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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The aesthetics of Croce and Bergson McDonald, John Alexander 1936

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THE AESTHETICS OF CROCE AHDJ|3RG-SOI hy  John Alexander McDonald  -oOo-  A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS (y—'i^'l  •'•  v  1  7  i  n  the Department  PHILOSOPHY  The University of B r i t i s h Colombia APRIL« 1936  Preliminary  Were i t  note  the custom to  M.A. theses,  dedicate  I should c e r t a i n l y  w i s h t o d e d i c a t e t h i s one t h e member's o f t h e l i b r a r y of  this University,  other  to staff  i f f o r no :  reason than t h a t I have  f o u n d them c o n s i s t e n t l y t o marvels of  be  patience.  J . A . M.  The c r i t i c i s every i n s t a n t on the edge of  metaphysics, Baudelaire  -0O0-  I have been t o l d t h a t a e s t h e t i c s i s an " i m p o s s i b l e " s u b j e c t . I almost agree. A e s t h e t i c s , i f not w h o l l y i m p o s s i b l e , i s I v e r i l y b e l i v e , as d i f f i c u l t as anyt h i n g c o u l d w e l l be. I t i s d i f f i c u l t because i t c o u r t s vagueness and evades p r e c i s i o n . The a e s t h e t i c experience—.-and the a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t i s a delicate and e l u s i v e t h i n g , v a n i s h i n g a t a t o u c h . When we t h i n k we have the o b j e c t , s o l i d , c o l o u r e d , r e s o n a n t , we f i n d but the dampness of a d i s a p p e a r i n g c l o u d or the s m e l l of a p a s s i n g smoke. A e s t h e t i c s i s d i f f i c u l t because i t demands t r e b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n - — t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of b e i n g a s e n s i t i v e a e s t h e t i c experi e n t , o f b e i n g a competent w i t n e s s , and of b e i n g a b l e t o a n a l y s e - t h e g i v e n data c l e a r l y and p h i l o s o p h ically. I t i s d i f f i c u l t because we mus't a v o i d the mere o b i t e r d i c t a of o f a r t i s t s and c o n n o i s s e u r s on the one hand and mere pronouncements of system-making p h i l o s o p h e r s on the o t h e r v I t i s d i f f i c u l t because t h e r e i s not one a e s t h e t i c experience but man, and i t s i m p l y w i l l not do t o manufacture a t h e o r y w h i c h f i t s one a r t and f i t s none of the r e s t . On the other, hand, a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y must be as exact as i t can, and must n o t , i n i t s attempt to be g e n e r a l , l a p s e i n t o nebulousness. s  L.A. R e i d  -0O0-  GOjTEpS  Preliminary  C H A P T E R ONE.  note  H I S T O R I C A L P E E S PEC T I V E  Preliminary I.  CLASSICAL  AESTHETICS  • Plato's aesthetics 2. E m p h a s i s o n A r t ' a s Imitation 3 • B e a u t y as a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e s o u l ; a f o r e s h a d o w ing of s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s m 4• P l o t i n u s s t h e d i c h o t o m y r e s o l v e d 5• T h e C l a s s i c A g e r a t i f i e s , t h e " R u l e s " o f A r t 1  II.  THE • • 3. ^• 1  s  III.  THE 1„ 2 3. 4•  IV.  v  •  2• 3.  IDEAL  The m o n a d o l o g y o f L e i b n i t z Vague s t i r r i n g s o f a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y i n the Seicento The p l a c e o f I m a g i n a t i o n i n a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y V i c e and t h e g e n e t i c c o n c e p t o f a r t . INTELLECTUAL1ST  T R A D I T I O N REMAIHS  ACTIVE  Baumgarten: c o n t i n u i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t tradition Thecf drmalism of Kant Croce' s estimate of the h i s t o r i c a l importance of Kant The p o s t - K a j i t i a n m o v e m e n t  AHTI-METAPHYSICAL 1  V.  EMERGENCE OJ? A FEW  REACTION  Schopenhauer's e m o t i o n a l i s t theory foreshadows anti-metaphysical reaction Prom b i o l o g y : the t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n P s y c h o l o g y : the e m p i r i c a l a p p r o a c h to a r t  CONCLUSION  the  COJ^TENTS  CHAPTER  (cont. )  TWO.  CROCE  Preliminary 1  • ( ) Sources ("b ) P r o c e ' s a  of Groce's a e s t h e t i c p h i 1 oBoplay o f m i n d  2.(a) T h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f b e a u t y b ) Identification of intuition  ,  and  expression  3• ( a ) A r t n o t f e e l i n g ' i n i t s i r a m e d i a c y ("b) B e a u t y a n d u g l i n e s s 4. fa) The s e n s i b l e o b j e c t n o t t h e r e a l work o f a ("b / D i f f i c u l t y t h i s i n v o l v e s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( ) A r t as l a n g u a g e 0  5. (a ) The l n d i v i s l a b i l i t y o f a r t ("bJ E x t e n s i o n , b u t n o d e g r e e s o f b e a u t y (c ) T h e a u t o n o m y o f a r t 6. A r t a n d  CHAPTER  life  THREE. .  BJIRJJSON  Preliminary 1  •  Bergson's  p h i 1 o sophy  2• T h e two modes 3  •  o f knowledge  The d i f f i c u l t y o f  4. T h e a e s t h e t i c  language  activity •  (b j t h e a r t i s t (c) the uninspired  CHAPTER  POUR.  o f Be c o m i n g  COHCLUSI01J  CHAPTER Om.  HISTORICAL  Preliminary.  I f an H i s t o r i c a l  the  aesthetics  may h e f o u n d , Croce as  i n this  and  expression.  the  past,  us  such dry  man who  we  know  a view  the we  notions  all  of time  would  judge  them  true  held  Even  regard  Both  reality  i s an  unfolding  one must  writers  know  they  to r e c a l l  the view  of history  we  fundamentally risk  another  tags  here  held that  pair  of  and b y  a r e n o t as n e u t r a l and. " d y n a m i c " to confuse  as  connote  the i s s u e .  i t i s enough^ to note  assertion  o f a n a n s w e r u n l e s s we  o'f t h e q u e s t i o n , a n d so i f we w o u l d  that  "We  that  cannot  understand  judge  Eliot's  know."  from  b y t h e one i s s t a t i c ,  are apt quite  subscribe to Croce's  T.S.  which  may  ex-  B u t when  are that  differs  from  d i d " , no d o u b t  do w e l l  to be, f o r " s t a t i c " which  a r e remote  of us.  that  these  f o r our purpose  the truth  defense, i t  t o most  and they  p h i l o s o p h e r : ( i f we  of v i t a l i t y But  than  u s we w o u l d  as E l i o t ,  o t h e r , dynamic. wish  the present,  "The dead  v  such  .the v i e w  might  said,  i s perfectly  k  life  the truth  the.meaning of a  ph.il-  •1  o s o p h y we m u s t  know  H. W i l d o n presses  i n different  of  contains the past w i t h i n i t .  "Precisely,  by Classicist,  tags)  t o know  o f t h e past.common  rejoinder:  a Romantic  f o r each,  an a c c o u n t  themselves.  p h i l o s o p h e r s , who  so m u c h m o r e  myopia, o v e r t a k e s  It  of  Hence,  requires  i n the authors  than Being:  f o r the present  because  pressed  case,  a r e Time  rather  The  sketch, p r e f a c i n g  o f two c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  and B e r g s o n  Becoming  ESLSPECTIV1  the history." Carr, terms  echoing  the thought  the point  of Croce,  made b y E l i o t :  "The  ex-  -2ph.ilosoph.er  of to-day,  h o w e v e r much h e may w i s h  off  from him the h i s t o r i c a l  can  he t r e a t  happened. flesh, them to  events  Those  to divest  into  a r e hone  himself  account,  happened  o f them  he must  only  historical they who  are original.  ticularly one's  This  t o rea-d^,  Plotinus,  estimate This  c a n we  after  single  theories given  can be j u s t i f i e d  I.  CLASSICAL  !•  Plato's  statement, most  by which  another  from  i n their  t o what  extent  anyong  philosopher^,  par-  Bergson. a  perhaps,  Immediately readjustment.  sufficiently  perspective of  to j u s t i f y  itself.  foreshortening of the perspective  on t h e s c o r e  o f space  limitation i s ,  AESTHETICS  E.P. C a r r i t t  " I f I had to choose  each  and a c c o r d i n g  borne-upon  undergoes  seeks  take  matter.  aesthetic.  insight  read  ofh i s  writings  the h i s t o r i c a l  below  or not the v i o l e n t  course,  having  instance w i l l ,  aesthetic  of  i s forcibly  of the contemporary  the moral  taken  fact  nor  had not  He m u s t  to recognize  say, the Cla.ssic  underline  Whether  hope  cast  i s the fulness of  viewing, a philosopher's  perspective  happens  i s impossible.  knowing  they  flesh  know h i s t o r i c a l l y ,  of h i s h i s t o r i c a l 2 philosophy." And.  as though  o f h i s hone,  the fulness  his  one  c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h he l i v e s ,  which have  events  t o , cannot  into  what  makes t h i s  t h e two a u t h o r s  i s meant  provocative who  might  by a e s t h e t i c , I should  end o f t h e s e r i e s ,  Plato  and C r o c e .  give  choose  i f I had.  3 to  choose  one i t w o u l d  be P l a t o . "  It i s certain  that, t o P l a t o  -3all a  successive  t h e o r i s e r s on a r t , o r " a e s t h e t i c i a n s "  clumsy word  it  need  owe m o r e  which have  i-rr-er---s-u4>;3-&<3-t s e e m i n g l y h i s theory  being only  Plato  intrinsically  seems  copies  three  thinking  about  although  the  passions;  Puritan notion  removed  artclearly  ideal  f o rthis  Republic.  vie\v o f a r t . that  Plato  artists  Another  that  absolute  becomes  illustrious  and.  here  things  however, c a n  not be m i s l e d world  to rule  a justication from  immoral  this  of illusion. stir  the artists lent  to the  to the crude  d o c t r i n e , however,  to a b s o l u t e  treats  develops beauty.  the And  with  two - o t h e r  absolutes  the True,  t h e Good,  and t h e B e a u t i f u l .  deep  h i s attention to things  and h a s a t l a s t  shall  dawn u p o n h i s  whose  sake he endured  enough  b e c o m e a -master  eyes  a vision  of surpassing  a l l h i s former  toils;  of love,  i n their  i n that  due  school,  there  beauty, f o r  a beauty  which,  place  in  the f i r s t ,  unbegotten  i s eternal, without  and without  decay;  beginning  and secondly,  this  to form the  i n the lore  of beauty  into  persons.)  Symposium P l a t o  point  i t i s an  i t i s apt to  compelled,  of Plato's In his  linked  triad,  felt  (Bote  E . } When a. man h a s g o n e  turned  order,  beautiful  are themselves  Truth,  pleasure,  are essentially  beauty_ a s a n e d u c a t i o n . thesis  reality.  I t i s but a step  aspect  I n one b r a n c h  a r t as an i m i t a t i o n , b u t  i n the a r t i s t ' s  yields  But  certain  universals\_or ideas,  from  can g e t tri\th  debt.  i n a, s u b j e c t  difficult.  u n i v e r s a l s , h e n c e we m u s t  t h a t we  And  from h i s  times  confusion  objects which  of the i n t e l l i g i b l e  got only  "(210  to regard  a great  i n iris w r i t i n g s  aggravated,  an i m i t a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r  illusion be  directly  n o t s u r p r i s e us t o d i s c o v e r  inconsistencies  of  or less  to use  and w i t h o u t  end,  i s not beautyful  -4in  one  way  or  place  and  or  ugly  from  one  its  beauty  depended  the  ladder  of  of  that  is  the  true  begin  upon love  beauty,  the  ping-stones  one  two  to  beautiful  t r u t h s , and  nothing  so  to  less  It occupation tiful the of  art  serve  veloped  such  the  fancy. to  gift  of  In  some  expressive sight  of  such  beauty.  the  extent  that  spiritual so  the  t h a t we  of  our  see  own  from  that  to  man step-  beautiful  lives  to finally  it'self,  Plato's  and  come  to. may  a  "(47  might  to  content  the  God  observe  i n the  minds, w h i c h  idea  the effect of  closer is  de-  sounds  devised  the  with  strands  art  s i g h t s and  beau-  works  texture  other  t h e o r i e s of  B.)  and  consider  the  select  of  of  stultifying  But  example,  pre-  character  remain  what  beauty  reason  a  this  beauty,  sensuous beauty  lead  states:  d e s c r i b e d by  motions  of  for  And  4  to weave  Timaeus,  glimpse  attaining  Universal  t h a t we  a  other  i f  climbs  that  of. B e a u t y  f o r him  shall  as  them as  and  truths  When we  to  use  all,  i n mind  the  appeal  loved:  from b e a u t i f u l  bear  upon w h i c h the  time  ugly,  catch  that  knowledge  of  rich  one  again  he  and  to  to  and  i t impossible  f o r us  which have been them to  to  d o c t r i n e was  warp  two  Beauty i s . "  C l a s s i c i s m , we a  "world  journey  true  concept  w r i t i n g s i s so  as  our  of  this  from  t i l l  or/b"eing  N  intrinsic  art reflecting  Plato's  is  the  at  attained his goal.  from b eautiful the  then  world  loving of  i s important  with  and  almost  lives,  last, what  independent  upon  to  than  t h i n g s made  aesthetic  of  beautiful  know a t  has  and  creatures  to  i n this  he  beautiful  b e h o l d e r s . . .When anyjone  unceasing  to  nor  of view  the  beaut^ies  f o r an  from  point  discipline  with  going  true  other  i n another,  the  movements  heavens,  and  are  to  akin  apply them,  to  0  so f a r as what i s t r o u b l e d can c l a i m k i n s h i p w i t h serene.  fthat  is  F o r so we m i g h t l e a r n a l e s s o n , and. b y e n t e r i n g  into  t h e i d e a l n a t u r e o f t h a t d e s i g n and i m i t a t i n g t h e p e r f e c t tern  s e t ~bj God m i g h t a d j u s t  t h e r e t o o u r own random m o t i o n s . . .  And r h y t h m a g a i n was g i v e n as f r o m t h e same p u r n o s e ,  same s o u r c e and f o r  t o h e l p us i n d e a l i n g w i t h what i s 5  and c h a o t i c i n t h e m i n d s o f most o f Again,  pat-  the  unmeasured  us."  i n t h e P h i l e b u s we f i n d  t h e germ o f t h e  temporary f a s h i o n a b l e d o c t r i n e of S i g n i f i c a n t  Form;  con-  " ( 5 1 33.  S o c r a t e s ) ; I do n o t now i n t e n d b y b e a u t y o f s h a p e s what most people would expect, tures,  but,  s u c h as t h a t o f l i v i n g  f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f my a r g u m e n t ,  l i n e s and c u r v e s and t h e of  these by l a t h e s  me.  N  surfaces  and r u l e r s and s q u a r e s ,  I mean  or  pic-  straight  forms produced out  like  t h i n g s , b u t a l w a y s and n a t u r a l l y and a b s o l u t e l y ; and  have t h e i r proper p l e a s u r e s ,  they  no way d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i t c h o f  desire.  And I mean c o l o u r s o f t h e 6 k i n d o f b e a u t y and p l e a s u r e s . "  same k i n d , w i t h t h e  The e m p h a s i s on A r t as I m i t a t i o n .  suggestive ideas,  ^  i f you u n d e r s t a n d  F o r I mean t h a t t h e s e a r e n o t b e a u t i f u l r e l a t i v e l y ,  other  2.  or s o l i d  creatures  Many o f P l a t o ' s most  i n p a r t i c u l a r the l a s t  attraction for his successors.  one q u o t e d , h e l d no  The a e s t h e t i c  Good, t h e T r u e and t h e B e a u t i f u l ;  same  and the  trinity:  the  c o n c e p t o f A r t as  I m i t a t i o n w e r e , h o w e v e r , g i v e n a n added a u t h o r i t y b y P l a t o ' s younger contemporary, A r j t i s t o t l e , they  werE  r e g a r d e d as s a c r o s a n c t .  and f o r s e v e r a l hundred Artistotle,  spiritual  o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , and ^ H e p a t r o n s a i n t o f t h e A g e o f  years father  Classicism,  -6taught  that  sale,  the  as  f u n c t i o n of  not  what has  Art  was  the  Tragedy level,  So  i s an the  but  example  of  the  dolent,  or have  type  should  poet,  and  particulars was  of  the  of  persons  observe.  ought  given  who  distinctive to  defects  of  are  who  should  he  for  of  the  yet are  common be  followed,  original,  more  beautiful.  irascible should  rules  appeals  him  "Since  the  should  character,  neglect  Univer-  imitate  to be;  above  and  i t . . . . These- then, a r e  M'or  with  reality.  form  life  i n r e p r e s e n t i n g men  ennoble  or a  but  d e s c r i b e or  protrait-painters  i s true  other  to  be,  might  imitation  good  producing  with  artist  what  imitation  a l i k e n e s s which  too  the  been,  not  the  idealizing  They, w h i l e make  art deals  preserve  the to  or i n ~  poet  the  sense,  # which of  though  not  the  essentials,  axe  the  concomitants  poetry." True,  in no  there  are  "modern"  Nevertheless  the  effect  proved  to have  successors of  art.  3•  Beauty  sub,j e c t i y e the  of  naissance A.D.  of h i s  as  a  by  to  suggestions  powerful  as  and  projection  of  the ^soul;  foreshadowing  current  An  important  of"Aristotle s  that r  mine.  1  a  of Longinus,  the  tributary  a w r i t e r of  S u b l i m i t a t e , p o p u l a r i z e d by  to  Ages the  his  "principles"  which  aesthetic  i n trie M i d d l e  these  i n f l u e n c e upon  "imitation"  p h i l o s o p h i c thought was  the  art  of  ' I n h i s De  italics  negated  such  about  concept  idealisin.  mightier  stream  been  of  notions  >&  found A. t a k e , f o r e x a m p l e , " n o t t o know t h a t a h i n d h a s l e s s s e r i o u s matter than to p a i n t i t i n a r t i s t i -  Aristotle; horns i s a 7  cally."  #  among  of  joined  feed and First  the the  with main Re-  century  B o i l e a u , he  outlined  the  thesis  that  and  nature,  one  lofty,  capacity  while  the  and  of  of  owing men  to  new  become  two  the  our  own,  The  appeals  beauty  beauty  name,  to  and  in  the  a  Carritt  says;  fashions  i n art,  or  as  narrow  to  character in i t ,  i s mere  this  in-  distinction  discoveries  discrepancy  called  E.P.Carritt.,  embodied  sense  of  art  other  " i t shows i t s e l f  new  of  the  corresponding  influence  great,"  i n both  according  recognize  historical  acutelyvconscious  of  latter,  w h i c h we  of  "The  types  generic  great.  character  been very  he  Longinus,  offensiveness. has  may  usurping  elevated  understanding of  there  whenever,  in  among  archaeology,  their  own 9  tastes  or  between  the  tastes  "Sublimity," soul...The ity  and,  soul  rising  seems on  s  of  themselves  said Longinus,  to  be  loftier  and  their  " i s the  echo  n a t u r a l l y u p l i f t e d , by pinions,  to  be  fathers."  filled  of  a  true with  great  sublimjoy  and  10 pride, A  as  having  sentiment  4.  itself  w h i c h we  P l o t i n u s i the  interest  for  will  mysticism"  of  and  student be  spiritualistic  Plotinus'  title  united  the  'the  beautiful'.»  today  to  essense,  regarded  that  heard."  Groce. holds  an  aesthetics,  same t e n d e n c y  lending  support  to  especial  for  to  in  the  "irrational  the  Idealistic  accused.  i t s leading  fame  God;  the  are  in  Plotinus  contemporary trace  previously  Plotinus divine  to  i t has  echoed  resolved...  tradition of  f o r t h what  discover  of  those  one  time  the  able  which  Groce, as  shall  dichotomy  the  Enneads he  brought  representatives,  i t was  he  disconnected  a l l beauty  physical  "who  for  concepts  as  beauty  of  selects  the  first  'art'  a manifestation as  the  and  of  u n i f i c a t i o n of  of  the  formless  essential and  character,---in  i n a r t by  "Our  belief  longing  multiplicity  the  is  to  the  to  i t or  a  is  reminded  the  world  trace  of  as  by  the  produced by manifested  true  reality,  kinship, and  i n a human what  i t s own  i t with  things."  10  we,  sense  things, is  the  follow  have  no  after material  things,  which movesyus.  spiritual  of  As  of  seeing  and  sensej  spiritual  recognizing  i f one  akin  which  prior  knowledge  not  is  "Nature,  yet  to  be- •  transport  is beautiful in a  wont  soul...  i t i s , and  created... . b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s , are  some  woEld-soul,  has  who  of  when i t s e e s what  acknowledge  of  unity the  (human.) s o u l , b e i n g  of  Itself  matter  nature  world-soul  that  of  of  that  his  is  own  re-. 11  flection,  and  and  knowing  The  length  origin  of  will  cast  upon  "(V.  i i i . ) l .  ing  side  by  the  other  not  any  the  acter  Is  by  or  not  other  in  space,  already  Muse,  a r t has  imagination.  one by  perhaps,  to  his And  so  on  itself  by  the  of  following  i f i t be  the  for  and  the  image  an  being  a  Now  essence  but  was  in  the  stone.  having  eyes  this  beauty,  But  and,  of  or,  conceiving i t was  hands,  already  but  by  art,  or  man,  That  stone char-  for  than the  char-  character  mind,  i n the by  ly-  i f human,  i n v i r t u e of or  i t  chapters.  god  stone,  i t .  the  light  essential  but  this  nature  instance,  a l l beauties. of  that."  the  untouched  divine,  beauty of  the  stones  into  pursue  quotation  shapeless  art  should  equally,  given  into  two  composed, o f  formed  material,  of  theories  beautiful in virtue  entered  virtue  excuses  things,  would have been  i n the  fore -it  side  beauty  two  i t came,  following  aesthetic  Suppose  a r t has  which- t h e not  the  whence  the  i n d i v i d u a l , but  which  the  of  artistic  subdued  some G r a c e  not  even  comprehended  be-  artist  virtue in  of  was  not his  his  Imagination, into  the  stone,  beauty. serve  And  the  subdued  art  is after  then  far greater. hut  even  purity  was  duces  was  to  so, of  the  shaping  their ply  built  we  ciples  Plotinus our at  their  must be  truly  copy  faculty  life  i i i .  when t h e For  the  takes  i m a g i n a t i o n governs We  shall  Plotinus  has  here  of  and  of  Groce  // i t a l i c s  mine  have  tru^ly  beauti-  which--.is g r e a t e r  the  ground  n a t u r e , , we of  an  not  them and  cause  to  may  merely  of which  "ascend  is a  the  come t o  dicuss  the is  prin-  i s what occurs  troubled defect  and  or  artists i s no'hitch  14#  t h e w o r k . "j^T)  the  And  nature  to  when t h e r e  remember  re-  copy  Deliberate reasoning  achieves  that  Original.  Imagination,  but  pro-  allays,  i-hethe^ar.tsip.when  reins;  art  product  and  on  a r t s . " do  to  the  external...  of. r e a s o n i n g  d r a w n w h e n we Bergson.  the  pre-  stone  of  i f what  s o u l - i s u n c e r t a i n and  need  the  of  copies  up"?  o f ^sppr.ehension'p hSb  reasoning  f a r as  and  of  one  lesser  the  principles  18.)  a  so  arts  originals  is built  to  him  there  beauty,  the  enables  of  c o u l d not  i n anything  the  out  birth  more h i g h l y  that the to  "LV.  nature  are  not  external product  image,  censure the  gave  only  artistic  exists  one  nature  Its best.  falter,  and the  went  beauty  i f the  f a r as  ascend  c a l l e d , it,*.  inadequacy  But  recognize  what  mortal  lesser  objects, too,  world, b u t 13#~ up."  on w h i c h  h i m .and  nature  &han  only  must  And  not  the  this  design, but  spirit  that natural  visible  in  so  i f any  products  further  the  own  more b e a u t i f u l "But  this  art.  art's  f u l , , s i n c e i t has and  abode w i t h  i s 'beautiful the  For  "  distinction the  Intuition  . -105.  The  Classic  Age  tained  i n the  mained  virtually  comprising  ratifies  distinction  the  hidden  Art  religious  allegory.  ing to  of  upon the 15  discovered. of  doing  In  merely  of  ta,ste  an  the  the words  t h e way  i n the had  as  Academician,  more for  a  of  abuse,"  was  than  nothing but upon  double  "Hp  treatises  of  Freart  painting  of Prance,  rules de  with  of  Chaiabray,  a  science,  and  arbiter  "It is leading arts,  clearer  at  represents.  and  produces  our  Geometry, makes she  emphasis,  the mechanical  Doubts...whereas  o f what  a r t what  art.  pedantic philosophy, which  demonstration  capable  l e s passions"  that  of  newly  and. e i g h t e e n t h  a demonstrable  Principles  part  that  upon  and  and  flower-  i t s original  "pre'ciser  inflexible  arose  p o e t r y and  seventeenth  d'etre  wrote  fine  asserting with  Age  the  thinker  admission,  the  the.Classical  f o r t h e most  on  science, an  and  years  the A n c i e n t s i t had  the Academy  Questions  the  of  re-  hundred  f o r a l l the  content  of Croce,  as  fifteen  to  con-  subordinated to moral  And  confound  i s founded  established time  "to  reasonable us  of  truth  referred  Renaissance,  canons  i t s raison  legislating  she  and 16  Classic  insufferable  since  priori  character."  centuries, and  a  activity,  -  above  Renaissance,  did for political by  autonomous  span  the  f o r the Renaissance  Machiavelli not  of Plotinu3  f o r the  The  ..  " R u l e s " o f A r t . The  i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s was  ir,s a r t i s t i c  lean  the  Middle Ages,  Revival.  .  Painting, the But  same i t is  n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e two o t h e r e y e s t o e n j o y h e r b e a u t y t r u l y ; f o r t h e eyes o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t h e f i r s t and p r i n c i p a l j u d g e 17 of. h e r - W o r k s . " In waging  France  at  concerning the  that  time  relative  an  academic  merits of  controversy  colour  and  was  design i n  - i l -  ia a  painting.  and  Poussin  one  of  Titian  the  non  were most  might  antique. et  T h o s e who  thought daring  have  "G'est  pas  upheld to be  and  l e dessin  Kubens  of  colour,  even R a p h a e l had qui  against  revolutionaries.  protagonists  surpassed  l e colour"  Titian  fait  expressed  he  consensus  Piles,  declared  that  studied,  l e m e r i t e ' de  the  De  Raphael  l a  the  peinture  of a u t h o r i t a t i v e  opinion. As the  antique  that  Prance. Arts  she  The of  In  the  artists  a  treatise un  principle  ought  gather  to  be  by  the  representation of  perfect.  This  the  by  as  are  to  preserve  joined  more  to  and  belie  with  of  rendering  She  ideas  improve  beautiful,  She  being.  i n one  a l l the  q u a l i t i e s - n e c e s s a r y , as  as  for  perfecting of heart In England  the  creed, o f  former, i n h i s  the  and  Classical  S i r Joshua Reynolds famous  and  still  to  the  Les  a in  beaux  such  a l l the  perfect  in  such  extensive  good;  indulge  found  either  which gives  to  entertaining  expression  S i r Christopher  influential  and  circumstances  -same o b j e c t ,  Revival  mind  themselves,  i t , i n tending i s the  as  qualities  e n t e r t a i n the  much f o r t h e 19 mind."  and  at  called  belle nature,  objects  and  art  to  i s l i k e w i s e to  This  it  the  "La  i s to  interesting  our  ahhered  l i k e w i s e more  i n those  of  Poussin,  Abbe' B a t t e u x made i t . t h e  objects, which, our  works  title,  art, includes  beautiful.  particularly  the  the  of  i t came t o b e  significant  good.  p o i n t i n g out  or  by  paintings  f o r the  nature"  the  the  G r e e c e had  aesthetic,  the  i s the  key  ancient  represented  beautiful  heart  of  of M s  the  capable  seeing  raeme i g r i n c i p e ,  of  are  from  emotional  beauty;-"la  reduits a  central  may  provided  time.  type-form  one  ¥ren.  Discourses,  in The  restated  the  doctrine  enunciated by A r i s t o t l e  "All  theobjects  upon  close  and  The most  weakness,  who  aims  her  imperfect  to  are exhibited  examination w i l l  defects.  them l i k e  which  be found  minuteness,  out  idea  original....This artist  calls  by  which  works  6*  Summary.  in  p a i n t i n g we  influences flict  forms  beauty, are  David.  particularly  as revealed,  Classic ideal  was  t o embody  appreciated were and came  Plato  i n t h e work  was  a. s t a t i c  an a b s t r a c t  idea  ideal;  " t h e g o l d e n mean" w e r e to be a t r o p h i e d  into  often  of style  and the con-  of the C l a s s i c i s t , the main  of aesthetic and  activity,  Croce.  i s " t o - emphasize'that  the a r t i s t ' s  The u l t i m a t e  arbitrarily  function could  be  authorities  interpreted.  t h e watchwords, which t h e dogmas  the  revolutionary  of p e r f e c t i o n which  by the i n t e l l i g e n c e . and A r i s t o t l e ,  the  of Bergson  a t " t h i s stage  which  principle  the h i s t o r y  i s to trace  current  a n y one  20  the disciple  o f the contemporary  the  enabled  makes  than  leading  and D e l a c r o i x ,  Instead, our purpose  f o r our purpose  Painter  of Nature,  t o d i s c u s s ; now  determinants  Sufficient  state  conducted."  Constable  named w i t h  about  by h e r s e l f ,  more p e r f e c t  i s the great  commence  of Rousseau,  something  f i g u r e s , he  I f our concern here were w i t h might  blemishes  H i s eye b e i n g  general  o f the\ p e r f e c t  of genius  of the l a s t  Poussin  perfect.  for their  the Ideal  Nature,  d e f i c i e n c i e s , e x c r e s c e n c e s , and  of t h e i r  idea  have  their  before.  or imperfection...The  b y h e r more  of things,  an a b s t r a c t  to have  by  s t y l e . . . c o r e c t s Nature  distinguish the accidental  ^deformities  centuries  to our view  b e a u t i f u l .forms  at the greatest state  twenty  we  of the Prench  have  Order seen,  Academy.  II.  THE  EMERGENCE OE  1;. T h e  monadology  Academicism which  tradition. . 21  through  life.  His  insensible  the  against, isions  even  the  comprised unique,  of  with  the  evolutionist  French  categories of  i n i t s own  from,  classicism.  each,  processes, which  her-  decided the  His  o f monads,  right,  a  the  change  minute  d o c t r i n e marks  system  Academy,  development  (subconscious)  divergence  heeded  universe with  on  of  Classical  principle.of  emphasis  perceptions  a hierarchic  existing  the  the  dynamic  discovery of  petites  formal  of  of  growth  little  o p e r a t i n g Int.hothgo.rganic  o r , more p r o p e r l y , a  of  a  the  first  breakdown  formation  evolved  degrees,  current  with  forces at  i n the  to  of" c o n t i n u i t y  infinitesimals, alded  a t work  ultimately  Prior  mental  IDEAL  of L e i b n i t z . ; Concurrent  (1646-1716) had  principle and  NEW  t h e r e were  resulted  Leibnitz  A  reacti  sharp  div-  Universe^was  e a c h monad  whatever  being  i t s degree  22 of  complexity,  that  at  one;of  (monad) was audience single  out  not  suffice  cognize this  the  other  the  1684,  he "An  f o r the  be  having  The  story  explained  o b j e c t , he  :  sent  that  his  exactly like  obscure  any  or vague  r e c o g n i t i o n of  I t i s confused  clear  no  other on  knowledge  cannot  for distinguishing  or  enumerate the  object  that  blade  no  of  grass  Knowledge, that  i t s object...If  (sensuous)  told  incredulous  i d e a i s one  or v i v i d  confused i f I  is  t o ' see, f o r t h e m s e l v e s  wrote i n h i s Meditations  either  marks whieh. s u f f i c e  soul-life.  garden  t h i n g I have  a g a i n may  lectual).  any  o f - . g r a s s was  Ideas;  the  lectures,  i n to  blade  and  his  like  In Truth,  reflecting  I of  does  can  re- ,  i t , but  distinct one  by  t h i n g from  one  (intel the  others..  .  -14-  T h u s we is  see p a i n t e r s  right  reason they  and what  for their  dislike  2. V a g u e Italy  stirrings  a j e ne  sais  thought of that  theory  there  later  period^which  element  value  "sensuous"  of  "colour"  i n painting,  of  "wit" or  "genius"  and t h e p h r a s e  to give that  as  to be  t h e work  premonitions  Croce  them t o be the  sais  highly  accounts  "sensible" miracles The  quality  -was r e g a r d e d  especially inventive  (,je n e  ideas  not i n s e n s i -  and o f t h e  "intellect"  as b e i n g  of  has unearthed  opposed, t o " d r a w i n g " . to  In  integrated, i n the  imagery,  so che  what  any;  i n the Seicento,  of "imagination",  as opposed  non  reply 24  were  reveal  i n poetic  of the p e r i o d  enough aware  unable  they  of L e i b n i t z .  or  some w r i t e r s  well  quoi."  of a e s t h e t i c  to the a e s t h e t i c  art;  i f asked,  t o t h o s e what were  writers  tive  taste:  lacks  systematized  artists  i s f a u l t y , hut often  of the High Renaissance  similar  by  and other  quoit) was  a  by  of  common.  tag. A verbatim  report  writers  will  be  w h e n we  come  t o deal, w i t h  aesthetic. 'metric  and  refers to  d e s c r i p t i o n of thesis,  as w i l l  the s p e c i f i c  sources  o f "Croce's  ( 1 6 2 3 ) , who  i t scriteria  by  ( 1 6 3 6 ) , who  particular  a s many s t y l e s a s t h e r e  pow-er  the  b e t w e e n t h e s t y l e s , and  'wit' of each w r i t e r ,  thus  clear own  "the judgment o f  rejected  to t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l manner  be  criticized  t o h i m n o t t h e eye o r e a r b u t a h i g h e r  rhetorical distinction  these  general  "Zuccolo  the s e n s e s . M a s c a r d i ,  style  of  to  a r t ' and r e p l a c e d  which-meant to  He  germane  of Croce's  arising  asserting  sense'  united  objective reduced  out of the  the  existence  are w r i t e r s . P a l l a v i c i n o  (1644),  who  'criticized  'verisimilitude'  proper  domain  that  of  'first  'neither  true  or  false  logic  of  rhetoric  of  and  extended  the  rhetorical  pictorial  and  plastic  *  The  place  of  of  the  vague  phrase  3  highly the  ratiocinative  note  that  the  just  by  even  prior  the  to  then  intelligence.  And  who,  florid call  intuitively,  that  some  ineffable  of  the  the  quality, In  of  objects  or,  imagination  sine  to  works  non;  we  apprehends  to  speak more  accurately,  Apprehension. call  Our  s o u l we  soul  has  may  :  divine The  part,  office  of  The  an  to  romantic  too  of to  a r t , not  accent have  Still,  the  on felt, upon  phrase  haven-'t •'•'yet r e a c h e d those  "(xiv.)  Vico.  writers  The  power  or  and. r e c o g n i z e s s e n s i b l e their  images,  apprehension  is  which  the  -Inferior  of  i s commonly  -  the  hold; i n  things,  i t i s p l a c e d i n the  the  art is  dependent  conveniently call  and  admission  believe,  m u s t -always had. was  form,  affair  about  not  work  dialectic,  verbal  p l a c e d , a s we  another  Superior, because  reasonable,: and Understanding.  the  being  to  jargon of  successor to  mind which  of  the  above, wrote:  or f a n c y ; which,  of  solely  f o r us  with  M u r a t o r i , the  logic  the  themselves.  qua  tried  theorizers  Renaissance,  even  who  activity.  to  as i t s  imagination,  i t i s important  the  inferior-part  w h i c h we  period  charm t h e i r  not  1706,  by  poetry  merely  not  i t i s hard  the  Seicento mentioned  faculty  quoi"  a r t becomes  that  the  in artistic sais  or  (1650),  opposed, t o  expression i s used  . " g e n i u s " w h i c h we  suggests  apprehensions'  forms' h e y o n d 26 • form."  " j e ne  artists,  quality  as  Imagination  significant;  a s s i g n e d to  ; and'-'Tesauro  1  out  to  and  superior, named  i m a g i n a t i o n i s not  to  inquire  o r .know i f t h i n g s a r e t r u e it  i s the office  whether  these  t h r e e way. divine but form  Either  sees  together.  "Eor  (of the f i r s t  images  on. i t .  o f men  and forms  activity),  and, from  apprehension  an i m a g e , w h i c h was  third  our  activity  absolute  sway i n t h e s o u l  counsels  of the understanding. excitements  s o many  1  little  This  i s experienced  i s confined to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of those  conceived  ing  and t h e i m a g i n a t i o n u n i t e h a r m o n i o u s l y 27 to s e t them f o r t h . "  part of the soul."  marriage clusion his  to the  b y us i n  o f pa,ssion, i n d e l i r i u m .  are  ior  holds  o r no h e e d  concern  we  con-  of laughter ...  i n violent  , "Imagination",  i t ex-  not yet present,  dreams,  and  particular  o c c u r s when i m a g i n a t i o n  and g i v e s  i n the second  way,  find,  that  i s , when  i s still  And the p o e t i c  the  imafee  to be arrived, a t by Kant o f Judgement.  .  which  understand-  to eomseive  left  Our  images  things  i n the "infer-  i s born  of. t h e  o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , - - - a  Critique  them a l  understand  had c o l l e c t e d ,  e . g . , ' E v e r y man h a s t h e p o w e r "The  s u p p l y i n g nothing  apprehended by the i m a g i n a t i o n and  I t u n i t e s them,  the inferior  with i t  the imagination conceives  the understanding...  example  them i t s e l f  and i m a g i n a t i o n u n i t e to  counsel with  images w h i c h  ceiving,  Or e l s e  forms  inquire  a r e formed i n  the imagination  Or t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  many  impressed  tracts  the understanding  t o -apprehend t h  t o know a n d t o  a r e t r u e , o r f a l s e , , , .How, i m a g e s  t h e seed. them  but merely  of the understanding  and p e n e t r a t i n g power,  taking.no  ing  or f a l s e  eighty-four years  con-  later .in  -174. V i c o ing  and the genetic  o f t h e emergence  revolutionize select  of a r t .  of the conception  the classical  a s i n g l e word  already  concept  And i f I were  name a s t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f t h i s 28 V'ico •"  the  poetic  taneous, action  activity.  o f man  now,  only  those  who  to i s o l a t e  be p o e t s .  vision  who  are directly  a/ppear-  to select  f r e e from  would  the d i f f e r e n t i a of  a primitive  freshness  t o the degree  the ratiocinative  end o f t h e s c a l e  inter-  societies  primitive  succeed  spon-  The s i n e qua  and, i n c i v i l i z e d  concerned with  a  of mythology ( i n  h i s environment.  These w i l l  remains  which  he^was l e d t o c o n c l u d e was a  i s imagination;  a r e a t t h e opposite*:-  phers,  a study  can a t t a i n - - - o r regain---the  will  their  Poets  This  (thepoet) with  of poetry  outlook  that  through  Homer's) attempted  ideal  i d e a l , " "that name  u n r e f l e c t i n g reaction to nature,  non,  of  Vico,  was t o  h a d made i t s o b s c u r e  single  Giambattista  speak-  says,. " I f I were t o  to characterize the opposing  i n t h e eighteenth;;century  particular,  Read,  of a r t that  tradition,  •anc'e, t h a t w o r d w o u l d , b e g e n e t i c .  be  Herbert  from  element.  the philoso-  discovering  abstract  universals. In. h i s S c i e n z a ition time  "poetic  logic"  Huova  and. " i n t e l l e c t u a l  asserted, t h e primacy  Strength  (1725-1730),  of imagination  Vico  logic"  o f t h e formers  i s i n proportion  s e t i n oppos-  a n d a t t h e same  "The E l e m e n t s , ( 3 6 ) . t o weakness  of  reason-  ing. "The  Elements,  they  perceive  reflect  with  (53)," with  Men a t f i r s t  a confused  the pure  feel  without  perception,  and d i s t u r b e d mind,  intellect.  finally  then they  "This which  are  formed  philosophical ing.  axiom with  i s the  principle  feelings  statements  are  of  of  p a s s i o n and  formed  hy  the  latter  approach  truth  Universals,  the  former  a r e more  certain  t h e way  of  abstract the  which  has  the  rise  nearer  senses  been  first  felt  This  i n the  i n 1744.  reason-  to  the  they  approach  aesthetic  intellectualist  suous  first  to  the  up  might  of call  t h e human r a c e . said  of  intellect  intellectualist  each  unless  i t s influence  with  originally  from  ultimately  felling special  k n o w l e d g e " , vriaich h e  and  an  found  :  called  dealt  and term  line  of  attempting  the  applied  Germany descent.  worked to  perception.  the  through  to  Descartes,  extend knowl-  Baumgarten  " s c i e n c e of. s e n -  "Aesthetics".  "Aesthetics"  i t s way  primarily with 50  to  The  end w i t h  Breitinger  the L e i b n i t z i a n  theory, which  a  tradition.  .came t e m p o r a r i l y t o  ideas by  ent w i t h h i s m e t a p h y s i c ,  of  wh.at A r i s t o t l e  p o e t s , Bodmer  devote  we  in  T R A D I T I O N R1HAI3JS A C T I V E  'edge, t o . t h e phJanomenon o f the  poets  i n t h e way  that  the mind  by  senses.'"  lineage,which derived to  understood  i s nothing i n the 29  But  and  latter  be>said  continuing  i t became l i n k e d  downward  later  the  'There  critics  been  and  aesthetic .activity  of Vico  had  p h i l o s o p h e r s , so  INTELLECTUALIST  ''Swiss"  where  was  with  the  the  i n g e n e r a l might  Baumgarten;  death  much as  k n o w l e d g e was  knowledge by  first  Italian  its  As  in particular;  I l l ^ THE  1.  crude  f o r m e r :the  man  i t  they  whereas  particulars.  ti-i.. Introduction.  Of  as  statements,  emotion,  reflection  Hence  the  poetical  But,  still  to  consista  prior  science  of  the  "lower  ofo&hebearlier sensuous  kind  Muratori,  idea.  My  c e p t i o n "by m e a n s  "An  vital  of  of knowledge", indistinct  powers,  then,  an  inferior  to  Bosanquet,  a view idea  give 31  faculty",  i s called  me  he  reminiscent a  sensuous  wrote  in  per-  his  M e t a p h y s i c . (17 59 ). According of  later  perhaps a  philosophy  i n f l u e n c e d , by  sort  the  German  of  preparatory  doubt whether  reproduce jected  itself  the  i n  still  philosopher  2«  The  and  vided  at  been  able  of  art.  least to  a  Although  position  in his  (the  a  last  Cartesian  basis, f o r having  Pure  intricate  school)  line had  of  art  was  although  as  and  seems they  to  re-  prejudice  which  something  below  a l l interesting  currents form  the  to  the  and  worthy  metaphysical succession  i t has  art  with  of  an  have  theories  gallery  philosophy  schema.  a  pro-  or  written l i s  the  i n the  Kant,  thinkers  independent  having  that  "converged,  a e s t h e t i c of  an  Reason, was  thought  subsequent  visitied after  of  confused,  otherwise  s u p p l i e d him  that  .  ideas which  treatment  i n the  after  to  attitude  anticipated,  co-exist,  subject  / " ' 32 men."  convinced,  She; C r i t i q u e o f special  thoroughly  Several  of  never  became  required  but  the  speculative^knowledge  i s i n many p l a c e s  as  feeling  intellectualist  crystallized  locus  use  to  for his  among  of Kant.  pattern  museum, K a n t opus,  apologise  and  The  S c h i l l e r \ a n d i n Hegel,  a man  f ormalism  i f the  could  philosophy,  as  intermingled,  two  many r e s p e c t s  a e s t h e t i c was  Baumgarten.  more d e c i d e d  makes B a u m g a r t e n the- d i g n i t y o f  towards  discipline  the  "In  first of  art  autonomous Baumgarten  rationalistic textbook  on  aesthetics.  -20Erom  the B r i t i s h  Bacon), is  no q u a l i t y i n t h i n g s  clue  contemplates  to the problem  from l i t e r a r y critics, on  the  Kant's  Hume,  claim of own be  to subjective ''A t h i n g  estimated  o n t h e one h a n d ,  on a e s t h e t i c s  s a i d , Kant  of which  of  every  of  absolutely  a f f e c t i n g him alone,  c o n s e q u e n t l y h e must  he  must  to  e v e r y man.  he has reason Hence he w i l l  o f the object,  not depend  free  Interest),  no p r i v a t e  pecul-  of h i s satisfaction;  i n every  of beauty  a n d a s i f hies  for a l l  i n the satisfaction  as  other  f o rattributing a like speak  that h i s  upon any i n -  conscious  the satisfaction  something w h i c h he c a n presuppose  "a  a n y i n t e r e s t , must  he c a n f i n d  by  merely  i n t h e judgment  of satisfaction  as the cause  regard  that  one r e c o g n i s e s  does  Influenced  beauty was  be i m p l i e d  ( n o r upon any other  to t h e object,  Although  he argued  i s without  his satisfaction  which he accords  of the Zeitgeist  that  Instead,  i n i t s beauty  he f e e l s h i m s e l f  quality  school  o f t h e s u b l i m e , a,nd  (1790).  u n i v e r s a l i t y must  and  think  influence  are set forth i n h i s  denied  personal;  o f h i s own  and  to  the English  i n any d i s c u s s i o n  clination  iarity,  i n the  the i d e a l i s t i c  subject  definition  by h i m t o a f f o r d a g r o u n d  Eor since  since  A n d hie was  C r i t i q u e o f Judgment  satisfaction  men.  views  and p u r e l y  taste."  recieved  1  "Beauty  •  a s we h a v e  empirical  them', , K a n t  Burke w i t h h i s  or l a t e r  modern a g e .  formal  i t exists merely  from  R o u s s e a u , w h o s e name h a s i n v a r i a b l y t o b e men-  sooner  highly  (deriving originally  themselves;  of beauty.  SOUCBS;  notably  the other,  tioned  school  i n p a r t i c u l a r f r o m D a v i d . Hume, who h a d s a i d ,  mind which  by  empirical  caused man.  satisfaction  as i f i t were  judgement were  So  a  scientific  .  that of  i s , constituted  i t ,  though  jective  i t i s only  universality But  individual; hension  of  the  judgment  "real  to him,  Kant  jects  p o s s e s s i n g pure  ever  i s then  presupposes  quently  not  organic  world.  a,rts  form  of  these  are  herein by  a  fine  as  from  to  the  as  i t i s not what  be  p l e a s e s the  taste.,  only  J  to  perfection  and  those  i s the  the  ob-  7/hat-  is of  of a l l  consethe  indeed a l l the so  f a r as  design.  s e n s e s , b u t what  fundaiaentally,. -conceras  be  which,  Arabesques.  gardening,  thing  to  faculties  predicated  sculpture,  essential  of  object",  beauty  or  and  sub-  intellectual^appre-  calls  beauty, cannot  the  to a  s u c h , Kant- a d m i t s  the  of purpose  architecture  claim  perceptive  form; t h e s e he  concept  arts,  that  taste  "by c o n c e p t i o n s  a  ( p u r e f o r m ) o f an  "In apiriting,  such  object  i n the judgement  forced, to a t t r i b u t e  pure;hshce  I t s form,  of  i s adapted  men.  the  implied  derives  shape  of  aesthetical...So  must be  beauty.then the  according  a knowledge  And  satisfies  taste."  36 3.  Groce's  estimate...of t h e h i s t o r i c a l  In  discussing  "kke C r i t i q u e discovered special  he  (I.e., that.It that of #  masterpiece of  of Judgment" , Groce  that  beauty  philosophical  autonomy ians  "that  of the sho?/ed  that  i t has  a purpose'; italics  'without  mine  and,  aesthetics author...  subject-matter f o r a  As  against  discovered the  p l e a s e s .'without  against  c o n c e p t s ' ; and  the  the  utilitarinterest'  intellectualists,  further,  of purposiveness' without  against  Kant.  that, i n i t "the  o t h e r words,  activity.  interests);  'the form  says  art afford  the b e a u t i f u l  of  eighteenth century  science---in  aesthetic  utilitarian pleases  and  importance  the h e d o n i s t s , that  against  both,  'representation i t is  'the  -22object went  of a universal  further  that h i s negative  beautiful...But Even as  pleasure'.  confused  Kant been pleasing  or f a n c i f u l  able apart  representation sistent  fused  to l i n k from  think-would u p h i s own  of purpose,  Vico's  4r:The  with  by defining  post-Kantian  movement,. E i c h t e , the  case  phasized pense  the a p r i o r i  superior,  to i t .  art,  religion,  like  the l a t t e r  opment  #  i e d away  Baumgarten  italics  of  and Hegel  mine  from  the v i r t u e  was  i n Kant's  f o r these  o f com-  contradiction resolve.  tradition. ,  i n works metaphysic  of  toit\  (and i n a r t e m -  a t t h e ex-  whether  or m e r e l y  The c o u r s e  conception  a r t was  equal  to  o r 'as w i t h S c h e l l i n g )  influential  between  'pure  this  a lively  or Idea,  t h e most  an i m p e r f e c t  of  Objective Idealists  the Absolute  Vico's  showed  'con-  ™  the leaders  interest  and p r e p a r a t o r y  could  of the  —  Although  element  Eor Hegel,  of. p h i l o s o p h y whose  the  movement. 38  inferior  and i n c o n -  o f i m a g i n a - t i o n , . .But  *  of Hegel) a s e n s i t i v e ,  philosophy,  only  i t as  as  without  and d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r t from 37 'adherent beauty'."  Schelling  o f knowledge  of a r t  fancy,  of the subjective,  ,.a f o r m  and f o r a l l .  impossible, had  for' the r e a s s e r t i o n  ¥  of the  theory  imperfect  of the l o g i c  t h e way  never  of the b e a u t i f u l ,  when h e a s c r i b e d t o g e n i u s  bihlhgaintellect  once  have been  theory  —~ beauty'  down  and as p u r p o s i v e n e s s  with  theory  prepared  concept*  he l a i d  Kant  assertion  and•Baumgarten's  concepts,  but powerful  Kant'himself  and g e n e r i c  the principles  the return to Leibnitz'  I n sup s t a n c e ,  of the group,  symbolic  content  and  form form  of aesthetic  o f a r t towards  devel-  that of  -23IV.  1.  ABTI-ESTAPHYSICAL  Schopenhauer's  metaphysical  emotionalist theory  reaction.  century  a  Kantian  metaphysical  are  still  sources.  T h e s e we  ogical.  But  over  the  " hauer or  prove by in  to  as  the  live,  ought  which our  epistemology  understanding,  that  the  object  of  the  of  to  rough  approx-  and  reminded  of aesthetic that  spirit  as ¥ 1 1 1  only  of  and  the  hovering Schopenhauer.  Idea  known  are as  our  and S a t i s f a c t o r y emphasis ence being  grounded i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l  psychology  adopted  this  an  "ultimate  knowledge,  a  the  slave  captive.-on  the  artistic  and  the  concepts  a  priori  analysis  reality" becomes  is  so  of  incapable  only  science,  of  in its  specific for are  such only  p e r c e p t i o n , being, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , 40  contemplative  i n Schopenhauer's  t h a t man, a  to  happi-  f u r t h e r to  i n o p p o s i t i o n to d i v i n e d by  "Will",  sought  had  He  Schopen-  primordial  c a r e l e s s of  reason.  psychol-  has%y e x p l o r a t i o n  main l i n e  reality  the  "obj e c t i f ica-tions" . which are the e x t e r n a l types of 39 existence. These u l t i m a t e t y p i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s , they  then  grouped w i t h  brodding  moral  released  their  t o make o u r  i s not  post--•  trace  biological  World  nineteenth  t r y to  the  t o be  the  Influences  be  the  the; a n t i -  idealistic  can  ultimate  who  being  As  which  i n h i s The  condemned by an  s  i s the  contrast to Kant  the of  1818  described  but  we  fOTking-point  tendency  ness  into  divides,  In  find  venturing  main branches  development  against the  i t i s important  main heads  before  foreshadows  second h a l f  systems.  shall  two  the  place  i n operation,  under  the  In  r e a c t i o n took  imation  of  REACTION  philosophy  sense.  The  pessimistic  derives from h i s  insist-  of organic  necessity, i s miserable  relentless  treadmill  of  endless  through  desire.  -24His  only  surcease  contemplation. lifts  us  delivers is  from  "When some  suddenly  out  knowledge  of  longer  directed  hends  things  free  them w i t h o u t  purely  objectively,  far  they  as  Then  are  a l l at  which  always  comes  to  us  painless  and  a,s  from of  the  the  the  fled of  the  the  motives  from  us  itself  not  in  o n "\the  accord.,  miserable  the  servitude  aesthetic  inward  disposition  of w i l l i n g ,  and  will,  the  attention  willing,  hut  compre-  to  the  will,  of  entirely  so  far  as  were  former  and  g o d s ; we  striving  of  and  thus  i n t e r e s t ^ without subjectivity,  state which Epicurus of  the  of  relation  gives  or  stream of  p e a c e w h i c h we  i t s own  state  penal 41  the  but  cause  slavery  personal  and  i n moments  endless  their  ideas,  once  the  to  from  comes  external  from/the  no  observes  sorrow  up  they  always path  prized  the  of w i l l i n g ;  as  for  will; the  are  the  with  the  the  them  so  motives.  seeking,  of  i t i s well  are  to  but  desires, us.  It  highest  moment  good  set  we  keep  the  wheel  of  Ixion  is  free  Sabbath stands  s t i l l . " The  Will  transcendent.  The  the  aesthetic  things not  could  that  first wards  act never  within  become  us  aware  i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e ; i t i s immaheht&ahd fact of  contemplation;  reveal the  to  us  same w i l l  so  for  their or  makes p o s s i b l e the  spirit  o u r own f e e l i n g of ^ 42# a e s t h e t i c a l l y d i v i n e i n them.."  necessarjr  for  sure,  t h o s e whom we  are  the  successful  perception  for-Schopenhauer  call  of  in  artists.  aesthetic  reality, were  that  achieving  beauty,  for  appearances  inner  in  Those most  that  that, i t i s  w h i c h we  pleasure  must can  be  of  active.  the  us  were i t We after-  insight  i.e., aesthetic We  not  note  as  obtained  pleawell equally  -25from  the,contemplation  art.  A  Idea;  and  ion,  work  we  of  a r t , per  because  may  of  often  of  forth  nature  by  and  the knowledge  Idea  comes to  o f a r t or  The  work  i n which  more  and. t h e r e a l  artist,  knew  duced  I n h i s work  actual, see  knows the this  the  gift  of  genius, to  ics  are  of  of  both  from  through h i s  the  of  from  the  That  of  facilita-  fact  the  directly  that  artist  the  has  a b s t r a c t e d i t from  repro-  the  lets  us  has  these  eyes,  that  he  things--apart from  their  relations.,  is  but  he  i t is  That  actual,  a c c i d e n t s . The  eyes.  contemplation  a r t than  longer the  has  select-  same w h e t h e r  by  the work  no  see w i t h h i s  of  this  importance;  anticipated and  that eyes,  he  i s able  to  lend  i s a c q u i r e d , and  us  is  the  historical we  shall  much t h a t  s k e t c h , -the  presently  is vital  to  above  discover the  aesthet-  Bergson.  t h e o r y of  -.cosmos.'is .the p r o d u c t speculation  the  the  art..,."  2,, F r o m B i o l o g y : , t h e :  and  a,rises  Idea,  i s Inborn;  prime  Croce  more r e a d i l y  of  of  for artistic  pleasure consists.  eyes.  of  the purpose  Schopenhauer of  his  l e t us  side  For concepts  through  embodiment  this  Idea,  pure  inner nature  gift,  technical  that  the  from works  a r t i s o n l y a means  omitting a l l disturbing  the world  faculty  directly  worlVl,  only the  and  of  easily  from"nature  life,  i s a physical  p l e a s u r e i s one  life.  ting  who  se,  and  perceive beauty  a work  us  nature  the a r t i s t ' s  "Aesthetic called  of  of  in classical  evolution.  conflicting times.  The  forces  Starting  idea  was  from  a  that  the  common  ancient  Greece,  one  cosmological  reached  i n the  Galileo  and  conceived with  Newton.  as  a  to  of  relatively  static  tainments  the  as  to  the  age  history.  a  of  moral  the  the  prepared  the of  Darwin  findings  from  he  which  In  based  forth  on  brought  into  high  nature  and.,  by  importance  was  integral  more  set  the  chance v a r i a t i o n  pecial  tural  philosophers.  to  or  a vital and  great  Hegel's as  a  living human  came w i t h  the  i n the  philosophy developing  i n time  con-  of process which  e v o l u t i o n as to  at-  beginning  c u l m i n a t i o n of v a l u e s  way  the  " i t remained  and. c o n t i n u i n g  i n his  method  .cautiously derived h i s  through  theory  an  energy,  mechanical  mod.ern d o c t r i n e o f  l e a d i n g the 44  (1851) the  struggle  the  he  a  a  comprehensive  of e v o l u t i o n . " Charles  The  and  or  realms,  history  not  interpreted  civilization,  Herder,  f o r the  nature,  philosophy  and  was  of  could  Dresser,  progress  spiritual  ides, o f  i n n e r meanings  ection  and  of  of h i s t o r y  Implying  concept  ideas  then  climax  sytems  universe  Dr,  the  r o m a n t i c i s t s and  I t was  way  to  dynamic,  of L e s s i n g and  tributions  the  a  p r e s e n t l y to he  d e s c r i b e d hy  the  epoch-making views In  although  according  inspiriting i n the  until  c o n s e r v a t i o n of matter  nature,"  transition with  "But  another  law-exemplifying  s y s t e m w h i c h was  reference  view,  succeeded  mathematical,  uniformity  The  theory  part  e v o l u t i o n by suggestive  here of  means  Descent  he  the  implication showed and  that was  Man  Species  empirical research  theory  of b i o l o g i c a l of  of  of  of  natural  i n environmental  relief  nature  Origan  conditions.  significance and the also  this human a  (1871) Darwin  of  the  i s of  es-  organism  product  forces.  sel-  In  of  na-  hise,even  toyed with  the  -27probability organic  that  mental  3  *  and  i n the  a p p l y i n g the  "The  is  of  a branch  edge  and  not  as  the  out  tried  being  reliable  the  and  which, to  m e t h o d was  to  ilar  of  phrase  positivist  to  to  has  1  i n the  field  view  'Aesthetic sake  saved  emptiness  practice, 46  concerned  idealistic  f o r the  no  Munroe,  theory  of  many  knowl-  lofty  revealed.  theory  of  can  be  Withmade  explanatory." to  practice" We  may  of  Gustave  retrace  Germany  Fechner  by  the  i n 1876  steps  the  to  theory. of a r t  inductive  tabulated the of  art.  which  Gottfried  amid  direction  insensitiveness  purely  g e o m e t r i c a l shapes  i n seeking  our  Darwin's  utter  investigations  beholder.  the  interpretation  i t s author's  In  reveals  induced  a biological  sterile.  o b j e c t i n mind  of  todgcy  Thomas  is  method  i s that  their  stimulation  f o r the  the world  art.  which  the  exists  approach.  because  of  practice  "guide  significant  appeal  and  guide  ventured  used.  approach  dogma  of having a  the c a t a c l y s m i c  particularly'on  to\ s a y  to  o f h i s la.boratgrry  isolate  trinsic  as  doubt  to  Foundation,  traditional  a guide  Spencer no  this  genuineljr  a r t , proved  results  has  psychological  first  Herbert  products  i t s repercussions are 45  empirical Barnes'  shock  The the  also  ears.  philosophy,  doctrines  of  were  James/Dewey p r a g m a t i c  art criticism,  aesthetics:  values,  i n our  Psychologogy:the  with  life  ob&ivious  to. h a v e ,  moral  resounding  psychologist  of  D a r w i n was  h i s t h e o r y was  theological still  moral  evolution. Although  effect  and  He  had  had  an i n -  Samper h a d  multiplicity  tried  a  sim-  of a r t  products their  throughout  universal appeal.  counterpart list,  who  which,  earlier  and  art. A  to the  and apply  47  name  of contemporary whom R e a d  credits  anthropological  "works  activity  determining  its  by Herbert  forma-  the fundamental  give  rise  Read,  Grosse.  t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f w h a t we  protagonHe  might  of a T t , v i z . , a r t products  of the " s p i r i t u a l "  whether  primitive orcivilized.  science  i n general,  i s almost  life  o f a human  To q u o t e  Read:  i t  i s  call (not as a  society, "Just  as  i n so f a r as i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h  inconceivable  and  of beauty  a British  of Ernst  forms  to pleasure  to the determination  art, i s that  view  theoretical  of a r t " : the i m p l i c a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t ) treated  manifestation  life,  finds  to discover  of ideas,  them  invoked  elements  o f Zimmerman, a H e r b a r t i a n  had t r i e d  i n the coexistence  reverse,  constant  Such  i n the studies  the  ist  t h e ages  on'any b u t a g e n e t i c  organic  and e v o l u - •  .be tionary  basis,  origins  and d e v e l o p m e n t .  historic by  so t h i s  facet  peoples,  has  been  one o f t h e most  For  i n p r i m i t i v e a r t we  vision,  of  life that  and. p o i n t i n g  i n the complete the directly  expressions  into  pre-  progressing,  aesthetic  influences  s e e so c l e a r l y ,  i n i t s  and which,  o f p r i m i t i v e and  out t h e i r  powerful  must^studied research  i s still  ot our a t t e n t i o n t h e works  historic  isations  Thus began  and p r i m i t i v e a r t w h i c h  bringing  perceive  o f human  what  pre-  significance,  i n modern  art.  i s so d i f f i c u l t  of highly  cultured  civil-  q u a l i t y of the a r t i s t ' s 48 i t s o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i n s o l i d shapes." It i s but a step from the R o u s s e a u i s t i c a d u l a t i o n  the savage  expressive  t o t h e Wordsworth!an worship  of the c h i l d .  to  49  -29Or,  i n the  this  line  more of  technical  approach,  repeats  phylogenesis,"  evinced  a  "be  studious  will  used  certain  species  the  a  direct  has  the  fresh of  the  a  cency  positive on  of  i f you  prehistoric  value  the  whole  such  art  business  of  of  of  is  to  learn  men  alike  11  soon will  further  the  (Classicists  archetype  of  a  sentimentalized  and  more  of  at-  c h i l d r e n ' s a r t , has  had  reach  i s not  and  drawing  of modern back  of  children  can  i n the  i s outside  be  our  there  naivety  retrograde  that  with,  compla-  art  of  given  the  same  i n any  enquiry: values  point  of view  art.  The  scale  case,  a r t , but  i t is  of  the  i t i s not  of  and  step*  the  humanistic  But  establish, the this  the  intellect'  negligible.  from  a  claimed,  men:  artists to  outlook  march  civilised  the to  impos-  vk*|*<~\'-a.v!<r.£  exaggerate^bf  In." i t s • s e e d :  can  It  a e s t h e t i c s to  4lie  • sibl.e  'the  values  i t s nature,  to  childlike  a r t i s almost  question  explore  the  of  practice  regard  savages,  values,  the  possibly a  qualities  the  satisfaction.  as  still  g e n e t i c method, i n a e s t h e t i c s . . .by  simplicity  or  ontogenesis  children. . It  of modernism..  f o l l o w i n g as  d e l i b e r a t e attempt  course,  that  artists  of  examine  Romanticism  Influence  been  to  art  " P a r a l l e l , to  .  "The to  Head,  principle  i n the  apostles  label of  the  thesis  Darwinism"):  tention  on  o f Mr.  t h e o r e t i c i a n s and  the  by  undoubtedly  and 50  interest  consistent with  arguments  language  primitive  i t s form the  is implicit  man  (and  of  in its first  essential.. nature  man i f e s t a t i o n s i n p r i m i t i v e  virtue  of  a r t from  a  plant We  shoot. i t s  i n c h i l d r e n ) than  earliest f rom__  If its  intellectual  elaboration i n great  Por  In  stages  #  i t s later  italics  mine  art  "beriods  i s overlaid  by  of  modes  culture. of  life  and  -30t h a t tev. n o t o f i t s e s s e n c e .  manners child the  do n o t d i s t i n g u i s h i n o u r r a t i o c i n a t i v e  real  and t h e i d e a l .  interested:  but  i t is'not  We Read s  need  limpid  r  instead,  we  theory  risk  mostly with  (cf.  Pechner,  tion  (cf. Groose);  widespread thetics has  of Groce  t o do r a t h e r  kernel our  of this  own  work  o f a r t we  find  I indulge  self The  sense  about plunge  invblved  theories  outlined  i n the aesthetic  t o be d i s c u s s e d and a f f i n i t y  Lipp's  the a c t i v i t y  theory  had to  activity  of i t s because  with  of  creaof i t s  the aes-  Einfuhlung,  of the experient.  a n d o u r own v i t a l i t y , "  when  I  "project  The  myself"  The  into  o f o u r own  "activity"  the object  a r e l e d t o understand, i s not an a f f a i r  o r i n any sense,  or In the object of beauty  them.  snags;  i n the survey:  the conditions  influence  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  with  point  b e a u t i f u l i s an obj e c t i f i c a t i o n 53  in  somehow  o f Mr.  i s : " A e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e i s enjoyment of 52 i n an o b j e c t . " Or, s t a t e d o t h e r w i s e , "Any  i n• a c t i v i t y ,  muscular,  life,  o r Empathy.  and Bergson,  pleasure  a / p p r e h e n d e d we  surface  philosophical  on t h e n e x t  t h e one h e r e  with  to  dis-  theory  activity  which  the innocent  Zimmerman) a n d w i t h  contemporary  between  n o t so  and complementary 51  psychological  the object  manner  i s perhaps  f o r hidden  gliding  foregoing  and t h e  life."  t o sound  of Sinfuhlung, The  do  of  not disturb  prose  may  A r t f o r them  extraneous  an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  the  P r i m i t i v e man  physiological, activity. of the contemplative, thus  1 enjoy  of a c a t a r a c t " 1 1 f e e l  It. i s  non-practical,  a e s t h e t i c a l l y contemplated..-  r e s u l t s from  Thus when  of  a feeling  the f l i g h t  myself  in  objects, not  of a b i r d  or the  a c t u a l l y executing  these  -31movements." in  Even  t h e same w a y ,  t h e enjoyment' o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i s e . g . , b y some S a m s o n i a n  intuition  "explained" I am " a c 54  tire  i n the p i l l a r " , We  meaning with  that  what  use  are here will  my  verging  on t h e d e c e p t i v e  beset  can t h i s  the aesthetic  contemplative determines  self  o f , say, Iago,  him,  that  diary, lives lation atis  with other  my  character  faculty  its  artistic  the  whole  or into  that  my  B u t we  than  understan-  have  to refer  circumstance i n identifying patent  to experience  f o r , -to b o r r o w  and i n  (if\so,  t i s s u e comprising  i t seems  i n order  Einfuhlung  to project  to sympathize  o f Iago  agility  separately,  i s required  i s greater  idea  ability  dramatic  of  i n nature  i n turn;  i n h i s place.  psychic  wholeness,  and the p o e t i c ?  a l l the characters 55  no new  a s my  the l i t e r a l  theory  I required  character  and t h e t e m p o r a l - s p a c i a l  So w h a t e v e r  frequency;  and he has s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y  to the integrated  each  Am  or "case-history"  i n the play;  personae  play.  varies  i s , to put myself  biography, only  each  I t i s of course  ding  of colour  of a play?  the sequence?);  simultaneously?  increasing  suggestive  myself.  quicksands of  the s c i e n t i f i c  experiencing  into  o f t h e beam  d i s t i n g u i s h between  admittedly  Or t h e enjoyment  what  ourpath with  and the metaphorical?  How  art?  the weight  d e f i n i t e n e s s c a n we  o f words  explain  bearing  that  with no  t o ; he i n ret h e dramof the myself some  the play i n  the G e s t a l t i a n tag,  t h e sum o f t h e p a r t s .  V: , ; C O T G L U S T O H :  "Modern  as  science  dates  an independent f o r Modern  voiced  perhaps  purely  a  Bergson,  analogy  Absolute' versus Our two T i m e  t h o u g h we  intimate  some  which a  of these  what  has t h i s  Philosophy  and  change  history  extension.  regarding  yields  I t  change as  attitudes  to r e a l i t y  schools  a Static  versus  from  charac-  ofthoughfmay  i n o p p o s i t i o n E u c l i d e a n and  p h i l o s o p h i e s because aesthetic  our h i s t o r i c a l  Einstein-  a Dynamic;  an  the aesthetic, thought.  bears  A l -  the  of the p e c u l i a r l y  t o t h e m , we  introduction,  may  anticipate  here, to  i s to follow. C a r r , who  ha,s e v a n g e l i z e d b o t h  to say i n a chapter  o n t h e one h a n d  entitled  o f Benedetto  i s ever-changing  I s of i t s essence.  which  by the  the s e n s i b l e as a f a l l  and t h e Modern  i n h i s Philosophy  philosophy  philosophy,"  p r e s e n t l y t o e x a m i n e I n some d e t a i l  their  H. W i l d o n  of  of duration with  have  Relative.  have  concluding  Bergson,  t o be d e c e i v e d  p h i l o s o p h i e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e otff m o d e r n  relation  extent  "Ancient  i n q u i r y "concerns-'a'special aspect,  shall  tenets  Yfhile  itself  The oppos-ing  by setting  mathematics,  main  conviction.  of.an Immutability, 5?  of the Ancient  symbolized  tan  of  "suffered  intelligible."  teristic be  deeper  Phil-  I t h i n k he would  t h e one as i t t r e a t e d t h e o t h e r ,  degradation  the  an e v e n  s e t up  I f Bergson had s u b s t i t u t e d  s c i e n c e i n t h e above,  superficial  treated  t h e d a y w h e n m o b i l i t y was 56  reality."  osophy  according  from  Philosophy i s ideal,  AntI-Metaphysical  Groce;  because mind  Groce and  "The p r o b l e m  i s living  activity  therefore i s history,  t h e development  or  unfolding  of l i f e  the  Hand  is  other acted  from  i s acting.  as immanent,  that  expressing  itself  immanent  i n mind.  reality  of an i n n e r  i s external, the continued  t o what  reality tivity  as tne a c t i v i t y  the pantheistic  Philosophy  i n i t s expanding  of a mind  i t i s nature  way  of s t a t i n g  the d o c t r i n e i s to say t h a t  aspect  reality  i s transcendent. reality  i n nature; Another f o r philos-  subjective, objectivity  will,  above  from all,  one w h i c h incline  of a r t .  itself  as t o l o s e  from  o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e we  make p r o s a i c a t t e m p t s and. p r i n c i p l e s  issuing  differ  derives-from a Classic  model.  to systematize  those  i t s "balance  -0O0-  and d i s c o v e r  concern  rules  t o a v o i d , com-  o f l e a n i n g so f a r b a c k -  and t o p p l e  Romanticism.  aesthetics which  beauty,  But i n i t s very  i t may b e i n d a n g e r  expect  measures  will  to scorn  may  being  58  a philosophy which  It  Mistical  immanent  An  fundamenta.ls  of  I t conceives  of i t . "  in  ward  life.  of I t or an a b s t r a c t view  i n terms  promising  which  and w h o l l y  aesthetic  what  I t i s t o be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d  pantheism,  an  from  and on  i s as s u b j e c t i v e , an i n d w e l l i n g a c -  conception  i s essentially  advance  i s consciousness  £6v  ophy  principle;  into  t h e Blough. o f  C H A P T E R TWO.  CROCE  Preliminary.  Croce's  among  certain  leading English  J.  Smith,  A.  that in  Croce  was  t h e one  of the regard  n o t a b l y E.P.  a n d H. W i l d o n to w r i t e (Pith  enthusiastic  the a r t i c l e  edition,  support  Carritt,  G a r r . And  the  fact  on A e s t h e t i c s  1929)  i n with h i s philosophy  Herbert  T.E. Hulme's  Read  tfe"e p l a n  There  find  we  intended  Lipps„ three course  That  that  there  influential  and p o p u l a r death  o f a p r o j e c t e d book the only  to devote  of\these  lively  on t h e a u t h o r ' s  appendix  had  chosen  finds  i s in  itself  of a r t i s held  England.  In by  Gollingwood  theory  scholars,  the Encyclopedia Britannica  signicant in  R.G.  aesthetic  i s a certain writers  pages.  I  i n 1917,  authors  c h a p t e r s were affinity  think w i l l  there  on Modern  individual  special  Speculations,  i s i n the  Theories  of ArB.  t o whom H u l m e  Bergson,  existing suggest  edited  Croce  between  itself  and  these  i n the  1  (a). Sources  traced to  the  Vico  debt  of  G r o c e , who,  to him,  setting  leader  aside  to  true nature  main  the  say  of  of  nature  they  are  of  without  success,  a  rational  and  from  or  imagination  the  and  acknowledging  i n the  his  animal  spirits.  iod  i n the  history  are  not  events  but  h_ i s t o r y _ o f m i n d  these  less  but not  so  which has  been  Renascence fact,  i a  poetry  Vico  the  form  our  certain  solution  is i t s peculiar  to  and  the  from  an  For  as  c o n s c i .o _u s_n e s s , r  f o l l o w i n g a f t e r sense. recognized, the  banished  i t from h i s Republic.  #italics  mine.  Plato,  of  first  the  soul,  was  a, moment  var-  is a  of  f i r s .t  to  without  is we to  termed  to  per-  periods  the  confounding  feel  solve  i n what  poetyy  place which belonged 'Men  the  poetry  h i s t o r y whose  the  of  P l a t o , as  time,  Vico  ideal  of mind. P o e t r y of  part  now  natural?  and  science?  of V i c o ' s  r a i s e d , i t up.  Is  or  natmre,  Corporeal  to  new  can  o f many a n d  time.  i t spiritual  of humanity,--forms  to  say  0  i d e a s ? We  theusubject  up  to  Vico ...(The)  present  than  and  penetrated  discovered,  p o e t r y . What w e r e  what  is a  theory,  meaning,  Giambattista  p h i l o s o p h i c a l language  the  new  to  irrational  confined  a  p u b l i c a t i o n s ) was  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from h i s t o r y  had  the  verisimilitude,  a r t , and  Italian,  it  sense,  reference  P l a t o , which A r i s t o t l e , attempted  the  spiritual,  intellect  special  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  of a r t as  i t be  what,  an  roughly  revolution in aesthetic  If  know, h a d  as  n e i t h e r more n o r  propounded by  attempts  the  poetry  (Of h i s  problem  ious  of  s c i e n c e , was  the  that  already  a e s t h e t i c . But  serve  concept  faculty  intention  ideas  hare  in enthusiastically  of  the  to  aesthetic  to  of  We  says;  giving the  aesthetic.  genealogy  "be made h e r e  "The who  Groce's  Italian  may  viewpoint  of  ideal  come .f r o m i t with  i t and being  had aware  then  t h e y become  they  reflect  aware w i t h  with  pure  troubled  mind.  This  the  p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g s , which are  and  of  which  a f f e c t i o n s j, a s are  sophical  formed  to  universals;  more  they  quotation  approach  he  mental  loss,"  The  starting  by  seemed a  ity  .(Kant),  a  philosophy,  a mental  realm  i s not  is logical),  ( i f practical  The  judgments hut  nat  appe.tition,  cognitive  of the  that,  manner as  mean t h e this  since  and  existence  which  namely;, t h a t these  the  has of  springs pleases  judgments  The  not  least  risk  a  the  exclude  there  of  of  the  senses  ig/  been or  so  to  i t  define  i n the  real-  human and  cognitive charact-  desire).  accompanied  from  the  in i t  practical  objects  of  character,  meaning  not  borr-  opinion, for  1  studied  which had  logical  the  l i i i . )  unshakeable  p a r t i c u l a r form are  pleasure  255.  s p h e r e was,  strict  also  p.  theory,  nww  a  philo,-  certain  f l o u r i s h e s i n the  not  ( i f the  more  i s , in his  and  there  passions  they  generis, , d i f f i c u l t  secure  judgment w h i c h has  er,  like  sui  more  have  without  "This  of  the  Elementi  of human-activity  form  be- t h a t w h i c h  In  sphere  of  acknowledges h i s  aesthetic  existence,  of  seconda,  a u t h o r s who  i t s own  therefore  ure,  new  Hence  (Estetica,  Judgment  f o r modern  principle  to - t r u t h , the  neglected  C r i t i q u e of  traditional  to  be  finally,  philosophical feelings  and^consistently  t r e a t i s e s by  soul;  senses  reasoning.  more  nuova  s a t i s f a c t o r y manner, but of  mind  a  by  the  p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g s are  Scienza  "may  point  proclaimed  nored  in  argues, 2  the  particulars" "  frankly  "Aesthetic  Kant",  was  to  from Vico,  Croce o w i n g s .,  the  d i g n i t y i s the  from  the  affected  formed by  reflection  f e e l i n g s approach  rise  real  from  distinct  and  by  lower in  pleas-  forms  of  sensation„  every v o l i t i o n a l  int-  >7 erest e  they  are  common w i t h but  the  moral  good,,  T h e y may  their  or  perfection.  universality  objective  ing  of  the  emotions  approval  these  judgments  definecawork which  of  a r t as  from  the  subtleties  beauty,  i t will  philosophy  (ft) C r o c e  1  other  Croce,  derive.  of Croce's necessary a  the  banner  the  former.  of #  Croce's italics  combined.,  of  then  activity  the  feel-  free  to  from said  which  b e f o r e we  goes  a  on  to  concept,  t h e y must  in  part  completely  the mind;  examine h i s  form  which  classic  In. t h e  Realists, To  of Berkeley's w i l l  philosophy, mine.  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  But  of mind.  under  the  when K a n t  the  one,  can hope  idiom  the  mind;  by  of  art,"  to  and  within  devoid  facts  of  Idealists  attack. Every  The  interpretation  the  slogan  only,  universal,  the  indeed, to  problem  follof  in relation  to  whole,  s philosophy  of  are  s u i g e n e r i s form,  taste.  i s an  activities  others  be as  to  idea of external  intrinsically  f a r ; but  adequs,te  tween  percipi  and  this  concepts  accompanied  are  of  and. i m a g i n a t i o n a r e  which. a l l t h e  the  him  the  company, A t t , a c c o r d i n g of  beauty  goes w i t h  intellect  independent  judgments  the  subjective are  in  contemplative,  the. judgments  as  they  of  allurements. This  are  nothing  c e n t r e d on  alike  far. as  Though  ofvthe  refer  Croce  of  i s not  disapproval, they  from  form  so  have  d e f i n e d as  reveals i t s e l f  or  and  i s the  1  which  And  criterion.  kant,  his  be  a c c o r d i n g l y , i s independent  purpose  ow  i n c h a r a c t e r and  W  i t i s -a c o n t e m p l a t i o n  and,  an  not  Croce  recall provide  reality  incessant battle  can  the  We  to h i s  assume has  have  his forces  o l d esse  a key  •»thing-in-itself"  meaningless.  marshals  concept  be-  est plan  i t s ground i s , in. terms  already,  then,  a  clue  to whatbhisanotion  Ho already  Wildon  neatly  also we  we  a  of  separate  The  and  accustomed  to  the  work  of  practical definite  in  which understanding  know, a n d activity  i n vie?/, knowing  - "We Knowing in its an  mind.  aesthetic; to  they  a  of of  the  second  one  on  aesthetic  ^italics  mine.  depends  but  they of  unite this  acting. the  one  The  second  another  form  first i s the  in a  of  the we  is  i n the  are the  will,  relation manner  A l l knowing  to w i l l  other  to  forms  activity  understanding!  any  Reality  these  form  i n order of  to  mental  characteristic  between  the mind  i t i s an  an  The  no  of  an  object  intuition,  stands  activity,  doctrine.  process,  science of  i s dependent  other  and  active  activity  Aesthetic  f o r lop;ic  on  another.  present  # while  forms;  Groce's  thinking.  other, l o g i c .  degree,  the  and  •  relation  conceptual  of  one  necessary  depend  #  distinguish;  depend upon w i l l .  i t i s not  forms,  and  on  contemplation,  two  on  forms  stand, t o  may  whieh i s  i n annindisoluble organic  activity;  understand  simple  has  Two  depends  not  o f Srooej;  reality  relation  processes  -knowing  itself.  now  I t i s not  activity  first  than  i s not  activity  but  this  p h i l o s o p h y i s to  does not  does  may  and  interdependence  order. W i l l  lower  order  theoretical  activity,  or  o f w h i c h we  i n their  a  action  is reality,  experience.  the  interpreter  system:  forms  of  of  has  his  distinguish  understanding,  sympathetic  the  and  show how  concrete world  willbbe.  them, f o r t h e y a r e  dependence  activity  the  distinguish  system.  a  mind which  activity  may  cannot  union is  i s an  Carr,  summarized  "This mind,  of beauty  on  the  one  to l o g i c  and one is as  aesthetic,  a  If  The  practical  and  an  ethic  yield  The 4 goodness."  It  four  follows  also  Knowing  t o us  reality.  ness,  isa  activity.  subdivisions haust  activity  four pure  subdivided and  acting  pure  i n t o a an  e a c h w i t h i t s two  concepts which  concepts are beauty,  from Groce's  economic  insistence  upon  together truth,  the  ex-  useful-  prim-  4a acy  of  the  science place  of  philosophical  distinct  emphasis  beauty  in  the play,  sunset, it  quite  idealism can  speak  fication  the  Hamlet;  imply both  the  never,  i n termsofv which explained.  of beauty w i t h  The  a  cause  think  and  notion  the p r i v a t e  special  5  i s external  i n the  beautyful.  notion  to  of h i s a e s t h e t i c intuition  of  feeling ourselves.  implicit flaming Groce  i s inconsistent with  e x p e r i e n c e of beauty, he  keynote  other  identity.  o f i t as b e i n g  call  i t is  characteristic  still-life, to  special  because  "common-sense"  of the  a  between a r t and  difference  The  choose  the  though  of philosophy; f o r  concerns a r t , "  tend to  such a  just  the  important  of philosophy, but w i t h  i n the Cezanne  that  a highly  i t s principle  experience of beauty  i t i s we  that  "Aesthetics,  can  of beauty.  i s that  or whatever  alone be  hold  tfce m a i n b o d y  of i t which  o f b e a u t y we  definite  from  the whole  side  undoubtedly  When we  structure.  therefore  subjectivity  associate with  will  concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s  and  that  of l o s p i r i t o ,  science"", h a v i n g a s  detached  is really  on  ( a ) . The  be  are  forms,  Aesthetics  we  aesthetic  c a t e g o r y o f the mind,  problems  mental  2  the a c t i v i t y  the i n t u i t i o n ,  philosophical, its  In  i n his philosophical  special and  intuition  makes  subjective  believes,  i s the  identi-  of the "beholder".  MO The  ultimate  of  a play,  tended  reality  still-life,  or an external  a  irreducible nothing  irreducible  reality  e l s e , Now  i s the s p i r i t ' s  i ti s difficult  by the " S p i r i t ' s  "appetite,  "a w o r l d  desired  bee  measured, i n terms-  nature.  t o know  or loathed,  will",  ultimate states;  p r e c i s e l y what  s t a t e s " ; Croce  and impressions",  propensity,  The  own v o l i t i o n a l  own v o l i t i o n a l  them v a r i o u s l y as " s e n s a t i o n s ality",  cannot  "states  or mingled  i s i n -  describes  "crude  emotion-  o f o u r own  desire  passlong",  and l o a t h i n g " ,  6 "aspiration of  tension  novel can  awaiting  feature  These  to receive  of Croce s  awaiting  content.  expression.  And from  expression  In striking  this  "lyrical  seemingly  expression",  i s that  only  or the individual  The s p i r i t  activity  brings  there  exist  Now  sort  a  the s p i r i t  itself  image f r o m  form  results,  i n a  t h e raw  t o i t s ownu  invariably,  of beauty.  the fallowing  resemblance  bears, to that  states  doctrine  1  p r e c i p i t a t e the i n t u i t i o n  stuff  the  or yearning".  excerpt  Croce's  we  shall  approach  o f P l o t i n u s whom we h a v e  be s t r u c k by t h e  to the problem already  of beauty  briefly  referred  to %  "It from  natural  reality, from for  o b j e c t s , we  actual  t h e man who  that  sees  i twith know  natural beauty  to get a e s t h e t i c  neglect pure  existence,.that  and b o t a n i s t s  that  must  and d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r  their  ogists and  has been noticed  their  appearance nature  t h e eyesmof  nothing  actual  satisfaction  or h i s t o r i c a l  or manifestation  i s only b e a u t i f u l  an a r t i s t ;  that  of b e a u t i f u l animals  i s revealed  to us. Without  or  zoolflowers  the a i dof  14-1 imagination,  nothing  according  our  now  unmeaning,  joyful, is  to  exactly  raptures bone  shops  one  a  before  squalid features  say  thai  that may  the  treated see  a  of  are  art  this  activity  contention: the  the  spirit  form are  "What we  object  and  to  of  like  to  of  must  becomes  the  impenetrability  clearly  the  material of  and  like,  so  and  will  are  t i l l  own  hardness,  of  or hardness considered are  a  f a r a s we  Groce  image.  a  girl,  f o r Groce  to which  the  But  limits are  i n so  i t has as  in Ebw  far  already  brute  or the aes-  supports  impenetrability,  sensations.  they  to  intuition,  i s that  matter  been  them  or  rag-and-bone-shop,  the  They  i s intuited  physiognomy  over h i s  secondd  have  that  before  perhaps  boring.  enable  in  and  the  they  t h a t what  is  another  first  or  beauty  rag  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Kant  sensations spirit,  a  aesthetics  understand  color  knowing the  a  considered  aware  of  told  i s not  form. His  i t s sensations;  outside  agree  individual  perception  "Kant be  The  pretty girl  " i n raptures"  natural  d i s g u s t i n g , and  dose  sad  pool....One a r t i s t  pretty girl  are  are  expressive,  another before  not  the  landscape,  gives  faced with  the  i t s aid,  i n another,  of  find  with  i s now  now  ruffian.  will  and  a e s t h e t i c s as w i l l 7 right."  be a  a  the  s w a l l o w . We  only  of  and  they  both  to  he  thing  way,  at  ruffian  i s character,  can  this  ruffian.  thetic  and  many w i l l  hard  artist  external  face  some o l d  s u c h a, d o s e  they  prescribes  whether  of  endlessly;  But  the  the  rag-shop  with  that  a work  Narcissus  smiling landscape  dispute  i n one  smiling landscape,  tjie  the  same  ridiculous,....Han,  mythical  before  is beautiful;  the  expressive  or  the  nature  disposition,  now  sublime  inn  color as given  material  color, hardness  aware  of  them,  are  already  intuitions,  manifestations  • the  or with  is  the result affair  Hamlet,  o f mind.  have  have  moment  2 of  as the r e s u l t  beautiful,  view  any i n d i v i d u a l  The  images;  t h e judgment  intuition  i s wholly  of beauty  existence.  of intuitions  an i n -  with  beauty. They  Peaches)  These"beautiful  exist,  and are  of individual  c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must  a particular  expresses  himself  of intuition  and expression  i s startlingj  knowing  " I t i s n o t t h e w r i t t e n o r spoken  atmospheric  but only  (b) I n d e n t i f i c a t i o n  ility  involves  which  none o f them i n t r i n s i c  e v e n no a b s o l u t e  only  intuition  individual  (say the s t i l l - l i f e  As s t a t e d b y C a r r i t t ;  called  intuition,  process,  still-life  poem, n o r t h e p e r c e i v e d be  intuits  sensation,  9  implication of this  the sunset,  beautiful,  with  o r t h e u n r e a l i t y o f i t s obj ectti.  t h e Cezanne  objects"  unlike  rudimentary  8  intuition  the s p i r i t  of the intuiting  The  spirit.  of which  elaborated,  activity."  not confuse  perception, which,  the r e a l i t y  or  then  stuff  of  ternal  of the aesthetic  ¥ e must  unformed  spiritually  way i n ' w h i c h 10 i n them"  and, e x p r e s s i o n .  i n Croce's vocabulary  o f s u b s t i t u t i n g e i t h e r term f o r the other  strictly  at a  The  given  synonimity  and t h e feasab-  i n h i s aesthetic  equation: Art causes point so  dismay  / Bea.ut.3r ~ even  Intuition /  Expression,  t o many o f h i s s t a u n c h  supporters.  i s a c a r d i n a l one i n h i s a e s t h e t i c : h e i n s i s t s  identifying  these  concepts  c a n n we  avoid  Y e t t|je .  that  t h e dilemma  only by  of dual-  ism,  " "When t h e  ion,  and  uity  of middle  the  proposed  one  hy  finally  intuition  been|f d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m  b e e n made d i f f e r e n t  terms  the  allow  has  has  can  reunite  psychologist©  the  rift  from  the  them; a l l t h e  and  the  other,  no  appear?  on  this  So  instead  of u s i n g  ingen-  processes  l a b o r i o u s l y developed  to  express  side  the  by  them,  expression,  11 on  that,  ion  &s  the  image."  terms  to  avoid  us  faintly  in a  s y n t h e t i c judgment  difficulty  by  of Keats'  Expression;  linking  famous  Expression,  intuition  concerning  them i n a  and  beauty,  tautology,  o b i t e r dictum),  express-  (  Intuition  he  chooses  reminding is  Intuition.„. \.  "One art  i s defined  ion to  the  and of  and  1  outer,  as  lyrical  of  At  the  from  ion  from  the  other a  cism.  terms  and  image,  and  matter, will  their  leads  to  arise,  concerns of  i s the of  and  body  the  the  there  soul  and  relation  problem  stated, the to  genesis  way  unless  sof  forth.  either  i s found only  we  appeal  conclusion  be  they  that  as  God  f&rt or  open i t to  the  the  the or  intmit-  one  their  reunion  to  agnostiterms  criticize  this  to  Unknowable.  have been a r r i v e d  terms  ethics,  Thus  i n s o l u b l e i n the  soumd. I n the  in  divided  from  one  inner  a c t i o n , or  transcendance  to  is logically  from  passing  course  i n q u i r e how  have  of  "intuit-  from  of  and,  of  represented  of  transition  body,  a c t i o n , and  i s no  when t h e w o r k  same p r o b l e m  from mind, w i l l  N e c e s s a r i l y to  the  to  manner  this  r e u n i t i n g them,  when a i t is  the  of  term,,variously  leads  problems  i s i n s o l u b l e ; f o r o n c e we  outer,  themselves,  whether quiry  will,  expression,  But  which  and  problem the  third  Dualism  first  bottom  mind  i n t e n t i o n and /  .Inner  in  the  'expression'  other.  stated,  to  of  case,  themselves  at,  these and  such i n / depend  not  upon a  and  naturalistic  of  facts  philosophical  called  terna,! f a c t s fact  could  bodies,  intuition  classification, internal  were  exist  or  it  not  images  and  insofar  utters  to  then  which  external  external,  being  has  empirical  c r e a t e d two  respectively and  internal  i s , i n that  as  i f an  also),  And  as  the  groups  (as i f i n external  or  souls  or  i s only  .12  very  act, expression."  i s e x p r e s s i o n ? " we  i t s intuitions,  itself.  "but u p o n a n  expressions....(The) i n t u i t i o n  asit  g i v e s to  and  also  without  "What the mind  principle,  may  form  ask.  " It is a  intuition  there i s not matter  makes  without  form as  form  an  d  1 3  no  form without  the  matter,  subjectivity  the  intuition  of beauty  i s the  characterizing  expression."  Expressionist  Hence theories  of a r t . "Hot  only  'a l a n d s c a p e  i s a mood , but 1  every  line, 1 4  color So,  or  tone  Instead of  landscape", we  i s the  ough?t  or  saying that "he  really  to  the landscape." merely ion  the  to  label  use  the  an  image  from that  painting,  may,  "The  1  i n terms  before  express,  or  ". the  intuition  is  aesthetic, the  intuition  come t o  is  expresscan  a head  expressed.  be • And  expression) i s insepar-  expressing that  an  i s , i t must be  (or i n t u i t i o n ,  1  landscape,"  apply to  i t must have  spirit  the  of Croce's  f o r convenience,  figure—-that  of  sn(lyrical)  intuition,  the knowing  sculpture  intuition  attist  o f a'mood  i s i n raptures over  Eor,  image  does not  artist  intuition.  unfitting  individual  able  an  of r e a l i t y  a lyrical  say,  we 1  termed  has  "the  "Landscape",  ofthe a r t i s t s  properly  embodiment  i s not  (or i n t u i t i n g speech,  it)."An  song,  drawing,  or a r c h i t e c t u r e - - — s p e e c h a t l e a s t  murmured  /AT to  oneself,  color soul  seen  we  adduce  cannot  does  thoughts  they  i t s own t i n t n o t e x i s t , , We  support  assertion;  the whole may  f o r the  w  o f i t would be t h e f a c t  This  of intuition common  one's b r e a s t , l i n e and  with  or expressed.  of ordinary  to have  that  i n support  theidentity  a principle  claim  b u t we  embodied  doctrine,  over,  - - i s an image  could  image was  ical  echoing w i t h i n  i n i m a g i n a t i o n and c o l o r i n g  i t s existence,  onlything  who  at least  and organism  assert  the  song  profound philosoph-  and e x p r e s s i o n i s , more-  sense,  cannot  that  which  express  laughs  a t people  o r to have  imagined  15  a  great picture  which  they  cannot  paint."  V  We of the  may  intuition  remain  unconvinced  do.cltgi-ne o r " o r d i n a r y instead,  that  Carritt,  who  the identity  "profound  philosophical  s e n s e " . Many c r i t i c s  i s extremely  i s a sympathetic  equivocal;  commentator,  i f i t were  insist,  agrees  changed  even that  to read  E.3y the phrase  intuition  t o become e x p r e s s i o n .  Moreover, expression?  what  causes  D i d t h e emotion,  an i n d i v i d u a l  certain to  i s either  common  w o u l d b e more m e a n i n g f u l  as  the identification  a n d e x p r e s s i o n , a n d t h e e q u a t i n g o f t h e two w i t h  experience of beauty,  tends  that  image,  psychical  be equated  with  o r whatever,  possess  potential?  a "raw p a s s i o n " t o c o a g u l a t e i n which  i s expressed  previous to i t s expression, a  Or i s t h s a c t o f e x p r e s s i n g r a t h e r  spontaneous,  and e f f o r t l e s s ,  creation?  F u r t h e r m o r e , m u s t we b e l i e v e t h a t w h a t e v e r b o b s t o t h e s u r f a c e F 1Q of c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h e r e b y e x p r e s s i v e , and beautiful? Thecriticism ^italics  made b y C a r r i t t  mine.  is'significant:  "By  sacrificing  asi unproven t h i s a t t r a c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n t u i t i o n w i t h e x p r e s s i o n we have renounced immediate p o s s e s s i o n of a p h i l o s phy so c o m p l e t e l y s y m m e t r i c a l as his...'. (But) by a l l o w i n g t h a t we can become aware of r e a l ormimaginary o b j e c t s i n which we do not e x p r e s s our own d e s i r e s or a v e r s i o n s , i t seems more p o s s i b l e e to e x p l a i n , not o n l y the communication of e x p r e s s i o n s and the apprehension o f u g l i n e s s , but a l s o the d i f f e r e n c e of a dream or 17  l i s t l e s s and i n c o h e r e n t awareness from the a e s t h e t i c a c t . " A c c o r d i n g t o Croce, "What we admire i n a work o f a r t i s the p e r f e c t i m a g i n a t i v e form i n which a s t a t e of mind has 18  clothed i t s e l f . " ;  and beauty i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n , or e x p r e s s i o n ,  of hjte s t a t e o f mind to_ the mind. Such l o c u t i o n s y i e l d a concept of the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y which would seem t o reduoe a r t t o a s o r t of p s y c h i c a l p a r t h e n o g e n e s i s . We s h a l l have  t o d e f e r f o r a moment Mie v i t a l ques-  t i o n r a i s e d by the r e f e r e n c e s t o communication i n the above exc e r p t s from C a r r i t t and Croce. We must t u r n our attentionnow t o the  d i s t i n c t i o n Croce makes between a r t and n o n - a r t .  3 (a) A r t not f e e l i n g i n i t s immediacy.  The d i c t u m : " A r t i s the  e x p r e s s i o n o f emotion," draws f i r e from C l a s s i c i s t s and R e a l i s t s a l i k e , who are sure t h a t they can espy, l u r k i n g beneath a v e r b a l camouflage, t h e i r arch-enemy, R o m a n t i c i s m l  However s n a t may 19  be,  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s e r t , i n f a i r n e s s t o Croce, who does na& s u b s c r i b e t o the aphorism and who indeed has c a l l e d h i s p h i l o s phy the p h i l o s o p h y o f E x p r e s s i o n , t h a t a proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  what he i n t e n d s charge  hy e x p r e s s i o n w i l l  passionality,  but the  another  tumult,  w i t h the  that  no v a i n - i m a g i n i n g , o r  of the  the  a c t i v i t y of t h e  or invents or c r e a t e s  l o n g i n g t o o p g a t e and t o creation."  i m a g i n a t i o n , the images,  activity  comtemplate  which  produces  images w h i c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r  i s not i m a g i n a t i o n i n the  It  which i t i s  a f a c u l t y o f r e p r o d u c i n g and r e c o m b i n i n g  and  s e c o n d a r y meaning i n  of past Experience.  In i t s  fanciful original  meaning.;:-the  i m a g i n a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the i n t e l l e c t 21 an i n t u i t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a concept* "  Groce r e p u d i a t e s he s a y s ,  i s not  the  done i n s s u p p o r t  the h e d o n i s t i c A e s t h e t i c ;  d i f f e r e n t i a of a r t .  i s n o t s i m p l y what p l e a s e s ,  i c u l a r kind not  on i t s  pleasant  of the p o s i t i o n , s i n c e ,  of pleasure,  p l e a s a n t n e s s but 22  things."  b u t what  its  /italics  mine  is s  on what d i s t i n g u i s h e s C r o c e does n o t  e m o t i o n a l i t y . Y e t he c o n c e d e s  i s f o u n d e d u p o n some t r u t h . . . .  eternal basis  i f art  d i s t i n c t i v e character  C e r t a i n l y then,  w i t h any " r o m a n t i c " error  its  of t r u t h  in its  pleasure  as what p l e a s e s ,  i n a i p a r t i c u l a i ? way. But sueh a q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s not a n abandonment  as  "The b e s t t h a t c a n be  of t h e ; : d e f i n i t i d b * : of a r t  to maintain that i t  for  "Expression  individual*  of elements  another  s u b s t i t u t i o n of t h i s tumult  j o y and a n g u i s h o f a r t i s t i c  images o u t  tumultuous  s u r p a s s i n g o f t h i s a c t "by means o f  or, i f i t be p r e f e r r e d ,  i s the  crude'  of emotion-mongering.  " A r t / ' he s a y s / ' i s  act,  o l e a r from h i m t h e  on t h e  pleases  a defense  but  a partwouldmdepend, i t from  other  identify  art  "since  every  the h e d o n i s t i c theory  emphasis  is  has  hedonistic  accompaniment o r p l e a s u r e w h i c h i s common t o t h e a e s t h e t i c 23# i * y and a l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e mind*  It l y by the  is difficult  t o know what C r o c e i n t e n d s  i t a l i c i z e d phrase;  i o n r e g a r d i n g the a e s t h e t i c  nevertheless,  precise-  as f a r as h i s  intent-  p e r f o r m a n c e i s c o n c e r n e d , we may be  o b l i g e d t o a g r e e w i t h t h e E x p r e s s i o n i s t s t h a t he has n o t to f e e l i n g  aetiv-  assigned  a r o l e g r e a t l y more e m o t i o n a l t h a n h a v e e v e n t h e 24  Herb-  a r t i a n f o r m a l i s t s . The r e a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e $ i s o f c o u r s e , t h a t w h i l e the l a t t e r  s e e v i n the formal e x t e r n a l  p r i s i n g the work o f a r t  t h e o&use o r s o u r c e o f b e a u t y ,  n y i n g a r e a l i t y e x t e r n a l to e x p e r i e n c i n g mind, source i m p l i c i t  i n the mind i t s e l f ,  i.e.,  such because they represent  symbolism."  "What g i v e s trily  and o n l y t h e n o e c a n t h e y  I n t u i t i o n s represent  t h e y b r i n g form t o th© chaos o f f e e l i n g .  the  l e a v i n g e a c h , f o s m and f e e l i n g ,  and e x p r e s s  But here  the  which,  to r e t a i n i t s  separate i d e n t i t y . dilemma  as h a s a l r e a d y b e e n shown, C r o c e r e g a r d s  negation of aesthetic.  form  intomwhich f e e l i n g i s poured,  Such s e t t i n g o f form over a g a i n s t f e e l i n g l e a d s t o the of dualism,  ar-  airy  metaphor c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the v e r b " b r i n g " i s apt t o m i s l e a d : must n o t he t h o u g h t o f a s b o t t l e s  de-  cause or  I n t u i t i o n s are  i s not a thought but f e e l i n g t h a t g i v e s to a r t 25  lightness of i t s s feeling:  feeling,  com-  Croce,  sees the  in feeling.  u n i t y and c o h e r e n c e t o i n t u i t i o n i s f e e l i n g .  ise i It  elements  I f we must r e s o r t  t o metaphor—and  as  the  sooner  we o r l a t e r we m u s t ,  i n metaphysical discussions .seeing  our o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  forced  to-—•  i n t u i t i n g p r o c e s s as a " c r y s t a l l -  i z a t i o n " i s p e r h a p s more m e a n i n g f u l . # I t a l i es m i n e .  The a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y i s , f o r Croce, analogous t o the A r i s t o t e l i a n c a t h a r s i s : a r t has t h e power o f " l i b e r a t i n g us from t h e p a s s i o n s . " " . . . . a r t i n c r e a t i n g beauty does not s i m p l y seek p l e a s u r e , though, as A r i s t o t l e saw,it a t t a i n s i t s p r o p e l p l e a s u r e . And t h i s proper p l e a s u r e i s our s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h a t t h e o r e t i c t r i u m p h by which our i m a g i n a t i o n c r e a t e s a c o n v i n c i n g p i c t u r e , not h i s t o r i c a l l y t r u e , but coherent, i n d i v i d u a l , necess a r y , i m i t a t i v e o f a o t i o n and y e t rjrwmioal; by the order or form w h i c h i t thus imposes on p a s s i o n s p u r g i n g them away so t h a t as a r t i s t a we have no l o n g e r b l i n d impulses of l u s t or s h r i n k i n g , 26  but a p u r i f i e d , an expressed Beauty, p. 284} his  emotion." ( C a r r i t t : Theory o f  And t h e poet w r i t i n g a tragedy "does n o t l o s e  w i t s o r grow s t i f f as he gazes; he does not t o t t e r o r weep  or c r y ; he expresses h i m s e l f i n harmonious v e r s e , h a v i n g had 27 these  v a r i o u s p e r t u r b a t i o n s , the o b j e c t ofmwhich he s i n g s . "  3 (b). Beauty and u g l i n e s s .  P l e a s u r e , as has been s a i d above,  i s not t h e d i f f e r e n t i a of a r t ; " n o t h i n g can be born i n t o the s o u l without the consent o f the s o u l , and consequently  without  c o r r e s p o n d i n g p l e a s u r e . " # How i t i s n o t o r i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t to d i s p u t e a metaphor, and, i n any case, an a n a l y s i s o f the m e t a p h y s i c a l s u b t l e t i e s i m p l i c i t i n t h i s one l i e s f a r beyond the scope o f t h i s essay. What does immediately  concern us i s  the n o t i o n t h a t p l e a s u r e accompanies whatever i d " b o r n i n t o t h e s o u l " . T h i s I take t o mean t h a t p l e a s u r e accompanies every exp r e s s i o n o f an i n t u i t i o n , — a l t h o u g h  we need t o be reminded t h a t  the " h e d o n i s t i c accompaniment or p l e a s u r e i s common t o . . . a l l . . . a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e mind." The p o i n t i s t h a t whenever an image i s  # i t a l i o s mine  " b o r n " , 1 t h e s o u l e x p e r i e n c e s beauty; and whenever an image i s s t i l l b o r n , — - w h e n e v e r an embryonic i n t u i t i o n s t r u g g l i n g t o be expressed does not aoheive e x p r e s s i o n , t h e r e s u l t i s u g l i n e s s . I n b r i e f , Crooe means by beauty, s u c c e s s f u l e x p r e s s i o n ; by u g l i ness, unsuccessful expression.  U g l i n e s s i n a r t may he caused by the i n t r u s i o n o f a p r a e t i e a l a c t i v i t y . "The a r t i s t who s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s a f f e c t i o n s an argument about h i s affections...oomm28 i t s t h e a r t i s t i c e r r o r , t h a t i s t o say, u g l i n e s s . "  The p u r i t y  and u n s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e mental image i s t h e s i n e qua non o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f beauty: so soon as s c i e n t i f i c  "pseudoooncepts  n  or i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral judgments supervene upon the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y , t h e l a t t e r v a n i s h e s . A e s t h e t i c knowledge s i m p l y knowledge  o r beauty i s  o f our own mental images. E.F. C a r r i t t  offers  t h i a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n j "We know n e i t h e r n a t u r a l t h i n g s , w h i c h metap h y s i c a l l y do not e x i s t ; n o r our crude v o l i t i o n s which I unders t a n d , do; a l l o u r images  a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f the l a t t e r . When the  sound o f a f o g - h o r n b u r s t s upon my e a r s , t h a t sound, p r i o r t o mental c o n s t r u c t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n ,  i s an e x p r e s s i o n , and n o t h -  i n g e l s e t t h a n an e x p r e s s i o n , o f ray s t a t e , i n j u s t t h e same way as i s my own s i l e n t l y f o r m u l a t e d oath o r c h u c k l e . I f i t s " i n d i v i d u a l physiognomy"  i s o l e a r l y i n t u i t e d , i t w i l l always, p r e v i o u s  to a b s t r a c t i o n , be, i n i t s own l i t t l e way, b e a u t i f u l . " By t h e p r o c e s s o f s i m p l e s u b s t i t u t i o n i n Crooe's f l e x i b l e a e s t h e t i c e q u a t i o n we o b t a i n two statements which are n e . c e a s a r f c t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s t h e s i s * v i z . , # i t a l i c s mine  beauty i a a n e x p r e s s i o n ,  i . e., a l i b e a u t y i s e x p r e s s i v e ( o f  mental s t a t e s ) ; and e x p r e s s i o n expressed i s b e a u t i f u l . form we have d i s c u s s e d ;  i s beauty, i . e., whatever i s  The p r o p o s i t i o n as s t a t e d i n t h e f i r s t t h e r e remains an i s s u e r a i s e d by the  second form. I f by chance t h e a r t i s t g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o matter regarded by s o c i e t y as immoral, s i n f u l , or u g l y ; i s the expressi o n o f i t , i p s o f a c t o , b e a u t i f u l ? Yes,  answers Croce. He i n s i s t s  t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y , as such, has no concern w i t h judgments o f any k i n d , moral o r o t h e r w i s e .  The a r t i s t , qua a r t i s t ,  "will  always be m o r a l l y b l a m e l e s s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y uncensurable; even though h i s a r t should  i n d i c a t e a low m o r a l i t y and p h i l o s o p h y :  I n s o f a r as he i s an a r t i s t , he does h o t a c t and does not reason, 30 # but p o e t i s e s , p a i n t s , s i n g s , and i n s h o r t , expresses h i m s e l f . . . " We must add, p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , t h a t t h i s freedom the a r t i s t e n j o y s , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  does not p r e c l u d e  censorship;  on the c o n t r a r y , Croce admits he would have no h e s i t a n c y  about  even b u r n i n g works o f a r t " * i n ap pyre o f v a n i t i e s " a, l a Savon31 .. , a r o l a , should s o c i e t y f i n d the a r t i s t ' s works o f f e n s i v e on n  m o r a l grounds.  10.  The a r t i f a c t not t h e r e a l work o f a r t . C r o c e s stand on t h e  vex. matter o f c e n s o r s h i p  1  w i l l not s u r p r i s e us when we d i s c o v e r  t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t s do not c o n s t i t u t e the t r u e works of a r t . Censorship can-:"affect not the  works o f a r t , but the  books and canvases whieh serve as i n s t r u m e n t s f o r the reproduce/ i o n o f t h e a r t , which, as p r a c t i c a l works, a r e p a i d f o r i n the market a t a p r i c e e q u i v a l e n t / i t a l i c s mine  t o so much corn or g o l d . "  " I t i s c l e a r , " he saya, " t h a t the poem i s complete as soon as the poet has expressed  i t i n words which he repeats  t o h i m s e l f . When he comes to r e p e a t them a l o u d , f o r others t o h e a r , or l o o k s f o r someone t o l e a r n them hy h e a r t and them as i n a  repeat  s c h o l a oantorum, or gets them down i n w r i t i n g or  i n p r i n t i n g , he has entered upon a new  s t a g e , not a e s t h e t i c but  p r a c t i c a l , whose s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l importance  need n o t , of  course, be i n s i s t e d upon. So w i t h the p a i n t e r ; he p a i n t s on h i s p a n e l or canvas, but he c o u l d not p a i n t u n l e s s at every stage o f h i s w o r k j from the o r i g i n a l b l u r or s k e t c h t o the f i n i s h i n g toue hes, the i n t u i t e d image, the l i n e and c o l o r p a i n t e d i n h i s imag32 i n a t i o n , preceded the brush s t r o k e . " If i n analysing  " i n t u i t i o n " and " e x p r e s s i o n " a  r e a d e r came t o suspect t h a t Groce's use of key-terms i s h i g h l y a r b i t r a r y , h i s s u s p i c i o n w i l l deepen i n t o a c o n v i c t i o n when he 34 d i s c o v e r s what Croce s i g n i f i e s by a'work of a r t ' . The'work of a r t , ' the s o - c a l l e d p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t i s f o r Crooe c o m p l e t e l y i n c i d e n t a l to the a r t i s t ' s a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y and serves merely the p r a c t i c a l , p u r p o s e (see above) of " f i x i n g the memory of our 35 b intuitions" The a r t i s t , who v i b r a t e s " w i t h expressed images which break f o r t h by i n f i n i t e channels from h i s whole b e i n g , i s t,a?whole man,  and t h e r e f o r e a l s o a p r a c t i c a l man,  and as such  t a k e s measures a g a i n s t l o s i n g the r e s u l t of h i s S p i r i t u a l l a b o u r and  i n f a v o u r of r e n d e r i n g  f o r o t h e r s , the r e p r o d u c t i o n practical arts  p o s s i b l e o r easy, f o r h i m s e l f or of h i s images; hence he engages i n  which a s s i s t t h a t work of r e p r o d u c t i o n . These p r a c -  t i c a l a c t s are g u i d e d , as are a l l p r a c t i c a l a c t s , by knowledge,  S3 and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a r e c a l l e d t e o h n i a a l ; a n d , s i n c e t h e y practical,  they are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from c o n t e m p l a t i o n , which  theoretiaal,  and seem t o be e x t e r n a l t o i t , and a r e  called physical: as,they  are  therefore  t h e y assume t h i s name t h e more e a s i l y i n s o f a r  are f i x e d  and made a b s t r a c t  i n g and p h o n o g r a p h y a r e  b y t h e i n t e l l e c t . Thus w r i t -  c o n n e c t e d w i t h words and m u s i c , and p a i n -  t i n g c a n v a s and wood and w a l l s c o v e r e d w i t h c o l o r s , s t o n e and i n c i s e d ,  cut  i r o n and b r o n z e and o t h e r m e t a l s , m e l t e d and moulded  to c e r t a i n shapes,  w i t h s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  go d i s t i n c t  among t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h e two f o r m s o f a c t i v i t y t h a t i t ible  is  t o be a g r e a t  artist  w i t h bad t e c h n i q u e ,  is  poss-  a p o e t who who  c o r r e c t s t h e p r o o f s o f h i s v e r s e s b a d l y , an a r c h i t e c t who makes use o f u n s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s o r does not a t t e n d t o s t a t i c s  a  p a i n t e r who u s e s c o l o r s t h a t d e t e r i o r a t e  rapidly:  t h e s e weaknesses  i s n o t w o r t h whilfe  a r e so fre.qu.ent  that i t  examples o f  c i t i n g a n y o f t h e m . B u t what i s i m p o s s i b l e i s t o be a g r e a t who w r i t e s v e r s e s b a d l y , a g r e a t to h i s c o l o r s , a great a great  p a i n t e r who does n o t g i v e t o n e  a r c h i t e c t who d o e s n o t h a r m o n i s e h i s  composer who does n o t h a r m o n i s e h i s n o t e s ,  geeat a r t i s t  who c a n n o t  poet  lines  i n short,  a  e x p r e s s h i m s e l f ; I t h a s beens s a i d o f  R a p h a e l t h a t he w o u l d h a v e "been a g r e a t  p a i n t e r e v e n i f he h a d  not, p o s s e s s e d h a n d s ; b u t c e r t a i n l y , n o t t h a t he w o u l d have b e e n geeat geeat p a i n t e r i f the 36 him."'  s e n s e o f d e s i g n a and c o l o r were w a n t i n g i n  However d i s i n c l i n e d  one may be t o s p e c u l a t e  a r m l e s s R a p h a e l s and l e g l e s s P a v l o v a s , I t h i n k i t w i t h i n the terms o f C r o c e ' s /italics  mine  logic,  a l l the i d e a s ,  i s true  about that,  ( excepting  a  the  slip  ahout t h e a r c h i t e c t )  expressed with p e r f e c t  consistency,  s e c t i o n i s not to discuss  concept  My p u r p o s e i n t h e n e x t  s w h e t h e r h i s i s t h e most m e a n i n g f u l  d e s c r i p t i o n of the a r t i s t ' s his  i n t h e above p a s s a g e have been  activity,  but t o d i s c o v e r  o f t h e "work o f a r t " b e i n g  eeds i n a v o i d i n g  whether  what i t i s , Croce  succ©  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s when he u n d e r t a k e s t o e x p l a i n  communication.  11.  The p r o b l e m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  The p r o b l e m o f communic-  a t i o n i s a r o o k upon w h i c h many a n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o u n d e r e d . Here t h e c r i t i c s Croce s t e e r s rests it,  a dangerous, i f not f a t a l  serenely  confident,  i frock there  ohristian-soience-wise,  critics  r  seem a g r e e d t h a t  t h e o r y has  at t h i s  course.  point  But he h i m s e l f  be, how e a s y t o d i s s o l v e  into the i m m a t e r i a l i t y  of the  Error.  To going Croce s 5  examine t h e c h a r g e we must r e c a l l how t h o r o u g h i d e a l i s m i s . " A r t , u n d e r s t o o d as i n t u i t i o n ,  i n g t o the concept t h a t  accord-  I have e x p o s e d , h a v i n g d e n i e d t h e e x i s t -  ence o f a p h y s i c a l w o r l d  outside  simply  o f our i n t e l l e c t  aa a c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f it., which i t looks ,  upon  does n o t know  what t o do w i t h a p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h e t h i n k i n g s u b s t a n c e and o f substance extended ible  i n s p a c e , and h a s no need t o promote  marriages, because i t s t h i n k i n g substance  intuitive  act—-  i s perfect  i n itself,  imposs-  or, rather i t s  and i s t h a t  same f a c t  37 which the i n t e l l e c t  later  constructs  We n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t #italios  mine  as extended."  intuition, unlike  perception  55  •• .-  '  is  not concerned w i t h  the r e a l i t y  ^  o r t h e u n r e a l i t y o f i t s ob-  j e c t s ; h u t i s d i r e c t e d s o l e l y t o t h e pur® a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e spirit s  i n d i v i d u a l image*.  1  How we d i s c o v e r t h a t when feoce .  meets w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n he f i n d s i t c o n v e n i e n t to  r e s o r t t o a p h y s i c a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e , whieh, however he 38  refers to, patronizingly,as ication ion in  ," he s a y s ,  merely  " i s the f i x a t i o n  upon an o b j e c t m e t a p h o r i c a l l y reality,  e v e n h e r e we  'metaphorical'.  "Commun-  of the i n t u i t i o n - e x p r e s s -  c a l l e d material or physical;  are not concerned with  the material  39  t h i n g s , but w i t h  a mental  process," \.  We may w i t n e s s the Art,  f o l l o w i n g passage from t h e chapter, i n The B s s e n s e o f A e s t h e t i c  quotation  )  "This apparent  into physical things transformation merchandise of " a r t i s t i c iful  the f u l l f l o w e r i n g of t h i s l o g i c i n  ( c o n t i n u i n g f r o m t h e above transformation  of the i n t u i t i o n s  a l t o g e t h e r analogous w i t h  the apparent  o f wants and economic l a b o r i n t o t h i n g s  and i n t o  a l s o e x p l a i n s how p e o p l e have come t o t a l k n o t o n l y t h i n g s " and o f " b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s , b u t o f a " b e a u t -  of nature•"  I t i s evident  a r e made f o r t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n aan  Prejudices Relating to  that, besides  the instruments  o f images, o b j e c t s  already  that  existing  be met w i t h , whether p r o d u c e d by man o r n o t , w h i c h p e r f o r m  such a s e r v i c e  t h a t i s t o s a y , a r e more o r l e s s  f i x i n g t h e m«mory o f our i n t u i t i o n s ; name o f " n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s , "  and t h e s e  g i v i n g value  /italics  mine  or a r t i s t s  t h i n g s take the  and e x e r c i s e t h e i r f a s c i n a t i o n o n l y  when we know how t o u n d e r s t a n d them w i t h which the a r t i s t  adapted t o  t h e same s o u l  with  have takengf and a p p r o p r i a t e d  t o them and i n d i c a t i n g t h e p o i n t o f  view^c  them,  from which we must l o o k a t them,thus c o n n e c t i n g them w i t h t h e i r own i n t u i t i o n s ,  But t h e always i m p e r f e c t a d a p t a b i l i t y , the,  f u g i t i v e n a t u r e , the m u t a b i l i t y o f ' n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s ' a l s o . j u s t i f y t h e i n f e r i o r p l a c e accorded  to. them, compared w i t h  b e a u t i e s produced by, a r t . L e t us l e a v e i t t f r t h e r h e t o r j o jama or" the i n t o x i c a t e d t o a f f i r m t h a t a b e a u t i f u l , t r e e , a b e a u t i f u f e l r i v e r , a b e a u t i f u l human f i g u r e , a r e s u p e r i o r t o the c h i s e l stroke of Michelangelo  o r t h e v e r s e o f Dante; but l e t us aay «  w i t h g r e a t e r p r o p r i e t y , t h a t "nature a r t , gnd t h a t she l a ' m u t e  But  1 1  11  i a a t u p i d compared w i t h  i f man does not make h e r apeak."  ( r i s k i n g ; t h e m u n f l a t t e r i n g i m p l i c a t i o n ) we may  ask, a r e t h e r h e t o r i c i a n s and t h e i n t o x i c a t e d l e f t o n l y one a l w t e r n a t i v e , and t h a t , t h e s u p e r i o r i t y  o f s t u p i d "nature"? May  i t n o t be t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f value does not enter here? Furthermore, why even t h e i m p l i e d  i m p e r f e c t i o n o f 'nature',  i f the p h y s i c a l w o r l d be b u t a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t , what i s t h e model o f p e r f e c t i o n by which t h e i n t e l l e c t judges "nature"?  And why t h e p o v e r t y o f n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s i f they  e x i a t anyway  o n l y by  aufferanee of the a r t i s t a * i n t u i t i o n s  convenient hooks upon which t h e a r t i s t s may, f o r purpose o f l a b e l l i n g , hang t h e i r s e l f generated  a r t i s t i c images? And a g a i n ,  why s h o u l d a soulpttifcfj o r any o t h e r a r t i a t , bother t o a t r u g g l e w i t h a p h y s i c a l medium when the completed work o f a r t i s a l r e a d y i n h i a mind b e f o r e he s t a r t s ? and even i f he does not i n d u l g e i n the supererogatory  a c t i v i t y , how can he be sure t h a t t h e  a l l e g e d a r t i f a c t correaponds t o t h e mental image, when he l e a r n s t h a t "To attempt t o f i n d a passage o r oonnexion betweenthe  '  5/  s p i r i t u a l i t y o f t h e image and t h e p h y s i c a l complexes o f 42 c o l o r s , q s o u n d s , and words i s a d e s p e r a t e e n t e r p r i s e " ?  But h a s n o t Groce h i m s e l f u n d e r t a k e n t h i s  "desper-  a t e e n t e r p r i s e " i n the f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c activity? ions,  "In r e a l i t y ,  we know n o t h i n g h u t e x p r e s s e d  intuit-  a t h o u g h t i s n o t t h o u g h t f o r u s , u n l e s s i t he p o s s i b l e  t o f o r m u l a t e i t i n words; a m u s i c a l , i m a g e when i t becomes c o n c r e t e ine, sounds,  e x i s t s f o r us o n l y  a p i s t o r i a l image,  when i t i s c o l o r e d . We do n o t s a y t h a t  only  t h e words must n e c e s s -  a r i l y be d e c l a i m e d i n a loud->volce , t h e music  performed, o r  Ihe p i c t u r e p a i n t e d u p o n wood o r c a n v a s ; b u t i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t when a t h o u g h t  i s r e a l l y t h o u g h t , when  i t has a t t a i n e d t o  t h e m a t u r i t y o f thougmt, t h e words r u n t h r o u g h o u r whole organism,  s o l i c i t i n g the muscles  o f o u r mouth and r i n g i n g  internally  i n o u r e a r s ; when musie i s t r u l y music,  i t trills  internally  i n thn t h r o a t and s h i v e r s i n t h e f i n g e r s  that  toucfi. i d e a l n o t e s ; when a p i c t o r i a l image i s p i o t o r i a l l y we a r e i m p r e g n a t e d  w i t h lymphs t h a t  are c o l o r s ,  real  and maybe, i f  c o l o r i n g m a t t e r s weee n o t a t o u r d i s p o s a l j we might  spontaneous*! 43 #  l y c o l o r s u r r o u n d i n g o b j e c t s by a s o r t of i r r a d i a t i o n * . . " I s he n o t v i r t u a l l y  a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e passage  uality  (whose autonomy, i n t h i s  o f t h e image  from the s p i r i t  c a s e , we a r e n o t -  c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e n y i n g ) to t h e p h y s i c a l complexes sounds  and words i s a t l e a s t  the a e s t h e t i c  the t e s t ,  of colors  i f not the essence o f  activity?  I n t h e one b r e a t h C r o c e p r o c l a i m s u s a l l t o be # i t a i i c s mine  to  some e x t e n t ,  mute, i n g l o r i o u s M i l t o n s : everyman h i s  p o e t , i n s o f a r as he scorn  intuits  image®; and  on'those impotent poets,  ways have t h e i r heads f u l l c r e a t i o n s , and  i n the  own  next, pours  p a i n t e r s , or musicians,  of p o e t i c , p i c t o r i a l ,  and  who  al-  musical  o n l y f a i l t o t r a n s l a t e them i n t o e x t e r n a l f o r m  e i t h e r b e c a u s e , as  they  or because technique  say,  i s not  they  are  impatient  sufficiently  of  expression,  advanced torn a f f o r d  44 them means o f e x p r e s s i o n . iates "in  the  "play of fancy",  search  itself  Now  i . e . , the  of v a r i e t y , r e s t ,  with the  i t i s t r u e t h a t Croce  p a s s i n g f r o m image t o image  or d i v e r s i o n , seeking  l i k e n e s s e s of things  willbagree that  the  istic  e t c . , are being can  t o be  or  i t be  as  fairly  said  inconsistent i n  Crooe p r o v e t h a t the  a bastard  we  e m o t i o n and  not  the  "hadon such  hie  aesthetie? Now  one  may  choose t o argue t h a t t h e  b e a u t y p r o d u c e d by B e e t h o v e n ' s N i n t h mind o f t h e  listener,  conductor's  score  frequencies  p r o d u c e d by  in  can  accompaniment" whioh u n d o u b t e d l y does a t t a c h t o  " o r e a t i o n s " as t h e i r s truly  B u t , (as??suspect  t h e i r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ^ are,  t e r m s o f C r o c e ' s d o c t r i n e ? How  and  not  experience  Symphony e x i s t s i n the  i n e i t h e r the  symbols o f  o r t h e p a t t e r n o f sound waves o f the  different  instruments  o t h e r words, b e a u t y i s a q u a l i t y o f mind and  the  various and  not  a  voicesj qual-  o f t h i n g s . But  ity  o f t h i n g s , o r a q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t and  o b j e c t does n o t can  /italics  w h e t h e r b e a u t y be  of  ity  how  e  :  or p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t " .  "impotent" poets,  t o amuse  that give pleasure  45 have e m o t i o n a l  deprec-  g r e a t l y oonoern us.  C r o o e , h o l d i n g the mine  first  a q u a l i t y o f mind, a  qual o  Whajr does c o n c e r n us i s ,  o f our  a l t e r n a t i v e s t o be  the  only v a l i d  one, r e o o n o i l e h i s d o c t r i n e  o f b e a u t y as  e x p r e s s i o n w i t h communication of that experience, of  it,  to  the  o r any p a r t  others.  The k e y s t o n e is  individual  o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y , we have  observed,  d e n i a l of a r e a l i t y e x t e r n a l to e x p e r i e n c i n g mind:  " i d e a l i t y i s r e a l i t y " . The " o u t e r " concept:  world i s a metaphorical  an a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s c i e n t i s t s  i n order  d e a l w i t h our p r a c t i c a l or " c o n v e n t i o n a l " e x p e r i e n c e s . that a "translation" a physical quantity  It  of a s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y (intuition) (complex of colors, etc.) s  to follows  into  i s a metaphysical  C o n t r a d i c t i o n w h i c h c a n l a y c l a i m o n l y t o t h e same o r d e r o f truth  as t h e book c l e r k ' s s t a t e m e n t : " S h a k s p e r e ' s  complete  w o r k s a r e w o r t h t h r e e d o l l a r s . " B u t , h a v i n g had t h e r e a l i t y o f e x t e r n a l i t y denied us, to  some m y s t i c a l s o r t  man's  experience  h o w - — u n l e s s we a r e e x p e c t e d t o  o f t e l e p a t h y j i ^ - c a n t h e gap b e t w e e n  an& a n o t h e r ' s be  "The e x a c t  concrete  case the  grasped.  bridged?  t o draw i n a c o n c r e t e  two p r o c e s s e s  r a p i d l y and a p p e a r t o m i n g l e , b u t be f i r m l y  it  and t e c h n i q u e .  art  b u t has t o do p r e c i s e l y w i t h t h e  of  #italics  mine.  Technique i s not  as we Jiave s e e n ,  externality  case,  for  in  alternate  i s c l e a r i n i d e a and must  arise  art  validity  generally  Through o v e r l o o k i n g i t ,  through i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n ,  Croce,  one  l i n e t h a t d i v i d e s e x p r e s s i o n from  communication i s d i f f i c u l t the  resort  the  or b l u r r i n g i t confusions  between  a n i n t r i n s i c element... o f concept o f communication. expressly rejects  the  Co  whether of nature  or of a r t on t h e grounds of i t s l e a d i n g s t o  the d u a l i s t i s dilemma "which i s the s u i c i d e of  philosophy.  Yet he admits t h a t ..an a r t i s t . h e a n take measures a g a i n s t l o s i n g the r e s u l t - o f h i s s p i r i t u a l l a b o r s , and r e n d e r i n g " p o s s i b l e ,  or easy, f o r h i m s e l f and f o r o t h e r s , the r e p r o d u s t i o n o f h i s images" To me t h i s seems l i k e denying admittance t o appoor r e l a t i o n at the  f r o n t door, and l e t t i n g him s l i n k i n at the back i n  order t o borrow a d o l l a r from him*  If "intuitions  are t r u l y such because they  represent  f e e l i n g , and o n l y thence can they a r i s e , " i f t h e essence of a r t i s "the p e r f e c t i m a g i n a t i v e form i n which a s t a t e of mind c l o t h e s Itself,"  t h e n how  can s e n s a t i o n s  r e o e l v e d from w i t h o u t , i . e . ,  from a " r e p r o d u c t i o n " (whether p h y s i a a l or'metaphorical') any e f f e o t whatsoever upon the i n t u i t i n g process artist  have  of e i t h e r the  h i m s e l f , when he r e t u r n s t o i t i n " c o l d b l o o d " , or  o t h e r p o s s i b l e beholder?  any  Moreover, does not p e r c e p t i o n i n v o l v e  the c r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between r e a l i t y andd u n r e a l i t y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e r e i g n t o the i n t u i t i o n ?  —~  S u r e l y thenthere  can  be no q u e s t i o n of i n t u i t i n g a "work of a r t " , about whose r e a l i t y or u n r e a l i t y the beholder From t h i s I $ h i n k  c o u l d never e n t e r t a i n a moment!s doubt.  i t f o l l o w s t h a t t o adapt the  n o t i o n t h a t a p i c t u r e may i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to  arouse  conventional  e m o t i o n a l i t y i n the  Croce's i d e a , t h a t the beholder  the p i c t u r e i n e x p r e s s i n g h i s own e m o t i o n a l i t y i n i t . when Crooe  beholder, creates  Thus  says "'Works of a r t ' e x i s t o n l y i n the minds t h a t create 47  or r e c r e a t e them"  I t h i n k we are f o r c e d to the u n c h a r i t a b l e  c o n c l u s i o n , t h a t , by d e f i n i t i o n , h i s statement i s meaningless, / i t a l i c s mine.  6/  12« A r t aa language. The q u e s t i o n of the  identification off  a r t and language stems d i r e c t l y from the l a s t s e c t i o n ,  or,  more p r o p e r l y , i n terms of s t r i c t l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y , i t should have been t r e a t e d b e f o r e the concept o f e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n .  At the end cyclopedia Bri&annica r e v i v a l oS  o f hism  h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h i n the En-  Grooe concludes w i t h : "The g e n e r a l  s p e c u l a t i v e thought l e d t o g r e a t e r successes i n  a e s t h e t i c s i n t h e f i r s t decades o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . E s p e c i a l l y noteworthy i s the u n i o n which i s t a k i n g p l a c e be^ tween a e s t h e t i c s  and thev p h i l o s o p h y of language?  facilitated  by .the d i f f i c u l t i e s under whieh l i n g u i s t i c , c o n c e i v e d as the n a t u r a l i s t i c and p o s i t i v i s t i c s c i e n c e of the phonetio laws o f , 48 language and s i m i l a r a b s t r a c t i o n s I s l a b o r i n g * "  Which c o n f i r m s a s u s p i c i o n a l r e a d y growing i n our minds t h a t Croce i a q u i t e out of aympathy w i t h p o s i t i v l s t s , 49  e m p i r i c i s t s and e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , et a l : Croce refuses eredenoe^in theory,  a t l e a s t , t o any  arguments  t h r e a t e n i n g the autonomous i d e a l i t y o f a r t , — w h a t e v e r may appear i n the s l i g h t e s t degree t o d i c t a t e from without to the s e l f c r e a t i n g e x p r e a s i o n which i s beauty. The marriag® of form and content must remain i n d i s s o l u b l e . Croce was e a r l y a t t r a c t e d towYico's e q u a t i o n of p o e t r y and p r i m i t i v e speech. " ( V i c o ) regarded p o e t r y as a mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s or t h e o r e t i c  form p r e c e d i n g the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  or r e a s o n i n g form,and a s s e r t e d aa i t s s o l e p r i n c i p l e the  imagination,  .which l a  s t r i n g i n proportion that  it  is  free  50  from r a t i o c i n a t i o n , p t i o n Crooe has language,,., art,  the  science  as  h i s metaphysio.  i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the  in its  whole e x t e n s i o n ,  of art  language  arbitrary without  language  the  Its  arbitrary  and p o e t r y )  belief  appears to  the  con-  extension,  assumwithout  language  and  m i m e t i c , and g r a p h i c ;  without f a l s i f y i n g  and v o c a b u l a r i e s ,  e v e r y moment  it  w i t h the  and w i t h o u t  like  the  poet, because,  he e x p r e s s e s h i s s i m l f r e s s i o n s and h i s f e e l i n g s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l or f a m i l i a r , which i s not other  to  and  -that i s , t a k e n i n i t s r e a l i t y , which i s  o f grammars  Man s p e a k s a t  us  always  to s o - c a l l e d i n a r t i c u l a t e  exclusion of t o n i c ,  extension  full  "  expression,and  t h a t man s p e a k s w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y and w i t h  from the  the  unimpaired  having established  be o o n d e i v e d i n i t s  act, o f speafeing i t s e l f ,  stractions  and i n i t s  i d e n t i t y w i t h language:  restrictions  in a l l its  which  p a s s i n g beyond  a s i n t u i t i o n and o f i n t u i t i o n as  implicitly  ing that  and  l i v i n g and c o m p l e t e l y s i g n i f i c a n t e x p r e s s i o n , , . ,  be • • . as m n a v o i d a b l e a s l i t l i s e a s y ,  therefore  assum-  "The p h i l o s o p h y o f  aesthetics;  and s y l l a b i c l a n g u a g e ,  "This i d e n t i f i a a t i o n ( o f  cept  Upon t h i s  philosophy of poetry  of intuition-expression,  of phonetic  reality  enemy and d e s t r o y e r , "  constructed  embraces language limits  its  forms  called prosaic,  i n the  the  foolish  grammar. like; the  poet  form s a i l e d /  s e p a r a t e d b y any  poetio^prosaic,  ab-  abyss  narrative, 5i#  epic,  dialogue,  dramatic,  No d o u b t at  the  outset that  begging the #italios  rationalists the  question.  mine.  lyric,  expression  m e l i c , s i n g i n g , and so o n . " and e m p i r i c i s t s w o u l d p r o t e s t "taken i n i t s  Whether t h a t  charge  r e a l i t y ? ism  c a n be p r o v e d  onto-  &3  l o g i c a l l y or not, to r e i t e r a t e  t h e e x p r e s s i o n does s e r v e i n t h i s  context  once more the, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e m p h a s i s o f C r o c e ' s  approach i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l l the problems i n h i s meaaphysic. A b s t r a c t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t h o u g h s e r v i n g a p r a c t i c a l purpose are,  by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e s ,  symbol or s i g n has the u s e f u l n e s s thing-in-itself, "translate"  it  of t r u t h . A  of a l a b e l : not b e i n g the  cannibt e x i s t i n p l a c e o f , o r p r o p e r l y  that which i t  s m e l l as sweet.  falsifiers  i s n o t . A r o s e b y a n o t h e r name w o u l d  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sum o f t h e  c o m p r i s i n g the r o s e can never be the r o s e .  qualities  Thus by mere r a t i o -  c i n a t i v e means we c a n o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e a c o n c e p t u a l i d e a o f t h e rose's rose of  beauty.  c a n o n l y be p r e d i c a t e d o f an i n t u i t i o n .  feauty  "Art  T h a t i n d i v i d u a l image w h i c h we a g r e e t o l a b e l  i s eauated  i s a true  i n the without  Now t o r e p e a t  philosophy  synthesis, a p r i o r i  and  feeling 52 void."  what h a s b e e n s a i d p r e v i o u s l y , a r t ( i n a . ! l o g i c a l , not  temporal,  doe® n o t n e e d t h e c o n c e p t o r p h i l o s o p h y , b u t and t h e  ;\$&los^  would not possess n a t u r a l t o man  c o n c e p t depend on a r t , w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e y •ffefpAafli.oii. sarfc, wlth.acrfe w h i s i x t h s y the o r i g i n a l f l o w of l a n g u a g e — t h e poetry  and on w h i c h t h e i r s t r u c t u r e  m e a n i n g s has t o be e r e c t e d . • T h u s (conceived h i s t o r i c a l l y ) al  that  image w i t h o u t f e e l i n g i s  a l l other experience it  image.  o f f e e l i n g and image  as t o w h i c h i t may be r e p e a t e d  image i s b l i n d ,  precedes 53 sense);  experience  w i t h the. i n t u i t i o n o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l  aesthetic  intuition,  And t h e  both i n art  spontaneous  of universal and i n l a n g u a g e  image p r e c e d e s  convention-  sign.  "It  i s urgent  that  (linguistic  studies)  s h o u l d be  d i s e n c u m b e r e d o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l methods, returning theory has  the  now t h e  of the  fashion,  and be f r e e d from t h e  conventional  o r i g i n of language,  i n e v i t a b l e c o r r e l a t i v e o f t h e m y s t i c a l t h e o r y as  ever which its  i n e v i t a b l e r e a c t i o n . H e r e t o o i t w i l l no l o n g e r be n e c e s s a r y construct  a b s u r b p a r a l l e l i s m s , o r t o promote m y s t e r i o u s  b e t w e e n s i g n and i m a g e : when l a n g u a g e a s i g n , but in  itself,  whereas  the  language; it  spontaneous  a n d when i t p e r s i s t s  — t h a t i s , to presuppose 54 i t to the unknowable."  Still  another  language  i n another  presupposes  monster,  the f a i r  no l o n g e r be  comm-  aspect of  Bosanquet d i d i t  "it will  signs-  way, b y c o n s i g n i n g  head o f the hydra-headed  statement  imagination,  t o God, as g i v e r o f f i r s t  l i e s c u n n i n g l y concealed beneath  I f by the  articulate.  i n e x p l a i n i n g l a n g u a g e by s i g n s ,  t h i s e x t e n s i o n of C r o c e ' s reasoning. 55 i n 1919.  work o f t h e  s i g n , w h e r e w i t h man a g r e e s w i t h man,  i s o b l i g e d t o have r e c o u r s e  unication,  that i s , a sign  c o l o r e d , sounding, s i n g i n g ,  The s i g n i f i c a n t image i s t h e  nuptials  i s no l o n g e r c o n c e i v e d as  as a n image w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e r e f o r e  to  battle necessary  t o promote m y s t e r i o u s n u p t i a l s b e t w e e n s i g n and image" C r o c e means t h a t t h e r e c a n be no o n t o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n two, can  t h e n no  one w o u l d t a k e  e x i s t by a n o t h e r  image i s t h e not to  q u e s t i o n the  work o f t h e  'psychology ,  t e r m . B u t when he c o n c l u d e s w i t h man, p r e s u p p o s e s  issue w i t h him; obviously a rose  name. And when he s a y s ,  spontaneous  the  that  language,"  "The s i g n i f i c a n t  i m a g i n a t i o n " , we may choose - i f we may v e n t u r e  "the  such a  s i g n , w h e r e w i t h man a g r e e s  we may c o u n t e r w i t h  "Language  I.  w h e r e w i t h man communisatess.. w i t h man, a l a o p r e s u p p o s e s For unless I  say r o s e ,  i.e., of  t h e r e he i d e n t i t y o f r e f e r e n t howm  the e x p e r i e n c e o f beauty w h i c h a r i s e s from the  ana  images,  expression  o u r i n t u i t i o n , r o s e ? U n d o u b t e d l y C r o c e w o u l d h a s t e n t o deny t h a t  would subvert  a fundamental tenet  acceptance  o f such a n o t i o n w  of C r o c e ' s c r e e d : the  ideality  reality.  It idealism  i s i n t e r e s t i n g i t o compare t h i s f a c e t  with that  conceptual side,  u a t e l a n g u a g e w i t h i n t u i t i o n , and t r e a t thinking  T  "and t o  i n t u i t i o n as p r i o r  eqto  , i s t o s h a t t e r and o v e r t h r o w t h e w h o l e c o n c e p t i o n o f  t h e u n i t y o f t h e human m i n d . "  Bosanquet's of art  and l a n g u a g e  "True,  an o b j e c t  beauty.  of Croce s  o f a n o t h e r i d e a l i s t , B o s a n q u e t , who m a i n -  t a i n e d t h a t t o deny l a n g u a g e i t s  is  when y o u s a y r o s e  c a n we hope t o compare o u r r e s p e c t i v e  we have c o u n t e r e d a l a l l ; - and t h e  of  the: s i g n . "  56  c r i t i c i s m of Croce's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  l e a d s h i m t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s  n o t e x p e r i e n c e d c a n n o t be t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f  T r u e , we hope t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l w h i c h we c a l l  body,  i n some s e n s e i n c a r n a t i o n , and i s n o t a mere s t a t e o f m i n d .  We e x p e r i e n c e n a t u r a l o b j e c t s  as f u l l  concrete  existences,  with r  r e a l q u a l i t i e s o f c o l o r and sound and s p l e n d o r . E x t e r n a l i t y i s a character acheivement,  o f t h e w o r l d and a s i g n and v e h i c l e o f s p i r i t u a l and y e t t h e r e c a n be no doubt t h a t t h e  imagination yearns s p e c i a l medium."  57  creative  t o w a r d s e x t e r n a l i t y , and e x t e r n a l i t y i n some  13.  The i n d i v i s i b i l i t y  of art.  "The p r o v e d i n a b i l i t y o f e m p i r i c a l  methods t o y i e l d k n o w l e d g e o f r e a l i t y , classify  and r e d u c e  an a e s t h e t i c s classes  to types,  a r r i v e d at  which i n fact  i n v o l v e s the  they  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  by c o l l e c t i n g  aesthetic facts 58 l a w s by i n d u c t i o n . "  and d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r  only  in  Hot o n l y does C r o c e deny t h e v a l i d i t y o f e m p i r i c a l met ho as,t b u t i h e o r u l e s 1 out. o f f c c u r t Ia; p o s t e r i o r i  aesthetic  :  judgments various  w h i c h seek t o p i g e o n - h o l e works o f a r t  systems; 59  p a i n t i n g , m u s i c , drama,  comedy, a n d so o n , S u c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o n v e n i e n c e t o recommend t h e m ; deny t h e  according  etc.;  or l y r i c ,  have  merely p r a c t i c a l  "It  i s u s e f u l to  putting lyrics  i n a fourth;  indispensable,  t o w o r k s and g r o u p s  to r e f e r  and i t  names i n s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g o f them. deny and  pronounce  classificatory  to the  tragedy  or  other'kind'."  Of w o r k s by t h e s e  from t h e s e  as when p e o p l e t r y of a c e r t a i n  to  kind,  by a w o r k , i n s t e a d  own p o e t r y ,  a poem, and w h e t h e r 60  or  fact,  a p l o t o f a c e r t a i n k i n d and a  a n d , when c o n f r o n t e d  i n g f o r and a p p r a i s i n g i t s  in  B u t h e r e a g a i n we mustd  d e c i d e t h a t a t r a g e d y must h a v e a s u b j e c t characters of a certain kind,  poems  p o e t i c laws o f c o m p o s i t i o n  and a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a o f j u d g m e n t s ,  certain length;  convenient,  i l l e g i t i m a t e the t r a n s i t i o n s  concepts  these  i n one v o l u m e , dramas i n a n o t h e r ,  i n a t h i r d and romances  to  distribute  an a r t i s t e Works, f o r purposes o f p u b l i c a t i o n , i n t o classes,  tragedy,  t o e x p e c t more f r o m them i s  i n d i v i s i b i l i t y of art.  to  it  ask whether  obeys t h e  it  is  of looka  ' l a w s ' o f ones  M r s G i l b e r t h a s n e a t l y s u m m a r i z e d C r o c e ' s -metaphysical basis of the ute  for his  aesthetic  polemic against  a c t i v i t y . "Since aesthetic  f o r Croce an a d j e e t i v e l e s s  process  o f a n a l y s i s can take  beauty  consists  universe,  experiences  and s i n c e no  f o r h i m a sum o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  constitconcrete  entities,  and t h e work o f c r i t i c i s m  f o r him to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a bare i d e n t i t y *  whole c r i t i c i s m o f a r t , ' briefest  he s a y s ,  ' c a n be r e d u c e d t o  p r o p o s i t i o n , T h e r e i s a work o f a r t ,  ponding negative, "It  unity  p l a c e where no s p e c i f i c a t i o n e x i s t s  one a n u n a n a l y z a b l e e x p r e s s i o n ; itself  d e s p o i l i n g the  There i s not  i s o b v i o u s , ? she  says,  a work o f a r t ,  reduces  'The  this  a, with a ~ 61 b_, ' "  corres-  " t o what i n t e l l e c t u a l b a t t l e - f i e l d  G r o c e c a r r i e s h i s i d e a s when he c o n v e r t s them i n t o mere He i s a m e d i a e v a l n o m i n a l i s t i n r e s p e c t 62 ions."  windowless,  to aesthetic  labels.  concept-  C r o c e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f works o f a r t  recalls  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d monads o f L e i b n i t z ,  each o f  the  which r e f l e c t e d the u n i v e r s e o f s p i r i t from i t s 63  own u n i q u e  point of view.  expresses  of the  soul,  new, t h e  "....since  and t h e  e v e r y work o f a r t  s t a t e o f the  i n t u i t i o n i m p l i e s i n f i n i t e i n t u i t i o n s , which i t  but  pigeon-holes,  of i n t u i t i o n s .  and t h e r e f o r e  state  of i n t u i t i o n i m p l i e s i n d i v i d u a l i t y of e x p r e s s i o n ,  i s im-  t h e r e be  not p i g e o n - h o l e s  And s i n c e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  i s d i s t i n c t from another  a  s o u l i s I n d i v i d u a l and a l w a y s  p o s s i b l e : t o p l a c e i n p i g e o n - h o l e s as k i n d s , u n l e s s infinite  each  of k i n d s ,  individuality and a p i c t u r e  p i c t u r e , not l e s s t h a n from ap  a poem, and  p i c t u r e and poem a r e n o t o f v a l u e b e c a u s e  sounds t h a t b e a t t h e a i r and t h e but because  colors refracted  o f what t h e y c a n t e l l  they enter into i t ,  i t i s useless  to the  of  i n the  the light,  s p i r i t , i n s o f a r as  t o have r e c o u r s e t o  means o f e x p r e s s i o n , t o c o n s t r u c t t h e o t h e r  series  abstract  of kinds  and c l a s s e s : w h i c h amounts t o s a y i n g t h a t any t h e o r y o f  the  d i v i s i o n o f the  class  is  in this  a r t s Us w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n . The k i n d o r  c a s e one o n l y ,  p a r t i c u l a r , works o f a r t  art  are  itself  or the  infinite:  one i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t r a n s l a t e d t i n t o translate,  to t r a n s l a t e  new w o r k o f a r t ) , intermediate  a l l are the  interposes  itself  i t , has  t h e u n i v e r s a l and t h e i n d i v i d u a l , individualised*  (since  philosophically  a  between  of k i n d s or not  species, the  any need o f a n y t h i n g b u t or r a t h e r ,  the u n i v e r s a l  the u n i v e r s a l a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y ,  c o n t r a c t e d and c o n c e n t r a t e d  to  i s to create  a r t i s t who p r o d u c e s a r t ,  s p e c t a t o r who c o n t e m p l a t e s  each  i n t e l l e c t . Ho  t h e u n i v e r s a l and t h e p a r t i c u l a r , no s e r i e s no g e n e r a l i a . N e i t h e r t h e  whereas  original,  other  withs.artistic s k i l l ,  e a c h one subdued b y t h e  element  intuition,  which i s a l l  i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of a s i n g l e  64  s t a t e of the  soul."  It theories  follows  that Croce w i l l , r u l e  out o f c o u r t  of s t y l e s a p p l i e d to the h i s t o r y of art  and o t h e r s ) , "irruptions  w h i c h , he s a y s ,  a r e n e v e r more t h a n  (of. other  of the r h e t o r i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n i n t o the  and h i s t o r y o f w o r k s o f  Wolfflin  judgment  art."  C r o c e ' s approach to the C l a s s i c - R o m a n t i c  contro-  v e r s y a l s o bears w i t n e s s t o h i s s u i g e n e r i s c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t * To s e t C l a s s i c and Romantic a r t i n o p p o s i t i o n i s as s t u l t i f y i n g as t h e analogous o p p o s i t i o n o f form and content. Even though c o g n i t i o n may, i n t u i t i o n does not r e c o g n i z e  i n these  two p a i r s o f terms two modes o f the same a c t i v i t y , the a e s t h e t i c —regardless  o f whether we h a s t e n t o add: modes d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e 65  but i n s e p a r a b l e .  #  "The c r i s i s o f t h e romantic p e r i o d  ...ass-  e r t e d an a n t i t h e s i s between ... c l a s s i c a l and romantic a r t , and thus denied t h e u n i t y o f a r t fundamentally  and a s s e r t e d a d u a l i t y o f two  d i f f e r e n t a r t s , o f which i t took the s i d e o f the  second, as t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e to* t h e modern age, by u p h o l d i n g t h e primary, importance i n a r t o f f e e l i n g , p a s s i o n , and f a n c y . . • . i n part romanticism  was a r e b e l l i o n not a g a i n s t c l a s s i c i s m . but  a g a i n s t t h e c l a s s i c a l as auch;  t  a g a i n s t t h e i d e a o f s e r e n i t y and  i n f i n i t y o f t h e a r t i s t i c image, but a g a i n s t c a t h a r s i s and i n f a v o r of a t u r b i d emotionalism  t h a t would not and c o u l d not undergo  p u r i f i c a t i o n , . T h e problem o f a e s t h e t i c s to-day i s the r e a s s e r t i o n and defense o f t h e o i a a s i o a l as a g a i n s t  romanticism:  the s y n t h e t i c , f o r m a l , t h e o r e t i c element which i s the proprium of a r t , as a g a i n s t t h e a f f e c t i v e element which i t i s the b u s i n ess o f a r t t o r e s o l v e i n t o , b u t which to-day has turned  against  66  i t and t h r e a t e n s t o d i s p l a c e i t . " Do we d e t e c t the shadow o f an i n c o n s i s t e n c y ? Does Croce, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t a r t i s a u n i v e r s a l c o n t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , but no s p e c i e s , compromise h i s d o c t r i n e by making use of t h e terms C l a s s i d and Romantic? - — F o r these w e l l - w o r n tags c e r t a i n l y do suggest t h a t within / i t a l i c s mine  t h e r e can be a m o d a l i t y o f behaviour  w i t h i n the dialectic  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of beauty. to confine himself  of aesthetics  t o - d a y i s the  Croce*s defence w h i c h he  justifies  The p h i l o s o p h e r , h i s theory,  I s he n o t bound by h i s own  to saying simply, reassertion  e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f the  submit,  grounds;  ally,  not  f o r the  and t o  some e x t e n t  together to  arbitrariness  the  abstract  becomes  on o t h e r erroneous  a netof  infinite  but to  single  and memory, i n o r d e r t o  gener-  as  is natural,  abstractb  of s t a t e s of the  collect  intuitions group  o f means o f  either  expression,  s o u l ( l i t e r a r y and  art. by  and art-  expressionAarts)..•The  i n n o c u o u s and u s e f u l f r o m t h e v e r y  fact  being a philosophical principle  judgement  Crooe's r e f u s a l  nor  innumerable p a r t i c u l a r works o f  image o r t h e  and c l a s s e s  and c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e  mine  general-  which i s spontaneous,  w i l l a l w a y s be f o r m e d ,  that every pretension of  //italics  critic,  occupied with  true side of these  c i r c u m s c r i b e the  as c l a s s e s  i s t i c kinds)  image*  and t h e p u r e  of i t , which i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l ,  some e x t e n t  means o f t h e therefore  I s the  o f the, a t t e n t i o n  These c l a s s e s  are not  production of a r t ,  judgment  the use  artist's  i s c e r t a i n l y u s e f u l to construct  f o r the  for  t o t h e way i n  or k i n d s , th&se r e t a i n t h e i r u t i l i t y  and t h i s u t i l i t y  theories....It  non/art"?  f o r convenience;?;/ sake t o t h e demands o f  and a l s o t h e p u r e p h i l o s o p h e r , with classes  against  can, without compromising  p r a c t i c a l e x i g e n c y . " I f the pure a r t i s t  ia,  of art  here i s analogous  l i k e the a r t i s t ,  "The p r o b l e m  of art  i s removed f r o m i t . "  t o i m p u t e any t h e o r e t i o  significance  7/  to  classification  w h i c h , • we s u b m i t , may become s o m e t h i n g more 67  subtle  than pigeon-holing  - i s r a t h e r p u z z l i n g i n the  face of h i s  own n e a t l y f o u r - f o l d  d i v i s i o n of mental a c t i v i t y i n t o the  thetic,  the  the  logical,  14. Degrees  of beauty.  u i n g from the i.e.,  e c o n o m i c and t h e  ethic.  We h a v e examined one major c o n f u s i o n  The i n d i v i d u a l i m a g e , we a r e t o l d ,  have a r t ,  or i t  i s not  and i n t h e  i_s_ a r t :  expressed;  latter  more p r o p e r l y , we have n o t  t o be l o o k e d i n t o .  either  an i n t u i t i o n  and i n t h e f o r m e r c a s e we  we have n o t - a r t N  or u g l i n e s s ;  even an i n t u i t i o n , f o r ,  what i s i n t u i t e d i s i p s o f a c t o e x p r e s s e d .  It  essful,  f o l l o w s from  o r n o n - e x p r e s s i o n . Hence a r t i f a c t s  and c o n s e q u e n t l y b e a u t i f u l ;  sequent l y u g l y . A v e r s e  or,  by d e f i n i t i o n ,  t h a t t h e r e c a n be no d e g r e e s o f e x p r e s s i o n : t h e r e i s expression  iss-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of art with intuition-expression,  communication, t h e r e remains yet another  i s expressed  aes-  either  are e i t h e r  or e l s e u n s u c c e s s f u l ,  then i s either  a poem o r i t  this  succand c o n -  i s not  a  poem. A J a p a n e s e h o k k u o f a d o z e n w o r d s , w h i c h e v e r y o n e may a g r e e t o be p e r f e c t  i n i t s way, i s  H a m l e t . We may make t h e i n d e e d be p e r m i t t e d t o  "as g r e a t " a work o f a r t  c o n c e s s i o n t o popular usage;  as  we may  " s a y g r e a t and s m a l l i f we w i l l ,  but  met a p h o r i c a l l y . "  C r o c e i s h i m s e l f aware t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e t h a t " A  # little  p i e c e o f p o e t r y i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y e q u a l t o a poem; a t i n y  l i t t l e picture is  or a s k e t c k ,  a work o f a r t ,  no l e s s  t o an a l t a r  o r an a f f r e s c o ;  t h a n a romance;  even a f i n e  i s as o r i g i n a l as a n o r i g i n a l w o r k " d o e s " p r o d u c e a t italina y  s  m  mine  a  letter  translation  first  sight  7% a sort are  :  o f b e w i l d e r m e n t " . B u t he a s s u r e s u s t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s  irrefutable  p r e m i s e s ."•  ?o#  t T t  beQaiias_logically  Many p e n e t r a t i n g b e w i l d e r e d by right  this  deduced! from v e r i f i a b l e  •  c r i t i c s are,  however, not merely  ex c a t h e d r a p r o n o u n c e m e n t :  t h e y a r e down-  i n d i g n a n t . W i t n e s s , f o r example, the f o l l o w i n g  ironic  comment by. O . K . Ogden, I , A . R i c h a r d s , and James Wood, authors  o f The F o u n d a t i o n s o f A e s t h e t i c s . "The k e y s t o n e o f  C r o c e ' a method c o n s i s t s of  in a skilful  a p p l i c a t i o n of the law  I d e n t i t y combined w i t h a p a r t i a l d e n i a l of the  radiction. it  co-  Thus when I n t u i t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h E x p r e s s i o n  may b e a s s e r t e d  any f u r t h e r  t h a t a l l i n t u i t i o n s are expressed  n e c e s s i t y of proof.  works of A r t . Since t h i s process of these s t r i c t  that a l i i  synonyms t h e  v i g o r o u s r a t i o c i n a t i o n i s engendered  are judicious  i r r e s i s t i b l e sweep o f  and a h e a l t h y a i r I - B u t i t may be  t h a t t o o many t h i n g s become A r t . To t h i s him because  intuitions  c o n s i s t s simply i n the  C r o o e ' s argument meets no o b s t a c l e ,  does n o t d i s t r e s s  without  Then i f I n t u i t i o n - e x p r e s s i o n  be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A r t , i t f o l l o w s  interchange  Law o f C o n t -  of objected  Croce r e p l i e s that  'noone has e v e r been a b l e  to  i n d i c a t e i n what t h e  s o m e t h i n g more c o n s i s t s . . . t h e  the expressions  that  are  vulgarly called  ' n o t A r t ' a r e e m p i r i c a l and i m p o s s i b l e t o  If  it  limits of  c a l l e d A r t as opposed t o t h o s e  that  are 71  define.  a n e p i g r a m be a r t why n o t a s i n g l e w o r d ? '  . "Why n o t ? That i s p r e c i s e l y t h e d i f f i c u l t y 7£ i m p r e s s i o n i s t ' s view..'.'  of every  /3 Hor- can E . F i C a r r i t t , sympathetic t o most of t e n e t s , accept t h i s one.  Croce's  "Croce admits a ' d i f f e r e n c e of e x t e n s i o n  between such e x p r e s s i v e a c t s as  a s i n g l e word and a n o v e l ,  a p p a r e n t l y because the l a t t e r expresses a more  complex s t a t e  o f mindj and t h i s i s not i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o h i s i n s i s t e n c e i n the same passage on the i d e n t i c a l nature of b o t h as e x p r e s s i v e . F o r i n j u s t the same way  the s i m p l e s t judgment of memory and  most comprehensive metaphysic  are, i f t r u e , true?  i s a g r e a t e r t r u t h thaia the o t h e r . And though t h i s seems hard t o harmonise w i t h h i s a p p r o v a l o f  yet the  the  one  concession  Schleiermacher's  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the g r e a t e s t and most c o m p l i c a t e d p i c t u r e and the s m a l l e s t arabesque a r e , i f each i s p e r f e c t i n i t s own a b s o l u t e l y e q u a l , y e t i t i s a c o n c e s s i o n which the a r t i s t i c  way, ex-  p e r i e n c e r i g h t l y demands t o account f o r such a p o s s i b l e d e l i v e r ance as t h a t Measure f o r Measure i s g r e a t e r , as a work of a r t , t h a n Mariana's  song by  itself."  15. The, autonomy of a r t .  I n order to l e a v e no doubt i n the  r e a d e r ' s mind about h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the autonomy of a r t , Croce has t a k e n p a i n s t o enumerate those t h i n g s t h a t a r t must not 74  confused w i t h .  be  I t w i l l be worth w h i l e to r e f e r to these n e g a t i v e  a s s e r t i o n s b e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g w i t h the main t e n e t of h i s p h i l o s ophy o f a r t . Art  i s not p h i l o s o p h y : the l a t t e r concerns the " l o g -  i c a l t h i n k i n g o f the u n i v e r s a l c a t e g o r i e s of being"* whereas the former i s "the u n r e f l e o t i v e i n t u i t i o n of b e i n g " . "Hence, w h i l e p h i l o s o p h y t r a n s c e n d s the image and uses i t f o r i t s own purposes / i t a l i c s mine  .  7^  §rt l i v e s i n i t as i n a kingdom," A r t  c  a n n o t "be s a i d t o be  e i t h e r a l o g i a a l or an i l l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y - i t i s , r a t h e r , an a l o g i c a l one. A r t , P o e t r y , or Beauty i s an a p r i o r i  reality.  A r t i s not h i s t o r y , f o r the l a t t e r , u n l i k e the forme r , i m p l i e s the o r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between r e a l i t y and u n r e a l i t y I n one o f Shakspere's H i s t o r i e s , f o r example, the h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y of h i s c h a r a c t e r s does not i n any way a f f e c t the a r t i s t i c v a l u e o f the p l a y s themselves.  A r t i s n o t concerned a s i i s n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e w i t h h i s t o r i c a l f a c t c l a s s i f i e d and made a b s t r a c t . Systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a p p l i e d t o a r t have o n l y a p r a c t i c a l v a l u e , and no m e t a p h y s i c a l importance whatsoever.  N e i t h e r i s a r t t o be confused w i t h t h e p l a y of f a n c y , which i s an a i m l e s s f l i t t i n g from image t o image; or w i t h f e e l i n g i n i t s immediacy, which because of i t s f o r m l e s s n e s s has t o be i n t u i t e d (thus expressed)  t o b r i n g about the c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a e s t h e t i c  activity.  A r t i s not i n s t r u c t i o n . "Art i s not l i m i t e d by s e r v i c e t o any p r a c t i c a l purpose whatsoever, whether t h i s be the i n c u l c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l or s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h , or the advocacy of a p a r t i c u l a r way o f f e e i l i n g and the a c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o i t . " The c a t h a r s i s i s a e s t h e t i c , not m o r a l i n n a t u r e . Thus, as noted inao.previous s e c t i o n , i t may possible  t o have a p l a y at onoe  a e s t h e t i c , and judged by  be  75 t  conventional astandards,  i m m o r a l . A n d , aa t h e work o f a r t  i n r e a l i t y o n l y i n the mind o f i t s  exists  c r e a t o r and i n t h e m i n d o f  whomsoeveris a b l e t o express an i n t u i t i o n  b y means o f i t ,  society  c a n n o t harm i t by e x e r t i n g c e n s o r s h i p ;  Finally, certain effects uplift,  art  i s not d i r e c t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f  as p l e a s u r e ,  and so o n . A r t i s u n i q u e , a u t o n o m o u s ,  ual activity existing i n its allthe  other phases  6. A r t and l i f e .  aesthetic  own r i g h t ,  goodness, moral  a phase o f s p i r i t -  and t h e one f r o m w h i c h  issue.  To have c o n c l u d e d t h e c h a p t e r  negative assertions  art  enjoyment, u t i l i t y ,  about a r t would have l e f t  out o f f o c u s .  on C r o c e w i t h h i s  our account of h i s  I t w o u l d have s u g g e s t e d  e x i s t e d i n a s p i r i t u a l vacuum w i t h o u t r o o t s  t h a t f o r Croce i n human s o c i e t y .  H i s i n t e n t i o n i s q u i t e t h e c o n t r a r y . Hee m a i n t a i n s t h a t know more o r l e s s t h e  j o y o f t h e c o m p l e t e , e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h we  s u c c e e d i n g i v i n g t o o u r p r o p e r , i m p u l s e s , and t h e of  others,  art,  joy i n those  w h i c h a r e a l s o o u r s ; when we c o n t e m p l a t e t h e  w h i c h a r e t o some e x t e n t  are d i f f e r e n t  tising artist.  i n degree,  How e l s e ,  work o f  o u r s , and w h i c h we make o u r s .  A e s t h e t i c a o t i v i t y i s common t o e v e r y o n e ; we, t h e souls,  "we a l l  not  i n essence,  pedestrian  from t h e p r a c -  C r o c e a s k s r h e t o r i c a l l y , c o u l d commun-  i c a t i o n take p l a c e ? We,too, can acheive the process of l i b e r a t i o n 76  from the  s e n t i m e n t a l t u m u l t and o b j e c t i f y i t  And t h e a r t i s t ,  by e x t e r n a l i z i n g h i s l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , p r o v i d e s  us w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o share i n the i m a g e . T h i s he w i l l # i t a l i o s mine  i n a lyrical,image.  joy of his  do i f h i s work o f a r t  individual  c a t a l y z e s i n u s an i n -  7^  tuition  o f o u r own " s e n t i m e n t a l t u m u l t . "  "Considered from the e m p i r i c a l s t a n d p o i n t ,  there  is  i n d e e d a most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g e n i u s who w r o t e O t h e l l o and me, who r e a d and e n j o y i t . B u t f r o m t h e standpoint,  the act  f  identioal  o f p r o d u c i n g and she a c t  philosophical  o f e n j o y i n g are  » b e c a u s e p h i l o s o p h y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h q u a l i t y and  not w i t h q u a n t i t y .  The l i t t l e  I possess  the  requires  dose o f i n v e n t i v e  imagination  a i d o f Shakspere to i n t e n s i f y i t to  the  p o i n t o f f o r m i n g w i t h i n m y s e l f the whole t r a g e d y o f O t h e l l o ' s passion,  and S h a k s p e r e had no need o f me o r o t h e r s s  raise himself Othello, and t h e  to t h a t complex v i s i o n .  am n o t  i n d e e d , when I r e a d  i d e n t i c a l w i t h the a r t i s t  author  substance,  I.  of O t h e l l o are f a c t s  l i k e me t o  Shakspere, but  of the  same  aesthetio  h o w e v e r u n e v e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , however  the dose i n e a c h o f u s ,  and however d i f f e r e n t  I  different  the s t i m u l a t i o n  under v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . "  It  i s e v i d e n t t h e n t h a t Croce i s not a v o t a r y o f  any a r t - f o r - a r t $ s artist  sake c u l t ; he does n o t  a s s i g n to a r t  he does n o t a r g u e e i t h e r t h a t a  the  the primacy i n the art  spiritual  order,  outweighs i n importance  the  a c t i v i t i e s o f man, o r e v e n t h a t i t e x i s t s i n d e p e n d e n t  others.  making the essary, other:  c o n f i n e the p r a c t i c a l  i n a n i v o r y t o w e r r e m o t e f r o m t h e w o r l f i o f men. A l t h o u g h  he does i n f a c t  other  -  "The o r d e r and l o g i c o f t h e v a r i o u s forms o f t h e one n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o t h e r ,  r e v e a l the f o l l y the e r r o r  /italics  minis  o f n e g a t i n g the  and t h e r e f o r e  spirit  a l l nec-  one i n t h e name o f  o f the p h i l o s o p h e r ( e . g . ,  of  P l a t o ) , or of  the  the  moralist, and  (e.g.,  S a v o n a r o l a or Proudhon)  p r a c t i c a l man...who refute  art  0  r  o f the  naturalist  and p o e t r y ; a n d , on t h e  *  other hand, the e r r o r science,  o f t h e a r t i s t who r e b e l s a g a i n s t 78 p r a c t i c e , and m o r a l i t y . "  thought,  Now a moment ago i t was i m p r e s s e d u p o n u s t h a t  art  must n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n o r w i t h m o r a l u p lift.  We l e a r n e d a l s o t h a t a p l a y r e q u i r i n g c e n s o r s h i p may  be a w o r k o f a r t .  And s e e k i n g f u r t h e r we f i n d :  Dante's Franeesoa,  "To judge  still  immoral  o r m o r a l Shakspere's C o r d e l i a , whose f u n c t i o n s  a r e p u r e l y a r t i s t i c and who a r e l i k e n o t e s o f m u s i c f r o m t h e  soul  of  D a n t e o r S h a k s p e r e , w o u l d be no b e t t e r t h a n t o j u d g e a t r i a n g l e 79 wicked, or a square m o r a l . "  Does t h e above r e f e r e n c e who  rebels against m o r a l i t y present  p a r a d o x ? Or c a n t h e  to the f o l l y  of the  us t h e n w i t h s t i l l  artist  another  s e e m i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n be r e s o l v e d i n t e r m s o f 80  Croce's d i s t i n c t i o n between"man-artist"and"artist-man"?  Such would  seem t o be C r o c e ' s i d e a . " A r t " he s a y s "as was Idmg ago o b s e r v e d , is  not produced by an act  of w i l l ;  t h e g o o d w i l l w h i c h makes a  good man does n o t make a good a r t i s t .  And s i n c e , i t  i s not  pro-  duced. by a n a c t o f w i l l , a r t i s exempt f r o m m o r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , n o t b y any p r i v i l e g e o f immunity, but because m o r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s 81 do n o t a p p l y . " "But"——and h e r e i s t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r - " i f art  i s o u t s i d e the  man  he comes u n d e r i t s l a w s and n e v e r e s c a p e s t h e d u t i e s  man.  His art  sphere  itself,  o f m o r a l i t y , t h e a r t i s t - i s n o t . As a  t h a t a r t which, -is?.? n o t andm canno.t be'  morality  , he must c o n s i d e r as a m i s s i o n ,  /italics  mine  .  of a  t o be e x e r c i s e d as i f  72 it  were a p r i e s t h o o f i . "  82  Those o f u s who may have t h o u g h t or  l e s s equal terms w i t h the a r t i s t s  to fraternize  on more  escaped from the  ivory  w i l l he somewhat d i s m a y e d on f i n d i n g them,, he p r e p a r e d  for a  •  •  A  ;  priesthood,  '  But  1  t h e r e c a n he no doubt about  Croce s f  intention  " A r t . . . w i t h o u t m o r a l i t y , " he s a y s w i t h c o n v i c t i o n , " i s as a r t ,  and becomes  caprice,  l a c k of m o r a l i t y i n the surrounds, of  the  but  artist  itself  l u x u r y , and c h a r l a t a n r y  life  from which i t  s e r v i n g the p r i v a t e  as t h e v i l e s t  i m m o r a l - — - i f we i n t e r p r e t  to  "keep the  when he becomes  al  when he  concerned w i t h p r a c t i c a l pre-occupations;  w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e  the  ) , but  H o l y C h u r c h and o f . m o r a l i t y " — "has  t  a a n n o t be "moralistic  h a r l o t (since her a l l i n the  i n turn,  and i s "and  ever.  i n v i r t u e of i t s very contradictions?  d i s t i n g u i s h a r t f r o m mere p l e a s u r e , 84  mine  origin-  servieeofof  i s , and w i l l be a n a t t e m p t , however m i s g u i d e d ,  worthy p l a c e . "  or i n  sincerity,  which bids art "play  s i n ( c o u l d ) n o t be r o o t e d o u t  /italics  becomes  look of childhood";  w i t h m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , he c o n c e d e s t h a t t h e  has b e e n ,  becomes  i s , he  his s p i r i t u a l heritage;  i n n o c e n t and a t t e n t i v e  the  interests  The a r t i s t  Now a l t h o u g h C r o c e r e i t e r a t e s t h a t a r t  doctrine"  owing to  and f u t i l e 83  Croce c o r r e c t l y - — t h a t  any way compromises h i s a r t i s t i c  equated  decomposed  s p r i n g s and w h i c h  of bondmaids."  n o n - a r t 1 s t when he p r o s t i t u t e s fails  tower  to  and g i v e e t o i t a more  it  79 Which, It  i s the  artist's  also,  sacred function,  "various perturbations" he s u c c e e d s  is a chief  a i m o f C i t o c e ' s own Croce m a i n t a i n s ,  of h i s turbulent  soul. For,  aesthetic.  to fuse  the  whenever  i n i n t u i t i n g and o b j e c t i f y i n g a l y r i c a l i m a g e ,  patt-  e r n s o f a c c e l e r a t i n g c o m p l e x i t y grow i n t o b e i n g , as when a s i n g l e c r y s t a l i s d r o p p e d i n t o a s u p e r s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n . The  expression  o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l image w i l l  and  grow f o r e v e r  and f o r e v e r "  versal spirit. of p o e t r y ,  throughout'n the  " F e e l i n g , not crusged but  i s seen to d i f f u s e  t h e eeaim o f t h e  e n e r g y and l a s s i t u d e ,  forth,  are  so t h a t t h e and i t s to t h i s  itself  i n f i n i t u d e of u n i contemplated  by t h e work  i n w i d e n i n g c i r c l e s over a l l  s o u l , w h i c h i s the r e a l m o f the u n i v e r s e ,  i n g and r e - e c h o i n g e n d l e s s l y pain,  " r o l l from s o u l to s o u l ,  s  :  j o y and s o r r o w , p l e a s u r e  e a r n e s t n e s s and f r i v o l i t y ,  l i n k e d t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h i n f i n i t e shades and feeling, while preserving i t s  o r i g i n a l dominating motive, 85 o r i g i n a l character."  echoand  and so f gradations  i n d i v i d u a l physiognomy  i s not exhausted  or  restricted  ?0 CHAPTER THREE.  Preliminary. has  exerted  recall  the  BERGSOH  B e r g s o n ' s Time p h i l o s o p h y , l i k e t h a t o f C r o c e , a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on c o n t e m p o r a r y t h o u g h t .  e u l o g y o f W i l l i a m James:  "Open B e r g s o n , and new  h o r i z o n s open on e v e r y page y o u r e a d . itself,  We may  It  t e l l s of  i n s t e a d o f r e i t e r a t i n g what d u s t y - m i n d e d  reality  professors  have w r i t t e n ahout what p r e v i o u s p r o f e s s o r s  have  thought."  A n d t h r o u g h James much o f B e r g s o n ' s t h o u g h t  has f i l t e r e d  into 1  the w r i t i n g s of the  official  p h i l o s o p h e r o f A m e r i c a , J o h n Dewey.  B u t u n l i k e C r o c e and Dewey, B e r g s o n h a s n o t d e v o t e d a s p e c i a l volume to the problems o f a r t . Bergson's aesthetic opus, w h i c h has of  life."  metaphor into  As a r e s u l t ,  itself  b e e n d e s c r i b e d as  "a m y s t i c a l  aesthetic  Sometimes we s h a l l be r e d u c e d t o p l u c k i n g a s i n g l e from i t s  context  the nature of a r t .  o s o p h y on t h e  concept  r e a l i t y of a l i f e  and s q u e e z i n g f r o m i t  of creative  force  only obstacle,  Bergson bases h i s  evolution.  He p o s i t s  the  s t r e a m f o r c i n g i t s way t h r o u g h  inert matter.  This matter,  itself  a pro-  i m p e t u s , may be compared i n  i c e b l o c k s , formed from the r i v e r w a t e r ,  i n S p r i n g impede t h e p r o g r e s s  of the parent stream.  "by f o l l o w i n g as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h e t h a t we r e a c h e d  phil-  ( e l a n v i t a l ) whose m y s t i c a l n a t u r e he  duct or sediment o f the v i t a l to the  some i n s i g h t  We s h a l l be f o r e e d t o g l e a n where we c a n .  r e p r e s e n t s as a n i n d i v i s i b l e  effect  seeking  we s h a l l h a v e t o r a n g e t h r o u g h h i s magnum  1. B e r g s o n * s p h i l o s o p h y o f b e c o m i n g .  its  i f we a r e  tne c o n c e p t i o n of a v i t a l  It  which is  evidence of b i o l o g y i m p e t u s and o f a  creative esis,  s u c h as c a n be f o u n d a t  system: up.  e v o l u t i o n . . . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n i s b y no means a h y p o t h -  it  the  i s a condensation of  basis fiact,  Now, whence came t h e i m p e t u s ,  behind i t ?  If it  s u f f i c e d unto  o f any m e t a p h y s i c a l  a summing up o f  summings  arid what, was t h e p r i n c i p l e  i t s e l f , w h a t was i t i n  itself,  and w h a t m e a n i n g a r e we t o a s c r i b e t o i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a whole?  To s u c h q u e s t i o n s  the  facts  under  consideration  s u p p l y no d i r e c t a n s w e r ; b u t we s e e c l e a r l y f r o m w h a t t i o n t h e a n s w e r may come. m a t t e r appears to u s , in  any case o f the  F o r the  consciousness.  v  direc-  energy p r e c i p i t a t e d  as i t w e r e , b e l o w o r above  same o r d e r a s  as  through  consciousness, I t has t o  get  2 a r o u n d many o b s t a c l e s ,  squeeze  itself  To speak, of• the., e l a n : v i t a l stream i s apt vital  other..."  o* v i t a l  i m p e t u s as  to give a f a u l t y idea of i t s  o f e l e c t r i c i t y u s u a l l y does i n jumping a gap;  p r o c e e d s more i n t h e manner o f t h e  a  true nature.  This  i m p u l s e does n o t p u r s u e a s i n g l e l i n e o f p r o g r e s s  current it  through  as  rather,  spray of a f o u n t a i n .  Each o f the myriads o f j e t s c o m p r i s i n g the f o u n t a i n w i l l , ever i t s (if  original  impetus,  r e a c h an optimum h e i g h t  we may o m i t g r a v i t y ) b y t h e r e s i s t a n c e  which i t passes. still  further  o f - h a n d we c a n make i n v i s i s i b l e  determined  of the a i r  through  Suppose t h a t b y a  sleight-  the m a t e r i a l j e t s o f the  t a i n a n d make v i s i b l e t h e i m m a t e r i a l f a i r i e s d a n c i n g upon  magic w i l l the  founthe  The l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s m a t e r i a l i z e d b y o u r  c o r r e s p o n d i n B e r g s o n ' s schema t o t h e s p e c i e s  evolutionary scale. Let  what-  Now b y s t r a i n i n g o u r i m a g i n a t i o n we may make  use o f the a n a l o g y .  head o f each j e t .  a  us come a t  The t o p m o s t  in  f i g u r e i s man.  the problem from another  angle.  "Let  us imagine a v e s s e l f u l l o f steam at a h i g h p r e s s u r e , and here and t h e r e i n i t s s i d e s a c r a c k through which the steam i s escaping i n a j e t .  The steam thrown i n t o the a i r i s n e a r l y a l l  condensed i n t o l i t t l e drops w h i c h f a l l hack, and t h i s  conden-  s a t i o n and t h i s f a l l r e p r e s e n t s i m p l y the l o s s of something, an i n t e r r u p t i o n , a d e f i c i t ^ . But a s m a l l p a r t of the j e t of steam s u b s i s t s , uncondensed, f o r some seconds; i t succeeds at most i n r e t a r d i n g t h e i r f a l l .  So, from an immense r e s e r v o i r  of l i k e , j e t s must he gushing our u n c e a s i n g l y , of which each, • «£^irh,  f a l l i n g hack i s a w o r l d . comparison. of the  But l e t us not c a r r y too f a r t h i s  I t g i v e s us hut a f e e b l e and even d e c e p t i v e image  r e a l i t y , f o r the c r a c k , the j e t of steam, the f o r m i n g of d r o p s , a r e determined n e c e s s a r i l y , whereas the c r e a t i o n of  a w o r l d i s.a f r e e a c t , and the ^ l i f e w i t h i n _the m a t e r i a_ l w o r l d participates i n this liberty.  L e t us t h i n k r a t h e r of an ac-  t i o n l i k e t h a t o f r a i s i n g the arm; then l e t us suppose t h a t the arm, l e f t t o i t s e l f , f a l l s back, and y e t t h a t t h e r e s u b s i s t s i n it,  s t r i v i n g to r a i s e i t up a g a i n , something of the w i l l  animates i t .  that  I n t h i s image of a c r e a t i v e a c t i o n which unmakes  i t s e l f we have a l r e a d y a more exact r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t t e r . In v i t a l a c t i v i t y we see, t h e n , t h a t which s u b s i s t s of the d i r e c t movement i n the i n v e r t e d movement, a r e a l i t y which i s 3 making i t s e l f i n a r e a l i t y w h i c h i s unmaking i t s e l f . " . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the v i t a l impetus i n i t s e l f i s homogeneous| whereas i t s m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n , those "congealed p a r t s of i t s own substance which i t c a r r i e s a l o n g 4 i t s course©" i n c l u d i n g a l l the s p e c i e s p r e c i p i t a t e d from the t i m e l e s s f l u x , a r e heterogeneous. # i t a l i c s mine  The d i r e c t i o n of l i f e  may  be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o g r e s s i o n  from  t h e homogeneous  to  the  heterogeneous.  At duration.  t h i s s t a g e we must l o o k i n t o B e r g s o n " s c o n c e p t o f  " E n e r g y , " he s a y s  above, " a p p e a r s t o us ( t o b e ) o f  t h e same o r d e r a s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " used tend  to  give a false  portrayed  by a philosophy  impression  contemporaneity of h i s t o r y .  presses  the  Life  or consciousness  present,  r o l l e d up  i t s ever  t h e more we s e e t h a t o r g a n i c  the present  new f o r m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  evolution  i n which the past  and causes t h e u p s p r i n g i n g incommeasurable w i t h  Hence t i m e and s p a c e a r e n o t s t a t i c crowded; t h e y  exists only  is  reality,  evolution o f consciousness,  against  as by  "The more we f i x o u r a t t e n t i o n on ( t h e )  continuity of l i f e , resembles  as  o r a s b y C r o c e i n terms o f t h e  and g i v e s t h e  t h e present  unique character.  i t s antecedent life  a r e i n s t e a d f u n c t i o n s of mobile r e a l i t y .  Thi  more we s t u d y t h e n a t u r e  containers  of a  i n t o which  r e a l i t y Bergson equates w i t h The  nature of time  t h e immediate span o f awareness; a l l t h e p a s t  into  is  of the  o f Becoming w h e t h e r c o n c e i v e d  B e r g s o n i n terms o f d u r a t i o n ,  in  Now t h e a n a l o g i e s so f a r  duration.  "The u n i v e r s e  endures.  o f t i m e , t h e more we s h a l l  com-  p r e h e n d t h a t d u r a t i o n means i n v e n t i o n , t h e c r e a t i o n o f f o r m s , 6 the  continual  e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e a b s o l u t e l y new."  the  e t e r n a l becoming, which f o r Bergson denotes r e a l i t y ,  homogeneous f l u x , ventional fore,  a psychic  symbolizations.  not a t h i n g having  Likewise  what we c o n c e i v e  static,  immutable e n t i t y ,  Duration, i sa  s t a t e not t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o conWhat we t h i n k ©f a s ego i s , t h e r e -  an i d e n t i t y o f as  separate  from d u r a t i o n .  a s i n g l e s e n s a t i o n i s not a  a segment c a p a b l e  o f being  divorced  from consciousness. a temporal  Ho p s y c h i c s t a t e i s evenly deployed i n  p l a n e ; t h e r e I s not s t a t e of mind, however s i m p l e ,  w h i c h does not change each moment.  "Inner d u r a t i o n i s t h e  c o n t i n u o u s l i f e o f a memory w h i c h prolongs t h e past i n t o t h e p r e s e n t , t h e present e i t h e r c o n t a i n i n g w i t h i n i t i n a d i s t i n c t f o r m t h e c e a s e l e s s l y growing image o f the p a s t , o r , more proba b l y , showing by i t s c o n t i n u a l change o f q u a l i t y t n e n e a v i e r and s t i l l h e a v i e r l o a d we drag oehind us as we grow o l d e r . W i t h o u t t h i s s u r v i v a l o f t h e past i n t o t h e present t h e r e would 7  '-if  be no d u r a t i o n , b u t o n l y x n s t a n t a n e i t y . " 2.  The two modes o f knowledge.  We might w e l l expect a person  u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i d i o m o f time p h i l o s o p h i e s t o e x c l a i m : " I f r e a l i t y i s none o t n e r t h a n c h a r a c t e r l e s s , c o n c e p t l e s s , u n t r a n s l a t a b l e , i n d e f i n a b l e , i n i f f a b l e f l u x , how then do we know a n y t h i n g ; what s i g n i f i c a n c e can any o f our nouns possess? What meaning has language?  I s t h e r e no r o c k bottom upon which  to rest; l i m b s weary o f swimming c e a s e l e s s l y down t h e f l u x o f duration?  Do time p h i l o s o p h e r s a l l o w us n o t n i n g s o l i d t o han£  on t o ? " Indeed t h e p h i l o s o p h e r t a c i t l y confesses t h i s t o be t h e p r o t e s t o f p r i m o r d i a l man.  "Against the idea of the  a b s o l u t e o r i g i n a l i t y and u n f o r e s e e a b i l i t y o f forms our whole 8'.  intellect rises i nrevolt."  I n t e l l e c t was t h e d i f f e r e n t i a  bestowed b y t h e c r e a t i v e urge upon t h e s p e c i e s , Homo s a p i e n s . "Among c o n s c i o u s beings...man comes t o occupy a p r i v i l e g e d place.  Between h i m and the animals the d i f f e r e n c e i s no 9 l o n g e r one o f degree, b u t o f k i n d . "  I n t e l l e c t i n Bergson's schema matches c o g n i t i o n i n Croce*ss i t i s the instrument r e q u i r e d f o r the l i f e of a c t i o n . "The  e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n of our i n t e l l e c t , as the e v o l u t i o n of  l i f e has  fashioned  i t , i s to be a l i g h t f o r our conduct, to  make ready f o r our a c t i o n on t h i n g s , t o f o r e s e e , f o r a s i t u a t i o n , the events, f a v o u r a b l e  given  or u n f a v o u r a b l e , which  mav  10  f o l l o w thereupon." i t s problems., We modes? the one,  We  s h a l l see l a t e r how  have now  intellect  to note t h a t knowledge has  i n t e l l e c t ; and  attacks two  the o t h e r , i n s t i n c t , which  may,  and indeed i f i t would serve i t s f u n c t i o n adequately, must, 11  become " e n l a r g e d and pur i f i e d ^ i n t o i n t u i t i o n . We  l e a r n t h a t not o n l y has  1 1  the c r e a t i v e impulse had  to overcome m a t e r i a l o b s t a c l e s , but i t has had  to d i v i d e  i t s e l f between two main d i v e r g i n g l i n e s of e v o l u t i o n . has  summarized a d e s c r i p t i o n of the process as f o l l o w s :  the e x t r e m i t y  of. the two main l i n e s we u l t i m a t e l y found  modes of knowledge i n t o w h i c h i t ( c r e a t i v e energy) nad  Bergson "...at  two resolved  i t s e l f i n o r d e r to m a t e r i a l i z e ; the i n s t i n c t of i n s e c t s , the i n t e l l i g e n c e of man.  I n s t i n c t was  r e f l e c t e d and reasoned.  intuitive; intelligence  I t i s t r u e t h a t i n t u i t i o n had had  to  debase i t s e l f to become i n s t i n c t ; i t had become i n t e n t , as though h y p n o t i z e d , on the i n t e r e s t of the s p e c i e s , and what had s u r v i v e d of i t s c o n s c i o u s n e s s had assumed a somnambulisttic form.  But j u s t as t h e r e s u b s i s t e d around animal i n s t i n c t a  f r i n g e of i n t e l l i g e n c e , so human i n t e l l i g e n c e preserved a h a l o of i n t u i t i o n .  The  l a t t e r , i n man,  d i s i n t e r e s t e d and c o n s c i o u s , did  not r a d i a t e v e r y f a r .  but i t was  had remained f u l l y o n l y a f a i n t glow and  Yet i t i s from t h i s l i g h t must come,  tC i f ever t h e _ i n n e r w o r k i n g o f t h e v i t a l impetus were t o "be made c l e a r i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n i t s o b j e c t . was  For t h i s i n t u i t i o n  turned inward; and i f , i n a f i r s t i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , i t made  us r e a l i z e t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f our i n n e r l i f e , i f most o f us went no f u r t h e r , a deeper i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n might c a r r y i t t o the r o o t s o f o u r b e i n g , and thus t o t h e v e r y p r i n c i p l e o f l i f e in general.  (The whole bent o f B e r g s o n s p h i l o s o p h y r e v e a l s 1  i t s e l f i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e ) - — N o w i s not t h i s p r e c i s e l y .  12#  *  the p r i v i l e g e o f t h e m y s t i c s o u l ? " We s h o u l d a n t i c i p a t e t h e main body o f our argument by appending t o h i s remark: " - x - — a n d (to a l e s s e r degree) t h a t o t h e r e s p e c i a l l y endowed b e i n g , t h e a r t i s t . "  We touch here  the c o r e o f Bergson's a e s t h e t i c . But i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a more t a n g i D l e p r e c i p i t a t e of meaning from t h e m y s t i c f l u i d i t y o f B e r g s o n s prose we s h a l l 1  have t o a n a l y s e i n more d e t a i l t h e i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e above. There a r e two ways o f knowing: i n t e l l e c t whose f u n c t i o n y i e l d s r e l a t i v e knowledge, and i n t u i t i o n whose f u n c t i o n y i e l d s a b s o l u t e knowledge.  I n t e l l e c t , impatient w i t h the m o b i l i t y  and t h e r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f the v i t a l urge, f r e e z e s the r e s t l e s s stream i n order t o b r i n g t o bear i t s i n s t r u m e n t , a n a l y s i s , upon t h e c r y s t a l l i z e d p a t t e r n s we know as concepts. Words a r e s i m p l y t h e s t o c k l a b e l s concepts wear.  But t h i s  s t a t i c , geometricized world of concepts—-the world of action to from w h i c h most o f us r a r e l y e s c a p e - — i s ^ t h e t r u e r e a l i t y as the corpse i n t h e d i s s e c t i n g t h e a t r e i s t o t h e l i v i n g body i t once was. When we a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h i s w o r l d we l o s e s i g h t o f "the i n t e n t i o n o f l i f e , t h e s i m p l e movement t h a t runs # i t a l i c s mine  *7 through t h e l i n e s , t h a t b i n d s them t o g e t h e r and g i v e s them 13 significance."  I t i s as though between us and r e a l i t y t h e r e  hangs a v e i l , and most o f u s a r e too myopic t o p e n e t r a t e beyond i t .  L i k e t h e d w e l l e r s i n t h e P I a t o n i a n cave we mistake  f o r r e a l i t y t h e f l e e t i n g shadows on t h e w a l l . I n o r d e r t o a c t upon a t h i n g i n t e l l e c t s e l e c t s a r b i t r a r i l y those a s p e c t s t h a t immediately concern i t and then proceeds t o r e g a r d these a s though they possess an independent reality.  "There i s i n t h i s something v e r y l i k e what an a r t i s t  p a s s i n g t h r o u g h P a r i s does when he makes, f o r example, a s k e t c h of a tower o f Notre Lame.  T h e tower i s i n s e p a r a b l y u n i t e d to  the ground^, t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s , to t h e whole o f P a r i s , and so on.  I t i s f i r s t necessary to detach i t from a l l t h e s e ;  o n l y one aspect o f t h e whole i s noted, t h a t formed by t h e tower o f N o t r e Dame.  Moreover, t h e s p e c i a l form o f t h i s tower i s due  to t h e g r o u p i n g o f t h e stones o f which i t i s composed; but the a r t i s t does not concern h i m s e l f w i t h these s t o n e s , he notes o n l y t h e s i l h o u e t t e o f t h e tower.  F o r t h e r e a l and i n t e r n a l  o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e t h i n g he s u b s t i t u t e s , then, an e x t e r n a l and schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  So t h a t , on t h e whole, h i s s k e t c h  corresponds t o an o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t from a c e r t a i n p o i n t o f view and t o t h e c h o i c e o f a c e r t a i n means o f r e p r e s 14 entation."  Knowledge determined by a p o i n t o f v i e w , necessar-  i l y e x t e r n a l to t h e o b j e c t , Bergson d e f i n e s as r e l a t i v e . I t needs to be s a i d t h a t Bergson i s not denying t h e pragmatic v a l u e of the a n a l y t i c f u n c t i o n .  L i f e as a c t i o n  " i m p l i e s t h e acceptance o n l y o f t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s i d e o f t h i n g s i n o r d e r t o respond t o them by a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s : a l l other  0 i m p r e s s i o n s must "be dimmed o r e l s e r e a c h us v a g u e and b l u r r e d . . My s e n s e s and my c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . g i v e me no more t h a n a tical  simplification  of r e a l i t y .  I n the v i s i o n they  me o f m y s e l f a n d o f t h i n g s ,  the d i f f e r e n c e s  t o man a r e o b l i t e r a t e d ,  resemblances  him are  the  prac-  furnish  that are  useless  that are u s e f u l  e m p h a s i s e d ; ways a r e t r a c e d o u t f o r me i n  to  advance  a l o n g w h i c h my a c t i v i t y i s t o t r a v e l .  These ways a r e t h e ways  w h i c h a l l mankind has  Things have been  t r o d b e f o r e me.  s i f i e d w i t h a v i e w t o the use I can d e r i v e from them. is  this  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I perceive,  c o l o u r and t h e  shape o f  things."  clasAnd i t  g a r more c l e a r l y t h a n  the  15  No one w o u l d deny t h e v a l u e t o a f i r s t - a i d c l a s s o f a s k e l e t o n hung t o g e t h e r w i t h w i r e s p r i n g j o i n t s . instructor w i l l ,  however,  The w i s e  i m p r e s s upon h i s p u p i l s t h a t  this  s k e l e t o n i s not a r e a l s k e l e t o n , but merely a mechanical representation s k e l e t o n has as a s h o l e ; flesh, for  no a b s o l u t e  T h a t w h i c h we c a l l  i d e n t i t y a p a r t from the  " i t " c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d  bliod,  its  of the l i v i n g t h i n g .  the  organism  oufc f r o m t h e c o n t e x t  n e r v e f i b r e s a n d marrow upon w h i c h i t  of  depends  existence. The c o n c e p t  " s k e l e t o n " bears the r e l a t i o n to  the  w h o l e l i v i n g o r g a n i s m t h a t a s i n g l e frame does t o a c i n e m a t o graphic shot analogous the  or sequence.  to the concept,  screen,  the  intuition.  f a v o u r i t e metaphor h i g h the  I n B e r g s o n ' s schema t h e frame a n d t h e w h o l e s h o t as p r o j e c t e d The i l l u m i n a t i n g p a r t o f  per  on  this  o f B e r g s o n ' s l i e s i n t h i s : no m a t t e r how  s p e e d a t w h i c h my m o v i e camera i s o p e r a t i n g ,  how many f r a m e s  is  no m a t t e r  s e c o n d I am u s i n g i n o r d e r t o " s h o o t  a  <t f sequence" of a man  w a l k i n g across a s t r e e t , no one w i l l be a b l  t o get a t r u e i m p r e s s i o n  of the man's s i m p l e , i n d i v i s i b l e  act  of c r o s s i n g the s t r e e t by merely examining e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y  the frames of the developed r o l l .  To get  the  t r u e p i c t u r e o f the r e a l i t y t h a t o n l y e x i s t s i n time, t h a t i s , i n d u r a t i o n , the o b s e r v e r must see the f i l m being p r o j e c t e d the  on  screen. Intuition  a c h i e v e s a b s o l u t e knowledge: to do t h i s i t  p l a c e s i t s e l f w i t h i n the h e a r t of i t s o b j e c t , and, i n the er of the m y s t i c ' s  communion w i t h God,  becomes one w i t h i t .  Thus i n t u i t i o n i s n o t , l i k e i n t e l l e c t , c i r c u m s c r i b e d by dependent upon a p o i n t of v i e w . a b l e of w i l l i n g i n t u i t i o n do we practical  man-  being  Only i n so f a r as we are capescape the humdrum w o r l d  of  a c t i o n i n t o t h a t other w o r l d of s p i r i t u a l a c t i o n  p e o p l e d by the geniuses and m y s t i c s .  the a r t i s t s , i n v e n t o r s ,  The p r o c e s s ,  philosophers  though p o s s i b l e , i s extremely d i f -  f i c u l t , f o r i t does v i o l e n c e to the common f u n c t i o n of  intelli-  gence: i t i n v o l v e s i n v e r t i n g the h a b i t u a l mode of thought, w h i c h attempts to pass from an apprehension of the p a r t s to a realization  o f the whole,  But s i n c e r d u r a t i o n denotes f l u x ,  i t cannot be segmented and hence cannot be t r u l y grasped by the c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c a l  f u n c t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t .  "But  the  t r u t h i s t h a t our i n t e l l i g e n c e can f o l l o w the opposite method. I t can p l a c e i t s e l f w i t h i n the m o b i l e r e a l i t y , and adopt i t s —  "  #  '  :  c e a s e l e s s l y changing d i r e c t i o n ; i n s h o r t , i t can grasp i t by means of t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l  sympathy which we  This i s extremely d i f f i c u l t .  The mind.. .has  call  intuition.  to r e v e r t the  d i r e c t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n by w h i c h i t h a b i t a a l l y t h i n k s , has # i t a l i c s mine  p e r p e t u a l l y t o r e v i s e , or r a t h e r t o r e c a s t , a l l i t s c a t e g o r i e s . But i n t h i s way i t w i l l a t t a i n t o f l u i d concepts, capable of f o l l o w i n g r e a l i t y i n a l l i t s s i n u o s i t i e s and of a d o p t i n g the  16 v e r y movement o f the inward l i f e o f t h i n g s . " Only i n t u i t i o n can a t t a i n the absolute,---."everything  17 e l s e f a l l s w i t h i n the province of a n a l y s i s . "  Elsewhere we are  t o l d , "Our i n t e l l e c t , when i t f o l l o w s i t s n a t u r a l \ b e n t , proceeds on t h e one hand by s o l i d p e r c e p t i o n s , and on the o t h e r by 18  s t a b l e c o n c e p t i o n s . " And f i n a l l y , "From i n t u i t i o n one can pass 19  t o a n a l y s i s , b u t not f r o m a n a l y s i s t o i n t u i t i o n . "  Whence  a r i s e s t h e vex^problem we can be seen t o be edging around t o : communication.  I f we must d i s a l l o w any i n t e r m e d i a r y p r o c e s s ,  w h i c h by d e f i n i t i o n can o n l y be a n a l y t i c a l i n a a t u r e , how then does one come by an i n t u i t i o n ?  I f an a r t i s t of genius wishes  t o s k e t c h N o t r e Dame, by what i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y does he a t t a i n  20 t h e r e q u i s i t e " i n t e l l e c t u a l sympathy"? the completed s k e t c h ?  Or a s p e c t a t o r v i e w i n g  To answer the q u e s t i o n Berfeson seems  d r i v e n t o g i v e an a r b i t r a r y t w i s t to the meaning of p e r c e p t i o n . "The p i c t u r e , the s i m p l e a c t , p r o j e c t e d on the canvas, which, by t h e mere f a c t o f e n t e r i n g i n t o our p e r c e p t i o n s , i s decomposed b e f o r e our eyes i n thousands and thousands of l i t t l e squares  " which; p r e s e n t , as recomposed,  a w o n d e r f u l arrangement."  21 But  even a c c e p t i n g t h i s n o t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n , how does t h i s account o f t h e a e s t h e t i c p r o c e s s t a l l y w i t h the p r e v i o u s statement: "Prom i n t u i t i o n one can pass t o a n a l y s i s , but not from a n a l y s i s to i n t u i t i o n . " critic ically  Furthermore, i s i t not p o s s i b l e f o r a s e n s i t i v e  one who h a b i t u a l l y approaches a new p i c t u r e sympathetto see even a p i c t u r e w h i c h he a f t e r w a r d s judges as  poor, i n i t s wholeness, t h a t i s , as the camera's eye sees i t ? T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s no doubt a manner of a t t a c k i n g Bergson's concept of p e r c e p t i o n , and i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e may he a s u i generis r e a c t i o n , . — - c a l l i t impression, perception, conception, o r what you w i l l ,  w h i c h i s d i s t i n c t from the s u i g e n e r i s  aesthetic reaction.  T h i s , however, i s not the important p o i n t  a t i s s u e ; w h i c h i s whether or not Bergson's psychology i n v o l v e s him i n a l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  We may indeed harbour the  s u s p i c i o n t h a t Croce's a e s t h e t i c nemesis, communication, i s h a n g i n g about the scene i n a d i f f e r e n t g u i s e . V  3.  The d i f f i c u l t y of language.  That hard-headed c r i t i c s should  be e x a s p e r a t e d by c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f Bergson's p h i l o s o p h y need not s u r p r i s e us.  Perhaps what i r k s them most i s t h a t when he  approaches an i s s u e w h i c h , i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , can be exp l a i n e d , i f a t a l l , o n l y i n terms h a v i n g s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y , 21a  he tends t o s o a r o f f on the wings of metaphor.  They would  deny him t h e poet's p r i v i l e g e s a p h i l o s o p h e r , they argue, i s bound t o r e s p e c t the c o n v e n t i o n a l use of language i f he would communicate h i s thoughts to o t h e r s , and metaphysics cannfet be d e f i n e d as "the s c i e n c e w h i c h c l a i m s to d i s p e n s e w i t h symbols H i s enemies r u s h t o t h e defense o f the concept, w h i c h , they m a i n t a i n , he has d e a l t w i t h c a v a l i e r l y .  And they charge as  e q u i v o c a l h i s b i f u r c a t i o n o f the stream of consciousness i n t o i n t e l l e c t , on the one hand, as the merely p r a c t i c a l mode of knowledge; and on t h e o t h e r , i n s t i n c t , w i t h i i t s i m p l i c i t potent i a l i n t u i t i o n , as the u l t i m a t e a e s t h e t i c mode.  W. T. S t a c e ,  f o r example, makes t h i s a c c u s a t i o n : "Bergson argues t h a t the  22  faa r t i s t i s a man  who,  hy some change of n a t u r e , sees r e a l i t y as  i t i s , u n v e i l e d and u n f a l s i f i e d hy concepts.  T h i s view i s ,  i n my  Firstly...if  o p i n i o n , unacceptable  f o r two reasons.  concepts f a l s i f y r e a l i t y , then a l l s c i e n c e and a l l p h i l o s o p h y , i n c l u d i n g Bergson's. p h i l o s o p h y , are f a l s e .  Secondly, the  ap-  p l i c a t i o n of t h i s view to a e s t h e t i c s . . . r e n d e r s i m p o s s i b l e  any  d i s t i n c t i o n between b e a u t i f u l and u n b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s .  Any  o b j e c t , any r e a l i t y , must be b e a u t i f u l i f t r u l y seen i n i t s 23  r e a l i t y , s t r i p p e d of  concepts."  Undoubtedly to Bergson's way  of t h i n k i n g , Stace's  f i n a l a s s e r t i o n p r e c l u d e s argument: the t r u t h i s indeed s t a t e d t h u s ; any r e a l i t y t r u l y seen i n i t s r e a l i t y i_s b e a u t i f u l . The  o t h e r term of the a c c u s a t i o n i n v o l v e s the  t i a l paradox of language.  Language i s the instrument  p h i l o s o p h e r , and m y s t i c must use to d e f i n e the  essen-  the  poet,  undefirmble.  I f we would l e n d an ear to the e c s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of the m y s t i c r e t u r n e d to us w i t h news of the C i t y of God, we must a t the v e r y l e a s t e x e r c i s e a " w i l l i n g suspension of d i s b e l i e f . " And  i f we  f i n d h i s o u t p o u r i n g incomprehensible,  i t would be  none o t h e r than absurd f o r us to suppose t h a t the f a i l u r e l i e s w i t h him and not w i t h o u r s e l v e s .  Indeed, ought we  even expect  to be a b l e t o make him a harp w i t h a range capable of recording the C e l e e s t i a l Music he has brought back w i t h him?  Ought we  n o t , r a t h e r , to be g r a t e f u l f o r whatever i m p r o v i s a t i o n s he i s a b l e to p l a y f o r us upon the i m p e r f e c t instrument we have o f f e r e d him? Such seems t o be the d r i f t of B e r g s o n s r e a s o n i n g . 24 Now those men who not o n l y have never v i s i t e d the 1  ?3 C i t y of God but who  are even s k e p t i c a l of i t s v e r y  w i l l o f course s c o r n such t a l k .  existence  While i t i s conceivable  might r e s p e c t the s i n c e r i t y of the poets who t h a t l i e too deep f o r t e a r s , we may  they  c l a i m to have thoughts  suppose them eager, on the  o t h e r hand, t o c a s t i n t o Croce's limbo of impotent a r t i s t s those p h i l o s o p h e r s who  presume to have thoughts t h a t l i e too  deep f o r words. Everyone  poet and p o s i t i v i s t  i s aware of the  n o t o r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y i n making language express what we  t h i n k we are t h i n k i n g .  precisely  We have seen how  Croce has  s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d the p r o c e s s , ^ — w h a t e v e r becomes an i n t u i t i o n , by t h a t v e r y a c t i s expressed. h a r d l y g a i n s a y anyone who  Wow  w h i l e i t i s t r u e we  can  p r o f e s s e s to have e x p r e s s i o n s , t h a t  i s , works of a r t , f i l e d away i n a c e r e b r a l s t u d i o , we are a p t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , to become s u s p i c i o u s i f he shows r e t i c e n c e i n b r i n g i n g them out i n t o the l i g h t of day so t h a t we may too.  see them,  C e r t a i n l y the common-sense n o t i o n of the a r t i s t ' s job i s  t h a t t h i s v e r y " b r i n g i n g - o u t i n t o the l i g h t of day" i s the c r u c i a l p a r t of h i s whole a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y .  F o r , by what he  b r i n g s o u t , the a r t i s t , qua a r t i s t , stands or f a l l s .  I f , how-  e v e r , our a r t i s t chooses to r e g a r d h i m s e l f as a m y s t i c , t h e n t h e r e i s n o t h i n g more we  can say about him.  But t o r e t u r n t o Bergson.  We must not be l e d from  our d i s c u s s i o n of i n t u i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n to the f a l s e conc l u s i o n t h a t Bergson i s an "impotent" p h i l o s o p h e r .  Even one  not adept a t L i p p s i a n a c r o b a t i c s can d i s c e r n - — f r o m h i s s t a t i c p o i n t of vew  much t h a t i s s u b t l y a t t r a c t i v e i n the s p a r k i n g  f l u i d i t y of Bergson's thought.  Moreover, as i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  .  f4-  -  the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e of a time p h i l o s o p h y , Bergson, l i k e Croce does not c l a i m to have a c h i e v e d f i n a l i t y .  He o f f e r s a method-  o l o g y , not a c l o s e d system of metaphysics i n the t r a d i t i o n a l 25 sense.  True, he "must adopt the language o f understanding  s i n c e o n l y the u n d e r s t a n d i n g has language"; but he f e e l s hims e l f to be i n the dilemma common to the m y s t i c , whose " d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n t e r m i n a b l e , because what he wants to d e s c r i b e i s 26 ineffable."  To obey c o m p l e t e l y the unique emotion, the im-  p u l s e , the "impetus r e c e i v e d from the v e r y depths of t h i n g s . . . new words would have to be c o i n e d , new i d e a s would have to be c r e a t e d , but t h i s would no l o n g e r be communicating i t would not be w r i t i n g , " Bergson a d m i t s .  something,  Hence i t f o l l o w s  t h a t h i s own t e r m i n o l o g y w i l l . m o r e e v o c a t i v e t h a n d e f i n i t i v e . We may  expect abundant imagery, w h i c h , he hastens t c w a r n us,  can l i k e concepts o n l y approximate r e a l i t y .  " I f a man i s  i n c a p a b l e o f g e t t i n g f o r h i m s e l f the i n t u i t i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i v e d u r a t i o n of h i s own b e i n g , n o t h i n g w i l l ever g i v e i t to 27a$ him, concepts no more than images." 4. The a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y .  We may f o r convenience t r e a t under  t h r e e headings t h e v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s of a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y s c a t t e r e d throughout Bergson's pages: f a ) the c r e a t i v e emotion, (b) the a r t i s t , and ( c ) t h e u n i n s p i r e d .  (a)  -  The a e s t h e t i c i a n s • u n r e m i t t i n g search f o r a unique  and i s o l a h l e a e s t h e t i c emotion t h a t t h e y can use as the touchstone o f a r t seems so f a r to have proved as f r u i t l e s s as the c l a s s i c quest f o r t h e e l i x e r of l i f e . # i t a l i c s mine  " I cannot h e l p l a u g h i n g  fs at  tlie a e s t h e t i c i a n s , "  "who t o r m e n t reduce  s a i d G o e t h e t o E c k e r m a n n on one o c c a s i o n ,  themselves  i n t r y i n g h y some a b s t r a c t w o r d s ,  to a c o n c e p t i o n t h a t u n e x p r e s s i b l e  g i v e the itself  name b e a u t y .  to  t h i n g t o w h i c h we  B e a u t y i s a p r i m e v a l phenomenon, w h i c h  n e v e r makes i t s  appearance, but  i s v i s i b l e i n a thousand d i f f e r e n t m i n d , and i s as v a r i o u s as n a t u r e  the r e f l e c t i o n of which  u t t e r a n c e s of the itself."  creative  28  B e r g s o n i s m a n i f e s t l y not b e n t o n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f any s p e c i a l i z e d a e s t h e t i c e m o t i o n ; h i s c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h a t joy all  or mystic love creation.  ly artistic stead, i t  of  a c t i v i t y s u c h as t h a t o f t h e p o e t o r p a i n t e r ; once t h e cause and e f f e c t  creation;  creativeness.  (something q u i t e d i s t i n c t from  the r i c h e r the c r e a t i o n ,  pleasure)  the deeper the  The m o t h e r b e h o l d i n g h e r c h i l d i s j o y o u s , b e c a u s e she i s scious of having created exceptional joys,  it,  in-  o f a l l w o r k , however  i n t o w h i c h t h e r e e n t e r s some d e g r e e o f  "Wherever t h e r e i s j o y there i s  emotional concomitant  T h i s j o y i s n o t a d i f f e r e n t i a o f any s p e c i f i c a l -  i s at  imperfect,  which i s the  con-  p h y s i c a l l y and m o r a l l y . . . . T a k e t h e  t h e j o y o f t h e a r t i s t who h a s r e a l i z e d h i s  t h o u g h t , the j o y o f t h e  t h i n k e r who h a s made a d i s c o v e r y o r  i n v e n t i o n . . . . H e who i s  sure,  duced a work w h i c h w i l l praise  and f e e l s  he knows i t ,  joy...  absolutely sure,  e n d u r e and l i v e ,  of having pro-  c a r e s no more  a b o v e g l o r y , b e c a u s e he i s a c r e a t o r ,  b e c a u s e t h e j o y he f e e l s  for because  i s the j o y of a god."  We a r e r e m i n d e d o f C o l e r i d g e ' s r e m a r k ;  29  "Imagination  30  is the  a dim analogue last  of c r e a t i o n . "  i n which his referent  t e r m was o r g a n i c c r e a t i o n .  Bergs on's account  of the  To make t h e  for  epigram cover  a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y we need o n l y d e l e t e  the  word dim.  " A r t l i v e s on c r e a t i o n and i m p l i e s a l a t e n t 31  b e l i e f i n the s p o n t a n e i t y o f n a t u r e . " J u s t as each a c t of o r g a n i c c r e a t i o n i s unique and i n d i v i s i b l e , so each c r e a t i v e emotion i s unique and i n d i s i b l e . We all  s t i c k on t h e c o n c e p t u a l l a b e l s a f t e r w a r d s . "To suppose t h a t emotion i s the r e a c t i o n of our sensory f a c u l t i e s t o an 32  i n t e l l e c t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s f a l s e " ; "an emotion of a s u p e r i o r 33  order i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . "  " I t i s through an excess of i n t e l -  l e c t u a l i s m thfet f e e l i n g i s made to h i n g e on an o b j e c t . . . T a k i n g ...the example o f music, we know t h a t i t arouses i n us w e l l d e f i n e d emotions, j o y , sorrow,, p i t y , l o v e , t h a t these emotions may be i n t e n s e and t h a t t o us they a r e complete, though not a t t a c h e d to a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Are you going t o say t h a t  we a r e here i n the r e a l m o f a r t and not among r e a l t h i n g s , that t h e r e f o r e we a r e p l a y i n g a t emotion, t h a t our f e e l i n g i s p u r e l y i m a g i n a t i v e , and t h a t , anyway, the m u s i c i a n c o u l d not produce t h i s emotion i s u s , suggest i t w i t h o u t c a u s i n g i t , i f we had not a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d i t i n r e a l l i f e , where i t was  caused  by an o b j e c t from w h i c h a r t had merely to detach i t ? That w o u l d be to f o r g e t t h a t j o y and sorrow, p i t y and l o v e are words e x p r e s s i n g g e n e r a l i t i e s , words which we must c a l l upon to ex- . p r e s s what music makes us f e e l , whereas each new m u s i c a l workb r i n g s w i t h i t new f e e l i n g s , which a r e c r e a t e d by t h a t music, and w i t h i n t h a t m u s i c , and,-jfo44*In Lhut wgg£c, a r e d e f i n e d and d e l i m i t e d by the l i n e s , unique of t h e i r k i n d , of the melody or symphony. ' They have t h e r e f o r e not been e x t r a c t e d from l i f e by a r t ; i t i s we, who,  i n order t o express them i n words, are  d r i v e n to compare the f e e l i n g c r e a t e d by the a r t i s t w i t h the  f e e l i n g most r e s e m b l i n g i t i n l i f e . "  34#  I f Bergson has i n mind some n o t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t of A r i s t o t e l i a n c a t h a r s i s , we may suppose t h a t sorrow as an e x p r e s s i o n o f j o y i s a v e r b a l paradox o n l y and no r e a l c o n t r a diction.  I n any case he l e a v e s us i n no doubt as to h i s f u n -  damental t h e s i s ; t h a t c r e a t i v e emotion can be c o n j u r e d out of the  b l u e , as i t w e r e , — - o r , put t a u t o l o g i c a l l y ,  created.  i t can be  And c r e a t i o n , d i v i n e and human,' i s w i l l e d .  Upon these  two a s p e c t s of the same t r u t h Bergson l a y s g r e a t emphasis i n d e v e l o p i n g h i s t h e o r y of c r e a t i v e e v o l u t i o n .  Hence f o r him  s.  r e a l i t y cannot be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of e i t h e r mechanism or vitalism.  35  In to  o r d e r t o get the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e Bergson a t t a c h e s  h i s " c o n c e p t " o f c r e a t i v e emotion we must r e f e r to t h a t  o t h e r emotion w i t h w h i c h he c o n t r a s t s i t .  "We must d i s t i n -  g u i s h between two k i n d s of emotion, two v a r i e t i e s of f e e l i n g , two m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of s e n s i b i l i t y which have t h i s one f e a t u r e i n common, t h a t t h e y a r e emotional s t a t e s d i s t i n c t from sensat i o n , and cannot be reduced, l i k e the l a t t e r , to the p s y c h i c a l t r a n s p o s i t i o n of a p h y s i c a l s t i m u l u s .  I n the f i r s t case the  emotion i s the consequence of an i d e a , or a f a mental p i c t u r e ; the  ' f e e l i n g ' i s i n d e e d the r e s u l t o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t e  w h i c h owes n o t h i n g to i t , which i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and which, i f i t does e x p e r i e n c e a c e r t a i n r e - a c t i o n from the f e e l i n g , l o s e s more t h a n i t g a i n s .  I t i s the s t i r r i n g of s e n s i b i l i t y  by a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , as i t were, dropped i n t o i t .  But the other  k i n d o f emotion i s not produced by a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which i t f o l l o w s and from which i t remains d i s t i n c t .  Rather i t i s , i n  r e l a t i o n to the  i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t e s which are to  a c a u s e a n d n o t an e f f e c t ; not  i s pregnant w i t h  representations,  one o f w h i c h i s a c t u a l l y f o r m e d , h u t w h i c h i t draws o r m i g h t  draw f r o m i t s is  it  supervene,  own s u b s t a n c e h y an o r g a n i c d e v e l o p m e n t .  i n f r a - i n t e l l e c t u a l ; that i s the  gist  i s g e n e r a l l y concerned,  The  one w i t h w h i c h t h e  psycholo-  and i f i s t h i s we have i n m i n d  when we c o n t r a s t  s e n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , and when we  make o f e m o t i o n s  a vague r e f l e c t i o n o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  of  the  o t h e r we s h o u l d b e i n c l i n e d t o say t h a t i t  tellectual, the  idea of s u p e r i o r i t y of value: i t i s just  supra-in-  e m o t i o n c a n a l o n e be p r o d u c t i v e o f The f i n a l  as much a  Indeed,- t h e 36 ideas."  second k i n d  d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e drawn b e a r s w i t n e s s  to  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a e s t h e t i c w i t h t h e p r i m i t i v e or  e l e m e n t a l mode o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h forms a common b a s i s 37 p h i l o s o p h i e s o f B e r g s o n and C r o c e . f r o m us b y s o c i e t y ' s  i n the l i f e  of s p i r i t .  emanating-therefrom Two f i g u r e s  h a v e no  importance one f r o m  p o i n t c l e a r l y to  s t r i k i n g resemblance  i n their aesthetics.  o f h i s method,  "A t r u e e m p i r i c i s m i s t h a t w h i c h  to get  as n e a r t o t h e  deeply Into l i f e , f e e l the  the  according  c a n be s e l e c t e d ,  e a c h p h i l o s o p h e r , w h i c h , when j u x t a p o s e d ,  says.  for  R e a l i t y i s only concealed  s t o r e of c o n c e p t u a l knowledge,  to B e r g s o n , and emotions  to  question  and o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h a t w h i c h  g e n e r a t e s and t h a t w h i c h i s g e n e r a t e d .  the  is  But  i f t h e w o r d d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y and e x c l u s i v e l y evoke  of p r i o r i t y i n time,  of  firsi  original itself  this  Bergson, i n defense  as p o s s i b l e ,  and s o , by a k i n d o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  to  proposes search  auscultation,  throbbings of i t s s o u l ; t h i s true empiricism i s 38 true metaphysics." A n d C r o c e i n f o r m s u s : "The r e a d e r who  the  71 u n d e r s t a n d s p o e t r y goes s t r a i g h t feels  i t b e a t upon i t s  t o t h i s p o e t i c h e a r t and  own; w h e r e t h i s b e a t i s  silent,  he  de-  n i e s t h a t p o e t r y i s p r e s e n t , w h a t e v e r and however v a l u a b l e may be f o r s k i l l  and w i s d o m , n o b i l i t y o f i n t e l l e c t ,  o f w i t and p l e a s a n t n e s s o f  effect."  quickness  39  The i d e a , c o n t a i n e d i n e a c h o f t h e above i s , would admit, argument  p o e t i c a l l y suggestive.  may f i n d p l e n t y t o q u a r r e l w i t h .  Suppose, f o r  of a r t i s t i c  creation;  and a r e n u r t u r e d b y , s o c i e t y will.  but,  geniuses  concede  grow i n ,  a c h a n g i n g phenomenon,  Hence a r t i s t s - - - p a r t i c u l a r l y a r t i s t s  ex-  contemporan-  e i t y o f h i s t o r y " ; t h e n we c a n i m a g i n e h i m a r g u i n g : " I spontaneity  all  Y e t a p e r s o n s e e k i n g an  a m p l e , he w e r e t o s e i z e u p o n t h e n o t i o n o f " t h e  the  it  i f you  whose medium i s  w o r d s - — w i t t i n g l y o r o t h e r w i s e draw h e a v i l y u p o n t h e i r s o c i a l 40 heritage. F u r t h e r m o r e , poems a r e n o t m y s t i c e s s e n c e s c o n c e i v 41 a b l e w i t h o u t t h o s e s o c i a l c o u n t e r s , w o r d s . Poems a r e w o r d s , words fused i n t o unique p a t t e r n s by the f i r e of the imagination..."  - - - B u t before  subjective-versus-objective  o u r c r i t i c warms up t o  escape.  (b)  Bergson's d e s c r i p t i o n of the  artist  of absentmindedness,  r a i s e s u p s o u l s t h a t a r e more d e t a c h e d  from l i f e , "  "Hot w i t h t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l , l o g i c a l ,  tachment-—the r e s u l t with a natural  will  one i n n a t e  pages.  nature Bergson  systematical  o f r e f l e c t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y  detachment,  remind us  o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n these  "Prom t i m e to t i m e . , . i n a f i t  says.  the  c o n t r o v e r s y , we h a d b e t t e r make  good o u r  f o r c i b l y of Schopenhauer's  poet's  but  i n the s t r u c t u r e  of  derather sense  /oo or c o n s c i o u s n e s s , # i c h at manner,  so t o  speak,  once r e v e a l s i t s e l f  of seeing, hearing,  eyes o f N a t u r e the a r t i s t  by a v i r g i n a l 42  or t h i n k i n g . "  i s a f a v o u r i t e second o n l y to  m y s t i c , w h o , o f a l l i s t h e most h i g h l y endowed. if  In the  " I f a l l men,  a n y l a r g e number o f men, c o u l d h a v e s o a r e d as h i g h a s  p r i v i l e g e d man, n a t u r e w o u l d n o t h a v e s t o p p e d a t species,  forms o f g e n i u s 5 t h e y a r e ,  I n a c e r t a i n sense the w h i c h a n eddy o f t h e v i t a l  artist  urge f l o w s ;  this  t h e human  f o r s u c h a one i s i n f a c t more t h a n a man.  c a n be s a i d o f o t h e r  the  The same  one and a l l , r a r e  i s a "medium" i n t o and i n h i m a c c u m u l a t i n g  a p s y c h i c a l p o t e n t i a l , as i t w e r e , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h e s  a  p o i n t where,  ex-  though seeming t o b a f f l e  press i t s e l f . however,  e x p r e s s i o n , i t has to  I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n i n s p i r e d mass o f h u m a n i t y ,  the a r t i s t  i s an a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l ,  rather  than  the  p a s s i v e b e i n g t h a t - t h e f o r e g o i n g would suggest h i m to b e . at  the  the  o r i g i n of t r u l y c r e a t i v e  genius.  faculty  e m o t i o n s t h e r e e x i s t s a man  A s e v i d e n c e o f t h i s B e r g s o n adduces  " M o u n t a i n s may,  %t  t h e m a new a n d o r i g i n a l coin,  to-day i t  the  and w h i c h were i n d e e d  emotion.  T h i s e m o t i o n h a s become into circulation.  i s R o u s s e a u who makes u s f e e l  of Jean-Jacques,  than any o t h e r o b j e c t ;  sensations,  cur-  as m u c h , . and more  should fasten the  with  And even  T r u e , t h e r e a r e r e a s o n s why t h i s  sprung from the h e a r t mountains r a t h e r  it,  feel-  insepar-  Rousseau c r e a t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n  Rousseau h a v i n g put i t  than the mountains.  a k i n to  following:  o f a r o u s i n g i n t h o s e who l o o k e d upon them c e r t a i n  i n g s comparable w i t h s e n s a t i o n s ,  rent  the  s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e , have had  a b l e from mountains.  For,  emotion, on t o  elementary  feelings,  which were d i r e c t l y aroused by mountains  /o/  must have "been a b l e to harmonize w i t h the new  emotion.  But  Rousseau gathered them t o g e t h e r , gave them t h e i r p l a c e s , hencef o r t h as mere harmonies i n a sound f o r which he p r o v i d e d , by a 44$ —• t r u e c r e a t i o n , the p r i n c i p a l tone." C r e a t i v e emotion achieves  i t s e x p r e s s i o n through  s t r u g g l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l i t y ; and the r e s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d by i t causes the c r e a t i v e impulse to spray f o r t h i n t o v a r i o u s manifestations.  "Matter d i v i d e s what was  Hence the d i v e r s i t y of the a r t s .  One  but p o t e n t i a l l y artist,  manifold,"  f o r example,  "ap-  p l i e s h i m s e l f to colossus and forms, and s i n c e he l o v e s c o l o u r for  c o l o u r and form f o r form, s i n c e he p e r c e i v e s them f o r  t h e i r sake and not f o r h i s own, t h a t he sees appearing  i t i s the i n n e r l i f e of t h i n g s  through t h e i r forms and  a g a i n , r e t i r e w i t h i n themselves.  colours.,.Others,  And...by r h y t h m i c a l arrange-  ment of words, w h i c h thus become o r g a n i s e d and animated w i t h a l i f e of t h e i r own,  t e l l us  or r a t h e r suggest  things that  46  speech was  not c a l c u l a t e d t o  express."  The a c t i v e tendency of c r e a t i v e emotion t o jfhrust i t s way  t h r o u g h m a t e r i a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n t o the d i f f e r e n t  a r t s , and, w i t h i n them, i n t o the s p e c i f i c works of a r t r e c a l l s at once the analogue of o r g a n i c c r e a t i o n . We  r e a l i z e t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d are  t r e m e l y s u b t l e and t h a t to attempt to penetrate c a r r y us f a r beyond the bounds of t h i s essay.  ex-  them would But  certainly  on the s u r f a c e Bergson's concept of m a t e r i a l i t y , which e a r l i e r w e a c c e p t e d on f a i t h , i s somewhat p u z z l i n g . The v i t a l impetus, w e were t o l d , has to s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t fragments of i t s own materialization. # i t a l i c s mine  Now  i n h i s l a t e s t book, The Two  Sources of  M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n . Bergson announces t h a t he has gone bpyond t h e v e r i f i a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s he reached i n C r e a t i v e E v o l u t i o n . "(It  i s f a l s e t o assume) t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s e s s e n t i a l l y raw  m a t t e r , and t h a t l i f e has been super-added t o m a t t e r .  We  have shown, on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h a t m a t t e r and l i f e , as we def i n e them, a r e c o e x i s t e n t and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . "  -Although  s w i n g i n g the immediate argument o f f a t a t a n g e n t , c o n t i n u i n g the  q u o t a t i o n w i l l throw a l i g h t on B e r g s o n s consuming i n 1  t e r e s t , and, i n d i r e c t l y , upon t h e o b j e c t o f our i n q u i r y , h i s aesthetic. the  "This b e i n g t h e c a s e , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o prevent  p h i l o s o p h e r from f o l l o w i n g to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t h e  i d e a w h i c h m y s t i c i s m suggests t o h i m o f a u n i v e r s e which i s t h e mere v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e a s p e c t o f l o v e , and o f t h e need o f l o v e , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l t h e consequences e n t a i l e d by t h i s c r e a t i v e emotion: I mean t h e appearance o f l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s i n w h i c h t h i s emotion f i n d s i t complement; o f an i n f i n i t y o f o t h e r b e i n g s w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e y c o u l d not have appeared, and l a s t l y o f t h e unfathomable depths Of m a t e r i a l substance w i t h o u t _  l i f e would have n o t have been p o s s i b l e . "  47#  "  ~  ~  ~  Now l e t us hop back t o t h e o t h e r r a i l of t h e p a r a l l e l i s m . Bergson, as we have seen, p o s i t s as an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v e emotion a dynamic urge, common t o t h e v i t a l impulse of l i f e , t o express i t s e l f i n " v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e " m a t e r i a l i t y .  Now I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t ,  a l t h o u g h i n s i s t i n g upon t h e predominance o f t h e o r i g i n a l c r e a t i v e emotion d u r i n g t h e c r e a t i v e a c t , Bergson a s s i g n s a r o l e of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to i n t e l l i g e n c e .  I n t e l l i g e n c e he admits  undoubtedly does h e l p t h e prime moving f o r c e , the i n d i v i s i b l e # i t a l i c s mine  /03  creative  emotion, to u n f o l d i t s e l f ,  48 as,  f o r example, an e x p e r i -  e n c e d s t a g e - m a n a g e r may h e l p a p l a y w r i g h t i n a r r a n g i n g exigencies of a play. manager,  Jut  f o r a l l the  technical  i n g e n u i t y of the  stage-  w i t h o u t t h e p l a y w r i g h t , t h e r e c a n he no p l a y :  w i t h o u t the  creative  e m o t i o n c a n t h e r e be a w o r k o f  "Anyone engaged i n w r i t i n g , "  nor,  art.  s a y s B e r g s o n , "has  been  i n a p o s i t i o n t o f e e l t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n an i n t e l l i g e n c e left  to i t s e l f  and t h a t w h i c h "burns w i t h t h e f i r e o f an  and u n i q u e e m o t i o n , h o r n o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the with his  subject,  t h a t i s to say of i n t u i t i o n .  case the mind cold-hammers the m a t e r i a l s ,  original  author  I n the  first  combining together  ideas long since cast  i n t o words and w h i c h s o c i e t y s u p p l i e s  a s o l i d form.  second,  ials  I n the  these ideas  now s h a p e d b y t h e  f i n d words a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g w h i c h can  for  luck;  and,  tune,  and s t r a i n t h e m e a n i n g o f a w o r d , t o m o u l d i t  thought.  e a c h o f them t h i s i n truth,  In that  problematical. itself,  But i t  the  effort  t o be c r e a t i v e . elements  a c o m p o s i t e u n i t y made up o f a new a r r a n g e m e n t  one a n d u n i q u e ,  to a s s i s t to  for-  the result  i s i n such a case o n l y t h a t the mind  or b e l i e v e s i t s e l f ,  has been t r a n s p o r t e d  express  i s p a i n f u l and t h e  s t a r t s from a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f ready-made  It  solidify  seems a p i e c e o f u n e x p e c t e d good  i t has o f t e n been necessary  event  mater-  c r e a t i v e mind i t s e l f .  them,  feels  solid  s u p p l i e d b y i n t e l l i g e n c e f i r s t m e l t and m i x , t h e n  again into fresh ideas If  i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e  in  at  It  no l o n g e r  to a r r i v e  at  of the o l d .  a b o u n d t o s o m e t h i n g w h i c h seems b o t h  and w h i c h w i l l  contrive later  to express  itself,  more o r l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , i n c o n c e p t s b o t h m u l t i p l e and com_ — 49# mon, p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i d e d b y l a n g u a g e . " # i t a l i c s mine  We can b r e a t h e more f r e e l y now our author has l e d us from t h e m y s t i c ' s s o l i t a r y vantage p o i n t down to a l e s s r a r i f i e d atmosphere.  And, t o o , among t h e a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s  we may be r e l i e v e d to f i n d o u r s e l v e s i n the company a t l e a s t of f e l l o w  toilers. W i t h an e x a g g e r a t i o n t h e emphasis Ofswhich i s admir-  a b l y wholesome, t h a t e x c e l l e n t a r t i s t , R e n o i r , once s a i d , " P a i n t i n g i s a c r a f t l i k e c a r p e n t r y or i r o n w o r k i n g : i t i s subj e c t to t h e same r u l e s . "  Which suggests than an a r t i s t , when  he i s engaged i n a c t u a l work, does w e l l t o f o r g e t about h i s genius  i f ever he made the ^unfortunate d i s c o v e r y t h a t he has  genius.  The a r t i s t i s f a c e ^ i n most cases c e r t a i n l y , w i t h a  very d i f f i c u l t task i n o b j e c t i f y i n g h i s i n t u i t i o n .  Indeed the  analogue o f o r g a n i c c r e a t i o n wears t h i n h e r e : t h e c r e a t i o n of the a r t i s t can be no s i m p l e , i n d i v i s i b l e a a c t comparable t o "the suflfflen movement o f a hand plunged among i r o n f i l i n g s and 50  c a u s i n g an i n s t a n t a n e o u s readjustment  o f them a l l . "  to bor-  row the s i m i l e Bergson f r e q u e n t l y uses i n d e s c r i b i n g o r g a n i c creation.  I t i s no wonder then t h a t t h e outcome o f t h e a r t i s t ' s  l a b o u r i s " p r o b l e m a t i c a l " , f o r as Bergson admits, i n t h e case, say, o f a p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r , "no one, not even t h e a r t i s t , c o u l d have f o r e s e e n e x a c t l y what t h e p o r t r a i t would be, f o r t o p r e -  # d i e t i t would have been t o produce i t b e f o r e i t was  produced-—  an absurd "^hypothesis which i s i t s own r e f u t a t i o n . " I n a paper read i n 1911 Bergson r e f e r s t o the aest h e t i c a c t i v i t y i n terms more comprehensible, t o my,way of t h i n k i n g a t l e a s t , - - - w i t h l e s s o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n common t o h i s more m y s t i c a l moments o f a p a t r o n i z a i n g acceptance of the # i t a l i c s mine  /o5~ p h y s i c a l medium as t h e "mere v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e " aspect of art.  "Matter i s p r i m a r i l y what b e i n g s d i v i s i o n and p r e c i s i o n . . .  Thought i s a c o n t i n u i t y , and i n a l l c o n t i n u i t y t h e r e i s confusion.  F o r a thought t o become d i s t i n c t , t h e r e must be d i s p e r -  s i o n i n words.  Our o n l y way o f t a k i n g count o f what we have i n  mind i s to s e t down on a sheet o f paper, s i d e by s i d e , terms w h i c h i n our t h i n k i n g i n t e r p e n e t r a t e . . . T h o u g h t thought,  which i s o n l y  t h e work o f a r t w h i c h i s o n l y conceived, the poem  w h i c h i s no more than a dream, as y e t cost n o t h i n g i n t o i l * i t i s t h e m a t e r i a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e poem i n words, o f the a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n i n s t a t u e o r p i c t u r e , which demands e f f o r t . . s  T h i s e f f o r t was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t matter. matter at  By the r e s i s t a n c e  o f f e r s and by the d o c i l i t y w i t h w h i c h we endow i t , i s  one and t h e same time o b s t a c l e , instrument and s t i m u l u s . I t  experiences  our f o r c e , keeps t h e i m p r i n t o f i t , c a l l s f o r i t s 51  intensification." I n h i s l a t e s t major work (1932) t h e emphasis appears to be a l l t h e o t h e r way.  Bergson d e s p a i r s o f fee any a r t i s t ' s  attempt " t o r e a l i z e the u n r e a l i z a b l e . He (the w r i t e r ) w i l l r e v e r t t o t h e simple emotion, t o the form which yearns t o c r e a t e i t s m a t t e r , and w i l l go w i t h i t to meet i d e a s a l r e a d y made, words t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t , b r e l f l y s o c i a l segments o f r e a l i t y . A l l a l o n g t h e way he w i l l f e e l i t m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f i n s i g n s b o r n o f i t s e l f , I mean fragments of i t s own m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n . How can these elements, each unique i n i t s k i n d , be made t o 52 c o i n c i d e w i t h words a l r e a d y e x p r e s s i n g t h i n g s ? " The c r e a t i v e emotion i s t h e t h i n g , i t seems  that  emotion w h i c h i s "above i n t e l l e c t , preceding t h e i d e a , more  /o than t h e i d e a , but w h i c h would b u r s t i n t o i d e a s i f , pure s o u l 53 # ~ t h a t i t i s , i t chose to g i v e i t s e l f a body"; t h a t emotion which " d o u b t l e s s resembles, though v e r y r e m o t e l y , t h e sublime l o v e 54  w h i c h i s f o r t h e m y s t i c t h e v e r y essence of God."  "What i s  t h e r e more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a r c h i t e c t o n i c , more r e f l e c t i v e l y e l a b o r a t e , than a Beethoven symphony? But a l l through the l a b o u r o f a r r a n g i n g , r e a r r a n g i n g , s e l e c t i n g , c a r r i e d out ofi the i n t e l l e c t u a l p l a n e , the composer was t u r n i n g back t o a p o i n t s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e t h a t p l a n e , i n search of acceptance or r e f u s a l , o f a l e a d , an i n s p i r a t i o n ; a t t h a t p o i n t t h e r e l u r k e d an i n d i v i s i b l e emotion w h i c h I n t e l l i g e n c e d o u b l l e s s h e l p e d u n f o l d i n t o music, b u t w h i c h was i n i t s e l f something more than  #  music  and more than i n t e l l i g e n c e .  J u s t the o p p o s i t e o f i n f r a -  i n t e l l e c t u a l emotion, i t remained-dependent  on t h e w i l l .  To  r e f e r back t o t h i s emotion t h e a r t i s t had t o make a c o n s t a n t l y r e p e a t e d e f f o r t , such as the eye makes t o r e d i s c o v e r a s t a r 55 w h i c h , as soon as i t i s found, v a n i s h e s i n t o t h e dark sky." One may w e l l ask i n i n n o c e n t - e y e d wonder, " S i n c e the e x p r e s s i o n can never be more than an i m p e r f e c t a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the i n e f f a b l e i n t u i t i o n , and s i n c e even t h a t e x p r e s s i o n e n t a i l s t o i l , perhaps even p a i n , whence comes the u l t i m a t e j o y t h e p h i l o s o p h e r speaks o f ? And w n e r e i n l i e s the d i f f e r e n t i a of the emotion t h a t i s s u e s i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y a b o r t i v e attempt of the a r t i s t , and t h a t emotion w h i c h i a s u e s i n the consummate j o y of the mystic?"  Moreover, i n t h e f a c t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  d i s c r e p a n c i e s w h i c h appear i n 3 s i n g l e paragraph i n M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n , one would be h a r d put t o i t t o attempt to answer a l l these questions d e f i n i t i v e l y ; # i t a l i c s mine  /0  7  "Alongside of the emotion which i s the result of the representation and which is added ot i t , there is the emot i o n which, precedes the image, which v i r t u a l l y contains i t , and i s to a certain extent i t s cause...The emotion excited (within the experient) hy a great work of art i s of quite a d i s t i n c t character.  Unique of i t s kind, i t has sprang up i n  the soul of the poet and there a l o n e , . . ; from this emotion the work has sprang, to this emotion the author was continually harking hack throughout the composition of the work.  It was  no more than a creative exigency, hut i t was a creative one, now s a t i s f i e d the work i s finished, which would not have been s a t i s f i e d by some other other unless that other had possessed an inward and profound resemblance with the former, such as that whicheexists between two equally satisfactory renderings, 56#  i n terms of ideas of images, of one and the same melody." And s t i l l another v a r i a t i o n (1911): "The effort (of the a r t i s t ) i s toilsome, but also i t i s precious, more precious even than the work which.it produces, because, thanks to i t , one has drawn out from the self more than i t had already, we 57  are raised above ourselves."  Are we to understand from this  that the effort i n i t s e l f engenders the properly aesthetic joy, (c)  It comes as an anticlimax to discuss the relations  of the "raskell many" to the men of genius.  We, the blind  to Tfliom they point out the sunset; the deaf, for whom they compose sonatas.  Yet so infectious are the enthusiasms of  genius and so persuasive are their powers, that even we, the uninspired, are often forced i n spite of ourseves to exercise # i t a l i c s mind  /of!  the  feeble  s e n s i b i l i t i e s we h a v e and s h a r e ,  eral creative  i n the  gen-  joy.  The p r a c t i c a l l i f e a closed s o c i e t y of r i g i d to the  too,  o f a c t i o n we l e a d i n l i v i n g  c o n v e n t i o n o f n e c e s s i t y b l i n d s us  r e a l i t y experienced by genius.  As Schopenhauer put  f o r us t h e w h e e l of I x i o n n e v e r s t a n d s s t i l l .  "Man must  in  And what  society,  and c o n s e q u e n t l y s u b m i t t o r u l e s .  est  advises,  the  summons!  in  r e a s o n commands J d u t y c a l l s ,  »  live inter-  and we h a v e t o  Under t h i s d u a l i n f l u e n c e h^s p e r f o r c e  it  obey  been  f o r m e d a n o u t w a r d l a y e r o f f e e l i n g s and i d e a s w h i c h make f o r permanence,  a i m a t b e c o m i n g dommon t o a l l men, and c o v e r , when  t h e y are not  s t r o n g enough t o e x t i n g u i s h i t ,  individual passions.  The s l o w p r o g r e s s  the i n n e r f i r e of  o f mankind i n the  e c t i o n o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y p e a c e f u l 58  s o c i a l l i f e has  consolidated this layer."  o n l y does t h e  phical  And not  gradually  cinematogra-  f u n c t i o n o f our i n t e l l e c t obscure the p u l s a t i n g  f l o w i n g "beneath are not f e l t when we a r e  external objects,  i n their  essence.  gay o r s a d ,  is it  but our v e r y mental  life states  "When we f e e l l i v e o r  hatred,  r e a l l y the f e e l i n g i t s e l f  reaches our consciousness w i t h those innumberable  dir-  that  fleeting  s h a d e s o f m e a n i n g a n d deep r e s o u n d i n g echoes t h a t make  it  something a l t o g e t h e r  per-:.  c e i v e nothing but  our o w n ? . . . . M o s t „ o f _ t h e  t i m e . , .we  the outward d i s p l a y o f our mental  We c a t c h o n l y t h e i m p e r s o n a l a s p e c t o f o u r f e e l i n g s ,  state. that  a s p e c t w h i c h s p e e c h h a s s e t down once f o r a l l b e c a u s e i t i s a l m o s t t h e same, i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s , f o r a l l men. T h u s , e v e n  i-  i n o u r own i n d i v i d u a l ( s t a t e s ) , ?  We e v e n emote  labelsj  • 59 i n d i v i d u a l i t y escapes our k e n . "  Croce, we remember, looks upon the "artist" as d i f ferent i n degree only from the common run; Bergson, on the other hand, i s strong i n his insistence that the a r t i s t i s a being different i n kind.  "The appearance of each  (genius-,- of -  which the a r t i s t i s one kind) was l i k e the creation of a new species, composed of a single individual, the v i t a l impulse culminating at long intervals i n one particular man, a result which dould not have been obtained at one stroke by humanity as whole."  and this i s what concerns us directly—-"The  creative emotion which exalted these exceptional souls, and which was an overflowing of v i t a l i t y , has spread far and wide about them; enthusiasts themselves, they radiated enthusiasm. . . .When we l i s t e n to their words and see them at work, we feel that they communicate to us something of their fervour, 60 and draw us i n their wake..."  Consider, for exaple, how by  means of music the composer works, his magic upon us: "We f e e l , while we l i s t e n as though we could not desire anything else but what the music i s suggesting to us, and that that i s just as we should naturally and necessarily act did we not refrain from action to l i s t e n . p i t y or love,  Let the music express joy or grief, 6l£  every moment we are what is expresses.  Not only  ourselves, but many others, nay a l l the others, too.  When  music weeps, a l l humanity, a l l nature, weeps with i t .  In  point of fact i t does not introduce these feelings into us; i t introduces us into them, as passers-by are forced into a 62 street dance." To\the work of a r t , the sensible object, i t  is  clear that Bergson does not ascribe, as he^to an emotion, a # i t a l i c s mine  IIO  quintessence;  the a r t i f a c t  may s u s p e c t ,  i n d e e d we  f o r h i m u l t i m a t e l y no more t h a n a p i s  The f o l l o w i n g aesthetic;  i s p e r c i s e l y a medium,  testifies  to the  emotional Dial of Bergson s 8  "The t r u t h i s t h a t t h e w r i t e r ' s a r t  e v e r y t h i n g i s m a k i n g us f o r g e t  aller.  consists  t h a t he i s u s i n g w o r d s .  harmony h e s e e k s i s a c e r t a i n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  The  between the  a n d g o i n g s o f h i s m i n d and t h e p h r a s i n g o f h i s s p e e c h , pondence  so p e r f e c t  sentence, idually,  t h a t t h e waves o f h i s t h o u g h t ,  s t i r us s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , no l o n g e r c o u n t :  above  comings  a  corres-  borne by  and t h e w o r d s , t a k e n  there i s nothing l i f t  but  the  indiv-  the flow of  m e a n i n g w h i c h r u n s t h r o u g h t h e w o r d s , n o t h i n g b u t two m i n d s w h i c h , w i t h o u t i n t e r m e d i a r y , seem t o v i b r a t e d i r e c t l y i n u n 63 ' ~ i s o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . " I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t ; t h a t Bergson • s h o u l d go to: t h e  temporal, r a t h e r than to the s p a t i a l ,  f o r many o f h i s most i m p o r t a n t Is  of  the genius consist  or a c t i v e ?  heat of h i s ?  I t h i n k the  pretation.  proved by the  art  spontanintense  serves to fan i n t o  second f i g u r e i s nearer B e r g s o n ' s  "It  i s to the v e r y inwardness of l i f e  does c a l l , mine  effort  a  inter-  f o r example,  this that  o f t h i s k i n d I s not i m p o s s i b l e ,  e x i s t e n c e i n man o f an a e s t h e t i c 64  w i t h normal p e r c e p t i o n . "  # italics  through exposure to the  of the genius  i n t u i t i o n leads us...That  (genius)  T h a t i s , does t h e  I n C r e a t i v e E v o l u t i o n we f i n d ,  dogmatic a s s e r t i o n :  is  genius  Gr does o u r i m a g i n a t i o n a l r e a d y c o n t a i n w i t h i n  a spark which the a r t  blaze?  of  i n i g n i t i n g our i m a g i n a t i o n by  eous c o m b u s t i o n , as i t w e r e ,  it  illustrations.  our. b e h a v i o u r w h e n r s t i r r e d b y t h e c a l l  b e s t d e s c r i b e d as p a s s i v e ,  arts,  f a c u l t y along  A n d i n M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n : "When  t h e r e i s i n the  i n n e r m o s t b e i n g o f most  ///  :v.f ' .65 t h e W h i s p e r o f an e c h o . "  men  Once a g a i n we a r e of  faced by communication.  In  spite  h i s e l o g u e n c e on b e h a l f o f i n t u i t i o n and h i s i n s i s t e n c e  that  " T h e r e i s a r e a l i t y t h a t i s e x t e r n a l and y e t g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y to  t h e m i n d " , B e r g s o n c o n c e d e s t h a t "Our s o u l s a r e  to  one a n o t h e r .  externally.  impenetrable  C e r t a i n s i g n s o f p a s s i o n a r e a l l we a p p e r c e i v e  These we i n t e r p r e t — - t h o u g h  a l w a y s , by the way,  # d e f e c t i v e l y — - o n l y b y a n a l o g y w i t h w h a t we h a v e o u r s e l v e s perienced.  ex-  So what we e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e m a i n p o i n t , and we  c a n n o t become t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h m n y t h i n g b u t  our own  66 h e a r t - — s u p p o s i n g we g e t borne by the current  so f a r . "  S o , f o r a l l h i s h a v i n g been  o f d u r a t i o n c e n t u r i e s beySnd the A n c i e n t s ,  we may w o n d e r w h e t h e r B e r g s o n h a s t r a v e l l e d so much  farther  than P l o t i n u s . As a n o t h e r fers  c l u e to the  secret  of beauty Bergson of-  a v a r i a t i o n of the d o c t r i n e of E i n f i i h l u n g .  w r i t i n g o r w a t c h i n g a drama he s a y s ,  "It  In  either  i s essential  to  re-  l i v e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r y o u a r e t r e a t i n g . . . t o be c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h a t c h a r a c t e r , t o b e no l o n g e r t h e s p e c t a t o r 68 but the a c t o r . "  L a t e r , h o w e v e r , he seems t o f o r e s t a l l  i c i s m o f t h e n a t u r e we l e v e l l e d a t "Does t h i s mean t h a t t h e p o e t h a s  crit-  the t h e o r y of Empathy: e x p e r i e n c e d what he  depicts,  t h a t he h a s gone t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s he makes h i s characters How,  traverse,  and l i v e d t h e w h o l e o f t h e i r i n n e r  i n d e e d , c o u l d the  life...  same man h a v e b e e n M a c b e t h , H a m l e t , 69  O t h e l l o , K i n g L e a r , a n d many o t h e r s ? " C o n t i n u i n g the  How, i n d e e d ]  same p a s s a g e w i l l  p r e t a t i o n of the free w i l l # i t a l i c s mine  r e v e a l the  concept p e c u l i a r to  inter-  Bergson's  metaphysics: "But then a d i s t i n c t i o n should perhaps here be made between the personality we have and a l l those we might have had.  Our character is the result of a choice that i s  continually being renewed.  There.are points  at a l l events  there seeing to b e - — a l l along the way, where we may branch off, and we perceive many possible directions though we are unable to take more than one.  To retrace one's steps, and follow to  the end the f a i n t l y distinguishable directions, appears to be the essential  element i n poetic imagination.  Of course,  Shakespeare was neither Macbeth, nor Hamlet, nor Othello; s t i l l , he might have been these several characters, i f the circumstances of the case on one. and the consent of his w i l l on the other, had cause to break out into explosive action what was  70 nothing more than an inner prompting." • — A suggestion of about the same order as Huxley's famous speculation about the a b i l i t y of the six monkeys to produce the plays of Shakespeare, i f given time enough.  -0O0-  CHAPTER  IV.  A brief  chapter w i l l  the  main  parallel  CONCLUSION  threads  pure,  note  us  a  is  consistent  mystical,  rather  completely  with  the  art  life  and  a book "The  the  i n d e x must  which book  i t will into  the  field include  Haturally test  that  "Eureka", his  of  God,  that"by  of  each  we  way  would  concur  also  in  which  the word  say,  the  they  extend  has  the  the  art  index  of  put i t ,  the book,  they  the  scope  of  and  works  from  the  communion  to  science  ignore  deftly  sweep  of beauty  ranges  neither  systematize  the  s w a l l o w s u u p •:: they v e r y . p r o p r i urn expanding  even  not  of the  2  f o r whom a r t c o n n o t e s  to  i s so  t r y to  agreement w i t h  index."  experience  aesthetic  this  imperfect representation,  the  offers  That  i s like  into  man's  Bergson.  a, n o r m a t i v e  Hence  be  an  less  Manifestly  as  content," Croce  be  of  of  psychologists, Herbartian  "Psychology  a e s t h e t i c s ; they  as  might  a r t i s the brought  or  philosopher  takes,  aesthetic  i n any  and  aesthetic.  laboratory  of. s p i r i t .  of Archimedes,  significance  r u n more  purelyvd.escriptive.  authors  anj^one  t i e t o g e t h e r some  of Croce  each  establishing  always  a l l  an  applied,  to a r t t h a t  to  seem t o  a l l that  an  agreement w i t h Our  of  t h o s e who  of which  which  aesthetics  findings  and  hope,  the metaphysical  remains  formalists,  to  than  approach,  method  the  first  e o n e erned\wi t h  their  thought  throughout We  is  of  I  suffice,  of  the  subject  aesthetic of  art  single  He  emotion.  willVprocry,  the m y s t i c  of art..  include  accord,  may  with protest  everything i t s  a word, b e c o m e s n i l .  Students  of  a r t do,  however,  owe  at l e a s t  the  negative  clebt of  to  both  a r t and  usually cannot and  Croce  elevating  assigned be  attempts-at  people,  the  by  the  accpet  "Literary  and  h i s work  calls  admiration  finally,  when  noTwished  to  compromise, kind, the  and  like  f o r c e of  the  the a  dear  God,  statement  the  say,  academicians i s .  or  critics,  an  artist  rather  would  I  think that  a grain  of  of...cases  of  of genius the  succeed  in  critic  of kinds,  i s enlarged  legitimised  or  bastard,  inertia,. until  a new  the  critics: suffocating  and  matter  the  work  of  so  artist  accepts  an  offends  p o p u l a r i t y o f , h i s work, the  help.  agree  reprobation of  however,  Hence a l l  not,  "is full  p a s s i b l e to blame  kind  A r t , they  hinder  whole  says,  the  not,  than  to  simply  autonomy  greater  c o n t a i n more t h a n  he  forth  I t i s not  dignity  classification  Croce  f o r , and  blame  canons  intelligent  does  of  upon the  metaphysics.  like  against which  reprobation which  •by  Art,  history,"  in  position  priori  this  including  style,  new  a  critics.  established  the  a  for insisting  tradition  f o l l o w i n g remarks by  truth,  a  i t to  e v a l u a t i o n and  w h e t h e r we  most  Bergson  i t by  judged  hide-bound  Now  and  that  and  i t is  ends w i t h  beside  i t a  compromise genius  a  lasts,  comes  to  3 upset  again  the  I the  are na  e  braries  f  rule."  resist  which  making  a  parenthetical reference  Groce h i m s e l f  deals  " E x p r e s s i o n i s t s " , presumably  fighting  ky_. A.J?  of  cannot  reprobauioh  temporary  fixed  t  h  e  and  a r t which  historically  against  a r t , " Croce  extremists a l l the on  the  of  a r t of whole  realized.  this the  to  Italian.  certain "That  con-  they  s a y s , " i s confirmed.., by__the movement  past  corresponds  The  out  to  connection  f o r museums_and  that  i s , f o r the  with  a r t as  of  this  .. l_i-  idea  i t has  movement,  been in  Its  latest  produced  form,  with  industrialism  and. f o s t e r e d , "by i n d u s t r i a l i s m  knowing be  modern  precisely  the a r t i s t s  a  venture  suspicion  in  that  h i s very  injured assume  fact  the sins  name.  expressed that  that  that  Croce's  Now n o t there can  One may,  i r e i s aggravated have been  picture  individual  the a i r of  "Expressionist"  images I  i s invoked  by  committed  must  by a philosopher, of not having  h i s own name  refers  stone.  he i s denouncing  a self-styled  accused,  Croce's  the second  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  innocence on b e i n g  perly  the guess  i s obvious."  t o whom C r o c e  no q u e s t i o n o f o u r c a s t i n g  however,  and t h e psychology  To t h i s  pro-  add the  unbeknown t o h i m s e l f , p r o -  5 bably  by certain  Irony  of the situation That  a, c o n c e p t u a l iently. the  apologists  denies  without  they  have  "to the fact  in  to l i e i n wait  in  order  arise  told  that  we  of replacing  from  tendency  us, i s given percept  stressed  place  ourselves thing  suffic-  immediately or  to  concept.  i n t h e immobile as i t p a s s e s ( j ^ '  tMna^ni^rt^^caes)  in_ t h a moving  o u r s e l v e s i n t h e moving i t t h e immobile  things  itself,  positions.  our p r o f e s s i n g to reconstruct r e a l i t y  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  activity  are t r a c e a b l e , according to  f o r the moving  to traverse with  aesthetic  already  of either  o f i ? c p l . a c i n g ...OL-H^IV.CC  instead  perhaps  antinomies  Bergson,  s4re&A  to the e s s e n t i a l  mediation  metaphysical  order  complete.  e l e m e n t we h a v e  Reality,  mind,  Indeed  each  i s  o f "modern" a r t ; and I t h i n k t h e  m o b i l i t y - — w i t h percepts  They  which i s and. c o n -  6 c e p t s whose to  protest  license  function that  i t i s t o make  the philosopher  by the use of such  i t stationary."  i s infringing  m e t a p h o r , we  I f we  rise  the poet's  a r e ruled, out o f c o u r t  for  presuming  vision to  Groce:  heat  f o rexpression.  "The r e a d e r  who  poetic heart i s silent  precarious much  he denies  on whose  else  to step  Such  a challenge  of  each  there  Is little  soothing  entertain other  drugs  seen  that  that  severe  emotion  into  f o r those  momentary  doubts  about  from  i s the startin^  .nsc  will  romantic  their those  disclaim  the f u l l  as  of art.  a t once  flower  genius. who  rush  degenerates  sake";  they  assumes- that will  3 p i r i t f e ^ w h o may While,  on t h e  to defend  responsibility of their  How  comment  a u t o m a t i c a l l y yield, a r t  enough  aesthetics will  to t h i s  the authority  the nature  critics  bromide  that  our accept-  a e s t h e t i c theories  an-aesthetic which  a n d emoted  anyone  for art.  direction  1  plumbed  distilled  test  "emotionalism-for-emotiohalism s that  i s : so  invite  o f a r t b a s e d \ h u p o n s u c h .a p r e m i s s  h a n d , we may s u p p o s e  otionalist  test  I t h i n k we may, w i t h o u t  for h i sinquiry  ungraciously  simply  B u t how  preclude  i n giving  their  this  heart!  d i s c r e t i o n would  labelling  doubt  into  suggest  souls be  risk  a conception  ultimately may  which  adopts  own; w h e r e  hy the beating-heart  a more.fool-proof  f o r we h a v e  point  that  with  hy  s t r a i g h t to  i s present."  i s the beating  recapitulation.  Emotionalist,  goes  upon h i s  poetry  our purpose here  our-authors,  informed  t h e E x p r e s s i o n i s t may w e l l  forward  may s e r v e  poetry  i t heat  that  to which he h a s  a g a i n we w e r e  understands  devining poetry  depends  cursory  Then  and f e e l s  Whereupon  ing  t h e p e r f e c t i o n trf t h e p h i l o s o p h e r . ' s  hy t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e instrument  resort  (its)  to measure  Em-  f o r any. •  respective doctrines  who It of  will  a r t i n terms  n o t be denied,  o f works•of  however,  a r tis~bound  that  anyone^thinks  t o be dismayed on.  "7 discovering Bergson. to  show  how  said  these  As  the  attempt  that  the  ancillary  have^reduced be  lightly  leads to  about  has  the matter  as  either  product  of  the  the  f o r Bergson,  yields  i t s own  the  artifact,  tive  emotion.  tinguishing joyment  of  ponding  creative  based  on  the  the  of  be  sensible  "is  as  external  impulse,  as,  activity.  For  Croce,  reproduction of the  p l e a s u r e ; and a pis aller last  toil  in  extracting  exact  psychology,  "What we  was we  the  notion,  then  i f we  aesthetic  either  something  and work  i s to be of  different  described But  as  which do  Is  of  creadis-  the  the  en-  corres-  many.agree,  w h e n we  do  from  object  are  is  passively  f o r example, actively  says,  from  exercise,  inner  or r e a d i n g  have  succeeded'  the  feeling  which  t h u s made t h a t  feeling  our  sometimes  from  do,  express  in reality. the  interpretation  i t would  entails  common  of  c o n t e m p l a t i o n we  i n i m a g i n a t i o n or  totally  art."  and  artifact  aesthetic:  Ducasse,  contemplated,  p l e a s e , can,  in  9  massag-e  have  end  lyrical  another  of  f r o m w h a t we  o b j e c t i f i e d fty i t , a n d  ourselves is  different  the  repetition  A  from  that  artifact  f o r communication  activity.  "When b y  note  f o r both philosophers,  systems  i s an  the  a unique  t h e r e stems  our' two  for instance,  from w r i t i n g .  enough to  need  inevitable  g u i d a n c e, " *f C . J .  radically  more  or  \ obeying  no  of a r t  indispensable instrument,  beautiful  a false  works  essay  an  Prom t h i s  feature  to which  It will  i n addition,  s e r v e s as  and  as  the  proper  Croce  object  aesthetic  image;  both  a l r e a d y b e e n made i n t h i s  here.  itself;  for fixing  by  a m e t a p h y s i c a l impasse,  philosopher regards  useful  treated  position  neither  is  are  seem t h a t  This,  own,  i t for however,  contemplative act, by  us  of  the  given  for Expressionists,  at  //$r least,  the emotion  sense,  as a c e r t a i n  switch  f o r the aesthetic current  take  such  him  who  trace  a view  said,  proper  of kinship?  reminded certain  n e i t h e r Croce  one  the a c t i v i t y  artistic may  beaut3-,  by  Bergson  note  simist,  attributed  as  may  views  i s akin to i t or a  I n any case,  participates  ground  favoured  himself,  being,  of the who  i nthe  a "psychic distance" the courses  d i v e r g e : t h e former, o f Becoming;  i t i s  the reader's  everyone  t h e m . ,  i t from  on t h i s  seem a t l a s t  Croce  ourselves  followed  an optsunist,  the latter,  a  pes-  the a r t i s t ,  the pec-  and i n t u r n , us, from t h e  ent  i n degree agree  seeming  that  from  t h a t we  a difference  o f degree,  where-  S c h o p e n h a u e r , h a s made i t a d i f f e r e n c e i n  i s more  In. a s s u m i n g  to an,"essential d i s t l n d i  t h e o n e h a s made t h e d i f f e r e n c e  and. t h e a r t i s t  like  one  brought  and Bergson:  i submit,nevertheless,  distinction  They  saint  Stream.  the other,  kind.  to that  of detaching  between  between  patron  distinguish  For  fact  N  acclaim the flux  We tion  by that very  and by Schopenhauer  with  Endless  of the other.  b y t h e way t h a t  power  T h o s e who  I t w i t h - t r a n s p o r t and i s 10  or Bergson  r a t h e r than  accepts  uliar  on.  as t h e i r  sees what  i n a,  the w r i t e r ' s hy c o n t r a s t i n g the p a s s i v i t y  reality,  lie  revere  exists,  t h e snap o f a  a n d o f i t s own t h i n g s , "  from  experiences  only  t o he t u r n e d  perhaps  (the soul)  activity with  activity  awaiting  ( i t ) acknowledges  of i t s e l f that  potential  as t h i s  "When  to creative  that, practically,  than  real.  our experience  that  And they  of beauty,  of a Shakespeare,  a r e enabled  h a v e made, t h e i n t u i t i o n s  they  the contraare certainly  although,  i s identical  differi n kind.  by the d i s c o v e r i e s the geniuses have  expressed,  to share  with  1 l-f  th.em t h e i r jured  creative  Jean-Jacques  Humanists  curse  first  their  does  cosmic  since with  eagle  rhapsodic a l l y  nor  does he a s p i r e f o r that activity,  which  lyrical  character  ality....For passes  into  thing,  springs  f o r t h again  Schopenhauer  the  ideas,  noted  but the i d e a l  unsatiated.  artist  the will-: i t s e l f ,  ease;  i t i s thatj  save  from i t s  from  The a r t i s t f o r this  portrays  of reproducing, of the universe, equally  person-  action,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that  belongs  b u t he  possibility  becomes  the true  rhythm  himself  of the a r t i s t ' s  the l y r i c  i n music,  to  him capriciously;  a value,  produces  rerum....The  Increases,  Hence  b u t becoming, that  through  and a s p i r e s to  and death."  the imprint  be r e -  the a r t i s t ' s  of i n s i p i d  to possess  i s nothing  f e e l i n g that  and  life  actuality, desire  lacrymae  jectifying  n o t seem  i t ingeniously  reason...The of  i s both  and. f r o m  reality  desire  represents  prose  and b e n e f i t s  God w h i c h h e h a s i n h i m s e l f ,  to  reality.  a God e x t e r n a l  to an immortality  o f a r t does  which  n o t seek  a d e s p o t s • ..who. o commands  "a w o r k  that  of the true  i n t e n s i t y of Croce's  "Man d o e s  almost  that  interests;  o f B e r g s o n , when lie c o n t e m p l a t e s  purpose.  peak,  our gaze would  o f meagre  c a n catch, g l i m p s e s  and  seeks  circle  t h e same  e y e h e was  upon a mountain  our Rousseaus  has con-  intent of  him; r a t h e r ,  mystical  that  the dire  perform  to o u r narrow  e y e s we  not with  recall,  frequently  For without  The as  Rousseau:  may  who  t o gaze  "bless h i m . stricted  B e r g s o n , we  and C l a s s i c i s t s  rite,---to the  joy.  who  very  i s that Schelling •  not indeed a n d o f ob-.  to a l l the  other  11  f onas of  a r t , because Such  i t i s the essence  i s the pitch  of art,  s e t by Emotionalist  -0O0-  or of pure aesthetics.  intuition'.  1  jTOTES AND KOTRTgNniaa  CHAPTER ONE. 1. »  2  HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  C a r r , The p h i l o s o p h y o f B e n e d e t t o QP. c i t .  p.  quoted  Philosophies of Beauty,  in Phil.  *  op.  cit.  pp.  6.  op.  cit.  p.  5  20  200-1  3. E . F . C a r r i t t , 4.  Croce, p.  of B . , pp.  p. x v i  16-17  28-9 3 0 ; a n d w i t h a p p r o v a l "by H e r b e r t R e a d , A r t Now,  7 . B u t c h e r , A r i s t o t l e ' s T h e o r y o f P o e t r y and P i n e A r t , p . 8. 9  «  op. c i t . p . Phil,  99  57.  v  of B . , pp. - J & v i i - ^ v i i i .  10.  op. c i t .  p.  11.  ibid.  49  12.  cf.-pi^-,  13.  uoted  in Phil,  14.  ibid,  p.  15.  " A s t o t h a t p o e t i c i m i t a t i o n w h i c h i s n a r r a t i v e i n f o r m and e m p l o y s a s i n g l e m e t r e , t h e p l o t m a n i f e s t l y o u g h t , as i n t r a g e d y , t o be c o n s t r u c t e d on d r a m a t i c p r i n c i p l e s . " A r i s t o t l e (trans. Butcher, p. 89).  p.  37.  infra . o f B . , pp»  47-8  47  16« l o o c i t . C r o c e ' s a r t i c l e on A e s t h e t i c s 1  Britannica  (1929 e d . ) ,  1 7 . quoted b v Prank P . Chambers.  hereinafter  i n the E n c y c l o p e d i a referred  20. quoted by Herbert c f . Bosanquet,  to as  The H i s t o r y o f T a s t e ,  1 8 . A r i s t o t l e h a d s a i d , "The most b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r s , c o n f u s e d l y , w i l l n o t g i v e a s much p l e a s u r e o u t l i n e of a p o r t r a i t . " jTrahs. Butcher, p. e a s y t o see how t h e t r u i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h i s tum m i g h t come t o be o v e r l o o k e d . 1 9 . q u o t e d i n H i s t o r y o f T a s t e , p . 112  21.  p.101  Read, op. c i t .  p.  H i s t o r y of A e s t h e t i c ,  p.  Ency.Brit.  100  l a i d on as the c h a l k 29). It is obiter dic-  31 p . 177; a l s o H . Wildon C a r r ,  P h i l . o f C r o o e , r e L e i b n i t z : "He f o u n d a p l a c e i n H i s t h e o r y of knowledge f o r the confused c o g n i t i o n s which p r e c e d e t h e d i s t i n c t and c l e a r c o g n i t i o n s , f o r t h e poetry, which precedes p h i l o s o p h y . " pp. 33-4. 22.  c f . D r e s s e r , A H i s t o r y o f Modern P h i l o s o p h y , p . 60  23.  c f . H i s t o r y of Taste,  24.  quoted i n P h i l  25.  P i e t r o A r e t i n o , f o r e x a m p l e , i n s p i t e o f "being s u c h a f r i g h t f u l rogue say t h i n g s w i t h a s u r p r i s i n g f r e s h ness, c f . De S a n c t i s , H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e .  26.  Ency.  27.  quoted i n  28.  Art  29.  quoted i n  30.  cf.  31.  quoted i n  32.  Bosanquet,  33.  quoted i n  34.  ibid.  p.  112  35.  ibid.  p.  115  36.  The f o l l o w i n g a f f o r d an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t * " A e s t h e t i c t r e a t i s e s b y a u t h o r s who h a v e n o t s t u d i e d K a n t may b e n e g l e c t e d w i t h o u t t h e l e a s t r i s k o f s e r ious mental l o s s . " C r o c e ; quoted by C a r r , P h i l o f C r o c e , p . 159 ~  p.  of B . , p .  112 57  Brit. P h i l .. o f P . »  How, p .  32  pp.  61-2  Y  P h i l . o f B., p p .  Bosanquet, op.  c i t . , p.  P h i l . of B . , op. c i t .  73-4  P.  P h i l . of B , ,  p.  30  80  32 p.  112  " I have never been a b l e to b e l i e v e that the i d e a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t , d e v e l o p e d on t h e b a s i s o f K a n t ' s a e s t h e t i c . . . i s w o r t h t h e t i m e what w o u l d b e i n v o l v e d i n mastering i t s mysteries." H e r b e r t R e a d , A r t How, p . 37.  Ency. B r i t .  38.  S c h e l l i n g t r e a t e d Guido R e n i as the genuine p a i n t e r o f "soul". T h i s i s r o m a n t i c decadence i n h o r r i d form, c f . Bosanquet', o p . c i t . p p . 329-30  39.  cf. H. ¥ . ^resser,  40.  c f . Bosanquet,  op. c i t . p.  op. c i t . p.  364  265  -12$41.  quoted i n P h i l ,  42.  ibid.  p.  131  43.  ibid,  p.  140  44. Dresser,  of B . . pp.  op. c i t . pp.  141-2.  316-17.  4 5 . P e r h a p s i t comes n e a r t h e t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r t o s a y t h a t C h a r l e s D a r w i n was a c o e f f i c i e n t r a t h e r t h a n a c a u s e of "Darwinism" a t e r m h a v i n g v a l u e as a symbol f o r a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n of thought. 4 6 . Thomas M u n r o e , S c i e n t i f i c M e t h o d i n A e s t h e t i c s , p . 2 8 . i s q u o t i n g from Bosanquet's p r e f a c e , pp. c i t . 47.  c f . Bosanquet,  op. c i t . p .  48. Herbert Read, op. c i t . pp.  He  375 44-5  4 9 . A n y o n e s u r f e i t e d b y t i m e - f l u x w i l l f i n d Wyndham L e w i s r e f r e s h i n g r e a d i n g s "The r e c r u d e s c e n c e , o f s u p e r s t i t i o u s e m o t i o n ( e n v i s a g e d as ' r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ' ) engineered by the contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c t h o u g h t . . . i s p a r t o f t h e g r e a t p s e u d o - r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement b a c k t o t h e p r i m i t i v e w o r l d ; and t h a t i s a n o t h e r r e a s o n w h y , i n p r e f e r e n c e t o s u c h a movement, we w o u l d t u r n to the c a t h o l i c s i d e i n the r e l i g i o u s d i s p u t e . " R e l i g i o n ' i s p r i m i t i v l s m ; and as p r a c t i s e d b y t h e n e o - m y s t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s f o l l o w i n g upon James and B e r g s o n , i t i s p a r t of the c u l t o f the ' p r i m i t i v e ' , as i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e c h i l d - c u l t ( t h e e x p l o i t i n g o f i n f a n c y and i t s ' n a i f r e a c t i o n s ) , or the e x o t i c reomance o f s u c h a p a i n t e r as G a u g u i n , o r t h e B l a c k B o t t o m o f t h e Swanee R i v e r - - - w h i c h i s m e r e l y a n o t h e r p h a s e o f 'Moon and S i x p e n c e ' — o r t h e s e x - p r i m i t i v i s m i n i t a t e d b y P r e u d . " . Time a n d W e s t e r n M a n , p . 376 50. Herbert Read, op. c i t . p . 51.  ibid,  pp.  45  45-6  5 2 . G a r r i t t , The T h e o r y o f B e a u t y , p . 53. T. E . Hulme, S p e c u l a t i o n s , p . 54.  273  85.  " A c c o r d i n g t o . . . E i n f u h l u n g , sympathy i s s a i d t o b e bound up w i t h a l l aesthetic f e e l i n g , i n c l u d i n g that derived f r o m t h e I n a n i m a t e w o r l d ; i t seems we d e s i r e t o s t a n d up s t r a i g h t w i t h t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e , l i e down w i t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l . , r o l l o v e r and o v e r w i t h t h e c i r c l e , o v e r f l o w w i t h the stream, s i g h w i t h the w i n d . " Julien Benda, Belphegor, p. 41.  3  -12455. cf. A r i s t o t l e ' s injunction to the playwright: "The poet should work out his play, to the best of his power, with appropriate gestures; for those who feel emotion are most convincing through natural sympathy with the the characters they represent; and one who i s agitated storms, one who i s angry rages, with the most l i f e - l i k e r e a l i t y . " Butcher trans, pp. 62-3 56. Henri Bergson, An Introduction to Metaphysics, p. 64 57. Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution, foot-note, p. 222 58. Carr, P h i l , of Croce, p. 37  CHAPTER TWO.  CROCE  1. E s t e t i c a , p. 255. (Croce's quotation from Vico, Scienza nuova seconda, Elementi l i i i . ) Quoted by Carr, op. p i t , pp. .160-1. 2. cf. P h i l . Croce, p. 155. 3. Saggio sullo Hegel, p. 335.  Quoted i n P h i l . Croce, pp. 157-8  4. P h i l . Croce, p. 8. 4a.According to Carr, lo s p i r i t o i s better rendered as mind than as: s p i r i t . cf. his preface, op. c i t . 5. Ency. B r i t . 6. cf. C a r r i t t , The Theory of Beauty, p. 188 7. quoted by C a r r i t t , op. c i t , p. 244 8. i b i d . , p. 187 9  1 0  «  «  c f  « Th. of Beauty, p. 189  op. c i t . p. 298  11. Essence of Aesthetic, p. 42. cf. Ducasse, The Philosophy of A r t , p. 50. "One...wonders why Croce needed to use constantly two words (Intuition and Expression) when he t e l l us that only one thing i s designated, saying, for instance, that 'they are not two but one'; this indeed being given as the reason why what he yet refers to as the one and the other, appear at the same instant, and are indistinguishable."-—John Dewey, Art as Experience p loc. c i t .  -12tf"Signor Croce makes...numbers of statements which t a k e t h i s f o r m : ' A r t i s i n t u i t i o n , and i n t u i t i o n , and i n t u i t i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . ' 'The r e s u l t of a work of a r t i s i n t u i t i o n . ' ' A landscape i s a state of the s o u l . ' ' A g r e a t poem may be a l l c o n t a i n e d i n an e x c l a m a t i o n o f j o y . ' And y e t no one o f t h e s e t e r m s i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e s e c o n d , no one i s d r o p p e d b y t h e p h i l o s o p h e r , t h o u g h i f t h e y a r e synonomous one must be o t i o s e . S u r e l y n o t h i n g i s more c e r t a i n t h a n t h a t one t h i n g c a n n o t be a n o t h e r , one m e a n i n g a n o t h e r m e a n i n g . C r o c e needs t o l e a r n what the l i t t l e b i r d taught F r a n c i s Jammes, ~ Q u ' u n e c h o s e e s t c e l a q u i n ' e s t pas a u t r e c h o s e . " - — T . S t u r g e Moore, Armour f o r A p h r o d i t e , p . 8 7 . 12. Ency. B r i t . Dewey r e m a r k s , "The t e r m ' i n t u i t i o n ' i s one o f t h e most alablguous i n t h e w h o l e r a n g e o f t h o u g h t " . op. c i t ' . p. 294. Mo s t u d e n t o f a e s t h e t i c s i s l i k e l y t o demur, 13.  quoted i n P h i l . C r o c e , p . 162. Cf." C r o c e ' s c o - p a t r i o t a n d s e v e r e c r i t i c , G e n t i l e , who i s even more s u b j e c t i v i s t i c than Croce. He a c c u s e s t h e l a t t e r o f c o n c e i v i n g a r t dualistically! " A r t . . . . i s n o t , a s some h a v e s a i d , the e x p r e s s i o n or i n t u i t i o n o f f e e l i n g but f e e l i n g itself. The w e l l - k n o w n d o c t r i n e w h i c h d e f i n e d a r t i n t h e f o r m e r way s t r u g g l e d l o n g and v a i n l y f o r a t h e o r y b y w h i c h a r t s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from p h i l o s o p h y and y e t s h a r e w i t h i t i n the n a t u r e of the t h e o r e t i c s p i r i t . But i t never succeeded i n exchanging that d o c t r i n e of aesthetic subject-matter from which i t s t a r t e d f o r t h a t d o c t r i n e of a e s t h e t i c form at which i t a i m e d . . . . T h e author of t h i s d o c t r i n e g a v e t o f e e l i n g an e x i s t e n c e o f i t s own, i n d e p e n d e n t of i t s f u n c t i o n as m a t e r i a l o f a r t . P e e l i n g was, f o r h i m , i n i t s vague o b s c u r i t y , t h a t p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h h e l d t o b e as r e a l a s i t s t h e o r e t i c a l activity. So a r t c a m e . t o be c o n c e i v e d d u a l i s t i c a l l y . I t was v e r b a l l y d e f i n e d a s a s y n t h e s i s , b u t i t was _ i m p o s s i b l e t o see s u c h a a s y n t h e s i s as c r e a t i v e a p r i o r i . I t was m e r e l y t h e r e s u l t o f a d d i n g t h e i n t u i t i v e f o r m to f e e l i n g . " G i o v a n n i G e n t i l e , The P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t (1931). Q u o t e d i n P h i l , o f B . , p p . 325-6  14.  quoted P h i l ,  15. Ency.  of B . , p.  243.  Brit.  16.  quoted i n P h i l .  17.  quoted i n Th. of Beauty, p.  18.  q u o t e d b y Dewey, o p . c i t . p .  19.  c f . pp.  70 f f .  Croce.,  infra  p.  73. 288. 294.  r -12*2 0  «  E s s e n c e , p . 4 0 . H a r d - b i t t e n r e a l i s t s w o u l d no s u s p i c i o u s o f even t h i s l a n g u a g e .  21. quoted  in Phil.  Croce. p.  doubtW  162.  22. op. c i t . ,  pp.  234-5.  23.  op. c i t . ,  p.  24.  The f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n i s i n s t r u c t i v e , I t h i n k ; " I t i s t r u e that i n most a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t s we c a n t r a c e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t began w i t h a r o u s i n g some k i n d o f e m o t i o n . . . T h i s i s t h e s r u e s t way f o r them t o i m p r e s s us; and the best way of q u i e t i n g t h e e m o t i o n and p u r g i n g o u r s o u l s o f i t i s t o r e t u r n to t h e u n d e r l y i n g a e s t h e t i c judgment."—-Herbart, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P h i l o s o p h y (1813-37); quoted i n P h i l , of Beauty, p . 154.  235.  re De S a n c t i s concept of form i n a e s t h e t i c s ( r e g a r ded by C r o c e . w i t h v a p p r o v a l j s " ( F o r Be S a n c t i s f o r m w a s ) n o t ' a b s t r a c t f o r m ' a s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e r h e t o r i c i a n s as w e l l as b y c e r t a i n German a e s t h e t i c i a n s who c a l l t h e m s e l v e s ' f o r m a l i s t s ' , and as we f i n d i t r e a p p e a r i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t d a y , more e s p e c i a l l y i n c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e p l a s t i c a r t s ; and i t was n o t the ' f o r m ' p a t h o l o g i c a l l y f e l t by a e s t h e t e s and a n d d e c a d e n t s ; i t was n o t h i n g e l s e t h a n t h e e n t i r e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , s e n t i m e n t a l , and e m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y o f the p o e t i c image and w o r d , w h i c h a l o n g h a s a e s t h e t i c value."• f r o m C r o c e ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o De S a n c t i s , H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e . 1  25. P h i l ,  of Beauty, p.  26. Th. of Beauty, 27. Ency.  241.  p. 284.  c f . Dewey, o p . c i t .  p.  77.  Brit.  28. Essence,  p.  213.  29. Th. of Beauty, pp. 197-8. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to l e a r n t h a t f o g - h o r n s , o a t h s and c h u c k e s a r e a d m i t t e d t o t h e company o f t h e B e a u t i f u l so soon as t h e y become clearly intuited. H e n c e we may suppeee t h a t a s o l d i e r d u c k i n g a b a r r a g e i n a s h e l l - h o l e w o u l d have abundant o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g b e a u t y , p r o v i d e d he d i d n o t p e r m i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e r e a l i t y or the u n r e a l i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n to p e r t u r b h i s contemplative ecstasy. T h r o t t l i n g one's grandmother, i f c l e a r l y i n t u i t e d , w o u l d , b y t h e same t o k e n , be an a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . Re murder as a f i n e a r t , c f . DeQuincey.  -12$30.  Essence, p.  73.  31.  ibid,  p.  73.  32.  ibid,  p.  74.  33.  Ency.  Brit.  34.  c f . Ducasse, op. c i t . p. 45.  35.  Essence, p.  36.  ibid,  pp.  37.  ibid,  p. 44.  38.  c f . Ducasse,  39.  Ency.  40.  Essence, pp. 46-7.  41.  cf.  42.  quoted i n P h i l . Croce, p . 168.  43.  Essence, pp.  44.  ibid,  p.  45.  Ency.  Brit.  46.  ibid.  47.  ibid.  48.  "The a u t h o r ( C r o c e ) who h a s r e c e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d a e s t h e t i c w i t h t h e s c i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e was- l e d t o do so b y h i s d u a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e , a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , of a form u n d e r s t o o d as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a s u b j e c t p n a t t e r i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n and so p r e c e d i n g t h e e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t y . " - — G e n t i l e , op. c i t . ; quoted i n P h i l , o f B.p328  49.  " T h o s e who p r o m i s e t o expound a n a t u r a l i s t i c , i n d u c t i v e , p h y s i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l aesthetics-—• i n a word, a n o n - p h i l o s o p h i c a l aesthetic—-when they pass from promise to performance s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y i n t r o d u c e a g e n e r a l p o s i t i v i s t i c o r even m a t e r i a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . A n d anyone who t h i n k s t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s o f p o s i t i v i s m and m a t e r i a l i s m a r e f a l s e a n d out o f d a t e , w i l l f i n d i t a n e a s y matter t o r e f u t e the a e s t h e t i c or p s p u d o - a e s t h e t i c d o c t r i n e s w h i c h m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t them and a r e s u p ported by them." Ency. B r i t .  50.  Ency.  47.  45-6. c f . Th. of Beauty, p. op. c i t . p .  292.  45.  Brit.  Th. of Beauty, pp.  s  197-8. c f . Ducasse, op. c i t .  pp.46-7  42-3  43  Brit.  7  -1205 1 . -Essence,  p.  52. i b i d ,  39.  53. c f .  p.  G a r r , op. c i t . pp. 58-9. "The t e r m s we u s e i n p h i l s e ophy t o e x p r e s s p r i o r i t y o f one f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e o v e r a n o t h e r a r e n e v e r i n t e n d e d as a t e m p o r a l b u t a l w a y s as a l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y . . . W h e n we s a y t h a t t h e i n t u i t i o n i s p r i o r t o t h e c o n c e p t , we do not mean "that a t some o r a h any o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d an i n t u i t i o n e x i s t e d , and n o t y e t a c o n c e p t . We mean t h a t the c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r e b e i n g a concept i s the e x i s t e n c e o f an i n t u i t i o n . "  54. Essence, 55.  51.  pp.  52-3.  c f . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e B r i t i s h Academy, D e c . 1 0 , Bernard Bosanquet, C r o c e ' s A e s t h e t i c .  56. op.  cit.  57. pp.  cit.  58. Ency.  1919;  Brit.  5 9 . C r o c e w o u l d n a t u r a l l y n o t r e c o g n i z e any s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n a s B e r g s o n s e e k s t o draw b e t w e e n t r a g e d y and comedy i n h i s e s s a y on L a u g h t e r . 60. Ency.  Brit.  61. G i l b e r t , Studies 63.  op. c i t .  p.  i n Recent A e s t h e t i c , p .  105.  93.  6 3 . W i t h o u t the t e l e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . " E v e r y work o f a r t i s a monad, a w i n d o w l e s s and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w o r l d w h i c h m i r r o r s t h e u n i v e r s e f r o m i t s own u n i q u e p o i n t of v i e w , and, indeed, i s nothing but a v i s i o n or p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e u n i v e r s e , and o f a u n i v e r s e w h i c h i s f i r s t i t s e l f . . . . B u t whereas the a r t i s t regards i t as e x p r e s s i v e s i m p l y o f i t s e l f , t h e h i s t o r i a n ( o f a r t ) r e g a r d s i t as e x p r e s s i v e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s , now f o r g o t t e n , w h i c h h a v e p a v e d t h e way f o r i t s c r e a t i o n . " - — R . G . Wolllngwood, Outlines of a P h i l osophy o f A r t ; quoted i n P h i l . o f B . , p . 293. 64. Essence, 65.  pp.  56-7.  " F o r C r o c e an a b s o l u t e c h o i c e i s a l w a y s f o r c e d : e i t h e r two t h i n g s a r e m u t a a l l y e x c l u s i v e e n t i t i e s (the p a r t i a l i t y o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o i n c i d e n c e does not a f f e c t t h e p r i n c i p l e ) o r t h e y a r e two i n no l o g i c a l sense w h a t e v e r . " - - - G i l b e r t , op. c i t . p . 109,  66. Ency.  Brit.  s -12067.  Essence,  pp.  57-8.  68.  M r s . G i l b e r t ' s e s s a y on C r o c e k a s an I m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on this point. Recent Trends i n A e s t h e t i c , l o c . c i t .  69.  Essence,  70.  ibid.,  .71.  The p a s s i o n a t e b r e a t h i n g o f t h e l a b o u r i n g - m a n t o h i s l a s s i e , t h e p o p u l a r l o v e - s o n g on t h e l i p s o f e v e r y p a s s e r - b y , a c c o r d i n g t o o u r a u t h o r , f a l l i n t h e same c a t e g o r y . w i t h the L e o p a r d i . c f . G i l b e r t , op. c i t . , pp. 33-4.  72.  Ogden, E i e h a r d s s & Wood, The F o u n d a t i o n s o f A e s t h e t i c ,  73.  Th. of Beauty, p.  74.  Ency.  75.  Essence,  76.  ibid.,  77.  quoted I n P h i l .  78.  Essence,  79.  quoted i n P h i l ,  of Beauty, p.  80.  c f . Essence,  65.  81.  quoted i n P h i l ,  loc.cit.  p.  59.  pp.43-4.  215.  Brit. pp. 64-5.  p.  v  64.  p.  Croce, pp,  72-3.  77.  p.  of Beauty, p.  236.  236.  .82. QP. c i t . , p . 2 3 7 . 83.  Essence,  p.  78.  84.  quoted i n P h i l ,  85.  Ency.  of Beauty, p.  237.  Brit.  CHAPTER THREE.  BERGSON  1.  The i n f l u e n c e i s n o t a l l t h e one w a y , h o w e v e r , I n a n a r t i c l e on I n t e l l e c t u a l E f f o r t , 1 9 0 2 , B e r g s o n t e s t i f i e s t o h a v i n g b o r r o w e d " a n i n t e r e s t i n g and p r o f o u n d i d e a p u t f o r w a r d b y P r o f e s s o r Dewey i n h i s a r t i c l e s on t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f effort ( J a n . 1 8 9 7 ) " . c f Mind-Energy p.215  2.  Mind-Energy, p. 213. ~" to the p r e s e n t  3.  Creative Evolution,  F o r c o n v e n i e n c e I h a v e changed t h e tense. pp.  260-1.  verb  /if -2r3€^  4.  ibid.,  p.  252.  5.  ibid.,  p.  39.  6. i b i d . ,  p. 11.  . . .  .  7. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Metaphysics, p . •  8  '  9.  Cr. Evol.,  p.  38.  30.  ibid.,  p. 192. "The c a r d i n a l e r r o r w h i c h , f r o m A r i s t o t l e o n w a r d s , h a s v i t i a t e d most o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f n a t u r e , i s t o see i n v e g e t a t i v e „ i n s t i n c t i v e and r a t i o n a l l i f e , three s u c c e s s i v e degrees o f the d e v e l opment o f one and t h e same t e n d e n c y , w h e r e a s t h e y a r e t h r e e d i v e r g e n t d i r e c t i o n s o f an a c t i v i t y t h a t h a s s p l i t up as i t g r e w . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e n them i s n o t a d i f f e r e n c e o f i n t e n s i t y , n o r , more g e n e r a l l y , of degree, but of k i n d . " - - - O r . E v o l . , p. 142.  10. i b i d . ,  p.  31.  11.  P.  187.  ibid.,  1 2 . The Two Sources\>of M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n , 13. C r . E v o l . ,  p.  14. An I n t r o d . , 15. Laughter,  16. An I n t r o d . ,  p.  17.  ibid.,  p.  6.  18.  ibid.,  p.  56.  19.  ibid.,  p.  41.  20. I t  213-14.  186.  pp.  pp.  pp.  22-3.  151-2. 59,  i s . c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e a r t i s t m i g h t s a y w i t h some i m p a t i e n c e s "What do y o u e x p e c t me t o do merge m y s e l f i n t o t h e c a t h e d r a l a n d o s s i f y my s o u l i n i t s s t o n e s a n d m o r t a r ? A n y w a y , i s t h e cosmos t h e o n l y individuality? h a s n ' t t h e c a t h e d r a l i t s own p r o p e r character? Would the p h i l o s o p h e r p r e f e r t h a t I contemplate the 'rhythm of the u n i v e r s e ' and, l i k e t h e m y s t i c , do n o t h i n g a b o u t i t ? A t a l l e v e n t s , my s t a n d i s t h a t t h e s k e t c h I make I s t o be j u d g e d b y i t s own i n t e r n a l l a w s , and n o t b y any c r i t e r i o n e x t e r n a l t o i t , w h e t h e r t h a t be a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l segment o r n o t . "  21. C r . E v o l . ,  p.  95.  2 1 a . A c c o r d i n g t o one o f t h e d i s c i p l e s , T . E . H u l m e s ( r e  Intuition)  I - i salt i  To p l a c e y o u r s e l f i n s i d e t h e o b j e c t ' ( i s ) no l o n g e r a merely metaphorical expression. I n t h a t s t a t e of m i n d i n w h i c h y o u f e e l a n d e x p e r i e n c e d u r a t i o n , and w h i c h we h a v e c a l l e d i n t u i t i o n , y S u a r e a c t u a l l y i n s i d e that stream of impulse which c o n s t i t u t e s life'. op. c i t . , p . 213. E d i t o r i a l i t a l i c s w o u l d he s u p e r f l u o u s . 1 , 1  1  22. An I n t r o d . ,  p.  8.  2 3 . l o c . c i t . , ¥ . T . S t a c e , The M e a n i n g o f B e a u t y ; q u o t e d i n P h . of Beauty, p . 302. 2 3 a . P e r h a p s t h e f o o t n o t e p . 3 7 6 , The M e a n i n g o f M e a n i n g a p p l i e s here a l s o . " C o l e r i d g e ' s ' w i l l i n g suspension of d i s b e l i e f i s p e r h a p s as h a d a d e s c r i p t i o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o f t h i s r e q u i r e d a c c e p t a n c e a s c o u l d he g i v e n . l A v , 4 "I J' A n i n v o l u n t a r y a c c e s s i o n o f c o n v i c t i o n ' w o u l d be better." 2 4 . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , we a r e r e m i n d e d how o p e n - m i n d e d W i l l a & m James was c o n c e r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w e r e d e n i e d him. c f . V a r i e t i e s of R e l i g i o u s Experience. 25.  cf.  "Our p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e n n o t a m e t a p h y s i c s b u t a met h o d o l o g y , a mode o f k n o w i n g w h i c h a p p r e h e n d s t h i s a c t i v e l i f e o f m i n d i n i t s c o n c r e t e n e s s and n o t i n i t s a b s t r a c t n e s s , and w h i c h a p p r e h e n d s i t f r o m w i t h i n a s immanent r e a l i t y o r l i f e and n o t f r o m w i t h o u t as t r a n s c e n d e n t r e a l i t y t y o r t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f . " — H . W i l don C a r r , P h i l , o f C r o c e , p . 3 9 .  26. Mor. & R e l . , p . 27.  216.  "The g r e a t e s t t h i n g b y f a r ( i n s t y l e ) i s t o h a v e a command of metaphor. T h i s a l o n e c a n n o t be i m p a r t e d b y a n o t h e r ; i t i s t h e mark o f g e n i u s , f o r t o make good m e t a p h o r s i m p l i e s a n eye f o r r e s e m b l a n c e s . " - - A r i s t o t l e (Butcher t r a n . , p. 87.)  quoted i n I Mor. & R e l , quoted i n 1 Or.  Evol.,  M o r . So R e l , ibid.,  p. 2  Mor. & R e l .  /  -13235.  cf.  Cr. Evol..  p , 35 e t  36. Mor. & R e l . , pp. 37.  seq.  31-2.  " I n v a i n do we e x t e n d o u r v i e w i n t o t h e h e a v e n s , and p r y i n t o t h e e n t r a i l s o f t h e e a r t h ; i n v a i n do we c o n s u l t t h e w r i t i n g s o f l e a r n e d men, and t r a c e t h e d a r k f o o t s t e p s o f a n t i q u i t y - - - w e need o n l y draw t h e c u r t a i n o f words to b e h o l d the f a i r e s t t r e e of knowledge whose f r u i t i s e x c e l l e n t and w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f o u r hand." B e r k e l e y , P r i n c i p l e s o f Human K n o w l e d g e , (Works; ed, F r a s e r ; v o l . I . , p . 154. Quoted by Ogden & R i c h a r d s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 6 . ) " . . . k n o w l e d g e of such a s o u l (the concept of w h i c h i s the c o n v e n t i o n a l one s u p p l i e d b y l a n g u a g e ) i s . . . i n c a p a b l e of e x t e n s i o n , nay, i t r i n g s h o l l o w at the f i r s t b l o w o f an o p p o s i n g p h i l o s o p h y . How much b e t t e r t o t u r n back to the vague suggestions of consciousness f r o m w h i c h we h a v e s t a r t e d , t o d e l v e i n t o them a n d f o l l o w them up t i l l we r e a c h a c l e a r i n t u i t i o n ! " B e r g s o n , Mor. & R e l . , p . 228. For c o n t r a s t ,  -  cf.  ti~"'  "What t h e R e l a t i v i t y handbook i s s a y i n g t h e w h o l e t i m e i s : How t r y and f e e l a b o u t a l l t h e s e t h i n g s /just l i k e a l i t t l e child. Look at a l l these t h i n g s p r i m i t i v e l y ! ! L o o k a t t h a t b i g s t a r up t h e r e , o r a t t h a t d u c k pond o v e r t h e r e , o r a t t h e image i n t h a t g r e a t b i g m i r r o r of t h a t funri\y l i t t l e g i r l or b o y . . . a s though y o u saw i t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e ! " Wyndham L e w i s , Time and W e s t e r n M a n , p . 4 1 6 . 38. An I n t r o d . , 39. Ency.  p.  31.  Brit.  40.  "Poetry always expresses inward s t a t e s . B u t amongst t h e s e s t a t e s some a r i s e m a i n l y f r o m c o n t a c t w i t h o u r fellow-men. They a r e t h e most i n t e n s e as w e l l as t h e most v i o l e n t . " Laughter, pp. 157-8. As Bergson grows more m y s t i c a l , he seems t o d r i f t further away f r o m t h i s s o c i a l v i e w o f a r t .  41.  " I f we t a k e f r o m a poem i t s m e t r e , w o r d s , p o e t i c a l t h o u g h t does remain b e h i n d : There remains The E s s e n c e o f A e s t h e t i c , p .  42. Laughter,  p.  154.  43. Mor. & R e l . , p.  182.  i t s r h y t h m , and I t s n o t , as some o p i n e , nothing." Croce, 44.  4  5  '  Cr. Evol.,  46. Laughter,  p.  272.  pp.  155-6.  47. Mor. & R e l . , p. 48.  ibid.,  p.  216.  49. I b i d . , p.  34.  50. i b i d . ,  95.  51.  p.  219.  Mind-Energy, pp.  52. Mor. & R e l . , p. 53.  ibid.,  p.  216.  54.  ibid..,  p.  217.  55.  ibid.,  pp.  56. i b i d . ,  p.  28-9. 28.  216-17. 35.  57. Mind- Energy,  p.  58. Laughter,  158-9.  59. I b i d . ,  pp.  pp.  153-4.  60. Mor. & R e l . , p. 61.  29.  78.  J u l ! e n B e n d a i s a n o t h e r who a t t a c k s v i c i o u s l y t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f t i m e - f l u x , w h i c h b e c a u s e o f i t s emphasis upon t h e I n t u i t i v e he s n e e r s " ( a r e ) e n t i r e l y made f o r w o m e n . . . M e n s t r u g g l e . . , . A l a s J They must succomb; t h e r e i s a d e g r e e o f u n i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and s h a m e l e s s , ness to w h i c h they w i l l never a t t a i n . " Belphegor, pp. 80-1. .. A n d r e m u s i c s " ( T h e ) i n s i s t e n c e on m u s i c a l a . z * n g a l l the a r t s i s the s t r o n g e s t i n d i c a t i o n of the d i l i g e n c e w i t h w h i c h o u r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s seek t o d e p r i v e a r t o f a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and t o demand f r o m i t mere s e n s a t i o n s u a h as one g e t s f r o m d r i n k i n g w i n e or from the fragrance of a f l o w e r . Moreover; music a c q u i r e s i t s h i g h p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r o p i n i o n not o n l y f o r i t s l a c k of form, but a l s o because of the s t a t e of pure a f f e c t i v i t y which i t i s able to create, because o f i t s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r e a l i z a t i o n o f a pure s t a t e from w h i c h a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s w i t h d r a w n and whose c o n d i t i o n i s v e g e t a t i v e and i r r e d u c i b l e t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y ; b e c a u s e o f i t s power to suggest r a t h e r than express." o p . c i t . , p . 28 v  :  I n c i d e n t a l l y , WJmdham L e w i s s h a r e s w i t h Benda same g r o t e s q u e p r e j u d i c e a b o u t m u s i c .  the  3  -13*62. Mor. & R e l . . p. 63. Laughter, p. -  6 4  Or. E v o l . ,  57.  p.  186.  65. Mor. & R e l . . p. .66. Laughter, p . 67. •  6 8  cf.  p. 7 f f .  70. i b i d . ,  «  pp.  cf.  Phil.  4. Ency.  167.  166-7.  CONCLUSION  Croce, p. pp.  47.  54-5.  c f . Herbert Read, op.  7. c f ,  supra.  Brit.  6. An I n t r o d u ,  8.  supra.  note 49, p . 127,  3. E s s e n c e ,  5.  166.  p.  CHAPTER POUR.  2  182.  ^ s s a y on t h e I m m e d i a t e D a t a o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s , p . 1 4 4 . quoted w i t h d i s a p p r o v a l by Benda, op. c i t . , p . 60.  69. Laughter,  \ l .  28.  p . 99  p.  cit.  57.  supra.  "Some p h i l o s o p h e r s have p u t f o r t h i d e a t h a t a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t or beauty i s a k i n d of ethereal, essence w h i c h , i n accomodation to f l e s h , i s compellecffuse e x t e r n a l s e n s u o u s m a t e r i a l as a v e h i c l e . The d o c t r i n e implies t h a t were not the s o u l i m p r i s o n e d i n the body, p i c t u r e s would e x i s t w i t h o u t c o l o r s , music w i t h o u t s o u n d s , and l i t e r a t u r e w i t h o u t w o r d s . Except, h o w e v e r , f o r c r i t i c s who t e l l us how t h e y f e e l w i t h o u t t e l l i n g o r k n o w i n g i n t e r m s o f m e d i a u s e d why/, ) t h e y f e e l a s t h e y d o , and e x c e p t f o r p e r s o n s who i d e n t i f y g u s h w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n , m e d i a and a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t a r e c o m p l e t e f u s e d . " - - - D e w e y , o p . c i t . , p . 199 4  9.  op. c i t . , p. 53. C f . a l s o , L i s t o w e l , A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y of M o d e r n A e s t h e t i c s , p p . 195 f f .  16.  c f . pp.. 7 f f .  supra.  11.  quoted i n H i s t o r y of Taste,  p.  263.  4-  -13,5BIBLIOGRAPHY  Alexander, Benda,  Ss  Julien:  Bergson,  Henri  A r t and I n s t i n c t . Clarendon Oxford, 1927. Belphegor.  Faber & Faber,  Creative Evolution.  Press,  London,  1929  M a c M i l l a n , London,  1911  L a u g h t e r ; an e s s a y on t h e meaning o f t h e comic. M a c M i l l a n , New f o r k . 1912. 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Reid, L , A:  A Study i n A e s t h e t i c s . London. 1931  George A l l e n & U n w i n ,  Ruhe, A l g o t & P a u l , Nancy M : H e n r i B e r g s o n ; an a c c o u n t o f h i s l i f e philosophy. M a c M i l l a n , London. Smith,  J. A:  and 1914.  The N a t u r e o f A r t ; an open l e t t e r t o t h e P r o f e s s o r o f P o e t r y i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , L o n d o n . 1924  Turquet-Milnes, G:  From P a s c a l to P r o u s t ; s t u d i e s i n the genealogy of a philosophy. Jonathon G p e , London. 1926. a  A r i s t o t e l i a n S o c i e t y s y m p o s i a , "Modern T e n d e n c i e s 1934. H a r r i s o n & Sons, London.  NOTE: r e C r o c e ' s 1.  i n Philosophy.  aesthetic:  The f o l l o w i n g i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f o o t n o t e appended b y E . F . C a r r i t t to h i s i n v a l u a b l e P h i l o s o p h i e s o f B e a u t y ; " S i g n o r G r o c e , i n g e n e r o u s l y a l l o w i n g me t o e x t r a c t f r o m h i s w r i t i n g s a s k e d t h a t s t r e s s s h o u l d be l a i d on the B r e v i a r i o £ \ a s r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s maturer thought, r a t h e r t h a n on t h e f u l l e r and more f u l l y a r g u e d E s t e t i c a ( 1 9 0 1 ) , and t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e a d i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s a r t i c l e on A e s t h e t i c s i n t h e 1 4 t h e d i t i o n o f t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a (1929). I h a v e f e l t b o u n d t o comply. There i s a t r a n s l a t i o n o f the B r e v i a r i o by A i n s l i e ( E s s e n t i a l s o f A e s t h e t i c , 1921)"  2. I t i s g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t A i n s l i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e c l u m s y , sometimes even t o t h e p o i n t o f m i s c o n s t r u i n g C r o c e ' s meaning.  -oOo-  

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