UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The aesthetics of Croce and Bergson McDonald, John Alexander 1936

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THE AESTHETICS OF CROCE AHDJ|3RG-SOI hy John Alexander McDonald -oOo-A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS (y—'i^'l1 i n the Department •'• v 7 PHILOSOPHY The University of Br i t i sh Colombia APRIL« 1936 P r e l i m i n a r y no te Were i t the cus tom t o d e d i c a t e M . A . t h e s e s , I s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y w i s h to d e d i c a t e t h i s one to the member's o f the l i b r a r y s t a f f o f t h i s U n i v e r s i t y , i f f o r no : o t h e r r e a s o n t han t h a t I have found them c o n s i s t e n t l y t o be m a r v e l s o f p a t i e n c e . J . A . M . The c r i t i c i s every i n s t a n t on the edge of metaphysics, Baudelaire -0O0-I have been t o l d that a e s t h e t i c s i s an "impossible" subject. I almost agree. A e s t h e t i c s , i f not wholly impossible, i s I v e r i l y b e l i v e , as d i f f i c u l t as any-t h i n g could w e l l be. I t i s d i f f i c u l t because i t courts vagueness and evades p r e c i s i o n . The a e s t h e t i c experience—.-and sthe a e s t h e t i c object i s a d e l i c a t e and e l u s i v e t h i n g , v a n i s h i n g at a touch. When we th i n k we have the object, s o l i d , coloured, resonant, we f i n d but the dampness of a disappearing cloud or the smell of a passing smoke. A e s t h e t i c s i s d i f f i -c u l t because i t demands t r e b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n - — t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of being a s e n s i t i v e a e s t h e t i c exper-i e n t , of being a competent witness, and of being able to analyse-the given data c l e a r l y and philosoph-i c a l l y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t because we mus't avoid the mere o b i t e r d i c t a of of a r t i s t s and connoisseurs on the one hand and mere pronouncements of system-making philosophers on the otherv I t i s d i f f i c u l t because there i s not one a e s t h e t i c experience but man, and i t simply w i l l not do to manufacture a theory which f i t s one a r t and f i t s none of the r e s t . On the other, hand, a e s t h e t i c theory must be as exact as i t can, and must not, i n i t s attempt to be general, lapse i n t o nebulousness. L.A. Reid -0O0-G O j T E p S P r e l i m i n a r y n o t e CHAPTER ONE. HISTORICAL PEES PEC T I V E P r e l i m i n a r y I . CLASSICAL AESTHETICS 1 • P l a t o ' s a e s t h e t i c s 2. Emphasis on A r t ' a s I m i t a t i o n 3 • B e a u t y as a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e s o u l ; a f o r e s h a d o w -i n g o f s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s m 4• P l o t i n u s s t h e d i c h o t o m y r e s o l v e d 5• The C l a s s i c Age r a t i f i e s , t h e " R u l e s " o f A r t I I . THE EMERGENCE OJ?vA FEW IDEAL 1 • The monadology o f L e i b n i t z s • Vague s t i r r i n g s o f a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y i n t h e S e i c e n t o 3. The p l a c e o f I m a g i n a t i o n i n a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y ^• V i c e and t h e g e n e t i c c o n c e p t o f a r t . I I I . THE INTELLECTUAL1ST TRADITION REMAIHS ACTIVE 1 „ Baumgarten: c o n t i n u i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t t r a d i t i o n 2 T h e c f d r m a l i s m o f K a n t 3. C r o c e ' s e s t i m a t e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f K a n t 4• The p o s t - K a j i t i a n movement IV . AHTI-METAPHYSICAL REACTION 1 • S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s e m o t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y f o r e s h a d o w s t h e a n t i - m e t a p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n 2• Prom b i o l o g y : t h e t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n 3. P s y c h o l o g y : t h e e m p i r i c a l a p p r o a c h to a r t V. CONCLUSION COJ^TENTS ( c o n t . ) CHAPTER TWO. CROCE P r e l i m i n a r y 1 • ( a ) S o u r c e s o f G r o c e ' s a e s t h e t i c ("b ) P r o c e ' s p h i 1 oBoplay o f mind 2.(a) T h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f b e a u t y , b ) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t u i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n 3• (a) A r t not f e e l i n g ' i n i t s iramediacy ("b) B e a u t y and u g l i n e s s 4 . fa) The s e n s i b l e o b j e c t n o t t h e r e a l work o f a ("b / D i f f i c u l t y t h i s i n v o l v e s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( 0 ) A r t as l a n g u a g e 5. ( a ) The l n d i v i s l a b i l i t y o f a r t ("bJ E x t e n s i o n , b u t no d e g r e e s o f b e a u t y (c ) The autonomy o f a r t 6. A r t and l i f e CHAPTER THREE. . BJIRJJSON P r e l i m i n a r y 1 • B e r g s o n ' s p h i 1 o s ophy o f Be coming 2• The two modes o f knowledge 3 • The d i f f i c u l t y o f l a n g u a g e 4. The a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y • (b j t h e a r t i s t ( c ) t h e u n i n s p i r e d CHAPTER POUR. C O H C L U S I 0 1 J CHAPTER Om. HISTORICAL ESLSPECTIV1 P r e l i m i n a r y . I f an H i s t o r i c a l sketch, p r e f a c i n g an a c c o u n t of t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f two c o n t e m p o r a r i e s r e q u i r e s d e f e n s e , i t may he f o u n d , i n t h i s c a s e , i n t h e a u t h o r s t h e m s e l v e s . B o t h C r o c e and B e r g s o n a r e Time p h i l o s o p h e r s , who r e g a r d r e a l i t y as Becoming r a t h e r t h a n B e i n g : f o r each, l i f e i s an u n f o l d i n g and e x p r e s s i o n . Hence, t o know t h e p r e s e n t , one must know t h e p a s t , f o r t h e p r e s e n t c o n t a i n s t h e p a s t w i t h i n i t . The man who s a i d , "The dead w r i t e r s a r e remote f r o m us b e c a u s e we know so much vmore t h a n t h e y d i d " , no doubt ex-p r e s s e d a v i e w o f t h e past.common t o most o f u s . B u t when suc h myopia, o v e r t a k e s us we w o u l d do w e l l to r e c a l l T.S. E l i o t ' s d r y r e j o i n d e r : " P r e c i s e l y , and t h e y a r e t h a t w h i c h we know." I t i s p e r f e c t l y t r u e t h a t t h e v i e w o f h i s t o r y h e l d b y k C l a s s i c i s t , s u c h as E l i o t , d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y f r o m t h a t o f a Romantic p h i l o s o p h e r : ( i f we may r i s k a n o t h e r p a i r o f t a g s ) .the v i e w o f t i m e h e l d b y t h e one i s s t a t i c , and b y t h e o t h e r , dynamic. E v e n t h e s e t a g s a r e not as n e u t r a l as we might w i s h them t o be, f o r " s t a t i c " and. "dynamic" c o n n o t e n o t i o n s o f v i t a l i t y w h i c h a r e a p t q u i t e t o c o n f u s e the i s s u e . But f o r our p u r p o s e h e r e i t i s enough^ to n o t e t h a t a l l would s u b s c r i b e t o C r o c e ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t "We can n o t j u d g e t h e t r u t h o f an answer u n l e s s we u n d e r s t a n d t h e . m e a n i n g o'f t h e q u e s t i o n , and so i f we w o u l d j u d g e t h e t r u t h o f a p h . i l -• 1 osophy we must know t h e h i s t o r y . " H. W i l d o n C a r r , e c h o i n g t h e t h o u g h t o f C r o c e , ex-p r e s s e s i n d i f f e r e n t terms t h e p o i n t made b y E l i o t : "The -2-ph.ilosoph.er o f t o - d a y , however much he may w i s h t o , c a n n o t c a s t o f f f r o m h i m t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h he l i v e s , n o r can he t r e a t e v e n t s w h i c h have happened as t h o u g h t h e y had not happened. Those e v e n t s a r e hone o f h i s hone, f l e s h o f h i s f l e s h , to d i v e s t h i m s e l f o f them i s i m p o s s i b l e . He must t a k e them i n t o a c c o u n t , he must know h i s t o r i c a l l y , and a c c o r d i n g to t h e f u l n e s s o f h i s h i s t o r i c a l knowing i s t h e f u l n e s s o f 2 h i s p h i l o s o p h y . " And. only v i e w i n g , a p h i l o s o p h e r ' s w r i t i n g s i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e can we hope t o r e c o g n i z e t o what e x t e n t t h e y a r e o r i g i n a l . T h i s f a c t i s f o r c i b l y b o r n e - u p o n anyong who happens to rea-d^, say, t h e C l a . s s i c p h i l o s o p h e r ^ , p a r -t i c u l a r l y P l o t i n u s , a f t e r h a v i n g r e a d B e r g s o n . I m m e d i a t e l y one's e s t i m a t e o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y u n d e r g o e s a r e a d j u s t m e n t . T h i s s i n g l e i n s t a n c e w i l l , p e r h a p s , s u f f i c i e n t l y u n d e r l i n e t h e m o r a l b y w h i c h t h e h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s g i v e n below seeks to j u s t i f y i t s e l f . Whether or n o t t h e v i o l e n t f o r e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t a k e n c a n be j u s t i f i e d on t h e s c o r e o f s p a c e l i m i t a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , a n o t h e r m a t t e r . I . CLASSICAL AESTHETICS !• P l a t o ' s a e s t h e t i c . E.P. C a r r i t t makes t h i s p r o v o c a t i v e s t a t e m e n t , " I f I had to choose t h e two a u t h o r s who might g i v e most i n s i g h t i n t o what i s meant b y a e s t h e t i c , I s h o u l d choose one f r o m each end o f t h e s e r i e s , P l a t o and C r o c e . i f I had. 3 t o choose one i t w o u l d be P l a t o . " I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t , t o P l a t o - 3 -a l l s u c c e s s i v e t h e o r i s e r s on a r t , o r " a e s t h e t i c i a n s " to use a c l u m s y word owe more or l e s s d i r e c t l y a g r e a t d e b t . B u t i t need n o t s u r p r i s e us t o d i s c o v e r i n i r i s w r i t i n g s c e r t a i n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w h i c h have aggravated, c o n f u s i o n i n a, s u b j e c t i-rr-er---s-u4>;3-&<3-t s e e m i n g l y i n t r i n s i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t . I n one b r a n c h o f h i s t h e o r y P l a t o seems to r e g a r d a r t as an i m i t a t i o n , b u t b e i n g an i m i t a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e t h e m s e l v e s o n l y c o p i e s o f t h e i n t e l l i g i b l e u n i v e r s a l s \ _ o r i d e a s , i t i s an i l l u s i o n t h r e e t i m e s removed f r o m r e a l i t y . T r u t h , however, can be g o t o n l y about u n i v e r s a l s , h ence we must not be m i s l e d i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t we can g e t t r i \ t h i n t h e a r t i s t ' s w o r l d o f i l l u s i o n . And a l t h o u g h a r t c l e a r l y y i e l d s p l e a s u r e , i t i s apt to s t i r t h e p a s s i o n s ; f o r t h i s P l a t o f e l t compelled, t o r u l e t h e a r t i s t s f r o m h i s i d e a l R e p u b l i c . (Bote h e r e a j u s t i c a t i o n l e n t to t h e P u r i t a n vie\v o f a r t . I t i s b u t a s t e p f r o m t h i s to t h e c r u d e n o t i o n t h a t a r t i s t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y immoral p e r s o n s . ) A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f P l a t o ' s d o c t r i n e , however, t r e a t s beauty_ as an e d u c a t i o n . I n h i s Symposium P l a t o d e v e l o p s t h e t h e s i s t h a t b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s p o i n t to a b s o l u t e b e a u t y . And t h i s a b s o l u t e becomes l i n k e d w i t h two -other a b s o l u t e s t o f o r m t h e i l l u s t r i o u s t r i a d , t h e T r u e , t h e Good, and t h e B e a u t i f u l . " ( 2 1 0 E . } When a. man h a s gone deep enough i n t h e l o r e o f l o v e , and. t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h i n g s o f b e a u t y i n t h e i r due o r d e r , and has a t l a s t become a -master i n t h a t s c h o o l , t h e r e s h a l l dawn upon h i s eyes a v i s i o n o f s u r p a s s i n g b e a u t y , f o r whose sake he endured a l l h i s f o r m e r t o i l s ; a b e a u t y w h i c h , place i n t h e f i r s t , i s e t e r n a l , w i t h o u t b e g i n n i n g and w i t h o u t end, u n b e g o t t e n and w i t h o u t d e c a y ; and s e c o n d l y , i s not b e a u t y f u l - 4 -i n one way and u g l y i n a n o t h e r , nor b e a u t i f u l a t one t i m e o r p l a c e o r f r o m one p o i n t o f v i e w and t h e n a g a i n u g l y , as i f i t s b e a u t y depended upon t h e b e h o l d e r s . . .When anyjone c l i m b s t h e l a d d e r o f t r u e l o v e i n t h i s w o r l d t i l l he c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f t h a t o t h e r b e a u t y , he has a l m o s t a t t a i n e d h i s g o a l . And t h i s i s t h e t r u e d i s c i p l i n e o f l o v i n g or/b"eing l o v e d : t h a t a man b e g i n w i t h t h e b e a u t ^ i e s o f t h i s "world and use them as s t e p -p i n g - s t o n e s f o r an u n c e a s i n g j o u r n e y t o t h a t o t h e r b e a u t y , g o i n g f r o m one to two and f r o m two t o a l l , and f r o m b e a u t i f u l c r e a t u r e s to b e a u t i f u l l i v e s , and f r o m b e a u t i f u l l i v e s t o b e a u t i f u l t r u t h s , and f r o m b N e a u t i f u l t r u t h s a t t a i n i n g f i n a l l y t o n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e t r u e knowledge of. B e a u t y i t ' s e l f , and 4 so t o know a t l a s t , what B e a u t y i s . " I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n mind t h a t P l a t o ' s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e U n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r o f b e a u -t i f u l t h i n g s made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o r e m a i n c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i n d e p e n d e n t i n t r i n s i c a p p e a l o f s e n s u o u s b e a u t y and works o f a r t r e f l e c t i n g s u c h b e a u t y . When we come to c o n s i d e r t h e a e s t h e t i c o f C l a s s i c i s m , we s h a l l see what a s t u l t i f y i n g e f f e c t upon a r t s u c h a d o c t r i n e was to l e a d t o . But t h e t e x t u r e o f P l a t o ' s w r i t i n g s i s so r i c h t h a t we may s e l e c t o t h e r s t r a n d s t o s e r v e as t h e warp upon w h i c h t o weave t h e o r i e s o f a r t c l o s e r t o our f a n c y . I n t h e Timaeus, f o r example, t h e i d e a i s de-v e l o p e d t o some e x t e n t t h a t t h e b e a u t y o f s i g h t s and sounds i s e x p r e s s i v e o f s p i r i t u a l s t a t e s : " ( 4 7 B.) God d e v i s e d t h e g i f t o f s i g h t f o r us so t h a t we m i g h t o b s e r v e t h e movements w h i c h have been d e s c r i b e d b y r e a s o n i n t h e h e a v e n s , and a p p l y them t o t h e m o t i o n s o f o u r own minds, w h i c h a r e a k i n t o them, 0 so f a r as what i s t r o u b l e d can c l a i m k i n s h i p w i t h fthat i s s e r e n e . F o r so we migh t l e a r n a l e s s o n , and. by e n t e r i n g i n t o the i d e a l n a t u r e o f t h a t d e s i g n and i m i t a t i n g the p e r f e c t p a t -t e r n se t ~bj God migh t a d j u s t t h e r e t o our own random m o t i o n s . . . And rhy thm a g a i n was g i v e n as f rom the same sou rce and f o r the same pu rnose , to h e l p us i n d e a l i n g w i t h what i s unmeasured 5 and c h a o t i c i n the minds o f most o f u s . " A g a i n , i n the P h i l e b u s we f i n d the germ o f the c o n -t empora ry f a s h i o n a b l e d o c t r i n e o f S i g n i f i c a n t Form; " (51 33. S o c r a t e s ) ; I do not now i n t e n d by b e a u t y o f shapes what most p e o p l e w o u l d e x p e c t , such asN t h a t o f l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s o r p i c -t u r e s , b u t , f o r the purpose o f my argument , I mean s t r a i g h t l i n e s and c u r v e s and the s u r f a c e s or s o l i d forms p roduced out ^ o f t hese by l a t h e s and r u l e r s and s q u a r e s , i f you u n d e r s t a n d me. F o r I mean t h a t t h e s e a re not b e a u t i f u l r e l a t i v e l y , l i k e o t h e r t h i n g s , bu t a lways and n a t u r a l l y and a b s o l u t e l y ; and t h e y have t h e i r p r o p e r p l e a s u r e s , no way depend ing on the i t c h o f d e s i r e . And I mean c o l o u r s o f the same k i n d , w i t h the same 6 k i n d o f b e a u t y and p l e a s u r e s . " 2 . The emphasis on A r t as I m i t a t i o n . Many of P l a t o ' s most s u g g e s t i v e i d e a s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the l a s t one q u o t e d , h e l d no a t t r a c t i o n f o r h i s s u c c e s s o r s . The a e s t h e t i c t r i n i t y : the Good, the True and the B e a u t i f u l ; and the concep t o f A r t as I m i t a t i o n w e r e , however , g i v e n an added a u t h o r i t y by P l a t o ' s younger con tempora ry , A r j t i s t o t l e , and f o r s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s t h e y w e r E r e g a r d e d as s a c r o s a n c t . A r t i s t o t l e , s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , and ^He p a t r o n s a i n t o f the Age o f C l a s s i c i s m , - 6 -t a u g h t t h a t as a r t d e a l s n o t w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s b u t w i t h U n i v e r -s a l e , t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t was t o d e s c r i b e o r i m i t a t e n o t what has been, b u t what m i g h t be, o r ought t o be; f o r h i m A r t was t h e i d e a l i z i n g i m i t a t i o n o f a g i v e n r e a l i t y . " S i n c e T r a g e d y i s an i m i t a t i o n o f p e r s o n s who a r e above t h e common l e v e l , t h e example o f good p r o t r a i t - p a i n t e r s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d , They, w h i l e p r o d u c i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f o r m o f t h e o r i g i n a l , make a l i k e n e s s w h i c h i s t r u e t o l i f e and y e t more b e a u t i f u l . So t o o t h e p o e t , i n r e p r e s e n t i n g men who a r e i r a s c i b l e o r i n ~ d o l e n t , o r h a v e o t h e r d e f e c t s o f c h a r a c t e r , s h o u l d p r e s e r v e t h e t y p e and ennoble i t . . . . These- then, a r e r u l e s t h e p o e t s h o u l d o b s e r v e . M'or s h o u l d he n e g l e c t a p p e a l s t o t h e s e n s e , # w h i c h t h o u g h not among t h e e s s e n t i a l s , axe t h e c o n c o m i t a n t s o f p o e t r y . " >& T r u e , t h e r e a r e "modern" n o t i o n s about a r t to f o u n d A. i n A r i s t o t l e ; t a k e , f o r example, "not t o know t h a t a h i n d has no h o r n s i s a l e s s s e r i o u s m a t t e r t h a n t o p a i n t i t i n a r t i s t i -7 c a l l y . " N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e e f f e c t o f s u c h s u g g e s t i o n s as t h e s e p r o v e d t o have been n e g a t e d b y t h e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e upon h i s s u c c e s s o r s o f h i s c o n c e p t o f " i m i t a t i o n " and t h e " p r i n c i p l e s " o f a r t . 3• B e a u t y as a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e ^ s o u l ; a f o r e s h a d o w i n g o f sub,j e c t i y e i d e a l i s i n . An i m p o r t a n t t r i b u t a r y w h i c h j o i n e d w i t h t h e m i g h t i e r c u r r e n t o f " A r i s t o t l e 1 s a e s t h e t i c t o f e e d t h e main s t r e a m o f p h i l o s o p h i c t h o u g h t i n trie M i d d l e Ages and t h e Re-n a i s s a n c e was t h a t o f L o n g i n u s , a w r i t e r o f t h e F i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. ' I n h i s Der S u b l i m i t a t e , p o p u l a r i z e d by B o i l e a u , he o u t l i n e d # i t a l i c s mine. t h e t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e may he two t y p e s o f b e a u t y i n b o t h a r t and n a t u r e , one u s u r p i n g t h e g e n e r i c name, and t h e o t h e r c a l l e d l o f t y , e l e v a t e d and g r e a t . The l a t t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o E . P . C a r r i t t . , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f L o n g i n u s , a p p e a l s t o a c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h a r a c t e r o f c a p a c i t y o f o u r own, w h i c h we r e c o g n i z e as embodied i n i t , w h i l e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f b e a u t y i n t h e narrow s e n s e i s mere i n -o f f e n s i v e n e s s . "The h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n h a s b e e n v e r y g r e a t , " C a r r i t t s a y s ; " i t shows i t s e l f whenever, owing t o new f a s h i o n s i n a r t , o r new d i s c o v e r i e s i n a r c h a e o l o g y , men become a c u t e l y v c o n s c i o u s o f d i s c r e p a n c y among t h e i r own 9 t a s t e s o r between the t a s t e s s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f a t h e r s . " " S u b l i m i t y , " s a i d L o n g i n u s , " i s t h e echo o f a g r e a t s o u l . . . T h e s o u l seems to be n a t u r a l l y u p l i f t e d , by t r u e s u b l i m -i t y and, r i s i n g on l o f t i e r p i n i o n s , to be f i l l e d w i t h j o y and 10 p r i d e , as h a v i n g i t s e l f b r o u g h t f o r t h what i t has h e a r d . " A s e n t i m e n t w h i c h we s h a l l d i s c o v e r echoed i n G r o c e . 4. P l o t i n u s i t h e d i c h o t o m y resolved... P l o t i n u s h o l d s an e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t f o r t h e s t u d e n t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a e s t h e t i c s , f o r i n t h e Enneads he w i l l be a b l e t o t r a c e t h e same t e n d e n c y t o " i r r a t i o n a l m y s t i c i s m " o f w h i c h t h o s e t o d a y l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e I d e a l i s t i c and s p i r i t u a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n a r e a c c u s e d . G r o c e , one o f i t s l e a d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , s e l e c t s as P l o t i n u s ' t i t l e to fame t h a t i t was he "who f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e u n i t e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c o n n e c t e d c o n c e p t s o f ' a r t ' and 'the beautiful'.» P l o t i n u s r e g a r d e d a l l b e a u t y as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e d i v i n e e s s e n s e , God; p h y s i c a l b e a u t y as the u n i f i c a t i o n o f o f t h e f o r m l e s s m u l t i p l i c i t y o f m a t t e r by t h e u n i t y o f some e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r , - - - i n n a t u r e p r o d u c e d b y t h e w o E l d - s o u l , and i n a r t by t h e w o r l d - s o u l as m a n i f e s t e d i n a human s o u l . . . "Our b e l i e f i s t h a t t h e (human.) s o u l , b e i n g what i t i s , and be- • l o n g i n g t o t h e w o r l d o f t r u e r e a l i t y , when i t s e e s what i s a k i n to i t or a t r a c e o f k i n s h i p , acknowledge i t w i t h t r a n s p o r t and 10 i s r e m i n d e d o f I t s e l f and o f i t s own t h i n g s . " " N a t u r e , w h i c h has created... . b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s , i s b e a u t i f u l i n a p r i o r s e n s e j y e t we, who a r e wont t o have no s e n s e o f knowledge o f s p i r i t u a l t h i n g s , f o l l o w a f t e r m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , not r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t i s i s t h e s p i r i t u a l w h i c h m o v e s y u s . As i f one s e e i n g h i s own r e - . 11 f l e c t i o n , and knowing n o t whence i t came, s h o u l d p u r s u e t h a t . " The l e n g t h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n on the n a t u r e and o r i g i n o f a r t i s t i c b e a u t y e x c u s e s i t s e l f b y t h e l i g h t i t w i l l c a s t upon t h e a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . " ( V . i i i . ) l . Suppose two t h i n g s , two s t o n e s f o r i n s t a n c e , l y -i n g s i d e by s i d e i n s p a c e , one s h a p e l e s s and u n t o u c h e d by a r t , t h e o t h e r subdued a l r e a d y b y a r t i n t o t h e image o f god or man, some G r a c e o r Muse, p e r h a p s , i f i t be d i v i n e , o r , i f human, not any i n d i v i d u a l , b u t composed, o f a l l b e a u t i e s . That s t o n e w h i c h t h e a r t h a s f o r m e d to t h e b e a u t y o f an e s s e n t i a l c h a r -a c t e r I s n o t b e a u t i f u l i n v i r t u e o f b e i n g a s t o n e , f o r t h a n the o t h e r w o u l d have b e e n so e q u a l l y , b u t i n v i r t u e o f t h e c h a r -which- t h e a r t has g i v e n i t . Now t h i s e s s e n c e or c h a r a c t e r was not i n t h e m a t e r i a l , b u t was i n t h e c o n c e i v i n g mind, even b e -f o r e - i t e n t e r e d i n t o t h e s t o n e . But i t was i n t h e a r t i s t n o t b y v i r t u e o f h i s h a v i n g eyes and, hands, b u t b y v i r t u e o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . And t h i s b e a u t y , a l r e a d y comprehended i n h i s I m a g i n a t i o n , was f a r g r e a t e r . F o r t h i s went n o t out o f h i m i n t o t h e s t o n e , h u t abode w i t h h i m .and gave b i r t h t o a l e s s e r b e a u t y . And even s o , t h i s l e s s e r b e a u t y c o u l d not t h e r e p r e -s e r v e t h e p u r i t y o f t h e d e s i g n , b u t o n l y so f a r as t h e s t o n e was subdued to t h e a r t . But i f t h e e x t e r n a l p r o d u c t o f t h e a r t i s a f t e r a r t ' s own n a t u r e and image, and i f what a r t p r o -duces i s ' b e a u t i f u l so f a r as t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o d u c t a l l a y s , t h e n t h e s h a p i n g s p i r i t must be more h i g h l y and t r u ^ l y b e a u t i -f u l , , s i n c e i t has t h e t r u l y a r t i s t i c b e a u t y , which--.is g r e a t e r and more b e a u t i f u l &han e x i s t s i n a n y t h i n g e x t e r n a l . . . "But i f a n y one c e n s u r e t h e a r t s on t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e i r p r o d u c t s o n l y copy t h e o r i g i n a l s o f nature,, we may r e -p l y t h a t n a t u r a l o b j e c t s , t o o , a r e c o p i e s o f an O r i g i n a l . A n d f u r t h e r we must r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e arts." do not m e r e l y copy t h e v i s i b l e world, b u t a s c e n d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f w h i c h n a t u r e i s 13#~ b u i l t up." And what f a c u l t y e n a b l e s one t o "ascend t o t h e p r i n -c i p l e s on w h i c h n a t u r e i s b u i l t up"? I m a g i n a t i o n , i s what P l o t i n u s c a l l e d , it,*. "LV. i i i . 18.) D e l i b e r a t e r e a s o n i n g o c c u r s i n our m o r t a l l i f e when t h e s o u l - i s u n c e r t a i n and t r o u b l e d and n o t a t I t s b e s t . F o r t h e need of. r e a s o n i n g i s a d e f e c t o r  i n a d e q u a c y o f ^ sppr.ehension ' p hSb i-hethe^ar.tsip.when a r t i s t s f a l t e r , r e a s o n i n g t a k e s t h e r e i n s ; b u t when t h e r e i s n o ' h i t c h 14# " t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n g o v e r n s them and a c h i e v e s t h e work. "j^T) We s h a l l have c a u s e t o remember the d i s t i n c t i o n P l o t i n u s has h e r e drawn when we come to d i c u s s t h e I n t u i t i o n o f G r o c e and o f B e r g s o n . // i t a l i c s mine . -10- . .. -5. The C l a s s i c Age r a t i f i e s t h e "Rules" o f A r t . The t r u t h c o n -t a i n e d i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f P l o t i n u 3 above r e f e r r e d t o r e -mained v i r t u a l l y h i d d e n f o r t h e span o f f i f t e e n h u n d r e d y e a r s c o m p r i s i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , and t h e . C l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l . A r t i n t h e M i d d l e Ages was s u b o r d i n a t e d t o m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y . The R e n a i s s a n c e , f o r a l l t h e f i n e f l o w e r -i n g of ir,s a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , was c o n t e n t f o r t h e most p a r t t o l e a n upon t h e a p r i o r i canons o f t h e A n c i e n t s i t had newly 15 d i s c o v e r e d . I n t h e words o f C r o c e , "Hp t h i n k e r a r o s e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g f o r t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t r e a t i s e s on p o e t r y and a r t what M a c h i a v e l l i d i d f o r p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , a s s e r t i n g w i t h emphasis, not m e r e l y b y t h e way and as an a d m i s s i o n , i t s o r i g i n a l and 16 autonomous c h a r a c t e r . " And t h e Academy o f P r a n c e , t h a t a r b i t e r o f ta,ste i n t h e C l a s s i c Age o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and. e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , had as i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e " p r e ' c i s e r l e s p a s s i o n s " and t h e l e g i s l a t i n g o f t h e i n f l e x i b l e r u l e s o f a r t . " I t i s an i n s u f f e r a b l e abuse," w r o t e F r e a r t de Chaiabray, a l e a d i n g A c a d e m i c i a n , " t o c o n f o u n d p a i n t i n g w i t h t h e m e c h a n i c a l a r t s , s i n c e she i s f o u n d e d upon a d e m o n s t r a b l e s c i e n c e , c l e a r e r and more r e a s o n a b l e t h a n t h a t p e d a n t i c p h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h p r o d u c e s f o r us n o t h i n g b u t Q u e s t i o n s and Doubts...whereas o u r P a i n t i n g , e s t a b l i s h e d upon t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f Geometry, makes a t t h e same time a d o u b l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f what she r e p r e s e n t s . B u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y to have two o t h e r eyes t o e n j o y h e r b e a u t y t r u l y ; f o r t h e eyes o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t h e f i r s t and p r i n c i p a l j u d g e 17 of. her-Works." I n F r a n c e a t t h a t t i m e an academic c o n t r o v e r s y was w a g i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f c o l o u r and d e s i g n i n - i l -i a a p a i n t i n g . Those who u p h e l d T i t i a n and Kubens a g a i n s t R a p h a e l and P o u s s i n were t h o u g h t t o be r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . De P i l e s , one o f t h e most d a r i n g p r o t a g o n i s t s o f c o l o u r , d e c l a r e d t h a t T i t i a n m i g h t h ave s u r p a s s e d even R a p h a e l had he s t u d i e d , t h e a n t i q u e . " G ' e s t l e d e s s i n q u i f a i t l e m e r i t e ' de l a p e i n t u r e e t non pas l e c o l o u r " e x p r e s s e d t h e c o n s e n s u s o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e o p i n i o n . As one may g a t h e r f r o m s e e i n g t h e p a i n t i n g s o f P o u s s i n , t h e a n t i q u e p r o v i d e d t h e e m o t i o n a l k e y f o r t h e works o f a r t a t t h a t t i m e . The a r t i s t s o f a n c i e n t G r e e c e had a h h e r e d t o a t y p e - f o r m o f b e a u t y ; - " l a b e l i e n a t u r e " i t came to be c a l l e d i n P r a n c e . I n a t r e a t i s e w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t t i t l e , L e s beaux A r t s r e d u i t s a un raeme i g r i n c i p e , t h e Abbe' B a t t e u x made i t . t h e c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e o f M s a e s t h e t i c , "La b e l l e n a t u r e , s u c h as she ought t o be r e p r e s e n t e d b y a r t , i n c l u d e s a l l t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e b e a u t i f u l and t h e good. She i s t o e n t e r t a i n t h e mind by t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f o b j e c t s , w h i c h , p e r f e c t i n t h e m s e l v e s , a r e c a p a b l e o f r e n d e r i n g our i d e a s l i k e w i s e more e x t e n s i v e and p e r f e c t . T h i s i s t h e b e a u t i f u l . She i s l i k e w i s e to i n d u l g e t h e h e a r t b y p o i n t i n g out i n t h o s e o b j e c t s s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s as a r e more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g to i t , i n t e n d i n g e i t h e r to p r e s e r v e or improve our b e i n g . T h i s i s t h e good; w h i c h j o i n e d to t h e b e a u t i f u l , i n one and t h e -same o b j e c t , g i v e s to i t a l l t h e q u a l i t i e s - n e c e s s a r y , as much f o r t h e e n t e r t a i n i n g 19 as f o r t h e p e r f e c t i n g o f h e a r t and mind." I n E n g l a n d t h e C l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e creed, o f S i r J o s h u a R e y n o l d s and S i r C h r i s t o p h e r ¥ r e n . The former, i n h i s famous and s t i l l i n f l u e n t i a l D i s c o u r s e s , r e s t a t e d t h e d o c t r i n e e n u n c i a t e d b y A r i s t o t l e t w e n t y c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e . " A l l t h e o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e e x h i b i t e d to our v i e w by N a t u r e , upon c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l be f o u n d t o have t h e i r b l e m i s h e s and d e f e c t s . The most b e a u t i f u l .forms have s o m e t h i n g about them l i k e weakness, m i n u t e n e s s , o r i m p e r f e c t i o n . . . T h e P a i n t e r who aims a t t h e g r e a t e s t s t y l e . . . c o r e c t s N a t u r e b y h e r s e l f , h e r i m p e r f e c t s t a t e by h e r more p e r f e c t . H i s eye b e i n g e n a b l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h t h e a c c i d e n t a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , e x c r e s c e n c e s , and ^ d e f o r m i t i e s o f t h i n g s , f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l f i g u r e s , he makes out an a b s t r a c t i d e a o f t h e i r forms more p e r f e c t t h a n any one o r i g i n a l . . . . T h i s i d e a o f the\ p e r f e c t s t a t e o f N a t u r e , w h i c h t h e a r t i s t c a l l s t h e I d e a l b e a u t y , i s t h e g r e a t l e a d i n g p r i n c i p l e 20 by w h i c h works o f g e n i u s a r e c o n d u c t e d . " 6* Summary. I f o u r c o n c e r n h e r e were w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f s t y l e i n p a i n t i n g we might commence t o d i s c u s s ; now t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n f l u e n c e s o f Rousseau, C o n s t a b l e and D e l a c r o i x , and t h e c o n -f l i c t o f t h e l a s t named w i t h t h e d i s c i p l e o f t h e C l a s s i c i s t , P o u s s i n D a v i d . I n s t e a d , our p u r p o s e i s t o t r a c e t h e main d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r e n t o f a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as r e v e a l e d , i n t h e work o f B e r g s o n and C r o c e . S u f f i c i e n t f o r our p u r p o s e a t " t h i s s t a g e i s " t o - e m p h a s i z e ' t h a t the C l a s s i c i d e a l was a. s t a t i c i d e a l ; t h e a r t i s t ' s f u n c t i o n was t o embody an a b s t r a c t i d e a o f p e r f e c t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d b y t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e . The u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t i e s were P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e , o f t e n a r b i t r a r i l y i n t e r p r e t e d . O r d e r and " t h e g o l d e n mean" were t h e watchwords, w h i c h we have seen, came to be a t r o p h i e d i n t o t h e dogmas o f t h e P r e n c h Academy. I I . THE EMERGENCE OE A NEW IDEAL 1;. The monadology o f L e i b n i t z . ; C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e growth o f A c a d e m i c i s m t h e r e were a t work f o r c e s a t f i r s t l i t t l e h e e d e d w h i c h r e s u l t e d u l t i m a t e l y i n t h e breakdown o f t h e C l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . P r i o r even t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h Academy, . 21 L e i b n i t z (1646-1716) h a d e v o l v e d a dynamic u n i v e r s e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e of" c o n t i n u i t y o p e r a t i n g Int.hothgo.rganic development and m e n t a l l i f e . H i s d i s c o v e r y o f t h e p r i n c i p l e . o f change t h r o u g h i n s e n s i b l e d e g r e e s , w i t h emphasis on m i n u t e p r o c e s s e s , i n f i n i t e s i m a l s , p e t i t e s p e r c e p t i o n s ( s u b c o n s c i o u s ) w h i c h h e r -a l d e d t h e c u r r e n t e v o l u t i o n i s t d o c t r i n e marks a d e c i d e d r e a c t i a g a i n s t , o r , more p r o p e r l y , a d i v e r g e n c e f r o m , t h e s h a r p d i v -i s i o n s o f f o r m a l c a t e g o r i e s o f c l a s s i c i s m . H i s U n i v e r s e ^ w a s c o m p r i s e d o f a h i e r a r c h i c s y s t e m o f monads, e a c h monad b e i n g u n i q u e , e x i s t i n g i n i t s own r i g h t , e a c h , w h a t e v e r i t s d e g r e e 22 of c o m p l e x i t y , r e f l e c t i n g t h e s o u l - l i f e . The s t o r y i s t o l d t h a t a t o n e ; o f h i s l e c t u r e s , h a v i n g e x p l a i n e d t h a t no o b j e c t (monad) was l i k e any o t h e r o b j e c t , he : s e n t h i s i n c r e d u l o u s a u d i e n c e out i n t o t h e g a r d e n to' see, f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h a t no s i n g l e b l a d e of-.grass was e x a c t l y l i k e any o t h e r b l a d e o f g r a s s I n 1684, he w r o t e i n h i s M e d i t a t i o n s on Knowledge, T r u t h , and I d e a s ; "An o b s c u r e o r v a g u e i d e a i s one t h a t does not s u f f i c e f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s o b j e c t . . . I f I can r e - , c o g n i z e t h e t h i n g I h a v e c l e a r o r v i v i d knowledge o f i t , b u t t h i s a g a i n may be e i t h e r c o n f u s e d ( s e n s u o u s ) o r d i s t i n c t ( i n t e l l e c t u a l ) . I t i s c o n f u s e d i f I c a n n o t enumerate one b y one t h e marks whieh. s u f f i c e f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e t h i n g f r o m o t h e r s . . . -14-Thus we see p a i n t e r s and o t h e r a r t i s t s w e l l enough aware what i s r i g h t and what i s f a u l t y , h u t o f t e n u n a b l e t o g i v e a ny; r e a s o n f o r t h e i r t a s t e : i f a s k e d , t h e y r e p l y t h a t t h e work 24 t h e y d i s l i k e l a c k s a j e ne s a i s q u o i . " 2. Vague s t i r r i n g s o f a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y i n t h e S e i c e n t o , I n I t a l y o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e t h e r e were p r e m o n i t i o n s o f i d e a s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e what were l a t e r to be i n t e g r a t e d , i n t h e h i g h l y s y s t e m a t i z e d t h o u g h t o f L e i b n i t z . C r o c e has u n e a r t h e d a c c o u n t s by w r i t e r s o f t h a t p e r i o d ^ w h i c h r e v e a l them t o be n o t i n s e n s i -t i v e t o t h e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e o f " i m a g i n a t i o n " , t h e " s e n s i b l e " o r " s e n s u o u s " element i n p o e t i c i m a g e r y , and o f t h e m i r a c l e s o f " c o l o u r " i n p a i n t i n g , as opposed, t o " d r a w i n g " . The q u a l i t y o f " w i t " o r " g e n i u s " as opposed t o " i n t e l l e c t " -was r e g a r d e d b y some w r i t e r s of t h e p e r i o d as b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n v e n t i v e o f a r t ; and t h e p h r a s e non so che (,je ne s a i s quoit) was a common. t a g . A v e r b a t i m r e p o r t o f C r o c e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e w r i t e r s w i l l be germane t o g e n e r a l t h e s i s , as w i l l be c l e a r when we come to deal, w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s o f "Croce's own a e s t h e t i c . He r e f e r s t o " Z u c c o l o ( 1 6 2 3 ) , who c r i t i c i z e d ' m e t r i c a r t ' and r e p l a c e d i t s c r i t e r i a by " t h e judgment o f s e n s e ' which-meant t o h i m n o t t h e eye o r e a r b u t a h i g h e r pow-er u n i t e d to t h e s e n s e s . M a s c a r d i , (1636), who r e j e c t e d t h e o b j e c t i v e and r h e t o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s t y l e s , and r e d u c e d s t y l e to t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l manner a r i s i n g out o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r ' w i t ' o f each w r i t e r , t h u s a s s e r t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f as many s t y l e s as t h e r e a r e w r i t e r s . P a l l a v i c i n o (1644), who ' c r i t i c i z e d ' v e r i s i m i l i t u d e ' and a s s i g n e d t o p o e t r y as i t s p r o p e r domain t h a t o f ' f i r s t a p p r e h e n s i o n s ' o r i m a g i n a t i o n , ' n e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e 1 ; and'-'Tesauro (1650), who t r i e d t o work ou t o f l o g i c o f r h e t o r i c as opposed, t o t h e l o g i c o f d i a l e c t i c , and e x t e n d e d t h e r h e t o r i c a l forms' h e y o n d m e r e l y v e r b a l form, 26 • to p i c t o r i a l and p l a s t i c f o r m . " 3 * The p l a c e o f I m a g i n a t i o n i n a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y . The a d m i s s i o n o f t h e vague p h r a s e " j e ne s a i s q u o i " t o t h e j a r g o n o f a r t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ; a r t becomes t h e n n o t s o l e l y an a f f a i r o f t h e r a t i o c i n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e . And i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o o t o n o t e t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s u s e d b y t h e o r i z e r s about a r t , not j u s t b y t h e a r t i s t s , who, i t i s h a r d f o r us not t o b e l i e v e , even p r i o r to t h a t f l o r i d p e r i o d w i t h t h e r o m a n t i c a c c e n t on . " g e n i u s " w h i c h we c a l l t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , must -always h a v e f e l t , i n t u i t i v e l y , t h a t t h e charm t h e i r works had. was dependent upon some q u a l i t y i n e f f a b l e even t o t h e m s e l v e s . S t i l l , t h e p h r a s e s u g g e s t s q u a l i t y , not s i n e qua non; we haven-'t •'•'yet r e a c h e d V i c o . I n 1706, M u r a t o r i , t h e s u c c e s s o r t o t h o s e w r i t e r s o f t h e S e i c e n t o m e n t i o n e d above, w r o t e : " ( x i v . ) The power o r f a c u l t y o f t h e mind w h i c h a p p r e h e n d s and. r e c o g n i z e s s e n s i b l e -o b j e c t s o r , to speak more a c c u r a t e l y , t h e i r i m a g e s , i s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n or f a n c y ; w h i c h , b e i n g p l a c e d , as we h o l d ; i n t h e i n f e r i o r - p a r t o f t h e s o u l we may c o n v e n i e n t l y c a l l - I n f e r i o r A p p r e h e n s i o n . Our s o u l has a n o t h e r a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h i n g s , w h i c h we c a l l S u p e r i o r , b e c a u s e i t i s p l a c e d i n t h e s u p e r i o r , r e a s o n a b l e , : a n d : d i v i n e p a r t , and w h i c h i s commonly named U n d e r s t a n d i n g . The o f f i c e o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n i s not to i n q u i r e or .know i f t h i n g s a r e t r u e o r f a l s e b u t m e r e l y to -apprehend t h i t i s t h e o f f i c e o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o know and t o i n q u i r e w h e t h e r t h e s e a r e true, o r f a l s e , , , .How, images a r e formed i n t h r e e way. E i t h e r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r m s them i t s e l f w i t h i t d i v i n e and p e n e t r a t i n g power, t h e i m a g i n a t i o n s u p p l y i n g nothing b u t t h e s e e d . Or t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i m a g i n a t i o n u n i t e t o f o r m them t o g e t h e r . Or e l s e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n c o n c e i v e s them a l t a k i n g . n o c o u n s e l w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . . " E o r example ( o f t h e f i r s t a c t i v i t y ) , o ur u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e e s many images o f men a p p r e h e n d e d b y t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and i m p r e s s e d on. i t . I t u n i t e s them, and, f r o m so many p a r t i c u l a r images w h i c h t h e i n f e r i o r a p p r e h e n s i o n h a d c o l l e c t e d , i t ex-t r a c t s and fo r m s an image, w h i c h was n o t y e t p r e s e n t , c o n -c e i v i n g , e.g., ' E v e r y man h a s t h e power o f l a u g h t e r 1 . . . "The t h i r d a c t i v i t y o c c u r s when i m a g i n a t i o n h o l d s a b s o l u t e sway i n t h e s o u l and g i v e s l i t t l e o r no h e e d t o t h e c o u n s e l s o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d b y us i n dreams, i n v i o l e n t e x c i t e m e n t s o f pa,ssion, i n d e l i r i u m . Our c o n c e r n i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h o s e images w h i c h a r e c o n c e i v e d i n t h e s e c o n d way, t h a t i s , when t h e u n d e r s t a n d -i n g and t h e i m a g i n a t i o n u n i t e h a r m o n i o u s l y to eomseive t h i n g s 27 and to s e t them f o r t h . " , " I m a g i n a t i o n " , we f i n d , i s s t i l l l e f t i n t h e " i n f e r -i o r p a r t o f t h e s o u l . " And t h e p o e t i c imafee i s b o r n of. t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , - - - a c o n -c l u s i o n t o b e a r r i v e d , a t b y K a n t e i g h t y - f o u r y e a r s l a t e r . i n h i s C r i t i q u e o f Judgement. . -17-4. V i c o and t h e g e n e t i c c o n c e p t o f a r t . H e r b e r t Read, speak-i n g o f t h e emergence o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t t h a t was t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e t h e c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , says,. " I f I were t o s e l e c t a s i n g l e word t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e o p p o s i n g i d e a l w h i c h a l r e a d y i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h ; ; c e n t u r y h a d made i t s o b s c u r e a/ppear-•anc'e, t h a t word would, be g e n e t i c . And i f I were t o s e l e c t a s i n g l e name as t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f t h i s i d e a l , " "that name w o u l d 28 be V'ico •" G i a m b a t t i s t a V i c o , t h r o u g h a s t u d y o f m y t h o l o g y ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , Homer's) a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t i a o f t h e p o e t i c a c t i v i t y . T h i s he^was l e d t o c o n c l u d e was a spon-t a n e o u s , u n r e f l e c t i n g r e a c t i o n t o n a t u r e , a p r i m i t i v e i n t e r -a c t i o n o f man ( t h e p o e t ) w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . The s i n e qua non, now, o f p o e t r y i s i m a g i n a t i o n ; and, i n c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t i e s o n l y t h o s e who c a n a t t a i n - - - o r r e g a i n - - - t h e p r i m i t i v e f r e s h n e s s o f o u t l o o k w i l l be p o e t s . These w i l l s u c c e e d t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e i r v i s i o n r e m a i n s f r e e f r o m t h e r a t i o c i n a t i v e e l e m e n t . P o e t s a r e a t t h e opposite*:- end o f t h e s c a l e f r o m t h e p h i l o s o -p h e r s , who a r e d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g a b s t r a c t u n i v e r s a l s . In. h i s S c i e n z a Huova (1725-1730), V i c o s e t i n oppos-i t i o n " p o e t i c l o g i c " and. " i n t e l l e c t u a l l o g i c " and a t t h e same t i m e a s s e r t e d , t h e p r i m a c y o f t h e f o r m e r s "The E l e m e n t s , ( 3 6 ) . S t r e n g t h o f i m a g i n a t i o n i s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o weakness o f r e a s o n -i n g . "The E l e m e n t s , (53)," Men a t f i r s t f e e l w i t h o u t p e r c e p t i o n , t h e n t h e y p e r c e i v e w i t h a c o n f u s e d and d i s t u r b e d mind, f i n a l l y t h e y r e f l e c t w i t h t h e p u r e i n t e l l e c t . " T h i s a x i o m i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p o e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s , w h i c h a r e f o r m e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f p a s s i o n and e m o t i o n , whereas p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e formed hy r e f l e c t i o n w i t h r e a s o n -i n g . Hence t h e l a t t e r a p p r o a c h t r u t h as t h e y r i s e t o t h e U n i v e r s a l s , t h e f o r m e r a r e more c e r t a i n t h e n e a r e r t h e y a p p r o a c h t h e p a r t i c u l a r s . t i - i . . I n t r o d u c t i o n . As much as h a d b e e n f i r s t f e l t b y p o e t s i n t h e way o f c r u d e knowledge was l a t e r u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e way o f a b s t r a c t knowledge by t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s , so t h a t we m i g h t c a l l t h e f o r m e r :the s e n s e s and t h e l a t t e r t h e mind o f t h e human r a c e . Of w h i c h i n g e n e r a l m i g h t b e > s a i d wh.at A r i s t o t l e s a i d o f each man i n p a r t i c u l a r ; 'There i s n o t h i n g i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u n l e s s : 29 i t h as f i r s t b e e n i n t h e s e n s e s . ' " I l l ^ THE INTELLECTUALIST TRADITION R1HAI3JS ACTIVE 1. Baumgarten; c o n t i n u i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . The I t a l i a n a e s t h e t i c . a c t i v i t y .came t e m p o r a r i l y t o an end w i t h t h e d e a t h o f V i c o i n 1744. But i t s i n f l u e n c e f o u n d i t s way t h r o u g h t h e ''Swiss" c r i t i c s and p o e t s , Bodmer and B r e i t i n g e r t o Germany where i t became l i n k e d up w i t h t h e L e i b n i t z i a n l i n e o f d e s c e n t . T h i s l i n e a g e , w h i c h d e r i v e d o r i g i n a l l y f r o m D e s c a r t e s , worked downward to a e s t h e t i c i d e a s b y u l t i m a t e l y a t t e m p t i n g to e x t e n d i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t t h e o r y , w h i c h d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h knowl-50 'edge, t o . t h e phJanomenon o f f e l l i n g and p e r c e p t i o n . Baumgarten was t h e f i r s t t o d e v o t e a s p e c i a l t e r m t o t h e " s c i e n c e of. s e n -suous knowledge", vriaich he c a l l e d " A e s t h e t i c s " . B u t , c o n s i s t -ent w i t h h i s m e t a p h y s i c , " A e s t h e t i c s " a p p l i e d s t i l l t o a p r i o r s c i e n c e o f t h e " l o w e r k i n d o f knowledge", a v i e w r e m i n i s c e n t o f o & h e b e a r l i e r M u r a t o r i , "An i n d i s t i n c t i d e a i s c a l l e d a s e n s u o u s i d e a . My v i t a l powers, t h e n , g i v e me sensuous p e r -31 c e p t i o n "by means o f an i n f e r i o r f a c u l t y " , he w r o t e i n h i s M e t a p h y s i c . (17 59 ). A c c o r d i n g to B o s a n q u e t , " I n many r e s p e c t s t h e a t t i t u d e o f l a t e r German p h i l o s o p h y towards a e s t h e t i c was a n t i c i p a t e d , p e r h a p s i n f l u e n c e d , b y Baumgarten. The f e e l i n g t h a t a r t was a s o r t o f p r e p a r a t o r y d i s c i p l i n e t o s p e c u l a t i v e ^ k n o w l e d g e and t h e doubt w h e t h e r t h e two c o u l d t h o r o u g h l y c o - e x i s t , seems t o r e p r o d u c e i t s e l f i n S c h i l l e r \ a n d i n H e g e l , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e -j e c t e d t h e s t i l l more d e c i d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t p r e j u d i c e w h i c h makes Baumgarten a p o l o g i s e f o r h i s s u b j e c t as s o m e t h i n g b e l o w the- d i g n i t y o f p h i l o s o p h y , b u t a f t e r a l l i n t e r e s t i n g t o t h e / " ' 32 . p h i l o s o p h e r as a man among men." 2« The f o r m a l i s m o f K a n t . S e v e r a l c u r r e n t s o f t h o u g h t "converged, i n t e r m i n g l e d , and c r y s t a l l i z e d t o f o r m t h e a e s t h e t i c o f K a n t , and i f t h e p a t t e r n i s i n many p l a c e s c o n f u s e d , i t has p r o -v i d e d a t l e a s t a l o c u s o f i d e a s w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t t h i n k e r s h a v e b e e n a b l e to use as a b a s i s , f o r o t h e r w i s e i n d e p e n d e n t t h e o r i e s o f a r t . A l t h o u g h n e v e r h a v i n g v i s i t i e d an a r t g a l l e r y o r museum, Ka n t became c o n v i n c e d , a f t e r h a v i n g w r i t t e n l i s f i r s t opus, She; C r i t i q u e o f P u r e Reason, t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f a r t r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t and was w o r t h y o f an autonomous p o s i t i o n i n h i s i n t r i c a t e m e t a p h y s i c a l schema. Baumgarten ( t h e l a s t i n t h e l i n e o f s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c C a r t e s i a n s c h o o l ) h a d s u p p l i e d h i m w i t h a t e x t b o o k on a e s t h e t i c s . -20-Erom t h e B r i t i s h e m p i r i c a l s c h o o l ( d e r i v i n g o r i g i n a l l y f r o m B a c o n ) , i n p a r t i c u l a r f r o m David. Hume, who h a d s a i d , " B e a u t y i s no q u a l i t y i n t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s ; i t e x i s t s m e r e l y i n t h e mind w h i c h c o n t e m p l a t e s them',1, Kant r e c i e v e d t h e i d e a l i s t i c c l u e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f b e a u t y . And hie was s u b j e c t to i n f l u e n c e from l i t e r a r y SOUCBS; on the one hand, t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l o f c r i t i c s , n o t a b l y B u r k e w i t h h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s u b l i m e , a,nd on t h e o t h e r , R o u s s e a u , whose name has i n v a r i a b l y t o be men-t i o n e d s o o n e r o r l a t e r i n any d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Z e i t g e i s t of t h e modern age. • K a n t ' s v i e w s on a e s t h e t i c s a r e s e t f o r t h i n h i s h i g h l y f o r m a l C r i t i q u e o f Judgment ( 1 7 9 0 ) . A l t h o u g h I n f l u e n c e d b y Hume, as we have s a i d , K a n t d e n i e d t h a t beauty was m e r e l y e m p i r i c a l and p u r e l y p e r s o n a l ; I n s t e a d , he a r g u e d t h a t "a c l a i m t o s u b j e c t i v e u n i v e r s a l i t y must be i m p l i e d i n t h e judgment o f t a s t e . " ''A t h i n g o f w h i c h e v e r y one r e c o g n i s e s t h a t h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t s b e a u t y i s w i t h o u t any i n t e r e s t , must be e s t i m a t e d by h i m t o a f f o r d a gr o u n d o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r a l l men. E o r s i n c e h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n does not depend upon any i n -c l i n a t i o n o f h i s own ( n o r upon any o t h e r c o n s c i o u s I n t e r e s t ) , and s i n c e he f e e l s h i m s e l f a b s o l u t e l y f r e e i n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h he a c c o r d s to t h e o b j e c t , he can f i n d no p r i v a t e p e c u l -i a r i t y , a f f e c t i n g h i m a l o n e , as t h e cau s e o f h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and c o n s e q u e n t l y he must r e g a r d t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n as c a u s e d b y s o m e t h i n g w h i c h he can p r e s u p p o s e i n e v e r y o t h e r man. So he must t h i n k he has r e a s o n f o r a t t r i b u t i n g a l i k e s a t i s f a c t i o n t o e v e r y man. Hence he w i l l speak o f b e a u t y as i f i t were a q u a l i t y o f t h e o b j e c t , and as i f hies judgement were s c i e n t i f i c . t h a t i s , c o n s t i t u t e d a knowledge o f t h e o b j e c t "by c o n c e p t i o n s o f i t , t h o u g h i t i s o n l y a e s t h e t i c a l . . . S o a c l a i m t o a sub-j e c t i v e u n i v e r s a l i t y must be i m p l i e d i n t h e judgement o f t a s t e . , B u t t h e judgment o f t a s t e as s u c h , Kant- a d m i t s t o be i n d i v i d u a l ; b e a u t y . t h e n d e r i v e s f r o m t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l ^ a p p r e -h e n s i o n o f t h e " r e a l shape ( p u r e form) o f an o b j e c t " , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o him, i s a d a p t e d t o t h e p e r c e p t i v e f a c u l t i e s o f a l l men. K a n t i s t h e n f o r c e d , t o a t t r i b u t e b e a u t y o n l y t o t h o s e ob-j e c t s p o s s e s s i n g p u r e form; t h e s e he c a l l s A r a b e s q u e s . 7/hat-e v e r p r e s u p p o s e s a c o n c e p t of p u r p o s e or p e r f e c t i o n i s c o n s e -q u e n t l y n o t p u r e ; h s h c e beauty, c a n n o t be p r e d i c a t e d o f t h e o r g a n i c w o r l d . " I n a p i r i t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and i n d e e d a l l t h e a,rts o f f o r m s u c h as a r c h i t e c t u r e and g a r d e n i n g , so f a r as t h e s e a r e f i n e a r t s , t h e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g i s t h e d e s i g n . And h e r e i n i t i s n o t what p l e a s e s t h e s e n s e s , b u t what s a t i s f i e s b y I t s form, t h a t fundaiaentally,. J-conceras t h e t a s t e . " 36 3. G r o c e ' s estimate...of t h e h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f K a n t . I n d i s c u s s i n g " t h a t m a s t e r p i e c e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a e s t h e t i c s "kke C r i t i q u e o f Judgment" , G r o c e s a y s t h a t , i n i t " t h e a u t h o r . . . d i s c o v e r e d t h a t b e a u t y and a r t a f f o r d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f o r a s p e c i a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c i e n c e - - - i n o t h e r words, d i s c o v e r e d t h e autonomy o f t h e a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . As a g a i n s t t h e u t i l i t a r -i a n s he sho?/ed t h a t t h e b e a u t i f u l p l e a s e s .'without i n t e r e s t ' ( I . e . , u t i l i t a r i a n i n t e r e s t s ) ; a g a i n s t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t s , t h a t . I t p l e a s e s ' w i t h o u t c o n c e p t s ' ; and f u r t h e r , a g a i n s t b o t h , t h a t i t has 'the f o r m o f p u r p o s i v e n e s s ' w i t h o u t ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p u r p o s e ' ; and, a g a i n s t t h e h e d o n i s t s , t h a t i t i s 'the # i t a l i c s mine -22-o b j e c t o f a u n i v e r s a l p l e a s u r e ' . I n sup s t a n c e , K a n t n e v e r went f u r t h e r t h a t h i s n e g a t i v e and g e n e r i c a s s e r t i o n o f t h e b e a u t i f u l . . . B u t t h e p r i n c i p l e s he l a i d down once and f o r a l l . E v e n t h e r e t u r n t o L e i b n i t z ' and•Baumgarten's t h e o r y o f a r t as c o n f u s e d o r f a n c i f u l t h i n k - w o u l d have b e e n i m p o s s i b l e , had K a n t b e e n a b l e t o l i n k up h i s own t h e o r y o f t h e b e a u t i f u l , as p l e a s i n g a p a r t f r o m c o n c e p t s , and as p u r p o s i v e n e s s w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p u r p o s e , w i t h V i c o ' s i m p e r f e c t and i n c o n -s i s t e n t b u t p o w e r f u l t h e o r y o f t h e l o g i c o f i m a g i n a - t i o n , . .But K a n t ' h i m s e l f p r e p a r e d t h e way f o r ' t h e r e a s s e r t i o n o f t h e 'con-f u s e d c o n c e p t * when he a s c r i b e d t o g e n i u s t h e v i r t u e o f com-—~¥ * — ™ b i h l h g a i n t e l l e c t w i t h f a n c y , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r t f r o m 'pure 37 b e a u t y ' b y d e f i n i n g i t as ' a d h e r e n t b e a u t y ' . " 4 r : T h e p o s t - K a n t i a n movement. A l t h o u g h t h e l e a d e r s o f t h i s 38 movement,. E i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g and H e g e l showed a l i v e l y (and i n t h e c a s e o f H e g e l ) a s e n s i t i v e , i n t e r e s t i n works o f a r t e m -p h a s i z e d t h e a p r i o r i element i n K a n t ' s m e t a p h y s i c a t t h e ex-pense o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e , f o r t h e s e O b j e c t i v e I d e a l i s t s a r t was ,.a f o r m o f knowledge o f t h e A b s o l u t e o r I d e a , w h e t h e r e q u a l t o p h i l o s o p h y , i n f e r i o r and p r e p a r a t o r y t o i t \ o r 'as w i t h S c h e l l i n g ) s u p e r i o r , t o i t . E o r H e g e l , t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l o f t h e g r o u p , a r t , l i k e r e l i g i o n , was an i m p e r f e c t or m e r e l y s y m b o l i c f o r m of. p h i l o s o p h y whose c o n t r a d i c t i o n between c o n t e n t and f o r m o n l y t h e l a t t e r c o u l d r e s o l v e . The c o u r s e o f a e s t h e t i c d e v e l -opment i e d away f r o m V i c o ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t towards t h a t o f t h e Baumgarten t r a d i t i o n . , # i t a l i c s mine -23-IV. ABTI-ESTAPHYSICAL REACTION 1. S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s e m o t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y f o r e s h a d o w s the; a n t i -m e t a p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n . I n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e a c t i o n t o o k p l a c e a g a i n s t t h e i d e a l i s t i c p o st--• K a n t i a n m e t a p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s . As t h e I n f l u e n c e s r e l e a s e d t h e n a r e s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t r y to t r a c e t h e i r s o u r c e s . T h e s e we s h a l l f i n d can be g r o u p e d w i t h r o u g h a p p r o x -i m a t i o n u n d e r two m a i n h e a d s s t h e b i o l o g i c a l and t h e p s y c h o l -o g i c a l . B u t b e f o r e v e n t u r i n g t o make our has%y e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e main b r a n c h e s i n t o w h i c h t h e m a i n l i n e o f a e s t h e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t d i v i d e s , we ought t o be reminded t h a t h o v e r i n g o v e r t h e f O T k i n g - p o i n t i s t h e b r o d d i n g s p i r i t o f S c h o penhauer. " I n 1818 i n h i s The W o r l d as ¥ 1 1 1 and I d e a Schopen-h a u e r d e s c r i b e d as t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y t h e p r i m o r d i a l " W i l l " , o r t e n d e n c y t o l i v e , w h i c h i s n o t o n l y c a r e l e s s o f our h a p p i -n e s s b u t condemned by o u r m o r a l r e a s o n . He sought f u r t h e r t o p r o v e b y an e p i s t e m o l o g y g r o u n d e d i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y i n c o n t r a s t t o K a n t who h a d a d o p t e d an a p r i o r i a n a l y s i s o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h a t t h i s " u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y " i s i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t h e o b j e c t o f knowledge, and becomes so o n l y i n i t s "obj e c t i f i c a - t i o n s " . w h i c h a r e t h e e x t e r n a l t y p e s o f s p e c i f i c 39 e x i s t e n c e . These u l t i m a t e t y p i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s , f o r s u c h t h e y a r e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t s o f s c i e n c e , a r e o n l y known as d i v i n e d b y a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n , being, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , 40 and S a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e s e n s e . The p e s s i m i s t i c emphasis i n S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y d e r i v e s f r o m h i s i n s i s t -ence t h a t man, a s l a v e o f o r g a n i c n e c e s s i t y , i s m i s e r a b l e t h r o u g h b e i n g a c a p t i v e . - o n t h e r e l e n t l e s s t r e a d m i l l o f e n d l e s s d e s i r e . -24-H i s o n l y s u r c e a s e f r o m sorrow comes i n moments of a e s t h e t i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n . "When some e x t e r n a l c a u s e o r i n w a r d d i s p o s i t i o n l i f t s us s u d d e n l y out o f t h e e n d l e s s s t r e a m o f w i l l i n g , and d e l i v e r s knowledge f r o m / t h e s l a v e r y o f t h e w i l l , t h e a t t e n t i o n i s no l o n g e r d i r e c t e d t o t h e m o t i v e s o f w i l l i n g , h u t compre-hends t h i n g s f r e e f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e w i l l , and t h u s o b s e r v e s them w i t h o u t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t ^ w i t h o u t s u b j e c t i v i t y , p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e l y , and g i v e s i t s e l f e n t i r e l y up t o them so f a r as t h e y a r e i d e a s , b u t not i n so f a r as t h e y a r e m o t i v e s . Then a l l a t once t h e peace w h i c h we were always s e e k i n g , b u t w h i c h a l w a y s f l e d f r o m us on "\the f o r m e r p a t h o f t h e d e s i r e s , comes t o us o f i t s own accord., and i t i s w e l l w i t h u s . I t i s t h e p a i n l e s s s t a t e w h i c h E p i c u r u s p r i z e d as t h e h i g h e s t good and a,s t h e s t a t e o f t h e gods; we a r e f o r t h e moment s e t f r e e f r o m t h e m i s e r a b l e s t r i v i n g o f t h e w i l l ; we k e e p t h e S a b b a t h o f t h e p e n a l s e r v i t u d e o f w i l l i n g ; t h e w h e e l o f I x i o n s t a n d s 41 s t i l l . " The W i l l i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e ; i t i s immaheht&ahd not t r a n s c e n d e n t . The f a c t t h a t , i t i s so makes p o s s i b l e f o r us t h e a e s t h e t i c a c t o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n ; f o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e s o f t h i n g s c o u l d n e v e r r e v e a l t o us t h e i r i n n e r r e a l i t y , were i t n o t t h a t w i t h i n us t h e same w i l l o r s p i r i t were a c t i v e . We f i r s t become aware i n o u r own f e e l i n g o f t h a t w h i c h we a f t e r -^ 42# wards a e s t h e t i c a l l y d i v i n e i n them.." Those most s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i n s i g h t n e c e s s a r j r f o r t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f b e a u t y , i . e . , a e s t h e t i c p l e a -s u r e , a r e t h o s e whom we c a l l a r t i s t s . We must n o t e as w e l l t h a t f o r - S c h o p e n h a u e r a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e can be o b t a i n e d e q u a l l y -25-f r o m t h e , c o n t e m p l a t i o n of n a t u r e and l i f e , and f r o m works of a r t . A work of a r t , p e r s e , i s a p h y s i c a l embodiment of t h e I d e a ; and b e c a u s e of t h e a r t i s t ' s f a c u l t y f o r a r t i s t i c s e l e c t -i o n , we may o f t e n p e r c e i v e b e a u t y more r e a d i l y t h r o u g h h i s e y e s . " A e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e i s one and t h e same w h e t h e r i t i s c a l l e d f o r t h by a work o f a r t or d i r e c t l y by t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n of n a t u r e and l i f e . The work of a r t i s o n l y a means of f a c i l i t a -t i n g t h e knowledge i n w h i c h t h i s p l e a s u r e c o n s i s t s . T h a t t h e I d e a comes to us more e a s i l y f r o m t h e work of a r t t h a n d i r e c t l y f r o m " n a t u r e and. t h e r e a l worlVl, a, r i s e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a r t i s t , who knew o n l y t h e I d e a , no l o n g e r t h e a c t u a l , has r e p r o -d u c e d I n h i s work t h e p u r e I d e a , h a s a b s t r a c t e d i t f r o m t h e a c t u a l , o m i t t i n g a l l d i s t u r b i n g a c c i d e n t s . The a r t i s t l e t s us s e e t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h h i s e y e s . T h a t he h a s t h e s e e y e s , t h a t he knows t h e i n n e r n a t u r e of t h i n g s - - a p a r t f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n s . , i s t h e g i f t o f g e n i u s , i s I n b o r n ; b u t t h a t he i s a b l e to l e n d us t h i s g i f t , to l e t us see w i t h h i s e y e s , i s a c q u i r e d , and i s t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e of a r t . . , . " F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h , -the above c o n c e p t s a r e of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e ; we s h a l l p r e s e n t l y d i s c o v e r t h a t S chopenhauer a n t i c i p a t e d much t h a t i s v i t a l to t h e a e s t h e t -i c s of b o t h C r o c e and B e r g s o n . 2,, From B i o l o g y : , t h e t h e o r y of e v o l u t i o n . The i d e a t h a t t h e -.cosmos.'is:.the p r o d u c t of c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s was a common s p e c u l a t i o n i n c l a s s i c a l t i m e s . S t a r t i n g f r o m a n c i e n t G r e e c e , one c o s m o l o g i c a l t h e o r y s u c c e e d e d a n o t h e r u n t i l a c l i m a x was r e a c h e d i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l , l a w - e x e m p l i f y i n g sytems o f G a l i l e o and Newton. "But a l t h o u g h t h e u n i v e r s e c o u l d not he c o n c e i v e d as a s y s t e m w h i c h was p r e s e n t l y t o he i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f m a t t e r or e n e r g y , t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f n a t u r e , " a c c o r d i n g to Dr, D r e s s e r , " i t r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c as d e s c r i b e d hy t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s . The t r a n s i t i o n to t h e a dynamic, t h e n t o a v i t a l o r l i v i n g v i e w , w i t h i n s p i r i t i n g i d e a s o f p r o g r e s s and g r e a t human a t -t a i n m e n t s i n t h e m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l r e a l m s , came w i t h the epoch-making v i e w s o f h i s t o r y and c i v i l i z a t i o n , b e g i n n i n g I n t h e age o f L e s s i n g and H e r d e r , and. c o n t i n u i n g i n t h e c o n -t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e r o m a n t i c i s t s and H e g e l ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y . I t was t h e ides, o f h i s t o r y as a d e v e l o p i n g p r o c e s s I m p l y i n g i n n e r meanings and t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f v a l u e s w h i c h p r e p a r e d t h e way f o r t h e mod.ern d o c t r i n e o f e v o l u t i o n as a c o n c e p t o f n a t u r e , l e a d i n g t h e way i n t i m e t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e 44 p h i l o s o p h y o f e v o l u t i o n . " C h a r l e s D a r w i n s e t f o r t h i n h i s O r i g a n of S p e c i e s (1851) t h e f i n d i n g s b a s e d on t h e method o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h f r o m w h i c h he . c a u t i o u s l y d e r i v e d h i s t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l -e c t i o n t h r o u g h chance v a r i a t i o n i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The t h e o r y b r o u g h t i n t o h i g h r e l i e f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s t r u g g l e I n n a t u r e and., by i m p l i c a t i o n and t h i s i s o f e s -p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e h e r e he showed t h a t t h e human o r g a n i s m was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f n a t u r e and was a l s o a p r o d u c t o f na-t u r a l e v o l u t i o n b y means o f b i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s . I n hise,even more s u g g e s t i v e D e s c e n t of Man (1871) D a r w i n t o y e d w i t h the -27-p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t m e n t a l and m o r a l l i f e were a l s o p r o d u c t s o f o r g a n i c e v o l u t i o n . A l t h o u g h D a r w i n was o b & i v i o u s t o t h e c a t a c l y s m i c e f f e c t h i s t h e o r y was to. have, p a r t i c u l a r l y ' o n t h e w o r l d o f t h e o l o g i c a l and m o r a l v a l u e s , i t s r e p e r c u s s i o n s a r e todgcy 45 s t i l l r e s o u n d i n g i n our e a r s . 3 * P s y c h o l o g o g y : t h e e m p i r i c a l a p p r o a c h to a r t . Thomas Munroe, p s y c h o l o g i s t i n t h e B a r n e s ' F o u n d a t i o n , w h i c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a p p l y i n g the James/Dewey p r a g m a t i c method i n t h e f i e l d o f a r t c r i t i c i s m , has t h i s to\ s a y o f t h e i d e a l i s t i c v i e w o f a e s t h e t i c s : "The t r a d i t i o n a l dogma i s t h a t ' A e s t h e t i c t h e o r y i s a b r a n c h o f p h i l o s o p h y , and e x i s t s f o r t h e sake of k n o w l -edge and not as a g u i d e t o p r a c t i c e 1 has s a v e d many l o f t y d o c t r i n e s t h e shock o f h a v i n g t h e i r e m p t i n e s s r e v e a l e d . W i t h -out b e i n g t r i e d as a g u i d e to p r a c t i c e , no t h e o r y c a n be made 46 r e l i a b l e and g e n u i n e l j r e x p l a n a t o r y . " The p h r a s e " g u i d e t o p r a c t i c e " r e v e a l s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h . We may r e t r a c e our s t e p s t o t h e f i r s t p o s i t i v i s t s t i m u l a t i o n i n d u c e d by D a r w i n ' s t h e o r y . H e r b e r t S p e n c e r v e n t u r e d a b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a r t w h i c h , no doubt b e c a u s e o f i t s a u t h o r ' s u t t e r i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s to a r t , p r o v e d s t e r i l e . I n Germany t h e p u r e l y i n d u c t i v e method was u s e d . G u s t a v e F e c h n e r i n 1876 t a b u l a t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s la.boratgrry i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a r t . He had t r i e d to i s o l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t g e o m e t r i c a l shapes w h i c h had an i n -t r i n s i c a p p e a l f o r t h e b e h o l d e r . G o t t f r i e d Samper had a s i m -i l a r o b j e c t i n mind i n s e e k i n g amid the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f a r t p r o d u c t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e ages c o n s t a n t e l e m e n t s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r u n i v e r s a l a p p e a l . Such a c t i v i t y f i n d s i t s t h e o r e t i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e s t u d i e s o f Zimmerman, a H e r b a r t i a n f o r m a -l i s t , who e a r l i e r h ad t r i e d to d i s c o v e r the f u n d a m e n t a l forms w h i c h , i n t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f i d e a s , g i v e r i s e t o p l e a s u r e and the r e v e r s e , and a p p l y them t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b e a u t y 47 and a r t . A name i n v o k e d by H e r b e r t Read, a B r i t i s h p r o t a g o n -i s t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t , i s t h a t o f E r n s t G r o s s e . He i t i s to whom Read c r e d i t s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f what we might c a l l t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l v i e w o f a T t , v i z . , a r t p r o d u c t s (not "works o f a r t " : t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t ) t r e a t e d as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e " s p i r i t u a l " l i f e o f a human s o c i e t y , w h e t h e r p r i m i t i v e o r c i v i l i z e d . To quote Read: " J u s t as s c i e n c e i n g e n e r a l , i n so f a r as i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h o r g a n i c l i f e , i s a l m o s t i n c o n c e i v a b l e on'any b u t a g e n e t i c and e v o l u - • .be t i o n a r y b a s i s , so t h i s f a c e t o f human l i f e m u s t ^ s t u d i e d i n i t s o r i g i n s and d e v e l o p m e n t . Thus began t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t o p r e -h i s t o r i c and p r i m i t i v e a r t w h i c h i s s t i l l p r o g r e s s i n g , and w h i c h , by b r i n g i n g o t our a t t e n t i o n t h e works o f p r i m i t i v e and p r e -h i s t o r i c p e o p l e s , and. p o i n t i n g o ut t h e i r a e s t h e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , has b e e n one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s i n modern a r t . F o r i n p r i m i t i v e a r t we see so c l e a r l y , what i s so d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e i n t h e c o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n s o f h i g h l y c u l t u r e d c i v i l -i s a t i o n s t h e d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t ' s 48 v i s i o n , i t s o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i n s o l i d s h a p e s . " I t i s b u t a s t e p f r o m t h e R o u s s e a u i s t i c a d u l a t i o n 49 o f t h e savage t o t h e Wordsworth!an w o r s h i p o f t h e c h i l d . -29-Or, i n t h e more t e c h n i c a l l a n g u a g e o f Mr. Head, " P a r a l l e l , to t h i s l i n e o f a p p r o a c h , and on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t o n t o g e n e s i s 50 r e p e a t s p h y l o g e n e s i s , " t h e o r e t i c i a n s and a r t i s t s a l i k e soon e v i n c e d a s t u d i o u s i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r t o f c h i l d r e n . . I t w i l l "be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e s i s t o examine s t i l l f u r t h e r t h e arguments u s e d by t h e a p o s t l e s of modernism.. ( C l a s s i c i s t s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y l a b e l t h e f o l l o w i n g as t h e a r c h e t y p e o f a c e r t a i n s p e c i e s o f R o m a n t i c i s m p o s s i b l y a 11 s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d D a r w i n i s m " ) : . "The g e n e t i c method, i n a e s t h e t i c s . . .by d r a w i n g a t -t e n t i o n to t h e p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t , has h a d a d i r e c t I n f l u e n c e on t h e p r a c t i c e o f modern a r t i s t s t h e r e has b e e n a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o r e a c h back to t h e n a i v e t y and f r e s h s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e c h i l d l i k e o u t l o o k a r e t r o g r a d e s t e p * o f c o u r s e , i f you r e g a r d 'the march o f i n t e l l e c t ' with, compla-c e n c y o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s n o t claimed, t h a t t h e a r t o f s a v a g e s , p r e h i s t o r i c men and c h i l d r e n c a n be g i v e n t h e same v a l u e as t h e a r t o f c i v i l i s e d men: i n t h e h u m a n i s t i c s c a l e o f v a l u e s , s u c h a r t i s a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e . But i n any c a s e , t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n o f v a l u e s i s o u t s i d e our e n q u i r y : i t i s not t h e b u s i n e s s o f a e s t h e t i c s to e s t a b l i s h , t h e v a l u e s o f a r t , b u t to e x p l o r e i t s n a t u r e , and f r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w i t i s impos-4lie vk*|*<~\'-a.v!<r.£ • s i b l . e to e x a g g e r a t e ^ b f p r i m i t i v e a r t . The v i r t u e o f a p l a n t i s In." i t s • s e e d : i t s f o r m i s i m p l i c i t i n i t s f i r s t s h o o t . We can l e a r n more o f t h e e s s e n t i a l . . n a t u r e o f a r t f r o m i t s e a r l i e s t man i f e s t a t i o n s i n p r i m i t i v e man (and i n c h i l d r e n ) t h a n f rom__ If i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l e l a b o r a t i o n i n g r e a t "beriods o f c u l t u r e . P o r I n i t s l a t e r s t a g e s a r t i s o v e r l a i d by modes o f l i f e and # i t a l i c s mine -30-manners t h a t tev. not o f i t s e s s e n c e . P r i m i t i v e man and t h e c h i l d do n o t d i s t i n g u i s h i n our r a t i o c i n a t i v e manner between t h e r e a l and t h e i d e a l . A r t f o r them i s p e r h a p s not so d i s -i n t e r e s t e d : i t i s ' n o t e x t r a n e o u s and complementary to l i f e , 51 b u t an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f l i f e . " We need n o t d i s t u r b t h e i n n o c e n t s u r f a c e o f Mr. R e a d r s l i m p i d p r o s e t o sound f o r h i d d e n p h i l o s o p h i c a l snags; i n s t e a d , we may r i s k g l i d i n g on t h e n e x t p o i n t i n t h e s u r v e y : t h e t h e o r y o f S i n f u h l u n g , o r Empathy. The f o r e g o i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o u t l i n e d had to do m o s t l y w i t h t h e o b j e c t i n v b l v e d i n t h e a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y ( c f . P e c h n e r , Zimmerman) and w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f i t s c r e a -t i o n ( c f . G r o o s e ) ; t h e one h e r e t o be d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e o f i t s w i d e s p r e a d c o n t e m p o r a r y i n f l u e n c e and a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e a e s -t h e t i c s o f G r o c e and B e r g s o n , L i p p ' s t h e o r y o f E i n f u h l u n g , has to do r a t h e r w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n t . The k e r n e l o f t h i s t h e o r y i s : " A e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e i s enjoyment of 52 our own a c t i v i t y i n an o b j e c t . " Or, s t a t e d o t h e r w i s e , "Any work o f a r t we f i n d b e a u t i f u l i s an obj e c t i f i c a t i o n o f our own 53 p l e a s u r e i n • a c t i v i t y , and our own v i t a l i t y , " The " a c t i v i t y " i n w h i c h I i n d u l g e when I " p r o j e c t m y s e l f " i n t o t h e o b j e c t a/pprehended we a r e l e d to understand, i s not an a f f a i r o f m u s c u l a r , o r i n any s e n s e , p h y s i o l o g i c a l , a c t i v i t y . It. i s somehow t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e , n o n - p r a c t i c a l , s e l f w i t h o r I n t h e o b j e c t t h u s a e s t h e t i c a l l y contemplated..-The s e n s e o f b e a u t y r e s u l t s f r o m a f e e l i n g in o b j e c t s , n o t about them. Thus when 1 e n j o y t h e f l i g h t o f a b i r d o r t h e p l u n g e of a c a t a r a c t " 1 1 f e e l m y s e l f a c t u a l l y e x e c u t i n g t h e s e -31-movements." E v e n t h e enjoyment' o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i s " e x p l a i n e d " i n t h e same way, e.g., by some Samsonian i n t u i t i o n I am " a c -54 t i r e i n t h e p i l l a r " , b e a r i n g t h e w e i g h t o f the beam m y s e l f . We a r e h e r e v e r g i n g on t h e d e c e p t i v e q u i c k s a n d s o f meaning t h a t w i l l b e s e t o u r p a t h w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y ; w i t h what d e f i n i t e n e s s c an we d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e l i t e r a l u se o f words and t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l ? t h e s c i e n t i f i c and t h e p o e t i c ? How can t h i s a d m i t t e d l y s u g g e s t i v e t h e o r y o f E i n f u h l u n g e x p l a i n t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c i n g o f c o l o u r i n n a t u r e and i n a r t ? Or t h e enjoyment o f a p l a y ? Am I r e q u i r e d t o p r o j e c t my c o n t e m p l a t i v e s e l f i n t o each c h a r a c t e r i n t u r n ; ( i f \ s o , what d e t e r m i n e s t h e s e q u e n c e ? ) ; o r i n t o a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s 55 s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ? I t i s o f c o u r s e no new i d e a t h a t my u n d e r s t a n -d i n g o f , say, I a g o , v a r i e s as my a b i l i t y to s y m p a t h i z e w i t h him, t h a t i s , t o put m y s e l f i n h i s p l a c e . But we have no d i a r y , b i o g r a p h y , or " c a s e - h i s t o r y " o f Iago t o r e f e r t o ; he l i v e s o n l y i n t h e p l a y ; and he has s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y i n r e -l a t i o n t o t h e i n t e g r a t e d d r a m a t i c t i s s u e c o m p r i s i n g t h e dram-a t i s p e r s o n a e and t h e t e m p o r a l - s p a c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e o f t h e p l a y . So w h a t e v e r my p s y c h i c a g i l i t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g m y s e l f w i t h e a c h c h a r a c t e r s e p a r a t e l y , i t seems p a t e n t t h a t some o t h e r f a c u l t y i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to e x p e r i e n c e t h e p l a y i n i t s a r t i s t i c w h o l e n e s s , f o r , -to borrow t h e G e s t a l t i a n t a g , t h e whole i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f t h e p a r t s . V::, ; COTGLUSTOH "Modern s c i e n c e d a t e s f r o m t h e day when m o b i l i t y was s e t up 56 as an i n d e p e n d e n t r e a l i t y . " I f B e r g s o n had s u b s t i t u t e d P h i l -o s o p hy f o r Modern s c i e n c e i n t h e above, I t h i n k he w o u l d have v o i c e d p e r h a p s an even d e e p e r c o n v i c t i o n . " A n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h y , " a c c o r d i n g B e r g s o n , " s u f f e r e d i t s e l f t o be d e c e i v e d by t h e p u r e l y s u p e r f i c i a l a n a l o g y o f d u r a t i o n w i t h e x t e n s i o n . I t t r e a t e d t h e one as i t t r e a t e d t h e o t h e r , r e g a r d i n g change as a d e g r a d a t i o n o f . a n I m m u t a b i l i t y , t h e s e n s i b l e as a f a l l f r o m 5? t h e i n t e l l i g i b l e . " The oppos-ing a t t i t u d e s t o r e a l i t y c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f t h e A n c i e n t and t h e Modern s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h f m a y be s y m b o l i z e d b y s e t t i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n E u c l i d e a n and E i n s t e i n -t a n m a t h e m a t i c s , w h i c h y i e l d s a S t a t i c v e r s u s a Dynamic; an A b s o l u t e ' v e r s u s a R e l a t i v e . Our i n q u i r y " c o n c e r n s - ' a ' s p e c i a l a s p e c t , t h e a e s t h e t i c , o f two Time p h i l o s o p h i e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e otff modern t h o u g h t . A l -t h o u g h we s h a l l have p r e s e n t l y t o examine I n some d e t a i l t h e main t e n e t s o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e p e c u l i a r l y i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c b e a r s t o them, we may h e r e , Yfhile c o n c l u d i n g o u r h i s t o r i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , a n t i c i p a t e t o some e x t e n t what i s t o f o l l o w . H. W i l d o n C a r r , who ha,s e v a n g e l i z e d b o t h G r o c e and B e r g s o n , h a s t h i s t o s a y i n a c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d A n t I - M e t a p h y s i c a l  P h i l o s o p h y i n h i s P h i l o s o p h y o f B e n e d e t t o G r o c e ; "The p r o b l e m o f p h i l o s o p h y i s e v e r - c h a n g i n g b e c a u s e mind i s l i v i n g a c t i v i t y and change I s o f i t s e s s e n c e . P h i l o s o p h y t h e r e f o r e i s h i s t o r y , h i s t o r y w h i c h on t h e one hand i s i d e a l , t h e development o r u n f o l d i n g o f l i f e as t n e a c t i v i t y o f an i n n e r p r i n c i p l e ; and on t h e o t h e r Hand i s e x t e r n a l , t h e c o n t i n u e d advance f r o m what i s a c t e d t o what i s a c t i n g . P h i l o s o p h y i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f r e a l i t y as immanent, t h a t i s as s u b j e c t i v e , an i n d w e l l i n g a c -t i v i t y e x p r e s s i n g i t s e l f i n i t s e x p a n d i n g l i f e . I t c o n c e i v e s r e a l i t y immanent i n mind. I t i s t o be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e p a n t h e i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f a mind immanent i n n a t u r e ; £6v p a n t h e i s m , i t i s n a t u r e w h i c h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t . A n o t h e r way of s t a t i n g t h e d o c t r i n e i s to s a y t h a t r e a l i t y f o r p h i l o s -ophy i s e s s e n t i a l l y and w h o l l y s u b j e c t i v e , o b j e c t i v i t y b e i n g 58 an a s p e c t o f I t o r an a b s t r a c t v i e w o f i t . " An a e s t h e t i c i s s u i n g f r o m a p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h measures r e a l i t y i n terms o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e we may e x p e c t w i l l d i f f e r i n fundamenta.ls f r o m one w h i c h d e r i v e s - f r o m a C l a s s i c model. I t w i l l , above a l l , i n c l i n e to s c o r n t h o s e a e s t h e t i c s w h i c h make p r o s a i c a t t e m p t s to s y s t e m a t i z e b e a u t y , and d i s c o v e r r u l e s and. p r i n c i p l e s o f a r t . B u t i n i t s v e r y c o n c e r n to avoid, com-p r o m i s i n g i t s e l f i t may be i n danger o f l e a n i n g so f a r b a c k -w a r d as t o l o s e i t s "balance and t o p p l e i n t o t h e Blough. o f M i s t i c a l R o m a n t i c i s m . -0O0-CHAPTER TWO. CROCE P r e l i m i n a r y . C r o c e ' s a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y f i n d s e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t among c e r t a i n l e a d i n g E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s , n o t a b l y E.P. C a r r i t t , J . A. S m i t h , R.G. G o l l i n g w o o d and H. W i l d o n G a r r . And t h e f a c t t h a t C r o c e was t h e one c h o s e n t o w r i t e t h e a r t i c l e on A e s t h e t i c s i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a ( P i t h e d i t i o n , 1929) i s i n i t s e l f s i g n i c a n t o f t h e r e g a r d i n w i t h h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f a r t i s h e l d i n E n g l a n d . I n T.E. Hulme's l i v e l y and p o p u l a r S p e c u l a t i o n s , e d i t e d by H e r b e r t Read on t h e a u t h o r ' s d e a t h i n 1917, t h e r e i s i n t h e a p p e n d i x tfe"e p l a n o f a p r o j e c t e d book on Modern T h e o r i e s o f A r B . T h e r e we f i n d t h a t t h e o n l y i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s t o whom Hulme h a d i n t e n d e d to d e v o t e s p e c i a l c h a p t e r s were B e r g s o n , C r o c e and Lipps„ T h a t t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n a f f i n i t y e x i s t i n g between t h e s e t h r e e i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t e r s I t h i n k w i l l s u g g e s t i t s e l f i n t h e c o u r s e of\these p a g e s . 1 ( a ) . S o u r c e s o f G r o c e ' s a e s t h e t i c . We h a r e a l r e a d y r o u g h l y t r a c e d t h e I t a l i a n g e n e a l o g y o f a e s t h e t i c . B u t s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to V i c o may "be made h e r e to s e r v e as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e v i e w p o i n t o f G r o c e , who, i n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a c k n o w l e d g i n g h i s d e b t t o him, s a y s ; "The l e a d e r o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y , who s e t t i n g a s i d e t h e c o n c e p t o f a r t a s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , a n d g i v i n g t o t h e f a c u l t y o f i m a g i n a t i o n a new meaning, p e n e t r a t e d t o t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y a n d a r t , a n d d i s c o v e r e d , so t o s a y a e s t h e t i c s c i e n c e , was t h e I t a l i a n , G i a m b a t t i s t a V i c o 0 . . . ( T h e ) m a i n i n t e n t i o n (Of h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s ) was t o p r e s e n t c e r t a i n new i d e a s o f t h e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y . What were t h e s e i d e a s ? We can now s a y t h a t t h e y a r e n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s t h a n t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m p r o p o u n d e d by P l a t o , w h i c h A r i s t o t l e , a t t e m p t e d t o s o l v e w i t h o u t s u c c e s s , and w h i c h h a s b e e n t h e u s u b j e c t o f many and v a r -i o u s a t t e m p t s f r o m t h e R e n a s c e n c e up t o our t i m e . I s p o e t r y a r a t i o n a l o r i r r a t i o n a l f a c t , i a i t s p i r i t u a l o r n a t u r a l ? I f i t be s p i r i t u a l , what i s i t s p e c u l i a r natmre, and i n what i s i t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m h i s t o r y and f r o m s c i e n c e ? P l a t o , as we know, h a d c o n f i n e d p o e t r y t o t h e C o r p o r e a l p a r t o f t h e s o u l , t o what, i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l a n g u a g e o f V i c o ' s t i m e , was termed t h e a n i m a l s p i r i t s . V i c o r a i s e d , i t up. F o r V i c o p o e t y y i s a p e r -i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f h u m a n i t y , - - - an i d e a l h i s t o r y whose p e r i o d s a r e n o t e v e n t s b u t forms o f mind. P o e t r y as a, moment o f t h e i d e a l h i s t o r y o f mind i s a f o r m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e f i r s t t o come f r o m _ _ . _ r _ . . i n t e l l e c t b u t f o l l o w i n g a f t e r s e n s e . P l a t o , c o n f o u n d i n g i t w i t h s e n s e , h a d n o t r e c o g n i z e d , t h e p l a c e w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o i t and h a d b a n i s h e d i t f r o m h i s R e p u b l i c . 'Men f i r s t f e e l w i t h o u t b e i n g aware # i t a l i c s mine. t h e n t h e y become aware w i t h t r o u b l e d and a f f e c t e d s o u l ; f i n a l l y , t h e y r e f l e c t w i t h p u r e mind. T h i s d i g n i t y i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g s , w h i c h a r e f o r m e d b y t h e s e n s e s o f p a s s i o n s and o f a f f e c t i o n s j, as d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f e e l i n g s w h i c h a r e f o r m e d f r o m r e f l e c t i o n by r e a s o n i n g . Hence t h e p h i l o , -s o p h i c a l f e e l i n g s a p p r o a c h t h e more t o - t r u t h , t h e more t h e y r i s e to u n i v e r s a l s ; t h e p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g s a r e more c e r t a i n t h e more t h e y a p p r o a c h t o p a r t i c u l a r s " " ( E s t e t i c a , p. 255. The q u o t a t i o n f r o m V i c o , S c i e n z a nuova s e c o n d a , E l e m e n t i l i i i . ) 1 C r o c e f r a n k l y a n d ^ c o n s i s t e n t l y acknowledges h i s b o r r -owings ., " A e s t h e t i c t r e a t i s e s b y a u t h o r s who h a v e n o t s t u d i e d K a n t " , he a r g u e s , "may be n e g l e c t e d w i t h o u t t h e l e a s t r i s k o f 2 m e n t a l l o s s , " The C r i t i q u e o f Judgment i s , i n h i s o p i n i o n , the r e a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r modern a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y , f o r i n i t t h e r e was p r o c l a i m e d a new s p h e r e o f h u m a n - a c t i v i t y w h i c h h a d b e en i g / n o r e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , " T h i s nww s p h e r e was, o r so i t seemed t o .(Kant), a m e n t a l r e a l m s u i g e n e r i s , , d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner, b u t s e c u r e and u n s h a k e a b l e i n t h e r e a l -i t y o f i t s own e x i s t e n c e , s i n c e t h e r e f l o u r i s h e s i n t h e human mind a f o r m o f judgment w h i c h h a s n o t a l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r , and t h e r e f o r e i s n o t c o g n i t i v e ( i f t h e s t r i c t meaning o f c o g n i t i v e be- t h a t w h i c h i s l o g i c a l ) , and a l s o has n o t a p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t -e r , ( i f p r a c t i c a l mean t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o b j e c t s o f d e s i r e ) . The judgments o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a r e accompanied by p l e a s -u r e , h u t n a t t h e p l e a s u r e w h i c h s p r i n g s f r o m t h e l o w e r forms o f  a p p e . t i t i o n , t h a t , namely;, t h a t p l e a s e s t h e s e n s e s i n sensation„ I n l i k e manner as t h e s e judgments e x c l u d e e v e r y v o l i t i o n a l i n t ->7 e r e s t t h e y a r e n o t m o r a l i n c h a r a c t e r and have n o t h i n g i n e W common w i t h t h e good,, They may be d e f i n e d as c o n t e m p l a t i v e , b u t i t i s -a c o n t e m p l a t i o n w h i c h i s n o t c e n t r e d on c o n c e p t s and, a c c o r d i n g l y , i s i n d e p e n d e n t a l i k e o f t h e i d e a o f e x t e r n a l p u r p o s e o r p e r f e c t i o n . And so f a r . as the. judgments a r e u n i v e r s a l , t h e i r u n i v e r s a l i t y r e v e a l s i t s e l f as s u b j e c t i v e o n l y , d e v o i d o f an o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n . Though t h e y a r e accompanied by t h e f e e l -i n g o f a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l , t h e y a r e i n t r i n s i c a l l y f r e e f r o m t h e emotions and f r o m a l l u r e m e n t s . T h i s s u i g e n e r i s form, s a i d k a n t , i s t h e f o r m o f v t h e judgments o f t a s t e . The f a c t s to w h i c h t h e s e judgments r e f e r a r e b e a u t y and a r t , " C r o c e goes w i t h h i m t h i s f a r ; b u t when Ka n t goes on to d e f i n e c a w o r k o f a r t as t h e adequs,te p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c o n c e p t , i n w h i c h i n t e l l e c t and. i m a g i n a t i o n a r e combined., t h e n t h e y must p a r t company, A t t , a c c o r d i n g to C r o c e , i s an a c t i v i t y c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e mind; t h e one, i n d e e d , f r o m which. a l l t h e o t h e r s d e r i v e . B u t b e f o r e we can hope to f o l l -ow t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f C r o c e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m o f b e a u t y , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o examine h i s i d i o m i n r e l a t i o n to h i s p h i l o s o p h y as a w h o l e , 1 (ft) C r o c e 1 s p h i l o s o p h y o f mind. In. t h e i n c e s s a n t b a t t l e be-tween t h e I d e a l i s t s and t h e R e a l i s t s , C r o c e m a r s h a l s h i s f o r c e s u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f t h e f o r m e r . To r e c a l l t h e o l d e s s e e s t p e r c i p i s l o g a n o f B e r k e l e y ' s w i l l p r o v i d e a k e y to h i s p l a n o f a t t a c k . E v e r y f o r m w h i c h r e a l i t y c a n assume has i t s g r o u n d w i t h i n mind; t h e c l a s s i c •»thing-in-itself" c o n c e p t i s , i n . terms o f C r o c e ' s p h i l o s o p h y , m e a n i n g l e s s . We have a l r e a d y , t h e n , a # i t a l i c s mine. c l u e t o w h a t b h i s a n o t i o n o f b e a u t y w i l l b b e . Ho W i l d o n C a r r , a s y m p a t h e t i c i n t e r p r e t e r o f Srooej; a l r e a d y n e a t l y summarized h i s s y s t e m : " T h i s mind w h i c h i s r e a l i t y , o r t h i s r e a l i t y w h i e h i s mind, i s a n a c t i v i t y t h e forms o f w h i c h we may d i s t i n g u i s h ; and a l s o we may d i s t i n g u i s h t h e o r d e r and r e l a t i o n o f t h e f o r m s ; b u t we c a n n o t s e p a r a t e them, f o r t h e y a r e i n a n n i n d i s o l u b l e o r g a n i c u n i o n o f dependence and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e on one a n o t h e r . R e a l i t y i s a s y s t e m . The work o f p h i l o s o p h y i s t o p r e s e n t t h e s e forms o f a c t i v i t y and show how i n t h e i r p r o c e s s e s t h e y u n i t e t o f o r m t h e c o n c r e t e w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e . Two forms o f t h i s a c t i v i t y we a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h -knowing and a c t i n g . The f i r s t i s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a c t i v i t y ; t h e s e c o n d i s t h e w i l l , t h e p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y , t h e y stand, to one a n o t h e r i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f a d e f i n i t e o r d e r . W i l l depends on u n d e r s t a n d i n g ! i n a manner i n w h i c h u n d e r s t a n d i n g does n o t depend upon w i l l . A l l knowing h a s a c t i o n i n vie?/, b u t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o w i l l i n o r d e r to know, and knowing does n o t depend on any o t h e r f o r m o f m e n t a l # • a c t i v i t y l o w e r t h a n i t s e l f . - "We may now u n d e r s t a n d G r o c e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d o c t r i n e . Knowing i s n o t a s i m p l e r e l a t i o n between t h e mind and a n o b j e c t i n mind. I t i s not c o n t e m p l a t i o n , i t i s an a c t i v e p r o c e s s , and i t s a c t i v i t y has two f o r m s , one a n a c t i v i t y o f i n t u i t i o n , one an a c t i v i t y o f c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g . The s c i e n c e o f t h e one i s a e s t h e t i c ; o f t h e o t h e r , l o g i c . A e s t h e t i c s t a n d s t o l o g i c as a f i r s t t o s e c o n d d e g r e e , f o r l o p ; i c i s dependent on a e s t h e t i c , # w h i l e a e s t h e t i c depends on no o t h e r a c t i v i t y , ^ i t a l i c s mine. If The p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s a a l s o s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a an economic and an e t h i c a c t i v i t y . Knowing and a c t i n g each w i t h i t s two s u b d i v i s i o n s y i e l d t o us f o u r p u r e c o n c e p t s w h i c h t o g e t h e r ex-h a u s t r e a l i t y . The f o u r p u r e c o n c e p t s a r e b e a u t y , t r u t h , u s e f u l -4 n e s s , g o o d n e s s . " I t f o l l o w s f r o m G r o c e ' s i n s i s t e n c e upon t h e p r i m -4a a c y o f t h e i n t u i t i o n I n t h e a c t i v i t y o f l o s p i r i t o , t h a t t h e s c i e n c e o f t h e i n t u i t i o n , a e s t h e t i c w i l l h o l d a h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . " A e s t h e t i c s , though a s p e c i a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l science"", h a v i n g as i t s p r i n c i p l e a s p e c i a l and d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r y o f t h e mind, can n e v e r , j u s t b e c a u s e i t i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l , be d e t a c h e d f r o m tfce main body o f p h i l o s o p h y ; f o r i t s p r o b l e m s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s between a r t and o t h e r m e n t a l f o r m s , a n d t h e r e f o r e i m p l y b o t h d i f f e r e n c e and i d e n t i t y . A e s t h e t i c s i s r e a l l y t h e whole o f p h i l o s o p h y , b u t w i t h s p e c i a l 5 emphasis on t h a t s i d e o f i t w h i c h c o n c e r n s a r t , " 2 ( a ) . The s u b j e c t i v i t y o f b e a u t y . The "common-sense" n o t i o n o f b e a u t y u n d o u b t e d l y i s t h a t t h e c a u s e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e e l i n g we a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y i s e x t e r n a l to o u r s e l v e s . When we speak o f b e a u t y we t e n d t o t h i n k o f i t as b e i n g i m p l i c i t i n t h e p l a y , H a m l e t ; i n t h e Cezanne s t i l l - l i f e , i n t h e f l a m i n g s u n s e t , o r w h a t e v e r i t i s we choose t o c a l l b e a u t y f u l . G r o c e makes i t q u i t e d e f i n i t e t h a t s u c h a n o t i o n i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s u b j e c t i v e i d e a l i s m i n t e r m s o f v w h i c h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y , he b e l i e v e s , c a n a l o n e be e x p l a i n e d . The k e y n o t e o f h i s a e s t h e t i c i s t h e i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n o f b e a u t y w i t h t h e p r i v a t e i n t u i t i o n o f t h e " b e h o l d e r " . MO The u l t i m a t e i r r e d u c i b l e r e a l i t y c a n n o t bee measured, i n terms-o f a p l a y , a s t i l l - l i f e , o r a n e x t e r n a l n a t u r e . The u l t i m a t e i r r e d u c i b l e r e a l i t y i s t h e s p i r i t ' s own v o l i t i o n a l s t a t e s ; n o t h i n g e l s e , Now i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know p r e c i s e l y what i s i n -t e n d e d by t h e " S p i r i t ' s own v o l i t i o n a l s t a t e s " ; C r o c e d e s c r i b e s them v a r i o u s l y as " s e n s a t i o n s and i m p r e s s i o n s " , " c r u d e emotion-a l i t y " , " a p p e t i t e , p r o p e n s i t y , w i l l " , " s t a t e s o f our own p a s s l o n g " , "a w o r l d d e s i r e d o r l o a t h e d , o r m i n g l e d d e s i r e and l o a t h i n g " , 6 " a s p i r a t i o n o r y e a r n i n g " . These s t a t e s s e e m i n g l y e x i s t i n a s o r t o f t e n s i o n a w a i t i n g t o r e c e i v e " l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n " , Now a n o v e l f e a t u r e o f C r o c e 1 s d o c t r i n e i s t h a t o n l y t h e s p i r i t i t s e l f c a n p r e c i p i t a t e t h e i n t u i t i o n o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l image f r o m t h e raw s t u f f a w a i t i n g e x p r e s s i o n . The s p i r i t b r i n g s f o r m t o i t s ownu c o n t e n t . And f r o m t h i s a c t i v i t y t h e r e r e s u l t s , i n v a r i a b l y , t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f b e a u t y . I n t h e f a l l o w i n g e x c e r p t we s h a l l be s t r u c k b y t h e s t r i k i n g r e s e m b l a n c e C r o c e ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m of b e a u t y b e a r s , t o t h a t o f P l o t i n u s whom we have a l r e a d y b r i e f l y r e f e r r e d to % " I t h a s b e e n n o t i c e d t h a t to g e t a e s t h e t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m n a t u r a l o b j e c t s , we must n e g l e c t t h e i r a c t u a l o r h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , and d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r p u r e a p p e a r a n c e o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n f r o m t h e i r a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e , . t h a t n a t u r e i s o n l y b e a u t i f u l f o r t h e man who s e e s i t w i t h t h e eyesmof an a r t i s t ; t h a t z o o l -o g i s t s and b o t a n i s t s know n o t h i n g o f b e a u t i f u l a n i m a l s o r f l o w e r s and t h a t n a t u r a l b e a u t y i s r e v e a l e d to u s . W i t h o u t t h e a i d o f 14-1 i m a g i n a t i o n , n o t h i n g i n n n a t u r e i s b e a u t i f u l ; and w i t h i t s a i d , a c c o r d i n g to o u r d i s p o s i t i o n , t h e same t h i n g i s now e x p r e s s i v e , now unmeaning, now e x p r e s s i v e i n one way, now i n a n o t h e r , s a d o r j o y f u l , s u b l i m e o r r i d i c u l o u s , . . . . H a n , f a c e d w i t h n a t u r a l b e a u t y i s e x a c t l y t h e m y t h i c a l N a r c i s s u s a t t h e pool....One a r t i s t i s i n r a p t u r e s b e f o r e a s m i l i n g l a n d s c a p e , a n o t h e r b e f o r e a r a g and b o n e shops one b e f o r e t h e f a c e o f a p r e t t y g i r l a n d a n o t h e r b e f o r e t j i e s q u a l i d f e a t u r e s o f some o l d r u f f i a n . The f i r s t w i l l p e r h a p s s a y thai t h e r a g - s h o p and r u f f i a n a r e d i s g u s t i n g , a n d t h e s e c o n dd t h a t t h e s m i l i n g l a n d s c a p e and t h e p r e t t y g i r l a r e b o r i n g . They may d i s p u t e e n d l e s s l y ; t h e y w i l l n o t a g r e e t i l l t h e y have been t r e a t e d w i t h s u c h a, d ose o f a e s t h e t i c s as w i l l e n a b l e them t o 7 s e e t h a t t h e y a r e b o t h r i g h t . " B u t many w i l l f i n d t h e dose o f a e s t h e t i c s t h a t G r o c e p r e s c r i b e s h a r d t o s w a l l o w . We a r e t o l d t h a t what i s i n t u i t e d i n a work o f a r t i s c h a r a c t e r , i n d i v i d u a l physiognomy o r image. Ebw t h e a r t i s t c a n o n l y be " i n r a p t u r e s " o v e r h i s own i n t u i t i o n , w h e t h e r t h i s he o f a l a n d s c a p e , a rag-and-bone-shop, a g i r l , or a r u f f i a n . "What we must c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d i s t h a t f o r G r o c e t h e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t o f p e r c e p t i o n i s n o t t h e m a t t e r t o w h i c h t h e a e s -t h e t i c a c t i v i t y g i v e s f o r m . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f K a n t s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n : "Kant c o n s i d e r e d h a r d n e s s , i m p e n e t r a b i l i t y , c o l o r and t h e l i k e t o be t h e m a t e r i a l o f s e n s a t i o n s . B u t i n so f a r as t h e s p i r i t becomes aware o f c o l o r o r h a r d n e s s i t h a s a l r e a d y g i v e n f o r m t o i t s s e n s a t i o n s ; s e n s a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d as b r u t e m a t e r i a l a r e o u t s i d e t h e knowing s p i r i t , t h e y a r e a l i m i t s c o l o r , h a r d n e s s i m p e n e t r a b i l i t y and t h e l i k e , so f a r as we a r e aware o f them, a r e a l r e a d y i n t u i t i o n s , s p i r i t u a l l y e l a b o r a t e d , r u d i m e n t a r y 8 m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . " • ¥ e must t h e n n o t c o n f u s e i n t u i t i o n w i t h s e n s a t i o n , t h e u n f o r m e d s t u f f o f w h i c h t h e s p i r i t i n t u i t s i n d i v i d u a l images; o r w i t h p e r c e p t i o n , w h i c h , u n l i k e i n t u i t i o n , i n v o l v e s t h e judgment o f t h e r e a l i t y o r t h e u n r e a l i t y o f i t s obj e c t t i . The i n t u i t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n t u i t i n g p r o c e s s , w h i c h i s w h o l l y an i n -9 t e r n a l a f f a i r o f mind. The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s v i e w o f b e a u t y i s s t a r t l i n g j H a m l e t , t h e Cezanne s t i l l - l i f e ( s a y t h e s t i l l - l i f e w i t h P e a c h e s ) o r t h e s u n s e t , h a v e none o f them i n t r i n s i c b e a u t y . T h e s e " b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s " h a v e even no a b s o l u t e e x i s t e n c e . They e x i s t , a n d a r e b e a u t i f u l , o n l y as t h e r e s u l t o f i n t u i t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l knowing s p i r i t . As s t a t e d b y C a r r i t t ; " I t i s n o t t h e w r i t t e n o r spoken poem, n o r t h e p e r c e i v e d a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must s t r i c t l y be c a l l e d b e a u t i f u l , b u t o n l y a p a r t i c u l a r way i n ' w h i c h a t a g i v e n 10 moment any i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f i n them" 2 (b) I n d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t u i t i o n and, e x p r e s s i o n . The s y n o n i m i t y o f i n t u i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n i n C r o c e ' s v o c a b u l a r y and t h e f e a s a b -i l i t y o f s u b s t i t u t i n g e i t h e r t e r m f o r t h e o t h e r i n h i s a e s t h e t i c e q u a t i o n : A r t / Bea.ut.3r ~ I n t u i t i o n / E x p r e s s i o n , c a u s e s dismay even t o many o f h i s s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r s . Y e t t|je . p o i n t i s a c a r d i n a l one i n h i s a e s t h e t i c : he i n s i s t s t h a t o n l y b y so i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e c o n c e p t s cann we a v o i d t h e dilemma o f d u a l -i s m , " "When t h e i n t u i t i o n h a s been|f d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m th e e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e one h a s b e en made d i f f e r e n t f r o m th e o t h e r , no i n g e n -u i t y o f m i d d l e terms c a n r e u n i t e them; a l l t h e p r o c e s s e s p r o p o s e d h y t h e p s ychologist© and l a b o r i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d b y them, f i n a l l y a l l o w t h e r i f t t o a ppear? on t h i s s i d e t h e e x p r e s s i o n , 11 on t h a t , t h e image." So i n s t e a d o f u s i n g i n t u i t i o n and e x p r e s s -i o n &s terms i n a s y n t h e t i c judgment c o n c e r n i n g b e a u t y , he c hooses t o a v o i d d i f f i c u l t y b y l i n k i n g them i n a t a u t o l o g y , ( r e m i n d i n g us f a i n t l y o f K e a t s ' famous o b i t e r d i c t u m ) , I n t u i t i o n i s  E x p r e s s i o n ; E x p r e s s i o n , I n t u i t i o n . „ . \ . "One o f t h e f i r s t p r o b l e m s t o a r i s e , when t h e work o f a r t i s d e f i n e d as l y r i c a l image, c o n c e r n s t h e r e l a t i o n o f " i n t u i t -i o n 1 and ' e x p r e s s i o n ' and t h e manner o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r . A t b o t t o m o f t h i s i s t h e same p r o b l e m o f i n n e r and o u t e r , o f mind and m a t t e r , o f s o u l and body, and, i n e t h i c s , o f i n t e n t i o n and w i l l , w i l l and a c t i o n , and s o f f o r t h . Thus / s t a t e d , t h e p r o b l e m i s i n s o l u b l e ; f o r once we have d i v i d e d t h e .Inner f r o m t h e o u t e r , body f r o m mind, w i l l f r o m a c t i o n , o r i n t m i t -i o n f r o m e x p r e s s i o n , t h e r e i s no way o f p a s s i n g f r o m t h e one t o t h e o t h e r and r e u n i t i n g them, u n l e s s we a p p e a l f & r t t h e i r r e u n i o n to a t h i r d t e r m , , v a r i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t e d as God o r t h e Unknowable. D u a l i s m l e a d s N e c e s s a r i l y t o e i t h e r t r a n s c e n d a n c e o r t o a g n o s t i -c i s m . B u t when a p r o b l e m i s f o u n d t o be i n s o l u b l e i n t h e terms i n w h i c h i t i s stated, t h e o n l y c o u r s e open i t t o c r i t i c i z e t h e s e t e r m s t h e m s e l v e s , t o i n q u i r e how t h e y h a v e been a r r i v e d a t , and w h e t h e r t h e i r g e n e s i s i s l o g i c a l l y soumd. I n t h i s c a s e , s u c h i n / q u i r y l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e terms t h e m s e l v e s depend n o t upon a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e , "but upon an e m p i r i c a l and n a t u r a l i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h i c h h a s c r e a t e d two g r o u p s o f f a c t s c a l l e d i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e s p e c t i v e l y (as i f i n -terna,! f a c t s were n o t a l s o e x t e r n a l , and as i f an e x t e r n a l f a c t c o u l d e x i s t w i t h o u t b e i n g i n t e r n a l a l s o ) , o r s o u l s o r b o d i e s , o r images and e x p r e s s i o n s . . . . ( T h e ) i n t u i t i o n i s o n l y . 1 2 i n t u i t i o n i n s o f a r a s i t i s , i n t h a t v e r y a c t , e x p r e s s i o n . " "What t h e n i s e x p r e s s i o n ? " we may a s k . " I t i s a f o r m t h e mind g i v e s t o i t s i n t u i t i o n s , t h e f o r m i n t u i t i o n makes as i t u t t e r s t o i t s e l f . And as t h e r e i s n o t m a t t e r w i t h o u t f o r m an d 1 3 no f o r m w i t h o u t m a t t e r , t h e i n t u i t i o n i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n . " Hence t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f b e a u t y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g E x p r e s s i o n i s t t h e o r i e s o f a r t . "Hot o n l y 'a l a n d s c a p e i s a mood 1, b u t e v e r y l i n e , 1 4 c o l o r o r t o n e i s t h e embodiment o f r e a l i t y o f a'mood 1 ". So, I n s t e a d o f s a y i n g t h a t " t h e a r t i s t i s i n r a p t u r e s o v e r the l a n d s c a p e " , o r "he has a l y r i c a l i n t u i t i o n o f the l a n d s c a p e , " we ough?t r e a l l y t o say, "The a t t i s t 1 s n ( l y r i c a l ) i n t u i t i o n i s t h e l a n d s c a p e . " " L a n d s c a p e " , i n t e r m s o f C r o c e ' s a e s t h e t i c , i s m e r e l y t h e l a b e l we may, f o r c o n v e n i e n c e , a p p l y t o t h e e x p r e s s -i o n o f t h e a r t i s t 1 s i n t u i t i o n . E o r , b e f o r e an i n t u i t i o n c an be p r o p e r l y t ermed an i n t u i t i o n , i t must have come t o a head • to u s e an u n f i t t i n g f i g u r e — - t h a t i s , i t must be e x p r e s s e d . And t h e i n d i v i d u a l image ( o r i n t u i t i o n , or e x p r e s s i o n ) i s i n s e p a r -a b l e f r o m t h e knowing s p i r i t e x p r e s s i n g ( o r i n t u i t i n g i t ) . " A n image t h a t does n o t e x p r e s s , t h a t i s n o t s p e e c h , song, d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e o r a r c h i t e c t u r e - - — s p e e c h a t l e a s t murmured /AT t o o n e s e l f , song a t l e a s t e c h o i n g w i t h i n one's b r e a s t , l i n e and c o l o r s e e n i n i m a g i n a t i o n and c o l o r i n g w i t h i t s own t i n t the whole s o u l and o r g a n i s m - - i s an image t h a t does n o t exist,, We may a s s e r t i t s e x i s t e n c e , b u t we c a n n o t s u p p o r t a s s e r t i o n ; f o r the o n l y t h i n g we c o u l d adduce i n s u p p o r t o f i t would be t h e f a c t t h a t w t h e image was embodied o r e x p r e s s e d . T h i s p r o f o u n d p h i l o s o p h -i c a l d o c t r i n e , t h e i d e n t i t y o f i n t u i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n i s , more-o v e r , a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d i n a r y common s e n s e , w h i c h l a u g h s a t p e o p l e who c l a i m t o have t h o u g h t s t h e y c a n n o t e x p r e s s o r t o have i m a g i n e d 1 5 a g r e a t p i c t u r e w h i c h t h e y c a n n o t p a i n t . " V We may r e m a i n u n c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t u i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e e q u a t i n g o f t h e two w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y , i s e i t h e r " p r o f o u n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l do.cltgi-ne o r " o r d i n a r y common s e n s e " . Many c r i t i c s i n s i s t , i n s t e a d , t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y i s e x t r e m e l y e q u i v o c a l ; even E.3y C a r r i t t , who i s a s y m p a t h e t i c commentator, a g r e e s t h a t t h e p h r a s e w o u l d be more m e a n i n g f u l i f i t were changed t o r e a d i n t u i t i o n t e n d s to become e x p r e s s i o n . M o r e o v e r , what c a u s e s a "raw p a s s i o n " t o c o a g u l a t e i n e x p r e s s i o n ? D i d t h e emo t i o n , o r w h a t e v e r , w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d as an i n d i v i d u a l image, p o s s e s s p r e v i o u s to i t s e x p r e s s i o n , a c e r t a i n p s y c h i c a l p o t e n t i a l ? Or i s t h s a c t o f e x p r e s s i n g r a t h e r to be e q u a t e d w i t h s p o n t a n e o u s , and e f f o r t l e s s , c r e a t i o n ? F u r t h e r m o r e , must we b e l i e v e t h a t w h a t e v e r bobs to t h e s u r f a c e F 1 Q o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h e r e b y e x p r e s s i v e , and b e a u t i f u l ? T h e c r i t i c i s m made b y C a r r i t t i s ' s i g n i f i c a n t : "By s a c r i f i c i n g ^ i t a l i c s mine. asi unproven t h i s a t t r a c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n t u i t i o n with expression we have renounced immediate possession of a p h i l o s -phy so completely symmetrical as his...'. (But) by allowing that we can become aware of r e a l ormimaginary objects i n which we do not express our own de s i r e s or aversions, i t seems more possiblee to e x p l a i n , not only the communication of expressions and the apprehension of u g l i n e s s , but also the d i f f e r e n c e of a dream or 17 l i s t l e s s and incoherent awareness from the a e s t h e t i c act." According to Croce, "What we admire i n a work of a r t i s the p e r f e c t imaginative form i n which a state of mind has 18 clothed i t s e l f . " ; and beauty i s a manifestation, or expression, of hjte s t a t e of mind to_ the mind. Such l o c u t i o n s y i e l d a concept of the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y which would seem to reduoe a r t to a sort of p s y c h i c a l parthenogenesis. We s h a l l have to defer f o r a moment Mie v i t a l ques-t i o n r a i s e d by the references to communication i n the above ex-cerpts from C a r r i t t and Croce. We must tu r n our attentionnow to the d i s t i n c t i o n Croce makes between a r t and non-art. 3 (a) Art not f e e l i n g i n i t s immediacy. The dictum: "Art i s the expression of emotion," draws f i r e from C l a s s i c i s t s and R e a l i s t s a l i k e , who are sure that they can espy, l u r k i n g beneath a verbal camouflage, t h e i r arch-enemy, Romanticisml However snat may be, 19 i t i s necessary to a s s e r t , i n f a i r n e s s to Croce, who does na& subscribe to the aphorism and who indeed has c a l l e d h i s p h i l o s -phy the philosophy of Expression, that a proper understanding of what he i n t e n d s hy e x p r e s s i o n w i l l o l e a r from him the c rude ' charge o f e m o t i o n - m o n g e r i n g . " A r t / ' he s a y s / ' i s no v a i n - i m a g i n i n g , o r tumul tuous p a s s i o n a l i t y , but the s u r p a s s i n g o f t h i s a c t "by means o f ano the r a c t , or, i f i t be p r e f e r r e d , the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s t u m u l t f o r ano the r t u m u l t , t h a t o f the l o n g i n g t o opgate and t o comtemplate w i t h the j o y and a n g u i s h o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . " " E x p r e s s i o n i s the a c t i v i t y of the i m a g i n a t i o n , the a c t i v i t y w h i c h produces o r i n v e n t s o r c r e a t e s images , images w h i c h a re p a r t i c u l a r and i n d i v i d u a l * I t i s not i m a g i n a t i o n i n the s econda ry meaning i n w h i c h i t i s a f a c u l t y o f r e p r o d u c i n g and r e c o m b i n i n g f a n c i f u l images out o f e lements o f pa s t E x p e r i e n c e . I n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning.;:-the i m a g i n a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the i n t e l l e c t as 21 an i n t u i t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a concept* " Groce r e p u d i a t e s the h e d o n i s t i c A e s t h e t i c ; p l e a s u r e he s a y s , i s no t the d i f f e r e n t i a o f a r t . "The b e s t t h a t can be done i n s suppor t of t h e ; : d e f i n i t i d b * : of a r t as what p l e a s e s , i s t o m a i n t a i n t h a t i t i s no t s i m p l y what p l e a s e s , but what p l e a s e s i n a i p a r t i c u l a i ? way. Bu t sueh a q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s not a defense but an abandonment o f t h e p o s i t i o n , s i n c e , i f a r t i s s a p a r t -i c u l a r k i n d o f p l e a s u r e , i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r wouldmdepend, not on i t s p l e a s a n t n e s s but on what d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from o t h e r 22 p l e a s a n t t h i n g s . " C e r t a i n l y t h e n , Croce does not i d e n t i f y a r t w i t h any " r o m a n t i c " e m o t i o n a l i t y . Y e t he concedes " s i n c e e v e r y e r r o r i s founded upon some t r u t h . . . . the h e d o n i s t i c t h e o r y has i t s e t e r n a l b a s i s o f t r u t h i n i t s emphasis on the h e d o n i s t i c / i t a l i c s mine accompaniment o r p l e a s u r e w h i c h i s common t o the a e s t h e t i c a e t i v -23# i * y and a l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f the mind* I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know what Croce i n t e n d s p r e c i s e -l y by the i t a l i c i z e d p h r a s e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , as f a r as h i s i n t e n t -i o n r e g a r d i n g the a e s t h e t i c performance i s c o n c e r n e d , we may be o b l i g e d t o agree w i t h the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s t h a t he has no t a s s i g n e d t o f e e l i n g a r o l e g r e a t l y more e m o t i o n a l t h a n have even the Herb -24 a r t i a n f o r m a l i s t s . The r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e $ i s o f c o u r s e , t h a t w h i l e t he l a t t e r s e e v i n t h e f o r m a l e x t e r n a l e lements com-p r i s i n g t h e work o f a r t t h e o&use o r sou rce o f b e a u t y , C r o c e , de -n y i n g a r e a l i t y e x t e r n a l t o e x p e r i e n c i n g m i n d , sees the cause o r sou rce i m p l i c i t i n the mind i t s e l f , i . e . , i n f e e l i n g . "What g i v e s u n i t y and coherence t o i n t u i t i o n i s f e e l i n g . I n t u i t i o n s a re t r i l y such because t h e y r e p r e s e n t f e e l i n g , and o n l y thenoe can t h e y a r -i s e i I t i s no t a thought bu t f e e l i n g t h a t g i v e s t o a r t the a i r y 25 l i g h t n e s s o f i t s s s y m b o l i s m . " I n t u i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t and e x p r e s s f e e l i n g : t h e y b r i n g fo rm t o t h© chaos o f f e e l i n g . But h e r e the metaphor c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the v e r b " b r i n g " i s ap t t o m i s l e a d : fo rm must no t he t hough t o f as b o t t l e s i n t o m w h i c h f e e l i n g i s p o u r e d , l e a v i n g e a c h , fosm and f e e l i n g , t o r e t a i n i t s s epa ra t e i d e n t i t y . Such s e t t i n g o f fo rm ove r a g a i n s t f e e l i n g l e a d s t o the di lemma o f d u a l i s m , w h i c h , as has a l r e a d y been shown, Croce r e g a r d s as the n e g a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c . I f we must r e s o r t t o metaphor—and sooner we o r l a t e r we mus t , i n m e t a p h y s i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s . s e e i n g f o r c e d to-—• our o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he i n t u i t i n g p r o c e s s as a " c r y s t a l l -i z a t i o n " i s pe rhaps more m e a n i n g f u l . # I t a l i es m i n e . The a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y i s , f o r Croce, analogous to the A r i s t o t e l i a n c a t h a r s i s : a r t has the power o f " l i b e r a t i n g us from the passions." " . . . . a r t i n c r e a t i n g beauty does not simply seek pleasure, though, as A r i s t o t l e saw,it a t t a i n s i t s propel pleasure. And t h i s proper pleasure i s our s a t i s f a c t i o n i n that t h e o r e t i c triumph by which our imagination creates a convincing p i c t u r e , not h i s t o r i c a l l y t r u e , but coherent, i n d i v i d u a l , necess ary, i m i t a t i v e of ao t i o n and yet rjrwmioal; by the order or form which i t thus imposes on passions purging them away so that as a r t i s t a we have no longer b l i n d impulses of l u s t or s h r i n k i n g , 26 but a p u r i f i e d , an expressed emotion." ( C a r r i t t : Theory of Beauty, p. 284} And the poet w r i t i n g a tragedy "does not lose h i s wits or grow s t i f f as he gazes; he does not t o t t e r or weep or cry; he expresses himself i n harmonious verse, having had 27 these various p e r t u r b a t i o n s , the object ofmwhich he sings." 3 (b). Beauty and u g l i n e s s . Pleasure, as has been said above, i s not the d i f f e r e n t i a of a r t ; "nothing can be born i n t o the  sou l without the consent of the s o u l , and consequently without corresponding pleasure."# How i t i s n o t o r i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t to dispute a metaphor, and, i n any case, an an a l y s i s of the metaphysical s u b t l e t i e s i m p l i c i t i n t h i s one l i e s f a r beyond the scope of t h i s essay. What does immediately concern us i s the n o t i o n that pleasure accompanies whatever id"born i n t o the so u l " . This I take to mean that pleasure accompanies every ex-pression of an i n t u i t i o n , — a l t h o u g h we need to be reminded that the "hedonistic accompaniment or pleasure i s common t o . . . a l l . . . a c t i v i t i e s of the mind." The point i s that whenever an image i s # i t a l i o s mine "born" , 1the soul experiences beauty; and whenever an image i s s t i l l b o r n , — - w h e n e v e r an embryonic i n t u i t i o n s t r u g g l i n g to be expressed does not aoheive expression, the r e s u l t i s u g l i n e s s . In b r i e f , Crooe means by beauty, s u c c e s s f u l expression; by u g l i -ness, unsuccessful expression. Ugliness i n a r t may he caused by the i n t r u s i o n of a p r a e t i e a l a c t i v i t y . "The a r t i s t who s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a represent-a t i o n of h i s a f f e c t i o n s an argument about h i s affections...oomm-28 i t s the a r t i s t i c e r r o r , that i s to say, u g l i n e s s . " The p u r i t y and u n s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the mental image i s the sine qua non of the experience of beauty: so soon as s c i e n t i f i c "pseudoooncepts n or i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral judgments supervene upon the ae s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y , the l a t t e r vanishes. Ae s t h e t i c knowledge or beauty i s simply knowledge of our own mental images. E.F. C a r r i t t o f f e r s t h i a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n j "We know ne i t h e r n a t u r a l things,which meta-p h y s i c a l l y do not e x i s t ; nor our crude v o l i t i o n s which I under-stand, do; a l l o u r images are expressions of the l a t t e r . When the sound of a fog-horn bursts upon my ears, that sound, p r i o r to mental c o n s t r u c t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n , i s an expression, and noth- i n g e l s e t than an expression , of ray s t a t e , i n j u s t the same way as i s my own s i l e n t l y formulated oath or chuckle. I f i t s " i n d i v -i d u a l physiognomy" i s o l e a r l y i n t u i t e d , i t w i l l always, previous to a b s t r a c t i o n , be, i n i t s own l i t t l e way, b e a u t i f u l . " By the process of simple s u b s t i t u t i o n i n Crooe's f l e x i b l e a e s t h e t i c equation we obtain two statements which are ne.ceasarfc to an understanding of h i s t h e s i s * v i z . , # i t a l i c s mine beauty i a an expression, i . e., al i b e a u t y i s expressive (of mental s t a t e s ) ; and expression i s beauty, i . e., whatever i s expressed i s b e a u t i f u l . The p r o p o s i t i o n as stated i n the f i r s t form we have discussed; there remains an issue r a i s e d by the second form. I f by chance the a r t i s t gives expression to matter regarded by s o c i e t y as immoral, s i n f u l , or ugly; i s the express-i o n of i t , ipso f a c t o , b e a u t i f u l ? Yes, answers Croce. He i n s i s t s that the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y , as such, has no concern with judgments of any k i n d , moral or otherwise. The a r t i s t , qua a r t i s t , " w i l l always be morally blameless and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y uncensurable; even though h i s a r t should i n d i c a t e a low mo r a l i t y and philosophy: Insofar as he i s an a r t i s t , he does hot act and does not reason, 30 # but p o e t i s e s , p a i n t s , sings, and i n short, expresses himself..." We must add, p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , that t h i s freedom the a r t i s t enjoys, nevertheless, does not preclude censorship; on the contrary, Croce admits he would have no hesitancy about even burning works of a r t " * i n ap pyre of v a n i t i e s " a, l a Savon-31 .. -, a r o l a n , should s o c i e t y f i n d the a r t i s t ' s works offensive on moral grounds. 10. The a r t i f a c t not the r e a l work o f a r t . Croce 1s stand on the vex. matter of censorship w i l l not su r p r i s e us when we discover that the p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t s do not c o n s t i t u t e the true works of a r t . Censorship can-:"affect not the works of a r t , but the books and canvases whieh serve as instruments f o r the reproduce/ i o n of the a r t , which, as p r a c t i c a l works, are paid f o r i n the market at a p r i c e equivalent to so much corn or gold." / i t a l i c s mine " I t i s c l e a r , " he saya, "that the poem i s complete as soon as the poet has expressed i t i n words which he repeats to himself. When he comes to repeat them aloud, f o r others to hear, or looks f o r someone to l e a r n them hy heart and repeat them as i n a schola oantorum, or gets them down i n w r i t i n g or i n p r i n t i n g , he has entered upon a new stage, not aesthetic but p r a c t i c a l , whose s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l importance need not, of course, be i n s i s t e d upon. So with the p a i n t e r ; he paints on h i s panel or canvas, but he could not paint unless at every stage of h i s workj from the o r i g i n a l b l u r or sketch to the f i n i s h i n g toue hes, the i n t u i t e d image, the l i n e and c o l o r painted i n h i s imag-32 i n a t i o n , preceded the brush stroke." I f i n a n a l y s i n g " i n t u i t i o n " and "expression" a reader came to suspect that Groce's use of key-terms i s h i g h l y a r b i t r a r y , h i s s u s p i c i o n w i l l deepen i n t o a c o n v i c t i o n when he 34 discovers what Croce s i g n i f i e s by a'work of a r t ' . The'work of a r t , ' the s o - c a l l e d p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t i s f o r Crooe completely i n c i d e n t a l to the a r t i s t ' s a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y and serves merely the p r a c t i c a l , p u r p o s e (see above) of " f i x i n g the memory of our 35 b i n t u i t i o n s " The a r t i s t , who v i b r a t e s " w i t h expressed images which break f o r t h by i n f i n i t e channels from h i s whole being, i s t,a?whole man, and t h e r e f o r e a l s o a p r a c t i c a l man, and as such takes measures against l o s i n g the r e s u l t of h i s S p i r i t u a l labour and i n favour of rendering p o s s i b l e or easy, f o r himself or f o r others, the reproduction of h i s images; hence he engages i n p r a c t i c a l a r t s which a s s i s t that work of reproduction. These prac-t i c a l acts are guided, as are a l l p r a c t i c a l a c t s , by knowledge, S3 and f o r t h i s r e a s o n are c a l l e d t e o h n i a a l ; a n d , s i n c e t h e y a re p r a c t i c a l , t h e y a re d i s t i n g u i s h e d f rom c o n t e m p l a t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e o r e t i a a l , and seem t o be e x t e r n a l t o i t , and are t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d p h y s i c a l : t h e y assume t h i s name the more e a s i l y i n s o f a r a s , t h e y a r e f i x e d and made a b s t r a c t by the i n t e l l e c t . Thus w r i t -i n g and phonography a r e connec ted w i t h words and m u s i c , and p a i n -t i n g canvas and wood and w a l l s c o v e r e d w i t h c o l o r s , s tone cut and i n c i s e d , i r o n and b ronze and o t h e r m e t a l s , m e l t e d and moulded t o c e r t a i n shapes , w i t h s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e , go d i s t i n c t among t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h e two forms o f a c t i v i t y t h a t i t i s p o s s -i b l e t o be a g r e a t a r t i s t w i t h bad t e c h n i q u e , apoet who who c o r r e c t s t h e p r o o f s o f h i s v e r s e s b a d l y , an a r c h i t e c t who makes use o f u n s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s o r does no t a t t e n d t o s t a t i c s a p a i n t e r who u s e s c o l o r s t h a t d e t e r i o r a t e r a p i d l y : examples o f t h e s e weaknesses a re so fre.qu.ent t h a t i t i s not w o r t h whilfe c i t i n g any o f them. Bu t what i s i m p o s s i b l e i s t o be a g r e a t poet who w r i t e s v e r s e s b a d l y , a g r e a t p a i n t e r who does no t g i v e tone t o h i s c o l o r s , a g r e a t a r c h i t e c t who does no t harmonise h i s l i n e s a g r e a t composer who does not ha rmonise h i s n o t e s , i n s h o r t , a geeat a r t i s t who cannot e x p r e s s h i m s e l f ; I t has beens s a i d o f  R a p h a e l t h a t he w o u l d have "been a g r e a t p a i n t e r even i f he had  not, p o s s e s s e d h a n d s ; b u t c e r t a i n l y , no t t h a t he would have been a geeat h i m . " ' geeat p a i n t e r i f the sense o f d e s i g n a and c o l o r were w a n t i n g i n 36 However d i s i n c l i n e d one may be t o s p e c u l a t e about a r m l e s s R a p h a e l s and l e g l e s s P a v l o v a s , I t h i n k i t i s t r u e t h a t , w i t h i n the terms o f C r o c e ' s l o g i c , a l l t he i d e a s , ( e x c e p t i n g / i t a l i c s mine the s l i p ahout the a r c h i t e c t ) i n the above passage have been expressed with p e r f e c t c o n s i s t e n c y , My purpose i n the next s e c t i o n i s not to discuss swhether h i s i s the most meaningful d e s c r i p t i o n of the a r t i s t ' s a c t i v i t y , but to d i s c o v e r whether h i s concept of the "work of a r t " being what i t i s , Croce succ© eeds i n a v o i d i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s when he undertakes to e x p l a i n communication. 11. The problem of communication. The problem of communic-a t i o n i s a rook upon which many an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theory has foundered. Here the c r i t i c s seem agreed that at t h i s point Croce s t e e r s a dangerous, i f not f a t a l course. But he hi m s e l f r e s t s s e r e n e l y c o n f i d e n t , i f rock there be, how easy to d i s s o l v e i t , o h r i s t i a n - s o i e n c e - w i s e , i n t o the i m m a t e r i a l i t y of the c r i t i c s r E r r o r . To examine the charge we must r e c a l l how thorough-going C r o c e 5 s i d e a l i s m i s . "Art, understood as i n t u i t i o n , accord-i n g to the concept that I have exposed, having denied the e x i s t - ence of a p h y s i c a l world outside of i t . , which i t looks upon simply aa a c o n s t r u c t i o n of our i n t e l l e c t , does not know what to do with a p a r a l l e l i s m of the t h i n k i n g substance and of substance extended i n space, and has no need to promote imposs-i b l e marriages, because i t s t h i n k i n g substance or, r a t h e r i t s i n t u i t i v e a c t — - i s p e r f e c t i n i t s e l f , and i s that same f a c t 37 which the i n t e l l e c t l a t e r c o n s t r u c t s as extended." We noted e a r l i e r that i n t u i t i o n , u n l i k e p e r c e p t i o n # i t a l i o s mine 55 •• ' .- ^ i s not concerned with the r e a l i t y or the u n r e a l i t y of i t s ob-j e c t s ; hut i s d i r e c t e d s o l e l y to the pur® apprehension of the s p i r i t 1 s i n d i v i d u a l image*. How we di s c o v e r that when feoce . meets with the problem of communication he f i n d s i t convenient to r e s o r t to a p h y s i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e , whieh, however he 38 r e f e r s t o , p a t r o n i z i n g l y , a s merely 'metaphorical'. "Commun-i c a t i o n ," he says, " i s the f i x a t i o n of the i n t u i t i o n - e x p r e s s -i o n upon an object m e t a p h o r i c a l l y c a l l e d m a t e r i a l or p h y s i c a l ; i n r e a l i t y , even here we are not concerned with the m a t e r i a l 39 t h i n g s , but with a mental process," \ . We may witness the f u l l f l o w e r i n g of t h i s l o g i c i n the f o l l o w i n g passage from the chapter, P r e j u d i c e s R e l a t i n g to A r t , i n The Bssense o f A e s t h e t i c ( c o n t i n u i n g from the above qu o t a t i o n ) "This apparent t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the i n t u i t i o n s i n t o p h y s i c a l t h i n g s a l t o g e t h e r analogous with the apparent t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of wants and economic l a b o r i n t o things and i n t o merchandise a l s o e x p l a i n s how people have come to t a l k not only of " a r t i s t i c t h i n g s " and of " b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s , but of a "beaut-i f u l of nature•" I t i s evident t h a t , besides the instruments that are made f o r the r e p r o d u c t i o n of images, objects already e x i s t i n g aan be met with, whether produced by man or not, which perform such a s e r v i c e that i s to say, are more or l e s s adapted to f i x i n g t h e m«mory of our i n t u i t i o n s ; and these things take the name of " n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s , " and e x e r c i s e t h e i r f a s c i n a t i o n only when we know how to understand them with the same s o u l with which the a r t i s t or a r t i s t s have takengf and appropriated them, g i v i n g value to them and i n d i c a t i n g the point of view^c / i t a l i c s mine from which we must look at them,thus connecting them with t h e i r own i n t u i t i o n s , But the always imperfect a d a p t a b i l i t y , the, f u g i t i v e nature, the m u t a b i l i t y of 'natural beauties' also  .j u s t i f y the i n f e r i o r place accorded to. them, compared with  beauties produced by, a r t . Let us leave i t tfr the rhetor jo jama or" the i n t o x i c a t e d to a f f i r m that a b e a u t i f u l , t r e e , a beautifufel r i v e r , a b e a u t i f u l human f i g u r e , are superior to the c h i s e l -stroke of Michelangelo or the verse of Dante; but l e t us aay « wi t h greater p r o p r i e t y , that "nature 1 1 i a atupid compared with  a r t , gnd that she la'mute 1 1 i f man does not make her apeak." But ( r i s k i n g ; themunflattering i m p l i c a t i o n ) we may ask, are the r h e t o r i c i a n s and the i n t o x i c a t e d l e f t only one alw t e r n a t i v e , and t h a t , the s u p e r i o r i t y of stupid "nature"? May i t not be that the question of value does not enter here? Furthermore, why even the implied imperfection of 'nature', i f the p h y s i c a l world be but a con s t r u c t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t , -what i s the model of p e r f e c t i o n by which the i n t e l l e c t judges "nature"? And why the poverty of n a t u r a l beauties i f they e x i a t anyway only by aufferanee of the a r t i s t a * i n t u i t i o n s convenient hooks upon which the a r t i s t s may, f o r purpose of l a b -e l l i n g , hang t h e i r s e l f generated a r t i s t i c images? And again, why should a soulpttifcfj or any other a r t i a t , bother to atruggle with a p h y s i c a l medium when the completed work of art i s already i n h i a mind before he s t a r t s ? and even i f he does not indulge i n the supererogatory a c t i v i t y , how can he be sure that the alleged a r t i f a c t correaponds to the mental image, when he learns that "To attempt to f i n d a passage or oonnexion betweenthe ' 5/ s p i r i t u a l i t y of the image and the p h y s i c a l complexes of 42 colors,qsounds, and words i s a desperate e n t e r p r i s e " ? But has not Groce h i m s e l f undertaken t h i s "desper-ate e n t e r p r i s e " i n the f o l l o w i n g account of the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y ? "In r e a l i t y , we know no t h i n g hut expressed i n t u i t -i o n s , a thought i s not thought f o r us, unless i t he p o s s i b l e to formulate i t i n words; a musical,image e x i s t s f o r us only when i t becomes concrete ine, sounds, a p i s t o r i a l image, only when i t i s c o l o r e d . We do not say that the words must necess-a r i l y be declaimed i n a loud->volce , the music performed, or Ihe p i c t u r e painted upon wood or canvas; but i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t when a thought i s r e a l l y thought, when i t has a t t a i n e d t o the maturity of thougmt, the words run through our whole organism, s o l i c i t i n g the muscles of our mouth and r i n g i n g i n t e r n a l l y i n our ears; when musie i s t r u l y music, i t t r i l l s i n t e r n a l l y i n thn t h r o a t and s h i v e r s i n the f i n g e r s that toucfi. i d e a l notes; when a p i c t o r i a l image i s p i o t o r i a l l y r e a l we are impregnated w i t h lymphs that are c o l o r s , and maybe, i f c o l o r i n g matters weee not at our d i s p o s a l j we might spontaneous*! 4 3 # l y c o l o r surrounding o b j e c t s by a s o r t of i r r a d i a t i o n * . . " Is he not v i r t u a l l y a d m i t t i n g that the passage from the s p i r i t u a l i t y of the image (whose autonomy, i n t h i s case, we are not -concerned w i t h denying) to the p h y s i c a l complexes of c o l o r s sounds and words i s at l e a s t the t e s t , i f not the essence of the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y ? In the one breath Croce proclaims us a l l to be #i t a i i c s mine to some extent, mute, i n g l o r i o u s M i l t o n s : everyman h i s own poet, i n s o f a r as he i n t u i t s image®; and i n the next, pours scorn on'those impotent poets, p a i n t e r s , or musicians, who a l -ways have t h e i r heads f u l l of p o e t i c , p i c t o r i a l , and musical c r e a t i o n s , and only f a i l to t r a n s l a t e them i n t o e x t e r n a l form e i t h e r because, as they say, they are impatient of expression, or because technique i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced torn a f f o r d 44 them means of e x p r e s s i o n . Now i t i s true that Croce deprec-i a t e s the "play of fancy", i . e . , the p a s s i n g from image to image " i n search of v a r i e t y , r e s t , or d i v e r s i o n , seeking to amuse e i t s e l f with the l i k e n e s s e s of things that give p l e a s u r e or 45 : have emotional or p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t " . But, (as??suspect as we w i l l b a g r e e t h e i r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ^ are, can i t be f a i r l y s a i d that the "impotent" poets, e t c . , are being i n c o n s i s t e n t i n the terms of Croce's d o c t r i n e ? How can Crooe prove that the "hadon i s t i c accompaniment" whioh undoubtedly does a t t a c h to such " o r e a t i o n s " as t h e i r s to be a bastard emotion and not hie t r u l y a e s t h e t i e ? Now one may choose to argue that the experience of beauty produced by Beethoven's N i n t h Symphony e x i s t s i n the mind of the l i s t e n e r , and not i n e i t h e r the symbols of the conductor's score or the p a t t e r n of sound waves of various frequencies produced by the d i f f e r e n t instruments and v o i c e s j i n other words, beauty i s a q u a l i t y of mind and not a qual-i t y of t h i n g s . But whether beauty be a q u a l i t y o f mind, a qual i t y of t h i n g s , or a q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n between subject and o object does not g r e a t l y oonoern us. Whajr does concern us i s , how can Crooe, h o l d i n g the f i r s t of our a l t e r n a t i v e s to be the / i t a l i c s mine o n l y v a l i d one , r e o o n o i l e h i s d o c t r i n e o f b e a u t y as i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n w i t h communica t ion o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , o r any p a r t o f i t , t o o t h e r s . The k e y s t o n e o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y , we have o b s e r v e d , i s the d e n i a l o f a r e a l i t y e x t e r n a l t o e x p e r i e n c i n g mind : " i d e a l i t y i s r e a l i t y " . The " o u t e r " w o r l d i s a m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n c e p t : an a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s c i e n t i s t s i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h our p r a c t i c a l o r " c o n v e n t i o n a l " e x p e r i e n c e s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t a " t r a n s l a t i o n " o f a s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y ( i n t u i t i o n ) i n t o a p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y ( c o m p l e x s o f c o l o r s , e t c . ) i s a m e t a p h y s i c a l C o n t r a d i c t i o n w h i c h can l a y c l a i m o n l y to the same o r d e r o f t r u t h as the book c l e r k ' s s t a t e m e n t : " S h a k s p e r e ' s comple te works a re w o r t h t h r e e d o l l a r s . " B u t , h a v i n g had the r e a l i t y o f e x t e r n a l i t y d e n i e d u s , h o w - — u n l e s s we a r e expec t ed t o r e s o r t t o some m y s t i c a l s o r t o f t e l e p a t h y j i ^ - c a n the gap between one man's e x p e r i e n c e an& a n o t h e r ' s be b r i d g e d ? "The e x a c t l i n e t h a t d i v i d e s e x p r e s s i o n from communica t ion i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw i n a conc re t e c a s e , f o r i n the c o n c r e t e case the two p r o c e s s e s g e n e r a l l y a l t e r n a t e r a p i d l y and appear t o m i n g l e , bu t i t i s c l e a r i n i d e a and must be f i r m l y g r a s p e d . Through o v e r l o o k i n g i t , o r b l u r r i n g i t t h r o u g h i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n , a r i s e the c o n f u s i o n s between a r t and t e c h n i q u e . Technique i s not an i n t r i n s i c element... o f  a r t bu t has t o do p r e c i s e l y w i t h the concept o f communica t ion . C r o c e , as we Jiave seen , e x p r e s s l y r e j e c t s the v a l i d i t y o f e x t e r n a l i t y # i t a l i c s mine . Co whether of nature or of a r t on the grounds of i t s leadings to the d u a l i s t i s dilemma "which i s the s u i c i d e of philosophy. Yet he admits that ..an artist.hean take measures against l o s i n g the r e s u l t - o f h i s s p i r i t u a l l a b o r s , and rendering "possible, or easy, f o r himself and f o r others, the reprodustion of h i s images" To me t h i s seems l i k e denying admittance to appoor r e l a t i o n at the f r o n t door, and l e t t i n g him s l i n k i n at the back i n order to borrow a d o l l a r from him* I f " i n t u i t i o n s are t r u l y such because they represent f e e l i n g , and only thence can they a r i s e , " i f t h e essence of a r t i s "the p e r f e c t imaginative form i n which a state of mind clothes I t s e l f , " then how can sensations reoelved from without, i . e . , from a "reproduction" (whether p h y s i a a l or'metaphorical') have any e f f e o t whatsoever upon the i n t u i t i n g process of e i t h e r the a r t i s t h i m s e l f , when he returns to i t i n "cold blood", or any other p o s s i b l e beholder? Moreover, does not perception involve the c r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between r e a l i t y andd u n r e a l i t y — ~ a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e r e i g n to the i n t u i t i o n ? Surely thenthere can be no question of i n t u i t i n g a "work of a r t " , about whose r e a l i t y or u n r e a l i t y the beholder could never e n t e r t a i n a moment!s doubt. From t h i s I $hink i t f o l l o w s that to adapt the conventional n o t i o n that a p i c t u r e may arouse emotionality i n the beholder, i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to Croce's idea, that the beholder creates the p i c t u r e i n expressing h i s own emotionality i n i t . Thus when Crooe says "'Works of a r t ' e x i s t only i n the minds that create 47 or recreate them" I t h i n k we are forced to the uncharitable conclusion, t h a t , by d e f i n i t i o n , h i s statement i s meaningless, / i t a l i c s mine. 6 / 12« A r t aa language. The question of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a r t and language stems d i r e c t l y from the l a s t s e c t i o n , or, more properly, i n terms of s t r i c t l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y , i t should have been t r e a t e d before the concept of e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n . At the end of hism h i s t o r i c a l sketch i n the En- cyclopedia Bri&annica Grooe concludes wit h : "The general r e v i v a l oS s p e c u l a t i v e thought l e d to greater successes i n a e s t h e t i c s i n the f i r s t decades of the twentieth century. E s p e c i a l l y noteworthy i s the union which i s t a k i n g place be^ tween a e s t h e t i c s and thev philosophy of language? f a c i l i t a t e d by .the d i f f i c u l t i e s under whieh l i n g u i s t i c , conceived as the n a t u r a l i s t i c and p o s i t i v i s t i c science of the phonetio laws of, 48 language and s i m i l a r a b stractions Is l a b o r i n g * " Which confirms a s u s p i c i o n already growing i n our minds that Croce i a quite out of aympathy with p o s i t i v l s t s , 49 e m p i r i c i s t s and experimental p s y c h o l o g i s t s , et a l : Croce refuses eredenoe^in theory, at l e a s t , to any arguments threatening the autonomous i d e a l i t y of a r t , — w h a t e v e r may app-ear i n the s l i g h t e s t degree to d i c t a t e from without to the s e l f c r e a t i n g expreasion which i s beauty. The marriag® of form and content must remain i n d i s s o l u b l e . Croce was e a r l y a t t r a c t e d towYico's equation of poetry and p r i m i t i v e speech. "(Vico) regarded poetry as a mode of consciousness or t h e o r e t i c form preceding the p h i l o s o p h i c a l or reasoning form,and asserted aa i t s sole p r i n c i p l e the i m a g i n a t i o n , . w h i c h l a s t r i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n t h a t i t i s f r e e 50 f rom r a t i o c i n a t i o n , i t s enemy and d e s t r o y e r , " Upon t h i s assum-p t i o n Crooe has c o n s t r u c t e d h i s m e t a p h y s i o . "The p h i l o s o p h y o f l a n g u a g e , , . , i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y o f p o e t r y and a r t , t he s c i e n c e o f i n t u i t i o n - e x p r e s s i o n , a e s t h e t i c s ; w h i c h embraces language i n i t s whole e x t e n s i o n , p a s s i n g beyond the  l i m i t s o f p h o n e t i c and s y l l a b i c l a n g u a g e , and i n i t s u n i m p a i r e d r e a l i t y as l i v i n g and c o m p l e t e l y s i g n i f i c a n t e x p r e s s i o n , , . , " " T h i s i d e n t i f i a a t i o n ( o f language and p o e t r y ) appears t o us t o be • • . as m n a v o i d a b l e a s l i t l i s e a s y , h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the c o n -c e p t o f a r t as i n t u i t i o n and o f i n t u i t i o n as e x p r e s s i o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e i m p l i c i t l y I t s i d e n t i t y w i t h l a n g u a g e : a lways assum-i n g t h a t l anguage be oonde ived i n i t s f u l l e x t e n s i o n , w i t h o u t a r b i t r a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s t o s o - c a l l e d i n a r t i c u l a t e language and w i t h o u t a r b i t r a r y e x c l u s i o n o f t o n i c , m i m e t i c , and g r a p h i c ; and i n a l l i t s e x t e n s i o n - that i s , t a k e n i n i t s r e a l i t y , w h i c h i s t he act, o f speafeing i t s e l f , w i t h o u t f a l s i f y i n g i t w i t h t h e ab- s t r a c t i o n s o f grammars and v o c a b u l a r i e s , and w i t h o u t the f o o l i s h b e l i e f t h a t man speaks w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y and w i t h grammar. Man speaks a t e v e r y moment l i k e the p o e t , because , l i k e ; t h e poet he e x p r e s s e s h i s s i m l f r e s s i o n s and h i s f e e l i n g s i n the form s a i l e d / c o n v e r s a t i o n a l o r f a m i l i a r , w h i c h i s no t s e p a r a t e d by any abyss f rom the o t h e r forms c a l l e d p r o s a i c , p o e t i o ^ p r o s a i c , n a r r a t i v e , 5i# e p i c , d i a l o g u e , d r a m a t i c , l y r i c , m e l i c , s i n g i n g , and so o n . " No doubt r a t i o n a l i s t s and e m p i r i c i s t s would p r o t e s t a t the o u t s e t t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n " t a k e n i n i t s r e a l i t y ? ism b e g g i n g the q u e s t i o n . Whether t h a t charge can be p roved o n t o -# i t a l i o s m i n e . &3 l o g i c a l l y o r n o t , t he e x p r e s s i o n does serve i n t h i s con t ex t t o r e i t e r a t e once more the, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c emphasis o f C r o c e ' s app roach i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l l the p rob lems i n h i s meaaphys ic . A b s t r a c t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , though s e r v i n g a p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e a r e , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e s , f a l s i f i e r s o f t r u t h . A symbol or s i g n has the u s e f u l n e s s o f a l a b e l : not b e i n g the t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f , i t cannibt e x i s t i n p l a c e o f , o r p r o p e r l y " t r a n s l a t e " t h a t w h i c h i t i s n o t . A r o s e by ano the r name would s m e l l as swee t . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sum o f the q u a l i t i e s c o m p r i s i n g the r o s e can n e v e r be the r o s e . Thus by mere r a t i o -c i n a t i v e means we can o n l y approx ima te a c o n c e p t u a l i d e a o f the r o s e ' s b e a u t y . That i n d i v i d u a l image w h i c h we agree t o l a b e l r o s e can o n l y be p r e d i c a t e d o f an i n t u i t i o n . And the e x p e r i e n c e o f feauty i s eaua ted w i t h the. i n t u i t i o n o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l image. " A r t i s a t r u e a e s t h e t i c s y n t h e s i s , a p r i o r i o f f e e l i n g and image i n the i n t u i t i o n , as t o w h i c h i t may be r e p e a t e d t h a t f e e l i n g 52 w i t h o u t image i s b l i n d , and image w i t h o u t f e e l i n g i s v o i d . " Now t o r e p e a t what has been s a i d p r e v i o u s l y , a r t p r ecedes a l l o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e ( i n a . ! l o g i c a l , not t e m p o r a l , 53 s e n s e ) ; i t doe® not need the concept or p h i l o s o p h y , but p h i l o s o p h y and the concept depend on a r t , w i t h o u t w h i c h they ; \ $ & l o s ^ •ffefpAafli.oii. sarfc, wlth.acrfe whisix t h s y would no t p o s s e s s the o r i g i n a l f l o w o f l a n g u a g e — t h e p o e t r y n a t u r a l t o man and on w h i c h t h e i r s t r u c t u r e o f u n i v e r s a l meanings has t o be e r e c t e d . • T h u s b o t h i n a r t and i n language ( c o n c e i v e d h i s t o r i c a l l y ) spontaneous image p recedes c o n v e n t i o n -a l s i g n . " I t i s u r g e n t t h a t ( l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s ) s h o u l d be disencumbered o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and p sychophys -i o l o g i c a l methods , now the f a s h i o n , and be f r e e d from the eve r r e t u r n i n g t h e o r y o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l o r i g i n o f l anguage , w h i c h has the i n e v i t a b l e c o r r e l a t i v e o f the m y s t i c a l t h e o r y as i t s i n e v i t a b l e r e a c t i o n . Here t oo i t w i l l no l o n g e r be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t absurb p a r a l l e l i s m s , o r t o promote m y s t e r i o u s n u p t i a l s between s i g n and image: when language i s no l o n g e r c o n c e i v e d as a s i g n , bu t as an image w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i s , a s i g n i n i t s e l f , and t h e r e f o r e c o l o r e d , s o u n d i n g , s i n g i n g , a r t i c u l a t e . The s i g n i f i c a n t image i s t he spontaneous work o f the i m a g i n a t i o n , whereas the s i g n , w h e r e w i t h man agrees w i t h man, presupposes l anguage ; and when i t p e r s i s t s i n e x p l a i n i n g language by s i g n s , i t i s o b l i g e d to have r e c o u r s e t o God, as g i v e r o f f i r s t s i g n s -— t h a t i s , t o p resuppose language i n ano the r way, by c o n s i g n i n g 54 i t t o t h e u n k n o w a b l e . " S t i l l a n o t h e r head o f the hydra -headed mons te r , comm-u n i c a t i o n , l i e s c u n n i n g l y c o n c e a l e d benea th the f a i r a spec t o f t h i s e x t e n s i o n o f C r o c e ' s r e a s o n i n g . Bosanquet d i d i t b a t t l e 55 i n 1919. I f by the s ta tement " i t w i l l no l o n g e r be n e c e s s a r y to promote m y s t e r i o u s n u p t i a l s between s i g n and image" Croce means t h a t t h e r e can be no o n t o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s between the two, t h e n no one would t a k e i s s u e w i t h h i m ; o b v i o u s l y a r o s e can e x i s t by ano the r name. And when he s a y s , "The s i g n i f i c a n t image i s the spontaneous work o f the i m a g i n a t i o n " , we may choose not t o q u e s t i o n the ' p s y c h o l o g y , - i f we may v e n t u r e such a t e r m . B u t when he c o n c l u d e s t h a t " the s i g n , wherewi th man agrees w i t h man, p resupposes l a n g u a g e , " we may c o u n t e r w i t h "Language I. w h e r e w i t h man communisatess.. w i t h man, a l a o p resupposes the: s i g n . " F o r u n l e s s t h e r e he i d e n t i t y o f r e f e r e n t when y o u say r o s e ana I say r o s e , howm can we hope t o compare our r e s p e c t i v e images , i . e . , t he e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y w h i c h a r i s e s f rom the e x p r e s s i o n o f our i n t u i t i o n , r o s e ? U n d o u b t e d l y Croce would h a s t e n t o deny t h a t we have c o u n t e r e d a l a l l ; - and the accep tance o f such a n o t i o n w w o u l d s u b v e r t a fundamenta l t e n e t o f C r o c e ' s c r e e d : the i d e a l i t y o f r e a l i t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i t o compare t h i s f a c e t o f C r o c e T s i d e a l i s m w i t h t h a t o f a n o t h e r i d e a l i s t , Bosanque t , who m a i n -t a i n e d t h a t t o deny language i t s c o n c e p t u a l s i d e , "and t o eq -ua t e language w i t h i n t u i t i o n , and t r e a t i n t u i t i o n as p r i o r to t h i n k i n g , i s t o s h a t t e r and o v e r t h r o w the whole c o n c e p t i o n o f 56 t he u n i t y o f t h e human m i n d . " B o s a n q u e t ' s c r i t i c i s m o f C r o c e ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a r t and language l e a d s h im t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s " T r u e , an o b j e c t not e x p e r i e n c e d cannot be the e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y . T r u e , we hope t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l w h i c h we c a l l body, i s i n some sense i n c a r n a t i o n , and i s not a mere s t a t e o f m i n d . We e x p e r i e n c e n a t u r a l o b j e c t s as f u l l c o n c r e t e e x i s t e n c e s , w i t h r r e a l q u a l i t i e s o f c o l o r and sound and s p l e n d o r . E x t e r n a l i t y i s a c h a r a c t e r o f t he w o r l d and a s i g n and v e h i c l e o f s p i r i t u a l a che ivemen t , and y e t t h e r e can be no doubt t h a t t he c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n y e a r n s towards e x t e r n a l i t y , and e x t e r n a l i t y i n some 57 s p e c i a l medium." 13. The i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f a r t . "The p roved i n a b i l i t y o f e m p i r i c a l methods t o y i e l d knowledge o f r e a l i t y , w h i c h i n f a c t t hey o n l y c l a s s i f y and reduce t o t y p e s , i n v o l v e s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a e s t h e t i c s a r r i v e d a t by c o l l e c t i n g a e s t h e t i c f a c t s i n 58 c l a s s e s and d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r laws by i n d u c t i o n . " Hot o n l y does Croce deny the v a l i d i t y o f e m p i r i c a l met ho as,t bu t i h e o r u l e s 1 out. o f f c c u r t Ia; : p o s t e r i o r i a e s t h e t i c judgments w h i c h seek t o p i g e o n - h o l e works o f a r t a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s s y s t e m s ; p a i n t i n g , m u s i c , drama, e t c . ; o r l y r i c , t r a g e d y , 59 comedy, and so on , Such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have mere ly p r a c t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e t o recommend them; t o expec t more f rom them i s t o deny the i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f a r t . " I t i s u s e f u l t o d i s t r i b u t e an a r t i s t e W o r k s , f o r p u r p o s e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n , i n t o these c l a s s e s , p u t t i n g l y r i c s i n one vo lume , dramas i n a n o t h e r , poems i n a t h i r d and romances i n a f o u r t h ; and i t c o n v e n i e n t , i n f a c t , i n d i s p e n s a b l e , t o r e f e r t o works and groups Of works by these names i n s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g o f them. But here a g a i n we mustd deny and pronounce i l l e g i t i m a t e the t r a n s i t i o n s from these c l a s s i f i c a t o r y concep t s t o the p o e t i c laws o f c o m p o s i t i o n and a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a o f judgments , as when peop le t r y t o d e c i d e t h a t a t r a g e d y must have a s u b j e c t o f a c e r t a i n k i n d , c h a r a c t e r s o f a c e r t a i n k i n d , a p l o t o f a c e r t a i n k i n d and a c e r t a i n l e n g t h ; and , when c o n f r o n t e d by a work , i n s t e a d o f l o o k -i n g f o r and a p p r a i s i n g i t s own p o e t r y , ask whether i t i s a t r a g e d y o r a poem, and whether i t obeys the ' l a w s ' o f ones 60 or o t h e r ' k i n d ' . " Mrs G i l b e r t has n e a t l y summarized C r o c e ' s -meta-p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r h i s p o l e m i c a g a i n s t d e s p o i l i n g the u n i t y o f the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . " S i n c e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s c o n s t i t -u t e f o r Croce an a d j e e t i v e l e s s u n i v e r s e , and s i n c e no c o n c r e t e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s can t ake p l a c e where no s p e c i f i c a t i o n e x i s t s beau ty c o n s i s t s f o r h im a sum o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t e n t i t i e s , each one an u n a n a l y z a b l e e x p r e s s i o n ; and the work o f c r i t i c i s m reduces i t s e l f f o r h im t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a ba re i d e n t i t y * 'The who le c r i t i c i s m o f a r t , ' he s a y s , ' c a n be r e d u c e d t o t h i s b r i e f e s t p r o p o s i t i o n , There i s a work o f a r t , a , w i t h a c o r r e s -~ 61 p o n d i n g n e g a t i v e , T h e r e i s n o t a work o f a r t , b_, ' " " I t i s o b v i o u s , ? she s a y s , " t o what i n t e l l e c t u a l b a t t l e - f i e l d Groce c a r r i e s h i s i d e a s when he c o n v e r t s them i n t o mere l a b e l s . He i s a m e d i a e v a l n o m i n a l i s t i n r e s p e c t t o a e s t h e t i c c o n c e p t -62 i o n s . " C r o c e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f works o f a r t r e c a l l s t h e w i n d o w l e s s , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d monads o f L e i b n i t z , each o f w h i c h r e f l e c t e d the u n i v e r s e o f s p i r i t f rom i t s own u n i q u e 63 p o i n t o f v i e w . " . . . . s i n c e e v e r y work o f a r t e x p r e s s e s a s t a t e o f the s o u l , and the s t a t e o f the s o u l i s I n d i v i d u a l and a lways new, the i n t u i t i o n i m p l i e s i n f i n i t e i n t u i t i o n s , w h i c h i t i s i m -p o s s i b l e : t o p l a c e i n p i g e o n - h o l e s as k i n d s , u n l e s s t h e r e be i n f i n i t e p i g e o n - h o l e s , and t h e r e f o r e not p i g e o n - h o l e s o f k i n d s , but o f i n t u i t i o n s . And s i n c e , o n the o t h e r hand, i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f i n t u i t i o n i m p l i e s i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n , and a p i c t u r e i s d i s t i n c t f rom a n o t h e r p i c t u r e , n o t l e s s t h a n from ap a poem, and p i c t u r e and poem are not o f v a l u e because o f the sounds t h a t bea t the a i r and the c o l o r s r e f r a c t e d i n the l i g h t , bu t because o f what t h e y can t e l l t o the s p i r i t , i n s o f a r as t h e y e n t e r i n t o i t , i t i s u s e l e s s t o have r e c o u r s e t o a b s t r a c t means o f e x p r e s s i o n , t o c o n s t r u c t the o t h e r s e r i e s o f k i n d s and c l a s s e s : w h i c h amounts t o s a y i n g t h a t any t h e o r y o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f the a r t s Us w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n . The k i n d o r c l a s s i s i n t h i s case one o n l y , a r t i t s e l f o r the i n t u i t i o n , whereas p a r t i c u l a r , works o f a r t a re i n f i n i t e : a l l are o r i g i n a l , each one i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t r a n s l a t e d t i n t o the o t h e r ( s i n c e t o t r a n s l a t e , t o t r a n s l a t e w i t h s . a r t i s t i c s k i l l , i s t o c r e a t e a new work o f a r t ) , e ach one subdued by the i n t e l l e c t . Ho i n t e r m e d i a t e e lement i n t e r p o s e s i t s e l f p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y between t h e u n i v e r s a l and the p a r t i c u l a r , no s e r i e s o f k i n d s or s p e c i e s , no g e n e r a l i a . N e i t h e r the a r t i s t who produces a r t , n o t the s p e c t a t o r who con t emp la t e s i t , has any need o f a n y t h i n g but the u n i v e r s a l and the i n d i v i d u a l , o r r a t h e r , the u n i v e r s a l i n d i v i d u a l i s e d * t h e u n i v e r s a l a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , w h i c h i s a l l c o n t r a c t e d and c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s i n g l e 64 s t a t e o f the s o u l . " I t f o l l o w s t h a t Croce w i l l , r u l e out o f c o u r t t h e o r i e s o f s t y l e s a p p l i e d t o the h i s t o r y o f a r t ( o f . W o l f f l i n and o t h e r s ) , w h i c h , he s a y s , a re n e v e r more t h a n o t h e r " i r r u p t i o n s o f the r h e t o r i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n i n t o the judgment and h i s t o r y o f works o f a r t . " C r o c e 's approach t o the C l a s s i c - R o m a n t i c c o n t r o -versy also bears witness to h i s s u i generis conception of a r t * To set C l a s s i c and Romantic a r t i n opposition i s as s t u l t i f y -i n g as the analogous opposition of form and content. Even though c o g n i t i o n may, i n t u i t i o n does not recognize i n these two p a i r s of terms two modes of the same a c t i v i t y , the aesthetic — r e g a r d l e s s of whether we hasten to add: modes d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e 65 # but inseparable. "The c r i s i s of the romantic period ...ass-erted an a n t i t h e s i s between ... c l a s s i c a l and romantic a r t , and thus denied the u n i t y of a r t and asserted a d u a l i t y of two fundamentally d i f f e r e n t a r t s , of which i t took the side of the second, as that appropriate to* the modern age, by upholding the primary, importance i n a r t of f e e l i n g , p a s s i o n , and fan c y . . • . i n part romanticism was a r e b e l l i o n not against c l a s s i c i s m . but against the c l a s s i c a l as auch; t against the idea of s e r e n i t y and i n f i n i t y of the a r t i s t i c image, but against c a t h a r s i s and i n favor of a t u r b i d emotionalism that would not and could not undergo p u r i f i c a t i o n , . T h e problem of ae s t h e t i c s to-day i s the reass-e r t i o n and defense of the o i a a s i o a l as against romanticism: the s y n t h e t i c , formal, t h e o r e t i c element which i s the proprium of a r t , as against the a f f e c t i v e element which i t i s the busin-ess of a r t to resolve i n t o , but which to-day has turned against 66 i t and threatens to d i s p l a c e i t . " Do we detect the shadow of an inconsistency? Does Croce, while maintaining that a r t i s a u n i v e r s a l containing i n -d i v i d u a l s , but no species, compromise h i s doctrine by making use of the terms C l a s s i d and Romantic? - — F o r these well-worn tags c e r t a i n l y do suggest that there can be a modality of behaviour w i t h i n / i t a l i c s mine w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f b e a u t y . I s he not bound by h i s own d i a l e c t i c t o c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o s a y i n g s i m p l y , "The p rob lem o f a e s t h e t i c s t o - d a y i s the r e a s s e r t i o n o f a r t a g a i n s t n o n / a r t " ? Croce*s defence he re i s ana logous t o the way i n w h i c h he j u s t i f i e s e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f the a r t i s t ' s image* The p h i l o s o p h e r , l i k e the a r t i s t , c a n , w i t h o u t compromis ing h i s t h e o r y , s u b m i t , f o r convenience;?;/ sake t o the demands o f p r a c t i c a l e x i g e n c y . " I f the pu re a r t i s t and the pure c r i t i c , and a l s o the pure p h i l o s o p h e r , a re not o c c u p i e d w i t h g e n e r a l - i a , w i t h c l a s s e s or k i n d s , th&se r e t a i n t h e i r u t i l i t y on o the r g r o u n d s ; and t h i s u t i l i t y I s the t r u e s i d e o f t hese e r roneous t h e o r i e s . . . . I t i s c e r t a i n l y u s e f u l t o c o n s t r u c t a n e t o f gener -a l l y , no t f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t , w h i c h i s spon taneous , no r  f o r t he judgment o f i t , w h i c h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l , bu t to c o l l e c t and t o some e x t e n t c i r c u m s c r i b e the i n f i n i t e s i n g l e i n t u i t i o n s f o r the use o f the, a t t e n t i o n and memory, i n o r d e r t o group t o g e t h e r t o some e x t e n t t he innumerab le p a r t i c u l a r works o f a r t . These c l a s s e s w i l l a lways be fo rmed , as i s n a t u r a l , e i t h e r by means o f t he a b s t r a c t image o r the a b s t r a c tb e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e r e f o r e as c l a s s e s o f s t a t e s o f t he s o u l ( l i t e r a r y and a r t -i s t i c k i n d s ) and c l a s s e s o f means o f e x p r e s s i o n A a r t s ) . . • T h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s becomes innocuous and u s e f u l f rom the v e r y f a c t t h a t e v e r y p r e t e n s i o n o f b e i n g a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e and c r i t e r i o n f o r the judgement o f a r t i s removed f rom i t . " C r o o e ' s r e f u s a l t o impute any t h e o r e t i o s i g n i f i c a n c e / / i t a l i c s mine 7/ t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which,• we s u b m i t , may become someth ing more 67 s u b t l e t h a n p i g e o n - h o l i n g - i s r a t h e r p u z z l i n g i n the f a c e o f h i s own n e a t l y f o u r - f o l d d i v i s i o n o f m e n t a l a c t i v i t y i n t o the a e s -t h e t i c , t he l o g i c a l , the economic and the e t h i c . 14 . Degrees o f b e a u t y . We have examined one major c o n f u s i o n i s s -u i n g f rom t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a r t w i t h i n t u i t i o n - e x p r e s s i o n , i . e . , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e remains y e t ano the r t o be l o o k e d i n t o . The i n d i v i d u a l image, we a r e t o l d , i_s_ a r t : e i t h e r an i n t u i t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d o r i t i s no t e x p r e s s e d ; and i n the former case we have a r t , and i n the l a t t e r weN have n o t - a r t o r u g l i n e s s ; o r , more p r o p e r l y , we have no t even an i n t u i t i o n , f o r , by d e f i n i t i o n , what i s i n t u i t e d i s i p s o f a c t o e x p r e s s e d . I t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t t h e r e can be no degrees o f e x p r e s s i o n : t h e r e i s e i t h e r e x p r e s s i o n or n o n - e x p r e s s i o n . Hence a r t i f a c t s are e i t h e r s u c c -e s s f u l , and c o n s e q u e n t l y b e a u t i f u l ; o r e l s e u n s u c c e s s f u l , and c o n -sequent l y u g l y . A v e r s e t h e n i s e i t h e r a poem or i t i s no t a poem. A Japanese hokku o f a dozen words , w h i c h everyone may agree t o be p e r f e c t i n i t s way, i s "as g r e a t " a work o f a r t as Hamle t . We may make t h e c o n c e s s i o n t o p o p u l a r usage ; we may i n d e e d be p e r m i t t e d t o " say g r e a t and s m a l l i f we w i l l , but  met aphor i c a l l y . " Croce i s h i m s e l f aware t h a t the d o c t r i n e t h a t " A # l i t t l e p i e c e o f p o e t r y i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y e q u a l t o a poem; a t i n y l i t t l e p i c t u r e or a s k e t c k , t o an a l t a r o r an a f f r e s c o ; a l e t t e r i s a work o f a r t , no l e s s t h a n a romance; even a f i n e t r a n s l a t i o n i s as o r i g i n a l as an o r i g i n a l work"does" produce at f i r s t s i g h t i t a l i n a m -y s mine 7% a s o r t o f b e w i l d e r m e n t " . But he a s s u r e s us these p r o p o s i t i o n s are i r r e f u t a b l e t t T b e Q a i i a s _ l o g i c a l l y deduced from v e r i f i a b l e : ?o# ! • premises ."• Many p e n e t r a t i n g c r i t i c s a r e , however , not m e r e l y b e w i l d e r e d by t h i s ex c a t h e d r a pronouncement : t h e y are down-r i g h t i n d i g n a n t . W i t n e s s , f o r example , the f o l l o w i n g i r o n i c comment by. O . K . Ogden, I , A . R i c h a r d s , and James Wood, c o -a u t h o r s o f The F o u n d a t i o n s o f A e s t h e t i c s . "The k e y s t o n e o f C r o c e ' a method c o n s i s t s i n a s k i l f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the l a w o f I d e n t i t y combined w i t h a p a r t i a l d e n i a l o f the Law o f C o n t -r a d i c t i o n . Thus when I n t u i t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h E x p r e s s i o n i t may be a s s e r t e d t h a t a l l i n t u i t i o n s are e x p r e s s e d w i t h o u t any f u r t h e r n e c e s s i t y o f p r o o f . Then i f I n t u i t i o n - e x p r e s s i o n be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A r t , i t f o l l o w s t h a t a l i i i n t u i t i o n s are works o f A r t . S i n c e t h i s p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s s i m p l y i n t h e j u d i c i o u s i n t e r c h a n g e o f t h e s e s t r i c t synonyms the i r r e s i s t i b l e sweep o f C r o o e ' s argument meets no o b s t a c l e , and a h e a l t h y a i r o f v i g o r o u s r a t i o c i n a t i o n i s engendered I - B u t i t may be o b j e c t e d t h a t too many t h i n g s become A r t . To t h i s Croce r e p l i e s t h a t i t does not d i s t r e s s h im because 'noone has e v e r been a b l e t o i n d i c a t e i n what the someth ing more c o n s i s t s . . . t h e l i m i t s o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t a re c a l l e d A r t as opposed t o those t h a t are 71 v u l g a r l y c a l l e d ' n o t A r t ' a re e m p i r i c a l and i m p o s s i b l e to d e f i n e . I f an ep ig ram be a r t why no t a s i n g l e w o r d ? ' . "Why n o t ? That i s p r e c i s e l y the d i f f i c u l t y o f eve ry 7£ i m p r e s s i o n i s t ' s v i e w . . ' . ' /3 Hor- can E . F i C a r r i t t , sympathetic to most of Croce's t e n e t s , accept t h i s one. "Croce admits a 'difference of extension between such expressive acts as a s i n g l e word and a novel, apparently because the l a t t e r expresses a more complex state of mindj and t h i s i s not i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n to h i s i n s i s t e n c e i n the same passage on the i d e n t i c a l nature of both as expressive. For i n j u s t the same way the simplest judgment of memory and the most comprehensive metaphysic are, i f t r u e , true? yet the one  i s a greater t r u t h thaia the other. And though t h i s concession seems hard to harmonise w i t h h i s approval of Schleiermacher's contention that the greatest and most complicated p i c t u r e and the smallest arabesque are, i f each i s perfect i n i t s own way, a b s o l u t e l y equal, yet i t i s a concession which the a r t i s t i c ex-perience r i g h t l y demands to account f o r such a p o s s i b l e d e l i v e r -ance as that Measure f o r Measure i s greater, as a work of a r t , than Mariana's song by i t s e l f . " 15. The, autonomy of a r t . In order to leave no doubt i n the reader's mind about h i s conception of the autonomy of a r t , Croce has taken pains to enumerate those things that a r t must not be 74 confused w i t h . I t w i l l be worth while to r e f e r to these negative a s s e r t i o n s before concluding w i t h the main tenet of h i s p h i l o s -ophy of a r t . Art i s not philosophy: the l a t t e r concerns the " l o g -i c a l t h i n k i n g of the u n i v e r s a l categories of being"* whereas the former i s "the u n r e f l e o t i v e i n t u i t i o n of being". "Hence, while philosophy transcends the image and uses i t f o r i t s own purposes . / i t a l i c s mine 7 ^ §rt l i v e s i n i t as i n a kingdom," Art cannot "be said to be e i t h e r a l o g i a a l or an i l l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y - i t i s , r a ther, an a l o g i c a l one. A r t , Poetry, or Beauty i s an a p r i o r i r e a l i t y . Art i s not h i s t o r y , f o r the l a t t e r , u n l i k e the form-er, implies the o r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between r e a l i t y and u n r e a l i t y In one of Shakspere's H i s t o r i e s , f o r example, the h i s t o r i c a l accuracy of h i s characters does not i n any way a f f e c t the a r t i s t i c value of the plays themselves. Art i s not concerned a s i i s n n a t u r a l science with h i s t o r i c a l f a c t c l a s s i f i e d and made abstract. Systems of c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n a pplied to a r t have only a p r a c t i c a l value, and no metaphysical importance whatsoever. Neither i s a r t t o be confused w i t h the play of fancy, which i s an aimless f l i t t i n g from image to image; or with f e e l -i n g i n i t s immediacy, which because of i t s formlessness has to be i n t u i t e d (thus expressed) to b r i n g about the c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . Art i s not i n s t r u c t i o n . "Art i s not l i m i t e d by ser-v i c e to any p r a c t i c a l purpose whatsoever, whether t h i s be the i n -c u l c a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l or s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h , or the advocacy of a p a r t i c u l a r way of f e e i l i n g and the a c t i o n corresponding to i t . " The c a t h a r s i s i s a e s t h e t i c , not moral i n nature. Thus, as noted inao.previous s e c t i o n , i t may be pos s i b l e to have a play at onoe a e s t h e t i c , and judged by 75 t c o n v e n t i o n a l a s t a n d a r d s , i m m o r a l . A n d , aa the work o f a r t e x i s t s i n r e a l i t y o n l y i n the mind o f i t s c r e a t o r and i n the mind o f whomsoever is a b l e t o e x p r e s s a n i n t u i t i o n by means o f i t , s o c i e t y cannot harm i t by e x e r t i n g c e n s o r s h i p ; F i n a l l y , a r t i s not d i r e c t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f c e r t a i n e f f e c t s as p l e a s u r e , en joyment , u t i l i t y , goodness , m o r a l u p l i f t , and so o n . A r t i s u n i q u e , autonomous, a phase o f s p i r i t -u a l a c t i v i t y e x i s t i n g i n i t s own r i g h t , and the one f rom w h i c h a l l t h e o t h e r phases i s s u e . 6. A r t and l i f e . To have c o n c l u d e d the c h a p t e r on Croce w i t h h i s n e g a t i v e a s s e r t i o n s about a r t would have l e f t our account o f h i s a e s t h e t i c out o f f o c u s . I t would have sugges ted t h a t f o r Croce a r t e x i s t e d i n a s p i r i t u a l vacuum w i t h o u t r o o t s i n human s o c i e t y . H i s i n t e n t i o n i s q u i t e the c o n t r a r y . Hee m a i n t a i n s t h a t "we a l l know more o r l e s s t h e j o y o f t he complete , e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h we succeed i n g i v i n g t o our p r o p e r , i m p u l s e s , and t h e j o y i n t h o s e o f o t h e r s , w h i c h a r e a l s o o u r s ; when we con templa te the work o f a r t , w h i c h a r e t o some e x t e n t o u r s , and w h i c h we make o u r s . A e s t h e t i c a o t i v i t y i s common t o e v e r y o n e ; we, the p e d e s t r i a n s o u l s , a r e d i f f e r e n t i n deg ree , no t i n e s sence , f rom t h e p r a c -t i s i n g a r t i s t . How e l s e , Croce a sks r h e t o r i c a l l y , c o u l d commun-i c a t i o n t a k e p l a c e ? W e , t o o , c an a c h e i v e the p r o c e s s o f l i b e r a t i o n 76 f rom the s e n t i m e n t a l t u m u l t and o b j e c t i f y i t i n a l y r i c a l , i m a g e . And t h e a r t i s t , by e x t e r n a l i z i n g h i s l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , p r o v i d e s us w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o share i n the j o y o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l image. T h i s he w i l l do i f h i s work o f a r t c a t a l y z e s i n us an i n -# i t a l i o s mine 7^ t u i t i o n of our own " s e n t i m e n t a l t u m u l t . " " C o n s i d e r e d f rom the e m p i r i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , t h e r e i s i n d e e d a most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the g e n i u s who wrote O t h e l l o and me, who r e a d and en joy i t . Bu t f rom the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , the a c t o f p r o d u c i n g and she a c t o f e n j o y i n g are f i d e n t i o a l » because p h i l o s o p h y i s concerned w i t h q u a l i t y and no t w i t h q u a n t i t y . The l i t t l e dose o f i n v e n t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n I p o s s e s s r e q u i r e s the a i d o f Shakspere t o i n t e n s i f y i t t o the p o i n t o f f o r m i n g w i t h i n m y s e l f the whole t r a g e d y o f O t h e l l o ' s p a s s i o n , and Shakspere had no s need o f me o r o t h e r s l i k e me t o r a i s e h i m s e l f t o t h a t complex v i s i o n . I . i n d e e d , when I r e a d O t h e l l o , am not i d e n t i c a l w i t h the a r t i s t Shakspere , but I and the a u t h o r o f O t h e l l o a r e f a c t s o f the same a e s t h e t i o  s u b s t a n c e , however uneven the d i s t r i b u t i o n , however d i f f e r e n t t he dose i n each o f u s , and however d i f f e r e n t the s t i m u l a t i o n  under v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " -I t i s e v i d e n t t h e n t h a t Croce i s not a v o t a r y o f any a r t - f o r - a r t $ s sake c u l t ; he does no t c o n f i n e the p r a c t i c a l a r t i s t i n an i v o r y tower remote f rom the w o r l f i o f men. A l t h o u g h he does i n f a c t a s s i g n t o a r t the p r i m a c y i n the s p i r i t u a l o r d e r , he does no t argue e i t h e r t h a t a a r t ou twe ighs i n impor tance the o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f man, o r even t h a t i t e x i s t s independent o f the o t h e r s . "The o r d e r and l o g i c o f the v a r i o u s forms o f the s p i r i t mak ing the one n e c e s s a r y f o r the o t h e r , and t h e r e f o r e a l l n e c -e s s a r y , r e v e a l the f o l l y o f n e g a t i n g the one i n the name o f the o t h e r : the e r r o r o f the p h i l o s o p h e r ( e . g . , P l a t o ) , o r o f the / i t a l i c s minis m o r a l i s t , ( e . g . , S a v o n a r o l a or Proudhon) 0 r o f the n a t u r a l i s t and p r a c t i c a l man . . .who r e f u t e a r t and p o e t r y ; and , on the * o t h e r h a n d , the e r r o r o f the a r t i s t who r e b e l s a g a i n s t t hough t , 78 s c i e n c e , p r a c t i c e , and m o r a l i t y . " Now a moment ago i t was impres sed upon us t h a t a r t must no t be confused w i t h p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n o r w i t h m o r a l u p -l i f t . We l e a r n e d a l s o t h a t a p l a y r e q u i r i n g c e n s o r s h i p may s t i l l be a work o f a r t . And s e e k i n g f u r t h e r we f i n d : "To judge immora l D a n t e ' s F r a n e e s o a , o r m o r a l Shakspere's C o r d e l i a , whose f u n c t i o n s a r e p u r e l y a r t i s t i c and who are l i k e no t e s o f music from the s o u l o f Dante o r S h a k s p e r e , would be no b e t t e r t h a n t o judge a t r i a n g l e 79 w i c k e d , o r a squa re m o r a l . " Does t h e above r e f e r e n c e t o the f o l l y o f the a r t i s t who r e b e l s a g a i n s t m o r a l i t y p r e s e n t us t h e n w i t h s t i l l ano the r pa radox? Or can the seeming c o n t r a d i c t i o n be r e s o l v e d i n terms o f 80 C r o c e ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " m a n - a r t i s t " a n d " a r t i s t - m a n " ? Such would seem t o be C r o c e ' s i d e a . " A r t " he says "as was Idmg ago o b s e r v e d , i s no t p roduced by an a c t o f w i l l ; the g o o d w i l l w h i c h makes a good man does no t make a good a r t i s t . And s ince , i t i s not p r o -duced. by an a c t o f w i l l , a r t i s exempt f rom m o r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , not by any p r i v i l e g e o f immun i ty , but because m o r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s 81 do not a p p l y . " "But"——and here i s the c r u x o f t he m a t t e r - " i f a r t i s o u t s i d e the sphere o f m o r a l i t y , the a r t i s t - is n o t . As a man he comes under i t s l aws and n e v e r escapes the d u t i e s o f a man. H i s a r t i t s e l f , t h a t a r t which, -is?.? not andm canno.t be' m o r a l i t y , he must c o n s i d e r as a m i s s i o n , to be e x e r c i s e d as i f / i t a l i c s mine . 82 i t were a p r i e s t h o o f i . " 72 Those o f us who may have though t t o f r a t e r n i z e on more o r l e s s e q u a l t e rms w i t h the a r t i s t s escaped from the i v o r y tower w i l l he somewhat d ismayed on f i n d i n g them,, he p r epa red f o r a • • ; A p r i e s t h o o d , ' 1 But t h e r e can he no doubt about C r o c e f s i n t e n t i o n " A r t . . . w i t h o u t m o r a l i t y , " he says w i t h c o n v i c t i o n , " i s decomposed as a r t , and becomes c a p r i c e , l u x u r y , and c h a r l a t a n r y owing t o the l a c k o f m o r a l i t y i n the l i f e f rom w h i c h i t s p r i n g s and w h i c h s u r r o u n d s , but i t s e l f s e r v i n g the p r i v a t e and f u t i l e i n t e r e s t s 83 o f the a r t i s t as the v i l e s t o f bondmaids . " The a r t i s t becomes i m m o r a l - — - i f we i n t e r p r e t Croce c o r r e c t l y - — t h a t i s , he becomes non-a r t1s t when he p r o s t i t u t e s h i s s p i r i t u a l h e r i t a g e ; when he f a i l s t o "keep t h e i n n o c e n t and a t t e n t i v e l o o k o f c h i l d h o o d " ; when he becomes conce rned w i t h p r a c t i c a l p r e - o c c u p a t i o n s ; o r i n any way compromises h i s a r t i s t i c s i n c e r i t y , Now a l t h o u g h Croce r e i t e r a t e s t h a t a r t aannot be equa ted w i t h m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , he concedes t h a t the " m o r a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e " w h i c h b i d s a r t " p l a y the h a r l o t ( s i n c e he r o r i g i n -a l s i n ( c o u l d ) no t be r o o t e d out ) , but a l l i n the s e r v i e e o f o f H o l y C h u r c h and o f . m o r a l i t y " — "has i n t u r n , and i s "and ever. t w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e i n v i r t u e o f i t s v e r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ? i t has b e e n , i s , and w i l l be an a t t emp t , however m i s g u i d e d , t o d i s t i n g u i s h a r t f rom mere p l e a s u r e , and g i v e e t o i t a more 84 w o r t h y p l a c e . " / i t a l i c s mine 79 W h i c h , a l s o , i s a c h i e f a im o f Ci toce ' s own a e s t h e t i c . I t i s t h e a r t i s t ' s s a c r e d f u n c t i o n , Croce m a i n t a i n s , t o fuse the " v a r i o u s p e r t u r b a t i o n s " o f h i s t u r b u l e n t s o u l . F o r , whenever he succeeds i n i n t u i t i n g and o b j e c t i f y i n g a l y r i c a l image, p a t t -e rns o f a c c e l e r a t i n g c o m p l e x i t y grow i n t o b e i n g , as when a s i n g l e c r y s t a l i s d ropped i n t o a s u p e r s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n . The e x p r e s s i o n o f e ach i n d i v i d u a l image w i l l " r o l l f rom s o u l t o s o u l , and grow f o r e v e r and f o r e v e r " throughout 'n the i n f i n i t u d e o f u n i -v e r s a l s p i r i t . " F e e l i n g , no t c r u s g e d but con templa ted by the work o f p o e t r y , i s seen t o d i f f u s e i t s e l f i n w i d e n i n g c i r c l e s over a l l t he eeaim o f the s o u l , w h i c h s i s the r e a l m o f the u n i v e r s e , echo-i n g and r e - e c h o i n g e n d l e s s l y : j o y and s o r r o w , p l e a s u r e and p a i n , ene rgy and l a s s i t u d e , e a r n e s t n e s s and f r i v o l i t y , and so f f o r t h , a re l i n k e d t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h i n f i n i t e shades and g r a d a t i o n s so t h a t the f e e l i n g , w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g i t s i n d i v i d u a l physiognomy and i t s o r i g i n a l d o m i n a t i n g m o t i v e , i s not exhaus ted or r e s t r i c t e d 85 t o t h i s o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r . " ?0 CHAPTER THREE. BERGSOH P r e l i m i n a r y . B e r g s o n ' s Time p h i l o s o p h y , l i k e t h a t o f C r o c e , has e x e r t e d a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on contemporary t h o u g h t . We may r e c a l l the e u l o g y o f W i l l i a m James: "Open B e r g s o n , and new h o r i z o n s open on e v e r y page you r e a d . I t t e l l s o f r e a l i t y i t s e l f , i n s t e a d o f r e i t e r a t i n g what d u s t y - m i n d e d p r o f e s s o r s have w r i t t e n ahout what p r e v i o u s p r o f e s s o r s have t h o u g h t . " And t h r o u g h James much o f B e r g s o n ' s thought has f i l t e r e d i n t o 1 the w r i t i n g s o f the o f f i c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r o f A m e r i c a , John Dewey. But u n l i k e C r o c e and Dewey, B e r g s o n has not devo ted a s p e c i a l vo lume t o the p rob lems o f a r t . As a r e s u l t , i f we a r e s e e k i n g B e r g s o n ' s a e s t h e t i c we s h a l l have to range t h r o u g h h i s magnum  o p u s , w h i c h has i t s e l f been d e s c r i b e d as "a m y s t i c a l a e s t h e t i c o f l i f e . " Sometimes we s h a l l be r educed to p l u c k i n g a s i n g l e metaphor f rom i t s c o n t e x t and s q u e e z i n g f rom i t some i n s i g h t i n t o the n a t u r e o f a r t . We s h a l l be f o r e e d t o g l e a n where we c a n . 1. Be rgson*s p h i l o s o p h y o f b e c o m i n g . B e r g s o n bases h i s p h i l -osophy on t h e concep t o f c r e a t i v e e v o l u t i o n . He p o s i t s the r e a l i t y o f a l i f e f o r c e ( e l a n v i t a l ) whose m y s t i c a l n a t u r e he r e p r e s e n t s as an i n d i v i s i b l e s t r e a m f o r c i n g i t s way t h r o u g h i t s o n l y o b s t a c l e , i n e r t m a t t e r . T h i s m a t t e r , i t s e l f a p r o -d u c t o r sed iment o f t he v i t a l i m p e t u s , may be compared i n e f f e c t t o t h e i c e b l o c k s , formed f rom the r i v e r w a t e r , w h i c h i n S p r i n g impede the p r o g r e s s o f the pa ren t s t r e a m . I t i s "by f o l l o w i n g as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h e e v i d e n c e o f b i o l o g y t h a t we r e a c h e d tne c o n c e p t i o n o f a v i t a l impetus and o f a c r e a t i v e e v o l u t i o n . . . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n i s by no means a h y p o t h -e s i s , s u c h as can be found a t the b a s i s o f any m e t a p h y s i c a l s y s t e m : i t i s a c o n d e n s a t i o n o f fiact, a summing up o f summings u p . Now, whence came t h e i m p e t u s , arid what, was the p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d i t ? I f i t s u f f i c e d unto i t s e l f , what was i t i n i t s e l f , and what meaning a r e we t o a s c r i b e t o i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as a w h o l e ? To such q u e s t i o n s t h e f a c t s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u p p l y no d i r e c t answer ; b u t we see c l e a r l y f r o m what d i r e c -t i o n t h e answer may come. F o r the energy p r e c i p i t a t e d th rough m a t t e r appears to u s , as i t w e r e , be low o r above c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i n any ca se o f t h e same o r d e r v a s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t has to ge t 2 a r o u n d many o b s t a c l e s , squeeze i t s e l f t h r o u g h o t h e r . . . " To speak, of• the., e l an : v i t a l o* v i t a l impetus as a s t r e a m i s a p t t o g i v e a f a u l t y i d e a o f i t s t r u e n a t u r e . T h i s v i t a l i m p u l s e does not pu r sue a s i n g l e l i n e o f p r o g r e s s as a c u r r e n t o f e l e c t r i c i t y u s u a l l y does i n jumping a gap; r a t h e r , i t p r o c e e d s more i n t h e manner o f t he s p r a y o f a f o u n t a i n . E a c h o f t h e m y r i a d s o f j e t s c o m p r i s i n g the f o u n t a i n w i l l , wha t -e v e r i t s o r i g i n a l i m p e t u s , r e a c h an optimum h e i g h t de t e rmined ( i f we may o m i t g r a v i t y ) b y t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e a i r t h r o u g h w h i c h i t p a s s e s . Now b y s t r a i n i n g our i m a g i n a t i o n we may make s t i l l f u r t h e r use o f t h e a n a l o g y . Suppose t h a t by a s l e i g h t -o f - h a n d we can make i n v i s i s i b l e the m a t e r i a l j e t s o f t he f o u n -t a i n and make v i s i b l e t h e i m m a t e r i a l f a i r i e s d a n c i n g upon the head o f each j e t . The l i v i n g o rgan isms m a t e r i a l i z e d by our magic w i l l c o r r e s p o n d i n B e r g s o n ' s schema t o the s p e c i e s i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y s c a l e . The topmost f i g u r e i s man. L e t us come a t t h e p r o b l e m f rom ano the r a n g l e . " L e t us imagine a v e s s e l f u l l of steam at a high pressure, and here and there i n i t s sides a crack through which the steam i s es-caping i n a j e t . The steam thrown i n t o the a i r i s nearly a l l condensed i n t o l i t t l e drops which f a l l hack, and t h i s conden-s a t i o n and t h i s f a l l represent simply the l o s s of something, an i n t e r r u p t i o n , a d e f i c i t ^ . But a small part of the j e t of steam s u b s i s t s , uncondensed, f o r some seconds; i t succeeds at most i n r e t a r d i n g t h e i r f a l l . So, from an immense r e s e r v o i r of l i k e , j e t s must he gushing our unceasingly, of which each, • « £ ^ i r h , f a l l i n g hack i s a world. But l e t us not carry too f a r t h i s comparison. I t gives us hut a feeble and even deceptive image of r e a l i t y , f o r the crack, the j e t of steam, the forming of the drops, are determined n e c e s s a r i l y , whereas the c r e a t i o n of a world i s a f r e e a c t , and the l i f e w i t h i n the m a t e r i a l world . ^ _ _ p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s l i b e r t y . Let us think rather of an ac-t i o n l i k e that of r a i s i n g the arm; then l e t us suppose that the arm, l e f t to i t s e l f , f a l l s back, and yet that there s u b s i s t s i n i t , s t r i v i n g to r a i s e i t up again, something of the w i l l that animates i t . I n t h i s image of a c r e a t i v e a c t i o n which unmakes i t s e l f we have already a more exact representation of matter. In v i t a l a c t i v i t y we see, then, that which sub s i s t s of the d i r e c t movement i n the i n v e r t e d movement, a r e a l i t y which i s 3 making i t s e l f i n a r e a l i t y which i s unmaking i t s e l f . " . I t i s important to note that the v i t a l impetus i n i t s e l f i s homogeneous| whereas i t s m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n , those "congealed parts of i t s own substance which i t c a r r i e s along 4 i t s course©" i n c l u d i n g a l l the species p r e c i p i t a t e d from the tim e l e s s f l u x , are heterogeneous. The d i r e c t i o n of l i f e may # i t a l i c s mine be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o g r e s s i o n f rom the homogeneous to the heterogeneous. A t t h i s stage we must l o o k i n t o Be rgson"s concept o f d u r a t i o n . " E n e r g y , " he says above, "appears to us (to be) of t h e same o r d e r as c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " Now t he a n a l o g i e s so f a r used tend to g i v e a f a l s e impression of t h e n a t u r e o f t ime as p o r t r a y e d by a philosophy of Becoming whether conceived as by Bergson i n terms of d u r a t i o n , or as by Croce i n terms of the contemporaneity o f h i s t o r y . L i f e or c o n s c i o u s n e s s e x i s t s only i n the immediate span of awareness; a l l the p a s t i s r o l l e d up i n t o the present and gi v e s t he present, r e a l i t y , i t s ever u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . "The more we f i x our a t t e n t i o n on (the) c o n t i n u i t y of l i f e , the more we see that organic e v o l u t i o n resembles t h e e v o l u t i o n o f consciousness, i n which the pas t presses a g a i n s t the present and causes the upspringing of a new form of consciousness, incommeasurable w i t h i t s antecedent Hence time and space are not s t a t i c c o n tainers i n t o which l i f e i s crowded; they are i n s t e a d f u n c t i o n s of mobile r e a l i t y . Thi r e a l i t y Bergson equates w i t h d u r a t i o n . "The universe endures. The more we s t u d y the nature of time, the more we s h a l l com-prehend that d u r a t i o n means i n v e n t i o n , the c r e a t i o n of forms, 6 the c o n t i n u a l e l a b o r a t i o n of the a b s o l u t e l y new." Duration, the e t e r n a l becoming, which f o r Bergson denotes r e a l i t y , i s a homogeneous f l u x , a psyc h i c s t a t e not t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o con-v e n t i o n a l s y m b o l i z a t i o n s . What we t h i n k ©f as ego i s , there-f o r e , not a t h i n g having an i d e n t i t y separate from d u r a t i o n . L i k e w i s e what we conceive of as a s i n g l e sensation i s not a s t a t i c , immutable e n t i t y , a segment capable of being divorced from consciousness. Ho psychic s t a t e i s evenly deployed i n a temporal plane; there I s not state of mind, however simple, which does not change each moment. "Inner duration i s the continuous l i f e of a memory which prolongs the past i n t o the present, the present e i t h e r containing w i t h i n i t i n a d i s t i n c t form the c e a s e l e s s l y growing image of the past, or, more prob-a b l y , showing by i t s c o n t i n u a l change of q u a l i t y tne neavier and s t i l l heavier l o a d we drag oehind us as we grow older. Without t h i s s u r v i v a l of the past i n t o the present there would 7 '-if be no d u r a t i o n , but only xnstantaneity." 2 . The two modes of knowledge. We might w e l l expect a person u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the idiom of time philosophies to exclaim: " I f r e a l i t y i s none otner than c h a r a c t e r l e s s , conceptless, u n t r a n s l a t a b l e , i n d e f i n a b l e , i n i f f a b l e f l u x , how then do we know anything; what s i g n i f i c a n c e can any of our nouns possess? What meaning has language? Is there no rock bottom upon which to rest; limbs weary of swimming c e a s e l e s s l y down the f l u x of duration? Do time philosophers allow us notning s o l i d to han£ on to?" Indeed the philosopher t a c i t l y confesses t h i s to be the prote s t of p r i m o r d i a l man. "Against the idea of the absolute o r i g i n a l i t y and u n f o r e s e e a b i l i t y of forms our whole 8'. i n t e l l e c t r i s e s i n r e v o l t . " I n t e l l e c t was the d i f f e r e n t i a bestowed by the c r e a t i v e urge upon the species, Homo sapiens. "Among conscious beings...man comes to occupy a p r i v i l e g e d p lace. Between him and the animals the d i f f e r e n c e i s no 9 longer one of degree, but of kind. " I n t e l l e c t i n Bergson's schema matches co g n i t i o n i n Croce*ss i t i s the instrument required f o r the l i f e of a c t i o n . "The e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n of our i n t e l l e c t , as the evolution of l i f e has fashioned i t , i s to be a l i g h t f o r our conduct, to make ready f o r our a c t i o n on things, t o foresee, f o r a given s i t u a t i o n , the events, favourable or unfavourable, which mav 10 f o l l o w thereupon." We s h a l l see l a t e r how i n t e l l e c t attacks i t s problems., We have now to note that knowledge has two modes? the one, i n t e l l e c t ; and the other, i n s t i n c t , which may, and indeed i f i t would serve i t s f u n c t i o n adequately, must, 11 become "enlarged and pur i f ied^ i n t o i n t u i t i o n . 1 1 We l e a r n that not only has the c r e a t i v e impulse had to overcome m a t e r i a l obstacles, but i t has had to d i v i d e i t s e l f between two main di v e r g i n g l i n e s of e v o l u t i o n . Bergson has summarized a d e s c r i p t i o n of the process as f o l l o w s : " . . . a t the extremity of. the two main l i n e s we u l t i m a t e l y found two modes of knowledge i n t o which i t ( c r e a t i v e energy) nad resolved i t s e l f i n order to m a t e r i a l i z e ; the i n s t i n c t of i n s e c t s , the i n t e l l i g e n c e of man. I n s t i n c t was i n t u i t i v e ; i n t e l l i g e n c e r e f l e c t e d and reasoned. I t i s true that i n t u i t i o n had had to debase i t s e l f to become i n s t i n c t ; i t had become i n t e n t , as though hypnotized, on the i n t e r e s t of the species, and what had survived of i t s consciousness had assumed a somnambulisttic form. But j u s t as there subsisted around animal i n s t i n c t a f r i n g e of i n t e l l i g e n c e , so human i n t e l l i g e n c e preserved a halo of i n t u i t i o n . The l a t t e r , i n man, had remained f u l l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d and conscious, but i t was only a f a i n t glow and d i d not r a d i a t e very f a r . Yet i t i s from t h i s l i g h t must come, tC i f ever the_inner working of the v i t a l impetus were to "be made c l e a r i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n i t s object. For t h i s i n t u i t i o n was turned inward; and i f , i n a f i r s t i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , i t made us r e a l i z e the c o n t i n u i t y of our inner l i f e , i f most of us went no f u r t h e r , a deeper i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n might c a r r y i t to the roots of our being, and thus to the very p r i n c i p l e of l i f e i n general. (The whole bent of Bergson 1s philosophy reveals i t s e l f i n the concluding sentence)-—Now i s not t h i s p r e c i s e l y . 12# * the p r i v i l e g e of the mystic soul?" We should a n t i c i p a t e the main body of our argument by appending to h i s remark: " - x - — a n d (to a l e s s e r degree) that other e s p e c i a l l y endowed being, the a r t i s t . " We touch here the core of Bergson's a e s t h e t i c . But i n order to obtain a more tangiDle p r e c i p i t a t e of meaning from the mystic f l u i d i t y of Bergson 1 s prose we s h a l l have to analyse i n more d e t a i l the ideas contained i n the above. There are two ways of knowing: i n t e l l e c t whose fu n c t i o n y i e l d s r e l a t i v e knowledge, and i n t u i t i o n whose f u n c t i o n y i e l d s absolute knowledge. I n t e l l e c t , impatient w i t h the m o b i l i t y and the r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the v i t a l urge, freezes the r e s t l e s s stream i n order to b r i n g to bear i t s instrument, a n a l y s i s , upon the c r y s t a l l i z e d patterns we know as concepts. Words are simply the stock l a b e l s concepts wear. But t h i s s t a t i c , geometricized world of concepts—-the world of a c t i o n to from which most of us r a r e l y e s c a p e - — i s ^ t h e true r e a l i t y as the corpse i n the d i s s e c t i n g theatre i s to the l i v i n g body i t once was. When we are confined to t h i s world we lose sight of "the i n t e n t i o n of l i f e , the simple movement that runs # i t a l i c s mine *7 through the l i n e s , that binds them together and gives them 13 s i g n i f i c a n c e . " I t i s as though between us and r e a l i t y there hangs a v e i l , and most of us are too myopic to penetrate be-yond i t . L i k e the dwellers i n the PIatonian cave we mistake f o r r e a l i t y the f l e e t i n g shadows on t h e w a l l . I n order to act upon a t h i n g i n t e l l e c t s e l e c t s a r -b i t r a r i l y those aspects that immediately concern i t and then proceeds to regard these as though they possess an independent r e a l i t y . "There i s i n t h i s something very l i k e what an a r t i s t passing through P a r i s does when he makes, f o r example, a sketch of a tower of Notre Lame. The tower i s inseparably united to the ground^, to i t s surroundings, to the whole of P a r i s , and so on. I t i s f i r s t necessary to detach i t from a l l these; only one aspect of the whole i s noted, that formed by the tower of Notre Dame. Moreover, the s p e c i a l form of t h i s tower i s due to the grouping of the stones of which i t i s composed; but the a r t i s t does not concern himself w i t h these stones, he notes only the s i l h o u e t t e of the tower. For the r e a l and i n t e r n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n of the t h i n g he s u b s t i t u t e s , then, an external and schematic re p r e s e n t a t i o n . So t h a t , on the whole, h i s sketch corresponds to an observation of the object from a c e r t a i n point of view and to the choice of a c e r t a i n means of repres-14 ent a t i o n . " Knowledge determined by a point of view, necessar-i l y e x ternal to the obj e c t , Bergson defines as r e l a t i v e . I t needs to be said that Bergson i s not denying the pragmatic value of the a n a l y t i c f u n c t i o n . L i f e as a c t i o n " i m p l i e s the acceptance only of the u t i l i t a r i a n side of things i n order to respond to them by appropriate ac t i o n s : a l l other 0 i m p r e s s i o n s must "be dimmed o r e l s e r e a c h us vague and b l u r r e d . . My senses and my c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . g i v e me no more than a p r a c -t i c a l s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . I n the v i s i o n t hey f u r n i s h me o f m y s e l f and o f t h i n g s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t a r e u s e l e s s t o man a r e o b l i t e r a t e d , t h e resemblances t h a t a r e u s e f u l to h i m a r e emphas i sed ; ways a r e t r a c e d out f o r me i n advance a l o n g w h i c h my a c t i v i t y i s t o t r a v e l . These ways a re the ways w h i c h a l l mank ind has t r o d b e f o r e me. T h i n g s have been c l a s -s i f i e d w i t h a v i e w t o the use I can d e r i v e f rom them. And i t i s t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I p e r c e i v e , ga r more c l e a r l y than the 15 c o l o u r and t h e shape o f t h i n g s . " No one w o u l d deny the v a l u e t o a f i r s t - a i d c l a s s o f a s k e l e t o n hung t o g e t h e r w i t h w i r e s p r i n g j o i n t s . The w i s e i n s t r u c t o r w i l l , however , impres s upon h i s p u p i l s t h a t t h i s s k e l e t o n i s no t a r e a l s k e l e t o n , b u t m e r e l y a m e c h a n i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t he l i v i n g t h i n g . That w h i c h we c a l l the s k e l e t o n has no a b s o l u t e i d e n t i t y a p a r t f rom the o r g a n i s m as a s h o l e ; " i t " cannot be s e p a r a t e d oufc f rom the c o n t e x t o f f l e s h , b l i o d , n e r v e f i b r e s and marrow upon w h i c h i t depends f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e . The concep t " s k e l e t o n " b e a r s the r e l a t i o n t o t h e w h o l e l i v i n g o r g a n i s m t h a t a s i n g l e frame does t o a c i n e m a t o -g r a p h i c s h o t o r sequence . I n B e r g s o n ' s schema the frame i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e c o n c e p t , and the who le shot as p r o j e c t e d on t h e s c r e e n , the i n t u i t i o n . The i l l u m i n a t i n g p a r t o f t h i s f a v o u r i t e metaphor o f B e r g s o n ' s l i e s i n t h i s : no m a t t e r how h i g h the speed a t w h i c h my movie camera i s o p e r a t i n g , no ma t t e r how many frames per second I am u s i n g i n o r d e r to "shoot a <t f sequence" of a man walking across a s t r e e t , no one w i l l be abl to get a true impression of the man's simple, i n d i v i s i b l e act of c r o s s i n g the s t r e e t by merely examining e i t h e r separately or c o l l e c t i v e l y the frames of the developed r o l l . To get the true p i c t u r e of the r e a l i t y that only e x i s t s i n time, that i s , i n d u r a t i o n , the observer must see the f i l m being projected on the screen. I n t u i t i o n achieves absolute knowledge: to do t h i s i t places i t s e l f w i t h i n the heart of i t s object, and, i n the man-er of the mystic's communion w i t h God, becomes one w i t h i t . Thus i n t u i t i o n i s not, l i k e i n t e l l e c t , circumscribed by being dependent upon a point of view. Only i n so f a r as we are cap-able of w i l l i n g i n t u i t i o n do we escape the humdrum world of p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n i n t o that other world of s p i r i t u a l a c t i o n peopled by the geniuses the a r t i s t s , inventors, philosophers and mystics. The process, though p o s s i b l e , i s extremely d i f -f i c u l t , f o r i t does v i o l e n c e to the common fun c t i o n of i n t e l l i -gence: i t i n v o l v e s i n v e r t i n g the h a b i t u a l mode of thought, which attempts to pass from an apprehension of the parts to a r e a l i z a t i o n of the whole, But s i n c e r d u r a t i o n denotes f l u x , i t cannot be segmented and hence cannot be t r u l y grasped by the cinematographical f u n c t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t . "But the t r u t h i s that our i n t e l l i g e n c e can f o l l o w the opposite method. I t can place i t s e l f w i t h i n the mobile r e a l i t y , and adopt i t s — " # ' : c e a s e l e s s l y changing d i r e c t i o n ; i n short, i t can grasp i t by means of that i n t e l l e c t u a l sympathy which we c a l l i n t u i t i o n . This i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . The mind.. .has to revert the d i r e c t i o n of the operation by which i t h a b i t a a l l y t h i n k s , has # i t a l i c s mine p e r p e t u a l l y to r e v i s e , or rather to reca s t , a l l i t s categories. But i n t h i s way i t w i l l a t t a i n to f l u i d concepts, capable of f o l l o w i n g r e a l i t y i n a l l i t s s i n u o s i t i e s and of adopting the 16 v e r y movement of the inward l i f e of things." Only i n t u i t i o n can a t t a i n the absolute,---."everything 17 e l s e f a l l s w i t h i n the province of a n a l y s i s . " Elsewhere we are t o l d , "Our i n t e l l e c t , when i t fo l l o w s i t s natural\bent, proceeds on the one hand by s o l i d perceptions, and on the other by 18 s t a b l e conceptions." And f i n a l l y , "From i n t u i t i o n one can pass 19 to a n a l y s i s , but not from a n a l y s i s to i n t u i t i o n . " Whence a r i s e s the vex^problem we can be seen to be edging around t o : communication. I f we must d i s a l l o w any intermediary process, which by d e f i n i t i o n can only be a n a l y t i c a l i n aature, how then does one come by an i n t u i t i o n ? I f an a r t i s t of genius wishes to sketch Notre Dame, by what i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y does he a t t a i n 20 the r e q u i s i t e " i n t e l l e c t u a l sympathy"? Or a spectator viewing the completed sketch? To answer the question Berfeson seems d r i v e n to g i v e an a r b i t r a r y t w i s t to the meaning of perception. "The p i c t u r e , the simple a c t , projected on the canvas, which, by the mere f a c t of entering i n t o our perceptions, i s decomposed before our eyes i n thousands and thousands of l i t t l e squares " 21 which; present, as recomposed, a wonderful arrangement." But even accepting t h i s n o tion of perception, how does t h i s account of the a e s t h e t i c process t a l l y w i t h the previous statement: "Prom i n t u i t i o n one can pass to a n a l y s i s , but not from a n a l y s i s to i n t u i t i o n . " Furthermore, i s i t not p o s s i b l e f o r a s e n s i t i v e c r i t i c one who h a b i t u a l l y approaches a new p i c t u r e sympathet-i c a l l y to see even a p i c t u r e which he afterwards judges as poor, i n i t s wholeness, that i s , as the camera's eye sees i t ? This suggestion i s no doubt a manner of a t t a c k i n g Bergson's concept of perception, and im p l i e s that there may he a sui  generis r e a c t i o n , . — - c a l l i t impression, perception, conception, or what you w i l l , which i s d i s t i n c t from the sui generis a e s t h e t i c r e a c t i o n . This, however, i s not the important point at i s s u e ; which i s whether or not Bergson's psychology involves him i n a l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n . We may indeed harbour the s u s p i c i o n that Croce's a e s t h e t i c nemesis, communication, i s hanging about the scene i n a d i f f e r e n t guise. V 3. The d i f f i c u l t y of language. That hard-headed c r i t i c s should be exasperated by c e r t a i n features of Bergson's philosophy need not s u r p r i s e us. Perhaps what i r k s them most i s that when he approaches an i s s u e which, i n t h e i r estimation, can be ex-p l a i n e d , i f at a l l , only i n terms having s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y , 21a he tends to soar o f f on the wings of metaphor. They would deny him the poet's p r i v i l e g e s a philosopher, they argue, i s bound to respect the conventional use of language i f he would communicate h i s thoughts to others, and metaphysics cannfet be defined as "the science which claims to dispense w i t h symbols His enemies rush to the defense of the concept, which, they maintain, he has de a l t w i t h cavalierly. And they charge as equivocal h i s b i f u r c a t i o n of the stream of consciousness into i n t e l l e c t , on the one hand, as the merely p r a c t i c a l mode of knowledge; and on the other, i n s t i n c t , w i t h i i t s i m p l i c i t poten-t i a l i n t u i t i o n , as the ul t i m a t e a e s t h e t i c mode. W. T. Stace, f o r example, makes t h i s accusation: "Bergson argues that the 22 fa-a r t i s t i s a man who, hy some change of nature, sees r e a l i t y as i t i s , unveiled and u n f a l s i f i e d hy concepts. This view i s , i n my opinion, unacceptable f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y . . . i f concepts f a l s i f y r e a l i t y , then a l l science and a l l philosophy, i n c l u d i n g Bergson's. philosophy, are f a l s e . Secondly, the ap-p l i c a t i o n of t h i s view to aesthetics...renders impossible any d i s t i n c t i o n between b e a u t i f u l and unbeautiful objects. Any o b j e c t , any r e a l i t y , must be b e a u t i f u l i f t r u l y seen i n i t s 23 r e a l i t y , s t r i p p e d of concepts." Undoubtedly to Bergson's way of t h i n k i n g , Stace's f i n a l a s s e r t i o n precludes argument: the t r u t h i s indeed stated thus; any r e a l i t y t r u l y seen i n i t s r e a l i t y i_s b e a u t i f u l . The other term of the accusation involves the essen-t i a l paradox of language. Language i s the instrument the poet, philosopher, and mystic must use to define the undefirmble. I f we would lend an ear to the e c s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of the mystic returned to us w i t h news of the C i t y of God, we must at the very l e a s t exercise a " w i l l i n g suspension of d i s b e l i e f . " And i f we f i n d h i s outpouring incomprehensible, i t would be none other than absurd f o r us to suppose that the f a i l u r e l i e s w i t h him and not w i t h ourselves. Indeed, ought we even expect to be able to make him a harp w i t h a range capable of recording the C e l e e s t i a l Music he has brought back w i t h him? Ought we not, r a t h e r , to be g r a t e f u l f o r whatever improvisations he i s able to p l a y f o r us upon the imperfect instrument we have o f f e r e d him? Such seems to be the d r i f t of Bergson 1s reasoning. 24 Now those men who not only have never v i s i t e d the ?3 C i t y of God but who are even s k e p t i c a l of i t s very existence w i l l of course scorn such t a l k . While i t i s conceivable they might respect the s i n c e r i t y of the poets who c l a i m to have thoughts that l i e too deep f o r t e a r s , we may suppose them eager, on the other hand, to cast i n t o Croce's limbo of impotent a r t i s t s those philosophers who presume to have thoughts that l i e too deep f o r words. Everyone poet and p o s i t i v i s t i s aware of the notorious d i f f i c u l t y i n making language express p r e c i s e l y what we t h i n k we are t h i n k i n g . We have seen how Croce has s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d the process,^—whatever becomes an i n t u i t i o n , by that very act i s expressed. Wow while i t i s true we can h a r d l y gainsay anyone who professes to have expressions, that i s , works of a r t , f i l e d away i n a c e r e b r a l studio, we are apt, nevertheless, to become suspicious i f he shows re t i c e n c e i n b r i n g i n g them out i n t o the l i g h t of day so that we may see them, too. C e r t a i n l y the common-sense notion of the a r t i s t ' s job i s that t h i s very "bringing-out i n t o the l i g h t of day" i s the c r u c i a l part of h i s whole a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . For, by what he  b r i n g s out, the a r t i s t , qua a r t i s t , stands or f a l l s . I f , how-ever, our a r t i s t chooses to regard himself as a mystic, then there i s nothing more we can say about him. But to r e t u r n to Bergson. We must not be l e d from our d i s c u s s i o n of i n t u i t i o n and expression to the f a l s e con-c l u s i o n that Bergson i s an "impotent" philosopher. Even one not adept at L i p p s i a n a c r o b a t i c s can d i s c e r n - — f r o m h i s s t a t i c point of vew much that i s s u b t l y a t t r a c t i v e i n the sparking f l u i d i t y of Bergson's thought. Moreover, as i s consistent w i t h f4- . -the e s s e n t i a l nature of a time philosophy, Bergson, l i k e Croce does not c l a i m to have achieved f i n a l i t y . He o f f e r s a method-ology, not a closed system of metaphysics i n the t r a d i t i o n a l 25 sense. True, he "must adopt the language of understanding since only the understanding has language"; but he f e e l s him-s e l f to be i n the dilemma common to the mystic, whose "descrip t i o n i s interminable, because what he wants to describe i s 26 i n e f f a b l e . " To obey completely the unique emotion, the im-p u l s e , the "impetus received from the very depths of t h i n g s . . . new words would have to be coined, new ideas would have to be created, but t h i s would no longer be communicating something, i t would not be w r i t i n g , " Bergson admits. Hence i t follows that h i s own terminology will.more evocative than d e f i n i t i v e . We may expect abundant imagery, which, he hastens t c w a r n us, can l i k e concepts only approximate r e a l i t y . " I f a man i s incapable of g e t t i n g f o r himself the i n t u i t i o n of the c o n s t i -t u t i v e d u r a t i o n of h i s own being, nothing w i l l ever give i t to 27a$ him, concepts no more than images." 4. The a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . We may f o r convenience t r e a t under three headings the various d e s c r i p t i o n s of aes t h e t i c a c t i v i t y s c a t t e r e d throughout Bergson's pages: fa) the c r e a t i v e emotion, (b) the a r t i s t , and (c) the uni n s p i r e d . (a) - The a e s t h e t i c i a n s • unremitting search f o r a unique and i s o l a h l e a e s t h e t i c emotion that they can use as the touch-stone of a r t seems so f a r to have proved as f r u i t l e s s as the c l a s s i c quest f o r the e l i x e r of l i f e . "I cannot help laughing # i t a l i c s mine fs a t t l i e a e s t h e t i c i a n s , " s a i d Goethe t o Eckermann on one o c c a s i o n , "who to rment t hemse lves i n t r y i n g hy some a b s t r a c t w o r d s , to r educe to a c o n c e p t i o n t h a t u n e x p r e s s i b l e t h i n g to w h i c h we g i v e the name b e a u t y . B e a u t y i s a p r i m e v a l phenomenon, w h i c h i t s e l f neve r makes i t s appea rance , bu t t he r e f l e c t i o n o f w h i c h i s v i s i b l e i n a t housand d i f f e r e n t u t t e r a n c e s o f the c r e a t i v e 28 m i n d , and i s as v a r i o u s as n a t u r e i t s e l f . " B e r g s o n i s m a n i f e s t l y not ben t on t h e d i s c o v e r y o f any s p e c i a l i z e d a e s t h e t i c e m o t i o n ; h i s c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h a t j o y o r m y s t i c l o v e w h i c h i s t he e m o t i o n a l concomi tan t o f a l l c r e a t i o n . T h i s j o y i s not a d i f f e r e n t i a o f any s p e c i f i c a l -l y a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y s u c h as t h a t o f t h e poet o r p a i n t e r ; i n -s t e a d , i t i s a t once t h e cause and e f f e c t o f a l l w o r k , however i m p e r f e c t , i n t o w h i c h t h e r e e n t e r s some degree o f c r e a t i v e n e s s . "Wherever t h e r e i s j o y ( someth ing q u i t e d i s t i n c t f rom p l e a s u r e ) t h e r e i s c r e a t i o n ; t h e r i c h e r the c r e a t i o n , the deeper the j o y . . . The mother b e h o l d i n g h e r c h i l d i s j o y o u s , because she i s c o n -s c i o u s o f h a v i n g c r e a t e d i t , p h y s i c a l l y and m o r a l l y . . . . T a k e the e x c e p t i o n a l j o y s , t h e j o y o f t he a r t i s t who has r e a l i z e d h i s t h o u g h t , the j o y o f the t h i n k e r who has made a d i s c o v e r y or i n v e n t i o n . . . . H e who i s s u r e , a b s o l u t e l y s u r e , o f h a v i n g p r o -duced a work w h i c h w i l l endure and l i v e , c a r e s no more f o r p r a i s e and f e e l s above g l o r y , because he i s a c r e a t o r , because 29 he knows i t , because t h e j o y he f e e l s i s t he j o y o f a g o d . " We a r e r eminded o f C o l e r i d g e ' s r emark ; " I m a g i n a t i o n 30 i s a d i m ana logue o f c r e a t i o n . " i n w h i c h h i s r e f e r e n t f o r t he l a s t t e r m was o r g a n i c c r e a t i o n . To make the ep ig ram cove r B e r g s o n ' s a c c o u n t o f the a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y we need o n l y d e l e t e the word dim. "Art l i v e s on c r e a t i o n and implies a l a t e n t 31 b e l i e f i n the spontaneity of nature." Just as each act of organic c r e a t i o n i s unique and i n d i v i s i b l e , so each c r e a t i v e emotion i s unique and i n d i s i b l e . We s t i c k on the conceptual l a b e l s afterwards. "To suppose that a l l emotion i s the r e a c t i o n of our sensory f a c u l t i e s to an 32 i n t e l l e c t u a l r epresentation i s f a l s e " ; "an emotion of a superior 33 order i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . " " I t i s through an excess of i n t e l -l e c t u a l i s m thfet f e e l i n g i s made to hinge on an object...Taking ...the example of music, we know that i t arouses i n us w e l l defined emotions, j o y , sorrow,, p i t y , love, that these emotions may be intense and that to us they are complete, though not attached to anything i n p a r t i c u l a r . Are you going to say that we are here i n the realm of a r t and not among r e a l things, that t h e r e f o r e we are p l a y i n g at emotion, that our f e e l i n g i s purely imaginative, and t h a t , anyway, the musician could not produce t h i s emotion i s us, suggest i t without causing i t , i f we had not already experienced i t i n r e a l l i f e , where i t was caused by an object from which a r t had merely to detach i t ? That would be to forge t that joy and sorrow, p i t y and love are words expressing g e n e r a l i t i e s , words which we must c a l l upon to ex- . press what music makes us f e e l , whereas each new musical work-br i n g s w i t h i t new f e e l i n g s , which are created by that music, and w i t h i n that music, and,-jfo44*In Lhut wgg£c, are defined and d e l i m i t e d by the l i n e s , unique of t h e i r k i n d , of the melody or symphony. ' They have therefore not been extracted from l i f e by a r t ; i t i s we, who, i n order to express them i n words, are d r i v e n to compare the f e e l i n g created by the a r t i s t w i t h the 34# f e e l i n g most resembling i t i n l i f e . " I f Bergson has i n mind some notion s i m i l a r to that of A r i s t o t e l i a n c a t h a r s i s , we may suppose that sorrow as an expression of j o y i s a ve r b a l paradox only and no r e a l contra-d i c t i o n . In any case he leaves us i n no doubt as to h i s fun-damental t h e s i s ; that c r e a t i v e emotion can be conjured out of the b l u e , as i t were,—-or, put t a u t o l o g i c a l l y , i t can be created. And c r e a t i o n , d i v i n e and human,' i s w i l l e d . Upon these two aspects of the same t r u t h Bergson l a y s great emphasis i n developing h i s theory of c r e a t i v e e v o l u t i o n . Hence f o r him s. r e a l i t y cannot be explained i n terms of e i t h e r mechanism or 35 v i t a l i s m . In order to get the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e Bergson attaches to his"concept" of c r e a t i v e emotion we must r e f e r to that other emotion w i t h which he contrasts i t . "We must d i s t i n -g uish between two kinds of emotion, two v a r i e t i e s of f e e l i n g , two manifestations of s e n s i b i l i t y which have t h i s one feature i n common, that they are emotional states d i s t i n c t from sensa-t i o n , and cannot be reduced, l i k e the l a t t e r , to the ps y c h i c a l t r a n s p o s i t i o n of a p h y s i c a l stimulus. In the f i r s t case the emotion i s the consequence of an idea, or af a mental p i c t u r e ; the ' f e e l i n g ' i s indeed the r e s u l t of an i n t e l l e c t u a l state which owes nothing to i t , which i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and which, i f i t does experience a c e r t a i n r e - a c t i o n from the f e e l i n g , l o s e s more than i t gains. I t i s the s t i r r i n g of s e n s i b i l i t y by a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , as i t were, dropped i n t o i t . But the other k i n d of emotion i s not produced by a representation which i t f o l l o w s and from which i t remains d i s t i n c t . Rather i t i s , i n r e l a t i o n to the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t e s w h i c h a r e t o supervene , a cause and not an e f f e c t ; i t i s p regnan t w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , no t one o f w h i c h i s a c t u a l l y fo rmed , hut w h i c h i t draws or might draw f rom i t s own subs t ance hy an o r g a n i c deve lopment . The f i r s i i s i n f r a - i n t e l l e c t u a l ; t h a t i s t h e one w i t h w h i c h the p s y c h o l o -g i s t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e r n e d , and i f i s t h i s we have i n mind when we c o n t r a s t s e n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , and when we make o f emot ions a vague r e f l e c t i o n o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . But o f t h e o t h e r we s h o u l d be i n c l i n e d t o say t h a t i t i s s u p r a - i n -t e l l e c t u a l , i f t h e w o r d d i d no t i m m e d i a t e l y and e x c l u s i v e l y evoke t h e i d e a o f s u p e r i o r i t y o f v a l u e : i t i s j u s t as much a q u e s t i o n o f p r i o r i t y i n t i m e , and o f t he r e l a t i o n between t h a t w h i c h g e n e r a t e s and t h a t w h i c h i s g e n e r a t e d . Indeed,- t he second k i n d 36 o f emo t ion can a l o n e be p r o d u c t i v e o f i d e a s . " The f i n a l d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e drawn b e a r s w i t n e s s to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t he a e s t h e t i c w i t h the p r i m i t i v e or e l e m e n t a l mode o f knowledge w h i c h forms a common b a s i s f o r the 37 p h i l o s o p h i e s o f B e r g s o n and C r o c e . R e a l i t y i s o n l y c o n c e a l e d f r o m us b y s o c i e t y ' s s t o r e o f c o n c e p t u a l knowledge , a c c o r d i n g to B e r g s o n , and emot ions e m a n a t i n g - t h e r e f r o m have no impor tance i n t he l i f e o f s p i r i t . Two f i g u r e s can be s e l e c t e d , one f rom each p h i l o s o p h e r , w h i c h , when j u x t a p o s e d , p o i n t c l e a r l y to t h i s s t r i k i n g r e semb lance i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c s . B e r g s o n , i n defense o f h i s method, s a y s . "A t r u e e m p i r i c i s m i s t h a t w h i c h proposes to ge t as nea r to the o r i g i n a l i t s e l f as p o s s i b l e , to s e a r c h d e e p l y I n t o l i f e , and s o , by a k i n d o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a u s c u l t a t i o n , to f e e l t h e t h r o b b i n g s o f i t s s o u l ; t h i s t r u e e m p i r i c i s m i s the 38 t r u e m e t a p h y s i c s . " And C r o c e i n f o r m s u s : "The r eade r who 71 u n d e r s t a n d s p o e t r y goes s t r a i g h t to t h i s p o e t i c h e a r t and f e e l s i t bea t upon i t s own; where t h i s bea t i s s i l e n t , he d e -n i e s t h a t p o e t r y i s p r e s e n t , wha teve r and however v a l u a b l e i t may be f o r s k i l l and wisdom, n o b i l i t y o f i n t e l l e c t , q u i c k n e s s 39 o f w i t and p l e a s a n t n e s s o f e f f e c t . " The idea , c o n t a i n e d i n each o f t he above i s , a l l w o u l d a d m i t , p o e t i c a l l y s u g g e s t i v e . Y e t a p e r s o n s e e k i n g an argument may f i n d p l e n t y t o q u a r r e l w i t h . Suppose , f o r ex -ample , he were to s e i z e upon t h e n o t i o n o f " the contemporan-e i t y o f h i s t o r y " ; t h e n we can imag ine h i m a r g u i n g : " I concede the s p o n t a n e i t y o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n ; b u t , g e n i u s e s grow i n , and a r e n u r t u r e d b y , s o c i e t y a c h a n g i n g phenomenon, i f you w i l l . Hence a r t i s t s - - - p a r t i c u l a r l y a r t i s t s whose medium i s w o r d s - — w i t t i n g l y o r o t h e r w i s e draw h e a v i l y upon t h e i r s o c i a l 40 h e r i t a g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , poems a r e no t m y s t i c essences c o n c e i v -41 a b l e w i t h o u t t h o s e s o c i a l c o u n t e r s , w o r d s . Poems a r e w o r d s , words f u s e d i n t o u n i q u e p a t t e r n s by t h e f i r e o f the p o e t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . . . " - - - B u t b e f o r e our c r i t i c warms up to the s u b j e c t i v e - v e r s u s - o b j e c t i v e c o n t r o v e r s y , we had b e t t e r make good ou r e s c a p e . (b) B e r g s o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t w i l l r emind us f o r c i b l y o f S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n these pages . "Prom t ime to t i m e . , . i n a f i t o f absen tmindedness , n a t u r e r a i s e s u p s o u l s t h a t a r e more de t ached f rom l i f e , " B e r g s o n s a y s . "Hot w i t h t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l , l o g i c a l , s y s t e m a t i c a l de -t a c h m e n t - — t h e r e s u l t o f r e f l e c t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y bu t r a t h e r w i t h a n a t u r a l de tachment , one i n n a t e i n the s t r u c t u r e o f sense /oo o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , # i c h a t once r e v e a l s i t s e l f by a v i r g i n a l 42 manner , so t o speak , o f s e e i n g , h e a r i n g , o r t h i n k i n g . " I n the eyes o f N a t u r e the a r t i s t i s a f a v o u r i t e second o n l y to the m y s t i c , w h o , o f a l l i s t he most h i g h l y endowed. " I f a l l men, i f any l a r g e number o f men, c o u l d have soa red as h i g h as t h i s p r i v i l e g e d man, n a t u r e w o u l d not have s topped a t t he human s p e c i e s , f o r such a one i s i n f a c t more t h a n a man. The same can be s a i d o f o t h e r forms o f g e n i u s 5 t h e y a r e , one and a l l , r a r e I n a c e r t a i n sense the a r t i s t i s a "medium" i n t o w h i c h an eddy o f t he v i t a l u rge f l o w s ; and i n h i m a c c u m u l a t i n g a p s y c h i c a l p o t e n t i a l , as i t w e r e , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y reaches a p o i n t w h e r e , though seeming t o b a f f l e e x p r e s s i o n , i t has t o ex-p r e s s i t s e l f . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n i n s p i r e d mass o f h u m a n i t y , however , the a r t i s t i s an a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l , r a t h e r than t h e p a s s i v e b e i n g t h a t - t h e f o r e g o i n g w o u l d sugges t h i m to b e . F o r , a t t h e o r i g i n o f t r u l y c r e a t i v e emot ions t h e r e e x i s t s a man t h e g e n i u s . A s e v i d e n c e o f t h i s B e r g s o n adduces the f o l l o w i n g : " M o u n t a i n s may, s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e , have had the f a c u l t y o f a r o u s i n g i n t hose who l o o k e d upon them c e r t a i n f e e l -i n g s comparab le w i t h s e n s a t i o n s , and w h i c h were i n d e e d i n s e p a r -a b l e f rom m o u n t a i n s . % t Rousseau c r e a t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h them a new and o r i g i n a l e m o t i o n . T h i s emot ion has become c u r -r e n t c o i n , Rousseau h a v i n g put i t i n t o c i r c u l a t i o n . And even  t o - d a y i t i s Rousseau who makes u s f e e l i t , as much, . and more  t h a n t h e m o u n t a i n s . T r u e , t h e r e a r e r easons why t h i s emo t ion , sp rung f rom the h e a r t o f J e a n - J a c q u e s , s h o u l d f a s t e n on t o m o u n t a i n s r a t h e r t h a n any o t h e r o b j e c t ; t he e l emen ta ry f e e l i n g s , a k i n to s e n s a t i o n s , w h i c h were d i r e c t l y a roused by mounta ins /o/ must have "been able to harmonize w i t h the new emotion. But Rousseau gathered them together, gave them t h e i r places, hence-f o r t h as mere harmonies i n a sound f o r which he provided, by a 44$ —• true c r e a t i o n , the p r i n c i p a l tone." Cr e a t i v e emotion achieves i t s expression through s t r u g g l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l i t y ; and the r e s i s t a n c e offered by i t causes the c r e a t i v e impulse to spray f o r t h i n t o various mani-f e s t a t i o n s . "Matter d i v i d e s what was but p o t e n t i a l l y manifold," Hence the d i v e r s i t y of the a r t s . One a r t i s t , f o r example, "ap-p l i e s h imself to colossus and forms, and since he loves colour f o r c o lour and form f o r form, since he perceives them f o r t h e i r sake and not f o r h i s own, i t i s the inner l i f e of things that he sees appearing through t h e i r forms and colours.,.Others, again, r e t i r e w i t h i n themselves. And...by rhythmical arrange-ment of words, which thus become organised and animated w i t h a l i f e of t h e i r own, t e l l us or r a t h e r suggest things that 46 speech was not c a l c u l a t e d to express." The a c t i v e tendency of c r e a t i v e emotion to jfhrust i t s way through m a t e r i a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n t o the d i f f e r e n t a r t s , and, w i t h i n them, i n t o the s p e c i f i c works of a r t r e c a l l s at once the analogue of organic c r e a t i o n . We r e a l i z e that the i m p l i c a t i o n s involved are ex-tremely subtle and that to attempt to penetrate them would c a r r y us f a r beyond the bounds of t h i s essay. But c e r t a i n l y on the surface Bergson's concept of m a t e r i a l i t y , which e a r l i e r e accepted on f a i t h , i s somewhat p u z z l i n g . The v i t a l impetus, e were t o l d , has to struggle against fragments of i t s own m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n . Now i n h i s l a t e s t book, The Two Sources of # i t a l i c s mine w w M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n . Bergson announces that he has gone bp-yond the v e r i f i a b l e conclusions he reached i n Creative E v o l u t i o n . " ( I t i s f a l s e to assume) that the universe i s e s s e n t i a l l y raw matter, and that l i f e has been super-added to matter. We have shown, on the contrary, that matter and l i f e , as we de-f i n e them, are coexistent and interdependent." -Although swinging the immediate argument o f f at a tangent, continuing the quotation w i l l throw a l i g h t on Bergson 1s consuming i n -t e r e s t , and, i n d i r e c t l y , upon the object of our i n q u i r y , h i s a e s t h e t i c . "This being the case, there i s nothing to prevent the philosopher from f o l l o w i n g to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion the idea which mysticism suggests to him of a universe which i s the mere v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e aspect of lov e, and of the need of l o v e , together w i t h a l l the consequences e n t a i l e d by t h i s c r e a t i v e emotion: I mean the appearance of l i v i n g creatures i n which t h i s emotion f i n d s i t complement; of an i n f i n i t y of other beings without which they could not have appeared, and l a s t l y of the unfathomable depths Of m a t e r i a l substance without _ 47# " ~ ~ ~ l i f e would have not have been p o s s i b l e . " Now l e t us hop back to the other r a i l of the p a r a l l e l i s m . Bergson, as we have seen, p o s i t s as an e s s e n t i a l char-a c t e r i s t i c of the a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v e emotion a dynamic urge, common to the v i t a l impulse of l i f e , to express i t s e l f i n " v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e " m a t e r i a l i t y . Now I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h at, although i n s i s t i n g upon the predominance of the o r i g i n a l crea-t i v e emotion during the c r e a t i v e a c t , Bergson assigns a r o l e of considerable importance to i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n t e l l i g e n c e he admits undoubtedly does help the prime moving f o r c e , the i n d i v i s i b l e # i t a l i c s mine /03 48 c r e a t i v e e m o t i o n , to u n f o l d i t s e l f , a s , f o r example , an e x p e r i -enced s tage-manager may h e l p a p l a y w r i g h t i n a r r a n g i n g t e c h n i c a l e x i g e n c i e s o f a p l a y . J u t f o r a l l the i n g e n u i t y o f the s t a g e -manager , w i t h o u t t he p l a y w r i g h t , t h e r e can he no p l a y : n o r , w i t h o u t t he c r e a t i v e emot ion can t h e r e be a work o f a r t . "Anyone engaged i n w r i t i n g , " says B e r g s o n , "has been i n a p o s i t i o n to f e e l t he d i f f e r e n c e between an i n t e l l i g e n c e l e f t to i t s e l f and t h a t w h i c h "burns w i t h the f i r e o f an o r i g i n a l and u n i q u e e m o t i o n , h o r n o f t he i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the au tho r w i t h h i s s u b j e c t , t h a t i s t o say o f i n t u i t i o n . I n the f i r s t c a se the mind cold-hammers t h e m a t e r i a l s , combin ing t o g e t h e r i d e a s l o n g s i n c e c a s t i n t o words and w h i c h s o c i e t y s u p p l i e s i n a s o l i d f o r m . I n the s e c o n d , i t w o u l d seem t h a t the s o l i d mater-i a l s s u p p l i e d by i n t e l l i g e n c e f i r s t m e l t and m i x , t hen s o l i d i f y a g a i n i n t o f r e s h i d e a s now shaped by the c r e a t i v e mind i t s e l f . I f t h e s e i d e a s f i n d words a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g w h i c h can express them, f o r each o f them t h i s seems a p i e c e o f unexpec t ed good l u c k ; a n d , i n t r u t h , i t has o f t e n been n e c e s s a r y to a s s i s t f o r -t u n e , and s t r a i n the meaning o f a w o r d , to mould i t to the t h o u g h t . I n t h a t event the e f f o r t i s p a i n f u l and the r e s u l t p r o b l e m a t i c a l . Bu t i t i s i n s u c h a ca se o n l y t h a t the mind  f e e l s i t s e l f , o r b e l i e v e s i t s e l f , t o be c r e a t i v e . I t no l o n g e r s t a r t s f rom a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f ready-made elements to a r r i v e a t a c o m p o s i t e u n i t y made up o f a new arrangement o f t he o l d . I t has been t r a n s p o r t e d a t a bound t o someth ing w h i c h seems b o t h one and u n i q u e , and w h i c h w i l l c o n t r i v e l a t e r to express i t s e l f , more o r l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , i n c o n c e p t s b o t h m u l t i p l e and com-_ — 49# mon, p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i d e d by l a n g u a g e . " # i t a l i c s mine We can breathe more f r e e l y now our author has l e d us from the mystic's s o l i t a r y vantage point down to a l e s s r a r i f i e d atmosphere. And, too, among the a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s we may be r e l i e v e d to f i n d ourselves i n the company at l e a s t of f e l l o w t o i l e r s . With an exaggeration the emphasis Ofswhich i s admir-a b l y wholesome, that e x c e l l e n t a r t i s t , Renoir, once s a i d , " P a i n t i n g i s a c r a f t l i k e carpentry or ironworking: i t i s sub-j e c t to the same r u l e s . " Which suggests than an a r t i s t , when he i s engaged i n a c t u a l work, does w e l l to forget about h i s genius i f ever he made the ^unfortunate discovery that he has genius. The a r t i s t i s face^ i n most cases c e r t a i n l y , w i t h a very d i f f i c u l t task i n o b j e c t i f y i n g h i s i n t u i t i o n . Indeed the analogue of organic c r e a t i o n wears t h i n here: the c r e a t i o n of the a r t i s t can be no simple, i n d i v i s i b l e a a c t comparable to "the suflfflen movement of a hand plunged among i r o n f i l i n g s and 50 causing an instantaneous readjustment of them a l l . " to bor-row the s i m i l e Bergson f r e q u e n t l y uses i n de s c r i b i n g organic c r e a t i o n . I t i s no wonder then that the outcome of the a r t i s t ' s labour i s "pr o b l e m a t i c a l " , f o r as Bergson admits, i n the case, say, of a p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r , "no one, not even the a r t i s t , could have foreseen e x a c t l y what the p o r t r a i t would be, f o r to pre-# d i e t i t would have been to produce i t before i t was produced-— an absurd "^hypothesis which i s i t s own r e f u t a t i o n . " In a paper read i n 1911 Bergson r e f e r s to the aes-t h e t i c a c t i v i t y i n terms more comprehensible, to my,way of t h i n k i n g at l e a s t , - - - w i t h l e s s of the suggestion common to h i s more m y s t i c a l moments of a pat r o n i z a i n g acceptance of the # i t a l i c s mine /o5~ p h y s i c a l medium as the "mere v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e " aspect of a r t . "Matter i s p r i m a r i l y what beings d i v i s i o n and p r e c i s i o n . . . Thought i s a c o n t i n u i t y , and i n a l l c o n t i n u i t y there i s confus-i o n . For a thought to become d i s t i n c t , there must be disper-s i o n i n words. Our only way of taking count of what we have i n mind i s to set down on a sheet of paper, side by si d e , terms which i n our t h i n k i n g interpenetrate...Thought which i s only thought, the work of a r t which i s only conceived, the poem which i s no more than a dream, as yet cost nothing i n t o i l * i t i s the m a t e r i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the poem i n words, of the a r t i s t i c conception i n s t a t u e s o r p i c t u r e , which demands e f f o r t . . This e f f o r t was impossible without matter. By the re s i s t a n c e matter o f f e r s and by the d o c i l i t y w i t h which we endow i t , i s at one and the same time obstacle, instrument and stimulus. I t experiences our f o r c e , keeps the imprint of i t , c a l l s f o r i t s 51 i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . " I n h i s l a t e s t major work (1932) the emphasis appears to be a l l the other way. Bergson despairs of fee any a r t i s t ' s attempt "to r e a l i z e the u n r e a l i z a b l e . He (the w r i t e r ) w i l l r e v e r t to the simple emotion, to the form which yearns to create i t s matter, and w i l l go w i t h i t to meet ideas already made, words that already e x i s t , b r e l f l y s o c i a l segments of r e a l i t y . A l l along the way he w i l l f e e l i t manifesting i t s e l f i n signs born of i t s e l f , I mean fragments of i t s own m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n . How can these elements, each unique i n i t s k i n d , be made to 52 co i n c i d e w i t h words already expressing things?" The c r e a t i v e emotion i s the t h i n g , i t seems that emotion which i s "above i n t e l l e c t , preceding the idea, more /o than the ide a , but which would burst i n t o ideas i f , pure soul 53 # ~ that i t i s , i t chose to give i t s e l f a body"; that emotion which "doubtless resembles, though very remotely, the sublime love 54 which i s f o r the mystic the very essence of God." "What i s there more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a r c h i t e c t o n i c , more r e f l e c t i v e l y elaborate, than a Beethoven symphony? But a l l through the labour of arranging, rearranging, s e l e c t i n g , c a r r i e d out ofi the i n t e l l e c t u a l plane, the composer was turni n g back to a point s i t u a t e d outside that plane, i n search of acceptance or r e f u s a l , of a lea d , an i n s p i r a t i o n ; at that point there lurked an i n d i v i s i b l e emotion which I n t e l l i g e n c e doublless helped un f o l d i n t o music, but which was i n i t s e l f something more than # music and more than i n t e l l i g e n c e . Just the opposite of i n f r a -i n t e l l e c t u a l emotion, i t remained-dependent on the w i l l . To r e f e r back to t h i s emotion the a r t i s t had to make a constantly repeated e f f o r t , such as the eye makes to rediscover a st a r 55 which, as soon as i t i s found, vanishes i n t o the dark sky." One may w e l l ask i n innocent-eyed wonder, "Since the expression can never be more than an imperfect approximation of the i n e f f a b l e i n t u i t i o n , and since even that expression e n t a i l s t o i l , perhaps even p a i n , whence comes the ultimate joy the philosopher speaks of? And wnerein l i e s the d i f f e r e n t i a of the emotion that issues i n the r e l a t i v e l y abortive attempt of the a r t i s t , and that emotion which iasues i n the consummate jo y of the mystic?" Moreover, i n the f a c t of the f o l l o w i n g discrepancies which appear i n 3 s i n g l e paragraph i n M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n , one would be hard put to i t to attempt to answer a l l these questions d e f i n i t i v e l y ; # i t a l i c s mine /07 "Alongside of the emotion which is the result of the representation and which is added ot i t , there is the emo-tion which, precedes the image, which v ir tual ly contains i t , and is to a certain extent i t s cause...The emotion excited (within the experient) hy a great work of art is of quite a distinct character. Unique of i t s kind, i t has sprang up in the soul of the poet and there alone, . . ; from this emotion the work has sprang, to this emotion the author was continually harking hack throughout the composition of the work. It was  no more than a creative exigency, hut i t was a creative one, now satisfied the work is finished, which would not have been satisfied by some other other unless that other had possessed an inward and profound resemblance with the former, such as that whicheexists between two equally satisfactory renderings, 56# in terms of ideas of images, of one and the same melody." And s t i l l another variation (1911): "The effort (of the art i s t ) is toilsome, but also i t is precious, more precious even than the work which.it produces, because, thanks to i t , one has drawn out from the self more than i t had already, we 57 are raised above ourselves." Are we to understand from this that the effort in i t se l f engenders the properly aesthetic joy, (c) It comes as an anticlimax to discuss the relations of the "raskell many" to the men of genius. We, the blind to Tfliom they point out the sunset; the deaf, for whom they compose sonatas. Yet so infectious are the enthusiasms of genius and so persuasive are their powers, that even we, the uninspired, are often forced in spite of ourseves to exercise # i t a l i c s mind » /of! t h e f e e b l e s e n s i b i l i t i e s we have and s h a r e , t o o , i n the g e n -e r a l c r e a t i v e j o y . The p r a c t i c a l l i f e o f a c t i o n we l e a d i n l i v i n g i n a c l o s e d s o c i e t y o f r i g i d c o n v e n t i o n o f n e c e s s i t y b l i n d s us t o the r e a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e d by g e n i u s . As Schopenhauer put i t f o r us the w h e e l of I x i o n neve r s t ands s t i l l . "Man must l i v e i n s o c i e t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y submi t t o r u l e s . And what i n t e r -e s t a d v i s e s , r e a s o n commands J d u t y c a l l s , and we have t o obey t h e summons! Under t h i s d u a l i n f l u e n c e h^s p e r f o r c e been formed an ou tward l a y e r o f f e e l i n g s and i d e a s w h i c h make f o r permanence, a i m a t becoming dommon to a l l men, and c o v e r , when t h e y a r e no t s t r o n g enough t o e x t i n g u i s h i t , the i n n e r f i r e o f i n d i v i d u a l p a s s i o n s . The s low p r o g r e s s o f mankind i n the d i r -e c t i o n o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y p e a c e f u l s o c i a l l i f e has g r a d u a l l y 58 c o n s o l i d a t e d t h i s l a y e r . " And not o n l y does the c i n e m a t o g r a -p h i c a l f u n c t i o n o f our i n t e l l e c t obscu re the p u l s a t i n g l i f e f l o w i n g "beneath e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s , b u t our v e r y men ta l s t a t e s a r e n o t f e l t i n t h e i r e s s e n c e . "When we f e e l l i v e or h a t r e d , when we a r e gay o r s a d , i s i t r e a l l y the f e e l i n g i t s e l f t h a t r e a c h e s our c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h t hose innumberab le f l e e t i n g shades o f meaning and deep r e s o u n d i n g echoes t h a t make i t s o m e t h i n g a l t o g e t h e r our o w n ? . . . . M o s t „ o f _ t h e t i m e . , .we per- : . c e i v e n o t h i n g b u t t he ou tward d i s p l a y o f our men ta l s t a t e . We c a t c h o n l y the i m p e r s o n a l a s p e c t o f our f e e l i n g s , t h a t a s p e c t w h i c h speech has s e t down once f o r a l l because i t i s a l m o s t t h e same, i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s , f o r a l l men. Thus , even i- • 59 i n ou r own i n d i v i d u a l ? ( s t a t e s ) , i n d i v i d u a l i t y escapes our k e n . " We even emote l a b e l s j Croce, we remember, looks upon the "artist" as dif-ferent in degree only from the common run; Bergson, on the other hand, is strong in his insistence that the artist is a being different in kind. "The appearance of each (genius-,--of which the art i s t is one kind) was l ike the creation of a new species, composed of a single individual, the v i t a l impulse culminating at long intervals in one particular man, a result which dould not have been obtained at one stroke by humanity as whole." and this is what concerns us directly—-"The creative emotion which exalted these exceptional souls, and which was an overflowing of v i t a l i t y , has spread far and wide about them; enthusiasts themselves, they radiated enthus-iasm. . . .When we l i s ten to their words and see them at work, we feel that they communicate to us something of their fervour, 60 and draw us i n their wake..." Consider, for exaple, how by means of music the composer works, his magic upon us: "We feel , while we l i s ten as though we could not desire anything else but what the music is suggesting to us, and that that is just as we should naturally and necessarily act did we not refrain from action to l i s ten . Let the music express joy or grief, 6 l £ pity or love, every moment we are what is expresses. Not only ourselves, but many others, nay a l l the others, too. When music weeps, a l l humanity, a l l nature, weeps with i t . In point of fact i t does not introduce these feelings into us; i t introduces us into them, as passers-by are forced into a 62 street dance." To\the work of art, the sensible object, i t is clear that Bergson does not ascribe, as he^to an emotion, a # i t a l i c s mine IIO q u i n t e s s e n c e ; t he a r t i f a c t i s p e r c i s e l y a medium, i n d e e d we may s u s p e c t , f o r h i m u l t i m a t e l y no more t h a n a p i s a l l e r . The f o l l o w i n g t e s t i f i e s to the e m o t i o n a l D i a l o f B e r g s o n 8 s a e s t h e t i c ; "The t r u t h i s t h a t t h e w r i t e r ' s a r t c o n s i s t s above e v e r y t h i n g i s mak ing us f o r g e t t h a t he i s u s i n g w o r d s . The harmony he seeks i s a c e r t a i n co r respondence between the comings and g o i n g s o f h i s mind and the p h r a s i n g o f h i s speech , a c o r r e s -pondence so p e r f e c t t h a t t h e waves o f h i s t h o u g h t , borne by the s e n t e n c e , s t i r us s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , and the w o r d s , t a k e n i n d i v -i d u a l l y , no l o n g e r c o u n t : t h e r e i s n o t h i n g l i f t bu t the f l o w o f meaning w h i c h runs t h r o u g h t h e w o r d s , n o t h i n g bu t two minds w h i c h , w i t h o u t i n t e r m e d i a r y , seem to v i b r a t e d i r e c t l y i n u n -63 ' ~ i s o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . " I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t ; t h a t B e r g s o n •should go to: t he t e m p o r a l , r a t h e r t h a n to the s p a t i a l , a r t s , f o r many o f h i s most i m p o r t a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s . I s our. b e h a v i o u r w h e n r s t i r r e d by the c a l l o f gen ius b e s t d e s c r i b e d as p a s s i v e , o r a c t i v e ? That i s , does the a r t o f t h e g e n i u s c o n s i s t i n i g n i t i n g our i m a g i n a t i o n by spon t an -eous c o m b u s t i o n , as i t w e r e , t h r o u g h exposure t o the i n t e n s e h e a t o f h i s ? Gr does our i m a g i n a t i o n a l r e a d y c o n t a i n w i t h i n i t a s p a r k w h i c h t h e a r t o f t h e g e n i u s s e r v e s t o f a n i n t o a b l a z e ? I t h i n k the second f i g u r e i s n e a r e r B e r g s o n ' s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . I n C r e a t i v e E v o l u t i o n we f i n d , f o r example, t h i s dogma t i c a s s e r t i o n : " I t i s t o t h e v e r y inwardness o f l i f e t h a t i n t u i t i o n l e a d s u s . . . T h a t e f f o r t o f t h i s k i n d I s not i m p o s s i b l e , i s p r o v e d b y the e x i s t e n c e i n man o f an a e s t h e t i c f a c u l t y a l o n g 64 w i t h normal p e r c e p t i o n . " And i n M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n : "When ( g e n i u s ) does c a l l , t h e r e i s i n the inne rmos t b e i n g o f most # i t a l i c s mine / / / :v.f ' .65 men t h e W h i s p e r o f an e c h o . " Once a g a i n we a r e f a c e d by communica t i on . I n s p i t e o f h i s e loguence on b e h a l f o f i n t u i t i o n and h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t "There i s a r e a l i t y t h a t i s e x t e r n a l and y e t g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e m i n d " , B e r g s o n concedes t h a t "Our s o u l s a r e i m p e n e t r a b l e t o one a n o t h e r . C e r t a i n s i g n s o f p a s s i o n a r e a l l we a p p e r c e i v e e x t e r n a l l y . These we i n t e r p r e t — - t h o u g h a l w a y s , by the way, # d e f e c t i v e l y — - o n l y by a n a l o g y w i t h what we have o u r s e l v e s ex -p e r i e n c e d . So what we e x p e r i e n c e i s the main p o i n t , and we canno t become t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h mny th ing bu t our own 66 h e a r t - — s u p p o s i n g we get so f a r . " S o , f o r a l l h i s h a v i n g been b o r n e b y t h e c u r r e n t o f d u r a t i o n c e n t u r i e s beySnd the A n c i e n t s , we may wonder whe the r B e r g s o n has t r a v e l l e d so much f a r t h e r t h a n P l o t i n u s . As a n o t h e r c l u e t o the s e c r e t o f b e a u t y B e r g s o n o f -f e r s a v a r i a t i o n of the d o c t r i n e o f E i n f i i h l u n g . I n e i t h e r w r i t i n g o r w a t c h i n g a drama he s a y s , " I t i s e s s e n t i a l to r e -l i v e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r you a re t r e a t i n g . . . t o be c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h a t c h a r a c t e r , t o be no l o n g e r the s p e c t a t o r 68 b u t t h e a c t o r . " L a t e r , however , he seems to f o r e s t a l l c r i t -i c i s m o f the n a t u r e we l e v e l l e d a t the t h e o r y of Empathy: "Does t h i s mean t h a t t he poet has e x p e r i e n c e d what he d e p i c t s , t h a t he has gone t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s he makes h i s c h a r a c t e r s t r a v e r s e , and l i v e d the whole o f t h e i r i n n e r l i f e . . . How, i n d e e d , c o u l d the same man have been Macbe th , Hamle t , 69 O t h e l l o , K i n g L e a r , and many o t h e r s ? " How, indeed] C o n t i n u i n g the same passage w i l l r e v e a l the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f the f r e e w i l l concep t p e c u l i a r to B e r g s o n ' s # i t a l i c s mine metaphysics: "But then a distinction should perhaps here be made between the personality we have and a l l those we might have had. Our character is the result of a choice that is continually being renewed. There.are points at a l l events there seeing to be-—all along the way, where we may branch off, and we perceive many possible directions though we are unable to take more than one. To retrace one's steps, and follow to the end the fa int ly distinguishable directions, appears to be the essential element in poetic imagination. Of course, Shakespeare was neither Macbeth, nor Hamlet, nor Othello; s t i l l , he might have been these several characters, i f the circum-stances of the case on one. and the consent of his w i l l on the other, had cause to break out into explosive action what was 70 nothing more than an inner prompting." •—A suggestion of about the same order as Huxley's famous speculation about the a b i l i t y of the six monkeys to produce the plays of Shakespeare, i f given time enough. -0O0-CHAPTER I V . CONCLUSION A b r i e f c h a p t e r w i l l s u f f i c e , I hope, to t i e t o g e t h e r some of t h e m ain t h r e a d s o f t h o u g h t w h i c h seem to r u n more or l e s s p a r a l l e l t h r o u g h o u t t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f C r o c e and o f B e r g s o n . We n o t e f i r s t o f a l l t h a t each p h i l o s o p h e r o f f e r s us a p u r e , r a t h e r t h a n an a p p l i e d , a e s t h e t i c . That t h i s i s so i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l we might even say, t h e m y s t i c a l , approach, to a r t t h a t each t a k e s , M a n i f e s t l y n e i t h e r i s eone erned\wi t h e s t a b l i s h i n g a e s t h e t i c as a, n o r m a t i v e s c i e n c e t h e i r method r e m a i n s p u r e l y v d . e s c r i p t i v e . Hence t h e y i g n o r e c o m p l e t e l y t h e f i n d i n g s o f l a b o r a t o r y p s y c h o l o g i s t s , H e r b a r t i a n f o r m a l i s t s , and t h o s e who i n any way would t r y to s y s t e m a t i z e a r t and t h e l i f e of. s p i r i t . " P s y c h o l o g y i s l i k e t h e i n d e x of a book o f w h i c h a r t i s t h e c o n t e n t , " C r o c e has d e f t l y put i t , "The i n d e x must be b r o u g h t i n t o agreement w i t h t h e book, o f w h i c h i t w i l l a l w a y s be an i m p e r f e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , not the 2 book i n t o agreement w i t h t h e i n d e x . " Our a u t h o r s c o n c u r a l s o i n t h e sweep they accord, t h e f i e l d o f a e s t h e t i c s ; they e x t e n d t h e scope o f t h e s u b j e c t to i n c l u d e a l l man's e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y and a e s t h e t i c e m o t i o n . H a t u r a l l y anj^one f o r whom a r t c o n n o t e s works o f a r t w i l l V p r o -t e s t that an a e s t h e t i c which r a n g e s f r o m the s i n g l e c r y , " E u r e k a " , o f A r c h i m e d e s , to t h e communion o f the m y s t i c w i t h h i s God, s w a l l owsuup •: they v e r y . pro p r i urn of art.. He may p r o t e s t that"by e x p a n d i n g t h e word a r t to i n c l u d e e v e r y t h i n g i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a word, becomes n i l . S t u d e n t s o f a r t do, however, owe a t l e a s t t h e n e g a t i v e clebt to b o t h C r o c e and B e r g s o n f o r i n s i s t i n g upon the autonomy o f a r t and e l e v a t i n g i t t o a p o s i t i o n o f d i g n i t y g r e a t e r t h a n u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d i t by t r a d i t i o n m e t a p h y s i c s . A r t , t h e y say, c a n n o t be j u d g e d by t h e a p r i o r i canons d e a r to a c a d e m i c i a n s and h i d e - b o u n d c r i t i c s . A r t , l i k e God, s i m p l y i s . Hence a l l a t t e m p t s - a t e v a l u a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h i n d e r r a t h e r h e l p . Now w h e t h e r we a c c p e t t h i s s t a t e m e n t whole or n o t , I t h i n k most p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c s , w ould agree t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks by C r o c e c o n t a i n more t h a n a g r a i n o f t r u t h , " L i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , " he s a y s , " i s f u l l o f . . . c a s e s o f an e s t a b l i s h e d s t y l e , a g a i n s t w h i c h an a r t i s t o f g e n i u s o f f e n d s i n h i s work and c a l l s f o r t h t h e r e p r o b a t i o n o f t h e c r i t i c s : a r e p r o b a t i o n w h i c h does n o t , however, s u c c e e d i n s u f f o c a t i n g t h e a d m i r a t i o n f o r , and the p o p u l a r i t y o f , h i s work, so t h a t f i n a l l y , when I t i s n o t p a s s i b l e to blame the a r t i s t and i t i s n o T w i s h e d to blame the c r i t i c o f k i n d s , t h e m a t t e r ends w i t h a compromise, and t h e k i n d i s e n l a r g e d or a c c e p t s b e s i d e i t a new k i n d , l i k e a l e g i t i m i s e d b a s t a r d , and the compromise l a s t s , •by t h e f o r c e o f i n e r t i a , . u n t i l a new work o f g e n i u s comes to 3 u p s e t a g a i n t h e f i x e d r u l e . " I c a n n o t r e s i s t making a p a r e n t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e p r o b a u i o h w h i c h G r o c e h i m s e l f d e a l s out t o c e r t a i n con-t e m p o r a r y " E x p r e s s i o n i s t s " , p r e s u m a b l y I t a l i a n . "That t h e y a r e f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t a r t , " C r o c e s a y s , " i s confirmed.., by__the .. n aky_. eA.J? f t h e e x t r e m i s t s o f t h i s movement f o r museums_and l _ i -b r a r i e s and a l l t h e a r t o f t h e past t h a t i s , f o r t h e i d e a o f a r t w h i c h on t h e whole c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h a r t as i t has been h i s t o r i c a l l y r e a l i z e d . The c o n n e c t i o n o f t h i s movement, i n I t s l a t e s t modern form, w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i s m and t h e p s y c h o l o g y p r o d u c e d and. f o s t e r e d , "by i n d u s t r i a l i s m i s o b v i o u s . " Now not knowing p r e c i s e l y t h e a r t i s t s to whom C r o c e r e f e r s t h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n o f our c a s t i n g t h e se c o n d s t o n e . One may, however, v e n t u r e t h e guess t h a t C r o c e ' s i r e i s a g g r a v a t e d b y a s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e s i n s he i s d e n o u n c i n g have been committed i n h i s v e r y name. On t h e o t h e r hand, p i c t u r e the a i r o f i n j u r e d i n n o c e n c e t h a t a s e l f - s t y l e d " E x p r e s s i o n i s t " must assume on b e i n g a c c u s e d , by a p h i l o s o p h e r , o f n o t h a v i n g p r o -p e r l y e x p r e s s e d h i s own i n d i v i d u a l images I To t h i s add t h e f a c t t h a t C r o c e ' s name i s i n v o k e d unbeknown to h i m s e l f , p r o -5 b a b l y b y c e r t a i n a p o l o g i s t s o f "modern" a r t ; and I t h i n k the I r o n y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e . That each d e n i e s to t h e e s s e n t i a l a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y a, c o n c e p t u a l element we have p e r h a p s a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d s u f f i c -i e n t l y . R e a l i t y , t h e y have t o l d u s, i s g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y to t h e mind, w i t h o u t m e d i a t i o n o f e i t h e r p e r c e p t o r c o n c e p t . Indeed m e t a p h y s i c a l a n t i n o m i e s a r e t r a c e a b l e , a c c o r d i n g to B e r g s o n , " t o t h e f a c t t h a t we p l a c e o u r s e l v e s i n t h e immobile i n o r d e r t o l i e i n w a i t f o r t h e moving t h i n g as i t p a s s e s ( j ^ ' s4re&A o f i?cpl.acing ...OL-H^IV.CC in_ t h a moving tMna^ni^rt^^caes) i n s t e a d o f r e p l a c i n g o u r s e l v e s i n t h e moving t h i n g s i t s e l f , i n o r d e r t o t r a v e r s e w i t h i t t h e immobile p o s i t i o n s . They a r i s e f r o m our p r o f e s s i n g to r e c o n s t r u c t r e a l i t y w h i c h i s t e n d e n c y and c o n s e q u e n t l y m o b i l i t y - — w i t h p e r c e p t s and. c o n -6 c e p t s whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o make i t s t a t i o n a r y . " I f we r i s e to p r o t e s t t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h e r i s i n f r i n g i n g the p o e t ' s l i c e n s e by t h e use of s u c h metaphor, we a r e ruled, out o f c o u r t f o r p r e s u m i n g to measure t h e p e r f e c t i o n trf t h e p h i l o s o p h e r . ' s v i s i o n hy t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t to w h i c h he has to r e s o r t f o r e x p r e s s i o n . Then a g a i n we were i n f o r m e d hy G r o c e : "The r e a d e r who u n d e r s t a n d s p o e t r y goes s t r a i g h t to ( i t s ) p o e t i c h e a r t and f e e l s i t h e a t upon h i s own; where t h i s h e a t i s s i l e n t he d e n i e s t h a t p o e t r y i s p r e s e n t . " But how p r e c a r i o u s d e v i n i n g p o e t r y hy t h e b e a t i n g - h e a r t t e s t i s : so much depends on whose i s t h e b e a t i n g h e a r t ! Whereupon t h e E x p r e s s i o n i s t may w e l l i n v i t e anyone e l s e t o s t e p f o r w a r d w i t h a m o r e . f o o l - p r o o f t e s t f o r a r t . Such a c h a l l e n g e w h i c h d i s c r e t i o n w ould p r e c l u d e our a c c e p t -i n g may s e r v e o u r p u r p o s e h e r e i n g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n to t h i s cursory r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . I t h i n k we may, w i t h o u t t h e a u t h o r i t y o f o u r - a u t h o r s , r i s k l a b e l l i n g t h e i r a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s E m o t i o n a l i s t , f o r we have s e e n t h a t emotion i s t h e s t a r t i n ^ p o i n t e ach a d o p t s f o r h i s i n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f a r t . How t h e r e I s l i t t l e doubt t h a t s e v e r e c r i t i c s w i l l a t once comment t h a t a c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t based\hupon s u c h .a p r e m i s s d e g e n e r a t e s u l t i m a t e l y i n t o " e m o t i o n a l i s m - f o r - e m o t i o h a l i s m 1 s sake"; t h e y may s u g g e s t u n g r a c i o u s l y t h a t a n - a e s t h e t i c w h i c h assumes- that s o u l s s i m p l y plumbed and emoted a u t o m a t i c a l l y y i e l d , a r t w i l l be s o o t h i n g b r o m i d e enough f o r t h o s e r o m a n t i c 3 p i r i t f e ^ w h o may e n t e r t a i n momentary d o u b t s about t h e i r g e n i u s . W h i l e , on t h e o t h e r hand, we may suppose t h a t t h o s e who r u s h to d e f e n d Em-o t i o n a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s w i l l d i s c l a i m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any. • dr u g s d i s t i l l e d f r o m t h e f u l l f l o w e r of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d o c t r i n e s who I t w i l l n o t be d e n i e d , however, t h a t a n y o n e ^ t h i n k s o f a r t i n terms o f w o r k s • o f a r t i s ~ b o u n d t o be dismayed on. as .nsc "7 d i s c o v e r i n g how l i g h t l y t h e s e a r e t r e a t e d by b o t h C r o c e and B e r g s o n . As t h e a t t e m p t has a l r e a d y been made i n t h i s e s s a y t o show t h a t t h e a n c i l l a r y p o s i t i o n t o w h i c h works o f a r t h a v e ^ r e d u c e d l e a d s t o a m e t a p h y s i c a l impasse, no more need be s a i d a bout t h e m a t t e r h e r e . I t w i l l be enough to n o t e t h a t n e i t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r r e g a r d s t h e s e n s i b l e o b j e c t as an end i n i t s e l f ; as e i t h e r t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n s t r u m e n t , or i n e v i t a b l e p r o d u c t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . F o r C r o c e , t h e a r t i f a c t i s u s e f u l f o r f i x i n g t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a u n i q u e l y r i c a l image; f o r B e r g s o n , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e t o i l t h e a r t i f a c t e n t a i l s y i e l d s i t s own p r o p e r p l e a s u r e ; and f o r b o t h p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h e a r t i f a c t , s e r v e s as a p i s a l l e r f o r communication o f c r e a -t i v e e m o t i o n . Prom t h i s l a s t t h e r e stems a n o t h e r common d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f our' two systems of a e s t h e t i c : t h e en-joyment o f t h e b e a u t i f u l i s an e x a c t r e p e t i t i o n o f the c o r r e s -p o n d i n g c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . A n o t i o n , w h i c h many.agree, i s b a s e d on a f a l s e p s y c h o l o g y , "What we do when we a r e p a s s i v e l y \ 9 o b e y i n g e x t e r n a l g u i danc e, " *f C . J . D u c a s s e , f o r example, s a y s , " i s as r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what we do a c t i v e l y f r o m i n n e r i m p u l s e , a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , massag-e Is f r o m e x e r c i s e , or r e a d i n g f r o m w r i t i n g . "When by a e s t h e t i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n we have succeeded' i n e x t r a c t i n g f r o m t h e contemplated, o b j e c t t h e f e e l i n g w h i c h was o b j e c t i f i e d fty i t , and h a ve t h u s made t h a t f e e l i n g our own, we t h e n i f we p l e a s e , can, and sometimes do, e x p r e s s i t f o r o u r s e l v e s e i t h e r i n i m a g i n a t i o n or i n r e a l i t y . T h i s , however, i s s o m e t h i n g t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e a c t , and i s t o be d e s c r i b e d as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by us o f t h e g i v e n work o f a r t . " But i t w o u l d seem t h a t f o r E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , a t //$r l e a s t , t h e em o t i o n p r o p e r t o c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y e x i s t s , i n a, s e n s e , as a c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l a w a i t i n g o n l y t h e snap o f a s w i t c h f o r t h e a e s t h e t i c c u r r e n t t o he t u r n e d on. Those who t a k e s u c h a v i e w as t h i s p e r h a p s r e v e r e as t h e i r p a t r o n s a i n t h i m who s a i d , "When ( t h e s o u l ) sees what i s a k i n t o i t or a t r a c e o f k i n s h i p ? ( i t ) acknowledges I t w i t h - t r a n s p o r t and i s 10 r e m i n d e d o f i t s e l f and o f i t s own t h i n g s , " I n any c a s e , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t n e i t h e r C r o c e o r B e r g s o n d i s t i n g u i s h t h e r e a d e r ' s a c t i v i t y f r o m t h e w r i t e r ' s hy c o n t r a s t i n g t h e p a s s i v i t y o f t h e one w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e o t h e r . F o r t h e m . , everyone who e x p e r i e n c e s beaut 3 - , by t h a t N v e r y f a c t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y , r a t h e r t h a n v i e w s i t f r o m a " p s y c h i c d i s t a n c e " l i e may n o t e b y t h e way t h a t on t h i s g round t h e c o u r s e s f o l l o w e d b y B e r g s o n and by Schopenhauer d i v e r g e : t h e f o r m e r , an optsunist, a c c e p t s w i t h a c c l a i m t h e f l u x o f Becoming; t h e l a t t e r , a p e s -s i m i s t , a t t r i b u t e d t o t h a t f a v o u r e d b e i n g , t h e a r t i s t , t h e p e c -u l i a r power o f d e t a c h i n g h i m s e l f , and i n t u r n , u s , f r o m t h e E n d l e s s S t r e a m . We may seem a t l a s t b r o u g h t t o a n , " e s s e n t i a l d i s t l n d i t i o n between C r o c e and B e r g s o n : t h e one has made t h e d i f f e r e n c e between o u r s e l v e s and. t h e a r t i s t a d i f f e r e n c e o f d e g r e e , where-as t h e o t h e r , l i k e S chopenhauer, has made i t a d i f f e r e n c e i n k i n d . i s u b m i t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t , p r a c t i c a l l y , t h e c o n t r a -d i s t i n c t i o n i s more seeming t h a n r e a l . And t h e y a r e c e r t a i n l y one In. assuming t h a t our e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y , although, d i f f e r -ent i n d e g r e e f r o m t h a t o f a S h a k e s p e a r e , i s i d e n t i c a l i n k i n d . They a g r e e t h a t we a r e e n a b l e d b y t h e d i s c o v e r i e s t h e g e n i u s e s have made, t h e i n t u i t i o n s t h e y have e x p r e s s e d , t o s h a r e w i t h 1 l-f th.em t h e i r c r e a t i v e j o y . B e r g s o n , we may r e c a l l , h as con-j u r e d J e a n - J a c q u e s R o u s s e a u : not w i t h t h e d i r e i n t e n t o f H u m a n i s t s and C l a s s i c i s t s who f r e q u e n t l y p e r f o r m t h e same r i t e , - - - t o c u r s e him; r a t h e r , s i n c e w i t h e a g l e eye he was the f i r s t t o gaze r h a p s o d i c a l l y upon a mou n t a i n peak, to "bless h im. F o r w i t h o u t our Rousseaus our gaze would be r e -s t r i c t e d to o u r narrow c i r c l e o f meagre i n t e r e s t s ; t h r o u g h t h e i r eyes we can catch, g l i m p s e s o f the t r u e r e a l i t y . The m y s t i c a l i n t e n s i t y of C r o c e ' s p r o s e I n c r e a s e s , as does t h a t o f B e r g s o n , when lie c o n t e m p l a t e s t h e a r t i s t ' s c o s m i c p u r p o s e . "Man does not seek a God e x t e r n a l to h i m s e l f and a l m o s t a despots• ..who. o commands and b e n e f i t s h i m c a p r i c i o u s l y ; n o r does he a s p i r e to an i m m o r t a l i t y o f i n s i p i d ease; b u t he s e e k s f o r t h a t God w h i c h he has i n h i m s e l f , and a s p i r e s to t h a t a c t i v i t y , w h i c h i s b o t h l i f e and d e a t h . " Hence i t i s t h a t j "a work o f a r t does n o t seem to p o s s e s s a v a l u e , save from i t s l y r i c a l c h a r a c t e r and. f r o m t h e i m p r i n t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n -a l i t y . . . . F o r r e a l i t y i s n o t h i n g b u t becoming, p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p a s s e s i n t o a c t u a l i t y , d e s i r e t h a t becomes a c t i o n , f r o m w h i c h d e s i r e s p r i n g s f o r t h a g a i n u n s a t i a t e d . The a r t i s t who r e p r e s e n t s i t i n g e n i o u s l y p r o d u c e s t h e l y r i c f o r t h i s v e r y r e a s o n . . . T h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t r u e a r t i s t p o r t r a y s i s t h a t o f t h i n g , l a c r y m a e rerum....The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t S c h e l l i n g • and S c h o p e n h a u e r n o t e d i n m u s i c , o f r e p r o d u c i n g , not i n d e e d the i d e a s , b u t the i d e a l r h y thm of t h e u n i v e r s e , and o f ob-. j e c t i f y i n g t h e w i l l - : i t s e l f , b e l o n g s e q u a l l y t o a l l the o t h e r 11 o f a r t , b e c a u s e i t i s t h e e s s e n c e o f a r t , o r o f pure i n t u i t i o n ' . 1 Such i s t h e p i t c h s e t by E m o t i o n a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s . -0O0-f onas jTOTES AND KOTRTgNniaa CHAPTER ONE. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 1 . C a r r , The p h i l o s o p h y o f Benede t to C r o c e , p . 20 2 » QP. c i t . p . 200-1 3 . E . F . C a r r i t t , P h i l o s o p h i e s o f B e a u t y , p . x v i 4 . quo ted i n P h i l . o f B . , p p . 16-17 5 * o p . c i t . p p . 28-9 6 . o p . c i t . p . 3 0 ; and w i t h a p p r o v a l "by H e r b e r t Read , A r t Now, p .101 7 . B u t c h e r , A r i s t o t l e ' s Theory o f P o e t r y and P i n e A r t , p . 57 . 8 . op . c i t . p . 99 v  9 « P h i l , o f B . , pp . - J & v i i - ^ v i i i . 1 0 . op . c i t . p . 37 . 1 1 . i b i d . p . 49 1 2 . c f . - p i ^ - , i n f r a . 1 3 . u o t e d i n P h i l , o f B . , pp» 47-8 1 4 . i b i d , p . 47 1 5 . "As to t h a t p o e t i c i m i t a t i o n w h i c h i s n a r r a t i v e i n fo rm and employs a s i n g l e m e t r e , the p l o t m a n i f e s t l y ought , as i n t r a g e d y , to be c o n s t r u c t e d on d r a m a t i c p r i n c i p l e s . " A r i s t o t l e ( t r a n s . B u t c h e r , p . 8 9 ) . 16« l o o 1 c i t . C r o c e ' s a r t i c l e on A e s t h e t i c s i n the E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a (1929 e d . ) , h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as E n c y . B r i t . 1 7 . q u o t e d b v P r a n k P . Chambers . The H i s t o r y o f T a s t e , p . 100 1 8 . A r i s t o t l e had s a i d , "The most b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r s , l a i d on c o n f u s e d l y , w i l l no t g i v e as much p l e a s u r e as the c h a l k o u t l i n e o f a p o r t r a i t . " j T r a h s . B u t c h e r , p . 2 9 ) . I t i s ea sy t o see how the t r u i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h i s o b i t e r d i c -tum m i g h t come t o be o v e r l o o k e d . 1 9 . quo ted i n H i s t o r y o f T a s t e , p . 112 2 0 . quo t ed by H e r b e r t Read , o p . c i t . p . 31 2 1 . c f . B o s a n q u e t , H i s t o r y o f A e s t h e t i c , p . 177 ; a l s o H . W i l d o n C a r r , P h i l . o f C r o o e , r e L e i b n i t z : "He found a p l a c e i n H i s t h e o r y o f knowledge f o r the confused c o g n i t i o n s w h i c h p recede the d i s t i n c t and c l e a r c o g n i t i o n s , f o r the poe t ry , w h i c h p recedes p h i l o s o p h y . " p p . 3 3 - 4 . 2 2 . c f . D r e s s e r , A H i s t o r y o f Modern P h i l o s o p h y , p . 60 2 3 . c f . H i s t o r y o f T a s t e , p . 112 2 4 . quo ted i n P h i l o f B . , p . 57 2 5 . P i e t r o A r e t i n o , f o r example , i n s p i t e o f "being such a f r i g h t f u l rogue say t h i n g s w i t h a s u r p r i s i n g f r e s h -n e s s , c f . De S a n c t i s , H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e . 2 6 . E n c y . B r i t . 2 7 . quo ted i n P h i l . . o f P . » p p . 61-2 2 8 . A r t How, p . 32 Y 2 9 . quo ted i n P h i l . o f B., p p . 73-4 3 0 . c f . B o s a n q u e t , o p . c i t . , p . 30 3 1 . quo ted i n P h i l . o f B . , p . 80 3 2 . B o s a n q u e t , op . c i t . P . 32 3 3 . quo ted i n P h i l . o f B , , p . 112 34 . i b i d . p . 112 3 5 . i b i d . p . 115 36 . The f o l l o w i n g a f f o r d an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t * " A e s t h e t i c t r e a t i s e s by a u t h o r s who have not s t u d i e d Kan t may be n e g l e c t e d w i t h o u t t he l e a s t r i s k o f s e r -i o u s m e n t a l l o s s . " C r o c e ; quoted by C a r r , P h i l o f C r o c e , p . 159 ~ " I have neve r been a b l e to b e l i e v e t h a t the i d e a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t , d e v e l o p e d on the b a s i s o f K a n t ' s a e s t h e t i c . . . i s w o r t h t h e t ime what w o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n m a s t e r i n g i t s m y s t e r i e s . " H e r b e r t Read , A r t How, p . 3 7 . Ency. B r i t . 38 . S c h e l l i n g t r e a t e d Guido R e n i as t he genuine p a i n t e r o f " s o u l " . T h i s i s r o m a n t i c decadence i n h o r r i d f o r m , c f . Bosanquet ' , o p . c i t . p p . 329-30 3 9 . c f . H . ¥ . ^ r e s s e r , op . c i t . p . 265 4 0 . c f . B o s a n q u e t , op . c i t . p . 364 -12$-4 1 . quo ted i n P h i l , o f B . . p p . 1 4 1 - 2 . 4 2 . i b i d . p . 131 4 3 . i b i d , p . 140 4 4 . D r e s s e r , op . c i t . pp . 3 1 6 - 1 7 . 4 5 . Pe rhaps i t comes near the t r u t h o f the m a t t e r t o say t h a t C h a r l e s D a r w i n was a c o e f f i c i e n t r a t h e r than a cause o f " D a r w i n i s m " a t e r m h a v i n g v a l u e as a symbol f o r a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n o f t h o u g h t . 4 6 . Thomas Munroe , S c i e n t i f i c Method i n A e s t h e t i c s , p . 28 . He i s q u o t i n g f rom B o s a n q u e t ' s p r e f a c e , pp . c i t . 4 7 . c f . B o s a n q u e t , op . c i t . p . 375 4 8 . H e r b e r t Read , op . c i t . p p . 44-5 4 9 . Anyone s u r f e i t e d by t i m e - f l u x w i l l f i n d Wyndham L e w i s r e f r e s h i n g r e a d i n g s "The rec rudescence , o f s u p e r s t i -t i o u s emot ion ( e n v i s a g e d as ' r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ' ) e n g i n e e r e d b y t h e con temporary p h i l o s o p h i c t h o u g h t . . . i s p a r t o f t h e g r e a t p s e u d o - r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement b a c k to t h e p r i m i t i v e w o r l d ; and t h a t i s ano the r r e a s o n why, i n p r e f e r e n c e to such a movement, we w o u l d t u r n t o t h e c a t h o l i c s i d e i n the r e l i g i o u s d i s p u t e . " R e l i g i o n ' i s p r i m i t i v l s m ; and as p r a c t i s e d by the n e o - m y s t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s f o l l o w i n g upon James and B e r g s o n , i t i s p a r t o f the c u l t o f the ' p r i m i t i v e ' , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the c h i l d - c u l t ( the e x p l o i t i n g o f i n f a n c y and i t s ' n a i f r e a c t i o n s ) , o r t he e x o t i c reomance o f such a p a i n t e r as G a u g u i n , o r the B l a c k B o t t o m o f the Swanee R i v e r - - - w h i c h i s m e r e l y ano the r phase o f 'Moon and S i x p e n c e ' — o r the s e x - p r i m i t i v i s m i n i t a t e d b y Preud . " . Time and W e s t e r n Man, p . 376 5 0 . H e r b e r t Read , op . c i t . p . 45 5 1 . i b i d , p p . 45-6 5 2 . G a r r i t t , The Theory o f B e a u t y , p . 273 5 3 . T . E . Hulme, S p e c u l a t i o n s , p . 8 5 . 54 . " A c c o r d i n g t o . . . E i n f u h l u n g , sympathy i s s a i d to be bound up w i t h a l l a e s t h e t i c f e e l i n g , i n c l u d i n g t h a t d e r i v e d f r o m the I n a n i m a t e w o r l d ; i t seems we d e s i r e to s t a n d up s t r a i g h t w i t h the v e r t i c a l l i n e , l i e down w i t h the h o r i z o n t a l . , r o l l over and over w i t h the c i r c l e , o v e r -f l o w w i t h the s t r e a m , s i g h w i t h the w i n d . " J u l i e n B e n d a , B e l p h e g o r , p . 4 1 . 3 -124-55. cf. Aristot le 's injunction to the playwright: "The poet should work out his play, to the best of his power, with appropriate gestures; for those who feel emotion are most convincing through natural sympathy with the the characters they represent; and one who is agi-tated storms, one who i s angry rages, with the most l i f e - l i k e real i ty ." Butcher trans, pp. 62-3 56. Henri Bergson, An Introduction to Metaphysics, p. 64 57. Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution, foot-note, p. 222 58. Carr, P h i l , of Croce, p. 37 CHAPTER TWO. CROCE 1. Estetica, p. 255. (Croce's quotation from Vico, Scienza nuova seconda, Elementi l i i i . ) Quoted by Carr, op. pi t , pp. .160-1. 2. cf. P h i l . Croce, p. 155. 3. Saggio sullo Hegel, p. 335. Quoted in P h i l . Croce, pp. 157-8 4. P h i l . Croce, p. 8. 4a.According to Carr, lo spirito is better rendered as mind than as: s p i r i t . cf. his preface, op. c i t . 5. Ency. B r i t . 6. cf. Carr i t t , The Theory of Beauty, p. 188 7. quoted by Carr i t t , op. c i t , p. 244 8. i b i d . , p. 187 9 « c f « Th. of Beauty, p. 189 1 0 « op. c i t . p. 298 11. Essence of Aesthetic, p. 42. cf. Ducasse, The Philosophy of Art , p. 50. "One...wonders why Croce needed to use constantly two words (Intuition and Expression) when he t e l l us that only one thing is designated, saying, for instance, that 'they are not two but one'; this indeed being given as the reason why what he yet refers to as the one and the other, appear at the same instant, and are indistinguishable."-—John Dewey, Art as Experience p loc. c i t . -12tf-" S i g n o r Croce makes . . . numbers o f s ta tements w h i c h t a k e t h i s f o r m : ' A r t i s i n t u i t i o n , and i n t u i t i o n , and i n t u i t i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . ' 'The r e s u l t o f a work o f a r t i s i n t u i t i o n . ' ' A l andscape i s a s t a t e o f t h e s o u l . ' ' A g r e a t poem may be a l l c o n t a i n e d i n an e x c l a m a t i o n o f j o y . ' And y e t no one o f these terms i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e s econd , no one i s dropped by the p h i l o s o p h e r , t hough i f t h e y a r e synonomous one must be o t i o s e . S u r e l y n o t h i n g i s more c e r t a i n than t h a t one t h i n g canno t be a n o t h e r , one meaning ano the r meaning . C r o c e needs t o l e a r n what t he l i t t l e b i r d t augh t F r a n c i s Jammes, ~ Qu'une chose e s t c e l a q u i n ' e s t pas a u t r e c h o s e . " - — T . S t u r g e Moore , Armour f o r A p h r o d i t e , p . 8 7 . 1 2 . E n c y . B r i t . Dewey r e m a r k s , "The t e r m ' i n t u i t i o n ' i s one o f the most alablguous i n the w h o l e range o f t h o u g h t " . op . c i t ' . p . 294 . Mo s tuden t o f a e s t h e t i c s i s l i k e l y t o demur, 1 3 . quo ted i n P h i l . C r o c e , p . 1 6 2 . Cf." C r o c e ' s c o - p a t r i o t and severe c r i t i c , G e n t i l e , who i s even more s u b j e c t i v i s t i c t han C r o c e . He accuses the l a t t e r o f c o n c e i v i n g a r t d u a l i s t i c a l l y ! " A r t . . . . i s n o t , as some have s a i d , t h e e x p r e s s i o n or i n t u i t i o n o f f e e l i n g bu t f e e l i n g i t s e l f . The w e l l - k n o w n d o c t r i n e w h i c h d e f i n e d a r t i n t h e former way s t r u g g l e d l o n g and v a i n l y f o r a t h e o r y b y w h i c h a r t s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f rom p h i l o s o p h y and y e t sha re w i t h i t i n the n a t u r e of the t h e o r e t i c s p i r i t . Bu t i t never succeeded i n e x c h a n g i n g t h a t d o c t r i n e o f a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f rom w h i c h i t s t a r t e d f o r t h a t d o c t r i n e o f a e s t h e t i c fo rm a t w h i c h i t a i m e d . . . . T h e a u t h o r o f t h i s d o c t r i n e gave t o f e e l i n g an e x i s t e n c e o f i t s own, independent o f i t s f u n c t i o n as m a t e r i a l o f a r t . P e e l i n g was , f o r h i m , i n i t s vague o b s c u r i t y , t h a t p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h h e l d t o be as r e a l as i t s t h e o r e t i c a l a c t i v i t y . So a r t came. to be c o n c e i v e d d u a l i s t i c a l l y . I t was v e r b a l l y d e f i n e d as a s y n t h e s i s , bu t i t was _ i m p o s s i b l e to see suchaa s y n t h e s i s as c r e a t i v e a p r i o r i . I t was m e r e l y the r e s u l t o f add ing the i n t u i t i v e form to f e e l i n g . " G i o v a n n i G e n t i l e , The P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t ( 1 9 3 1 ) . Quoted i n P h i l , o f B . , p p . 325-6 1 4 . quo t ed P h i l , o f B . , p . 2 4 3 . 1 5 . E n c y . B r i t . 1 6 . quo ted i n P h i l . C r o c e . , p . 7 3 . 1 7 . quo ted i n T h . o f B e a u t y , p . 288 . 1 8 . quo t ed b y Dewey, o p . c i t . p . 294 . 1 9 . c f . p p . 70 f f . i n f r a r - 1 2 * -2 0 « E s s e n c e , p . 4 0 . H a r d - b i t t e n r e a l i s t s wou ld no doubtW s u s p i c i o u s o f even t h i s l a n g u a g e . 2 1 . quo ted i n P h i l . C r o c e . p . 1 6 2 . 2 2 . o p . c i t . , p p . 2 3 4 - 5 . 2 3 . op . c i t . , p . 235 . 2 4 . The f o l l o w i n g compar i son i s i n s t r u c t i v e , I t h i n k ; " I t i s t r u e that i n most a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t s we can t r a c e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t began w i t h a r o u s -i n g some k i n d o f e m o t i o n . . . T h i s i s t he s r u e s t way f o r them t o impres s us; and the best way of q u i e t i n g t h e emot ion and p u r g i n g our s o u l s o f i t i s t o r e t u r n to t h e u n d e r l y i n g a e s t h e t i c j u d g m e n t . " — - H e r b a r t , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P h i l o s o p h y ( 1 8 1 3 - 3 7 ) ; quoted i n P h i l , o f B e a u t y , p . 154 . re De S a n c t i s 1 concept o f fo rm i n a e s t h e t i c s ( r e g a r -ded by C r o c e . w i t h v a p p r o v a l j s " ( F o r Be S a n c t i s form was) no t ' a b s t r a c t f o r m ' as u n d e r s t o o d by the r h e -t o r i c i a n s as w e l l as by c e r t a i n German a e s t h e t i c i a n s who c a l l t hemse lves ' f o r m a l i s t s ' , and as we f i n d i t r e a p p e a r i n g a t the p r e s e n t day , more e s p e c i a l l y i n c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e p l a s t i c a r t s ; and i t was no t the ' f o r m ' p a t h o l o g i c a l l y f e l t by a e s t h e t e s and and d e c a d e n t s ; i t was n o t h i n g e l s e t h a n the e n t i r e r e s o l u t i o n o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l , s e n t i m e n t a l , and e m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y o f the p o e t i c image and w o r d , w h i c h a l o n g has a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . " • f rom C r o c e ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n to De S a n c t i s , H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e . 2 5 . P h i l , o f B e a u t y , p . 2 4 1 . 2 6 . T h . o f B e a u t y , p . 284 . c f . Dewey, o p . c i t . p . 7 7 . 2 7 . E n c y . B r i t . 2 8 . E s s e n c e , p . 2 1 3 . 2 9 . T h . o f B e a u t y , p p . 1 9 7 - 8 . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to l e a r n t h a t f o g - h o r n s , oa ths and chuckes a re a d m i t t e d t o the company o f the B e a u t i f u l so soon as t h e y become c l e a r l y i n t u i t e d . Hence we may suppeee t h a t a s o l -d i e r d u c k i n g a b a r r a g e i n a s h e l l - h o l e w o u l d have abundant o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g b e a u t y , p r o -v i d e d he d i d not p e r m i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the r e a l i t y o r t h e u n r e a l i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n t o p e r t u r b h i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e e c s t a s y . T h r o t t l i n g o n e ' s grandmother , i f c l e a r l y i n t u i t e d , w o u l d , by the same t o k e n , be an a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y . Re murder as a f i n e a r t , c f . DeQuincey . - 1 2 $ -3 0 . E s s e n c e , p . 7 3 . 3 1 . i b i d , p . 7 3 . 3 2 . i b i d , p . 74 . 3 3 . E n c y . B r i t . 34 . c f . D u c a s s e , o p . c i t . p . 4 5 . 3 5 . E s s e n c e , p . 4 7 . 36 . i b i d , p p . 4 5 - 6 . 3 7 . i b i d , p . 4 4 . c f . T h . o f B e a u t y , p . 292 . 38 . c f . D u c a s s e , op . c i t . p . 4 5 . 3 9 . E n c y . B r i t . 4 0 . E s s e n c e , p p . 4 6 - 7 . s 4 1 . c f . T h . o f B e a u t y , p p . 1 9 7 - 8 . 4 2 . quo ted i n P h i l . C r o c e , p . 1 6 8 . c f . Ducas se , o p . c i t . p p . 4 6 - 7 4 3 . E s s e n c e , p p . 42 -3 4 4 . i b i d , p . 43 4 5 . E n c y . B r i t . 4 6 . i b i d . 4 7 . i b i d . 4 8 . "The a u t h o r ( C r o c e ) who has r e c e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d a e s t h e t i c w i t h the s c i e n c e o f l anguage was- l e d to do so by h i s d u a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e , a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , o f a form u n d e r s t o o d as the e x p r e s s i o n o f a s u b j e c t p n a t t e r i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n and so p r e c e d i n g the e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t y . " - — G e n t i l e , o p . c i t . ; quoted i n P h i l , o f B .p328 4 9 . "Those who p romise to expound a n a t u r a l i s t i c , i n d u c t i v e , p h y s i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a e s t h e t i c s - — • i n a w o r d , a n o n - p h i l o s o p h i c a l a e s t h e t i c — - w h e n t h e y pass f rom p romise to per formance s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y i n t r o d u c e a g e n e r a l p o s i t i v i s t i c or even m a t e r i a l -i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . And anyone who t h i n k s t h a t the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s o f p o s i t i v i s m and m a t e r i a l i s m a r e f a l s e and out o f d a t e , w i l l f i n d i t an easy m a t t e r t o r e f u t e the a e s t h e t i c or p s p u d o - a e s t h e t i c d o c t r i n e s w h i c h m u t u a l l y suppor t them and a r e sup -p o r t e d b y them." E n c y . B r i t . 5 0 . E n c y . B r i t . 7 -120-5 1 . -Essence , p . 5 1 . 5 2 . i b i d , p . 3 9 . 5 3 . c f . G a r r , op . c i t . p p . 5 8 - 9 . "The terms we use i n p h i l s e -ophy to express p r i o r i t y o f one fo rm o f knowledge over a n o t h e r a r e never i n t e n d e d as a t empora l bu t a lways as a l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y . . . W h e n we say t h a t the i n t u i t i o n i s p r i o r to the c o n c e p t , we do not mean "that a t some o r a h any o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d an i n t u i t i o n e x i s t e d , and no t y e t a c o n c e p t . We mean t h a t t he c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r e b e i n g a concep t i s the e x i s t e n c e o f an i n t u i t i o n . " 54 . E s s e n c e , p p . 5 2 - 3 . 5 5 . c f . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t he B r i t i s h Academy, D e c . 1 0 , 1919; B e r n a r d B o s a n q u e t , C r o c e ' s A e s t h e t i c . 5 6 . o p . c i t . 5 7 . p p . c i t . 5 8 . E n c y . B r i t . 5 9 . C r o c e w o u l d n a t u r a l l y not r e c o g n i z e any such d i s t i n c t i o n as B e r g s o n seeks t o draw between t r a g e d y and comedy i n h i s e s s ay on L a u g h t e r . 6 0 . E n c y . B r i t . 6 1 . G i l b e r t , S t u d i e s i n Recent A e s t h e t i c , p . 1 0 5 . 63. op . c i t . p . 9 3 . 6 3 . W i t h o u t t he t e l e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . " E v e r y work o f a r t i s a monad, a w i n d o w l e s s and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w o r l d w h i c h m i r r o r s t h e u n i v e r s e f rom i t s own un ique p o i n t o f v i e w , a n d , i n d e e d , i s n o t h i n g b u t a v i s i o n o r p e r s p e c t i v e o f the u n i v e r s e , and o f a u n i v e r s e w h i c h i s f i r s t i t s e l f . . . . B u t whereas the a r t i s t r ega rd s i t as e x p r e s s i v e s i m p l y o f i t s e l f , the h i s t o r i a n (of a r t ) r e g a r d s i t as e x p r e s s i v e o f the e x p e r i e n c e s , now f o r g o t t e n , w h i c h have paved the way f o r i t s c r e a t i o n . " - — R . G . W o l l l n g w o o d , O u t l i n e s o f a P h i l -osophy o f A r t ; quo ted i n P h i l . o f B . , p . 293 . 6 4 . E s s e n c e , p p . 5 6 - 7 . 6 5 . " F o r Croce an a b s o l u t e c h o i c e i s a lways f o r c e d : e i t h e r two t h i n g s a re m u t a a l l y e x c l u s i v e e n t i t i e s ( the p a r t i a l i t y o f q u a n t i t a t i v e c o i n c i d e n c e does not a f f e c t t he p r i n c i p l e ) o r t h e y a re two i n no l o g i c a l sense w h a t e v e r . " - - - G i l b e r t , op . c i t . p . 1 0 9 , 6 6 . E n c y . B r i t . s -120-67 . E s s e n c e , p p . 5 7 - 8 . 6 8 . M r s . G i l b e r t ' s e s say on Croce k a s an Impor t an t b e a r i n g on t h i s p o i n t . Recent Trends i n A e s t h e t i c , l o c . c i t . 6 9 . E s s e n c e , l o c . c i t . 7 0 . i b i d . , p . 59 . .71 . The p a s s i o n a t e b r e a t h i n g o f the l a b o u r i n g - m a n to h i s l a s s i e , the p o p u l a r l o v e - s o n g on the l i p s o f every p a s s e r - b y , a c c o r d i n g t o our a u t h o r , f a l l i n t h e same c a t e g o r y . w i t h t h e L e o p a r d i . c f . G i l b e r t , op . c i t . , p p . 3 3 - 4 . 7 2 . Ogden, E i e h a r d s s & Wood, The F o u n d a t i o n s o f A e s t h e t i c , p p . 4 3 - 4 . 7 3 . T h . o f B e a u t y , p . 215 . 74 . E n c y . B r i t . 7 5 . E s s e n c e , p p . 6 4 - 5 . v 7 6 . i b i d . , p . 6 4 . 7 7 . quo ted I n P h i l . C r o c e , p p , 7 2 - 3 . 7 8 . E s s e n c e , p . 7 7 . 7 9 . quo ted i n P h i l , o f B e a u t y , p . 2 3 6 . 8 0 . c f . E s s e n c e , p . 6 5 . 8 1 . quo ted i n P h i l , o f B e a u t y , p . 236 . .82. QP. c i t . , p . 237 . 8 3 . E s s e n c e , p . 7 8 . 8 4 . quo t ed i n P h i l , o f B e a u t y , p . 237 . 8 5 . E n c y . B r i t . CHAPTER THREE. BERGSON 1. The i n f l u e n c e i s no t a l l t h e one way, however , I n an a r t i -c l e on I n t e l l e c t u a l E f f o r t , 1902, B e r g s o n t e s t i f i e s t o h a v i n g b o r r o w e d "an i n t e r e s t i n g and p ro found i d e a pu t f o r w a r d b y P r o f e s s o r Dewey i n h i s a r t i c l e s on t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f effort ( J a n . 1 8 9 7 ) " . c f M i n d - E n e r g y p .215 2 . M i n d - E n e r g y , p . 213 . F o r conven ience I have changed the v e r b ~" t o the p r e s e n t t e n s e . 3 . C r e a t i v e E v o l u t i o n , p p . 2 6 0 - 1 . / i f -2r3€^ 4 . i b i d . , p . 252 . 5 . i b i d . , p . 39 . 6 . i b i d . , p . 1 1 . . . . . 7 . A n I n t r o d u c t i o n to M e t a p h y s i c s , p . 38 . • 8 ' C r . E v o l . , p . 3 0 . 9 . i b i d . , p . 192 . "The c a r d i n a l e r r o r w h i c h , f rom A r i s t o t l e onwards , has v i t i a t e d most o f the p h i l o s o p h i e s o f n a t u r e , i s to see i n v e g e t a t i v e „ i n s t i n c t i v e and r a -t i o n a l l i f e , t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e degrees o f the d e v e l -opment o f one and the same t endency , whereas t hey  a r e t h r e e d i v e r g e n t d i r e c t i o n s o f an a c t i v i t y t h a t has s p l i t up as i t g rew. The d i f f e r e n c e betwen them i s not a d i f f e r e n c e o f i n t e n s i t y , n o r , more gene r -a l l y , o f deg ree , bu t o f k i n d . " - - - O r . E v o l . , p . 142 . 1 0 . i b i d . , p . 3 1 . 1 1 . i b i d . , P . 1 8 7 . 1 2 . The Two Sources\>of M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n , p p . 213 -14 . 1 3 . C r . E v o l . , p . 1 8 6 . 1 4 . An I n t r o d . , p p . 2 2 - 3 . 1 5 . L a u g h t e r , p p . 1 5 1 - 2 . 1 6 . An I n t r o d . , p . 5 9 , 1 7 . i b i d . , p . 6 . 1 8 . i b i d . , p . 56 . 1 9 . i b i d . , p . 4 1 . 20. I t i s . c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e a r t i s t migh t say w i t h some i m p a t i e n c e s "What do you expect me to do merge m y s e l f i n t o the c a t h e d r a l and o s s i f y my s o u l i n i t s s t o n e s and m o r t a r ? Anyway, i s t he cosmos the o n l y i n d i v i d u a l i t y ? h a s n ' t the c a t h e d r a l i t s own p rope r c h a r a c t e r ? Would the p h i l o s o p h e r p r e f e r t h a t I c o n t e m p l a t e the ' r h y t h m o f the u n i v e r s e ' and , l i k e t he m y s t i c , do n o t h i n g about i t ? A t a l l e v e n t s , my s t a n d i s t h a t t h e s k e t c h I make I s to be j udged b y i t s own i n t e r n a l l a w s , and not b y any c r i t e r i o n e x t e r n a l to i t , whe the r t h a t be an a r c h i t e c t u r a l segment o r n o t . " 2 1 . C r . E v o l . , p . 9 5 . 2 1 a . A c c o r d i n g to one o f the d i s c i p l e s , T .E .Hulmes ( re I n t u i t i o n ) I - i sa-l t i 1 , 1 To p l a c e y o u r s e l f i n s i d e the o b j e c t ' ( i s ) no l o n g e r a m e r e l y m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . I n t h a t s t a t e o f mind i n w h i c h you f e e l and e x p e r i e n c e d u r a t i o n , and w h i c h we have c a l l e d i n t u i t i o n , ySu a re a c t u a l l y i n s i d e t h a t s t r e a m o f i m p u l s e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s l i f e ' . 1  o p . c i t . , p . 2 1 3 . E d i t o r i a l i t a l i c s w o u l d he s u p e r f l u o u s . 2 2 . A n I n t r o d . , p . 8 . 2 3 . l o c . c i t . , ¥ . T . S t a c e , The Meaning o f B e a u t y ; quoted i n P h . o f B e a u t y , p . 302 . 2 3 a . P e r h a p s t h e f o o t n o t e p . 376, The Meaning o f Meaning a p p l i e s h e r e a l s o . " C o l e r i d g e ' s ' w i l l i n g s u s p e n s i o n o f d i s -b e l i e f i s perhaps as had a d e s c r i p t i o n p s y c h o l o g i -c a l l y o f t h i s r e q u i r e d accep t ance as c o u l d he g i v e n . l A v , 4 "I J-' A n i n v o l u n t a r y a c c e s s i o n o f c o n v i c t i o n ' w o u l d be b e t t e r . " 2 4 . On the o t h e r h a n d , we a r e r eminded how open-minded W i l l a & m James was c o n c e r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t were d e n i e d h i m . c f . V a r i e t i e s o f R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i e n c e . 2 5 . c f . "Our p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e n not a m e t a p h y s i c s but a me-t h o d o l o g y , a mode o f knowing w h i c h apprehends t h i s a c t i v e l i f e o f mind i n i t s c o n c r e t e n e s s and not i n i t s a b s t r a c t n e s s , and w h i c h apprehends i t f rom w i t h -i n as immanent r e a l i t y o r l i f e and not f rom w i t h o u t as t r a n s c e n d e n t r e a l i t y t y o r t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f . " — H . W i l -don C a r r , P h i l , o f C r o c e , p . 3 9 . 2 6 . M o r . & R e l . , p . 2 1 6 . 2 7 . "The g r e a t e s t t h i n g b y f a r ( i n s t y l e ) i s to have a command o f me taphor . T h i s a l o n e cannot be i m p a r t e d by ano-t h e r ; i t i s the mark o f g e n i u s , f o r to make good metaphors i m p l i e s an eye f o r r e s e m b l a n c e s . " - - A r i s t o t l e ( B u t c h e r t r a n . , p . 8 7 . ) quo ted i n I M o r . & R e l , quo ted i n 1 O r . E v o l . , M o r . So R e l , i b i d . , p . 2 M o r . & R e l . / - 1 3 2 -3 5 . c f . C r . E v o l . . p , 35 et s e q . 36 . M o r . & R e l . , p p . 3 1 - 2 . 3 7 . " I n v a i n do we ex tend our v i e w i n t o the heavens , and p r y i n t o the e n t r a i l s o f the e a r t h ; i n v a i n do we c o n s u l t t h e w r i t i n g s o f l e a r n e d men, and t r a c e the dark f o o t s t e p s o f a n t i q u i t y - - - w e need o n l y draw the c u r -t a i n o f words to b e h o l d the f a i r e s t t r e e o f knowledge whose f r u i t i s e x c e l l e n t and w i t h i n t h e r e a c h of our h a n d . " B e r k e l e y , P r i n c i p l e s o f Human Knowledge , (Works; ed , F r a s e r ; v o l . I . , p . 154 . Quoted by Ogden & R i c h a r d s , op . c i t . , p . 1 1 6 . ) " . . . k n o w l e d g e o f such a s o u l ( the concept o f w h i c h i s the c o n v e n t i o n a l one s u p p l i e d by l anguage ) i s . . . i n c a p a -b l e o f e x t e n s i o n , nay , i t r i n g s h o l l o w a t the f i r s t b l o w o f an o p p o s i n g p h i l o s o p h y . How much b e t t e r to t u r n back t o t h e vague s u g g e s t i o n s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s f rom w h i c h we have s t a r t e d , t o d e l v e i n t o them and f o l l o w them up t i l l we r e a c h a c l e a r i n t u i t i o n ! " B e r g s o n , M o r . & R e l . , p . 228 . F o r c o n t r a s t , c f . - ti~"' "What t h e R e l a t i v i t y handbook i s s a y i n g the who le t ime i s : How t r y and f e e l about a l l t hese t h i n g s /just l i k e a  l i t t l e c h i l d . Look a t a l l these t h i n g s p r i m i t i v e l y ! ! L o o k a t t h a t b i g s t a r up t h e r e , o r a t t h a t duck-pond over t h e r e , o r a t t h e image i n t h a t g r e a t b i g m i r r o r o f t h a t fun r i \ y l i t t l e g i r l o r b o y . . . a s though you saw i t f o r t he f i r s t t i m e ! " Wyndham L e w i s , Time and W e s t e r n Man, p . 416 . 3 8 . A n I n t r o d . , p . 3 1 . 3 9 . E n c y . B r i t . 4 0 . " P o e t r y a lways e x p r e s s e s i n w a r d s t a t e s . B u t amongst t he se s t a t e s some a r i s e m a i n l y f rom c o n t a c t w i t h our f e l l o w - m e n . They a r e t h e most i n t e n s e as w e l l as t he most v i o l e n t . " L a u g h t e r , p p . 1 5 7 - 8 . As B e r g s o n grows more m y s t i c a l , he seems to d r i f t f u r t h e r away f rom t h i s s o c i a l v i e w o f a r t . 4 1 . " I f we t a k e f rom a poem i t s m e t r e , i t s rhy thm, and I t s w o r d s , p o e t i c a l t hough t does n o t , as some o p i n e , r e m a i n b e h i n d : There remains n o t h i n g . " C r o c e , The Essence o f A e s t h e t i c , p . 4 4 . 4 2 . L a u g h t e r , p . 154 . 4 3 . M o r . & R e l . , p . 1 8 2 . 4 5 ' C r . E v o l . , p . 272 . 4 6 . L a u g h t e r , pp . 1 5 5 - 6 . 4 7 . M o r . & R e l . , p . 219 . 4 8 . i b i d . , p . 216 . 4 9 . I b i d . , p . 34 . 5 0 . i b i d . , p . 9 5 . 5 1 . M i n d - E n e r g y , p p . 2 8 - 9 . 5 2 . M o r . & R e l . , p . 2 8 . 5 3 . i b i d . , p . 216 . 54 . i b i d . . , p . 217 . 5 5 . i b i d . , p p . 2 1 6 - 1 7 . 5 6 . i b i d . , p . 3 5 . 57 . M i n d - E n e r g y , p . 2 9 . 58 . L a u g h t e r , p p . 1 5 8 - 9 . 5 9 . I b i d . , pp . 1 5 3 - 4 . 6 0 . M o r . & R e l . , p . 7 8 . 6 1 . J u l ! e n Benda i s ano the r who a t t a c k s v i c i o u s l y the a e s -t h e t i c s o f t i m e - f l u x , w h i c h because o f i t s emphasis upon t h e I n t u i t i v e he sneers " ( a r e ) e n t i r e l y made f o r women . . .Men s t r u g g l e . . , . A l a s J They must succomb; t h e r e i s a degree o f u n i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and shameless , ness t o w h i c h t h e y w i l l never a t t a i n . " B e l p h e g o r , p p . 8 0 - 1 . v .. And r e mus ics " (The ) i n s i s t e n c e on mus ica la .z*ng a l l t h e a r t s i s t he s t r o n g e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f the d i l -i g e n c e w i t h w h i c h our c o n t e m p o r a r i e s seek to d e p r i v e a r t o f a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and to demand f rom i t mere s e n s a t i o n suah as one ge t s f rom d r i n k i n g w ine o r f rom t h e f r a g r a n c e o f a f l o w e r . M o r e o v e r ; mus ic a c q u i r e s i t s h i g h p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r o p i n i o n no t o n l y f o r i t s l a c k o f f o r m , b u t a l s o because o f t he s t a t e o f pu re a f f e c t i v i t y w h i c h i t i s a b l e t o c r e a t e , because o f i t s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r e a l i z a t i o n o f a pure s t a t e f rom w h i c h a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s w i t h d r a w n and whose c o n d i t i o n i s v e g e t a t i v e and : i r r e d u c i b l e to i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y ; because o f i t s power t o sugges t r a t h e r t h a n e x p r e s s . " o p . c i t . , p . 28 I n c i d e n t a l l y , WJmdham L e w i s sha res w i t h Benda the same g ro t e sque p r e j u d i c e about m u s i c . 3 - 1 3 * -6 2 . M o r . & R e l . . p . 2 8 . 6 3 . L a u g h t e r , p . 57 . 6 4 - O r . E v o l . , p . 186 . 6 5 . M o r . & R e l . . p . 1 8 2 . . 6 6 . L a u g h t e r , p . 166 . 6 7 . c f . p . 7 f f . s u p r a . 6 8 • ^ s s a y on the Immediate D a t a o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s , p . 144 . quo ted w i t h d i s a p p r o v a l by Benda , op . c i t . , p . 6 0 . 6 9 . L a u g h t e r , p . 1 6 7 . 7 0 . i b i d . , pp . 1 6 6 - 7 . CHAPTER POUR. CONCLUSION \ l . c f . no te 4 9 , p . 127 , s u p r a . 2 « P h i l . C r o c e , p . 4 7 . 3 . E s s e n c e , p p . 5 4 - 5 . 4 . E n c y . B r i t . 5 . c f . H e r b e r t Read , o p . c i t . 6 . A n I n t r o d u , p . 57 . 7 . c f , p . 99 s u p r a . 8 . "Some p h i l o s o p h e r s have put f o r t h i d e a t h a t a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t o r b e a u t y i s a k i n d o f e t h e r e a l , essence w h i c h , i n a ccomoda t ion to f l e s h , i s compellecffuse e x t e r n a l sensuous m a t e r i a l as a v e h i c l e . The d o c t r i n e implies t h a t were no t the s o u l i m p r i s o n e d i n the body , p i c -t u r e s w o u l d e x i s t w i t h o u t c o l o r s , mus ic w i t h o u t sounds , and l i t e r a t u r e w i t h o u t w o r d s . E x c e p t , however , f o r c r i t i c s who t e l l us how they f e e l w i t h -ou t t e l l i n g o r knowing i n terms o f media used why/,4) t h e y f e e l as t h e y do , and excep t f o r pe rsons who i d e n t i f y gush w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n , media and a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t a r e comple te f u s e d . " - - - D e w e y , op . c i t . , p . 199 9 . op . c i t . , p . 5 3 . C f . a l s o , L i s t o w e l , A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y o f Modern A e s t h e t i c s , pp . 195 f f . 1 6 . c f . pp.. 7 f f . s u p r a . 1 1 . quo ted i n H i s t o r y o f T a s t e , p . 263 . BIBLIOGRAPHY 4--13,5-A l e x a n d e r , Ss Benda , J u l i e n : B e r g s o n , H e n r i B o s a n q u e t , B : Buermeyer , L : B u t c h e r , S . Hi C a r r , H . W i l d o n : C a r r i t t , E . E ; Chambers , F . P : A r t and I n s t i n c t . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , O x f o r d , 1927 . B e l p h e g o r . Faber & F a b e r , London , 1929 C r e a t i v e E v o l u t i o n . M a c M i l l a n , London , 1911 L a u g h t e r ; an essay on the meaning o f the c o m i c . M a c M i l l a n , New f o r k . 1912 . An I n t r o d u c t i o n to M e t a p h y s i c s . M a c M i l l a n , L o n d o n . 1913 . M i n d - E n e r g y . Henry H o l t , New Y o r k . 1920. The Two Sou rce s o f M o r a l i t y and R e l i g i o n . M a c M i l l a n , L o n d o n . 1935 . """["French-e d i t i o n , 1 9 3 2 ) . A H i s t o r y o f A e s t h e t i c . M a c M i l l a n , L o n -don . 1910 ( 3 r d e d . ) ( P r o c e e d i n g s o f the B r i t i s h Academy, Dec . 1 0 , 1919 . Paper "by B e r n a r d Bosanque t , C r o c e ' s A e s t h e t i c . ) The A e s t h e t i c E x p e r i e n c e . Bernes Founda-t i o n P r e s s , M e r i o n . 1924. A r i s t o t l e ' s Theory o f P o e t r y and F i n e A r t - , M a c M i l l a n , L o n d o n . 1902 (3 rd e d . ) . The P h i l o s o p h y o f Benede t to C r o c e ; the p rob l em o f h i s t o r y and a r t . Mac-M i l l a n , L o n d o n . 1917. The Theory o f B e a u t y . Methuen, L o n d o n . 1914 P h i l o s o p h i e s o f B e a u t y ; f rom S o c r a t e s to Rober t B r i d g e s , b e i n g the sources o f a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , O x f o r d . 1931 . What i s B e a u t y ? A f i r s t i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e s u b j e c t and t o modern t h e o r i e s ; C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , O x f o r d . 1932 . The H i s t o r y o f T a s t e ; an account o f the r e v o l u t i o n s o f a r t c r i t i c i s m and t h e o r y i n E u r o p e . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k . 1932 . C o l l i n g w o o d , R . G : C r o c e , B e n e d e t t o : Dewey, J o h n : De S a n c t i s , F : D r e s s e r , H . ¥ : D u c a s s e , C . Js - i 3 # -O u t l i n e s o f a P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , L o n d o n . 1925. iThe Essence of A e s t h e t i c , ( t r a n s . Douglas • A i n s l i e ) . W i l l i a m Heinemann, London , 1921 . ( a r t i c l e on A e s t h e t i c s i n E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t -a n n i c a ; 14rth e d i t i o n , 1 9 2 9 ) . A r t as E x p e r i e n c e . M i n t o n , B a l c h & C o . New Y o r k . 1934 . H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n L i t e r a t u r e . (2 v o l s ) ( I n t r o d u c t i o n by Benede t to C r o c e . ) Oxfo rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . London . 1931 A H i s t o r y o f Modern P h i l o s o p h y . George A l l e n & U n w i n , L o n d o n . 1928 . The P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t . L i n c o l n Mac Veagh , The D i a l P r e s s . 1929. G i l b e r t , K a t h e r i n e : S t u d i e s i n Recent A e s t h e t i c The U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , Chape l H i l l . 1927. H o e r n l e , R . P . A l f r e d : I d e a l i s m j as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t r i n e . Hodder & S t o u g h t o n , L o n d o n . 1924. Hulme, T. E : L e w i s , Wyndham: S p e c u l a t i o n s ; essays on Humanism and the p h i l o s o p h y o f a r t . ( ed . H e r b e r t R e a d ) . Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T rubne r , London . 1924 . Time and Y/es te rn Man. Hare our t , B r a c e , New Y o r k . 1928 . L i s t o w e l , E a r l o f : A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y o f Modern A e s t h e t i c s . George A l l e n & U n w i n , L o n d o n . 1933 . The B e a u t i f u l . M a c M i l l a n , 1924. i r s h a l l , H . R: M o o r e , T . S t u r g e : Munro e, Thomas: Ogden, O . K . & R i c h a r d s , I . A : Armour f o r A p h r o d i t e . Grant R i c h a r d s & Humphrey T o u l m i n , L o n d o n . 1929 . S c i e n t i f i c ^ Method i n A e t h e t i c s . W.W.Nor ton , New Y o r k . 1928. The Meaning o f M e a n i n g . Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r , L o n d o n . 1923, Ogden, C . K . , R i c h a r d s , I . A . & Wood, i j a s : The P o u n d a t i o n s o f A e s t h e t i c s . George A l l a n & U n w i n , L o n d o n . 1922 . - 1 3 / -R e a d , H e r b e r t : A r t Now; an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the t h e o r y of modern p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . Fabe r & F a b e r , London . 1933 . R e i d , L , A : A S tudy i n A e s t h e t i c s . George A l l e n & Unwin , L o n d o n . 1931 Ruhe, A l g o t & P a u l , Nancy M : H e n r i B e r g s o n ; an account o f h i s l i f e and p h i l o s o p h y . M a c M i l l a n , London . 1914. S m i t h , J . A : The N a t u r e o f A r t ; an open l e t t e r to the P r o f e s s o r o f P o e t r y i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , London . 1924 T u r q u e t - M i l n e s , G : From P a s c a l to P r o u s t ; s t u d i e s i n the gen -e a l o g y o f a p h i l o s o p h y . Jona thon G a p e , L o n d o n . 1926 . A r i s t o t e l i a n S o c i e t y s y m p o s i a , "Modern Tendenc ies i n P h i l o s o p h y . 1934 . H a r r i s o n & Sons , L o n d o n . NOTE: r e C r o c e ' s a e s t h e t i c : 1. The f o l l o w i n g i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f o o t n o t e appended by E . F . C a r r i t t to h i s i n v a l u a b l e P h i l o s o p h i e s o f B e a u t y ; " S i g n o r G r o c e , i n g e n e r o u s l y a l l o w i n g me to e x t r a c t f rom h i s w r i t i n g s a sked t h a t s t r e s s s h o u l d be l a i d on the B r e v i a r i o £ \ a s r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s mature r t h o u g h t , r a t h e r t h a n on the f u l l e r and more f u l l y a rgued E s t e t i c a ( 1 9 0 1 ) , and t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e a d i n the l i g h t o f h i s a r t i c l e on A e s t h e t i c s i n the 1 4 t h e d i t i o n o f the E n c y -c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a (1929) . I have f e l t bound to com-p l y . There i s a t r a n s l a t i o n o f the B r e v i a r i o by A i n s l i e ( E s s e n t i a l s o f A e s t h e t i c , 1921)" 2 . I t i s g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t A i n s l i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e c l u m s y , sometimes even to t h e p o i n t o f m i s c o n -s t r u i n g C r o c e ' s mean ing . -oOo-

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