UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some manifestations of the ironic sense in the works of Thomas Hardy Brearley, Katherine Winnifred Turton 1939

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Some M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h e I r o n i c Sense i n The Works of Thomas Hardy Toy Kat h e r i n e B r e a r l e y A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of MGLISH The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1939 TABLE OP COiTTIMTS I Thomas Hardy's I r o n i c P h i l o s o p h y , p. 1. I I Thomas Hardy—Conscious I r o n i s t , , p. 1J?, I I I V e r b a l I r o n y , p . 24, IV - I r o n y of t h e " Under-Log" or t h e Reformer, p. 40. V The I r o n y of Detachment or S p i r i t u a l freedom, p. 60. V I The I r o n y of N e c e s s i t y . p. 71* V I I Some E f f e c t R of Ir o n y oB Thomas Hardy's Work, p. 85. SOME MAN IYE ST AT ION S OE THE IRONIC SMTSE IN THE WORKS OE THOMAS HARDY THOMAS HARDY'S IRONIC PHILOSOPHY "As, i n l o o k i n g at a c a r p e t , by f o l l o w i n g one c o l -our a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n i s suggested, by f o l l o w i n g another c o l o u r , another? so i n l i f e t h e seer s h o u l d watch t h a t p a t t e r n among g e n e r a l t h i n g s w h i c h h i s i d i o s y n c r a s y moves him t o observe, and d e s c r i b e t h a t alone.,. T h i s i s , q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y , a g o i n g t o N a t u r e ; yet t h e r e s u l t i s no mere photograph, but p u r e l y t h e product of t h e w r i t er ' s own mind . " There are many i n f l u e n c e s t o wh i c h t h e f o r m a t i o n of Thomas Hardy's p h i l o s o p h y can be t r a c e d . The V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d w i t h i t s two c h i e f and d i s t i n c t s c h o o l s of t h o u g h t , t h e one of complacency, t h e other of doubt, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many of Thomas Hardy »s i d e a s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e man's h e r e d i t y , c h i l d h o o d , n a t u r e , and f i n a l l y , h i s a m b i t i o n s and dis a p p o i n t m e n t s formed a b a s i s f o r t h e vi e w of l i f e t h a t he came t o h o l d . The e a r l y V i c t o r i a n p e r i od was prone t o a c a r e f u l b l i n d n e s s t o idea s and events t h a t were at a l l d i s q u i e t i n g , b e i n g n u r t u r e d by t h e economic p r o s p e r i t y of t h e t i m e s and by t h e expansion of t h e B r i t i s h Empire, The age was, i n f a c t , i n c l i n e d t o be s e l f - s a t i s f i e d and complacent, a l t h o u g h b e f o r e 1810 L i n n a e u s , Erasmus Darwin, T r e v i r a n u s , and Lam-a r c k had a l r e a d y l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e 'Darwinian Theory and f o r a great r e v e r s a l of a t t i t u d e . Even a f t e r t h e t h e o r y of e v o l u t i o n was p u b l i s h e d by Char l e s ' D a r w i n i n 1859, t h e same s a t i s f i e d f e e l i n g remained. E a i t h i n t h e o l d i d e a l s 1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The j S a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy, 1840-1891, London, 1928, p. l f j g 7 - - - - - - — — c o n t i n u e d unshaken; Darwin's t h e o r y was i n t e r p r e t e d as a s t i l l f u r t h e r p r o o f of man's s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e U n i v e r s e . Man, from t h i s p o i n t of v i e w , was t h e acme of p e r f e c t i o n , and o c c u p i e d t h e c e n t r e of t h e U n i v e r s e as h i s u n d i s p u t e d r i g h t . T h i s complacency s u r v i v e d i n some q u a r t e r s t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . While an o p t i m i s t i c s t r a i n c o n t i n u e d from t h e e a r l y p e r i o d i n t o t h e second h a l f of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e l a t e r p e r i o d was de e p l y a f f e c t e d by s c i e n c e . Doubt and des-p a i r and q u e s t i o n i n g were t h e keynotes of t h i s second t e n d -ency i n V i c t o r i a n l i f e . F o r t h o s e people who f o l l o w e d t h i s t r e n d , t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e c h a l l e n g e i n Darwin's t h e o r y t o man's e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e Universe. The d e s t r u c t i o n of a l l t h e former i d e a s of r e l i g i o n , m o r a l i t y , and human supremacy (even of t h e E n g l i s h ) seemed imminent, w h i l e s c i e n -ce i t s e l f o f f e r e d n e i t h e r joy nor hope t o t h i s t h i n k i n g group. Thomas Hardy was. born i n t o a w o r l d i n which t h e optimism of t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d was b l e n d i n g w i t h t h e d e s p a i r and pessimism of t h e l a t e r age. The m o r a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and r e l i g i o u s w o r l d s were s u f f e r i n g great shocks and e n t e r -i n g a p e r i o d of chaos. C h a r l e s Darwin's i c o n o c l a s t i c t r e a t -i s e found Hardy a s e n s i t i v e , t h i n k i n g boy of n i n e t e e n who, because of h i s own i n t e r e s t s , chose t o b u i l d a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t was i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e complacent and i n agreement w i t h t h e d a r k e r v i e w of t h e U n i v e r s e . The f a m i l y , background of Thomas Hardy i s not only i n t e r e s t i n g but i l l u m i n a t e s h i s c h a r a c t e r and i d e a s . The Hardy f a m i l y was .descended from t l i e l e Hardys of Jersey t h r o u g h John, son of Clement l e Hardy, who s e t t l e d at Ware-ham i n t h e F i f t e e n t h Century. A l t h o u g h t h e r e had been many eminent men i n t h e f a m i l y , among them t h e E l i z a b e t h a n Thomas Hardy who endowed t h e D o r c h e s t e r Grammar s c h o o l and Thomas Hardy of t h e V i c t ory at T r a f a l g a r , at t he t i m e of Hardy's b i r t h t h e f a m i l y had d e c l i n e d . As Hardy h i m s e l f wrot e i n h i s note-book w h i l e he was on a t r i p t h r o u g h h i s own c o u n t r y i n 1888-9: "The d e c l i n e and f a l l of t h e Hardys v e r y much i n evidence hereabout. An i n s t a n c e ; Becky S's mother's s i s t e r m a r r i e d one of t h e Hardys of t h i s b r a n c h , who was c o n s i d e r e d t o have "Hemeaned h i m s e l f by the. marriage.. ' A l l Woolcombe and Eroom Quint i n belonged t o them at one t i m e , ' Becky used t o say p r o u d l y . She might have added U p - S y d l i n g and T o l l e r Welme. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c ouple had an enormous l o t of c h i l d r e n . I remember when young s e e i n g t h e : a a n - - t a l l and t h i n - - w a l k i n g b e s i d e a horse and common s p r i n g t r a p , and my mother p o i n t i n g him out t o me and s a y i n g he r e p r e s e n t e d what was once t h e 'leading b r a n c h of t h e f a m i l y . So we go down, down, d own." 1 The Hardy h e r e d i t y was of such a n a t u r e t h a t i t tended t o develop a gloomy and d o u b t i n g t r e n d of thought i n Thomas. oA panoraiiiic v i e w of t h e Hardy f a m i l y showed him how l i t t l e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e a f f e c t e d t h e growth of a s i n g l e f a m i l y . T h i s r e f l e c t i o n p r o b a b l y helped him t o t h e c o n c l u s -ion t h a t one man c o u l d h a r d l y count f o r much i n t h e sum t o t a l of t h e U n i v e r s e . There was, i n a d d i t i o n , another h e r i t a g e from t h e Hardys. "They a l l had t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an o l d f a m i l y of spent s o c i a l e n e r g i e s , t h a t were r e v e a l e d even i n t h e Thomas Hardy of t h i s memoir (as i n h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r ) , who never cared t o t a k e advantage of t h e many w o r l d l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t h i s p o p u l a r i t y and esteem as an author a f f o r d e d him." 2 •1. I b i d , p.. 2 8 1 . 2. Ib i d , p . 5• On t h e m a t e r n a l s i d e Hardy-was descended from an Anglo-Saxon f a m i l y - - t h e C h i l d s . H i s grandmother, who marr-i e d w i t h o u t ' h e r f a t h e r ' s consent, had he en widowed e a r l y i n l i f e and had had much d i f f i c u l t y i n r a i s i n g her f a m i l y . Her i n f l u e n c e over-the y o u t h f u l ' Hardy was a marked one. S h e - t o l d t h e c h i l d t h e f o l k - t a l e s of t h e c o u n t r y s i d e ' a n d i n t e r p r e t e d c h a r a c t e r s f o r him from t h e wisdom of her y e a r s . Hardy's mother, who had seen great h a r d s h i p i n her e a r l y l i f e , was always an e n e r g e t i c , a m b i t i o u s , and p r o g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r , Thomas Hardy owes h i s : Anglo-Saxon a n c e s t o r s much f o r h i s e n e r g e t i c and j u s t i c e l o v i n g n a t u r e . -Higher \Bockhampt on, t h e s i t u a t i o n of t h e Hardy's home, where Hardy was born, and l i v e d d u r i n g h i s c h i l d h o o d , was a s e c l u d e d s p o t . Here he came t o love-1 he s o l i t u d e and • t h e q u i e t n e s s of t h e moors. The h e a t h and Hardy became f r i e n d s , f r i e n d s who d i d not welcome human companionship. Hardy was o f t e n d i s t r e s s e d by t h e a t t e n t i o n s of people as i s well/shown i n t h e f o l l o v / i n g q u o t a t i o n : "Hardy was popu-l a r — t o o f i o p u l a r a l m o s t — w i t h h i s s c h o o l - f e l l o w s , f o r - t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p at t i m e s became burdensome. He l o v e d b e i n g a l o n e , "but. o f t e n , t o h i s concealed d i s c o m f o r t , some of t h e o t h e r boys would v o l u n t e e r t o accompany him on h i s homeward journey t o Bockhampt on. How much t h i s i r k e d him he r e c a l l e d l o n g y e a r s a f t e r . He t r i e d a l s o t o a v o i d b e i n g touched by h i s playmates. One l a d , w i t h more i n s i g h t t h a n t h e r e s t , d i s c o v e r e d t h e f a c t ; 'Hardy, how i s i t t h a t you do not l i k e us t o t o u c h you?' The p e c u l i a r i t y never l e f t him, and t o t h e end of h i s l i f e he d i s l i k e d even t h e most f r i e n d l y hand b e i n g l a i d on h i s arm or s h o u l d e r . P r o b a b l y no one e l s e ever observed t h i s . " ' Whenever Hardy was h u r t , i t was t o t h i s wide c o u n t r y s i d e , t h a t made man seem s m a l l and i n s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a t he t u r n e d 1. I b i d , p. 31• f o r c o n s o l a t i o n . Throughout h i s l i f e Hardy was i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t . Prom a v e r y " e a r l y age he was a t t r a c t e d by c o l o u r , by music, and by p o e t r y ( e s p e c i a l l y of t h e churc h s e r v i c e ) . He appren t i c e d h i m s e l f t o an a r c h i t e c t from whom he l e a r n t about de-s i g n and form, and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of b u i l d i n g s . But even w h i l e he ws,s engaged i n f o l l o w i n g a r c h -i t e c t u r e , h i s i n t e r e s t went back t o l i t e r a t u r e . He "began t o w r i t e n o v e l s , o n l y t o be co n v i n c e d t h a t h i s t r u e i n t e r e s t was i n t h e w r i t i n g of p o e t r y . Because Hardy o f t e n saw what he b e l i e v e d t o be t h e laws g o v e r n i n g t h e U n i v e r s e v i o l a t e d and because he c o u l d f i n d no s a t i s f a c t i o n i n s c i e n c e h i s ar t 1st i c . nat u r e , s e e k i n g always • f o r o r d e r , l e d him t o c r e a t e a U n i v e r s e of h i s own t h a t expressed h i s p h i l o s o p h y . The man was ext r a o r d i n a r i l y s e n s i t i v e - - s e n s i t i v e t o colour,- harmony, form, p e o p l e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t o s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . Sham and d e c e i t , v u l g a r i t y and coarseness he d e t e s t e d . He was e a s i l y h u r t , Large a r t i f i c i a l s o c i a l gath e r i n g s were not at a l l t o h i s t ast e, f o r . i t was i n them t h a t he found t h e h y p o c r i s y t h a t so upset him and made him gloomy and, at t i m e s , even c y n i c a l . He a p p r e c i a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n , but he ma.de no s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o r e c e i v e n o t i c e and was some-tim e s e m b i t t e r e d by i n d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t . L e v i t y has no p l a c e i n Thomas Hardy's n a t u r e or ou t l o o k . As he h i m s e l f expressed i t : "A man would never l a u g h were he not t o f o r g e t h i s s i t u a t i o n , or were he not one who has never l e a r n t i t . A f t e r r i s i b i l i t y from comedy, how o f t e n does t h e t h o u g h t f u l mind r e p r o a c h i t s e l f f o r f o r g e t t i n g t h e t r u t h ? Laughter always means b l i n d n e s s — e i t h e r from d e f e c t , c h o i c e or a c c i d e n t . " x T h i s gloomy a t t i t u d e i s not one of pessimism i n t h e u s u a l sense; i t ' i s , r a t h e r , a l o o k i n g f a c t s i n t h e f a c e . Under t h c a p t i o n "A P e s s i m i s t ' s Apology" Hardy wrote: "Pessimism (or r a t h e r what i s c a l l e d such) i s , i n b r i e f , p l a y i n g t h e sure game. You cannot l o s e at i t ; you may g a i n . It -is t h e only view of l i f e i n which you can never be d i s a p p o i n t e d . Having reckoned what t o do i n t h e worst . p o s s i b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , when b e t t e r a r i s e , as t h e y may, l i f e becomes c h i l d ' s p l a y . " 2 In order t o o f f s e t t h e t w i l i g h t v i e w t h a t gathered around-Hardy, he developed a h a b i t of i n a c t i v i t y t h a t gave h i s mind f r e e p l a y and seemed t o r e l i e v e him of t h e weight of h i s body and of e a r t h l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . He d i s c u s s e d t h e s u b j e c t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner; ..."Por my p a r t , i f t h e r e i s any way of g e t t i n g a m e l a n c o l y sat i s f act i o n out of l i f e i t - l i e s i n d y i n g , so t o speak, b e f o r e one i s out r, of t h e f l e s h ; by which I mean p u t t i n g - o n t h e manners of g h o s t s , wandering i n t h e i r haunts, and t a k i n g t h e i r v iews of s u r r o u n d i n g t h i n g s . To t h i n k of l i f e as a p a s s i n g away i s sadness; t o t h i n k of i t as past i s at l e a s t t o l e r a b l e . Hence even when I e n t e r a room t o pay a s i m p l e morning c a l l I have u n c o n s c i o u s l y t h e h a b i t of r e g a r d i n g t h e scene as i f I were a s p e c t r e not s o l i d enough t o i n f l u e n c e my environment ; only f i t t o behold and say, as another s p e c t r e s a i d : 'Peace be unto you.'" D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d when Thomas Hardy was w r i t i n g h i s f i r s t t h r e e n o v e l s , he w r o t e : "The sudden d i s a p p o i n t -ment of a hope l e a v e s a s c a r which, t h e u l t i m a t e f u l f i l l ment of t h a t hope never e n t i r e l y removes. S e v e r a l hopes e n t e r t a i n e d by Hardy were dashed t o t h e ground, l a t e r some of them were f u l f i l l e d . One of t h e f i r s t of t h e f r u s -t r a t i o n s was i n r e l a t ion t o a U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . His 1. I b i d , p. 148. 2. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The h a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892-1928, London, 1930, p. 91. 3 . Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy, 1840-1891, op. c i t . p. 275. 4. I b i d , p. 153* 7 people wished him t o co n t i n u e w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r e , but he knev; t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t d i d not draw him t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n . Mr. Moule, t h e school-master t o whom t h e boy t u r n e d f o r ad-v i c e , t o l d him t h a t , i f he were r e q u i r e d t o make,a l i v i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e p r a c t i c a l course would be a r c h i -t e c t u r e . T h i s p r o f e s s i o n was v e r y t y i n g and, i n a d d i t i o n , he l o s t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y of goi n g t o a U n i v e r s i t y . In 1888 he e n t e r e d i n h i s note-book; " A p r i l 28. A short s t o r y of a, young .man--'who c o u l d not go t o O x f o r d ' - - h i s s t r u g g -l e s and u l t imat e f a i l u r e . S u i c i d e . ( P r o b a b l y t h e germ °^ Jude t h e Obscure.) There i s something ( i n t h i s ) t h e w o r l d ought t o be shown, and 1 am t h e one t o show i t t o t h e m — t h o u g h I was not a l t o g e t h e r h i n d e r e d g o i n g , at l e a s t t o Cambridge", and c o u l d have gone up e a s i l y at f i v e and twe n t y . " 1 In 1926, i n r e l a t i o n t o Jude t h e Obscure, he wrote a g a i n : "Would not A r a b e l l a be t h e v i l l a i n of t h e p i e c e ? --or Jude' s p e r s o n a l c o n s t i t u t i o n ? — °so f a r as t h e r e i s any v i l l a i n more th a n b l i n d chance. C h r i s t m i n s t e r i s of course t h e t r a g i c i n f l u e n c e of Jude's drama i n one sense, but i n n o c e n t l y so, and merely as c r a s s o b s t r u c t i o n . By t h e way i t i s not meant t o be e x c l u s i v e l y O x ford, but any o l d - f a s h i o n e d U n i v e r s i t y about t h e date of t h e s t o r y 1860-70, b e f o r e t h e r e were such chances f o r poor men as t h e r e are now. I have some-where p r i n t e d t h a t I have no f e e l i n g a g a i n s t Oxford i n part i c u l a r . " d L i f e ' a s a s c i e n t i f i c game t o earn money d i d not appe a l t o Hardy, and i n a r c h i t e c t u r e he found h i m s e l f p l e d g -ed t o and bound by a set of d e f i n i t e r u l e s . So w h i l e s t i l l f o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o f e s s i o n , he t u r n e d t o w r i t i n g . However once he s t a r t e d w r i t i n g n o v e l s , he found t h a t t h i s c a l l i n g was just as e x a c t i n g as a r c h . i t e c t u r e had been, Furthermore, t h e r e were p u b l i s h e r s t o be t a k e n i n t o account. Moreover i t was not as a n o v e l i s t t h a t he hoped t o be known i n l e t t e r s 1. I b i d , p. 273. 2. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r Years of-Thomas Hardy 1892-1928, op. c i t - . , p. 249. but as a poet.. The f u l f i l l m e n t of h i s d e s i r e t o be a poet came a f t e r h i s l a s t n o v e l Jude t h e Obscure was p u b l i s h e d , but i t was so l o n g i n coming t h a t i t p r o b a b l y gave Hardy v e r y l i t t l e p l e a s u r e . The s c i e n t i f i c movements of t h e N i n e t e e n t h Century • i n f l u e n c e d Hardy, but he c o u l d not f i n d any joy i n them. He acce p t e d t h e s c i e n t 1st s* d i s c o v e r i e s , but counted them as scant repayment f o r h i s l o s s of God. S c i e n c e , merely as a l o g i c a l arrangement of f a c t s , had no warmth, no p l e a s u r e , and no c o m p e l l i n g i n t e r e s t f o r him. Other men, w i t h t h e same i n f l u e n c e of m a t e r i a l i s m , r e s p e c t f o r s c i e n c e , and a g e n e r a l i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s as t o t h e past of t h e w o r l d and i t s p e o p l e , were b u i l d i n g t h e many t h e o r i e s of e v o l u t i o n , i n d u s t r y , democracy, h u m a n i t a r i a n ism, and of t h e p r o g r e s s of c r i t i c a l r eason. These men were f i n d -i n g happiness i n t h e i r systems of t h o u g h t , but t o Thomas Hardy t h e i r s y s t ems were mere p a l l i a t i v e s . The t h e o r y of e v o l u t i o n s h a t t e r e d h i s orthodox r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , w h i l e i t gave him no d e f i n i t e hope or g o a l i n r e t u r n . From i n d u s t r y , i t s t h e o r i e s , and present day r e p u l s i v e n e s s , he t u r n e d away i n d e s p a i r . Democracy and l i b e r t y were myths t o h i s sharp eyes i n t h e age t h a t was supposed t o be d e d i c a t e d t o them. The h u m a n i t a r i a n s o f f e r e d him a God, who was not s u f f i c i e n t -l y s t r o n g t o do away w i t h e v i l , but because he was not s t r o n g enough t o do so, was not h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t . A t y p e of ' e v o l u t i o n a r y m e l i o r i s m ' gave Hardy r e l i e f f o r a 'time, yet d u r i n g t h e World War, he seemed t o cast o f f even t h i s 9 b e l i e f . Hardy's i n t e r e s t i n man and i n t h e U n i v e r s e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s made him t u r n t o t h e c o u n t r y of h i s c h i l d h o o d home where he sought t o d i s c o v e r t h e t r u e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between man and .the U n i v e r s e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r t h e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t have determined t h e b u i l d i n g of a man's p h i l o s o p h y ; however, i t seems probable t h a t t h e background just sketched d i d a f f e c t Hardy's idea- of t h e w o r l d and govern t h e view of l i f e t h a t he came t o h o l d . The p h i l o s o p h y t h a t 'Thomas Hardy out-l i n e d i n h i s l a r g e b r u s h s t r o k e s has not a c h e e r f u l cast , but i t i s r e a l i s t i c and i t i s an attempt t o meet r e a l i t y as he found i t . H i s p h i l o s o p h y d e a l s w i t h man as an i n t e l l -igent, b e i n g . I t s problems are .the o r i g i n , n a t u r e and range of man's i n t e l l e c t u a l powers, h i s present d u t i e s and h i s f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s . Man i s t h e c e n t r a l theme, a l l e l s e i s of i n t e r e s t o n l y as i t throws l i g h t upon h i s p o s i t i o n . The two main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t Thomas Hardy as a p h i l o s o p h e r t o o k i n t o account i n d e a l i n g w i t h man's s e t t -i n g a r e , of c o u r s e , space and t i m e . The whole of t h e U:if»rerse, t h e whole p l a n e t a r y system i n c l u d i n g our own l i t t l e g l o b e , i s t h e overwhelming background f o r man. The e a r t h i t s e l f i s t r e a t e d as i f i t were v e r y s m a l l , For i n s t a n c e , i n The Dynast s t h e scene moves e a s i l y and w i t h no apology from t h e Overworld t o England, t o F r a n c e , t o I t a l y , t o A u s t r i a , t o R u s s i a , t o S p a i n , Back and f o r t h t h e point of v i e w moves, showing t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t l y d i v e r s e a c t i o n s are r e a l l y a minute part of t h e whole p a t t e r n b e i n g worked out on t h e • e a r t h . Time, tir e second part of t h e s e t t i n g , extends hack "beyond t h e memory of man i n t o chaos and s t r e t c h e s f a r , f a r • * l e n g t h , ahead. The /l a f e of one man's l i f e would be r a t h e r l e s s than one t i c k of t h e c l o c k i n comparison w i t h t h e eons of time t h a t have e x i s t e d and are t o e x i s t . In the great u n i t y of tdme and space each man's i n d i v i d u a l l i f e i s l i k e a speck of dust p i c k e d out f o r a moment by a beam of l i g h t . T h i s huge U n i v e r s e i s run by an obscure v o l i t i o n which goes by v a r i o u s names i n Thomas Hardy's w r i t i n g s . T h i s f o r c e i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e "Immanent W i l l " or just t h e " " W i l l . " However, as Hardy s a i d , t h e "word ' W i l l ' does not p e r f e c t l y f i t t h e ideas t o be c o n v e y e d — a vague t h r u s t -i n g or u r g i n g i n t e r n a l f o r c e i n no p r e m e d i t a t e d d i r e c t -i o n . But i t has become accepted in, p h i l o s o p h y f o r want of a b e t t e r , and i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t o be s u p p l a n t e d by a n o t h e r , u n l e s s a h i g h l y a p p r o p r i a t e one c o u l d be found w h i c h I doubt. The word... — Impils e - - s e ems t o me t o imply a d r i v i n g power behind i t ; a l s o a spasmodic move-ment u n l i k e t h a t of, say, t h e tendency of an ape t o become a man and other such, processes . " 1 For t h e pro-noun " I t " by w h i c h he r e f e r r e d t o t h e " W i l l " Hardy cla i m e d o r i g i n a l i t y . " I b e l i e v e , t o o , " he s a i d , "That t h e Prime cause, t h i s W i l l , has never b e f o r e been c a l l e d ' I t ' i n any p o e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , E n g l i s h or f o r e i g n . " 2 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e W i l l a r e g i v e n by t h e S p i r i t of t h e Tears i n The Dynast s . I t works u n c o n s c i o u s l y , as h e r e t o f o r e , Et e m a 1 a r t i st r i es i n C i r cumst anc e, Whose p a t t e r n s , wrought by rapt a e s t h e t i c n o t e , Seem i n themselves I t s s i n g l e l i s t l e s s aim, And not t h e i r consequence, ~> 1. I b i d , p. 124, 2. • I b i d , p. 125 . 3. I b i d , ?, • 2. And a l i t t l e f a r t h e r on:--. ..In t h e F o r e t i m e , even t o t h e germ of B e i n g , N o t h i n g appears of shape t o i n d i c a t e That' cognizance has m a r s h a l l e d t h i n g s t e r r e n e , Or w i l l (such i s my t h i n k i n g ) i n my span. Rather they show t h a t , l i k e a k n i t t er drowsed, Whose f i n g e r s p l a y i n s k i l l e d u n m i n d f u l n e s s , The W i l l has woven w i t h an absent heed S i n c e l i f e f i r s t was; and ever w i l l so weave. 1 The extent of t h e " W i l l ' s " power i s shown i n yet another q u o t a t i o n from The Dynasts. " S p i r i t of t h e Years ( t o t h e S p i r i t of t h e P i t i e s ) As keystone t o t h e whole, 1 f i r s t l a y hare The V/ill-webs of thy f e a r f u l q u e s t i o n i n g ; P o r know t h a t of my ant ique p r i v i l e g e s T h i s g i f t t o v i s u a l i z e t h e Mode i s one (Though by exhaust ive s t r a i n and e f f o r t o n l y ) . See, t h e n , and l e a r n , ere my power pass a g a i n . "A new and p e n e t r a t i n g l i g h t descends on t h e spec-t a c l e , enduing men and t h i n g s - w i t h a seeming Trans-parency, and e x h i b i t i n g as one organism t h e anatomy of l i f e and movement i n a l l human i t y and v i t a l i z e d matter i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s p l a y . " S p i r i t of t h e P i t i e s ( a f t e r a pause) . Amid t h i s scene of b o d i e s substant ive Strange waves I s i g h t l i k e winds grown v i s i b l e , Which bear men's forms on t h e i r innumerous c o i l s , T w i n i n g and s e r p e n t i n i n g round and t h r o u g h . A l s o r e t r a c t i n g t h r e a d s l i k e gossamers — Except, i n b e i n g i r r e s i s t i b l e - -Which. c o m p l i c a t e w i t h some, and b a l a n c e a l l . ' " S p i r i t of t h e Years These are t h e Prime V o l i t ions, — f i b r i l s , v e i n s , W i l l - t i s s u e s , n e r v e s , and p u l s e s of t h e Cause, That heave throughout t h e E a r t h ' s compositure. T h e i r sum i s l i k e t h e l o b u l e of a B r a i n E v o l v i n g always t h a t i t wots not o f ; A B r a i n whose whole connotes t h e Everywhere, And whose procedure may but be d i s c e r n e d By phantom eyes l i k e o u r s ; t h e w h i l e unguessed Of t h o s e i t s t i r s , who (even as ye do) dream T h e i r motions f r e e , t h e i r o r d e r i n g s supreme; Each l i f e apart from each, w i t h power t o mete 1. Ib i d , p. 2. I t s own day's measures; "balanced, s e l f complete; Though t h e y s u b s i s t but atoms of t h e One Lab o u r i n g t h r o u g h a l l , d i v i s i b l e from none; But t h i s no f u r t h e r now. Deem yet man's deeds s e l f - d o n e . "The anatomy of t h e Immanent W i l l d i s a p p e a r s . " 1 The s u b j e c t of E r e e - w i l l and N e c e s s i t y i s r a i s e d i n ti r e p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n s . Concerning t h e t o p i c Thomas Hardy s a i d : "This t h e o r y , t o o , seems t o me t o s e t t l e t h e q u e s t i o n of l a - e e - w i l l v . N e c e s s i t y . The w i l l of a man i s a c c o r d -i n g t o i t , n e i t h e r w h o l l y f r e e nor w h o l l y u n f r e e . •When swayed by t h e U n i v e r s a l W i l l (which he m o s t l y must be as a s u b s e r v i e n t part of i t ) he i s not i n d i v i d u a l l y f r e e ; but whenever i t happens t h a t a l l t h e r e s t of the'Great W i l l i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m t h e minute p o r t i o n c a l l e d one person's w i l l i s f r e e , just as-a performer's f i n g e r s a re f r e e t o go on p l a y i n g t h e p i a n o f o r t e of themselves when he t a l k s or t h i n k s of something e l s e and t h e head does not r u l e them..." 2 Thomas Hardy accepted t h e t h e o r y of e v o l u t i o n ; but he b e l i e v e d t h a t man had become over-developed i n some r e s p e c t s , w h i l e he was not developed as much as i t i s poss-i b l e i n o t h e r s . He noted i n h i s d i a r y : "A w o e f u l f a c t - -t h a t t h e human race i s t o o extremely developed f o r i t s c o r p o r e a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e nerves b e i n g e v o l v e d t o an a c t i v i t y abnormal i n such an environment. Even t h e h i g h e r -animals a r e i n excess i n t h i s respect .- I t may be q u e s t i o n e d i f N a t u r e , or what we c a l l Nature, so f a r back as when she c r o s s e d t h e l i n e from i n v e r t e b r a t e s 4did c ri'ioo" exceed her m i s s i o n . T h i s planet does not supp-l y t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r happiness t o h i g h e r e x i s t e n c e s . Other p l a n e t s may, though one can h a r d l y see how."3 . At a s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r d a t e , he had w r i t t e n ; "We (human beings) have- reached a degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h Nature nev-er contemplated when f r a m i n g h er laws, and f o r which she c o n s e q u e n t l y has p r o v i d e d no adequate s a t i s f a c t -i o n . " 4 1. I b i d , p. 7• -2. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The J L a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy 1692-1926, op. c i t . , p. 12b. 3. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e , of Thomas, Hardy, 1840-1891 . op. c i t . , p.~2TJ57™~ 4. I b i d , p. 213. 13 Tlie underdevelopment according t o Hardy was t h a t a g e n e r a t i o n had t o s t a r t at almost t h e same po i n t of achievement as i t s p a r e n t s had. Whereas s a i d Hardy: "Had t h e t e a c h i n g s of-e x p e r i e n c e grown c u m u l a t i v e l y w i t h t h e age of t h e w o r l d we s h o u l d have he en ere now as great as God." ^ Just as l o n g as an i n d i v i d u a l i s w o r k i ng i n a c c o r d -ance w i t h t h e "Immanent W i l l , " he i s a s s u r e d of s u c c e s s ; however, t h e moment he i s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o " I t , " he w i l l most probably be c r u s h e d . Ho m a t t e r what good i n t e n t i o n s .people have i n opposing t h e " W i l l , " o p p o s i t i o n i« a l l t h a t counts f o r t h e " W i l l " i s non-moral and u n c o n s c i o u s . I t s w o r k i n g i s not d i s c e r n e d by many, t h e r e f o r e when " I t " i s i n Si e q u i l i b r i u m and man's w i l l counts f o r A l i t t l e , t h e chances are t h a i ' man w i l l choose i n c o r r e c t l y . The " W i l l " works " e t e r n a l a r t i s t r i e s i n c i r c u m s t a n c e " t h a t almost complete-l y d e c e i v e men. "The H y p o c r i s y of t h i n g s , Nature i s an a r c h -d i s s e m b l e r , A c h i l d i s d e c e i v e d c o m p l e t e l y ; t h e o l d e r members of s o c i e t y more or l e s s according t o t h e i r p e n e t r a t i o n ; though even t h e y seldom get t o r e a l i z e t h a t n o t h i n g i s as i t a p p e a r s . " 2 So i t i s i n t r y i n g t o understand t h e " W i l l . " But i n d e a l i n g w i t h " I t " t h e r e i s a l s o another f a c t o r t o d e a l wit h — c h a n c e . Chance i n Hardy's work i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h t h e t h e o r y of N e c e s s i t y . The " W i l l ' s " power extends i n t o every part of c r e a t i o n , but i n working out i t s great p a t t -e r n , " I t " does not t r o u b l e about t h e f a t e of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s of c r e a t i o n . The f a c t o r of p r o b a b i l i t y , c a l l e d by Hardy, Chance, i s a t h i r d p a r t y at a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s . It i s merely th e " W i l l ' s " i n d i f f e r e n c e t o i t s c r e a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h 1. I b i d , p. 73' 2. I b i d , p. 231. 14 at. t imes chance seems t o he a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e . The human rac e ' s two great f o e s t h e n a r e : f i r s t , t h a t knowledge i s not c u m u l a t i v e ; second', t h a t t h e r e i s an element of p r o b a b i l i t y i n a l l t h i n g s , known as chance. The f i r s t i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e e r r o r s which are i m p l i e d i n man's n a t u r e , namely, th e greed, p a s s i o n , d e s i r e s and downright s e l f i s h n e s s of t h e human animal which t e n d t o h i s d e s t r u c t -i on. Thomas Hardy had two endings t o h i s p h i l o s o p h y and never d e f i n i t e l y decided on one of them. The hope t h a t Hardy saw f o r mankind was i n "the e x p l o r a t i o n of r e a l i t y , <>and i t s f r a n k r e c o g n i t i o n stage by stage a l o n g t h e survey, w i t h an eye t o t h e best consummation p o s s i b l e : b r i e f l y , e v o l u t i o n a r y m e l i o r i s m . " ^ Yet d u r i n g and immediately a f t e r t h e war he l e a n e d towards t h e second and l e s s h o p e f u l ending. As Mrs. Hardy s a i d : " I t may be added here t h a t t h e war d e s t r o y e d a l l Hardy's b e l i e f i n t h e g r a d u a l ennoblement of man, a. b e l i e f he h e l d f o r many y e a r s , as i s shown by poems l i k e 'The S i c k B a t t l e - G o d , ' and o t h e r s . He s a i d he. would p r o b a b l y not have ended The Dynast s as he d i d end i t i f he c o u l d have f o r e s e e n .what was g o i n g t o happen w i t h i n a few y e a r s . Moreover, t h e war gave t h e cowpde gr&ce t o any c o n c e p t i o n he may have n o u r i s h e d of a fundamental u l t -imate wisdom at t h e back of t h i n g s . W i t h h i s views, oar necess i t at i o n , or at .most a v e r y l i m i t e d f r e e w i l l , events seemed t o show him t h a t a fancy he had o f t e n h e l d and expressed, t h a t t h e ' n e v e r - e n d i n g push of t h e U n i v e r s e was an unpurposive and i r r e s p o n s i b l e g r o p i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , might poss-i b l y be t h e r e a l t r u t h . " 2 Yet d e s p i t e h i s m i s g i v i n g s Hardy d i d not d e f i n i -1. Hardy, Thomas, C o l l e c t e d Poems, London, 1928, p. 5 27« 2, Hardy, Florence E m i l y , The Lat er Years of Thomas Hardy  1892-1928, op. c i t . , p. l o o . 15 t e l y adopt l i i s l e s s h o p e f u l ending and g a i n s a y t h e end of The Dynast s, In f a c t Hardy's l a s t poem A P h i l o s o p h i c a l Pantasy seems t o hear out t h e h o p e f u l note of t h e end of The Dynast s, which i s ; - -" B u t — a s t i r r i n g t h r i l l s t h e a i r . L i k e t o sounds of joyance t h e r e That t h e rages Of the Ages S h a l l he c a n c e l l e d , and d e l i v e r a n c e o f f e r e d from t h e d a r t s t h a t were, Consciousness t h e W i l l informing,t i l l I t f a s h i o n a l l t h i n g s f a i r . " - ' -T HOLLAS HARDY—CONSCIOUS IRONIST "There i s no more p a i n f u l l e s s o n t o he l e a r n t by a man of capacious mind t h a n t h a t of' e x c l u d i n g g e n e r a l knowledge f o r p a r t i c u l a r . " 2 ' The b a s i s of i r o n y i s . a d i s c r e p a n c y , a d i s a g r e e - • ment or "a c o n t r a s t between a r e a l i t y and an appearance." 3 An i r o n i c w r i t e r draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s and exaggerates them, sometimes s l i g h t l y , sometimes a great d e a l , i n order t o arouse i n t e r e s t and s c o r e h i s p o i n t . The mat-e r i a l f o r t h e s t o r i e s must be s e l e c t e d e x p r e s s l y f o r t h i s purpose, because i t must , f i r s t of a l l , c o n t a i n an inherent disagreement . The eyes and ears of t h e a u t h o r , who regards such m a t e r i a l , are human, but t h e y a r e f r e e d from human 1 im i t at i o n s - -t lie l i m i t a t i o n s of t i m e and space. That i s t o say, t h e poet s e t s h i m s e l f up as a g o d l i k e c r e a t u r e who The Dynast s, p, 525. 2. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas .. Hardy 1640-1691, op. c i t . , -p. 72. 3. C h e v a l i e r , Haakon M. ,. The I r o n i c Temper; An at .ole_ JFranoe and h i s t ime, New Y ork, 1932, p. 42. knows a l l and sees a l l . The T r u t h l i e s at h i s f i n g e r t i p s . L i k e Janus, he can see what,has happened and what w i l l happen--time h o l d s no mystery f o r him. As f o r t h e l i m i t -a t i o n s of space, he can move from p l a c e t o p l a c e as i f he were p r o v i d e d w i t h a magic carpet . So wide i s h i s v i e w t-hat he regards any happening as "part of t h e p a t t e r n i n t h e great web of human doings t h e n weaving i n b o t h hemispheres from th e Whit e Sea t o Cape Horn„"-!-Irony I m p l i e s t h a t someone w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n o r d i n a r y be p r e s e n t . When a person has so much i n f o r -m ation t h a t events and speeches have a secondary s i g n i f i -cance, beneath t h e s u r f a c e one, i n a d d i t i o n t o the s u r f a c e meaning i t s e l f , f o r him i r o n y i s p r e s e n t . The person who has t h e g r e a t e s t knowledge of events and speeches of a s t o r y i s t h e author h i m s e l f . He has c o n t r o l , s u p e r i o r knowledge and, as a s p e c t a t o r , has t h e best o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o g n i z e i r o n y . The author, i s t h e i r o n i c s p e c t a t o r o n l y when he i s p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l w i t h an inherent d i s -agreement i n i t and i s c o n s c i o u s of t h e disagreement. How the'accompaniment of i r o n y , namely p l e a s u r e , i s one of t h e a t t r a c t i o n s i r o n y h o l d s f o r an a u t h o r . T h i s p l e a s u r e may be regarded, i f one l i k e s , as a t y p e of c o n c e i t i n t h e a u t h o r ' s percept i o n t h a t he has a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r -m a t i o n . I t w i l l come a l s o t o p e r c e i v e r s of i r o n y , but ob-v i o u s l y i t w i l l not be as i n t e n s e f o r them as f o r t h e author,. "Irons', which o r i g i n a t e s i n an awareness of i r o ^ n r r u i t y , becomes r e a d i l y a s u p e r i o r s a t i s f a c t i o n , a conscious 1. Hardy, Thomas, The Wo od l a n d e r s London, 1920, p . 21. 17 p l e a s u r e i n such awareness. In a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e Irony c l i a r a c t e r i z e s t h e a t t i t u d e of one who when con-f r o n t e d w i t h t h e c h o i c e of two t h i n g s t h a t are mutu-a l l y e x c l u s i v e , chooses both, Which i s but another way of s a y i n g t h a t he chooses n e i t h e r . " 1 He does, however, keep t h e enjoyment of b o t h and t h e - i l l u s i o n t h a t he has chosen b o t h . The i r o n i s t enjoys " s t a n d i n g upon t h e vantage ground of T r u t h , and t o see t h e e r r o r s , t h e wanderings, and m i s t s , and tempests i n t h e v a l e below." Thomas Hardy's n a t u r e was one t h a t wouId l e a d him t o an i r o n i c v i e w p o i n t . H i s was not a c l o s e l y i n t e-gr at e d c ha r act e r . H i s mind was v e r y f ert i l e , t o o f ert i l e t o a l l o w him t o c a r r y out a l l t h e ideas t h a t came t o him. He was v a r i o u s l y g i f t e d and found i t d i f f i c u l t t o decide upon h i s c a r e e r . He needed o n l y t o c o n c e n t r a t e upon a r c h -i t e c t u r e or n o v e l w r i t i n g t o make a success of e i t h e r . He chose t h e s e two p r o f e s s i o n s one a f t e r t h e o t h e r , but a l l t h e t i m e h i s heart was i n t h e w r i t i n g of p o e t r y . As t h e poet he r e c o g n i z e d t h i s d i f f u s e n e s s i n people's n a t u r e s t h a t was_ so marked i n h i s own. " I am more t h a n ever con-v i n c e d , " he s a i d , "that persons a re s u c c e s s i v e l y , v a r -i o u s persons a c c o r d i n g as each s p e c i a l s t r a n d i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s brought uppermost by c i r c u m s t a n c e , " 2 The l a c k of u n i t y i n Hardy's own n a t u r e l e d him t o r e g a r d h i m s e l f and events i n a p e c u l i a r way. He came t o have "double v i s i o n , " t o s e a r c h f o r ' a n d cont emplat e t h e two s i d e s of events and speeches, He became a s p e c t a t o r and a co n s c i o u s s p e c t a t o r of l i f e r a t h e r t h a n an a c t o r i n i t . T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e apparent l a c k of a c t i o n mentioned i n t h e f o l l o w i n g quotat i o n . "He c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y shrank 1. C h e v a l i e r , Haakon M. , op. c i t . , p. 80. 2, Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy 184Q-1891, op. c i t , , p. 301. 18 from t h e business of s o c i a l adv-ancement, c a r i n g f o r l i f e as an emotion r a t h e r than l i f e t?.n a s c i e n c e of c l i m b i n g , i n wh i c h r e s p e c t he was q u i z z e d by h i s ac-quaintance f o r h i s l a c k of ambit i o n . " 1 Hardy was q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e many s t r a n d s i n human c h a r a c t e r and of t h e many, l i g h t s i n which events may be reg a r d e d . Furthermore he was w e l l aware of t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and of t h e "melancholy s a t i s f a c t i o n " he drew from i t , t h e r e b y a d m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o be a con s c i o u s i r o n i s t . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s proof of h i s co n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e employment of i r o n y i n h i s books. ^ The constant r e c u r r e n c e of t h e word " i r o n y " and - " i r o n i c a l " i n h i s work shows t h a t Hardy had t h e concept of i r o n y i n . h i s mind and was con s c i o u s i n i t s x i i s e . Pie l a b e l l -ed one example of S o c r a t i c i r o n y which occurs i n The Wood-l a n d e r s . A f t e r P i t z p i e r ' s l o n g speech about l o v e t h e f o l l -owing t a k e s p l a c e : " ' I s i t part of a cou n t r y d o c t o r ' s d u t i e s t o l e a r n t h a t vie?/ of things,, may I ask, s i r ? 1 s a i d W i n t e r b o r n e , a d o p t i n g t h e S o c r a t i c ' e i r o n e i a ' w i t h such w e l l , assumed s i m p l i c i t y t h a t P i t z p i e r s answered read-i l y . . . " 2 Winterborne was not n e a r l y as u n i n t e r e s t e d as P i t z p i e r s b e l i e v e d him t o be. In r e a l i t y t h e two men were b o t h i n l o v e w i t h Grace Melbury but P i t z p i e r s d i d not know t h a t he. was s p e a k i n g t o a r i v a l . The whole passage p r e s e n t s an e x c e l l e n t example of S o c r a t i c i r o n y and Hardy, c o u l d h a r d l y have a r r i v e d at such a f i n i s h e d product and named i t without some r e a l i z a t i o n of wham i r o n y means and of i t s u se. 1. I b i d , p. 70. 2. The Woodlanders, p. 138. 19 In F a r from t h e Madding.Cjrowd Hardy used t h e word t o d e s c r i b e Sergeant Troy's e x c l a m a t i o n a f t e r Fanny's mis-t a k e about'her wedding appointment. T h i s i s Troy's remark when Fanny asks when t h e y w i l l be m a r r i e d now: "'Ah, when? God knows]' he s a i d , w i t h a l i g h t i r o n y , and t u r n i n g from her walked r a p i d l y away." 1 W e l l he knew t h a t he had had l i t t l e w i s h t o marry her and at t h a t moment c o n s i d -ers h i m s e l f r e l e a s e d from h i s promise. In Jude t h e Obscure t h e r e i s t h i s statement: "The i r o n i c a l c l i n c h t o h i s s o r r -ow wasi g i v e n by t h e thought t h a t t h e i n t i m a c y between h i s c o u s i n and t h e schoolmaster had been brought about almost e n t i r e l y by h i m s e l f ( J u d e ) . " 2 The word i s a l s o found i n A Group of Noble names. ' In The F i r s t Countess of Wesse& t h e f o l l o w i n g use i s observ-ed: "Hast heard from t h y husband l a t e l y ? ' s a i d S q u i r e Dor-n e l l , when t h e y were i n d o o r s , w i t h an i r o n i c a l l a u g h of fondness which demanded no ansvfer."3 i n The Duch-ess of Hamptonshire i t appears t o d e s c r i b e Smmeline's speech t o h er v i c a r f r i e n d . " . . . ' I r e s o l v e d t o w r i t e t o you, as I had no other f r i e n d . ' She added, w i t h a d r e a r y i r o n y , 'I thought 'T would g i v e him some ground f o r h i s sus-p i c i o n , so as not t o . d i s g r a c e h i s judgement,'" 4 St i l l a g a i n i n t h e T a l e of The Honourable L a u r a t h e obser-v a t i o n made about C a p t a i n Northbrook i s ; " H i s ' t o n e of add-r e s s i n g t h e l a n d l o r d had i n i t a qu i e t f r i g i d i t y t h a t •was not without irony."5 Wessex Ta_les_ a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s s e v e r a l uses of t h e word i r o n y and i t s d e r i v a t i v e s . In,,Int e r l o p e r s at t h e Khap "the i r o n i c a l d i r e c t i n g - p o s t stood i n s o l i t u d e as be-f o r e , h o l d i n g out i t s b l a n k arms t o t h e raw b r e e z e , 1. Hardy, Thomas, F a r from t h e Madding Crowd,r" London, 1927, p. 132. 2. Hardy, Thomas, Jude t h e Obscure, London, 19?-3, P. 133. 3. Hardy, Thomas, A Group of Noble Dames,' London, 1928, p. 17. 4. I b i d , p. 223. .5. I b i d , p . 245. w h i c h brought a snore- from t h e wood as i f Skyniir t h e Giant were s l e e p i n g t h e r e . " 1 In The D i s t r a c t e d Preacher L i z z y used,the word as she drew o f f some of her smuggled l i q u o r f o r t h e new m i n i s t e r , S t o c k d a l e . "'You are q u i t e r i g h t , t h e y are b a r r e l s , ' she s a i d , i n an emphatic t o n e of -candour t h a t was not w i t h o u t a t o u c h of i r o n y . " 2 The S p i r i t I r o n i c i n The Dynast s i s t h e denizen-of t h e Overworld who p o i n t s out t o t h e o t h e r s p i r i t s t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s he v i e w s . P o r i n s t a n c e at t h e scene of t h e B a t t l e of Waterloo t h i s s p i r i t - p o i n t s out t h e i r o n i e s he p e r c e i v e s . "Napoleon can now be seen, a c r o s s t h e v a l l e y , pushing f o r w a r d a new scheme of- some s o r t , urged t o i t o b v i o u s -l y by t h e v i s i b l e .near i n g of f u r t h e r P r u s s i a n c o r p s . The Emperor i s as c r i t i c a U y s i t u a t e d as W e l l i n g t o n , and h i s army i s now formed i n a r i g h t a n g l e ('en p o t -ence' ), t h e main f r o n t t o t h e E n g l i s h , t h e l e s s e r t o as many of t h e P r u s s i a n s as have yet a r r i v e d . H i s g e s t u r e s show him t o be g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s o f - d e s p e r -a t e import t o a g e n e r a l whom he has c a l l e d up. S p i r i t I r o n i c He b i d s L a Bedoyera t o speed away A l o n g t h e whole sweep of t h e s u r g i n g l i n e , And t h e r e announce t o t h e b r e a t h - s h o t t en :bands Who t o i l f o r a chimaera t r u s t f u l l y , W i t h seventy pounds of luggage on t h e i r l o i n s , That t h e dim P r u s s i a n masses seen a f a r Are Grouchy's t h r e e - a n d - t h i r t y thousand, come t o c l i n c h a v i c t o r y . " 3 Then when t h e E n g l i s h are p u r s u i n g t h e French-a f t e r t h e B a t t l e of Waterloo t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . " S p i r i t of t h e P i t i e s Is t h i s t h e l a s t E s d r a e l o n of a m o i l For m o r t a l man's effacement? 1. -Hardy, Thomas, Wessex T a l e s , London, 1928, p. 184. 2. I b i d , p. 230-, 3. The D y n a s t s , p. 510, S p i r i t I r o n i c Warfare mere, P l i e d by t h e Managed f o r t h e Managers-; To w.it: by f r e n z i e d f o l k s who p r o f i t nought Por t h o s e who p r o f i t a l l ! " 1 The t i t l e of t h i s epic-drama The Dynast s i s a l s o i r o n i c . Dynast means l o r d or ruler. The men who are t h e r u l e r s and'who have t h e power over c o u n t r i e s b e l i e v e them-s e l v e s f r e e and r u l e r s i n v e r y e a r n e s t . Thomas Hardy, how-ever , i n h i s b e l i e f i n n e c e s s i t y and v e r y l i m i t e d f r e e - w i l l , brought t h e i r o n y i n t o v i e w — t h e s e dynasts are not r e a l l y r u l e r s but t h e puppets of f a t e . Other t i t l e s show t h e same double v i e w , f o r i n s t a n c e , h i f Q j J ^ I ^ y L ^ I r ^ n i e s . The i r o n y i n t h i s ' t i t l e i s c h i e f l y i n t h e word " l i t t l e , " The i r o n i e s i n such s t o r i e s as The °Son' s Vet o and On t h e Western C i r c u i t are a n y t h i n g hut " l i t t l e . " There i s a c e r t a i n amount of i r o n i c humour i n t h e t i t l e The Well-Beloved. In t h i s n o v e l t h e man l o v e s s u c c e s s i v e l y t h r e e generations of t h e same f a m i l y but f i n a l l y m a r r i e s t h e woman w i t h whom he had run away as a l a d . The word "the" t h e t i t l e i s t h e r e f o r e r a t h e r incongruous. A t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h he was p u r s u i n g an i d e a l l o v e , he found i t i n many s u c c e s s -i v e embodiments. The -"double v i s i o n " i s working a g a i n . Thomas Hardy's a t t i t u d e t o h i s own philosophy i s i r o n i c . . In 1901 i n t h e P r e f a c e t o Poems of t h e Past and  Present t h e author does not l a y c l a i m t o an o r g a n i z e d p h i l o s -ophy. "Unadjusted i m p r e s s i o n s have t h e i r v a l u e , and t h e road t o a t r u e philosophy of l i f e seems t o l i e i n hum-1. I b i d , p. 53-5" 22 b l y r e c o r d i n g d i v e r g e r e a d i n g s of i t s phenomena as t h e y are f o r c e d upon us by chance and change. "^ The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The Dynast s r e - s t a t e s t h e same i d e a . " T h e i r (the S p i r i t s ' ) d o c t r i n e s are but t e n t a t i v e , and are advanced w i t h l i t t l e eye t o a s y s t e m a t i z e d p h i l o s o p h y w arranted t o l i f t 'the burden of t h e mystery' of t h i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e w o r l d . " 2 when t h e two above q u o t a t i o n s are r e a d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g poem, t h e r e i s a great d e a l of i r o n y i n h i s v i e w of h i s own p h i l o s o p h y . "0 my. s o u l , keep t h e r e s t unknown I I t i s - t o o l i k e a sound of moan When t h e . c h a r n e l - e y e d P a l e Horse has n i g h e d : Yea, none s h a l l gather what I h i d e I Why l o a d men's minds w i t h more t o bear That bear a l r e a d y a i l s t o spare? Prom no?/ alway T i l l my l a s t day What I d i s c e r n I w i l l not say.... And i f my v i s i o n range beyond The b l i n k e r e d s i g h t of s o u l s i n bond, — B y t r u t h made f r e e — I'11 l e t a l l be, And show t o no man what I see. "3 Thomas Hardy complained of man's l a c k of power t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t some t h i n g s are m u t u a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c and yet both good. Under t h e heading "Why t r u e c o n c l u s i o n s are not reached, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g e v e r l a s t i n g p a l a v e r s , " Hardy s a i d , "men endeavour t o h o l d t o a m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h i n g s , i n s t e a d of r e a l i z i n g t h a t c e r -t a i n t h i n g s may be b o t h good and mutually antagonist i c : e.g. p a t r i o t i s m and u n i v e r s a l humanity; u n b e l i e f and h a p p i n e s s . ' 4 ' • b r i n g a double v i s i o n i n t o p l a y f o r h i s pitJaic. T h i s i d e a i s 1. C o l l e c t ed JPoems , p. 75-2. The D y n a s t s , p. v i i i . 3. Hardy, Thomas, Win t e r Words, London, 1928, p. 202, 4 . Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy I 6 9 2 - I 9 2 8 , - op. c i t . , p, 5 4 , One of an a r t i s t ' s dut i e s was, Hardy b e l i e v e d , t o s t a t e d i n a note t h a t he wrote w h i l e he was "In t h e G ^ b r y c t h e E n g l i s h A r t c l u b ; ' I f 1 were a p a i n t e r , I would" p a i n t a p i c t u r e of a room as viewed by a mouse from a chin.k under t h e s k i r t i n g . ' " 1 But s i n c e Hardy d i d not s p e c i a l i z e i n p a i n t i n g , he d i d h i s best t o w r i t e as »a mouse from a c h i n k under t h e s k i r t i n g . ' At another time Hardy s a i d "The b u s i n e s s of the poet and n o v e l i s t i s t o show t h e s o r r i n e s s u n d e r l y i n g t h e grandest t h i n g s , and t h e grand-* eur u n d e r l y i n g t h e s o r r i e s t t h i n g s . " 2 There i s another e n t r y i n h i s notes on t h e same s u b j e c t ; "... I f you l o o k beneath the s u r f a c e of any f a r c e you see a t r a g e d y ; and, on t h e c o n t r a r y , i f you b l i n d y o u r s e l f t o t h e deeper i s s u e s of a t r a g e d y you see a f a r o e . " 3 p r o o f t h a t t h e poet d e f i n i t e l y sought t o present h i s work i n t h i s l i g h t of double v i s i o n i s found i n h i s statement ; "Perhaps 1 can do a, volume of poems c o n s i s t i n g of t h e oth e r s i d e of common emotions. "4 The a d m i r a t i o n t h a t Hardy had f o r D a n i e l Defoe and A n a t o l e Prance a l s o l i n k s him w i t h t h e i r o n i c s c h o o l of w r i t e r s . In 1913 Thomas Hardy expressed h i s a d m i r a t i o n of A n a t o l e Prance and mentioned t h e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e autho r ' s works' which are s i m i l a r t o h i s own. "In t h e s e days when • t h e l i t e r a t u r e of narrat i v e and v e r s e seems t o be l o s i n g i t s q u a l i t i e s as an a r t , and t o be assuming a s t r u c t u r e -l e s s and conglomerate c h a r a c t e r , i t i s a p r i v i l e g e t h a t we sh o u l d have coxae i n t o our midst a w r i t e r who i s f a i t h f u l t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s t h a t make f o r permanence, who never f o r g e t s t h e v a l u e of o r g a n i c form and symmet-r y , t h e f o r c e of r e s e r v e , and .the ,emphasis of understate-ment, even i n h i s l i g h t e r works. "5 1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The j S a r l y L i f e of Thomas hardy 1840-1928, op. c i t . , p. 308. 2. I b i d , p. 223. 3. I b i d , p. 282, 4. I b i d , p, 76, 5. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy 1862-1928, op. c i t . , p. 159. There would seem t o he l i t t l e doubt that Thomas ;'~Hardy was a conscious i r o n i s t . H i s i r o n i c a l v i e w of h i s own l i f e and l i f e around him, the r e c u r r e n c e of t h e word i r o n y , and t h e concept of i r o n y i n h i s boohs, h i s s t a t e -ment that h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s but t e n t a t i v e when a c t u a l l y i t remained f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e same t o t h e end, and t h e i r o n i s t s whom he admired ; - - a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t he knew h i m s e l f t o be of t h e s c h o o l of i r o n i c w r i t e r s . I r o n y t o o k many forms i n Hardy's work. In t h i s essay t h e s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d under t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s ; v e r b a l i r o n y , the. i r o n y of .the underdog or r e f o r m e r , t h e i r o n y of detachment, and t h e i r o n y of n e c e s s i t y . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s an attempt t o show t h e e f f e c t of i r o n y on Hardy's work. VERBAL IRONY Hot even t h e g l a n c e She threw askance F o r e t o l d t o me, nor d i d t h e tune or rhyme, That t h e words bore .A meaning more Than t h a t t h e y were a d i t t y of t h e t i m e . 1 Verba,! i r o n y , l i k e a l l i r o n y , has at i t s root a c o n t r a s t between appearance and a c t u a l i t y . The d i s t i n g u i s h -i n g mark i s t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form, as i t s name s i g n i f i e s , i s shaped i n words; " i t i s , so t o speak, language mocking i t s e l f . "2 Haakon C h e v a l i e r d e f i n e s v e r b a l i r o n y as; "the 1. Winter words, p. 4. 2. Sedgewiok,G.G.,of I r o n y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Drama,Toronto,193 - . . p. 12 f a m i l i a r d e v i c e "by which words are so used as t o w i t h -h o l d a part of t h e i r l i t e r a l meaning or t o suggest i n some other way an i d e a d i f f e r e n t from t h a t expressed, "^ Since v e r b a l i r o n y suggests more t h a n one meaning, i t i s r e l a t e d t o a l l ambiguous language, but i n v e r b a l i r o n y t h e secondary meaning has s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t r u t h i s l e f t "to be un d e r s t o o d from t o n e , g e s t u r e , or known c i r c u m s t a n c e . " 2 V e r b a l i r o n y i s t o be seen i n much r h e t o r i c . It i s t h e b a s i s of h y b e r b o l e and l i t o t e s , synecdoche, a l l e g o r y , and pers o n i f i c a t i o n • as w e l l as proverb and d e s c r i p t i o n can be employed t o produce i r o n i c e f f e c t s . T h i s v e r b a l i r o n y may be e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s or un-c o n s c i o u s . "Irony emerges always when expression s p r i n g s from i n c o n g r u i t y , though i t becomes c o n s c i o u s o n l y when p e r c e i v e d . "3 A c o n v e r s a t i o n i n A La o d i c e a n between C a p t a i n de Stancy and h i s n a t u r a l son W i l l y Dare shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c o n s c i o u s and unc o n s c i o u s i r o n y admir-ably. Dare i s t h e f i r s t speaker :-" I t w i l l be a l i g h t n i g h t h e r e a b o u t s , 1 t h i n k , t h i s e v e n ing." " A v e r y dark one f o r rue." " N e v e r t h e l e s s , I t h i n k i t w i l l be a l i g h t n i g h t . Au . r e v o i r ." 4 W i l l y Dare i s e n j o y i n g h i s s u p e r i o r i t y : he r e a l i z e s t h e f u l l import of h i s ;own-and of h i s f a t h e r ' s words. He knows 1. C h e v a l i e r , Haakon M. , op. c i t . p. 30' 2 . Sedgewick, G. G,, op. c i t ., p, 9. 3. C h e v a l i e r , Haakon M. , op. c i t . p. 81, 4. Hardy, Thomas, A L a o d i c e a n , New York, 1905, p. 4 91* 26 t h a t h i s statement has two meanings; one, t h e c o u n t r y w i l l be l i g h t e d up by t h e moon and, second, by t h e f i r e when he burns t h e De Stancy c a s t l e . He un d e r s t a n d s , t o o , t h e i r o n y of h i s f a t h e r ' s statement. Yes, i t w i l l be a "dark" n i g h t f o r De Stancy! The g i r l he wished t o marry and her husband a r e - r e t u r n i n g t o t a k e p o s s e s s i o n of h i s a n c e s t r a l home. The knowledge t h a t t h e c a s t l e i s t o be d e s t r o y e d g i v e s t h e remark a deeper meaning. The De Stancy h e i r l o o m s and t h e De Stancy seat w i l l , not e x i s t a f t e r t o n i g h t . W i l l y Dare i s c o n s c i o u s l y i r o n i c ; he has complete c o n t r o l of t h e s i t u a t i o n . C a p t a i n de Stancy i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y i r o n i c ; he has not complete knowledge of what 'he has u t t e r e d . Hardy's c o u n t r y f o l k a r e o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s l y i r o n i c . F o r example, L i d d y , Bathsheba's maid, i s u n w i t t i n g -l y i r o n i c when she r e p e a t s Troy's remarks c o n c e r n i n g Fanny Robin's young man (who i s Troy h i m s e l f ) t o her m i s t r e s s (who i s Troy's w i f e . ) "One-day 1 j u s t named i t t o him, and asked him i f he knew Fanny ',s young man. He s a i d , '0 y e s , he knew t h e young man as w e l l as he knew him-s e l f , and t h a t tjhere wasn't a man i n t h e regiment he l i k e d better.'""'" The two-faced weapon of i r o n y i s t h e more e f f e c t i v e , t h e c l o s e r t h e statement come* t o t h e person concerned! Hardy's peasants are f r e q u e n t l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y i r o n i c , as i n t h e i r apt remarks c o n c e r n i n g Jude Eawley and i n t h e i r t r u t h f u l comments about Clym Y e o b r i g h t . At t h e h a i r - c u t t i n g Clym's motives f o r r e m a i n i n g at home are d i s -c ussed. -1. F a r from t h e Madding Crowd, p . , 3 2 U . 27 "'A man who i s d o i n g w e l l elsewhere wouldn't h i d e here two-or t h r e e weeks f o r n o t h i n g , ' s a i d Fairway.• 'He's got some p r o j e c t i n ' s head--depend upon t h a t . ' ' W e l l , 'a can't keep a diment shop h e r e , ' s a i d Sam. 'I don't see why he s h o u l d have had them two heavy boxes home i f he had not been g o i n g t o b i d e ; and what t h e r e i s f o r him t o do here t h e L o r d i n Heaven knows.'" 1 A f t e r Clym has t o l d them t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n i s t o s t a r t a s c h o o l on the. h e a t h i n s t e a d of c a r r y i n g on h i s o l d b u s i n e s s , t h e y a g a i n make some o b s e r v a t i o n s . "And Clym resumed h i s way a c r o s s t h e h e a t h . ' H e ' l l never c a r r y i t out i n t h e w o r l d , ' s a i d F a i r w a y . 'In a few weeks h e ' l l l e a r n t o see t h i n g s o t h e r w i s e . ' ''TIs good-hearted of t h e young man, ' s a i d another. 'But, f o r my p a r t , 1 t h i n k he had b e t t e r mind h i s b u s i -ness , ' "2 ' These people have a q u i e t , unchanging element i n t h e i r n a t u r e s and l i v e .close t o r e a l i t y even though t h e y are u n c o n s c i o u s of t h a t n e a r n e s s . They say e l e m e n t a l t h i n g s without any e f f o r t even as Shakespeare's c o u n t r y f o l k do. T h e i r i r o n i c v i e w of l i f e and of knowledge i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r proverbs and s a y i n g s . There i s an e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s i n I n t e r l o p e r s at t h e Khap'when Mr. Dart on, on h i s way t o h i s w i f e - t o - b e , (who, i n t h e end, d i d not marry him), says; "Ay, c a l l i t my f a t e ! Hanging and w i v i n g go by destiny.''-^ The innkeeper i n A L a o d i c e a n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a gem i n p r o v e r b i a l remarks: " ' ' T i s woman's n a t u r e t o be f a l s e except t o a man, and a man's na t u r e t o be t r u e except 1. Hardy, Thomas, The R e t u r n of t h e N a t i v e , London, 1927, p. 200. • " 2. I b i d , p. 202. 3. Wessex T a l e s , p. 181. t o a woman,1 s a i d t h e l a n d l o r d of gleet) ing-Green 'However, a l l ' s w e l l t h a t ends w e l l , and I have ""some-t h i n g e l s e t o t h i n k of t h a n newly m a r r i e d c o u p l e s . ' " 1 A c t u a l l y t h e l a n d l o r d w i l l soon he v e r y i n t e r e s t e d , i n t h i s one m a r r i e d c o u p l e ! Matthew Moon i n Par from the Madding Crowd u t t e r s an i r o n i c t r u t h ah out Bathsheba Everdene and S e r j e a n t Troy i n proverb form. "'Ah,' s a i d Matthew Moon, ' s h e ' l l w i s h her cake dough i f so be she's over i n t i m -ate w i t h t h a t man.'"2 T h i s k i n d of i r o n y i s s a i d w i t h an innocent f a c e and w i t h an e q u a l l y innocent h e a r t . I t i s o f t e n an exact' statement of an event w h i c h i s t o come, but which, at t h e t i m e of t h e speech, i s not apparent t o t h e speaker. Por i n s t a n c e , in'The Lady Penelope Lady Penelope says, i n j e s t , and w i t h no i d e a t h a t t h e words would ever have t h e i r l i t -e r a l meaning: "'Have p a t i e n c e , have p a t i e n c e , you f o o l i s h ' men! Only b i d e your t ime q u i e t l y , and, i n f a i t h , 1 w i l l marry you a l l i n t u r n . ' " 3 Yet i t so happens t h a t what she says i n j e s t , she c a r r i e s out and m a r r i e s t h e t h r e e of them i n t u r n ! Another example of t h i s same s t r a i n i s E u s t a c i a Vye's h a t r e d of Egdon Heath and her i n s i s t e n c e t h a t i f she remains upon t h e h e a t h i t w i l l cause her death. The more educated and u n d e r s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r s make use of a t y p e of c o n s c i o u s i r o n y . These people use f i g u r e s of speech--the metaphor, t h e s i m i l e - - w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of i r o n y , f o r a l t h o u g h t h e y are used i n a f i g u r a t i v e sense t h e y may be i n t e r p r e t e d by a l i s t e n e r i n 1« A L a o d i c e a n , p. 4o9> 2. Par from t h e Madding Crowd, p. 2 6 l , 3. A Group of Noble Dames, p. 208. 29 a l i t e r a l one. Mrs. Y e o b r i g h t t a l k s i n a f i g u r a t i v e manner t o Susan Nunsuch 1 s l i t t l e boy i n The Return of ti r e N a t i v e a f t e r ' she m i s t a k e n l y b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f t u r n e d away from Clym's door. "Mrs, Y e o b r i g h t spoke t o him as one i n a mesmeric s l e e p . ' 'Tis a l o n g way home, my c h i l d , and we s h a l l not get t h e r e t i l l e v e n ing.' 'I s h a l l , ' s a i d her s m a l l companion . M am g o i n g t o , p l a y n a m e Is a f o r e supper, and w'e go t o supper at s i x o ' c l o c k , because f a t h e r comes home. Does your f a t h e r come home at s i x , t o o ? ' 'No: he never comes; nor my son e i t h e r , nor anybody.' 'What have made you so down? Have you seen a ooser?' 'I have seen what's worse~-a woman's f a c e l o o k i n g at me t h r o u g h a window-pane. ' 'Is t h a t a bad s i g h t ? ' 'Yes. I t i s always a bad s i g h t t o see a woman l o o k -ing out at a weary w a y f a r e r and not l e t t i n g her i n . ' 'Once when 1 went t o Throope Great Pond t o c a t c h e f f e t s 1 seed m y s e l f l o o k i n g up at m y s e l f , and 1 was f r i g h t e n e d and jumped back l i k e a n y t h i n g . ' . . . ' I f t h e y had o n l y shown s i g n s of meeting my advances ha l f - w a y how w e l l i t might have been done! But t h e r e i s no chance. Shut out! She must have set him a g a i n s t me. Can t h e r e be b e a u t i f u l b o d i e s w i t h o u t hearts, i n s i d e ? I t h i n k so, I would not have done i t a g a i n s t a, neighbor's cat on such a f i e r y day as t h i s ! ' '.What i s i t you say? ' 'Never . a g a i n — n e v e r J Not even i f t h e y send f o r me! 'You must "be a v e r y c u r i o u s woman t o t a l k l i k e t h a t .' '0 no, not at a l l , * " she s a i d , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e hoy's p r a t t l e . 'Most people who grow up and have c h i l d r e n t a l k as I do. When you grow up y o u r mother w i l l t a l k as I do t oo.' 'I hope she won't; because ' t i s v e r y had t o t a l k non-sense.' '• 'Yes, c h i l d ; i t i s nonsense, 1 suppose. Are you not n e a r l y spent with t h e h e a t ? ' •Yes. But not so much as you be.' 'How do you know?' 'Your f a c e i s w h i t e and wet, and your head i s hang-down-l i k e . ' 'Ah, I am exhausted from i n s i d e . ' 'Why do you, everytime you t a k e a s t e p , go l i k e t h i s ? ' The c h i l d i n s p e a k i n g gave t o h i s motion t h e j e r k and l i m p of an i n v a l i d . 'Because I have a burden w h i c h i s more t h a n I can bear.'" 1 1. The R e t u r n of t h e N a t i v e , p. 338. F i g u r a t i v e language, which t h e l i t t l e hoy i n t e r p r e t s l i t e r a l i s used by Mrs, Y e o b r i g h t t o convey her disappointment and b i t t e r n e s s 'in a v e r y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n , Even though t h e c h i l d d i d not u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u l l meaning of t h e words, t h e y impressed him so s t r o n g l y t h a t s i x weeks l a t e r he c o u l d r e c a l l them. S i m i l a r l y , i n Jude t h e Obscure, Sue makes use of s y m b o l i c a l language as she t a l k s t o her f o s t e r c h i l d about t h e m i s f o r t u n e s of t h e f a m i l y and t h e a r r i v a l of a new baby. The y o u n g s t e r cannot , f o r a l l h i s p r e c o c i t y , grasp t h e sec-ondary s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e words., but c l u t c h e s t h e i r a c t u a l , f a c e v a l u e meaning and teingstt about a d r e a d f u l l y i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n , "The f a i l u r e t o f i n d another l o d g i n g , and t h e l a c k of room i n t h i s house f o r h i s - f a t h e r , had made a deep i m p r e s s i o n on t h e "boy.—a b r o o d i n g , undemonstrat i v e h o r r o r seemed t o have s e i z e d him. The s i l e n c e was broken by h i s s a y i n g , 'Mother, what s h a l l we do t o -morrow? ' '1 don't know, ' .said Sue, despondently. 'I am a f r a i d t h i s w i l l t r o u b l e your f a t h e r . ' 'I w i s h f a t h e r was q u i t e w e l l , and t h e r e had been room f o r him! Then it . wouldn 't m a t ter so much! Poor f a t h e r ! ' 'It wouldn't.! ' 'Can I do a n y t h i n g ? ' 'No! a l l i s t r o u b l e , a d v e r s i t y , and s u f f e r i n g ! ' 'Father went away t o g i v e us c h i l d r e n room, d i d n ' t he? ' ' P a r t l y . ' 'It would be b e t t e r out o'. t h e w o r l d t h a n i n i t , wouldn't i t ? ' • ' I t Would, almost, dear.' ' 'Tis because of us c h i l d r e n , t o o , i s n ' t i t , t h a t you can't get a good l o d g i n g ? ' ' W e l l , people do o b j e c t t o c h i l d r e n sometimes,' 'Then i f c h i l d r e n make so. much t r o u b l e , why do people have 'em?' 'Oh, because i t i s a law of n a t u r e . ' 'But we don't ask t o be born?' 31 •Ho, i n d e e d . ' 'And what makes i t worse w i t h me i s t h a t you are not my r e a l mother, and you needn't have had me u n l e s s y< likecj... 1 oughtn't t o have come t o .'ee--that's t h e r e a l t r u t h ! 1 t r o u b l e d 'em i n A u s t r a l i a , and I t r o u b l e f o l k h e r e . I w i s h I hadn't been b o r n ! ' 'You c o u l d n ' t h e l p i t , my dear,' 'I t h i n k t h a t whenever c h i l d r e n be born t h a t are not wanted t h e y shou Id be k i l l e d d i r e c t l y , b e f o r e t h e i r s o u l s come t o 'em, and not a l l o w e d t o grow b i g and walk about ! ' Sue d i d not r e p l y . She was doubt f u l l y pondering how t o t r e a t t h i s t o o r e f l e c t i v e c h i l d , She- at l a s t concluded t h a t , so f a r as c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r m i t t e d , she would be honest and c a n d i d w i t h one who e n t e r e d i n t o her d i f f i c u l t i e s l i k e an aged f r i e n d . 'There i s g o i n g t o be another i n our f a m i l y soon,' she h e s i t a t i n g l y remarked, 'HOY??' 'There i s g o i n g t o be another' baby,' 'What 1 ' The boy jumped up w i l d l y . '0 God, mother, you've never a-sent f o r a n o t h e r ; and such t r o u b l e w i t h what you've g o t ! ' • 'Yes, I have, I am s o r r y t o say,' murmured Sue, her eyes g l i s t e n i n g w i t h suspended t e a r s . . The boy b u r s t out weeping. 'Oh, you don't c a r e , you don't c a r e ! ' he c r i e d , i n b i t t e r r e p r o a c h , 'How ev er c ou Id you, mother, be so wicked and c r u e l as t h i s , when.you needn't have done i t t i l l we was b e t t e r o f f , and f a t h e r w e l l ! To b r i n g us a l l i n t o more t r o u b l e ] Ho room f o r u s , and f a t h e r a - f o r c e d t o go away, and we t u r n e d out to-morrow; and yet you be g o i n g t o have another of us soon!..,'Tis done o 'purpose--'t i s - - ' t i s ! « He walked up and down sobbing. 'Y-you must f o r g i v e me, l i t t l e Jude! ' she pleaded, her bosom h e a v i n g now as .much as t h e boy's. 'I can't e x p l a i n ; I . w i l l when you are o l d e r , - I t does seem--as i f I had done i t on purpose, now we are i n t h e s e d i f f -i c u l t i e s . I can't e x p l a i n , dear. But i t - - i t i s not q u i t e on purpose; I can't h e l p i t , ' ' *es i t i s - - i t must be! Por nobody would i n t e r -f e r e w i t h us, l i k e t h a t , u n l e s s you agreed! I won't f o r g i v e you, e v e r , ever! I ' l l never b e l i e v e you care f o r me, or f a t h e r , or any of us any more!' •He got up, and went away i n t o t h e c l o s e t a d j o i n i n g -her'room, i n w h i c h a bed had been spread, on t h e f l o o r . There she heard him s a y K ' I f we c h i l d r e n was gone t h e r e ' d he no t r o u b l e at a l l , ' " !• 1. Jude t h e Obscure, p. 421. 32 A f t e r t h e c h i l d has h i l l e d h i m s e l f and t h e two younger c h i l d r e n , Sue e x p l a i n s t h e s i t u a t i o n t o Jude, "''Ah; hut i t was I who i n c i t e d him, r e a l l y , though I d i d n ' t know I was d o i n g i t , I t a l k e d t o t h e c h i l d as one should o n l y t a l k t o people of mature age. I s a i d t h e w o r l d was a g a i n s t u s , t h a t i t was h o t t e r t o be out of l i f e t han i n i t at t h i s p r i c e , and he t o o k i t l i t e r a l l y . And I t o l d him I was going t o have another c h i l d . I t upset him. • Oh, how b i t t e r l y he up-b r a i d e d me i ' 'Why d i d you do i t , Sue?' 'I can't t e l l . I t was t h a t 1 want ed t o be t r u t h -f u l . I c o u l d n ' t bear d e c e i v i n g him as t o t h e f a c t s of l i f e . And yet I wasn't t r u t h f u l , f o r w i t h a f a l s e d e l i c a c y I t o l d him t o o o b s c u r e l y . Wiry was I h a l f w i s e r t h a n my fellow-women, and not ent i r e l y w i s e r ? Wiry d i d n ' t I t e l l him p l e a s a n t u n t r u t h s , i n s t e a d of h a l f r e a l i t i e s ? I t was my want of s e l f - c o n t r o l , so t h a t I c o u l d n e i t h e r c o n c e a l t h i n g s nor r e v e a l them. ' " 1 The c h a r a c t e r s , a l s o , employ h y p e r b o l e w i t h con-s c i o u s i r o n i c i n t e n t . Hyperbole i s . a d e l i b e r a t e exagger-a t i o n , one remove from t h e t r u t h , but i s s t a t e d as t h e t r u t h t o c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n upon t h e h e a r e r . An example of t h i s i s t o be found i n t h e s t o r y of The Honourable Laura when t h e servant says t o her m i s t r e s s ' s husband, whom she does not r e c o g n i z e : " S e r v i c e here i s as bad as b e i n g i n a nunnery." 2 Yet another i n s t a n c e i s seen i n A L a o d i c e a n . " ' A l l i s l o s t now,' r e p l i e d t h e c a p t a i n g r i m l y . ' 0 no; you have got me, and I am a t r e a s u r e t o any man.'"3 No one knows h i s u t t e r w o r t h l e s s n e s s b e t t e r than W i l l y Dare and yet he can c a l m l y t e l l h i s f a t h e r of h i s e x c e l l e n t worth. 1. I b i d , p. 427. 2. A Group of Noble Lames, p. 268. 3. A L a o d i c e a n , p. 490. 33 T r u l y lie can exaggerate and produce i r o n y I L i t o t e s , t h e o p p o s i t e of h y p e r b o l e , i s used t o b r i n g about' i r o n y , T h i s f i g u r e of speech i s a d e l i b e r a t e understatement of t r u t h . I t i s a c o n s c i o u s assumption of p l a i n n e s s and s i m p l i c i t y . It expresses much l e s s t h a n i s i n t e n d e d t o be conveyed t o t h e mind of t h e he a r e r and by so doing o f t e n causes t h e h e a r e r t o q u e s t i o n t h a t which he has heard e x p r e s s e d , F r e q u e n t l y t h e statement i s couched i n a, n e g a t i v e manner. An i n s t a n c e i n I n t e r l o p e r s at t h e Knap i s : "Mrs. H a l l ' s f o r t itucie v i s i b l y broke down. She had been brought up not without refinement and was even more moved by such a c o l l a p s e of g e n t e e l aims as t h i s t h a n a s u b s t a n t i a l dairyman's widow would i n o r d i n a r y have been moved . 1 , 1 In The Return of the Ham i v e E u s t a c i a Y e o b r i g h t a v a i l s h e r s e l f of t h i s same f i g u r e of speech i n her conver-s a t i o n w i t h W i l d e v e . She h o l d s her own worth v e r y h i g h , and yet i n orde r t o appear not t o do so she speaks i n neg-a t i v e s . "'The marr i a g e i s no misfortune i n i t s e l f , ' she s a i d w i t h some l i t t l e petulance. "2 T h i s i s E u s t a c i a ' s answer t o Wild eve's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t I t i s her f a u l t i f her marriage i s a m i s f o r t u n e , A few seconds l a t e r when Wildeve i n t i m a t e s t h a t Clym has never known sorrow such as he has i n l o s i n g t h e woman he l o v e d , E u s t a c i a answers: "'He i s not u n g r a t e f u l f o r w i n n i n g h e r . ' "3 E u s t a c i a i s , a c t u a l l y , s i n g -i n g her own p r a i s e s i n an a d r o i t manner I 1. Wessex T a l e s , p. 19-1' 2. The Return of t h e Native,, p. 333-3. The Return of t h e N a t i v e , p. 333-34 The i r o n y that f l o w s from t h e use of t h e f i g u r e of speech known as l i t o t e s l e a d s t o t h e most important v a r i e t y of c o n s c i o u s i r o n y — S o c r a t io i r o n y . In t h i s t y p e t h e char-a c t e r s use irony as a method of d e l i b e r a t e d e c e p t i o n , The speaker speaks i n such a way t h a t he i s misunderstood and he .does t h i s w i t h p e r f e c t c o n s c i o u s n e s s of what he i s d o i n g . The e s s e n t i a l of S o c r a t i c i r o n y i s t h e assumption of an a i r of complete innocence and t h e pretence of ignorance c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t under d i s c u s s i o n , W i l l y ' D a r e g i v e s an example of t h i s t y p e of i r o n y when he speaks of t h e .processed photo of. Somerset t o P a u l a -Power and her f r i e n d s , " ' I am v e r y s o r r y , 1 began Dare i n a low v o i c e t o Mr. Power. «-I f e a r I was t o blame f o r t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s i n not d e s t r o y i n g i t . But I thought i t was r a t h e r funny t h a t a man s h o u l d permit such a t h i n g t o be done, and t h a t t h e humour, would redeem'the offence.'"- 1-. The speaker knows only t o o w e l l that he produced t h e p i c t u r e t o damn h i s f a t h e r ' s r i v a l . The joke i s p r e m e d i t a t e d . Dare has had t h e p i c t u r e faked f o r such a purpose, Oh no! he was not " t h o u g h t l e s s " i n not h a v i n g i t d e s t r o y e d . F u r -thermore he knows t h a t Somerset has not g i v e n anyone th e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e such a p i c t u r e of him. T h i s c o n s c i o u s i r o n i s t has no i n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e "humour" s h o u l d "redeem t h e o f f e n c e . " O c c a s i o n a l l y someone makes use of S o c r a t i c i r o n y t o l i g h t e n h i s work. For i n s t a n c e , t h e boy i n The Woodland-ers sees an o p p o r t u n i t y t o save h i m s e l f some l a b o u r by 1. A JL'aodicean, p. 366. f l a t t e r i n g C r e e d l e G i l e s when th e y are p r e p a r i n g d i n n e r . G i l e s l o v e s t o t a l k : "'0 y e s , A n c i e n t days, when t h e r e was bat t i e s, and famines, and h a n g - f a i r s , and other pomps, seem t'o'me as y e s t e r d a y . Ah, many ' s t h e p a t r i a r c h I've seed come and go i n t h i s p a r i s h ] There, he's c a l l i n g f more p l a t e s . L o r d , why can't 'em t u r n t h e i r p l a t e s bottom upward f o r pudding, as we used t o do i n former d a y s . ' " 1 The l a d knows how t o make use of other people weaknesses; by countenancing them he saves h i m s e l f work. The Greeks regarded a p r a c t i s e r of " S o c r a t i c " i r o n y w i t h d i s d a i n and as l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n a h y p o c r i t e . T h i s t y p e of i r o n y i s always s u p e r b l y c o n s c i o u s , a l t h o u g h o t h e r s may not he so aware of i t , I f t h e t r u e import o f ' t h i s t y p e of i r o n y were r e a l i z e d , t h e s c a t h i n g w i t of i t , t h e r e might be more r e p r i s a l s t a k e n a g a i n s t i t s a u t h o r s , Thomas Hardy a l s o employs co n s c i o u s i r o n y d i r e c t -l y . T h i s i s t h e case, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n h i s use of a l l e g o r y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i r o n y and a l l e g o r y may he d e f i n e d i n e x a c t l y t h e same words: t h e d e s c r i p t i o n or n a r r a t i o n of one s u b j e c t conveyed t h r o u g h a secondary s u b j e c t . In each case t h e r e i s a hidden meaning w h i c h i s l e f t t o be c o n j e c t -u r e d by t h e r e a d e r . I n pure a l l e g o r y t h e emphasis i s p l a c -ed upon t h e s i m i l a r i t y of t h e two s u b j e c t s . I r o n y , or a l l e g o r y mixed w i t h i r o n y , or a l l e g o r y w i t h an i r o n i c a l purpose, b r i n g s t h e two s u b j e c t s t o g e t h e r and a l l o w s them t o c l a s h i n order t o b r i n g t h e double v i s i o n t o t h e f o r e . The t w o - f o l d , d e f i n i t i o n of i r o n y and a l l e g o r y i s w e l l i l l u s -t r a t e d i n one of Hardy's poems, 1. The Woodlanders, p, 86. 36 H e i r e s s an d Ar c l i i t e ct Sire sought t l i e s t u d i o s , "beckoning t o her s i d e An a r c h - d e s i g n e r , f o r she planned t o b u i l d . He was' of w i se c o n t r i v a n c e , deeply s k i l l e d I n every i n t e r v o l v e of h i g h and wide--W e l l f i t t o be her g u i d e , "What ev er i t he, " Responded he, W i t h c o l d , c l e a r v o i c e , and c o l d , c l e a r v i e w , "In t r u e a c c o r d w i t h prudent f a s h i o n i n g s For such v i c i s s i t u d e s as l i v i n g b r i n g s , And t h w a r t i n g not t h e law of s t a b l e t h i n g s , That w i l l I do," "Shape me," she s a i d , " h i g h h a l l s w i t h t r a c e r y And open ogive-work, t h a t scent and hue Of buds, and t r a v e l l i n g bees, may come i n t h r o u g h , The note of b i r d s , and s i n g i n g s of t h e sea, F o r t h e s e are much t o me," "An i d l e whimJ" Broke f r o m him Whom nought c o u l d warm t o g a l l a n t r i e s : "Cede a l l t h e s e buds and b i r d s , t h e zephyr's c a l l , And s c e n t s , and hues, and t h i n g s t h a t f a l t e r a l l , And choose as best t h e c l o s e and s u r l y w a l l , F o r wint ers f r e e z e . " "Then frame," she c r i e d , "wide f r o n t s of c r y s t a l g l a s s , That. I may show my l a u g h t e r and my l i g h t --L i g h t l i k e t h e sun's by day, t h e s t a r s ' by n i g h t - -T i l l r i v a l h eart-queens, e n v y i n g , w a i l , ' A l a s , Her g l o r y ! ' as t h e y pass, "0 maid m i s l e d I" He st e r n l y s a i d Whose f a c i l e f o r e s i g h t p i e r c e d her d i r e ; "Where s h a l l a b i d e t h e s o u l , when, s i c k of g l e e , I t s h r i n k s , and.hides, and prays no eye may see? Those house them best who house f o r s e c r e c y , F o r you w i l l t i r e , " "A l i t t l e chamber, t h e n , w i t h swan and dove Ranged t h i c k l y , and e n g r a i l e d w i t h r a r e d e v i c e Of reds and p u r p l e s , f o r a P a r a d i s e Wherein my l o v e may greet me, I my Love, When he s h a l l know t h e r e o f ? " " T h i s , t oo, i s i l l , " He answered s t i l l , The man who swayed her l i k e a shade. "An.hour w i l l come when s i g h t of such sweet nook Would'bring a b i t t e r n e s s t o o sharp t o brook, When b r i g h t e r eyes have won away h i s l o o k , F o r you w i l l f a d e . " Then s a i d she f a i n t l y : "0, c o n t r i v e some way--Some narrow w i n d i n g t u r r e t , q u i t e mine own, To r e a c h a l o f t where I may g r i e v e a l o n e ] I t i s a, s l i g h t t h i n g ; hence do n o t , I pray, T h i s l a s t dear f a n c y s l a y ! " "Such w i n d i n g ways F i t not your days, " S a i d he, t h e man of measuring eye; "I must even f a s h i o n as t h e r u l e d e c l a r e s , To w i t : Give space ( s i n c e l i f e ends unawares) To h a l e a c o f f i n e d corpse ad own t h e s t a i r s ; For you w i l l d i e . " 1 In t h i s poem t h e r e i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e , the s u r f a c e s t o r y but beneath i t t h e r e i s a secondary mean-i n g . The h e i r e s s r e p r e s e n t s h o p e f u l , i d e a l i s t i c humanity, w h i l e t h e a r c h i t e c t p e r s o n i f i e s t h e n e g l e c t and i n d i f f e r -ence of the -universe. The a l l e g o r y becomes apparent: humanity's i l l u s i o n s and plans are s h a t t e r e d one a f t e r t h e other u n t i l humanity i s c o m p l e t e l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d by t h e f o r c e t h a t d r i v e s t h e u n i v e r s e , The i r o n y i s i n t h i s double v i e w of t h e s i t u a t i o n , i n s e e i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ex-p e r i e n c e and, i n a d d i t i o n , t h e w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e st o r y , C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h e use of a l l e g o r y i s t h e employment of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . T h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n r e ad-op i l y goes over i n t o t h e f i g u r e of speech c a l l e d p r o s o p ^ i a , 1, C o l l e c t e d Poems, p. 68, which, includes o r d i n a r y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and which i s much wid i n i t s e x t e n s i o n s . I n t h e u s u a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n an i n a n -imate ob j e c t i s given a proper name and l i f e of a m e c h a n i c a l n a t u r e , hut i n t h e wider f i g u r e of p r o s o p e i a t h e r e i s no f e e l i n g t h a t an inanimate t h i n g i s t h e b a s i s of t h e c h a r a c t -er,. F o r example, i n t h e poem Hap w r i t t e n i n 1866 'chance' and 'time' a re p e r s o n i f i e d , --Crass' c a s u a l t y o b s t r u c t s t h e sun and r a i n , And d i c i n g Time f o r gladness c a s t s a moan.,. These p u r b l i n d Doomsters had as r e a d i l y st r own B l i s s e s about my p i l g r i m a g e as p a i n , 1 In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s m e c h a n i c a l l i f e , t h e r e i s a s p i r i t and a, r e a l p e r s o n a l i t y creat ed i n t h e wider f igwiye of speech. For i n s t a n c e , past ages and part i c u l a r l o c a l i t i e s are en-dowed w i t h p e r s o n a l i t i e s and shown t o exert an ' i n f l u e n c e or t o act as i r o n i c s p e c t a t o r s , The f i g u r e has wit-hin i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of much i r o n y and Thomas Hardy does not f a i l t o make use of them, The i r o n y i s c h i e f l y i n t h e s e t t i n g s of t h e s t o r i e s , f o r t h e backgrounds are g i v e n p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t r e a t e d as human b e i n g s , Rainbarrow i n The Return of t h e N a t i v e has i t s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y even as t h e Roman amphitheatre at C a s t e r -b r i d g e has i n The Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e u These backgrounds a g a i n s t ^ w h i c h t h e author l i k e s t o p r o j e c t h i s r e a l l i f e c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s "show" t a k e on t h e aspect of unchanging s p e c t a t o r s w a t c h i n g t h e a l l - i m p o r t ant genus homo who comes and goes and l e a v e s v e r y l i t t l e b ehind t o show t h a t he,. 1. I b i d , p. 7« 39 as an i n d i v i d u a l , ever e x i s t e d , The c o n t r a s t between th e s e two forms a t y p e of i r o n y , f o r man d i s r e g a r d s n a t u r e and c o n s i d e r s 'her, when he does c o n s i d e r h e r , of v e r y l i t t l e i m portance; w h i l e he h i m s e l f , he b e l i e v e s , i s supreme. The b u i l d e r s of Rainbarrow and of t h e Roman Amphitheat re are gone, and i n d i v i d u a l l y are n e a r l y a l l l o n g s i n c e f o r -g o t t e n ; but t h e inanimate symbols of t h e races remain and i n f l u e n c e and wat ch man even t o d a y . The endowment of Nature w i t h a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s -cends a mere f i g u r e of speech, Egdon Heath i s an o u t s t a n d -i n g i n s t a n c e ; Thomas Hardy endues i t w i t h l i f e . The s p i r i t of Egdon i s ageless- and seems t o have e x i s t e d from t i m e immemorial and t o s t r e t c h i n t o t h e f u t u r e t o t i m e e v e r l a s t -i n g , Nature and Egdon are but two m a n i f e s t at io n s of t h e s p i r i t t h a t i s present i n n e a r l y a l l Thomas Hardy's work--the " I t , " " F i r s t Cause," or "Immanent W i l l ; " which i s a l -ways the same, t h e s p i r i t of t h e unknown, t h e i n d i f f e r e n t , b r o o d i n g u n t h i n k i n g l y over t h e l i v e s pf men, F i n a l l y , t h e d i s t i n c t i v e and - i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e of Hardy 1 s d e s c r i p t i o n s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s i r o n i c tendency. Hardy c o u l d produce a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n a s c i e n t i f i c -way as he proved by t h e account of t h e approaching storm and t h e r e a c t i o n s of t h e b i r d s and animals i n Ear from t h e Madd i n g Cr owd. However, t h i s was not t h e way i n which Hardy' l i k e d t o - d o h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e they are not h i s most i n s p i r e d ' ones. He p r e f e r r e d t o t r e a t h i s i n a n -imate backgrounds as he d i d h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; t h a t i s , t o g i v e t l i e r eader i n f o r m a t i o n , a l i t t l e at a time and t o a l l o w him t o see t h e s e t t i n g under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Egdon Heath gai n s i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , not t h r o u g h b r i l l i a n t c o l o u r i n g , • but on t h e c o n t r a r y from t h e dark, d u l l c o l o u r s t h a t are used i n i t s p o r t r a y a l . Hardy's method, l i k e Defoe's^was t o . suggest t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e reader' s mind should, f o l i o ? / r a t h e r t h a n t o d e s c r i b e each d e t a i l , Eor t h i s reason, b o t h men enjoyed d e p i c t i n g n i g h t scenes, as w i t n e s s Hardy's p i c -t u r e s of Egdon by n i g h t and Defoe's of London by l a n t e r n l i g h t . The p r e f e r e n c e f o r d e s c r i b i n g scenes at nigh t a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r t o f i l l i n t h e d e t a i l s and c o l o u r s f o r h i m s e l f . There i s i r o n y i n h e r e n t i n such a s t y l e , f o r t h e reader be-l i e v e s t h a t he has read more th a n he has s i n c e t h e l i n e s of s u g g e s t i o n l e a d him t o f i l l i n . a, great d e a l f o r h i m s e l f . The r e s u l t of t h e re a d e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s t h a t l i f e i s g i v e n t o l a r g e u n i t s of background and t h a t t h e a l l - p e r v a d i n g , e v a s i v e s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y , one of t h e u n f o r g e t t a b l e q u a l i t i e s of Hardy's books, i s c r e a t e d . IRONY OE THE "UNDER-DOG" OR THE REFORMER " l o r — w h i l e I am q u i t e aware t h a t a t h i n k e r i s not expected, and,' indeed-, i s s c a r c e l y a l l o w e d , now more th a n h e r e t o f o r e , t o s t a t e a l l t h a t c r o s s e s h i s mind. c o n c e r n i n g e x i s t e n c e i n t h i s u n i v e r s e , i n h i s attempts t o e x p l a i n or excuse t h e presence of e v i l and t h e i n c o n g r u i t y of p e n a l i z i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e — i t must be obvious t o open i n t e l l i g e n c e s t h a t , without denying t h e beauty and f a i t h f u l s e r v i c e of c e r t a i n v e n e r a b l e c u l t s , such d i s a l l o w a n c e of ' o b s t i n a t e 41 q u e s t i o n i n g s » and 'blank m i s g i v i n g s ' tends t o a para-l y s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a l e m a t e . 1 ' 1 - Each, age c o n t a i n s a. s m a l l group whose ideas are v e r y advanced and f o r e t e l l changes which w i l l t a k e p l a c e , A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l m i n o r i t y v e r y o f t e n d e s i r e s t o c o r r e c t t h e abuses he sees and t o reform t h e w o r l d . The w o r l d , however, does not welcome or encourage a r a d i c a l , - f o r such a person would, i t b e l i e v e s , d e s t r o y i t s c h e r i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . In order t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f against a r e f o r m e r , t h e w o r l d has two courses ; f i r s t , i t abuses him; second, i t i g n o r e s him, The f i r s t of t h e s e i s u n p l e a s a n t , but t h e second i s d e a d l y . A man w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r r e f o r m i n g t h e w o r l d would not enjoy abuse, but he has t o be heard i f he i s t o a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g . As l o n g as t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l r e f o r m e r remains t h e "under~dog, " t h a t i s , t h e reformer w i t h o u t a large f o l l o w i n g , he must adopt some means of i n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n , S i n c e " i r o n y , , , i s t h e i d e a l i n d i r e c t method of ex-p r e s s i o n " , ^  i t i s o f t e n chosen by t h e reformer t o s t a t e h i s i d e a s . The under-dog i s overwhelmed by t h e c o l l e c t i v e judgement of humanity and cannot present a s t r a i g h t forward case t o t h e w o r l d , but must present h i s ideas i n a round-about way. The i r o n y he s e l e c t s i s a c o n s c i o u s doubleness of language and. a s e r i o u s acceptance and e x t e n s i o n of arguments t o show t h e e r r o r s i m p l i c i t i n them. In t h e d u p l i c i t y of h i s language and argument, t h e u n d i s c e r n i n g 1. C o l l e c t e d Poems, p. ^26. 2. C h e v a l i e r , Haakon M., op. c i t . , p. 86. 42 f i n d n o t h i n g d i f f e r e n t or amiss, 'the f a i r l y i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c o v e r h i s meaning and f e e l p l e a s e d w i t h themselves f o r p e r c e i v i n g ' 1 what i s wrong w i t h t h e w o r l d , and t h e s e l e c t few t h o r o u g h l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r o n y of t h e r e f o r m e r , Thomas Hardy had great power of discernment and i n h i s poem In l e n e b r i s I I he d e s c r i b e s t h e p o s i t i o n of a person l i k e h i m s e l f . The s t o u t u p s t a n d e r s say, A l l ' s w e l l w i t h u s ; r u e r s have nought t o rue] And what t h e potent say so o f t , can i t f a i l t o be somewhat t r u e ? B r e e z i l y go t h e y , b r e e z i l y come; t h e i r dust smokes around t h e i r c a r e e r , T i l l I t h i n k I am one born out of due t i m e , who has no c a l l i n g h e r e . Let him i n whose ears t h e low-voiced Best i s k i l l e d by t h e c l a s h of t h e F i r s t , Who h o l d s t h a t i f way t o t h e B e t t e r t h e r e be, i t exacts a f u l l l o o k at t h e Worst , Who f e e l s t h a t d e l i g h t i s a d e l i c a t e growth cramped by crookedness, custom, and f e a r Get him up and be gone as one shaped awry, he d i s t u r b s t h e order h e r e , 1 • The author knew, t h a t a l a r g e m a j o r i t y i n f a v o u r of a p a r t i c u l a r v i e w does n o t , i n i t s e l f * prove t h e t r u t h of t h a t vie?/, Thomas Hardy was a prophet of days t o come, and s t r u c k w i t h a l l h i s f o r c e a g a i n s t t h e t h r e e e v i l s t h a t l i m i t man' s hax>piness, "crookedness, custom, and fear,". A l t h o u g h he f e l t v e r y much out of p l a c e among h i s f e l l o w -men, yet he wished t o e x e r c i s e h i s s u p e r i o r v i s i o n t o b e t t e r t h e i r l o t . ' The f i r s t n o v e l t h a t Hardy wrote, The Poor Man and t h e Lady (which has been d e s t r o y e d ) , "was, i n f a c t , 1. C o l l e c t e d Poems , p. 154. 43 a sweeping dramat io s a t i r e of t h e s q u i r e a r c h y and n o b i l i t y , London s o c i e t y , , t h e v u l g a r i t y of t h e middle c l a s s , modern C h r i s t i a n i t y , church r e s t o r a t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l and domestic morals i n g e n e r a l , t h e author's v i e w s ; i n f a c t , b e i n g . o b v i o u s l y those of a young man w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r r e f o r m i n g t h e w r o r l d — t h o s e of many a young man b e f o r e and a f t e r him; the tendency of t h e w r i t i n g b e i n g s o c i a l i s t i c , not t o say r e v o l u t i o n a r y . , " 1 George M e r e d i t h , who was reader f o r M a c m i l l a n ' s at t h a t t i m e , a d v i s e d t h e young author not t o p u b l i s h t h e book because i t would so a n t a g o n i z e i t s readers t h a t Hardy would be ignored f o r y e a r s , Hardy accepted t h i s a d v i c e , f i n a l l y , and from t h a t t i m e on adopted i r o n y as h i s method of e x p r e s s i n g h i s " p a s s i o n foxjreforraing t h e w o r l d , " Of h i s own age Hardy had t h i s t o say: "We c a l l our age an age of Freedom. Yet Freedom, under an i n -cubus of armament s, t e r r i t o r i a l a m b i t i o n s smugly d i s -g u i s e d as p a t r i o t i s m , superst i t ions , c onventions of every s ort , i s of such s t u n t e d proport i o n s i n t h i s her s o - c a l l e d t i m e , t h a t t h e human race i s l i k e l y t o be ext i n c t b e f o r e freedom a r r i v e s at m a t u r i t y . " 2 Thomas .Hardy b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e wa.s s u f f i c i e n t scope f o r a r e f o r m e r ] The a t t a c k s t h a t Hardy launched a g a i n s t c l a s s b a r r i e r s were q u i t e d e f i n i t e . On t h i s score he entered i n h i s notebook: "I f i n d t h a t my p o l i t i c s are n e i t h e r T o r y . nor R a d i c a l , I may be c a l l e d an I n t r i n s i c a l i s t . I am a g a i n s t p r i v i l e g e d e r i v e d from a c c i d e n t of any kind,, and am t h e r e f o r e e q u a l l y opposed t o a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i -l e g e and democratic p r i v i l e g e . (By t h e l a t t e r I mean t h e arrogant assumption t h a t t h e only l a b o u r i s hand-l a b o u r - - a worse arrogance t h a n t h a t of t h e a r i s t o c r a t , - -t h e t a x i n g of t h e worthy t o h e l p t h o s e masses of t h e populat i o n who w i l l not h e l p themselves when t h e y might, 1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1640-1891, p . 81. • 2, Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy 1640-1691, p. 268. 44 e t c . ) O p p o r t u n i t y should be equal f o r a. 11, Tout those who w i l l not a v a i l themselves of i t should he oared f o r merely—not he a burden t o , nor t h e r u l e r s over, thos.e .who do a v a i l themselves t h e r e o f , " 1 The problem of c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n o v e l A P a i r of Blu e Eyes, I n t h i s book, Stephen Smith, an a r c h i t e c t , i s sent by h i s London f i r m t o do some r e s t o r a t i o n work on a church. The clergyman, t h e Reverend Mr, Swan court of e x c e l l e n t f a m i l y , i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y i l l when t h e a r c h i t e c t a r r i v e s , but h i s g e n t l e daughter E l f r i d e welcomes him warmly a c c o r d i n g t o her f a t h e r ' s o r d e r s . Stephen i s accepted as a. member of t h e • family and regarded w i t h great f a v o u r by b o t h f a t h e r amid daughter; indeed he i s c o n s i d e r e d as a fu t u r e ' s o n - i n - l a w and husband. Stephen t e l l s E l f r i d e of h i s parent age b e f o r e he goes i n t o ask by her f a t h e r f o r her hand; E l f r i d e i s d i s t u r b e d A h i s news, but i n s i s t s t h a t i t does not a f f e c t her love f o r him. While t h e young l o v e r i s i n t h e r e c t o r ' s study w a i t i n g f o r one of the v i l l a g e r s t o l e a v e , he overhears t h a t John Smith, a v i l l a g e stone-mason, has hurt h i s hand; whereupon, as soon as t h e n a r r a t o r d e p a r t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g drama t a k e s p l a c e ; - -" ' P l e a s e excuse me t h i s evening! I must'leave. John Smith i s my f a t h e r , ' The r e c t o r d i d not comprehend'at f i r s t . 'What did you say?' he e n q u i r e d , 'John Smith i s my f a t h e r , ' s a i d Stephen d e l i b e r a t e -l y . A s u r p l u s t i n g e of redness rose from Mr. Swan-court 's neck, and came round over h i s f a c e , the l i n e s of h i s features became more f i r m l y d e f i n e d , and h i s l i p s seemed t o get t h i n n e r . It was evident t h a t a 1. Hardy, Florence Emily, The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1840-1691, p . 268. 4 n s e r i e s of l i t t l e circumstances, h i t h e r t o unheeded , were now f i t t i n g themselves t o g e t h e r , and f o r m i n g a l u c i d p i c t u r e i n Mr. Swanc ourt •' s mind i n such a manner as t o render u s e l e s s f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n on Stephen's p a r t . ''Indeed,' t h e r e c t o r s a i d , i n a v o i c e dry and w i t h o u t i n f l e c t i o n . T h i s b e i n g a word which depends e n t i r e l y upon i t s tone f o r i t s meaning, Mr. Swan c o u r t ' s e n u n c i a t i o n was e q u i v a l e n t t o no e x p r e s s i o n at a l l . 'I have t o go now,' s a i d Stephen, w i t h an a g i t a t e d b e a r i n g , and a movement as i f he s c a r c e l y Icnew whether he ought t o run o f f or s t a y l o n g e r . 'On my r e t u r n , s i r , w i l l you k i n d l y grant me a few minutes' p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n ? ' ' C e r t a i n l y . Though ant ecedent l y i t does not seem p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e can be a n y t h i n g of t h e n a t u r e of p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s 'between u s . ' Mr. Swan court put on h i s straw hat, c r o s s e d t h e drawing-room, i n t o w h i c h t h e moonlight was s h i n i n g , and stepped out of t h e F r e n c h window i n t o t h e verandah. I t r e q u i r e d no f u r t h e r e f f o r t t o p e r c e i v e what, indeed, r e a s o n i n g might have f o r e t o l d as t h e n a t u r a l c o l o u r of . a mind whose p l e a s u r e s were t a k e n amid'genealogies, good d i n n e r s , and p a t r i c i a n r e m i n i s c e n c e s , t h a t Mr. Swanc ourt ' s p r e j u d i c e s were t o o s t r o n g f o r h i s generos-i t y . , and t h a t Stephen's moments as h i s f r i e n d and equal we're numbered, or had. even now ceased t o b e . " 1 Mr. Swanc ourt h i m s e l f n e a t l y sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n when, a l i t t l e l a t e r , he i s t a l k i n g t o E l f r i d e . "'You con-f u s e f u t u r e p r o b a b i l i t i e s w i t h present f act s ,--what t h e young man may be w i t h what he i s . We must l o o k at what he i s , , not what. an improbable degree of success i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n may make him. The case i s t h i s ; t h e son of a'working-man i n my p a r i s h who may or may not be a b l e t o buy me up--a .youth who has not yet advanced so f a r i n t o l i f e as t o have any income of h i s own de-s e r v i n g t h e name, and t h e r e f o r e of h i s f a t h e r ' s degree as regards st at ion--want s t o be engaged t o you. H i s f a m i l y are l i v i n g i n p r e c i s e l y the same spot i n England as y o u r s , so throughout ' t h i s c o u n t y — w h i c h i s t h e w o r l d t o us--you would always be known as t h e w i f e of Jack S m i t h — t h e mason's son, and not under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s as t h e wife of a .London p r o f e s s i o n a l man. It i s t h e drawback, not t h e compensating f a c t , t h a t i s t a l k e d of always , ' "2 1. Hardy, Thomas, A P a i r of Blue Eyes, London, 2. Ib i d , p. 924 1927, P. 87. The a b s u r d i t i e s and i n c o n g r u i t i e s which were e v i d -ent t o t h e author i n t h e c l a s s system are expressed i n t h e form o f , and emphasized by, i r o n y t o show why t h e system should be regarded as worn out. The f i r s t of the s e i r o n i e s i s t h e r e c t o r ' s r e a c t i o n t o E l f r i d e ' s l o v e f o r Stephen, He does not f o r one moment t h i n k of t h e g i r l ' s 1 h a p p i n e s s , but only of t h e great blow t o h i s and, of course i n c i d e n t a l l y her p r i d e i f she s h o u l d marry someone whom he c o n s i d e r s not t h e i r e q u a l . Then, s e c o n d l y , i s t h e r e r e a l l y any d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s of E l f r i d e and Stephen? E l f r i d e comes from a f a m i l y w h i c h has v e r y d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s i n t h e n o b i l -i t y , but she has been brought up i n t h e cou n t r y and has not r e c e i v e d v e r y many advantages, St ephen, a l t h o u g h h i s people are wo r k i n g p e o p l e , has been g i v e n t h e advadage of e n t e r i n g a p r o f e s s i o n and b e i n g t r a i n e d in. London, T h e i r p o s i t i o n s are f a i r l y e q ual a l t h o u g h no one i n t h e s t o r y a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e s t h e f a c t , Mr. Swanc ourt 's hurt p r i d e w i l l not a l l o w him t o t r e a t Stephen as he has done previously. E l f r i d e has been uneasy h e r s e l f about Stephen's s t a t i o n i n ' l i f e , but t h e outspoken o p p o s i t i o n of her f a t h e r f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e s him i n her r e g a r d . Stephen's mother i s t h e c l o s e s t t o r e a l i z i n g t h e f a c t , but she i s not c o n s i s t e n t . Mrs. Smith's view of t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of t h e p a i r i s shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s , "'Every woman nowadays, ' resumed Mrs. Smith, ' i f she marry at a l l , must expect a f a t h e r - i n - l a w of a rank lower t h a n her f a t h e r . The men have gone up so, and t h e women have stood s t i l l . E very man you ' meet i s more t h e dand than h i s f a t h e r ; and you are j u s t l e v e l w i t h her . 1 1 , 1 However, before many minutes have passed Mrs, Smith says;' "'I don't read t h e papers f o r n o t h i n g , and I know men a l l move up a stage by m a r r i a g e . Men of her c l a s s , t h a t i s , p a r s o n s , marry s q u i r e ' s daughters; s q u i r e s marry l o r d s ' d a ughters; l o r d s marry dukes' d a u g h t e r s ; dukes marry queens' daughters. A l l stages of gentlemen mate a stage h i g h e r ; and t h e lowest stage of gentlewomen are l e f t s i n g l e , or marry out of t h e i r cla.ss , ' "2 -When Stephen, who b e l i e v e s E l f r i d e above him, point s out t o h i s mot her t h a t she has just s a i d t h a t he i s i n t h e same c l a s s as E l f r i d e and the n t h a t he i s not., Mrs. Smith sums up t h e i r o n y i n one sentence: "...'So you are i n her c l a s s , but ' t i s what her people'would c a l l marry-i n g out of her c l a s s . ' " 2 E l f r i d e poses a n i c e q u e s t i o n t o her f a t h e r when she says': "'But he i s t h e same man, .papa; t h e same i n every p a r t i c u l a r " ; and how can he be l e s s f i t f o r me than he was be-fore? '"3 The r e c t o r has t o c o v e r . h i s r e a l reason i n order t o s a t i s f y E l f r i d e and as he does so another i r o n y emerges. The man i s s t i l l t h e same but the r e c t o r ' s vie?; of him has changed. As Mr, Swanoourt s t a t e s i t : "'He appeared a young man w i t h weil-to.-do f r i e n d s , and a ' l i t t l e .property but h a v i n g n e i t h e r , he i s another man,'"3 There i s another f a c t o r t h a t has a b e a r i n g on t h e s i t u a t i o n , which - i s , t h e c e r t a i n t y t h a t a l l t h e county w i l l kno?/ i f E l f r i d e m a r r i e s Stephen, The i r o n y l i e s i n t h a t , i f Stephen's p a r e n t s had l i v e d away from E l f r i d e ' s r e s i d e n c e 2. I b i d , p. 100.. 3, I b i d , p, 90. and had not been known, Stephen would have been welcomed as an e l i g i b l e young man, whose station-would h a v e — b e e n what.--his p r o f e s s i o n makes i t , - - a n d not f i x e d by--h i s f a t h e r ' s humble p o s i t i o n - - a t a l l . 1 " 1 That cla s s d i s t i n c t i o n s are not i n keeping w i t h Christ i-an - p r i n c i p l e s i s a l s o l i g h t l y touched upon. The Reverend Mr, Swanc ourt preaches t h e C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s of h u m i l i t y , u p r i g h t n e s s , g e n e r o s i t y and. C h r i s t i a n brotherhood from h i s p u l p i t , but when he i s c a l l e d upon to put them i n t o p r a c t i s e i n - h i s own home, he cannot do so, i r o n y i s c o n t a i n -ed i n t h e c l a s h of t h e s e two s e t s of i d e a s , t h e C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s and t h e s o c i a l - prejudices., which have b o t h been i n g r a i n e d i n t h e r e c t o r . -Since i t i s a m atter t o u c h i n g ' h i m s e l f , t h e s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e s which, he bfdievns, keep up h i s honour, t r i u m p h . That a person s h o u l d be put i n t o a r i g i d c l a s s because h i s parents had a c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n i n l i f e i s no more just than t h a t a man's occupation should determine h i s s o c i a l , standing. Thomas Hardy showed t h i s i r o n y i n The Return of t h e Native. The reddleman, Diggory Venn, whose pa r e n t s owned a. d a i r y farm, i s not c o n s i d e r e d t h e equal of other m i d d l e - c l a s s c o u n t r y f o l k w h i l e he was covered w i t h r e d d l e ; but t h e moment t h a t he g i v e s up t h i s c o l o u r f u l t r a d e , he becomes a g a i n a man t o be respected.' T h e r e ' i s t h e same irbny i n t h e s i t u a t i o n of Clym Y e o b r i g h t , the success-f u l young diamond merchant, who r e t u r n e d t o h i s n a t i v e 1. I b i d , p. 91* 49 v i l l a g e where he i s honoured and made a l o c a l h e r o ; however, when he can no l o n g e r c o n t i n u e h i s former p r o f e s s i o n , he i s s l i g h t e d . 'Even h i s own mother f e e l s a s l i g h t t i n g e of d i s -d a i n ; s u r e l y , s u r e l y , t h i s man c l a d as a f u r z e c u t t e r i s no son of he r s 1 Has some metamorphosis t a k e n p l a c e t o account f o r t h i s t w o - f o l d a t t i t u d e ? Should i n d i v i d u a l s he judged as a member of a c l a s s or of a p r o f e s s i o n ? Thomas Hardy saw t h e v i r t u e s and e v i l s of b o t h judgments and i r o n -i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d them, t o h i s readers t o s t a r t them t h i n k i n g . The i r o n y i n t h e response of s o c i e t y t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r a c t i o n s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d . The p u b l i c i s f i c k l e ; i t f o l l o w s a l e a d e r l i k e a f l o c k of sheep showing n e i t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e nor di s c e r n m e n t , Wildeve, t h e unscrepulous keep-er of t h e Quiet Woman, has an e x c e l l e n t r e p u t a t i o n , - w h i l e Clym Y e o b r i g h t , t h e i d e a l i s t , s i n k s q u i c k l y i n t o a peasant -l i k e person w i t h l i t t l e or no r e p u t a t i o n . T h i s n e g l e c t i s s t r i k i n g i n i t s c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n t e r e s t that was shown i n Clym when he f i r s t r e t u r n e d home. The u p p e r - c l a s s E u s t a c i a , of c o u r s e , r i g h t f u l l y enjoys t h e r e s p e c t of t h e neighborhood, while humble l i t t l e Thomas i n i s as r i g h t f u l l y ta/ken e n t i r e l y f o r granted... Henchard, t h e Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e , i s hon-oured and r e s p e c t e d just so long as he i s t h e Mayor; but t h e moment he does not h o l d t h e p o s i t i o n , he i s i g n o r e d , Thomas Hardy showed i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s not only inconstant , but has no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The autho r p e r c e i v e d that t h e r e i s no, or v e r y l i t t l e , r e l a t i o n between what a person a c t u a l l y i s and HOY/ h i s fellow-men 50 r e g a r d him. • P r i v a t e and p u b l i c morals are s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s e a r c h i n g l i g h t of double v i s i o n , Hardy summarised t h e whole problem i n a v e r y few words; t h e r e i s "the i r r i t a t i n g n e c e s s i t y of conforming t o r u l e s which i n themselves have no . v i r t u e . " ! One example of h i s treatment of t h e subject i s t h e p o s i t i o n of P h i l l o t s o n , t h e school-master i n Jude t h e Obscure„ and"-his young wife Sue, T h i s couple l i v e i n t h e g r e a t e s t esteem of t h e v i l l a g e r s f o r a. c o n s i d e r a b l e time a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e , Sw, however, i s not happy and t h e two l i v e apart from each other unknown t o t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . F i n a l l y , a f t e r he goes t o h i s w i f e ' s room one n i g h t by m i s t a k e and she jumps t h r o u g h t h e window, th e c o n s i d e r a t e husband d e c i d e s t o g i v e her her freedom. The d e c i s i o n i s reached a f t e r a great d e a l of thought and unhappiness on t h e Schoolmaster's p a r t , The v i l l a g e r s are h o r r i f i e d and demand an explanat i o n from t h e t eacher f o r a l l o w i n g h i s w i f e t o go and l i v e w i t h another man. . He e x p l a i n s t h a t h i s w i f e was not happy and he c o u l d not make her s t i l l more un-happy by f o r c i n g her t o s t a y when she d i d not w i s h t o do so, F u r t h e r m o r e , he adds, i t i s none of h i s b u s i n e s s what she does a f t e r she has l e f t him. /There i s i r o n y i n t h e S c h o o l -master's r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e conventions to. a l l o w h i s w i f e her freedom even though he l o v e s her d e a r l y and would l i k e t o make use of t h e conventions t o b r i n g her back. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s o c i e t y want th e l e t t er of t h e conventions c a r r i e d out; t h e y do not c o n s i d e r the h u m a n i t a r i a n ism of t h e I • . • 51 man's d e c i s i o n . As f a r as the v i l l a g e r s are concerned he i s countenancing immorality and i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , a f i t person t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . B o t h p h i l l o t s o n and t h e v i l l a g e r s are s u f f i c i e n t l y f o l l o w e r s of co n v e n t i o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t Sue i s l i v i n g w i t h Jude as h i s w i f e ; t h e g r e a t e s t i r o n y of a l l t h e s e i s t h a t she i s not d o i n g so. Law a l s o r e c e i v e s i t s share of c r i t i c i s m . Hardy d i d not need t o he t o l d of t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r law, but he knew a l s o t h e s u f f e r i n g t h a t i t caused, i n d i v i d u a l s . The law i s devised f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e m a j o r i t y of human-i t y , and so o f t e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s s a c r i f i c e d . The i n d i v -i d u a l warrant s a c e r t a i n amount of r e c o g n i t i o n , f o r he i s an important element i n human s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y t o h i m s e l f . In h i s t w o - f o l d v i e w Hardy a l l o w e d t h e reader t o see b o t h s i d e s of t h e q u e s t i o n / The marriage -Irw i s one t h a t Thomas Hardy attacked c o n t i n u a l l y . I t i s not t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of ma r r i a g e but t h e law t h a t h o l d s mismated persons t o t h e i r m a r r i a g e vow t o 'which he o b j e c t s , A r a b e l l a , and Jude are not c o m p a t i b l e , but t h e l e t t e r of t h e law p r o t e c t s A r a b e l l a and makes Jude s u f f e r . Hardy chose Sue B r i d e h e a d , t h e s e n s i t i v e c o u s i n of Jude, as t h e t y p e of woman who would r e b e l a g a i n s t t h e marriage lav;, b u t , not b e i n g s t r o n g enough, would be f o r c e d back i n t o t h e observance of i t , When Sue, downcast, f e e l s t h a t she must r e t u r n t o P h i l l o t s o n , Jade says t o he r : "'Such remorse i s not f o r you, my s e n s i t i v e p l a n t , but f o r t h e wicked ones of t h e earth--who never f e e l i t . ' " 1 The degree t o which 1. Jude t h e Obscur_e, p, 435 > t h e m a r r i a g e law and t h e d i v o r c e s i t u a t i o n had become a r e s -t r i c t i n g f o r c e , i s shown i n d i r e c t l y i n The Wo odlanders , i n The Woodlanders Grace Melbury has m a r r i e d Edred P i t z p i e r s and g r e a t l y r e g r e t s choosing' him i n s t e a d of G i l e s W i n t e r b o r n e , The g i r l ' s hopes have been r a i s e d about a d i v o r c e t h a t her f a t h e r i s t r y i n g t o get f o r h e r , when an i n t e r v i e w between Grace and G i l e s t a k e s p l a c e . "She lo o k -ed up suddenly from h i s l o n g embrace and p a s s i o n a t e k i s s , ' i n f l u e n c e d by a s o r t of i n s p i r a t i o n , ' 0 , I supp-ose,' she stammered, 'that I am r e a l l y f r e e ? That t h i s i s r i g h t ? I s t h e r e r e a l l y a new law? ' F a t h e r cannot have been t o o sanguine i n s a y i n g , , , " 1 o f course t h e i r o n y i s t h a t " f a t h e r " has been "t oo sanguine!" Hardy s a i d i r o n i c a l l y , a c c e p t i n g f o r t h e F i r s t Cause blame f o r something t h a t s o c i e t y c o u l d change; The f i r s t cause worked a u t o m a t i c a l l y and not r e f l e c t i v e l y l i k e a sage ; t h a t at t h e fr a m i n g of t h e t e r r e s t i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e seemed never to' have been contemplated such a development of e m o t i o n a l percept i v eness among t h e c r e a t u r e s s u b j e c t t o thos e c o n d i t i o n s as t h a t reached by t h i n k i n g and educated humanity. U£-A bouquet of p r a i s e , t r u l y , t o be handed t o " t h i n k i n g and edu cat ed human i t y, " Many are t h e f a u l t s t o be found a l s o i n t h e educa-t i o n a l system. O p p o r t u n i t y should be e q u a l f o r any c h i l d . who wishes t o have an e d u c a t i o n . S o c i e t y i s a f r a i d t o a l l o w t h e i n t e l l i g e n t t o f u l f i l l t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and because of t h i s f o o l i s h f e a r k i l l s o f f many of i t s best p r o d u c t s i n s t e a d of n u r t u r i n g them.-J Winterborne, t h e 1 , The Woodlanders, p. 3 5 1 • 2 . Jude t h e Obscure , p. 4 3 1 , 3 . C h i l d , H a r o l d , Thomas Hardy, Hew York, 1 9 1 6 , p . 07. 53 underdog i n The Wo o d 1 anders , a s k s : " 'Won' t money -do any-t h i n g i f you've, p r o m i s i n g m a t e r i a l t o work upon? Why s h o u l d n ' t a Hint ock g i r l , t aken e a r l y from home and put under proper i n s t r u c t i o n , become as f i n i s h e d as any other young l a d y i f s h e ' s got b r a i n s and good l o o k s t o b e g i n w i t h ? ' " 1 H e i s s t a t i n g i r o n i c a l l y that good t r a i n i n g w i l l , g iven e q u a l m e n t a l i t i e s , make a v i l l -ager as w e l l educated as a duke 's s o n , Thomas Hardy re- i t e r a t e d t h e seme t h e o r y i n r e -gard t o Marty South , another c h a r a c t e r i n The ^ o odl ^ n d e r s . " " N o t h i n g , " s a i d Hardy , "hut a cast of the d i e of des-t i n y had d e c i d e d that t h e g i r l should handle the t o o l ; and t h e f i n g e r s which c l a s p e d t h e heavy ash h a f t might have s k i l f u l l y guided t h e p e n c i l or swept the s t r i n g , had they only been set t o do i t i n good t i m e , " 2 The c h a r a c t e r i n Jude the_ Obscure who r e c e i v e d t h e severest setbacks i n h i s attempt t o become educated i s Jude Pawley . He proves that he can l e a r n , by the manner i n w h i c h he masters L a t i n and Greek, Why,' t h e n , does he not r e a c h c o l l e g e ? Jude i s t r i c k e d at every t u r n . When he t r i e s t o obtain grammar books from V i l b e r t t h e quack-d o c t o r , he i s s o r e l y d i s a p p o i n t e d . L a t e r , when he t r i e s t o enter a c o l l e g e at C h r i s t m i n s t e r , he i s t u r n e d away. Hardy remarked: "It was not t i l l now, when he found h i m s e l f a c t u a l l y on the spot of h i s enthusiasm, t h a t Jude p e r -- ce ived- how f a r away from the object - 'of that enthusiasm he r e a l l y was. Only a w a l l d i v i d e d - h i m from those happy young contemporaries of h i s w i t h whom he. shared a common mental l i f e ; men who had n o t h i n g t o do from morning t i l l n ight but t o r e a d , mark, l e a r n , and i n -w a r d l y d i g e s t . Only a w a l l --but what a w a l l ! It was t h i s impenetrable w a l l that had been r a i s e d around t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s of I80O-I87O that Hardy was t r y i n g so hard 1. The Woodlanders , p . 140. 2. I b i d , p , 8.. 3. Jude t h e Obscure, , p , 102, t o break & own. C h r i s t i a n i t y r e c e i v e s i t s share of i r o n i c treatmer Hardy r e a l i s e d t h e beauty of t h e church s e r v i c e and t h e h e i r t h a t t h e c h u r c h g i v e s t o t h e weak, • but he h i m s e l f c o u l d not f i n d any comfort i n t h e church t e a c h i n g s and t r a d i t i o n s . Hip a t t i t u d e i s apparent In The I a r p e r c i p i e n t : That w i t h t h i s b r i g h t b e l i e v i n g band I have no c l a i m t o be, That f a i t h s by which my comrades stand Seem f a n t a s i e s t o me, And m i r a g e - m i s t s t h e i r s h i n i n g Land, Is a s t r a n g e d e s t i n y , 1 In t h e same poem he c o n t i n u e s ; Yet I would bear my shortcomings W i t h meet t r a n q u i l i t y , But f o r t h e charge t h a t b l e s s er t h i n g s I'd l i e f e r n ot hav e be. • 0 , cloth a b i r d d e p r i v e d of wings Go e a r t h - h o u n d - w i l f u l l y J 2 Thomas Hardy would have l i k e d t o b e l i e v e , but h i s reason would not permit him. In r e g a r d t o God, Hardy' entered i n h i s note-book; " I have been l o o k i n g f o r God, 5° y e a r s , and 1 t h i n k t h a t i f he had e x i s t e d I should have d i s c o v e r -ed him. As an e x t e r n a l p e r s o n a l i t y , of course--the o n l y t r u e meaning of t h e word. "3 Thomas Hardy saw a u n i t y i n the views of t h e t h e i s t and t h e a t h e i s t ; t h i s u n i t y , however, i s not p e r c e i v -ed by them, The t h e i s t and t h e a t h e i s t a r e , so t o speak, o p p o s i t e s i d e s of t h e same c o i n . Hardy expressed t h i s i r o n y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage; " I t would be an amusing f a c t , 1. - C o l l e c t e d Poems, p. 59. 2.. I b i d , p.'"6'6" 3 . Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1 6 4 0 - 1 6 9 1 . p. 293, i f i t were not one that leads t o such h i t t e r s t r i f e , that t h e c o n c e p t i o n of a F i r s t Cause which the t h e i s t c a l l s 'God,' and t h e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e same t h a t t h e s o - s t y l e d a t h e i s t c a l l s 'no-God, ' are nowadays almost e x a c t l y i d e n t i c a l . So t h a t only a minor l i t e r a r y q u e s t i o n of t e r m i n o l o g y prevents t h e i r s h a k i n g hands i n agreement, and d w e l l i n g t o g e t h e r i n u n i t y ever a f t er . "1-The i d e a l s that t h e author kept b e f o r e him were t h e e s s e n t i a l s of C h r i s t i a n i t y~-humanity, and t r u e m o r a l i t y . The C h r i s t i a n Church, w h i c h i s b u i l t t o preserve, t h e C h r i s t -ian i d e a - i s , does not e x a c t , or always encourage, t h e s e q u a l i t i e s . Hardy r e c o g n i z e d b o t h s i d e s of t h e quest i o n , F o r t r u e C h r i s t i a n s , l i k e .Clym Yeobright, he had t h e utmost r e s p e c t ; b u t , f o r men l i k e W i ldeve, s e l f - t e r m e d C h r i s t i a n s , he had. t h e profoundest d i s d a i n . I t i s people l i k e A r a b e l l a and W i l d e v e , who are d e f i n i t e l y not C h r i s t i a n , who show t h e i n s i n c e r e t y of some, c h u r c h - g o i n g . These people a t t e n d c h u r c h o n l y f o r t h e i r own purposes; the church, g l a d of m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t , accept s them. The people who t r y t o f o o l themselves int o b e l i e v -i n g t h a t t h e y are C h r i s t i a n s , or who r e a l l y do so, who go t o c h u r c h on Sundays and f o l l o w t h e i r own p u r s u i t s a l l week, are mentioned i n The D i s t r a c t e d . Ereaoher. R i c h a r d Stockd.ale, t h e c u r a t e , asks L i z z y t h e smuggler t o . come and hear Iris, l a s t sermon. Here i s Hardy's comment on the s i t u a t i o n : " L i z z y , who was a church-goer on Sunday mornings, frequent l y attended St o c k d a l e ' s c h a p e l i n t h e evening w i t h t h e r e s t of t h e double-minded. .. 1 , 2 . 1, Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy 189.2-19.26, p. 32v 2, Wessex T a l e s , p. 291. 56 L i z z y i s double-mind eel not only i n her d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e churches, but i n her a t t e n t i o n t o t h e churc h and t o v e r y w o r l d l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as w e l l , .The i r o n i e s p e r c e p t -i b l e o n l y t o t h e d i s c e r n i n g i n a c a s u a l survey of a congreg-a t i o n are s u r e l y b e i n g p o i n t e d out c l e a r l y enough here I The c r u e l t i e s of C h r i s t i a n t o f e l l o w - C h r i s t i a n and t o h i s a n i m a l companions a r e shown i n almost every hook t h a t Hardy w r o t e . A n i m a l s u f f e r i n g i s found as a part of th e background i n The, _t Wo od l a n der a , gar from t h e Madding Crowd and Jude t h e Obscure. The man-made t r a p s t h a t t o r t u r e t h e r a b b i t s i n t h e l a s t named n o v e l are no l e s s c r u e l than t h e man-made t r a p s t h a t t o r t u r e human b e i n g s , An i n s t a n c e of man's inhumanity t o h i s fellow-man, drawn from Jude t h e Qb-s cu r e, i s A r a b e l l a ' s treatment of Jude on h i s deathbed. She l e a v e s him alone t o ask f o r wat er and t o d i e by h i m s e l f , w h i l e she goes out t o enjoy h e r s e l f . T r u l y a noble C h r i s t -i a n she i s , c o m p l e t e l y i n a c c o r d w i t h C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s J A d i r e c t statement of Hardy's i r o n i c a t t i t u d e t o C h r i s t i a n -i t y , and t o i t s e v i l s e s p e c i a l l y , i s ; "1 almost t h i n k t h a t people were l e s s p i t i l e s s towards t h e i r f e l l o w - c r eat -u r e s — a n i m a l and human—under t h e Roman Empire t h a n t h e y a re now; so why 'does not C h r i s t i a n i t y throw up t h e sponge and say, I am beaten, and l e t another r e l i g -i o n t a k e i t s p l a c e . " 1 The refo r m e r o v e r - s t a t e d t h e case i n t r u e i r o n i c f a s h i o n t o t r y and. b r i n g about a change f o r t h e b e t t e r . R e l i g i o n and m o r a l i t y have'no necessary c o n n e c t i o n , 1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , 'The L a t e r ^ e a r s ' o f Thomas Hardy 1692-1928, p. 192. 57 Sue, s p e a k i n g of her U n i v e r s i t y f r i e n d , s a y s : '"He was t h e most i r r e l i g i o u s man I ever knew, and t h e most m o r a l . AnU i n t e l l e c t at C h r i s t m i n s t er i s new .wine i n o l d b o t t l e s . The m e d i a e v a l i s m of C h r i s t m i n s t er must go, be sloughed o f f , or C h r i s t m i n s t er i t s e l f w i l l have t o •go, To be s u r e , at t i m e s one couldn't h e l p h a v i n g a s n e a k i n g l i k i n g f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n s of t h e o l d f a i t h , as p r e s e r v e d by a s e c t i o n of t h e t h i n k e r s t h e r e i n t o u c h i n g and simple s i n c e r i t y ; but when I was i n my saddest, r i g h t e s t , mind I always f e l t , 0 g h a s t l y g l o r i e s of s a i n t s , dead limbs of g i b b e t -ed G o d s ] ' " 1 The f a i t h h e l d by a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e world's popula-t i o n i s not k e e p i n g pace w i t h w o r l d development ; t h e r e i s t h e i r o n y . By b r i n g i n g the fact t o man's a t t e n t i o n . Hardy was t r y i n g t o r e f o r m and'save C h r i s t i a n i t y b e f o r e i t became a worn-out and u s e l e s s p r e s e r v e r of dogmatic s u p e r s t i t i o n s , N e i t h e r C h r i s t i a n i t y nor e d u c a t i o n has e f f a c e d t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s of Wessex, but t h e y have "hidden them away "beneath a mantle of shamefacedness and pretended s c e p t i c i s m . T h i s f a c t i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t -ed i n The Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e by t h e conference t h a t Hen chard has w i t h t h e conjuror- and weather-prophet whose c l i e n t s f e i g n t o c o n s u l t him merely as a whim but who i s c o n s o l e d f o r t h e s u p e r f i c i a l i r o n y of t h e i r manner towards him by t h e i r fundament a l b e l i e f i n h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l powers,"2 Thomas Hardy recorded many of t h e f o l k super-s t i t i o n s , S e v e r a l of t h e s e are found i n Tess of t h e D'Urb-erv i l l e s . As Tess and C l a r e are l e a v i n g a f t e r t h e marr-iage ceremony, t h e cock crows t h r i c e . The members of t h e h ousehold, w i t h f o r e b o d i n g i n t h e i r h e a r t s , ' t r y t o e x p l a i n t h e omen as a f o r e c a s t of change In t h e weather. Tess hears 1. Jude t h e Obscure, p. 185, 2. - Chew, Samuel C.7 Thomas Hardy, Hew York, 1929, P- 122, 58 t h e sound of t h e g h o s t l y D' Urtoerv i l l e coach s e v e r a l t i m e s . T h i s sound meant d i s a s t e r t o a descendant of t h e D'Urher-v i l l e s . The c o u n t r y f o l k t r y i n many ways t o f o r e t e l l t h e f u t u r e . In The Woodlandera t h e young g i r l s go out on M i d -summer Eve t o t h e woods and f o l l o w t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e w i t c h ' s hook t o t r y t o see t h e i r f u t u r e husbands. Another method f o r l o o k i n g i n t o t h e f u t u r e i s used by Bathsheba Ever dene i n £arjTrom t h e Madding Crowd. She uses a B i b l e and a key. In Tess of t h e TJ 'Urberv i l l e s Joan Durbeyf i e l d has a w i t c h ' s book In her -possession hut so great i s her awe of i t t h a t each evening i t i s removed t o t h e woodshed and l e f t t h e r e f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e n i g h t . There i s l i t t l e need t o p o i n t out t h e i r o n y i n _Jfe.rdy ' s apparent acceptance of t h e s e s u p e r s t i t i o n s , However, t h e r e i s i r o n y i n h i s use of them t o t r y and t e l l more e n l i g h t e n e d f o l k s t h a t t h e y accept customs t h a t are just as outworn as t h e customs of t h e count r y f o l k . The human race i s hounded by s u p e r s t i t i o n s i n many shapes and forms. These s u p e r s t i t i o n s , which are d i f f e r e n t f o r each group of people i n t h e w o r l d — r a c e s , c ommunit i e s , c l a s s e s , s e c t s , p r o f e s s i o n s , t r a d e s — a r e yet s u r p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r i n f o u n d a t i o n when t h e y are a n a l y s e d . I t was t i m e , Hardy t h o u g h t , t h a t Humanity c o u l d say w i t h Jude: " I p e r c e i v e t h e r e i s something wrong somewhere i n our s o c i a l f o r m u l a s : what i t i s can only be d i s c o v e r -ed by men or women w i t h g r e a t e r i n s i g h t t h a n mine — i f , i n d e e d , t h e y ever d i s c o v e r i t - -at l e a s t , i n our t i m e . 'For who knoweth what i s good f o r man i n t h i s l i f e ? — a n d who can t e l l a man what s h a l l "be a f t e r him under t h e sun? 1 u l Hardy b e l i e v e d t h a t i f he p o i n t e d out s u f f i c i e n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s , and i r o n i e s , people would, develop more d i s -cernment and reform t h e w o r l d i n s t e a d of merely a c c e p t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s and customs without t h i n k i n g . That people c o u l d b e t t e r t h e i r l o t i f t h e y would i s shown i n t h e poem Thoughts at M i d n i g h t . Mankind, you dismay me When shadows waylay me!---Hot by your splendours Do you a f f r a y me, Hot as p r e t e n d e r s To demonic keenness, Hot by your meanness, Hor your i l l - t e a c h i n g s , Hor your f a l s e p r e a c h i n g s , Hor your b a n a l i t i e s An d imm o r a 1 i t i e s , Hor by your d a r i n g Hor s i n i s t e r b e a r i n g ; But by your madnesses Capping c o o l badnesses,. A c t i n g l i k e puppets Under Time's b u f f e t s ; In sf>erst i t i o n s And a m b i t i o n s Moved by no wisdom., F a r - s i g h t , or system Led by sheer s e n s e l e s s n e s s • And. p r e s c i e n c e l e s s Int o-unreason And hideous s e l f - t r e a s o n . . . . God, l o o k he on you, Have mercy upon you!2 1. Jude t h e Obscure, p. 412. 2. W i n t e r Words, p, 5. THE IRONY OE DETACHMENT OR SPIRITUAL FREEDOM - "Have you much wondered, Moon, 'On your rounds, °> e I f -wrapt , b ey ond E a r t l i ' s b ound s ? " "Yea, I Have wondered, o f t e n wondered At t h e sounds Reaching me of t h e human tune On my rounds."1 In order t o a p p r e c i a t e a s i t u a t i o n , i t i s necess-ary 't o be -withdrawn from i t - . Once away from a crowd a p e r -son becomes c o n s c i o u s of t h e whole crowd r a t h e r than of only h i m s e l f . He i s capable of c l e a r e r discernment t h a n he was as a member of t h a t group. As Hardy remarked: "London appears not t o see i t s e l f . Each i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n s c i o u s of h i m s e l f , but nobody c o n s c i o u s of themselves c o l l e c t i v e l y . . So i t i s i n l i f e . I f a person j o i n s i n w i t h h i s f e l l o w s he i s u s u a l l y c o n s c i o u s o n l y of h i m s e l f . • The reason f o r t h e narrowness of h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h a t he can not f u l l y r e a l i z e what i s g o i n g on around him because he i s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e e v e n t s . However, when he. steps from t h e t u r m o i l of l i f e and stands t o one s i d e , he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of what i s happening. Thomas Hardy detached h i m s e l f from t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e w o r l d . More t h a n once he r e f e r r e d t o h i m s e l f as a "gazer," a " s e e r , " and a 'Watcher." He f r e e d h i m s e l f from t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a c t i o n t o see what was t a k i n g 1. C o l l e c t ed Poems ,-. p. 411,. 2 . Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy 1840-1091. op. c i t , . , p. 271 . p l a c e i n the world. The i n a c t i v i t y i s , however, p h y s i c a l o n l y . I n t e l l e c t u a l l y Hardy grasped t h e advantage t h a t can he d e r i v e d from t h e p o s i t i o n of observer, which i s , that h i s i n a c t i v i t y f r e e s him from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i l e g i v i n g h i s mind f r e e p l a y . From h i s peculiar h a b i t of i n a c t i v i t y , Hardy developed an a b i l i t y t o see two s i d e s of a q u e s t i o n or of a s i t u a t i o n , w h i l e at t h e same time r e a l i z i n g i t s e s s e n t i a l u n i t y . He d i d not t r y t o r e c o n c i l e t h e s e two s i d e s ; lie b e l i eved t h a t t h e y were m e r e l y two s i d e s of a u n i t y and t h a t t h e y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be regarded as such by t h e w o r l d at l a r g e . In t h i s "double v i s i o n " i s t o be found t h e secr e t of much of Hardy's i r o n y and e s p e c i a l l y o f ' h i s i r o n y of detachment . Of double v i s i o n and. Thomas Hardy, H a r o l d Child, s a y s : " I t i s a p e c u l i a r g i f t ; t h e r e i s no au t h o r i n whom i t i s so h i g h l y , d eveloped. I f he sees t h e l i t t l e n e s s , he a l s o sees t h e greatness. Watching from i n f i n i t y , he shows human l i f e as f u t i l e and. t r i v i a l . Down i n t h e s t r e s s and t u r m o i l , l o o k i n g .out from t h e v e r y heart of some farmer or mi liana id., he shows human l i f e h e r o i -c a l l y grand. There i s no t r a c e i n h i s work of contempt f o r human w i l l , endurance and p a s s i o n . A l l may be . f u t i l e ; but a l l are e n g r o s s i n g t o t h e i n t e r e s t , and a l l may compel admirat ion . "--The f i r s t of the i r o n i e s that Hardy p e r c e i v e d from h i s p o i n t of vantage i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n o b i l i t y of l i f e , t h e grandeur of i t from t h e personal p o i n t of view and t h e smallness of t h a t same l i f e i n t h e whole p l a n of e x i s t e n c e . Hardy was o r i g i n a l i n t h i s recog-1. C h i l d , H a r o l d , op. c i t . , p. 14. 62 n i t i o n of the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of a man i n the complete order of the u n i v e r s e . Man had, f o r t o o long a t i m e , m a g n i f i e d h i s own importance u n t i l he a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e d in" i t . To dwarf man's b e l i e f i n t h i s importance and t o make man r e a l i z e h i s p o s i t i o n on t h e e a r t h and the e a r t h ' s p o s i t i o n among the other bodies o f t h e u n i v e r s e was' one of H a r d y ' s p u r p o s e s . In order t o a c h i e v e t h i s purpose Hardy p o r t r a y e d the a l l -important p e r s o n , man, a g a i n s t a background that i s immensely l a r g e , age less and d e s o l a t e . Man's importance d i m i n i s h e s when he has Egdon Heath f o r a background. • T a k e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e reddleman and h i s c a r t as seen by C a p t a i n Vye: "At l e n g t h he d i s -c e r n e d , a l o n g d i s t a n c e i n f r o n t of him, a. moving s p o t , w h i c h appeared t o he a v e h i c l e , and i t proved t o be g o i n g t h e same way as, t h a t i n which he h i m s e l f was j o u r n e y i n g . It was the s i n g l e atom of l i f e that t h e scene c o n t a i n e d , and i t only served t o render t h e g e n e r a l l o n e l i n e s s more evident . 1 , 1 In t u r n t h e r e d d l e a a n wat ches* C a p t a i n Vye cont inue on -his way. "The reddleman. watched h i s form as i t d i m i n i s h e d t o • a speck on t h e road and became absorbed i n the t h i c k -ening f i l m s of night , "2 Egdon i s but one r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e . powerfu s e t t i n g that overshadows man and makes h i s p o s i t i o n viewed from, a d i s -t a n c e i r o n i c a l . S u r e l y puny man can not b e l i e v e h i m s e l f more p o w e r f u l t h a n Egdon Heath "a t y p e of t h e power t h a t governs t h e w o r l d — i m m e m o r i a l 3 y o l d , b a r r e n , h e e d l e s s ; and, i n f a c t , though not by i n t e n t i o n , i n i t s i n e v i t -able i n f l u e n c e upon t h e human h e a r t , s i n i s t e r . "3 1. The Return of t h e Hat i v e . p . 9» 2. I b i d , p . 12. 3 . C h i I d , - H a ro I d, op, c i t . p . 14. 63 Hardy l i k e d t o p r o j e c t h i s show upon a "background t h a t c o n t a i n e d evidence of t h e o c c u p a t i o n of people. By showing h i s c h a r a c t e r s ' * ^ l i v e s a g a i n s t such a screen of former l i v e s , he demonstrat es t h a t w h i l e each person r e -gards h i s l i f e as . import ant , i n d i v i d u a l l y i t w i l l be f o r g o t t -en. I r o n i c a l l y , however, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich are t a k e n f o r granted i n l i f e w i l l remain. I n d i v i d u a l l y t h e C e l t s and Romans', who l e d o r d i n a r y l i v e s , have l o n g s i n c e been f o r g o t t e n , hut t h e r a c i a l monuments remain--the C e l t i c barrows on Egdon and the r u i n s of t h e Roman. Amphitheatre at Cast er b r i d g e . I n d i v i d u a l s , Hardy p o i n t e d out i r o n i c a l l y , melt i n t o o b l i v i o n and remain f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s only as a part of a- r a c e . As an i n s t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g t a k e s p l a c e A f t er t h e P a i r at Cast e r h r i d g e :-. And midnight c l e a r s H i g h S t r e e t of a l l but t h e ghosts Of i t s b u r i e d burghees, Prom th e l a t e s t f a r back t o t h o s e o l d Roman hos t s Whose remains .one yet sees, Who l o v e d , laughed, .and. f o u g h t , h a i l e d t h e i r f r i e n d s , drank t h e i r t o a s t s At' t h e i r meet i n g — t imes h e r e , just as these!-! The s m a l l amount accomplished by one person i n h i s l i f e - t i m e i s c l e a r l y shown i n a note t h a t Hardy made on an a n n i v e r s a r y of h i s s i s t e r ' s b i r t h d a y . "December 23. Mary's b i r t h d a y . She came i n t o t h e world...and went out...and t h e w o r l d i s j u s t t h e same... not a r i p p l e on t h e s u r f a c e l e f t . " 2 But t h e double v i s i o n works a g a i n and Hardy a l s o saw t h e 1. C o l l e c t e d Poems, p. 226. 2. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The h a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy 1692-1928, op. c i t , , p.245, v a l u e of human endeavour over unconscious n a t u r e , Hardy's comment on the. secondary v i e w was: "An object or mark r a i s e d or made by man on a scene i s w o r t h ten t i m e s any such formed by uncon-s c i o u s H a t u r e , Hence c l o u d s , m i s t s , and mountains are unimportant b e s i d e t h e wear on a t h r e s h o l d , or t h e p r i n t of a hand," 1 In Hardy's idea, each person i s surrounded by h i s own p a r t i c u l a r w o r l d and. c o n s c i o u s o f h i s own w o r l d a l o n e . This p r i v a t e u n i v e r s e i s b u i l t by a l l t h e experiences, of l i f e u n t i l i t i s q u i t e d i s t i n c t from t h a t of any other person. As he s a i d of Mrs, Yeobright': "Persons w i t h any weight of c l i a r act er c a r r y , l i k e p l a n e t s , t h e i r atmospheres along w i t h them i n t h e i r o r b i t s ; and t h e matron who entered now upon th e scene c o u l d , and. u s u a l l y d i d , b r i n g h e r own tone i n t o a com-pany. Her normal manner among t h e heathfoik had t h a t r e t i c e n c e which r e s u l t s from t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s of super-i o r communicative power . But t h e ef f ect - of coming i n t o s o c i e t y and. l i g h t a f t e r l o n e l y wandering in. dark-ness i s a s o c i a b i l i t y i n t h e comer above i t s usual p i t c h , ' expressed i n t h e f e a t u r e s even more t h a n i n t h e words , "2 Yet another i n s t a n c e of Hardy 1 s b e l i e f t h a t people are surrounded by a. w o r l d of t h e i r own i s found under t h e heading, "A s e r v i c e at St-. Mary Abbots, K e n s i n g t o n . . . Could t h e s e t r u e scenes i n which t h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n i s l i v i n g be brought i n t o church b o d i l y w i t h t h e per-sonages, t h e r e would be a churchful of j o s t l i n g phan-tasmagorias crowded l i k e a heap of soap bubbles, i n -f i n i t e l y i n t e r s e c t i n g , , but each s e e i n g only h i s own. That bald-headed man i s surrounded by the i n t e r i o r of th e Stock Exchange; t h a t g i r l by t h e j e w e l l e r 's shop i n which she purchased y e s t e r d a y . Through t h i s b i z a r r e w o r l d of thought c i r c u l a t e s t h e r e c i t a t i v e of t h e p a r s o n — a t h i n s o l i t a r y note without cadence or 1. Hardy, Florence Emily, The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy  1840-1891, op. c i t , , p. 153. 2, The Return of t h e Hat i v e , p, 35. change of i n t e n s i t y — a n d g e t t i n g l o s t l i k e a bee i n t h c l e r e s t o r y , " -, .People are l i m i t e d by t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s , even though t h e y do not r e a l i z e i t . T h i s i s another of t h e i r o n i e s t h a t Hardy saw from h i s withdrawn p o s i t i o n , Ho matter t o . what s t a t i o n of l i f e a. person belongs he i s alway r e s t r i c t e d , unknown t o h i m s e l f , by unbreakable bonds. As Hardy observed: "Some wear jewels and f e a t h e r s , some wear rags. A l l are-caged b i r d s ; t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e s i z e of t h e ca.ge," 2 D i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s b r i n g f o r t h d i f f e r e n t react ions from men, yet t h e same circumstance w i l l b r i n g t h e same r e a c t i o n . In an entry i n h i s notes Hardy s a i d : " D i f f e r e n t -purposes, d i f f e r e n t men. Those i n t h e -city f o r money-making are not t h e same men as t h e y were when at home t h e p r e v i o u s evening. Hor are t h e s e t h e same as t h e y were when l y i n g awake i n the s m a l l hours . "3 Yet i n d i v i d u a l s do not r e c o g n i z e any change i n t h e m s e l v e s ! Everyone b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s t h e best and t h a t no one e l s e ' s ca.ii compare w i t h h i s , Each person judges a l l others and uses as h i s measuring s t i c k h i s own character. I r o n i c a l l y , i t i s the o n l y way of e v a l -u a t i o n that a person has. As Hardy remarked: "People who t o one's s e l f are t r a n s i e n t s i n g u l -a r i t i e s a re t o themselves t h e permanent c o n d i t i o n , t h e i n e v i t a b l e , t h e normal, t h e r e s t of mankind b e i n g t o them the s i n g u l a r i t y . T hink, that t h o s e (to us) s t r a n g e t r a n s i t o r y phenomena, t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , 1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy  1840-1891. op., c i t . , p. 277. 2. I b i d , p, 224, 3 . I b i d , P, 267, are w i t h them always , at t h e i r going t o bed, at t h e i r u p r i s i n g ! " 1 ; An even grea ter i r o n y i s ' t h a t a person can not even be h i m s e l f . T h i s f a c t i s admirably shown i n one of Napoleon's speeches d u r i n g a moment of i n s i g h t . . "Hapoleon ( w i t h sudden despondency) That which has worked w i l l w o r k ! - - s i n c e L o d i B r i d g e The force. I t h e n f e l t move me moves me on Whether 1 w i l l or n o ; and o f t e n t i m e s A g a i n s t my b e t t e r mind...Wiry am I here? - - B y laws imposed on me i n e x o r a b l y ! H i s t o r y makes use of me t o weave her web , To her l o n g while af or et ime-figured, mesh And contemplated c h a r a c t e r y : no more." 2 Jude Eawley and Sue Bridehead can not f u l f i l t h e i r n a t u r e s . Jude and Sue are b o t h haunted by t h e ideas which were i n s t i l l e d i n them d u r i n g t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . They t r u l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y are not f r e e agents and are r e a l l y r e s t r i c t e d by a s u p e r s t i t i o n of t h e i r own making. Ea.ch b e l i e v e s t h a t happiness can never come i n m a r r i a g e , and as a r e s u l t i t c e r t a i n l y does n o t . Another example of a. person b u i l d i n g a ' super st i t ion f o r h i m s e l f i s t h e case of E u s t a c i a Vye. She, pr o b a b l y because of the s t o r i e s t o l d ah out her own mother's elopement, decid.es t h a t t h e r e i s no happiness on Egdon f o r h e r . The w o r l d s of i n d i v i d u a l s are hard t o p e n e t r a t e . There i s i r o n y c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e misunderstandings caused by people not u n d e r s t a n d i n g another person's v i e w p o i n t . As Hardy remarked: "Every e r r o r under t h e sun seems t o a r i s e from 1. I b i d , p. 2 r / l . 2 . The Dynast s , p . 330 • 67 t h i n k i n g that you are r i g h t y o u r s e l f because you are y o u r s e l f , and other people wrong because t h e y are not y o u . «'l E a c h person ac ts as an independent e n t i t y , c o n s i d e r i n g no one e l s e i n h i s p l a n s . C o n s i d e r , f o r example, the u n f o r t -unate m a r r i e d l i f e of Jude and A r a b e l l a Eawley . N e i t h e r make any attempt t o c o n s i d e r t h e o t h e r . It i s t r u e that Jude t r i e s t o make a home at t h e b e g i n n i n g of h i s marr ied l i f e . H i s h e a r t , however, i s not i n t h e attempt and he i s g l a d of any excuse t o r e l e a s e him from, h i s b a r g a i n . Another example i s the marr iage of Clym and E u s t a c i a Y e o b r i g h t . E u s t a c i a , once m a r r i e d , does not t r y t o see her husband's s i d e of t h e p i c t u r e , but she only pursues her own ends w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n and no sympathy f o r her maimed, o v e r - a m b i t -ious husband. To f a k e another i n s t a n c e , does .Angel C l a r e on h i s wedding night attempt t o see poor Tess's s ide to the unhappy events p r o c e e d i n g her m a r r i a g e , or t o the u n f o r t u n -ate c a r e l e s s n e s s on her part that l e f t him without i n f o r m -a t i o n that she b e l i e v e s he possessed? These are a l l the cases of man and w i f e , the cases of people who choose t o l i v e t o g e t h e r and who should be , i f any a r e , c l o s e t o one a n o t h e r . Even c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents are not i n v e r y c l o s e harmony. Clym and h i s mother d r i f t apart u n t i l they do not understand one another . I f misunders tandings a r i s e between two who are r e l a t e d by b l o o d or who chose t o l i v e t o g e t h e r , how much g r e a t e r must 1 . Hardy, F l o r e n c e Emi l y , The E a r l y .Life of Thomas Hardy 1640-1691. op. c i t . , p . 215, < o be t h e g u l f s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s of other people who meet i n c a s u a l ways and t r a n s a c t t h e i r b u s i n e s s , D i f f e r e n t planes of l i f e a l s o do not come i n t o v e r y c l o s e c ont act . Jude Pawley f i n d s at C h r i s t m i n s t er t h a t t h e l i f e of a l a b o u r i n g man has no i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h a l i f e of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y t h e d i v i n e and e a r t h l y planes of e x i s t e n c e do not come i n d i r e c t contact w i t h one another. Hardy saw them w o r k i n g a p p a r e n t l y u n m i n d f u l of each o t h e r , l i k e p a r a l l e l l i n e s t h a t run even i n t o i n f i n i t y without meeting. The i r o n y of t h i s s i t u a t i o n caused Hardy d e s p a i r . I f only he c o u l d have known t h a t t h e d i v i n e e i t h e r cared about or d e l i g h t e d i n human m i s e r y , he .would have f e l t much more s a t i s f i e d . As he s a i d : " I f but some v e n g e f u l god would c a l l t o me Prom up t h e sky, and la u g h : 'Thou s u f f e r i n g t h i n g , Know t h a t thy- sorrow is- my e c s t a s y , That t h y lo v e 's l o s s i s my hate's p r o f i t i n g . ' " 1 The i r o n y i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t of a l l , much of t h e s u f f e r i n g ^ man goes t h r o u g h i n l i f e , i s caused e i t h e r by h i m s e l f or some other human b e i n g . Secondly, w h i l e man complains of t h e d i v i n e ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o man, man i s sim-i l a r t o t h e unconscious f i r s t cause of which he complains so b i t t e r l y . As Hardy h i m s e l f p o i n t e d out so w e l l , man puts h i m s e l f on a p e d e s t a l and views t h e s u f f e r i n g s of t h e an i m a l kingdom from a f a r . In The Woodlanders t h e human a c t i o n i s c a r r i e d on a g a i n s t a, background of s u f f e r i n g 1. C o l l e c t e d Poems, p. 7. 69 -animals. To t h i s c r u e l t y of s t e e l t r a p s , h u n t i n g and b a r -b a r i s m of t h e f o r e s t , man t a k e s as a l o o f an a t t i t u d e , on t h e average, as does t h e d i v i n e t o man h i m s e l f . In Par from t h e Madding Crowd t h e animals are d e s c r i b e d b e a u t i f u l l y ; t h e i r s u f f e r i n g s a r e , w h i l e not dwelt upon, shown as a t e r r -i b l e c a t a s t r o p h e ; y e t , mankind as a whole n e i t h e r knows nor c a r e s about them at a l l . Double v i s i o n caused Hardy t o see t h e i r o n y of many t h i n g s i n t h e c l a s h of "what t h i n g s are and what t h e y ought t o b e " 1 and a l s o of t h e ambitions of man and t h e v a l u e of a c t u a l attainment . An i n s t a n c e i s found i n The T a l e of •Two T r a g e d i e s , In t h i s s t o r y t h e t w o b r o t h e r s work v e r y hard t o r i s e i n t h e church, but are dragged down by a ne'er-d o - w e l l f a t h e r , F i n a l l y , on t h e eve of t h e i r success, t h e f a t h e r t u r n s up a g a i n and f a l l s I n t o a d i t c h . The son does n o t h i n g t o save him and he drowns. The b r o t h e r s are s u c c e s s -f u l i n t h e church but t h e i r success b r i n g s them no s a t i s -f a c t i o n . They f i n d t h e i r honours and p o s i t i o n are an empty' mockery of what- t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e y would be. Ha.rdy a n a l y s e d Jude t h e Obscure from t h i s p o i n t of v i e w of i r o n i c a l c o n t r a s t s . "The 'grimy' f e a t u r e s of t h e s t o r y go t o show t h e c o n t r a s t between th e i d e a l l i f e a man wished t o lead," and t h e s q u a l i d r e a l l i f e he was f a t e d t o l e a d . The t h r o w i n g of t h e p i z z l e , at t h e supreme- moment ' of h i s young dream, i s t o s h a r p l y i n i t i a t e t h i s c o n t r a s t . But I must have lamentably f a i l e d , as I f e e l I have, i f t h i s r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n and i s not s e l f - e v i d e n t . The'idea was meant t o run a l l t h r o u g h t h e n o v e l . It i s , i n f a c t , t o be d i s -1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r "*ears of Thomas Hardy •1892-1926. op, c i t , , p . 226'. 70 covered i n everybody's l i f e , though i t l i e s l e s s on th e s u r f a c e perhaps than i t does i n my poor puppet ' s , " 1 Then s h o r t l y a f t e r he c o n t i n u e d : "Of course t h e book i s a l l c o n t r a s t s — or was meant t o be i n i t s o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n , A l a s , what a mis-e r a b l e aocomplishment i t i s , when I compare i t w i t h what I meant t o make i t !--e.g. Sue and her heathen gods set a g a i n s t Jude' s r e a d i n g t h e Greek testament ; C h r i s t m i n s t er. a c a d e m i c a l , C h r i s t m i n s t er i n t h e slums; Jude t h e s a i n t , Jude t h e s i n n e r ; Sue t h e Pagan, Sue t h e s a i n t ; m a r r i a g e , no m a r r i a g e ; &o., &c."2 Hardy found a t y p e of happiness i n h i s w i t h d r a w a l from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n events. He c o u l d see t h e i r o n -i e s around him and p o r t r a y them f o r h i s readers without h a v i n g t o d e c i d e t h a t one s i d e of t h e q u e s t i o n was c o r r e c t . He a c c e p t e d b o t h s i d e s and b e l i e v e d t h a t by s t a n d i n g a s i d e from t h e w o r l d , a person c o u l d see and accept t h e two appar-e n t l y c l a s h i n g s i d e s of a q u e s t i o n . I t was motion and d e c i s i o n t h a t caused him unhappiness. As he s a i d : " I t i s t h e on-going--! . e . t h e 'becoming 1 of t h e w o r l d t h a t produces i t s sadness. I f t h e w o r l d stood s t i l l at a f e l i j | ous. moment there would be no sadness i n i t . The sun and t h e moon s t a n d i n g s t i l l on A j a l o n was not a c a t a s t r o p h e f o r I s r a e l , but a type of P a r a -d i s e . " 3 1. I b i d , p. 41. 2. I b i d , p. 42, 3. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy 2M2z232k, op. c i t , , p. 265. ~™~~" ' ' THE IRONY OE NECESSITY "What do you t h i n k of i t , Moon, , , As you go? Is l i f e much, or no?" "0, I t h i n k of i t , o f t en t h i n k of i t As a show God ought s u r e l y t o shut up soon As I g o . 1 , 1 The i r o n y of n e c e s s i t y i s t h e i r o n y i n t h e arrange-ment and p r o g r e s s i o n of happenings as seen by an observer. In other words, i t d e a l s w i t h the " f a l l i n g " of events. The b y s t a n d e r b e l i e v e s that c e r t a i n r e s u l t s must be brought about and t h a t n o t h i n g can change th e proceedings or t h e c o n c l u s i o n . T h i s t y p e of i r o n y c o n s i s t s of two c h i e f sub-d i v i s i o n s , which w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as dramatic i r o n y , and t h e i r o n y of f a t e or c i r c u m s t a n c e . Dramatic i r o n y i s one form' of preparat i o n f o r events i n a drama. A s t o r y or play i s a s p e c i a l w o r l d , complete i n i t s r u l e s and i l l u s i o n s and c o n t r o l l e d by t h e a u t h o r . T h i s make-believe world must be p e r f e c t l y c o n s i s t -ent ; n o t h i n g must happen i n i t t o v i o l a t e t h e onlooker's sense of r i g h t n e s s and f i t n e s s . One s i t u a t i o n must have w i t h i n i t t h e seeds from which a succeeding s i t u a t i o n w i l l grow. In t h e present s i t u a t i o n the bystander can see, i f he has s u f f i c i e n t knowledge, 'the r e a l i t i e s which w i l l b r i n g about- q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t s t a t e of a f f a i r s , yet he can not change t h e outcome. Dramatic i r o n y i s t h e p a s s i v e p l e a s u r e t h a t an onlooker gains i n w a t c h i n g t h e development of the 1. C o l l e c t e d Poems , p. 410. o£ t h e s t o r y . T h i s onlooker has "the sense of an i l l u s i o n under c o n t r o l of .knowledge hut beyond c o n t r o l of i n t e r f erence. The s p e c t a t o r sees Appearance and R e a l i t y as-one and yet i n c o n f l i c t . " ! Thomas Hardy modelled h i s work i n t h e form of drama, and t h e r e f o r e i t l e n t i t s e l f t o t h e use of dramatic d e v i c e s . One of t h e s e , t h a t Hardy used c o n t i n u a l l y , i s dramatic i r o n y . There i s an example of i t s use i n The Re-t u r n ^qf t he Hat^iv e . Had Mrs. Y e o b r i g h t been t o l d t h a t her s u c c e s s f u l young son, a diamond merchant home from P a r i s f o r a v i s i t ,-would, be working as a f u r z e - c u t t e r on. t h e heath, and that she would be t u r n e d from h i s door t o d i e alone b e f o r e many months had passed, she would have r a i s e d her hands i n h o r r o r . Yet t h a t i s what a c t u a l l y d i d happen. There are a number of i r o n i e s i n t h e f i r s t s i t -u a t i o n t h a t p o i n t t o t h e development of t h e second. The f i r s t i r o n y i s t h a t Clym Yeobr i g h t i s no longer a diamond merchant, f o r he has become d i s s at i s f ied w i t h t h e t r a d e and g i v e n up h i s p o s i t i o n . Secondly, he has not come home f o r a v i s i t , but he hats r e t u r n e d home t o s t a y . In a d d i t i o n , he has made p l a n s to become a t e a c h e r , l a s t l y , w h i l e he appears of sound body, h i s eyes are not s t r o n g enough t o stand t h e s t r a i n of t h e s t u d y i n g w h i c h he wishes t o do. Those a r e t h e i r o n i e s , the c l a s h e s between r e a l i t y and appearance , which make pr ov i s i o n .f or t he l e t er s i t u a t ion . How do t h e s e i r o n i e s prepare t h e way f o r what f o l l o w s ? E u s t a c i a Vye, f i r s t of a l l , i s a t t r a c t e d t o Clym 1. Sedgewick, G. G . , op. c i t . , p. 94, . 73 because of t l i e apparent glamour of h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and t h e y a re noon m a r r i e d . E u s t a c i a r e a l i z e s t h e irony l a t e r when she says: "You d e c e i v e d me—not by words, but by appearances, w h i c h a re less' seen t h r o u g h t h a n words."1 E u s t a c i a i s d i s s a t i s f i e d , when Clym i s f o r c e d t o cut f u r z e because of h i s eyes, and renews her f r i e n d s h i p w i t h W i l d -eve. Clym's mother does not approve of Eustacia, and so mother and son become e s t r a n g e d . When Wildeve goes t o Cly,,,'s -house, E u s t a c i a admits him and t a l k s t o him. Mrs.. Yeobright, i r o n i c a l l y , goes t o h e r son's house on t h e same Hot summer's day t o t r y t o become f r i e n d s w i t h her son and d a u g h t e r - i n -law. IIo?/, when Mrs .' Y e o b r i g h t a r r i v e s at her son's house, Clym i s a s l e e p and E u s t a c i a i s t a l k i n g t o Wildeve. E u s t a c i a h u r r i e s Wildeve out of t h e back door and b e l i e v e s t h a t Clym has gone t o admit h i s mother. However, Clym i s s t i l l a s l e e p . -By t h e t i m e E u s t a c i a reaches t h e door, Mrs. Yeobright has gone, b e l i e v i n g h e r s e l f ca^t o f f by her son, t o meet her f a t e upon t h e h e a t h . The second s i t u a t i o n has been made po s s i b l e because of t h e i r o n i e s i n t h e f i r s t s i t u a t i o n . ^ Another t y p e of dramatic i r o n y i s c a l l e d , " p e r i - . pet i a . " I n t h i s t y p e of i r o n y a t r a i n of events set i n motion t o produce one d e f i n i t e r e s u l t , produces the exact o p p o s i t e . The s t o r y To P l e a s e h i s W i f e 2 has an e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s t y p e of i r o n y . Joanna J o l l i f f e i s j e a l o u s 1. I lie R et urn o f t he pNativ e, p. 389' 2. Hardy, Thomas, L i f e ' s L i t t l e I r o n i e s . London, 1923. 74 of Emily L e s t e r ' s good f o r t u n e and of the ed u c a t i o n t h a t Emily's two sons w i l l have,- In order t o have as much money as E m i l y , 'and t o educate her sons as w e l l as E m i l y ' s two, she sends h er husband and two hoys on a journey t o Newfound-land. The c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s v e n t u r e i s t h e exact o p p o s i t e of the one that Joanna e x p e c t s . The s h i p i s l o s t and w i t h i t a l l t h e money t h e J o l l i f f e f a m i l y , has, as w e l l as shad-r a c h J o l l i f f e , and t h e two hoys, f o r whom the mother wanted t h e money. The journey which was t o have brought t h e where-w i t h a l t o educate t h e sons, b r i n g s t h e l o s s of what means t h e y a l r e a d y had a« w e l l as- of t h e husband and sons. Just as t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n t hinds of drama, so are t h e r e many k i n d s of dramatic i r o n y . They range a l l t h e way from t r a g i c i r o n y t o a m i l d l y humourous t y p e . I r o n y i s found i n a l l i t s degrees of i n t e n s i t y i n Thomas Hardy's work. The i n i t i a l flaw i n a p r o t a g o n i s t ' s c h a r a c t e r , or "hamart ia," as- the Greeks c a l l e d i t , , i s t h e m a i n s p r i n g of tragedy and t r a g i c 'irony. U s u a l l y t h e r e i s a person who, t o a s u p e r f i c i a l o n l o o k e r , appears t o he p e r f e c t , hut who w i l l , under t h e s t r e s s of c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , break clown. The f l a w need not he a conscious e r r o r , or even a bad q u a l i t y ; "nay., t h e t r a g i c i r o n y sometimes l i e s ' p r e c i s e l y h e r e i n , t h a t owing t o some inherent f r a i l t y or flaw, i t may be human s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s , i t may be some error of b l o o d or judgment--the v e r y - v i r t u e s of a man h u r r y him f o r w a r d t o h i s r u i n . 1 , 1 1. B u t c h e r , G. H., A r i s t o t l e ' s Theory of .£qet.ry_and E i n e Art , London, 1902, p. 3 2 1 . 75 An i n s t a n c e of t h e use of t r a g i c i r o n y i s found i n tire l i f e of Tess D ' U r b e y f i e l d i n Tess of t h e D 1 Urlo e r y i 1 l e s . Tess appears t o he a good, sound g i r l who w i l l r a i s e t h e l e v e l of her f a m i l y t h r o u g h her assiduous c a r e . The keynotes of her c h a r a c t e r are goodness, obedience, and t r u s t w o r t h -iness . Tess works hard t o help her mother i n t h e house w i t h her younger b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . She a l s o t r i e s her best t o c a r r y part of her ne ' e r - d o - w e l l f a t h e r ' s l o a d i n support-i n g t h e f a m i l y . Then th e parson, i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a l h i s -t o r y , u n e a r t h s t h e former g l o r i e s of t h e I) 'Urberv i l i e name. Te s s ' mother h i t s upon t h e i d e a of c l a i m i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e more wealthy part of t h e " f a m i l y " and she sends Tess t o t h e grand house. The young g i r l c a r r i e s her m i s s i o n t h r o u g h t o t h e best of her a b i l i t y , ' a l t h o u g h she d i s l i k e s i t immensely. I r o n i c a l l y , t h e v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which should .have h e l p e d her t o success i n l i f e - - i m p l i c i t goodness and o b e d i e n c e — b r i n g her i n t o a. s i t u a t i o n 'with which she i s unable t o d e a l . T e s s ' t r a g i c f a u l t i s t h a t her goodness i s p a s s i v e . She i s j u s t , h e r s e l f , and expects others t o be j u s t . She asks t o be l e f t t o go her own way unmolested, t o do her duty and leave others t o do t h e i r s , without i n t e r f e r e n c e from h e r . The farm people w i l l allow her t o work out her own sa.lva.tion, but her. supposed c o u s i n cannot or w i l l not do so. A f t e r he wrongs her, she w i l l not defend h e r s e l f . She a c c e p t s t h e harm t h a t b e f a l l s her as she has accepted her f a t h e r ' s drunkenness--meekly and. un quest i o n i n g l y . 76 A g a i n , i t i s her p a s s i v e goodness which leads her i n t o t r o u b l e w i t h A n g e l C l a r e . She can not b r i n g h e r s e l f t o t e l l him t h e sad s t o r y of her l i f e , but t h e honesty i n her n a t u r e w i l l not permit her t o marry him without t e l l i n g him her s t o r y . She w r i t e s him a l e t t e r , which i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y mis-p l a c e d , and so he does not know of t h e unhappiness i n her l i f e u n t i l a f t e r t h e y are m a r r i e d . Then he t u r n s a g a i n s t h e r , and she a c c e p t s t h e pun i s lament • met ed out t o .her. The c o u s i n f i n d s Tess working on a farm and persuades her t o l i v e w i t h him by t e l l i n g her t h a t A n g e l C l a r e w i l l never r e t u r n t o h e r . When her l o n g - s e p a r a t e d husband does r e t u r n t o h e r , she t u r n s upon her tormentor and k i l l s him. Her p a s s i v e goodness has l e d her i n t o t h e i n t o l e r a b l e s i t u a t i o n , and t h e j u s t n e s s of Her c h a r a c t e r f o r c e s her t o k i l l t h e emot-i o n a l "cousin e v a n g e l i s t . The i r o n y of t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t t h e v e r y j u s t n e s s and f a i r n e s s of her c h a r a c t e r , helped by her p a s s i v e goodness, cause her d o w n f a l l . The i r o n i c a l e f f e c t at the, end of AJPair of B l u e Eyes i s , t o say t h e l e a s t , grotesque and gruesome. Two men, Henry Knight and Stephen Smith, are on t h e i r way t o End e l -stow. The two have been f r i e n d s , but are estranged, by t h e i r l o v e f o r t h e same g i r l , E l f r i d e Swanc ourt . They are journey-i n g t o g e t h e r t o ask E l f r i d e the same question;. W i l l you marry me? They n o t i c e a solemn coach on t h e t r a i n , but are so engrossed 'in t h e i r r i v a l r y , t h a t t h e y do not t r o u b l e t o f i n d out what . i t s i g n i f i e s . The hideous grim, humour of t h e i r o n y i s t h a t , unknown t o t h e men, E l f r i d e ' s c o f f i n i s i n 77 t h a t solemn coach, and a l s o , t h a t she d i e d another man's w i f e , t h e w i f e of Lord L u x e l l i a n . Another example of t h i s t y p e of i r o n y ' i s t h e c a r r y i n g of Fanny Robin's c o f f i n t o Bath-sheba Sverdene's house i n F a r from t h e Madding Crowd. The irony i s t h a t Fanny Robin and her c h i l d are c a r r i e d dead t o Bathsheba's house, and t h a t i t i s Sergeant Troy, Bat h-sheba's husband, who i s t h e f a t h e r of Fanny's c h i l d . Another example of t h i s g r i m l y humourous i r o n y i s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n of t h e poem The Dame_ of A t h e l h a l l . The l a d y runs away w i t h her l o v e r , but a b r a c e l e t on her arm r e c a l l s memories and she t u r n s back home. The i r o n y i s found i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n between the l a d y ' s husband and a f r i e n d , which she overhears on her r e t u r n . "Another her l o v e , another my c h o i c e , Her g o i n g i s good. Our c o n d i t i o n s mend; In a change of mates we s h a l l both r e j o i c e ; 1 hoped t h a t i t t h u s might end!" 1 A l i g h t e r and more humourous note i s s t r u c k i n t h e i r o n y of The Curate's K i n d n e s s . An o l d man and h i s w i f e are b e i n g t a k e n t o t h e poorhouse, where t h e y are t o occupy s e p a r a t e wings of t h e b u i l d i n g . They are on t h e i r way t o t h e poorhouse when the meddlesome young parson a r r i v e s w i t h good news f o r them! V I "Old f o l k s , t h a t h a r s h r u l e "is a l t e r e d , Be not s i c k of heart ! The Guardians t h e y poohed and t h e y p i s h e d and they p a l t e r e d When urged not t o keep you apart . 1. C o l l e c t e d Poems, p . 142 . r~i p. / o V I I "•'It i s wrong!' I m a i n t a i n e d , 'to d i v i d e them, Near f o r t y y ears wed. ' .'Very w e l l , s i r . We promise, t h e n , t h e y s h a l l abide them In one wing t o g e t h e r , ' t h e y s a i d . " V I I I Then, I sank—knew 'twas q u i t e a fordone t h i n g That m i s e r y should be To the end!,.To get f r e e d of her t h e r e was t h e one t h i n g Had ma.de t h e change welcome t o me, IX To go t h e r e was ending but b a d l y ; 'Twas shame and 'twas pain; "But anyhow," thought I , "thereby 1 s h a l l g l a d l y Get f r e e of t h i s f o r t y years ' chain." X I thought t h e y ' d he s t r a n g e r s aroun' me, But she's t o be t h e r e I Let.me jump out o' waggon and go back and drown me At Pummery or Ten-hatches Weir I r o n i c a l l y t h e o n l y c o n s o l a t i o n the poor o l d man has had i n g o i n g t o spend h i s l a s t days i n t h e workhouse i s t h a t he w i l l be separated, from h i s w i f e ! The i r o n y of f a t e i s concentrated' dramatic Irony extended t o t h e " t h e a t r e of l i f e . " The author and t h e reader regard t h e s p e c t a c l e of l i f e i t s e l f . In dramatic i r o n y t h e a u t h o r has c o n t r o l of t h e show, but i n t h e i r o n y of f a t e t h e e x h i b i t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by a power which cannot be commanded by him. The author and. t h e reader see l i f e i n a p a r t i c u l a r \my; t h e y observe i t as a show that can not be changed, The i r o n y of f a t e i m p l i e s a d e t e r m i n i s t i c view of l i f e and a s p e c t a t o r who b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s s u f f i c i e n t -l y w e l l - i n f o r m e d t o see t h e working of t h e power behind t h e 1, I b i d , p. 195. vox Id and t o see human a c t i v i t y as w e l l . T h i s i r o n y i s the poet's e x p r e s s i o n of h i s f a i t h i n the s u p e r i o r i t y of h i s own p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h h i s p h i l o s o p h y of. l i f e . I t may he regarded as h i s c o n c e i t i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t he has d i s c o v e r e d t h e t r u e meaning of t h e u n i v e r s e , w h i l e other people are not i n t e l l i g e n t or f o r t u n a t e enough t o p e r c e i v e t h e t r u t h . The p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e t h a t Thomas Hardy developed and t h a t he expressed i n such mature f a s h i o n i n The Dynasts len d s i t s e l f t o t h e use of t h e i r o n y of f a t e . The b a s i s i s h i s b e l i e f i n the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y of a l l t h i n g s , animate and i n a n i m a t e , t h r o u g h t h e f i b r e s of t h e Immanent, "This v i e w l e s s , v o i c e l e s s Turner of t h e Wheel"-'- and h i s r e a l i z -a t i o n t h a t t h e component p a r t s of t h e u n i t y regard them-s e l v e s as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . These l a t t e r " . .... ................d r s am T h e i r motions f r e e , t h e i r order ings supreme; Each l i f e apart from each, w i t h power t o mete I t s own day ,'s measures-; "balanced, s e l f complete, Though t h e y s u b s i s t but atoms of the/ One L a b o u r i n g t h r o u g h a l l , d i v i s i b l e from none." 2 "An i r o n i c e f f e c t of t r u l y overwhelming i n t e n s i t y i s produced, i n v i e w of t h e i r r e s i s t i b l e workings of t h e Autonomous W i l l , by the d e s c r i p t i o n s ' of men's e l a b o r a t e p l a n n i n g s , and d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , and purposes. The a c t o r s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l drama c o n s i d e r themselves f r e e indeed; yet t h e y are o n l y p l a y t h i n g s i n the hands of t h e W i l l . The speeches i n t h e E n g l i s h P a r l i a m e n t , t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s of m i n i s t e r s and p r i n c e s , the i n t r i c a t e web of mutual d e c e p t i o n by- l i e s , i n t r i g u e s , t r e a t i e s , and c o u n t e r - t r e a t i e s , .spun out over t h e whole of Europe, i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e a c t s of heroism !• The Dynasts., 2. I b i d / 0 . 7. p • 2. on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d , and s i m i l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a. supp-o s e d l y f r e e w i l l on t h e part of man, a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e course of event s, --what are t h e y but t h e movings of t h e t i s s u e s of one u n i v e r s a l B r a i n ? " ! Napoleon f e e l s the working of t h e W i l l , and yet i r o n i c a l l y , he b e l i e v e s t h a t he can determine events. Napoleon shows h i s d e t e r m i n a b l e v i e w i n a speech t o t h e Queen of P r u s s i a . "Know you, Py P a i r That I--ay, I - - i n t h i s deserve your p i t y . - -Some f o r c e w i t h i n me, b a f f l i n g mine i n t e n t , I f e r r i e s me onward, whether I w i l l or no. • My s t a r , my s t a r i s what's t o blame--not I I t i s unswervable J "2 Yet Napoleon, w h i l e he i s c o n s c i o u s of t h i s f o r c e , never-t h e l e s s i r o n i c a l l y r e s e r v e s . a s p e c i a l p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f i n t h e w o r l d . He b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s i n f l u e n c i n g h i s t o r y , not t h a t he i s merely working out t h e web of the Immanent W i l l . "What'--Is, t h e n , My scheme of years t o be d i s d a i n e d and/dashed By t h i s man's l i k e , or wretched, m o r a l coward., Whom you must needs f o i s t on me as one f i t Por f u l l command i n pregnant e n t e r p r i s e ! " - ^ The S p i r i t s t hemselves are no more f r e e than man i s . The S p i r i t of t h e Years reminds t h e b o a s t f u l S p i r i t S i n i s t e r of t h e f a c t i n t h e s e words, " T h i n k i n g t h o u - w i l l s t thou dost but i n d i c a t e . " 4 The S p i r i t of t h e Years has t o remind t h e S p i r i t - o f t h e P i t i e s c o n t i n u a l l y t h a t no i n t e r f e r e n c e can 1. Brennecke, E r n e s t , Thomas Hardy's U n i v e r s e . Boston 1924 p. 102. ~ ' ' 2. The Dynast s, p. 179. 3. I b i d , p. 57. 4. I b i d , p. 8 » have any r e s u l t at a l l , I r o n i c a l e f f e c t s a re a l s o produced by t h e use of t h e c r o s s - p u r p o s e s of human a c t o r s . Napoleon plans a g a i n s t t h e E n g l i s h g e n e r a l s ; N e l s o n p l a n s a g a i n s t Napoleon; Nap-oleon p l a n s a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r . There are c o u n t l e s s a n t a -gonisms and cro s s - p u r p o s e s i n The Dynast s, but t h e r e i s only one W i l l . That W i l l i s u n m i n d f u l ( a l i k e ) of Napoleon, of N e l s o n , and of A l e x a n d e r . The i r o n y i s t h a t t h e W i l l i s i n every human b e i n g , and t h e r e f o r e Hardy sees "Appearance and R e a l i t y as one and yet i n c o n f l i c t ." Si n c e t h e r e i s a p o r t i o n of t h e W i l l i n every person, t h e r e f o l l o w s another i r o n y . That i s , a l t h o u g h a man b e l i e v e s he can change h i s c h a r a c t e r , he cannot — "the a c t i o n of a man may change, b u t . . . h i s s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e , h i s c h a r a c t e r , remains what i t always was. 1 , 1 The i r o n y i s brought out v e r y c i e a r l y i n Tess of t h e D'Urber-v l l l e s . A l e c D' Urberv i l l e t h i n k s t h a t he has changed h i s na t u r e t h r o u g h h i s c o n v e r s i o n , but i t i s only h i s a c t i o n t h a t he has changed; h i s s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n remains e x a c t -l y what i t had been b e f o r e t h e c o n v e r s i o n . A r a b e l l a of. Jude t.he Qbsc_ur_e i s another example of a person who cannot change her n a t u r e . Even though she changes her a c t i o n and goes t o church , she never comes anywhere near changing her a n i m a l - l i k e n a t u r e . Thomas Hardy, as w e l l as 'Schopenhauer, " f i n d s t h e 1. Brennecke, E r n e s t , op. c i t . p. 107. 82 e s s e n t i a l u n i t y of freedom and n e c e s s i t y . I t i s a m i s t a k e t o speak of a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y ; f o r the nec-e s s i t y of an event i s always c o n d i t i o n a l upon i t s cause: only i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h i s cause i t i s ne c e s s a r y , but w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i t i s c a s u a l and a m a t t e r of chance. N e i t h e r i s t h e r e any a b s o l u t e chance. For even i t s queerest pranks w i l l w i t h advanc-i n g knowledge.be r e c o g n i z e d as necessary e f f e c t s of a, g i v e n cause, l i n k s i n t h e cha i n of cause and e f f e c t , and o n l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h i n g s which are not t h e i r cause do t h e y bear t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e c a s u a l . N e c e s s i t y and chance, t h e n , s p r i n g from one and t h e same root and are t h e two s i d e s of one and t h e same t h i n g . " 1 . The i d e a t h a t " n e c e s s i t y and chance" are t h e r e v e r s e s i d e s of t h e same c o i n i s c a r r i e d out i n % r d y ' s work. He sees t h e great u n i t y , t h e Immanent W i l l working out i t s p a t t e r n w i t h human beings and n a t u r e as i t s m o t i f s . The W i l l i s u n c o n s c i o u s and u n m i n d f u l of man's and n a t u r e ' s s u f f e r i n g s i n i t s b l i n d d e s i g n s . Each event has i t s cause, every human a c t i o n i s m o t i v a t e d by the person's c h a r a c t e r (the W i l l i n him) or by c i r c u m s t a n c e s (contfivedljby the W i l l ) , but t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e of t h e Immanent W i l l a l l o w s any com-b i n a t i o n of events and ci r c u m s t a n c e s .• These chance happ-enings seem, a t . t i m e s , t o be t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n of a m a l i c -ious i n t e n t i o n , but a c t u a l l y are only t h e e x p r e s s i o n of. t h e W i l l ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e . The f a t e f l n i g h t of t h e s i x t h of November i n The Return of t h e N a t i v e shows t h e i r o n y of t h e cu ha i n at i o n of t h e i n t e r w e a v i n g of a number of st r a n d s of t h e Immanent W i l l . -The weather i s f i t f o r a scene of s u f f e r i n g . " I t 1. I b i d , p. 89. .3 was a night which l e d t h e t r a v e l l e r 's thoughts i n s t i n c t -i v e l y t o d w e l l on n o c t u r n a l scenes of d i s a s t e r i n the c h r o n i c l e s of the w o r l d on a l l that i s t e r r i b l e and dark i n h i s t o r y and legend—the l a s t plague of E g y p t , t he ' d e ° t ruct ion of Sennacherib 1!? h o s t , the agony i n Get hsemane . 1 1 E u s t a c i a dec ides t o elope w i t h Wildeve because a. long t r a i n of circumstances has brought about her estrangement from Clym and she f e a r s that t h e r e i s no hope f o r a r e c o n c i l i a t -ion with. h i m . In a d d i t i o n , Wildeve has r e c e i v e d a legacy and renewed h i s s u i t . Wildeve is governed i n h i s d e c i s i o n by h i s love of E u s t a c i a and E u s t a c i a . ' s and h i s own d e s i r e t o leave t h e h e a t h . ' The plans are arranged at a f i r e l i g h t e d by Charley,, who d e s i r e s t o humour E u s t a c i a . The f i r e on t h e preceeding F i f t h of November had p l e a s e d E u s t a c i a and he hopes that t h i s one w i l l . Clym, urged by Thomasin, w r i t e s t o E u s t a c i a and attempts t o r e c o n c i l e t h e i r d i f f e r -ence?' . E u s t a c i a ' s grandfather i s t h i n k i n g that i t would have been b e t t e r i f E u s t a c i a had not marr ied Clym. Susan Fun such i s preparing a waxen image t o melt b e f o r e the f i r e . She t r u s t s that as the waxen image mel ts E u s t a c i a . ' s power over her c h i l d w i l l end. Each of these happenings has i t s prepared i o n ; i t i s t h e cu l a i n at ion of a t r a i n of events . Even D i g g o r y V e n n ' s presence i s not pure chance. He has b u s i n e s s on Egdon Heath each year at t h i s t i m e ; was he not present t h e previou s year on t h e =same date? But that a i l t h e s e t r a i n s of c i rcumstance should te rminate in the happenings of the S i x t h of November i s nothing more or l e s s 1, The Bet urn of the N a t i v e , p . 419, t h a n t h e Immanent W i l l ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s . The i r o n y i s t h a t t h e W i l l has caused each of t h e s e o c c u r r -ences, and then accepts no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e union of them P a r t of t h e W i l l i s a p p a r e n t l y working a g a i n s t t h e whole. In t h e i r o n y of f a t e or ci r c u m s t a n c e , "we see human endeavour th w a r t e d and. human happ-i n e s s d e s t r o y e d by t h e a c t i o n of ci r c u m s t a n c e , t h e e x p r e s s i o n , t h a t i s , of t h e i n d i f f e r e n t power t h a t •rules t h e w o r l d , u s i n g i t must be remembered, as i t s i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e p a s s i o n s , or s t u p i d i t y , or t i m i d i t y of human b e i n g s . Circumstance u s u a l l y means 'Man. 1 , 1 T h i s i s expressed i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n between Jude and Sue. "'We must conform!' she s a i d , m o u r n f u l l y . ' A l l t h e a n c i e n t w r a t h -of t h e Power above us has been v e n t -?*. ed upon u s , -His poor c r e a t u r e s , and. we must submit. There i s no c h o i c e . We must,, I t i s no use f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t God ! ' ' ' I t i s only a g a i n s t man and s e n s e l e s s circum-s t a n c e , ' s a i d J ude." 2 Many i r o n i c a l e f f e c t s a r e produced i n Hardy's books by t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n of a certein background and human a c t i o n . Por' i n s t a n c e , as Jude i s watching Sue at the church s e r v i c e t h e m u s i c a l accompaniment i s d e f i n i t e l y i r o n i c a l . , "He had not l o n g d i s c o v e r e d t h e exact seat t h a t she occupied • when t h e c h a n t i n g of t h e 1 1 9 t h Psalm, i n which t h e c h o i r was engaged, reached i t s second p a r t , In quo c o r r i g e t , t h e organ changing t o a p a t h e t i c G r e g o r i a n t u n e as t h e s i n g e r s gave f o r t h : 'Wherewithal s h a l l a young man cleanse h i s way?.' It was t h e v e r y q u e s t i o n t h a t was engaging Jude's a t t e n t i o n at t h i s , moment. What a wicked w o r t h l e s s f e l l o w he had been t o g i v e vent as he had done t o an an i m a l p a s s i o n f o r , a woman, and a l l o w i t t o l e a d t o such d i s a s t r o u s consequences; t h e n t o t h i n k of p u t t -i n g an end t o h i m s e l f ; then t o go r e c k l e s s l y and. get drunk. The great waves of p e d a l music tumbled round 1. C h i l d , H a r o l d , op. c i t . p. 5 2 . 2. Juds_ t h e Obscure, p. 432. 85 t h e c h o i r , and, nursed on t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l as he had he en, i t i s not w o n d e r f u l that he c o u l d h a r d l y b e l i e v e that t h e psalia was not s p e c i a l l y set by some r e g a r d -f u l .Providence f o r t h i s moment of h i s f i r s t entry i n t o t h e solemn b u i l d i n g . And yet i t was t h e o r d i n a r y psalm f o r the twenty-fourth evening of t h e month." 1 There i s a s i m i l a r i r o n y a f t e r L i t t l e Pat her Time has hanged the chid ren and h i m s e l f . "When t h e house was s i l e n t , and they could do n o t h i n g but await t h e c o r o n e r ' s i n q u e s t , a subdued, l a r g e , low v o i c e spread i n t o tire a i r of t h e room from behind the heavy w a l l s at t h e b a c h . 'What i s i t ? ' s a i d Sue, her spasmodic b r e a t h i n g suspended, 'The organ of the C o l l e g e C h a p e l . The organis t p r a c t i s i n g , I suppose . I t ' s the anthem from, the s ev ent y - t h i r d P s a l m : T r u l y God • i s l o v i n g unto I s r a e l . ' " 2 The i r o n y of Pate or N e c e s s i t y i n H a r d y ' s work i s summed up i n h i s idea of t r a g e d y . Tragedy, he says , i s "the WORTHY encompassed by the INEVITABLE. "3 SOME EPPECT3 OE IRONY ON THOMAS HARDY'S WORK' Our Old. Friend D u a l i s m A l l h a i l t o him, t h e Prot ean I A tough old chap i s h e : Spinoza ' and the Monis ts cannot make' Iiim cease t o be . We pound him w i t h our "Truth, S i r , p lease I "and q u i t e appear t o st i l l h i m : He laughs ; holds Bergs on up, and James; and swears we cannot k i l l . h i m . We argue them pragmatic c h e a t s . " A y e , " says ' he . " T h e y ' r e d e c e i v i n g : But I must l i v e ; f o r flamens plead. I am a l l t h a t ' s worth b e l i e v i n g . " 4 1, I b i d , p . 110i 2, I b i d , p . 425« 3, Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The L a t e r Years of Thomas Hardy •1692-1926. op. c i t , , p . 14. 4, Winb er"Words, p. 127, oo Tlie p e r c e p t i o n of i r o n y s t i m u l a t e d Thomas Hardy t o w r i t e some of h i s most b e a u t i f u l .poetry. The i n s p i r a t -i o n of one of h i s best poems In t i m e of t h e B r e a k i n g of N a t i o n s I came from t h e discernment of i r o n y . Mrs, Hardy say " I t was at t h i s t i m e and spot (1870, C o r n w a l l ) t h a t Hardy was s t r u c k by the i n c i d e n t of t h e o l d horse , . h a r r o w i n g t h e a r a b l e f i e l d i n t h e v a l l e y below, which, when i n f a r l a t e r y e a r s i t was r e c a l l e d t o him by a s t i l l b l o o d i e r war, he made i n t o a l i t t l e poem of t h r e e v e r s e s , , , " ! An a n a l y s i s of t h e poem w i l l d i s c l o s e t h a t i t s b a s i s l i e s I n an i r o n y . I Only a man har r o w i n g c l o d s 'In a slow s i l e n t walk W i t h an o l d horse t h a t stumbles and nods H a l f a s l e e p as t h e y s t a l k . I I Only t h i n smoke without flame From t h e neaps of couch-grass ; Yet t h i s w i l l go onward t h e same Though Dynast i e s pass. ' I l l Yonder a maid and her wight Come w h i s p e r i n g by: War's an n a l s w i l l f ade i n t o n i g h t Ere t h e i r s t o r y d i e . 2 1915. Hardy observed t h e i n c i d e n t d u r i n g t h e F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n War, but t h e poem d i d not t a k e shape unt i l t h e Great War r e c a l l e d i t 10 h i s mind. The World War i n t e n s i f i e d the i r o n y t h a t Hardy p e r c e i v e d i n the d i f f e r e n c e between what most people b e l i e v e t o be t h e r e a l l y great and what he b e l i e v e d i t 10 oe, Hardy's theory- of a r t i s - c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h h i s i r o n y . The i n t e r w e a v i n g of t h e two i s shown i n the f o l l o w -1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e Emily,The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hard 1840-2. C o l l e c t ed Poems. p. 511, ' " * "18 91,"p, ' j r>4t owing quotat i o n : "There i s enough p o e t r y i n what i n l e f t ( i n l i f e ) a f t e r a l l t h e f a l s e .romance has been abstracted t o make a sweet p a t t e r n : e.g. the poem by H. Coleridge: "'She i s not f a i r t o outward v i e w . ' •"So, t h e n , i f Nature's d e f e c t s must be looked i n t h e f a c e and t r a n s c r i b e d , whence a r i s e s t h e AKT i n p o e t r y and n o v e l w r i t ing? w h i c h must c e r t a i n l y show a r t , or i t becomes merely m e c h a n i c a l r e p o r t i n g , 1 t h i n k t h e a r t l i e s i n making t h e s e d e f e c t s t h e b a s i s of a h i t h e r t o u n p e r c e i v e d beauty, by i r r a d i a t i n g them w i t h 'the l i g h t t h a t never was' on t h e i r s u r f a c e , but i s seen t o be l a t e n t i n them by t h e s p i r i t u a l e y e , 1 , 1 At another t i m e Hardy s a i d : "Art i s a d i s p r o p o r t i o n i n g — ( i . e . d i s t o r t i n g , throwing out of p r o p o r t i o n ) — o f r e a l i t i e s , t o show more c l e a r l y the features that matt er i n t h o s e r e a l -i t i e s , which, i f merely c o p i e d or r e p o r t e d invent o r i -a l l y , might p o s s i b l e be observed, but would more prob-a b l y be overlooked..,," 2 Thomas Hardy, l i k e other . I r o n i s t s , " i s impressed by t h e i n c o n g r u i t y of t h i n g s . He p e r c e i v e s t h e p r i n c i p l e ' s and r u l e s and laws t h a t appar-e n t l y govern a f f a i r s n a t u r a l and human, but he i s a l l t h e more aware of t h e i r i n s u f f i c i e n c y . . .The I r o n i s t accepts the chaos. He has no preconceived hierarchy of v a l u e s t o guide, him i n s e l e c t i o n and r e j e c t i o n . A l l t h i n g s are of e q u a l v a l u e . "3 Hence i t f o l l o w s t h a t many events end other t h i n g s t h a t are usuo.lly regarded as of l i t t l e importance are t r e a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t and endowed w i t h more importance than i s usual. Hardy's work, s i n c e he i s an i r o n i s t , t h e r e f o r e Vaccentuates the a c c i d e n t a l , incomplete, and r e l a t i v e n a t u r e of t h e experience which i t r e c o r d s . "4 S i n c e Hardy was p r e o c c u p i e d with i r o n y , he l e f t 1. Hardy, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hard-, iJMzimi, p.. i ^ i . ~ ~ — — _ . — — -2, I b i d , p. 299' 3, C h e v a l i e r , Haakon M., .op. c i t ., p. 183. 4. I b i d , p. 213, tire r e a der t o make h i s own s y n t h e s i s of h i s p h i l o s o p h y , even as he l e f t t h e reader t o gather t h e d e t a i l s of h i s d e s c r i p t i o -ns and t o f a s h i o n a p i c t u r e from them. Hardy i n s i s t e d re-peat edly t h a t he had not a harmonious system of philosophy, hut n e v e r t h e l e s s he believed t h a t h i s i m p r e s s i o n s were v a l -u a b l e . The e f f o r t t h a t a reader has t o put f o r t h when he reads Hardy's work gives i t a magnet ism that i t would not otherwise p o s s e s s . Each reader comes t o have a sense of c r e a t i o n ' a f t e r reading h i s w r i t i n g t h a t draws him t o • read again and again. Or as Hardy h i m s e l f s t a t e d the f a c t , t h e r e i s an "att ent iveness u s u a l l y engendered by understatement and r e s e r v e . "1 1. The Return of t h e Hat i v e , p. 12 ^ BIBLIOGRAPHY AD ere ombre B a b b i t t Beacli Bergs on JBirney Brennecke Brennecke, But cher C h e v a l i e r Chew Child, Hardy ^  Hardy Hardy Hardy, Hardy Hardy Hardy Hardy Hardy Hardy,. Hardy Hardy Hardly Hardy Hardy Hardy Hardy Hardy Hardy Sedgewick Sedgewick .1 - l e t n c e l l e s , Thomas Hardy, a c r i t i c a l study, London, 1912 . , I r v i n g , Rousseau and Romanticism, Hew York, 1919. ( p . 240-26?) , Joseph Warren, Technique of Thomas Hardy, Chic-ag 0, 19 2 2 , , He n r i, Lav. ght e r , L 0 n d on, 1913» , E a r l e , E n g l i s h Irony b e f o r e Chaucer, r e p r i n t e d from t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . V I , Ho, 4, J u l y , 1937. , E r n e s t . L i f e of Thomas Hardy, Hew York. 1925. U n i v e r s rfcudy of j - — y H. ^  2 4* $ , _ A r i s t o t le.'s Theory of P o e t r y and P i n e , E r n e s t , Thomas Hardy 1 s a poet's mind, Boston op ... -, O * \J , ^ . - . ~ — * w v ^ v J ^.-Xi. V- -L' A r t wit ha c r i t i c a l Text and t r a n s l a t i o n of The P o e t i c s , London, 1902. ,Haakon M. , The I r o n i c Temper, A n a t o l e Prance and h i s t i m e , Hew York, 1932. ,S.C., T, Hardy, Poet and N o v e l i s t , New York, 1929 ,Harold, Thomas Hardy, New York, 1916. ,Mrs, Florence E m i l y , The Hardy 1840-1891, London, ,Mrs, F l o r e n c e E m i l y , The Hardy 1892-1928, London, 1930 Thomas, ,Thomas, ,Thomas, ,Thomas, ,Thomas, /Thomas sE a r l y L i f e of Thomas 1928. . L a t e r Years of Thoma3 1928 C o l l e c t e d Poems, London, The -Dynasts, London, ,1926. F a r from t h e Madding Crowd, London,1927, A Group of Noble Dames, London, 1928. Jude t h e Obscure, London, 1923, A Laodicean ;. A s t o r y of today, Hew York, L i f ( The 1 s L i t t l e I r o n i e s , New Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e , York, I.923, Hew York, "i or- FT , Thomas ,Thomas 1905. /Thomas /Thomas /Thomas /Thomas /Thomas ,Thomas ,Thorn, as ,Thomas , Thomas , G, G, Feb.; 1913. ,G.G., Of I r o n y , e s p e c i a l l y i n Dram Alexander l e c t u r e s i n E n g l i s h at t h e U n i v e r -s i t y of Toronto 1934) Toronto, 1935. A P a i r of Blue Eyes, London,. 1927 • The Return of t h e N a t i v e , London, 1927. Tess of t h e d ' U r b e r v i l l e s , London, 1925. The Trumpet Major, London, 1896, Under t h e Greenwood Tree, London, 1928. The W e l l - b e l o v e d , New York, 1905. Wes s ex T a l e s , Lond on, 1928. Winte r Wo rd s, London, 192 8. The "Woodlanders , London, 1920 . Dramatic I r o n y , U n i v e r s i t y Magaz i n e , : (the J. H. K., I r ony, an Hist o r i c a 1 Int r oduct ion , London, 1926. E r a n c i s McD. C„, Element of Irony i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , London, 1926. R. M, , Romanticism and the Romantic School i n Germany, Hew York, 1910. (ch.X) 

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