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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Studies in Anglo-Saxon institutions, 450-900 A.D. Hulley, Clarence Charles 1938

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STUDIES I N ANGLO-SAXON INSTITUTIONS 450 - 900 A.D. b y GLAREHOE CHARLES BULLET A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OF ARTS I n the Department of | HISTORY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1958 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page P A R T O N E . T H E P E R I O D O F T H E CONQUEST A N D S E T T L U V C E I M T 4 5 0 - 7 0 0 A . D . 1 CHAPTER I . A M E V A L U A T I O N O F T H E S O U R C E M A T E R I A L . 1 C H A P T E R I I . K I N S H I P A S T H E B A S I S O F C U S T O M A R Y ANGLO-SAXON L A W 1 5 CHAPTER I I I . L O R D S H I P AND K I N G S H I P I N T H E E A R L Y P E R I O D 5 1 P A R T T W O . T H E P E R I O D F R O M T H E S E T T L E M E N T T O T H E D E A T H O F A L F R E D 7 0 0 - 9 0 0 A . D . • . 54 C H A P T E R I . THE TRANSITION F R O M K I N S H I P T O N E I G H B O R -H O O D 54 CHAPTER I I . L O R D S H I P T N T H E P E R I O D A F T E R T H E S E T T L E M E N T 7 1 CHAPTER I I I . PROBLEMS O F T H E K I N G S H I P T O T H E D E A T H O F A L F R E D T H E G R E A T 9 9 C O N C L U S I O N 1 2 5 B I B L I O G R A P H Y ', 1 2 8 STUDIES I N ANGLO-SAXON INSTITUTIONS 450 - 900 A.D. PART ONE. THE PERIOD OF THE "CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT 450-700 A.D. CHAPTER I . AN EVALUATION OF THE SOURCE MATERIAL I n Oaesar's Commentaries on t h e G a l l i c Wars one f i n d s the e a r l i e s t account of t h e I n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e c o n t i n e n t a l an-c e s t o r s of t h e Anglo-Saxons. The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t o be de-r i v e d from t h i s most meagre s k e t c h on t h e o l d Germans, g i v e n i n the De B e l l o G a l l i c o , i s t h a t i n 55 B.C. t h e t r i b e s of the R h i n e l a n d , as Caesar knew them by r e p o r t , were i n a s t a t e of s e m i - s e t t l e d p a s t o r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . The t i e s t h a t u n i t e d t h e i r s i m p l e t r i b a l communities were those of k i n -j dred. T h e i r p r i m i t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s appear t o have c l o s e l y r e -sembled t h o s e of a l l t h e Indo-European r a c e s a t a c e r t a i n stage of development.(1) 1. F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the v a l u e of Caesar's De B e l l o  G a l i l e o and T a c i t u s ' German!a as s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , c f . A. Dopsch, The Economic. F o u n d a t i o n s of European C i v i l i z a t i o n , pp. 38-47. 2 JTo o t h e r c i v i l i z e d n a r r a t o r commented at any l e n g t h on t h e ways of t h e "barbarous t r i b e s who I n h a b i t e d t h e dank wolds on the n e t h e r s i d e of t h e Rhine and Danube u n t i l the y e a r 98 A. D. when T a c i t u s w r o t e h i s renowned and s i n c e much-quoted essay, German!a. I t would seem i n the c e n t u r y and a h a l f ' t h a t had i n -t e r v e n e d s i n c e Caesar's time th e Germanic t r i b e s had advanced i n t o a more h i g h l y developed s e m i - s e t t l e d h o r t i c u l t u r a l l i f e . K i n s h i p was s t i l l t he b a s i s of t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n but c e r t a i n new f a c t o r s were at work. The v e r y s c a n t account g i v e n by Caesar and t h e more d e t a i l e d e s s a y of T a c i t u s have v a l u e as s o u r c e m a t e r i a l i f p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t e d . At v a r i o u s t i m e s i n the p a s t f a r too much emphasis has been p l a c e d on t h e Germania. The i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e Anglo-Saxons of t h r e e and.a h a l f cen-t u r i e s l a t e r c o u l d h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d t o have as c l o s e a r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by T a c i t u s as h i s t o r i a n s a t t i m e s have t r i e d t o p r o v e . The a c t u a l v a l u e of t h e Anglo-Saxon p o e t r j ^ as s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s t u d y of e a r l y Anglo-Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s I s r a t h e r d e b a t a b l e . Beowulf, Tinnesbtiok, Walhere, Deor, The  Wanderer and The S e a f a r e r , t h e Anglo-Saxon poems now i n e x i s t -ence, t o o k t h e i r p r e s e n t form i n t h e s i x t h and s e v e n t h c e n t u r -i e s but t h e i r s u b s t a n c e comes from a much e a r l i e r p e r i o d . A l l the scenes i n t h e s e poems t a k e p l a c e I n f o r e i g n l a n d s beyond the German sea, and the m a t e r i a l i s legendary;, t h e r e f o r e , t h e y can h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d t o add g r e a t l y t o t h e s t o c k of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g l i f e i n England. However, i f p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t e d 3 t h e y throw c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on t h e s o c i a l and government p r i n -c i p l e s of t h e o l d T e u t o n i c p e o p l e s i n much the same way t h a t t h e Homeric poems e n l i g h t e n us as t o t h e customs of the e a r l y H e l l e n i c t r i b e s . The o n l y contemporary a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e p e r i o d of t h e Anglo-Saxon I n v a s i o n and S e t t l e m e n t i s t h e B r i t i s h monk G i l d a s . H i s w e l l known work, De E x o i d i o et Oonguestu B r i t a n n i a e , . was w r i t t e n sometime between 540 and 570 A.D. The f i r s t p a r t d e a l s w i t h the Roman o c c u p a t i o n of B r i t a i n and t h e coming of t h e Anglo-Saxons; t h e second s e c t i o n i s c h i e f l y a verbose jeremiade against the r e a l o r supposed s i n s of t h e C e l t i c c h i e f t a i n s . The t r a c t has l i t t l e v a l u e as source m a t e r i a l f o r s t u d y of Anglo-Saxon I n -s t i t u t i o n s but d e s e r v e d m e n t i o n as t h e s o l e contemporary s o u r c e f o r t h e studs?- of p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e y e a r s of the I n -v a s i o n . Another document f r e q u e n t l y mentioned, but r a r e l y con-s u l t e d , i s t h e H i s t or i a B r i t t o r u m of ITennius; w r i t t e n s u p p o s e d l y i n South Wales about 790 A.D. from m a t e r i a l dream from an e a r l -i e r c h r o n i c l e now l o n g l o s t . L i k e G i l d a s , De E x o i d i o et Con- questu B r i t a n n i a e t e l l s of t h e Roman o c c u p a t i o n and t h e Saxon i n v a s i o n s . The Annales Cambria^ a l t h o u g h p r i m a r i l y a Welsh chron- -«/ i c l e , c o n t a i n s some b r i e f n o t i c e s of E n g l i s h events v a l u a b l e t o the . n a r r a t o r of p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y but of no p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e i n the s t u d y of i n s t i t u t i o n s . The c o n t i n e n t a l l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n England d u r i n g t h e dark ages of the Conquest and S e t t l e m e n t a r e most b a r r e n of any m a t e r i a l t h a t might a i d i n a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e i n Anglo-Saxon B r i t -a i n . I n r e a l i t y we know n o t h i n g about t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e i n S outh B r i t a i n from the commencement of t h e Saxon Conquest u n t i l t he time of A e t h e l b e r t of Kent (560-617 A.D.). Only by combining i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d from T a c i t u s and the H e r o i c Poems w i t h what we know of l i f e i n Saxon England a f t e r the time of th e C o n v e r s i o n can one hope t o r e c o n s t r u c t a n y t h i n g l i k e a c l e a r - c u t p i c t u r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Anglo-Saxon E n g l a n d i n the e a r l i e r p a r t s of t h e p e r i o d . I n d o i n g t h i s we are met w i t h many almost insurmountable" gaps i n e x i s t i n g -knowledge f o r , d e s p i t e t h e l a b o r e d r e s e a r c h of many eminent s c h o l a r s d u r i n g . the l a s t c e n t u r y , t h e e a r l i e r h a l f of t h e Saxon Age remains a dim and d i s t a n t p a s t shrouded i n a.nebula o f legends and myths and r e s o u n d i n g w i t h v i o l e n c e of c l a n a n d 1 t r i b a l s t r u g g l e . The p u r e l y E n g l i s h p r i m a r y source m a t e r i a l s , a l l of whi c h b e l o n g t o the p e r i o d a f t e r t h e C o n v e r s i o n , are of s e v e r a l and v a r i e d t y p e s : namely, two " l e n g t h y ' l i t e r a r y documents, The  E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y of Bede, and t h e Anglo-Saxon C h r o n i c l e , th e laws or dooms of t h e Saxon k i n g s from the time of A e t h e l -b e r t of Kent t o Knut (601-1020 A.D.), c e r t a i n c h a r t e r s / w i l l s and o t h e r d i p l o m a t a , f r a g m e n t a r y b i o g r a p h i c a l a c c o u n t s , p a r -t i c u l a r l y A s s e r * s L i f e of A l f r e d t h e G r e a t , c e r t a i n l e t t e r s , -e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e of A l c u i n a n d ' B o n i f a c e ; a l s o numerous t r a n s -a c t i o n s of c h u r c h synod's, p e n i t e n t i a l s , m o n a s t i c r e c o r d s , and the l i k e . ( C e r t a i n i n s c r i p t i o n s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l r u i n s and r e l i c s from every-day l i f e have come down t o our day. Among t h e o u t s t a n d i n g g u i d e s t o Anglo-Saxon a f f a i r s f rom 596 A.D. onward are Bede's H i s t o r y and the Anglo-Saxon  C h r o n i c l e . Of t h e s e two, Bede I s perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t . H i s H i s t o r i a ffcolesiastioa, w i t h i t s connected n a r r a t i v e , r e p r e s e n t s a type of w r i t i n g q u i t e d i s t i n c t from t h e b r i e f c h r o n o l o g i c a l memoranda of events c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h r o n i c l e s common t o the s e v e n t h and e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s i n Europe. A l t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l • l y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l , Bede's g r e a t work, i f p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t e d , throws much l i g h t on t h e ?/ays of t h e t i m e s , p a r -t i c u l a r l y i n the case of many of t h e e p i s o d e s recorded,£ a "the Anglo-Saxon C h r o n i c l e , commenced about 390 A.D., but w i t h an-n a l i s t i c e n t r i e s back t o 55 B.C., i s v a l u a b l e f o r the s t u d y of the l a s t c e n t u r y and a h a l f of Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y . The most i m p o r t a n t of a l l t h e sou r c e m a t e r i a l a r e t h e Anglo-Saxon Laws. However, t h e r e a re no dooms or codes f o r the. f i r s t ' c e n t u r y and a h a l f of the Saxon Age. When the Saxons, A n g l e s and t h e i r l e s s w e l l known k i t h and k i n s e t t l e d i n Eng-l a n d , a l l of t h e i r l a w was p r e s e r v e d i n t h e form of o r a l t r a d i -t i o n or customs. Owing t o t h e g r a d u a l development of c i v i l i z a -t i o n and t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e c h u r c h , some of t h e s e customs were a l t e r e d o r reduced t o w r i t i n g . The e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n laws appeared soon a f t e r t h e coming of S t . A u g u s t i n e . The e x i s t i n g s e r i e s of t h e Anglo-Saxon Laws.extend from t h e r e i g n of E t h e l -b e r t of Kent t o t h e death of ICnut (601-1020 A.D.). These so-6 c a l l e d Anglo-Saxon Laws do not form an e x h a u s t i v e statement or complete c o d i f i c a t i o n of law, "but comprise th o s e p o r t i o n s t h a t were changed, amended or newly e n f o r c e d ; t h e g r e a t p a r t of the common law remained u n w r i t t e n . These dooms.of the e a r l y Saxon k i n g s r e l a t e m a i n l y t o c r i m e , or s p e c i f i c o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t the peace of t h e community, no attempt I s made t o e n u n c i a t e g e n e r a l l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s . Com-pared- w i t h t h e c o n t i n e n t a l f o l k laws and c a p i t u l a r i e s , t h e y are n o t e d f o r t h e i r p u r e l y Germanic c h a r a c t e r or l a c k of i n t e r m i x -t u r e w i t h f o r e i g n law, and f o r the use of the v e r n a c u l a r i n p l a c e of t h e customary L a t i n . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h e imglo-Saxon dooms, a l t h o u g h not as e a r l y as t h o s e of the F r a n k s , extend over f a r g r e a t e r a p e r i o d . I n f a c t , no o t h e r German na-t i o n has bequeathed t o p o s t e r i t y r i c h e r l e g a c y of l e g a l docu-ments t h a n t h e Anglo-Saxon. The e x i s t i n g s e r i e s of Anglo-Saxon dooms may be rough-l y c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s , : ,1. The Dooms of t h e K e n t i s h Kingdom, e x t e n d i n g from c i r c a 600-695 A . D . — t h e e x a c t date of the f i r s t i s s u e o f E t h e l -b e r t T s dooms i s not known, p r o b a b l y about 600 A.D. These laws are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t as b e i n g t h e e a r l i e s t documents i n t h e O l d E n g l i s h language. I n a l l , t h e K e n t i s h dooms c o n s i s t of t h r e e s e p a r a t e i s s u e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e or perhaps f o u r suc-c e s s i v e r e i g n s : namely, t h o s e of Aeth.el.bert, t h o s e of S l o t h a -ere and E a d r i c , and t h o s e of V/ithred; i n a l l 134 s h o r t p a r a -graphs, c o m p r i s i n g m a i n l y t a b l e s of punishments f o r c r i m e s . 7 2. The Dooms of Ine of Wessex, e x t e n d i n g from c i r o a 683-695 A.D. These dooms a r e more numerous and much w i d e r i n scope t h a n t h o s e of the K e n t i s h k i n g s . The t e r m i n o l o g y d i f f e r s I n many r e s p e c t s from t h a t of the codes of K e n t ; o t h e r f e a t u r e s show t h a t between Saxon Wessex and J u t i s h Kent t h e r e were at t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s . I n e ' s codes c o n s i s t o f 75 o r 76 s t a t e m e n t s , s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e -punishments t o he meted out f o r c e r t a i n o f f e n s e s . 3 . The Dooms of C o n s o l i d a t e d E n g l i s h , w i t h Wessex as t h e n u c l e u s , e x t e n d i n g from c i r c a 890-1065 A.D* These com-p r i s e about f i v e - f i f t h s of t h e a u t h e n t i c Anglo-Saxon laws. A l -f r e d and h i s more a b l e s u c c e s s o r s , down t o the death o f Knut, a l l i s s u e d dooms a l o n g l i n e s s i m i l a r t o t h e e a r l i e r ones of Ine and t h e K e n t i s h k i n g s . The l a t e r dooms are more e x t e n s i v e and, d e a l w i t h a w i d e r range of s u b j e c t s t h a n t h e e a r l i e r ones but do- not d e p a r t from t h e g e n e r a l t y p e . B e s i d e s t h e s e k i n g l y dooms, t h e r e has come down t o us a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of l e s s e r l e g a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g documents and d i p l o m a t a , c o m p r i s i n g c h a r t e r s , w i l l s , m a r r i a g e c o n t r a c t s , man-u m i s s i o n s , r e c o r d s of. Wit an and Church Synods. These documents are of v e r y g r e a t v a l u e f o r the s t u d y of Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s , as t h e y throw l i g h t upon the lav? of r e a l p r o p e r t y , c l a s s e s of so-c i e t y , t h e _ n a t u r e of t e n u r e and s e r v i c e , t h e f u n c t i o n s of the V/itan, the powers of n o b i l i t y , and t h e r e l a t i o n of the Crown t o t h e Church and t o t h e n o b l e s ; t h e y o f t e n e l u c i d a t e the R o y a l dooms, and supplement the a n n a l s . 8 The o r i g i n a l documents of the Saxon p e r i o d , t h a t i s those which have s u r v i v e d t h e ravages of t i m e , a r e now i n the B r i t i s h Museum, Oxfo r d and Cambridge L i b r a r i e s , the v a r i o u s c a t h e d r a l s and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s . The e a r l i e s t noteworthy-attempt t o e d i t and p u b l i s h t h e Saxon laws were made by Lam-barde i n 1568; i n 1721, W i l k i n ' s Leges Ang l o - S a x o n i e a e made i t s appearance. Other more noted e d i t i o n s s i n c e have been: Thorpe's A n c i e n t Laws, 1840; Schmid's Gesetze, 1858; L i e b e r -mann's G e s e t z e , 1899; and, Attenborough's Laws of the E a r l i e s t  E n g l i s h K i n g s , 1922. The s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of the l e s s e r d i p l o m a t a was be-gun by H i c k e s about 1703 when h i s D i s s e r t a t i o E p i s t o l a r i s made i t s appearance. The f i r s t o u t s t a n d i n g i n v e s t i g a t o r of t h e d i p l o m a t a , as w e l l as t h e l a w s , was Kembie who j u s t at the mid-d l e 5 of t h e l a s t c e n t u r y p u b l i s h e d h i s monumental work, the Codex d i p l o m a t i c u s a e v i S a x o n i c i . S i n c e Kembie's t i m e , B i r c h , Haddan, Stubbs, E a r l e , Hearne, Hoare, P h i l l i p p s , Plummer, D u i g -nan, N a p i e r , Stevenson, W h i t e l o e k , and o t h e r s have e d i t e d c o l -l e c t i o n s of Saxon documents. B e s i d e s t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e r e are a few minor and much s c a t t e r e d documents t h a t y i e l d w i t h much l a b o r a l i m i t e d amount of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g Saxon i n -s t i t u t i o n . The o l d Worse sagas and c e r t a i n S c a n d i n a v i a n docu-ments throw l i g h t on E n g l i s h a f f a i r s I n r e l a t i o n t o the V i k i n g i n - r o a d s , and g i v e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s of a 9 pe o p l e c l o s e l y a k i n i n c u l t u r e and r a c e t o t h e Anglo-Saxons. A l s o c e r t a i n .documents of t h e Norman and A n g e v i n p e r i o d s r e -f l e c t back t o t h e Saxon Age. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n t h e case of c e r t a i n l a w books, l a n d books, and ac c o u n t s of s a i n t s based upon e a r l i e r b i o g r a p h i e s now l o s t . The Domesday Survey, i f p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t e d and used w i t h much c a u t i o n , e n a b l e s one t o deduce c e r t a i n i d e a s about t h e l a s t h a l f of t h e Saxon Age. The remains of b u r i a l s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l r u i n s ( w h i c h are few, as the Saxons used wood i n p l a c e of s t o n e ) , and innumer-a b l e r e l i c s from everyday l i f e , t o g e t h e r w i t h l o c a l t r a d i t i o n and. r u s t i c p r o v i n c i a l customs enable us t o form some hazy i d e a s about l i f e i n Saxon t i m e s . B e f o r e t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was l i t t l e h i s -t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , i n the t r u e sense of t h e word. To meet t h e needs of g r e a t l a w y e r s l i k e Coke, S e l d o n , and Madox, h i s t o r i c a l knowledge was made t o y i e l d t h e n e c e s s a r y s t o r e of l e a d i n g c a s -es. W i t h the r i s e of h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h cen-t u r y , t h e f i r s t g r e a t h i s t o r i a n s c o n f i n e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o the p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s . R o b e r t s o n , Gibbon, B l a c k s t o n e and H a l l -am had no p a r t i c u l a r d e s i r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e growth of i n s t i -t u t i o n s . Savignyand E i c h h o r n , t h e g r e a t c o n t i n e n t a l h i s t o r i a n s of t h a t p e r i o d , u n r a v e l l e d European h i s t o r y i n t o T e u t o n i c and Roman s t r a n d s but showed no p a r t i c u l a r I n t e r e s t i n t h e eccen-t r i c i t i e s o f e a r l y E n g l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n a l developments. The f i r s t attempt a t a thorough t r e a t m e n t of A n g l o -Saxon- h i s t o r y was made by Sharon T u r n e r , who, i n 1828, p u b l i s h e d h i s H i s t o r y of t h e Anglo-Saxons. T u r n e r wrote under t h e s p e l l 10 of the Romantic r e v i v a l and i n the u n s p o i l e d s i m p l i c i t y of Sax-on l i f e he found man u n f e t t e r e d by t h e bondage of l a t e r t i m e s . D e s p i t e t h e . l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n and method i n t r e a t m e n t , t h e t i r i n g d i g r e s s i o n s and g e n e r a l c o n f u s i o n e x i s t i n g t h r o u g h o u t , t h e s e volumes remain t o t h i s day c l a s s i c s i n Anglo-Saxon h i s -t o r y . Ho one has w r i t t e n more f u l l y on t h e W i t a n t h a n T u r n e r and h i s c h a p t e r s on A l f r e d the Great have h a r d l y been s u r p a s s e d . The m i d d l e of t h e l a s t c e n t u r y saw t h e appearance of a d i s t i n c t l y Germanist s c h o o l of h i s t o r i a n s who contended t h a t the T e u t o n i c r a c e towered above a l l e l s e i n t h e development of w e s t e r n European i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t was under such Germanist In-, f l u e n c e s t h a t Kembl'e wrote h i s o u t s t a n d i n g work, The Saxons i n  England. Eemble's volumes, u n l i k e most of t h e e a r l i e r t r e a t -ments, except T u r n e r ' s , d e a l t e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s . The a u t h o r used the c o m p a r a t i v e method of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e un-w r i t t e n h i s t o r y of t h e p e r i o d between 449 and 700 A.D. To sup-plement the documentary e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , he drew m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e h i s t o r y of t h e k i n d r e d Germanic p e o p l e s ; a remarkable completeness of o u t l i n e was t h u s o b t a i n e d but he was l e d i n t o s n a r e s by t h i s e x t e n s i v e use of cognate s o u r c e s . H i s p i c t u r e of t h e "mark" as t h e u n i t o f o l d E n g l i s h s o c i a l l i f e was an e r r o r a r i s i n g from t h i s method. The renowned c o n t i n e n t a l h i s t o r i a n s , Mauer, Nasse, Lappenburg, S t e e n s t r u p and G n e i s t , ( 2 ) a p p l i e d t h e i r knowledge 2. F o r t h e names of the,works of t h e s e h i s t o r i a n s , the m e r i t s of each, e t c . , c f . B i b l i o g r a p h y n o t e s at t h e end of t h e s i s . 11 o b t a i n e d from c o n t i n e n t a l Germanic s o u r c e s t o c l a r i f y e a r l 3 / Eng l i s h h i s t o r y . , F o l l o w i n g i n t h e p a t h s t r a c e d by such e a r l i e r Gerinan-i s t s as Kemble and Mauer, Stubbs, Freeman, E l t o n , M a i t l a n d , P o l l o c k , Plummer, Round, and V i n o g r a d o f f , ( 3 ) gave t o t h e Eng-l i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d monumental volumes on t h e l e g a l and p o l i t -i c a l s i d e s o f e a r l y E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , w h i l e Maine's!4} s c h o l a r -l y l e c t u r e s on t h e c o m p a r a t i v e h i s t o r y of a n c i e n t l a w and e a r l y i n s t i t u t i o n s opened a new method and l i n e of approach t o the s t u d y of eaxly Anglo-Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n a l growth. U n t i l l a t e i n t h e V i c t o r i a n Age, the Romanists made no o u t s t a n d i n g a t t e m p t s t o d i s p r o v e t h e G e r m a n i s t s ' t h e o r i e s t h a t a l l E n g l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s were sprung from T e u t o n i c s o u r c -es. Goote was the f i r s t t o b r i n g f o r t h a l e n g t h y work t o sup-p o r t ~his t h e o r i e s t h a t Romano-Celtic o r i g i n s c o u l d be p r o v e n f o r most E n g l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . Seebohm, i n two o u t s t a n d i n g and s c h o l a r l y works e n t i t l e d , . T r i b a l Custom i n Anglo-Saxon Lav; (1902), and, The E n g l i s h V i l l a g e Community (1896), argued f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l and a g r a r i a n c o n t i n u i t y from Roman t i m e s . W i t h t h e p a s s i n g of t h e V i c t o r i a n Age came something of a f a l l i n g o f f I n enthusiasm f o r t h e s t u d y o f Anglo-Saxon h i s -t o r y . A f t e r the World J a r , the l e g e n d s about t h e d e m o c r a t i c v i r t u e s of t h e T e u t o n i c p e o p l e s became but exploded myths; I n -deed, democracy i t s e l f l o s t most of i t s glamor. However, d u r i n g 3. Loo, c i t . 4. Idem. 12 th e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s g r e a t advancements i n t h e e x i s t i n g k nowl-edge of Saxon, t i m e s have been made.. A r c h e o l o g y and r e l a t e d s c i e n c e s have added new d i s c o v e r i e s t h a t g i v e changed I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s t o t h e documentary m a t e r i a l : . P h i l o l o g i s t s , b o t h i n B r i t a i n and abroad, have b a t t l e d over t h e p r o b l e m s ' o f t h e A n g l o -Saxon l i t e r a t u r e . A few of t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g works on Saxon l i f e t h a t have appeared d u r i n g the p a s t t h r e e decades w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n ' t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . IT. Hodgkins' The H i s t o r y of England from the E a r l i e s t  Times t o t h e Norman Conquest (1906), and 0. Oman's England be-f o r e the Norman Conquest (1911), were I n many ways the two f u l l -e s t and most dependable p o l i t i c a l n a r r a t i v e s p u b l i s h e d , and de-c i d e d l y t h e most n o t e w o r t h y works on t h e Saxon Age w r i t t e n f r o m the time t h a t Stubb's C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y appeared I n 1875 u n t i l ? the publication o f R.#.Hodgkln rs. The. H i s t or?/- o f t h e A n g l o -Saxons (1955), and J". l o l l i f f e ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Med- i e v a l E n g l a n d ( 1 9 5 7 ) . H. M. Chadwlck's t h r e e works, e n t i t l e d S t u d i e s on • Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s (1905), O r i g i n s of t h e E n g l i s h N a t i o n (1907), and The H e r o i c Age (1912), threw c r i t i c a l l i g h t on the Saxon s o u r c e m a t e r i a l and demonstrated t h e importance of t h e T e u t o n i c l e gends t o t h e h i s t o r i a n . M. 0. C l a r k e ' s S i d e L i g h t s  on Teuton H i s t o r y d u r i n g t h e P e r i o d of M i g r a t i o n (1911) c a r r i e d on Chadwlck's i d e a s . -W. A. M o r r i s , i n The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England t o 1216 (1930), attempted t o i n t e r p r e t , : the e a r l y p e r i o d of Eng.-15 l i s i i h i s t o r y t h r o u g h t h e eyes of an American r e s i d i n g on the P a c i f i c C o a s t . H. C-ray' s. E n g l i s h F i e l d System (1935), and J". J o l l -i f f e ' s P r e - F e u d a l England (1933), t r e a t t h e a g r a r i a n s i d e of h i s t o r y ( w i t h d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of t h e J u t i s h customs of Ken t , i n t h e case of t h e l a t t e r a u t h o r ) . P e t i t - L u t a l l i s , T a i t , Stephenson, Aherg, Shore, Chambers, S t e n t o n , Bateson, l a y e r s , ( 5 ) and o t h e r s , have c o n t r i b u t e d volumes and a r t i c l e s on v a r i e d phases of Anglo-Saxon l i f e . Indeed the number of works and a r t i c l e s t r e a t i n g Anglo-Saxon l i f e s p e c i f i c a l l y a r e so g r e a t t h a t few, except s p e c i a l i s t s , can dare c l a i m t o have c o n s u l t e d a l l of them. Many works d e a l i n g w i t h m e d i e v a l h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l have some space devoted t o t h e Anglo-Saxons i n Engl a n d . Some of t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s a r e v e r y s c h o l a r l y . S e v e r a l of the more r e c e n t economic h i s t o r i e s of m e d i e v a l Europe c o n t a i n g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t s of t h e s o c i a l and economic t r e n d s t h a t h e l p t o c l a r -i f y Anglo-Saxon development v e r y w e l l . Among t h o s e w o r t h con-s u l t i n g a r e : A. Dopsch, The Economic and S o c i a l F o u n d a t i o n s of European C i v i l i z a t i o n (1937)* J?. Boi s s o n n a d e , L i f e and Work i n Med i e v a l . Europe (192.7); N. 3. Gras, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Economic  H i s t o r y (1922), I.iAThompson, Economic and S o c i a l H i s t o r y of the M i d d l e Ages (1928), and, E. L i p s o n , The Economic H i s t o r y of Eng-l a n d : The M i d d l e Ages (1929). 5. Cf. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e s at t h e end of t h e s i s f o r the t i t l e s ' of each a u t h o r ' s , works.. 14 Much of the b e s t work on e v e r y a s p e c t of Anglo-Saxon l i f e i s t o be found i n p e r i o d i c a l s . Those c o n t a i n i n g a r t i c l e s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e : The E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, T r a n s a c t i o n s of the R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , H i s t o r y , A n n ales  d ' H l s t o r i e E c o n o m i c a l e t S o c i a l , Modern Language Review, P r o -ceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy, Revue H i s t o r i q ue ; Speculum, E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , and E n g l i s c h e S t u d i e n . -The b e s t b i b l i o g r a p h y of Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y i s t o be found i n C. Gross* Sources and L i t e r a t u r e of E n g l i s h H i s t o r y from t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o about 1485. T h i s work was f i r s t pub-l i s h e d i n 1900. A f t e r t h e death of Dr. Gross of H a r v a r d , a committee o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s r e v i s e d t h e work down t o 1915. Eor th e y e a r s s i n c e t h a t date t h e r e i s no complete b i b l i o g r a p h y of the Saxon Age. To t h e dates of t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e b i b l i o -g r a p h i e s of t h e Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o the s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s of the c h a p t e r s , are f a i r l y f u l l and v e r y r e l i a b l e . The b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e s at t h e end of J . Myers' and R. O o l l i n g w o o d ' s Roman B r i t a i n and t h e E n g l i s h S e t - t l e m e n t and I . J o l l i f f e ' s The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l  England a re v e r y u p - t o - d a t e and q u i t e complete. A B i b l i o g r a p h -i c a l Guide t o O l d E n g l i s h , c o m p i l e d by A. H e u s i n k v e l d and E, Bashe, of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, ana p u b l i s h e d I n t h e May, 1951, i s s u e of The U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa J o u r n a l of H u m a n i s t i c  S t u d i e s , I s worth c o n s i d e r i n g . 1 5 CHAPTER I I . KINSHIP A3 THE BASIS OF CUSTOMARY ANGLO-SAXON LAW When the Anglo-Saxons and t h e i r l e s s w e l l known k i t h and k i n s e t t l e d i n B r i t a i n a l l of t h e i r l a w was p r e s e r v e d i n t h e form of custom and o r a l t r a d i t i o n . C o n s a n g u i n i t y , or k i n s h i p , r e g a r d e d as f a c t was the s t r o n g e s t bond t h a t bound them t o g e t h -e r . I f a man was not a k i n t o a n o t h e r t h e r e c o u l d be n o t h i n g be-tween them. I n o t h e r words, t o the p e r i o d of t h e p r i m i t i v e T e u t o n i c f a m i l y b e l o n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s , upon w h i c h customary Eng-l i s h l a w was based. True even b e f o r e t h e M i g r a t i o n , c e r t a i n new i n f l u e n c e s might be d i s c e r n e d but t h e y were not t o a f f e c t t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e u n t i l l o n g a f t e r t h e I n v a s i o n . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r i m i t i v e phase of t h e Anglo-Saxon s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h g i v e s i t s c h a r a c t e r t o t h e c e n t u r i e s d u r i n g w h i c h t h e E n g l i s h were b u i l d i n g t h e Hept-a r c h y i t would seem a d v i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r a t some l e n g t h t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e p r i m i t i v e T e u t o n i c f a m i l y or k i n s h i p group. The p r i m i t i v e p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y of the e a r l y Teu-tons i n c l u d e d , b e s i d e s t h e head, who might be the f a t h e r , e l d -e s t b r o t h e r , or. I n r a r e cases,, an u n c l e , the sons, d a u g h t e r s , g r a n d c h i l d r e n , and, i n a more remote way, t h e c o u s i n s , nephews, n i e c e s , e t c . , t o a t h i r d o r f o u r t h degree. K i n s h i p was not l i m i t e d t o a gnates. The mother's k i n , i f i n some r e s p e c t s l e s s 16 f a v o r e d t h a n t h e f a t h e r ' s k i n , were s t i l l p a r t of each man's f a m i l y and were u n i t e d t o him by a l l the t i e s of m u t u a l r i g h t and o b l i g a t i o n t h a t bound t h e k i n s h i p group t o g e t h e r . The w i f e a f t e r her m a r r i a g e remained w i t h i n t h e k i n s h i p bond of he r own f a m i l y , her husband m e r e l y became h e r g u a r d i a n . L i k e -w i s e her c h i l d r e n were w i t h i n the bonds of h e r f a m i l y , as w e l l as t h a t of the f a t h e r ' s k i n . At one time t h e powers of the head of t h e g r e a t e r f a m i l y group might have been more o r l e s s a b s o l u t e l i k e t h a t of t h e Roman " p a t r i a p o t e s t a s " but by t h e time o f t h e outward e x p a n s i o n o f t h e German n a t i o n s i t was no l o n g e r a b s o l u t e . "The German immigrants seemed t o have rec o g n i z e d - a c o r p o r a t e u n i o n of t h e f a m i l y under the 'mund' or a u t h o r i t y of a p a t r i a r c h a l head, but h i s powers were o b v i o u s l y o n l y t h e r e l i c s o f a de-cayed ' p a t r i a p o t e s t a s ' . "(1) The e a r l y T e u t o n i c f a m i l y group, or "maegth", was i n no sense a d i s t i n c t body l i k e the nfB_at f tK>''familiar" of t h e Ro-mans, b u t , r a t h e r , a c l a n group i n c l u d i n g a l l the k i t h and k i n . One must bear i n mind t h e f a c t t h a t the term " c l a n " h a r d l y d e s c r i b e s a d e q u a t e l y t h e Anglo-Saxon "maegth" ; i t -was a much narrower and l e s s comprehensive group t h a n the C e l t i c " c l a n " , b e i n g l i m i t e d t o "bon^fa f i d e " b l o o d r e l a t i v e s . The "maegth" was, however, most i n e x t r i c a b l y I n t e r -woven. I t i s o n l y when one p e r s o n i s t a k e n as t h e s t a r t i n g 1. W. He am. The A r y a n Household, pp. 63-79. Of. i 1 . Gummere. Germanic O r i g i n s , pp. 162-206. 17 p o i n t i n the r e c k o n i n g t h a t the "maegth" assumes a d e f i n i t e form, and t h e s e v e r a l k i n can he a s s i g n e d t o t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e s . ( E ) T h i s g r e a t e r f a m i l y group, t h e "maegth", was o f a l l Importance b o t h t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t o t h e mass of mankind i n a p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y of t h e s e e a r l y Teutons. A f u l l k i n s h i p was e s s e n t i a l t o the enjoyment of l i f e . The most t e r r i b l e f a t e t h a t c o u l d b e f a l l a man was t o be l e f t w i t h o u t k i t h and k i n . The h e a v i e s t o f a l l punishments was e x p u l s i o n from t h e f a m i l y . Ban-ishment from one's k i t h and b l o o d r e l a t i o n s i s a t o p i c c o n t i n -u a l l y t ouched upon i n e a r l y Anglo-Saxon p o e t r y . The wretched v i c t i m - of such a f a t e was c u t o f f a l l p r o t e c t i o n of customary l a w and o r d e r . The most t o u c h i n g of Anglo-Saxon l y r i c s , The Wanderer, mourns such a f a t e . Indeed, t o t h e s e e a r l y E n g l i s h , t h e v e r y dogs t h a t f o l l o w e d the camp had more i n common w i t h t h e clansmen t h a n a s t r a n g e r from an a l i e n and u n r e l a t e d k i n d -r e d group. The man of a n o t h e r b l o o d k i n s h i p group was a po-t e n t i a l enemy t o be f e a r e d , h a t e d , and, at the f i r s t o p portun-i t y , s l a i n as t h e most f e r o c i o u s of w i l d b e a s t s . I t was t o t h e f a m i l y group or "maegth" t h a t f i r s t of a l l " e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l owed what s e c u r i t y of l i f e and p r o p e r t y t h a t he enjoyed. I n c h i l d h o o d , t h e members of t h e "maegth" watched over and p r o t e c t e d him, even from t h e f a t h e r i n r a r e c a s e s . Members of h i s "maegth" were h i s s u r i t i e s a t m a r r i a g e , b e f o r e the t r i b a l c o u r t t h e y swore f o r him e i t h e r t o support 2. E. Young. The Anglo-Saxon F a m i l y Law, pp. 55-121. 18 h i s c l a i m as p l a i n t i f f o r h i s d e n i a l as defendant, and, i n case of n e c e s s i t y , p a i d h i s f i n e s . I n t h e b l o o d f e n d t h e y s t o o d be-s i d e him i n r i g h t o r wrong t o defend him w i t h t h e i r l i v e s . Even a f t e r death, t h e i r g u a r d i a n s h i p d i d not f a i l ; t h e y avenged h i s murder o r e x a c t e d compensation f o r i t , t h e y a c t e d as g u a r d i a n s of h i s widow and c h i l d r e n , and l o o k e d a f t e r h i s p r o p e r t i e s un-t i l h i s c h i l d r e n came of age. These e a r l y Teutons r e g a r d e d i t a s a c r e d duty t o adopt a l l t h e e n m i t i e s of t h e i r f a m i l y group, and the r i g h t of p r i v a t e w a r f a r e was one of t h e i n a l i e n a b l e p r i v i l e g e s of e v e r y freeman. (3) I n i t s essence i t was m e r e l y a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p r i m a r y l e x t a l i o n i s — a n eye f o r an eye, a t o o t h f o r a t o o t h . Murder, t h e f t , rape were not thought of by t h e s e Germanic p e o p l e s as o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the community as a whole; r a t h e r t h e y concerned t h e g r e a t e r f a m i l y group, who when an o f f e n c e was committed a g a i n s t a member t o o k up t h e f e u d f o r revenge o r compensation. As t i m e went by and a h i g h e r s t a t e of c u l t u r a l development was a t t a i n e d t h e b l o o d f e u d tended t o be r e p l a c e d ~by an e l a b o r a t e s c a l e of p e c u n i a r y compensations, p a i d by t h e doer of e v i l o r h i s k i n t o t h e one i n j u r e d and h i s k i n . I n the most remote p e r -i o d of Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y t h e freeman or. normal member of so-c i e t y w i t h a f u l l k i t h and k i n r a r e l y a c c e p t e d a p e c u n i a r y com-p e n s a t i o n f o r the murder of a c l o s e kinsman when the b l o o d r e -venge might by any means be c a r r i e d out. I t was the s p e c i a l 3. T a c i t u s . Germania, c. GUI. 19 p r i v i l e g e of the members of t h e "maegth" t o c a r r y on the d e a d l y " f a e t h a " and beneath t h e d i g n i t y of a w e l l k i t h e d man t o pay or r e c e i v e compensation. I n the case of murder the method of p e c u n i a r y compen-s a t i o n g r a d u a l l y gave r i s e t o a system of r e c o g n i z e d t a r i f f s , or l i f e p r i c e s , by which t h e p r i c e of each i n d i v i d u a l in" t h e s o c i a l s c a l e was e s t a b l i s h e d . The amount t o be p a i d t o each of h i s r e l a t i v e s , b o t h p a t e r n a l and m a t e r n a l , came t o be r e c o g n i z e d by customary law. L i k e w i s e a l l o f f e n c e s , b o t h grave and t r i v i a l , came t o be v a l u e d so t h a t punishment of them by t h e b l o o d f e u d might be a v o i d e d . As c i v i l i z a t i o n advanced, and i n d i v i d u a l mem-b e r s of the "maegth1*1 became w e a l t h y , or a t t a i n e d h i g h e r p o s i -t i o n s i n s o c i e t y , a tendency appeared on t h e p a r t of t h e r i c h t o d i s c a r d t h e i r p o o r e r k i n . Thus a freeman need not pay t h e "wergeld" of one of h i s k i t h who had i n any way f o r f e i t e d h i s freedom.(4) Moreover, e v e r y tendency t o weaken t h e t i e o f k i n -s h i p was encouraged by t h e s t a t e as c l a n s u n i t e d i n l a r g e r groups t o f o r m p r i m i t i v e t r i b a l kingdoms. The growth of C h r i s t i a n i t y a f t e r t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y l e d t o t h e r a p i d d e c l i n e i n t h e b l o o d f e u d as t h e Church d e f i n i t e l y f o r b a d e I t . A l t h o u g h b l o o d - k i n s h i p and common obedience t o c u s -tomary lav/ were t h e b a s i c f o r c e s t h a t h e l d Anglo-Saxon . s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r , and a l t h o u g h customary l a w would not d e a l i n any way w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l was not sub-4. Ine's Dooms, p. 74. 20 merged i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e "maegth". The r i g h t s of k i n s h i p were a t a l l t i m e s i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . The w i f e was not mere c h a t t e l of h e r husband, h e r own f a m i l y might u p h o l d h e r i n time of e x t r a o r d i n a r y abuse. At some v e r y e a r l y t i m e i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the j o i n t f a m i l y h o l d i n g of l a n d p r e v a i l e d w i t h t h e c o n t i n e n t a l Ger-mans, but by the time o f t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t I n B r i t a i n t h i s t y p e of communal l a n d - h o l d i n g had been abandoned. Only the J u t e s seemed t o r e t a i n . t r a c e s of i t . Even as e a r l y as 98 A.D. T a c i -t u s remarked t h a t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y - h o l d i n g p r e v a i l e d among the Germans. From the t i m e of the S e t t l e m e n t , p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y seems t o have p r e v a i l e d i n the case of c u l t i v a t e d or a r a b l e l a n d s . Meadowlands and p a s t u r e a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e v i l l a g e s were h e l d i n common by a l l the v i l l a g e r s . L i f e among t h e Germanic i n v a d e r s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of t h e Conquest was most c e r t a i n l y h a r s h and u n c e r t a i n ; s t r o n g hands must pay f o r w e l l - f e d b o d i e s . The o l d and the weak were s u p e r f l u o u s ; t h e y were a burden t o t h e i r k i n . Remorseless l o g -i c p o i n t e d t o speedy r e l i e f of v a l u e l e s s k i n . Deformed i n f a n t s , t h e o l d , t h e i n f i r m , t h e i n e f f i c i e n t were abandoned t o s t a r v a -t i o n o r put t o more speedy d e a t h s . B e s i d e s t h e b l o o d - k i n s h i p groups, or "maegth", i n a l l t h e H e r o i c P o e t r y one h e a r s c o n t i n u o u s l y of t h e bands of young w a r r i o r s who were bound by t h e most solemn oaths t o some l e a d e r of renown and formed around t h i s l e a d e r a k i n d o f a m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . T h i s was the " c o m i t a t u s " , an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t f l o u r -i s h e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e age of t h e M i g r a t i o n of n a t i o n s and 21 i n i t s f i n a l growth p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e Anglo-Saxons., However, as a f u l l t r e a t m e n t of t h i s i s g i v e n i n the next c h a p t e r , i t w i l l he passed over h e r e . C o n c e r n i n g the d a l l y l i f e of the f o l k d u r i n g the f i r s t c e n t u r y and. a h a l f of t h e i r d o m i c i l e i n E n g l a n d we know v e r y 1 i t 11e/ Ar d i e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has a i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n r e c o n -s t r u c t i n g some p i c t u r e of the d a i l y l i f e " among the f i r s t few g e n e r a t i o n s of E n g l i s h but as y e t at t h e b e s t any account can be i n p a r t o n l y s u p p o s i t i o n . However, from th e a c c o u n t s of T a c i t u s we do know something d e f i n i t e about th e d a i l y l i f e of t h e c o n t i n e n t a l a n c e s t o r s of t h e f i r s t E n g l i s h common f o l k . I n t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l homeland the Germans l i v e d i n v i l l a g e communities c o n s i s t i n g of w i d e l y - s c a t t e r e d , rude, wood-en or mud f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . ( 5 ) The l a n d s b e l o n g i n g t o the v i l l -age were of two k i n d s ; r u d e l y c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s , and b e l t s of meadow and woodlands. The a r a b l e l a n d was h e l d b y the f a m i l i e s as p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , w h i l e the u n c u l t i v a t e d meadows and wood-l a n d s were c o n s i d e r e d t h e common p o s s e s s i o n of a l l t h e v i l l a g -e r s . (6) These e a r l y T e u t o n i c v i l l a g e s , whether i n Germany or 5. T a c i t u s . Op. c i t . , c. XYI-ZS. J u l i u s C a e s a r . De B e l l o G a l i l e o , l i b . Y I , c. 21-22. 6. F o r a t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n of v i l l a g e . . l i f e among the e a r l j r Teutons, c f . A. Dopsch, The Economic F o u n d a t i o n s o f Euro- pean C i v i l i z a t i o n , pp. 30-92. The i d e a s h e l d by t h e Ro-m a n i s t s c h o o l of h i s t o r i a n s d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h o s e of t h e Germanist s c h o o l on the q u e s t i o n of what l i f e was l i k e I n t h e e a r l i e s t E n g l i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l communities. F o r - a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i d e a s of b o t h , cf_. E. L i p s o n , The Econom- i c H i s t o r y of England , V o l . I , c . ~ I ; F. Seebbhm's The Eng-l i s h V i l l a g e i s w o r t h y of c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h many o f h i s i d e a s are now r e j e c t e d . ' 2 2 England, were not e n t i r e l y i s o l a t e d from one another. An adja-cent or neighboring v i l l a g e l a y nearby, separated by a b e l t of waste land. The v i l l a g e r s communicated w i t h t h e i r neighbors over woodland paths or t r a i l s . The f o l k i n the nearest v i l l a g -es were r e l a t e d by t i e s of k i n s h i p only l e s s b i n d i n g than those of t h e i r own home v i l l a g e . Each of these v i l l a g e communities, i n England, as w e l l as on the continent, form£ds the simplest, economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l u n i t (the s o - c a l l e d "mark11 of Kembie and others was a u n i t of t h i s k i n d ) . The v i l l a g e com-munities were l o o s e l y formed by the customary t i e s of k i n s h i p and l a t e r neighborhood i n t o greater but very l o o s e l y defined u n i t s known as "hundreds". Some h i s t o r i a n s b e l i e v e that'the o r i g i n a l "hundred" may have been a strong f i g h t i n g - band of war-r i o r s who, as they fought together, so s e t t l e d down together; i n t h i s way the "hundred" became a p o l i t i c a l u n i t above the v i l l a g e . A combination of "hundreds", i n t u r n , formed a ' "county", "gau", or " s h i r e " . I n time, several"gaus" or " s h i r e s " together came to form the t e r r i t o r y of a t r i b e , a "kingdom" or " r e i c h " . I n the p r i m i t i v e Teutonic f a m i l y the adult males had some r i g h t s to a voice i n the a f f a i r s of the f a m i l y group, or, i n other words, the powers of the head male were not those of the Roman " p a t r i a potestas". I n the greater c l a n group those a f f a i r s which concerned a l l . w e r e debated i n "folkmoots" by a l l the freemen. ( 7 ) Here l a y , no doubt, the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of a 7 . T a c i t u s . Op. c i t , , c. XI±I.. 2 5 f r e e n a t i o n ; t h a t t h e c h i e f t a i n , or " c y n i n g " , c o u l d be no a u t o -c r a t ; of n e c e s s i t y he must always g a i n t h e w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n of h i s w a r r i o r s o r f e l l o w clansmen.. The r i g h t t o a v o i c e i n the a f f a i r s of t h e community, or t r i b e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y was one o f t h e f o l k - r i g h t s o f a l l f r e e b o r n a d u l t m a l e s . G r a d u a l l y , as t i m e went on and w i t h s e t t l e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e , t h e bonds of k i n s h i p were r e p l a c e d by t h e bonds of neighborhood. I n t h e p l a c e of so many kinsmen t o swear f o r one accused of a c r i m e , custom came t o demand so many n e i g h b o r s . The " f o l k m o o t " be-came not a "moot" of the clansmen but a "moot" of t h e v i l l a g e , town, hundred, s h i r e , o r n a t i o n . Neighborhood assumed the du-t i e s of m u t u a l w a r r a n t y f o r m e r l y e x e r c i s e d by the f a m i l y or "maegth". I n t h e most p r i m i t i v e t i m e s a t t h e head of each fam-i l y group s t o o d t h e c l a n f a t h e r o r c h i e f t a i n ; he was the e l d -e s t a b l e - b o d i e d male i n d i r e c t descent f rom the t r a d i t i o n a l f o u n d e r of the f a m i l y ; he stood c l o s e r i n : r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l a n c e s t o r t h a n any o t h e r a d u l t male i n the "maegth"; by r i g h t of b i r t h he h e l d the l e a d e r s h i p . So, when c l a n s grew I n t o t r i b e s , t h e l e a d e r s h i p , w a s c l a i m e d by t h e c h i e f t a i n who by t r a d i t i o n a c c e p t e d as f a c t s t o o d i n t h e most d i r e c t descent from t h e common a n c e s t o r of t h e t r i b e . F o r example, the West Saxons c a l l e d t hemselves the "Gewissas" and c l a i m e d descent from one common a n c e s t o r , Gewiss, the g r e a t - g r e a t - g r a n d s o n of Odin. The r o y a l l i n e of t h e Gewissas was known .as t h e f a m i l y of O e r d i c . T h i s l i n e t r a c e d i t s a n c e s t r y i n d i r e c t , unbroken descent through C e r d i c t o the f i r s t b o r n of Gewiss' sons. The 2 4 l i n e of C e r d i o was thus r e l a t e d i n b l o o d t o a l l the Gewissas hut more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d by d i r e c t descent t o t h e g r e a t common a n c e s t o r t h a n any o t h e r k i n s h i p group of t h e West Saxons. I n -deed t h e o n l y I d e a of a n a t i o n h e l d by t h e s e e a r l y E n g l i s h was t h a t of a k i n d r e d e n l a r g e d p a s t a l l rememberable degrees o f r e -l a t i o n s h i p . The "eorlcimdman", or one " d e a r l y b o r n " , t h e n o b l e of the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d , was e s s e n t i a l l y a n o b l e by b i r t h . To him belongs t h e r i g h t by k i n s h i p t o e x e r c i s e s o v e r e i g n power. The terms used t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s c l a s s who by f o l k r i g h t e x e r c i s e d l e a d e r s h i p were "eorldorman" and w c y n i n g M . At f i r s t t he terms seemed t o have been synonymous. I n t h e H e r o i c Poems we hear of h o s t s of " c y n i n g e s " , some l e a d e r s of but s m a l l household groups. A f t e r the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the numerous t r i b e s i n t o the T r i -a r c h y , th© terms came t o denote d i f f e r e n t grades of n o b i l i t y . A l l t h e Anglo-Saxon n o b i l i t y , "eorlcundmen", whether K e n t i n g s , Yfest Saxons, M e r c i a n s , o r Northumbrians, were l i k e t h e " Y h g l i n g a s " and " S k r o l d i n g e r s " o f Denmark and Sweden, and the " J a r l n of Norway, descended from the d e i f i e d Monarch of A s i , Woden, or Odin, t h e g r e a t f a t h e r of a l l the N o r t h f o l k ; be t h e y Germans or Y i k i n g s . Thus as a c l a s s t h e o l d Anglo-Saxon n o b l e s , whether k i n g s , "eorldormen" o r " e o r l s " were a l l c l o s e l y a k i n t o the gods of A s i and Y a l h a l l a . I n t h e H e r o i c Poems and i n t h e c h a r t e r s and dooms we b e g i n w i t h a p r o g r e s s of time t o hear of another k i n d of n o b l e who i s not spoken of as " e o r l c u i l d " but i s n g e s i t h c u n d n . He I s 25 n o b l e of s e r v i c e , s prung f r o m l o i n s l e s s renowned t h a n t h o s e of the g r e a t l o r d of V a l h a l l a . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e customary laws of th e k i n s h i p group he has no r i g h t s . He owes h i s p o s i t i o n t o h i s sworn " c o m i t a t u s " l e a d e r . With the t r a n s i t i o n from k i n s h i p t o n eighborhood and from " n o b i l i t y o f b i r t h " t o " n o b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e " t h i s new type of n o b l e comes t o assume the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of t h e "eorlcundman", a l t h o u g h he I s but " g e s i t h c u n d " S i n c e o l o o d s h i p xvas a c c e p t e d as t h e bond of s o c i e t y , Y-;ith t h e p r i m i t i v e Germans, t h e community was e q u a l i t a r i a n i n i t s p u b l i c l i f e ; t h a t i s t o say, e q u a l i t a r i a n w i t h i n each o f th e b i r t h grades of w h i c h the f o l k were composed. T h i s found e x p r e s s i o n i n the common f o l k l a w , i n t h e " f o l k m o o t s " which, i n t i m e , w i t h the change t o neighborhood, became t h e town-moots, t h e hundred-moots, t h e s h i r e - m o o t s , and t h e n a t i o n a l - m o o t or "Witanagemot"; i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d u t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s of e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l as c o n c e i v e d by the "maegth" and t r a n s f e r r e d t o the community. B a s i c a l l y t he r i g h t of a l l f r e e b o r n f o l k of t h e race--and upon the l e v e l of d e a r e r b i r t h , t h a t of n o b l e s — w a s I d e n t i c a l , , a common f o l k i n h e r i t a n c e ' . Hand-ed down a t f i r s t b y t r a d i t i o n , i t was t h e customary l a w of the K e n t i n g s , the Gewissas, t h e Northumbrians, and t h e M e r c i a n s . The community of a l l t h e s e e a r l y n a t i o n s was but an aggregate of i t s i n d i v i d u a l s and k i n d r e d . A b r e a c h of peace i n i t s e l f meant n o t h i n g f o r t h e r e was no g e n e r a l peace, b u t i s l a n d s of peace "which surrounded t h e r o o f - t r e e of e v e r y h o u s e h o l d e r , n o b l e o r s i m p l e , e o r l o r 26 c e o r l " . ( 8 ) The K i n g ' s peace i t s e l f covered o n l y h i s h a l l and h i s immediate p r e s e n c e . A c t s o f v i o l e n c e were c i v i l wrongs done by one i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . I n t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s c r i m e s of v i o l e n c e w e r e . f a m i l y a f f a i r s , the e a r l i e s t codes have hut the f a i n t e s t s u g g e s t i o n of the r e c o g n i t i o n o f murder, t h e f t , a s s a u l t , r a p e , as o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the community as a whole. The e a r l y codes m e r e l y s t a t e s t a n d a r d r a t e s by w h i c h the f a m i l y of t h e i n j u r e d p e r s o n , o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f , might seek compensation from th e e v i l doer i n r e t u r n f o r t h e l o s s or i n -j u r i e s s u s t a i n e d , and by t h i s means, a v o i d b l o o d s h e d . When the community commenced at a l l t o a c t i t was m e r e l y an a r b i t r a t o r between t h e p a r t i e s concerned t o i n s u r e t h e s u f f e r e r - t h a t he s h o u l d r e c e i v e p r o p e r compensation and t o t h e wrong doer t h a t on payment.of t h e a p p o i n t e d p e n a l t y he s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d from a l l f u r t h e r f e u d or m o l e s t a t i o n . However,- as time went on, the community, o r , i n o t h e r words, the s t a t e , i n r e t u r n f o r i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n , came t o c l a i m a f i n e over and above t h a t w h i c h p a s s e d between the p a r t i e s . c o n c e r n e d . A s t u d y of the e a r l y codes a l o n e g i v e s us a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e of l i f e i n s e v e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . The e a r l i e s t codes of Kent are l a r g e l y concerned w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i n g the C h r i s t i a n c l e r g y i n t o the f o l k w a y s , or " s e t t i n g the C h u r c h . i n t o w o r l d law". The l a t e r codes of Kent and t h o s e of Wessex are concerned l a r g e l y w i t h a new k i n d o f l o r d s h i p and f o l i c bonds. A new no-8. J . J o l l i f f e . The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l Eng-l a n d , p. 10. £7 b i l i t y , n o b l e s of s e r v i c e , are r e p l a c i n g n o b l e s of b i r t h . The b i n d i n g bonds of f a m i l y a r e g i v i n g p l a c e w i t h s e t t l e d a g r i c u l -t u r a l l i f e t o t h e bonds of neighborhood o r community. The o l d customary l a w of a l l f o l k knew n e i t h e r n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e n o r t i e s o f neighborhood. Hence the codes of t h e l a t e e i g h t h cen-t u r y are concerned w i t h t h e b r i n g i n g of t h e s e i n t o the o l d f o l k ways by the means of a n a l o g y and l e g a l f i c t i o n . C l e r g y t r a i n e d I n t h e ways of Roman l a w are by t h e end of the e i g h t h c e n t u r y b r i n g i n g a new s t r a n d i n t o E n g l i s h customary law. I n t h i s c h a p t e r we are o n l y concerned w i t h t h e e a r l i -e s t of t h e dooms, namely, t h o s e of J u t i s h Kent and s l i g h t l y w i t h t h o s e o f Ine of Wessex. The e a r l i e s t of a l l t h e w r i t t e n codes are t h o s e of A e t h e l b e r t of Kent, i s s u e d about the y e a r 600 A.D. These laws show us a s o c i e t y of t h r e e r a n k s r " e o r l s , c e o r l s , and l a e t s . " T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y g i v e n by T a c i t u s i n t h e Germania.- The n o b l e s are spoken of as " e o r l -c u n d n , ( 9 ) t h a t i s , n o b l e s by b i r t h . No mention .is made i n the codes of A e t h e l b e r t or h i s immediate s u c c e s s o r s of " g e s i t h c u n d -men", or n o b l e s of s e r v i c e , as y e t t h e y had not come t o p l a y any p a r t i n t h e t r i b a l l i f e of the K e n t i n g s . However, i n the l a s t of t h e K e n t i s h dooms, t h o s e of W i t h r e d , i s s u e d i n t h e au-tumn of 695 A.D., j u s t about a c e n t u r y a f t e r those of A e t h e l -b e r t , we f i n d one m e n t i o n of a " g e s i t h e madman".(10) The n o b l e 9. A e t h e l b e r t ' s Dooms, 13, 14, 75. 10. W ithred's Dooms, 5. 28 of s e r v i c e has appeared i n our r e c o r d s of the K e n t i n g s . I n t h e s e e a r l y K e n t i s h dooms tho s e who are not e n t i r e l y f r e e do not seem t o owe t h e i r I n f e r i o r i t y t o dependence tipon l o r d , hut r a t h e r t o t h e i r b i r t h s t a t u s i n t h e s c a l e of t h e K e n t i s h f o l i c . (11) These a n c i e n t dooms of t h e K e n t i n g s show t h a t a t the be-g i n n i n g of t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y t h e e a r l i e s t arrangement of Eng-l i s h s o c i e t y on t h e b a s i s of k i n s h i p was s t i l l I n t h e f o l k w a y s p r a c t i c e d i n K e n t . The new n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e had made I t s appearance but had not p l a y e d any o u t s t a n d i n g p a r t . P a r t i c u l a r customs, such as " g a v e l k i n d " , were p a r t of the customary la w of t h e K e n t i n g s but not of t h e Gewissas or n o r t h e r n f o l k . The dooms of Ine of Wessex, i s s u e d between 688' and 694 A.D., g i v e us our f i r s t g l i m p s e s i n t o the ways of t h e west Saxon f o l k . I n Ine's codes we f i n d t h e s e f r e e c l a s s e s of so-c i e t y whose "w e r g e l d s " are s t a t e d a t 1,200 s h i l l i n g s , 600 s h i l l -i n g s , and 200 s h i l l i n g s , ( 1 2 ) without'naming t h e c l a s s e s . The most n o t e w o r t h y d i s t i n c t i o n between c l a s s e s o f s u b j e c t s i n Ine's dooms i s not t h a t between " e o r l " and " c e o r l " but t h a t between "gesithcundmen" and "eorlcundmen"» or those who b e l o n g t o t h e K i n g ' s p e r s o n a l f o l l o w i n g and those who do not and are s t y l e d "eorlcundmen", t h a t i s , n o b l e s of b i r t h and k i n s h i p . The new • c l a s s , s t y l e d "gesithcundmen", seem t o h o l d l a n d by grant from the K i n g or t o be i n h i s p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e . The "eorlcundmen" 11. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n cf_. J o l l i f f e , Op. c i t . , p. 11. 12. I n e ' s Dooms, 70. 29 seem t o ' h o l d t h e i r l a n d s by k i n s h i p r i g h t of i n h e r i t a n c e q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t _ o f t h e K i n g . The man w i t h the "wergeld" of 200 s h i l l i n g s seems t o he t h e normal member of s o c i e t y , b u t the o t h e r c l a s s are n o b l e s of b i r t h or s e r v i c e ; the h a l f - f r e e have v a n i s h e d . I n t h e s e dooms, t h e freeman, whether n o b l e o r com-mon," must s e r v e i n the K i n g ' s " f y r d " . ( 1 3 ) A l l freemen have the r i g h t t o g i v e w i t n e s s i n the f o l i c la?/ c o u r t ( 1 4 ) and have a "mund" o r peace over t h e i r homes and t h e h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and wardship of k i n . Ine's dooms i n d i c a t e t h a t change o r t r a n s i t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n s o c i e t y but t h a t i t has o n l y p r o g r e s s e d a s h o r t d i s t a n c e , t h e n o b i l i t y are most a f f e c t e d , the " c e o r l " s t i l l c l a i m s h i s a n c i e n t f o l k - r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s , a l t h o u g h t h e new t y p e of l o r d s h i p i s changing the demands on the. " c e o r l " and h i s l i f e v a l u e i s b e i n g lowered i n t h e " w e r g e l d " s c a l e . The u n f r e e , o r h a l f - f r e e , have become so much l i k e c h a t t e l s t h a t t h e y are i g n o r e d by the makers of the dooms. The M e r c i a n s and N o r t h f o l k of t h e Humber and beyond have l e f t no dooms. From Bede's H i s t o r y and f r a g m e n t a r y docu-ments we know t h a t t h e Northumbrians r e c o g n i z e d o n l y n o b l e s of s e r v i c e or o f f i c e by t h e m i d d l e of t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y . The M e r c i a n s , so i t would seem oy l a t e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e now l o s t dooms of O f f a of M e r c i a , r e c o g n i z e d t h e t h r e e - f o l d d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t o f t h e West Saxon as s e t f o r t h i n 13. I b i d . , 51. 14. I b i d . , 30. 30 the dooms o f I n e . The o n l y documents t h a t g i v e a complete c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the I J o r t h f o l k i s the Be Hyrcna Lage and t h e H o r t h l e a d a Lagu; the f i r s t i s hut a much damaged fragment and the l a t t e r b elongs t o the p e r i o d j u s t a f t e r A l f r e d . S e t t l e d l i f e i n South B r i t a i n upon d e f i n i t e l a n d s was g r a d u a l l y b r i n g i n g down the b a s i c bonds of k i n s h i p t h a t had bound t h e f o l k t o g e t h e r , neighborhood and l a n d were t a k i n g the p l a c e of t h e o l d "maegth"; t h e change I s hard t o sense from the e x i s t i n g r e c o r d s where i t concerns the commoner or " c e o r l " be-cause t h e masses are c o n s e r v a t i v e and change t h e i r f o l k w a y s but s l o w l y t h r o u g h c e n t u r i e s . Old f o l k w a y s were b e i n g t u r n e d t o s u i t new t i m e s , b u t such a change came v e r y s l o w l y . The changes c o n c e r n i n g t h e n o b i l i t y a r e much e a s i e r t o t r a c e as we have more r e f e r e n c e s t o them. Change w i t h them came more q u i c k l y . 31 CHAPTER I I I . LORDSHIP AND lilNGSHIP I - THE EARLY PERIOD T a c i t u s r e l a t e d i n the Gerinania that among the Germans of h i s day, In times of peace, the government of the v i l l a g e com-m u n i t i e s were i n the hands of c o u n c i l s of elders elected Toy the free-born w a r r i o r s . In times of war or migra t i o n a c h i e f or k i n g was chosen from the " p r i n c i p e s " or w e l l - b o r n f a m i l i e s . The powers of such a temporary c h i e f were l i m i t e d and endured only during the pe r i o d of h o s t i l i t i e s or migration.(1) Such may have been the case i n 98 A.D., but by the time that the Anglo-Saxons migrated across the narrow North Sea they possessed a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d n o b i l i t y of b i r t h which was d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the ordin a r y mass of mankind by the pr e s t i g e of the wealth and s p e c i a l t a l e n t s i n war of the i n d i v i d u a l mem-bers. We b e l i e v e that i n the e a r l i e s t times that the c l a n c h i e f t a i n or "c y n i n g n was e s s e n t i a l l y one of the k i n s h i p group. T r a d i t i o n a l l y he was the eldest male of the eldest branch of the "maegth11 or c l a n group. He stood w i t h respect to the great-er c l a n group i n the same r e l a t i o n that the p a t r i a r c h a l head d i d 1. T a c i t u s . Germania, c. l . 32 to t h e household or Immediate f a m i l y . As i n the case of the -"House or Family Father'*, h i s p o s i t i o n was i n some way sacred; he was i n some measure the r e l i g i o u s head of the group (although by the time of the M i g r a t i o n Teutonic heathenism was r e a l l y very feeble and played no great part i n the everyday l i v e s of the tribesmen). This c l a n or t r i b a l c h i e f t a i n was u s u a l l y more wealthy than h i s f e l l o w tribesmen because he enjoyed s p e c i a l endowments, customary g i f t s and the l i o n ' s share of the s p o i l s of war. In times of war or migr a t i o n he was the recognized ' leader and i n times of peace the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r of f o l k customs. On h i s death he was succeeded by h i s next.to k i n who was most s u i t e d to the p o s i t i o n . B a s i c a l l y the "cyning" of one of the greater blood-kinship groups was blood of the blood of a l l the k i t h and k i n who formed the greater c l a n group. He was of a l l the group most d i r e c t l j r descended from the great common ancestor. With the passing of time, clans grew i n t o t r i b e s and the immediate f a m i l i e s of the c l a n c h i e f t a i n s came to form an a r i s t o c r a c y of b i r t h . The f o l k came to recognize t h i s by cus-tomary f o l k r i g h t ; the le a d e r s h i p In a l l matters belonged to these well-born nobles whose wealth r a i s e d them to a .position of prominence i n economic matters. I n the contemporary docu-ments, the Heroic Poems, the Sagas, and the H i s t o r y of the venerable Beds of Jarrow, i t i s kings and t h e i r immediate f o l -lowers who are the doers of deeds, and who so completely f i l l the accounts that there i s l i t t l e or no room f o r the assemblies 3 5 of t h e freemen t h a t so f a s c i n a t e d T a c i t u s and Stubbs. I n o t h e r words, i n t h e most dependable l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s , w i t h t h e excep-t i o n of t h e Germania, w h i c h i s not i t s e l f contemporary w i t h the Saxon Age, i t I s k i n g s and t h e i r sworn . - f o l l o w e r s , r a t h e r than t h e f o l k m o o t s , t h a t we hear about. No doubt th e i n s t i t u t i o n of n o b i l i t y rose t o i m p o r t -ance ,in;the t i m e s of t h e g r e a t m i g r a t i o n s of t h e German, f o l k . One i s warned, however, a g a i n s t a c c e p t i n g as t h e e n t i r e t r u t h t h e statement, " t h e m i g r a t i o n and conquest made the k i n g and t h e n o b l e " . Perhaps the k i n g s h i p and t h e whole i n s t i t u t i o n of n o b i l i t y grew i n t o power and prominence as a r e s u l t of t h e s e , but t h e renown of t h e p r i n c e l y o f f i c e s a n t e d a t e s t h e l a n d i n g of H e n g i s t and H o r s a on t h e .Romano-Celtic c o a s t s of s o u t h e a s t e r n B r i t a i n , A l t h o u g h T a c i t u s does not r e c o r d i t i n h i s renowned es-say on the Germans, k i n g s and n o b l e s , whose fame were known a l i k e t o the Saxon, O i m b r i , Frank and V i s i g o t h had l i v e d and d i e d beyond t h e Rhine and Danube l o n g b e f o r e t h e A n g l e s , J u t e s and Saxons s e t f o o t on B r i t i s h s o i l . I n W i d s i t h , p r o b a b l y the most dependable guide t o "Who»s Who i n the H e r o i c Age", k i n g s and t h e i r immediate f o l l o w e r s a r e t h e g r e a t , the f a r - f a m e d , the renowned. K i n g s were most numerous i n the H e r o i c Age.- Beowulf opens w i t h the news of k i n g s . "We have heard t e l l of the grand-eur of t h e i m p e r i a l k i n g s of t h e s p e a r - b e a r i n g Danes i n former days" .-12}.. These o l d k i n g s of t h e age of the M i g r a t i o n s were 2. Beowulf. E a r l e ' s T r a n s l a t i o n , P a r t I , l i n e 1. 54 not k i n g s o f t e r r i t o r i e s but k i n g s o f f o l k . We b e a r . i n the Pagan P o e t r y , o f t h e " K i n g o f t h e Goth's", "the K i n g o f the Swedes", "t h e K i n g o f t h e Danes", "t h e K i n g of t h e A n g l e s " , but n e v e r of the " K i n g o f G o t h i a " , "the K i n g of Sweden", "the K i n g of A n g l l a " , or t h e " K i n g o f Denmark". Thus we f i n d i n England i n the - e a r l y , p e r i o d when k i n s h i p was t h e b a s i s of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and f o r l o n g a f t e r the r u l e r * s t y l e d h i m s e l f " K i n g of t h e E n g l i s h " , but e v e n t u a l l y , long a f t e r k i n s h i p had g i v e n p l a c e t o neighborhood as the bond t h a t bound s o c i e t y t o -g e t h e r and n o b i l i t y o f b l o o d had been r e p l a c e d by n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e , t h e r u l e r changed h i s t i t l e t o t h a t of " K i n g of Eng-l a n d " . (5) . To get an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e of l o r d s h i p among the"Anglo-Saxon i n t h e p e r i o d of the S e t t l e m e n t , t h e H e r o i c Poems and t h e Norse Eddas are t h e o n l y s o u r c e s t h a t one can use, The S c a n d i n a v i a n P o e t r y i s p r o b a b l y not o l d e r than t h e year 8G0 A.D. and p r o b a b l y not l a t e r t h a n t h e y e a r 1000 A.D.(4) Hence, a l t h o u g h t h e Norse P o e t r y i s s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s l a t e r t h a n the p e r i o d of t h e Anglo-Saxon S e t t l e m e n t i t r e f l e c t s an almost i d e n t i c a l s t a t e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l development.. The pagan Teu-t o n i c c i v i l i z a t i o n l i v e d on i n t h e n o r t h as nowhere e l s e . Roman s o l d i e r s nor Roman m i s s i o n a r i e s never t r o d t h e B a l t i c - s h o r e s . 3. H. Maine. E a r l y H i s t o r y of I n s t i t u t i o n s , p. 75. 4. C f . L. L a r s o n . The K i n g ' s . H o u s e h o l d i n England b e f o r e the  Norman Conquest,,. pp. .68, 73. L a r s o n has v e r y good reasons f o r s t a t i n g t h e s e d a t e s f o r the Norse Eddas, When one c o n s i d e r s t h e H e r o i c P o e t r y and the Norse Eddas, the^immediate i m p r e s s i o n o b t a i n e d i s t h a t l o r d s h i p w i t h t h e s e e a r l y Teutons was p r i m a r i l y o f a m i l i t a r y n a t u r e . The k i n g s a r e f i r s t of a l l war c h i e f t a i n s of g r e a t prowess surround-ed by bands of young w a r r i o r s . This, group of sworn f o l l o w e r s Yfas t h e " c omit a t u s " . ' The o r i g i n s of t h e " c o m i t a t u s " are d i f f i c u l t t o as-c e r t a i n . I t I s e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t e d between th e "comitatus' 1 and the o l d k i n s h i p groups. We know from t h e a c c o u n t s of T a c i t u s t h a t t h e m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n known as t h e " c o m i t a t u s " t o have been i n e x i s t e n c e i n 98 A.D. T a c i t u s e x p l a i n s t h e g e n e r a l i d e a of t h e " c o m i t a t u s " when he s t a t e s t h a t a " p r i n c e p s " who had s u f f i c i e n t , means might g a t h e r around h i m s e l f a body, of young w a r r i o r s who were a n x i o u s t o d i s -p l a y t h e i r t a l e n t s i n war. ( 5 ) The c o n d i t i o n s , economic and s o c i a l , t h a t must u l t i -m a t e l y develop from the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e " c o m i t a t u s " , a r e not d i f f i c u l t , t o p i c t u r e . A w e a l t h y and u n o c c u p i e d w a r r i o r c l a s s r o s e who had no b i n d i n g t i e s b u t those of sworn p e r s o n a l a l l e g i a n c e t o a l e a d e r . But t h i s c l a s s o f w a r r i o r s must be f e d , b e n e ath them t h e r e must be a c l a s s of i n f e r i o r s who would t i l l t h e s o i l . Here we have t h e germ of f e u d a l i s m . 5. T a c i t u s . Op. c i t . , c. X E I I . Eor a d i s c u s s i o n o f the o r i -g i n s and n a t u r e of the " c o m i t a t u s " cf_. W. Hearn, The Aryan . Household, pp. 246-50; ?/. Stubbs, The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y  of E n g l a n d , V o l . I , p. 25. 36 V At the time of t h e Migration-.we b e l i e v e t h a t A n g l o -Saxon l o r d s h i p was p r i m a r i l y of the p a t r i a r c h a l - k i n s h i p t y p e . But e v e r y c h i e f t a i n might, and I t would appear d i d , possess a s t r o n g " c o m i t a t u s " . Nobles o f b l o o d a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " e O r l -cundmen", whereas the n o b l e s who belonged t o the c h i e f t a i n s ' ' p e r s o n a l war bands a r e termed "gesithcundmen". The f i r s t was a n o b l e by b i r t h and" k i n s h i p r i g h t s . The second was a " g e s i t h " or companion,of a c h i e f t a i n ; he owed h i s p o s i t i o n t o . h i s c h i e f t a i n a l o n e . I n F r a n c e t h e o l d n o b i l i t y of b i r t h r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r -ed a f t e r t h e P r a n k i s h Conquest. The new n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e put on the l e g a l c l o t h i n g of t h e i r dead p r e d e c e s s o r s , as i t were. C l o v i s was t r a d i t i o n a l l y o f t h e c l a n of Merowingas., the most r o y a l of t h e k i n s h i p groups by d i r e c t descent from t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l common-ancestor of the F r a n k s , but t h i s was but p o l i t e f i c t i o n ; C l o v i s had no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Meroveus. C l o v i s . w a s no p a t r i a r c h a l c l a n f a t h e r , but an adventurous l e a d e r of a s t r o n g m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . H i s n o b l e s were n o b l e s of ..the sword-and o f f i c e . T h i s new p r i n c i p l e of s e l e c t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l m e r i t i n war and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o v e r t h r e w t h e o l d system of k i n s h i p bonds and opened t h e way f o r f e u d a l i s m . A s i m i l a r t r e n d of a f f a i r s t o o k p l a c e i n England but the p r o c e s s was f a r s l o w e r and f a r more i n v o l v e d . I t i s an a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t t h e p r i m i t i v e T e u t o n i c v i l l a g e system t r a n s f e r r e d i t s e l f t o England and t o o k r o o t and 37 f l o u r i s h e d . ( 6 ) But I t i s easy t o imagine t h a t d u r i n g t h e Con-quest and S e t t l e m e n t l a r g e t r a c t s o f t h e a c q u i r e d l a n d s w i t h or w i t h o u t dependents went t o the c h i e f t a i n s and t h e i r most f a v o r e d f o l l o w e r s . Among the "gesithcundmen" we hear soon a f t e r t h e S e t t l e m e n t of " g e s i t h s " or "thegns" who were h o l d e r s of l a n d s from the K i n g . ( 7 ) Thus the germ of t h e l a r g e e s t a t e -was i n h e r -ent w i t h t h e S e t t l e m e n t . L e t us l o o k t o F r ance a g a i n ; the e v o l u t i o n t h e r e was q u i c k e r and much more e a s i l y t r a c e d . I n France the domains of the l a r g e l a n d h o l d e r soon encroached upon t h o s e decayed " v i l l a " communities t h a t had s u r v i v e d from the t i m e s of t h e Soman occu-p a t i o n . The l a r g e l a n d h o l d e r , a n o b l e of s e r v i c e , a c t e d as p o l i c e m a n , g u a r d i a n of the l a w i n the neighborhood;of h i s es-t a t e s . The p r a c t i c e of commendations sprung up. Charlemagne l e g a l i z e d i t and h i s immediate s u c c e s s o r made i t u n i v e r s a l . By the:end of t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y i t was an a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t ' e v e r y man must have a l o r d . In"'a-very-limited-.measure and i n v a r y i n g degrees th e same p r o c e s s t o o k p l a c e i n England. However, i t i s v e r y dangerous t o i l l u s t r a t e E n g l i s h development b y , F r e n c h ex-amples. The g r a d u a l s t e p s t o f e u d a l i z a t i o n i n England are f a r l e s s d i s c e r n i b l e , more i n t r i c a t e , and f a r s l o w e r i n movement than i n F r a n c e . 6. A l o n g and most, i n v o l v e d c o n t r o v e r s y has been waged over t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e e a r l y Anglo-Saxon v i l l a g e . The s t a t e -ment made here i s most c o n s e r v a t i v e . " 7. I n e ' s Dooms, 45. 38 U n d o u b t e d l y w i t h t h e K e n t i n g s and Gewissas a t t h e tims of t h e S e t t l e m e n t , the o l d e r p a t r i a r c h a l n o b l e , t h e " e o r l c u n d -man,r, was t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o b l e r e c o g n i z e d by the customary l a w o f t h e J u t i s h and West Saxon f o l k . ( 8 ) The newer type of n o b l e , t h e "gesithcundman", d i d e x i s t but t h e f o l k a c c o r d i n g t o custom had made no p r o v i s i o n s t o g i v e him l e g a l s t a t u s . As has been p o i n t e d out the e a r l i e s t dooms of t h e K e n t i n g s were i n a l a r g e measure concerned w i t h the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of t h e f o r e i g n c l e r g y i n t o t h e f o l k bjr means of a n a l o g y and l e g a l f i c t i o n and e xtend-i n g t h e K i n g ' s "mundbyrd", o r p r o t e c t i o n , over a l l the c l e r g y and Church p r o p e r t y . But toward the c l o s e of the seventh cen-t u r y we f i n d a new problem t a k i n g up most of t h e space i n the d o o m s — t h a t of a new k i n d of a l o r d s h i p , d i v o r c e d i n p r i n c i p l e from t h e o l d n o b i l i t y of b l o o d . The o l d " e o r l c u n d " rank was a p a s s i v e p r i v i l e g e of b l o o d and b i r t h c o n f e r r i n g a u t h o r i t y o f no k i n d over o t h e r men; t h i s , t h e second phase of c l a s s d i s -t i n c t i o n among the E n g l i s h , was l o r d s h i p , as ?je u n d e r s t a n d i t i n l a t e r t i m e s , t h e patronage of one man over another. The "eorlcundman" was a n o b l e by t h e grace o f God; the new n o b l e , t h e "gesithcundman", was a n o b l e by t h e K i n g ' s g r a c e , and, whereas God's g r a c e gave no s p e c i a l patronage over o t h e r men, the K i n g ' s g r a c e d i d . 8. I n s t i t u t i o n s change c o n t i n u a l l y but l e g a l p h r a s e o l o g y chang-es s l o w l y ; o n l y when the changes are complete i s i t r e c o r d -e d — u s u a l l y i n the l e g a l t e r m i n o l o g y . That n o b l e s of b i r t h had a l l but v a n i s h e d by t h e time of t h e I n v a s i o n i s v e r y p r o b a b l e . 39 The e a r l i e s t m ention o f t h e t i e s of the new l o r d s h i p I n Anglo-Saxon documents speak o f the c l i e n t t a k i n g h i s p a t r o n t o " h l a f o r d " and t o "mundbora" and, i n t h i s phrase, the f u l l f a c t s of l o r d s h i p , b o t h l e g a l and economic, are exp r e s s e d " h l a -f o r d " , meaning l i t e r a l l y " t o g i v e b r e a d " and "mundbora" " t o ex-t e n d p r o t e c t i o n or peace". L i t e r a l l y t h e l o r d took the c l i e n t i n t o h i s " c o m i t a t u s " and guaranteed him f o o d and p r o t e c t i o n ; i n r e t u r n , the c l i e n t swore a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e l o r d . The c l i e n t i s termed a " g e s i t h " ; l i t e r a l l y , "a companion of the l o r d " . As a member of t h i s new m i l i t a r y f a m i l y t h e "gesithcundman" no l o n g -e r needed the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s "maegth" as h i s s t a t u s i n so-c i e t y i s a s s u r e d . W i t h h i s l o r d as "mundbora" he may sue or be sued I n c o u r t s and o f f e r o a t h and o r d e a l . I n j u r i e s a g a i n s t him w i l l be v i s i t e d by t h e payment of t h e "mundbyrd" of t h e l o r d whose p r o t e c t i o n has been v i o l a t e d . I f he evades j u s t i c e h i s l o r d must make h i s o f f e n c e good and he may assume the l e g a l p e r s o n a l i t y of h i s man, and p l e a d h i s cause b e f o r e t h e K i n g ' s or " f o l k c o u r t " . The l o r d t h u s came t o s t a n d toward h i s c l i e n t i n p l a c e of k i n d r e d . With t h e p r o t e c t i o n of a w e a l t h y and p o w e r f u l l o r d t he c l i e n t needed no k i n f o l k t o make h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y s e c u r e . At t h e time when l o r d s h i p of t h e new type i s f i r s t mentioned i n the codes of Ine and W i t h r e d i t i s i n the pr o c e s s of b e i n g r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e o l d customary f o l k l a w . I t i s b e i n g woven i n t o the o l d web of k i n s h i p . At f i r s t i t i s s c a r c e l y d i s -c e r n i b l e i n the f a b r i c of customary common law but w i t h the 40 p a s s i n g of time i t more and more comes t o l e n d c o l o r i n g t o t h e whole. The t i e of l o r d t o man was r e g a r d e d by way of c o n s c i o u s f i c t i o n as analogous t o b l o o d k i n s h i p , i t was t r e a t e d i n p r a c -t i c e as i f i t were and t h e c l i e n t was t a k e n i n t o h i s l o r d ' s " f a m i l i a " . I t was one of a group of r e l a t i o n s h i p s of which the more I n t i m a t e b l e n d e d i m p e r c e p t i b l y i n t o p h y s i c a l k i n s h i p , and w h i c h te n d e d t o f i n d s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t i n law; f o r e i g n r e s i -dence, v a s s a l a g e , f o s t e r a g e , t h e t i e of t h e godson to h i s s p o n s o r — a l l were t r e a t e d as i n one degree o r another or p a r a l -l e l w i t h k i n s h i p . The "mund" of l o r d s h i p , o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e peace of t h e h o u s e - f a t h e r over h i s sons and men, s p r e a d i t s e l f o ver t h e w i d e r f a m i l y of p r o t e c t e d and commended dependents t o whom t h e "mundbora 1' i s not f a t h e r , but l o r d . The "mund" was t r a n s f e r r e d from the k i n d r e d t o the l o r d ; t he l o r d r e p l a c e d t h e k i n as s e c u r i t y , t h e l o r d c o u l d swear away h i s c l i e n t ' s g u i l t i n the same way as k i n . The " h e r i o t " or w a r r i o r ' s equipment i n arms and s t e a d s , once t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e e l d e s t male o f the dead man's k i n , was r e s e r v e d f o r h i s l o r d . F o r t h e k i n l e s s c l i e n t t h e l o r d c o u l d g i v e and r e c e i v e "wer". (9) L o r d s h i p and v a s s a l a g e d i d not go f a r toward the r o o t of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e t i m e s t h a t Ine's codes were i s -sued. They d i d not a l t e r a man's grade i n t h e f o l k . But. t h e y were e x t e n d i n g p r i v i l e g e s , and t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s were, i n the end, 9. Of. Ine ' s Dooms f o r the c l a u s e s on w h i c h t h e s e statements are based;. p a r t i c u l a r l y Nos'. 20, 21, 76, 22, 50, 2 3 — i n the o r d e r quoted. 41 t o become the b a s i s of a new g r o u p i n g of s o c i e t y . There i s n o t h i n g i n Ine's codes t o prove t h a t a c a s t e of l o r d s o r a c a s t e o f v a s s a l s had been i n any way r e c o g n i z e d by the custom-a r y f o l k l a w . The " g e s i t h " a p p a r e n t l y remained "twyhynd man", a "sixlryndman", o r a " t w e l f h y n d m a n " — a c c o r d i n g t o h i s b i r t h grade i n the common s o c i a l s c a l e r e c o g n i z e d by the f o l k . ( 1 0 ) But, b e s i d e t h e b l o o d - p r i c e and t h e o a t h - v a l u e , w h i c h c o n t i n -ued t o depend upon b i r t h , t h e r e were a p p e a r i n g I n Ine's codes o t h e r money.compensations t h a t defended the honor, p r e s t i g e , and peace of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e s e were coming t o be w h o l l y d e termined by t h e o f f i c i a l rank or p r o x i m i t y t o the K i n g . Such were the " b o h r b r y c e " o r amendment t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n extended t o t h e one i n dependence, t h e " b u r g b r y c e " o r compensation f o r v i o -l e n c e done w i t h i n t h e f o r t i f i e d e n c l o s u r e of a n o t a b l e , and t h e " o f e r h y r n e s " o r t h a t f o r d i s o b e d i e n c e o r contempt of an o r d e r w h i c h he i s q u a l i f i e d t o g i v e by v i r t u e of h i s o f f i c e o r s t a t u s . Such new p r i v i l e g e s a r e more e l a s t i c t h a n t h e " b o t s " found i n A e t h e l b e r t ' s codes and i n c r e a s e w i t h the s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d -u a l ' s p o s i t i o n toward th e K i n g , no m a t t e r what h i s b i r t h s c a l e might be. The s t a t u s of t h e I n d i v i d u a l i s b e g i n n i n g t o be a f -f e c t e d , by t h a t o f - h i s "mundbora". To be i n t h e "mund" of a b i s h o p , "eorldorman", o r o t h e r g r e a t o f f i c i a l i s a d i s t i n c t i o n ; but t o be t h e K i n g ' s man c o n f e r s the h i g h e s t p r i v i l e g e s of a l l . 10. I b i d . j 6. 42 I n a r u d i m e n t a r y way one f e e l s from Ine's codes(11) t h a t c e r t a i n , p r i v i l e g e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h o l d i n g l a n d . The "new n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e a r e c l o s e l y bound up w i t h the q u e s t i o n of l a n d , f rom t h e e x i s t i n g documents we know t h a t t h e new c l a s s , "gesithcundmen" were endowed b y t h e K i n g w i t h l a n d w h i c h t h e " g e s i t h " h e l d i n some manner d i f f e r e n t t o the o l d f r e e h o l d manner of t h e f o l k . (12) The l a n d and i t s c u l t i v a t o r s " a r e not g i v e n over, t o h i s d i s c r e t i o n . T h r e e - f o u r t h s of i t must be kept i n peasant c u l t i v a t i o n . From t h e l a n d r e n t o n l y can be demand-ed of t h e p e a s a n t u n l e s s the "gesithcundman" p r o v i d e f o r the c u l t i v a t o r a homestead and l i v e s t o c k . I n case of f e u d o r o u t l a w r y t h e t e n a n t s of t h e " g e s i t h " must not be m o l e s t e d . I f the " g e s i t h " l e a v e h i s e s t a t e he can t a k e o n l y p e r s o n a l s e r v a n t s and e f f e c t s . I t would thus seem t h a t t h e K i n g ' s grant t o h i s new " g e s i t h c u n d " n o b l e s was b u t a t e n u r e over l a n d s f o r a t i m e . The " g e s i t h c u n d " l a n d h o l d e r was a t r a n s i t i o n a l t y p e . He e x i s t e d i n t h e p e r i o d between the e a r l i e s t age o f k i n s h i p and f r e e h o l d and t h e l a t e r p e r i o d of f e u d a l t e n u r e . The es-t a t e s of t h e " g e s i t h c u n d " n o b l e a r e termed " g e s e t t l a n d s " i n t h e l a t e r l a n d c h a r t e r s , W i l l s , e t c . , and are so r e f e r r e d t o I n s e v e r a l of Bede's w r i t i n g s . They were c u l t i v a t e d by f r e e " c e o r l s " who -owed s e v e r a l o b l i g a t i o n s . t o t h e i r l o r d but were not on t h e same s c a l e as t h e " v i l l a n i " of the Domesday R e p o r t . The " g e s e t t l a n d s " were a s s e s s e d i n h i d e s l i k e t h e r e s t of t h e 11. I b i d . , 64-67. 12. Idem, 43 a r a b l e l a n d o f England and t h e h i d e s were u n i t s of assessment f o r r o y a l r e n t s and p u b l i c s e r v i c e , j u s t as t h e o t h e r l a n d s of the community were. I f t h e " c e o r l " who r e n t e d t h i s " g e s e t t -l a n d T ' p r o v i d e d h i s own home, s t o c k , and implements, he p a i d t o the " g e s i t h c u n d " l o r d o n l y an annual r e n t , but i f the l o r d pro-v i d e d e v e r y t h i n g , t h e n t h e " c e o r l " gave s e r v i c e s as w e l l as r e n t . ( 1 3 ) The " c e o r l " might swear a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e " g e s i t h " and, as i t were, j o i n h i s " c o m i t a t u s " . B o t h forms o f c o n t r a c t seem t o have e x i s t e d i n the seventh c e n t u r y . ( 1 4 ) Thus I n t h e -days o f Ine we see t h a t t h e common f r e e -man was d e c l i n i n g i n Wessex; he was i n t h e p r o c e s s of t a l c i n g t h e f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d t h e " v i l l e i n a g e " w h i c h bound h i s remote descendents under t h e Normans. As y e t , t h a t i s , i n the days of I n e , t h e " c e o r l s 1 " p l a c e i n t h e f o l k had not been debased by t h e i r economic dependence upon a l o r d . They s t i l l r e t a i n e d t h i s customary "we r g e l d s " i n . t h e Dooias of A l f r e d i n the; n i n t h c e n t u r y . They s t i l l c o u l d bear arms and had t h e i r r i g h t t o o a t h o r o r d e a l . ( 1 5 ) The seventh c e n t u r y seemed t o have w i t n e s s e d much spread o f l o r d s h i p everywhere i n Saxon England. L o r d s h i p was b e i n g r e s o r t e d t o i n o r d e r t o f o r t i f y e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n . Even the common p r i e s t c a l l e d h i m s e l f a "mass-thegn"'. However, the l o r d s h i p o f I n e ' s day was a m i l d and p e r s o n a l t i e ; i t s t i l l 13. 14. 15. I b i d . , 64-66. . J." l o l l i f f e . The , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y .of England, p.20. i n e ' s Dooms. 51; Dooms o f A l f r e d , 4, 2. 44 p o s s e s s e d something of the c o n c e p t i o n s o f the " c o m i t a t u s " i n t h a t i t was_ p e r s o n a l and human—not r i g i d and f o r m a l as i n the l a t e r days. The s p r e a d of C h r i s t i a n i t y and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Roman l a w was p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t i n g the t i m e s . The upper c l e r g y , t h r o u g h t h e i r g r a d u a l a c q u i s i t i o n of e s t a t e s , were i n t r o d u c i n g f a r - r e a c h i n g changes i n t o t h e whole i d e a of l a n d - h o l d i n g . P r i -m a r i l y when t h e Roman c l e r g y f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d themselves i n Kent as newcomers t h e y p o s s e s s e d no shares i n the l a n d s which were a l l s t i l l h e l d by " f o l k - r i g h t " . The c l e r g y made use of t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l l e a r n i n g and Roman Law t o i n t r o d u c e "Land-books", t h a t i s , w r i t t e n c h a r t e r s by w h i c h w i t h t h e f o r m a l c o n -sent of the " c y n i n g " and h i s "gemot" of the c l a i n c h i e f t a i n s t h e o l d " f o l k - r i g h t " c o u l d be o v e r r i d d e n . Perhaps the i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f . t h e s e landbooks was the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e h i s -t o r y of Anglo-Saxon l a n d customs. The c l e r g y e s t a b l i s h e d themselves as a k i n d o f r e -l i g i o u s a r i s t o c r a c y i n t h e i n g l o - S a x o n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e by the same p r o c e s s t h a t t h e n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n -t o the f o l k w a y s . The Dooms of Kent i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . When one comes t o c o n s i d e r the r e s u l t s of the C o n v e r s i o n one f i n d s t h a t i t permeated e v e r y phase of o l d E n g l i s h s o c i a l l i f e . The c l e r g y needed the K i n g and t h e K i n g needed edu-c a t e d a d v i s o r s . Hence the c l o s e p a r t n e r s h i p between monarch and h i g h e r c l e r g y w h i c h had been formed i n the days of t h e l a n d -i n g of S t . A u g u s t i n e were never f o r an e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d d i s -s o l v e d . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e c l e r g y was t o l e n d t o the monarchy ., and t h e whole o r d e r of t h e h i g h e r n o b i l i t y a new d i g n i t y . H i t h -erto,, i n the rough and tumble o f T e u t o n i c heathenism, the power of t h e K i n g had r e s t e d p a r t l y on customs of the f o l k . a n d ' p a r t l y on f o r c e , but a f t e r the C o n v e r s i o n the Church'crowned t h e K i n g w i t h a diadem, c o n s e c r a t e d him w i t h H o l y r i t e s and d e c l a r e d him to : be t h e L o r d ' s a n n o i n t e d one,(16) i t t h i s p o i n t i t would seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o g i v e some-t h i n g l i k e a s y s t e m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e Anglo-Saxon n o b i l -i t y i n t h e p e r i o d down^to th e time of I n e . 1. The K i n g . The " c y n i n g " was t h e c h i e f n o b l e , t h e " d e a r e s t b o r n " of a l l t h o s e "more d e a r l y b o r n " ( t o put an o l d .Anglo-Saxon phrase i n t o modern E n g l i s h ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e K i n g was of the f a m i l y o r "gens" of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a n c e s t o r of t h e f o l k . I n t h e l i n e of d i r e c t descent he was t h e most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f o u n d e r of t h e f o l k group. "The more l i k e l y account would be t h e k i n g -s h i p a rose where a m i l i t a r y l e a d e r had e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e t r i b e a p o s i t i o n w h i c h seemed t o j u s t i f y t h e assumption o f r o y a l d i g n i t y , t h a t i s t o say, when he' found h i m s e l f s t r o n g enough t o get h i m s e l f p r o c l a i m e d K i n g . The d y n a s t y once s t a r t e d was prompt t o i n v e s t I t s e l f w i t h a h a l o of s a n c t i t y by p r o d u c i n g a p e d i g r e e t r a c i n g descent from Woden."(17) 16. One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t s of the i n f l u e n c e of t h e C o n v e r s i o n on the l i f e of t h e o l d E n g l i s h i s t o be found i n R. Hodgkin's H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons, 701,1, pp. 235-44. 17. J.« Ramsay. The ..Foundations of England,, p. 152. 46 A complete account of a l l r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s c l a i m e d by A l f r e d t h e Great w i l l be g i v e n i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . The " c y n i n g ' s w e r g e l d " i s not s t a t e d i n t h e K e n t i s h codes. However, t h e K i n g ' s "mundbyrd" i s s t a t e d at 50 s h i l l -i n g s ; an " e o r l ' s " , 12; and, a " c e o r l ' s " , 6.(13) The dooms of A e t h e l b e r t ' s s u c c e s s o r s — - H l o t h e r e and S a d r i c — g i v e f u l l e r s t a t e m e n t s of t h e K e n t i s h " w e r g e l d s " . There i s no e x i s t i n g document t h a t d i r e c t l y s t a t e s t h e K i n g ' s "wergeld" f o r Wes'sex, b u t i t has been a r r i v e d a t i n -d i r e c t l y . ' The N o r t h l e o d a Lagu s t a t e s the s c a l e of the "wer-g e l d s " as f o l l o w s : thrymas K i n g 30,000 A e t h e l i n g and A r c h b i s h o p 15,000 Saldorman and B i s h o p 8,000 K i n g ' s Reeve 4,000 Thegn and Mass-Thegn 2,000 C e o r l 266 (19) We do not know.the v a l u e of t h e Northumbrian c o i n termed a "thrymas"; hence i t i s h a r d t o compare t h i s w i t h the others, s t a t e d i n s h i l l i n g s . 'However, t h e e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n i n which th e K i n g i s h e l d i s i l l u s t r a t e d from t h i s data.(20) 18. Dooms of A e t h e l b e r t , 8, C f . a l s o , F . Seebohm, T r i b a l Cus-tom i n Anglo-Saxon Law, p. 481; H . Chadwick, S t u d i e s i n Anglo-Saxon Law, pp. 105-14. 19. Chadwick. Op, c i t . , p. 76. 20. F o r a complete t a b l e of the " wergelds" of a l l the E n g l i s h kingdoms o f . d. Kembie, The Saxons i n England, Y o l . I , pp. 286-87. 47 2. The " A e t h e l i n g . " I n t h e s o c i a l s c a l e t h e n e s t p l a c e was o c c u p i e d by the K i n g ' s sons, or " a e t h e l i n g s " , whose "wergeld" i s u s u a l l y quoted as h a l f t h a t of t h e K i n g and t h e same as t h a t of an a r c h b i s h o p . 3. The MEaldorman." Next t o t h e " a e t h e l i n g " i n the p e r i o d of the c o n s o l -i d a t i o n , t h e "ealdorman" was t h e h i g h e s t d i g n i t a r y i n t h e realm. He might be descended from one of t h e o l d r o y a l f a m i l i e s of the h e p t a r c h y or a r e l a t i v e of the K i n g ; we have ample evidence t h a t a f t e r t h e time of Ine t h e K i n g ' s u n c l e s , nephews and c o u s i n s governed l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s under the t i t l e of " e a l d o r -raen". On t h e o t h e r hand, i n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d , the "ealdorman" was o f t e n a n o b l e of s e r v i c e , a "gesithcundman". T r a d i t i o n a l -l y the t i t l e "ealdorman" denoted one who was of the b l o o d r o y -a l ; t h e t e r m was synonymous w i t h " c y n i n g " . A f t e r the c o n s o l i d a -t i o n t h e "ealdorman" u s u a l l y governed a " s h i r e " . ( 2 1 ) 4. The " E a r l . " T h i s term seems t o have been used l o o s e l y t o d e s i g -nate any nobleman. I n t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d i t was a p p l i e d t o any l e a d e r of w a r r i o r s who was " e o r l c u n d " or "more d e a r l y born" t h a n the commoner o r " c e o r l " . By t h e end of the s e v enth c e n t u r y i t 21. F o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e "ealdorman" p_f. Kemble, Op. c i t . , V o l . I I , pp. 125-51. 48 had almost v a n i s h e d from t h e l e g a l s o u r c e s , b e i n g r e p l a c e d by the t e rm " g e s i t h " . The Anglo-Saxon term " e o r l " was of t h e same meaning as the S c a n d i n a v i a n t i t l e " j a r l " . S t r a n g e t o say, a f -t e r t h e Danish i n v a s i o n s a new t i t l e appeared i n p l a c e of "eorldorman", namely t h a t of " e a r l " , w h i c h was a c o m b i n a t i o n of t l i e D a n i sh " j a r l " and the two E n g l i s h cognates, " e o r l " and "eorldorman".(22} 5 . The "Thane" or "Thegn". The term "thegn" o r "thane" does not appear i n any of t h e l e g a l documents u n t i l f a i r l y l a t e . No mention i s made of the "thegns" i n t h e codes o f A e t h e l b e r t o r h i s two s u c c e s s -o r s . The f i r s t t i me t h a t the te r m i s used i s i n the Dooms of ,Withred. I t h e r e appears as t h e e q u i v a l e n t of " g e s i t h " . E v i -d e n t l y i t d e s i g n a t e s one i n t h e K i n g ' s s e r v i c e , a nobl e of s e r -v i c e o f a rank l o w e r t h a n an " e o r l " . When the term "thegn" or "thane" appears, t h e term " e o r l " tends t o : v a n i s h , perhaps r e -p l a c e d . An " e o r l " was once " e o r l c u n d " ; a "thegn" was once " g e s i t h c u n d " . ( 2 3 ) 22. F o r complete, d i s c u s s i o n s of the terms " e o r l " , e t c . , c f . Kembie, Op. c i t . , p. ,149; a l s o : C. Oman, England b e f o r e  t h e Norman Gonquest, p. 454; T. Kodgkin, England t o 1066, p. 454; L a r s o n , Op. c i t . , pp. 76-104; Chadwick, S t u d i e s  on Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s , Chapter I T . 25. F o r complete d i s c u s s i o n s o f the o r i g i n and n a t u r e o f the term "thegn" o f , S. 'Turner, H i s t o r y of t h e Anglo-Saxons, p. 230; I . Lappenburg, H i s t o r y of England under the Saxon  K i n g s , p. 516~; T. Hodgkin, Op. c i t . t p. 228; Stubbs, Se-l e c t C h a r t e r s , No. 65; Oman, Op. c i t . , pp. 559-60, 470-71; Chadwlok, S t u d i e s d n Anglo-Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s , p. 80; L a r s o n , Op. c i t . , pp. 89-104; Seebohm, Op. c i t . , pp. 525, 568, 590. 49 6. The " G e s i t h " . I n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning the term " g e s i t h " d e s i g n a t e d "a companion". I t s f i r s t use was t o r e f e r t o a member of t h e " c o m i t a t u s " . A f t e r the r i s e of a n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e i t meant one who owed a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e K i n g o r was i n t h e K i n g ' s s e r -v i c e . The terms " g e s i t h " and "thegn" were synonymous a t tim e s (24) " E o r l " and " g e s i t h " were not o r i g i n a l l y synonymous terms the " e o r l " r e f e r r e d t o t h e o l d Germanic n o b i l i t y of bi r t h , t h e " p r i n c i p e s " , whose p r i v i l e g e i t was t o m a i n t a i n a " c o m i t a t u s " ; t h e terra " g e s i t h " r e f e r r e d t o a member of the " e o r l ' s " f o l l o w -i n g . (25) A f t e r t h e S e t t l e m e n t t h e " g e s i t h s " l o s t t h e i r m i l i -t a r y c h a r a c t e r and developed i n t o a l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y . Soon, ho?^ever, t h e " g e s i t h s " were heard of no more; t h e p l a c e v a c a t -ed was f i l l e d by t h e "theg n s " . The "the g n " i s r e f e r r e d t o i n th e L a t i n documents u s u a l l y as " m i n i s t r i " . ( 2 6 ) 7. The " G e r e f a " . The most g e n e r a l name f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and ex-e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l i n the p e r i o d of Ine and a f t e r w a r d s was t h a t of " g e r e f a " . The term d e s i g n a t e d an e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l . There 24. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the term " g e s i t h " , c f . L a r s o n , Op. c i t . , p. 82; Hearn, O p . _ o i t , , p. 248; Stubbs, The Con- s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y , V o l . I l ; Seebohm, Op. c i t . , p. 566; Chadwick, S t u d i e s d n Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s , passim; Ramsay, Op. c i t . , p. 130. 25. L a r s o n . Op. c i t . , p. 87. 26. I b i d . , p. 97. 50 were two grades and many ranks or s u b g r a d i n g s ; the most import ant were th o s e i n t h e employment of the K i n g or an "eorldorman The " g e r e f a " was d i s t i n c t l y a n o b l e of s e r v i c e . The more im-p o r t a n t " g e r e f a s " came t o h o l d e s t a t e s I n a manner l i k e a l l " g e s i t h c u n d " men; such lands were termed " g e r e f - l a n d s " . The " s e i r - g e r e f a " d eveloped i n t o t h e " s h i r e r e e v e " of l a t e r t i m e s . About t h e p e r s o n of t h e K i n g t h e r e ?ras always a body of s e r -v a n t s , b o t h m e n i a l and a r i s t o c r a t i c , who h e l d v a r i o u s t i t l e s of " t h e g n s h i p " . I n f a c t , even t o the most m e n i a l o f f i c e i n t h e K i n g ' s s e r v i c e e n t i t l e d the h o l d e r t o be d e s i g n a t e d as "thegn" or " g e r e f a " . A r c h b i s h o p s and "eorldormen" a l s o had t h e i r "thegns". These v a r y i n g grades of " t h e g n s h i p " were a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e p e r i o d when v a s s a l a g e became more or l e s s p r e v a l e n t . The codes of the s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , both those of t h e K e n t i n g s and t h o s e of t h e Gewissas, show the p r i m i t i v e o r g a n i -z a t i o n of t h e f o l k i n a p r o c e s s of i n v a s i o n by the f o r c e s of l o r d s h i p , C h r i s t i a n i t y , and neighborhood. New wine i s b e i n g put i n t o o l d b o t t l e s . L o r d s h i p and C h r i s t i a n i t y a r e b e i n g suc-c e s s f u l l y woven i n t o t h e f a b r i c of the customary law. A new l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y i s a p p e a r i n g who h o l d . t h e i r f i e l d s not by h e r e d i t a r y f o l k - r i g h t s but as " g e s i t h s " of t h e " c y c l i n g " . The normal commoner i s s t i l l t h e " c e o r l " or "twyhynde" man of the codes of I n e . But many of t h i s c l a s s are becoming bound i n some manner t o a l o r d . The sense of community i s t a k i n g the p l a c e of t h e k i n s h i p bonds of b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p but i n no way 51 has neighborhood e n t i r e l y r e p l a c e d k i n s h i p ; r a t h e r , n e i g h b o r -hoods were coming t o t h i n k of themselves as l a r g e and l o o s e l y r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s . The t i e s of the k i n i n customary law were b e i n g extended on e v e r y s i d e t o mean ne i g h b o r s or b e i n g as-sumed by a l o r d who became t h e o f f i c i a l p r o t e c t o r of h i s c l i e n t . The o l d customary f o l k - l a w s a r e b e i n g s t r e t c h e d and extended t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e s e new c o n c e p t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r scope. F o l k - r i g h t s made t h e common f o l k - l a w c o u r t s f o l k - m o o t s b u t more and more the judgment i s f a l l i n g t o men of r e p u t a t i o n who were " s e n i o r e s " o r " w i t a n " , as b e i n g w i s e i n t h e customary law. The o l d T e u t o n i c p o p u l a r p r i n c i p l e of moots of a l l f r e e men t o d e c i d e a l l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the f o l k as a whole s t i l l f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e "tun-gemot", and the "hundred-gemot" and was b e i n g s a t i s f i e d by d e l e g a t i o n of t h e s e f u n c t i o n s t o th o s e who by common f o l k custom r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s e n i o r wisdom of the f o l k of t h e community. The freemen c o u l d not a l l a t -t e n d t h e "gemots" of t h e . s h i r e or n a t i o n ; i n s t e a d the men who by custom of the f o l k were deemed the " s e n i o r e s " went t o v o i c e t h e o p i n i o n s of a l l t h e i r community-kinsmen. Times, however, were i m p o s i n g a d i f f e r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n upon t h e n a t i o n a l "gemot", or "witanagemot" and " s c i r - g e m o t " . I n the days of t h e he p t a r c h y t h e t r i b a l "witanagemot" a s s e m b l i e s were g r e a t f o l k - m o o t s of a l l the f r e e w a r r i o r s , b u t , as time went on, t h e g r e a t n a t i o n a l " w i t a n " a s s e m b l i e s became of g r e a t e r d i s t i n c t i o n , a l t h o u g h s m a l l e r and more and more removed from the common " c e o r l " . 52 I n t h e o r y o r b e t t e r a c c o r d i n g t o f o l k ways the K i n g and t h e W i t a n b o t h e x p r e s s e d t h e v o i c e of the r a c e . The f i r s t f u n c t i o n of b o t h was not t o make laws but t o a p p l y an unchang-i n g f o l k custom. A l l t h e codes show t h a t n e i t h e r the K i n g n o r the Witan i n t h e o r y c l a i m e d a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n . The laws an-nounce a t a l l t i m e s t h a t t h e K i n g and Witan speak w i t h one and t h e same v o i c e . ( 2 7 ) The W i t a n as t h e v o i c e of the assembled k i n f o l k c l a i m e d t h e r i g h t t o choose th e K i n g a l t h o u g h t h e i r c h o i c e by f o l k custom was c o n f i n e d t o t h e f a m i l y which a c c o r d i n g t o f o l k -r i g h t was most n o b l e or " d e a r e s t b o r n " of a l l those."more dear-l y b orn". To be K i n g meant f i r s t of a l l t o embody r a c i a l p r i d e and t o be t h e l e a d e r of t h e f o l k i n war and bear the p e r s o n o f t h e f o l k i n t i m e of peace. The K i n g was but t h e f i r s t of the f o l k ; he r e p r o d u c e d upon a h i g h e r l e v e l t h e s t a t u s of a l l no-b i l i t y . The k i n g s h i p had few d e f i n i t e powers. A c t s t h a t we s h o u l d a c c e p t as p r o p e r t o t h e Crown, the s e v e n t h c e n t u r y " c y n i n g " d i d as i f u n c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n and ex-p l a i n e d them as outcomes of h i s p e r s o n a l rank and p r i v i l e g e s as r e c o g n i z e d by t h e f o l k . S u b j e c t s f o r t h e i r p a r t sought h i s p r o t e c t i o n because h i s "mund" was more dangerous t o break than t h a t of any o t h e r n o b l e . The l a w I n the seventh c e n t u r y was not t h e K i n g ' s law but t h e f o l k ' s f o l k - r i g h t . The peace was not t h e K i n g ' s peace. The K i n g ' s peace was l i k e o t h e r men's; 27. Of. I n t r o d u c t i o n s t o the dooms of a l l t h e Saxon K i n g s down t o t h e death of A l f r e d . 53 i t was over h i s h o u s e h o l d ; he c o u l d extend i t t o cover people t h a t were not i n h i s h o u s e h o l d , and he was c o n t i n u o u s l y extend i n g i t t o p r o t e c t a l l h i s " g e s i t h " whether t h e y dwelt i n or o u t s i d e o f h i s h o u s e h o l d . C o n c e r n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n custom or f o l i c ways among t h e K e n t i n g s , t h e Gewessas, t h e M e r c i a n s and t h e N o r t h -umbrians l i t t l e i s r e a l l y known. The d i f f e r e n c e s are i n de-t a i l s r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i t i e s . I n Kent a s t r o n g e r b i r t h r i g h t among the f o l k l e d t o " g a v e l k i n d " or a p a r t i t i o n of a l l p r o -p e r t i e s and f o l k r l g h t s among a l l c o - h e i r s . I n the Northum-b r i a n kingdom t h e r e was a C e l t i c s t r a i n . M o n a r c h i c a l i n f l u -ences were s t r o n g e r t h a n i n the p u r e l y Germanic kingdoms, and under K i n g s r u l e d t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s as i n C e l t i c S t r a t h c l y d e and Wales. L o r d s h i p of s e r v i c e and o f f i c e d i s p l a c e d l o r d s h i p of b i r t h more c o m p l e t e l y a t an e a r l i e r time t h a n i n Wessex or Kent. The "wergelds" of the Northumbrian were reckoned accord-i n g t o o f f i c i a l s t a n d i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t e a d of according t o the a n c i e n t T e u t o n i c b l o o d - g r a d e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of M e r c l a and Wessex were l e s s m o n a r c h i c a l than e i t h e r Northum-b r i a or K e n t . The M e r c i a n kingdom was more or l e s s a c o n f e d -e r a c y of "maegths", n o b i l i t y of b l o o d h e l d sway t h e r e l o n g e r than i n Wessex where an o f f i c i a l c l a s s of " g e s i t h c u n d " men were a l r e a d y u s u r p i n g t h e d i g n i t i e s of the " e o r l c u n d " c l a s s by t h e seventh c e n t u r y . 5 4 PART TWO. THE PERIOD FROM THE SETTLEMENT TO THE DEATH OF ALFRED 700-900 A.D. CHAPTER I . THE TRANSITION FROM KINSHIP TO NEIGHBORHOOD The b a s i c framework of Anglo-Saxon s o c i e t y was i n a c e r t a i n measure p o s s e s s e d of a permanency t h a t l a s t e d t h r o u g h -out t h e f i r s t f o u r and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s of i t s h i s t o r y and, i n f a c t , even t o t h e death of Edward t h e C o n f e s s o r . But the whole s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e underwent a co n t i n u o u s development and f a r -r e a c h i n g i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i t h t h e p a s s i n g of t i m e . The exact c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence of the s e v a r i e d and Innumerable changes a re most d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e c o h e r e n t l y be-cause of t h e l a c k of dependable source m a t e r i a l and because of th e c o n f u s i n g and c o n t r a d i c t o r y d i f f e r e n c e s d i s p l a y e d i n d i f f e r -ent l o c a l i t i e s . A f t e r t h e S e t t l e m e n t was complete and t h e . p i o n e e r i n g s tage p a s t , t h e g e n e r a l movement everywhere i n Anglo-Saxon Eng-l a n d was from the p e r s o n a l t o the t e r r i t o r i a l ; from a s t a t e of t h i n g s where t h e k i n s h i p group was a l l - i m p o r t a n t t o one where th e community was t h e b i n d i n g f o r c e . I n t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d t h e phenomena of b i r t h — n o b i l i t y and f a m i l y — g r o u p s were c l e a r l y 55 d i s p l a j ^ e d -everywhere. From the e i g h t h t o t h e t e n t h c e n t u r i e s p e r s o n a l freedom and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s were becoming more and more bound up w i t h community and t h e p o s s e s s i o n of l a n d . ( l ) England, of t h e f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s of t h e T e u t o n i c o c c u p a t i o n , was a r e g i o n s e t t l e d by many f a m i l y - f o l k groups f e d e r a t e d i n t o seven o r e i g h t t r i b a l kingdoms by t h e bonds of k i n s h i p extended beyond the rememberable degrees of b l o o d r e -l a t i o n s h i p and h e l d t o g e t h e r by t h e l e a d e r s h i p of some a b l e " c y n i n g " . E n g l a n d of t h e e i g h t h and n i n t h c e n t u r i e s was a r e g i o n of v i l l a g e communities of s e v e r a l types which, i n t u r n , were grouped on t e r r i t o r i a l bases i n t o t o w n s h i p s , hundreds and s h i r e s . These t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s were bound i n t o t h r e e or f o u r t r i b a l kingdoms t h a t a t v a r i o u s t i m e s r e c o g n i z e d the t e r -r i t o r i a l l o r d s h i p of one or o t h e r of t h e r o y a l f a m i l i e s of the T r i a r c h y . The p e r i o d from t h e a b d i c a t i o n of Ine of Wessex (728 A.D.) t o t h e a s c e n s i o n of A l f r e d t h e Great (871 A.D.) i s i n r e a l i t y a l i t t l e known age. There a r e no e x i s t i n g codes; t h o s e of O f f a of M e r c i a (757-796 A.D.) are o n l y known from l a t e r r e -p o r t s . The Church passed i n t o a p e r i o d of decadence a f t e r the days of Theodore of T a r s u s and t h e v e n e r a b l e Bede and l e f t t o 1. Of. W. Stubbs, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England, pp.183-87; The Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , Y o l . I I , c. X V I I , pp. 571-73; A. Dopsch, The Economic and S o c i a l Foundations of  European H i s t o r y , c. I X , pp. 283-303; B. Boissonnade, L i f e  and Work i n M e d i e v a l Europe, c. V I I ; IT. Gras, An I n t r o d u c -t i o n t o Economic H i s t o r y , p. 76. 56 p o s t e r i t y few records.. I n a l l , t h e r e are some f i f t y c h a r t e r s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e e i g h t y y e a r s between 796-871 A.D.(2) The r e i g n of A l f r e d (871-901 A.D.) i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y r i c h e r i n documentary m a t e r i a l . The codes c o n t a i n s e v e n t y -seven c h a p t e r s , (3) and t h e t r e a t y w i t h G-uthram, t h e Dane, con t a i n s a n o ther f i v e c h a p t e r s . ( 4 ) A l f r e d ' s own l i t e r a r y works, The Saxon C h r o n i c l e , a l i m i t e d number of c h a r t e r s , and A s s e r ' s L i f e of A l f r e d made up the documentary m a t e r i a l , m e a g r e(5) Indeed but r i c h I n compar-i s o n w i t h the e i g h t y y e a r s p r e v i o u s . A l f r e d ' s codes a r e v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e ; t hey i n d i c a t e no g r e a t o r v i o l e n t change, b u t , i f c a r e f u l l y i n t e r p r e t e d , i n l i g h t of what may be l e a r n e d elsewhere, t h e y show t h a t a g r e a t u n d e r l y i n g change was t a k i n g p l a c e i n the whole s t r u c t u r e of Anglo-Saxon s o c i e t y . T e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of a l l r e l a t i o n s of l i f e , b e g i n n i n g i n t h e sphere of common f o l k - l a v / and s p r e a d i n g t o a l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e E n g l i s h f o l k i s t r a c e a b l e . ( 6 ) T h i s i s f i r s t n o t i c e a b l e i n the r i g h t s and o b l i g a -t i o n s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i n t h e procedure of the c o u r t s . L e g a l l y , t h e k i n s h i p group had p r e v i o u s l y done t h r e e t h i n g s 2. I . E a r l e . A Handbook t o t h e L a n d - C h a r t e r s , and o t h e r Sax- o n i c Documents, pp. 45-141, 3. F. Attenborough. The Laws of t h e E a r l i e s t E n g l i s h K i n g s , 62-93. 4. I b i d , , pp. 98-101. 5. Cf. C. Plummer, The L i f e and Times of A l f r e d the Great, pp. 5-68; c o n t a i n s an e x c e l l e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f • t h e source m a t e r i a l of A l f r e d ' s p e r i o d ? a l t h o u g h r a t h e r o u t - o f - d a t e . 6. J . d o l l i f f e . The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l Eng- l a n d , p. 57. 57 f o r t h e members of t h e "maegth". I t made them oathworthy; i t a c t e d as "bohr" o r s u r e t y t h a t t h e y s h o u l d s t a n d t o judgment. A l l t h r e e o f t h e s e s a n c t i o n s were needed i n co m b i n a t i o n t o a c h i e v e a l e g a l s t a n d i n g f o r t h e I n d i v i d u a l - and l e g a l l y t o c o n s t i t u t e the m u l t i t u d e of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o s o c i e t y . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n , because t h e l e g a l v i r t u e and s t a t u s of each of i t s members was a c r e a t i o n of t h e s o l i d a r i t y of the k i n d r e d t h a t E n g l i s h s o c i e t y was i n t h e b e g i n n i n g based upon the t i e of b l o o d . But w i t h t h e l a p s e of t i m e , m a i n l y i n t h e two and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s between the S e t t l e m e n t and the a b d i c a t i o n of Ine of Wessex (728 A.D. ), each of th e s e f u n c t i o n s was t r a n s -f e r r e d f r o m t h e k i n d r e d of t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s n e i g h b o r s . At f i r s t t o thos e who i n a g e n e r a l way l i v e d near and knew him, and l a t e r t o o r g a n i z e d neighborhoods, t o w n s h i p s , hundreds and s h i r e s , w h i c h r o s e i n response t o t h e new s t r e s s l a i d upon the t i e of v i c i n i t y and t h e need t o g i v e i t t e r r i t o r i a l d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s great, change t h a t was t a k i n g p l a c e i n the n i n t h , t e n t h and e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s was t o p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r the i n s t i t u t i o n -a l b a s i s o f E n g l i s h l i f e . ( 7 ) S wearing on b e h a l f of a kinsman or compurgation i n th e o l d T e u t o n i c customary law was des i g n e d t o f o r c e upon the k i n d r e d t h e c h o i c e of t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h or a f f r o n t i n g t h e gods, 7. Of. J . J o l l i f f e , The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l  England, p. 58; Stubbs, Op. c i t . , Y o l . I , p. 183; W. Hearn, The Aryan Household, p. 373; C. Oman, England b e f o r e the  Norman Conquest, pp. 581, 471. 58 be t h e y C h r i s t i a n o r pagan, so the, c r i m i n a l - s u s p e c t e d ' s k i n d r e d were made h i s oath h e l p e r s . But t h i s was a p r i m i t i v e i d e a t h a t t h e t i m e s were outgrowing. I n Ine's dooms a man accused of murder must have one of t h e K i n g ' s "thegns" t o swear t o h i s i n n o c e n c e ( 8 ) as w e l l as the oaths of h i s k i n . SOon k i n are r e p l a c e d by n e i g h b o r s . By t h e end o f A l f r e d ' s r e i g n t h e man charged of a t h e f t must have a number of h i s f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s hear h i s t a l e and t h e n swear t o h i s i n n o c e n c e . These jurymen or compurgators were nominated f r o m t h e freemen of h i s admin-i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t by t h e l o c a l c o u r t o f f i c i a l s . ( 9 } L i k e w i s e a man charged of not r e n d e r i n g the r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e s t o t h e borough Or not j o i n i n g the K i n g ' s " f y r d " when c a l l e d upon must c l e a r h i m s e l f by the o a t h of a c e r t a i n number of h i s f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s . ( 1 0 ) A f u l l k i n d r e d i n the e a r l y p e r i o d made a man o a t h -worthy and law-worthy. The conduct of the i n d i v i d u a l i n so-c i e t y was e n t r u s t e d e n t i r e l y t o h i s kinsmen; t h e y were r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r him. Then comes a time when t h e "mundbora" of a l o r d , a "gesithcundman", might r e p l a c e the d e f i c i e n c y of k i t h and k i n ; s u c h was the ease i n t h e days of I n e . But when Chute r e s t a t e s t h e dooms of A l f r e d , t h e conduct of the i n d i v i d u a l i s the c o n c e r n of h i s community; e v e r y freeman must "be brought i n -t o hundred and t i t h e i n g " t o "be w o r t h y of h i s law and w e r " . ( l l ) 8. Ine's Booms, 54. 9. Edward I's Dooms, 1, 4. , 10. Cnute's r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e codes of A l f r e d . 11. Cnute's Dooms, SO; l o l l i f f ' e , Op. o i l . . - , p. 60. 59 Thus, as time goes by, the k i n d r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n pass-es, away as t h e l a w d e v e l o p s new c o n c e p t i o n s as the t r e n d s a re toward neighborhood as t h e b a s i s of t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The community g r a d u a l l y usurped t h e r i g h t s of t h e k i n . The proc e s s goes by s e v e r a l d i v e r s r o u t e s ; the k i n may f i r s t be r e p l a c e d by a l o r d and t h e n e v e n t u a l l y e n t i r e l y r e p l a c e d by t h e community, or , t h e l o r d as p r o t e c t o r of the community. I n o t h e r words, the neighborhood t a k e s over the t a s k of r e s t r a i n i n g the conduct of i t s c i t i z e n s , i n p a r t at i t s own w i l l and I n p a r t as a r e -s u l t o f t h e enactments of t h e c e n t r a l government. These a r r a i g n -ed i n c o u r t no l o n g e r can e s t a b l i s h t h e i r innocence on the oaths of t h e i r k i n , but by t h e supposed i m p a r t i a l v o i c e of tho s e s e-l e c t e d by t h e c o u r t o f f i c i a l s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r n e i g h -borhood. The c o u r t s themselves were o n l y i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e s e g r a d u a l i n n o v a t i o n s brought about by t h e t r e n d s from k i n s h i p t o neighborhood. They remain i n t r a d i t i o n f o l k - m o o t s . The freemen may come t o them as b e f o r e , now i n the r i g h t of f e l l o w c i t i z e n s of the community i n s t e a d of as kinsmen of the p r i n c i p a l s . The f o l k - c o u r t s became hundred and s h i r e c o u r t s . The p r o c e d u r e moved t h r o u g h much the same r o u t i n e as b e f o r e but w i t h n e ighborhood now t h e b a s i s . (12) Thus i n t h e days of A l f r e d and more so d u r i n g t h e suc-c e e d i n g r e i g n s a r a d i c a l change was t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e t h e o r y 12. Stubbs. Op. c i t . , p. 202. 60 of l e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As l o n g as t h e s o l e duty o f the c o u r t s v/as t o s e t h o s t i l e k i n d r e d s a t peace th e custom was t o f i l l the c o u r t s w i t h the f o l k . The c o u r t was a f o l k - m o o t . The k i n d r e d with a l l t h e i r members were the m utual components of the moots. But as k i n d r e d f a d e d out of t h e p i c t u r e t h e way was open t o ad-j u s t m e n t s w h i c h might l e s s e n t h e burden of a ttendance and make f o r e f f i c i e n c y . The c o u r t s , were a f t e r t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y d e a l -i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , and w i t h t i t h e i n g s or townships which l e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The new j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Grown was coming t o p l a y a g r e a t e r p a r t i n a l l f o l k l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s . Grimes, such as murder, t h e f t , rape, were no l o n g e r b e i n g l o o k e d upon m e r e l y as k i n d r e d m a t t e r s but were now o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t t h e community and s i n c e t h e K i n g ' s "mund" was b e i n g extended over a l l t h e f o l k l a n d s and the i n h a b i t a n t s , c r ime was t h e K i n g ' s a f f a i r . Thus though the c o u r t s remained i n t h e o r y p o p u l a r , t h e i r p r a c t i c e tended t o become s e l e c t i v e . I n t i m e a l e g a l a r i s t o c r a c y came t o t h e f o r e and monopolized t h e a c t i v e work of judgment. A s s e r might w r i t e of "the judg-ment of e o r l and c e o r l " i n t h e f o l k - m o o t s , but the v o i c e of the " c e o r l " was becoming f a i n t e r e v e r y decade; the K i n g ' s o f -f i c i a l s ( o r t h e s e n i o r "thegns") came more and more t o dominate the c o u r t s of t h e " t u n " , "hundred" and " s h i r e " . Other f o r c e s were at work a l s o ; t h e K i n g and h i s c h i e f n o b l e s were g r a n t i n g l a n d s .away t o men who came to a c t as judges i n t h e i r own l o c a l i t i e s (where th e " c e o r l " had f a l l e n i n t o econ-omic bondage i n a p a r t i a l d e g r e e ) . "Sake" and "soke" ("sac" and 61 " s o c " ) , t h a t i s , t h e r i g h t of p r i v a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n g r a n t e d by t h e E i n g , does not make i t s appearance i n w r i t t e n l a w u n t i l t h e days of Cnute, but i t i s t h e n w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d . ( I S ) There are good rea s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t developed, e a r l y i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . ( 1 4 ) T h i s g r a n t i n g of p r i v a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n over l a r g e areas was a s s o c i a t e d i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t e r r i t o r i a l i s m and t h e growth of a p o w e r f u l l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y . T e r r i t o r i a l i s m and t h e growth of a dominant a r i s -t o c r a c y were i n c r e a s i n g l y marks of the n i n t h and t e n t h c e n t u r -i e s i n Saxon h i s t o r y . The common freeman was not d i s f r a n c h i s e d or reduced t o serfdom; r a t h e r , he was t h r u s t i n t o the back-ground, r e q u i r e d t o a c t by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s e l e c t e d f o r him. T h i s growth of t e r r i t o r i a l i s m and a r i s t o c r a c y , however, was a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e and d i s t i n c t l y an Anglo-Saxon movement w i t h no v e r y apparent c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e movement toward f e u d a l i s m t h a t was growing apace i n t h e F r a n k i s h S t a t e s . The E n g l i s h codes were at no.time d e f i n i t e about l a n d - r i g h t s . The i d e a of p r o p e r t y and not dominion l a y behind the growth of a r i s t o c r a t i c e s t a t e s i n England.(15) By t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e seemed t o have been t h r e e p r i n c i p a l ways of l a n d - h o l d i n g i n England: by b o o k r i g h t , by f o l k r i g h t , and b y " l a e n " or l o a n . The l a s t of t h e s e , t h e " l a e n " , or " p r a e s t i t u m " , appeared e a r l y i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y . ( 1 6 ) 15. I . Ramsay. . The F o u n d a t i o n s of England, p. 409. 14. S t u b b s . Op. c i t . , p. 119. 15. I b i d . , p. 173. 16. Of. I . Kemble, Codex Dipl o m a t u s , pp. 279, 303, 315; o t h e r r e l i g i o u s houses no doubt f o l l o w e d t h e same proce d u r e . 62 The one r e c e i v i n g the p r o p e r t y gave i n r e t u r n s e r v i c e . The l o a n s r a r e l y eztended over n i n e t y - n i n e ye&xs, or t h r e e gener-a t i o n s , and t h e n r e v e r t e d t o the E i n g or former owner. "Book-l a n d " was t h a t g r a n t e d by c h a r t e r . " F o l k - l a n d " was o r d i n a r y p r i v a t e f r e e h o l d p r o p e r t y , the d i s p o s a l of w h i c h on the death of t h e owner was made by customary f o l k customs. - Of these t h r e e ways of l a n d - h o l d i n g not one c o u l d c r e a t e a permanent l i n k between t h e component p a r t s of any a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p r o -p e r t y such as made the Norman honor i n d i s s o l u b l e , nor bound the h e i r s of any l o r d and thos e of h i s v a s s a l t o each o t h e r t h r o u g h an i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e . The Saxon l a n d h o l d e r bestowed h i s l a n d s at death, not as a dynast, but so as t o complete h i s own l i f e , save h i s own s o u l , and s a t i s f y h i s l o v e f o r those whom he had known i n h i s l i f e t i m e . Thus f e u d a l i s m i n the t r u e t e c h n i c a l sense never developed i n Saxon England. At t h i s s t a g e i t might be w e l l t o attempt t o g i v e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s of England as t h e y e x i s t e d at t h e b e g i n n i n g of the t e n t h c e n t u r y . I n do-i n g t h i s one has t o g e n e r a l i z e and f r e q u e n t l y draw m a t e r i a l from a l a t e r age i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e whole. The l a r g e s t s u b d i v i s i o n s of t h e Anglo-Saxon kingdom, a f t e r t h e supremacy of Wessex was e s t a b l i s h e d , was the s h i r e . The o r i g i n s of thes e seem t o have d i f f e r e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c o u n t r y . Some of them r e p r e s e n t e d the l e s s e r kingdoms which had been absorbed as t h e Anglo-Saxon u n i t y grew; Kent, Sussex, Essex, M i d d l e s e x , and S u r r e y were remnants of l i t t l e kingdoms. 63 Northumbria r e p r e s e n t e d what was l e f t of B e r n i c a a f t e r L o t h i a n had been a c q u i r e d by S c o t l a n d , E a s t A n g l i a of the e a r l y p e r i o d became t h e two s h i r e s of N o r f o l k and S u f f o l k , The West Saxon s h i r e s seem t o have had d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s . Some h i s t o r i a n s e l a i m t h a t these s h i r e s r e p r e s e n t t h e l a n d s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t clan's of t h e West Saxons, w h i l e o t h e r s ( 1 7 ) contend t h a t t h e y owe t h e i r e x i s t e n c e t o d i v i s i o n s , of t h e kingdom among, d i f f e r -ent members of the R o y a l f a m i l y , who, i t would appear, h e l d sub-kingdoms under a c h i e f k i n g . C o r n w a l l r e p r e s e n t e d t h e k i n g -dom of the West Welsh and became p a r t of the 'Wessex kingdom i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y . The m i d l a n d s h i r e s formed out of t h e o l d M e r c i a n k i n g -dom were more a r t i f i c i a l d i v i s i o n s , and d i d not e x i s t . u n t i l l a t e I n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , J u s t how many s h i r e s e x i s t e d and were known by t h e i r modern names at any p e r i o d i n t h i s age i s r a t h e r h a r d d e f i n i t e l y t o a s c e r t a i n . From the Saxon C h r o n i c l e , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d a n t e r i o r t o A l f r e d ' s r e i g n , we h e a r of West-seaxan, Suoseaxan, E a s t s e a x a n , M i d d e l s e a x a n (Wessex, Sussex, Essex, M i d d l e s e x ) , Northanhumbraland, Sbuthhumbraland, Mercna (Northumbria, Southumbrla, M e r c i a ) , Lindesware, S o u t h r i g e , Wiht ( L i n c o l n , S u r r e y , Wight}, H i v i c c a s , W i l s a e t a n , Dornsaetan ( W o r c e s t e r s h i r e , W i l t s h i r e , D o r s e t ) , Sumorsaetan and Centware (Somerset and Kent)» 17. Cf. T. Hodgkin, England from th e E a r l i e s t Times t o t h e Norman. Con-quest, p. 435; Oman, Op. c i t . , pp. 371-75,512-14; Kembie, The Saxons i n England, V o l . I , pp. 72-87; Stubbs, Op, c i t , , pp. 122-51. 64 A f t e r A l f r e d ' s t i m e t h e Saxon C h r o n i c l e adopts th e word " s c i r " and we f i n d t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s mentioned: B e d a n f o r d s c i r ( B e d f o r d s h i r e } , B u c c i n g h a m s c i r ( B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e ) , D e c r a b y s c i r ( D e r b y s h i r e ) , G l e a w a n c e a s t e r s c i r ( G l o u c e s t e r ) , Here f o r d s c i r ( H e r e f o r d s h i r e ) , O x a n f o r d s c i r ( O x f o r d s h i r e ) , D e v o n s c i r (Devon), H a m t u n s c i r ( N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e ) , S o u t h a m t u n s c i r (South-ampton) , L e g e n e a e a s t e r s c i r . ( L a n e a s t e r s h i r e ) , N o r f o l k , , and South f o l k . I n a l l , t h e r e are t w e n t y - s i x such d i v i s i o n s mentioned i n t h e Saxon C h r o n i c l e . ( 1 8 ) Bede, i n h i s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y , mentions th e s h i r e s o n l y i n a g e n e r a l way. A s s e r , i n h i s L i f e of. A l f r e d the  G r e a t , mentions byname B e r k s h i r e , Essex, Kent, S u r r e y , Somer-set., Sussex, L i n c o l n , D o r s e t , Devon, W i l t s h i r e , and Southamp-t o n . (19) , These s h i r e s , t h e l a r g e s t t e r r i t o r i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s of t h e kingdom i n t h e p e r i o d a f t e r t h e , c o n s o l i d a t i o n , each had, t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t l e a s t , i t s " s c i r e gemot" or s h i r e c o u r t . The " s c i r e gemots" no doubt o r i g i n a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o the W itan or g r e a t "gemot" of t h e kingdom, namely, i n t h e p r e h i s -t o r i c f o l k - m o o t s of a l l t h e f o l k . I n i t s e a r l i e s t form, the " s c i r e gemot" c o n s i s t e d of a l l the freemen I n t h e g r e a t e r c l a n group who c a r e d t o a t t e n d . A f t e r t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n took place, t h e "soire-moot" i n t h e o r y r e p r e s e n t e d the freemen of t h e g r e a t -e r community o r s h i r e . However, b y t h e t i m e . o f A l f r e d t h e Great 18. Kemble. Loo. c i t . , pp. 77-80. 19. The s u b d i v i s i o n s of Kent were most i n t e r e s t i n g ; f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n , cf_. J o l l l f f e , F r e - E e u d a l England, c. I , I I , 65 so i t would seem from such documents as e x i s t , the *'eorldorraan" o r " e o r l of the s h i r e " , the " s c i r g e r e f a " , t o g e t h e r w i t h the l e a d i n g men from the v a r i o u s " t u n s " and " v i e s " of the " s c i r " made up the " s c i r g e m o t " . Of c o u r s e , w i t h these, members of the l a i t y s a t the c h i e f churchmen.(20) The e a r l i e r codes g i v e us no p a r t i c u l a r s about the s h i r e c o u r t s . A document of K i n g Edgar's r e i g n s t a t e s t h a t the s h i r e c o u r t s h a l l be h e l d t w i c e a y e a r under t h e p r e s i d e n c y of the "eorldorraan" and b i s h o p . (21) But, d u r i n g t h e y e a r s a f t e r A l f r e d ' s a s c e n s i o n t h e r e a r e f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o the " s c i r -g e r e f a" as t h e l e a d i n g l a y f i g u r e i n t h e s h i r e c o u r t s . J u s t who the " s c i r g e r e f a " was and how h i s o f f i c e came t o be of such Importance w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , and became prominent i n t h e " s c i r g e m o t " a f t e r some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y and c o n s o l i d a t i o n had t a k e n p l a c e under t h e r o y a l house of Wessex. . H i s powers, p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e r e f l e c t e d t h e s t r e n g t h of th e monarchy a f t e r the r i s e of a n o b i l i t y of s e r v i c e and the t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of j u s t i c e had been i n t r o d u c e d . J u s t who had t h e r i g h t t o a t t e n d t h e s h i r e moots i n the n i n t h and t e n t h c e n t u r i e s i s a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n t o answer. I n the e a r l y p e r i o d when k i n s h i p was the bond t h a t h e l d s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r , a l l freemen had the r i g h t t o a t t e n d the s h i r e moot. 20. Of. T. Hodgkin, Op. c i t . , p. 452; Kembie, The Saxons i n England, V o l . I I , pp. 151-81; Stubbs, Op. c i t . , pp. 129, 151; l o l l i f f e , The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l Eng- l a n d , p. 65. 21. T. Hodgkin. Loc. c i t . 66 E x i s t i n g evidence p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t i n t h e days of A l f r e d and a f t e r w a r d s came t o the s h i r e c o u r t s who were summoned hy the K i n g ' s " s c i r g e r e f a " , or t h e "eorldorman", as t h e case might he* L i k e w i s e i t i s most d i f f i c u l t t o get any c l e a r c o n e e n t i o n of t h e procedure and n a t u r e of b u s i n e s s d e a l t w i t h . Most of t h e e x i s t i n g documents t h a t speak of the s h i r e c o u r t s b e l o n g t o t h e r e i g n s of A l f r e d ' s immediate s u c c e s s o r s . " L e t freemen seek t h e 'hundred-gemot' i n such a manner as was a r r a n g e d a f o r e t i m e , and t h r e e t i m e s a y e a r t h e 'burg-gemot' and t w i c e the ' s c i r e -gemot', and l e t the b i s h o p of t h e s h i r e and t h e eorldorman be p r e s e n t , and t h e r e l e t b o t h of them expound God's laws and t h e w o r l d ' s l a w and do j u s -t i c e t o a l l men."(22) From t h e s e words of K i n g Edgar we l e a r n t h a t the s h i r e moots d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s both c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , and, so i t would seem, j u d i c i a l , l e g i s l a t i v e , and m u n i c i p a l , i f such terms might be used t o r e f e r t o the b u s i n e s s b e f o r e an Anglo-Saxon c o u r t i n t h e days of A l f r e d ' s g r e a t - g r a n d s o n . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n o n l y suggests the I d e a ; the dooms quoted are - ' » l a t e r t h a n A l f r e d ' s p e r i o d and c o n d i t i o n s are more advanced than i n the n i n t h or t e n t h c e n t u r i e s . The s h i r e s were d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r s u b d i v i s i o n s c a l l e d "hundreds". The o r i g i n of the "hundred" i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e . The i d e a of a hundred households s u p p l y i n g a hundred w a r r i o r s was v e r y a n c i e n t w i t h t h e T e u t o n i c p e o p l e s ; i t i s a l -22. Edgar's Dooms, I I I (Thorpe, Diplomatarum i n g l i c u m A e v i  Saxoni.oi, p. 202); r e q u o t e d from T. Hodgkin, Op. c i t . , p. 429. 67 l u d e d t o I n the Germania and was p r e v a l e n t i n S c a n d i n a v i a a t the dawn, of r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y . A l t h o u g h n ot d e f i n i t e l y r e f e r r e d t o i n documents the "hundred" e x i s t e d from the s e v e n t h c e n t u r y or e a r l i e r i n c e r t a i n p a r t s . ( I t seems'to have had some n o t i o n of a hundred households s u p p o r t e d from a hundred h i d e s of l a n d . ) K i n g Edgar's codes appear t o be the e a r l i e s t t o s p e c i f i c a l l y speak of the "hundred".(23) I n g e n e r a l t h e o r y , but perhaps not i n r e a l i t y , each of t h e s e "hundreds" had i t s own "hundred-gemot" which a t t e n d e d t o l o c a l j u d i c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u s i n e s s . I n the time of Edmund I a l l t h e freemen i n t h e "hundred" were brought i n t o a system of t i t h i n g s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t s t o t h e " f r a n k p l e d g e " of t h e t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . ( 2 4 ) K i n g Edgar's dooms a r e more d e f i n i t e about t h e "hun-dred" c o u r t s : " T h i s i s t h e arrangement, how men s h a l l h o l d the 'hundred c o u r t ' , F i r s t , a l l the freemen of the 'hundred' s h a l l g a t h e r themselves t o g e t h e r once i n f o u r weeks; and t h a t each man s h a l l do r i g h t t o the r e s t , s e c o n d l y t h e y s h a l l s e t f o r t h t o r i d e a f t e r t h i e v e s . I f the o c c a s i o n a r i s e , l e t a man whose b e a s t s have been s t o l e n , g i v e n o t i c e t o t h e hundred-man and l e t a l l freemen of t h e hundred f a r e f o r t h a f t e r t h e t h i e f . . . l e t them do j u s t i c e on the t h i e f as o r d a i n e d by K i n g Edgar, and hand over the p r i c e t o him who owns t h e a n i m a l and d i v i d e the r e s t of the f i n e , h a l f t o the 'hundred' and h a l f t o t h e k i n g . " ( 2 5 ) 23. Of. H. Chadwick, O r i g i n s of t h e E n g l i s h N a t i o n , p. 244; Oman, Op. c i t . , p. 74; J o l l i f f e , The O o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l England, pp." 116-20, P r e - F e u d a l England (the Hundred i n K e n t ) , p. 121; Stubbs, 0 p . _ o i t . , pp. 104-21; The Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , T o l . I I , p. 570. 24. The " f r a n k p l e d g e " , i n t h e t r u e sense of t h e word, d i d not e x i s t among t h e E n g l i s h i n the pre-Norman p e r i o d . Of. W. M o r r i s , The F r a n k p l e d g e System, pp. 4-6. 25. Edaar's Dooms. I l l , p. 5 (Thorpe, L oc. c i t . ) . 68 These p a r t i c u l a r dooms b e l o n g t o A l f r e d ' s grandson but r e f l e c t some l i g h t on the p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s of A l f r e d ' s r e i g n . B e f o r e p a s s i n g from t h e s u b j e c t of the "hundred' 1 i t s h o u l d be observed t h a t t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n most of the Dan-i s h c o u n t i e s a f t e r A l f r e d ' s t r e a t y w i t h Guthram were known as "wapentakes". The c o u n t i e s i n w h i c h "wapentakes" took t h e p l a c e of "hundreds" were York, L i n c o l n , Nottingham, Derby, L e i c e s t e r , and R u t l a n d ( o f our d a y ) . The "burn" or "burg", i n the sense of a f o r t i f i e d town, f i r s t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n c e r t a i n secondary d i p l o m a t a of t h e l a t e n i n t h c e n t u r y , and i n the next c e n t u r y t h e r e e x i s t e d "burh-gemots", s i m i l a r t o t h e town moots, ?/hich w i l l be c o n s i d -e r e d n e x t . P r a c t i c a l l y the whole p o p u l a t i o n of Anglo-Saxon Eng-l a n d l i v e d i n rude c o t t a g e s , grouped i n e i t h e r compact v i l l a g e s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t or s c a t t e r e d h a m l e t s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t . Each of t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s , o r " w i c s " as t h e y were termed i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r , had I t s own b i t of l o c a l s elf-government i n h e r i t e d from the t i m e s of the c l a n k i n s h i p f o l k - m o o t . Hence, t h e o r e t -i c a l l y , w i t h i n t h e "hundred" were s t i l l s m a l l e r t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s , the " w i c " or " t u n " w i t h t h e i r "tungemot". C o n c e r n i n g t h e s e we know n o t h i n g except t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e y were sup-posed t o e x i s t . The laws of Edgar mention t h e "burgh-gemot" and s p e c i f y t h a t i t s meetings s h o u l d be h e l d t h r e e times a y e a r , but f a i l t o m e n t i o n t h e "tungemot". Ho doubt the moot of t h e town d e c i d e d p u r e l y l o c a l j u d i c i a l m a t t e r s and m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s 69 ( i f such a terra can be a p p l i e d t o the b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t e d by t h e Anglo-Saxon v i l l a g e f a t h e r s p r e s i d e d over by the t:?Tun-g e r e f a " ) . The account j u s t g i v e n i s drawn from a few f a c t s s t a t e d i n the dooms. The p i c t u r e p r e s e n t e d i s not new; i t comes from the w r i t i n g s of the V i c t o r i a n s . From Kembie t o Stubbs, a l l of the h i s t o r i a n s of t h e l a s t c e n t u r y gave a sim-i l a r c l e a r l y drawn account. I n r e a l i t y , i f i t d i d ever e x i s t t hroughout a l l of England the complete - system belongs r a t h e r t o the p e r i o d of A l f r e d ' s s u c c e s s o r s — E d w a r d I , A t h e l s t a n , Edmund I , Edgar and E a d w i g — t h a n t o t h e p e r i o d from Ine t o A l f r e d . The g r e a t v a r i a n c e of f o l k custom among the K e n t i g s , the Gewissas and t h e B b r t h f o l k must have g i v e n r i s e t o many l o c a l d i f f e r e n c -e s . E n g l a n d of t h e e i g h t h , n i n t h , and t e n t h c e n t u r i e s was a p r e t t y d i s o r d e r l y l a n d where i t i s h a r d t o p i c t u r e the p e r f e c t -l y s y s t e m a t i c w o r k i n g of such a c u t - a n d - d r i e d system. L i k e w i s e t h e r i s e of l a r g e e s t a t e s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f " b o c l a n d " and " l a e n l a n d " must s u r e l y have c o m p l i c a t e d t h e whole a f f a i r . (26) : I t i s , however, v e r y c e r t a i n t h a t v i t a l changes were a t work i n t h e p e r i o d from the e i g h t h t o the t e n t h c e n t u r i e s . The t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of a l l r e l a t i o n s of l i f e , b e g i n n i n g I n 26. The problem of t h e h a l f - f r e e , the " l a e t s " , of Kent and the s e r v i l e "theowas" of the West Saxons, i s most c o n t r o v e r s -i a l . Of. Chadwick, S t u d i e s on Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s , . pp. 112, 580. 70 the sphere o f p r i v a t e law and s p r e a d i n g o u t w a r d l y t o a l l i n s t i -t u t i o n s of the f o l k was c o n v e r t i n g t h e o l d e r o r g a n i z a t i o n by k i n d r e d i n t o the m a t r i x of t h e m e d i e v a l t e r r i t o r i a l community. (27) 27. No d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s of t h e K e n t i s h t e r r i -t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has been g i v e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , l o l l i f f e has done much e x c e l l e n t r e s e a r c h work. H i s d i s c o v e r i e s and c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the n a t u r e of K e n t i s h t e r r i t o r i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s a re t o be found i n P r e -•Feudal England, pp. 1-98. A f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of t h e o r i g i n s and n a t u r e of the K e n t i s h s u b d i v i s i o n , the " l a t h e 3 ' , i s t o be found i n the same work, pp. 59-75. The q u e s t i o n of t h e o r i g i n and growth of t h e manor has been i n some measure d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d e d . A l o n g and much i n v o l v e d c o n t r o v e r s y has been waged over t h i s by t h e G-ermanists and Romanists. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the o r i g i n s and growth of the manor, one s h o u l d c o n s u l t t h e works of Seebohm, Y i n o g r a d o f f , L i p s o n , J o l l i f f e , Round, M a i t l a f t d , P o l l o c k , e t c . Book I I , pp. 117-212, of The  Growth of t h e Manor, by Y i n o g r a d o f f , makes the p o s i t i o n of t h e Germanists q u i t e c l e a r . Chapters I , I I , pp. 1-77, V o l . I , of L i p s o n ' s Economic H i s t o r y of England, s t a t e s the problem from b o t h s i d e s . 71 CHAPTER IT. LORDSHIP IN THE PERIOD AFTER THE SETTLEMENT From t h e days of Ine onward the terms w h i c h were used t o i n d i c a t e l o r d s h i p were g r a d u a l l y t a l c i n g on new meanings. The bonds t h a t had bound the o l d T e u t o n i c w a r l o r d t o h i s f o l l o w e r had been v e r y p e r s o n a l and human. Bonds as i t were of t h e l i v -i n g , i n no way b o o k i s h o r l e g a l i s t i c . A f t e r the seventh cen-t u r y one f e e l s t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a l t i e o f . l o r d f o r man g i v e s p l a c e g r a d u a l l y t o a more s t u l t i f i e d l e g a l m a t e r i a l i s m . One senses the growth of something t h a t has f a i n t resemblance t o the f e u d a l system of the F r a n k i s h empire. But t h e r e i s n o t h -i n g i n any of t h e codes u n t i l l o n g a f t e r A l f r e d ' s day t o l e a d one t o say t h a t t h e Anglo-Saxons were moving toward f e u d a l i s m . R a t h e r , from the days of Ine t o A l f r e d , Anglo-Saxon England was as f a r as l o r d s h i p was concerned p a s s i n g t h rough a t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e , an i n d e f i n a b l e s t a t e of l o r d s h i p t h a t l i e s somewhere be-tween the "comatatus" c o n d i t i o n of t h e H e r o i c Age and the f e u d -a l s t a t e of t h e A n g e v i n p e r i o d . As p o i n t e d out i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r t h e r e were dur-i n g t h e e i g h t h , n i n t h and t e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h r e e ways of l a n d -h o l d i n g i n Anglo-Saxon England. The most p r e v a l e n t was t h a t of f o l k - r i g h t ; t h i s was t h e o l d f r e e h o l d system. On the death of t h e p o s s e s s o r of l a n d s i t was passed on t o h i s n a t u r a l h e i r s , 72 t h a t was h i s k i n f o l k i n o r d e r of b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p or as the owner p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l e d i t . F o l k l a n d was thus i n no sense "ager p u b l i c u s " . I t was f o l k l a n d i n t h a t i t u s u a l l y remained i n t h e c o n t r o l of t h e f o l k . ( l ) The second method was by c h a r t -e r . T h i s method had been i n t r o d u c e d by the Church e a r l y i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y and was much used by the olexgj. The p a r t y ob-t a i n i n g t h e l a n d r e c e i v e d a w r i t t e n c h a r t e r t o t h e e f f e c t ; us-u a l l y the K i n g ' s p e r s o n a l consent was o b t a i n e d . Such l a n d was known as "bookland". By t h i s d e v i c e t h e c l e r g y came t o h o l d l a r g e e s t a t e . Lay persons a l s o a c q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e acreages by t h i s same method. The t h i r d method was by " l a e n " o r l o a n . Such g r a n t s were made f o r any term of y e a r s , up t o and i n c l u d i n g n i n e t y - n i n e y e a r s , w i t h none of t h e s e t h r e e methods was t h e r e any f e u d a l oath or ceremony acknowledging c o n t i n u e d h e r e d i t a r y t e n u r e and p r o m i s i n g f a i t h and s e r v i c e i n the t r u e f e u d a l man-ne r . The o m i s s i o n of t h e f o u r words, " i n feodo et h a e r e d i t a t e " , from the f o r m u l a r y of a l l Anglo-Saxon l a n d laws i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e the movement was toward c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r i n many ways t o f e u d a l i s m , f e u d a l t e n u r e i n the t r u e t e c h n i c a l sense never developed u n t i l t h e Norman p e r i o d . Great l a n d e d e s t a t e s r o s e and passed away i n a s i n g l e g e n e r a t i o n i n Saxon England because of t h e a b i l i t y of t h e i n d i -v i d u a l t o w i l l them as he saw f i t . The e s t a t e s of t h e Church alone passed on unbroken from one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r . 1. Cf. F. P o l l o c k , The Land Laws, pp. 19-55. 73 I t i s a l l but f a l l a c y t o t r y t o a s c e r t a i n the degree of c o n t r o l p ossessed by the Saxon l a n d l o r d of t h i s p e r i o d oyer t h e " c e o r l s " who t i l l e d t h e s o i l on t h e s e g r e a t e r e s t a t e s . To attempt, l i k e w i s e , t o s t a t e the v a r i o u s degrees of freedom i n terms o f our c o n c e p t i o n o f freedom p o s s e s s e d by the n c e o r l i s h H p o p u l a t i o n t o be found on these e s t a t e s d u r i n g the n i n t h and t e n t h c e n t u r i e s would be d i f f i c u l t . We hear much about t h e s e g r e a t l o r d s but when one t r i e s t o p i e r c e below the s t r a t u m of such s u b s t a n t i a l l o r d s , I t I s a l l but i m p o s s i b l e t o get much a c t u a l f a c t , f o r , beneath the u n i f o r m i t y of f o l k r i g h t , book-r i g h t , and " l a e n " t h e r e were as many systems as t h e r e were s t i l l many Englands. Each of t h e o l d kingdoms m a i n t a i n e d I t s own " c e o r l i s h " customs and l a w s . One t h i n g , however, seems f a i r l y c l e a r : l o r d s h i p over peasants s e t t l e d upon l a n d of a l o r d had by the t e n t h cen-t u r y some q u a l i t y w h i c h made i t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from l o r d s h i p i n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t . The name and i n s t i t u t i o n of t h e manor was l a c k i n g but g r e a t e s t a t e s were i n e x i s t e n c e and the customary l a w was coming t o r e c o g n i z e the l a r g e e s t a t e as something o u t s i d e or a p a r t from th e o r d i n a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n of customary f o l k r i g h t . (B') 2. P o l l o c k . Pp.. c i t . , pp. 18-52; J . E a r l e , A Handbook of Land  C h a r t e r s and Other S a x o n i c Documents, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p p . x i i i -c x i ; W. M o r r i s , The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England t o  1216, c. I l l - V I . Other a u t h o r i t i e s a r e : F. M a i t l a n d , Domesday Book and Beyond, pp. 24-26, 55-60, 242-50, e t c . ; P. V i n o g r a d o f f , E n g l i s h S o c i e t y i n t h e E l e v e n t h Century, pp. 28-38, e t c . , H. Cam, E r a n c i a and England, pp. 110-20, e t c . ; H. Adams, Essays i n Anglo-Saxon Lay/, pp. 33-55; E. 74 From the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d the " c e o r l " of t h e Gewissas seems t o have been I n some measure l e s s a freeman t h a n t h e " c e o r l " of t h e E e n t i n g s and N o r t h e r n f o i k . As time went by, t h e West Saxon commoner became more and more a man'with a l o r d . By t h e t ime of A l f r e d t h e " c e o r l " o f ?/essex c o u l d be g i v e n no h i g l i e r s t a t u s t h a n t h a t of a D a n i s h freeman when a.common s t a n d -a r d was sought on w h i c h t o e v a l u a t e b o t h Dane and E n g l i s h . ( 3 ) C e r t a i n d l p l o m a t a coming f r o m t h e M i d l a n d s of a p e r i o d s l i g h t -l y l a t e r r e v e a l s t h a t a l a r g e p a r t of t h e " c e o r l s " were w i t h -out l a n d s and h e l d t h e f i e l d s from -which t h e y d e r i v e d t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e by t i e s t h a t were v e r y much l i k e t h o s e of f e u d a l -i s m . ^ ) C o n t i n u i t y o f l o r d s h i p and commendation from genera-t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n was most common, w i t h t h e peasants t h r o u g h t h e M i d l a n d s f r o m I n e ' s day on; i t no doubt tended t o harden i n t o o b l i g a t i o n ; f e a l i t y t a k e n g e n e r a t i o n by g e n e r a t i o n became a r u l e . . I n t h e M i d l a n d s and West t h i s movement toward manor-i a l e s t a t e s was most marked(5) but f r e e v i l l a g e s c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e r u l e i n E a s t A n g l i a and Kent down t o the time o f the Domesday S u r v e y . ( 6 ) However, t o the v e r y . e n d of t h e p e r i o d .Stenton, Documents of S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y o f the Dane Law, pp. I x l - l x i i i , The F i r s t C e n t u r y of E n g l i s h Feud-. alism,. pp. 12-15; G. Adams, American H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . V I I , pp. 11-35; Y i n o g r a d o f f , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review", V o l . •..•'..•..-villi pp. 1-17. .•; . - •:• 3. . G f v A l f r e d ' s and Guthrum's Peace.' 4v M o r r i s . Op. c i t . , c. I I I . 5. M a i t l a n d . . Op. c i t . ' , pp. 169-72, 6. Idem, " '-. ., - . 75 t h e r e remained some f r e e v i l l a g e s i n Wessex. I t must he under-s t o o d t h a t from t h e Anglo-Saxon Conquest onward t h e r e were at a l l t i mes a p a r t of t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t was i n more o r l e s s s e r v i t u d e . But, d e s p i t e Seebohm's arguments t o t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t throughout the whole Saxon p e r i o d t h e ' m a j o r i t y of t h e t i l l e r s of the s o i l , the " o e o r l s " , were l e g a l l y f r e e . ( 7 ) From the time of Ine onward t h e r e had e x i s t -ed a c l a s s of l a n d l e s s " c e o r l s " i n Wessex. The law of t h e West Saxons by A l f r e d ' s t i m e came t o assume t h a t the l a n d l e s s man had a l o r d . ( 8 ) I n t h e p e r i o d from Ine t o A l f r e d t h e c h i e f nobleman of t h e kingdom was s t y l e d an "eorldorman". The t i t l e i t s e l f was most a n c i e n t ; at one t i m e t h e t e r m had s i g n i f i e d one of t h e "most d e a r l y b o r n " of t h o s e "more d e a r l y b o r n " and had been more or l e s s synonymous w i t h t h e t i t l e " c y n i n g " — a t i t l e borne o n l y by t h o s e whose a n c e s t r y e n t i t l e d them t o t h e p r i v -i l e g e s of r o y a l t y . However, w i t h t h e p a s s i n g of n o b i l i t y of b i r t h , t h e t i t l e of "eorldorman" came t o be borne by many men of s e r v i l e o r i g i n s who owed t h e i r h i g h p o s i t i o n t o a b i l i t y and k i n g l y f a v o r . The "eorldorman" of t h e e i g h t h and n i n t h c e n t u r -i e s was more a n o b l e of sword and o f f i c e t h a n a p a t r i a r c h a l c l a n l e a d e r . T r a d i t i o n a l l y the "eorldorman" was head of t h e s h i r e . T h i s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e i n many cases and e s p e c i a l l y i n Ine's time 7. A e t h e l r e d ' s Dooms, pp. 3,1,7,etc. C f . T i n o g r a d o f f , Growth of t h e Manor, pp. 214-16. -8. Idem. 76 and b e f o r e , because the s h i r e as an u n i f o r m s u b d i v i s i o n prob-a b l y d i d not e x i s t u n t i l the n i n t h c e n t u r y . ( 9 ) I n a g e n e r a l way, b e f o r e 850 A.D., or t h e r e a b o u t s , any noble v e s t e d w i t h the h i g h e s t d i g n i t y might be s t y l e d an "eorldorman". The s p e c i f i c meaning of t h e word, as i n d i c a t i n g t h e c h i e f n o b l e i n a s h i r e , d i d ' n o t appear u n t i l the time o f A l f r e d . ( 1 0 ) T r a d i t i o n a l l y the "eorldorman" as head of t h e s h i r e had the r i g h t t o p r e s i d e ov-er a l l s h i r e c o u r t s , t o a t t e n d the n a t i o n a l Witan and t o l e a d the s h i r e " f y r d " I n b a t t l e . To a s c e r t a i n what t h e r e a l powers of the "eorldormen" were a t any s t a t e d time i s h a r d t o do. As i n the case of t h e K i n g , t h e "eorldorman's" powers depended on h i s own a b i l i t i e s , w e a l t h and g e n e r a l p r e s t i g e as w e l l as the p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e d i s t r i c t over w h i c h he r u l e d a t any s p e c i f i c t ime. I n t h e o r y h i s c o n t r o l " was a t no time ab-s o l u t e . D u r i n g the e a r l i e r c e n t u r i e s t h e powers of t h e f r e e -man by customary f o l k r i g h t were s u f f i c i e n t t o put some r e s t r i c -t i o n s on t h e "eorldorman"; w i t h t h e d e c l i n e of the " c e o r l ' s " independence i n the times of t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a -t i o n , came t h e r i s e of t h e powers of the K i n g ' s " r e e v e " and the b i s h o p . Some of t h e "eorldormen" seem t o have been r e a l l y k i n g s i n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r i e s , m e r e l y r e c o g n i z i n g the, g e n e r a l and r a t h e r vague l o r d s h i p of the M e r c i a n or Wessex p r i n c e t h a t c l a i m e d t h e " B r e t w a l d s h i p " . Others were v e r y much r e s t r i c t e d and dependent upon the w i l l of t h e c e n t r a l monarch and h i s o f -9. Of. L. L a r s o n . The K i n g ' s Household b e f o r e t h e Norman ' Con- q u e s t , pp. 105-6. 10. I b i d . , p. 108. 77 f i c i a l s . F o r example, i n the y e a r 780 A.D. we l e a r n from the Saxon C h r o n i c l e t h a t t h e " c y n i n g ' s g e r e f a " , a i d e d by t h e f r e e -men, burned B e r n , t h e "eorldorraan" of Northumbria, t o death a t the s t a k e a t S i l t o n because he was g u i l t y of t y r a n n y and op-p r e s s i o n . ( 11) A f t e r A l f r e d ' s time t h e powers of the " e o r l d o r -man"' became more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and more c l o s e l y r e s t r i c t e d by t h e presence of a s p e c i a l o f f i c i a l of the c e n t r a l government, the " s h i r e r e e v e " or " s c i r g e r e f a " . A l f r e d ' s dooms make i t c l e a r t h a t t h e "eorldorman" p o s s e s s e d f u l l powers of h o l d i n g p l e a and p r o c e e d i n g t o execu-t i o n I n b o t h c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a t t e r s . ( 1 2 ) The laws of Edgar s t a t e t h a t t w i c e a year i n the s h i r e moot, the " e o r l -dorman", t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b i s h o p , s h o u l d hear a l l c i v i l , c r i m -i n a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c a ses.(15) The laws of A l f r e d s p e c i f y t h a t i f an " c e o r l " w i s h e d t o l e a v e one l o r d and seek another, he must do so w i t h t h e consent of the "eorldorraan" of h i s s h i r e . (14) Ine d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e "eorldorman" who i s p r i v y t o the escape of a t h i e f s h a l l f o r f e i t h i s s h i r e u n l e s s he can o b t a i n the K i n g ' s pardon.(15) T h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e "eorldorman" p o s s e s s e d t h e power t o i n t e r v e n e i n a l l d i s p u t e s between th e c l e r g y and t h e l a i t y . ( 1 6 ) 11. Saxon C h r o n i c l e — t h e y e a r 780 A.D. 12. C f , <J. Kembie, The Saxons i n England, V o l . I , p. 137. 13. Edgar's Dooms, r e q u o t e d here from Kembie, Op. c i t . , p. 157. 14. A l f r e d ' s Dooms, p. 37. 15. Ine's Dooms, p. 36. 16. Cf. Kembie, Op. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 156. 78 We have s e v e r a l r e c o r d s of the "eorldorman" e x e r c i s i n g such pow-e r s . The "eorldorman" was the l e a d e r of the s h i r e " f y r d " i n time of b a t t l e . There a r e e n d l e s s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s i n the Saxon C h r o n i c l e . (17) The "eorldorman" was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c a r r y i n g out of a l l t h e laws i n h i s s h i r e ; t h i s i s made c l e a r i n one of Edgar's dooms.(18) He was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n of j u s t i c e a g a i n s t t h o s e who had been found g u i l t y i n t h e law c o u r t s . ( 1 9 ) I t appears from A l f r e d ' s dooms t h a t the "eorldorman" was the a u t h o r i t y t o whom a l l the freemen s h o u l d a p p l y f o r r e d r e s s of p r i v a t e wrongs when the p a r t y i n j u r e d was not s t r o n g enough t o b r i n g t h e e v i l doer t o j u s t i c e . ( S O ) The problem of how much t e r r i t o r y was i n c l u d e d i n an "eoridom" i n the days of K i n g A l f r e d i s most d i f f i c u l t t o an-swer. The answer can b e s t be o b t a i n e d by s t a t i n g how many "eorldormen" t h e r e were I n Anglo-Saxon England i n A l f r e d ' s time, or soon a f t e r . I t ?jould seem the number of "eorldormen's" s i g -n a t u r e s on c h a r t e r s i n the r e i g n s a f t e r A l f r e d were as f o l l o w s : Edward I , f o u r t e e n ; At h e i s t an's, t h i r t y ; Eadred's, t e n ; Edmund's, t e n ; A t h e l r e d I I , t e n . I t appears t h a t the number v a r i e d ; s i x t o t e n was the u s u a l number(21} a f t e r A l f r e d ' s t i m e , b u t i n the 17. 0 i \ _ Saxon C h r o n i c l e , 837, 838, 845, 903, 851, 853 A.D. 18. Gf. Edgar's Dooms, V o l . IV, p. 15. 19. Idem. 20. A l f r e d ' s Dooms, pp. 42-43. 21. H. Chadwick. S t u d i e s dn Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s , pp.187-95. 79 time "before t h a t i t i s q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e the number be-cause i n the days of Ine and down t o A l f r e d t he term was tised i n t he d i p l o m a t a t o i n d i c a t e any o u t s t a n d i n g man or one of b l o o d k i n s h i p w i t h t h e k i n g l y f a m i l y i n the v a r i o u s t r i b a l kingdoms.(ES) Not o n l y was the l i f e of the "eorldorman" guarded by a v e r y h i g h "wergeld" but t h e d i g n i t y of h i s p e r s o n and f a m i l y were p r o t e c t e d by s p e c i a l c l a u s e s of the Saxon codes. To draw a T/eapon b e f o r e an "eorldorman" w i t h t h e i n t e n t of doing b o d i l y harm i n c u r r e d a p e n a l t y of 100 s h i l l i n g s i n t h e codes of Ine and A l f r e d . To v e r b a l l y i n s u l t an "eorldorman" at a "f o l k m o o t " c o s t t h e Wessex commoner 120 s h i l l i n g s . A f t e r t h e Danish I n v a s i o n s t h e t i t l e of "eorldorman" f e l l i n t o d i s u s e ; t h e new t i t l e of " e a r l " r e p l a c e d the o l d e r one. T h i s was no doubt a r e s u l t of t h e co m b i n a t i o n o f the term "eorldorman" w i t h i t s Danish e q u i v a l e n t " j a r l " . The " e a r l s " of Ornate's day r u l e d over v a s t r e g i o n s ; i n a l l Gnute had o n l y about f o u r o r f i v e noblemen whom he s t y l e d " e a r l s " . ( 2 3 ) The commonest n o b l e of t h e l a t e r h a l f of t h e Saxon Age was t h e "thegn". I n the s o c i a l s c a l e he ranked,below the "eorldorman". I n t h e e i g h t h , n i n t h and t e n t h c e n t u r i e s one hears of K i n g ' s thegns, queen's thegns, earldormen's thegns, a r c h b i s h o p ' s thegns, thegn's thegns, d i s c - t h e g n s , h a l l thegns, 22. Idem. 23. C f . G. Oman, En g l a n d b e f o r e the Norman Conquest, p. 454; and, f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the n a t u r e of t h e s e terms, c f . Kembie, Op. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 149; T. Hodgkin, Eng-l a n d from t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o 1Q66, p. 434. 80 h a l l t h e g ns, b u r - t h e g n s , horse thegns, bedchamber thegns, Welsh thegns, m i d d l i n g thegns, and thegns-born. I t was a t i t l e c l a i m e d by some of most a n c i e n t l i n e a g e and o t h e r s of " c o e r l i s h " parentage. From the f r e q u e n t use o f the p o s s e s s i v e form one would be l e d t o d e c i d e t h a t i t d e s i g n a t e d a n o b l e of s e r v i c e who owed s p e c i a l a l l e g i a n c e t o some s u p e r i o r l o r d . Turner, more t h a n a c e n t u r y ago, s t a t e d t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l t o a "thegn" t h a t he s h o u l d p o s s e s s l a n d . ( 2 4 ) Lappenburg and Kembie were of t h e same o p i n i o n . P a l g r a v e , Freeman, Ramsay and Thrupp d i d not s t a t e d e f i n i t e l y what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be the essen-t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of "thegnhood". Stubbs s t a t e d t h a t , " . . . t h e c e o r l who a c q u i r e d f i v e h i d e s of l a n d and had a s p e c i a l appointment i n t h e K i n g ' s h a l l w i t h o t h e r j u d i c i a l r i g h t s became thegn-worthy; h i s oath, p r o t e c t i o n and w e r g e l d were t h o s e of a thegn."(25) Hodgkin d e f i n e d the "thegn" as one i n s o c i e t y who stood above the " c e o r l " and was i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e "twelfhydeman" of the Wessex codes,(26) and was t h e l i n e a l s u c c e s s o r t o the " g e s i t h " of the p e r i o d o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t . L a r s o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e "ge-s i t h s " of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d e v e n t u a l l y l o s t t h e i r m i l i t a r y c h a r a c t e r and became a l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y ; t h e i r p l a c e was t a k -en by t h e "thegns" who c l o s e l y resembled t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s I n o r i g i n and h i s t o r y . ( 2 7 ) J o l l i f f e d e f i n e s the "thegn" more c l e a r l y : 24. 3. Turner. H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxon K i n g s , p. 316. J . Lappenbarg. H i s t o r y of England under the Saxon K i n g s , 25. W .Stubbs. The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Enj2qajid.,Vol.I,p.l75. 26. T. Hodgkin. Op. c i t . . g, 228. 27. L a r s o n . Op. o i T . . p. 8b. 81 "The t i t l e of t h e g n was a p p l i e d t o any o f -f i c i a l of h i g h s t a n d i n g , hut e s p e c i a l l y t o the 'min-i s t r i ' "below t h e rank of eorldorman and i n c o n s t a n t and a c t i v e s e r v i c e , and above a l l t o those i n immed-i a t e a t t e n d a n c e upon t h e K i n g . . . .Thegnage meant no more t h a n s e r v i c e , ' m i n i s t e r i u m ' . From t h e n i n t h t o the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y i t was t h e normal e x p e d i e n t f o r g e t t i n g done any work of e x p l o i t a t i o n or a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n w h i c h c o u l d not be done c o n v e n i e n t l y l e f t t o ' r e e v e s , or f o r d i s c h a r g i n g such p u b l i c d u t i e s as , c o u l d be done by d e p u t i e s . So, j u s t as t h e k i n g ' s 'thegns made them s e l v e s u s e f u l about h i s p e r s o n o r seconded the r e e v e s of t h e s h i r e s and boroughs, so ev e r y g r e a t e s t a t e and e v e r y p r i v a t e f r a n c h i s e had i t s t hegns."(28) I t appears t o have been customary t o d e s i g n a t e any l a n d h o l d e r w i t h an e s t a t e of f i v e h i d e s o r more a "thegn". The common c l a s s of "thegns" a f t e r A l f r e d ' s time were h o l d e r s of land e d e s t a t e s but not n e c e s s a r i l y h o l d e r s of g r e a t o f f i c e s i n the K i n g ' s s e r v i c e . Those e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s e r v i c e of t h e K i n g were d e s i g n a t e d w i t h some s p e c i a l t i t l e as " d i s c - t h e g n " ( c h i e f b u t l e r ) . The t i t l e of "thegn" was never l e g a l l y h e r i t -a b l e , but n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e h i g h e r and w e a l t h i e r "thegns" were on t h e i r way t o e s t a b l i s h themselves as a lan d e d a r i s t o c r a c y i n t he l a t e r Saxon Age. They were b u i l d i n g themselves e s t a t e s upon t h e K i n g ' s g e n e r o s i t y , and t h e i r v a l u e i n l o c a l government made the Crown anxious t o f o r t i f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , l i m i t i n g t h e i r n e c e s s a r y attendance a t c o u r t t o once i n t h r e e months and l e a v i n g them f r e e t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s at o t h e r 28. J". J o l l i f f e . The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l Eng- l a n d , p. 93. 82 t i m e s . ( 2 9 ) The l a n d s o b t a i n e d by t h e s e "thegns" as a reward f o r s e r v i c e were g r a n t e d as f r e e p r o p e r t y by " b o o k r i g h t " or " l a e n " . ( 3 0 ) The "thegns" tended t o become the c o u n t r y g e n t r y , the county s q u i r e s of t h e i r age and day, w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r e s t s o f -t e n "in c o u r t a f f a i r s a l t h o u g h many c o n t i n u e d t o be summoned t o the Wit an. as t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s on t h e dooms of the E i n g and Wit a: show. I n t h e a f f a i r s of t h e " t u n " , "hundred" and " s h i r e " t h e y p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e . The "thegn's we r g e l d s " v a r y i n the codes o f the Ge-w i s s a s , K e n t i n g s , M e r c i a n s . a n d Northumbrians, but the compara-t i v e v a l u e s have something of an u n i f o r m i t y ; a l l the "thegn" c l a s s s t a n d above th e " c e o r l " but beloxv the "eorldorman"; those t h a t are termed " c y n i n g ' s thegns" have a h i g h e r "wer-gel.d" t h a n a l l the o t h e r s d e s i g n a t e d by the t i t l e of "thegn". A f t e r the times of A l f r e d the term " l a n d h o l d e r " and "thegn" became almost synonymous i n meaning. The o l d grades of t h e f o l k were f o r g o t t e n . The new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was " t h e g -en" and "theoden", j u s t as i t once had been " e o r l " and " c e o r l " . W i th t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n and r i s e of the k i n g l y o f f i c e t o p o s i t i o n of more t h a n m e r e l y t r i b a l c h i e f t a i n s h i p , o t h e r new 29. A s s e r . De Rebus . G e s t i s , p. 101. ( I n t r i b u s nam que c o h o r t I -bus p r a e f a t i r e g i s s a t e l l i t e s p r u d e n t i s s i m e d i v i d e b a n t u r , i t a u t cohors uno niense i n c u r t o r e g i e d i e noctuque ad-m i n i s t r a n s commoraretur, mensque f i n i t i o et a d v e n i e n t e a l i a c o h o r t e , prima domum r e d i b a t . ) 50. Of. B i r c h de Gray. O a r t u l a r i u m , p. 750. 83 l o r d s of o f f i c e made t h e i r appearance. The most g e n e r a l name f o r the K i n g ' s " r e e v e s " or c i v i l s e r v a n t s was t h a t o f " g e r e f a " , o r , as i t i s w r i t t e n I n t h e documents, " g e r o e f a " . The term, " g e r e f a " , seems t o mean " s h e r i f f " or "deputy"; i t was expressed i n L a t i n as " p r a e f e c t u s " o r " p r a e f e c t u s r e g u s " , o c c a s i o n a l l y as " m i n i s t e r " and r a r e l y as " l e g a t u s " and " p r o c o n s u l " . ( 5 1 ) The p e c u l i a r f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l comprehended under the t i t l e " g e r e f a " were f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by the p r e f i x compounded w i t h i t , as " c y n i n g ' s g e r e f a " , " s c i r g e r e f a " , " t u n g e r e f a " , and " p o r t g e r e f a " . At a v e r y e a r l y p e r i o d i t seems t h a t the "heah-gere-f a " , o r " c h i e f r e e v e " , was i n charge of t h e K i n g ' s immediate household, a k i n d of a "major domus". However, the E n g l i s h o f -f i c i a l of t h i s name never r o s e t o any p o s i t i o n of importance as t h e M e r o v i n g i a n o f f i c e r d i d ; o n l y once i s i t r e c o r d e d t h a t the " heah-gerefa" assumed t h e l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e kingdom; dur-i n g t h e i n f a n c y of Osred of N o r t h u m b r i a ( c i r c a 705 A.D.) t h e "heah-gerefa" assumed r e g a l power f o r f o u r or f i v e y e a r s ( c i r -ca 705-710 A.D.)(32) and might have c o n t i n u e d i n power but he was s l a i n by the P i c t s . A f t e r the p e r i o d of t h e T r i a r c h y the " g e r e f a " became d i s t i n c t l y a s p e c i a l f i s c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , j u d i c i a l and ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r of t h e Crown. He owed h i s p o s i t i o n and 31. C f . Kembie, Op. c i t . , p. 151; Lappenburg, Op. c i t . , p . 5 2 8 ; F. P a l g r a v e , B r i t i s h Commonwealth, V o l . I , p. 99; L a r s o n , .Op. C i t . . , P . 1 ' 0 ' B ~ ~ 7." , „ i -r -v-y-TTr 32. Cf. Bede. The E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y , Book v, c. JULLV. 84 powers t o t h e K i n g a l o n e ; he was t h e K i n g ' s ears and eyes, as i t were; th e K i n g ' s i n t e r e s t s were the " c y n i n g ' s g e r e f a ' s " i n -t e r e s t s . B e s i d e s t h e s e " g e r e f a s " of s u p e r i o r grades and i n the s e r v i c e of t h e K i n g , t h e r e were " g e r e f a s " of i n f e r i o r r a n k s . I n fact', i t seems t h a t each "eorldorman", a r c h b i s h o p , bishop, and "thegn" might have s e v e r a l k i n d s of " g e r e f a s " , who r e p r e s e n t e d him on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s or had charge of some p a r t i c u l a r es-t a t e . The more i m p o r t a n t of the " g e r e f a s " a c q u i r e d e s t a t e s ; we hear of " g e r e f a - l a n d s " . I t appears t h a t w h i l e i n o f f i c e the " g e r e f a s " seldom h e l d e s t a t e s but on r e t i r i n g r e c e i v e d such g r a n t s . (There i s r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t t h a t c e r t a i n of the "gere-f a s " on a c q u i r i n g l a n d s came t o be s t y l e d "thegns".) However, i n no sense was the " g e r e f a s " a l a n d e d or h e r e d i t a r y c l a s s ; t h e y wexe d i s t i n c t l y o f f i c i a l s i n someone's s e r v i c e , d i g n i -f i e d s e r v a n t s as i t were, many of whom came from obscure o r i g i n s . The " s c i r g e r e f a " was, as h i s t i t l e s u g g e s t s , t h e s p e c i a l agent of t h e c e n t r a l government s t a t i o n e d i n t h e s h i r e to l o o k a f t e r t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e c e n t r a l government. The "eorldorman" might be a descendant of t h e former r o y a l f a m i l y of one of t h e o l d t r i b a l kingdoms o r a r e l a t i v e of t h e r e i g n -i n g f a m i l y ; h i s p o s i t i o n depended i n p a r t on the o l d h e r e d i t -a r y k i n s h i p s ' r i g h t s , but the " s c i r g e r e f a " was m e r e l y an ap-p o i n t e d o f f i c e r who might be removed at any. time or t r a n s f e r r e d elsewhere. Some h i s t o r i a n s have contended t h a t the " s c i r g e r e -f a " was a t one time e l e c t e d by- the freemen i n moot; however, by 8 5 the time we come t o hear of t h i s o f f i c i a l , he I s v e r y much an o f f i c e r of t h e Crown. I t was t h e d u t y of the " s c i r g e r e f a " t o a d m i n i s t e r j u s t i c e , t o c a r r y out t h e e x e c u t i o n of the l a w and act as t h e c h i e f f i s c a l o f f i c e r i n t h e s h i r e . He l e v i e d and c o l l e c t e d a l l t a x e s c l a i m e d by the c e n t r a l government. At a l l times he s e r v e d as a k i n d of a check and spy on t h e powers and conduct of t h e "eorldorman". Each of t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s of t h e s h i r e s had " g e r e f a s " of s i m i l a r powers and d u t i e s but on l e s s e x t e n s i v e grounds. Thus t h e r e were " t u n g e r e f a s " , " p o r t g e r e -f as",- " w i c g e r e f a s " , and "Wealgerefas" or "Welsh r e e v e s " . The " g e r e f a s " as o f f i c i a l s appeared f i r s t i n t h e seventh c e n t u r y , r o s e t o t h e i r g r e a t e s t importance i n t h e y e a r s between A l f r e d ' s r e i g n and t h e a s c e n s i o n of A t h e l r e d t h e Un-ready. D u r i n g -the days of Cnute, " e o r l s " came t o be a l l - p o w e r -f u l and the " g e r e f a s " l i n g e r e d on as mere s h e r i f f s . Any s u r v e y of Anglo-Saxon p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s y s -tems c a l l s f o r a t l e a s t some p a s s i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e p l a c e of the Church and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n any p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d . The C o n v e r s i o n was t h e most i m p o r t -ant event i n Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y from t h e Saxon S e t t l e m e n t t o the Horman Conquest. A f t e r t h e time of t h e coming o f S t . Augustine t h e r e were always around the K i n g , b i s h o p s and c l e r g y who were b e t t e r educated t h a n t h e K i n g o r h i s n o b l e s . The c l e r g y , as a group, p o s s e s s e d a share i n t h e l e g a l h e r i t a g e of Rome, and knew something of c o n t i n e n t a l methods i n govern-ments. Having a c c e s s t h r o u g h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o t h e accumulat-86 ed l e a r n i n g of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n w o r l d , t h e y o c c u p i e d a p o s i -t i o n from which t h e y c o u l d dominate th e K i n g and h i s l a y min-i s t e r s . P o s s e s s e d of a monopoly of t h e a r t of w r i t i n g t h e y c o u l d i n t r o d u c e l e g a l p r a c t i c e s from Rome. The c l o s e p a r t n e r s h i p between monarch and c l e r g y w hich had been formed i n t h e f i r s t days of t h e C o n v e r s i o n was never f o r any e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d d i s s o l v e d . Both monarch and c l e r g y o b v i o u s l y had much t o g a i n from t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p . The c l e r g y needed t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e K i n g and t h e K i n g needed educated a d v i s o r s . A l s o the i n f l u e n c e of t h e c l e r g y r a i s e d the monarchy and t h e whole o r d e r of n o b i l i t y t o a new d i g n i t y . H i t h e r t o , i n the rough-and-tumble of T e u t o n i c heathenism, the power of the K i n g and a l l the n o b i l i t y had r e s t e d p a r t l y on f o l k custom and p a r t l y on f o r c e . But a f t e r the C o n v e r s i o n the Church crowned t h e K i n g w i t h a diadem and d e c l a r e d him and a l l the n o b i l i t y t o be t h e L o r d ' s a n o i n t e d ones, a g a i n s t whom t o r i s e up i n r e v o l t was the most hideous of s i n s . The esteem i n w h i c h the c l e r g y were h e l d i s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e s o c i a l s c a l e , as d e f i n e d i n the " w e r g e l d s " a f t e r the C o n v e r s i o n . The c l e r g y stand i n a l l codes next t o t h e K i n g . Even the p r o p e r t y of t h e c l e r g y was guarded by a n i n e - , t e n - , or t w e l v e - f o l d compensation; one t h a t i n most cases s u r p a s s e d t h a t of the K i n g ' s own. The upper c l e r g y , t h r o u g h t h e i r g r a d u a l a c q u i s i t i o n of e s t a t e s i n t r o d u c e d f a r - r e a c h i n g changes i n t o t h e l e n d h o l d i n g system. P r i m a r i l y as has b e e n . p r e v i o u s l y shown a l l t h e l a n d s 87 w i t h r a r e e x c e p t i o n were h e l d by " f o l k r i g h t " , b u t the c l e r g y as newcomers soon found a way t o po s s e s s a share i n the l a n d s . As p r e v i o u s l y shown, t h e y i n t r o d u c e d "landbooks", t h a t i s , c h a r t -ers by which w i t h t h e f o r m a l consent of the K i n g and h i s Wit an the o l d " f o l k r i g h t " c o u l d be o v e r r i d d e n . By t h i s means t h e Church g r a d u a l l y came t o be t h e h o l d e r of t h e l a r g e s t and most numerous e s t a t e s i n a l l Anglo-Saxon England. D u r i n g the f i r s t c e n t u r y a f t e r the C o n v e r s i o n the Church showed g r e a t z e a l f o r o r d e r , p r o g r e s s and l e a r n i n g ; the c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d produced Aldhelm, Bede, S t . B o n i -f a c e , S t . C u t h b e r t , and A l c u i n — t h e most i l l u s t r i o u s names i n a l l Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h a t of A l f r e d the G r e a t . On t h e p o l i t i c a l and b u s i n e s s s i d e , the work of Theodore of Tarsus and h i s a d v i s o r , t h e s c h o l a r l y H a d r i a n , s e t an example o f system, e f f i c i e n c y and o r d e r , such as the Saxons had never b e f o r e dreamed o f . When A r c h b i s h o p Theodore d i e d i n 699 A.D., t h e Church of England, r u l e d from C a n t e r b u r y , rose w i t h massive grandeur over the t r i b a l kingdoms. The c e n t u r y a f t e r Theodore and Bede saw a g e n e r a l de-g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e E n g l i s h c h u r c h . The d e c l i n e came i n p a r t from i n t e r n a l r o t t e n n e s s and, i n p a r t , from t h e e x t e r n a l blows of t h e Y i k i n g s . Under A l f r e d t h e Great a Renaissance i n the Saxon chu r c h r e s t o r e d some of i t s v i g o r of t h e age of Bede and B o n i f a c e . I t would seem t h a t at t h e time of t h e C o n v e r s i o n , Pope Gregory had v e r y d e f i n i t e p l a n s f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of 88 the Church i n B r i t a i n . ( 5 3 ) There were t o he two m e t r o p o l i t a n s , each w i t h t w e l v e s u f f r a g a n b i s h o p s , one of the a r c h b i s h o p s t o have h i s s e a t i n the South and one t o have h i s I n t h e N o r t h . But t h e n a t u r e of t h e C o n v e r s i o n p r e v e n t e d t h i s from b e i n g c a r -r i e d out and not u n t i l a f t e r the C o u n c i l of Whitby was t h e r e a d e f i n i t e scheme attempted, and t h e n l i t t l e was done as t h e f i r s t c l e r g y were by n e c e s s i t y i t i n e r a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s . Under Theodore, two a r c h b i s h o p r i c s were e s t a b l i s h e d . By 900 A.D. t h e r e were twenty b i s h o p r i c s i n England.(34) As y e a r s went by the Church became the c h i e f l a n d -h o l d e r i n a l l England. The r e a l c l i m a x of t h e power of the c l e r g y was not reached u n t i l a g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r A l f r e d ' s t i m e , the age of the g r e a t Church magnate, Dunstan.(35) "Indeed, f o r n e a r l y f o r t y y e a r s a f t e r Ed-r e d ' s death i n 955, the h i s t o r y of England i s no l o n g e r t h a t of i t s k i n g s and n o b l e s , but of a g r e a t churchman, Dunstan, who f o r c e d a change of the g r e a t -e s t moment upon the n a t i o n and h a v i n g been t r u s t e d s e r v a n t of one k i n g , d e p r i v e d a second of h a l f h i s dominions, e s t a b l i s h e d a t h i r d on the t h r o n e and moulded the c h a r a c t e r of t h a t s o v e r e i g n and h i s suc-c e s s o r ."(36) Dunstan was the g r e a t e s t of a l l the c l e r i c a l n o b l e s , but l e s s e r ones r u l e d v a s t e s t a t e s and w i e l d e d g r e a t i n f l u e n c e , 53. Cf. Kembie, Op. c i t . , V o l . I l l , p. 561. Kembie t e l l s us w i t h o u t q u o t i n g h i s s o u r c e s . 54. Cf_. B. Thorpe, Cod. D i p l . No. 1024; Kembie, Op. c i t . , - V o l . 11, p. 362. 35. 0f_. <j. P e a r s o n , The H i s t o r y of England d u r i n g the E a r l y  and M i d d l e Ages, V o l . I , pp. 75-220. 36. I b i d . , p. 95. 89 b o t h s p i r i t u a l and t e m p o r a l from t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y onward. Mon-a s t i c e s t a t e s r i v a l l e d t h o s e of the most p o w e r f u l n o b l e s ; i n -deed the g r e a t e s t l a n d h o l d e r i n a l l England w i t h o u t e x c e p t i n g t h e K i n g h i m s e l f by the time of A l f r e d ' s grandson was the Church. I t was the f i n e abbeys and r i c h m onastic e s t a b l i s h -ments t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y f i r e d t h e p a s s i o n s of the p l u n d e r i n g Danes when'they a s s a u l t e d England. Any d i s c u s s i o n of Anglo-Saxon n o b i l i t y i n the p e r i o d a f t e r t h e appearance of t h e T r i a r c h y must c o n t a i n some mention of t h e n a t u r e , powers and c o m p o s i t i o n of the F i t a n , the "gemot" of t h e n o b l e s , b o t h l a y and s p i r i t u a l . D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , m u c h — c e r t a i n l y t o o much—was w r i t t e n about t h e powers and f u n c t i o n of t h e Witanagemot. Sharon Turner, w r i t i n g under the s p e l l of- t h e Romantic " Z e i t g e i s t " , p i c t u r e d the Witan t h u s : "The Anglo-Saxon Witanagemot or p a r l i a m e n t was a w i s e and p a r e n t a l l a w g i v e r ; not bound i n the c h a i n s of an o b s o l e t e a n t i q u i t y , but always p r e s i d -i n g w i t h n a t u r i n g c a r e ; always l i v i n g , f e e l i n g and a c t i n g w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n and c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the day, and p r o v i d i n g such r e g u l a t i o n s . , e i t h e r by a l -t e r n a t i o n of former laws, or by a d d i t i o n s of new ones, as the v i c i s s i t u d e s , wants and sen t i m e n t s of c o - e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y i n i t s v a r i o u s c l a s s e s found t o be c o n t i n u a l l y n e e d i n g sometimes l e g i s l a t i n g f o r t h e b e n e f i t of t h e r i c h , o r g r e a t , o r t h e c l e r g y , o r _ t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , or the commercial c l a s s e s , sometimes f o r t h e m i d d l i n g and lower c l a s s e s , and sometimes f o r a l l . " ( 5 ? ) Such a p i c t u r e was a c r e a t i o n of Turner's mind work-i n g under t h e s p e l l of Rousseau. Kemble, Stubbs, Freeman--in 37. Turner. Op. c i t . , v o l . I I , p. 289. 90 f a c t a l l t h e V i c t o r i a n s — f a i l e d t o r i d t h e i r minds of t h i s i d e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e . F o l k r i g h t made the common lav/ c o u r t s f o l k m o o t s , hut the f u n c t i o n of judgment o f t e n f e l l t o men of r e p u t a t i o n who were " s e n i o r e s " o r " w i t a n " , as b e i n g w i se i n law. The p o p u l a r p r i n c i p l e i n t h e moots was s a t i s f i e d e i t h e r when t h e y embodied the f o l k d i r e c t l y o r by d e l e g a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n t o t h o s e who were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e l e g a l wisdom of the community and t h i s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the judgments and p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s of a n a t i o n t o be made by a few of i t s w i s e men i n c o u n c i l of the f o l k , b u t i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e n ever was extended t o the Witan. From t h e days of A e t h e l b e r t of Kent t o t h e t i m e . o f H a r o l d Godwinson, the Wit a n was an assembly of n o b l e s . ( 3 8 ) At t h i s p o i n t i t would be q u i t e i n o r d e r t o c o n s i d -e r t h e e x i s t i n g documents and t h e o p i n i o n s of a l l t h o s e who have s t u d i e d t h i s I n s t i t u t i o n w i t h the v i e w of a r r i v i n g a t some d e f i n i t e c o n c e p t i o n s as t o ; 1. who :of t h e n o b l e s s a t i n the Witan, 2, when and how t h e s e n o b l e s were convened, and, 3. t h e a c t u a l powers of t h e n o b l e s convened under t h e name of the Witan. 38. F o r d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e n a t u r e of the Witan t h a t show the v a r i o u s c o n c e p t i o n s h e l d c o n c e r n i n g i t throughout the Ro-man t i c and V i c t o r i a n Ages and down t o the p r e s e n t , o f . Turner, Op. c i t . , V o l . I I , Book 8; the e n t i r e s u b d i v i s i o n i s g i v e n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e "Witan. A l s o c f . Kembie, Op. o i t . , pp. 182-261; Stu b b s , Op. c i t . , pp. 153-57; J . Ramsay, The F o u n d a t i o n s of England, V o l . I , p. 162; Pear-son, Op. c i t . , pp. 265-78; Oman, Pp.. o i t . , pp. 367-69; T. Hodgkin, Op. c i t . , pp. 252,267,301,519,556,452,455,465; R. Hodgkin. The H i s t o r y of t h e Anglo-Saxons,pp.208,211,270, 276,606; M o r r i s . QpToit..,pp.56-59 , 57-59,72-74; J o l l i f f e, . O P . c i t . . pp. 25-29. One of the most e x h a u s t i v e accounts i s , F. Liebermann, The N a t i o n a l Assembly i n the Anglo-Saxon Period. 91 I n the documents, the Witan has many v e r n a c u l a r and L a t i n a p p e l l a t i o n s . The commonest i s "Witan-gemot" (assembly of t h e w i s e ) , " E a g l a r a e d g i f a n " ( c o u n c i l g i v e r s ) , " l a d i a g r a geheahtendic ymcyme" (th e i l l u s t r i o u s assembly of t h e w e a l t h y ) , "myeel synod" ( g r e a t a s s e m b l y ) , "maiores n a t u " (senate or e l d -ers)*, e t c . The f r e q u e n t use of the terms "synodus" and "con-c i l i u m " shows t h a t t h e Anglo-Saxons d i d not d i s c e r n c l e a r l y between t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u n c i l s of C h r i s t i a n c o u n t r i e s and the n a t i o n a l assembly co n v e n i n g t o d e a l w i t h s e c u l a r m a t t e r s . I n f a c t , t h e v e r y vagueness of t h e numerous t i t l e s g i v e n t o the body suggest t h a t I t s n a t u r e was i n d e f i n i t e and the r e l a t i o n s of Church and s t a t e were so i n t e r w o v e n t h a t no c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e between a synod of the' c l e r g y and a "gemot" of the n o b l e s e x i s t e d . ( 5 9 ) The a c t u a l members, as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the c o l l e c -t i v e body, are d e s i g n a t e d as " s a p e i n t e s " , " p r i n c i p e s " , "sena-t o r e s " , " p r i m a t e s " , and " p r o c r a t o r i e s " . One need not be moved by t h e s e h i g h - s o u n d i n g t i t l e s ; t h e L a t i n t e r m i n o l o g y was g r e a t -er i n i t s i n f l u e n c e on the w r i t e r s of t h e documents th a n Roman l e g a l p r a c t i c e s were on t h e men of the age. The documents a r e f o l l o w e d by many c r o s s e s , i n d i c a t -i n g t h e s i g n a t u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l members. These c r o s s e s are u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d by t h e t i t l e s of t h e member d e s i g n a t e d by the marks. By c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a number of thes e documents i t 39. Liebermann. Op. c i t . , p. 12. 92 i s p o s s i b l e t o form some i d e a s o f the p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l s c a l e of t h e n o b l e s who were members of the ¥itan.(40) A c h a r t e r of A e t h e l b a l d of M e r o i a , f o r 736 A.D., i s s i g n e d by t h e K i n g , two a r c h b i s h o p s , two "c o m i t e s " , a "dux", an "abbas", and by s i x p e r s o n s w i t h o u t note of rank. A c h a r t e r of O f f a of M e r c i a , f o r t h e ye a r 794 A.D., i s s i g n e d by t h e K i n g , an " a t h e l i n g " , two a r c h b i s h o p s , f o u r b i s h o p s , an "abbas" and s i x "dux".(41) Another c h a r t e r of O f f a of M e r c i a i s s i g n e d by t h e K i n g , the' queen, an a r c h b i s h o p , t h r e e b i s h o p s , f i v e abbots, Wo " p r i n c i p e s " , one "dux", one " p r e f e c t " and by e i g h t w i t h o u t t i t l e s . A c h a r t e r of A e t h e l r e d I I s ex p r e s s e d t o be made w i t h the consent of t h e K i n g ' s " o p t i m a t e s " and " f i d e l e s " and i s s i g n e d by t h e K i n g , two a r c h b i s h o p s , s i x b i s h o p s , f o u r "duces", s i x abbots, t e n " m i n i s t r i " and two persons w i t h o u t name.(42) A c h a r t e r of A e t h e l w u l f of Wessex of a much e a r l i e r p e r i o d i s s i g n e d by the K i n g , an a r c h b i s h o p , two "duces" and t w e n t y - t h r e e -without t i t l e s . I t I s f u r t h e r endorsed s e p a r a t e -l y by two "abbas", seven " p r e s b y t e r s " , s i x deacons and t h r e e vd.thout t i t l e s . A c h a r t e r made j u s t a t the time of A l f r e d ' s death i s s i g n e d by t h e K i n g , an a r c h b i s h o p , f o u r b i s h o p s , the K i n g ' s b r o t h e r , two " a t h e l i n g s " , f i v e "dux", f o u r " p r e s b y t e r s " , e i g h -t e e n " m i n i s t r i " , and by t h r e e persons w i t h o u t t i t l e s . 40. M35. C o t t i i , p. 3; K. 30; B . I , 7. O f . E a r l e , O p . c i t . , p . 2 9 . 41. Heming 54; K.164. Of. E a r l e , O P . c i t . , pp. 63-64. 42. Thorpe. Diplomatarum Anglicum A e v i S a x o n i o i , p. 39. 93 From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e s e and many more such docu-ments i t would seem t h a t t h e Witan membership f a l l s I n t o f o u r g e n e r a l c l a s s e s : 1. Members of the R o y a l f a m i l y . 2. A r c h b i s h o p s , b i s h o p s and o t h e r prominent c l e r g y . 3. "Eorldormen" and " e o r l s " . 4. The most prominent of t h e K i n g ' s "thegns" ( o r " g e s i t h s " i n t h e e a r l i e s t c e n t u r i e s ) and " g e r e f a s " , t h a t i s , " m i n i s t r i " . I t would appear t h a t t h e Witan was assembled by the K i n g ' s w r i t . Numerous passages i n t h e d i p l o m a t a a f f i r m t h i s ; f o r example, "The K i n g sent a f t e r a l l h i s Witan and bade them come t o G l o u c e s t e r t o convene w i t h him a l i t t l e a f t e r E a s t e r . " (43) I n one IMS. f o r the year 993 A.D., A e t h e l r e d I I s a y s : " I o r d e r e d the Witan t o meet at Winton on t h e day of P e n t e c o s t . " (44) Another document of the time of A l f r e d ' s grandson says, "...on a p a s c h a l s o l e m n i t y a l l the g r e a t of the l a i t y and c l e r g y met i n Witan c o u n c i l on the-summons of t h e K i n g " . ( 4 5 ) -The t i m e s a t wh i c h the meetings of the Witan were h e l d appear t o have been most f r e q u e n t l y the g r e a t f e s t i v a l s of t h e Church, as C h r i s t m a s , E a s t e r , and W h i t s u n t i d e ; and, of t h e s e , i f one can judge by i t s b e i n g most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned, E a s t e r was the more u s u a l p e r i o d . But meetings were not by any means con-43. Saxon C h r o n i c l e . 44. MM3. Chaud. c. 9, p. 122. 45. Gale's S c r i p t , p. 395. 94. f i n e d t o t h e s e seasons; t h e m i d d l e of L e n t , J u l y , August, Sep-tember, and October are a l l mentioned i n the Saxon C h r o n i c l e . One fragment of an a n c i e n t l a w book s t a t e s : " A l f r e d caused t h e ' s e n i o r e s ' t o meet and o r d a i n e d f o r p e r p e t u a l usage t h a t t w i c e a year or o f t e n e r t h e y s h o u l d assemble t o speak t h e i r minds."(46) The p l a c e of the meetings was, not f i x e d . A f t e r the time of Egbert of Wessex t h e W i t a n of t h e c o n s o l i d a t e d kingdom u s u a l l y convened a t Galne, London, K i n g s t o n , W i l t o n , Winton, C l o v e s h o , O xford, G l o u c e s t e r , Wantage, W i n c h e s t e r and E x e t e r . The p l a c e o f m e e t i n g depended on the K i n g ' s r e s i d e n c e and con-v e n i e n c e .( 47 } As t o t h e method of summoning, l i t t l e i s .known; no R o y a l l e t t e r s of summons have come down from t h e e n t i r e age. Liebermann, t h e g r e a t e s t a u t h o r i t y on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u -t i o n , b e l i e v e d t h a t messengers w i t h o r a l mandates summoned the members to the "gemots" of the Witan.(48) Kemble found one hundred s i x t o be t h e l a r g e s t number of s i g n a t u r e s on,any of t h e Saxon documents r e l a t i n g t o b i l l s s i g n e d by Witan. members. On a c a r e f u l c h e c k i n g of t h e s e , how-ever, one f i n d s t h a t Dip. Doc. Kos. 219 and 220 i n Kemble's Codex D i p l o m a t i o u s A e v i S a x o n i c i are s i g n e d by one hundred twenty-one p e r s o n s . However, some of the b e s t a u t h o r i t i e s ! 4 9 ) 46. M i r r o r . Requoted here from Turner, Op. c i t . , p. 308. 47. Of. Liebermann, Op. c i t . , pp. 48-49. 48. I b i d . , p. 50. 49. I b i d . , p. 42. 95 c o n s i d e r t h a t a l l the s i g n a t u r e s on the s e documents do not r e p r e s e n t t h e names of persons who were a c t u a l l y members of the Witan i t s e l f . O p i n i o n of the b e s t a u t h o r i t i e s s e t the member-s h i p f rom t h i r t y t o one hundred i n t h e p e r i o d a f t e r the Con-s o l i d a t i o n . The a c t u a l powers of t h e Witan a r e d e b a t a b l e . Opin-i o n s of the b e s t a u t h o r i t i e s have v a r i e d g r e a t l y . "To l o o k t o the needs of God's Church and the r i g h t k e e p i n g of monastic r u l e , and t o t a k e c o u n c i l f o r the s t a b i l i t y of the s e c u l a r s t a t e " , I s t h e account o f i t s own purpose by t h e Wit a n h e l d at Glovesho i n 8S5 A.D.; and, as a means t o t h a t end, I t s e t out t o i n q u i r e "what men had been m a i n t a i n e d i n j u s t i c e and e q u i t y , and who had been d e f a u l t e d by v i o l e n c e and i n j u s t i c e or d e s p o i l e d " . ( 5 0 ) E v i d e n c e f o r such c a r e i s p l e n t i f u l from the r e i g n of A l f r e d ' s son, Edward, onward t o the death of the C o n f e s s o r , but t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n the d i p l o m a t a b e f o r e A l f r e d t o a i d one i n d e c i d i n g j u s t what the f u n c t i o n s of the Crown, and th o s e of t h e Wit a n were. There i s a p r e v a i l i n g c o n f u s i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of t h e Crown and t h o s e of the Witan. ('51) Theo-r e t i c a l l y t h e W i t a n and t h e E i n g had the same f u n c t i o n t o ap-p l y an unchanging f o l k custom; b o t h bore the pers o n of the rac e and were p a r t s of the same e n t i r e l y . Kemble attempted t o r e -duce the w i t a n * s powers t o a system, c l e a r and d e f i n i t e ; such was q u i t e out of the q u e s t i o n . H i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s s t a t e d 50. B i r c h . Op. c i t . , p. 384. 51. Kemble. Op. c i t . , pp. 204-27. 96 below (one i s warned t h a t i n t r u t h I t has l i t t l e v a l u e ) : 1. F i r s t , and i n g e n e r a l , t h e y possessed a c o n s u l t a t i v e v o i c e , and t h e r i g h t t o c o n s i d e r every p u b l i c a c t , which would be a u t h o r i z e d by the K i n g . 2 . The Wit a n d e l i b e r a t e d upon the making of new laws w h i c h were t o be added t o t h e e x i s t i n g " f o l k r i g h t " , and which, were t h e n promulgated by t h e i r own and the K i n g ' s a u t h o r i t y . 3. -The Wit a n had the power of making a l l i a n c e s and t r e a t -i e s of peace, and i n c o u n c i l w i t h t h e K i n g , of s e t t l i n g t h e terms. 4. The Y f i t a n had t h e power of e l e c t i n g the K i n g . 5. The W i t a n had t h e power of d i s p o s i n g t h e K i n g . 6. The. W i t a n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e K i n g , had t h e power t o a p p o i n t p r e l a t e s t o vacant s e a t s . 7 . The Witan and t h e K i n g t o g e t h e r had the power t o r e g u -l a t e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a t t e r s , a p p o i n t f a s t s and f e s t i v a l s , and de c i d e upon t h e l e v y and e x p e n d i t u r e of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l revenues. 8 . The K i n g and t h e Witan had t h e power t o l e v y t a x e s f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . 9. The ICing and the Wit a n had power t o r a i s e l a n d and sea f o r c e s when t h e o c c a s i o n a r o s e . 10. -The Witan p o s s e s s e d t h e power of recommending, a s s e n t -i n g t o , and g u a r a n t e e i n g g r a n t s of l a n d s , and p e r m i t t i n g t h e c o n v e r s i o n of " f o l k l a n d " i n t o "bookland" and v i c e v e r s a . 11. The Witan p o s s e s s e d the power of a d j u d i n g the l a n d s of o f f e n d e r s and i n t e s t a t i s t o be f o r f e i t e d t o the K i n g . 97 12. L a s t l y , the Witan acted, as a supreme c o u r t of j u s -t i c e , "both i n c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a t t e r s . Kembie goes on t o c i t e s p e c i f i c cases t o support each of the above quoted s t a t e m e n t s . To c l a s s i f y d e f i n i t e l y t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e Witan at any s p e d i f i c p e r i o d i n t h e Saxon Age i s about i m p o s s i b l e . Moreover t o d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e any p a r t i c u l a r powers of the Witan b e f o r e t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y i s f a l l a c y . To say, f o r example, w i t h o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e Witan c o u l d e l e c t and d i s p o s e k i n g s would be t o i g n o r e t h e changing v a l u e s of terms. We have seen what power i n h e r i t e d p l a c e i n the b l o o d - g r a d e s of t h e f o l k had t o determine s t a t u s and r i g h t . The p o t e n t i a l i t y of k i n g s h i p i n h e r e d i n the h i g h e s t k i n of a l l , t h e "cynecynn" ( t h e k i n most r o y a l ) , and was t r a n s -m i t t e d t o a l l i t s members t o g e t h e r w i t h the " a e t h e l i n g ' s " "wer" and o t h e r marks o f pre-eminence. From the ''cynecynn" (the . k i n g l y b l o o d and k i n d ) the c h o i c e of the K i n g must be made, f o r I t o n l y was deemed t o be r o y a l . Thus i n t h i s , as i n a l l f u n c t i o n s , the powers of the- Witan were hemmed i n by customary law. An unchanging f o l k custom was supreme over b o t h K i n g and Witan. The K i n g and t h e 'Witan as r e l a t e d p a r t s of t h e e n t i r e t y , the g r e a t e r f o l k group extended beyond a l l remembrance of a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , were the sources of the g r e a t e r l e g a l wisdom of the f o l k . At no t i m e , and s u r e l y not b e f o r e t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , was t h e f u n c t i o n s of the K i n g and W i t a n c o n s i d e r e d as s e p a r a t e i n any sense. The K i n g c o n s u l t e d the Witan because t h a t was the a g e - o l d custom of the f o l k and because i t was good p o l i c y t o have t h e w i l l i n g s u p port of t h e c h i e f n o b l e s , be t h e y war-r i o r of the b l o o d most d i r e c t from the g r e a t common a n c e s t o r or n o b l e s of o f f i c e and w e a l t h . I n t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d t h e Witan was of t h e n a t u r e of a t r i b a l moot of the " n a i o r e s n a t u " or " p r i n c i p e s " or " s e n i o r e s " of the f o l k ; i n the l a t e r p e r i o d , i t was something of a t e r r i t o r i a l , q u a s i - f e u d a l c o u n c i l i n w h i c h "reeves" and "thegns" s a t w i t h "eorldormen" and b i s h o p s . As t h e customs of t h e f o l k changed, so the n a t u r e of the Witan changed. 99 CHAPTER I I I . PROBLEMS OF THE KINGSHIP TO THE DEATH OF ALFRED THE GREAT Except i n Kent where F r a n k i s h p r e c e d e n t s were a v a i l -a b l e and i n Northumbria where C e l t i c i n f l u e n c e s were borrowed, the r e s o u r c e s of t h e Anglo-Saxon k i n g s h i p may be t r a c e d i n p r o -cess of e v o l u t i o n from v e r y s i m p l e b e g i n n i n g s . Ideas w h i c h form the background of e a r l y E n g l i s h thought about k i n g s h i p may be found elsewhere i n t h e common T e u t o n i c and Norse t r a d i -t i o n . The l a w w i t h t h e s e e a r l y Germanic peo p l e d i d not i n t h e b e g i n n i n g come from t h e K i n g . He was no monarch po s s e s s e d of s u b j e c t s as our p r e s e n t day understands them. N e i t h e r was he an o v e r l o r d w i t h v a s s a l s as the f e u d a l age c o n c e i v e d of v a s s a l -age. However, the k i n g s h i p was a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h t h e Germanic i n v a d e r s l o n g b e f o r e 449 A.D., and h e l d the c e n t e r of t h e stage i n a l l t h e communities e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t a i n , The K i n g ' s most e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y t o t h e f o l k as a whole was something more s u b t l e than e x e c u t i v e po?fer. I n a l l ages and c o u n t r i e s the K i n g i s I n a measure r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . There are t i m e s when th e f o l k must t h i n k as one, f e e l as one, and f i n d i s s u e f o r i t s common emotion i n s y m b o l i c a c t . At such a t i m e the K i n g i s t h e supreme i n d i v i d u a l of the r a c e , i n c a r n -a t i n g i t s w i l l i n t i t u a l a c t , g i v i n g t o i t s i d e a l the coherence 100 and endurance of p e r s o n a l i t y . Through t h e K i n g the f o l k thought and a c t e d as a u n i t e d whole. J u s t w i t h i n the shadow a t which t h e r e c o r d s f a i l s t a nd t h e o l d T e u t o n i c o r Aryan s a c r i f i c i a l K i n g ( l ) as t h e v o t a r y of th e f o l k , t h e descendant of the gods and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l t h e b l o o d k i n d r e d . True, the m a g i c a l element of t h e k i n g -s h i p was s l o w l y e x o r c i s e d by C h r i s t i a n i t y , but the K i n g r e -mained the f o c u s of emotions which were f u n d a m e n t a l l y pagan, and i n h i s p e r s o n t h e p r o p e r v i r t u e s of a b a r b a r i c f o l k were seen t o be e x e m p l i f i e d and ennobled. I n t h i s a l s o the K i n g was t h e t y p e of h i s p e o p l e t h a t he drew t o a head t h e w a r - l i k e prowess i n w h i c h the r a c e f e l t i t s e l f t o l i v e most k e e n l y . Courage was l e s s a q u a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l K i n g t h a n a f u n c -t i o n of the Crown, and i t s w e a l t h was a t r u s t f o r the endow-ment of t h e war.(2) The K i n g was the " g o l d - g i v e r " , ( 3 ) the r e s o u r c e of h e r o e s , ( 4 ) t h e p a t r o n and l o r d of g r e a t w a r r i o r s . ( 5 ) 1. Of. F. Gummere, Germanic O r i g i n s , pp. 270, 292; W. Hearn, The A r y a n Household, pp. 126-27; H. T r a i l , S o c i a l England ( A r t i c l e by 0. Edwards, S o c i a l L i f e and Manners of the E a r l y Germans), p. 100. 2. C f . I . J o l l i f f e . The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of.-Medieval  England, p. 42. 3. Beowulf, P a r t X V I I , l i n e 1170: "Spake t h e n t h e Lady of the S c y l d i n g s : R e c e i v e t h i s beaker, s o v e r e i g n mine, w e a l t h d i s p e n s e r 1 " ( E a r l e T s T r a n s l a t i o n . ) 4. I b i d . , P a r t XV, l i n e 1047: "So m a n f u l l y d i d the i l l u s t r i -ous c h i e f t a i n , t h e hoard-warden of he r o e s , reward b a t t l e -r i s k s w i t h h o r s e s and t r e a s u r e s . " 5. I b i d . , P a r t X X V I I , l i n e 1960: "Forasmuch as O f f a was, t h e spear-keen k i n g , f o r g r a c e s and w a r - f e a t s w i d e l y c e l e b r a t -ed; w i t h wisdom he r u l e d h i s a n c e s t r a l home; whence Eomaer was b o r n f o r p e o p l e ' s a i d , kinsman of Heming, grandson of Garmund, and s k i l l f u l campaigner." 101 The c o n t r a s t between t h e pagan and C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s of k i n g s h i l e a d t o much f l u c t u a t i o n of conduct and f o r t u n e w i t h the "cyn-Ing s " i n t h e age of the C o n v e r s i o n . " F o r t h e weak t h e s t r u g g l e was t o o g r e a t . Under an a p o s t a t e k i n g t h e gods were e s t r a n g e d , e v e r y man's v i r t u e was a f f r o n t e d , and t h e v e r y course of n a t u r e t u r n e d back. Many gave up t h e s t r u g g l e and became C h r i s t i a n monies, or v a n i s h e d on p i l g r i m a g e s . Some were k i l l e d but t h e i r sub-j e c t s , l i k e S i g e b e r t of t h e E a s t Saxons whom h i s k i n d r e d s l e w 'because he f o r g a v e h i s enemies'. As c o n v e r s i o n became r e a l , t h e o l d r e l i g i o u s and r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e q u a l i t y was C h r i s t i a n i z e d , and remained a p r i n c i p a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of k i n g s h i p . " ( 6 } A l c u i n , w r i t i n g at the end of t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y , c o u l d say, "... i n t h e k i n g ' s r i g h t e o u s n e s s i s t h e common we a l , v i c t o r y i n war, m i l d n e s s of t h e seasons, abundance of c r o p s , freedom from p e s t i l e n c e . I t i s f o r t h e k i n g t o stone w i t h God f o r h i s whole p e o p l e " . ( 7 ) C h r i s t i a n i t y e v e n t u a l l y r a i s e d t h e k i n g s h i p t o a p o s i t i o n of new d i g n i t y and opened the way f o r a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h -the C h r i s t i a n p r i n c e s of t h e Franks as w e l l as the whole f i e l d of M e d i t e r r a n e a n c u l t u r e . On the whole, however, the f i r s t e f -f e c t s of C h r i s t i a n i t y was t o i m p o v e r i s h t h e p r e s t i g e of t h e t r i b a l k i n g s o f the O c t a r c h y and Heptarchy, and i t was some time 6. l o l l i f f e . Op. c i t . , p. 43. 7. A l c u i n . L e t t e r t o K i n g A e t h e l b e r t , A.D. 795, Requoted here from l o l l i f f e , Op. c i t . , p. 45; a l s o quoted i n R. Chambers, England b e f o r e t h e Norman Conquest, and, i n S. Turner, H i s -t o r y of t h e Anglo-Saxons, V o l . I I , Book V I I I , Chapter I I I . . 102 b e f o r e the new l u s t r e of C h r i s t i a n i t y and the new r e l i g i o u s r e -l a t i o n s h i p between K i n g and p e o p l e began t o be f e l t . I n t h e n o r t h w e s t , c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e C e l t i c B r i t i s h p e o p l e s seems t o have d i r e c t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e k i n g l y power. K i n g s h i p was a more d e s p o t i c a l l y developed i n s t i t u -t i o n * w i t h t h e C e l t i c t r i b e s . The t r i b a l k i n g s h i p i n Northum-b r i a showed t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s . L i k e w i s e the age of S e t t l e m e n t of a new r a c e i n a r i c h , new l a n d i s a p e r i o d of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e more e n e r g e t i c and a g g r e s s i v e t o accumulate f o r them-s e l v e s w e a l t h , power, and f a m i l y p r e s t i g e . The descendants of E l l a , H e n g i s t , O f f a , and a l l t h e i r k i n d seem t o have been men of e x c e p t i o n a l nervous and p h y s i c a l v i g o r . The opportun-i t y t o b u i l d up a d y n a s t y of i n c r e a s i n g power and w e a l t h was much b e t t e r i n South B r i t a i n t h a n i t had been i n N o r t h Germany. The a c c u m u l a t i o n of w e a l t h i n a b e t t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n a i d -ed t h e k i n g s h i p t o d e v e l o p a l o n g c e r t a i n l i n e s as i n Wessex and Kent, l i k e w i s e . I n Kent the c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h F r a n k i s h Gaul i n f l u e n c e d t h e development of k i n g s h i p i n p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n s , j u s t as t h e C e l t i c i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t a f f e c t e d the growth of the same i n s t i t u t i o n among Northumbrian and S t r a t h c l y d e peo-p l e s . To be K i n g w i t h t h e e a r l y E n g l i s h , as has been p o i n t e d out, was t o embody r a c i a l p r i d e and r e l i g i o n , t o l e a d the k i n -f o l k i n war and t o b e a r t h e p e r s o n of the g r e a t e r k i n - g r o u p i n times of peace. But, i n t r u t h , t h e e a r l y K i n g s of t h e Heptarchy were but f i r s t of the f o l k who.reproduced upon a h i g h e r l e v e l 105 the s t a t u s of t h e n o b l e . H i s f a m i l y had the h i g h e s t s t a n d i n g of a l l t h o s e deemed nobl e and he as the head of the "cynecyn" had a "raund" and "wer" a t a h i g h e r r a t e t h a n any o t h e r of t h o s e "more d e a r l y b o r n " . The common f o l k sought t h e K i n g ' s p r o t e c t i o n because h i s "mund" was more c o s t l y t o break t h a n t h a t ' o f any o t h e r n o b l e . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e K i n g and a l l t h e n o b i l i t y . I t was no p a r t i c u l a r s i n t o murder t h e K i n g ; r a t h e r , i t was t h e most c o s t l y of k i l l i n g s . The K i n g , l i k e a l l t h e f o l k , had h i s p r i c e i n t h e "wergeld" t a r i f f s . But h i s l i f e was v a l u e d much h i g h e r than t h a t of any o t h e r n o b l e . The law was not the K i n g ' s law, but t h e f o l k s ' — f o l k r i g h t . I t was p r i m a r i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i s t r i c t f o l k -moots where the freemen and " b e t t e r b o r n " of t h e f o l k were the judges. The K i n g had no power t o deem dooms; o n l y as the nob-l e s t of t h e n o b l e was h i s o p i n i o n s r e v e r e n c e d . Crimes of v i o -l e n c e were no c r i m e s a g a i n s t t h e K i n g . To k i l l a man was an a c t of p r i v a t e wrong. Punishment was i n t h e hand of h i s k i n t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e b l o o d f e u d or compensation. The K i n g ' s p a r t was t o p r o t e c t t h o s e who had sought h i s "mund" and t o f o l l o w up the b r e a c h of f o l k r i g h t when t h e k i n d r e d f a i l e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r l e g a l revenge, and t o put down v i o l e n c e when i t became t o o s t r o n g f o r t h e k i n d r e d and l a t e r the neighborhood t o r e s i s t . I t was an e x t r a - j u d i c i a r y a u t h o r -i t y . "As w i t h t h e o t h e r Germanic p e o p l e , t h e r e was a money payment f o r t h e K i n g t o t a k e , the ' w i t e ' but i t was i n s i g n i f i c a n t b e s i d e t h e 'hot' or compen-104 s a t I o n f o r b l o o d , and I t s o r i g i n was p r o b a b l y not p e n a l , N e i t h e r i n t h e o r y nor i n p r a c t i c e d i d the K i n g p u n i s h . The peace, a g a i n , was not the K i n g ' s , D u r i n g t h e i r s e s s i o n t h e c o u r t la3?" under t h e i r own peace, ' m e t h e l - f r i t h ' or ' m o o t - f r i t h ' , and t h i s i s as near as we get t o any p u b l i c peace i n e a r l y Eng-l a n d . The c o u n t r y was f u l l of l e g a l s a n c t u a r i e s , but t h e y were the p r e s e r v e s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . The K i n g ' s peace was l i k e o t h e r men's. I t l a y upon h i s p a l a c e ; i t was over h i s h o u s e h o l d , he c o u l d ex-t e n d i t t o h i s f r i e n d s , s e r v a n t s , and messengers."(8) A man p r o t e c t e d by t h e K i n g ' s "mund" was i n t h e K i n g ' s "hand-g r i t h " and i t was a c o s t l y a f f a i r t o m o l e s t such a one. " I n l a t e r days t h e K i n g ' s 'mund' was ex-tended by a n a l o g y and f i c t i o n , but i n the f i r s t age i t was w h o l l y p r i v a t e and c o n f i n e d t o i t s avowed purpose. Even t h i s p e r s o n a l peace e x t i n g u i s h e d when th e K i n g e n t e r e d a s u b j e c t house. The g u e s t , K i n g , though he be, came under h i s h o s t ' s 'mund', and the r e l a t i o n of s u b j e c t t o s o v e r e i g n was r e v e r s e d . " ( 9 ) I n such b e g i n n i n g s do we f i n d what the Grown w i l l come t o be. The K i n g i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d was but t h e s t r o n g e s t of t h e k i n . H i s household of " g e s i t h ' s " was a n a t u r a l r a l l y i n g p o i n t f o r the "more d e a r l y b o r n " and t h e s t r o n g e s t w a r r i o r s . ( 1 0 l "He was t h e spokesman of h i s p e o p l e , though he spoke w i t h and from among the n o t a b l e s , who em-b o d i e d t h e wisdom of t h e f o l k , and vrere termed the 'Witan'. C r i s e s of war and peace, t h e r e c e p t i o n of t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , the c h o i c e between S c o t t i s h and Roman communions t u r n e d l a r g e l y on h i s word. Eorce 8. l o l l i f f e . Op. c i t . , p. 45. 9. I b i d . , p. 47. 10. L. L a r s o n . The K i n g ' s Household i n England b e f o r e the Nor-man Conquest, Chapter I I I , passim. 105 was sometimes t o o s t r o n g f o r l o c a l power, and then t h e K i n g must i n t e r v e n e . I t was a t h r e a t h e l d ' i n t e r r e m ' , h a r d l y more than a c o r o l l a r y of the K i n g ' s l e a d e r s h i p i n war."(11) These were f u n c t i o n s s u b s t a n t i a l enough, however, t o make t h e k i n g s h i p t h e f o c u s of h i s t o r y , but were l a c k i n g almost e v e r y t h i n g of l a t e r E n g l i s h monarchy. L i f e i n t h e v i l l a g e s o f r u r a l Anglo-Saxon England went on w i t h o u t any d i r e c t i n t e r f e r -ence from t h e " c y n i n g " . He i n no way made t h e laws; o n l y i n -d i r e c t l y was he the p r o t e c t o r of t h e laws of the f o l k . What s t a b i l i t y the l a w had came from i t s e l f . No t i e bound the mul-t i t u d e of i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r K i n g : r a t h e r , t h e y were t i e d i n t h e network of n a t u r a l k i n s h i p , and the l o y a l t i e s and o b l i -g a t i o n s of neighborhood. Indeed, here l a y such s t r e n g t h as the b a r b a r i a n t h r o n e p o s s e s s e d f o r upon I t was p r o j e c t e d the l o y a l t i e s w hich made t h e common l i f e s t a b l e . Bound i n k i n d r e d , t h e f o l k saw i n t h e i r K i n g the p u r e s t and most j e a l o u s l y r e -corded a n c e s t r y of t h e i r r a c e . R e l i g i o u s i n a c t s of l i f e , t h e y had i n him t h e e l d e s t descendant of the gods, w a r l i k e by i n -s t i n c t , t h e y l o o k e d t o him t o e x e m p l i f y and s u s t a i n t h e prow-ess of t h e n a t i o n . I n i t s i n f a n c y , as a p r i n c i p l e of s t a t e , the t h r o n e y e t answered t o the r e l i g i o u s and e m o t i o n a l needs of t h e community of the f o l k . ( 1 2 ) 11. J o l l i f f e . Op. c i t . , p. 48. 12. I b i d . , p. 47. 106 Suck k i n g s h i p c o u l d be s t r o n g w i t h i n the scope of t h e k i n s h i p group but i t was h a r d t o extend t h i s type of k i n g s h i p w i t h I t s r o o t s i n k i n s h i p heathenism and t r i b a l custom t o any-t h i n g g r e a t e r , i m i b i t i o u s " c y n i n g s " of the H e p t a r c h y s t r o v e t h r o u g h e n d l e s s decades of b l o o d s h e d f o r t h e " B r e t w a l d s h i p " . But t h e t r i u m p h of n a t i o n h o o d over t r i b a l i s m came s l o w l y . From the f i f t h t o the s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h e b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l a n n a l s resound of t r e a c h e r y , l u s t and bloodshed.(13) The n a r r a t i v e account of t h e s t r u g g l e s t h a t c u l m i n -a t e d i n t h e f i n a l supremacy of Wessex i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y may be commenced w i t h t h e supremacy e s t a b l i s h e d by K i n g A e t h e l b e r t of K e n t , who r u l e d as p r e v i o t i s l y r e c o r d e d , from 560 t o 616 A.D. B e f o r e t h e end of t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y he had won t h e acknowl-edgment of h i s l e a d e r s h i p from t h e kingdoms s o u t h of the Humber. B u t , when A e t h e l b e r t d i e d , t h e K e n t i s h supremacy ended. N o r t h -umbria t h e n made a b i d f o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p i n the t r i b a l s t a t e s . A s t r u g g l e ensued between N o r t h u m b r i a and, M e r c i a . F o r a time t h e Northumbrian "comings" w i t h v a r y i n g f o r t u n e s h e l d t h e l e a d -i n g p o s i t i o n . By 650 A.D. t h e r e were but t h r e e t r i b a l kingdoms 15. £f«, G * Oman. England b e f o r e t h e Norman Conquest g i v e s the most d e t a i l e d and perhaps t h e c l e a r e s t accounts of the l o n g s t r u g g l e s f o r supremacy among t h e t r i b a l kingdoms of t h e O c t a r c h y and Heptarchy. Turner, Op. c i t , , V o l s . I , I I , are i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g a l t h o u g h now o u t - o f - d a t e e n t i r e l y . T u r n e r p o s s e s s e d t h e a b i l i t y t o make S a x o n ' h i s t o r y l i v e , a l t h o u g h h i s work i s d e v o i d of a l l p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . Lappenberg's, T. Hodgkin's and Ramsay's accounts of the t r i b a l wars a l s o a r e v e r y r e a d a b l e ( o f . B i b l i o g r a p h y ) . 107 o f i m p o r t a n c e - - N o r t h u m b r i a , M e r c i a , and Wessex, the s o - c a l l e d T r i a r c h y of t h e l a t e r s e v e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s . The domi n a t i n g s t a t e i n the l a t e r e i g h t h c e n t u r y was M e r c i a . I n f a c t , O f f a I I o f M e r c i a (757-796 A.D.) was the f i r s t A n g l o -Saxon " c y n i n g " t o c o n c e i v e of h i m s e l f as K i n g of a l l t h e Ang l o -Saxon f o l k , he. t h e y K e n t i n g s , Northumbrians, West Saxons or M e r c i a n s . The M e r c i a n k i n g s of O f f a ' s .dynasty were the f i r s t t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e l o r d s h i p of a l i e n f o l k i n t o t h e i r t i t l e s , c l a i m i n g , t o be k i n g s not o n l y of the M e r c i a n s "but t h o s e n e i g h -b o r i n g p e o p l e s over, whom God,hath s e t me". A e t h e l b a l d of t h i s d y n a s t y c l a i m e d an "imperium d i v i n o s u f f r a g i o f u l t u s " and s i g n e d h i m s e l f "Rex B r i t t a n a e " . The Pope addressed O f f a as "Rex Ang l o r -um" and he s i n c e r e l y attempted t o s i n k t h e v a r i e d I d e n t i t i e s of. the Anglo-Saxon, f o l k s i n a common "Regnum Anglorum". - The dea t h of O f f a I I o f M e r c i a stopped the normal de-velopment, of an a l l - e m b r a c i n g Anglo-Saxon k i n g s h i p i n w h i c h A l -c u i n and the more e n l i g h t e n e d contempories had p l a c e d t h e i r hopes. Wessex had never l o s t h e r independence e n t i r e l y , even i n t h e time of t h e g r e a t O f f a I I of M e r c i a . When ..the .strong hand of O f f a was s t r i c k e n t h e M e r c i a n supremacy f a d e d and a .new " c y n i n g " of t h e s o u t h r o s e t o power, Egbert of Wessex (8Q3-S39 A.D.). By t h e conquest of M e r c i a he r e v e r s e d complete-l y t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e two kingdoms. So s t r o n g d i d he become t h a t even t h e K i n g o f .Northumbria r e c o g n i z e d h i s o v e r l o r d s h i p w h i l e E g b e r t l i v e d . A l l t h e f o l k of Anglo-Saxon B r i t a i n , i n , some measure sought him t o " f r i t h and mundbora" but how f a r . h i s 108 l o r d s h i p o y er a l l the f o l k of the "Anglecynn" can be p r e s s e d I s d o u b t f u l . The r e a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n was t o be t h e work of A l f r e d and h i s s u c c e s s o r . Egbert had brought Wessex t o the- f o r e j u s t I n t ime f o r t h e b l o o d of C e r d i c t o take t h e l e a d e r s h i p a g a i n s t a new f o e , t h e Danes. D u r i n g the f i r s t f o u r c e n t u r i e s of Anglo-Saxon h i s -t o r y i s m a i n l y determined from below. The i n i t i a t i v e of t h e k i n g s h i p and economic f o r c e s made headway o n l y s l o w l y a g a i n s t t h e i n n a t e c o n s e r v a t i s m and t h e f o r c e s - o f d i s u n i o n . A f t e r t h e C r e a t i o n of t h e t e r r i t o r i a l community as t h e b a s i s of s o c i e t y t h e u n i f i e d r e a l m becomes more apparent.'-'-'''In t h i s second p e r -i o d the Grown r i s e s above t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework of s h i r e s and hundreds i n a way t h a t the o l d t r i b a l monarchies never c o u l d have.. , The r e a l t r a n s i t i o n from t r i b a l l o r d s h i p t o n a t i o n a l monarch i s not r e a c h e d ' u n t i l t h e p e r i o d of A l f r e d t h e G r e a t , and, i n many ways, i s n o t e v i d e n t u n t i l the times of Edward the E l d e r , A t h e i s t a n a n d Edmund I . Hot a l l the p r e r e q u i s i t e s of t h e m e d i e v a l government of a t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t e are a c h i e v e d b e f o r e t h e end of t h e Saxon Age and i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i -c u l t t o d e f i n i t e l y show how by t h e time of A l f r e d ' s death i n 899, 900, or 901 A.D. t h e s e r a d i c a l changes were p r o g r e s s i n g toward any d e f i n i t e end. The changes t h a t were t o t r a n s f o r m Anglo-Saxon Eng-l a n d i n t o a t e r r i t o r i a l kingdom of the t r u e m e d i e v a l type were m a i n l y imposed from above and due t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n e s s o f 109 the masses of the f o l i c and t h e i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n of England a t the v e r y w e s t e r n o u t s k i r t s of European c i v i l i z a t i o n came hut s l o w l y . The chaos caused by t h e Danish wars gave th e Grown of Wessex i t s o p p o r t u n i t y , f o r the Anglo-Saxon t r i b a l groups c o u l d o n l y s u r v i v e a t the c o s t of u n i o n and r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n . To u n d e r s t a n d the problem of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e monarchy on a new b a s i s as c a r r i e d out by A l f r e d i t seems w i s e t o c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y the Danish Wars and th e manner i n w h i c h t h e y c l e a r e d t h e ground f o r the r e c o n s t r u c -t i o n of a n a t i o n a l s t a t e t o r e p l a c e t h e t r i b a l u n i o n s t h a t had e x i s t e d from the time of O f f a I I of M e r c i a . The Danes f i r s t began t o p l u n d e r t h e c o a s t s of Eng-l a n d a few y e a r s b e f o r e t h e end of the n i n t h c e n t u r y . D u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s of t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y t h e y were d i v e r t e d t o I r e -l a n d , w h i c h t h e y o v e r r a n a t w i l l . About 834 A.D. t h e y a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o m o l e s t t h e kingdoms of t h e "Anglecynn". At the same time t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d themselves a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s on the C o n t i n e n t o p p o s i t e t h e B r i t i s h coasts,. T h e i r i n v a s i o n of Eng-l a n d t o o k much the same cour s e as t h a t of t h e A n g l e s , l u t e s and Saxons some c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r . At f i r s t t h e i r a t t a c k s were s e a s o n a l and c o n f i n e d t o t h e c o a s t s but soon t h e y came t o w i n -t e r r a i d s and c a r r i e d t h e i r conquests i n l a n d . Northumbria was o v e r r u n between 860 and 868 A.D. F i n a l l y , i n 868 A.D. N o r t h -umbria a c c e p t e d Danish r u l e , ( 1 4 ) and the Norsemen t u r n e d South 14. J . Ramsay. The F o u n d a t i o n of England, p. 241. 110 t o overthrow M e r c i a . The m i d l a n d s kingdom d i d not f a l l as eas-i l y as N o r t h u m b r i a w h i c h had been t o r n by c i v i l s t r i f e . M e r c i a sought a i d of t h e Wessex K i n g w h i l e t h e Danes c o n t i n u e d t o sub-j u g a t e E a s t A n g l i a and ravage th e m i d l a n d s i n g e n e r a l . E a r l y i n 870 A.D. the Danes s t r u c k a t Wessex. I n 871 A.D., A e t h e l r e d and h i s b r o t h e r , A l f r e d , p r i n c e s o f the West Saxons, began a l o n g s t r u g g l e w i t h the i n v a d e r s . The same y e a r , A e t h e l r e d d i e d and A l f r e d became K i n g of t h e Gewissas and t r a d i t i o n a l o v e r l o r d of a l l the s o u t h e r n "Anglecynn", f o r t h e g e n e r a l l o r d s h i p of t h e house of C e r d i c had been r e c o g n i z e d s i n c e t h e days of A l f r e d ' s g r a n d f a t h e r by a l l the f o l k south of t h e Number, be t h e y E a s t A n g l i a n s , K e n t i n g s , M e r c i a n s or Ge-w i s s a s , A l f r e d ' s f i r s t Danish War ended i n 872 A.D. and f o r the next f o u r y e a r s the r a i d e r s p l u n d e r e d M e r c i a . War was r e -newed i n 876 A.D. and l a s t e d u n t i l 878 A.D. ( A l f r e d ' s Second Danish War) when a t r e a t y known as the Peace o f Wedmore was agreed upon. U n t i l 892 A.D. r a i d i n g bands of Danes a s s a u l t e d t h e c o a s t s but 878 A.D. marks the end f o r many y e a r s of Danes' i n r o a d s . I t i s t r u e t h a t i n the Dark Ages no f o r e i g n war and i n v a s i o n was- n e c e s s a r y t o throw s o c i e t y i n t o c o n f u s i o n . D i s -o r d e r was more o r l e s s the normal s t a t e of a f f a i r s . But t h e Danish i n v a s i o n s had shaken Anglo-Saxon c i v i l i z a t i o n t o i t s f o u n d a t i o n s , t h e powers of t h e two n o r t h e r n kingdoms of the T r i a r c h y were broken f o r e v e r . M e r c i a and N o r t h u m b r i a were p r o s -t r a t e ; , wave a f t e r wave of b a r b a r i s m had swept over them. They I l l w e r e r a v i s h e d , and broken, the l a s t v e s t i g e of t h e i r t r i b a l p r i d e gone f o r e v e r . Wessex o n l y had s u r v i v e d the deluge and even t h e r e l a w l e s s n e s s and d i s o r d e r were e v i d e n t . S o c i e t y had been l o o s e n e d from i t s o l d bonds by s l a u g h t e r and r a p i n e of t h e Norse-men. The K i n g ' s government and t h a t of h i s "eorldormen" and "thegns" alone had s u s t a i n e d themselves t h r o u g h the s t r u g g l e . I t was t h e -work of A l f r e d and h i s two immediate s u c c e s s o r s t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e monarchy on a new and f i r m e r b a s i s t h a n i t had ever known b e f o r e . ( 1 5 ) A l f r e d had t h e k i n d of mind which l o v e d t o d e v i s e new and b e t t e r ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s . But, i f we may judge from t h e Preamble t o h i s l a w s , I n a f f a i r s of s t a t e where custom was s t r o n g and men were s u s p i c i o u s of v i o l e n t change, he was r e a d y t o be c a u t i o u s and curb h i s i n v e n t i v e f a c u l t y . " I have not dared t o presume t o s e t down i n w r i t i n g many laws of my own f o r I cannot t e l l what i n n o v a t i o n s of mine w i l l meet the a p p r o v a l of my suc-c e s s o r s . "(16) The f i r s t problem t h a t absorbed A l f r e d ' s a t t e n t i o n was t h a t of making h i s p o s i t i o n more secure a g a i n s t f u t u r e Dan-i s h a t t a c k s . I n the defense of Saxon England he i n s t i t u t e d f o u r p r i n c i p a l changes. 1. He r e o r g a n i z e d t h e p r i n c i p a l f i g h t -i n g f o r c e , t h e n a t i o n a l " f y r d " . T h i s was a m i l i t i a f o r c e com-posed of t h e o r d i n a r y freemen as i t had been i n the days when T a c i t u s wrote about the ways and customs of the Germans. I t 15. Cf. R. Hodgkin, A H i s t o r y of t h e Anglo-Saxons, p. 601. 16. Idem. 112 c o u l d be h e l d t o g e t h e r f o r o n l y the b r i e f e s t of campaigns, be-cause l o n g absence of the " c e o r l s " from t h e i r farms would b r i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o the verge of s t a r v a t i o n . A l f r e d met the d i f -f i c u l t y by d i v i d i n g t h e " f y r d " I n t o two h a l v e s , w h i c h r e l i e v e d each o t h e r at f i x e d p e r i o d s . 2. A l f r e d i n c r e a s e d the number of n o b l e s , t h a t i s , the "thegns", who fought on h orseback; the mo-b i l i t y of t h e Danes made i t n e c e s s a r y t o have c a v a l r y - - t h e "thegnage" p r o v i d e d t h i s n e c e s s a r y t y p e of f o r c e s . 3. He f o r t i -f i e d towns s t r a t e g i c a l l y s i t u a t e d , and e i t h e r . h e o r Edward the E l d e r a r r a n g e d a system t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e g a r r i s o n i n g . To each f o r t i f i e d town a d i s t r i c t was a t t a c h e d , i n which c e r t a i n of h i s new n o b l e s , the "thegns", were r e q u i r e d t o r e s i d e and keep up m i l i t a r y r e t a i n e r s so as t o p r o v i d e a permanent f o r c e or g a r r i s o n t o keep t h e Danes i n check and t o see t h a t o r d e r was m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e e n t i r e neighborhood. 4. A l f r e d began t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a navy, a l t h o u g h i t appears t o have p l a y e d but a s m a l l p a r t i n h i s p r i n c i p a l campaigns.(17) So much f o r A l f r e d ' s more e a s i l y summarized reforms t h a t are known t o ev-e r y s c h o o lboy. By a s e r i e s o f d i p l o m a t i c m a r r i a g e s he bound t h e o l d R o y a l f a m i l i e s of the M e r c i a n s and Northumbrians t o h i s own f a m i l y w i t h t h e time-honored t i e s of b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Hav-i n g drawn unt o h i s f a m i l y a l l the R o y a l b l o o d of the "Angle-17. W. Lunt. H i s t o r y of England, p. 47. 113 cynne" he was t h u s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h the l i n e of C e r d i c i n a secure d y n a s t i c p o s i t i o n . ( 1 8 ) The g r e a t e s t e x i s t i n g primai-y source of A l f r e d ' s r e i g n i s h i s l a w s . Many m o t i v e s appear t o have induced him t o draw up h i s book of Dooms. He had the examples of h i s g r e a t p r e d e c e s s -o r s - ' - A e t h e l b e r t of K e n t , Ine of Wessex, and Of f a of M e r c i a . A c r o s s the Channel, Charlemagne was I s s u i n g h i s c a p i t u l a r i e s of P r a n k i s h law. S i n c e t h e r e had been no l a w g i v e r i n Wessex f o r two hundred y e a r s , i t was e v i d e n t l y t i m e t o r e v i s e the dooms. The D a n i s h Wars had caused much d i s o r d e r and u n c e r t a i n t y . And so A l f r e d , perhaps about 895 A.D., s e t t o work. He found t h a t t h e r e was much c o n f l i c t between the M o s i a c Law and t h e C h r i s t i a n c r e e d . T h i s t r o u b l e d him. And, as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s Codes, he w r o t e a l o n g B i b l i c a l l i n e s i n t h e P r e f a c e . ( 1 9 ) T h i s S c r i p t u r a l 13. Cf. A s s e r , L i f e of A l f r e d , T r a n s l a t o r , L.C.Jane, p. 7: " 8 5 3 — t h i s year A e t h e l w u l f ( f a t h e r of A l f r e d ) , K i n g of t h e West Saxons, a f t e r E a s t e r t i d e , gave h i s daughter t o Burhead, K i n g of the M e r c i a n s , t o be h i s Queen." A l s o , t h e e n t r y f o r t h e year 868 i n t h e same work: " I n t h e y e a r of the I n c a r n a t i o n of t h e L o r d , e i g h t hundred and s i x t y - e i g h t , w hich was the t w e n t i e t h year from th e b i r t h of A l f r e d , t h e same r e v e r e n c e d K i n g A l f r e d sought and ob-t a i n e d a w i f e from M e r c i a . . . s h e was the daughter of t h e eorldorman of G a i n i . . . h e r mother was of t h e r o y a l s t o c k of t h e K i n g s of M e r c i a . " A l s o , c f . g e n e a l o g i c a l t a b l e , p. 155. A e t h e l f r e d a , daughter of A l f r e d , was m a r r i e d t o E t h e l r e d of M e r c i a , t h e M e r c i a n r o y a l l i n e was i n t u r n i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h t h e Northumbrian house of t h e l i n e A e l l e and I d a . Cf. geneology t a b l e s i n W. S e a r l e , A n g l o - Saxon B i s h o p s , K i n g s , and N o b l e s ; R. Hodgkin, The H i s t o r y  of t h e Anglo-Saxons, p. 720; Oman, Op. c i t . , Appendices. 19. C f . B. Lees, A l f r e d the G r e a t , Chapter V I I , pp. 200-274. 114 i n t r o d u c t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of him; i t was 1 1 0 mere d i s p l a y of l e a r n i n g . I t had a purpose; and t h a t purpose was, by draw-i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n f l i c t of laws and by emphasizing the Golden R u l e , t o remind h i s p e o p l e t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be' a p l a c e f o r e q u i t y as w e l l as l e g a l i t y . N e i t h e r customary law nor t h e decrees o f p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t o r s were s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves f o r p e r f e c t j u s t i c e . The good j u d g e — t h a t i s , t h e good p r e s i -dent of t h e f o l k - m o o t — m u s t s t u d y , and use h i s w i t s . ( 2 0 ) There were o t h e r aims i n c o m p i l i n g the Codes and A l -f r e d has s t a t e d something o f t h i s i n the Preamble: "Now I , A l f r e d , K i n g , have g a t h e r e d t o g e t h -e r t h e s e laws w h i c h our a n c e s t o r s h e l d s h o u l d be w r i t t e n out, t h o s e w h i c h seem good t o me. But many, t h o s e w h i c h d i d not seem good, I have r e j e c t e d by the a d v i c e of my Witan, and i n o t h e r cases I have o r d e r e d changes t o be i n t r o d u c e d . " ( 2 1 ) A c c o r d i n g l y , A l f r e d c o l l e c t e d from t h e Dooms of Ine of Wessex, O f f a of M e r c i a , and A e t h e l b e r t of Ken t . I n Codes, however, A l -f r e d o n l y h a l f - a s s i m i l a t e s t h e v a r i o u s elements., There i s an attempt t o a s s i m i l a t e or combine West S a x o n and K e n t i s h Codes but he d i d not attempt a c o r r e s p o n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n of t h e Mer-c i a n 'law. I t would have been unwise, he seems to have deemed, t o make t o o sudden a m i x t u r e of A n g l i a n and Saxon customs. A l -f r e d d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as "Angul-Saxonum Rex", but s t i l l he 20. Cf. B. Hodgkin, Op. o i t . , p. 602. 21. C f . Idem.; a l s o , L e e s , Op. c i t . , p. 210; C. Plummer, The L i f e and Times of A l f r e d t h e G r e a t , passim. 115 r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were s t i l l t h r e e E n g l a n d s : a Northumbrian n o r t h , a M e r c i a n c e n t e r , and a Yfessex. s o u t h . A l f r e d was, f i r s t of a l l , " E i n g of t h e West Saxons". I n t r u t h , t h i s d i v i s i o n o f the E n g l i s h i n t o t h r e e t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s remained even un-t i l t h e days of H a r o l d God win's'on, l a s t of t h e Saxon K i n g s . When t h e c'entral government was i n t h e hands of a weak K i n g , l i k e A e t h e l r e d t h e Unready, o r a K i n g of d i s p u t e d r i g h t s , l i k e Har-o l d o f the house of Godwin, England tended t o f a i r i n t o t h r e e d i v i s i o n s , as enumerated above. I n f a c t , i t was t h i s i n a measure t h a t l e a d t o t h e d o w n f a l l of t h e Saxon monarchy b e f o r e t h e a s s a u l t s of W i l l i a m t h e ..Bastard i n 1066 A.D. A c l o s e s t u d y of the dooms o f . A l f r e d suggest i n some measure the c h i e f problems t h a t the n i n t h c e n t u r y k i n g s h i p of t h e "Angelcynne" f a c e d . l e see i n t h e laws t h a t A l f r e d l a i d s t r e s s on two or t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s , F i r s t , the s t a b i l i t y of s o c i e t y must be preserved, by u p h o l d i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y of the l o r d s o v e r . t h e • " c e o r l s " . I t i s an I d e a t h a t A l f r e d s t r e s s e d time a f t e r t i m e . I n h i s Preamble he s t a t e d t h a t f o r t h e o f f e n c e of t r e a s o n t o a l o r d t h e b i s h o p s and Witan of o l d '' " ' "...dare not a s s i g n any mercy because God A l m i g h t y had judged none t o them who d e s p i s e d Him...and C h r i s t commanded t h a t a l o r d s h o u l d be l o v e d as : o n e s e l f " . The a u t h o r i t y o f a l l c l a s s e s of l o r d s , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and l a y , were d u l y p r o t e c t e d i n a way.that t h e y never had been b e f o r e . I n o t h e r words, A l f r e d's Codes sho?/ t h a t l o r d s , both s p i r i t u a l 116 and t e m p o r a l , o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n of much g r e a t e r importance t h a n ever b e f o r e among the Anglo-Saxon f o l k . As i n F r a n c e , the a s s a u l t s of the V i k i n g s had i n c r e a s e d the power of the l o r d s . The movement t o f e u d a l l o r d s h i p was i n a'measure p a r a l l e l i n g t h a t same movement among t h e F r a n k s , but i n England the "thegns" and "eorldormen" had not t h a t " s p i r i t of f e u d a l independence t h a t was so marked i n t h e t e r r i t o r i e s of t h e G a e o l i n g i a n s . Be-tween the development of l o r d s h i p i n England and France t h e r e were many s i m i l a r i t i e s but v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s . Monarchy i t s e l f was t h e second p r i n c i p l e on w h i c h t h e s t a b i l i t y of s o c i e t y r e s t e d . A l f r e d ' s Codes had l i t t l e t o s a y d i r e c t l y about t h i s ; t h e whole s t r e n g t h e n i n g of l o r d s h i p was d i -r e c t e d toward the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of t h e monarchy.(22) The k e e p i n g of pledges and c o n t r a c t s are much emphas-i z e d i n A l f r e d ' s dooms. T h i s i n i t s e l f i s a movement toward t h e b i n d i n g of a l l r a n k s of s o c i e t y by bonds of l o r d s h i p and l a n d s i m i l a r t o the f e u d a l movement on the C o n t i n e n t . ( 2 3 ) From A s s e r ' s L i f e ' of A l f r e d w e . l e a r n t h a t the K i n g sent s p e c i a l envoys analogous t o the " m i s s i D o m i n i c i " of K a r l der Gross o r Charlemagne t o s u p e r v i s e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s h i r e and hundred c o u r t s . However, j u s t what A s s e r meant by t h e term " f i d e l e s " i s u n c e r t a i n . I t sould"seem t o i n d i c a t e a strength-e n i n g of the monarchy on a l l s i d e s . ( 2 4 ) 22. Lees. Op. c i t . . C h a pter V I I , pp. 200-74. 23. Dooms of A l f r e d , Chapter I , P a r t I : " i n the f i r s t p l a c e we e n j o i n you as a m a t t e r of supreme importance, t h a t e v e r y man s h a l l a b i d e c a r e f u l l y by h i s o a t h and p l e d g e . " ( J t -tenborough's T r a n s l a t i o n , p. 6 3 . ) 24. C f . R. Hodgkin, Op. o i t , , p. 606. 117 Kembie saw i n A l f r e d ' s laws the t e n d e n c i e s t o t u r n t h e monarchy i n t o k i n d of a d i c t a t o r s h i p — r a t h e r overdrawn; t h e monarchy was much too weak t o assume such a p o s i t i o n . I f we sum up the changes produced i n the A l f r e d i a n p e r i o d , we may say t h a t t h e monarchy and the whole c l a s s of l o r d s were s t r e n g t h -ened. The t r e a s o n law, i n w h i c h we see t h e s p i r i t of t h e age e x p r e s s e d , was but a symptom of the change. The a r i s t o c r a c y of l a n d was advanced because th e monarchy needed t h i s c l a s s t o i n -sure p r o t e c t i o n and some semblance of o r d e r . As the whole c l a s s of l o r d s h i p was r a i s e d i n power so the monarchy was e l e v a t e d . The K i n g was n e c e s s a r y t o t h e new t e r r i t o r i a l s e m i - f e u d a l s t a t e . The f u l l w o r k i n g s of t h e movement were not apparent t o t i m e s of A l f r e d ' s s u c c e s s o r s , Edward, A t h e i s t a n , and Edgar. To s t a t e d e f i n i t e l y t h e powers and p r e r o g a t i v e s of t h e Saxon monarch at t h e time of the death of A l f r e d o r a t any o t h e r s p e c i f i c time i s most d i f f i c u l t . One may c o n s i d e r the o p i n i o n s of T u r n e r and Kembie who gave more a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s phase of the k i n g s h i p t h a n aery o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s . S p e a k i n g of t h e r i g h t s of the Anglo-Saxon monarch about th e time of t h e death of A l f r e d , T u r n e r s t a t e d the K i n g ' s p r i v i l e g e s , powers, and r i g h t s thus:, "He was t o be prayed f o r and v o l u n t a r i l y honored; h i s word was t o be t a k e n w i t h o u t oath; he had t h e h i g h p r e r o g a t i v e of p a r d o n i n g c e r t a i n c r i m -i n a l s ; h i s 'mundbyrd' and h i s 'wer' were l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e of any o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l i n the Kingdom; h i s s a f e t y was p r o t e c t e d by h i g h p e n a l t i e s ; h i s was the p r i v i l e g e t o buy and s e l l overseas w i t h o u t h i n d r a n c e ; he had t h e r i g h t t o take t h e 'wer' of a freeman t h i e f , t o m i t i g a t e p e n a l t i e s o r r e m i t them; h i s 118 t r i b u n a l was t h e l a s t c o u r t of a p p e a l ; he was the i n -t e n s i v e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of t h e l a w s ; he c o u l d c l a i m a l l f i n e s ; t h e -Jews were h i s s p e c i a l p r o p e r t y ; the h i g h e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s of h i s r e a l m / t h e e o r l d o r -men, t h e thegns and t h e ' g e r e f a s ' c o u l d be d i s p l a c e d by h i s , w i l l ; he convoked t h e c o u n c i l s of t h e Witan; h i s was the r i g h t t o summon t h e f i g h t i n g men t o g e t h -er and t o be t h e supreme commander i n war."(25) Turner quotes s p e c i f i c examples from t h e documents t o s u p p o r t each s t a t e m e n t . The r e f e r e n c e s are t o documents i n D. W i l k i n s ' Leges A n g l o - S a x o n i c a l and, as the volume I s now l o n g out of p r i n t , i t i s not of any v a l u e t o g i v e the r e f e r -ences h e r e . Kemble's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are more c l e a r - c u t and s p e c i -f i c . A summary i s g i v e n below. The R o y a l r i g h t s are not s t a t e d i n any p a r t i c u l a r sequence; s u r e l y not i n o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e . 1. The R i g h t of F o r f e i t u r e and E s c h e a t ( 2 6 ) As the R o y a l power became c e n t r a l i z e d and c i v i l i z a -t i o n p r o g r e s s e d , crime came t o be r e g a r d e d as an o f f e n c e t o so-c i e t y and t h e o l d p e c u n i a r y f i n e s and "wergelds" were deemed i n -s u f f i c i e n t t o s u p p r e s s d i s o r d e r , so payment of f i n e s and f o r -f e i t u r e s t o t h e K i n g became an e s t a b l i s h e d custom. 25. T u r n e r . Op. c i t . , V o l . i l l , p. 172. 26. J . Kemble. Anglo-Saxons i n England, Y o l . I I , p. 60. 119 2 . The R o y a l R i g h t of T r e a s u r e Trove(27). The Saxon monarch had t h e r i g h t t o c l a i m f o r h i m s e l f any t r e a s u r e t h a t might he found i n h i s r e a l m . I n our day and age t h i s seems a p e c u l i a r r i g h t , b u t i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t i n heathen times i t had been customary t o bury t r e a s u r e s w i t h t h e dead t h i s r i g h t can be e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d . 3. The R o y a l R i g h t of "Conviviura" o r " P a s t u s " ( 2 8 ) The K i n g had the r i g h t t o v i s i t a l l p a r t s of h i s r e a l m t o c o n s i d e r t h e peace, w e l f a r e and h a p p i n e s s of a l l freemen I n a l l the communities; on such p e r i o d i c a l j o u r n e y s t o t h e monarch belonged t h e r i g h t t o c l a i m h a r b o r f o r h i m s e l f and h i s s u i t e . ( 2 9 } 4. The R i g h t of P a l f r e y s ( 3 0 ) The K i n g had t h e r i g h t t o c l a i m h o r s e s a t any v i l l a g e t o c a r r y h i m s e l f and h i s s u i t e t o t h e next v i l l a g e . 5. The R i g h t of " T i g i l i a " ( 5 1 ) The Saxon. K i n g c o u l d c l a i m a guard t o watch over h i s p e r s o n when he was i n any community., i i l s o he c o u l d c l a i m men t o a i d him i n t h e hunt. 27. Idem. 28. I b i d . , p. 63. 29. C f . </. M o r r i s , The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England t o  1216, p. 64. 50. Kemble. Op. c i t . , p. 65. 31. I b i d . , p. 66. 120 6. The R i g h t of " A e d i f i o a t e s " ( 5 2 ) The monarch c o u l d c l a i m a s s i s t a n c e from a l l freemen i n t h e r e p a i r i n g of R o y a l r o a d s , f o r t r e s s e s or r e s i d e n c e s . 7. The C o n t r o l of t h e M i n t ( 5 5 ) The K i n g , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Witan, had t h e c o n t r o l over t h e m i n t i n g of a l l c o i n a g e . 8. The R i g h t of R o y a l F o r e s t s (54.) The Saxon K i n g s c l a i m e d t h e r i g h t t o m a i n t a i n f o r e s t s f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l h u n t i n g grounds. 9. The R i g h t of P r o t e c t i o n of S t r a n g e r s ( 5 5 ) To t h e Saxon monarch belonged the r i g h t of p r o t e c t i o n over a l l s t r a n g e r s w i t h i n the r e a l m 'and the r i g h t t o f o r e i g n e r s ' " w e r g e l d s " . Jews came under t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 10. The R i g h t t o L i c e n s e C a s t l e s and B r i d g e s ( 5 6 } A f t e r t h e days o f A l f r e d ( o r at l e a s t h i s , s o n , Edward the E l d e r ) , no one w a s - p e r m i t t e d t o c o n s t r u c t a f o r t i f i e d s t r o n g -h o l d or a b r i d g e w i t h o u t t h e K i n g ' s c o n s e n t ; t h i s , no doubt, aimed a t t h e Danes of t h e Danelaw r e g i o n and sounds l i k e t h e work of Edward I . 5 2 . Idem. 55. I b i d . . p. 69. 54. I b i d . . p. 78. 55. I b i d . , p. 88. 36. I D T O " . p. 75. 121 11. The R i g h t of yfardship(57) The o f f i c i a l g u a r d i a n of widows and orphans of the freemen, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w e l l - h o r n , was t h e K i n g . 12. The R i g h t of "Heriot" Custom(58) The h o r s e s and arras, i n t h e s t r i c t t h e o r y of the " c o m i t a t u s " , had been t h e g i f t o r l o a n of t h e " c o m i t e s " from th e c h i e f , and were t o be r e t u r n e d at t h e death of the v a s s a l i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might f u r n i s h some o t h e r a d v e n t u r e r w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t s of s e r v i c e . H e r i o t was o n l y p a i d by" "thegns" and "eorldormen". The t a x on I n h e r i t a n c e s c l a i m e d by the l a t e Sax-on K i n g s o r i g i n a t e d from t h i s . 13. ,The R i g h t of C o n t r o l over Mines(59) M i n e s , such as e x i s t e d , were under t h e K i n g ' s c o n t r o l . 14. The R i g h t of C o n t r o l over P u b l i c M a r k e t s , Roads,etc. (40) The r i g h t t o p e r m i t n a v i g a t i o n on r i v e r s , t o h o l d pub-l i c m arkets, etc.,' b e l o n ged t o t h e K i n g . .  15. The R i g h t of Maintenance and L i v e r y ( 4 1 ) The K i n g alone had the r i g h t t o a s t a n d i n g army. 37. I b i d . , p. 96. 33. I b i d . , p. 98. 39.. Idem.; Of. Dip. Cod. Hos. 77, 374, 1002. 40. Id'em". 41. I b i d . , p. 100. 122 16. The E i g h t t o Summons and D i s m i s s the Wi t a n . (42) Such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the K i n g ' s supposed r i g h t s means l i t t l e . The powers of the Saxon K i n g s were q u i t e unde-f i n a b l e i n so many sentences. However, t h e summary i s sugges-t i v e "of what the r i g h t s may have t e e n . Kembie brought f o r t h many examples, where t h e K i n g e x e r c i s e d each of t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s . From t h e time of A l f r e d onward, t h e R o y a l f a m i l y o f Wessex came t o h o l d many l a r g e m a n o r i a l e s t a t e s . ( 4 3 ) I n f a c t , i t would seem t h a t t h e K i n g was t h e g r e a t e s t l a n d h o l d e r i n a l l E ngland w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e Church. The r e t u r n s from t h e s e w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e s t a t e s added much t o the independence and p r e s t i g e of t h e K i n g i n t h e times of A t h e i -s t ane and Edmund the M a g n i f i c e n t . The r a p i d d e c l i n e of the monarchy i n t h e ti m e s of Eadwig, Edward t h e M a r t y r , and A e t h e l -r e d t h e Unready w i t n e s s e d a w h o l e s a l e d i s s i p a t i o n of t h e s e R o y a l e s t a t e s . The f i n a l breakdown of t h e R o y a l f a m i l y of Wessex came i n some measure from impoverishment of t h e k i n g s h i p by the d i s -s i p a t i o n s of the w e a k l i n g s t h a t came from the l i n e of C e r d i c i n th e t e n t h and e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s . I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t phases of E n g l i s h k i n g -s h i p , t h a t of t h e n i n t h and t e n t h c e n t u r i e s appears as a-..rapid 42. Cf. Liebermann, The N a t i o n a l Assembly i n Anglo-Saxon  Times, -passim. 43. M o r r i s . Op. c i t . , p. 64. 123 growth of R o y a l power, of t h e i n v e n t i o n of new t i e s between K i n g and p e o p l e , of t h e merging of the a n c i e n t t r i b a l kingdoms i n t o t h e t e r r i t o r i a l monarchy of the new kingdom of England. A l f r e d ' s r e i g n marks t h e b e g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d of t h e r e c o n -c i l i a t i o n of laws under a common k i n g l y r i g h t , of t h e appear-ance of the frames of p r o v i n c i a l government which were t o be f i n a l ; i n s h o r t , of the rudiments of a t e r r i t o r i a l and p o l i t -i c a l kingdom. The v e r y e f f o r t t o throw o f f t h e v i r u s of the.Morse-men's a t t a c k s had g i v e n r i s e t o some semblance o f u n i t y among th e "Anglecynn" and had brought i n t o b e i n g some of the elements of a s t a b l e s t a t e . The s u c c e s s o r s of A l f r e d , h i s son and grand-son, p o s s e s s e d o f a s e m i - u n i f o r m l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system i n t h e s h i r e and hundred, of a p a r t i a l l y complete monopoly of th e h i g h e r c r i m i n a l p l e a s , and an agreed n a t i o n a l peace, were v a s t l y s t r o n g e r t h a n any dynasty w h i c h had gone b e f o r e them. However, o n l y a s t r o n g K i n g c o u l d h o l d t h e England of A l f r e d and Edward t o g e t h e r . I f t h e K i n g 7»ras a w e a k l i n g , a c h i l d , or one of d i s p u t e d r i g h t s , a l l the o l d f o r c e s of d i s u n i o n a g a i n came t o l i f e . E n g l a n d f e l l i n t o a Wessex-Kentish s o u t h , a M e r c i a n - A n g l i a n c e n t e r and a Northumbrian n o r t h . C o n s i d e r the r e i g n s of Edward t h e M a r t y r , A e t h e l r e d t h e Unready and H a r o l d of t h e a l i e n house of Godwin. I t i s a l l but i m p o s s i b l e t o say what t y p e of govern-ment and s o c i e t y would have e v e n t u a l l y e v o l v e d had t h e s t r u c -t u r e as e s t a b l i s h e d by A l f r e d .and h i s son, Edward, been a l l o w e d 124 t o work out i t s own f a t e . Even by the time of the Norman I n -v a s i o n i t s t r u e bent was not f u l l y d e c i d e d . I t had l o r d s h i p but not t e n u r e , i n the t r u e f e u d a l sense; i t s n o b l e s o f b l o o d had d i e d out and I t s o f f i c i a l n o t a b l e s had not become r e c o g -n i z e d as a s t a b l e h e r e d i t a r y a r i s t o c r a c y . ( 4 4 } I f i t had ever reached the phase t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d t r u e f e u d a l i s m i t would have done so but s l o w l y i n t h e absence of f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t s i n c e by the time of A l f r e d i t had made the t r a n s i t i o n from the t r i b a l t o t h e t e r r i t o r i a l kingdom and dev e l o p e d a s t a b l e and f a i r l y u n i f o r m l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( 45} a s t r o n g s u c c e s s i o n of n a t i v e K i n g s might have g u i d e d i t t o become a kingdom of t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n t y p e but w i t h a more c l o s e l y k n i t community and a more complex gov-ernment. Under weak K i n g s i t would not have s u r v i v e d but would have been a g a i n d i v i d e d , f o r none but an a b l e r u l e r c o u l d h o l d t h e p r o v i n c i a l n a t i o n a l i s m - o f N o r t h u m b r i a and M e r c i a i n abey-ance. 44. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between Anglo-Saxon n o b i l i t y and Norman f e u d a l barons, c o n s u l t F. S t e n t o n , The F i r s t C e n t u r y o f ' ' E n g l i s h F e u d a l i s m ; p a r -t i c u l a r l y Chapter IV. 45. D i s c u s s i o n of many phases of l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l admin-i s t r a t i o n has been e n t i r e l y passed over i n t h i s essay. F o r a s t u d y of t h e Anglo-Saxon Borough, c o n s u l t , C. Stephenson, Borough and Town, Chapter I I I , pp. 47-72. 125 CONCLUSION The e a r l i e s t t i e s t h a t formed the b a s i s of the p r i n -c i p a l Anglo-Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s were t h o s e of k i n s h i p . The most p r i m i t i v e i d e a as t o t h e n a t i o n was t h a t of k i n d r e d , e n l a r g e d p a s t a l l rememberable degrees of r e l a t i o n s h i p , but h o l d i n g t o a t r a d i t i o n of common a n c e s t r y , human or d i v i n e . The s o c i e t y founded on t h e s e bonds o f k i n s h i p f e l l i n t o two p r i n c i p a l c a s t e s : t h e f r e e and t h e n o b l e , t h e " c e o r l " and t h e " e o r l " , t o w h i c h some of the b l o o d - k i n s h i p s added a t h i r d — t h e h a l f -f r e e and s e r v i l e ; t h e " l a e t s " ( 1 } and "theows".(2) L i f e was e q u a l i t a r i a n w i t h i n t h e b i r t h - g r a d e s of t h e f o l k . Those below the freeman enjoyed the. same p r i v i l e g e s as t h e freeman but at a l o w e r p r i c e . L o r d s h i p was i n h e r e n t i n t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of t h i s s o c i e t y . Nobles of b i r t h and a n c e s t r y e x i s t e d from a dim 1. No d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n of the " l a e t s " i n K e n t i s h s o -c i e t y has been g i v e n i n t h i s e s s a y ; t h e q u e s t i o n i s v e r y con-t r o v e r s i a l and has been a v o i d e d here f o r t h a t r e a s o n . F o r d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e p r o b a b l e p o s i t i o n of the " l a e t s " , o f . W. Stub b s , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England, Vol.I,pp.48-50; H. Chadwick, S t u d i e s on Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s , p. 112. 2. The whole q u e s t i o n of the " t h e o w j " o r " t h r a l l s " has been o m i t t e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The q u e s t i o n s connected w i t h t h e s e a r e d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h I n the works of Stubbs, Chad-w i c k , and Seebohm. A v e r y r e a d a b l e , a l t h o u g h not e x t r e m e l y s c h o l a r l y account of t h e u n f r e e c l a s s e s i n Anglo-Saxon s o -c i e t y i s t o be found i n I. Thrupp, The Anglo-Saxon Home, pp. 119-40. 126 l e g e n d a r y p a s t , d e c l i n e d i n t h e p e r i o d of t h e M i g r a t i o n and tended t o v a n i s h except i n l e g a l p h r a s e o l o g y when f a m i l i e s and t r i b e s became H e p t a r c h i a l n a t i o n s . Nobles of the sword, s e r -v i c e and o f f i c e appeared b e f o r e t h e I n v a s i o n , f l o u r i s h e d i n the t i m e s of u n r e s t t h a t accompanied t h e Conquest and e s t a b l i s h e d themselves as a l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y of w e a l t h and o f f i c e a f t e r t h e C o n s o l i d a t i o n . W i t h the c o m p l e t i o n of the S e t t l e m e n t , the t i e s of k i n s h i p gave p l a c e t o new t i e s of neighborhood and com-munity . The bonds between n e i g h b o r s and between l o r d and man came t o be r e g a r d e d by way of f i c t i o n as analogous to b l o o d r e -l a t i o n s h i p . The b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p groups v a n i s h e d , absorbed i n t o t h e new t e r r i t o r i a l kingdoms o f t h e T r i a r c h y . A f t e r d r e a r y ages of e n d l e s s wars, Wessex appeared as l o r d of a l l t h e s o u t h e a s t . The V i k i n g i n r o a d s swept away t h e powers of M e r c i a and N o r t h u m b r i a and t h e K i n g s of Wessex e s t a b l i s h e d a n a t i o n a l kingdom, embracing i n a l i m i t e d measure a l l t h e Anglo-Saxon f o l k . From A l f r e d ' s time onward, l o r d s h i p was permeating e v e r y phase of l i f e but t r u e f e u d a l t e n u r e remained absent. A f a i r l y s t a b l e and u n i f o r m t e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e x i s t e d a f t e r t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , based p r i m a r i l y on t h e o l d customary f o l k ways. The f e e l i n g t h a t t h e K i n g was t h e n a t u r a l l o r d of a l l E nglishmen was of slow growth and'not d e e p l y h e l d , even when H a r o l d of t h e f a m i l y of Godwin f e l l at H a s t i n g s . The c r e a -t i o n of an E n g l i s h n a t i o n , of crown and s u b j e c t s , of a g e n e r a l peace of the K i n g ' s laws was t h e work commenced by A l f r e d and c o n t i n u e d but not completed, even at the time of the Norman Con-que s t . 137 I n t h e s e c h a p t e r s t h e growth of t h e p r i n c i p a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s of t h e Anglo-Saxons has been t r e a t e d a t some l e n g t h ; t r u l y -most i n c o h e r e n t i n p l a c e s , but a l l accounts of t h i s age must, i n some measure, be i n c o n c l u s i v e and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e r e i s so much t h a t can be d i s c e r n e d but d i m l y through the m i s t of ages. Anglo-Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s were not s t a t i c but f o r e v e r underwent change; t h e changes are h a r d t o d i s c e r n from the documents be-cause the l e g a l p h r a s e o l o g y o n l y i n d i c a t e d a change when t h e t r a n s i t i o n i t s e l f was complete and f i n i s h e d . The V i c t o r i a n s were po s s e s s e d of g r e a t z e a l f o r the s t u d y of Saxon h i s t o r y a n d ' l o u d i n t h e i r p r a i s e of a l l t h i n g s T e u t o n i c . Romantic-minded t o a degree o n l y l e s s t h a n Turner t h e y threw over the p r i m i t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e pre-ITorman E n g l i s h — t h e mantle of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, l o c a l s e l f -r u l e and e v e r y o t h e r phase o f c h a s t e , d e m o c r a t i c d i g n i t y and s i m p l e r u s t i c v i r t u e . Nov/, however, the c o l o r had f a d e d ; the m i d - V i c t o r i a n legends about t h e freedom and v i r t u e s of t h e e a r -l y N o r d i c p e o p l e s have l o s t t h e i r a p p e a l - - i n d e e d , democracy i t -s e l f has l o s t i t s glamor. D u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e decades new w r i t e r s have o f f e r e d new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of o l d d a t a . I n t h i s more or l e s s g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t an e f f o r t has been made t o com-b i n e the v i e w s of t h e V i c t o r i a n s w i t h those o f contemporary w r i t e r s ; l i k e w i s e t o b i n d t o g e t h e r t h e i d e a s of the s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h t h o s e of t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r i a n s . To shape and c u t the-whole has p r e s e n t e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t • i s t o be hoped t h a t the r e a d e r w i l l keep t h e s e f a c t s i n mind and be a r w i t h the vagueness and i n c o h e r e n c e found t h r o u g h o u t . 128 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHIES G r o s s , 0. The Sources and L i t e r a t u r e of E n g l i s h H i s t o r y front , t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o ah-out 1485, 1 s t , 2d eds., London, Longman, Green and Company, 1900, 1915. P a r t I I I . The Saxon P e r i o d , pp. 233-324. T h i s i s the b e s t b i o g r a p h i c a l o u t l i n e t o t h e Saxon P e r i o d . H e u s i n k y e l d , H., and, Bashe, E. A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Guide t o Old E n g l i s h , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa H u m a n i s t i c S t u d i e s , Iowa C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Y o l . I Y, Ho. 5, May, 1931. I n f e r i o r t o Gross f o r h i s t o r i c a l p u r p o s e s . Paetow, L. Guide t o t h e Study of M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , B e r k e l e y , C r o f t s and Company, 1917. Cover t h e M e d i e v a l P e r i o d i n a g e n e r a l way; not as u s e f u l f o r t h e Saxon P e r i o d as Gr o s s , PRIMARY SOURCES THE CONTINENTAL PERIOD (THE EARLY GERMANS} Caesar j J u l i u s . p^^e3Llo.jG^lJ^jafc E d i t i o n s by D i n t e r , " H o l m e s , J o h n s t o n , S t a n f o r d , R e i s s , Jane, e t c . A l l a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y . Caesar's Commentaries are d i s -c u ssed i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of s o u r c e s . T a c i t u s . The German!a. Eurneaux, H. C o r n e l i a T a c t i de Germania, Oxford, U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1894. Many s a t i s f a c t o r y e d i t i o n s e x i s t ; Eurneaux i s the best. The v a l u e o f The Germania as a p r i m a r y source has been t r e a t e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r . 129 THE ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD Anglo-Saxon - C h r o n i c l e , The. The Anglo-Saxon C h r o n i c l e , as i t i s commonly c a l l e d , i s r e a l l y a s e r i e s of d i s t i n c t c h r o n i c l e s , w r i t t e n a t d i f -f e r e n t t i m e s but a l l w i t h a common b a s i s . The f i v e e x i s t -i n g c h r o n i c l e s a r e : The W i n c h e s t e r C h r o n i c l e , The P e t e r -borough C h r o n i c l e , The C a n t e r b u r y C h r o n i c l e , and, The Ab-' ingdon C h r o n i c l e . There a r e f o u r s t a n d a r d e d i t i o n s ; E a r l e ' s , Thorpe's, Plummer's, and G i l e ' s . Plummer's i s i n some ways t h e best-. The t r a n s l a t i o n by I . Ingram i n t h e Everyman S e r i e s i s q u i t e dependable. The v a l u e of t h e C h r o n i c l e as a p r i m a r y s o u r c e has been d i s c u s s e d . A nnales Oambriae. Three e d i t i o n s e x i s t : I t h e l ' s , P h i l l i m o r e ' s , Stevenson's. The Welsh A n n a l s a r e of l i t t l e r e a l v a l u e h e r e . A s s e r ' s L i f e of A l f r e d t h e G r e a t . B e s t e d i t i o n s : G i l e ' s , Conybeare's, Cooke's, Jane's. A s s e r ' s work has a l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r the p e r i o d of A l f r e d . A t t e n b o r o u g h , E. The Laws, of t h e E a r l i e s t Anglo-Saxon K i n g s , E d i t o r - T r a n s l a t o r , E. A t t e n b o r o u g h , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922. T h i s i s a good e d i t i o n of the e a r l y dooms down t o the time of A t h e l s t a n . Bede. H i s t o r i a e c c l e s i a s t i c a g e n t i s Anglorum. I n Plummer's e d i t i o n of Bede's "Work, t o g e t h e r w i t h The  H i s t o r y of Abbots, and, The E p i s t l e to i E c g h e r h t . -; - 4 Bede. Opera H i s t o r i c a , 2 v o l s . , O x ford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 189 6. "' S e v e r a l o t h e r e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n s e x i s t . ,j An e s t i m a t e of Bede's work has been g i v e n . G i l d a s . De E x c i d i o e t Gonquesto B r i t a n n i a e , E d i t o r , J . S t e v e n -son, London, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y P r e s s , 1838; E d i t o r J . Mommsen, Monumenta Germaniae H i s t o r i c a , Auch., A n t . X I I I , 1-85, 1898. Not of much v a l u e h e r e . Haddan, A., and, Stubbs, W. C o u n c i l s and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Docu- ments R e l a t i n g t o Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , 3 v o l s . , Ox-f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1869-78. Most of t h e c h a r t e r s b e l o n g t o a l a t e r p e r i o d . 130 Harmer, F. S e l e c t E n g l i s h h i s t o r i c a l Documents of the N i n t h  and Tenth C e n t u r i e s , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1914. Of. remarks above. Hearne, T. Hemingi C h a r t u l a r i u m e c c l e s i a e W i g o r n i e n s i s , 2 v o l s . , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1723. Now out of p r i n t and v e r y r a r e . R e f e r r e d t o i n t r e a t -i s e as Heming Documents. Hoare, R. R e g i s t r u m W i l t u n e n s e Saxonicum et Latinum, London, "1827. • ~ : : A l l t h e s e documents are .re quoted i n Kemble's Codex. H e r o i c Poems: Beovjulf, Tinneshuck, WaJhere, Deor, Widseth, The Wanderer, The S e a f a r e r , and L e s s e r Fragments. There a re numerous e d i t i o n s of Beowulf and a f e w of th e l e s s e r known poems. Sweet, Wyatt, E a r l e , B r i g h t , S e d g e f i e l d , C r a i g i e , Chadwick, Chambers, Kershaw, and Gordon are among t h e b e s t e d i t o r s . The v a l u e o f t h e s e poems has been g i v e n . Kemble, J". Codex D i p l o m a t i o u s A e v i S a x o h i c a , 6 v o l s . , London, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 18,39-40. C o n t a i n s 1,369 documents; among the b e s t c o l l e c t i o n s . Liebermann, F. Die Gesetze., der An g e l s a c h s e n , 3 v o l s . , H a l l e , Max Niemeyer, 1903-16. .Xiebermann's c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a l l the t e x t s , t h a t are g i v e n i n Schmid's Gesetze and some a d d i t i o n a l docu-ments. I t i s one of t h e most complete e d i t i o n s of t h e dooms. Monumenta Germaniae H i s t o r i c a . A u s p i c u s S o c i e t a s A p e r i e n d i s F o n t i b u s Rerum Germanicarum M e d i i A e V i , E d i d i t , G.H.Pertz, Hanover, 1826; l a t e r s e r i e s , E d i t o r , T. Mommsen, e t . a l , B e r l i n , 1877, and s i n c e . T h i s i s the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n of documents p e r t a i n i n g t o e a r l y M e d i e v a l Germanic h i s t o r y e x i s t i n g . Monumenta H i s t o r i c a B r i t a n n i c a . Y o l . I t o t h e Norman Conquest, ~ r x e p a r e a " - ^ ^ Sharp, London, 1848. These volumes are l o n g out of p r i n t , e x i s t i n g c o p i e s are v e r y r a r e ; a l l t h e document's''."are t o be found i n , o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s . N a p i e r , A., and, Stevenson, "W. The Crawford C o l l e c t i o n of E a r l y  C h a r t e r s and Documents now i n t h e B o d l e i n L i b r a r y , Oxford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1895. N i n e t e e n documents, 739-1150 A.D..; v e r y e l a b o r a t e n o t e s . 151 Nennuis. Nennu H i s t o r i a B r i t t o n u m , E d i t o r , J . Stevenson, Lon-don, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1858. G a l e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i s t h e b e s t . T h i s has no v a l u e f o r t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s . Norse Toetxj. Corpus P o e t i c u m B o r e a l e , E d i t o r s , G. Y i g f u s s o n and F. Y. P o w e l l , 2 v o l s . , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1885. T h i s i s a s t a n d a r d e a r l j r e d i t i o n . There are many e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Norse * P o e t r y . Kershaw's t r a n s l a t i o n s were used here. The Norse P o e t r y had a l i m i t e d v a l u e as p r i m a r y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . Schmid, R. D i e Gesetze der A n g e l s a c h s e n , L i e p z i g , 1832; 2d ed. (much e n l a r g e d ) , 1858. S u p e r i o r t o Thorpe's c o l l e c t i o n but i n f e r i o r t o L i e b -ermann's. Stevenson, W. P I . , and, Duigan, W. The Anglo-Saxon Documents Re-l a t i n g t o S h r o p s h i r e , A.D. 664 t o 1004, Shrewsbury, Shrop-s h i r e A r c h a e l o g i c a l and N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , 1911. The documents are t o be found i n o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s . S tubbs, V/, S e l e c t C h a r t e r s , Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1875; r e v . ed., 1921. Few of t h e C h a r t e r s b e l o n g t o t h i s e a r l y a p e r i o d . Thorpe, B. Diplomatarum A n g l i c u m A e v i S a x o n i c i , London, Mac-rnillan, 1865. 325 documents c o v e r i n g t h e p e r i o d 605-1066 A.D. w i t h a t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e Anglo-Saxon. Thorpe, B. A e l f r i c H o m i l i e s , 2 v o l s . , w i t h T r a n s l a t i o n , Lon-don, R. T a y l o r , f o r A e l f r i c S o c i e t y , 1844-46. Of no p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e h e r e . W h i t e l o c k , D. Anglo-Saxon W i l l s , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933. M i s s W h i t e l o c k ' s c o l l e c t i o n of w i l l s i s t h e most com-p l e t e i n t h i s s p e c i a l f i e l d . W i l k i n s , D. Leges A n g l o - S a x o n i c a l , London, Longman, Greene and Company, 1737. T h i s i s the e a r l i e s t of the b e t t e r known s e r i e s of documents t h a t have been p u b l i s h e d . W i l k i n s ' c o l l e c t i o n i s v e r y r a r e ; few c o p i e s e x i s t on t h i s C o n t i n e n t . 132 SECONDARY SOURCES Adams, H., e t a l . Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law, Boston, L i t t l e Brown and Company, 1876. ' These essays r e p r e s e n t sound s c h o l a r s h i p a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e more t h a n h a l f a c e n t u r y o l d . B o i s s o n n a d e , P. L i f e and Work i n M e d i e v a l Europe, New York Knopf, 1957. ' G e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t of M e d i e v a l economic h i s t o r y . B r i g h t , W. Cha p t e r s of E a r l y E n g l i s h Church H i s t o r y , Oxford, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1895. Among the b e s t h i s t o r i e s of the Church i n Saxon t i m e s . Cam, H. L o c a l Government i n F r a n c i a and England. London, Meth-uen, 1912. Compact t r e a t m e n t of l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y . C f . B i b l i o g r a p h y , G e n e r a l References. Chadwick, H . f i O r i g i n s of the E n g l i s h N a t i o n , Cambridge, U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1907. V a l u a b l e f o r t h e e a r l y p e r i o d . Chadwick, H. K. S t u d i e s on Anglo-Saxon I n s t i t u t i o n s , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1905. Chadwick, H. The H e r o i c Age, Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1912. Shows t h e v a l u e of t h e H e r o i c P o e t r y as source mater-i a l . Chambers, R.W, England b e f o r e the Norman Conquest, London, Long-man, Greene and Company, 1928. A n a r r a t i v e ; much source m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d . Dopsch, A. The Economic and S o c i a l Foundations of European C i v -i l i z a t i o n , New York, H a r c o u r t , Brace and Company, 1957. The work of a German h i s t o r i a n embodying a tremendous amount of h i s t o r i c a l l e a r n i n g . E l t o n , C. O r i g i n s of E n g l i s h H i s t o r y , London, Q,uaretch, 1870. T r e a t s the v e r y e a r l i e s t age. Freeman, E.P,, H i s t o r y of t h e Norman Conquest, Oxford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1875-79. Chapter I I I , V o l . I , has a v a l u e f o r i t s treatment of Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s . Freeman b e l i e v e d l i t t l e change had t a k e n p l a c e s i n c e Saxon t i m e s . 135 G i l e s , J". L i f e ^ a n d Times of A l f r e d t h e G r e a t , London, B e l l , 1 8 4 8 . I n f e r i o r t o t h e works of Plummer and Lees on t h e same t o p i c . G ras, 11.S, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Economic H i s t o r y , London, Harper, 1922. Good g e n e r a l work i n economic h i s t o r y . Green, J"Jl- The Making of England, London, M a c m i l l a n , 1885. Green seems t o have been p r e s e n t ; r e a d a b l e but not always dependable. Gummere, F. n Germanic O r i g i n s , Hew York, S c r i b n e r s ' Sons, 1892. Good i d e a s d e r i v e d f r om H e r o i c L i t e r a t u r e . H a l l a m , H. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England, Y o l . I , London, Longman, Greene and Company, 1864. Renowned i n i t s day; o u t - o f - d a t e e n t i r e l y . Hearn, W. The Aryan Household, London, Longman, Greene and Company, 1879. Good V i c t o r i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Aryan i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hodgkin, R.-H, H i s t o r y of t h e Anglo-Saxons, 2 v o l s . , Oxford, U n i -v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935. I n t e r e s t i n g l y w r i t t e n ^ w e l l I l l u s t r a t e d , weak on the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t , embodies much of r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n a r c h e o l o g i c a l l i n e s . H odgkin, T. The H i s t o r y of England from the E a r l i e s t Times t o  t h e Norman Gonquest, London, Longman, Greene and Company, 1906. C h i e f l y n a r r a t i v e , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s of i n s t i t u t i o n s ; q u i t e sound s c h o l a r s h i p . l o l l i f f e , J.£/tPre-Eeudai England, Oxford, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955. A d e t a i l e d s t u d y of l u t i s h Kent b e f o r e t h e Norman Conquest. l o l l i f f e, ILtj, The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l England, London, B l a c k , 1937. A work of e x c e p t i o n a l m e r i t . ' Kemble, J . The Saxons i n England, 2 v o l s . , London, Longman, Greene, and Company, 1848. A work of much n o t e ; the most e x h a u s t i v e s t u d y of Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s made at any t i m e . Now o u t - o f - d a t e but one of the s o u r c e s t h a t cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . K e n d r i c k , T. A r c h e o l o g y i n England and Wales, London, Methuen, 1932. One of the b e s t works on a r c h e o l o g y of England. 134 K e n d r i c k , T. H i s t o r y of t h e V i k i n g s , London, Methuen, 1950. One of t h e b e s t works on t h i s t o p i c . Lappenberg, G~. H i s t o r y of England under the Anglo-Saxons. 2 v o l s . , T r a n s l a t e d from German by B. Thorpe, London, Mur-r a y , 1848. P a r t V d e a l s w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s ; the views are German-i s t . L a r s o n , L J t The K i n g ' s Household i n England b e f o r e t h e Norman ' Conquest, Madison, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , B u l l e t i n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1904. Sound p i e c e of r e s e a r c h . L e e s , B. L i f e and Times of Alfred t h e G r e a t , London, Putnam, 1915. The c h a p t e r on t h e A l f r e d i a n s t a t e i s good. Liebermann, F. The N a t i o n a l Assembly i n the Saxon P e r i o d , H a l l e , Niemeyer, 1915. F u l l e s t t r e a t m e n t of the W i t a n y e t w r i t t e n . L i p s o n , E. The Economic H i s t o r y o f England: M i d d l e Ages, New York, M a c r n i l l a n , 1929. C h a pter I d e a l s w i t h t h e Saxon P e r i o d . Lunt, W. H i s t o r y of England, New York, Harper, 1928. Pages 64-83 d e a l i n a g e n e r a l way w i t h 3a.xon i n s t i t u -t i o n s . Maine, PI.J.-S.Ancient Law, New York, 1875. A work of o u t s t a n d i n g m e r i t i n i t s day. Maine, Hj,£Village Communities of t h e E a s t and West. New York, H o l t , 1889. A s t u d y i n Arj-an i n s t i t u t i o n a l developments; Baden-P o w e l l has a s s a i l e d Maine's t h e o r i e s i n h i s work on t h e same t o p i c . M a i t l a n d , F.W- Domesday Book and Beyond, Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1897. Economic s t u d y of t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y c o n d i t i o n s . M o r r i s , W.A C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England t o 1280, New York, M a c r n i l l a n , 1950. Pages 1-125 d e a l w i t h the Saxon P e r i o d i n a c l e a r , s c h o l a r l y manner. M o r r i s , W.^ . The F r a n k p l e d g e , New York, M a c r n i l l a n (London, Long-man, Greene and Company), 1910. Chapter I d e a l s w i t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the Saxon P e r i o d . 135 Moss, H.S. The B i r t h of the M i d d l e Ages, Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1935. — Chapters I I , IX are v a l u a b l e f o r the s t u d y o f the Saxon P e r i o d . P a l g r a v e , F. The R i s e and P r o g r e s s of the E n g l i s h Commonwealth 2 v o l s . , London, Murray, 1832. ' A work of note i n i t s day; now q u i t e o u t - o f - d a t e . P e a r s o n , 0. H i s t o r y of England i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, 2 v o l s . , ' London, B e l l and Daldy, 1867. S e v e r a l c h a p t e r s d e a l w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s ; the views are m i d - V i c t o r i a n . P e t i t - D u t a i l l e s , C. S t u d i e s and Notes Supplementary t o Stubbs' H i s t o r y ( A l s o , f u r t h e r S t u d i e s , 19291, Manchester, 1904. D i s c u s s e s t h e more d e b a t a b l e passes i n Stubbs' work. Plummer, C. L i f e and Times o f A l f r e d t he G r e a t , Oxford, C l a r -endon P r e s s , 1902. A s c h o l a r l y work t h a t has not been s u r p a s s e d i n t h i s f i e l d . P o l l o c k , F., and, M a i t l a n d , F. H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Law, London, M a c m i l l a n , 1898. A c l a s s i c i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sphere. P o l l o c k , F. The Land Laws, London, M a c m i l l a n , 1896. Chapter I I d e a l s w i t h the Saxon l a n d l a w s . Oman, 0. England b e f o r e t h e Norman Conquest, London, Methuen, 1910. A p o l i t i c a l n a r r a t i v e t h a t g i v e s much a t t e n t i o n t o the t r i b a l wars. D i s c u s s i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t e r s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t . An a b l e work i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e . Ramsay, J.H, The F o u n d a t i o n s of England, London, Swan Sonnen-s c h e i n , 1898. S e v e r a l c h a p t e r s d e a l w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s ; among the b e s t l a t e V i c t o r i a n works on Saxon H i s t o r y . Round, 3".H, F e u d a l England, London, Swan Sonnenschein, 1909. T h i s and the work on the Commune of London are q u i t e sound. S e a r l e , W. Anglo-Saxon B i s h o p s , K i n g s and N o b l e s , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y I-ress, 1892. The geneology t a b l e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y good. 136 Seebohm, F. The E n g l i s h V i l l a g e Community. London, Longman Greene and Company, 189 6. 5 Muoh of Seebohm's work has been d i s c r e d i t e d ; however, h i s c o n t e n t i o n s t h a t more went i n t o t h e making of England t h a n was i m p o r t e d i n the k e e l s of t h e Germanic i n v a d e r s d i d much t o o f f s e t the d i s t i n c t l y Ger-manist i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s of Stubbs and Kembie. Seebohm, F. T r i b a l Custom i n Anglo-Saxon Law, London, Longman, Greene and Company, 1911. Seebohm was a Romanist who b e l i e v e d i n the c o n t i n u i t y of Romano-Celtic i n s t i t u t i o n s . S o c i a l . H i s t o r y of England. E d i t o r s , H. T r a i l and J . Mann, Lon-don, C a s s e l l , 1899. R a t h e r elementary. S t e e n s t r u p , J . Normannerne, Copenhagen, 1878-82. A work by a C o n t i n e n t a l s c h o l a r worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Stephenson, C. Borough and Town—A Study i n Urban O r i g i n s i n  England, Cambridge, M e d i e v a l Academy of America, 1933. The b e s t s t u d y of i t s k i n d ; some of t h e i d e a s are open f o r c r i t i c i s m , however. S t e n t o n , F. The F i r s t C e n t u r y of E n g l i s h F e u d a l i s m , Oxford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1932. . D e a l s i n d i r e c t l y w i t h l o r d s h i p I n Saxon t i m e s . Stubbs, W. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of England, V o l . I , Oxford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1879. I n s p i t e of t h e amount of r e s e a r c h work t h a t has been c a r r i e d out s i n c e Stubbs' time t h i s remains one of the b e s t s t u d i e s on e a r l y E n g l i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y . P e t i t - D u t a i l l e s ' S t u d i e s throw l i g h t on some of the more d e b a t a b l e passages. Thompson, J.>CAn Economic and S o c i a l H i s t o r y of the M i d d l e Ages, New York, The C e n t u r y Co., 1929. Thompson, J.'rC H i s t o r y of t h e M i d d l e Ages, New York, Norton, 1931. Thrupp, I . The Anglo-Saxon Home, London, Longman, Greene and Company, 1862. A v e r y r e a d a b l e book, a l t h o u g h w e l l over h a l f a cen-t u r y o l d . 137 T u r n e r , i i . The H i s t o r y o f t h e Anglo-3axons, 3 v o l s . , London, Longman, Greene and Company, 18S8; P h i l a d e l p h i a , Carey and H a r t , 1841. Toda3?- Turner's works cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as r e l i a b l e s econdary s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s e monumental volumes cannot be passed over by any student of Saxon h i s -t o r y . The s e c t i o n on t h e Witanagemot, Book T i l l , V o l . I I , i s among t h e b e s t accounts of the Witan t o be found any-where. The t r e a t m e n t of A l f r e d t h e Great i s h a r d l y s u r -passed. Turner was.a Romantic w r i t e r and t h e shadow of • h i s age c o l o r s h i s h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . V i n o g r a d o f f , P. Custom and R i g h t , O s l o , Aschehoug, 1925. The c h a p t e r s on Custom and Law, and F a m i l y O r g a n i z a -t i o n , a r e w o r t h y of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . V i n o g r a d o f f , P. Roman Law i n M e d i e v a l Europe, London, Harper, 1909. V a l u a b l e f o r t h e s t u d y of t h e growth of M e d i e v a l con-c e p t i o n s of l a w among t h e Germanic p e o p l e s . V i n o g r a d o f f , P. The Growth of t h e Manor, London, Macmillan,1905, V i n o g r a d o f f s u p p o r t e d t h e German!st s c h o o l ; h i s econ-omic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are q u i t e at v a r i a n c e w i t h t h o s e of Seebohm. V i n o g r a d o f f , P. The Growth of t h e Manor, London, A l l e n , 1911. A d e t a i l e d studj^ of m a n o r i a l o r i g i n s . V i n o g r a d o f f , P. V i l l a i n a g e i n England, Oxford, C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1892. A s t u d y i n economic h i s t o r y of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . W i n g f i e l d - S t r a t f o r d , E. The H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h C i v i l i z a t i o n , New York, H a r c o u r t and B r a c e , 1928. Chapter I I d e a l s w i t h Anglo-Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s . GENERAL REFERENCES Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y . Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1913. C o r b e t t , W. England and E n g l i s h I n s t i t u t i o n s t o about 800 A.D., V o l . I I , Chapter X V I I . C o r b e t t , W. F o u n d a t i o n s of t h e Kingdom of England, 800 t o 954 A.D., V o l . I l l , C hapter XIV. H a v e r f i e l d , F. The Na t u r e of t h e Saxon Conquest, V o l . I , Chapter X I I I . P h i l l p o t t s , 3. The C o n t i n e n t a l Germans, V o l . I I , Chapter X I I I . Whitney, J . The C o n v e r s i o n of t h e Teutons, V o l . I I , Chapter XVI, P a r t B. 138 E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a r m i o a . 1 1 t h ed., Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1910. C o n t a i n s a r t i c l e s on a l l phases of Saxon l i f e . E n c y c l o p e d i a of S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . E d i t o r s , E. Seligman and A. Johnson, New York, M a c r n i l l a n , 1930. A r t i c l e s on F a m i l y and K i n s h i p . PERIODICAL LITERATURE Adams, G. Anglo-Saxon F e u d a l i s m , American H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . V I I , pp. 11-35, 1901. — — — — A s h l e y , V/. E a r l y T e u t o n i c S o c i e t y , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . V I I I , pp. 236-61, 1904. " A s h l e y , W. The Anglo-Saxon Township, Q u a r t e r l y Review of Econ- omics, V o l . V l I I , pp. 345-60, 1894. B r o w n b i l l , J . The T r i b a l Hidage, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . X X V I I , pp. 625-40, 1913." C o r b e t t , W. The T r i b a l Hidage, T r a n s a c t i o n s of the R o y a l H i s -t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of G r e a t B r i t a i n , V o l . XIV, pp. 187-200, 1875. D a v i s , H. Comments on Anglo-Saxon Law, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Re-v i e w , V o l . X X X V I I I , pp. 418-52, 1915. E l t o n , C. E a r l y Forms of L a n d h o l d i n g among the Teutons, Eng-l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . I , pp. 427-57, 1886. Howarth, H. Remarks on t h e Anglo-Saxon C h r o n i c l e , E n g l i s h H i s -t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XV, pp. 748-56, 1900, Howarth, H. The Germans of Caesar, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . X X I I I , pp. 417-55, 1908. Jenks, E. The Problem of t h e Hundred, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Re-view, V o l . X I , p. 510, 1896. l o l l i f f e , J.£,/?.The Hidage of Kent, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XLIV, p. 612, 1929. L i t t l e , A. G e s i t h s and Thegns, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . IV, pp. 723-39, 1889. M a i t l a n d , F. The O r i g i n of t h e Borough, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Re-view, V o l . X I , pp. 13-19, 1898. 139 M o r r i s , \'L £,The O r i g i n of the S h e r i f f i n t h e Anglo-Saxon P e r i o d , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . L I , pp. 20-49, 1916. Palmer, F. The Saxon I n v a s i o n and t h e Nature of the S e t t l e m e n t , T r a n s a c t i o n s of the R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Great B r i t -a i n , V o l . I I , pp. 173-86, 1873.' P o l l o c k , F. Anglo-Saxon Law, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . X I , p. 209, 1893. R e i d , R.. Baronage and Thegnage, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XLV, pp.'78-94, 1920. Round, J.N, The Domesday Manor, E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XV, p. 78, 1900; V o l . XXIV, pp. 62-64, 1919; V o l . XIX, p. 92, 1904. Salzman, L. Hides and V i r g a t e s , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XIX, p. 92, London, 1904. T a i t , J. H i d e s , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l , X V I I , pp. 280-90, 1912. V i n o g r a d o f f , P. ' f o l k l a n d , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . V I I , p.<- 1, 1893. V i n o g r a d o f f , P. The H i d e , E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XIX, pp. 503-9, 1904. T h i s t h e s i s was t y p e d by: U. MIMEO & TYPEWRITER GO. I.G.I.Martin,M.T. Operator 

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