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Epic of Siberia Shoolbraid, George Murray Haining 1965

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THE EPIC OF SIBERIA by GEORGE MURRAY HAINING SHOOLBRAID B.A., University of British Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study* I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y , purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission* Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 5 Canada i i ABSTRACT The thesis deals with the oral, or folk epic of the non-Slavonic peoples inhabiting Siberia, excluding the so-called PalaeoSiberiana. It i s divided into four main parts, as follows: I. Essay on the hi s t o r i c i t y of.epics, in general terms, but with special reference to those of-Siberia. II. Discussion of the epics of the two main groups, Mongolian (Burjat) and Turkic, which la t t e r includes the Yakut of the north. Form and construction of the epics, with remarks on their versification, mode of presentation, and content, in general. III. Details of the content, shown in summaries of the stories of selected epics. IV. A short account of the Soviet attitudes towards folk literature, and conclusion. The appended bibliography l i s t s the major works in the f i e l d , both primary and secondary, and the Glossarial Index gives excursi upon several topics and motifs regu-l a r l y met with. i i i CONTENTS • ABSTRACT. . i i CONTENTS I i i ILLUSTRATIONS i v PREFACE. . .-..'. v PART I The H i s t o r i c a l B a s i s o f E p i c s . . .....1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . ..1 I I . A c c u r a c y and V a r i a t i o n . . 3 I I I . The E l i c i t i n g o f H i s t o r y . . . . . . . . . 10 PART I I Form and G e n e r a l C o n t e n t . . 24 I . .The B u r j a t - M o n g o l E p i c . .24 I I . The T u r k i c E p i c 55 PART. I l l The S t o r i e s o f t h e E p i c s . . ......79 I . Gar' j u l a j - M e r g e n .79 I I . . I r i n s e j . 94 I I I . Manas... 96 IV. Alpamysh ...103 V. Ky r k Kyz . ...106 I V I . Kambar-Batyr ;i.lfJQ0 i . Kambar. 110 i i . E a r l y v e r s i o n . . . . .....112 V I I . U n s t u m b l i n g M j u l d j u t h e S t r o n g . 114 V I I I . The Samoyed E p i c o f I t j e . . . ...119 PART IV C o n c l u s i o n . . . . ....123 NOTES. .. . .' .127 BIBLIOGRAPHY .153 GLOSSARIAL INDEX 169 ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e I The Khuur 29a F i g u r e I I U l i g e r M u s i c • 33 The i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e khuur i s t a k e n from N. S h a r a k s h i n o v a , Bur.1 a t s k i . 1 F o l ' k l o r , 1959, p. 197. That o f u l i g e r m u sic, from 0 . 0 . Tudenov, Bur.latskoe  S t i k h o s l o z h e n l e , 1958, pp. 7-6-7. PREFACE The o r a l l i t e r a t u r e o f S i b e r i a , l i k e t h a t o f any l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , i s e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e , i n c l u d i n g e v e r y t y p e o f f o l k l o r e from p r o v e r b t o e p i c . There a r e c o n n e c t -i o n s t o be seen w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , m a i n l y , o f c o u r s e , t h o s e c o n t i g u o u s t o S i b e r i a , such as M o n g o l i a , P e r s i a , and R u s s i a . There a r e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f t h e s e "major" l i t e r a t u r e s e x t a n t , and Indeed a c omplete b i b l i o g r a p h y o f them would f i l l many volumes, even i f i t were o n l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e l anguages of Western Europe. The s t u d y o f t h e S i b e r i a n e p i c i s b u t p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r study of the o r a l p r o d u c t i o n s o f mankind, y e t i t y i e l d s a p i c t u r e o f humanity w h i c h i s s u r e l y o f g r e a t i n t e r -e s t t o t h e e t h n o l o g i s t , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , and l i t t e r a t e u r . W i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f a s t u d y such as t h i s , o n l y t h e •barest o u t l i n e i s p o s s i b l e . The b i b l i o g r a p h y t r i e s t o be f u l l , b u t no b i b l i o g r a p h y o f such a wide f i e l d can hope t o be e x h a u s t i v e . Much work r e q u i r e s t o be done i n a l l t h i s t e r r i t o r y , and i t i s hoped t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s u r v e y and b i b l i o g r a p h y w i l l be o f use t o s c h o l a r s , and even laymen, who w i s h t o p u r s u e t h i s s u b j e c t f u r t h e r . Most of the sources used i n t h i s thesis are In Russian; books i n Oriental languages have been kept to the minimum. It i s not of course ideal that translations should be used as a basis f o r statements (and even con-jectures) regarding the l i t e r a t u r e or folkways of a people, but at le a s t seme idea can be gathered of the vast, fund of material in the "other" languages, much of i t untranslated, much of i t s t i l l unpublished. The majority of the c r i t i c a l works i s also i n Russian, and . a summary digest of these should prove h e l p f u l to the student, and d i r e c t h i s steps towards those which seem most f r u i t f u l . There are few controversial issues at stake here. My statements and theories are generally supported by quoted f a c t s , and where I have gone so f a r as to make a hypothesis, i t can be argued that there i s evidence on both sides of the question. In l i t e r a t u r e , as i n h i s -tory and psychology, there i s often ground f o r debate, but no hope of a self-evident t r u t h to be demonstrated. F i n a l l y , I should l i k e to thank those colleagues, l i b r a r i a n s and friends who have borne with me in my t r a v a i l , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , my s i s t e r . Naturally, none i s responsible f o r any errors but myself. PART I THE HISTORICAL BASIS OF EPICS I. INTRODUCTION Epic poetry has long been highly regarded by the west-ern world. A r i s t o t l e held i t to be the near equal of Tra-gedy, f o r him the most exalted form of poetic a r t . 1 Dryden indicated the informed opinion of his generation when he declared: "Heroic poetry, which [ the i l l i t e r a t e , censorious, and detracting c r i t i c s ] condemn, has ever been esteemed, and ever w i l l be, the greatest work of human nature."2 Two types of epic may be distinguished: the epic of art, or the l i t e r a r y epic, and the epic of t r a d i t i o n , or the , f o l k epic. The f i r s t "is exemplified by V e r g i l In antiquity, by Ariosto| i n • sixteenth-century I t a l y (Orlando Furioso, 1516), and a hundred years l a t e r by Milton. With the exception of the remarkable epic of Poland, Adam Mickiewicz* Pan Tadeusz,5 and Nikos Kazantzakis' sequel to the Odyssey,^ t h i s l i t e -rary form appears to be dying out in the western world. The second type, the f o l k , or o r a l , epic, seems to follow a s i m i l a r course. In B r i t a i n , a f t e r two centuries of rapid s o c i a l change, i t can no longer be said that every v i l l a g e i s "a nest of singing birds", although examples are 2 found even now of the singing of ballads, some of very ancient provenance. The "muckle sangs" of the old peas-antry are dying, however, and the metrical romance i s dead. The words of George Lyman Kittredge are fast com-ing true: "Ballad-making, as f a r as the English-speaking nations are concerned, Is a l o s t art; and the same may be said f o r ballad-singing."5 While ballads are s t i l l sung and composed i n B r i t a i n and America, they are by no means as ambitious as those in vogue among other nations. In Russia, byliny of some length have appeared, with Lenin and S t a l i n as t h e i r sub-jects in place of the legendary demigods and princes of Kiev who fi g u r e i n the " c l a s s i c a l " heroic songs of pre-revolutlonary times,^ and one s t i l l f inds examples of the f o l k epic f l o u r i s h i n g among more pr i m i t i v e peoples, including those that inhabit the Soviet Union. The native t r i b e s of Si b e r i a have f o r a long time treasured a vast store of epic songs, which have been pass-ed from, one generation to the next by o r a l t r a d i t i o n alone. Some of these peoples have only recently acquired an alpha-bet, and because of the p r e l i t e r a t e nature of t h e i r society research on t h i s material i s s t i l l i n i t s infancy. Soviet scholars have continued with increasing enthusiasm the work of such pioneers as Radlov? and Pekarskij,^ but the western world i s not yet f a m i l i a r with a great deal of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . The o r a l a r t of the Turkic t r i b e s has, i t i s true, been dealt with at some length by the Chadwlcks9 and Winner; 1 0 yet much s t i l l remains to be done i n t h i s sphere, as i n others. I I . ACCURACY AND VARIATION The student of o r a l epics i s faced with the necessity of r e c o n c i l i n g two factors i n t h e i r production: absolute ' accuracy of r e p e t i t i o n , which originates i n a r e l i g i o u s attitude towards the poems, and the unconscious, or at times even conscious, e d i t i n g of the material. Examples of absolute accuracy of transmission are nu-merous. John Whitehead, f o r instance, observes that "among the Celts, h i s t o r y was customarily passed down by word of mouth, by bards trained to meticulous accuracy i n o r a l r e p e t i t i o n , " 1 1 and as a consequence, t r a d i t i o n a l sto-r i e s should not be inconsiderately rejected as a basis f o r a hypothesis. 1 2 The bardic schools of Wales and Ireland had an extremely lengthy programme of i n s t r u c t i o n , at the end of which the f i l e , or bard, was able to r e c i t e an enormous number of poems, i n a l l the d i f f e r e n t styles ~ a l l from memory.1^ In the Cycle of the Fian alone, there were one hundred and twenty prime t a l e s which the bards could r e c i t e . 1 ^ " The legends of the Hebrews seem to have been cast by the p r i e s t s and prophets into saga form, used i n a l i t u r -g i c a l way at such seasonal r i t u a l s as the Feast of In-gathering (Feast of Tabernacles); i t was on these occasions that the " c u l t myths" would be r e c i t e d and Yahweh's concern with h i s worshippers e u l o g i s e d . ^ This was both a commemor-ative and a magical act, just as the ceremony of the Mass in a Catholic C h r i s t i a n church i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y a magical r i t e . Such, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , was also the case among the Celts, f o r the druld (derwydd) was p r i e s t , magistrate and h i s t o r i a n , and constant r e c i t a t i o n kept t r a d i t i o n s a l i v e into h i s t o r i c a l times. The Burjats of Central S i b e r i a looked upon t h e i r epics (the u l l g e r s ) as holy, and because of t h e i r alleged divine o r i g i n , the words could not be changed i n the s l i g h t e s t . There i s a legend of how, when a certa i n u l l g e r s h i n (bard) was chanting the t a l e of Geser, a horse i n f u l l harness appeared i n the sky. This was the n a r r a t o r 1 s reward f o r performing the Geseriad well. The horse began to descend from the sky; but the s t o r y t e l l e r had omitted one d e t a i l i n his account: he forgot that Geser had placed h i s whip on a stump. i Then was heard the voice of some i n v i s i b l e being: "The t a l e i s well t o l d , but the whip i s missing. The horse at that moment rose up to the sky and disappeared. 3-° Here any change or f a u l t i n the story i s resented by the gods, f o r the magic of the t a l e i s decreased or en t i r e -l y n u l l i f i e d thereby, and i t i s i n a sense a species of blasphemy. S t i l l l e s s acceptable i s the idea of w i l f u l change, or censorship, of these age-old songs. Back i n the logo's, a Russian school teacher i s reported to have asked the famous r e c i t e r I. T. Rjabinin to delete certain "indecent" verses from the epic poem he was about to de-l i v e r . His answer, as the commentator says, i s a wonder-f u l l y d i r e c t statement of the meaning and dig n i t y of t r a -d i t i o n : But how can I help singing i t ? Would you take away a word of the song? Because i t i s an ancient one, and as the men of old used to sing i t , so we must sing I t . You know yourself, i t vaa n o t composed by us, and i t w i l l not end with us. 1' However, i n many Instances e d i t i n g of the material has occurred due to the very nature of the transmission, ( i . e . by word of mouth), and the o r a l o r i g i n of some epics of art may account f o r differences i n the texts, and explain the consequent d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There are many extant varying texts of both o r a l and l i t e r a r y epics, old and new, as well as d i f f e r e n t recen-sions of one and the same basic f o l k t a l e . Among the epics can be mentioned the several texts of the Nibelungen Not, the f l u c t u a t i n g canon of Homer,^ and the controversial exordium attributed by some to V e r g i l : I l l e ego, qui quondam g r a c i l l modulatus avena Carmen, et egressus s i l v i s v l c i n a coegi, Ut quamvls avido parerent arva colono; Gratum opus a g r i c o l i s ; at nunc horrentia Martis Arma virumque cano... 1* As regards the second type of v a r i a t i o n , the r a m i f i -cations i n divers versions of fabliaux and the quite remark-able spread i n many d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of such f o l k t a l e s as that of C i n d e r e l l a 2 0 are bound to mean that extra episodes not o r i g i n a l l y present w i l l be brought i n , and i n the case of treatments of h i s t o r i c a l happenings there w i l l consequen't-l y be downright inaccuracies. Epics as such tend to embroider u n t i l any h i s t o r i c a l underlay i s w e l l hidden; and most examples of the t r a d i t i o n a l type are so overgrown with imaginative touches that i t i s frequently impossible to believe that there has ever been a fa c t u a l basis. Even when the incidents described are matters of h i s t o r i c a l record, t h i s treatment may elevate them into supernatural or fa n t a s t i c events, and "inaccura-c i e s " i n seemingly f a c t u a l statements are legion. For example, i n the Russian byliny which are b u i l t on a larger substratum of f a c t , namely the cycle of Kiev, there i s confusion between Vladimir Svjatoslavich and Vlad-i m i r Monomakh, Ivan I I I and Ivan the Dread; 2 1 and to s t i l l f a r t h er obfuscate matters, Russia's perennial enemies, the Tatars, Mongols, Poles and Lithuanians are a l l mixed i n 22 the popular imagination. S i m i l a r l y , the Border Ballads can be extremely unhis-t o r i c a l , as when The Batt l e of Harlaw makes MacDonald of the . Is l e s a casualty i n that engagement, which error may well be the re s u l t of chauvinistic wishful t h i n k i n g . 2 ^ For a l l these drawbacks, ballads, f o l k t a l e s and epics are, from a h i s t o r i c a l point of view at l e a s t , a valuable record of the s o c i a l , moral and s p i r i t u a l consciousness of , a nation, and provide i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t s on the eco-nomic and s o c i a l conditions and development of the peoples that produce them. Examination of the d e t r i t u s that has gathered on the o r i g i n a l kernel i s at once f a s c i n a t i n g and rewarding, though f o r many reasons i t i s fraught with d i f f i -c u l t i e s , some of which seem insuperable., The fundamental layer, the starting-point, may be concealed beyond recov-ery, but as S i r Thomas Browne observed, many apparently insoluble problems are not e n t i r e l y beyond us. whatever the success of our researches, we may, i f only by seren- , d i p i t y , f i n d out much that i s capable of i l l u m i n a t i n g anthropological and s o c i o l o g i c a l studies. The p r i m i t i v e ( i . e . the unsophisticated p r e l i t e r a t e ) does not r e l i s h change, and i s l i k e l y to r e s i s t i t strenu-ously. He i s by nature conservative, t r a d i t i o n a l l y orient-ated. Yet change does occur i n h i s society; despite the forces of opposition, a gradual s h i f t of values, and evol-ution i n material culture and language, can be observed. The very gradual nature of t h i s s h i f t w i l l , often enough, prevent the p r i m i t i v e from n o t i c i n g i t . "This i s my grandfather's axe; my father gave i t a new haft, and I have given i t a new head" i s a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s stubborn t r a d i t i o n a l i s m i n the face of a l l c i v i l i s e d l o g i c ; the e t e r n a l changelessness of t h i n g s w i l l be d o g m a t i c a l l y i n -s i s t e d upon, no matter how evident i s the c o n t r a r y . The " p r i m i t i v e " may r a t i o n a l i s e these obvious changes i n h i s s o c i e t y , i g n o r i n g them and denying t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . The bard of t h a t s o c i e t y can h a r d l y be blamed f o r i n s i s t i n g , as he does, t h a t there have been no changes i n h i s r e c i t a -t i o n , t h a t a l l i s as i t has ever been. He i s not g u i l t y of bad f a i t h , f o r without w r i t t e n records he has no opportunity of " c o r r e c t i n g " h i s v e r s i o n according to the " r e c e i v e d t e x t " . So w h i l e d e l i b e r a t e change i s anathema to the r e c i t e r , unconscious m o d i f i c a t i o n can and w i l l occur i n h i s t a l e , although most l i k e l y i t w i l l be denied by i t s p e r p e t r a t o r . A f t e r c e n t u r i e s of t h i s process of gradual a l t e r a t i o n , the e n t i r e p i e c e may have changed beyond r e c o g n i t i o n . However, sin c e gradual change i s seldom n o t i c e d , i t s cumulative e f f e c t w i l l be accepted as "the way t h i n g s have always been". Some t h i n g s may s t i l l remain from the o l d v e r s i o n s , so that one f i n d s words being used i n r e c i t a t i o n which the bard no longer understands, and h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s which are e n t i r e l y unknown to the performer and h i s s o c i e t y . Thus, i n the b a l l a d of Auld M a l t l a n d , the term s p r i n g -a i d s ( b a l i s t a s , l a r g e mechanical cross-bows) has become i n the mouth of the r e c i t e r Bprlngwalls: ^  i n the by l i n y t h e r e are s e v e r a l references to the aurochs, l o n g e x t i n c t , and to female heroes, pol.1anitsy, whose exist e n c e was i n doubt u n t i l archaeological research confirmed l t . 2 ^ Likewise, d e t a i l s of ancient armour occur, such as the antique type of sh i e l d i n Homer: Now AJax came near him, carrying h i s sh i e l d that was l i k e unto a tower,2** and the equipage of the heroes i n the olonskho of the Yakut which would be t o t a l l y outwith the experience of the singer One should not berate the lack of h i s t o r i c a l accuracy evident i n most of these productions, f o r the perspective in which events are viewed by the reciter-composer i s not the sophisticated one to which western c i v i l i s a t i o n i s ac-customed. E r i c h Auerbach observes that a procedure which creates a foreground and background, d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the present from the past, " i s e n t i r e l y foreign to the Homeric st y l e ; the Homeric s t y l e knows only a foreground, only a uniformly illuminated, uniformly objective present." The border ballads are also set i n a timeless present:. "Rise up, r i s e up, now, Lord Douglas", she says, "And put on your armour bright; Let i t never be said that a daughter of thine Was married to a l o r d under night" — and many ballads are t o l d e n t i r e l y i n conversation. From the point of view of a "primitive", time i s fore-shortened, and the events of centuries ago are as one with those of recent times; f o r the events happened "long ago", i n that Indeterminate period before l i v i n g memory. Thus 10 events taking many years to work themselves out (as a long series of wars) may be telescoped into one major b a t t l e , as i n the Norse Battle of the Goths and the Huns*3° It i s no wonder, then, that A t t i l a 1 s death i n 4-53 13 associated i n the Nlebelungenlled with the Frankish v i c t o r y over the Burgundians i n 534-, that Charlemagne i s connected with the l a t e r crusades In La Chanson de Roland, or that Homer's heroes seem to move in a culture that i s half My-cenaean, half H e l l e n i c . The modern scholar can be grate-f u l f o r the very fact that such h i s t o r i c a l germs are pre-sent; and by c a r e f u l l i n g u i s t i c , f o l k l o r i s t i c , and archaeo-l o g i c a l analysis he can e l i c i t them from the surrounding accretion of material. I I I . THE ELICITING OF HISTORY This task i s easier i n some cases than i n others. There i s a h i s t o r i c a l record of the d i s a s t e r at Roncevalles. Einhard, i n h i s V i t a Carol1 Magnl (820), mentions the am-bush of Charlemagne's rearguard by the Basques i n 778, saying that i n t h i s b a t t l e "were s l a i n Eggihard, the Sene-schal, Anselm, Count of the Palace, and Hruodland, the Pre-fect of the Breton Marches".^ 1 The epitaph of Eggihard giyes h i s date of death as the eighteenth day of the Kal-ends of September, i . e . the f i f t e e n t h of August.^ 2 Thus we can date with exactitude the event that gave r i s e to Roland, the flower of the chansons de" geste; and these are by no means the only sources. Ibn a l - A t h i r * s Arab account of the t h i r t e e n t h century, which i t s e l f i s based, on the c h r o n i c l e of a l - T a b a r i ( n i n t h - t e n t h c e n t u r i e s ) , corrobor-ates the event, but a t t r i b u t e s the ambush to the Moslems of S a r a g o s s a . ^ As f o r Troy, the labours of Schllemann and h i s success ors have revealed the b a s i c r e l i a b i l i t y of Homer's e p i c , although i t must at once be s a i d t h a t the I l i a d cannot be regarded as h i s t o r y i n the proper sense. Schllemann found s e v e r a l c i t i e s on h i s Troy s i t e , one of which had been des-troyed by f i r e ; and Troy i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h H i s s a r l i k . The f a c t t h a t Homer's Troy i s more l i k e l y to have been on the B a l i Dag above Bunabarshi-^ does not i n -v a l i d a t e the h i s t o r i c a l e x i s t e n c e of t h a t c i t y . Vases and f i n d s i n H e l l a d i c graves have given examples of some of the accoutrements of Homer's heroes; f o r ins t a n c e , fragments of boar's t u s k s , which c o u l d , i t was demonstra-ted, have gone on the o u t s i d e of a helmet l i k e t h a t given to Odysseus by Meriones.-^ In Beowulf, however, there i s but one outstanding h i s t o r i c a l r eference which can be corroborated: the ex-p e d i t i o n of Hygelac, k i n g of the Geats, aga i n s t the Franks and F r i s i a n s . Gregory of Tours t e l l s of the i n v a s i o n of the Zuider Zee area and the neighbourhood of Cleve by " C h l o c h i l a i c " , k i n g of the Danes, i n 521: Dani cum rego  suo nomine C h l o c h i l a i c o evecto navale per mare G a l l i a s appetunt, etc.-^ Due to the lack of evidence anent the.early history of the peoples of Siberia, scholars f i n d themselves in a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n to that confronting the student of Beo- wulf and the Eddas; they are more or l e s s in the dark as to the h i s t o r i c i t y (or lack of i t ) of the a c t i v i t i e s of Er-Sogotokh, hero of the f i r s t published olongkho,^ and other heroes l i k e him. Scholars usually d i f f e r e n t i a t e between "epic songs" and " h i s t o r i c a l songs" on the basis of the fact that epic i s not h i s t o r y , sensu s t r l c t o . This argument, however, i s only p a r t i a l l y v a l i d . As has already been postulated, epic grows out of h i s t o r y . Paradise Lost, one of the t r u l y great l i t e r a r y epics of the world, and a personally imaginative recension of a story accepted by most of M i l -ton's fellow-countrymen as revealed truth, was the author' second thought regarding an epic subject. O r i g i n a l l y he Intended to celebrate the B r i t i s h folk-hero Arthur: I w i l l some day r e c a l l In song the things of my native land, and Arthur, who carried war even into f a i r y l a n d . Or I s h a l l t e l l of those great-hearted champions bound in the society of the Round Table, and (0 may the S p i r i t be in me!) I s h a l l break the Saxon phalanxes with B r i t i s h war.38 Had i t not been f o r h i s reluctance to believe i n the e s s e n t i a l h i s t o r i c i t y of Arthur, and, more t e l l i n g l y , the p o l i t i c a l controversy surrounding i t at the time,39 t h i s p r o j e c t would doubtless have been completed. Only by chance has the world missed a l i t e r a r y epic treatment of a t r a d i t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l subject; and the legendary f i g u r e of Arthur has been shown i n recent years to be an i n v e n t i v e r e c a s t i n g i n t o the h e r o i c mould of the h i s t o r l -40 c a l r o l e of Caractacus. V e r g i l ' s Aeneld i s a l i t e r a r y study of a s i m i l a r n a t i o n a l hero; the man Aeneas may never have l i v e d ( c e r -t a i n l y not as the son of a goddess), but the main theme of the Aeneid may w e l l be h i s t o r i c a l l y t r u e : the wander-ings of a t r i b e , represented by the eponymous hero, i n search of a new home, and i t s s t r u g g l e s t o s e t t l e there. This was not a genuine Roman t r a d i t i o n , but had some h i s -t o r i c a l t r u t h i n i t , f o r Mount Eryx i n S i c i l y had been s e t t l e d by Easterners who may w e l l have been of the Tro-jan c l a n o f the A i n e i d a i , whom Homer knew as a r u l i n g f a m i l y t h e r e . ^ Moreover, Rhys Carpenter has p o s t u l a t e d i a connection between T r o l a and E t r u r l a , and Tros and Etruscus. making the Trojans the o r a l epic counterparts of the h i s t o r i c a l Etruscans. 2*" 2 So h i s t o r y may l i e at the back of m y t h o l o g i c a l e p i c , no matter how f a r - f e t c h e d the s t o r y may seem. As Vernad-sky says:. While many h i s t o r i c a l t a l e s tend to present, and some a c t u a l l y do present, an accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the events, no h i s t o r i c a l t a l e i s a s t r a i g h t h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e . I f i t were, there would have been no d i f f e r e n c e between f o l k l o r e and w r i t t e n learned l i t e r a t u r e . On the other hand, i n a l l h i s -t o r i c a l t a l e s , at the base of even those s t o r i e s which may seem f a n t a s t i c and p u r e l y imaginative, there u s u a l l y l i e s r e c o l l e c t i o n of an a c t u a l event which.for some reason f i r e d the people's imagina-t i o n . 4 3 Vernadsky a l s o s t a t e s t h a t i n the Nart legends of the Caucasus, which are a l l t h a t remain of the once ex-t e n s i v e N a r t i a n epos, t r a c e s may be discerned of once l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r s , and d e f i n i t e geographical backgrounds. The N a r t i a n r a i d s d i d not c o n f i n e themselves t o the Cau-casus mountains, but extended i n t o the North Caucasian steppes, reaching the Don and Volga r i v e r s . ^ Says Ver-nadsky: A l l t h i s i s " f o l k t a l e s " now but some of i t must have been h i s t o r i c a l a c t u a l i t y i n the remote ages. In i t s essence, the N a r t i a n epos i s very o l d . In f a c t , , i t must have o r i g i n a t e d i n the A l a n i c p e r i o d , 4 0 i . e . , before the migrations of the Alans from the Caucas-us and Crimea area i n the l a t e f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s , although the people f o r l o n g r e t a i n e d t h e i r o l d name, a p p l i e d t o the ancestors of the Ossetes, at l e a s t u n t i l 47 the Mongol i n v a s i o n i n the t h i r t e e n t h century. ' S i m i l a r l y , i f the epic s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d from the Yakuts are examined, l i g h t i s thrown on the o l d way of l i f e of the Yakut t r i b e s i n remote times. Once the mytho l o g i c a l t r a p p i n g s are shorn away, and the hyperboles of !5 the f o l k t a l e are excluded, one i s l e f t w ith a substratum of p o s s i b l e f a c t , which w i l l probably be somewhat,garbled, but w i l l be h i s t o r i c a l f o r a l l t h a t . Most treatments of epic t r y to see under the mytho-l o g i c a l or h e r o i c veneer and a r r i v e at a p u t a t i v e sub-stratum, be i t h i s t o r i c a l event or n a t u r a l phenomenon, which the o r i g i n a t o r s of the epic have dressed up i n t h e i r f a n t a s y . The once popular school of the S o l a r T h e o r i s t s , represented at i t s most f a r - r e a c h i n g by such renowned sc h o l a r s as the o r i e n t a l i s t Max M u l l e r ^ had a very simple e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the o r i g i n of the f o l k t a l e and the myth, e s p e c i a l l y i n the e l u c i d a t i o n of the Indian epi c s and Scandinavian Eddas: a p o e t i c a l expression of a phenomenon of nature, which might w e l l have appeared wonderful, or at l e a s t worthy of remark, to p r i m i t i v e man. To'early man, every day was a new experience, fraught w i t h i t s own dangers and i t s p e c u l i a r p o s s i b i l i -t i e s ; and the hunter might not see the dawn. Night was a bad time; where was the assurance t h a t the s a f e t y of d a y l i g h t would come? More than t h i s , an e c l i p s e of the sun was a t e r r i f y i n g t h i n g to witness, f o r the g i v e r of a l l l i f e was perhaps being eaten by an e v i l dragon — a view h e l d at the present time by some p r i m i t i v e peoples. Nature seemed to d i e i n w i n t e r , which made the r e t u r n of Spring a cause f o r general r e j o i c i n g ; and the myth of Osiris-Tammuz, the dying and regenerated god, i s c e r t a i n -l y connected w i t h t h i s idea.5° i t a l s o l i e s at the r o o t of the w i t c h - c u l t s , which are. even now not extinct.51 For the above reasons, the v i c t o r y of l i g h t over darkness, of good over e v i l , was commemorated i n hundreds of p o e t i c a l a l l e g o r i e s . "St. George and the Dragon", "Cupid and Psyche", and other m o t i f s , have thus been ex-p l a i n e d . Yet t h i s theory, the whole " S o l a r Myth" of Winter being defeated by Spring, the overcoming of dark-ness by l i g h t , i s but one p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n , and should not be c a r r i e d too f a r . F i n n Magnusen, f o r i n s t a n c e , gave an astronomical explanation of Scandinavian mytho-logy w i t h dogmatic (and tiresome) consistency,-> 2 and Hap-good, i n her commentary on the Russian byliny_, 53 seems to cleave too i n s i s t e n t l y to t h i s hypothesis. However, there are instances where i t i s c l e a r that the l i g h t - d a r k / s p r i n g - w i n t e r symbolism has a great d e a l of f o r c e i n the popular imagination. This i s perhaps most c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the case of the Yakut ysyakh, once an important r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l , and now merely a p a t r i o t i c Jamboree., I t was a t r i b a l g a t h e r i n g s i m i l a r t o those held i n summer by the Yukaghir, where games were played, a l l i a n c e s formed, and shamanistic performances took place.5^ 17 The ysyakh, w i t h which the epic t a l e s c a l l e d olongkho g e n e r a l l y end, i s thus described by Pukhov: T^e ysyakh i s an ancient l a r g e s p r i n g and summer f e s t i v a l of the Yakut, accompanied by r e l i g i o u s r i t -u a l , games, dancing and s i n g i n g . At the present time [ c i r c a 1958] the ysyakhs have been converted i n t o popular f e s t i v a l s and games a f t e r the s p r i n g l a b o u r i n the f i e l d s . They are a l s o arranged to mark the occasion of solemn J u b i l e e dates. In the ysyakhs of Soviet times there i s no longer any r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l . A f t e r the solemn p a r t of the proceedings there are organised concerts of t h e a t r i c a l and c l u b c o l l e c t i v e s , and other entertainments, perform-ances by f o l k s i n g e r s and s t o r y t e l l e r s , f o l l o w e d by v a r i o u s massed entertainments and games.55 In the o l d days, as Pukhov says, there were two main f e s t i v a l s . C z a p l i c k a , a noted S i b e r i a n s p e c i a l i s t , says they were held i n the s p r i n g (the a.1yy-ysyakh), and the autumn (abaasy-ysyakh). The former was dedicated to the good s p i r i t s i n general (the a j y y ) , and i n p a r t i c u l a r to Art-Tojon-Aga, c h i e f of the sky gods, i n whose honour a s a c r i f i c e of kumys was made.56 ^he autumn f e s t i v a l was named a f t e r the abaasylar, or black s p i r i t s , and was con-ducted at n i g h t by n i n e shamans and nine shamanesses, i n honour e s p e c i a l l y of U l u t u j e r - U l u - T o j o n , c h i e f of the dark s p i r i t s . 5 7 A f t e r the games and s a c r i f i c e s , a s i g n i f i c a n t per-formance took p l a c e , r e p r e s e n t i n g the above-mentioned s t r u g g l e between Spring and Winter. I t i s thus described by C z a p l i c k a : One man, c a l l e d the a l y - u o l a , i s dressed i n white and mounted on a white horse t o represent s p r i n g , w h i l e another, abassy-uola, represents w i n t e r , being dressed i n black or r e d d i s h garments and mounted on a horse of corresponding colour.58 Th© e n t i r e c y c l e of olonp;kho i s devoted to an exten-ded e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t , being an account of the s t r u g g l e between heroes of the human race, the a.lyy ajmag, and heroes, i f such they may be c a l l e d , of the abaasy a,1-mag, the inhuman enemies of mankind. ^ 9 In comparison w i t h t h i s p u r e l y m y t h i c a l treatment of a n a t u r a l phenomenon, embodying the ancient p r i n c i p l e of dualism, on which so much of p r i m i t i v e (and s o p h i s t i -cated) r e l i g i o n i s based, the Karakalpak epic poem gyrk Kyz ("The F o r t y Maidens") has more obvious connect-ions w i t h h i s t o r y . The groundwork of the epic i s the Amazon-like existence of Gulaim and her entourage of 61 f o r t y maidens i n the f o r t i f i e d r e t r e a t of Sarkop. There would appear to be at l e a s t three d i s t i n c t l a y e r s of h i s t o r i c i t y i n the poem; the o l d e s t of these r e f e r s to the P r i - A r a l t r i b e s of the s i x t h to f o u r t h cen-t u r i e s B.C., which were then on the p o i n t of emerging from a m a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y and embracing a p a t r i a r c h a l s y s t e m . ^ A second l a y e r seems to o r i g i n a t e w i t h the Turks of the Middle Ages, as i s evidenced i n the epic by many e t h n o l o g i c a l c l u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t time, and the d e s c r i p t i o n of customs f o r g o t t e n by the present-day Kara-kalpaks. A t h i r d bears most resemblance to h i s t o r y , i n that the wars of Gulaim and Aryslan r e f l e c t r e a l events of the eighteenth century, such as the i n v a s i o n of the p r l -Syr Darya t e r r i t o r y by the Jungar Kalmucks i n 1723 and the conquest of Khorezm by N a d i r Shah i n 1740.^3 G-eser Khan, hero of the most famous epic of the Mon-g o l i a n t r i b e s , has had h i s share of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , being v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as Alexander the G r e a t , ^ Kuan Yu of China,65 c h i n g g i s Khan, 0^ and the Tufan p r i n c e Gosylo, who di e d i n 1065.^ A. H. Francke, however, viewed the st o r y as another s o l a r myth, namely a s p r i n g and winter myth, wi t h , i t seems, very l i t t l e grounds. 0^ Francke was at t a c k -ed by other s c h o l a r s , notably B e r t h o l d L a u f e r , ^ f o r h i s t h e o r i e s , and i t must be s a i d t h a t w h i l e there may be a c e r t a i n stratum i n the Geseriad which i s age-old In t h i s way, the e n t i r e s t o r y cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as a s o l a r myth. Geser, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , was a h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r ; ibut, as i s ofte n the case w i t h such heroes, he has a t t r a c t -ed to h i s story d e t a i l s and whole sequences of events which r i g h t f u l l y belong to others, and even to pure myth. One may not accept, f o r i n s t a n c e , the c o l l o q u y i n heaven which precedes the b i r t h of Geser,70 n o r h i s shape-changing,71 nor the monsters w i t h which he does battle;72 but there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t Geser r e a l l y e x i s t e d . The Sharaighol, Geser*s enemies i n the epic,73 have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Sharalkhor (Tibetan k h o r - s e r ) , or Yellow Uighurs, u n t i l r e c e n t l y I n h a b i t i n g north-eastern T i b e t . A c c o r d i n g to Roerich, there a l l e g e d l y e x i s t s among the Sharai Ulghurs a v e r s i o n of the s t o r y , i n which Geser i s represented as a dangerous and cunning enemy.^ This i s i n accord w i t h what one would expect, and I s a c o r r o b o r a t i o n from the other side of the hero's a u t h e n t i c i t y . In the case of the Tatar c y c l e s , there i s a l s o some controversy. Radlov, the f i r s t great c o l l e c t o r of and commentator upon these h e r o i c poems, b e l i e v e d t h a t the events t h e r e i n could be a t t r i b u t e d to a p e r i o d before the eighteenth c e n t u r y . ^ While the heroes were m y t h i c a l , the temper of the poems i n d i c a t e d to Radlov the s t a t e of mind of the eighteenth century K i r g h i z , who would look on t h e i r Kalmuck o v e r l o r d s as heathens, they themselves being Mo-hammedan. The t h i r d poem i n the Manas c y c l e , as given by Rad-l o v , d e a l s w i t h the hero's b a t t l e w i t h Er Kbkchb1, i n which Manas seeks the support of the "White Tsar" ( i . e . the Russian emperor). Radlov thought that t h i s was merely meant as a compliment to h i m s e l f from the bard. The Chad-wicks, on the other hand, argue t h a t t h i s may r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n of the time: I t i s easy to see t h a t Russian Turkestan and the f i e r c e h i l l nomads had every t h i n g to gain by mutual a i d against the powerful Uigur confederacy, backed now by Chinese, now by Tibetan support.'• De V r i e s saw i n t h i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the p a r t taken 21 by the Russians i n playing off one Turkish t r i b e against another.7® In the Kazakh epic of Ed lp;e-batyr, the hero i s said to be the of f s p r i n g of the saint Baba-Toqty-Chachty-Azls and a water-nymph, yet he i s i d e n t i f i e d as a sultan of Tok-tamysh Khan, one of the khans of the Golden Horde. More-over, as Winner points out: "The central theme of the d£yr i s not, as i s usual, the heroic adventures of the batyr, but the mutual r e l a t i o n s of the batyr and the Tokhtamys."^9 Here a h i s t o r i c a l character, whose story i s s o c i o - p o l i t i -c a l , i s provided with a supernatural o r i g i n , p r i m a r i l y be-cause a hero must have the at t r i b u t e s of a hero; and every major hero conforms to a pattern, part of which i s the 8 0 divine or mysterious o r i g i n . H i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s i n the olongkho of the Yakut are harder to i s o l a t e . The Soviet anthropologist Pukhov^ 1 sees these epics as r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e r r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s iof centuries ago, and the break-up of the old s o c i a l order. For instance, Tungus heroes appear i n many of the olongkho, and the hero may f i g h t with opponents of the same race as himself. The broad, outlook, however, i s older; i t i s that of a very p r i m i t i v e society, which sees i t s t e r r i t o r y as the centre of the universe. The Tribe i s the only one that matters, or i s regarded as the only r e a l l y human one. A l l others are suspect, barbarol, and h o s t i l e . Clan law i a taken f o r granted. Just as i n the byliny of Russia one meets survivals from p r i m i t i v e times in mention of female bogatyrs and the aurochs, so here one finds heroines quite as formidable as any male, and the hero Er-Sogotokh s i t s Op on a carved chair of mammoth-bone.oel One finds the power of the t r i b a l ancestors acknow-ledged, as i s also that of the t r i b e over the i n d i v i d u a l , and the s o l i d a r i t y of the t r i b e against the perpetual hos-t i l i t y of another (unrelated) people.®-^  Marriage i s exo-gamous, r e s u l t i n g i n blood feuds, suitors' competitions, and the l i k e — a feature of the Burjat epic as w e l l . The hierarchy of the gods r e f l e c t s the organisation of the 84 t r i b e as a whole. Pukhov r i g h t l y says that the olonskho i s of great Im-portance f o r the understanding of the history of the Yakut, i n that the Yakut do not possess any written sources of t h e i r ancient h i s t o r y . Especially valuable are the des-c r i p t i o n s of the l i f e of the people, t h e i r domestic a c t i -y i t y , t h e i r s o c i a l relationships (family, clan and t r i b e ) , and also the rudiments of class attitudes. The depiction of the Yakut material culture i s quite r i c h ; f o r instance, we f i n d descriptions of the yurta and i t s i n t e r i o r con-st r u c t i o n , outbuildings, household u t e n s i l s , clothing, the heroes' weapons, and so o n . ^ Si m i l a r l y , i n the older u l i g e r s of the Burjat one finds in some d e t a i l descriptions of the l i f e of the hunter and herder, both w i t h i n h i s t r i b e and i n i t s r e l a -t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , and a recent c r i t i c of these e p i c s , Sharakshlnova, i s of the opi n i o n t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the u l i g e r s were put together d u r i n g a p e r i o d of p r i m i t i v e s o c i a l order and i n t e n s i v e warfare between the separate t r i b e s and c l a n s . At t h i s time the people were a l s o en-gaged i n r e s i s t i n g f o r e i g n usurpers, who every now and then threatened to c a r r y o f f wives, c h i l d r e n , and possess-i o n s , s t e a l c a t t l e , s e i z e lands, and enslave the B u r j a t 86 people. Enough has been s a i d above to i n d i c a t e the strong p o s s i b i l i t y of e l i c i t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l underlay which may be,, (indeed is.) at the base of a l l e p i c , i n c l u d i n g t h a t of S i b e r i a . E p ics e x h i b i t general trends, which proves, i f n o t h i n g e l s e , t h a t when man indulges i n f a n -t a s i e s concerning heroes m i g h t i e r than h i m s e l f , h i s mind runs on the same l i n e s , no matter where h i s h a b i t a t i o n l i e s ; a t r u e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m of the commonalty. 24 PART I I FORM AND GENERAL CONTENT I. THE BURJAT-MONGOL EPIC The Bur.1 at U l l g e r . The B u r j a t possess one of the youngest l i t e r a t u r e s i n the USSR, f o r there was none to speak of before 1917. T h e i r alphabet, Old Mongol, became the o f f i c i a l s c r i p t i n the seventeenth century, but was dis c a r d e d f o r Roman i n 1931. In 1940 t h i s too was given up, and t h e i r present ortho-graphy, based on C y r i l l i c , adopted. The f o l k , however, had no need of w r i t i n g to preserve t h e i r extensive t r a d i t i o n s . In the nineteenth century the c o l l e c t i o n of f o l k poetry and o r a l c h r o n i c l e s began, and soon a f t e r the f i r s t attempts were made to c r e a t e o r i g i n a l l i t e r a t u r e based on t h i s m a t e r i a l . The extensiveness of t h i s f o l k l o r e i s matched by i t s d i v e r s i t y ; Tudenov 1 l i s t s f o urteen d i f f e r e n t k inds of f o l k l i t e r a t u r e , ranging from songs and hymns (btiogej durdalga) t o f o l k t a l e s (ontokhon) and h i s t o r i c a l legends ( t M k h e ) . One of the most i Important genres i s the uJLLger, o r epic poem, which l i k e many o another people's epic Includes i n i t s make-up examples of most of the other genres. H i s t o r y of t h e i r study. U l i g e r s have been c o l l e c t e d a s s i d u o u s l y only s i n c e the end of the ni n e t e e n t h century. Since the r e v o l u t i o n , what was once the domain of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s has become the o b j e c t of organised s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , but the e p i c s have as yet been l i t t l e s t u d i e d , e i t h e r as regards content or prosodaic o r g a n i s a t i o n . Much m a t e r i a l has been c o l l e c t e d , and some has been p u b l i s h e d , the f i r s t great c o l l e c t o r being M.N. Khangalov, whose m a t e r i a l began to appear i n 1889,^ f o l l o w e d by Zhamtsarano's Specimens of the  Popular L i t e r a t u r e of the Mongolian Peoples (1913)» by the work of V l a d i m i r t s o v i n 1923» Zabanov i n 1929» and not l o n g before the war by Sanzheev (1936). A vast amount of m a t e r i a l i s s t i l l i n the a r c h i v e s of the B u r j a t Combined S c i e n t i f i c Research I n s t i t u t e of the S i b e r i a n Section of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the I n s t i t u t e of Eastern Studies ( I n s t l t u t  Vostokovedenlja); but much remains the unpublished property of the c o l l e c t o r s (S. P. Baldaev, A. K. Bogdanov, D. Madason, and others) and so there i s s t i l l much research and study to be done i n t h i s f i e l d . In recent years s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s have begun to appear, a f t e r a lapse of time, i n the B u r j a t Republic. Mention may be made of D m i t r i e v 1 s e d i t i o n of the A western B u r j a t t e x t of Geser Khan, another l e s s well-known e p i c , Osoodor Mergen, J and Baldano's Geser of 1959. Versions of u l l g e r s have appeared i n l i t e r a r y form, f o r i n s t a n c e by Kh, N. Namsaraev, who has p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n s of "Alamzha Mer-gen", "Kharaltuur Khan", "SagaadaJ Mergen Khtlbuun", "Dzhangar", and o t h e r s . These l i t e r a r y e p i c s are t r a d i t i o n a l only i n t h e i r 7 themes, t h e i r s t y l e and v e r s i f i c a t i o n being modern.' There are more than two hundred d i f f e r e n t u l i g e r s known to modern s c h o l a r s h i p . This however does not represent the f u l l f i g u r e , f o r many regions have not yet been st u d i e d ; and 26 examination of the epics has so f a r not produced any theory of cycles, as has f o r instance been done over the l a s t several centuries with the t a l e s of Troy, or the Arthurian Cycle. The early c o l l e c t o r s were not Interested i n the singers themselves, as i s usually the case, f o r the same can be said of those who set about recording the B r i t i s h ballads i n the eighteenth century. No information, therefore, was given as to the manner of performance, or the technique of r e c i t a l . The records are of uneven value; they d i f f e r i n t h e i r f i d e l i t y to the words and the idiosyncracies of the singers. The best materials, recorded with almost stenographic exactitude, are i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e of Eastern Studies of the Academy of Sciences.® This c o l l e c t i o n , made at the be-ginning of the century, i s also better than others because i t was made at a time when the old u l i g e r t r a d i t i o n was s t i l l very much a l i v e . In these archives, and i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l researchers, there are at least 150 u l i g e r s , of which only a f r a c t i o n has so f a r been published i n trans-c r i p t i o n . The Specimens contains slxcEkhirit-Bulagat epics, which are among the f i n e s t that we possess, and i n compar-ison with these the l a t e r u l i g e r s are much i n f e r i o r . 9 Vladimirtsov and other O r i e n t a l i s t s have placed the o r i g i n of the u l i g e r s around the f i f t e e n t h century, and however early t h e i r o r i g i n , they were formerly composed and performed everywhere i n the nation without exception. Later h i s t o r i c a l events and s o c i a l changes altered t h i s p i c t u r e . In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the proponents of Yellow Hat Lamaism persecuted the u l i g e r s and the bards. From t h e i r a r r i v a l at the beginning of the seven teenth century, the Lamalsts fought the o l d r e l i g i o n , Shaman ism, and si n c e they regarded the u l i g e r s as an i d e o l o g i c a l weapon of the r i v a l f a i t h , they p r o s c r i b e d them w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y . For i n s t a n c e , the s u p e r i o r of the Aginsk monas t e r y punished those who l i s t e n e d t o the Geser e p i c , saying &hat t h i s f o l k hero was an enemy of Lamaism. 1 0 However, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of other sects were not so s t r i c t , and the work enjoyed great p o p u l a r i t y i n many areas. I t i s a f a c t t h a t there i s enshrined i n the u l i g e r s auGfe of th© o l d mythology B magical I n c a n t a t l o n i ? p§li-glou§ formulae, and so on, and the t e n g r i , or "heaven-dwellers" p l a y Important p a r t s . While the u l i g e r s are by no means the same as shamanistic hymns, there i s a strong connection be-tween the r e l i g i o n and the e p i c s , and some u l i g e r s h i were i n f a c t shamans. Due to the i n f l u e n c e of Lamaism, by the tw e n t i e t h century shamanism wa3 preserved only i n p a r t s of the country, and verse u l i g e r s were preserved only among the western B u r j a t and the borders of eastern B u r j a t i a , e.g. Kh a r a - S h i b i r , i n C h i t a Oblast. Elsewhere the u l i g e r t r a d -i t i o n had d i s i n t e g r a t e d ; f o r although good f o l k s l n g e r s ex-i s t e d , they had to hide t h e i r t a l e n t s , because of the ban 12 on "shamanist" u l i g e r s . The B u r j a t regarded the u l i g e r s not merely as one k i n d of poetry; they had a d i v i n e o r i g i n , and so they were sung and heard w i t h reverence. According to one legend, "On the blue c r e s t s of the Sajan mountains an a i r y v o i c e [ i . e . a s p i r i t ] was s i n g i n g a wonderful u l i g e r , and a Tun-gus poet heard i t , remembered i t , and t o l d i t to the world, i n c l u d i n g the B u r j a t rhapsodes." ^ Performance. The u l i g e r s were forme r l y performed not merely t o d e l i g h t the l i s t e n e r s ; they were p r i m a r i l y de-signed to appease the "black" s p i r i t s ( t e n g r l and ezheny); i . e . a magical s i g n i f i c a n c e was a t t r i b u t e d to them. There i s much c o r r o b o r a t i o n of t h i s . The B u r j a t ethnographer M. N. Khangalov observes: The B u r j a t say t h a t i n hard times (khatuu z h l l d e ) , when i l l n e s s e s abound, i t i s considered very h e l p f u l to r e c i t e the t a l e of Abaj-G-eser-Bogdo-khan, because •;')unclean s p i r i t s , who i n f l i c t d i f f e r e n t i l l n e s s e s upon the people, seem to f e a r t h i s t a l e . Sometimes a Bur-j a t , going out i n t o the deserted steppe at n i g h t , f e e l s f r i g h t e n e d ; i n order to scare away the e v i l s p i r i t s he begins to hum the Geser e p i c . I f , on s e t t i n g out on a l o n g journey, one happens to hear "Abaj-Geser-Bogdo-khan", t h i s i s counted a good omen; the way w i l l be safe, and the outcome f o r t u n a t e . D i f f e r e n t u l i g e r s had d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , i n the event of a f o r e s t f i r e , other u l i g e r s were of magical use, as "Mantani Khaan", "Bata Shukher", and "Ankhabaj Mergen", which invoked snow or r a i n and e x t i n -guished the f i r e . U l i g e r s were a l s o used f o r success i n v a r i o u s p u r s u i t s , as f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g . ^ Q-. D. sanzheev r e l a t e s t h a t the u l i g e r s h l b e l i e v e t h a t In an a r t e l , without a good s i n g e r , a s u c c e s s f u l hunt i s i m p o s s i b l e ; 1 ' such i s a l s o the case amongst the A l t a i Turks. S e t t i n g out on a hunt i n the t a i g a , the B u r j a t had to dress i n t h e i r best c l o t h e s , f o r they went out not to k i l l w i l d animals, but t o v i s i t them and ask them to run up to the hunters. On a r r i -v a l at the p l a c e of the hunt, they observed c e r t a i n ceremonies, designed t o appease the s p i r i t s of the beasts and the f o r e s t s , on whom would depend the out-come of the hunt. Then, i n the evening, before they s l e p t , the s i n g e r unfolded h i s f e l t mat ( u n s o l l e d by horse's sweat) i n the hut,, p l a c e d on i t l i g h t e d Juniper twigs, and a cup of wine or m i l k , t h r u s t an arrow i n t o i t , and a l l n i g h t , t i l l the f i r s t rays of dawn, he sang h i s epic song. Without t h i s ceremony, the hunt, i n the b e l i e f of the B u r j a t , could not be s u c c e s s f u l . The i d e a of s i n g i n g the epic l i e s In the b e l i e f t h a t t h i s gives p l e a s u r e to the s p i r i t - o w n e r of the t a i g a . 1 " The u l i g e r a l s o served as a means of o b t a i n i n g v i c t o r y over the enemy. Although there i s no d i r e c t evidence on 19 t h i s , V l a d i m i r t s o v p o i n t s to Marco Polo's d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r a c t i c e of the Mongols before b a t t l e of s i n g i n g songs, and submits t h a t these songs were u l i g e r s . Polo i n c i d e n t a l l y r e f e r s to an instrument which i s f a i r l y c e r -t a i n l y the khuur. This i s a two-stringed instrument w i t h a square sound-box, found i n present-day f o l k o r c h e s t r a s , and i s played w i t h a bow (see i l l u s t r a t i o n , next page). 20 I t used always to accompany the u l i g e r s , but i s now being replaced by the v i o l i n . Polo says: Moreover the Tatars have a l s o such a custom t h a t when they are drawn up t h a t they may wait f o r the L b a t t l e u n t i l the drums [ nacars'] begin to sound, then they s i n g and p l a y t h e i r Instruments of two £ two MSS. say "four"2 s t r i n g s very sweetly, and they s i n g and p l a y and make great sport, w a i t i n g always f o r the b a t t l e . And because of t h i s I t e l l you t h a t both these people who were drawn up and were w a i t i n g f o r the b a t t l e and the sounding of the drums, they sang and play[ed] s o 2 w e 1 1 and s ° sweetly t h a t i t was a wonder to hear. Vladimirtsov t e l l s of a famous bard Parchen who i n 1912 inspired the Mongols besieging the f o r t r e s s of Kobdo, where a Chinese company was encamped, by performing an u l i g e r , and i n t h i s way helped them i n t h e i r struggle f o r independence. I t may be postulated that the Burjat u l i g e r s , or the elements out of which they are composed, at one time 23 f i l l e d the r o l e of war chants. Pozdneev gives several war songs, one of which belongs to the period 1655-1690, when there were b i t t e r disputes between the Burjats and t h e i r Mongol overlords. It, consists of s i x quatrains, 24 each repeating i n d i f f e r e n t ways one basic idea: Khujagajga zuzan n i Khoirlachzhi khoirlachzhi umudujje Khoron ijekhetu khoron ijekhetu mongol-du. K h o i s h l l a l ugej k h o i s h i l a l ugej khurujje. 2 5 (Let us put on our stout coats of mail, one upon the other; against the e v i l , the most e v i l Mongols, we s h a l l go not turning back, not turning back.) In former times the rendition of u l i g e r s was accom-panied by various ceremonies; f o r instance, old men have 1 t e s t i f i e d that on the roof of the yurta they placed a bowl of milk, l i t candles and lamps, tipped over the bowl, scattered ashes and looked among them f o r someone's tracks. The epics could only be performed on those nights when the Pleiades (Meshed) were p l a i n l y v i s i b l e . Their singing by day was not practised, and to a l l appearances was consid-ered a breach of r e l i g i o u s ordinance. 2^ The u l i g e r s long ago began to lose t h e i r primary r o l e of magical Incantations and hymns, i n s p i r i n g s oldiers to bravery. Nowadays they are performed merely f o r a e s t h e t i c . enjoyment, and are exceedingly popular. When i t becomes known t h a t i n some y u r t a an u l i g e r w i l l be performed by a l o c a l or i t i n e r a n t s i n g e r , the people begin to flow i n from a l l d i r e c t i o n s . So many u s u a l l y wish t o hear the u l i g e r t h a t the y u r t a cannot c o n t a i n them, and, i f the a f f a i r i s h e l d i n summer, a l a r g e p a r t of those who have gathered dispose themselves around the d w e l l i n g . Very o f t e n the performance takes p l a c e i n a glade. T h e ^ u l l g e r s were e a r l i e r performedi o a s ; a v r u l e i n autumn and w i n t e r , and even now they are performed most o f t e n d u r i n g the l o n g autumn and w i n t e r evenings. At t h a t time of year the B u r j a t used to be comparatively l i t t l e occupied, and had a great d e a l of l e i s u r e . 2 ? The s i n g i n g I t s e l f goes on i n the f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n : the u l l f f e r s h l n u s u a l l y s i t s i n a wide c i r c l e of l i s t e n -e r s , w i t h c l e a n water and a p i p e , o f tobacco beside him, i n order to d r i n k and smoke from time t o time. At the beginning the l i s t e n e r s s i n g to him i n chorus an i n v o c a t -ory song, c a l l e d ugtalgyn zugaa, u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of two v e r s e s . Several v a r i a n t s of these have been noted, but the f o l l o w i n g i s the one most f r e q u e n t l y met w i t h : Aj-dun Z a j - j t t l Let us search i n our chests and draw therefrom t e n arrows; l e t us begin then our t a l e of the e l d e s t of the t h i r t e e n g l o r i o u s khans1 Aj-dun Z a j - j & l Let us open our chests and take therefrom twenty arrows; of the twenty-three khans l e t us t e l l of the e l d e s t onei Not a l l u l i g e r s possess these invocatory stanzas, Tho collected e a r l i e r frequently have them, but i n the l a t e r ones they are met with more r a r e l y , and although they may have been obligatory i n the old days, with the decline of the u l i g e r t r a d i t i o n they have been forgotten. The ugtalgyn zugaa are d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r structure from the u l i g e r s themselves, and presumably were also sung to d i f f e r e n t melodies; but these have not been preserved. They are also d i f f e r e n t i n content, and f u l f i l a merely a r t i s t i c function; they prepared the singer f o r the epic, 28 and also prepared the audience to hear i t . A fter the introductory verses the singer makes a sign that he i s ready, takes up a r e c l i n i n g p o s i t i o n , half-closes h i s eyes, enters the atmosphere of hi s poem and begins to sing a drawling melody to the acoompani-2Q / ment of the khuur. ^ (See i l l u s t r a t i o n of music on following page.) The u l i g e r begins with an extended introduction, se t t i n g f o r t h the time and place of the b i r t h of the hero. As a ru l e , t h i s i s more or l e s s of one type, always beginning with the words u r l a n l urlndala, or urdyn urda sagta, "Long long ago". This r e c a l l s the introductions to the Russian byliny. (zapevy and zachlny), which serve to draw the attention of the audience and also present the beginning of the heroic action. During the singer's pauses h i s audience encourages him with exclamations of approval, generally a prolonged "hee'e", with varying intonation, depending on the mood. During the longer pauses, at the conclusion of an episode, while the singer i s smoking, drinking h i s water or merely re s t i n g , the audience sings verses i n chorus, c a l l e d i n Burjat seg daralga, which l i t e r a l l y means "a marking of the pause, an Interruption". Many forms of seg daralga are found; when the hero i s set t i n g out on a Journey, they sing "farewell" verses (tideshelgyn); at h i s return, "meeting" verses (u£talgyji); at a b a t t l e , wishes f o r a speedy v i c t o r y , and so on. However, ethnology discovered the u l i g e r s when the difference i n these verses had begun to be effaced, and the seg daralga are now used l n d i s -30 crimlnately. These verses have four or eight l i n e s (i.e,, one or two stanzas) and examples are the following: 1. "Farewell" or "Journey" verse: We wish him happy a r r i v a l at the place he rushes to. Let him bring back to h i s own camp happiness and peace! 2. The general type, used on many occasions: On the shore of the yellow sea f e l l yellow snow; which enemies have the glorious and mighty khans overcome? On the shore of the blue sea there are d r i f t s of blue snow; of the vanquishing of what enemies has the u l i g e r sung? 3. The "meeting" verse: The forked couch-grass has grown, Suppressed i s the yearning of the horse f o r his meal,. Turned i s the forked tongue, Let us sing the chorus of the u l i g e r . 4. Wishing the hero speedy v i c t o r y : Let the glad news be heard that the sea, covered with leaden mist, has been conquered, that fate has sent down v i c t o r y over the f e a r f u l and cunning enemyI 5. Praise of the u l i g e r : How can snow stic k to the white s i l v e r y barn? What unclean thing may adhere to the heavenly uliger? Drops of water cannot s t i c k to the s i l v e r y roof; Unclean s p i r i t s cannot cleave to our ancient uliger.31 The singers and audience believe that the hero him-s e l f i s present at the performance of the u l i g e r , check-ing the tr u t h of the t a l e , and errors are not tolerated. For the exact and correct transmission of the story the singer receives the gratitude of the hero; i f there i s a mistake, the singer Is punished. With the anecdote quoted i n part one above (p.4 ) one may compare the following, c o l l e c t e d by Jeremiah Curtin: there were nine s t o r i e s about each of the sons and grandsons of Geser Bogdo, making eighty-one st o r i e s i n a l l , which "had to be t o l d iin groups of nine, and the r e l a t o r could neither eat, drink, nor sleep while t e l l i n g them, and when each group of nine was t o l d an unseen person said, 'Thou hast f o r -gotten where thou placed thy Pfu. , n32 At the end of the epic, the bards customarily take leave of t h e i r heroes with a "farewell song", tldeshelgyn  zugaa. This i s performed f i r s t by the bard himself, and then chorussed by the audience. For instance, the eighty-year-old singer Zavin Zajakhanov i n 1904 bade farewell to h i s heroes i n the following song: Return to the clouds of the high white skyI Return to the h i l l s of the wide white steppe1 Return, c u t t i n g the huge white c l i f f s i It i s good to s a i l the s i l v e r y expanse of the seasl Beautiful i s the end of t h i s u l i g e r ! Following t h i s farewell, the conclusion of the epic i s sung by the bard himself. There are many d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of t h i s , and the seg daralga i s often used. One t y p i c a l example i s : Let us catch the quick-legged yellow foxes, over-taking themi Let us f i n i s h the longest u l i g e r s , t e l l i n g and singingi The above r e f e r s to the u l i g e r s of the western Burjat, who have preserved them better than elsewhere.33 In many eastern u l i g e r s traces may be seen of a r i c h past, but at present the invocations, sep; daralga, and so f o r t h , t y p i c a l of the western u l i g e r s , would appear to have been l o s t ; a l l that i s preserved i s the weak "Long long ago". However, one concept, unknown to the western Burjat, i s the monologue, sung by the hero, hi s wise horse, h i s enemies, birds and beasts. Nowadays they are mixed, i n that no one has a p a r t i c u l a r monologue of his own, but formerly t h i s was probably not the case. These monologues ( t u r i l g e . or ttlureelge) are used as a chorus by the audience, having f i r s t been sung by the 34 bard himself. They consist of words ( s y l l a b l e s and sounds) addressed by the hero to h i s horse, by the horse to hi s master, and so on, but do not appear to have any story content. At the time of t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n (the end of the l a s t cen-tury) the eastern Burjat u l i g e r s were not sung (as in the west) but re c i t e d , except f o r these interspersed mono-logues. At present verse u l i g e r s are preserved i n the east only in the Okln and Tunkln regions, where good rhapsodes are s t i l l to be found, probably because of the proximity to the western Burjat, who s t i l l keep the trad-i t i o n . 35 Even there, however, u l i g e r s are very often r e c i t e d ; but one can f i n d bards who sing " i n the old way". Generally speaking, u l i g e r s are only sung i n t h i s way on extremely important occasions, t h i s s t y l e being con-sidered an archaism. The old tunes were not written down by the c o l l e c t -ors, but nowadays one may f i n d many in use, and one tune may serve several (or many) u l i g e r s . Each singer has h i s favourite, to which he may sing h i s whole reper t o i r e . Many regions have t h e i r own tunes, p e c u l i a r to them; but the main difference i s to be seen between the western 36 and eastern Burjat. Structural devices. The chief t r a i t s of u l i g e r s are a l l i t e r a t i o n , p a r a l l e l i s m , and a seven- or eight-s y l l a b l e d l i n e . 1. A l l i t e r a t i o n . The early commentators were struck by the a l l i t e r a t i o n , which was the only out-standing feature of Burjat poetry. Pozdneev i n fac t could say that i t would be hard to d i f f e r e n t i a t e verse from prose, were i t not f o r the a l l i t e r a t i o n , which he c a l l e d "rhyme". "Observance of rhyme," he said, "would appear to be the main r u l e of Mongol poetry, and in purely f o l k material there i s hardly any other r u l e of v e r s i f i c a t i o n . " ^ A l l i -t e r a t i o n i s one of the main devices of.folk-poetry f o r the simple reason that i t renders the r e a l i s a t i o n of a lengthy poem easier. The Burjat term i s tolgoj kholbolgo, i . e . "uniting of beginnings or heads", and i s applied to the use at the beginnings of the l i n e s of the same sound, consonant or vowel, as i n t h i s example of seg daralga: Unahan, unahan hajkhan galdan geeshin Uusajaa, uusajaa duureer dugshaldahaj1 Uulzahan, uulzahan, hajkhan bee geeshin Hanaa duureer dugshuulahaj.38 (Let the r i d e r t r o t h i s horse with the curved crupper; l e t the r i d e r with a peaceful heart gently t r o t along.) i _ • In Burjat poetry t h i s a l l i t e r a t i o n may be used throughout the stanza (a a a a), i n p a i r s of l i n e s (a a b b), a l t e r n a t e l y (a b a b), mixed, or i n t e r n a l l y . In the u l i -gers, the f i r s t two of these kinds are most frequent. A l l i t e r a t i o n i s the oldest decorative device i n Mon-gol l i t e r a t u r e , being found i n the Secret History of the Mongols (1240), Altan Tobchl (1604), and the hi s t o r y of Ssagan .Ssetsen (1662). Internal a l l i t e r a t i o n , met with i n the old manuscripts 39 has only recently come back into vogue, i n Soviet times, and i s used to embellish 40 long l i n e s . 2. P a r a l l e l i s m . The following examples w i l l show how t h i s operates. The idea i s repeated i n succeeding stanzas, which p a r a l l e l each other very c l o s e l y , using a l l i t e r a t i o n at the same time to underline the sense and to render the poem more a t t r a c t i v e a r t i s t i c a l l y : "Urdakhl Aguula", "The Southern Mountain". 1. Uradakhl aguulyn orojdo U.lakhan eshetej zhemes l e , Uzuuraa d M r e t e r uragazha, Uragsha kho .1 shoo najgana. On the summit of the southern mountain From side to side the cherry rocks, With p l i a n t trunk, overgrown To i t s base with f r u i t . 2. Naadakhl aguulyn orojdo Narllkhan eshetej zhemes l e , Nabshajaa d M r e t e r urgazha, Naashaa saashaa najgana. On the summit of the near mountain Here and there rocks the cherry With slender trunk; i t has covered Its leaves with f r u i t s . 3« Saadakhl aguulyn orojdo Sagduulkhan eshetej zhemes l e , Salaagaa duureter urgazha, Saashaa naashaa najgana. On the summit of the f a r mountain To and f r o sways the cherry With the young trunk, having covered Its branches with f r u i t . In the f i r s t l i n e of each stanza the a l l i t e r a t i n g words are varied, as "southern", "near" and " f a r " . In the second l i n e , "from side to side", "here and there", "to and f r o " . In the t h i r d , " p l i a n t " , "slender", and "young"; and i n the fourth, the f r u i t s have overgrown "the 41 base", and covered "the leaves" and "the branches". Examples from the u l i g e r s : A. Dalan doloon teng e r i i n Dalin doron tttrebe, Jeren doloon t e n g e r i i n Jeber doron turebe. (He was born under the wings of seventy-seven ten g r i ; he was born under the feathers of ninety-seven tengri.) B. Aryngaa barabaan deldebe, Arajaa zoeye gul'dkhaba, Eberej barabaan deldebe, Eberee zoeye gul'dkhaba. (He struck the drum of the north and c a l l e d together the people l i v i n g i n the north of his khanate; he struck the drum of the south and c a l l e d together the people l i v i n g i n the south of h i s khanate. 3 . Rhythm. The length of the l i n e varies a good deal, although one can say that the number of s y l l a b l e s mo3t often encountered i s seven or eight. As few as f i v e and as many as twelve s y l l a b l e s are not uncommon. For instance, i n example A above there are seven s y l l a b l e s i n each l i n e ; i n B, each l i n e has nine s y l l a b l e s . Mixtures are frequent, as i n the following: "Eeme khusheer turshakhuu? 7 s y l l a b l e s Erkheen khusheer orokhuu?" gekhe 9 Erkheen khusheer zublezhe 7 DelM dajdada 5 G-araldazha oshobo l o . 8 Bukhajn d e l i khuzhiildezhe, 8 Bugajn d e l i Jagshalaldazha, 9 Elee d e l i e l i ldezhe, 8 Kharabsar d e l l kharaldazha bajba l a . 12 (Saying "Shall we t r y the strength of shoulder • and of arm?" they went out to the spacious steppe, where they gazed at each other l i k e owls, they flew at each other l i k e k i t e s , they gored l i k e b u l l s , they grappled l i k e stag-beetles.) 4 It w i l l be noticed that the fourth and f i f t h , and eighth and ninth l i n e s do not a l l i t e r a t e . However, the f i r s t of each p a i r has i n t e r n a l a l l i t e r a t i o n ; and more-over, i f one wished to ins e r t a caesura into the l a s t l i n e , one would have the equivalent of f i v e - and seven-s y l l a b l e d l i n e s , i n complete a l l i t e r a t i v e concord. Contemporary u l i g e r s are more compact; they are l e s s r e p e t i t i v e , with fewer hackneyed epic descriptions, and the size i s greatly reduced. Epic devices are pre-served, such as the exordium and t a i l p i e c e ; but on the other hand the special introductory verses, the ugtalga or ugtalgyn zugaa, items which always precede the perfor-mance of the Old t r a d i t i o n a l u l i g e r s , . a r e omitted. Con-temporary u l i g e r s also lack the concluding stanzas, (udeshelgyn zugaa, ildeshelge). . These t a i l p i e c e s are also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Russian t a l e s , as f o r instance one finds i n Afanas'ev: "I was at that wedding too. I drank beer and mead; they flowed down my beard but did not go into my mouth." 45 These prologues and conclusions may be omitted from the modern p o l i t i c a l u l i g e r s because they are too inconsistent with the heroic praise of a leader, and the r e l i g i o u s aspects of course w i l l not appear. The basic vocabulary of contemporary u l i g e r s i s s i m i l a r to that of the Burjat conversational language. As i n the t r a d i t i o n a l , so i n the contemporary u l i g e r s one meets words and expressions borrowed from the Russ-ianj but in the u l i g e r s of Soviet times t h i s happens much more frequently. This i s not to be wondered at, since the intercourse of the Burjat, and a l l Siberian peoples, with Russia i s now more intimate and more intensive than 46 in prerevolutionary times. Content. The u l i g e r s t e l l of the heroic exploits of 47 bators and mergens, t h e i r s i s t e r s , wives, and even t h e i r 48 horses. Fundamentally, these epic t a l e s are songs of a heroic character, although t h e i r contents are much broad-er i n scope than the mere recounting of v i c t o r i e s and de-f e a t s . They are i n fact d i d a c t i c i n nature. The hero i s endowed with beauty, kindness, strength and courage, and he uses h i s talents to protect h i s people against the invaders, against treacherous kinsmen, and various mon-sters who devour people and c a t t l e . The u l i g e r i s not a chronicle, although i t bases i t s e l f of what seem to be h i s t o r i c a l events; and interwoven into i t s f a b r i c are many f a n t a s t i c elements and a t r u l y primaeval cosmogony. The heroes of the u l i g e r s are champions of t h e i r people, and personify the national s p i r i t and resolve of the people i n t h e i r struggles against invaders. 4 9 i n t h i s they are p a r a l l e l e d by the ethnic champions of many another nation, as the Central A s i a t i c hero Manas and the p o s i t i v e protagonists of the Yakut olongkho. The u l i g e r s , l i k e other epics, went through a series of stages i n t h e i r formation. Sanzheev submits that the basic core of the u l i g e r s consists of epic songs, celebrat-ing the exploits of heroes who defend t h e i r homeland, and that f o l k t a l e motifs and war songs were incorporated. The war songs did not enter the body of the u l i g e r i n a merely passive way, i n the manner of supplementary material, but a c t i v e l y , turning the poem, into a byllna, or heroic poem: Thus the fabulous epic i s converted into a bogatyr  byll n a , and grows into a heroic epic. The epos of the northern Burjat well r e f l e c t s both t h i s very process of the transformation of the fabulous epic into the heroic epic, and at the same time i t s various stages.5° Sanzheev notices two groups of uligers,51 the Ekhlrit-Bulagat and the Ungin groups, which are d i f f e r -entiated from each other by t h e i r form as well as t h e i r content. The Ekhirlt-Bulagat group comprises the u l i g e r s of the Bokhan, Iain, Bajandaj and Ekhirit-Bulagat ajmaks. Examples of t h i s type are "Alamzha Mergen", "Ajduraj Mergen", "Kharaasgaj Mergen", "Ermej Bogdo Khan", "Bajan Badma Khan", "KhukhuerdeJ Mergen", "GunkhabaJ Mergen", "Abaj Geser", and "Shono-bator". To the Ungin group be-long the u l i g e r s of the Nukut and Alar ajmaks: "Altan Shagaj", "Uzhaa Hamgan", "Dalan tabataj ubgen", "Ere Khabtas Mergen", and "Khan SergeJ Mergen".52 Besides those u l i g e r s which are independent and do not repeat themselves i n other groups, there ex i s t u l i g e r s whose 44 subject l i n e i s general to t h i s or that group, but are well known i n a l l regions i n various versions. Examples of t h i s type are "Abaj Geser", " I r i n s e j " , "Shono-bator", "Shandaabl* Mergen", among others. The Ekhirit-Bulagat u l i g e r s are characterised by family and t r i b a l motifs. In the other group one may f i n d r e f l e c t i o n of clan warfare and the rudiments of feudalism, i . e . l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l developments. The heroic elements i n the E k h i r i t epic are not basic, f o r they serve only as a means of resol v i n g clan and t r i b a l disputes. The epics of the Ekhirit-Bulagat type also d i f f e r from those of other Mongol t r i b e s i n t h e i r frequent use of what may be termed beast mythology, f o r various animals and monsters are i n -troduced e i t h e r as passive or active p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the action. Thus, Ajduraj Mergen, i n the u l i g e r of that name, may obtain h i s bride from Ezhe Munkhe Khan i f he obtains a cer t a i n dog f o r the khan; t h i s animal i s a monster c a l l e d Khazadag Khara Buural, which sucks i n on a strong current a l l l i v i n g creatures. In the same u l i g e r , various beasts help the hero i n h i s struggle with h i s r i v a l s f o r the bride;53 f o r example, the emperor of the frogs protects Ajduraj 54 from the hard f r o s t , and the emperor of the ants helps him sort out by night three kinds of m i l l e t seed.55 These examples belong to the "Helpful Animals" motif which i s common to a great deal of f o l k l o r e , and the "Grateful Beasts", which i s even commoner; thus the separation of m i l l e t seed i s p a r a l l e l e d by the separation of three kinds of grain by locusts i n the Arabian story "The Prince of Sind and Fatima, daughter of Amir bin Naoman", and by the same kind of aid (rendered by ants) in the Danish t a l e of "Svend's E x p l o i t s " . 5 6 In these epics one finds heavenly maidens, who save the hero; the gigantic dragon Abarga Shara MogoJ; the Garuda Bird, Khan Kherdeg Shubuun, thirteen quails, and 57 other creatures. The introduction into the narrative of various characters and creatures, h e l p f u l or in j u r i o u s , who meet the hero on h i s t r a v e l s , i s also a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 58 of the Bulagat u l i g e r s . In the E k h i r i t u l i g e r s a large amount of space i s given over to the description of natu-r a l conditions and the struggle of man against nature, the crossing of vast expanses of water, high mountains and impenetrable f o r e s t s , and so on. Similar descriptions are met with i n almost every u l i g e r . The main action i n the majority of the E k h i r i t - B u l a -gat u l i g e r s Is as follows. A brother and s i s t e r l i v e ,in peace, u n t i l the brother d i e s . The s i s t e r , l earning of her brother's death from h i s f a i t h f u l horse, buries h i s body i n a mountain pass, then seeks means of r a i s i n g her brother from the dead according to the Book of Laws. She learns that her brother may be raised by h i s betrothed, who possesses magic powers. The s i s t e r dresses i n her brother's clothes and goes on h i s f a i t h f u l horse to the dwelling of the betrothed. In order to receive the hand of the bride, the heroine plays the r o l e of her brother, and a f t e r overcoming a s e r i e s o f o b s t a c l e s comes out t h e v i c t o r i n a c o n t e s t o f s u i t o r s . The b r i d e r a i s e s t h e c o r p s e , and r e t r i b u t i o n i s t a k e n on t h o s e g u i l t y o f t h e b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h . The u l i g e r g e n e r a l l y ends w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e wedding f e a s t and t h e e n s u i n g h a p p i n e s s o f t h e newlyweds and t h e i r 59 p e o p l e . T h i s i s t h e p l o t o f " A j d u r a j Mergen", i n w h i c h t h e r e a l hero i s not A j d u r a j . h i m s e l f , b u t h i s s i s t e r Aguu Noogon. In o r d e r t o r a i s e h e r b r o t h e r , k i l l e d owing t o t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s o f h i s u n c l e s , Aguu Noogon goes i n s e a r c h o f a maiden t o r e v i v e him. She f i n d s h e r a f t e r o v e r c o ming a s e r i e s o f o b s t a c l e s . The h e r o i n e w i n s t h e day i n a w r e s t -l i n g match w i t h t h e a t h l e t e Teneg Muja Khubuun, who has t h e seeming advantage o f b e i n g b o r n under t h e f i f t y - f i v e west-ern t e n g r i . ^ 0 L a t e r she d e f e a t s a n o t h e r a t h l e t e , G-azari Gakhaj Bukhe. Aguu Noogon by h e r wisdom p r o v e s t o Ezhe Munkhe Khan t h a t she i s n o t a woman, b u t t h e r e a l A j d u r a j Mergen, then r e c e i v e s t h e hand o f t h e d a u g h t e r o f t h e Khan, Er k h e Suben, and l e a d s h e r home..0"2 The h e r o e s o f t h e E k h i r i t - B u l a g a t e p i c s do n o t f i g h t i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e power o r f i n d fame; t h e i r aims are n o t w a r l i k e ; t h e y m e r e l y w i s h t o p r o t e c t t h e i r y u r t a and p r e -s e r v e t h e i r f a m i l y w e l l - b e i n g . They f i g h t , f o r example, on account o f o u t r a g e s p e r p e t r a t e d by w i c k e d u n c l e s , who t r y t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e i r young o r -6^ phaned nephews. J In t h e s e e p i c s one o f t e n e n c o u n t e r s the motif of the r e l a t i o n s of young children with t h e i r mother, who, forsaking her husband, goes o f f to l i v e with the e v i l Mangadkhaj. Thus, f o r instance, i n " I r i n s e j " , the wife of that hero, Untan Duuraj Abkhaj, abandoning her husband, goes o f f to Mangadkhaj., who has been worsted i n a skirmish with I r i n s e j . She revives Mangadkhaj and stays 64 with him, forsaking her c h i l d r e n . Mangadkhaj and Untan Duuraj prepare to k i l l the children of Irinsej.®The hero' f a i t h f u l horse, learning about t h i s , gallops to the house where the children are staying. He breaks the window, p u l l s out I r i n s e j 1 s son and daughter, takes them away in t h e i r cradle to a high mountain, and lays them down by a golden aspen tree, where he suckles them and raises them to the age of three. From these examples i t may be seen that, as previous-l y stated, the fundamental motif in the majority of epics of t h i s type i s a family or t r i b a l one, the conjugal re-l a t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s being most important; a l l the deeds and actions of the heroes are undertaken with one aim: the attainment of a happy marriage; and so desertion and unfaithfulness are also introduced. In the Ungln u l i g e r s , s i m i l a r adventures take place, but they are but the prelude to an account of m i l i t a r y expl o i t s and the obtaining by the hero of an h e i r , who w i l l avenge him i n the event of h i s death. In t h i s group of u l i g e r s one can trace the development of r e l a t i o n s h i p s ft? belonging to the "feudal" stage of s o c i a l evolution.' / In both the Ungin and Ekhirit-Bulagat u l i g e r s one meets many f o l k t a l e motifs; those i n the Ungin u l i g e r s are substa n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those i n the Ekhirit-Bulagat. In the l a t t e r animals and c e l e s t i a l beings predominate, we f i n d elements of f a i r y t a l e s and beast mythology, while i n the f o l k t a l e stratum of the Ungin u l i g e r s the predominance 6ft of s o c i a l motifs has been pointed out. Each u l i g e r begins with information about the c i r -cumstances surrounding the b i r t h of the hero, and we are t o l d how h i s childhood and education proceed. When he grows up, the hero t r a v e l s to some kingdom or other i n search of h i s betrothed, and brings her home, having been v i c t o r i o u s over a series of r i v a l s u i t o r s . This ends the f i r s t part, and p a r a l l e l s the E k h l r i t group. The second part begins with the hero, arrived home with h i s bride (but sometimes without her) discovering that h i s property i s destroyed, and the people driven away by some enemy. In "Erbed BogdQ Khan", f o r example, we are t o l d how, i n Erbed*s absence, Hagshaa Hamgan, with the a i d of h i s sons, steals the c a t t l e and horses, and leads away captive the subjects of Erbed Bogdo Khan; upon discovering t h i s , the hero sets out to rescue h i s people and b e a s t s . ^ In "Altan Shagaj", 7 0 a description i s given of the d r i v i n g away by the enemy of a l l the hero's people, c a t t l e , horses, and the sei z i n g of h i s possessions. The name of the c u l -p r i t i s found out by means of a l e t t e r , l e f t by one of the subjects or kinsmen, but sometimes i t happens that what has occurred i n the absence of the hero i s learned from a horse, by chance not captured by the enemy. A de s c r i p t i o n of the encounters of the hero with h i s enemy takes up the remainder of the u l i g e r . The Ungin heroic epic d i f f e r s from the Ekhirit-Bulagat 71 i n the weakening of the s o c i a l elements therein. Warlike elements predominate, and one finds descriptions of the deeds and glory of the hero. Alongside the r e f l e c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and ways of l i f e , just as i n the epics of other peoples, one finds elements of mythology, showing the primaeval outlook of the Burjat on the surrounding world, which i s c o n t r o l l e d by "Masters", 72 good and e v i l s p i r i t s . B. Ja. Vladimirtsov comments: Like the heroic poems of other peoples, the Burjat epics depict f a n t a s t i c , magic creatures, who now hinder and now help the heroes. In these epics there also occur gods, mostly of the primaeval shamanistic pantheon; sometimes they, or t h e i r sons, are the main heroes of long epics, and the i action takes place not OQly on earth, but i n the sky and the underworld.'- 5 The presence i n the Burjat u l i g e r s of so many mytho-l o g i c a l elements may bear witness to the ancient o r i g i n of these epics, bom when the people was creating gods and embodying i n them i t s : desires and dreams. The cosmo-gonic ideas of the Burjat are s i m i l a r l y given expression i n many legends about the creation of the u n i v e r s e . 7 4 These ideas are not e x p l i c i t i n the epics themselves, but they inform the whole u l i g e r complex, and t h e i r philosophy i s everywhere prevalent. For instance, the world i s d i v i -ded into three parts: the upper world, heaven; the middle world, earth; and the lower, the underworld. While t h i s t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of the universe i s not a p e c u l i a r l y shamanistic concept, being found i n several sophisticated r e l i g i o n s , such as that of the H i n d u s , i t i s s t i l l a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of shamanism. The s p i r i t s invoked by the Yakut shaman are said to be divided into three b i s : the heavenly, earthly, and subterranean, each of which i s as 76 large as three times nine usa (branches of a c l a n ) . These worlds are s i m i l a r in t h e i r content, as the Chukchee t a l e of the Scabby shaman t e s t i f i e s : "In which world i s there more l i f e , in the upper world or in the nether one?" - "Just equal!" - "In which world are there more f i s h i n the sea, more birds i n the a i r , more game on the earth?" - "Just equal!" - "Blades in the grass, leaves in the wood?" - "Just equal!" 77 In the u l i g e r "AbaJ Geser", that hero now goes to heaven and demands aid from the burkhany,7Q and now de-scends to the underworld (khul tamajn ojoor) in order to regain h i s wife Tumen Zhargalan, who has been stolen from him by Abarga Sesen MangadkhaJ.^ Soviet Uligers.® 0 Contemporary u l i g e r s have been created around Lenin and other Soviet heroes. They are founded on the t r a d i t i o n a l system of Burjat f o l k l o r e , and in them one may see the use of previous epic devices, such as the constant epic formulae. New Images are how-ever introduced into the u l i g e r s , unknown i n previous ones Similes are fyeely employed: The khans l i k e beasts, the mounted p o l i c e l i k e snakes, the e v i l - t h i n k i n g servants gnaw on the body of the people l i k e wolves, drink the people's blood l i k e g a d f l i e s . Like worms they eat the heart of the people, they bend the backs of the people with labour. They order them to work t i l l the back creaks, t i l l the s a l t tears come to the eyes.8-1-The nojony shamans, and servants of the tsar, are depicted i n these u l i g e r s as being cunning and designing, but cowardly. They fear the truth spread by the f i g h t e r s f o r freedom, and so make a guard f o r themselves, "a loath-some breed" which feeds on the people's blood. They are opposed by the people, inspir e d by Lenin, who i s from b i r t h marked out f o r great things: \ Born from a mighty nation, he was marked by high destiny, i with a wonderful mind and heart, and the vigour and the eye of an eagle. In h i s youth, he asks why one l i v e s i n a broken-down yurta and another " l i f t s not a finger, but sleeps i n a decorated house and gorges himself t i l l he belches" on r i c h mutton. He decides to f i g h t i n j u s t i c e , and destroy the dragon of tsardom. Lenin's parents t e l l t h e i r son to maintain a firm bond with the people, because "no-one l i g h t s a bonfire with one b i l l e t " , and s i m i l a r advice i s given young S t a l i n 52 by h i s parents: Only, bator, gather forces, strong forces gather ye f o r the struggle, from the great and eternal land, from the people - the heart of the land. Lenin i s directed to go to the summit of the "Holy Mountain", where he w i l l f i n d the books of two wise men, who are of course Marx and Engels. This "quest" i s a common-place of epic, and i s p a r a l l e l e d ( f o r one instance) by the journey of Jason and his'comrades to Colchis i n search of the Golden Fleece. These books show the heroes "how to overthrow the accursed nojony, ... and to s t r i k e o f f the three hundred heads of the three^hundred-headed snake". Lenin succeeds in h i s quest, a f t e r overcoming many obstacles, l i k e a true bogatyr of the olden time: Thus the youth on the summit of the Holy Mountain read through the wise book, thus he searched out the secret of the brave and true struggle. He throws i n h i s l o t with the people, and preaches revolution; h i s teachings, "stronger than the thunder of heaven, roared through a l l the land", but the r i c h , who hate these troublemakers, "banish them to f a r e x i l e " . The e v i l dogs, feeding on the kitchen leavings, the nojony, the lackeys pointed out where the immortal teacher was l i v i n g . And l o , he i s chained i n iron and sent into distant e x i l e in the cold steppes of Siberia, to a lonely and forgotten settlement. 53 Just as c l a s s i c a l verse introduces the pathetic f a l l a c y of the i n t e r e s t of Nature i n the a c t i v i t i e s or fate of the subject, 8^ s o a l l creatures serve Lenin, and he commands the elements: F l y i n g through a l l the universe, the eagle serves him as messenger; he brings l e t t e r s to Lenin, he c a r r i e s l e t t e r s from him. The bear protects h i s sleep, the stag draws him through the t a i g a . The taiga renders him food, the t i g e r serves him as steed. The falcon through a l l the universe bears h i s words on h i s wings, the free winds he c a l l s together, he summons the mighty storm. The d e t a i l s of Lenin's career are followed quite accurately, i f imaginatively. Some space i s devoted to a description of the struggles of the workers, le d by Lenin and other bators, and the whole framework resembles the t r a d i t i o n a l u l i g e r s to a marked degree, even to the employment of the same words. In the t r a d i t i o n a l t a l e s , the combat between the he-roes i s represented i n mighty terms: "They rushed at each other to wrestle, and soon the ground under them became h i l l s and v a l l e y s " ; "Three days and nights did they f i g h t . They made h i l l s and v a l l e y s . Where there had been a h i l l there was a v a l l e y and where the v a l l e y had been there was a hill."® 4 In l i k e manner the workers and bators, Reaching to heaven with one hand, with the other leaning on the earth, flung against t h e i r enemies hundred-year-old pine trees and rocks. And there, where h i l l s stood, p i t s opened up, and there, where p i t s yawned darkly there rose up h i l l s . ° 5 Just as the t r a d i t i o n a l hero meets various mythOlOgi-Or c a l beasts l i k e Khazadag Khara Buural and h i s a l t e r ego, Shara Nagoj ("Yellow Dog"), 8 , 7 so Lenin f i g h t s the monster of c a p i t a l i s t tsardom: For each drop of blood, f o r each drop of sweat, I the three-hundred-headed snake c a l l f o r t h to mortal b a t t l e . 8 8 Burjat u l i g e r s exist celebrating l e s s famous person-a l i t i e s , a l l symbols of the people overcoming t h e i r ene-mies i n the revolutionary struggle or the Second World War, as "Arman and Durman".8^ They belong to what may be termed the New Stream of Siberian f o l k l o r e , which includes poems and f o l k t a l e s on Chapaev,9° Voroshilov,^ 1 Molotov, Ordzhonokidze, Kaganovich,^ 2 and such exploits as the Schmidt expedition to the A r c t i c ^ and the b a t t l e of Kazan. . . II. THE TURKIC EPIC Introduction. The Turks can boast of a lite r a r y history of eleven hundred years. The oldest survivals of the pre-Islamic period are the Orkhon Inscriptions, found on two large stones near Kosho Tsaidam, to the west of' the river Orkhon, which is a tributary of the Selenga, entering Lake Baikal on the south. The style of these runic inscriptions is sufficiently sophisticated to show a considerable previous development of the language.1 The eleventh-century Dictionary of the Turkic Langu- age of Mahmud al-Kashgari gives examples of folk-poetry including some of a definitely epic nature,, both,in con-tent and metric structure. The line, as in many Kazakh epics, consists of seven or eight feet, and the rhyme scheme is also similar to the later Central Asiatic epos. In a four-line stanza, the f i r s t three lines have their own rhyme, and the fourth has a recurrent rhyme, which i s constant throughout the poem.3 Studies of the Turkic epic. The f i r s t western pub-lica t i o n of Turco-Tatar folk literature was the work of A. Chodzko, who in 1842 brought out his Specimens of the  Popular Poetry of Persia, a collection of sagas' relating to the Tatars of Astrakhan.^ Later, V. V. Radlov publish ed his monumental work Specimens of the Folk Literature of the Northern Turkic Tribes, 5 which has never been superseded. S i n c e t h e 1917 r e v o l u t i o n , S o v i e t s c h o l a r s have been i n c r e a s i n g l y busy w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n and study o f t h e s e e p i c s , as w e l l as t h o s e l e f t untouched p r e v i o u s l y ; 0 b u t t h e f i e l d ' s b e i n g q u i t e v a s t m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t any f i n a l s t a t e m e n t s f o r a l o n g t i m e t o come. The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f t h e Manas c y c l e w i t h t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g o t h e r h e r o e s (as Alpamysh) d e s e r v e f u l l s t u d y , and t h i s i s o n l y b e g i n n i n g . ^ Manas. The most famous e p i c o f t h e C e n t r a l A s i a t i c T u r k s i s u n d o u b t e d l y Manas, wh i c h has been compared t o such l i t e r a r y landmarks as t h e Kalevala® and t h e Homeric e p i c s . V'alikhanov c h a r a c t e r i s e d i t as "an e n c y c l o p a e d i c c o l l e c t i o n o f a l l t h e K i r g h i s myths" grouped around one f i g u r e , t h a t o f t h e hero Manas, p a r t a k i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f "an I l i a d o f t h e steppes".9 i t s o r i g i n seems t o be q u i t e o l d , b u t t h e p r e s e n t form o f t h e e p i c i s p r o b a b l y no e a r l i e r t h a n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The t a l e i s a c y c l e c o n c e r n i n g t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s , t h o s e o f Manas, h i s son Semetej ( w h i c h p a r t i s c a l l e d by V a l i k h a n o v " t h e K i r g h i z O d y s s e y " 1 1 ) , and h i s grandson S e j - -12 t e k . L i k e most o f t h e T a t a r h e r o i c e p i c s , i t d e a l s w i t h t h e s t r u g g l e s o f t h e p e o p l e a g a i n s t t h e Kalmucks and C h i n -ese, a s t o r y w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Orkhon f r a g m e n t s . The f i r s t a ccount o f t h e t a l e was t h a t o f V a l i k h a n o v , who t r a n s l a t e d a s m a l l p a r t o f i t , t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e funeral solemnities, for Kokotej Khan.1^ owing to the fact that he became acquainted with only a small portion of the. epic, his statements regarding i t are somewhat out of date, although they are of course of historical interest; but mostly one can only smile at his incredulous reporting of the statements of the folksingers, who told him that "three nights are insufficient time to hear Manas, and the same length i s required for, 'The Second Manas', the story of his son."12*- Even the incomplete version of Radlov contains '9,500 lines; and the two most recently collected versions of Sagymbaj Orozbakov and SajakbaJ Karalaev f i l l ten vol-umes apiece, or about 250,000.lines. 1 5 In fact, one outstanding feature of the entire Slber- , ian epic is i t s length. Curtin refers to the re c i t a l of eighty-one stories of Geser, to be told in groups of nine; and this would take a considerable time. Khangalov t e l l s of an uligershin reciting; the Geseriad for nine days; 1 6 and these Mongolian epics can reach 20,000 lines, If not more. 1 7 V/hile Alpamysh-Batyr is not so long (under 5»000 lines of verse, plus prose passages), 1 8'Gurgull, a variant of the Azerbaijan epic, may take a whole month to recite, and there i s a tradition that for the completion of the 20 f u l l text of Manas six months are necessary. The vast dimensions of these epics may be gauged by comparison with Homer: Orozbakov's version of the f i r s t branch of Manas contains 40,000 lines, while the Iliad and Odyssey combined come t o a t o t a l o f a mere 27,537 l i n e s . K a r a l a e v ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e complete s t o r y i s s a i d t o c o n t a i n i n a l l 400,000 . l i n e s , and t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h i s v a r i a n t went on f o r s i x y e a r s . 2 1 Bowra p o i n t s out t h a t D z h a j s a n - y r c h i , a w a r r i o r -b a r d i n K a r a l a e v ' s Manas, t a k e s a whole noon t o p r a i s e t h e t r a p p i n g s o f a t e n t , and t h i s g i v e s some i d e a o f K a r a l a e v ' s 22 own e x p a n s i v e n e s s . Manas i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e l a b o u r s o f many 23 ' g e n e r a t i o n s o f manaschi. Each p o e t has b r o u g h t t o t h e e p i c new m o t i f s and e p i s o d e s , and i n t h e c o u r s e o f t i m e , b e i n g m o d i f i e d and e m b e l l i s h e d , t h e Manas c y c l e has, as V a l i k h a n o v s a y s , been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an e n c y c l o p a e d i a o f t h e p o e t i c a l i d e a s o f t h e p e o p l e j i n i t a r e t o be found examples of many genres of K i r g h i z f o l k l o r e , l y r i c songs, r i t u a l , songs, p r o v e r b s and s a y i n g s . As an example o f two t r e a t m e n t s o f t h e same s u b j e c t , here a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f o r g i n g o f Manas' armour, a c e n t u r y a p a r t . The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e as i n s t r u c t i v e as t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s . A. That w h i c h t h e c r a f t s m a n o f t h e C h i n e s e P a i n f u l l y f a s h i o n e d ; Which t h e c r a f t s m a n o f t h e R u s s i a n s S k i l f u l l y f a s h i o n e d ; Which t h e c r a f t s m a n o f t h e Kalmucks F a s h i o n e d as he m u t t e r e d songs; Which t h e musket n e v e r p i e r c e d , Nor t h e b u l l e t e v e r b o r e d , T h i s , h i s o u t e r w h i t e m a i l - c o a t , • T h i s w h i t e m a i l - c o a t he drew on. Where t h e c h a r c o a l was i n s u f f i c i e n t , • A p a t c h o f dense f o r e s t was s t r i p p e d ; When t h e water .was i n s u f f i c i e n t , The r i v e r Boschat was emptied. When t h e f i l e was i n s u f f i c i e n t , T h i r t y f i l e s ' w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y . When the w i n t e r s e t i n , Maw- and p a u n c h - f a t . : He p o r t i o n e d w i t h i t ; When t h e spring; s e t i n , I t was l a i d on t h e g r a s s , And, t h a t i t might s t r i k e home, ' I t was tempered i n the b l o o d o f h e r o e s , And p l u n g e d i n p o p l a r j u i c e . T h i s sword he bound t o h i s b e l t . 2 5 B. They c u t down a m u l t i t u d e o f woods To smelt t h e sword i n t h e f u r n a c e ! They s l a u g h t e r e d a m u l t i t u d e o f oxen And b r o u g h t t h e i r s k i n s f o r t h e sword, To smelt a t e r r i b l e swordl O f t e n t h e s m i t h p r a y e d , K a r a t a z p l e a d e d w i t h p a s s i o n , . S a y i n g , "Help me, God'." F o r t h e t e m p e r i n g o f t h a t sword. So hot was t h e s t e e l , They emptied c o l d streams. Many a stream was d r i e d u p l They were u n a b l e t o f i n i s h i t , They d a r e d n o t r t h e y were exh a u s t e d , The f o r t y s k i l l e d m a s t e r s From t h e d i s t a n t l a n d s o f Egypt. The most renowned s m i t h In w i n t e r and summer hammered Manas' sword f o r f i g h t s t o come.... In h i d e o u s days o f s t r a i n and s l a u g h t e r They b e a t out f o r him t h a t sword; In m i r a g e s o f t h e b l u e sky A f o r t u n e - t e l l e r tempered t h e sword, S p i r i t s p u t charms upon t h e sword, In snake's p o i s o n was d i p p e d t h e sword. The f i r s t manaschl whose name has been p r e s e r v e d was K e l ' d y b e k , who was born i n t h e f i f t i e s o f t h e e i g h t eenth c e n t u r y . A f o l k t r a d i t i o n says t h a t b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t o p e r f o r m Manas he demanded t h a t shepherds c o u l d f r e e l y go i n t o t h e a i l 2 ' ' , so t h a t t h e herds: 1 came home t h e m s e l v e s , and no-one, b e a s t o r man, c o u l d s t e a l away one sheep,-when he sang o f Manas. When Kel'dybek began t o s i n g , t h e v u r t a shook, a h u r r i c a n e o f f e a r f u l f o r c e 60 arose, and i n the gloom and n o i s e of the hu r r i c a n e there, flew unseen horsemen, the companions of Manas; from the thudding of t h e i r horses' hooves, the ground shuddered. ° Accompaniment. In the performance of the epic there i s a l a r g e amount of mimicry and l n t o n a t l o n a l p l a y , 2 ^ and the s t o r y may be t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y sung. More than twenty melodies have been c o l l e c t e d which the manaschl. use. The accompaniment of Tatar h e r o i c songs i s gener-a l l y by a s t r i n g e d instrument, e i t h e r a chat 1 Ran (a k i n d . of z i t h e r ) , or a v a r i e t y of l u t e . Radlov says t h a t the tilting, a recent type of l a y , i s accompanied, to some fourteen or f i f t e e n melodies, by a two-stringed i n s t r u -ment resembling a b a l a l a i k a , - ^ 0 . and t h i s k i n d of accom-paniment i s very common a l l over C e n t r a l A s i a . The kobuz, a t h r e e - s t r i n g e d v l o l i n : P i s much i n use, being described by.Radlov^l and A. de Levchine (among the Kazakhs).3 2 Metres. Radlov says that the o l d Turkic metres were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a l l i t e r a t i o n , a c r o s t i c s , and i n t e r n a l rhyme. A l l i t e r a t i o n , as s a i d above (pp. 37-9) i s a very ancient device i n Mongol poetry, and seems to be a char-a c t e r i s t i c of much of f o l k l i t e r a t u r e , as w e l l as w r i t t e n e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e . One can instance i t s use i n Germanic^ 4 and C e l t i c verse, from the e a r l i e s t times-,35 i t s occurr-ence i n the mediaeval poem Pearl,3°" and S i b e r i a i s no d i f f e r e n t . 61 V a l i k h a n o v speaks o f t h e "consonance o f c o m p a r i s o n s " i n K i r g h i z p o e t r y . Comparisons a r e made s o l e l y i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e demands o f a l l i t e r a t i o n . F o r example, t h a t p a r t o f Manas w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e f u n e r a l banquet f o r Koko-t e j Khan b e g i n s t h u s : A l t y n erden k a s h i i k a n , ! A t a [ l y ] j u r t n y n b a s h i i k a n ; . V (He was t h e bow o f t h e golden s a d d l e , ".He was t h e f a t h e r o f a l l t h e p e o p l e ; ) o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , Kuk dunannyn basy b a r , K u k o t a j - k h a n n y n asy b a r , (The grey h o r s e has a head, F o r K u k o t a j - k h a n t h e r e i s a wake.) Here t h e g o l d e n s a d d l e ( a l t y n er) and t h e grey h o r s e (kok dunnan) a r e b r o u g h t i n m e r e l y as a l l i t e r a t i n g words w i t h a t a l y ( f a t h e r ) and K u k o t a j - k h a n . ^ 7 The o l d e s t n a r r a t i v e metre i s c a l l e d i n Kazakh d z h y r , ( i . e . " s o n g " ) , a term V a l i k h a n o v s t a t e s i s used by t h e K i r g h i z t o denote b y l i n y , o r " t a l e s o f t h i n g s t h a t were."38 The o t h e r term i s qysa, a loan' from A r a b i c . ^ 9 i n e p e r -f o r m e r i s known as y r c h i , o r aqyh ( b a r d ) , o r d z h y r s h y ( s i n g e r o f h e r o i c s o n g s ) ; and t h e p e r f o r m e r o f t h e Manas e p i c goes by t h e s p e c i a l name o f manaschl. B o t h v e r s e and p r o s e a r e employed, t h e f o r m e r b e i n g used e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e speeches o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . J u s t as r e p e t i t i o n and p a r a l l e l i s m a r e used i n t h e u l i g e r s (see p. 39 above), so too the Turkic e p i c s make good use of these devices; and they occur as e a r l y as the 40 Orkhon i n s c r i p t i o n s . Whereas In western f o l k l i t e r a t u r e r e p e t i t i o n i s a r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e commonly employed to In-t e n s i f y or c o l o u r the a c t i o n , 4 1 i t i s here an I n t e g r a l p a r t of the metric s t r u c t u r e . The dzhyr l i n e i s g e n e r a l l y of three f e e t , each c o n t a i n i n g two to f o u r s y l l a b l e s . Equal l i n e s tend to f a l l together;, end-rhyme i s p r e v a l e n t , and a f i x e d f i n a l rhyme oft e n recurs f o r s e v e r a l consecu-42 t i v e l i n e s . A r e f r a i n l i n e i s a l s o found. Content of the e p i c . The epic opens w i t h an account of how the K i r g h i z , oppressed by the Chinese, were d i v i d e d and d i s p e r s e d "over the world." While Manas was s t i l l a c h i l d (about seven years old) he l e d a war against the Chinese "Khans". In the songs about the hero's c h i l d h o o d , one hears of h i s e x p l o i t s i n encounters w i t h f o r t y - f i v e w a r r i o r s of the Chinese r u l e r Aziz-Khan and f o u r hundred Kalmucks. ^ Manas, son of Jakub (otherwise c a l l e d Dzhakyp) i s v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d to as r u l e r of the Nogai from Chu to Talas, a Sart from Samarkand, 4 4 and a d w e l l e r i n Andzhan, a town In the Kokand khanate, i n the t w e l f t h century the c a p i t a l of Ferghana. He I s not of the "White Bone" ( I . e . a descendant of Chinggis Khan); but he i s as mighty as any khan. His f a t h e r , whom he sends as matchmaker to Kharan, says " I am the f a t h e r of the youth Manas, famed from Chu . to Talas; I am no khan, but am no meaner than a khan, Khan Jakub am I." 45 Manas himself i s presented as a t u r b u l e n t young man, f e a r f u l i n aspect even when not angry; and i n wrath " h i s beard and moustache b r i s t l e , h i s eyes s c a t t e r sparks, from h i s mouth comes smoke, and h i s w a i s t , slender as a p o p l a r , s w e l l s l i k e a t e n t . / ' 4 6 He t r e a t s h i s f a t h e r ' and mother r a t h e r badly, but l a t e r redeems himself by h i s prowess as a hero. When he grew to be a p r i n c e , he overthrew p r i n c e l y d w e l l i n g s ; S i x t y s t a l l i o n s , a hundred k u n a n s 4 7 He drove t h i t h e r from Kokand; Q-Eighty b a i t a l s , 4 " a. thousand kymkar 4" He brought from Bokhara; The Chinese s e t t l e d i n Kashgar He drove away to Turfan; The Chinese s e t t l e d i n Turfan He drove yet f a r t h e r to Aksu.50 The most famous part of the e p i c , "The Great Campaign" i s devoted to Manas' expedition to Bejdzhin (Peking), and c e l e b r a t e s the w a r l i k e might of the K i r g h i z people. Thanks to the v a l o u r and s o l i d a r i t y of the K i r g h i z and the wisdom of t h e i r . l e a d e r s (Manas, Almambet and others), the f i r s t b a t t l e s end w i t h the rout of the Chinese. Manas wins an engagement on the approaches to Bejdzhin, i n which he de-f e a t s the main f o r c e s of h i s great enemy Konurbaj, and.the army makes a triumphal entry i n t o the Chinese c a p i t a l . ^ Alongside the numerous b a t t l e scenes, we have 'mater-i a l connected w i t h d a i l y nomadic l i f e : the d e s c r i p t i o n of weddings, f u n e r a l banquets, n a t i o n a l f e s t i v a l s and games, 64 and besides the main subject l i n e , there are inserted epi-, sodes (such as the "Tale of Almambet"), which are a h a l l -mark of the true epic. The Chinese heroes are depicted as dreadful and dan-gerous opponents, and t h e i r "khan" rules by magic. In t h i s way the v i c t o r i e s of Manas and his horsemen are made to seem more s t r i k i n g . The Chinese are frequently character-ised as a mighty nation: The Chinese are an .ancient people. The Bejdzhin campaign i s d i f f i c u l t ; and again i t i s said: The Chinese are an .ancient people. Before us i s a hard campaign.52 Neither Alexander the Great,nor the Persian hero Rustum, nor any of the great warriors of the world could conquer China, 53 a n a . even the waters of the Great Flood could not destroy i t . This circumstance t r a d i t i o n a l l y explains the numerousness of the Chinese. The presentation of the might, of China, often pointed out by Almambet to his leader, Is f u l l y in accord with the Kirghiz proverb: " I f China i s moved, then the whole world i s l o s t . " ^ 4 H i s t o r i c a l basis. The events l y i n g behind the f i r s t songs of Manas took place many centuries a.go. The Kirghiz '. , were formerly neighbours of the Chinese, and i n the time o f t h e T'ang d y n a s t y , i n t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y , t h e Chinese c r o s s e d t h e b o r d e r s o f T u r k e s t a n and s u b j u g a t e d the K i r g h i z A c c o r d i n g t o A. N. Bernshtam, t h e o r i g i n o f t h e e p i c can be p u t a t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . At t h a t t i m e , when t h e K i r g h i z l i v e d i n t h e M i n u s i n s k a r e a on t h e r i v e r Y e n i - . s e i , t h e r e was c r e a t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n h i s t o r y a s t r o n g K i r g h i z s t a t e , a t t h e head o f which s t o o d t h e ener-g e t i c l e a d e r J a g l a k a r - K h a n , who s u c c e s s f u l l y d r o v e o f f t h e r a i d s o f enemies coming from t h e Mongol s t e p p e s . H i s f o r - . ces g r a d u a l l y grew owing t o t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t r i b e s s u b j e c t t o t h e khans. F i n a l l y , i n 840 A.D.,he o v e r t h r e w t h e U i g h u r kingdom, s e i z e d t h e t e r r i t o r i e s t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e S a j a h o - A l t a i Mountains and, p u r s u i n g t h e enemy, l e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e K i r g h i z t o Tian-Shan . 5 5 However t h i s may be, t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f S. E. Malov make i t d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t c o m p l e t e l y Bernshtam's hypo-t h e s i s , inasmuch as t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s khan i s i n doubt from more c o r r e c t r e a d i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e name o f J a g l a k a r on t h e f u n e r a l monument.5^ T h i s does n o t mean, o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e war e x p a n s i o n of t h e K i r g h i z nomads i n n o r t h w e s t M o n g o l i a and s o u t h e r n S i b e r i a i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y d i d n o t f i n d r e f l e c t i o n i n h e r o i c songs, w h i c h may have a f t e r w a r d s i n f u s e d t h e K i r g h i z e p i c . 5 7 T h i s remote epoch, ob s c u r e d by l a t e r e v e n t s i n t h e . h i s t o r y o f t h e K i r g h i z , has l e f t no s i g n i f i c a n t t r a c e i n Manas, a l t h o u g h one p o i n t may be n o t e d ; as t h e f o r c e s o f 66 Manas a d v a n c e t o C h i n a , t h e y c r o s s t h e I r t y s h and Orkhon r l v e r s j and a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e poem i s d e v o t e d t o a d e s -c r i p t i o n o f t h i s c r o s s i n g . However, t h e way i n t o C h i n a o v e r t h e s e r i v e r s l e a d s n o t frOm p r e s e n t - d a y K i r g h i z i a , b u t f r o m t h e M i n u s i n s k s t e p p e s , i n d i c a t i n g a memory o f t h e M i n -u s i n s k d a y s . One may, a l s o n o t e t h e e c h o e s o f t h e e p i c i n t h e names o f p l a c e s and h i s t o r i c a l monuments, J u s t as A r t h u r and R o b i n Hood (who may w e l l be h i s t o r i c a l ) h a v e l e f t t h e i r names i n many p l a c e s In B r i t a i n . ' I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , a l o n g s i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e T a l a s "Mausoleum o f Manas" we must t a k e c o g n i s a n c e o f t h e town o f Manas n e a r U r u m c h i ( t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e I r t y s h ) and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e name on t h e U p p e r I r t y s h and t h e Lower Amu Darya.58 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e K i r -g h i z t r a d i t i o n , t h e s e names h a v e been p r e s e r v e d f r o m t h e t i m e o f Manas, and were g i v e n i n h i s honour.59 i • • F o l k memory ha s g r a d u a l l y m o d i f i e d and e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h f a n t a s t i c e p i s o d e s t h e e v e n t s l y i n g a t t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e s e K i r g h i z e p i c t a l e s . I n t h i s way, t h e h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y a t i t s b a s e g r a d u a l l y l o s t w h a t e v e r r e a l i t y i t o r i g i n a l l y p o s s e s s e d and became t h e e p i c p i c t u r e o f a h e r o , r e c e i v i n g the name M a n a s . 0 0 I n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m t h e e p i c seems t o r e f l e c t t h e war o f t h e K i r g h i z w i t h t h e K a l m u c k s , i . e . more r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e t i m e o f t h e O i r a t s t a t e and t h e Kalmuck wars ( 1 5 t h - 1 7 t h ' C e n t u r i e s ) . The h i s t o r i c a l events of the Kalmuck wars are connect-ed w i t h the f i n a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x -teenth c e n t u r i e s of the Mongol empire of Chinggis and i t s , successors, the Golden Horde i n the west and the s t a t e s of Timur i n the east, and the formation on t h e i r r u i n s of new t r i b a l s o c i e t i e s of the then s t i l l nomadic Turkic peoples, spread over the "Kipchak steppes" (Desht-i Klpchak) from the Volga.and the Ural'Mountains to Is s y k - K u l ' and the Tian-Shan (namely the Nogai, the Kazakhs, the Karakalpaks, the Uzbeks and the K i r g h i z ) . For a l l of these peoples t h i s era saw the awakening of n a t i o n a l consciousness, and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r epic l i t e r a t u r e . In the hero i c epic of the C e n t r a l A s i a t i c Turks the main enemies of the heroes are the "pagans", the Kalmucks. Thus i t i s f o r in s t a n c e i n Manas, and a l s o i n the Kazakh h e r o i c songs ("Koblandy-b a t y r " , the poems of the Nogai c y c l e , "Musa-khan", "Urak and Mamaj"), i n the Karakalpak epic "The F o r t y Maidens", and i n the l a t e r (Kungrat-Bajsun) v e r s i o n of "Alpamysh". 6 l In the v a r i a n t s of Manas which have come down to us one q u i t e o f t e n f i n d s episodes of a f a n t a s t i c , f o l k t a l e character, as f o r instance the sorcery of Almambet and the transformations of Konurbaj. Orozbakov r e a l i s e d how much of the epic was m a n i f e s t l y Improbable. In h i s v e r s i o n of "The Great Campaign", t e l l i n g of the giantess Kanyshaj, he says: 68 Everything in this tale you w i l l find, Truth and falsehood a l l combined; This was a l l very long ago, • It i s a l l the same, there are.no eyewitnesses.' There are no witnesses to these wonders; "Was" and "Was not" are here mingled. These are tales of ancient years, The ineffaceable traces of the past. The world today believes i t not.62 Nevertheless, i t is beyond doubt that the majority of the events in the epic are an echo, however distant, of real historical events, wars and social disturbances which took place in the past of the Central Asiatic tribes. ^ Kyrk Kyz. One of the most interesting of the "minor" Turkic epics i s that of the Karakalpaks, called Kyrk Kyz ("The Forty Maidens"). It was discovered during the Second World War, in 1940, and immediately aroused great Interest among scholars. It occupies no less than 20,000 lines, a considerable size for an epic, but as said above, length i s by no means unusual in the Central Asiatic epic. Its theme i s basically a very ancient one,°^ f o r the concept of warrior-maidens occurs in many of these epics, and in classical times the stories of the Amazons were re-ported by .such authors as Arrian, who in his Anabasis mentions "Pharasmanes, king of the Chorasinians" who said "that he lived on the borders of the Colchlans and the Amazon women", and offered his services as a.guide should Alexander wish to-invade these t e r r i t o r i e s . 6 4 Although the Amazon legend has been euhemerised into traditions of armed priestesses in Asia Minor , confused with memories of matriarchal s o c i e t y , 6 5 i t i s not.impossible to believe that a band of warrior-maidens did at one time exist; and Pharasmanes could well have come from the area of Khorezm. As said above, (pp. 18-9), there are d e f i n i t e h i s t o r -i c a l f a c t s underlying the epic. In 1723 the Jungars, hav-ing conquered the region of the middle course of the Syr Darya and occupied Turkestan, forced out the Karakalpaks, one part of whom was driven to the north-west, another to the east, and a t h i r d up the Syr Darya into the depths of Central Asia. It i s p r e c i s e l y in t h i s l a s t d i r e c t i o n that the inhabitants of Sarkop, taken prisoner by Khan Surtajshi are driven away i n the epic, "beyond the r i v e r Chirchik". The epic has preserved in the name of the Kalmuck,khan the t i t l e of the Jungar p r i n c e , . t a i s h i . - The h i s t o r i c a l events are confused, as i s often the case i n f o l k t r a d i -tions; i t i s known, f o r example, that Nadir Shah came with h i s k y z y l b a s h i 6 7 to Khorezm a f t e r the Kalmuck invasion, and not before i t , as i s stated in the epic. ° The description of the legendary battles of Aryslan, male hero of the epic, with the Persian conqueror probably r e f l e c t s the h i s t o r i c a l struggle of the Aral t r i b e s i n the northern regions of Khorezm against the domination of the Iranians. 69 Another h i s t o r i c a l fact i s the*part-i c i p a t i o n of the subjects of Khan Abul Khair, the Kazakhs and Karakalpaks of the lower Syr Darya, i n p o l i t i c a l events which took p l a c e i n Khorezm at the time of Nadir Shah's i n v a s i o n i n 1740. Zhirmunskij f i n d s evidence of l a t e composition i n two m o t i f s , the romantic and the humor-ous. The f i r s t i s shown i n the l o v e s t o r y of. Gulaim and A r y s l a n , the second i n the comic scenes concerning the matchmaking attempts of, a shepherd w i t h G u l a i m . 7 0 The 1940 v e r s i o n was recorded from the zhrau ( f o l k -poet) Kurbanbaj Tazhibaev (born 1883), whose f a t h e r , a n a t i v e of Kamys-Aryk near Chimbaj, moved to Shurakhan i n ,. search of employment. Young Kurbanbaj tended herds on the summer pastures near Tamda, Kenimekh and Nurata, and there he drew from other shepherds h i s basic r e p e r t o i r e . He learned "Kyrk Kyz", at that time c a l l e d "Gulaim", from Zhiemurat Bekmukhametov. The l a t t e r had got i t from the .zhrau Khalmurat-Kazak of Nurata. "Kyrk Kyz" was taught to Khalmurat, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , by Sh.ankaJ, who got i t from the zhrau Kabul; and i t was t r a n s m i t t e d to Kabul by a famous f o l k - p o e t of the eighteenth century, Zhien-zhrau, a member of the Karakalpak t r i b e of Mjujten, who had shared i n the c a l a m i t i e s s u f f e r e d by the Karakalpaks du-r i n g that t u r b u l e n t p e r i o d i n t h e i r h i s t o r y . 7 1 Here we have a d i r e c t t r a d i t i o n of t r a n s m i s s i o n , going back s i x generations to the very time of the events dep i c t e d . Ethnogenetic legends. The number of Gulaim's hand-71 maidens i s f o r t y , a number that occurs w i t h great f r e -quency i n the Middle E a s t . 7 2 A very ancient t r a d i t i o n of the o r i g i n of the K i r g h i z concerns Just t h i s number of - maidens, although i t i s merely a matter of folk-etymology. I t i s easy to see how K i r g h i z would be r e l a t e d to kyrk . kyz i n the popular imagination; but t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s deeply embedded i n the consciousness of the people. Vallkhanov s t a t e s t h a t according to the K i r g h i z , t h e i r ancestor was a red dog; and. t h i s c u r i o u s circumstance i s but a C e n t r a l A s i a t i c v e r s i o n of a very widespread b e l i e f that may w e l l have i t s o r i g i n s i n totemism. Chinese t r a -d i t i o n s r e l a t e a story of a Hun k i n g who had two daughters of such beauty that he' d i d not wish to wed them to o r d i -nary mortals. He b u i l t a tower i n the midst of a desert and prayed the gods to take them. The younger p r i n c e s s n o t i c e d a wolf, who f o r a whole year went round the tower, * and f i n a l l y made h i s l a i r c l o s e by; and she gave h e r s e l f to him. From t h i s union came the,Tele people of Tufan. 7^ The Chinese say t h a t B a t a c h i , ancestor of the Mongol khans, was the son of a blue wolf (borte-chene) and a . 74 w i l d white doe. Amerindians hold s i m i l a r b e l i e f s , say-v l n g that they are descended from beavers and so on. The f a c t t h a t such t a l e s are s t i l l t o l d , even though thought Indecent, i s an index of t h e i r a n t i q u i t y . Vallkhanov even s t a t e s t h a t "the o r i g i n of the n i n e t y - n i n e Kipchak gen-e r a t i o n s i s kept among the Uzbeks and Kazakhs i n such i n -decent form, that i t w i l l probably never be p r i n t e d . " 7 5 72 A l t h o u g h th e Kazakhs are. r e l a t e d t o a w o l f In a s a t i r e composed by a m u l l a h , t h e K i r g h i z a r e t h e r e s a i d t o be de-r i v e d from t h e u n i o n o f some t h i e v e s and a beggar-woman. 7 6 The o l d t r a d i t i o n , however, i s t h u s r e l a t e d by V a l i k h a n o v : , Th© d a u g h t e r o f a c e r t a i n khan was i n t h e h a b i t o f t a k i n g l o n g w a l k s w i t h h e r f o r t y m a i d s e r v a n t s . Once, coming home, t h e p r i n c e s s , t o h e r g r e a t s u r p r i s e and f e a r , found o n l y t h e r u i n s o f h e r a u l — a l l was des-t r o y e d by some enemy. They found o n l y one l i v i n g c r e a t u r e , ' a r e d dog [ k y z y l taighanD .... The p r i n c e s s , , and a f t e r h e r t h e f o r t y s e r v a n t s , became mothers, h a v i n g o n l y one male a l l u r e m e n t , t h e r e d dog. The progeny o f the f o r t y maidens, k y r k k y z , began t o c a l l t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r t h e number o f t h e i r mothers t h e K i r g h i z people.77 E x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h i s l e g e n d were o f c o u r s e f o r t h -coming, such as t h a t which says t h a t i n t h e company o f t h e f o r t y maidens was a young man, d r e s s e d i n women's c l o t h e s , whose f u n c t i o n i t was t o massage t h e p r i n c e s s b e f o r e she s l e p t , a common enough p r a c t i c e i n t h e O r i e n t . A n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e t a l e makes i t i m p e c c a b l e from a Moslem p o i n t o f v i e w , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e p r i n c e s s and h e r maidens were m i r a c u l o u s l y impregnated by t h e foam o f a l a k e i n t o w h i c h a young h o l y man had been thrown a f t e r d e a t h . D r i v e n out i n t o t h e s t e p p e , t h e maidens blamed the p r i n c e s s , who a f t e r m i s e r a b l e wanderings was found by t h r e e b r o t h e r s ( r e p r e -s e n t i n g t h e t h r e e Hordes of t h e K i r g h i z ) , one o f whom m a r r i e d h e r . When he d i e d , h i s c h i l d r e n began t o d i v i d e up t h e i r i n h e r i t a n c e ; and t h e e l d e s t , c a l l e d " K i r g l i i z " a f t e r t h e f o r t y maidens, was rebuked by h i s b r e t h r e n , who s a i d t h a t h i s f a t h e r was a dog. He f l e d t o Andzhan, and 73 from him are descended the Kirghiz people. From the f o r t y handmaids came the Qtuz-uul Ichklik, a people inhabiting the Kokand a r e a . 7 8 In the Karakalpak epic, t h i s t r a d i t i o n i s not i n e v i -dence, but echoes of i t may s t i l l be found; f o r Gulaim and her t r a d i t i o n a l entourage go f o r long expeditions, and on one occasion they return to f i n d t h e i r camp u t t e r l y p i l l a g e d by the Kalmucks. The Yakut Olongkho. The Yakuts are of Turkic stock,, and have been separated from the Southern Turks f o r many centuries. Their language possesses many archaic Turkic • features, and t h e i r mythology i s likewise much more " p r i -mitive" than that of the South, having nothing to do with Islam, and partaking of the features of Shamanism and Ani-mism which are common to most of Northern S i b e r i a . 7 ^ Their epic i s ca l l e d olongkho, which i s generally in verse, though prose i s also encountered. The length varies from three or four thousand to as much as 25,000 l i n e s of verse. The text i s declaimed at a rapid pace, and the monologues of the characters are sung, but 82 there i s no musical accompaniment. Study of the olongkho i s just over one hundred years old, the f i r s t example being published by 0. N. von Btiht-llngk i n h i s Ueber die Sprache der Jakuten, 1851. 8 3 Its t i t l e i s simply "Olongkho", and i t s hero, Er-Sogotokh. Subsequent p u b l i c a t i o n s . T h i s f i r s t olongkho i n t e r - , e s t e d s c h o l a r s , and f i f t e e n y e a r s l a t e r t h e R u s s i a n f o l k -l o r i s t I . A. Khudjakov, i n e x i l e i n V e r k h o j a n s k , r e c o r d e d some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l w h i c h he gave t o t h e w o r l d i n 1890. 8 4 I t c o n t a i n s t h e f i r s t f u l l r e c o r d o f t h e olongkho, t h i s one b e i n g c a l l e d Khaan D' argysta.1. The most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a t i o n i n p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y t i m e s was t h a t e d i t e d w i t h s c h o l a r l y c a r e by E. K. P e k a r s k i j from 1907 onwards, w h i c h t o t h i s day remains t h e most s i g n i f i -c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f i e l d : Specimens o f t h e P o p u l a r  L i t e r a t u r e o f t h e Y a k u t s . 8 5 In 1895 S. V. J a s t r e m s k i j n o t e d s e v e r a l olongkho w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d i n R u s s i a n t r a n s l a t i o n i n 1929. 8^ L i t t l e s t u d y has as y e t been done on t h e olongkho, t h e two b e s t s t u d i e s b e i n g o f r e c e n t d a t e , b o t h by t h e same a u t h o r , I . V. P u k h o v . 8 7 C o n t e n t . The main theme i s t h e s t r u g g l e between t h e d e f e n d e r s o f t h e human r a c e (a.lyy ajmag) and t h e r a c e o f abaasy, e v i l c a n n i b a l i s t i c , m o n s t e r s . The l a t t e r b e g i n t h e a c t i o n by making an i n c u r s i o n i n t o t h e l a n d o f t h e a.lyy, and f o r c i b l y wooing t h e women. 'The s u i t o r s , o r t h e i r matchmakers, a c t i n an i n s o l e n t manner, and demand t h e women i n o f f e n s i v e terms, accompanying t h e i r demands by t h r e a t s . They then l a y t h e c o u n t r y waste, k i l l i n g t h e p e o p l e and c a r r y i n g o f f t h e . c a t t l e . When th e y t a k e p r i -s o n e r s , they i n c a r c e r a t e them i n dungeons i n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y ( t h e u n d e r w o r l d ) and t o r t u r e them.88 At t h i s p o i n t t h e hero e n t e r s t h e a c t i o n . He i s e i t h e r one o f the sons o f the r u l e r o f t h e o p p r e s s e d coun-t r y ( a s i n 11 U n s t u m b l i n g M J u l d j u t h e S t r o n g " ) , o r a hero s p e c i a l l y summoned t o p r o t e c t t h e p e o p l e , i n t h i s c a s e coming from a n o t h e r t r i b e o f t h e a.lyy. Other h e r o e s , on b o t h s i d e s , a r e i n t r o d u c e d , and t h e n a r r a t i v e i s c o m p l i -c a t e d by e p i s o d e s o f one v a r i e t y o r a n o t h e r . In t h e end, o f c o u r s e , e v i l i s v a n q u i s h e d , and t h e s t o r y ends w i t h t h e t r i u m p h a n t r e t u r n o f t h e hero t o h i s p e o p l e and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f e s t i v i t i e s w h i c h c e l e b r a t e t h e v i c t o r y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l y s y a k h . 8 9 W i t h i n t h e above g e n e r a l framework t h e r e i s q u i t e a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s m o t i f s and e p i s o d e s , some o f w h i c h a r e common t o t h e e p i c s o f o t h e r p e o p l e s . The h e r o , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s ( o r becomes) i m m o r t a l , and l i k e A r t h u r w i l l "come a g a i n " t o save h i s p e o p l e . In a l i k e manner I t j e , i n t h e Samoyed l e g e n d , who d e p a r t e d beyond t h e g r e a t , sea when C h r i s t and h i s e v i l powers won t h e land,, w i l l r e t u r n t o u n i t e t h e Samoyed and d r i v e t h e f o r e i g n e r s out o f S i b e r i a . 9 0 « When t h e hero i s w o r s t e d i n b a t t l e , he i s a i d e d by o t h e r good f o r c e s , human and o t h e r w i s e , and i f he has been k i l l e d he i s r e s u s c i t a t e d by means o f t h e Water o f L i f e . 9 1 I n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n Agu Nogon Abakha r e v i v e s dead men w i t h t h e L i v i n g Water~~she f i n d s on t h e m o u n t a i n - t o p ; 9 2 t h e r a v e n b r i n g s t h e Water of L i f e t o Hodoy i n t h e Mongol t a l e 76 o f " A l t i n Shagoj and Mungin Shagoj" and he becomes young a g a i n ; 9 - ^ Aspen-Leaf f i n d s L i f e Water a t a w i t c h e s house w i t h w h i c h he r e s u s c i t a t e s s e v e r a l p e r s o n s , 9 4 and P r i n c e V a s s i l y l i k e w i s e r e v i v e s t h e t s a r . 9 5 As a n t a g o n i s t o f the u n e a r t h l y abaasy, t h e hero poss-. es s e s g r e a t powers, n o t m e r e l y t h e means o f r e v i v a l ; he undergoes a " t e m p e r i n g " p r o c e s s t o a c q u i r e t h e s t r e n g t h o f a t r u e b o g a t y r , i n c r e a s i n g , h i s a l r e a d y i m p r e s s i v e v i g o u r 96 and a b i l i t y . He i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g v e i n s w h i c h " r i n g l i k e t a u t w i r e s o f s t e e l ; a t h i s shout, thunder r o a r s and mountains break i n p i e c e s ; h i s movements r a i s e storms w h i c h f e l l t r e e s , and by a: shot from h i s bow he c u t s h i s way t h r o u g h mountains."97 I n t h e s e e p i c s v a r i o u s manly, o r r a t h e r h e r o i c , q u a l i -t i e s a r e h e l d up f o r a d m i r a t i o n , w h i l e u n d e s i r a b l e ones a r e c e n s u r e d i n ho u n c e r t a i n terms. F e a l t y t o one's o a t h I s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r a i s e d , , as when Kyrydymyan keeps h i s p l e d g e t o guard t h e Water o f L i f e , even at t h e p o s s i b l e c o s t o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e o f h i s home.98 on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e abaasy monsters, and t h o s e a.jyy who make a l l i a n c e s w i t h them, ar e shown i n t h e b l a c k e s t c o l o u r s . As i n s e v e r a l o f t h e B u r j a t u l i g e r s , magic e n t e r s i n t o t h e s t o r y everywhere, f o r t h e hero i s t h u s r e s u s c i t a t e d a f t e r h i s d e f e a t ; c e l e s t i a l powers a l s o a i d him i n h i s t a s k s . W i t h t h e h e l p o f such a " h e a v e n l y hero" E r b e k h t e j t h e Marksman p u r i f i e s h i s opponent by b u r n i n g him i n a f i r e and f r e e i n g ' h i s heart of i t s covering of i c e , a f t e r which he i s . r e v i v e d by magic and becomes an honourable knight on the side of j u s t i c e . 9 9 : The female k n i g h t s (a mark of the age of the olongkho). and the enchantresses who f i g u r e i n the s t o r i e s are c a l l e d by the same name — d* dge-baba, a borrowing from S l a v i c of some p e r i o d . 1 0 0 The I n t e r v e n t i o n of c e l e s t i a l s In the a c t i o n i s i n the t r u e epic t r a d i t i o n f a m i l i a r to the west from l i t e r a r y (Homer, V e r g i l , M i l t o n ) as w e l l as f o l k sour-ces (as the I r i s h h e r o - t a l e s ) . The " s o c i a l " themes of the u l i g e r s are p a r a l l e l e d i n the olongkho a l s o . One theme which runs through.many of these e p i c s i s the quest of the hero f o r h i s b r i d e , o r the exp e d i t i o n of the hero and others of h i s k i n d to rescue b r i d e s who have been a b d u c t e d . 1 0 1 This "quest" theme, a icommonplace of the u l i g e r , l i e s at the.root of much of epic and may be tra c e d i n such d i v e r s e examples as Odin's ex-p e d i t i o n a f t e r Suttung's mead, the search f o r the G r a i l i n the A r t h u r i a n c y c l e , and Vainamoinen*s journey to P o h j o l a f o r the magic Sampo. : A v a r i a n t of the b a s i c s t o r y of the olongkho i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the attempts of the r e l u c t a n t heroine to avpid marriage w i t h the hero. For t h i s purpose she c a l l s i n the s e r v i c e s of the abaasy, sometimes promising to wed her saviour. The hero defeats them a l l , and the heroine 78 e i t h e r g i v e s h e r s e l f t o him o r i s f o r c e d t o do so by h e r p a r e n t s o r by t h e gods. C o n t r a r i w i s e , sometimes i t i s t h e hero who' i s r e l u c t a n t , and t h e h e r o i n e must f i g h t him, as . i n "Kulun K u l l u s t u u r " , 1 0 2 The age t h a t oan be p u t on t h e olonffkho i s q u i t e con-s i d e r a b l e . A p a r t from t h e e a r l y s o c i a l d e t a i l s a l r e a d y 103 ! d e s c r i b e d , t . N a t u r e i s r e g a r d e d as i n i m i c a l , and i n d e e d t h e e n t i r e groundwork o f t h e olongkho l e n d s i t s e l f v e r y e a s i l y t o t h e " S o l a r Myth" e x p l a n a t i o n . The a.lyy, by t h i s t h e o r y , would r e p r e s e n t t h e f r i e n d l y powers o f n a t u r e , and t h e abaasy, t h e u n f r i e n d l y ; i n t h e olongkho, t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e abaasy i s accompanied by g r e a t storms, famine and s i c k n e s s , and as s a i d e a r l i e r t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n e q u a t i o n o f t h e two r a c e s w i t h s p r i n g and w i n t e r . Bowra speaks o f s h a m a n i s t i c p o e t r y " i n w h i c h ... magic i s t h e main means o f s u c c e s s " p r e c e d i n g t h a t f e a t u r i n g a new c o n c e p t o f a "man-centred u n i v e r s e " , p r o d u c i n g " h e r o i c p o e t r y i n w h i c h gods .and men b o t h t a k e p a r t . T h i s i n t u r n " b i f u r c a t e s i n t o t h e p o e t r y o f gods and t h e p o e t r y o f men."-1-04 Thus t h e Yakut e p i c may be s a i d t o l i e ' a l o n g the' l i n e o f d e v e l o p -ment between s h a m a n i s t i c o r p u r e l y magic t a l e s , and t h e h e r o i c p o e t r y w h i c h i s concerned m a i n l y w i t h t h e t r i u m p h s o f m o r t a l s . \ 79 PART I I I THE STORIES OF THE EPICS I. GAR1JULAJ-MERGEN Gar* .1ula.1 -Mergen and h i s brave s i s t e r Agu-Nogon-Abakha. 1 Long ago there l i v e d a brother, G a r * j u l a j -Mergen, and a s i s t e r , Agu-Nogon-Abakha. They l i v e d very h a p p i l y In a f i n e l a r g e four-cornered palace, as h i g h as the sky. T h e i r innumerable herds fed on e t e r n a l l y green pastures. One day Gar!julaj-Mergen s a i d to h i s . s i s t e r , " I am t i r e d of s t a y i n g home snd e a t i n g beef and mutton; I would l i k e to t a s t e the meat of w i l d animals. I am go-\ i n g t o hunt!" .."Go, dear brother", r e p l i e d Agu-Nogon-Abakha. Gar'julaj-Mergen sounded h i s trumpet, and c a l l e d h i s slender chestnut horse. The slender chestnut horse heard the c a l l of h i s master, ran up to the s i l v e r t e t h e r i n g - p o s t , and began to neigh w i t h s i l v e r - s o u n d i n g v o i c e . Gar 1julaj-Mergen came out of the palace, b r i d l e d h i s slender chestnut horse w i t h a s i l v e r b r i d l e and fastened him w i t h a red. s i l k e n r e i n to the s i l v e r t e t h e r -ing-post. Then he brought a s i l k e n sweat-cloth and a s i l v e r saddle and saddled h i s horse. A f t e r t h i s he 80 s t a r t e d g e t t i n g ready f o r the Journey, and dressed him-s e l f ; he put on a quiver of pure s i l v e r , took h i s bow and arrows,, and s a i d , "I am ready, l i t t l e s i s t e r ' . " Then, Agu-Nogon-Abakha set a t a b l e , and on i t she spread v a r i o u s t a s t y dishes and d r i n k s , and served her br o t h e r . Gar'JulaJ-Mergen ate t i l l he was f u l l , took ' f a r e w e l l of h i s s i s t e r and went o f f to h i s horse. With s w i f t steps he came up t o the s i l v e r t e t h e r i n g - p o a t , un-t i e d the red s i l k e n r e i n , l e a p t on to h i s slender chest-nut horse and rode o f f to hunt i n the mountains. For two days he rode about the mountains, but he d i d not meet w i t h a s i n g l e w i l d animal. On the t h i r d day he came across a huge seven-headed Mangatkhaj. 2 "Look — who i s t h a t beside..you?"., asked: the Mangatkhaj, "your soul or the soul of your horse?"3 G a r ' J u l a J -Mergen d i d not understand the slyness of the Mangatkhaj, and looked round; the Mangatkhaj l e a p t on him and s w a l l -owed him. His c l o t h e s the monster spat out, and threw away the qu i v e r w i t h i t s arrows, and the bow. Then the slender chestnut horse h u r r i e d l y gathered up h i s master's c l o t h e s , h i s quiver and bow,: and f l e d . The Mangatkhaj gave chase, but could not catch him. The slender chestnut horse ran to the palace and began to neigh w i t h s i l v e r - s o u n d i n g v o i c e . The g i r l heard him, ran out and asked what had happened. ,The slender chestnut horse t o l d her everything. Agu-Nogon-Abakha wept f o r a l o n g time. Then' she dressed h e r s e l f i n her brother's c l o t h e s , girded h e r s e l f w i t h h i s b e l t , mounted the slender chestnut horse and hastened to the mountains, i n search of the Mangatkhaj. He was s t i l l roaming the mountains, hunting w i l d beasts t h e r e . When she came upon him, Agu-Nogon-Abakha c r i e d to him, "Who i s t h a t beside you, l o o k ! Is i t your soul or the s o u l of your horse?" The Mangatkhaj looked round. Then Agu-Nogon-Abakha s w i f t l y drew her bow, and l e t f l y an arrow at the Mangatkhaj. He c r i e d out i n a f e a r f u l v o i c e , f e l l from h i s horse, and immediately d i e d . • His horse wished to f l e e , but Agu-Nogon-Abakha caught him by the r e i n and h e l d him f a s t . Then the slender chestnut horse s a i d to her, "Cut o f f the thumb from the hand of the Mangatkhaj. There you w i l l f i n d the bones of your b r o t h e r ! " ^ This she d i d , and found the bones of her brother. She wrapped them up i n a black s i l k shawl, then* k i l l e d the Mangatkhaj 's horse and burned him and h i s master on a l a r g e b o n f i r e ; and the ash-es she strewed on a l l s i d e s , t h a t they might not r e v i v e and cause more harm to people.5 Agu-Nogon-Abakha went-home, and c a r e f u l l y placed her brot h e r ' s bones on a t a b l e . From three springs she c o l l -ected water i n a v e s s e l . In ten t a i g a s she gathered heath' er, and i n si x t e e n t a i g a s she gathered the bark of f i r -t r e e s . With t h i s she washed the bones of her brother and .82 wrapped them up In s i l k of f o u r c o l o u r s . A f t e r t h i s she went to where her herds were g r a z i n g . There she caught a golden-yellow mare. She brought her home, took her brother's bones wrapped up i n the s i l k of f o u r c o l o u r s , and leading; the mare by i t s r e i n , rode up to the mountain Angaj. She brought forward the golden-yellow mare as a s a c r i f i c e and prayed, "Open, mountain Angaj, and take the bones of ray brother Gar'Julaj-Mergen!" The mountain opened up and received the s a c r i f i c e . Agu-Nogon-Abakha placed her brother's bones i n s i d e , and the mountain once more c l o s e d . Then she returned home, turned loose the slender chestnut horse and wept f o r G a r ' J u l a j -Mergen. " I am l e f t alone." she sobbed. " I do not have my one brother, there i s no one now t o s h i e l d me from enemies. Every passer-by can hurt me, destroy my palace.and d r i v e o f f my herds!" Long she wept. F i n a l l y she decided t o go on a f a r and dangerous Journey: she had heard t h a t Esege.-malan had three daughters, who could b r i n g the dead to l i f e . 6 She conceived the f o l l o w i n g stratagem: "The daughters of Esege-malan w i l l not come down to earth i f I ask them t o . But i f I come to them i n the guise of a s u i t o r and woo them, they w i l l come w i t h me and b r i n g Gar'julaj-Mergen back to l i f e . And i f they are angry w i t h me f o r the deception, l e t them do to me what they wish — as long as my br o t h e r Gar'julaj-Mergen i s brought back t o l i f e ! " 83 She came out of the palace and sounded her horn. At her c a l l , the slender chestnut horse ran up and stopped by the s i l v e r t e t h e r i n g - p o s t . Agu-Nogon-Abakha b r i d l e d him w i t h a s i l v e r b r i d l e , saddled him w i t h a s i l v e r ' saddle and t i e d him to the s i l v e r t e t h e r i n g - p o s t w i t h a red s i l k e n r e i n . Then she entered the palace, dressed h e r s e l f i n her brother's best c l o t h e s , put on h i s black i r o n armour which he had worn i n b a t t l e , girded h e r s e l f w i t h the quiver of s i l v e r , took up the bow, the arrows, the s i l v e r trumpet and tobacco-pouch — and looked e x a c t l y l i k e her brother. She l e a p t on the slender chestnut horse and rode o f f . And her heart became l i k e f l i n t — no danger could f r i g h t e n her. She rode f o r a l o n g time, and suddenly saw a woman s i t t i n g by the roadside, b o i l i n g t e a and pouring i t from one pot to another. The slender chestnut horse s a i d to Agu-Nogon-Abakha, "This woman w i l l o f f e r you t e a , but do not d r i n k i t ; she has e v i l i n her heart;' she w i l l poison y o u i " They rode up to the woman, who sure enough o f f e r e d t e a t o Agu-Nogon-Abakha, saying, "You are t r a v e l l i n g to a f a r mysterious country; there you w i l l s u f f e r hunger and t h i r s t . Drink at l e a s t one cup of t e a l " Agu-Nogon rAbakha took the cup,.but splashed the t e a over the woman, who d i e d immediately. 84 Agu-Nogon-Abakha rode on f u r t h e r and suddenly saw a huge bear d i g g i n g up an a n t h i l l . The horse s a i d to her: "Are we going to go around t h i s bear? I t were b e t t e r to take him by the ears and throw him to the s i d e ! " Agu-Nogon-Abakha d i d so; she seized the bear by the ears and threw him to the s i d e . The bear roared and breathed i t s 7 l a s t . They rode on a l i t t l e and suddenly heard someone pursuing them. They turned round and saw the khan of the ants, who thanked them, saying: "You vanquished my most e v i l enemy. He has devoured my subjects and destroyed our v i l l a g e s . I f some danger or d i f f i c u l t y occurs on your . journey, c a l l me, and I w i l l help you!" Thus spoke the khan of the ants, and he went back to h i s e s t a t e s , w h i l e Agu-Nogon-Abakha rode on f u r t h e r . , • Soon she came t o a high mountain. The height of t h i s mountain was greater than the clouds, and at i t s f o o t l a y a l a r g e number of bones, of both men and horses. Agu-Nogon-Abakha l e a p t down and looked at the bones; they were much longer and t h i c k e r than the bones of or d i n a r y men and horses. Then she wept b i t t e r l y and s a i d : "Here have per-ished men who were bigger and stronger than I . I t seems I too must d i e . a t t h i s mountain and leave my bones here." The slender chestnut horse s a i d to her, "Do not g r i e v e ! I s h a l l t r y to leap to the summit. Only you must hold on to me and not f a l l off!"® The slender chestnut horse galloped back; he galloped f o r three days and three n i g h t s . Then he turned round, darted forward w i t h a l l h i s might, and coming up to the mountain, sprang up and found h i m s e l f on the.very summit. Q Here they.found a s p r i n g of L i v i n g Water. Agu-Nogon-Abakha dismounted, drank the L i v i n g Water and became three times stronger and more b e a u t i f u l than before. She watered her horse, and he became t h r i c e as strong and s w i f t . Then she drew some of the L i v i n g Water and poured i t down to the foo t of the mountain, where the bones l a y . .The men and horses immediately came a l i v e , and thanked Agu-Nogon-Abakha l o u d l y . Then w i t h a j o y f u l noise they went o f f i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s to t h e i r homes. Agu-Nogon-Abakha c o l l e c t e d the L i v i n g Water and rode on f u r t h e r . On the road she saw three youths dying' from hunger and weariness. She splashed some L i v i n g Water on them, and they immediately became strong and ha l e . They thanked her, saying, "We are i n v i s i b l e b a t o r s . When we wish, no one can see us. I f you have need of our a i d , c a l l us, three strong b a t o r s , and we w i l l help you i n everything.'" Agu-Nogon-Abakha bade them f a r e w e l l and rode on, u n t i l she saw a yellow dog l y i n g dying on the road. The maiden asked the dog, "Why are you dying?" The dog answered her, "On my way here, I passed a woman who was s i t t i n g by the roadside b o i l i n g t e a . she was pouring i t from one pot to another. She gave me some t e a t o d r i n k , and I am. poisoned." Agu-Nogon-Abakha s p l a s h e d some o f t h e L i v i n g Water on t h e dog, who i m m e d i a t e l y r e v i v e d , j o y f u l l y wagged h i s t a i l and . s a i d , ",;When you have need o f my a i d , c r y 'G-unir-shara-nokh-o j i ' I a t once w i l l come and h e l p you. I can be i n v i s l b l 10 and no one but you w i l l know t h a t I am h e l p i n g you!" A f t e r a l o n g and wearisome j o u r n e y Agu-Nogon-Abakha came t o t h e h i g h p a l a c e o f Esege-malan. She t e t h e r e d h e r h o r s e w i t h t h e r e d s i l k e n r e i n t o a s i l v e r t e t h e r i n g - p o s t , at which t h e r e a l r e a d y s t o o d two h o r s e s , and e n t e r e d t h e p a l a c e . She g r e e t e d Esege-malan and s a i d , " I have come t o woo your' d a u g h t e r s J" W i t h Esege-malan were two young men, who had a l s o come t o woo h i s d a u g h t e r s . Esege-malan asked t h e maiden he r name, and whence she came. She r e p l i e d , " I have come from t h e n o r t h e r n l a n d , and I am c a l l e d G-ar' J u l a j - M e r g e n . " • Esege-malah welcomed t h e s u i t o r s , and th e y s t a y e d t h e n i g h t w i t h him. In t h e morning he s a i d t o them, " I w i s h t o amuse m y s e l f a l i t t l e , and see whi c h o f you i s t h e s t r o n g e s t . To him w i l l I g i v e my d a u g h t e r s . " The s u i t o r s went out and began t o w r e s t l e . Agu-Nogon-Abakha was d i s -mayed; she d i d not know how t o f i g h t them w i t h o u t t h e i r d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t she was a woman. But t h e s l e n d e r c h e s t -nut h o r s e s a i d t o h e r , " C a l l one o f t h e t h r e e i n v i s i b l e b a t o r s ! " H a r d l y had she c a l l e d f o r him, when a young hero m y s t e r i o u s l y appeared and h e l p e d h e r t o g a i n t h e v i c t o r y i n the match. Then Esege-malan s a i d , "This i s the one to whom I s h a l l give my daughtersI He i s the strongest of the s u i t o r s I" But e a r l i e r he had consulted a shamaness, to f i n d out i f he would give h i s daughters t o a good s u i t o r . The sha-maness looked i n t o the f u t u r e and s a i d , "This s u i t o r i s handsome and strong, only he i s not a man, but a woman! Behold to what a s u i t o r thou g i v e s t thy daughters!" Esege-malan was s u r p r i s e d and wished once more to t e s t Agu-Nogon-Abakha. He ordered 'the s u i t o r s to shoot at a t a r g e t . Then Agu-Nogon-Abakha c a l l e d on the second i n v i s i b l e bator, and he helped her. The other two s u i t o r s missed the t a r g e t e n t i r e l y . A f t e r t h i s Esege-malan ordered them to race t h e i r horses. " I f t h i s i s a maiden, not a man," he thought, "her horse w i l l come l a s t " . Agu-Nogon-Abakha went to her slender chestnut horse and s a i d , "What s h a l l I do now?" The horse s a i d , " C a l l the i n v i s i b l e yellow dog. He w i l l help me by h i n d e r i n g the other horses!" Gunlr-shara-nokhoJ came at her c a l l . He dodged about the f e e t of the other horses, and so helped the slender chestnut horse to beat them. Then Esege-malan s a i d , "The shamaness spoke f a l s e -l y ! Can a woman r i d e a horse thus?" But the shamaness s a i d once more, "This i s not a man, but a maiden!" Then Esege-malan thought of another t r i a l . He s a i d , " I have three barns; In each of them s i t s a bear. Let us put a l l three s u i t o r s i n these barns. I f Gar'Julaj-Mergen i s a g i r l , then she w i l l not get the b e t t e r of the bear, f o r the bear w i l l overcome her, and crush her." They put a l l three s u i t o r s i n the barns w i t h the bears and waited to see what would happen. Then Agu-Nogon-Abakha c a l l e d f o r the help of the t h i r d bator. He immediately appeared, r a i s e d up a corner of the barn and t h r u s t the bear under i t . The bear at once d i e d . In the morning Agu-Nogon-Abakha came out of the barn whole and unhurt, but the other two s u i t o r s were brought out dead. The e l d e s t daughter of Esege-malan "spat upon the s u i t o r s and stepped over them. The second and t h i r d a l s o spat upon them and stepped over them, and both s u i t o r s came a l i v e . But the shamaness s t i l l s a i d , "Esege-malan wishes to wed h i s daughters to a g i r l ! " Then Esege-malan thought of s t i l l another t e s t . He gave each s u i t o r a v e s s e l , i n which was mixed red and white m i l l e t , and s a i d , "Separate by morning the white and red m i l l e t , so that i n one heap there s h a l l be only white m i l l e t , and i n another, only the red." "What w i l l become of me?" asked Agu-Nogon-Abakha. The . . slender chestnut horse s a i d , " C a l l on the a i d of the khan of the ants." 1 She hearkened to the horse's words, and when the m i l l e t was brought to her she q u i e t l y c a l l e d to the khan of the ants, who immediately appeared w i t h many of h i s s u b j e c t s . They soon separated the m i l l e t Into two heaps, but the other s u i t o r s could not separate the m i l l e t and went home wit h nothing. " W i l l you marry the mighty Gar 1Julaj-Mergen?" Esege-malan asked h i s daughters. They s a i d they were w i l l i n g . Then t h e i r f a t h e r s a i d to them, "Take wi t h you h a l f my poss-essions." But the daughters r e p l i e d , "We do not need your possessions. Give us only one s i l v e r l a d l e , w i t h which we can o b t a i n whatever food and d r i n k we need!" They c e l e b r a t e d the wedding. For a lon g time they f e a s t e d — only on the n i n t h day d i d the guests go home. Agu-Nogon-Abakha made pre-p a r a t i o n s f o r her r e t u r n . "Long ago I l e f t home", she s a i d to Esege-malan. " I do not know' what i s going on there; some-one may have d r i v e n o f f my herds. Whoever has a n a t i v e : country, must hasten home; who has a home, must look a f t e r i t l " Esege-malan agreed, and l e t her go home. For three days he rode w i t h them, then bade them f a r e w e l l and returned home. On the journey, the daughters of Esege-malan s a i d to each other, "Let us see once more. Let us p l a c e f i r e on the breast of Gar 1Julaj-Mergen when he sleeps. I f i t i s a g i r l , she w i l l c r y out from p a i n ; I f i t i s a man, he w i l l throw o f f the f i r e and go t o sleep again." This they d i d ; but Agu-Nogon-Abakha threw o f f the f i r e and went t o sleep again. The daughters were not s a t i s f i e d , f o r t h e i r husband's v o i c e was very l i k e a woman's, s o f t and high. On the next ni g h t they caught a snake and placed i t on Agu-Nogon-Abakha's neck. But she calmly threw i t o f f and went back to sleep. "No, i t Is a man, not a g i r l I " they s a i d . F i n a l l y they came to the s p r i n g of L i v i n g Water; they drank of i t , and watered t h e i r horses, and they became p r e t t i e r than before, and the horses became stronger and s w i f t e r . They s a f e l y l e a p t down from the high mountain and rode on f u r t h e r . Then Agu-Nogon-Abakha s a i d to the daugh-t e r s of Esege-malan, " I s h a l l go on ahead, to set the palace i n order and meet you as i s f i t t i n g . You f o l l o w i n my t r a c k s . Where I draw a c i r c l e , there spend the n i g h t ; where I make a l i n e on the road, keep to i t , do not turn o f f ! " She rode on ahead, and found the palace a l l i n order. Agu-Nogon-Abakha went to her herd, where she caught a mare t h a t was completely white, took i t . b y the b r i d l e and has-tened to the mountain Angaj., She brought forward the white mare as a s a c r i f i c e and spoke to the mountain: "Open, mountain Angaj, so that I may take the bones of my brother!" The mountain opened up, and Agu-Nogon-Abakha took the bones of her brother; and the mountain c l o s e d once more.' With her brother's bones she returned home, t i e d the slender chestnut horse to the s i l -v e r t e t h e r i n g - p o s t and took o f f the saddle and sweat-cloth. She c a r r i e d them i n t o the palace, where she spread the sweat-cloth on the r i g h t hand side of the hearth, and the s i l v e r saddle she placed at the head of the bed. On t h i s bed she placed the bones of Gar'julaj-Mergen. Then she wrote everything she had done on a paper, which she f a s t -ened to the mane of the slender chestnut horse, and ran o f f i n t o the wood, t u r n i n g h e r s e l f i n t o a hare, i n order to hide from the wrath of the daughters of Esege-malan. The three daughters of Esege-malan rode up t o the palace, but t h e i r husband d i d not meet them, and a f t e r a w h i l e they, entered the palace, where they saw human bones l y i n g on the r i g h t side of the hearth, and no. l i v i n g t h i n g In the e n t i r e b u i l d i n g . They s a i d , "The cunning g i r l has t r i c k e d u s l She. brought us here to a dead man, whose bones are l y i n g there." Then the two e l d e s t daughters s a i d , "Let us go homel What i s there f o r us here?" But the youngest daughter s a i d , "How s h a l l we get home from such a f a r country? What s h a l l we say to our parents? Would i t not be b e t t e r t o r e v i v e t h i s man, s i n c e we can do so? Then we s h a l l see what we can do." Her s i s t e r s agreed w i t h her. The eldest s i s t e r stepped t h r i c e over the bones of Gar 1julaj-Mergen and struck him t h r i c e w i t h a black s i l k e n k e r c h i e f . The bones came together and were covered w i t h f l e s h . " The middle s i s t e r d i d the same, and Gar 1Julaj-Mergen became l i k e a s l e e p i n g man. The three daughters f e l l i n l o v e w i t h h i s beauty. Then the t h i r d s i s t e r stepped t h r i c e over him and struck him t h r i c e w i t h a black s i l k e n k e r -c h i e f , and Gar*julaj-Mergen came a l i v e . He t i d i e d h imself and s a i d : "How long and deep have I s l e p t . " 1 1 Then he arose greeted the s i s t e r s and asked them where they were from and what they were c a l l e d . The s i s t e r s s a i d to him: "We are the three daughters of Esege-malan, and a r r i v e d here not long ago. You were dead, and we have brought you back to l i f e . " Gar'julaj-Mergen d i d not b e l i e v e them. He went out of the palace and saw h i s slender chestnut horse standing at. i t s post. The horse saw h i s master and neighed i n a f i n e s i l v e r - s o u n d i n g v o i c e . Gar * julaj-Mergen went-up to him, looked him over and, groping In h i s mane, found the paper. He read i t and understood what h i s s i s t e r had done. Then he asked the horse: " T e l l me, where i s my s i s t e r ? " The sl e n d e r chestnut horse r e p l i e d : "Your s i s t e r has turned her-s e l f i n t o a hare and has hidden h e r s e l f i n the hollows of the wood, to. escape the wrath of the daughters of Esege-malan." Gar'Julaj-Mergen s a i d , "Let us go q u i c k l y and f i n d her." "Wait a l i t t l e , " s a i d the horse. "Stay three days w i t h the daughters of- Esege-malan, otherwise they w i l l take offence and r e t u r n home. In three days we s h a l l go i n search of Agu-Nogon-Abakha. I am very t i r e d now, and your s i s t e r has hidden h e r s e l f very f a r away. I must gather strength t o r i d e round the f o r e s t J " \ For three days'Gar'Julaj-Mergen stayed w i t h the daugh-t e r s of Esege-malan, and the slender chestnut horse r e s t e d . On the f o u r t h day Gar 1julaj-Mergen went i n search of h i s s i s t e r . For two days he searched the f o r e s t high and low, hut found nothing. On the t h i r d day once more he rode i n t o the wood, and suddenly saw under a t r e e a l i t t l e hare l y i n g t r embling. The slender chestnut horse s a i d : "See, t h a t i s your s i s t e r Agu-Nogon-Abakha!" Gar 1julaj-Mergen sprang from h i s horse, crept up to the hare and caught i t . The hare t r i e d to wriggle out of h i s hands, but he held i t f a s t , and f i n a l l y i t turned i n t o h i s s i s t e r Agu-Nogon-Abakha. They t a l k e d f o r a l o n g time; she t o l d him everything — how she had found h i s bones i n the thumb of the Mangatkhaj, how she had brought the daughters of Esege-malan. She, was u n w i l l i n g to go home, because she was a f r a i d of the three s i s t e r s . "I s h a l l t e l l them e v e r y t h i n g , amd they w i l l f o r g i v e you," s a i d Gar'Julaj-Mergen. When they returned to the p a l a c e , the s i s t e r s at once knew her and s a i d "Here she i s t h a t came to us i n guise of a / man! The o l d shamaness spoke t r u e , t h a t our f a t h e r would give us to a : g i r l i " But when they learned everything, they were r e c o n c i l e d w i t h Agu-Nogon-Abakha and took a l i k i n g t o her. Gar 1julaj-Mergen married the t h r e e daughters of Esege-malan, and f o r h i s s i s t e r b u i l t a handsome palace next to h i s own. The three daughters of Esege-malan gave Agu-Nogon-Abakha the m a g i c • s i l v e r l a d l e , which gave whatever meat and d r i n k was d e s i r e d . And they a l l l i v e d i n peace and Joy. I I . IRINSEJ In olden times the old man I r i n s e j l i v e d with h i s woman Untan Duuraj. 1 They had no children, which gave them muoh sorrow. One day I r i n s e j rode off to cheok over his herds, and saw that a f o a l had gone. He decided that he had been tric k e d by the Yellow Mangadkhaj Danil, or h i s son, and rode away on a red ox to seek h i s f o a l . He found i t i n a d i s t a n t icy country among a herd of crippled hor-ses. I r i n s e j cured the horses and sent them o f f to his home, and then went on to f i n d the Mangadkhaj, whom he defeated. When he arrived home, he found that h i s wife had given b i r t h to a son and daughter. At a great feast the children were named Khankhan Sokto and Aguu.Noogon. One day I r i n s e j , at his wife's request, went out hunting. In h i s absence Untan Duuraj became the mistress of the defeated Mangadkhaj. I r i n s e j ' s horse warned him ' of t h i s , 2 but he did not believe i t . When he came home, Irin s e j drank some wine which h i s wife gave him, and be-came drunk. Untan Duuraj' c a l l e d the Mangadkhaj. The drunken I r i n s e j fought his enemy, but h i s wife scattered red m i l l e t under h i s feet so that he f e l l . The Mangadkhaj and Untan Duuraj k i l l e d the old man, and were preparing to do away with the children, but the f a i t h f u l horse ran to the house and, breaking the window, saved the children and carried them away. He took them to a high mountain, and l a i d t h e i r c r a d l e down under a golden aspen t r e e . For three years, as they wandered, he f e d them. One day Khankhan Sokto came to a great palace, where l i v e d the Yellow Eight-headed Mangadkhaj Zudak. Zudak beat him and shut him up In a barn. S h o r t l y afterwards the Master of the F o r e s t s a r r i v e d as a guest, and took l i t t l e Khankhan vSokto away wit h him; then he went a f t e r Aguu-Noogon and captured, her as w e l l . When Khankhan Sok-to had grown up, he prayed to the god KhukhudeJ Mergen, asking f o r a great horse. KhukhudeJ Mergen sent him from heaven the horse Khujlun Khukhu. Khankhan Sokto then rode to the Mangadkhaj Zudak and took f e r o c i o u s revenge. A f t e r t h i s he k i l l e d Mangadkhaj D a n i l together w i t h h i s own mother, D a n i l * s m i s t r e s s . F i n d i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s r i d i n g - o x , Khankhan Sokto set out to f i n d h i s f a t h e r ' s remains, and f o r t h i s purpose turned h i m s e l f i n t o a f i s h . In the sea he met another f i s h l i k e h i m s e l f , from whom he secured a promise of help. A cask was thrown up by the waves, and i n i t Khankhan Sokto found I r i n s e j ' a corpse. He bore the body home and set out t o f i n d the Water of L i f e , which when he found i t he poured over h i s f a t h e r , adding aspen leaves. I r i n s e j came to l i f e , .and h i s horse reproached him f o r h i s l a c k of c a u t i o n . Father and son rode together t o the palace of the Master of the F o r e s t s . While Khan-khan Sokto s l e p t , t h e M a s t e r o f . t h e F o r e s t s , t h e T h i r t y -headed Mangadkhaj, began t o d i g a t u n n e l from out o f h i s p a l a c e . Wakened by h i s s i s t e r , Khankhan Sokto f e l l upon t h e Mangadkhaj and k i l l e d him. A f t e r t h i s t h e y l i v e d i n peace. • I I I . MANAS The e p i c opens w i t h a d e t a i l e d p e d i g r e e o f Manas. 1 He comes from t h e o l d khan f a m i l y o f N o g o j , b u t he h i m s e l f i s n o t a h e r e d i t a r y khan. A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f N o g o j , h i s sons, Orozdu, Usen, B a j and Dzhakyp, p r e s s e d by t h e C h i n -ese, s e p a r a t e , and w i t h t h e K i r g h i z t r i b e s under them spread o v e r t h e w o r l d . The f a t h e r o f Manas, Dzhakyp, s e t t l e s i n A l t a j . H i s w i f e , Shakan, i s t h e widow o f C h i j i r , b r o t h e r o f Nogoj. In memory o f h e r f i r s t husband she t a k e s t h e name C h i j i r c L y . , Dzhakyp's second w i f e i s c a l l e d Bakd66ldt. / A l l t h r e e have dreams, by w h i c h i t becomes known t h a t a son w i l l be b o r n , a mighty h e r o . At h i s b i r t h , Dzhakyp . g i v e s a g r e a t f e a s t , and t h e g u e s t s prophesy t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l conquer a l l the n a t i o n s . From h i s e a r l y c h i l d -hood Manas i s marked by u n u s u a l s t r e n g t h and a c c o m p l i s h e s g r e a t e x p l o i t s ; a t t h e age o f t e n he shoots h i s arrow l i k e a y o u t h o f f o u r t e e n , and he c o n t i n u e s p r e c o c i o u s l y : ( Manas grew plump i n Andzhan, ea,ting s o f t b r e a d and gnaVing on green a p p l e s of Andzhan. A t t w e l v e he shot h i s bow, a t t h i r t e e n , w i t h l a n c e i n hand, he vanquished h i s enemies, c a r r i e d o f f c h i l d r e n from the saddle, abducted b e a u t i f u l maidens and made brave heroes cry i n p a i n , at fourteen he destroyed the a u l s t h a t stood i n the mountain.passes, and at f i f t e e n he was the r u l e r of countless peoples. The t a l l Manas had high brows and a c o l d face; h i s blood was b l a c k ; h i s body was white, h i s b e l l y b r i n d l e d , h i s spine was b l u e , who i s l i k e unto Manas? He i s l i k e a blue-maned b r i s t l y w o l f . 2 • Manas gets together a band of w a r r i o r s , the "Forty Horsemen", wi t h whom he goes i n t o b a t t l e against the Chinese and Kalmuck khans, and h i s strength and v a l o u r make him famous. The people e l e c t him Khan, and he woos and marries Kanykaj, whose "face i s white as snow, the c o l o u r of her cheeks i s l i k e blood f a l l e n on snow." She i s f i f t e e n years o l d , has h a i r to her h e e l s , a scent l i k e 4 musk, and t e e t h l i k e p e a r l s . Manas gr a d u a l l y u n i t e s the numerous K i r g h i z t r i b e s , and accomplishes a s e r i e s of campaigns i n Afghanistan and the C e n t r a l A s i a t i c khanates — Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bokhara. A l l t h i s i s but a prelude t o the great Bejdzhin campaign, t, This campaign i s preceded by two events: the f u n e r a l f e a s t f o r Kokotej and the p l o t of the khans against Manas. To the f e a s t given i n memory of h i s henchman the Khan of Tashkent, Kokotej,'Manas i n v i t e s a l l "the khans of men and the khans of demons". This f e a s t , which proves'one-rous f o r the people, goes on f o r s e v e r a l months. Six khans, i n s u l t e d by the overbearing arrogance of Manas, 98 decide to make use of the discontent of the people, and enter into a conspiracy against Manas, Manas hears of the plot and orders the treacherous khans to appear before him with a l l t h e i r forces. His wife treats them hospitably, and then in order to frighten them and bend them to obe-dience, Manas demonstrates his unassailable power. He meets the khans, stern and majestic, s i t t i n g on h i s throne, round which a huge dragon i s twined, and at the foot of the throne l i e ferocious t i g e r s . The f e a r f u l dragon i s as obedient as a l i t t l e puppy; he comes out and creeps away at a wave of the ruler's hand, and the t i g e r s also obey him. The khans are humbled by t h e i r reception and declare t h e i r submission., Manas makes a speech about h i s intended campaign on Bejdzhin,. and the preparations f o r the expedition are t o l d i n some d e t a i l . Before se t t i n g out Manas consults Kanykej, h i s wise wife. Foreseeing the campaign, she has prepared f o r i t , and l a i d up a l l kinds of g i f t s f o r Manas' warriors, esp-e c i a l l y clothing necessary f o r the journey. She t e l l s Manas how c a r e f u l l y she has prepared the equipment f o r the heroes, saying "A seamstress helps to f i g h t I" She . prophesies the successful outcome.of the expedition. One of the central places i n the epic i s occupied by the Chinese Almambet, fr i e n d and fellow-champion of Manas. The son of - a great Chinese khan, Almambet has come over to Manas, shown his f i d e l i t y , and been quickly p r o m o t e d ; he i s f i r s t among t h e horsemen o f Manas. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e campaign, Manas c a s t s a s i d e t h e o l d and h o n o u r e d K i r g h i z h e r o B a k a j , and p u t s Almambet i n h i s p l a c e as l e a d e r . The f a c t t h a t a C h i n e s e i s a t t h e head o f t h e K i r g h i z f o r c e s g i v e s r i s e t o d i s s e n s i o n among t h e s o l d i e r s , b u t Manas i g n o r e s t h i s , f o r he v a l u e s Almambet, v e r y h i g h l y , and t h e C h i n e s e h e r o i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t p him. What i s A l m a m b e t 1 s s e c r e t ? He i s a f e a r l e s s , u n c o n q u e r a b l e h e r o , p o s s e s s i n g o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t y , m i r a c u l o u s knowledge, i n -t e l l i g e n c e and acumen. W h i l e s t i l l a c h i l d , Almambet l e a r n e d t h e magic a r t o f t u r n i n g summer i n t o w i n t e r , c a l l i n g f o r t h r a i n , s t o r m s and snow, f r e e z i n g r i v e r s , and so on. . B e s i d e s t h i s , he knows C h i n a w e l l , and t h e r o a d s l e a d i n g t o B e j d z h i n . B u t h i s . C h i n e s e o r i g i n g i v e s g r o u n d s f o r s u s p i c i o n o f i n s i n c e r -i t y , and p l a c e s him i n an ambiguous p o s i t i o n : he i s e i t h e r a C h i n e s e spy, o r an a p o s t a t e and r e n e g a d e . 5 To t a k e away t h i s s u s p i c i o n , and r e h a b i l i t a t e h i m s e l f i n t h e e y e s ; o f Manas, Almambet t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f h i s l i f e . Almambet was c o n c e i v e d b e f o r e h i s m o t h e r A l t y n a j be-came t h e w i f e o f t h e C h i n e s e A z i z - k h a n . H i s s e c r e t f a t h e r was a Moslem s p i r i t ( h u r ) and Almambet came f r o m h i s moth-e r ' s womb a Moslem, e v e n c i r c u m c i s e d i n t r u e Moslem f a s h i o n . He i s t h e r e f o r e n o t an a p o s t a t e , and no r e n e g a d e . The b i r t h o f Almambet was a c c o m p a n i e d by s e v e r a l u n u s u a l n a t u -r a l phenomena, and i n h i s c l o s e d p a l m s was b l o o d : 100 •When I came o u t o f t h e womb, I f r i g h t e n e d t h e lam a s w i t h my c r i e s , I c r i e d o u t , i t seems, " I s l a m I " When I was l i f t e d up f r o m t h e g r o u n d , A r e d f l a m e f l a s h e d f o r t h f r o m I t . ' A l l t h i s meant t h a t a m i g h t y h e r o was b o r n , c h o s e n t o p l a y an e x c e p t i o n a l p a r t i n t h e w o r l d . I n h i e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , Almambet, l i k e Manas, p o s s e s s e d u n u s u a l s t r e n g t h and p erformed/many f e a t s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , he e n t e r e d i n t o a. d u e l w i t h t h e C h i n e s e Khan K o n u r b a J , who i s an e s p e c i a l l y d a n g e r o u s and c r a f t y enemy o f t h e K i r g h i z , r u l i n g by means o f s e c r e t s o r c e r y . 8 I n h i s v e r y f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h K o n u r b a j , Almambet came o u t t h e v i c t o r . A f t e r some t i m e Almambet demanded f r o m h i s a l l e g e d f a t h e r , A z i z - K h a n , t h a t he r e n o u n c e Buddha and. a c c e p t I s l a m . A z i z - K h a n r e -f u s e d t o change h i s f a i t h , 9 ' and Almambet, u r g e d on by A l t y n a j , k i l l e d A z i z - K h a n and f l e d f r o m C h i n a . A f t e r l o n g w a n d e r i n g s and a d v e n t u r e s he met t h e o l d Kirghiz h e r o B a k a J , a t whose h o u s e he met A r u k e , s i s t e r o f Manas' w i f e . Almambet s u b s e q u e n t l y t a k e s A r u k e t o w i f e and b e -comes a k i n s m a n o f Manas; he d r i n k s m i l k f r o m Manas' mo-t h e r ' s b r e a s t , and so becomes a " m i l k - b r o t h e r " . 1 0 When t h e K i r g h i z , w i t h o t h e r C e n t r a l A s i a t i c p e o p l e s , s e t o u t f o r B e j d z h l n , Manas d e c i d e s t o send Almambet on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e . W i t h a n o t h e r h e r o , S y r g a k , Almambet s e t s o f f f o r Ch i n a . . A t t h i s t i m e Chubak, a K i r g h i z who i s d i s -c o n t e n t e d a t t h e sudden r i s e o f Almambet, r u s h e s a f t e r him i n a f u r y and s t a r t s a q u a r r e l , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e ended i n tragedy had not Manas come in time and pacified the two heroes. The fight i t s e l f i s accompanied by a sympathetic storm: Suddenly the storm grew wild; Everything around was darkened, Black clouds came over the sky, Thunder roared in the mountains, Suddenly rain poured from the sky — Such rain no man had ever seen! Piercing snowflakes f e l l in swarms And blinded the eyes.H The expedition proceeds, and Almambet clears the way, overcoming amongst other obstacles the giant Malgun and the sorceress Kanyshaj, who i s so charmed by Almam-bet' s dancing that she puts herself at his mercy. There are however evil portents and forebodings. Almambet sees in the garden of Aziz-Khan the old withered plane-tree under which he was born. The fate of this tree is mysteriously connected with the fate of Almambet: The plane-tree i s withered in the garden — That means that I w i l l not come to Talas. The roots are rotting, foretelling misfortune — That means that I w i l l not return. 1 2 Having penetrated to Bejdzhin, Almambet meets the daughter of the Chinese Essen-Khan, Burulcha. They, have fallen in love, and passionately hungered for this meeting but Almambet i s true to-his military duty, and at the moment when passion i s about to prevail over his reason, he presses his burning temple to "the golden cheek of his axe"13 and the cold metal cools his heat. 102 Almambet meets the Chinese hero Karagul, whose mas-ter Konurbaj i s preparing for the battle with Manas. This decisive encounter takes place on the approaches to the capital. In the number of Chinese heroes with whom the Kirghiz fight, one of the most mighty i s the huge one-eyed Mady-Khan, who rides a one-horned buffalo. Manas here begins to play a dominant role in the action, and fights several' mighy warriors. His horse, Ak-kula, i s a f i t t i n g steed for a hero, being of supernatural origin: If night without moon is on the earth, If earth is lost in mist and gloom, The horse's ears shine upon It, As i f lights were kindled In theml A whirlwind made i t s mother pregnant.1 The Forty Friends also show their mettle: The forty warriors rushed to the fight, Began the fight against the heathen. They came in a flood then, They were covered in blood. They scattered cries here, They brandished their pikes here. The face of the earth was covered with blood* The face of the sky was covered with dust. 1- 3 This decisive battle ends in Manas' victory. Kon-urbaj is k i l l e d , there i s a retreat, and Bejdzhin sur-renders. Manas becomes Khan of Bejdzhin; but soon the Chinese rebel against their conquerors. After many bloody fights the Chinese get the upper hand. In the battles with the Chinese Manas loses many of his heroes, Almambet, Chubak, Syrgak and others. His famous horse Ak-kula d i e s , and Manas h i m s e l f , s o r e l y wounded, returns to Talas and. there d i e s . A f t e r h i s death h i s widow Kany-kej goes wi t h h i s son SemeteJ to her f a t h e r i n Bokhara. The l i f e and e x p l o i t s of the son are the theme of the second branch of the e p i c , "SemeteJ". SemeteJ i s bom a f t e r Manas' death, and h i s grand-f a t h e r and cousins p l a n h i s death, that he may not inher-i t the possessions of Manas. He escapes, and l i v e s to s l a y the p l o t t e r s . L a t e r he i s murdered by two Kalmucks, and h i s posthumous son Sejtek and Kanykaj take revenge f o r h i s death. Sejtek then r u l e s i n Manas' o l d khanate. IV. ALP AMY SH Alpamysh 1 and Barchln are the c h i l d r e n of two bro-t h e r s , B a j b u r i and Bajsary, who r u l e the Kungrat t r i b e i n Uzbekistan. A f t e r remaining f o r l o n g c h i l d l e s s , the bro-t h e r s pray f o r c h i l d r e n , and when they a r r i v e , they are betrothed i n the c r a d l e . E a j s a r y , having quarreled w i t h h i s e l d e r brother, takes h i s t e n t s to the country of the Kalmucks. In her new home Barchln evokes love i n the giant-heroes of the Kalmuck shah Tajcha-Khan. 2 In order to escape t h e i r s u i t s , she l e t s i t be known tha t she w i l l give her hand to him who wins f o u r c o n t e s t s : a horse race (bajga) , a contest w i t h the bow, shooting at a t a r g e t , and d u e l l i n g . Barchln hopes that the v i c t o r w i l l be Alpamysh, and sends him word of the c o n t e s t s . For h i s journey Alpamysh asks f o r a horse from the drover K u l t a j , a household slave of B a j b u r i . This horse Is a homely-looking f o a l , hut i s r e a l l y a t u l p a r (war-horse), w i t h wings. Alpamysh' companion on t h i s venture i s a Kalmuck hero, Karadzhein, who becomes h i s f r i e n d on being spared when Alpamysh defeats him i n a d u e l . On h i s f r i e n d ' s wonderful horse B a j c h i b a r Karadzhan defeats a l l h i s enemies, i n s p i t e of the designs of the Kalmucks, who . bind t h e i r enemy and lame h i s horse by d r i v i n g n a i l s i n t o i t s hooves. Karadzhan takes on the Kalmucks i n s i n g l e combat, and Alpamysh completes the v i c t o r y , overcoming the strongest of the heroes, the e l d e r brother of"Kara-dzhan, Kokaldash. Alpamysh wins i n • a l l the contests and becomes the husband of Barchin. Together w i t h Karadzhan they r e t u r n to, t h e i r home, wh i l e Bajsary and h i s house, s t i l l unrecon-c i l e d , stay i n Kalmuck t e r r i t o r y . In the second part of the epic Alpamysh, hearing of the oppressive r u l e of h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w Tajcha-Khan, once more goes to the land of the Kalmucks at the head of h i s f o r t y horsemen. A cunning o l d woman, S u r k h a j i l ' , the mother of s l a i n Kalmuck k n i g h t s , comes to meet the Uzbeks w i t h f o r t y b e a u t i f u l maidens, and prepares a f e a s t , at which the drunken heroes f a l l asleep. They are a l l k i l l e d by w a r r i o r s of the Kalmuck shah, except the i n v u l n e r a b l e Alpamysh, who i s t i e d , s t i l l asleep, to the t a i l of h i s horse and dragged i n t o an underground dungeon. • Alpamysh spends seven years as a c a p t i v e of ' the shah. Kajkubad, a shepherd, comes across him and gives him food. Alpamysh manages to send news of h i s p l i g h t back to the Kungrats by means of a l e t t e r , w r i t t e n i n the blood of a wounded goose which f l i e s i n t o h i s p r i s o n , and i s used as . h i s messenger. Karadzhan comes to rescue him, but Alpa-mysh wishes to have no help. However, he accepts the a i d of the shah's daughter, who b r i n g s him h i s he r o i c horse. Once f r e e d , Alpamysh k i l l s Tajcha-Khan and sets Kajkubad on the throne, marrying him to the shah's daughter. During Alpamysh' absence, h i s younger brother, U l t a n -t a z , has s e i z e d power, and i s oppressing the friends,and kindred of the hero. . Old B a j b u r i i s f o r c e d to serve him, Kaldyrgach, s i s t e r of Alpamysh, i s sent to herd the camels i n the steppe, and the despot makes pr e p a r a t i o n s f o r h i s marriage to Barchln, i n s p i t e of her r e f u s a l s . On the way home Alpamysh meets a caravan, from which he l e a r n s how t h i n g s stand with the Kungrats, then h i s s i s t e r , and f i n a l l y the o l d drover K u l t a J , who t e l l s him of the Impending wedding f e a s t . D i s g u i s i n g h i m s e l f as the drover, Alpamysh makes, h i s way home, where he sees what i s going on, and takes p a r t i n the f e s t i v i t i e s . The^e i s a shooting contest, at which he i s the only one who can 4 bend-the.heavy bronze bow of Alpamysh. Alpamysh takes p a r t In the s i n g i n g of plans, r i t u a l wedding songs, f i r s t w i t h Badam, Ultan's o l d mother, and here h i s verses are "biting and s a t i r i c a l , and then w i t h Barchin, where the song becomes l y r i c a l and i n t i m a t e . In these verses he l e t s Barchin know he has returned, and h i s vengeance i s near. K u l t a j l e t s the people know th a t Alpamy'sh'.has .returned and the hero, w i t h h i s comrades, a n n i h i l a t e s the f o r c e s of U l t a n and sentences the t y r a n t to c r u e l punishment. At t h i s time Bajsary returns.from Kalmuck country w i t h h i s k i n . The poem ends w i t h a J o y f u l c e l e b r a t i o n and the u n i t i n g of the Kungrat t r i b e s under the r u l e of Alpamysh. V. KYRK KYZ The "Forty Maidens" 1 are l e d by the wise and noble Gulaim. The a c t i o n takes p l a c e i n Turkestan, the f a t h e r -land ( a t a zhurty) of the Karakalpaks, i n the "land of the. Nogaj", i n legendary Sarkop. The f i f t e e n - y e a r - o l d beauty Gulaim r e j e c t s the claims of her s u i t o r s , and decides to become a w a r r i o r and take up her abode apart from her k i n f o l k . According t o her wish, her f a t h e r , the ba.1 A l l a j a r , gives her the i s l a n d M i u j e l i , on which, w i t h the help of twelve craftsmen, she b u i l d s an Impregnable f o r t r e s s w i t h w a l l s of bronze ( k o l a - dan korghan soldyrdy) and stout metal gates, ornamented w i t h c a r v i n g s . Inside t h i s f o r t r e s s , i n white y u r t a s , 107 Gulaim s e t t l e s w i t h f o r t y chosen maidens, whom she b e g i n s • t o i n s t r u c t i n t h e a r t s o f war.. When not thu s engaged, Gulaim and her. maidens tame t h e empty s a l t - m a r s h e s o f t h e i s l a n d ; h a v i n g ploughed up and f e r t i l i s e d t h e b a r r e n l a n d , t h e y c u l t i v a t e b e a u t i f u l o r c h a r d s and f l o w e r gardens. There f o l l o w s a p e r i o d o f peace, and here we have an., account o f t h e p a s t i m e s o f t h e maidens on t h e i s l a n d . : We a r e t o l d o f t h e a t t e m p t s o f p e r s i s t a n t a s p i r a n t s t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e f o r t r e s s and s e c u r e t h e f a v o u r s o f Gulaim by a l l k i n d s o f methods, i n c l u d i n g d e c e i t ; t h e main p l a c e among t h e s e f a i l u r e s i s o c c u p i e d . b y the b a l d shepherd o f A l l a j a r , Z h u r i n t a z . In t h i s p a r t o f t h e poem a r e most o f t h e ethno-g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s , l i n k e d p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e f o r c e d m a r r i a g e o f Gulaim t o Z h u r i n t a z . The l a t t e r o b t a i n s t h e . >consent of A l l a j a r , h a v i n g shown h i m s e l f t o the b a j i n th e form o f t h e s o u l o f h i s a n c e s t o r , when A l l a j a r was p r a y i n g a t t h e tomb about h i s r e c o v e r y from a s e r i o u s i l l r -n e s s . . 1 ) The e v e n t s f o l l o w i n g t h i s g i v e many d e t a i l s o f d a i l y l i f e and a r e a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f human t y p e s , o f t h e heroes o f t h e poem, and a l s o o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e ; we are t o l d o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f t h e proud angry g i r l (who however submits t o h e r f a t h e r ) w i t h h e r comrades and k i n f o l k , and t h e uncompleted n u p t i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s ( Z h u r i n t a z 108 i s k i l l e d d u r i n g the wedding f e a s t by h i s r i v a l Sajeke). The f o l l o w i n g p a r t of the dastan takes p l a c e i n Khor-em, at the time of i t s i n v a s i o n by the f o r c e s of Nadir- . Shah. Here are r e l a t e d events d e a l i n g w i t h the adventures of the second hero, the b a t y r A r y s l a n , w i t h whom Gulaim i s i n l o v e , having seen him i n a dream. She i n her turn has conquered A r y s l a n i n dreams by her beauty, but he puts o f f . searching f o r h i s l o v e because he must defend the people of Khorezm from Nadir-Shah. A r y s l a n has a s i s t e r , the b e a u t i f u l A l t y n a j , a l s o a warrior-maiden, who shares w i t h her b r o t h e r a l l the dangers and d i f f i c u l t i e s of war. Nadir-Shah attempts to s e i z e A l t y n a j , and w i t h the help of h i s cunning v i z i e r and an o l d w i t c h (mastan-kemplr) devises a means of d e p r i v i n g the g i r l of her brother's p r o t e c t i o n . He sets a rumour a f l o a t concerning the Incestuous c o h a b i t a t i o n of Aryslan w i t h h i s s i s t e r , and as Nadir-Shah expected, the r e s u l t of t h i s i n -t r i g u e I s that the outraged and disgraced brother leaves Khorezm to seek b i t t e r s o l i t u d e i n the d e s e r t . However, the people of Khorezm do not b e l i e v e the calumny, and en-t r u s t t h e i r f a t e to A l t y n a j , having chosen her i n p l a c e of her b r o t h e r as t h e i r champion i n the defensive war. Meanwhile, Gulaim and her comrades have gone from Sarkop to the steppe on a r e g u l a r m i l i t a r y p r a c t i c e . The khan of the Kalmucks, S u r t a j s h i , having learned ^of t h i s , descends upon Sarkop and subjects i t to t e r r i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n . In the battle Aliajar and six brothers of Gulaim perish; and the remainder of the inhabitants, including the maiden's old mother, are driven over the river Chir-chlk into Kalmuck territory. The next part of the poem ie devoted to the war ac-t i v i t i e s of Gulaim, who rushes in pursuit, but only catches up with the enemy when the Kalmucks have shut their cap-tives up in their fortress, which is impregnable to the Karakalpak maidens. However, the Kalmucks who resent their khan's cruelty revolt against him, and help Gulaim enter the fortress. Gulaim calls out Surtajshi to single combat and k i l l s him. At this time Aryslan f i r s t meets Gulaim. He joins her forces and helps her defeat Surtajshi, and after the conquest both heroes return home at the head of their for-ces, which include the released Sarkopians and the r e b e l l i -ous Kalmucks. With the blessing of her people, Gulaim marries Aryslan. This does not end her warrior-woman l i f e : together with Aryslan and her companions she goes to Khor-ezm, helps drive out Nadir-Shah and releases Altynaj. The epic concludes with the f e s t i v i t i e s on the decision of the inhabitants of Khorezm to create there a state of four equal nations — the Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs and Turkomans. VI. KAMBAR-BATYR 1. . Kambar.1 In ancient times there was a clan c a l l e d Uak; i t was very very poor. This clan was pro-vided f o r by a fourteen-year-old youth, Kambar by name; he shot wild asses 2 and wild goats^, and with them fed his people. To the leeward side of Uak, at a distance of six days' Journey, l i v e d the people of Khan AzimbaJ. The 4 khan had a b e a u t i f u l daughter c a l l e d Nazym-sulu. She was twelve years old. Once to AzimbaJ came hi s favour-i t e v i z i e r and said to him, "0 AzimbaJ, f u l l of wisdoml Listen to me. Why do you not give in marriage your twelve-year-old Nazym? To no purpose she spends her days. Why not f i n d her a husband?". Then AzimbaJ arranged ten white yurtas, gathered his people and' said,. "I s h a l l give my daughter without kalym 5 to.him whom she herself s h a l l choose." Nazym-sulu found none to please her, and the maiden came before her father and said, "Among the people who are gathered there i s none who could rein up the untamed horse of the herd." Then a certain old man came before the khan and said, "There i s a youth by the name of Kambar, who provides f o r the clan of Uak. If you do not say that he i s an utter pauper, he w i l l s u i t your daughter." The khan was angered a g a i n s t t h e o l d man, and s a i d , i "Do you t h i n k t h a t I have t a k e n l e a v e o f my senses, t h a t I would g i v e my d a u g h t e r t o a p e n n i l e s s p e a s a n t ? " . But, Nazym st o o d b e s i d e h e r fa.ther and wrote down t h e name o f Kambar. One day ijambar was h u n t i n g w i l d asses and g o a t s , when he f o r d e d a stream, and saw t h a t Nazym-sulu w i t h h e r f o r t y m a i d e n s 6 had come down t o t h e bank a n d - u n f o l d e d a t e n t . . Nazym saw Kambar, and s a i d , . 7 "Kambar of t h e khan bone, Thy r a v e n - b l a c k s t e e d , L y s k a , Has l i g h t s , l i v e r and a f l o w i n g mane. Come i n t o our t e n t , " H e r e we have sugar, c u r r a n t s , and t e a . " But Kambar rode p a s t them., and d i d n o t t u r n a s i d e . To t h e l e e w a r d o f t h e t e n t s o f Azimbaj l i v e d h i s o enemy. There were t h e l a n d s o f khan Armambet. . T h i s Q khan wished t o marry Nazym, and s e n t Zhalmambet^ as matchmaker t o A z i m b a j , s a y i n g , " L e t Azimbaj g i v e me.to w i f e Nazym-sulu.. I f he does n o t do so, I s h a l l t a k e h e r by f o r c e . " Then t h e younger son. of Azimbaj slew a l l t h e men s e n t by Armambet, cut o f f t h e nose and e a r s o f Zhalmam-10 b e t , and,sent him back. When t h e matchmaker r e t u r n e d t o h i s master, t h e khan saw him and asked, "My v i z i e r ! When you l o o k e d upon Nazym, d i d you g i v e y o u r nose and e a r s as a g i f t ? " 1 1 ' Zhalmambet r e p l i e d , " A l l those that were sent by you have been s l a i n , and they cut o f f my nose and my ears Armambet flew: i n t o a rage, gathered h i s f o r c e s and advan-ced on the t e n t s of AzimbaJ. Then AzimbaJ, i n great f e a r sent two v i z i e r s to Kambar. They came to Kambar and s a i d , "Khan AzimbaJ has sent us to ask you to.destroy h i s enemy I f you destroy the f o r c e s of Armambat, khan AzimbaJ w i l l g i ve you h i s daughter Nazym-sulu." Kambar l i s t e n e d to these words, and mounted h i s raven-black steed Lyska. He vanquished the enemy, and then went to the t e n t s of AzimbaJ; he entered the y u r t a and s a i d , " I w i l l marry Nazym." But AzimbaJ answered him, saying, " I w i l l not give my daughter to such as'thou, a p e n n i l e s s peasant." Then Kambar was angered at the khan, and he l e a p t on h i s horse, and s a i d , " I s h a l l f a l l upon your t e n t s . " The khan's f a v o u r i t e v i z i e r saw t h i s , and s a i d , "Give your daughter to Kambar, f o r you w i l l f i n d none b e t t e r than he." Then the khan agreed to marry Nazym and Kambar, and ordered a f e a s t and r a c e s . 1 2 Then he gave many herds to Kambar and sent h i s daughter to her husband's a u l . Thus w i t h the help of Kambar the c l a n of Uak grew r i c h and prospered. • ( i l . E a r l y v e r s i o n . " The p r i n c e of the Kalmucks has been t r y i n g to obtain the b e a u t i f u l Nazym by f o r c e , and Kambar i s able to persuade the people to make h i s per-sonal cause a reason f o r r e b e l l i o n . The parents and k i n -fol k of Nazym have decided not to oppose the threats of the Kalmuck khan and brought Nazym to the wedding feast, f o r which, na t u r a l l y , the majority of the people have gathered. Kambar also arrives, very l a t e . The khan asks him why he has not appeared e a r l i e r to the i n v i t a t i o n , to which the hero r e p l i e s that he was delayed on the way by a matter of s e t t l i n g some a f f a i r s , from which he could not excuse himself. To the question, What were they? he t e l l s h i s story. F i r s t of a l l , there appeared before him a mouser and a hawk; the former had caught a duck, and the hawk had taken i t from him. Kambar decided the dispute i n favour of the mouser, because the hawk could always cap-ture a duck, while the mouser could only do so once. Then there came to him a mongrel and a borzoi, of whom the f i r s t had caught a steppe antelopel^ and the second stole i t . The hero solved t h e i r dispute in the same fashion, in favour of the mongrel dog, and gave i t the antelope. In deciding these disputes, he thought about each f o r three days, and so l o s t time. The Kalmuck khan understands the meaning of these a l l e g o r i e s and orders Kambar'a execution; but the Kirghiz who a r e p r e s e n t , c a r r i e d away by Kambar's d a r i n g , and p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d by him f o r r e b e l l i o n , p r o t e c t him, and t h e wedding f e a s t ends i n a s l a u g h t e r , i n w h i c h t h e K i r g h i z a r e v i c t o r i o u s . V I I I . UNSTUMBLING'MJULDJU THE STRONG The b i r t h o f t h e h e r o • 1 In a n c i e n t days, t h e r e was an abundant l a n d , and p e o p l e s e t t l e d t h e r e . To t h e -s o u t h t h e r e was t h e warm sea Durang, t o t h e west t h e 2 mettlesome sea A r a a t w i t h i t s g r e a t storms and r a g i n g winds, and t o t h e n o r t h , t h e stormy Maiden Ocean. The f i r s t man i s c a l l e d K j u n S y r a l y m a n - t o j o n , and h i s w i f e i s Aan Darkhan-khotun . T h e i r g l o r y resounds., i n a l l t h e t h r e e w o r l d s ; i n t h e l o w e r w o r l d i t b u r s t s out l i k e t h e r o a r i n g o f a b u l l , i n the upper w o r l d , l i k e t h e n e i g h o f a h o r s e , and In t h e m i d d l e w o r l d i t i s l i k e a snowstorm. T h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s a re many; t h e i r herds o f c a t t l e a r e as numerous as t h e s t a r s i n t h e sky, and the y l i v e surrounded- by s l a v e s . . They have a s o n v r t h e mighty hero Khalyad'yrnar.the Marksman, who i s t h i r t y y e a r s o l d . The o l d woman becomes p r e g n a n t , and h e r pregnancy i s h a r d . Three shamans are c a l l e d , who summon A j y y s y t , goddess o f c h i l d b i r t h . Due t o t h e i r l a c k o f s k i l l t h e c h i l d i s born p r e m a t u r e l y , and i s maimed. The p a r e n t s deny t h e i r c h i l d , a nd"give i t 1 t o a cow-woman S i m e k h s i n , who h i d e s him i n t h e dung o f t h e 1.15 cowshed. T h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r , a b e a u t i f u l d a u g h t e r i s 5 b o r n , c a l l e d J u r j u n J u k e j d e e n - k u o . The appearance o f t h e h e r o . . The p a r e n t s come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e y have s i n n e d by t h e i r r i c h n e s s and h a v i n g t h e i r work done f o r them. To p l a c a t e t h e gods, t h e y o r g a n i s e an y s y a k h a t w h i c h t h e y w i l l g i v e one q u a r t e r o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s t o t h e assembled p e o p l e . Those g a t h e r e d a t t h e y s y a k h b o a s t o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h ; t h i s a g g r a v a t e s t h e s i n o f . t h e p a t r i a r c h s and c a l l s f o r t h t h e appearance o f t h e e v i l powers. At t h e c l i m a x o f t h e f e a s t t h e r e suddenly comes t h u n d e r and l i g h t n i n g . A d a r k c l o u d comes o v e r t h e l a n d , and a l l r u n away, l e a v i n g o n l y Khalyad'ymar, p e t r i f i e d w i t h f e a r . He sees a monster w i t h one l e g and one arm, 6 growing i n t h e middle* o f i t s b r e a s t . T h i s i s a shaman 7 o f t h e e v i l abaasy f o r c e s . He l e t s i t be known t h a t an abaasy hero has been born, c a l l e d U n s t u m b l i n g B j u g j u s t e e n t h e B l a c k , who w i l l p i l l a g e t h e w o r l d s and s c a t t e r t h e p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e l a n d . S e t t i n g out f o r h i s h e r o i c t e m p e r i n g , he has, s e n t t h e shaman Uot-Chymaadaj as matchmaker t o t h e d a u g h t e r Jurjun.. J u k e j d e e n - k u o . I f he does not o b t a i n h e r , he w i l l d e s t r o y t h e whole l a n d . The shaman t h e n d i s a p p e a r s . The p e o p l e huddle., i n t h e i r y u r t a s i n t e r r o r , 1 and i n t h e s i l e n c e t h e y . J i e a r t h e heavy t r e a d o f a huge monster, c o m p l e t e l y naked, whom th e y t a k e f o r t h e abaasy h e r o . This i s the aborted son of J u r j u n . In a monologue which he addresses to h i s parents, he accuses them of a great s i n : s t e a l i n g from the poor. For t h i s the e v i l f o r c e s have been sent upon them, by the gods. The hero r e c e i v e s h i s name. The hero goes to the holy t r i b a l t r e e 1 1 and t e l l s the goddess of the t h r e a t s of the abaasy. i The goddess turns to the D i v i n e Smith Suo-d a j a the Black and asks him to harden the hero i n h i s forge, and t u r n him over to the D i v i n e Shamanka Uot Chol-boodoj, who w i l l complete the process by plunging him I P three times i n t o the burning ocean. The hero s u r v i v e s t h i s o r d e a l , and r e c e i v e s the name of Unstumbling M j u l d j u the Strong. He f i n d s out d e t a i l s of h i s f u t u r e adversa-r i e s : Bjugjusteen the Black, B a l t a r a a - B a a t y r , and Ard'a-. maan-D'ard1amaan, who are described as f e a r f u l g i a n t s . M j u l d j u r e c e i v e s h i s horse. By the help of a great b i r d M j u l d j u f l i e s ' to abaasy country and destroys i t ; but h i s enemy i s not there, and he r e t u r n s home. Bjugjusteen r e t u r n s to f i n d h i s land destroyed, and swears vengeance. A white crane comes to ask M j u l d j u to save Syralyman-kuo and her country, threatened by B a l t a r a a - B a a t y r . In t h i s country i s the Water of L i f e , which makes a centenarian a l a d of twenty. M j u l d j u f l i e s o f f , and sees a white stone y u r t a , beside which i s a s i l v e r - w i n g e d horse of great beauty. The occupaat does not r e c e i v e M j u l d j u as a guest,, which offends him; and a f i g h t takes p l a c e , i n which MJuldJu i s v i c t o r i o u s . The dying adversary t e l l s him that he i s beaten,,because he i s t i r e d a f t e r t r y i n g to save his s i s t e r Kjun Tunlynsa (his own name being Kjun Tegier-imen). His s i s t e r has been kidnapped by an abaasy woman, the d'e^e-baaba. 1^ Hearing t h i s , Mjuldju treats KJun Tegierimen's wounds and goes to save the s i s t e r , who i s being held as b a i t f o r heroes who come to woo her, and are then eaten by the witch. Mjuldju saves her, on the con-' d i t i o n that she marry his brother Khalyad'ymar. Returning to Kjun Tegierimen, he receives the winged horse, on which he f l i e s to the S i l v e r Mountain, to the land of Syralyman. Mjuldju and the Abaasy. The fountain of L i v i n g Water is-guarded by a hero of divine beauty, c a l l e d Kyrydymyan. In a revolving golden yurta in t h i s b e a u t i f u l country l i v e s his s i s t e r Syralyman-kuo, who shines l i k e the sun. Then the abaasy Baitaraa-Baatyr arrives and c a l l s Mjuldju to b a t t l e . On the 1 b a t t l e f i e l d , Bjugjusteen the Black claims p r i o r r i g h t of f i g h t i n g Mjuldju, and Baltaraa allows t h i s . The heroes are equally matched; a f t e r a thirty-day f i g h t they rest f o r one hour, then continue. Their breathing threatens the S i l v e r Mountain with destruction by f i r e , and Syralyman begs her brother to stop them; but he refuses to move, saying i t i s a divine command to protect the Water of L i f e , and he cannot s t i r from his place. , Syralyman turns herself into a c r o s s b i l l , and f l i e s to ask the gods to help her. They shoot down f i e r y arrows 118 which cause Bjugjusteen to stumble. Mjuldju overcomes him and st r i k e s o f f h i s head; but h i s s p i r i t escapes under-ground., Mjuldju then asks f o r the hand of Syralyman-kuo, but she gives a vague answer, f o r she has heard that i n the hero's country men must work hard; and besides, his appear-ance i s quite fearsome. Baltaraa-Baatyr returns, and another f i g h t begins. Since the abaasy hero i s immortal, Syralyman-kuo t e l l s her protector to shut his enemy up in a p i t , and seal i t with a stone, and t h i s he does. Mjuldju and Syralyman then proceed home, but on the way a Tungus magician, Ard'amaan-D'ard'a-maan, steals the g i r l . After long wanderings, the hero comes to the end of the earth. I t i s a cold country; there the trees are dwarf-ish, the f i e l d s abound in h i l l o c k s , and the sun does not ,show i t s e l f . There he i s informed by an.old man where Ard'amaan sleeps. He f i g h t s with the magician f o r t h i r t y days; then they both turn into l i o n s and f i g h t f o r another seven days and seven nights. They destroy everything be-neath t h e i r feet and f i n a l l y f a l l through into the under-world. They f i n d themselves in the country of the descendants of the KitaJ Bakhsy, smith-magicians. They cast the Tungus magician up to earth again, and help Mjuldju i n h i s f i g h t . The r e s u l t s of t h i s long b a t t l e are so f r i g h t f u l f o r man-kind (mighty storms arise, the earth grows cold) that the 119 people c r y to the gods, who decide that the d i s p u t e must he Judged by the god of f a t e , D'ygla-Khaan. The Heavenly Court. A heavenly messenger comes on a black cloud and takes the heroes to the heavenly court. In s p i t e of Ard'amaan's arguments, the court awards Syralyman to M juldju and punishes the wrongdoers. When Mjuldju takes h i s b r i d e to h i s home he f i n d s i t f l o u r i s h i n g . There he bathes t h r i c e i n the Mite-White Lake, and becomes a youth of great beauty. A t r i p l e marriage takes p l a c e : Mjuldju and Syralyman-kuo•, Khalyad'ymar and Kjun .Tunalynsa, and Kjun Tegierimen and Mjuldju's s i s t e r , J u r j u n Jukejdeen-kuo, are a l l ' married, and a great ysyakh i s arranged. At t h i s f e a s t M j u l d j u gives the' people three-quarters of h i s wealth. A f t e r t h i s "each f i n d s h i s own country" and l i v e s h a p p i l y . V I I I . THE SAMOYED EPIC OF ITJE I t j e 1 i s considered to be the ancestor of the Samo-yed. While s t i l l a youth, I t j e became an orphan because the man-eating Pynegusse devoured a l l h i s people. I t j e succeeded i n escaping i n t o the f o r e s t , where he was brought up by an o l d woman who t r i e d to keep him i n ignorance of what had happened. In s p i t e of a l l her p r e c a u t i ons he soon met h i s enemy, who l i v e d on a bewitched l a k e i n the form of a b l i n d o l d man. I t j e s t o l e some f i s h from the o l d man's boat, and h i s foster-mother t o l d him of the o l d man's i d e n t i t y , but i t was too l a t e , and the s p i r i t s of 120 Pynegusse approached to abduct I t j e . They took the boy, the old woman, the dog and the hut, and the man-eater de-voured them a l l . I t j e however had a knife, with which he cut a hole i n the b e l l y of the giant and so saved them a l l . This was It j e ' s f i r s t f i g h t with Pynegusse, who could be k i l l e d , but always rose again, more powerful and t e r r i b l e than before. While growing up, I t j e had many strange adventures. In a f i g h t between two sea monsters, a f i s h with a crooked horn and a giant b i r d , Pyne, the l a t t e r had l o s t h is claws in the back of the giant f i s h . The b i r d was large and strong enough to be able to swallow rocks and whole trees, but through t h i s accident he was now miserable and power-l e s s . He asked I t j e for help, and the hero w i l l i n g l y undertook the task of restoring the claws. Since the f i s h l i v e d f a r beyond the sea, i t was a d i f f i c u l t undertaking to locate him, but I t j e knew what to do. He made a stringed instrument, on which he began to play i n the d i f f e r e n t animal languages so that they a l l understood him. Like Orpheus, he attracted the animals of the sky, the earth and the water, and they gathered round him to l i s t e n . c F i n a l l y the giant f i s h appeared and, en-chanted by the music, He remained l y i n g at the edge of the water. S t i l l playing, I t j e climbed on hi s back and rode away on him. The claws were s t i l l stuck i n his back; the wound had begun to gather pus, and so the f i s h was pleased 121 when,Itje pulled the claws out. As a reward he gave I t j e h i s b e a u t i f u l daughter, and the b i r d , who regained h i s pow-er, became a f a i t h f u l helper to the hero.3 * The great b a t t l e against the giant gradually became more d i f f i c u l t . I t j e repeatedly k i l l e d the monster, but l i f e always returned to the body. F i n a l l y a vi o l e n t b a t t l e ensued between them over the daughter of the forest s p i r i t Parga. The giant kidnapped the g i r l , but I t j e , who was l i v i n g with the monster,in disguise, f i n a l l y gained v i c t o r y in the struggle. He k i l l e d the giant, and so that the body should not revive again, he burned i t on a large funeral pyre. Even in the flames the giant's Jaws struck together, and he was heard to threaten that everything was not done with yet. The wind scattered the.giant's ashes i n a l l d i -rections, and from these ashes originated the b i l l i o n s of mosquitoes which each summer,suck human blood as voraciously as the man-eater. After t h i s v i c t o r y , I t j e married the daughter of the forest s p i r i t , and from t h i s union resulted the bear, which i s honoured as the t r i b a l father of the Ket Samoyed. After these events the, Samoyeds l i v e d happily and i n peace f o r a long time. I t j e ruled, and warded o f f a l l dangers and raids of the neighbouring t r i b e s . However, one day the d e v i l appeared to I t j e , and ask-ed f o r food and drink. I t j e instead gave him stones, and 122 the d e v i l went .off to Christ. A warm friendship ensued between the e v i l one and Christ, who quenched his t h i r s t with, human blood. To take revenge on the Samoyed, Christ, f r i e n d of the d e v i l and father of a l l Russians, came with his people to Si b e r i a . The e v i l powers were v i c t o r i o u s , the Samoyed were scattered to the four winds, and the foreigners became masters of the land. At that time I t j e l e f t h i s people and prepared himself a dwelling beyond the great sea. There he s t i l l sleeps today; but when the pro-per time comes, the Samoyed say, he w i l l return. Then he w i l l unite his children into one people, drive the foreign-ers out of Siberia and l i b e r a t e land and men.4 The Samo-yed f i r m l y believe t h i s , f o r I t j e himself t o l d Christ on his departure: "This, day i s yours, and T am leaving. But there w i l l come another day, which s h a l l be mine, and then I s h a l l return, gather my t r i b e together, and drive the foreigners from the l a n d . " 5 PART IV CONCLUSION. The p e o p l e who c r e a t e t h i s l i t e r a t u r e ( i f t h a t , i s t h e word f o r i t ) e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s i n i t , and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r way'of l i f e and thought can be d e r i v e d from i t . M a j o r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s , o f cou r s e , a r e dangerous; t h u s i t may be doubted whether E n g e l 1 s o b s e r v a t i o n s on f a m i l y l i f e i n peasant communities are e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e : W i th r e f e r e n c e t o f a m i l y l i f e w i t h i n t h e s e l a r g e f a m i l i e s , I t must be o b s e r v e d t h a t a t l e a s t i n R u s s i a i t i s known t h a t t h e f a t h e r s o f t h e f a m i l i e s v i o l e n t l y abuse t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e young women o f t h e community, e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r d a u g h t e r s - i n - l a w , o f whom th e y o f t e n form a ha^em f o r t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e Russian-,popular songs a r e v e r y e l o q u e n t on t h i s p o i n t . The f a t h e r s o f Communism, as can be g a t h e r e d from t h e above, p a i d some a t t e n t i o n t o f o l k l o r e , and on t h e b a s i s ;' p o f remarks by Marx' and E n g e l s , S o v i e t Communism i s ex-t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t . E n g e l s , f o r example, had w r i t t e n i n 1893: , ' ' We have t h e r i g h t t o demand t h a t a p o p u l a r book s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i v e t o i t s own t i m e . . . . I do n o t see why we s h o u l d n o t have t h e r i g h t t o demand o f a p o p u l a r book t h a t i n r e s p e c t o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r freedom and r e s i s t a n c e t o o p p r e s s i o n i t s h o u l d l e n d a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e l e s s educated c i r r c l e s , and s h o u l d show them ... t h e t r u t h f u l n e s s and r e aso n a b l e n e s s o f t h e s e s t r i v i n g s . ^ The p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l use t o whi c h f o l k l i t e r a t u r e could be put was noticed by Lenin, who remarked to V. D. Bonch-Bruevich: , I see that there is an obvious lack of the hands, or the desire, to generalise a l l this and survey i t from the sociopolitical point of view. You know, on the basis of this material, i t would be possible to write a wonderful study of the hopes and expectations of the people.^-The phrases of the leaders are met with everywhere in the literature of the subject published on Soviet t e r r i -tory, and examples are adduced wherever possible to i l l u s -trate the wisdom of their words. Sharakshinova writes: The uligers have f u l f i l l e d a definite ideological role and have served as a means of appraisal of the value of the manifestations of social l i f e ; they have aided thinking about the way of l i f e of the society. They have expressed the expectations and hopes of the people, and educated them in norms of general law and morality, peculiar to the given structure of society.5 She further t e l l s how the ullgershl of Soviet times f u l f i l their ideological obligations by travelling out to the neighbouring kolkhozes, and "by performing their pro-ductions exhort the kolkhozniks to the fulfilment of eco-nomic-political tasks". 6 These new works are of course "national in foam,.: ^ socialist in content", to agree with Stalin's dictum of 1925: "Proletarian in i t s content, national in i t s form — such is that universal human cul-ture towards which socialism i s advancing".7 \ The Union of Soviet writers advises the new poets on their work, and the fortunes of folk epics have varied 1 2 5 w i t h changes i n t h e o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e . W i n n e r 8 g i v e s some i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r e s s u r e s put upon f o l k p o e t s , and c r i t i c i s m o f such i d e o l o g i c a l m i s t a k e s as o v e r l y . s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e s towards the heroes 6 f t h e Kazakh a n t i - . R u s s i a n s t r u g g l e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The e p i c q t a l e o f Geser Khan, who o r i g i n s a re i n d e e d ' o b s c u r e , , was accused, i n t h e l a t t e r days o f S t a l i n , o f b e i n g a t o t a l l y M o n g o l i a n p r o d u c t i o n , on t h e one hand, and on t h e other,- o f c o n t a i n i n g i d e o l o g i c a l i d e a s d i s t a s t e f u l t o S o v i e t R u s s i a . G eser was i d e n t i f i e d as C h i n g g i s Khan, and h i s b a t t l e s w i t h many-headed monsters were a l l e g o r i e s o f C h i n g g i s 1 c o n q u e s t s o f t h e numerous A s i a n t r i b e s ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e e p i c con-t a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a n t i - R u s s i a n s e n t i m e n t s , f o r t h e Man-gadkhaj s were none o t h e r than t h e R u s s i a n s . 1 0 However, by 1 9 5 3 a committee o f o r i e n t a l i s t s had c l e a r e d Geser o f f e u d a l and a n t i - R u s s i a n e r r o r s , and d e c l a r e d t h a t Geser and C h i n g g i s had n o t h i n g i n common. 1 1 S i n c e t h e s e ' epics" are l i k e t h e c u l t u r e out o f which t h e y a r e b o r n , t h e o l d r e f l e c t p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t y , by S o v i e t d e f i n i t i o n bad, and 'the new r e f l e c t i o n t h e f r e e 12 S o v i e t s o c i e t y . The f o s t e r i n g o f such p r o d u c t i o n s , and. t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n and e x e g e s i s , a re t h e s e l f - i m p o s e d t a s k s o f S o v i e t f o l k l o r l s t s . ' J u s t , as st u d y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l u l i g e r s , , o l o n k hoa and o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f e p i c (as w e l l as t h e minor forms 126 of expression such as ballads and chastushki 1-^ can aid . understanding of a society in a diachronic way, so examin-ation of contemporary forms enables us to come to grips with the s p i r i t of contemporary society; not merely the current ( o f f i c i a l ) ideology, be i t noticed, but also the feelings that are in a sense latent, unexpressed, d e l i b e r - . ately omitted, but v i s i b l e behind the outward appearance. As previously stated, there i s s t i l l much to be done in the study and elucidation of the Siberian epics. The rewards are many, not l e a s t among them being the fact that once one understands a people's mental complex, one may understand how they w i l l act in given circumstances. Part of t h i s i s perceived through t h e i r language, and part by what they express in that language. To understand another nation, or group of nations, as i s the population of Siber-^ l a (not to mention the Caucasus), j.ls to come a" l i t t l e closer to understanding one's fellow man in the general sense; and t h i s Is surely one of the more s p i r i t u a l l y p r o f i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s in which anyone can indulge. 127 NOTES PART I. HISTORICITY. 1. A r i s t o t l e , De P o e t l c a , 26. 2. John Dryden, "The Author's Apology f o r Heroic Poetry" p r e f i x e d to "The State of Innocence and the F a l l of Man" i n The Works of John Dryden (ed. Sc o t t , rev. SaintsburyT, 1882, V,~IT4\ 3. Written 1834. The one l i t e r a r y epic which can t r u l y be c a l l e d n a t i o n a l , being a humorous, yet noble, c e l e -b r a t i o n of the Old Poland which was about to be crushed i n 1812. 4. NIkos Kazantzakis, The Odyssey: a modern sequel, t r . Kimon F r i a r , N. Y., Simon and Schuster, 1958. F i r s t p u b l ished i n Athens, 1938. 5. G. L. K i t t r e d g e , i n t r o . to E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h Pop-u l a r B a l l a d s , London, 1906, x i i i . 6. Helen Muchnic, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Russian L i t e r a t u r e , N. Y., 1947, 18. 7. V. V. Radlov, Obrastsy narodno.1 l l t e r a t u r y severnykh  t.lurksklkh -piemen, S.-P., 1866-1904^ 8. E. K. P e k a r s k i j , Obraztsy narodnoj l l t e r a t u r y jaku-tov, S.-P., 1907-11. 9. H. M. and N. K. Chadwick, The Growth of L i t e r a t u r e , N. Y., 1940, I I I . 10. Thomas G. Winner, The Oral Art and L i t e r a t u r e of the  Kazakhs of Russian C e n t r a l A s i a , Durham (N. C.), 1958. 11. John Whitehead, Guardian of the G r a i l , London, 1959. page 12. 12. Page 16. 13. See Douglas Hyde, A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of I r e l a n d , London, 1899, 486ff. > 14. N e l l Ross, Heroic Poetry from the Book of the Dean  of Llsmore, Edln., 1939, x v i i i . Source of the s t a t e -ment i s the Book of Lein s t e r . (Lebor L a i gen) dated c. 1160 A.D. 128 15* S. H. Hooke, Middle Eastern Mythology, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1963, 14-2-3. A si m i l a r r i t u a l r e c i t a -tion also took place among the Canaanltes (G-aster, Thespls, N. Y., 1961, 230) and (probably) among the Scandinavians (Blackwell's ed. of Mallet, Northern  Ant i q u i t i e s, 184?, 364). 16. N. Sharakshinova, Bur .1 at ski;1 f o l ' k l o r , Irkutsk, 1959.' 207-8, quoting G. N. Potanin, Tangutsko-tlbetskaja  okraina Klta.la i Tsentral'no.1 Mongol!!. S.-P., 1893. II, .115. Cf. the anecdote quoted by Curtin (p. 35 below). .' "• IT. Henrietta Yurchenco, Intro, to R. N. Rubin and M. Stillman, A Russian Song, Book, N. Y., Random House, • 1962, x i . 18. H. J . Rose, A Handbook of Greek Literature, N. Y., I960, 46ff. See G i l b e r t Murray, The Rise of the  Greek Epic, N. Y., 0. U. P., i960, 282ff. r^The Text of Homer". 19. "I am he who formerly tuned a lay on my slender reed ^..e. the Eclogues^ and, having abandoned pastoral poetry, took up a related subject [ i n the Georgics], compelling the f i e l d s to obey the avaricious s e t t l e r . This was acceptable to husbandmen; but now I sing the b r i s t l i n g arms of war ( e t c . ) " . See The Works of V i r g i l , ed. A. H. Bryce (London, n.d.), who p r i n t s i t in d i f f e r e n t type, as do Heyne, Forbiger, and others. Supported by Donatus ( V i t a V i r g . x l i i ) and Servius, It has been condemned by Burmann, Peerlkamp, and Helnsius, mostly on l i n g u i s t i c grounds. Wagner de-fended i t as a l a t e r i n s c r i p t i o n by V e r g i l himself; Marx ( L u c i l l u s , I. 11) and Brandt (Phllologus, 1928, 331) think i t an i n s c r i p t i o n over a prefixed port-r a i t , in which case l i n e 4 may be an Independent i n -terpolation to carry over the sense into the i n i t i a l verse of the epic I t s e l f . See James Henry, Aeneldea,. London, 1873, I, 1-7; H. J . Rose, A Handbook of Latin  Li t e r a t u r e , N. Y., i960, 248n. 20. M. R. Cox, Cinderella, London, 1893. 21. See Isabel Florence Hapgood, The Epic Songs of  Russia, N. Y., 1885, 15-16. 22. See L. A. Magnus, The Heroic Ballads of Russia, Lon-don, 1921, 11. 23. Child I63. MacDonald was not k i l l e d , but the c h i e f s of the Macintosh and MacLean clans were. The flower of the Lowland army f e l l in the f i g h t , which lasted a whole day (24th July, 1411), but the v i c t o r y was t h e i r s . . See John Ord, Bothy Songs and Ballads, Paisley, 1930, 475. Cf. A. Keith i n Gavin Greig's Last Leaves of Tradi- t i o n a l Ballads and Ballad A i r s , Aberdeen, 1925» x x x v i i l -xxxix (on Captain Car):; G. H. Gerould, The Ballad of  Tradition , (1932) N. Y., 1957, 9-10. 24. Scott's Minstrelsy, I, 306. Cf. also Ballad Mlnstrel-sy_ of .Scotland, Paisley, 1893, 401. 25• See Hapgood, p. 9. See below, Glossary, under Poljan-i t s a . 26. I l i a d v l l , 219; x i , 485; x v i i , 128. Cf. xv, 645; and other references.to a n t i q u i t i e s Include Odysseus' helmet ornamented with boar's teeth (x, 260ff.). See also W. Reichel, Homerische Waffen: arch&ologlsche Untersuchung- en, Vienna, 1901, p. I f f . 27. I. V. Pukhpv, "Olonkho — geroicheskij epos Jakutov" i n I. S. BraginskiJ, Voprosy izuchenlja eposa narodov  SSSR, Moscow, 1958, 224". Ch. Ch. Valikhanov, i n Ocherki  Dzhungarll, states that many words and turns of speech not in use at the present time show the antiquity of the Kirghiz t a l e s embodying them. See Sobr. Soch., 1961, I, 418; Michell, The Russians i n Central Asia, 1865, 95ff. 28. Mimesis, t r . Trask. N. Y., Doubleday, 1957, 5* 29. "The Douglas Tragedy'1 (Child 7) in Ord, 404. On the next remark, c f . the most famous and widespread of them > a l l : "Lord Randal" (Child 12), op_. c i t . 458; i n most ball a d books. 30. In N. Kershaw, Anglo-Saxon and Norse Poems, Cambridge, 1922, I42ff. C f B o w r a , Heroic Poetry, 522. 31. V i t a C a r o l l Magnl, c.ix, in Monumenta Germanlae h l s - t o r i c a , Scriptores, III, 447. 32. Latin MS. i n B i b l . Nat., 4841; c f . Monumenta Germanlae  h i s t o r i c a , Poetae LatIni aevi C a r o l i n i , I, 109. 33. See Gaston Paris, L^gendes du Moyen Age, 3-4; Murray, Rise of the Greek .Epic, 331-2; Joseph Bedier, Les  l^gendes eplques, 1926-9, III, 192-3, and references there c i t e d . ( 34. See Rhys Carpenter, Folk Tale, F i c t i o n and Saga i n the  Homeric Epics, (1946) Berkeley, 1958, 45ff. 130 35. I l i a d x, 263° See Denys L. Page, History and the  Homeric I l i a d , Berkeley, U. of Gal. P., 1959, 218, et passim. 36. Gregory of Tours, Historlarum l l b r l decern, i i i , c.3. English t r . by Dalton, • Oxford, 1927, II, 87; Latin text in Poupardin's ed., Paris, 1913, 80; — t h e editor dates the occurrence to 515. Cf. also Gesta Franco-rum, xix. 37. In Otto BShtlingk, Ueber die Sprache der Jakuten, S.-P., 1851, pp. 79-95. 3 8 . ManBUB (1639-40), t r . by J . H. Hanford i n A Milton  Handbook,1 4 t h ed., N. Y., 1947, 179. 39. King James VI and I claimed descent from Arthur. See Roberta S. Brinkley, Arthurian Legend.in the Seven- teenth Century, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins U. P., 1932, e s p e c i a l l y pp. 126-41. 40. See Whitehead, op_. c i t . ; h i s arguments seem convin-cing, although n a t u r a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . 41. Rose, Handbook of Latin L i t e r a t u r e , i 9 6 0 , 249, re-f e r r i n g to L. Malten, in Arch, f. Rellgionswissenschaft, XXIX (1931), 2 3 f f . 42. See Carpenter, 63-4 . 4 3 . George Vernadsky and Dzambulat Dzanty, "The Ossetlan Tale of Iry Dada and- Mstlslav", Journal of Amer. Folk- lo r e , LXIX (1956), 220. • 44. George Vernadsky, "Problems of Ossetic and Russian Epos", Amer.S.E.E.R., XVIII (1959), 285. 4 5 . G". Dum^zil, L^gendes sur l e s Nartes, Paris , 1930, pp. 2 - 3 . 46. Vernadsky (1959), 285. 47 . W. B. Henning, "A Spurious Fo l k t a l e " , B u l l e t i n of the  School of Oriental and 'African Studies, XXI (1958T7 315; Vernadsky, 286-7. 48. Others include Schwartz, Kuhn, and Trautmann. Cf. also H. R. E l l i s Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern  Europe, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1964, 18Tf., f o r c r i t i c i s m of t h i s and other attitudes. 49. "when there i s an eclipse of the sun or moon, said \ 131 a B a l a g a n s k shaman, t h i s I s because t h e y have been swallowed by an a l k h a , a monster w i t h o u t t r u n k o r l i m b s , h a v i n g o n l y a head. The sun, o r t h e moon, t h e n c r i e s 'Save mei' and a l l t h e p e o p l e shout and make a g r e a t n o i s e , t o f r i g h t e n t h e monster." — C z a p l i c k a , Abor-i g i n a l S i b e r i a . , 287, q u o t i n g N. A g a p i t o v and M. W. Khangalov, M a t e r l a l y po i z u c h e n i j u shamanstva v S i -b i r i , I r k u t s k , V. S.O.R.G-.O., 1883, 17o Many o t h e r n a t i o n s have h e l d s i m i l a r i d e a s : c f . R i g Veda, v.40 ( t h e dragon Rahu); P r o s e Edda, 12 ( t h e wolves S k t t l l and H a t i ) ; e t c . See G a s t e r , T h e s p i s , 228-30, f o r ' many r e f e r e n c e s . 5 0 . F r a z e r ' s Golden Bough i s a l e n g t h y e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s , as i s Robe r t Graves' White Goddess. See a l s o , f o r t h e i n h e r e n t l y s e x u a l n a t u r e o f Sun-worship e t c . ( a b e t t e r t h e o r y than t h e m e r e l y " n a t u r a l " ) , B. Z. G o l d b e r g , The Sacred F i r e (1930), N. Y., 1962, 88-9, e t p a s s i m . 51. See M a r g a r e t A. Murray, The W i t c h - C u l t i n Western  Europe, O x f o r d , 1921, The God o f t h e W i t c h e s , London, 1934T and The D i v i n e K i n g i n Englan d , London, 1954. W i t h t h e l a s t one s h o u l d compare Hugh Ross W i l l i a m -son, The Arrow and t h e Sword, London, 2nd ed. 1 9 5 5 * On t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f w i t c h b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s , see G e r a l d B. Gardner, W i t c h c r a f t Today, N. Y., 1955. 52. L e x i c o n Mythologlcum, i n v o l . I l l o f t h e A r n i -Magnaean Commission*'s ed. o f t h e E l d e r Edda, 1828; E d d a l a e r e n og dens O p r i n d e l s e , 4 v o l s . , Copenhagen, 1825° See B l a c k w e l l i n M a l l e t ' s N o r t h e r n A n t i q u i -t i e s , p a s s i m . . 53. Hapgood, op_. c i t . 54. W. J o c h e l s o n , The Y u k a g h i r and t h e Y u k a g h i r l z e d  Tungus, N. Y., A.M.N.H., 1926, 126^7. 55. Pukhov, op. c i t . , 217n. 56. M. A. C z a p l i c k a , "Yakut", Enc. o f R e l . and E t h i c s , X I I , 828; idem, A b o r i g i n a l S i b e r i a , London, 1914, 278-9; W. L. S i e r o s z e w s k i , 12 l a t w kra.ju Jakut^w, Warsaw, 1 9 0 0 , 390. The " w h i t e " f e s t i v a l i s s a i d on p. 829 o f "Yakut" t o be i n honour o f Urun-Aly-Toyon. 57. "Yakut", 829, 828; A b o r i g i n a l S i b e r i a , 353. 58. "Yakut", 8 2 9 . 59" Pukhov, 214.. See below, p a r t I I , p. 74. 132 60. For instance, the Zoroastrian Ahuramazda-Ahriman re l a t i o n s h i p . 61. See part III, p. 106 i n f r a . 62. T. A. Zhdanko, "Karakalpakskaja epicheskaja poema 'Kyrk-kyz' kak isto r i k o - e t n o g r a f l c h e s k i j istochnik", Kratkle Soobshcheni.la Inst. Etnog. im« N. N. Miklukho- Maklaja AN SSSR, XXX (1958), 113. 63. Ibid. Zhdanko, in respectable Soviet fashion, goes on (p. 114) to connect the close of the poem, with i t s ^description of the creation of a state of the four nations of Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs and Turkomans, with the -October Revolution and the border agreements, of 1924. 64. R. Shaw and A. Grunwedel. See N. Poppe, "Geserica", Asia Major, III (1926), 5. 65. Klaproth, and I8th-I9th century Tibetan scholars. See Ts. Damdinsureh, Istoricheskie k o m i Geser lady, M., 1957* pp. 15, 18-24. 66. 0p_. c i t . , 31ff. 67. P. 201ff. 68. A. H. 'Francke, Per Frtthllngs- und Wlntermythus der Kesarsage. Helsingfors, Soc. Finno-Ougrienne, XV, 1902. See also i n Bibliotheca Indica, CLXVIII, Calcutta, R. A s i a t i c Soc. of Bengal, 1941. 69. Berthold Laufer, review of Der Frtihlingsmythus, i n Wiener Z e l t s c h r l f t f u r die Kunde des Morgenlandes, XV, 1901. 70. Alexandra David-Neel., The Superhuman L i f e of Gesar of Ling, London, 1932, Prologue; I. J . Schmidt, Die  Thaten Bogda Gesser Chan's, B e r l i n , 1925» 1; Curtin, A Journey i n Southern Siberia, Boston, 1909, 130. 71. David-Neel, chap. 7; Schmidt, 266ff.; Curtin, 131, etc. 72. David-Neel, chap. 6; Schmidt, 108ff.; Curtin, 132. 73. Schmidt, chap. V, p. 153ff. 74. Damdinsuren, 2l4-5. >. 75. G. N, Roerich, "The Epic of King Kesar of Ling", Journal of the R. Soc. of Bengal, VIII (1942), 302. 133 76. V. V. Radlov, Froben der V o l k s l l t e r a t u r der turklschen  Stamme Sudslblrlens. S.-P., 1866-86, V, x i . 77. .G-rowth of Li t e r a t u r e . I l l , 31. 78. Jan De Vries, Heroic Song and Heroic Legend, London, O.U.P., 1963, 158. 79* Winner, 73. 80. See Lord Raglan, The Hero, London, 1936, passim. 81. "Olonkho", 215. 82. S. V. JastremskiJ, Obraztsy narodno.1 l l t e r a t u r y „1aku-tov, Leningrad, 1929, 21; C. M. Bowra, Heroic Poetry, London, Macmillan, 1961, 39^. 83. Pukhov, 215-6. 84. P.'216. 85. P. 224. 86. Sharakshinova, 199. See farther, part I I . \ . ; • . . . • • ' • ; 'j 1 134 PART I I . I. The Burjat-Mongol Ep_ic. 1. G.O.Tudenov, Burjatskoe stikhoslozhenie, Ulan-Ude, Burjatskoe Knizhnoe Izd.., 1958, 29-30. 2. For example, Manas. 3. Burjatskle skazkl 1 pover' .1a. Zap!ski VSORGO po otd. etno£., I . i . , 1889. See bibliography f o r t h i s and the other works mentioned. 4. P. D. Dmltriev, Geser. Ulan-Ude, B.-M. NIIK, 1953. 5. Ulan-Ude,•B.-M. NIIK, 1956. 6. N. P. Baldano, Aba.1 Geser Khubttun — Bur.1 ad Aradaj U l i g e r . Ulan-Ude, 1959^ 7. Tudenov, 32. 8. Inst. Vostokovedenlja, arkh. fond no. 6 2 . 9. Tudenov, 33. 10. Ts. A. Dugarnimaev, Intro, to Antologija burjatskoj  p o e z l i , M., G o s l i t i z d a t , 1959* 6. 11. N. Poppe, "Geserica", Asia Major III (1926), 3. The Geser epic i s not antibuddhistlc, though i t has a n t i -lamalst elements. 12. Tudenov, 34. 13. Ts. Zh. Zhamtsarano, "Vvedenie", Obraztsy narodnoj  slovesnostl mongol 1skikh piemen, I. i i i , P., 1918, xix. 14. Tangutsko-Tibetskaja qkralna K l t a j a . Puteshestyle G. N. Potanlna 1884^1886 gg. II, S.-P., 1893, 114. 15. Tudenov, 36. 16. Russian a r t e l ' , association f o r work. 17. With t h i s one may compare the s a i l o r ' s attitude to the shanty: " I f the song don't go ri g h t , the ship don't s a i l t i g h t " ; and work always progresses well i f the t r a d i t i o n a l songs are sung, as today with the Hebrldean waulking-songs. 18. G. D. Sanzheev,' Intro, to Novikov's t r . of Alamzha  Mergen, M.-L., Academia, 1936, x. 19. Mongol-o.lratskij gerolcheskij epos, 7. 20. The Mongolian People's Republic, Ulan-Bator, 1956, 115, where i t i s stated "that i t i s used "to accompany performances of the narrative poem 'Geser Khan' by public entertainers." 21. Description of the World, ed. Moule and P e l l l o t , London, 1938, I. 4~50 T"Chap. 198, or Bk. IV chap. 2); Rugoff's ed., N. Y. 1961, 281, — s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , since i t originates i n the Ramusio version. 22. 0p_. c i t . , 34. 23. Sharakshinova;'Burjatski.1 f o l ' k l o r , 208. 24. see "Parallelism" below. 25. Pozdneev, Obraztsy narodnoj lltera.tury mongol'sklkh  piemen, I, S.-P., 1880,191-2. . 26. Sharakshinova, 208. 27. Ibid., 209. 28. Tudenov, 37. 29. See Ts. Zh. Zhamtsarano, Obraztsy, I, i i i , P. 1918, page 2 5 . 30. Tudenov, 38. \ • 31. Pp. 39-40. 32. Curtin, A Journey i n Southern Siberia, 1909* 128. 33. Tudenov, 41. 34. P. 42. 35. P. 43. 36. P. 44. 37. Pozdneev, Obraztsy, 323. 38. Sharakshinova, 210. 39. Berthold Laufer (Ocherk mongol' sko.1 l i t e r a t u r y , L., 1927, 77n.) observes: "Especially i n the old songs of the chroniclers, a l l i t e r a t i o n i s met with in the middle of the same l i n e , as in Finnish". 40. Tudenov, 50. 41. P. 68. 42. Pozdneev, Obraztsy,"Alamzhl Mergen",p. 2. 43. Obraztsy, "Geser-Bogdo", p. 60. 44. Osoodor Mergen, Ulan-Ude, 1956, 57; Tudenov, 86-7. 45. [A. N. Afanaa'ev], Russian Fa i r y Tales. N. Y., 194-5, p. 484. 46. Sharakshinova, 218. 47. See Glossary f o r these terms. 48. Dugarnlmaev, 7» r e f e r r i n g to Savrasa.1 a l z Suta.la and Lodor-mergen na umnom bulanom. See Glossary, s.v»  Horse. 49. Sharakshinova, 199* 50. G. D. Sanzheev, Alamzha Mergen, v i i i . ..1 51. Idem, "Po etapam r a z v i t i j a burjat-mongol'skogo gerol-cheskogo eposa". So vet s k i .1 f o l ' k l o r , 1936, Nos. 3-4, pp. 58-65. ^ 52. Sharakshinova, 200. 53. "Ajduraj Mergen", l i n e s 900-1043* Sharakshinova, 201. 54. Lines 765-805. 55. Lines 820-865. 56. Cf. W. A. Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions', Edin. 1887, I. 237ff. f o r many l i k e analogues. 57. "Alamzha Mergen", "AJdural Mergen", " I r i n s e j " , "Khaa Oshor Khubuun", "AbaJ Geser ,. and others. 58. Sharakshinova, l o c . c i t . 59. P.' 202. ^ 60.. '^Ajduraj Mergen", l i n e s 1495-1627. 61. : Lines 4011-47. • ' . • \ • 62. Lines 1445-162^. Cf. Gar'julaj Mergen i n part I I I . 63. "Alamzha Mergen", "Ajduraj Mergen"., 64. " I r i n s e j " , l i n e s 1546-1620. 65. L i n e s 1990-2054. 66. The heroes of the u l i g e r s engage from the age of two i n hunting and m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y . --Sharakshinova, 203» See Irlrise.l I n part I I I . 67. Sharakshinova, l o c . c i t . 68. Ibid. 69. "Erbed Bogdo Khan", l i n e s 3338-41. Cf. the same motif i n "Kyrk Kyz" (q.v. i n part I I I ) . 70. Lines 3561-9, 3628-39. 71. Sharakshinova, 204-5. 72. P. 206. See Glossary, s.v. Masters. 73. Vladimirtsov, Mongolo-o.1ratskl.1 geroicheskl.1 epos, 14. 74. Cf. S. A. Kozin, "Vechnyj mir — chuduun zambi". Iz-• vest 1.1 a AN SSSR, otd. j a z . 1 l i t . , 1946, No. 3, 176; Coxwell, Siberian and other Folk-Tales, £1925], 152, where clay i s fetched from the sea-bed; a very ancient idea, f o r examination of which see M. P. Drahomaniv, Notes on the Slavic R e l i g i o - E t h l c a l Legends, Indiana U. P., 196T7 75. Waldemar Bogoras, "Ideas of space and time i n the con-ception of primitive r e l i g i o n " . American Anthropologist, N.S.,. XXVII, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1925), 215. 76. Czaplicka, Aboriginal Siberia, 56-7, quoting Siero-szewski, 12 l a t w kra.lu Jakut6w, Warsaw, 1900, 471-3. 77. Bogoras, 213. 78. Lines 446-453j 7504-22 i n the Ekhirit-Bulagat variant. (Sharakshinova, 207.) See Glossary, s.v. Burkhan. 79. "AbaJ Geser", an Ungin variant recorded by Sharak-shinova from P. M. Tushemllov. Cf. also the t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of the universe i n the olongkho below. 80. From Sharakshinova, 211ff. 81. P. 212. These quotations are from f a i r l y short epics composed by A. A. Toroev, doyen of modern u l l g e r s h i : "Lenin-bagsha" (Lenin the Teacher) and "Stalin-bator" ( S t a l i n the Hero). 82. Feudal lords, aristocrat's. 138 83* Exemplified most notably i n Bion, Moschus, and.two English descendants: "Lycidas" and "Adonais". This device of course occurs i n closer r e l a t i v e s to "Lenin-bagsha", such as Slovo o Polku Igpreve. 84. Curtin, 165, 167; c f . p. 308 (''The Iron Hero"),. 85. Sharakshinova, 215-6. 86. See Glossary. 87. See Curtin, 217-8, 293-4. 88. Sharakshinova, 213. 89. By Toroev, published ( i n Burjat) i n 1948. 90. By Marfa Krjukova, and also by Terentevich Fofanov (Bowra, Heroic Poetry, 515). In 1936 a f o l k l o r e ex-pedition to the Kuibyshev and Saratov provinces recor-ded 400 t a l e s about t h i s Soviet hero (Sokolov, Russian  Folklore [1950], 686; [194-5], 373). An example of these, Pesnja pro Chapaeva, i s i n Russkoe narodnoe poeticheskoe  tvorchestvo, 1963, 521. 91. By Fofanov (Bowra, i b i d . ) , and Dzhambul of Kazakh- . stan (SokolovTl950j,"T42; t h i s passage i s not i n the French e d i t i o n ) . 92. By Dzhambul. A l l of these appear In h i s Songs and  Poems, M., G o s l i t i z d a t , 1938. 93. By Krjukova, c a l l e d "Long Beard and the Bright F a l -cons" ( i . e . Schmidt and the rescuing airmen). See Bowra, i b i d . ; Sokolov (1950) 677; (1945), 368. 94. Bowra, i b i d . By Catherine Zhuravleva. \ I I . The Turkic Epic 139 1. Fahir Iz, "Orhon InscriptIon3", Cassell'3 Encyclopaedia of L i t e r a t u r e , ed. S. H. Steinberg, 1953, I, 4 0 1 . C f . , V. Thomsen, Inscriptions de 1'Orkhon dechlffres, I896; Winner, 54ff. 2. Dated c. 1077 by Winner (p. 56); 1071 by Iz (p. 562). 3. Winner, 58. 4. This pioneer work, the f r u i t of eleven years' sojourn on the shores of the Caspian, deals with the adventures and "improvisations" of Kurroglou, a bandit-minstrel.of the seventeenth century. Cf. Chadwick, a&rowth, m , 50. 5. Obraztsy narodno.1 l l t e r a t u r y severnykh tjurksklkh  piemen, S.-P., 1866-1904"^ 6. Cf. Leonid Sobolev, Pesni stepej: antologija kazakh-skoj l i t e r a t u r y . M., 1940. 7. Not to mention, of course, the possible connections between the Burjat-Mongol and Kirghiz t r a d i t i o n s , and the South Turkic-Yakut-Mongolian complex of t r a d i t i o n s . 8. S. Abramzon, review of Manas (1946), i n Sovetskaja^Et- nograf 1.1a. 1947, no.l, 225. 9. Ch. Ch. Vallkhanov, in. "Ocherki Dzhungarii", Sobranle  Sochlnenij, Alma-Ata, 1961, I, 420. 10. Cf. above, p.20; Valikhanov ( l o c . c i t . ) says I t pro-bably derives;from prose t a l e s , f a i r l y recently put to-gether. ' 11. Ibid.' This i s hardly a proper comparison, however. 12. See digest below, p„ 96ff. 13. "Smert' Kukotej-khana 1 ego pominki", in Sobr. Soch., I, 289-300; f i r s t published i n the 1904 c o l l e c t i o n (Za-p i s k i R.G-0 p_o otd. etnog., XXIX), 208-22. 14. 0p_. c i t . , 367, 420; c f . 681. 15. Editor's note i n Vallkhanov, I, 681; E. Mozolkov i n Manas (1946), 10. y-16. See above, pp. 4, 35. 17. Tudenov, Burjatskoe stikhoslozhenie, 33. 140 18. See I96I ed"., from Sandybaev, Akkozhaev and B a j t u r s u n o v . 19. See J a . N a l ' s k i j , " G a f l z Bobo Junus" i n P e s n l Bobo Junu- sa. S t a l i n a b a d , 1950, 3-4, 20. Manas, i n t r o . p. 10. 21. The 1946 ed. i s f r o m Orozbakov, save f o r p a r t I I I ("The T a l e o f Almambet"), w h i c h i s from K a r a l a e v . 22. . Manas (1946), 19; H e r o i c P o e t r y . 415. . .23. " S i n g e r s o f Manas": c f . B u r j a t u l l g e r s h l . The o r d i n a r y term f o r "bard" i s y r c h l . 24. Manas, 6, 8. This o f c o u r s e i s t r u e o f many f o l k e p i c s . 25. Chadwick, I I I , 73, t r . from R a d l o v , P r o b e n , V, 43. 26. Manas, 326; t r . Bowra, H e r o i c P o e t r y , 150. 27. " S e t t l e m e n t " ; c f . a u l . 28. Manas, 10; c f . t h e m a g i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f the u l i g e r s , p. 28 above. 29. Manas, 11. 30. Aus S i b l r i e n , I , 501ff. I 31. I b i d . , 504. 32. A. de L e v c h i n e , D e s c r i p t i o n des Hordes e t des Steppes  des K l r g h l z - K a z a k s , ou K i r g h i z - K a l s s a k s , P a r i s , 1840, 385, quoted i n Chadwick, I I I , 23. See G l o s s a r y , s.v. khuur. 33. Aus S l b i r i e n , I , 501:.Proben, I I I , x x l i ; Chadwick, I I I , p. 19. 34. C f . Caedmon's Hymn on t h e C r e a t i o n (7th c ) , Beowulf, . and t h e Old Norse E l d e r Edda. 35. See R. w. B u r c h f i e l d , " A l l i t e r a t i v e V e r s e " , C a s s e l l ' s Enc. o f L i t . , - I , 12. 36. Ed. by E. V. Gordon, O x f o r d , 1953; perh a p s by S i r Hugh of E g l i n t o u n , a S c o t t i s h p o e t - c f . K. W i t t i g , The S c o t t - i s h T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , 1958, 103-4. 37. " Z a p i s k i 0 K i r g i z a k h " , i n Sobr. Soch. I , 367. Cf. t h e pantoum, o f Malay o r i g i n , i n t r o . i n t o , F r e n c h v e r s e by V i c t o r Hugo. 38. " O c h e r k i D z h u n g a r i i " , Sobr. Soch.I, 419;' M i c h e l l , 98. 141 39. Arabic qyssa, " t a l e " ; c f . i t s use i n the t i t l e of "The Tale of Alpamysh-batyr", Alpamys batyrdyn,klssasy. 40. Winner, 55. 41. Gerould, Ballad of Tradition, .107; e.g. the conclusion of S i r Patrick Spens rchild 58), and ;CThe Wife Wrapt i n Wether's Skin (Child 277). In the same way i t occurs i n byliny, but with much greater r e g u l a r i t y . 42. Chadwick, III, 20. See farther, M. Auezov, "Kirgizskaja narodnaja gerolcheskaja. poema 'Manas'" In Kirgizski.1 ge_ro-icheskl.1 epos: Manas, 1961, 67ff. 43. The Kirghiz referred to a l l : the'Mongolian-speaking no-mads as Kalmucks. 44. The Tadzhlks, of Persian o r i g i n , were c a l l e d Sarts by the Central A s i a t i c nomads. 45. Valikhanov, I. 420. 46. Ibid. The alachug, or t r a v e l l i n g tent, gives Russian lachuga, "shanty". 47. Kunan: a three-year-old f o a l . 48. B a i t a l : a young mare that has not yet foaled. ' 49. Another kind of horse. Misprinted i n Kirghiz text (and German tr.) as kymkap. 50. Radlov, Proben, V., 6. Cf. Chadwick, III, 29; Heroic  Poetry, 96. Cf. below, p. 96. 51. See below, 97-102. 52. Manas, 102. 53. Cf. Manas, 160. 54. Manas, 9-10. 55. Bernshtam, "Znamenitel'naja data", Sovetskaja K i r g l z i j a , 30. Sep. 1945, quoted in Manas, 7. 56. Bernshtam, Sotsial'no-ekonomlchesklj stro j orkhono-jeni- se.lsklkh t.lurok VI-VII3" vekov, 1946, 52-3; idem:, i s t o r l -cheskoe proshloe kirgiaskogo naroda, Frunze, 1942, 11-3; S. E. Malov, "Manas: k i r g i z s k i j epos" (a review) i n Izv. otd. l i t , i AN. SSSR, 1947, no.2, 171-2. See also de-t a i l e d c r i t i c i s m i n V. M. ZhirmunskiJ, "Vvedenie v izuche-nie eposa 'Manas'" i n Kirgizski.1 narodny.1 epos: Manas, 1961, 138ff. 57. V. M. Z h i r m u n s k i j , "Nekotorye I t o g i i z u c h e n i j a g e r o i -cheskogo eposa narodov Srednej A z i l " i n B r a g i n s k i J , Vo-p r o s y 'lzuch.eni.1a eposa narodov SSSR, 1958, 47. 58. C f . V a l i k h a n o v , I, 421. 59. Manas, 7-8. 60. Bernshtam, " Z n a m e n i t e l ' n a j a d a t a " as above. 61. Z h i r m u n s k l j , i n B r a g i n s k i J , i b i d . 62. Manas, 254. Cf. Bowra, H e r o i c P o e t r y , 41. 63. See summary i n P a r t III, p. 106-9. 64. A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s , IV, 15, 4. Loeb ed., t r . E. I l l f f Robson, London, Heinemann, 1929, 387. 65. See Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, Harmondsworth, Pen gu i n Books, i960, I, 355, II, 130. Cf. a l s o M. 0. Kos-ven, "Amazohki. I s t o r i j a l e g e n d y " , i n Sov. Etnog., 1947, 2, 33-59; 3, 3-32. -See G l o s s a r y below, s.v. M a t r i a r c h y . 66. See P. P. Ivanov, "Ocherk i s t o r i i k a r a k a l p a k o v " i n Ma- t e r i a l y pq' i s t o r i i k a r a k a l p a k o v , M.-L., 1935, 63,. n.4; T. A. Zhdanko, " K a r a k a l p a k s k a j a e p i c h e s k a j a poema 'Kyrk Kyz' kak i s t o r i k o - e t n o g r a f i c h e s k i j i s t o c h n i k " , K r a t k i e So ob she hen 1.1 a I n s t . Etnog. AN SSSR, no. 30 (1958), 113. See t a l s h l i n G l o s s a r y below. 67. K y z y l b a s h i l i t e r a l l y means " r e d c a p s " ( s e e G l o s s a r y ) , 1 I.e. t h e P e r s i a n f o r c e s . 68. Zhdanko, i b i d . 69. Zhdanko, 114, r e f e r r i n g t o I s t o r l . l a Uzbeksko.1 SSR. Tashkent, 1955, I . i . , 431-2. 70. ZhirmunskiJ., "Nekotorye i t o g i . . . " ,28.. • 71. Zhdanko, i b i d . , , r e f e r r i n g t o a MS. o f N. Davarkaev, O c h e r k i po i s t o r i i karakalpaksko.1 l i t e r a t u r y , 251ff. 72. See G l o s s a r y , s.v. F o r t y . 73. V a l i k h a n o v , " O c h e r k i D z h u n g a r i i " , Sobr. Soch. I, 418. Kao-Tsche i s a Tufan o a s i s , o l d home o f t h e U i g h u r s . 74. I b i d . , r e f e r r i n g t o K l a p r o t h , Mempires r e l a t i f s k 1' A s i e . 75. I b i d . C f . M i c h e l l , 95ff. 143 76. R a d l o v , Aus S l b i r l e n , I , 407; Chadwick, I I I , . 143. 77. V a l i k h a n o v , " Z a p i s k i o K i r g i z a k h " , Sobr. Soch. I , 343. 78. I b i d . , 343-4j M i c h e l l , 275. 79. See C z a p l i c k a , "Yakut", H a s t i n g s ' Enc. o f R e l . and  E t h i c s , X I I , 826-9; and f o r comparison, A. F. A n i s i m o v , K o s m o l o g i c h e s k i e p r e d s t a v l e n i j a narodov s e v e r a , M.-L., .1959; B. 0. D o l g i k h , M I f o l o g i c h e a k l e s k a z k i i i s t o r l c h e s -k l e p r e d a n i . l a e n t s e v , M., 1961. 80. Pukhov s p e l l s t h e word olonkho; C z a p l i c k a ( f o l l o w i n g S l e r o s z e w s k i ) s p e l l s i t olongho. B t t h t l l n g k ' s Wttrterbuch (see n o t e 83) d e f i n e s i t as Marchen, E r z a h l u n g . E a r l y c o l l e c t o r s , such as P e k a r s k i j , c a l l e d t h e s e e p i c s s k a z k i , " f o l k t a l e s " ; J a s t r e m s k i j " d e s c r i b e d them as b y l i n y (Obraz- t s y narodno.1 l i t e r a t u r y j a k u t o v , 1929). See G l o s s a r y f o r etymology. . " 81. C f . t h e performance o f Manas (pp. 60-1 above), and t h e u l i g e r s ( p . 37)• .82. Pukhov, "Olonkho", 209. 83. Ueber d i e Sprache d e r J a k u t e n . Grammatik, Text und Wttr-t e r b u c h . S.-P., 1851, 79-95. 84. V e r k h o j a n s k l j s b o r n i k . ( Z a p i s k i VSORGO po o t d . e t n o g . , . I . i i i ) , J a k u t s k , 1890. " • 85. O b r a z t s y narodno.1 l i t e r a t u r y .lakutov. V o l . I was I s s u e d 1 . i n 5 p a r t s , 1907-11, arid i n 1911 c o l l e c t e d i n one volume. P e k a r s k i j i n t e n d e d t o g i v e t r . , b ut t h e s e n e v e r appeared. In t h i s volume ( p a r t I) appeared "NJurgun B o o t u r t h e Im-pe t u o u s " , one o f t h e g r e a t o l o n k h o s . V o l . I I (1913-18) c o n t a i n s m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d by Khudjakov, i n c l u d i n g "Khaan D ' a r g y s t a j " . V o l . I l l (1916) c o n t a i n s "Kulun K u l l u s t u u r " , r e c o r d e d by V. N. V a s i l ' e v i n 1905. See B i b l i o g r a p h y un-d e r t h e names o f t h e c o l l e c t o r s . 86. O b r a z t s y n a r o d n o j l i t e r a t u r y j a k u t o v . L., 1929. 87. The a r t i c l e "Olonkho" i n B r a g i n s k i J , 209-25; Jakutskl.T  g e r o i c h e s k l j epos: o l o n k h o . M., AN SSSR, 1962. 88. A l t h o u g h t h e a j y y a r e t r e a t e d as human, i n f a c t t h e o n l y human r a c e , b o t h t h e groups a r e a c t u a l l y s p i r i t s , o r a t l e a s t t h e y a re l o o k e d on as such nowadays. The a j y y a r e c a l l e d " w h i t e " o r good s p i r i t s , w h i t e shamans b e i n g termed ajyy-0.1 una, and w h i t e shamanesses ajyy-udagana. " B l a c k " shamans, who have m a l e v o l e n t f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s , a r e termed a b a a s y - o j u n a ( C z a p l i c k a , A b o r i g i n a l S i b e r i a , 352). W h i l e 144 t h e abaasy have always been more o r l e s s e q u i v a l e n t t o de-mons, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e a.1yy began as s e m i - m o r t a l he-r o e s of t h e human ( i . e . , Yakut) r a c e , and by a p r o c e s s o f a n c e s t o r d e i f i c a t i o n , became e q u i v a l e n t t o a n g e l s , o r a t t h e l e a s t s a i n t s . 89. Pukhov, "Olonkho", 214-7. F o r t h e ysy a k h , see p. I 6 f f . above. 90. K a i Donner, Among t h e Samoyed In, S i b e r i a , New Haven, 1954, 84; German t e x t , "118. See summary, i n P a r t I I I . 91. "Olonkho", 217. T h i s " L i v i n g ' W a t e r " i s used on t h e a'jyy as a whole, n o t m e r e l y the, main p r o t a g o n i s t . ' 92. C f . below, p. 85. .93. C u r t i n , 298. 94. In t h e Ostyak t a l e o f "Aspen-Leaf", C o x w e l l , 518-34, t r . from S. Patkanov, D i e I r t y s c h - O s t . l a k e n und l h r V o l k s p o e s l e , 1897-1900, 4 2 f f . '. 95. C o x w e l l , 766-7: "The Waters o f L i f e and Death", t r . from A f a n a s ' e v ' s R u s s i a n P o p u l a r T a l e s , no. 104, v a r . g. A more extended v e r s i o n i s i n t h e Guterman t r . , 3 l 4 f f . : "The B o l d K n i g h t , t h e Ap p l e s o f Youth, and the Water, o f L i f e " . 96. T h i s " r e - s h o e i n g " t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e f u r n a c e o f t h e " K i t a j Bakhsy", and t h e hero i s a f t e r w a r d s d i p p e d I n a f i e r y l a k e . C f . t h e t e m p e r i n g o f t h e Ossete hero B a t r a d z •( by t h e d i v i n e s m i t h K u r d a l o g o n , so t h a t h i s body t u r n s t o b l u e s t e e l (G. D u m ^ z i l , Le^endes s u r l e s N a r t e s , 1930, 54; H e r o i c P o e t r y , 104, from V. Dynnik, Skazani.la o n a r t a k h , M., 1944^ 3 3 f f . ) ; t h e theme a l s o o c c u r s i n c l a s s i c a l myth. 97. "Olonkho", 217. 98. P. 219; see below, p. 117. 99. P. 219. 100. See G l o s s a r y . 101. "Olonkho", 222. 102. P. 223-103. See above, 2 1 f f . C z a p l i c k a n o t e s t h a t memory o f t h e o l d l a r g e herds o f h o r s e s and l a r g e groups o f p e o p l e ( t h e term dzhon) was o n l y p r e s e r v e d , a f t e r t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e t r i b e I n t o s m a l l e r groups, i n t h e olongkho (Abor. S i b e r i a , 145 57. from S i e r o s z e w s k i , 12 l a t w k r a j u JakutdV, 1900, 304); and i n t h e e p i c s one f i n d s r e f e r e n c e s t o heroes who go f o r t h to seek t h e i r f a t h e r s ( c f . I r i n s e j among the Bur-» j a t s ) , w h i c h one can connect w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e Yakut terms f o r "mother" (Jje) and * w i f e " ( o j o kh) a r e . • a r e more a n c i e n t and d e f i n i t e than t h o s e f o r " f a t h e r " (aga) and "husband" ( e r , man; e r i m , my man, c o l l . hus-b a n d ) . - See A b o r i g i n a l S i b e r i a , 62; S i e r o s z e w s k i , 338. •;104. H e r o i c p o e t r y , 25 . PART I I I . •I. GAR'JULAJ MERGEN. 1. S l i g h t l y a b r i d g e d from t h e R u s s i a n o f M. B u l a t o v , from A l t a n - K h a j s h a — Z o l o t v e n o z h n i t s y , 1959, 92-109. The f i r s t appearance o f t h i s t a l e , w h i c h i s e x t r e m e l y l i k e many u l i - g e r s , was i n G. N. P o t a n i n , B u r j a t s k i e s k a z k l 1 p o v e r ' j a , ( Z a p ! s k i VSORGO po. o t d . e t n o g . , I . l ) , I r k u t s k , 1889, 33-43. A s h o r t summary i s i n Demetrius Klementz, " B u r i a t s " , Enc. o f Rel. and E t h i c s , I I I , 3; w h i c h says, e r r o n e o u s l y , t h a t t h e hero I s Agu-Nogon-Abakhai, and c a l l s t h e s i s t e r " t h e maiden V a t i a z " , w h i c h seems t o be an e r r o r f o r " d e v i t s a -v i t j a z ' " , i . e . " m a i d e n - k n i g h t " . 2. The Mangatkhaj i s a huge many-headed monster; see G l o s s -a r y . J>\ C f . Klementz, p. 7. 4. T h i s i s . t h e m o t i f o f t h e h o r s e h e l p i n g t h e hero by h i s wisdom. See G l o s s a r y , s.v. Horse. 5. I t j e , i n t h e Samoyed e p i c , s i m i l a r l y d e s t r o y s h i s enemy; see below, p. 121. , ' , 6. Esege-malan i s t h e main d e i t y o f B u r j a t mythology (see . G l o s s a r y ) - i n t h i s t a l e however he i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n v e r y human and f a l l i b l e terms. 7. The b e a r , which i s honoured as the t r i b a l f a t h e r o f t h e K e t Samoyed (see I t j e below) p l a y s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e b e l i e f s and ceremonies o f t h e shamans o f S i b e r i a , and Bear F e s t i v a l s were common a l l over t h e c o u n t r y , among t h e A i n u , G i l y a k , G o l d i , O l c h a , e t c . See A. I . H a L l l o w e l l , "Bear C e r e m o n i a l i s m i n t h e N o r t h e r n Hemisphere", American  A n t h r . , n.s., X X V I I I (1926), 1-163. F o r a s i m i l a r t r e a t -ment o f m a r i t i m e whale c u l t s , see M a r g a r e t L a n t i s , "The 146 Alaskan Whale Cult and i t s A f f i n i t i e s " , Amer.;Anthr., n.s., XL, no. 3 (July-Sep.. 1938), 438-64. For a l l t h i s Czapllc-ka notes-(Abor. Siberia, 286-7) the "curious" f a c t that the bear does not enter into the myths and r i t u a l of the Burjat. Here, and p. 88 below, he i s only an unwelcome . animal, serving to help on the action. ' But the horse tak-' es the sacral place of the bear (in the Tallgan), and he. i s a d e f i n i t e persona in f o l k l o r e . 8. Cf. Curtin, 170. 9. The motif of the L i v i n g Water i s seen again i n Irinsej below, and occurs i n the Yakut olongkho as well; see Glossary, s.v. Water of L i f e . 10. This i s a benevolent Yellow Dog, as opposed to the i r a s -c i b l e monster mentioned by Curtin, 217ff.» 293-4. 11. Cf. Curtin, 298. II . IRINSEJ. 1. S l i g h t l y revised from G. D. R. P h i l l i p s , Dawn in Siberia, (London, Muller, 1943), 44-5: "Ninety year old Irensei and h i s old woman, Untan Durai". 2. Cf. P h i l l i p s , p. 45: "The horse has become his the Bur-jat 's most valuable and r e l i a b l e companion, f r i e n d and helper." - i . e . the horse i s at t h i s time an important •part of the Burjat community. Cf. the possible derivation , of Burjat from b u r i , " s t a l l i o n " . The F a i t h f u l Horse i s a widespread motif i n f o l k l o r e ; see Glossary, s.v. Horse. .III. MANAS. 1. Paraphrased from the 1946 ed., p. l l f f . , with additions from Radlov, Proben, V, 2 f f . and Valikhanov, "Ocherki Dzhungarli", Sobr. Soch. I, 420ff. 2. Valikhanov, 420. 3. See "Kos Kaman" i n Radlov, V. 4. Valikhanov, 421 ( c f . Radlov, V, 392 on Ak Sajkal). Ma-nas' father (here Jakub) i s sent as matchmaker, but Kharan, father of the g i r l (here c a l l e d Khankej) refuses, saying "For my daughter, a khan's son Is f i t t i n g ; f o r your son, the daughter of an ordinary b l j " . Manas starts a war and takes the princess by force. A d i r e c t p a r a l l e l i s the Kirghiz t a l e "The Hero Kysyl-batyr" In Etnog. Obozrenle, 147 M., 1906, I , 119 - t r . I n C o x w e l l , S i b e r i a n and o t h e r F o l k - t a l e s , 1925, 368-9. 5. Manas' war on t h e C h i n e s e i s a r e l i g i o u s c r u s a d e o f I s l a m a g a i n s t Buddhism. The K i r g h i z a r e Moslems, but Bowra t h i n k s t h e y a r e r e c e n t l y c o n v e r t e d , s i n c e t h e r e a r e r e f e r -ences ( e . g . Proben, V, 18) t o Er K o s h o j , "who opened t h e d o o r s o f Paradise,/Who opened t h e c l o s e d d o o r s o f t h e ba-z a a r s " ( H e r o i c P o e t r y , 108 - e r r o n e o u s l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e U l g h u r p r i n c e E r Kokchti). C f . V a l l k h a n o v , I , 296, on I r -K o s a j , "who opened t h e f o r b i d d e n d o o r s i n P a r a d i s e , and opened up the c l o s e d way t o T u r f a n , who gave new l i f e t o t h e shut b a z a a r " . I t seems t h a t " K o s a j " m e r e l y came t o t h e a i d o f a c a p t i v e h a j j i . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h pagan elements, c f . Bowra's remarks (p. 397) on Jelmogus, son o f A l t y n S i -b a l d i , "The Golden W i t c h " . He seems t o be a " c o s m o l o g i c a l demon" (Chadwick, I I I , 8 4 ) , b u t • r e p r e s e n t s i n one p l a c e .(Proben, V, 3) t h e U i g h u r s , whom Manas w i l l conquer. See G l o s s a r y , s.v. Jelmogus. 6. But c f . t h e account i n R a d l o v , V, o f h i s c o n v e r s i o n by E r Ktikcho (see Chadwick, I I I , 3 0 ) . 7. Manas, 175; t r . Bowra, 95. 8. In R a d l o v , "Kongur B a j " i s m e r e l y a t a x - c o l l e c t o r f o r t h e C h i n e s e . 9. The Kalmuck poem D z h a n g a r i a d a Is r e p l e t e w i t h a s s e v e r a -t i o n s o f f a i t h i n Buddha. 10. A s i g n o f p r i t n i t i v i t y i n t h e e p i c , as i s t h e custom o f d r i n k i n g t h e b l o o d o f one's enemy — f o r w h i c h c f . R a d l o v , V, 370, where Kanykaj asks t o d r i n k t h e b l o o d o f Khan Choro, who has murdered h e r son Semetej. Compare t h e Ma-n a s - Almambet r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h a t between Alpamysh and t h e Kalmuck Karadzhan: see V. M. Z h i r m u n s k i j and Kh. T. Z a r i f o v , Uzbekskl.1 narodny.1 g e r o l c h e s k i . 1 epos, 78; Z h i r -m u n s k i j , i n K i r g i z s k i j g e r o l c h e s k l j epos: Manas, 165. 11. Manas, 150; t r . Bowra, 138. 12.. Manas, 264. Cf. t h e v e r y o l d b e l i e f i n t h e r e s i d e n c e i n some o b j e c t , l i v i n g o r i n a n i m a t e , o f a p e r s o n ' s s o u l ; t h i s i s f o u n d i n t h e B u r j a t l e g e n d s o f t h e Mangatkhaj ( c f . P h i -l l i p s , Dawn i n S i b e r i a , 3 1n.), t h e Kalmuck t a l e o f "The W i f e who s t o l e t h e H e a r t " (B. J t t l g , 1866, no. IX; t r . Cox-w e l l , 2 1 2), and goes a l l t h e way back t o Egypt ( C o x w e l l , 254, r e f . t o G. Maspero, L e s Contes P o p u l a l r e s . d e 1'Egypte  Ancienne, 1882, 5). 13. Manas, 277 - t h e axe i s c a l l e d a j - b a l t a , "moon-axe". 148 14. Manas, 326, t r . Bowra, 157. C f . t h e remark o f Robert , G r a v e s , White Goddess, 1959, 487: "The c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e winds w i t h t h e Goddess I s a l s o shown i n t h e wide-r spread p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t o n l y p i g s and g o a t s ( b o t h an-c i e n t l y s a c r e d t o her) can see t h e wind, and i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t mares can c o n c e i v e m e r e l y by t u r n i n g t h e i r h i n d q u a r -t e r s t o t h e wind." C f . I l i a d XVI, l 4 9 f f . , where we a r e t o l d o f Xanthos and B a l i o s , A c h i l l e s ' h o r s e s , born o f t h e h a r p y Podarge t o t h e West Wind; and XX, 219-25: Dardanos i n t u r n had a son, t h e k i n g , E r l c h t h o n l o s , who became t h e r i c h e s t o f m o r t a l men, and i n h i s po-s s e s s i o n were t h r e e thousand h o r s e s who p a s t u r e d a l o n g t h e low g r a s s l a n d s , mares i n t h e i r p r i d e w i t h t h e i r young c o l t s ; and w i t h t h e s e t h e N o r t h Wind f e l l i n l o v e as t h e y p a s t u r e d t h e r e , and took on upon him " t h e l i k e n e s s o f a dark-maned s t a l l i o n , and c o u p l e d w i t h them, and t h e mares c o n c e i v i n g o f him b o r e t o him t w e l v e young h o r s e s . ( T r . L a t t i m o r e . ) 15. Manas, 335; t r . Bowra, 58. IV. ALPAMYSH. 1. From Z h i r m u n s k i j ' s epitome, pp. 99-100 o f " E p i c h e s k o e s k a z a n i e ob Alpamyshe i ' o d i s s e j a ' Gomera", I z v e s t i . l a AN, SSSR, o t d . l i t . I j a z ., XVI, (1957), vyp. 2. The v e r s i o n , t h e b e s t known, I s t h a t o f F a z l l J u l d a s h . A R u s s i a n t r . by L. M. P e n k o v s k i j appeared i n 1949, r e p r . i n U z b e k s k l e  narodnye poemy, Tashkent, 1958,.9-334. The b e t r o t h i n g o f t h e hero and h e r o i n e " i n t h e c r a d l e " i s common i n many e p i c s - c f . "Qtizy Korposh and B a j a n S t t l u . " 2. C f . S u r t a i s h i i n t h e K a r a k a l p a k Kyrk Kyz; see G l o s s a r y . 3. N o t e t h e "40" m o t i f h e r e , as i n Manas, Kyrk Kyz, e t c . See e x c u r s u s on F o r t y i n G l o s s a r y . . 4. A d i r e c t p a r a l l e l t o t h e d i s g u i s e d Odysseus b e n d i n g h i s . m i g h t y bow i n t h e Odyssey, XXI ( B u t c h e r and Lang's t r . , G l o b e ed., 1956, 357).-V. KYRK KYZ. 1. P a r a p h r a s e d from Zhdanko's d i g e s t o f K u r b a n b a j ' s r e c e n -s i o n , pp. 111-2. F o r i n f o r m a t i o n about i t s o r i g i n , see ) 149 above, 18-9, 68ff. See Glossary, s.v. Forty. 2. It is here that the old ethnogenetic legend would come :..in, although i t is not mentioned, for obvious reasons, in Kurbanbaj's version. See above, p. 70ff. VI. K A M B A R - B A T Y R . 1. A minor Kazakh epic, included for comparative purposes. This Is I.. N. Berezin's version (Kambar-batyr, 1959, 7-8; Russian tr.,, 127-8). Here Kambar is of the clan of Uak (belonging to the orta zhuza, or Middle Horde of the Ka- . zakh nation);. in a later version (1946), Uak is said to : be the father of the hero. In Vallkhanov1s fragment from Manas (Sobr. Soch. I. 291, 297), the hero Er Ktikcho is said to be the grandson of Kambar-khan. 2. The ktilan, or onager, the wild ass of Central Asia. 3. The ki.Uk. These two animals occur in most Kazakh epic descriptions of the hunt. 4. Sttlu means "beauty", and is a standard suffix to names of maidens in Turkic epics (cf. "Qtizy-ktirptish and Bajan-sulu"). 5. Kalym means bride-price, a very ancient custom. Kazim-baj refuses compensation for his daughter, proving his immense wealth. 6. Notice the traditional "forty maidens" once more. This seems to be the number of the entourage of many folktale princesses. , 7. That is, "of khan blood". Bone in Central Asia means "generation"; the "White Bone" means the descendants of Chinggis. 8. The Kalmuck khan is called in other versions Maktum or Karaman. 9. In other versions, this matchmaker is called Kelmembet. The Russian (p. 128) has some misprints here. 10. The cutting off of lips, ears and nose was a common treatment of captives in former times; references to this occur in other epics (Koblandy, Alpamysh, Kyz-Zhlbek, etc.) and cf. the punishment" of Melanthius in Homer (Od. XXII). 11. The ktirimdik, a gift at the showing of a bride or a new-born child. 150 12. B a j g a , h o r s e - r a c e . 13. T h i s ( f i r s t ) account o f t h e e p i c i s t a k e n from L. M e j e r , K l r g l z s k a j a s t e p ' Orenburgskogo yedomstva, S.-P., 1865, quoted i n Kambar-batyr, 1959, 2551 14. The s a j g a ( S a i g a t a t a r i c a ) , i n K i r g h i z btiken. V I I . UN STUMBLING- MJULDJU THE STRONG. 1. Summarised from Pukhov's epitome i n J a k u t s k l 1 g e r o l c h e s - i. kl.1 epos: Olonkho. Osnovnye o b r a z y , 1962, 223-42. The v e r s i o n i s t h a t o f D. M. Govorov (Buduru.jbet Mul'du Bttgho), c o l l e c t e d 1934-5 i n J a k u t s k . I t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1938". 2. ' Thought by some t o be t h e A r a l Sea (Pukhov 1 s n o t e ) . 3. See Tojon and Khotun i n G l o s s a r y . 4. C f . J o c h e l s o n , The Y u k a g h i r , 101-2, on c h i l d b i r t h p r a c -t i c e s . See G l o s s a r y , s.v. A.lyy s i t . 5. Meaning "White J u k e j d e e n t h e B e a u t i f u l " . 6. A t y p i c a l Yakut demon; c f . t h e d e v i l ' s d a u g h t e r i n "The L i t t l e O l d Woman w i t h F i v e Cows" ( C o x w e l l , 264, f r o m ' I . A. Khudjakov, V e r k h o j a n s k i J s b o r n i k , 1890, 8 0 f f . ) . 7. See abaasy i n G l o s s a r y , and r e f e r e n c e s . . 8. See above, p. 76. 9. Uot means " f i e r y " . 10. The monologues o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e sung, w h i l e t h e s t o r y i s m e r e l y d e c l a i m e d . See above, p. 73. • 11. In t h i s t r e e ( d e s c r i b e d on'pp. 34-6 o f t h e t e x t ) l i v e s t h e s p i r i t o f t h e e a r t h goddess, t h e p r o t e c t o r o f mankind. I t i s sometimes . d e s c r i b e d i n t h e olongkho as aal-duun mas, "mighty oak t r e e " , and i t s o l d e s t name i s a a r kuduk mas, " g r e a t t r e e o f abundance" (Pukhov, 1962, 33)• I t has con-n e c t i o n s on t h e one. hand, w i t h such s a c r e d t r e e s as Yggdra-s i l l and t h e T i b e t a n w o r l d - t r e e ( f o r w h i c h see A. H. F r a n -c k e , T i b e t i s c h e H o c h z e i t l l e d e r , 1923, 14), and on t h e o t h e r , w i t h animism; c f . p. 101 above. ( 12. C f . t h e (non-Homeric) l e g e n d o f A c h i l l e s b e i n g d i p p e d i n t h e r i v e r S t y x ; see p. 116 above. 13. See G l o s s a r y . The same as t h e R u s s i a n w i t c h , b a b a - j a g a . ^ • J 151 V I I I . THE SAMOYED EPIC OF I T J E . 1. F o r t h e sake o f comparison, t h i s Samoyedic h e r o i c t a l e i s h e r e appended, adapted from Donner, which seems t o be t h e o n l y a c c o u n t . See Among t h e Samoyed i n S i b e r i a , Hu-man R e l a t i o n s A r e a F i l e s ed., 1954, 83 -4; German t e x t , 116-8. • 2. Compare K a l e v a l a , Rune 41, where VainamoInen p l a y s on h i s k a n t e l e and a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s h a s t e n t o l i s t e n . • 3 . Examples o f t h e " G r a t e f u l B e a s t s " m o t i f . 4 . W h i l e t h e S o v i e t government can su p p o r t and use a g r e a t amount o f f o l k l o r e f o r i t s own p u r p o s e s ( s e e P a r t I V ) , i t ; i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how t h i s a n t i - R u s s i a n t r a d i t i o n can be m a n i p u l a t e d ; u n l e s s t h e " f o r e i g n e r s " a r e e x p l a i n e d as " p r i e s t s and c a p i t a l i s t s " , when o f c o u r s e t h e r e would be no p r o b l e m . 5 . C f . t h e l e g e n d o f A r t h u r , t h e f o l k - h e r o who s l e e p s I n A v a l o n , and w i l l "come a g a i n " ; and t h e K a l e v a l a , Rune 5 0 , . where Vainamoinen i s o f f e n d e d a t t h e ba p t i s m o f M a r j a t t a ' s c h i l d as K i n g o f K a r e l i a and l e a v e s t h e c o u n t r y i n h i s coppe r b o a t , b u t d e c l a r e s t h a t he w i l l come a g a i n t o h e l p h i s p e o p l e . 1 . ' PART IV. CONCLUSION. 1. ' The O r i g i n o f t h e F a m i l y , o f P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y , and t h e  S t a t e , quoted i n Sokolov (1950), 35. 2. F o r i n s t a n c e : K a r l Marx, C r i t i q u e o f P o l i t i c a l Economy ( R u s s i a n ed., M., 1952, 225);. Marx and E n g e l s , F e u e r b a c h ( i n A r k h i v K. Marksa 1 F. E n g e l s a , I , 1924, 230); E n g e l s , A n t i - D u h r i n g , p a s s i m — a l l a r e quoted, some more than once, i n t h e volume ed.. by B r a g i n s k i j , Voproay i z u c h e n l . l a  eposa narodov SSSR, 1958. 3. From an a r t i c l e on "Orerman P o p u l a r Books",. quoted i n So k o l o v (1950), 32-3. • S' ' • 4. V. D. B o n c h - B r u e v i c h , "V. I . L e n i n ob ustnom narodnom t v o r c h e s t v e " , Sov. Etnog;, • 1954, no. 4, 118. Cf; S o k o l o v , (1950), 37. 5. B u r j a t s k i j f o l ' k l o r , 211-2. 6. Op. c i t . , 219. 152 7. Ibid., 217. 8. Oral Art and Literature of the Kazakhs, 150ff. 9. The origin of the epic Is probably Tibetan, with addi-tions by the Mongols, such as the chapters dealing with the battles with Andulma-Khan and Aburgasun-Khan, the f i f -teen headed snake —typical themes in the uligers. See Damdinsuren, Istoricheskie korni Geseriady, for a full an-alysis of a l l the problems connected with this vast epic, called by Sylvain Levi (in defiance of VallkhanovJ) "the Iliad of Central Asia" (preface to David-Neel's tr., Paris, 1931, v i i ) . Since Geser Is: well represented in tr., i t is not included in Part III above. See also Glossary, Geser. 10. Articles by Ts. Galsanov, Zh. Tumunov, and others, in several journals, 1949-51. See references in Sharakshin-ova, 32, and Damdinsuren, .50. 11. Damdinsuren, 51-3. . 12. See "Soviet Uligers", p. 50 above. 13. Short (2- or. 4-line) folk verses, usually topical or humorous. See many examples in Russkoe narodnoe poetich-eskoe tvorchestvo, 1963, 479-86. S BIBLIOGRAPHY 153 D i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : A, P r i m a r y Sources:' t h e t e x t s , i n t r a n s l a t i o n where p o s s i b l e * B, Secondary Sour-ce s , namely c r i t i c a l works, on t h e main t o p i c ; C, Other Works C o n s u l t e d , and some c o m p a r a t i v e m a t e r i a l — f o r i n -s t a n c e , works on t h e e p i c t a l e s o f t h e Caucasus. Works n o t seen a r e marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k . A. PRIMARY SOURCES. Ajman-sholpan. Alma-Ata, Kaz. SSR AN, 1957. A6 pp. A Kazakh e p i c . *A.1 s u l u . Ed. Kh. T. Z a r i f o v . Tashkent, AN UzSSR,. 1954. Noted down from t h e Uzbek s i n g e r E r g a s h , son o f Dzhu-man-Bulbul ( d . 1937). Alamzha Mergen. Perevod I . N o v i k o v a , p r e d l s l o v i e G. D. Sanzheeva. M.-L., Academia, 1936. New ed.: A l a m z h i Mergen. B u r j a t s k i j epos. P e r . I v a n a N o v i k o v a . P r e d . P. S k o s y r e v a . 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M., GIKhL-, 19 A9. Tr. o f Alpamysh, ed. Khamid.Alimdzhanov from Jundash, Tashkent, 1939 (new ed. 1958). A l t a n - k h a j s h a — Z o l o t y e n o z h n i t s y . B u r j a t s k i e narodnye  s k a z k i . M., G o s I z d D e t s L i t , 1959. 175 pp. * I n t r o , by L. E l i a s o v . V e r s i o n s o f B u r j a t f o l k t a l e s , some ta k e n from Toroev's B u r j a t s k i e S k a z k i , 1958. BALAZS, B e l a . Pas goldene Z e l t . K a s a c h l s c h e V o l k s e p e n  und Marchen. B e r l i n , V e r l a g K u l t u r und F o r t s c h r i t t , 1956. 211 pp. I l l u s . T r . by E r i c h M u l l e r . C o n t a i n s t h e e p i c s "Kosy-Ktirpesch und B a j a n - S l u " , "Der. .•> Recke Targyn", "Kys-Shlbek"; as w e l l as f o l k t a l e s . BARANOV, E. "Kozu-kurpech 1 B a j a n - s l u ( k i r g i z s k o e narodnoe p r e d a n i e " . Supp. t o N l v a , Jan.-Ap. 1899, 307-4-3. R e p r i n t e d : I . A. K a s t a n r e , D r e v n o s t i k i r g i z s k o j s t e p l i Orenburgskogo k r a . l a (Trudy Orenb. uchenoj arkhlvno.1 ko- m i s s i i , X X I I ) . Orenburg, 1910, pp. 276-92. B a s h k i r s k i e narodnye s k a z k i . Z a p i s 1 1 p e r e y o d A. G. Besson-ova. Red., w e d . i p r i m e c h . p r o f . N. K. D m i t r i e v a . U f a , B a s h g o s i z d a t , 1941. . •H-BAZAROV, Sh. L. O b r a z t s y mongol' skogo narodnogo t y o r c h e s t v a ( Z a p i s k i Vostochnogo o t d . IRAQ, vyp. 5, t . XIVT) *BEREZIN, A. B u r . l a t s k i e s k a z k i . I r k u t s k , I889. 11 BOHTLINGK, Ot t o N. Ueber d i e Sprache d e r J a k u t e n . Grammatlk  Text und Worterbuch. S.-P., 1851. R e p r i n t , w i t h f o r e w o r d by John R. K r u e g e r , The Hague, Mouton, 1964. ( I n d i a n a U. Pub., U r a l i c and A l t a i c s e r i e s , v o l . 35.) T h i s work, which formed Band I I I o f A. Th. v. M i d d e n d o r f f 1 s R e i s e i n den a u s s e r s t e n Norden und Osten  S i b i r i e n s , c o n t a i n s Tpp. 79-95) an olongkho whose hero i s E r - S o g o t o k h . I t was w r i t t e n down by A. J a . U v a r o v s k i j i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g , 1845-8, and i s g i v e n i n Yakut w i t h a p a r a l l e l German t r a n s l a t i o n . CHERNYKH-JAKUTSKIJ, P e t r . I z b r a n n o e . J a k u t s k , 1945. C o n t a i n s (pp. 71-131) a p o e t i c a l p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e o l o n g - 1 kho J u r j u n U o l a n . COKWELL, C. F. S i b e r i a n and o t h e r f o l k - t a l e s : p r i m i t i v e  l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e empire o f t h e T s a r s , c o l l . and t r . . . . London, C. W. D a n i e l , [ 1 9 2 5 ] . 1056 pp. B i b l i o . A c o m p i l a t i o n from v a r i o u s , s o u r c e s ( J u l g , Bogoraz e t c . ) of " S u b - A r c t i c " , " M o n g o l - T u r k i s h " , " F i n n o - U g r i a n " . and "Aryan" f o l k t a l e s . Notes g i v e comparisons w i t h r e l a t e d t a l e s and m o t i f s . CURTIN, J e r e m i a h . A Journey i n Southern S i b e r i a : t h e Mon- g o l s , t h e i r r e l i g i o n and th e i r . , myths. B o s t o n , L i t t l e , Brown, 1909. x i v , 319 PP» P l a t e s , map. DAVID-NEEL, A l e x a n d r a , and The Lama YONGDEN. The Superhuman  L i f e o f Gesar of L i n g , t h e l e g e n d a r y T i b e t a n h e r o , as sung by t h e b a r d s o f h i s c o u n t r y . London, R i d e r , 1933. T r . by t h e a u t h o r and V. Sidney o f L a V i e Surhumaine de •Gu^sar de L i n g , l e h e r o s t h i b e t a i n , r a c o n t ^ e p a r lea b a r d e s de son pays. P a r i s , Adyar, 1931. 1 5 5 fDede Korku t i . K n l g a mo ego deda K o r k u t a : o g u z s k i j g e r o l c h e s k l j  epos. P e r e v o d V. V. B a r t o l ' d a . I z d . podgotov. V. M. Z h i r -m u n s k i j , A. N. Kononov. M., AN SSSR, 1962. 299 pp. C o n t a i n s , among o t h e r c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l , Z h i r m u n s k l j : " O g u z s k i j g e r o i c h e s k i j epos 1 'Kniga K o r k u t a ' " (pp. 131-258; v e r y d e t a i l e d ) . ' DIVAEV, A. " V e l i k a n Alpamys. ( I z k i r g i z s k i k h s k a z o k . ) " Tur- k e s t a n s k i e v e d o m o s t l , Tashkent, 8/21, 9/22 Oct. 1916 (Nos. 217, 218). A l s o i n t h e Auezov-Smirnova ed. o f A l p a m y s - b a t y r , 1961. , DONNER, K a i . Among t h e Samoyed i n S i b e r i a . T r . by R i n e h a r t K y l e r , ed. Genevieve A. H i g h l a n d . New Haven, Human Re-l a t i o n s A r e a F i l e s , 1954. xx, 176 pp. I l l u s . C o n t a i n s an account o f t h e I t j e e p i c . ( S e e P a r t I I I above.) DUGARNIMAEV, Ts. A. and ZHALSARAEV, D. Z., eds. A n t o l o g l . l a b u r j a t s k o j p o e z i i . M., G o s l i t i z d a t , 1959- 399 pp. C o n t a i n s some s e l e c t i o n s from t h e u l i g e r s ; from Geser, t h e 4th B r a n c h (The V i c t o r y o v e r G a l Nurman); from A l a m z h i - Mergen; and c h a p t e r s from A p o l l o n Toroev's Lenin-bagsha., DYREMKOVA, N. P. Shorskl .1 f o l ' k l o r . Z a p i s i , p e r e v o d , v s t u p . s t a t ' j a 1 p r i m e c h a n i j a . . . M.-L., 1940. Reviewed by L. P. Potapov i h Sov. Etnog., 1948, no. 3. i-DZHALIL, Kurban. G u r g u l i . T a d z h i k s k i j n a r o d n y j epos. S t a -l i n abad-L en i n g r ad, 194*1.-Dzhangar, k a l m y t s k i j n a r o d n y j epos. M., GIKhL, 1940. 355 pp. T r . by S. L i p k i n . C o n t a i n s i n t r o . , " B o g a t y r s k a j a poema \ : kalmytskogo n a r o d a " by 0. I . G o r o d o v i k o v , and a s h o r t g l o s s a r y . ELIASOV, L. E., ed. B u r j s . t s k l e s k a z k i . Tom I . .Ulan-Ude, B u r j a t s k o e K n i z h n o e I z d a t . , 1 9 5 9 . 421 pp. The f i r s t group o f t a l e s ( " V o l s h e b n o - f a n t a s t i c h e s k i e " ) f e a t u r e s t h e heroes o f t h e u l i g e r s . *[Erchimen Bergen] . 01onk?io "Erchimen Bergen". Svodnyj v a r i - ant . Obrab. S. V a s i l 1 e v a . J a k u t s k , 1 9 5 5 . I n Ya k u t . See a r t i c l e by L. Gabyshev, "Olonkho 'Erchimen Bergen'" i n S o t s . J a k u t l j a , ( J a k u t s k ) 1956, 8 J u l y (no. 158). ERGIS, G. U. e t a l . , eds. I s t o r i c h e s k i e p r e d a n l j a i _ r a s s k a z y  j a k u t o v . M.-L., All SSSR, I960. 2 v o l s . C h a s t 1 I , ed. G. U. E r g l s , A. A. Popov, N. V. Emel'janov. 323 pp. T e x t s and t r . of 82 i t e m s . 9 t a b l e s , maps. Chast' I I , ed. A. A. Popov and G. U. E r g l s . 360 pp. T e x t s and t r . (by Ergi.s) o f 117 i t e m s . FRANCKE, A. H., ed. .A Lower L a d a k h l V e r s i o n o f t h e K e s a r Saga. C a l c u t t a , R. A s i a t i c Soc. o f B e n g a l , 1904^4*1. x x x l i , 493 pp. ( B i b l . . I n d i c a , l68«) 156 GALSANOV, Tseden. Legenda o batore. Perevod s burjat-mongol'skogo i poeticheakaja obrabotka Tat'Jany Stresh-nevoj. M., Sov. P i s a t e l ' , 1944. 40 pp. A modern epic on S t a l i n . Ger-ogll. Red. A. Koushutov. Ashkhabad, 1941. A c o l l a t e d version of the Turkmen ta l e s of t h i s hero. GOVOROV, P.M. Buduru.lbet Muld'tt Bogho. M.-Jakutsk, 1938. Yakut text, with notes, of "Unstumbling Mlildii the Strong" - see digest in Part I I I . HEISSIG, Walther, ed. Helden-, Httllenfahrts- und Schel-mengeschichten der Mongolen. Zurich, Manesse Verlag, 1962. 313pp. Good t r . (pp. 81-167) of two hitherto unknown cantos of Geser Khan discovered by Heissig In Brussels, as well as other i n t e r e s t i n g material; i n t r o . and notes. Jakutski.1 f o l ' k l o r . Teksty i perevody A. A. Popova, l l t e r a -turnaja obrabotka E. M. Tager, obshch. red. M. A. Ser- , geeva. Vstup. s t a t ' j a akad. A. N. Samojlovila. M., Sov. P i s a t e l ' , 1936. 322 pp. Contains two olongkho (Er-Sogotokh, 43; Dve Shamanki, l . e "The Shamanesses Uolumar and Ajgyr", 104), as well as tal e s , songs, incantations, etc. JASTREMSKIJ, S. V. Obraztsy narodnoj l l t e r a t u r y jakutov. L., 1929. Contains material gathered i n 1895, and t r . of two olong-kho from PekarskiJ: "The Undying Knight" and "The En-chantresses Uolumar and Ajgyr . Foreword by S. Malov. Kambar-batyr. Red. N* 0. Auezov, N. S. Smirnoya. Alma-Ata, AN KazSSR, 1959. .425 pp. Contains four versions of the epic, i n Kazakh, t r . there-of into Russian, and excellent c r i t i c a l appendices. Kazakhski.1 epos. Kazgoslitizdat, 1958. Contains, e.g., a new t r . of Kozy-Korpesh and Bajan-Slu : by V. Potapova (pp. 441-530). ; ^Kerogly. Ed. by M. G. Takhmasib. 2nd ed. Baku, AN AzerbSSR, 1956. (In Azerbaijani.) Rev. by P. Efendiev: "Novoe izdanie eposa 'Ker-ogly' " i n L i t . Azerba.ldzhan, 1956, no. 12, 113-6. F i r s t ed. 1949. KHANGALOV, N. M. and ZATOPLJAEV, N. I. Burjatskle .skazkl. . (Zapiski VSORGO po otd. etnog., I . i . ) I889. KHUDJAKOV, I. A. Obraztsy narodnoj l l t e r a t u r y Jakutov. . s.-p., I913. Continuation of PekarskiJ's work; contains "Ber-Khara", 157 34-50; "The Old Man and Woman", 51-72; "Khaan D'argystaJ", 73-176, a l l from h i s Verkhojanskl j sbornik material. KHUDJAKOV, I. A. Verkhojanskij sbornik. Jakutskle skazki, . pesni, zagadki i poslovltsy, a takzhe russkie skazki 1 pesni, zapisannye v Verkhojanskom okruge.("Zapiski  VSORGO po otd. etnog., I . i i i ) . Irkutsk, 1890. Contains the f i r s t f u l l account of the olongkho. »KpKute.1: alta.1 ekl.i epos. M.-L., Academia, 1935. Composed by M. Jutkanov, t r . into Russian by S. Tokmash-, ov; ed. by V. Zazubin and K. Dmitrev. (See account In Chadwick, Growth of Literature , III, 99ff.) #K0ZIN, S. A., ed. Dzhangariada. Vvedehie v izuchenie pam-Jatnika i perevod torgutskoj ego v e r s i i . M.-L., 1940. Geserlada. Skazanle o mllostlvom Geser Mergen-khane, ls k o r e n i t e l e d e s j a t i zol,v d e s j a t i stran- akh sveta. Perevod, vstup. s t a t 1 j a i kommentarli. M.-L., AN SSSR, 1935. (Trudy Inst, antrop., etnog. I arkh., VIII: F o l ' k l o m a j a s e r i j a , no. 3.) 245 pp. *Kozy-kflrpesh — Bajan-sylu. Alma-Ata, KazSSR GA, 1957. 140 pp. " Another ed., ed. M. 0. Auezov and N. S. Smlrriova, 1959* »Kyrk Kyz. Gosizdat UzSSR, Tashkent, 1949. Redaction of Kurbanbaj 1s poem, f o r children. Tr. into Russian as Sorok Devushek, M.-L., Detgiz, 1952, by S. Somova. ^[Kyrk Kyz]. Sorok devushek. M., G o s l l t i z d a t , 1951. Tr. by A. Tarkovskij from Kurbanbaj Tazhibaev. Afterword by N. Davkaraev. Kurbanbaj 1s version was pub. Nukus-Tashkent, 1949; 2nd. rev. ed., Nukus, 1956. An Uzbek t r . , 1948 (Tashkent, Gosizdat UzSSR) received a new ed. in 1956., [Kyrk Kyz]. Sorok devushek. Karakalpakskaja narodnaja poema. . M., G o s l l t i z d a t , 1956." 408 pp. Tarkovskij's version, with foreword by L. Klimovich. Reviewed i n Pravda Vosjtoka (Tashkent) 26 Jan 1957 (no.23) "Geroicheskij narodnyj epos" by A, Begimov, B. Kajpnaza-rov, and Kh. Seltov; and in Sov. Karakalpaklja (Nikus) 12 Feb 1957 (no. 32) "'Kyrk-Kyz' v perevode A. Tarkovsko-go", by K. Maksetov. Kyz-zhibek. Narodnaja kazakhskaja poema. Alma-Ata, Kaz. Kraevoe Izd., 1936. 90 pp. Manas: K i r g i z s k i j epos, " V e l l k l j pokhod". M., Ogiz, 1946. 371 pp. Reviewed by S. Abramzon, Sov. Etnog., 1947, no.l, 158 and L. K l i m o v i c h , Sov.. K n i g a , 1946, no. 12. *Manas, k i r g l z s k l j narodny.1 epos. M., 1941. N j u r g u n - B o o t u r s t r e m i t e l ' n y j . T e k s t K. G. O r o s i n a from t h e . O b r a z t s y o f P e k a r s k i J ; r e d . t e k s t a , p e r e v o d , v s t u p . s t a -t ' j a i k o m m e n t a r i i G. U. E r g i s a . J a k u t s k , 1947. 410 pp. W i t h p a r a l l e l Yakut t e x t . *0JUNSKIJ, P. A. NJurgun-Bootur S t r e m i t e l 'ny.1. P e s n j a p e r - v a j a . J a k u t s k , Jakgiz,. 1930. A v e r s e olongkho ( i n Yakut) by a n a t i v e p o e t , on a t r a -d i t i o n a l theme. The 2nd and 3rd songs f o l l o w e d i n 1931. _ Tujaryma-kuo. Olonkho v t r e k h d e j s t v l j a k h (po narodnym olonkhoT- J a k u t s k , J a k g i z , 1930. V e r s e drama ( i n Yakut) on an olongkho s u b j e c t . ORLOV, A. S. Kazakhski.1 g e r o l c h e s k i j epos. M.-L., AN SSSR, 1945. 148 pp. C o n t e n t s : P r e d l s l o v i e ; Obzor k a z a k h s k i k h b y l i n ; B y l i n a ob A l p a m y s e - b a t y r e ; B 3 r l i n a o K o b l a n d y - b a t y r e ; B y l i n a . o E r - S a i n e ; B y l i n a o'Er-Tarkhyne; B y l i n a o S h u r a - b a t y r e ; B y l i n a o Kambare-batyre; Vyvody i z s o p o s t a v l e n i J a k a z -. akhskogo i r u s s k o g o bylevogo eposa; B y l i n a o Edyge. E x c e l l e n t s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . *PATKAN0V, S. D i e I r t y s c h - O s t j a k e n und i h r e V o l k s p o e s i e . 1897-1900. Text i n Ostyak, R u s s i a n , and German. PEKARSKIJ, E. K., ed. O b r a z t s y narodnoJ l l t e r a t u r y Jaku-1 tov. S.-P., 1907-18. Three v o l s . , t h e second c o n t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l c o l l . by Khudjakov, t h e t h i r d t h a t o f V a s i l ' e v ; see under t h e s e c o l l e c t o r s . C o n t e n t s o f f i r s t v o l . a re as f o l l o w s : N Jurgun-Bootur t h e Impetuous, pp.l-80;The Hero Tojon NJurgun, 81-112; The Undying Marksman, 113-47 ( t r . as "Bessmertnyj V l t j a z " ' In J a s t r e m s k i j ) ; The Shamanesses Uolumar and. A j g y r , 148-94 ( t r . as such i n J a s t r e m s k i j , and as "Dve Shamanki" i n Popov e t a l . , J a k u t s k i j f o l ' k -l o r ) ; The O l d Man K J u l ' - K J u l ' and t h e Old Woman S i l i -r i k e e n , 195-280; Basymn'y B a a t y r and E r b e k h t e J Bergen, 281-310; E l i k - B o o t u r and N 1 y g y l - B o o t u r , 311-95; The B r o t h e r Heroes A l a - K h a r a and I l e - K h a r a , 396-400: The Descendants o f t h e M i l k - w h i t e Urun A J y y - t o J o n , 401-26. POPPE, N. N. K h a l k h a - m o n g o l ' s k l j g e r o i c h e s k i j epos. M.-L., AN, 1937. 125 PP. ' M o n g o l i s c h e V o l k s d l c h t u n g . Wiesbaden, S t e i n e r , 1955. (Akad. d e r Wiss. ( und d e r L i t . , V e r 5 f f e n t l i c h u n g e n ..' d e r O r i e n t a l i s c h e n Kommission, V I I . ) 1 5 9 C o n t a i n s K h a l k h a - M o n g o l i a n t e x t s ( I n c l u d i n g u l i g e r s ) , w i t h t r . and n o t e s . Reviewed by Udo Po s c h , C e n t r a l  A s i a t i c J o u r n a l , I I (1956), 75. POPPE, N. N. "Zum K h a l k h a m o n g o l i s c h e n Heldenepos". A s i a M a j o r ( L e i p z i g ) , V (1928-30), 183-213. I n t r o . , t e x t and t r . o f Enkhe B o l o t Khan. *P0TANIN, G. N. " K a z a k - k i r g i z s k l e 1 a l t a j s k l e p r e d a n l j a , l e g e n d y i s k a z k i . " Z h l v a j a S t a r i n a ( S . - P . ) , 1 9 1 6 , I I - H I . POZDNEEV, A. N. Mongol' a k a . l a k h r e s t o m a t l . l a . S.-P., AN, 1900. ' x v i i i , 416 pp. — - O b r a z t s y narodno .1 l i t e r a t u r y mongol 1 s k l k h piemen. Vyp. I . N a r o d n y j a p e s n i mongolov. S.-P., AN, 1880. v i , 347 pp. One o f t h e g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n s , w i t h e x c e l l e n t n o t e s . *Q,oblan. T o r t k y l , 1941. K a r a k a l p a k v e r s i o n o f K o b l a n d y - b a t y r . RADLOV, V. V. O b r a z t s y narodno.1 l i t e r a t u r y t . l u r k s k l k h P_le- . men, z h l v u s h c h i k h v Juzhno .1 S l b i r i i Dzhungarsko . 1 s t e p i . S.-P., 1866-1904. 10 v o l s . , o f wh i c h I -VI a r e t r . i n h i s Prob e n . V I I i s n o t t r . ; V I I I has a R u s s i a n t r . ; IX (N. T. Katanov's c o l l e c t i o n ) i s n o t tr„; X (V. Moshchkov*s c o l l e c t i o n ) has a R u s s i a n t r . Proben d e r V o l k s l i t e r a t u r d e r t f l r k l s c h e n Stamme S t t d s l b i r i e n s . . S.-P., 1866-86. 6 ~ v o l s . > Omits Uzbek, K a r a k a l p a k , and Turkmen m a t e r i a l . SOBOLEV, L e o n i d , ed. P e s n i stepe . 1; a n t o l o g l . l a k a z a k h s k o j . l i t e r a t u r y . M., 1940. / — • — — — , STEIN, R. A. L'Epopee t l b e t a l n e de Gesar, dans sa v e r s i o n  l a m a i q u e de L i n g . P a r i s , P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 19561 T M i n i s t e r e de 1 ' E d u c a t i o n n a t l o n a l e , A n n a l e s du Mus^e Guimet, B i b l l o t h e q u e d ' ^ t u d e s , t . 6 l . ) 401 pp. C o n t a i n s a b r i d g e d t r . and T i b e t a h t e x t . T a d z h l k s k i e narodnye s k a z k i . S t a l i n a b a d , T a d z h i k g o s i z d a t , 1 9 5 7 . Ed. by R. Amonov and K. Ulug-zade. #Tezisy_ d o k l a d o v i _ s o o b s h c h e n l j R e g i o n a l 'nogo s o v e s h c h a n i j a po eposu "Alpamysh". Tashkent, AN UzSSR, 1956. TOROEV, A p o l l o n . Bur.1at3kie s k a z k i . I r k u t s k , 1958. Ed. from Toroev ( a bard) by I . Kim, G. Kungurov, and A. P r e l o v s k i j . 160 TUMUNOV, Zh. and SHERVINSKIJ, S., eds. Poezlja sovetskoj burjat-mongolll. M., GIKhL, 1950. 467 pp.. Contains 2 modern u l i g e r s by Toroev: Lenin-bap;sha, p. 21; Stalln-bator, p. 40. Turkmen ski e narodnye skazki Maryj skogo ra.lona. M.-L., AN SSSR, 1954. (Inst. Jaz. i l i t . AN Turkmenskoj. SSR.) Intro, and notes by N. K. Dmitriev, to Turkmen text and Russian t r . of ta l e s c o l l e c t e d in the 30s by the Academy of Solenoes 1 Folklore Expedition. "Ger-ogly", p. 67ff. ULAGASHEV, N. Alta.1-Bucha.1. Red. A. Koptelov. Novosibirsk, '1941. Contains (pp. 79-126) the A l t a i heroic t a l e "Alyp-Manash". Uzbekskie narodnye poemy. Tashkent, AN, 1958. 781 pp. Ed. by Z. A. M i l 'man.' Contains t r . into Russian (without c r i t i c a l apparatus) of Alpamysh, Kuntugmysh, Lukavaja  Tsarevna, Raushan, and Arzygui 1". *VAMBERY, H. Jusuf und Ahmed. Eln flzbeglsches Volksepos lm  Chiwaer Dialekte. Budapest, 1911. Text and t r . of a Khorezm war t a l e . ' VASIL'EV, V. N. Obraztsy narodnoj l l t e r a t u r y .lakutov, P., 1916. 196 pp. Contains one olongkho, "Kulun Kullustuur". VLADIMIRTSOV, B. Ja. Mon go 1 o - o .1 rat ski .1 geroicheskl.1 epos. P.-M., Gosizdat, 1923. 255 pp. Contains i n t r o . and t r . of 6 t a l e s : Bum-Erdeni; Dajni-K j u r j u l 1 ; Kigijn-Kijtjun-Keke-Temjur-Zeve; Egli'-Mergen; Ergil'-Tjurgjul';•Shara-Bodon; with glossary. ZHAMTSARANO, Ts. Zh. Obraztsy narodno.1 slovesnostl mongol'-skikh piemen. P., 1913-30. 158 pp. Text in Burjat. ZHIRMUNSKIJ, V. M. Skazanie ob Alp amy she !_ bogatyrskaja skazka. Red. I. S. BraginskiJ. M., Izd. Vost. L i t . , i960. 335 pp. , and Zarifov, Kh. T. Uzbekskl.1 narodny.1 gerolcheskij epos. M., G o s l i t i z d a t , 1947. 519 pp. Excellent survey, dealing with the folksingers and t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e . The "BogatjTskiJ epos" Is represented by "Alpamysh", and other items include "Jusuf 1 Akhmed ,, the Rusturn cycle, and "Gorogly". 161 B. SECONDARY SOURCES. ABDUNABIEV, A., and STEPANOV, A. "Ob epose 'Alpamysh'." Pravda Vostoka, 29. Jan. 1952. Reprinted, s l i g h t l y abridged, in Llteraturnaja G-azeta, 12 Feb 1952. > "Pod flagom narodnosti." Zvezda Vojtoka, Tashkent, 1952, no. 2, 79-87. A c r i t i c i s m of the Uzbek version of "Alpamysh". ABRAMZON, S, M. "Etnograficheskie sjuzhety v kirgizskom epose 'Manas'." Sov. Etnog., 1947, no. 2, 134-54. ; "'Manas', k i r g i z s k i j epos, ' V e l i k i J po-khod'." Sov. Etnog., 1947, no. 1, 225-9* Review of the 1946 ed. of Manas (see Part A of b i b l i o g . ) . #AFZAL0V, M. "Ob uzbekskikh variantakh eposa 'Alpamysh'." Zvezda Vostoka, 1956, no. 9» 105-9. AKHINZHANOV, M. Problema narodnosti kazakhskikh sotslal'no- bytovykh poem. Materlaly k d i s k u s s i i po kazakhskomu  eposu. AN KazSSR, Alma-Ata, 1953. 31 pp. *AUEZ0V, Mukhtar. "Dzhambul i narodnye akyny". Literaturnyj  Kazakhstan, 1938, no. 6. *BALDAN0, N. P. Aba.1 Geser Khubu(in — Bur j ad Arada.1 Ul'ger. Ulan-Ude, 1959. (In Burjat.) 'BERNSHTAM, A. N. "Epokha vozniknovenlja velikogo k i r g i z -skogo eposa 'Manas'." Klr g l s t a n , llteraturno-khudozheat-vennyj al'manakh. Frunze, Izd. Sojuza sovetskikh p i s a -t e l e j K i r g i z i i , 1946. 139-49. *B0R0VK0V, A. "0 narodnosti kirgizskogo eposa 'Manas'." Druzhba Narodov, 1952, no. .5. _ "Uzbekskaja prozaicheskaja v e r s i j a poemy ob Alpamyshe". Izv. AN UzSSR, 1956, no. 11, 77-88.. BOWRA, C. M. Heroic Poetry. London, Macmillan, 1952. i x , . 590 pp. Covers nearly every kind but Indian, C e l t i c , and Persian. BRAGINSKIJ, I. S. Iz i s t o r i i tadzhikskoj narodnoj p o e z i l (elementy narodno-poetlcheskogo tvorchestva v pamjat-nlkakh drevnej i_ srednevekovo j pls'mennostl). 'M., AN, 1956. 496 pp. 162 BRAG IN SKIJ, I. S., et al.., eds. Voprosy izuchenija eposa narodov SSSR. M., AN," 1958. 292 pp. CHADWICK, H. M. and N. K. The Growth of L i t e r a t u r e . N.Y.,/ Cambridge, Macmillan/ C.U.P., 1940. 3 vols. Vol. I l l part I deals with Tatar Oral L i t e r a t u r e . CHICHEROV, V. I. and ZARIFOV, Kh. T., eds. Ob epose "Alpam-ysh". Tashkent, Uzbek AN, 1959. 216 pp. DAMDINSUREN,, Ts. Istoricheskie korni Geserlady. M., AN, (Inst. Vostokovedenija), 1957^ 240 pp. DMITRIEV, P. D. Geser. Ulan-Ude, B.-M. NIIK, 1953. DZHABBAROV, I. "Regional'noe soveshchanie po eposu 'Alpam-ysh'." Sov. Etnog., 1957, no. 3, 174-6. FRANCKE, A. H. Der Frflhllngs- und Wlntermythus der Kesar- . sage. Helsingfors, Soc. Finno-Ougrlenne, 1900-2. KHANGALOV, N. M. Tan gut sko-Tibet skaja okralna K l t a j a . S.-P., 1893. . , Kirgizski.1 gerolcheskl.j epos Manas. M., AN SSSR, 1961. 377 pp. An excellent c r i t i c a l work (no texts) with a f i n e and exhaustive bibliography. KLIMOVICH, L. Iz I s t o r i i l l t e r a t u r sovetskogo vostoka. M., GIKhL, 1959. 350 pp. ' Contains revised versions of a r t i c l e s pub. 1953-8. Pp. 181 290 deal with o r a l l i t e r a t u r e . KOZIN, S. A. Epos mongol'skikh narodov. M.-L., AN SSSR, 1948. 248 pp. : - -_ ' "Vechnyj mlr — chuduun zambi". Izv. AN SSSR, otd. jaz. i l i t . , 1946, no. 3. 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They are divided Into 3 groups, the "upper" who dwell in the western sky, the "middle" on earth, and the "lower" inhabiting the underworld. Abarga Sesen Mangadkhaj, monster in Geser, 50. Abarga Shara Mogoj (Abarga the Yellow Snake).monster, 45. Aburgasun-Khan, 15-headed snake in Geser, 152. Accompaniment, 60, 73.. Aga, 145. - The Yakut term f o r "father"; aga-usa, "father- . clan , i s the same as the dzhon, q.v. > Aguu Noogon, character i n u l i g e r s , 46, 75, 79ff.» 94. A i l , settlement, 59« Cf. aul. Ajduraj Mergen, Burjat Uliger, 43, 44, 46. Ajmag (or ajmak), 18, 74. - The older name fo r a nasleg, or s o c i a l group comprising from one to 30 or more clans (Czap-l i c k a , Abor. Sib., 359). Subdivision of a dzhon . Perhaps re-lated to Gilyak, ahmalk, "father-in-law clan T rI Ajyy (or a l y ) , white or good s p i r i t s , 17, 74ff., 88. - Cf. Ajyy-to.ion, Yakut father-god, who s i t s on a milk-white throne. Aj y y s i t , Yakut goddess of f e r t i l i t y , 114. Also goddess of c h i l d b i r t h . She comes to women in childbed, and also has a f e r t i l i t y f e s t i v a l i n spring. See Sieroszewskl, 12 l a t , 413-4. : Ak-Kuia, horse of Manas, 102. - Means "Light Isabel". A l l a j a r , in Kyrk Kyz, 106ff. A l l i t e r a t i o n , 37, 4 l , 60. Almambet, hero i n Manas, 63, 64, 67, 98ff. Alpamysh, Uzbek heroic epic, 56, 57, 61, 103ff., 149. Altan (Mongol) - "Gold, golden". 170 A l t a n . S h a g a j , u l i g e r , 43, 48. • , A l t a r i T o b c h l , Mongol l i t e r a r y work, 38. A l t i n ' S h a g o j and Mungln ShagoJ, Mongol f o l k t a l e , 76. A l t y n ( T u r k i c ) - " G o l d , g o l d e n " ( c f . A l t a n ) . G i v e s O l d R u s s i a n a l t y n , "3 k o p e c k s " , whence a l t y n n l k , " s k i n f l i n t " . A l t y n S i b a l d l , w l t o h , 147 n.5. A l t y n a j - means "golden moon". I n Manas, mother o f Almambet, pp. 99, 100; i n Kyrk Kyz, h e r o i n e , 108-9. Amazons, 68. C f . M a t r i a r c h y . A m e r i n d i a n b e l i e f s , 71. Andulma Khan, 152. - P r o t a g o n i s t In Geser; has 12 heads, . -100 arms and 100 eyes ( c f . M a n g a t k h a j ) ; Geser I s h e l p e d t o overcome him by h i s h e a v e n l y b r o t h e r Dzasa S h i k i r , A nimals - see B e a s t Mythology, G r a t e f u l B e a s t s , Horse. Aqyn ( o r a k i n ) , Kazakh f o l k - p o e t , 61. A r a a t , sea i n olongkho, 114. Ard'amaan-D 1ard'amaan, Tungus m a g i c i a n i n o l o n g k h o , l l 6 f f . Armambet, khan i n Kambar, 111-2. ' A r t h u r , B r i t i s h f o l k - h e r o , 12-3, 66, 75, 77, 151. A r t - T o j o n - A g a , [Yakut god, 17. Arake, w i f e o f Almambet i n Manas, 100. A r y s l a n , hero i n K y r k Kyz, 19, 69, 70, 108'ff. Aspen-Deaf, i n Ostyak t a l e , 76.^ A u l ( K i r g h i z - K a z a k h ) " s e t t l e m e n t " , 97, 112. - C f . a i l . . Azimbaj., khan i n Kambar, l l O f f . A z i z - K h a n , C h i n e s e r u l e r In Manas, 62, 99, 100-1. Baba - j a g a , R u s s i a n witch,. 150 n.13. See D'ege-baba. Badam, c h a r a c t e r i n Alpamysh, 106. . B a j , " r i c h man". C f . b l j _ . Common a f f i x t o names. 106. 171 B a j b u r l , f a t h e r o f Alpamysh, 103, 105* B a j g a , h o r s e r a c e , 103, 112. Ba.1 s a r y , f a t h e r o f B a r c h l n i n Alpamysh, 103, 106. Ba.jsun, d i s t r i c t i n s o u t h e r n U z b e k i s t a n , 6 7 -Baka.1, K i r g h i z h e r o , 9 9 , 100. B a l l a d s , B r i t i s h , 2, 6, 8, 9 . B a l t a r a a - B a a t y r , Yakut g i a n t , l l 6 f f . B a r c h i n , h e r o i n e of Alpamysh, 1 0 3 f f . B a t o r ( B u r j a t ) " h e r o " , 42, 5 3 , 8 5 « - Cf. Yakut b a a t y r / b o o t u r and Hungarian b a t o r , "courageous". See b o g a t y r below. B a t r a d z , Ossete h e r o , 144. B a t y r ( K i r g h i z - K a z a k h ) " h e r o " , 21. - See b a t o r , b o g a t y r . B e a r , t r i b a l f a t h e r o f Samoyed, 121. B e a r c u l t s , 145. B e a s t mythology, 44, 48. B e j d z h i n (Manas) P e k i n g , 63, 9 7 f f . B i j , 146 n.4. - In Manas and Alpamysh, " j u d g e , g o v e r n o r " . C f . R a d l o v , Qpyt, IV, 1737. B i s ( Y a k u t ) , 5 0 . - Meaning n o t c l e a r , seems t o mean " l a r g e s o c i a l group". The word, no l o n g e r i n use, may be d e r i v e d from . T u r a n i a n b i g a t c h , b i a s , b i k a , " f r e e u n m a r r i e d g i r l , n o b l e ' woman" ( S t e r o s z e w s k i , 3 3 5 ; C z a p l i c k a , A b o r i g i n a l S i b e r i a , 5 7 ) . B j u g j e s t e e n , Yakut monster, 1 1 5 f f . B l o o d o f one's enemy, d r i n k i n g , 147. B o g a t y r ( R u s s i a n ) "hero", 52, 7 6 . - From T u r k i c (under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f R u s s i a n s u f f i x e s i n yr')> o c c u r s i n c h r o n i c l e s from 1240 ( d a t e o f sack o f K i e v ) , used t h e r e o f T a t a r war-r i o r s . Hence P o l i s h b o h a t e r , e t c . C f . P e r s i a n bahadur, " s t r o n g " , K i r g h i z b a t y r , B u r j a t b a t o r , Yakut baat.yr. U l t i m -a t e l y from a S a n s k r i t s o u r c e (Bowra, H e r o i c . P o e t r y , 2n.; Shan s k i j , s.v.; see a l s o Poucha, p. 4 9 ) . B u l a g a t - w e s t e r n B u r j a t t r i b e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e E k h i -r i t s , cuv. '172 B u r j a t , 4, 22, 2 4 f f . , 76. - Mongol p e o p l e round Lake B a i k a l . Under R u s s i a n r u l e s i n c e 1.644. Burkhan, h e a v e n - d w e l l e r , 50. - C f . U i g h u r burqan. From bu r , Buddha, and can, " k i n g , khan". One o f many b e n e v o l e n t • s p i r i t s who l i v e above t h e many s k i e s " i n B u r j a t myth. B u r u l c h a , C h i n e s e g i r l In Manas, 101. B y l l n y . R u s s i a n h e r o i c t a l e s , 2, 6, 8, 21, 32, 61, 141. C h i n g g i s Khan, 62, 67, 125. . 1 .• C h i r c h l k , S i b e r i a n r i v e r , 69, 109. Chubak, K i r g h i z h e r o , 100, 102. • C r e a t i o n l e g e n d s , 49. Dastan, e p i c poem, 108. D*ege-baba, 77. - W i t c h o r "h e a v e n l y p r i e s t e s s " I n t h e Yakut olongkho. R u s s i a n c o n t a c t w i t h Yakut i s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t , i n comparison w i t h t h e break-up o f Old S l a v i c , so w h i l e P o l i s h j ? d z a - b a b a and o t h e r cognates o r i g i n a t e u l t i m a t e - , l y i n enga ( Jakobson, i n Afanas'ev, 649) i t seems t h a t t h i s i s a genuine l o a n from R u s s i a n . D' ygla-Khaan., god o f F a t e , 119 . Dzhaj s a n - y r c h l , w a r r i o r - b a r d In Manas, 58. Dzhakyp, f i a t h e r of. Manas, 62, 96. Dzhon, 144. - Yakut; o l d name f o r a l a r g e s o c i a l group. D z h a n g a r i a d a , Kalmuck e p i c , 147 n.9. Dzhyr (Kazakh)., d z h l r ( Uzbek), 21, 61-2. - "Song, impro-v i s a t i o n w i t h o u t v e r s e d i v i s i o n , mourning song, l a m e n t a t i o n " ( R a d l o v , Opyt, IVi 1 2 0 ) . Dzhyrau, " f o l k - s i n g e r " , c f . z h r a u . D z h y r s h i ( p. 61) i s t h e o t h e r term. E c l i p s e myths, 15, 131. Eddas, 15, 131. E d l g e - b a t y r , Kazakh e p i c , 21. E k h l r l t - t r i b e o f B u r j a t , g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e B u l a g a t , q.v. Name perhaps d e r i v e d from k h e r e , " . s q u i r r e l " , . . i . e . a totem word. E k h i r i t - B u l a g a t e p i c s , 26, 4 3 f f . 173 Er ( T u r k i c ) , 145 (and see names of h e r o e s ) . Means "man"; "hero"; "brave, manly"; u s u a l e p i t h e t o f a h e r o . Er Kttkcho, U i g h u r p r i n c e i n Manas, 20, 147, 149. E r E o s h o i , K i r g h i z h e r o , 147 n . 5 . Erbed Bogdo Khan, Ungin u l i g e r , 48. E r b e k h t e j t h e Marksman, Yakut h e r o , 76. Erkhe Suben, i n A j d u r a j Mergen, 46. E r - S o g o t o k h , Yakut h e r o , 12, 22, 73. Esege-Malan, 82, 86 f f . Name means "Bald-Head". The main d e i t y i n t h e B u r j a t pantheon. H i s 3 d a u g h t e r s ( a c t u a l l y swan-maidens) can b r i n g t h e dead t o l i f e . E t h n o g e n e t i c l e g e n d s , 71 f f . Ezhe Munkhe Khan, c h a r a c t e r i n A j d u r a j Mergen, 44, 46. . F i l e , 3. - L i t e r a l l y " s e e r " . P o e t o f a n c i e n t I r e l a n d . F o r t y . The number o f maidens i n K y r k Kyz, the entourage o f Nazym (Kambar), t h e Horsemen ( k y r k choro) o f Manas and A l p a -mysh, and t h e " F o r t y Heroes" o f a Kazakh e p i c ( Z h l r m u n s k i j , i n B r a g i n s k i J , . 2 6 - 7 ) . The s u b c l a n c a l l e d t a i p a s i n Kazakh i s c a l l e d qyrq (40) i n K i r g h i z ( C z a p l i c k a , T u r k s , 40-2). The number o c c u r s w i t h g r e a t r e g u l a r i t y i n Manas, e.g. p. 52: "They came from f o r t y ends o f t h e e a r t h , / t h e y numbered f o r t y r e g i m e n t s " ; p. 161: " I s h a l l t e l l you o f f o r t y peoples,/whose l a n d cannot c o n t a i n them,/ o f t h e i r f o r t y c o u n t r i e s I s h a l l t e l l you,/ o f t h e i r f o r t y khans I s h a l l t e l l you". In a Kazakh t r a d i t i o n , t h e f a t h e r o f the R u s s i a n s , Kazakhs and C h i n e s e was A u - a t a , t h e i r mother, Au-ene. They had f o r t y d a u g h t e r s and f o r t y sons. From t h e youngest son and d a u g h t e r came t h e Kazakh n a t i o n , from t h e e l d e s t , t h e C h i n e s e , and from the m i d d l e ones, t h e R u s s i a n s (G-.N. P o t a n i n , O c h e r k i  s e v e r o - z a p a d n o j M o n g o l i i , vyp 2, S.-P., 1881, 163, quoted i n K l i m o v i c h , J_z i s t o r i i l l t e r a t u r s ovetskpgo v o s t o k a , M.,1959» 310). I t i s a common number i n Armenian f o l k l o r e , and o c c u r s i n t h e e p i c D a v i d o f Sasun f r e q u e n t l y ; c f . a l s o t h e B i b l e , Gen. v i l . 4 , " f o r t y days and f o r t y n i g h t s " ; Exod. x v l . 35, D e u t . v i i i . 2 ( f o r t y y e a r s i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s ) ; M a t t , i v . 2 , ( f o r t y days and n i g h t s i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s ) ; and E z e k i e l i v . 6 , where i t i s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e . The m o t i f i s e x t r e m e l y w i d e s p r e a d , and i t may be s u s p e c t e d t h a t i t oc-c u r r e d i n t h e Argonaut s t o r y , w h i c h i s v e r y a n c i e n t , b e i n g mentioned by Homer as u n i v e r s a l l y known (Gd. X I I , p. 194 o f G l o b e e d . ) . The number o f t h e Argonauts grew as t h e s t o r y s pread ( T z e t z e s g i v e s 100 names') but t h e l i s t o f heroes g i v e n by t h e b e s t a u t h o r i t i e s i s 50 ( G r a v e s , Greek Myths,11,217-8, 174 223)o I t i s however n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i r number c o u l d o r i g i n a l l y have been f o r t y , t h e magic number of companionso F o r t y Horsemen (Manas), 97, 102; (Alpamysh), 104. F o r t y Maidens ( e p i c ) see K y r k Kyz; ( m o t i f ) , 111. G-ar1 j u l a j - M e r g e n , B u r j a t h e r o , 79?f. Garuda B i r d , 45. L o r d o f B i r d s i n Hindu myth, a form o f t h e Sun ( C f . A . B . K e i t h , I n d i a n M y t h o l o g y / B o s t o n , 1917, 1 3 9 ) . The m o t i f m i g r a t e d and became p a r t o f t h e B u r j a t mythology, and may be compared w i t h t h e bosko, a t u t e l a r y g e n i u s i n t h e form o f a b i r d ( R a d l o v , Proben, V., 476), t h e m e r k j u t o f t h e A l t a i a n s ( C z a p l i c k a , Abor. S i b . , 300) and t h e Simurg, a f a b u -l o u s b i r d o f g r e a t s i z e and s t r e n g t h i n Alpamysh ( U z b e k s k l e  narodnye poemy, 1958, 1 5 ) . Cf„ a l s o t o Roc i n " Slndbad", and t h e g i a n t b i r d Pyne i n I t j e , p. 120 above. Ge s e r , 4, 19-20, 27, 28, 35, 43, 44, 50, 57, 125, 135. - E i t h e r t h e son ( C u r t i n , 127) o r grandson ( C u r t i n , 1 2 2 ) o f . Esege Malan, sent down t o e a r t h t o d e s t r o y t h e "10 e v i l s i n t h e t e n c o u n t r i e s " , namely Mangatkhajs and Shalmos, who were c r e a t i n g havoc. When he had done h i s work, he s a i d , "Now I w i l l l i e down and s l e e p . L e t no one wake me. I w i l l s l e e p t i l l a g a i n t h e r e w i l l be many h a r m f u l t h i n g s , e v i l s p i r i t s and bad p e o p l e i n t h e w o r l d ; then I w i l l waken and d e s t r o y them" ( C u r t i n , 128) - c f . A r t h u r , and I t j e . G r a t e f u l b e a s t s m o t i f , 44, 121. G u l a i m , h e r o i n e o f K y r k Kyz, 18-19, 70, 106ff. G u n i r - S h a r a - N o k h o j , In B u r j a t t a l e , 85-6, 87. G u r g u l i , 57. - T a d z h i k v a r i a n t o f A z e r b a i j a n epic' - a l s o i c a l l e d G u r - o g l y , K e r - o g l y , K u r r o g l o u . Q u i t e o l d , s i n c e i t has spread w i d e l y , and was p o p u l a r i n t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y . See B r a g i n s k i J , "0 t a d z h i k s k o m epose ' G u r g u l i ' " i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n V o p rosy..., 1958, 126-48. H e l p f u l A n i m a l s m o t i f , 44. Hodoy, khan i n Mongol myth, 75. Horde, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n o f Kazakhs from 1 3 t h c , 72. Horse. R e f s . t o a c t i o n o f h o r s e i n s t o r y a r e : 42, 47, 49, 8 0 f f . , 94-5. - A w i d e s p r e a d m o t i f . Cf. t h e h o r s e ' s p r e s c i e n c e s a v i n g Geser ( D a v i d - N e e l , 107); t h e B r i t i s h b a l l a d o f "The B r o o m f i e l d H i l l " ( C h i l d 43) has a t a l k i n g h o r s e , and t h e r e a r e many o t h e r examples. See a l s o above, p. 145,n.7; 146,n.2. Hur ( K i r g h i z ) , 9 9 . - " A n g e l " ; more p r e c i s e l y , "maiden o f p a r a d i s e , h o u r i " ( k u r k y z y ) ( K . K. J u d a k h i n , K i r g i z s k o - r u s s k l J  s l o v a r ' , M., 1 9 4 0 , 4 0 0 ) . S. P. T o l s t o v (Sov. Etnog., 1 9 4 6 , 2 , 101) c o n n e c t s a Khorezm t i t l e Khurzad w i t h t h e a n c i e n t C e n t r a l A s i a t i c t i t l e Bagh-pur, "son o f t h e sun-god". Khur (hur) may t h e r e f o r e e q u a l "sun", and Almambet, son o f t h e hur, i s r e a l l y a m y t h i c a l demi-god.See S. M. Abramzon, Sov. E t n o g . , 1 9 4 7 , 2 , , 4 9 f f . I r l n s e . 1 , B u r j a t e p i c , 44, 47, 9 4 f f . I r - K o s a j , K i r g h i s h e r o , 147 n.5. I t . 1 e , Samoyed hero,-75, 1 1 9 f f . Jakub, f a t h e r o f Manas, 62, 146 n.4. Jelmogus, 147 n.5. - P l u r a l J e l b a g a n . T u r k i c demon. Some-ti m e s c a l l e d Dzhalmaus, J e l M a l a . Has s e v e r a l heads ( c f . Man-g a t k h a j ); and e t y m o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d (perhaps) t o t h e Shalmos of Mongol l e g e n d , q.y a K a j k u b a d , shepherd i n Alpamysh, 105. K a l d y r g a c h , s i s t e r o f Alpamysh, 105. K a l e v a l a , F i n n i s h e p i c , 56, 151. Kambar, Kazakh h e r o , l l O f f . Kanyka.l, w i f e o f Manas, 97, 98, 103. K a n y s h a j , g i a n t e s s i n 'Manas, 67, 101. Karadzhan, Kalmuck hero i n Alpamysh, 104-5. K a r a g u l , C h i n e s e h e r o , 1 0 2 i K a r a k a l p a k s , South T u r k i c t r i b e , 18, 6 7 , 6 8 f f . , 1 0 6 f f . Kazakhs, 55, 6 7 , 7 2 , 1 0 9 , 1 2 5 . - S a i d t o mean " r i d e r s " ; d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e h o r d e s , q.v. Kelmembet, matchmaker i n -Kambar, 149. Khaan D ' a r g y s t a j , o l o n g k h o , 74. The t a l e o f t h r e e gene-r a t i o n s o f h e r o e s : The White Youth, The Strong'Man Ktinchu5 the M i g h t y , and Khaan D ' a r g y s t a j h i m s e l f . Khalyad'ymar t h e Marksman, Yakut h e r o , l l 4 f f . Khan Kherdeg Shubuun, c h a r a c t e r i n u l i g e r s , 45. K h a n k e j , w i f e o f Manas, 146 n.4. 176 Khankhan So k t o , B u r j a t h e r o , 94ff. Kharadag Khara B u u r a l , monster dog i n u l i g e r s , 44, 54. Kharan, khan i n V a l l k h a n o v 1 s Manas, 62, 146 n . 4 . Khotun, 114. Yakut, means " w i f e " ( B f l h t l i n g k ) . Khukhudej Mergen, B u r j a t d e i t y , 9 5 . Khuur: 29, 29a, 32. - S t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e B u r j a t s . C z a p l i c k a ( q u o t i n g . K a t a n o v ) says t h i s i s an i n s t r u m e n t used o n l y by shamans, among t h e B u r j a t from I r k u t s k ; but she i d e n -t i f i e s i t w i t h t h e Jew's harp, known i n Yakut as homus/hamys, wh i c h i s n o t a shaman's i n s t r u m e n t . Cf. S o j o t komus, Jew"s h a r p , A l t a i komus, shaman's b a l a l a i k a ( V . L . V e r b i t s k i j , S l o v a r ' a l t a j -skago i aladanskago n a r e c h i i t j u r k s k a g o j a z y k a , 141) - c f . a l s o V e r b i t s k i j , A l t a j ' s k i e i n o r o d t s y , 1893, 139: " t h e y use t h e 2-s t r i n g e d kabys o r komus as an accompaniment t o t h e r e c i t a l o f h e r o i c t a l e s " . The kobuz i s t h e K i r g h i z name f o r a shaman's drum ( T r o s h c h a n s k i j , E v o l j u t s i j a "Chernoj V e r y " (Shamanstva) u J a k u t o v ^ 1902, 130); and t h e K i r g h i z name f o r a t h r e e - s t r i n g -ed v i o l i n . The c o n n e c t i n g i d e a h e r e , b e h i n d a l l t h i s c o n f u s i o n , (and a l s o w i t h o t h e r names l i k e U k r a i n i a n kobza) i s " s o u n d i n g b o a r d " , o r even j u s t " m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t " - an onomatopoeic word. K i r g h i z , T u r k i c t r i b e , 20, 56ff; 71, 96ff. ' K i t a j • B a k h s y , s m i t h m a g i c i a n s , . 118, 144. B a k h s h i ( B r a g i n s k i j , • Voprosy, 69) o r b a k s a , baksy ( K i r g h i z ; see Abor. S i b e r i a ) i s shaman"; c f . bagsha (Mongol) " t e a c h e r " , e t c . K j u n , kfln (Yakut) "Sun" ( B t i h t l i n g k , WSrterbuch) - p e r s o n a l name In o l o n g k h o . K j u n S y r alym an-1o j on, f i r s t man, 114. K j u n Te'gierimen, hero i n o l o n g k h o , 117, 119. K j u n T y n l y n s a , h e r o i n e i n o l o n g k h o , 117, 119« K o b l a n d y - b a t y r , K a z a k h - K a r a k a l p a k e p i c , 67, 149. Kobuz, 60. - a) ( K i r g h i z ) shaman 's drum; b) (Kazakh) t h r e e -s t r i n g e d v i o l i n . See khuur. K o k a l d a s h , Kalmuck i n Alpamysh, 104. K o k o t e j Khan, i n Manas, 57, 61, 97. Kongur B a j , C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l , 147 n . 8 . K o n u r b a j , C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l ( o r emperor) i n Manas, 63, 67, 100, 102. 177 K u l u n K u l l u s t u u r t h e Stubborn, o l o n g k h o , 78. K u n g r a t , K o n g r a t , an Uzbek t r i b e , 67, 1 0 3 f f . K u r d a l o g o n , D i v i n e s m i t h i n N a r t epos, 144. K u r r o g l o u , Turkoman h e r o , 139. S e e G u r g u l i . K y r k Kyz ("The F o r t y M a i d e n s " ) , K a r a k a l p a k e p i c , 18, 67, 68ff, l O o f f . . Kyrydymyan, Yakut h e r o , 76, 117. K y s y l - b a t y r , K i r g h i z t a l e , 146 n.4. K y z y l b a s h i , 69* - "Red-heads", from t h e r e d caps, round w h i c h t h e t u r b a n was wrapped..Name ( i n G & r - o g l y , e.g.) f o r t h e P e r -s i a n shahs. O r i g i n a l l y t h e name g i v e n t o t h e T u r k i c t r i b e s who had t h e i r own s t a t e i n I r a n i n 1502; l a t e r a p p l i e d t o a l l t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Iran,,. K y z - z h i b e k , T a t a r e p i c , 149. L e n g t h o f e p i c s , 57-8. Mady-Khan, C h i n e s e h e r o , 102. Malgun, g i a n t i n Manas, 101. Manas, K i r g h i z e p i c , 20, 42, 5 6 f f . , 96ff. Manaschi, s i n g e r s o f Manas, 5 8 f f . Mangatkha.1, Mangadkhaj, 47, 80-1, 9 4 f f . , 125, 147. - A huge v o r a c i o u s many-headed monster. A p p a r e n t l y from a term meaning " g r e a t snake", now means a b e i n g i n human form ( P h i l l i p s , Dawn i n S i b e r i a , 3 1 ) . Perhaps a s i n g u l a r i s a t i o n o f a m u l t i t u d i n o u s ' enemy. Cf. Andulma-khan, i n Geser.; a l s o chudo-judo, t h e mon-s t e r i n R u s s i a n f o l k t a l e ("Ivan t h e p e a s a n t T s ~ s o n and t h e t h r e e Chudo-Yudos", A Mountain o f Gems, 29ff«; one has 6 heads, one 9 i:- and one 1 2 ) ; t h e M o n g o l i a n mangus ( a l s o i n G e s e r ) , and t h e I n d i a n Rakshasa;. t h e i d e a seems t o have come from the s o u t h ( K l e m e n t z , 9). See a l s o Jelmogus. M a s t e r s , 49, 95-6. - Good and e v i l s p i r i t s who c o n t r o l na-t u r e . The Koryak speak o f A n q a k e n - e t i n v i l a n , "Master o f t h e Sea"; t h e Chukchee, o f E t l n v i t , "Owners", and A u n r a l i t , "Mas-t e r s " who animate f o r e s t s , r i v e r s and t h e l i k e ; t h e Yakut, o f I c h c h i , " s p i r i t - o w n e r s " , some o f w h i c h a r e a b a a s y l a r ( q . v . ) . The G i l y a k term p a l may mean "mountain" o r " s p i r i t o f t h e mountain". The B u r j a t b e l i e v e t h a t e v e r y d i s e a s e has I t s owner, o r z a j a n ( C z a p l i c k a , A b o r 0 S i b . ) . The " M a s t e r o f t h e F o r e s t s " In B u r j a t l e g e n d ( c a l l e d O r g o l i ) i s an e v i l mangatkhaj, q.v. 178 M a t r i a r c h y , 6 9 . Elements o f m a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y a r e t o be found i n the B u r j a t l e g e n d o f A s u i k h e n and Khusukhen, probab-l y t h e eponyms o f " o r i g i n a l , a n c e s t o r s " , by female l i n e a g e , o f two i n t e r m a r r y i n g c l a n s ( P h i l l i p s , 2 9 ) „ C f . a l s o t h e l e g e n d of G u l a i m ( I n Kyrk K y z ) , and t h e Amazon l e g e n d . The a n c i e n t C e l t s had a m a t r i l i n e a r system ( G r a v e s , White Goddess, 332) as d i d the Hebrews ( i b i d . , 3 4 4 ) j t h e K i n g s o f N i s a n e a r Me-g a r a , as i s p r o v e d by t h e i r g e n e a l o g y ( p . 3 4 5 ) , and t h e Romans, i n e a r l y t i m e s ( p . 3 9 3 ) <> Mergen, 42. - "Adept, d e x t e r o u s , a r c h e r , marksman". A v e r y a n c i e n t t i t l e (Poucha, 55)« Found as l a t t e r p a r t o f name o f h e r o , as " A j d u r a j - m e r g e n " , e t c . ; c f . T e l e u t marghan, U i g h u r margan, K i r g h i z mergan, "der s c h f l t z e ; g e w a l t i g , s t a r k " (Rad-l o v , Opyt, IV, 2094). M e t r e s , T u r k i c , 6 0 M i l k - w h i t e Lake i n o l o n g k h o , 1 1 9 . • Monologue, sung by c h a r a c t e r s i n e p i c s , 36-7, 73, 116. M o s q u i t o , o r i g i n o f , 121. Musa-khan,' Kazakh h e r o i c song, 6 7 . N a d i r Shah, P e r s i a n c o n q u e r o r , 1 9 , 6 9 - 7 0 , ' 1 0 8 f f . N a r t s , O s s e t i a n e p i c h e r o e s , 14, 144. Nazym-sulu, h e r o i n e o f Kambar, l l O f f . N o g a l , 6 2 , 6 7 , 1 0 6 . - P r i n c i p a l p e r s o n n e l i n Manas, i d e n t i -f i e d w i t h t h e O i r o t , q.v. An a l t e r n a t i v e name f o r t h e West-ern Mongols, o r Kalmucks. ( C h a d w i c k , I I I , 8n) - and c f . Poppe i n A s i a M a j o r V I I I , . I 8 4 f f , , and r e f e r e n c e s . Nogoj, grand-f a t h e r o f Manas,(p. 9 6 ) i s the same word. Nojon, 5 1 - 2 - " O f f i c i a l , d i g n i t a r y , manager" (Poucha, 5 5 ) . Odysseus, 11, 148. O i r o t , O i r a t , 6 6 . Western Mongols, o r Kalmucks ( b u t see C z a p l i c k a , T u r k s , 9 6 ) . I d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e N o g a i i n Manas. P l a n s , r i t u a l wedding songs, 106.- C f . Chadwick, I I I , 1 5 6 f f . Olfing, K i r g h i z v e r s e , 6 0 . - L i n e s 1, 2, 4, have end-rhyme ( R a d l o v , Opyt, I , 1 2 4 7 ) . Cf. Olongkho. Olongkho, Yakut e p i c , 9 , 12, 21-2, 42, 73ft.t 143. - I t i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o (South) T u r k i c fllflng, and t h e B u r j a t ontokhon; t h e r e f o r e means " t a l e " as B B h t l i n g k says ( W f l r t . , 2 5 ) . 179 Paganism i n Manas, 147 n.5. P a r a l l e l i s m , 3 9 - 4 0 , 6l-2. P o l . i a n i t s a , 8 . W a r r i o r - m a i d e n i n b y l i n y . ( C f . M a t r i a r c h y . ) An example i s : " S t o i t tamo Kurban t s a r " , / E s h c h e K u r b a n - t s a r ' da i K u r b o n o v i c h , / So v s e j u s i l o j u mogucheju,/ Chto so v s e j _ l i p o i l a n i t s e j u u d a l o j u . " ( - " S u r o v e t s - S u z d a l e t s " , l i n e s 33-6, i n A. M. A s t a k h o v a e t a l . , B y l i n y v z a p l s j a k h i p e r e s k a z a k h X V I I - X V I I I . vekov, M.-L., AN, I 9 6 0 , 205-6). Here, p o s s i b l y , t h e term i s used o f t h e w h o l e ' f o r c e o f t h e h e r o e s . Pyne, g i a n t b i r d i n I t j e , 120. Pynegusse, man-eating g i a n t , 1 1 9 f f • Q.tizy-Korptish and B a j a n - s u l u , T u r k i c l y r i c a l e p i c , 148. Theme i s r e l a t e d t o "Romeo & J u l i e t " m o t i f . S e v e r a l v e r s i o n s i n R a d l o v and So b o l e v . Quest m o t i f , 5 2 , 77. R e p e t i t i o n , 3 9 , 61-2. Rhyme, 55. Rhythm, 40, 55. Rustum, hero o f F i r d a u s i ' s Shah-Nameh and f o l k t a l e s , 64. S a j e k e , i n Ky r k Kyz, 108 -Sarkop, 18, 6 9 , 1 0 6 „ - The l e g e n d a r y f o r t r e s s o f Gulaim i n Kyr k Kyz. At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e K a r a k a l p a k s use t h e word n o t as a p r o p e r noun, but as an a p p e l l a t i v e , d e n o t i n g a se-p a r a t e f o r t i f i e d tower o r c i t a d e l (Zhdanko,"Kyrk K y z " , 1 1 1 ) . S e c r e t H i s t o r y o f the Mongols, 1 3 t h c. h i s t o r i c a l work, 38. Sep; D a r a l g a , chorus o f u l i g e r , 34, 3 6 , 38. Se.ltek, K i r g h i z poem on grandson o f Manas, 56, 103. Semete.1, poem on son o f Manas, 5 6 , 103. Shalffios, i n v i s i b l e s p i r i t s i n B u r j a t myth. Produced by., A t a i Ulan T e n g e r i , c a s t down from t h e sky by Geser - a c i r -cumstance c u r i o u s l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . Cf.. Jelmogus. Shara ( M o n g o l ) , " y e l l o w " . C f . Hungarian s a r g a . Shara N a g o j , B u r j a t monster, 54. •180 S h a r a i g h o l , enemies o f G e s e r , 19. S i m e k h s i n , In o l o n g k h o , 114. S o l a r myths, 16, 19, 78. S o v i e t a t t i t u d e t o f o l k l o r e , 1 2 3 f f , 132, 151. S o v i e t u l i g e r s , 50. S t r u c t u r e o f u l i g e r s , 37ff• Suoda.ja t h e B l a c k , d i v i n e s m i t h , 116. Su.rkha . J_il', i n Alpamysh, 104. S u r t a . j s h i , 108. - Kalmuck khan i n K y r k Kyz. C f . t a i s h i . Syralyman-Kuo, h e r o i n e In o l o n g k h o , 1 1 6 f f . Syrgak, K i r g h i z h e r o , 100, 102. Taicha-Khan, Kalmuck shah, 1 0 3 f f . Cf. t a i s h i . T a i s h i , t i t l e o f J u n g a r p r i n c e , 69. R a d l o v (Opyt, III, 770) says i t i s J u n g a r , T a t a r , and Old T u r k i c , meaning "der S c h r e i b e r , S c h r i f t s t e l l e r " . Tempering o f h e r o e s , 116. T e n g e r i , T e n g r i , 27, 28, 46. - M i n o r d e i t i e s , sprung from B a r o n j e T a b i n Tabung T e n g e r i , one o f t h e t h r e e s p i r i t s i n • Esege Malan ( q . v . ) . C f . Old T u r k i c , Mongol, t a f t r i , "heaven, God"; Yakut tanara,. "shaman's c o a t , h o u s e h o l d g u a r d i a n s , heaven, i k o n s , C h r i s t i a n God"; C h i n e s e t ' i e n , "heaven" ( t h e abode o f s p i r i t s , p e r s o n i f i e d ) ; and Sumerian d i n g i r , "God". ( - C z a p l i c k a , Poucha, C u r t i n . ) Tojon ( Y a k u t ) , " H e r r , Oberer, Chef"; "des Mannes Y a t e r " ( B t t h t l i n g k ) . - T i t l e added t o name o f d e i t y , o r e a r t h l y r u l e r . T r e e, H o l y , 116. T u l p a r , winged w a r h o r s e , 104. Tumen Z h a r g a l a n , w i f e o f Geser, 50. T u r k s , 5 5 f f . See a l s o names o f t r i b e s , T M r e e l g e , monologues i n u l i g e r s , 36-7. Uak, Kazakh c l a n , 110 181 •Udeshelgyn zupaa, f a r e w e l l song i n u l i g e r , 3 5 , 41. U g t a l g y n zugaa, i n v o c a t i o n t o u l i g e r , 31-2, 4 l , U l i g e r , Mongol e p i c , 4, 2 2 - 3 , 2 4 f f . ; m u s i c , 3 3 ; 7 6 - 7 . U l i g e r s h i ( n ) , s i n g e r o f u l i g e r s , 4, 31, 124. U l t a n - t a z ( U l t a n t h e B a l d ) i n Alpamysh, 1 0 5 - 6 . • Ulutu.ier-Ulu-To.jon, c h i e f o f d a r k s p i r i t s , 17. Ungin u l i g e r s , 4 3 , 4 7 f f . Un s t u m b l i n g M j u l d j u t h e S t r o n g , o l o n g k h o , 7 5 , l l 4 f f . Untan Duura.j Abkha.1, i n I r i n s e j , 4 7 , - Q 4 f f . Uot Cholboodo.1, d i v i n e shamaness, 116. Uot-Chymada.1, monster shaman, 115. Urak and Mama j , Kazakh h e r o i c song, 6 7 . Urun-Aly-Toyon, B u r j a t god, 131. Usa ( Y a k u t ) , b r a n c h o f a c l a n , 5 0 . Uzbeks, s o u t h T u r k s , 6 7 , 1 0 3 f f . , 109<» Vainamoinen, w i z a r d i n F i n n i s h K a l e v a l a , 7 7 , 151. V a s s i l y , P r i n c e , i n R u s s i a n t a l e , 7 6 . War songs, 30, 43. Water o f L i f e m o t i f , 7 5-6, 85, 95, 1 1 6 , " 117. G e n e r a l l y • found-on top o f a mountain, under a g o l d e n aspen t r e e . V e ry w i d e s p r e a d : R u s s i a n , Yakut, B u r j a t , e t c . Wind, imp r e g n a t e s h o r s e s , 102, 148. Winged h o r s e , i n o l o n g k h o , 1 1 6 . C f . t u l p a r . Y a k u t s , T u r k i c - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e i n n o r t h S i b e r i a , 9, 14, 21, 42, 50, 7 3 f f . Ysyakh, 16-8, 7 5 , 115. Yakut f e s t i v a l . From v_s, t o s p r i n - • k l e ; B t f h t l i n g k (Wtirterbuch, 3 3 ) . g l o s s e s y s y a k h ys "das g r o s s e Sommerfest f e i e r n (wobei u n t e r Anderm das Feuer m i t Eymys b e s p r e n g t wird)'". - These s a c r i f i c e s o f kumys were : made t o A r t - T o j o n - A g a ( F a t h e r - R u l e r o f A l l ) , who l i v e d i n t h e n i n t h sky ( C z a p l i c k a , Ab. S i b e r i a , 2 7 8 - 9 ) . 182 Y u r t a , pass_Lm. The t e n ' t - l i k e d w e l l i n g i n use among t h e T u r k i c t r i b e s . Z a c h i n ( R u s s i a n ) "a b e g i n n i n g " , exordium t o a b y l l n a , ' 32. Zapev ( R u s s i a n ) "a b r e a k i n g i n t o song", i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a b y l i n a . Zhalmambet, i n Kambar,' 111-2. Zhrau, " b a l l a d - s i n g e r " , 70. Cf„ d z h y r a u . Z h u r i n t a z ( Z h u r i n t h e B a l d ) , 107. Shepherd who a t t e m p t s t o g a i n t h e hand o f G u l a i m i n K y r k K yz. Zudak, mangatkhaj , 9 5 . 

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