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Caseworkers working with groups : a survey and assessment of casework agencies using groups of clients… Kerr, Ann 1963

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CASEWORKERS WORKING WITH GROUPS A Survey and Assessment of Casework Agencies Using Groups of C l i e n t s and R e l a t i v e s of C l i e n t s f o r Educational and Treatment Work, Greater Vancouver,  .by. -ANN MARGARET KERR -ELINOR MAY KIRKHAM  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree o f M a t e r of S o c i a l Work S  .School of S o c i a l Work  1963 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may granted by the Head of my Department or by his  be  representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  V^H  Is j 14  £j  \  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and m i s s i o n f o r extensive purposes may  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that per-  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  be granted by the Head of my Department or  his representatives.  I t i s understood that copying, or  by publi-  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Departme nt  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  huuy  7  f  / f 6 3  ABSTRACT  In many s o c i a l agencies today, caseworkers are working with groups of c l i e n t s or r e l a t i v e s o f c l i e n t s and there are increasing references to t h i s development i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The purpose of the present study was to discover? (a) the extent of the use o f such groups by caseworkers i n the Greater Vancouver Areaj (b) the admini s t r a t i v e p o l i c y on the subject; (c) the views and experience of supervisors i n the group method, including problems o f supervising caseworkers; (d) the experience and also the t r a i n i n g of caseworkers i n these groups. Questionnaires were u t i l i z e d to obtain most of the data. They were sent to the casework agencies of the Greater Vancouver Area, to the administrators of agencies with caseworkers using the group method, and to the supervisors of such caseworkers. An interview schedule was prepared to use i n interviews with caseworkers who were "change agents" i n a group. The evidence i s that increasing numbers o f s o c i a l workers i n the Greater Vancouver Area are working with groups of people rather than s i n g l y . The aclministrative l e v e l r e f l e c t s much uncert a i n t y about the appropriate p o l i c y to develop i n the use of group methods. Supervisors are on the whole not experienced i n this technique, and questions on how to supervise caseworkers working with groups need to be answered. Caseworkers are favorably impressed with the usefulness of groups as a way of helping c l i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s o f c l i e n t s , but most of them lack adequate t r a i n i n g i n group method. To improve services, there i s now a need f o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system of group services to be employed i n casework agencies, and there i s an urgent need f o r t r a i n i n g , probably with the a i d of Schools of S o c i a l Work Instructors, to help caseworkers become p r o f i c i e n t i n t h i s new development' of group method.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We w i s h t o e x p r e s s oux s i n c e r e t h a n k s M r . Benjamin Chud o f the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, h i s encouragement,  patience  the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s .  and a s s i s t a n c e  for  throughout  We a l s o w i s h t o thank  D r , Leonard M a r s h , D i r e c t o r o f R e s e a r c h o f the o f S o c i a l Work, f o r h i s h e l p w i t h the t e c h n i c a l o f the  to  School parts  thesis. We would l i k e t o express our  t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s  appreciation  and caseworkers  who s u p p l i e d the i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h made t h i s possible.  study  i, TABLE O F CONTENTS  Chapter  I.  S s m c e Through, t h e U$e pf Gypu,p$  m QqfiewprK  Agencies The G r o w t h o f I n t e r e s t i n G r o u p s a s a M e d i u m o f C h a n g e The U s e o f G r o u p s i n C a s e w o r k A g e n c i e s . P u r p o s e , S c o p e and Methodc  >.........••.....<  C h a p t e r 2.  Agency  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and S u p e r v i s o r s  Agencies Using Group Methods. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e Administrator. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e S u p e r v i s o r . •„.•••....  C h a p t e r 3.  The Caseworkers  and T h e i r G r o u p s  Group Educations S o c i a l Group Treatment. Group Psychotherapy. Overview o f t h e Subject Groups. The Caseworkers. ............*«...».............*•.««................  C h a p t e r 4.  13.  Summary and F i n d i n g s .  32.  Implications for Practice.  D e v e l o p m e n t and G r o w t h i n t h e U s e o f t h e G r o u p M e t h o d . C a s e w o r k e r s and T h e i r S u p e r v i s o r s . Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l W o r k E d u c a t i o n . Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e . Suggestions f o r Further Study. .,*•«  55.  Appendices: Appendix A 1. 2. 3. B. C. D.  -  Questionnaires Casework Agencies A d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f Casework Agencies S u p e r v i s o r s i n Casework Agencies I n t e r v i e w Schedule f o r Caseworkers Seven Elements o f Group Process Bibliography  T A B L E S I N THE TEXT  Table  1.  T a b l e 2. Table  3.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Type o f Agency  14.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Type o f S e r v i c e  15.  U s e o f M e t h o d and R a t e o f I n c r e a s e  Method  i n Use o f  .............................................a  25.  ii.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  (continued)  Page Table  The Number o f A g e n c i e s W o r k i n g W i t h G r o u p s S i n c e November 1, 1959* •••••.a........««.«,*••'.«••••"  4.  Table  5.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f G r o u p s by R e s p o n d e n t s .  Table  6.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f G r o u p s by R e s p o n d e n t s and R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Groups Based on K l e i n ' s Typology • .  38.  Frequency of Group Meeting of the E d u c a t i o n and T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s . ••••••.••••••••••••••.«•••••••  39.  Number o f Members i n t h e E d u c a t i o n and Treatment Groups.  40.  Type o f Formed.  43  Table  Table  Table  7, . 0  8.  9.  T a b l e 10.  .  26. ^ 34  Problems Around which Groups were . . . . . o ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . «>. . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . » • « . .  Assessment  o f G r o u p Members P r i o r  to  J o i n i n g the Group. Table  11.  44.  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work D e g r e e s H e l d Respondents.  a  by  ....... ...... a  •  •  47.  Table  12.  R e a d i n g A b o u t G r o u p s Done by R e s p o n d e n t s .  ..........  48.  Table  13.  How t h e R e s p o n d e n t s S t a r t e d t o Work W i t h Groups. •••••••••••.•••••••••«.•••.•  •••••••••  50.  Table  14.  E l e m e n t s o f G r o u p P r o c e s s M e n t i o n e d by Workers.  53.  CASEWORKERS WORKING WITH GROUPS  CHAPTER 1  SERVICE THROUGH THE USE OF GROUPS IN CASEWORK AGENCIES  Casework and group work have been the two major s o c i a l work s p e c i a l t i e s f o r over three decades.  An observant reader o f  s o c i a l work j o u r n a l s w i l l have noticed that there are i n c r e a s i n g reports o f caseworkers working with groups o f c l i e n t s and r e l atives of c l i e n t s .  An e a r l y example (1956) from the Canadian  j o u r n a l . The S o c i a l WorkerA i s e n t i t l e d Casework i n a Group S e t t i n g With Wives o f A l c o h o l i c s . The w r i t e r , Margaret Cork, a caseworker i n Toronto with the Alcoholism Research Foundation, stated that i t .... was recognized that often the s t a b i l i t y o f the home can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected i f the wife i s helped, regardless o f whether or not the husband i s s t i l l d r i n k i n g , and that t h i s i s often a r e a l f a c t o r i n the a l c o h o l i c s own a t t i t u d e towards seeking help. Implementation of t h i s part o f our program brought evidence that, not only would i t be possible t o meet the demand f o r i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e , but that i n d i v i d u a l casework d i d not meet the needs o f a large number o f wives. These would seem t o be mainly those whose defences were stronger than usual against recognizing t h e i r own part i n the m a r i t a l malajustment and who were unable or unready to form an i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p whose p r i n c i p a l goal would be self-understanding  .and adjustment to r e a l i t y * Thus we s e t upon a method o f helping those i n d i v i d u a l s i n a group, which was neither group work nor group therapy^ though i t had i n i t components o f botb.,1 Margaret Cork decided t o work with a group o f nine wives on a weekly b a s i s *  As a r e s u l t o f the group approach, the women q u i c k l y  i d e n t i f i e d with each other and were able to discuss t h e i r problems and feelingse  The r e s u l t s were apparently more productive than  working on a one-to-one b a s i s : Not only was the wife helped but the gains were great f o r other members o f the f a m i l y , f o r the a l c o h o l i c i n treatment, f o r the a l c o h o l i c s t i l l r e s i s t a n t t o treatment and, above a l l , f o r the c h i l d r e n 2 e  Since 1956 an increasing number of a r t i c l e s by caseworkers have appeared i n both Canadian and American j o u r n a l s , about work with groups o f c l i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s o f clients,.  As t h i s study  shows,there has been a growing movement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n on the part o f casework agencies i n the Greater Vancouver area which has not y e t been recorded i n s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e * ,  This study  w i l l also b r i e f l y trace the developing i n t e r e s t i n groops as a  A Cork, B. Margaret, "Casework i n a Group S e t t i n g With , Wives o f Alcoholics'", The S o c i a l Worker, February 1956, Volume 24, Number 3, p 1, The t i t l e o f t h i s a r t i c l e i n d i c a t e s some o f the confusion i n t h i s field© Margaret Cork was working with a group i n a casework setting,, She was not doing casework i n a group setting,, 0  2  I b i d , , p, 6,  medium of change i n North America*  The bulk of the work i n t h i s  area has taken place i n the United States* so the m a j o r i t y o f our sources are from American p u b l i c a t i o n s * The Growth of I n t e r e s t i n Groups as a Medium of Change A l l human beings are born i n t o a group, the f a m i l y . educated i n groups, play i n groups and work i n groups,,  They are Michael S,  Olmsted w r i t e s that a group may be defined "as a p l u r a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s who are i n contact w i t h one another, who take one another i n t o account, and who are aware of some s i g n i f i c a n t commonality",1 I t i s through groups that people achieve s o c i a l and personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , that s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l norms are changed, that s o c i e t y maintains i t s c o n t r o l s , and through which s o c i e t y passes on i t s values, customs and norms,2 I t has been observed many times that s o c i a l catastrophes such as wars and depressions break and s c a t t e r f a m i l i e s , s m a l l communit i e s and other s o c i a l groupings.  The mass migration of m i l l i o n s  of farm f a m i l i e s to the c i t y has also broken group t i e s .  I n speak-  ing about American urbanization i n t h i s century, Raymond C o r s i n i says:  1  Olmsted, Michael S„, The Small Group. Random House, New York, p. 21.  2  Wilson, Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys, S o c i a l Group Work. Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n and Co, 1949, p. 36.  - 4 -  there seems to be no question that s o c i e t y i n i i t s development has i s o l a t e d people from one another. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , increases o f communication and of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n appear to decrease intimacy of relationship,1 The consequence of such upheaval i s that countless i n d i v i d u a l s have l o s t t h e i r sense of belonging,  and also have t o contend with a  r i s i n g t i d e of psychological i l l n e s s e s s and s o c i a l problems.  The .  very f a c t that many people have shattered t h e i r t i e s , or have only tenuous ones, has helped to focus the a t t e n t i o n of researchers on the meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the "small group" experience f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . The roots o f the contemporary i n t e r e s t i n the small group as a medium of change are found i n s e v e r a l sources. 'a  I n s i g h t and know-  ledge were derived from the s o c i a l and behavioral sciences, and from accumulated experience i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . 2  Psychia-  t r i s t s , psychologists, s o c i a l workers, anthropologists, s o c i o l o g i s t s and educators have influenced, and been influenced by each others experiments and observations, Joseph H. P r a t t , a Boston I n t e r n i s t , was one of the f i r s t  1  C o r s i n i , Raymond J . , Methods of Group Psychotherapy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York, Toronto, London, 1957, p. 7.  2  Logan, J u a n i t a Luck, " S o c i a l Group Work", S o c i a l Work Year Book. (New York; R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1960) p. 544.  people on this continent tp use the group deliberately as a medium of (Change, In 1905, he organized special classes for tubercular, heart and diabetic patients.. He noted that the beneficial influence that one patient had on another in the group helped to speed recovery.1 Before World War I, social workers helped groups and individuals without worrying about whether they were doing "group work" or "casework",, " Their focus was on problems of people and their external causes, much more than upon structures and methods of serving people".2 As early as. 1909, Hull House had a successful group for young drug addicts, and Hull House Workers also experimented with group housing projects for the mentally ill..3  The terms "group work" and "group worker"  came into use in the 1920's to delineate people who had leadership responsibility within such agencies as the "Y" and settlement houses. The work of social worker Mary P. Follet in the dynamics of group process, created in these agencies interest in the discussion method as a means of encouraging and stimulating democratic group procedures.  In 1923 for the  f i r s t time, a school of social work started a course in the groupiimethbd,  4  1  Sheidlinger, Saul, "Group Psychotherapy", Social Work Year Book. (New York; Russell Sage, 1955) p. 242.  2  Wilson, Gertrude, "The Use of Group Method in the Practice of Social Casework", Tulane School of Social Work Workshop, p. 13.  3  Coyle, Grace L., "Group Work in Psychiatric Settings; Its Roots and Branches", Use of Group in the Psychiatric Setting;. National Association of Social Workers, New York, p, 12.  4  School of Applied Social Sciences, Western Reserve "~ University.  The terra " s o c i a l group work" came i n t o use i n the e a r l y 1930 s t o 8  d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the s o c i a l casework method.  I n the 30's, group  workers assimilated some u s e f u l ideas about groups from the educators Helen Northen w r i t e s that a group worker "bases h i s a c t i v i t i e s on the philosophy goals, body o f knowledge, and p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s that comprise the profession of s o c i a l work, and s p e c i a l knowledge and s k i l l s i n use o f groups as a u n i t of s o c i a l service",1 While group workers were amassing knowledge and experience of groups ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e i s u r e time group), and s o r t i n g out t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s o c i a l work profession i n the 30's, a Vienna p s y c h i a t r i s t c a l l e d Jacob Merene appeared on the American scene  s  He s t a r t e d an impromptu theatre f o r patients with mental d i s o r d e r s . He also developed sociometric a n a l y t i c a l techniques, and applied them to " n a t u r a l " groupings as widely diverse as Sing Sing P r i s o n , and the New York Training School f o r G i r l s ,  His a c t i v i t i e s sparked  a conference on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the group method to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f prisoners, reported on at the 1935 meeting of the American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n ,  S o c i a l workers, as w e l l as psy-  c h i a t r i s t s , were present at what turned out t o be the f i r s t organized meeting on the group method i n treatment i n North America,2  l ' Northen, 2  Moremo ,  Helen, " I n t e r r e l a t e d Functions o f the S o c i a l Group Workers", S o c i a l Work. A p r i l 1957, p„ 438  0  J»L , "Origins and Developement o f Group Psychother apy", Group Psychotherapy. A symposium edited by J,L, Morene, M,D,, Beacon House, New York, 1946. p. 263, 0  7  At about the same time that Moreno began h i s work i n America, S. R, Slavson developed a method known as " a c t i v i t y group therapy" to be used i n the treatment o f emotionally disturbed c h i l d r e n .  He  drew upon s o c i a l group work method, and he was c l o s e l y associated w i t h s o c i a l workers at the Jewish Board o f Guardians C h i l d Guidance Clinic,  He trained i n d i v i d u a l s from s e v e r a l professions t p be  t h e r a p i s t s , among them, caseworkers,  Joyce K l e i n w r i t e s that " h i s  program can be regarded as one of the d e f i n i t e beginnings of the use of the caseworker as the change agent i n treatment groups",* Both Jacob Morene and S. R, Slavson were instrumental i n developing the treatment method known as "group psychotherapy",2 This method has been defined by S a u l S h e i d l i n g e r as a "psychologi c a l process wherein a trained s p e c i a l i s t u t i l i z e s the emotional i n t e r a c t i o n produced i n s m a l l , e s p e c i a l l y planned groups t o e f f e c t r e p a i r of personality malformation i n i n d i v i d u a l s c a r e f u l l y s e l e c ted f o r t h i s purpose",^  S h e i d l i n g e r goes on to say that the group  therapy p r a c t i t i o n e r s come, i n general, from the three r e l a t e d f i e l d s of psychiatry, psychology and s o c i a l work,4 i t i s not  1  K l e i n , Joyce Gale, Adult Education and Treatment Groups i a S o c i a l Agencies. The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America Press, Washington, D, C,, p, 34,  2  Morene i s credited w i t h being the f i r s t person to use t h i s term,  3  S h e i d l i n g e r , op. c i t . p, 242,  4  I b i d . , p, 245,  uncommon f o r caseworkers c l o s e l y associated with psychotherapists, to become involved i n working with a group of p a t i e n t s , o f t e n i n the r o l e of observer-recorder.  Although group psychotherapy was used by a  number of p r a c t i c i o n e r s i n the 30*$, i t was a minor stream i n the main current of i n d i v i d u a l l y : o r i e n t e d theurapeutic  activity.  World War I I brought m i l l i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o close contact with each other i n the Armed Forces.  Research p r o j e c t s on the small  group mushroomed, and much o f our knowledge stems from t h i s wartime activity. In order to cope with the great numbers of psychological  dis-  orders suffered by members of the f o r c e s , group methods of treatment were brought i n t o use.  General Marshall approved a program f o r army  p s y c h i a t r i s t s to s t a r t t r e a t i n g s o l d i e r s i n groups.  These groups  proved to be so s u c c e s s f u l that Veterans Hospitals became leaders i n t h i s f i e l d a f t e r the war.  A key research project i n group p s y c h o -  therapy was financed by the U. S,  Veterans Administration and was  c a r r i e d out by the Washington School of P s y c h i a t r y .  The research  conducted by p s y c h i a t r i s t s , psychologists and s o c i a l workers.*  was  In  the 40*s a u n i t of U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g group work students were  1  Powdermaker, Florence B. and Frank, Psychotherapy. Report of a research project o f the U. i a t i o n . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Cambridge, Mass., 1953.  Jerome D„, Group group psychotherapy S. Veterans AssocPress,  t r a i n e d i n the Veterans H o s p i t a l at Aspinwall.  At about the same  time group workers became active i n the psychiatric, wards of C r i l e Veterans H o s p i t a l , The Use of Groups i n Casework Agencies In the l a s t decade, s t a f f shortages and large numbers of c l i e n t s have l e d some c h i l d welfare agencies to e s t a b l i s h pre-intake groups for f o s t e r parents and adoptive parents. Their purpose i s to help the c l i e n t decide whether or not he wants to make a formal a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the  agency s e r v i c e s . According to Joyce K l e i n , caseworkers were working with t r e a t -  ment and c o u n s e l l i n g groups i n the 30 s and 40*s, but reports of these s  experiments were not published,* A r t i c l e s by caseworkers about these kinds of groups began to be published i n s o c i a l work j o u r n a l s i n the e a r l y 50*s,  The f i r s t reports showed l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n of the use of  group process, or of s k i l l s needed i n addition to casework  skills.  Current a r t i c l e s show a more.sophisticated knowledge and understanding of group process, and of the r o l e of the change agent i n the group. Group treatment programs have been developed more rapidlyyby caseworkers i n p s y c h i a t r i c s e t t i n g s , than by caseworkers i n other agencies. Perhaps the reason f o r t h i s i s t h e i r close contacts with p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists working w i t h groups of p a t i e n t s . There have been f i v e a r t i c l e s by caseworkers about groups, published between 1948-1962, i n Canadian Welfare and the Canadian Journal, The S o c i a l Worker., We have already r e f e r r e d t o the a r t i c l e w r i t t e n i n 1956 about a group of wives of a l c o h o l i c s ,  1  K l e i n , op. c i t , . . 35.  2  Cork, R„ Margaret, op  p  B  cit.  2  The only Canadian Welfare a r t i c l e about t h i s t o p i c appeared i n 1957, and described group a c t i v i t y f o r unmarried mothers,,  I n 1958,  The S o c i a l Worker published an a r t i c l e about work with groups i n psychiatric c l i n i c s .  I n 1961, the same j o u r n a l had an a r t i c l e about  a c t i v i t y group therapy i n a c h i l d r e n ' s outpatient department. F i n a l l y , i n 1962, a report appeared on an experiment w i t h a group o f seizure patients.  K l e i n found sixty-one a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by case-  workers on working w i t h treatment groups between 1948 and 1959, when she searched s i x major s o c i a l work j o u r n a l s published i n the United S t a t e s . In her d o c t o r a l t h e s i s on caseworkers working w i t h treatment and educational groups o f c l i e n t s , Joyce K l e i n concluded that there i s a vigorous movement underway among s o c i a l workers t o apply knowledge and techniques from the two s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s , casework and group work.* Purpose. Scope and Method The purpose o f t h i s study was to enquire i n t o : (a)  The extent t o which caseworkers are working with groupsc of  c l i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s of clients,, (b)  The extent t o which voluntary agencies and government  agencies are involved i n t h i s movements (c)  The kinds o f s e t t i n g s i n which these groups are found.  (d)  The agency p o l i c y regarding the use o f these groups,  (e)  The reasons caseworkers begin t o work w i t h groups, instead  of using the t r a d i t i o n a l one-to-one interview method.  1  K l e i n , op, c i t , ,  P o  l 5 7 #  ~ 11 -  (f)  The supervision received by caseworkers working with  groups,  ••  (g)  The caseworkers' preparation f o r work with groups*  lb)  The c r i t e r i a f o r member s e l e c t i o n s  (i)  Some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work education*  (j)  Some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r casework agencies planning t o  use the group method* The scope o f the study was l i m i t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g : (1)  Eighty-two casework agencies i n the Greater Vancouver  area were studied** (2)  Education and treatment groups were studied*  Family  interviews were not included* (3)  Only such agencies which used groups since November 1,  1959 were studied* (4)  The caseworker and h i s experience with a group o f c l i e n t s ,  or r e l a t i v e s o f c l i e n t s , were studied*  There was no attempt t o  question the group members, nor to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the caseworker as a change;agent i n the group* In order t o f u l f i l l the stated purposes w i t h i n the scope o f  !•  A l l agencies l i s t e d i n the Directory o f S e r v i c e s . prepared and issued by the Community Chest and C o u c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver area, 1962 were contacted, except those l i s t e d under " r e c r e a t i o n " and "education" headings* This eliminated the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l group work s e t t i n g s *  \  - 12 -  of the study, the f o l l o w i n g methods of s o c i a l work research were used: (1)  The two Canadian s o c i a l work j o u r n a l s going back to 1948,  were searched t o discover what had been reported by caseworkers working w i t h groups of c l i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s o f c l i e n t s . (2)  Questionnaires were sent to administrators o f the e i g h t y -  two agencies previously mentioned, to f i n d out how many o f them employed caseworkers working w i t h groups. (3)  A second questionnaire was then sent t o a l l agency admin-  i s t r a t o r s who had answered that they had caseworkers working w i t h groups, t o discover the agency p o l i c y i n regard t o groups. (4)  Questionnaires were sent to the supervisors of the case-  workers working with groups, to f i n d out what kind o f s u p e r v i s i o n was being given to these caseworkers. (5)  With the permission of the supervisors, twelve a v a i l -  able caseworkers were interviewed.  An i n t e r v i e w schedule was  prepared f o r t h i s purpose, and i t was tested before i t was used.  CHAPTER 2  THE ADMINISTRATOR AND THE SUPERVISOR OF CASEWORK AGENCIES  QUESTIONNAIRE NO. 1 Some Duties and Functions o f an Administrator I t can be assumed that at the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l o f an agency, p o l i c i e s and procedures w i l l be c l e a r l y defined and that the administ r a t o r w i l l have an awareness o f the p o l i c i e s and goals o f h i s agency* Inasmuch as working with groups by caseworkers  i s one method employed  to a t t a i n these goals, i t would be expected that administrators would f i n d themselves prepared t o answer p o l i c y questions r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the matter o f caseworkers working w i t h groups. Two questionnaires r e f e r r i n g to matters of p o l i c y and goals were d i r e c t e d to agency administrators* The f i r s t contained q u a n t i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l ; the second contained q u a l i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l * Rate of Agency P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Questionnaire No, 1 From the questionnaire sent t o eighty-two agency administrators i n the Metropolitan Vancouver area, we s p e c i f i c a l l y wanted t o d e t e r mine i f the administrators of these agencies had employed  caseworkers  working with groups i n the past three years (since November 1959) and whether or not they w i l l use t h i s method i n the next year or two* See Questionnaire No* 1 (Appendix No* 1)* Sixty-seven agencies r e s ponded.  Twenty-eight  or 34*14% s a i d that they had employed case-  workers working with groups i n the past three years*  Ten, or 12*19%  of the agencies reported that they intended t o use t h i s method i n the next year or two  0  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Use of the Method According to Type of Agency The eighty-two agencies have been c l a s s i f i e d (see Table 1) as f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , municipal, voluntary and p r i v a t e .  Our f i n d i n g s  are tabulated below. Table No. 1:  J  Type of Agency  P a r t i c i p a t i o n According to Type of Agency  Agencies Work)no with GrouDS Past 3 years Next 2 years  Agencies Canvassed Nib. & N - 82  Federal Provincial Municipal Voluntary Private Total  5 22 17 33 5  6.00 27.00 21.00 40.00 6.00  82  100.00  &  1 12 3 12  20.00 55.00 18.00 43.00  1 3 3 3  20.00 14.00 18.00 9.00  M i Mi  28  10  i  Although i t has been t r a d i t i o n a l i n s o c i a l work f o r voluntary agencies to provide leadership i n developing and i n experimenting w i t h new methods of meeting needs. Table No. 1 i n d i c a t e s that i n the matter of caseworkers working with groups i t has been the p r o v i n c i a l agencies which have provided leadership i n the past three years.  The t a b l e i n -  dicates also that i n the next three years the voluntary agencies w i l l f a l l s t i l l f a r t h e r behind.  The matter of leadership w i l l be explored  further i n Chapter 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Use of the Method According to Type of S e r v i c e The eighty-two agencies have been f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d (See  15 Table 2) as to type of s e r v i c e as s e t up by the Community Information Directory. Table No. 2:  P a r t i c i p a t i o n According t o Type of S e r v i c e  Type of Agency Service  No. Agencies Canvassed N - 82  Agencies Working w i t h Groups Next 3 years Past 3 years No. % No* %  Services f o r Families & Individuals  16  3  19.00  3  19.00  Services f o r D e l i n quents & Offenders  U  4  36.00  3  27.00  1 2  10.00 12.50  1  -  11 16  10 2  90.00 12.50  S p e c i a l Voluntary Services  21  8  38.00  Services f o r Aged  1  -  Services f o r C h i l d r e n  2  -  P r i v a t e Residences f o r Children  2  Special Services f o r Children  1  Vocational Guidance & Employment Health S e r v i c e s : (a) Mental Health (b) Other  Total  82  mm  28  —  5 Q,f 00 —  mm  as WINN  mm-  MM*  -  —  —  10  —  Table No. 2 shows that i t i s Mental Health agencies and those o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n who use the method of caseworkers working, with groups most e x t e n s i v e l y .  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Services to C h i l d -  ren would have shown one hundred percent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the method, had the reply from one o f the two agencies canvassed been received i n time f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study.  m  16 -  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Services f o r Delinquents and Offenders i n d i c a t e s a high p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e out,  D  (See Appendix No. 2 ) .  I t turned  however, that three of the four agencies who s a i d they had been  working w i t h groups were i n f a c t t a l k i n g about group workers working with groups and not caseworkers  0  I t may be that t h i s confusion i s r e -  f l e c t e d i n t h e i r statements about p o t e n t i a l use o f the method. Summary of Findings (1)  34.14% of agencies canvassed say that they employ case-  workers working with groups.  12.19% say they w i l l be, i n the next  year or two. (2)  Leadership i n the f i e l d f o r the employment of t h i s method  comes from p r o v i n c i a l agencies and s p e c i f i c a l l y from the f i e l d of mental health. QUESTIONNAIRE NO. 2. P a r t i c i p a t i o n bv the Administrator Questionnaire No. 2 was addressed to the administrator of the twenty-eight agencies that s a i d they were using caseworkers working with groups i n the past three years. We have assumed that agency adm i n i s t r a t o r s would be concerned w i t h the "means" by which the goals of an agency were achieved and the f i r s t three questions asked about the "means". S p e c i f i c a l l y , we asked the administrators f o r : (1) (2) (3)  t h e i r reasons f o r s t a r t i n g groups t h e i r reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g the caseworker t h e i r reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g the supervisor  The l a s t question asks i f the program o f caseworkers working with  17 -  groups was evaluated  and i f so, d i d t h i s lead to an administrative d e c i -  s i o n to continue the program, to abandon i t , to expand i t , and/or to modify i t . There were r e p l i e s to twenty-four of the twenty-eight questionnaires.  One-third of these came d i r e c t l y from administrators and  two-  t h i r d s came from some functionary i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e department of the agency, h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as non-administrators.  A review of  agency s t r u c t u r e i n d i c a t e d , i n a l l cases but one r e p l i e s received from non-administrators  came from m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n e s e t t i n g s .  from a non-administrator  The other r e p l y  was from a large organization whose f u n c t i o n i s  to provide s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s but whose s i z e and Complexity r e s u l t i n departmentalization,, Administrative Reason f o r s t a r t i n g Groups and  Findings  From question 1 we hoped to f i n d out from the administrator i f he had made a d e c i s i o n to employ t h i s method because he thought: (a)  the method might be more e f f e c t i v e than the casework method?  (b)  that a combination of the two methods might be more e f f e c t i v e ?  (c)  that more c l i e n t s might be served?  This kind of d e c i s i o n making involves a comparison of the merits of the two major methods i n s o c i a l work. Only one of the s i x r e p l i e s that came d i r e c t l y from the administ r a t o r s r e f l e c t e d a d e c i s i o n based on the above mentioned f a c t o r . remarks of t h i s administrator are highly r e l e v a n t . as f o l l o w s :  The  He gives h i s reasons  « 18  "To t e s t f o r any therapeutic advantages over^ the one-to-one method. To t e s t f o r any administrative advantages i n the l i g h t of excessive demand f o r s e r v i c e s and inadequate resources to meet such"? Five respondents gave answers that r e f l e c t e d a mixture of goals f o r the group as w e l l as agency p o l i c y i n a comparison of the methods,,  An  ex-  ample of t h i s type of response i s quoted i n f u l l : " I t was our opinion that a number of f a m i l i e s were presenting problems i n the area of communication among themselves. We f e l t we could be of help to them through the group method. In addition i n our work with c h i l d r e n we found that problems r e l a t i n g to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r peers could be more e f f e c t i v e l y handled i n group sessions." Some saw the method as being a u s e f u l adjunct to the casework method, A representative sampling of the r e p l i e s of the w i l l also be reviewed,,  Two  non-administrators  agencies simply stated that they had been  approached by s p e c i f i c caseworkers i n the agency to employ t h i s method. One  administrator had stimulated the caseworker to t r y t h i s method.  other non-administrator venient way  reported that t h i s method was "...  of dealing with problems".  saw the method as being fashionables  An-  the most con-  Three r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d that they A sample of t h i s type of answer i s  given i n part: "Group work i n c o r r e c t i o n s i s an accepted process i n progressive i n s t i t u t i o n s . " The other t h i r t y - e i g h t answers that we received have been c l a s s i f i e d a t y p i c a l example of the r e p l i e s i s given i n three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : 1.  Help to I n d i v i d u a l s : This category accounted f o r twenty-four answers,, Most of them r e f e r to the  and  -19 -  g r o u p m e t h o d as b e i n g h e l p f u l i n i m p r o v i n g t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l . e,g. f a c i l i t a t e s development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s i n p a t i e n t , c a n be s u p p o r t i v e , can provide i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e t c , " Some saw i t as a way o f i m p r o v i n g t h e d i a g n o s t i c and t r e a t m e n t s k i l l s o f t h e w o r k e r , 2.  Help to F a m i l i e s or R e l a t i v e s of C l i e n t s : This category accounted f o r e l e v e n answers. They saw t h e g o a l s o f t h e g r o u p t o be t o i n c r e a s e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g t h r o u g h a s h a r i n g o f p r o b l e m s and e x p e r i e n c e s ; a i d i n g f a m i l y c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; and for parent eduacation, e g " G r o u p w o r k w a s as a way i n w h i c h ( a ) r e l a t i v e s o f p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s and (b) mothers o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g s p e a c h t h e r a p y c o u l d s h a r e t h e i r p r o b l e m s and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , work t h r o u g h t h e i r feelings, with professional leadership." 0  3.  o  H e l p t o People i n the Community: T h i s c a t e g o r y accounted f o r three answers. These groups are f o r m e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f l a y and professional groups, e g. " . . . the e x t e n t o f our group work i s c o n f i n e d , g e n e r a l l y , t o community g r o u p s . For i n s t a n c e , a meeting w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s once a y e a r , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s o n s p e c i f i c problems . . „ < , " 0  Findings When t h e r e a s o n s started  are set  out  t o e m p l o y t h i s m e t h o d we f i n d  four respondents major methods. the goals  gives  an a n s w e r  that  A f e w make d e c i s i o n s  as t o why t h e  administrators  t h a t o n l y one o f t h e involves that  a comparison of  confuse  agency  of the group w h i l e the g r e a t e s t m a j o r i t y of  ignore decisions  that  the goals  group.  of  the  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reasons  reflect  agency  the  policy with  administrators  p o l i c y but i n s t e a d t a l k  for Selection of  Q u e s t i o n 2 asks the  twenty-  about  Caseworker  a d m i n i s t r a t o r i f t h e r e were  any  special  - 20 -  .reasons f o r . t h e s e l e c t i o n o f the caseworker  t o work w i t h g r o u p s  a s e l e c t i o n w o u l d be p r e d i c a t e d o n a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s k i l l s caseworker  and h i s c a p a c i t y  t o work w i t h  Such  0  of  the  groups,,  Nineteen of the twenty-fpur respondents s a i d that there special-reasons plied  f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the caseworker  t h a t t h e r e w e r e no s p e c i a l r e a s o n s  twenty-nine  were  F i v e o f them r e -  e  for the selection,.  There were  a n s w e r s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and t h e s p e c i a l r e a s o n s t h a t  have g i v e n are  they  classified©  S p e c i a l R e a s o n s f o r t h e S e l e c t i o n o f P e r s o n n e l and F i n d i n g s (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  S p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n working w i t h groups S p e c i a l experience working w i t h groups S p e c i a l knowledge w o r k i n g w i t h groups S p e c i a l s k i l l s working w i t h groups a p a r t i c u l a r group S p e c i a l t r a i n i n g working w i t h groups Demonstrated s k i l l i n casework p r a c t i c e  10 5 2 1  answers  2 JL  " "  M  " "  21 E i g h t o t h e r r e a s o n s g i v e n by n o n - a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e t h a t c a s e w o r k e r was selected  attached to  a s p e c i f i c ward o r u n i t ;  o r t h a t he was  as a m a t t e r o f " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n v e n i e n c e " ;  "selected  by t h e  (b)  o r he was  administrator"»  Q u e s t i o n 3 h a s two (a)  the  parts:  D i d t h e c a s e w o r k e r w o r k i n g w i t h g r o u p s have t h e b e n e f i t o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and i f s o , On w h a t b a s i s d i d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e l e c t t h e supervisor?  The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r s w o r k i n g w i t h g r o u p s h a d no s u p e r v i s i o n a t  all«  Twelve o f the respondents  ind-  icated that  t h e s u p e r v i s o r f o r t h e c a s e w o r k e r was t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l  supervisor;  i n t h r e e cases the d e p a r t m e n t a l s u p e r v i s o r s were the  persons  * 21 -  working with the groups; two respondents indicated that they had "no choice" in the selection of the supervisor; three supervisors had the services of a group work consultant; and one supervisor of the caseworker working with groups was a group worker.  Three answers refer  to the special qualities of the supervisor, i«,e his formal education, 0  training, and experiences We found that the dominant reason given for selecting the caseworker working with groups was some special interest, experience, knowledge, s k i l l , and/or training  e  We note, however, that the res-  pondents have failed to relate these qualities to specific elements in the group process,, By constrast, the supervisor i s selected by the administrator predominantly for reasons related to the administrative structure of the organization.  It may be that the capacities of the supervisor to  help the caseworker working with groups i s taken for granted as being inherent in the position  0  But, again, we note the lack of any spec-  i f i c reference to knowledge of group processes* From the replies to the questionnaires i t would appear that agency policy regarding the employment of this method was not clearly set forth and that the selection of personnel was not clearly thought through. Evaluation 9* Program Question 4 asks the administrator i f he has evaluated the program of caseworkers working with groups; i f so, did the evaluation result in any program changes; and, i f so, what form did the changes take.  - 22 -  (a)  Criteria for Evaluation  No definitive c r i t e r i a exist* for evaluating the program nor was a specific c r i t e r i a spelled out in the questionnaire. Processing of Data Seven of the twenty-four respondents said that they had made no evaluation of their programs  They gave 8 answers for not doing so  and their answers have been classified as follows: 3 answers - the program i s too new to evaluate 1 " the program i s too old to evaluate 3 - no formal evaluation has taken place 1 " - "not yet". M  Five of the respondents who say that they have made no evalution also say they have made no change in their program. Two of them, however, do make decisions about changing their program. We think their remarks are highly significant to the findings in this section and we quote their remarks i n f u l l : Program too new to assess from a research point of view. However, subjective assessment would seem to support continuation and even expansion of group program involvement by caseworkers. This group has been functioning for over twelve years with the parents moving out of the group when their child starts to school and new parents entering the group whenever they are ready. One respondent said that the program was subject to an "on-going" evaluation but this led to no change in programming. Sixteen respondents said they did evaluate their program but three of these reported that their evaluation led to no change.  m  23 *"  These t h i r t e e n respondents, together with the two respondents who s a i d they had not evaluated but who made p o l i c y decisions about t h e i r programs, gave twenty-one answers. They are c l a s s i f i e d as follows: 4 answers - the agency decided t o continue the group 4 " - the agency decided t o expand the number o f groups 3 * - the agency decided t o expand the t r a i n i n g program f o r caseworkers working w i t h groups 3 " - the agency decided t o expand the use o f family interviewing technique 1 " - the agency decided t o make changes i n procedures regarding the organization of subsequent groups The t h i r t e e n respondents also gave s i x answers that r e f l e c t e d decisions about the group rather than the p o l i c y o f the agency.  They made minor  changes r e l a t e d t o the time o f the group meeting, composition of the group, choice of room and f u r n i t u r e , e t c . The answers t o t h i s s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between evaluating the program and the p o l i c y d e c i s i o n t o continue, t o expand, t o abandon, and/or to modify the program. While most o f the respondents say that they do evaluate and that t h i s leads to p o l i c y changes some who evaluate make no p o l i c y changes.  Sometimes  the p o l i c y decisions are confused with the goals o f the group. Of those who do not evaluate most o f them make no p o l i c y changes but some of them do. Summary o f Findings of Administrative Function The employment of caseworkers working with groups as a means of meeting defined goals oi an agency should be a r e f l e c t i o n i n policy-making at the administrative l e v e l .  Our f i n d i n g s suggest that  - 24 -  such i s not the case. -CD  We have found t h a t :  Administrators have l a r g e l y confused agency p o l i c y with the goals o f the group.  (2)  Administrators .are, on the whole, making p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s p r i m a r i l y based on s u b j e c t i v e opinion rather than on objective evaluation.  (3)  Administrators are only minimally involved i n the development o f t h i s method i n t h e i r agencies.  t  QUESTIONNAIRE NO. 3 The Supervisors of an Agency: Some Duties and Functions o f a Supervisor The employment of the method of caseworkers working with groups w i t h i n an agency a f f e c t s the supervisor of the caseworker employing that method.  We believe the use of the method a f f e c t s the supervisor  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the area of her teaching f u n c t i o n . ing  To f u l f i l the teach-  f u n c t i o n i n the employment o f t h i s method we believe the supervisor  would i d e a l l y have: (a)  knowledge i n the processes o f group dynamics ( t h e o r e t i c a l  (b)  p r a c t i c e i n the s k i l l s  training) o f applying the method under super-  vision (practical training) Secondly, we believe that a d i f f e r e n t i a l type o f recording would f a c ilitate  the teaching f u n c t i o n of the supervisor.  We would expect that  a separate f i l e would be kept o f the group and that a summary o f the movement of the individual-in-the-group would be placed p e r i o d i c a l l y i n the case f i l e of the i n d i v i d u a l .  — 25 —  Numbers of Supervisors P a r t i c i p a t i n g The administrators gave us the names of twenty-nine i n d i v i d u a l s who were supervising caseworkers working w i t h groups. was sent t o them.  Questionnaire 3  (See App. No. 3 ) . Thirteen r e p l i e s representing  eleven agencies, were received^  One o f these was a p s y c h i a t r i s t and  not a caseworker as observer-recorder f o r the group and t h i s group was eventually studied at the caseworker l e v e l . Development of the Dse of the Group Method Question No. 1 addressed t o the supervisors was an attempt t o ascertain when the agency s t a r t e d t o use the method of caseworkers working w i t h groups.  The r e p l i e s of the t h i r t e e n respondents have  been c l a s s i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e which shows the extent t o which t h i s method has been used and the rate of increase i n the use o f the method since before 1950: Table No. 3«  Dse of Method and Rate of Increase i n Dse o f Method  (  Time I n t e r v a l  Use o f Method Np, p f No„ pf Agencies Groups  Rate of Increase Np„ p f ,Np pf Agencies Groups n  Before 1950  2  2  Between 1950 - 1955  2  4  Between 1955, Nov.1/59  5  12  3  8  11  31  6  19  Since Nov.1/59  —  . —2  Two voluntary agencies s t a r t e d using t h i s method before 1950 and they had four groups i n operation by 1955. I n the next four year period another voluntary agency and two p r o v i n c i a l agencies enter the  - 26 -  field.  Since Nov, 1/59 s i x agencies enter the f i e l d , two o f them being  voluntary agencies, two p r o v i n c i a l and two municipal.  The eleven  agencies r e p o r t i n g are made up o f f i v e voluntary, four p r o v i n c i a l and two municipal agencies.  The number of groups f o r each as reported by  the supervisors i s 14, 14, and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Combining the information received from the administrators and the supervisors about agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s method we can comp i l e the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Table No» 4; The Number of Agencies Working with Groups since Nov,, 1/59:  Tvoe of No„of Ao, Number of Agencies Working with Groups since Nov.1/59 Total % of Total Next 2 vears Canvassed L Past 3 vears Agency N - 82 Federal  5  mm  1  1  20.00  Provincial  22  4  3  7  32.00  Municipal  17  2  3  5 - •-  29,00  Voluntary  33  5  3  8  24,00  Private Total  5 82  —  —  mm  11  10  21  Differences or Problems i n Methods of Supervision In question 4 we asked supervisors t o t e l l us of any d i f f e r e n c e s or problems they experienced groups.  i n supervising caseworkers working with  We asked them t o be s p e c i f i c about the nature of the d i f f e r e n c e s  and/or d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered. Three of the twelve respondents reported there were no s p e c i a l problems or d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r them  0  One o f them answered "no" t o the  question without any e l a b o r a t i v e remarks while another r e p l i e d that she operated i n the j o i n t capacity of caseworker-supervisor without elaboration,,  A t h i r d one s a i d the group process was easier as  * , „ the members are the therapeutic agents.  The worker i s only a  catalyst." Nine respondents saw the process as being much more complex. Three s a i d that they, as s u p e r v i s o r s , needed a d d i t i o n a l knowledge regarding group dynamics and some of them r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r lack of s k i l l s i n applying t h i s method„  The concern of these three people  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g statement and there are i n d i c a t i o n s that t h i s may be a widespread concern of supervisors.  We quote:  " I f e e l that being a Caseworker, I do not have the proper q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o e i t h e r do group work myself, nor t o give good supervision t o another caseworker engaged i n working w i t h groups, i n s p i t e o f the f a c t that I had some experience i n t h i s f i e l d myself. The School o f S o c i a l Work gives one course i n Group Work during the B.S.W. year, i n which only the very basic elements of group work can be touched, but there never i s an opportunity t o do any group work under superv i s i o n . What knowledge we had i n t h i s respect a f t e r leaving school, could therefore be theoret i c a l o n l y , and on a p r e t t y s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l , which I f i n d most r e g r e t t a b l e . Would there be a p o s s i b i l i t y t o have t h i s School o f S o c i a l Work i n s t i t u t e evening classes f o r caseworkers, e.g. group dynamics." Another three supervisors stated that t h e i r s p e c i f i c help t o the caseworker was i n the area of increasing h i s awareness o f group dynamics.  The s p e c i f i c elements r e f e r r e d t o i n the group process  were e i t h e r member i n t e r a c t i o n or worker-member-of-the-group  - 28 -  interaction,,  One supervisor, who used a group worker as a consultant  quotes the consultant as saying , ",©, the worker leading t h i s group does not use c l a s s i c a l group methods' . 1  The supervisor thought, how-  ever, that the method employed was "«•• a highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and e f f e c t i v e technique which i s more akin t o casework method,"  Two  supervisors saw t h e i r c h i e f problem as the need to give the caseworker a d d i t i o n a l support because of the anxiety the caseworker f e l t i n working with t h i s method.  This i s the f i r s t glimpse we get of "anxiety"  of the worker and as t h i s f a c t o r i s elaborated upon l a t e r i n the text we think i t worth while to quote the f u l l remarks o f t h i s supervisor: "Worker's own f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y are more pronounced i n the group-setting than i n the case s e t t i n g and t h i s requires more support and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the supervisor. Feelings o f i n s e c u r i t y are p a r t i c u l a r l y displayed when the worker s t a r t s f i r s t group," In summary, we see that three supervisors d e s i r e f u r t h e r knowledge i n t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r themselves; three supervisors report that the d i f f e r e n c e s or problems they experience i n supervising caseworkers working with groups i s i n helping the caseworker to become aware o f group dynamics; two supervisors experience the problem of having t o support the caseworker i n h i s anxiety i n working with t h i s method;  two supervisors saw no p a r t i c u l a r problems  or d i f f i c u l t i e s ; one supervisor thought the method was e a s i e r t o supervise and one supervisor thought the method was d i f f e r e n t from " c l a s s i c a l group methods". of answers?  What i s the meaning o f such a wide v a r i e t y  Does the f a c t that members support each other i n the  » 29 -  group make the work o f the caseworker working w i t h the group e a s i e r than the work o f the caseworker i n the face-to-face method? I s t h i s the meaning of the supervisor who c a l l s the method highly  effective  even i f i t does stray away from " c l a s s i c a l group methods"? I t appears that caseworkers and supervisors are confused  about the group  method as an e n t i t y i n i t s e l f and about the r e l a t i v e merits o f the group and casework methods,, S p e c i a l S k i l l s and T r a i n i n g o f Supervisors P a r t i c i p a t i n g Question 5 i s an attempt t o ascertain the degree o f t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e o f supervisors of caseworkers working w i t h groups and i s an extension of the question raised i n r e l a t i o n t o the knowledge and s k i l l o f the supervisor i n handling t h i s method.  Their answers  have been c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : 1 supervisor - no t r a i n i n g i n theory or p r a c t i c e 3 " not s p e c i f i e d (question not answered) 2 " - t r a i n i n g i n theory. (Course(s) i n School o f S o c i a l Work) 1 " - training i n practice* (Experience i n working w i t h groups) 3 " - t r a i n i n g i n theory and p r a c t i c e (Course(s) i n School o f S o c i a l Work and experience i n working w i t h groups 1 Same as above along with theory i n conference seminars. 1 " -Same as above along with " the opport u n i t y t o l e a r n from experienced group t h e r a p i s t s of other d i s c i p l i n e s . " I t i s evident that the emphasis on t r a i n i n g i s f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between theory and p r a c t i c e , w i t h a s l i g h t l y heavier emphasis on t h e o r e t i c a l t r a i n i n g *  Only one supervisor i n d i c a t e s that  she has learned about working w i t h groups under an experienced group therapist*  - 30 -  Types o f Records Kept I t has already been i n d i c a t e d that the type o f recording kept can be an a i d t o the teaching f u n c t i o n o f the supervisor.  We have  t h i r t e e n respondents to t h i s s e c t i o n o f our questionnaire.  Three  supervisors s a i d that there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the type o f recording done and two s a i d that they d i d not record at a l l , making no f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i v e remarks. Eight supervisors s a i d they thought there was a d i f f e r e n c e but one o f them d i d not elaborate.  Of the seven who s a i d  there were s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n recording one keeps a separate f i l e on the group processes and makes an entry on the movement o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n the case f i l e .  We think h i s answer on the type of r e c -  ording s e t up f o r use i n h i s agency i s worthy o f a f u l l quotation. He reports that a recording of each group meeting i s kept and says: "The s t r u c t u r e of the recording i s u s u a l l y around; (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  attendance and seating arrangement statement r e o v e r a l l content o f d i s c u s s i o n m a t e r i a l and the main theme o f t h i s process recording o f the d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r - a c t i o n comments r e s h i f t s i n r o l e s o f various members summary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or assessment of the meaning of the m a t e r i a l , the group dynamics, progress, changes i n goals or group treatment, planning, e t c , "  The other s i x respondents agreed that elements o f the group process would have t o be recorded. S p e c i f i c a l l y , they mentioned the need t o record on such elements as group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , group i n t e r a c t i o n , the worker's p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and i n t e r a c t i o n between the worker and i n d i v i d u a l members i n the group. In summary, we f i n d that about 60% o f the respondents use  - 31 -  recording to help them i n t h e i r teaching f u n c t i o n while 40% e i t h e r see no need to record or see no d i f f e r e n c e i n the type of recording done i n the two methods,, Summary of Findings (1)  The actual t r a i n i n g of supervisors i s f a i r l y  evenly  d i s t r i b u t e d between theory and e t h i c a l t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g w i t h groups, (2)  S i x t y per cent of the supervisors use recording as an  aid to t h e i r teaching f u n c t i o n while 40% e i t h e r see no need f o r i t or do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n the type of recording done i n the two methodso (3)  One-quarter of the supervisors f e e l that they need help  i n l e a r n i n g about group dynamics i n both theory and p r a c t i c e .  Chapter 3 w i l l be devoted to a d i s c u s s i o n of the m a t e r i a l obtained i n interviews conducted at the l e v e l of the caseworker who gives d i r e c t s e r v i c e s to the c l i e n t s of an agency.  CHAPTER 3 r THE CASEWORKERS AND THEIR GROUPS  Twenty-one replies were received from the supervisors, and they listed the names of the caseworkers who had been working with thirty-one groups in the past three years. The supervisors were t e l ephoned for help i n selecting the caseworkers for interviews, and the results were as follows: (1)  One agency had reported nine groups, and of these one  group was selected for further study. (2) Ten of the caseworkers listed as having worked with a group had since left the agency, and were therefore not selected for an interview. (3) There was some confusion with one supervisor about whether the worker with a group was a caseworker or a group worker, and the worker was not interviewed. Twelve caseworkers who had been working with groups within the past three years were selected for interviews, and they were employed by eleven different agencies. Five of these caseworkers had a group in a provincial agency, two caseworkers had a group in a municipal agency, and four had a group i n a voluntary agency.  33  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the Groups I t has been shown i n t h i s study that work with groups i s being i n c r e a s i n g l y used i n casework agencies.  A fundamental problem f o r these  agencies i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r group s e r v i c e s . Peter Neubaurer w r i t e s ; In the conduct of groups, i t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h between education and therapy. These terms are o f t e n used loosely arid are not c l e a r l y understood or d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , l e t they represent widely d i f f e r e n t methods employed f o r d i f f e r e n t ends,7 Joyce K l e i n has worked out a typology f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of groups used i n casework agencies which w i l l be used as a frame of r e f erence i n t h i s study.  She comments that the confusion evidenced by case-  workers about t h e i r groups "brings to mind Neubaurer *s words that a groupcan have only one primary purpose."2 In order to discover how the twelve caseworkers interviewed f o r t h i s study c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r groups, they were asked: s c r i b e the type of group that you had?  How would you de-  Several of the workers were hes-  i t a n t about the way i n which they would describe t h e i r group. Illustrations: I don't know what to c a l l my group. Its aim i s educational, but there i s also a d e f i n i t e therapeutic element. Would the r i g h t word be counselling?  1  Neubaurer, Peter, "Basic Considerations i n the A p p l i c a t i o n of Therapy and Education to Parent Groups," I J G P V o l . X l l l (1955) p. 315, c i t e d i n . K l e i n , op. c i t . . p. 88.  2  K l e i n , oj). c i t . . p. 87  34  Our group i s an adult treatment group. I guess you would c a l l i t group therapy. -I used to. c a l l i t my "acting-out" group. I think i t ' s a discussion group.. The following table w i l l show how the respondents c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r groups: Table Kb. 5s  G l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Groups By Respondents  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the Group By the Worker .  Number o f Groups  1.-.12  Education and Counselling  3  Education and Treatment  2  Discussion  1  Treatment  4  Therapy  2  Total  12  The groups c l a s s i f i e d by the respondents were r e c l a s s i f i e d using Klein's three part typology, under the headings o f Group Education, S o c i a l Group Treatment and Group Psychotherapy.  35 -  Group Education This i s how Klein defines this classification: Education groups for clients, their relatives or prospective clients of social agencies are established primarily to impart knowledge.... The manner i n which the worker disseminates this knowledge through the use of her s k i l l and understanding acquired i n her professional l i f e , her recognition of conscious and unconscious behavior mechanisms, the setting of limitations, and her active, creative guidance, distinguishes the education group from the usual adult work. Therapeutic results of such groups, although important, are incidental to the primary purpose of education. 1  Five of the workers had reported that their group had a dual purpose,: education and counselling, and education and treatment. Illustrations: We help parents to cope with difficulties and problems, sometimes by giving advice and sometimes by encouraging the group members to give the advice, A few parents modify their a t t i tudes by means of the group atmosphere. We want to educate the mothers of the handicapped Grade 1 children, on how to handle school problems. We also hoped to provide an opportunity for ventilation of feeling. The five groups mentioned above, and one treatment group, were reclassified as "group education" using Klein's typology, as education was their primary aim.  Joyce Klein comments that:  Any confusion between education and treatment (Counseling or group therapy) hinders the application of the appropriate s k i l l and knowledge to carry out the purpose, without  1  Klein, op^ c i t . . p. 132  -36  "dilusions and confusions." This bewilderment may r e f l e c t that a therapeutic a c t i v i t y genera l l y i s accorded a "higher status" f o r the worker than i s an educational one."*S o c i a l Group Treatment Four respondents said that they worked with treatment groups* Joyce K l e i n gave the name " s o c i a l group treatment" to one o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n her typology, and she defined i t i n the following ways These are groups i n the s o c i a l work agency which have been suggested as the method o f treatment choice. Here a s o c i a l worker i s involved i n working with a number of c l i e n t s c o l l i c t i v e l y , f o r each o f whom she has a tentative psycho-social diagnosis and t r e a t ment p l a n . A diagnosis made o f the group before the c l i e n t i s i n v i t e d o r required by doctor's p r e s c r i p t i o n to j o i n . The s o c i a l worker consciously a f f e c t s the group process! and makes use o f her knowledge o f i n d i v i d u a l behavior and the dynamics o f both the group and each i n d i v i d u a l as an a i d to treatment i n the group s i t u a t i o n . S o c i a l group t r e a t ment i s used along, o r i n combination with casework a t various stages o f the presenti n g problem.... S o c i a l group treatment objectives should p a r a l l e l those o f i n d i v i d u a l casework t r e a t ment, remaining w i t h i n the area o f the worker's: competence with individuals and groups, agency purposes, and mutually agreed upon goals. Only a c a r e f u l assessment o f the c l i e n t ' s s i t u a t i o n w i l l enable the worker to understand (1) whether the group treatment aim i s the supporting and maintaining o f , o r the changing o f adoptive patterns c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and (2) how t h i s goal can be reached i n d i v i d u a l l y o r through a group service, or combination thereof«^  1 K l e i n , op. c i t . . p. 85 2 K l e i n , op. c i t . . p. 134  Thus, two groups c l a s s i f i e d as treatment groups by the respondents, and the discussion group, were r e c l a s s i f i e d as s o c i a l group treatment,,  A  psycho-social diagnosis was made of each member by a c l i n i c a l team before he joined these groups.  The aim o f the group was the changing of adop-  t i v e patterns of behavior o f the members, and casework interviews were used concurrently with the s o c i a l group treatment method. Group Psychotherapy Two respondents said that they were working with therapy groups. Joyce K l e i n included "group psychotherapy" i n her typology, and she writes s Group Psychotherapy An a n a l y t i c a l l y oriented group treatment aimed a t personality reorganization i n an i n d i v i d u a l who has a p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y diagnosed emotional problem. I t i s conducted under p s y c h i a t r i c supervision by a person professionally trained to handle i n d i v i d u a l unconscious material, fantasy, dreams, free a s s o c i a t i o n and transference i n depth beyond the scope of the usual s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . Like i n d i v i d u a l psychotherapy, aimed a t personality reorganization, i t i s not included i n the s e l e c t i o n of treatment aims i n s o c i a l agencies except under very rare circumstances. 1  The two groups c l a s s i f i e d by the respondents as therapy groups had a p s y c h i a t r i s t as w e l l as a s o c i a l worker as a change agent.  One o f the  treatment groups i n a p s y c h i a t r i c s e t t i n g with two s o c i a l workers as change agents had basic personality change f o r i t s members as a goal, so- i t was r e c l a s s i f i e d with the two therapy groups as group psychotherapy, using Klein's typology.  1  K l e i n , c j k c i t . . p. 137  The next table shows the ways i n which the groups were c l a s s i f i e d by the members, and also the ways i n which these groups were r e c l a s s i f i e d f o r t h i s study, using Klein's typology. 3  Table No. 6 :  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Groups By Respondents and R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Groups Based On Klein's Typology  Original Classification by Workers  Number o f . Groups H - 12  Reclassification Based on Klein's  Number o f Groups N - 12  i.  Counselling and Education  3  Education  6  Treatment and Education  2  S o c i a l Group Treatment  3  i  Group Psychotherapy  3  Discussion :  ,  Treatment  4  Group Therapy  2  12  Total  12  For the purpises o f the following sections, the s o c i a l group t r e a t ment and psychotherapy groups were c l a s s i f i e d together under the heading of "treatment groups."  Altogether, there were s i x treatment and s i x education  groups studied.  Overview of the Subject Groups  Most o f the material i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s o f a f a c t u a l nature. I t w i l l give some idea o f the caseworkers  1  groups, and w i l l include such i n -  formation as the s i z e of the groups, the frequency of meetings, and the c r i t e r i a f o r member s e l e c t i o n .  39  Frequency o f Meetings I t would be expected that since a more Intense group experience takes place i n a treatment group, that they would meet more o f t e n .  In  general, the respondents reported that the treatment groups met more frequently than the education groups. Table No. 7:  Frequency o f Group Meeting o f the Education and Treatment Groups  Frequency o f . Meeting .  Education Groups N - 6  Treatment Groups N - 6  Semi - Weekly  0  2  Weekly  2  A  Semi - Monthly  3  0  Monthly  1  0  6  6  Total  Length o f Meetings Gorsini found i n his study o f groups i n f o r t y i n s t i t u t i o n s , that the usual length o f time f o r one treatment group i s ninety minutes.  1  Klein  found that the one hundred and f i f t y - s i x education and treatment groups i n her study met f o r one hour o r l e s s .  2  The twelve groups i n t h i s study met  f o r ninety minutes, a period i n l i n e with Gorsini»s f i n d i n g s .  1  Gorsini, Raymond, Methods o f Group Psychotherapy New York, Ronald Press, 1954, p. 118  2  K l e i n , op^ c i t . . p. 71  - AO Size o f Groups K l e i n writes that " i t i s reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e that education and treatment groups generally are small."^  The groups  i n t h i s study were a l l small enough to allow member-to-member r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and member relationships with the change agent.  As  would be expected, the treatment groups tended to be smaller than the education groups, as w i l l be shown i n the following t a b l e : Table No. 8: -  Number of Members i n the Education and Treatment Groups  "  t  Number of Members  Education Groups N -6  Treatment Groups N -6  5-8  2  2  8-10  1  2  10-12  0  2  15 - 20  2  0  30  1  0  Total  6  6  The maximum number o f people i n the treatment groups i s twelve, while the maximum number i n the education groupsrange much higher.  1  Ibid  mm  4J. —  Open and Closed Groups Three education groups were open to new members a t any time and three were closed to new members a f t e r the group had met once or twice.  Three treatment groups were open and three were closed.  Group Composition By Sex Four of the s i x treatment groups had members equally balanced between the sexes.  Two treatment groups had only male members,  because the members were drawn from two male wards i n a p s y c h i a t r i c hospital.  Three of the education groups were composed of females  mothers of handicapped  c h i l d r e n and wives of prisoners. The other  three education groups were composed of both the parents of c h i l d r e n and both parents of adopted  handicapped  children.  C r i t e r i a f o r Member S e l e c t i o n John Wax  spoke of the d i f f i c u l t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r  member s e l e c t i o n when he said a t the workshop on "Group Process i n the Psychiatric Setting": I t seems to me that we need to approach t h i s subject with appropriate humility, inasmuch as i n our present state of knowledge we f i n d ourselves with very few rules and, an apparently unlimited number of exceptions. We appear s t i l l to be i n the stage of learning by t r i a l aaad error, a stage i n which every conceivable combination of patients and c r i t e r i a i s being attempted i n a healthy atmosphere of experimentation. I hope w e ' l l make the most of t h i s stage and that we w i l l use t h i s opportunity to extend the area of exploration rather than to make binding judgments which might prematurely close o f f any type of experimentation or i n any way l i m i t the scope of our i n q u i r y . 1  1 Wax,  John " C r i t e r i a For Group Composition," paper presented a t the Workshop on Group Process i n the Psychiatric Setting. Lansing. Michegan, (June 13 - 16, 1958) p. 1 (Mimeographed), c i t e d i n K l e i n , op. c i t . . p. 54  42 -  In w r i t i n g about member s e l e c t i o n i n education groups, K l e i n comments that "screening can be done to prevent the i n c l u s i o n of those individuals with personal c o n f l i c t s so evident that they may prove d i s r u p t i v e to the group purpose,"*-  K l e i n goes on to say about t r e a t -  ment groups t h a t : C r i t e r i a f o r member s e l e c t i o n are extremely complex. The tentative diagnosis of both the i n d i v i d u a l and the group, with the problems, needs, motivations, capacities, present stage of development, available groups and t h e i r purposes, as w e l l as the workers capab i l i t i e s are taken into consideration,.•• C r i t e r i a are proposed, with the recognition that these must be tested i n p r a c t i c e . These are intended merely as tentative guides.2 The respondents were asked: What were the c r i t e r i a f o r membership i n your group?  A l l the workers reported that members of t h e i r  groups shared a common problem which was the basis f o r t h e i r membership i n the group. Table nine w i l l show the number o f groups, the types of common problems around which the groups were formed, and t h e r e c i p i e n t s of the  service.  1  K l e i n , op, c i t , . p. 51  2  K l e i n , op. c i t , . p. 134  -43 Table No. 9:  Type o f Problems Around Which Groups Were Formed  Type o f Common Problem .  Number of Groups N - 12  Recipients o f Service  Education Groups Handicapped c h i l d  parents  3  Adopted c h i l d  parents  1  Male Prisoners  wives  1  Psychiatric patients  relatives  1 i  Treatment Groups Epilepsy  patients  1  Parental c o n f l i c t s  patients  2  Mental I l l n e s s  patients  1  Predischarge group  patients  1  Psychoneurosis  patients  1  Total  12  P h y s i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the members was quoted as a f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n o f members i n a l l but two o f the grougs. Illustrations s We formed a group from the s i x mothers who r e g u l a r l y brought t h e i r c h i l d to the c l i n i c on the same day*  - 44 Gur group vas composed of patients who l i v e d close enough to-the c l i n i c to attend evening meetings. A number o f patients from the two male wards made up our group. I t w i l l be seen from the above what an important r o l e  availability  of members plays i n the composition o f groups i n t h i s study. An  the members o f the treatment groups were assessed by a c l i n i c a l  team before they joined the group.  The members o f three education groups  were assessed b r i e f l y by a caseworker, and there was no assessment made of the members o f the other three education groups. The next table w i l l indicate the kind of assessment made o f the prospective members o f the various groups. Table Ro. 10: Assessment o f Group Members Prior to Joining the Group  The Groups  Number o f Groups N - 12  •  t  Education No Assessment Made  3  B r i e f Assessment by Caseworker  3  Treatment B r i e f Assessment by C l i n i c a l Team  3  Extensive Assessment by C l i n i c a l Team  3  12  Total  Some workers with education groups responded to the question about assessments i n these ways: I glanced through the children's f i l e s and  45 had a g e n e r a l i d e a o f what t o e x p e c t from the m o t h e r s . I met most o f t h e mothers o n l y once b e f o r e i n v i t i n g them t o t h e m e e t i n g . I met t h e p r o s p e c t i v e group member; once and s i z e d h e r u p . I f she seemed 0 . K . (not too h i g h c l a s s ) , I s e n t one o f t h e group members around t o v i s i t h e r , a s t h e members c a n t e l l b e t t e r t h a n I c a n i f a new member w i l l f i t i n . I asked t h e p a t i e n t whether he had a c l o s e r e l a t i v e i n town whom he would l i k e t o a t t e n d . a group m e e t i n g . I f the p a t i e n t l i k e d t h e i d e a , I i n v i t e d the r e l a t i v e t o come a l o n g . Sometimes I f i r s t met the new group member b r i e f l y i n t h e w a r d , and sometimes I had o n l y spoken t o him by telephone I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l l t h e t r e a t m e n t group members were a s s e s s e d by c l i n i c a l teams.  T h i s p o i n t s up t h e c l o s e  between caseworkers w o r k i n g w i t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , a r d t h e  connection psychiatric  profession. Illustration: A l l t h e p a t i e n t s were b r i e f l y a s s e s s e d by t h e c l i n i c a l team w i t h the group i n mind. The main emphasis was o n e x c l u d i n g the more d i s t u r b e d p a t i e n t s . A l l t h e t r e a t m e n t groups w h i c h were c l a s s i f i e d as groups  psychotherapy  had a n i n t e n s i v e assessment done o n each p r o s p e c t i v e member  b e f o r e he j o i n e d t h e g r o u p . Illustration: A p s y c h o - s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s was made i n every case. U s u a l l y t h e r e were s e v e r a l casework i n t e r v i e w s f i r s t . Each p o t e n t i a l group member was examined by a p s y c h o l o g i s t and a l s o had one i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p s y c h i atrist. We s c r e e n e d o u t t h o s e p a t i e n t s w i t h  -46-  ,  low i n t e l l i g e n c e , a poor employment h i s t o r y and those who had character disorders o r who were o v e r t l y psychotic.  There was very l i t t l e known about most o f the members o f the education groups before they joined the group.  Only one worker with  an education group said that he t r i e d to screen out severely disturbed people.*-  Four o f the s i x workers with treatment groups said there was  an e f f o r t made to screen out individuals who were highly impulse ridden o r o v e r t l y psychotic. One o f the two major c r i t e r i a f o r member s e l e c t i o n i n the twelve groups was to bring together people with a common problem. The other major c r i t e r i o n was the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the prospective members. Apart from choosing e a s i l y available patients with common problems, the main emphasis i n the c l i n i c a l assessments o f prospective members was on "whom to screen out" (severely disturbed i n d i v i d u a l s ) , rather than on "whom to include i n . " The findings i n t h i s study agree with KLein, who writes that i n seventy-three o f her ninety-three subject groups, the purpose o f the group was the prime consideration i n member selection."  2  Use o f Group Method and Casework Method Two workers with education groups said that i n d i v i d u a l members were seen  i n casework interviews as w e l l as i n the group s i t u a t i o n .  The  remaining f o u r respondents with education groups reported that they only saw the members i n the group s i t u a t i o n .  1  See page 19 f o r Klein's comments on the screening o f disturbed i n d i v i d u a l s from education groups.  2  Klein, op^ c i t . . p. 104  - 47 V.  A l l s i x workers with treatment groups said that they saw the group members i n i n d i v i d u a l casework sessions as w e l l as i n the group. The  Caseworkers  Respondent's Training V  I t had been planned that only professionally trained workers would be interviewed.  One of the education group caseworkers turned  out not to have attended a school of s o c i a l work. workers a l l had a B.S.W. o r M.S.W. degree.  The remaining eleven  This i s what the t r a i n i n g  background of the workers looked l i k e : Table No. H  School of S o c i a l Work Degrees Held By Respondents Number of Workers  Dejgree Held Education . N- 5 &  Treatment .N - 6. . .  B. S. W.  2  1  M. S. W.  3  5  5  6  Total ± One not l i s t e d as he was untrained  Eight workers had an M.S.W. degree, and f i v e of.these were workers with treatment groups. • A l l the respondents took a course i n the theory of group work i n t h e i r B.S.W. year, but they said that they had been too busy l e a r n i n g to be caseworkers to pay much a t t e n t i o n to the group work course. I f they had known they were going to be working with groups some day, the workers s a i d , the course would have had much more meaning f o r them.  * AB Three respondents took courses i n the theory o f groups a f t e r they l e f t a school o f s o c i a l work.  One worker with a n education group  was currently attending a ten week course i n group psychotherapy given by a p s y c h i a t r i s t .  Another worker with an education group spent two  weekends with several other caseworkers learning about groups from a s o c i a l group worker.  A worker with a treatment group had attended a  Lake Wilderness Institute on family interviewing techniques. What Respondents Have Read About Groups The respondents were asked:  What reading have you done about  groups since you l e f t a school of s o c i a l work? Table Ho. 12  This i s how they r e p l i e d :  Reading About Groups Done By Respondents  Type o f Reading About Groups .  '  Workers with Education Groups  Workers with Treatment. Groups  S o c i a l Work Journals  2  0  Books about S o c i a l Group Work  0  0  Books and Journals About Group Psychotherapy  2  A  No Reading About Groups  3  2  (  Five workers have not read about groups since they l e f t a school of s o c i a l work.  Not one o f the workers read a book about s o c i a l group work. S i x  respondents read about group psycotherapy, and four of these workers had treatment groups.  -49  -  What Respondents Would Like Schools of S o c i a l Work to Teach About Groups The workers were asked:  What do you think should be taught about  groups i n schools of s o c i a l work? I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d : Ideally, students should be trained i n both methods, casework and group work. Many agencies should be able to include students i n groups as recorder observers, to give them the " f e e l " of work with groups. I know there are great d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a i n ing a student i n one method, l e t alone two, but the time i s r a p i d l y coming when many caseworkers w i l l have to be competant i n both methods, so we should s t a r t thinking now about how to achieve t h i s . I think the School of S o c i a l Work should give a night course f o r caseworkers on how to work with groups. I am attending a course on group psychotherapy given by a psychia t r i s t simply because there i s no s o c i a l work course available to me. Four of the workers with education groups, and four of the workers with treatment groups, thought that the schools of s o c i a l work should teach caseworkers the theory of group work along with p r a c t i c a l experience i n groups under supervision. Three workers with education groups and  two  workers with treatment groups thought that schools of s o c i a l work should o f f e r night courses and i n s t i t u t e s f o r caseworkers about work with groups. How the Respondents Started to Work With Groups I t was already pointed out i n chapter two that the majority of the administrators reported that the caseworkers i n i t i a t e d the groups themselves.  $he findings i n t h i s chapter contradict the statements of the  administrators, as w i l l be seen by the following t a b l e : The respondents were asked: to work with a groupl?  Whose idea was i t that you s t a r t  - 50 -  Table No. 13:  How the Respondents Started to Work With Groups  Workers with an Education. Group N - 6  How the Groups . Began  Workers with a Treatment Group .. N - 6  2  1  Casework Supervisor's Idea  2  1  P s y c h i a t r i s t ' s Idea  0  Other (Speech Therapist and S o c i a l Group Worker)  2  0  6  6  Respondent's Own  Idea  i Total  Only three of the twelve respondents started to work with groups on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e .  (Two of these three workers were former teachers  who said t h e i r teaching experience had given them confidence with a group.) Three workers began because t h e i r supervisors wanted them to work with a group. Illustrations: My supervisor wanted me to take over the group as he didn't have time to lead i t himself any more. I didn't r e a l l y want to, but he f i n a l l y persuaded me... I started to work with a group because my superv i s o r thought i t would save time. Four workers with treatment groups started to work with a group because i t was suggested by a p s y c h i a t r i s t . Illustrations: I started to work with a group because the c l i n i c a l team, p a r t i c u l a r l y the p s y c h i a t r i s t , expected i t . Our psychiatrist-consultant wanted me to be a coleader i n h i s group.  How Respondents Saw Themselves i n the Group Because of the need to f i n d out how the workers saw t h e i r role i n the group, they were asked: Do you think of yourself as a casewroker or a group worker when you act as a change agent i n the group?  Some of  t h e i r r e p l i e s were as f o l l o w s : I c e r t a i n l y think of myself even i f I do have a group. group worker as someone who ing j o l l y and "groupy" i n a  as a caseworker, I think o f a runs around beplace l i k e the " I " .  I am a caseworker working with a group. No group worker has been taught the necessary knowledge of human behaviour to do what I am doing i n t h i s group. The two workers who made the above comments have an outdated view o f the s o c i a l group worker.  One of them a t l e a s t has f a i l e d to  notice that group workers take courses i n human growth and behavior along with the caseworkers. Five other workers also saw themselves as caseworkers when they worked with a group. Not one of the workers saw themselves as group workers when they acted as change agents i n the group. Five o f the respondents r e p l i e d that they d i d not see themselves either as caseworkers o r group workers, but as s o c i a l workers. Illustrations: I think is. f a s t be only have to  of myself as a s o c i a l worker. The time going when s o c i a l workers can claim to caseworkers o r group workers. They w i l l be p r o f i c i e n t i n both methods.  I am a s o c i a l worker. I intend to be able some day to use the casework or group work method where i t seems appropriate.  - 52 The Respondents' Awareness of Group Process Group records were not read, and groups were not observed, so the respondents' subjective r e p l i e s about t h e i r own work with t h e i r groups was the only source o f data i n t h i s part o f the study. The workers were asked: What goes on within your group?  I f they  seemed hesitant about answering t h i s question they were asked: What went on i n your group a t the l a s t meeting? Six o f the twelve workers answered this questing i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group.  They persisted i n describing case  h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c u l a r members.  One of these workers said that the  group was a kind o f macrocosm of the i n d i v i d u a l , with one member n  a c t i n g as the super-ego, another as the ego, two as the i d , and so on."  One half of the workers with education groups and one h a l f of  the workers with treatment groups spoke of the group mostly i n terms of group process.  I t was possible to pick out the elements o f group  process which the workers touched on i n t h e i r remarks about what went on i n t h e i r group £ Illustrations: The g i r l s controlled each other better than I could do i t on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . (Control) I always watched f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between the group members. (Interaction)  1  1  See appendix 0 f o r l i s t of elements of group process used i n this study.  The group gets a very strong "we" f e e l i n g . (Cohesion) _ . The elements of group process mentioned by the workers w i l l be seen i n the following t a b l e : Table No.. 14:  Elements of Group Process Mentioned by Workers  i •  •  Number of Times Mentioned  Elements o f Group . Process  Workers with an Education Group  Workers with a Treatment Group  D e c i s i o n Making  0  1  Group Norms  4  1  Group Control  5  2  Group Climate  3  4  Interaction  3  6  Structure  4  6  Cohesion  6  4  25  24  Total  The seven elements o f group process i n the table are not an exhaustive l i s t , but the elements included are mentioned by most t h e o r i s t s . Out of a possible t o t a l of eighty-four elements (the number of elements - seven - m u l t i p l i e d by the number of workers - twelve) the respondents mentioned forty-nine elements of group process. There were four workers who mentioned between f i v e and s i x elements of group process.  Two of these workers had education groups, and two had  treatment groups.  A l l four talked about the group i n terms of the group,  and had read books about group psychotherapy.  Group Records Kept By Respondents Only two respondents (both with education groups) d i d not keep records o f any kind on the group meeting.  Four workers with education  groups kept attendance records and a b r i e f report of the meeting. A l l s i x treatment group workers kept a progress report o f group i n t e r a c t i o n i n a special f i l e . Some Feelings o f Caseworkers About Working With Groups A l l the workers expressed having some apprehension before worki n g with a group.  Several said that they had been a f r a i d that they  would lose control o f events i n the group.  Two workers mentioned how  g r a t i f i e d they were to discover how much control was exerted by the group members themselves.  Two respondents said they were surprised a t  how much the group members helped and supported each other, and that they as "leader" d i d not have to do a l l the "work." Several workers expressed themselves as surprised and delighted with the progress made by i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group.  A l l the workers said  that they thought that the group method was a valuable t o o l f o r coping with a v a r i e t y o f problems i n a casework agency.  Some of the implications  of the findings i n t h i s chapter w i l l be found i n chapter f o u r .  CHAPTER 4  SUMMARY AND FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE  L i m i t a t i o n s of Study .The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are based on answers received from: (1)  Administrators: Questionnaire 1 - 6 7 Questionnaire 2 - 2 4  respondents out of 82 canvassed respondents out of 28 canvassed  (2) Supervisors: Questionnaire 3 - 2 4 respondents out of 29 canvassed They reported t h i r t y - o n e groups i n the Greater Vancouver area since November 1, 1959, (3)  Caseworkers:  12 groups were selected f o r study out of a possible 31 groups. These were selected on the basis that one group would be studied i n each of the eleven agencies r e p o r t i n g the use of t h i s method. The interview was conducted at the l e v e l of the caseworker.  The f a c t that a l l of the groups were not studied n e c e s s a r i l y precludes broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s being drawn i n the r e s u l t s of our study. The Development and Growth i n the Use of the Group Method Since November 1, 1959 over one-third of the eighty-two agencies canvassed say they have been using the method of caseworkers working with groups and i n the next year or two over twelve per cent of the agencies canvassed say they intend to employ the method.  There are a t o t a l o f  eleven agencies working w i t h t h i r t y - o n e groups since November 1, 1959,  - 56 -  Before 1950 there were two agencies with two groups.  This represents  an increase of nine agencies and twenty-nine groups i n a twelve-year period.  I f t h i s trend were to continue we would expect that by 1974  there would be twenty agencies employing the method w i t h s i x t y groups. In order to hold t h i s rate nine agencies would have to adopt the use of t h i s method by 1974.  Ten agencies indicated that they would be  using t h i s method i n the next year or two.  We would a n t i c i p a t e that  the rate of employment o f t h i s method i s going t o increase s i x times more r a p i d l y i n the next twelve years than i t has done i n the past twelve years©  I f our estimate holds, t h i s means that s i x t y - f i v e  agencies w i l l be employing t h i s method by 1974. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Use of Group Method bv Type o f Agency The twenty-one agencies that i n d i c a t e they are or w i l l be using t h i s method from November l  t  1959 to 1965 are f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d  between p r o v i n c i a l , municipal, voluntary, and f e d e r a l agencies.  It is  s i g n i f i c a n t , however, that the voluntary agencies are i n t h i s case not the leaders i n experimentation w i t h t h i s method. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Use o f Group Method by Type o f S e r v i c e Leadership i n the f i e l d f o r the employment o f t h i s method comes from the p r o v i n c i a l agencies and s p e c i f i c a l l y from the f i e l d of Mental Health.  Since November 1, 1959 ninety percent of the agencies i n the  Mental Health Services have been using the group method and by 1965 the other ten percent expect to be using the method. The Agency P o l i c y regarding the Use o f Group Method Our f i n d i n g s are that.the administrators are only minimally  * 57 -  involved i n the development of caseworkers working with groups.  Only  one-third of the administrators r e p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o the second questionnaire. In a l l cases but one the administrative reasons f o r s t a r t i n g groups r e f l e c t s the goals of the group rather than the p o l i c y goals o f the  agency  e  The administrative reasons f o r the s e l e c t i o n of personnel t o work with groups are not r e l a t e d t o the s p e c i f i c knowledge or s k i l l s of the caseworker or o f the supervisors s k i l l i n the dynamics of the group  process. There i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the evaluation of the  program o f caseworkers working with groups and the administrative d e c i s i o n t o continue, expand, modify or abandon the group method. The Reasons that Caseworkers Begin t o Work with Groups In the future a caseworker working with groups has an almost equal chance of 1) being stimulated from sources external t o the profession, and 2) being stimulated from sources i n t e r n a l t o the profession.  The f a c t that the s t i m u l a t i o n e x t e r n a l t o the profession  comes almost wholly from psychiatry suggests that there may be some c o r r e l a t i o n between i t and the f a c t that p r o v i n c i a l Mental Health s e r v i c e s are the current leaders i n the use o f t h i s method. The f a c t that 1) caseworkers are stimulated from outside the profession j u s t about as much as they are from w i t h i n and the f a c t that 2) the s t i m u l a t i o n from w i t h i n comes equally as much from superv i s o r s as i t does from caseworkers c o n t r a d i c t s the statements of the  - 58  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who, on t h e w h o l e , s t a t e t h a t t h e s t i m u l a t i o n has come from t h e  caseworkers,,  The C a s e w o r k e r ' s P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Working w i t h Groups Caseworkers s t a t e t h a t t h e r e are gaps i n t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n . T h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l t r a i n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f one t h r e e - u n i t c o u r s e i n group work i n a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work,  Not one caseworker d i d  r e a d i n g i n s o c i a l group work method. r e l a t e d t o group  post-graduate  The b u l k o f t h e i r r e a d i n g was  psychotherapy.  Only a few caseworkers i n t e r v i e w e d had had p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c a l experience i n working w i t h groups. Some caseworkers were u s i n g t h e method w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t  of  s u p e r v i s i o n and/or r e c o r d s o f t h e group meetings t o a i d them i n t h e i r tasks. N e a r l y a l l o f the caseworkers  and some o f t h e  supervisors  acknowledged t h a t they were a n x i o u s about u s i n g t h e method, i n the beginning phases.  especially  I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e a n x i e t y they  felt  i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r lack of preparation. The S u p e r v i s i o n R e c e i v e d bv Caseworkers Working w i t h Groups I t has been t r a d i t i o n a l i n a l l t h e methods o f t h e  profession  o f s o c i a l work t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s have l e a r n e d t h e i r j o b by a p p l y i n g t h e s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n t h e o r e t i c a l t r a i n i n g under t h e guidance o f a skilled  practitioner.  Supervisors take t h i s learned s k i l l to t h e i r  j o b s and use i t i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n .  Casework  supervisors  s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e have had p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h w o r k i n g w i t h groups  - 59 -  under supervision i n order to be q u a l i f i e d to supervise the group method.  The study reveals that only one supervisor had the neces-  sary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . While, on the whole, supervisors see the method as being more complex t o supervise than the t r a d i t i o n a l face-to-face method, i t i s important t o note that f o r t y percent o f them make no use of recording as a teaching a i d . Some supervisors had the s e r v i c e s o f a group work c o n s u l t ant a v a i l a b l e t o them but h i s s e r v i c e s were not used. The C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n o f Members o f the Group I n t h i s study "the common problem" o f the group members was the main c r i t e r i o n used i n member s e l e c t i o n .  Other c r i t e r i a are  s t i l l i n the process of being worked out, w i t h the main emphasis on the e x c l u s i o n o f disturbed i n d i v i d u a l s .  This agrees w i t h the f i n d -  ings reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Some Implications f o r S o c i a l Work Education Some caseworkers expressed t h e i r opinion that the course i n s o c i a l group work taken i n the Bachelor o f S o c i a l Work year o f study should be geared t o t h e i r probable experiences with working with groups i n casework agencies. Some caseworkers and some supervisors have f e l t that they are i l l - p r e p a r e d t o work with groups and to teach about groups.  They  f e l t the need f o r e x t r a t r a i n i n g i n the dynamics of group processes. They asked s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r :  - 60 -  (a)  night courses and i n s t i t u t e s f o r p r a c t i c i n g caseworkers i n s o c i a l group method.  (b)  p r a c t i c a l experience i n working with groups under supervision with the use of such t e c h niques as one-way screens and audio-visual aids. These s o c i a l workers recognized the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n arranging t h i s but they thought i t was necessary.  Part of the impetus f o r caseworkers working with groups comes from p s y c h i a t r i s t s .  The pressure w i l l , no doubt, increase  as current t r a i n i n g f o r p s y c h i a t r i s t s help i n d i v i d u a l s  includes learning how to  i n groups.  The concept of the generic s o c i a l worker i n current t h i n k ing i s that the d i f f e r e n t methods i n s o c i a l work have a common body of knowledge but they also have a unique body of knowledge and t h i s l i e s i n the a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l worker to apply s p e c i f i c skills.  Nearly one-half of the caseworkers interviewed saw them-  selves as being the generic s o c i a l worker because they were working with groups.  Others who c a l l e d themselves " t h e r a p i s t s " saw them-  selves as having learned about group processes from psychiatry and they saw themselves continuing i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n  and they asked  f o r no help from the method of s o c i a l group work.  They w i l l con-  tinue to l e a r n from psychiatry providing no channel i s open to them from t h e i r own profession.  The p r a c t i c e i n s o c i a l work education  i s that the student has to pick h i s " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " before he enters graduate t r a i n i n g .  These s o c i a l workers think they  «. (j\  mm  should have t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e i n both of the major s o c i a l work methods i n s o c i a l work. Some Implications f o r P r a c t i c e The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e w i l l be discussed at the administ r a t i v e , supervisory and casework l e v e l s * The data i n d i c a t e s that i f there are t o be improved s e r v i c e s through the use of the group method, the process would be g r e a t l y helped i f the f o l l o w i n g steps were f u l f i l l e d : 1«,'  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Administrators (a)  Encourage the personnel t o get t h e o r e t i c a l  and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n the use of the group methods (b)  To make a v a i l a b l e the s e r v i c e s of a group  work consultant wherever possibles (c)  To s e t up c r i t e r i a to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of the methods ..(d)  To c l a s s i f y the group s e r v i c e s offered i n  r e l a t i o n t o the primary aim of the group and i n r e l a t i o n to the c r i t e r i a f o r membership,* 2,  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Supervisors (a)  To encourage only those caseworkers i n the use  of the group method who are adequately prepared, (b)  To l e a r n about the group method through a v a i l -  able channelSs 1  We recommend K l e i n ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f group s e r v i c e s , (See Chapter 3),  - 62 -  (c)  To make use of a group work consultant when  his s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e , (d)  To see that there i s an adequate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  df group s e r v i c e s , (e)  To develop c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f members  of the group i n r e l a t i o n t o the primary goal of the group, (f)  To keep a record of group processes that w i l l  r e v e a l the development of the group and the development of the individual-in-the-group, 3,  Implications f o r the Caseworker (a)  pared.  To use the group method only i f adequately pre-  Adequate preparation means t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t -  i c a l t r a i n i n g i n the use of the method under s u p e r v i s i o n , (b)  To make use of a s o c i a l group work consultant  when h i s s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e , (c)  To see that there i s an adequate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of group s e r v i c e s , (d)  To develop c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of members  of the group i n r e l a t i o n t o the primary goal of the group, (e)  To keep a record o f group processes that w i l l  r e v e a l the development of the i n d i v i d u a l - i n - t h e - g r o u p , (f)  To make f u l l use of the help of s u p e r v i s i o n .  The personnel should w r i t e about t h e i r experiences with groups i n the easework agency f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s .  Suggestions f o r Further Study This study i s a beginning one i n a very broad fieldo  Some of  the areas i n need of f u r t h e r research are as f o l l o w s ? (1)  The r o l e of the voluntary agency i n the new development  of the use of groups i n casework agencies (2)  Q  There i s need to discover i f s o c i a l workers can be taught  at schools of s o c i a l work i n both casework and group work methods. (3)  A study should be done of the c l i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s of  c l i e n t s who have been involved i n such groups.  -  Appendix A  -  64  Questionnaires  1.  Casework Agencies  2.  Administrators of Casework Agencies  3.  Supervisors i n Casework Agencies  Appendix B  -  Interview Schedule f o r Caseworkers  Appendix C  -  Seven Elements of Group Process  Appendix D  - Bibliography  APPENDIX A , l THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  School of S o c i a l Work  CASEWORKERS WORKING WITH GROUPS OF CLIENTS AND RELATIVES OF CLIENTS TO CASEWORK AGENCIES  Name of Agency  •••••••••••••.•••o*«»*»»**»***««*««*«**e*»*»**«**»**  Name of person answering questionnaire , • e*e««eeo«oeaae*eo»«e«*e*ee««»e****eeeo»  T i t l e of position  « aat m « o « « i « i n » » i  « aa i t e e i t x  M I O M I M X I »«»o«ooao»eo»o»o»ee»»»s»»9»o»oeoooe»o  aoeeoaoeeoaoo a«»o*oo»9«»a•aaaaaaeeoaaee aa » * a » * 9c o 9 a « 9 o Q 9 •»f  »o»o* e «  Has your agency held any kind of group meetings f o r c l i e n t s or r e l a t i v e s of c l i e n t s led by a caseworker during the past three years? Yes »»m»9oeo»»»oaoo»» NO  eoasaaoaeaeaaeaee  I f not, does your agency plan to i n i t i a t e the use of groups led by caseworkers i n the next year or two? Yes «•••»..  APPENDIX A,2  - oo THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School o f S o c i a l Work  CASEWORKERS WORKING WITH GROUPS OF CLIENTS AND RELATIVES OF CLIENTS TO ADMINISTRATORS OF CASEWORK AGENCIES  Why d i d your agency s t a r t working w i t h groups?  (a)  Were there s p e c i a l reasons f o r the choice of the caseworker who would work with the groups? Yes,...* No  (b)  I f your answer i s "yes" to 2(a), what were your reasons f o r the choice of the caseworker who would work with the groups?  (a)  Was there a supervisor f o r the work that the caseworker does with groups? Yes ••*•••••• NO  .....•••a  (b)  I f your answer i s " y e s to 3 ( a ) , what were your reasons f o r the choice of the supervisor?  (c)  What i s (are) the name(s) of the s u p e r v i s o r ( s ) ?  (a)  Did you evaluate your program o f caseworkers working w i t h groups? Yes . . . . o No ....*•••*•  (b)  Were there changes made i n your program as a r e s u l t of the evaluation? Yes. *  H  NO  (c)  .  O  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  O  I f changes were made, what f o r d i d they take?  - '67 -  APPENDIX A, 3 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School of S o c i a l Work CASEWORKERS WORKING WITH GROUPS OF CLIENTS AND RELATIVES OF CLIENTS TO SUPERVISORS OF CASEWORKERS WORKING WITH GROUPS  1.  Name of Agency ......••......•.•.•.«••••.••«•«•,•««•  2.  Name of Supervisor  3.  Did your agency s t a r t using caseworkers working with groups? (a)  Before 1950?  •  Yes . NO  How many groups? Yes...... No  Between 1955 & Nov.l, 1959?  (d) Since Nov.l, 1959? 4.  ••••<)••«<  „  •e e ©••  (b) Between 1950 & 1955? (c)  •  Yes .... No .....  How many groups? ........  Yes No  How many groups?  How many groups?  Are there any d i f f e r e n c e s or s p e c i a l problems i n supervising the caseworker working with the i n d i v i d u a l and the caseworker working w i t h groups? Please s p e c i f y :  5.  Were you prepared f o r the above mentioned d i f f e r e n c e s or s p e c i a l problems because of your own: (a)  P r a c t i c a l experience with groups?...........  *  (b) Courses i n a School of S o c i a l Work?... Cc) BOtht* ....... « e . « « . . o a . , . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e . . . o . . . o (d) Other? •  Please s p e c i f y  -  68  -  - 2 -  I s there a d i f f e r e n c e i n the kind of recording done by the case worker working with the i n d i v i d u a l and the caseworker working with groups? Please s p e c i f y *  Please give us the names of the caseworkers c u r r e n t l y employed i n your agency who have been working with groups since November 1, 1959.  APPENDIX B  - 69  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR CASEWORKERS  I.  Assessment of the I n d i v i d u a l and of the Groups: (a)  What were the c r i t e r i a f o r membership? 1.  (a) (b)  Leadership a b i l i t i e s ? I s o l a t i o n o f the member?  (c)  Common problem(s) of the member(s)?  2.  D e s c r i p t i v e f a c t o r s o f the member?  3.  (a) Within a s p e c i f i c age range? (b) Within a s p e c i f i c i n t e l l i g e n c e range? (c) Race? (d) R e l i g i o n ? (e) Sex? ( f ) Socio-economic c l a s s ? P h y s i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of members?  4. 2.  Personal q u a l i t i e s of the member?  What, i f any, were the c o n t r a - i n d i c a t i o n s f o r membership i n the group?  How d i d you determine the group method as being the appropriate method i n treatment f o r t h i s c l i e n t ? (a) (b) (c) (d)  LL  Used f o l l o w i n g a psycho-social diagnosis? Was group method used e x c l u s i v e l y ? Was group method used i n conjunction w i t h the casework method? Was casework method used p r i o r t o the group method?  F a c t u a l Information: 1,  Was i t an open or a closed group?  2,  How long has the group been i n existance?  3,  How long do you a n t i c i p a t e meeting t o achieve goals?  4,  What i s the frequency of meeting of the group? (a) Weekly? (b) Bi-weekly? Cc) Monthly? (d) Other?  - 70 >>  v  2 -  5,  How did you get started?  6  How many members are in your group?  e  IIIo 1«  IV.  Vo  How would you describe the type of group you have?  Groupwork Method: 1.  What training do you have? Do you have any special training or practice in working with groups?  2.  What have you read about groups since leaving a School of Social Work?  3.  Did you see yourself as groupworker and/or caseworker?  4.  As a caseworker what did you anticipate as you went into a group?  5.  What have you learned from your experience?  6.  What do you think you should be taught about groups in Schools of Social Work?  Implementation of Plan:  7 elements of group process.  1.  What happened in your group at the last meeting?  2„  What kind of records did you keep?  APPENDIX C  - 71 -  SOME ELEMENTS OF GROUP PROCESS  lo  Process of group cohesion: "The t o t a l f i e l d o f forces which act on members t o remain i n the group,"!  2.  Process o f d e c i s i o n making: " I t i s concerned w i t h the process through which a group approaches and solves i t s problems and the e f f e c t of these d e c i s i o n s show how pressures, standards and norms w i t h i n the group change,"2  3.  Process o f group s t r u c t u r e :  ^  "Structure concerns patterns of r e l a t i o n s h i p that are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and continuous,"**  4.  Process o f group norms: "The norms o f a group are the c u l t u r e values, b e l i e f s and e t h i c a l standards o f the group," 4  5.  Process o f group c o n t r o l : "Informal and formal authority patterns which operate t o enable the group to work towards i t s goal. These patterns are pressures which may be established by the s e t t i n g , by the change agent, or by the members themselves."*>  1  Olmsted, Michael S., The Small Group. Random House, New York. p.112.  2  K l e i n , Joyce Gale, Adult Education and Treatment Groups i n S o c i a l Agencies. The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America Press, Washington, D. C I960, p. 179. o t  3  Foulkes, S. H , Anthony, E. J , , Group Psychotherapy. 0  Penguin Books, p, 31, 4  K l e i n , I b i d , p. 178.  5  K l e i n , I b i d , p. 178.  - 72 tm  6,  2 ***  Process of i n t e r a c t i o n : "...every action i s treated as an i n t e r a c t i o n .... I t i s conceived to f a l l between, to connect, or t o r e l a t e a subject to some aspect o f s i t u a t i o n or o b j e c t , " *  7.  Process of oroup clumate: "Every group, a f t e r a varying period o f l i f e , develops i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c "atmosphere". The members begin t o show a consistency i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s . The "atmosphere" i s not there t o begin w i t h , but i s created by the process of interaction i t s e l f , " 2  1  Cartwright, Darwin, and Zander, A l v i n , ( E d i t o r s ) , Group Dynamics: Research and Theory. Evanston, I l l i n o i s . R. W. Peterson and Co., 1953, p. 29.  2  Foulkes and Anthony, I b i d , p.36,  - 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Community Ghest and Councils o f Greater Vancouver, Directory o f Services. 1962. Cork, R. Margaret, "Casework i n a Group Setting With Wives o f Alcoholics? The S o c i a l Worker. February 1956, Volume 24, Number 3. , Gorsini, Raymond J . , Methods of Group Psychotherapy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, Toronto, London, 1957. Coyle, Grace L., "Group Work i n P s y c h i a t r i c Settings; i t s Roots ard Branches," Use o f Groups i n the Psychiatric S e t t i n g . National Association o f S o c i a l Workers, New York, K l e i n , Joyce Gale, Adult Education and Treatment Groups i n S o c i a l Agencies. The Catholic University o f America. Press, Washington, D. C. Logan, Juanita Luck, "Social Group Work," S o c i a l Work Year Book, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, I960. Moreno, J . L., ed., Group Psychotherapy. Beacon House, New York, Neubaurer, Peter, "Basic Considerations i n the Application o f Therapy and Education to Parent Groups," I J G P, volume m i , 1953, c i t e d i n K l e i n . Northen, Helen, "Interrelated Functions o f the S o c i a l Group Workers," S o c i a l Work. A p r i l 1957. Olmsted, Michael S., The Small Group, Random House, New York. Powdermaker, Florence B., and Frank, Jerome D., Group Psychotherapy, research project o f the U. S. Veterans Association, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1953. Sheidlinger, Saul, "Group Psychotherapy," S o c i a l Work Year Book, New York, Russell Sage, 1955. Wax, John, " C r i t e r i a For Group Composition," paper presented a t the Workshop on Group Process i n the Psychiatric S e t t i n g . Lansing, Michegan, (June 13 - 16, 1958), Mimeographed, cited i n Klein. Wilson, Gertrude, "The Use o f Group Method i n the Practice o f S o c i a l Casework,'.' Tulane School o f S o c i a l Work Workshop. Wilson, Gertrude, and Ryland, Gladys, S o c i a l Group Work. Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n and Co., 194-9.  

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