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The justification for teaching colour 1967

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THE JUSTIFICATION FOR TEACHING COLOUR by BARBARA GAIL SHELLY B. Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBlJITTEb IN PARTIAL FULFILMEI*T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE bEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Fine Arts Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of Br i t i s h Columbia ' September 1967 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that th._; L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r ep re sen ta t i ve s It i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on . Department of uTTiTR W W , T?«/»n1 t y nf Ednftfltioii Ths U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada ABSTRACT This thesis attempts to justify an intensive course i n colour for Fine Arts students at the university and art school. The teaching of colour i s jus t i f i e d from a theoretical and a practical standpoint. In the f i r s t section, the various disciplines concerned with the subject of colour are examined for evidence of colour's effect on the l i f e of the human organism. This evidence i s compiled from reports of research i n educational and psychological journals, from the theories en* discussions available in books on the physical and psychophysical evaluation of colour and the physiology and psychology of colour vision. The hypothesis that colour influencea man's l i f e pattern is substantiated in this compilation. The phenomenon of colour i s not only a significant aspect of man'B environment, i t is also an element of art. The responsibility for i t s teaching l i e s with the art educator. The second hypothesis that the presentation of colour to university and art school students is incom- patible with practical needs i s supported by an evaluation of content- porery pedagogy of colour in V ancouver. Interviews with teachers of Fine Arts in the Faculties of Arts an* Education, The University of Bri t i s h Columbis, in the Vancouver School of Art ani the Vancouver Art Gallery revealed that for the most part, the method of teaching colour perpetuates the instructor's own background in colour wheel theory and. the mixture of pigments. Interviews with student colourists, and questionnaires d i s t r i - buted among Fine Arts majors in the Faculty of Education revealed that the theoretical presentation of colour has l i t t l e application to the practical needs of art students. This thesis concludes with ec. proposed revision in the approach to colour with students of Fine Arts. The outlined course i s designed to develop the a b i l i t y to manipulate colour through problem-solving experi- ences. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTROOUCTION . . 1 PART I--THB EFFECT OF COLOUR ON MAN 2 CHAPTER I, THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF COLOUR 3 II. THE VISUAL STIMULUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Physics 6 Psyche-physics . 7 III. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF PIGMENT IN VISION 10 Vision via Pigment 10 Variations in Sight Due to Pigment 12 IV. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR VARIABLES IN THE RESPONSE TO COLOUR 15 Developmental Stage of Colour Perception . 15 Intensity of Experience 17 Acquire^ Response . 18 V. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR THE DIRECT RESPONSE TO COLOUR 20 The Physical Effect 20 Emotional Effect 24, VI. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR ASSOCIATIVE ASPECTS 0? COLOUR 29 Colour in Language 29 Colour Symbolism . . . 32 The Development of Colour Symbolism . . 35 Individual Colour Symbolism 37 CHAPTER P* G E V I I . THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR " THE LINK BETVflSSN COLOUR VISION AND THE OTHER SENSES . . . 40 Taste 40 Synesthesia 4 2 • V I I I . THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR VISUAL PHENOMENA- 45 General Adaptation . . . . . 45 Local Adaptation • 47 Lateral Adaptation 5° Non-A*eptive Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 CONCLUSION TO PART I 58 PART II—EVALUATION OF THE PRESENT SITUATION 59 CHAPTER I. INTERVIEWS WITH TEACHERS 66 I I . INTERVIEWS WITH STUDENTS 67 III. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 7 0 CONCLUSION TO PART II . . 77 THE PROPOSED COURSE 7 8 APPENDIX A. INTKRVIETf—TEACHERS OF ART AT THE UNIVERSITY AN^ ART SCHOOL 81 APPENDIX B.- INTERVIEW—STUDENTS OF ART—FACULTY OF EDUCATION, THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. . 8 2 APPENDIX C. STUDENT SURVEY ON COLOUR 83 APPENDIX D. PROPOSED OUTLINE OF COLOUR COURSE 86 GLOSSARY 9 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY 94 LIST OF TABLES TABLE ' PiGE I. Student Scores on Definitions • 72 II. Student Consideration of different Aspects in the StuGy of Colour 7k LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE • PAGE • 1. Brightness Contrast 51 2. Colour Contrast 52 • • \ ' v i i ACKNOWIJEPG-S.El'JTS I am indebted by my advisor. Professor Sam Black, for his guidance throughout this undertaking. His enthusiastic support sustained ray effort. The valuable advice of the committee members, Professor Elmore Ozsrd and Professor Philip Penner, is sincerely appreciated. Finally, I wish to thank a l l those persons who granted time for interviews and Questionnaires. Their cooperation permitted, an assessment of the present state of the teaching of colour in Vancouver. INTROnUCTION The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to j u s t i f y a more iatensive and extensive teaching of colour to art atudents at the university or art school, and, having done t h i s , to propose a suitable course i n colour. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n is in two parte. T ne f i r s t section presents research from history, physics, psychophysics, physiology, an' psychology i l l u s t r a t i n g the interdependence of man and colour. The second part assesses the preaent pedagogy of colour in one i n s t i t u t i o n to determine whether or not a need for r e v i s i o n e x i s t s . The t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l studies provide substantial evidence that there i s a place for the proposed course. The outlined procedure for teaching colour i s an experimental, problem-solving method, based on the p r i n c i p l e that colour i s the most r e l a t i v e medium i n a r t . T he purpose of the course i s to promote a s e n s i t i v i t y to colour i n the environment, and to c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s awareness i n developing dexerity i n the personal use of colour. 2, PART I TEE EFFECT OF COLOUR ON MAN The ensuing eight chapters w i l l attempt to substantiate the hypothesis that BAR i s affected by colour. Chapter I discusses the role of colour i n relation to man's technological development. Colour as the objective physi- cal stimulus for vision i s the topic of Chapter II. Chapter III points out how the physiological functioning of various parts of the visual receptor depends on pigments. For example, the pigments in the rods and cones trans- form radiant energy into nerve activity. The psychological aspects of col- our are contained in Chapter IV through Chapter VIII. These aspects include the v a r i a b i l i t y of the conscious response to colour, the effect of colour on the emotions and physiology of man, the evidence of man'a learned associa- tions with colour, the link between colour vision and other senses, and fi n a l l y , the deception inherent in the visual sense i t s e l f . It i s hoped that this theoretical compilation w i l l indicate that man is effected by col- our in diverse and limitless ways. CHAPTER I TEE HISTORICAL ROLE OF COLOUR Many centuries ago, the value of minerals, plants, and animals was par- t i a l l y determined by the colours they produced. The a r t i s t i c expression of early man was limited in colour to indigenous flor a , earthen colorants, and charcoal. As his desire for colour expanded, man discovered that minerals could be ground and mixed with a vehicle such as fat. Because orange-red cinnabar was a desirable hue, mercury sulphide became a, valued mineral. Similarly, azurite and malachite crystals of copper carbonate, and lapia l a z u l i increased in worth. In ancient Tyre the gland of the murex snail was esteemed because thousands of anails were required to produce a aaall por- tion of purple dye. This scarcity i s directly related to purple's preroga- tive as the hue of royalty. The craving for colour also promoted explore-: tion for aew sources anr" trading connections. During the age of exploration new colours were brought to Europe from the East. Spanish conquistadores returned from the New 7/orld with a vivid carmine red, derived from the cochineal. As man'8 technology a&vancedt colorants emerged as an important com- modity. In I858, quite by accident, William Henry Perkin created the f i r s t anilene dye, Parkin's Mauve. S^nce then, many synthetic colorants have been produced from chemicals such as anthracene, cobalt phosphate, cobalt arsen- ate?, barium, and phthalocyanine. The discovery of new colorants becomes economically essential when standard sources for a hue are depleted. A new colorant must be found to replace the cadmiuias being exhausted by the space programme. Scientists strive to produce colorants to f i l l diverse demands, 4. euch as fast ayes, •washable inks, and non-poisonous pigments. Chemical re- search profits from man'a search for new colour resources. Piscoveries involving colour have frequently led to technological ad- vancement. Certain plsnts and substances have been found to react d i f f e r - ently to light of opposite wavelengths. Plants will perish in rooms painted certain colours, although light, heat and nourishment are ample.* The oxi- dation of sodium sulfate is retarded by violet light, but accelerated by reddish-yellow light. E. H. Land, whose invention of the Polaroid camera employed principles of colour technology, is now proceeding from Bering's statement, "one and the same ray can be seen, according to circumstances* in a l l possible hues." Land has produced green from a red f i l t e r plus black and white. He submits that colour vision depends not only on the stimulus of wavelength and intensity, but also on whether or not the pat- terns presented are acceptable renditions of the objects. For example, brown csnnot be perceived un t i l contrast, pattern, and preferable interpre- 3 tation of areas of light as surfaces of objects are e l l present. Land's investigations w i l l no doubt enlighten the puzzle of colour perception, making possible further strides in nan's continuous probe for the new and the better. In summary, colour has been an important factor in the evolution of human technology. T^e desire for colour has provided the motivation to ^Hilton Brown, "Color," Lecture (Chicago* Art Institute of Chicago, October 8, 1964), 2 Ewald Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, trans, Leo M. Hurvich and Dorthea Jameson (Cambridge, Mass.t Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 289. 5. explore ana investigate. Man's understanding of the chemical and physical properties of colour and t h e i r inherent working p r i n c i p l e s has been c r u c i a l in auch discoveries as= photography, spectrophotometry, and the laser- beam. 6 CHAPTER II THE VISUAL STIMULUS Physica The physical basis of colour is light, and l i f e is inconceivable with- out light. In addition to his dependence on colour for l i f e itself, man is effected by colour in specific ways. Physics is the one scientific disci- pline considering the subject of colour from an objective viewpoint. The physicist studies the stimulus qualities of colour, without any reference to an observer. The physical characteristics of colour, namely wavelength and intensity, determine the manner in which colour reaches the human receptor.1 Wavelength, the first physical property of colour, determines hue. T^e visible spectrum is produced by wavelengths between 390 mu and 710 nu, F. A. Taylor writes, "The spectra of natural sunlight is the basis on which a knowledge of colour for the practical colourist is founded, an* it will thus be realized that a sound knowledge of colour theory based on scientific 2 principles is the only sure guide to the artist . . ." Because light tra- vels in waves, i t behavas in specific ways affecting human vision. Refrac- tion, diffraction, diffusion, and polarization a l l determine the manner in which colour is presented before the retina, but they are seldom acknow- ledged by man as affecting him to the extent that they do. The countless fleil Brearley, Interview" (Vancouver: B. C. Research Council, Feb. 15, 1967). A.-Taylor, Colour Technology (London: Oxford University Press, I962), p. 6. phenomena such as the colour of the sky and the transparency of water occur because of wavelength behavior. Similarly, reflection and absorption, per- mitting colour to be seen as a surface, depend on tha wavelength composition of light. The predominant wavelength in the illumination alters the wave- length distribution reflected from the surface. Red paper illuminated by green light will appear black because the green light lacks red wavelengths for the colorant to reflect. Determining the hue of a surface is just one way that wavelength affects colour vision. The second physical property of colour is intensity, that is, the rate of the incidence of energy of each wavelength reaching the visual receptor. The intensity necessary, to make a wavelength visible to the human eye is adequate between 2j00 mn and 700 nu. Although i t is theoretically possible to increase the intensity of invisible wavelengths in order to make them visible, the amount of energy required to make 1500 mu visible would cook the eye.^ Thus, intensity, the second characteristic of colour, affects man by determining which wavelengths will be visible, and how much light each wavelength will radiate. Paychophysics Before the effect of these physical properties can be realized, man must respond to colour. This involves the realm of paychophysics, where the reaction of the visual mechanism to a specific set of stimulus condi-' 3jemes R. Gregg ana Gordon G. Heath, Tjje Eye and Si^ht (Boston: p. C. Heath and Co., 196l|), p. 119. 8. tlons i s investigated. Man's reactions to the three dimensions of c o l o u r - hue, saturation, and brightness—are separately measured. F i r s t , hue refers to a scale of perceptions ranging from red through yellow, green and blue. Psychophysicista state that although wavelength changes regularly from one end of the spectrum to the other, the perception of hue does not change accordingly. T Qe a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h hue peaks at 50° W e^fl again at 570 mu, then diminishes towards the ends of the spectrum. A l l reds beyond 650 mu look the same to the human observer.^ Saturation, the second dimen- sion of colour. Is related to the purity and strength of the hue. Psycho- physicists; f i n d that the ends of the spectrum have more i n t r i n s i c saturation than the center. The amount of wavelength required to produce a hue from white l i g h t decreases as the i n t r i n s i c saturation increases.-* As the t h i r d dimension of colour, brightness i s the mental evaluation of luminance.^ : Psychophysicsts studying the r e l a t i v e amounts of energy i n each wavelength region csn predict that the yellow region of the spectrum w i l l cause the most luminous sensation i n man's v i s u a l receptor. Hue, saturation and brightness cannot be separated from wavelength and i n t e n s i t y , their physical determinants. In summary, the physical concept of colour, charecteri2ad by wave- length and i n t e n s i t y , determines the quality of l i g h t reaching the v i s u a l receptor. The reaction of the eye to the pattern of radiant energy can be measured i n separate terms of hue, saturation and brightness. Colour Vregg, p. 116. •Slbld.. p. 118. Ibi d . , p. 116. affects: man through these three dimensions. From now on, when the noun 'colour' i s used, i t refers to the conscious reponse, the perception of colour. S t r i c t l y speaking, a l l visual appearance depends on colour. 1 0 . CHAPTER III THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF PIGMENT IN VISION Vision via Pigment The eye floes not see the energy distribution of light directly. It sees only the relative effectiveness of the light on i t s own receptor sys- tem. The evaluation of radiant energy in terms of visual perception rests squarely on the properties of the human eye. Support for the hypothesis that colour is important to the human organism l i e s in the examination of the visual ioachanism. Pigments play an indispensable role in colour vision •The radiant energy penetrating the cornea i s . . . • modified in spectral composition by pigments (lens, macula), transformed to nerve activity by pigments (rods, cones), and most of i t is f i n a l l y absorbed by pigment in the choroid coat."*- The f i r s t pigments necessary for colour vision are contained in the rods and cones of the retina-;. The photosensitive material used by the rods to absorb radiant energy i s called 'rhodopsin'. Because rhoflopsin is bleached by light, the rods are insensitive during the day. Sailors often prepare for night watch by wearing red goggles hslf an hour before duty, to allow the rhodopsin time to become active. T aere i s some speculation that the rods act as the blue channel in colour vision, because night vision i s blind to a l l hues but blue. "We ourselves create the silver hue of moon- light by looking at i t with our colour-blind r o d s . R h o d o p s i n , then, i s *Deane B. Judd. Color in Business. Science, and Industry (New Yorkt. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., I963), p. 13. 2 Wolfgang von Buddenbrock, The Senses (Ann Arbor: Th© University of Michigan Press, I 9 6 4 ) , p. 8 0 , 11. the known pigmented component of the rods. The work of Weld indirectly indicates the existence of one cone pigment, •iodopsln', but th© existence 3 of others i s speculated. Scientists theorize that the cones are composed of pigments corresponding to the hues to which they are sensitive, T ne retina i s divided into colour zones according to the distribution of rods and cones (cones predominate i n the fovea! centralis, rods in the peri- phery). The sensation of most chromatic colour appears to change from strong red to weak yellow to pure gray during the slow movement of the stimulus from the fovea to the periphery.** Buddenbrock observes that i n 5 order to see a star, a person must glance to one si<3e for rod vision.. The second pigment necessary for colour vision i s the 'melanin' in the choroid coat. This brownish-black pigment absorbs radiant energy to pre- vent the image cast by the lens from being overly degraded by stray light. Haemoglobin, another pigment, assists i n the absorption of light. The 'macula lutes', composed of brownish-yellow pigment called •xanthophyll', i s loceted on the retina. It protects the central cones from overstimulation by short wave energy, known to cause long-lasting 6 after-images. T ne understimulation supersensitizes the cones to short wave energy, so that the uniform f i e l d of vision i s never interrupted by the macula spot. In addition to preventing uncomfortable after-images, 3judd, P . 17. ^Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of A f r i c a , T^e Science of Color (Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 1963), p. 103. 5 ' -Buddenbrock, p. 80. ^Judd, p. 15. 12. this vslueble pigment also Increases the resolution of fine detail. Finally, pigments contribute to colour vision by tinting the lens of the eye. The lenses of children are relatively pigment-free. With in - creased age, a melanin-type of yellowish-brown pigment develops in the lens, acting as a yellow f i l t e r preventing short wave energy from reaching the retina. This, lik e the macula lutea, protects the retina from over- stimulation by ultraviolet rays. Colour, then, in the form of pigment, is v i t a l to the visual process. Pigments in the rods, cones, lens, macule lutea, haemoglobin, and choroid coat enable vision to take place. Variations in the kind and amount of pigmentation cause discrepancies in colour vision. T^e f i r s t variation in s ight caused, by a pigment i s re- lated to age. Although the melanin in the lenses of older people prevents overstimulation of the retina by ultraviolet rays, the macula lutese pro- vides the same service. In persons of advanced age, when both factors are operating, the sensitivity to violet and blue light diminishes. In colour- matching tasks, older people have been found to be less sensitive to blue. Industries requiring employees to discriminate between hues are alert to this unavoidable decline. In general, the quality-of colour vision increa- ses to the age of twenty-five yearst the decrease which becomes pronounced Q by the age of sixty-five can be pa r t i a l l y attributed to the pigmentation. . Ralph. Evans.. An.Introduction to Color (New-Yprk:; John W^iey end Sons,-Inc., I96I), p. 99, Robert W. Burnhem, Randall M. Hanes and C. James Bartleson, Color: $ Guide to Basic F c c t a enfl Concepts (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Variations i n Sight Due to Pigment 1963). P. 91. 13* There are three variations in colour vision independent of age. T Qe f i r s t i s caused by the variation in size of the macula lutea. Evans found that the difference in colour matches performed by observers was due to the 9 amount of macula pigmentation present in the foveal region. Burnham, Hanes and Bartleson write, "The extent and distribution of macular pigmen- tation vary irregularly ana significantly from one person to another, and these variations can cause considerable individual differences in colour v i s i o n . " ^ T ne second ageless factor contributing to discrepancies i n the quality of colour vision i s the lack of melanin in the choroid coat. Albinos de- pend on the inadequate haemoglobin to absorb the stray light within the eyeball. Consequently, retinal images are diluted by the unabsorbed light: the albino suffers from low visual acuity and photophobia, T ne third ageless factor i n individual colour vision differences is colour-blindness, or to be more correct, 'colour deficiency*. Judd says that colour-blindness results from cones containing the wrong pigment. Colour deficiency is explained through the three-receptor theory. Assuming that normal vision i s trichromatic, deficient colour vision can be broken down into categories of mono-chromacy, dichromacy, and trichrcmacy, depend- ing on whether the subject uses one, two or three primaries to produce a colour match. Many people never realize their own colour vision deficiency unless i t i s discovered in a medical examination, in the Ishihara Test, or in a course teaching the use of colour. 9 10 'Evans, p. 199. Burnham, Hanes and Bartleson, p. 74© To summarize, from the physiological standpoint, the pigmented parts of the eye assume a large r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for colour v i s i o n . Individual differences i n colour v i s i o n can also be attributed to pigments. V a r i a - tions are so p l e n t i f u l that the perception of colour on t h i s basis alone must be considered a t o t a l l y r e l a t i v e phenomenon. 15 CHAPTER 17 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR VARIABLES IN THE RESPONSE TO COLOUR T^e preceding two chapters have explained how colour affects man in general. Colour is the physical stimulus for vision. Pigments comprising various parts of the human receptor modify the spectral composition of lighV absorb light, an* transform light into messages received by the brain. Thus the effects of colour can be enumerated in physical and physiological terms, applying equally to any human organism possessing colour vision. Colour's major effect on man, however, is psychological. Of paramount concern in probing the effect of colour on the human organism is ttu individual con- scious response of man. "Visual perception is defined as the integrated re- sponse modified or interpreted in terms of the stored physiological remnants of past experience which are brought to bear in that situation."* This definition emphasizes the individual element of colour perception. The psychology of colour accounts for variations in the physical stimulus, in the physiological condition of the eye, and in the psychological state of the observer's mind. Variations occurring as a result of sge, the intensity of experience, and the acquired response, are noted carefully in the psycho- logical evaluation of colour's effect on man. Developmental Stage of Colour Perception The influence of colour on the human varies according to age. Reaction •̂Robert W. Burnham, Rendall M. Hanes, and C. James Bar tie son, Color: a. Guide to Basic Fact3 and Concepts (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 19635. P. 49. 16. to colour begins at a comparatively primitive stage in perception. Pa- tients who have been blind since birth, and who have gained sight through an operation for cataracts, are reputed to perceive colour more readily than simple form. Patients recovering from injury to the occipital lobe may be able to see colour as a soft, hazy fi l m before they can see colour as the surface property of an object. Research by Staples shows that ba- bies can distinguish between red? yellow, blue end green at fifteen months. The colours are effective as stimuli in that order.^ Children under three years of age respond immediately to shape, whereas between the ages of three end six years, they are more attracted to colour.** Faber Birren says small children are colour dominant because colour is a more immediate ex- perience than form. Studies indicate that colour dominates over form in sorting s k i l l s . Kindergarten children w i l l sort objects of different shapes and colours by their colour.- Elsewhere, Birren states, "Basically speaking, colour is more emotional in i t s impression than form. This is particularly true of young children."^ Lindberg concludes that the tenden- cy to respond to colour decreases with increasing age at the elementary "TW. D. Vernon, "The Perception of Colour," The Psychology of Perception. Penguin Books (Great Britain: C. Nicholls and Co. Ltd., 1962), pp. 82-83. ^Ruth Staples, "The Response of Infants to Colour," Journal of Experi- mental Psychology. XV (1932), p. 119. ^Ruaolf Arnheim, Art and. Visual Perception (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965), p. 32i|. •% aber Birren, New Ifarizons in Color (New York: Rinehold Publishing Corporation, 1955) 1 P» H0» ^Birren, "Psychology of Color for the Schoolroom," Nation 1s Schools. LVII (April, 1956), p. 92. 17. school level. The majority of studies show humans being less affected by colour as they grow into adulthood. Intensity of Experience Earland Bopst says, "Color i s a dominant idea in the consciousness of everyone." In actuality, some people have intense reactions to colour, some are hardly^affacted at a l l . The intensity . . . varies because of the differences i n affec- tive sensitivity to colors as well as because of differences i n the colors themselves. Thus, some artists and others pay a lot of attention to colors and refer to them by such terms as sober, hot, heavy, dry, juicy, voluptuous, sensual, insipid, brutal, tranquil, discordant. Such terms suggest that such people are affected by colors more than most.^ Most people take colour for granted unless their attention i s focused upon an isolated colour in an experiment. Although they can supply an affective judgment, this response cannot be regarded as typical of their normal reac- tion. The intensity of experience i s thought to be mainly a native re- sponse, but i t can be influenced by learning, end i t can fluctuate with changes i n attention and mood. Colour preference can also influence man's response to colour. Intensive reactions are expected from highly liked or disliked hues, compered to those e l i c i t i n g e neutral feeling. ?Bengt J. Lindberg, Experimental Studies of Colour and Non-Colour A t t i - tude in School Children end Adults (Copenhagen; Levin and Munksgaaxd, 1938V p. I46. 8 Harland Bopst, Color god Personality (New York: Vantage Press, I962VP.29. ' . q - 'Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (V/ashington, D.C: Optical Society of America, I963), p. 160. 18. Acquired Response Repeated experiences with a colour usually result i n en automatic c o l - our association. A dyer, for example, may prefer fast colorants to fugi- tive colorants. In a test for colour preferences, he w i l l respond more favourably to the sample corresponding to his fast dye, despite the fact that the psychologist does not intend this association to take place. As- sociation can play a major role in determining the pleasantness or unpleas- antness of a colour. Both the mention of a colour name end the actual visual perception of a colour are capable of producing a connection with a past cognition. The stimulus and the idea connect simultaneously and seem to be one. This probably accounts for the negative response an airline company received when its aircraft interiors were painted brown and yellow. The combination reminded passengers of air-sickness, and they promptly be- came i l l . Another ai r l i n e o f f i c i a l attributed the reflection of the bulk- head green onto tha passengers' faces to their feelings of sickness. Walter Sargent writes, "Our responses to colours are bound up with associ- ations of other experiences."* 0 Hospital rooms are no longer painted white because patients associate white with s t e r i l i t y . Mrs. P. Gouldstone, a member of the Faculty of Education, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, installed a mural in a Manchester children's hospital during World War I I . Before she was permitted to execute her design, she met with doctors, psychiatrists, and psychologists, who eliminated a l l substantial areas of *°Walter Sargent, Enjoyment and TJsg of Colour, quoted by Robert F. Wilson, Colour and Light at Work (London: Seven Oaks Press, Ltd., 1953)* p. 66. 1 9 . black, purple ana red from her design because of the associations they might arouse. The connections r e s u l t i n g from past experience can be very personal, or common among many people. The scope i s l i m i t l e s s . In summary, although colour i s affecting every human, th i s effect varies between individuals, according to the stage of th e i r colour percep- t i o n , the int e n s i t y of response, and the influence of past learning on judgment. 20. CHAPTER V THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR THE DIRECT RESPONSE TO COLOUR The ensuing discussion i s based on tha assumption that colour can evoke a direct response from man. No matter •what degree of intensity accompanies this response, i t i s independent of associations with past experience. Arnheim writes, "The effect of color i s much too direct and spontaneous to be only the product of an interpretation attached to i t by learning,"* The direct effect of colour on the human organism can be studied as i t pertains to physiology and emotions, Th? Physical Effect One of the most common physical effects of colour i s the feeling of warmth evoked from reds and yellows, and coolness evoked from blues and greens. Although the comfort zone i s defined in terms of temperature, humidity and air movement, colour i s also an important consideration. For example, patrons f e l t c h i l l y in a cafeteria painted blue. Management redecorated In pink, held the temperature constant, and the complaints 2 ceased. Wilson t e l l s how he changed the colour scheme of the weaving shed in Yorkshire, only to be confronted by workers returning from their ^Rudolf Arnheim, Art and v l s u a l Perception (Berkeley; University of California Press, 1965), p. 326. 2 Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The ••Science- of .Color (Washington, D.C.j Optical Society of America, 19&3)» P» 168. 21, holidays, demanding the temperature of the work room be raised.^ Speculation exists between the associative explanation and the physio- logical explanation of the apparent temperature of colour. Two of the ex- planations for the apparent thermal effect of colour on body comfort are associative i n nature. One hypothesis states that because f i r e i s warm and ice i s cold, people associate red with heat end blue with cold. Another theory states that the sunny, yellow sky provides warmth, whereas the sun- less, blue-gray sky obstructs radiation and i s therefore associated with eoolness. The apparent temperature of colour has been included in this chapter, because in the opinion of the writer the physiological explanation is more significant. In 1900 in Paris, Fere found that muscular power and blood circulation are increased by coloured lights in the following sequence of hue; blue least, through green, yellow, orange and red. This research has since been validated many times. An increase or decrease in blood c i r - culation could certainly contribute to feelings of warmth and coolness. In addition to warm and cool colours affecting the temperature of the body, they are also said to affect muscular activity. Nakshian finds warm colour conducive to muscular activity, whereas cool colours promote mental exercise. People exposed to large areas of red overestimate periods of time, but underestimate time in blue and green surroundings.** Birren writes, •Physically red i s exciting and increases restlessness and nervous tension."^ -^Robert F. Wilson, Colour and Light at Work (London: Seven-Oaks Press, Lta.. 1953). P» 75- h Jacob S. Nakshian,. "The Effects of Red end Green Surroundings-on Behav- ior," Journal of General Psychology. XXXII (December, 19&20, p. l 6 l , 5 Faber Birren, Color Psychology and Color Therapy (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1950), p. 258. Blue Is used in hospitals to minimize babies' crying ana patients* anxiety because i t i s tranquillizing. The football coach who keeps his team in a blue room during half-time to relax, and then delivers the pep talk in a 6 red anteroom i s u t i l i z i n g this knowledge of colour to affect his players. Other examples of the physical effect of colour are not nearly as abundant as temperature, blood circulation and muscular activity, but they are more sensational. One of the most incredible examples of the power of colour i s related by Bernard Shaw. Among my. many medical acquaintances was a country doctor, now dead, whose children a l l died within a few. days of their births, leaving him p r o l i f i c but childless. In. desperation he tried s senseless experiment. He took the last baby into the garden and shaded i t in a l i t t l e tent of Turkey red. That baby survived. When I last heard of him from his father, he was flourishing in the prime of l i f e in the Antipodes. A spot of pleasant colour had made a l l the difference between l i f e and death where the most intimate doctoring had f a i l e d . In contrast, a man who was blind u n t i l the age of thir t y become physically 8 i l l when he f i r s t saw yellow. The fact that cool colours promote sental activity, and T?srm colours promote physical activity can be compared-to the correlation between per- sonality and colour preference. Generally speaking, people who are less cultural© extroverted, and active prefer the saturated hues,-.and the par- ticular hue of red. People who are introverted, sensitive, self-aware, thought-oriented, and more culturally mature prefer tints, as well as blue and green. D. Grant Ross, "Psychology of Color Preference in Projection Slides," Journal .of the Association of Medical Illustrators. No. XVI ( I965). pp. lA-15. 7 Bernard Shaw, "Aesthetic Science,• published for the Council of Indus- t r i a l Design (London* Sun Engraving Co. Lta., n.d.), p. 143* R̂. Latta, Br i t i s h Journal of Psychology. I, quoted by R. A. Houstoun, Light end Colour (Toronto: Longman's, Green and Co., 1923), p. 167. 23. Dr. Kurt Goldstein says that colour has a strong physical effect on the emotionally unstable. The stimulation occurring as a result of expo- sure to a red environment.is particularly detrimental. The well-known neurologist describes a patient who stumbled when she wore a. red dress. Blue and green clothing restored her equilibrium to a point of being almost normal. Dr. Goldstein writes, "It is probably not a false statement i f we say that a specific color stimulation is accompanied by a specific pattern of the entire organism."9 The authors of Human Senses and Perception con- cur with this statement, "There is indeed psychological justification for maintaining that the quality of a particular color sensation represents a 10 state of sensory equilibrium." In research with cerbellar diseases, Dr» Goldstein had his patients look at coloured paper while they held their hidden arms outstretched. When they viewed yellow, the arm controlled by the defective brain center would deviate 55 c21* from the midline. Red caused a deviation of 5° cm., white—45.cm., blue—42 cm., green—40 cm., and closed eyes caused a deviation of 70 cm. Goldstein concluded that the colours corresponding to long wavelengths go with expansive reaction, while colours corresponding to short wavelengths accompany constriction.* 1 7John E . Gibson, "How Color Affects Your L i f e , " Today's Health..XL (September, 1962), p. 23. 1 0G. M. Wyburn, R. W. Pickford and R. J. Hirst, Human Senses and Percep- tion (Toronto; University of Toronto Press, 1964), p. 105. **Kurt Goldstein, "Some Experimental Observations Concerning the Influ- ence of Colors on the Function of the Organism," Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation. XXI (1942), p. 149. Emotional Effect 2k- Colour evokes en emotional response in the human organism. . . . a l l affective responses from visual stimuli must depend upon color because visual perception i s impossible without some visual stimulus pattern, which, in turn, i s impossible without the colors that are i t s elements. No one can ques- tion the re a l i t y of affective responses to visual stimuli be- cause they are often of the most violent an* unmistakable nature. Therefore, no one can question a fundamental depen- dence of affective responses upon c o l o r . 1 2 Comparing the response to colour with the response to shape, Rorschach found that cheerful people identify colour at the expense of contour, whereas depressed people most often react to shape. People exhibiting a colour dominance are open to external stimuli, sensitive, easily i n f l u - enced, unstable, disorganized and given to emotional outbursts.* 3 A l - though Rorschach offered no explanation of the correspondence between perceptual behavior ana personality, Schachtel points out that the experi- ence of colour resembles that of affect or emotion. He says that with both emotion and colour the human is a passive observer of stimulation. With shape, a more active response is required, Psychologists at Branaeis University placed normal subjects in a gray room to find that the drab environment made them c r i t i c a l and fault-find- ing. They developed physical symptoms of headache and fatigue, and emo- tional t r a i t s of discontent, i r r i t a b i l i t y , monotony, and hostility.*-5 l^The Science of Color, p. ISO. *3Art and Visual Perception, p. 324. ^ I b i a . . p. 325. ^Gibson, p. 23. 25. Goethe contends that yellow-red e l i c i t o an emotional response from a few people. "I have known men of education to whom i t s effect was intolerable If they chanced to see a person dressed in a scarlet coat on a gray, cloudy day."1 6 When normal people react to colour with a change i n emotions, i t i s understandable that colour evokes a strong affective response from the mentally unstable. Accounts dating back to 1875 relate how a man afflicted with a taciturn delirium became gay after spending three hours i n a red room, how a violent case i n a straight-jacket waa calmed in one hour by blue light, and how another madman was completely cured after one day's 17 exposure to violet light. Of questionable validity, these accounts provide evidence that the effect of colour on man was being investigated in the late nineteenth century. In validated cases, the evidence of response to colour by mentally unstable patients i s very pronounced. Bengt J. Lindberg 18 observes that subatable types hBve the greatest colour attitude. On the other hand, persons who dislike colour or f a i l to respond to i t are likely to be repressed individuals. "Failure to repond seldom goes hand i n hand 19 with a well-adjusted personality." 7 Birren states that severe cases of depression frequently reject colour, preferring a gray world end disdaining 16 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theory of Colour, trans. E. L. Eastlake (London: Murray, I8lj0), p. 776. 17 R. A. Houstoun, Light anf\ Colour, pp. 162-I63. 18 Bengt J. Lindberg, Experimental Studies of Colour end Ni->n-Colour A t t i - tude in School Children and, Adults (Copenhagen: Levin and Munksgaard, 1938), P. U7. 19 John E. Gibson, "How Color Affects Your L i f e , " p. 64. 26. a colourful one. According to Birren, green represents a psychological withdrawal from stimuli, suggesting escape from anxiety. Yellow promotes 20 infantile outbursts, and red is associated with maniac tendencies. Closely akin to the relationship between colour and emotion i s the power of colour to induce mood. Dr. Robert R. Ross of Stanford University a l l i e s colour with dramatic intensity and emotion. Blue, purple, and gray are beat used to enforce the mood of a tragedy, whereas red, orange and 21 yellow are appropriate for comedy. In motion pictures colour is often used to support and sustain mood. Herman. Darewski conducted some experi- ments to determine the effect of colour on his musical compositions. He looked at light through a variety of coloured gelatines and tabulated his mood reactions. Thereafter, he frequently employed gels to produce the mood appropriate for his compositions. • • .colour has put me in the required state of mind—glvan me the desired conception or else quickened,or enlarged con- ception—for practically a l l the tunes-which I have written Lately. . . . Looking, through a deep blue strip of gelatine made me 'feel' the exact music which had previously eluded me, . . . the result was what I regard as being one of the best bits of composition I have ever done. 2 2 20 Faber Birren. Colort a Survey in Words and Pictures (New Yorki Univer- si t y Books, Inc., I963), pp. I87-I9O. 2 1 I b i d . . p. 210. 22Herman Darewski, "Composing by Colour," Pearson's Magazine (December, 19l6), quoted by R. A. Houstoun, p. l 6 l . 27. Schall found that the influence of colour on the strength of mood and emo- tional tone is general and r e l i a b l e . ^ Other investigations between col- ours and mood names have been carried out by Beck and Dunbar,"*^ Ross and Karwoski, and Odbert and Eckerson2-5 with the same significant agreement. Then there i s the remark of the witty Frenchman, who, according to Goethe, •pretended that his tone of conversation with Madame had changed since she changed the color of the furniture in her cabinet from blue to crimson." 2^ In brief, psychologists are investigating the direct physical and emo- tional impact of colour on man. Physically, colour can make man feel warm and cool; i t can increase and decrease his blood circulation and muscular activity. Colour i s intimately connected with sensory equilibrium, and with constrictive and expansive movement. The response to colour is also mani- fested in emotions and in mood. A positive reaction to colour i s considered emotionally healthy, whereas a failure to respond to colour i s characteris- t i c of emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . Gray causes depression among normal subjects, and is preferred by the depressed. Colour and mood correlate highly. Warm hues correspond to happy, optimistic moods, while cool colours are quieter in tone. Colour i s used to establish and sustain the dominant mood in 2 3 K . Warner Schail, "Scaling the Association between Colors aid Mood- Tones," American Journal of Psychology. LXXIV (I963), p. 273> Also, see "A Q,-Sort Study of Color-Mood Association," Journal of Projective Techniques. XXV (I961), pp. 341-346, by the same author. 2^Harry S. Beck and Ann Dunbar, "The Consistency of Color Association to Synonymous Words," Journal of Educational Research, LVIII ('Sept. 196/1), p. 43. 2-*The Science of Color, p. 165. 26 Art and Visual Perception, p. 331. 28. drama, and motion pictures. Every human experiences some degree of direct response to colour. This response, manifested i n emotions and physical functions, constitutes a noteworthy influence on the l i f e pattern. 29. CHAPTER VI THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR ASSOCIATIVE ASPECTS OF COLOUR The suggestive power of colour, arising from associations, affects man strongly. " . . . the processes of learning and conditioning are con- stantly producing colour associations with various feelings, emotions and meanings."1 Two aspects of associative colour will be discussed; f i r s t , col- our in language, and secondly, colour symbolism. Colour in Language Marion Milner writes, "Clearly the subject of colour is, on the evi- 2 dence of language alone, very closely bound up with feelings." According to Wilson, colour words came into our language to express emotions.3 T^e use of colour words in the Present English language is frequently accom- panied by an emotional connotation. A review of colour vocabulary reveals how the communication of feeling depends to a considerable extent on the associations with colour. Connected etymologically with the Sanscrit 'rudhira', meaning blood, red ia associated with the stern qualities and the passions of man. To be caught 'red-handed* implies a feeling of guilt. When angry, people 'see ^Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (STashington, D.C.: The Optical Society of America, I963J, p. 99. 2Marion Milner, On Not Being Able to Paint, fwd. Anna Freud (London: William Heinemann, Ltd., 1957), P. 157. 3 Robert F. Wilson, Colour in Industry Today (New Y0rk: The Macmillan Co., i960), p. 35. 3 0 . - i red", when showing a net l o s s , t h e i r position i s describes as ' i n the red*. Confusion and delay are termed 'red tape*, and a diversion is c a l l e d a •red herring'. A spe c i a l day i s a 'red l e t t e r day', and the celebration may take the form of 'painting the town red*. References to i n t o x i c a t i o n , p r o s t i t u t i o n , and Communism often contain the word red. Originating as the name for the colour of the sky, the c e l e s t i a l q u a l i - t i e s of blue s t i l l figure i n expressions such as 'out of the blue*, 'a bolt from the blue*, and 'once i n a blue moon*. An a i r of superiority surrounds the * blue ribbon', the 'royal blue blood* and the 'bluestocking', while *true-l>lue' i s the Scottis h description of l o y a l t y . At the other end of the scale i s the depression of * blue Monday', 'feeling blue', and the i n - a c t i v i t y of *bluing time'. Inexplicable paradoxes accompany the mention of blue. Derived from the same root as grow, green i s associated with freshness, newness and youth. T aken to the extreme, i t can mean inexperience, e.g. 'greenhorn.'. Immaturity i s understood i n the expressions 'green wood' and 'green bear*. Immature emotions such as envy and jealousy ceus9 a person to 'turn green'. Aptitude, however, i s assumed i n the gardener with a 'green thumb*, and the person who i s confronted with the 'green l i g h t ' . The connotations of the word green o s c i l l a t e between inexperience and con- fidence. Yellow has a less than enviable emotional impact i n the English lan- guage. "Looking with a jaundiced eye* i s an expression of disapproval. Yellow i s often associated with cowardice, e.g. 'yellow streak', or with low newspaper morality, e.g. 'yellow journalism'. 31. "That's mighty white of you," and "white flower of a blameless l i f e , " praise considerate actions and high morality. White enforces the unpleas- ant s i t u a t i o n as w e l l . People t e l l 'white l i e s ' , and are burdened with the •white elephant'. 'White-lipped' i s a description of rage: 'white as a sheet' i s a reaction to fear. A 'white-livered' person i s a coward, and a 'whitewash' i s a cover-up. Black has unfavourable connotations. I t i s associated with wickedness, e.g. 'black-hearted', and with disaster, e.g. 'Black Death', 'black Friday', 'black cats', 'black despair', and 'a black outlook'. An outcast i s a: 'black sheep'. Poor behavior i s indicated by a 'black eye', a 'black mark* or a 'black record'. Secrecy i s implied i n 'black-balling', and i n 'black- m a i l ! . Additional word associations are worthy of attention. To be angry i s to be 'browned o f f , and the a f t e r - e f f e c t i s sometimes cal l e d a 'brown taste'. Contemplation i s referred to as a 'brown study'. Expressions of •purple passion' and 'purple with rage' indicate peaks i n emotion. 'Purple patches*are the high points i n a 'highly coloured' or emotional statement. An optimist sees the world through 'roso-coloured glasses', and believes •every cloud has a s i l v e r l i n i n g . " He anticipates & 'rosy future*. *In the pink' refers to superb condition. The g l i b orator i s 'silver-tongued', but •silence i s golden'. 'Golden opportunities', 'golden memories* and 'golden days of youth' are recalled with nostalgia. In summary, . . . color i s a power i n the communication of ideas. I t i s d e f i n i t e l y engaged i n our simplest experiences; we use I t constantly and we know so l i t t l e about i t . 32. k In her book, The World I Live In. Helen Keller indicates the importance of colour association for the blind. Without color . . . li f e to me would be dark, barren, a vast blackness. . . . Thus through an inner law of completeness my thoughts are not permitted to remain colorless.-* The associations and emotions aroused by the use of vocabulary in the English language influence man through his speech and writing. Although colour words in other languages will have different connotations, they will undoubtedly serve the same purpose, that of implementing the communication of emotions; "Color is used in daily expression to heighten and clarify meaning." Colour Symbolism Tbja associative power of colour is evident in symbolism as well as in language. There are many instances where these categories overlap, where a colour word becomes a symbol, e.g. 'Red' signifies a member of the Commu- nist party. Just as the emotions associated with colour words vary from one. language to another, so the symbolic meaning of colour fluctuates be- tween cultures. For instance, the purity symbol of the brido is white in %arland Bopst, Color and Personality- (New York; Vantage Press, 19o2), P. 15. •̂ Quoted by F aber Birren, Color: a Survey in Words and Pictures (New York:. University Books, I n c , I963), p. 190. 6 Donald M.- Anderson, Elements of "Design (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961), p. 185. 33. western nations, yellow in China and Israel, and red in India* "Colour 7 means exactly what society says i t means." In most cases, symbolic use of fl colour adheres closely to the inherent characteristics of each colour. Symbolism created by the church is more arbitrary. Yellow, the colour nearest the sun, is characterized by splendor, radi- ance, warmth and happiness. In the shape of a c i r c l e , yellow spreads out from the center, markedly approaching the spectator. Yellow, emblematic of the sun, i s the hue of the ancient German sun god, Baldur, In eccl e s i a s t i - cal symbolism, saffron denotes the confessor. When blue, green or black ere added to yellow, the in t r i n s i c optimism reverses to pessimism. T ne so- called 'cuckold' colour has been the sign of the bankrupt, the traitor, the criminal, the Jew, and the plague. Red is glowing, solid and masculine. Light red i s gracious and charm- ing, whereas- dark, intense red is dignified, Re<3 i s a symbol of charity and the life-giving qualities of blood. It i s associated with sacraments i n the Greek, Roman and Anglican churches, and symbolizes martyrdom for fai t h i n Occidental religions. Red can signify beauty, bashfulness and love. On the other hand, i t is symbolic of strength and bravery (Hanni- bal's shield). Reel can represent f i r e , anger, hate, war and danger. Graves claims i t is favoured by anarchists and terrorists as an emblem of 7 Anderson, p. I83 , 8 The characteristics of each colour have been derived from Goethe and Kandinsky, who have been instrumental i n describing the impressiveness and expressiveness of each hue. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theory of Colour, trans. E. L. Eastlake (London: Murray, 18Z|0), pp. 763-8OI. Wassily Kandinsky, On the Spiritual in Art (New York: Solomon R. Gug- genheim Foundation for • the'•Museum of Non-Objective Painting, trans. Hilda Rebay, I 9 4 6 ) , Pp. 61 -62. 3k. defiance and violence. 7* T^e symbolic function of any colour can vacillate with the connotations of the situation or object in question. Tj|8 symbolism of purple varies. On the cool side, violet i s with- drawn, hard and melancholy. Appropriately, i t is the colour of mourning in China, and the symbol of sorrow, suffering and penitence of the saints i n Christianity. Violet is also said to be the colour of older i n f e r t i l e women. Reference to Queen Victoria's declining reign in the nineties as the 'mauve decade' i s apt. The wanner purple is more optimistic in impres- sion, and i s associated with pomp, regality, wealth, and rule. Blue is negative, drawing the observer into i t . It i s spacious, seri- ous and calm. Blue is considered to be a feminine colour, symbolizing ma- ternity, faithfulness, and chastity. The influence of the church has led blue to symbolize truth and f a i t h . Green i s satisfying, beneficial, passive and res t f u l . In Christianity green is symbolic of hope, the resurrection, and everlasting l i f e . Pale green symbolizes baptism. White represents a paradox because on one hand i t i s the integration of a l l colours, and therefore symbolic of supreme fulfilment, while on the other hand, i t i s the absence of hue, snd therefore of l i f e , thus symbol- izing the emptiness of the dead. Hebbel once wrote in his diary, "We freeze i f we see a white mass, we shiver before a white figure. Snow is white. We think of ghosts as being white." 1 0 Melville's memorable description of 9 7Maitland Graves. The Art of Color- and Design (Toronto; McGraw-Hill. Book Co., Inc., 1951). P. 4°5» 1 0Martin Koblo, World, of Color. An Introduction to the Theory and,'Use of fiolpr fa "Art.' trans. Ian F. Finlay (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., I963), P- 19. 35. the panic and t e r r o r accompanying the white whale i n Moby Pick i l l u s t r a t e s the psychological power of the absence of c o l o u r . 1 * C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , black i s solemn, subdued and depressing. In addi- t i o n to symboliaing mourning, i t s i g n i f i e s night, secrecy and e v i l . In the case of black, as with the other colours, symbolism and colour words re - volve around the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the colour i n question. The Development of Colour Symbolism A few examples o f colour symbolism w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how colour has long been a part of man's concepts. Of the four elements c o n s t i t u t i n g the Greek concept of matter, earth was green, f i r e was red, a i r 7/es yellow, end water was blue. During the Elizabethan era, i t was customary to compare the four major hues with four human temperaments. Elizabethans spoke of sanguine yellow, c h o l e r i c refl, phlegmatic green end melancholy blue. Another ex- ample of colour symbolism occurs i n the medieval t r a d i t i o n of heraldry* E a r l y i n the development of heraldry, each man chose h i s i d e n t i f y i n g c o l - our, s i g n i f y i n g a v i r t u e , which was k n i t into a design worn over h i s armour or on h i s s h i e l d . Later, i t became the king's prerogative to assign armo- r i a l bearings and colours to reward valour. In t h i s way, red became the a t t e s t e d colour of courage. The notion of a s t a i n on one's escutcheon de- r i v e s from the punishment of incorporating an abased colour into the coat of arms of a knight. £ Another form of e a r l y v i s u a l symbolism was tha ^Herman M e l v i l l e , Moby p i c k (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962), pp. 198-203. 1 2Thomas H. Wolf, The Mag,lc .ofM C o l o r . I l l u s t r . Ned S e i d l e r (New York: The Odyssey Press, I96I1), p. 19. 36. custom of painting actor's faces i n the Chinese theatre. Through a long t r a d i t i o n , c e r t a i n colours and designs came to symbolize the personality of the character. Body decoration, sand paintings, and hex designs a l l employ the symbolic use of colour. Colour symbolism has always pervaded man's l i f e . When man began to notice that colour symbolism was consistent i n a group of people with s i m i l a r customs end learning, he realized i t could be employed f o r a b e n e f i c i a l purpose. He considered the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of colours?, and set about making his own symbols. The colours of t r a f f i c l i g h t s were o r i g i n a l l y chosen for d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y . Bright l i g h t s are most e a s i l y seen, but where i n t e n s i t i e s are kept uniform, red l i g h t s are easiest to recognize, followed by green and yellow. Red i s used for the most pertinent aspect of t r a f f i c c ontrol, stop l i g h t s . People have learned to associate red with the command to stop, so that the "mere per- ception of the stimulus csn suffice to set o f f the fear response."^ In V)kk Faber Birren collaborated with du Pont to create a colour safety code for industry. He u t i l i z e d the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of colour to best advantage. Yellow, the most luminous colour, denotes stumbling or f a l l i n g hazards, such es low, beams or an a l t e r a t i o n i n f l o o r l e v e l . Orange ca r r i e s the message of attention an* danger, end designates acute hazards l i k e l y to cut or shock. Green, the combination of yellow's 'attention' and blue's 'caution', i s the colour of f i r s t aid equipment. Red, the most i n s i s t e n t , shouting colour, i s used to identify f i r e alarms and apparatus. In industry, caution signals are usually blue, while t r a f f i c control and 13 JThe Science of Color, p. 166. 37. housekeeping are governed by white, gray and black. Men like Birren incor- porate the characteristics of colour into effective codes of colour com- munication.*^ Factory workers gradually become conditioned to respond to these colours as safety measures. This is how the colour code becomes sym- bolic of warning sgainst various hazards. Safety, then, whether in industry, or in traffic control, is in pert dependent upon colour. The characteristics of the colour, including the vi s i b i l i t y factor, are considered prior to symbolic codes, but through con- tinued association the colours become symbols of utmost efficiency. For instance, following the introduction of the du Pont safety code, the U. S. army Service Forces reported that the frequency of accidents In some gov- ernment plants f e l l from a? rate of 1)6.14 to 5«5°". Iu o n e Quartermaster Depot, disabling injuries were cut from 13.25 to 6.99. The colour employed in the safety code installed in the New, York Transit System was considered the most important factor in reducing the frequency of accidents 2j2.3/2 over a period of 18 months.1^ Individual Colour Symbolism Some color situations e l i c i t considerable agreement in emotion- al response because of the underlying similarities in custom, learning and association. On the other hand, many individual differences in emotional responses; to color are ascribable to individual differences in environment and association, 1" *^Faber Birren, Color Psychology and Color Therapy (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1950), P. 259. ^Robert F. Wilson, Colour JLn Industry Today, pp. I3I-I32. 18 The Science of Color, p. 166. 38. Colour symbolism can be a very personal matter. On of the few places in art with eny symbolic colour consistency i s the religious paintings of the Middle Ages. Objects and figures assume their significance through their colours, e.g. Judas is portrayed in yellow. In the realm of creativity, colour seldom has one meaning. Seuret saw gaeity i n warm hues, calmness in 17 cool hues and sadness in dark hues. Wnere Gaugin thought yellow symbo- lized fear, his contemporary, van Gogh, said i t symbolize hope. Here van Gogh describes his symbolic use of colour in painting. I exaggerate the fairness of hair, I take.orange, chrome, dull lemon-yellow. Behind his head, in place of the ordinary wall of the room, I paint i n f i n i t y . I make a simple background of richest blue, as strong as the palette can produce. In a letter to his brother Theo, van Gogh wrote, In my picture of Night £gfe I have tried to express the idea that the cafe i s a place where one can ruin one's self, run mad, or commit a crime. So I have tried to express as i t were the.powers of darkness in a low drink shop, by the soft Louie XV green and malachite, contrasting with yellow green and hard blue-greens, and a l l this in an atmosphere like a devil's furnace, of pale sulphur. 9 In this aggressively simple language the reader sees and feels the strong imagery intended in the use of colour. T^e cojanunication of colour sym- bolism is direct. 17 Birren, Color: a Survey in Words and Pictures, p. I85. l 8Quoted by Koblo, p. 18. ted by Graves, p. 3I18. 39- In summary, words ana symbols contain major associations with colour. Emotions are expressed by colour vocabulary, and messages are conveyed by colour symbols. Both are & prevalent and v i t a l part of communication in our society. The artist's symbolic use of colour enhances his kind of communication i n a forceful manner. Considering the prevalence of colour in language and in everyday symbols, the importance of man's associations with colour cannot be overstated. 4 0 CHAPTER VII THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR TEE7 LINK BETWEEN COLOUR VISION AND THE OTHER SENSES Colour is intimately connected to the senses other then sight; to touch, smell, taste, and hearing, as well as to certain mental concepts. Inasmuch as colours are warm and cool, heavy and light, colour i s aligned with touch. As far as smell i s concerned, red, orange, and pink are asso- ciated with sweet odors. These examples of the sensory connection to col- our are followed by startling connections in the realm of teste and hearing. Teste Colour affects the appetite. Consumers in Bri t i s h Columbia became aware of this connection when oleomargarine was coloured yellow to resemble butter. Seles increased substantially. Few people realize that butter i s naturallyvhite in winter, and is coloured to please the customer. Further, this colouring Is carefully controlled because too light a yellow does not appeal to the appetite, whereas too deep a yellow makes the butter appear rancid. If the skin of en orange in injected with an even rich orange dye, the orange w i l l s e l l better. Psychological studies of colour's appetite appeal reveal a specific food palette. "Although not a l l persons w i l l 'feel' the same about colors or have the same reactions, by and lerge there are common denominators worthy of attention in the food industry."* Red- Vaber Birren, "Color and Human Appetite," Food, Technology. XVII (ilay, 1963). P. 45. ku orange and orange arouse the most agreeable sensations. Peach, pink, tan, brown, yellow end green also stimulate the appetite. Appeal to the appetite also depends on variety. A meal consisting of steamed sole, maehed potatoes and cauliflower, served on a white plate, followed by rice pudding and a glass of milk would be lesa than mouth-watering. A manufacturer of choco- late candy learned that sugar coating in a variety of hues, a l l of the seme flavour, sold better than one hue. The appeal of foods not only depends on their colour, but also on the colour of the packaging and display f a c i l i - t i e s , Green-blue i s rated the most favourable background colour &r food. Birren points to one instance where a school cafeteria doubled the sale of salads by putting them on green plates. T nus, the role played by colour in the appetite appeal of food i s established. Colour has a direct relationship to the taste of food, Researchers have found brown chocolate has a stronger chocolate taste than white choco- late when the subject can see what he is eating, but there i s no difference in flavour when the subject i s blindfolded. The introduction of new food colours has been known to f a i l completely. People dislike the flavour of pink and green bread used in dainty sandwiches, whereas colouring in cakes, frostings, and cookies i s acceptable. The most outlandish test of the re- action to unfamiliar colour in food was conducted by S. G. Hibben, whose dinner party i s now famous. Although the food was excellent, many guests lost their appetites, and some became, violently i l l . The reason? The steaks were coloured whitish-gray, the celery was pink, the salads were b i r r e n , p. 47. 2»2. blue, the peas were black l i k e caviar, the milk was "the unwholesome color of blood," the coffee had " s i c k l y yellow tinge," and the peanuts were s c a r l e t . ^ Colour i s a determining factor i n the appetite appeal and the taste of food. Synesthesia; Another connection of colour with the senses occurs i n less prevalent instances of synesthesia. The a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between primary modes of sensation develops with age. When the sensory l i n k s of infancy p e r s i s t into later l i f e , one kind of stimulus i s l i k e l y to arouse imagery of another quite spontaneously. Colour and taste, odor, touch 8nd hearing have a, f o r - mal connection i n t h i s phenomenon. " I t appears that s t i m u l i of d i f f e r e n t sensory modes, v i s i o n , hearing, etc., are somehow linked together, so that i n 'coloured hearing', for instance, auditory s t i m u l i are perceived: i n con- junction with images of colours so v i v i d that they almost resembls percepts. The connection between colour and oiher sensations or percepts i n the phenomenon of synesthesia- i s not d i r e c t l y due to colour. Rather, colour i s the sensation that arises simultaneously with the other sensations or per- cepts. Therefore, synesthesia cannot be considerad as having an e f f e c t on the human organism unless the organism depends to some degree upon the addi- t i o n a l imagery. Indeed, t h i s i s the case i n people who experience synes- thesia:., because they come to depend on t h i s enrichment of t h e i r perception. A case i s reported of a man who had been blind since the age of eleven. 3 ^Birren, p. 45. % I a i t l a n d Graves, The A r t o f Color an*, paslgn (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.,, 1951), P. 408. 43. Before he became blind the connections between colour, touch and sound had maintained their original childhood link. This continued after his loss of Sight. . . . colours appeared to be an integral part of his percep- tions of . . . sound and touch. . . .Their meaning . . • was not f u l l y apprehended u n t i l the appropriate colour imagery had developed.-^ Similarly, composers who possess the synesthesic faculty depend on the con- nections between sound and colour. Scriabin associated the keys from C\to F sharp with hues from red to purple.^ Composer Liszt supplemented his conducting directions with such pet phrases as "More pink here." "I want 7 I t a l l azure." "This i s too black." People possessing the synesthesic aptitude find i t helpful in remembering the music of certain composers, and the sounds of certain instruments. After describing the fastidious colour connections experienced with letters and words, one women wrote. Occasionally, when uncertain how a word should be spelt, I have considered what colour i t ought to be, and have decided in that way. I believe this has often been a great help to me i n spelling, both in English and foreign languages. •̂ R. H. Wheeler and T. T). Cutsforth, "Synaasthssia i n the Development of the Concept," Journal of Experimental Psychology. VIII (1925), p. 149* 6 C. S. Myers, "Two Cases of Synaesthssla." B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology. VII ( - I ? p . 112. "^Quoted by Faber Birren,. Color Psychology; and Color Therapy (Toronto; McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1950), p. 163. ®B. A. Houstoun, Light and Colour (Toronto: Longman's, Green and Co., 1923). P. 169. kk. Even though some people are dependent on the synesthesic connection of colour with other sensory perceptions, so few people possess this aptitude that i t cannot be considered ££ s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the t o t a l effect of colour on the human organism. For the majority of the population, however, the sense of taste i s intimately connected with colour v i s i o n . Colour has been shown to aff e c t both the appetite and the flavour of foods. 45. CHAPTER VIII THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COLOUR VISUAL PHENOMENA The f i n a l chapter i n the consideration of colour's effect on man i s based on the primary sense of colour perception, vision. The effect of col- bur on the human organism through the i l l u s i o n of visual phenomena is major. A visual phenomena is usually not identified at a l l unless i t is actively looked for. Furthermore, by definition, subjective phenomena are not obviously correlated with external physical events, which makes them d i f f i c u l t to 'prove' on a common sense basis. . . . A l l perceptions are real whether or not they happen to have obvious correlates outside the organism? • . • There are many kinds of visual phenomena deserving attention for their effect on man. A number of these can be attributed to one of three kinds of adaptation—general, local and l a t e r a l . General Adaptation General adaptation phenomena are due mainly to the adjustment made by the eye to see under different conditions. As the eye jumps over the visual f i e l d , different objects occupy the center of visual attention. As the eye stops at each one, the sensitivity changes up or down to en appropriate level. Accordingly, each area is viewed with a sensitivity determined by Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The Science of Cplor (Washington, S.C.: Optical Society of America, I963), p. 121. 46. the previous ares. In brightness adaptation, the eye i s exposed to a given illumination level u n t i l i t accepts this level as normal, then a l l other intensities are seen relative to i t . I n other words, the phenomenon of brightness adaptation means that the brightness dimension of a l l colours seen by man i s determined by the brightness of the previous stimulus. W. B . Wright found that exposure of the eye to light almost instantly causes the sensitivity to drop. For brief exposures, the eye .recovers almost 2 immediately, but for longer exposures, the recovery takes longer. Due to brightness adaptation, estimation of absolute brightness i s vague, Errors become apparent only when the subject returns to the original situation. The estimation of relative brightness, however, i s exceedingly precise. The eye supercedes the camera in a b i l i t y to distinguish grays. In the seme way that brightness perception i s influenced by the light intensity of the previous f i e l d , so the perception of colour i s p a r t i a l l y determined by the colours previously seen by the eye. 'Colour adaptation' or 'colour constancy' i s a phenomenon experienced by anyone who wears sun- glasses, but soon forgets that everything i s tinted green. Similarly, white paper seen in yellow candlelight i s assumed to be white, although in physical fact, the yellow ligh t reflected from t he white paper makes the paper yellow. Although stimulus changes alter the sensation of colour, the unconscious, with i t s store of past experience, reinterprets these changes to maintain the apparent constancy of the colour. Colour constancy tends to make colour a property of the object, rather then the variable i t would % . D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (London: Henry Kimpton, 1946), pp. I49-I50. 47. be i f the receptor sensitivities were unfixed. 'Object' or 'surface* col- our has been investigated by Thouless. Perception, he states, seems to de- 3 viste from its stimulus, showing "regression toward the real object." This phenomenon is important in daily l i f e because i t helps the individual identify object colour under adverse conditions such as dusk and deep shadow. •Memory colour' refers to a: similar phenomenon. Memory colour tends to eccentuate the dominant colour characteristic. For instance, when the shape of a leaf and the shape of a horse are cut from the same cloth, the observer will usually think the leaf shape is greener. Memory colour also influences night vision. Few people realize that there is no perception of colour in night vision, because their memory of object colour from photopic vision persists into scotopic vision. When reproduction is the purpose of an illustration or photograph, accurate colour matching is not essential. The greatest satisfaction is obtained by matching the corresponding memory colours, ^hus man's judgment allows his perception to take the path of least resistance, Inaccurate though i t may be. Local Adaptation The second group of phenomena are due to local adaptation, and are best represented by after-images. The majority of after-image explana- R̂. H. Thouless, "Phenomenal Regression to the Real Object, I.". British Journal of Psychology. XXI, p. 359. k tions are based on t r i chroma cy. Adaptation to any one colour decreases the sensitivity to the receptors involved. T h i s makes the eye relatively sensitive to the other colours, whose corresponding receptors sre not •fatigued'. When the viewed stimulus i s changed, the fresh receptors gov- ern the sensation. After-sensations start forming from the very moment of fixation. The intensity of the after-image increases with the length of 5 fixation on the stimulus. After-images are classified as positive and negative. The o r i g i n a l after-images seen in the contemporary hue are termed 'negative'. They have a latency of one second and a duration of half a minute.^ T ne hue of an after-image viewed on a neutral surface deviates from the s t r i c t complemen- tary towards reddish -blue.? Viewed on a coloured surface, the after-image w i l l appear as the subtractive mixture of the complement and the colour of the surface. T ne hue of the after-image influences the colour perception of any number of things. In positive after-images the brightness relationships remain the same as those found in the original response to the stimulus. The original A. Pagham, "After-Images as a~ I^ans of Investigating Rods and Cones," Colour Vi sion-°PJr^slologjr^gqd Experimental Psychology. Ciba Foundation Sym- posium, ed. A. V. S. de Reuck, and Julie Knight (London: J. and A. Churchill, Ltd., I965), P. 263. Pagham states tba.t no theory of after-image i s satisfactory at present. W. Pickford, Individual Differences in ••Colour Vision(London:. Rout- . ledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1951). P» 20. ^Rudolf Arnhaim, Art and Visual Perception (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, I965), p. 3IJ8". 7 Robert W. Burnham, Randall M. Hanes, and C. James Bartleson, Color: a Guide to Basic Facts andt Concepts (New York: John Wjley and Sons, Inc., 1963), P. 70. . 49. process continues after the stimulus has ceased to exist. T ne latency is a small fraction of a second. In fact, the positive after-image may even merge with the terminal lag of the original sensation, accounting for the fact that this type of after-image i s also affecting man's vision in an un- obtrusive manner, seldom pin-pointed as interference, because i t is seldom recognized. Other after-images are more complex in nature, but they also occur less frequently in daily circumstances. Examples of complex after- images are the ' f l i g h t of colours' end the 'recurrent vision', taking i n 8 the Bering Image, Bidwell's Ghost, the Purkinje Image, and the Hess Image. A great number of after-images occur in everyday situation, e.g. walk- ing into a dark room and turning on the li g h t . Many after-images are best brought to the attention of people in demonstrations with controlled means. Most people have unconsciously learned to ignore after-images because they interfere with more useful perceptions. Also, under normal conditions, the eyes s h i f t so frequently that there i s insufficient time for an after- image to develop to f u l l strength. "After-images are important principally because of their implications for the functioning of the visual mechanism, they are one manifestation of the general process of visual adaptation."^ After-images represent one kind of local adaptation. A closely re- leted phenomenon i s successive contrast, occurring when the subject looks in succession from one stimulus to another. A red stimlus exhausts the red-sensitive cones so that the subsequently fixated surface i s mixed visually with blue-green. According to Linksz, the whole experience i3 8 Buraham, Hanes, and Bartleson, p. 71. 9 I b i d . . p. 72. 0 • ' • . 50. plainly a sensorial process with no judgment process.10 A l l successive con- trast demonstrates that the effect of a stimulus does not abruptly end the moment the stimulus ceases to exist. Lateral Adaptation The third adaptive phenomenon is lateral adaptation. It is the major factor in simultaneous contra at. Whereas the after-images end successive contrast result from a previous stimuli, simultaneous contrast is a product of present stimuli. The illusionary effect of simultaneous contrast can be seen in both brightness and colour contrast. I N brightness contrast, the value of s colour is determined to a large extent by the value of its surround. It Blso depends on the size and place- ment of the ground. Colour contrast or colour enhancement is the second type of simultaneous contrast. "Color contrast produces an enhancement or intensification of the perceived difference between neighbouring colors." 1 1 Ward summarizes the phenomenon this way, "Contrast of colour is due to the modifications in the appearence of colours that are caused by differences 12 in hue, brightness and purity of adjacent or contiguous colours." 1 0Arthur Linksz. Yision—Physiology of the Eye. II (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1952), p. I 9 6 . i^The Science of Color, p. 117. 12 James Ward, Colour Harmony and Contrast (London: Chapman and Hall, Ltfl.< 1932), p. 5h» Three i d e n t i c a l squares of gray placed separately on white, gray and black grounds appear to change the i r brightness. The magnitude of the apparent change i n brightness depends on the s i z e of the neighbouring stimulus. The magnitude of the apparent change i n value also depends on the distance between the two f i e l d s . In juxtaposition, simultaneous contrast accentuates even small d i f f e r e n c e s . Brightness contrast also emphasizes the value difference between two colours. The a r;iall red square looks black and co l o u r l e s s when placed on a white ground, whereas the same red i s more b r i l l i a n t and c o l o u r f u l on the black ground. FIGURE 1 BRIGHTNESS CONTRAST Juxtaposed colours of r e l a t i v e l y high and low p u r i t y appear saturated and desaturated. r e s p e c t i v e l y . When a chromatic hue i s contrasted with an achromatic hue, i t induces a complementary hue i n place o f the hueless sensation. The tendency of each colour to induce i t s after-image comple- mentary into i t s neighbour increeses the e x i s t i n g hue difference o f non-complementaries. FIGURE 2 COLOUR CONTRAST COLOUR CONTRAST CONT'D.. 53, The simultaneous contrast of complementary colours of equal light intensity produces illusionary colours vibrating at the boundary. They often appear as a shadow on one side of the boundary and es light reflected on the other, or as a dupli- cation cr t r i p l i c a t i o n of the boundary line. When the f i - gure and ground are reversed, the vibrating boundaries make a corresponding quality alteration. Complementary colours of equal light intensity tend to enhance each othar. Chevreul writes, *Ky experience tends to show: that the effect i s a radiating, setting out from the line of juxtaposition; that i t i s reciprocal between two equal sur- faces juxtaposed; that the effect of contrast s t i l l exists when these two surfaces are at a distance from each other, only i t i s less evident than when they are contiguous; f i n a l l y , that the effect exists when we csnnot attribute i t to fatigue of the eye,"1-? 13 JM. 5 , Chevreul, The Principles of Harmony end Contrast of Colours, and Their Applies tion to _ the Arts (London: George Bell and Sons, 1890), p. 2}19. 54- Albers underlines the v i t a l leas of adaptive colour phenomena. He says the fact that the after-image snA simultaneous contrast are psycho- physiological phenomena . . . should prove that no normal eye, not even the most trained one, i s foolproof against colour deception. He who claims to see colors independent of t h e i r i l l u s i o n a r y changes fools only himself, no one else.^4 Non-Adaptive Phenomena Phenomena not ascrlbable to adaptation also affect the human organism, but i n more is o l a t e d circumstances. A few such effects w i l l be mentioned to give the reader a hint of the deceptive quality of colour v i s i o n . F i r s t Is the enigmatic Bezold e f f e c t , where a black outline darkens the enclosed hues, ana enhances thei r saturation. This technique i s exploited by manu- facturers changing the appearance of designs with the least a l t e r a t i o n i n production. Secondly, the spreading e f f e c t , or 'halation*, causes most grid patterns to be in c o r r e c t l y perceived because the li g h t e r component of the g r i d , whether i t be the l i n e s or the ground, tends to spread and appear l a r - ger. Thirdly, as illumination i s increased, colours tend to appear more blue or more yellow. This phenomenon, called the Bezold-Brucke aff e c t , i s experienced by people buying furniture and other merchandise where colour i s an important consideration, only to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with the colour on deli- very. (Needless to say, the colour of illumination contributes to the decep- tion.) Fourthly, the Weber-FQchner Law states that the v i s u a l perception ^ J o s e f Albers, Interaction of Color (New Haven and London: Yale Uni- v e r s i t y Press, 1963), p. 31. 5 S O f an arithmetic progression depends on a physical geometric progression. For example, the steps i n a swimming pool deepen in arithmetic progression, but do not appear to be evenly spaced. Any many who has tried to lighten house paint, an* has been amazed: at the amount of white required,, has had. first-hand experience with the WebsvFechner phenomenon. The f i f t h enigma, that of disappearing boundaries, i s the concern of anyone depending on the accuracy of colour perception for his safety. Colours of similar hue and equal lig h t intensity tend to merge. For example, the underside of a. cloud i s often indiscernible from the sky. In another natural phenomenon, raaiant energy does not provide the stimulus.for colour sensation. Acci- dental colours, resulting from pressure on the eye, have an amusing, though ephemeral effect on man. Finally, yellow has the greatest light- producing capacity in daylight vision. In scotopic vision, governed by the rods, the wavelength of 507 mu (green) is seen as the brightest hue. This phenomenon, the Furkinje effect, causes tha leaves and grass to take on an unnatural brightness in night vision. Other non-adaptive phenomena can be illustrated with simple apparatus. Fechner's colours, produced by pre- senting an achromatic stimulus intermittently, and 'marginal contrast', produced' with black and white rotating discs, are convincing examples of the illusionary qualities of colour. In conclusion, colour has apparent distance, temperature, size and weight. The maxim that warm colours advance, while cool colours recede i s well-known. Pillabury an* Schaefer have reinterpreted the older view that the stimulus basis for the advancement and. retreat of colour is luminance 5 ° . rather than hue.*5 Whereas brightness determines colour distance, hue de- termines colour temperature. The maximum wavelength for warmth has been pin-pointed to 6l0 mu, and the maximum coolness ranges through green and blue. 1^ Mueller 1^ and. Arnheim1^ claim that warm snd cool colours do not refer to specific hues, but to the deviation of a given colour i n the d i - rection of warmth or coolness. (They would have to concede that hues are i n i t i a l l y warm or cool, in order to determine whether the direction i s warm or cool.) Both the apparent distance and. temperature of a colour de- pend on the neighbouring colours. A green w i l l recede when placed on a. warm red. ground, but i t w i l l not recede when placed on a cooler blue ground. Similarly, green w i l l seen cool when juxtaposed with red, but warm when juxtaposed with blue. Size and. weight ere also closely related to colour. Gundlach and Macoubrey found that the apparent size correlates 0.86 with luminance. They demonstrated that lighter objects look larger than darker objects of the same dimensions.^ There is general agreement that the apparent weight 15 W. B. Pillsbury and B. R. Schaefer, "A Note on 'Advancing and Retreat- ing Colors'," American Journal of Psychology. XLIX (1937), pp. I26-I30. This has an interesting correlation with Chevreul's classification of warm and cool hues according to their luminous or sombre qualities. The lumi- nous colours are yellow, orange, red ana light green, the sombre colours are blue, violet and deep green. ^The Science of Color, p. l68. Also, refer to the theoretical explanation for colour temperature on p. 21 of this thesis. ^Conrad G. Mueller, Sensory Psychology (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, I965), p. 328. Art end Visual Perception, p, 329, 19 'C, Gundlach an* ». Macoubrey, "The Effect of Color on Apparent"Size," American Journal pf Psychology. XLIII ( 1931), pp. I09-III. 57. of colours varies according to brightness. Dark colours appear heavy and 20 l i g h t colours appear less heavy. Isay Balinkin describes these factors in the following excerpt. Suppose you're a foreman in a factory, end ask, one of your men to move two large boxes, exactly the same size and weight. One i s pale green and the other is dark brown. He's almost sure to pick up the green one f i r s t because i t looks lighter. Now you ask him to put the box on either of two workbenches some twenty feet away. One i s painted red and one i s blue. He'll probably put i t one the red one. It looks a good step closer. " In summary, phenomena produced by adaptation have their impact on a l l visual appearance, whereas-phenomena not ascribed to adaptation occur inter- mittently, or with specific conditions, and are often transient in effect. Regardless of the explanation.and the degree of the effect, the fact i s clear that these phenomena: influence man through his vision. "What you see 22 i s your best guess as to what is out front." 20 E . Bullough, "On the Apparent Heaviness of Colours," B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology. II (1906-08), pp. 111-152. Also, J. E . DeCamp, "The Influence of Color on Apparent Weight. A Prelimin- ary Study," Journal .of Experimental Psychology, II (1917), PP. 347-370. Zllsay Balinkin, The Color, Tree (New York;. I nterchemical Corporation, 1965). P. 11. ^Professor A. Ames, Jr . of Dartmouth College, quoted by Deane B. Judd, Color in Business. Science, and Industry (New York: J Dhn Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1963). P. 23. 58. CONCLUSION TO PART I Research aiscussea in the preceding eight chapters provides evidence to support the hypothesis that man is affected by colour. Colour is the physicel stimulus for sight. Physiologists have shown how pigments imple- ment the response process in the visual receptor. The way thai: man is in- tellectuelly. emotionally, and unconsciously bound up with colour experi- ences i s the concern of the psychologist. Merchandising and advertising u t i l i z e the qualities of colour to pro- duce a calculated response in the consumer.1 Man can be made to feel bored, Indignant, or physically i l l by colour. He can be shocked or delighted. Colour determines the reaction. But these"business-oriented endeavours are gaints among the disappointingly few instances where the potential of colour is being realized. The constructive approach of the following ex- cerpt makes an apt conclusion to this section. The value of color i s determined, in significant part by what people come to think, or are made to think, of i t s value. This being so, i t is worthwhile to know how to make people think that color is valuable. The most effective way to do that is to arrange for them to discover that color produces the effect which can satisfy their wants and needs: . . . . that greater satisfaction can be derived from the use of color; and that perceptions ana decisions having to do with color tend, to have a higher affective valence. 2 In short, this has been the aim of these eight chapters. See Vance Oakley Packard, The Hidden Persuaders (New York: McKay, 1957) • 2 Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America1. The Science of Color (Washington, P.C.t The Optical Society of America, 1963), p. 167. PART II 59. EVALUATION OF THE PRESENT SITUATION The profound effect of colour on the human organism has been esta- blished i n the preceding presentation of research. I f colour is important to iaan, i t i s of major concern to the a r t i s t , because colour i s a major element of art. In addition to motivating the a r t i s t through i t s direct visual impact, colour can affect his emotional state of mind and his rate of motor and mental activity. It provides him with an element capable of producing moods, space, tension, and symbolism. The question arises ae to how an a r t i s t learns to control and u t i l i z e the powerful scope of colour, and how any person becomes aware of the richness of colour in the environ- ment. The responsibility for teaching colour rests with the art educator. It is assumed that the layman and natural colourist alike can improve their expressive use of colour. It is further assumed that both the lay- man and a r t i s t can become more sensitive to colour around them. Art edu- cators are obligated to employ their best resources to assist man in see- ing and using colour. The most efficient way to do this is to teach colour in a; meaningful manner to future teachers and art majors at the university, and to students at art school, because these people have the potential of creating a. sensi- t i v i t y to colour in their own pupils, in architectural and interior decora- ting clients, and in the art-conscious public. It was hypothesized that colour i s not being taught in the most effective manner to students at this l e v e l . 6o. CHAPTER I INTERVIEWS WITH TEACHERS To determine how colour is being taught, interviews were conducted with teachers of art curing February and March, I967. The subjects i n - cluded 10 members of the Art Department of the Faculty of Education, 3 members of the Fine Arts Department of the Faculty of Arts, both at The University of Bri t i s h Columbia, in addition to one teacher of the Vancouver Art Gallery docents, and 3 teachers employed by the Vancouver School of Art. The 17 teachers answered the interview questions (see Appendix A) with reference to their present teaching assignments. The results are summar- ized according to the number of the question, and are followed by a comment on their significance. 1. a) Sixteen teachers separate the elements of design, justifying the division with three general reasons. F i r s t , the discussion of the separate elements and their interrelationship provides a means of approaching works of art for understanding and appreciation. Secondly, this approach f a c i l i - tates tha definition of vocabulary. Finally, i t allows the inexperienced student to explore and discover for himself the principles of art in manageable amounts, where e total involvement might be overwhelming. 1. b) The emphasis placed by 7 teachers on one or more elements i s dic- teted by the nature of the subject, e.g. form and texture in ceramics, col- our and tone in painting, line i n drawing end in graphics. Ten subjects said they do not emphasize any element, maintaining that a l l the elements contribute to the total form or concept. One teacher of painting believes 61. that c r e a t i v i t y is r e s t r i c t e d when an element such as l i n e or texture i s emphasized, because the students tend to forget the other elements. Comment: No teacher i s more enthusiastic about colour than the other e l e - ments, yet a deep love for colour was suggested as part of the ideal back- ground of the teecher of colour. (See No, 9.) A l l teachers are teachers of colour in that the opportunity to mention colour arises in a l l classes, 2. Bight teachers ettributed t h e i r awareness of colour to a general devel- opment, highlighted by a van Gogh or o p t i c a l painting. Four teachers re- ce l l e d experiences with colour i n early childhood, k remembered school exercises such as the mixing of pigment, end one described a recent synes- thesia experience. Comment: No pattern emerged suggesting an approach to awakening a sensi- t i v i t y to colour i n students. Only one subject was conscious of having experienced the overwhelming eff e c t of colour. 3 , Twelve teachers, including a l l 10 from the Faculty of Education, re- commended that i n s t r u c t i o n i n colour begin immediately, because the sooner mechanics ere taught, the sooner an awareness of the relationships and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of colour w i l l develop into a dexterous handling of t h i s element. T ^ teachers said they time the introduction of colour according the need and readiness of the i n d i v i d u a l . Two teachers reserve the second hal f of t h e i r courses f o r colour. Comment: Because of i t s immediate impact, colour Is more e a s i l y d i s t i n - guished as an element of art than l i n e , form or texture. I t provides a l o g i c a l place to begin the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and explanation of the art ele- 62. ments. Although the majority of teachers introduce colour immediately, they cover mechanics such as the spectrum and the mixing of pigments. Teaching a student to mix tones and t i n t s does not not ensure the develop- ment of an adept manipulation of colour to s u i t personal needs. In the opinion of the writer, the teaching of colour should stress the i n t e r - acting c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s element i n v i s i o n , because colour i s seldom perceived i n isolat e d conditions. il. a) The instructors a l l said they deal with colour to some extent. 4. b) In the Faculty of Education, the l e v e l and purpose of the course determines the approach to colour. In courses designed to introduce stu- dents to media and methods, or to the pedagogy of a r t , the following as- pects are covered i n two or three lessons; terminology, theory (colour wheel, harmony and discord), and experimentation i n the mechanics of mixing. In advanced courses such as those dealing with painting or design, the stu- dent i s assumed to have mastered the basics, and colour i s brought to his attention through motivation and evaluation. A c t i v i t i e s such as the match- ing of tones, mixing of pigment, end o p t i c a l exercises are assigned to help the student. The fact that colour i s taught i n a prerequisite course saves one teacher from "going into the boring d e t a i l s . " In the Faculty of Arts, teachers of art history deal with the a r t i s t s ' use of colour, pointing out any emphasis on colour that occurs i n a work of a r t . In design classes, the systems of colour notation are the main com- ponent of the second term. Colour i s reserved for the l a s t half of the docent t r a i n i n g at the Vancouver Art Gallery. At the Vancouver School of A r t , the f i r s t - y e a r student i s exposed to 63. colour as part of his orientation to painting, i t s e l f on of the four areas receiving equal emphasis. Students are introduced to the seven colour con- t r a s t s of I t t e n , and they also explore the relationship between colour and music. In the ensuing years of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , the student i s assumed to have mastered the basic use of colour, and the teaching of colour becomes a matter of in d i v i d u a l attention and timing. Comment: The d e t a i l s of colour theory are as boring to the student as they are to the teacher. The teacher of advanced, courses should go beyond t h i s point with his students. The Ostwald and Munsell systems of colour notation were designed as references for science and industry. The production of i n - f l e x i b l e models of painted cardboard does not enhance the a b i l i t y to use colour. The Vancouver School of Art i s the only i n s t i t u t i o n u t i l i z i n g c o l - oured paper to eliminate the tedious chore of mixing. The range of colours avail a b l e i n the colour pack i s i n f e r i o r when compared to a similar supply available i n the United States. No attempt was being made to supplement the inadequate range with c o l l e c t i o n of paper from magazines. A give-and- take atmosphere of experimentation involving the teacher and students would be an improvement over the lecture and assignment structure of most classes. 5. Teachers found the following methods successful i n heightening the stu- dents' perception of colour: c o l l e c t i n g objects of one colour to i l l u s t r a t e variations i n one hue, mixing variations of one hue i n pigment, working with a l i m i t e d palette such as black, white and ochre, f r e e l y experimenting with paint, then explaining the theory involved, studying the use of colour i n works of art, and using the colour wheel to explain the nomenclature. Comment: The methods declared to be the most successful mirror the present 64. approach to teaching colour. There i s l i t t l e focus on the changeable, adaptive qualities that contribute to the excitement and mystery of colour. Students at this level would be stimulated by such an approach. 6. A l l the teachers recommended, a free, subjective approach to colour with elementary pupils, moving into an objective approach including theories and formulae with the secondary students. The more advanced the level, the more Intellectural an approach was recommended. Comment: Most university and art school students; have learned colour theories in high school. A review of the material w i l l be ineffective i f tha material i s not practical to begin with. Formulae no longer satisfy the student searching for an individual expression. The recommendation thet the teaching of colour become increasingly abstract with advanced levels, contradicts the opinion of the majority of teachers that colour should not be taught as a thing in i t s e l f . 7* A l l teachers were able to name e colour base in their work, but they avoid personal demonstrations that might influence students. Although the art instructors denied seeing their own colour base in the work of students, they readily perceived, the influence of other teachers on students. Comment: The objective onlooker i s able to perceive influences the teacher i s unable to detect. These influences could be harmful or beneficial, 8, The teachers named their theoretical training in colour, their experi- ence an* discoveries in the use of colour, and their efforts to keep abreast of current trends as contributing to their use of colour and the background and preparation they bring to teaching. *5. Comment: Teachers tend to perpetuate the mechanical t r a i n i n g i n colour they themselves received, e.g. tonal painting, matching tones, l i m i t e d p a l e t t e . The introduction of a new approach to colour would counteract t h i s stagnan- cy. Although the teachers are dedicated and f a m i l i a r with current move- ments i n a r t , not one i s seeking a new way to teach colour. 9. The subjects considered a command of a l l aspects of colour, including the physical q u a l i t i e s of l i g h t , the chemical composition and behavior of pigments and dyes, the psychology of perceptions and aff e c t i v e response to colour and. the use of colour by masters to be components i n an ideal colour teaching background. This background, would i d e a l l y be enriched with & love for colour, a s e n s i t i v i t y to colour, and an a b i l i t y to handle i t w e l l . Comment: Together, the teachers' suggestions make a composite description of an id e a l teaching background. Few teachers expressed an interest i n acquiring the knowledge they lack, or i n strengthening the weaker aspects i n t h e i r teaching of colour. 1 0 . A workshop equipped with physical, chemical, psychological and l i t e r - ary resources, models and machinery, and staffed by a lab assistant, would f a c i l i t a t e student's personal exploration of colour. A course i n colour should comprise theory, including the physical, chemical and psychological aspects of colour, supplemented with experimentation and practice with problems involving the concepts introduced, and appreciation of the use of colour i n nature and. i n painting. Lectures by resource people such as phys i c i s t s , physiologists, etc. could, put the students i n contact with specialized, colour experts. 6 6 . Comment: Suggestions for the ideal course i n colour vary considerably from the responses to tha fourth and f i f t h questions, implying that the teachers of a rt r e a l i z e that colour i s not being taught i n an ideal manner. Although many teachers named resources such as books, chemicals, coloured l i g h t equipment, f i l m s , colour systems models, reproductions, and psychological testing apparatus as being ideal but out of the question, i t i s the opinion of the writer that these resources are r e a d i l y obtainable, end that their use can be implemented i n present classroom f a c i l i t i e s without employing a lab assistant. This would require time and i n i t i a t i v e on the teacher's part. 11, F i n a l l y , members of the Faculty of Education were asked, to name any outstanding student c o l o u r i s t s , so that the background of the students could, be determined. This i s the topic of the next block of interviews. 67. CHAPTER II INTERVIEWS WITH STUDENTS The 5 most frequently mentioned student colourista were interviewed to determine the influence of their university art background on their use of colour, (See Appendix B«) 1. T^ree students learned about the colour wheel, in high school} nothing was applicable to their work. Two students found their high school training valuable; one learned to mix water-colours, while the other investigated the visual phenomena in op art. 2. A l l students emphasized that the repetitive presentation of charts and wheels at the university level i s useless. 0ne student said, "I didn't talk to any who liked i t . The bast students were most sick of i t . 8 Comment: If the background of colour theory has been taught to most stu- dents in high school, i t can be?reviewed independently i f the need i s f e l t , leaving the teacher and student more time to experiment and explore in depth some of the principles of the interaction of colour. 3. Two students found free experimentation with colour stimulating. The 3 remaining students were unaffected by the methods to which they were ex- posed. Comment: This i s probably because they were bored with repetition. i). Every student learned about the use of colour through independent study of works of art. 63. Comment: An individual,, self-direct approach i s more affective for the student who feels a need to develop a personal dexterity in colour. T^e review of theory w i l l seldom motivate a student to explore the f i e l d of colour. 5 . The students were indebted to teachers who either allowed freedom to discover about colour, or who praised the colour qualities i n student work. Comment* Students sense the attitude of the teacher. T^e teacher supports the student.just by understanding that discovery in the-field of colour is highly personal and requires persistence.. Enthusiasm for colour i s conta- gious. 6. T ne subjects named the colour base of several instructors, but said the instructors were not biased towards this use of colour i n students. One subject reportefl overhearing a number of students say they Could not help being influenced by a certain instructor'suse of colour» 7. When asked for their views on how colour i s presently being taught, 4 students replied that colour is not being taught, and 1 student said her feelings on that matter were vague because she herself has not been taught about colour. 8 . A l l students though a course would be beneficial to the majority of stu- dents. They would like to see the study of light, and colour in films in- cluded. T nree mentioned that personally, they did not feel e need for such a course, while 2 said they would enrol. Comment: Although 3 students are satisfied with their handling of colour. 6 9. they have few ideas on the extensive areas of colour that could be presen- ted i n a course. I t was not expected that any student would be interested i n a course, because each i s a s k i l l e d c o l o u r i s t . 9. The background of the teacher of colour should include an a b i l i t y to verbalize on the v i s u a l , a sensitive eye for colour, and an involvement and inquisitiveness i n the f i e l d of colour. Comment: Again, i t appears the teacher should be a s p e c i a l i s t i n the f i e l d of colour. 70. - CHAPTER III RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE Interrogation of the student colourists revealed that the theoretical approach to colour has l i t t l e application in practice. It was decided to circulate a.i quesionneire amongst a more representative group of Fine Arts majors to derive the general opinion on the-present methods of teaching colour in the Faculty of Education. (See Appendix C.) T^e questionnaire was distributed on an anonymous and voluntary basis to students who have commenced their majors. 1, A total of 49 replies have beentabulated, including 22 Elementary single art majors, 6 Secondary single art majors, and 21 Secondary double art majors. Differences occurring in the answers are insignificant be- cause they can be attributed to the variety and number of courses takeno T ne results are combined to form a composite picture of the teaching of colour in the Fine Arts Department. 2. The description of what has been learned broke down into four manners of response. To begin with, 4 students gave no answer. Secondly, 6 stu- dents checked- the box but did not describe what they learned. Fifteen stu- dents made evaiuatory comments such as: 'very l i t t l e , " "not i n any detail," "a very basic Introduction ( i . e . practically nothing)," "learned nothing about colour that I had not known before." Some description of colour pre- sentation was written by 24 students. T ne following figures and descrip- tions am8lgomate the three latter modes of response. Thirteen students learned how the old masters used colour i n F.A. 101, Twenty-eight 71. students learned about colour in F.A. 30 0« The moat frequently mentioned facets of colour were mixing and experimenting with poster paint, colour charts and terminology, warmth and. coolness, harmony, and clash. Two stu- dents mentioned learning about collage in F.A. 3°1« Nineteen subjects learned the following information in F.A. 302: colour wheel and mixing shades, tones and transparencies to achieve various relationships such as discord, and distance. Seven students learned about the use of natural dyes i n the design courses. Twenty painting majors, the majority of whom referred to F.A. l\01t mentioned the use of colour in composition. Specifi- c a l l y they named the theory behind tones, shades and tints, the apparent distance and the mood of colour. Ten students checked the elementary art education categories, referring to the use of colour themes, music as a stimulus for painting, and the limited palette for children. Two students mentioned learning how to give colour assignments in secondary schools. Comment: Students described theory and mechanical details of mixing most frequently. No students mentioned that an evaluation of the use of colour had motivated them to enquire into the f i e l d in any depth. 3. Twenty-four students were able to apply what they had been taught about colour to their own work. They spoke of the use of colour in composition to achieve tone, form and harmony. Fifteen said the information has no value to their work. The 10 students who did not reply to this question are assumed to have the same opinion. Comment: Only half the students were able to apply their learning, suggest- ing that the presentation of colour be revised to suit their needs. ij. The following chart tabulates the results of the definition question. 72. TABLE I STUDENT SCORES ON DEFINITIONS RESULTS TERMS Correct Semi-Correct Incorrect Omitted Total Colour 8 10 22 10 49 ' Hue 5 Ik 23 7 k, Saturation 2 k 25 18 k9 Brightness 4 23 9 49 Shade 21 5 16 7 49 Tone 12 5 19 13 49 TOTAL 51 51 128 64 Comment: Students were able to define 'shade' and 'tone' better thsn the other terms. Ability.to define terms does not necessarily indicate an abi- l i t y to use colour, but nevertheless, a l l students have been exposed to some terms in F.A, 300. Less; than half the subjects correctly defined 'shade* and 'tone', indicating that either the teaching of terminology i s a waste of time, or i t i s not taught in a meanigful way that can be practised by the student. The concepts involved in shade and tone are confusing, and can be better explained i n terms of brightness and saturation. No student knew that hue, saturation and brightness are the three dimensions of colour. Terms from the previous questions were borrowed with no demonstration of the comprehension of their meaning, and used i n an attempt to define the subsequent term. Many students tried to deduce the meaning from connotation. 7 3 . particularly in the case of 'saturation'. In fact, saturation was the most poorly defined term, indicating that students are not familiar with i t in this context. Sarcasm flavouring 4 responses might indicate that some stu- dents f e l t guilty at demonstrating an inferior a b i l i t y to cope with the basic terms in their f i e l d of specialization. Many f e l t the need to ra- tionalize or explain their failure. 5. Six students were able to describe the interaction between gray and green. Four were partially correct, 29 were incorrect, and 10 did not attempt to answer. Comment: More than half the students did not know the visual result of a simple colour interaction. In view of the fact that colour i s almost a l - ways seen surrounded by other colours, a weakness in the teaching of colour i s suspected. 6. Thirty-seven students knew about the advancing-reteding phenomenon. Nine answered incorrectly, and 3 3id not attempt the question. Comment: This i s one visual property of colour that has been brought to the attention of this group of students. Their a b i l i t y to grasp the rela- tive nature of the apparent movement of colour indicates a readiness to delve into the total complex of colour's r e l a t i v i t y . 7 . Eighteen students f e l t competent i n their use of colour. Thirty-one said they did not feel competent in manipulating colour to f u l f i l l a specific need. Comment: This is considered a more valid evaluation of a student's a b i l i t y to use colour than one supplied by a panel of judges, because the student can consider his handling of colour in more than one area, whereas an ob- jective judgment would probably be based on isolated examples of work. The students also has an intimate knowledge of how this expression with colour evolved, whether the colours were determined with ease or with struggle. Furthermore, the student coula dara to be honest in a situation where, his evaluation would only be a s t a t i s t i c . 8. Forty students f e l t there was a need for a course i n colour, while 8 did not. One student did not answer. 9. The following table presents the results of Nos. 9, 10, and l i b . TABLE II STUDENT CONSIDERATION OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS \ IN THE STUDY OF,COLOUR EVALUATION TOPICS Need to Study Competent Valuable Course Material Appreciation 1 7 8 21 Mixing 2 5 1 3 1 Light 2 3 1 26 Interaction 2 6 4 3 4 Theory 24 1 2 4 Psychology 28 0 2 8 Physiology 28 2 27 Chemistry 2 0 2 2 0 Comment:: A3 rasa: expected, more students f e l t competent in the appreciation of the use of colour by old masters, than in any other f i e l d . T ne number •was s t i l l surprisingly small. Seventeen said they f e l t a need to study this aspect further, end 21 would s t i l l like to have i t included in a courses. Similar comments can be made concerning the reaction to the chemistry of pigments, their origin, en<3 nature. It \BSS surprising to. find the number of students feeling a need for instruction in the mixing of pigments, snd in the colour theory, as these are the two aspects of colour receiving the most thorough treatment at the present time. The bulk of the needs.ocaur in categories almost totally neglected by this department. Instructors would be well advised to cater to these needs, because what is now being taught is available in books. Students are learning more about colour by studying local exhibitions than memorizing mechanics. By adopting this ap- roach to the review of theory, teachers would have more time to help the student in learning to control the element of colour for his own purposes. 11. a) Thirty-seven, students said they would take a course in colour, 4 <3i3 not know, and 8 said they would not enrol in a: course. Comment: Of those whose response was negative, many reasoned that academic learning would not enhance their a b i l i t y to use colour. Tbo writer agrees with this opinion. The colour course proposed by the writer i s not ecademie but experimental in approach. This was not pointed out to the students. The nature of the questionnaire, designed to evaluate the present teaching, of colour, did not give an accurate impression of the writer's approach to colour. On the other hand, i t was feared that an ideal description of the proposed course woula be biased. 76. 12. Students suggested that a course in colour be comprised of theory and history, followed by experimentartion and practice i n application to a< f i e l d of specialization and independent research. The majority of subjects pre~ ferred the academic portion of the course to be considerably smaller than . the practical application. Students also favoured illustrated lectures, end the display of good examples of the use of colour. Comment: It was refreshing to find the majority of students preferring to discover rather than be told about colour. In the opinion of the writer, the students display the readiness prerequisite to a course in O D I O U T . CONCLUSION TO PART II 77. Information from the interviews and questionnaire supports the hypo- thesis that the present approach to teaching colour does not satisfy th8 needs of students. This i s less a cr i t i c i s m of the present method of teaching than an indication that teachers have insufficient time to present colour in eny other way. F^ced with a structured introductory course, they can only devote two or three lessons to terminology, physical and chemical theory, experimentation in pigment mixing, and the apparent temperature and distance of colour. Although this i s often review material to students, this method ensures a common background from which to build. I nstructors of advanced courses, however, have l i t t l e opportunity to develop the study of colour because they are primarily concerned with the student's struggle to find a personal expression. Tha present structure of the Fine Arts pro- gramme al l o t t s insufficient time for any course to include a probing study of the interdependence and interaction of colour. At the same time, stu- dents need' snd want more intensive instruction in colour. The most construc- tive alternative to the present dilemna. i s the introduction of a course in colour. THE PROPOSED COURSE 78. Because colour plays an indispensable role i n the functioning of the human organism, end at the same time is a v i t a l element in art, i t should be a major concern of the art teacher. The present theoretical approach is assessed as perpetuating a poor learning situation. The theoretical j u s t i f i c a t i o n of Part I does not dictate the content of the course, i t merely enlightens man'to the omnipotent presence of colour .in his l i f e pattern. From the theoretical material in the justification, however, emerges a characteristic of colour—the .key • to a sound educational approach. Colour is a relative phenomena. Not only is there a discrepancy between the physical stimulus and the psychic effect, there i s a discrepancy be- tween each individual psychic effect. Man responds to the stimulus with his own receptor, his own past experience, emotions and personality. The ideal teaching of colour w i l l adhere to i t s main characteristic, r e l a t i - v i t y , 1 John Ruskin wrote to art students many years ago, "Every hue through- out your work is altered by every touch that you add in other places; so that what was warm a minute ago, becomes cold when you have put a hotter colour in another place, and what was in harmony when you l e f t i t , becomes discordant as you set other colours beside i t . " Paul R enner adds, " . . . al l . the colors . . . are links in the whole, and the whole i s vulnerable in -.^It i s readily admitted that the.fields of history, physics, psychophy- sics, and psychology can provide a wealth of important material for the ar- t i s t . Before he can use this information, however,, he must be able to- manipulate-colour. 2 , Quoted by Rudolf Arnheim, Art and Visual Perception (Berkeley: Univer- s i t y of C 8 l i f o r n i a Press, 1958), p. 354. 79. 3 every link." The purpose of e suitable course in colour i s to lead the student to understand the interaction of colour and to assist him in draw- ing insight from experience, so that eventually colour, the most relative medium in art, becomes â  tool to be manipulated by the hands and brain of the a r t i s t . T ne proposed course (See Appendix D) i s essentially derived from the ii work of Ambers, with numerous extensions and modifications. It w i l l de- mand i n i t i a t i v e , patience, persistence, craftsmanship,, and problem-solving a b i l i t y , and in turn, these qualities w i l l be enhanced i n the studsnt ex- posed to colour in this manner. T ne course is a step-by-step programme designed to confront the student with a colour problem requiring that he think through the situation to arrive at several suitable answers, both visual and verbal. T ne more a problem is practised, the more the student w i l l learn. The exercise is never finished, but can be returned to at eny timo to work out new solutions and to evaluate progress. This experimental approach restores to the teaching of colour the exciting but evasive quality of education that i s found i n the discovery process. Discoveries can be shared and discussed in a mutual give-and-take classroom atmosphere. Per- sonal and collective evaluation by comparison, together with discussion of reasons and conditions for each phenomenon, w i l l accelerate growth of un- derstanding end a b i l i t y by providing insight. .The course as i t i s presently outlined i s suitable for Fine A rts majors • • ?Paul Renner, Colort Ordsr, end Herraony. trans?.-.*Alexander Nesbitt (New Yprkt-Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1962}),,. p. Zj2. k , Josef Albers, Interaction of Color (New. Haven and London: Yale Univer- sity Press, I 9 6 3 ) . 80. at the university ana art school levels* With adaptation, i t can be used in elementary and secondary schools, in classes for the layman and the mature a r t i s t . Students who learn to see and use colour through this method w i l l be able to teach i t themselves with no instruction in methodology. They w i l l also be able to adapt i t to any kind of personal work. Tfcls course could be introduced on an experimental basis in the Fine Arts Depart- ment of the Faculty of Educations immediately following F.A. 300. Eventu- al l y , i t could become a prerequisite for painting and design majors, because the entire course is an exercise in two-dimensional composition. It has . worthwhile application in ceramics (colour and form, texture* and decora- tion), and in graphics (brightness and colour contrast, visual phenomena). I t w i l l be deemed a success in art education i f i t does nothing other than sensitize the student to colour in his surroundings. A more acute awareness of colour w i l l breed appreciation of i t s complexity and f l e x i b i l i t y . An enriched perception enhances l i f e i t s e l f , by opening a world of resources, ideas and motivations. 81. APPENDIX H. INTERVIEW Teachers of Art at the University and Art School 1. a) Do you differentiate between the elements of design such as line, form, colour, end texture in your teaching of art? C 8n you explain why you do (or do not) make this distinction between the elements? b) Do you emphasize one element more than the others? If so, which, and why? 2 . Can you think of any particular time that you became aware of colour as an influence in your l i f e and work? 3. Is there any particular time in the teaching of art at the university or art school when you feel i t i s important to introduce colour? i). a) Of the art courses that you teach, which include some instruction in colour? b) What aspects of colour do you cover i n each of these courses? Can you estimate the time this requires? 5. What methods do you find most successful in heightening the percep- tion of colour in your students? 6. Would you recommend a different approach to teaching colour for the elementary, secondary, ana university or srt school teacher? What would this entail? 7. a) Do you have a personal colour base in your a r t i s t i c expression? b) Do you detect students using colour the way you do? If so, what is your reaction? 8. Would you t e l l me a l i t t l e about your a r t i s t i c training? Is there anything in your backgrouna that you fina particularly helpful in your personal use of colour and/or in teaching colour to stuaents? 9 . Ideally, what kind of background (i.e. knowleage, experience), would you recommend for the teacher approaching the subject of colour with university art majors or art school students? 10. I f you had the time, equipment, a l l the ideal resources and conditions, how woula you teach colour to art majors? How would you aeel with such aspects as theory, practice, ana appreciation? 11. Can you direct me to any stuaent who uses colour well, so that I may determine his background in colour and learn his views on i t s teaching? APPENDIX B 82. INTERVIEW Students of Art Faculty of Education, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1. Where have you been taught about colour, other than in your univer- sity training? Can you t e l l me a l i t t l e about what you learned and what you were able to apply to your work? 2. Can you describe what you have learned about colour in Fine Arts courses of the Faculty of Education, and what you have been able to apply to your work? 3. a) Can you describe the methods used to teach these concepts of colour? b) What methoa contributed most to increasing your awareness of colour? ij. Have you learned anything about colour on your own? Do you apply any of this knowledge and/or experience to your work? 5. Have you noticed whether any instructors are particularly sensitive to student's use of colour? I f so, how do students respond to this sensitivity? 6. Are you aware of yourself or any student being influenced by an in- structor's use of colour? 7. What are your views on the way colour is being taught in the Fine Arts Department of the Faculty of Education? What would, you praise and. what would, you c r i t i c i z e ? 8. a) Do you think there is a need to deal more intensively an* extensively with colour in this department? b) What aspects of colour woula. you include in a course in colour? How should a course in colour be taught? 9. What, in your opinion, is the ideal background, for the teacher approaching the subject of colour with students? 8 3 . APPENDIX C STUDENT SURVEY ON COLOUR 1. a) JHvision: Elementary | . | Seconfiary b) Major: Single Art j | Double Art 2. I f you have learned about colour in any of the following courses, place a check in the box, and describe what you learned. | |F,A, 101 . ' - LUF.A. 300 Ô .A. 301 - H Z ! F.A. 302 ; [ZIF.A. 303 C2k03 L3n3_ CUF.A. 305 D» o 5 \Z}ki5 • F . A . 307 \ZJh07 Q | 1 7 _ ; [ZJF.A. 2|01 0^ 0 2 [HE*. 205 [ U 3 0 5 - I I E d . koh 3. Has this information been of use to you? What have you been able to apply to your own work? l\. Define the following terms as well as you can, a) colour b) hue 8i| c) saturation d) brightness e) shade f) tone. 5. Describe what happens when a small square of gray paper is placed on a green ground.; • r — I No j J Do cool colours always recede? Yes | [No | [ 7. Do you feel competent in your a b i l i t y to manipulate colour to f u l f i l l specific needs in your work? r—1 j 1 Yes] I No L I 8. Do you, as a student, =feel there is a need, for further instruction in colour in art courses in the Faculty of Education? 1 I j j Yes I I No I J 9. Place a check in the box beside any area where you could benefit from further instruction in colour. a| ^Appreciation of the use of colour in paintings. b| [Mixing pigments, and glazing. c[ 1Coloured light, additive primaries, theatrical gels, end. films. d j {interaction of colour, subtractive colour and complementary • contrast. Colour theory—Chevreul, Goethe, Munsell, Maxwell, Albera, and Hofmann. f| I Psychological aspects of colour, colour in language snd symbolism. g] [Physiological aspects of colour, how the eye perceives colour, explanation of visual phenomena. 85 hi Chemistry of colorants, origin ana. nature of pigment s. 10. L i s t the letters from the foregoing categories in which you feel com- petent as a result of art courses you have taken in the Faculty of Education. 11. a) Assume that you w i l l be a Fine Arts major in the Faculty of Education next year. Would you be interested in taking a course in colour i f i t was offered? , — , | , Yes No b) L i s t the letters from the.categories in No. 10 which you would like to see included in such a course. 12-. What are your suggestions on how such a course be taught? 86. APPENDIX D PROPOSED OUTLINE OF COLOUR COURSE Motto: Colour is the most relative medium in art. T ne exercises w i l l be executed in paper and mounted on card unless otherwise specified. Verbal explanations w i l l be written on the back. Each problem includes the design of a: suitable format for the presantation of the solution. The many advantages of paper make i t the ideal material for solving the problems. It i s superior to paint because i t eliminates the tedious chore of mixing, and i s free of textural brush strokes. Paper permits the student to choose from a variety of available colours, snd to use the same colour repeatedly. Paper is inexpensive: a purchased colour pack of two - hundred f i f t y silk-screen colours cart be supplemented by collections from magazines and paint chips. The only tools required are a cutting edge, a ruler, end glue. Series A: How Colour Deceives 1. 3 colours as k a) brightness b) hue c) temperature d) saturation e) chromatic and achromatic (Alternate method—intersecting colours) 2 C k colours as 3 a) brightness b) colour c) complementary contrast 3. k colours as 2 (reflection of reverse grounds) 8 ? T 2j. 3 colours as 2 a) brightness b) hue c) saturation 5. k colours es 1, expanded up to 7 ss 1. 6. 3 colours as 12 (stripe problem, additive end subtractive mixture) This series is to be followed by a display and evaluation of results, dis- cussion of subtractive colour, and a detailed study of: a) adaptation b) simultanecus contrast i ) brightness contrast i i ) colour contrast i i i ) complementary contrast Series B t Leaf Studies ( A description of the visual result w i l l accompany examples 1--6, and a description of theory and process w i l l appear with examples 7—»9» It Determine the Rue-of a leaf and place in on the complement. . 2. Determine the hue of a leaf and place i t on a more saturated ground of the same hue. 3. Determine the hue of a leaf and place i t on an achromatic variation of that hue. l\. Determine the hue of a leaf and place i t on: s) a cool ground b) a warm ground c) neutral ground of the seme light intensity 5. Determine the hue of a leaf and place i t on: a) a complement of greater brilliance b) a complement of lesser brlllience 6« Find two leaves that are complementary and equal in brightness. Find the corresponding hues in the colour pack and mount the leaves on the reverse grounds. 7. Pull a l l the hue from a leaf by placing i t on some ground com- posed' of other leaves. 8 . Increase the saturation of a hue by placing i t on a ground of leaves. 9 Attempt to make a leaf look transparent 88. 10. Free Study* destroy the shape- of the leaves and mount them in a personally pleasing colour statement. Series C; Study in the Compositional Use of Complementary C 0ntrast o From a coloured magazine photogre&ph make a tracing of shapes, and transfer to cardboard. Recreate the photograph: ' 1. in achromatic tones, matching the value of each colourto a gray. 2. in an a r b i t r a r i l y chosen theme of compleuientery contrast. Series Dt Gray Scales From black and white magazine photographs cut thin strips of a l l the grays available, and arrange them i n vertical, par° a l l e l stripes from black to white and back to black. Evalu- ate the accurate judgment of grays, place strips of white, gray and blstjk across the exercise and describe the il l u s i o n . Follow with discussion of reloted pigment mixing in the Weber-Fechner Law. Create eight stripes graduating from black to white. Mount them in parallel juxtaposed lines, alternating black and white; at the l e f t margin. Describe the visual effect. 1. 2. Series E: Colour in One Piane (9 hues in square format) 1. Which i s darker? a) warm b ) cool 2. Which is lighter? a) warm b) cool These exercises are to be followed by a discussion of apparent distance, end temperature of colours, and by a study of colour space in paintings. Series F; Saturation 1. From-several of the most saturated versions of one hue, choose: a) the reddest b ) the bluest c) :the: greenest d) the. .yellowest 89. 2, The 2nd Effect—Piece samples of one. hue in two rows of i n - creasing saturation. One row w i l l have L\ samples. The'se- cond row w i l l duplicate the f i r s t , but w i l l have an additional, more saturated sample. Compere the fourth sample in each row,, Tjjis series is to be followed by a discussion of the psychology of colour perception.. Series Gi Study in Complementary Mixture lo Take saturated papers of the three primaries and three se- condaries. Find the papers that show three equally spaced mixtures of the parent with i t s complement. Arrange in a hexagonal pattern with a grey center, 2. Repeat the exercise in pigment for one complementary pair. Paint seven e^ual steps from red to green, blue to orange, or yellow to purple. 3. By arranging complementary pairs in vertical stripes, create: a) additive mixture of complements b) complementary contrast. Series Ht Colour Assimilation 1. Arrange alternating v e r t i c a l stripes of yellow end gray above stripes of blue and gray. Compare-the grays. 2. Juxtapose two Maltese crosses of blue and yellovs, with a gray centre. Describe what happens when concentration is alterna- ted between the blue cross and the yellow cross. S eries It Study in Vibration 1. Create grid patterns using: a) warm end cool colours of f u l l .saturation and equal light intensity b) warm end cool colours of gre&t brilliance c) warm and cool colours of dim brilliance d) chromatic and achromatic colours e) two warm colours f) two cool colours .Mount the six studies together and determine.the .principles of vibration. 2. Free study in two-colour vibration, compositional choice. 90. Series Jt Additive Mixture 1. Find two colours end arrange them in a pattern that w i l l allow optical mixture of the colours before they reach the retina. T^is w i l l be followed by a discussions of where additive mixture i s found, e.g. Impressionism, Pointillism, printing process, weaving. Series Ki Study in Spreading Effect 1. Create grid patterns using: a) dark on light b) light on dark This will, be followed by an investigation of 'halation', i t s reason, and •its prevalence in dally vision. Series L: Optical Ambiguities 1. Using black and white striped paper (obtainable in wrapping .paper) create a design which w i l l produce the greatest visual ambiguity. 2. Do the same with coloured stripes. 3. Find the combination of colours, which, when mounted in intarsic, angular patterns, w i l l cause the boundaries to disappear. ^ - Series M: Study in Transparency and Space I l l u s i o n 1. 8 as 5 a) white film over red, blue, green and violet b) 2$% green film over four colours , c) 5°̂  re<3 film over four colours 2. Create a ladder of eight brightness steps of one hue. Find one 'colour that, when placed between these steps, w i l l ap- pear to come from behind half the steps, and l i e over the 6ther half. Follow these exercises with a discussion of volume colour, apparent weight, and distance of colour and how this affects man. Series N: Study in Colour Harmony 1. Using four colours, create twenty-four variations of one pattern. Evaluate in terms of space, temperature, weight, quantity, colour and brightness changes. .9.1. 2. Create an harmonious colour composition. Describe how this harmony i s achieved in terms of quantity (how much and how often), intensity, and weight. 1. Colour ana Emotion—With three colours, create a composition depicting each emotion: a.) love b) envy ... c) hate d) depression 2 . Colour and A c t i v i t y — U s i n g the same design and different colours, create one composition that i s active and one that i s passive, 3. Colour and Age—Using the. same design,/very-the colours in two compositions to depict old age and youth. 4. Colour and Personality—Free studies- using different sets of three colours to depict: a) Hitler b) Toscanini c) Cleopatra v d) Napoleon e) Doris Dgy f) personality of choice T ne designs must contain no associative elements. Series P: Analyses of Great Paintings, (from good reproductions) 1. Using, post card reproduction for tracing erects, analyze the following paintings in separate studies of value, dominant colour, subordinate colour, colour, temperature and colour space; a ) E l Greco Assumption of the, Virgin b) David Lamentation at the Foot of the Cross c) Degas At the Millinery d) Seurat Sunday Afternpon^ on the Island of La Grande Jatte . . • . e) Gaugin -Why are You Angry? f) Cezanne The• .White. Sugar Bowl g) Matisse^ Madame- Matisse. • * 2 . Using the same analyses of value, dominant and subordinate colours, colour teraperarture, and colour space, study five paintings in the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y that exhibit out- standing use of colour. Series 0: Symbolic Use of Colour 92. These exercises w i l l be supplemented with independent research on a topic of the student's choice, to be presented in written and oral form to the class, and to be accompanied by experiments and visual examples where possible. The students w i l l be required to read Interaction of Color by Josef Albers, "The Color Problem in Pure Painting—Its-Creative Origin," by Hans Hofmann, and The Art of Color by Johannes Itten. (See Bibliography.) S-fcUdent's research presentations w i l l require considerable reading in speci- f i c f i e l d s . This course, however, does not require extensive reading be- cause i t s purpose i s to promote problem-solving a b i l i t y with colour. This cannot be learned from reading. Examples of solutions to the exercises in the courae outline are available on request to the writer. So, too, i s The Background for Teaching Colour, a. two-hundred e ighteen page review of research into physics, psychophysics, physiolo^, psychology and references, designed enrich the background of the teacher approaching the subject of colour.with art students. 93. GLOSSARY Achromatic - Colour lacking a distinguishable hue. Additive Mixture - The mixture of the light primaries—red, blue, and green—in the eye, ultimately forming white. Brightness - The dimension of colour referring to a scale of perceptions representing a colour's similarity to one of a series of achromatic colours ranging from very dim (dark) to very bright (dazzling). Chromatic - Colour with distinguishable hue and saturation. Colorant - A colouring material, taking the form of a soluble dye or an insoluble pigment. Colour - One aspect of visual experience that can be described as having quantitatively specifiable dimensions of hue, saturation, and brightness. Hue - The dimension of colour referring to a scale of perceptions ranging from red through yellow, green, and blue. Light Intensity - The eye's evaluation of the light reflected from a pigment. Saturation -. The dimension of colour referring to a scale of perceptions representing a colour's degree?of departure from achromatic colour of the same brightness. (Sometimes called Intensity.) Shade - A hue which has been darkened by the addition of black. Subtractive Mixture - The absorbing action of the pigment primaries— magenta, cyan, and yellow—ultimately forming black. Tint - A hue which has been lightened by the addition of white. Tone - A colour which has been modified in hue and saturation by the addition of i t s complement. Value - Synonymous with brightness and light intensity. 94. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books, and Publications by the Government and Educational Boards: Albers, Josef, Interaction of Color, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, I963. Anderson, Ponaia M. Elements of Pesign. New York: Holt, Rinehart an£ Winston, 1 9 6 1 . Arnheim, Rudolf, Art and Visual Perception, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1 9 5 8 . Art. Elementary Schools. Members of the Bureau of Art, Chicago: mimeographed, n.d. Balinkin, Isay. The Color Tree. New York: Interchemical Corporation, 1 9 6 5 . Bernstein, M. Colour In Art and Daily L i f e , trans. R. Granger Watkin. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd., 1 9 2 8 . Bezold, Wilhelm von. The. Theory of Color. Bostonr L. Prang and Co., I876. Binder, Joseph. Colour in Advertising. London: The Studio Ltd., 1934* Birren, Faber. Color: A Survey in Words and Pictures. New York: University Books, Inc., 1 9 6 3 . . Color Psychology and Color Therapy. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1 9 5 0 . . New Horizons in, Color. New York: Rinehold Publishing Corpora- tion, 1 9 5 5 . Boos-Hamburger, Hilde. The Creative Power of Colour. Burnley: F. H. Brown Ltd., I963. Bopst, Harland. Color and Personality. New York: Vantage Press, 1 9 6 2 . Bouma, P. J. Physical Aspects of Colour. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Philips Industries, 1 9 4 7 . Brindley, G. S. Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway. London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., i 9 6 0 . 95. Bucke, Richard Maurice. Cosmic Consciousness. Introduction by George Moreby Acklom. New York: E. P. Putton and Co., Inc., 195°. Buddenbrock, Wolfgang von. The Senses. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, I964. Burnham, Robert W., Randall M. Hanes, and C. James Bartieson. Color: » Guide to Basic Facts ana Concepts. New York: John Wiley and. Sons, Inc., I963. Burris-Meyer, Elizabeth. Historical Color Guide. New York: William Helburn, Inc., 1938. Burt, C. The Factors of the Mind. London: University of London Press, 1940. Carpenter, H. Barrett. Colour. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd.., 1933* Chevreul, M. E. The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours and Their Applications to the Arts. London: George B e l l and Sons, I890. Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America. The Science of Color. Washington, P.C: Optical Society of America, 19&3* Eng, Helga-. The Psychology of Children's Drawings. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner end Co., Ltd., 1931* Evans, Ralph M. An Introduction to Color. New York; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1961. Gibson, James J. The Perception of the Visual World. New York: Houghton, M i f f l i n Co., 1950. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Theory of Colour, trans. E. L. Eastlake. London: Murray, l82jO. Graves, Maitland. The Art of Color and Pjasign. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951. Gregg, Jemes R., ahd Gordon G. Heath. The Eye and Sight. Boston: P. C. Heath and Co., 1964- Gregory, R. L. Eye and Brain. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Co., 1966. Harris, Chester W.,. ed. Encyclopedia pf Educational Research. New York: The Macmillan Co., i960. 96. Hartridge, Hamilton. Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision. London: J . and A. Churchill Ltd.. 1 9 5 ° . Hering, Ewald. Outlines of a. Theory of the Light Sense, trans. Leo M. Hurvich an* Porthea Jameson. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, I96J4. Hochberg, Julian E. Perception. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1 9 6 4 . Houstoun, R. A. Light and Colour. Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co., 1 9 2 3 . Itten, Johannes. The Art of Color, trans. Ernest van Haagen. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1 9 6 1 . Jacobson, Egbert. Basic Colour. Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1 9 4 8 . Judd, Deane B. Color in Business. Science, and Industry. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., I963. Kandinsky, Wassily. On, the Spiritual in Art, trans. Hilda. Rebay. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation for the Museum of Non- Objective Painting, 1 9 4 6 . Kargere, Audrey. Color and Personality. New York: Philosophical Library, 1 9 4 9 . Katz, D. ' The World of Colour, trans. R. B. MacLeod and C. W. Fox. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., 1935* Klee, Paul. The Thinking Eye, ed. Jurg Sp i l l e r ; trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: G. Wittenborn, 1 9 6 4 . Koblo, Martin. Worla of Color. An Introduction to the Theory and Use of Color in Art, trans. Ian F. Finlay. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1 9 6 3 . Koffka, K. Principles of Gestalt Psychology. New York: Harcourt- Brace, 1 9 3 5 . Lindberg, Bengt J. Experimental Studies of Colour and Non-Colour A t t i - tude l a School Children en* Adults. Copenhagen: Levin and Munks- gaard, 1 9 3 8 . Llewellyn, Margaret. Colour and Pattern in Your Home. London: The Council of Industrial Design, n.&. 97. Luckliesh, Matthew. Color an* Colors. Toronto: General Publishing Co. Ltd., 1938. . Light and Color in Advertising end Merchandising. New York: P. van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1927. Ma lor Art in J&e Academic High Schools. Curriculum Bulletin No. 11, Board of Education. New York: Pacific Printing Co., Inc., 1960-61. Melvin, Grace. Design. Outline of a course formerly given at the Vancouver School of Art, lent by Gordon Smith. Milner, Marion. On Not Being Able to Paint. Introduction by Anna Freud. London: William Heinemann, Ltd., 1957. Mueller, Conrad G. Sensory Psychology. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, I965. Ostwaia, Wilhelm. Colour Science, trans. J. Scott Taylor, London: Winsor and Newton Ltd., 1932. Packard, Vance Oakley. The Hidden Persuaders. New York: P. McKay Company, 1957. Pickford, R. W. Individual Differences in Colour Vision. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd.» 1951* Rankin, H. A. The Teaching pf Colour. London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., n.d.. Reiser, Oliver L. The Alchemy o_£ Light .an* Color. New York: W. W. Norton ana Co., Inc., I928. Renner, Paul. .Color: Orfler an* Harmony, trans. Alexander Nesbitt. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 19&4. Rood, Ogden N. Stuaent's Text-Book of Color. New York: r . Appleton and Co., I916. Scott, Robert William. Design Fundamentals. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951. Sears, F. W. Principles pf Physics. Vol. I l l of 0ptiC3. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press, Inc., 1945. Shearer, Vernon and Arthur Smith. In Search of Colour. Birmingham, England: The Kynoch Press, 1948-49. 98. Smith, Charles N. Student Handbook of Color. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1 9 6 5 . Taylor, F. A. Colour Technology. 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