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Synchronic analysis of tagalog phonemes Yap, Fe Aldave 1967

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A SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS OF TAGALOG PHONEMES by FE ALDAVE YAP B.S.E., University of Santo Tomas, 1956 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Classics D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 In presenting this thesis in pa r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that die Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study- I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of" this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C l a s s i c s . D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date A p r i l . 196? ABSTRACT The t i t l e "A Synchronic Analysis of Tagalog Phonemes" as defined i n the introduction, i s the object of t h i s study.* I t attempts to give a purely synchronic description of the phonemic system of the Tagalog language as spoken by the present i n v e s t i -gator who has made he r s e l f the informant for t h i s investigation. 1 The purpose i s to shape th i s material i n t o the form of a useful introduction and a sound orientation f o r students of general l i n g u i s t i c s , or l i n g u i s t s interested i n the Phi l i p p i n e national language The phonemes of Tagalog are analyzed i n terms of the formula:* C U = V D Unit refers to the phoneme.1 There are 21 segmental phonemes i n Tagalog.1 They are c l a s s i f i e d and t h e i r patterns are established on the basis of the d i s t i n c t i v e features by which they stand i n contrast with each other. 1 Among consonants there are two main dimensions of phonemic contrast: point of a r t i c u l a t i o n and manner of articulation.^ A further contrast of voice versus breath exists i n the stop phonemes only;* The main d i s t i n c t i v e features of Tagalog vowels involve two-dimensional contrasts i n height and advancement of the tongue.1 There are other, subsidiary, features l i k e lip-rounding, tenseness and laxness of the tongue, length, etc.'1 Such contrasts are here represented by schematic diagrams: *Pike, Unit (U) = Contrast (C), Variation (V) and D i s t r i -bution (D). This information i n capsule was explained by Prof.' R.> Roe of the SIL i n a seminar at the University of the Philippines i n 196k.' i i i ( i ) Tagalog Consonant Pattern ( i i ) Tagalog Vowel Pattern These phonemes have allophones which are either i n com-plementary d i s t r i b u t i o n or i n free variation.' The variations of phonemes within given morphemes are here considered to be morphophonemic alternations.' The basic s y l l a b l e structures of Tagalog are CV and CVC, e.%;?, tubig /tutolg/ 'water'v Tagalog words represented ortho-graphically with a f i n a l vowel may end with either /?/ or /h/ which i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the writing system.*' The two are i n contrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n ? Thus, bata /b£ta?/ 'child*' vs.; bata /h&tah/ 'bathrobe').N Consonant clusters occur In a l l positions. 1 I n i t i a l clusters i v may be summarized i n the following formula: C = Consonant C]_C2 = the f i r s t and second C C 2 = s 1 r w y Ci = t i f C 2 = s Ci = p b k g i f C 2 = 1 C x = p b t d k g i f C 2 = r C^ = any C except w y i f C 2 = w or y These clusters may be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following examples: tsa /tsah/ 'tea' 1, klase /klaseh/ ' c l a s s 1 , diyan /dyan/ 'there', kwento /kwentoh/ 'story' 1, etc.*'. Suprasegmentally, Tagalog has three kinds of stress: primary /*'/. secondary / V and weak (unmarked); three l e v e l s of p i t c h : / l / , /2/ and /3/» reading from low to high; and two terminal junctures: "single bar" /|/ and " r i s i n g - 1 juncture /J7i f ! Stress plays an important r o l e i n Tagalog and i t i s a d i s t i n c t i v e phenomenon which conveys meaning.' Stress i s corre-l a t e d with length.) The following pairs of words are d i s t i n -guished only by stress or length: baga /b£:ga?/ 'lungs* and baga /ba^gah/ "ember' vs.' baga /bagS':?/ 'abscess' and baga /baga^h/ 'interrogative marker'1.* The scope of t h i s study does not include a detailed present-ation and analysis of Tagalog suprasegmental features.' Many i n t e r e s t i n g problems concerning the suprasegmental phenomena remain unsolved.^ The solut i o n to these problems i s l e f t f o r l a t e r study;i TABLE. OF CONTENTS Page L i s t of Figures or I l l u s t r a t i o n s .i.y.uV;y.W.i.V^.V.Uy.i.y v i i i L i s t of Symbols and Abbreviations.^.i.';U^.1^.u li<w:.i.^.5.i.i.^^.1J i x The Tagalog I ^ g u a g e . ^ i . ^ . U U . ^ x i i i Acknowledgments ;1;y.W.V.VuW«V^^ xix Dedioatlon.'i^.^&Vi^Vito^ xxi , l . i INTRODUCTION^.^.^ 1 l ; t l Statement of the Problem.i;t^.^I.^'^.i.';i.^y.^;u'i;^.^l.'.^ 1 1^2 Scope and Organization of the M a t e r i a l s 1 1^3 Previous Studies Made on the Subject.^.^^•V^.^.^ 2 l A Sources of Data and Methods of Approach^ .y.^^v ' ^ iU 3 l.<5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used;t.U^^.^.Uu^ l.U^;!.ul.^i1.i.,^;i^^ 5 Z.i The Sounds of Speech s Phonetics.i^.^i.^i.^ij.'ii'.^-.^.i^.i 6 33 Contoids aid VocoldiS^^^jJ^.^^^.^:^^J.^^^^^$^^^ 6 ty;1 Relations Between Phonetics and Phonemics.^.uWiuu! 8 5.1 The Concept of Phoneme;1;<&H.^;U^.-^ 10 6^ Inventory of Tagalog Phonemes;«.ii!.^.i.'.Ul.i.i^.l.^^^.<.ii.v^ 1^ 7.- Segmental Phonemes.'.N;y;'';^;>«^. !^.^ 15 7.1 Cons onant s J .< j J-JU3 J ; y .'I,;f .1 . y ,-f .i ;ri ;t.l.i;< ^ ;•>'. i;i.»;; ;i.1,! f 15 7 JlitL Stops^ .1^ iy . ' . y .^y.V^;W;^ 15 7.U.-2 N a s a l s ^ . U . ^ U . y ^ . ^ J . U ; ^ ^ 17 7;'1^ 3 F r i c a t i v e s ; u $ ; U ^ ^ , V ^ ; ^ ^ 18 7.1^ L a t e r a l i ; y v . ^ ; U ^ . i ^ 18 7;i^5 F l a p ^ & i & i & W ^ 18 v i 7$1*$6 Send vowels ;i;U.iW33iUV^ 19 7^2 VOTels.H.U^.^^^ 21 7;i3 Interpretation of Semivowels^^sy.^JU^^^^iU^;^?^.^ 22 7'-^  Diphthongs^iU'^.^I.^.V^ 23 8.4 D i s t i n c t i v e F e a t u r e s . 2 5 8.0. Consonant P a t t e n i s ^ . ^ ; * ^ 25 8 i i m Voice versus V o l c e l e s s n e s s ' ; ^ . ^ ^ 26 8iai'2 Point versus Manner of Articulation^. 1.*.^.^^^.^^;^ 28 8*2 Tagalog Vowel P a t t e r n s ^ . % ^ ^ . ^ ^ ^ ; i . ^ ^ . ! i . i . ? . i . ^ y i i . 3 i f ; ^ 5 . i ^ 30 9.1 Contrast, V a r i a t i o n and DistributionSi^ii^^^.'i'.^i^i.i 31 9^1 Contrast 31 9J2 V a r i a t i o n and Distributionil.<Ji ! ^ . ^ . ^ . i.^i1il . i.!.!J . ^ . i^.y 91 9. '2.1 Allophonic Alternation of Consonants .U;<;i;?.UU^ii;l.ij 94 9^ 2.12 Allphonic Alternation of Vcmels^^.^^;^.wM^i^^ 97 9^ 22*3 Alternation of Diphthongs^ii.^J;^'^.^.';)^.!.'.';^.^^^^^ 101 Foreign Sounds 102 10 ii PhonotactiGs;^^.y?i.i.U*^ 107 10.1 S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e S ^ i W . ^ . ^ 107 10^2 Consonant Clusters (CC) .".!U^.J.U^^.U^.J^^.'1;'i!iUl.i^.^.i;i 109 10.12ill Prevocalic Consonant Clusters (CC-) ^ ..f.liiwi.ri^iii'i.1.ul 110 10. :2i!2 I n t e r v o c a l i c Consonant Clusters (-CC-)iuVuV.-.'.ViU 124 10.'2.3 Prejunctural Consonant Clusters (-CC) •i'V.V.iii.^.iiVii 125 10^3 Vowel F r e q u e n c y 1 2 7 11;' Morphophonemic Mternationsi!;!.Ul.'U,.'.i.i'i^iil.^i.li?.;;;i.Ui!^il 128 v i i 12.' Suprasegmental Features;W5^;V.y^;,;U.>;1^. 134 13* Alternative Formlations;^y;U^;«.-V;;y.*J.y.^.!.*.y.'.:.l;1 142 14.1 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS . * ; W ^ J ^ J i ^ 1^9 BIBLIOGRAPHY;!.'!.1.1;'.1.^ '.'.1.^ ;'. ^ .i.i;i.i.:.i.y.i.1.';Ui.';i.1.i.i;';y.< 151 I I T O E X ^ v . y ; y . u u y ; ^ v . y ^ 155 L i s t of F i g u r e s o r I l l u s t r a t i o n s F i g . 1 : Map o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , Showing T a g a l o g - S p e a k i n g Areas F i g . 2 : P h i l i p p i n e C u l t u r a l - L i n g u i s t i c Groups (HRA F i l e s ) F i g . 3 : C r o s s S e c t i o n of Head, Showing P r i n c i p a l Speech Organs F i g . 4 : A C h a r t o f T a g a l o g C o n t o i d s F i g . 5 : A C h a r t o f V o c o i d s F i g . 6: A C h a r t o f Diphthongs F i g . 7: A T a b l e o f Phonemic Symbols F i g . 8: Consonant Phonemes ( w i t h Examples) F i g . 9 : Vowel Phonemes and Diphthongs ( w i t h Examples) F i g . 1 0 : V o i c e d - V o i c e l e s s Stop P a t t e r n F i g . 1 1 : T a g a l o g Consonant P a t t e r n F i g . 1 2 : The T a g a l o g Vowel T r i a n g l e F i g . 1 3 : The Vowel T r i a n g l e (Expanded) L i s t of Symbols and Abbreviations [ ] Brackets; enclose phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ([p]) / / Slant l i n e s or.bars; enclose phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n (/V) // // Double slant l i n e s ; enclose morphophonemic trans-c r i p t i o n {// e - 1 //) ** Squiggle; means "alternates (varies) with" or " i n alterna t i o n with" ([X] « L~l]) ** T i l or t i l d e ; over a vowel, indicates n a s a l i z a t i o n of the vowel ([o]) ^ In phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , used under i , and u to indicate g l i d e values (ai^ = /ay/) * Raised caret; indicates a sound with s l i g h t l y higher a r t i c u l a t i o n ([o*]) > C e d i l l a ; indicates p a l a t a l i z e d sound ([ts]) Hyphen; indicates the pos i t i o n of a phoneme or a f f i x i n a word ( r - f o r i n i t i a l r; - r - f o r intervo-c a l i c r j - r f o r f i n a l r, or - i n f o r s u f f i x i n ; - i n - f o r i n f i x in) *< Acute accent; i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , over a vowel of a word indicates primary stress (/mahaiL/ 'dear') *>• Grave accent; i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , over a vowel of a word indicates secondary stress (/lalakad/ ' w i l l walk 1) '• Superior v e r t i c a l t i c k ; i n phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , before the stressed s y l l a b l e , indicates primary stress (/»sa:mah/ 'to go') I n f e r i o r v e r t i c a l t i c k ; before the stressed s y l l a b i indicates secondary stress ([isa:'sa:mah] ' w i l l go' Colon: indicates vowel length (['ba:ta?J 'child') Single bar; indicates terminal juncture. Rising juncture; indicates terminal juncture. means "becomes 0 means "comes from" for consonant for consonant clusters f o r i n i t i a l clusters f o r f i n a l clusters f o r medial clusters f o r vowel for semivowel Indicates a s y l l a b i c structure consonant-vowel-consonant I n s t i t u t e of National Language Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s P h i l i p p i n e Center for Language Study W A J O R C U L T U R A L - L I N G U I S T I C G R O U P S .1 LUZON E Z 3 , L O R O ••. £5^53 A P A Y A O T I H O O I A H L3sl K A L I N O * ^ _ _ J 1 U A N A C . | j B O N T O X UTTTTi "u°*° VZZZ] KANKANAI r ~ i •»»,•o, .. [ . j I L O N O O T p:::^ P A N G A S I N A H £ £ 3 « « " " « < • ' i P A M P A N O A N ' ' •iij T A O A L O O E£2 D"<0,• ii t.'.inooRO • '• T A O A L O O cm '"*y* A L A N O A M • \':':'r.'\.\ N A U H A N 1[ | j R A T A N O A H , £212 T A C A V O A M 1 " . - • l I 1 A N G O N l y ; > i P U L A I B U H I O | J H A H U N O O []T[Tl] A A T A G N O N H l L t C A Y N O N t ill BIS AY A/I ISLANDS j i i i ^ J A M A R L t K T I E S 3 5 U C B U H A N O H ( C I B U A K O ) t///j H I L I O A T N O N C Z 3 A K L A M IV PALAWAN (CUYO B CAGAYANCILLO IS.) j _ _ j K U Y O N O N | ; ; . ; ; V | S I L A N G A N C K - T A O B A N V W A ± - • t;V/N:'j T A N O D U L A N C N - T A O I A N V W A ' I ' i Y ' . ' l B A T A K . , | » H T A O B A N U W A 1 d j ] P A L A W A N K E - N E Y | J M O B O [ T A W » U C , 9 A M A L , B A J A u] V MINDANAO Q SOLI/ | ~~[ M O H O [ T A W S U O . I t M A t , B A J A U J j£Vy 1 U O B U K A N O N |v:;::::} I U B A N U N M A A A N A O ( M O A O I [VTj M A O I N O A N A O 1 M 0 » O I f T ^ T I A U A A Y ••nvfrrmirc' 0. f PHILIPPINE ISLANDS^ CULTURAL - LINGUISTIC GROUPS Location Based On The Criterion Of Dominant Language As Recorded In The Philippine Census: 193$ Tho Eight Major Chris/ion Groups Art Shown In Darker Patterns; Pagan And Uoro Groups In Lighter' Patterns. - Uof, 1953 SCALE ^ i ^ A N I t A l ^ / J & j j i I i S1L \ !-- 1 D U L A N O A N ( C O T O B A T O -M A f t O B O ) Mlii T A O A . I t l r»--i » I L A A N t,,, j K U L A M A N ( M A N O B O f A A A N O A N I ) liy*^ \ftp»*ftutt| ^ DR C U L T U R A L ? L I N G U I S T I C G R O U P S T A G A K A O L O 1 , t-' v.'l B A O O A O •" Killilll * T A ... ' . ' M A N d O V A N O A N f j M A N O O O [ A O U J A N O I O A B A O N If-H^H B U K I D N O N l l l l i l M A N O A Y A ( I J I V A T A H • • -fiS w e e H I T O , * A J S O U M A O A T ff\ S A O O A H O (S) I S 1 M A If • » " ' • . • 0 ft A K T O H (^y H A K 7 1 I C A C U T A Y N O N Clj M f . l . K I I U C A N O N | M O A O | J A M A M A P U N ( M O N O ) ' : - . ) l A h O I L ( M O R O ) I I A M A L M A M A K U A f l( V A K A N ( M O f t O i | L A N O R L,J!-" ' * S ^ » ' C K L K B S S S t A ——»— -o •• •• / ' F " — A — ' - " -The T a g a l o g Language How many F i l i p i n o s speak Tagalog? The i 9 6 0 census shows t h a t t h e T a g a l o g language i s spoken by about hy/o o f more t h a n 2 7 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n of t h e R e p u b l i c of t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , a c o u n t r y w i t h a t o t a l l a n d a r e a of 1 1 5 , 0 0 0 square m i l e s , com-posed o f more th a n 7 , 0 0 0 i s l a n d s o f f the c o a s t o f South E a s t A s i a I n t h e Western P a c i f i c . I t i s t h e language o f t h e p e o p l e f r o m t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f Luzon, t h e l a r g e s t and t h e most t h i c k -l y p o p u l a t e d i s l a n d i n t h e A r c h i p e l a g o . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e c i t y o f M a n i l a and p r o v i n c e s o f B a t a a n , B a t a n g a s , B u l a c a n , C a v i t e , Laguna, Nueva E c i j a , Marinduque, Mindoro and R i z a l . I n a d d i t i o n t o T a g a l o g , o t h e r major languages a r e spoken, namely: Cebuano, I l o c a n o , H i l i g a y n o n , B i k o l , Pampango, Waray and P a n g a s i n a n , i n a d d i t i o n t o some 80 t o 1 5 0 minor languages and d i a l e c t s . A l t h o u g h a l l t h e s e languages b e l o n g t o t h e M a l a y o - P o l y n e s i a n f a m i l y , they a r e n o t m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . T a g a l o g i s spoken as a f i r s t o r n a t i v e language by 2 1 $ and as a second language by 2 3 * 3 $ o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f rom o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e I s l a n d s , who a l s o speak t h e i r own n a t i v e l a nguage. The p r e s e n t y e a r i s I 9 6 7 - - seven y e a r s a f t e r t h e l a t e s t census. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d t o t h i r t y - t h r e e m i l l i o n . By now, one c o u l d o p t i m i s t i c a l l y guess t h a t more t h a n 5 0 $ o f t h e F i l i p i n o s can speak t h e l a n g u a g e . The s p r e a d of edu-c a t i o n , t h e m o b i l i t y of t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e development o f a number of mass media of c o m m u n i c a t i o n — r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , movies, l o c a l d a i l y newspapers, c o m i c s , e t c . - - have a l l c o n t r i -b u t e d t o t h e enrichment and p r o p a g a t i o n o f the T a g a l o g language x i v a l l over the country. Tagalog was made the basis of the national language by a con s t i t u t i o n a l mandate. The Constitution of the Commonwealth provided f o r the "adoption of a common national language based on one of the ex i s t i n g native languages." The need f o r l i n -g u i s t i c study to determine the appropriate basis of a national language resulted i n the creation of the I n s t i t u t e of National Language i n 1936 by Commonwealth Act 184.' Tagalog was o f f i c i a l -l y chosen by the I n s t i t u t e on November 9. 1937. On December 3 0 of the same year, President Manuel L. Quezon proclaimed Tagalog as the basis of the national language. The teaching of the language i n a l l public and private schools became mandatory. On July 4, 1946, i t became one of the three o f f i c i a l languages of the Ph i l i p p i n e s , the other two being Spanish and English. Modern Tagalog includes elements from other P h i l i p p i n e languages and has adopted loanwords from Malay, Chinese, Spanish and English.' L e x i c a l items from other Ph i l i p p i n e languages l i k e Ilokano saluyot 'a kind of vegetable', pakbet f a kind of vegetable dish', manong 'appellation given to older brother', manang 'appellation given to older s i s t e r ' , and Visayan bana 'husband 1, kalo 'hat, cap', Inday ' l i t t l e g i r l ' , dodong ' l i t t l e boy 1 , e t c , have become a part of the Tagalog vocabulary. 5 Tagalog words l i k e utang 'debt',. abo 'ashes', walo 'eight', anay 'termite', anting-anting 'talisman' etc., are i d e n t i c a l with 'other P h i l i p p i n e languages i n form and meaning. More than 3 , 0 0 0 Malay words are cognate with Tagalog. The following examples are i d e n t i c a l i n the two languages i n form and meaning: mata 'eye', XV dulang 'low table', payong 'umbrella', t&mbang 'weight', kambing 'goat', buaya 'crocodile', l a n g i t 'sky'. Around 1,500 words are of Chinese o r i g i n l i k e tsa 'tea', pansit 'a kind of r i c e noodle cooked with shrimps, meat-balls', etc., madyong 'mahjong', susi 'key', bakya 'wooden shoes', l o l o 'grandfather', etc. A word-l i s t * shows 5.000 words borrowed from Spanish, such as maestro 'teacher', presidente 'president', s i l y a 'chair', mesa 'table', barbekyu 'barbecue*, g i t a r a 'guitar', sumbrero 'hat', etc. English has contributed approximately 1,500 words. Among the most common are i s k u l 'school', t i t s e r 'teacher', miting 'meet-ing', boksing 'boxing', tenis 'tennis', i s p o r t 'sport 1, etc. A few Japanese words l i k e apa 'thin wafer', kimono 'a kind of blouse', geisha 'Japanese dancing g i r l ' , dyudq 'judo', samuray 'samurai', soya 'a kind of soy or bean', and sukiyaki 'a kind of Japanese dish', entered Tagalog d i r e c t l y . A number of l e x i c a l items from d i f f e r e n t languages entered Tagalog through Spanish and E n g l i s h — a l t a r ' a l t a r ' , sermon 'ser-mon', data 'data', album 'album' from Latin; diploma 'diploma', helikopter 'helicopter' telepono 'telephone' from Greek; amen 'amen', rabi 'rabbi', satanas 'satan', Sabado 'Saturday', from Hebrew; makaroni 'macaroni', ispageti 'spaghetti', opera 'opera', piyano 'piano', groto 'grotto' from I t a l i a n ; bodabil 'vaudeville', kabaret 'cabaret', t s a l e t 'chalet', p o l t r i 'poultry', prinsipe 'prince', prinsesa 'princess' from French; hamburger 'hamburger', semester 'semester', seminar 'seminar' from German; kukis 'cookies', •Spanish Loan Words i n Tagalog.' Publication of the I n s t i t u t e of National Language, I960.' x v i bos 'boss', y a t e ' y a c h t 1 , komando 'commando', from Dutch; kabayo ' h o r s e ' , p l s o 'peso' from Mexican; mokasin 'moccasin', wigwam 'wigwam 1, kaukus 'caucus' f r o m some I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s ; d i y a s ' j a z z ' bandyo 'banjo' f r o m some A f r i c a n l a n g u a g e s ; i s p u t n i k ' s p u t n i k ' , s o b y e t ' s o v i e t ' , kosmonot 'cosmonaut'. bodka 'vodka' from R u s s i a . Some of t h e words f r o m o t h e r languages t h a t e n t e r e d T a g a l o g t h r o u g h Malay a r e b a t h a l a 'god', hukom 'judge', tumbaga 'copper' f r o m S a n s k r i t ; padyama or pidyama 'pyjamas', shajmou 'shampoo', s a r i ' s a r i ' , guro ' t e a c h e r ' , bandana 'bandana' f r o m H i n d u s t a n i ; a l k o h o l ' a l c o h o l ' , a l g e b r a ' a l g e b r a ' , a p r i k o t ' a p r i c o t 1 , k e n d i 'candy', magasin 'magazine', s h e r b e t ' s h e r b e t ' from A r a b i c ; s a l a w a l ' t r o u s e r s ' , k a l a b a s a . 'squash', b a s a r 'bazaar' f r o m P e r s i a ; s a l a ' e r r o r , s i n ' , s a k s i ' w i t n e s s ' from t h e I n d o n e s i a n l a n -guage. T a g a l o g i s s t i l l g r owing. More and more new l e x i c a l i t e m s f r o m d i f f e r e n t languages o f t h e w o r l d have come i n t o T a g a l o g t h r o u g h t h e mass media. They have become a n a t u r a l i z e d p a r t of t h e Tagalog-based n a t i o n a l l anguage. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h i s Tagalog-based n a t i o n a l l anguage was g i v e n s e v e r a l names.! I n 1940 i t was o f f i c i a l l y known as t h e " N a t i o n a l Language", t h e n i t was changed t o " F i l i p i n o N a t i o n a l Language". I n 1 9 5 5 a Department of E d u c a t i o n c i r c u l a r was i s s u e d s t a t i n g t h a t t h e term " F i l i p i n o Language" s h a l l be used i n a l l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , as w e l l as i n a l l c i r c u l a r s , memo-randums, b u l l e t i n s and fo r m s , t o r e f e r t o t h i s s u b j e c t i n t h e c u r r i c u l a . L a t e r the word language was dropped and i t became " F i l i p i n o " . I n 1 9 5 9 , t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n d e c i d e d t h a t t h e x v i i national language should be known o f f i c i a l l y as " P i l i p i n o " i n the schools. This change attracted public .attention. Why Tagalog? Why P i l i p i n o ? — goes the question i n the popular press.' This has been a controversial issue. 1 A c e r t a i n congressman representing the Visayan Islands f i l e d a case i n court against the Director of the In s t i t u t e of National Language, the Director of the Bureau of Public Schools, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs^ and the President of the University of the Phi l i p p i n e s , f o r unconstitutional acts; s p e c i f i c a l l y , the charge was that the respondents have been teaching and propagating Tagalog as the national language when i t i s only the basis of the national languages The t r i a l court decided the case i n favor of the respondents.' The complainant appealed to the Supreme Court where the case i s now pending f i n a l decision.' P i l i p i n o i s the term more used i n Phi l i p p i n e schools as the national language.' Tagalog i s s t i l l used i n the United States, r e f e r r i n g to the Ph i l i p p i n e national language, especially i n the schools that o f f e r i t as a regular course: University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, Cornell University, University of Hawaii, University of Michigan and Yale University. F i l i p i n o students of l i n g u i s t i c s prefer Tagalog to Tagalog-based P i l i p i n o . Is there r e a l l y a difference? 1 Beginning Tagalog: A Course fo r Speakers of English* gives .*J.; Donald Bowen (ed.), Beginning Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of English (Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1 9 6 5 ) p;' v. x v i i i the following d i s t i n c t i o n : For student purposes, the difference between P i l i p i n o and Tagalog might best be described i n terms of s t y l e and formal-i t y , i n somewhat the way we can d i s t i n g u i s h between the "For whom i s t h i s ? " type of English and the "Who i s t h i s for?" type. Tagalog, the Phi l i p p i n e "Who i s t h i s for?" type, has been purposely chosen rather than P i l i p i n o , since i t i s the purpose of t h i s text to prepare the student f o r an informal, inconspicuous, and n a t i v e - l i k e , rather than for a formal, noticeable, and school-like, control of the language.' Acknowledgments This investigator i s greatly indebted to Dr.' Robert J . Gregg of the D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s i n the Department of C l a s s i c s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r guidance and h e l p f u l suggest-ions and to Professor Ruth McCohnell, her English professor, f o r she had the benefit of conversation with her on matters pertinent to the study, and offered her the c o l l e c t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c s books availa b l e i n her office.' She expresses her appreciation and thanks to Professor Roe of the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , Dr.' Ernesto Constantino of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s and Oriental Languages of the University of the Ph i l i p p i n e s , and Dr. C e c i l i o Lopez, U.P. Pro-fessor Emeritus of L i n g u i s t i c s , f o r t h e i r modern views on l a n -guage analysis presented i n a series of seminars of the UP L i n -g u i s t i c C i r c l e . Written or verbal communication which th i s investigator has received from the following persons distinguished i n t h e i r own f i e l d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has spurred her on to l i n g u i s t i c studies and research — Dr.* Kenneth L. Pike and Dr. Richard Pittman of the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s ; Dr.; J . Donald Bowen, Dr.1 C l i f f o r d Prator, Dr.< Robert Stockwell and Dr # Tommy R, Anders on, a l l of the University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles; Dr;1 Robert Lado of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s of Georgetown University, Dr. Howard McKaughn of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s of the University of Hawaii, and Dr. Jose V i l l a Panganiban of the I n s t i -tute of National Language— to everyone of them, her grateful thanks.: XX She wishes to of f e r her sincere thanks to the Colombo Plan under the Canadian Aid Scholarships and Fellowships and the In s t i t u t e of National Language, f o r grants to acquire some breadth of mind i n l i n g u i s t i c s ; and to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the UBC International House which made themselves a congenial home f o r th i s foreign student from the Phi l i p p i n e s . And l a s t but not l e a s t , to her husband, Ernesto T. Yap, f o r without his understanding and i n s p i r a t i o n , t h i s thesis would not have been completed. Dedicated to THE INSTITUTE OP NATIONAL LANGUAGE 1 1; INTRODUCTION. There i s now a growing i n t e r e s t i n P h i l i p p i n e l i n g u i s t i c s . T a g a l o g , t h e b a s i s o f the P h i l i p p i n e n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , d e s e r v e s some s e r i o u s s t u d y . There i s a c r y i n g need f o r l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d m a t e r i a l s on t h e P h i l i p p i n e l a n g u a g e s . As t h e r e e x i s t s a t p r e s e n t no adequate d e s c r i p t i o n o f the sound system o f T a g a l o g , i t i s u r g e n t t h a t something be made a v a i l a b l e . 1.1 Statement of the Problem. T h i s t h e s i s e n t i t l e d "A S y n c h r o n i c A n a l y s i s o f T a g a l o g Phonemes" p r e s e n t s a new approach t o t r a d i t i o n a l problems i n T a g a l o g phonology. I t at t e m p t s t o s o l v e them by a p p l y i n g t h e l a t e s t f i n d i n g s o f modern d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s . T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e f rom t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s recommended by the I n s t i t u t e o f N a t i o n a l Language and b e i n g t a u g h t i n P h i l i p p i n e s c h o o l s . 1.2 Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e M a t e r i a l s . The n a t u r e of the s t u d y l i m i t s t h e scope of t h e d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s p u r e l y a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of T a g a l o g phonemes— segmentals and s u p r a -s e g m e n t a l s . The t e x t s t a r t s w i t h the sounds of speech: p h o n e t i c s , goes on t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t sounds o f speech: phonemics, and t h e n the r e l a t i o n between t h e two i s shown. Each s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t i s a n a l y z e d i n terms of c o n t r a s t , v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Phono-t a c t i c s , morphophonemics and a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d as s e p a r a t e t o p i c s . The l a s t p a r t i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s u p r a -segmental f e a t u r e s : s t r e s s , l e n g t h , j u n c t u r e and p i t c h . Terms used i n t h e s t u d y a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y pages. A t a b l e o f symbols and a b b r e v i a t i o n s , a l i s t of f i g u r e s o r 2 i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and a discussion of the Tagalog language are given i n the preliminary pages. Numerous cross references are also included. The concluding chapter gives a summary of the investigator's findings and conclusions. The bibliography and the index follow the body of the text. 1*3 Previous Studies Made on the Subject.' Not much has been written on Tagalog phonology. There exist p a r t i a l analyses i n school textbooks of the sound system of the language, but these lack systematic l i n g u i s t i c orientation. At present there are only fragmentary analyses of Tagalog phonology extracted from informants i n the " c l a s s i c " fashion of descriptive l i n -g u i s t i c s , such as those of Bloomfield, Stockwell, Pittman and Hemphill. A r t i c l e s on Tagalog phonemes written by Cayari and Paterno, both P h i l i p p i n e scholars, have been sources of inform-ation of l a t e r works. For the purpose of thi s study, t h i s investigator has con-sulted the published and unpublished researches on Tagalog under-taken by the team of writers of the UCLA-Philippine project, who xtfith G a l i l e o , f e e l that i f they have seen further than others, i t i s because they have stood on the shoulders of g i a n t s . 1 The in d i v i d u a l phonemic analysis on Phi l i p p i n e minor languages and di a l e c t s undertaken by the members of the Summer In s t i t u t e of Li n g u i s t i c s and the publications of the I n s t i t u t e of National Language have been valuable sources of ideas and information. Speech given on Dec.' 2, 1962 at the National Teachers College to the Kapisanan ng mga Propesor sa P i l i p i n o sa Dalub-hasaan at Pamantasan (Association of Professors i n P i l i p i n o i n Colleges and Universities) by Donald Bowen, Co-Director of the Phil i p p i n e Center f o r Language Study.' 3 A l l the e a r l i e r works mentioned above are not exhaustive but h e l p f u l . This thesis i s modestly comprehensive. Such study i s indispensable as a basis f o r further analysis of the higher l e v e l s (morphology and syntax). 1.4 Sources of Data and Methods of Approach. In this study the Tagalog which i s analyzed i s the personal d i a l e c t of a single i n d i v i d u a l , speaking i n a single s t y l e , and at a single t i m e — the i d i o l e c t of the investigator. She has used he r s e l f as the Informant as Is the usual practice of l i n g u i s t s describing t h e i r own native speech f o r the benefit of other native speakers of the same language. What i s presented, then, i s a specimen of the speech of a native speaker from a Tagalog-speaking area.^ There i s no s p e c i f i c corpus i n thi s study. For pronun-c i a t i o n she has taken her own speech. Since the observations on Tagalog phonology made by scholars are a l l f a m i l i a r to this i nvestigator, her speech has been modified as a basis for tran-s c r i p t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s that she knows to be regional or a t y p i c a l , The method of analysis employed here i s synchronic i n p r i n c i p l e and appropriate to the structure of the sounds of the language under investigation.' The approach i s resolutely e c l e c t i c . Approaches and techniques of l i n g u i s t s on both sides of the A t l a n t i c are incorporated. 1 Although there i s no exclusive adherence to any one "school" of l i n g u i s t i c s , the influence of American l i n g u i s t s such as Bloomfield, H a l l , H i l l , Hockett, ^This investigator-informant was born and reared i n Lubang Island i n the province of Mindoro. She has been residing i n Manila since 1952 and working as a national language researcher at the I n s t i t u t e of National Language, Department of Education, Phi l i p p i n e s . 4 G l e a s o n , P i k e e t c . , i s apparent on every page.! T h i s s t u d y r e v o l v e s around t h e n u c l e a r f o r m u l a : C U = V D A c c o r d i n g t o P i k e , a n y t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d can "be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t h e above f o r m u l a . The t a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a u n i t ; i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h a c h a i r ; i t v a r i e s . w i t h o t h e r t a b l e s i n s i z e , shape o r c o l o r ; i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h e purpose f o r wh i c h t h e t a b l e i s made. I n t h e w o r l d o f la n g u a g e , i n t h e l o w e r l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s , t h e m e a n i n g f u l u n i t o f sound i s t h e phoneme. Phonemes have c o n t r a s t , v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y . ^ P i k e , U n i t (U) e q u a l s C o n t r a s t ( C ) , V a r i a t i o n (V) and D i s t r i b u t i o n (D). 1 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n c a p s u l e was e x p l a i n e d by P r o f . R i c h a r d Roe o f t h e Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s i n a seminar a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s i n 1 9 6 4 . ' 5 1 » 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used:. Synchronic here refers to the description of the phonemes and allophones of a given language (Tagalog) as they occur at one point of time or stage of l i n g u i s t i c development, without reference to h i s t o r i c a l changes. Analysis refers to the study of words and forms which have been gathered and c o l l a t e d , f o r the purpose of i s o l a t i n g and l i s t i n g the various phonemes with a l l t h e i r allophones. Unit; This i s a s l i c e of sound which to the exclusion of everything that precedes and follows i t i n the spoken chain i s the s i g n i f i e r of a c e r t a i n concept (Saussure). In this study, unit refers to the phoneme. Contrast i s a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between two l i n g u i s t i c elements which when substituted f o r each other may produce a change i n function or meaning, i n the way that Tagalog /k/ and /g/ d i s t i n -guish kulay 'color 1 and gulay 'vegetable'..' Variation, also c a l l e d alternation i s a correspondence e x i s t i n g between two d e f i n i t e sounds or groups of sounds, and s h i f t i n g regularly between two series of coexisting forms (Saussure). Free v a r i a t i o n i s v a r i a t i o n (alternation) which does not d i s t i n g u i s h forms. D i s t r i b u t i o n : d e s c r i p t i v e l y , this means the occurrence of phonemes or allophones i n terms of environment or p o s i t i o n i n an utterance. 6 2.! The Sounds of Speech: Phonetics A l l l i n g u i s t s emphasize the fa c t that speech i s the primary-form of language and underlies a l l writings The science of l i n -g u i s t i c s that deals with the materials of speech i t s e l f i s known as phonetics;i Speech can be studied i n phonetics from three points of view.* An analyst can study the production of speech sounds by the various organs of the vocal tract.* Or he can describe the perception of sound waves by the hearer's ears.J F i n a l l y he can study the sound waves generated by speaking and t h e i r transmission through the air.' These are referred to as a r t i o u l a t o r y , auditory and acoustic phonetics, respectively. 4 The present study i s concerned only with a r t i o u l a t o r y phon-e t i c s since i t describes the p r i n c i p a l parts of the body re-sponsible f o r the production and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of speech sounds and the processes involved;" y»i Contoids and Vocoids In c l a s s i f y i n g the speech sounds of Tagalog, two main types are to be distinguished: I.1 Contoid. the type of sound which involves a complete stop or audible f r i c t i o n ^ In i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n the stream of a i r i s obstructed at one or more points, either by stopping the passage of a i r completely f o r a f r a c t i o n of a second or by for c i n g i t in t o narrow channels producing audible f r i c t i o n s 2.i Vocoid. the type of sound which involves only resonance.1 The speech organs are used to form resonance chambers through 7 which the a i r current passes r e l a t i v e l y unimpeded and without producing any audible f r i c t i o n ; 1 There are intermediary stages between these two types of sound.1 Normally, the vocoids serve as centers of s y l l a b l e s or s y l l a b i c nuclei;! Sometimes they occur, not as s y l l a b l e -centers but adjacent to other vocoids which have t h i s function;! i n t h i s case, they are termed semivocoids .1 A combination of a f u l l vocoid (I.eii, one> acting as a s y l l a b i c nucleus) plus a semivocoid i s known as a diphthongs The s p e c i a l terms contoid and vocoid are newly-invented words used by Pike** and Hockett^ f o r what are normally c a l l e d "consonant sounds" and "vowel sounds," respectively, i n general phonetics;-; These new terms are used when r e f e r r i n g to sounds on the s t r i c t l y phonetic l e v e l i n order to keep "consonants" and "vowels" f o r use exclusively as phonemic terms with reference to p a r t i c u l a r languages. 4 Fig;' 4: A Chart of Tagalog Contoids L a b i a l Dental Alveolar Velar G l o t t a l Stop [ P ] L't ] C k ] [ ?T, L b ] [ d ] [ e ] Nasal [ m ] C n ] F r i c a t i v e [ 8 ] [ h ] Kenneth L;i Pike, Phonemics: A Technique f o r Reducing  Languages To Writing (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1947J, PP.*; 21, ?8.i 5 Charles F.< Hockett, A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: Macmillan Company, 1958), pp/"o*9, 77£f 8 L a t e r a l [ 1 ] Flap [ r ] Semivowel [ w ] [ y ] Fig'3 5' A Chart of Tagalog Vooolds Front Center Back Unrounded Unrounded Rounded High [ i ] [ u ] C I ] C U ] Mid [ e ] [ o ] Low [ a 3 Fig.-i 6: A Chart of Tagalog Diphthongs Front Center Back High [ iw ] [ uy ] Mid [ ey ] [ oy ] Low [ ay ] [ aw ] 4.< Relations Between Phonetics and Phonemics In the early 1920's, leading l i n g u i s t i c scholars l i k e Sapir, Bloomfield, Troubetzkoy, and others came to r e a l i z e that, i n the phonology of a language, i t i s important to i d e n t i f y and c l a s s i -fy the functional units of sounds, phonemes. and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to one another;' This approach recognizes the value of phonetics as a technique f o r analyzing the raw material of speech-sounds? But, because the t o t a l number of possible speech-sounds i n any one language i s i n f i n i t e , i t i s necessary to Identify the pho-nemes uttered by the speakers to establish meaningful contrasts 9 within the system I t s e l f Thus, i n describing the phonological aspects of language, the l i n g u i s t i c analyst takes i n t o account the d i s t i n c t i o n between the raw materials of speech and i t s organization i n t o functional unitsJ In the study of art i o u l a t o r y phonetics, he i s primarily concerned with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the so-called "organs of speech" which are used i n producing the soundsi' He describes the actual speech-events i n terms of t h e i r a r t i c u -lation;* In phonemics, his main task i s to go beyond the l e v e l s of raw materials and to i d e n t i f y the points of contrast and the re l a t i o n s between them;i In the words of Pike, "phonetics gath-ers the raw material and phonemics cooks i t . i " ^ The d e f i n i t i o n of a phoneme as a functional unit of speech-sounds emphasizes the r e l a t i o n s between phonetics and phonemics;J In modem lin g u i s t i c s * , d i s t i n c t i o n i s thus made between the " e t i c " and "emic"? l e v e l s i n analyzing the phonological structured The suffixes - e t i c and -emic which are added to Lat i n root phon- ,!sound t, r e f e r to nonfunctional and functional u n i t s , respectively.* This p a i r of formative elements i s funda-mental and widely used to show the contrast between phonetic and phonemic l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c analysis.' Generally i n phonological t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , a phonetic symbol i s indicated by square brackets [ ], and a phonemic symbol by slant l i n e s / /;' In phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , analysts Pike, i2p;^  cJLfcii, p.' 57. - - - .. 'Pike, Language i n Relation to a Unified Theory of the  Structure of Human Behavior ( C a l i f o r n i a : . Summer I n s t i t u t e of Li n g u i s t i c s , 1954-55^0), Chap;' 3, et passim;1' 10 use each symbol in a one-to-one correspondence with a specific speech-sound, i n a framework of reference of the possible sounds that could be uttered by speakers.' In phonemic tran-scription, on the other hand, they keep a one-to-one correspond-ence between the symbol and the phoneme, but i n the much more restricted framework of the maximal number of phonemes i n the speech of one individual.' Here only the relatively small number of functional units are represented.1 For the purpose of accuracy in phonological detail, phono-loglsts have developed systems of transcriptions: narrow tran-scriptions which indicate precisely every phonetic detail of speech sounds, and broad transcriptions which make use of fewer distinct phonemic symbols.! A phonemically-based spelling adapt-ed to the practical needs of a people or ethnic group i s called ethnophonemic transcription (Hall);1! 5.( The Concept of Phoneme Most linguists today base their phonological analyses and derive their principles of phonology from the concept of the phoneme.5* The formative element -erne® means 'functional unit'.! A phoneme i s not i t s e l f a sound, but a unit which may include one or more sounds.i Linguists have proposed various definitions of a phoneme depending upon the point of view taken;i Some define a phoneme Robert A.* Hall Jr., Introductory Linguistics (New York: Chilton Company, 1964), p.J 24.< 11 as a s i g n i f i c a n t feature of sound, a recurrent d i s t i n c t u n i t , or a point of contrast. Prom the point of view of purely phys-i c a l phenomena, the single event of speech i s a " r e a l i t y " and i t i s never repeated the same twice i n successions The d i s -cussion of the phoneme i s based on the assumption that I t i s possible to divide any stream of speech Into discrete segments (phonemes).^ The segmentation of a speech continuum i s an "abstraction" on the lower l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c analysis.' 12 Fig. ; 7: A Table of Phonemic Symbols . CONSONANTS B i l a b i a l Dental Alveolar Velar • • G l o t t a l P b t d k g . . - . F r i c a t i v e Lateral. 1. Semivowel • • • • s h . . : m n • - • - •  • 1 r - - •- ; . . w y VOWELS Front .' Unrounded Center Unrounded Back ; "" "Rduncted -" i u e o a -CROSS-SECTION OP THE HEAD SHOWING THE ORGANS MOST DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH-SOUNDS. t Trachea c r •' 14 6. Inventory of Tagalog Phonemes A l l standard d i a l e c t s of Tagalog seem to agree i n d i s t i n -guishing the same number of phonemes.* The classes of Tagalog phonemes are twos segmental phonemes consisting of fourteen consonants / p b t d k g ? m n n i s h l r / , two semivowels / w y /, and f i v e vowels / a e i o u /, and suprasegmental features of a contrastive kind, consisting of three stresses / * v ~ /, three l e v e l s of p i t c h / 1 2 3 / and two .junctures / 11 •/•' The inventory l i s t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following table of phonemic symbols ( F i g 7 ) v Here the symbols are arranged i n rows according to the type or manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n and i n columns according to the a r t i c u l a t o r s and point or position of a r t i c u l a t i o n ^ The a r t i c u l a t o r s are the d i f f e r e n t movable speech organs that produce the various sounds by t h e i r motion i n r e l a t i o n to f i x e d points of articulation.! The p r i n c i p a l a r t i c u l a t o r s are the tongue. the lower l i p , the velum and the small appendage at the end of the velum, c a l l e d the uvula. 1 The main points of a r t i c u l a t i o n are the upper l i p , the lower teeth to some extent, the gum behind the upper teeth, c a l l e d the alveolar rldge^ and the velum.< The a r t i c u l a t o r s , at certain points and with certain manners of a r t i c u l a t i o n , produce the consonant phonemes The vowel phonemes are arranged i n rows according to tongue-advancement from the front through the center to the back of the mouth, lip-rounding from unrounded to rounded, and 15 i n columns according to tongue-height from high, through mid to low;' 7.1 Segmental Phonemes I t was emphasized e a r l i e r that speech i s primarily a continuum of a r t i c u l a t i o n s produced by the vocal organs, and that d i v i s i o n of th i s continuum i n t o successive segments i s an a r t i f i c i a l process, an abstraction.' Linguists f i n d such d i v i s i o n necessary and p r a c t i c a l i n the study and analysis of language;' The discussion was on the assumption that speech si g n a l i s a l i n e a r sequence of discrete segments, c a l l e d segmental phonemes.' Consonants and vowels were referred to as segmental or l i n e a r phonemes.' Each was described and exem-p l i f i e d i n t y p i c a l Tagalog words i n the following sections.> 7;1 Consonants Consonants involve the obstruction or r e s t r i c t i o n of the current of a i r at one or more points along i t s passage outward from the lungs; 1 Here they were conveniently divided Into s i x groups according to the manner of ar t i c u l a t i o n ; 1 7.1.1 Stops In the production of stops, the a i r stream may be complete-l y stopped at some point by closing the passage through which i t flows;' The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of stops i s a complete check-ing of the outgoing stream of b r e a t h A c t u a l l y the complete a r t i c u l a t i o n of a stop, such as the central sound /k/ i n Tagalog lakad 'walk1', has three phases:9 (l) a preliminary closing, on? Nelson Francis, The Structure of Amerlcan English (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958), pp.i 72-73.-16 on-glide during which the a r t i c u l a t o r i s brought in t o close contact with the point of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; (2) an intermediate closure, or period of si l e n c e , or i n the case of voiced stops, of subdued v i b r a t i o n of the vocal bands during which the close contact i s maintained; and (3) f i n a l release, or o f f - g l i d e during which the a r t i c u l a t o r i s separated from the point of articulations' I f a stop occurs f i n a l l y i n an utterance, i t i s unreleased. that i s , the speech organs are simply retained i n the po s i t i o n of closures An unreleased stop i s marked with a d i a c r i t i c following the appropriate sound symbol, thus [ " ]. A l l stops, voiced and vo i c e l e s s , are unreleased i n utterance-final and s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n within the utterance when the following s y l l a b l e s t a r t s with another stop or with a nasal, as i n pakpak •wing* and paknit 'detached*;i Released stops occur elsewhere-2! /p/ i s a voiceless b i l a b i a l stop produced by closing the l i p s t i g h t l y S /b/ i s a voiced b i l a b i a l stop formed l i k e /p/ but with the addition of voice when the a i r stream i s stopped at the point of a r t i c u l a t i o n s / t / i s a voiceless dental stop made by holding the t i p of the tongue firm l y against the back of the upper front teeths /d/ i s a voiced dental stop a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e / t / but with the v i b r a t i o n of the vocal bands Si Unlike English, / t , d / are dentals rather than alveolar. 1 17 A / i s a voiceless v e l a r stop produced by pushing the back of the tongue f i r m l y against the velum.' Under the influence of the neighboring sounds, the exact point of contact may vary considerably but these variations are not contrastive i n Tagalog.' /g/ i s a voiced velar stop formed l i k e /k/ but with the addition of voice.-* /?/ i s a voiceless g l o t t a l stop produced by t i g h t l y closing the g l o t t i s , thus checking the a i r current coming from the lungs.'1 This sound i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y contrastive i n Tagalog i n the same way as any other consonant.' 7.1.2 Nasals The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature i n producing nasals i s that the o r a l cavity i s completely stopped at a certain point of a r t i c -u l a t i o n , but since the velum i s lowered, the a i r passes f r e e l y through the nasal cavity and out through the nose.? Sounds so formed i n Tagalog are the voiced nasals / m n IJ /. A l l three are unreleased i n f i n a l p ositions /m/ i s a voiced b i l a b i a l nasal produced by t i g h t l y closing the l i p s while the velum i s lowered and the vocal bands are vibrating; 1 /n/ i s a voiced dental nasal a r t i c u l a t e d by bringing the tongue t i p f i r m l y against the back of the upper front teeth with the velum lowered." /n/ i s a voiced v e l a r nasal formed with the back of the tongue against the velum, which i s lowered, allowing a passage of a i r from the pharynx to the na&al eavity.i 18 7 s i S3 F r i c a t i v e s In the a r t i c u l a t i o n of f r i c a t i v e s the passage of the stream of breath i s constricted at some point of a r t i c u l a t i o n so as to leave only a narrow opening, shaped either l i k e a groove or a s l i t , f o r the a i r current to pass through.* Examples of f r i c a t i v e sounds i n Tagalog are / s, h /s / s / i s a voiceless alveolar f r i c a t i v e a r t i c u l a t e d by push-ing the front of the tongue against the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth, leaving a s l i t - l i k e opening f o r the j e t of a i r to pass through.1 /h/ i s a voiceless g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e formed without obstructing the oral cavity, and with a very s l i g h t f r i c t i o n i n the g l o t t i s S Tagalog /h/ produces a s o f t h i s s i n g sound i n i t i a l -l y and a breathy release i n word f i n a l positions 7.1.4 L a t e r a l In the formation of the l a t e r a l i n general, the mouth i s closed at the midline (front to back) by the contact of the tongue t i p against the palate and there i s an opening f o r the a i r to pass out over one or both sides of the tongue.' / I / i n Tagalog i s a voiced alveolar l a t e r a l a r t i c u l a t e d with the tongue r e l a t i v e l y s traight and f l a t from the t i p to the back and with the t i p i n contact with the alveolar ridge, producing a quasi-vocalic l a t e r a l resonances 7 SI. 5 Flap / r / i s a voiced alveolar f l a p formed by the rapid contact of the t i p of the tongue against the alveolar regions In i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n i t i s usually a r t i c u l a t e d with a single 19 tap t r i l l . 1 The majority of Tagalog words with / r / are loans from Spanish and English.' 7.1 ;<6 S emi vowels Semivowel sounds are made, either with a rapid movement of the a r t i c u l a t o r s from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n to the p o s i t i o n f o r the vowel that follows, or with a rapid movement from the p o s i t i o n of the preceding vowel to a char-a c t e r i s t i c f i n a l positions Nonfixed point of a r t i c u l a t i o n characterizes the semivowels /w, y / i n general.> /w/ i n Tagalog i s a voiced l a b i o v e l a r semivowel a r t i c -ulated by rounding the l i p s while bringing the dorsum of the tongue toward the velum and then moving i t rapi d l y i n t o the p o s i t i o n of the vowel that follows;' The amount of lip-rounding and tongue-height depend upon the following vowels /y/ i n Tagalog i s a voioed alveolo-palatal semivowel produced by r a i s i n g the front of the tongue close to the hard palate and back part of the alveolar region, with the t i p pointing toward the upper teethS 20 Phoneme Phonetic Conventional Meaning Transcription Orthography /p/ [pa'?a:h] paa 'feet' /w ['ba:ta?~] bata 1 child» A / [•ta:?oh] tao •person* /a/ [ d a ' l i : ? - ] d a l i 'hurry up' A / [«ka:?In-j kain 'eat' /g/ [ fga:tas] gatas 'milk' /?/ [«?o:?oh] oo 'yes' /m/ [ma 1tashj mata 'eyes' /n/ ['na:yon~] nay on ' v i l l a g e ' A>/ [rja'yo:n~] ngayon 'now' A / [»sa:gln-] saging 'banana' A / [ h a ' l i : k - ] h a l i k 'kiss' [»la:kad"] lakad 'walk' M [*ri:toh] r i t o 'here' / V [«wi:ka?-] wika 'language' /y/ [ !ya:ban~] yabang 'pride' Pig. 8: Consonant Phonemes (with Examples) 21 7*2 Vowels Vowels, Bloomfleld defines, are modifications of the voice-sound that involve no closure, f r i c t i o n , or contact of the tongue or l i p s S 1 0 Speech sounds d i f f e r not only i n q u a l i t y but also i n sonority.' As explained by Bloch-Trager the sonority of a sound i s determined primarily by the s i z e of the resonance chamber through which the a i r stream; flowsS Thus, a low vowel i s more p l a i n l y audible than a high vowel uttered with the same force, and any vowel i s more sonorous than any consonants They explain further that a sequence of sounds i n a normal utterance i s therefore characterized by successive peaks and valleys of sonority. 1 The sounds which constitute the peaks of sonority are c a l l e d s y l l a b i c s and an utterance has as many s y l l a b l e s as i t contains s y l l a b i c sounds. The chart of vocoids (Pigs 5) l i s t s the vowel sounds that normally occur i n stressed s y l l a b l e s S In Tagalog, a lower vari e t y of the high vowels i s normally observed i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s S The lower high [ i ] and [U] sometimes merge with the mid vowels i n cert a i n positions. 1 Usually unstressed /e/ and /o/ r e t a i n the q u a l i t y they have i n stressed s y l l a b l e s s The low vowel /a/ keeps constant but i n some positions i t i s somewhat raised towards the schwa p o s i t i o n when unstressed.! Tagalog vowels may be c l a s s i f i e d on the basis of three i n t e r s e c t i n g c r i t e r i a ; tongue-advancement, tongue-height and lip-roundingS 1 0Leonard Bloomfleld, Language (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1933) 102S . ^B e r n a r d Bloch and George Ls Trager, Outline of L i n g u i s t i c  Analysis (Baltimore: L i n g u i s t i c Society of America,1942$ pS 22S 22 The vowel phonemes are the following: /a/ low central unrounded /e/ mid front unrounded A / high front unrounded /of mid hack rounded /u/ high back rounded 7 S3 Interpretation of Semivowels Semivowels are distinguished from vowels not so much by art i o u l a t o r y differences as by word p o s i t i o n and duration;! Vowels occur i n the center or nucleus of the s y l l a b l e s s Semi-vowels, on the other hand, are found i n consonantal positions, iSeS, they are always found i n the same s y l l a b l e with a simple vowel, which i s the nucleus or peak of the s y l l a b l e s Unlike vowels, they are of short duration and they have no single p o s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n which gives them a d e f i n i t e color.' Tagalog semivowel sounds [ i ~ y 3 and [ u~^ w ] pattern sometimes as consonants, and sometimes as vowelss The deter-mining c r i t e r i o n i n each case i s pattern congrui'ty. Since there are no words i n Tagalog beginning or ending with a vowel, the suspect vocoids are interpreted as consonants i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l positions.' Nonsuspect (non-ambiguous) sound sequences exert s t r u c t u r a l pressure on the suspect (ambiguous) sound sequences;'! Thus: 2 3 c v . c v c CV.CVC ba.lak [«ba:lak-] •plan 1 ya.ta? [«ia:ta?-] 'perhaps*. wa.lis [ u a ' l i : s] 'broom' ?i.kaw [?i'ka:u] 'you' ka.may [ka'ma'.i] 'hand' ba.liw [ b a ' l i : u ] * crazy * bu.wan [bu'ua:n""3 'moon' ba.yad ['ba:iad~] ' payment1 bu.kid [»bu:kld _] 'farm' On the basis of the canonical pattern of nonsuspect se-quences GV and CVC, semivowels are interpreted as consonants i n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l and s y l l a b l e f i n a l p o s i t i o n , and as vowels when they are immediately following the i n i t i a l consonant or immediately preceding the f i n a l consonant.' Int e r v o c a l i c /w/ or /y/ (VwV or VyV) always goes with the following s y l l a b l e , i . e . , i t i s always s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l and does not constitute part of the /Vw/ or/Vy/ d i s t r i b u t i o n which i s here c a l l e d a diphthong. 7 . 4 Diphthongs The continuous nature of speech explains the presence of swift t r a n s i t i o n a l sounds c a l l e d g l i d e s A g l i d e before another sound i s c a l l e d on-glide. and a gli d e coming a f t e r another sound i s c a l l e d off-glide.. As described early i n the preceding sec-t i o n ( 7 . 2 ) , a s y l l a b i c , sometimes c a l l e d a nuclear.is a vowel Note: S y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n here i s represented by (.) and length by (:) .• which i s the most prominent sound i n the s y l l a b l e to which i t belongs. When a vowel i s uttered alone or contiguous to one or more consonants, i t i s always s y l l a b i c . A sequence of a s y l l a b i c vowel and a semivowel i n the same s y l l a b l e i s c a l l e d a diPhthongjl I t s second component or o f f - g l i d e i s a non-syllabic. ' i Diphthongs are therefore complex vowels and they are a r t i c u l a t e d with the tongue and jaw s t a r t i n g i n one p o s i -t i o n and then g l i d i n g upward toward the p o s i t i o n f o r one of the semivowels / w y /.' The Tagalog diphthongs are / ey, ay, oy, uy, aw, iw /.' Phoneme Phonetic Trans c r i p t i on Conventional Orthography Meaning /a/ [?a'na:k~] anak ''child' /e/ ['?e:wan~] ewan 'I don't know' / i / [?I'na:h] in a •mother' /of ['?or?oh] oo •yes' [»?u;tos] utos '.'command* Diphthong /ey/ [•mesjj may 'there i s , are' /ay/ ['burha^J buhay ' l i f e ' /oy/ [?a'po:i] apoy ' f i r e ' /uy/ [ka'suij kasuy 'cashew' /aw/ [sa'basuj sabaw 'soup' /iw/ O s i r s l u ] sisiw 'chick' Pig. 9'. Vowel Phonemes and Diphthongs (with Examples) 25 8. D i s t i n c t i v e Features I t has been discussed that i n l i n g u i s t i c descriptions utterances are represented as sequences of discrete segments cal l e d phonemes, which are functional units of speech sounds.1 Consonant and vowel phonemes, which respectively correspond to contoids and vocoids on the phonetic l e v e l , are distinguished from one another by a r e l a t i v e l y small number of a r t i o u l a t o r y differences, e.g., voicing, b i l a b i a l p o s i t i o n and stop a r t i c -u l a t i o n i n the case of Tagalog /b/, or high and front tongue po s i t i o n and lip-spreading i n the case of / i / ; - 1 These d i f f e r -ences which some l i n g u i s t s term d i s t i n c t i v e features. are occasionally c a l l e d phonological components. since phonemes are composed of d i s t i n c t i v e features. 8.1 Consonant Patterns Tagalog phonemes were c l a s s i f i e d and t h e i r patterns were established on the basis of these features by which they stand i n contrast with each other. 1 Normally, these d i s t i n c t -i v e features occur grouped together i n 'bundles' of several features at a time: point of a r t i c u l a t i o n , manner of a r t i c -u l a t i o n and voice or breath i n consonants, and tongue-height, tongue-advancement, lip-rounding or spreading and other fea-tures i n the case of vowels. The d i s t i n c t i v e feature framework (Fig. 10 & 11) that i s due primarily to Jakobson 1 2 and H a l l 1 - 5 i s here u t i l i z e d as 1 2Jakobson, Roman, C.< G.< M.i Fant and Morris Halle.< Preliminaries To Speech Analysis (Cambridge, 1952) 1 3 H a l l , O2.1 c i t . , pp. 84 & 93. 26 i t i s h e l p f u l i n understanding the functional relationships of the phonemes involved, although i t i s not of the essence of phonemic a n a l y s i s ^ The graphic schemes of these features are such that each sound i s set off from every other sound by a difference i n at l e a s t one d i s t i n c t i v e features As a r e s u l t , the consonants are arranged i n a series of i n t e r s e c t i n g c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n s , making a s t r i k i n g , though considerably less elegant and l e s s symmetrical pattern than those of vowels i n the f o l -lowing section.' This lack of overly neat patterns i s to be expected, f o r , as Edward Sapir said, "no language forms a water-t i g h t system, and we should be suspicious i f too pretty a picture r e s u l t s from the phonemic analysis of a phonetically asymmetrical situation.*" Following the working p r i n c i p l e that "skewness should be avoided i n shaping a description," the problem of asymmetry was solved here by placing dental and alveolar a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n one column, and semivowels /w/ (labiovelar) and /y/ (alveolo-palatal) under b i l a b i a l and alveolar, respectively. 1 Among Tagalog consonants there are two main dimensions of phonemic contrast: point of a r t i c u l a t i o n and manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n s In addition, there i s a further contrast i n voicing i n the case of stop phonemes onlys These contrasts occur singly or more than one at a time as d i s t i n c t i v e fea-tures of p a r t i c u l a r phonemess 8 s i s i Voice versus Voicelessness Voice. Gleason defines, i s a regular, periodic v i b r a t i o n 2? generated through the action of the vocal bands.* When the vocal bands are v i b r a t i n g , they impart musical q u a l i t y or regular v i b r a t i o n to the column of a i r that passes between them, and the resultant sound i s voice. 1 The v i b r a t i o n may be f e l t by putting a finger on the Adam's apple.! The absence of the v i b r a t i o n of the vocal bands i s referred to as breath or voicelessness. that i s , the vocal bands are drawn back to l e t the a i r pass f r e e l y between them.> Correlated thus are the Tagalog voiceless stops / p t k / and t h e i r voiced coun-terparts / b d g /• The voice-voiceless d i s t i n c t i o n occurs which sets them up i n contrast!ve p a i r s , the members of each d i f f e r i n g only i n the presence or absence of voice. F i g . 10 below shows two dimensions of contrast i n voicing represented here by s l a n t i n g l i n e s drawn downward.' b — ; d g Fig.- 10: voiced-Volceless Stops The f a c t that every phonemic system has the "tendency to-ward symmetry" and the "tendency toward economy" i s observed i n the phonemic system of Tagalog.' The voi celess-voi ced pat-tern formed a perfect balance, but notice the "hole i n the pattern" (or case vide) as l i n g u i s t s c a l l i t , created by the absence of a voiced counterpart to the voiceless g l o t t a l stop /?/.< However, with the voiceless g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e /h/ i n the same po s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n with /?/, a neat symmetry of 28 paradigm was formed (FigS 11).* There are, however, Tagalog consonants which are normally voiced but not contrastive to corresponding voiceless sounds i n such a way as to make pairs.' Such sounds are the nasals /m n n/, the Unguals or l i q u i d s / l r /and semivowels /w y/s In these unpaired consonants, voice ceases to be a d i s t i n c t i v e feature.- In the system as a whole, except f o r stops, voice i s not a d i s t i n c t i v e feature.' 8.1 ,;2 Point versus Manner of A r t i c u l a t i o n I t has been noted that a phoneme as a l i n g u i s t i c pheno-menon/ derives i t s function from being i n opposition with other comparable phenomena i n the sound systems Thus, the Tagalog stop phonemes /p t k/ derive t h e i r s p e c i a l function from the fa c t that they show not only a two-way contrast with regard to voic i n g but also a three-way d i s t i n c t i o n i n point of a r t i c -u l a t i o n indicated i n the diagram by horizontal l i n e s from b i -l a b i a l , to dental, and to velar positions.! The graphic repre-sentation also shows a three-way p o s i t i o n a l contrast of nasals /m n rj/ i n the same manner, a two-way contrast of f r i c a t i v e s /s h/ and semivowels /w y/. Phonemes / l r / are paired by t h e i r l i n g u a l q u a l i t y and are not set off from any other consonants by point of a r t i c u l a t i o n s Contrast i n point of a r t i c u l a t i o n holds also f o r opposition i n manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d by v e r t i c a l l i n e s from stops, f r i c a t i v e s , nasals, Unguals ( l a t e r a l and flap) to semi-vowels i n a five-dimensional pattern, hence the resultant Fig. 1 l i s *Note that a voiced g l o t t a l stop i s a phonetic i m p o s s i b i l i t y whereas a voiced counterpart of [h] ex i s t s , v i z s [ f i t ] . ' 29 Fig."' 11: Tagalog Consonant Pattern. 30 8.2 Tagalog Vowel Patterns The other major type of segmental phoneme i s , of course, the vowel which corresponds to the vocoid on the phonetic level.' H i s t o r i c a l l y , Tagalog had a three-vowel system (Fig. 12) with lower variations or allophones of the two high vowels.1 In the present study a five-vowel system i s used with the addition of /e/ and /o/ to the o r i g i n a l threes A great number of Spanish and English loan words with /e/ and /of have long been a part of the common Tagalog vocabulary ii These two sounds occur i n unpredictable positions and they no longer alternate with / i / and /u/ i n educated speech.1 Fig.' 12: The Tagalog Vowel Triangle The main d i s t i n c t i v e features of Tagalog vowels involve two-dimensional patterns i n height and advancement of the tongues There are other features l i k e rounding of l i p s , tense-ness and laxness of the tongue, length, etc 1! The two-way con-t r a s t s include simply front-versus-back and high-versus-mid oppositions, but do not operate at the low l e v e l (Fig. 13).' i u Fig.* 13: The_ Vowel Triangle (Expanded) 31 In the l i g h t of t h i s a r t i o u l a t o r y frame of reference, a phoneme i s therefore the f o c a l point of contrasts i n a net-work of i n t e r l o c k i n g differences i n the phonetic material of the language; 9S Contrast, Variation and D i s t r i b u t i o n 9.1 Contrast In connection with d i s t i n c t i v e features and acoustic c o r r e l a t e s , 1 ^ Jakobson, Fant and Halle explain that there are some physical properties or features of sound which d i f -f e r e n t i a t e one phoneme from another. The sole function of sounds of language, Hockett said, i s "to keep utterances apart." and that the phonological system of any given language i s not so much a "set of sounds" as i t i s a "network of differences between sounds." This gives the phoneme i t s i d e n t i t y S The essence of phoneme, therefore, i s distinctiveness or contrasts Some l i n g u i s t s c a l l the contrast between the presence and absence of a feature, or between two d i s t i n c t i v e features an oppositions In Tagalog some pairs of phonemes d i f f e r only by one such opposition, others by two, and others by more than twos To make the differences i n patterning evident, l i n e s were drawn along each dimension of phonemic contrast, pointing out the differences In graphic representations as shown i n FigS 11 & 13s Jakobson, Fant, Halle, op. c i t s 32 Phonemes a r e t h e r e f o r e viewed i n t h i s l i g h t n o t as sounds produced i n such-and-such manner but as elements which s t a n d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f t h e language. Whenever two elements o c c u r i n t h e same environment; ( i n t h e same p o s i t i o n ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r , w i t h d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n o r meaning, t h e y a r e s a i d t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r . I f t h e two elements o c c u r i n such a way as t o c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r , l i n g u i s t s say they a r e i n c o n t e r a s t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n . Thus, T a g a l o g /p/ and /b/ o c c u r i n t h e same environment as i n p a l a £'pa:lah] ' s h o v e l ' v s . b a l a £'ba:lah] ' b u l l e t ' , kapag [ka'pa.g] ' i f v s * kabag [ka'ba:g] ' f r u i t - b a t ' , a l a p ['?a:lap3 'cut t i p o f g r a s s ' v s . a l a b £*?a:lab~| ' b l a z e ' . The two sounds thus c o n t r a s t i n i n i t i a l , m e d i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s , i n t h a t t hey s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h words o f d i f f e r e n t meaning. I n t h e p a i r kupkop [kUp'korp] ' s h e l t e r e d ' , v s , i kubkob [kUb'ko:b] ' e n c i r c l e d ' , t h e two sounds a r e c l e a r l y i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r . The same i s t r u e of t h e o p p o s i t i o n between / t / v s . / d / and /k/ v s . / g / as shown i n t h e p a i r s t a g a [ta'ga :?J ' s t r i k e w i t h a b l a d e ' v s . daga [ d a 1 g a : ? ] 'mouse' and jrakas [ w a ' k a r s ] 'end' v s . wagas [wa'ga:s] 'pure'.' Each p a i r / p/ v s . /b/, / t / v s . / d / o r /k/ v s . / g / has t h e same manner and p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ; t he o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between them i s t h a t / b d g / add v o i c e t o t h e f e a t u r e s p r e s e n t i n / p t k /. St o p s show c o n t r a s t n o t o n l y i n v o i c e but a l s o i n p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ; hence the p a i r s p a g a l [ p a ' g a : l ] ' t i r e d , f a t i g u e d ' v s . t a g a l [ t a ' g a : l ] ' d u r a t i o n ' and b a l a [«ba:lah] ' b u l l e t ' vs. ; d a l a [ ' d a : l a h ] ' f i s h i n g - n e t ' , which i l l u s t r a t e t h e o p p o s i t i o n between b i l a b i a l and d e n t a l /p/ vs., / t / and /b/ v s . / d / , 33 respectively.' A l l the seven stops stand i n contrast with one another i n the following examples: pala [»pa:lah] 'shovel': vs.' bala [»ba:lah] 'bu l l e t ' vs.1 t a l a ['ta:lah] 'leaking from a container" vsS dala [»da:lah] ' f i s h i n g net' vs. kala [*<ka:lah] 'tortoise', vs.1 gala £'ga:lah] 'gala (uniform)'' vs." Ala [»?a:lah] 'Allah, Mohammedan god's Hughes c a l l s these series of oppositions based on the same feature a series of c o r r e l a t i o n 1 ^ and name i t by the feature i n questions Various possible kinds of co r r e l a t i o n and series of cor-r e l a t i o n s i n Tagalog were determined and c l a s s i f i e d here as techniques of establishing phonemic units.' Hence, the Tagalog c o r r e l a t i o n of voice includes the following phonemes: p t k b d g Normally, each phoneme i s a member of several correlations as i n the case of the v o i c e l e s s - b i l a b i a l /p/ which i s not only contrasting with v o i c e d - b i l a b i a l stop /b/ by the feature of voice but also (by position) with voiceless-dental stop / t / and voice l e s s - v e l a r stop /k/, hence a l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r corre-l a t i o n . The following phonemes b d g m n also show a cor r e l a t i o n of nasality s The following forms mama ['ma:ma?3 'any man, mister' vs.' nana ['na:na?J 'pus' vs.' nganga [»rja:rja?] 'prepared betel l e a f , nut and lime, c a l l e d buyd* are 15 John Ps Hughes, The Science of Language: An Introduction £2 L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: Random House, 4th P r i n t i n g , 1964) ps 246s 34 conclusive evidences that nasals /m n i}/ form a contrast since the environment i s manifestly the same and a l l occur i n i d e n t i c a l environment.- They also show a l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r c o r r e l a t i o n . Semivowel c o r r e l a t i o n i s shown i n the pairs lawa ['la:wa?j 'lake' vs. laya ['la:ya?] 'freedom', sabaw [sa'ba:u] 'soup' vs. - sabay [sa'ba:i] 'together', wari ['wa:ri?] ' i t seems1 vs. y a r i ['ya:ri?]'made' and kalawkaw [ka'lasy'ka:^] ' s t i r l i q u i d with the hand' vs. kalaykay [ k a i l a : i 1 ka:_i] 'rake'. Tagalog vowels also p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o r r e l a t i o n , thus: i u e o These vowels involve two dimensions of contrast. The three two-way contrasts involve a front-versus-back, high-versus-mid and unrounded-versus-rounded.* With the l e v e l s of tongue-height contrasting with each other, there are variations having contrasts of front-versus-back i n the high and mid l e v e l s . These vowel comslations are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following examples: / i / vs. /e/ as i n iwan ['?i:wan] 'leave (someone)' vs. ewan ['?e:wan] 'ignorance or denial of knowledge of something?,-, misa1 ['mi:sah] 'Mass' vs. mesa ['me:sah] 'table'; /u/ vs. /of as i n bukal [bU'ka:l] 'water spring' vs. bokal [bo'ka:l] 'a member of p r o v i n c i a l governing body', uso [?'u:soh] 'fashion, vogue' vs. oso_ >[?o:soh] 'bear'; / i / vs. /u/ as i n p i to ['pi:toh] 'whistle' vs.* puto ['pu*.toh] ' r i c e bun', d i l a [»di:la?] 'tongue' vs. dula ['du:la?] 'play' and /e/ vs. /o/ as i n gera ['ge:rah] 'war' vs. gora ['go:rah] 'cap 1, beses ['be:ses] 'number of timesVjboses ['bosses] 'voice'. 35 The process of c l a s s i f y i n g speech sounds int o phonemes, which i s normally observed, i s simply that of applying the following c r i t e r i a : d i s t r i b u t i o n , phonetic s i m i l a r i t y and i d e n t i t y of function or meaning. For t h i s purpose, l i n g u i s t i c analysts use minimal p a i r s . These r e f e r to pairs i n which the two sounds involved are the only features that d i f f e r e n t i a t e the words, as i n the case of the pairs of words shown below. A minimally contrasting p a i r of utterances i s conclusive and convincing evidence to show that two sounds do not belong to the same phoneme. Using the same a r t i c u l a t o r y frame of re-ference (Fig. 11 & 13) . contrasts i n voicing, point of a r t i c -u l a t i o n or manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l -lowing l i s t of Tagalog minimal pai r s : b ampon /?ampc5n/ 'adopted 1 vs. ambon /?ambon/ ' d r i z z l e ' kapag / kapag/ » i f vs. kabag /kabag/ ' f r u i t - b a t ' ipon /?fpon/ 'savings' vs. ibon /?fbon/ 'bird' l a p i / l a p i ? / ' a f f i l i a t e , j o i n ' vs. l a b i / l a o i ? / ' l i p s ' paho /paho?/ 'a species of mango1 vs. baho /baho?/ 'offensive odor 1 panday /panday/ 'carpenter' vs. banday /banday/ 'stupid,imbecile' panig /panig/ 'side' vs. banig /banig/ 'rural a g r i c u l t u r a l society' pantay /pantay/ 'of the same height vs. bantay /bantay/ 'guard' panting /pantfn/ ' f u r y , i r e ' vs. banting /bantfn/ 'stretched' pantog /pantSg/ 'bladder' vs. biantog /bantSg/ 'famous, noted' 36 pangaw /parjaw/ 'clamp f o r punishment' vs.* bangaw /banaw/ ' f o o l ' pangko /pank'6"h/ 'carry a person i n the arms' vs. bangko /bank6*h/ 'bank' pasa /pasa"?/ 'bruise' vs.: basa /basa*?/ 'wet' pasag /pasag/ 'wriggling, spasm' vs.- basag /basag/ 'broken (glass) patak /pat&k/ 'drop' vsii Batak /bata"k/ 'a town i n Ilocos region' pataw/ pa"taw/ 'weight f o r pressing something' vs.' bataw /ba"taw/ 'a species of vegetable' pating /patfn/ 'shark' vs.; bating /batfn/ 'net-trap' ! pawa /pawa?/ 'everything, a l l ' vs.' bawa /bawa?/ 'each, every' piko /pfkoh/ 'pick-axe' vs.' biko /bfkoh/ ' r i c e cake' pula /pu*la?/ 'adverse c r i t i c i s m ' vs.: bula /billa?/ ' l i e , falsehood' pulo /pule*?/ 'island' vs. bulo /bulo*?/ ' c a l f , young of a carabao 1 puno /pun6*?/ ' f u l l , f i l l e d ' vs. buno /bun<5?/ 'wrestling' puro /ptiroh/ 'pure' vs.1 buro /bilroh/ 'preserved f r u i t or f i s h * p uti / p i t t i h / 'pick f r u i t from tree' vs. buti /bu*tih/ 'goodness' sampa /sscmpih/ 'go up, climb' vs. samba /sambaTi/ 'adore' sampit /samp£t/ 'entangled' vs. sambit /sambft/ 'mention i n passing' sapit / s a p i t / ' a r r i v a l ' vs. sabit /siSbit/ 'hang, hook* talop / t a l o p / 'peel o f f vs.- talob /talob/ 'cover made of soft material (leaves or c l o t h ) ' talukap /talttkap/ 'eyelid' vs.; talukab /talukab/ 'carapace of crabs' tampal /tampal/ 'slap' vs. tambal /tambal/ 'reenforcement; p a i r ' tapak /tapalc/ 'barefooted' vs.-' tabak /taba*k/ 'bolo', taping / t a p i n / 'animal pest' vs. tabing / t a o i n / 'screen, curtain' 37 t b ukot / b u k o t / ' s h o r t - n e c k e d 1 v s . bukod /bukod/ ' s e p a r a t e ' g u n t i n g / g u n t f n / ' s c i s s o r s ' v s . Gunding / g u n d i n / 'a g i r l ' s name' h i l o t / h f l o t / 'midwife' v s . h i l o d / h r f l o d / ' scrub w i t h something t o remove d i r t on t h e s k i n ' I t a / ? f t a h / ' N e g r i t o ' v s . I d a / ? f d a h / 'a g i r l ' s name' pantay / p a n t a y / 'of t h e same h e i g h t ' v s . panday /panday/ ' c a r p e n t e r ' s a b a t / s a b l t t / ' o b s t r u c t i o n ' v s . sabad /sabacl/ ' i n t e r r u p t a c o n v e r s a t i o n ' t a g a / t a g a ? / ' s t r i k e w i t h a b l a d e ' v s . daga /daga?/ 'mouse, r a t ' t a l a / t a l a h / ' l e a k i n g f rom a c o n t a i n e r ' v s . d a l a / d a l a h / ' f i s h i n g n e t ' t a l a / t a l a " ? / ' n o t e s , r e c o r d ' v s . d a l a /dala"?/ ' p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e l e a r n e d ' t a l i / t a l i ? / ' s t r i n g , t i e ' v s . d a l i / d a l i ? / ' i n c h ' tanak / t a n a k / ' o l d , a n t i q u e ( p o r c e l a i n ) ' v s . danak /danak/ ' f l o w (o f b l o o d ) • tawa /tawah/ ' s m i l e , l a u g h ' v s . dawa /dawah/ 'a k i n d o f g r a i n ' t i l a / t i l a ? / ' s t o p p i n g , as of r a i n * v s . d i l a / d f l a ? / 'tongue' t i n t a / t i n t ^ h / ' i n k ' v s . t i n d a / t i n d a h / 'goods f o r s a l e ' t u l a /tul£?/ 'poem' v s . d u l a /dula"?/ ' p l a y ' t u l a y / t u l a y / ' b r i d g e ' v s . D ulay / d u l a y / 'a g i r l ' s name' 38 baka /baka^?/ 'maybe1 vs.i baga /baga"?/ 'tumor, b o i l ' balak /balak/ »plan' vs." balag /balag/ 'bower, arbor, t r e l l i s ' kaka /ka'kah/ 'uncle, aunt 1 vs. gaga /ga"gah/ 'stupid, dumb (fern.)' kala /kalah/ "tortoise* 1 vs.' gala /galah/ 'gala (uriform)' kalang /kalan/ 'wedge' vs. galang /galan/ 'respect' kaya /kayah/ ' a b i l i t y , capacity 1 vs.' gaya /ga"yah/ 'the same as' kong /k<5n/ 'pronoun ko, by me plus l i n k e r -ng'* vs. gong /g<5n/ 'gong'-kulang /kulan/ 'lacking* vs. gulang /giSlan/ 'age; maturity' kulay /kitlay/ 'color' vs.; gulay /gitlay/ 'vegetable' kulo /kul6?/ ' b o i l i n g ' vs. Gulo /gulo"?/ 'an i s l a n d i n Mindoro' kuro /kilro?/ 'opinion' vs.1 guro /gttro?/ 'teacher' i l a k / ? f l a k / 'contribution f o r charity' vs. i l a g / ? f l a g / 'parry' lakas /lakas/ 'strength' vs-. lagas /lagas/ ' f a l l e n , f a l l i n g o f f l i k a s /lika*s/ 'natural, native' vs. l i g a s / l i g a s / 'a species of shrub*: likaw /lfkaw/ ' c o i l , wind' vs. ligaw /lfgaw/ 'courtship' saka /sa*kah/ ' c u l t i v a t i o n , t i l l a g e ' vs.' saga /sagah/ 'saga' salok /salok/ 'dipper, scooper' vs.* salog /salog/ 'pool, puddle' tambok /tambo'k/ 'convexity' vs.' tambog /tambog/ 'dive, plunge' tatak /tata"k/ 'stamp mark'; vs.' tatag /tatag/ ' s t a b i l i t y , security'' tingka /tink5?/ »>craw or crop of fowls' vs.- tingga /tiijga 1?/ 'lead (metal)" 39 t i t i k / t f t i k / ' l e t t e r of the alphabet' vs.' t i t i g / t i f t ig/ 's tare ' tut ok /ttftok/ ' to draw near an object' vs. tutog /ttftog/ ' snu f f (ashes of cigar or cigarette) ' usok /?u"sok/ 'smoke' vs. usog /?u"sog/ ' f latulence, gas' wakas /waka"s/ 'end' vs.* wagas /waga"s/ 'pure' p 1 pakas /p&kas/ 'a kind of dried f i s h ' vs. takas /ti^kas/ 'escape' pakaw /pSkaw/ 'hoop i n the nose of carabao' vs. ! takaw /ta"kaw/ 'greediness' pag /pag/ ' i f vs.1 tag /tag/ ' tag; a f f i x ' paga /paga"?/ 'swollen, inflamed' vs. taga /tag£?/ ' s t r ike with a blade'' pala /pala?/ 'benefit , blessing' vs. ta la /tala?/ 'bright star ' palaro /palar'<5?/ 'sponsored game' vs.1 talaro /talar<5?/ balance, scale' palas /palas/ 'pare, c l i p ' vs.1 talas /talas/ 'sharpness' paling /pa l in/ ' turn; inc l ina t ion ' vs.-' ta l ing / t a l i n / 'mole' palo /paloh/ 'mast of a ship* vs. talo /taloh/ 'defeated' palos /pal<5s/ 'b ig ee l ' vs.' talos /talc's/ 'known, understood' Panong /pan6*n/ 'a man's name' vs.1 tanong /tanon/ 'answer, reply' panga /pagSh/ 'jaw' vs. tanga /tanab./ 's tupid, ignorant' Pangan /pagan/ 'a family name' vs.< tangan /tSnan/ 'held ' panggap /pangap/ 'pretense': vs.' tanggap /tangap/ 'reception' panghal /panhal/ 'uneaten food l e f t on the table' vs. tanghal /tanhal/ 'honor, exalt ' 40 panglaw /panlaw/ 'melancholy' vs. tanglaw /tanlaw/ ' l i g h t ' paos /pa?os/ 'raucousness of voice' vs. taos /ta?os/ 'through and through' papa /papah/ 'width of cloth; pope' vs. tapa /tapah/ 'jerked h e e f papak /pap^k/ 'eating only one kind of food without anything else' vs. tapak /tapak/ 'barefooted' pari / p a r i ? / 'priest' vs. t a r i / t a r i ? / 'spur for f i g h t i n g cock' pasa /pa*sah/ 'pass over' vs. tasa /ta'sah/ 'cup' pata /pa'tah/ 'leg of animals' vs. tapa /tapah/ 'jerked b e e f payo /payoh/ 'advice' vs. tayo /tayoh/ 'we ( i n c l . ) ' payong /payorj/ 'umbrella' vs. tayong /t'ayon/ 'delay, temporary suspension of work' p i g i l / p j f g i l / 'held, detained' vs. t i g i l / t i g i l / 'stop' p i l a /prflah/ ' l i n e , queue' vs. t i l a / t i l a h / 'maybe' p i l i / p i l i ? / 'selected' vs. t i l i / t i l l ? / 'shriek' p i t o /pftoh/ 'whistle, toy f l u t e ' vs. t i t o / t i t o h / 'uncle' piyak /piy£k/ 'shriek of chicken' vs. tiyak / t i y a k / 'exact, d e f i n i t e ' pukol /pukol/ 'throw, cast' vs. tukol / t u k o l / 'even number' pugon /pugon/ 'cooking stove' vs. tugon /tugon/ 'answer, reply' pugot /pugot/ 'behead' vs. tugot /tugot/ 'stop, cease' pulak /pulak/ 'lop, cut o f f vs. tulak /tulak/ 'push, shove' p u l i s / p u l f s / 'policeman' vs. t u l i s / t u l i s / 'pointed' pulong /puloi}/ 'meeting' vs. tulong /tulon/ 'help' pulot /pitlot/ 'pick up; foundling' vs. t u l o t / t u l o t / 'permit' punay /punay/ 'a species of b i r d ' vs. tunay /tunay/ 'true, r e a l ' 41 puto /ptftoh/ ' r i c e bun' vs. tuto /tittoh/ 'perception' putol /pu*tol/ 'cut' vs.: t u t o l / t t f t o l / 'objection' t k t a /tah/ 'you and I ( e n c l i t i c dual)* vs. ka /kah/ 'you' tabig / t ^ b i g / 'push with the elbow' vs. kabig /kcfbig/ ' p u l l ' towards oneself* tagayan /tagayan/ 'wine cup or glass' vs. Cagayan /kagayan/ •a province i n Mindanao' t a l a / t a l a h / 'leaking from a container' vs. kala /kaUah/ ' t o r t o i s e ' talang /taUan/ 'red cloud' vs. kalang /kalan/ 'wedge' talas /tal£s/ 'scraped off from the palm' vs.1 kalas /kala"s/ 'untied, loosened' tambal /tambal/ 'pair' vs. kambal /kamba'l/ 'twin' tambing /tambfn/ 'put on equal share' vs. kambing /kambfn/ 'goat' tampay /tampay/ 'serenity, calmness' vs. kampay /kampay/ 'swinging' of the arm; flapping the wings'1 tampo /tamp'6*h/ 'sulking' vs.; kampo /kampoh/ 'camp' tanan /tanan/ 'elope' vs. kanan /kanan/ 'right' tanaw /tanaw/ ' v i s i b l e from afar' vs. kanaw /kanaw/ ' s t i r and dissolve' tapis / t a p i s / 'a kind of apron' vs. Capiz /kapis/ 'a c i t y i n the Visayas' tap on /tap.on/ 'cork' vs. kapon /kapon/ 'castrated* tapos /tap<5s/ 'finished' vs.- kapos /kapSs/ 'short, lacking' 42 t a t l o / t a t l o h / 'three 1 vs.- katlo /katl<5h/ 'one-third' tawa /tawah/ 'laugh, laughter' vs.1 kawa /kawah/ 'a big kettle'' tawad /tawad/ 'haggle; bargain •' vss kawad /kawad/ 'wire' taway /taway/ 'stretch at arm's length' vs.; kaway /kaway/ 'wave the hand' tawing /tawft}/ 'pendant; hanging and swinging'• vs.- kawing /kawrfn/ •interlinked, In series'' taya /tayah/ 'c a l c u l a t i o n ' vsS kaya /kayah/ 'competence, aHLity' t i l o s / t f l o s / 'point, pointedness' vs. k i l o s / k f l o s / 'action, movement * t i n i s / t f n i s / ' s h r i l l n e s s of v o i c e 1 vs.1 k i n i s / k f n i s / 'smoothness' tono /t'ohoh/ 'tone': vs.! kono /kcSnoh/ 'icone* tuba /ttfbah/ '& species of shrub' vs. Kuba /ku*bah/ 'Cuba' tuba /tuba*?/ 'intoxicating drink from palms' vs. kuba /kuba*?/ 'hunchback1' t u l i g /tul-fg/ ''stunned, stupefied' ! vs.; k u l i g / k u l f g / 'the young of a p i g ' tulog /tul'og/ 'asleep': vs.' kulog /kulog/ 'thunder' tupi /tupf?/ ' f o l d , pleat'- vs. kupi /kupfi?/ 'a sjroall buri bag* turo /ttfro?/ 'instruction'- vs. kuro /ku*ro?/ 'opinion' tuta /ttSta?/ fpuppy' vs.* kuta /krtta?/ ' f o r t * tuto /tiStoh/ 'perception' vs.' kuto /ktftoh/ 'head-louse' salo t / s a l o t / 'pest, epidemic' vs.; salok /sSlok/ dipper, scooper 1 , k ? batik /ba"tik/ * is t a i n , spot' vs. b a t i / b£ti7/ 'greeting* batik /batfk/ »a kind of imported f a b r i c * vs.1 b a t i /batf?/ 'on speaking termsI 43 kaba /kablth/ 'beating, p a l p i t a t i o n ' vs.' aba /?abah/ foh*' Cabra /kaorah/ 'an i s l a n d i n Mindoro' vs.* abra /?aorah/ 'gorge' kagaw /kagaw/ ' i t c h mite' vs.". agaw /?agaw/ 'snatch'' kahit /k5hit/ 'even i f vs;< ahit /?&hit/ 'shave' kalam/kalam/ 'fornication; f e e l i n g of hunger 1 vs. alam /?alam/ 'known* kanta /kantaW 'song' vs. anta /?antari/ 'rancidity' kaso /ka*soh/ 'case' vs.- aso /?asoh/ 'dog*> kawang /kawarj/ 'not adjusted' vs.1 awang /?awarj/ 'distance; crevice' kawit /kawit/ 'hook' vs.; awit /?awit/ 'song, hymn' kay /kay/ 'person marker (sing)* vs. ay /?ay/ 'a construction marker' tagak /taga"k/ 'a species of b i r d ' vs.' taga /taga"?/ 'strike with a blade' talak /talSk/ 'chat, chatter' vs.1 t a l a /tal£?/ 'notes, record' b — — d babaw /babaw/ 'shallowness' vs.' Dabaw /daoaw/ 'a c i t y i n lyLindanao' baga /bagah/ 'ember' vs.? daga /diagah / 'dagger, sword' b,aga /bagS?/ 'tumor, b o i l ' vs.* daga /daga*?/ 'mouse, rat 1' b a i t /ba?ft/ 'prudence, sense'1 vs.' dai t /da?ift/ 'close together' bala /ba*lah/ 'b u l l e t ' vs. dala /d&lah/ 'fishing-net« balang /blilan/ 'locust' vs.i dalang /dalan/ 'infrequent; slow' balas /balSs/ ''solidified syrup'1 vs.- dalas /dalas/ 'fast;frequent' b a l i /baUi?/ 'break, fracture' vs.i d a l i / d a l i ? / 'inch'' b a l i /balif?/ 'broken, fractured' vs.! d a l i / d a l f ? / 'quick; easy' banak /bahak/ *a species of f i s h ' vs.' danak /danak/ 'flow (of blood)' bantay /bantay/ 'guard' vs.' dantay /dantay/ 'rest the l e g on something* banyos /bany6"s/ 'sponge bath' vs.' danyos /dany6s/ 'damages* bangal /barjSl/ * broken off (branches)' vs.' dangal /dan^l/ 'honor' basa /basah/ 'read' vs.' dasa/da^3%h/' 'family, lineage' bating /batfrj/ 'net-trap' vs.' dating /datfrj/ ' a r r i v a l * baya /baya?/ 'neglect' vs. daya /daya?/ 'fraud, deceit' b i l i g / b i l f g / 'cataract of the eye' vs.1 d i l i g / d i l f g / 'sprinkle' bukal /bukal/ 'water spring' vs. dukal /duka*!/ 'dug out* bugtong /bugt^rj/ 'riddle* vs.' dugtong /dugtorj/ 'addition to lengthen' buhat /btfhat/ ' l i f t , r a i s e " vs. duhat /diShat/ 'blackberry' bula /bula"?/ 'bubble, foam' vs.* dula /dula*?/ 'play' bungo /buno"?/ 'skull•' vs.1 dungo /dur)<5?/ 'stupid* buwag /buwag/ 'demolished, abolished' vs.J duwag /duwag/ 'coward' d g babad /babad/ 'immerse i n l i q u i d * vs;1 babag /babag/ 'impact,clash' babad /babad/ 'thoroughly soaked i n l i q u i d ' vs.J babag /babag/ 'quarrel' balad /balad/ 'ballad*' vs.' balag /bSlag/ 'bower, arbor, t r e l l i s ' b u l i d / b u l l a / ' f a l l e n down' vs.i b u l i g /bulrfg/ 'the young of a f i s h ' daan /da?an/ 'way, road'1 vs." gaan /ga?an/ l i g h t n e s s ; ease*' dahak /danak/ 'expectorate phlegm'1 vs.' gahak /gabak/ 'long and big r i p ' 45 dala /dali??/ 'painful experience learned' vs.- gala /gal£?/ 'wanderer' dalang /d&lan/ 'infrequent; slow' vs." galang /g^lag/ 'respect' dalas /dalas/ 'fast; often'* vs. galas /gala's/ 'roughness (touch)' d a l i t / d a l i t / 'psalm' vs.1 g a l i t / g a l i t / 'anger, fury' damit /damft/ 'dress, clothes' vs.1 garnit /gamft/ 'used, worn out' dapok /dap5k/ 'weak; f r a g i l e 1 ' vs.1 gapok /gap<5k/ 'hollowed due to attack of weevils, r e f e r r i n g to wood' diwang /dfwan/ 'celebrate' v s . i giwang /gifwan/ 'rocking, wabbling' dulang /drtlan/ 'low dining table* vs.; gulang /gitlan/ 'age, maturity' dulay /ditlay/ 'climb from branch to branch' vs.* gulay /gillay/ •vegetable' t s ta /tah/ 'an e n c l i t i c pronoun, dual' vs. sa /sah/ ' i n , on, from' taad /ta?£d/ 'the cutting of sugar cane' vs. saad /sa?a"d/ 'say, answer' taan /ta?'an/ 'reserve, reservation' vs.1 saan /sa?an/ 'where' tabon /tab<5n/ 'covered, e.g.1, with earth* vs.1 sabon /sab'6h/ 'soap' takal / t a k a l / 'measured (capacity)'vs. sakal /sakal/ 'choke with the hands' 46 taklang /taklarj/ f t r i p on the hock or bend of the knee' vs.-saklang /saklarj/ 'pieces of bamboo placed crosswise on a roofing' taklob /takl<5b/ 'cover* vs.' saklob /sakl6*b/ 'two equal and s i m i l a r things joined together, facing each other' tahol / t a h o l / 'barking of dog' vs. sahol /sahJol/ 'wanting, lacking *' t a l a /t|£la?/ 'bright s t a r ' vs. sa l a / s a l a ? / ' f i l t e r ' t a l a / t a l S ? / 'notes, record' vs.' s a l a /sal&?/ f i l t e r e d , sieved' talab /talSb/ ' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to; effectiveness of, e.g., medicine, weapons, e t c ' v s . salab /salab/ 'scorched,seared' talang / t a l a n / 'red clouds at early morn or sunset' vs. salang /salan/ *put over the f i r e f o r cooking* talanga /talarja?/ * quiver f o r arrows' vs. salanga /salaga?/ 'a species of ray* 1 talas / t S l a s / 'sharpness'; vs.' salas / s a l a s / ' l i v i n g room* t a l i l o n g / t a l f l o n / 'a species of mullet' vss s a l i l o n g /sal£lon/ 'place i n the shade* t a l o / t a l o h / 'beaten, defeated' vs. salo /saloh/ 'partake, j o i n , e.g., i n a meal' t a l o /talo*h/ 'defeated, l o s t ' vs.1 salo /sal6h/ 'catch, e.'g., a b a l l ' talop / t a l o p / 'peeled, skinned' v.s. salop /salop/ *ganta'(a neasure) 1 tampay /tampay/ 'serenity, calmness* vs. sampay /sampay/ 'hang, e.g., clothes on a l i n e ' tanga /tanah./ 'stupid' vs. sanga /san/ab./ 'branch' 47 tangay /tanay/ 'carry away' vs. sangay /sanay/ 'branch of an o f f i c e ' tangkal /tankal/ 'cage f o r chicken' vs. sangkal /sankSl/ 'harden-ing of a mother 's breast' tanggol /tango1!/ 'defend' vs. sanggol /sang6l/ 'baby, in f a n t ' tanghod /tanhocL/ 'wait hopefully' vs. sanghod /sanhSd/ 'smell a p e s t i l e n t odor' tapa /tapah/ 'smoked f i s h ' 1 vs.' sapa /sapah/ 'food discarded a f t e r being chewed' tapak /tapak/ 'footstep' vs.1 sapak /sapak/ 'breaking i n t o two, as the branch of a tree' tapak /tapa*k/ 'barefoot* vs.1 sapak /sap£k/ 'clacking sound produced when eating' tapal / t a p a l / 'patch' vs. sapal /sapal/ 'bagasse, residuum': tapat /tapSt/ 'frank, honest; opposite' vs.; sapat /sap^t/ enough, s u f f i c i e n t ' t a r l / t a r i ? / 'metal spur' vs. s a r i / s a r i ? / 'species; variety' tasa /tasSh/ 'sharpen (point)' vs. sasa /sasan/ 'a species of palm' tat a /t5tah/ 'grandfather' vs. tasa /tasah/ 'cup' taway /taway/ ' s t r i k e , e.-g.<, with a bolo at arm's length' vs.1 saway /saway/ 'forbid' taya /tayah/ 'c a l c u l a t i o n ' vs. saya /sayah/ ' s k i r t ' tigang /tigar}/ 'extremely dry'' vs.' sigang /siga*n/ 'stew' t i l a y / t f l a y / ' s l i g h t burn or scald' vs.' s i l a y /siflay/ 'short glance' t i n i n g / t f n i r j / 'sediment' vs. s i n i n g /sifnirj/ 'art' 48 tinga /tirjab./ 'small p a r t i c l e s of food l e f t between teeth* vs. singa /sir^ab/ 'blow one's nose*1 t i p ! / t f p i ? / 'press, compress' vs. ! s i p i / s f p i ? / 'copy' tipon / t i p o n / 'gathered, c o l l e c t e d ' vs.- sipon /sipon/ 'cold' tubo /tifbo?/ ' p r o f i t ' vs.* subo /sifbo?/ 'take in t o the mouth' tukong /ttfkon/ '-tailless fowl' vs.' sukong /siJkon/ 'bundle of rattan' tulong /tiJlorj/ 'help' vs.' sulong / s i l l o n / 'advance' tumbong /tumborj/ 'anus' vs.- sumbong /sumbSn/ '.complaint' tumpak /tumpa'k/ 'correct' vs.1 sumpak /sumpalc/ 'popgun made of bamboo' tundo /tund'6?/ 'prick' vs. sundo /sundo'?/ 'agreement' tunod /tunocL/ 'dart, arrow* vs. sunod /sunoa/ 'follow' tunog /tun'<5g/ 'sound' vss sunog /sunog/ 'burnt' tungki /tunk??/ 'point, extremity' vss sungki /sunkf?/ ' i r r e g u l a r growth of teeth' tuso /tiJsoh/ 'astute , ; vs.' suso /susoh/ 'breasts' tuya /tuy^i?/ 'Irony, sarcasm' vss suya /suya*?/ 'fed up' ? h am /?am/ 'broth' vss ham /ham/ 'ham* amak /?amak/ 'tame' vs. hamak /ha"mak/ 'oppressed' baga /baga?/ 'lung'' vs." baga /bagah/ 'ember' baga /bag£?/ 'tumor, b o i l * vs.' baga /bagah./ 'question marker*' 49 bao /b5?oh/ 'coconut s h e l l ' vs. baho /banoh/ 'bass (tone or voice)' baog /ba?6g/ ' s t e r i l e (woman)'vs.' bahog /bah6g/ 'mixed ( r i c e with something)* bata /b£ta?/ ' c h i l d ' vs.; bata /b^tah/ 'bathrobe' bubo /bubo*?/ ' s p i l l , overflow' vs. bubo /bubSh/ 'to frighten and drive away', kata /kat5?/ ' b o i l i n g ' vs.; kata /katan/ 'you and I' kuba /ki$ba?/ 'hunchback' vs. Kuba /kttbah/ 'Cuba' daan /dS?an/ 'way, road' vs. dahan /d£han/ 'slowly' daop /da?6*p/ 'needy' vs. dahop /dahop/ 'clasped together, as hands i n prayer* h i l i / h f l i ? / *envy* vs.' h i l i / h f l i h / 'a species of f i s h ' hula /hiSla?/ 'guess, prediction* vs. hula /htflah/ 'hula dance' h u l i / h t f l i ? / ' f o r g e t f u l * vs.: h u l i / h t f l i h / 'catch* i l i g / ? i l f g / 'shake* vs.- h i l i g / h i l f g / 'inclined* i l i n g /?il£n/ 'shake the head' vs. h i l i n g / h i l f n / 'request, p e t i t i o n ' ipon /?fpon/ 'savings; gathered' vs.1 hipon /hfpon/ 'shrimp' ir a p /?frap/ 'sullen look' vs. hirap /hfrap/ ' d i f f i c u l t y ' i t i k / ? f t i k / 'duck* vs.1 h i t i k / h f t i k / »bent due to weight (of f r u i t ) ' iwa /?fwa?/ *<stab, slash' 1 vs.- hiwa /hfwa?/ ' s l i c e ' nasa /n^sa?/ 'wish, desire* vs.- nasa /na'sah/ ' i n , on' paa /p£?ah/ 'feet' vs.1 paha /panah/ 'sash, band' pa i t /pa"?it/ 'bitterness; c h i s e l ' vs.' pahit / p & i i t / 'consumed' to the l a s t b i t ' 1 pare /pare?/ ' p r i e s t ' vs. pare /pa"reh/ 'vocative used i n addressing a man* 50 p i i t /p i ? f t/ 'detained, j a i l ed ' vs. p ih i t /p ihf t/ 'turned' p ip i / p f p i ? / ' f lat tened, pressed' vs.- p ip i /pfpih/ 'mute, dumb' saing /sa^in/ 'cook r i c e ' vs. sahing /sanin/ 'maltha* sala /sala?/ ' to f i l t e r ' vs. sala /salah/ ' f au l t ; l i v i n g room' sala /sal&?/ ' f i l t e r e d ' vs.' sala /salah/ 'woven sp l i t bamboo used as r a i l i ng ' 1 taas /ta?as/ 'height? vs. tahas /tanas/ 'd i rec t , def in i te ' tamo /tam<5?/ 'a species of plant*' vs. tamo /tarnon/ 'acquisi t ion o f tubo /ttfbo?/ 'growth; p ro f i t ' vs.' tubo /tilboh/ 'tube, pipe'-tundo /tund<5?/ 'p r i ck 1 vs.1 Tundo /tundon/ *a d i s t r i c t i n Manila' ulog /?ul<5g/ 'shake' vs. hulog /hulSg/ ' f a l l en off , dropped o f f unos /?un'(5s/ ' fog ' vs.< hunos /hun6*s/ ' t i t he ' s h basag /basag/ 'broken (glass)' ' vs. ; bahag /bahag/ »G-string' busol /busol/ 'door-knob' vs.' buhol /buh'61/ 'knot, t i e ' paso /paso?/ 'bum' vs.5' paho /paho?/ 'a species of mango' sa /sah/'in on'' vs.' ha /hah/ 'a Tagalog expression (interrogation)' sabang /saoan/ 'crossing, intersect ion' vs.! habang /ha*ban/ 'while*' sabi /saoih/ 'say' vs. habi /haoih/ 'weave'; sagap /sagap/ 'scoop'- vs.^  hagap /hSgap/ 'thought, idea' saging /s&gin/ 'banana'' vs. haging / hagin/ 'buzzing, h iss ing ' salaan /sala?ah/ 's t ra iner ' vs. halaan /hala?ah/ 'a species of clam' salabid /salabfd/ 'obstacle' ' vs.' halabid /halabid/ 'entangle' salarig /salan/ 'put over the f i r e for cooking' vs. halang /halan/ 'crosspiece' 51 salang / s a l a i j / 1 touch l i g h t l y 1 vs.* halang /halan/ 'traverse 1 salas /saUas/ 'parlor, h a l l * vs.1 halas /halas/ 'scratch, e.g., produced by the blades of grass' salay /sa*lay/ 'bird's or rat's nest' vs. halay /halay/ 'indecency' salo /saloh/ 'partake, j o i n , eJg.', i n a meal' vs.1 halo /haloh/ 'pestle' salo /sal<5h/ 'catch, e.:g.i, a b a l l ' vs. halo /hal<5h/ 'hello' sanay /sanay/ 'practice, d r i l l ' vs. hanay /hahay/ 'row, f i l e ' sangga /sarjgab./ 'parry' vs.- hangga /hangab./ ' u n t i l ' sapin /sapfn/ 'underlayer' vs.1 hapin /haprfn/ ' s t r i n g ' sapit / s a p i t / "arrive' vs.1 hapit /hapit/ 'press" sarap /sarap/ 'delicious 1' vs.1 harap /harap/ 'front' s a r i / s a r i ? / *\ariety» vs.1 h a r i / h a r i ? / 'king' sasa /sa*sa?/ ' g r a t i f y one's desire' vs.' hasa,/hasa?/ 'whet' siga /siga"?/ 'bonfire" vs. higa /higa*?/ ' l i e down' s i g i t / s i g i f t / »;shine through a s l i t crack' vs.1 h i g i t /higift/ ' s t r e t c h " s i l a t / s i l a V ' s l i t s ' vs. h i l a t / h i l S t / 'stretched' silaw /silaw/ 'dazzled' vs. hilaw /hilaw/ 'unripe; raw' singa /sirjah/ 'blow one's nose' vs.. hinga /hlnJih/ "breath" sipag /sifpag/ 'diligence vs.' hipag /hfpag/ 'sister-in-law' suwag /suwag/ "horns' vs. huwag /huwag/ 'don't* m baga /bag£?/ * tumor, b o i l ' vs. maga /maga"?/ 'swollen" bago /bagoh/ 'new' vs.' Mago /magoh/ 'Magi' 52 balat /bala't/ 'skin' vs.< malat /mal^t/ •hoarseness of voice 1 b a l i / b a l f ? / 'broken, fractured' vs. mali /malf?/ 'wrong, error' bana /banah/ 'husband' vs.i mana /manah/ 'inheritance' banas /banSs/ 'su l t r y ' vss manas /mania's/ 'swollen; b e r i b e r i ' banoy /banoy/ 'eagle* vsS Manoy /manoy/ 'elder brother' baso /hasoh/ 'glass' vs.' maso /ma's oh/ 'mallet' b i l i n g / b i l f n / 'turn, gyration" vs.1. Miling / m i l i n / 'a g i r l ' s name*1 buwal /buwa*l/ ' f a l l e n down': vs.' muwal /muwSl/ ' f u l l of food (mouth)* d n daga /dagah/ 'dagger, sword' vs. : naga /n&gah/ 'a species of tree; (cap) a c i t y i n the B i c o l region" dahan /da*han/ "slowly" vs;'1 nahan /naban/ 'where' dalag /dal'ag/ 'mudfish1' vs.1 nalag /nalag/ 'a variant of sumalag parried' danay /danay/ 'side, part' vs.1 nanay /nanay/ 'mother' dasa /da'sah/ 'family, lineage' vs.1 nasa /na'sah/ ' i n , i n t o , on* diyan /diyan/ * there (near)' vs. niyan /niyan/ 'of that, by that' doon /do?6n/ 'there ( f a r ) " vs.' noon /no?6*n/ 'at the time, then' S 9 baga /baga*?/ 'tumor, b o i l ' vs. banga /ban£?/ "native earthen j a r ' 53 baga /baga?/ 'lung' vs.' banga /barja?/ 'a species of palm* bagay /bagay/ 'thing, matter' vs.I bangay /harpy/ 'quarrel' bago /bagob/ 'a species of tree' vs.; bango /ban/6n/ 'fragrance,*.. ^ aroma' bigas /bigas/ 'husked r i c e * vs.' bingas /binas/ 'detached, worn out' g a l i t / g a l i t / 'anger, fury' vs.1 n g a l i t /n&Lit/ 'gnashing of teeth', g a l i s /galifs/ 'dhobie i t c h ' vs. n g a l i s / n a l f s / 'rub, f r i c t i o n * gamay /gamay/ 'used to; adjusted*, vs.i ngamay /tjamay/ 'numbness' gata /gatS?/ 'coconut milk* vs.- ngata /nata*?/ *chew, masticate' Gatal / g a t a l / "a family name' vs.! ngatal / n a t a l / 'trembling' gawa /gawa"?/ 'work', vs." ngawa /naw£?/ 'empty t a l k i n g ' gayon /gayon/ ''that way, l i k e that' vs.: ngayon /nayon/ 'now' g i t i / g i t f ? / 'beginning to appear (perspiration)' vs. n g i t i /nitST?/ "smile" pagal /pagal/ 'tiredness, f a t i g u e " vs.{ pangal /pan£l/ 'blunt; wedge inserted i n the mouth1! pagaw /pagaw/ 'hoarseness of voice" vs. pangaw /panaw/ 'clamp f o r punishment; handcuffs' 1 pagod /pag<5d/ " t i r e d , fatigued' 1 vs.' pangod /panoa/ 'blunt, d u l l ' m • • n kamaw /kamaw/ 'big earthen bowl') vs.! kanaw /kanaw/ ' s t i r to di s s olve (s omething)' kamya /kamyab/ "a species of pla n t " vs.1 kanya /kanyab./ 'his, her' Mang /man/ 'a p a r t i c l e antiponed to a man's Chri s t i a n name" vs. nang /nan/ fwhen' 54 masa /masah/ 'dough' vs.' nasa /n&sah/ ' i n , on'-Minong /mSfnoij/ 'a man's name' vs. ninong /nfnon/ 'godfather' mismis /mismfs/ 'partic l e s of food l e f t a f t e r meal'« vs.1 n i s n i s / n i s n f s / 'ravelled' ngamay /nSmay/ 'numbness'- vs. ! nganay /nahay/ 'with pa- f i r s t born* sama /samah/ 'go, accompany'- vs.' sana /sahah/ 'expression of hope' taman /tamah/ 'patience, d i l i g e n c e ' vs.i tanan /tanah/ ' a l l , everybody 1 n n bamban /bambaV}/ 'inside p e l l i c l e of f r u i t ' vs." bambang /bambfirj/ 'canal, drainage ' banal /banal/ 'holy, pious': vs.1 bangal /ban&l/ 'broken off (branches) 'i banay /bahay/ 'slowly' vs. bangay /batjay/ 'quarrel' 1 bubon /bubor}/ 'small and shallow well' vs. bubong /bubon/ ' r o o f bumbon /bumboh/ 'heap, p i l e ' 1 vs. bumbong /bumbon/ 'bamboo container* buno /buno*?/ 'wrestling': vs. bungo /buno*?/ ' s k u l l ' i l a n / ? i l a h / 'how many*, vs.' i l a n g / ? i l a i j / 'desolate place' laman /lamah/ 'meat; content*- vs.- lamang /lamJarj/ 'advantage' lunos /luhos/ ' a f f l i c t i o n , g r i e f vs.' lungos /ltfnos/ 'cape' nawa /naw£?/ 'May i t be so.' vs.i ngawa /naw'5?/ 'loud empty ta l k i n g ' punas /punas/ 'sponge bath' vs.' pungas /pu"nas/ 'getting up h a l f awake' puson /pus6n/ 'hypogaatrium* vs.' pusong /pus6*n/ 'impudent, shameless' sanay /sanay/ 'used to, experienced' vs.' sangay /san&y/ 'branch' 55 1 na /nah/ 'already' vs. l a / l a h / 'musical note f i naman /namah/ 'a Tagalog expression' vs. laman /laman/ 'content' nang /nan/ 'when'; vs.' lang / l a n / 'variant of lamang. only' nasa /nasah/ ' i n , on, from' vs.- l a s a /l&sah/ 'taste' nayon /nayon/ 'barrio' vs. layon /layon/ 'aim, object' n i i g / n i ? f g / 'tete-a-tete' vs. l i i g / l i ? f g / 'neck' nino /nfnoh/ 'whose' vs. Lino / l f n o h / 'a man's name' c. r d i l i s / d f l i s / 'a species of anchovy' vs. r i l i s / r f l i s / 'railway' Dimas /dfmas/ 'a man's name' vs. rimas /r3*mas/ 'a species of tree' Lida / l f d a h / 'a g i r l ' s name1 vs. l i r a /Lfrah/ ' l y r e ' padamdam /padamdam/ ' i n t e r j e c t i o n , exclamation'! vs. paramdam /paramdam/ 'hint, suggestive expression or action' 1 » r bala /b£lah/ ' b u l l e t ' vs. bara /barah/ 'measure equal to 2.75 f t . 1 ' 56 balat /balSt/ ' s k i n ' vs.* barat /bar&t/ 'haggler 1 bulak /iSlak/ 'cotton' vs.' burak /b&rak/ 'mire, mud' bulo /billoh/ ' f loss covering stems or f r u i t of plants' vs. buro /buVoh/ 'preserved f i sh or f ru i t ' ! bulol /bul'5l/ "obstacle i n the throat'' vs. burol /bur!6*l/ ' h i l l ' kalang /kaUan/ 'wedge' vs.' karang /karan/ 'awning' dalas /dalSs/ 'frequency vs.' daras /daras/ 'adze'i dula /dulS?/ 'play' 1 vs.' dura /dura"?/ ' s a l i v a , sputum' dulo /dtfloh/ 'end' vs.- duro /ditroh/ 'bf fer ins istent ly ' : dulog /dulog/ 'appear before a court'' vs. : durog /dur<5g/ 'pu lver ized ' halang /hSlarj/ 'obstacle, obstruction' vs. harang /haran/ 'crosspiece' i l i n g /?il£n/ 'shake the head1 vs.1 i r i n g /?iri£n/ 'abuse' i l o g /?£log/ ' r i ve r ' vs.' i rog /?frog/ 'beloved': l a l a / l H a h / 'bra id ' vs. Lara /larah/ *a gir l^s name" l i l a /laflah/ 'of l i l a c color; earthen jar ' vs.1 l i r a /l£rah/ ' l y r e ' l i l i p / l f l i p / 'hem'! vs. l i r i p / l f r i p / 'comprehend, understand' l o lo / lo lot i/ 'grandfather': vs.: loro /loroh/ 'parrot•• losa /losah/ 'porcelain plate* vss Rosa /r'5sah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' pala /palah/ 'shovel': vs.i para /p^rah/ 'stop' 1 palas /palSs/ 'pared of f , clipped*, vs.paras /para's/ 'pungent, b i t i ng ' p i l i ng / p i l f n / 'bunch, c luster ' vs. : p i r ing /p i r fn/ 'blindfold/; sala /salab/ ' r a i l i n g made of woven s p l i t bamboo«' vs.1 sara /sar'ab/ 'c losed' 57 talas /tal'as/ 'scrape off (palm leaves) vs.' taras /taras/ 'for-wardness i n speech' t a l i / t a l i ? / ' s t r i n g , t i e ' vs.' t a r i / t a r i ? / 'metal spur of a f i g h t i n g cock* t a l i k / t a l f k / 'dance, movement i n dancing' vs.1 t a r i k /tar£k/ 'steepness' t a l o / t a l o h / 'defeated* vs.f taro /taroh/ 'porcelain or china j a r ' tulo / t t f l o ? / 'drop/ vs.1 turo /ttfro?/ ' i n s t r u c t i o n ' r y barong /bar6*n/ 'short f o r barong Tagalog. (a man's a t t i r e ) ' vsv bayong /bay<5n/ 'sack made of buri palm leaves' kara /karah/ 'the head side ofthe coin' vs. kaya /kayah/ 'com-petence, a b i l i t y * 1 Iran / i r a h / Iran (Persia) vs. iyan /iyah/ 'that' l a r o / l a r S ? / 'play, game*' vs.' layo /lay6?/ 'go away, depart' lugar /luga*r/ 'place, s i t e * vs.1 lugay /lugay/ 'hanging loose ( h a i r ) ' sara /sarah/ 'closed' vs.' saya /sayah/ 'ijoy, gladness' Sara /sarah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' vs.1 saya /sayah/ 'a native s k i r t 1 ' w ; y bahaw /bahaw/ *:cold r i c e ' vs. : bahay /bahay/ 'house' kamaw /kamaw/ 'a b i g earthen bowl* vs. kamay /kamay/ 'hand') hiwa /hiw£?/ ' s l i c e d ' vs. hiya /hiya"?/ 'shame* 58 hiwas /hiwas/ 'oblique' vs.1 hiyas /hiySs/ 'jewel' lawa /lawa?/ 'lake' vs. laya /laya?/ 'freedom' pakaw /p&kaw/ 'hoop' vs.? pakay /pdkay/ 'aim, object' sabaw /sabaw/ '^soup1 vs.1- sabay /sabay/ 'together; simultaneous'-saklaw /saklSw/ 'within the scope' vs. saklay /saklay/ 'hanging'-sawa /sawab/ 'boa' vs.? saya /say&W 'joy, gladness*! tanaw /tanaw/ ' v i s i b l e from afar' vs. Tanay /tanay/ 'a town i n Rizal».: taxia /tawah/ 'laugh, smile' vs.* taya /tayah/ 'calculation' tiwa /tfwah/ ' i n t e s t i n a l worm'! vs. t i y a / tfyah/ 'aunt' tuwa /tuw£i?/ 'joy, gladness' vs.- tuya /tuy£?/ ' i n s u l t ; irony ' i wari /wari?/ ' i t seems* vs. y a r i - / y a r i ? / 'make' Double contrasts also occur i n Tagalog d i s y l l a b i c roots, usually formed by reduplicating the s y l l a b l e . This type of con-t r a s t may be termed contrastive doublets. These are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following examples: p/b kapkap /kapkap/ ' f r i s k ' vs. kabkab /kabkab/ 'scrape off* kupkop ^kupkop/ 'sheltered' vs. kubkob /kubkob/ 'encircled' laplap / l a p l a p / 'decorticated' vs. lablab /lablab/ 'voracious eating, as of a p i g ' luplop /luplop/ ' s i t t i n g on a nest' vs.' lublob /lublob/ 'wallowin pakpak /pakp&k/ 'wings' vs.; bakbak /bakb£k/ 'detached'1 papa /papab/ 'papa, father' vs. baba /babab/ 'carried on the back papag /papag/ 'bamboo bed' vs. babag /b£bag/ 'impact, clash' papel /pap£L/ 'paper' vs.1 Babel / b a b l l / 'Babel (Tower of Babel)' 59 patpat /patp&t/ * s t i ck ' vs. batbat /batblit/ 'covered, adorned' p ip i /pfpih/ 'mute, dumb' vs.' b ib i/bfbih/ 'young duck' p i t p i t /p i tp f t / ' f l a t ten by pounding' vs. b i t b i t /b i tb f t/ 'carry ' pukpok /pukpSk/ 'beat, hammer' vs. bukbok /bukbSk/ 'weevi l ' pudpod /pudpSd/ 'worn out' vs. budbofl. /budbSd/ 'scatter* pulpol /pulp31/ 'blunt* vs.- bulbol /bulbSl/ 'ha i r ' pumpong /pumper)/ 'sheaf of r i c e ' vs. bumbong /bumboY}/ 'bamboo container' pupog /piJpog/ 'attack of a fowl' vs. bubog /btfbog/ ' c r y s t a l ' pupot /pup6*t/ 'cover the mouth with the finger t ips* vs.- bubot /bub6*t/ immature, unripe' puspos /puspo's/ 'thoroughly' vs. busbbs /busbos/ 'operate on' sapsap /sapsap/ 'a species of f i s h ' vs. sabsab /sabsao/ 'noisy and voracious eating, as of a p ig ' supsop /supsop/ ' s i p , suck* vs. subsob /subsSb/ ' s t r ike the head against a horizontal surface' t/d k i t k i t / k i t k f t / 'scratched; disarranged' vs. kidkid /kidkfd/ ' r o l l , r ee l ' patpat /patpaV ' s t i ck ' vs. ; padpad /padpa*d/ 'shipwrecked, d r i f t ed ' satsat /sats5t/ 'chat, chatter' vs. sadsad /sadsaaV 'anchored, grounded' sutsot /suts6*t/ 'whist le ' vs./ sudsod /suds6*d/ 'plowshare' tastas /tastas/ 'unstitched* vs. dasdas /dasda's/ 'pared o f f tut a /ttftah/ 'puppy' vs. duda /diSdah/ 'doubt' 60 k/g laklak /lakl&k/ 'gulp* vs. la g l a g / l a g l a g / " f a l l e n , dropped 1 luklok /lukl6*k/ ' s i t (on a seat of honor)' vs. luglog /lugl6*g/ 'a kind of noodle (pansit luglog) *' pakpak /pakpak/ 'wings' vs. pagpag /pagpag/ 'shake o f f saksak /sakslik/ 'stab' vs.1 sagsag /sagsag/ ' t r o t ' taktak /taktalc/ 'jerk and shake' vs. tagtag /tagtag/ 'unfastened' tuktok /tukt6*k/ 'pate' vs. tugtog /tugtog/ 'music' p/t pakpak /pakpak/ 'wing' vs.' taktak /takt5k/ jerk and shake' padpad /padpaa/ 'driven away by waves or wind' vs. tadtad /tadt^d/ 'chopped, minced' pagpag /pagpag/ 'dust o f f vs. tagtag /tagtag/ 'unfastened' papag /papag/ 'bamboo bed' vs. tatag /ta"tag/ 'establish, organize' paspas /paspas/ 'dust off; hurry' vs. tastas / t a s t a s / 'unstitched' paypay /paypay/ 'fan; shoulder-blade' vs. taytay /taytay/ 'bamboo plank or bridge' pikpik /pikpfk/ 'pressed, compressed' vs.' t i k t i k / t i k t f k / 'spy' pipa /pfpah/ 'cigarette pipe' vs. t i t a /txtah/ 'aunt' p i s p i s / p i s p f s / 'remnants on the table a f t e r meal' vs.i t i s t i s / t i s t f s / 'surgical operation' pukpok /pukptfk/ 'beat, hammer' vs. tuktok /tuktok/ 'pate; knock' pugpog /pugpSg/ 'rotting of the end of wood' vs. tugtog /tugtog/ 'music' pupog /piSpog/ 'attack of a fowl' vs. tutog /ttftog/ 'snuff (ashes of cigar or cigarette' 61 t/k tabtab /tabtao/ 'hew, trim' vs.1 kabkab /kabkao/ 'scrape o f f tadtad /tadta"d/ 'chopped, minced' vs.; kadkad /kadk£d/ spread, unfolded' t a l t a l / t a l t a l / 'verbal quarrel' vs.1 k a l k a l / k a l k a l / 'scraped; scratched' ta t a /tStah/ 'grandfather' vs.: kaka /kalcah/ 'uncle, aunt' tawtaw /tawtaw/ 'touch the t i p ( f i s h i n g rod)' vs. kawkaw /kawkaw/ 'dip the hand in t o the water and s t i r i t ' taytay /taytay/ 'bamboo plank or bridge' vs. kaykay /kaykay/ scratch 1! t i s t l s / t i s t f s / 'surgical operation' vs. k i s k i s / k i s k f s / 'rub against' b/d baboy /baooy/ 'pig' vs.' Dadoy /da^oy/ 'a man's name' bagbag /bagbag/ 'broken up (land)' vs. dagdag /dagdag/ 'addition' basbas /basbas/ 'blessing; absolution* vs^ dasdas /dasdas/ 'chopped o f f busbos /busbos/ 'surgical operation' vs.' dusdos /dusdos/ 'sarna on the head' butbot /butb'6"t/ 'dig up, search' vs. dutdot /dutd6*t/ 'poke with the f i n g e r 1 . 62 d/g daldal / d a l d a l / 'talkativeness' vs. galgal / g a l g a l / 'stupid, d u l l * dasdas /dasd^s/ 'rasped, chopped o f f vs.' gasgas /gasg^s/ 'scratched' dukdok /dukdSk/ 'pounded, pulverized' vs. gukgok /gukg6*k/ 'grunt of pigs' sadsad /sadsaa/ 'anchored, grounded 1 vs. sagsag /sagsag/ ' t r o t ' b/m babad /babaa/ 'thoroughly soaked i n l i q u i d ' vs. mamad /mamacL/ 'softened and swollen due to exposure to l i q u i d ' bubo /bu*boh/ 'a kind of f i s h - t r a p ' vs.- mumo /mu*moh/ *pa r t i c l e s of cooked r i c e l e f t a f t e r meal' bubo /bilbo?/ 'cast, smelt' vs. mumo /mu*mo?/ 'ghost' bubog /bubog/ ' c r y s t a l ' vs. mumog /mitmog/ 'gargle' busbos /busbos/ 'surgical operation' vs.1 musmos /musmos/ 'innocent' d/n damdam /damdam/ 'fe e l i n g ' vs. namnam /namnam/ 'taste, savor* dikdik /dikdfk/ *pounded, pulverized' vss niknik /niknfk/ 'a species of f l y ' dutdot /dutdSt/ 'poke with the finger' vs. nutnot /nutnSt/ 'rub off , wear away by f r i c t i o n ' g/*} gaga /gagiab./ ' v i o l a t i o n of chastity' vs.: nganga /ijanab./ 'open (mouth)' galgal / g a l g a l / 'stupid, d u l l ' vs.1 ngalngal / n a l n a l / 'loudcrying' 63 gasgas /gasga's/ 'scratched, worn out' vs. ngasngas /nasnas/ 'loud empty t a l k i n g 1 gatgat /gatga*t/ 'notch, dent' vs. ngatngat /natn£t/ 'gnaw' gawgaw /gawgaw/ 'starch' vs. ngawngaw /nawnaw/ 'useless talk' gutogot /gutg'ot/ 'entangled, disarranged' vs. ngutngot /nutnot/ 'i n s i s t e n t requesting for something' m/n mama /mama?/ 'any man, mister' vs. nana /nana?/ 'pus' mismis /mismis/ 'partic l e s of food l e f t a f t e r the meal' vs. nis n i s / n i s n i s / 'raveled' n/n naknak /naknak/ 'swelling, abscess' vs. ngakngak /nakn'&c/ 'loud crying' nana /nana?/ 'pus' vs. nganga /n£na?/ 'prepared buyo' nawnaw /nawnaw/ 'to take root, as plants; germinate' vs. ngawngaw /nawnaw/ 'loud empty talking' n i s n i s / n i s n i s / 'raveled' vs. ngi.sngis /niseis/ 'giggle' nuynoy /nuynoy/ 'meditate' vs. nguyngoy /nuynoy/ 'continuous crying over t r i f l e ' t/s tabtab / t a b t a V 'hewing:' 'vs. sabsab /sabsab/ 'voracious and noisy eating, as of a pig' 64 taktak /taktSk/ "jerk and shake* vs. saksak /saksiSk/ *stab* tadtad /tadtaa/ 'chopped, minced* vs. ; sadsad /sadsaa/ 'anchored, grounded' tagtag /tagtag/ 'unfastened' vs.- sagsag /sagsag/ ' t r o t ' tantan /tantan/ 'cease, cessation* vs. sansan /sansan/ 'repeatedly, incessantly' tangtang /tanta*}/ ' pu l l and jerk' vs.1 sangsang /sansaij/ 'strong odor' tastas /tastes/ 'unstitched' vs.> satsat /satsSt/ 'gossip' tatag /tatag/ ' s t a b i l i t y ' vs. sasag /sas5g/ ' s p l i t bamboo' taytay /taytay/ "bamboo plank' vs. : saysay /saysay/ 'narration; value' t i b t i b / t ib t fb/ "the end of sugar cane' vs. s ibsib /sibsfb/ 'sett ing of the sun" t i k t i k / t i k t f k / 'spy' vs.' s iks ik /s iksfk/ 'crowded; insert in to ' t i g t i g / t i g t fg/ ' jerking and shaking' vs.' s igs ig /s igsfg/ "torch made of s p l i t bamboo' timtim /timtffm/ 'sufferance' vs.; simsim /simsfm/ ' taste ' t ingting / t i n t fn/ 'midrib of palm leaves' vs.* singsing /sinsfn/ ' r i ng ' tuktok /tukt<5k/ 'pate; knock' vs. suksok /suksSk/ ' insert in to ' tungtong /tun,t<5n/ 'cover for pots' vs. sungsong /sunsSn/ ' s a i l against the wind tutog /tiStog/ 'snuff, e .g . , c igars ' vs. susog /susog/ 'amendment' s/h sabsab /sabs&b/ 'voracious and noisy eating, as of a pig* vs. ! habhab /habhab/ 'attack by a dog or p ig ' 65 sadsad /sadsa'd/ 'anchored, grounded' vs.1 hadhad /hadhacl/ 'rub vigorously' sangsang /sai^sa^/ 'strong odor' vs. hanghang /hanharj/ 'peppery' sutsot /sutso*t / 'whistle vs.1 huthot /huthe*t/ 'sip, suck' ?/h i n i n / ? l n ? f n / 'leave (rice) on the f i r e a f t e r i t has been cooked' vs.' hinhin /hinhfn/ 'modesty' uirot /?ut?'3t/ 'keep or hold food i n the mouth without chewing i t ' vs.; huthot /huth6*t/ 'sipped, sucked' n/1 naknak /naknak/ 'swelling 1' vs.' laklak /lakla'k/ 'gulp' namnam /namnam/ 'taste, savor' vs.1 lamlam /lamlam/ ' f l i c k e r i n g l i g h t ' nawnaw /nawnaw/ 'to take root, as plants' vs. lawlaw /lawlaw/ 'dangling'' nugnog /nugnog/ 'nearness' vs. : luglog /luglog/ 'shake' nuynoy /nuynoy/ 'meditate' vs.' luyJLoy /l u y l o y / 'hanging loosely' w/y kawkaw /kawkaw/ ' s t i r r i n g l i q u i d with the hand* vs. kaykay /kaykay/ 'scratching of chicken' tawtaw /tawtaw/ 'touch the t i p , e.g., f i s h i n g rod' vs. taytay /taytay/ *a bamboo plank or bridge' wawa /wawa?/ 'mouth of a r i v e r ' vs. yaya /yaya?/ ' i n v i t a t i o n ' 66 Double contrasts also occur i n Tagalog words of three or more s y l l a b l e s , as i n the following examples: halakhak /halakhSk/ 'outburst of laughter' vs. halaghag /halaghag/ }• careless'-saluksok /saluksSk/ 'anything carried at the waist' vs.; salugsog /salugs<5g/ 'search, investigate' pagakpak /pagakpak/ 'flapping of wings' vs. tagaktak /tagakt^k/ 'downpour of perspiration' 1 palakpak /palakpa*k/ 'clap, applause' vs. talaktak /talaktak/ 'go through or across' pagatpat /pagatp^t/ 'a species of tree' vs. pagakpak /pagakpa*k/ 'flapping of wings' taluktok /talukt<5k/ 'top, summit' vs.' saluksok /saluksSk/ 'carried at the waist, e.g. bolo* taludtod /taludtocL/ 'row, f i l e ' vs.' saludsod /saluds6*d/ 'uproot grass with a blunt instrument' tagunton /tagunton/ 'inquire i n t o , investigate' vs. sagunson /sagunson/ 'hem i n ' tagimtim /tagimtfm/ 'go i n t o , seep' vs.1 sagimgim /sagimsifm/ 'premonition'; t a l i k t i k / t a l i k t f k / 'sonorous voice' vs. s a l i k s i k / s a l i k s f k / 'research' t i b a t i b /tiba"tib/ ' d i r t on the skin' vs. sibasib /sib£sib/ 'rush against v i o l e n t l y ' t i g a t i g / t igS t ig/ 'annoyance? excite to action' vs.1 s i g a s i g /sig£sig/ 'diligence' 67 t a r i t a r i / t a r i t a r i ? / ' s l a n d e r o u s g o s s i p ' v s . s a r i s a r i / s a r i s a r i ? / ' d i f f e r e n t k i n d s ' p a l a p a l a / p a l a p a l a h / ' p l a t f o r m ; i m p r o v i s e d canopy fitom b r a n c h e s ' v s . p a r a p a r a / p a r a p a r a h / ' e v e r y t h i n g , a l l ' h a l i m h i m / h a l i m h f m / 'brood, h a t c h ' v s . h a l i n h i n / h a l i n h f n / ' r e p l a c e , s u b s t i t u t e * h a l i n h i n / h a l i n h f n / ' r e p l a c e ' v s . h a l i n g h i n g / h a l i n h i n / 'neigh o f a h o r s e 1 kalawkaw /kalawkaw/ ' s t i r l i q u i d w i t h t h e hand' v s . k a l a y k a y / k a l a y k a y / ' r a k e ' butuhan /butuhah/ ' s k i n n y , bony' v s . botohan / b o t o h a h / ' e l e c t i o n ' Double t r a n s p o s e d c o n t r a s t s a r e v e r y common i n T a g a l o g words w i t h a r e d u p l i c a t e d c l o s e d s y l l a b l e . F o r i n s t a n c e , /b/ c o n t r a s t s w i t h / d / i n budbod /budbod/ ' s c a t t e r ' v s . dubdob /dubdob/ ' b l a z e ' . The i n i t i a l and f i n a l sounds of the r e d u p l i c a t e d s y l l a b l e i n -t e r c h a n g e — f o r m i n g a c o n t r a s t i n s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l and s y l l a b l e -f i n a l p o s i t i o n s . Examples of t h i s t y pe of c o n t r a s t s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g ; bakbak / b a k b l k / 'detached' v s . kabkab /kabkao/ 'scraped o f f b a l b a l / b a l b a l / ' s l a n g ' v s . l a b l a b / l a b l a o / ' v o r a c i o u s e a t i n g ' basbas / b a s b a s / ' b l e s s i n g ' v s . sabsab /sabsab/ ' n o i s y and v o r a c i o u s e a t i n g ' kapkap /kapkap/ ' f r i s k ' v s . pakpak /pakpalt/ 'wings' k i d k i d / k i d k i d / ' r o l l , r e e l ' v s . d i k d i k / d i k d i k / 'pounded, p u l v e r i z e d ' kubkob /kubk6b/ ' e n c i r c l e ' v s . bukbok /bukb6*k/ ' w e e v i l ' 68 scraped off* vs.< dukdok /dukdo"k/ 'pounded* isheltered* vs.' pukpok /pukpo*k/ 'beat} hammer' scrape' vs.i tuktok /tukt6k/ 'pate' pared o f f vs.i sadsad /sadsaa./ 'anchored': »chest' vs. bidbid /bidbfd/ ' r o l l , r e e l ' blaze' vs. budbod /budb6*d/ 'scatter ' worn sarna^on the head' vs. sudsod /sudsocl/ 'plow-wale* vsJ t i g t i g / t i g t fg/ ''jerking and shaking' untidiness' vs. sugsog /sugs'Sg 'search, disarranged, uncombed' vs.- tugtog /tugtog/ gulp' vs.i kalkal /kalkaU/ 'scrape' unfurled»' vs .i daldal /daldal/ 'talkativeness' f a l l en ' ' vs.' galgal /galgal/ 'stupid' : wallowing* vs.' bulbol /bulb'&L/ 'ha i r ' s i t t i ng on a nest'i vs.' pulpol /pulp&L/ 'blunt ' good remnants on the table ' vs.' simslm /simsfm/ taste J savor*' vs.' manman /manmah/ 'observe, kudkod /kudkSd/ kupkop /kupkop/ kutkot /kutkoV dasdas /dasd£s/ dibdib /dibdifb/ dubdob /dubd'Sb/ dusdos /dusdos/ _ share': g i t g i t /gitg£t/ gusgos /gusgSs/ investigate gutgot /gutg'St/ 'music'1 laklak / l a k l a V ladlad /ladled/ laglag /laglag/ lublob /lubl6"b/ luplop /luplop/ mismis /mismfs/ ' taste ' namnam /namnam/ spy on' nisnis /nisnis/ 'raveled' vs.' s ins in /sinsfn/ 'c lose, e.g.,weave' nutnot /nutnSt/ rub o f f 1 vs.* tunton /tuntoh/ 'follow* ngasngas /nasnas/ 'loud empty ta lk ing ' vs.1 sangsang /sansajj/ 'strong odor*! 69 ngatngat /n.atrja't/ 'gnaw' vs. tangtang /tantar}/ ' pu l l and jerk' ngawngaw /ijawnaw/ 'loud empty talk* vs.1 wangwang /wanwarj/ 'wide open*1 ngisngis /i j isqfs/ 'giggle* vs.1 singsing /sinsfn/ ' r i ng ' padpad /padpaa/ 'driven by waves* vs.* dapdap /dapdap/ 'a species of tree' pikpik /pikpfk/ 'pressed, compressed' vs. ; kipkip /kipkfp/ 'carry under the armpit' puspos /puspos/ 'thoroughly'^ vs.1 sups op /supsop/ ' s i p , suck' saksak /saks^k/ 'stab* vs.i kaskas /kaska"s/ 'scrape' sagsag /sagsag/ ' t r o t ' vs.1 gasgas /gasgas/ 'scratched' sapsap /sapsap/ ' a species of f i s h ' vs.' paspas /paspas/ 'dust o f f satsat /satsa*t/ 'chat' vs.1 tastas /tastes/ unstitched' s iks ik /s iksfk/ 'crowded' vs.' k i sk is /k iskfs/ 'rub against* suksok/suks6"k/ ' insert in to ' vs. kuskos /kuskos/ 'husk' s ipsip /sipsfp/ ' s i p , suck' vs.) pispis /pispfs/ 'remnants on the table after meal' tabtab /tabtab/ 'hewing' vs.1 batbat /batba"t/ 'covered, adorned' tagtag /tagtag/ 'unfastened1' vss gatgat /gatg&t/ 'notch' t i b t i b /tibtifb/ 'the end of sugar cane' vs. b i tb i t /b i tb f t / ' carry' 1 tustos / tusto**/ 'support, supply•> vs. sutsot /sutsoV 'whist le ' wakwak /wakw'^ k/ 'b ig or long tear or rend*' vs.' kawkaw /kawkaw/ ' s t i r , e.gs, l i q u i d ' yasyas /yasya*s/ 'scrape 1 ' vss saysay /saysay/ 'narration; value' 70 i e iwan /?fwan/ 'to leave (someone)1 vs. ewan /?ewan/ 'ignorance or denial of something' b i l a / b f l a h / ' s p l i t bamboo used as reenforcement * vs. bela /be*lah/ ' s a i l of a boat' b i l o / b f l o h / ' b a l l , r o l l ( f l o u r or r i c e ) ' vs. belo /he'loh/ ' v e i l ' b inta /bfntah/ 'Moro vi n t a or canoe' vs. benta /bentah/'sales' mina /mfnah/ 'mine' vs. Mena /menah/ 'a g i r l ' s name1 Misa /mfsah/ 'Mass' vs. mesa /m^sah/ 'table* s i l i / s f l i h / 'pepper' vs. Gely /se*lih/ 'a g i r l ' s name' Singson /sifrjson/ 'a family name' vs. Sengson /season/ 'another family name' t i l a /tjflah/ 'maybe, perhaps' vs. t e l a /t'elah/ 'cloth, f a b r i c 1 Tina /tfnah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' vs. tena /tenah/ ' l e t ' s go' t i n i s / t i f n i s / ' s h r i l l n e s s of voice' vs. tenis / t e n i s / 'tennis' i u bikas /bfkas/ 'figure, posture' vs. bukas /biikas/ 'tomorrow' b i k l a t / b i k l ^ t / 'disjoined, spread out' vs. buklat /bukl£t/ 'open' b i n i / b f n i h / 'modesty' vs. buni /bunih/ 'herpes' binyag /binyag/ 'baptism/ vs. bunyag /bunyag/ 'exposed, known' k i l a y / k f l a y / 'eyebrow' vs.' kulay /kiSlay/ 'color' k i l o Al io*?/ 'bent, crooked' vs. kulo /kul5?/ ' b o i l i n g ' k i r o t /kir6"t/ 'smart, stinging pain' vs. kurot /kurot/ 'pinch' d i l a / d f l a ? / 'tongue' vs. dula /diSla?/ 'play' 71 h i l a / h f l a h / ' p u l l ' vs.i hula /hu*lah/ 'hula dance' i k a /?ik5?/ 'limping' vs;< uka /?uka"?/ 'dug up, hollowed* i k i t / ? f k i t / 'turn' vs.; u k i t /?u*kit/ 'carving; groove' ihaw /?ifhaw/ 'roast' vs.1 uhaw /?uhaw/ ' t h i r s t ' i l a n / ? i l a h / 'how many' vs.' ulan /?ulah/ 'rain' i l a n g / ? i l a r j / 'wide open space, desolate place' vs.- ulang /?ularj/ 'lobster' l i k o t /lik6"t/ 'mischievousness' vs . i lukot /luko"t/ 'crumpled' l i g a s / l i g a s / 'a species of shrub*1 vs. lugas /lugas/ ' f a l l i n g o f f ligaw /lfgaw/ 'courtship' vs;' lugaw / lifgaw/ ' r i c e gruel' l i h a / l f h a ? / 'a section of f r u i t l i k e orange*1 vs.' luha /luha?/ 'tears' p i l a / p i l a h / 'chipped off (edges or corners) vs.. pula /pulah/ 'red' p i l a s / p i l a s / 'rent, ripped' vs.1 pulas /pulas/ 'escape' pison /pls6h/ 'steam r o l l e r ' vs. puson /pusoh/ 'hypogstftrium' p i s t a / p i s t a h / 'holiday, feastday*' vs.' pusta /pustah/ 'bet' p i t o /pftoh/ 'cigarette pipe' vs.1 puto /pu"toh/ *rice bun* siko /sikoh/ 'shove with the elbow': vs.' suko /sukoh/ 'up to the l i m i t of a distance*' siha /sfha?/ * s l i t of fingers*' vs . i suha /suha?/ 'a species of orange* s i l o n g /s-flon/ 'the space below the house*: vs.* sulong /siSion/ 'go ahead' sinok /sino"k/ 'hiccough' vs.! sunok /sunSk/ ' s u r f e i t ' t i b a / t i b S ? / 'to cut down (banana f r u i t ) *' vs.' tuba /tubS?/ 'an in t o x i c a t i n g drink from palms' 72 t i l i s / t i l l s / 'lye* vs. t u l i s / t u l f s / 'pointed' tingga /tirjg£?/ 'lead (metal)' vs. tungga /tungS?/ 'drink, gulp' t i p i / t i p f ? / ''well-compressed' vs. tupi /tupf?/ ' f o l d , folded' t i b o /tfbo?/ 'prick, thorn' vs. tubo /tubo?/ 'growth; p r o f i t 1 e o bela /be*lah/ ' s a i l of a boat' vs. bola /bolah/ ' b a l l ' beses /be'ses/ 'number of times' vs. boses /b<5ses/ 'voice' bote /bSteh/ 'bottle' vs. boto /b5toh/ 'vote' Eden /?eden/ 'Eden, Paradise* vs. Edon _/?ed:6n/ 'a boy's name' gera /ge*rah/ 'war' vs. gora /g6*rah/ 'cap 1 peste /pesteh/ 'pest', epidemic' vs. poste /posteh/ 'post, p i l l a r ' renda /re*ndah/ 'rein' vs. ronda /r5ndah/ 'night p a t r o l ' reseta /res&tah/ 'doctor's prescriptions' vs. Roseta /rose'tah/ ' a g i r l ' s name' vi o bubo /bilboh/ 'a basket-like contraption used f o r trapping f i ^ s h or shrimps' vs. bobo /b<5boh/ 'stupid, d u l l ' bukal /bukal/ 'water spring' vs. bokal /bok£l/ 'a member of a p r o v i n c i a l governing body' buhol /buhSl/ 'knot' vs. Bohol /hohSl/ 'Bohol c i t y ' buling / b i l l i n / 'smut, smudge' vs. holing / b o l i n / 'bowling' butas /butas/ 'hole' vs. botas /b5tas/ 'boots' kura /kiSrah/ 'priest, clergy' vs. Cora /k5rah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' muna /milnah/ 'beforehand' vs. Mona /monah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' mura /murah/ 'cheap' vs. Mora /mSrah/ 'a Moslem g i r l ' uso /?u*soh/ 'fashion, vogue' vs. oso /7'6'soh/ 'bear' 73 The completely minimal pairs of words distinguished by /d/ vs/ / r / , /!/ vs.' /e/ and /u/ vs.' /o/ contrasts ( h i s t o r i c a l l y allophonic) are but few.*! However, there are many Tagalog words close to minimal contrasts. 1 The following i s a sample l i s t i n g of these near-minimal contrasts: d/r daga /dagah/ 'dagger1' vs.1 raha /rahah/ 'frajah'f danyos /dahyos/ 'damaged vs.* rayos /rayos/ 'ispoke of a wheel* datal /data!/ * a r r i v a l *i vs.( ratan /ratah/ 'rattan' daya /daya?/ 'deceit, fraud' vs;i raya /rayah/ 'linemark' dayaml /daya*mih/ 'straw' vsJ rayuma /rayu*mah/ 'rheumatism*-d i d a l / d i d a l / 'thimble'' vs.' r i b a l / r i b a l / ' r i v a l ' dipa /dipah/ 'sideward extension of the arms' vs.' r i p a /r£pah/ 'lottery*! dulo /dtiloh/ ''end', vs.* rolyo /r6*lyoh/ ' r o l l ' 1 dusa /diSsah/ 'sorrow, suffering'* vs.i Rosa /rosah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' i/ e arina /?ar;fnah/ ' f l o u r ' vs.' reyna /re*ynah/ 'queen, muse* a t i s /?a!tis/ 'a species of fruit's vs.* ate /T&teh/ 'elder s i s t e r ' 1 bikas /bfkas/ 'posture, b u i l t ' vs.'i pekas /pgkas/ 'freckles' b i k t i / b i k t l h / ' k i l l by hanging' vs.1 berde /berdeh/ 'green*: bihon /bfhon/ 'a kind of noodle' vs. beho /behoh/ 'old, aged* b i l i n / b f l i n / ''order; advice before leaving'' vs.1 Belen /beleh/ 'a g i r l ' s name'1 k i t a /kftah/ 'earning' 1 vsi' ketong /ke*ton/ 'leprosy' klima /klfmah/ ''climate' vs.i krema /kremah/ 'cream' 74 kundi /kundf?/ 'but, except' vs. konde /kondeh/ 'count' giray /gfray/ 'swaying movement' vs. gera /gerah/ 'war' h i b i / h f b i h / 'dried shrimps' vs. hepe /hepeh/ 'chief, boss' h i l i / h f l i ? / 'envy' vs. hele /he*leh/ 'cradle songs, l u l l a b y ' hintay /hintay/ 'wait' vs. Tentay /tentay/ 'a woman's name' hi t o /hfto?/ 'a kind of f i s h ' vs.1 heto /he*toh/ 'here i t i s ' i h i / ? f h i ? / 'urine* vs. ehe /?ebeh/ 'axle' Linda /lfndah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' vs.' renda /rendah/ 'rein' l i n t i k / l i n t f k / 'lightning' vs. lente / l l n t e h / ' f l a s h l i g h t ' l i i t / l i ? f t / 'smallness' vs. leeg / l e ? l g / 'neck' nina /ninab./ 'of them, by them' vs. Nena /nenah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' p i k i t / p f k i t / 'close the eyes' vs. t i k e t / t f k e t / ' t i c k e t ' piho /pfhoh/ 'certain, sure' vs. pero /pe*roh/ 'but' p i l a / p f l a h / ' l i n e , queue' vs. pera /pe*rah/ 'money' p i l a s / p f l a s / .'tear, rend' vs. peras /peras/ 'pear' p i p i /pifpih/ 'mute and dumb' vs. Pepe /plpeh/ 'a boy's name' pi s a /pis£?/ 'hatched; crushed' vs. pesa /pe"sa?/ *a kind of native dish' p i s t a /pistab./ 'feast, holiday' vs. peste /pe'steh/ 'pest' s i l a / s i l a b / 'they' vs. Sela /s&Lah/ 'a woman's name' s i l o / s f l o ? / 'trap, snare' vs. Selo /seUoh/ 'a man's name' s i l y a / s i l y a b / 'chair' vs. selyo /se*lyoh/ 'stamp' tinda /tindab/ 'goods f o r sale' vs. benda /b'endah/ 'bandage' u/o blusa /bliSsah/ 'blouse' vs. bloke /blokeh/ 'block' bruha /bruhah/ 'witch' vs. brotsa /br'6tsah/ ' painter's brush' 75 bubo /bilbo?/ 'cast, smelt' vs.' bobo /boboh/ 'stupid, d u l l ' bukal /buka"!/ 'water spring' vs.' l o k a l / l o k S l / ' l o c a l * bula /bvilS9/ 'bubble* vs. bola /bolah/ 'ball*-buno /bun'<5?/ 'wrestling' vs.i bono /b5noh/ 'bond' buntal /bunt£l/ ' f i s t c u f f s ' vs.' mortal /mortal/ 'mortal' butl /bu*tih/ 'goodness' vs."1 bote /boteh/ 'bottle' buto /butob/ ''bone; seed' vs. boto /bo'toh/ 'vote 1' kula /kulab/ 'bleach clothes under the sun' vs.i kola /k&Lah/ ''glue, paste' kundi /kundif?/ 'but, except' vs.i konde /kdndeh/ "count' kupya /kupy£?/ 'icircumflex accent mark' vs.) kopya /kopyah/ 'copy' kura /kitrah/ ' p r i e s t , clergy' vs.* gora /g<5rah/ 'cap 1 , kuro /kuro?/ 'opinion' vs.' koro /k&roh/ "choir* kurso /kursoh/ 'diarrhea' vs. kotso /kotsSh/ 'cork-soled s l i p p e r s ' kurtina /kurtifnah/ ''curtain' vs.' morpina /morpifnah/ 'morphine' kuta /ku*ta?/ ' f o r t ' vs.' kota /k&tah/ 'quota' kutson/kuts6n/ "cushion' vs.1 kotse /ko'tseh/ 'car'' gulpe /gulpeb/ 'blow, strike's vs^ torpe /to/peh/ 'stupid' gumon /gumon/ 'addicted; r o l l i n g ' vss goma /gomah/ 'rubber' guro /guro?/ 'teacher" vss gora /g6"rah/ 'cap' lukot /ltfkot/ "crumple*! vss loko /lokoh/ "crazy, f o o l ' lumot /ltfmot/ 'moss" vs.' lomo /lomoh/ ' l o i n ' luoy /lu?'6y/ 'withered' vs.' look /lo?6*k/ "bay" l u r a /lura*?/ "sputum" vs.1 l o r o /loroh/ 'parrot' lusak /lttsak/ 'mire, mud' vs. l o s a /losah/ "porcelain (plate)' l u t o /Itfto?/ 'cooked' vs.; l o t e /l '6teh/ ' l o t ' muna /mtfnah/ 'beforehand' vs.' moda /m'Sdah/ 'fashion, vogue" 76 mundo /mundoh/ 'world* vs.' modo /mo'doh/ 'manners' pulot /pulo*t/ 'honey'* vs.- poot /po?<5t/ 'hate' puri /ptfirih/ 'praise, honor' vs.' tore /t'oreh/ 'tower' puso /pftso?/ 'heart' vs.1 poso /posoh/ 'artesian well*: putal /putctl/ 'amount i n excess of round numbers' vs.! t o t a l /tot£1/ ' t o t a l ' suno /suho?/ ' l i v e with a person or family' vs.- sona /sohah/ •zone* suob /su?6b/ 'fumigation' vs.' loob /lo?5b/ 'inside, i n t e r i o r ' tumba /tumbah/ ' f a l l e n down'1 vs . i bomba /b&mbah/ 'bomb'1 tuna /tuhah/ 'tuna f i s h ' vs.1 tono /tohoh/ 'tone, tune' tunay /tuhay/ ' r e a l , true' vs.* Tonang /tonan/ 'a woman's name'-tupa /tiSpah/ 'sheep' vs. toga /to'gah/ 'cap and gown'1 upa /?u*pah/ 'rent' vs.' kopa /kopah/ 'wine cup' upak /?upak/ 'sheath of banana plant' vs.' opal /?opal/ 'opal' upo /?u*poh/ 'gourd' vs.' opo /?6po?/ 'yes, s i r ' upong /?iSpon/ 'at the point o f vs.' Opon /?'opon/ 'a town i n Cebu Ci t y ' 77 The following sample l i s t i n g i l l u s t r a t e s the five-way contrast of Tagalog vowels: / i / vs.' /e/ vs. /u/ vs. /o/ vs.' a t i s /?£ttis/ f a species of tree and i t s f r u i t * ate /l&teh/ * elder s i s t e r * a t u b i l l / ? a t u b f l i h / 'hesitance' atole /?at6leh/ 'flour gruel* 1 atas /?5tas/ 'order, command' bikas /bfkas/ 'posture, b u i l t ' pekas /pSkas/ 'freckles' bukas /btfkas/ 'tomorrow'1 bokal /boka"l/ 'a member of a p r o v i n c i a l governing body* bakas /ba*kas/ ' f i n a n c i a l partnership i n gambling' bikat /hfkat/ 'large scar' beki /be*ki?/ 'mumps'' bukal /buka"!/ 'water spring* bokal /boka*l/ 'a member of a p r o v i n c i a l governing body' bakal /bak'Sl/ 'planting r i c e on upland' 1 78 biko /bfkoh/ 'a kind of r i c e cake 1 beho /b'ehoh/ 'old, aged* bubo /bilbo?/ "cast, smelt* bobo /b6*boh/ 'stupid, d u l l * baho /bahoh/ 'bass (tone or voice)' B i k o l / b f k o l / 'Bicol region* beki /be*ki?/ *mumps' bukol /bilkol/ ' b o i l , swelling' Bohol /bohSl/ 'Bohol c i t y ' bakol /b5kol/ 'large basket* bihon /bfhon/ 'a kind of noodle' beho /b'e*hoh/ 'old, aged* buhol /buho*l/ 'knot' Bohol /bohol/ 'Bohol c i t y ' baho /baho?/ 'disagreeable odor' b i l a / b f l a h / ' s p l i t bamboo used as reenforcement* bela /be*lah/ ' s a i l of a boat' bula /btfla?/ ' l i e , falsehood' bola /b&Lah/ ' b a l l ' bala /b&lah/ 'b u l l e t ' b i l i h a n / b i l f h a n / 'to buy from' betohin /betohin/ 'to veto' butuhan /butuhah/ 'skinny, bony': botohan /botohah/ 'election* batuhan /batuhah/ 'stony place' 79 b i l i n / b f l i n / 'order; advice before leaving' Bel en /bel'en/ 'a g i r l ' s name* buling /biSlin/ 'smut, smudge' boling / b o l i n / 'bowling* baling / b a l l n / 'turn, i n c l i n a t i o n ' bino (de kina) /bfnoh/ 'a kind of wine' Benus /benus/ 'Venus' buno /bun<5?/ 'wrestling' bono /bonoh/ 'bond' banyo /babyoh/ 'bathroom* b i t i n / b f t i n / 'hang*' Betty /be*tih/ *a g i r l * s name' buti /btftih/ bote /b5teh/ bati /batfh/ Bito /bftoh/ beto /bStoh/ buto /but 6b/ boto /b'Stoh/ bato /bat'<5h/ goodness' b o t t l e ' s t i r , beat'-'a man's name*1 veto' bone; seed* vote*' 'stone; kidney' bigada /brig'aaah/ * brigade*-Bretanya /bretanyah/ ' B r i t a i n 1 , bruha /brtfhah/ 'witch' brotsa /bro'tsah/ 'painter's brush' braso /br&soh/ 'arm' 80 k i l o / k f l o h / keso /kesoh/ kula /kulah/ kola / k 6 l a h / kala /kUlah/ k i l o /kilo"?/ belo /b&Loh/ kulo /kul<5?/ kola /k 6*1 ah/ kalo /kale*?/ k i l o ' cheese* bleach* 1 glue, paste*; tortoise' 1 'crooked, curved • v e i l ' ' b o i l i n g ' glue, paste' pulley' kinding /kindfn/ 'affected gait'' kendi /kehdlh/ 'candy' kundi /kundif?/ 'but, except 1 , konde /kohdeh/ 'count'' kandila /kandfla?/ 'candle' k i s a /kfsa?/'• cereals mixed with r i c e ' kesa /ke"sah/ 'than' kura /ktfrah/ ' p r i e s t , clergy' 1 Cora /k'Srah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' kara /karah/ 'head side of the coin' k i t a /k£tah/ ' v i s i b l e from a distance' ketong /ke"ton/ 'leprosy*' kuta /ktfta?/ ' f o r t * kota /ko*tah/ 'quota* kata /katah/ 'we (dual)« 81 i h i / ? f h i ? / 'urine' ehe /?e*heh/ 'axle' uha /?uh'^?/ 'cry of a new-born babe oho /?6ho?/ 'yes (less formal)' ahon /?ahon/ 'to land, ascend' i p a /?ipah/ ' c h a f f epiko /?epik6h/ 'epic' upa /?upah/ 'rent, pay' kopa /kopah/ 'wine cup' apa /?apah/ 'wafer' i p i l / ? f p i l / 'a species of tree' epiko /?epik6h/ 'epic' upa /?u*pah/ 'rent, pay' opal /?opal/ 'opal' apaw /?apaw/ 'overflowing' i s a /?isah/ 'one' ESSO /?e*soh/ 'ESSO gas' usa /?usah/ 'deer' oso /?6soh/ 'bear' asa /?asah/ 'hope' giray /gfray/ 'stagger, t o t t e r ' gera /gerah/ 'war' guro /guro?/ 'teacher' gora /gorah/ 'cap' gara /gara?/ 'beautiful, splendid' 82 h i b i / b f b i h / 'dried shrimps' hepe /hepeh/ 'chief, boss* hupa /hupa"?/ 'appeasement, mitigation' hopya /hopya"?/ 'a kind of Chinese bun' habi /habih/ 'weave* h i l i k / h i l f k / * snore* hele /he*leh/ ' l u l l a b y ' h u l i / h t f l i h / 'catch' honda /hondah/ 'Honda bike' h a l i k / h a l f k / 'kiss' hipon /hfpon/ 'shrimp' hepe /he*peh/ 'chief, boss' upong /fiSpon/ 'at the point of ' Opon /?6pon/ »a town In Cebu'i hapon /hapon/ 'afternoon' l i b o /Ifboh/ 'thousand' leon /le?on/ ' l i o n * lubo /lub5?/ 'depression i n the ground' lobo /l'Sboh/ 'balloon' labo /labo?/ 'indistinctness; t u r b i d i t y ' l i k o t /lik'St/ 'movement' l e g a l / l e g a l / 'lawful, l e g a l ' lukot /luk<5t/ 'crumpled' loko /l6"koh/ 'crazy, f o o l ' lako /l£ko?/ 'goods being sold around' 83 l i i t / l i ? f t / 'smallness, l i t t l e n e s s * leeg /le?£g/ 'neck' luoy /lu?6y/ 'withered' look /lo ?oV 'bay' laon /la?6n/ 'old' limot /ifmot/ 'forget* lente /lenteh/ ' f l a s h l i g h t * lumot /liJmot/ 'moss* lomo /lomoh/- ' l o i n ' lamo /lamoh/ ' r a f t ' Lina / l f n a h / *a g i r l ' s name* Nena /nenah/ *a g i r l ' s name' Luna /lunah/ 'a family name' La Loma / l a lomah/ 'La Loma Cemetery' lana /lanah/ 'wool' Linda /lfndah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' ronda /rohdah/ 'night p a t r o l ' lundag /lundag/ 'jump' landas /landa's/ 'path, way' l i n t i k / l i n t f k / 'lightning' lente /lenteh/ ' f l a s h l i g h t ' l u n t i / l u n t f ? / 'green' lomo /lomoh/ ' l o i n ' l a n t i k / l a n t f k / 'bend, curve' renda /rendah/ 1 r e i n ' 8k l i r a / i f r a h / ' l y r e 1 l e t r a /l&trah/ • l e t t e r * l u r a /lura^?/ 'sputum* l o r o /loroh/ 'parrot' Lara / l a r a h / 'a g i r l ' s name1 L i s a / l f s a h / 'a g i r l ' s name' l e t s e (kondensada) /le*tseh/ 'milk (condensed)' lusak /ltfsak/ 'mire, mud' lo s a /l'osah/ 'porcelain (plate)' l a s a /lasah/ 'taste' l i t i d / l f t i d / 'ligament' Letty /re*tih/ *a g i r l ' s name' l u n t i / l u n t f ? / 'green' l o t e /l6*teh/ l a t i / l & t i ? / mina /mfnah/ Mena /mehah/ muna /muhah/ Mona /mohah/ mana /mahah/ nina /ninah/ Nena /nehah/ nuno /nuho?/ l o t ' •marsh' mine' •a woman's name' beforehand' a g i r l ' s name' inheritance' of them, by them' a g i r l ' s name' forefather' nonong /nohon/ 'a boy' Nano /naho?/ 'a man's name' 85 ngingi / n f n i ? / 'the angle between fingers or toes' nene /nine?/ ' l i t t l e g i r l ' nguso/fylso?/ 'upper l i p ' ngongo /n8nol/ 'speaking with a nasal twang' nganga /n&na?/ 'prepared buyo' p i l a / p f l a h / ' l i n e , queue' pera /pe*rah/ 'money' pula /pulah/ 'red' Pola /polah/ *a town i n Mindoro' pala /pSlah/ 'shovel' p i l a s / p f l a s / 'tear, rend' peras /pe*ras/ 'pear' pulas /pulas/ 'escape' posas /posas/ 'manacle, handcuff* pasas /pasas/ ' r a i s i n * p i l o k / p i l o V 'twisted foot' peluka /peltfkah/ 'wig* pulot /pul<5t/ 'honey' poot /po?o*t/ 'hate, hatred' palot /palot/ 'odor of urine' p i p i / p f p i h / 'mute, dumb' Pepe /pepeh/ 'a boy's name' puri / p i i r i h / 'praise; honor' pobre /p6*breh/ 'poor' pare /pareh/ 'vocative word used i n addressing a man' 86 p i s a /pisa*?/ 'hatched; crushed' pesa /pe*sa?/ 'a kind of native dish' pusa /ptfsa?/ 'cat' posas /p6sas/ 'manacle, handcuff pasas /pa*sas/ ' r a i s i n ' piso /pfsoh/ 'peso' pero /pe*roh/ 'but' puro /ptfroh/ 'pure' Poro (Poro Point) /poroh/ 'name of a place' paros /paros/ 'a species of clam* p i s t a / p i s t a h / 'feast, holiday* peste /pesteh/ 'pest' pusta /pustah/ 'bet' poste /p'6"steh/ 'post' pasta /pastah/ ' f i l l i n g (dental)' s i l a / s i l a h / 'they' Sela /se*lah/ 'a woman's name* sulo /sulo*1?/ * torch* solo /s6*loh/ 'solo' s a l a /s£lah/ ' s i n , f a u l t ' s i l i / s f l i h / 'pepper' Cely /s'e*lih/ 'a g i r l ' s name' s u l i t / s t f l i t / 'an accounting o f Sol l y / s o l i h / 'a g i r l ' s name' Sa l l y / s a l i h / 'a g i r l ' s name' 87 s i l y a / s i l y a b / 'chair 1 selyo /se*lyoh/ 'stamp' sulyap /'sulyap/ 'side glance' sodyo /socLyoh/ 'sodium' salya /salyah/ 'throw away' sina /slnSh/ 'person marker (pi.) senso /sensoh/ 'census' suno /suno?/ ' l i v e with a person or family sona /s6*nah/ 'zone' sana /sanah/ 'expression of desire or hope t i l o s / t f l o s / 'pointed' telon / t e l 6 n / 'curtain, screen' tulong / t i l l 0 1 3 / 'help, aid'* toro /toroh/ ' b u l l ' talon / t a l o n / 'waterfall' Tina /tfnah/ ''a g i r l ' s name'; tena /tenah/ ' l e t ' s go* tuna /tunah/ 'tuna f i s h ' tono /to*noh/ 'tone, tune' tanan /tanan/ 'elope* tinda /tindab/ * goods f o r sale' 1 benda /bendah/ 'bandage' punda /pundah/ 'pillowcase' Tondo /tondoh/ 'a d i s t r i c t i n Manila' banda /bandah/ 'band, orchestra' 88 t i n i s / t f n i s / ' s h r i l l n e s s of v o i c e 1 tenis / t e n i s / 'tennis' tunis / t u n i s / ' l a r d ' tono /tohoh/ 'tone, tune' tangis / t a r j i s / 'weep' t i r a / t f r a h / 'go ahead and act' t e l a / t e l a h / ' f a b r i c , cloth«« turo/ turo?/ 'in s t r u c t i o n ' toro /toroh/ ' b u l l ' taro /taroh/ 'chinese jar' 1 Besides the preceding pairs of utterances, there i s a number of native and loan words which have / r / , never /d/, /e/, never / i / , and /o/, never /u/. The following i s but a short sample l i s t i n g : /d/ remains /d/, never / r / even i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n i n the following native words: kadakilaan 'greatness' < d a k i l a /dakifla?/ 'great'; kadahilanan 'cause' < d a h l l /dah.il/ 'because'; kadalagahan 'unmarried woman i n general' < dalaga /dalagah/ 'un-married woman'; kadalamhatlan 'extreme sorrow' < dalamhatl /dalam-ha*ti?/ ' a f f l i c t i o n , sorrow 1; kadamdamin 'of the same fe e l i n g s ' < damdam /damdam/ ' f e e l ' ; kadunguan 'timidity' < dungo /dung'©'?/ 'timid'; ipadala 'he sent" < dala /dalah./ 'carry, bring'; ymadadala 'can be c a r r i e d ' < dala /dalah./ 'carry' 1; madala 'to learn by un-pleasant experience' < dala /dal£?/ 'unpleasant experience learned*; madaig »to be surpassed* < daig /da?£g/ "surpassed'; madama "to f e e l , to touch'1 < dama /damiab./ ' f e e l , touch'J madalas 'frequent, 89 often' < dalas /dalas/ 'frequency'; madaldal 'talkative' < daldal / d a l d a l / 'talkativeness'; madilim 'dark' < d i l i m / d i l f m / 'dark-ness'; madulas 'slippery*; < dulas / d u l l s / *slipperiness'; padabug-dabog 'obeying i n a reluctant or angry manner, accompanied by stamping of the feet' < dabog /daoog/ 'the act of obeying i n such a manner', etc.* Always /e/ never / i / s beses /be*ses/ 'number of times' ; keso /k&soh/ 'cheese', dwende /dwendeh/ 'dwarf'1, ebanghelyo /?ebanhe*lyoh/ ' e p i s t l e ' , eksema /?ekse*mah/ 'eczema', ekstra /?e"kstrah/ 'extra', edad /?edact/ ''age', editor /?5ditor/ 'editor*, ehe /?eheh/ 'axle', ehersisyo /?ehers£syoh/ 'exercise' 1, elektor /?elekt6*r/ 'elector', eleksiyon /?eleksy6h/ 'election', elegante /?eleganteh/ 'elegant', e l i s e / ? e l i s e h / 'screw propeller', emperador /?emperad5r/ 'emperor', Enero /?eneroh/ 'January', epiko /?e"pikoh/ 'epic', eter /?e*ter/ 'ether' 1, e t i k e t a /?etik£tah/»label*, gera /g'e*rah/ 'war*, helehele /he*Lfehe*leh/ 'pretension of d i s l i k e ' , nene /nene?/ ' l i t t l e g i r l ' , palengke /pale*nkeh/ 'market', Pebrero /pebre*roh/ 'February*, preno /prehoh/ 'brake' , puwede /pwe*deh/ 'possible*, rebelde /reb&Ldeh/ ' r e b e l l i o u s 1 , remedyo /remedyoh/ 'remedy', sernestre /seme*streh/ 'semester*, sesenta /sese*ntah/ ''seventy*, siyete /siye*teh/ 'seven', sorbetes / s o r b i t e s / 'ice cream', sweldo /sweldoh/ 'salary', tren / t r e n / ' t r a i n ' , trese /tr'eseh/* t h i r t e e n ' , tsek /feek/ 'check', tseke /tse*keh/ 'cheCque', tses / t s e s / 'chess', yero /ye"roh/ 'galvanized iron*', etc.-90 Always /of never /u/ : bakoko /bak<5koh/ 'a species of f i s h * , bobo /bSboh/ 'dull;stupid*:, bola /b&Lah/ ' b a l l * , boses /b6ses/ 'voice*, boto /b6*toh/ 'vote', katoto /kat5toh/ 'companion, f r i e n d ' , kodigo /ko'digo'h/ 'code*, loko /l5koh/ 'crazy', l o l a /1'Slah/ 'grandmother', l o l o /16"loh/ 'grandfather', l o r o /loro h / 'parrot', nota /no'tah/ 'note', 0 Ji /?oh/ ' i n t e r j e c t i o n OhJi', obaryo /?obaryoh/ 'ovary', obispo /fobfspoh/ 'bishop 1, oho /?<5ho?/ 'yes (less formal)', onsa /?'6nsah/ 'ounce", opera /?6perah/ "opersi, operasyon /?operasy6n/ 'operation*', opo /?6po?/ 'yes (formal)', Opon /?6*pon/ "a town i n Cebu', optiko /?c5jfcikoh/ 'optician', orador /?orador/ 'orator", oras /?oras/ "hour, time', orasyon /?orasy ;6n/ 'angelus';, o r b i t /?6rbit/ ,!orbit», oregano /?or'^ganoh/ 'a species of herb', osana /?osanah/ 'hosanna', oso /?osoh/ 'bear', o s p i t a l / ? o s p i t ^ l / 'hospital', otso /?6tsoh/ 'eight', polo /p^loh/ "polo s h i r t ' , polyeto /polye*toh/ 'leaflet';, poso /posoh/ "artesian well'?, posporo /po*sporSh/ 'match', solo /soloh/ 'solo', soneto /sone'toh/ "sonnet*, tono /tonoh/ 'tone*, yodo /yoaoh/ 'iodine', yoyo /y6yoh/ ,<a kind of toy', etc. I t should be noted that /of occurs i n a number of native words as the vowel i n the l a s t two s y l l a b l e s with an intervening non-distinctive g l o t t a l stop which prevents a hiatus. Examples are bagoong /bago?6n/ "salted and pickled f i s h ' , Bakood /bako?'6a/ 'a town i n Bulacan', ginoo /gino?6b/ 'gentleman*', loob /lo?6b/ 'inside', noo /no?oh/ "forehead", oo /?6*?oh/ 'yes', noon /no?3n/ •that time", doon /do?6n/ 'there', pook /po?6"k/ 'place', poot /po?<5t/ 'hate'-, totoo /toto?'6b/ 'true', etc.' The sound /e/ occurs i n the same way, as i n leeg /le?e*g/ 'neck's 91 9 . 2 V a r i a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n E a r l i e r i n the chapter mention has been made of. the c r i t e r i a involved i n c l a s s i f y i n g speech sounds, namely, d i s t r i b u t i o n , s i m i l a r i t y and i d e n t i t y of function. 1 Points of contrast i n the pattern of Tagalog and the re l a t i o n s between them have been iden t i f i e d . ' The c l a s s i f l c a t o r y process also involves subsuming certain sounds under the heading of a given phoneme; such sounds are c a l l e d " p o s i t i o n a l variants" of the phoneme, because they vary according to the po s i t i o n i n which they occur.1 For instance, the Tagalog sound [k] i s one phone which i s found i n a l l positions except between vowels, as i n kubo [*ku:boh~| 'hut 1, bundok [bUn*do:k] 'mountain 1, bukbok [bUk'bo:k] 'weevil*; and the voice-less v e l a r f r i c a t i v e sound [x] i s another phone which occurs only between vowels, as i n palaka [pala'xa:?] 'frog', kuko [kU'xo:h] 'finger n a i l ' , pako ['pa.xo?] 'nail'.; These two phones [k] and [x] function i n Tagalog as one u n i t , a single phoneme, which i s transcribed as /k/ wherever i t occurs.' In phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , the words given above would be written respective-l y as /ktfboh/, /bund6*k/, and /bukb<5k/, and /palaka"?/, /kukoh/ and /pa*ko?/.i Thus, i n the cases described, the Tagalog phoneme /k/ has two p o s i t i o n a l variants, [x] when i t occurs i n i n t e r -v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , and [ k j elsewhere;5 Some l i n g u i s t s use the term "allophone" to r e f e r to sounds subsumed under functional units i n th i s way.1 I t i s derived from the p r e f i x a l i o - plus phone. forming the term allophone which means 'sound which functions as a member of a phoneme ^ '-^ Every ^ H a l l , o£.' c i t . , p.' 2 6 92 phoneme has at l e a s t one allophone and some have two or more.1 The Tagalog sounds [k] and [x] under discussion are allophones of the phoneme which i s transcribed as /k/. In c l a s s i f y i n g speech sounds l i n g u i s t s have established the p r i n c i p l e that sounds are grouped in t o phonemes i n terms of t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n , as well as i n terms of phonetic s i m i l a r i t i e s or differences. 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n refers to the condition under which the two allophones occur, that i s , the pos i t i o n i n which they are found with respect to each other and to other sounds.' I t has been said e a r l i e r that i f two elements occur i n the same environment,* with d i f f e r e n t function, they are said to be i n contrast with each other. Thus, i n Tagalog, the sounds /k/ and /g/ occur i n the same environment, e.'g.!, i n w o r d - i n i t i a l p o s i -t i o n , as i n /killay/ 'color' vs.' /gitlay/ 'vegetable'.' They are i n contrast!ve d i s t r i b u t i o n and hence cannot belong to the same phoneme.1 On occasions, however, two or more sounds i n Tagalog occur i n the same environment but they are not i n contrast with each others In such instances, the sounds are said to be i n non-contrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n L i n g u i s t s consider a noncontrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n one of the prerequisites f o r c l a s s i f y i n g sounds as members of the same phoneme;? I f one sound occurs where the other never does, and vice versa, so that they complement each other, they are said to be i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , as i n *The environment or p o s i t i o n of an element consists of the neighborhood, within an utterance, of elements which have been set up on the basis of the same fundamental procedures, which were used i n s e t t i n g up the element i n question; neighborhood refers to the p o s i t i o n of elements before, a f t e r , and simultaneous with the elements i n question (Harris, p.- 15).< 93 the case of [k] and [x] described earlier;- Another example of complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n i s the case of Tagalog [ i ] which occurs only under stress as i n b i l o g [*bi:log] * c i r c l e , round-ness' 1 and [ i ] which occurs i n weakly stressed s y l l a b l e s , as i n b i l o g [bI'lo:g] ' c i r c u l a r , round'1.' Often, however, Tagalog sounds occur neither i n contrastlve nor i n complementary distribution.! They alternate f r e e l y with each other, as do the sounds [o] and i n a l l positions, as i n noon [no '?o:n] or [no'?o:n] 'at that tlime':, and buhok [bU»ho:k] or [bU'h:?:k] 'hair'v Such sounds are said to be i n free v a r i a t i o n (free a l t e r n a t i o n ) , and of noncontrastive rather than complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n . 1 [o] and [:>] are said to be free variants since they occur i n i d e n t i c a l environment without producing a difference i n meaning;! In other words, they are f r e e l y substitutable f o r each other without change i n meaning^ The c r i t e r i o n of s i m i l a r i t y applies to physical resemblance i n phonetic features ; i Thus Tagalog [ i ] and [ i ] have In common the f a c t that they are both high-front-unrounded vowels They have i d e n t i t y of function i n the f a c t that they both serve as allophones of the same phoneme 94 9.'2.1 Allophonic Alternation of Consonants Some Tagalog phonemes have only one allophone and others have two or more.' /k/, f o r instance, has [x] as an allophone i n i n t e r v o c a l i c position.' [x] has a velar a r t i c u l a t i o n and i t i s never fronted even between front vowels. I t i s especially f a r hack between back or low vowels or any combination of them, as i n loko L'lojxoh] 'crazy', suko ['su:xo?J 'surrender', pako ['pa:xo?3 ' n a i l ' , malakas [mala'xa:s]j 'strong', etc. The a l l o -phone [k~| occurs elsewhere, as i n kagat [ka'ga:t] 'bite', kapkap [kap'ka:p] ' f r i s k ' , pakpak [pak'pa:k] 'wing', etc. In Tagalog, the [?] allophone of the f u l l g l o t t a l stop /?/ occurs i n i t i a l l y , medially and f i n a l l y , varying i n rapid speech with any p a r t i a l g l o t t a l s t r i c t u r e , as i n irap ['?i:rap] 'sullen look', i t i k [»?i:tlk] 'duck', naa [pa'?a:h] 'feet', p a i t [pa'?i:t ' c h i s e l ' , baga ['ba:ga?] 'lung', maaari [ma'?a:•?a:rl?] 'possible [?] varies f r e e l y with [0] (potential g l o t t a l stop) p r e v o c a l i c a l -ly. 1 I t does not contrast with absence of i t s e l f before vowels.' Tagalog / s / has an [s] allophone occurring i n a l l positions, e.g.;, sasama ['sa: • sa:mah] ' w i l l go', s i k s i k [ s l k ' s i s k ] ' f u l l , crowded', musmos [mUs'mo:s] 'innocent'., and a p a l a t a l i z e d * [|] occurring before /y/, a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e English / s / but with l i p -spreading, e.g., s i y a [^ya:h] 'he, she', siyam [sya:m] 'nine', siyampo [^ya:mpoh] ''shampoo', syuting ['^yu:tln] 'shooting, •^Palatalization i s represented here by the mark ( 3 ) under the p a l a t a l i z e d consonants 95 grasya [ ,gra:|yah] 'grace 1. This allophone also occurs i n c l u s t e r with / t / which i s very close to English /<£/, esgS, ts a [tsa:h] 'tea', la n t s a [lan't'^a;h] 'launch', plantsa [plan't|a:h] ' f l a t i r o n ' , tsaperon ['tgasper'rosn] 'chaperone', I n t s i k [?In't|i : k3 'Chinese'.' There i s no voiced allophone of / s / i n any p o s i t i o n s The / r / i n Tagalog has an allophone [ r ] which occurs i n a l l po s i t i o n s , as i n r l t o [*ri:toh] 'here*, riyan [rl'ya:n] 'there*, n a r i r i t o [*na:rIrIito:h] * i s here', p r i t o [ ! p r i : t o h ] ' f r i e d ' , lugar [lU'ga:r] 'place', asahar [?asa*ha:rj 'orange blossoms'.-The / r / i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n and i n other d i s t r i b u t i o n i s usually a r t i c u l a t e d with a single tap t r i l l , but i t varies f r e e l y with a multi-tap t r i l l [R] under emphatic conditions, especially before consonants, eSgs, areglado [?aRe*gla:doh] 'okayed, ap-proved', arte [*?a:Rteh] ' a r t i f i c i a l way or manner; a r t ' , order [•?o:Rder] 'order, command', siyempre ['syesmpReh] *of course's Like /s/, any of the consonants may have a p a l a t a l i z e d allophone before a yod* elements The a r t i c u l a t i o n of the said consonant can be accompanied by a r a i s i n g of the tongue toward the hard palate, as i n piyano [»pya:noh] 'piano', piyer [pye:r] 'pier*, blyahe ['byasheh] ' t r i p , voyage 1, blyanan [bya'nam] 'parent-in-law*, tiyak [tya:k] 'exact, d e f i n i t e ' , batya [ba'tya:?] 'large tub', k i y a [kya:?] 'gait, mannerism', diyas [dya:s] 'musical jazz', d l y a n i t o r [*dya:nl f.tosr] ' j a n i t o r ' , radyo *Yod ac o u s t i c a l l y equals the sound of y. added to the consonants 96 ['rasdyoh] 'radio', Miyerkules [*<mye:rkUtle:s] ''Wednesday* , may a-may a [*;mya:'mya: ?] ' l a t e r on', kanya [kan'ya:h] 'his, her', kampanya [kam'pa:nyah] 'campaign', ngiyaw [rjya.'w] 'mew of a cat'<, s i l y a [ s l l ' y a : h ] , !chair', s i g a r i l y o [sIga'ri:lyoh] ' c i g a r e t t e 1 , riyan [rya:n] 'there'', barbery a [barber'ya:hj 'barbershop' , etc.: Below i s a l i s t i n g of the consonant phonemes with, under each, the i n d i c a t i o n of the variations (allophones), the d i s t r i -bution or the conditions under which they occur, and examples i n phonemic and phonetic transcriptions and i n conventional orthog-raphy with the glossv Phoneme Variation D i s t r i b u t i o n Example / P / [ P ] Everywhere /pakpa'k/ [pak'pa:k] pakpak 'wing'1 /b/ [b] Everywhere /bakb£k/ [bak 'bask] bakbak 'detached' / t / [ t ] Everywhere /patpSt/ [pat'pa:t] patpat 'bamboo s p l i t ' /d/ [d] Everywhere /daldaU/ [dal ' d a r l ] daldal 'talk-ativeness * A / [k] Everywhere . . except be- /manko*k/ [man'k6:k] mangkok 'bowl' tween vowels [x] Between ..  vowels /?abakah/ [?aba'xa:h] abaka ''Manila hemp*! /g/ " [g] Everywhere /gagoh/ [«ga:goh] gago "stupid' /?/ [?.] Everywhere /b£ta?/ f~''ba: ta? J bata 'child'! [0] In free v a r i a t i o n with [?] i n pre- /pa?aUam/ (_pa'?a:lam]|'-w'£pa'a:lam) * v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n • • • ' paalam 'goodbye*' *The squiggle (^) i s used here to mean "alternates, alternating, i n alternation with" .1 97 /m/ [m] Everywhere /mama?/ ['ma:ma?] mama 'any man' /n/ [n] Everywhere /nSmin/ ['na:mln] namln 'our, ours' A)/ D}] Everywhere / n i s n f s / [ n l s ' n i : s ] ngisngis ''giggle'1 / s / [ s ] Everywhere /stfsan/ [ l ;su:san] Susan 'a g i r l ' s name' [|] Before /y/ /syempreh/ [*sye:mpreh] siyempre 'of and i n cl u s t e r with / t / course' /tsine'las/ [t|I'ne:las] t s i n e l a s ''slippers' /h/ [h] Everywhere /hfhip/ [»hi:hlp] hi h i p 'blow' /!/ [ l ] Everywhere / l a l i m / ['la:llm] l a l i m 'depth' / r / [ r ] Everywhere / r f t o h / [*ri:toh] r i t o 'here' [R] In free v a r i a t i o n with [ r ] under /prenoh/ ['pRe:noh] Prenojj 'Brakeii'. emphatic conditions /w/ [w] Everywhere /wawa?/ ['wa:wa?] wawa 'mouth of a river' 1 /y/ [y]l Everywhere /yayah/ [*ya:yah] yaya 'nursemaid' 9.'2;'2 Allophonic Alternation of Vowels Tagalog / i / has three allophones: [ i j [ F j [ l ] s The high-f r o n t - tense-unrounded [ i ] occurs under strong s t r e s s * except i n a prejunctural s y l l a b l e (the l a s t syllable,,before a juncture), e.'gs, k l t a ['ki:tah] ' v i s i b l e from a distance', kanina [ka'ni:nah] *a while ago r, ninong ['ni:nonJ 'godfather', t a l i n o [ t a ' l i : n o h ] 'talent', etc?: The s l i g h t l y lowered-high-front-tense-unrounded []*] occurs under stress i n prejunctural s y l l a b l e , e.'g.i, kami [ka'mI A:h] 'we', tabi [ta«bI A:h] 'side', marumi [marU'ml^sh] ' d i r t y ' , s a k i t [ s a ' k I A : t ] 'sickness', b i l l [ b I ' l I A : h ] 'buy r, *This includes primary and secondary stress. 5 98 uwi [?U'wI*:?] 'go home', etc;.' The lower-high-front-lax-unrounded [ i ] occurs under weak stress,*' e;g.% bakit [»ba:klt] 'why', blgas [bl'ga:s] ' r i c e ' , bukid [»ibu:kld] 'farm 1, i-kaw [?I'ka:w] 'you', kalbigan [ka?I'bi:gan] ' f r i e n d 1 , e t c Occasion-a l l y , [ i ] and [ i ^ alternate f r e e l y i n cer t a i n positions. 1 The three allophones are i n completely noncontrastive d i s t r i b u t i o n , p a r t i a l l y i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and p a r t i a l l y i n free variation.! S i m i l a r l y , /u/ has three allophones: [uj"[U*]"[u3.' The high-back-tense-rounded [u] occurs under stress, except i n pre-junctural s y l l a b l e , e.g., puso ['pu:so?] 'heart', but! ['bu:tlh3 •goodness', tublg [ f t u : b l g ] 'water', upa £'?u:pah] 'rent; pay', suka [»su:kah] 'vinegar'', e t c The s l i g h t l y lowered-high-back-tense-rounded [U*3 occurs under stress i n a prejunctural s y l l a b l e , e.g., sampu [sam'pU*:?] 'ten', bukod [bU'kU*:d] 'separate', bagkus [bag'kU*:s] 'on the contrary', krus [krU*:s] 'cross', e t c The lower-high-back-lax-rounded [u"3 occurs under weak stress, as i n bulaklak [bUlak'la:k] 'flower', sumbrero [sUm'bre:roh] 'hat1', buto [bU'to:h] 'bone; seed', tuwa [tU'wa:?] 'joy*, tukso [tUk»so:h] 'temptation', e t c The variants of /e/ are the mid-front-tense-unrounded [e] alt e r n a t i n g f r e e l y with the higher-mid-front-tense-unrounded and s l i g h t l y raised [e*] under any l e v e l of stress, except before /y/ where only [e*] occurs.' Examples are pera ['pe:rah] 'money', beses ['be:ses] 'number of times', leeg [le*?e:g] 'neck':, tren [tre:n] ' t r a i n ' , palengke [pa'le:nkeh] 'market*, but [e*] i n :*Weakly stressed s y l l a b l e s are l e f t unmarked.1 99 words l i k e aywan [?e*y*wa:n] 'expression of negation', mayroon [me*yro»?o:n] 'there i s , are', kaysa [ke*y'sa:h] 'than', k a i l a n [ke*y fla:n] «when', ilagay [?Ila , ,ge*:y] 'to put' The free variants of /o/ are the mid-hack-tense-rounded [o], the higher-mid-back-tense-rounded and s l i g h t l y raised [o*] which occurs under stress and alternates f r e e l y with [o], and the higher-low-back-tense-rounded [o].' The v a r i a t i o n i s e n t i r e -l y free under any l e v e l of stress, as i n oras ['?o:ras]-['?o*;ras] **C»?D^as] 'hour'1, pulot [pU«lo:t] "[pU'lo :t] " [pU'loD-.t] 'honey', noon [no':?o:n] ** [na''?o*:n] ** [no'?o*:n] 'that time', oo ['?os,?oh] - ['?o:?o*h] - ['?o:Dh] 'yes', etc. In the case of /a/, there are free variations within a range from s l i g h t l y r a i sed low-central-lax-unrounded [a*] to mid-central-lax-unrounded [,?] when under weak stress i n certain words.' Low-central-tense-unrounded [a] occurs under stress. This allophone i s constant i n i t s low central p o s i t i o n i n most Tagalog words.' The following i l l u s t r a t e s the occurrence of the variants of /a/ : paaralan ['pa?ara'la:n] 'school', l a l a k i [ l a ' l a : k l h ] 'man', pag-asa [pag*?a:sah] 'hope 1, dinadala [dima:da'la:h] [diina:d^. fla:h] ' i s being ca r r i e d ' , ipadala [?i fpasda'la:h] ** [?iipa:<-Lp'la:h] 'be sent', etc. Length and n a s a l i t y e x i s t i n Tagalog vowels.; Stressed vowels are lengthened. 1 Nasality i s e n t i r e l y conditioned by the presence of any one of the nasals / m n n, / a f t e r a vowel. Nasalization i s strongest with / n /. Examples are ngongo ['nojrjo?] 'speaking with a nasal twang', nganga [«nS:ng?] 'prepared betel leaf,nut 100 and l i m e ' : , ngayon [na'yo:n] 'now; t o d a y ' , n g i p i n ("'nil's p i n 1 ' t e e t h ' , i n y o n g [ ? I n f y o : r j ] 'your p l u s a t t r i b u t i v e marker 'ng*:, and t h e l i k e . ' Phoneme V a r i a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Example A / [ i ] Under s t r e s s e x c e p t / b a l i t a ? / [ b a ' l i : t a ? ] i n a p r e j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e b a l i t a 'news' [ i * ] ' Under s t r e s s i n a / g a b f h / [ g a ' b l * s h ] p r e j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e g a b i ' n i g h t 1 ' [ i ] Under weak s t r e s s / g a b i h / [''gasblh] ) i ' yam' / e / [ e ] Everywhere except pe*sa?/ [_'pe:sa?] pes a b e f o r e / y / 'a k i n d o f n a t i v e d i s h * ! [ e * ] B e f o r e / y / under /eywan/ [ ? e * y , w a : n ] any l e v e l of s t r e s s aywan ''expression o f n e g a t i o n / u / [_u] Under s t r e s s e x cept / b t f k a s / ['bu:kas] bukas i n a p r e j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e 'tomorrow': [U*] Under s t r e s s i n a / b a l t f t / [ b u ' l U * s t ] b a l u t p r e j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e 'duck's egg' [U] Under weak s t r e s s / b ukas/ [ b U ' k a s s ] bukas 'open' /o/ [ o ] Everywhere /no6b/ [no'?o:h] noo ' f o r e h e a d ' [ o * ] Under stress i n p r e - /buo?/ [bU'?o*:?] buo j u n c t u r a l s y l l a b l e , and v a r i e s f r e e l y 'whole' w i t h L°3 Co] V a r i e s f r e e l y w i t h / p u s o ? / ['puss^?] puso [_oJ and [o*3 ' h e a r t 101 /a/ [a] Everywhere under /lalSkad/ [ i l a : ' l a : k a d ] strong stress lalakad ' w i l l walk* [ a A ] Under weak stress /kinagalitan/ [kI fna:ga A'11:tan] varies f r e e l y with [©>] i n certain w [klma:g,?'li:tan] 'was positions scolded' 9.!2.3 Alternation of Diphthongs In Tagalog c o l l o q u i a l speech /ay/ varies f r e e l y with /ey/ or /e/, as i n may [ma:l] - [me:*] ** [me:h] 'there i s , are', k a i l an [ka?I'la:n] ~ [kai»la:n] ** ['ke: lan] 'when', Maynila [ma^'nisla?] « [mei'ni:la?] 'Manila', etc. 1 In the same way /oy/ alternates -freely with /uy/, as i n baboy ['ba:boi] •* ['ba:bui] fcpig', kasuy [ka«su:i] - [ka'so:*] 'cashew'.- Diph-thongs /ay/ and /ey/ do not alternate f r e e l y i n a l l instances. Thus f a r , no contrast i s found between /ay/ and /ey/, or be-tween /oy/ and /uy/, but since there are contrasts between /a/ and /e/ or /o/ and /u/, the alternation i s here treated as morphophonemic (See Morphophonemic Alternations). 102 9.2,k Foreign Sounds V V V The following foreign sounds / f v Q c j s z / occur i n Tagalog but only i n names and place-names .1 Below are ex-amples:* Names with / f / : Afurong, A l a f r i z , A l f a r o , Alfonso, Alfredo, B o f i l l , Boniface, Bonifacio, Brofas, Ceferina, Ceferino, D e l f i n , E p i -fa n i a , Epifanio, E s t i f a n i a , E s t i f a n i o , Eufemia, Fabricante, Fa-cunda, Facundo, Fajardo, F a l c o n l , F a l g u i , F a l l u r i n , F a l l u r i n a , Famdico, Famaran, Fandino, Fangonll, Faustino, Fausto, Fe, Federico, F e l i c i t a s , F e l i c i s i m a , F e l i c i s i m o , F e l i p e , F e l i s a , F e l i x , Felwa, Fer d i n a n d , F e r i a , Fermin, Fernandez, Ferolino, Ferrer, F i d e l , F i e l , Figuracion, Filemon, Firmalino, F l e r i d a , F l o r , F l o r a , F l o r d e l i z a , Florenda, Florendo, Flores, Floresca, F l o r i t a , Floro, Flory, Fonacier, Fondavilla, Fordham, Fornier, Fortunata, Fortunato, Francisca, Francisco, Franklin, Fred, Frederick, Frederico, Fredo, Frivaldo, Fuente, Fuentes, Fuen-t e b e l l a , Fundador, Godofreda, Godofredo, Josefa, Josefina, Josephine, Phocfeca, Rafael, Rafaela, Ranulfo, Rodolfo, Rufino, Rufo, Sofronio, Telesforo, T e o f i l o , Sinforo, Wilfredo, e t c i Place-names with / f / : Cape San Ildefonso, F a c t o t i a , F a i r e , Diffun, La For-tuna, Lefa Pt.', San Alfonso, San Fe l i p e , San Fernando, Punta *The examples are mostly names of F i l i p i n o government of-f i c i a l s l i s t e d i n the 1966 O f f i c i a l Program of the Philippi n e Independence Celebration and some were taken from the directory of the F i l i p i n o Association i n B r i t i s h Columbia, furnished by the P h i l i p p i n e Consulate i n B.-'Cu' Place-names were taken from a map of the Philippines.* 103 Flecha, San Francisco, San Ildefonso, San Rafael, e t c Names with /v/: Abueva, Adeva, Aldave, Alvaro, A l v i o l a , A r v i o l a , Anonueva, Arevalo, Avelino, Avenida, A v i l e s , Aviva, Bienvenido, Buenaventura, Buenavista, Buenviaje, Casanova, C l a r a v a l l , Cla-v e r i a , Cordova, Dadivas, David, Divinagracia, Eva, E l v i , E l v i s , E l v i r a , Enverga, Evangelista, Evelyn, Eviota, Gavino, Guevara, J a v i e r , Joven, Jovencio, Jover, J o v i , J o v i t a , J o v i t o , Leveriza, L e v i , Leviste, Lovina, Malvar, Monteverde, Miravalles, Naval, Nieva, Nieves, Oliva, Oliver, O l i v i a , P r i m i t i v a , Primitivo, Providencio, R e v i l l a , Salva, Salvador, Salvacion, S a l v i o , S a l -vosa, Severino, S i l v e r t r e , Stevan, Steve, Talavera, Tevera, Tevez, Raval, Vadivel, Valderama, Valdez, Valdezco, Valencia, Valenciano, Valenzuela, Valera, V a l e r i a , Valeriana, Valeriano, V a l l e j o , Valmonte, Valmayor, Vamante, Vazquez, Vega, Velasco, Velasquez, Velayo, Velez, Veloso, Ventura, Venancia, Venancio, Venus, Verano, Verdolaga, Vergora, Verulo, Verzosa, Vicente, Vicenta, Vicky, V i c t o r , V i c t o r i n a , V i d a l , V i t a l , Viernez, V i l l a , V i l l a c o r t a , V i l l a f l o r , V i l l a f u e r t e , V i l l a g r a c i a , V i l l a l u z . V i l l a -cruz, V i l l a l u n a , Villamar, V i l l a m i n , Villamor, Villanueva, V i l l a -pando, V i l l a r , Villarama, V i l l a r e a l , V i l l a r o s a , V i l l a r i a n o , V i l -l a s , V i l l a s a n , V i l l a s i s , V i l l e g a s , V i l l e n a , Vilumiin, Vinzons, V i o l a , Viray, V i r g i l i o , V i r g i n i a , V i r o l a , Vivas, Vivencio, Vivero, Vives, Yuvienco, e t c Place-names with /v/: Alava Is. !, Altavas, Arevalo, Avenida R i z a l , A v i l e s , Buevavista, Calver, Can-avid, Cavite, Claveria, Cervantes, 104 Cordova, Davila, Divilacan Bay, D i v i s o r i a , Diviusa Pt., Ivisan, Las Navas, Las Nieves, Lavezares, Lope de Vega, Malvar, Mari-veles, Navotas, Noveleta, Nueva Valencia, Nueva Viscaya, Pon-tevedra, Puerto Rivas, Reva Pt., Salvacion Is. 1, San Vicente, Talavera, V a l l a d o l i d , Vallehermosa, Valley Cove, V e l t i s e z a r , Verde Is.,Passage, Viga, Vigan, Vigo, V i l l a f l o r , V i l l a r e a l , V i l l a s i s , V i l l a v e r t , V e l l a v i c i o s a , Vintar, Virac, Virgoneza, V i r i a t o , V i s i t a , etc. 1 Names with /©/ and t h e i r corresponding nicknames:* Anthea (Anty), Anthony (Tony), Arthur (Turing), Catherine, Cathy, (Catty), Kathleen (Katty), Dorothy (Dotty), Edith (Edita, E d i t ) , Elizabeth (Betty), Ethel ( E t e l ) , McArthur (Turing), Meredith (Dita), Thelma (Tel, Telma), Theodocia (Toddy), Theodoro (Teddy), etc.' Names with / c / : Anchesa, Acheson, Ancheta, Arteche, Cacho, Cachola, Camacho, Chally, Charito, Charlie, Charles, Charlotte, Chavez, Chayong, Cheng, Cherry, Chichay, Chiongbian, Chito, Choleng, Chong, Cholly, Choy, Concha, Conchita, Dichoso, Echague, Echem, Hechanova, Inchong, Itchon, Kimachawa, Luchek, Marcha, Pancho, Ranchez, Richard, Sanchez, Sancho, Sy-changco, e t c Names with / j / : Jack, Jackie, Jacqueline, Jane, Janet, Jenny, J e n i f e r , Jerry, J i l l , Jim, Jimmy, Joan, Jo, Joe, J o e l , John, Johnny, Johnson, Jojo, Jorge, Joseph, Josephine, Judy, J u l i e , J u l i e t , Jun, June, Junior, etc. *Note the change of /©/ to / t / . 105 i Names with / s / : Anastacia, Asuncion, Bonifacio, Concepcion, Consola-cion, Constancia, Crescencia, Crescencio, Francia, Encarnacion, Estacio, Jovencio, Lucia, Marsha, Marcial, Pacencia, Palacio, Pascacio, Pasion, P a t r i c i a , P a t r i c i o , Presentacion, Prudencia, Prudencio, Resureccion, Salvacion, Shea, Sheik, S h i r l e y , S h i r -l i t a , Venancia, Venancio, V i s i t a c i o n , etcs Names with / z / : Ablaza, A b o i t i z , Alazar, Almanzor, Altavaz, Alvanez, Alvarez, Arquiza, Areza, Alzona, Arzadon, Asurez, Azares, Azcona, Aznar, Azucena, Baizas, Ballozos, Baltazar, Banzon, Bauza, Bea-t r i z , Benitez, Benzon, Bermudez, Calaboza, Ceniza, Corazon, Cor-tez, Cruz, Cuizon, Daza, Daveza, Deza, Diaz, Diez, DIzon, Eleazar, E l i z a , E l i z a l d e , Enrlquez, Esperanza, Estevez, Eva, Galvez, Gan-zon, Gianzon, Gimenez, Guanzon, Gomez, Gonzal, Gonzales, Gonzaga, Gonzalo, Guzman, De Guzman, De l a Cruz, Hernandez, Inez, Jimenez, Jozon, Lapuz, Lardizabal, Lazaro, Lazatin, Lecaroz, Legazpi, Lizaso, Lopez, Lorenza, Lorenzo, Lozada, Luz, Madrazo, Maleniza, Manuzon, Manzano, Marquez, Martinez, Martiz, Mendoza, Muniz, Munoz, Muzones, Nazario, Ordonez, O r t i z , Paz, Pelaez, Perez, Piczon, Quezon, Quiazon, Quibranza, Quizon, Ramirez, Requiza, Razon, Rodriguez-, Romualdez, Ruiz, Salazar, Suarez, Tevez, Ticzon, Tizon, Tuazon, Tupaz, Yanzon, Valenzuela, Zacarias, Zabala, Za-bola, Zafra, Zaide, Zalamea, Zaldivar, Zaldy, Zamora, Zapata, Zara, Zaragoza, Zenaida, Z i a l c i t a , Ziga, Z o i l o , Zosa, Z u b i r i , Zuno, Zuzuarregui, etc. : 106 Place-names with / z / : Azagra, A z p i t i a , Barbaza, Capiz, Gonzales, Jimenez, La Paz, Lezo, Lopez Bay, Luzon, Manreza, Pan de Azucar Is.-, Pozo-rrubio, R i z a l , Sanchez E r a , San Lazaro, Sta." Cruz, Sta.> Inez, Tanza, Tenzas, Zambales, Zamboanga, Zamboanguita, Zaragoza, Zarraga, Zimigul, Zitanga, e t c These borrowed sounds, i n general, are so represented i n fa c t i n the pronunciation of most educated F i l i p i n o s . ' A great majority of Tagalog speakers, however, es p e c i a l l y those i n remote towns and barrios who have not been subject to foreign l i n g u i s t i c influences, substitute the nearest native sounds f o r these foreign sounds. Some i l l i t e r a t e F i l i p i n o parents, f o r instance, would name t h e i r children Fe, Edith, David, or Rafael and c a l l them Pe or Pi I d i t . Dabid. or Paihg. respectively; or c a l l t h e i r home place D i b i s o r i a . Nabutas. Saragosa or San P i l i p i instead of.the educated pronunciation f o r D i v i s o r i a , Navotas, Zaragoza or San Fel i p e , respectively.; Also, i t has been observed that older Tagalog speakers, es p e c i a l l y those with knowledge of Spanish, i n certain instances, replace /©/ with /s/, and the younger speakers replace i t with / t / i n pronouncing certain loan words l i k e "three" which becomes / t r l / or / s r i / . i Perhaps /&/ i s replaced with / s / because the two sounds exist as free variants of a single phoneme i n some d i a l e c t s of Spanish.* 107 10;3 Phonotactics Tagalog phonemes have been i d e n t i f i e d and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l phonemes has been described i n the preceding section.* The discussion here deals with the study of sequences of phonemes, referred to as "phonotactics;'" The term phono-t a c t i c s , according to H i l l , i s the area of phonemics which covers the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sequences.' I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a description of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of phonemes, once they have been i d e n t i f i e d 1 ^ Since phonemics proper makes use of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , phonotactics i s an extension of phonemics. 10 ;1 The S y l l a b l e Structure In Tagalog, the number of vocoid sounds i n any utterance i s correlated with the number of sy l l a b l e s which native speakers would i n s t i n c t i v e l y recognize i n that utterance;: For instance, i n the following words:* sa /sah/ ' i n , on'', sama sa.ma /samah/ •go with someone'1, sasama sajsa.'ma /sasaniah/ ' w i l l go with some-one' , sama-sama sa.ima.isa.tma /samasSmah/ 'together'', sasama-sama s a .!s a. ma ;*s a .-ma /sa*samasa*mah/ 'pretending to go with someone1', sumasama-s ama su.ma.-sa.^ma.sa.ma /sumasamasamah/ 'always going with someone':, a Tagalog speaker e a s i l y recognizes the number of H i l l , Archibald; 1 Introduction to L i n g u i s t i c Structures,-• (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1958/, p.- 68.' He i s i n -debted to an unpublished lecture by Robert P.' Stockwell delivered before the L i n g u i s t i c I n s t i t u t e held at the Georgetown University I n s t i t u t e of Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s i n 1954.. * S y l l a b l e - d i v i s i o n i s represented by a period (.') on the l i n e within a word.i 108 s y l l a b l e s i n each words The s y l l a b l e - d i v i s i o n f a l l s c l e a r l y between sounds.' As said e a r l i e r , the sound a r t i c u l a t e d with the peak of sonority of a s y l l a b l e i s known as i t s nucleus or center's* On the basis of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between the number of f u l l vocoids and that of s y l l a b l e s , the s y l l a b l e i s here defined as a segment of speech containing a peak of sonority with certain sounds grouped around its' A s y l l a b l e ending with a vocoid with no contoid following i n the same s y l l a b l e i s referred to as an open s y l l a b l e , esgs1, the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of bata /bSta?/ ' c h i l d " ; whereas that which ends with a contoid i n the s y l l a b l e a f t e r a vocoid i s c a l l e d a closed s y l l a b l e , esgs, pakpak /pakpak/ 'wings'V Some l i n g u i s t s use the expressions "free" and "checked" s y l l a b l e s , since "open" and "closed"are also used i n describing the v a r i e t i e s of mid-range vocoids S The s y l l a b l e structure i s here stated i n terms of the permissible combinations of vowel (V) and consonant (C) i n the s y l l a b l e s of the Tagalog languages I t i s assumed that the basic s y l l a b l e structures of Tagalog are consonant-vowel (CV), e.gs, the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of mata /matah/ 'eyes', and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC), esgs1, the f i r s t and second syllable of mukha /mukha?/ 'iface'ril It i s assumed here that vowels do not structure with consonants to give the syllable patterns (V), (VC) or a f i n a l (CV);! This investigator believes that Tagalog syllable structure requires a f i n a l consonant i n a l l f i n a l syllables;! Ordinary w r i t i n g does not indicate how Tagalog words written with f i n a l /a e i o u/ are pronounced. Tagalog words spelled with a 109 f i n a l vowel may end with either /?/ or /h/ although i t i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the writing systems /?/ and /h/ are contrastive phonemes i n Tagalog, and substituting one f o r the other can change the meaning of a word.' The following examples i l l u s t r a t e the point: 1. as Maganda ang batav 'The c h i l d i s beautiful.' 1 /magandah ?arj b£tta?/ (beautiful the child) L b s 1 Maganda ang bata.1 'The bathrobe i s beautifuls' /magandah ?arj,' b£tah/ (beautiful the bathrobe) 2. as Kunin mo ang baga." 'Remove the lungs'' /kunin moh ?an baga?/ (get you the lung) 2sb. Kunin mo ang baga. 'Get the ember.r /kunin moh ?arj bagah/ (get you the ember) I t i s thyefore necessary and h e l p f u l f o r non-native speakers to transcribe Tagalog words written with a f i n a l vowel as ending i n /?/ or /h/, f o r even i f the meaning i s not changed by a wrong pronunciation, a foreign accent w i l l r e s u l t . 10.2 Consonant Clusters (CC) Tagalog phoneme sequences are here described i n terms of t h e i r c l u s t e r i n g habits. Sequences of two or more consonant phonemes without the intervention of a vowel are referred to as consonant cl u s t e r s . The cl u s t e r i n g habits of Tagalog phonemes 110 are almost altogether the c l u s t e r i n g of consonants alone, since Tagalog vowels do not cluster.- That is, no two vowels occur with-out an intervening consonant or semivowelJ H i s t o r i c a l l y , there are no consonant clusters i n Tagalog except across s y l l a b l e or morpheme boundaries and they are l i m i t e d to two consonants only..' Considering loanwords as an i n t e g r a l part of the language, the present study reveals that Tagalog consonant clusters occur f r e e l y i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . The only r e s t r i c t i o n i s that clusters are rare f i n a l l y . ' 10.2.GL Prevocalic Clusters Prevocalic consonant clusters (CC-) can be summarized i n a series of formulas:* Let C Consonant C l C 2 = the f i r s t and second C c 2 = s 1 r w y 1. C"! = t i f C 2 = s 2. C l = P b k g i f C 2 = 1 3- Ci = P b t d k g i f k. C i = any C except ? w y i f The clusters described above are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the follow-ing examples: 1. tsa /tsah/ 'tea' tsatsa / t s ^ t s a h / 'cha-cha dance' *This investigator i s indebted to an unpublished lecture given by Dr.' Ernesto Constantino of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s and Oriental Languages, i n 1965 at the University of the P h i l i p p i n e s . I l l tsaleko /tsale*koh/ 'a kind of garment t s a l e t / t s a l & t / 'chalet' tsamba /tsambaV 'good luck; guess' tsek /tsek/ 'check' tseke /tse"keh/ ''cheque' tses / t s e s / 'chess' t s i n e l a s /tsine'las/ 'slippers' atsara /?atsarah/ 'pickles' butse /butse"h/ 'crop' kotse /ko'tseh/ 'car' kutsero /kutse*roh/ 'calash d r i v e r ' l a n t s a /lants^h/ 'launch' plantsa /plantsah./ ' f l a t i r o n ' mitsa /mitsah./ 'wick'1 mutsatso /mutsatsSh/ 'houseboy' 2 s plaka /plSkah/ 'phonograph disk' plake /plake*h/ 'plaque' planeta /plane'tah/ 'planet' piano /planoh/ ';plan' planta /plantah./ 'plant^ works' plasa /pl5sah/ 'plaza' plasma /pl^smah/ 'plasma' plastado /plasta*doh/ ' f a l l e n f l a t ' p l a s t i k / p l a s t f k / ' p l a s t i c ' P l a t a /plStah/ ' s i l v e r ' plato /pla"toh/ 'dish;plate' 112 plema /pieman/ 'phlegm' plete /pl&teh/ 'fare* plorera /plorerah/ 'flowervase' pluma /plilmah/ 'pen' blangket /blanket/ 'blanket' blangko /blarjkoh/ 'blank' bloke /bl&ceh/ 'block' blusa /blu*sah/ "blouse" klase /klaseh/ 'class* klabe /klaoeh/ 'clavichord; key' klaro /kl l i r o h / 'white of an egg' k l a s i k a /klasikah/ ' c l a s s i c * klerk /klerk/ 'clerk' klima /klfmah/ 'climate' k l i n i k a / k l f n i k a h / ' c l i n i c ' k l i y ente /kliy&nteh/ ' c l i e n t * klub /klub/ "club'' reklamo /reklamoh/ 'complaint' glab /glab/ "glove' globo /gl'6boh/ "globe" gMyola /gladycSlah/ 'gladiola plant' glorya /gloryah/ 'glory' 3. pranela /prane*lah/ ' f l a n n e l ' Pranses /pranses/ 'French' prangko /pr^nkoh/ 'frank, straightforward' 113 prasko /praskob./ ' f l a s k 1 premyo /premy6"h/ 'prize' preno /prenoh/ 'brake* preskripsyon /preskripsy6n/ 'prescription' presidente /presldenteh/ 'president' presinto /presfntoh/ 'precinct' preso /presoh/ 'prisoner' presyo /pre"syoh/ 'price' presyon /presyon/ 'pressure' pribado /pribaaoh/ 'private' prebllehiyo /prebil£hiyoh/ ' p r i v i l e g e ' primero /primeroh/ ' f i r s t ' p r i n s i p a l / p r i n s i p a l / ' p r i n c i p a l ' p ritada /pritaabh/ *a kind of dish' probinsiya /probinsyab/ 'province' programa /progrSmah/ 'program' propaganda /propagandah/ 'propaganda' propesor /propesor/ 'professor' propeta /prope*tah/ 'prophet' protesta / p r o t l s t a h / 'protest' proyekto /proye*ktoh/ 'project' prutas /priStas/ ' f r u i t ' bra /brah/ 'brassiere' bras /bras/ 'brush' braket /bra"ket/ 'bracket' Bretanya /bretanyah/ ' B r i t a i n ' 114 briga&a /brig&dah/ 'brigade' brigadyer /brigadyer/ 'brigadier' b r i l y a n t e /brilyahteh/ 'diamond' broker /broker/ 'broker' bronse /brohseh/ 'bronze" brongkitis / b r o g k f t i s / 'bronchitis' brotsa /brotsah/ 'painter's brush' bruha /bruhah/ 'witch; ugly woman' kubrekama /kubrekamah/ 'bedspread' l i b r a / l i b r a h / 'pound' l i b r e /llbr'eh/ 'free' l i b r o / l l b r o h / 'book'1 trak /trak/ 'truck* trabaho /trabahoh/ 'work, job' trahe /traheh/ 'costume, apparel' trahedya /trah'e*dyah/ "tragedy" t r a i d o r / t r a i d o r / ' t r a i t o r " transaksiyon /transaksiyon/ 'transaction* trangka /trankah/ 'door fastener' trangkaso /trankasoh/ 'influenza, f l u ' trapo /trapoh/ 'rag' trato /tra"toh/ 'treatment' tren / t r e n / ' t r a i n ' trenta /trehtah/ ' t h i r t y ' tres / t r e s / "three* trese /tre*seh/ 'thirteen' tripulante / t r i p u l a h t e h / 'crewman' 115 trombon /trombon/ 'trombone' trono /tr<5noh/ 'throne' tropeo /tropeoh/ 'trophy' trapik / t r a p i k / ' t r a f f i c ' atras /?atr5s/ 'backward movement' atraso /?atrasoh/ 'tardiness' kontrata /kontrdttah/ 'contract' kontraktor /kontraktor/ 'contractor' l e t r a /le*trah/ ' l e t t e r , p r i n t ' kamisadentro /kamisade*ntroh/ 'men's s h i r t ' semestre /seme*streh/ ^semester' dragon /dragon/ 'dragon' dram /dram/ 'drum' drama /dr&nah/ 'drama, play' d r i l / d r i l / ' d r i l l , exercise ' drowing /dr'owin/ 'drawing' kuwadra /kwaarah/ 'stable' kuwadrado /kwadr'aaoh/ 'square* kuwadro /kwaaroh/ 'picture frame' padre/pacLreh/ 'father, p r i e s t ' kumpadre /kumpaareh/ 'r e l a t i o n between onefcs godfather and parents' kumadre /kumaareh/ ' r e l a t i o n between one's godmother and parents' kraker /krSker/ 'soda crackers' kredo A r e a oh/ 'credo, creed' krema /kremah/ 'cream' krimen /krimen/ 'crime' 116 kriminal /kriminal/ 'criminal' k r i s i s / k r f s i s/ ' c r i s i s' k r i s t a l / k r i s t a l / ' c r y s t a l ' K r i s t o /krfston/ 'Christ" k r i t i k a / k r f t i k a h / ' c r i t i c ' krosing /krtSsin/ 'crossing* krudo /kru*doh/ 'crude o i l * kongkreto /konkre'toh/ 'concrete 1 , krus /krus/ 'cross' graba /grabah/ 'gravel' grado /gr'aaoh/ 'grade' gramatika /gram£ttikah/ 'grammar' gramo /gramoh/ 'gram' granate /grana'teh/ 'garnet color' grasya /griasyah/ 'grace* g r a t i s / g r a t i s / 'f,ree of charge' gripo /grfpoh/ 'faucet' groto /gr6*toh/ 'grotto' grupo /griSpoh/ 'group' programa /programah/ 'program' kablegrama /kablegramah/ 'cablegram' telegrama /telegramah/ 'telegram' 4.1 buwal /bwal/ ' f a l l e n , uprooted' buwan /bwan/ 'moon; month' buwanbuwan /bwanbwan/ 'a species of f i s h ' buwaya /bwayah/ 'crocodile' 117 buwenas /bwehas/ 'good luck' buwig /bwig/ 'bunch, c l u s t e r s ' buwls /bwis/ 'tax* buwisit /bwasit/ 'bad luck* buwitre /bwftreh/ ' w l t u r e ' biya /bya?/ 'a species of f i s h ' biyak /byak/ ' s p l i t ' biyahe /byaheh/ ' t r i p , voyage' biyahero /byah&ro/ 'traveler' biyas /byas/ 'space between j oints of bamboo or cane' biyatiko /bya'tikoh/ 'viaticum' biyaya /byaya?/ 'grace, blessings' biyenan /byendh/ 'parent-in-law' Biyernes /bye*rnes/ 'Friday' biyuda /bytfdah/ 'widow' b i y u l i n /byulfn/ ' v i o l i n ' kubyertos /kubylrtos/ 'table silverware' nobyo /nooyoh/ 'boyfriend, sweetheart' nobya /niSbyah/ ' g i r l f r i e n d , sweetheart' kuwako /kwa'koh/ 'smoking pipe' kuwaderno /kwadernoh/ 'notebook' kuwadra /kwaclrah/ 'stable' kuwago /kwagoh/ 'owl' kuwan /kwan/ "a .common-,Tagalog expression when hes i t a t i n g ' kuwarentina /kwarentfnah/ 'quarantine' kuwaresma /kware*smah/ 'Lent season' 118 kuwarta /kwartah/ 'money* kuwarter /kwartlr/ 'quarter' kuwarto /kwartoh/ 'room' kuweba /kwe*bah/ 'cave' kuwelyo /kwelyoh/ ' c o l l a r 1 , kuwenta /kwentah/ 'count; computation' kuwentista /kwentfstah/ 'story writer or t e l l e r ' kuwento /kwentoh/ 'story' kuwerdas /kwerda*s/ ' s t r i n g of musical instruments kuwero /kwHroh/ 'hide, skin' kuwintas /kwintas/ 'necklace' diskuwento /diskwehtoh/ 'discount' kiya /kya?/ 'affected g a i t , mannerisms' kiyapo /kyapo?/ 'a species of plant' Quiapo /kyapo?/ 'Quiapo d i s t r i c t i n Manila' kiyosko /kyoskoh/ 'lilosk' parokya /par6*kyah/ 'parish' duwag /dwag/ 'coward' duwende /dwendeh/ 'goblin; dwarf duweto /dwe*toh/ 'duet' diyablo /dyaoloh/ 'devil*, demon' diyagnosis /dyagnosis/ 'diagnosis' diyagunal /dyagunal/ 'diagonal' diyalogo /dyalogoh/ 'dialogue' diyamante /dyamahteh/ 'diamond* 119 diyan /dyan/ 'there 1 diyaryo /dyaryoh/ 'newspaper' diyas /dyas/ 'musical jazz' diyes /dyes/ 'ten' diyeta /dye*tah/ 'diet; d a i l y allowance' diyos /dyo's/ 'god' diyosa /dyosah/ 'goddess' medyas /me*dyas/ 'sock, stocking' kudyapi /kudyapf?/ 'guitar' komedya /kome*dyah/ 'comedy' trahedya /trahecLyah/ 'tragedy' tadyang /tadyarj/ ' r i b * adyos /?ady6*s/ 'goodbye* guwantes /gwahtes/ 'hand gloves' guwang /gwan/ 'hollow, cavity' guwapo /gwapoh/ 'good-looking (male)' guwapa /gwapah/ 'beautiful, pretty (female)' guwaplto /gwapftoh/ 'handsome, good-looking' guwaratsa /gwara'tsah/ 'a kind of dance' guwardiya /gwardyah/ 'guard' giya /gyah/ 'guide' Guia /gyah/ 'a g i r l ' s name' Guiang /gyan/ »a family name' huwag /hwag/ 'don't' huwad /hwad/ 'fake, forged' 129 Juan /hwan/ 'Juan, John' Huwebes /hwe*bes/ 'Thursday' huwego /hwegoh/ 'gambling' huwetlng /hwlstin/ 'a kind of Chinese game1 huwes /hwes/ 'judge' hiya /hya?/ 'shame' hiyang ,/hyan/ 'suitable to one's health' hiyas /hyas/ 'jewelry' hiyaw /hyaw/ 'shout, cry' luwa /lwa?/ 'food ejected from the mouth' luwad /lwad/ 'clay' luwal / l w a l / 'out; outside' luwalhatl / l w a l h ^ t i ? / 'glory' luwas /lwas / ' t r i p from town to c i t y ' luwang /lwan/ 'width' luwat /lwat/ 'delay' l i y a b /lyab/ 'blaze; flame' l i y a d /lyad/ 'bent backward with the abdomen protruding' l i y a g / l yag/ 'beloved, d a r l i n g ' l i y o /lyoh/ 'dizziness' muwang /mwan/ 'sense, knowledge' muwebles /mwebles/ 'furniture' muwelye /muweUyeh/ 'pier; axle' muwestra /mw'estrah/ 'demonstration; sample' 121 miyembro /myembroh/ 'member1 miyentras /mylntras/ 'meanwhile, while' Miyerkules /myerkule's/ 'Wednesday' miyopiya /myopyah/ 'myopia' maya-maya /myamy5?/ ' l a t e r on'1 nuwebe /nwlbeh/ 'nine' panuwelo /panweloh/ 'shoulder k e r c h i e f Anonuevo /?anyonw'eVoh/ *a family name' niya /nyah/ 'his, her; by him/er' niyebe /ny'lbeh/ 'snow'; niyog /nyog/ 'coconut' Ni.eves /nyeves/ *a g i r l ' s name' ngawa /nwa?/ 'loud empty ta l k i n g ' ngwe /nwe?/ 'cry of a carabao' ngiwi /nwi?/ 'twisted ( l i p s ) ' ngiyaw /nyaw/ 'mew of a cat' puwang /pwan/ 'space, i n t e r v a l ' puwede /pw'ecleh/ ' p o s s i b l e r puwersa /pweYsah/ 'force' puwerto /pwe*rtoh/ 'port; entrance' puwesto /pwe*stoh/ 'position* puwing /pwin/ 'foreign body i n the eye' puwi t /pwi t / 'anus' piyano /pyanoh/ 'piano' piy a n i s t a /pyanafstah/ 'pianist' 122 piyansa /pyahsah/ 'surety, bond' piye /pyeh/ 'foot (measure)' piyer /pyer/ 'pier' piyesa /pyesah/ 'musical piece' piyak /pyak/ 'shriek (of chicken)' kopya /k'cSpyah/ ' copy' lumpiya /lumpya'?/ 'Chinese egg r o l l ' ruweda /rwe*dah/ 'ring, as i n a. stadium; wheel' Rowena /rwehah/ 1 a g i r l 1 s name' riyan /ryan/ 'there' rosaryo /rosaryoh/ 'rosary' suwabe /swaoeh/ 'smooth, mild' suwag /swag/ 'horn' suwail /swa?il/ 'rebellious, disobedient' suwelas /swe*las/ 'sole of a footwear' suwerte /swlrteh/ 'good luck' suwi /swih/ 'shoot, sprout' suwitik /switik/ ' t r i c k y , c r afty' entreswelo /?entreswe*loh/ 1 groundfloor 1 s i y a /syah/ 'he; she' siyam /syam/ 'nine' siyap /syap/ 'chirping of a chick' siyempre /syempreh/ 'of course' siyete /sye"teh/ 'seven' siyok /syok/ 'cry of a frightened chicken' 123 siyoktong /syoktorj/ 'a kind of Chinese wine* grasya /grasyah/ 'grace 1 disgrasya /disgrasyah/ 'accident* diborsiyo /dib6*rsyoh/ 'divorce' demokrasya /demokrasyah/ 'democracy' tuwa /twa?/ 'joy, gladness' tuwad /twad/ 'backward po s i t i o n of the buttocks' tuwalya /twllyah/ 'towel' tuwi /twi?/ 'every time' tuwid /twid/ 'straight' katuwiran /katwfran/ 'reason' istatuwa /?ista'twah/ 'statue' t i y a /tyah/ 'aunt' t i y o /tyoh/ 'uncle' tiyak /tyak/ 'certain, sure' tiyaga /tyag'a,?/ 'diligence' tiyan /tyan/ 'stomach' t i y a n i /tyahi?/ 'tweezers' tiyempo /tye"mpoh/ 'time; timing' k r i s t i y a n o /kristyahoh/ ' c h r i s t i a n ' molestiya /molestyah/ 'bother* A l l /Cw/ and /Cy/ clusters alternate morphemically with /Cuw/ and /Ciy/ respectively (cf. ; Morphophonemics). 124 10.2.2 Intervocalic Clusters (-CC-) Tagalog clusters occur medially i n utterance, that i s , across s y l l a b l e or morpheme boundaries whether within words or between words.' Intervocalic clusters are medial clusters which are combinations of permitted f i n a l single consonant and per-mitted i n i t i a l single consonant.' The s i t u a t i o n can be sym-bolized as /-VCCV-/ i n native words such as takbo /takboh/ 'run 1 pakpak /pakpak/ 'wing'.' The l e x i c a l frequency of this possible type of medial consonant clusters i s very high.' A sequence of three or four consonants occurring medially always has an i n t e r n a l open juncture breaking i t i n t o f i n a l consonant and i n i t i a l clusters as /-VC + CCV-/ i n loanword displey /display/ •display', or /-VCC + CCV-/ i n ekstra /Skstrah/ 'extra'. Since they are interrupted by a juncture, these clusters are therefore not to be considered as three or four-consonant clusters.' A sample l i s t i n g of clusters occurring across s y l l a b l e or morpheme boundaries i s given below: kumusta /kumustab/ 'greeting' .maganda /magandab/ 'beauti f u l ' pag-asa /pag?asah/ 'hope' dokt or /doktor/ 'doctor' sapagka't /sapagk^t/ 'because' aakyat ka /?£?aky£t kah/ 'you w i l l climb' babalik s i y a /b&balfk/ syah/ 'he w i l l return' kain na /ka?in nab/ 'eat now' suweldo /sweUdoh/ 'salary* 125 mag-aral /mag?aral/ 'study' mlnsan pa /mlnsan pah/ 'once more1 damdamin /damdamin/ 'feelings' magbasa /magbasab/ 'to read' magsulat /magsul'fit/ 'to write' nagtatakbo /nagtatakbob/ 'ran' pantalon /pantaloh/ 'pant^' aklat /?aklaV 'book' t i k t i k / t i k t f k / 'spy', tindahan /tindaban/ 'store' paligsahan /paligsaban/ 'contest' protestante /protestanteh/ 'protestant' magbisekleta /magbisekle*tah/ 'to bike' tugtog /tugt'og/ 'music* dalamhati /dalamh^ti?/ * sorrow, a f f l i c t i o n ' • kongresista /kongresifstah/ 'congressman* s a l i k s i k / s a l i k s f k / 'research' sandata /sandlttah/ 'weapon' ngisngis /r j i s n f s / 'giggle' representante /representanteh/ 'representative' luningning /luninrisfn/ ' b r i l l i a n c e ' adyos po /?adyos po?/ * goodbye, s i r * 10.'2.-'3 Prejunctural Consonant Clusters (-CC) Postvocalic, prejunctural clusters occur i n Tagalog and they are l i m i t e d to two consonants only/- There are words with f i n a l c lusters that are i n normal, everyday use such as teks /teks/ 126 ' t e x t 1 , kyuteks /kyiSteks/ ' n a i l p o l i s h ' , koteks /koteks/ 'sanitary napkin, kotex', k l i n i k s / k l f n i k s / 'tissue paper, kleenex', baks /baks/ *box' , aysbaks /?aysbaks/ 'icebox', taks /taks/ 'tax;tack', tamtaks /tamta'ks/ 'thumbtack', i s p i t s / ? i s p f t s / 'speech', p l i t s / p l i t s / 'pleat', i s t l t s / ? i s t f t s / ' s t i t c h ' , t i d b i t s /tidb&ts/ ' t i d b i t s ' , t s e s t e r f i l d / t s e s t e r f f l d / 'Chesterfield cigarette', kard /kard/ 'card', nars /nars/ 'nurse', pruns /pruns/ 'prunes', bins /bins/ 'bean', pork'en bins /pork ?en bins/ 'prk and beans', e t c Names with f i n a l clusters are not uncommon i n Tagalog, such as Bert, Robert, Mark or Marc, Carl or K a r l , Clark, Jorge, Donald, C l i f f o r d , Arnold, Frank, e t c Some Tagalog speakers cannot pronounce certain phonemes i n certain p o s i t i o n s , as i n the case of s ° m e older people's supposed " i n a b i l i t y " to produce i n i t i a l and f i n a l c l u s t e r s , simply because these clusters were not o r i g i n a l l y present i n the sound system of Tagalog. 1 I t has been observed that old people have the tend-ency to i n s e r t an i n t r u s i v e vowel between the i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s , producing words l i k e tarak /tarak:/ f o r trak 'truck', k a l a s i / k a l a s i h / f o r klase 'class', tarabaho /tarabahoh/ f o r trabaho 'work', palantsa /palantsah/ f o r plantsa ' f l a t i r o n ' , p i r i t o / p i r f t o h / for p r l t o ' f r i e d ' , and the l i k e . Another common ob-servation i s the introducing of the prothetic vowel / i / or /e/ before loanwords beginning with / s / plus consonant, as i n Tagalog i s k u l / ? i s l n l l / , i s p o r t / ? i s p 5 r t / , istambay /?istambay/, i s p i t s / ? i s p i t s / from English school, sport, standby, speech, respectively.' Perhaps th i s i s due to the influence of Spanish 127 prothetic vowel occurring before / s / followed by a consonant, as i n Tagalog eskwela /?eskwi'lah/, espesyal /?espesyal/, istasyon /?istasy6h/, iskandalo /?iskandal '6h/ and i s k i n a /?iskinah/ from Spanish escuela 'school' , especial 'special' , estacion 'station', escandalo 'scandal', esquina 'street', respectively. 10.3 Vowel Frequency I t has been mentioned that there i s a d i r e c t , one-to-one co r r e l a t i o n between the number of vocoid sounds and the number of s y l l a b l e s i n Tagalog (Cf. Sec. 1 0 .l). There are as many sy l l a b l e s as there are vocoids i n an utterance.' The following observations on the frequency of vowels were made on the basis of a frequency count of 592 words from the following samplings of modern c o l l o q u i a l Tagalog: Ang P u l i t i k a ( P o l i t i c s ) , Ang  P i l i p i n a (The F i l i p i n a ) and Madaling-Araw (Dawn).1? The three samplings combined give a t o t a l of 123^ s y l l a b l e s . There are 688 s y l l a b l e s with /a/, 277 with / i / , 153 with /o/, 58 with /u/ and 58 with /e/. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the r e l a t i v e frequency of occur-rence of vowel phonemes i n the three samplings y i e l d s the follow-ing percentages arranged i n the descending order of frequency. 17 . . . . . . . . . . . 'See Beginning Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of English (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, I965, pp. 208, 173 and 228, respectively.) 128 Vowel Phonemes Frequency of Occurrence Percentage of Occurrence . a . 688 55 M 1 277 22.h% . . . . . ,o 153 12.4$ . . . -U. . 58 M.7% e . : 58 ••• • - -M-.i7.fo  In the above data, i t i s c l e a r l y evident that the vowel phoneme /a/ has the highest frequency of occurrence, / i / coming next, followed by /o/. In the samplings used here, /u/ and /e/ have equal frequency of occurrence, but i t has been observed i n some Tagalog texts that /e/ i s r e l a t i v e l y less frequent than /u/: /e/ has a very low frequency of occurrence especially i n l i t e r a r y Tagalog.-11. Morphophonemic Alternations The variants of phonemes or allophones have been described i n Sec. 9.2. Tagalog also exhibits a number of alternations of phonemes within morphemes. These alternations of phonemes within a given morpheme bridge the gap between the morphological and phonemic l e v e l s . Linguists c a l l t h i s f i e l d of analysis morpho-phonemics.' Stockwell defines the term as the description of the 129 1 ft alternate, phonemic shapes that morphemes have i n a language. A d e t a i l e d study of the morphophonemics of Tagalog i s be-yond the l i m i t s of th i s thesis. The aim here i s to i l l u s t r a t e only the most common types of morphophonemic alternations which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Taglog language.1 Such an analysis reveals the presence of important phenomena which go neglected i n the t r a d i t i o n a l grammar of Tagalog simply because they are masked by d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the conventional orthography.' These morphophonemic alternations are common among vowels as well as consonants-.1 For the Tagalog vowels, as indicated i n the pattern (FIg .13) , an underlying five-vowel system has been established, with a three-way contrast i n tongue-height and a two-way contrast i n tongue-advancement, which i s v a l i d i n a l l positions, whether the vowels are strongly stressed or weakly stressed.' However, there are instances where / i / and /e/ or /u/ and /o/ alternate with each other i n certa i n positions or certain environments. Since contrasts exist between these vowels, such alternations are treated here as morphophonemic rather than allophonic. The following are examples of these morphophonemic a l t e r -n a t i ons: /!/ alternates with /e/ i n a pre-Junetural s y l l a b l e , as i n babae /bab£?eh/ /baba*?ih/ 'female', l a l a k i / l a l a l c i h / -R. Stockwell, A Contrastive Analysis of Tagalog and English (Los AngelesJ University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1958, p. B-4.* Mimeo.) Heogives excellent examples of morphophonemic alternations on p. B-35. 130 /lala*keh/ 'male 1, sakit / s a k i t / ** /sake*t/ 'sickness*; /u/ alternates with /o/ i n a prejunctural s y l l a b l e , as i n balut /balrtt/ - /bal6*t/ 'duck's egg', bukod /buk6d/ ** /buktfd/ 'separate', kulot /kulo ' t/ « /kulttt/ ' c u r l ' ; /Cuw/ alternates with /Cw/, as i n puwede /puwe*deh/ * /pwldeh/ 'can be; possible', sweldo /swe*ldoh/ « /suwe*ldoh/ 'salary', kuwento /kuwehtoh/ » /kwehtoh/ 'story'; /Ciy/ alternates with /Cy/, as i n diyanVdiyah/ « /dyan/ 'there', tiyak /tiySk/ « /tyak/ 'sure, c e r t a i n ' , kaniya /kaniyan/ « /kanyan/ 'his,' her'; /ay/ alternates with /ey/ and /e/,* as i n mayroon /mayro?6h/ « /meyr6"?n/ «• /meVon/ 'there Is, there are', kaysa /kaysah/ « /keysah/ w'/kgsah/ 'than', aywan /?aywah/ * /?eywah/ « /?'e*wan/ 'an expression of negation'; /a?i/ « alternates with /ay/, /ey/ and /e/, as kai l a n /ka?ilah/ <• /kaylah/ « /keylah/ ~ /ke*lan/ 'when', kailangan /ka?flanan/"« /kaylagan/ « /keylagan/ « /kllanan/ 'necessary'.' Alternations of consonants (Cf. Consonant Patterns) are also common i n Tagalog. Some of these alternations are conditioned alternations as i n the case of Tagalog nasals / m « n «. n / which occur i n a great many words spoken i n normal rapid conversation.: /m/ occurs before /p b/ /n/ occurs before /d 1 r s t y/ /n/ occurs before /k g h w/ *Note the s h i f t of stress with /e/. 131 This phenomenon of sound change i s often referred to as assimilation, i . e s , a phonetic process whereby two phonemes acquire common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s a regressive or r e t r o -gressive assimilation i n the case quoted since the assimi-l a t o r y phoneme (the phoneme which produces t h i s phenomenon) follows the assimilated phoneme.- The very common instances are found i n the names f o r numbers such as labinsiyam /labinsiyam/ 'nineteen' (< l a b i 'excess, more than' + -ng 'connective marker' + siyam 'nine'), limampu /limampu"?/ ' f i f t y ' (< 11 m& ' f i v e ' + -ng + pu 'ten'), sandaan /sanda?an/ 'one hundred 1 (< i s a 'one* + -ng + daan 'hundred'); i n a f f i x pang-/pang- m pan- ~ pam-/ 'pertaining to, for* plus a noun, as i n pangkultura /pankultifrah/ ' c u l t u r a l ' , panlaro /panlaro?/ 'for playing, f o r sports' pambansa /pambansa'?/ 'national*, and i n words following the noun marker ang 'the', as i n ang bata /?amb£ta?/ 'the c h i l d 1 , ang puso /?ampi5so?/ 'the heart', ang  tatay /?ant£tay/ 'the father' 1. Pronunciations are sometimes r e f l e c t e d i n the s p e l l i n g i f they occur within words but not i f they occur across word boundaries as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the above examples.- In normal speech, assimilations across word boundaries are commonly observed, but they may or may not take place, depending upon factors l i k e rate of speech, length of pauses between words, emphasis, etc. Alternation between /d/ and / r / i s very common i n i n t e r -v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , whether within words or across word boundaries, as i n marumi /marumfh/ - /madumfh/ ' d i r t y ' , apat na raan /?apat na ra?an/ - /?apat na da?an/ 'four hundred', susulat 132 din ako /sustflat din ?akd*h/ 'I w i l l write' and ako* r i n ay  sustflat /?ak6 r i n ?ay susillat/ 'I too w i l l write'. As a rule then, /d/ becomes / r / between vowels.' The alternation, however, i s not automatic.: In some words, /d/ remains /d/, never / r / even i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n (Cf. p. 88 ).; Some of the alternations are d i a l e c t a l alternations as i n the case of /d/ alternating with / r / i n some words l i k e dagasav/dagasa"?/ - /ragasa"?/ 'hasty, v i o l e n t ' , rimarim /rimarlm/ » /dimarim/ 'nausea, loathing', rahuyo /rahuyo?/ - /dahuyo?/ 'seduce'. In some d i a l e c t s of Tagalog, the use of / r / f o r /d/ i s the usual practice. 1 Alternation between / r / and / l / or /d/ and / l / seems to be s t r a t i f i e d s o c i a l l y , with / r / and /d/ among the better educated speakers and / l / among the less privileged. 1 Examples of t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n are found i n some few words l i k e kuwarta /kwartab./ « /kwaltab/ 'money', lugar /lugar/ « / l u g a l / 'place', and dura /dura*?/ - /lur£?/ 'sputum'. Other alternations which are normally observed among educated speakers are the alternations between /n/ and /n/, as i n kanina /kanfnah/ ~ /kanfnah/ 'a moment ago', d i n i g / d i n f g / » / d i n i g / 'hear', t i n i g / t f n i g / * / t i n i g / 'voice'; a l t e r n a t i o n between /n/ and / l / , as i n nangka /nanka*?/ - /lanka?/ 'jack-f r u i t ' , nilagaVnil^ga?/ - /lin.aga?/ 'boiled i n water'1, nilugaw* /niltfgaw/ M /linugaw/ 'ri c e gruel'; a l t e r n a t i o n between /k/ and /g/, as i n bagsak /bagsak/ « /baksaV ' f a l l ; ; f a i l u r e ' *Metathesis. 133 lagpak /lagp'Sk/ M /lakpSk/ ' f a l l ; f a i l e d ' , tigdas /tigda's/ *• /tikdas/ 'measles'; alte r n a t i o n between /?/ and /h/, as i n " bansa /bansa*?/ » /bansah/ 'nation*, arina /?ar3*nah/ » /harfnah/ ' f l o u r ' , u l i n i g / ? u l i h i g / - / h u l f h i g / 'hear d i s t i n c t l y ' . ' Some alternations are s t y l i s t i c alternations. The a l t e r -nation between /p/ and ft/ i s a case i n point. Some educated speakers prefer to use the foreign sound / f / to native /p/ f o r s o c i a l prestige.' This type of altern a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n certai n words such as piyesta /piyestah/ « / f i y e s t a h / 'feast, holiday', pino /pfnoh/ >• /ffnoh/ 'fine, refined', prutas /prtftas/ m / f r t f t a s / ' f r u i t ' 1 , palda /pSldah/ - /faldah/ ' s k i r t ' , etc.; Alternation between /b/ and /v/ i s also observed among educated speakers influenced by Spanish orthography.. Examples of t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n may be found i n words l i k e probinsiya /probinsyah/ w/provinsyah/ 'province', biyahe /byaneh/ <• /vyaheh/ ' t r i p , voyage', biyuda /byildah/ *. /vytJdah/ 'widow', bakasyon /bakasyoh/ « /vakasyoh/ 'vacation' , etc. 134 12.-J Suprasegmental Features The study of prosodic features i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s i s s t i l l i n i t s infancy, or at any rate early adolescence,compared with the techniques f o r the systematic study of speech sounds. These features, which include stress, length, p i t c h , juncture, etc., have been variously named. Hughes, for instance, use the term prosodic as synonymous with suprasegmental. They are c a l l e d suprasegmental or nonlinear because they are in-feerpreted as an extra layer of structure superposed on the segmental phonemes. Some l i n g u i s t s use the general term prosody for suprasegmental phenomena i n general., and prosodeme f o r a supra-segmental feature that i s contrastive. There seem to be two "schools" of thought about the suprasegmental features. One school terms them suprasegmental features reserving the term phoneme for the l i n e a r phoneme, and the other refers to them as suprasegmental phonemes.' There i s some debate about i t . An. analysis of Tagalog suprasegmentals was not attempted i n this study.' There are many i n t e r e s t i n g problems to be en-countered. A few samples of the kinds of stress problems with some indications as to how they may be solved could be mentioned here. In Tagalog, there i s a rather complex system of written or printed accentuation recommended by the I n s t i t u t e of National Language and taught i n the schools. The o f f i c i a l "Grammar of the National Language" and other books used i n Ph i l i p p i n e schools present a system of accentuation using three types of accent marks, 1-35 namely: the acute accent ( *< ) placed i n any po s i t i o n above the vowel as i n p^aralah /pcC?aralah/ 'school 1, the grave accent ( **• ) representing a g l o t t a l stop placed over the f i n a l vowel, as i n bata /b5ta?/ ' c h i l d ' , and a circumflex accent ( * ) in d i c a t i n g the simultaneous presence of an acute accent and a g l o t t a l stop written above the vowel i n word-final p o s i t i o n , as i n ma-hanria. /matanda?/ 'old'. These are the three accent marks found i n school textbooks and used i n conventional ortho-graphy . In the nomenclature of accent phenomena, i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l to use the same terms and describe them as presented above. The term accent i s too often a source of confusion, since i t i s used to r e f e r to written accent marks and as a general cover term f o r i n t e n s i t y and p i t c h . The same word i s used i n "foreign accent" which i s the carry-over in t o a second language of habits of a r t i c u l a t i o n from one's native or second language. In t h i s study, stress was preferred to accent. to re f e r to the phonemically s i g n i f i c a n t force or loudness given a vowel or s y l l a b l e . The stress s i t u a t i o n i n Tagalog has been long the object of debate among scholars. For i n d i v i d u a l words i n Tagalog, th i s investigator set up three l e v e l s of stress: the strongest stress was c a l l e d primary and i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n i t was marked by the acute accent /*/, written over the vowel phoneme forming the nucleus of the stressed s y l l a b l e ; the next strongest was c a l l e d secondary which was marked by a grave accent /"*/; and then the weak or zero stress which was l e f t unmarked, or may, 136 optionally, be indicated by / ""V. In a Tagalog word of more than one s y l l a b l e , at l e a s t one s y l l a b l e receives a greater degree of stress than the other or others. The three c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t phonetic l e v e l s of stress may a l l be observed i n a normal pronunciation of the following s i x - s y l l a b l e sentence: Lalakad na ako. /lltlltkad nah ?ak6b/ ' I ' l l go now.' A word of three to s i x or more unstressed s y l l a b l e s i n un-interrupted sequence are r e l a t i v e l y common, as shown i n the d i f f e r e n t forms of the stem tulong / t i l l o n / 'help. 1 matulungin /matulunfn/ 'helpful' . pagtutulungan /pagtutulurjan/ 'act of helping one another' makipagtulungan /makipagtulurjan/ 'to cooperate' pinakamatulungin /pinakamatulurjfn/ 'most h e l p f u l ' The unstressed s y l l a b l e s above are pronounced with more or less equal length and even tone. Like the segmental phonemes, the stress phonemes may be established by studying t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and contrast. The l o c a t i o n of stress i n Tagalog i s not fixed by automatic r u l e s . Its occurrence i s unpredictable. I t i s possible to change the meaning of a word or form by changing the place of stress. The following sentences contain a p a i r of words d i f f e r e n t i a t e d only by stress: 1. Iba baga ang baga sa baga at baga? /?ibab bagab ?an- ba"gah sah baga? ?at baga*?/ (different-interrogative-the-ember-from-abscess-and-p a r t i c l e lungs) 137 ' I s ember d i f f e r e n t f r o m ab s c e s s and l u n g s ? ' 2. ,Kakanin ng kasama ng kasama ang k a k a n i n s a mesa, / k a k a n i n nan kasamah nan, kasamah ?an k a k a n f n sah me*sah/ ( w i l l eat-noun m a r k e r - c o m p a n i o n - o f - t h e - t e n a n t - t h e goodi e s - o n - t a b l e ) 'The companion of t h e t e n a n t w i l l e a t t h e g o o d i e s on t h e t a b l e . ' 3« B a t a ng b a t a ang ginaw k a h i t walang b a t a . / b a t a h nan ba*ta? ?an glnaw k a h i t TtfalaV} ba"tah/ ( b e a r - b y - c h i l d - t h e - c o l d - e v e n - w i t h o u t - b a t h r o b e ) 'The c h i l d c o u l d s t a n d t h e c o l d even w i t h o u t a b a t h r o b e ' . 4. I s a lamang ang lamang n i y a s a a k i n . / ? i s a h laman, Ian. lamarj. n i y a h sah ?£kin/ (one-only-the-advantage-him-over-me) 'He has o n l y one advantage over me.' 5. L a l a k i ang aso. L a l a k i ang aso. / l a l ^ k i h ?an ?&soh/ / l a l a k f h ?an ?as5h/ (male - t h e - dog) ( w i l l grow big-the-smoke) 'The dog i s male.' 'The smoke w i l l grow b i g . ' I n t h i s , c a s e , s t r e s s p l a y s a l i n g u i s t i c r o l e i n T a g a l o g and i t i s a d i s t i n c t i v e phenomenon t i e d i n w i t h meaning. There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s u b s t a n t i v e s w h i c h a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y by s t r e s s . F o r example: anak /?ahak/ ' f a m i l y , c l a n ' v s . anak /?anak/ ' c h i l d ' b a l a t / b a l a t / ' b i r t h m a r k ' v s . b a l a t /bal£t/ ' s k i n ' 138 hamon /hamon/ 'challenge* vs.1 hamon /ham6n/ 'ham'1  pusod /pu*sod/ 'navel' vs. pusod /pusSd/ 'chignon' say a /sayah/ ' s k i r t ' vs. say a /sayab/ 'merriment' A stress can change the form class of a word. A word may be a verb or an adjective, depending upon the p o s i t i o n of stress. The following minimal pairs are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d only by stress emphasis. A.' ahit / ? a b i t / 'shave' vs. ahit /?ahft/ 'shaved' kalat / k a l a t / 'scatter' vs. kalat /kala't/ 'scattered' g i s i n g / g f s i n / 'wake up' vs.-- g i s i n g / g i s f r j / 'awake' s i r a / s f r a ? / 'destroy' vs. s i r a /sira"?/ 'destroyed' ubos /?u"bos/ 'consume' vs. ubos /?ub6"s/ 'consumed' Bs b a l i i n / b a l f ? i n / 'to break (e.g. a s t i c k ) ' vs. b a l i i n / b a l i ? f n / 'easily broken' basagin /basagin/ 'to break ,('e.g. glass) vs. basagin /basagfn/ 'easily broken' b i r u i n / b i n l ? i n / 'to tease' vs. b i r u i n /biru?fn/ 'always being teased' talunin / t a l t l n i n / 'to defeat' vs. talunin /talunfn/ .'•easily defeated' utangin /?uta^nin/ 'to get on cr e d i t ' vs. utangin /?utanfn/ 'taken on c r e d i t ' G.« antukin /?antukfn/ 'to f e e l sleepy' vs. antukin /?antifkin/ 'habitually sleepy' 139 hiramln /hiramfn/ 'to borrow 1 vs. hlramln /hlramin/ •borrowed' sipunln /sipunln/ 'to catch cold* vs. sipunln /sipunln/ 'susceptible to cold': tanggalin /tarjgalfn/ 'to detach' vs.' tanggalin /tafygalin/ 'detachable' yamutin /yamutin/ 'to annoy' vs. yamutin /yaraittin/ 'easily annoyed, cranky' A noun may become an adjective by changing the p o s i t i o n of stress. The following are examples: buhay /btfhay/ ' l i f e ' , vs. buhay /buhay//'alive, l i v i n g ' g a l i t / g a l i t / 'anger' vs.1 g a l i t / g a l f t / 'angry' takot /tifkot/ 'fear' vs. takot /takSt/ 'a f r a i d ' gutom /gtftom/ 'hunger' vs. gutom /gutoW 'hungry' uhaw /?ilhaw/ ' t h i r s t ' vs. uhaw /?uhaw/ ' t h i r s t y ' There i s a meaning difference between verbs that have the primary stress on the ultima and the corresponding nouns that have the primary stress on the penult and the secondary stress immed-i a t e l y preceding the primary.' Thus: inumin /?inumfn/ 'to drink' vs. inumin /?inumin/ 'drinks' p a l i t a n / p a l i t a n / 'to change' vs. p a l i t a n / p a l i t a n / • exchange*' s i n g i l i n / s i n i l f n / 'to c o l l e c t accounts' vs. s i n g i l i n / s i n l l i n / 'accounts c o l l e c t i b l e ' tahanan /tahanan/ 'to l i v e i n a house' vs. tahanan /tahanan/ 'home' 140 tanawin /tanawfn/ 'to look from afar' vs. tanawin /tanawin/ ! s c enery 1 The following verbs with the stress on the penult are distinguished from the corresponding nouns with the stress on the ultima.' bihisan /bihfsan/ 'to dress soneone* vs. bihisan /bihisan/ 'dressing-room* hugasan /hugasan/ 'to wash' vs. hugasan /hugasan/ 'place f o r washing' orasan /?orasan/ 'to time' vs. orasan /?orasah/ 'timepiece, clock' pasukan /pasu*kan/ 'to enter' vs.' pasukan /pasukan/ 'opening of classes' samahan /samahan/ 'to accompany someone' vs. samahan /samahah/ 'company, society' There are many other i n t e r e s t i n g examples of contrasting p a i r s . Only f i v e samples f o r each set were given to i l l u s t r a t e the point. These samples were taken from the comparatively long l i s t of minimal stress contrasts collected by this investigator f o r further study. Tagalog utterances are spoken with;;three l e v e l s of p i t c h : low /!/, mid /2/, and high /3/.! Pitch / l / i s the "normal l e v e l " f o r s y l l a b l e s under weak stress and p i t c h /2/ f o r s y l l a b l e s under secondary or primary stress. P i t c h /3/ i s f o r s y l l a b l e s with s p e c i a l emphasis. Normally, only p i t c h /!/ and /2/ are used i n most contours. 1 Pitch i s correlated with stress. Tagalog has a syllable-timed rhythm since the rate of the utterance of 141 a succession of s y l l a b l e s remains approximately the same under any stress. Closely a l l i e d with the problems of stress are those of junctures. Two types of terminal junctures are recognized i n Tagalog. One may be l a b e l l e d " l e v e l " juncture, or "single bar / | /. I t occurs both i n t e r n a l l y i n utterance and f i n a l l y , and has important syntactic functions.' The other type may be l a b e l l e d " r i s i n g " juncture /j /, which marks a pi t c h r i s e . I t occurs i n t e r n a l l y i n utterance and f i n a l l y i n certain kinds of questions. 142 13.1 Alternative Formulations A survey of various works on the phonology of Tagalog reveals the existence of more than one solution f o r certain phonemic problems.1 Differences i n formulations f o r the same set of facts have been found. One analyst, f o r instance, st a r t s from the same data and arrives at d i f f e r e n t conclusions because of differences i n premises and procedures. This "non-uniqueness of phonemic solutions," as i t i s c a l l e d by l i n g u i s t s , i s observed i n the already-extant phonemic analyses examined f o r t h i s study.1 The d i f f e r e n t formulations discussed here are not neces-s a r i l y the most important, but perhaps the most revealing of the attitudes and philosophy of the analysts. There are, f o r instance, differences i n graphic symbolization, such as the use of the digraph /ng/ f o r the v e l a r nasal /n/, or the choice of the symbol /?/, /q/ or /*/ f o r the g l o t t a l stop.' The 19 B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa (Grammar of the National Language) and the adaptations of i t made by various writers symbolize the g l o t t a l stop by a grave accent /*!/ over the f i n a l vowel and by a hyphen /-/ i n word-medial position,*! But these are purely graphic differences.' Another point i s the treatment of / t s / . Wolfenden, 2 0 f o r y B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa. Publications of the I n s t i t u t e of National Language"? (Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1949)"'. Elmer Wolfenden, A Re-statement of Tagalog Grammar. Pub-l i s h e d j o i n t l y by the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s and the I n s t i t u t e of National Language.' (Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1961) p. 2. 143 instance, interprets / t s / as a unitary contoid, describing i t as an a f f r i c a t e sound written with a digraph, not a cl u s t e r as described i n t h i s thesis.' Lopez, x taking cognizance of Bloomfield's Tagalog a n a l y s i s 2 2 treats the a f f r i c a t e combina-tio n / t s / as a single sound, with the / s / always p a l a t a l i z e d but he considers t h i s sound as foreign and therefore not a part .:of the sound system of Tagalog. 1 The i n c l u s i o n of loamrords introduces a few c o n f l i c t i n g phonemic patterns. E a r l i e r works, f o r instance, present a three-vowel pattern against the five-vowel pattern. Some analysts described i , and e or u and o as allophonic variants, which are what they were h i s t o r i c a l l y and s t i l l are i n some di a l e c t s of Tagalog. Bloomfield, f o r instance, assumes that the pairs are free variants ("the higher variants... are commoner than the lower"). PIttman writes: The l e t t e r u and o i n Tagalog, although useful f o r maintaining the d i s t i n c t i v e s p e l l -i n g of certain borrowed words, are, i n f a c t , simply two d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s f o r symbolizing a single phoneme.1 Such l e t t e r s may be ca l l e d •allographs' and, i n t h i s case, represent 'allophones' or d i f f e r e n t pronunciations of a single phoneme.-.v the difference between u and o as what i t t r u l y i s — a s p e l l i n g con-vention only, and not a phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n such as the difference between, fo r example a and i . l 2 3 21 ' " - ' ' -C e c i l i o Lopez, A Manual of the P h i l i p p i n e National Language (Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1940), p.- T%~. 22 . . . Leonard Bloomfield, Tagalog Texts with Grammatical Analysis (Ann Arbor: University Microfilm Inc. 1, 1917), p. 134 23 , . ,R.' S.> Pittman, Descriptive L i n g u i s t i c s Applied to Tagalog (Manila: Publication of the SIL and INL, Paper No.: 11, Sept., 1956) , p.! 5-6. 144 Hemphill analyzes i , and e, as allophones i n free v a r i a t i o n , giving the examples l a l a k i or lalake (man), and u and o as allophones i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i n g the point i n these two sentences: Umupo ka ( S i t down.') and Tayo'y umupo (Let's s i t down.) [umupuka] [tayoyumupo] In the f i r s t one the sound written o i s pronounced much l i k e [u] but i n the second, the o of umupo stands f o r the sound [o]. Wolfenden presents a five-vowel pattern and notes: "In most cases /e/ i s a free alternant of word-final / i / but the two contrast i n Spanish loans . " ^ There are d i f f e r e n t solutions proposed f o r this problem of phoneme i n t e r s e c t i o n (two phonemes sharing common allophones) or i n t e r s e c t i o n of allophones (the confusion of allophones of two d i f f e r e n t but s i m i l a r phonemes).- Analysts have d i f f i c u l t y deciding whether to describe i , and _e, f o r example as separate phoneme or allophones of a single phoneme.1 [e] as an allophone of / i / occurs i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n only, and [ i ] occurs i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n free v a r i a t i o n with [e] and elsewhere. [e3 a s a n allophone of / i / i s predicted i n certa i n p o s i t i o n . I f i t s occurrence i s predictable, one cannot say i t i s a phoneme.' What i s then the phonemic status of [e]? The present investigator would not allow the v a r i a t i o n of [ i ] and [e] i n a l l instances. 1 In a great many Tagalog words, CTR.- J.? Hemphill, "The Analysis of a Language— Sounds" i n Background Readings i n Language Teaching. 1 PCLS Monograph Series No.' 1 (Quezon City: The Phoenix Publishing House, 1962), p.33-34. 25 Wolfenden, l o c . c i t . 145 / i / under strong stress does not alternate with /e/, and clear minimal contrasts f o r / i / vs. /e/ have been established and recognized at l e a s t i n educated speech (see pp.70 &'f3).-Applying the p r i n c i p l e "once a phoneme always a phoneme," the problem here i s solved by po s i t i n g the keystone of the f i v e -vowel system f o r Tagalog. This analysis i s completely i n agreement with that of Stockwell, 2^ t r e a t i n g the alternation between / i / and /e/, /u/ and /o/, and the l i k e , as morpho-phonemic rather than allophonic. Another i n t e r e s t i n g problem i s i n the int e r p r e t a t i o n of the basic s y l l a b l e structure of Tagalog. : The t r a d i t i o n has assumed that Tagalog has four basic s y l l a b l e patterns, namely: V, VC, CV and CVC. This implies that the g l o t t a l consonant /?/ does not occur w o r d - i n i t i a l l y , and that /h/ does not occur word-finally, an analysis that i s r e f l e c t e d i n the writing system.! The Stockwell formulation i s stated as folloxtfs: The four common s y l l a b l e structures i n Tagalog are /V/, /CV/, /VC/, and /CVC/. These may be represented i n the single formula /(C) V (C)/, i n d i c a t i n g that neither, either, or both consonants may be present, and that Stockwell makes the following remarks: "The f a i l u r e to consider loans as an i n t e g r a l part of the language i s a weakness of other analyses... When items borrowed from Spanish lexicon, he explains, are considered (as they must be, since there i s no st r u c t u r a l way of discriminating between them and the non-borrowed items, and since the Tagalog speaker himself cannot t e l l one from the other unless he knows Spanish), then the case f o r f i v e vowels i s much more cer t a i n . " (p.' B-2 & 3) 146 the maximum s y l l a b l e i s /CCVC/, i n which a two-consonant c l u s t e r i n i t i a t e s the s y l l a b l e . The f u l l e s t s y l l a b l e formula i s then /(C) (C) V (C)/.' /V/ includes diphthongs, i.e. ; /V/ and /S/. To include the second element of the diphthong re-quires that one further d i g i t be added to the formula: /(C) (C - S) V (S) (C)/.-*' This analysis does not adhere to writing /?/ before a l l i n i t i a l vowels and /h/ a f t e r f i n a l vowels. Paterno concludes that " G l o t t a l stop /?/ occurs only i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . . . " whereas Cayari takes /?/ as s i g n i f i c a n t also i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . ^ Actually, native speakers of Tagalog automatically place a g l o t t a l stop before words beginning with a vowel i n an u t t e r -ance, and asp i r a t i o n i s always heard a f t e r a vowel i n absolute f i n a l position;' Either /?/ or /h/ i s present i n word-final p o s i t i o n i n words written with a f i n a l vowel. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n d i r e c t l y shown i n school textbooks. Word f i n a l /?/ i s marked "by /**/ or /*/ over the immediately preceding s y l l a b l e although i n rapid speech i t i s only pronounced sentence-finally." /h/ i s shown as the i n i t i a l sound i n suffixes /-nan/ and /-hin/ a l t e r -nating morphemically with /-an/ and / - i n / respectively, e.g.', 27 'Stockwell, on.1 c i t . . p. 34.' 28 Adelaida Paterno, "Tagalog Consonant Phonemes Compared with English Consonant Phonemes." The MST English Quarterly (1957) , P. 17.' 29 'R. M.' Cayari, "The Phonemes of Tagalog." The Philip p i n e  Journal of Science (June, 1956), p.' 251.' Ik? kabataan (< ka- + bat& ' c h i l d , young 1 + -an > /kabat£?an/ 'youth, younger generation' ), kababaihan (< ka- + babae •woman' + -han > /kababa?fhan/ 'women i n general 1 ), basaln (< has a." 'wet'' + - i n > /basa?fn/ 'to wet' ) and basahin (< basa 'read' + -hin > /bas&bin/ 'to read'). In t h i s analysis suffixes /-an/ and / - i n / are described as consisting of two allomorphs each, one with and one without /h/. The present study assumes that Tagalog has no f i n a l vowels.1 A l l absolute f i n a l vowels are here transcribed as /Vh/ or /V?/ i n contrast with /VC/ where /C/ represents a l l other f i n a l consonants, that i s , the bases are described as having phonemic f i n a l /h/ or /?/. This type of analysis eliminates the neces-s i t y of in t e r p r e t i n g /-an « -han/ or / - i n » -hin/ as allomorphs of the same morpheme, thus achieving economy and giving the pattern symmetry and morphophonemic r e g u l a r i t y . This formula-t i o n i s i n agreement with that presented i n the works of the Phi l i p p i n e Center f o r Language Study (e.g. i n Beginning Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of English). E a r l i e r studies such as those of Cayari, Paterno, Stockwell, etc., assert that there are no f i n a l c l u s t e r i n Tagalog but the present study reveals that f i n a l clusters also occur i n a number of Tagalog words that are of general, normal and everyday use (Cf. Prejunctural Consonant Clusters).' This study also disagrees with Stockwell's conclusion that "The only important r e s t r i c t i o n s on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the consonants are that / r / i s rare i n i t i a l l y and f i n a l l y . . 1 . 1 " (p. B-30).- A long l i s t of Tagalog words having i n i t i a l and f i n a l / r / disproves that conclusion.' 148 Another difference i s that some analyses have oriented t h e i r contrast on the basis of the voiced-voiceless axis only, where as this study gives minimal contrasts on the basis of voicing, point and manner-of-articulation axis. Other problems are concerned with stress or accentuation i n Tagalog.- There may be d i f f e r e n t solutions to the problem: which i s phonemic— length or stress? At t h i s early stage of development of Tagalog l i n g u i s t i c s i t i s not easy to say that one type of l i n g u i s t i c formulation i s superior or i n f e r i o r to another. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that the formulations presented i n t h i s thesis are the wrong ones.' The other analyses might be correct. In the words of H a l l : I t has been fashionable to d i s t i n g u i s h , f a c e t i o u s l y , between two approaches to l i n -g u i s t i c s , the 'God's truth' school (which supposedly considers that there i s one funda-mental truth to be expressed concerning every l i n g u i s t i c system), and the 'hocus-pocus' school (which treats l i n g u i s t i c s as simply a set of game-like manoeuvers to be carried out according to the analyst's preconceived p r i n -c i p l e s , and using the l i n g u i s t i c facts only as a set of data to be manipulated at w i l l ) . In these terms, we can perhaps say that 'God's truth' i n language (as i n other matters) does ex i s t , but that i t i s not given to man to discover i t and formulate i t i n any but approx-imate terms, which can have only r e l a t i v e v a l -i d i t y ; and that hocus-pocus i s b a s i c a l l y f o r -eign to the aims of l i n g u i s t i c s or any other science, except as a perhaps unavoidable part of the 'philosophy of as if_' inherent i n a l l s c i e n t i f i c analysis.'30 H a l l , op_.< c i t . , p.i 123.' 149 14. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS Ta g a l o g has twenty-one segmental phonemes: f o u r t e e n consonants / p t k ? b d g m n n s h l r / , two semivoxtfels / w y /, and f i v e vowels / i e a o u /. The semivowels f u n c t i o n as consonants i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n . The d i p h t h o n g s a r e : / ey ay oy uy i w aw /. Some a n a l y s t s p r e s e n t a t h r e e - v o w e l system of Ta g a l o g : / i a u /. They d e s c r i b e [ e j and [ o ] as a l l o p h o n e s of / i / and / u / , r e s p e c t i v e l y , which they were h i s t o r i c a l l y , and s t i l l a r e i n some d i a l e c t s o f T a g a l o g . The p r e s e n t s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t f i v e vowel phonemes now e x i s t i n t h e language as e v i d e n c e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f m i n i m a l and n e a r - m i n i m a l c o n t r a s t s . The a l t e r n a t i o n s between / i / and /e/, and / u / and / o / were h e r e c o n s i d e r e d morphophonemic r a t h e r t h a n a l l o p h o n i c . Other morpho-phonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s commonly observed i n T a g a l o g a r e : // ay - ey „ e //, // a ? i - ay » ey «e //, // Cuw - Cvr //, // m « n •» n //, // C i y « Cy //, // d - r //, // d - 1 //, // r - 1 //, // n - n //, /fii ~ 1 //, / / * " S //,//1 ~ h //,//& « (/f/) //, and //b - (/v/) //.* Some o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e c o n d i t i o n e d , d i a l e c t a l o r s t y l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i o n s . The b a s i c s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e i s CV and CVC. A l l f i n a l s y l l a b l e s r e q u i r e a . f i n a l consonant. A T a g a l o g word e n d i n g w i t h a vowel may have a f i n a l / ? / or / h / a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e w r i t i n g system. Consonant c l u s t e r s o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y . S u p r a s e g m e n t a l l y , T a g a l o g has t h r e e k i n d s of s t r e s s : *The sounds i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e n o t a p a r t o f the sound system of T a g a l o g . 150 primary / 7 , secondary /"/ and weak (unmarked). I t has three l e v e l s of pi t c h : / l / , / 2 / and / 3 / , reading from low to high and two terminal junctures: a single bar / j / and a r i s i n g juncture / \ /. As there exist minimal contrasts based on the incidence of the stress, i t may be necessary to conclude that stress i s phonemic i n Tagalog. There are at l e a s t two contrasting l e v e l s of stress: primary vs. weak. An intermediate l e v e l of phonetic loudness or secondary stress i s present i n Tagalog but no contrast i s involved. I t s occurrence might turn out to be predictable, and i t might be interpreted as an allophone of the primary stress, occurrring i n certain positions.* There i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between Tagalog stress and length of the vowel i n the stressed s y l l a b l e . Length i s conditioned by stress. Which i s phonemic i n Tagalog— stress or length? I f stress i s phonemic, how many stress phonemes are there i n Tagalog? Are p i t c h and juncture also to be considered phonemes? The problems of stress, length, p i t c h , rhythm, juncture and intonation pattern of Tagalog need further study.1 Some aspects of these features require thought and research beyond the scope of th i s thesis. The solution to the problems i s l e f t f or future i n v e s t i g a t i o n . *In the present study the secondary stress i s marked i n the tr a n s c r i p t i o n as though i t were an established phoneme. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bloomfield, Leonard. Language. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1933. Francis, Nelson W. The Structure of American English. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1958 Gleason, Henry A. An Introduction to Descriptive L i n g u i s t i c s . Second e d i t i o n , New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1955. H a l l , Robert A. Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Chilton Company, 1964. Hibbit, George W. Fundamentals of Speech. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962. H i l l , Archibald A. Introduction to L i n g u i s t i c Structures. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1958. Hockett, Charles.- A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Macmillan, 1962. Hughes,. .John P. The Science of Language: An Introduction to  L i n g u i s t i c s . Fourth p r i n t i n g . New York: Random House, 1964. Jakobson, Roman, C. Gunnar M.' Fant, and Morris Halle. Preliminaries to Speech Analysis. Cambridge, Mass.: Acoustics Laboratory, M. I. T., 1952 Jakobson, Roman and Morris Halle. Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1956 Jones, Daniel. An Outline of English Phonetics. Ninth p r i n t i n g . Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd., 1962. . The Phoneme. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd., 1950. Katz, J e r r o l d and J . Fodor. Readings i n the Philosophy of  Language.' Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1964. Malmberg, B e r t i l . Phonetics. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963. Martinet, Andre*. Phonology as Functional Phonetics. London: Oxford University Press, 1949. 152 Pike, Kenneth L. . Language i n Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior. Vol. I. C a l i f o r n i a : Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , 1954. . Phonemics: A Technique f o r Reducing Language to Writing.- Ninth p r i n t i n g . Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1964. Robins, R. H. General L i n g u i s t i c s : An Introductory Survey. Second p r i n t i n g . London: Longmans, 1965• Sapir, Edward. Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1921. De Saussure, Ferdinand. Cours de Linguistique .Generale., Par i s : Payot. English t r a n s l a t i o n . Course i n General  Linguistics;' New York: Philosophical Library, 1959* Thomas, C. K. The Phonetics of American English.' Second edition.- New York: Ronald Press Co., 1958. Wise, Claude M.: Introduction to Phonetics. Third printing.' Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962. Z i p f , George.. The Psycho-biology of Language.' Massachusetts: The M.I.T.' Press, 1965. B.'- COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS AND ARTICLES OR PAPERS F i r t h , J . R. Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s , 1934-1955, London: Oxford University Press, 1957* Halle, M.', H. Lunt and H. McLean (comp.).. For Roman Jakobson. Essays on the Occasion of His S i x t i e t h Birthday. Cambridge, Mass.: Mouton and Co., 1956 Hemphill, J . R. (ed.).' Background Readings i n Language Teaching.! PCLS Monograph Series, No. 1. Quezon City: Pheonix Publishing House, 1962. Joos ,MartjnT.(ed;).)Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: The American Council of Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1958. Lunt, Horace G. (ed.). Proceedings of the Ninth International  Congress of Linguists . Aug. 27-31, 1962. Cambridge, Mass.". Mouton and Co., 1964. SIL, Oceanic L i n g u i s t i c s . (Papers i n Philippi n e L i n g u i s t i c s ) , Vol. I I I . N O . 1, 1964. Sivertsen, Eva (ed.). Proceedings of the Eighth International  Congress of Linguists . Oslo University Press., 1958. 153 G. ARTICLES Reprint Series i n Language and Linguistics.' Indianapolis, Indiana: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc.: Block, Bernard. "A Set of Postulates for Phonemic Analysis," Language Monograph No.' 1948. Fisbher-J^rgensen, E l i . ' "The Commutation Test .and I t s Application to Phonemic Analysis," Language Monograph No. 22 , 1956. F r i e s , Charles C..' and K.- L. Pike, "Coexistent Phonemic Systems," Language Monograph No.' 26 , 1949. Halle, M. "On the Role of Si m p l i c i t y i n L i n g u i s t i c Descriptions.," Language Monograph No.- 35. Harris. "From Phoneme to Morpheme," Language Monograph No.' 39. Haugen, Einar. "Phoneme or Prosodeme," Language Monograph No. 82, 1949.-Twaddell, William Freeman.: "On Defining the Phoneme," Language Monograph No.' 16. 1935. 1 D. PAMPHLETS Bibliography of the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s . C a l i f o r n i a , 1964.-BlocJr, Bernard and George L. Trager. Outline of L i n g u i s t i c Analysis.' Baltimore: L i n g u i s t i c Society of America, 1942. Pike, Kenneth L. and Eunice V. Pike,; Live Issues i n Descriptive  L i n g u i s t i c s . Second edit i o n . C a l i f o r n i a : Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , i 9 6 0 . E. WORKS ON TAGALOG B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa (Grammar of the National Language). Publ i c a t i o n of the INL. Fourth P r i n t i n g . Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1950.' Beginning Tagalog: A Course f o r Speakers of English. 1 Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1965.1 Bloomfield, Leonard. Tagalog Texts with Grammatical Analysis.. University of I l l i n o i s Studies i n Language and Li t e r a t u r e , Vol. 3, No. 3 , 1917. 154 Buck, Hs H.- .,lTagalog.,..-The National Language," Journal of the  East A s i a t i c Society. Vol. 1 I l l , 1954.' Cayari, .Remedios ..M.I J'.The Phonemes of Tagalog," The Phi l i p p i n e Journal of Science. June, 1956.' F r e i , Es -.J.s ~ -The H i s t o r i c a l Development of the P h i l i p p i n e  National Language.' P h i l i p p i n e Society of Science and Humanities Review, Vol XV, 1950. Lopez, C e c i l i o s A Manual of the Philippi n e National Language.' Second edition.' Manila: Bureau of P r i n t i n g , 1941. .• "Foreign Influence i n Tagalog," P h i l i p p i n e Review, 1944.' Paterno, Adelaida, "Tagalog Consonant Phonemes-,Compar.ed .with English Consonant Phonemes," The MST English Quarterly. 1957. -Pittman, Richard S. "Descriptive L i n g u i s t i c s Applied to Tagalog," Publications of the INL. Paper No.: 11.' Manila: Bureau of Pr i n t i n g , 1956*7 Stockwell,. .Robert P.( A Contrastive Analysis of English and Tagalog.' Part I.' Introduction and Phonology (Mimeograph) s University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1958.' Wofenden, Elmers A Re-Statement of Tagalog Grammar.- Publication of the SIL and INL, Manila, 1961. Yap, Fe As ( comp...) P i l i p i n o — E n g l i s h . E n g l i s h — P i l i p i n o Dictionary»i Quezon City : The Phoenix Publishing House, I96I.1 INDEX accent, 109, 135, 142 accent mark, 134, 135 a l i o - (prefix), 91 allograph, 143 allomorphs, 147 allophone, i i i 9 1 . 94 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 9 8 , 128, 144, 149, 150 allophonic variation, 14, 97 , 143, 149 alternation, i i i , 5 , 9 4 , 101, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 1^9 alternative formulations, 1, 142 alveolar, 14, 18, 26, . Arabic, xvi articulatory phonetics, 6 assimilation, 131 automatic, 132 axis, 148 bi l a b i a l , 16, 26, 32 Bloomfield, Leonard, 2 , 21 , 143 •bundle* of features, 25 Cayari, R., 2 , 146, 147 Chinese, xiv, xv closed syllable, 6 7 , 108. cluster, i i i , 109, 110, 123, 124, 125, 126, 143, 147, 149 complementary distribution, i i i , 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 8 , 144 concept, 10 conditioned alternation, 130, 149 consonant, 7, 15 , 22 , 2 3 , 2 5 , 26, 28, 94, 9 6 , 108, 109. 110, 124, 125, 129. 130, 147, 149 contoid, 6 , 7 contrast, i i , 1, 4 , 5 , 9 , 26, 31, 32, 9 1 . 94 , 129, 147. 148 contrastive distribution, 32, 92 contrastive doublets, 58 corpus, 3 correlation, 33 , 34 dental, 16, 32 diagram, 11 dialectal alternations, 132, 149 dphthongs, 2 3 , 24, 101, 149 distinctive features, i i , 25 , 28, 30, 31 distribution, i i , 1, 4 , 5 , 31 , 35, 91, 9 2 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 100, 107, 147 -erne (suffix), 10 emic, 9 English, xiv, xv, x v i i i , 19 , 30 126, environment, 32 , 34, 9 2 , 9 3 , 129 etic, 9 156 flap, 18 foreign, 102, 106, 109, 133» 135 form class, 138 free variation, i i i , 93, 96, 99 French, xv frequency, 127, 128 fricatives, 18, 28, 91 function, 28, 3 1 , 32, 35, 9 1 , ( functional, 10, 25 German, xv glide, 23 glottal, 17, 27, 135, 1^2, 1^5 146 "God's truth", 148 Greek, xv Hall, Robert AS, 10, 148 Hebrew, xv Hemphill, RS Js, 2, 144 high vowel, 15, 22 H i l l , Archibald, 107 Hindustani, xvi "hocus-pocus," 148 identity of function, 35 Ilokano, xiv Indian language, xvi Indonesian language, xvi informant, i i , 2, 3 intensity, 135 Japanese, xv juncture, i v , 1, 14, 124, 134, 141, 149, 150 l a t e r a l , 18 Latin, xv length, i i , i v , 1, 99, 131, 134 136, 148, 150 l e x i c a l , xiv, xv, 124 linear, 15 lingual, 28 lip-rounding, 14, 30 loan-word, xiv, 106 Lopez, Cecilio, 143 low vowel, 15, 22 major languages, x i i i Malay, xiv Malayo-Polynesian family, x i i i Manila, x i i i , 3 , 101 Mindoro, x i i i , 3 mid vowel, 15, 21, 22 minimal pair, 35, 138 minor languages, x v l i i morphophonemics, 1, 101, 128, 129 147, 149 nasal, 17, 28 nasality, nasalization, 99 157 national language, i i , xiv, x v i l non-contrastive distribution, 92 non-uniqueness, 142 nucleus, 7, 22,; 108 open syllable, 108 organs of speech, 9, 16 orthography, 20, 24, 133, 135 Pacific, western, x i i i palatalized, palatalization, 94, 95, 143 palate, 18, 19 Paterno, A.i, 2, 146, 147 pattern-congrui ty, 22 peak, 22, 108 Philippines, i i , x i i i , xiv, 1, 102, 147 phone, 91, phoneme, i i , 4, 8, 10, 14, 15 , 20, 24, 32, 35, 91, 94, 9 6 , 101, 107, 126, 127, 128, 144, 149 phonemic;; 10, 26, 27, 128, 129, 131, 142, 143, 148 phonemics, 1, 8, 9, 107 phonetic, 7, 9, 30 , 31,' 35, 150 phonetics, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9 phonological component, 25 phonology, 142 phonotactics, 107 Pike, Kenneth 1.1, i i , 4 , 7, 9 pitch, i v , 14, 134, 135, 140, 141, 150 Pittman, Richard, S;% 2 , 143 positional variant, 91 prestige, 133 primary stress, i v , 97 , 135, 139, 149, prosodeme, 134 prosodic features, 134 prosody, 134 rhythm, 140 rounded, 12 , 14 Russian, xvi Sanskrit, xvi Sapir, Edward, 26 schwa, 21 secondary stress, i v , 97 , 135, 139. 149 segmental, 1, 14, 15 , 30, 134, 136, 149 segmentation, 11 semivowels, 19 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 26, 28, 110, 149 sonority, 21 , 108 sound, 6 , 10 , 11, 2 1 , 2 2 , 26, 28, 31, 9 1 , 102, 143 Spanish, xiv, xv, 19, 30 , 126, 127, 133 speech, 3 , 6 , 9 , 11 , 9 4 , 101, 131, 146 speech-sound, 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 3 , 91 Stockwell, Robert, 2 , 145, 147 stops, 15 , 16 , 2 ? , 28, 32, 33 stress, i i i , i v , 14 , 97 , 100, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139 140, 141, 148, 149, 150 structure of syllables, i i i , 107 149 s t y l i s t i c alternations, 133, 1^9 suffix, 9 , 146, 147 suprasegemental, i v , 1, 14, 134 syllables, 21 , 23 syllable, 2 1 , 22 , 2 3 , 9 8 , 107, 108, 124, 127, 135, 136, 141, 146, 149 syllable-timed, 140 symbol, i x , 1, 9 , 1 0 , 12 , 14, 16 symmetry, 27, 147 synchronic, i i , 3 , 5 system, i i , 9 , 27 , 2 8 , 3 0 , 3 1 , 32 , 109, 13^, 143, 149 Tagalog, x i i i , xiv, xv, x v i i , x v l i i , 1, 3 , 6, 14, 27, 30, 9 1 , 101, 102, 108, 124, 125 126, 127, 128, 129, 13^, 135, 136, 137, 146, 147, 149 tongue, 14, 18 traditional, 1, 135 transcription: phonetic, ix, 10 , 2 0 , 24,; phonemic, ix; ethnophonemic, 10; morpho-phonemic, i x t r i l l , 195 unit, i i , 5 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 25 , 91 unrounded, 12 , 14 unstressed, 2 1 , 136 uvula, 14, 9 8 , 9 9 , 106, 128,143 variant, 9 8 , 9 9 , 106, 128, 143 variation, i i i , 1, 4 , 5 , 31, 9 1 , 9 6 , 100, 144 velar, 17 velum, 14 Visayan, xiv, xv i i vocal bands, 27 vocoid, 6 , 7, 2 1 , 127 voice, 26 , 33 voiced, 16, 17, 27 , 28 voiceless, 16 , 17, 18, 26 , 27 vowel, 7, 2 1 , 30, 9 1 , 94 , 9 7 , 108, 109, 110, 127, 128, 129 135, 146, 147, 159 weak stress, i v , 9 8 , 135, 149 Wolfenden, Elmer, 142 Writing system, i i i , 109 zero, 135 

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