i o n . " Here the d i r e c t o r s of the proposed company were l i s t e d and the p r e v i o u s r e c o r d of the e n t e r p r i s e as a p r i v a t e bank d i s c u s s e d . Then the b a i t : "The enormous y i e l d of the g o l d d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . g i v e s ' f u l l assurance t h a t V i c t o r i a and B r i t i s h Columbia are assuming a p o s i t i o n i n wealth and commercial importance. . . . An opening presents f o r banking o p e r a t i o n s of the most p r o f i t a b l e n a t u r e . . . 5% per' month i s r e a d i l y p a i d f o r d i s c o u n t accomodation amply secured.' The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r s 10% on i t s l o a n s . A very p r o f i t a b l e b u s i ness i s to be' d e r i v e d i n d e a l i n g i n b u l l i o n . . . . i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t the Bank w i l l f u l l y r e a l i z e a net minimum p r o f i t of 20 to 30 per cent. " ( 6 3 ) 6 1 . The Times,London. March 31,1862. 62. C o l o n i s t , Oct 14,1862. 63. The'Times,London, March 5,1862. 77 Fortunately f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, the E n g l i s h p u b l i c d i d not swallow the b a i t . One of the d i r e c t o r s of the Hudson's Bay Company, H. H. Berens, wrote a l e t t e r to Da l l a s , son-in-law to Douglas and successor to S i r George Simpson, i n which he claimed that the transit,scheme was a c r u e l swindle and the person behind i t a one-time bankrupt.(64) Since the same group sponsored the West-End Bank, i t i s not hard to account f o r the f a i l u r e to 'dispose of the bank shares. Quite otherwise was the f l o t a t i o n of the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia which appeared s h o r t l y afterwards under more respectable auspices.- A group of London merchants and bankers i n c l u d i n g T. fJ. L. MacKean, Chairman, and Robert G i l l e s p i e , James Anderson, James Bonar, Eden G o l v i l e and others, d i r e c t o r s , formed a company incorporated under r o y a l charter f o r the express purpose of supplying banking f a c i l i t i e s i n Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t n o t i c e of t h e i r i n t e n t i o n appeared i n the 'Times' of A p r i l ' 14,1862. By September they were able to announce through the same medium that they were "now prepared to issue l e t t e r s of c r e d i t on the Bank's branch a t V i c t o r i a , Vancouver's Island, a l s o to purchase and forward b i l l s f o r c o l l e c t i o n on the colony where they transact a- general banking business,"(6 5 ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s bank to the-development of communications i n B r i t i s h . Columbia was at once important and 64. Berens-Dallas, - May 23,1862. (H3C- Archives, A 7/3 p.104) 65. The Times, London, September 26,1862. 78 continued so throughout the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . At the end of May, 1862', ;-MacKean wrote to Douglas: "As the bank has been e x p r e s s l y e s t a b l i s h e d to develop the resources of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver's I s l a n d and an u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n and c a p i t a l w i l l be employed f o r t h i s purpose I venture to ask your support to render the i n s t i t u t i o n f i t f o r the purposes intended 66) Douglas' r e a c t i o n i s noted upon the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r : " I f the p l a n be c a r r i e d out a c c o r d i n g to the programs i n t h i s l e t t e r i t w i l l prove a g r e a t b e n e f i t to the c o l o n i e s on t h i s c o a s t . Both c a p i t a l and labour are ^ e s s e n t i a l toward t h e i r development and should t h i s Bank supply the much needed f a c i l i t i e s - the D i r e c t o r s w i l l deserve the support of the Government and of a g r a t e f u l • communi ty."(67) Much evidence may be found In the manuscript f i l e s of the V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s t h a t 'the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia a c t e d as banker f o r the r o a d - b u i l d e r s , e s p e c i a l l y G. B. Wright. The method employed was: Wright b u i l t a p i e c e of road, r e c e i v e d an i n s p e c t o r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e , presented i t a t the Bank which advanced him c r e d i t thereon (at the r a t e , u s u a l l y of l8;s!-}:; the bank then forwarded the c e r t i f i c a t e to the S e c r e t a r y of the Colony f o r payment. Very o f t e n the amount would be added to the a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r a b l e government o v e r d r a f t . ( 6 8 ) In a d d i t i o n the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia a c t e d as f i s c a l agent f o r the government and d i s p o s e d of the two £100,000 road loans on the London market.(69) Thus the c h a i n of B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t was not broken by the departure o f the Engineers i n the year f o l l o w i n g the 66.T.W.L.MacKean-Douglas, May 3 1 , 1 8 6 2 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s F115 : 1 ) 6 7 . I b i d . 68.In March 1865:|168 . $ 1 5 . 6 9 ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s F110:7) 69.Walker-Col.Secty, August 2 5 ,1862. (F109:l) 79 advent of the Bank. The c o n f l i c t between the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and - i t s c r e d i t o r s r e p l a c e d t h a t which had e x i s t e d between Moody and Douglas. But before going on to d i s c u s s the developments of the post-Engineer e r a , t h i s l a t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p may. here be d i s c u s s e d and d i s m i s s e d . I l l In a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . r e f e r e n c e s were made to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Governor Douglas and C o l o n e l Moody of the Ro y a l E n g i n e e r s . This i s an aspect of the h i s t o r y of the c o l o n i e s from 1858 to 1863 which has not been d i s c u s s e d h i t h e r t o a t any l e n g t h . Enough has been s a i d above i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the w i t h d r a w a l of the Engineers to i n d i c a t e t h a t ' t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n 1863 was not c o r d i a l . ( 7 0 ) To under-stand the h o s t i l i t y one must c o n s i d e r the backgrounds of the two p e r s o n a l i t i e s , a l i k e a u t o c r a t i c , but w i t h d i v e r g e n t t h e o r i e s of governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Douglas, who was Moody's s e n i o r by ten years, was pro b a b l y born i n S c o t l a n d i n 1803, the son of a w e l l to do S c o t t i s h f a m i l y w i t h i n t e r e s t s In the sugar trade i n B r i t i s h Guiana. Moody, the son of a c o l o n e l of the Royal Engineers, was born i n b a r r a c k s a t S t . Anne's i n the Barbados and reared f o r the army. , Douglas e n t e r e d the s e r v i c e of the worth West Company a t the age of s i x t e e n , h a v i n g r e c e i v e d a sound element-a r y e d u c a t i o n i n S c o t l a n d . His f i r s t w i n t e r was spent at 7 0 .Chapter V, p.48. 80 r F o r t W i l l i a m but i n the summer of 1820 he was t r a n s f e r r e d to I s l e a l a Crosse.- A f t e r the amalgamation of the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies i n 1821, Douglas rose s t e a d i l y through the ranks, spending most of h i s c a r e e r i n New Caledonia and on the Columbia. Moody, on the oth e r hand, had a wide experience i n many l a n d s . I n v a l i d e d home' to England i n 1837 a f t e r an a t t a c k of y e l l o w f e v e r , he toured the United S t a t e s i n the company o f S i r Charles F e l i x Smith. On h i s r e t u r n he was f o r a s h o r t time p r o f e s s o r of f o r t i f i c a t i o n s a t the m i l i t a r y academy a t Woolwich.-' -In 1841 he was appointed governor of the new colony of the F a l k l a n d I s l a n d s and, a c c o r d i n g to h i s bi o g r a p h e r , coped w i t h a s t a t e of anarchy and d i s p l a y e d "great wisdom and moderation."(71) A f t e r an e i g h t year term he r e t u r n e d to England and was employed on s p e c i a l duty by the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , u n t i l i n 1854 he was sent to M a l t a . A f t e r a year of s e r v i c e he had h i s second bout of f e v e r and was a g a i n i n v a l i d e d home. Upon h i s r e c o v e r y he was appointed Commandant of the "Royal'Engineers i n North B r i t a i n . D ouglas 1 success i n h i s chosen sphere depended upon h i s business" s k i l l and resource and h i s c a p a c i t y f o r l e a d e r s h i p . He was accustomed to the f i n a n c i a l code of a c o r p o r a t i o n devoted t o e a r n i n g p r o f i t s f o r i t s s h a r e h o l d e r s . •This may e x p l a i n h i s d e v o t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' t o the p r i n c i p l e of 'pay as you go'. C o l o n e l 7 1 . D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography, XIII:779-780 81 Moody was steeped i n the t r a d i t i o n s of the B r i t i s h Army and had a l r e a d y I n 1858 spent a decade i n the s e r v i c e of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . We are Informed t h a t he was "a s k i l l e d draughtsman and d e l i g h t e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . " ( 7 2 ) But fundament-a l l y he was a s o l d i e r and accustomed to the f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y of government, departments, which means making p l a n s , drawing up "budgets and then l o o k i n g f o r the money. Such were the two men "brought together i n the g o l d colony.""' To t h e i r w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g backgrounds add the f a c t t h a t both were accustomed to and expected to e x e r c i s e author-i t y , and the h o s t i l i t y which developed between them i s understandable. Douglas was i n a measure f o i s t e d on the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e w i t h o u t h a v i n g served any a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and was t h e r e f o r e something of an o u t s i d e r . F u r t h e r , he was not p e r s o n a l l y known e i t h e r to the permanent s t a f f of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e or to the two C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r i e s under whom he served. N e i t h e r w&s Moody a 'bona f i d e ' C o l o n i a l O f f i c e man, alth o u g h a bond had l o n g e x i s t e d "between the R o y a l Engineers and the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . But he had the b e n e f i t of a longer experience and p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p i n London. The r e l a t i o n s between Douglas and the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e d i d n o t improve as he became b e t t e r known to them. In December 1858 Blackwood spoke of Douglas as "not a man to express exaggerated o p i n i o n s , " ( 7 3 ) and the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e a t f i r s t - 7 2 . . D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography, XIII: 7 7 9 . 73.Note,' Blackwood-?, re despatch, Douglas-Lytton, Dec 14,1838 (PRO CO 60 #1067:51) 82 gave Moody to understand t h a t they p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e con-f i d e n c e In the Governor.(74) But even i n the s p r i n g of 1859 o f f i c i a l s a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e were b e g i n n i n g to worry about Douglas. " I f not checked, he w i l l get h i m s e l f and us i n t o g r e a t s c r a p e s , " wrote Lytton. ( 7 5 ) By .1863, the o p i n i o n of Douglas h e l d i n London was t h a t he f r e q u e n t l y took important steps on h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and when r e q u i r e d to e x p l a i n , was g u i l t y k of " s h u f f l i n g " . ( 7 6 ) The a r t i c l e on Moody i n the D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography suggests t h a t Moody's r e c o r d i n the F a l k l a n d I s l a n d s gave -him a h i g h r a t i n g at the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . Whether t h i s i s tr u e or not, Moody had not-even embarked f o r B r i t i s h Columbia b e f o r e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e n o t a t i o n s l a b e l l e d him one "always i n a h u r r y and f r e q u e n t l y wrong," and consequently not to be trusted. ( 7 7 ) A f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n the c o l o n i e s h i s haphazard r e t u r n s and correspondence appear t o have earned him the contempt of those who were f o r c e d to i n t e r p r e t the l e t t e r s he wrote "more from' impulse than, from r e f l e c t i o n . " ( 7 8 ) The o p i n i o n s of Moody h e l d by Newcastle and h i s a i d e s a t ' t h e time of the r e c a l l of the Engineers have been d i s c u s s e d above,(79) 74. c f . Chapter-IV:pp 35-6. 75. myttoh's comment, A p r i l 1859, to Carnarvon's and Blackwood's notes on a despatch, Douglas-Lytton, Feb 7,1859.(PRO CO 60.3) 76. Note, E l l i o t - N e w c a s t l e , re despatch, Douglas-Newcastle,Jan 10,1863. (PRO CO 60.15 #2135) 77. Note, Blackwood-Carnarvon, re l e t t e r , Moody-Carnarvon, Oct 23,1858 (PRO CO 60) 78. Note, I r v i n g - ? , re l e t t e r , Moody-Douglas, Aug 8,1859. (PRO CO 60) 79. c f . Chapter V: p.52. 83 The same haphazard approach to b u s i n e s s which had annoyed the men a t the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was one of the bones of c o n t e n t i o n between Moody and Douglas. Moody had come to the c olony w i t h a good o p i n i o n of Douglas and Douglas had been t o l d that he c o u l d r e l y e n t i r e l y on Moody.(80) I t was u n f o r t u n a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Moody should have found i t necessary to countermand Douglas' c h o i c e of a c a p i t a l - s i t e so soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l In the colony. T i l l s matter of the replacement of o l d F o r t Langley by New Westminster has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . I t was not the only o c c a s i o n on which Douglas' b u s i n e s s sense c o n f l i c t e d w i t h Moody's i n s t i n c t f o r defence p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A year l a t e r the s e l e c t i o n of the s i t e f o r P r i n c e t o w n (81) prompted Beijgiars to complain to Downing S t r e e t t h a t Douglas was undermining h i s a u t h o r i t y and t r e s p a s s i n g upon h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Douglas, seeing the n e c e s s i t y f o r a supply depot across the mountains from Hope, and b e l i e v i n g , as he l a t e r claimed, that Moody was absent from Hope on road i n s p e c t i o n duty, i n s t r u c t e d O ' R e i l l y , m a g i s t r a t e a t Hope, to choose a s i t e a t once, the matter b e i n g urgent. At the same'.time a copy of Douglas' I n s t r u c t i o n s was m a i l e d to Moody a t Hope, and the l a t t e r not being absent, r e c e i v e d i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h O ' R e i l l y ' s departure upon a m i s s i o n which p l a i n l y f e l l w i t h i n Moody's p r o v i n c e . E v i d e n t l y he d i d not f o r b i d O ' R e i l l y to c a r r y out 80. Lytton-Douglas, Oct 1^,1858. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s Despatches) 81. At the end"of the Hope-Similkameen t r a i l . Now c a l l e d P r i n c e t o n , B. C. 8 4 the Governor's i n s t r u c t i o n s , hut i n s t e a d wrote to Downing S t r e e t , c o m p l a i n i n g of Douglas' u s u r p a t i o n and condemning O ' R e i l l y ' s s i t e on m i l i t a r y grounds. The despatch was forwarded through the Governor who does not appear to have commented thereon to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e u n t i l c h a l l e n g e d to e x p l a i n h i s a c t i o n s . H i s l e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n , composed i n January 1861, admits t h a t the matter of choosing a s i t e might p r o p e r l y have been attended to by C o l o n e l Moody, alt h o u g h the only town s i t e chosen by o t h e r than " l o c a l circumstances of n e c e s s i t y arid convenience" had been New Westminster. (82) But Douglas pleaded urgency and misunderstanding as to Moody's whereabouts. He c o u l d not r e s i s t adding, w i t h r e s p e c t to Moody's t h e o r i e s of town l o c a t i o n : "People are not g e n e r a l l y d i s p o s e d to perch t h e i r houses on b l e a k mountains and i n a c c e s s i b l e c l i f f s s imply because they happen to be good m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n s . " ( 8 3 ) One e f f e c t of t h i s t r a n s a t l a n t i c t a t t l i n g aggravated by slow communications was undoubtedly to reopen wounds i n the p r i d e so dominant i n the p e r s o n a l i t y of each man, arid i n the case of Douglas, must have u n d e r l i n e d a p r e f e r e n c e i n h i s mind f o r a c i v i l i a n surveyor such as he had had i n Pemberton, whose ide a s w i t h r e l a t i o n to town s i t e s and town p l a n n i n g would more n e a r l y c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s own. And i n many o t h e r r e s p e c t s Douglas was out of 8 2 . D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Jan 28,1861.. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s Despatches #10) 8 3 . i b i d . 85 sympathy w i t h Moody. I t must have outraged Douglas' sense of o r d e r ' t o have Moody complain to him of not r e c e i v i n g e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s when Moody's own hooks and r e t u r n s l e f t a g r e a t d e a l to he desired. ( 8 4 ) Long a f t e r Moody had l e f t the colony, l i t t l e d e t a i l s of the business of h i s department r e q u i r e d to be e l u c i d a t e d and c o n s i d e r a b l e correspondence was m a i n t a i n e d as l a t e as 1868.(85) While Moody f r e q u e n t l y excused h i s c l e r i c a l s h o r t -comings on the grounds of press of o u t s i d e work, he yet found time to i n d u l g e h i s enthusiasm f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e , and s a l v e d h i s * p r i d e by d e c o r a t i n g the b a r r a c k s grounds.(86) One i n c i d e n t of i860 seems to r e v e a l Moody as d e f i c i e n t i n judgment. E v i d e n t l y he was approached as a p r o s p e c t i v e member of the New Westminster m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . Douglas f e l t . i t necessary to w r i t e to him t h a t on no account must Moody accept, s i n c e i t would prevent him from a c t i n g as an i m p a r t i a l umpire.(87) I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Moody had had no i n t e n t i o n of j o i n i n g the c o u n c i l ; but i n any case he must have been v/ounded by Douglas' p r o h i b i t i o n . A good d e a l has been s a i d about the poor o p i n i o n e n t e r t a i n e d o f both Douglas and Moody by the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f f i c i a l s , much of which arose from the f a i l u r e of both men 84. Moody-Douglas,Nov 8,1859;Dec 2,1859;May 16, 1 8 5 9 .(Vict A r c h i v e s ) 85. e . g . L u g a r d - E l l i o t , F e b 15,1866; Hunt-Secty of State,Oct 30,1866; C l a r k e & S k i n n e r - S e c t y of State,Apr 25,1866;Moody-Secty of S t a t e , Mar 29, 1866.(PRO CO 60.26 III:#1679,10353,4022) re arms l e f t i n B.C., c o l o n i a l government and p r i v a t e c l a i m s re s u p p l i e s . A l s o War O f f i c e - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , A p r 20,1868. (PRO CO 60 .34 #4033) 86. C o l o n i s t , Dec 16,1859. 87. Douglas-Moody, Aug 3 , i 8 6 0 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 86 to meet the requirements of the home a u t h o r i t i e s i n the matter of return's and e x p l a n a t i o n s . Something i s to be s a i d on the other s i d e . A good d e a l of c o n f u s i o n arose, and no doubt the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Douglas and Moody 'suffered from the f a i l u r e of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e to d e f i n e e x a c t l y the i n d i v i d u a l powers of the Governor and h i s su b o r d i n a t e . For example, a t the time of the San Juan i n c i d e n t , Moody complained v i g o r o u s l y t h a t he had not been"granted the confidence commensurate w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n . I t i s to be noted here that Douglas ,had b e f o r e , and d i d o f t e n l a t e r , c l a i m to have taken Moody in t o ' " h i s complete conf idence. (88) But a t the time of the San Juan i n c i d e n t Douglas was "unaware t h a t Moody had the a u t h o r i t y on Vancouver I s l a n d w h i l e r e s i d e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia."(89) . P r o b a b l y t h i s i n d e c i s i o n about f u n c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n f u s i o n which arose w i t h r e s p e c t to the p a r t i c u l a r departments which were to be charged w i t h e x p e n d i t u r e s . An item entered one year a g a i n s t m i l i t a r y roads would appear l a t e r - a s a c i v i l expenditure. ( 9 0 ) Or agai n , the two men r e p o r t i n g s e p a r a t e l y were l i k e l y to d e s c r i b e the same t r a n s -a c t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t terms. These are evidences not only of l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n between Moody and Douglas but perhaps of • the haphazard n a t u r e of c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h i s period. ( 9 1 ) 88. D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Feb 5,1859- ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 89. D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Jan 2 8 , 1 8 6 1 .'ibid,) 90. D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Aug 2,1862. ( i b i d . ) 9 1 . l t has been suggested t h a t C o l o n i a l O f f i c e - B r i t i s h Columbia r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d might w e l l be t h e . s u b j e c t of a t h e s i s . 87 The c l i m a x of these misunderstandings hecame almost a 'cause'celebre 1 . I t concerned £10,704.16.7. P a r t of t h i s amount r e p r e s e n t e d the cost of the b a r r a c k s a t New Westminster. The f o l l o w i n g notes by Newcastle and E l l i o t on a despatch are t y p i c a l of a whole s e r i e s of correspondence and comments. " I f the £10,700 has been spent by C o l o n e l Moody on 'Barracks' i t would be hard to charge t h a t sum to the colon y . But why were 'Barracks' l a s t year c a l l e d 'Roads and B r i d g e s ' . . . C o l o n e l Moody c o u l d have had no pov/er to order them without a u t h o r i t y from the War O f f i c e and the Governor c o u l d have had no power to order them i f they were to be charged to the vote of Parliament." ( 9 2 ) "Now Douglas says the work i s m i l i t a r y . " ( 9 3 ) • R e c r i m i n a t i o n s between Douglas and Moody were not r e s t r i c t e d to d e t a i l s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but extended to the s e l e c t i o n of s u b o r d i n a t e p e r s o n n e l e s p e c i a l l y a t the time of Moody's w i t h d r a w a l . The r e t u r n home of the C o l o n e l n e c e s s i t a t e d the appointment of a new commissioner of lands and works. Douglas' c h o i c e f e l l upon Captain Luard, one of Moody's s u b o r d i n a t e s , and he wrote to London recommending the appointment. • Not u n t i l November 11, however, d i d he in f o r m Moody of h i s d e s i r e to r e t a i n Luard. Moody re s e n t e d Douglas' n e g l e c t of the o r d i n a r y c o u rtesy of c o n s u l t i n g Luard's commanding o f f i c e r b e f o r e making the recommendation to the Duke of Newcastle. He a s s e r t e d that the p o s i t i o n i n which he had been p l a c e d was "very embarrassing and most repugnant to m y . p o s i t i o n and a l l my d e s i r e s . . . . I wish 92. Note, Newcastle-?, re D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Mar 27,1863 (PRO" CO 60.15 #2135) 93. Note, E l l i o t - L o r d s Commissioners, j j o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , A p r i l 2,1863.(PRO CO 60,15) 88 you had c o n s u l t e d me. "(94) This l e t t e r was' composed on the day "before Moody and h i s o f f i c e r s were to s a i l f o r home.-' A d e c i s i o n was r e q u i r e d and Moody's was as f o l l o w s : " I do not see how I can take on myself to leave an o f f i c e r behind f o r a r e d e l i v e r y and to assume charge of my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as Commander In C h i e f i n d i s c r i m -i n a t i n g d u t i e s and r e c o g n i z i n g the r e l a t i v e c l a i m s and f i t n e s s of o f f l e e r s . " ( 9 5 ) While s t i l l a t sea Moody prepared copies of the correspondence - r e l a t i n g to Luard's appointment, adding a note e x p l a i n i n g h i s p o s i t i o n and forwarded the documents to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . "The s i t u a t i o n , " remarked I r v i n g , " i s somewhat embarrassing; the Duke's despatch a p p o i n t i n g jMuard i s s i g n e d and would have been sent. . . . No use sending, because Luard has a r r i v e d i n England."(95) Douglas was blamed f o r h i s i r r e g u l a r procedure and the i n j u s t i c e to Moody. Luard's appointment was c a n c e l l e d and the Governor's second choice appointed i n s t e a d . Thus on the b a s i s of a misunderstanding, another Englishman, Joseph W i l l i a m Trutch, began a ca r e e r which c u l m i n a t e d i n h i s appointment as l i e u t e n a n t -Governor, J u l y 1, 1871.' When Moody r e t u r n e d to England i n 1863 he was f i f t y y e ars o l d . Douglas was s i x t y - y e a r s o l d when he r e t i r e d the f o l l o w i n g year. N e i t h e r man entered prominently i n t o p u b l i c l i f e a g a i n . Bioody, a f t e r s e r v i n g b r i e f l y w i t h the Roy a l Engineers i n England, was promoted to the rank of Major-General and r e t i r e d on f u l l pay. He d i e d March 31,1887. 94.Moody-Douglas, Nov 13,1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 9 5 . i b i d . 9 6 .Note, I r v i n g - R o g e r s , Dec 31,1863, on Moody-Colonial O f f i c e , Dec 19,1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 89 The circumstances of Douglas' r e t i r e m e n t from the s e r v i c e Of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e are not c l e a r - c u t . H o l d i n g as he d i d two separate commissions, one f o r Vancouver I s l a n d and one f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, and w i t h a background of s e r v i c e i n _ t h e f u r - t r a d e , Douglas was something of an anomaly i n the c o l o n i a l s e r v i c e . Bo s p e c i f i c term of o f f i c e was i n c l u d e d i n the terms of e i t h e r commission. But he had been promised by L y t t o n , i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l l e t t e r , a s i x - y e a r term i n B r i t i s h Columbia . (97 ) By November 1863 Douglas had completed two s i x - y e a r - t e r m s as Governor of Vancouver I s l a n d ; but he had been Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia only f i v e y e a r s . Douglas was l e a s t p o p ular i n the l a t t e r colony and i t was from thence t h a t memorials o r i g i n a t e d demanding a new governor and c o m p l a i n i n g of "want of surveys, the expensive and i n e f f i c i e n t roads, the management of the l a n d s , " and so on.(98) Another f a c t o r was Newcastle's p l a n to e s t a b l i s h separate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s f o r the two c o l o n i e s based on h i s b e l i e f t h a t the mainland c o l o n i s t s were not yet capable of o p e r a t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s e f f i c i e n t l y . ( 9 9 ) I t has a l s o been'pointed out e a r l i e r t h a t a renewal of e i t h e r commission does not seem to have been contemplated at the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . ( 1 0 0 ) At any r a t e there i s no doubt t h a t by 1863 Douglas was through even had he d e s i r e d the e x t e n s i o n of e i t h e r commission. The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from 97. Lytton-Douglas, J u l y 16,1858 ( B r i t i s h Columbia Papers 1:43) 98. Newcastle's Minute, Mar 27,1863. (PRO C0^0 , l T T 99. Newcastle-Douglas, June 15,1863.(union Papers 11:2) 100. Chanter V, p.52. 90 a C o l o n i a l O f f i c e memorandum says much and i m p l i e s more; "I wrote p r i v a t e l y to Mr. Douglas by the l a s t m a i l t e l l i n g him that I should soon d e a l wi th the subjects t r e a t e d of i n t h i s Minute , and that I should when my plans were complete r e l i e v e him of both Governments. I made t h i s as l i t t l e unpleasant to him as I c o u l d , and t o l d him that when I wrote to him o f f i c i a l l y I would take every care to prevent h i s enemies h a v i n g a triumph over him."(101) W i t h i n the next few months,Douglas r e c e i v e d a knighthood, complimentary addresses from the c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a , and even a banquet i n New Westminster. On A p r i l 13, 1864, f o u r months before the e x p i r a t i o n of the s i x - y e a r term Lytton had promised him, Douglas made h i s e x i t from p u b l i c l i f e . [ 1 0 2 ) 101. Newcastle's Minute , Mar 27,1863. (PRO CO 60.17) 102. A recent a c q u i s i t i o n of p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s to the X?ictoria A r c h i v e s now makes p o s s i b l e a study of Douglas.' r e a c t i o n s to the p o l i t i c a l events of the twelve years d u r i n g which he r e s i d e d i n V i c t o r i a as a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n . 91 ' . : CHAPTER-"SEVEN -PRIVATE ENTERPRISE CARRIES ON Governor Douglas opened the f i r s t :session of the f i r s t l e g i s l a t u r e i n the- mainland colony of B r i t i s h Columbia on January 21, 1864. The change i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the colony's government r e p r e s e n t e d by the est a b l i s h m e n t of t h i s l e g i s l a t u r e r e s u l t e d from an order which' Douglas r e c e i v e d from the Duke of Newcastle on June 11, 1863. I t w i l l be remembered t h a t the o r i g i n a l a c t s e t t i n g up the government of B r i t i s h Columbia (1) had co n t a i n e d a p r o v i s i o n f o r some form of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government a t a l a t e r date. ( 2 ) In the i n t e r i m the p e t i t i o n s of the c o l o n i s t s which had sought the removal of Douglas had a l s o aimed a t the s e c u r i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . By 1863 these p e t i t i o n s had i n c r e a s e d i n number and urgency. The c o u n c i l which Douglas assembled a t Newcastle's behest c o n s i s t e d of n i n e o f f i c i a l s ' a n d f i v e e l e c t e d members r e p r e s e n t i n g as many d i s t r i c t s r o u g h l y mapped out by Douglas. In the course of h i s opening address, the Governor gave the members the f o l l o w i n g suggestions c o n c e r n i n g p u b l i c works " I t i s s u p e r f l u o u s to u r g e e b y a n y f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s the v i g o r o u s p r o s e c u t i o n of p u b l i c works of such acknowledged m e r i t and u t i l i t y , but I wish on t h i s o c c a s i o n to p l a c e on r e c o r d my d e l i b e r a t e o p i n i o n of the v i t a l importance of such works to the colony. I wish to;impress upon your a t t e n t i o n t h a t no measure 1.21 & 22 V i c t o r i a C 90, August 2,1858. (B.C.Papers 1:1) 2 . i b i d . Clause I I I . 3 .For d e t a i l s see Sage o p . c i t . pp 328-9. 92 can be more f r u i t f u l of prosperous r e s u l t s than that of i mproving the thoroughfares u n t i l the r a i l w a y and locomotive supersede the e x i s t i n g cumbrous modes of conveyance on a l l main l i n e s of road from the coast to A l e x a n d r i a , whence there i s a p r a c t i c a b l e ??ater communication through the v a l l e y of the F r a s e r R i v e r to the Rocky Mountains, a route which, moreover, presents so many f a c i l i t i e s of ground and g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n t h a t there i s every p r o b a b i l i t y of i t s becoming the main l i n e of o v e r l a n d communication w i t h Canada."(4) On May 20, 1864 Douglas was succeeded by F r e d e r i c k Seymour. The sentiments w i t h r e s p e c t to the development of communications which had been expressed by Douglas were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y echoed by h i s s u c c e s s o r . Seymour i s something of a mystery. I t i s known t h a t between 1843 and h i s a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1864 he h e l d o f f i c e s i n Tasmania, A n t i g u a , Nevis and B r i t i s h Honduras, h a v i n g been most r e c e n t l y l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r of the l a t t e r c o l o n y . P a r t i c u l a r s of h i s f a m i l y and e a r l y t r a i n i n g are not a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia b i b l i o -graphy. ' Nor Is i t anywhere suggested t h a t he was chosen f o r h i s B r i t i s h Columbia post on grounds of s p e c i a l f i t n e s s . ( 5 ) presumably of the unattached C o l o n i a l O f f i c e s e r v a n t s , he had most c l a i m to the p o s i t i o n . There-was n o t h i n g of the i n n o v a t o r • a o o u t Seymour. He was not l i k e l y to do what Douglas had f r e q u e n t l y done - a c t f i r s t and then l o o k f o r s a n c t i o n from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . He was more l i k e l y to counsel the home government a g a i n s t change. Such was the man i n t o whose care f e l l .-Douglas ' road p l a n s . 4. Excerpt from Governor's Speech a t opening ,of L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , New Westminster, Jan 21 ,1864.(PRO CO 60.18 Vol I) 5. A legend t h a t a r o y a l b a r - s i n i s t e r looms i n h i s background e x i s t s on somewhat f l i m s y evidence. 93 At the o u t s e t he promised w e l l . P r o r o g u i n g the l e g i s l a t u r e i n May, Seymour s a i d : " I l o o k upon the f a c i l i t a t i n g ( o f ) access to the r i c h gold f i e l d s of the North East as a t present the paramount duty of the Governor and c o u n c i l of t h i s colony."(6) This enthusiasm f o r r o a d - b u i l d i n g i n the colony had as i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n London a w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of c a p i t a l i s t s to i n v e s t t h e i r money i n the development of the mainland. The Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia advanced road b u i l d i n g funds i n the form of o v e r d r a f t to an extent.which s e r i o u s l y embarr-assed the bank when the government f a i l e d to reduce the debt a c c o r d i n g to i t s promises.(7)• £100,000 worth of bonds were f l o a t e d i n the London market, the proceeds, of which were i n t e n d e d f o r a road b u i l d i n g program.(8) Seymour had even proposed, i n the speech a l r e a d y quoted, to a n t i c i p a t e the proceeds of the l o a n by d i v e r t i n g a p a r t of the c u r r e n t revenue f o r urgent p u b l i c works. The C o l o n i s t was g r a t e f u l f o r Seymour's enthusiasm but a d v i s e d c a u t i o n , s t r e s s i n g •jjthat.all " should r e g r e t e x c e e d i n g l y t h a t money voted f o r s p e c i f i c purposes should be d i v e r t e d from these o b j e c t s and a p p l i e d to o t h e r s however important."(9) The t a s k of c a r r y i n g on Moody's work was e n t r u s t e d to two men, Joseph T r u t c h and Walter Moberly. Both had beem employed p r e v i o u s l y by the government as p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t -o r s , and had-, b u i l t s e c t i o n s o f the Cariboo Road. (10) 6. B r i t i s h Columbian, May 7,1864. 7. DiM.Lang-Col.Secty of B.C., Bank of B.C. V i c t o r i a , March 8,1865 ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s F 110:7) 8. E l l i o t - H a m i l t o n , M a y 25,1863.(PRO CO 50.18) 9. C o l o n i s t , May,9,1864. 10 T r u t c h as Surveyor-General of B.C. and Moberly h i s a s s i s t a n t . Whether they were a l s o appointed f o r V . I . a t f i r s t i s not c l e a r . 94 Before d e s c r i b i n g the o p e r a t i o n s of t h i s new c i v i l i a n " e r a , I t should he made c l e a r to what extent the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of the colony had developed. The main route of t r a v e l "by 1864 was by steamboat to gale and thence by the Cariboo Road to the mines. The' competing routes v i a H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t , Hope-Similkameen, and Bentinck Arm had assumed a s u b s i d i a r y p o s i t i o n and were not to c h a l l e n g e the Cariboo r o u t e s u c c e s s f u l l y d u r i n g the remainder of the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . The Cariboo Road i t s e l f extended as a wagon road as f a r as Quesnelmouth. The main o b j e c t which presented i t s e l f i n the s p r i n g of 1864 was the e x t e n s i o n from Quesnelmouth and the-improvement of the e x i s t i n g s t r e t c h e s which had been h u r r i e d through d u r i n g the 'rush' s e a s o n s . ( I I ) Now the burden of maintenance began to assume p r o p o r t i o n s which i n h i b i t e d f u r t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l achievements of the 1864 season were the improvement of roads i n the New Westminster d i s t r i c t , ( 1 2 ) e x t e n s i v e r e p a i r s ' to the Hope-Yale, Y a l e - L y t t o n - C l i n t o n roads, ( 1 3 ) the e x t e n s i o n of the Cariboo wagon road above A l e x a n d r i a , ( 1 4 ) and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new t r a i l s , b r i d g e s and s l e i g h - r o a d s 11. B i r c h - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , J u l y 9 , 1 8 6 6 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) At the b e g i n n i n g of 1864 the Cariboo wagon road to A l e x a n d r i a was s t i l l 120 m i l e s from the mines. The r e s t of the d i s t a n c e was u s e l e s s f o r pack animals because of scarce g r a z i n g . " i n f a c t the £200,000 a l r e a d y spent on the road might have j u s t as w e l l been thrown away. " 12. C h i e f Comm.-Col Secty. Aug 31,1864; Sep 9,1864; J o u r n a l of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , Mar 1,1864 ( H e r e a f t e r JLC) ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 13. JLC, Mar 8,1864; C h i e f Comm.-Col Secty. May 9,1864.(ibid) 14. C o l o n i s t , Aor 25,1864; Aug 1, 1864; Nov 9,1864. C h i e f Comm.-Col Secty. June 14,1854; June 22,1864; Aug 6,1864; Aug 9,1864. ( v i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s , L a n d s and Works) 95 to g i v e access to the mines a t R i c h f i e l d , Camerontown and i n the Cottonwood d i s t r i c t . ( 1 5 ) The work performed i n the New Westminster d i s t r i c t was only p a r t of the ambitious program (16) which the C o u n c i l had o u t l i n e d under the s t i m u l a t i o n of a change i n governor; but i t cost them --100,000. Another $40,000 went to r e p a i r the Yale and Hope roads - the l a t t e r p r i n c i p a l l y • o v e r the Cascade Mountains.(17) But the l a r g e s t item, $200,000, was spent on the Cariboo road.(18) Nor d i d t h i s b u r s t of spending end there. Another $60,000 f o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s roads and route r e c o n n o i t r i n g (19) brought the t o t a l to-$400,000 i n s t e a d of the p r o j e c t e d $340,000.(20) An a d d i t i o n a l d r a i n upon the budget was the $80,000 necessary i n b r i n g i n g to j u s t i c e those Indians r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Bute I n l e t massacre.(21) The sum which had been s e t a s i d e f o r the proposed l i g h t s h i p a t the mouth of the F r a s e r and p a r t of the a l l o c a t i o n f o r steamship s e r v i c e w i t h San F r a n c i s c o had to be d i v e r t e d f o r t h i s emergency.(22) A l l i n a l l the p r o d i g a l i t y of 1864 meant 4 t h a t the $500,000 borrowed through 6% bonds and intended (23) 15. C h i e f Comm.-Col Secty. June 27; Aug 6 , 1 8 6 4 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 16. JLC, Mar 1,1864. ( i b i d ) • 1 7 . i b i d . Mar 8,1864. 1 8 . i b i d . Apr I,1864. 1 9 .Seymour-Colonial O f f i c e , Oct 7; Nov 25,1864.' C h i e f Gomm.-Co l Secty. June 14; May 18; Dec 1 5 , 1 8 6 4 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 2 0 . C o l o n i s t , May 9,1864. 2 1 .Seymour-Cardwell, Aug 30; Sep 9; Sep 19; Oct 4,1864. JLC. Dec 12,1864. 22. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s Envelope D 99) 23. B i r c h - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , J u l 6,1866. "Of £100,000 p a r t l y spent the colony o n l y r e c e i v e d the b e n e f i t o f £60,000.".Indian d i s t u r b a n c e s £19,000 - one f i f t h of e n t i r e revenue - l o s s of £10,700 f o r " u s e l e s s m i l i t a r y h u t s . " 96 f o r the 1865 program emerged pruned down to $ 3 6 8 , 5 0 0 . The p o s s e s s i o n of even t h i s d e p l e t e d balance encour-aged a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the ambitious program of 1 8 6 4 . The t r e n d of 1865 c o n s t r u c t i o n was toward the Kootenay where a rush was i n progress a t W i l d Horse Greek. This meant the u s e l e s s e x t e n s i o n of the Hope-Similkameen pack t r a i l begun by Dewdney and Moberly, continued by the Royal Engineers i n i 8 6 0 , and now pushed 2 9 1 m i l e s " t h r o u g h to the Kootenay by Dewdney who was government superintendent i n charge of a mixed gang of Chinese and white l a b o u r e r s . (24) Gold s t r i k e s i n the B i g Eend country encouraged the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the- t r a i l from Cache Creek fo Savana 1s F e r r y Into a wagon road. The c o n t r a c t was g i v e n i n December and the work rushed to completion by A p r i l 1 8 6 6 . ( 2 5 ) The Cariboo wagon road was extended i n t o Cottonwood d i s t r i c t on i t s way i n t o ? / l l l i a m ' s Greek. ( 2 6 ) The s e c t i o n f u r t h e r on between R i c h f i e l d and Camerontown was a l s o widened by Malcolm Munro. His- e f f o r t s , a c c o r d i n g to the ' C o l o n i s t ' , proved a I g r e a t boon, e s p e c i a l l y to drunkards who had p r e v i o u s l y r i s k e d t h e i r necks n e g o t i a t i n g between s h a f t s , flumes and d i t c h e s . ( 2 7 ) The o t h e r road disbursements were d i r e c t e d toward reopening a n . i n e x p e n s i v e t r a i l i n t o Bridge Creek, working on Douglas' 2 4 / 0 o l o n i s t , Apr 5 , 1 8 6 5 . 2 5 . i b i d . Apr 1 .2 ,1866. 2 6 . i b i d . Oct 1 6 , 1 8 6 3 . 27 . i b i d . : -Jan 5,1855 .(Cot :,onwood wagon r o a i c o n t r a c t ...45-20,000 to-be done by October.) 97 r New Westminster-Yale road, undertaken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Western Union Telegraph Company whose l i n e f o l l o w e d t h i s -route, ( 2 g ) e x p l o r i n g f o r and b u i l d i n g Shuswap Lake-Columbia R i v e r t r a i l s , and r e p a i r i n g e x i s t i n g roads and b u i l d i n g s l e i g h roads from Alexandria. ( 2 9 ) P l a n s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the year had c a l l e d f o r a road budget of |382,699.(30) During the year road t o l l revenue dropped $45,000 below the estimate and the gold export revenue was $70,000 l e s s than the amount expected.(31) This sharp d e c l i n e i n revenue was accounted f o r p a r t l y by g o l d d i s c o v e r i e s In Montana which reduced the'Kootenay p o p u l a t i o n from 2,000 to 300.(32) Consequently the c l o s e o f the season found the proceeds of the 1864 l o a n exhausted and the c o l o n y w i t h an o v e r d r a f t i n the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e i 8 6 0 . We have seen t h a t Seymour began h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a d i s c i p l e of Douglas, the 'Road K i n g ' . By the s p r i n g of 18,65, however, the f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s of the colony began to worry him. But he- s t i l l f e l t t h a t i t was a b s o l u t e l y necessary to proceed, w i t h the development of communications, e s p e c i a l l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of a B r i t i s h route to the Kootenay g o l d -f i e l d s . (33) A c c o r d i n g l y the c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t 28. B i r c h ' s Speech a t opening of L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , Jan 18 ,1866. 29. C o l o n i s t , Jan 4; Aug 15; Sep 10; Sep 14; Dec 15; Dec 18,1865. 50. Pa liner, P. F i s c a l H i s t o r y of B. C. p. 155 3 1 . JLC. Jan 15; Apr 5 T ^ 6 6 T ~ 32. B i r c h - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , J u l y 9,1866. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 3 3 .Seymour-Colonial O f f i c e , May 10,1865 ( i b i d ) 98 • h a l f of the year had h i s s a n c t i o n . In August Seymour l e f t the colony to v i s i t i n England, "on s i x months leaye to c o n s u l t w i t h the I m p e r i a l government on the union act. " ( 3 4 ) The s i x months s t r e t c h e d to f i f t e e n "before he ag a i n took over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c o l o n y . ( 3 3 ) D u r i n g h i s s o j o u r n i n England Seymour's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t r u s t of unions i n g e n e r a l was r e p l a c e d on a t l e a s t one o c c a s i o n "by a s p i r i t of adventure. On January 27, 1866 a t the age of of f o r t y - s i x he abandoned s i n g l e b l e s s e d n e s s a t the s i d e of Miss S t a p l e t o n . But even on h i s honeymoon he was concerned w i t h the a f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia. In February he wrote from P a r i s what was, even f o r him, a l o n g despatch - about t h i r t y pages - i n which he di s c o u r a g e d the proposed union of Vancouver I s l a n d and the mainland colony. ( 3 6 ) Reports of the colony's c r e d i t and the d e p l o r a b l e s t a t e o f f i n a n c e s were making apparent the f a c t t h a t the r o a d - b u i l d i n g program had been over o p t i m i s t i c . Seymour now began to c a s t about f o r a defence of h i s own p o l i c y . On J u l y 9, 1866 he wrote to Downing Street*. " I t i s not w i t h i n my p r o v i n c e now to r e f e r to the road p o l i c y o f the p r e v i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or to q u e s t i o n the p r o p r i e t y of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of two r i v a l roads through w i l d and t h i n l y p opulated country. . . . These have r e c e i v e d Her Majesty's Government's a p p r o v a l but have e n t a i l e d on the revenue a heavy and i n p a r t un-necessary annual charge amounting to £13,500 f o r main-tenance and,,interest on the debt c o n t r a c t e d f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . " ( 3 7 ) 34. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e Memo. (PRO CO 60.50 35. A.M.Birch who had been C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y of B.C. was acting-Governor, d u r i n g Seymour's absence. 36.Seymour-Cardwe11, Feb 1866. (PRO CO 60.5 #1914) 37. Seymour-Colonial Offfcfee, J u l 9,1866 ( V i c t o r i a Archives)" 99 R e t u r n i n g to the l a t t e r , h a l f of 1865 a f t e r Seymour's departure ' i t should he r e a l i z e d t h a t w h i l e B i r c h was i n charge on the spot, Seymour, w e l l regarded as he was, e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e through the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . This i s evidenced by the l a r g e number of h i s despatches to Downing S t r e e t d u r i n g the p e r i o d of h i s l e a v e . H i s remote c o n t r o l , though checked by h i s n a t u r a l c a u t i o n , was l e s s v a c i l l a t i n g than the c o n t r o l he e x e r c i s e d i n the colony under.the f i r e of c o l o n i a l c r i t i c s . But B i r c h was more than Seymour's rubber stamp and had h i s own ideas about the development of communications. In 1864 he had taken a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t and was on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s quoted i n the ' C o l o n i s t ' as f a v o u r i n g a B r i t i s h r o u t e to the Kootenays.(38) To B i r c h the p r o g r e s s of the colony was more important than the e f f o r t to keep f r e e of debt; f o r he f e l t t h a t o nly through t h a t progress c o u l d the wealth of the colony's r e s o u r c e s be r e a l i z e d . Consequently the D o l l c y of h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was d i r e c t e d toward encourag-i n g a f i x e d p o p u l a t i o n and a c o l o n i a l economy based on a g r i c u l t u r e as w e l l as mining. The f u r t h e r development of communications was a v i t a l p a r t o f t h i s p o l i c y . Of course the a c t i v i t i e s o f the f i r s t few months had a l r e a d y been d i c t a t e d by Seymour. But i n December B i r c h a u t h o r i z e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the wagon road from Cache Creek to Savana's F e r r y on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e : 5 8 , C o l o n i s t , Oct 3; Nov.11,1864. 100 and t h i s i n s p i t e of the f a c t that i n October the colony had been f o r c e d to pay the £10,704.16.7 c o v e r i n g the Royal E n g i n e e r s ' o u i l d i n g s . ( 3 9 ) Payment of the account had been postponed e o n t i n u a l l y s i n c e Moody's departure . (40) Mention has a l r e a d y been made of the p r e c a r i o u s f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n of the colony a t the c l o s e of 1865. I t was B i r c h ' s task, because of t h i s c o n d i t i o n , to r e c o n c i l e the need f o r economy w i t h h i s ambitions f o r the f u t u r e of the c o l o n y . So a t the b e g i n n i n g of 1866 the mainland colony found i t s e l f o b l i g e d to cut I t s coat a c c o r d i n g to i t s c l o t h . In h i s speech to the l e g i s l a t u r e B i r c h , a f t e r r e v i e w i n g w i t h p r i d e and s a t i s f a c t i o n the-work of the p r e v i o u s year had announced: "The e s t i m a t e s contemplate a l a r g e o u t l a y i n the con-s t r u c t i o n of roads and t r a i l s to f a c i l i t a t e access to the new m i n i n g d i s t r i c t s of the Columbia. . . . An a p p r o p r i a t i o n w i l l a l s o be asked f o r opening a rou t e to the newly d i s c o v e r e d g o l d d i g g i n g s on the upper branches of the Br i d g e River."(41) S For the f i r s t time i n the h i s t o r y of the colony the road e s t i m a t e s were s l a s h e d d u r i n g the budget d i s c u s s i o n s . Of the t o t a l e s t i m a t e d e x p e n d i t u r e , $723,356, only 1 $125,500 was to be spent on roads, and t h a t moreover, was earmarked f o r r e p a i r s o n l y . This r e l u c t a n c e of the l e g i s l a t u r e was In harmony w i t h the views expressed by a C o l o n i a l O f f i c e despatch which reached B i r c h p r i o r to the opening. (42) One f e e l s t h a t -3 9 .Seymour-Colonial O f f i c e , Oct 8,1864. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 40.. e.g. m a r g i n a l notes by E l l i o t , Apr 2,1863 on despatch #2135 (PRO CO 60.15) 41.Speech of A.N.Birch a t opening o f L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , Jan 18 ,1866. 42.Secty of S t a t e - B i r c h , Oct 31,1865. ( B r i t i s h Columbian, Feb 10,1866) 101 Seymour might have d i c t a t e d or a t l e a s t i n s p i r e d i t . B i r c h was warned t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e s must be reduced to an amount based on the revenues of the l a s t two years and t h a t new roads and works must be postponed. R e l u c t a n t l y B i r c h s e t out upon a p o l i c y of r e t r e n c h -ment. (43) The works f o r the year were c o n f i n e d to the main-tenance of the r o u t e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . B r i d g e s were completed on the Shuswap-Columbia t r a i l , a government promise of the p r e v i o u s y e a r ; ( 4 4 ) f a l l e n timber was c l e a r e d i n the wake of f o r e s t f i r e on the Hope-Similkameen t r a i l ; ( H-5 ) ten , m i l e s of the road over the d i v i d e from Seymour was c l e a r e d of snow from f o u r to twenty f e e t deep i n June;(46) and so the s l i m budget allowance was spread over the colony where i t was most s e r v i c e a b l e or perhaps where complaints were l o u d e s t . . . But B i r c h was not a b l e to t u r n h i s back r i g i d l y on p r o g r e s s . I f he c o u l d not b u i l d the new t r a i l s he f e l t to be so n ecessary, he c o u l d p l a n f o r the f u t u r e . He was impressed s t r o n g l y w i t h the d e s i r a b i l i t y of an a l l - B r i t i s h r o u t e a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t (4?) and d u r i n g the season he a u t h o r i z e d the continuance of the work of the e x p l o r a t o r y survey p a r t i e s (48) which, d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s year had 43. B i r c h - C a r d w e l l , J u l y 14,1866. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 44. M o b e r l y - l r u t c h , Apr 24,1866. ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s E 1145b) 45. see Thrupp,S. A H i s t o r y o f the Cranbrook D i s t r i c t i n East Kootenay. ( J~ B.C. M.A. T h e s i s , ~Apr 19291 46. C o l o n i s t , June 12; June 15, 1866. 47. BircSThTs soeech to L e g i s l a t i v e Council., Apr 9,1866. 48. J e n k i n s , T u r n b u l l , Cottonwood Smith, Weaver, Moberly, G-reen, P e r c y , A l l i s o n . 102 l o c a t e d mountain passes(49) and were now weighing the m e r i t s of the p o s s i b l e r o u t e s through the ranges to the e a s t . ( 5 0 ) By the end of the year the choice had narrowed down to what was l a t e r named Eagle Bass, ( 5 1 ) a l t h o u g h a l t e r n a t e routes f u r t h e r south were s t i l l under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . This enthusiasm of B i r c h ' s f o r a road connection w i t h B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y to the east was not o r i g i n a l . Douglas made a t r i p e a r l y i n 1862 i n t o the upper F r a s e r R i v e r d i s t r i c t and r e t u r n e d to w r i t e a glowing despatch to Downing S t r e e t i n Which he recommended the b u i l d i n g of roads to open up the country beyond A l e x a n d r i a . ( 5 2 ) Be based h i s recommendations p a r t l y on a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the c o s t of mining o p e r a t i o n s would be l e s s e n e d and the progress of • s e t t l e m e n t g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d ; and p a r t l y on the b e l i e f t t h a t such c o n s t r u c t i o n would have an "important b e a r i n g on the f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n of the colony as p a r t of an o v e r l a n d communication w i t h Canada by a route.., p o s s e s s i n g the p e c u l i a r advantages of being secure from the I n d i a n a g g r e s s i o n , b e i n g remote from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o n t i e r and t r a v e r s i n g country ex-$ c l u s i v e l y B r i t i s h , , a n d because of the c h a r a c t e r and r e s o u r c e s of the country w i l l be the seat f o r a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n . " ( 5 3 ) Douglas was o p t i m i s t i c enough to b e l i e v e t h a t a l l that was necessary on the p a r t of the•government was the t a k i n g of the f i r s t s t e p and t h a t the p u b l i c , eager to e x p l o i t the new 4 9 . M o b e r l y - T r u t c h , Sep 1 0 , 1 8 6 5 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 5 0 . M o b e r l y - T r u t c h , Nov 1 5 , 1 8 6 6 . ( i b i d ) 5 1 . C o l o n i s t , J u l y 14; J u l y 3 1 ; 186177" 5 2 . D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Oct 2 7 , 1 8 5 2 . ( V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s ) 5 3 . D o u g l a s - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Apr 1 5 , 1 8 6 2 . ( i b i d . ) 103. t e r r i t o r y would do the r e s t . Furthermore t h a t f i r s t step should not, i n h i s o p i n i o n , c o s t more than £-50,000 and would arouse " s u r p r i s e t h a t the attempt was not sooner made." His advocacy was of no a v a i l and the " g l o r y of the achievement" which he had hoped would he "remembered as one of the t r o p h i e s of your Governor's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " was not f o r him. For a l t h o u g h the B r i t i s h Government had, i n 1857, b e e n - i n t e r e s t e d enough i n the p r o j e c t to send a survey p a r t y under P a l l i s e r to l o c a t e passes through the Rocky Mountains from the east,(54) Douglas cou l d now arouse no enthusiasm i n England. But he d i d arouse enthusiasm i n the colony. An e d i t o r i a l i n the ' C o l o n i s t ' of Ray 16,1863 made an-eloquent appeal,-'urging the colony not to be content u n t i l a t l e a s t a good wagon road, i f not a r a i l w a y , and a l s o a l i n e of t e l e -graph connected them o v e r l a n d w i t h the B r i t i s h p r o v i n c e s . P u b l i c i n t e r e s t mounted, s t i m u l a t i n g B i r c h ' s e f f o r t s , and on the eve-of union had reached a p o i n t where connection w i t h the E a s t became the keynote of the p e r i o d to f o l l o w . ( 5 5 ) -I 5 4 . Q u a r t e r l y Review, Jan & Apr 1861. 104 CHAPTER EIGHT UN MARIAGE DE CONVENANCE In the 'honeymoon despatch' to which reference has been made i n the previous chapter, Seymour b r i e f l y deferred to the B r i t i s h c o n v i c t i o n held since the erec t i o n of the gold colony that i m p e r i a l as we l l as c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t s would best be served by a union of the mainland and i s l a n d c o l o n i e s . "I should . . . see to the strengthening of B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y , B r i t i s h influence and B r i t i s h power i n the P a c i f i c and I at once admit that the e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n weakens a l l three: the dissensions between the two colonies are looked upon i n the neighbouring states as rather a scandalous, but novel and amusing feature In Eng l i s h colonization,, "(1) The more lengthy arguments which Seymour presented i n t h i s and other" despatches opposing the union as being detrimental to the best i n t e r e s t s of the mainland colony were of no a v a i l . The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e terminated the "scandalous but novel and amusing" a f f a i r i n August 1866s and declared the Act Of Union to be i n e f f e c t as soon as the Governor a r r i v e d I • i n B r i t i s h Columbia.(2) The Lord Mayor of London cabled on August 4 a message received two days l a t e r by the Mayor of V i c t o r i a : "Mother England acknowledges the c o r d i a l greeting of her i n f a n t son Vancouver. May peace, unanimity and good f e e l i n g unite and prosper our happy family."(3) But, as a contemporary c o l o n i a l e d i t o r i a l suggested, the union was "un mariage de convenance", "brought about by 1.Seymour-Cardwe11,Paris Feb 17,1866 ( i n Col o n i s t , Aug 9,1866) 2. C o l o n i a l Office-''Memo. Sept, 1866 (PRO CO 60.5) 3. Co l o n i s t , Aug 7,1866. 105 , 'the o l d f o l k s ' i n opposition to the p r i n c i p a l party."(4) This s p i r i t of reluctance displayed by the mainland colony tinged the j u b i l a t i o n of the other partner. A London 'Times' correspondent i n V i c t o r i a reported home that the mainland colony was "not a very a t t r a c t i v e bride."(5) And there were others who f e l t that the s a c r i f i c e of the trade advantages attendant upon the free port of V i c t o r i a and the loss of the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly would not be adequately compensated for by the p r i v i l e g e of trading with the " f i v e or s i x thousand" customers on the mainland.(6) That New Westminster was selected as the temporary seat of government was another Island grievance. I t i s notable that i n the course of the "dissensions between the two col o n i e s " there was l i t t l e b i c k e r i n g upon the subject of roads and road debts. Although the mainland colony, brought the l i o n ' s share to the debt pool, presumably the i s l a n d e r s d i d not object since the road system was e s s e n t i a l to the development of the trade which optimists hoped would restore prosperity to V i c t o r i a . Of the t o t a l funded debt of the two colonies, §1,295,000., no l e s s than f970,000 represented the funded road debt of the mainland colony. This sum was made up of the loans of 1862, £50,000; 1863, £50,000; and 1864, £100,000; a l l of which were represented a f t e r 1865 i n d o l l a r s at the 4. B r i t i s h Columbian, Nov 21,1866. 5. V i c t o r i a , Jan 24,1866; Times, Apr 25,1866; Colonist, June 26,1866 The three dates provide a commentary on mail f a c i l i t i e s . 6. C o l o n i s t , Sep 26,1866. 106 * rate of $4.85 per pound s t e r l i n g . ( 7 ) Of the $293,000 debt brought i n t o the union by Vancouver Island the Road and Harbour Loan of 1862 contributed $194,000.(8) The net debt of the united colony i n 1867 was $1,267,160.39 (9) and t h i s amount was slowly reduced each year u n t i l i n 1871 the amount assumed by the Dominion of Canada was $1,168,000 (10) s u b s t a n t i a l l y made up of the o r i g i n a l road loans, the maturity dates of which a l l f e l l i n the post-confederation period.(11) The necessity of providing f o r the ca r r y i n g charges of t h i s funded debt under circumstances of a s h r i n k i n g economy accounts f o r the almost complete absence of further road b u i l d i n g from 1867 to 1871. Seymour had remarked, rather i n e l e g a n t l y , i n 1866 that "our great p u b l i c works are done."(12) In 1867 only $26,844.32 was expended over the e n t i r e mainland system.(13) In no d i s t r i c t were the dr i b b l e s adequate. The residents along the New Westminster-Burrard I n l e t road p e t i t i o n e d urgently f o r r e p a i r s to t h e i r t r a i l which would turn i n t o a s t r i n g of mud-holes i n wet weather.(14) 7. B r i t i s h Columbian, Nov 8,1865. 8. Journal of Legis. Council, Enc #4:Message #5 (B.C.Archives) 9. C o l o n i a l Blue Book, 1867 (B.C.Archives) 10. B r i e f submitted to Rowell Commission. B r i t i s h Columbia i n < the Canadian Confederation, p.11 11. Journal of Legis. Council,Enc #4:Message #5 (B.C.Archives) 12.Seymour-Cardwell, Paris,Feb 17,1866 (Colonist, Aug 7,1866) 1 3 .Journal of Legis. Council of B.C. 1867 (B.C.Archives) 14..A.0.Anderson-Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Oct 10, 1866.(B.C.Archives F 15.9a) 107 I t i s a oommentary on the l a c k a d a i s i c a l administration that the subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n revealed £600 which had been voted previously f o r t h i s purpose but-had never been spent.(15) Since the expenditure of 1867 had f a l l e n so f a r short of the requirements f o r maintaining e f f i c i e n c y of the road system, the insecure state of c o l o n i a l finance notwith-standing, an increase i n road estimates f o r the fo l l o w i n g year was held to be e s s e n t i a l . Thus $50,000 was a l l o c a t e d to the maintenance of roads, streets and bridges.(16) The a c t u a l expenditure exceeded the estimate by only $56 and was again quite inadequate. Complaints about the state of d i s -r e p a i r continued to appear i n the press. ( 1 7 ) The f i v e hundred miles of t r a i l and wagon road which was supposed to provide access to the Kootenay was rendered impassable by burnt timber, s l i d e s or ice according to the season of the year. Thus the traders of Hope and V i c t o r i a were robbed of a market and the Government was deprived of revenue on supplies wliich might have entered at the Fraser but instead proceeded to the,Kootenay v i a Portland and Walla Walla.(18) But the s t r a i t e n e d circumstances of the administra-t i o n did not prevent the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s from " t a l k i n g " an ambitious road b u i l d i n g program. T/addington and Trutch engaged i n a duel over routes-using p e t i t i o n s and advice to London as weapons. The former urged the resumption of 15. C o l o n i s t , Feb 1 8 , 1 8 6 7 . 16. Journal of Legis. Council of B.C. 1868 (B.C.Archives) 17. C o l o n i s t , May 29, July 24, J u l y 28,1868. 1 8 . i b i d . J u l y 24, J u l y 28 , July 31 , 1868. 108 construction on the Bute I n l e t road where operations had been suspended a f t e r the massacre of h i s road party by Indians i n 1864. What appears to have been an attempt to salvage the o r i g i n a l investment of h i s company he camouflaged as part of a grandiose scheme to save Canada and the tracte with the Orient f o r England.(19) He claimed that since the major part of the work had been completed and the worst ground covered, the cost would be t r i f l i n g . Pending construction of a r a i l r o a d which must soon follow, B r i t i s h Columbia should have a road of her own.(20) Joseph Trutch, the Surveyor General who had succeeded Moody, subscribed to the same idea of a connecting l i n k with the east. But he considered the Bute I n l e t route undesirable and believed, with Seymour,(21) that Waddington 1s advocacy was tinged with s e l f - i n t e r e s t . ( 2 2 ) 19. Waddington-Editor, London, June 22,1868 (Colonist, Aug 10,1868) Waddington-Editor,London, Sep 2,1868.(Colonist, Oct 31,1868) .. T e l l of h i s double scheme f o r a road to be followed by a :|railroad and of h i s addresses to both Houses of Parliament, d i r e c t o r s of the Hudson's Bay Company, and conferences with the Governor General and Canadian ministers at Ottawa, etc. Also Waddington-Sec of State f o r Colonies, Covent Garden, Mar 2,1868. (PRO CO 60.34 #2277) 20. C o l o n i s t , Aug 13,1868. C i t a t i o n of Waddington's p e t i t i o n to to the Imperial Parliament. 21.Seymour-Colonial O f f i c e , Mar 3,1866 (B.G.Archives,Despatches) re Waddington's claim f o r reimbursement of h i s f i r s t outlay. "The l i n e proposed Is the worst." 22.Trutch sent Tredemann to report on the Bute I n l e t road. His conclusion was: "We have already more roads than we can make use of to the gold mines." In Seymour-Colonial O f f i c e , J u l y 28,1868.(B.C.Archives,Despatches) c f . B i r c h - C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Oct 11,1865 (B.C.Archives,Despatches) "Having a n o t h e r . r i v a l route would not cheapen the cost of l i v i n g i n Cariboo." The i n t e n t , B i r c h claimed, was to damage New Westminster. 109 Trutch's antagonism i s understandable , considering h i s e a r l i e r e f f o r t s toward e s t a b l i s h i n g a more southerly route,(23) Moreover he and two Americans of Fort Shepherd were enjoying a f i v e year r i g h t to t o l l s on a l l goods and l i v e stock passing over the t h i r t y miles of road they had constructed from the junction of the Kootenay and Columbia Rivers to the south.(24) In a d d i t i o n to t h i s t h e o r i z i n g about overland communication with Canada which d i d l i t t l e but encourage the growth of sentiment i n favour of confederation, another note was introduced i n 1868 which r e f l e c t s a changing economy. L i p - s e r v i c e at l e a s t began to be paid to the idea of road development to b e n e f i t the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n t h i s connection that home-stead l e g i s l a t i o n passed through the c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e during the year.(25) Commenting i n December on the a f f a i r s of the golony during the year then passing, Seymour pronounced the f i n a n c i a l c o n d ition of the government satisfactory.(26). Receipts and expenditure had almost equalled the estimates. The Governor's speech which the e d i t o r of the Colonist 23.Correspondence of Trutch and Moberly beginning 1865; Col-umbia River exploration 1866. Reports and Journals r e l a t i n g to &he e x p l o r a t i o n of the country l y i n g between the Shuswap Lakes and the Rocky Mountains. V i c t o r i a 1866. Also Moberly .MSS (B.GiArchives, F 1145) .24.B.C.Archives Envelope C 65.5 25.Seymour-Buckingham and Chandos, Jul y 2 8 , 1 8 6 8 (B.C.Archives, Despatches IV:46) 26.Colonist, Dec 19,1868. 110 described as "the best yet,"(27) referred to the important reductions- effected since union and advocated no further retrenchment. In h i s opinion the proposed estimates f o r 1869 were not unreasonable. A c t u a l l y the estimates for roads, s t r e e t s and bridges amounted to $62,500, an increase of $12,500 from the previous year;(28) but the amount was barely s u f f i c i e n t to keep the main routes open. Indeed since a year, the c o l o n i a l government, so f a r as development of communications was concerned, had got i n t o the v i c i o u s c i r c l e of "no r e p a i r , no t r a f f i c , no t o l l revenue." The up-country trade, stimulated i n 1868 by the B a r k e r v l l l e f i r e , had already diminished, so that increased revenue from that source during 1869 was not to be had.(29) Tackling the t h i r t y - f i v e hundred mile gap i n the a l l - B r i t i s h route from V i c t o r i a to Montreal was patently impossible, although considerable space i n the c o l o n i a l newspapers was devoted to the p r o j e c t , not without e f f e c t . For instance, i n the road-building program f o r the i year 1869, the c o l o n i a l government l e v i e d supplies f o r improvements on the Lower Fraser-Burrard I n l e t and Hope-Similkameen-Kootenay routes. There was no item f o r the development of the Eagle Pass route which had been the objective of numerous p e t i t i o n s . Perhaps the c o l o n i a l 27. -Colonist/ Dec 19,1868. 2 8 . PRO cd~5o.38 29. C o l o n i s t , July 31,1868. and Seymour-Colonial O f f i c e , Sep 30,1868. (B.C.Archives,Despatches) I l l l e g i s l a t o r s foresaw a Dominion-built road, from the A t l a n t i c to the P a c i f i c coming through t h i s pass. In any case the temporary neglect of the development of the Eagle Pass route could b e - j u s t i f i e d . The lower Fraser was e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f as. the trade channel f o r lumber, f i s h , wheat and other produce passing to the coast and the Island - a t r a f f i c which had been reversed during the e a r l i e r years. Moreover the three a c t i v e lumber m i l l s on Burrard I n l e t had made possible a stage-coach connection between that place and New West-minster. Consequently the debates i n the c o l o n i a l Legislature centered on the question of supplies f o r a new branch road to one of the m i l l s and the survey f o r a new Burrard I n l e t -New Westminster road. In the l a t t e r case the debatable point was whether a survey should be made on both sides of the r i v e r , or since an expenditure of $100,000 was involved and the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s seemed unable to reach an agree-ment, whether there should be a survey at a l l . ( 3 0 ) In the end a P i t t River road was decided upon, to be paid f o r three quarters i n land s c r i p , the re s t i n cash,(31) and the New Westminster-Burrard I n l e t r o a d - t r a i l became a wagon road based p a r t l y upon the old Semiahmoo T r a i l and today used by the B. G. E l e c t r i c interurban cars.(32) 3 0 . C o l o n i s t , Jan 25,1868. 3 1 . i b i d . 32.Nelson,Denys. "Ninety Years of History i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The B u l l e t i n Vancouver, B.C. 1925 ( i n the possession of Rev. G-oodfellow, Princeton, B.C.) 112 Meanwhile the t r a f f i c to the gold_mines centred l e s s on the Cariboo,' While a few prospectors worked t h e i r way toward the Omineca d i s t r i c t , hundreds went to -Wild Horse and Perry Creeks i n the Kootenay and Big Bend region. But although the Hope-Similkameen route was put i n better repair than i t had been before the l a s t bush f i r e (33) a detour v i a Portland was soon necessary "even for government o f f i c i a l s . " ( 3 4 ) With the aim of ending the h u m i l i a t i o n and the inconvenience, miners and traders urged the government to "immediately open t r a i l to B i g Bend, Kootenay and Perry Creek v i a Eagle Pass."(35) I t passed the •.comprehension of these enthusiasts that the government had taken no heed of the enterprise and confidence shown by the Hudson's Bay Company when i t established steam-boat service on Shuswap Lake i n 1866 or the o f f e r of a V i c t o r i a f i r m to b u i l d a t r a i l on t h i s route.(36) A r e s o l u t i o n i n the c o u n c i l c a l l i n g f o r expenditure of a thousand d o l l a r s i n search of a pass through the S e l k i r k s to the Kootenay was negatived i n the face of p u b l i c knowledge of American overtures f o r north-south trade connections. ( 3 7 ) " B r i t i s h Columbia's mining i n t e r e s t s on i t s southern rim," lamented-the e d i t o r of the 'Colonist', "might as w e l l beeon the banks of the Houghly."(38) The government had already made two f u t i l e attempts to provide t r a i l s connecting the coast with the Kootenay and 33.Colonist, Aug 20,1869* 34*ibid. Dec 23,1869. 35.ibid. Jan 30*1869-36.ibid. Feb 22,1869. 5 7 . i b i d . Feb 22,1869. e.g. Oregon Steamboat Navigation Co* 38.11Sid. Aug 7,1869. 113 Big Bend regions, one v i a Similkameen, the other t i a Shuswap Lake. When f i n a l l y a t h i r d attempt was projected i n v o l v i n g s t i l l another survey through Eagle Pass, the c r i t i c s grumbled. "Why ask f o r a third? We want no more Roman roads just now. . . . The t r a i l s which e x i s t are mere apologies and r e f l e c t much d i s c r e d i t on the Lands and Works Department."(39) In the year and a h a l f remaining of the c o l o n i a l period, the planning or prosecution.of large p u b l i c works withi n the colony was p r a c t i c a l l y impossible. The c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had to faee a c e r t a i n antagonism i n England based on the fear that i t was "thentendeney i n the colony to tr e a t these;works as Imperial matters" and that "the burden of the guarantee f o r such a work, c a r r i e d out at the persuasion of the C o l o n i a l Secretary might sooner or l a t e r be thrown on t h i s country. "(4-0) Consequently constructive a c t i v i t y during t h i s period was r e s t r i c t e d almost e n t i r e l y to the Omineca d i s t r i c t . Here re-occurred the now f a m i l i a r .cycle of volunteer t r a i l - b r e a k i n g , government assistance and priva t e contracting. The miners who v o l u n t a r i l y cut t h e i r way to the diggings were followed by the Gold Commissioner who was pressed into serviee as temporary superintendent of road and bridge-building.(41) While p r i v a t e enterprise c a r r i e d on with dog or toboggan express, the government c a l l e d f o r tenders f o r the completion of a road although the controversy which had. a r i s e n over the 39. C o l o n i s t , Dec 22,1869. 40. Hansard, V o l . 172 p.1327 41.Colonist, July 24,1870 and Aug 1870. 1 14 choice of a route had not been s e t t l e d . While the merits of the-Peace River and of Quesnelmouth as points of departure were being weighed, an e n t e r p r i s i n g trader with an eye f o r business chose the Skeena route. His tender was accepted and the government granted him a charter- g i v i n g him the r i g h t to c o l l e c t t o l l s i n return f o r keeping the t r a i l i n shape.(42) Omineca miners used the route as they l e f t t h e i r diggings at the end of the season to winter i n V i c t o r i a . But when Dewdney inspected the t r a i l i n the year f o l l o w i n g he was obliged to report to the Department of Lands and Works that i t d i d not comply with s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Consequently the trader's contract was cancelled and he received only two of the f i v e thousand d o l l a r s o r i g i n a l l y agreed upon. The government then assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the upkeep of the t r a i l . ( 4 3 ) The balance of the 1870-1871 expenditure on roads, streets- and bridges, $52,300, was absorbed almost e n t i r e l y by urgent r e p a i r s . Yet the roads were no better i n 1871 than they had been i n 1870. Nothing was spent on the Kamloops-Columbla route v i a Eagle Pass. The pleas of V i c t o r i a merchants that trade was being l o s t to the Americans were i n vai n . The p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t y was i n the Cariboo above Clinton, on the Hope-Similkameen and i n the lower Fraser. Expenditures were generally lower i n 1871 than i n the previous year. This i s t o be accounted f o r by a shrinkage i n road t o l l revenue 42. C o l o n i s t , Jan 23,1871 43. B.C.Sessional Papers 1877: Report of P u b l i c Works Dept. p.297 115 during 1870 of f11,000.(44) In January 1871 a council r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r a d d i t i o n a l expenditure f o r roads and p o s t a l service d i d not infl u e n c e Governor Musgrave to a l t e r the o r i g i n a l estimates.(45) But f o r the most part, c o l o n i a l p o l i t i c i a n s were preoccupied during t h i s period with the negotiations for union with Canada.(46) The confederation plans passed from committee to committee and no douht had t h e i r influence upon the discussions of road t o l l s , ( 4 7 ) inland telegraph and steamship connection with San Francisco.(48) Complaints of the state of the roads and route controversies were crowded out of the columns of the c o l o n i a l press. The keynote of t h i s f i n a l phase i n the development of B r i t i s h Columbia's communications system was connection with the east. In t h i s project the Co l o n i a l O f f i c e in- London began at l a s t to show some i n t e r e s t . Although the B r i t i s h government had been exposed to the problem of an overland highway from the A t l a n t i c to the P a c i f i c for years, i t had not responded e i t h e r to the propaganda of Canadians i n England - l i k e Malcolm Cameron (49) or San$ford Fleming (50) - or to the not unfavourable reports of B r i t i s h explorers. ( 5 1 ) For the home government i t was one thing to concur with Baring and Glyn when they wrote to 44. Government Gazette, June 24,1871 45. Journal of L e g i s l a t i v e Council, Jan 16,1871 4 6 . e.g. B.C.Archives despatches, J u l y 28,1870. 4 8 . Begg o p . c i t , p.391 4%. C o l o n i s t , Feb 23,Mar 13,Mar 26,Apr 10,1870 49. C o l o n i s t , Aug 12,1862; Feb 10,1863 5 0 . I b i d . Aug 7,1863 5 1 . i b i d . Nov 19,1864 116 Newcastle i n 1862 that the time was "opportune and desirable f o r some adequate; organization" to promote "telegraph and means of t r a v e l l i n g with r e g u l a r i t y " between east and west,, (52) I t was quite another thing when i t was a question of providing f i n a n c i a l support f o r " t h e just and legitimate ambitions of the Canadian^Government" to j o i n coast with coast. 45,3)heYet e.v$«Jlhirfcnslngland$>fknd w"Led-ge of the great sucess of the over-land P a c i f i c Railway, making one, as Douglas said, "tremble f o r the pre s t i g e of E n g l a n d m u s t have c a r r i e d weight. "Bound together by t h i s easy-line of I n t e r n a l communication, the United States," sai d Douglas, "may b i d defiance to the world and work havoc whenever i t pleases them with our commerce i n the East."(54) Enough trouble seemed forthcoming -without the worry of annexationists, ( 5 5 ) possible Fenian raids, ( 5 6 ) and reports of d e f e n c e - d i f f i c u l t i e s due to poor communications w i t h i n the colony.(57) The l o g i c a l p o l i c y f o r B r i t a i n i n western North America seemed to G r a n v i l l e to involve "washing in . our hands of the whole."(58) Yet he was not w i l l i n g that B r i t a i n should cede to the United States, "by sale or otherwise the whole of our possessions on the P a c i f i c , leaving the Rocky Mountains as a boundary between them and us. . . . They have been p r i v a t e l y given to understand," said he, "that no such proposal w i l l even be admitted consideration. " ( 5 9 ) 52. Baring & Glyn--Newcastle, July 5,1862 ( i m p e r i a l Blue Book on a f f a i r s r e l a t i n g to Canada.1819-1870 Vols.41 - 2 . No 2) 53. MonselI, June 1,1869. (Hansard, Vol 196) 54. Douglas-Dallas, Aug 23,1869 (Douglas Let t e r Book 1869 p.150) 55. Carnarvon, Feb 14,1870(Hansard Vol . 1 9 9 P.193) 56. Telegram,Downing St-Seymour (PRO CO 60.34) 57. Seymour-Col.Office, Jan 14,1869.(B.C.Arehives Despatches) 58. Referred to by Carnarvon i n Hansard, Vol . 1 9 9 p.193 59. Thornton-Granville,Mar 2 1 , 1 8 7 1(Granville Papers,PRO GD 29/80) 117 Confederation with i t s plans for a connecting highway probably seemed to the men at the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e as w e l l as to G r a n v i l l e at the Foreign O f f i c e , the most e f f e c t i v e way of "washing our hands". When Seymour died on June 10,1869 at B e l l a Coola i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, the Col o n i a l O f f i c e named as hi s successor the r e l i a b l e f e d e r a t i o n i s t , Anthony Musgrave who, although he f a i l e d to add Newfoundland to the Dominion, deserved a second chance because of h i s sincere e f f o r t s . Thenceforward the i n t e r e s t of the home government i n the wagon road clause sponsored by the V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s ' Confed-er a t i o n League, the Surveyor-General 1s report on the subject of a coach road, and Waddington's personal v i s i t to London, was based on the desire to see B r i t i s h Columbia a part of the Dominion w i t h as l i t t l e delay as possible,(60) P r i o r to the appointment of Governor Musgrave the b a i t dangled before the colony by f e d e r a t i o n i s t s had been the promise of an i n t e r - c o l o n i a l highway. With Musgrave i n B r i t i s h Columbia however,-union with Canada and a trans-c o n t i n e n t a l road were ensured. The discussion now turned on the nature and l o c a t i o n of the promised highway. And a high-way i t was to be as f a r as Musgrave was concerned at the outset.(61) The Government 'Gazette' considered that he was asking f o r too l i t t l e , claiming that "the age f o r Coach Roads 60. Co l o n i s t, Jan 29,l868;Seymour-Col~Office,Apf 2,1868 (B.C. Archives Despatches);PRO CO 60.34 & 60.42, 1868, 1870. 61. Musgrave-Colonial Office,Oct 30,1869. (B.C.Archives Des-patches ) • • • • . 118 has almost passed away" and an overland railway was "the most v i t a l part of the whole scheme of Confederation.''(6/2) In determining the route which the transcontinental would follow from the p r a i r i e westward, the choice-of- a pass was fundamental. The popular choice--was the Yellowhead. But with the exception of Waddington the explorers favoured a more southerly pass,(63) For them a route : v i a Eagle Pass assumed importance f o r i t s proximity to the Big Bend and Kootenay and f o r the competition i t would provide for r a i l -roads south of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary. Surveying was begun i n the west with the assignment of sections at Canoe River, on the Fraser f i f t y miles below Yellowhead, Howse Pass and near Eagle Pass.(64) With these s l i m evidences of constructive a c t i v i t y before them c o l o n i a l dreamers saw a new day dawning when a l l t ransportation problems would be solved. I 6.2.Government Gazette sent to London (PRO CO 60.39 11:1870) 63. C o l o n i s t , Aug, 7,1869. 64. Begg op.eit,p 404 119 CHAPTER WINE * 5 CONCLUSION Whether or not one agrees with the time d i v i s i o n s of i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y adopted by Creighton and ref e r r e d to i n the* opening sentences of t h i s essay, one cannot deny that the period from 1858 to 1871 was- one during which c o l o n i a l enthusiasm i n England was not marked. Any manifestation of B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t i n c o l o n i a l development during those years i s therefore of p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t . B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t which was perhaps f i r s t aroused by the boundary settlement i n 1846 and revived by the a c t i v i t i e s of the Select Committee whose report appeared i n 1857 re s u l t e d i n 1858 i n the despatch to the colonies of the Royal Engineers. This might not have happened had Bulwer-Lytton not been Secretary f o r the colonies at the c r u c i a l time - c r u c i a l , that i s to say, from a B r i t i s h Columbia point of view. The experiment which Lytton inaugurated was not or$ the whole successful and Newcastle, Lytton's successor, took the f i r s t opportunity of r e s t o r i n g the development of communications to a basis of l o c a l , c i v i l i a n , and, as i t turned out, p r i v a t e enterprise. A c t u a l l y i t was private enterprise which was responsible f o r the major developments of the period. The network of t r a i l s which the gold-seekers i n h e r i t e d owed much of i t s o r i g i n to the requirements of the fu r * t r a d e . The f i r s t work on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route was done by volunteers eager to reach the diggings 120 and i t was on the same road that the f i r s t experiments i n contract construction were c a r r i e d on. Lengthy stretches of the great Cariboo road were b u i l t by contractors - Wright, Trutch, Hood and others. Dewdney b u i l t much of the Hope-Similkameen i n the capacity of contractor before he entered the service of the government. Waddington wasted h i s substance i n a v a i n attempt to popularize the Bute I n l e t route. This impressive chronicle of achievements of l o c a l p r i v a t e enterprise in'contrast to those of the Royal Engineers would seem to minimize the importance of B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t i n the development of communications. Nevertheless i t should be remembered that I the m i l l i o n d o l l a r debt which B r i t i s h Columbia c a r r i e d i n t o the Dominion of Canada represented B r i t i s h c a p i t a l invested i n those- l o c a l achievements. Might one suggest that the i n t e r e s t of English c a p i t a l i s t s was of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than the d i s i n t e r e s t of the Colonial Office? The motives which lay behind the B r i t i s h govern-I ' ; ment's support of the union between B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada are complex. No doubt a fear of American expansion-i s t sentiment played i t s part as d i d perhaps a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to administer such a large and sparsely populated t e r r i t o r y from so great a distance as London. At any rate the Important point i s that B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t i n the accomplishment of confederation played i t s part i n the motivation and shape of communications development during the c l o s i n g years of the c o l o n i a l ' period. 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY AND CONTEMPORARY I. .Manuscript . Hudson's Bay Company Archives, London, England: Account Sales, Invoices, Fur Returns and outgoing correspondence f o r O u t f i t s of 1843 to 1859. A 51/37 B 223d Le t t e r Books, 1845 to 1854. A 6/ 27 & 29 *London Locked Pri v a t e L e t t e r Books:Correspondence with Her Majesty's Government, especially" Colonial O f f i c e and Foreign O f f i c e . A 7/ 2 & 3; A 8/ 4, 5 & 6 Miscellaneous Unsorted Papers: 1849, 1850, 1851. Reports on Overland.Surveys f o r Telegraph etc. 1865 C 226 C/2 *West Department Lett e r Book, correspondence c h i e f l y to the Secretary, London from Fort V i c t o r i a . V o l " I : 1844-45; Vol XI«XIII: 1853-57. B 226b P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . ^Departmental Correspondence: Dewdney, Moberly, Moody, Palmer, Parsons, Royal Engineers o f f i c e r s , and Trutch with the Department of Lands and Works. |t ^Despatches to and from the Co l o n i a l Office from 1851 to 1871. Douglas P r i v a t e Letter Books: 1857, 1863, 1867, 1869 Miscellaneous Correspondence: Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia and Bank of B r i t i s h North America with the C o l o n i a l Secretaries, 1862, 1865. Public-.RecOrdftOffiee, C o l o n i a l O f f i c e Section, London. ^Blackwood's interdepartmental notes, 'Blanshard to Grey, Carnarvon to Newcastle,, ^Douglas to Stanley, Labouchere, Lytton, Newcastle, * E l l i o t to Fortescue, Hamilton, Board of Trade, Fortescue's interdepartmental notes, I r v i n g to Douglas., Rogers, Items marked * were most us e f u l f o r t h i s essay. 122 PRIMARY AND CONTEMPORARY, Manuscript (Cont'd) *Lytton to Douglas and Moody, *Moody to Carnarvon, Lytton and Newcastle, ^Newcastle to Douglas, War Of f i c e , and interdepartment, •^Seymour to Cardwell, E l l i o t , Rogers, Treasury to Rogers, Waddington to Secretary of State, War Of f i c e to Secretary of State, C a l l numbers: 1848-1851 CO.305' 3; 1858-1859 CO 60.1-4; 1863-64 CO 60.15-18; 1866 GO 60,26; 1868 CO 60.34; 1870-1 CO 60.42-4. II.. P r i n t e d - O f f i c i a l *Act to Provide for the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, August 2, 1858. 21 & 22 V i c t o r i a C 99 . Correspondence Relative to the Discovery of Gold on Fraser's River, London I858. Correspondence R e l a t i v e to the Discovery of Gold at Queen (Charlotte !s Island. London, 1853. •^Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 1849-1871. Imperial and C o l o n i a l Blue Books r e l a t i n g to B r i t i s h Columbia. ^Journal of L e g i s l a t i v e - C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h Columbia. Proclamations of B r i t i s h Columbia 1858-1864. Papers R e l a t i v e to the A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Parts I * I V , 1859-1862. London. i d ^Report from' the Select Committee on the. Hudson's Bay Company. London 1857. . I I I . Printed; - U n o f f i c i a l ^Anderson, A.C. The Dominion at the. West. V i c t o r i a , Government P r i n t e r , 1872. • Anderson, A.C. History of the M o rth-West Coast. V i c t o r i a , 1878. Barrett-Lennard, Captain C.E. Travels i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, London, Hurst and Blackett, 1862. Broun, R. European, and A s i a t i c Intercourse v i a  B r i t i s h Columbia etc. London, Hardwicke, 1858. 123 PRIMARY AND CONTEMPORARY, Pr i n t e d * U n o f f i c i a l (Cont'd) Columbia River Exploration, 1865. Instruc t i o n s , Reports and Journals r e l a t i n g to the Government Exploration between the Shuswap and Okanagan Lakes and the Rocky Mountains. New Tfestminster, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1865. Cornwallis, K. The New Eldorado; or B r i t i s h Columbia. London, Newby, 1858. • " Fortune, A.L. Diary, O r i g i n a l i n Library of Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Harvey, A. S t a t i s t i c a l Account of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa, Desbarets, 1867. ' ' Macdonald, D.G.F. B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver  Island. London, Longmans Green, 1862. Mayne, L i e u t . B.C. Report on Journey i n B r i t i s h  Columbia i n the D i s t r i c t s bordering on the Thompson, Fraser and;' Harrison Rivers. McLean, John. Notes of a Twenty-Five Years Service  i n Hudson's Bay T e r r i t o r y . London, 1849. Republished by Champlain Society, Toronto, 1932. M i l t o n , Viscount and Cheadle, W.B. The Northwest  Passage by Land. London, C a s s e l l , P e t t e r & Galpin, 1865 Moberly, Walter. The Rocks and Pines of B r i t i s h  Columbia. London, Blaeklock and Co. 1885. Palmer, Lieut.H.SReport on Williams Lake and Cariboo. H New Westminster, pr i n t e d by Royal Engineers, 1863. P a l l i s e r , Capt. J . Exploration of B r i t i s h North America. Journal'of Geographic Society, London, Murray, i 8 6 0 . 7 Pemberton, J.D. Facts and Figures Relatng to Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, etc. London, Longman and Green, i 8 6 0 . ~~ Synge, Col. M.H. Paper on Central B r i t i s h N o r t h  America etc. B r i t i s h North America Assoc. 1864. Waddington, A l f r e d . On the Geography and Mountain  Passes of B r i t i s h Columbia, etc. Journal of Royal Geographic Society, London, Murray, 1868.-124 PRIMARY AND CONTEMPORARY (Cont'd) IV.' Newspapers. ^ B r i t i s h Colonist, V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h Columbian, New 'Westminster. •^Economist, London. Times, London. •"•-Victoria Gazette, V i c t o r i a . SECONDARY I. Books, Anstey, A. The Romance of B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto, Gage and Op:, Ltd. 1927. ~ ~ ~ ~ Bancroft,'H.H, History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ian Francisco, The History Co., 1867. ". *3egg, Alexander (CC.) History of B r i t i s h Columbia, etc. Toronto, Briggs, 1894. Canada Year Book, 1958. Cary, C-.H. Hist o r y of Oregon. Chicago, 1932. CoatsyR.H. and Gosnell, R.E, S i r James Douglas. Toronto, Morang.and Co. 1909. D e a v l l l e , The Co l o n i a l Postage System of Vaneouyer  Isl a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o f l n e l a l Archives Memoir No. 8 . -^ D i c t i o n a r y of National Biography. London, Smith, Elder & Co. 1909. V o l . X I I I •^Felling,, ,K. Sketches i n Nineteenth Century Biography. London, 1930. *Howay/ F.W, and S c h o l e f i e l d , E.Q.S. B r i t i s h Columbia  from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present. 2 v o l s . Vancouver, S.J.Clarke Co. 1914. Howay, F.W. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Making - of a Province Toronto, the Ryerson Press, 1928, 125 SECONDARY: Books (Cont'd) Gosnell, R.E. (Ed.) The Year Book of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1897 ^ nd Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Inform-a t i o n . V i c t o r i a , 1897. ; " : ~ : ~ Innis, Mary Quayle. An Economic History of Canada. Toronto, Ryeraon Press, 1935. Jeness, D. The Indians of Canada. Dept. of Mines, National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 65 , Anthro-p o l o g i c a l Series No. 15. 2 n d . E d i t i o n . 1934. Morice, Rev. A.G. History Of the Norther I n t e r i o r  of B r i t i s h Columbia, Formerly New Caledonia. Toronto, Wm. Briggs, 1904. ' Ross, V. A History of the Canadian Bank of Commerce. Toronto, 1920. Robinson, Noel. B l a z i n g the T r a i l through the  Rockies:. Vancouver, News-Advertiser. 1914. #Sage, W. 'N. S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1930. S c h o l e f i e l d , E.Q.S. and Gosnell, R.E. BBitishhColum-b i a . S i x t y Years of Progress.. Vancouver and V i c t o r i a 1913. 1 T r o t t e r , R.G. Canadian Federation. Torn&to, J . M. Dent and Sons. 1924. I I , P e r i o d i c a l s . ;| - *Creighton, D.G. "The V i c t o r i a n s and the Empire." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. June,1938. XIX :138 f f . Dunnage,J.A. "Transportation, the Key Factor i n Empire. Trade."World Today. August,1927. p.259 *Howay, F.7/. "The Raison d'etre of Forts Hope and Yale." Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. 3 r d . Series, Vol.16. 1922. Howay,F.W. "The Overland Journey of the Argonauts of 1 8 6 2 . " Transactions of the Royal Society of  Canada. 3 r d . Series, V o l . 13 1919. • LeBourdals, L. " B i l l y Barker of B a r k e r v i l l e . " B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. July, 1 9 3 7 . l o l . 1. / 126 SECONDARY: P e r i o d i c a l s (Cont'd) ' .. Long-staff, F.V. "Notes on the Early History of the P a c i f i c Station etc," Canadian Defence -Qarterly, A p r i l , 1926. vb.lv I I I . ~~ ~ ; : Nelson,Denys.."Ninety Years of History i n B r i t i s h Columbia." The B u l l e t i n . Vancouver, May, 1925. *Reid, R..L. " A l f r e d Waddington." Transactions of the  Royal Society of Canada. 3 r d . Series, Vol. 26 1932 Reid, R.L. "Captain Evans of Cariboo." B r i f i s h  Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. October 1938. 11:4 *Reld f R.L. "Economic Beginnings i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. 3rd Series, V o l . 30, 1936. *Riekard, T.A. "Indian P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Gold Discoveries." B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. . January 1938. Vol . 1 1 ;I. •K-Sage, l.N. ."From Colony.to Province." B r i t i s h  Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. January 1939. V o l . I I I . *Sage, W.N. "The Annexationist Movement i n -British Columbia." Transactions of the Royal Society of  Canada. 3 r d . Series, V o l . 21, 1927. • *Sage-, W.N. "The Gold Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. 1921. Vol. 2 *Sage, W.N,:"The C r i t i c a l Period of B r i t i s h Columbian H i s t o r y . " P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review. 1932. V o l , 1. S c h o l e f i e l d , ' E.O.S. "The Yale-Cariboo.Wagon-Road." Man-1o-Man MagazIhe. January 1911. Vol. 7 I I I . Theses. Mcintosh, .D.J„ Fort St. James Past and Present. EssSuj. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, August 1933. *0rmsby, M.A. A Study of the Okanagan Val l e y of  B r i t i s h Columbia. M.A. Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 1931. ^Palmer, P.P. A F i s c a l History.of B r i t i s h Columbia  i n . the C o l o n i a l Period. Ph.D. Stanford. July 1932. *Thrupp, S.L. A History of the Oranbrook D i s t r i c t  i n -East Kootenay. M.A. Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1929. 127 ADDENDUM Books;, a r t i c l e s and maps omitted from bibliography through error or subsequently recommended by members of the Faculty of the Department of History, University of B r i t i s h Columbia; bearing p r i n c i p a l l y upon the i m p e r i a l i s t background of the subject. Books and A r t i c l e s Bodelson, Studies i n Mid-Victorian Imperialism. Denmark, Gyldendalske Boehandel, 1924. : Fay, C.R. Imperial Economy and i t s Place In the , formation of Economic Doctrine. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1934 '. : ~~ \ Jenks, L.H. The Migration of B r i t i s h C a p i t a l to  1875• New York, A.A.Knopf, 1927. Knowles, E.G.A. Economic Development of the Over-seas Empire,.London, Routledge Ltd., 1924* -Vol I I . Pares, R."Economic Factors i n the History of the Empire." Economic History Review. May 1937. Vol . 7 No, 2 pp 199 f f . • Soward, F..H. "President Polk and the Canadian F r o n t i e r , " Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Annual  Report 1930. pp 71-80. (The subject i s being ~ inv e s t i g a t e d by F. Merk) Map_s ; Anderson, A.C. Showing d i f f e r e n t routes of commun-i c a t i o n with the Gold Region on Fras"er's River from o r i g i n a l notes.(1859?) In P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Arrowsmith. Map of B r i t i s h Columbia.. 1852, i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Epner, G. Map of the Gold Regions of B r i t i s h Columbia from .sketches and information given His Excellency James Douglas. V i c t o r i a , Hibben & Carswell, 1862. i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Piers,' S i r Chas. Wall map of Fur Brigade Routes. Shown by Hudson's Bay -Company i n h i s t o r i c a l d i s play, 1936 at Vancouver, B. C. 128 ADDENDUM: Maps (Cont'd) .Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Tabloid Travel  Talks on B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , i B a n f l e l d , 1930. Royal Engineers. Sketch maps i l l u s t r a t i n g survey reports of Bentinck Arm route, Cariboo and Hope-Similkameen. 1861-63. i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Truteh, Joseph. Map of B r i t i s h Columbia. I 8 7 1 r i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, Inonb Showing New. Westmlnster-Burrard I n l e t roads  and t r a i l s , (date?) i n Ci t y of Vancouver Archives.' I 

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