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An experiment in art instruction in the Peace River educational area Gaitskell, Charles D. 1939

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tjyf ,> 6 i F AN EXPERIMENT IN ART INSTRUCTION IN THE PEACE RIVER EDUCATIONAL AREA f by Charles Dudley Ga i t s k e l l A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October„ 1939 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter p a f e e 1. THE AESTHETIC STANDARDS. OE THE PEOPLE. . . . . 1 1. l i f e , Leisure Time a&d Aesthetics. 2. The Average Man's Standards Q>i Aesthetics. 3. Industry and Aesthetics. 4. The School and Aesthetics. 5. Problems to be Discussed i n This Thesis. 11. THE HISTORY OF ART INSTRUCTION IN THE SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA .13 1. Sources Consulted. 2. General History of Art Instruction i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. The Evolution of the Programmes of Study • for Art. . . 4. The History of Art Examinations. 5. The History of Art i n the Normal Schools. 6. Other Institutions-Teaching Art. 111. THE ART PROGRAMME IN THE SCHOOLS OP THE PEACE RIVER AREA PRIOR TO 1936. . . . . . . . . 39 1. Observations i n General. 2. A iSurvey Seeking Definite Data. 3. Analysis of Conditions. TV. SOME INFLUENCES AFFECTING THE: TEACHING OF ART IN THE PEACE RIVER INSPECTORATE PRIOR TO 1936 • o • a 0 o » © » » « » 9 o © • • • e • • 30 1. Influence of the Normal Schools on the Teaching of Art i n the Rural Schools. i i Chapter Page 2..Influence of the Vancouver School of Art on the Rural Schools. 3. The Policy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,and Its Effects. 4. Influence of the Programme of Study. 5. Influence of the Text-Book i n Use. 6. Influence of Government Examinations. 7. The Outstanding Weaknesses. V. EXPERIMENT IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA WITH A NEW PROGRAMME OF ART, 1936-7. . . . . . . . . 64 1. Aesthetic Philosophy on "Which the Experiment Was Based. 2. Reports Outlining the Experiment. 3. Report Sent to Dr. W. A. Plenderleith i n . A p r i l , 1936. 4. Agreements Reached between the Director of Education and the Writer. 5. Report Sent to Mr. A. S. Towell i n December, 1936. 6. Report Sent to Mr, A. S. Towell i n June, 1937. VI. AN APPRAISAL OF THE PEACE RIVER EXPERIMENT IN ART INSTRUCTION 100 1. Mr. Towell's Appraisal of the Experiment. 2. The Opinions of the Teachers. 3. The Significance of These Opinions. 4. An Appraisal of the Experiment Based on Opinions of the Director of Education and the Teachers. 5. Adverse Criticisms of the Experiment. 6. F e a s i b i l i t y of Large-scale Administration of the Plan. V l l . ART INSTRUCTION AND AESTHETIC STANDARDS IN THE FUTURE. « . » . . . . . . . . . . • « . . 118 ~ i i i Chapter Page 1. Review of Conditions i n the Peace River Area Previous to the Experiment. 2. Summary of the Experiment and of the Conclusions Derived from I t . 3. Recommended Changes i n the Programme of Art i n the Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 . Some Problems Which Should Be Studied. 5. Possible Future Developments. 1*1 ST OF TABX*ES • • • • • • < » * » * o vx i J J I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS • • • • • « • • < > • • • © © « © • v i i i CONTENTS OF APPENDIX . i x J^JPJP-EH^IJD IIEI • • • « « • • • • • • • « • « • • • • • © © © 1 3 6 B IS Itl 0 GRJUPKY" • « * • * « • • • • • • 9 * » e « e » e « 171 i v LIST OF TABLES Table , Page 1. Results o f the Questionnaire of March 24, 1936. 35 11. Enrolment by Grades of pupils P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Experiment . 82 111. Other Enrolment Data. . . . . 82 IV. Miscellaneous Data Concerning the F i r s t Term of Operation of the Experiment. . . . . . . . 83 V. Costs of the Experiment 86 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Plate Page General Explanation of -^lates. . . 89 1. "Northern Lights over Dawson Creek" . 90 11. ". . .The souls, mounting up to God Went by her l i k e thin flames" 91 111. S t i l l Life-Study of Flowers . . . . . . . . . 92 IV, Costume Design 93 V. "Launching of the .Queen Mary" 94 VI. " Fear" . 95 V l l . "Spread of Disease". . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 V l l l . S t i l l Life-Study of Flowers. . . . . . . . . . 97 IX. Line Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 X. Indian's Head. . . . . . . . . . . 99 v i CONTENTS OF APPENDIX Page 1. The Aesthetic Philosophy on Which the Experiment WSIS B&SS (3. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • • 0 0 0 0 0 0 137 2. Communication from Mr. J. Gough, February 25, 1938 . 152 3. Communication from Dr. W. A. Plenderleith, September 27, 1937, and Enclosed Statement. . . „ . . . . 154 4. Communication from Mr. C. H. Scott, and the Question-naire to Which the Communication Was a Reply, tTU.Xy 20} 1937 » • « » • 0 6 e o • 0 e • 0 » e 0 15 6 5. Communication from Mr. C. H. Scott, and the Question-naire to "Which the Communication Was a Reply, January 28, 1938. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 6. Communication from Mr. C. H. Scott, February 22, 1938 • © • • • * • • 0 0 « 0 0 0 0 « « a . * . * o 160 7. Communication from Mr. A. S. Towell, June-20,1937 . 161 8. Communication from Mr. W. P. Weston, and His Reply to a Questionnaire, August 12, 1937 . . . . . . 165 9. Circular Letter to Teachers i n the Peace River Area, Ms.x*cli 24:$ 1936 0 « « » 0 » » • « 0 0 • « • • « • 167 10. Circular Letter to Teachers i n the Peace River Area, March 19, 1937.. 169 v i i CHAPTER 1 THE AESTHETIC STANDARDS OF THE PEOPLE AN EXPERIMENT IN ART INSTRUCTION IN THE PEACE RIVER EDUCATIONAL AREA CHAPTER 1 THE AESTHETIC STANDARDS OF THE PEOPLE In h i s analysis of the leading kinds of a c t i v i t y which constitute human l i f e , Herbert Spencer places leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s l a s t i n importance. Among the leisure-time a c t i -v i t i e s he includes art. Art i s to him a luxury which may be indulged i n only after a l l other necessary a c t i v i t i e s have re-ceived t h e i r f u l l e s t share of attention. Progressive systems of education tend to place art i n a r e l a t i v e l y higher position i n school a c t i v i t i e s . The general f e e l i n g i n these quarters i s that art should hold an important place i n our l i v e s . Educators have been endeavouring i n recent years to bring about a marked change i n the once widely accepted Spencerian position. It i s t h e i r professed b e l i e f that pupils should leave our public schools with a reasonably broad understanding and appreciation of a r t . i i 5 . , L i f e , Leisure Time and Aesthetics Movements i n art are. expressions of the i r s o c i a l back-grounds. Few examples of art existing apart from t h e i r s o c i a l environment can be brought forward. This i s a proof that art cannot be separated from daily l i v i n g . Art may manifest i t s e l f i n our l i v e s i n a variety of ways. We are i n touch with art when we seek excellence, not for u l t e r i o r purposes, but merely for the sake of achieving excellence. Such was the attitude of craftsmen and the purpose of g i l d s . The new i n d u s t r i a l techniques of production make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r men to adopt t h i s attitude towards t h e i r work. It i s therefore a l l the more important that art should play i t s f u l l part i n our leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . Certain writers have expressed th e i r alarm i n viewing a dualism which seems to have arisen i n the mind of the general p u b l i e . T h e s e writers f e e l that art i s regarded by many as something apart from l i f e . But they point out that art can-not exist i n i s o l a t i o n . L i f e without art i s an unnatural con-d i t i o n . The aesthetic approach„ frequently termed "the search for excellence", should enter into our numerous d a i l y a c t i -v i t i e s . US/hen we choose clothes, books, or radio programmes; i f we make a garden, or i f we swim, dance, or co l l e c t stamps, the aesthetic attitude to li f e , s h o u l d influence our actions. "^See E* G i l l as an exponent of t h i s school of thought i n h i s Art and & Changing C i v i l i z a t i o n (London: John Lane the Bodley Head, Ltd., 1934). " ~~ — ."4 One of the outstanding tasks of the present-day edu-cators i s to. bridge t h i s gap between l i f e and aesthetics* It i s repeatedly urged that our systems of education must "aim at a l i b e r a t i o n of our creative powers and a guidance of them by many paths to forms of beauty."'*' The gap cannot be bridged u n t i l the average man can appreciate what art has to offer* Accordingly, the purpose of teaching art i n our public schools i s not primarily to create productive a r t i s t s . The educator of to-day desires rather to stimulate an appreciation of fine things and of worthy attitudes. It i s with t h i s i n mind that he organizes broad c u l t u r a l courses. By means of these courses he hopes i n time to elevate public taste, and he eagerly looks for evidences of good taste i n the l i v e s of the people who have been influenced by hi s i n s t r u c t i o n . The Average Man's Standards of Aesthetics Original works of fin e art of any excellence generally cannot be purchased by the average i n d i v i d u a l . If one i s to j'udge the average man's standards of taste, one must do so by observing h i s da i l y goods and chattels. Likewise, i f one i s to appraise the quality of thi s man's imaginative l i f e , one must do so by ref e r r i n g both to the products of hi s d a i l y work and also to h i s leisure a c t i v i t i e s . C r i t i c s here and abroad who have considered these crib -e r i a of taste, have passed severe and pessimistic judgments? 1 L . Jacks, The Education of the Whole Man (London: Harper & Brothers, LMif, p.72~~——* — 5 Why i s the architecture of our large c i t i e s so unworthy of a fine c i v i l i z a t i o n ? It i s not from lack of materials nor lack.of technical capacity . . . . yet i t i s not merely slums but the apartments of the well-to-do that are aes-t h e t i c a l l y r e p e l l e n t . 1 So writes John Dewey i n America, while i n England, Roger Fry says: We may, I think admit that our moral l e v e l , our general humanity i s decidedly higher to-day, but the l e v e l of our imaginative l i f e i s comparatively lower; we are s a t i s f i e d there with a grossness, a sheer barbarity and squalor ?which would have shocked the thirteenth century profoundly. There appears to exist a s t r i k i n g unanimity i n the writings of such c r i t i c s as have been cited regarding the gen-e r a l l e v e l of aesthetic taste. It i s also quite apparent that these authors find grounds for agreement as to the causes of the low l e v e l of aesthetic appreciation. As Dewey expresses i t : The i s o l a t i o n of art that now exists i s not to be viewed as an isolated phenomenon. It i s one manifestation of the incoherence of our c i v i l i z a t i o n produced by new forces, so new that the attitudes belonging to them, and the conse-quences issuing from them have not been incorporated and digested into i n t e g r a l elements of experience. 3 Manifestations of t h i s incoherence i n c i v i l i z a t i o n have perhaps never been more apparent than they are to-day. I t i s not to be wondered at, then, that the arts should r e f l e c t some-thing of t h i s incoherence. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of i n -d u s t r i a l arts - that f i e l d of art which i s most closely oon-neoted with our daily l i v e s - have signs of aesthetic disorder J. Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: Minton Balch & Co., 1934), p. 341.~~~^ ~ g R. Fry, Vision and Design (London:Chatto and Windus, 1920) p. 23 » 3 ;:---jr Dewey, op.cit.. p. 341. e been pronounced. The "new forces" at work i n i n d u s t r i a l art would doubtless include the techniques of machine-craft as opposed to those of the handicrafts. Machines have largely-eliminated the handicrafts with the result that homes and th e i r appointments have been d e f i n i t e l y changed by the new processes of production. Industry and Aesthetics Great as has been the r i s e i n the general standard of l i v i n g through modern i n d u s t r i a l techniques, art e r i t i c s have been quick to censure the type of goods which have been pro-duced. They point out that machines and the Speneerian doc-trine grew up together. Goods were made for their u t i l i t y , and because many of them lacked a certain accustomed beauty which was generally found i n the products of the handicrafts, manufacturers bought designs and applied them to th e i r products. Unfortunately they mixed styles and muddled periods, and thus confused the consumer. Energetic salesmen, say the c r i t i c s , swept away doubts, u n t i l the best became the most expensive, not necessarily the most be a u t i f u l . E r i c G i l l states that: The history of art i n the commercial period has been the history of the art of salesmanship. Step by step things have been s a c r i f i c e d to entries into account books. It i s so even to-day, thinks Clive B e l l : we are at the mercy of the aesthetic tastes of the manufacturer, be they good or .'.poor. 1 G i l l , op„ c i t . 8 p. 98« (One) disease of which taste i s sick unto death has been on us these f i f t y years. It i s the emporium malady. We are slaves of the trademark. . . We no longer i n s i s t on getting what we l i k e , we l i k e what we get. 1 — and because cheapness i s often associated with nastiness: The standard of public taste r e f l e c t e d i n the possess-ions of the majority i s the producer's standard forced on the consumer because the l a t t e r has no power of individual choice.2 The reply which the i n d u s t r i a l i s t would make to meet these attacks of philosophy i s obvious. He would point to the fact that commercial competition i s demanding that he produce beautiful as well as e f f i c i e n t products. And he would remind the c r i t i c s that the aesthetic standard of h i s goods i s but a re f l e c t i o n of aesthetic standards i n general. U n t i l the general public demands a higher standard of aesthetic q u a l i t i e s i n man-ufactured goods i t i s expedient for the producer to continue i n hi s present ways. To advance a thesis either upholding or condemning public taste i s a d i f f i c u l t task. The work of Leavis, F i c t i o n  and the Reading Public, seems to support the view very capably that the general taste f o r l i t e r a t u r e i s lower to-day than i t was some years ago. An interesting survey has recently been made by Geoffrey Holme, i n which he has secured from authorities ^C. B«llj Since Gezann© (London: Chatto and Windus, 1923) 9 p. 148. ~~" ~* ~ ; p • ; G. Holme, Industrial Besign and the Future (London: Studio Limited, 1934), p. 16. ' 3T. D. Leavis, F i c t i o n and the Reading Public (London: Chatto and Windus, 1934}. i n a l l the f i e l d s of art their opinions concerning public taste. The majority of opinions discovered by t h i s writer appear to be summed up i n the following quotations: The masses of the i n d u s t r i a l community possess no cr y s t a l l i z e d taste. Things are imposed on them . . . . The public has habits and not definite views. The contemporary Josiah Wedgewood, discussing the public taste for design i n pottery, holds that the public has not bad taste, but rather, no particular taste. "They play for safety. But a f i r s t - r a t e design impresses them, without their knowing 2 why." Wedgewood continues: It i s a truism that i f designers designed nothing but good.designs, manufacturers would only make good designs, r e t a i l e r s could display nothing else, and the public could only buy good designs. And the exact converse holds good also. The p r a c t i c a l question i s what i s the best point  d'appui. I think undoubtedly i t i s the general education oTTthe public which covers both other classes." 5 Since the education of the general public has been mentioned, i t w i l l be w e l l to attempt to discover some opinions concerning the condition of art teaching i n our public schools. The School and Aesthetics Very few general surveys.of.art.Instruction.in public ^Holme, op. c i t . t pp. 38-80. . The words are those of Serge Chermeyeff. 2 l b I d . , pp. 38-80. g Ibid., pp. 38-80. The above quotations seem to be i n accordance with the majority of opinions to' be found i n t h i s volume. Some opinions were more optimistic while others were more pessimistic. 9 schools seem to have been made. However, the few that can be cited should indicate something of the trends i n the subject of art instruction on t h i s continent. In Chapter VT11 of the Biennial Survey of Education i n the United States, 1928-1950, Royal Bailey Farnum struck an optimistic note when he stated i n the conclusion of h i s survey: A b r i e f glance over the past decade leaves a most o p t i -mistic f e e l i n g with regard to the future of art education i n t h i s country. The nation i s surely awakening. There i s a growing enthusiasm i n support of art i n our public schools. Subsequent investigators have not shown the same en-thusiasm exhibited by the former writer, however* For example, i n 1932, Robert S. Hilpert, Assistant Professor of Art Edu-cation i n the University of Minnesota, offered the following, i n conclusion to h i s survey of schools i n many parts of the United States: Although definite improvement i s shown i n r e l a t i n g the objectives of art to current educational thought, the selection and organization of subject matter do not show a comparable change. ....these (general art) courses seem to adhere clo s e l y to the conventional topics or treatments found i n art courses since the recent wave of curriculum revision. . • . . L i t t l e consideration i s shown of the use pupils may make of the art they are learning.»».i ........ . Art education has not kept abreast with the other subjects i n secondary education i n s c i e n t i f i c investigation They (teachers) should seek the cooperation of trained investigators i n an e f f o r t to improve art education and to help place i t on a par i n educational theory and practice with other subject f i e l d s . XR. B. Farnum, "Art Education", Biennial Survey of Edu-cation i n the United States 1988-1950, U. Department of the Interior, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1931), p.321. 2R. S. H i l p e r t , "Instruction i n Art and Music", National Survey of Secondary Education, U. S. Department of the Interior, "(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933), pp. 47-68. 10 Turning now to the f i e l d of art instruction i n r u r a l schools - the f i e l d with which t h i s thesis i s primarily con-cerned, one d i s c o v e r s some interesting views, F. T i l t o n , Rural School Supervisor, State Department of Education, Dover, Del., writes: Art education i s one of the most neglected phases of the elementary school curriculum of small town, v i l l a g e and country schools...• A l l the evidence at hand shows that conditions are .... unfavourable i n average r u r a l schools. And again: The expansion of art education has been a l l too slow. It has been a series of separate attempts of great i n d i -vidual leaders who have brought about advancement here and there. As yet we cannot t r u t h f u l l y say that art i s an i n -tegral part of elementary education i n America. There are s t i l l too many untouched areas; too many spots where there i s no pattern of organization showing c l e a r l y . In almost every state of the Union the spot most neglected i n art education i s the r u r a l school. 2 Perhaps the most recent pronouncement of importance upon art instruction i n r u r a l schools i s found i n the Yearbook 1958 of the National Education Association i n the United States. F. T 0 Ahlfeld writes: The teaching of art i n the vast majority of one-room rur a l schools i s s t i l l discouraging. One finds traced bunnies f i l l e d i n with crayon...« In many sections one looks for evidences of group projects...• Again evidence of free natural creative expression of emotional ideas i s quite l a c k i n g . 2 T i l t o n , "Art Instruction i n Rural Schools," Pro-ceedings, 1936 (Washington: National Education Association, 1936)7 P. ISO." 2 F . T i l t o n , "Art i n Rural Education," Proceedings, 1936 (Washington: National Education Association,.1936), p. 315. S F . T. Ahlfeld, "Art Instruction," Newer Types of In-struction i n Small Rural Sohools, Yearbook 1938, The Department of Rural Education, NationalTSduc'ation' Association of the United States. (Washington: Printed by the Department of Rural Education, 1938), p. 15. 11 This writer goes on to say that r u r a l teachers of art are often handicapped by poor and inadequate art supplies. She also finds d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the tr a i n i n g afforded the teaehers i n these schools. Although these writers f i n d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with present conditions of art instruction in the f i e l d s of teach-ing which they reviewed, i t must not be inferred that they adopt a hopeless attitude as regards improvement i n instruction. Almost without exception they f i n d evidences which lead them to believe that improvement i s to be found i n the general f i e l d of art teaching. Their outstanding impression seems to be, how-ever, that art instruction i n the United States, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l schools, does not enjoy as high a standard of teach-ing e f f i c i e n c y as may be found i n most of the other subject f i e l d s . These writers are naturally concerned with t h i s state of a f f a i r s , f o r they r e a l i z e the grave outcomes which might attend faulty instruction i n a r t . Aesthetic standards, they f e e l , must be maintained. No one has indicated more f o r c e f u l l y the necessity for upholding aesthetic standards than. B e l l : If standards go, c i v i l i z a t i o n goes. To hear people t a l k you might suppose there had never been such things as dark ages. Besides taste i n art there i s such a thing as taste i n l i f e ; a power of discerning and ohoosing i n l i f e ' s minor matters; and on t h i s taste i n l i f e , t h i s sense of the smaller values, i s apt to f l o u r i s h that subtler and more precious aesthetic sense. Without t h i s taste no c i v i l i -zation can e x i s t . B e l l , op. c i t . , pp. 149-151. 12 . Problems to be Discussed i n This Thesis No survey of art instruction i n Canada seems to have been made. However, general conditions in education i n the United States often r e f l e c t conditions i n t h i s country. There may exist deficiencies i n art instruction here similar to those found by the investigators previously c i t e d . Because of the grave outcomes that would result from faul t y instruction i n art, the writer w i l l make an investigation into the condition of art teaching i n a few r u r a l schools of B r i t i s h Columbia* Our urban schools w i l l not be included i n th i s discussion, for the larger centres have employed super-visors i n art, whose business i t i s to develop-as high a degree as possible of ef f i c i e n c y i n a r t teaching. Should unsatisfactory conditions in art instruction be found in the ru r a l schools under investigation, the f e a s i b i l i t y of a constructive plan for improving these conditions w i l l be discussed. The problem as to whether a system of art i n -struction can be proposed that would meet requirements of effi c i e n c y i n i t s f u l l e s t sense w i l l also be reviewed, -"nd again, the f i n a n c i a l considerations of any proposed system of art instruction w i l l be mentioned. CHAPTER 11 THE HISTORY OP ART INSTRUCTION IN THE SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER 11 THE HISTORY OF ART INSTRUCTION IN THE SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Before being able accurately to understand the present conditions of art instruction i n any of the schools of t h i s province, one must f i r s t study the l o c a l history of the subject. This chapter deals largely with the history of art instruction i n the r u r a l schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Less attention w i l l be given to the progress made by the urban centres i n t h e i r teaching of art. These c i t i e s have drawn away from many of the general trends i n pr o v i n c i a l a r t teaching by appointing super-visors of art. However, wherever the c i t i e s take part i n the history of art instruction i n the province as a whole, they will be mentioned. Sources Consulted Definite documentary evidence as to the evolution of art instruction i s not abundant. Indeed, many of the pro-grammes of study have not been preserved* This being the case, the following h i s t o r y i s based largely on findings i n the annual reports of the Department of Education. Particular attention has been paid to the comments made by inspectors i n the i r annual reports. Additional information has been obtained from xiv 15. conversations with art teachers who have been long in the service. General History of Art Instruction i n B r i t i s h Columbia In 1875, John Jessop, Provincial Superintendent of Edu-cation, made the f i r s t o f f i c i a l statement urging the importance of drawing as a branch of public school instruction. He stated: The object that should be aimed at i s not so much to enable boys and g i r l s to "make pretty pictures" as to t r a i n them to construct a passably good outline of any figure that they may see or the idea of which i s presented to their mind. 1 The significance of thi s statement w i l l be seen to be two-fold. It shows that almost at the beginning of educational development i n t h i s province, art instruction was to receive active interest from the Department of Education. It also shows that Mr. Jessop was a man who held surprisingly modern philosophical views on the subject. The superintendent also pointed out the fact that i t was not possible to employ drawing masters. At t h i s early date i n the period of government-organized education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Mr. Jessop warned the teachers of the province that accomplishment i n art instruction must be the work of the teachers themselves. He advocated, as a help to the problem, that a competent drawing master should be employed to instruct 2 teachers during.their annual gatherings* B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Re- port, 1874-5. p. 15. 2 The reports of the teachers' gatherings make no men-tion that t h i s suggestion was carried out. 16 The problem of art instruction seems to have been given no further attention u n t i l 1885, at which time David Wilson, the P r i n c i p a l of the Boys' School i n New Westminster, stated i n his annual report that the value of drawing could not be over-estimated, and that he proposed to introduce i t i n 1886 into a l l departments of his school. For many years Mr. Wilson as i n -spector of schools, was to c a l l attention to the lack of i n -terest i n the teaching of a r t . ^ On September 8 , 1891, an interesting c i r c u l a r was sent to a l l concerned by S. D. Pope, Secretary of the Council of Public Instruction. Previous to t h i s date teachers were allowed to choose one of three subjects for their c e r t i f i c a t e s from the following group: Music (theory), Drawing ("linear" ), and Botany. The c i r c u l a r made i t clear, however, that i n future teachers who attempted to obtain a F i r s t Class (Grade A or B) certificate would be required to include drawing among t h e i r studies i n order to complete th e i r requirements f u l l y . Evidently as a re-sult of t h i s edict, Mr. Wilson, now an inspector of schools, was able to report that: A deeper interest in drawing has been manifested. .... This subject i s now taught in many of the graded schools and a large number of r u r a l schools. The proficiency attained by pupils i n form study has not been very great, but i n the majority of cases progress has been made in accordance with the s k i l l of the teacher and the time de-voted to the subject. 2 Unfortunately h i s report for 1892-3 did not carry t h i s xOne reason for t h i s i s suggested i n the Third Annual Report of the Department, page 5 0 , where drawing i s c l a s s i f i e d as an "extraordinary subject, l e s s . . . . e s s e n t i a l for teachers." ••••• , 2 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Re-' port, 1891-92. p. 158, — — 17 hopeful note. In i t he stated that while the number of pupils who annually received instruction i n drawing continued to i n -crease, he was s t i l l unable to report much progress i n the study. In 1893 a new champion of art appeared i n the person of William Burns, Inspector of Schools. He protested against the poor attempts at teaching drawing which he had seen i n h i s i n -spectorate. He also l e v e l l e d a c r i t i c i s m at the appearance of the average classroom. In the following year he remarked that the subject of drawing seemed to be u t i l i z e d rather to f i l l up a l i t t l e spare time i n the schools than to afford a course worthy of suitable instruction. He mentioned the use of "draw-ing books" and deplored the manner i n which they were abused. Giving a picture of the p u p i l scribbling i n h i s book without explanation of any sort from the teacher, he d e a r l y pointed out the f a u l t s that invariably accompanied the use of the draw-ing book i n the classroom. His report of 1895 showed h i s similar opinion of the unsatisfactory drawing work that was then being done, while i n 1896 he made the observation that owing to the pressure of the compulsory subjects, the optional subjects (of which drawing was one) seemed not to be receiving s u f f i c i e n t attention. In the meantime, David Wilson had continued to express hi s disapproval of the prevailing conditions of art instruction, In 1894 he stated that the drawing lesson should be one of the bright periods of the day i n the classroom, but that owing to the lack of knowledge of the teachers, progress i n the study of drawing had most certainly not been marked. He said that even 18 poor drawing i n many schools would be better than none. In 1898 he commented on the misuse of the drawing book: Where drawing books are i n use, there i s s t i l l a strong i n c l i n a t i o n to trust e n t i r e l y to them for bringing pupils to a state of proficiency i n drawing.... I fear that at present a great deal o f what passes for drawing i s merely copying. 1 In 1901 he again urged that further attempts at dec-orating the schools should be made. An interesting and healthy note was sounded i n Mr. Burns 9 comment o f the "Teachers 9 Institute" held i n 1902, when he stated: The discussion of "Schoolroom Decoration" i n a paper read by Miss M. C. McFarlane of Vancouver... .was the f i r s t occasion to my knowledge upon which the subject was ever included i n the programme of a Teachers* Institute held i n t h i s province. 2 Another hopeful sign also appeared i n 1902 when i t was stated i n the p r i n c i p a l • s report that D. B l a i r , l a t e r the o r i -ginator of the " B l a i r ' s Drawing Manuals," a B r i t i s h art master, had been appointed to the s t a f f of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School at Vancouver. Meanwhile, any comments which were made concerning the art-teaching situation were unfavourable. I f one glances at random through the inspectors* reports issued after the turn of the century he w i l l f i n d statements making i t clear that sloven-lin e s s instead of neatness i n drawing was being tolerated and that teachers were not giving s u f f i c i e n t time and attention to ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report 1897-98, p. 1249. g 1901 OB " ^ A i t 1 1 C o l m a ^ ^ a department of Education, Annual Report? 19 instruction i n art. In 1906, Vancouver seemed to have begun the organization of a satisfactory system of art inst r u c t i o n . W. P. Argue, the Superintendent of Education i n that c i t y , stated: The teaching of drawing, which for years was unsatis-factory has considerably improved. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n ttie past were due largely to the fact that many teachers were not masters of the subject. Nor i s t h i s to be wondered at, when i t i s considered that only since August, 1905, has drawing been a subject on the High School curriculum. Mention of the appointment of John Kyle of Allo a , Scot-land as Supervisor of Drawing i n the Vancouver Schools i s also found i n the report. This gentleman made i t h i s purpose to hold special classes f o r c i t y teachers, a practice, i t should be c a r e f u l l y noted, which th i s c i t y has ever since found necessary. In 1908, Mr. Argue reported a "large and represent-ative" drawing exhibit held i n Vancouver, while i n 1909 he re-ported that night schools had been opened i n which 36 students had enrolled in the art class. Vancouver has progressed steadily ever since. The reports subsequent to 1909 speak with great s a t i s f a c t i o n of Vancouver's achievements i n art. To-day, owing to improvement i n methods and supervision made under the leader^ ship of Mr. S. P. Judge, the work of ;the art classes i n the Vancouver schools i s generally of a reasonably high standard 2 and seems to be quite up-te-date i n most of the classrooms. Unfortunately, the reports coming from inspectors in other f i e l d s contrast sadly with those from Vancouver. In 1914, . 1 "~~-~*"-"~ ~ " — — ~ ~ •• — . ~" B r i t i s h Columbia.Department. of Education,, Annual Re- port, 1905-06, p. A48. ?The, writer has made some 20 v i s i t s to a l l types of classes in the Vancouver Schools. 20 Inspector John Martin wrote concerning h i s area: There i s no pretense at teaching the subject.... It i s a method to keep children busy. The results obtained are deplorable. 1 Since 1914, summer olasses at V i c t o r i a have beenoffered to teachers. Educational leaders i n the f i e l d of art, includ-ing Mr. Weston, Mr. Scott and Mr. Judge, have given, and i n some cases, continue to give t h e i r servioes to t h i s institution. By 1915, the annual report of the summer school showed an en-rolment of 135 i n the art classes out of a t o t a l of 690 students. The numbers taking instruction were for some years quite large. In 1930, f o r example, 103 were enrolled out of a t o t a l of 446. In recent years, however, the classes have become much smaller. The courses i n art presented at the summer schools do not seem to have influenced r u r a l inspectorates to the extent that one might anticipate. Apparently few r u r a l teachers take advantage of them. Inspectors i n the f i e l d continue to make un-favourable comments regarding art instruction i n r u r a l schools. Apparently i n 1917 the B l a i r Drawing Manuals were brought into use i n the publip schools*^ These books, one for "'"British Columbia Department of Education, Annual Re-port, 1915-14. p. A53. Owing to the low enrolment, classes in art were dis-continued i n 1939. See p. 49, (footnote) *%o figures can be obtained for t h i s assertion* The assumption can be made, however, because of convex-sati-ons. with Mr, Weston and beoause of a communication from Mr. Weston, who states that only "about 10.or >, 12" r u r a l teachers were enrolled i n h i s art class at the 1937 V i c t o r i a Summer School. It must be considered that about 900 teachers were enrolled i n t h i s school, - more than ever before i n the history of the province. See appendix, p. 166 . 4 The drawing books used i n the schools previous to the E l each grade, gave instruction not only i n "freehand" drawing hut also i n geometrical drawing. As well as providing exercises fo r each grade, they stressed copying from half-tone i l l u s t r a -tions. Comments of contemporary drawing teachers of long stand-ing speak of the manuals as "very mechanical." x The B l a i r manuals were.used u n t i l the welcome pub l i -cation of the teachers' manual, Drawing and Design, under the joint authorship of Weston, Scott and Judge. This book, pub-lished i n 1924, gave for i t s time a f a i r l y adequate review of basic art p r i n c i p l e s , and outlined a course which larg e l y was to follow the seasons for the inspiration of school exercises. Inspector A. F. Matthews wrote: In many schools there i s s t i l l a weakness i n the teach-ing of drawing.... I am anticipating an improvement as to the proficiency attained by pupils i n t h i s subject when the text book has come into general u s e r This text book, f i r s t issued to a l l Schools i n 1924, was considered adequate at the time of i t s publication. It was re-vised i n 1936, but i n spite of t h i s revision i t : i s now regarded 3 by some c r i t i c s as old-fashioned i n i t s outlook and method. The Evolution of the Programmes of Study for Art The.history.of art thus far recorded has given various B l a i r publication were c h i e f l y an American make known as the "Prang" series. They were very limited i n t h e i r contents and outlook. xMr. W. P. Weston, for example, made t h i s comment. 2 -B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report^ 1925-24, p. T. 58. 3The reasons for prompting c r i t i c i s m of t h i s book w i l l be discussed l a t e r . See p. 56 . 22 o f f i c i a l opinions of school work as i t has been taught i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. The books which the majority of teachers used have also been mentioned. But what has been the actual programme prescribed for use i n the classroom? Few courses of study have been preserved, but those which can be brought to l i g h t show something of the nature of art teaching i n t h i s province i n the past. The f i r s t outlines required that teaching should be based d i r e c t l y on B l a i r ' s series of drawing books. The next change i s c l e a r l y exhibited i n the Programme of Study for Ele-mentary Schools, (1924). Art teaching led to the following types of work: a. object drawing to be finished i n l i g h t and shade b. nature drawing c. design d. colour e. l e t t e r i n g As stated, these types of work are very vague. They are quoted d i r e c t l y from the Programme of Study i n question, and no more definite information can be given. It i s apparent, however, that the key for teaching these branches of art was the teachers' manual, Drawing and Design, by Weston, Scott and Judge. Following the programme of 1924 came the present course (1939), which f i r s t appeared i n 1936. Work i s assigned f o r the grades from 1 to X l l . Teachers i n r u r a l schools, i n addition to using the elementary school programmes f o r grades 1 to VI, employ the junior high school programmes fo r grades V l l and V l l l . The new series of programmes i s p a r t i c u l a r l y marked by 23 i t s detailed suggestions. The general objectives, which are also set down in d e t a i l , are to be achieved by "art appreciation, applied art and t h e i r integration with other subjects." The work i s divided into columns, as follows: s p e c i f i c aims or ob-jectives; subject matter; a c t i v i t i e s of projects; materials; method; desirable attainments. A bibliography and a suggested l i s t of pictures and prints are also offered. The History of Art Examinations As so few of the e a r l i e r courses of study have been preserved, the examinations issued by the Department of Edu-cation must be consulted, i f a f a i r l y accurate idea of the re-quirements i n art i n the past i s to be obtained. By 1887, drawing was an optional branch of studies i n some of the high schools of the province. The work given in t h i s subject stressed methods of teaching drawing. The high school examination of 1889 presented questions which involved a mixture of the theory of art teaching, " l i n e a r " drawing and geometrical drawing. 1903-4 saw the f i r s t appearance of a drawing examination f o r high school entranoe. This consisted of two questions: one on freehand drawing and one involving scale drawing. The following year the test was divided into three parts: model drawing (actually from the object placed by the examiner before h i s class), freehand drawing and praotioal and plane geometry. The next year saw another ohange. Two ex-aminations, one f o r c i t y candidates and the other for r u r a l 1 24 I .- -.. . -..... .. ., - -1 ' • ' . I pupils were set. No change i n type questions was made, but the i examples for the c i t y candidates were s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t than those for candidates from outside points. 1910-11 wit-nessed another change, when a l i t t l e simple colour harmony was introduced. The next year the examination required three selec-tions taken from the drawing book of each p u p i l . A model draw-ing with shading (from memory) was asked, while the c i t y pupils were required to give an example of the i r l e t t e r i n g . For years pupils were asked to copy " s c r o l l s , " but why th i s p a r t i c u l a r form of exercise was stressed was never made clear. In 1921 the photograph-copying type of question was introduced into the high school examinations, which appeared by 1925 i n the elementary school t e s t . 1926 saw the end of the geometrical construction type of question. The " s c r o l l , " how-ever, persisted. In 1936 the government examination i n art f o r the high school entrance examination was abolished. Up to t h i s date the t y p i c a l government test was composed of the following types of question: a. Four drawings, the work of each pupil, were to be sub-mitted and were to be valued at about 20$. These drawings were to be based on type exercises taken from the course of study. They have ra r e l y called f o r . o r i g i n a l i t y of expression. b« An example of l e t t e r i n g to be done during the examina-t i o n s i t t i n g . c. A pencil drawing copied from a photograph (usually re-touched) of an object such as a book. d, An outline drawing, from memory, of such an object as a pitcher. e» A copy of a highly conventional design of such an object 25 as a f i s h , butterfly, or t r e e . 1 The,latest type of examination (1937) i s administered by inspectors on t h e i r tour of the schools rather than at a s i t t i n g during the period of government examinations, and consisted of two questions, both r a d i c a l l y different from the 1936 type. A white card bearing an outline- of a b i r d or similar figure i s shown to the elass by the o f f i c i a l . After two minutes of ob-servation, the children are asked to reproduce an exact copy from memory. The pupils are allowed four minutes to make their copy. There follows a card on which i s printed an outline of such a figure as a box i n angular perspective. The pupils are asked to copy t h i s from memory. This i s the only test of ability i n art given i n the elementary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia by an o f f i c i a l representing the Department of Education. The History of Art i n the Normal Schools Before passing on to a c r i t i c a l study of present-day conditions i t w i l l be well to survey b r i e f l y the history of the normal schools and the work of th e i r drawing masters. Before the f i r s t normal school was opened in Vancouver i n 1901-2, i t was the custom to t r a i n teachers i n various high schools. The records do not show that there was any high school outstanding i n art training during t h i s period. When the normal school i n Vancouver was opened, Mr. W. Burns, the p r i n c i p a l , showed i n his report that of the three •^-Certain centres (e.g. Vancouver) gave other types of tests previous to 1936, according to information received from Mr. Judge. teachers composing the staff of the i n s t i t u t i o n , one of t h e i r number was an,instructor of drawing. This art master was Mr. B l a i r , author of the B l a i r Drawing Manuals which have been pre-viously mentioned. Following Mr. B l a i r was Mr. J", Kyle, who resigned as Supervisor of Art i n the Vancouver schools to take up h i s duties as drawing master i n the normal school i n 1909. Mr. H. Dunnell, a manual tra i n i n g instructor, relieved Mr. Kyle in 1911. With the opening of the normal school i n V i c t o r i a , Mr. Dunnell was sent there to resume hi s work of art instructor i n 1915, while Mr. W. P. Weston became the art teacher i n Vancouver. Mr. Dunnell continued i n h i s capacity at V i c t o r i a u n t i l h i s r e t i r e -ment i n 1931, when Mr. J. Gough was appointed in h i s place. It may be noted here that the Provincial Normal School at Viotoria has never had on i t s s t a f f an art instructor whose primary qualifications'were i n art. Other Institutions Teaching Art Another i n s t i t u t i o n which trains art teachers i s the 1 Vancouver School of Art. A four-year course i s presented here for s p e c i a l i s t s , while recently (1937) a summer course has been made available to any teacher who i s interested i n a r t . Un-fortunately, very few r u r a l teachers, f o r reasons which w i l l be described l a t e r 5 can p r o f i t by t h i s opportunity for summer train-ing i n art. Neither can the r u r a l schools benefit to any great extent from the services of the graduates of the four-year art -Established i n 1925. 27 course, since i n the f i r s t place they are for the most part ab-sorbed into,the larger centres, while secondly t h e i r teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s do no make them q u a l i f i e d to instruct general 1 classes i n r u r a l schools. A few hours of lectures on art are given as an optional course to the students enrolled i n the teacher-training classes of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Some theory of art teach-ing Is presented, and also a l i t t l e art appreciation. Training in manual dexterity i s omitted from the course. The instructor, 2 Ivor. C. H. Scott, admits the grave deficiencies of the course. This i s scarcely to be wondered at when i t i s remembered that only 20 hours of instruction are given i n an entire year. The summer school for teachers held annually at Victoria completes the l i s t of i n s t i t u t i o n s giving courses i n art. As the growth of the summer school movement i s intimately connected with the general history of education i n t h i s province, the story of the evolution of such schools has been previously outlined. No further mention of summer schools w i l l therefore by required at t h i s point. The story of the growth of art instruction has been out-lined, and the present conditions of administration have been described. Notwithstanding the numerous comments of inspectors 1Mr. C. H. Scott, director of t h i s school, i n reply to a questionnaire reported only 7 r u r a l teachers attending i n July, 1937. See appendix, p.156. .. ? Mr, Scott•s remarks w i l l be dealt with l a t e r . Mr. Scott's figure, quoted from h i s reply to a question-naire, January, 1938. See appendix, p.158. . 28 who have found unsatisfactory conditions of art instruction existing i n many of the schools, the general provincial system shows the evidence of progress. From p r a c t i c a l l y no art t r a i n -ing i n i t s schools, B r i t i s h Columbia now boasts two normal school courses i n art instruction, a fl o u r i s h i n g art school, summer classes i n art for teachers, and a new programme of studies which gives teachers of art unlimited scope. If Vancouver i s to be taken as an example, the urban centres are enjoying what seems to be e f f i c i e n t teaching i n a r t . The e f f i c i e n c y of the Vancouver system can i n large measure be attributed to the work of i t s art supervisors, for teachers of art i n Vancouver are given very ef f e c t i v e supervision and leader-ship. However, a general appraisal of the efficiency of the teaching of art i n B r i t i s h Columbia cannot be made solely on the basis of observations made i n the urban centres. One must also look at conditions i n the rural inspectorates. CHAPTER 111 THE ART PROGRAMME IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE PEACE RIYER AREA PRIOR TO 1936 CHAPTER 111 THE ART PROGRAMME IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE PEACE RIVER AREA PRIOR TO 1936 A thorough examination of conditions of art instruction has been made i n the Peace River Educational Area<> This p a r t i -cular inspectorate was chosen as a f i e l d of investigation owing to the fact that the writer was employed there as a school teacher. It w i l l be remembered that t h i s d i s t r i c t was the first to be formed into a larger administrative u n i t . The school administration of the area, therefore, made possible an i n v e s t i -gation of the type described i n this t h e s i s . It must be remembered that the Peace River Educational Area i s unique i n several other respects. The olimate i s per-haps the most severe i n the province. The distances of t r a v e l from the coast are great. The population i s one of pioneers. These facts no doubt tend to lessen the general e f f i c i e n c y of the teaching s t a f f , inasmuch as many teachers are unwilling to venture into t h i s part of the country. At the same time certain factors are i n operation i n the Peace River Educational Area which tend to increase the efficiency of the teaching s t a f f . These have been l i s t e d by Dr. W. Plender-l e i t h , and are as follows: a. careful selections of teachers by the Department. b. elimination of weak teachers. XXX 31 c. adjustment of teachers to positions they can hold most suitably. d. increased esprit de corps by making the entire area a promotion area f o r the teachers. e. increased efficiency through decreased mobility of teachers. f. additional improvement i n teaching equipment. g. adjustment, of teachers* salaries on basis of "service rendered." In spite of the e f f i c i e n t administration of the Peace River Plan, i t i s a debatable question as to whether any con-clusions that w i l l be drawn from findings i n t h i s inspectorate can be vali d for a l l r u r a l inspectorates i n the province. The school system of B r i t i s h Columbia i n general i s uniform. Teachers are trained only i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s approved by the Department, and the same courses of study are used throughout the province. Buildings and equipment vary l i t t l e i n the majority of r u r a l schools. But the fact remains that the Peace River Area suffers from i t s climatic conditions and i t s geographical position. How-ever, i t i s probably f a i r to say that any conclusions that may be drawn from investigations i n the Peace River Inspectorate w i l l to some extent be indicative of general trends and con-ditions i n most of the r u r a l inspectorates i n the province as a whole. Observations i n General In 1933, Inspector Ray McLeod spoke to the writer con-% . Plenderleith, "The Ef f i c i e n c y of the Peace River Plan," B. 0. Teacher (October, 1936), p. 83. 32 oerning the dis s a t i s f a c t i o n he found with the teaching of art i n the Peace River Inspectorate. Unhappily he died i n A p r i l , 1934, and he l e f t no written statement r e f e r r i n g to the teach-ing of art. Dr. Plenderleith, his successor, was convinced that fey some means the condition of art teaching must he improved. He stated: L i t t l e art work was being done i n the schools. The drawings that were being done consisted f o r the most part of conventional design, renderings of cubes, prisms, etc., and some nature design. The teachers seemed to draw the majority of t h e i r ideas from the text-book. From t h i s book a large amount of copying was done. Indeed, very rarely did one see o r i g i n a l drawings being produced by the pupils or being encouraged by the teachers. It may also be stated that art appreciation was not taught and that the majority of teachers believed that to stress manual dexterity with pencil and brush was the soul aim of Art Instruction. 1 Later, Inspector Towell, speaking of art i n the r u r a l schools which had not been placed under the Peace River Art Plan inaugurated during Dr. Plenderleith's regime, said: The a r t work tended strongly to consist e n t i r e l y of instruction i n drawing, with some oolour work of the con-ventional flowers, b u t t e r f l i e s , and common models and ob-jects. In other words the primary aim was the acquiring of some s k i l l i n graphio representation. This i s of course a worthy aim. There was also some production of designs, based more, I fear, on copying of set models than on the acquisition of governing p r i n c i p l e s . . . . The work done varied a great deal according to the s k i l l of the respective teachers. 2 W^. Plenderleith, i n a l e t t e r to the writer, September 8, 1937. See appendix, p. 154 . 2Mr. A. S. Towell was appointed Director of Education in 1936, succeeding Inspector Plenderleith. The quotation i s from h i s l e t t e r to the writer, June 20, 1937. See appendix, I t w i l l be noted that inspectors of the consolidated d i s t r i c t s are termed o f f i c i a l l y "Directors of Education." 33 Mr, Towell continued h i s discussion of the art-teaching situation i n the r u r a l schools i n the following words: A fundamental point i s whether we are to t r y to t r a i n the pupils i n drawing or i n art. I f the l a t t e r we s h a l l usually f a i l unless some way can he found of furnishing periodic help to teachers-in-service. One of the great handioaps to progress i n eduoation i s the inevitable tendency - of teachers to carry on the instruction i n the same way as they were instructed when they were pupils. When planning the "drawing lesson," the teacher's mind harks back to the drawing lessons he used to get, and he obeys too l i t e r a l l y , alas, the injunction, "Go thou and do lik e w i s e . " 1 During the school years 1933-5, the writer was asked by his inspectors to observe the teaching i n art and the res u l t s of this teaching i n many schools i n the Peace River Area. These v i s i t s were made in preparation for the Peace River Art Plan, which w i l l be described l a t e r . L i t t l e art work was being done in these schools. The teachers admitted that they did not de-vote to i t what they considered to be su f f i c i e n t time. Their reasons f o r t h i s condition were largely these: i n s u f f i c i e n t training; i n s u f f i c i e n t time; and i n s u f f i c i e n t reference and other material. Various lessons i n several schools were observed. It was obvious that, in general, the teachers were not succeeding in their art instruction. In the f i r s t place they seemed for the most part to possess only a s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge of their subject. Also what they did teach was of an academic nature. Not once was a lesson observed which was applied to a l i f e situation. Most of the teachers were obviously following an aesthetic philosophy which might be termed "Spenoerian"; that i s to say, they considered the drawing which copied most exactly 1 I b i d . . "~~ ' ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ' 34 the object which was being drawn to be the most excellent „•"*• A great amount of what the teachers termed art was simply copying from the teachers' drawing manuals As for art appreciation,, not one lesson was observed that could be termed such. Another outstanding fault was the poor equipment which the teachers were ordering for t h e i r classes, or which they were allowing their pupils to buy. As w i l l be shown l a t e r , reason-ably good equipment need not be costly. But i n these schools, large, awkward brushes, a poor grade of water-colour paint, g r i t t y pencils and badly cared-for paint dishes, added to the very small-sized paper supplied by the Text-Book Branch of the Department of Education, increased the numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s with which the teachers had to contend. It i s needless to- add that many pupils appeared to be l i s t l e s s when confronted with the art lesson, and that t h e i r actual work was usually of an extremely low standard. Observers i n the Peace River Area e a s i l y reached the same conclusion as regards the standards of art instruction, namely, that art teaching i n the area was i n general very un-satisfactory. A Survey Seeking Definite Data Since t h i s conclusion was reached only from observation, i t was f e l t necessary to secure more def i n i t e data on conditions. Accordingly a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r was sent to a l l teachers i n the •^ See H. Spencer, Education, I n t e l l e c t u a l , •-Moral and Physical, (New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1906)^ pp. 65-69. inspectorate on March 24, 1956. 1 This l e t t e r asked the follow-ing questions: 1. J Do you teach art? 2. Do you teach art appreciation? 3. Have you had any special t r a i n i n g i n t h i s subject apart from your normal school work? 4'. Do you consider that your pupils, are being given s u f f i -cient training in. art? 5. Would an outline each month of an art course, together with methods of procedure, suggestions, and written i n -structions for you and the pupils be b e n e f i c i a l to your work and that of the pupils? 6. Would i t be b e n e f i c i a l to have the art work corrected at a central source each month? The reasons for using these questions w i l l be clea r l y seen; The necessity of aiding the teachers i n their art i n -struction was apparent. But what were the teachers* opinions? Obviously, i f teachers thought that their work i n t h i s subject f i e l d was satisfactory, l i t t l e improvement could be made by forcing an undesired system upon them. It was necessary that the teachers should ask for any a i d which might be available. How did the teachers respond? From the inspectorate of 68 teachers, 60 rep l i e d as follows: TABLE 1 RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE OF MARCH 24.» 1936 Question Number "Yes" "No" Question Number "Yes" . "No" 1 54" ' -6 4 4 52 2 14 46 5 58 2 .3 . 1 59 • • 6 . 51 . . .7 . . 1 See appendix, p.167. 36 * ; Analysis of Conditions A c r i t i c a l appraisal of conditions was made on the basis of two kinds of information. F i r s t tentative conclusions were reached from the impressions gathered subjectively. Second, the figures shown i n Table 1 helped to complete the analysis,, The following conclusions were reached? 1. The general situation ca l l e d for remedial measures. Out of 54 teachers instructing pupils i n art, only one had had special t r a i n i n g . Obviously, the normal school training of 45 hours of art instruction could not possibly instruct the teachsrs-in - t r a i n i n g so that they could present successfully the d i f f i -cult subjects of art and art appreciation. 1 Art requires a wider background for successful teaching. As the findings disclosed, the average tr a i n i n g that the teachers received in elementary and high school was not s u f f i c i e n t . One of the most important phases of art instruction was being ignored by the majority of teachers, f o r art appreciation was omitted from the curriculum of 46 schools. Many of the teachers who re p l i e d "yes" also indicated that they gave very l i t t l e time to t h i s subject. Observations, and r e p l i e s to oral questions confirmed t h i s finding. When 58 teachers out of 60 admitted that they did not consider they were giving s u f f i c i e n t art instruction to t h e i r ^Figure given by Mr. J. Gough, Art Instructor at the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, V i c t o r i a , B. C. See appendix, p»152y. Normal Schools w i l l be discussed in the following chapter. 37 pupils, the proper step i n a well-organized inspectorate was to assist the, teachers i n every way possible. P r a c t i c a l l y 100$ of the teachers realized t h e i r ina-b i l i t y to teach art and art appreciation and were consequently w i l l i n g and even eager to be submitted to closer supervision. 2 . The system as i t existed undoubtedly was undermin-»ing the d i s c i p l i n e which the programmes of study sought to enforce. 3. Conditions i n the Peace River Area may to some extent have been indicative of general trends and conditions i n other r u r a l inspectorates i n the province. Such was the condition of art instruction i n the Peace River Inspectorate. The in e f f i c i e n c y of art instruction appeared to come from causes many of which were beyond the control of the inspectors. Inspector Plenderleith, i n hi s annual report to the Department of Education (1936) showed that the general standard of most other subjects was reasonably high. The i n -spector also mentioned the fact that the standards i n these sub-jects had been appreciably raised. Inspector Towell commented as follows on the situation as i t was disclosed i n the Peace River d i s t r i c t : In s p e l l i n g and arithmetic (etc) the teacher i s on familiar ground. He proceeds with confidence and i s w i l l i n g to experiment with new methods and ideas. In art he i s very unsure of himself; he i s a f r a i d of getting beyond his depth. Thus we f i n d ourselves i n a sort of vicious c i r c l e which w i l l be broken only when .... we produce a generation of children so well trained.... that when they, 38 i n their turn, become teachers they w i l l handle a r t . , , with as much confidence as they now do the t r a d i t i o n a l subjects. The normal schools r e a l i z e t h i s , but i n the few hours they can a l l o t to t h i s work they cannot possibly give the budding pedagogue any sense of mastery. Actually, of course, the situation i s improving, but only gradually. The problem i s how to hasten the progress. With regard to a r t , the solution probably i s a matter of help to teachers-in-service. 1 Summer school courses help, but they tend to be taken by those who need them least, namely by teachers who have talent i n a r t . Much more w i l l undoubtedly be accomplished by a system such as has been i n operation i n t h i s inspectorate. This thoughtful commentary raises some important questicna In what respects do the normal schools find d i f f i c u l t y i n pre-paring teachers adequately f o r the teaching of art? What part does the University of B r i t i s h Columbia play i n helping to creete e f f i c i e n t teachers of art? Have the new programmes of study a l l e v i a t e d some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s confronting r u r a l teaohers of art? To what extent does the Teachers 1 Manual of Drawing aid these teachers? Do the government examinations i n art assist in maintaining a reasonably high standard of art instruction? F i n a l l y , what effects are f e l t through the influence of summer classes i n art for teachers? xThe inspector has also been disoussing music. This has been omitted for the sake of brevity. o • • . . . . Towell, op. c i t . See appendix, p. 161 . CHAPTER IV SOME INFLUENCES AFFECTING THE TEACHING OF ART IN THE PEACE RIVER INSPECTORATE PRIOR TO 1936 CHAPTER IV SOME INFj^MGESlA!^ IN THE PEACE RIVER INSPECTORATE PRIOR TO 1936 In modern education the a d v i s i b i l i t y of teaching art to elementary school children i s accepted without question. The government of B r i t i s h Columbia makes i t quite clear that art i n most of i t s varied forms should be included i n the curriculum of every public -elementary school. The government expects that art and art appreciation should be presented with a maximum of ef f i c i e n c y . The survey made i n the Peace River Area showed that the teaching of art was not e f f i c i e n t . The situation i s a serious one, f o r i t i n -dicates that similar conditions might be found in other r u r a l schools of the province. It w i l l be well, therefore, to i n -vestigate the causes which may have produced t h i s situation. Influence of the Normal Schools on the Teaching of Art i n the Rural Schools There are two normal schools in the province, i n each of which i s given a methods course in art. Students come to these two schools from a l l parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. There seems to be a great diversity among them as regards t h e i r background of art t r a i n i n g . x l 41 In the Vancouver school, Mr. Weston, the art instructor, i n reply to A the question, "What i s the general a b i l i t y i n art of students entering the Normal School?" stated: A b i l i t y very varied. Majority have done nothing since f i r s t year high school. Many are quite good draughtsmen but have had l i t t l e background i n the general f i e l d of art. Mr. Gough, the art instructor i n the V i c t o r i a school, i n reply to a similar question, stated i n reference to h i s stu-dents: The students who come to t h i s school from small r u r a l high schools have as high a standard of e f f i c i e n t y i n art appreciation as the boards of school trustees have been able to provide them with. You, yourself, know how limited are the funds at the disposal of school boards. The a b i l i t y of each student to express himself graphi-c a l l y naturally varies with the standard of instruction re-ceived p r i o r to h i s entrance here. 2 Mr. Gough explained that under the circumstances, the teehnical s k i l l of these students might be considered good. He then went on to explain that, at from 18 to 20 years of age, his students have hardly developed a philosophy either of art or of any other subject. It i s evident, then, that the students of the normal schools require extra classes i n graphic expression i f they are to become successful teachers of art. At the same time they must be instructed i n art appreciation and must be taught some aesthetic philosophy. Also they must learn methods of art teach-ing. Keeping t h i s i n mind, one r e a l i z e s the task which con-fronts the.normal school.instructors i n a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f one % . Weston, i n reply to a questionnaire, August S„ 1937. See appendix, p.. I B S . 2 J . Gough, i n reply to a questionnaire, February 25, 1938. See appeffdix, p.152. 42 refers to the Regulations and Courses o f Study for Provincial Normal School, of B r i t i s h Columbia. The general aims for art instruction stated therein are as follows: To acquaint the student-teacher with the Course o f Study prescribed i n t h i s Province. To study and discuss methods of presentation used i n teaching, t o stimulate an appreciation i n art, and f i n a l l y , to encourage proficiency i n the practice of i t . 1 The outline of the course follows the aims. F i r s t the aims o f art teaching are to be taught t o the students. Imagin-ative and representational drawing follow, i n which f i e l d s the students are expected t o use most of the important media o f graphic representation. A f u l l course i n design i s stressed, including commercial and non-commercial subject-matter. Black-board drawing and i t s uses i n teaching must be given, as well as instruction i n the care o f a r t equipment. The students must be 2 able to c r i t i c i s e and evaluate various branches of ar t . A study must also be made of "good pictures," and the history of art i n architecture, sculpture and painting must be studied. F i n a l l y , a f u l l course of i n d u s t r i a l arts i s expected to be understood by the would-be teachers. It w i l l be seen that t h i s represents a very ambitious programme. It i s somewhat more extensive than the four-year course given at the Vancouver School of Art, although, of course, greater efficiency i s expected i n the l a t t e r school. At least a dozen major branches of art must be presented •'-British Columbia Department of Education, Regulations and Courses of Study for Pr o v i n c i a l Normal Schools, 1934, p. 14. 2 The extent to which students must be versed i n a philosophy of aesthetics i s made evident here. 43 by the normal school instructors. This allows them just over three hours-for each branch, When asked whether he considered his students were well equipped to teach art after having re-ceived t h e i r t r a i n i n g at the normal school, Mr. Gough replied: The graduates of t h i s school are as well equipped to teach art i n r u r a l schools as the time w i l l permit. Some time i s devoted to a l l phases of graphic and p i c t o r i a l arts. There are only 60 periods of 45 minutes each throughout the year for the Art Course. Anyone who t r i e s to judge the teaohing a b i l i t y of the average graduate must keep t h i s faot i n mind. Mr. Weston, replying to a similar question, stated: I do my best to give them (the students) a general back-ground and to interest them i n the subject. 2 It would appear that, owing to the shortness of time at their disposal, these instructors have some d i f f i c u l t y i n giving a f u l l course i n both art appreciation and manual dexterity. The 3 instructor at V i c t o r i a tends to stress draughtmanship• The i n -struotor at Vancouver, on the other hand, stresses appreciation. There are dangers attached to either of these emphases. F i r s t the effects of stressing graphic s k i l l at the expense of appreciation w i l l be considered. Art i s a subject which should be v i r t u a l l y part of l i f e . Graphic sic i l l may easily become an end i n i t s e l f . I f one i s to believe Eric G i l l , such a course A J . Gough, i n reply to a questionnaire, February 25, 1938. See appendix, p.152? . 2W. Weston, i n reply to a questionnaire, August 12, 1937. See appendix, p.165. This statement i s based solely on the writer's obser-vations made while he was a student at the normal school i n 1933. s statement i s based on an o r a l communication made to the writer by Mr. Weston. 44 only aggravates an already serious s o c i a l i l l . The -idea of work, the idea of a r t , the idea of service .... were and are, i n spite of our peculiar century, natur-a l l y inseparable; and our century i s only peculiar i n that we have achieved t h e i r unnatural separation.! In the other case, that of stressing appreciation, the danger l i e s i n the fact that art cannot be successfully taught 2 unless the school teacher i s proficient i n draughtmanship. It must be understood that the foregoing statements i n no way imply c r i t i c i s m of the work of the normal school instruc-tors. They simply indicate that the task of these art instruc-tors i s a most d i f f i c u l t one. It i s undoubtedly true that even in the short period of teacher-training at our normal schools, the students receive extremely b e n e f i c i a l training. But the task, f i r s t of giving lessons to improve the manual dexterity and general appreciation of the teachers-in-training, and seoond, of presenting lessons on how to teach that which has been ab-sorbed, i s l o g i c a l l y impossible i f any degree of general e f f i -ciency i s to be obtained. If Mr. Towell's comment i s accepted as v a l i d , that "the normal schools r e a l i z e t h i s , but In the few hours they can a l l o t to (art) work, they cannot possibly give the budding pedagogue any sense of mastery," these normal schools do not succeed in creating e f f i c i e n t teachers of art. Some extra instruction and pro v i n c i a l supervision of art seem to be necessary. I f i t i s argued that the summer schools for teachers offer additional X E . G i l l , Art and a Changing C i v i l i z a t i o n (London: Faber and Faber, 19"3'I7," ~pY 39. ~ ~ 2See Mr. Scott's remarks, p.50 . 45 • training i n art, i t must again be stated that very few rural teachers can attend the art classes in these i n s t i t u t i o n s * ^ In conclusion, i t would seem f a i r to say that the nor-mal schools do much to improve the teaching of art i n r u r a l schools. The findings i n the Peece River Area indicate, how-ever, that in the short time at their disposal, they do not succeed i n creating e f f i c i e n t teachers of art. Influence of the Vancouver School of Art on the Rural Schools Another important i n s t i t u t i o n of culture i s the Van-couver School of Art. This i n s t i t u t i o n has been referred to previously. Its r e l a t i o n to the r u r a l schools w i l l now be dis-cussed. It would appear that the Vancouver School of Art gives an e f f i c i e n t training to i t s students. But unfortunately few of i t s graduates are found teaching i n r u r a l schools. Those graduates who wish to teach are usually placed i n larger centres. It w i l l be realized that the specialized type of training given at the school of art does not equip a teacher to take charge of a classroom where most of the standard subjects are taught. Again, very few r u r a l teachers attend i t s summer classes, for reasons which w i l l be desoribed la t e r . xThe reasons which prompt t h i s statement are discussed on page 49. 2See Table 1, p. 35 and Mr. Scott's report, p.49. See also appendix, p. 156. • See p.48 , 46 .  ; . ... ., _. ..... I. We can conclude, then, that the Vancouver School of Art can have l i t t l e influence on most of the r u r a l schools. 1 The Policy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and Its Effects What would appear to be a weakness in the pro v i n c i a l system of art teaching i s found i n the attitude of the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia towards art as a subject receiving credit. The university offers no course which would afford opportunities for study to students interested i n some branch of a r t . The reasons for such a policy cannot be wholly economic The university has recognized musio as a subject f i t to be granted six units of credit. Yet the Vancouver School of Art whose director i s considered by the university a teacher s u f f i -c i e n tly q u a l i f i e d to instruct the teacher-training classes of the university, cannot, i t appears, produce a student in art 2 f i t to receive any credits as an undergraduate. In truth, the university seems to make no very great attempt to foster art education. It has no ohair i n art. Neither has i t a course dealing with the history of art as such, nor with philosophy of art as such.'* Undoubtedly i n some of i t s courses art and aes-^I t w i l l be noted that there appears to be l i t t l e co-operation between the normal schools and the Vancouver School of Art. See appendix, p.,156 , q. 3. 2The director, Mr, C. H. Scott, also instructed univer-s i t y extension classes i n art appreciation i n 1938. 2During the summer session of 1938, a short course of lectures was given on art appreciation. This course did not en-t i t l e the undergraduate to receive credits towards the B. A. therefore not well attended, and was not continued i n 1939. 47 thetics are discussed incidentally, but the policy remains of subordinating,art to the position of a subject unworthy of being granted credits. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia i s not unique i n i t s attitude towards art. It i s stated i n a recent publication of the United States Department of the Interior: For some reason instruction (in art) i n the colleges has been slow to receive support, and few colleges maintain art collections worthy of note. Many colleges confine i n -struction i n art to theory, history, and appreciation, with-out offering studio work or practice i n a r t . There i s no accrediting agency which passes upon the quality or amount of instruction offered. Each i n s t i t u t i o n i s law unto i t -s e l f , pursuing art i n i t s own ways according to support re-ceived, f a c i l i t i e s available, and s t a f f employed.1 However, the publication l i s t s 39 u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 22 states which o f f e r degrees or diplomas i n art, or which grant credits i n art towards an arts degree. In Canada, several u n i v e r s i t i e s tend to give art a con-siderable degree of recognition. A few examples might be cited as i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s f a c t . At Mount A l l i s o n University, where courses i n art were offered as early as 1883, the degree of 2 Bachelor of Fine Arts i s granted. Undergraduate students may elect f i v e courses i n art as a major, or two and one-ha If courses as a minor. Dalhousie University offers two courses i n art to undergraduates. The l a t t e r university does not seem to include drawing and painting i n these courses as does Mount A l l i s o n . Ihe lw. J. Greenleaf, "Art," Guidance Leaflets, U. S. Depart-ment of the Interior, Office of.Education (Washington: United States Government Prin t i n g Office, 1932), p. 5. 2 T h i s information was kindly supplied by Professor C. A* Exug of Mount A l l i s o n University. The remainder of the i n f o r -mation was found i n the calendars of the respective u n i v e r s i t i e s . 48 University of Toronto appears to have a similar arrangement to that found at Dalhousie. At the University of Saskatchewan, a college of fine arts i s maintained. This college, known as '•Regina College," offers instruction i n music and fine arts and houses a c o l l e c t i o n of works of art. Professors at Regina Col-lege lecture both i n t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n and i n the univer-s i t y proper. The policy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n re-gard to art apparently has far-reaching effects on art instruc-tion i n the schools of the province. One finds a direct effect i n the Programme of Studies for the Senior High School of British Columbia, (1937). A pupil proceeding towards a Junior Matricu-l a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e i s required to elect 15 additional credits above the compulsory subjects. The l i s t of elective subjects includes extra-mural music, but i t does not include art. In several schools, pupils who desire a Junior Matriculation cer-t i f i c a t e are consciously directed away from art. The effect of t h i s p o l i c y on pupils who intend to be teachers w i l l be at once 2 apparent. The p o l i c y of the University affects the teaching pro-fession i n other ways. The chief motive of teachers attending the summer sohools of the province i s to better t h e i r academic standing. Owing to the fact that no credit can be obtained, from studies i n art towards a Bachelor's degree, of the hun-dreds of r u r a l teaohers attending summer sohools, a mere handful •'•British Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies for the Senior High Schools of British Columbia, (1937)pT5X 2 For further remarks on t h i s subject see page 128 ff„ 49 i s enrolled i n art classes,"1* Yet i t can be scarcely denied that the culture-content of these art courses could be made equal to that of any course the university has to offer. The university offers a short art course i n methods, to the teacher-training classes. 2 The actual work covered in t h i s series of lectures i s described by the instructor, Mr. G. H. Scott, as follows: 1. Study of teaching methods i n art . 2. Analysis of the various subjects contained i n the curri-culum, with a view to giving at least an understanding of the nature and scope of each subject. 3. Methods of developing art appreciation, i l l u s t r a t e d by slide and p r i n t . 3 xDuring the summer of 1937, for example, about 20G0 teachers attended summer schools i n t h i s province.: Of. these, seven r u r a l teachers enrolled i n th"e art classes at the Van-couver Sohool of Art, according to Mr. Scott. "About ten or twelve" enrolled i n Mr. Weston's art class at the V i c t o r i a Sum-mer Sohool. See appendix, p. 165. • > Since t h i s chapter was written, i t has been drawn to the writer• s attention that the summer school at V i c t o r i a was unable to offer courses i n a r t during the 1939 session. The reason for t h i s i s found i n the fact that an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of teach-ers wished to enrol i n the art classes. The future of art instruction i n r u r a l schools looks even less hopeful. For the f i r s t time i n almost a quarter of a century the art classes at V i c t o r i a have been abruptly cancelled. Again, the art appreciation classes at the university have been withdrawn from the summer curriculum. At the same time, the en-rolment of teachers i n the summer classes of the Vancouver Sohool of Art continues to be r e l a t i v e l y small. In a l l , only t h i r t y -six teachers are enrolled, of whom at least f i f t e e n are Vancou-ver teachers. ^According to Mr. Scott, the course involves 20 hours of lectures. See appendix, p,15& 3C. Scott, i n a l e t t e r to the writer, January 28, 1938. See appendix, p,jL58. It should be observed that t h i s course i s optional to the student-teachers. 50 It w i l l be readily seen that the instructor must fi n d some d i f f i c u l t y in doing justice to such a course i n the time he i s allowed. That h i s students are not s u f f i c i e n t l y well trained to teach art ( i f they depend on the instruction the uni-versity offers) i s pointed out by Mr. Scott. He has not s u f f i -cient time to teach the students how to acquire manual dexterity. He states i n t h i s connection: I do not consider a teacher s u f f i c i e n t l y well-equipped to teach High School art unless possessed of manual dexter-i t y and creative a b i l i t y . He should be able to inspire by example - on the blackboard and elsewhere. Talking i s not enough. Mr. Scott states that a high percentage of the teacher-2 training class attends his lectures on analysis and methods. These teachers evidently are preparing for the eventuality of thei r teaching art i n the future. It i s reasonable to assume that many of them laek both manual dexterity and creative a b i l * i t y i n art; since these come usually only after much specialized study. Yet some of these same teachers w i l l f i n d their way into r u r a l elementary schools for the f i r s t years of their teaching experience and w i l l be faced with the necessity of teaching art regardless of t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Another unfortunate effect upon the teaching of art which may be ascribed to the policy of the university remains to be explained. In order to c l a r i f y the explanation, i t w i l l benece-ssary to present a communication from the Superintendent of Edu-cation, Dr. W i l l i s , who kindly outlined for the writer the vari-ous teaching p r i v i l e g e s i n art of graduates of the university 1 I b i d . 2See appendix, p.,iL'5a 51 teacher-training classes, the provincial normal schools, and the Vancouver, School of Art. His c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ran as follows: 1. The holder of an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e i s e n t i t l e d to teach any subject i n a High School. It i s assumed, of course, that a person with an Academic Cer t i f i c a t e i s i n -t e l l i g e n t enough not to attempt to teach any subject i n which he Is not qu a l i f i e d to give instruction. 2. A s p e c i a l i s t i n art, such as a graduate of the Vancou-ver Sohool of Art, who has had professional tr a i n i n g i s granted a S p e c i a l i s t 5 s C e r t i f i c a t e i n Art. This Certificate e n t i t l e s him to teach the subject of Art i n any school. 3. A graduate of the Vancouver Sohool of art may not be appointed as teacher of Art i n any public-elementary, junior high or high - unless he has f i r s t received professional training at a normal sohool or tr a i n i n g college. 4. A person who has gained junior matriculation standing and has taken a four-year course at the School of Art and received an art diploma from that school may enter Normal School for professional trai n i n g . At the conclusion of the Normal School course he would not receive any teacher's c e r t i f i c a t e other than the Art Specialist's C e r t i f i c a t e . 5. If the person referred to i n (4) also secured Senior Matriculation standing before entering Normal Sohool he could be granted 'a F i r s t Class Teacher * s C e r t i f i c a t e as well as an Art Specialist•s C e r t i f i c a t e on the successful com-pletion of the course i n professional t r a i n i n g . 1 The peculiar situation into which the Department of Edu-cation i s forced w i l l be apparent. "The holder of an Academic Ce r t i f i c a t e i s e n t i t l e d to teach any subject i n a High School." This person i s allowed to" teach and frequently does teach art i n both r u r a l high and elementary schools, whether or not he i s " i n t e l l i g e n t enough" to real i z e that he may do great harm by so doing. The graduate of the Vancouver School of Art, on the other hand, i s r e s t r i c t e d to one subject, art, even though he has spent a t o t a l of six years after h i s high school tr a i n i n g inpre-S. J. W i l l i s , i n a l e t t e r to the writer, February 9,1938. 52 paring himself to teach art « x Whereas i t i s agreed that the art spe c i a l i s t is, not q u a l i f i e d to teach the ''academic" subjects, i t i s evident that the person holding an academic c e r t i f i c a t e i s equally unprepared to teach art. If the argument i s brought forward that the holder of an academic c e r t i f i c a t e must be a l -lowed to teach art i n order that the specifications of the pro-grammes of study can be met, i t might also be argued that a com-paratively untrained teaoher of art may do great harm, and that i t would therefore be better that he did not teach t h i s subject. Again, i t could be argued that graduates holding academic cer-t i f i c a t e s need not receive so l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n art. The question arises as to whether or not i t would be possible to allow one or two undergraduate courses which would earn for the prospective teacher a few units of credit i n that f i e l d . Or could not some arrangement be made with the Vancouver School of Art to teach such courses? If t h i s school i s not of a s u f f i -c i e n tly high standard to render t h i s service, manifestly i t should not be allowed to function. To conclude th i s discussion, Mr. Scott's opinion of the attitude of the university towards art merits our attention. It i s unfortunate f o r the cu l t u r a l education of our people that the subject of art, i n which i s included art practice and art appreciation, should not form part of a university education. A university sets a standard of c u l t u r a l appreciation within i t s sphere of influence, and no cu l t u r a l appreciation xOne year senior matriculation, four years of art school, and one year of normal school. 2It should be noted that t h i s sohool has room for 40more pupils, according to the director, without any increase i n staff, number of models, etc., - in sum, at no additional running oosts. 53 has a more universal application than that of the visual arts. A university student should he able to earn units of credit i n art either within the university or in an art i n -st i t u t i o n of a university standard. 1 Influences of the Programme of Study The new (1936) programmes of study have created yet an-other d i f f i c u l t y i n art instruction i n the r u r a l schools. These programmes are a di s t i n c t advance over any that have previously been issued, and i t i s not an exaggeration to say that they are in keeping with most of the important and recognized p r i n c i p l e s of modern instruction i n art. The fact, too, that they set forth directed study from grades 1 to X l l should create more in-terest i n art i n the upper grades of r u r a l schools. Unfortunately, however, these programmes were devised entirel y by sp e c i a l i s t s , either by supervisors or by teachers whose f i e l d i s c h i e f l y urban. As far as can be aseertained^ixsb one practising r u r a l teacher assisted the committees that made up the new outlines. That the work of these committees i s ad-mirably suited to the needs of the s p e c i a l i s t s who helped de-sign the new courses cannot be denied. But one may well ask how the new programmes of study suit the needs of those r u r a l teachers who instruct as many as eight grades. The new programmes of art seemed at f i r s t to be received by the r u r a l teachers i n the Peace River Inspectorate with some enthusiasm. Unfortunately t h i s enthusiasm died when they XC. Scott, i n a l e t t e r to the writer, February 21, 1938. to IX 2 T h i s discussion deals with the outlines from grades 1 attempted to carry out the programmes i n the r u r a l schools. In A p r i l , 1937., .when the teachers had used the new programmes for a s u f f i c i e n t length of time to enable them to form an unhurried opinion of them, a c i r c u l a r was sent to every r u r a l teacher in the Peace River Area. This c i r c u l a r sought to discover how many teachers found the outlines siitable to t h e i r needs, and how many did not. If some teachers did not l i k e the outlines they were asked to give reasons for their opinions. The c i r c u l a r asked the teaohersto state whether or not they considered the outlines suitable for the use of r u r a l teachers. To t h i s c i r c u l a r 54 teachers replied. One reply was unsigned and therefore could not be considered. Of the 53 re-maining, a l l answered that the outlines were unsuitable for the use of teachers i n r u r a l schools. The teachers submitted some 20 reasons for their opinions. Following i s a rough summary of the p r i n c i p a l reasons: a. About 95$ of the teachers intimated that the courses seemed to be designed only for the art s p e c i a l i s t i n a graded sohool. b. About 95$ said that there was i n s u f f i c i e n t material in the r u r a l schools to do the work asked. c. About 90$ said that there was i n s u f f i c i e n t time for r u r a l teachers to do the research required by the programmes. d. About 60$ said that the art sections were too technic-a l l y advanced for the rural teachers' knowledge of art. e. Aboutn45$ stated that the art programmes were too i n -d e f i n i t e . 1 There may be c r i t i c s who w i l l argue that these reasons seem ridiculous. It may be f e l t that there appears to be no ,„ • •'•The c i r c u l a r l e t t e r w i l l be found i n the appendix, 55 suggestion that the outlines are designed for s p e c i a l i s t s alone. The thought may arise, too, that teachers in the past have suc-ceeded i n their work with only wrapping-paper, crayons, imagin-ation and enthusiasm. Again, i t may be stated that there are suf f i c i e n t exercises that require l i t t l e preparation, and that the courses consist for the most part of a series of suggestions only, which are to be adopted or modified according to each teacher's temperament or h i s pupils' circumstances, a b i l i t i e s , and requirements. F i n a l l y the c r i t i c may f e e l that teachers who have enjoyed a normal school training should find nothing too technical on any page of the outlines. To a l l these c r i t i c i s m s only one reply can be made. The opinions concerning the programmes of study have been offered by the r u r a l teachers themselves. It i s they who know best whether or not the new outlines are suitable to t h e i r needs. No force of argument can change t h i s f a c t . The opinions of the teachers are not presented herein as a statement of the writer's opinion of the programme. It i s believed, however, that they tend to throw additional l i g h t on the teaching of art in some rural schools. F i r s t of a l l , they undoubtedly show that a l l our r u r a l teachers may not be as well versed i n t h e i r teaching of art as our curriculum experts would wish. Next, they show that r u r a l schools may not be sufficiently well-stocked with physioal equipment to teach art. Again they make i t apparent that the normal schools have d i f f i c u l t y i n pre-paring teachers to instruct a r t , x In general, i t might be re-iCommenting on the Junior High School Programme of Art, Mr. Scott said: " I t i s perhaps over r i c h and assumes a know-peated that most of the teachers of the r u r a l schools of the Peace River Area, by these very admissions, showed that they were unfit to teach art. This does not prove that the art out-l i n e s were poorly conceived. It seems to show rather that no provision has been made for t h e i r adaptation to the r u r a l schools. If the teachers i n these r u r a l schools were adequately trained to organize and present lessons i n art, l i t t l e excuse eould be found for the reasons which they advanced in condemnation of the courses devised by experts. U n t i l we have in the r u r a l schools of t h i s province a body of art teachers who can do justice to the programmes of study we cannot expect to improve the situa-t i o n of art teaching i n r u r a l schools, no matter how f a r fo r -ward we move i n curriculum revision. Influence of the Text-Book i n Use What appears to be another weakness i n art instruction i s found i n the text-book which the Department issues free to a l l schools^Teachers' Manual of Drawing, Nelson.). This text has not been revised to any great extent since i t was f i r s t issued i n 1924. In 1936 a change was made, but chiefly as re--gards i l l u s t r a t i o n s , not as regards the fundamentals of the text. Yet the general conceptions of teaching art as well as the programmes of study have altered considerably since 1924. ledge on the part of the teachers which few as yet possess." See appendix, p.156. Mr. Weston stated i n regard to art teaching: "I imagine .... that (art teaching i n r u r a l schools) i s somewhat haphazard and that pupils often do well i n spite of the teacher." See appendix, p.165 • 57 That art teaching, both in. subject matter and i n technique, has changed since 1924 i s seen i n the following statement to be found i n a Report by the Council for Art and Industry i n England: The present Board of Education "Suggestions forTeachers" contains sections on "Brewing" and "Handwork," butthe book was published early i n 1927, and these sections are now out of date. 1 The B r i t i s h Columbia text-book might be c r i t i c i z e d on the following points: a. It gives no recognition to art appreciation as such, i n -cluding both picture and general appreciation. b. It does not attempt to relate i t s teachings to l i f e situations, or to correlate exercises with other subject f i e l d s . c. It divides art into unnecessary arbitrary divisions. d. It stresses conventionalized decoration at the expense of free expression. e. It does not make clear to teachers the philosophy on which i t s doctrines are based. In speaking of t h i s text, i t s author says: The text i s only a manual for drawing and does not attempt to explain or give direct assistance i n general appreciation.... (It) i s only a guide for general principles in elementary sohool drawing, not art study. 2 That the text i s a manual of drawing only, not of hand-work or of appreciation, i s fre e l y acknowledged. It outlines basic p r i n c i p l e s of drawing that should be learned as part of the a r t i s t ' s equipment for expression. I t i s a drawing manual, and as such i t apparently succeeds i n what i t s author expected of i t . Education for the Consumer," Art i n Elementary and Secondary School Education, Report by the Council for Art and industry I London: His Majesty•9 Stationery Office, 1938), p. 16. 2W. Weston, i n a l e t t e r to the writer, August 15, 1937. See appendix, p.165". 58 The chief weakness of the text-book seems to l i e i n the use which many teachers appear to make of i t . "The teachers," said Dr. Plenderleith, speaking of both Peace River and MatsquL-Abbotsford r u r a l schools, "seemed to draw the majority of their ideas from the text-book. Prom th i s book a large amount of copying was done. Indeed, very rarely did one see or i g i n a l drawings being produced by the pupils or being encouraged by the teachers." 1 It w i l l also be noticed that Mr. Towell mentioned copy-ing in the schools of the Peace River Area, and one may take i t he referred t o the models set forth i n the t e x t . 2 An-.observer .in the.Peace, River Inspectorate would indeed have been struck by the s i m i l a r i t y o f the children's work i n a l -most every school to the examples given i n the text. Many of the teachers did not seem to rea l i z e the purpose o f the text as a drawing manual only. These teachers seemed to believe that copies, based on examples i n the drawing manual, were proof that they had f u l f i l l e d the requirements of the programmes of study. Definitions o f art vary amongst different sohools o f thought. Philosophers of aesthetics, however, seem to be uni-versally agreed that copying i s not art. Perhaps of a l l d e f i -nitions of art that are accepted to-day, the following might cause the least dissention: Art i s an attempt to create pleas-3 ing form. The inclusion of the word "create" w i l l disallow a l l forms of copying. isee p. ,15,4 2 See p..161'. 3A f u l l e r discussion of a philosophy of aesthetics w i l l be found on p.1379 f f . i n the appendix. 59 Since the text appeared to be so closely followed by the rural,teachers, i t i s manifest that one of two alternative courses of action should be adopted to improve conditions i n the teaching of art i n these country schools. Either the text should be withdrawn, or i t should be completely revised. As long as spontaneity and o r i g i n a l i t y are prevented by copying, art can make l i t t l e progress. Influence of the Government Examinations The type of art examination which has been used ever since the Department of Educat ion has seen f i t to test art, has tended to stress undesirable aspects of art instruction. As far as the records show, no test has ever stressed imagination or appreciation. A glance at the sections on examinations i n Chap-ter 11 w i l l reveal that examinations have i n a l l cases empha-sized accurate copying as the chief excellence to be found i n the art of children. This stand i s not compatible with present-day p h i l -osophy. 1 The psychological processes which are involved during the act of aesthetic creation have received considerable atten-t i o n . Whatever controversy has occurred i n t h i s matter, i t i s generally accepted to the point where i t almost becomes a truism, that art communicates a reaction. He who i s engaged in art selects, orders, and interprets h i s percepts. He records his reactions, i n the most pleasing form he i s capable of, about what he sees or has seen i n the past. It then follows that f f . in the^|pindlx?°phy W i l 1 b e t r e a t e d m o r e onTTsT 60 r e a l i t y i n art i s r e a l i t y only of the a r t i s t ' s or would-be ar-t i s t ' s reactions to his percepts. It w i l l be seen from the foregoing that the form i n which the a r t i s t or would-be a r t i s t expresses h i s reactions may, be virtue of the internal process, in most cases bear l i t t l e or no resemblance to any external form which may have stimulated him. "The painter may.... imitate what he sees," says L. A. Reid, "but he imitates what he sees, because what he sees f u l -f i l s and s a t i s f i e s h i s needs." 1 Those engaged i n art f e e l free to depart from actuality. Bad drawing occurs when the forms used are drawn merely to f i l l gaps and consequently prevent a complete harmony or unity. F i n a l l y , i f art i s the outcome of an expression of a re-action i n pleasing form, we s h a l l therefore look for a personal element i n art work. The task of the teacher of art would seem to be largely that of fostering o r i g i n a l i t y . The latest(1937) type of test given by inspectors i s even more limited than i t s predecessors. It consists of one type of exercise, namely, of reproducing photographically from memory a picture which has been shown to the class. The test i s corrected by the inspector who oompares each child's efforts with charts i l l u s t r a t i n g various stages of proficiency in draw-ing the objects which were outlined. The drawings which receive the highest rating, according to these charts, are those which most closely,resemble.the o r i g i n a l outlines. 1 L . A. Reid, A Study i n Aesthetics (London? George Allen and Unwin, 1931), p. 236, 2 A more complete description of the test was given on page 25. 61 Accurate copying from memory of a v i s u a l image may be one necessary aspect of drawing, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n certain scien-t i f i c f i e l d s , such as biology. Art, however, i s not as limited as t h i s , and cannot be adequately tested by such a device. Many educators are inclined to admit that tests given by departments of education i n general, prompt teachers to stress certain aspects of a subject at the expense of other more ne-cessary aspects* If one holds t h i s opinion, i t could be argued that perhaps many teachers of art who are examined under the testing conditions described above may be tempted to stress line oopying. Indeed, such an assumption appears to be reasonable when one considers that the teacher who encourages his pupils to express themselves i n pleasing form, w i l l t r a i n his class not to copy the external world exactly. Logically, such pupils should do very badly i n the t e s t . In certain aspects of art teaching, standardization i s doubtless possible and desirable* For t h i s reason an examin-ation i n art seems desirable. The question w i l l arise as to whether a more successful test than the one now i n operation can be devised. The answer must be, i t seems, that objective tests can never be wholly successful i n the f i e l d of art. Per-haps one could test objectively the elements of art work as they are described by Roger Fry: rhythm of the l i n e with which the forms are delineated, mass, space, l i g h t and shade, and colour. 1 Such a test might consist of written answers. But these elem-ents, when combined into art work, w i l l possess qu a l i t i e s which !R. Fry, Vision and Design (London: Chatto and Windus, 1924), p. 161. ' 62 cannot be inferred from their parts. The suggestion-might be made that'as well as writing an examination on the elements, the children should submit their drawings to some o f f i c i a l es-p e c i a l l y trained i n art. Our g a l l e r i e s are f i l l e d , and our masterpieces acclaimed on t h i s subjective basis. This dual type of testing presupposes e f f i c i e n t teach-ing of art. U n t i l such teaching i s found i n r u r a l schools, t h i s suggested type of testing would not, of course, be feasible. In the meantime, however, i t would be well to eliminate such harm-f u l tests as have been described. The Outstanding Weaknesses If the Peace River Area could have boasted an e f f i c i e n t staff of art teachers, there would have been no serious problem i n the teaching of a r t . In a l l the elaborate machinery of school administration the teachers constitute the most important factor. Yet these teachers could not treat the subject with effective-ness. They did not use the text-book i n t e l l i g e n t l y and they could not do justice to the programmewof study. Certain influences and conditions' were responsible for the teachers' predicament. These influences and conditions are active to-day, and doubtless tend to lessen the eff i c i e n c y of art teaching i n r u r a l schools i n the province as a whole. The attitude of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia towards art cre-ates several unfortunate trends in art instruction. Perhaps the most outstanding of these i s found i n the fact that the policy 63 of the university discourages many teachers from attending summer classes i n art. Again, art teaching suffers because the normal schools find i t impossible to prepare e f f i c i e n t teachers in the subject, while government examinations in art have pro-bably done much to encourage bad teaching practices. The r u r a l teachers of the Peace River Area were w i l l i n g to admit t h e i r deficiencies and asked for aid. Being conscien-tious as a class, they were disturbed over their predicament and indicated t h e i r desire to co-operate i n any manner that was reasonably within their power. What, then, was to be the at-tempted solution to the problem of art teaching i n these schools? CHAPTER V EXPERIMENT IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA WITH A NEW PROGRAMME OF ART, 1936-37 CHAPTER V EXPERIMENT IN THE PEACE RIVER AREA WITH A NEW PROGRAMME OE ART, 1936-37 This chapter describes an experiment i n art instruction which was conducted i n the Peace River Area. Before the experi-ment was begun, conditions both i n the province as a whole and i n the Peace River Area were carefully studied. It was obvious that reform was urgently required i f e f f i c i e n t teaching was to be brought about i n the inspectorate. Observers f e l t that teachers should receive help i n t h e i r art instruction, p a r t i -cularly since they had requested aid. Ways and.means were studied that might make such assistance possible. Although stren-uous reform was cl e a r l y required, i t was evident that, i n order to be successful, t h i s reform must be based on existing con-ditions. The programme could not, as Dewey once put i t , "assume .... ends foreign to the concrete make-up of the s i t u a t i o n . " 1 The question arose as to the best point of attack. Which undesirable features of art instruction i n these r u r a l schools could be eliminated, and which features retained? Certain feat-ures had to be retained because of t h e i r value; others because there was no power to alter them. The policy of the university towards art instruction could not be changed overnight. Should the university have seen l j . Dewey, Democracy and Education (New Torkj The Mac-millan Company, 192b), p. ±221. lxv 66 f i t to make art a subject carrying credit, many years would pass before i t s new policy could affect r u r a l schools. Again, normal school instruction would remain comparatively constant. Govern-ment examinations i n art had also to be accepted. What perhaps could be changed was the acknowledged lack of understanding and s k i l l of the r u r a l teachers. Also the text-book could be supple-mented and the programmes of study revised to f i t l o c a l con-d i t i o n s . 1 With the general aim of assisting r u r a l teachers, a new programme of art was considered and f i n a l l y drawn up. Aesthetic Philosophy on which the Experiment was Based At this point i t w i l l be necessary to make some mention 2 of the aesthetic philosophy on which the experiment was based. It i s generally agreed that i t i s impossible to deal with any form of art successfully without possessing some sort of aes-thetic philosophy. A l l teachers of art must hold some definite b e l i e f s concerning their subject. For example, the question of the relation of beauty to art, of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of distor-tion, of the part played by technique i n expression and so on, w i l l colour very d e f i n i t e l y the a c t i v i t i e s of the teacher in h i s classroom. It i s Idle to say that some teachers who hold no philosophy of art conduct art lessons. Whether these teachers know i t or not, they must be guided by a philosophy of some kind. 1The latest programmes had not, of course, been issued at t h i s date. 2 T h i s aesthetic philosophy w i l l be found more f u l l y stated i n the appendix, p.13/7/ f f . In t h i s section, for the sake of brevity, only a summary of the aesthetic philosophy i s given. 67 The student-teacher who says to his pupil, "Erase your drawing, for i t does,not look l i k e the object you have before you," has very d e f i n i t e l y committed himself to a philosophy of art. One w i l l doubtless see, then, the necessity for teachers of art to develop some well-founded philosophy of aesthetics as early as possible i n their professional l i f e . Such a philosophy need not - indeed one may say should not - possess too oomplete a system of aesthetics. But that a few fundamental ideas would greatly aid such teachers i s a position not to be denied. The truth of t h i s assertion i s i n t e n s i f i e d when one considers that throughout the great history of art and l e t t e r s i t has often been the custom to precede production with theory. .In order that the experiment i n the Peace River should have a consistent philosophical foundation, the following tenets were agreed upon: 1. The objects which cause what i s generally referred to as the aesthetic emotion, reaction, feeling, or experi-ence are known as works of art. C r i t i c s and others have no f i n a l means of recognizing these works as such other than by t h e i r feelings for them.1 2. The quality most common to a l l works of art i s their pleasing form. 3 . Art i s the result of forming or making. Anyone who attempts to form or make i s an a r t i s t i n embryo. He be-comes an a r t i s t only when the result of h i s labours shows pleasing form which, i n turn, i s the outoome of a rigorous search for excellence. 4 . Art, therefore, may be defined as an attempt to ex-press significant experiences through pleasing forms. 5. Art expresses the ideas of the a r t i s t . He selects, orders, and interprets his ideas. Reality i n art i s r e a l i t y xSome of these tenets are quoted verbatum from the writings of philosophers. P u l l reference w i l l be found in the appendix, p.JL3;7ff. 68 only of the a r t i s t ' s reaction to his ideas. The a r t i s t , therefore, may f e e l free to depart from actuality as i t appears-; to exist i n the external world. 6. If art i s the expression of a personal reaction, a work of art w i l l bear the stamp of :the personality of i t s creator. 7. I f a l l other considerations be held constant, the greatest a r t i s t w i l l be he whose intelligence i s highest. 8. Emotion i s aesthetic when i t i s associated with an object formed by an expressive act i n the same sense i n which the act of expression has been defined. 9* Art appreciation can be successfully heightened. That i s because - broadly - i t involves a two-fold experi-ence, the i n t e l l e c t u a l and the emotional. 10. The separate elements of design which affect us emotionally and which can be j u s t i f i e d l o g i c a l l y are six i n number: rhythm of the l i n e with which the forms are de-lineated, mass, space, l i g h t and shade, colour, and i n -cli n a t i o n of the eye to the plane. 11. A work of art possesses properties which cannot necessarily be inferred from i t s parts. In other words, a work of art forms a unity, the value of which cannot be found merely by adding the values of the parts. 12. I n t e l l e c t u a l c r i t i c i s m i s valuable, for i t should afford the observer an assurance of worth i n the art that moves him. The philosophy which has been set down rests on assump-tions which without doubt may be questioned. Such assumptions, however, must be made i n one form or another, i f an aesthetic philosophy i s to be formulated. And i t i s not unreasonable to state that perhaps no ultimate truth can ever be reached con-cerning the majority of these assumptions. Even i f i t be agreed with E l l i s that art never can be successfully defined, i t must nevertheless be stated that a teacher's aesthetic philosophy w i l l greatly influence the work of those under his oharge. The 69 teacher's philosophy must therefore be consistent i f confusion i s to be avoided. Reports Outlining the Experiment The experiment was outlined i n d e t a i l i n three o f f i c i a l reports which the writer sent to h i s inspectors. On A p r i l 24, 1936, before the experiment was begun, the f i r s t of these re-ports was sent to Dr. W. A. Plenderleith. It outlined the con-ditions of art teaching i n the schools of h i s inspectorate. This report stressed the necessity of attempting to improve art instruction, described some experiments made by the writer, and presented a tentative programme that might be followed should In-spector Plenderleith consider favourably the plan of adopting a new programme of art for h i s inspectorate. The second report was submitted on December 31, 1936 to Mr. A. S. Towell, who had succeeded Dr. Plenderleith as director of education of the area. This report informed Mr. Towell as to the objectives of the movement (now more f u l l y developed) and i t s system of operation. The t h i r d report was submitted to Mr. Towell on June 11, 1937; i t gave the director a general survey of the year's work in art. The content of these three reports w i l l now be presented i n d e t a i l . 70 Report. Sent to Dr. W. A. Plenderleith i n A p r i l , 1936 The report submitted to Dr. Plenderleith set forth the criticisms of art lessons observed i n the Peace River Area which have been previously indicated. 1 It also gave the results of the questionnaire sent on March 24, 1936 to a l l the teachers i n the 2 inspectorate. During the school years 1934-35 and 1935-36, the v/riter had conducted certain experiments i n art at the Dawson Creek School. This report described the experiments in some d e t a i l . On being appointed p r i n c i p a l of the school, an i n s t i -tution having approximately 90 pupils, the writer immediately made a study of the knowledge and s k i l l s of the pupils studying art. The findings showed that the results i n art were unsatis-factory and that they closely approximated those noticed i n the smaller r u r a l schools* The pupils, however, had achieved some en manual dexterity, as could be seen by examing the results of their exercises i n art of the year before. They had covered such exercises as were stressed i n the programmes of study in use during 1934-34; that i s to say, they had been d r i l l e d i n the usual exercises of drawing cubes, cones, etc., they had shaded their drawings with the usual elaboration, they had done some "nature" drawings of single specimens, and had produced a few posters which did not show any great understanding of the pr i n -ciples of formal arrangement• •'•See pages 57 and 58. 2See page 167. 71 During the year 1934-35 a new programme of art was put into effect i n the school. The programme was not a formal one. No course of study was pre-arranged. The children of the school decided what they wished to draw, and they also selected for themselves the media they employed. Of course, i f a child f e l t incapable of selecting an art topic for himself, he was helped by being referred to a large l i s t of topics based either on school or r u r a l l i f e . Children were also encouraged to explore various types of art suoh as p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n , s t i l l - l i f e , and general design. No compulsion either as to subject matter or 1 type of art was enforced. At the outset, the pupils seemed be-wildered at not being assigned a definite topic. As time went on the production of work became gratifyingly.varied i n subject matter, technique, and creative expression. To the writer the value of th i s year of art was two-f o l d . F i r s t , the philosophy of aesthetics previously stated was put to a test under classroom conditions. Second, some idea of the children's interests i n art was gained. Near the end of the school year, 1934-35, the writer de-signed a new course of art lessons. This course considered as much as possible the interests of the children for i t s topics, although a few additions had to be made for the sake of variety and completeness. Each lesson i n the course included some theory. This theory stressed as simply as possible the six for -mal elements of design. 1The children made some rough carpenter's benches, brought to school a few tools and did considerable manual art such as boat-building, etc. 72 The objectives of the course were not primarily to teach children to. draw. Perhaps the general objective of the course could :have been summarized as follows: To develop i n each child the a b i l i t y to meet successfully the problems in art which he encounters i n h i s daily l i f e . This general aim was l a t e r ana-lysed into other more s p e c i f i c objectives, and the analysis was 1 stated i n a second report. During the greater part of the following school year (1935-36), the writer tested h i s lessons (16 i n number and called "subject-units" or "projects") in the Dawson Creek school. This school had increased i t s enrolment to 159 and provided instruc-tion for a l l grades from 1 to XI. A junior high sohool section had been organized, as well as a high school unit. Each subject-unit was typed so that when the time came, the pupils could i n a l l probability read and understand instructions without very great assistance from the teacher. The following periods of time were devoted each week for testing the subject-units: ele-mentary school, 90 minutes; high school, 45 minutes; junior high sohool, 90 minutes. The results of t h i s testing work were care-f u l l y preserved for the purpose of comparison with the art work previously done by the same pupils. In general the subject-units seemed to be satisfactory "hsee p./76 f f . 2 T h i s (1935-36) art work was displayed at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, July, 1936, and at the Vancouver Art Gallery i n August of the same year. It may be added that the writer tested the pupils as to t h e i r knowledge of theory. The results were of use only to the writer, who found them generally s a t i s -factory. As the r e s u l t s had l i t t l e objective value, they are not included in t h i s thesis. 73 i n most respects. Some adjustments, of course, were required. Some of the errors found in the f i r s t draft of the sub-ject-units made the following facts apparent: 1. Interest i n the idea which the children wished to express was of the greatest importance. The ideas to be expressed were most acceptable when they centered about the " immediate interests of the children. 2. It was impossible to teach good taste i n an abstract manner. Concrete objects of everyday experience had to be employed, such as cars, radios, etc., and other products of industry. 3 . Media had to be greatly varied i f interest was to be maintained. 4. Self-expression could not be encouraged by present-ing abstract information. 5. The project on hand had to begin from familiar ideas. It had also to ohallenge interest by offering some new ideas. The actual time required for completion of the project could not be too long. The report to Dr. Plenderleith went on to explain a system of operation which might be adopted*should the director wish to provide one art programme for the entire school d i s t r i c t . Hectographed forms were to be sent to each teacher. These forms were to outline work in art based on the projects which had been tested in the Dawson Creek Sohool. Directions were to be so written that pupils could complete a unit of work with l i t t l e help from the teachers. At the same time, i t was pro-posed to send accompanying l e t t e r s with each subject-unit should any d i f f i c u l t i e s oocur. Several other recommendat ions were made. The most im-portant of these were as follows: 1. The work accomplished by the pupils should, for same time at least, be corrected by the supervisor of the art plan. 2. The supervisor should he released from his duties as p r i n c i p a l of the Dawson Creek School for a certain number .of hours each day. The number of hours should de-pend on the enrolment of pupils i n the area being supervised. 3. Some means of transportation should be provided for the supervisor. 4. The supervisor should have charge of orderingeall supplies. 5. A special duplicator should be provided, preferably one that could reproduce coloured i l l u s t r a t i o n s . 6. The supervisor should have power of recommending for promotion i n art any pupil who made satisfactory progress. 7. The art programme should be put i n operation im-mediately after the opening of the 1936-7 school year. Specimen copies of the monthly ci r c u l a r s were included in the report, and i n conclusion two tables of estimated costs were submitted. The following i s quoted from the report under discussion: Estimated cost of proposed programme for one year of operation. Following are two estimates. The f i r s t contains some elaborate features which would help to make the programme more e f f i c i e n t . The second has a l l essentials, but extras such as paint brushes (which have been bought up to now by the pupils) have been omitted. These estimates have been based on the following f i g -ures: Subject-units . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Scho oIs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Teachers . . . . . . . . . . 78 Pupils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120 ESTIMATE 1 Mimeograph paper: (a) to pupils (each pupil receiving a l e t t e r ) . . f201.00 (b) to teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.00 (c) correction sheets 20.00 75 Envelopes . . . « B « a ft 9 ft • « « | 3.12 Stamps. . . . . • « 0 • * • » • ft ft 0 • • ft ft 0 ft ft 25.20 Faint i. . . . . • • ft » 9 « ft* • • • 0 • ft ft « ft ft 156.00 India ink . . » « « • 9 « • 9 * 0 ft ft 0 0 O « ft ft 9 . 0 15.60 Varnish . . . . • ft ft ft « • o e O 0 7.80 Paint brushes . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ft 56.00 Ink compasses . 0 f t « f t 0 f t f t f t ft ft • ft ft ft 9 ft 0 ft 27.30 Crayons . . . . « • ft ft 0 * # • 0 0 9 0 0 ft 0 0 ft « .168.00 Total cost. . . • • 0 0 0 0 0 0 ft 0 ft • ft 0 . 0 « e ft f686.02 Cost per pupil. « 0 • « 0 e « 0 0 0 ft 0 ft 0 ft ft « ft .61 ESTIMATE 11 Mimeograph paper: (a) to pupils (eaoh school receiving a lett e r ) • $ 12.GO (b) to teachers . . . . . . 0 ft ft ft 0 • » « 6 ft 6.00 (c) correction sheets . . . 0 0 0 0 0 ft 9 6 • • 9 20.00 Envelopes . . . 0 » • 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ft • • « 9 3.12 Stamps. . . . . • » 9 o e o * e e • a 0 0 . 0 0." .. « 0 _ © 25.20 Paint . . . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 ft ft 156.00 India ink . . . ft 0 ft 0 ft ft ® ft • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 'ft 0 15.00 Total cost. . . • 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0' ft 0 ft . ft $237.92 Cost per pupil. 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 * 0 0 ft O 0 0 0 0 « 0 .21 As 54 teachers report that they teach art at present, the present expenditure for supplies to these teachers would have to be subtracted from the above tot a l s i n order to dis-cover the additional cost of the new programme. Agreements Reached between the Director of Education and the Writer Dr. Plenderleith, who had given the experiment the great-est encouragement, carefully considered the proposed plan. Then, after having compared the results of the pupils' work at Dawson 76 Creek with those of pupils elsewhere i n the inspectorate, he made known;his decision. He accepted the plan on the following conditions: a. The cost was not to exceed 210 per pu p i l . b. The duplicating machinery was not to be included i n this, cost, but the t o t a l outlay for t h i s equipment was not to exceed $50. c. The writer (who was to be known as the "Supervisor of Art Instruction") could devote one and one-half hours per day during his regular school hours to h i s work on the ex-periment. d. Approximately one-half of the ^schools i n the Peace River Educational Area were to participate i n the art ex-periment. This would afford a basis for comparison of re-sults. It would also allow the supervisor to devote s u f f i -cient time to his duties as p r i n c i p a l of the Dawson Creek School. e. The supervisor was expected to make arrangements with the d i s t r i c t nurse for transportation. On certain days he could be released entirely from h i s duties as p r i n c i p a l i n order to pay v i s i t s to his schools. He was also expected to select schools he could most easily reach, and was to choose most of his schools from one nursing d i s t r i c t . f. The supervisor could not promote pupils, but could i n -dicate the progress made by a l l pupils in art and advise their respective teachers. The way was then clear to state the aims of the experi-ment more s p e c i f i c a l l y . It must be carefully noted that the aims stated were to be used by the supervisor only as general guides. They were not rules which the experimenter was bound to follow r i g i d l y . Moreover, the supervisor was not called on to st r a i n towards a certain number of specified goals. Rather, each subject-unit would contain aims i n i t s e l f . The pupils were expected to enjoy some mastery of the work in which they were immediately employed. It was hoped, however, that the 77 cumulative effect of working towards these immediate aims would be to achieve the f i n a l goals. Perhaps the greatest value com-ing from the statement of these aims arose from the fact that they threw into high r e l i e f some of the problems that faced the supervisor. The aims decided upon can be divided roughly into two classes. Those that might apply to any system of art teaching were as follows: 1. To assist children to make choices which would de-velop t h e i r a b i l i t y to create t a s t e f u l surroundings i n their homes. 2. To make art a v i t a l part of their l i v e s by bring-ing them into contact with beauty i n i n d u s t r i a l products and i n the fi n e arts, and by making them more aware of beauty i n nature. 5. To offer opportunities for the enjoyment and under-standing of a r t . 4. To develop i n these children imagination, freedom of expression and a general development of th e i r personalities through self-expression i n the media of art. 5. To develop interests, hobbies and creative efforts which might be continued i n later l i f e . 6. To develop certain technical s k i l l s i n the arts and cra f t s . The aims which were stated c h i e f l y to suit the con-ditions under which the experiment was to operate were as follows: 1. To place in the hands of as many teachers as possible a course dealing with general topics in art. 2. To devote a large amount of attention to art appre-ciat i o n . 3. To select topics which would teach p r a c t i c a l ap-pli c a t i o n s of art to the r u r a l children. 4. To aid the teachers as much as possible in present-ing the selected topics to t h e i r classes and i n correcting 78 the work of the pupils after i t has been done. 5 . ; To attempt to develop a system of art instruction which might be used i n many of the r u r a l inspectorates i n the province. 6. To eliminate a l l unnecessary expense. The specific duties of the supervisor were also de-cided upon, and were as follows: 1. To v i s i t each school at least twice a year when i t was reasonably possible to do so and more often when the occasion arose.1 2. To give talks to the pupils of these schools, to give demonstration lessons f o r the benefit of the teachers as well as the pupils, to give suggestions for improvement where weakness was observed i n the teaching, and to take exhibits to these schools. 3. To send to each school under the supervisor *scharge a series of subject-units selected from the art work which had been tested previous to the formal operation of the ex-periment. 4. Whenever additional explanation was required, to sand to each teacher a l e t t e r dealing with d i f f i c u l t points i n any project. 5. To correct exercises done by the pupils.. 6. To return these exercises f u l l y corrected to the teachers together with general cr i t i c i s m s to help the teachers i n t h e i r future instruction i n a r t . 7. To procure certain materials considered necessary for the e f f i c i e n t operation of the plan, and to distribute these to the schools. 8. To advise i n the handling and care of materials and equipment. 9. To keep a careful record of a l l data which might help i n the e f f i c i e n t operation of a similar course should such be used i n the future. 2 It must be kept i n mind that t r a v e l l i n g conditions i n the Peace River d i s t r i c t are often very hazardous. 2 It was found that these duties increased. The addi-t i o n a l duties w i l l be discussed l a t e r . See p.125 . 79 F i n a l l y , some general decisions were reached. Only teachers who by their answers to the c i r c u l a r had indicated their eagerness to participate i n the experiment would receive the new materials. This made the service entirely optional. These teachers would be reponsible to the supervisor to this extent: they would be required to teach whenever necessary the work outlined. As time went on, however, they would be required to do more and more instructing on their own i n i t i a t i v e . Also they would be given to understand that the work done by their pupils would have to be forwarded to the supervisor for cor-rection as near as possible to the time set for i t s return. Later, they would be expected to do more correcting for them-selves. The teachers were also to be responsible i n the matter of careful use of art supplies issued by the supervisor. The subject-units selected for the experiment were as follows: 1. To design a pattern for linoleum, wall-paper, dress-material, wrapping-paper or curtain material. 1 2. To design and make one of the following: a. a tea-tray b. a teapot stand c. a radio cabinet d. a pincushion e. a cushion - or i f you have something else i n mind that you would l i k e very much to make, ask your teacher. 3. To design a Christmas card. 4 . To discover the magic of colour. 5. To disoover what our Canadian a r t i s t s are doing. •'•Some of the t i t l e s were altered when the subject-units were issued i n t h e i r f i n a l form. 80 F i r s t test i n theory. 6. To. discover how the alphabet developed. 7. To find ways and means of beautifying the school. 8. To discover what goes on i n a Commercial Art Studio. 9. To take a t r i p to an Indian v i l l a g e and then make one of the following: a. a totem pole b. an Indian dance mask c. an Indian dug-out canoe d. an Indian dish and spoon 20. To discover how to make things you draw look as i f they had height, width and length. Second test i n theory. Two of the preceding subject-units were later divided into two parts each for the sake of convenience. The ten units as they are l i s t e d above contained 45 different type exercises i n art. The f i r s t f i v e units' were planned so that they included the five accepted formal elements of design. 1 The sixth ele-ment was not mentioned u n t i l the tenth unit. The la s t five units presented further applications of the elements of form. The units, which were profusely i l l u s t r a t e d with sketches in colour and supplemented with printed material, were divided into the following sections: 1. Statement of the work to be accomplished. 2. The words to be found i n a dictionary. 3. Review of previous work. 4. The chief problems to be discussed. 5. Introduction to the f i e l d . See tenet 10, p. 68. 81 6. The graphic art and "practical" art to be done. 7. Questions on theory. For each of the unite a covering l e t t e r to teachers was drafted i n a temporary form. 1 The letters explained certain aspects of philosophy which might help the teachers but which would be beyond the grasp of the children. These le t t e r s also explained which exercises could be most advantageously used by the various grades. They also indicated the theory which seemed to be suitable i n different grades. Report Sent to Mr. A. S. Towell i n December, 1936 In September, 1936, the Peace River Art Plan was put i n -to operation. Dr. Plenderleith was withdrawn from the Peace River d i s t r i c t almost at the beginning of the school term to take up new duties i n the Matsqui-Abbotsford area. The suc-ceeding Direotor of Education was Mr. A. S. Towell. The new director became at once keenly interested i n the new plan of art instruction, and brought with him an extensive knowledge of art. The progress of the Peace River Art Plan during the first term of operation was shown in the report sent to Mr. Towell on December 31, 1936. This report began with a b r i e f history of the experi-ment. It then went on to describe the current operation of the 1General criticisms of work as a whole were added i n the f i n a l l e t t e r s . 82 experiment. Among other things, i t presented" the data for en-rolment , which were as follows: TABLE 11 ENROLMENT BY GRADES OF PUPILS PARTICIPATING .IN EXPERIMENT 1 Grade No. of Pupils 111 . . . . . . . 73 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 V . 63 VI . . . 61 VII 67 . V l l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 X . 8 XI . 2 XII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Special students. 1 Total number of pupils. .401 TABLE 111 OTHER ENROLMENT DATA Total number of schools . . . . . . . . . . 23 Total number of classrooms .27 Number of schools outside consolidated area (included i n t o t a l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 l i t will.be noted,that the experiment did not attempt to enrol pupils below Grade 111. 83 TABLE 111 ~ CONTINUED Number of classrooms outside consolidated area (included In total) l Number of pupils in schools outside consolidated area (included i n total) . . . 20* a P u p i l s in the two schools i n the inspectorate which did not belong to the consolidated area could enter the art ex-periment by paying a fee of $1 per pupil. The report also showed that the supervisor had v i s i t e d 23 schools, given 14 talks, shown 14 exhibits, taught two less-ons and travelled 246 miles. An interesting table of miscellaneous data was also i n -cluded. It made clear the large number of sohools that desired the course. It showed how some schools had applied a second time for;help i n art instruction and how 20 pupils outside the consolidated area were w i l l i n g to pay $1 per pupil for the art servioe. This table was as follows: TABLE IV MISCELLANEOUS DATA CONCERNING- THE FIRST TERM OF OPERATION OF THE EXPERIMENT Number of schools i n inspectorate applying for Number of schools making second application for Number of schools outside inspectorate applying Number of schools outside consolidated area (but in inspectorate) applying for same 1 84 TABLE IV — CONTINUED Number of schools i n inspectorate entering experiment' 23 Number of schools outside consolidation en-Number of schools outside inspectorate enter-xm^£ SQ.Tfl Q« • • « » • • • • • » « » • 0 Payment made by school outside consolidation @ <jj>l per pupxl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <|>20 Number of talks given to a l l teachers assembled together by the supervisor 1 Number of projects sent to each school . . . . . . . . . . 3 Number of exercises contained i n above projects. . . . . . 9 Number of pieces of children's work returned from schools for correction 1601 Number of above exercises returned corrected . . . . . . . 1601 Number of circu l a r l e t t e r s of explanation sent "fco ©sell "b @£ic2i@3? • • • • • • ^ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Q 3 Number of general criticisms sent to schools 69 This Deoember report contained another interesting fea-ture. It showed that certain individuals and business houses were taking an interest i n the experiment. Many prizes were a l -ready being offered for the best work accomplished by pupils during the school year. At the same time, eleven business houses supplied valuable i l l u s t r a t i v e material at the request of the supervisor. This material, i l l u s t r a t i n g several i n d u s t r i a l arts, gave much more p r a c t i c a l meaning to the type of exercises which the pupils were attempting. The report closed with an itemized statement of costs of the art instruction to date. The summary of thi s statement 85 was as follows: Total cost of operation . . . . . $45.59 Net cost of operation . . . . . . . . . 25.59 Net cost per pup i l . .063 Report Sent to Mr. A. S. Towell in June, 1937 On June 11, 1937, the f i n a l report of the Peace River experiment i n art instruction was sent to Mr. Towell. This re-port began with a general summary of the work done during the school year 1936-37, and ran as follows: The course consisted of eleven subject-units sent to the children i n the form of l e t t e r s . Two other special units were issued from t h i s o f f i c e : one consisting of an outline of work which might have been profitably used during the time of the recent Coronation; the other outlining a school-beautifying programme. The two l a t t e r units con-sisted of l e t t e r s to the teachers only. The f i r s t of these was sent to the teachers under the experiment, and the sec-ond to a l l teachers i n the inspectorate. With each of the eleven subject-units mentioned above, a circular l e t t e r was sent to the teachers. These l e t t e r s outlined certain aspects of the work which could not be well explained i n the l e t t e r s to the children,;; During the entire school year, 7218 examples of artwont completed by the pupils were sent to the supervisor's office to be marked. A l l examples were carefully c r i t i o i z e d and graded, and were returned to the various schools, with the exception of 12 examples which were given to the donors of certain prizes. From time to time i t was necessary to send criticisms to the teachers regarding general faults which were apparent i n the schools. Of these, 246 were sent.. The children attempted 45 different type exercises from which the above returns were made The report went on to show that the supervisor had con-tinued to v i s i t the various schools. The complete l i s t of prizes given by people interested i n the experiment had increased con-siderably. The report also showed that firms i n many different parts of the world had continued to donate excellent illustrative material. 86 The report then devoted a section to the subject of testing. Tests were administered to every pupil above Grade Y under the experiment. These tests were devised to discover the children's theoretical knowledge of art. The results seemed to show that the children enjoyed a f a i r degree of understanding of the theory presented i n the subject-units. The median marks, however, were of l i t t l e value, since no comparative figures were as yet available. The f i n a l costs were next disclosed, and were as follows: TABLE V COSTS OE THE EXPERIMENT Total cost as shown in previous semi-annual report . $45.59 Payment of fees by school outside consolidated d i s t r i c t . . . . . . . $20.00 Net cost as shown i n previous semi-annual report . . . $25.59 Total cost, JanuaryI1,1937 to June 30, 1937 . 30.38 Stock on hand. . . . . . . . . . . 2.00 Net cost, January 1, 1937 to June 30 j 1S37 tjj>3@ •• 33 Total Cost . $75.97 Total cost per pupil . $ .189 Net cost $55.97 Net cost per pupil $ . 154 87 The report concluded by giving the results of two ques-tionnaires. One of these asked a l l the teachers i n the inspec-torate their opinions of the new programmes of study in art issued by the Department. The results of this f i r s t question-naire have been noted previously. 1 The second asked the teachers their opinions of the experimental course i n art as i t was pre-sented to them during the school year 1936-37. So far we have seen the reasons which prompted the writer to inaugurate t h i s art movement i n the inspectorate. The philosophy and aims of the plan have also been discussed, as well as the conditions under which the supervisor carried out his duties. The actual work accomplished by teachers, pupils and supervisor, and the cost of operating the system have also been noted. Before one can attempt to draw any oonolusions as to the success of the Peace River Art Plan, i t w i l l be necessary to investigate the opinions, both of the teachers who worked under the experiment and the inspector who watched the proceed-ings. See page 35. I I PLATES GENERAL EXPLANATION OP PLATES A series of plates follows i l l u s t r a t i n g some of the work i n art accomplished by pupils p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Peace River Art Plan. The work selected for these plates i s somewhat above the average of the work done by the pupils who took part i n the experiment. The plates i l l u s t r a t e to some extent the type of art work which was included i n the 45 type exercises of the course. The drawings and paintings shown were executed by pupils i n junior and senior high school grades. The ages of these pupils ranged from 13 to 18 years. The plates included are photographic copies. The re-productions of pencil work are correct as to contrast, and i t i s for th i s reason that the majority of the drawings photographed are i n this medium. As a l l i t h e copies were made on ortho-chromatic process film, those of coloured o r i g i n a l s are not true. This i s due to the fact that the film used i s most sen-s i t i v e to the blue and vio l e t end of the spectrum. The yellows, oranges and reds are progressively less a c t i n i c and the ren-dering of colour values has suffered accordingly. The balance • of the pictures i n colour has i n t h i s way been affected to some extent. In order to r e c t i f y t h i s defect, the plates have i n one or two instances been retouched. lxxxix 90 PLATE 1 TP "NORTHERN LIGHTS OVER DAWSON CREEK" Landscape i n p e n c i l medium by a p u p i l i n Grade 10. 91 PLATE 11 ..1THE SOULS MOUNTING UP TO GOD WENT BY HER LIKE THIN FLAMES." C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l i t e r a t u r e and E n g l i s h gram-mar. The p u p i l s were r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t and i l -l u s t r a t e a s t r i k i n g f i g u r e o f speech s e l e c t e d from t h e i r r e a d i n g s i n l i t e r a t u r e . Drawing by a p u p i l i n Grade 11. The medium used i s p e n c i l . 92 A study i n tempera by a p u p i l i n Grade 10. The p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s has l o s t much of the c o n t r a s t i n the o r i g i n a l work. 9 3 PLATE IV COSTUME DESIGN A study i n tempera by a p u p i l i n Grade 9. The work i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l studies and p r a c t i c a l a r t s . T h i s costume was l a t e r made and worn to a f a n c y - d r e s s dance. The f i g u r e was f i r s t drawn from the l i v i n g model b e f o r e b e i n g draped. In t h i s way c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the s u b j e c t , h e a l t h , was a l s o a c h i e v e d t o some e x t e n t . A drawing i n p e n c i l by a p u p i l i n Grade 11. The work i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 95 PLATE VI "FEAR" A p e n c i l drawing by a p u p i l i n Grade 10 The work i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 96 PLATE V l l " SPREAD OF DISEASE" A p e n c i l d r a w i n g by a p u p i l i n Grade 12. The work i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h e a l t h . 9? PLATE V l l l STILL LIFE-STUDY OF FLOWERS A tempera p a i n t i n g by a p u p i l i n Grade 8. Much of the c o n t r a s t t o be found i n the o r i g i n a l has been l o s t i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s . 98 PLATE IX A l i n e a n a l y s i s of S p r i n g I c e by Tom Thomson by a p u p i l i n Grade 1 0 . The p u p i l has s t r e s s e d the rhythm of the o r i g i n a l work. 99 PLATE X INDIAN•S HEAD A drawing i n p e n c i l by a p u p i l i n Grade The work i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l s t u d i e s CHAPTER VI AN APPRAISAL OF THE PEACE RIVER EXPERIMENT IN ART INSTRUCTION CHAPTER VI AN APPRAISAL OF THE PEACE RIVER EXPERIMENT IN ART INSTRUCTION In order to obtain data to be used as a basis for an appraisal of the Peace River experiment, the writer sent ques-tionnaires to Mr. Towell and to the teachers who participated i n the experiment. The questionnaire was the only p r a c t i c a l device which could be used to obtain the data required i n an experiment of t h i s nature. 1 The drawbacks connected with t h i s technique were realized. It was reasonable to assume, however, that the Director of Education f o r the area would appraise the experiment i n an unbiased manner,, It was also probable that the majority of teachers would judge the experiment impartially. -^•Standardized tests could not be. employed i n t h i s case. A Scale for General Merit of Children's Drawings,„ E., L. Thorn-dike; (Teacher's "College,' Columbia University, 1924)*, shows that i t s author considers exact representation as the chief excel-lence of children's work i n art.. This i s . not compatible ..with the writer's philosophy. Tests i n Fundamental A b i l i t i e s of  Visual Art, A. F. Lawrenz, 1927, was rejected because i t seems to overemphasize certain s k i l l s and technical details. Art  Judgment Test, Meier-Seashore, 1930, was rejected because i t i s based on an assumption which the writer does not consider v a l i d ; namely that aesthetic a b i l i t y oan be judged on apprecia-t i o n of masterpieces. For a further c r i t i c i s m of t h i s test the reader i s referred to an a r t i c l e : "What do the Meier-Sea-shore and the McAdory Art Tests Measure?" , H. A. C a r r o l l , Journal of Educational Research, V. 26, May, 1933, p. 665. C a r r o l l concludes: "Neither of the tests correlates to any considerable extent with the judgment of university art instruc-tors ...." and "Nothing i s known objectively between creative a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y to appreciate." It seems to be generally agreed that no v a l i d test of art has yet been designed. c i 102 Mr. Towell 9s Appraisal of the Experiment The questions forwarded to Mr. Towell, and his replies, were as follows: Question 1. Did the subject-units teach sound principles of art? Answer to question 1. Yes. I could see clear evidence of the growth among the pupils of appreciation of the principles involved. • For instance, they evidently achieved some grasp of the prin-ciple of the pleasing division of space as applied to pi c -t o r i a l composition as well as to much more obvious things as poster layouts and l e t t e r i n g projects. The same was true of rhythm, balance, contrast, and so on. In the c h i l -dren's work through the year I could see to a growing extent that, even i n eases where they f a i l e d to achieve their aim, they were nevertheless making a conscious attempt to apply sp e c i f i c principles i n art. The very fact that they were aiming at something showed that they had found something to aim at. Question 2. Should the general education of children include such principles of art instruction? Answer to question 2. Yes. I f by "Art" we mean merely the a b i l i t y to draw, I would say i t i s desirable but not necessary. But i f we give our instruction a broader base, I would say i t i s necessary for the elevation of taste and the heightening of appreciation. The subject can be so taught that there w i l l be a transfer to other related f i e l d s ; and I think that the subject-units as drawn up were calculated to pro-duce such transfer. Future revisions might well increase t h i s tendenoy. Question 3. Did the subject-units teach sound pedagogical methods of art instruction? Answer to question 3. In the main, yes. See answer to question 2. Question 4. Do you consider that s u f f i c i e n t art theory, drawing, painting and manual work were outlined i n the subject-units and taught i n the classrooms of the teaohers who received these units? 103 Answer to question 4. Considering the limitations, remarkable results were obtained. Question 5. Did the subject-units give to teachers sound art i n -struction which they probably did not receive in their teacher-training courses and which their own school l i b r a r -ies did not contain? Answer to question. 5 . Yes, Teachers frequently commented on t h i s point. Question 6. How do you compare the cost per pupil of the art course i n the experimental area with the cost per pupil i n other schools of this inspectorate? Answer to question 6. I could not answer this question d e f i n i t e l y , except to say that the per pupil cost in schools participating was small, while in other schools i t was almost zero. Question 7 . Did you fi n d the standard of art work done by pupils taking t h i s introductory course to be s u f f i c i e n t l y high to meet reasonable demands for efficiency i n this subject? Answer to question 7 . Yes. See question 4. Question 8. Did you f i n d that the standard of work done by the pupils taking this course improved as the pupils progressed from unit to unit? Answer to question 8. The improvement was conspicuous. Question 9. How would you compare the art teaching done by teachers taking t h i s art course with that of the remaining teachers? Answer to question 9.~ In schools not taking the course the art work tended strongly to consist entirely of instruction i n drawing, with some colour work, of the conventional flowers, b u t t e r f l i e s , and common models and object®. In other words the primary aim was the acquiring of some s k i l l in graphic representa-tion. This i s of course a worthy aim. There was also some ^The answer has been quoted elsewhere. It i s given here to show i t s o r i g i n a l context. 104 production of designs, based more, I fear, on copying of set models than on the acquisition of governing principles. The-work done varied a good deal according to the s k i l l of the respective teachers. Question 10. Do you consider that the teachers i n the experimental area f e l t that they benefitted personally from the art course? Answer to question 10. Several teachers were emphatic in saying that they, them-selves, had received from the course a good deal more bene-f i t than the children. Naturally their greater maturity en-abled them to p r o f i t more by i t . Question 11. What i s your opinion as regards d e s i r a b i l i t y of operat-ing a similar art service i n most r u r a l inspectorates? Answer to question 11. I would strongly advocate i t . The Opinions of the Teachers The questionnaire which follows was sent to 22 schools. 1 The t o t a l returns from each question w i l l be found under "yes" and "no" columns on the right hand side of the page. P&T'b 1 The Teacher Yes No 1. Has this f i r s t art course given you a better general knowledge of the subject matter for the teaching of art and art appreciation? 22 0 2. Has the course suggested for you new teach-ing procedures and new teaching aids? 22 0 3. Have the subject-units supplied you with ideas which you could not f i n d in the reference books you have on hand? 22 0 1 I t w i l l be noted that the experiment began with 23 schools and 27 classrooms. In the schools having more than one classroom, only one teacher instructed art. The Riverside school was closed i n the middle of the term owing to i t s low attend-ance, leaving a t o t a l of 26 classrooms and 22 teachers. The children of the Riverside school continued i n the experience group but were enrolled in two or three other schools. 105 Yes No 4. Have you covered more f u l l y a g r e a t e r amount of a r t under t h i s system t h a n you c o u l d otherwise have -done i n a s c h o o l y e a r ? 21 1 5. Have you found i t b e n e f i c i a l t o have had the work marked at t h i s o f f i c e ? 22 0 6. Have you found t h a t the s u b j e c t - u n i t s asked you t o t e a c h work which you c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be expected t o t a k e ? 22 0 7. Would you have found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o de-vote s u f f i c i e n t time t o develop l e s s o n s i n a r t such as were o u t l i n e d i n t h e s u b j e c t - u n i t s , w i t h -out s e r i o u s l y h a n d i c a p p i n g you i n the preparation o f your o t h e r s u b j e c t s ? - 21 1 P a r t 11 S u p p l i e s 1. Have you found i t b e n e f i c i a l t o have been s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e t y p e o f l i t e r a t u r e (pamphlets, p o s t e r s , books, e t c . ) you were sent? 22 0 2. Have you found t h a t you were s u p p l i e d w i t h s u i t a b l e drawing and p a i n t i n g m a t e r i a l s at the c o r r e c t t i m e ? 22 3. Have you been s u p p l i e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s ? 22 0 4. Have you been s u p p l i e d w i t h more and b e t t e r a r t m a t e r i a l s than you were b e f o r e t h i s e x p e r i -ment was put i n o p e r a t i o n ? ! 21 0 5. D i d you f i n d the s u p p l i e s of a good q u a l i t y and w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e i r purpose? 22 0 P a r t 111 The p u p i l 1. Has t h e system o f sending l e t t e r s t o the c h i l d r e n c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t o f a r t ? 20 2. Have you found t h a t the p u p i l s have been a b l e t o grasp the g e n e r a l i d e a s s e t down i n t h e s u b j e c t - u n i t s ? 21 C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s c o u l d not be answered by one t e a c h e r who was a p p o i n t e d t o h i s p o s i t i o n a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e school y e a r , 1936-37. 106 Yes No 3. Have the subject-units been s u f f i c i e n t l y varied to interest the children? 22 0 4. In your opinion, have the pupils improved greatly i n their manual art since the beginning of the experiment? 21 0 5. In your opinion, have the pupils gained greatly i n their understanding of art i n i t s f u l l e s t sense?21 0 6. Do you consider that the concepts of art set forth in the subject-units are necessary in the general education of the children? 22 0 7. Has the quantity of the art work given crowded out other subjects to the detriment of the c h i l -dren's general education? 1 21 Part IV General 1. In your opinion, i s i t desirable to have a central, organized system of art instruction such as we have had here, in many r u r a l inspectorates? 21 1 2. Are you i n favour of continuing the experi-ment next year? 22 0 The Significance of These Opinions The opinions of the director of education and of the teachers constitute the only body of information from which con-clusions concerning the success or f a i l u r e of the experiment can be drawn. It i s , i n a sense, unfortunate that one i s forced to r e l y on a number of opinions as a basis for an appraisal of an experiment. Art, however, i s not a subject which can be success-f u l l y measured i n a mathematical manner. Various tests have bsaa devised with the avowed purpose of measuring objectively a pupil's understanding and a b i l i t y i n art. It i s d i f f i c u l t to see, how-107 ever, how such tests can be v a l i d . x Mr. Towell*s opinions should have some value, for he has given general supervision to art work i n h i s schools for several years, and furthermore he makes several f i e l d s of the arts h i s hobby. Again, he arrived i n the Peace River D i s t r i c t i n time to inspect the art work i n the schools before the ex-periment had made much change. Also, he had ample opportunity to compare the results of the art work accomplished by schools under the experiment with that of schools continuing the old methods. The opinions of the teachers were also of some value. They were, in general, representative members of their pro-fession. They were not selected to participate i n the experi-ment on account of any former a b i l i t y to teach art. The only factor that influenced the supervisor's choice of teachers (ex-cept i n the case of one school out side the consolidated district) was the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the schools of these teachers. Not one of the teachers had received any special training i n art apart from normal school or university instruction. At the close of the year, they well understood that their honest opin-ion of the course was desired. An Appraisal of the Experiment Based on Opinions of the Direotor of Education and the Teachers It i s f e l t that the questionnaires covered every important point on which the success or f a i l u r e of the experiment could be See page 59 and the appendix, page '137 f f . 108. judged. The reader w i l l notice that "both the director of edu-cation and the teachers were, i n almost a l l cases, unanimouB i n their approval of the experiment. The reasons for t h i s w i l l now be analysed. According to the opinions as expressed i n the question-naire returns, the teachers' knowledge of subject matter and teaching methods had increased greatly during the year. They stated that they previously had f e l t the lack of certain valu-able knowledge of the subject of art, and they also declared that they found their previous training and school l i b r a r i e s did not meet their needs. Without the aid of the new programme, they might have continued to do poorly i n their art instruction. As i t was, they found to th e i r satisfaction that they were able to teach, with some feeling of mastery, 45 exercises in art. They also included i n their art periods throughout the year a reasonably f u l l course i n preliminary art appreciation. This they f e l t was a creditable programme. The teachers realized that they had not only gained much time by having the work corrected at a central o f f i c e , but that they had also acquired valuable knowledge by t h i s procedure. A standard of excellence was thus set up. The o f f i c e pointed out errors i n the children's work which otherwise the unskilled eyes of the teachers might have overlooked. They realized i t was necessary for them to learn how to correct drawings as well as to develop suitable techniques in teaching. A central o f f i c e was able to obtain much helpful i l l u s -t r a t i v e material with a minimum of effort and expense. These 109 supplies, said the teachers, greatly aided them to present their lessons„successfully.1 Also a central o f f i c e was able to buy supplies without waste. Not only was a saving made by purchas-ing e f f i c i e n t materials, but, as the supervisor catered for 401 pupils, he was able to buy i n such quantities that a great re-duction of costs was made possible. The teachers realized how much more adequately supplied with materials they were under the new system than they had been formerly. Yet the director of education remarked on the low cost of operation of the experi-ment, A great improvement was noted by the director of edu-cation and the teachers i n the matter of the children's manual work and the i r understanding of a r t . This, they stated, was the result of s k i l f u l motivation, careful supervision, appropriate supplies and meaningful exercises which were based on a gen-e r a l l y accepted philosophy of aesthetics and which were care-f u l l y taught. On the other hand, the director of education could not make enthusiastic comments upon the art instruction he saw i n the schools outside the experiment. There he found the teachers continuing the older teaching techniques. He saw -^ Mr. Towell said, "A good feature (of the course) was the abundance of the i l l u s t r a t i v e material furnished. This aids greatly i n the securing of transfer of training.... This feature should be extended i f possible; i t i s the best possible way of ensuring that pupils obtain a grasp of general principles^ To be found i n a l e t t e r to the writer, June 80, 1937, See appen-dix, p,l6 ;l; . The writer found that business firms were pleased to sup-ply such material free. A firm i s more disposed to send material to a larger school system than to a single isolated school, owing to the greater scope for advertising. 3For example, approximately 50$ was saved i n purchases of paint. 110 copyings stereotype exercises being done and l i t t l e art appre-ciation, being included in the teaching programme. He saw that the children of the f i r s t group were gaining an idea of stan-dards and were acquiring s k i l l s and concepts of art necessary to ensure richer l i v i n g . He rarely saw t h i s i n the second grovp. The director of education and the teachers were unani-mous i n wishing the new programme to continue. 1 This wish, i t seemed, arose from their earnest desire to better the teaching of art. They apparently saw that the experimental programme had created this desired Improvement. Also, the general feeling was that a similar service could, with l i t t l e modification, be successfully operated i n other r u r a l inspectorates of this pro-vince. Adverse Criticisms of the Experiment Certain criticisms of the experiment may arise i n the mind of the reader. It may be f e l t that the series of subject-units sent out during the experiment i s but a close approxima-tion of the correspondence courses i n art issued by the Depart-ment of Education. One must point out, i n reply, that the Peace River course was designed i n a t o t a l l y different manner and for " ^The plan was continued in a modified form during the sohool year, 1937-8. The supervisor sent subject-units from Vancouver. Owing to work at the University, the supervisor could do l i t t l e more than send out the subject-units. Very little c r i t i c i s m of exercises was done. 2 I t was Dr. Plenderleith 1s wish that the writer supply the Matsqui-Abbotsford d i s t r i c t with a similar servioe i n art. Unfortunately, the writer's work at the university prevented his doing t h i s . See appendix, p.154 . I l l entirely different purposes. The usual correspondence course provides only instructions on paper. The Peace River subject-units, designed to instruct both teachers and pupils, were or-ganized i n such a way that the teachers in the classrooms were required to do a large amount of instruction by the methods out-lined i n each unit of work. If the correspondence courses i n art issued by the De-partment of Education are consulted, i t w i l l be noticed that they tend to stress graphic representation. They do not appear to include as much material dealinbj with art appreciation as does the Peace River course. At the same time, in stressing graphic art they do not seem to deal with a l l the elements of formal design i n the form i n which these were taught i n the ex-perimental course. These are peculiar facts and lead one to be-lieve that the underlying philosophies of the two courses are ex-tremely divergent. The Peace River course was designed entirely for r u r a l teaching conditions, was tested in r u r a l schools, be-fore being issued, and i s very specialized i n i t s function. One may conclude, therefore, that the two courses have l i t t l e i n common, either i n philosophy or technique. In the second place, the reader may wonder why the Peace River experiment achieved such apparent success in one year when normal schools seem to find d i f f i c u l t y i n training e f f i c i e n t teachers of art i n the same length of time. It may be f e l t that harmful pressure was brought to bear i n the Peace River area. One must point out i n reply that instruction at normal schools i s by i t s very nature a r t i f i c i a l i n the pedagogical sense. The U S teachers-in-training have not experienced the majority of pro-blems which beset the r u r a l teachers of art the moment they be-gin their careers i n small isolated schools. The advice and en-couragement which the Peace River experiment apparently gave than were very effective for the simple reason that the teachers saw both problems and their solutions i n their actual settings. Often the normal schools must offer the solution to teaching problems before the problems themselves have become part of the teachers' experience. For example, the problem of correcting drawings which the pupils have done is one of the most d i f f i c u l t i n art instruction. The normal schools can do l i t t l e ;here to help teachers. Many other such instances might be brought forward to show the advantages of continuing the training of teachers-in-service by such methods as were used i n the Peace River ex-periment. Two other closely related criticisms may arise i n the mind. It may be f e l t that the teachers might come to rely un-duly upon pressure from the supervisor rather than on their own i n i t i a t i v e . Or might not a reverse situation arise? Would teachers tend to f e e l that such a system trespasses on their rights as teachers of art? In reply i t could be argued that under the experiment teachers were required to do a great amount of instruction on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . Although the f i r s t sub-ject-units oalled for definite types of teaching, as time went on the new programme demanded increased judgment on the part of the teachers. This applied to the grading and correcting of drawing as well as research and active teaching. Let us now 113 consider the question concerning the charge that the system trespassed on the rights of teachers. It must be pointed out that the system was optional.It was expected that any teacher of a b i l i t y i n art instruction would continue h i s teaching of art independent of the experiment. A f i n a l c r i t i c i s m may be that such a system tends to-ward standardization, which in art i s not advisable. To t h i s one must reply that a l l art teaching tends toward a standardi-zation of art production. Wherever people gather, an inter-change of ideas w i l l tend to affect the thought of each i n d i -vidual along certain similar channels. As an example one might ci t e any "school" of art, or certain movements i n l i t e r a t u r e , and so on. It must be admitted that some standardization of ideas was the outcome of the Peace River experiment. But t h i s i s not a necessarily harmful outcome provided that the ideas are basic and that the standardization i s not carried too f a r . As to the actual expressions of the children, both the director of education and the writer noticed^the variety of techniques and ideas which was produced. F e a s i b i l i t y of Large-scale Administration of the Plan The ^condition of art instruction found in the Peace River area i s possibly indicative of the condition of art i n -struction i n other r u r a l school areas i n the province. Surveys would have to be established, of course, before any definite statements could be made in t h i s connection. It does not seem 114 reasonable to suppose, however, that the Peace River area was entirely unique i n t h i s province i n i t s low standard of art teaching. The Peace River plan apparently improved the teaching of art i n one r u r a l inspectorate, and did so during the short space of time of one school year. Should inefficiency be discovered i n many other r u r a l schools, the question might arise as to whether the Peace River plan would be as effective i f i t were extended over a much larger t e r r i t o r y . When Mr. Towell was asked this question, he stated: If each inspectorate attempted to operate i t s own course, there would be great, and perhaps undesirable variations i n thezwork.LMoreover, i t i s probable that fdw r u r a l inspec-torates have teachers s u f f i c i e n t l y well trained to undertake i t * If the work were centralized some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s would be overcome, and quantity production of materials would reduce per pupil costs. On the other hand, the hecto-graph process as actually used has certain characteristics which are well adapted to the course as drawn up, but the limitations of the process make it'inherently undesirable for large scale use. It would be necessary to see whether the course could be modified to adapt i t to other means of reproduction .... Much....will undoubtedly be accomplished by a system such as has been in operation in t h i s inspec-torate. ... My feeling i s that i t succeeded i n obtaining i t s object i n spite of handicaps. Large scale administration of the Peace River plan pre-supposes an appointment by the government of a supervisor of art 2 instruction for the r u r a l schools of the province. Such an 3 appointment would be i n keeping with current educational thought. A. Towell, i n a l e t t e r to the writer, June 20, 1937. See appendix, p.^ b6"0 . 2 H i s duties are proposed on p. 125 . 3See p. 124 . 115 In this province certain specialized subjects already are super-vised. .These subjects include dramatics, home economics and technical studies* It appears reasonable to suppose thalj should the need be apparent throughout the province, the Peace River plan might be used to better art teaching in ru r a l schools. The subject-units appeared to outline sound subject-matter and teaching methods. Mr. C. Scott says of them: I consider the subject-units to be of an interesting nature, well linked up with general subject matter, the art» elements sound and the instructions for teacher and pupil cle a r l y set forth in text and i l l u s t r a t i o n . ! The writer, with the kind help of Mr. Judge, the super-visor of art i n Vancouver, has made some changes i n the arrange-ment of the subject-units. These changes have, during the school-year 1938-39, been tested in the Henderson and Brooks Schools at Powell River, B. C., where an improvement i n arrangement has been noticed. The subject-units as they were issued during the Peace River experiment were not adapted for each grade. It was l e f t to the teachers to adapt the material to the i r several grades. At Powell River, the writer has attempted to divide the subject-units into three sections suitable for primary, elementary, and junior high school grades. Mr. Towell saw d i f f i c u l t i e s connected with the processes of duplication of the subject-units for large scale use. There are two possible solutions to t h i s problem. The written portions XC. Scott, i n a l e t t e r to the writer, February 22, 1938. See appendix, p..160 „ 116 of the subject-units could be mimeographed. For i l l u s t r a t i o n , two - or cthree - colour cuts could be used* The second solu-tion i s proposed by the firm which manufactures the machines used In the Peace River experiment. This firm has perfected a new ink which i s reputed to produce 1000 copies from one master sheet. The cost of these sheets i s reasonable. The subject-units could therefore be sent to schools i n a similar form to that used the Peace River d i s t r i c t . F i n a l l y the question of costs arises. The figure of 180 to 20^ per pupil should remain f a i r l y constant. It might be somewhat less, for two reasons. F i r s t a new poster colour i n powdered form has been placed on the market. 1 This would greatly lessen the cost of paint, - one of the chief items of expense in the Peace River experiment. Next, as supplies would be bought in much greater quantities than they were i n the Peace River plan, the general cost of supplies per pupil should be consider-ably decreased. The question of receiving payment for the supplies issued to rur a l schools should not cause great d i f f i c u l t y . At present the correspondence department of the government issues similar supplies, and arrangements such as are made by thi s department might be followed. The co-operation of school boards, however, would have to be caref u l l y fostered, and the nature of the service as optional would have to be stressed. The Peace River Art Plan evidently produced valuable -^This paint has been used during 1958-39 at Powell River and has proved satisfactory in every way. 117 results. The cost of operation was low. Also, there appear to be no insurmountable obstacles i n the matter of the physical operation of the plan on a provincial-wide scale. One may con-clude, then, that the plan i s apparently both worthy and capable of being extended to include a large number of the r u r a l schools of B r i t i s h Columbia should further inefficiency in art instruc-tion be disclosed. CHAPTER T i l ART INSTRUCTION AND AESTHETIC STANDARDS IN THE FUTURE CHAPTER 711 ART INSTRUCTION AND AESTHETIC STANDARDS IN THE FUTURE In the opening chapter of t h i s thesis i t was pointed out that many c r i t i c s agree that the arts r e f l e c t something of the incoherence manifested i n contemporary society. It was shown that these c r i t i c s believe the le v e l of public taste to be low, and as a means of elevating t h i s taste they suggest that great stress be l a i d on art education in the schools* The opinions of educators were consulted. It was appar-ent that they take the stand that art instruction, p a r t i c u l a r l y in r u r a l schools, does not enjoy as high a standard of teaching effi c i e n c y as may be found i n other subject f i e l d s . The question then arose as to what standard of efficiency i n art teaching one might expect to find i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. It was pointed out that no survey had been made which might throw light on the problem. A certain amount of information on art instruction i n the past could be gained by consulting the annual reports issued by the Department of Education. Although these reports indicated that art was being e f f i c i e n t l y taught in some of the urban centres, they also led one to infer that art instruction i n the r u r a l schools of the province was f a r from satisfactory. cxix 120 • ; Review of Conditions i n the Peace River Area Previous to the Experiment In order to discover further information, a thorough ex-amination was made of the Peace River Area. The investigation revealed much inefficiency in art instruction in that area* l i t t l e art work of any kind was being accomplished i n the schools, The work that was being done consisted for the most part of a limited number of stereotyped exercises. Copying from the text-hook was the custom in the majority of schools. The subject had become bookish, and children often appeared to have l i t t l e i n -terest i n i t . P r a c t i c a l l y no art appreciation was finding i t s way into the daily teaching programme. The teachers were using poor equipment, although at l i t t l e additional cost they could have purchased more suitable supplies. Many teachers seemed to show l i t t l e judgment i n t h e i r selection of the best work of their classes. The ch i l d who copied most closely the given model was considered i n many cases to be superior i n ar t . It was noted that the Peace River area i s unique in several respects. But i t was f e l t that the observations made in that area might possibly give some indication of conditions i n ru r a l schools i n many other sections of the province. No vali d conolusions r e l a t i n g to the entire province could be drawn u n t i l further surveys could be instituted. One could conclude, how-ever, that art instruction i n the Peace River area was very i n -effecient. Having reached t h i s conclusion, the writer then pro-1E1 ceeded to discuss the influences affecting the teaching of art in that area. It was hoped that t h i s discussion would explain the situation to some extent. As most of the teachers i n r u r a l schools receive their professional t r a i n i n g at one of the two pro v i n c i a l normal schools, one may say that perhaps the greatest influence on teaching in general i s found i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s . It was shown that the normal schools experience d i f f i c u l t y in preparing teachers for their duties as instructors of art i n r u r a l schools. The nor-mal school art instructors present extremely broad courses i n a very short period of time. They are therefore confronted with an impossible task i f they are to aim at producing graduates who are well q u a l i f i e d to teach art. The Vancouver School of Art should have a very bene-f i c i a l influence on teaching i n r u r a l schools. Unfortunately, owing to a policy towards art adopted by the University of B r i -t i s h Columbia, th i s school can have l i t t l e effeot i n thi s regard. The graduates of the school are, for the most part, absorbed by the larger oentres, while r u r a l teachers taking summer courses there are unable to receive credits towards a B. A* degree. The result i s that extremely few rur a l teachers attend the Art School during the summer months. One must remember that the Art School i s the only i n s t i t u t i o n i n the province which offers classes i n art for teachers during the summer months. The fact that the art classes at the V i c t o r i a Summer School were cancelled owing to the low enrolment i s indicative of a very serious trend. The number of teachers taking art during the summer i s obviously far 122 too low, and i f t h i s number continues to diminish, i t w i l l be-come increasingly d i f f i c u l t to maintain even our present standards. . It was pointed out that the attitude of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia towards the subject of art has other unfor-tunate consequences. Because the university does not give credit for art, pupils i n many high schools who elect the junior matric-ulation course are often directed away from the subject. The attitude of the university i s also reflected i n i t s teacher-training course i n art. This course i s very short, and accord-ing to the lecturer, inadequate. Nevertheless, graduates are permitted to teach art i n any school of the province, regardless of their a b i l i t y or previous training. The influences of the programmes of study were also dis-cussed. , It was clearly seen that the teachers i n the Peace River Area found these programmes unsuitable for their needs as r u r a l teachers. The text-book i n art was also mentioned, and here again one saw that t h i s publication was not suitable for the use of the teachers. Lastly, the influence of the government examinations in art was discussed. It was explained that examinations issued by the Department of Education have tended to stress undesirable aspects of art. The latest (1937) type of examination was re-viewed, and the conclusion reached that this test i s not devised in accordance with sound psychological findings. 123 • • Summary of the Experiment and of the Conclusions Derived from It The writer proceeded to describe an experiment i n art instruction which was conducted in the Peace River Area. This experiment was based on a definite philosophy of aesthetics, and had as Its general aim the gromotion of greater efficiency of art instruction i n the r u r a l schools of the area. Following some experiments i n curriculum building, a new programme of art was organized. This programme was divided into subject-units which were issued to the various schools. The d i s t r i c t was placed under a r u r a l supervisor of art, who was to assist both teachers and pupils i n every way possible. In spite of many handicaps, the experiment was pro-nounced a success. Pupils apparently improved i n their art work:, and the teaohers, as well as the director of education, seemed s a t i s f i e d with the progress made. Certain conclusions regarding the experiment were then reached. The method of administration used in the experiment made i t possible for both teachers and pupils to augment their knowledge... and understanding of art. The system also made possible a considerable saving i n the cost of supplies. At the same time the quality of these supplies appreciably improved. It was con-cluded that the system of art instruction such as was employed i n the Peace River area had marked and be n e f i c i a l effects on the ru r a l schools. It was also concluded that the system might have similar effects on many other r u r a l schools where the teaohing 124 of art was observed to be i n e f f i c i e n t . Recommended Changes In the Programme of Art in the Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia The foregoing discussion of present-day conditions in the art programme of the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia seems to indicate that certain changes might be made i n order to promote greater eff i c i e n c y i n the teaching of the subject. It i s apparent that art i n many ru r a l schools requires stimulating leadership. There i s much evidence to indicate that art i s not taught e f f i c i e n t l y i n many of the r u r a l schools, v. It i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain evidence to the contrary. This being the case, i t seems apparent that steps should be taken to appoint a provincial supervisor of art either for the r u r a l schools of the province or for both urban and r u r a l schools. This appointment would by no means be unique in the school systems of th i s continent. P. T. Ahlfeld writes: Art instruction i n r u r a l schools of the United States i s at present swiftly acquiring momentum. As recently as 1930, only a few counties i n this country could boast of ah art supervisor. Now in several states a well-developed system of state and country supervision has been establised. Notable among these are Cali f o r n i a , Delaware, Ohio, and Pennsylvania and scattered experiments i n a number of other states. 1 The duties of a provincial supervisor of art for the ru r a l schools would of necessity be very numerous. The experi-ment i n the Peace River area indicated some of the required duties which he might be expected to perform. They may be sum-marized as follows: ""XF. T. Ahlfeld, op. o i t . , p. 16. 125 1. To organize and administer the rural art department as a unit. 2. To prepare and to put into operation a course of study-suitable for r u r a l schools. 3. To plan time-allotments for the help of teachers in various schools. 4. To organize surveys of the needs of various communities and endeavour to determine how the schools may help i n meeting tthese needs. 5. To develop effective methods of teaching and classroom procedures in r u r a l schools. 68 To study questionable conditions and suggest remedial measures. 7. To provide f o r improvement of teachers-in-service. To raise efficiency of instruction by talks and demon-strations to teachers. 8. To hold, where practicable, conferences with teachers. 9. To appraise results of instruction. 10. To define standards of attainment and re-define them from time to time. 11. To make classroom v i s i t s . 12. To show ways and means of correlating art work with other work i n r u r a l schools. 13. To prepare special examinations for testing the formal elements of design and those other phases of art t r a i n -ing which may be measured objectively. 14. To devise methods of grading and scoring work. 15. To supervise the keeping of departmental records of the work accomplished i n the schools. 16. To recommend books, magazines and other aids to the teachers. 17. To secure supplies, materials, and equipment i n general, 18. To supervise the di s t r i b u t i o n of supplies, etc., and direct the teachers as to their handling and care. 19. To seek co-operation of l i b r a r i e s . 126 20. To see that the university extension f a c i l i t i e s are f u l l y u t i l i z e d . 21. "To present to the ru r a l teachers new ideas from conven-tions, recent publications, addresses, etc. 22. To organize annual exhibitions of art work in the various r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . 23. To make public contacts by arranging lectures, exhibits, etc. 24. To co-operate closely with the supervisors of art in the large municipalities. 25. To assist in revising the provincial art curriculum. It i s obvious that the majority of these duties were performed by the supervisor i n the Peace River area. Outlines similar to those issued to the schools i n the experimental area might conceivably be used by the provincial supervisor. If the outlines were used, pupils i n r u r a l sohools would enjoy some knowledge of art which would be both uniform and basic. The writer found that once the outlines were organized i n their f i n a l form the performance of h i s duties was greatly simplified. The faot that certain influences are at work i n t h i s province, which apparently do not encourage efficiency i n art instruction, has previously been discussed. It seems necessary that certain reforms should be instituted i f a provincial super-visor of art i s to bring about maximum effic i e n c y i n the teach-ing of the subject. The policy adopted by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia towards art as a subject worthy of receiving cred i t , has been f u l l y discussed. It would seem that students should be granted at least six units of credit i n the subject. If students electing courses i n art were granted six units of 127 credit, art and music would enjoy equal recognition at the university. This seems a just arrangement when one considers that a public school of art i s at present i n operation i n the c i t y of Vancouver. The Vancouver School of Art has room for approximately forty university students without increasing the physical equipment or staff of the school. Should th i s school be allowed to t r a i n some university students in art, the bene-f i t s accruing from t h i s change of policy on the part of the uni-versity would not be f e l t immediately i n the teaching profession. However i t i s reasonable to believe that much benefit would re-sult in time from such a policy. Apparently two changes must take place before normal school graduates are reasonably well-prepared to teach art i n ru r a l schools. In the f i r s t place, i t i s clear that prospective teachers must be given a better general preparation i n arthefore they enter the normal schools* Secondly, the graduates of the normal schools should receive help during the f i r s t year or so of their professional l i f e * The provincial supervisor of art could aid the normal schools greatly i n t h i s service, or could look after i t e n t i r e l y . A few more changes might be suggested. It has pre-viously been mentioned that art suffers from serious discrimina-tions i n the high school curriculum. Many pupils f i n d i t neces-sary to eliminate art from their programmes i f they wish to qualify for a Junior Matriculation c e r t i f i c a t e . This i s ob-viously an unfortunate situation, "In ....secondary schools art should have the same measure of attention as i s given to 128 languages, science, or mathematics." 1 states a Report by the Council for Art and Industry i n England. This statement may perhaps be regarded as extreme. But i f art could receive even half the attention given to languages, etc., much might be ac-complished. This report also states: "The time devoted to art i s limited by the examination system which demands attention to too many other subjects." 2 The report says further: "The weight of the evidence we have received overwhelmingly supports the view that the existence of these (School Certificate) examin-ations which are generally taken at the age of 16 or 17 has i n -te n s i f i e d the neglect of art as part of general education after the age of 14."3 The effects of this situation on the teaching profession are clear l y shown in the following statement: " I f . 0 ...potential teachers have dropped art at the age of 14, they are less l i k e l y to take i t up again, or, i f they take i t up, to make a success of i t at the training colleges." 4 The reasons which cause t h i s neglect of art instruction are seen as follows: . The requirements of the University govern the require-ments of the secondary, and in some respects of the elemen-tary schools, and there i s an "academic" emphasis, i . e . an emphasis on those subjects, such as languages, l i t e r a t u r e , and mathematics, to which the Universities generally attach much importance as being t h e i r most favoured f i e l d s of edu-cation. The emphasis, we f e e l , tends to upset the balance of children's education. 5 x"Education for the Consumer," Art in Elementary and  Secondary School Education, op. o i t . , p. 35. 2 I b i d . , p. 19. 5 I b i d . , p. 18. 4 I b i d . , p. 20. 5 I b i d . , p. 18. 129 The report which has been quoted, has been stressed at some length at this point because i t describes a situation s t r i k i n g l y similar to that found i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The re-commendations made by the report should therefore by applicable, to some extent at least, to the system of art instruction i n t h i s province. The writers of t h i s report are insistent that art should be given a more important place i n secondary schools " i n order to counteract the present tendency towards lop-sided education." 1 In view of the facts set forth the recommendation might be made, then, that pupils electing the Junior Matriculation c e r t i f i c a t e be allowed to include art in their programme as a subject earning credit f o r the three years of senior high school work. The influence exerted by the prescribed text-book has been discussed. It was pointed out that the use made of t h i s text-book was f a r from satisfactory. Indeed, i t has been found elsewhere that the use of text-books i n art has proved to be 2 undesirable. It would seem desirable for the government to cease issuing t h i s text-book to r u r a l schools. It would pro-bably be better for the supervisor of art to replace the text-book with suggestions sent out as ci r c u l a r s . In t h i s way the teachers would have access to more inclusive and more current thought i n art, while the danger of copying might be greatly lessened. Moreover, the c i r c u l a r s would possibly create and 1 I b i d . , p. 36. 2See, for example. "Education for the Consumer" i b i d . , 130 sustain interest. Examinations i n art have been given considerable atten-ti o n i n t h i s thesis. The examination at present i n use i n rural areas seems to be wholly inadequate, and tends to promote harm-, f u l teaching procedures. Examinations in art should be based on both estimates and objective techniques. The examination (in art) should be more than a mere test of knowledge about art, or of executive a b i l i t y . It should primarily be a test of understanding and appreciation. Certain branches of art are almost insusceptible of the usual form of examination.....1 It would seem therefore, that the examinations now used by Inspectors of ru r a l schools be discontinued. In their place, the pr o v i n c i a l art supervisor might issue tests on the formal elements of design, and on such other phases of art instruction as can be tested more or less objectively. At the same time the supervisor should also use considerable subjective evaluation in judging results. F i n a l l y , some re-organization of the programmes of study for r u r a l schools should be made. It was shown that the present programmes i n art are not adequate for the use of the teachers in the Peace River area. This may be the case in many other r u r a l schools of the province. It would therefore seem advisable that the prov i n c i a l supervisor should substitute a new programme of study f o r r u r a l schools. l i b i d . , p. 21. 151 Some Problems Which Should Be Studied Should a prov i n c i a l supervisor of art instruction be appointed, he w i l l find many problems confronting him. There w i l l be the problem of improving and enlarging the subject-units of h i s teaching programme. There w i l l be also the pro-blem of devising tests for measuring both teaching a b i l i t y and pupil responses. The problem i s ever present of how to relate more ef f e c t i v e l y the art taught i n the schools with industry and leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . And again, the problem of develop-ing a people having higher aesthetic ideals and more cultured tastes demands constant attention. F i n a l l y , from a l l our edu-cational endeavours the question arises as to how we can pro-mote that supreme art, the pursuit of excellence i n a l l phases of l i f e , - the very a c t i v i t y on which c i v i l i z a t i o n rests. Possible Future Developments The general trends i n art instruction in t h i s province have been care f u l l y studied, and considerable thought has been given to existing conditions. A survey has helped to some ex-tent to secure an idea of the teaching of art i n r u r a l schools. On the basis of his observations the writer would venture to make a few general forecasts. Normal schools have been i n operation i n t h i s province for over a generation, and since t h e i r beginning have enrolled art instructors on their s t a f f s . Summer schools for teachers 132 have existed'and have taught art for almost as long a period of time. The university has exerted i t s influence i n the f i e l d of general culture for many years. Art teaching has been part of the daily teaching programme of our ru r a l schools since the be-ginning of education i n th i s province. A l l these influences have been at work, and yet, whether one looks at the past or the present, almost a l l available records show that art has never been e f f i c i e n t l y taught in most of our rural schools. The serious nature of th i s statement cannot be over-estimated* If art i s not well taught in our r u r a l schools, a great proportion of our population w i l l probably l i v e their lives i n ignorance of the cultural joys the subject affords. Their lack of knowledge of art w i l l probably be reflected i n the aes-thetic conditions of the homes, and i n the attitude of people towards cult u r a l f i e l d s other than art. But a more unfortunate result^ at least from a business standpoint, may occur. This has been experienced i n England: Owing to the increasing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of overseas countries, the foreign demand for many classes of B r i t i s h goods has shrunk, and i s s t i l l shrinking, and i t i s becom-ing evident that for the maintenance of our export trade we s h a l l have to r e l y more and more upon goods which are attractive in both workmanship and design. The i n d u s t r i a l future of the United Kingdom must, to a large extent, be bound up with the development of design.1 Here, perhaps, i s the r e a l reason which prompts such statements as the following: As the standard of a r t i c l e s produced i n the United Kingdom depends on the education, training and opportunity given to designers, on the general l e v e l of appreciation Ibid., p. 9. 133 (or i n other words of demand) of manufacturers, buyers, salesmen, and of the consuming public, and on the co-opera-tion of Industry with Art, i t follows that the question of the* education provided i n the a r t and trade schools and also in public, secondary and elementary schools, both in the direction of creative a r t i s t i c work and of appreciation, i s of fundamental importance to a r t i s t i c production in industry. We are accordingly of opinion that art education i s a subject which requires the constant attention of teachers and educational administrators . . . . . . . i . . . . . . It i s probably true to say tha$, for one person who v i s i t s a museum or gallery, a thousand enter a shop to buy a cup and saucer; hence the immense importance of giving a right direction to the taste of boys and g i r l s while they are s t i l l at school i s evident, and we hope the problem will be faced in the public, secondary and elementary schools of making the understanding and enjoyment of beautiful things an essential part of the day-to-day l i f e of the school. We are impressed by the freshness, spontaneity and inventive-ness of young children i n the matter of design, and with the results that can be obtained by training and developing these f a c u l t i e s under a sympathetic teacher, we f e e l that here i s an almost unworked source of designing capacity that might be of servioe to i n d u s t r i a l a r t . 1 The significance of the part played by schools i n em-phasizing the importance of good design i n r e l a t i o n to industry i s apparent. The teaching of art i n an i n d u s t r i a l country li k e Canada involves economic as well as cul t u r a l considerations. The fact that schools of a l l kinds can and do exert a marked influence on the production of i n d u s t r i a l art i s a thesis sup-ported i n the booklet Industry and Art Education on the Con- tinent. Here i t i s pointed out that the increase i n Czecho-slovak! an export trade (prior to the inclusion of that country Art and Industry, Report of the Committee Appointed by the Board of Trade under the Chairmanship of Lord Gorell on the Production and Exhibition of A r t i c l e s of Good Design and Every-Day Use,(London: His Majesty's Stationery Office,1932), p. 15. 2 E . M. O'R. Dickey and W. M. Eeersey, Industry and Art Eduoation on the Continent, (London: His Majesty's Stationery -Office, 1935), p. 27 f f . 134 into Germany) resulted i n large measure from the art education of that country. No doubt, because art education promises mone-tary return, such countries as Great Brit a i n and the United States are energetically encouraging the subject in their schools, Of course, art i s encouraged for other reasons. Among these might be included the desire to develop higher standards of taste and cultural appreciation. It i s obviously f e l t i n these countries that no section of the school population can be neglected, and i t i s doubtless with t h i s i n mind that a movement whereby r u r a l schools are being placed under trained supervisors of art has grown up. It seems apparent, then, that industry w i l l be adversely affected i f art i s neglected in r u r a l schools. The effect on industry w i l l be two-fold. Not only w i l l production suffer. A public untrained i n art appreciation w i l l obviously not be in a position to select the finest i n i n d u s t r i a l production. As a result, our manufactures may not f e e l the necessity of producing the f i n e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l design. The possible outcome w i l l be £hat export trade w i l l suffer as i t did i n Great B r i t a i n , where, for a time art education was r e l a t i v e l y neglected. Most available records show that art instruction in our r u r a l schools has not enjoyed any marked degree of efficiency. Because the school authorities have apparently made l i t t l e effort to overcome the basic deficiencies of art teaching in the r u r a l schools, one can prophesy with some assurance that so long as these authorities do not see f i t to take the proper steps, the situation w i l l remain much as i t i s . Conditions may be improv-135 ing, because as our country changes gradually from a pioneer land to a c i v i l i z a t i o n having some cultural background of i t s own, various forms of culture w i l l spread through the r u r a l areas. But such improvement i s naturally very slow. It i s an unconscious, unplanned process. How can we hasten i t ? Various methods have been suggested. Whether or not art Instruction w i l l receive the attention i t requires w i l l depend upon the knowledge and zeal shown by our educational leaders. APPENDIX APPENDIX THE AESTHETIC PHILOSOPHY" ON WHICH THE EXPERIMENT WAS BASED The following theory was formed with the purpose of cl a r i f y i n g certain fundamental concepts which might be used as a basis for class-room procedures i n art. This theory embraces two considerations only: the nature of aesthetic-expression and the nature of aesthetic appreciation. On these two phases of aesthetics, a f a i r l y substantial agreement has been reached by many contemporary philosophers. Their discussion of certain aspects of aesthetics has, of course, led to various controver-sies. To enter into the more controversial problems of aes-thetics, however, would be beside the point here. One has no need of presenting views which are beyond the fundamental re-quirements of a teacher in the class-room of a public school. Before going further, i t w i l l be necessary to define two terms which may otherwise cause d i f f i c u l t y to the reader. The f i r s t of these, aesthetic, i s used with varying meanings by philosophers according to the scope of the subject which they are discussing. Aesthetics w i l l refer i n t h i s essay to the study (from the points of view of both expression and apprecia-tion) of works of a r t . As an adjective, aesthetic w i l l denote that which may be considered excellent because of i t s i n t r i n s i c (as distinguished from any u t i l i t a r i a n ) value. The second term, cxxxvii 138 art, w i l l herein refer to the process and the product of graphic expression. In order to formulate a philosophy of aesthetics, no matter how brief i t may be, one can arrive at a workable system only by a subjective appraach. The only objective v a l i d i t y such a philosophy can have i s gained from the coincidence of the opinions of philosophers. The.every.foundation of this philoso-phy i s the experiencing of certain feelings. These feelings vh: which appear to occur under certain conditions, and which have, fig u r a t i v e l y , a colour of their own, w i l l be abstracted and called aesthetic emotion, reaction, feeling or experience. The objects which cause such emotion, eto. are known as works of  art and c r i t i c s and others have no f i n a l means of recognizing works as such other than by th e i r feelings for them. The study of works of art employs many phases of the personality. It i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional. It takes into consideration the intelligence and the imagination. Indeed, the whole study i s so complex that i t may well be stated that p h i l -osophy and psychology have here a wide f i e l d yet to explore, -a f i e l d which i n a l l probability they w i l l never f u l l y under-stand. Works of art have more than one distinguishing mark. But i n order to make a beginning, we may ask what qualities they have i n common. What qualities are common to say, a print by Hokusai, a Sung stoneware jar, Racine's Phedre, a s t i l l - l i f e by Cezanne, the .fifth-.Symphony by Beethoven? A quality most common to them a l l i s th e i r pleasing form, or i f "we wish, we may c a l l this form design, or pattern. B e l l dalled i t "Signif-cant Form." 13.9 In each (work of art) lines and colours combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms s t i r aur aesthetic emotions.... These relations and combinations of"lines and colours, these aesthetically moving forms, I c a l l "Significant Form" and "Significant Form" i s ..the one quality common to a l l works of a r t . l Abercrombie explained, whereas B e l l did not, the mean-ing of "s i g n i f i c a n t " : "Whatever art gives us i s given as an instance of a . world of unquestioned order, measure, government; a world in- which experience occurs with perfect security, known that the firm inter-relationship of i t s process can never be dislocated by chance - a world which i s the "desire of the mind" Now we see why Form i s the chief excellence of art. It i s because art presents i t s matter as Form that i t effects t h i s profoundly desirable impression of coherence, of inter-relation, and so of significance both of parts and of whole. For i t i s bv Form that matter, whatever i t he, i s accepted as a unity. 2-It i s not d i f f i c u l t to see the manifestation of this form, or rhythm i n a l l nature, as did Dewey i n his Art as Ex- perience. The coursing of the blood, the cycle of lunar changes, appetite and satiety, b i r t h and death are instances of order in the universal scheme of existence. It i s therefore not mysti-c a l to view form as a v i t a l element of existence going deeper than man's outward manifestation of his "desire of the mind," - his art. The very nature of man's art seems to express his relationship to the universe. But whether we accept this or not, the fact remains that form i s of great importance i n art. The r e l a t i o n of matter or substance to form need not con-cern us in thi s discussion. Suffice i t to say that i n a work of -•-C. B e l l , Art (New York: F. A. Stokes, Co.), p. 8. 2 L I Abercrombie, Towards a Theory of Art (London: Martin Seeker, 1926), pp. 105-7. 140 art they do not present themselves as txvo distinct things. Should the reader i n s i s t on distinctions being made concerning matter and mind and the l i k e , one might admit that a work of art i s actually matter changed by i t s form into "aesthetic sub-stance." At t h i s point i t may be observed that objects of indus-t r i a l arts can have excellent form. It has previously been men-tioned that such objects can enrich our immediate experience. 1 But i s a useful form, as such, necessarily an aesthetic form? It i s ©swey*3' b e l i e f that e f f i c i e n c y for a particular end cannot be associated with aesthetic quality. Attempts to identify the two "are bound to f a i l , " he states, "fortunate as i t i s in some cases the two coincide, and humanly desirable as i t i s that they should always meet."2 whether or not we accept the philosophers stand, the fact remains that there i s a tendency for useful shape to blend with aesthetic form. Art i s the result of forming or making. Anyone who at-tempts to form or make i s an a r t i s t in embryo. How can he Issue forth as a veritable a r t i s t ? Only when the result of his lab-ours shows pleasing form which in turn i s the outcome of his rigorous seeking for excellence. We may observe thousands of examples of t h i s p r i n c i p l e . The tennis player who seeks ex-cellence i n his game may, i f he possess the capability, achieve fine form. The engineer who bends h i s energies to creating a splendid and balanced structure i n which each part f u l f i l s i t s See p. 2. Dewey, op, c i t . , p. 109. 141 function, creates excellent forau Of course, the a b i l i t y to create such form varies greatly among individuals,, Only those who have f u l l y mastered t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s are a r t i s t s . But the joys and sorrows of creating are open to a l l . And how can man more honourably pass h i s time than i n the pursuit of excellence? So far then, we may make a tentative d e f i n i t i o n of art. £rt i s an attempt to create pleasing form. Successful arrange-ment tends to move us profoundly and pleasurably, while the lack of this arrangement leads to unpleasant feelings. This d e f i n i t i o n has been chosen to eliminate the term beauty from t h i s discussion. Of course, beauty and aesthetio are to the writer's mind synonymous, but beauty i s a troublesome abstrac-ti o n which has caused untold debate. The easiest solution to the d i f f i c u l t y i s to do away with the term i n our discussion. Indeed, as Herbert Read has pointed out, the ideal of beauty i n art is of limited h i s t o r i c a l significance. It pro-bably arose i n Greece, the offspring of a philosophy of l i f e , was inherited by Rome and was revived by the Renaissance. The Greek concept of beauty was the ideal i z a t i o n of a perfect type of humanity. But t h i s , continues Read, i s only one of several possible ideals.- The Byzantine ideal was divine rather than human, the primitive ideal was the expression of fear i n an un-knowable world, the oriental ideal i s abstract, non-human. It would be d i f f i c u l t tor-bring beauty into service for a l l aes-thetic expressions of these several ideals. We are now in a position to deal with the process of 142 creation of forms of art. Such creation may be termed aes-thetic expression. From what has been stated concerning the "search for excellence," i t w i l l he seen that the mere giving way to emotion i s not expression. This applies to art, as i n -deed, i n a l l l i f e . As Dewey says: "What i s sometimes called an act of self-expression might better be called one of s e l f -exposure; i t discloses character - or lack of character - to others. In i t s e l f , i t i s only a spewing f o r t h . " 1 While there can be no expression unless there i s an urge from within that demands expression, one has observed that there can be no aes-thetic expression unless the state of mind i s ordered, defined, and associated with past experience. Dewey makes some impor-tant comments dealing with the production of a work of art. "The r e a l work of art," he says, " i s the building up of an i n -tegral experience out of the interaction of environmental con-ditions and energies. The act of expression that constitutes a work of art i s a construction i n time, not an instantaneous emission." The philosopher means here that the work i s the re-sult of the prolonged interaction of something issuing from the s e l f with so-called objective conditions, a process in which both acquire a form and order they did not at f i r s t possess. He states f i n a l l y that when excitement goes deep about subject mat-ter, i t s t i r s up a store of attitudes and meanings derived from p r i o r experience. 2 Herbert Read, i n his work The Meaning of Art, simplifies 1 I b i d . , p. 61 Ibid., pp. 64-5, verbatum selections. 145 the process of aesthetic expression into three stages: F i r s t comes mere perception of material qualities; second arrangement of perception into pleasing form; while the t h i r d stage comes when such an arrangement of perceptions corresponds with a pre-viously existing state of emotion or feeling. The two f i n a l processes, i t i s assumed, include Dewey's observations. It i s also assumed that the "something issuing from the sel f " includes imagination and insight on the part of the a r t i s t . With these l a t t e r reservations we can accept Reid's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Art i s expressed i n form by an a r t i s t , but i t communi-cates a reaction. The a r t i s t selects, orders, and interprets his percepts. He records his reactions about what he sees or has seen in the past. It then follows that r e a l i t y i n art i s r e a l i t y only of the a r t i s t ' s reactions to his percepts. "The roads to r e a l i t y are several," says B e l l . "Some a r t i s t s come at i t through the appearance of things, some by the recollection of appearance, and some by sheer force of imagination."! However, i n a l l cases, i t cannot be overstressed that the true a r t i s t presents to us h i s reactions. This brings us at once to a discussion of exact represen-tation i n art of external objects. It w i l l be seen from the foregoing that the form in which the a r t i s t expresses his re-actions may, by virtue of the internal process, in most cases bear l i t t l e or no resemblance to any external form which may have stimulated him. However, i t would be merely dogmatic to exclude exact representation from art. Rather i t s significance l B e l l , op. c i t . , p. 59. 144 must be understood. Exact representation of the external world may have value, but i t s value i s found in i t s form, not i n i t s representative q u a l i t i e s . "The painter may.... imitate what he sees," says L.A. Reid, "but he imitates what he sees, because what he sees f u l f i l s and s a t i s f i e s his needs." 1 The a r t i s t , then, feels free to depart from actuality as i t appears to exist i n the external world. In other words he may dis t o r t . Distortion has been general i n a l l art. One would expect t h i s i f our theory i s to stand any test of v a l i d i t y . The rounded breasts of the Greek expressions in sculpture could new be so formed i n l i f e . Did not Michael-Angelo,. E l Greco, and a host of others held high i n esteem, distort anatomy? What, then, i s bad drawing? Bad drawing occurs when the forms used are drawn merely to f i l l gaps and consequently prevent a complete harmony or unity. Bad drawing i s contrary to a l l principles of the pursuit of excellence as well as the dictates of good taste. Many works have been produced by a r t i s t s i n recent years that are mere formal arrangements, - "abstracts." Such a move-ment has doubtless been occasioned by the spread of Bell's theory of form. The movement has spread to some of our urban public schools where, i t was observed, t r i c k s of dynamic symmetry were somewhat overstressed. An a r t i s t always creates a pattern when he expresses himself. But a mere pattern cannot constitute a work of art. A l l the tricks of exact balance, distributed balance, rhythmic l i n e , and so on may be at the command of the a r t i s t , X L . A. Reid, A Study i n Aesthetics (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1931), p. 236. 145 yet, although he may produce a very pleasing pattern, he may s t i l l not produce a work of art. He may have at his fingertips a l l the knowledge of dynamic symmetry, and he may rigorously apply the principle of the "Golden Section," yet i f he depend on these s k i l l s alone, he w i l l never produce a great work. I f It he argued that Piero della Prancesca used extreme geometric organization and created a masterpiece, one must reply that he possessed a further and necessary a b i l i t y to produce hi s work. What further a b i l i t y do we expect of an a r t i s t as well as his power to create pleasing form? The answer has been hinted at already i n the analysis of the creative process. If art i s the communication of a reaction i n pleasing form, we therefore look for a personal element i n a work of art. We expect the a r t i s t to reveal to us something that i s or i g i n a l , - a revelation, -"a unique and private vision of the world."" The a r t i s t i s there-fore an explorer with a distinguished s e n s i b i l i t y . A l l great art bears the stamp of the personality of i t s creator. "Even the art that allows the least play to individual variations," says Dewey, " l i k e say, the re l i g i o u s painting and sculpture of the twelfth century - i s not mechanical and hence bears the stamp of personality." 2 It i s not to be disputed that a t r i v i a l and disorderly . mind creates products which r e f l e c t i t s deficiencies. Prom what has previously been stated, i t w i l l be cl e a r l y seen that t h i s applies to art as well as to other f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y . The artist -'•Read, op. c i t . , p. 15. p Dewey, op. c i t . , p. 251. 146 requires a r i c h and developed background which must be constantly supplied with new and varied interests. It then follows that i f a l l other considerations be held constant, the greatest a r t i s t w i l l be he whose intelligence i s highest. But i n what manner does an a r t i s t make usa of his i n -telligence in his work? Although a great work of art may include? say, moralistic implications or set up s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l stan-dards, i t s enduring aesthetic quality l i v e s by virtue of theper-fection with which the a r t i s t has conveyed his reactions to his ideas. The a r t i s t cannot ignore ideas, but h i s business i s to present his reaction to them. E l l i s states: If he (the a r t i s t ) seeks to mix himself up with the passions of the crowd, i f his work.shows the desire to prove anything he thereby neglects the creation of beauty. Neces-s a r i l y so, for he excites a state of combativety.... The mother who seeks to soothe her crying child preaches him no sermon. She holds up some bright object and i t fixes his attention. So i t i s the a r t i s t acts: he makes us see. Now that one has discussed what art i s , how i t i s pro-duced, and i t s purpose, i t i s possible to examine the nature of aesthetic communication. We look at a work of art. Under cer-tain conditions we w i l l react to i t . F i r s t , as Dewey says, "In the kingdom of art as well as,of righteousness i t i s those who hunger and t h i r s t who enter." 2 This attitude of hunger and thirst involves not only the desire which i s implied, but also the w i l l to s t i f l e personal sentiment which otherwise would alter the nature of the reaction which i s to be experienced. Also, the lHavelock E l l i s , The Dance of L i f e (London: Constable & Co., 1926), p. 324. 2 Dewey, op. c i t . , p. 255. 147 perceiver, as much as the creator, requires a s e n s i t i v i t y and a cultured background to appreciate as f u l l y as possible a work of art. It i s assumed, then, that we are moved by a work of art. To what do we react? Fry offers a convincing argument that " i n a l l cases our reaction to works of art i s a reaction to the re-l a t i o n and not to sensations or objects or persons or events." 1 He goes on to point out that some of the works of the greatest colourists are b u i l t up from elements each of which when taken separately may be unpleasant, but which, when interrelated are pleasurable. He carries his observations into the f i e l d s of music, poetry and architecture. Dealing with the nature of the reaction provoked by aes-thetic appreciation, Read, in his Meaning of Art, considers t h i s reaction to be one which affects the mind suddenly. The observer i s pleased immediately or not at a l l . A person (and i t should be noticed that Read specifies "of s e n s i b i l i t y " ) does not go through a long process of analysis before he pronounces himself pleased or otherwise. E l l i s supports t h i s viewpoint in The Dance  of L i f e : In the matter of pictures.... I have found throughout l i f e . . . . that a revelation of the beauty of a painter's work .... came only after years of contemplation, and then most often by a sudden revelation, i n a f l a s h . . . . which hence-forth became the clue to a l l the painter's work.2 From a normal state of tension or inhibition, then, we experience, by virtue of the aesthetic reaction, a release. A !R. Fry, Transformations (London: Chatto & Windus,1926), p. 3. . 2 E l l i s , o p . c i t . , p. 306. 148 work of art i s in this sense a liberation of personality. Read makes haste to avoid confusion as to the nature of t h i s l i b e r -ation. "Sentimentality," he states, " i s a release but i t i s a relaxation. Art i s a release, but i t i s a bracing." 1 If the aesthetic reaction has no place for sympathy, what i s the r e l a t i o n of subject matter to form? L. A. Reid successfully settles this question: The ideal for art Is, that subject matter should be as expressively fused with the body-forms as the content of music or architecture i s fused with i t s body.2 To weep over the t r i a l s of OEdipus as i f we were in the place of the sufferer i s not to experience the aesthetic quality of the play. Whatever we are to receive from a work of art must come, as much as i t i s humanly possible, from the work i t s e l f , not from irrelevent emotions. A work of art may lead the stream of consciousness away into delightful imaginings, but such a state i s beside the point, i f we s t r i c t l y agree that the work of art i s our single reference for aesthetic appreciation. "Emotion," says Dewey, " i s aesthetic when i t adheres to an ob-ject formed by an expressive act i n the sense in which the act of expression has been defined." 3 However, because the master-piece has such a universal appeal, i t often may cause the mind to f l o a t into fancy, and such a reaotion need, one believes, not necessarily be frowned upon, provided we understand i t s relation to the aesthetic reaction as i t has been res t r i c t e d . It must always be kept i n mind the danger of this f a n c i f u l drearning,hew« ever. lRead, op.eit., p. 20. 2Reid, op. o i t . , p. 236. 3Dewey, op. c i t . , p. 76. 149 Here we touch the crux of the aesthetic experience for the greater number of people who are accustomed to rely a l -most exclusively on their interest i n , or emotion about, the persons or events called to mind by the imagery of fine arts. Landscape for such i s just reminiscence or revelation of pleasant natural scenes; portraiture interests by the beautiful... .ladies.... . i t represents; figure painting avails by i t s attractive and provocative nudes; li t e r a t u r e by i t s exciting events or i t s imagined wish f u l f i l m e n t s . 1 Art appreciation can be successfully heightened. That i s because, - broadly, - i t involves a two-fold experience, the i n t e l l e c t u a l and the emotional, the elements of which are never completely fused'. That certain people appreciate art cannot be denied, otherwise art would not exist. And we assume, in a l l probability r i g h t l y , that an understanding and therefore an., appreciation of art tend to be increased by an i n t e l l e c t u a l ap-proach. Of course, this must remain a speculation u n t i l our knowledge of the subject increases. And that we s h a l l ever find devices for measuring aesthetic appreciation successfully i s ex-tremely doubtful. If such a device be ever discovered, psy-chology w i l l have few problems, for the mind w i l l then be an open book. We have b r i e f l y speculated on the emotional side of ap-preciation. Let us now turn to the l o g i c a l inference of the i n -t e l l e c t u a l . A work of art i s an important event i n the general scheme of human a c t i v i t y . But i t i s a creation resulting from many other lesser events. Can we analyse the elements of a work of art? Should we be able to do so, we should not only have a key to the separate elements of design which affect us emotion-a l l y , but we should also establish a clearer understanding of form. 1R.Fry, Transformations (London: Chatto & Windus, 1926) p.3. 150 Fry made a rather famous pronouncement when he declared five such elements, with the possibility, of a sixth: rhythm of the l i n e with which the forms are delineated, mass, space, light and shade, colour and perhaps another which he describes as f o l -lows : I would suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y of another element, though perhaps i t i s only a compound of mass and space; i t i s that of the i n c l i n a t i o n of the eye to the plane, whether i t i s impending over or leaning away from us.... Now i t w i l l be noticed (Fry continues in his discussion of a l l the elements) that nearly a l l these emotional ele-ments of design are connected with essential conditions of our physical existence; rhythm appeals to sensations which accompany muscular a c t i v i t i e s ; mass to a l l the i n f i n i t e adaptations to the force of gravity which we are forced to make; the spacial judgment i s equally profound and universal in i t s application to l i f e ; our feeling about inclined planes i s connected with our necessary judgments about the confor-mation of the earth i t s e l f ; l i g h t again i s so necessary a c condition of our existence that we become extremely sensi-tiv e to changes i n i t s intensity. Colour i s the only one of our elements which i s not of c r i t i c a l or universal impor-tance to l i f e , and i t s emotional effect i s neither so deep nor so cle a r l y determined as the others. 1 Such a deliberate analysis i s only by way of explanation. It cannot, in i t s e l f , bring to us the pleasure to be derived from a direct communication with a work of art. A work of art possesses emergent properties which cannot be inferred from i t s parts. In other words, the elements of a perfect work of art form a unity, the value of which i n sum i s greater than the parts taken separately. Although the selective powers of the a r t i s t are the guides which influence the success or f a i l u r e of the finished work which i s composed of the elements discussed, neither the creator nor the observer can account f u l l y by any process 1R. Fry, Vision and Design (London: Chatto & Windus, 1924), p. 161. 151 of l o g i c a l analysis for the informing s p i r i t of a r t . 1 As Flau-bert put i t : There are no beautiful thoughts without beautiful forms, and conversely. As i t i s impossible to extract from a physical body the qualities which r e a l l y consititue i t -colour, extension, and the l i k e , - without reducing i t to a hollow abstraction - i n a word without destroying i t - just so i t i s impossible to detach the form from the idea, for the idea exists by virtue of the form. 2 However, a c r i t i c a l approach to art i s valuable. It tends to aid the observer f u l l y to appreciate a work of art. Again, the only factor that guarantees the aesthetic reaction i s experienced at a high l e v e l , and not as mere sentiment, i s the cultivated taste of the one who experiences the reaction. In-t e l l e c t u a l c r i t i c i s m should afford the observer an assurance of worth i n the art that moves him. The philosophy that has been set down does not pretend to be complete. Moreover, i t rests on assumptions which without doubt may be questioned. Such assumptions, however, i n one form or another must be made, i f an aesthetic philosophy is to be for-mulated. And i t i s not unreasonable to state that perhaps no ultimate truth can ever be reached concerning the majority of these assumptions. It i s c l e a r l y necessary to select one's ideas carefully i f one i s to teach art. Even i f i t be agreed with E l l i s that a r t never can be successfully defined, i t must be again stated, that a teacher's or supervisor's philosophy wi11 greatly influence the work i n art executed by those under his charge. -Lit i s to be observed that he who appreciates has, in a sense, emerged^to^a new •olaneJQf understanding when he becomes capable of aesthetic appreciation. • R 7 2Quoted by M.H. Bui ley, Art and Counterfeit (London:Methuen&S>.,1925), COMMUNICATION-FROM' MR. J". GOUGH, PEBRUART .25/,- 1938 Provincial Normal School, Victoria, B. C., Friday, Feb. 25, 1938. Dear Mr. Ga i t s k e l l : • I am afraid that I s h a l l not be able to assist you to any extent. A r e a l l y satisfactory answer to your questions could only come as a result of considerable testing. What the student-teachers may be able to do i n the f i e l d of art, and what their aesthetic background may be, i s hardly represent-ative of the province as a whole since the students represent such a small quota of the r u r a l high school population. The students who come to t h i s school from small r u r a l high schools have as high a standard of efficiency i n art ap-preciation as the boards of school trustees have been able to provide them with. You, yourself, know how limited are the funds at the disposal of school boards. The a b i l i t y of each student to express himself graphi-c a l l y naturally varies with the standard of instruction received prior to his entrance here. Under the existing circumstances, as stated above, the technical s k i l l of the average student i s good. Many have excellent a b i l i t y . Students of 18 to 20 years of age have hardly developed a " definite" aesthetic philosophy of art, or of any subject. At that age, and from then on, they are acquiring such a philosophy. Our discussions on Design, Colour, and Famous Masterpieces help to enrich the aesthetic philosophy they already possess. Our course in Graphic and P r a c t i c a l Arts seizes every opportunity to improve the tastes of the student. To some extent my creed i s : "Creators few, appreciators a l l I " The graduates of t h i s school are as well equipped to teach art i n rural schools as the time w i l l permit. Some time i s devoted to a l l phases of Graphic and Pra c t i c a l Arts. There are only 60 periods of 45 minutes each throughout the year for the Art Course. Anyone who t r i e s to judge the teaching a b i l i t y of the average graduate must keep th i s fact i n mind. c l i i 155 I have enclosed our last o f f i c i a l Course of Study. • Pages 8, 14 and 27 may be of interest to you. You doubtless know that further training i s now offered at Summer School. From observation I know that many avai l them-, selves of t h i s opportunity to improve their s k i l l and background. I cannot comply with your request to forward copies of f i n a l examinations. From time to time I give progress tests. The marks of these and the marks gained for various assignments are used for the grading. Sincerely yours, John Gough. Owing to low enrolment these classes were cancelled in the summer of 1939. COMMUNICATION FROM "DR. W. A. PLENDERLEITH, SEPTEMBER 27, 1937, AND ENCLOSES STATEMENT Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , September 27, 1957. C. Dudley G a i t s k e l l , Esa., 4513 - 7 t h . Ave., West," Vancouver, B. C. Dear Mr. G a i t s k e l l : I beg t o acknowledge r e c e i p t o f your l e t t e r of Septem-ber 16th o u t l i n i n g t h e p r o j e c t t h a t we had i n t e n d e d t o put i n t o e f f e c t i n t h e A b b o t s f o r d School d i s t r i c t . 1 As I am now at Nanaimo and Mr. T. W. H a l l i s i n charge o f the A b b o t s f o r d S c h o o l d i s t r i c t , I have handed your l e t t e r t o him and t o l d him t h a t I would ask you t o v i s i t him p e r s o n a l l y and e x p l a i n the proposed drawing p r o j e c t . I f you w i l l v i s i t Mr, H a l l , I am sure he w i l l co-operate w i t h you i n c a r r y i n g out the p r o j e c t we had i n t e n d e d t o put into e f f e c t . Yours v e r y t r u l y , Wm. P l e n d e r l e i t h . I n s p e c t o r o f Sc h o o l s . P. S. I am e n c l o s i n g a statement t h a t you wish t o have i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h your t h e s i s . •'•The arrangement had been made f o r the w r i t e r t o p l a c e t h e Peace R i v e r A r t p l a n i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . Owing t o o t h e r d u t i e s , the w r i t e r found i t i m p o s s i b l e to c a r r y out the proposed arrangements. c l i v 155 Enclosed Statement Questions for a thesis asked Dr. W. A. Plenderleith by C. Dudley Gaitskell 1. What type of art work did ;you find being done in the rural schools of the Peace River Inspectorate prior to the pre-sent art movement? Answer: L i t t l e art work was being done in the schools. The drawings that were being done consisted for the most part of conventional design, renderings of cubes and prisms, etc., and some nature drawing. The teachers seemed to draw the majority of their ideas from the text book. Erom t h i s book a large amount of copying was done. Indeed, very rarely did one see o r i g i n a l drawings being produced by the pupils or being encouraged by the teachers. It may also be stated that art appreciation was not taught and that the majority of teachers believed that to stress manual dexterity with pencil and brush was the sole aim of art instruction. S. What type of art work do you find i n the average ru r a l school i n your present inspectorate? (Matsqui-Abbotsford) Answer; In the small rural schools of my present inspectorate, conditions are very similar to those I have already described. W. A. Plenderleith September 16, 1937. COMMUNICATION FROM MR. C. H. SCOTT, AND THE QUESTIONNAIRE TO WHICH THE COMMUNICATION WAS A REPLY, JULY SO, 1937 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , July EO, 1937. Charles H. Scott, Esq., Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver, B. C. Dear Mr. Soott: With reference to our recent conversation i n which we discussed certain matters dealing with the teaching of art and art appreciation i n t h i s province, I s h a l l be greatly indebted to you i f you w i l l be kind enough to answer the following ques-tions. As I explained to you in our talk , I desire the infor-mation that the answers to these questions w i l l bring out, for data which I intend to use i n a thesis. 1. How many teachers of one room r u r a l schools are attending your school at the present time? " Seven." E. What i s your opinion of the general achievement i n art and art appreciation in one-room rural schools? " I have no knowledge of art achievement in one-room r u r a l schools."! 3. What i s your opinion of the art training given in our Provincial Normal Schools? "Never having been asked to examine the art training given i n our Provincial Normal Schools, I am not prepared to give an opinion of i t A" 4. What i s your opinion of the text-book used by teachers of art i n the r u r a l schools of t h i s province? l-This questionnaire asked several other questions deal-ing with one-room r u r a l schools. As Mr. Scott replied as i s shown here, these questions are omitted here below. c l v i 157 "The text-hook issued by the Department of Education i s based as a teaching for s k i l l s rather than appreciation." What i s your opinion of the new curriculum in art for Junior High Schools and Elementary Schools? "The new curriculum i n art for Junior High Schools i s a move forward in art appreciation as distinct from art skills, It i s perhaps over-rich and assumes a knowledge on the part of the teachers which few as yet possess." Remarks which my questions may have promoted. " In general "Art education w i l l not move very far forward i n this province u n t i l i t receives a credit value i n the High Schools equal to such subjects as mathematics, languages, etc. That i t does not receive such credit i s due partly to apathy on the part of the body of teachers and partly to the fact that the academic mind resents the intrusion of other subject i n -terests. The "powers that be" are a l l academically trained and few, i f any of them, possess art appreciation." I assure you that your kind consideration of my questions 1 be very much appreciated. Yours very truly, C Dudley Gaitskell. COMMUNICATION FROM MR. C. H. SCOTT, AND THE QUESTIONNAIRE. TO JEICH THE COMMUNICATION WAS A REPLY JANUARY 28, 1938 . 4513 West 7th. Ave., Vancouver, B. C , January 28, 1938. Charles H. Scott, Esq., Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver, B. C. Dear M'r. Scott: Last July you kindly helped me by answering several questions dealing with art instruction. I have used some of your answers i n my thesis. Would you be kind enough to consider the following ques-tions? 1. To about how many students belonging to the teacher-train-ing classes at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia do you teach art? " F i r s t term, approximately 50 i n analysis and methods. "Second term, approximately 30 i n appreciation." 2. About how many hours of art instruction do these student-teachers receive? "20 hours." .3. What i s the nature of the instruction given? " i Teaching methods. " i i Analysis of the various subjects contained in the art curriculum, with a view to giving at least an understanding of the nature and scope of each sub-ject . " I i i Art appreciation i l l u s t r a t e d by slide and print." 4. Do you consider that the student-teachers are s u f f i c i e n t l y well equipped to teach both high school classes in art and elementary school classes? c l v i i i 159 " I do not c o n s i d e r a t e a c h e r s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l equipped t o t e a c h High s c h o o l a r t u n l e s s possessed of manual dex-t e r i t y and c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . He should be a b l e t o i n s p i r e by example - on the board and elsewhere. T a l k i n g i s not enough. r t I s h a l l be g r e a t l y indebted to you f o r any h e l p you can ve me. . Yours v e r y t r u l y , C Dudley G a i t s k e l l . COMMUNICATION FROM MR. C. H . SCOTT, . .. FEBRUARY 22;,- 1938 The Vancouver S c h o o l of A r t , Cor. Cambie and Dunsmuir S t s . , Vancouver, B. C. Mr. G a i t s k e l l , 4513 West 7 t h . , Ave., Vancouver, B. C. Re. Peace R i v e r -- A r t I n s t r u c t o r • s P r o j e c t Sheets. At Mr. G a i t s k e l l ' s r e q u e s t I have examined two s e t s o f A r t I n s t r u c t o r ' s p r o j e c t s h e e t s . 1 I c o n s i d e r t h e p r o j e c t s t o be o f an i n t e r e s t i n g n a t u r e , w e l l l i n k e d up w i t h g e n e r a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r , the a r t elements sound and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r and p u p i l c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h i n t e x t and i l l u s t r a t i o n . C h a r l e s H. S c o t t , D i r e c t o r xThese two s e t s i n o l u d e d a l l t h e s u b j e c t - u n i t s i n the Peace R i v e r p l a n . c l x COMMUNICATION FROM MR. A. S. TOWEli, JUNE £0, 1937 Office of Inspector of Schools, Pouce Coupe, B. C , June 20th, 1937. Mr. C. D. Gai t s k e l l , Principal, High School, Dawson Creek, B. C. Dear Si r:-I acknowledge receipt of your report on your year's work as Supervisor of Art Instruction i n about one-half the schools of the Peace River Inspectorate. I subjoin my replies to the questions you have asked, together with a few general comments.1 1. Yes. I could see clear evidence of the growth among the pupils of appreciation of principles involved. For instance, they evidently achieved some grasp of the principle of the pleas-ing d i v i s i o n of space as applied to p i c t o r i a l composition as well as the much more obvious things as poster lay-outs or letter-ing projects. The same was true of rhythm, balance, contrast, and so on. In the children's work through the year I could see to a growing extent that, even i n cases where they f a i l e d to achieve their aim, they were nevertheless making a conscious at-tempt to apply s p e c i f i c principles of art. The very fact that they were aiming at something showed that they had found some-thing to aim at. 2. Yes. If by "Art" we mean merely the a b i l i t y to draw, I would say i t i s desirable but not necessary. But i f we give our instruction a broader base, I would say i t i s necessary for the elevation of taste and the heightening of appreciation. The subject can be so taught that there w i l l be a cohsiderable tran-sfer to other and related f i e l d s ; and I think that the subject-units as drawn up were calculated to produce such transfer. Future revisions might well increase this tendency. 3. In the main, yes. See answer to question 2. 4. Considering the limitations, remarkable results were secured. See p. 102 f f . for the questions asked Mr. Towell. c l x i 5. Yes. Teachers frequently commented on this point. 6. I could not answer this question definitely, except to say that the per pup i l cost i n schools participating was small, while i n other schools i t was almost zero. 7. Yes, See question 4. 8. The improvement was conspicuous. 9. In schools not taking the course the Art work tended strongly to consist entirely of instruction in drawing, with some colour work, of the conventional flowers, butte r f l i e s , and common models and objects. In other words the primary aim was the ac-quiring of some s k i l l i n graphic representation. This i s of dourse a worthy aim. There was.also some production of designs, based more, I fear, on copying of set models than on the ac-quisition of governing p r i n c i p l e s . The work done varied a good deal according to the s k i l l of the respective teachers. 10. See answers to questions 1 and 9. 11. Several teachers were emphatic in saying that they themselves had received from the course a good deal more bene-f i t than the children. Naturally their greater maturity enabled them to p r o f i t more by i t . 12. As to d e s i r a b i l i t y , I would strongly advocate i t . As to f e a s i b i l i t y , I am not so sure. If each inspectorate at-tempted to operate i t s own course, there would be great, and per-haps undesirable variations in the work. Moreover, i t i s pro-bable that few r u r a l inspectorates have teachers s u f f i c i e n t l y well trained to undertake i t . If the work were centralized some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s would be overcome, and quantity production of materials would reduce per pup i l costs. On the other hand, the hectograph pro-cess as actually used has certain characteristics which are well adapted to the course as drawn up, but the limitations of the process make i t inherently undesirable for large-scale use. It would be necessary to see whether the course could be modified to adapt i t to other means of reproduction. Other comments: -A fundamental point i s whether we are to try to t r a i n the pupils i n drawing or in art. If the l a t t e r , we s h a l l usually f a i l unless some way can be found to furnish periodic help to teachers-in-service. One of the great handicaps to progress in education i s the inevitable tendency of teachers to carry on the instruction i n the same way as they were instructed when they were pupils. When planning the "drawing lesson," the teacher's mind harks back to the drawing lessons he used to get, and he 163 obeys too l i t e r a l l y , alas, the injunction, "Go thou and do l i k e -wise." In spelling and arithmetic the teacher i s on familiar ground. He proceeds with confidence and i s w i l l i n g to experi-ment with new "Methods and ideas. In art, and even more i n musis, he i s very unsure of himself; he i s afraid of getting beyond hi s depth. Thus we find ourselves in a sort of vicious c i r c l e which w i l l be broken only when, as regards these so called "newer" sub-j e c t s , we produce a generation of children so well trained in them that when they, in their turn, become teachers they w i l l handle art, music, etc., with as much confidence and familiarity as they now do the t r a d i t i o n a l subjects. The normal schools realize t h i s , but i n the few hours they can a l l o t to this work they cannot possibly give the budd-ing pedagogue any sense of mastery. Actually, of course, the situation i s improving, but only gradually. The problem i s how to hasten progress. With regard to art, the solution probably i s a matter of help to the teachers-in-service. Summer school courses help, but they tend to be taken by those who need them least, namely, by teachers who have talent i n art. Much more w i l l undoubtedly be accomplished by a system such as has been i n operation i n t h i s inspectorate. As regards the course actually drawn up last year, my feeling i s that i t succeeded in attaining i t s object in spite of handicaps. Among those handicaps was the fact that i t had to be drawn up for several grades and hence was not especially suited to any grade. It was l e f t to the teacher to adapt the material as necessary i n t h i s respect. A good feature was the abundance of i l l u s t r a t i v e material furnished. This aids gfeatly i n the securing of the transfer of tr a i n i n g which I mentioned above (vide question 2 ) . This feature should be extended i f possible; i t i s the best possible way of ensuring that pupils obtain a grasp of general principles. I think personally, although there are those who w i l l accuse me of advocating had pedagogy, that i n t h i s case i t w i l l be of con-siderable advantage i f i l l u s t r a t i v e material includes numerous samples of bad art. I think that principles of t h i s kind are much better understood i f pupils are shown the results of vio-latio n as well as the results of conformity. KL1 such examples should, however, be very clear-cut and obvious for elementary grades. The youngsters would derive interest and p r o f i t from exercises i n "What i s wrong with this picture?" At a later stage i t could be shown that, with certain j u s t i f i c a t i o n s and by com-petent a r t i s t s , accepted principles can actually be violated, perhaps even with p r o f i t to the work as a whole. 164 Colour presents a problem owing to d i f f i c u l t i e s in re-production. I l l u s t r a t i v e material helps again here. Last year's course l a i d a foundation for colour training, and I would ad-vocate that i n succeeding courses a greater relative emphasis be l a i d on this aspects It branches out into a l l f i e l d s of l i f e , and much could be done to raise the general l e v e l of taste and appreciation. Perhaps t h i s i s even more necessary for g i r l s than boys. As just one example, they would be interested i n dis-cussing elementary problems such as: A green blouse with a red s k i r t would look horrible, yet an olive-green costume with red trimmings might be beautiful. Why i s t h i s ? In later stages there would he increasing interest in discussion of the more subtle colour harmonies, the suiting of clothing colours to complexions,hair r and eyes, and so on. Other applications are equally obvious; and I would assert that such training would be time well spent. Moreover the g i r l s would f e e l that they were being taught something of value, and you know well what a difference that makes.1 Another comment - - - experience with your own classes might be taken to indicate that improvement i n technique seems to come more from practice than from instruction. Observation of examples, however, i s also of much help. (Another argument for abundance of i l l u s t r a t i v e material). I could go on at great length, but for several reasons shall forbear. If you wish to quote any part of this l e t t e r i n your thesis please f e e l free to do so. Yours very truly, A. S. Towell. . . T h l 3 suggestion was later developed into a subject-unit involving not only dress design but also costume design. COMMUNICATION EROM MR. W. P. WESTON AND HIS REPLY TO A QUESTIONNAIRE, AUGUST 18, 1937. Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, B. C. August 12, 1937. C. Dudley Gaitskell, Esq.., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. Dear Mr. Ga i t s k e l l : -I enclose your questions and answers which I have made to the best of my a b i l i t y and which i n the light of our conver-sation may mean something. I trust you w i l l be successful i n your researches and that my l i t t l e contribution may be of assistance. I sh a l l be pleased to hear from you or see you l a t e r . 1 Yours sincerely, W. P. Weston. Questions and answers to questionnaire presented to Mr. Weston: 1. What i s the general a b i l i t y i n art of students entering the normal sohool? "Very varied. Majority have done nothing since f i r s t year high sohool. Many are quite good draughtsmen but have l i t t l e background in general f i e l d of art." 2. What i s the i r standard on leaving this school? "I do my best to give them a general background and to interest them i n the subject." 3. What changes characterize the present Teachers' Art Manual as compared to that of 1924? Normal S c h S o l ' a ^ g i s * ^ W e s t o n ' c l a s s e s a t t h e clxv 166 "(a) Much more v a r i e t y i n s u b j e c t matter o r m a t e r i a l t o be used both i n drawing and de s i g n . "(b) An attempt (not always r e c o g n i z e d by the teachers) t o f o s t e r c r e a t i v e work as opposed t o the more f o r m a l methods p r e v i o u s l y adopted." What i s your o p i n i o n of t h e g e n e r a l standard i n a r t i n the r u r a l s c h o o l s of t h i s p r o v i n c e ? "(a) I am not i n a p o s i t i o n t o judge but imagine t h a t t e a c h i n g i s somewhat haphazard and t h a t p u p i l s o f t e n do w e l l i n s p i t e o f the t e a c h e r . "(b) Manual d e x t e r i t y i s s t r e s s e d s t i l l by many teachers at the expense of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . I see a much g r e a t e r tendency t o f o s t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n than was t h e case o n l y a few y e a r s back." What i s your o p i n i o n o f the new programmes o f study as r e -gards s u i t a b i l i t y t o t h e r u r a l t e a c h e r s ' needs and oppor-t u n i t i e s ? "For a t e a c h e r w i t h any knowledge of a r t and modern t e n -d e n c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n , I t h i n k the new course w i l l g i v e ample scope f o r the p r e s e n t . T h i s i s the o p i n i o n a l s o of many r u r a l t e a c h e r s I have spoken w i t h d u r i n g the l a s t two summer s c h o o l s . " Are the aims and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s t r e s s e d i n the text-book s i m i l a r t o those which you teach i n your normal s c h o o l classes? "The t e x t i s o n l y a manual f o r drawing and does not a t -tempt t o e x p l a i n o r g i v e d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e i n g e n e r a l ap-p r e c i a t i o n . "I aim a t a c c o m p l i s h i n g much more i n the f i e l d o f a r t h i s t o r y and a p p r e c i a t i o n . The t e x t i s o n l y a guide f o r gen-e r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n elementary s c h o o l drawing, not a r t study." What are the s e aims? "I t h i n k you w i l l gather from the f o r e g o i n g . " How many r u r a l t e a c h e r s a t t e n d your c l a s s i n a r t a t the sum-mer s c h o o l f o r t e a c h e r s t h i s summer? "I am not c e r t a i n , but I should say t e n or twelve," CIRCULAR LETTER TO TEACHERS IN THE PEACE RIYER AREA, MARCH 24, 1936 Dawson Creek High Sdhool, Dawson Creek, B. C., March 24, 1936. To the teacher, School, Peace River Block, B. C. Dear S i r (or Madam); The B. C. Teacher of February reports the Hon. Dr. Weir as having stated that artf and art appreciation are of basic im-portance in education, and that they are man's supreme retort to the ugliness of l i f e . Owing to the i r lack of time, inadequate training, and guided by an inde f i n i t e , unsuitable and uninteresting course of studies, teachers seem to find d i f f i c u l t y i n many cases to give t h i s subject of art i t s proper attention i n the daily teaching programme. Therefore, with the sanction of Dr. Plenderleith, I am sending you t h i s form. W i l l you be kind enough to answer the following questions and to return the form to me at your earliest convenience? In answering these questions, you may aid a move-ment to better teaching conditions i n this important subject. Please be assured that individual data w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y private. Yours very truly, C. Dudley Gaitskell, Principal. Question Yes No 1. Do you teach art? 2. Do you teach art appreciation? c l z v i i 168 3. Have you had any s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n t h i s sub-j e c t o f a r t a p a r t from your normal s c h o o l work? 4. Do you c o n s i d e r t h a t your p u p i l s are b e i n g g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n a r t ? 5. Would an o u t l i n e each month o f an a r t course, t o g e t h e r w i t h methods o f procedure, sugges-t i o n s and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s for you and th e p u p i l s be b e n e f i c i a l to your work and that o f t h e p u p i l s ? 6. Would i t be b e n e f i c i a l t o have the a r t work c o r r e c t e d a t a c e n t r a l source each month? CIRCULAR LETTER TO TEACHERS IN THE PEACE RIYER AREA, MARCH 19, 1937. Dawson Creek, B. C., March 19, 1937. To the t e a c h e r , S c h o o l , Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . Dear S i r (or Madam): D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has been expressed by some of our r u r a l t e a c h e r s over the a r t s e c t i o n s i n t h e new programmes o f study. I n o r d e r t h a t I may o b t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on your f e e l i n g s t o -wards the a r t s e c t i o n s mentioned, I s h o u l d be g r e a t l y o b l i g e d i f you would answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s and r e t u r n them t o me at your e a r l i e s t convenience. I am making a p u r e l y u n o f f i c i a l s u r v e y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y p r i v a t e . Tours s i n c e r e l y , C Dudley G a i t s k e l l . S u p e r v i s o r o f A r t I n s t r u c t i o n . K i n d l y c o n s i d e r the a r t s e c t i o n s of the new programmes o f study from some of the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s o f view: (a) The t e c h n i c a l demands o f t h e programmes as compared t o the r u r a l t e a c h e r ' s knowledge o f a r t . (b) The d e f i n i t e n e s s of the programmes. (c) The t i m e the programmes demand f o r r e s e a r c h as compared t o the time a t the d i s p o s a l of the r u r a l t e a c h e r . (d) The m a t e r i a l at t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e r u r a l teacher com-pared t o t h e work he i s asked t o do by the programmes. (e) Whether o r not the o u t l i n e s are more s u i t a b l e f o r a r t s p e c i a l i s t s i n graded s c h o o l s . o l x i x 170 Question Do you f i n d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the a r t s e c t i o n s of the new programmes of study are u n s u i t a b l e f o r ; y o u r use as a r u r a l s c h o o l t e a c h e r ? •• Tes_ No Seasons which prompted your answer: N a m e •: . 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London: The Studio Limited, 1934. Jacks, L. P. The Education of the Whole Man. London: Harper & Brothers, 1931. Leavis, Q. D. Fic t i o n and the Reading Public. London: Chatto & Y/indus, 1934. Read, Herbert. Art and Industry. London: Faber & Faber, Ltd., 1934. ' ~~~ c l x x i i 173 Read, Herbert. The Meaning of Art. London: Faber & Faber, Ltd., 1931. Reid,' L. A. A Study i n Aesthetics. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1931. " " Santayana, George. The Sense of Beauty. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1896. . Schoen, Max. Art and Beauty. New York: Macmillan Co., 193E. Spencer, Herbert. Education, Intellectual, Moral and Physical, New York: D. Appleton & Co 0, 1906. Weston, W. P., Scott, 0. H,, Judge, S. P. Teachers* Manual of . Drawing and Design. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1924. Weston, P. Teachers' Manual of Drawing. Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1932. A r t i c l e s Ahlfeld, F. T. "Art Instruction." Newer Types of Instruction i n Small Rural Schools. 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W i l l i s , Superintendent o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Returns r e c e i v e d from t e a c h e r s i n Peace R i v e r A r e a from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s dated as f o l l o w s : March 24, 1956. March 19, 1937. Reports on experiment sent by w r i t e r t o h i s i n s p e c t o r s . Report sent t o Dr. W. A. P l e n d e r l e i t h i n A p r i l , 1936. Report s e n t t o Mr. A. S. T o w e l l i n December, 1936. Report sent t o Mr. A. S. T o w e l l i n June, 1937. 

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