UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Synchronic analysis of tagalog phonemes Yap, Fe Aldave 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A8 Y3.pdf [ 9.64MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105401.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105401-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105401-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105401-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105401-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105401-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105401-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105401-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105401.ris

Full Text

A SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS OF TAGALOG PHONEMES by FE ALDAVE YAP B.S.E., U n i v e r s i t y  of Santo Tomas, 1956  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that die L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study-  I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s  thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives.  I t i s understood that copying  or p u b l i c a t i o n of" t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of C l a s s i c s . D i v i s i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  April.  196?  of L i n g u i s t i c s  ABSTRACT The  title  "A Synchronic  A n a l y s i s of Tagalog Phonemes" as  d e f i n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , i s the o b j e c t of t h i s study.* I t attempts t o g i v e a p u r e l y s y n c h r o n i c  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the phonemic  system o f the Tagalog language as spoken by the present gator who has made h e r s e l f t h e informant  investi-  f o r this investigation.  1  The purpose i s t o shape t h i s m a t e r i a l i n t o the form o f a u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n and a sound o r i e n t a t i o n f o r students  of g e n e r a l  l i n g u i s t i c s , o r l i n g u i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n the P h i l i p p i n e n a t i o n a l language The phonemes o f Tagalog a r e analyzed  i n terms o f the  formula:* C U = V D U n i t r e f e r s t o the phoneme.  1  Tagalog.1  There a r e 21 segmental phonemes i n  They a r e c l a s s i f i e d and t h e i r p a t t e r n s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d  on the b a s i s o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s by which they stand i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each other.  1  Among consonants there a r e two main  dimensions of phonemic c o n t r a s t : p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n and manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n . ^  A f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t of v o i c e versus  e x i s t s i n t h e stop phonemes only;*  breath  The main d i s t i n c t i v e  features  of Tagalog vowels i n v o l v e two-dimensional c o n t r a s t s i n h e i g h t and  advancement o f the tongue.1  There a r e other,  subsidiary,  f e a t u r e s l i k e l i p - r o u n d i n g , tenseness and laxness  o f the tongue,  l e n g t h , etc.'  by schematic  1  Such c o n t r a s t s a r e here represented  diagrams:  * P i k e , U n i t (U) = C o n t r a s t (C), V a r i a t i o n (V) and D i s t r i b u t i o n (D). T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n capsule was e x p l a i n e d by Prof.' R.> Roe o f t h e S I L i n a seminar a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f the P h i l i p p i n e s i n 196k.'  iii  (i)  (ii)  Tagalog Consonant P a t t e r n  Tagalog Vowel P a t t e r n  These phonemes have allophones which are e i t h e r i n complementary  d i s t r i b u t i o n or i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n . '  of phonemes w i t h i n  The  variations  g i v e n morphemes a r e here c o n s i d e r e d t o be  morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s . ' The b a s i c s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e s e.%;?, t u b i g /tutolg/ 'water'v  of Tagalog are CV and  Tagalog words r e p r e s e n t e d o r t h o -  g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h a f i n a l vowel may  end w i t h e i t h e r / ? / or /h/  which i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the w r i t i n g system.*' contrastive /h&tah/  distribution?  CVC,  The two are i n  Thus, b a t a /b£ta?/ ' c h i l d * ' vs.; b a t a  'bathrobe').N  Consonant c l u s t e r s occur I n a l l p o s i t i o n s .  1  Initial  clusters  iv may be summarized  i n the f o l l o w i n g formula: C = C]_C = C = 2  2  Ci = Ci = C x = C^ =  Consonant the f i r s t and second C s 1 r w y  t i fC = s p b k g i f C = 1 p b t d k g i f C 2 = r any C except w y i f C 2  2  2  = w or y  These c l u s t e r s may be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  examples:  t s a / t s a h / 'tea' , k l a s e / k l a s e h / ' c l a s s , d i y a n /dyan/ 1  kwento /kwentoh/  1  'there',  'story' , etc.*'. 1  Suprasegmentally, Tagalog has t h r e e kinds of s t r e s s : primary /*'/. secondary / V of p i t c h : / l / ,  and weak (unmarked); t h r e e l e v e l s  /2/ and /3/» r e a d i n g from low t o h i g h ; and two  t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s : " s i n g l e bar" /|/ and " r i s i n g  - 1  j u n c t u r e /J7i  f!  S t r e s s p l a y s an important r o l e i n Tagalog and i t i s a d i s t i n c t i v e phenomenon which conveys meaning.' l a t e d w i t h length.)  Stress i s corre-  The f o l l o w i n g p a i r s of words a r e d i s t i n -  guished only by s t r e s s or l e n g t h : baga /b£:ga?/ 'lungs* and baga /ba^gah/ /baga^h/  "ember' vs.' baga /bagS':?/ 'abscess' and baga  ' i n t e r r o g a t i v e marker' .* 1  The scope o f t h i s study does not i n c l u d e a d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of Tagalog suprasegmental features.'  Many  i n t e r e s t i n g problems concerning the suprasegmental phenomena remain unsolved.^ The s o l u t i o n t o these problems i s l e f t f o r l a t e r study;i  TABLE. OF CONTENTS Page L i s t o f F i g u r e s o r I l l u s t r a t i o n s .i.y.uV;y.W.i.V^.V.Uy.i.y  viii  L i s t o f Symbols and Abbreviations.^.i.';U^. ^.u i w:. .^. .i.i.^^.1J 1  i  l <  ix  5  The Tagalog I ^ g u a g e . ^ i . ^ . U U . ^  xiii  Acknowledgments ;1;y.W.V.VuW«V^^  xix  Dedioatlon.'i^.^&Vi^Vito^  xxi ,  l.i  INTRODUCTION^.^.^  1  l;tl  Statement o f the Problem. ;t^.^I.^'^.i.';i.^y.^;u'i;^.^l.'.^  1^2  Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the  1^3  P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s Made on the S u b j e c t . ^ . ^ ^ • V ^ . ^ . ^  2  l A  Sources o f Data and Methods of A p p r o a c h ^ . y . ^ ^ v ' ^ i U  3  l.<5  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used;t.U^^.^.Uu^ .U^;!.ul.^i1.i. ^; ^^  5  Z.i  The Sounds of Speech s  6  33  Contoids aid VocoldiS^^^jJ^.^^^.^:^^J.^^^^^$^^^  6  ty;  R e l a t i o n s Between Phonetics and Phonemics.^.uWiuu!  8  5.1  The Concept o f Phoneme;1;<&H.^;U^.-^  6^  Inventory o f Tagalog Phonemes;«.ii!.^.i.'.U .i.i^.l.^^^.<. i.v^  1^  7.-  Segmental Phonemes.'.N;y;'';^;>«^. ^.^  15  7.1  Cons onant s J .< j J-JU3  7 JlitL  Stops^.1^iy.'.y.^y.V^;W;^  15  7.U.-2  Nasals^.U.^U.y^.^J.U;^^  17  7;'1^3  Fricatives ; u $ ; U ^ ^ , V ^ ; ^ ^  18  7.1^  Laterali;yv.^;U^.i^  18  7;i^5  Flap^&i&i&W^  18  1  i  1  M  a  t  e  r  i  a  ,  l  l  s  i  Phonetics.i^.^i.^i.^ij.'ii'.^-.^.i^.i  1  10 l  i  !  J ; y .'I, .1 . y ,-f .i ; i ;t.l.i;< ^ ;•>'. i;i.»; ;i.1, f ;f  r  ;  15  !  vi  7$1*$6 Send vowels ; i ; U . i W 3 3 i U V ^  19  7^2  VOTels.H.U^.^^^  21  7;i3  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Semivowels^^sy.^JU^^^^iU^;^?^.^  22  7'-^  Diphthongs^iU'^.^I.^.V^  23  8.4  Distinctive  8.0.  Consonant P a t t e n i s ^ . ^ ; * ^  25  8iim  V o i c e versus V o l c e l e s s n e s s ' ; ^ . ^ ^  26  8iai'2  P o i n t versus Manner o f A r t i c u l a t i o n ^ . . * . ^ . ^ ^ ^ . ^ ^ ; ^  28  8*2  T a g a l o g Vowel  Patterns^.%^^.^^^;i.^^. i.i.?.i.^y i.3 f;^5.i^  30  9.  Contrast,  V a r i a t i o n and DistributionSi^ii^^^.'i'.^i^i.i  31  9^1  Contrast  9J2  Variation  9. '2.1  A l l o p h o n i c A l t e r n a t i o n o f Consonants .U;<;i;?.UU^ii; .  9^2.12  A l l p h o n i c A l t e r n a t i o n o f Vcmels^^.^^;^.wM^i^^  9^22*3  A l t e r n a t i o n o f Diphthongs^ii.^J;^'^.^.';)^.!.'.';^.^^^^^  101  F o r e i g n Sounds  102  10 ii  PhonotactiGs;^^.y?i.i.U*^  107  10.1  Syllable StructureS^iW.^.^  107  10^2  Consonant C l u s t e r s  1  F  e  a  t  u  r  e  s  .  2  1  !  i  i  5  31 and D i s t r i b u t i o n i l . < J i ! ^ . ^ . ^ . i . ^ i 1 i l . i . ! . ! J . ^ . i ^ . y l  91  94  ij  97  (CC) .". U^.J.U^^.U^. ^^.' ;'i!iUl.i^.^.i;i !  J  10.12ill P r e v o c a l i c Consonant C l u s t e r s  109  1  (CC-) ^..f.li wi. i^iii'i. .u i  r  1  110  l  10. :2i!2 I n t e r v o c a l i c Consonant C l u s t e r s  (-CC-)iuVuV.-.'.ViU  124  10.'2.3 P r e j u n c t u r a l Consonant C l u s t e r s  (-CC) •i'V.V.iii.^.iiVii  125  10^3  Vowel  F  r  e  q  u  11;'  Morphophonemic Mternationsi ;!.U .'U .'.i. 'i^ii .^ . i?.;; .U ^i !  e l  ,  n  c  i  y i  l  l  1 ;i  i!  2 l  7 128  vii  12.'  Suprasegmental Features;W5^;V.y^; ;U.>; ^.  13*  A l t e r n a t i v e Formlations;^y;U^;«.-V ;y.*J.y.^. .*.y.'. . ;  142  14.1  SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS . * ; W ^ J ^ J i ^  1^9  ,  134  1  ;  !  :  1  l  BIBLIOGRAPHY;!.'!..;'..^'.'..^;'. ^.i.i;i. .:.i.y. . .';U .';i. . . ;';y.<  151  IITOEX^v.y;y.uuy;^v.y^  155  1 1  1  1  i  i  1  i  1  i  i  List  of Figures  or I l l u s t r a t i o n s  Fig.  1:  Map  Fig.  2:  Philippine  Fig.  3:  C r o s s S e c t i o n of Head, Showing P r i n c i p a l Speech  Fig.  4:  A Chart of Tagalog Contoids  Fig.  5:  A Chart of Vocoids  Fig.  6:  A Chart of  Fig.  7:  A T a b l e o f Phonemic  Fig.  8:  C o n s o n a n t Phonemes ( w i t h  Fig.  9:  V o w e l Phonemes a n d D i p h t h o n g s  Fig.  10:  Voiced-Voiceless  Fig.  11:  Tagalog Consonant  Pattern  Fig.  12:  The T a g a l o g V o w e l  Triangle  Fig.  13:  The V o w e l T r i a n g l e  of the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  Showing Tagalog-Speaking  Cultural-Linguistic  Groups  (HRA  Files)  Diphthongs Symbols  Stop  Examples)  Pattern  (Expanded)  (with  Areas  Examples)  Organs  List [  ]  /  /  of Symbols and A b b r e v i a t i o n s  B r a c k e t s ; enclose p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n ( [ p ] ) Slant  l i n e s or.bars; enclose phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n  (/V) // // Double s l a n t l i n e s ; e n c l o s e morphophonemic cription **  trans-  {// e - 1 //)  S q u i g g l e ; means " a l t e r n a t e s  ( v a r i e s ) w i t h " or " i n  a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h " ( [ X ] « L~l]) **  T i l or t i l d e ;  over a vowel, i n d i c a t e s  nasalization  of the vowel ( [ o ] ) ^  I n p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n , used under i , and u t o i n d i c a t e g l i d e v a l u e s (ai^ = /ay/)  *  >  Raised c a r e t ;  indicates  articulation  ([o*])  Cedilla; indicates Hyphen; i n d i c a t e s  a sound w i t h s l i g h t l y h i g h e r  p a l a t a l i z e d sound  ([ts])  the p o s i t i o n of a phoneme or  a f f i x i n a word ( r - f o r i n i t i a l r ; - r - f o r i n t e r v o c a l i c r j - r f o r f i n a l r , or - i n f o r s u f f i x i n ; -in- for i n f i x in) *<  Acute accent; i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , over a vowel of a word i n d i c a t e s  *>•  (/mahaiL/ 'dear')  Grave accent; i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , over a vowel of a word i n d i c a t e s  '•  primary s t r e s s  secondary  stress  Superior v e r t i c a l t i c k ; i n phonetic b e f o r e the s t r e s s e d stress  (/lalakad/ ' w i l l walk ) 1  transcription,  s y l l a b l e , indicates  (/»sa:mah/ 'to go')  primary  I n f e r i o r v e r t i c a l t i c k ; b e f o r e the s t r e s s e d indicates  secondary s t r e s s  ([isa:'sa:mah] ' w i l l go'  Colon: i n d i c a t e s vowel l e n g t h  (['ba:ta?J  S i n g l e bar; i n d i c a t e s t e r m i n a l R i s i n g juncture; means "becomes  indicates  syllabi  'child')  juncture.  terminal  juncture.  0  means "comes from" for  consonant  f o r consonant for i n i t i a l for final  clusters  clusters  clusters  f o r medial c l u s t e r s f o r vowel for  semivowel  Indicates  a s y l l a b i c structure  consonant-vowel-  consonant I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l  Language  Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s P h i l i p p i n e Center f o r Language Study  f  ••nvfrrmirc' W A J O R LUZON  .1  CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC  E Z 3 £5^53 A P A Y A O ,  L  O  R  GROUPS  • • .  O  0.  T I H O O I A H  L3sl K A L I N O * ^__J  1 U A N A C  |  PHILIPPINE  .  B O N T O X  j  UTTTTi " °*° u  KANKANAI •»» • ..  VZZZ]  r~i [  ,  .  ISLANDS^  CULTURAL - LINGUISTIC GROUPS  o,  I L O N O O T  j  Location Based On The Criterion Of Dominant Language As Recorded In The Philippine Census: 193$ Tho Eight Major Chris/ion Groups Art Shown In Darker Patterns; Pagan And Uoro Groups In Lighter' Patterns. - Uof, 1953  P A N G A S I N A H  p:::^  £ £ 3 « « " " « < • P A  P A N O A N  M  ' i ' '  •iij T A O A LOO E£2 "< • D  ii  0,  t.'.inooRO  •  TAOA  '•  LOO  cm '"** y  SCALE  A A AM • \':':'r.'\.\ 1[ | j R A T A N O A H , L  NO  N A U H A N  T A C A V O A M  £212 1 ".-•l  I 1 A N G O N  ly  P U L A  ;>i  B U H I O  I  | J []T[Tl]  J A M A R  E S 3  5 U C B U H A N O H  ^i^ANItAl^/J&jji  I  L t K T I ( C I B U A K O )  H I L I O A T N O N  A K L A M  PALAWAN j _  t  Y N O N  ISLANDS  j i i i ^  CZ3  (CUYO  B CAGAYANCILLO  IS.)  K U Y O N O N  _ j  |;;.;; |  S I L A N G A N C K - T A O B A N V W A  V  t;V/N:'j  ±  - •  T A N O D U L A N C N - T A O I A N V W A '  I'iY'.'l  .  B A T A K  ,  T A O B A N U W A  |»H  P A L A W A N  d j ]  1  L t C A  BIS AY A/I  t///j  IV  OO  A A T A G N O N Hl  ill  H U N  HA  K E - N E Y |  V  J  M O B O  [ T A W  MINDANAO |  ~~[  M O H O  j£Vy :  9 A M A L ,  BAJ  A  u]  [ T A W  S U O .  ItMAt,  B A J A U J  i S1L  1 U O B U K A N O N  I U B A N U N  |v: : : } ;  » U C ,  Q SOLI/  :  M A A A N A O ( M O A O I  [VTj fT^ T I A U A A Y  M A O I N O A N A O  \  1 M 0 » O I  !-- 1 D U L A N O A N ( C O T O B A T O MAftOBO) Mlii T A O A . I t l r»--i » I L A A N t,,, j  K U L  A  M A  N  ( M A N O B O  A A A N O A N I )  f  T A G A K A O L O BAOOAO  t-' .'l  Killilll * T A  liy*^\ftp»*ftutt|  ,  1  v  ^  • " . . . ' .'  MANdOVANOAN f j M A N O O O [AOUJAN O I O A B A O N If-H^H B U K I D N O N llllil M A N O A Y A DR ( I J  CULTURAL?LINGUISTIC I V A T A H  •  H I T O  fiS w e e  •  GROUPS  -  , *  A J S O U M A O A T ff\ S A  (S)  I S 1 M A  0 ft A ( ^ y  O O A H O  If  •»"'•.• f  K T O H  H A K 7 1 I C  ACUTAYNON Clj  M  f . l . K I I U C  A  N O N  l(  (MOftOi |L AN O R  V A K A N  | M O A O |  J A M A M AP U N ( M O N O ) ':-.) lAhOIL ( MORO) II A MA L M A M A K U A  L,J!-"  ——»— -o / '  F  "  '  * ^»' S  C  K  L  K  B  S  S  S  •• •• —  A  —  ' -  "  -  t  A  The T a g a l o g L a n g u a g e How  many F i l i p i n o s  speak T a g a l o g ?  The i 9 6 0 c e n s u s  t h a t t h e T a g a l o g l a n g u a g e i s s p o k e n by a b o u t hy/o 2 7 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0  shows  o f more t h a n  p o p u l a t i o n of the R e p u b l i c of the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  country w i t h a t o t a l l a n d a r e a of 1 1 5 , 0 0 0 p o s e d o f more t h a n 7 , 0 0 0  square m i l e s ,  a  com-  i s l a n d s o f f the coast of South East  A s i a I n the Western P a c i f i c .  I t i s the language of the people  f r o m t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f L u z o n , t h e l a r g e s t and t h e most l y populated i s l a n d i n the Archipelago.  thick-  This includes the  city  o f M a n i l a and p r o v i n c e s o f B a t a a n , B a t a n g a s , B u l a c a n , C a v i t e , L a g u n a , N u e v a E c i j a , M a r i n d u q u e , M i n d o r o and R i z a l .  In addition  t o T a g a l o g , o t h e r major languages a r e spoken, namely:  Cebuano,  I l o c a n o , H i l i g a y n o n , B i k o l , Pampango, Waray and P a n g a s i n a n , i n a d d i t i o n t o some 80 t o 1 5 0 Although a l l family,  m i n o r l a n g u a g e s and  dialects.  these languages belong t o the Malayo-Polynesian  they are not mutually i n t e l l i g i b l e .  T a g a l o g i s s p o k e n as a f i r s t  o r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e by 2 1 $  and  as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e by 2 3 * 3 $ o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e I s l a n d s , who language. census. million. 5 0 $  a l s o s p e a k t h e i r own  native  The p r e s e n t y e a r i s I 9 6 7 - - s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e l a t e s t The  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d t o t h i r t y - t h r e e  By now,  one c o u l d o p t i m i s t i c a l l y g u e s s t h a t more t h a n  of the F i l i p i n o s  c a t i o n , the m o b i l i t y  can speak t h e l a n g u a g e .  The  s p r e a d o f edu-  o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  number o f mass m e d i a o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n — movies, l o c a l d a i l y newspapers,  radio,  of a  television,  c o m i c s , e t c . - - have a l l  contri-  b u t e d t o t h e e n r i c h m e n t and p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e T a g a l o g language  xiv all  over the country. Tagalog was made the b a s i s of the n a t i o n a l language by a  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l mandate.  The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Commonwealth  p r o v i d e d f o r the "adoption of a common n a t i o n a l language based on one o f the e x i s t i n g n a t i v e languages."  The need f o r l i n -  g u i s t i c study t o determine the a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s of a n a t i o n a l language r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language i n 1936  by Commonwealth A c t 184.'  Tagalog was o f f i c i a l -  ly  chosen by the I n s t i t u t e on November 9.  of  the same y e a r , P r e s i d e n t Manuel L. Quezon p r o c l a i m e d Tagalog  as the b a s i s of the n a t i o n a l language.  1937.  On December 3 0  The t e a c h i n g of the  language i n a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s became mandatory. On J u l y 4, of  1946,  i t became one of the t h r e e o f f i c i a l  languages  the P h i l i p p i n e s , the o t h e r two b e i n g Spanish and E n g l i s h . Modern Tagalog i n c l u d e s elements from other P h i l i p p i n e  languages and has adopted loanwords and English.'  from Malay, Chinese, Spanish  L e x i c a l items from other P h i l i p p i n e languages  l i k e Ilokano saluyot  'a k i n d of v e g e t a b l e ' , pakbet  f  a k i n d of  v e g e t a b l e d i s h ' , manong ' a p p e l l a t i o n g i v e n t o o l d e r b r o t h e r ' , manang ' a p p e l l a t i o n g i v e n t o o l d e r s i s t e r ' , and V i s a y a n bana 'husband , k a l o 'hat, cap', Inday 1  ' l i t t l e g i r l ' , dodong  boy , e t c , have become a p a r t of the Tagalog vocabulary. 1  'little 5  Tagalog words l i k e utang 'debt',. abo 'ashes', walo ' e i g h t ' , anay ' t e r m i t e ' , a n t i n g - a n t i n g 'talisman' e t c . , a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h 'other P h i l i p p i n e languages i n form and meaning. Malay words a r e cognate w i t h Tagalog.  More than  3,000  The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e  i d e n t i c a l i n the two languages i n form and meaning: mata 'eye',  XV  dulang 'low t a b l e ' , payong 'umbrella', t&mbang 'weight', 'goat', buaya ' c r o c o d i l e ' , l a n g i t  'sky'.  of Chinese o r i g i n l i k e t s a ' t e a ' , p a n s i t  Around 1,500  kambing  words are  'a k i n d of r i c e  noodle  cooked with shrimps, m e a t - b a l l s ' , e t c . , madyong 'mahjong', s u s i 'key', bakya 'wooden shoes', l o l o list*  shows  5.000 words  'grandfather', e t c .  borrowed from Spanish, such as maestro  'teacher', p r e s i d e n t e ' p r e s i d e n t ' , s i l y a barbekyu  'barbecue*,  ' c h a i r ' , mesa ' t a b l e ' ,  g i t a r a ' g u i t a r ' , sumbrero 'hat', e t c .  E n g l i s h has c o n t r i b u t e d approximately 1,500 most common are i s k u l  'school', t i t s e r  i n g ' , b o k s i n g 'boxing', t e n i s few Japanese words l i k e apa g e i s h a 'Japanese  A word-  words.  Among the  'teacher', m i t i n g 'meet-  'tennis', i s p o r t  'sport , etc. 1  A  ' t h i n wafer', kimono 'a k i n d of b l o u s e ' ,  dancing g i r l ' , dyudq 'judo', samuray  soya 'a k i n d of soy or bean', and s u k i y a k i  'a k i n d of  'samurai', Japanese  d i s h ' , entered Tagalog d i r e c t l y . A number of l e x i c a l items from d i f f e r e n t languages Tagalog through Spanish and E n g l i s h — mon',  altar  entered  ' a l t a r ' , sermon 'ser-  d a t a 'data', album 'album' from L a t i n ; diploma  'diploma',  h e l i k o p t e r ' h e l i c o p t e r ' telepono 'telephone' from Greek; amen 'amen', r a b i  ' r a b b i ' , satanas  'satan', Sabado 'Saturday',  Hebrew; makaroni 'macaroni', i s p a g e t i  ' s p a g h e t t i ' , opera  from 'opera',  piyano 'piano', g r o t o ' g r o t t o ' from I t a l i a n ; b o d a b i l ' v a u d e v i l l e ' , kabaret  'cabaret', t s a l e t  'chalet', p o l t r i  'poultry', prinsipe  ' p r i n c e ' , p r i n s e s a ' p r i n c e s s ' from French; hamburger 'hamburger', semester  'semester',  seminar  'seminar' from German; k u k i s ' c o o k i e s ' ,  •Spanish Loan Words i n Tagalog.' of N a t i o n a l Language, I960.'  P u b l i c a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e  xvi bos  ' b o s s ' , y a t e ' y a c h t , komando 'commando', f r o m D u t c h ;  kabayo  1  'horse', p l s o  'peso' f r o m Mexican; mokasin  'wigwam , k a u k u s 1  ' m o c c a s i n ' , wigwam  ' c a u c u s ' f r o m some I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s ; d i y a s ' j a z z '  bandyo ' b a n j o ' f r o m some A f r i c a n l a n g u a g e s ; i s p u t n i k  'sputnik',  s o b y e t ' s o v i e t ' , kosmonot 'cosmonaut'. bodka 'vodka' f r o m R u s s i a . Some o f t h e w o r d s f r o m o t h e r l a n g u a g e s t h a t e n t e r e d T a g a l o g t h r o u g h Malay a r e b a t h a l a  'god', hukom ' j u d g e ' , tumbaga  f r o m S a n s k r i t ; padyama o r p i d y a m a sari  ' s a r i ' , guro  alkohol  sala  shajmou 'shampoo',  ' t e a c h e r ' , b a n d a n a 'bandana' f r o m H i n d u s t a n i ;  'alcohol', algebra 'algebra', aprikot  'candy', magasin salawal  'pyjamas',  'copper'  'magazine',  ' a p r i c o t , kendi 1  sherbet 'sherbet' from Arabic;  ' t r o u s e r s ' , kalabasa. 'squash', b a s a r 'bazaar' from P e r s i a ; 'error, s i n ' , saksi  'witness' from the Indonesian l a n -  guage. Tagalog i s s t i l l  growing.  More a n d more new l e x i c a l  f r o m d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s o f t h e w o r l d h a v e come i n t o t h r o u g h t h e mass m e d i a .  Tagalog  They h a v e become a n a t u r a l i z e d p a r t o f  the Tagalog-based n a t i o n a l  language.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that t h i s Tagalog-based l a n g u a g e was g i v e n s e v e r a l names.  !  I n 1940 i t was  In 1 9 5 5  a Department  national  officially  known a s t h e " N a t i o n a l L a n g u a g e " , t h e n i t was c h a n g e d N a t i o n a l Language".  items  to "Filipino  of Education c i r c u l a r  was i s s u e d s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t e r m " F i l i p i n o L a n g u a g e " s h a l l be used i n a l l  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , as w e l l as i n a l l  c i r c u l a r s , memo-  randums, b u l l e t i n s and f o r m s , t o r e f e r t o t h i s s u b j e c t i n t h e curricula. "Filipino".  L a t e r t h e w o r d l a n g u a g e was d r o p p e d a n d i t became In 1 9 5 9 ,  t h e Department  of Education decided that the  xvii  n a t i o n a l language should be known o f f i c i a l l y as " P i l i p i n o " i n the s c h o o l s . Tagalog?  T h i s change a t t r a c t e d p u b l i c . a t t e n t i o n .  Why P i l i p i n o ? —  goes the q u e s t i o n  T h i s has been a c o n t r o v e r s i a l issue.  National  the Visayan  Islands  the D i r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e of  Language, the D i r e c t o r of the Bureau of P u b l i c S c h o o l s ,  the S e c r e t a r y and  i n the p o p u l a r press.'  1  A c e r t a i n congressman r e p r e s e n t i n g f i l e d a case i n court a g a i n s t  Why  of E d u c a t i o n , the S e c r e t a r y  the P r e s i d e n t  of F o r e i g n  Affairs^  of the U n i v e r s i t y of the P h i l i p p i n e s , f o r  u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , the charge was t h a t the respondents have been t e a c h i n g  and p r o p a g a t i n g Tagalog as the  n a t i o n a l language when i t i s only the b a s i s of the n a t i o n a l languages  The t r i a l court decided the case i n f a v o r of the  respondents.'  The complainant appealed t o the Supreme Court where  the case i s now pending f i n a l decision.' P i l i p i n o i s the term more used i n P h i l i p p i n e schools n a t i o n a l language.'  Tagalog i s s t i l l used i n the United  as the  States,  r e f e r r i n g t o the P h i l i p p i n e n a t i o n a l language, e s p e c i a l l y i n the schools  t h a t o f f e r i t as a r e g u l a r course:  U n i v e r s i t y of  C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Hawaii, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan and Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y .  Filipino  students  of l i n g u i s t i c s p r e f e r Tagalog t o Tagalog-based P i l i p i n o .  Is  there r e a l l y a d i f f e r e n c e ? 1  B e g i n n i n g Tagalog:  A Course f o r Speakers of E n g l i s h *  gives  .*J.; Donald Bowen (ed.), B e g i n n i n g Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of E n g l i s h (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) p;' v.  xviii the f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n : For student purposes, the d i f f e r e n c e between P i l i p i n o and Tagalog might best be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of s t y l e and f o r m a l i t y , i n somewhat the way we can d i s t i n g u i s h between the "For whom i s t h i s ? " type of E n g l i s h and the "Who i s t h i s f o r ? " type. Tagalog, the P h i l i p p i n e "Who i s this for?" type, has been p u r p o s e l y chosen r a t h e r than P i l i p i n o , s i n c e i t i s the purpose of t h i s t e x t to prepare the student f o r an i n f o r m a l , i n c o n s p i c u o u s , and n a t i v e - l i k e , r a t h e r than f o r a f o r m a l , n o t i c e a b l e , and s c h o o l - l i k e , c o n t r o l of the language.'  Acknowledgments This i n v e s t i g a t o r  i s greatly  i n d e b t e d t o Dr.' Robert J . Gregg  of the D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s i n the Department of C l a s s i c s , University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r guidance and h e l p f u l  suggest-  i o n s and t o P r o f e s s o r Ruth McCohnell, h e r E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r , f o r she  had the b e n e f i t  o f c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h e r on matters  pertinent  to the study, and o f f e r e d h e r the c o l l e c t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c s books available i n her office.' She  expresses h e r a p p r e c i a t i o n  and thanks t o P r o f e s s o r Roe  of the Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s , Dr.' E r n e s t o Constantino of the Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s and O r i e n t a l Languages of the University  o f the P h i l i p p i n e s , and Dr. C e c i l i o Lopez, U.P. Pro-  f e s s o r Emeritus of L i n g u i s t i c s , f o r t h e i r modern views on l a n guage a n a l y s i s  presented i n a s e r i e s of seminars of the UP L i n -  guistic Circle. Written or verbal received field and  communication which t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r has  from the f o l l o w i n g  persons d i s t i n g u i s h e d  i n t h e i r own  o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has spurred h e r on t o l i n g u i s t i c  research —  studies  Dr.* Kenneth L. P i k e and Dr. R i c h a r d Pittman of  the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s ; Dr. J . Donald Bowen, ;  Dr.  1  all  C l i f f o r d P r a t o r , Dr.< Robert S t o c k w e l l and D r of the U n i v e r s i t y  1  University,  Howard McKaughn of t h e Department of L i n g u i s t i c s of the  University tute  Tommy R, Anders on,  of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles; Dr; Robert Lado  of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s of Georgetown Dr.  #  of Hawaii, and Dr. Jose V i l l a Panganiban of the I n s t i -  of N a t i o n a l L a n g u a g e — t o everyone of them, h e r g r a t e f u l  thanks.  :  XX  She wishes t o o f f e r h e r s i n c e r e thanks t o the Colombo P l a n under the Canadian A i d S c h o l a r s h i p s and F e l l o w s h i p s and the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language, f o r grants t o a c q u i r e some breadth  of mind i n l i n g u i s t i c s ;  and t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia and the UBC I n t e r n a t i o n a l House which made themselves a c o n g e n i a l home f o r t h i s f o r e i g n student from the P h i l i p p i n e s . And l a s t but n o t l e a s t , t o h e r husband, E r n e s t o T. Yap, f o r without h i s understanding have been  completed.  and i n s p i r a t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s would not  Dedicated to THE INSTITUTE OP NATIONAL LANGUAGE  1 1;  INTRODUCTION.  Philippine linguistics.  T h e r e i s now a g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n Tagalog, the basis  n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , d e s e r v e s some s e r i o u s  of the P h i l i p p i n e  study.  There i s a  c r y i n g need f o r l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d m a t e r i a l s P h i l i p p i n e languages.  As t h e r e  on t h e  e x i s t s a t p r e s e n t no a d e q u a t e  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sound system o f T a g a l o g , i t i s u r g e n t  that  s o m e t h i n g be made a v a i l a b l e . 1.1  Statement of the Problem.  Synchronic Analysis  This  thesis entitled  o f T a g a l o g Phonemes" p r e s e n t s  to t r a d i t i o n a l problems i n Tagalog phonology. s o l v e them by a p p l y i n g linguistics.  This  "A  a new a p p r o a c h  I t attempts t o  t h e l a t e s t f i n d i n g s o f modern d e s c r i p t i v e  study represents  from the t r a d i t i o n a l phonological  a rather r a d i c a l departure  a n a l y s i s recommended by t h e  I n s t i t u t e o f N a t i o n a l Language and b e i n g  taught i n P h i l i p p i n e  schools. 1.2 the  Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n  study l i m i t s  of the Materials.  t h e scope of t h e d i s c u s s i o n .  The n a t u r e o f  I t i s purely  d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f T a g a l o g p h o n e m e s — s e g m e n t a l s and segmentals.  The t e x t s t a r t s w i t h  t h e sounds o f speech:  a supra-  phonetics,  g o e s on t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s o u n d s o f s p e e c h : p h o n e m i c s , a n d t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o i s shown. analyzed  Each s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t i s  i n terms o f c o n t r a s t , v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n .  t a c t i c s , morphophonemics and a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n s as  separate topics.  segmental f e a t u r e s :  Phono-  are presented  The l a s t p a r t i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u p r a stress, length,  juncture  Terms u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e d e f i n e d A t a b l e o f symbols and a b b r e v i a t i o n s ,  and p i t c h .  i n the introductory  a list  of figures or  pages.  2 i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and a d i s c u s s i o n of the Tagalog g i v e n i n the p r e l i m i n a r y pages. also included.  Numerous cross r e f e r e n c e s are  The c o n c l u d i n g chapter g i v e s a summary of the  i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s . the index f o l l o w 1*3  language a r e  The b i b l i o g r a p h y and  the body of the t e x t .  Previous  S t u d i e s Made on the Subject.'  been w r i t t e n on Tagalog  phonology.  Not much has  There e x i s t p a r t i a l  analyses  i n s c h o o l textbooks o f the sound system of the language, but these l a c k s y s t e m a t i c l i n g u i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . are only fragmentary analyses from informants  there  phonology e x t r a c t e d  i n the " c l a s s i c " f a s h i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e l i n -  g u i s t i c s , such as those Hemphill.  of Tagalog  At present  of B l o o m f i e l d , S t o c k w e l l , Pittman and  A r t i c l e s on Tagalog  phonemes w r i t t e n by C a y a r i and  Paterno, both P h i l i p p i n e s c h o l a r s , have been sources  of inform-  a t i o n of l a t e r works. For the purpose of t h i s study, s u l t e d the p u b l i s h e d and unpublished  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r has conresearches  on Tagalog  taken by the team of w r i t e r s of the U C L A - P h i l i p p i n e  under-  project,  who xtfith G a l i l e o , f e e l t h a t i f they have seen f u r t h e r than o t h e r s , it  i s because they have stood on the shoulders  of g i a n t s .  1  The  i n d i v i d u a l phonemic a n a l y s i s on P h i l i p p i n e minor languages and d i a l e c t s undertaken by the members of the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s and the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language have been v a l u a b l e sources  of i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n .  Speech g i v e n on Dec.' 2 , 1 9 6 2 a t the N a t i o n a l Teachers C o l l e g e t o the Kapisanan ng mga Propesor s a P i l i p i n o s a Dalubhasaan a t Pamantasan ( A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s o r s i n P i l i p i n o i n C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ) by Donald Bowen, C o - D i r e c t o r of the P h i l i p p i n e Center f o r Language Study.'  3 A l l the e a r l i e r works mentioned above a r e not exhaustive but helpful.  T h i s t h e s i s i s modestly comprehensive.  Such study i s  i n d i s p e n s a b l e as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the h i g h e r levels  (morphology  1.4  and s y n t a x ) .  Sources of Data and Methods of Approach.  In this  study the Tagalog which i s a n a l y z e d i s the p e r s o n a l d i a l e c t of a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l , speaking i n a s i n g l e s t y l e , and a t a s i n g l e time—  the i d i o l e c t  of the i n v e s t i g a t o r .  She has used h e r s e l f  as the Informant as I s the u s u a l p r a c t i c e of l i n g u i s t s  describing  t h e i r own n a t i v e speech f o r the b e n e f i t of other n a t i v e speakers of the same language.  What i s p r e s e n t e d , then, i s a specimen of  the speech of a n a t i v e speaker from a Tagalog-speaking a r e a . ^ There i s no s p e c i f i c corpus i n t h i s study. c i a t i o n she has taken h e r own speech.  F o r pronun-  S i n c e the o b s e r v a t i o n s on  Tagalog phonology made by s c h o l a r s a r e a l l f a m i l i a r t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r , h e r speech has been m o d i f i e d as a b a s i s f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t she knows t o be r e g i o n a l or a t y p i c a l , The method of a n a l y s i s employed  here i s s y n c h r o n i c i n  p r i n c i p l e and a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s t r u c t u r e of the sounds language under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ' Approaches  of the  The approach i s r e s o l u t e l y  eclectic.  and techniques o f l i n g u i s t s on both s i d e s of the  A t l a n t i c are incorporated.  1  Although there i s no e x c l u s i v e  adherence t o any one " s c h o o l " of l i n g u i s t i c s , the i n f l u e n c e of American l i n g u i s t s such as B l o o m f i e l d , H a l l , H i l l , Hockett,  ^This i n v e s t i g a t o r - i n f o r m a n t was born and r e a r e d i n Lubang I s l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e of Mindoro. She has been r e s i d i n g i n Manila s i n c e 1952 and working as a n a t i o n a l language r e s e a r c h e r a t the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language, Department of E d u c a t i o n , Philippines.  4 Gleason,  P i k e e t c . , i s apparent  on e v e r y page.!  This study r e v o l v e s around t h e n u c l e a r  formula:  C U = V D A c c o r d i n g t o P i k e , a n y t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d c a n "be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t h e above f o r m u l a . it  contrasts with a chair;  The t a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a u n i t ; i t v a r i e s . w i t h other tables i n s i z e ,  shape o r c o l o r ; i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h e purpose f o r which t h e t a b l e i s made.  I n t h e world of language,  of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s , t h e meaningful phoneme.  i n the lower  level  u n i t o f sound i s t h e  Phonemes h a v e c o n t r a s t , v a r i a t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n a s  described i n this  study.  ^ P i k e , U n i t (U) e q u a l s C o n t r a s t ( C ) , V a r i a t i o n (V) a n d D i s t r i b u t i o n ( D ) . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n c a p s u l e was e x p l a i n e d by P r o f . R i c h a r d Roe o f t h e Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s i n a seminar a t the U n i v e r s i t y of the P h i l i p p i n e s i n 1 9 6 4 . ' 1  5  1  »5  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used:.  Synchronic here r e f e r s to the d e s c r i p t i o n  of the phonemes  and  allophones of a g i v e n language (Tagalog) as they occur at  one  point  of time or stage of l i n g u i s t i c development, without  r e f e r e n c e to h i s t o r i c a l Analysis  changes.  r e f e r s to the  been gathered and  study of words and  forms which have  c o l l a t e d , f o r the purpose of i s o l a t i n g and  l i s t i n g the v a r i o u s phonemes w i t h a l l t h e i r a l l o p h o n e s . Unit;  T h i s i s a s l i c e of sound which to the  e v e r y t h i n g t h a t precedes and the  follows  exclusion  of  i t i n the  spoken c h a i n i s  s i g n i f i e r of a c e r t a i n concept (Saussure).  In t h i s study,  u n i t r e f e r s t o the phoneme. C o n t r a s t i s a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between two which when s u b s t i t u t e d function  f o r each other may  or meaning, i n the way  g u i s h kulay ' c o l o r Variation,  1  and  gulay  produce a change i n  that Tagalog /k/  and  /g/  distin-  'vegetable'..'  d e f i n i t e sounds or groups of sounds,  s h i f t i n g r e g u l a r l y between two  does not  elements  a l s o c a l l e d a l t e r n a t i o n i s a correspondence  e x i s t i n g between two  (Saussure).  linguistic  series  of c o e x i s t i n g  Free v a r i a t i o n i s v a r i a t i o n  distinguish  Distribution:  and  forms  (alternation)  which  forms. d e s c r i p t i v e l y , t h i s means the  occurrence of  phonemes or allophones i n terms of environment or p o s i t i o n i n an  utterance.  6 2.  !  The Sounds of Speech:  Phonetics  A l l l i n g u i s t s emphasize the f a c t t h a t speech i s the primaryform of language and u n d e r l i e s a l l w r i t i n g s  The s c i e n c e of l i n -  g u i s t i c s t h a t d e a l s w i t h the m a t e r i a l s of speech i t s e l f i s known as phonetics;i  Speech can be s t u d i e d i n p h o n e t i c s from t h r e e  p o i n t s of view.*  An a n a l y s t can study the p r o d u c t i o n of speech  sounds by the v a r i o u s organs of the v o c a l tract.*  Or he  can  d e s c r i b e the p e r c e p t i o n of sound waves by the h e a r e r ' s ears.  J  F i n a l l y he can study the sound waves generated by speaking and t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i o n through the a i r . '  These are r e f e r r e d t o as  a r t i o u l a t o r y , a u d i t o r y and a c o u s t i c p h o n e t i c s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  4  The p r e s e n t study i s concerned only with a r t i o u l a t o r y phone t i c s s i n c e i t d e s c r i b e s the p r i n c i p a l p a r t s of the body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o d u c t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of speech sounds and the p r o c e s s e s involved;" y»i  Contoids and Vocoids  I n c l a s s i f y i n g the speech sounds of Tagalog, two main types are t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : I.  1  C o n t o i d . the type of sound which i n v o l v e s a  stop or a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n ^  complete  I n i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n the stream of  a i r i s o b s t r u c t e d a t one or more p o i n t s , e i t h e r by s t o p p i n g the passage  of a i r completely f o r a f r a c t i o n of a second or by  f o r c i n g i t i n t o narrow channels p r o d u c i n g a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n s 2.i  V o c o i d . the type of sound which i n v o l v e s only resonance.  The speech organs are used t o form resonance chambers through  1  7  which the a i r c u r r e n t passes r e l a t i v e l y unimpeded and p r o d u c i n g any a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n ;  without  1  There are i n t e r m e d i a r y stages between these two types of sound. or  1  Normally, the v o c o i d s serve as  s y l l a b i c nuclei;!  c e n t e r s of s y l l a b l e s  Sometimes they occur, not as s y l l a b l e -  c e n t e r s but adjacent t o other vocoids which have t h i s function;! i n t h i s case, they are termed semivocoids.1 f u l l v o c o i d ( I . e i i , one>  A combination  of a  a c t i n g as a s y l l a b i c nucleus) p l u s a  semivocoid i s known as a  diphthongs  The s p e c i a l terms c o n t o i d and v o c o i d are newly-invented words used by Pike** and Hockett^ f o r what are normally "consonant phonetics;-  called  sounds" and "vowel sounds," r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n g e n e r a l These new  ;  terms are used when r e f e r r i n g to sounds  on the s t r i c t l y p h o n e t i c l e v e l i n order t o keep and "vowels"  f o r use e x c l u s i v e l y as phonemic terms w i t h r e f e r e n c e  to p a r t i c u l a r  languages.  4  Fig;' 4: Labial Stop  Nasal  "consonants"  A Chart of Tagalog  Dental Alveolar  Velar  [ P  ]  L't ]  Ck  L  b  ]  [ d ]  [ e ]  [ m  ]  Cn  Fricative  ]  Contoids Glottal  [ ?T,  ]  [ 8 ]  [ h  ]  Kenneth L;i P i k e , Phonemics: A Technique f o r Reducing Languages To W r i t i n g (Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s ,  1947J, PP.*; 21, 5  ?8.i  Charles F.< Hockett, A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s York: Macmillan Company, 1958), pp/"o*9, 77£f  (New  8  Lateral  [ 1 ]  Flap  [ r  ]  [ y  ]  Semivowel  [ w ] Fig'3 5'  A Chart of Tagalog Vooolds  Front Unrounded High  Mid  Center Unrounded  Back Rounded  [ i ]  [ u  ]  CI  CU  ]  ]  [ e ]  Low  [ o ] [ a 3  Fig.-i 6:  A Chart of Tagalog Diphthongs Front  Center  Back  High  [ iw ]  [ uy  ]  Mid  [ ey ]  [ oy  ]  Low  [ ay ] 4.<  [ aw  ]  R e l a t i o n s Between P h o n e t i c s and Phonemics  I n the e a r l y 1920's, l e a d i n g l i n g u i s t i c s c h o l a r s l i k e S a p i r , B l o o m f i e l d , Troubetzkoy, and others came t o r e a l i z e t h a t , i n the phonology  of a language, i t i s important t o i d e n t i f y and  classi-  f y the f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s of sounds, phonemes. and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o one another;'  T h i s approach r e c o g n i z e s the v a l u e of p h o n e t i c s  as a technique f o r a n a l y z i n g the raw m a t e r i a l of  speech-sounds?  But, because the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e speech-sounds  i n any  one language i s i n f i n i t e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o I d e n t i f y the phonemes u t t e r e d by the speakers t o e s t a b l i s h meaningful c o n t r a s t s  9 w i t h i n t h e system I t s e l f Thus, i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l aspects  o f language,  the l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s t takes i n t o account the d i s t i n c t i o n between the raw m a t e r i a l s o f speech and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o functional unitsJ  I n the study o f a r t i o u l a t o r y p h o n e t i c s , he  i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d "organs o f speech" which a r e used i n producing  t h e soundsi' He  d e s c r i b e s t h e a c t u a l speech-events i n terms o f t h e i r lation;*  articu-  I n phonemics, h i s main task i s t o go beyond t h e l e v e l s  of raw m a t e r i a l s and t o i d e n t i f y the p o i n t s o f c o n t r a s t and the r e l a t i o n s between them;i  I n t h e words of P i k e , "phonetics  ers t h e raw m a t e r i a l and phonemics cooks  gath-  The d e f i n i t i o n  i t . i " ^  of a phoneme as a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t o f speech-sounds emphasizes the r e l a t i o n s between phonetics  and phonemics;  J  I n modem l i n g u i s t i c s * , d i s t i n c t i o n i s thus made between the " e t i c " and "emic"? l e v e l s i n a n a l y z i n g the p h o n o l o g i c a l structured  The s u f f i x e s - e t i c and -emic which a r e added t o  L a t i n r o o t phon- !sound , r e f e r t o n o n f u n c t i o n a l and f u n c t i o n a l ,  u n i t s , respectively.*  t  This p a i r o f formative  elements i s funda-  mental and w i d e l y used t o show the c o n t r a s t between p h o n e t i c and phonemic l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . ' Generally i n phonological t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , a phonetic symbol i s i n d i c a t e d by square b r a c k e t s symbol by s l a n t l i n e s /  [ ] , and a phonemic  /;' I n p h o n e t i c  t r a n s c r i p t i o n , analysts  P i k e , i2p;^ cJLfcii, p.' 57. - - .. 'Pike, Language i n R e l a t i o n t o a U n i f i e d Theory o f t h e S t r u c t u r e o f Human Behavior ( C a l i f o r n i a : . Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s , 1954-55^0), Chap;' 3, e t passim; ' 1  10  use each symbol i n a one-to-one correspondence with a s p e c i f i c speech-sound, i n a framework of reference of the possible sounds that could be uttered by speakers.'  In phonemic tran-  s c r i p t i o n , on the other hand, they keep a one-to-one correspondence between the symbol and the phoneme, but i n the much more r e s t r i c t e d framework of the maximal number of phonemes i n the speech of one individual.'  Here only the r e l a t i v e l y small number  of functional units are represented.  1  For the purpose of accuracy i n phonological d e t a i l , phonol o g l s t s have developed systems of transcriptions:  narrow tran-  scriptions which indicate p r e c i s e l y every phonetic d e t a i l of speech sounds, and broad transcriptions which make use of fewer d i s t i n c t phonemic symbols.! A phonemically-based s p e l l i n g adapted to the p r a c t i c a l needs of a people or ethnic group i s c a l l e d ethnophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n (Hall); ! 1  5.  (  The Concept of Phoneme  Most l i n g u i s t s today base t h e i r phonological analyses and derive t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s of phonology from the concept of the phoneme.* The formative element -erne® means 'functional unit'.! 5  A phoneme i s not i t s e l f a sound, but a unit which may include one or more sounds.i Linguists have proposed various d e f i n i t i o n s of a phoneme depending upon the point of view taken;i  Some define a phoneme  Robert A.* H a l l J r . , Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: Chilton Company, 1964), p.J 24.<  11 as a s i g n i f i c a n t  f e a t u r e o f sound, a r e c u r r e n t d i s t i n c t  or a p o i n t of c o n t r a s t .  unit,  Prom the p o i n t of view of p u r e l y phys-  i c a l phenomena, the s i n g l e event of speech i s a " r e a l i t y " and it  i s never repeated the same twice i n s u c c e s s i o n s  The d i s -  c u s s i o n of the phoneme i s based on the assumption t h a t I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i v i d e any stream of speech I n t o d i s c r e t e segments (phonemes).^  The segmentation o f a speech continuum i s an  " a b s t r a c t i o n " on the lower l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . '  12  Fig.  7:  ;  A Table of Phonemic Symbols  Bilabial  . CONSONANTS  •  1  •  k g  . . - .  s  •  m Lateral. .  • Glottal  Velar •  t d  P b Fricative  Dental Alveolar  h . . :  n  • - • - ••  •  1  •  r Semivowel  .. w  VOWELS  F r o n t .' Unrounded  -  - •-  ;  y Center Unrounded  Back ; "" "Rduncted -"  i  u  e  o a  -  CROSS-SECTION OP THE HEAD SHOWING THE ORGANS MOST DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH-SOUNDS. t  Trachea  c r •'  14 6.  Inventory of Tagalog Phonemes  A l l standard d i a l e c t s  of Tagalog seem t o agree i n d i s t i n -  g u i s h i n g the same number of phonemes.* phonemes are twos  segmental phonemes c o n s i s t i n g  consonants / p b t d k g ? m n n / w  The c l a s s e s of Tagalog  i  s h l r / ,  of f o u r t e e n  two semivowels  y /, and f i v e vowels / a e i o u /, and suprasegmental  f e a t u r e s of a c o n t r a s t i v e k i n d , c o n s i s t i n g  of t h r e e s t r e s s e s  / *  3 / and two .junctures  v  ~ /, t h r e e l e v e l s of p i t c h / 1  2  / 11 •/•' The i n v e n t o r y l i s t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e of phonemic  symbols  ( Fig 7 )v  Here the symbols are arranged i n  rows a c c o r d i n g t o the type or manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n and i n columns a c c o r d i n g t o the a r t i c u l a t o r s and p o i n t or p o s i t i o n articulation^  The a r t i c u l a t o r s are the d i f f e r e n t  of  movable  speech organs t h a t produce the v a r i o u s sounds by t h e i r motion i n r e l a t i o n t o f i x e d p o i n t s of a r t i c u l a t i o n . ! articulators  The  principal  a r e the tongue. the lower l i p , the velum and the  s m a l l appendage  a t the end of the velum, c a l l e d the uvula.  1  The  main p o i n t s of a r t i c u l a t i o n are the upper l i p , the lower t e e t h to some e x t e n t , the gum behind the upper t e e t h , c a l l e d the alveolar  r l d g e ^ and the velum.<  The a r t i c u l a t o r s , a t c e r t a i n  p o i n t s and w i t h c e r t a i n manners of a r t i c u l a t i o n , produce the consonant phonemes The vowel phonemes are arranged i n rows a c c o r d i n g t o tongue-advancement  from the f r o n t  through the center t o the  back of the mouth, l i p - r o u n d i n g from unrounded t o rounded, and  15 i n columns a c c o r d i n g t o tongue-height from h i g h , through mid to low;' 7.  1  Segmental  I t was emphasized  Phonemes e a r l i e r t h a t speech i s p r i m a r i l y a  continuum o f a r t i c u l a t i o n s produced by the v o c a l organs, and t h a t d i v i s i o n o f t h i s continuum i n t o s u c c e s s i v e segments i s an a r t i f i c i a l p r o c e s s , an a b s t r a c t i o n . '  L i n g u i s t s f i n d such  d i v i s i o n n e c e s s a r y and p r a c t i c a l i n the study and a n a l y s i s of language;'  The d i s c u s s i o n was on the assumption t h a t speech  s i g n a l i s a l i n e a r sequence of d i s c r e t e segments, c a l l e d segmental phonemes.'  Consonants  segmental o r l i n e a r phonemes.'  and vowels were r e f e r r e d t o as Each was d e s c r i b e d and exem-  p l i f i e d i n t y p i c a l Tagalog words i n the f o l l o w i n g sections.> 7;1  Consonants  Consonants  i n v o l v e the o b s t r u c t i o n or r e s t r i c t i o n o f the  c u r r e n t o f a i r a t one o r more p o i n t s a l o n g i t s passage from the lungs;  1  Here they were c o n v e n i e n t l y d i v i d e d I n t o s i x  groups a c c o r d i n g t o the manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ; 7.1.1  outward  1  Stops  I n the p r o d u c t i o n o f s t o p s , the a i r stream may be completel y stopped a t some p o i n t by c l o s i n g the passage through which i t flows;'  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of stops i s a complete  i n g o f the outgoing stream of b r e a t h A c t u a l l y  check-  the complete  a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a s t o p , such as the c e n t r a l sound /k/ i n Tagalog lakad  'walk ', has t h r e e phases:9 1  ( l ) a p r e l i m i n a r y c l o s i n g , on?  Nelson F r a n c i s , The S t r u c t u r e of Amerlcan E n g l i s h (New York: The Ronald P r e s s Company, 1958), pp.i 72-73.-  16  o n - g l i d e d u r i n g which the a r t i c u l a t o r i s brought i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n ;  (2)  an i n t e r m e d i a t e  c l o s u r e , o r p e r i o d o f s i l e n c e , o r i n the case o f v o i c e d  stops,  of subdued v i b r a t i o n of the v o c a l bands d u r i n g which the c l o s e c o n t a c t i s maintained;  and (3)  f i n a l release, or o f f - g l i d e  d u r i n g which the a r t i c u l a t o r i s separated  from the p o i n t of  articulations' I f a stop occurs f i n a l l y i n an u t t e r a n c e , i t i s u n r e l e a s e d . t h a t i s , the speech organs a r e simply r e t a i n e d i n the p o s i t i o n of c l o s u r e s  An u n r e l e a s e d  stop i s marked with a d i a c r i t i c  f o l l o w i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e sound symbol, thus [ " ] . A l l s t o p s , v o i c e d and v o i c e l e s s , a r e u n r e l e a s e d  i n u t t e r a n c e - f i n a l and  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the u t t e r a n c e when the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s t a r t s w i t h another stop o r with a n a s a l , as i n pakpak •wing* and p a k n i t  'detached*;i  Released  stops occur elsewhere-2!  /p/ i s a v o i c e l e s s b i l a b i a l stop produced by c l o s i n g the lips  tightlyS /b/ i s a v o i c e d b i l a b i a l stop formed l i k e /p/ but w i t h the  a d d i t i o n of v o i c e when the a i r stream i s stopped a t the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n s / t / i s a v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l stop made by h o l d i n g t h e t i p o f the tongue f i r m l y a g a i n s t the back of the upper front t e e t h s / d / i s a v o i c e d d e n t a l stop a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e / t / but with the v i b r a t i o n o f the v o c a l bands Si d e n t a l s r a t h e r than a l v e o l a r .  1  Unlike English, / t , d / are  17  A/  i s a v o i c e l e s s v e l a r stop produced by pushing the back  of the tongue f i r m l y a g a i n s t the velum.' the n e i g h b o r i n g  Under the i n f l u e n c e of  sounds, the exact p o i n t of c o n t a c t may  vary  c o n s i d e r a b l y but these v a r i a t i o n s are not c o n t r a s t i v e i n Tagalog.' / g / i s a v o i c e d v e l a r stop formed l i k e /k/ but with  the  a d d i t i o n of voice.-* / ? / i s a v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l stop produced by t i g h t l y c l o s i n g the g l o t t i s , thus checking  the a i r c u r r e n t coming from the lungs.'  1  T h i s sound i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r a s t i v e i n Tagalog i n the same way  as any  other consonant.' 7.1.2  The  Nasals  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e i n producing  o r a l c a v i t y i s completely  n a s a l s i s t h a t the  stopped a t a c e r t a i n p o i n t of a r t i c -  u l a t i o n , but s i n c e the velum i s lowered, the a i r passes f r e e l y through the n a s a l c a v i t y and  out through the nose.?  formed i n Tagalog are the v o i c e d n a s a l s / m n IJ /. are u n r e l e a s e d /m/  Sounds so A l l three  i n final positions  i s a v o i c e d b i l a b i a l n a s a l produced by t i g h t l y c l o s i n g  the l i p s w h i l e the velum i s lowered and vibrating;  the v o c a l bands are  1  /n/ i s a v o i c e d d e n t a l n a s a l a r t i c u l a t e d by b r i n g i n g the tongue t i p f i r m l y a g a i n s t the back of the upper f r o n t t e e t h with the velum lowered." /n/ i s a v o i c e d v e l a r n a s a l formed with the back of the tongue a g a i n s t the velum, which i s lowered, a l l o w i n g a passage of  a i r from the pharynx to the na&al eavity.i  18 7 s i S3  Fricatives  I n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of f r i c a t i v e s the passage of the of b r e a t h i s c o n s t r i c t e d a t some p o i n t  stream  of a r t i c u l a t i o n so as  to  l e a v e only a narrow opening, shaped e i t h e r l i k e a groove or a slit,  f o r the a i r c u r r e n t  t o pass through.*  sounds i n Tagalog are / s, h  Examples of  fricative  /s  / s / i s a v o i c e l e s s a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e a r t i c u l a t e d by i n g the f r o n t of the tongue a g a i n s t  the hard r i d g e behind  upper f r o n t t e e t h , l e a v i n g a s l i t - l i k e opening f o r the a i r t o pass through.  pushthe  j e t of  1  /h/ i s a v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e formed without obstructing  the  the g l o t t i s S l y and  o r a l c a v i t y , and w i t h a very s l i g h t f r i c t i o n i n  Tagalog /h/ produces a s o f t h i s s i n g sound  a breathy r e l e a s e i n word f i n a l 7.1.4  positions  Lateral  In the f o r m a t i o n of the l a t e r a l i n g e n e r a l , c l o s e d at the m i d l i n e tongue t i p a g a i n s t a i r t o pass out  the mouth i s  ( f r o n t to back) by the contact  the p a l a t e and  over one  of  the  t h e r e i s an opening f o r  the  or both s i d e s of the tongue.'  / I / i n Tagalog i s a v o i c e d  alveolar lateral articulated  w i t h the tongue r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t and the back and  initial-  with the t i p i n contact  f l a t from the t i p t o  w i t h the a l v e o l a r  ridge,  p r o d u c i n g a q u a s i - v o c a l i c l a t e r a l resonances 7 SI. 5  Flap  / r / i s a voiced  a l v e o l a r f l a p formed by the r a p i d  of the t i p of the tongue a g a i n s t  the a l v e o l a r r e g i o n s  contact In  i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n i t i s u s u a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d with a s i n g l e  19 tap t r i l l .  1  The m a j o r i t y  of Tagalog words w i t h / r / are l o a n s  from Spanish and English.' 7.1 ;<6  S emi vowels  Semivowel sounds are made, e i t h e r w i t h a r a p i d movement of the a r t i c u l a t o r s from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n t o the p o s i t i o n f o r the vowel t h a t f o l l o w s , or w i t h a r a p i d movement from the p o s i t i o n of the p r e c e d i n g vowel t o a characteristic f i n a l positions characterizes /w/  Nonfixed p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n  the semivowels /w,  y / i n general.>  i n Tagalog i s a v o i c e d l a b i o v e l a r semivowel a r t i c -  u l a t e d by rounding the l i p s w h i l e b r i n g i n g the dorsum of the tongue toward  the velum and then moving i t r a p i d l y i n t o the  p o s i t i o n of the vowel t h a t follows;'  The amount of l i p - r o u n d i n g  and tongue-height depend upon the f o l l o w i n g vowels /y/ i n Tagalog i s a v o i o e d a l v e o l o - p a l a t a l semivowel produced by r a i s i n g the f r o n t of the tongue c l o s e t o the hard p a l a t e and back p a r t of the a l v e o l a r r e g i o n , w i t h the t i p p o i n t i n g toward the upper  teethS  20 Phoneme  Phonetic Transcription  Conventional Orthography  Meaning  /p/  [pa'?a:h]  paa  'feet'  /w  ['ba:ta?~]  bata  1  A/  [•ta:?oh]  tao  •person*  /a/  [da'li:?-]  dali  'hurry up'  A/  [«ka:?In-j  kain  'eat'  /g/  [ ga:tas]  gatas  'milk'  /?/  [«?o:?oh]  oo  'yes'  /m/  [ma tashj  mata  'eyes'  /n/  ['na:yon~]  nay on  'village'  A>/  [rja'yo:n~]  ngayon  'now'  A/  [»sa:gln-]  saging  'banana'  A/  [ha'li:k-]  halik  'kiss'  [»la:kad"]  lakad  'walk'  [*ri:toh]  rito  'here'  /V  [«wi:ka?-]  wika  'language'  /y/  [ ya:ban~]  yabang  'pride'  M  f  1  !  P i g . 8:  child»  Consonant Phonemes (with Examples)  21 7*2  Vowels  Vowels, B l o o m f l e l d  d e f i n e s , are m o d i f i c a t i o n s  of the  voice-sound t h a t i n v o l v e no c l o s u r e , f r i c t i o n , or contact of the tongue or l i p s S  Speech sounds d i f f e r not only i n  1 0  q u a l i t y but a l s o i n sonority.'  As e x p l a i n e d  by B l o c h - T r a g e r  the s o n o r i t y of a sound i s determined p r i m a r i l y by the s i z e of the resonance chamber through which the a i r stream; flowsS Thus, a low vowel i s more p l a i n l y a u d i b l e than a h i g h vowel u t t e r e d w i t h the same f o r c e , and any vowel i s more sonorous than any consonants  They e x p l a i n f u r t h e r t h a t a sequence of  sounds i n a normal u t t e r a n c e  i s t h e r e f o r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  s u c c e s s i v e peaks and v a l l e y s of s o n o r i t y .  The sounds which  1  c o n s t i t u t e the peaks of s o n o r i t y are c a l l e d s y l l a b i c s and an utterance  has as many s y l l a b l e s as i t contains  The c h a r t of vocoids  ( P i g s 5) l i s t s  n o r m a l l y occur i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s S  s y l l a b i c sounds.  the vowel sounds t h a t  I n Tagalog, a lower  v a r i e t y of the h i g h vowels i s normally observed i n u n s t r e s s e d syllablesS  The lower h i g h  [ i ] and [U] sometimes merge w i t h  the mid vowels i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s .  1  Usually unstressed  /e/  and /o/ r e t a i n the q u a l i t y they have i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s s The low vowel / a / keeps constant  but i n some p o s i t i o n s i t i s  somewhat r a i s e d towards the schwa p o s i t i o n when  unstressed.!  Tagalog vowels may be c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of three intersecting criteria;  tongue-advancement,  tongue-height and  lip-roundingS L e o n a r d B l o o m f l e l d , Language (New York: H o l t , and Winston, 1933) 102S 1 0  Rinehart  . ^ B e r n a r d Bloch and George L s T r a g e r , O u t l i n e of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s (Baltimore: L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America,1942$ pS 22S  22  The vowel phonemes a r e the following: /a/  low c e n t r a l unrounded  /e/  mid f r o n t unrounded  A/  h i g h f r o n t unrounded  /of  mid hack rounded  /u/  h i g h back rounded  7 S3  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Semivowels  Semivowels a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from vowels n o t so much by a r t i o u l a t o r y d i f f e r e n c e s as by word p o s i t i o n and duration;! Vowels occur i n the c e n t e r o r nucleus o f the s y l l a b l e s s  Semi-  vowels, on the o t h e r hand, a r e found i n consonantal p o s i t i o n s , i S e S , they a r e always found i n the same s y l l a b l e w i t h a simple vowel, which i s the nucleus or peak of the s y l l a b l e s  Unlike  vowels, they a r e of s h o r t d u r a t i o n and they have no s i n g l e p o s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n which g i v e s them a d e f i n i t e color.' Tagalog semivowel sounds [ i ~ y 3 and [ u~^w  ] pattern  sometimes as consonants, and sometimes as vowelss  The d e t e r -  mining c r i t e r i o n i n each case i s p a t t e r n c o n g r u i ' t y .  Since  t h e r e a r e no words i n Tagalog b e g i n n i n g o r ending w i t h a vowel, the suspect v o c o i d s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as consonants i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s . '  Nonsuspect (non-ambiguous)  sound  sequences e x e r t s t r u c t u r a l p r e s s u r e on the suspect sound sequences;'!  Thus:  (ambiguous)  23 cv.cvc  CV.CVC  ba.lak  [«ba:lak-]  •plan  ya.ta?  [«ia:ta?-]  'perhaps*.  wa.lis  [ua'li: s]  'broom'  ?i.kaw  [?i'ka:u]  'you'  ka.may  [ka'ma'.i]  'hand'  ba.liw  [ba'li:u]  * crazy *  bu.wan  [bu'ua:n""3  'moon'  ba.yad  ['ba:iad~]  ' payment  bu.kid  [»bu:kld ]  'farm'  _  1  1  On the b a s i s of the c a n o n i c a l p a t t e r n of nonsuspect s e quences GV and CVC, semivowels a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as consonants in syllable i n i t i a l  and s y l l a b l e f i n a l p o s i t i o n , and as vowels  when they a r e immediately f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l immediately p r e c e d i n g the f i n a l  consonant or  consonant.'  I n t e r v o c a l i c /w/ o r / y / (VwV or VyV) always goes w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e , i . e . , i t i s always s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l and does n o t c o n s t i t u t e p a r t of the /Vw/ or/Vy/ d i s t r i b u t i o n which i s here c a l l e d a diphthong. 7.4  Diphthongs  The continuous n a t u r e of speech e x p l a i n s the presence of s w i f t t r a n s i t i o n a l sounds c a l l e d g l i d e s A  g l i d e b e f o r e another  sound i s c a l l e d o n - g l i d e . and a g l i d e coming a f t e r another sound is  called off-glide..  As d e s c r i b e d e a r l y i n the p r e c e d i n g sec-  t i o n ( 7 . 2 ) , a s y l l a b i c , sometimes c a l l e d a n u c l e a r . i s a vowel  Note: S y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n here i s r e p r e s e n t e d by (.) and l e n g t h by (:) .•  which i s the most prominent sound i n the s y l l a b l e t o which i t belongs.  When a vowel i s u t t e r e d alone or contiguous t o one  or more consonants, i t i s always s y l l a b i c .  A sequence of a  s y l l a b i c vowel and a semivowel i n the same s y l l a b l e i s c a l l e d a  diPhthongjl  syllabic.'i are  I t s second component o r o f f - g l i d e i s a non-  Diphthongs are t h e r e f o r e complex vowels and they  articulated  w i t h the tongue and jaw s t a r t i n g i n one  t i o n and then g l i d i n g upward toward the p o s i t i o n the  semivowels / w y /.'  posi-  f o r one of  The Tagalog diphthongs are / ey, ay,  oy, uy, aw, iw /.' Phoneme  Phonetic Trans c r i p t i on  /a/  [?a'na:k~]  anak  ''child'  /e/  ['?e:wan~]  ewan  'I don't know'  / i /  [?I'na:h]  ina  •mother'  /of  ['?or?oh]  oo  •yes'  [»?u;tos]  utos  '.'command*  /ey/  [•mesjj  may  'there i s , a r e '  /ay/  ['burha^J  buhay  'life'  /oy/  [?a'po:i]  apoy  'fire'  /uy/  [ka'suij  kasuy  'cashew'  /aw/  [sa'basuj  sabaw  'soup'  /iw/  Osirslu]  sisiw  'chick'  Conventional Orthography  Meaning  Diphthong  Pig.  9'.  Vowel Phonemes and Diphthongs (with  Examples)  25 8. I t has utterances  D i s t i n c t i v e Features been d i s c u s s e d  that i n l i n g u i s t i c descriptions  are represented  as sequences of d i s c r e t e segments  c a l l e d phonemes, which are f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s of speech sounds. Consonant and  1  vowel phonemes, which r e s p e c t i v e l y correspond to  contoids  and  vocoids  from one  another by a r e l a t i v e l y small number of a r t i o u l a t o r y  d i f f e r e n c e s , e.g.,  on the phonetic  v o i c i n g , b i l a b i a l p o s i t i o n and  u l a t i o n i n the case of Tagalog /b/, p o s i t i o n and  l e v e l , are d i s t i n g u i s h e d  or h i g h and  l i p - s p r e a d i n g i n the case of / i / ; -  stop  f r o n t tongue These d i f f e r -  1  ences which some l i n g u i s t s term d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . occasionally c a l l e d phonological are composed of d i s t i n c t i v e 8.1  Consonant  artic-  are  components. s i n c e phonemes  features.  Patterns  Tagalog phonemes were c l a s s i f i e d and  their  patterns  were e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of these f e a t u r e s by which they stand i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each other.  1  i v e f e a t u r e s occur grouped together f e a t u r e s at a time: u l a t i o n and  Normally, these d i s t i n c t i n 'bundles' of s e v e r a l  p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n , manner of  v o i c e or b r e a t h i n consonants, and  tongue-advancement, l i p - r o u n d i n g or spreading  artic-  tongue-height, and  other  fea-  t u r e s i n the case of vowels. The due  d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e framework ( F i g . 10 & 11)  p r i m a r i l y to J a k o b s o n  1 2  and H a l l 1  5  that i s  i s here u t i l i z e d  J a k o b s o n , Roman, C.< G.< M.i Fant and Morris Halle.< P r e l i m i n a r i e s To Speech A n a l y s i s (Cambridge, 1952) 1 2  1 3  Hall,  O2.1 c i t . , pp. 84 &  93.  as  26  i t i s h e l p f u l i n understanding the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s the phonemes i n v o l v e d , phonemic a n a l y s i s ^  although i t i s not  The  of the essence  of  g r a p h i c schemes of these f e a t u r e s  are  such t h a t each sound i s s e t o f f from every other sound by d i f f e r e n c e i n a t l e a s t one  d i s t i n c t i v e features  of  a  As a r e s u l t ,  the consonants are arranged i n a s e r i e s of i n t e r s e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , making a s t r i k i n g , though c o n s i d e r a b l y and  l e s s symmetrical p a t t e r n  lowing section.'  l e s s elegant  than those of vowels i n the  T h i s l a c k of o v e r l y neat p a t t e r n s i s  expected, f o r , as Edward S a p i r s a i d , "no t i g h t system, and  we  i f too p r e t t y  p i c t u r e r e s u l t s from the phonemic a n a l y s i s Following  to  of a  a  phonetically  the working p r i n c i p l e that  "skewness should be avoided i n shaping a d e s c r i p t i o n , " problem of asymmetry was  ( l a b i o v e l a r ) and alveolar,  /y/  column, and  semivowels  and  main dimensions  p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n and  manner  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t  v o i c i n g i n the case of stop phonemes o n l y s occur s i n g l y or more than one tures  /w/  1  Among Tagalog consonants t h e r e are two  articulations  and  ( a l v e o l o - p a l a t a l ) under b i l a b i a l  respectively.  of phonemic c o n t r a s t :  the  s o l v e d here by p l a c i n g d e n t a l  a l v e o l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n one  be  language forms a water-  should be s u s p i c i o u s  asymmetrical s i t u a t i o n . * "  fol-  These  of in  contrasts  a t a time as d i s t i n c t i v e f e a -  of p a r t i c u l a r phonemess 8sisi  V o i c e versus  Voicelessness  V o i c e . Gleason d e f i n e s , i s a r e g u l a r , p e r i o d i c v i b r a t i o n  2? generated through the a c t i o n of the v o c a l bands.* v o c a l bands are v i b r a t i n g , they impart musical  When the  quality  or  r e g u l a r v i b r a t i o n t o the column of a i r that passes between them, and  the r e s u l t a n t sound i s voice.  1  The  vibration  be f e l t by p u t t i n g a f i n g e r on the Adam's apple.!  may  The  absence  of the v i b r a t i o n of the v o c a l bands i s r e f e r r e d t o as  breath  or v o i c e l e s s n e s s . t h a t i s , the v o c a l bands are drawn back to let  the a i r pass f r e e l y between them.>  C o r r e l a t e d thus  the Tagalog v o i c e l e s s stops / p t k / and t e r p a r t s / b d g /•  The  t h e i r voiced  voice-voiceless distinction  which s e t s them up i n c o n t r a s t ! v e  counoccurs  p a i r s , the members of each  d i f f e r i n g only i n the presence or absence of v o i c e . below shows two  are  dimensions of c o n t r a s t i n v o i c i n g  F i g . 10 represented  here by s l a n t i n g l i n e s drawn downward.'  b — Fig.The  10:  ;d  g  voiced-Volceless  Stops  f a c t t h a t every phonemic system has  ward symmetry" and  the "tendency t o -  the "tendency toward economy" i s observed  i n the phonemic system of Tagalog.'  The  v o i c e l e s s - v o i ced  pat-  t e r n formed a p e r f e c t b a l a n c e , but n o t i c e the "hole i n the pattern"  (or case vide) as l i n g u i s t s c a l l i t , c r e a t e d by  absence of a v o i c e d counterpart /?/.<  to the v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l  the stop  However, w i t h the v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e /h/ i n the  same p o s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n with / ? / , a neat symmetry of  28 paradigm was formed (FigS  11).*  There a r e , however, Tagalog consonants which a r e normally v o i c e d but n o t c o n t r a s t i v e t o corresponding v o i c e l e s s sounds i n such a way as t o make pairs.'  Such sounds a r e the n a s a l s  /m n n/, the U n g u a l s or l i q u i d s / l r /and semivowels /w y / s I n these unpaired feature.-  consonants, v o i c e ceases t o be a d i s t i n c t i v e  I n the system as a whole, except f o r s t o p s , v o i c e i s  not a d i s t i n c t i v e feature.' 8.1 , 2 ;  P o i n t versus Manner of A r t i c u l a t i o n  I t has been noted t h a t a phoneme as a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon/ d e r i v e s i t s f u n c t i o n from b e i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n w i t h comparable phenomena i n the sound systems  other  Thus, the Tagalog  stop phonemes /p t k/ d e r i v e t h e i r s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n from the f a c t t h a t they show n o t only a two-way c o n t r a s t with regard t o v o i c i n g but a l s o a three-way d i s t i n c t i o n i n p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n the diagram by h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s from b i l a b i a l , t o d e n t a l , and t o v e l a r p o s i t i o n s . !  The g r a p h i c  repre-  s e n t a t i o n a l s o shows a three-way p o s i t i o n a l c o n t r a s t of n a s a l s /m n rj/ i n the same manner, a two-way c o n t r a s t of f r i c a t i v e s /s h / and semivowels /w y/.  Phonemes / l r / a r e p a i r e d by t h e i r  l i n g u a l q u a l i t y and a r e n o t s e t o f f from any other  consonants  by p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n s Contrast  i n p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n h o l d s a l s o f o r o p p o s i t i o n  i n manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d by v e r t i c a l l i n e s from stops, f r i c a t i v e s , nasals, U n g u a l s vowels i n a f i v e - d i m e n s i o n a l  ( l a t e r a l and f l a p ) t o semi-  p a t t e r n , hence the r e s u l t a n t F i g . l i s 1  *Note t h a t a v o i c e d g l o t t a l stop i s a phonetic i m p o s s i b i l i t y whereas a v o i c e d counterpart of [ h ] e x i s t s , v i z s [ f i t ] . '  29  Fig."' 11:  Tagalog Consonant Pattern.  30 8.2 The  Tagalog Vowel P a t t e r n s  other major type of segmental phoneme i s , of course,  the vowel which corresponds t o the v o c o i d on the p h o n e t i c l e v e l . ' H i s t o r i c a l l y , Tagalog had a three-vowel  system ( F i g . 12)  lower v a r i a t i o n s or allophones o f the two h i g h vowels.  1  with I n the  present study a f i v e - v o w e l system i s used w i t h the addition o f /e/ and /o/ t o the o r i g i n a l  threes  A g r e a t number of Spanish  and E n g l i s h l o a n words w i t h / e / and /of of the common Tagalog vocabulary ii  have l o n g been a p a r t  These two sounds occur i n  u n p r e d i c t a b l e p o s i t i o n s and they no l o n g e r a l t e r n a t e w i t h and / u / i n educated  Fig.' 12:  speech.  tongues  1  The Tagalog Vowel T r i a n g l e  The main d i s t i n c t i v e two-dimensional  f e a t u r e s o f Tagalog vowels i n v o l v e  p a t t e r n s i n h e i g h t and advancement of the  There a r e o t h e r f e a t u r e s l i k e rounding o f l i p s ,  ness and l a x n e s s of the tongue, l e n g t h , e t c ! 1  trasts  / i /  tense-  The two-way con-  i n c l u d e simply f r o n t - v e r s u s - b a c k and high-versus-mid  o p p o s i t i o n s , but do n o t operate a t the low l e v e l i  Fig.* 13:  u  The_ Vowel T r i a n g l e (Expanded)  ( F i g . 13).'  31 I n the l i g h t of t h i s a r t i o u l a t o r y frame of r e f e r e n c e ,  a  phoneme i s t h e r e f o r e the f o c a l p o i n t of c o n t r a s t s i n a n e t work of i n t e r l o c k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p h o n e t i c  m a t e r i a l of  the language; 9S 9.1  C o n t r a s t , V a r i a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n Contrast  In connection  with d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s and  acoustic  c o r r e l a t e s , ^ Jakobson, Fant and H a l l e e x p l a i n t h a t 1  there  are some p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s or f e a t u r e s of sound which d i f f e r e n t i a t e one phoneme from another.  The  s o l e f u n c t i o n of  sounds of language, Hockett s a i d , i s " t o keep u t t e r a n c e s and  t h a t the p h o n o l o g i c a l  system of any  apart."  given language i s not  so much a " s e t of sounds" as i t i s a "network of d i f f e r e n c e s between sounds."  T h i s g i v e s the phoneme i t s i d e n t i t y S  The  essence of phoneme, t h e r e f o r e , i s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s or c o n t r a s t s Some l i n g u i s t s c a l l the c o n t r a s t between the presence absence of a f e a t u r e , or between two  and  d i s t i n c t i v e features  an  oppositions In Tagalog some p a i r s of phonemes d i f f e r only by such o p p o s i t i o n , others by two,  and  one  others by more than twos  To make the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a t t e r n i n g e v i d e n t , l i n e s were drawn a l o n g each dimension of phonemic c o n t r a s t , p o i n t i n g out the d i f f e r e n c e s In g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  11 &  13s  Jakobson, Fant, H a l l e , op.  cits  as shown i n F i g S  32 Phonemes a r e t h e r e f o r e v i e w e d i n t h i s l i g h t n o t a s s o u n d s produced i n such-and-such  manner b u t a s e l e m e n t s w h i c h s t a n d i n  c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l language.  W h e n e v e r two e l e m e n t s o c c u r i n t h e same e n v i r o n m e n t ;  ( i n t h e same p o s i t i o n ) w i t h r e s p e c t f u n c t i o n o r meaning, other. with  system of the  t o each o t h e r , w i t h d i f f e r e n t  t h e y a r e s a i d t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  each  I f t h e t w o e l e m e n t s o c c u r i n s u c h a way a s t o c o n t r a s t  each o t h e r , l i n g u i s t s  say they a r e i n conterastive  distribution.  T h u s , T a g a l o g / p / a n d /b/ o c c u r i n t h e same e n v i r o n m e n t a s i n p a l a £'pa:lah] ' s h o v e l ' v s . b a l a £'ba:lah] ' b u l l e t ' , k a p a g [ k a ' p a . g ] ' i f v s  *  kabag [ka'ba:g] ' f r u i t - b a t ' , a l a p  ['?a:lap3  vs. alab  £*?a:lab~| ' b l a z e ' .  initial,  m e d i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s , i n t h a t t h e y s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h  words o f d i f f e r e n t meaning. kubkob [kUb'ko:b]  v s , i  thus c o n t r a s t i n  I n t h e p a i r kupkop [ k U p ' k o r p ] ' s h e l t e r e d ' ,  ' e n c i r c l e d ' , t h e two s o u n d s a r e c l e a r l y i n  c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r . between  The t w o s o u n d s  'cut t i p of grass'  The same i s t r u e o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n  / t / v s . / d / a n d / k / v s . / g / a s shown i n t h e p a i r s t a g a  [ta'ga:?J  ' s t r i k e with a blade'  v s . d a g a [ d a g a : ? ] 'mouse' a n d  jrakas [ w a ' k a r s ] 'end' v s . wagas [ w a ' g a : s ]  1  'pure'.'  Each p a i r / p /  v s . / b / , / t / v s . / d / o r / k / v s . / g / h a s t h e same manner a n d p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n ;  t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between  them i s t h a t / b d g /  add v o i c e t o t h e f e a t u r e s p r e s e n t i n / p t k /. S t o p s show c o n t r a s t n o t o n l y i n v o i c e b u t a l s o i n p o i n t o f articulation;  hence  the pairs pagal [pa'ga:l]  'tired, fatigued'  v s . t a g a l [ t a ' g a : l ] ' d u r a t i o n ' a n d b a l a [«ba:lah]  'bullet'  vs.  the opposition  ;  d a l a ['da:lah] ' f i s h i n g - n e t ' , which i l l u s t r a t e  b e t w e e n b i l a b i a l a n d d e n t a l / p / vs., / t /  and  /b/  vs. /d/,  33 respectively.'  A l l the seven stops stand i n c o n t r a s t with one  another i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: p a l a [»pa:lah] 'shovel': vs.' b a l a [»ba:lah] ' b u l l e t ' vs.  1  t a l a ['ta:lah]  ' l e a k i n g from a  c o n t a i n e r " vsS d a l a [»da:lah] ' f i s h i n g n e t ' v s . k a l a [*<ka:lah] ' t o r t o i s e ' , vs.1 g a l a £'ga:lah] 'gala (uniform)'' vs." A l a [»?a:lah] ' A l l a h , Mohammedan god's  Hughes c a l l s these s e r i e s o f o p p o s i t i o n s  based on the same f e a t u r e a s e r i e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n ^ and name i t 1  by the f e a t u r e i n Various  questions  p o s s i b l e kinds  o f c o r r e l a t i o n and s e r i e s o f c o r -  r e l a t i o n s i n Tagalog were determined and c l a s s i f i e d here as techniques o f e s t a b l i s h i n g phonemic units.'  Hence, the Tagalog  c o r r e l a t i o n o f v o i c e i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g phonemes: p  t  k  b  d  g  Normally, each phoneme i s a member o f s e v e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n s as i n the case o f the v o i c e l e s s - b i l a b i a l /p/ which i s not  only  c o n t r a s t i n g with v o i c e d - b i l a b i a l stop /b/ by the f e a t u r e o f v o i c e but a l s o (by p o s i t i o n ) with v o i c e l e s s - d e n t a l stop / t / and v o i c e l e s s - v e l a r stop /k/, lation.  hence a l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r c o r r e -  The f o l l o w i n g phonemes b  d  m  n  g  a l s o show a c o r r e l a t i o n o f n a s a l i t y s ['ma:ma?3 'any  The f o l l o w i n g forms mama  man, m i s t e r ' vs.' nana ['na:na?J 'pus'  vs.' nganga  [»rja:rja?] 'prepared b e t e l l e a f , n u t and l i m e , c a l l e d buyd* are  15 John Ps Hughes, The Science o f Language: An I n t r o d u c t i o n £2 L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: Random House, 4th P r i n t i n g , 1964)  ps 246s  34 c o n c l u s i v e evidences t h a t n a s a l s /m n i}/ form a c o n t r a s t  since  the environment i s m a n i f e s t l y the same and a l l occur i n i d e n t i c a l environment.Semivowel  They a l s o show a l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r  correlation.  c o r r e l a t i o n i s shown i n the p a i r s lawa ['la:wa?j  'lake'  v s . l a y a [ ' l a : y a ? ] 'freedom', sabaw [sa'ba:u] 'soup' vs. - sabay [ s a ' b a : i ] 'together', wari ['wa:ri?] ' i t seems  1  vs. y a r i  ['ya:ri?]'made'  and kalawkaw [ k a ' l a s y ' k a : ^ ] ' s t i r l i q u i d w i t h the hand' v s . kalaykay [ k a i l a : i ka:_i] 'rake'. 1  Tagalog vowels a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o r r e l a t i o n , thus: i  u  e  o  These vowels i n v o l v e two dimensions of c o n t r a s t .  The three two-way  c o n t r a s t s i n v o l v e a f r o n t - v e r s u s - b a c k , high-versus-mid and versus-rounded.*  unrounded-  With the l e v e l s of tongue-height c o n t r a s t i n g  w i t h each o t h e r , there are v a r i a t i o n s h a v i n g c o n t r a s t s of f r o n t versus-back i n the h i g h and mid l e v e l s .  These vowel comslations  are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g examples:  / i /  v s . /e/ as i n  iwan ['?i:wan] 'leave (someone)' v s . ewan ['?e:wan] 'ignorance or d e n i a l of knowledge of something?,-, misa ['mi:sah] 'Mass' v s . mesa 1  ['me:sah] ' t a b l e ' ; /u/ v s . /of  as i n bukal [bU'ka:l] 'water s p r i n g '  v s . b o k a l [ b o ' k a : l ] 'a member of p r o v i n c i a l governing body', uso [?'u:soh] ' f a s h i o n , vogue' v s . oso_ [?o:soh] 'bear'; / i /  v s . /u/  as i n p i to [ ' p i : t o h ] ' w h i s t l e ' vs.*  bun',  >  puto ['pu*.toh] ' r i c e  d i l a [»di:la?] 'tongue' v s . d u l a ['du:la?] 'play' and /e/ v s . /o/ as i n gera ['ge:rah] 'war' v s . gora ['go:rah]  ' c a p , beses 1  ['be:ses] 'number of timesVjboses ['bosses] ' v o i c e ' .  35 The process  of c l a s s i f y i n g speech sounds i n t o phonemes,  which i s normally  observed,  following c r i t e r i a :  i s simply t h a t of a p p l y i n g the  d i s t r i b u t i o n , phonetic s i m i l a r i t y  i d e n t i t y of f u n c t i o n or meaning. a n a l y s t s use minimal p a i r s . two  and  For t h i s purpose, l i n g u i s t i c  These r e f e r to p a i r s i n which the  sounds i n v o l v e d are the only f e a t u r e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e  the words, as i n the case of the p a i r s of words shown below. A minimally  c o n t r a s t i n g p a i r of u t t e r a n c e s i s c o n c l u s i v e and  c o n v i n c i n g evidence the same phoneme. ference  ( F i g . 11  to show t h a t two  sounds do not belong  Using the same a r t i c u l a t o r y frame of r e & 13)  . c o n t r a s t s i n v o i c i n g , p o i n t of a r t i c -  u l a t i o n or manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the lowing l i s t  to  of Tagalog  fol-  minimal p a i r s :  b ampon /?ampc5n/ 'adopted kapag / kapag/ ipon /?fpon/  1  v s . ambon /?ambon/ ' d r i z z l e '  » i f v s . kabag /kabag/  'savings' v s . ibon / ? f b o n /  lapi /lapi?/ 'affiliate,  'fruit-bat' 'bird'  j o i n ' vs. l a b i / l a o i ? / ' l i p s '  paho /paho?/ 'a s p e c i e s of mango  1  v s . baho /baho?/ ' o f f e n s i v e odor  1  panday /panday/ 'carpenter' v s . banday /banday/ ' s t u p i d , i m b e c i l e ' panig /panig/  'side' vs. banig /banig/  'rural agricultural society'  pantay /pantay/ 'of the same h e i g h t v s . bantay /bantay/ 'guard' panting /pantfn/  ' f u r y , i r e ' vs. banting /bantfn/ 'stretched'  pantog /pantSg/ 'bladder' v s . biantog /bantSg/ 'famous, noted'  36 pangaw /parjaw/ 'clamp f o r punishment'  vs.* bangaw /banaw/ ' f o o l '  pangko /pank'6"h/ ' c a r r y a person i n the arms' v s . bangko /bank6*h/ 'bank' pasa /pasa"?/ ' b r u i s e ' vs. basa /basa*?/ :  'wet'  pasag /pasag/ ' w r i g g l i n g , spasm' vs.- basag /basag/ 'broken  (glass)  patak /pat&k/ 'drop' vsii Batak /bata"k/ 'a town i n I l o c o s r e g i o n ' pataw/ pa"taw/ 'weight f o r p r e s s i n g something' vs.' bataw /ba"taw/ 'a s p e c i e s of v e g e t a b l e ' p a t i n g / p a t f n / 'shark' vs. b a t i n g / b a t f n / ;  pawa /pawa?/ ' e v e r y t h i n g , a l l '  'net-trap'  !  vs.' bawa /bawa?/ 'each, every'  p i k o / p f k o h / 'pick-axe' vs.' b i k o /bfkoh/ ' r i c e  cake'  p u l a /pu*la?/ 'adverse c r i t i c i s m ' vs. b u l a / b i l l a ? / ' l i e , :  falsehood'  p u l o /pule*?/ ' i s l a n d ' v s . b u l o /bulo*?/ ' c a l f , young of a c a r a b a o puno  /pun6*?/  1  ' f u l l , f i l l e d ' v s . buno /bun<5?/ ' w r e s t l i n g '  puro /ptiroh/ 'pure' vs. buro /bilroh/ 'preserved f r u i t or f i s h * 1  p u t i / p i t t i h / 'pick f r u i t from t r e e ' v s . b u t i /bu*tih/ sampa /sscmpih/ sampit /samp£t/  'go up, c l i m b ' v s . samba /sambaTi/ 'entangled' v s . sambit /sambft/  'goodness'  'adore' 'mention i n p a s s i n g '  s a p i t / s a p i t / ' a r r i v a l ' v s . s a b i t / s i S b i t / 'hang, hook* t a l o p / t a l o p / 'peel o f f vs.- t a l o b / t a l o b / 'cover made of s o f t m a t e r i a l (leaves or c l o t h ) ' t a l u k a p /talttkap/ ' e y e l i d ' vs. t a l u k a b / t a l u k a b / 'carapace of c r a b s ' ;  tampal /tampal/ ' s l a p ' v s . tambal /tambal/ 'reenforcement; p a i r ' tapak /tapalc/ 'barefooted' vs.-' tabak /taba*k/ 'bolo', t a p i n g / t a p i n / 'animal p e s t ' v s . t a b i n g / t a o i n / 'screen, c u r t a i n '  37  t  bukot /bukot/ 'short-necked gunting /guntfn/ hilot /hflot/ to Ita  1  v s . bukod /bukod/  'separate'  ' s c i s s o r s ' v s . G u n d i n g / g u n d i n / 'a g i r l ' s  'midwife'  vs. h i l o d /hrflod/ 'scrub w i t h  remove d i r t on t h e  something  skin'  / ? f t a h / 'Negrito' vs. Ida /?fdah/  'a g i r l ' s  name'  p a n t a y / p a n t a y / ' o f t h e same h e i g h t ' v s . p a n d a y / p a n d a y / sabat  name'  'carpenter'  / s a b l t t / ' o b s t r u c t i o n ' vs. sabad /sabacl/ ' i n t e r r u p t a conversation'  taga /taga?/  ' s t r i k e with a blade'  v s . d a g a / d a g a ? / 'mouse, r a t '  tala /talah/  ' l e a k i n g from a container' vs. d a l a /dalah/  'fishing  net' t a l a / tala"?/ 'notes,  r e c o r d ' v s . d a l a /dala"?/ ' p a i n f u l  experience  learned' tali  /tali?/  'string,  t i e ' vs. d a l i / d a l i ? /  tanak /tanak/ ' o l d , antique (of  'inch'  ( p o r c e l a i n ) ' v s . danak /danak/  'flow  blood)•  tawa /tawah/ ' s m i l e , l a u g h ' tila /tila?/  ' s t o p p i n g , as  tinta /tint^h/  v s . dawa /dawah/ 'a k i n d o f g r a i n ' of r a i n *  vs. d i l a / d f l a ? /  'tongue'  ' i n k ' v s . t i n d a / t i n d a h / 'goods f o r s a l e '  t u l a /tul£?/ 'poem' v s . d u l a / d u l a " ? /  'play'  t u l a y / t u l a y / 'bridge' vs. Dulay /dulay/  'a g i r l ' s  name'  38  baka /baka^?/ 'maybe  1  balak / b a l a k /  v s . i baga /baga"?/ 'tumor, b o i l '  »plan' vs." b a l a g / b a l a g / 'bower, arbor,  kaka /ka'kah/ 'uncle, a u n t kala /kalah/ "tortoise*  1  trellis'  v s . gaga /ga"gah/ ' s t u p i d , dumb (fern.)'  1  vs.' g a l a / g a l a h /  kalang / k a l a n / 'wedge' v s . galang / g a l a n / kaya /kayah/ ' a b i l i t y , c a p a c i t y  1  ' g a l a (uriform)' 'respect'  vs.' gaya /ga"yah/ 'the same as'  kong /k<5n/ 'pronoun ko, by me p l u s l i n k e r -ng'* v s . gong /g<5n/ 'gong'kulang / k u l a n /  ' l a c k i n g * v s . gulang /giSlan/ 'age;  kulay / k i t l a y / ' c o l o r ' vs. gulay / g i t l a y / ;  kulo /kul6?/  maturity'  'vegetable'  ' b o i l i n g ' v s . Gulo /gulo"?/ 'an i s l a n d i n Mindoro'  kuro / k i l r o ? / ' o p i n i o n ' vs. guro /gttro?/ 'teacher' 1  i l a k / ? f l a k / 'contribution f o r c h a r i t y ' vs. i l a g / ? f l a g /  'parry'  l a k a s / l a k a s / ' s t r e n g t h ' vs . l a g a s / l a g a s / ' f a l l e n , f a l l i n g -  l i k a s /lika*s/ 'natural, n a t i v e ' vs. l i g a s / l i g a s /  'a s p e c i e s  off of  shrub*: likaw /lfkaw/  ' c o i l , wind' v s . l i g a w /lfgaw/  'courtship'  saka /sa*kah/ ' c u l t i v a t i o n , t i l l a g e ' vs.' saga /sagah/ 'saga' s a l o k / s a l o k / 'dipper, scooper' vs.* s a l o g / s a l o g / 'pool, puddle' tambok /tambo'k/ 'convexity' vs.' tambog /tambog/ ' d i v e , plunge' t a t a k /tata"k/ 'stamp mark'; vs.' t a t a g / t a t a g / ' s t a b i l i t y , s e c u r i t y ' ' t i n g k a / t i n k 5 ? / »>craw or crop of f o w l s ' vs.- t i n g g a / t i i j g a ? / 'lead 1  (metal)"  39  t i t i k / t f t i k / ' l e t t e r of the alphabet' vs.' t i t i g / t i f t i g / ' s t a r e ' tut ok /ttftok/ ' t o draw near an object' vs. tutog /ttftog/ ' s n u f f (ashes of cigar or cigarette)' usok /?u"sok/ 'smoke' vs. usog /?u"sog/ ' f l a t u l e n c e , gas' wakas /waka"s/ 'end' vs.* wagas /waga"s/ 'pure' p  1  pakas /p&kas/ ' a kind of dried f i s h ' vs. takas /ti^kas/ 'escape' pakaw /pSkaw/ 'hoop i n the nose of carabao' vs. takaw /ta"kaw/ !  'greediness' pag /pag/ ' i f vs. tag /tag/ ' t a g ; a f f i x ' 1  paga /paga"?/ 'swollen, inflamed' vs. taga /tag£?/ ' s t r i k e with a blade'' pala /pala?/ 'benefit, blessing' vs. t a l a /tala?/ 'bright s t a r ' palaro /palar'<5?/ 'sponsored game' vs. talaro /talar<5?/ balance, 1  scale' palas /palas/ 'pare, c l i p ' vs. talas /talas/ 'sharpness' 1  paling / p a l i n / ' t u r n ; i n c l i n a t i o n ' vs. ' t a l i n g / t a l i n / 'mole' -  palo /paloh/ 'mast of a ship* vs. talo /taloh/ 'defeated' palos /pal<5s/ ' b i g e e l ' vs.' talos /talc's/ 'known, understood' Panong /pan6*n/ ' a man's name' vs. tanong /tanon/ 'answer, reply' 1  panga /pagSh/ 'jaw' vs. tanga /tanab./ ' s t u p i d , ignorant' Pangan /pagan/ ' a family name' vs.< tangan /tSnan/ ' h e l d ' panggap /pangap/ 'pretense': vs.' tanggap /tangap/ 'reception' panghal /panhal/ 'uneaten food l e f t on the table' vs. tanghal /tanhal/ 'honor, e x a l t '  40  panglaw /panlaw/ 'melancholy' v s . tanglaw /tanlaw/ paos /pa?os/ and  'raucousness  'light'  of v o i c e ' vs. taos / t a ? o s / 'through  through'  papa /papah/ 'width of c l o t h ; pope' vs. tapa /tapah/ 'jerked  heef  papak /pap^k/ ' e a t i n g only one k i n d of food without a n y t h i n g e l s e ' vs.  tapak /tapak/ 'barefooted'  p a r i / p a r i ? / ' p r i e s t ' vs. t a r i / t a r i ? /  'spur f o r f i g h t i n g  cock'  pasa /pa*sah/ 'pass over' v s . t a s a /ta'sah/ 'cup' p a t a /pa'tah/ ' l e g of animals' v s . tapa /tapah/ 'jerked payo /payoh/ 'advice' v s . tayo / t a y o h / 'we  beef  (incl.)'  payong /payorj/ 'umbrella' vs. tayong /t'ayon/ 'delay,  temporary  suspension of work' p i g i l / p j f g i l / 'held, detained' vs. t i g i l p i l a /prflah/ ' l i n e , queue' v s . t i l a pili  /pili?/  ' s e l e c t e d ' vs. t i l i  /tigil/  'stop'  / t i l a h / 'maybe'  /till?/  'shriek'  p i t o / p f t o h / ' w h i s t l e , toy f l u t e ' vs. t i t o / t i t o h / 'uncle' p i y a k /piy£k/ ' s h r i e k of c h i c k e n ' vs. t i y a k / t i y a k / 'exact, d e f i n i t e ' pukol / p u k o l / 'throw, c a s t ' v s . t u k o l / t u k o l / 'even number' pugon /pugon/ 'cooking stove' v s . tugon /tugon/ pugot /pugot/  'answer, r e p l y '  'behead' vs. tugot / t u g o t / 'stop, cease'  pulak / p u l a k / ' l o p , cut o f f v s . t u l a k / t u l a k / 'push,  shove'  p u l i s / p u l f s / 'policeman' v s . t u l i s / t u l i s / 'pointed' pulong /puloi}/ 'meeting' v s . t u l o n g / t u l o n / 'help' p u l o t / p i t l o t / 'pick up;  foundling' vs. t u l o t / t u l o t /  punay /punay/ 'a s p e c i e s of b i r d ' v s . tunay /tunay/  'permit' 'true,  real'  41  puto /ptftoh/ ' r i c e bun' vs.  tuto /tittoh/ 'perception'  p u t o l /pu*tol/ ' c u t ' vs. t u t o l / t t f t o l / ' o b j e c t i o n ' :  t  k  t a / t a h / 'you and I ( e n c l i t i c d u a l ) * v s . ka /kah/ 'you' t a b i g / t ^ b i g / 'push w i t h the elbow' v s . k a b i g /kcfbig/  'pull'  towards o n e s e l f * tagayan /tagayan/  'wine cup o r g l a s s ' v s . Cagayan /kagayan/  •a p r o v i n c e i n Mindanao' t a l a / t a l a h / ' l e a k i n g from  a  container' vs. k a l a  /kaUah/  'tortoise' talang  /taUan/  'red c l o u d ' v s . k a l a n g / k a l a n / 'wedge'  t a l a s / t a l £ s / 'scraped o f f from the palm' vs. k a l a s /kala"s/ 1  'untied,  loosened'  tambal /tambal/  ' p a i r ' v s . kambal /kamba'l/ 'twin'  tambing /tambfn/ 'put on equal share' v s . kambing /kambfn/ tampay /tampay/ ' s e r e n i t y , calmness' v s . kampay /kampay/ of  the arm; f l a p p i n g the wings'  'goat'  'swinging'  1  tampo /tamp'6*h/ ' s u l k i n g ' vs. kampo /kampoh/ 'camp' ;  tanan /tanan/  'elope' v s . kanan /kanan/ ' r i g h t '  tanaw /tanaw/ ' v i s i b l e from a f a r ' v s . kanaw /kanaw/ ' s t i r and dissolve' t a p i s / t a p i s / ' a k i n d of apron' v s . Capiz / k a p i s / ' a c i t y i n the Visayas' tap on /tap.on/ 'cork' v s . kapon /kapon/ ' c a s t r a t e d * tapos /tap<5s/ ' f i n i s h e d ' vs.- kapos  /kapSs/  'short, l a c k i n g '  42 tatlo /tatloh/  'three  vs.- k a t l o /katl<5h/ ' o n e - t h i r d '  1  tawa /tawah/ 'laugh, l a u g h t e r ' vs.  kawa /kawah/ 'a b i g k e t t l e ' '  1  tawad /tawad/ 'haggle; b a r g a i n •' v s s kawad /kawad/ 'wire' taway /taway/ ' s t r e t c h at arm's l e n g t h ' vs.; kaway /kaway/ 'wave the hand' tawing /tawft}/ 'pendant; hanging and • i n t e r l i n k e d , In  series''  t a y a / t a y a h / ' c a l c u l a t i o n ' vsS tilos /tflos/  swinging'• vs.- kawing /kawrfn/  kaya /kayah/ 'competence, a H L i t y '  'point, pointedness' vs. k i l o s / k f l o s /  'action,  movement * tinis /tfnis/  ' s h r i l l n e s s of v o i c e  tono /t'ohoh/ 'tone': vs. tuba /ttfbah/  '&  !  1  vs.  1  k i n i s / k f n i s / 'smoothness'  kono /kcSnoh/ 'icone*  s p e c i e s of shrub' vs. Kuba /ku*bah/ 'Cuba'  tuba /tuba*?/ ' i n t o x i c a t i n g d r i n k from palms' vs. kuba /kuba*?/ 'hunchback ' 1  t u l i g / t u l - f g / ''stunned, s t u p e f i e d '  vs.; k u l i g / k u l f g /  !  'the  young  of a p i g ' t u l o g /tul'og/  'asleep': vs.' k u l o g / k u l o g / 'thunder'  t u p i / t u p f ? / ' f o l d , pleat'- vs. kupi /kupfi?/  'a sjroall b u r i bag*  t u r o / t t f r o ? / ' i n s t r u c t i o n ' - vs. kuro /ku*ro?/ ' o p i n i o n ' t u t a /ttSta?/ fpuppy' vs.* k u t a /krtta?/ ' f o r t * t u t o /tiStoh/ ' p e r c e p t i o n ' vs.' kuto /ktftoh/ salot /salot/  'head-louse'  'pest, epidemic' vs.; s a l o k / s S l o k / d i p p e r , scooper k  ?  batik  /ba"tik/  * is t a i n , s p o t ' vs. b a t i / b£ti / 'greeting*  batik  / b a t f k / »a k i n d of imported f a b r i c * vs. speaking termsI  7  1  bati /batf?/  'on  1,  43  kaba /kablth/ 'beating, p a l p i t a t i o n ' vs.' aba /?abah/ oh*' f  Cabra /kaorah/  'an i s l a n d i n Mindoro' vs.* abra /?aorah/  'gorge'  kagaw /kagaw/ ' i t c h mite' vs.". agaw /?agaw/ 'snatch'' k a h i t / k 5 h i t / 'even i f vs;< a h i t / ? & h i t /  'shave'  kalam/kalam/ ' f o r n i c a t i o n ; f e e l i n g of hunger  1  v s . alam /?alam/  'known*  /kantaW  kanta  kaso /ka*soh/  'song' v s . anta  /?antari/  'rancidity'  'case' vs.- aso /?asoh/ 'dog*>  kawang /kawarj/ 'not a d j u s t e d ' vs. awang /?awarj/ ' d i s t a n c e ; c r e v i c e ' 1  kawit /kawit/ 'hook' vs. awit / ? a w i t / 'song, hymn' ;  kay /kay/ 'person marker ( s i n g ) * v s . ay /?ay/ 'a c o n s t r u c t i o n marker' tagak /taga"k/ 'a s p e c i e s of b i r d ' vs.' taga /taga"?/ ' s t r i k e w i t h a blade'  /talSk/  talak  'chat, c h a t t e r ' vs. t a l a /tal£?/ 1  b  —  —  'notes, r e c o r d '  d  babaw /babaw/ 'shallowness' vs.' Dabaw /daoaw/ 'a c i t y i n lyLindanao' baga /bagah/ 'ember' vs.? daga /diagah / 'dagger, sword'  b,aga /bagS?/  'tumor, b o i l ' vs.* daga /daga*?/ 'mouse, r a t ' 1  b a i t / b a ? f t / 'prudence,  sense' vs.' d a i t /da?ift/ ' c l o s e t o g e t h e r ' 1  b a l a /ba*lah/ ' b u l l e t ' v s . d a l a /d&lah/ balang balas  /blilan/ /balSs/  'fishing-net«  ' l o c u s t ' vs.i dalang / d a l a n / ' i n f r e q u e n t ; slow' ' ' s o l i d i f i e d syrup' vs.- d a l a s / d a l a s / ' f a s t ; f r e q u e n t ' 1  b a l i / b a U i ? / 'break, f r a c t u r e ' vs.i d a l i / d a l i ? / bali  /balif?/  'inch''  'broken, f r a c t u r e d ' vs. d a l i / d a l f ? / 'quick; easy' !  banak /bahak/ *a s p e c i e s of f i s h ' vs.' danak /danak/  'flow  (of b l o o d ) ' bantay /bantay/ 'guard' vs.' dantay /dantay/ ' r e s t the l e g on something* banyos /bany6"s/  'sponge bath' vs.' danyos  bangal / b a r j S l / * broken o f f (branches)'  /dany6s/  'damages*  vs.' dangal / d a n ^ l /  'honor'  basa /basah/ 'read' vs.' dasa/da^3%h/' ' f a m i l y , l i n e a g e ' b a t i n g / b a t f r j / ' n e t - t r a p ' vs.' d a t i n g / d a t f r j /  'arrival*  baya /baya?/ ' n e g l e c t ' v s . daya /daya?/ ' f r a u d , d e c e i t ' bilig /bilfg/  ' c a t a r a c t of the eye' vs. d i l i g / d i l f g / ' s p r i n k l e '  bukal / b u k a l /  'water s p r i n g ' v s . dukal /duka*!/ 'dug out*  1  bugtong /bugt^rj/ ' r i d d l e * vs.' dugtong /dugtorj/ ' a d d i t i o n t o l e n g t h e n ' buhat /btfhat/ ' l i f t ,  r a i s e " v s . duhat /diShat/  b u l a /bula"?/ 'bubble, foam' vs.* d u l a /dula*?/  'blackberry' 'play'  bungo /buno"?/ ' s k u l l • ' vs. dungo /dur)<5?/ ' s t u p i d * 1  buwag /buwag/ 'demolished, a b o l i s h e d ' vs. duwag /duwag/ 'coward' J  d  g  babad /babad/ 'immerse i n l i q u i d * vs; babag /babag/ 1  babad /babad/ 'thoroughly  'impact,clash'  soaked i n l i q u i d ' vs. babag /babag/ J  'quarrel' balad /balad/  'ballad*' vs.' b a l a g / b S l a g /  'bower, arbor,  trellis'  b u l i d / b u l l a / ' f a l l e n down' v s . i b u l i g /bulrfg/ 'the young of a fish' daan /da?an/ 'way, road' vs." gaan /ga?an/ l i g h t n e s s ; ease*' 1  dahak /danak/ 'expectorate big r i p '  phlegm' vs.' gahak /gabak/ 'long and 1  45 d a l a /dali??/ ' p a i n f u l experience l e a r n e d ' vs.- g a l a /gal£?/ 'wanderer' dalang /d&lan/ ' i n f r e q u e n t ; slow' vs." galang / g ^ l a g /  'respect'  d a l a s / d a l a s / ' f a s t ; often'* v s . g a l a s /gala's/ 'roughness  (touch)'  d a l i t / d a l i t / 'psalm' vs. g a l i t / g a l i t / 'anger, f u r y ' 1  damit /damft/ 'dress, c l o t h e s ' vs. garnit /gamft/ 1  dapok  /dap5k/  'used, worn out'  'weak; f r a g i l e ' vs. gapok /gap<5k/ 'hollowed due 1  1  to a t t a c k of w e e v i l s , r e f e r r i n g t o wood' diwang /dfwan/ ' c e l e b r a t e ' v s . i giwang /gifwan/ ' r o c k i n g , wabbling' dulang /drtlan/ 'low d i n i n g t a b l e * vs. gulang / g i t l a n / 'age, ;  maturity' d u l a y / d i t l a y / 'climb from branch t o branch' vs.* gulay / g i l l a y / •vegetable'  t  s t a / t a h / 'an e n c l i t i c pronoun, d u a l ' v s . s a / s a h / ' i n , on, from' taad /ta?£d/  'the c u t t i n g of sugar cane' v s . saad /sa?a"d/ 'say,  answer' taan /ta?'an/ ' r e s e r v e , r e s e r v a t i o n ' vs. saan /sa?an/ 'where' 1  tabon /tab<5n/ 'covered, e.g. , w i t h earth* vs. sabon /sab'6h/ 1  1  'soap'  t a k a l / t a k a l / 'measured ( c a p a c i t y ) ' v s . s a k a l / s a k a l / 'choke w i t h the  hands'  46 taklang /taklarj/  f  t r i p on the hock or bend of the knee' vs.-  saklang / s a k l a r j / 'pieces of bamboo p l a c e d crosswise on a roofing' t a k l o b /takl<5b/  'cover* vs.' saklob /sakl6*b/ 'two  equal  and  s i m i l a r t h i n g s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , f a c i n g each o t h e r ' t a h o l / t a h o l / 'barking of dog' v s . s a h o l /sahJol/ 'wanting, l a c k i n g *' t a l a /t|£la?/ ' b r i g h t s t a r ' v s . s a l a / s a l a ? /  'filter'  t a l a / t a l S ? / 'notes, r e c o r d ' vs.' s a l a / s a l & ? / f i l t e r e d , s i e v e d ' talab / t a l S b / ' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to; effectiveness of, medicine, weapons, e t c ' v s . s a l a b / s a l a b /  e.g.,  'scorched,seared'  t a l a n g / t a l a n / 'red clouds a t e a r l y morn or sunset' v s . s a l a n g / s a l a n / *put over the f i r e f o r cooking* t a l a n g a / t a l a r j a ? / * q u i v e r f o r arrows' s p e c i e s of ray*  v s . salanga / s a l a g a ? / 'a  1  t a l a s / t S l a s / 'sharpness'; vs.' s a l a s / s a l a s / ' l i v i n g room* t a l i l o n g / t a l f l o n / 'a s p e c i e s of m u l l e t ' v s s s a l i l o n g /sal£lon/ 'place i n the shade* t a l o / t a l o h / 'beaten, d e f e a t e d ' v s . s a l o / s a l o h / 'partake, j o i n , e.g., i n a meal' t a l o /talo*h/ 'defeated, l o s t ' vs. s a l o /sal6h/ 'catch, e.'g., 1  a ball' t a l o p / t a l o p / 'peeled, skinned' v.s. tampay /tampay/ ' s e r e n i t y , calmness* e.g.,  s a l o p / s a l o p / *ganta'(a neasure) v s . sampay /sampay/ 'hang,  c l o t h e s on a l i n e '  tanga /tanah./ ' s t u p i d ' v s . sanga /san/ab./ 'branch'  1  47 ' c a r r y away' vs.  tangay /tanay/  sangay /sanay/ 'branch of an  t a n g k a l / t a n k a l / 'cage f o r c h i c k e n ' v s . sangkal  /sankSl/  office'  'harden-  i n g of a mother's b r e a s t ' tanggol /tango !/ 'defend' v s . sanggol / s a n g 6 l / 'baby, i n f a n t ' 1  /sanhSd/  tanghod /tanhocL/ 'wait h o p e f u l l y ' v s . sanghod pestilent tapa /tapah/  'smell  a  odor'  'smoked f i s h '  vs.' sapa /sapah/ 'food d i s c a r d e d  1  a f t e r b e i n g chewed' tapak /tapak/ ' f o o t s t e p ' vs. sapak /sapak/ 'breaking i n t o two, 1  as  the branch of a t r e e ' tapak /tapa*k/ 'barefoot* vs. sapak /sap£k/ ' c l a c k i n g sound produced 1  when e a t i n g ' t a p a l / t a p a l / 'patch' v s . s a p a l / s a p a l / 'bagasse, residuum': tapat / t a p S t / 'frank, honest;  o p p o s i t e ' vs. sapat / s a p ^ t / enough, ;  sufficient' t a r l / t a r i ? / 'metal spur' v s . s a r i / s a r i ? / 'species; v a r i e t y ' t a s a /tasSh/  'sharpen ( p o i n t ) ' v s . sasa /sasan/  'a s p e c i e s of  palm' t a t a / t 5 t a h / 'grandfather' v s . t a s a / t a s a h /  'cup'  taway /taway/ ' s t r i k e , e.-g.<, with a bolo at arm's l e n g t h ' vs.  1  saway /saway/ ' f o r b i d ' taya /tayah/  ' c a l c u l a t i o n ' v s . saya /sayah/  t i g a n g /tigar}/ 'extremely tilay /tflay/  'skirt'  dry'' vs.' sigang /siga*n/ 'stew'  ' s l i g h t burn or s c a l d ' vs.' s i l a y  /siflay/  glance' t i n i n g / t f n i r j / 'sediment' v s . s i n i n g  /sifnirj/  'art'  'short  48  t i n g a /tirjab./ 'small p a r t i c l e s of food l e f t between teeth* v s . s i n g a /sir^ab/ 'blow one's nose*  1  t i p ! / t f p i ? / 'press, compress' vs. s i p i / s f p i ? / !  'copy'  t i p o n / t i p o n / 'gathered, c o l l e c t e d ' vs.- s i p o n / s i p o n /  'cold'  tubo /tifbo?/ ' p r o f i t ' vs.* subo /sifbo?/ 'take i n t o the mouth' tukong /ttfkon/ ' - t a i l l e s s f o w l ' vs.' sukong /siJkon/ 'bundle of rattan' t u l o n g / t i J l o r j / 'help' vs.' sulong / s i l l o n /  'advance'  tumbong /tumborj/ 'anus' vs.- sumbong /sumbSn/ '.complaint' tumpak /tumpa'k/ ' c o r r e c t ' vs. sumpak /sumpalc/ 'popgun made of 1  bamboo' tundo /tund'6?/ ' p r i c k ' v s . sundo /sundo'?/  'agreement'  tunod /tunocL/ ' d a r t , arrow* v s . sunod /sunoa/ ' f o l l o w ' tunog /tun'<5g/ 'sound' v s s sunog /sunog/ 'burnt' t u n g k i /tunk??/ ' p o i n t , e x t r e m i t y ' v s s sungki / s u n k f ? /  'irregular  growth of t e e t h ' tuso /tiJsoh/ ' a s t u t e  ,;  vs.' suso /susoh/ ' b r e a s t s '  t u y a /tuy^i?/ 'Irony, sarcasm' v s s suya /suya*?/ 'fed up'  ?  h am /?am/  'broth' v s s ham /ham/  'ham*  amak /?amak/ 'tame' v s . hamak /ha"mak/ 'oppressed' baga /baga?/ 'lung'' vs." baga /bagah/ baga /bag£?/ 'tumor, b o i l *  'ember'  vs.' baga /bagah./ 'question marker*'  49 bao /b5?oh/ 'coconut s h e l l ' v s . baho /banoh/ 'bass (tone or v o i c e ) ' baog /ba?6g/ ' s t e r i l e  (woman)'vs.' bahog  /bah6g/  'mixed ( r i c e with  something)* b a t a /b£ta?/ ' c h i l d ' vs. b a t a / b ^ t a h / 'bathrobe' ;  bubo /bubo*?/ ' s p i l l , overflow' v s . bubo /bubSh/ 'to f r i g h t e n and d r i v e away', kata  /kat5?/  ' b o i l i n g ' vs.; k a t a / k a t a n / 'you and I '  kuba /ki$ba?/ 'hunchback' v s . Kuba /kttbah/ 'Cuba' daan /dS?an/ 'way, road' v s . dahan /d£han/ 'slowly' daop /da?6*p/ 'needy' v s . dahop /dahop/ 'clasped t o g e t h e r , as hands i n prayer* hili /hfli?/  *envy* vs.' h i l i / h f l i h /  'a s p e c i e s of f i s h '  h u l a /hiSla?/ 'guess, p r e d i c t i o n * v s . h u l a /htflah/ 'hula dance' h u l i / h t f l i ? / ' f o r g e t f u l * vs.: h u l i / h t f l i h / 'catch* ilig /?ilfg/  'shake* vs.- h i l i g / h i l f g /  'inclined*  i l i n g /?il£n/ 'shake the head' v s . h i l i n g / h i l f n /  'request,  petition' i p o n / ? f p o n / 'savings; gathered' vs. hipon /hfpon/ 'shrimp' 1  i r a p /?frap/ 'sullen look' vs. hirap /hfrap/  'difficulty'  i t i k / ? f t i k / 'duck* vs. h i t i k / h f t i k / »bent due t o weight (of f r u i t ) ' 1  iwa /?fwa?/ *<stab, slash' vs.- hiwa /hfwa?/ 1  'slice'  nasa /n^sa?/ 'wish, d e s i r e * vs.- nasa /na'sah/ ' i n , on' paa /p£?ah/ ' f e e t ' vs. paha /panah/ 'sash, band' 1  p a i t /pa"?it/ ' b i t t e r n e s s ; c h i s e l ' vs.' p a h i t / p & i i t / t o the l a s t  bit'  'consumed'  1  pare / p a r e ? / ' p r i e s t ' v s . pare /pa"reh/ ' v o c a t i v e used i n a d d r e s s i n g a man*  50  p i i t / p i ? f t / 'detained, j a i l e d ' vs. p i h i t / p i h f t / 'turned' pipi  /pfpi?/  ' f l a t t e n e d , pressed' vs.- p i p i /pfpih/ 'mute, dumb'  saing /sa^in/ 'cook r i c e ' vs. sahing /sanin/ 'maltha* sala /sala?/ ' t o f i l t e r ' vs. sala /salah/ ' f a u l t ; l i v i n g room' sala /sal&?/ ' f i l t e r e d ' vs.' sala /salah/ 'woven s p l i t bamboo used as r a i l i n g '  1  taas /ta?as/ 'height? vs. tahas /tanas/ ' d i r e c t , d e f i n i t e ' tamo /tam<5?/ ' a species of plant*' vs. tamo /tarnon/ ' a c q u i s i t i o n o f tubo /ttfbo?/ 'growth; p r o f i t ' vs.' tubo /tilboh/ 'tube, pipe'tundo /tund<5?/ ' p r i c k  vs.  1  1  Tundo  /tundon/ *a d i s t r i c t i n  Manila'  ulog /?ul<5g/ 'shake' vs. hulog /hulSg/ ' f a l l e n o f f , dropped o f f unos /?un'(5s/ ' f o g ' vs.< hunos /hun6*s/ ' t i t h e ' s  h  basag /basag/ 'broken (glass)'' vs. bahag /bahag/ »G-string' ;  busol /busol/ 'door-knob' vs.' buhol /buh'61/ 'knot, t i e ' paso /paso?/ ' b u m ' vs. ' paho /paho?/ ' a species of mango' 5  sa /sah/'in on'' vs.' ha /hah/ ' a  Tagalog  expression (interrogation)'  sabang /saoan/ 'crossing, i n t e r s e c t i o n ' vs.! habang /ha*ban/ 'while*' sabi /saoih/ 'say' vs. habi /haoih/ 'weave'; sagap /sagap/ 'scoop'- vs.^ hagap /hSgap/ 'thought, idea' saging /s&gin/ 'banana'' vs. haging / hagin/ 'buzzing, h i s s i n g ' salaan /sala?ah/ ' s t r a i n e r ' vs. halaan /hala?ah/ ' a species of clam' salabid /salabfd/ 'obstacle'' vs.' halabid /halabid/ 'entangle' salarig /salan/ 'put over the f i r e for cooking' vs. halang /halan/ 'crosspiece'  51 salang / s a l a i j /  1  touch l i g h t l y  s a l a s /saUas/ ' p a r l o r , h a l l *  vs.* halang / h a l a n / ' t r a v e r s e  1  1  vs. h a l a s / h a l a s / ' s c r a t c h , e.g., 1  produced by the blades of g r a s s ' s a l a y /sa*lay/ ' b i r d ' s or r a t ' s n e s t ' v s . h a l a y / h a l a y / s a l o / s a l o h / 'partake, j o i n ,  eJg.', i n a meal' vs. h a l o 1  'indecency' /haloh/  'pestle' s a l o /sal<5h/  'catch, e. g.i, a b a l l ' v s . h a l o /hal<5h/ ' h e l l o ' :  sanay /sanay/ ' p r a c t i c e , d r i l l '  v s . hanay /hahay/ 'row,  file'  sangga /sarjgab./ 'parry' vs.- hangga /hangab./ ' u n t i l ' s a p i n / s a p f n / 'underlayer' vs. h a p i n /haprfn/ 1  'string'  s a p i t / s a p i t / " a r r i v e ' vs. h a p i t / h a p i t / ' p r e s s " 1  sarap / s a r a p / ' d e l i c i o u s ' vs. harap /harap/ ' f r o n t ' 1  sari  1  / s a r i ? / *\ariety» vs. h a r i / h a r i ? / 'king' 1  sasa /sa*sa?/ ' g r a t i f y one's d e s i r e ' vs.' hasa,/hasa?/ 'whet' s i g a /siga"?/ ' b o n f i r e " v s . h i g a /higa*?/ ' l i e down' s i g i t / s i g i f t / »;shine through a s l i t  crack' vs. h i g i t 1  /higift/  'stretch" silat / s i l a V  ' s l i t s ' vs. h i l a t / h i l S t /  'stretched'  s i l a w / s i l a w / ' d a z z l e d ' vs. h i l a w / h i l a w / 'unripe; singa /sirjah/  'blow one's nose' vs.. h i n g a /hlnJih/  s i p a g /sifpag/ ' d i l i g e n c e vs.' h i p a g /hfpag/  raw' "breath"  'sister-in-law'  suwag /suwag/ "horns' v s . huwag /huwag/ 'don't*  m baga /bag£?/ * tumor, b o i l ' v s . maga /maga"?/ ' s w o l l e n " bago /bagoh/ 'new'  vs.' Mago /magoh/ 'Magi'  52 b a l a t /bala't/ ' s k i n ' vs.< malat /mal^t/ •hoarseness of v o i c e b a l i / b a l f ? / 'broken, f r a c t u r e d ' v s . mali / m a l f ? /  1  'wrong, e r r o r '  bana /banah/ 'husband' vs.i mana /manah/ ' i n h e r i t a n c e ' banas /banSs/ ' s u l t r y ' v s s manas /mania's/ 'swollen;  beriberi'  banoy /banoy/ 'eagle* vsS Manoy /manoy/ ' e l d e r b r o t h e r ' baso /hasoh/ ' g l a s s ' vs.' maso /ma's oh/  'mallet'  b i l i n g / b i l f n / ' t u r n , g y r a t i o n " vs. . M i l i n g / m i l i n / 'a g i r l ' s 1  name*  1  buwal /buwa*l/ ' f a l l e n down': vs.' muwal /muwSl/ ' f u l l of food (mouth)*  d  n daga /dagah/ 'dagger, sword' vs. naga /n&gah/ 'a s p e c i e s of t r e e ; :  (cap) a c i t y i n the B i c o l r e g i o n " dahan /da*han/ " s l o w l y " vs;' nahan /naban/ 1  'where'  d a l a g /dal'ag/ 'mudfish ' vs. n a l a g / n a l a g / 'a v a r i a n t of sumalag 1  1  parried' danay /danay/ ' s i d e , p a r t ' vs. nanay /nanay/ 'mother' 1  dasa /da'sah/ ' f a m i l y , l i n e a g e ' vs. nasa /na'sah/ ' i n , i n t o , on* 1  d i y a n / d i y a n / * there ( n e a r ) ' v s . n i y a n / n i y a n / 'of t h a t , by t h a t ' doon /do?6n/ 'there ( f a r ) " vs.' noon /no?6*n/ 'at the time,  then'  S  9 baga /baga*?/ 'tumor, b o i l ' v s . banga /ban£?/ " n a t i v e earthen j a r '  53 baga /baga?/ 'lung' vs.' banga /barja?/ 'a s p e c i e s o f palm* bagay /bagay/ ' t h i n g , matter' vs.I bangay /harpy/ ' q u a r r e l ' bago /bagob/ 'a s p e c i e s of t r e e ' vs. bango /ban/6n/ 'fragrance,*.. ;  ^  aroma' b i g a s / b i g a s / 'husked r i c e *  vs.' bingas / b i n a s / 'detached, worn  out' galit /galit/  'anger, f u r y ' vs. n g a l i t / n & L i t / 'gnashing 1  g a l i s / g a l i f s / 'dhobie i t c h ' v s . n g a l i s / n a l f s / 'rub,  of teeth',  friction*  gamay /gamay/ 'used to; adjusted*, vs.i ngamay /tjamay/ 'numbness' g a t a /gatS?/  'coconut milk* vs.- ngata /nata*?/  *chew, m a s t i c a t e '  G a t a l / g a t a l / "a f a m i l y name' vs. n g a t a l / n a t a l / !  'trembling'  gawa /gawa"?/ 'work', vs." ngawa /naw£?/ 'empty t a l k i n g ' gayon /gayon/ ''that way, l i k e t h a t ' vs.: ngayon /nayon/ 'now' giti /gitf?/  'beginning t o appear ( p e r s p i r a t i o n ) ' v s . n g i t i  /nitST?/ " s m i l e " p a g a l / p a g a l / ' t i r e d n e s s , f a t i g u e " vs. pangal /pan£l/ 'blunt; {  wedge i n s e r t e d i n t h e mouth ! 1  pagaw /pagaw/ 'hoarseness o f v o i c e " v s . pangaw /panaw/ 'clamp f o r punishment;  handcuffs'  pagod /pag<5d/ " t i r e d ,  1  f a t i g u e d ' vs.' pangod /panoa/ 'blunt, d u l l ' 1  m  ••  n  kamaw /kamaw/ ' b i g earthen bowl') vs. kanaw /kanaw/ ' s t i r t o !  d i s s o l v e (s omething)' kamya /kamyab/ "a s p e c i e s of p l a n t " vs. kanya /kanyab./ ' h i s , h e r ' 1  Mang /man/ 'a p a r t i c l e antiponed nang /nan/  fwhen'  t o a man's C h r i s t i a n name" v s .  54 masa /masah/ 'dough' vs.' n a s a /n&sah/  ' i n , on'-  Minong /mSfnoij/ 'a man's name' v s . ninong /nfnon/ 'godfather' mismis /mismfs/ ' p a r t i c l e s of food l e f t a f t e r meal'« vs. n i s n i s 1  /nisnfs/  'ravelled'  ngamay /nSmay/ 'numbness'- vs. nganay /nahay/ 'with pa- f i r s t born* !  sama /samah/ 'go, accompany'- vs.' sana /sahah/ 'expression of hope' taman /tamah/ 'patience, d i l i g e n c e ' vs.i tanan /tanah/ ' a l l , everybody  1  n  n  bamban /bambaV}/ ' i n s i d e p e l l i c l e of f r u i t ' vs." bambang /bambfirj/ ' c a n a l , drainage ' b a n a l / b a n a l / 'holy, pious': vs. bangal /ban&l/ 'broken o f f (branches) 'i 1  banay /bahay/ 'slowly' v s . bangay /batjay/ 'quarrel'  1  bubon /bubor}/ 'small and shallow w e l l ' v s . bubong /bubon/ bumbon /bumboh/ 'heap, p i l e '  1  v s . bumbong /bumbon/ 'bamboo c o n t a i n e r *  buno /buno*?/ 'wrestling': v s . bungo /buno*?/ ilan /?ilah/  'roof  'skull'  'how many*, vs.' i l a n g / ? i l a i j / 'desolate p l a c e '  laman /lamah/ 'meat; content*- vs.- lamang /lamJarj/ 'advantage' lunos / l u h o s / ' a f f l i c t i o n , g r i e f  vs.' lungos /ltfnos/ 'cape'  nawa /naw£?/ 'May i t be so.' vs.i ngawa /naw'5?/ 'loud empty t a l k i n g ' punas /punas/ 'sponge bath' vs.' pungas /pu"nas/ 'getting up h a l f awake' puson /pus6n/ 'hypogaatrium* vs.' pusong /pus6*n/ 'impudent, shameless' sanay /sanay/ 'used t o , experienced' vs.' sangay /san&y/ 'branch'  55  1 na /nah/ ' a l r e a d y ' v s . l a / l a h / 'musical naman /namah/ 'a Tagalog  note  fi  e x p r e s s i o n ' v s . laman /laman/  'content'  nang /nan/ 'when' vs.' l a n g / l a n / ' v a r i a n t of lamang. only' ;  nasa /nasah/ ' i n , on, from' vs.- l a s a / l & s a h / ' t a s t e ' nayon /nayon/ ' b a r r i o ' v s . l a y o n / l a y o n / 'aim, o b j e c t ' niig  / n i ? f g / 'tete-a-tete' vs. l i i g / l i ? f g /  'neck'  n i n o /nfnoh/ 'whose' v s . L i n o / l f n o h / 'a man's name'  c.  r dilis /dflis/  'a s p e c i e s of anchovy' v s . r i l i s  /rflis/  'railway'  Dimas /dfmas/ 'a man's name' v s . rimas /r3*mas/ 'a s p e c i e s of t r e e ' L i d a / l f d a h / 'a g i r l ' s  name  vs. l i r a /Lfrah/ 'lyre'  1  padamdam /padamdam/ ' i n t e r j e c t i o n , exclamation'! v s . paramdam /paramdam/ ' h i n t , s u g g e s t i v e e x p r e s s i o n or a c t i o n ' 1 »  r b a l a /b£lah/ ' b u l l e t ' v s . bara /barah/ 'measure equal t o 2.75 f t . ' 1  56  balat /balSt/ ' s k i n ' vs.* barat /bar&t/ 'haggler  1  bulak /iSlak/ 'cotton' vs.' burak /b&rak/ 'mire, mud' bulo /billoh/ ' f l o s s covering stems or f r u i t of plants' vs. buro /buVoh/ 'preserved f i s h or f r u i t ' ! bulol /bul'5l/ "obstacle i n the throat'' vs. burol /bur 6*l/ ' h i l l ' !  kalang /kaUan/ 'wedge' vs.' karang /karan/ 'awning' dalas /dalSs/ 'frequency vs.' daras /daras/ 'adze'i dula /dulS?/ 'play' vs.' dura /dura"?/ ' s a l i v a , sputum' 1  dulo /dtfloh/ 'end' vs.- duro /ditroh/ ' b f f e r i n s i s t e n t l y ' : dulog /dulog/ 'appear before a court'' vs. durog /dur<5g/ :  'pulverized' halang /hSlarj/ 'obstacle, obstruction' vs. harang /haran/ 'crosspiece' i l i n g /?il£n/ 'shake the head vs. i r i n g /?iri£n/ 'abuse' 1  1  i l o g /?£log/ ' r i v e r ' vs.' i r o g /?frog/ 'beloved': l a l a / l H a h / ' b r a i d ' vs. Lara /larah/ *a g i r l ^ s name" l i l a /laflah/ 'of l i l a c color; earthen j a r ' vs. l i r a /l£rah/ ' l y r e ' 1  l i l i p / l f l i p / 'hem' vs. l i r i p / l f r i p / 'comprehend, understand' !  l o l o /loloti/ 'grandfather': vs.: loro /loroh/ 'parrot•• losa /losah/ 'porcelain plate* vss Rosa /r'5sah/ ' a g i r l ' s name' pala /palah/ 'shovel': vs.i para /p^rah/ 'stop'  1  palas /palSs/ 'pared o f f , clipped*, vs.paras /para's/ 'pungent, biting' p i l i n g / p i l f n / 'bunch, cluster' vs. p i r i n g / p i r f n / 'blindfold/; :  sala /salab/ ' r a i l i n g made of woven s p l i t bamboo«' vs. sara /sar'ab/ 1  'closed'  57 t a l a s /tal'as/ 'scrape  o f f (palm l e a v e s ) vs.' t a r a s / t a r a s / ' f o r -  wardness i n speech' tali /tali?/  ' s t r i n g , t i e ' vs.' t a r i / t a r i ? /  'metal spur of a  f i g h t i n g cock* talik /talfk/  'dance, movement i n dancing' vs. t a r i k /tar£k/ 1  'steepness' t a l o / t a l o h / 'defeated*  vs. t a r o / t a r o h / ' p o r c e l a i n o r c h i n a j a r ' f  t u l o / t t f l o ? / 'drop/ vs. t u r o / t t f r o ? / ' i n s t r u c t i o n ' 1  r  y barong /bar6*n/ 'short f o r barong Tagalog. (a man's a t t i r e ) ' v s v bayong /bay<5n/ 'sack made of b u r i palm l e a v e s ' k a r a /karah/ 'the head s i d e o f t h e c o i n ' v s . kaya /kayah/ 'competence, a b i l i t y * Iran / i r a h / Iran  1  ( P e r s i a ) v s . i y a n / i y a h / 'that'  l a r o / l a r S ? / 'play, game*' vs.' l a y o / l a y 6 ? / 'go away, depart' l u g a r /luga*r/ ' p l a c e , s i t e * vs. lugay / l u g a y /  'hanging l o o s e  1  sara /sarah/  ' c l o s e d ' vs.' saya /sayah/ 'ijoy,  gladness'  S a r a / s a r a h / 'a g i r l ' s name' vs. saya /sayah/ 'a n a t i v e 1  w  ;  skirt '  y  bahaw /bahaw/ *:cold r i c e ' vs. bahay /bahay/ 'house' :  kamaw /kamaw/ 'a b i g earthen  (hair)'  bowl* v s . kamay /kamay/ 'hand')  hiwa /hiw£?/ ' s l i c e d ' v s . h i y a /hiya"?/ 'shame*  1  58 hiwas /hiwas/ ' o b l i q u e ' vs. h i y a s / h i y S s / 1  'jewel'  lawa /lawa?/ ' l a k e ' v s . l a y a / l a y a ? / 'freedom' pakaw /p&kaw/ 'hoop' vs.? pakay /pdkay/ 'aim, o b j e c t ' sabaw /sabaw/ '^soup  1  vs. - sabay /sabay/ 'together; simultaneous'1  saklaw /saklSw/ ' w i t h i n the scope' v s . saklay / s a k l a y / 'hanging'sawa /sawab/ 'boa' vs.? saya /say&W ' j o y , gladness*! tanaw /tanaw/  ' v i s i b l e from a f a r ' v s . Tanay /tanay/ 'a town  i n Rizal».  :  taxia /tawah/ 'laugh, s m i l e ' vs.* t a y a / t a y a h /  'calculation'  t i w a /tfwah/ ' i n t e s t i n a l worm'! v s . t i y a / t f y a h / 'aunt' irony'i  tuwa /tuw£i?/ ' j o y , g l a d n e s s ' vs.- tuya /tuy£?/ ' i n s u l t ; wari / w a r i ? / ' i t  seems* v s . y a r i - / y a r i ? / 'make'  Double c o n t r a s t s a l s o occur i n Tagalog d i s y l l a b i c u s u a l l y formed by r e d u p l i c a t i n g the s y l l a b l e . t r a s t may be termed c o n t r a s t i v e d o u b l e t s .  roots,  T h i s type of con-  These are i l l u s t r a t e d  i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: p/b kapkap /kapkap/ ' f r i s k ' v s . kabkab /kabkab/ 'scrape o f f * kupkop ^kupkop/ ' s h e l t e r e d ' v s . kubkob /kubkob/  'encircled'  laplap /laplap/ 'decorticated' vs. lablab /lablab/  'voracious  e a t i n g , as of a p i g ' l u p l o p / l u p l o p / ' s i t t i n g on a n e s t ' vs.' l u b l o b / l u b l o b / pakpak /pakp&k/ 'wings' vs. bakbak /bakb£k/ 'detached' ;  'wallowin  1  papa /papab/ 'papa, f a t h e r ' v s . baba /babab/ ' c a r r i e d on the back papag /papag/ 'bamboo bed' v s . babag /b£bag/ 'impact, c l a s h ' p a p e l / p a p £ L / 'paper' vs. Babel / b a b l l / 'Babel (Tower of B a b e l ) ' 1  59  patpat /patp&t/ * s t i c k ' vs. batbat /batblit/ 'covered, adorned' p i p i /pfpih/ 'mute, dumb' vs.' b i b i / b f b i h / 'young duck' p i t p i t / p i t p f t / ' f l a t t e n by pounding' vs. b i t b i t / b i t b f t / 'carry' pukpok /pukpSk/ 'beat, hammer' vs. bukbok /bukbSk/ 'weevil' pudpod /pudpSd/ 'worn out' vs. budbofl. /budbSd/ 'scatter* pulpol /pulp31/ 'blunt* vs.- bulbol /bulbSl/ ' h a i r ' pumpong /pumper)/ 'sheaf of r i c e ' vs. bumbong /bumboY}/ 'bamboo container' pupog /piJpog/ 'attack of a fowl' vs. bubog /btfbog/ ' c r y s t a l ' pupot /pup6*t/ 'cover the mouth with the finger tips* vs.- bubot /bub6*t/ immature, unripe' puspos /puspo's/ 'thoroughly' vs. busbbs /busbos/ 'operate on' sapsap /sapsap/ ' a species of f i s h ' vs. sabsab /sabsao/ 'noisy and voracious eating, as of a p i g ' supsop /supsop/ ' s i p , suck* vs. subsob /subsSb/ ' s t r i k e the head against a horizontal surface' t/d k i t k i t / k i t k f t / 'scratched; disarranged' vs. kidkid /kidkfd/ ' r o l l , reel' patpat /patpaV ' s t i c k ' vs. padpad /padpa*d/ 'shipwrecked, d r i f t e d ' ;  satsat /sats5t/ 'chat, chatter' vs. sadsad /sadsaaV 'anchored, grounded' sutsot /suts6*t/ ' w h i s t l e ' vs./ sudsod /suds6*d/ 'plowshare' tastas /tastas/ 'unstitched* vs. dasdas /dasda's/ 'pared o f f tut a /ttftah/ 'puppy' vs. duda /diSdah/ 'doubt'  60 k/g l a k l a k / l a k l & k / 'gulp*  v s . l a g l a g / l a g l a g / " f a l l e n , dropped  1  l u k l o k /lukl6*k/ ' s i t (on a seat of honor)' v s . l u g l o g /lugl6*g/ 'a k i n d of noodle pakpak  /pakpak/  ( p a n s i t l u g l o g ) *'  'wings' v s . pagpag /pagpag/ 'shake o f f  saksak /sakslik/ 'stab' vs. sagsag /sagsag/ 1  'trot'  t a k t a k /taktalc/ ' j e r k and shake' v s . t a g t a g / t a g t a g / tuktok /tukt6*k/ 'pate' v s . tugtog / t u g t o g /  'unfastened'  'music'  p/t pakpak  /pakpak/  'wing' vs.' taktak  /takt5k/  j e r k and shake'  padpad /padpaa/ ' d r i v e n away by waves or wind' v s . t a d t a d / t a d t ^ d / 'chopped, minced' pagpag /pagpag/ 'dust o f f v s . t a g t a g / t a g t a g /  'unfastened'  papag /papag/ 'bamboo bed' v s . t a t a g /ta"tag/ ' e s t a b l i s h ,  organize'  paspas /paspas/ 'dust o f f ; h u r r y ' v s . t a s t a s / t a s t a s / ' u n s t i t c h e d ' paypay /paypay/ 'fan; s h o u l d e r - b l a d e ' v s . t a y t a y / t a y t a y / 'bamboo plank or b r i d g e ' p i k p i k / p i k p f k / 'pressed, compressed' vs.' t i k t i k / t i k t f k / 'spy' p i p a /pfpah/  'cigarette pipe' vs. t i t a /txtah/  'aunt'  p i s p i s / p i s p f s / 'remnants on the t a b l e a f t e r meal' vs.i t i s t i s /tistfs/  'surgical operation'  pukpok /pukptfk/  'beat, hammer' v s . tuktok / t u k t o k /  'pate; knock'  pugpog /pugpSg/ ' r o t t i n g of the end of wood' v s . tugtog / t u g t o g / 'music' pupog /piSpog/ 'attack of a f o w l ' v s . t u t o g / t t f t o g / 'snuff of c i g a r or c i g a r e t t e '  (ashes  61  t/k  tabtab / t a b t a o / 'hew, t r i m ' vs. kabkab /kabkao/ 'scrape o f f 1  t a d t a d /tadta"d/ 'chopped, minced' vs. kadkad /kadk£d/ ;  spread,  unfolded' taltal /taltal/  ' v e r b a l q u a r r e l ' vs. k a l k a l / k a l k a l / 1  'scraped;  scratched' t a t a / t S t a h / 'grandfather' vs.: kaka /kalcah/ 'uncle, aunt' tawtaw /tawtaw/ 'touch the t i p ( f i s h i n g r o d ) ' v s . kawkaw /kawkaw/ 'dip  the hand i n t o the water and s t i r i t '  t a y t a y / t a y t a y / 'bamboo plank o r b r i d g e ' v s . kaykay /kaykay/ scratch ! 1  tistls /tistfs/  ' s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n ' v s . k i s k i s / k i s k f s / 'rub  against'  b/d baboy /baooy/ ' p i g ' vs.' Dadoy /da^oy/ 'a man's name' bagbag /bagbag/ 'broken up ( l a n d ) ' v s . dagdag /dagdag/ ' a d d i t i o n ' basbas /basbas/ ' b l e s s i n g ; a b s o l u t i o n * v s ^ dasdas /dasdas/ 'chopped off busbos /busbos/ ' s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n ' vs.' dusdos /dusdos/ 'sarna on the head' butbot /butb'6"t/ the  finger  ' d i g up, search' v s . dutdot /dutd6*t/ 1 .  'poke with  62 d/g daldal / d a l d a l / 'talkativeness' vs. galgal / g a l g a l / 'stupid, d u l l * dasdas /dasd^s/ 'rasped, chopped o f f  vs.' gasgas /gasg^s/  'scratched'  dukdok /dukdSk/ 'pounded, p u l v e r i z e d ' v s . gukgok /gukg6*k/ 'grunt of p i g s ' sadsad /sadsaa/ 'anchored, grounded  1  v s . sagsag /sagsag/  'trot'  b/m babad /babaa/ 'thoroughly soaked i n l i q u i d ' v s . mamad /mamacL/ 'softened  and s w o l l e n due t o exposure t o l i q u i d '  bubo /bu*boh/ 'a k i n d o f f i s h - t r a p ' vs.- mumo /mu*moh/ * p a r t i c l e s of cooked r i c e l e f t a f t e r meal' bubo /bilbo?/ ' c a s t , smelt' v s . mumo /mu*mo?/ 'ghost' bubog /bubog/ ' c r y s t a l ' v s . mumog /mitmog/ ' g a r g l e ' busbos /busbos/ ' s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n '  vs.  1  musmos /musmos/ 'innocent'  d/n damdam /damdam/ ' f e e l i n g ' v s . namnam /namnam/ ' t a s t e , savor* dikdik /dikdfk/  *pounded, p u l v e r i z e d ' v s s n i k n i k / n i k n f k /  'a species  of f l y ' dutdot / d u t d S t / 'poke w i t h the f i n g e r ' v s . nutnot /nutnSt/ 'rub o f f , wear away by f r i c t i o n ' g/*} gaga /gagiab./ ' v i o l a t i o n o f c h a s t i t y ' vs. nganga /ijanab./ 'open :  (mouth)' g a l g a l / g a l g a l / ' s t u p i d , d u l l ' vs. n g a l n g a l 1  /nalnal/  'loudcrying'  63  gasgas /gasga's/  ' s c r a t c h e d , worn out' v s . ngasngas  'loud empty t a l k i n g  /nasnas/  1  gatgat /gatga*t/ 'notch, dent' v s . ngatngat  /natn£t/ 'gnaw'  gawgaw /gawgaw/ ' s t a r c h ' v s . ngawngaw /nawnaw/ ' u s e l e s s t a l k ' gutogot /gutg'ot/ 'entangled, d i s a r r a n g e d ' v s . ngutngot 'insistent requesting f o r  /nutnot/  something'  m/n mama /mama?/ 'any man, m i s t e r ' v s . nana /nana?/ 'pus' mismis /mismis/ ' p a r t i c l e s of food l e f t a f t e r the meal' v s . n i s n i s / n i s n i s / 'raveled' n/n naknak  /naknak/  ' s w e l l i n g , abscess' v s . ngakngak /nakn'&c/  'loud c r y i n g ' nana /nana?/ 'pus' v s . nganga /n£na?/ nawnaw  /nawnaw/  'prepared buyo'  'to take r o o t , as p l a n t s ; germinate'  v s . ngawngaw  /nawnaw/ 'loud empty t a l k i n g ' n i s n i s / n i s n i s / ' r a v e l e d ' v s . ngi.sngis  /niseis/  nuynoy /nuynoy/ 'meditate' v s . nguyngoy /nuynoy/ c r y i n g over  'giggle' 'continuous  trifle' t/s  tabtab / t a b t a V  'hewing:' 'vs. sabsab /sabsab/ 'voracious and n o i s y  e a t i n g , as of a p i g '  64 taktak /taktSk/ "jerk and shake* vs. saksak /saksiSk/ *stab* tadtad /tadtaa/ 'chopped, minced* vs. sadsad /sadsaa/ 'anchored, ;  grounded' tagtag /tagtag/ 'unfastened' vs.- sagsag /sagsag/ ' t r o t ' tantan /tantan/ 'cease, cessation* vs. sansan /sansan/ 'repeatedly, incessantly' tangtang /tanta*}/ ' p u l l and jerk' vs. sangsang /sansaij/ 'strong odor' 1  tastas /tastes/ 'unstitched' vs.> satsat /satsSt/ 'gossip' tatag /tatag/ ' s t a b i l i t y ' vs. sasag  /sas5g/  ' s p l i t bamboo'  taytay /taytay/ "bamboo plank' vs. saysay /saysay/ 'narration; :  value' t i b t i b / t i b t f b / "the end of sugar cane' vs. sibsib /sibsfb/ ' s e t t i n g of the sun" t i k t i k / t i k t f k / 'spy' vs.' s i k s i k / s i k s f k / 'crowded; insert i n t o ' t i g t i g / t i g t f g / ' j e r k i n g and shaking' vs.' s i g s i g / s i g s f g / "torch made of s p l i t bamboo' timtim /timtffm/ 'sufferance' vs.; simsim /simsfm/ ' t a s t e ' tingting / t i n t f n / 'midrib of palm leaves' vs.* singsing / s i n s f n / 'ring' tuktok /tukt<5k/ 'pate; knock' vs. suksok /suksSk/ ' i n s e r t i n t o ' tungtong /tun,t<5n/ 'cover for pots' vs. sungsong /sunsSn/ ' s a i l against the wind tutog /tiStog/ 'snuff, e . g . , cigars' vs. susog /susog/ 'amendment' s/h sabsab /sabs&b/ 'voracious and noisy eating, as of a pig* vs. habhab /habhab/ 'attack by a dog or p i g '  !  65 sadsad /sadsa'd/ 'anchored, grounded' vs. hadhad /hadhacl/ 'rub 1  vigorously' sangsang  /sai^sa^/ ' s t r o n g odor' v s . hanghang /hanharj/  'peppery'  s u t s o t /sutso*t / ' w h i s t l e vs. huthot /huthe*t/ ' s i p , suck' 1  ?/h i n i n / ? l n ? f n / 'leave ( r i c e ) on t h e f i r e a f t e r i t has been  cooked'  vs.' h i n h i n / h i n h f n / 'modesty' uirot /?ut?'3t/ 'keep or h o l d food i n the mouth without chewing  it'  vs. huthot /huth6*t/ 'sipped, sucked' ;  n/1 naknak /naknak/ ' s w e l l i n g ' vs.' l a k l a k /lakla'k/ 'gulp' 1  namnam /namnam/ ' t a s t e , savor' vs. lamlam /lamlam/ 1  'flickering  light' nawnaw /nawnaw/ 'to take r o o t , as p l a n t s ' v s . lawlaw /lawlaw/ 'dangling'' nugnog /nugnog/ 'nearness' vs. l u g l o g / l u g l o g / :  'shake'  nuynoy /nuynoy/ 'meditate' vs.' luyJLoy / l u y l o y / 'hanging  loosely'  w/y kawkaw /kawkaw/ ' s t i r r i n g l i q u i d with the hand* v s . kaykay /kaykay/ ' s c r a t c h i n g of c h i c k e n ' tawtaw /tawtaw/ 'touch the t i p , e.g., f i s h i n g r o d ' v s . t a y t a y / t a y t a y / *a bamboo plank o r b r i d g e ' wawa /wawa?/ 'mouth of a r i v e r ' v s . yaya /yaya?/  'invitation'  66 Double c o n t r a s t s a l s o occur i n Tagalog words of t h r e e or more s y l l a b l e s , as i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: halakhak  /halakhSk/  'outburst of l a u g h t e r ' v s . halaghag  /halaghag/  }• careless'saluksok  /saluksSk/  /salugs<5g/  'anything c a r r i e d a t the w a i s t ' vs.  'downpour of p e r s p i r a t i o n ' /palakpa*k/  'go through  salugsog  'search, i n v e s t i g a t e '  pagakpak /pagakpak/ ' f l a p p i n g of wings' v s . tagaktak  palakpak  ;  /tagakt^k/  1  ' c l a p , applause' vs. t a l a k t a k / t a l a k t a k /  or a c r o s s '  pagatpat /pagatp^t/  'a s p e c i e s of t r e e ' v s . pagakpak /pagakpa*k/  ' f l a p p i n g of wings' t a l u k t o k /talukt<5k/ 'top, summit' vs.' saluksok  /saluksSk/  ' c a r r i e d a t the w a i s t , e.g. bolo* t a l u d t o d /taludtocL/ 'row,  f i l e ' vs.' saludsod /saluds6*d/  'uproot  grass w i t h a b l u n t instrument' tagunton /tagunton/  ' i n q u i r e i n t o , i n v e s t i g a t e ' v s . sagunson  /sagunson/ 'hem i n ' tagimtim /tagimtfm/  'go i n t o , seep' vs. sagimgim /sagimsifm/ 1  'premonition'; taliktik /taliktfk/  'sonorous v o i c e ' v s . s a l i k s i k  /saliksfk/  'research' t i b a t i b / t i b a " t i b / ' d i r t on the s k i n ' v s . s i b a s i b /sib£sib/ 'rush against tigatig  violently'  /tigStig/  'annoyance? e x c i t e to a c t i o n ' vs.  /sig£sig/ ' d i l i g e n c e '  1  sigasig  67  tari tari  /taritari / ?  'different  'slanderous  gossip' vs. s a r i s a r i  /sarisari?/  kinds'  palapala /palapalah/  'platform;  improvised  c a n o p y fitom b r a n c h e s '  vs. parapara /paraparah/ 'everything, a l l ' halimhim /halimhfm/ 'brood, hatch'  vs. h a l i n h i n / h a l i n h f n /  'replace, substitute* h a l i n h i n / h a l i n h f n / ' r e p l a c e ' vs. h a l i n g h i n g / h a l i n h i n / 'neigh of a  horse  1  kalawkaw /kalawkaw/ ' s t i r l i q u i d w i t h the hand' v s . /kalaykay/  kalaykay  'rake'  b u t u h a n / b u t u h a h / ' s k i n n y , bony' v s . b o t o h a n / b o t o h a h / ' e l e c t i o n ' Double transposed  contrasts are very  with a reduplicated closed syllable.  common i n T a g a l o g w o r d s  For i n s t a n c e , /b/  contrasts  w i t h / d / i n b u d b o d / b u d b o d / ' s c a t t e r ' v s . dubdob / d u b d o b / The  initial  terchange—  and  final  forming  final positions.  'blaze'.  sounds of the r e d u p l i c a t e d s y l l a b l e i n -  a contrast i n s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l  and  syllable-  Examples of t h i s type of c o n t r a s t s are  the  following; bakbak / b a k b l k /  'detached' vs. kabkab /kabkao/ 'scraped  off  b a l b a l / b a l b a l / 'slang' vs. l a b l a b / l a b l a o / 'voracious basbas /basbas/ ' b l e s s i n g ' vs. sabsab voracious  /sabsab/  'noisy  eating' and  eating'  kapkap /kapkap/ ' f r i s k ' kidkid /kidkid/  'roll,  v s . pakpak /pakpalt/ reel'  'wings'  v s . d i k d i k / d i k d i k / 'pounded,  pulverized' kubkob  /kubk6b/  ' e n c i r c l e ' v s . b u k b o k /bukb6*k/ ' w e e v i l '  68  kudkod /kudkSd/  scraped off* vs.< dukdok /dukdo"k/ 'pounded*  kupkop /kupkop/ isheltered* vs.' pukpok /pukpo*k/ 'beat} hammer' kutkot /kutkoV  scrape' vs.i tuktok /tukt6k/ 'pate'  dasdas /dasd£s/ pared o f f vs.i sadsad /sadsaa./ 'anchored': dibdib /dibdifb/ »chest' v s . bidbid /bidbfd/ ' r o l l , r e e l ' dubdob /dubd'Sb/ blaze' v s . budbod /budb6*d/ ' s c a t t e r ' worn dusdos /dusdos/ sarna^on the head' v s . sudsod /sudsocl/ 'plow_ share': g i t g i t /gitg£t/ wale* vsJ t i g t i g / t i g t f g / ''jerking and shaking' gusgos /gusgSs/ investigate untidiness' v s . sugsog /sugs'Sg 'search, gutgot /gutg'St/ disarranged, uncombed' vs.- tugtog /tugtog/ 'music'  1  laklak / l a k l a V  gulp' vs.i kalkal /kalkaU/ 'scrape'  ladlad /ladled/  unfurled»' vs.i daldal /daldal/ 'talkativeness'  laglag /laglag/ f a l l e n ' ' vs.' galgal /galgal/ 'stupid': lublob /lubl6"b/ wallowing* vs.' bulbol /bulb'&L/ ' h a i r ' luplop /luplop/ s i t t i n g on a nest'i vs.' pulpol /pulp&L/ 'blunt' mismis /mismfs/ good remnants on the table' vs.' simslm /simsfm/ 'taste' namnam /namnam/  taste J savor*' vs.' manman /manmah/ 'observe,  spy on' nisnis  /nisnis/  'raveled' vs.' s i n s i n / s i n s f n / ' c l o s e , e.g.,weave'  nutnot /nutnSt/ rub o f f vs.* tunton /tuntoh/ 'follow* 1  ngasngas /nasnas/ 'loud empty t a l k i n g ' vs.1 sangsang /sansajj/ 'strong odor*!  69  ngatngat /n.atrja't/ 'gnaw' vs. tangtang /tantar}/ ' p u l l and jerk' ngawngaw /ijawnaw/ 'loud empty talk* vs. wangwang /wanwarj/ 1  'wide open*  1  ngisngis /ijisqfs/ 'giggle* vs. singsing / s i n s f n / ' r i n g ' 1  padpad /padpaa/ 'driven by waves* vs.* dapdap /dapdap/ ' a species of tree' pikpik /pikpfk/ 'pressed, compressed' vs. kipkip /kipkfp/ 'carry ;  under the armpit' puspos /puspos/ 'thoroughly'^ vs. sups op /supsop/ ' s i p , suck' 1  saksak /saks^k/ 'stab* vs.i kaskas /kaska"s/ 'scrape' sagsag /sagsag/ ' t r o t ' vs. gasgas /gasgas/ 'scratched' 1  sapsap /sapsap/ ' a species of f i s h ' vs.' paspas /paspas/ 'dust o f f satsat /satsa*t/ 'chat' vs. tastas /tastes/ unstitched' 1  s i k s i k / s i k s f k / 'crowded' vs.' k i s k i s / k i s k f s / 'rub against* suksok/suks6"k/ ' i n s e r t i n t o ' vs. kuskos /kuskos/ 'husk' sipsip / s i p s f p / ' s i p , suck' vs.) pispis /pispfs/ 'remnants on the table after meal' tabtab /tabtab/ 'hewing' vs. batbat /batba"t/ 'covered, adorned' 1  tagtag /tagtag/ 'unfastened ' vss gatgat /gatg&t/ 'notch' 1  t i b t i b /tibtifb/ 'the end of sugar cane' vs. b i t b i t / b i t b f t / ' carry'  1  tustos / tusto**/ 'support, supply•> vs. sutsot /sutsoV 'whistle' wakwak /wakw'^k/ ' b i g or long tear or rend*' vs.' kawkaw /kawkaw/ ' s t i r , e.gs, l i q u i d ' yasyas /yasya*s/ 'scrape ' vss saysay /saysay/ 'narration; value' 1  70  i  e iwan /?fwan/ 'to l e a v e (someone)  1  v s . ewan /?ewan/ 'ignorance  or d e n i a l of something' b i l a / b f l a h / ' s p l i t bamboo used as reenforcement * v s . b e l a /be*lah/ ' s a i l of a boat' bilo /bfloh/ 'ball, r o l l  ( f l o u r or r i c e ) ' v s . b e l o /he'loh/  b i n t a / b f n t a h / 'Moro v i n t a or canoe' v s . benta  'veil'  /bentah/'sales'  mina /mfnah/ 'mine' v s . Mena /menah/ 'a g i r l ' s name  1  Misa /mfsah/ 'Mass' v s . mesa /m^sah/ 'table* sili  /sflih/  'pepper' v s . Gely / s e * l i h / 'a g i r l ' s name'  Singson /sifrjson/ 'a f a m i l y name' v s . Sengson /season/  'another  f a m i l y name' t i l a /tjflah/  'maybe, perhaps' v s . t e l a /t'elah/ ' c l o t h ,  T i n a / t f n a h / 'a g i r l ' s name' v s . tena /tenah/  fabric  1  ' l e t ' s go'  t i n i s / t i f n i s / ' s h r i l l n e s s of v o i c e ' v s . t e n i s / t e n i s / ' t e n n i s ' i  u  b i k a s / b f k a s / ' f i g u r e , p o s t u r e ' v s . bukas /biikas/ 'tomorrow' biklat /bikl^t/  ' d i s j o i n e d , spread out' v s . b u k l a t /bukl£t/ 'open'  b i n i / b f n i h / 'modesty' v s . buni / b u n i h / binyag / b i n y a g /  'herpes'  'baptism/ v s . bunyag /bunyag/ 'exposed, known'  k i l a y / k f l a y / 'eyebrow' vs.' kulay /kiSlay/ k i l o A l i o * ? / 'bent,  crooked'  'color'  v s . k u l o /kul5?/ ' b o i l i n g '  k i r o t /kir6"t/ 'smart, s t i n g i n g p a i n ' v s . kurot / k u r o t / 'pinch' d i l a / d f l a ? / 'tongue' v s . d u l a /diSla?/ 'play'  71 h i l a / h f l a h / ' p u l l ' vs.i h u l a /hu*lah/ 'hula dance' ika  /?ik5?/  ' l i m p i n g ' vs;< uka /?uka"?/ 'dug up, hollowed*  ikit /?fkit/  ' t u r n ' vs.; u k i t /?u*kit/ ' c a r v i n g ; groove'  ihaw /?ifhaw/  ' r o a s t ' vs. uhaw /?uhaw/ ' t h i r s t ' 1  i l a n / ? i l a h / 'how many' vs.' u l a n / ? u l a h /  'rain'  i l a n g / ? i l a r j / 'wide open space, d e s o l a t e p l a c e ' vs.- u l a n g / ? u l a r j / 'lobster' l i k o t /lik6"t/ 'mischievousness'  v s . i l u k o t /luko"t/ 'crumpled'  ligas /ligas/  'a s p e c i e s of shrub*  v s . lugas / l u g a s / ' f a l l i n g o f f  ligaw /lfgaw/  ' c o u r t s h i p ' vs;' lugaw / lifgaw/ ' r i c e g r u e l '  1  l i h a / l f h a ? / 'a s e c t i o n of f r u i t l i k e orange* vs.' l u h a / l u h a ? / 1  'tears' p i l a / p i l a h / 'chipped  o f f (edges or corners) vs.. p u l a  /pulah/  'red' pilas /pilas/  ' r e n t , r i p p e d ' vs. pulas / p u l a s / 'escape' 1  p i s o n / p l s 6 h / 'steam r o l l e r ' v s . puson /pusoh/  'hypogstftrium'  p i s t a / p i s t a h / ' h o l i d a y , feastday*' vs.' p u s t a /pustah/ 'bet' p i t o / p f t o h / ' c i g a r e t t e p i p e ' vs. puto /pu"toh/ *rice bun* 1  s i k o / s i k o h / 'shove with the elbow' vs.' suko /sukoh/ 'up t o :  the l i m i t of a distance*' siha /sfha?/ * s l i t  of f i n g e r s * ' v s . i suha /suha?/ 'a s p e c i e s of  orange* s i l o n g /s-flon/ 'the space below the house*: vs.* sulong /siSion/ 'go ahead' s i n o k /sino"k/ 'hiccough'  vs. sunok /sunSk/ !  'surfeit'  t i b a / t i b S ? / 'to c u t down (banana f r u i t ) *' vs.' tuba /tubS?/ 'an i n t o x i c a t i n g d r i n k from palms'  72 tilis /tills/  'lye* vs. t u l i s / t u l f s /  'pointed'  t i n g g a /tirjg£?/ 'lead (metal)' v s . tungga /tungS?/ t i p i / t i p f ? / ''well-compressed'  vs. tupi /tupf?/ 'fold,  t i b o / t f b o ? / ' p r i c k , t h o r n ' v s . tubo /tubo?/ e  'growth;  folded' profit  1  o  b e l a /be*lah/ ' s a i l of a boat' v s . b o l a / b o l a h / beses /be'ses/ 'number of times' v s . boses bote  ' d r i n k , gulp'  'ball'  /b<5ses/ ' v o i c e '  /bSteh/ ' b o t t l e ' v s . boto /b5toh/ 'vote'  Eden /?eden/ 'Eden, P a r a d i s e * v s . Edon _/?ed:6n/ 'a boy's name' gera /ge*rah/ 'war' v s . gora /g6*rah/ 'cap  1  peste / p e s t e h / 'pest', epidemic' v s . poste /posteh/ 'post, p i l l a r ' renda /re*ndah/  ' r e i n ' v s . ronda  r e s e t a /res&tah/  /r5ndah/ 'night p a t r o l '  'doctor's p r e s c r i p t i o n s ' v s . Roseta /rose'tah/  ' a g i r l ' s name'  vi  o  bubo /bilboh/ 'a b a s k e t - l i k e c o n t r a p t i o n used f o r t r a p p i n g f i ^ s h or shrimps' v s . bobo  /b<5boh/ ' s t u p i d , d u l l '  bukal / b u k a l / 'water s p r i n g ' v s . bokal /bok£l/ 'a member of a p r o v i n c i a l governing body' buhol  /buhSl/ 'knot' v s . Bohol /hohSl/ 'Bohol c i t y '  buling /billin/  'smut, smudge' v s . h o l i n g / b o l i n /  butas /butas/ 'hole' v s . botas  'bowling'  /b5tas/ 'boots'  kura  /kiSrah/ ' p r i e s t , c l e r g y ' v s . Cora /k5rah/ 'a g i r l ' s name'  muna  /milnah/ 'beforehand' v s . Mona /monah/ 'a g i r l ' s name'  mura /murah/ 'cheap' v s . Mora uso /?u*soh/  /mSrah/ 'a Moslem g i r l '  ' f a s h i o n , vogue' v s . oso /7'6'soh/ 'bear'  73 The  completely minimal p a i r s of words d i s t i n g u i s h e d by / d /  v s / / r / , /!/ vs.' / e / and / u / vs.' /o/ c o n t r a s t s  (historically  a l l o p h o n i c ) a r e but few.*! However, t h e r e a r e many Tagalog words c l o s e t o minimal c o n t r a s t s .  1  The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample l i s t i n g  of these near-minimal c o n t r a s t s : d/r daga /dagah/ 'dagger ' vs. raha /rahah/ 1  1  'frajah'f  danyos /dahyos/ 'damaged vs.* rayos / r a y o s / 'ispoke of a wheel* d a t a l / d a t a ! / * a r r i v a l *i vs. r a t a n / r a t a h / ' r a t t a n ' (  daya /daya?/ ' d e c e i t , f r a u d ' vs;i r a y a / r a y a h /  'linemark'  dayaml /daya*mih/ 'straw' v s J rayuma /rayu*mah/ 'rheumatism*d i d a l / d i d a l / 'thimble'' vs.' r i b a l / r i b a l / d i p a / d i p a h / 'sideward  'rival'  e x t e n s i o n of t h e arms' vs.' r i p a /r£pah/  'lottery*! d u l o / d t i l o h / ''end', vs.* r o l y o /r6*lyoh/ ' r o l l '  1  dusa /diSsah/ 'sorrow, s u f f e r i n g ' * vs.i Rosa / r o s a h /  'a g i r l ' s name'  i/e a r i n a /?ar;fnah/ ' f l o u r ' vs.' reyna /re*ynah/  'queen, muse*  a t i s / ? a ! t i s / 'a s p e c i e s of f r u i t ' s vs.* a t e /T&teh/ ' e l d e r s i s t e r ' b i k a s / b f k a s / 'posture, b u i l t ' vs.'i pekas /pgkas/ ' f r e c k l e s ' b i k t i / b i k t l h / ' k i l l by hanging' vs. berde /berdeh/ 1  bihon /bfhon/  'green*:  'a k i n d of noodle' v s . beho /behoh/ ' o l d , aged*  b i l i n / b f l i n / ''order; a d v i c e b e f o r e leaving'' vs. Belen / b e l e h / 1  'a g i r l ' s name'  1  k i t a / k f t a h / 'earning' vsi' ketong /ke*ton/ ' l e p r o s y ' 1  k l i m a /klfmah/  ''climate' vs.i krema /kremah/ 'cream'  1  74 kundi /kundf?/ 'but, except' v s . konde /kondeh/ 'count' g i r a y / g f r a y / 'swaying movement' v s . gera /gerah/ 'war' h i b i / h f b i h / ' d r i e d shrimps' v s . hepe /hepeh/ ' c h i e f , boss' hili  /hfli?/  'envy' v s . h e l e /he*leh/ ' c r a d l e songs,  lullaby'  h i n t a y / h i n t a y / 'wait' v s . Tentay / t e n t a y / 'a woman's name' h i t o / h f t o ? / 'a k i n d of f i s h ' vs. heto /he*toh/ 'here i t i s ' 1  i h i / ? f h i ? / 'urine* v s . ehe /?ebeh/  'axle'  L i n d a / l f n d a h / 'a g i r l ' s name' vs.' renda /rendah/ lintik /lintfk/ liit  /li?ft/  'lightning' vs. lente / l l n t e h /  'smallness' v s . l e e g / l e ? l g /  'rein'  'flashlight'  'neck'  n i n a /ninab./ 'of them, by them' v s . Nena /nenah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' pikit /pfkit/  ' c l o s e the eyes' v s . t i k e t / t f k e t /  'ticket'  p i h o /pfhoh/ ' c e r t a i n , sure' v s . pero /pe*roh/ 'but' p i l a / p f l a h / ' l i n e , queue' v s . p e r a /pe*rah/ 'money' p i l a s / p f l a s / .'tear, rend' v s . peras / p e r a s / 'pear' p i p i / p i f p i h / 'mute and dumb' v s . Pepe / p l p e h / 'a boy's name' p i s a /pis£?/  'hatched; crushed' v s . pesa /pe"sa?/ *a k i n d of  native dish' p i s t a /pistab./ ' f e a s t , h o l i d a y ' v s . p e s t e /pe'steh/ 'pest' sila /silab/  'they' v s . S e l a /s&Lah/ 'a woman's name'  silo /sflo?/  ' t r a p , snare' v s . S e l o /seUoh/ 'a man's name'  s i l y a / s i l y a b / ' c h a i r ' v s . s e l y o /se*lyoh/ 'stamp' t i n d a / t i n d a b / 'goods f o r s a l e ' v s . benda /b'endah/ 'bandage' u/o b l u s a /bliSsah/ 'blouse' v s . bloke / b l o k e h / 'block' bruha /bruhah/  'witch' v s . b r o t s a /br'6tsah/ ' p a i n t e r ' s brush'  75 bubo /bilbo?/ ' c a s t , smelt' vs.' bobo /boboh/ ' s t u p i d , d u l l ' bukal /buka"!/ 'water s p r i n g ' vs.' l o k a l / l o k S l /  'local*  b u l a /bvilS9/ 'bubble* v s . b o l a / b o l a h / ' b a l l * buno /bun'<5?/ ' w r e s t l i n g ' vs.i bono /b5noh/ 'bond' b u n t a l /bunt£l/  ' f i s t c u f f s ' vs.' mortal / m o r t a l / 'mortal'  b u t l /bu*tih/ 'goodness' buto /butob/  vs." bote /boteh/ 1  'bottle'  ''bone; seed' v s . boto /bo'toh/ 'vote ' 1  k u l a / k u l a b / 'bleach c l o t h e s under the sun' vs.i k o l a /k&Lah/ ''glue, p a s t e ' kundi /kundif?/ 'but, except' vs.i konde /kdndeh/ "count' kupya /kupy£?/  'icircumflex accent mark' vs.) kopya /kopyah/  k u r a /kitrah/ ' p r i e s t , c l e r g y ' vs.* gora /g<5rah/ 'cap  'copy'  1,  kuro /kuro?/ ' o p i n i o n ' vs.' koro /k&roh/ "choir* kurso /kursoh/ ' d i a r r h e a ' v s . k o t s o /kotsSh/ ' c o r k - s o l e d s l i p p e r s ' k u r t i n a /kurtifnah/ ''curtain' vs.' morpina /morpifnah/ 'morphine' k u t a /ku*ta?/ ' f o r t ' vs.' k o t a /k&tah/  'quota'  kutson/kuts6n/ "cushion' vs. k o t s e /ko'tseh/ 'car'' 1  gulpe /gulpeb/ 'blow, strike's v s ^ t o r p e /to/peh/  'stupid'  gumon /gumon/ 'addicted; r o l l i n g ' v s s goma /gomah/ 'rubber' guro /guro?/ ' t e a c h e r " v s s gora /g6"rah/ 'cap' l u k o t / l t f k o t / "crumple*! v s s l o k o / l o k o h / "crazy, f o o l ' lumot /ltfmot/ 'moss" vs.' lomo /lomoh/ ' l o i n ' l u o y /lu?'6y/ 'withered' vs.' l o o k /lo?6*k/ "bay" l u r a /lura*?/ "sputum" vs. l o r o / l o r o h / 1  'parrot'  l u s a k / l t t s a k / 'mire, mud' v s . l o s a / l o s a h / " p o r c e l a i n  (plate)'  l u t o / I t f t o ? / 'cooked' vs. l o t e /l'6teh/ ' l o t ' ;  muna /mtfnah/ 'beforehand' vs.' moda /m'Sdah/ ' f a s h i o n , vogue"  76 mundo /mundoh/ 'world* vs.' modo /mo'doh/ 'manners' p u l o t /pulo*t/ 'honey'* vs.- poot /po?<5t/ 'hate' puri  /ptfirih/  ' p r a i s e , honor' vs.' t o r e /t'oreh/  puso /pftso?/ 'heart' vs. poso /posoh/ 1  putal  /putctl/ /tot£1/  suno /suho?/  'tower'  ' a r t e s i a n well*:  'amount i n excess of round numbers' vs. t o t a l !  'total' ' l i v e w i t h a person o r f a m i l y ' vs.- sona /sohah/  •zone* suob /su?6b/  'fumigation'  vs.' l o o b / l o ? 5 b / ' i n s i d e , i n t e r i o r '  tumba /tumbah/ ' f a l l e n down' v s . i bomba /b&mbah/ 1  'bomb'  1  tuna /tuhah/ 'tuna f i s h ' vs. tono /tohoh/ 'tone, tune' 1  tunay /tuhay/ ' r e a l , t r u e ' vs.* Tonang /tonan/ 'a woman's name'tupa /tiSpah/ 'sheep' v s . toga /to'gah/ 'cap and gown'  1  upa /?u*pah/  ' r e n t ' vs.' kopa /kopah/ 'wine cup'  upak /?upak/ 'sheath of banana p l a n t ' vs.' opal / ? o p a l / upo /?u*poh/ 'gourd' vs.' opo /?6po?/ upong /?iSpon/ 'at the p o i n t o f Cebu C i t y '  'opal'  'yes, s i r '  vs.' Opon /?'opon/ 'a town i n  77  The f o l l o w i n g sample l i s t i n g i l l u s t r a t e s t h e five-way c o n t r a s t o f Tagalog vowels: / i /  vs.' / e / v s . / u / v s . /o/ vs.'  a t i s /?£ttis/ a s p e c i e s of t r e e and i t s f r u i t * f  ate /l&teh/  * elder sister*  atubill /?atubflih/ atole atas  /?at6leh/ /?5tas/  'hesitance'  ' f l o u r gruel*  1  'order, command'  b i k a s / b f k a s / 'posture,  built'  pekas /pSkas/ ' f r e c k l e s ' bukas /btfkas/  'tomorrow'  1  b o k a l /boka"l/ 'a member of a p r o v i n c i a l governing  body*  bakas /ba*kas/ ' f i n a n c i a l p a r t n e r s h i p i n gambling' bikat /hfkat/ 'large scar' beki /be*ki?/ 'mumps'' bukal /buka"!/ 'water s p r i n g * bokal /boka*l/ 'a member of a p r o v i n c i a l governing bakal /bak'Sl/ ' p l a n t i n g r i c e on upland'  1  body'  78 b i k o / b f k o h / 'a k i n d of r i c e  cake  1  beho /b'ehoh/ ' o l d , aged* bubo /bilbo?/ " c a s t , smelt* bobo /b6*boh/ ' s t u p i d , d u l l * baho /bahoh/ 'bass (tone or v o i c e ) ' B i k o l / b f k o l / 'Bicol region* b e k i /be*ki?/ *mumps' bukol / b i l k o l / ' b o i l ,  swelling'  Bohol / b o h S l / 'Bohol  city'  bakol  /b5kol/  ' l a r g e basket*  b i h o n /bfhon/ 'a k i n d of noodle' beho /b'e*hoh/ ' o l d , aged* buhol /buho*l/ 'knot' Bohol / b o h o l / 'Bohol  city'  baho /baho?/ ' d i s a g r e e a b l e odor' b i l a / b f l a h / ' s p l i t bamboo used as reenforcement* b e l a /be*lah/ ' s a i l of a boat' b u l a /btfla?/ ' l i e , f a l s e h o o d ' b o l a /b&Lah/ ' b a l l ' b a l a /b&lah/  'bullet'  b i l i h a n / b i l f h a n / 'to buy  from'  b e t o h i n / b e t o h i n / 'to v e t o ' butuhan /butuhah/  'skinny, bony'  botohan /botohah/  'election*  batuhan /batuhah/  'stony p l a c e '  :  79  b i l i n / b f l i n / 'order; a d v i c e b e f o r e l e a v i n g ' B e l en /bel'en/ 'a g i r l ' s name* b u l i n g / b i S l i n / 'smut, smudge' boling /bolin/  'bowling*  baling /balln/  'turn, i n c l i n a t i o n '  b i n o (de kina) /bfnoh/  'a k i n d o f wine'  Benus /benus/ 'Venus' buno /bun<5?/ ' w r e s t l i n g ' bono /bonoh/ 'bond' banyo /babyoh/ 'bathroom* b i t i n / b f t i n / 'hang*' B e t t y /be*tih/ *a g i r l * s name'  buti /btftih/  goodness'  bote  bottle'  /b5teh/  bati /batfh/ Bito  /bftoh/  stir,  beat'-  'a man's name*  1  beto /bStoh/  veto'  buto /but 6b/  bone;  boto /b'Stoh/  vote*'  bato /bat'<5h/  'stone;  seed*  kidney'  bigada /brig'aaah/ * brigade*Bretanya /bretanyah/  'Britain  1 ,  bruha /brtfhah/ 'witch' b r o t s a /bro'tsah/ ' p a i n t e r ' s brush' braso /br&soh/ 'arm'  80 kilo  /kfloh/  kilo'  keso  /kesoh/  cheese*  kula /kulah/  bleach*  kola /k6lah/  g l u e , paste*;  k a l a /kUlah/  tortoise'  k i l o /kilo"?/  'crooked, curved •  b e l o /b&Loh/  veil''  k u l o /kul<5?/  boiling'  k o l a /k 6*1 ah/  glue, paste'  k a l o /kale*?/  pulley'  1  1  k i n d i n g / k i n d f n / ' a f f e c t e d gait'' kendi / k e h d l h / 'candy' kundi /kundif?/ 'but, e x c e p t  1,  konde /kohdeh/ 'count'' k a n d i l a / k a n d f l a ? / 'candle' k i s a / k f s a ? / ' • c e r e a l s mixed w i t h r i c e ' kesa /ke"sah/  'than'  kura /ktfrah/ ' p r i e s t , clergy'  1  Cora /k'Srah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' k a r a /karah/ 'head s i d e of the c o i n ' k i t a /k£tah/ ' v i s i b l e from a d i s t a n c e ' ketong /ke"ton/ 'leprosy*' k u t a /ktfta?/  'fort*  k o t a /ko*tah/ 'quota* k a t a / k a t a h / 'we  (dual)«  81 i h i / ? f h i ? / 'urine' ehe  /?e*heh/ 'axle'  uha  /?uh'^?/ ' c r y of a new-born babe  oho  /?6ho?/ 'yes ( l e s s f o r m a l ) '  ahon /?ahon/ 'to l a n d , ascend' i p a /?ipah/  'chaff  epiko / ? e p i k 6 h / ' e p i c ' upa  /?upah/ ' r e n t , pay'  kopa /kopah/ 'wine cup' apa /?apah/ 'wafer' ipil /?fpil/  'a s p e c i e s  of t r e e '  epiko /?epik6h/ ' e p i c ' upa  /?u*pah/ 'rent, pay'  opal / ? o p a l / apaw /?apaw/  'opal' 'overflowing'  i s a / ? i s a h / 'one' ESSO /?e*soh/ 'ESSO gas' usa /?usah/ 'deer' oso /?6soh/ 'bear' asa /?asah/ 'hope' giray /gfray/  'stagger,  totter'  gera /gerah/ 'war' guro /guro?/  'teacher'  gora /gorah/ 'cap' gara /gara?/ ' b e a u t i f u l , s p l e n d i d '  82 h i b i / b f b i h / ' d r i e d shrimps' hepe /hepeh/ ' c h i e f , boss* hupa /hupa"?/ 'appeasement, m i t i g a t i o n ' hopya /hopya"?/ 'a k i n d of Chinese bun' habi /habih/  'weave*  h i l i k / h i l f k / * snore* h e l e /he*leh/  'lullaby'  h u l i / h t f l i h / 'catch' honda /hondah/ 'Honda b i k e ' halik /halfk/ 'kiss' h i p o n /hfpon/ 'shrimp' hepe /he*peh/ ' c h i e f , boss' upong /fiSpon/ 'at the p o i n t of ' Opon /?6pon/ »a town I n Cebu'i hapon /hapon/  'afternoon'  l i b o /Ifboh/  'thousand'  leon /le?on/  'lion*  lubo  /lub5?/  'depression i n the ground'  l o b o /l'Sboh/ ' b a l l o o n ' labo /labo?/ ' i n d i s t i n c t n e s s ;  turbidity'  l i k o t / l i k ' S t / 'movement' l e g a l / l e g a l / 'lawful, l e g a l ' l u k o t /luk<5t/ 'crumpled' l o k o /l6"koh/ 'crazy, f o o l ' l a k o /l£ko?/ 'goods b e i n g s o l d around'  83 liit  /li?ft/  'smallness,  littleness*  l e e g /le?£g/ 'neck' luoy /lu?6y/  'withered'  look / l o ? o V 'bay' l a o n /la?6n/ ' o l d ' limot /ifmot/  'forget*  lente /lenteh/  'flashlight*  lumot /liJmot/ 'moss* lomo /lomoh/- ' l o i n ' lamo /lamoh/  'raft'  L i n a / l f n a h / *a g i r l ' s name* Nena /nenah/ *a g i r l ' s name' Luna / l u n a h / 'a f a m i l y name' La Loma / l a lomah/ 'La Loma Cemetery' l a n a / l a n a h / 'wool' Linda /lfndah/  'a g i r l ' s name'  renda /rendah/ r e i n ' 1  ronda /rohdah/ 'night p a t r o l ' lundag / l u n d a g / 'jump' landas /landa's/ 'path, way' l i n t i k / l i n t f k / 'lightning' lente /lenteh/ lunti  'flashlight'  / l u n t f ? / 'green'  lomo /lomoh/  'loin'  l a n t i k / l a n t f k / 'bend, curve'  8k lira /ifrah/  'lyre  l e t r a /l&trah/  1  •letter*  l u r a /lura^?/ 'sputum* loro /loroh/  'parrot'  L a r a / l a r a h / 'a g i r l ' s name  1  L i s a / l f s a h / 'a g i r l ' s name' letse  (kondensada) /le*tseh/ 'milk (condensed)'  l u s a k / l t f s a k / 'mire, mud' l o s a /l'osah/  'porcelain  lasa /lasah/  'taste'  litid /lftid/  (plate)'  'ligament'  L e t t y /re*tih/ *a g i r l ' s name' lunti  / l u n t f ? / 'green'  l o t e /l6*teh/  lot'  lati  •marsh'  /l&ti?/  mina /mfnah/  mine'  Mena /mehah/  •a woman's name'  muna /muhah/  beforehand'  Mona /mohah/  a g i r l ' s name'  mana /mahah/  inheritance'  nina /ninah/  of them, by them'  Nena /nehah/  a g i r l ' s name'  nuno /nuho?/  forefather'  nonong /nohon/ 'a boy' Nano /naho?/ 'a man's name'  85 n g i n g i / n f n i ? / 'the angle between f i n g e r s o r t o e s ' nene /nine?/  'little  girl'  nguso/fylso?/ 'upper l i p ' ngongo /n8nol/ 'speaking with a n a s a l twang' nganga /n&na?/ 'prepared buyo' p i l a / p f l a h / ' l i n e , queue' p e r a /pe*rah/ 'money' p u l a / p u l a h / 'red' P o l a / p o l a h / *a town i n Mindoro' p a l a /pSlah/ 'shovel' pilas  / p f l a s / ' t e a r , rend'  peras /pe*ras/ 'pear' pulas /pulas/  'escape'  posas /posas/  'manacle, handcuff*  pasas /pasas/  'raisin*  pilok / p i l o V  'twisted f o o t '  p e l u k a /peltfkah/ 'wig* p u l o t /pul<5t/ 'honey' poot /po?o*t/ 'hate, h a t r e d ' p a l o t / p a l o t / 'odor of u r i n e ' p i p i / p f p i h / 'mute, dumb' Pepe /pepeh/ 'a boy's name' p u r i / p i i r i h / ' p r a i s e ; honor' pobre /p6*breh/ 'poor' pare /pareh/  ' v o c a t i v e word used i n a d d r e s s i n g a man'  86  p i s a /pisa*?/ 'hatched; crushed' pesa /pe*sa?/ 'a k i n d of n a t i v e d i s h ' pusa /ptfsa?/ ' c a t ' posas  /p6sas/  pasas /pa*sas/  'manacle, h a n d c u f f 'raisin'  p i s o / p f s o h / 'peso' pero /pe*roh/ 'but' puro /ptfroh/ 'pure' Poro  (Poro P o i n t ) /poroh/ 'name of a p l a c e '  paros / p a r o s / 'a s p e c i e s of clam* pista  / p i s t a h / 'feast, holiday*  peste / p e s t e h / 'pest' p u s t a / p u s t a h / 'bet' poste /p'6"steh/ 'post' pasta /pastah/ ' f i l l i n g sila /silah/  (dental)'  'they'  S e l a /se*lah/ 'a woman's name* s u l o /sulo* ?/ * t o r c h * 1  s o l o /s6*loh/ ' s o l o ' s a l a /s£lah/ ' s i n , f a u l t ' sili  /sflih/  'pepper'  Cely /s'e*lih/ 'a g i r l ' s name' s u l i t / s t f l i t / 'an a c c o u n t i n g o f Solly  /solih/  'a g i r l ' s name'  Sally  /salih/  'a g i r l ' s name'  87  silya /silyab/  'chair  1  s e l y o /se*lyoh/ 'stamp' sulyap /'sulyap/ ' s i d e g l a n c e ' sodyo /socLyoh/ 'sodium' s a l y a / s a l y a h / 'throw away' s i n a /slnSh/  'person marker ( p i . )  senso /sensoh/  'census'  suno /suno?/  ' l i v e w i t h a person or f a m i l y  sona /s6*nah/  'zone'  sana /sanah/  ' e x p r e s s i o n of d e s i r e or hope  t i l o s / t f l o s / 'pointed' telon / t e l 6 n / 'curtain, screen' tulong / t i l l 0 1 3 /  'help, aid'*  toro /toroh/ ' b u l l ' talon /talon/  'waterfall'  T i n a / t f n a h / ''a g i r l ' s name'  ;  tena /tenah/ ' l e t ' s go* tuna /tunah/ 'tuna f i s h ' tono /to*noh/ 'tone, tune' tanan /tanan/ 'elope* t i n d a / t i n d a b / * goods f o r s a l e '  1  benda /bendah/ 'bandage' punda /pundah/ ' p i l l o w c a s e ' Tondo /tondoh/  'a d i s t r i c t i n M a n i l a '  banda /bandah/ 'band, o r c h e s t r a '  88  tinis /tfnis/  ' s h r i l l n e s s of v o i c e  1  tenis / t e n i s / 'tennis' tunis / t u n i s /  'lard'  tono /tohoh/ 'tone,  tune'  t a n g i s / t a r j i s / 'weep' t i r a / t f r a h / 'go ahead and  act'  t e l a / t e l a h / ' f a b r i c , cloth«« turo/ turo?/  'instruction'  toro /toroh/  'bull'  t a r o / t a r o h / 'chinese j a r ' Besides  1  the p r e c e d i n g p a i r s of u t t e r a n c e s , there i s a number  of n a t i v e and l o a n words which have / r / , never /d/, /e/, never /i/,  and /o/, never /u/.  The  f o l l o w i n g i s but a s h o r t sample  listing: /d/ remains /d/, never / r / even i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g n a t i v e words: / d a k i f l a ? / 'great'; kadahilanan  kadakilaan  'greatness' < d a k i l a  'cause' < d a h l l /dah.il/ 'because';  kadalagahan 'unmarried woman i n g e n e r a l ' < d a l a g a /dalagah/ married woman'; kadalamhatlan 'extreme sorrow' < dalamhatl  'un/dalam-  ha*ti?/ ' a f f l i c t i o n , s o r r o w ; kadamdamin 'of the same f e e l i n g s ' < 1  damdam /damdam/ ' f e e l ' ;  kadunguan ' t i m i d i t y ' < dungo /dung'©'?/  ' t i m i d ' ; i p a d a l a 'he s e n t " < d a l a /dalah./ ' c a r r y , b r i n g ' ; ymadadala 'can be c a r r i e d ' < d a l a /dalah./ 'carry' ; madala 'to l e a r n by 1  p l e a s a n t experience' < d a l a /dal£?/ 'unpleasant madaig »to be surpassed* feel,  t o touch'  1  experience  < d a i g /da?£g/ "surpassed';  < dama /damiab./ ' f e e l , touch'J  madalas  un-  learned*;  madama "to 'frequent,  89 o f t e n ' < d a l a s / d a l a s / 'frequency'; madaldal  'talkative' < daldal  / d a l d a l / ' t a l k a t i v e n e s s ' ; madilim 'dark' < d i l i m / d i l f m /  'dark-  ness'; madulas 'slippery*; < d u l a s / d u l l s / * s l i p p e r i n e s s ' ; padabugdabog 'obeying i n a r e l u c t a n t or angry manner, accompanied by stamping  of the f e e t ' < dabog /daoog/ 'the a c t of obeying i n such  a manner', etc.* Always /e/ never / i / s beses /be*ses/ 'number of times' ; keso /k&soh/ 'cheese', dwende /dwendeh/ 'dwarf' , ebanghelyo 1  /?ebanhe*lyoh/  ' e p i s t l e ' , eksema  /?ekse*mah/ 'eczema', e k s t r a /?e"kstrah/ ' e x t r a ' , edad /?edact/ ''age', e d i t o r  /?5ditor/ ' e d i t o r * , ehe /?eheh/ ' a x l e ' , e h e r s i s y o  /?ehers£syoh/ 'exercise' , e l e k t o r 1  /?elekt6*r/ ' e l e c t o r ' , e l e k s i y o n  /?eleksy6h/ ' e l e c t i o n ' , elegante / ? e l e g a n t e h / 'elegant', e l i s e / ? e l i s e h / 'screw p r o p e l l e r ' , emperador Enero /?eneroh/  /?emperad5r/ 'emperor',  'January', epiko /?e"pikoh/ ' e p i c ' , e t e r /?e*ter/  'ether' , e t i k e t a /?etik£tah/»label*, g e r a /g'e*rah/ 'war*, h e l e h e l e 1  /he*Lfehe*leh/ ' p r e t e n s i o n of d i s l i k e ' , nene /nene?/ ' l i t t l e  girl',  palengke /pale*nkeh/ 'market', Pebrero /pebre*roh/ 'February*, preno /prehoh/  'brake' , puwede /pwe*deh/ ' p o s s i b l e * , r e b e l d e  /reb&Ldeh/ ' r e b e l l i o u s , remedyo /remedyoh/ 'remedy', sernestre 1  /seme*streh/  'semester*,  s e s e n t a /sese*ntah/ ''seventy*, s i y e t e  /siye*teh/ 'seven', sorbetes / s o r b i t e s / ' i c e cream', sweldo /sweldoh/  ' s a l a r y ' , t r e n / t r e n / ' t r a i n ' , t r e s e /tr'eseh/* t h i r t e e n ' ,  tsek /feek/ 'check', tseke /tse*keh/ 'cheCque', t s e s / t s e s / 'chess', y e r o /ye"roh/ ' g a l v a n i z e d iron*', etc.-  90 Always /of  never /u/ :  bakoko /bak<5koh/ 'a s p e c i e s b o l a /b&Lah/ ' b a l l * , boses katoto loko  of f i s h * , bobo /bSboh/ ' d u l l ; s t u p i d * : ,  /b6ses/ ' v o i c e * , boto /b6*toh/ 'vote',  /kat5toh/ 'companion, f r i e n d ' , kodigo /ko'digo'h/ 'code*,  /l5koh/ ' c r a z y ' , l o l a /1'Slah/  'grandmother', l o l o /16"loh/  'grandfather', l o r o / l o r o h / ' p a r r o t ' , n o t a /no'tah/ 'note', 0 Ji /?oh/ ' i n t e r j e c t i o n OhJi', obaryo /?obaryoh/ /fobfspoh/ ' b i s h o p , oho 1  'ounce", opera opo  'ovary', obispo  /?<5ho?/ 'yes ( l e s s f o r m a l ) ' , onsa /?'6nsah/  /?6perah/ "opersi, operasyon /?operasy6n/ 'operation*',  /?6po?/ 'yes ( f o r m a l ) ' , Opon /?6*pon/ "a town i n Cebu', o p t i k o  /?c5jfcikoh/ ' o p t i c i a n ' , orador / ? o r a d o r / ' o r a t o r " , oras / ? o r a s / "hour, time', orasyon /?orasy 6n/ 'angelus';, o r b i t ;  oregano /?or'^ganoh/  /?6rbit/  'a s p e c i e s of herb', osana /?osanah/  oso /?osoh/ 'bear', o s p i t a l / ? o s p i t ^ l / ' h o s p i t a l ' , otso  ,!  orbit»,  'hosanna',  /?6tsoh/  'eight', p o l o / p ^ l o h / "polo s h i r t ' , p o l y e t o /polye*toh/ ' l e a f l e t ' ; , poso /posoh/  " a r t e s i a n well'?, posporo /po*sporSh/ 'match', s o l o  / s o l o h / ' s o l o ' , soneto /sone'toh/ "sonnet*, tono /tonoh/ 'tone*, yodo /yoaoh/ ' i o d i n e ' , yoyo  /y6yoh/ <a k i n d of t o y ' , e t c .  I t should be noted t h a t /of  ,  occurs i n a number of n a t i v e  words as the vowel i n the l a s t two s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n t e r v e n i n g n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e g l o t t a l stop which prevents a h i a t u s .  Examples  are bagoong /bago?6n/ " s a l t e d and p i c k l e d f i s h ' , Bakood /bako?'6a/ 'a town i n Bulacan', ginoo /gino?6b/ 'gentleman*',  l o o b /lo?6b/  ' i n s i d e ' , noo /no?oh/ "forehead", oo /?6*?oh/ 'yes', noon /no?3n/ •that time", doon /do?6n/ ' t h e r e ' , pook /po?6"k/ ' p l a c e ' , poot /po?<5t/ 'hate'-, t o t o o /toto?'6b/ i n the same way,  ' t r u e ' , etc.' The sound /e/ occurs  as i n l e e g /le?e*g/ 'neck's  91 9.2  V a r i a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n  E a r l i e r i n the chapter mention has been made of. the c r i t e r i a i n v o l v e d i n c l a s s i f y i n g speech sounds, namely, s i m i l a r i t y and i d e n t i t y of f u n c t i o n .  1  distribution,  P o i n t s of c o n t r a s t i n the  p a t t e r n of Tagalog and the r e l a t i o n s between them have been identified.'  The c l a s s i f l c a t o r y process a l s o i n v o l v e s  subsuming  c e r t a i n sounds under the heading of a g i v e n phoneme; such sounds are c a l l e d " p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s " of the phoneme, because they vary a c c o r d i n g t o the p o s i t i o n i n which they occur.  1  For instance,  the Tagalog sound [ k ] i s one phone which i s found i n a l l  positions  except between vowels, as i n kubo [*ku:boh~| ' h u t , bundok 1  [bUn*do:k] 'mountain , bukbok [bUk'bo:k] 'weevil*; and the v o i c e 1  l e s s v e l a r f r i c a t i v e sound [ x ] i s another phone which occurs only between vowels, as i n p a l a k a [ p a l a ' x a : ? ] ' f r o g ' , kuko [kU'xo:h] ' f i n g e r n a i l ' , pako ['pa.xo?] ' n a i l ' . ;  These two phones  [ k ] and [ x ] f u n c t i o n i n Tagalog as one u n i t , a s i n g l e phoneme, which i s t r a n s c r i b e d as /k/ wherever i t occurs.'  In phonemic  t r a n s c r i p t i o n , the words g i v e n above would be w r i t t e n r e s p e c t i v e l y as /ktfboh/, /bund6*k/, and /bukb<5k/, and /palaka"?/, /kukoh/ and /pa*ko?/.i  Thus, i n the cases d e s c r i b e d , the Tagalog phoneme  /k/ has two p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s , [ x ] when i t occurs i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , and [ k j elsewhere;  5  Some l i n g u i s t s use the term "allophone" to r e f e r t o sounds subsumed under f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s i n t h i s way.  1  I t i s d e r i v e d from  the p r e f i x a l i o - p l u s phone. forming the term a l l o p h o n e which means 'sound which f u n c t i o n s as a member of a phoneme ^'-^ ^Hall,  o£.' c i t . , p.' 2 6  Every  92 phoneme has a t l e a s t one a l l o p h o n e and some have two or more.  1  The Tagalog sounds [ k ] and [ x ] under d i s c u s s i o n a r e allophones of the phoneme which i s t r a n s c r i b e d as /k/. I n c l a s s i f y i n g speech sounds l i n g u i s t s have e s t a b l i s h e d the p r i n c i p l e t h a t sounds a r e grouped i n t o phonemes i n terms of t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n , as w e l l as i n terms o f p h o n e t i c or d i f f e r e n c e s .  1  similarities  D i s t r i b u t i o n r e f e r s t o the c o n d i t i o n under  which the two allophones occur, t h a t i s ,  the p o s i t i o n i n which  they a r e found w i t h r e s p e c t t o each other and t o other sounds.' I t has been s a i d e a r l i e r t h a t i f two elements occur i n the same environment,* w i t h d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n , they a r e s a i d t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r .  Thus, i n Tagalog, the sounds /k/ and  / g / occur i n the same environment, e.'g. , i n w o r d - i n i t i a l !  t i o n , as i n / k i l l a y / ' c o l o r ' vs.' / g i t l a y / 'vegetable'.'  posi-  They a r e i n  c o n t r a s t ! v e d i s t r i b u t i o n and hence cannot belong t o the same phoneme.  1  On o c c a s i o n s , however, two o r more sounds i n Tagalog occur i n the same environment but they a r e n o t i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each others  I n such i n s t a n c e s , the sounds a r e s a i d t o be i n non-  contrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n L i n g u i s t s  consider a noncontrastive  d i s t r i b u t i o n one of the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g sounds as members of the same phoneme;?  I f one sound occurs where the  other never does, and v i c e v e r s a , so t h a t they complement each other, they a r e s a i d t o be i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , as i n *The environment o r p o s i t i o n o f an element c o n s i s t s of the neighborhood, w i t h i n an u t t e r a n c e , of elements which have been s e t up on the b a s i s o f the same fundamental procedures, which were used i n s e t t i n g up the element i n q u e s t i o n ; neighborhood r e f e r s t o the p o s i t i o n of elements b e f o r e , a f t e r , and simultaneous w i t h the elements i n q u e s t i o n ( H a r r i s , p.- 15).<  93  the case of [ k ] and [ x ] d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ; -  Another example of  complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h e case of Tagalog [ i ] which occurs only under s t r e s s as i n b i l o g [ * b i : l o g ] * c i r c l e , ness' and [ i ] which 1  round-  occurs i n weakly s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , as i n  bilog [bI'lo:g] 'circular,  round' .' 1  Often, however, Tagalog sounds occur n e i t h e r i n c o n t r a s t l v e n o r i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n . !  They a l t e r n a t e f r e e l y w i t h  each o t h e r , as do the sounds [ o ] and  i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , as  i n noon [ n o '?o:n] or [no'?o:n] 'at t h a t tlime':, and buhok [bU»ho:k] o r [bU'h:?:k] ' h a i r ' v free variation  Such sounds a r e s a i d t o be i n  ( f r e e a l t e r n a t i o n ) , and of n o n c o n t r a s t i v e r a t h e r  than complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n .  1  [ o ] and [:>] a r e s a i d t o be  f r e e v a r i a n t s s i n c e they occur i n i d e n t i c a l environment p r o d u c i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning;!  without  I n o t h e r words, they a r e  f r e e l y s u b s t i t u t a b l e f o r each o t h e r without change i n meaning^ The c r i t e r i o n of s i m i l a r i t y a p p l i e s t o p h y s i c a l i n phonetic features;i  resemblance  Thus Tagalog [ i ] and [ i ] have I n common  the f a c t t h a t they a r e both high-front-unrounded vowels have i d e n t i t y  They  of f u n c t i o n i n the f a c t t h a t they both serve as  a l l o p h o n e s of the same phoneme  94  9.'2.1  A l l o p h o n i c A l t e r n a t i o n of Consonants  Some Tagalog phonemes have only one allophone and others have two o r more.' /k/, f o r i n s t a n c e , has [ x ] as an allophone i n i n t e r v o c a l i c position.'  [ x ] has a v e l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n and i t i s  never f r o n t e d even between f r o n t vowels.  I t i s especially far  hack between back or low vowels o r any combination  of them, as  i n l o k o L'lojxoh] 'crazy', suko ['su:xo?J 'surrender', pako ['pa:xo?3 ' n a i l ' , malakas [mala'xa:s]j 'strong', e t c . phone [k~| occurs elsewhere,  as i n kagat  The a l l o -  [ka'ga:t] ' b i t e ' , kapkap  [kap'ka:p] ' f r i s k ' , pakpak [pak'pa:k] 'wing', e t c . I n Tagalog, the [ ? ] allophone of the f u l l g l o t t a l stop / ? / occurs i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y , v a r y i n g i n r a p i d  speech  w i t h any p a r t i a l g l o t t a l s t r i c t u r e , as i n i r a p [ ' ? i : r a p ] ' s u l l e n l o o k ' , i t i k [»?i:tlk] 'duck', naa [pa'?a:h] ' f e e t ' , p a i t ' c h i s e l ' , baga ['ba:ga?] 'lung', maaari [ma'?a:•?a:rl?]  [pa'?i:t 'possible  [ ? ] v a r i e s f r e e l y with [ 0 ] ( p o t e n t i a l g l o t t a l stop) p r e v o c a l i c a l ly.  I t does n o t c o n t r a s t with absence of i t s e l f b e f o r e vowels.'  1  Tagalog / s / has an [ s ] allophone o c c u r r i n g i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , e.g. , sasama ['sa: • sa:mah] ' w i l l go', s i k s i k [ s l k ' s i s k ] ;  'full,  crowded', musmos [mUs'mo:s] 'innocent'., and a p a l a t a l i z e d * [|] o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e /y/, a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e E n g l i s h / s / but w i t h  lip-  s p r e a d i n g , e.g., s i y a [^ya:h] 'he, she', siyam [sya:m] 'nine', siyampo [^ya:mpoh] ''shampoo', s y u t i n g [ ' ^ y u : t l n ] 'shooting,  • ^ P a l a t a l i z a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d here by the mark ( 3 ) the p a l a t a l i z e d consonants  under  95  grasya [ gra:|yah] 'grace . ,  1  T h i s allophone a l s o occurs i n  c l u s t e r w i t h / t / which i s very c l o s e t o E n g l i s h /<£/, esgS, t s a [ t s a : h ] ' t e a ' , l a n t s a [lan't'^a;h] 'launch', p l a n t s a [ p l a n ' t | a : h ] ' f l a t i r o n ' , t s a p e r o n ['tgasper'rosn] [ ? I n ' t | i : k 3 'Chinese'.' any  'chaperone', I n t s i k  There i s no v o i c e d allophone of / s / i n  positions The / r / i n Tagalog has an allophone [ r ] which occurs i n a l l  p o s i t i o n s , as i n r l t o [ * r i : t o h ] 'here*, r i y a n [ r l ' y a : n ] ' t h e r e * , n a r i r i t o [ * n a : r I r I i t o : h ] * i s here', p r i t o [ p r i : t o h ] ' f r i e d ' , !  l u g a r [ l U ' g a : r ] ' p l a c e ' , asahar [ ? a s a * h a : r j 'orange blossoms'.The / r / i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n and i n other d i s t r i b u t i o n i s u s u a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a s i n g l e tap t r i l l , with a multi-tap t r i l l b e f o r e consonants,  freely  [R] under emphatic c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y  eSgs, areglado [?aRe*gla:doh] 'okayed, ap-  proved', a r t e [*?a:Rteh] ' a r t i f i c i a l way [•?o:Rder] 'order, command', siyempre L i k e / s / , any  but i t v a r i e s  of the consonants  allophone b e f o r e a yod* elements  or manner; a r t ' , order  ['syesmpReh] *of course's may  have a p a l a t a l i z e d  The a r t i c u l a t i o n of the s a i d  consonant can be accompanied by a r a i s i n g of the tongue toward the hard p a l a t e , as i n piyano [»pya:noh] 'piano', p i y e r ' p i e r * , blyahe ['byasheh] ' t r i p , v o y a g e , blyanan 1  [pye:r]  [bya'nam]  'parent-in-law*, t i y a k [ t y a : k ] 'exact, d e f i n i t e ' , b a t y a  [ba'tya:?]  ' l a r g e tub', k i y a [kya:?] ' g a i t , mannerism', d i y a s  [dya:s]  'musical j a z z ' , d l y a n i t o r [*dya:nl f.tosr] ' j a n i t o r ' ,  radyo  *Yod a c o u s t i c a l l y equals the sound of y. added t o the consonants  96 ['rasdyoh] ' r a d i o ' , Miyerkules [*<mye:rkUtle:s] ''Wednesday* , may a-may a [* mya:'mya: ?] ' l a t e r on', kanya [kan'ya:h] ' h i s , h e r ' , ;  kampanya [kam'pa:nyah] 'campaign', ngiyaw [rjya.'w] 'mew silya  [sll'ya:h]  ,!  chair', sigarilyo [sIga'ri:lyoh]  of a cat'<,  'cigarette , 1  r i y a n [ r y a : n ] 'there'', barbery a [ b a r b e r ' y a : h j 'barbershop' , etc.: Below i s a l i s t i n g  of the consonant phonemes w i t h , under  each, the i n d i c a t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n s  ( a l l o p h o n e s ) , the d i s t r i -  b u t i o n or the c o n d i t i o n s under which they occur, and examples i n phonemic and p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  and i n c o n v e n t i o n a l orthog-  raphy with the g l o s s v Phoneme  Variation  Distribution  Example  /P/  [P]  Everywhere  /pakpa'k/ [pak'pa:k] pakpak  /b/  [b]  Everywhere  /bakb£k/ [bak'bask] bakbak 'detached'  /t/  [t]  Everywhere  /patpSt/  'wing'  1  [ p a t ' p a : t ] patpat 'bamboo  split' /d/  [d]  Everywhere  /daldaU/ [ d a l ' d a r l ]  daldal  'talk-  ativeness * A/  [k]  Everywhere . . except be- /manko*k/ [man'k6:k] mangkok 'bowl' tween vowels  [x]  Between vowels  .... /?abakah/ [?aba'xa:h] abaka ''Manila hemp*  !  /g/  "  /?/  •  [g]  Everywhere  /gagoh/ [«ga:goh] gago  "stupid'  [?.]  Everywhere  /b£ta?/ f~''ba: ta? J b a t a  'child'!  [0]  In free variation with [ ? ] i n p r e - /pa?aUam/ (_pa'?a:lam]|'-w'£pa'a:lam) * vocalic position paalam 'goodbye*'  • •  '  *The s q u i g g l e (^) i s used here t o mean a l t e r n a t i n g , i n a l t e r n a t i o n with".1  "alternates,  97  /m/  [m]  Everywhere  /mama?/ ['ma:ma?] mama 'any man'  /n/  [n]  Everywhere  /nSmin/ ['na:mln] namln 'our, ours'  A)/  D}]  Everywhere  / n i s n f s / [ n l s ' n i : s ] ngisngis  /s/  [s]  Everywhere  /stfsan/ [ su:san] Susan 'a g i r l ' s name'  [|]  Before / y / /syempreh/ [*sye:mpreh] siyempre 'of and i n c l u s t e r with / t / course'  ''giggle'  1  l;  /tsine'las/ [t|I'ne:las] t s i n e l a s ''slippers' /h/  [h]  Everywhere  /!/  [ l ] Everywhere  /r/  [r]  Everywhere / r f t o h / [ * r i : t o h ] r i t o  [R]  In free variation w i t h [ r ] under /prenoh/ ['pRe:noh] Prenojj 'Brakeii'. emphatic c o n d i t i o n s  /w/  [w]  Everywhere  /y/  [y]l Everywhere 9.'2;'2 Tagalog / i /  / h f h i p / [»hi:hlp] h i h i p  'blow'  / l a l i m / [ ' l a : l l m ] l a l i m 'depth' 'here'  /wawa?/ ['wa:wa?] wawa 'mouth of a r i v e r '  1  /yayah/ [*ya:yah] yaya 'nursemaid'  A l l o p h o n i c A l t e r n a t i o n of Vowels has three a l l o p h o n e s : [ i j [ F j [ l ] s  The h i g h -  f r o n t - tense-unrounded [ i ] occurs under s t r o n g s t r e s s * except i n a prejunctural syllable  (the l a s t s y l l a b l e , , b e f o r e a j u n c t u r e ) , e.'gs,  k l t a [ ' k i : t a h ] ' v i s i b l e from a d i s t a n c e ' , k a n i n a [ka'ni:nah] *a w h i l e a g o , ninong r  ' t a l e n t ' , etc?:  ['ni:nonJ  'godfather', t a l i n o  [ta'li:noh]  The s l i g h t l y lowered-high-front-tense-unrounded  []*] occurs under s t r e s s i n p r e j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e , e.'g.i, kami [ka'mI :h] 'we', t a b i [ t a « b I : h ] ' s i d e ' , marumi A  A  ' d i r t y ' , s a k i t [ s a ' k I : t ] 'sickness', b i l l A  [marU'ml^sh]  [bI'lI :h]  * T h i s i n c l u d e s primary and secondary s t r e s s .  A  5  'buy , r  98 uwi  [?U'wI*:?] 'go home', etc;.'  The l o w e r - h i g h - f r o n t - l a x -  unrounded [ i ] occurs under weak s t r e s s , * '  e;g.%  b a k i t [»ba:klt]  'why', b l g a s [ b l ' g a : s ] ' r i c e ' , bukid [»ibu:kld] 'farm , i-kaw 1  [?I'ka:w] 'you', k a l b i g a n [ k a ? I ' b i : g a n ] ' f r i e n d , e t c  Occasion-  1  a l l y , [ i ] and [ i ^ a l t e r n a t e f r e e l y i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s .  1  The  t h r e e a l l o p h o n e s are i n completely n o n c o n t r a s t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n , p a r t i a l l y i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and p a r t i a l l y i n f r e e variation.! S i m i l a r l y , /u/ has t h r e e a l l o p h o n e s : high-back-tense-rounded  [uj"[U*]"[u3.'  The  [ u ] occurs under s t r e s s , except i n p r e -  j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e , e.g., puso ['pu:so?] ' h e a r t ' , b u t !  ['bu:tlh3  •goodness', t u b l g [ t u : b l g ] 'water', upa £'?u:pah] 'rent; pay', f  suka [»su:kah] 'vinegar'', e t c tense-rounded  The s l i g h t l y  lowered-high-back-  [U*3 occurs under s t r e s s i n a p r e j u n c t u r a l  s y l l a b l e , e.g.,  sampu [sam'pU*:?] 'ten', bukod [bU'kU*:d]  'separate', bagkus [bag'kU*:s] 'on the c o n t r a r y ' , krus 'cross', e t c  The lower-high-back-lax-rounded  [krU*:s]  [u"3 occurs under  weak s t r e s s , as i n b u l a k l a k [ b U l a k ' l a : k ] 'flower', sumbrero [sUm'bre:roh] 'hat ', buto 1  [bU'to:h] 'bone; seed', tuwa [tU'wa:?]  ' j o y * , tukso [tUk»so:h] 'temptation',  etc  The v a r i a n t s of /e/ are the mid-front-tense-unrounded  [e]  a l t e r n a t i n g f r e e l y w i t h the higher-mid-front-tense-unrounded  and  s l i g h t l y r a i s e d [ e * ] under any l e v e l of s t r e s s , except b e f o r e /y/ where only [ e * ] occurs.' beses  Examples are p e r a ['pe:rah] 'money',  ['be:ses] 'number of times', l e e g [ l e * ? e : g ] 'neck':, t r e n  [ t r e : n ] ' t r a i n ' , palengke  [pa'le:nkeh] 'market*, but [ e * ] i n  :*Weakly s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s are l e f t unmarked.  1  99 words l i k e aywan [?e*y*wa:n] 'expression of n e g a t i o n ' , mayroon [me*yro»?o:n] 'there i s , a r e ' , kaysa [ke*y'sa:h]  'than', k a i l a n  [ k e * y l a : n ] «when', i l a g a y [ ? I l a g e * : y ] 'to put' f  ,,  The f r e e v a r i a n t s of /o/ are the mid-hack-tense-rounded [ o ] , the higher-mid-back-tense-rounded  and s l i g h t l y r a i s e d  [o*]  which occurs under s t r e s s and a l t e r n a t e s f r e e l y with [ o ] , and the higher-low-back-tense-rounded  [o].' The v a r i a t i o n i s e n t i r e -  l y f r e e under any l e v e l of s t r e s s , as i n oras [ ' ? o : r a s ] - [ ' ? o * ; r a s ] **C»?D^as] 'hour' , p u l o t [pU«lo:t] "[pU'lo : t ] " [pU'loD-.t] 'honey', 1  noon [no':?o:n] ** [na''?o*:n] ** [no'?o*:n] 'that time', oo ['?os,?oh] - ['?o:?o*h] - ['?o:Dh] 'yes', e t c . I n the case of / a / , there are f r e e v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a range from s l i g h t l y r a i s e d low-central-lax-unrounded [ a * ] t o mid-central-lax-unrounded words.'  [,?] when under weak s t r e s s i n c e r t a i n  Low-central-tense-unrounded  [ a ] occurs under s t r e s s .  T h i s a l l o p h o n e i s constant i n i t s low c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n most Tagalog words.'  The f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t e s the occurrence of the  v a r i a n t s of / a / :  p a a r a l a n ['pa?ara'la:n]  [ l a ' l a : k l h ] 'man', pag-asa [pag*?a:sah] [dima:da'la:h]  'school', l a l a k i  'hope , d i n a d a l a 1  [diina:d^. la:h] ' i s being c a r r i e d ' , f  ipadala  [ ? i p a s d a ' l a : h ] ** [?iipa:<-Lp'la:h] 'be s e n t ' , e t c . f  Length and n a s a l i t y e x i s t i n Tagalog vowels. are lengthened.  1  ;  S t r e s s e d vowels  N a s a l i t y i s e n t i r e l y c o n d i t i o n e d by the presence  of any one of the n a s a l s / m n n, / a f t e r a vowel. s t r o n g e s t w i t h / n /.  Nasalization i s  Examples are ngongo ['nojrjo?] 'speaking  w i t h a n a s a l twang', nganga [«nS:ng?] 'prepared b e t e l l e a f , n u t  100  a n d l i m e ' , n g a y o n [ n a ' y o : n ] 'now; :  i n y o n g [ ? I n f y o : r j ] 'your p l u s  today', ngipin  ("'nil's p i n 1  'teeth',  a t t r i b u t i v e m a r k e r 'ng*:, a n d t h e  like.' Phoneme A/  Variation [ i ]  [i*]'  Distribution  Example  Under s t r e s s except  /balita?/ [ba'li:ta?]  in a prejunctural syllable  balita  'news'  Under s t r e s s i n a /gabfh/ [ga'bl*sh] prejunctural syllable gabi 'night ' 1  [i]  U n d e r weak s t r e s s  / g a b i h / [''gasblh] )i  /e/  [e]  Everywhere except before /y/  ' yam'  pe*sa?/ [_'pe:sa?] p e s a 'a k i n d o f n a t i v e  [e*]  Before /y/ under any l e v e l o f stress  /eywan/  dish*!  [? *y wa:n] ,  e  aywan ' ' e x p r e s s i o n  of  negation /u/  [_u]  [U*]  Under s t r e s s e x c e p t in a prejunctural syllable  /btfkas/ ['bu:kas] bukas 'tomorrow':  Under s t r e s s i n a /baltft/ [bu'lU*st] prejunctural syllable  balut  'duck's egg' [U]  U n d e r weak s t r e s s  / b u k a s / [ b U ' k a s s ] bukas 'open'  /o/  [o]  [o*]  Co]  Everywhere  U n d e r stress i n p r e junctural syllable, and v a r i e s f r e e l y with L°3 Varies f r e e l y with [_oJ and [o*3  /no6b/ [ n o ' ? o : h ] noo 'forehead' / b u o ? / [ b U ' ? o * : ? ] buo 'whole' /puso?/ ['puss^?] puso 'heart  101  /a/  [a]  Everywhere under strong stress  /lalSkad/ [ila:'la:kad] lalakad  [a ]  Under weak s t r e s s v a r i e s f r e e l y with [©>] i n c e r t a i n positions  A  ' w i l l walk*  /kinagalitan/  [kI na:ga '11:tan] A  f  w [klma:g,?'li:tan]  'was  scolded' 9.2.3 !  A l t e r n a t i o n of Diphthongs  In Tagalog c o l l o q u i a l speech /ay/ v a r i e s f r e e l y w i t h / e y / or /e/, as i n may [ma:l] - [me:*] ** [me:h] 'there i s , a r e ' , k a i l an [ k a ? I ' l a : n ] ~ [kai»la:n] ** ['ke: l a n ] 'when', Maynila [ m a ^ ' n i s l a ? ] « [mei'ni:la?] 'Manila', etc. I n t h e same way 1  /oy/  alternates  ['ba:bui]  fc  pig',  -freely w i t h /uy/, as i n baboy ['ba:boi] •* kasuy [ka«su:i] - [ka'so:*] 'cashew'.-  Diph-  thongs /ay/ and /ey/ do n o t a l t e r n a t e f r e e l y i n a l l i n s t a n c e s . Thus f a r , no c o n t r a s t  i s found between /ay/ and /ey/, o r be-  tween /oy/ and /uy/, but s i n c e t h e r e are c o n t r a s t s and  between / a /  / e / o r /o/ and /u/, t h e a l t e r n a t i o n i s here t r e a t e d as  morphophonemic (See Morphophonemic A l t e r n a t i o n s ) .  102 9.2,k  F o r e i g n Sounds V  The  f o l l o w i n g f o r e i g n sounds /  f  v  Q  c  V  V  j  s  z  /  occur  i n Tagalog but only i n names and place-names .1 Below a r e examples:* Names w i t h / f / : Afurong, A l a f r i z , A l f a r o , A l f o n s o , A l f r e d o , Boniface,  Bonifacio, Brofas,  Bofill,  Ceferina, Ceferino, D e l f i n , E p i -  f a n i a , E p i f a n i o , E s t i f a n i a , E s t i f a n i o , Eufemia, F a b r i c a n t e , F a cunda, Facundo, F a j a r d o ,  Falconl, Falgui, Fallurin,  Famdico, Famaran, Fandino, F a n g o n l l , F a u s t i n o ,  Fallurina,  Fausto, Fe,  Federico, F e l i c i t a s , F e l i c i s i m a , F e l i c i s i m o , F e l i p e , F e l i s a , F e l i x , Felwa, F e r d i n a n d , F e r i a , Fermin, Fernandez, F e r o l i n o , F e r r e r , F i d e l , F i e l , F i g u r a c i o n , Filemon, F i r m a l i n o , F l o r , F l o r a , F l o r d e l i z a , Florenda, F l o r i t a , F l o r o , F l o r y , Fonacier, Fortunata,  Fortunato,  Florendo,  Flerida,  Flores, Floresca,  F o n d a v i l l a , Fordham, F o r n i e r ,  Francisca, Francisco, F r a n k l i n , Fred,  F r e d e r i c k , F r e d e r i c o , Fredo, F r i v a l d o , Fuente, Fuentes, Fuent e b e l l a , Fundador, Godofreda, Godofredo, J o s e f a , J o s e f i n a , J o s e p h i n e , Phocfeca, R a f a e l , R a f a e l a , R a n u l f o , R o d o l f o , Rufo, S o f r o n i o , T e l e s f o r o , T e o f i l o , S i n f o r o , W i l f r e d o ,  Rufino, etci  Place-names w i t h / f / : Cape San I l d e f o n s o , F a c t o t i a , F a i r e , D i f f u n , L a F o r tuna, L e f a Pt.', San A l f o n s o , San F e l i p e , San Fernando, Punta *The examples a r e mostly names o f F i l i p i n o government o f f i c i a l s l i s t e d i n the 1966 O f f i c i a l Program of the P h i l i p p i n e Independence C e l e b r a t i o n and some were taken from the d i r e c t o r y of the F i l i p i n o A s s o c i a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f u r n i s h e d by the P h i l i p p i n e Consulate i n B.-'Cu' Place-names were taken from a map o f the P h i l i p p i n e s . *  103 F l e c h a , San  F r a n c i s c o , San I l d e f o n s o , San R a f a e l ,  Names w i t h  etc  /v/:  Abueva, Adeva, Aldave, A l v a r o , A l v i o l a , A r v i o l a , Anonueva, A r e v a l o , A v e l i n o , Avenida, A v i l e s , A v i v a , Buenaventura, Buenavista,  Buenviaje,  Bienvenido,  Casanova, C l a r a v a l l , C l a -  v e r i a , Cordova, Dadivas, David, D i v i n a g r a c i a , Eva,  Elvi,  Elvis,  E l v i r a , Enverga, E v a n g e l i s t a , E v e l y n , E v i o t a , Gavino, Guevara, J a v i e r , Joven, J o v e n c i o ,  Jover, J o v i , J o v i t a , J o v i t o , L e v e r i z a ,  L e v i , L e v i s t e , L o v i n a , Malvar, Monteverde, M i r a v a l l e s , N a v a l , Nieva, Nieves, O l i v a , O l i v e r , O l i v i a , P r i m i t i v a , P r i m i t i v o , P r o v i d e n c i o , R e v i l l a , S a l v a , Salvador, vosa, S e v e r i n o ,  Salvacion, Salvio, S a l -  S i l v e r t r e , Stevan, Steve, T a l a v e r a , Tevera,  Tevez, Raval, V a d i v e l , Valderama, Valdez, Valenciano,  Valenzuela,  Valdezco, V a l e n c i a ,  Valera, V a l e r i a , Valeriana, Valeriano,  V a l l e j o , Valmonte, Valmayor, Vamante, Vazquez, Vega, Velasquez, Velayo, V e l e z , Veloso,  Velasco,  Ventura, Venancia, Venancio,  Venus, Verano, Verdolaga, Vergora, V e r u l o , Verzosa, V i c e n t e , Vicenta, Vicky, V i c t o r , V i c t o r i n a , V i d a l , V i t a l , Viernez, Villacorta, Villaflor, Villafuerte, Villagracia,  Villa,  Villaluz.Villa-  cruz, V i l l a l u n a , Villamar, V i l l a m i n , Villamor, Villanueva, V i l l a pando, V i l l a r , V i l l a r a m a , V i l l a r e a l , V i l l a r o s a , V i l l a r i a n o ,  Vil-  l a s , V i l l a s a n , V i l l a s i s , V i l l e g a s , V i l l e n a , Vilumiin, Vinzons, V i o l a , Viray, V i r g i l i o , V i r g i n i a , V i r o l a , Vivas, Vivencio, V i v e s , Yuvienco,  Vivero,  etc  Place-names with  /v/:  A l a v a Is. , A l t a v a s , A r e v a l o , Avenida R i z a l , A v i l e s , !  Buevavista,  C a l v e r , Can-avid, C a v i t e , C l a v e r i a , Cervantes,  104 Cordova,  D a v i l a , D i v i l a c a n Bay, D i v i s o r i a , D i v i u s a P t . , I v i s a n ,  Las Navas, Las N i e v e s , Lavezares, Lope de Vega, Malvar, M a r i v e l e s , Navotas,  N o v e l e t a , Nueva V a l e n c i a , Nueva V i s c a y a , Pon-  t e v e d r a , Puerto R i v a s , Reva P t . , S a l v a c i o n Is. , San V i c e n t e , 1  T a l a v e r a , V a l l a d o l i d , Vallehermosa, V a l l e y Cove, V e l t i s e z a r , Verde Is.,Passage, V i g a , V i g a n , V i g o , V i l l a f l o r ,  Villareal,  V i l l a s i s , V i l l a v e r t , V e l l a v i c i o s a , V i n t a r , V i r a c , Virgoneza, V i r i a t o , V i s i t a , etc.  1  Names w i t h /©/ and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g nicknames:* Anthea ( A n t y ) , Anthony (Tony), A r t h u r C a t h e r i n e , Cathy, Edith  ( C a t t y ) , Kathleen ( K a t t y ) , Dorothy  (Edita, Edit), Elizabeth  ( T u r i n g ) , Meredith  (Turing), (Dotty),  ( B e t t y ) , E t h e l ( E t e l ) , McArthur  ( D i t a ) , Thelma ( T e l , Telma),  Theodocia  (Toddy), Theodoro (Teddy), etc.' Names w i t h / c / : Anchesa, Acheson, Ancheta, Arteche, Cacho, Cachola, Camacho, C h a l l y , C h a r i t o , C h a r l i e , C h a r l e s , C h a r l o t t e , Chavez, Chayong, Cheng, Cherry, Chichay, Chiongbian, C h i t o , Choleng, Chong, C h o l l y , Choy, Concha, C o n c h i t a , Dichoso, Echague, Echem, Hechanova, Inchong, I t c h o n , Kimachawa, Luchek, Marcha, Pancho, Ranchez, R i c h a r d , Sanchez, Sancho, Sy-changco, e t c Names w i t h / j / : J a c k , J a c k i e , J a c q u e l i n e , Jane, J a n e t , Jenny, J e n i f e r , Jerry, J i l l ,  J i m , Jimmy, Joan, J o , J o e , J o e l , John, Johnny,  Johnson, J o j o , J o r g e , Joseph, Josephine, Judy, J u l i e , J u l i e t , J u n , June, J u n i o r , e t c . *Note the change of /©/ t o / t / .  105 i  Names w i t h / s / : A n a s t a c i a , Asuncion, B o n i f a c i o , Concepcion,  Consola-  c i o n , C o n s t a n c i a , C r e s c e n c i a , C r e s c e n c i o , F r a n c i a , Encarnacion, E s t a c i o , J o v e n c i o , L u c i a , Marsha, M a r c i a l , P a c e n c i a , P a l a c i o , Pascacio, Pasion, P a t r i c i a , P a t r i c i o , Presentacion, Prudencia, Prudencio, R e s u r e c c i o n , S a l v a c i o n , Shea, Sheik, S h i r l e y , S h i r l i t a , Venancia, Venancio,  Visitacion, etcs  Names w i t h / z / : A b l a z a , A b o i t i z , A l a z a r , Almanzor, A l t a v a z , Alvanez, A l v a r e z , A r q u i z a , Areza, Alzona, Arzadon, Asurez, Azares, Azcona, Aznar, Azucena, B a i z a s , B a l l o z o s , B a l t a z a r , Banzon, Bauza, Beat r i z , B e n i t e z , Benzon, Bermudez, Calaboza, Ceniza, Corazon, Cortez,  Cruz, Cuizon, Daza, Daveza, Deza, D i a z , D i e z , DIzon, E l e a z a r ,  E l i z a , E l i z a l d e , E n r l q u e z , Esperanza, zon, Gianzon, Gonzalo,  E s t e v e z , Eva, Galvez, Gan-  Gimenez, Guanzon, Gomez, Gonzal, Gonzales, Gonzaga,  Guzman, De Guzman, De l a Cruz, Hernandez, Inez, Jimenez,  Jozon, Lapuz, L a r d i z a b a l , Lazaro, L a z a t i n , L e c a r o z , L e g a z p i , L i z a s o , Lopez, Lorenza, Lorenzo, Lozada, Luz, Madrazo, Maleniza, Manuzon, Manzano, Marquez, M a r t i n e z , M a r t i z , Mendoza, Muniz, Munoz, Muzones, N a z a r i o , Ordonez, O r t i z , Paz, P e l a e z , P e r e z , P i c z o n , Quezon, Quiazon,  Quibranza, Quizon, Ramirez, Requiza,  Razon, Rodriguez-, Romualdez, R u i z , S a l a z a r , Suarez, Tevez, T i c z o n , T i z o n , Tuazon, Tupaz, Yanzon, V a l e n z u e l a , Z a c a r i a s , Z a b a l a , Zab o l a , Z a f r a , Z a i d e , Zalamea, Z a l d i v a r , Z a l d y , Zamora, Zapata, Z a r a , Zaragoza, Zenaida, Z i a l c i t a , Z i g a , Z o i l o , Zosa, Zuno, Z u z u a r r e g u i , etc.  :  Zubiri,  106 Place-names w i t h / z / : Azagra, A z p i t i a , Barbaza, C a p i z , Gonzales, Jimenez, L a Paz, Lezo, Lopez Bay, Luzon, Manreza, Pan de Azucar Is.-, Pozor r u b i o , R i z a l , Sanchez E r a , San L a z a r o , Sta." Cruz, Sta.> Inez, Tanza, Tenzas, Zambales, Zamboanga, Zamboanguita, Zaragoza, Zarraga, Zimigul, Zitanga, e t c These borrowed sounds, i n g e n e r a l , a r e so r e p r e s e n t e d i n f a c t i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of most educated F i l i p i n o s . '  A great  m a j o r i t y of Tagalog speakers, however, e s p e c i a l l y those i n remote towns and b a r r i o s who have n o t been s u b j e c t t o f o r e i g n l i n g u i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s , s u b s t i t u t e the n e a r e s t n a t i v e sounds f o r these f o r e i g n sounds.  Some i l l i t e r a t e  F i l i p i n o parents, f o r  i n s t a n c e , would name t h e i r c h i l d r e n Fe, E d i t h , David, o r R a f a e l and c a l l them Pe o r P i I d i t . Dabid. o r P a i h g . r e s p e c t i v e l y ; o r c a l l t h e i r home p l a c e D i b i s o r i a . Nabutas. Saragosa o r San P i l i p i i n s t e a d o f . t h e educated p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r D i v i s o r i a , Zaragoza  o r San F e l i p e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . ;  Navotas,  A l s o , i t has been observed  t h a t o l d e r Tagalog speakers, e s p e c i a l l y those with knowledge of Spanish, i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , r e p l a c e /©/ with / s / , and the younger speakers r e p l a c e i t w i t h / t / i n pronouncing words l i k e " t h r e e " which becomes / t r l / o r / s r i / . i  certain loan  Perhaps /&/ i s  r e p l a c e d w i t h / s / because the two sounds e x i s t as f r e e v a r i a n t s of  a s i n g l e phoneme i n some d i a l e c t s of Spanish.*  107  10;3  Phonotactics  Tagalog phonemes have been i d e n t i f i e d and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the i n d i v i d u a l phonemes has been d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g  section.* of  The d i s c u s s i o n here d e a l s w i t h the study o f sequences  phonemes, r e f e r r e d t o as "phonotactics;'"  t a c t i c s , according to H i l l ,  The term phono-  i s the a r e a of phonemics which  covers the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f sequences.'  It is  e s s e n t i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of phonemes, once they have been i d e n t i f i e d ^ 1  S i n c e phonemics proper makes use o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p h o n o t a c t i c s i s an e x t e n s i o n of phonemics. 10 ;1 I n Tagalog,  The S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e the number of v o c o i d sounds i n any u t t e r a n c e i s  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the number o f s y l l a b l e s which n a t i v e would i n s t i n c t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e i n t h a t utterance;: in  the f o l l o w i n g words:*  speakers  For instance,  s a / s a h / ' i n , on'', sama sa.ma /samah/  •go w i t h someone' , sasama sajsa.'ma /sasaniah/ ' w i l l go w i t h some1  one' , sama-sama sa.ima.isa.tma /samasSmah/ 'together'', sasama-sama s a . s a. ma ;*s a .-ma /sa*samasa*mah/ 'pretending t o go w i t h someone ', !  1  sumasama-s ama su.ma.-sa.^ma.sa.ma /sumasamasamah/ 'always going w i t h someone':, a Tagalog  speaker  e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e s the number o f  H i l l , A r c h i b a l d ; I n t r o d u c t i o n t o L i n g u i s t i c Structures,-• (New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and Company, 1958/, p.- 68.' He i s i n debted t o an unpublished l e c t u r e by Robert P.' S t o c k w e l l d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e the L i n g u i s t i c I n s t i t u t e h e l d a t the Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y I n s t i t u t e of Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s i n 1954.. 1  * S y l l a b l e - d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a p e r i o d (.') on the l i n e w i t h i n a word.i  108  syllables  i n each words  between sounds.'  The s y l l a b l e - d i v i s i o n  falls  clearly  As s a i d e a r l i e r , the sound a r t i c u l a t e d  with  the peak of s o n o r i t y of a s y l l a b l e i s known as i t s nucleus or center's*  On the b a s i s of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n  between the number of  f u l l v o c o i d s and t h a t of s y l l a b l e s , the s y l l a b l e i s here  defined  as a segment of speech c o n t a i n i n g a peak of s o n o r i t y w i t h sounds grouped  certain  around i t s ' A s y l l a b l e ending with a v o c o i d w i t h  no c o n t o i d f o l l o w i n g i n the same s y l l a b l e i s r e f e r r e d t o as an open s y l l a b l e , esgs , the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of b a t a / b S t a ? / 1  'child";  whereas t h a t which ends w i t h a c o n t o i d i n the s y l l a b l e a f t e r  a  v o c o i d i s c a l l e d a c l o s e d s y l l a b l e , esgs, pakpak /pakpak/ 'wings'V Some l i n g u i s t s use the e x p r e s s i o n s " f r e e "  and "checked"  s i n c e "open" and " c l o s e d " a r e a l s o used i n d e s c r i b i n g the  syllables, varieties  of mid-range vocoids S The s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e i s here s t a t e d i n terms of the permissible syllables  combinations  of vowel (V) and consonant  of the Tagalog languages  (C) i n the  I t i s assumed t h a t the b a s i c  s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e s of Tagalog are consonant-vowel the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of mata /matah/ 'eyes', and  (CV), e.gs,  consonant-vowel-  consonant (CVC), esgs , the f i r s t and second s y l l a b l e of mukha 1  /mukha?/ 'iface'ril  I t i s assumed here that vowels do not  with consonants to give the s y l l a b l e patterns final  (CV);!  (V), (VC)  structure or a  This i n v e s t i g a t o r believes that Tagalog s y l l a b l e  structure requires a f i n a l consonant i n a l l f i n a l Ordinary w r i t i n g does not i n d i c a t e how f i n a l / a e i o u / are pronounced.  syllables;!  Tagalog words w r i t t e n w i t h  Tagalog words s p e l l e d  with a  109  f i n a l vowel may end w i t h e i t h e r / ? / o r / h / although i t i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the w r i t i n g systems  / ? / and / h / a r e c o n t r a s t i v e  phonemes i n Tagalog, and s u b s t i t u t i n g one f o r the other can change the meaning of a word.' The f o l l o w i n g the  examples  illustrate  point: 1. as  Maganda ang batav  'The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l . '  1  /magandah ?arj b£tta?/ ( b e a u t i f u l the c h i l d ) Lbs  1  Maganda ang bata.  1  'The bathrobe i s b e a u t i f u l s '  /magandah ?arj,' b£tah/ ( b e a u t i f u l the bathrobe) 2. as  Kunin mo ang baga."  'Remove the lungs''  /kunin moh ?an baga?/ (get you 2sb.  the  lung)  Kunin mo ang baga.  'Get the ember.  r  /kunin moh ?arj bagah/ (get  you  the  ember)  I t i s t h y e f o r e necessary and h e l p f u l f o r non-native speakers to t r a n s c r i b e  Tagalog words w r i t t e n with a f i n a l vowel as ending  i n / ? / o r /h/, f o r even i f the meaning i s not changed by a wrong p r o n u n c i a t i o n , a f o r e i g n accent w i l l r e s u l t . 10.2  Consonant C l u s t e r s  (CC)  Tagalog phoneme sequences are here d e s c r i b e d their clustering habits.  Sequences of two or more consonant  phonemes without the i n t e r v e n t i o n consonant c l u s t e r s .  i n terms of  of a vowel a r e r e f e r r e d t o as  The c l u s t e r i n g h a b i t s  of Tagalog phonemes  110 are almost a l t o g e t h e r the c l u s t e r i n g of consonants alone, Tagalog vowels do not  cluster.-  That i s , no  out an i n t e r v e n i n g consonant or semivowelJ are no  two  vowels occur w i t h -  Historically,  consonant c l u s t e r s i n Tagalog except across  morpheme boundaries and Considering present  they are l i m i t e d to two  there  syllable  or  consonants only..'  loanwords as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the language,  the  study r e v e a l s t h a t Tagalog consonant c l u s t e r s occur  freely i n a l l positions. are r a r e  since  The  only r e s t r i c t i o n i s t h a t c l u s t e r s  finally.' 10.2.GL  Prevocalic Clusters  P r e v o c a l i c consonant c l u s t e r s (CC-)  can be summarized i n a  s e r i e s of formulas:* Let  C C  1. 2.  The  Consonant  lC  2  =  the f i r s t and  c  2  =  s  C"! = t  1  if  r C  2  second C  w  y  = s  = P  b  k  g  if  3-  Ci = P  b  t  d  k  k.  Ci =  C  l  any C except ?  clusters described  C g  w  2  = 1 if  y  if  above are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the  follow-  i n g examples: 1.  tsa /tsah/  'tea'  t s a t s a / t s ^ t s a h / 'cha-cha dance'  * T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r i s i n d e b t e d to an unpublished l e c t u r e g i v e n by Dr.' Ernesto C o n s t a n t i n o of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s and O r i e n t a l Languages, i n 1965 at the U n i v e r s i t y of the Philippines.  Ill t s a l e k o /tsale*koh/ 'a k i n d of garment t s a l e t / t s a l & t / 'chalet' tsamba / t s a m b a V tsek / t s e k /  'good l u c k ; guess'  'check'  tseke /tse"keh/ ''cheque' t s e s / t s e s / 'chess' t s i n e l a s /tsine'las/ atsara /?atsarah/ butse /butse"h/  'slippers'  'pickles'  'crop'  k o t s e /ko'tseh/ 'car' kutsero  /kutse*roh/ ' c a l a s h d r i v e r '  lantsa /lants^h/  'launch'  p l a n t s a /plantsah./  'flatiron'  m i t s a /mitsah./ 'wick'  1  mutsatso /mutsatsSh/ 'houseboy' 2s  p l a k a / p l S k a h / 'phonograph d i s k ' p l a k e /plake*h/ 'plaque' p l a n e t a /plane'tah/  'planet'  piano /planoh/ ';plan' p l a n t a /plantah./ plasa /pl5sah/  'plant^ works'  'plaza'  plasma /pl^smah/ 'plasma' plastado  /plasta*doh/  'fallen  plastik /plastfk/ 'plastic' Plata /plStah/  'silver'  p l a t o /pla"toh/ ' d i s h ; p l a t e '  flat'  112 plema /pieman/ 'phlegm' p l e t e /pl&teh/  'fare*  plorera /plorerah/ pluma /plilmah/ blangket  'flowervase'  'pen'  /blanket/ 'blanket'  blangko /blarjkoh/ 'blank' bloke /bl&ceh/  'block'  b l u s a /blu*sah/  "blouse"  klase /klaseh/  'class*  klabe /klaoeh/  ' c l a v i c h o r d ; key'  k l a r o / k l l i r o h / 'white of an  egg'  klasika /klasikah/ 'classic* klerk /klerk/ 'clerk' k l i m a /klfmah/ ' c l i m a t e ' klinika /klfnikah/ 'clinic' kliyente /kliy&nteh/ 'client* k l u b / k l u b / "club'' reklamo /reklamoh/ glab /glab/  'complaint'  "glove'  globo /gl'6boh/  "globe"  g M y o l a /gladycSlah/ ' g l a d i o l a p l a n t ' glorya /gloryah/ 'glory' 3.  p r a n e l a /prane*lah/ Pranses /pranses/  'flannel' 'French'  prangko /pr^nkoh/ 'frank, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d '  113  prasko /praskob./  'flask  1  premyo /premy6"h/ ' p r i z e ' preno /prenoh/ 'brake* preskripsyon /preskripsy6n/ 'prescription' presidente /presldenteh/ 'president' presinto /presfntoh/ 'precinct' preso /presoh/  'prisoner'  presyo /pre"syoh/  'price'  presyon /presyon/ 'pressure' pribado /pribaaoh/ 'private' p r e b l l e h i y o /prebil£hiyoh/ primero  /primeroh/  'privilege'  'first'  prinsipal /prinsipal/  'principal'  p r i t a d a / p r i t a a b h / *a k i n d of d i s h ' p r o b i n s i y a /probinsyab/ 'province' programa /progrSmah/ 'program' propaganda /propagandah/ 'propaganda' propesor / p r o p e s o r / ' p r o f e s s o r ' p r o p e t a /prope*tah/ 'prophet' protesta /protlstah/  'protest'  proyekto /proye*ktoh/ ' p r o j e c t ' p r u t a s /priStas/ b r a /brah/  'fruit'  'brassiere'  bras / b r a s / 'brush' braket /bra"ket/ 'bracket' Bretanya /bretanyah/  'Britain'  114 b r i g a & a /brig&dah/ 'brigade' brigadyer /brigadyer/  'brigadier'  brilyante /brilyahteh/  'diamond'  broker /broker/ 'broker' bronse /brohseh/ 'bronze" brongkitis /brogkftis/  'bronchitis'  brotsa /brotsah/ 'painter's  brush'  bruha /bruhah/ 'witch; u g l y woman' kubrekama /kubrekamah/ 'bedspread' libra /librah/  'pound'  l i b r e /llbr'eh/ 'free' l i b r o / l l b r o h / 'book'  1  trak /trak/  'truck*  trabaho /trabahoh/ 'work, j o b ' t r a h e / t r a h e h / 'costume, a p p a r e l ' trahedya /trah'e*dyah/ "tragedy" traidor /traidor/ 'traitor" transaksiyon  /transaksiyon/  trangka / t r a n k a h / 'door  'transaction*  fastener'  trangkaso / t r a n k a s o h / ' i n f l u e n z a , f l u ' trapo / t r a p o h / 'rag' t r a t o /tra"toh/ tren /tren/  'treatment'  'train'  trenta /trehtah/ tres / t r e s /  'thirty'  "three*  t r e s e /tre*seh/  'thirteen'  t r i p u l a n t e / t r i p u l a h t e h / 'crewman'  115 trombon /trombon/ 'trombone' trono /tr<5noh/ 'throne' tropeo / t r o p e o h / 'trophy' trapik /trapik/  'traffic'  a t r a s / ? a t r 5 s / 'backward movement' atraso /?atrasoh/  'tardiness'  k o n t r a t a /kontrdttah/ ' c o n t r a c t ' kontraktor /kontraktor/  'contractor'  l e t r a /le*trah/ ' l e t t e r ,  print'  kamisadentro /kamisade*ntroh/ 'men's s h i r t ' semestre /seme*streh/ ^semester' dragon /dragon/  'dragon'  dram /dram/ 'drum' drama /dr&nah/ 'drama, p l a y ' dril /dril/  'drill,  exercise '  drowing /dr'owin/ 'drawing' kuwadra /kwaarah/ ' s t a b l e ' kuwadrado /kwadr'aaoh/ 'square* kuwadro /kwaaroh/ ' p i c t u r e frame' padre/pacLreh/ ' f a t h e r , p r i e s t ' kumpadre /kumpaareh/ ' r e l a t i o n between onefcs g o d f a t h e r and p a r e n t s ' kumadre /kumaareh/ ' r e l a t i o n between one's godmother and parents' k r a k e r / k r S k e r / 'soda c r a c k e r s ' kredo A r e a oh/ 'credo, creed' krema /kremah/ 'cream' krimen /krimen/ 'crime'  116 kriminal /kriminal/  'criminal'  k r i s i s / k r f s i s/ ' c r i s i s' kristal /kristal/ Kristo /krfston/  'crystal' 'Christ"  kritika /krftikah/  'critic'  k r o s i n g /krtSsin/ ' c r o s s i n g * krudo /kru*doh/ 'crude  oil*  kongkreto /konkre'toh/ ' c o n c r e t e  1,  krus / k r u s / ' c r o s s ' graba /grabah/  'gravel'  grado /gr'aaoh/  'grade'  gramatika /gram£ttikah/ 'grammar' gramo /gramoh/ 'gram' granate /grana'teh/ 'garnet c o l o r ' grasya /griasyah/ 'grace* g r a t i s / g r a t i s / 'f,ree of charge' gripo /grfpoh/ 'faucet' g r o t o /gr6*toh/ ' g r o t t o ' grupo /griSpoh/ 'group' programa /programah/ 'program' kablegrama /kablegramah/  'cablegram'  telegrama /telegramah/ 'telegram' 4.  1  buwal /bwal/  'fallen,  uprooted'  buwan /bwan/ 'moon; month' buwanbuwan /bwanbwan/ 'a s p e c i e s of f i s h ' buwaya /bwayah/ ' c r o c o d i l e '  117  buwenas /bwehas/ 'good l u c k ' buwig /bwig/ 'bunch, c l u s t e r s ' buwls /bwis/ 'tax* b u w i s i t /bwasit/ buwitre /bwftreh/  'bad l u c k * 'wlture'  b i y a /bya?/ 'a s p e c i e s of f i s h ' b i y a k /byak/ ' s p l i t ' biyahe /byaheh/ ' t r i p , voyage' b i y a h e r o /byah&ro/ ' t r a v e l e r ' b i y a s /byas/ 'space between j o i n t s of bamboo or cane' b i y a t i k o /bya'tikoh/  'viaticum'  b i y a y a /byaya?/ 'grace, b l e s s i n g s ' biyenan  /byendh/  'parent-in-law'  B i y e r n e s /bye*rnes/ ' F r i d a y ' biyuda /bytfdah/ 'widow' biyulin /byulfn/ 'violin' kubyertos  /kubylrtos/ 'table silverware'  nobyo /nooyoh/ ' b o y f r i e n d , sweetheart' nobya /niSbyah/  'girlfriend,  sweetheart'  kuwako /kwa'koh/ 'smoking p i p e ' kuwaderno /kwadernoh/ 'notebook' kuwadra /kwaclrah/ kuwago /kwagoh/  'stable' 'owl'  kuwan /kwan/ "a .common-,Tagalog e x p r e s s i o n when h e s i t a t i n g ' kuwarentina /kwarentfnah/ kuwaresma /kware*smah/ 'Lent  'quarantine' season'  118  kuwarta /kwartah/ 'money* kuwarter / k w a r t l r /  'quarter'  kuwarto /kwartoh/ 'room' kuweba /kwe*bah/ 'cave' kuwelyo /kwelyoh/  'collar  1 ,  kuwenta /kwentah/ 'count; computation' k u w e n t i s t a /kwentfstah/ ' s t o r y w r i t e r or t e l l e r ' kuwento /kwentoh/ ' s t o r y ' kuwerdas /kwerda*s/  ' s t r i n g of m u s i c a l instruments  kuwero /kwHroh/ 'hide, s k i n ' kuwintas /kwintas/ 'necklace' diskuwento /diskwehtoh/  'discount'  k i y a /kya?/ ' a f f e c t e d g a i t , mannerisms' kiyapo /kyapo?/  'a s p e c i e s of p l a n t '  Quiapo /kyapo?/ 'Quiapo d i s t r i c t i n M a n i l a ' k i y o s k o /kyoskoh/ 'lilosk' parokya /par6*kyah/ ' p a r i s h ' duwag /dwag/  'coward'  duwende /dwendeh/ ' g o b l i n ;  dwarf  duweto /dwe*toh/ 'duet' d i y a b l o / d y a o l o h / 'devil*, demon' diyagnosis /dyagnosis/ 'diagnosis' d i y a g u n a l /dyagunal/ ' d i a g o n a l ' d i y a l o g o /dyalogoh/ 'dialogue' diyamante /dyamahteh/ 'diamond*  119  d i y a n /dyan/  'there  1  d i y a r y o /dyaryoh/ 'newspaper' d i y a s /dyas/ 'musical j a z z ' d i y e s /dyes/ ' t e n ' d i y e t a /dye*tah/ ' d i e t ; d a i l y allowance' d i y o s /dyo's/ 'god' d i y o s a /dyosah/  'goddess'  medyas /me*dyas/ 'sock, s t o c k i n g ' kudyapi /kudyapf?/ ' g u i t a r ' komedya /kome*dyah/ 'comedy' trahedya /trahecLyah/ 'tragedy' tadyang /tadyarj/  'rib*  adyos /?ady6*s/ 'goodbye* guwantes /gwahtes/ 'hand  gloves'  guwang /gwan/ 'hollow, c a v i t y ' guwapo /gwapoh/ 'good-looking (male)' guwapa /gwapah/ ' b e a u t i f u l , p r e t t y guwaplto /gwapftoh/  (female)'  'handsome, good-looking'  guwaratsa /gwara'tsah/ 'a k i n d of dance' guwardiya /gwardyah/ 'guard' g i y a /gyah/ 'guide' Guia /gyah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' Guiang /gyan/ »a f a m i l y name' huwag /hwag/ 'don't' huwad /hwad/ 'fake, f o r g e d '  129  Juan /hwan/ 'Juan, John' Huwebes /hwe*bes/ 'Thursday' huwego /hwegoh/ 'gambling' huwetlng /hwlstin/ 'a k i n d of Chinese game  1  huwes /hwes/ 'judge' h i y a /hya?/ 'shame' h i y a n g ,/hyan/ ' s u i t a b l e t o one's h e a l t h ' h i y a s /hyas/ 'jewelry' hiyaw /hyaw/ 'shout, c r y ' luwa /lwa?/ 'food e j e c t e d from the mouth' luwad /lwad/  'clay'  l u w a l / l w a l / 'out; o u t s i d e ' luwalhatl /lwalh^ti?/  'glory'  luwas /lwas / ' t r i p from town t o c i t y ' luwang /lwan/ 'width' luwat / l w a t / 'delay' l i y a b / l y a b / 'blaze; flame' l i y a d / l y a d / 'bent backward w i t h the abdomen p r o t r u d i n g ' l i y a g / l y a g / 'beloved, d a r l i n g ' l i y o /lyoh/  'dizziness'  muwang /mwan/ 'sense,  knowledge'  muwebles /mwebles/ ' f u r n i t u r e ' muwelye /muweUyeh/ ' p i e r ;  axle'  muwestra /mw'estrah/ 'demonstration; sample'  121  miyembro /myembroh/ 'member  1  miyentras / m y l n t r a s / 'meanwhile, w h i l e ' Miyerkules /myerkule's/ 'Wednesday' miyopiya /myopyah/ 'myopia' maya-maya /myamy5?/ ' l a t e r on'  1  nuwebe /nwlbeh/ 'nine' panuwelo /panweloh/ 'shoulder k e r c h i e f Anonuevo /?anyonw'eVoh/ *a f a m i l y name' n i y a /nyah/ ' h i s ,  her; by him/er'  niyebe /ny'lbeh/ 'snow'; n i y o g /nyog/ 'coconut' Ni.eves /nyeves/ *a g i r l ' s  name'  ngawa /nwa?/ 'loud empty t a l k i n g ' ngwe /nwe?/ ' c r y of a carabao' ngiwi /nwi?/ 'twisted ngiyaw /nyaw/ 'mew  (lips)'  of a c a t '  puwang /pwan/ 'space, i n t e r v a l ' puwede /pw'ecleh/ ' p o s s i b l e puwersa /pweYsah/  r  'force'  puwerto /pwe*rtoh/ 'port; entrance' puwesto /pwe*stoh/ ' p o s i t i o n * puwing /pwin/ ' f o r e i g n body i n the eye' puwi t /pwi t /  'anus'  piyano /pyanoh/ 'piano' p i y a n i s t a /pyanafstah/ ' p i a n i s t '  122  p i y a n s a /pyahsah/ 'surety, bond' p i y e /pyeh/ ' f o o t (measure)' p i y e r /pyer/ 'pier' p i y e s a /pyesah/ 'musical  piece'  piyak /pyak/ ' s h r i e k (of c h i c k e n ) ' kopya /k'cSpyah/ ' copy' lumpiya /lumpya'?/ 'Chinese egg  roll'  ruweda /rwe*dah/ ' r i n g , as i n a. stadium; wheel' Rowena /rwehah/ r i y a n /ryan/  1  a g i r l s name' 1  'there'  rosaryo /rosaryoh/  'rosary'  suwabe /swaoeh/ 'smooth, m i l d ' suwag /swag/ 'horn' suwail / s w a ? i l / ' r e b e l l i o u s , d i s o b e d i e n t ' suwelas /swe*las/ ' s o l e of a footwear' suwerte / s w l r t e h /  'good l u c k '  suwi /swih/ 'shoot,  sprout'  suwitik / s w i t i k / ' t r i c k y , c r a f t y ' entreswelo /?entreswe*loh/ s i y a /syah/ 'he;  1  groundfloor  1  she'  siyam /syam/ 'nine' s i y a p /syap/ ' c h i r p i n g of a c h i c k ' siyempre /syempreh/ 'of s i y e t e /sye"teh/  course'  'seven'  s i y o k /syok/ 'cry o f a f r i g h t e n e d  chicken'  123 s i y o k t o n g /syoktorj/ 'a k i n d of Chinese wine* grasya /grasyah/  'grace  1  d i s g r a s y a / d i s g r a s y a h / 'accident* d i b o r s i y o /dib6*rsyoh/ ' d i v o r c e ' demokrasya /demokrasyah/  'democracy'  tuwa /twa?/ ' j o y , gladness' tuwad /twad/ 'backward p o s i t i o n of the b u t t o c k s ' tuwalya / t w l l y a h / 'towel' tuwi / t w i ? / 'every time' tuwid / t w i d / ' s t r a i g h t ' katuwiran /katwfran/  'reason'  i s t a t u w a /?ista'twah/ ' s t a t u e ' t i y a /tyah/  'aunt'  t i y o / t y o h / 'uncle' t i y a k / t y a k / ' c e r t a i n , sure' t i y a g a /tyag'a,?/ ' d i l i g e n c e ' t i y a n / t y a n / 'stomach' tiyani /tyahi?/  'tweezers'  tiyempo /tye"mpoh/  'time; t i m i n g '  kristiyano /kristyahoh/ 'christian' m o l e s t i y a /molestyah/ A l l /Cw/ /Cuw/  'bother*  and /Cy/ c l u s t e r s a l t e r n a t e morphemically  and / C i y / r e s p e c t i v e l y  ( c f . Morphophonemics). ;  with  124  10.2.2 Tagalog  I n t e r v o c a l i c C l u s t e r s (-CC-)  c l u s t e r s occur m e d i a l l y i n u t t e r a n c e , t h a t i s ,  across s y l l a b l e or morpheme boundaries between words.'  whether w i t h i n words or  I n t e r v o c a l i c c l u s t e r s are medial  c l u s t e r s which  are combinations of p e r m i t t e d f i n a l s i n g l e consonant and mitted i n i t i a l  s i n g l e consonant.'  The  per-  s i t u a t i o n can be sym-  b o l i z e d as /-VCCV-/ i n n a t i v e words such as takbo /takboh/ pakpak /pakpak/ 'wing'.' p o s s i b l e type of medial  The l e x i c a l frequency  'run  1  of t h i s  consonant c l u s t e r s i s very high.'  A  sequence of t h r e e or f o u r consonants o c c u r r i n g m e d i a l l y always has  an i n t e r n a l open j u n c t u r e b r e a k i n g i t i n t o f i n a l  and i n i t i a l  c l u s t e r s as /-VC  • d i s p l a y ' , or /-VCC  + CCV-/  + CCV-/  consonant  i n loanword d i s p l e y / d i s p l a y /  i n ekstra  /Skstrah/  'extra'.  Since  they are i n t e r r u p t e d by a j u n c t u r e , these c l u s t e r s are t h e r e f o r e not t o be c o n s i d e r e d as t h r e e or four-consonant  clusters.'  A sample l i s t i n g of c l u s t e r s o c c u r r i n g across s y l l a b l e or morpheme boundaries  i s g i v e n below:  kumusta /kumustab/ ' g r e e t i n g ' .maganda /magandab/ 'beauti f u l ' pag-asa /pag?asah/ 'hope' dokt or / d o k t o r /  'doctor'  sapagka't /sapagk^t/ 'because' aakyat  ka /?£?aky£t kah/  b a b a l i k s i y a /b&balfk/ k a i n na / k a ? i n nab/ suweldo  /sweUdoh/  'you w i l l  climb'  syah/ 'he w i l l r e t u r n '  'eat  'salary*  now'  125  mag-aral /mag?aral/ 'study' mlnsan pa /mlnsan pah/  'once more  1  damdamin /damdamin/ ' f e e l i n g s ' magbasa /magbasab/ 'to read' magsulat /magsul'fit/ 'to w r i t e ' nagtatakbo /nagtatakbob/ pantalon aklat  /pantaloh/  /?aklaV  'ran'  'pant^'  'book'  t i k t i k / t i k t f k / 'spy', tindahan  /tindaban/  paligsahan  'store'  /paligsaban/  'contest'  protestante /protestanteh/  'protestant'  magbisekleta /magbisekle*tah/ 'to b i k e ' tugtog /tugt'og/  'music*  dalamhati /dalamh^ti?/ •  * sorrow, a f f l i c t i o n '  k o n g r e s i s t a /kongresifstah/ 'congressman* saliksik /saliksfk/  'research'  sandata /sandlttah/ 'weapon' ngisngis /rjisnfs/ 'giggle' representante  /representanteh/  'representative'  l u n i n g n i n g /luninrisfn/  'brilliance'  adyos po /?adyos po?/  * goodbye, s i r *  10.'2.-'3  P r e j u n c t u r a l Consonant C l u s t e r s  (-CC)  P o s t v o c a l i c , p r e j u n c t u r a l c l u s t e r s occur i n Tagalog and are l i m i t e d to two  consonants only/-  There are words with  c l u s t e r s t h a t are i n normal, everyday use  such as teks  they  final  /teks/  126  ' t e x t , kyuteks /kyiSteks/ ' n a i l p o l i s h ' , koteks / k o t e k s / ' s a n i t a r y 1  n a p k i n , kotex', k l i n i k s / k l f n i k s / ' t i s s u e paper, kleenex', baks /baks/ *box' , aysbaks /?aysbaks/ 'icebox', taks / t a k s / ' t a x ; t a c k ' , tamtaks /tamta'ks/ 'thumbtack', i s p i t s / ? i s p f t s / /plits/  'pleat', i s t l t s  /?istfts/  'speech', p l i t s  'stitch', tidbits  'tidbits', t s e s t e r f i l d / t s e s t e r f f l d / 'Chesterfield  /tidb&ts/ cigarette',  kard / k a r d / 'card', n a r s / n a r s / 'nurse', pruns /pruns/ 'prunes', b i n s / b i n s / 'bean', pork'en b i n s /pork ?en b i n s / 'prk and beans', etc  Names w i t h f i n a l c l u s t e r s a r e n o t uncommon i n Tagalog,  such as B e r t , Robert, Mark o r Marc, C a r l or K a r l , C l a r k , J o r g e , Donald, C l i f f o r d , A r n o l d , Frank, e t c Some Tagalog speakers cannot pronounce c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s , as i n the case o f s ° " i n a b i l i t y " t o produce i n i t i a l  m e  c e r t a i n phonemes i n  o l d e r people's supposed  and f i n a l c l u s t e r s , simply because  these c l u s t e r s were n o t o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t i n the sound of  Tagalog.  1  system  I t has been observed t h a t o l d people have the tend-  ency t o i n s e r t an i n t r u s i v e vowel between the i n i t i a l  clusters,  p r o d u c i n g words l i k e t a r a k /tarak:/ f o r t r a k ' t r u c k ' , k a l a s i / k a l a s i h / f o r k l a s e ' c l a s s ' , tarabaho /tarabahoh/ f o r trabaho 'work', p a l a n t s a / p a l a n t s a h / f o r p l a n t s a ' f l a t i r o n ' , /pirftoh/ for prlto  ' f r i e d ' , and the l i k e .  pirito  Another common ob-  s e r v a t i o n i s the i n t r o d u c i n g of the p r o t h e t i c vowel / i /  or / e /  b e f o r e loanwords b e g i n n i n g w i t h / s / p l u s consonant, as i n Tagalog i s k u l / ? i s l n l l / , i s p o r t / ? i s p 5 r t / , istambay  /?istambay/,  i s p i t s / ? i s p i t s / from E n g l i s h s c h o o l , s p o r t , standby, speech, respectively.'  Perhaps t h i s i s due t o the i n f l u e n c e of Spanish  127 p r o t h e t i c vowel o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e / s / f o l l o w e d by a  consonant,  as i n Tagalog eskwela /?eskwi'lah/, e s p e s y a l / ? e s p e s y a l / , istasyon  /?istasy6h/,  i s k a n d a l o /?iskandal'6h/ and i s k i n a  / ? i s k i n a h / from Spanish e s c u e l a ' s c h o o l ' , e s p e c i a l e s t a c i o n ' s t a t i o n ' , escandalo ' s c a n d a l ' , esquina  'special' ,  'street',  respectively. 10.3  Vowel  Frequency  I t has been mentioned t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t , one-to-one c o r r e l a t i o n between the number of v o c o i d sounds and the number of s y l l a b l e s i n Tagalog (Cf. Sec. 1 0 . l ) .  There a r e as many  s y l l a b l e s as t h e r e a r e vocoids i n an utterance.'  The f o l l o w i n g  o b s e r v a t i o n s on the frequency of vowels were made on the b a s i s of a frequency count of 592 words from the f o l l o w i n g of modern c o l l o q u i a l Tagalog:  Ang P u l i t i k a ( P o l i t i c s ) , Ang  Pilipina  (The F i l i p i n a ) and Madaling-Araw (Dawn). ?  samplings  combined g i v e a t o t a l of 123^ s y l l a b l e s .  688  samplings  1  s y l l a b l e s w i t h / a / , 277 with / i / ,  The three There a r e  153 with /o/, 58 with / u /  and 58 with /e/. A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence o f vowel phonemes i n the t h r e e samplings y i e l d s the f o l l o w i n g percentages  arranged i n the descending order of frequency.  17 . . . . . . . . . . . 'See Beginning Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of E n g l i s h (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , I965, pp. 208, 173 and 228, r e s p e c t i v e l y . )  128  Vowel Phonemes Frequency of Occurrence Percentage  of Occurrence  . a .  688  55 M  1  277  22.h% . . . .  . ,o  153  12.4$ .  M.7%  58  . . -U. .  :  e .  •••  58  • - -M-.i7.fo  I n the above d a t a , i t i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t t h a t the vowel phoneme / a / has the h i g h e s t frequency of occurrence, / i / next, f o l l o w e d by /o/.  coming  I n the samplings used here, / u / and /e/  have equal frequency of occurrence, but i t has been observed i n some Tagalog t e x t s t h a t /e/ i s r e l a t i v e l y l e s s frequent than /u/: / e / has a very low frequency of occurrence e s p e c i a l l y i n literary  Tagalog.11.  Morphophonemic  Alternations  The v a r i a n t s of phonemes or allophones have been d e s c r i b e d i n Sec. 9.2.  Tagalog a l s o e x h i b i t s a number of a l t e r n a t i o n s of  phonemes w i t h i n morphemes.  These a l t e r n a t i o n s of phonemes w i t h i n  a g i v e n morpheme b r i d g e the gap between the morphological and phonemic l e v e l s . phonemics.'  L i n g u i s t s c a l l t h i s f i e l d o f a n a l y s i s morpho-  S t o c k w e l l d e f i n e s the term as the d e s c r i p t i o n of the  129 1 ft a l t e r n a t e , phonemic shapes t h a t morphemes have i n a language. A d e t a i l e d study of the morphophonemics of Tagalog i s beyond the l i m i t s of t h i s t h e s i s .  The aim here i s t o i l l u s t r a t e  only the most common types of morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Taglog language. reveals  1  Such an a n a l y s i s  the presence of important phenomena which go n e g l e c t e d  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l grammar of Tagalog simply because they a r e masked by d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l  orthography.'  These  morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e common among vowels as w e l l as consonants-.  1  For the Tagalog vowels, as i n d i c a t e d i n the p a t t e r n an u n d e r l y i n g  five-vowel  (FIg.13),  system has been e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h a  three-way c o n t r a s t i n tongue-height and a two-way c o n t r a s t i n tongue-advancement, which i s v a l i d i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , whether the vowels a r e s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d or weakly stressed.' are i n s t a n c e s  where / i /  However,  and / e / o r / u / and /o/ a l t e r n a t e with  each other i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s o r c e r t a i n environments. contrasts  Since  e x i s t between these vowels, such a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e  t r e a t e d here as morphophonemic r a t h e r than The  there  allophonic.  f o l l o w i n g a r e examples of these morphophonemic a l t e r -  n a t i ons: /!/ a l t e r n a t e s with / e / i n a p r e - J u n e t u r a l as i n babae /bab£?eh/  syllable,  /baba*?ih/ 'female', l a l a k i / l a l a l c i h / -  R. S t o c k w e l l , A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s of Tagalog and E n g l i s h (Los AngelesJ U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1958, p. B-4.* Mimeo.) Heogives e x c e l l e n t examples of morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s on p. B-35.  130 /lala*keh/ 'male , s a k i t / s a k i t / ** /sake*t/ 'sickness*; / u / 1  a l t e r n a t e s w i t h /o/ i n a p r e j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e , as i n b a l u t /balrtt/ -  /bal6*t/  'duck's egg', bukod  /buk6d/  **  /buktfd/  'separate', k u l o t / k u l o ' t / « / k u l t t t / ' c u r l ' ; /Cuw/ a l t e r n a t e s w i t h /Cw/, as i n puwede /puwe*deh/ * /pwldeh/ 'can be; p o s s i b l e ' , sweldo /swe*ldoh/ « /suwe*ldoh/ ' s a l a r y ' , kuwento /kuwehtoh/ » /kwehtoh/ ' s t o r y ' ; / C i y / a l t e r n a t e s with /Cy/,  /tiySk/  as i n d i y a n V d i y a h / « /dyan/ ' t h e r e ' , t i y a k  « /tyak/  'sure, c e r t a i n ' , k a n i y a /kaniyan/ « /kanyan/ 'his,' her'; /ay/ a l t e r n a t e s with /ey/ and /e/,* as i n mayroon /mayro?6h/ «  /meyr6"?n/ «• /meVon/  'there I s , there a r e ' , kaysa /kaysah/ «  /keysah/ w'/kgsah/ 'than', aywan /?aywah/ * /?eywah/ « /?'e*wan/ 'an e x p r e s s i o n o f n e g a t i o n ' ; / a ? i / « a l t e r n a t e s with /ay/, / e y / and /e/, as k a i l a n / k a ? i l a h / <• / k a y l a h / « / k e y l a h / ~ /ke*lan/ 'when', k a i l a n g a n /ka?flanan/"« /kaylagan/ /kllanan/  « /keylagan/ «  'necessary'.'  A l t e r n a t i o n s of consonants (Cf. Consonant P a t t e r n s ) a r e a l s o common i n Tagalog.  Some of these a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e  c o n d i t i o n e d a l t e r n a t i o n s as i n the case of Tagalog n a s a l s / m « n «. n / which occur i n a g r e a t many words spoken i n normal r a p i d conversation.: /m/  occurs b e f o r e  /p  b/  /n/  occurs b e f o r e  /d  1  r  s  /n/  occurs b e f o r e  /k  g  h  w/  *Note the s h i f t of s t r e s s w i t h /e/.  t  y/  131 T h i s phenomenon of sound change i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as a s s i m i l a t i o n , i . e s , a p h o n e t i c process whereby two phonemes a c q u i r e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  I t i s a r e g r e s s i v e or r e t r o -  g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the case quoted s i n c e the a s s i m i l a t o r y phoneme (the phoneme which produces f o l l o w s the a s s i m i l a t e d phoneme.-  t h i s phenomenon)  The very common i n s t a n c e s  are found i n the names f o r numbers such as l a b i n s i y a m / l a b i n s i y a m / 'nineteen' (< l a b i  'excess, more than' + -ng  'connective marker' + siyam ' n i n e ' ) , limampu /limampu"?/ (< 11 m& ' f i v e ' + -ng + pu ' t e n ' ) , sandaan /sanda?an/ hundred  1  (< i s a 'one* + -ng + daan 'hundred');  /pang- m pan-  ~ pam-/  'fifty'  'one  i n a f f i x pang-  ' p e r t a i n i n g t o , f o r * p l u s a noun, as i n  pangkultura /pankultifrah/ ' c u l t u r a l ' , panlaro /panlaro?/ ' f o r p l a y i n g , f o r s p o r t s ' pambansa /pambansa'?/ ' n a t i o n a l * , and i n words f o l l o w i n g the noun marker ang /?amb£ta?/  'the', as i n ang b a t a  'the c h i l d , ang puso /?ampi5so?/ 'the h e a r t ' , ang 1  t a t a y /?ant£tay/ 'the f a t h e r ' . 1  P r o n u n c i a t i o n s are sometimes  r e f l e c t e d i n the s p e l l i n g i f they occur w i t h i n words but not if  they occur a c r o s s word boundaries as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the  above examples.-  I n normal  speech, a s s i m i l a t i o n s a c r o s s word  boundaries are commonly observed, but they may  or may  not take  p l a c e , depending upon f a c t o r s l i k e r a t e of speech, l e n g t h of pauses between words, emphasis, e t c . A l t e r n a t i o n between /d/ and / r / i s very common i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , whether w i t h i n words or a c r o s s word boundaries, as i n marumi /marumfh/ - /madumfh/ ' d i r t y ' , apat na r a a n /?apat na r a ? a n / - /?apat na da?an/ 'four hundred', s u s u l a t  132  d i n ako / s u s t f l a t d i n ?akd*h/ 'I w i l l w r i t e '  and ako* r i n ay  sustflat /?ak6 r i n ?ay s u s i l l a t / 'I t o o w i l l w r i t e ' . r u l e then, / d / becomes / r / between vowels.' however, i s n o t automatic.:  The a l t e r n a t i o n ,  I n some words, / d / remains / d / ,  never / r / even i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n of the a l t e r n a t i o n s  As a  (Cf. p. 88 ).  Some  ;  are d i a l e c t a l a l t e r n a t i o n s  as i n the case  of / d / a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h / r / i n some words l i k e dagasav/dagasa"?/ - /ragasa"?/ 'hasty, v i o l e n t ' , rimarim / r i m a r l m / » /dimarim/ 'nausea, l o a t h i n g ' ,  rahuyo /rahuyo?/ - /dahuyo?/  'seduce'.  I n some d i a l e c t s of Tagalog, the use of / r / f o r / d / i s t h e usual practice.  1  A l t e r n a t i o n between / r / and / l /  o r / d / and / l /  seems t o  be s t r a t i f i e d s o c i a l l y , w i t h / r / and / d / among the b e t t e r educated speakers and / l /  among the l e s s p r i v i l e g e d .  of t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n a r e found i n some few words l i k e /kwartab./ « /kwaltab/ 'money', l u g a r / l u g a r / and dura /dura*?/ - /lur£?/  Examples  1  kuwarta  « /lugal/  'place',  'sputum'.  Other a l t e r n a t i o n s which a r e n o r m a l l y observed among educated speakers a r e the a l t e r n a t i o n s between / n / and /n/, as i n k a n i n a /kanfnah/ ~ /kanfnah/  'a moment ago', d i n i g / d i n f g /  » / d i n i g / 'hear', t i n i g / t f n i g / * / t i n i g / between / n / and / l / , fruit',  M  - /lin.aga?/  /linugaw/ ' r i c e g r u e l ' ;  and /g/, as i n bagsak /bagsak/ «  *Metathesis.  alternation  as i n nangka /nanka*?/ - / l a n k a ? / 'jack-  nilagaVnil^ga?/  /niltfgaw/  'voice';  ' b o i l e d i n water' , 1  nilugaw*  a l t e r n a t i o n between /k/  /baksaV  'fall;;failure'  133  lagpak /lagp'Sk/  M  /lakpSk/ ' f a l l ;  / t i k d a s / 'measles';  f a i l e d ' , t i g d a s /tigda's/ *•  a l t e r n a t i o n between / ? / and /h/, as i n "  bansa /bansa*?/ » /bansah/  ' n a t i o n * , a r i n a /?ar3*nah/ » / h a r f n a h /  'flour', u l i n i g /?ulihig/  - / h u l f h i g / 'hear d i s t i n c t l y ' . '  Some a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e s t y l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i o n s . n a t i o n between /p/ and ft/  i s a case i n p o i n t .  The a l t e r -  Some educated  speakers p r e f e r t o use the f o r e i g n sound / f / t o n a t i v e /p/ f o r s o c i a l prestige.'  T h i s type of a l t e r n a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n  c e r t a i n words such as p i y e s t a / p i y e s t a h / h o l i d a y ' , p i n o /pfnoh/ >• / f f n o h / /prtftas/ etc.;  « / f i y e s t a h / 'feast,  ' f i n e , r e f i n e d ' , prutas  m / f r t f t a s / ' f r u i t ' , p a l d a /pSldah/ - / f a l d a h / 1  'skirt' ,  A l t e r n a t i o n between /b/ and / v / i s a l s o observed among  educated speakers i n f l u e n c e d by Spanish orthography.. of t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n may be found i n words l i k e / p r o b i n s y a h / w/provinsyah/ /vyaheh/  Examples  probinsiya  ' p r o v i n c e ' , biyahe /byaneh/ <•  ' t r i p , voyage', b i y u d a /byildah/ *. /vytJdah/ 'widow',  bakasyon /bakasyoh/  « /vakasyoh/  'vacation' , e t c .  134 12.-J Suprasegmental Features The study of p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y , or a t any r a t e e a r l y  adolescence,compared  w i t h the techniques f o r the s y s t e m a t i c study of speech sounds. These f e a t u r e s , which i n c l u d e s t r e s s , l e n g t h , p i t c h , e t c . , have been v a r i o u s l y named.  juncture,  Hughes, f o r i n s t a n c e , use the  term p r o s o d i c as synonymous w i t h suprasegmental.  They are  c a l l e d suprasegmental or n o n l i n e a r because they are in-feerpreted as an e x t r a l a y e r of s t r u c t u r e superposed on the segmental phonemes.  Some l i n g u i s t s use the g e n e r a l term prosody f o r  suprasegmental phenomena i n general., and prosodeme f o r a suprasegmental f e a t u r e t h a t i s c o n t r a s t i v e .  There seem t o be  " s c h o o l s " of thought about the suprasegmental f e a t u r e s .  two One  s c h o o l terms them suprasegmental f e a t u r e s r e s e r v i n g the term phoneme f o r the l i n e a r phoneme, and the other r e f e r s t o them as suprasegmental phonemes.'  There i s some debate about  it.  An. a n a l y s i s of Tagalog suprasegmentals was not attempted i n t h i s study.' countered.  There are many i n t e r e s t i n g problems t o be en-  A few samples of the k i n d s of s t r e s s problems w i t h  some i n d i c a t i o n s as t o how  they may  be s o l v e d could be  mentioned  here. I n Tagalog, there i s a r a t h e r complex  system of w r i t t e n or  p r i n t e d a c c e n t u a t i o n recommended by the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language and taught i n the s c h o o l s .  The o f f i c i a l  "Grammar of  the N a t i o n a l Language" and other books used i n P h i l i p p i n e schools p r e s e n t a system of a c c e n t u a t i o n u s i n g three types of accent marks,  1-35 namely: the acute accent ( *< ) p l a c e d i n any p o s i t i o n above the vowel as i n p ^ a r a l a h /pcC?aralah/ ' s c h o o l , the grave 1  accent ( **• ) r e p r e s e n t i n g a g l o t t a l stop p l a c e d over the f i n a l vowel, as i n b a t a /b5ta?/ ' c h i l d ' , and a c i r c u m f l e x accent ( * ) i n d i c a t i n g the simultaneous presence of an acute accent and a g l o t t a l stop w r i t t e n above the vowel i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n , as i n ma-hanria. /matanda?/ ' o l d ' .  These a r e the t h r e e accent  marks found i n s c h o o l textbooks and used i n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r t h o graphy . I n the nomenclature  o f accent phenomena, i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l  to use the same terms and d e s c r i b e them as presented above. The term accent i s too o f t e n a source of c o n f u s i o n , s i n c e i t i s used t o r e f e r t o w r i t t e n accent marks and as a g e n e r a l cover term f o r i n t e n s i t y and p i t c h .  The same word i s used i n " f o r e i g n  accent" which i s the c a r r y - o v e r i n t o a second language of a r t i c u l a t i o n from one's n a t i v e or second  of h a b i t s  language.  I n t h i s study, s t r e s s was p r e f e r r e d t o a c c e n t . t o r e f e r t o the phonemically s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e or loudness g i v e n a vowel or s y l l a b l e .  The s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n i n Tagalog has been l o n g the  o b j e c t of debate among s c h o l a r s .  F o r i n d i v i d u a l words i n Tagalog,  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r s e t up three l e v e l s of s t r e s s : the s t r o n g e s t s t r e s s was c a l l e d primary and i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n i t was marked by the acute accent /*/, w r i t t e n over the vowel phoneme forming the nucleus o f the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e ;  the next s t r o n g e s t  was c a l l e d secondary which was marked by a grave accent /"*/; and then the weak or zero s t r e s s which was l e f t unmarked, or may,  136 o p t i o n a l l y , be i n d i c a t e d by / ""V. I n a Tagalog word of more than one  s y l l a b l e , at l e a s t  one  s y l l a b l e r e c e i v e s a g r e a t e r degree of s t r e s s than the other or others. may  The  three c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t p h o n e t i c l e v e l s of s t r e s s  a l l be observed  six-syllable  i n a normal p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g  sentence:  L a l a k a d na ako. /lltlltkad nah  ?ak6b/ ' I ' l l go  now.'  A word of three to s i x or more u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n uni n t e r r u p t e d sequence are r e l a t i v e l y  common, as shown i n the  d i f f e r e n t forms of the stem t u l o n g / t i l l o n / matulungin /matulunfn/  'help.  1  'helpful'  . pagtutulungan /pagtutulurjan/ 'act of h e l p i n g  one  another' makipagtulungan /makipagtulurjan/  'to  pinakamatulungin /pinakamatulurjfn/  cooperate'  'most h e l p f u l '  The u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s above are pronounced w i t h more or l e s s equal l e n g t h and  even tone.  L i k e the segmental phonemes, the s t r e s s phonemes may e s t a b l i s h e d by s t u d y i n g t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and  contrast.  l o c a t i o n of s t r e s s i n Tagalog i s not f i x e d by automatic Its  occurrence  i s unpredictable.  be The  rules.  I t i s p o s s i b l e to change the  meaning of a word or form by changing the p l a c e of s t r e s s . The  f o l l o w i n g sentences  only by  c o n t a i n a p a i r of words d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  stress: 1.  Iba baga ang baga sa baga at baga? / ? i b a b bagab ?an- ba"gah sah baga? ?at baga*?/ (different-interrogative-the-ember-from-abscess-andparticle lungs)  137 'Is 2.  ember d i f f e r e n t f r o m a b s c e s s  ,Kakanin  and  lungs?'  n g k a s a m a n g k a s a m a ang k a k a n i n s a mesa,  / k a k a n i n nan  kasamah nan, kasamah ? a n k a k a n f n  sah  me*sah/ (will  eat-noun  marker-companion-of-the-tenant-the  goodi es-on-table) 'The  companion of the t e n a n t w i l l  on t h e 3«  eat the  goodies  table.'  B a t a n g b a t a ang /batah nan  ginaw k a h i t walang b a t a .  ba*ta? ? a n g l n a w k a h i t TtfalaV} ba"tah/  (bear-by-child-the-cold-even-without-bathrobe) 'The  child  c o u l d s t a n d the c o l d even w i t h o u t  a  bathrobe'. 4.  I s a l a m a n g ang / ? i s a h laman, Ian.  lamang n i y a sa a k i n . lamarj. n i y a h s a h  ?£kin/  (one-only-the-advantage-him-over-me) 'He 5.  has  o n l y one  L a l a k i ang /lal^kih  In it  advantage over  aso.  Lalaki  ?an ?&soh/  /lalakfh  ( m a l e - t h e - dog)  (will  'The  'The  dog  i s male.'  me.'  ang ?an  aso. ?as5h/  grow b i g - t h e - s m o k e ) smoke w i l l  grow b i g . '  t h i s , case, s t r e s s plays a l i n g u i s t i c r o l e i n Tagalog  i s a d i s t i n c t i v e phenomenon t i e d i n w i t h m e a n i n g .  There i s  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s u b s t a n t i v e s w h i c h a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y by s t r e s s .  For  example:  a n a k / ? a h a k / ' f a m i l y , c l a n ' v s . anak / ? a n a k / balat /balat/  ' b i r t h m a r k ' v s . b a l a t /bal£t/  and  'child' 'skin'  138 hamon /hamon/ 'challenge* vs. hamon 1  /ham6n/  pusod /pu*sod/ 'navel' v s . pusod /pusSd/  'ham'  1  'chignon'  say a /sayah/ ' s k i r t ' v s . say a /sayab/ 'merriment' A s t r e s s can change the form c l a s s of a word.  A word may  be a verb or an a d j e c t i v e , depending upon the p o s i t i o n of s t r e s s . The  following  minimal p a i r s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d only by s t r e s s  emphasis. A.' a h i t / ? a b i t / 'shave' v s . a h i t / ? a h f t / kalat /kalat/  'shaved'  ' s c a t t e r ' v s . k a l a t /kala't/  'scattered'  g i s i n g / g f s i n / 'wake up' vs.-- g i s i n g / g i s f r j / 'awake' s i r a / s f r a ? / 'destroy' v s . s i r a / s i r a " ? / 'destroyed' ubos /?u"bos/ 'consume' v s . ubos /?ub6"s/ 'consumed' Bs b a l i i n / b a l f ? i n / 'to break (e.g. a s t i c k ) ' v s . b a l i i n / b a l i ? f n / ' e a s i l y broken' basagin / b a s a g i n / /basagfn/  'to break ,('e.g. g l a s s ) v s . b a s a g i n  ' e a s i l y broken'  b i r u i n / b i n l ? i n / 'to tease' v s . b i r u i n / b i r u ? f n / 'always b e i n g  teased'  t a l u n i n / t a l t l n i n / 'to d e f e a t ' v s . t a l u n i n  /talunfn/  .'•easily d e f e a t e d ' u t a n g i n /?uta^nin/ 'to get on c r e d i t ' v s . u t a n g i n /?utanfn/  'taken  on c r e d i t '  G.« antukin /?antukfn/  'to f e e l s l e e p y ' v s . a n t u k i n  /?antifkin/ 'habitually  sleepy'  139 h i r a m l n / h i r a m f n / 'to borrow  1  vs. hlramln /hlramin/  •borrowed' s i p u n l n / s i p u n l n / 'to c a t c h c o l d * v s . s i p u n l n / s i p u n l n / ' s u s c e p t i b l e t o cold': t a n g g a l i n / t a r j g a l f n / 'to detach' vs.' t a n g g a l i n / t a f y g a l i n / 'detachable' yamutin /yamutin/  'to annoy' v s . yamutin /yaraittin/  ' e a s i l y annoyed, cranky' A noun may become an a d j e c t i v e by changing the p o s i t i o n of stress.  The f o l l o w i n g a r e examples: buhay /btfhay/ ' l i f e ' , v s . buhay / b u h a y / / ' a l i v e , l i v i n g ' galit /galit/  'anger' vs. g a l i t / g a l f t / 1  'angry'  takot /tifkot/ 'fear' v s . takot /takSt/ ' a f r a i d ' gutom /gtftom/ 'hunger' v s . gutom /gutoW  'hungry'  uhaw /?ilhaw/ ' t h i r s t ' v s . uhaw /?uhaw/ ' t h i r s t y ' There i s a meaning d i f f e r e n c e between verbs t h a t have the primary s t r e s s on the u l t i m a and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g nouns that have the primary s t r e s s on the p e n u l t and the secondary s t r e s s immedi a t e l y p r e c e d i n g the primary.' inumin /?inumfn/  Thus:  'to d r i n k ' v s . inumin /?inumin/  'drinks' p a l i t a n / p a l i t a n / ' t o change' v s . p a l i t a n / p a l i t a n / • exchange*' singilin /sinilfn/ /sinllin/  'accounts  tahanan /tahanan/ /tahanan/  'to c o l l e c t accounts' v s . s i n g i l i n  'home'  collectible'  'to l i v e i n a house' v s . tahanan  140  tanawin /tanawfn/ 'to l o o k from a f a r ' v s . tanawin /tanawin/  !  s c enery  1  The f o l l o w i n g verbs with the s t r e s s on the p e n u l t a r e distinguished  from t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g nouns with the s t r e s s on  the ultima.' bihisan /bihfsan/ /bihisan/  ' t o dress soneone* v s . b i h i s a n  'dressing-room*  hugasan /hugasan/ 'to wash' v s . hugasan /hugasan/ 'place f o r washing' orasan /?orasan/ ' t o time' v s . orasan /?orasah/ 'timepiece,  clock'  pasukan /pasu*kan/ 'to e n t e r ' vs.' pasukan /pasukan/ 'opening of c l a s s e s ' samahan /samahan/ ' t o accompany someone' v s . samahan /samahah/ 'company,  society'  There a r e many other i n t e r e s t i n g examples of c o n t r a s t i n g pairs.  Only f i v e samples f o r each s e t were g i v e n t o i l l u s t r a t e  the p o i n t . list  These samples were taken from the comparatively l o n g  of minimal  for further  s t r e s s c o n t r a s t s c o l l e c t e d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r  study.  Tagalog u t t e r a n c e s a r e spoken with;;three l e v e l s of p i t c h : low /!/, mid /2/, and h i g h /3/.  !  Pitch / l /  i s the "normal l e v e l "  f o r s y l l a b l e s under weak s t r e s s and p i t c h /2/ f o r s y l l a b l e s under secondary  or primary s t r e s s .  P i t c h /3/ i s f o r s y l l a b l e s  with s p e c i a l emphasis.  Normally,  used i n most contours.  P i t c h i s c o r r e l a t e d with s t r e s s .  1  only p i t c h /!/ and /2/ a r e Tagalog  has a s y l l a b l e - t i m e d rhythm s i n c e the r a t e of the u t t e r a n c e of  141  a s u c c e s s i o n of s y l l a b l e s remains approximately any  the same under  stress. C l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the problems of s t r e s s are those of  junctures. Tagalog. /  | /.  Two One  types of t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s are r e c o g n i z e d i n  may  be l a b e l l e d " l e v e l " j u n c t u r e , or " s i n g l e bar  I t occurs both i n t e r n a l l y i n u t t e r a n c e and f i n a l l y ,  has important  s y n t a c t i c functions.' The  l a b e l l e d " r i s i n g " j u n c t u r e /j  other type may  and  be  /, which marks a p i t c h r i s e .  It  occurs i n t e r n a l l y i n u t t e r a n c e and f i n a l l y i n c e r t a i n kinds of questions.  142  13.1 A survey  A l t e r n a t i v e Formulations of v a r i o u s works on the phonology of  Tagalog  r e v e a l s the e x i s t e n c e of more than one s o l u t i o n f o r c e r t a i n phonemic problems.  1  D i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m u l a t i o n s f o r the same  s e t of f a c t s have been found.  One  analyst, f o r instance,  s t a r t s from the same d a t a and a r r i v e s at d i f f e r e n t  conclusions  because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n premises and procedures.  This  uniqueness of phonemic s o l u t i o n s , " as i t i s c a l l e d by i s observed for this  i n the a l r e a d y - e x t a n t phonemic analyses  study.  "non-  linguists,  examined  1  The d i f f e r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d here are not necess a r i l y the most important,  but perhaps the most r e v e a l i n g of  the a t t i t u d e s and p h i l o s o p h y  of the a n a l y s t s .  There a r e , f o r  i n s t a n c e , d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a p h i c s y m b o l i z a t i o n , such as  the  use of the d i g r a p h /ng/  choice  f o r the v e l a r n a s a l /n/,  or the  of the symbol / ? / , /q/ or /*/ f o r the g l o t t a l stop.'  The 19  B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa (Grammar of the N a t i o n a l Language) and the adaptations  of i t made by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s  symbolize  the g l o t t a l stop by a grave accent /*!/ over the f i n a l vowel and by a hyphen /-/ i n word-medial position,*!  But these are p u r e l y  graphic differences.' Another p o i n t i s the treatment  of / t s / .  Wolfenden,  20  for  B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa. P u b l i c a t i o n s of the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language"? (Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1949)"'. y  Elmer Wolfenden, A Re-statement of Tagalog Grammar. Publ i s h e d j o i n t l y by the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s and the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l Language.' (Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1961) p. 2.  143 i n s t a n c e , i n t e r p r e t s / t s / as a u n i t a r y c o n t o i d , d e s c r i b i n g it  as an a f f r i c a t e sound w r i t t e n w i t h a d i g r a p h , not a c l u s t e r  as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s thesis.' Lopez, Bloomfield's  Tagalog a n a l y s i s  2 2  x  t a k i n g cognizance o f  t r e a t s the a f f r i c a t e combina-  t i o n / t s / as a s i n g l e sound, with the / s / always p a l a t a l i z e d but he c o n s i d e r s t h i s sound as f o r e i g n and p a r t .:of the sound system of Tagalog.  t h e r e f o r e not a  1  The i n c l u s i o n of loamrords i n t r o d u c e s a few phonemic p a t t e r n s .  conflicting  E a r l i e r works, f o r i n s t a n c e , present a  three-vowel p a t t e r n a g a i n s t the f i v e - v o w e l p a t t e r n . a n a l y s t s d e s c r i b e d i, and  e or u and  o as a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s ,  which are what they were h i s t o r i c a l l y and d i a l e c t s o f Tagalog.  Some  s t i l l are i n some  B l o o m f i e l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , assumes t h a t  the p a i r s are f r e e v a r i a n t s ("the commoner than the l o w e r " ) .  h i g h e r v a r i a n t s . . . are  PIttman w r i t e s :  The l e t t e r u and o i n Tagalog, although u s e f u l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the d i s t i n c t i v e s p e l l i n g o f c e r t a i n borrowed words, a r e , i n f a c t , simply two d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s f o r s y m b o l i z i n g a s i n g l e phoneme. Such l e t t e r s may be c a l l e d • a l l o g r a p h s ' and, i n t h i s case, r e p r e s e n t 'allophones' or d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f a s i n g l e phoneme.-.v the d i f f e r e n c e between u and o as what i t t r u l y i s — a s p e l l i n g conv e n t i o n only, and not a phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n such as the d i f f e r e n c e between, f o r example 1  a and  21  i. 3 l 2  '" -  ' '  -  C e c i l i o Lopez, A Manual o f the P h i l i p p i n e N a t i o n a l  Language (Manila:  22  Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1940), p.- T%~.  .  .  .  Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , Tagalog Texts with Grammatical A n a l y s i s (Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m Inc. , 1917), p. 134 1  , .  23  ,R.' S.> Pittman, D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s A p p l i e d t o Tagalog (Manila: P u b l i c a t i o n o f the SIL and INL, Paper No. Sept., 1956) , p. 5-6.  :  !  11,  144 Hemphill analyzes i , and e, as allophones i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n , g i v i n g the examples l a l a k i  or l a l a k e (man), and u and o as  allophones i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i n g the p o i n t i n these two sentences: Umupo ka ( S i t down.') and Tayo'y umupo ( L e t ' s s i t down.) [umupuka] In  the f i r s t  [tayoyumupo]  one the sound w r i t t e n o i s pronounced much l i k e  [ u ] but i n the second,  the o of umupo stands f o r the sound [ o ] .  Wolfenden p r e s e n t s a f i v e - v o w e l p a t t e r n and notes: " I n most cases / e / i s a f r e e a l t e r n a n t of w o r d - f i n a l / i /  but the two  c o n t r a s t i n Spanish loans . " ^ There a r e d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s proposed  f o r t h i s problem of  phoneme i n t e r s e c t i o n (two phonemes s h a r i n g common allophones) or i n t e r s e c t i o n of allophones  (the c o n f u s i o n o f allophones o f  two d i f f e r e n t but s i m i l a r phonemes).-  A n a l y s t s have d i f f i c u l t y  d e c i d i n g whether t o d e s c r i b e i , and _e, f o r example as separate phoneme or allophones of a s i n g l e phoneme.  1  of / i /  [ e ] as an allophone  occurs i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n only, and [ i ] occurs i n f i n a l  p o s i t i o n i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n with [ e ] and elsewhere.  [3  allophone o f / i /  If its  i s predicted i n certain position.  occurrence i s p r e d i c t a b l e , one cannot  e  a  s  a  n  say i t i s a phoneme.'  What i s then the phonemic s t a t u s of [ e ] ? The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r would not a l l o w the v a r i a t i o n of [ i ] and [ e ] i n a l l i n s t a n c e s .  1  I n a great many Tagalog words,  TR.- J.? Hemphill, "The A n a l y s i s of a Language— Sounds" i n Background Readings i n Language Teaching. PCLS Monograph S e r i e s No.' 1 (Quezon C i t y : The Phoenix P u b l i s h i n g House, 1962), p.33-34. C  1  25  Wolfenden, l o c . c i t .  145  / i /  under s t r o n g s t r e s s does n o t a l t e r n a t e w i t h /e/,  minimal c o n t r a s t s f o r / i / recognized Applying  and c l e a r  v s . / e / have been e s t a b l i s h e d and  a t l e a s t i n educated speech (see pp.70  &'f3).-  the p r i n c i p l e "once a phoneme always a phoneme," the  problem here i s s o l v e d by p o s i t i n g the keystone of the f i v e vowel system f o r Tagalog.  T h i s a n a l y s i s i s completely i n  agreement w i t h t h a t of S t o c k w e l l , ^ 2  between / i /  and /e/, / u / and /o/,  t r e a t i n g the a l t e r n a t i o n  and the l i k e , as morpho-  phonemic r a t h e r than a l l o p h o n i c . Another i n t e r e s t i n g problem i s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the b a s i c s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e of Tagalog.  :  The t r a d i t i o n has  assumed t h a t Tagalog has f o u r b a s i c s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s , namely: V, VC, CV and CVC.  T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the g l o t t a l consonant  / ? / does n o t occur w o r d - i n i t i a l l y , and that / h / does n o t occur w o r d - f i n a l l y , an a n a l y s i s t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the w r i t i n g system.  !  The  Stockwell  formulation  i s s t a t e d as folloxtfs:  The f o u r common s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e s i n Tagalog a r e /V/, /CV/, /VC/, and /CVC/. These may be represented i n the s i n g l e formula /(C) V ( C ) / , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n e i t h e r , e i t h e r , or both consonants may be p r e s e n t , and t h a t  S t o c k w e l l makes t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks: "The f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r loans as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the language i s a weakness of other a n a l y s e s . . . When items borrowed from Spanish l e x i c o n , he e x p l a i n s , a r e considered (as they must be, s i n c e there i s no s t r u c t u r a l way of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between them and the nonborrowed items, and s i n c e the Tagalog speaker h i m s e l f cannot t e l l one from the other u n l e s s he knows S p a n i s h ) , then the case f o r f i v e vowels i s much more c e r t a i n . " (p.' B-2 & 3)  146 the maximum s y l l a b l e i s /CCVC/, i n which a two-consonant c l u s t e r i n i t i a t e s the syllable. The f u l l e s t s y l l a b l e formula i s then /(C) (C) V (C)/.' /V/ i n c l u d e s diphthongs, i . e . /V/ and /S/. To i n c l u d e the second element of the diphthong r e q u i r e s t h a t one f u r t h e r d i g i t be added t o the formula: /(C) (C - S) V (S) (C)/.-*' ;  T h i s a n a l y s i s does not adhere t o w r i t i n g / ? / b e f o r e a l l i n i t i a l vowels and /h/ a f t e r f i n a l vowels.  Paterno concludes t h a t  " G l o t t a l stop / ? / occurs only i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . . . " C a y a r i takes / ? / as s i g n i f i c a n t a l s o i n i n i t i a l A c t u a l l y , n a t i v e speakers  whereas  position.^  of Tagalog a u t o m a t i c a l l y p l a c e  a g l o t t a l stop b e f o r e words b e g i n n i n g w i t h a vowel i n an u t t e r ance, and a s p i r a t i o n i s always heard a f t e r a vowel i n a b s o l u t e f i n a l position;'  E i t h e r / ? / or /h/ i s p r e s e n t i n w o r d - f i n a l  p o s i t i o n i n words w r i t t e n w i t h a f i n a l vowel. i s i n d i r e c t l y shown i n s c h o o l textbooks. "by /**/ or /*/ over the immediately  The  distinction  Word f i n a l / ? / i s marked  preceding s y l l a b l e  although  i n r a p i d speech i t i s only pronounced s e n t e n c e - f i n a l l y . "  /h/ i s  shown as the i n i t i a l  sound i n s u f f i x e s /-nan/ and / - h i n / a l t e r -  n a t i n g morphemically  w i t h /-an/ and / - i n /  r e s p e c t i v e l y , e.g.',  27 ' S t o c k w e l l , on. c i t . . p. 34.' 28 A d e l a i d a Paterno, "Tagalog Consonant Phonemes Compared w i t h E n g l i s h Consonant Phonemes." The MST E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y 1  (1957) , P.  17.'  29 'R. M.' C a y a r i , "The Phonemes of Tagalog." J o u r n a l of Science (June, 1956), p.' 251.'  The  Philippine  Ik? kabataan  (< ka- + bat& ' c h i l d , young  1  + -an > /kabat£?an/  'youth, younger g e n e r a t i o n ' ), kababaihan •woman' + -han > /kababa?fhan/  (< k a - + babae  'women i n g e n e r a l  (< has a." 'wet'' + - i n > / b a s a ? f n / 'to wet' (< basa 'read' + - h i n > /bas&bin/  1  ), b a s a l n  ) and b a s a h i n  'to r e a d ' ) .  In this  analysis  s u f f i x e s /-an/ and / - i n / a r e d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t i n g of two allomorphs each, one w i t h and one without /h/. The p r e s e n t study assumes t h a t Tagalog has no f i n a l All  vowels.  1  a b s o l u t e f i n a l vowels a r e here t r a n s c r i b e d as /Vh/ or /V?/  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h /VC/ where /C/ r e p r e s e n t s a l l other f i n a l consonants, that i s , the bases a r e d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g phonemic f i n a l / h / or / ? / . sity of  T h i s type of a n a l y s i s e l i m i n a t e s the neces-  of i n t e r p r e t i n g /-an « -han/ or / - i n » - h i n / as allomorphs  the same morpheme, thus a c h i e v i n g economy and g i v i n g the  p a t t e r n symmetry and morphophonemic r e g u l a r i t y .  T h i s formula-  t i o n i s i n agreement w i t h t h a t presented i n the works of the P h i l i p p i n e Center f o r Language Study A Course f o r Speakers  (e.g. i n Beginning Tagalog:  of E n g l i s h ) .  E a r l i e r s t u d i e s such as those of C a y a r i , Paterno, S t o c k w e l l , etc.,  a s s e r t t h a t t h e r e a r e no f i n a l  c l u s t e r i n Tagalog but the  present study r e v e a l s t h a t f i n a l c l u s t e r s a l s o occur i n a number of Tagalog words t h a t a r e of g e n e r a l , normal and everyday use (Cf.  P r e j u n c t u r a l Consonant C l u s t e r s ) . '  T h i s study a l s o d i s a g r e e s  w i t h S t o c k w e l l ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "The only important  restrictions  on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the consonants  are that / r / i s rare  i n i t i a l l y and f i n a l l y . . . "  A long l i s t  1  1  (p. B-30).-  of Tagalog  words h a v i n g i n i t i a l and f i n a l / r / d i s p r o v e s t h a t conclusion.'  148 Another d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t some analyses have o r i e n t e d t h e i r c o n t r a s t on the b a s i s of the v o i c e d - v o i c e l e s s a x i s o n l y , where as t h i s study g i v e s minimal c o n t r a s t s on the b a s i s of v o i c i n g , p o i n t and m a n n e r - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n a x i s . Other problems are concerned with s t r e s s or a c c e n t u a t i o n i n Tagalog.-  There may  be d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s t o the problem:  which i s p h o n e m i c — l e n g t h or s t r e s s ? At t h i s e a r l y stage of development of Tagalog i t i s not easy to say t h a t one  type of l i n g u i s t i c  i s s u p e r i o r or i n f e r i o r to another. t h a t the f o r m u l a t i o n s presented ones.'  The  linguistics formulation  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  i n t h i s t h e s i s are the wrong  other analyses might be c o r r e c t .  In the words of  Hall: I t has been f a s h i o n a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h , f a c e t i o u s l y , between two approaches to l i n g u i s t i c s , the 'God's t r u t h ' s c h o o l (which supposedly c o n s i d e r s t h a t there i s one fundamental t r u t h to be expressed concerning every l i n g u i s t i c system), and the 'hocus-pocus' s c h o o l (which t r e a t s l i n g u i s t i c s as simply a s e t of game-like manoeuvers to be c a r r i e d out a c c o r d i n g t o the a n a l y s t ' s preconceived p r i n c i p l e s , and u s i n g the l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s only as a s e t of d a t a to be manipulated a t w i l l ) . In these terms, we can perhaps say t h a t 'God's t r u t h ' i n language (as i n other matters) does e x i s t , but t h a t i t i s not g i v e n to man to d i s c o v e r i t and formulate i t i n any but approximate terms, which can have only r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y ; and t h a t hocus-pocus i s b a s i c a l l y f o r e i g n to the aims of l i n g u i s t i c s or any other s c i e n c e , except as a perhaps unavoidable p a r t of the 'philosophy of as if_' i n h e r e n t i n a l l s c i e n t i f i c analysis.'30  H a l l , op_.< c i t . , p.i  123.'  149 14.  SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS  Tagalog has twenty-one  s e g m e n t a l phonemes: f o u r t e e n  consonants / p t k ? b d g m n n s h l r / , / w y /, a n d f i v e v o w e l s / i e a o u /. as c o n s o n a n t s are:  i ninitial  and f i n a l  two semivoxtfels The s e m i v o w e l s  position.  function  The d i p h t h o n g s  / e y a y oy uy i w aw /. Some a n a l y s t s p r e s e n t a t h r e e - v o w e l s y s t e m o f T a g a l o g :  / i a u /.  They d e s c r i b e [ e j a n d [ o ] a s a l l o p h o n e s o f / i / a n d  / u / , r e s p e c t i v e l y , which they were h i s t o r i c a l l y , in  some d i a l e c t s  of Tagalog.  and s t i l l a r e  The p r e s e n t s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t  f i v e v o w e l phonemes now e x i s t i n t h e l a n g u a g e  a s e v i d e n c e d by  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f m i n i m a l a n d n e a r - m i n i m a l The  contrasts.  a l t e r n a t i o n s between / i / and / e / , and / u / and / o / were h e r e  c o n s i d e r e d morphophonemic r a t h e r t h a n a l l o p h o n i c .  O t h e r morpho-  p h o n e m i c a l t e r n a t i o n s commonly o b s e r v e d i n T a g a l o g a r e : // a y - ey „ e //, // a ? i - ay » ey «e //, // Cuw - Cvr //,  // m « n •» n //,  // C i y « Cy //, // d - r //, // d - 1 //, // r - 1 //, // n - n //, /fii ~ 1 //, / / * "  of  S //,//1  ~ h //,//&  «  ( / f / ) //, a n d //b  - (/v/)  these a l t e r n a t i o n s are conditioned, d i a l e c t a l  //.*  Some  or s t y l i s t i c  alternations. The  b a s i c s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e i s CV a n d CVC.  syllables require a.final  consonant.  A l l final  A T a g a l o g word  ending  w i t h a v o w e l may h a v e a f i n a l / ? / o r / h / a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e w r i t i n g system. initially,  Consonant c l u s t e r s  occur  m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y .  Suprasegmentally, Tagalog has t h r e e k i n d s of s t r e s s :  of  *The s o u n d s i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e n o t a p a r t o f t h e s o u n d Tagalog.  system  150 primary / 7 , secondary /"/ and weak (unmarked). l e v e l s of p i t c h : / l / , and  two t e r m i n a l  juncture As  /2/  and / 3 / ,  junctures:  I t has three  r e a d i n g from low t o h i g h  a s i n g l e bar / j  / and a r i s i n g  / \ /. t h e r e e x i s t minimal c o n t r a s t s  based on the i n c i d e n c e  of the s t r e s s , i t may be necessary t o conclude t h a t s t r e s s i s phonemic i n Tagalog.  There a r e a t l e a s t two c o n t r a s t i n g  of s t r e s s : primary v s . weak.  levels  An i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l of p h o n e t i c  loudness or secondary s t r e s s i s p r e s e n t i n Tagalog but no contrast  i s involved.  predictable,  I t s occurrence might t u r n out t o be  and i t might be i n t e r p r e t e d as an allophone of the  primary s t r e s s , o c c u r r r i n g i n c e r t a i n positions.* There i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between Tagalog s t r e s s and length  of the vowel i n the s t r e s s e d  conditioned  by s t r e s s .  syllable.  Length i s  Which i s phonemic i n T a g a l o g —  stress  or l e n g t h ? I f s t r e s s i s phonemic, how many s t r e s s phonemes a r e t h e r e i n Tagalog?  Are p i t c h and j u n c t u r e  a l s o t o be considered  phonemes? The and  problems of s t r e s s , l e n g t h , p i t c h , rhythm,  intonation pattern  of Tagalog need f u r t h e r study.  aspects o f these f e a t u r e s the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . left  f o r future  require  juncture 1  thought and r e s e a r c h  Some beyond  The s o l u t i o n t o the problems i s  investigation.  * I n the p r e s e n t study the secondary s t r e s s i s marked i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n as though i t were an e s t a b l i s h e d phoneme.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Company, 1933.  BOOKS  Language.  New York: Henry H o l t and  F r a n c i s , Nelson W. The S t r u c t u r e of American E n g l i s h . New York: Ronald Press Co., 1958 Gleason, Henry A. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s . Second e d i t i o n , New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston,  1955.  H a l l , Robert A. I n t r o d u c t o r y Company, 1964.  Linguistics.  H i b b i t , George W. Fundamentals of Speech. Doubleday & Company, I n c . , 1962.  New York: C h i l t o n New  York:  H i l l , A r c h i b a l d A. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e s . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1958. Hockett, Charles.- A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s . New Macmillan, 1962.  York:  Hughes,. .John P. The S c i e n c e of Language: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Linguistics. Fourth p r i n t i n g . New York: Random House, 1964. Jakobson, Roman, C. Gunnar M.' Fant, and Morris H a l l e . P r e l i m i n a r i e s t o Speech A n a l y s i s . Cambridge, Mass.: A c o u s t i c s Laboratory, M. I. T., 1952 Jakobson, Roman and Morris H a l l e . Fundamentals The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1956 Jones, D a n i e l . An O u t l i n e of E n g l i s h P h o n e t i c s . Cambridge: W. H e f f e r & Sons L t d . , 1962. .  The Phoneme.  of Language. Ninth p r i n t i n g .  Cambridge: W. H e f f e r & Sons L t d . ,  Katz, J e r r o l d and J . Fodor. Readings i n the Philosophy Language.' Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1964. Malmberg, B e r t i l . Inc., 1963.  Phonetics.  1950. of  New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  M a r t i n e t , Andre*. Phonology as F u n c t i o n a l P h o n e t i c s . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949.  London:  152 P i k e , Kenneth L. . Language i n R e l a t i o n t o a U n i f i e d Theory of the S t r u c t u r e of Human Behavior. V o l . I . C a l i f o r n i a : Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , 1954. . Phonemics: A Technique f o r Reducing Language t o Writing.- N i n t h p r i n t i n g . Ann Arbor: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan P r e s s , 1964. Robins, R. H. General L i n g u i s t i c s : An I n t r o d u c t o r y Survey. Second p r i n t i n g . London: Longmans, 1965• S a p i r , Edward. Language. Company, 1921.  New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and  De Saussure, F e r d i n a n d . Cours de L i n g u i s t i q u e .Generale., P a r i s : Payot. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . Course i n General L i n g u i s t i c s ; ' New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1959* Thomas, C. K. edition.-  The P h o n e t i c s o f American English.' New York: Ronald Press Co., 1958.  Second  Wise, Claude M. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P h o n e t i c s . T h i r d p r i n t i n g . ' Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1962. :  Z i p f , George.. The Psycho-biology o f Language.' The M.I.T.' P r e s s , 1965.  Massachusetts:  B.'- COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS AND ARTICLES OR PAPERS F i r t h , J . R. Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s , 1934-1955, London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957* H a l l e , M.', H. Lunt and H. McLean (comp.).. F o r Roman Jakobson. Essays on t h e Occasion of H i s S i x t i e t h B i r t h d a y . Cambridge, Mass.: Mouton and Co., 1956 Hemphill, J . R. (ed.).' Background Readings i n Language Teaching.! PCLS Monograph S e r i e s , No. 1. Quezon C i t y : Pheonix P u b l i s h i n g House, 1962. Joos , M a r t j n T . ( e d ; ) . ) R e a d i n g s i n L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: The American C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1958. Lunt, Horace G. ( e d . ) . Proceedings of the N i n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of L i n g u i s t s . Aug. 27-31, 1962. Cambridge, Mass.". Mouton and Co., 1964. SIL, Oceanic L i n g u i s t i c s . (Papers i n P h i l i p p i n e L i n g u i s t i c s ) , V o l . I I I . N O . 1, 1964. S i v e r t s e n , Eva ( e d . ) . Proceedings o f the E i g h t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of L i n g u i s t s . Oslo U n i v e r s i t y Press., 1958.  153  G.  ARTICLES  R e p r i n t S e r i e s i n Language and L i n g u i s t i c s . ' Indiana: The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company I n c . :  Indianapolis,  Block, Bernard. "A Set of P o s t u l a t e s f o r Phonemic A n a l y s i s , " Language Monograph No.' 1948. F i s b h e r - J ^ r g e n s e n , E l i . ' "The Commutation Test .and I t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o Phonemic A n a l y s i s , " Language Monograph No. 2 2 , 1956. F r i e s , C h a r l e s C..' and K.- L. P i k e , " C o e x i s t e n t Phonemic Systems," Language Monograph No.' 2 6 , 1949. H a l l e , M. "On the Role of S i m p l i c i t y i n L i n g u i s t i c Descriptions.," Language Monograph No.- 35. Harris.  "From Phoneme t o Morpheme," Language Monograph No.' 39.  Haugen, E i n a r .  "Phoneme or Prosodeme,"  No. 82, 1949.-  Language Monograph  Twaddell, W i l l i a m Freeman.: "On D e f i n i n g the Phoneme," Language Monograph No.' 1 6 . 1935. 1  D.  PAMPHLETS  B i b l i o g r a p h y of the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s . 1964.-  California,  BlocJr, Bernard and George L. Trager. O u t l i n e of L i n g u i s t i c Analysis.' B a l t i m o r e : L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America, 1942. P i k e , Kenneth L. and Eunice V. Pike,; L i v e Issues i n D e s c r i p t i v e Linguistics. Second e d i t i o n . C a l i f o r n i a : Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , i 9 6 0 . E.  WORKS ON TAGALOG  B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa (Grammar of the N a t i o n a l Language). P u b l i c a t i o n of the INL. Fourth P r i n t i n g . Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1950.' Beginning Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of E n g l i s h . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1965.1  1  Los Angeles:  B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Tagalog Texts with Grammatical Analysis.. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s S t u d i e s i n Language and L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . 3 , No. 3 , 1917.  154 Buck, Hs H.- . lTagalog.,..-The N a t i o n a l Language," J o u r n a l o f the E a s t A s i a t i c S o c i e t y . Vol. I l l , 1954.' ,  1  C a y a r i , .Remedios ..M.I J'.The Phonemes of Tagalog," J o u r n a l of S c i e n c e . June, 1956.'  The P h i l i p p i n e  F r e i , Es -.J.s ~ -The H i s t o r i c a l Development o f the P h i l i p p i n e N a t i o n a l Language.' P h i l i p p i n e S o c i e t y o f S c i e n c e and Humanities Review, V o l XV, 1950. Lopez, C e c i l i o s A Manual o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e N a t i o n a l Language.' Second e d i t i o n . ' Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1941. .•  " F o r e i g n I n f l u e n c e i n Tagalog," P h i l i p p i n e Review, 1944.'  Paterno, A d e l a i d a , "Tagalog Consonant Phonemes-,Compar.ed .with E n g l i s h Consonant Phonemes," The MST E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y .  1957. -  Pittman, R i c h a r d S. " D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s A p p l i e d t o Tagalog," P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the INL. Paper No.: 11.' Manila: Bureau o f P r i n t i n g , 1956*7 Stockwell,. .Robert P.( A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h and Tagalog.' P a r t I.' I n t r o d u c t i o n and Phonology (Mimeograph) s U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1958.' Wofenden, Elmers A Re-Statement o f Tagalog Grammar.- P u b l i c a t i o n of the S I L and INL, Manila, 1961. Yap,  Fe As ( comp...) P i l i p i n o — E n g l i s h . E n g l i s h — P i l i p i n o Dictionary»i Quezon C i t y : The Phoenix P u b l i s h i n g House, I96I.1  INDEX  accent, 1 0 9 , 1 3 5 , 142  concept, 10  accent mark, 1 3 4 , 135  conditioned a l t e r n a t i o n , 1 3 0 , 149  a l i o - ( p r e f i x ) , 91  consonant, 7, 1 5 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 5 , 26, 28, 94, 9 6 , 108, 1 0 9 . 110, 124, 1 2 5 , 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 , 147, 149  allograph, 143 allomorphs, 147 allophone, i i i 9 1 . 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 9 8 , 128, 144, 149, 150  contoid, 6 , 7  allophonic v a r i a t i o n , 14, 9 7 , 143, 149  contrast, i i , 1, 4 , 5 , 9 , 2 6 , 31, 3 2 , 9 1 . 9 4 , 1 2 9 , 147. 148  alternation, i i i , 5 , 9 4 , 1 0 1 , 128, 129, 1 3 0 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 2 , 1 3 3 , 1^9  contrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n , 3 2 , 92  alternative formulations, 1, 142  contrastive doublets, 58 corpus, 3  alveolar, 14, 18, 2 6 , .  c o r r e l a t i o n , 3 3 , 34  Arabic, x v i  dental, 1 6 , 32  a r t i c u l a t o r y phonetics, 6  diagram, 11  assimilation, 131  d i a l e c t a l alternations, 1 3 2 , 149  automatic, 132  dphthongs, 2 3 , 24, 1 0 1 , 149  axis, 148  2 5 , 28,  b i l a b i a l , 1 6 , 2 6 , 32  d i s t i n c t i v e features, i i , 30, 31  Bloomfield, Leonard, 2 , 2 1 , 143 •bundle* of features, 25  d i s t r i b u t i o n , i i , 1, 4 , 5 , 3 1 , 35, 91, 9 2 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 7 , 147  Cayari, R., 2 , 146, 147  -erne ( s u f f i x ) , 10  Chinese, x i v , xv  emic, 9  closed s y l l a b l e , 6 7 , 108. c l u s t e r , i i i , 1 0 9 , 110, 1 2 3 , 124, 125, 1 2 6 , 143, 147, 149 complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 8 , 144  iii,  English, x i v , xv, x v i i i , 1 9 , 30 126, environment, 3 2 , 3 4 , 9 2 , 9 3 , 129 etic, 9  156  f l a p , 18  informant, i i , 2, 3  foreign, 102, 106, 1 0 9 , 133» 135  i n t e n s i t y , 135 Japanese, xv  form c l a s s , 138  juncture, i v , 1, 14, 124, 134, 141, 149, 150  free v a r i a t i o n , i i i , 93, 96, 99  l a t e r a l , 18  French, xv  L a t i n , xv  frequency, 127, 128  length, i i , i v , 1, 99, 131, 134 136, 148, 150  f r i c a t i v e s , 18, 28, 91 function, 28, 3 1 , 3 2 , 35, 9 1 ,  (  l e x i c a l , x i v , xv, 124  functional, 10, 25  l i n e a r , 15  German, xv  l i n g u a l , 28  g l i d e , 23  lip-rounding, 14, 30  g l o t t a l , 17, 27, 1 3 5 , 1^2, 1^5 146  loan-word, x i v , 106  "God's truth", 148 Greek, xv H a l l , Robert AS, 10, 148 Hebrew, xv Hemphill, RS J s , 2, 144 high vowel, 15, 22 H i l l , Archibald, 107 Hindustani, x v i "hocus-pocus," 148 i d e n t i t y of function, 35  Lopez, C e c i l i o , 143 low vowel, 15, 22 major languages, x i i i Malay, x i v Malayo-Polynesian family, x i i i Manila, x i i i , 3 , 101 Mindoro, x i i i , 3 mid vowel, 15, 21, 22 minimal p a i r , 35, 138 minor languages, x v l i i  Ilokano, x i v  morphophonemics, 1, 101, 128, 129 147, 149  Indian language, x v i  nasal, 17, 28  Indonesian language, x v i  n a s a l i t y , nasalization, 99  157 national language, i i , x i v , x v i l  Pike, Kenneth 1.1, i i , 4 , 7, 9  non-contrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n , 92  p i t c h , i v , 14, 134, 1 3 5 , 141, 150  140,  Pittman, Richard, S;% 2 ,  143  non-uniqueness, 142 nucleus, 7, 22,; 108  p o s i t i o n a l variant, 91  open s y l l a b l e , 108  prestige, 133  organs of speech, 9, 16 orthography, 20, 24, 1 3 3 ,  135  primary stress, i v , 9 7 , 139, 149,  P a c i f i c , western, x i i i  prosodeme, 134  p a l a t a l i z e d , p a l a t a l i z a t i o n , 94, 95, 143  prosodic features, 134  palate, 18, 19 Paterno, A.i,  2, 146, 147  pattern-congrui ty,  22  peak, 22, 108  135,  prosody, 134 rhythm, 140 rounded, 1 2 ,  14  Russian, x v i Sanskrit, x v i  P h i l i p p i n e s , i i , x i i i , x i v , 1, 102, 147  Sapir, Edward, 26  phone, 91,  schwa, 21  phoneme, i i , 4, 8, 10, 14, 1 5 , 20, 24, 3 2 , 3 5 , 91, 94, 9 6 , 101, 107, 126, 127, 128, 144, 149  secondary stress, i v , 9 7 , 139. 149  phonemic;; 10, 26, 27, 128, 129, 1 3 1 , 142, 143, 148 phonemics, 1, 8, 9, 107 phonetic, 7, 9, 3 0 , 31,' 35, 150 phonetics, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9 phonological component, 25 phonology, 142 phonotactics, 107  segmental, 1, 136, 149  14, 1 5 ,  135,  3 0 , 134,  segmentation, 11 semivowels, 1 9 , 110, 149 sonority, 2 1 ,  2 2 , 2 3 , 2 6 , 28,  108  sound, 6 , 1 0 , 11, 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 6 , 28, 3 1 , 9 1 , 1 0 2 , 143 Spanish, x i v , xv, 19, 3 0 , 1 2 6 , 127, 133  1 3 1 , t r a n s c r i p t i o n : phonetic, i x , 1 0 , 2 0 , 24,; phonemic, i x ; ethnophonemic, 1 0 ; morphophonemic, i x speech-sound, 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 3 , 91  speech, 3 , 6 , 9 , 1 1 , 146  Stockwell,  94, 101,  Robert, 2 , 145, 147  t r i l l , 195  stops, 1 5 , 1 6 , 2 ? , 28, 3 2 , 33  u n i t , i i , 5 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 2 5 , 91  stress, i i i , i v , 14, 97, 100, 134, 1 3 5 , 1 3 6 , 137, 1 3 8 , 139 140, 141, 148, 149, 150  unrounded, 1 2 , 14  structure of s y l l a b l e s , i i i , 149  107  s t y l i s t i c alternations, 1 3 3 , 1^9  unstressed, 2 1 , 136 uvula, 14, 9 8 , 9 9 , 1 0 6 , 128,143 variant, 9 8 , 9 9 , 1 0 6 , 128, 143  s u f f i x , 9 , 146, 147  v a r i a t i o n , i i i , 1, 4 , 5 , 3 1 , 9 1 , 9 6 , 1 0 0 , 144  suprasegemental, i v , 1, 14, 134  velar, 17  s y l l a b l e s , 2 1 , 23  velum, 14  syllable, 21, 22, 23, 9 8 , 107, 108, 124, 127, 1 3 5 , 1 3 6 , 141, 146, 149  Visayan, x i v , x v i i  syllable-timed, 140  vocoid, 6 , 7 , 2 1 , 127  symbol, i x , 1, 9 , 1 0 , 1 2 , 14, 16  voice, 2 6 , 33  symmetry, 2 7 , 147 synchronic, i i , 3 , 5 system, i i , 9 , 2 7 , 2 8 , 3 0 , 3 1 , 32, 1 0 9 , 13^, 1 4 3 , 149  vocal bands, 27  voiced, 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 7 , 28 voiceless, 1 6 , 1 7 , 18, 2 6 , 27 vowel, 7, 2 1 , 3 0 , 9 1 , 9 4 , 9 7 , 108, 1 0 9 , 110, 127, 128, 129 1 3 5 , 146, 147, 159  Tagalog, x i i i , x i v , xv, x v i i , x v l i i , 1, 3 , 6 , 14, 2 7 , 3 0 , 9 1 , 1 0 1 , 1 0 2 , 108, 124, 125 126, 1 2 7 , 128, 1 2 9 , 13^, 1 3 5 , 1 3 6 , 1 3 7 , 146, 147, 149  weak stress, i v , 9 8 , 1 3 5 , 149  tongue, 14, 18  zero, 135  t r a d i t i o n a l , 1,  135  Wolfenden, Elmer, 142 Writing system, i i i , 109  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105401/manifest

Comment

Related Items