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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A preliminary study of the genus Prosopium, with special reference to Posopium Williamsohi (Girard) McHugh, John Laurence 1938

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Accepted, as the Thesis requirement f o r the  M.A.  Degree..  A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE GENUS PROSOPIUM. WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PROSOPIUM WILLIAUSONI (GIRARD)  by J . Laurence McHugfa  A thesis submitted for the degree of MASTER OP ARTS i n the DEPARTMENT OP ZOOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL  1938  IHDEX Index Acknowl edgnents Introduction. Distribution Variability Systematic discussion P cylindraceus P. cylindraceus quadri1a t e rale 0  _P. cylindraceus S t a n l e y !  _P. cylindraceus minor P. williamsoni P_„ williamsoni oismontanus _P. williamsoni oouesi P. oregonium P. ooulteri P« snyderi P. spilonotus P. a"byssioola Economic importance Material examined Variation .in. "Pa williamsoni Rate of growth Body proportions Length of head Snout length Maxillary Eye Depth of head Distance from snout tip to occiput Length of dorsal f i n "base Length of anal f i n base Height of dorsal f i n Height of anal f i n Length pectoral f i n Length pelvic f i n Adipose f i n Pectoral f i n rays Scales in the lateral line Tables I to XI Tables XII to XX " Table XXI Tables XXII to XXXVIII Pood Tables XXXIX to LIX Summary Waterton lake Bowman lake Lake McDonald  1 HI 1 3. ; 4 3 9 9 10  11 11 12 12 13 15 16 16 17 18 20 21 22 26 27 31 SI 32 33 33 33 34. 34 34 35 35 35 37 38 39 62 73 74 91 95 110 111 111 112  - II -  Logging lake  Lake Minnewanka Third lake Maskinonge lake Cultus lake Tolt river Eboksack river Bow lake  "  Lake Louise  Elk river Conclusions  Bibliography  112  ,  -  112 113 113 113 114 114  114  115 115 117  119  - Ill -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The work was carried out at the University of British Columbia under the direction of Dr. G. McLean Praser, to whom the author is greatly indebted for his generous advice and criticism.  The various members of the staff of the Department of Zoology at the University of British. Columbia have assisted materially i n many ways* Dr. G. M. Watney has contributed valuable advice, and has been most generous in loaning literature.  Prof. G. J . Spencer and Mr. J . K.  Jacob have assisted In the identification of many of the insects,, and have loaned their literature freely at a l l times.  The assistance of  Ma% D. B. Quayle and Mr. W. M. Cameron, with, whom the writer has been in close contact during the course of the work, has been greatly appreciated.  Thanks are due to Dr. W. A. Clemens of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo B. C. and Dr. D. S. Bawson of the Department of Biology at (  the University of Saskatchewan for the opportunity of examining the Bow river and Waterton lake material.  Dr. E. E. Poerster and Dr. W. E. Hieker of the Biological Board of Canada very kindly gave permission to examine their collections of Prosopium from Cultus lake. Both have helped in many other ways too numerous to mention. Mr* Wm. Baxter of Cultus lake has been most  obliging i n securing specimens from that l o c a l i t y .  Dr. J. L. Hart of the Pacific Biological Station has given freely of his time i n discussing the various phases of the problem. This has proved doubly valuable due to his experience with eastern whitefish.  Dr. A. L.  Pritchard of the same Station has also given important suggestions as  to procedure in the systematic part of the work.  The author is indebted to Dr. Leonard P. Schultz of the United States national Museum for the loan of specimens from the collections of that institution, and particularly for information regarding the relationships of the various species of Prosopium.  During the course of the work the author has had occasion to correspond with several ichthyologists, particularly i n regard to the relationships and distribution of the various species.  In a l l cases the response has  been most helpful, and a considerable amount of valuable information has been gained i n this way. Besides Dr. Schultz, the following may be mentioned: Dr. Carl L. Hubbs of the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan, Dr. George S. Myers of the Natural History Museum at Stanford University, Dr. J . R. Dymond of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, and Mr. W. J. K. Harkness of the Department of Biology at the University of Toronto.  - Y -  The Elk river material was collected during the winter of 1937-38 by Mr. Wm. Stevenson of Michel, B. C. Thanks are due to Mr. Stevenson for Ms  cooperation in securing these specimens.  The difficult task of typing the f i n a l copy has been most ably carried out by Miss Eileen Smallwood, to whom great credit i s due for her caref u l and accurate work.  A preliminary study of the genus Proso-pium, with special reference to ProsoT>ium williamsoni (Girard) INTRODUCTION  The suborder Salmonoidea, or the family Salmonidae i n i t s broader sense, is a group of fishes characterized by the presence of an adipose f i n * This character i s also found i n several other groups, but these have l i t t l e likelihood of being confused with the salmon and their a l l i e s , since their a f f i n i t y to this family i s at the best very remote. The Salmonidae are found only i n the north temperate zone and I n the Arctic regions, but within this range are abundant wherever conditions are suitable to their existences  Most of the species are fresh water forms,  l i v i n g either i n lakes or i n rivers, or at times moving from one environment to the other as the occasion warrants.  Some are anadromous,  spending a part of their l i f e i n fresh water and a part i n the sea, the migrations taking place at quite definite periods. The stream dwellers may enter the sea or lakes occasionally, but not as a general habit, while the lake forms generally spend the greater part of their l i f e i n the deeper waters, approaching the shore or running up streams at the spawning season.  As originally described, the family Salmonidae was made up of two subfamilies, the Coregoninae and the Salraoninae.  However, i t has been  suggested that the differences are great enough to j u s t i f y the formation of separate families, the basis of separation being the relation between the parietal and supraoccipital bones of the head. Thus the  family Ooregoni&ae inoludes those forms in which the parietal8 are united, and the family Salmonidae embraces those in which the parietals are separated by the supraoccipital (Koelz 1927}. This follows current •American usage.  In their recognition of the various species of the family Coregonidae the Europeans and Americans also differ.  In the European sense of the  word, Coregonus includes a l l the known species of whitefish and lake herrings.  The Americans have divided these forms into various groups,  giving them generic or subgeneric designations i n various ways, but i n the present paper the classification of Koelz w i l l be followede Koelz (1927} regards Leuoiohthys. Coregonus. and Prosopium as distinct genera and does not recognize the subgenera of Jordan and Evermann (1911).  DISTRIBUTION  The European genus Coregonus. which i s approximately the same as the American family Cqregonidae, i s distributed almost completely around the world i n the northern latitudes*  Nowhere i n America does i t s  southern l i m i t exceed the f o r t i e t h p a r a l l e l , while i n Europe this southern l i m i t approximate© the f i f t i e t h degree of latitude.  This  distribution may also be applied with a f a i r degree of accuracy to the genus Prosopium since i t i s represented by one or another of 9  Its species i n practically a l l waters where Ooregonus i s found.  VARIABILITY  I t has been demonstrated by Koelz (1929 and 1931) that the Coregonids are an extremely variable group* At the same time, many of the species are separated by comparatively small differences, so that the range of variation within a species may be greater than the d i f f erence between two apparently distinct forms.  This last statement  applies particularly to the genus Leuclchthys, but i t may be referred to Prosopium with almost equal emphasis.  The original concept of a species was much more definitely limited than i s our present day view.  I t i s now recognized that a species  may be composed of a heterogeneous group, the extreme variants at either end of which may be very different In appearance.  Although  a group may have a wide distribution, the individuals of the group and their progeny are generally restricted to a comparatively lim- • ited l o c a l i t y .  Thus environment i s given the opportunity to work  i t s effect, and variants having characteristics which f i t them best for survival i n any particular region v / i l l eventually become the dominant forms there. In a large lake, therefore, several v a r i eties of a single species may be found.  Since i n such a case the  range of the species i n the lake i s probably more or less continuous, intergrading forms w i l l be found to exist, and this i s ideall y the criterion of a subspecies.  On the other hand, i t i s l i k e l y  to happen that a species may be found scattered i n more or less  isolated lakes or streams, or separated by natural barriers so that no intermingling is possible. In such a case, where the effects of latitude are at a minimum, i t is quite possible to find two bodies of water which are closely situated geographically, differing greatly in physical characteristics such as depth, chemical of the water, temperature, and the l i k e .  composition  In the same way, widely  separated lakes or rivers may be almost exactly similar in physical characters.  Since in a species the same mutation tends to recur  with a fairly definite frequency, i t w i l l eventually supersede i t s parent i f conditions are such that i t is more adaptable to i t s surroundings.  Thus, i t is more likely to find varieties of a fish  species distributed according to habitat than according to geographical location.  ,  A definite tendency is evident in the work which has been done on the systematica of the Prosopium group to give names to types which have originated as a direct consequence of environment.  It is quite  evident to anyone who has any acquaintance with systematic work that a limit must be drawn somewhere i n giving names to animals of any kind.  In many cases this dividing line between species must be  arbitrary i f the species are not to be needlessly multiplied, otherwise in the extreme case we would have each individual a separate species.  The Influence of environment on body form i n f i s h has been demonstrated by several workers. Dyraond and Hart (1927) refer to the work of Hubbs on the influence of temperature i n determining the number of vertebrae, f i n rays, and scales.  I t i s found that these characters  have a higher average count i n f i s h which have developed at lower temperatures. Other factors,, such as muscular development, may mate r i a l l y affect various body proportions, producing an apparently distinct race.  I believe also that confusion may have arisen i n some cases as a result of the practice followed by some Investigators of picking a single individual as the type specimen, and of drawing their description of the speoies from this one fish*  An example of this procedure may be  found i n the work of Jordan andSnyder (1909) i n their description of Ooregonus oregonius. The description i s given from the type specimen, which i s described as the largest specimen known. The authors also include a table showing proportional measurements of five other individuals, and i t is.seen that .thethead and also the snout are r e l atively much shorter i n the smaller f i s h .  I t i s a characteristic of  Prosopium williamsoni that i n the breeding season the snout, and consequently the head, becomes much elongated i n many cases, and i t is quite l i k e l y that such i s the case with Jordan and Snyder's species.  This w i l l be discussed further under the descriptions of  the various species.  If i t i s necessary that a type specimen be selected for deposition in a museum, then i t seems more reasonable that a considerable series should be examined, and an individual chosen which approximates most closely the average values of each of the characters studied*  < .  SYSTEMATIC DISCUSSION  The recognition of Prosopium as a distinct genus i s attributed to Koelz (1927) by Hubbs (Letter), but this f i r s t appeared i n print i n Hubbs* c h e c k l i s t of the fishes of the Great lakes (1926).  The chief  difference between Prosopium and the other two species of Coregonidae i s the presence of a single flap between the n o s t r i l s , as .opposed to two flaps i n Leueichthys and Ooregonus.  Another important feature  which was not emphasized by Koelz, but which i s stressed by Dr. Hubbs is the presence i n the young of Prosopium of parr markings such as are developed i n the young of the P a c i f i c salmon. These are never present i n the other two genera. Other distinguishing features of Prosopium are the small mouth, the absence of teeth, and the presence of a comparatively small number of short, thick g i l l rakers.  The oldest species name given to this group i s Salmo cyllndraoeus Pallas, 1784.  In a recent paper, Berg (1936) refers this.species  to the genus Prosopium. and, finding the American species Prosopium quadrilaterale to be only s l i g h t l y different from the European species, regards i t as a subspecies of the l a t t e r .  Although considerable work  has yet to be done before the relationships between the various species of this group are dear, i t seems reasonable at present to divide them into three main groups« These groups are characterized by their general resemblance to the three definite species of Prosopium. namely oylindraceus. williamsoni, and coulter!. The  three groups, with the synonymy of their included species, and the reasons  for so grouping them, are as follows below. . , •  FIRST GROUP Prosopium cylindraceus (Pallas) Salmo cylindraceus Pallas., i n Pennant, Arctic Zoology, 1, 1784: CHI ( i n part: Lena, Indigirka, Kolymaj. Salmo microstomus Pallas. Zoographia Rosso-asiatica, 3, 1811s 405 (in part: Lena, Indlgirka, Kolyma). Goregonus mongolicus Varpakhovskii. Ann.Mus.Acad.Imp.St.-Petersb.j, 5, 1900: 424, pi.13, fig.2 (basin of upper Yenisei r i v e r ) . Ooregonus cylindraceus Berg Poissons des eaux douces de 1*URSS, 1, 1932: 219 (Kolyma,, Lena, Khatanga, Taimyr, Piassina, right tributaries of Yenisei), f i g s . 166&--C on p. 208 (Kolyma r . ) ; i b i d . j 2, 1933: 846. Awerinzew, Intern.Rev.ges.Hydrob.und Hydrogr.32 , 1935: 60 and 73 (lower course of Lena r»). Ooregonus lavaretus pidschian natio mongolicus Berg, i b i d . , 1, 1933: ' 257, f i g . 204. a  _  Scales 8-11, 89-106, 7-9, average i n l a t e r a l line 97.  G i l l rakers  usually 18 to 20. Prom the right tributaries of the Yenisei to Kolyma. Synonymy and description from Berg (1936). e Prosopium cylindraceus quadrilateralfad" (Richardson) Salmo cylindraceus Pallas, i n Pennant, Arctic Zoology, 1, 1784? CXXVII (in part: "Kamchatka"). Salmo; microstomus Pallas. Zoographia Rosso-asiatica* 3, 1811 405 (in part: Anadyr, Okhota, Kukhtui, "Kamchatka"). Ooregonus quadrilateralis Richardson, i n Franklin, Narrative of a journey to the polar sea, 1823: 714, pi.25, fig.2 (small rivers about Port Enterprise and In the Arctic sea). Ooregonus novae-angllae Prescott. iSmer.Joum.Sci.Arts, XI, 1851, 342 (lake Winnipiseogee, N.H.). Prosopium quadrilaterale Koelz.-Bull.U.S.Bur.Pish.. 43 (2), 1927 (1929)j 544 (Great lakes except Erie; lake Nipigon), fig.30 (lake Huron). Ooregonus cylindraceus Kaganowsky, Pishes of the Anadyr river, i n press (Anadyr and southward to the Vivenskaya r i v e r at 60 N.Lat., near Korf bay; Penshina river at Penshino). Berg, Poissons des eaux douces de l*URSSi 1, 1932: 219 {in part: drainage of the Pacific in,Asia)v ' • • ' " •' :  1  1  Basing his statements on Koelz (1927), Berg finds that this species differs slightly from oylindraceus i n having fewer l a t e r a l line scales and fewer g i l l rakers.  In numerous specimens from the Great lakes and  .lake Nipigon the l a t e r a l l i n e scales were (74) 84-95 (100), and the number of g i l l rakers usually 16 to 18.  Synonymy from Berg (1936)  and Evermann and Smith (1894). Prpsopium cyllndraoeua Stanley! (Kendall) Ooregonus Stanley!,.Kendall. Bull.u.S.Fish Comm.,• XXII, 1902 (1904), 366 (thoroughfare between Mud and Cross lakes, Maine). Prosopium quadrilaterale minor Koelz. Pap.Mich.Acad.Soi.Arts and Letters, XIII, 1930, 382 ( i n part: Cross lake thoroughfare,  Me.).  Kendall states that his species has the general appearance of Ooregonus quadrilateralis. but differs i n the less slender body, shape of head, less curved p r o f i l e , less compressed snout, and larger mouth. I t has also possibly somewhat fewer lateral l i n e soales, the number i n eight specimens ranging from 82 to 90 with an average of 85.  These differences  seem hardly sufficient for specific rank and this i s confirmed by a l e t t e r from Dr. Hubbs (1937) i n which he states that Berg's arrangement would throw the form stanleyi as a subspecies of oylindraceus» Koelz refers the Cross lake thoroughfare whitefish to Ms  subspecies  minor of quadrilaterale. and i t i s presumed that he means the  torn  stanleyi. although he does not definitely mention this species.  If  these two are to be included under the same subspeoifio heading, the name stanleyi should stand, and minor should be included i n the synonymy.  Proaopium oylindraceus minor (Koelz) Prosopium quadrilaterale minor Koelz, Pap.Mich.Acad.Sol.Arts and Letters, XIII, 1930 (1931), 382 (lake Ohazy, New York). This species i s described "by Koelz as differing from quadrilaterale In having fewer l a t e r a l l i n e scales, fewer gillrakers on the f i r s t branchial arch, and a relatively larger head and paired f i n s .  The  lateral line scales vary from 79 to 90 i n twenty specimens, with an average of 83. The g i l l rakers on the f i r s t arch range from 14 to 18 with an average of 16. Koelz states that probably none of the inland lake forms of Prosopium w i l l be found to be exactly l i k e those which occur i n the Great lakes. He finds that the Cross thoroughfare and the Ohazy lake specimens d i f f e r i n somewhat the same way from the typical quadrilaterale of lake Michigan, although there are also slight differences between these varieties*  I f the two are considered as  identical, then stanleyi has the p r i o r i t y , and the form minor should not be recognized.  SECOND GROUP  . <  Prosopium Williamson! (Girard)  Ooregonus Williamson! Girard. Proo.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phila., 1856, 136 (Des Chutes river, Oregon). Ooregonus couesil Milner. Rep.U.S.Pish.Comm.for 1872-73 (1874), 88 (Chief mountain lake, Montana), This species has a wide distribution.  According to Jordan and Evermann  (1909) i t inhabits the rivers of the Sierra Nevada and the west slope of the Rockies, from the Praser and the Columbia to the Truckee and other streams of the Lahontan basin of Nevada, being especially abun-  dant in. the lakes of northern Idaho, western Montana, and Washington. Evermann (1891) also reports i t from Wyoming, and Bajkov (1927) from the Athabasca river.  Jordan (1905) mentions Vancouver island as the  western l i m i t of the species, hut as far as i s known, there i s no record In the literature of i t s capture i n this l o c a l i t y .  According to  Dr. Hubbs i t i s a very real problem whether the type williamsoni i s not of the oregonius sort.  Judging from the type l o c a l i t y , this may  well be so. I f such i s the case, the name williamsoni should replace oregonius, and a new name should be resurrected from the synonymy for the form which we now know as williamsoni. Prosopium williamsoni oismontanus (Jordan) Ooregonus williamsoni oismontanus Jordan, Bull.U.S.Fish.Comm., IX, 1869, 49, pi.9, figs.8,9 (Horsethlef Springs creek, a tributary of the Madison river, Montana). , I t i s doubtful as to the real existence of this variety, i n view of the great v a r i a b i l i t y of the whole group. I t differs from williamsoni proper by the more slender body and shorter f i n s .  Body depth i s a  poor character on Which to base specific differences, and f i n lengths are hardly more suitable unless very significantly different from the type. Evermann and Smith (1894) and Eigenmanxi (1894) say that the differences from williamsoni are very slight.  Dr. Schultz t e l l s me  i t i s at best only a subspecies or race. Proaoplum williamsoni oouesi (Milner) Coregonus oouesli Milner. Kep.U.S.Fish.Goran. for 1872-73 (1874), 88 (Chief Mountain lake, Montana). This species or variety i s included by Evermann and Smith (1894) i n  the synonymy of Prosopium Williamson!« There seems to be considerable difference among the various authors as to the status of this form, however. Jordan and Snyder (1909) say i t i s doubtless the same as cismontanus. and that the two represent at the most a subspecies of Williamson!.  On the other hand, Jordan and Evermann ,(1909) refer to  couesl as "a strongly marked species, a l l i e d to oregonius. and improperly confounded with Ooregonus Williamson!". Dr. Schultz (Letter 1937) says i t  is  probably a subspecies or race of wlillamsoni. while Dr.  Dymond (Letter 1937) states that he examined the type i n Washington, and that i f i t i s a typical representative of the population, i t i s distinct from Williamson!.  I t i s found i n the headwaters of the Sask-  atchewan river. Prosopium oregonium (Jordan and Snyder) Ooregonus Williamson! Girard, i n Jordan and Evermann, Pishes of north and middle America ( i n part). Smithson.Inst., U.S.Nat.Mus., B u l l . 47, 1896. Ooregonus oregonius Jordan and Snyder, Proo.U.S.lfat.Mus., XXXVI, 1§09, 425 (Mackenzie r i v e r , Oregon)« T r i l l i o n oregonius Jordan. Proc.Acad.lIat.Sci.Phila., 1918 (1919), 342. In the original description the authors refer to oregonius as a well marked species agreeing with 0. couesl i n the long snout, and further distinguished by a high adipose.  Jordan (1918) erected a new genus  T r i l l i o n for this species, but there seems to be no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for this action. Myers (1932) says the species i s closely relate* to Williamson!, and that according to Hubbs i t should be known as Prosopium oregonium. Later, i n a- l e t t e r £1937) Myers states that Schultz thinks oregonium  is  a synonym of  Williamson!.  This statement i s probably  hardly correct, "because Dr. Schultz (Letter 1937) apparently s t i l l believes there i s some distinction "between the two, although he says that he and his assistants had great difficulty i n distinguishing one from the other.  Dr. Dymond (Letter) says he examined the type in Washington,  and that i f a typical example of the race, i t is definitely distinct from Williamson!.  It has a very large head, with long snout and max-  i l l a r y , and long fins, particularly the adipose,, which i s nearly twice as large as the typical Williamson!,  He admits the possibility, how-  ever, that th© specimen i s abnormal. In connection with this i t i s necessary to refer back to page  of the Introduction, and the state-  ment that the type specimen selected i n this case hardly seems to be representative of the group described.  The long snout and maxillary  can be attributed to the characteristic lengthening of these features which takes place i n the older fish, especially at the breeding season. It i s true that the adipose i n these specimens of oregonium is larger than i n Williamson!, but i n view of Schultz .preliminary work oft th® 8  two species i n the Columbia r i v e r , i t i s possible that a study of a considerable series of specimens from this river would show that intergrading forms exist.  Dr. Hubbs (Letter 1937) thinks that the one i s  only a subspecies of the other, with the further reservation that i t may be necessary to Interchange the names, as discussed under W i l l i a m son! «, Crawford (1925) gives: the distribution of this form as the Columbia watershed, although he says i t may occur rarely in other places. According to Schultz (Letter 1937) i t occus only i n the Columbia, being found i n the main stream and the larger tributaries, while Williamson!  - 15 -  occurs i n the smaller tributaries and i n the lakes.  THIRD GROUP Prosopium ooulteri (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) Ooregonua ooulterli Eigenmann and Eigenmann Amer.ITat., Hov. 1892 961 (Kicking Horse r i v e r , Field, B.C.) ' ' 8  t  There i s not much doubt that ooulteri i s a distinct species.  According  to Evermann and Smith (1894) i t i s most closely related to williamsoni. but the differences are numerous. In i t s smaller size and generally more slender appearance i t i s d i s t i n c t , and added to these differences in appearance are differences i n discrete characters such as scale number and g i l l rakers.  The scales In the l a t e r a l l i n e vary from 60 to 64 i n  seven specimens with an average of 61, and the g i l l rakers are also less in number. The authors also mention the lack of parr marks i n the specimens examined by them, saying that i n specimens of williamsoni the same size these markings are d i s t i n c t . However, the examples of ooulteri are older than those of williamsoni of equal size, and i t Is po possible that they have lost their juvenile characters.  This species  was described from the Kicking Horse river at Field, B r i t i s h Columbia, and has since been reported from Diamond lake, Washington, and from southwestern Alaska, Chignik river and lake Aleknagik.  Dr. Schultz  (Letter 1937) i s convinced that this i s a good species.  He has taken  i t i n lake McDonald, i n Glacier National Park, Montana.  Dr.-Dymond •  (Letter<1937) examined the type i n the B r i t i s h Museum, and found i t distinct from williamsoni. quadrilaterale. or oregonium. v  - 16 -  Prosopium snyderi Myers Prosopium snyderi Myers. Copeia, 1932, 2, 62 (Orescent lake. Washington). The chief fault with this species i s that i t i s "based on a single specimen. This differs from coulteri i n having a longer head,, higher dorsal and anal f i n s , longer pectorals and pelvios, large adipose, more compressed body, and lower scale count. Dr. Schultz (Letter 1937) conveys the impression that there i s some doubt as to the v a l i d i t y of the species. The distinguishing characters, such as the longer head, larger eye, longer f i n s , and so on, may possibly be the features of a younger f i s h , and since Myers makes no mention of age in his description, this possi b i l i t y must be entertained.  As well as the species which f i t i n these three groups, two other species of western whitefishes exist which w i l l require further study before their relationships are clear. These were described by Snyder (1917) from Bear lake, in Idaho and Utah, a part of the drainage system of Great Salt lake. Although both of these f i s h were described as specie® of Ooregonus. the l o c a l i t y In which they were taken and their general appearance as i l l u s t r a t e d , suggest that they belong to the genus Prosopium. Prosopium spilonotus (Snyder) . ' i Ooregonus spilonotus Snyder. Bull.U.S.Bur.Pish., XXXVI, 1917-18 (1921), 3, (Bear lake, Idaho and Utah). ;  Differing from willjamsoni i n having smaller and more numerous pigment spots, larger scales, longer heads, and deeper and heavier bodies.  The  - 17 -  l a t e r a l line scales range from 74 to 81 and average 78 for twenty-two specimens • Prosopium abyssicola (Snyder) Coregonus abyssicola Snyder. Bull.U.S.Bur.Fish., XXXVT, 1917-18 (1921), 3 (Bear lake, Idaho and Utah). The smaller specimens d i f f e r from the young of the previous species i n having no pigment spots. The older specimens of spilonotus lose the characteristic markings but develop a longer maxillary and snout and deeper body, so that at this stage the structure of the head serves to distinguish the two.  The males of abyssicola develop pearl organs on  the scales i n the breeding season. These occur on the females occasiona l l y , but are never so prominent or numerous.  Another species which has been sometimes referred to Prosopium i s Coregonus kenniootti M i n e r . Dr. Dymond has also examined the type of this species, and concludes (Letter 1937) that i t properly belongs to to the genus Coregonus. view.  Dr. Hubbs (letter 1937) also agrees with this  ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE  None of the species of the genus Prosopium i s of any particular value as a commercial food f i s h .  This i s probably due i n the main to their  small size, and to the fact that they never occur i n particularly large numbers i n lakes, where their capture by means of g i l l nets would be possible.  In various parts of Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia williamsoni  is caught i n considerable numbers by angling i n lakes, mouths of streams and up the streams.  In B r i t i s h Columbia at least this occurs i n the  cold weather, evidently on the spawning migration. In the v i c i n i t y of Michel the residents f i s h for this species through the ice, using hooks baited with hellgrammites, a l a r v a l form of the Dobson f l y , of the Neuropteran family Cordalinae.  In the Tedder river, i n the v i c i n i t y of  the Cultus lake outlet, the hook i s baited with a single salmon egg. Considerable numbers are caught i n this way, and are often peddled from door to door at this time of year.  In quality of flash this f i s h has been compared favourably to the commercial Coregonids of the Great lakes. The flesh i s f a i r l y r i c h i n o i l , and for this reason i s suitable for frying.  Opinion i s not unanimous  i n this respect, however, and some consider the flesh to be coarse.  Prosopium may be of some value as an a r t i c l e i n the diet of other fishes.  Dr. Rawson found two specimens i n the stomach of a s i x pound  lake trout from Waterton lake i n 1937.  Such a species might prove to  be of great importance as a food for trout and other game fishes.  According to the present view, however, the chief economic importance of the genus is a negative one, and concerns the predatory habits of these f i s h with respect to the Pacific salmon»  Snyder (1918) reports  .that Williamson! seems to be particularly fond of the eggs of spawning fishes, even to the extent of devouring the eggs of its own kind, Poerster (1925) finds that the species destroys the eggs of spawning sockeye salmon. He says; "Rocky mountain whitefish (<3. Williamson!) are shown to have subsisted during spawning time on sockeye eggs, and in a river system where they are abundant, their activities might prove very disastrous to the continuance of a satisfactory sockeye yield." He ranks the whitefish together with the trout and suckers as being probably the most serious marauders at the spawning beds of the sockeye salmon (Onoorhynchus nerka).  That this whitefish extends its destructive  habits to a later phase in the l i f e history of the sockeye is shown further on in the present paper by the presence of seversl newly emerged sockeye fry in the stomach of an individual from Cultus lake.  MATERIAL EXAMINED  The specimens actually examined In the course of this work form a f a i r l y general collection from various l o c a l i t i e s i n western Canada and the northwestern United States. The f i r s t l o t were collected by Dr. Rawson in the summer of 1936 from certain lakes of the Bow river drainage system i n western Alberta. These were examined for stomach contents and rate of growth, and were measured i n detail for body proportions and meristic characters such as scales, f i n rays, and so on.  In 1937 Dr.  Eawson made collections i n Waterton lakes park i n southwestern Alberta, and this material was treated i n the same way.  The Cultus lake whitefish  were collected over a period of several years incidental to the study of the l i f e history of the sookeye salmon being made by the Biological Board of Canada. These were examined for food, growth, and body proportions . The. Elk river specimens were collected near Michel, B. C. i n 1938.  This sample was examined for systematic characters- and rate of  growth. The remainder of the material was. obtained from the collections of the United States National Museum. This was subjected to detailed measurements and counts, and the rate of growth was determined for each lake.  VARIATION IH PROSOPIUM WILLIAMSONI Introduction To illustrate the amount of variation between the various races of a 'single species of Prosopium, and also to show the range of variation within a race or population, detailed measurements and counts were made of a l l characters which might be expected to show significant differences. A total of 230 individuals from 13 localities were examined in this way.  Measurements of the various body proportions were made to the  nearest millimetre, and were then calculated as percentages of the standard length.  The results are tabulated in detail as percentages in  tables I to XI.  Approximately 30 different characters v/ere recorded for each f i s h examined. Of these, some showed a considerable degree of variation within the population, and exhibited significant differences between populations, while others varied within a smaller range, and were not of value i n distinguishing racial characters.  Those which, proved useful for.the recognit-  ion of populations included the dimensions of the head, the proportions of the various fins, the number of scales in the lateral line, and particularly the rate of growth. In most eases, in fact, differences in body proportions from the typical Williamson! can be correlated to a considerable degree with the growth rate.  A problem which caused some difficulty in the comparison of the various populations examined is the lack of data descriptive of the typical  - 22 -  williamsoni*  Since specimens from the type l o c a l i t y are not avail-  able, i t i s necessary to accept the next best alternative, and therefore for purposes of comparison the Waterton lake specimens are selected as representative of the normal form.  Rate of growth Scales were examined from 419 specimens and the standard lengths at the end of each year of l i f e were calculated by a method similar to that used by Van Oosten (1923). The results of these calculations are given i n tables XII to XX.  Although!the growth rate varies somewhat from lake to lake, the material can be divided into four main groups. The f i r s t , which contains those populations having a rate of growth similar to that of the typical williamsoni. includes the samples from laics Minnewanka and Third lake i n Banff park, Waterton and Maskinonge lakes i n the Waterton lakes park, Bowman lake, Logging lake and lake McDonald In Glacier National park, Montana, and possibly the Nooksack and Tolt rivers i n Washington*  The second division i s represented by the  Oultus lake f i s h , which have a considerably faster growth i n their f i r s t three or four years, although they do hot appear to attain a greater size at maturity.  The third group i s distinguished by a  very slow growth, the rate being only about half as great as i n the Waterton lake f i s h .  Fourthly, the Elk river f i s h must be placed by  themselves because of their very small growth i n the f i r s t year.  - 23 -  The Cascade river population may also f a l l in this group.  Table XXI  presents the average calculated standard length at the end of each year of l i f e for each of the populations studied. 'GROUP 1  Waterton lake As shown in the table, these f i s h attain a greater age than those from any of the other localities.  It will be noticed, however, that they do  not exceed the others i n size to any great extent.  It is a recognized  fact that in a population of f i s h a limit exists i n regard to the maximum size attainable, and therefore the more rapidly growing individuals mature earlier and die younger. Thus, i f other factors do not influence the result, the slower growing races should reach a greater age,; as is well illustrated in this case.  Bowman lake. Logging lake, and lake McDonald In this case, conditions in the three lakes are evidently very similar, i f the growth rate is to be considered as an indication.  This might be  expected from the fact that a l l three are closely situated and drain into the same river system.  The slight differences in rate of growth,  i f significant, can probably be explained by the effect of altitude.  Lake Minnewanka Although this lake is at a higher altitude than any other in the group, the growth rate is relatively rapid, and the maximum age attained is probably not much greate* than ten years*  The growth in the early years  is much the same as for the Waterton lake fish, and for this reason the whitefish population is placed i n the same group.  ,Tnird lake The growth of these fish very closely parallels that of the previous lot, and there is l i t t l e doubt that both belong in the same category.  Maskinonge lake Two individuals in their second year made up the sample from this lake. The average size at the end of the f i r s t year cannot therefore be considered significant.  However the close connection between Waterton and  Maskinonge lakes leaves l i t t l e doubt as to the relation between the two samples.  Tolt and ETooksack rivers Here again the small size of the samples causes the figures to be of l i t t l e significance.  In view of the locality, i t seems more likely that  these races should be similar to the Gultus lake fish.  The figures  obtained agree more closely with the average values for the f i r s t group, however, and for this reason the two samples are included provisionally with the Waterton lake type.  GROUP 2 Cultus lake At f i r s t sight, the reason for separating the Cultus lake race may appear  obscure,  i n size attained and maximum age the similarity to the Minne-  wanka and third lake f i s h i s marked. I t w i l l he observed, however,, that the growth rate i n the f i r s t three years i s considerably greater than i n any other case.  This might be explained i n part by the low altitude of  the lake. As w i l l be seen i n a later section,, the separation of the Cultus lake f i s h i s further j u s t i f i e d by differences i n body proportions. GROUP 3 Bow lake The greater altitude and rather unusual physical characteristics of Bow lake are reflected to a marked degree In the rate of growth of the whitef i s h population.  This i s particularly noticeable i n the f i r s t three or  four years, when the rate i s only about half as great as i n the Waterton lake group, and only one-third as much as i n Cultus lake. The greatest age attainable seems to be closely comparable to the other groups, but the maximum size i s considerably less.  This i s caused probably to a  great extent by the combined action of lower temperatures and the presence of s i l t i n the water, which must have a great effect on the available food supply and the penetration of lights  Lake Louise The growth rate appears to be somewhat greater i n the early years, although the maximum size and age are probably much the same. Conditions i n Bow lake and lake Louise are similar, and the effects of the physical characteristics produce parallel variations i n the whitefish populations.  - 26 -  GROUP 4 * )  ,  Elk river The type here shows a combination of the characters of groups three and one.  In the f i r s t year the growth is poor, being comparable to the f i r s t  year's growth in lake Louise.  After the f i r s t winter, however, the rate  of growth becomes as rapid as in the Waterton lake group.  The small  growth of the f i r s t year may be an effect of a later spawning, producing fry which do not develop scales until relatively late in the summer.  Cascade river The sample consists of a single specimen in i t s second summer.  Unless  the specimen is abnormal, the effect produced here is greatly similar to that occurring in the Elk river.  The f i r s t year* s growth is small, but  the growth in the second summer is considerable, even though the second summer's development is not complete.  Tentatively, this specimen is placed  with the Elk river fish.  BODY PROPORTIONS In considering the proportions of the various body characters, i t must be kept in mind that while some vary directly as the length, others do not..  In other words, a l l parts of the fish do not grow at the same  rate.  The head for instance as a general rule grows less rapidly than  the body, so that in the younger fish the heads are proportionately longer.  The snout and maxillary correspond very closely in growth rate  with the head. The body itself grows relatively deeper and wider as  the fish increases i n age.  It is necessary, therefore, that the data he divided into groups which .will he comparable with each other.  This may be done either according  to the size or the age of the fish.  In view of the great variation i n  rate of growth of the different races of fish, i t can be seen that a grouping according to size is unsatisfactory, and the selection of age in years as a unit on which to base the separation seems more reasonable.  Talcing the growth of the head as an example, i t will be observed that the rate changes i n relation to the growth of the body as the fish grows older, and past a certain point the two increase i n size proportionately. This point at which the two rates approximately coincide comes somewhere towards the end of the second year, and i t therefore seems reasonable to conclude that i n fish two years of age or older this character is comparable.  This conclusion is f a i r l y well supported by the data presented  in this paper.  In the other characters studied, there is less evidence of a difference between younger and older fish, but in order to ensure that the effect of any difference will not be allowed to influence the results, the yearling fish and the fry are not included in drawing averages for a population.  Length of head The percentage head lengths of the various races are presented i n table  XXII.  To render more intelligible the meaning of the average values,  the individual head lengths are listed in the form of frequenoy distributions, iThis helps to give a pictorial idea of the deviation from the .average value, and the significance of any average differences which may occur.  An examination of the f i r s t section of table XXII w i l l show that i n spite of the elimination of the younger fish from the calculations, there is s t i l l a definite correlation between size and proportional head length.  Thus the differences in average values for this character  in fish from different localities can be explained with reference to environmental factors. For this reason i t must be emphasized that relative head length should not be allowed much weight as a systematic chara ter in this genus. Oultus lake This race has the shortest head of any population examined. In Leucich" thy8. short-headedness is in general a southern trait (Eoelz 1931) and must therefore be associated with higher temperatures or other factors characteristic of southern locations. It is likely that the same may be true of Prosopium.  In this case we are dealing with differences in  elevation, rather than latitude, but i f temperature or some related factor which is a direct consequence of low altitude is the governing one, the Cultus lake fish should certainly have shorter heads than any of the others here studied.  Lake Minnewanka That these fish should have heads as short as the Oultus lake population is rather difficult to explain in terms of altitude*  Conditions of  temperature in lake Minnewanka are quite moderate, however, ant the physical characters of the two lakes are evidently not as diverse as the great spread in altitude would lead one to believe. Tolt river The locality of capture of this single specimen would suggest that i t should resemble the Cultus lake fish*  Insofar as head length is concern-  ed, i t is likely that there is a close relation between the two forms, although the data can hardly be considered significant. Waterton lake In head length the Waterton lake specimens vary over a comparatively wide range, but the average value approximates closely that of the typical williamsoni*  An interesting feature which appears here In a more marked  degree than in any of the other samples is the increase in growth rate of the head with increasing age.  This is undoubtedly due to the length-  ening of the snout or rostrum which so often occurs in this species with approaching maturity. Third lake As might be expected from i t s proximity and similarity to Watsrton lake, the Third lake population appears to be very similar as regards average head length.  This is true even though the fish in the sample average  considerably greater in standard length.  This race also agrees closely in head length with the fish from Waterton lake. Bow lake The Bow lake population shows a significant increase i n average length of head over the preceding samples.  That the cause is largely due to  the effects of environment is not to be doubted, although the effect seems to be somewhat out of proportion to the average length of the fish when compared to the Logging lake sample for instance.  The yearling fish  also have heads which are exceptionally large for their age. Elk river The long heads of the Elk river fish cannot be explained so well on the basis of the average length of the sample. It would be expected that the proportion of head to body would be less, i f the rate of growth is the chief factor controlling head length*  This seems therefore to strengthen  the theory that the Elk river fish belong to a distinct race« • Bowman lake The sample i n this case consisted wholly of young fish, and this has almost certainly exaggerated the relative size of the head. For the purpose of determining the relationships of the Bowman lake population, the head lengths of the yearling fish are undoubtedly more comparable, as reference to the second seotion of table XIII w i l l show. Uooksack river  Nooksaok' river Here also the data, although of small significance, supports the idea that locality should determine the relations of the population. The head lengths of the yearling fish in the Nooksaok are closely allied with those of the Oultus lake race.  SNOUT LENGTH As a general rule, snout length and head length are closely correlated,, although there is considerably less variation in the former character. This correlation can be judged from table XXIII, in which the long-headed races appear to have somewhat longer snouts.  This lengthening of the  snout is usually accompanied by the peculiar modification of this feature which reaches its greatest development in oregonium. and alters the appearance of the head considerably.  The Cultus lake fish show l i t t l e  evidence of this phenomenon, except in the mature fish.  On the other  hand, the Waterton lake specimens are nearly a l l modified in this way to some extent.  The Elk river race is distinct in having the longest  snout of any, and yet there is no external evidence of the bulging rostrum characteristic of the Waterton fish.  '  MAXILLARY  The relation of snout to maxillary varies considerably in the different races.  In most cases the maxillary is exceeded in length by the snout,  but this is not the rule in Bow lake or in Bowman lake, where the maxill-  ary slightly exceeds the snout•  A comparison of the data for the year-  ling fish in tables XXIII and XXI7 will provide a reasonable explanation. In the younger fish, snout and maxillary compare very closely in size, as .shown by the tables, but with increasing size the snout grows more rapidly,, so that in the largest fish the difference between these two characters is greatest. The Bow and Bowman lake fish are slow growing races, and i t is reasonable to suppose that the older fish in these cases will be more likely to retain the characteristics of younger fish.  No great correlation exists between snout and maxillary in any of the populations examined, with the exception of the Elk river series. Here the maxillary agrees with the snout In being relatively longer than in any other race.  EYE An examination of tables I to XI w i l l show that the eye grows less rapidly than the individual, and continues to do so throughout the l i f e of the fish.  The rate of decrease in relative eye diameter is correlated more  closely with size than with age, but in fish of equal size there is l i t t l e variation in the average size of this organ.  For this reason, eye diam-  eter is of l i t t l e value as a systematic character i n this group.  Table XXV gives the distribution of relative eye diameters for several localities.  It will be noticed that the races having the largest eye,  for example the Bovraan and Bow lake populations, are those with the  - 35 -  slowest growth rate. This is in accord with the previous observations.  DEPTH OF HEAD  •  As might be expected, the long-headed forms also have the deepest heads, and vice versa.  In comparing tables XXII and XXVI i t will be noticed  that this correlation is not absolute, but this is probably due to unavoidable errors in sampling rather than to any departure from the general rule. nificant.  Any differences noted with regard to this point are not sigThe figures contained in table XXVI again show that up to a  certain point the head grows less rapidly than the body.  DISTANCE FROM SNOUT TIP TO OCCIPUT Here the same correlation with the other head dimensions is demonstrated. Table XXVII gives the distribution and average values of this character for the various lakes and rivers.  The conclusions to be drawn from these  data are similar to those discussed in the previous section.  LENGTH OF DORSAL FIN BASE The differences between the average values for this character are not marked, as shown by table XXVIII. Differences which do appear are probably not highly significant, but i t is interesting to note that the long headed forms are at the two extremes with regard to dorsal f i n base. The Bow lake fish, and the other long-headed races with the exception of the Elk river population, have the shortest bases on this f i n .  The latter  group (Elk river), however, have a relatively long base to the dorsal, and agree closely with the Cultus lake type in this respect.  This relation  does not show so well in comparing the yearling fish, but the discrepancy .can be traced to insufficient samples.  LENGTH OF AM. FIN BASE The results for this character as presented in table XXIX confirm the conclusions drawn for the base of the dorsal f i n . Minor differences will be noted i f the two tables are compared, but these aire not significant, and do not detract from the value of the general statements made.  HEIGHT OF DORSAL FIN The dorsal f i n varies in height over a fairly wide range, as w i l l be observed from table XXX.  In general, the slower growing races seem to  have higher dorsal fins, as illustrated by the data from Bow and Bowman lakes.  The Elk river fish are characterized by a relatively high dorsal  and are equalled in this respect only by the Bowman lake population.  HEIGHT OF ANAL FIN The relations between the various lakes with respect to this character are almost exactly the same as for the dorsal height.  The Elk river  population is an exception for the reason that the anal is relatively much higher than i n any of the others.  This is due to the peculiar  structural modification of this f i n in which the anterior portion is  produced ventrally into a distinct lobe.  In the older fish this is  accompanied by a similar enlargement of the ventral lobe of the caudal fin.  Table XXXI gives the data concerning this character,  LENGTH PECTORAL PIN  ,  In the older fish, this character seems to be correlated inversely with size, and thus inversely with the growth rate. It is doubtful whether this i s a result of the effect of juvenile characters produced by the low rate of growth, since an examination of the second part of table XXXII will show that no significant differences exist between the pactoral f i n lengths of the yearling fish.  The Cultus lake f i s h and the othe  fast growing forms have the shortest pectorals, while the Bow lake specimens have distinctly the longest.  The Elk river race Is intermediate  with respect to this feature.  LENGTH PELVIC PIN Table XXXIII shows that the slow growing fish from Bow lake and the Elk river posses the longest pelvic fins.  The Cultus and Waterton lake  forms agree in being intermediate with respect to this character, while the remainder of the races examined are relatively short-finned. The pelvics in the yearling fish do not differ significantly.  ADIPOSE FIN Koelz (1927) In his study of Great lakes Coregonidae, found that the  adipose was extremely variable and had l i t t l e value as a systematic character.  In Prosopium. however, the size of this f i n has been used to  separate one of the western forms framithe rest of the species found in .the same general locality.  Pratt (1923) in his manual of the Vertebrates  of the United States separates the western species as follows: Adipose f i n with a much shorter base than the anal 0,. ooulteri p_. williamsoni Adipose f i n with as long a base as the anal 0. oregonus In this study of a number of races of P. williamsoni, however, i t has been found that the adipose, as stated by Koelz, is highly variable, and no such definite relation as the one on which the above key is based seems to exist. Length adipose In table XXXIV the values for this character are listed.  The range of  variation within each race is relatively great, so that no significant differences between populations are shown, except in the case of the Cultus lake fish, and undoubtedly also in those from the Hooksack and Tolt rivers in the state of Washington. This incidentally constitutes further evidence for the placing of the Nooksack and Tolt fish in a group with the Cultus lake population. Base adipose The same holds true in a general way for this character.  Distinctive  features of table XXXV are the relatively short base for the adipose of the Elk river fish, and the long base on this f i n in the Gultus lake race. Height adipose This character varies to some extent, but in no case could the adipose be described as "banner-like , which is the description applied to the 11  adipose of oregonium* Ratio of adipose base to anal base This ratio was calculated for comparison with Pratt's key.  The differ-  ences between races are of doubtful significance, but the important feature of table XXXVI is the fact that the adipose not only equals the anal, but even exceeds i t in some cases.  It must be admitted, of course,  that the average value for any population shows the anal base to exceed the adipose.  The Elk river population has the shortest adipose base,  and the Cultus lake fish have the longest in relation to the base of the anal.  The relation of the adipose length to the anal base was also cal-  culated for each group, but no new conclusions can be drawn fron this ratio.  PECTORAL PUT RAYS  Table XXXVII gives the variation in number of rays in the pectoral f i n . This variation is so great in comparison to any differences observed, that this feature is of l i t t l e use systematically. The difference in the Gultus lake fish is worthy of note, .however.  - 38 -  SCALES, m THE LATERAL LINE, Again no significant differences are to be observed.  It may prove, how-  ever, that the Cultus lake and Elk river fish have slightly more scales in the lateral line than the other races. illustrated i n table XXXYIII.  The averages and dispersions are  Table I - Systematic characters of Prosopium from lake Minnewanka. Body proportions i n percentages of standard length. Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n L ength pe c to ral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio - ^ ° anal base Ratio ? . anal base a d  a d i p  s e  8 9  b a s e  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branohios tegals  7+ 335 20.3 13.5 21.3 13.6  6+ 315 19.9 13.7 24.2 15.5  6* 310 20.4 14.1 20.2 12.3  5+ 285 20.4 13.2 21.8 13.2  260 19.1 12.7 19.2 12.7  4t230 19.7 12.4 20.0 12.6  3f 225 19.7 12.7 19.6 12.6  6.6 6.9 5.8 4.5 4.6 3.9 4.4 6.2 6.5 15.2 15.4 44,5 44.5 50.5 51.2  6.4 6.4 5.0 4.26.3 15.6 44.5  6.4 5.7 5.0 3.9 6.6 14.7 45.0 52.0  6.2 4.8 4.5 3.9 6. 3 14.7 43.1 50.0  6.0 5.5 5.4 4.6 6*1 15.7 42.6 50.0  6,2 6.4 5.8 4.8 5.3 4.0 5.1 6.2 6. 6 14.7 16.4 40.6 42.6 49,6 50,3  13.0 12.0 11.6 8.4 8.4 8® 6 12.4 X<3« 2 13.1 10.4 15.7 15.9 16.2 X2® 3 JL3® 2 13.2 2,5 2.7 2.2 7.2 7.1 6.3 9.1 7.7 7.5 1.08 0.92 0.87  11.4 7,9 13.0 11.3 15.8 13.3 2,5 6.8 7.8  11.9 11.9 8.3 8,9 14.5 13.9 11.1 11.3 16.9 16.3 13,8 13.7 2, 6 2.3 6.6 6,8 8,3 7.9  11.6 9.4 12.4 11.9 15.0 12.7 2.3 6*9 8.3 0.88  &•  3f 210 20.7 13.6 20.5 11.6  12.2 8.7 14.1 10.8 17.0 12.7 3.5 6.7 8,6  2+ 185 21.3 13.0 19.7 12.5  2+ 2+ 175 155 21.5 22.0 13.5 13.2 20,5 18.4 X2 < & 512.1  6.3 6m 3 6.3 5.7 5.6 6.0 5 e 2 5.3 5.6 4.7 4.8 5.5 6.7 6.5 6© 2 X 6« <216.4 17.0 42,7 42.8 44,3 51.0 53« X 52,8 12.0 12.2 11.9 8.1 8,7 8.8 14.3 14.7 14.5 XX 9 5 11.0 15.7 17.4 17.8 13.7 14.0 14.4 3.1 3e0 2.3 7,4 7,3 7,2 9,6 8.9 8.2  0.99 1.0 0.89 0.99 1,18 1.02 0.93  0.73 0.86 0.85 0.73 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.77 0.91 0.84 0.82 12 11 18 11 82 9 8  12 11 17 11 84 9 9  12 11 17 11 81 10 8  12 ' 10 17 11 82 9 8  12 1016 11 87 10 8  12 11 16  13 11 16 11 ' 10 79 80 9 9 8 , 8  13 11 17 11 83 9 8  12 11 17 11 88 9 8  12 11 17  11  80 9 8  12 10 18 11 84 9 8  13 9  9 14 8  8 12 8  9 13 8  8 12 8  9 12 8  9 14 9  9 13 8  9 13 8  9 12 8  9 14 8  :  Table II - Systematic characters of. Prosopium from Bow lake.  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio *POse . anal base Ratio P * anal base ad  a d i  o s e  a s e  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branch!08tegals  9+ 220 21.6 15.5 19.4 13.0  8* 215 21.7 14.3 19.9 12.4  8*177 21.6 15.2 20.9 12.9  7+ 7* 7+ 6* 207 190 189 161 22.5 22.6 21.4 23.1 14.9 14.9 14.9 15.3 22.0 21.0 19.6 21.5 12.9 11.9 12.2 13.4  6.2 6.4 6.1 6.4 6.5 6.1 5.6 5.6 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.9 5.8 6.1 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.7 5.3 :6.8 6.2 6.1 6.5 6.2 6.2 16.3 17.3 16.3 16.9 16.8 16.4 42.1 40.6 43.2 44.0 43.4 41.5 52.3 51.1 51.7 54.2 52.9 51.1 11.3 8.7 16.8 13.3 20.3 15.8 3.4 6.4 9.6 1.1  11.8 10.9 .: 9.8 10.3 14.9 14.4 13.2 13.3 18.6 17.9 15.2 15.1 2.8 3.0 7.5 6.6 9.0 8.2 0.92 0.80  11.2 8.8 14.6 11.6 18.2 14.5  11.6 8.4 16.4 13.6 20.3 15.3 2.9 3.0 6.8 6.8 8.5 8.1  11.5 8.5 14.7 11.3 17.8 13.6 2.7 7.7 9.3  6.7 5.5 6.0 6.3 6.7  12.2 10.2 16.1 12.3 19.9 14.6 3.4  0.97 0.96 1.09  6* 158 23.0 15.5 23.2 13.5  6* 154 22.1 14.5 20.6 12.4  3* 133 22.8 15.0 21.1 11.2  6.7 6.3 6.2 6.2 5.6 6.2 5.6 5.9 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.4 5.9 6.0 5.6 6.8 5.9 6.4 6.2 17.9 17.8 17.6 16.4 44.0 42.8 43.0 42.6 52.2 52.5 50.6 50.9 11.8 9.1 16.1 12.2 20.0 16.0 3.5 7.0 8.9  11.0 8.8 14.9 11.9 19.2 14.4 2.5 7.5 8.8  0.98 1.0  0.74 0.77 0.64 0.77 0.81 0.91  5f 144 22.7 14.9 20.2 11.2  12.6 11.6 8.7 9.9 15.6 14.0 11.7 11.7 17.9 17.1 14.6 13.8 2.6 2.8 6.5 7.4 8.3 9.0 0.95  0.91  0.77 0.85 0.75  0.7B-  12 11 17 11 78 .9 8  12 11. 17 11 84 9 8  12 12 16 11 85 9 8  12 11 is: ii 80 9 8  13 11 17 11 78 8 8  13 11 16 11 80 8 8  13 13 11 12 11 11 17 •' 17 16 12 11 11 83 78 79 9 9 9 8 8 8  12 12 11.' ' 11 17 17 11 11 78 81 9 9 8 8  8 12 8  8 12 8  9 12 8  • 9 8 12 11 9 9  9 12 7  9 13 7  8 11 8  :  9 13 8  9 13 8  9 12 8  Table II - Bow lake (Concluded)  Age 2+ 1+ Standard length 98 75 Length head 23.7 24.0 Depth head 14.6 Snout , 5.1 Maxillary 5.8 Diameter eye 6®2 Snout t i p to occiput 18.4 18.7 Snout t i p to dorsal 44.0 42.4 Snout t i p to pelvic 52®8 Length dorsal f i n base 11.4 Length anal f i n base 8.2 Height dorsal f i n 16.6 Height anal f i n 12*2 Length pectoral 17.6 Length pelvic 14.1 Base adipose 7.9 Length adipose 9.2 p. ,, .adipose 1.12 v anal base „ ,, adipose base 0.96 anal base 0  Scales i n lateral  79  Table I I I - Systematic characters of Prosopium from lake Louise. 1+ 71 25.3  1+ 1+... 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 71 68 67 67 66 66 62 24.9 25.5 2,&• 9 25.4 25.5 25.9 26.5 14.7  20.4 45.0 52.8  19.6 19.3 20.8 20.3 20.6 20.5 18,9 46.0 45.2 45.7 44,7 46.3 44„7 44.9 52.1 51.9 52.3 51.9 51.8 51.8 52 3 e  13.5 9.6  9e 6 1.0  87  Table IV - Systematic characters of Prosopium from Waterton. lakes  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary . Diameter eye Interorbltal width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio anal °base a d  i p  s e  1  Ratio * * i P f e base anal base Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers — short arm - long arm Branchiostegals  14+ 378  12+ 325 23.7 15.2 15.9 20.9 23.2 12.0 12.6  9+ 355 22.0 13.8 21.3 11.8  7+5+4+ 290 255 235 20.5 21.4 20.7 13.3 14.1 14.3 21.0 22.1 20.6 13.2 12.1 11.9  3+ 230 20.4 13.0 21.5 12.3  2+ 175 19.1 12.7 19.4 11.9  2+ 165 20.2 13.2 19.5 13.3  1+ 1+ 140 135 22.1 22.4 14.7 14.6 20.1 20.3 11.7 13.9  6.6 7.0 7..0 6.7 6.6 7.1 6.6 6.7 6.5 6«»2 6.6 6.1 6.0 5.7 5.7 5.4 5.6 6*1 6.2 7.1 7.6 6.7 5.9 6.5 6.9 6.1 5.8 5.3 5.4 5.4 4.8 5.1 5.7 .4.3 4.6 4.2 4.0 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.7 6.7 7.2 6.4 5.9 6.6 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.8 6.1 16.7 18.4 15.6 15.5 16.5 16.3 15.9 15.5 15.4 16.8 17.4 46.8 46.8 44.5 44.5 46.3 42.9 41.6 41.5 42.4 43.3 44.3 54.8 53.3 52.4 52.1 52.2 50.9 50.8 49.2 49.3 52.1 51.1 12.6 9.8 13.1 11.2 16.6 13.7 2.9 7.3 8.7 0.89  13.0 10.3 15.5 13.4 18.5 16.0 3.3 7.5 10.2 0.99  13.1 9.6 14.4 12.1 16.3 14.9 2.6 7.1 9.0 0.94  11.5 8.5 13.4 10.7 16.3 13.9 2.6 7.5 9.7  12.9 12.5 12.3 10.2 9.4 9.6 15.1 15.2 13.8 12.3 12.7 17.7 17.0 17.3 15.1 14.5 14.2 2.7 2.8 2.7 8.2 7.7 7.0 9.7 8.4 8.5  11.4 10.0 14.6 12.1 15.5 13.8 2.5 6.9 8.3  11.4 9.4 13.1 10.5 14.3 13.0 2.1 6.9 7.7  13.1 10.2 14.5 12*6 15.6 13.9 2.6 8.2 9.8  12.0 9.4 15.6 11.9 15.7 14.6 7.6 9.3  1.14 0.95 0.89 0.88 0.83 0.82 0.96  0.99  0.74 0.73 0.74 0.88 0.80 0.82 0.73 0.69 0.73 0.80  0.81  13 11 17 11 80 9 8  11 • -12 .11: 11 17 17 11 ••'•"II'81 81 9 9 8 8  11  fit:-.; ::i2:  11  11  11  11  83 9 8  75 81 9 9 :8 . 8  81 9 8  83 9 8  86 9 .8  82 9 8  82 9 8  9 13 9  10 13 9  10 13 8  9 12 9  10 13 8  9 13 8  11 13 9  10 13 9  10 12 8  9 13 8  11 •• :12 12 12 11 12 11 13 11/ :•;-.'9 11- 11 11 • 11 11 " 11 17 18 18 16 16 . 16 17 17  10 14 9  . iiv  Table IV - Waterton lake  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout tip to occiput Snout tip to dorsal Snout tip to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio adipose anal base Ratio MlSPse base anal base Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales in lateral Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic Gill rakers - short arm -•long arm Branchiostegals  (Concluded)  Table V - Third lake  &h 3*3f 2+ 2+ 1+ 218 198 215 188 162 123 21.1 20,7 20.6 21.4 21.6 22.6 13.4 13.5 13.1 13.5 13.7 14.1  8f 355 21.0 14.3 23.0 14.3  6.9 6.6 6.6 6.9 6.2 6.5 6.1 5.7 5.5 6.1 6.2 5,5 5*8 5.4 5.2 5.5 5.9 5.4 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.4 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.4 5.9 5.9 16.2 16.0 15.4 16.6 17.1 17.1 46.3 43.6 43,5 45.0 44.6 45.1 49.6 50.3 48.9 49.6 47.6  6.8 6,6 6*0 6.6 5.9 6.0 5.7 4.5 5,2 3.7 4.1 4.9 6.8 6.5 6.7 15.8 15.1 16.5 45.1 43.5 44.1 53.0 53,3 52.3  13.5 9.6 15.5 13.1  12.8 •9.8 15.6 12.7 16.9 17.3 14'. 314.8 3.0 3.2 7.3 6.6 9.2 8.1 0.96 0.83  12.5 13.7 9.3 16.0 16.3 13.0 12.3 17.8 17.8 14.4 14.9 2.9 3.2 7.3 7.3 8.5 9.2 0.85 0.99 10.0  12.7 9.6 15.4 12 a 16,8 13.8 2.3 6.5 7.3 0.76  12.7 11.0 12.5 10.5 8.5 9.0 15.0 13.2 13.9 12.8 • 10.8 11.6 15.9 15.3 15.5 14.3 r 5,13.4 13.1 2.6 2,8 •7.1 7.1 9,5 9.4 1.12 1.04  0.76 0.67 0.73 0.79 0.68 13 11 17 11 83 9 8 9 13 9  12 12  7+  340 20,5 14.7 22.0 14.2  :  :  4* 245 21.5 14.3 19.8 11.8  11.1 9.0 14.2 11.4 17.6 13.8 2.2 7.3 8.7 0.97  0.84 0.79 0.81  11 83 10 9  12 12 16 11 82 10 9  12 11 18 11 85 10 8  13 12 11 '11 .18 " 16 11 11 92 80 9 10 8 8  13 11 17 11 84 9 8  13 11 18 11 81 9 8  12 11 16 10 77 9 8  9 14 9  9 13 8  ,9 12 8  9 10 12; 13 9 8  13 8  7  8 13 8  8 13 7  17  Table YI ~ Systematic characters of Prosopium from Cultus lake*  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length peotoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ha adipose. anal base adipose base, anal base :  tl0  E a t i 0  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm. - long arm Branchiostegals Sex  3+ 283 21.2 12.6 19.1 12.5  3 252 20.1 13.9 22.7 14.9  + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 248 241 231 230 228 210 20.4 20.5 19.7 19.0 20.6 19,3 12.3 14.8 13.5 13.4 13.8 13.6 19.6 21.1 21.2 19,4 21.4 13.1 14.7 14.9 12.0 14.3  5+ 298 19^5 13.4 21.4  4+ 259 20.2 13.4 20.6 12.6  6.0 5.5 5.5 3.8 5.6 14.6 42.3 52.0.  6.4 6« 2 6.6 5.0 6,4 6.2 5.8 6.3 5.8 4.1 4.0 3.9 5.6 5.8 5.9 15.4 15.1 15.3 41.5 42.8 44.0 51.0 53.7 52.2  11.5 X 3« 3 12.5 9.3 10.9 10.1 13.5 14.4 14.5 XX e S 12.3 13.0 15.0 16.1 15.9 13.8 14.7 14.3 3.7 4.2 3.6 7.0 9.7 7,4 10.0 XX • 2 9.9 1.08 1.03 0.98  12.9 10.3 13.7 13.1 16.6 14.9 4.0 9.5 12.0  6.5 6.8 6,4 6.1 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.4 5.8 5.2 6.0 5.2 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.1 5,6 5.1 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.1 5.5 6.2 5.6 5.1 5.7 5.7 15.3 15.6 14.8 16.0 15.9 15.0 40.8 42.3 41.1 42.4 42.8 42.3 51.2 51.0 51.8 50,9 50.0 52.4 12.5 13.2 13.3 11.2 12.7 12.9 10.0 10.9 10.7 9.7 10.0 10.5 15.0 14.4 14.2 12.8 14.5 15.5 12.5 12.9 12.3 12.3 11.7 13.2 16.3 16.6 16.6 14.0 15.5 15.5 14.2 14.4 14.0 13.5 14.1 12.9 2.9 3,2 3.4 3.6 3,2 3,2 8,5 8.6 8.2 9.1 8.8 8.4 10.1 10.8 10.3 10.6 11,0 10,0  1.16 1.01 0.99 0.96 1,09 1.1 0.95  0.75 0.89 0.73 0.92 0.85 0.79 0.77 0.94 0.88 0.80 13 12 17 11 85 10 8  13 12 17 11 82 9 8  13 12 17 11 88 10 8  13 11 16 11 83 9 8  13 14 12 . 12 16 16 11 11 81 84 10 9 8 8  14 13 12 ' , 11 18 15 11 11 87 85 9 10 7  8  14 12 15 11 82 9 8  9 13 9 2  8 9 9 13 . 13 14 8 8 8 9 o 9  8 13 7 cf  8 11 8  8 14 9 9  9 11 8 0  9 13 8 9  13 13 15 11 85 9 8  d  8 11 8 9  - 45 -  Table 71 - Cultus lake  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout . Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio base Ratio anal adipose base anal base Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branchiostegals Sex  (Continued.)  2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 205 202 200 193 187 135 134 132 128 124 21.1 19.9 20.7 21.1 20.5 19.9 21.5 22.0 21.5 21.6 14.3 13.7 13.9 14.4 13.3 12.9 14.5 12.9 13.7 13.9 19.6 18.2 15.2 14.2 6.7 6,3 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.4 6.3 6.0 5.6 5.8 5.0 5.0 5.3 6.0 6.1 5.6 6.4 5.5 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.9 5.3 5.2 6.1 5,9 6.0 4.4 4,2 4.3 4,6 4.5 4.8 5,1 5.3 5.4 5.9 5,9 5,5 5.9 6.4 5.9 6.5 6,8 6.6 7.1 16.2 15.2 15.6 15.9 15.4 15.8 16.6 17.1 16.8 17.1 43,8 42.7 44,2 41.2 42.9 41,8 41,4 43.2 43.0 43.1 52.3 50.3 52.0 49.2 50.8 51.0 51.5 51.1 50.8 50.8 12.2 9.8 16.2 13.5 17,3 14.5 3.1 7.8 9.8 1.0  12.8 13.1 10.9 10.0 14.8 15.6 13.2 12.6 15.6 16.2 13.3 13.8 3.1 3.1 7.5 8.3 9,5 ,10.1 0.87 1.01  12.4 10.6 15.3 12.5 17.2 14.5 3.2 9,4 11.4 1.07  12.6 10.5 13.6 12.3 15.8  13.3 9.9 14.8 12.4 15.5 12.9  12.7 10.8 '14.9 12.3 15.2 12.3  12.0 9.7 15.1 12.1 14.5 12,5  12.5 10.6 16.4 13,9 15.8 12.1  12.7 10.5 14.5 11.7 15.7 12.5  3.4 9.6 8,9 9.0 7.6 8,2 9.3 11.2 10.4 10.4 10.2 10.5 10.5 1.07 1.05 0.96 1.05 '1.0 1.0  0.80 0.69 0.83 0.89 0.91 0.90 0.83 0.78 0.78 0.89 13 11 16 11 85 9 8  14 13 12 12 16 •15 11 11 87 81 10 10 8 8  14 12 16 11 81 10 8  14 12 15  •9 12 8 o  9 12 8 2  10 13 8  10 13 8 2  9 13 8 d  d  84 9 8  84  85  88  78  83  9  o*  9-  d  d  Table VI - Cultus lake  (Continued)  1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 120 119 119 118 118 117 116 114 114 113 22.5 20.6 21.8 22.4 21,2 21.8 21.7 22.8 22.3 20.8 13.2- 12.813.4 13.1 14.8 13.7 14.0 14.0 14.5 12.4  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth bodyWidth body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbitai width Snout tip to occiput Snout tip to dorsal Snout tip to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Base adipose .Length adipose  5.8 6.7 6.2 5.2 6.0 5.7 .'5„6 5.2 6.7 6.5 17.5 16.0 43.3 43.0 50.0 48.8  5.9 5.5 5.7 5.5 6.7 17.2 42.8 51.2  6.1 5.7 5.7 5.9 6.4 17.4 43.2 50.0  6.7 5.8 6.0 5.6 6.0 5.2 5.3 6.8 16.9 16.9 42.3 43.6 51.7 49.6  6.1 6.0 6.1 5.7 6.4 16.8 17.5 43.2 43.1 50.8 49.5  6.0 6.0 5.3 5.9 5.3 5.7 5.3 5.8 17.9 15.9 43.8 41.5 51.6 49.5  12.5 12.2 10.0 9.2 15.8 16.1 12.5 11.8 15.0 15.5 12.5 12.6 8.5 7.1 •9.9 9.0  12.8 8.4 15.3 12.6 15.1 12.2 8.8 10.1  12.3 10.3 16.1 12.7 16.1 13.6 8.5 10.6  12.9 12.4 12.9 13.6 9.5 10.3 10.1 9.7 15.5 15.8 15.9 15.8 13.5 13.5 12.9 12.7 15.6 16.2 15.6 15.3 12.3 13.8 12.7 13.2 8.6 8.6 8.4 8,3 10.7 10.7 9.7 9.2  13.1 12.4 10.3 10.2 15.5 14.2 12.5 12.2 15.7 14.6 13.0 11.9 6.4 8.9 12.4 10.2  Ratio  0.99 0.98 1.2 1.03 1.13 1.04 0.96 0.95 1.2  Ratio  ° anal base a d  i p  s e  1  a d i p 0 8 e  anal  b a s e  base  Scales in lateral Sex  6.3 5.5 5.5 5.6  1.0  0.85 0.77 1.05 0.83 0.91 0.84 0.83 0.86 0.81 0.87 83  85  86  85  89  85  88  88  89  87  >d  2  d  5  9  d  d  d  d  2  Table-VI - Gultus lake  m  -  Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudalupeduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout,tip to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n "base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Base adipose Ratio P° anal base Rati . anal base adi  a d l p o s e  S9  base  Scales i n l a t e r a l Sex Length adipose  (Continued)  1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 113 113 111 111 111 110 108 106 105 105 22.1 21.4 22.1 22.5 21.2 21.6 21.0 23.1 21.9 22.4 13.4 13.4 13.5 13.5 12.6 13.2 13.4 14.1 13.4 13.8 6.3 5.9 5.9 5.6 7.2 17.1 44.1 51.4  6.3 5.4 5.6 5.4 6.3 17.6 42.3 47.3  5.9 5.0 5.5 5.7 6.5 16.8 42.5 50.0  12.4 12.4 12.6 13.5 10.3 10.2 10.4 9.9 15.5 15.7 14.4 15.8 13.1 13.1 12.6 13.1 16.3' 15.5 15.3 16.2 13.3 12.4 12.2 13.2 9.3 8.7 9.7 8.3 1.08 0.95 1.09 0.91  12.2 9.9 14.9 12.6 15.5 12.6 8.8 KQ5  11.8 12.0 9.5 9.7 15.0 14.8 12.3 12.8 15.6 15.7 12.5 12.2 8.2 7.9 1.12 1.0  6.2 6.4 5.7 6.0 5.7 5.7 . 5.5 5.3 6.6 6.9 17.7 16.6 42.9 42.8 '49.1 49.5  6.1 5.9 6,1 5.6 6.7 17.7 43.2 49.1  6.5 5.8 5.7 5.6 6.5 17.1 42.6 49.1  6.4 5.7 5.7 5.7 6.6 17.0 42.4 50.0  6.2 6.5 5.7 6.2 6.2 6.2 5.7 5.9 6.7 6.7 17.6 17.1 42.6 43.6 50.3 49.3  12.3 12.4 12.4 9.4 9.5 9.5 16.0 16.2 15.7 13.2 12.4 12.4 16.0 15.9 17.1 13.7 12.4 12.6 8.5 9.3 8.6 1.05 1.2 1.0  0.90 0.85 0.93 0.84 0.89 0.86 0.81 0.90 0.98 0.91 82  86  c?  9  11.1  83  9.7 11.3  79 9  83  85  82  77  81  88  9  d  9  9  d  9.0 10.4 10.6 9.7  9.9 11.4 9.5  Table VI - Cultus lake (Concluded)  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least .depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n •Length pectoral Length'pelvic Base adipose Length adipose Ratio Appose anal base R-tio anal base a d i l 3 0 8 Q  1 3 3 8 9  Scales i n l a t e r a l Sex  1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 104 103 103 102 99 96 95 22.1 21.9 22.3 22.1 21.7 21.9 21.9 14.9 14.7 13.4 13.7 13.6 13.6 13.5 6.3 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.2 5.8 6.3 5.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.0 5.8 6.1 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.8 6.8 6.4 6.6 7.1 6.5 17.8 17.1 17.3 17.4 17.7 17.5 17.7 41.4 41.3 42.5 42.2 42.4 43.8 43.2 51.1 51.3 50.0 49.2 47.0 51.0 48.5 12.9 11.6 12.6 14.2 13.6 12.0 11.6 10.1 9.9 10.2 11.0 9.6 9.6 10.5 15.1 16.6 15.5 16«7 16.4 14.6 15.8 13.5 13.1 12.1 13.5 12.6 12.0 12.6 16.1 17.0 16.0 16.7 15.9 15.1 15.8 12.5 13.2 12.6' 13.2 13.1 12.0 11.8 7.9 7.5 9.2 8.3 7.9 7.8 8.2 9.7 9.8 10.4 .9.8 9.6 9.9 10.3 0.96 0.99 1.02 0.89 1.0 1.03 0.98 :  0.78 0.76 0.90 0.75 0.82 0.81 0.78 88  83  83  79  $  d  d  $  85  82 d  89  - 49 -  Table VII - Systematic characters of Prosopium from Logging lake. Age Standard length Length head Depth head Greatest depth body Width body Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio f ? .-. anal base Ratio .*J?P - . •/-•'• -anal base a d  ad  p 0 8  se t,a  se  Dorsal rays Anal rays' Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n lateral Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic S i l l rakers — short arm - long arm Branohiostegals Sex  2+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 343+ 3+ 3 4 - 2 + 2 + 178 174 177 173 172 170 169 ;I90f 184 178 21.0 20.4 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.4 21.4 20.9 20.6 22.5 13.7 13.6 14.3 14.0 14.4 13.8 15.0 14.5 14.7 15.4  6.3 6.5 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.2 4.7 4.9 6.8 6.5 15.2 15.2 41.6 42.6 50.0 50.5 11.6 12.2 10.0 9.8 13.7 15.2 -10.8:'12.0 16.3 15.5 13 4 13.0 2.6 2.7 7.6 8.2 9.2 9.5 0.92 0.97 0  6.7 5.6 5.3 4.5 6.2 16.3 43.2 52.5 11.5 9.3 14.0 11.2 15.4 12.9 2.8 7.3 9.3 1.0  6.7 5.6 5.6 5.1 6.2 15,2 42.1 51.1 11.2 9.3 14.0 10.7 15.7 12.4 2.5 7.9 9.3  6.6 6.8 6.9 6.4 6.5 7.1 5.5 5.1 5.5 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.9 4,6 5.1 5.2 4.6 5.3 5.0 6.6 7.4 6.7 6.4 5.S 6.8 14.9 15.2 16.2 16.3 15.9 17.1 44.2 43.5 42.8 43.0 42.3 43«6 49.7 50.3 51.4 51.2 52.3 48.8 11.2 11.9 11.3 11.6 11.8 11.5 7.8 9.9 9.8 8.7 9.1 10.1 14.1 14.7 13.9 14.2 14.1 16.0 11.3 10.6 11.8 11.0 11.2 12.4 15.2 16.4 15.9 16.3 15.9 17.1 12.9 13.6 13.3 12.8 13.2 13.9 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.9 3.0 8.0 7.9 7.5 7.6 7.1 9.2 9.3 8.7 8.7 8.5 8,,9  1.0 1.18 0.94 0.89 1.0 0.93 0.88  0.76 0.84 0.79 0.85 1.02 0.80 0.77 13 12. 17 11 78 9 8.  12 11 18 11 83 10 8  13 11. 18' 11 79 9 8  12 11 17 11 85  8 14 9  9 13 9  9 13 9  9 13 9  9  8  12 11 17 11 77 9 8  12 11  0.84 0.70  12 12 • 12 12 11 11 12 11 16 •'•'17 ISr-' 17 . .17 12 11 - i i 11 11 82. 78 80 87 77 9 9 9 9 . 9. 8 8 8 8 8 r  10 9 10 14 . 15 •13 8 8 8  10 14 9  9 13 8  9 15 8  Table" VII - Logging lake Age Standard length Length head "Depth head Greatest depth bodyWidth body Least depth oaudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio P° anal base Ratio T ° anal base a d i  a d i  s e  0 8 e  l a a s e  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scale's i n l a t e r a l Lateral to: "dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l , rakers - short arm - long arm Branchiostegals Sex  (Continued)  2+2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+2+2+ 163 162 162 161 158 158 157 157 157 156 21.5 21.3 21.6 20.6 21.5 20.9 21.0 21.3 20.7 20.5 14.7 13.9 13.6 14.9 14.5 13.3 13.4 14.6 14.0 14.7  6.7 6.5 6.5 6.2 7.0 5.2 5.6 6.0 5.3 5.4 4.6 5.2 5.6 5.0 5.4 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.8 5.1 6.7 7.1 5.9 6.2 7.0 16.6 15.7 16.7 14.9 15.8 44.4 41.9 43.2 42.8 43.0 50.6 49.3 51.2 50.9 50.6 11.0 8.9 14.7 11.6 16.6 12.9 2.6 7.4 8.6  6.3 6.4 6.7 6.7 6.7 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.1 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.1 5.1 4.8 5.1 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.5 6.2 6.7 6.4 7.0 6.7 15.8 15.3 15.6 15.0 15.1 41.4 44.3 42.3 42.7 43.6 49.6 49.0 48.4 52.2 50.6  12.0 11.1 10.6 12.0 11.7 9.6 8.6 9.9 10.810.1 13.9 14.5 13.0 13.3 14.5 10.5 12.0 10.6 12.0 11.4 15.4 15.7 15.5 15.8 14.9 13.0 13.5 12.4 13.0 12.0 3.1 2.8 2.2 2.5 2.5 8.0 8.0 7.5 7.9 7.7 9.3 9.3 8.7 9.5 8.9  11.1 12.7 10.8 11.2 8.3 9.6 9.6 9.0 12.7 14.6 13.7 14.1 10.8 12.1 11.5 10.6 13.7 15.9 15.3 16.0 13.0 13.7 13.4 12.8 2.9 2.6 6.7 7.6 6.7 7.1 8.3 9.9 8.6 8.3  0.97 0.97 1.08 0.88 0.880.88 1.0 1.03 0.90 0.92 0.83 0.83 0.93 0.76 0.730.76 0.81 0.79 0.70 0.79 12 11 , 18  11 '.  78 9 8  9 13 8  82  12 11 18 11 87 9 8 9  13  9  12  12 . 11 17 .18ii. 11 12 79 85 9 9 8 8  11  17 11 84 9 8  12 11 17 11 77 9 8  /9 * • 9 14 .13. . 14 9 8 9  9 13 8  11  8  11  81  12 11 18 11 82 9 8 10 13 8  Table 711 ~ Logging lake  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n ' Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio anal'base Ratio P ° . anal .base. a d i l D 0 S 9  a d i  s e  1 ) 3 6 9  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic;rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branohiostegals  (Continued)  2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+i 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 155 150 149 148 145 145 144 • 144 141 137 19.7 20.7 20.8 22.6 22.1 22.1 21.5 22.2 22.0 21.5 13.5 14.3 14.1 14.9 14.8 14.1 13.7 14.6 14.2 14.6 7.1 6.7 4.8 4.3 4.8 4.3 4,5 4.7 . 6.4 6.7 15.5 15.7 43.8 42.0 47,7 50.6 11.6 12.0 9,4 10.0 14.2 13.0 11.0 10,0 16.8 15.3 13*5 12.3 2.9 2.7 7.7 :mo 9.0 10.0 0.96 1.0  6.7 5.0 5,0 5.0 6.4 16.8 43.6 50.0 11.7 9.7 15.4 11.7 16.4 12.7 2.3 8.1 9.4 0.97  6.8 6.8 6.1 5.2 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.2 6.4 7.2 17.9 16.2 43.5 43.4 50.0 51.0 12.2 12.4 10.1: 10.0 14.2 15.2 12.5 11.7 16.9 15.8 13.5 12.4 3.4 2.4 8.0 7.9 9.1 9.7 0.90 0.97  6.5 5.9 5.9 5.5 67 17.2 45.5 49.7 12.4 9.5 15.6 12.7 16.5 13.4  6.7 6.2 5.6 5,6 6.6 17.0 43.8 50,0 13.2 9.4 15.9 12.8 17,3 13.9 2.5 8.1 8.2 7.4 9.5 9.4 9.0 1.0 0.97 0.96 S  6.2 5.2 5.2 5,0 6.6 16.7 43.0 49.3 11.4 9.7 14.6 12.2 16.0 12.5  ;  6.4 5.8 5.7 5.5 7.1 17,7 43.9 49.6 11,3 8,9 14.2 11.7 15.7 13.1  6.6 5.1 . 5.1 5.1 6.6 16.8 44.8 51.1 11.3 9,5 13,9 10.2 15.3 12.4 2.6 6.2 8.5 7.3 0.96 0.77  0.82 0.80 0.84 0.79 0.79 0.85 0.85 0.79 12 12 12 12 18V 16 12 ' 11 76 79 9 9 8 8 10 13 8  9 13 8  :  13 12 12 11 19 18 11 . 12 80 80 9 9 8 8  12 12 17 11 84 9 8  9 15 8  8 12 8  8 14 8  12 :• l i 17 11 85 75  8 13 8  74  0.65  80  12 11 17 11 77 9 8 8 13. 8-  711 - Logging lake  Table  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudal, peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal • f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio"' s * ^ anal base Ratio ? anal base 1  a d l  0 8 9  3 8  b a s 9  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to. dorsal Lateral to pelvic Grill rakers - short arm - long arm Branohiostegals  (Continued)  1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 130 127 124 124 123 121 120 119 118 117 115 23.1 22.4 22.2 23.0 21.5 23.1 22.1 21.4 21,2 21.4 22.6 14.4 14.2 13.5 14.5 14.2 14.9 14.2 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.0 6.0 5.2 5.4 5.4  6.9 6.0 6.9 . 6.1 5.7 5.6 6.4 5.3 5.9 5.6 .6.0 5.3 5.5 5.2 5.6 5.3 ' 7.1 6.8 6.4 6.4 6.5 16.5 17.3 16.5 18.1 16.7 44.6 44.8 43.9 44.3 44.3 50.3 50.5 50.0 49.6 50.3  6.4 6.7 6.3 6.4 5.1 6.1 5.1 5.6 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.9 5.5 5.6 5 6 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.6 5.6 . 6.6 6.2 6.3 7.2 6.4 6.1 17.8 17.5 16.4 16.9 16.7 16.5 45 i 3 44.2 42.8 44.0 44.8 44.5 49,6 49.2 50.3 50.0 50.0 52.2  11.5 9.2 14.6 12,3 15.4 12.7  11.4 9.3 15.3 13.2 16.5 13.2  13.0 10.4 16.5 13.4 17.3 13.4 3.1 7.7 8.5 9.2 9.4 1.0 0.90  10.9 10.1 15.3 13.3 16.1 13.3  11.7 10.1 15.7 13.7 17.7 14.1  11.4 8.9 13.8 11.4 15.0 11.8  e  11.2 9.2 14.2 10.8 16.7 14.6 2.2 7.3 7.3 7.1 9.1 7.5 8.1 --8.1 8.9 9.9 9.2 0.80 0.80 1.0 1.06 1.0  12.2 8.8 14.3 10.9 14.3 12.6 2.3 8.4 9.2 1.04  11.4 8.5 13.1 10.6 15.0 12.3  11.4 10.2 8.5 10.4 13.7 10.7 11.7 15.4 14.8 12.0 12.2  6.1.• 7.3 8.3 7.6 7.7 9.1 0.89 0.91 0.87  0.84 0.79 0.72 0.72 0.80 0.98 0.82 0.95 0.72 0.86 0.80 12 12 17 11 81 78 . 9 8 9 14 8  82  86  83  76  12 12 11 17 11 83 79 9 8. 9 13  82  84  79  Table VII - Logging lake  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio f anal base Ratio P ° anal base a d  i p  9  7  a d l  a e  1 3 3 8 6  Soales i n l a t e r a l  (Concluded)  1+ 1+ . 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 114 114 113 113 113 113 108 108 105 103 99 22.8 22.4 22.5 22.5 22.2 22.5 23.7 23.7 21.9 23.3 24.3 14.7 14.9 14.1 14.0 13.7 13.7 13.9 13.9 14.3 14.6 17.2 •6.6 5.7 6.1 5.7 6.1 17.5 43 8 49.1  6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.6 7.1 5.7 5.3 5.3 5.7 5.3 6.0 5.6 5.5 5.8 6.6 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.3 5.6 6.0 5.7 - 5.8 6.1 5.7 6.2 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.6 6.8 6.6 5.9 7.1 6.2 6.5 6.3 6.5 7.3 7.9 18.4 16.8 17.2 17.7 17.7 17.6 16.8 17.1 18.9 21.2 44.7 43.3 43.3 43.3 44.2 43.0 44.8 43.3 46.6 46.0 48.7 49.1 50.4 51.3 48.6 48.6 50.9 50.5 51.5 51.5  11.8 8.8 14.9 12.3 16.2 12.7 2.5 7.0 8.3 0.94  11.8 9.6 17.1 -13.1 1-7.5 14.0  8  11.1 8.2 15.0 11.1 15.0 12.4  10.6 9.0 13.7 11.0 15.9 12.5  11.5 9.3 14.1 11.5 15.9 12.8  12.4 9.7 15.0 11.5 15.9 12.8  11.6 9.3 14.8 11.1 15.7 12.5  11.1 9.3 14.3 13.0 14.8 13.0  11.0 8.6 14.5 11.4 16.7 12.4  11.8 9.3 16.2 13.2 18.2 14.7  7.0 7.5 7.1 8.4 8.0 7.1 8.3 8.6 7.3 8.6 8.3 8.8 8.8 9.3 9.7 8.8 10.2 9.5 8.7 9.6 0.86 1.07 0.98 1.0 1.0 0.95 1.10 1.10 0.92 1.03  0.80 0.73 0.92 0.79 0.90 0.82 0.76 0.89 1.0 79  10.2 9.5 15.7 14.1 17.5 15.5  83  81  82  83  87  78  70  84  0.77 0.93 82  75  - 54 -  Table T i l l - Systematic characters of Prosopium from lake McDonald.  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal iSnout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length .pelvic Base adipose Length adipose Ratio ^? .• anal base Ratio g^Pose oase anal base a d  s e  Scales i n lateral line  1+ 1+ 1+ 124 123 114 22.6 22.3 22,1 14.3 14,4 14.6 6.1 5.8 5,2 5,4 5.3 5,2 5,4 5m . 5,2 5.4 16,8 17.1 17 3 42.7 44,6 43,4 48.9 49o6 50,7 11.8 12,4 11.3 9.0 8.9 7.7 .14.5 14,9 14.6 11.9 11.2 10.5 16.2 15,4 14,3 12,6 12.4 11,7 7.1 7,2 8.8 8.9 8,2 9.8 0,99 0.92 1.27 a  1+ • 1+ 1+ 1+ 112 111 109 97 22.8 22.2 23,6 24.2 15,2 14.0 14.9 15.2 6.6 6.7 6.5 5.5 5,8 6.2 6 2 5.5 5.7 6.1 6.3 5.5 5.8 5.5 6.1 17.8 16.8 18.4 19,6 45.0 42.9 44.5 45.9 51.5 51.3 50.4 51.6 12.1 12.3 13.6 12.0 9.1 9,5 9.9 9.6 14.3 13.9 17.0 16.9 12,5 11.2 •15.9 13.7 15,9 14.9 .17.4 18.3 13.1 11.5 13.9. 14,4 7.1 7.7 8.9 7.2 8.9 9,0 9.7 9.3 0,98 0.95 0,98 0.97 e  0.79 0.81 1.14 0,78 0.81 0.90 0.75 81  85  81  :  86  83  79  86  Table 7111 - Lake McDonald  Age Standard length Length head Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic  Age , Standard length Length head Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic  0* 68.5 23.8 17.7 44.8 51.7  0+ 62.0 25.4 20.2 45.5 52.4  0* 52.0 25.1 20.1 45.8 52.2  (Concluded)  0+0+0+ 0+ 0+0+ 0+0+ 0+ 61.0 60.5 59.0 58.5 57.0 54,0 53.5 52,5 52,0 25.2 25.0 26.6 26.425,3 25,3 26.8 26.0 25.1 19.3 18.7 20.3 19.3 20.5 19.9 20.8 19.0 20.4 44.5 45.4 45.3 45,7 44.7 46.8 46.9 43.3 44,3 50.8 50.7 52.9 52,8 52.8 53.7 53.4 53.3 52.4  0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ Of 0+ 0+ 0+0+ 51.0 51.0 50.0 49.5 49.0 45.0 38.0 36.0 33.5 25.9 27.3 25.8 25.4 25.7 28.0 27.8 27.9 28.8 20.8 21.4 20.2 19.7 20.4 22.9 45.1 46.1 46.2 46.1 46.5 46.6 53.3 53.6 52,4 54,855.2 53.5  Table IX - Systematic characters of Prosopium from Bowman lake®  Age 2r 2+ 2+ St- 2+ 2+ 2+ . 2+ 2+ 2sStandard length 133 123 123 i l l 110 106 101 100 96 94 Length head 21.3 22i7 21.9 22.7 23.1 23.5 23.8 22.1 22.9 24.5 Depth head 13.4 14.2 13.6 14.2 14.2 14.0 13.9 14.3 14.6 14.9 Least depth caudal peduncle 6.5 6.7. 6.3 6.5 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.7 Snout 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.4 5.6 6.8 5.8 5*7 5.9 Maxillary 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.9 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.8 6.1 Diameter eye 4.7 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.9 ,6.4 Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput ..15.S 17;* 1 16.7 17.8 17.7 18.9 18.3 17.8 18.4 19.4 Snout t i p to dorsal 43.0 44.7 44.6 43.8 44.3 44.5 44.0 44.0 45.2 44.8 Snout t i p to pelvic- 48.8 50.7 49.0 49.7. 49.9 50.4 51.3 49.6 50.5 51.2 Length dorsal f i n base 11.4 11.5 11.4 12.6 10.7 12.1 11.6 11.7 12.2 12.3 Length anal f i n base 9.4 9.7 9.5 8.4 9.1 9.6 9.7 9.2 9.1 9.6 Height dorsal f i n 15.6 15.8 16.1 17.4 15.7 16.6 16.0 17.2 17.5 17.2 Height anal f i n 11.8 12.4 12.8 12.3 12.4 13.0 12.9 12.7 12.7 13.0 Length pectoral 16.5 16.6 17.3 17.7 16.4 17.6 17.8 17.9 17.5 17.8 Length pelvic 12.9 13o0 13.5 12.7 13.3 12.6 13.9 13.2 13.1 13.1 .Height adipose Base adipose 8.3 7.3 6.8 7.2 7.5 7.8 7.9 7.4 7.7 7.2 Length adipose 9.6 9.0 8.8 8.7 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.0 9.2 8.7 Eatio anal * ?base 1.02 0.93 0.77 0.69 0.89 0.99 0.99 0.98 1.01 0.91 a d  Eatio  p  s e  P ^ e base anal base  a d i  Scales i n l a t e r a l Sex  0.88 0.75 0.72 0.86 0.82 0.81 0.81 0.80 0.85 0.75 83  75  d  9  86  c?  82  79  81  84  82  d  d  d  9  9  81  cf  81 d  Table IX - Bowman lake  (Concluded)  Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Base adipose Length adipose Ratio anal * ^ base °  1+ 14- 1+ 1+ 1* 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 104 89 86 .86 83 81 80 80 80 '21.4: 23.5 23.3 23.0 23.9 24.6 24.6 23.8 24.6 13.2 14.2 14,0 14.3 14.1 14.0 13.4 14.5 14.1  Ratio anal  0.78 0,77 0.84  d  8 e  --S£ base  a d i p o s e b  a  Scales i n lateral  6.6 6.4 5.9 5.6 6.0 6.1 • 5.2 6.3 16.9 18.1 18.1 44.2 45.0 44.6 51.9 50.7 50.0 9.4 10.9 11.9 8.6 9.2 9.3 15.5 15.7 16.5 12.0 12,0 12.6 16.0 15.5 17.1 12.8 11.8 13.6 6.7 7.1 7.8 7.7 7.9 9.1 0.90 0.86 0.98  81  82  80  18.8 44.3 50.2 11*4 9.6 16.6 11.9 16.0 12.9  6.3 5.7 6.4 6.0 19.0 19.0 43.6 44.7 51,0 50.8 12.2 12.0 9.4 10.8 16.6 16.1 12.9 13.0 16.5 16.4 13.4 13.0 7.6 9.0 0.96  6.3 6.5 6.4 19.0 19.4 44.5 44.1 51.5 50.8 12.1 12.5 9.6 9.0 16.3 16.0 12.8. 12.5 16.6 16.3 13.4 12.8 6.6 6.9 8.1 8.9 0,84 0.99  0.81  0.69 0.77 0.98  80  81  86  17.4 45.1 50.0 11.2 9.1 15.4 13.5 17.0 12.5 8.9 10.0 1.10  82  Table Z - Systematic characters of Prosopium from Maskinonge lake, Nooksaok river, and Tolt river* Maskinonge lake Nooksaok river Age Standard length Length head Depth head Least depth caudal peduncle .Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput iSnout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio •• P ° anal baseRatio anal base tl  a d l  a d i T 3 0 8 e  8 9  b a s e  Dorsal.rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic: rays Scales i n lateral Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branchiostegals  1+ 1+ , , 110 104 23.3 24.0 15.2 15.7 ' 5.7 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.'9 6.4 17.4 43.8 52.5 12.9 9.7 15.8 12.8 16.2 13.0  18.3 44.1 53.0 12.7 9.6 15.9 12.7 15.7 12.6  7.4  7.5 .9.1 8.7 0.94 0.91  1+ 115 20.9 13.9 6.7 5.6 5.6 5.8 6.6 17.2 42.3 50.8 13.6 10.5 17.0 14.0  1+ 114 22.3 14.6 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.9 6.4 18.1 45.2 51.1 . 13.8 10.6 16.5 15.8 , 17.7 16.7 15.8 14.8 2.9 3.3 11.3 10.9 1.08 1.03  0.76 0.78  82  84  lolt river 3+ 200 20.6 14.2 6.3 5.8 6.0 4.8 .5.8 15.9 42.2 52.8 12.4 9.9 15.2 12.5 :. 16.6 14.3 3.6 9.8 .11.9 1.20; 0.99  13 13 11 . 12 ' 14 15 . 10 11 82 76 9 •' 9 8 8 9 12 8  10 13 8  13 12 17 • 11-.. 83 10 8 9 14 8  Table XI - Systematic characters of Prosopium from the Elk river.  3*- 3f 3»- 2+ 2+ 2+ Age 4+ PS* Standard length 254 • 231 210 206 200 195 201 184 183 Length head 22.0 22.2 22.4 22.3 22.2 22.0 22.5 23.1 22.4 Depth head 15.5 14.3 15.9 14.7 14.9 15.1 15.2 15.7. 14.2 Least depth caudal peduncle 7.3 7..1 7.2 7.6 6.7 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.1 Snout 7.1 6.8 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.6 Maxillary 6.7 6.5 6.2 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.8 6.3. Diameter eye . 4.4 4.3 4.5 4,2 4.5 4,6 4*2 "4.8 4.5 Interorbital width 6.5 6.2 6.7 6.0 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.4 6.3 Snout t i p to occiput 17.4 17.0 16.6 17.0 17.3 17.2 17.0 17.4 16.9 Snout t i p to dorsal 44.3 44.3 43.8 43.7 43.8 43.0 43.8 42.3 43.1 Snout t i p to pelvic 54.8 52.4 52.6 52.0 50.0 52.6 52.1 53,3 52.1 Length dorsal f i n base 12.9 12.1 12.6 12.4 12.5 13.9 11.9 13.1 13.7 Length anal f i n base 9.8 9.6 10.0 10.6 10.0 10.3 10.3 9,8 9.3 Height dorsal f i n 15.4 17,3 15.7 16.4 15.8 17.4 16.9 16.3 16.0 Height anal f i n 14.8 15,6 13.8 14.6 14.0 15.9 14.4 14.1 13.8 Length pectoral 17.2 18.5 17.1 17.9 17.6 18.5 16.9 16.7 17.7 Length pelvic . 15.S16.2 15.0 15.1 15.0 15.9 14.5 14.7 15.3 Height adipose 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.2 3.1 3.6 3,4 3.6 Base adipose 6.5 6.9 7.1 6.7 7.5 7.2 7.3 6.3 7.5 Length adipose 8.5 8.7 9.0 9.1 9,5 9.1 9.5 8.7 9.6 Ratio -Mi£Ose_ 0.87 0.91 0.90 0.86 0.95 0.88 0.92 0,89 1.03 anal base Rrtio 0.66 0.72 0.71 0.63 0.75 0.70 0.71 0.64 0.81 axial ' base ." ;  a d i w 3 S 9  b a s 9  Dorsal,rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales In l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic S i l l rakers — sho£t arm - long arm Branch!os tegals Sex  12 11 17 11 87 9 7  11 12 11. • i r 17 i s 11 11 84 87 9 9 8 8  12 11 16 11 79 9 7  12 11 15 11 82 9 8  12 11 17 11 78 9 8  13 11 16 10 89 9 8  12 11 17 11, 84 9 8  13 11 16 11 81 9 8  10 14 9 2  10 13 8 9  9 13 9  9 14 8  10 13 8  10 15 9  10 15 9  9 13 9  11 15 8 2  <*  d  6  2  2  a  Table'XI -.Elk river  Age Standard length " Length head Depth head Least depth ' caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose Ratio ° . anal base Ratio Mipose base, .. anal • base ' a d  l p  s 9  1  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n lateral Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branohiostegals Sex  (Continued)  2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 182 182 181 180 180 178 178 178 178 22.8 22.0 22.5 22.3 24.3 23.0 22.6 22.2 21.9 13.8 14.0 14.5 14.0 15.6 15.0 14.3 15.4 14.2 6.7 6.5 6.2 4.9 6.0 17.3 43.4 •5i.i: 14.2 9.9 14.9 13,5 17.0 14.8 3.8 7.3 9.6 0.97  6.6 6.1 6.0 4.6 6.3 16.8 44.5 50.6 12.0 9.3 15.6 13.2 17.0 15.3 3.1 6.2 8.7 0.94  7.2 6.4 6.1 4.7 6.1 17.4 43.9 52.5 13.3 9.5 17.1 14.1 18.2 15.5 3.3 6.0 8.8  6.9 6.9 6.7 6.9 6.1 6.9 4.7 5.3 6.1 •6.1 17.2 17.8 43.8 43.7 .61.6, 51.6 12.9 11.2 9.7 9,4 16.1 17.2 13.8 14.4 17.6 18.3 14.5 16.1 3.4 3.4 6.8 7.1 8.9 9.2  7.3 7.0 6.4 4.9 7.1 17.7 45.0 50.0 12.8 9.8 17.4 14.9 17.7 15.3 3.5 6.7 9.0  7.0 6.5 6.5 4.8 6.2 17.1 44.0 52.7 12.9 10.1 17.4 15.3 17.5 15.3 2.9 6.3 ,7*9  6.8 5.9 6.2 4.6 6.5 16.7 44.0 51.2 13.0 9.8 16.9 14.4 17.7 15.2 3.5 6.8  7.3 5.9 5.9 4.6 6.2 16.0 43.2 52.8 13.1 9.6 16.3 14.3 18.0 15.2 3.5 ',6.4 0.3 8 4 e  0.93 0.92 0.98 0.92 0.78 0.95 0.88  0.74 0.67 0.63 0.70 0.76 0i,68 0.62 0.69 0.67 13 11 17 11 87 9 7  :12. 12 12 11 i l - - 11 ls 16 17 10 11 11 79 86 88 9 '9 ' 9 8 8 8  12 12 •13 12 12 11 11 11 11 "•11' 16 17 16 15 16 11 11 - 11 '. 11 10. 84 81 90 87 80 9 9 9 9 9 8 . 7 7 '8 8  10 14 9  9 14 8  10 13 8  cf  2  10 15 8 9  9 14 8  cf  cf  io ;  13 • 9  0*  9 14  cf  9 'I3 8  :  cf  10 14 9  c?  Table XI - Elk river  Age Standard length "Length head Depth head Least depth caudal peduncle Snout Maxillary • Diameter eye Interorbital width Snout t i p to occiput Snout t i p to dorsal Snout t i p to pelvic Length dorsal f i n base Length anal f i n base Height dorsal f i n Height anal f i n Length pectoral Length pelvic Height adipose Base adipose Length adipose R ^poae anal base Ratio P ° . ^ s e anal base a t i 0  adl  s  9  Dorsal rays Anal rays Pectoral rays Pelvic rays Scales i n l a t e r a l Lateral to dorsal Lateral to pelvic G i l l rakers - short arm - long arm Branohios tegals Sex  (Concluded)  2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 178 177 175 172 170 167 127 126 23.0 22.9 23.7 22.4 23.2 23.4 22.8 22.5 15.3 14.9 15.1 14.1 15.4 15.6 14.3 14.0 6.7 7.0 6.5 4.6 6.2 17.2 44.5 52.5 13.5 10.0 16.3 13.4 17.3 15.3 2.9 6.7 9.0 0.90  6.8 7.1 6.2 6.7 6.2 6.9 • 5.1 4.6 6.2 6.3 17.1 17.7 43.5 44.5 51.1 50.8 12.2 12.5 9.9 8.6 16.7 16.6 14.1 15.4 17.5 18.7 14.7 15.4 3.5 3.8 7.5 7.3 9.7 9.3 0.98 1.08  6.9 6.5 6.4 4.6 5.6 17.4 43.6 52.0 12.7 9.8 15.1 13.7 17.6 1444 3.0 6.5 8.7 0.89  6.9 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.7 6,5 5.2 5.0 6.1 6.5 17.1' 17.7 44.0 44.3 53.3 54.1 12.1 12.2 9.7 9.6 16.0 17.2 12.6 13.9 16.6 18.0 14* f 15.6 3.3 3.0 7.1 6.5 9.3 .8.7 0,96 0.91  7.1 6.3 6.1 5.5 6.5 17.6 43.3 50.8 11.8 9.4 15.7 13.3 "16*9 14.4  6.3 6.1 6.2 5.4 6.3 17.5 43.6 50.3 11.1 8.9 14.9 13.6 16.7 14.3  6.6 6.9 8.7 8.4 0.92 0.94  0.67 0.76 0.85 0.66 0.73 0.68 0.70 0.77 13 11 18 11 82 9 7  12 11 12 10 17 ••• 17 12 11 83 84 9 9 8 8  12 . 10 17 11 94 9 8  11 11 16 10 87 9 7  12 10 16 11 84 9 8  12 11 17 11 89 9 8  10 15 8 6*  9 13 8  10 14 9  9 12 9  10 14 8  8 12 8  2  9 13 8 9  9  d  d  2  1  11 11 16 11 87 9. 7 10 14 8 c?  - 62 -  Table XII - Standard length attained by the Bowman lake w h i t e f i s h at the end of each year of l i f e . No. 2 1 3 5 4 7 6 12 11 9 8 14 13 10 16 24 32 31  33  15 18 19 25 21 22 20 17 34 30 28 23 27 26 37 36 35 29 38 39 40 41 42  Standard length at end of year: 1 2 3 4 28 30 32 41 63 47 63 46 66 51 71 52 72 53 72 54 74 58 76 50 77 58 78 59 78 61 80 64 80 68 80 81 59 80 61 62 82 64 82 83 64 65 84 65 84 84 69 62 85 60 86 72 86 63 87 67 89 92 69 60 104 44 82 42 81 44 94 41 91 41 91 42 88 43 89 60 95 45 100 53 115  ,  ,  95 97 100 101 106 111 112 123 124 134  Scale r i n g s : 2 1  9 10 12 11 13 13 14 11 11 16 15 14 17 17 16 18 15 15 16 18 15 12 17 15 15 14 17 16 16 14 12 12 12 12 15 14 17 19 18  4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 5  3  3 3 2 4 4 4 3 4 5 4 3 5 5 3 4 4 4 9 16 12 16 13 16 16 14 15 18 23  4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 4  - 63 -  Table XIII - Standard length attained by the Lake McDonald whitefish at the end of each year of l i f e .  Ho. 328 327 326 325 309 311 324 313 320 312 322 321 316 323 319 315 317 318 310 314 308 306 307 305 303 304 301 302  Standard length at end of years  1  2  34 36 38 46 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 55 55 58 60 60 61 62 63 69 64 41 44 57 57 73 74  98 109 112 112 115 124 124  3  Scale rings?  1  2  11 14 13 12 14 13 17 21  7 16 16 10 13 11 13  - 64 -  A o  Ifl  OS CO  o to  H  o  t  CO  oa  o >»«  iH  o 0 CP  O  • d «M  10 0>  CM to to to  H  aj l-H iH  <D  £ S 0>  h no to to  -d CO  a  •H  O  i n co t o  +>  W O W  4»  to to to  c o  co co to  ^ 0> *nJ*  CO CO JH  a  o *»  +» CD  S .H r-4 •H  Sh  to e\j to  00 a> to co CM C M to C M to  •H  <D  to  E-  B  A  o> f » j , H a» B- CM £«» © CM  » CM »  F) to  •d CD  fT  a)  c d ^ 3 +»  CO  1  to CM CM  -d  CO  a>  o o  IS CM to CO t O CM CM CM CM CM  u  +>  •d  o o io cn to <o to o> * CO  CM CM CM CM CM  i-i w to  •H  IS  to to  CO  r H W C M O H t O - t f C O l O C O O f - 4 C M t O C M t O O » C M r - « < M CMCMCMCMCMCMiHCMCMCM  "S3 3 «  CO  +>  to  CD «H •H lH  •d CD  «H  CO CM  CO  • H r ^ H r - » r - l r - l r - » r H « - - « r H i - - t r H r - 4 H I  +»  o IN  iH  >»  o  C* CD  rl"OiniOiO(J>ISO>H«Ot|i<#MN totor>oomt-coa>ocj»iocotvco lT3lOcOCntO|-|^tOrHtOCOtOCJ»0>tOr-«CMCM  0 o 1-1 flj !-t tO  rWCMtO<tfCM,-|CMtOr-teM<#r-»OtOr-ICMCMtO H H H H H H H H r t H r i H r i r l r i H r i H  |>- o> Os C M tO I> IS f- t- e» CD  IOCMCOI<}HOnHHsl COCO<CCOCTi<fCO <  I  CP iH .O CO EH  &4 CO  CO H N CO N O • O iH Q H H  !=>!=> Ca f D & & £> &  &  H  o o o  ^ XT ^ * I T  p & D p  H  ^  U ) Ifl  to  1Q  - 65 -  Table XV - Standard length attained by the Logging lake whitefish at the end of each year of l i f e . Individuals in their f i r s t year Standard length Frequency Standard length 27 30 36 38 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53  Ho. 145 144 143 141 142 114 140 138 137 128 136 139 134 126 113 131 132 133 127 112 135 278  1 1 1 1 2 1 3 7 8 2 2 10 13 8 7 8  Standard length at end of years 1 2 3 4 5 59 64 63 58 59 52 55 53 65 47 57 62 75 54 56 64 69 73 54 69 56 79  88  98 99 100 102 103 103 106 108 109 112 112 113 114 114 115 115 117 118 118 120 120  Frequency  5  54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 68 69 70 75  7 4 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1  Scale rings: 1 2 3 13 19 15 10 18 17 15 15 16 17 15 16 16 15 14 18 18 18 17 24 20 18  7  9 10 11 13 16 15 17 10 19 14 14 8 16 11 12 10 11 17 17 18 11  4  - 66 -  Table XV - (Concluded ) - Logging lake whitefish.  No. 124 125 130 111 129 277 120 123 122 110 121 107 109 276 106 274 275 119 108 116 117 118 273 105 115 103 101 267 269 272 104 271 270 102  Standard length at end of year; 1 2 3 4 5 74 63 65 58 55 41 76 55 48 72 69 49 57 45 68 69 72 71 59 63 65 57 58 69 47 63 62 65 61 80 35 67 58 58  123 124 125 128 111 98 122 95 93 116 120 101 112 99 116 117 132 118 118 117 112 109 114 127 116 130 130 121 134 119 101 111 105 127  131 137 141 142 144 145 146 148 150 151 154 157 157 158 159 159 159 162 162 162 163 169 173 174 177 154 153 155 158 167  171 175 176 178 185  Scale rings; 1 3 2 20 17 18 17 12 16 19 19 18 22 19 14 19 13 26 20 22 18 24 24 23 20 21 24 19 21 24 24 19 25 16 25 16 19  14 14 15 21 18 24 16 15 16 12 15 14 20 17 22 15 20 12 24 22 18 18 21 22 28 24 25 20 24 15 28 17 17 20  7 15 5 13 14 6 8 12 14 18 15 12 11 9 13 13 11 15 13 12 20 12 16 18 13 12 18 18 19 11  -  67  -  Table XVI - Standard length attained by Prosopium williamsoni at the end of each year of l i f e . Lake Minnewanka No. 14 15 16 17 18 19  6  20 22  23 8 3 4 5 7 9 10 24 11 12 21 25 1 13 2  Calculated standard length attained at end of year: 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 6 81 78 66 71 54 54 60 60 53 48 75 49 50 68 53 61 62 54 55 69 68 58 69 65  69  124 125 129 133  124 141 153 112 118  155 165  179 185 182  196 220 156 167 199  136 156 99 109 138 116 113 129 138 115 135 125 136 141 150 154  155 152 193 187 179 185 220 182 201 187 197 186 201 228  133 184 122 136 153 143  161 220 166 203 205 203  206  210 225 275  202 209  230 240  243  275  251 207 189  232  240  233  255  251  275  262  275  233  231 228 235 254 222  241 222  240 239 236 283  280  254  280  267  285  286  305  258 272 269 274 255 279 308  279  245 273 288 263  298 298 296 306 338  295 315 310 310 322 328 356  368  296 312 290  316 328 321  325 340 340  298  335 345  Third lake 27 28 29 30 31 32  82 90 64 57 72 73  Cascade r i v e r 55  43  106  207  237 222 241 262 237  -sa-  lable XVII - Standard length attained by Prosopium williatasonl at the end of each year of l i f e .  No.  Standard length at end of year: 1 2 3 4  Scale rings: 1 2 3  Maskinonge lake D E  86 82  110 103  Nooksaok river 451 452  76 80  116 116  74  129  21 21  9 9  20  14  Tolt river 461  181  200  13  5  - 69 -  Table XVIII - Standard length, attained by the Cultus lake whitefish at the end of each year of l i f e . No. 59 67 60 90 89 87 88 55 96 58 85 95 56 57 79 51 81 86 54 84 68 75 83 53 78 80 46 49 52 48 82 50 76 77 66 94 44 72 74 65 42 45 47 71  Length at end of year; 1 2 3 76 84 91 88 92 92 91 102 98 87 69 104 97 97 98 92 87 88 94 78 81 108 80 96 86 100 89 104 91 83 98 95 104 84 86 106 85 87 101 87 97 76 101 91  94 96 98 99 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 . 105 105 105 106 106 106 107 107 108 108 108 110 110 110 111 111 111 112 112 113 113 113 114 114 115 115 115 116 118 118/ 118 118  Scale rings; 1 2 14 16 17 17 15 18 17 22 19 17 17 20 23 19 20 18 22 20 20 18 21 25 18 21 18 16 24 16 20 17 22 24 23 18 18 18 19 18 24 17 20 19 22 20  3 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 6 0 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 8 7 0 5 2 3 1 4 1 3 6 3 3 1 6 6 1 6 6 2 6 3 8 5 5  - 70 -  Table XVIII - (Concluded) - Cultus lake whitefish. No. 92 93 43 69 73 64 70 63 61 91 62 37 41 40 108 110 107 109 39 98 105 99 103 102 35 100 101 23 106 104 32 38 17 9 14 13 12 20 15 10 11  Length at end of year: 1 2 3 4 5 6 87 118 119 119 103 120 95 124 104 124 86 125 97 127 107 129 115 134 87 135 122 136 110 217 71 180 187 74 160 193 82 186 201 80 179 202 69 193 205 100 201 212 70 205 223 85 174 228 91 179 230 95 175 231 84 185 241 110 199 248 74 155 216 93 167 228 81 152 243 95 159 206 88 166 212 113 192 233 101 162 206 98 164 220 85 187 230 63 138 208 79 212 260 80 158 212 95 159 232 105 160 214 74 141 184 79 148 217 98 206 241  7  8  9  Scale rings: 1 2 3 4 £i 6 17 24 21 20 21 18 18 27 23 18 29 29 14 19 21 19  249 252 283 237 241 271 246 254 269 256 299 249 274 261 212 263 274  249 259 287 279 283 304 283 321 279 302 294 256 292 299  298 300 305 315 320 337 306 329 328 277 322 331  334 347 334 354 346 298 352 350  343 360 366 325 347 365 376 368 376  5 0 2 4 2 6 5 3 2 10 2 31 26 27 26 23  27 22 17 29 18 25 19 21 25 22 25 32 28 26 13 16 24 20 20 20 22 16 20 22 25 23 24 19 24 17 21 21 15 18 22 36 20 24 22 12 20 14 19 18 22 19 24 28  7  1 9 3 5  2 3 15 14 18 19 16 12 8 17 8 29 10 13 8 11 8 15 11 11 14 15 11 11 11 20 13 13 12 16 12 21 12 16 13 12 11 21 11 8 10  3 7  5 7 11 6 9 7 8 3 10 11  5  11 8 12 10 10 8 12 11 7 15 10 8 10 6 7 8  -  71  -  Table XIX - Standard length attained by Prosopium williaasoni at the end of each year of l i f e .  Bow lake No.  Calculated standard length attained at end of year; 1 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  54 53 52 51 50 49 47 48 46 45 69 72 71 70 68 67 66 65 64 63 61 60 59 62 58 56 57  28 28 36 35 35 31 41 40 35 34 33 29 35 34 29 36 25 26 23 27 31 33 32 24 26 31 22  61 71 75 65 66 91 56 60 63 65 63 53 47 42 62 51 57 60 49 55 63 45  87 , 98 121 83 88 91 99 99 85 79 70 83 72 86 89 80 80 87 63  100 110 113 124 136 107 102 90 109 96 122 119 99 105 105 95  131 129 113 137 119 146 141 122 127 130 124  150 138 152 146 168 162 141 152 163 151  161 154 158 175 181 187 157 179 186 178  190 18? 194 170 197 204 199  177 203 215 214  67 62 67 67 65 66 66 72 77  113  146  165  180  190  197  200  144  Lake Louise 43 42 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 38 26  32 32 35 37  42 41 45 42 42 40 43 40 47  - 72 -  Table XX - Standard length attained by the Elk river whitefish at the end of each year of l i f e .  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The results of this work  In connection with these tables i t  must be noted that the figures represent percentages of the total stomach contents, while the symbol X i s used to denote the presence of an organism i n small quantities*  In many of the specimens examined, the stomachs  were found to be empty, and i n such cases an attempt was made to analyse the contents of the intestine*  Where this was done, the relative amounts  of the various organisms present were not estimated, i t being thought more suitable to merely indicate the food i n a qualitative way.  The results of the food studies show that the larvae and pupae of aquatic insects form the principal food of Prosopium williamsonic particularly of the older f i s h .  This i s true  Other organisms are taken quite frequently  however, and their selection i s undoubtedly mainly a matter of relative availability.  It will  be  seen that the proportional amounts of these  secondary food organisms vary considerably i n the different lakes* Those found to be of importance are the Gastropods and Pelscypods, Ostracoda, •Amphipoda* and small f i s h . Lake Minnewanka -All the individuals examined were mature f i s h .  These were captured  during the months of July and August and at that season were feeding almost entirely on insects.  The only other items of importance were the  Amphipoa Gammarus and a small unidentified Gastropod.  Table XXXIX  - 92 -  presents the detailed analysis of the stomachs. and the data are summar9  ized i n table XLIV. Bow lake In Bow lake during August the various aquatic insects were found to form the hulk of the food*  This was true of the very young fish* as well as  the older individuals, as demonstrated by tables XL7II, XLIX, and L. However, i t w i l l he noted that the importance of Cladocera i s considerable, and several of the stomachs contained large quantities of these organisms.  The detail of the individual stomachs i s given i n table XL  and the proportions of the various constituents i n table XLVII. Lake Louise The f i s h i n this sample were a l l immature specimens. These were taken at approximately the same time of year as the Bow lake f i s h , but i t i s interesting to note that here the chief food evidently consisted of Entomostraoa, and the insect forms were only of secondary  importance*  The comparison can readily be made by reference to tables XLVIII and XLIX. It would be unwise to make any general statements on the strength of these data, since i t i s quite probable that the food taken varies according to the time of day, as well as from season to season. ient here to remark that differences do exist.  I t i s suffic-  Tables XLI and XLV are i n -  cluded for individual and average distribution of the food organisms.. Third lake Since only three specimens,were available from this lake for stomach analyses, the averages obtained are not of great significance.  However, i t  is worthy of note that the only evidence of bottom feeding was the presence of traces of Gastropoda i n the digestive tract of one individual. Plankton Cladocera had been eaten by two, and the third had devoured small f i s h .  See tables XLII and XLVI for detailed analysis.  Cascade river A single specimen in i t s second summer was feeding exclusively on mayfly nymphs at the time of capture* Waterton lake The specimens obtained from this l o c a l i t y were shipped to the writer labelled as Prosopium williamsoni. On examination, however, the sample proved to consist of two species - P. williamsoni and Ooregonus clupeaformis.  This i n i t s e l f offered no d i f f i c u l t y , but led to confusion as  to the identity of 32 specimens whose stomachs were removed i n the f i e l d . For this reason, the analysis of the doubtful material has been kept separate from that i n which the species was definitely known, and i s presented i n table LI. The details of the individual stomachs of Prosopium are given i n table L I I I , and a summary of the data appears i n table LVI. For comparison, the food of Ooregonus i s l i s t e d i n a similar way i n table LVI I,  In Waterton lake the food of Prosopium i s shown to be chiefly insect material  e  The only other item of importance i s the snail Physa. Ooregonus  also feeds extensively on insects, but the addition of plankton forms i n considerable quantities i s probably a differentiating feature.  KM gilts lake It i s not known definitely that Prosopium i s to be found i n this lake, although stomachs were received which were labelled as this species• The actual specimens received a l l proved to belong to the genus Ooregonus, hence the reason for not accepting the identification of the others as reliable.  The food organisms of the indeterminate species are l i s t e d i n  table L I , and the analysis of the Ooregonus stomachs i s given in table LVII. Maskinonge lake Two specimens i n their second summer had bsen feeding principally on mayfly nymphs. For details, reference may be made to tables LIY and LVI. Pass creek One individual i n i t s f i f t h year, captured i n July, was feeding mainly on insects.  The analysis of this stomach i s presented i n table LV.  Quitu3 lake A considerable percentage of the stomachs of these f i s h were found to be empty of food. The older specimens were found to have subsisted to a great extent on various aquatic insects, and i n three oases snails were found to have been eaten. Of great importance i n this particular lake was the discovery of twelve newly-emerged sockeye f r y i n one stomach. The younger f i s h probably feed on plankton to some extent, although i n sufficient stomachs have been examined for an accurate report of the food of these forms» ling fish.  In table LVIII, specimens 42, 43, and 91 are year-  The remainder are i n their third year or older.  the data for these older f i s h are averaged.  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C C O PI 5$ E H O o  ca fl  03  CO  O! ri  co  CO  O  54  CJ  L O LO  o o  Table XLIV - Pood, organisms of whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) A - Number of stomachs containing the organism B - Greatest percentage i n any one stomach 0 - Average percentage i n a l l stomachs Lake Minnewanka - 14 individuals B  Eurycercus sp. Os tracoda Gammarus sp« Hyalella sp. PontoTooreia sr>. Unidentified Amphipoda Caddis larvae Caddis pupae Chironomid larvae Chironomid pupae Mayfly nymphs Pormicidae Gastropoda Sphaeriidae Plant material Unidentified Organic debris  1 1  2 1 •1 2 5 4 8 7 1 1 1 2 1 3, 2  55 X 70 X X 10 99  80 100 100 50 25 100 5 15 30 X  .  0  -X  A, V  8 X X X 21 17 20 17 4 c  7 X X 2 X  Table XL? - Food organisms of 12 whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) from lake Louise. Alona rectangula Scapholeberis muoronata Cyclops v i r i d i s Chironomid larvae Chironomid pupae UnidenticEied Diptera Mayfly nymphs Stonefly nymphs Coleoptera Gastropoda  8 3 8 7 3 1 1 2 • .• 1 1 •'.  100 50 70  98  20 15 15 40 15 x  35 11 18 26 2  X • X  5  X X  Table XLYI - Food organisms of 5 whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) from Third lake. Daphnia longisr»ina Daphnia sn. Sastropoda Gasterosteus sr>. (Sticklebacks)  1 1 1 1  100 100 X 100  33 33 • X 33  - 100 -  Table XLVII - Food organisms of 27 whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) from Bow lake. ™  Alona rectanffula Daphnia pulex Unidentified Amphipoda Unidentified Ostraooda Hydrachnidae Spider Chironomid larvae Chironomid pupae Ceratopogonid larvae Leptidae ? Unidentified Diptera Caddis larvae Mayfly-nymphs Stonefly nymphs Lygaeidae Saldidae Terrestrial Coleoptera Foraicidae Formicinae Myimlcinae Unidentified Hymenoptera Psocidae Unidentified Insecta Gastropoda Gastropod eggs Sphaeriidae Seeds Organic debris Stones and gravel Unidentified organic material  A  B  c  3  100 90  6 5  2  1 2  7 1  20 10  5 1  3 1 8 8 1 1 2 1 1 1  1.  1 1 2  • 1 5  JL  2  3 4  X X  20  25  100 90 10  X X X X  33 9  X  X X  X  X  50 100 75 70 10 50 20 30 25 15 30 10  X X  10  X X X  15  4  20 10  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  ' x  - 101 -  Table XL VIII - Pood of Prosopium williamsoni i n the f i r s t year. Bow lake Alona sp. . Scapholeberls sp. Cyclops sp. Hydrachnidae Chironomid larvae Chironomid pupae Unidentified Diptera Stonefly nymphs Psooidae  2 X 50 18 10 14 -6  Lake Louise 5 32.5 12.5 40 X 10  Table XLIX - Pood of Prosopium williamsoni i n the second year. Bow lake Alona sp. • Cyclops sp. Chironomid larvae Chironomid pupae Caratopogonid larvae Unidentified Diptera Plecoptera nymphs Mayfly nymphs Unidentified Goleoptera Gastropoda  13 13 3 3 55 10 X  Lake Louise 50.5 20 18.5 2«5 2 2 2 2 X  - 102 -  Table LI- Food of Prosopium williaaisoni from the third year inclusive. Bow lake Alona sp. Daphnia longispina Daphnia pulex Daphnia sp. Eurycerous sp. Gammarus sp. Hyalella sp. Pontoporeia sp. ? Unidentified Amphipoda Hydrachnidae Spider Ohironomid larvae OMronomid pupae Ceratopogonid larvae Leptidae ? Unidentified Diptera Caddis larvae Gaddis pupae Mayfly nymphs Stonefly nymphs Lygaeidae Saldidae Terrestrial Oolepptera Formicidae Formicinae Myrmicinae Unidentified Hymenoptera Unidentified Insecta Gastropoda Gastropod eggs Sphaeriidae Unidentified Ostracoda Gasterosteus sp. Seeds Unidentified plant remains Organic debris Stones and gravel Unidentified organic material.  Lake Minnewanka Third lake  5  33  7  X 1.5 1 32 8 X X 2.5 X 19 10 4 X X 1 1.5 1 X X X X 1.5 X ... X X X 2  X 8 X X X  33  20 17  21 17 4  2  7 X X 1 X 2  X  33  - 103 -  Table LI - Stomach contents of 32 whitefish (Species doubtful} from Waterton lake. Average percentage in a l l stomachs Leeches Daphnia sp. Alona sp. Candona sp. Cyclops sp. Gammarus sp. Unidentified Amphlpoda Mysis r e l i c t a Hydrachnidae Chironomid larvae and pupae Caddis larvae and pupae Mayfly nymphs Grasshopper Cercopidae Asilidae Coccinellidae ITeuroptera Formieidae Unidentified Insecta Sphaerium sp. Unidentified Pelecypoda Unidentified Gastropoda Feathers Bottom ooze Conifer needles Chickweed Stones Bits of wood Unidentified  6 14  X X X X X .x X 33 • <t3  20  X X • X X X X  16  •  X.  12 X X X X X X X X  Table LII - Stomach contents of 3 whitefish (Species doubtful! from Knights lake. > ,: K  Ohironomid larvae and pupae Sphaerium sp. Unidentified Gastropoda Candond sp. ?  70 25 X 5  _ 104  m  m m  0>J  CM  m  CM  w  K  -  CM  in  o ca  W  K  sn  W  CM  m  Bg  CM  in m  in  CM  o  in  o  CM  K O  K  ri in  CM  CM  in CM  co CO  s  m fl  CO  c o t J r i . w ••^ *ri  1 O  2  w  3  . . co  *d  c  <-(  CD  CD  p j ^ p  a  p<  i M ri ri fl  o M  fl  o  S4  J4  ri  . H  eg  rH  CO  4  fl  g  , cd - .  CO  O  CD Cd  cd W CD  •  ft  Bl  CD ri .p  Cd  ri  ri  O  Q  «H  ftri ,  P  fl  ri fl^^^ri-S^gS ri r-. r-l - +> ri  P,  ri  ri  ftri CO  W  CO  CO  ti>j  f  ri o O  o Oh g h  CO  CD  £  ;  CD  O  ri  «M  § ri  CD  o  OS Om +»CO  fi 3 w  - 105 -  Table LV" - Stomach contents of 1 whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) from Pass creek. ~~ '  Organism Caddis larvae Mayfly nymphs Stonefly nymphs Unidentified Cladocera Chironomid larvae Unidentified insect remains Beetle elytron Caddis pupa  Percentage 40 20 10 10 10 10 X X  -106  -  Table LVI - Food organisms of Prosopium from Waterton and Mask lakes. A - Number of stomachs containing the organism B - Greatest percentage i n any one stomach 0 - Average percentage i n a l l the stomachs Waterton lake - 9 individuals  Gammarus st». Hydraohnidae Chironomid larvae and pupae Tipulid larvae and pupae Caddis larvae and pupae Dytiscidae Psocidae Formicidae Hymenoptera remains Physa sp. Unidentified Gastropoda Diatoms Miscellaneous algae Bits of wood  A  B  1 3 9 2  10  7  1 1  2 1 1  1 • 1  0 1  X  X  95 25 95 5 25 25 25 75  43 3 31  X 3 5 3 9  X X  1 1  10  2 1  100  X X X  x.  X  Maskinonge lake - 2 individuals Mayfly nymphs Planorbls sp.  X  99 X  - 107  -  Table LVII - Pood organisms of Ooregonus from Waterton and Knigh lakeso Waterton lake - 7 individuals Japhnia sp. Unidentified Ostracoda Bpischura sp. Unidentified Oopepoda IPontoporeia sp. Chironomid larvae and pupae Ceratopogonid larvae Phalacrocera sp» (pupae) Heptagenla sp. ? Sphaerium sp. Planbrbis sp. Mougeotia or Zygnema sp. Conifer needles  A  4 1 ' 1 1 1 6 2 1 1 2 1 1 1  B  c  100  38.5  X  X  3.5 4  25  SO X  X  75  29  80 10 40 10  11.5 1,5 7 1*5  X  X X  X  :  X X  Knights lake - 4 individuals Candona sp. ? Unidentified Ost-racoda Cyclops sp. Hydrachnidae Chironomid larvae Tipulid larvae Oaddis larvae Mayfly nymphs Sphaerium sp.  4 1 1  %•  4 1 1 1. 2  5  X .X X  1  X X X  95  75  5  •1  40  20  X  X  X  X  - 108 CM  g  O  8 co  HJ 0>  5*3  W W W  O  O  HI C—  3 3  m  in  3. o o co CM  CM  to CM  CM  O  o>  o o  LO  o en  109 -  Table LIX - Pood organisms of Prosopium williamsoni from Cultus lake. (13 specimens) A - Humber of stomachs containing the organism B - Greatest percentage i n any one stomach 0 - Average percentage i n a l l the stomachs Chironomid larvae Limnephilid larvae Mystacides larvae Unidentified Caddis larvae Burrowing mayfly nymph Unidentified Insecta Gyraulus sp. Planorbis sp. Sookeye salmon Nostoc colonies Miscellaneous plant material Chunks of wood  A 1 2 2 2 1  B X 100 100 100 10  X 12 22 22 1  2 1 1 1 1 2  10 100 100 90 80 X  2 11 11 10 9 X  4  o  » 110 -  SUMMARY It may be said that each of the populations studied exhibits individual differences which are characteristic of the l o c a l i t y , or rather the par ticular body of water from which i t comes. Some of these differences are small and can hardly be said to have any real significances while others appear to be abrupt and cause the particular race to stand out from the others.  In general i t can be shown for any one character that intermediate stages exist which seem to bridge the gap between the two extreme values. At the same time, the material examined seems to f a l l naturally into four broad groups® These are correlated with environment to a considerable extent, and thus they are actually ecological divisions, for i t seems that similar habitats produce similar variants, as might be expected.  For each of these four groups, a single population has been selected which seems to be characteristic of that group. Representative of the f i r s t i s the Waterton lake sample, which has been more or less arbitr a r i l y chosen as being close to the typical williamsoni. These races are a l l lake f i s h and l i v e at an altitude of somewhere between four and five thousand feet. The second group, typified by the Cultus lake f i s h , , has a more rapid growth rate, particularly i n the f i r s t few years, and is apparently more typically a river-dwelling race found at an altitude not much above sea l e v e l .  Cultus lake i t s e l f has an altitude of less  than five hundred feet. Group three has for i t s type race the Bow lake  - Ill -  population.  This i s distinct because of i t s slow growth rate and small  size at maturity.  Bow lake and lake Louise are both very cold and  heavily s i l t e d , being fed by extensive glaciers which l i e close to their margins. The elevations are 6500 and 5680 feet respectively. The habi t a t of this group, then, i s quite d i s t i n c t . The fourth and last group is characterized by the Elk river f i s h .  These probably spend their  whole l i f e i n the stream and never enter a lake. The chief distinction in the rate of growth i n this case i s the small growth of the f i r s t year. Waterton lake This race appears to be intermediate for every character studied, and i s thus a good choice for the type of the species. No outstanding features are present to be worthy of comment. Waterton lake l i e s at an altitude of 4193 feet and drains by means of the Waterton river and Oldman river into the South Saskatchewan. Bowman lake The Bowman lake f i s h are intermediate i n a good percentage of their characters, but i n others they approach or reach one extreme. This may be due to the age composition of the sample, for they are a l l young f i s h , the average length for the specimens examined being the least of any race.  The features which do appear extreme are the ones which are char-  acteristic of smaller f i s h , such as head length, large eye, high dorsal f i n and f a i r l y high anal.  The most important features of this population  are therefore the long pectoral fins and the short pelvics.  Bowman lake  is situated at an elevation of approximately 4100 feet and drains through the Flathead river into the Columbia. Lake McDonald No older f i s h were available for examination, and the characteristics of the race must therefore be inferred from the data concerning the yearlings.  Comparing these with the yearling f i s h from other lakes, i t i s  found that i n most respects this population i s intermediate, thus agreeing with the Waterton lake f i s h .  Points of difference are the f a i r l y  deep head, short pelvic f i n s , and the relatively small anal. Lake McDonald i s similar i n altitude to Bowman lake and also drains into the Flathead. Logging lake The Bowman lake, lake McDonald, and Logging lake f i s h are similar i n most respects, and agree quite closely with the Waterton lake population. Minor differences do occur, however, and the Logging lake race i s no exception i n this particular.  These f i s h are characterized by a some-  what shorter snout and short pectoral f i n s , and agree with the last race described i n having short pelvics.  Logging lake l i e s a short distance  from Bowman lake and drains into the same river system. Lake Minnewanka These f i s h exhibit a number of characteristics peculiar to the population, and the race may be said to be more distinct from the type than any other in this group. Distinguishing features are the small head and relatively small f i n s .  The small size of the head i s reflected i n a l l i t s dimensions  - 113 -  i n length, depth, distance from snout t i p to occiput, length of snout and m a x i l l a r y , and diameter of eye.  Of the f i n s the dorsal i s short,  the anal i s short and has a short base, the pelvics are f a i r l y short, and the adipose i s smaller than i n any other population. of lake Minnewanka i s 4769 f e e t .  I t drains into the Bow  The' elevation river, which  in turn empties into the South Saskatchewan. Third lake This race resembles the Minnewanka f i s h to some extent. intermediate i n length, but has a small eye.  The head i s  The fins are a l l small  wi th the exception of the adipose, which attains a considerable size, although i t s base i s small i n comparison. A distinctive feature found only i n this sample i s the small size of the maxillary i n relation to the snout. Third lake i s not far from lake Minnewanka and empties into the Bow river.  I t has an elevation of 4500 feet. -  Maskinonge lake Again only yearling f i s h were available, and the sample was small i n size.  The f i s h examined were distinguished by a large eye and deep head,  and by a large growth i n the f i r s t year.  By virtue of l o c a l i t y this race  i s placed i n the f i r s t group. Maskinonge lake drains into the Waterton river j u s t below Waterton lake at an elevation of approximately  4185  feet. Gultus lake  This population i s the type of group two.  Besides the rapid growth, to  which reference has already been made, this race possesses a relatively  - 114 -  small head and eye, long bases on dorsal and anal f i n s , f a i r l y short p e c t o r a l s j and a large adipose f i n .  The adipose base i s not only large  in relation to that of the other races, but also with respect to the base of the anal, so that the r a t i o of adipose base to anal base i s compara t i v e l y high.  Added to these features are a difference of one i n the  average count of pectoral f i n rays and possibly a slightly higher scale count. Cultus lake empties into the Vedder river, which flows into the Fraser.  I t s e l e v a t i o n i s not greatly above sea l e v e l .  Tolt r i v e r The single specimen from t h i s l o c a l i t y agrees very c l o s e l y w i t h the average characters of the Cultus lake population, large adipose may  be, noted.  I n p a r t i c u l a r the  The T o l t r i v e r i s i n the state of Wash-  ington and flows into Paget sound. Nooksaok river A sample consisting of two yearling f i s h was examined. I t may be of significance that the Tolt and Nooksack specimens have deeper heads than the Cultus lake f i s h .  Added to this i n the Nooksack are the large  dorsal and anal f i n s , long pectorals and pelvics, and large adipose. A l l these fins are larger i n these f i s h than i n any other sample of yearlings.  The Nooksack also runs into Puget sound.  Bow lake The type of the third group was at once considered distinct because of i t s slow rate of growth. This has produced a large-headed race, which rather surprisingly has a relatively short snout.  In contrast with the  Third lake f i s h the snout i n this case averages slightly shorter than the maxillary. The dorsal f i n has a short base "but i s comparatively high, and therefore the ratio of dorsal height to dorsal base i s great. The pectorals are very long, the pelvics f a i r l y so, and the adipose i s relatively small. Bow lake i s rather high i n the mountains, being at an elevation of 6500 feet. As mentioned previously, the water i s very cold and heavily s i l t e d .  The lake drains by means of the Bow river  into the South Saskatchewan. Lake Louise A l l but one of the specimens i n this sample were yearling f i s h .  The fig-?  ures for rate of growth i n table XXI therefore were obtained from this single sample except for the f i r s t year's growth. This may account for s  the apparent difference i n growth between Bow lake and lake Louise.  The  characters of the young f i s h appear to be similar to those of the Bow lake population, as would be expected i f physical similarity of environment is to be accepted as a criterion.  The elevation of lake Louise i s 5680  feet. Elk river Environment has produced a f a i r l y large-headed race as the type of the fourth group. Even taking the large head into consideration, the snout and maxillary are found to be extremely long, and this i s not accompanied by the characteristic bulging rostrum of the Waterton lake f i s h . The median and paired fins are a l l large with the exception of the adipose, which i s very small. The ratio of adipose base to anal base i s  - 116 -  the least of any population studied.  The average scale count i s also  even s l i g h t l y higher than for the Cultus lake fish.  One specimen had  94 scales i n the lateral l i n e , which i s high for this species.  The Elk  river i s i n southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia, and flows into the Kootenay river, which i s a tributary of the Columbia. The town of Michel, close to which these specimens were captured, i s approximately 3800 feet above sea level.  - 117 -  OOITOLUSIOffS  Hie material presented i n the preceding pages represents the foundation of a revision of the genus Prosopiumo  A l l the preliminary "spade work"  necessary to a problem of this kind has been completed®  The literature  on the subject has been gone over as thoroughly as possible, and to ensure that no important details have been missed, various authorities i n the systematic f i e l d have been consulted.  It has been stated on various occasions that the genus Prosopium i s an extremely variable group. Opinion i s unanimous i n this respect, but up to the present time no measure of the extent of this variation has been forthcoming.  There i s some disagreement among ichthyologists as to the  status of the various species, but i t seems that this must be due to a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning the characteristics of these species rather than to any definite convictions supported by facts. I t is the view of this writer that specific names have been applied to several forms i n this genus which are only of subspecifio rank, and that i n a l l likelihood only about four or five definite species exist.  Specimens of Prosopium williamsoni have been studied from a representative series of l o c a l i t i e s covering to a great extent the known range of the species.  These samples came from lakes and rivers tributary to three of  our great river systems, namely the Praser, the Saskatchewan, and the Columbia, I t i s regrettable that i t was not possible also to examine  - 118 -  specimens from the Athabasca river, but unfortunately an attempt to secure a series from this l o c a l i t y was unsuccessful.  The fish examined  show a relatively wide range of variation i n most of the thirty-odd characters which were subjected to measurement. I t was found possible to correlate most of these variations quite definitely with the type of habitat, and i n this way four main races were found to exist, each characterized by a special type of environment which apparently showed i t s effect on growth rate and body proportions.  Individual differences i n  food were also found to occur, and these also are undoubtedly caused by a difference i n the relative a v a i l a b i l i t y of the various organisms present i n a body of water.  It i s hoped that the work w i l l not cease here, and that some day a complete revision of the whole group w i l l be possible. At the present time this i s out of the question, for i t i s probable that a great amount of widespread and rather d i f f i c u l t f i e l d work must be carried out to bridge the wide gaps i n present collections.  - 119 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Bajkov, A. 1927 Reports of the Jasper park lakes investigations 1925-26: I - The fishes. Contr.Can.Biol., N.S., 3, 16 i 379-403. Bean, B. A. 1894 Notes on Williamson's whitefish i n breeding colours, from l i t t l e Spokane river, Washington, and remarks on the distribution of the species. Bull.U.S.Fish.Comm., 14 : 205-206. Bean, T. H. ' 1885 Rocky mountain whitefish. Forest and stream, 25 : 390. Berg, L. S. 1936 Note on Ooregonus (Prosopium) cylindraoeus (Pallas). Copeia, 1936. 1 j 57-58. Crawford, D. R. 1925 Field characters identifying young salmonoid fishes i n fresh waters of Washington. Univ.Wa8h.Pub.Fish., 1, 2 : 64-76. Dymond, J . R. and Hart, J . L. 1927 The fishes of lake A b i t i b i (Ontario) and adjacent waters. Univ.Toronto Stud.Biol., Pub.Ont.Fish.Res.Lan., 28 : 3-19. Eigenmann, C. H. 1894 Results of explorations i n western Canada and the northwestern United States. Bull.U.S«Fi8h.0omtn. 14 • 101-132. Eigenmann, 0. H. and Eigenmann, R. S. 1892 New fishes from was tern Canada. Amer.Nat., 26 s 961-964. Evermann, B. W. 1892 Report on the establishment of fish-cultural stations i n the Rooky mountain region and gmlf states. Bull.U.S.Fish.Comra., 1891(1892), XI : 1-90. Evermann, B. W. and Smith, H. M. 1896 The whitefishes of North America. Re'p.U.S.Fish.Comm., 1894(1896) s 283-324. Foerster, R. E. 1925 Studies i n the ecology of the sockeye salmon, (Oncorhynchus nerka). Contr.Can.Biol., N.S., 2, 16 .: 337-422. Girard, 0. 1856 Contributions to the ichthyology of the western coast of the United States, from specimens i n the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proo.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phila., VIII : 117-122. Hubbs, 0. L. 1926' A check l i s t of the fishes of the Great lakes and tributary waters, with nomonclatorial notes and analytical keys. Univ.Mi oh.Mus.Zool.Misc.Publ., 15 s 1-77. t  :  - 120 -  Jordan, D. S. 1889 Report of explorations in Colorado and Utah in the summer of 1889 with an account of the fishes found in each of the river basins examined. Bull.U.S.Bur,Fish., IX : 1-40. Jordan, D. S. 1891 A reconnaissance of the streams and lakes of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, i n the interest of the United States Fish Commission. Bull.U.S.Fieh.Oomm., IX : 41-63. Jordan, D. S. 1905 A guide to the study of fishes. Two volumes. Henry Holt and Co., New York. Jordan, D. S. 1919 New genera of fishes. Proc.Acad.Nat.Soi.Phila., LXX, 1918(1919) % 341-344. Jordan, D. S. and Evermann, B. W. 1896 The fishes of North and Middle America. Smithson.Inst., U.S.Nat.Mus., Bull.47. Jordan, D. S. and Evermann, B* W. 1909 A review of the salmonoid fishes of the Great lakes with notes on the whitefishes of other regions. Bull.U.S.Bur.Fish., XXIX : 1-42. Jordan, D. S. and Evermann, B. W. 1922 American Food and Game Fishes. Doubleday, Page and Co., New York. Jordan, D. S. and Snyder, J . 0. 1909 Description of a new whitefish (Ooregonus oregonug) from McKonzie river, Oregon. Proc.U.S.Nat.Mus.,- 36 : 425-430. Kendall, W. C. 1903 Notes on some fresh water fishes from Maine with descriptions of three new species. Bull.U.S.Fish.Comm., XXII 353-368. Kendall, W. 0. 1917 A second record for the Coulter's whitefish. Copeia #5 ; 54455. Kendall, W. C. 1921 Further observations on Coulter*s whitefish. Copeia 90 : 1-4. Kendall, W. C. 1923 Contr.Can.Biol., 1, 23. Koelz, W. 1927 Coregonid fishes of the great lakes. Bull.U.S.Bur.Fish., XLII, part 2 : 297r-643. Koelz, W. 1931 The Coregonid fishes of northeastern America. Pap.Mich.Acad.Sci.Arts and Letters, XIII, 1930(1931) • 303-432. Milner, J . W. 1874 New species of Argyrosomus and Ooregonus. Rep.U.S.Comm.Fish., 1872 and 1873 (1874)  - 121 -  Myers, G.3. 1932 A new whitefish, Prosopium snyderi, from Orescent lake, Washington. Copeia, 1932, 2* Pratt, H.S. 1923 Vertebrate animals of the United States. Schultz, L. P. 1929 Check l i s t of the fresh water fishes of Oregon and Washington. Univ.Wash.Pub.Pish., U.Wash.Press, 1929. Snyder, J . 0. 1917 Coulter's whitefish. Copeia 50 : 93-94. Snyder, J . 0. 1917 Three new whitefishes from Bear lake, Idaho and Utah. Bull.U.S.Bur.Pish., 35 : 1-9. Snyder, J . 0. 1916 The fishes of the Lahontan system of Nevada and northeastern California. Bull.U.S.Bur.Fish., XXXV : 33-86. Van Oosten, J . 1923 A study of the scales of whitefishes of known ages. Zoologica % N.Y.Zool.Soc, 2, 17 : 381-412. Van Oosten, J . 1929 L i f e history of the lake herring of lake Huron as revealed by i t s scales, with a critique of the scale method. Bull.U.S.Bur.Fish., XLIV.  

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