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Canadian confederation poetry, 1855-1880 Dalton, Kathleen Ellen (Sister Mary Katherine) 1964

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CANADIAN CONFEDERATION POETRY 1855 - 1880'  •by SISTER MARY KATHERINE (DALTON) B.A., MOUNT SAINT VINCENT COLLEGE, 1953  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Mas.ter o f A r t s i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  t o the  THE- UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'  1  March, 1961+  In presenting the  requirements  British  Columbia,  available mission  for I  agree  extensive  representatives.  c a t i o n .of  this  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department  by the  for  the  at  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I  this  further thesis  agree for  that  i s understood  that  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8 Canada  .  per-  o r by  c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  permission*  freely  scholarly  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  of  5  in partial  degree  and s t u d y *  It  thesis  that  c o p y i n g of  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d his  thesis  an a d v a n c e d  for,reference  for  this  •  publi-  be a l l o w e d  II  ABSTRACT  Even a h a s t y List  reveals  perusal  of D r . W.E. Matters'  the  vast  quantity  Canada d u r i n g the  last  half  This cut  thesis  i s . an a t t e m p t t o  of t h i s  poetry  and t o  1880,  quantitative is  movement  to  suppose  ticularly a  lively  over  the  output.  It  there that  is  explore  the  qualitative is  values  axiomatic  and i t  is  that  a  cross1855-  i n such  where  therefore  Confederation era  there  reasonable  was a it  a  par-  called  for  response. such a response  is  and p r o f i t a b l e  at  convictions  least of  evidenced i n  and p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g  for  they  the  have  average  aesthetic  recorded  the  value  consideration.  the that  both  con-  And i f to  their  aspirations  Canadian i n the  and f o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  makes them w o r t h y o f  make i t  any a s p i r i n g p o e t s .  s h o u l d be n o e s p e c i a l l y  poetry,  century.  and evaluate  w i t h c i r c u l a t i o n wide enough t o  venient  ceding  nineteenth  f l u i d p e r i o d i n Canadian growth,  v a r i o u s magazines  there  life,  since  the  published i n  a period of f i f t e e n years,  establish  T h a t t h e r e was  time,  of  of poetry  Check  decade  This aspect  and  prealone  Ill  Because of the quantity of material some s e l e c t i v i t y was necessary.  I t seemed advisable to discuss only such  poems as had some reference to Canada.  The poems are,  therefore, divided i n t o three classes, A f t e r the I n t r o ductory Chapter which i s devoted c h i e f l y to an explanation and recreation of the Canadian scene at the time of Confederation, Chapter I I deals with those poems P r a i s i n g Canada's Beauty; Chapter I I I - those P r a i s i n g Country as Country; Chapter Iv - those Miscellaneous-Mentioning federation.  Con-  Chapter V i s a b r i e f evaluation only, since  the poems are i n d i v i d u a l l y evaluated throughout. The study, confined as i t i s to a period between I85>£-I880, i s obviously r e s t r i c t e d , as i t excludes many of the better, or better-known, poems particularly those t  of Charles; G.D.  Roberts and B l i s s Carman.  N or was i t  deemed advisable to include the French Canadian poems of • which.there i s a considerable number.  The poems included  have been analysed, more or l e s s , and whatever may  be  t h e i r merit i n d i v i d u a l l y , they are, en masse, a s i g n i f i cant contribution to Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . Appendix I gives the musical setting f o r an adaptation of "My  Own  Canadian Home".  Appendix I I records i n f u l l "Our New  Dominion".  17  The Bibliography i s c h i e f l y a Check L i s t , and includes a few works not recorded i n Dr. W.E.  Matters  1  Check List«  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I owe an acknowledgement of gratitude to Dr.Donald G. Stephens f o r h i s encouragement and guidance i n preparing t h i s t h e s i s ; t o Dr. W.E.  Watters, without whose Check L i s t t h i s work would have  been an insuperable  taskj  t o a l l the l i b r a r i a n s *  Mr. B a s i l  Stuart-Stubbs of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the others i n the Toronto P u b l i c Library, Queen's; University, M c G i l l , Bibliothegue St. Sulpice, Dalhousie and Brown University, f o r t h e i r courtesy and co-operation.  I also wish t o thank the  Superiors of my Congregation who made i t possible f o r me t o v i s i t the various l i b r a r i e s f o r sources of material.  TABLE OP CONTENTS'  CHAPTER I. II. III.. IV... V.  '  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  .2  POEMS CELEBRATING CANADA'S BEAUTY  IO  PRAISING COUNTRY AS COUNTRY.  36  MISCELLANEOUS-MENTIONING CONFEDERATION........  60  EVALUATION  81  APPENDIX I .  MUSICAL SETTING- My Own Canadian Home...  93  APPENDIX I I .  SUPPLEMENTARY POEM  9^  CHECK LIST - BIBLIOGRAPHY.  96  INTRODUCTION "Perhaps there i s no branch of l i t e r a t u r e with which the Canadian mind i s l e s s acquainted than poetry; and i t i s hot without a good deal of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e that an author can venture to publish any work, however small."  P r e c i s e l y at the time that J . T. Breeze expressed  these sentiments i n the introduction to h i s A- C o l l e c t i o n of Poems published i n l865» the Reverend Edward Hartley was showing a l i k e concern:  "There i s probably no country i n the world where the claims  of native l i t e r a t u r e are so l i t t l e f e l t and where every e f f o r t i n poetry has been met with so much coldness and indifference as i n I Canada." Yet, i n the face of such seeming apathy, Canadians wrote and published an astonishing amount of poetry during the l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century.  This i s ample evidence of a c u l t u r a l awakening.  And there were many opportunities and means of bringing t h i s poetry before the p u b l i c .  Several publications were eager for contributions:  The Canadian Monthly and National Review was founded i n l8?2 and continued f o r ten years; The Nation, o f f i c i a l organ of "Canada F i r s t " , appeared from 187^  to 1876.  Under the stimulus of Confederation came  also the New Dominion Monthly, Montreal, 1867-1879; Stewart's L i t e r a r y Quarterly, S t . John, 1867-1872; the Canadian L i t e r a r y Journal, Toronto, 1870-1871; continued as the Canadian Magazine, 1871-1872; the Maritime I Edward Hartley Dewart, "Introductory Essay", Selections from Canadian Poets (Montreal, 1864), p.X.  3.  Monthly, Halifax, 1&73-1875; and the Harp, Montreal, 1874-1882, organ of the I r i s h  Canadian.  The verses that flooded these magazines and other p e r i o d i c a l s at the time of Confederation were an overflow of Canadian enthusiasm,  and  i f f o r the most part, they were undistinguished, they were s i g n i f i c a n t i n that they r e f l e c t e d the self-conscious attitude of the poets i n t h e i r desire to be Canadian as d i s t i n c t from B r i t i s h or American.  It  i s e s p e c i a l l y under t h i s aspect that Canadian poetry can be studied. But i t i s also to be hoped that i n a closer scrutiny at l e a s t some of the poems may disclose "the understanding heart."  For i f as Emerson  says, "The poet has a new thought; ... a whole new experience to unfold ... f o r the experience of each age requires a new confession ..." then the abundance of poetic outburst during Canadian Confederation i s understandable.  Exoteric as i s the poetry of t h i s era, i t would seem  to l a y i t s e l f open f o r hasty perusal and hasty condemnation.  And  c r i t i c s have perused i t and condemned i t f o r i t s sentimentalism and i t s s l a v i s h adherence to the imagery and technique of the E n g l i s h Romantic poets of f i f t y years before, so that most of the l a t e nineteenth century Canadian poets "are known now only to the more  2 devoted student of Canadian l e t t e r s . " It must be admitted that the poetry of t h i s period has marked Romantic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - i n t e r e s t i n natural scenery, sentimental attitudes, subjectivism, idealism, l i b e r a l i s m , nationalism,  2 Norman Shrive, "What Happened to Pauline," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , XIlKSumraer, 1962), 27.  humaxri-tarianism, i n t e r e s t i n the past, i n t e r e s t i n common t h i n g s , r e v o l t against oppression, pictureque language, and b e l i e f i n the p o t e n t i a l o f man.  Yet, i f there i s t o be some a p p r e c i a t i o n of what  the poets of Confederation were t r y i n g t o express, there must a l s o be an awareness of the contemporary t a s t e s and norms which i n f l u e n c e d them.  Before c a s t i n g them a l l aside as i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , an honest  survey should be made t o determine how t h e i r poetry r e f l e c t s Canadian awareness o f n a t i o n a l d e s t i n y ; how i t may be a "new confession" of a new age. I t may be asked, "When does a poem become a s u i t a b l e object f o r study"?  I f the answer i s - f o r d e l i g h t - f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n - f o r  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f sound and meaning - then only the f i n e r poems would be worth s c r u t i n y .  But i s i t not l e g i t i m a t e t o make a study o f the poems  of a d e f i n i t e era, not so much t o explore t h e i r a e s t h e t i c value as t o discover the source o f the p o e t i c urge.  And i f the poem should be so  devoid of a l l substance as t o be outside the norm of l i t e r a r y a r t , may i t not s t i l l f i n d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n what i t r e f l e c t s .  I f there  must be an "Apologia" f o r the poetry o f the Confederation era, Edward Hartley Dewart s u p p l i e s i t : ... When the poets o f other c o u n t r i e s s i n g of the b i r d s and the flowers, the mountains and streams o f those lands, whose h i s t o r y i s s t a r r e d with deathless names, and r i c h with the mellow and hazy l i g h t of romance, every reference t o those immortal types of beauty or grandeur commands sympathy and admiration. But l e t a Canadian bard presume t o t h i n k that the w i l d - f l o w e r s which formed the garlands of h i s sunny childhood, the sweet song-birds that sang him t o sleep i n i n f a n c y , o r the magnificent l a k e s , f o r e s t s and r i v e r s of h i s n a t i v e l a n d , are as worthy o f being enshrined  5 i n l y r i c numbers, and capable of awaking memories of days as b r i g h t , a s s o c i a t i o n s as tender, and scenery as b e a u t i f u l , as ever was sung by hoary harper of the olden time, and he i s more l i k e l y to secure contempt than.sympathy or admiration. .*• There i s a l a r g e c l a s s of persons who could s c a r c e l y conceive i t p o s s i b l e that a Canadian l y r i c might have as deep and t r u e f e e l i n g as those they have,most admired; or that a Canadian Poet might be as h i g h l y g i f t e d as some of the f a v o r i t e names who are crowned with the wreath of unfading fame. And yet such things are not altogether inconceivable. B u t . i f a M i l t o n or a Shakespeare was to a r i s e among us, i t i s f a r from c e r t a i n that h i s merit would be recognized. The mass of readers f i n d i t easier and s a f e r to re-echo the approbation of others, - to p r a i s e those whom a l l p r a i s e , - than to form an i n t e l l i g e n t and independent judgment of t h e i r own. ... To those who are best acquainted with the poetry of Canada, the wonder i s , not that so l i t t l e has been achieved, but that so much poetry has been w r i t t e n i n s p i t e of such unpropitious circumstances. ... But i f Memory cannot draw r i c h m a t e r i a l s f o r poetry consecrated to fame, Hope unfolds the l o f t i e r i n s p i r a t i o n of a future b r i g h t with promise. I f we cannot point to a past r i c h with h i s t o r i c names, we have the i n s p i r i n g spectacle of a great country i n her y o u t h f u l might, g i r d i n g h e r s e l f f o r a race f o r an honourable place among the nations of the world. In our grand and gloomy f o r e s t s - i n our b r i l l i a n t s k i e s and v a r i e d seasons i n our magnificent lakes and r i v e r s - i n our hoary mountains; and f r u i t f u l v a l l e y s , e x t e r n a l Nature u n v e i l s her most majestic forms to e x a l t and i n s p i r e the t r u l y p o e t i c s o u l ; ... ?  Here i s an "awareness of n a t i o n a l destiny", and the Reverend Dewart has answered not only the c r i t i c s of h i s day but those l a t e r c r i t i c s who decried the "romanticism" of Canadian poetry at t h i s p e r i o d .  I f the Old World's lakes and woods, i t s flowers  and b i r d s had i n s p i r e d immortal poems, why not t h i s great  New  World with i t s "grand and gloomy f o r e s t s - b r i l l i a n t s k i e s magnificent l a k e s and r i v e r s - hoary mountains and valleys"?  3  - •  fruitful  A f t e r a l l , these had not been w r i t t e n about as y e t .  Dewart, pp.  XIV-XV  6.  "Seranus", i n the Preface to the Canadian Birthday Book throws more l i g h t on the contemporary scene:. ...Nature teaches to true Poets a pure and unerring morality of her own, I have thought that - i n our young and b e a u t i f u l country, where we may assume a comparative immunity from low moral standards - i t would be safe to allow our writers to show us the f a l l or the l e a f , the b i r t h of the flower and the d a i l y marvel of the sunset, both as they bear upon human l i f e and i t s experiences, and as they exist b e a u t i f u l l y i n themselves. ^ But Reverend Dewart knew that the establishment of a nation's l i t e r a t u r e involves more than an appreciation of i t s beauty: ...shallow and reprehensible i s the idea, very widely entertained, that, because we can procure s u f f i c i e n t quantities of mental aliment from other lands, i t i s superfluous to make any attempt to b u i l d up a l i t e r a t u r e of our own. A national l i t e r a t u r e i s an e s s e n t i a l element i n the formation of a national character. I t i s not merely the record of a country's mental progress: i t i s the expression of i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e , the bond of national unity, and the guide of national energy. I t may be f a i r l y questioned, whether the whole range of h i s t o r y presents the spectacle of a people firmly united p o l i t i c a l l y , without the subtle but powerful cement of a p a t r i o t i c l i t e r a t u r e . On the other hand, i t i s easy to show, that, i n the older countries of the world, the names of distinguished poets, enshrined i n the national heart, are the watchwords of national union, and i t has become a part of the patriotism of the people to honor and love t h e i r memory. ...And what Is .more-to be deprecated than neglect of our most meritorious authors, i s the almost universal absence of i n t e r e s t and f a i t h i n a l l indigenous l i t e r a r y productions, and the undisturbed s a t i s f a c t i o n with a state of things that, r i g h t l y viewed, should be regarded as a national reproach. 5 k S. Frances Harrison, Seranus (pseud), Canadian Birthday Book. (Toronto, 1887), p. 4  5  E. H. Dewart, pp.  IX-X  7  At a time when Canada was s t r u g g l i n g desperately t o a t t a i n some form o f p o l i t i c a l u n i t y i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that a p a t r i o t i c theme runs through so many of the poems of t h i s p e r i o d . they may be d i v i d e d i n t o two categories:  For the most p a r t ,  those which laud Canada as  the land o f the f r e e , the land of p l e n t y , a land whose geographic expanse o f f e r s opportunity f o r a l l who care to, a v a i l themselves of her l a r g e s s e , and those which encourage or p r a i s e Confederation as Canada's answer t o an i n f e r i o r c o l o n i a l status or t o annexation with the United S t a t e s . An understanding of the h i s t o r y of the time and o f Canada's i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l problems i s necessary f o r an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the many and v a r i e d poems of t h i s p e r i o d .  The American Revolution s t a r t e d  the idea o f the union o f B r i t i s h North America, and the American C i v i l War completed i t . Most of the advocates o f a united B r i t i s h North America were i n s p i r e d by both an admiration and a fear o f the United States.  Since that country had broken with B r i t a i n i t was growing  l i k e a young g i a n t , s t r i d i n g across the country.  I f the l o s t colonies  could thus become a great n a t i o n , why could not the remaining c o l o n i e s u n i t e and b u i l d another?  I f they d i d not seek strength i n union,  could they avoid, i n the end, being drawn under the S t a r s and S t r i p e s ? A survey o f some of the problems f a c i n g Canadians, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the years 1855 t o 1880, f o r t h i s i s the scope o f t h i s study of Confederation  Poetry, should point up the predominant motifs i n the  poems w r i t t e n or published a t t h i s time.  8.  F i r s t , the Act of Union which i n l8kl had united Upper and Lower Canada had proved unworkable.  The equal representation which i t gave  to Canada East and Canada West a l t e r n a t e l y favored, f i r s t one and the other.  By I85O Canada West had the larger population.  then  The cry  "Rep by Pop" threatened to destroy the union, but the r e a l trouble was the breakdown of the government under the weight of the union. Though i t was c l e a r that French Canadian Nationalism and English Canadian Nationalism were two d i s t i n c t and strong to be merged i n one government, yet the two areas could not part completely.  There were  problems or revenue, of the b u i l d i n g of railways and canals which had to be shared c o n j o i n t l y . Added to t h i s was/thefeexpanding West beyond the Great Lakes across the P r a i r i e s to the P a c i f i c Coast.  The 1858  Gold Rush on the  Fraser River i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the i n f l u x of American s e t t l e r s to the p r a i r i e lands made i t necessary for Canada to stake her claims. But t h i s was possible only under a united Canada, and showed not only the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of going back to mere d i v i s i o n but the necessity to go on to e s t a b l i s h a f e d e r a l system.  Public-minded  Canadians l i f t e d  t h e i r eyes to look beyond the l i m i t s of the province.  They envisioned  a much greater federal union - one stretching from sea to sea. But, potent, as these factors were i n promoting Confederation, i t took the threat of American Invasion to convince the " l i t t l e B r i t i s h colonies" that they must seek strength i n union or some day be annexed.  Fear has often been a great welder of nations, and the fear  created by the American C i v i l War,  l86l - l865» with i t s subsequent  9.  Fenian r a i d s , was perhaps the strongest force i n u n i t i n g B r i t i s h North America.  F i n a l l y , a f t e r a series of Conferences, the Dominion  of Canada was born, July 1, l867»  The ensuing years were years of  expansion, i n which there were the formation and annexing of new provinces, the b u i l d i n g of the I n t e r c o l o n i a l Railway, and the construction of a transcontinental r a i l r o a d l i n k i n g the A t l a n t i c with the P a c i f i c .  There was the r i s e and f a l l of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and  the resignation of the Conservatives i n 1873 as a r e s u l t of the famous P a c i f i c Scandal. These were exciting times.  Great p o l i t i c a l storms, beckoning  horizons, pride i n the new Dominion, a growing sense of independence, appreciation o f new-found freedoms - a l l f i n d a place i n the l i t e r a t u r e of these years.  This i s not to say, however, that a l l the poetry i s  confined to these t o p i c s .  For every p a t r i o t i c poem there are many  more "Temperance Odes", and for every poem exulting i n the joy of expanding horizons there i s another p r a i s i n g the peace and contentment of domesticity. But since i t i s Confederation Poetry that i s being submitted for an appraisal, and since some s e l e c t i v i t y i s necessary i n such a wide f i e i d , only those poems have been selected which pertain d i r e c t l y to Canada - those Celebrating Canada's Beauty; those P r a i s i n g Country as Country; and those which allude to Confederation.  10. CHAPTER I I  POEMS CELEBRATING CANADA'S BEAUTY  M. Emma Knapp voices the opinion of most of the Confederation poets who found joy and i n s p i r a t i o n i n the varied beauties of the Canadian scene when she says: It i s with no vain desire to emulate the f i n e t a l e n t s , and rare i n t e l l e c t u a l productions of the shining stars of Genius who are r e f l e c t i n g a glorious halo of radiance around the earth at the present time, or presumptuously claim for myself even the most humble place amid those who command the homage of an admiring world, that I o f f e r t h i s l i t t l e volume to the people of my native Province. '• . I would have them bear i n mind, that many o f the verses were ... inspired only by thoughts of home and homeassociations, and an admiration for a l l that i s romantic and l o v e l y i n the wild scenery on the shore of Chignecto. In t h i s vast solitude, commemorated by reminiscences of the past, there i s much to awaken feelings o f sublimity; and with the burning eloquence of a Moore or Byron, and the wonderfully b e a u t i f u l descriptive powers of a Longfellow or Bryant, I might have done a spot, so fraught with interest, f u l l justice... 6 This i s an open avowal that the i n t e r e s t s were "romantic", and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Emma Knapp c i t e s two B r i t i s h and two American poets of  the romantic t r a d i t i o n .  I t would seem that though the book of her  l y r i c s was published i n l8?2, many of the poems i n i t had been written at  an e a r l i e r period, even allowing f o r the fact that Canadian poetry  remained predominantly romantic long a f t e r the decline of romanticism i n both England and America. by 1872,  Too many prominent poets had intervened  f o r Emma Knapp not to have heard of t h e i r names: the  Victorians - Browning, Tennyson, the Rosettis, Matthew Arnold, and  6 M. Emma Knapp, "Introduction", L y r i c s of the Past and Other Poems (Saint John, 1872).  11  nearer home, Walt Whitman, who as early as 1855 aad. s t a r t l e d the l i t e r a r y world with the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s ikeaves of Grass' » Longfellow and Bryant, Byron and Moore were writing at the turn of the century or during i t s early decades.  That Emma Knapp should revert to  them as the paragons of "burning eloquence" and "beautiful descriptive powers" indicate that the Canadian's idea of greatness was, generally speaking, s t i l l linked with the past and v/ith the older lands. The only thing Canadian was the scene. A View of Montreal From the Tower of a French Cathedral The f a i r Canadian c i t y , That rose upon my sight; With l o f t y spires and s t a t e l y towers, I viewed with wrapt d e l i g h t . And the broad and noble r i v e r , Where shone the sun's bright gleam, Reflecting a l l the glorious scene, With mid-day's radiant beam. The view was b e a u t i f u l and grand! And my mind turned to the past, I t seemed so strange that the c i t y ' s s i t e Was once a forest vast. Temples of Learning- Art's high domes, Arise on every hand; The heart with admiration owns I t i s a favoured land. Where r e l i g i o n , wisdon, science Must consecrate the place; T i l l of the days long past and gone, We scarce can f i n d a trace. ? 7 Knapp, pp. 141-142  12  Obviously, there i s nothing very d i s t i n c t i v e about t h i s sort o f verse, although i t does indicate some f e e l f o r rhyme and rhythm, with s u f f i c i e n t deviation from the predominantly iambic to save i t from complete monotony.  I t i s not much more, however* than an observation  expressed i h rhyme which could probably be better expressed i n prose. There i s a preponderance  of the s t a i d descriptive adjectives - " l o f t y " ,  " s t a t e l y " , "bright", " b e a u t i f u l " , "glorious", "radiant", with the everpresent " f a i r " .  Indeed, " f a i r Canada" i s repeated so often i n the  poems of t h i s period that there would seem to have been a t a c i t understanding among the writers that i t was the one f i t form of address f o r such a land. But, Emma Knapp has recorded a s p e c i f i c response, and i n s p i t e of the i n f e r i o r verse, i t i s possible to share with her a c e r t a i n sense of wonder at the sight of a Canadian c i t y hewn from "a forest vast". Written i n much the same vein i s a s e l e c t i o n from O r i g i n a l L y r i c s By A Canadian Rhymer: Canada F a i r Canada, my native land, How my s p i r i t s t h r i l l to think of thee; Long may thy sons- a noble band Enjoy the blessings of the free For t h e i r watchword L i b e r t y .  And long may prosperity attend Thy onward march sublime, To every glorious thing a f r i e n d , Mayst thou lengthen out thy pime,  13,  Engrave thy name on the golden r o l l of Time. Again, i t i s " f a i r Canada", but praise i s reserved more f o r her moral beauty - her g i f t s of freedom and of friendship.  There i s a depth  of f e e l i n g f o r t h i s land of promise which contrasts with the rather anaemic manifestations of patriotism exhibited i n present-day Canada. I t i s , however, a matter f o r conjecture as to whether the Rhymer's " s p i r i t s " ' r e a l l y " t h r i l l e d ' " or whether he i s only c a r r i e d away by "romantic" emotionalism. The "glorious", the "golden", the "noble", the "sublime" are again evident, and though there i s nothing t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s poem from others of i t s type, s t i l l i t i s a genuine expression of admiration f o r t h i s new land. Canada by James Joseph Gahan, i s a much more lengthy poem: Land of my love] Dear Canada my homei Land of majestic streams, and mountains grandJ My heart turns ever to thee, on a distant strand Land of legend! Land of heroes brave, I h a i l thee, f i r s t - b o r n , of the sons of France May Freedom's arm be ever stretched to save, Thee, Canada, from Slavery's dark trancei This eulogy continues f o r twenty-one pages, and ends with: 0 CanadaJ Adopted land of Accept t h i s humble t r i b u t e May Peace, dear.land, with And countless ages a l l thy Q  O r i g i n a l L y r i c s By  mine of my song Happiness be thine, joys prolong. 9  A Canadian Rhymer (Toronto, 1856).  James Joseph Gahan, Canada (Quebec,  1877).  Hi.  The sentiments of the two previous poems are combined i n t h i s one.  There i s praise f o r everything, v i s i b l e and invisible,em-  phasized by frequent exclamation. "Freedom".  Canada i s synonymous with  The concept of bigness, or challenge and adventure,  i s caught i n the "majestic streams and mountains grand", but the d i c t i o n , s t i l l romantic, i n h i b i t s the concept. ness c a l l e d f o r a whole new array of adjectives.  Canada's unigue"Majestic"  and "grand" had already done t h e i r duty i n the description of Old World scenes. Maple Leaves, a c o l l e c t i o n of poems, published i n I861+, abounds i n t h i s sort of encomium: Ode to Canada Canada f a i t h f u l ! Canada f a i r ! Canada, b e a u t i f u l , blooming and rareI Canada, happiest land of the earth! . H a i l to thee, Canada! land of my b i r t h ! Land of swift r i v e r s , sweet-gliding alongI Land of my pride, and land of my song! Canada prosperous! Canada true! Canada l o y a l , and-virtuous too! Canada happiest land of the earth! H a i l thee, forever, sweet land of my b i r t h !  George Washington Johnson, Maple Leaves (Hamilton, p. 177.  1864),  1 5  My Own Canadian Home Though other hearts and other hands May love t h e i r own, and love them true; Though other homes i n other lands Possess a charm mine never knew; I t a l i a n skies may be more bright Than those of other climes may be, Yet never can another home Be h a l f as dear as mine to me. Chorus: Then give me my Canadian home My cottage home beside the h i l l Where o f t i n infancy I played I loved i n youth, I love thee s t i l l My native home! H  Maple Leaves Land of the brave! Land of the Maple Leaf Land of the l o y a l ! Land of heroes c h i e f ! F a i r a r t thou Land, where mighty r i v e r s run, Brightest and best of a l l beneath the sun. Proud i s the sky and green thy daisied sod. Though other skies boast milder skies than mine, They cannot boast more l o y a l sons than thine. What, though from every land beneath the sun? Our cause i s common, now - our country one Though English, Scotch or I r i s h , 'Swede or Pole, CANADIAN i s the name we give the whole, Save those - I blush to own that such there be Who urge thy union with thy enemy. (Ehese I c a l l t r a i t o r s , and s h a l l c a l l them so, U n t i l a f i t t e r name I s coined below. Then H a i l ! a l l H a i l ! my own Canadian home, F a i r and forever may thy beauties bloom, 1 1  G. W. Johnson, p . iBk (see Appendix r e - version and musical setting).  16.  Thy meadows bright, thy lakes untinged with gore, And as thy a i r i s free, free fbrevermore. ^ This poem s t r i k e s a new note i n patriotism.  Not only i s there the  usual high praise for Canada's natural beauty and freedom, but also the boast of unity and l o y a l t y coupled with open condemnation of those who would even consider union with the United States.  This  poem, together with another of Johnson's No Despot - No Slave, i s one of the few Canadian poems which express any h o s t i l i t y for America:• No Despot - No Slave Canadian hands Canadian s o i l s h a l l t i l l Canadian hearts s h a l l watch her welfare s t i l l ; F a i r Freedom reigns, and s h a l l forever reign From lake to lake, from mount to mighty main. Canadian skies are f a i r e s t , brightest, best; Canadian hearts no t r a i t o r ' s blood have pressed; Canadian eyes s h a l l weep us when we roam Canadian l i p s s h a l l greet us: - welcome home! And while the sun i s bright, yon forests f a i r , Yon meadows green, t h i s i s Canadians' prayer; From E i r e ' s shore to o l d A t l a n t i c ' s waves, Give us no despot and no weeping slaves! I  Dear native land, thine a i r i s s t i l l as free, As summer winds that fan the summer sea. 13  The a l l u s i o n to "weeping slaves" and the constant r e p e t i t i o n of 12 Johnson, p.7» 13  Johnson, pp. 178-179.  17  Canada's freedom i s intended, no doubt, to emphasize Canada's excellence as compared with that of her southern neighbor. Yet, t h i s sentiment i s not overly popular with or evident i n most of the Canadian writers.  Any overt c r i t i c i s m was reserved c h i e f l y f o r those  Canadians who advocated  annexation.  The Introduction to Raise the Flag states: Canada has been compelled to defend her f r o n t i e r s i n open war i n 1775 and i n 1812-15, and from f i l l i b u s t e r s i n 1837 and 1838, and again i n 1866 and I87O. Every generation of our people for one hundred years has seen Canadian l i v e s given up f r e e l y i n defence of her s o i l and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Our t e r r i t o r y has been diminished by u n f a i r t r e a t i e s ; and trade regulations and r e s t r i c t i o n s , and fishery disputes have been used to retard our progress or coerce us into annexation. Yet with i t a l l , our poems are s i n g u l a r l y free from unfriendliness. There i s no tone of aggression but a steadfast determination to t r u s t i n God and stand for the r i g h t . The only tinge o f bitterness that i s shown, here and there, i s towards those of our own people who l a c k f a i t h i n our future. 1^. The "slave question" was, however, of v i t a l concern to Canadians at t h i s time, and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to see i t mentioned i n one way or another i n Confederation poetry.  The American C i v i l War, with a l l i t s  attendant horror of brother f i g h t i n g brother, or a country divided against i t s e l f on the question of slavery^was bound to cause some serious thinking i n a younger country about to formulate i t s own Constitutions.  The Fathers of Confederation were to p r o f i t by the  mistake the United State's had made i n giving too much power to the 14 "Introduction"j Raise the Flag and other P a t r i o t i c Canadian Songs and Poems(Toronto, 1 8 9 1 ) . "  18  i n d i v i d u a l states, thus making such a war p o s s i b l e .  Canada not only  would choose a federal union i n preference to a l e g i s l a t i v e union but also would designate the major powers to a strong c e n t r a l government.  During the C i v i l War, Canadians, f o r the most part, had  been sympathetic towards the North which stood f o r freedom, but with the v i c t o r y of the North, Canadians found t h e i r sympathy boomeranging. A strong m i l i t a r y force just south of the border was now seen as a threat to Canadian freedom. Canada - Confederation.  The only answer to t h i s was a u n i f i e d  A l l t h i s i s h i s t o r i c a l fact recorded with  prosaic terseness. But what was the emotional impact of such a s i t u a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y on the common man?  Herein i s the value of the  poetry of t h i s period, and some debt of gratitude i s due to those who, however naively, have recorded t h e i r sentiments. In no poem of t h i s genre are these sentiments more compactly expressed than i n The Genius of Canada.  I t i s also one of the few  attempts to personify an abstraction. The Genius of Canada When the Genius of Canada came From over the western wave, •Neath southern skies She heard the c r i e s Of every weeping slave. " I ' l l seek the northern woods", she c r i e d "Though bleak the skies may be, The maple d e l l s Where freedom dwells Have a s p e c i a l charm f o r me.  19.  "For moral worth and manhood there Have found a favoring clime. I ' l l rear a race To shed a grace Gn the mighty page of time. "And the a r t s s h a l l f l o u r i s h 'neath t h e i r care, And the palm of peace s h a l l wave O'er a home of r e s t For the oppressed, And a refuge f o r the slave. Away to the northern woods she flew, And a l o v e l y home she found, Where s t i l l she dwells •Mong quiet d e l l s With her giant brood around. "And these", she says, "are the hearts we mould In the land of lake and pine, Where the Shamrock blows And the English Rose And the Scottish t h i s t l e twine." ^5 This poem, published i n Toronto nine years before Confederation, i s evidence that Canada was capable of evoking from the very beginning, a strong a l l e g i a n c e and a deep devotion*  Again, an appreciation f o r  the freedom and promise of t h i s country i s emphasized by the covert reference to the p l i g h t of the slave i n the United States. With i t s regular rhyme scheme and i t s v a r i a t i o n s i n l i n e length, t h i s poem makes rather pleasant reading.  I t i s more r e s t r a i n e d , and  though there are the romantic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nationalism, r e v o l t against oppression, idealism and picturesque language, there i s a  15  Alexander McLachlan, L y r i c s by (Toronto, 1858), pp. 16-17.  20  d i f f e r e n t approach, and there i s an absence of most of the stereotyped adjectives of address. I t i s understandable how; such a poem could be written at t h i s time.  The l850's were prosperous years; i n Canada*  The depression  with i t s subsequent discontent and "annexation"' scare, brought on by B r i t a i n ' s repeal of the Corn Laws i n 1846, had happily subsided. Canadian trade had received a new impetus; with the repeal of the Navigation A c t s i n 1849 and the 1854 Reciprocity Agreement with the United States.  Canada was exhibiting a new v i t a l i t y .  Railroad  construction was underway, business was booming, and l i f e i n a vigorous, young country promised to be exciting and rewarding. I t even looked good beside i t s older, prosperous neighbor. Added to these a t t r a c t i v e features was the natural beauty of the country i t s e l f , and the joy of being one of the "giant brood". Evidently, environment does mould a people.  In t h i s "hyper-  borean" land there w i l l be a people whose "hearts" have been moulded from "lake and pine".  I t i s a "favoring clime" f o r rearing  men of "moral worth" who w i l l "...shed a grace/On the mighty page of time. ! 1  This alignment of the natural beauty of the country with the  moral beauty of i t s people i s t y p i c a l of most of the e a r l y Canadian poets, and bears out the conviction of "Seranus"!. ..."Nature teaches to true Poets a pure and unerring morality of her own...'?  Canadian,  however, as a l l t h i s may be, there i s s t i l l the o l d l i n k with the  21.  O l d World -  the Shamrock,  Rose and T h i s t l e .  No such bond, however,  i s c l a i m e d i n Lays o f Canada, Dominion  Day I d y l l : No No No No  broader streams than ours - no p u r e r s k i e s , r i c h e r s o i l to y i e l d the y e l l o w g r a i n , s t a t e l i e r t r e e s to crown the m o u n t a i n ' s brow, r i c h e r golden robes to c l o t h e the furrowed p l a i n .  The s n a r l i n g w o l f t h a t prowls around the door Where s q u a l i d hunger d w e l l s , we know not h e r e , Our ready f i e l d s await but w i l l i n g hands, And he t h a t t o i l s i n s p r i n g s h a l l reap r i c h autumn's c h e e r . Our seas - our boundless l a k e s - our c r y s t a l s t r e a m s , Each y i e l d s the ransom o f a m i g h t y - k i n g ; And c o u n t l e s s a r g o s i e s bear w e a l t h away, , The l u x u r y o f d i s t a n t l a n d s t o homeward b r i n g . T h i s i s a l a n d o f p l e n t y w i t h beauty unsurpassed "no p u r e r s k i e s " ; golden r o b e s " . write i n f i g u r e .  "no r i c h e r  soil";  "no broader  "no s t a t e l i e r t r e e s " ;  "no  streams" richer  L i k e The Genius o f Canada, t h i s poem i s an attempt The " s n a r l i n g w o l f t h a t prowls around the  door/Where  s q u a l i d hunger d w e l l s " has i m p l i c a t i o n s o f " O l d W o r l d " s q u a l o r , the hungry American s l a v e ,  i n contrast with t h i s country of  f i e l d s " awaiting only " w i l l i n g hands".  And, " . . . h e t o i l s  or  "ready  in  s p r i n g s h a l l reap r i c h autumn's c h e e r " i s more than an e x h o r t a t i o n sow a few seeds i n the s p r i n g and reap the Rather  is it  a c a l l to get  on the  f r u i t s i n the  to  autumn.  "bandwagon"- to throw i n o n e ' s  lot  16 Rev. Duncan Anderson, Lays o f Canada and Other  to  Poems(Montreal,  22.  with t h i s new country, now i n i t s springtime, but giving promise of a r i c h harvest.  I t i s an enthusiastic response to the c a l l of  Canada's beauty and abundant resources. The metre, predominantly iambic pentameter, and the rhyme scheme abcb, place t h i s poem i n the ballad tradition. extra foot.  The f i n a l l i n e of each stanza, however, has an  This longer l i n e not only breaks the monotony of the  b a l l a d rhythm but also succeeds i n sustaining the imagery of richness and abundance. As i n The Genius of Canada, a greater s i n c e r i t y i s apparent than i n those poems which employ flamboyant forms of address.  The d i c t i o n  may savor of romanticism, and there are Keatsian overtones i n the "golden robes" and " r i c h autumn's cheer".  Nevertheless, there i s a  d i s t i n c t l y Canadian flavour to "the Yellow g r a i n " and "ready f i e l d s " ; to "the furrowed p l a i n " and "boundless lakes". "What i s the poem about?"  To the question,  the answer must be that i t i s about Canada,  not  because i t i s systematically described, but because i t induces i n  the  imagination i t s sights and sounds - the r e s u l t of a series of  images and of a c e r t a i n interplay of figure and image, i f not too s k i l f u l , at l e a s t adequate to project a picture of those things which are  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canada's lush beauty. The f i r s t stanza i s concerned with emphasizing the uniqueness  of Canada's claims.  The r e p e t i t i o n of "No" establishes beyond  controversy the superlative quality of that country's  "streams",  23.  "skies", " s o i l " ,  "trees", and "golden-robed p l a i n " .  Then, too, the  imagery i s somewhat augmented by the connotative power of words and phrases - the suggestion of hidden treasure or an aurelian gleam conveyed by such words as " r i c h e r " , "yellow", "crown", "golden". The second stanza emphasizes Canada's promise of f r u i t i o n by comparison with less-favoured lands, through the "lupine" metaphor. 1  The metaphor i s productive of clear v i s u a l imagery.  The fact that  "The s n a r l i n g wolf that prowls around the door,/Where squalid hunger dwells..." i s not known here, indicates Canada's s u f f i c i e n c y .  There  i s a return to the imagery of stanza one, whereby the aura of " r i c h autumn's cheer" glows brighter f o r having been juxtaposed with "squalid hunger". The t h i r d stanza enlarges on the imagery of the f i r s t , presenting a p i c t u r e of matured beauty and r e a l i z e d hopes. interchanged with that of other lands.  Canada's wealth i s  The "countless argosies" has  connotations of overflowing wealth, so that the poet sustains to the end the image of richness - of abundance. This same b r i e f analysis applied to an excerpt from "Serahus  r  Canadian Birthday Book may y i e l d some further appreciation of these " l e s s e r " Confederation poets: Yet Mother England that new land i s f a i r , Her shores p i l e agate and her sands run gold Her mountains gleam with garnet, and her capes With amethystine pansy-purple spar; And rosy dykes or white traverse the gray Of that o l d limestone l i v i n g i n her c l i f f s .  "  Her r i v e r s are the f a i r e s t i n the world - . I challenge t h i s - the brightest i n the world. Most sparkling blue, and altogether c l e a r . Her trees drop manna and her blossoms joy Of her contented poor, her happy r i c h  On f i r s t reading, t h i s poem could be glossed over an inconsequential. But a closer scrutiny discloses much hidden a r t i s t r y .  Since a poet  i s o r d i n a r i l y concerned with providing a p a r t i c u l a r experience and e l i c i t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r kind of pleasurable response, i t i s , therefore, natural that he employ the devices at h i s disposal, and i f he succeeds i n not merely using b e a u t i f u l language but i n stamping that language with "beauty" because i t a r i s e s from i t s eminent s u i t a b i l i t y to h i s mission, then surely h i s creation i s worthy of consideration.  An  amalgam, then, of the elements l i s t e d - of language, figure and image, of tone or mood - may e s t a b l i s h t h i s poem, at least i n part, as a l y r i c gem. F i r s t , the poet has abandoned the usual regular rhyme, and has chosen to gain the e f f e c t of the r e p e t i t i o n device by means of a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, and consonance.  The poem begins with an  apostrophe to "Mother England" so that the subsequent eulogy i s objectively related.  17  A d i s t i n c t tone and mood i s evident, the r e s u l t  S. Frances Harrison, Canadian Birthday Bo6k(Toronto, 1 8 8 7 ) , p. 1 6 6 .  25.  of a completely d i f f e r e n t approach to Canada's beauty.  The poem  furnishes excellent examples of a l l i t e r a t i o n i n "gold", "gleam", and "garnet"; i n "pansy-purple", and "limestone l i v i n g " .  Assonance,  another form of r e p e t i t i o n , i s quite judiciously d i s t r i b u t e d through one or several l i n e s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n : Her shores p i l e agate and her sands run gold, Her mountains gleam with garnet and her capes With amethystine pansy-purple spar; And rosy dykes or white traverse the gray Of that o l d limestone l i v i n g i n her c l i f f s . The long " i " i n "dykes", "white", and "limestone" provides assonance of a rather obvious s o r t .  But the s i m i l a r vowel sound of "gleam"  and "amethystine" may not be so apparent.  The poem also i l l u s t r a t e s  how the e f f e c t of assonance, can be augmented by a r e p e t i t i o n not only of vowel and consonant which l i n k s "garnet" and "spar" i n the t h i r d and fourth l i n e s reappears with the r e p e t i t i o n of "sparkling" i n the ninth l i n e , And "harvests".and "are" i n the eleventh line.  The r e p e t i t i o n of consonants alone- consonance - can be found  i n the repeated " r " sounds of Utrees" and "drop" or the recurrent "n" and "nd" sound of "land", "sands" i n the opening f i v e l i n e s of the poem, and "manna", "and , of l i n e ten. 1  1  But r e p e t i t i o n i s only one of many ways i n which a poet can use the sound of words to gain the effect he seeks.  The ease or d i f f i c u l t y  with which c e r t a i n words or combinations or words are pronounced can a f f e c t the "tempo" of poetic l i n e s i n various ways.  The difference  26..  between so-called long and short vowels, between musical and clipped consonants, between f r o n t a l and "hard-palate"' consonants, exploited t o create c e r t a i n general effects*  can be  For example, the l i n e :  Most sparkling, blue, and altogether clear, seems t o take longer t o speak than the next l i n e : Her trees drop manna and her blossoms joysimply because the f i r s t l i n e i s more d i f f i c u l t t o pronounce rapidly.. The shorter vowels and musical consonants of the second l i n e flow into one another and produce the e f f e c t of ease and opulence as against the cold, g l i t t e r of r i v e r s "sparkling, blue" - c e r t a i n l y a most approp r i a t e and s k i l f u l e f f e c t i n a land of contrasts such as Canada. The sound of words alone, however, does not s u f f i c e i n determining the excellence of a poem.  E f f e c t s are more often than not created by  the meaning, connotative and denotative, which the words convey.  Thus  i t would seem that the "beauty" and appropriateness of the language of t h i s poem a r i s e s from i t s s u i t a b i l i t y t o the poet's mission, the creation of a poem which reveals certain aspects of Canada's beauty, and evokes from the reading a pleasurable response. A b r i e f study of the word choice immediately reveals that the poet sees Canada c h i e f l y i n terms of colour, and i t i s indisputable that colours carry connotations and set a tone.  The poem i s a f l a s h  of colour - the heaped-up variegated agatej the flowing gold; the red gleam o f garnet; the violet-purple spar; the rosy f i s s u r e s contrasting  27.  with the grey limestone; the blue r i v e r s ; and by i m p l i c a t i o n , the white and pink of the manna and the blossoms.  I t may not have been  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g t o have noted that the poem opens w i t h an apostrophe to "Mother England", but n e i t h e r i s i t i r r e l e v a n t since i t provides a s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e which a i d s i n enhancing the meaning which a l l these Images supply. On a l i t e r a l l e v e l , the poet has merely addressed "Mother England" and revealed t o her, s e l e c t e d aspects of Canada's resources. On a connotative l e v e l , the poet has seen the spectacle o f a new country, resplendent i n her r i c h beauty and r e f l e c t i n g the ultimate richness o f l i f e , and has asked that t h i s experience be shared by others. The wonder of the changing seasons has always been the source of poetic i n s p i r a t i o n .  Euphemia Bellmore, i n her poem, "Spring", has  caught the surge o f j o y as a Canadian spring succedes a t y p i c a l l y severe w i n t e r .  ... Gone are the howling winter b l a s t s That long have swept the landscapes o'er, Sweet Spring, w i t h balmy breeze i n v i t e s ' The opening bud and blushing flower. Through Canada's f a i r and f e r t i l e p l a i n s , Ooze gently on the murmuring r i l l s , And basking 'neath the sunbeam's smile, Behold the.green and verdant h i l l s . Al thousand welcomes, l o v e l y Spring, S m i l i n g o'er h i l l and p l a i n In a l l thy budding, blushing bloom,  28.  We h a i l thee to our land again. This could be springtime i n any land except for "the howling winter b l a s t s " which precede i t . For, though other lands may have even more severe winters than Canada, they do not know the suddenness of a "sweet Spring"' i n v i t i n g "the opening bud and blushing flower". Again, only Canada has such contrasts. the d i c t i o n i s "old-world".  The experience i s new though  There i s the ever-recurring " f a i r " , the  t r i t e "balmy breeze", "murmuring r i l l s " and "verdant h i l l s " ; but there i s , besides, an element of glad surprise, as though Spring were unexpected i n such a land, and for that reason a l l the more welcome.  And, there i s no niggardliness.  In accord with a l l the  other profuse outpourings of nature's g i f t s , Spring bears a wealth of "budding, blushing bloom". o'er h i l l and p l a i n " .  I t i s a . . . "lovely Spring,/ Smiling  Not only i s t h i s the season of spring; i t i s  also the springtime of a new land with a l l the promise of youth and life. By contrast, i t might be expected that winter i n such a land would be depressing.  On the contrary, winter comes i n for more  than i t s share of praise as the season which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  18 Euphemia Bellmore, Book of Poems (Toronto, 1874), pp. 21-22.  29.  "Canadian."  The "Sleighing Song" which appeared i n The Canadian  Monthly, January, l8?6, expresses sentiments t y p i c a l of the general tone of merriment and exultation i n the great outdoors, as part of a Canadian winter. To the music of the trees, Borne along the evening breeze, To the s l e i g h b e l l ' s cheery chime, Bringing forth i t s tuneful time, Merry, merry, on we go, O'er the c r i s p and g l i t t e r i n g snow. No more on the b r i a r and tree, B i r d doth warble joyously. L i s t ! Though hushed i t s witching s t r a i n , Echoes s t i l l the sweet r e f r a i n — Earth; 0 earth, so glad and f a i r ! Sing, Oh heart! why dream of care? Oh! diamond-dusted h i l l s Oh! glassy, g l i s t e n i n g r i l l s , Oh! ye snowy-bowered glades, Oh! ye laughing forest shades, As we s w i f t l y g l i d e along Break ye forth i n gladsome song. " ° 1  The rhymed couplet can be f o r t h i s poem a genuine element, used with calculated  effect.  Together with the predominantly trochaic meter,  i t gives the impression of speed, and the rythmic g l i d i n g of the horse and s l e i g h .  The d i c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to the  overall 'effect of joyous abandon.  There i s the "music of the trees",  ''the s l e i g h - b e l l ' s cheery chime", "hushed" bird-song, and "echoes"  19 "Sleighing Song" by F.E.P.P., The Canadian Monthly and National Review, January, 1876, p. 25. :  30.  to delight the ear; " g l i t t e r i n g snow", diamond-dusted h i l l s " , "glassy, g l i s t e n i n g r i l l s " , "snowy-bowered glades" to delight the eye.  Winter i n Canada i s presented as a joyous, fresh experience.  In spite of the romantic imagery, the d i c t i o n has p e c u l i a r l y appropriate to a Canadian winter scene.  connotations The  mono-syllabic  words— s l e i g h , b e l l s , chime, c r i s p , earth, .glad, f a i r , h i l l s , g l i d e , song, snow—set the tone and mood of the poem. impossible to read i t with anything but a racy pace.  rills,  It i s The a l l i t e r a t i v e  "diamond-dusted", and the " g l " of g l i t t e r i n g , g l i s t e n i n g , glades, g l i d e , glad, gladsome, are evocative of brightness and joy. This same glad response to l i f e permeates the poem "Canada" published i n The Canadian Monthly and National Review, July,  l875«  I know a land i n the glowing West, Which my youthful heart loved f i r s t and best; A land which seemed to my raptured eyes, As a l a s t sweet likeness of P a r a d i s e — Where b i r d s and flowers were bright and gay, And a l l nature joined i n my happy.play, Where the blushing morn and the balmy a i r Seemed ever breaking a thankful prayer; And a s p i r i t dwelt i n the young moon's l i g h t And guarded with beauty each summer night. Ah, would 'neath the dear o l d roof I might stand, And feast my eyes on that pleasant land, On the meadow reach where the "scarlet cup" Seems drinking the dazzling sunshine up. Where Ontario's waters i n calmness l i e •Neath the azure blue of the boundless sky, And the war-birds flashed the blue-birds play, Through the long bright hour of the summer day; While some youth springs down from the glowing land. And the l i g h t s k i f f darts from the yellow sand.  51.  And then when the l i g h t snow f a l l s thr* the a i r , And winter sets i n , ohI how bright and c l e a r ! When the s l e i g h - b e l l s r i n g t h e i r joyous song, When the days are short and the nights are long, When the dear toboggan i s drawn thro * the s t r e e t , And moccasins pulled over dainty feet, When s w i f t l y we f l y down some t e r r i b l e slope, With nothing to stop the toboggan, I hope!— G can there on earth be more glorious fun? Is any land better? say? under the sun. ^ 2  The poet i s r e l i v i n g , with delight, e a r l i e r joys evoked by the contrasting beauty of a Canadian summer and winter. There i s evidence, i n s p i t e of a general adherence to o l d forms and t r i t e comments, of sincere admiration for Canada, and a desire for apt expression. There i s an attempt to create s p e c i f i c pictures of the Canadian seasons.  In summer there i s the meadow ..."where the s c a r l e t cup/  Seems drinking the dazzling sunshine up"; the "youth" springing "down from the glowing land", and a " l i g h t s k i f f " darting "from the yellow sand".  By contrast, i n winter, there i s the " l i g h t snow" and  " s l e i g h - b e l l s " , "toboggan" and "moccasins". "Is any land better? ... under the sun."  The r h e t o r i c a l question,  i s s u f f i c i e n t avowal that  Canada's beauty i s considered incomparable. One of the most p r o l i f i c exponents of Canadian charms was Mrs. 20  "Canada" by E.S.T., The Canadian Monthly and National Review,  32  Leprohon (Miss Rosanna M u l l i n s ) .  Her poems appealed to the popular  taste, and as long as Mr. John L o v e l l edited the L i t e r a r y Garland, she was one of i t s leading contributors.  Indeed, a surprising  number of p e r i o d i c a l s both i n Canada and elsewhere considered her production among t h e i r most a t t r a c t i v e features.  But, i n form, she  i s completely i m i t a t i v e . "Our Canadian Woods i n E a r l y Autumn", with i t s i n t e r n a l rhyme scheme, bears a marked resemblance to S h e l l e y s "The Cloud", without, 1  however, i t s force or graphic imagery. I have passed the day 'mid the forest gay, In i t s gorgeous autumn dyes, I t s t i n t s as bright and as f a i r to the sight As the hues of our sunset skiesj And the sun's glad rays v e i l e d by golden haze, Streamed down 'neath i t s arches grand, And with magic power made scene and hour Like a dream of Faerie Land. The emerald sheen of the maple green Is turned to deep, r i c h red; And the boughs entwine with the crimson vine That i s climbing overhead; While l i k e golden sheaves, the saffron leaves Of the sycamore strew the ground, 'Neath the birches old, clad i n shimmering gold, Or the ash with red berries crowned. Though the bird's sweet song, that the summer long Hath flowed so sweet and clear Through the cool, dim shades of our forest glades, No longer charms the ear, A witching s p e l l , that w i l l please as w e l l As h i s glad notes, may be found In the solemn hush, or the leaves' soft rush, As they quickly strew the ground.  33  For, though they t e l l of summer's farewell, Gf t h e i r own decay and doom, Gf the wild storm-cloud and the snow's cold shroud, And the days of winter's gloom, The heart must y i e l d to the power they wield, Alike tender, soothing, gay The beauties that gleam and that reign supreme In our woods, t h i s autumn day.  ^  There are c l e a r overtones throughout t h i s poem, of resignation, a quiet acceptance of l i f e ' s i n e v i t a b i l i t i e s .  Obviously, Hrs. Leprohon  has found i n the autumn woods, subject matter f o r meditation on death: "decay and doom"; "wild storm-cloud"; "snow's cold shroud"; "winter's gloom".  There i s "the solemn hush" and "the leaves' s o f t rush" but the  "heart must y i e l d to the power they wield". This i s another example of a poet finding i n the Canadian scene the perfect experience for the expression of mood and conviction. Another poem, "To Canada" which appeared i n The Saturday Reader, February, 1866,  combines praise of Canada's beauty with a declaration  of l o y a l t y . Dear land of the lake and the forest, Green Valley and pine covered h i l l ; The land of the broad r o l l i n g r i v e r , And s o f t l y meandering r i l l ! Thou b e a u t i f u l land of the maple, Thy love i s enshrined i n each heart;  21 Rosanna Eleanor (Mullins) Leprohon, The P o e t i c a l Works of Mrs. Leprohon(Montreal, l 8 8 l ) , pp. 4-9-51 •  And tender and fond are the feelings Thy grandeur and beauty impart. Yes!  strong are the l i n k s of a f f e c t i o n That bind thy brave children to thee; And bold are the s p i r i t s and f e a r l e s s , That guard thee, f a i r land of the free!  G, long may thou prosper and f l o u r i s h , And bloom with the vigour of youth; May thy shores be the bulwark of freedom— The shrine of r e l i g i o n and t r u t h . And long may the f l a g of our fathers Float proudly o'er forest and dome— The glory, the pride.and the aegis Of every Canadian home. And ever may peace and contentment Within thy green borders abide; While the streams of thy commerce expanding Flow on i n a r i c h golden t i d e . But should the stern trumpet of b a t t l e Awake thee to warfare again, Then woe to the ruthless invader That dares thy free s o i l to profane. Then the f l a g of our fathers unfolding, We'll meet the rash foe on the strand, To combat and conquer l i k e freemen, And die for our b e a u t i f u l land. The chief value of t h i s poem as a concensus of the time l i e s more i n what i t does not say than i n what i t says.  I t would seem  reasonable to expect that the journals and newspapers of 1866  would  22 "To Canada" by S. M., The Saturday Reader, February 24,  1866.  35.  be overflowing with a r t i c l e s and poems relevant to Confederation. Yet, on the very eve of t h i s great event, when Canada's p o l i t i c a l leaders are preparing f o r the London Conference, Canadian writers are p l a c i d l y preoccupied i n singing the praises of Canada's beauty, with l i t t l e or no thought to the p o l i t i c a l issue.  I t i s significant  that f o r the average Canadian of t h i s time, patriotism i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with allegiance to the "old f l a g " .  Freedom w i l l be fought  f o r , i f necessary, but under "the f l a g of our fathers".  36.  CHAPTER I I I  PRAISING COUNTRY AS COUNTRY  Closely linked to the poems p r a i s i n g Canada's beauty are those dedicated to the praise of the country as country.  They are marked  by a p a r t i c u l a r exuberance and a confident assurance of Canada's manifest destiny.  Though there seems to be no evidence of American  influence, an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l may be drawn between these f i r s t manifestations of a Canadian national pride and the braggodacios of Walt Whitman, both finding expression at the same time.  Canada's  " l i t t l e poets" were no match f o r t h i s American giant, but i t may be worth nothing that though Canada was a hundred years younger than her neighbor, she did not lack those p a t r i o t s who were equally as confident as was Walt Whitman of America, that Canada was destined to a place i n the sun.  There i s a constant reminder that Canada,  not having known either slavery or war, i s the "land of the f r e e " with a decided advantage over the United States. A l l these sentiments are embodied i n a poem by Nicholas Flood Davin: Columbia growls. We care not, we, We are young and strong and free The storm-defying oak's great sap Swells i n the twig. A breath of power s t i r s round us from each sea, And, b i g with future greatness, Our hearts beat high and bold, Like glowing seas that smite the c l i f f s to dust. You cannot make us blench, The sons of freemen we, we must be f r e e .  37  A nation's destiny i s bright Within our eyes, Deep-mirrored i n heroic w i l l ; The future years l i k e Banquo's issue pass A crown i s there, No t i n s e l crown of Kings, no bauble; A people's sovereign w i l l ,  , , » Awake! the dawn i s t r i p p i n g on the h i l l s ; The day's at hand I see a nation young, mature, and free, Step down the mountain side To take her proud place i n the f i e l d s o f time, And thou a r t she! ^3 These excerpts from a longer poem are representative passages i l l u s t r a t i n g the surge of youthful independence which swept postGonfederation Canada.  The usual cry of allegiance to the old world  and the "Old F l a g " i s gone. s t r i k e s a new note.  In place of the " t i n s e l crown of Kings" i s a  "people's sovereign w i l l . " republicanism.  "Columbia growls/ V/e care not. . ."  This i s i m p l i c i t l y the cry of  There i s a new l o y a l t y to a new country.  The  metaphors i n which the f i r s t stanza i s cast imply power, strength and l i f e - "The storm-defying oak's great sap/ Swells i n the twig"..."Our hearts beat high and bold./ Like glowing seas that smite the c l i f f s to dust."  And, "big with future greatness" i s , by  Nicholas Flood Davin, An Epic of the Dawn and other Poems(Regina,  N. W. T., 1888), pp. 138-l5l7~^  i  :  38.  implication, an attempt at the b i r t h symbol, a v a r i a t i o n of the darkness-light symbol i n "the dawn i s t r i p p i n g on the h i l l s . " The f i n a l stanza makes an easy t r a n s i t i o n into another of Nicholas Flood Davin's poems, Young Canada.  "I see a nation, young,  mature, and f r e e , / Step down the mountain s i d e . "  i s the v i s i o n of  a young giant A youthful giant, golden-haired With f e a r l e s s forehead, eye of blue And large and clear i t s f r o s t y depths With f i r e within i t s dark'ning hue. His spear which dwarfs the t a l l e s t pine, Is bound around with yellow grain, His s h i e l d i s r i c h i n varied scenes, To r i g h t and l e f t loud roars the main. He dreameth of unborn times; With manhood's thoughts h i s mind i s braced; H e ' l l teach the world a lesson yet, And with the mightiest must be placed. The voice dies o'er the dews of morning, Which round him g l i t t e r while shadows f l e e , Bright concord beams from shore to shore. Glad union peals from to sea to sea'. ^ Here i s the same enthusiasm i n verse as that expressed i n the preface of Susanna Hoodie's Roughing I t i n the Bush, I 8 7 I : Canada i s no longer a c h i l d , sleeping i n the arms of nature, dependent for her very existence on the fostering care of her i l l u s t r i o u s mother. She has outstripped infancy, and i s i n f u l l enjoyment of a strong and vigorous youth. . . None of the writers, however, seem too sure whether Canada i 6 a 2k Davin, 133-135  39  youth or a maid.  Not only Susanna Moodie mixes her metaphors but  also Nicholas Flood Davin, who sees h i s maiden country "step down the mountain side" and exults "And thou are she."  By a strange metamor-  phosis t h i s same v i s i o n becomes a "youthful giant, golden-haired" with "his spear" and "his s h i e l d . "  Such uncertainty contrasts with  the tone of confident assurance which pervades these praises of Canada.  Obviously, these poems are but p a t r i o t i c outbursts, though  they give evidence of the author's hope, shared with a number of h i s compatriots, of being "the national poet" f o r which Canada was waiting. Another poem of Nicholas Flood Davin, i n the same c o l l e c t i o n , i s Forward.  The three stanzas given here are again i l l u s t r a t i v e of the  aggressive character of post-Confederation verse: Who sneers she's but a colony No national s p i r i t there; Race differences, faction's feuds Her f l a g to t a t t e r s tear.  ...  Nor race, nor creed, the p a t r i o t ' s sword, Nor f a c t i o n blunts today. "Forward for Canada!"'s the word, And, eager f o r the f r a y .  ...  Our purpose now f i r e s every eye, Rebellion f o u l to slay, 'Forward f o r Canada!'"s the cry, And a l l are one today. 25 Of a l l the aspects of the period of depression which followed 25  Davin,  136-137.  40.  Confederation one of the most g a l l i n g was the steady flow of thousands of Canadians across the border.  In many areas there  was at best a restrained s a t i s f a c t i o n with the i n d i v i d u a l benefits accruing to Confederation.  Such verse as Forward f i t s into t h i s  pattern as a sort of propaganda boost.  I t i s not so much a spontaneous  expression of admiration f o r Canada as a b a t t l e cry i n defiance of the prevalent pessimism.  I t i s the o l d cry of " i n unity there i s  strength." William Douw L i g h t a l l , an even more p r o l i f i c writer than Nicholas Flood Davin, presents the new through a dialogue of a "Young Man"  self-confident Dominion  and a "Seer."  The prevalent  uncertainty i s caught i n the t i t l e The Confused Dawn. Young Man What are the V i s i o n and the Cry That haunt the new Canadian soul? Dim grandeur spreads we know not why O'er mountain, forest, tree and k n o l l , And murmurs i n d i s t i n c t l y f l y , Some magic moment sure i s nigh ,0 Seer, the c u r t a i n r o l l . Seer The V i s i o n , mortal, i t i s t h i s Dead mountain, forest, k n o l l and tree Awaken a l l , endued with b l i s s , A native-land- 0 think! - to be Thy native land - and ne'er amiss, Its smile s h a l l l i k e a.lover's k i s s From henceforth seem to thee.  kl  The Cry thou couldst not understand Which runs through that new realm of l i g h t , From Breton's to Vancouver's strand O'er many.a lovely landscape bright, It i s t h e i r waking utterance grand. The great r e f r a i n , "A .Native Land." Thine be the ear, the sight, ^6 1  Here, i t i s the thought of a "native land" which absorbs the poet. This i s the "magic moment" and the " V i s i o n " and the "Cry". But, to the youth, the v i s i o n i s as yet a "dim grandeur" and the cry i s but i n d i s t i n c t murmurs.  I t i s f o r the seer, the s p i r i t of  timelessness, to " r o l l " back the "curtain" and present the r e a l i t y . The death and r e b i r t h symbol i s evident i n "Dead mountain,  forest,  k n o l l and t r e e / Awaken a l l endued with b l i s s / . . . "' This, then, i s to be the heritage of the young - a native land. A distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of W. D. L i g h t h a l l ' s verse i s the  complete absence of reference to B r i t a i n .  Canada stands or f a l l s  on her own merits. One of h i s most e f f e c t i v e poems i s Canada Not Last,  The t i t l e i s seemingly a l e s s pretentious variant of the  "Canada F i r s t " theme prominent i n the 1870*s. The f i n a l stanza presents L i g h t h a l l at h i s best.  Much of the dream-like quality of  26 Canadian Poems and Lays:Selections of Native Verse, a r r . and ed. by Wm. Douw Lighthall(London, I893), pp.18-19.  kz.  Lampman's poetry or Carman's haunting melody i s evident.  I f there  i s any such thing as an (objective correlative"; f o r L i g h t h a l l ' s contemplative mood, he seems to have found i t i n the haze-enveloped dream-world of a b r i l l i a n t Canadian autumn, juxtaposed with the v i s i o n of "Rome, Florence, Venice" - redolent of "The glory that was Greece/ And the grandeur that was Rome."  Rome, Florence, Venice - noble, f a i r , and quaint, They reign i n robes of magic round me here; But fading blotted dim, a picture f a i n t , With s p e l l more s i l e n t , only pleads a tear. Plead not! Thou hast my heart, 0 p i c t u r e dim! I see the f i e l d s , I see the autumn hand Of God upon the maples! Answer Him V/ith weird, translucent g l o r i e s , ye that stand Like s p i r i t s i n s c a r l e t and i n amethyst! I see the sun break over you; the mist On h i l l s that l i f t from i r o n bases grand Their heads superb! the dream, i t i s my native land. I f 20& century c r i t i c s , i n t h e i r denunciation of "romanticism", have spared Archibald Lampman, surely they could accord the same "indulgence" to L i g h t h a l l .  This i s a fine stanza devoid of the  mawkishness prevalent i n so many p a t r i o t i c poems.  Why  Lighthall  should have stopped two l i n e s short of a sonnet i s open to conjecture, but the rhyme scheme of the f i r s t eight l i n e s seems to indicate that he had contemplated  a Shakespearean sonnet.  Whether  27 William Douw L i g h t h a l l , Canadian Poems and Lays S e l e c t i o n s of Native Verse (London, l893)j pp. 19-21.  that was h i s i n t e n t or not, he s t r i k e s a note of o r i g i n a l i t y by completing the poem i n rhymed couplets.  Such d e v i a t i o n from the  normal rhyme scheme abab, i s accompanied by v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r e s s , and the l o c a t i o n of pauses at various p o i n t s i n the poem.  The  predominant iambic meter b u i l d s up to the emphatic spondee "Plead not", with a sudden caesura, and i s again broken i n the enjambent "Like s p i r i t s i n s c a r l e t . . . "  The anapest slows up the pace of  the l i n e c r e a t i n g with the run-on l i n e a greater f e e l i n g of freedom and wide-ranging strength appropriate to " s p i r i t s " standing " i n s c a r l e t and i n amethyst." Besides such prosodic achievements the poet has combined substance and language i n a way c a l c u l a t e d to evoke a mood at once dream-like and a l e r t .  The tone i s q u i e t , sustained by the long  vowels o's, a's, e*s, and the musical consonants, m's, l ' s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t f i v e l i n e s i n which the p i c t u r e created i s "dim."  The robes are of "magic. . . / f a d i n g b l o t t e d dim. . . ";  the p i c t u r e i s " f a i n t " and the " s p e l l more s i l e n t . "  Then, suddenly,  the v i s i o n c l e a r s , and the p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s - the " f i e l d s " , the "autumn hand/ Of God upon the maples" become more v i v i d .  F i e l d s and  maples are concrete images - r e a l i t y breaking through the "mist", though the maples and the f i e l d s "Answer Him/ With weird, translucent g l o r i e s . . ."  "Weird" and " t r a n s l u c e n t " c a r r y connotations more  t r a n c e - l i k e than dream-like, but suddenly, there comes the "sun". This i s r e a l i t y .  The "mist" i s l i f t i n g from the h i l l s .  The dream  i s r e a l i z e d - " i t i s my n a t i v e l a n d . " The Reverend Edward Dewart i n Songs of L i f e , a c o l l e c t i o n of h i s poem$, emphasizes Canada's expanse, and l i k e so many of h i s contemporaries, s t r e s s e s the l i b e r t y enjoyed with t h i s " f r e e Dominion."  Two stanzas of h i s Ode to Canada are i n d i c a t i v e of the  sentiment of the whole poem. God b l e s s our noble Canada! Our broad and f r e e Dominion! Where law and l i b e r t y have sway Not one of a l l her sons today Is t y r a n t ' s s e r f or p i n i o n . F l i n g out our banners, t o the breeze, And proudly greet the world With words o f amity and peace; For never on more halcyon seas Was Freedom's f l a g u n f u r l e d , ^o The same note of confidence r i n g s through: The Canadian Farmer's Song Let the c i t i e s broad long and loud Of t h e i r palaces f a i r and grand; In the country wide, spread on every s i d e , Are the works of our Father's hand. Though our f a t e may seem, to some i d l e r ' s dream, A, toilsome and weary l o t . Yet peace and h e a l t h are the p r i c e l e s s wealth That are found fncthe settlerlsveotV---' i We are freemen>godel?- n o t l a - s l a v e ever stood 28 Edward Hartley Dewart, Songs of L i f e (Toronto, 1869), pp. 191-194  45.  On  our  l o v e d Canadian s o i l  -  No tyrant's power can withhold for an hour The fruits of our honest t o i l . ^9 These poems, as those of Nicholas Flood Davin's, indicate that desire for a united and strong nation, part of the high excitement which permeated Canada during the f i r s t years of Confederation.  There was  a recognized need for solidarity of purpose and a distinctive national spirit.  Speaking of this period i n Canadian history, Desmond Pacey  says i n his Creative Writing in Canada:  "There was, then, recognition  of the fact that a nation does not achieve greatness by a merely material expansion. Never before had Canadians been as ready as i n these f i r s t three decades after Confederation to welcome a native literary movement, and this public responsiveness undoubtedly had something to do with the marked increase i n the quantity and quality of literature during the period. ... As the West was settled and  new  provinces added to the Dominion, as the railway pushed gradually across the continent, periodicals and books came from the presses 30  testifying to the new s p i r i t abroad i n the land."  Dewart's poems  29 30  Dewart, pp. 201-202. Desmond Pacey, Creative Writing i n Canada(Toronto, 19&L), p. 36.  46.  axe part of " t h i s public responsiveness"  and though h i s poetry lacks  d i s t i n c t i o n , s t i l l i t bears witness to the s p i r i t of the times. One  of the longest poems embodying a l l the sentiments of post-  Confederation Confederation.  writing was published i n pamphlet form ten years before I t i s anonymous and i s e n t i t l e d "0 Country/ Happy  New  Year" The C a r r i e r ' s Poem, "Dedicated to/The Patrons of/ The Ottawa Citizen"  Our Native Land! with heart and hand, We s t r i k e a chord for thee, Whose every note s h a l l w i l d l y f l o a t , And t e l l that we are f r e e . We'11 sound i t wide o'er land and t i d e , From Freedom's broad domain To Europe's thrones where crumpled bones Speak of the tyrant's reign; From the t r a c k l e s s bourne of that distant world, Where the sun's bright rays r e c l i n e To where morning l i g h t by the waves i s curled, And S t . Lawrence onward i s s w i f t l y whirled To the ocean's r o l l i n g brine, Is the Land we love, - ' t i s the land of Peace! Tho! never at d u t y ' s . c a l l Did her heart's allegiance to honor cease Or her r i g h t s . t o a foeman e'r release Or y i e l d to a stranger's t h r a l l . Then follows a l i s t of Canada's excellences, and what the verse lacks i n poetic a r t i s compensated for by emphasis: 'Tis 'Tis  a Land of Bibles! ... a Land of Laws! ....  47.  'Tie a L a n d o f S c i e n c e ! . . . ! T i s a Land o f A r t s ! ; . . •Tis a Land o f S c h o o l s !  S o much f o r  the  past  and the  present:  Thus o f the p a s t . T u r n now w i t h me, And i n t h e f u t u r e l e t u s see What y e t r e m a i n s : : no p a l t r y l i n e Our r i g h t f u l l i m i t s c a n d e f i n e , Think not, Canadians! t h i n k no more As y o u have always thought b e f o r e , Those narrow bounds, from G e o r g i a n Bay To where S t . L a w r e n c e r o l l s away, Your l i n e s are s e t . No, no, - that space C o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t s s m a l l embrace, I n c l u d i n g l a k e s and streams and i s l e s , About t h r e e hundred thousand m i l e s In square content; but those are not Our b o u n d a r i e s a l o n e ; n o t e ' e n a j o t Of such as f i l l our r i g h t f u l c l a i m , And w h i c h s h o u l d b e a r o u r n a t i o n ' s name: This panegyric  reaches the  climax of narcissism  in:  G a z e f o r a moment o n t h a t p l a n W h i c h H e a v e n p r o p i t i o u s made f o r m a n , To e l e v a t e from N a t u r e ' s b i r t h Our L a n d , t o be t h e f i r s t on E a r t h . *>  Probably the Margaret  most  naive of  a l l the  G i l C u r r i e ' s T h e Wonder o f It  is  a shame,  poems o f  this  genre  is  C I've  o f t e n thought  A dreadful pity,  s t i l l  I  Dedicated to  Patrons  say  -  -  31 The C a r r i e r ' s Pamphlet(January,  Poem,  1857)•  the  of  the  Ottawa,  48.  That C — i s not known abroad As London of America. :  Or, better s t i l l , *t might be compared With Athensi Nineveh or Rome; For such i l l u s t r i o u s geniuses H a i l glorious Cas t h e i r home. But as you stand with breath suppressed, With gaping mouth and l i f t e d hand, Let sober thought at once suggest , He came from C e wondrous land.  ?  r  One of the better known and more widely accepted poets of t h i s era  i s Mrs. Leprohon(Miss R. E. M u l l i n s ) .  The Introduction to her  The P o e t i c a l Works of Mrs. Leprohon i s a declaration of the sincere hope that she and her contemporaries are helping to l a y the foundation of a recognized Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . When i n a f t e r ages, the l i t e r a t u r e of Canada comes to be written, i t i s to be hoped that among the mighty sons and daughters of genius now unknown, or as yet unborn, some room w i l l be kept f o r the brave and loving pioneers who gave the people of t h e i r best, and sang the songs of duty and patriotism and hope, ere l i f e i n our young land had ceased to be a struggle. ... But i f those who come a f t e r , thus favored by circumstances, surpass t h e i r predecessors i n l i t e r a r y s k i l l or power, not l e s s deserving are the l a t t e r who, with l i t t l e prospect of reward, bore the burden and the heat of the day. This early stage i n a nation's l i t e r a t u r e had, indeed, an interest and a value of i t s own, which only meet with due appreciation from a judicious and g r a t e f u l p o s t e r i t y . I f i t has not the r i c h , warm splendor of .  32 Margaret G i l l Currie, Gabriel West and Other Poems (Frederickton,  1866), pp. 124-125.  49  the later morning, i t has the welcome promise of the dawn, and a tender beauty of i t s own. Though the selections of Mrs. Leprohon's poems given here could come under the classification of those celebrating Canada's beauty, s t i l l they carry connotations beyond the praise of that beauty evident to the senses. This external beauty speaks to her of an inner beauty which evokes loyalty and admiration, and leads to praise of Canada as a country. Thus does the poet see Canada^ as symbolized by The Maple Tree. Well have Canadians chosen thee As the emblem of their land, Thou noble, spreading maple tree Lord of the forest grand; Through a l l the changes time has made, Thy woods so deep and hoar Have given their homesteads pleasant shade And beauty to their shore. In Autumn's hours of cheerless gloom, How glowing i s the dye Of the crimson robe thou dost assume, Though i t only be to die; . Like the red men who long years ago, Reposed beneath the shade, And wore a smiling l i p and brow On the pyre their foes had made. Warmly we pray no deed of harm May fright thy peaceful shade, May'st thou ne'er see i n war's alarm Contending.foes arrayed,.  50.  But, smiling down on peasants brave, On honest t r a n q u i l t o i l Thy branches ever b r i g h t l y wave, Above a happy s o i l . 33 This intense l o y a l t y to Canada i s evident i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of Mrs. Leprohon's poems,  in Looking Forward, written f o r her small son, a  sort of reverie i n which she wonders what he w i l l do, and how he w i l l act  i n manhood, she s t i l l expresses her love for Canada:  Let love of God and love of thy kind, Like t e n d r i l s around i t c l o s e l y wind; Blending those feelings of purest worth With love f o r Canada, land of thy b i r t h .  , ?  Winter i n Canada i s somewhat of an attempt at a dramatic monologue. It seems that someone has disparaged Canadian weather i n Mrs. Leprohon's presence.  The scolding tone of her reply would, however,  hardly recommend the poem as an immigration l u r e . Nay, t e l l me not that, with shivering fear, You shrink from the thought of wintering here, That the cold intense of our winter time Is severe as that of Siberian clime, And, i f wishes could waft you across the sea, 33 Eosanna Eleanor (Mullins) Leprohon, The P o e t i c a l Works of Mrs. Leprohon(Montreal, l88l), pp. 59-60. 34 Leprohon, p. 85.  51.  You, tonight i n your English home would be.  What! dare to r a i l a t our snowstorms, why Not view them with poet's or a r t i s t ' s eye? Watch each pearly flake at i t f a l l s . f r o m above, Like snow plumes from some spotless dove, Clothing a l l objects i n ermine rare, More sure than the bright robes which moharchs wear. Only t a r r y t i l l Spring on Canadian shore And y o u ' l l r a i l at our winters, then, no more, New health and fresh l i f e through your veins s h a l l grow, Spite of p i e r c i n g winds - s p i t e of i c e and snow, And I'd venture to promise, i n t r u t h , my f r i e n d , 'Twill not be the l a s t that with us y o u ' l l spend. " Seemingly, Mrs. Leprohon was giving the magazines and her reading public the products f o r which they were w i l l i n g to pay, but nowhere does her poetry challenge i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or analyzation.  The best  that can be said for her poems i s that they are a sincere expression of her regard f o r her native land, and indicate the general p a t r i o t i c frame of mind which conduced to the furthering of Confederation. Paradoxically, some of the most p a t r i o t i c poems and those which capture a truer v i s i o n of Canada are those which make no reference either to patriotism or to Canada.  Among the chief contributors of  poems of t h i s category are Charles Sangster and Charles Mair. are  also the better-known poets of t h i s era.  These  Charles Sangster, a  52.  native Canadian, i s considered Canada's chief pre-Confederation poet. This may be poor praise by the norms of present-day c r i t i c i s m , but Sangster i s , nevertheless, capable of describing the Canadian landscape more graphically than any other poet of the pre-Confederation period. One of h i s most enthusiastic poems i s Sonnet XIII from Sonnets, Written i n the O r i l l i a Woods, August l859» I've almost grown a portion of t h i s place; I seem f a m i l i a r with each mossy stone; Even the nimble chipmunk passes on, And, looks, but never scolds me. Birds have flown And almost touched my hand; and I can trace The wild bees to t h e i r hives. I've never known So sweet a pause from labor. But the tone Of a past sorrow, l i k e a mournful r i l l Threading the heart of some melodious h i l l , Or the complainings of the whippoorwill, Passes through every thought, and hope, and aim. It has I t s uses; for i t cools the flame Of ardent love that burns my being up, Love, l i f e ' s c e l e s t i a l p e a r l , diffused through a l l i t s cup." This sonnet i s a deviation from the regular Petrarchan form of octet and sestet, or the Shakespearean quatrains and f i n a l couplet. It i s also worth noting the points at which Sangster chooses to depart from uniform metre.  One of the important sources of the v a r i e t y  attained i s the l o c a t i o n of pauses at various points i n the poem.  36 Charles Sangster, "Sonnets, Written i n the O r i l l i a Woods, August, l859"» Hesperus, and Other Poems and L y r i c s (Montreal, i860),  53  The opening l i n e s are divided into three d i s t i n c t thoughts by the placement of, three complete i n t e r n a l pauses.  The f i r s t two  thoughts  mark d e f i n i t e observations of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r spot i n a Canadian woods.  There i s no attempt, however, to dwell objectively on these  aspects of nature.  "Each mossy stone" i s there for the poet's sake;  "the nimble chipmunk ... never scolds" him; the birds have "almost touched" h i s hand.  This b r i e f meditation i s , then, but a prelude  to the purely subjective theme of the poem.  "I've never known/ So  sweet a pause from labor" i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l l i n e .  The mood of a  c e r t a i n Canadian woods i s i n accord with that of the poet. i s i n sympathy with him.  Nature  In the peace and f r i e n d l i n e s s of the woods  and i t s small creatures he finds the perfect objective c o r r e l a t i v e for expressing the cooling of "the flame of ardent love." a deeper and d i f f e r e n t aspect of Canadian nature.  This i s  Of course, i t  c a r r i e s overtones of Byron's "bleeding heart", but nowhere does i t descend to the maudlin.  The subjective " I " i s l o s t i n the universal  experience - that nature has the power to sooth and soften emotional stress. This sonnet has no clear-cut proposal and r e s o l u t i o n .  Sangster  merely gives the composition of place, and then proceeds to show how nature i s one with him i n sympathy.  The hesitant, meditative mood  54.  created i n the f i r s t part of the poem by the run-on.lines and caesuras, suddenly sweep into a more racy metre, accentuated by the three end rhymes, " r i l l " ;  " h i l l " ; "whippoorwill"; concluding with  the longer l i n e "Passes through every thought, and hope, and aim." The thought i s summarized i n the l a s t three l i n e s , unlike the Shakespearean sonnet, which sums up the resolution i n a f i n a l  Couplet.  Nowhere i s the thought subordinated to the rhyme. "Aim" ends one thought; "flame" belongs to the f i n a l thought.  And yet, closer anal-  y s i s shows that everything Sangster has been saying i s only a lead-up to the f i n a l l i n e .  This f i n a l l i n e makes a conspicuous departure from  the p r e v a i l i n g iambic pentameter.  The word "Love" interrupts the  regular flow o f the preceding l i n e s .  I t forces a pause, bringing i n  an unexpected break i n a l i n e which contains the major point, the e f f e c t i v e conclusion of the entire poem.  The universality of "love"  and i t s proper hierarchic place at the apex, i s contained i n " c e l e s t i a l p e a r l " and " d i f f u s e d . "  The same "Love" which a t once  tortures and consoles the poet i s born i n heaven and permeates a l l creation.  This sets up an i n t e r e s t i n g ambivalence.  The same "Love"  which i s the cause of the poet's suffering i s also the cause o f h i s consolation.  What begins, seemingly, as a nature poem, ends as a  metaphysical. There i s no doubt that Sangster " t h r i l l e d " ' t o the Canadian  55.  scene, that he i s the f i r s t Canadian poet to s t r i k e near the' national heart. p o l i t i c a l union.  His i n s p i r a t i o n rose beyond the idea of a mere The publication i n 1856 of h i s The S t .  Lawrence and the Saguenay, and Other Poems established a prominent place f o r him i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , but i t was i n h i s l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n i n i860 of Hesperus and Other Poems and L y r i c s that he showed a deeper insight into nature and her moods.  Among h i s  p a t r i o t i c poems, "A Song for Canada" did much to foster the national sentiment that seven years l a t e r culminated i n Confederation.  One  of h i s poems which received wider acclaim than any other by a Canadian poet a t that time i s "The Rapid".  This l y r i c i s v i v i d , and i t s  language and rhythm combine for a perfect imitation of the s w i r l and sweep of the rushing Canadian r i v e r s : A l l peacefully g l i d i n g , The waters d i v i d i n g , The indolent batteau moved slowly along, The rowers, lighthearted, From sorrow long parted, Beguiled the d u l l moments with laughter and song; "Hurrah f o r the Rapid! that merrily, merrily Gambols and leaps on i t s tortuous way; Soon we w i l l enter i t , cheerily, cheerily, Pleased with i t s freshness, and with with i t s spray." ............  37  37 Charles Sangster, Hesperus and Other Poems and L y r i c s (Montreal, Kingston, i860), pp. 94-95.  56.  Twelve years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Sangster*s The S t . Lawrence and the Saquenay, and Other Poems, Charles Mair published Dreamland and Other Poems thus adding another national voice to that of Sangster's. What has already been said regarding Sangster's involvment with nature i n Sonnet XIII applies equally well to a variety of Mair's poems. Wood Notes Mair records the effect on him of a p a r t i c u l a r  In  Canadian  woods: The moss i s green upon the tree, The leaves are green upon the spray, And I w i l l rest beneath the shade, And watch t h e i r ceaseless r e v e l r y . Know ye the wild anemone? 'Tis blooming here alone for me, — The l i l i e s and the blue-bells too, And v i o l e t s gemmed with drops of dew. Awake ye woods, unwonted s t r a i n s ! They wake indeed afar and near. . The wild blood dances through my veins, And glorious breathings meet mine ear. The sounds, the voices and the throng Of j o y f u l birds, the whisper low Of tree and stream entrance me long, And t h r i l l my being as they flow. 38 Like Sangster, Charles Mair's best poems come out of an experience which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canadian l i f e .  But, whereas a  Canadian woods could "cool the flame" f o r Sangster, i t has the opposite effect on Mair.  "The wild blood dances through my veins,/ And  glorious breathings meet mine ear."  I f knowledge i s received according  38 Charles Mair, Dreamland and Other Poems (Montreal, 1868), pp.  131.  127-  57  to the mode of the knower, then i t would seem that nature i s observed and interpreted according to the temperament of the poet.  I t i s the  spring of the year, the spring of the poet's manhood, and the spring of a new country.  The whole tone of the poem i s one o f awakening.  I t i s , however, framed and remote. the reader.  There i s no attempt to involve  I t shows the influence of Wordsworth who declared " L i f e  i s energy o f love," and, l i k e most of Wordsworth's nature poems, shows a concern, not so much with the description of the scene as the sensation i t has generated. Another of Charles Mair's better poems i s August.  The landscape  and the very season i t s e l f are d i s t i n c t i v e l y those of Canada, and are accurately observed. D u l l August! Maiden of the s u l t r y days, And Summer's l a t e s t born! When a l l the woods Grow dim with smoke, and smirch t h e i r l i v e l y green With haze of long-continued drought begot; When every f i e l d grows yellow, and a plague Of t h i r s t dries up i t s herbage to the root, So that the c a t t l e grow quite ribby-lean On woods s t a l k s whose juices a l l are spent; When every fronded fern i n mid-wood h i d Grows sick and yellow with jaundice heat, Whilst those on h i l l s i d e s glare with patchy red; When streamlets die upon the lichened rocks, And leave the bleaching pebbles shining bare, And every mussel s h e l l agape and parched, And small s n a i l - c r a f t quite emptied of t h e i r crews;  39  Mair, pp.  119-124  •  58.  Such a poem prompts a re-consideration of the persistent c r i t i c i s m that a l l the poetry i n Canada at t h i s time was derivative, and was overwhelmingly "romantic" i n tone.  Surely some d i s t i n c t i o n should be  made between realism of treatment and realism of i n t e n t i o n .  Even a  poet of the "Romantic School" can s t i l l treat h i s subject r e a l i s t i c a l l y , and t h i s poem i s an example of such treatment.  No e f f o r t i s made to  gloss over the burned-out, parched land a f t e r a hot Canadian summer. August o f f e r s a d i s t i n c t contrast to a l l the lush growth and l i v e l y promise of a Canadian spring as i n  Wood Notes.  Rhyme has been  abandoned, and each word seems to have been chosen with consummate care and s k i l l .  The symbolism of the plague with i t s accompanying  t h i r s t and fever i s sustained throughout the poem.  "Every f i e l d  grows yellow; "juices are a l l spent" i n "woody s t a l k s " .  "Every  fronded fern .../ Grows s i c k and yellow with jaundice heat/ Whilst those on h i l l s i d e s glare with patchy red"; " ... streamlets die ... /And leave the bleaching pebbles shining bare/ And every mussel s h e l l agape and parched." What i s represented here may be no more tangible than a state of mind, yet i t remains the indispensable substance of the poet's creation, no l e s s than does Keat's "Ode to Autumn" which t h i s poem resembles i n form and d i c t i o n , or Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind" with i t s comparable "fever" imagery.  Thus the impressions of August i n  59  Canada conveyed expressly by the imagery are augmented by the connotative power of i n d i v i d u a l words and phrases.  The poem i s August  personified, presented as a none too pleasing picture - d u l l and spend. I t may be the declining years of Charles Mair. i s gone, and the golden summer days are over. i s f o r the poet a p a r t i c u l a r experience.  The springtime of youth I f so, a Canadian  August  On a l i t e r a l l e v e l , the poet  has merely addressed August i n terms which reveal selected aspects c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of that month.  On a connotative l e v e l , Mair has seen  the r i c h promises of summertime fade and wither under a blazing autumn sun, and through h i s fever-stricken imagery, he comments on the disillusionments of l i f e .  Thus, at a l l times, Canada offered to  Charles Mair a v a r i e t y of scene and season i n which he found the i n s p i r a t i o n for the expression of h i s every mood and experience.  60.  CHAPTER IV MISCELLANEOUS »'MENTIONING CONFEDERATION  I t i s understandable  that many of the poems: i n t h i s section  •would scarcely merit the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of "poetry . 11  The subject  matter i s , f o r the most part, t o p i c a l , and does not lend i t s e l f to l o f t y musings.  But i t was an e x c i t i n g time i n Canadian h i s t o r y ,  and, f o r those who had the urge or the v i s i o n , there was much t o write about.  There was vast expansion, with railways opening up  the country across the p r a i r i e s to the P a c i f i c Coast.  There was  ample subject matter - wheat farms, Indians, cowboys, buffalo, Mounted P o l i c e .  There were the e v e r - l i v e l y p o l i t i c a l issues.  The country was caught up i n these enthusiasms, and anyone who could write was encouraged t o do so. Indeed, the "well-meaning f r i e n d s " who were so often responsible f o r the encouragement, were probably more kind than discriininating.  Nevertheless, they  rendered at l e a s t one service t o Canada, f o r these "poems" have caught the s p i r i t and sentiment of a v i t a l "moment" i n Canadian history. In the Preface t o P e n c i l l i n g s By the Way, the author "P. J . B." gives an exemplification of a l l these various aspects: I assure you, gentle reader, i t i s with no ordinary sensation of fear, mingled with confidence, that I venture to present t o the appreciating reading c l a s s of our new Dominion t h i s l i t t l e p o e t i c a l rosary of scenes p e n c i l l e d during a vacation v i s i t , which so importunately crowd i n upon my memory at a l l times that I have concluded the best way I can  61  dismiss them,, without any offence, i s t o send them home i n the coat of Esau, t r u s t i n g with a l l the s o l i c i t u d e of Rachel that they may receive the blessing, i f not of c r i t i c i s m , at l e a s t of consideration, from the hands of kind f r i e n d s , who may not perceive i n my rude manner of expression the voice of a poet; yet, may f e e l the good intention of one, who would not s e l l the memory of h i s count r y f o r the mess of p r a c t i c a l routine that d a i l y surrounds him. ...I do i t merely to s a t i s f y the wish of a few f r i e n d s , who are anxious to see me v e n t i l a t e my i n t e l l e c t i n the shape of some l i t e r ary e f f u s i o n . ^ 0 A t y p i c a l verse from the small volume i s "Chebucto":  The boat, up the basin to S a c k v i l l e i s s a i l i n g , A l l freighted with beauty and music so gay:How o f t have I pensively leaned o'er i t s r a i l i n g And thought I saw; H a l i f a x running away: As i f she awoke from a mental d i s t r a c t i o n , And ran a l l her might to catch Commerce and Artj: Hut tripped, l i k e a c h i l d , i n t o Confederation, . And, sorry too l a t e , she now hangs on her s k i r t . ^ "P. J . B." had made a. commentary on Chebucto i n the Preface already quoted:"I must add, that t h i s l i t t l e effusion i s but a poor expression of Chebucto scenery, which might equally compare i n many respects with that of the much talked-of Hudson.  There  i s no wealthy metropolis, c e r t a i n l y , hanging upon i t s s k i r t s to  P. J . B., "Preface", P e n c i l l i n g s By the ¥ay(Montreal, P. J . B., p.  Ik.  1868).  62  entice the fashionable t o u r i s t to dream away the s u l t r y weeks of summer i n p a i n f u l luxuryj yet, there i s a l i t t l e world of p i c t u r esqueness hanging about Chebucto i n a l l i t s w i l d luxuriance,  un-  attended by any d i s s i p a t i n g circumstances, and which i s equalled only by the unparalleled h o s p i t a l i t y of i t s inhabitants."  It  would seem that the Maritimers had acquired a defensive a t t i t u d e quite e a r l y i n Canadian h i s t o r y , an attitude which has been shared by the rest of Canada, i n varying degrees, up to the present time.  But the more enthusiastic Canadians of the Post-  Confederation  period probably f e l t , l i k e Wordsworth, that " B l i s s  was i t i n that dawn to be a l i v e . . . "  I t was,  opportune time f o r the aspiring poet, f o r , i n  indeed, a most post-Confederation  Canada, i t was more important that the verse be written by a Canadian than that i t be  poetry.  In keeping with t h i s exuberant s p i r i t , Robert Awde, i n Our F a i r Dominion, gives a r o l l i c k i n g war  song to the tune of  "Marching through Georgia." The bugle sounds a c a l l to armsi our gallant corps reply; We're ready f o r the great North WestI w e ' l l make the rebels fly. Hurrah f o r Canada our homei we'll f i g h t u n t i l we die, To keep i n t a c t our f a i r Dominion.  63.  Chorus Hurrah! hurrah! f o r B r i t a i n ' s o l d renown; Hurrah! hurrah! f o r country, Queen and Crown; Tho' Fenian hordes with R i e l may j o i n , we'll put r e b e l l i o n down, And keep i n t a c t our f a i r Dominion. We are the h e i r s of wealth untold, from East to Western sea, And proud that we, of a l l earth's sons, are freest of the f r e e . Already dawns the morning of the future yet to be, The glory of our f a i r Dominion. ^  Obviously, the creation of the new Dominion had not meant severing t i e s with B r i t a i n .  The d i r e c t reference to the Fenian invasions i s an  oblique admission of the chief psychological reason which had compelled the four B r i t i s h colonies to seek strength i n union. . Another important reason f o r Confederation - the need to strengthen the economy of the country - i s indicated i n another of Awde's poems, Dominion Day. We bask i n the sunshine of freedom today, And sing "Our Dominion forever!" United to each and to England we pray The changes of time may ne'er sever.  ...  Some of us are noisy - i n speech somewhat free; Yet, count him a foe that would sever As subjects of B r i t a i n most l o y a l are we, And wish to remain so forever. On Confederation we somewhat r e l y , By mutual concessions to l i v e ; And from one another we're hoping to buy 42 Robert Awde, Jubilee, P a t r i o t i c , and Other Poems(Toronto, pp. 23-24.  188?),  64.  Whatever each Province can give. Our notions of trade, even crude tho' they look, Have brought out t h i s point, i n our thinking, 'Tis better to lead the horse out to the brook, Than cart a l l h i s water f o r drinking. As England receives a l l our surplus of food, To feed a l l her thousands, ' t i s c l e a r , 'Twould give us l e s s trouble, and do us more good, To have them located out here. To t h i s end our people have voted N. P., To give manufacture protections, And thus do we hope by industry to see The l a s t of hard times and dejection; When Canada, great, but not standing alone, And union a r e a l i z e d f a c t , S h a l l form a grand outpost to strengthen the throne, And keep our allegiance i n t a c t . 3  j  The depression of 1873 came at a most d i f f i c u l t time f o r Canada, when substantial revenues and c r e d i t s were needed to subsidize an expensive program of expansion, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n railway construction. That same year saw the defeat of John A. Macdonald, as the r e s u l t of the P a c i f i c Scandal.  F a i l u r e of the new L i b e r a l government to draw up  a r e c i p r o c i t y agreement with the United States threw Canada back on her own resources, and offered Macdonald the opportunity to r a l l y to the Conservative party those i n d u s t r i a l groups whose expectation of favors from the L i b e r a l s had been disappointed. ^3  Awde, pp. 1 8 - 2 0  It was a chance to  65  promote a change of p o l i c y towards the United States and to show that country that i f i t had refused r e c i p r o c i t y of trade, i t must accept r e c i p r o c i t y of t a r i f f s .  "National P o l i c y " became the slogan i n the  p o l i t i c a l campaign, and swept the Conservatives back into power i n the 1878  election.  Though the National P o l i c y proved to be no e l i x e r  for a l l the Canadian i l l s , s t i l l i t d i d express the desire of Canadians to b u i l d a vigorous and independent national economy as the very l i f e - b l o o d of a successful Confederation.  I t i s this, s p i r i t  which prompted much of the Confederation verse, as a sort of propaganda v e h i c l e . Railway expansion was recognized as an absolute necessity i n building a u n i f i e d nation, and was subject matter f o r more than a few of the poems.  In The Poems of John C. Colgan "The Iron Horse" i s i n  praise of the C. P.  R.  ... Then happy Canada! your l o t i s b l e s t ; The shortest throughfare from east to west And eastern f a b r i c s of the choicest brand W i l l swell the commerce of t h i s happy land. Your precious mines and flowing wells of o i l On every side reward the sons of t o i l . Exhaustless forests, f i l l e d with pine and oak, Invite the hardy woodman's f e l l i n g stroke To l a y those giant kings.of nature low. And clear the v i r g i n s o i l for wheat to grow.  66.  Let G r i t and Tory both unite t h e i r force To speed the progress of the Iron Horse. With resolution brave l e t a l l agree And stretch h i s i r o n bands from sea to sea. Linked with your mother by those v i r t u e s three; Firm f a i t h , bright hope and heavenly charity, Or linked to Sam for better or for worse By i r o n r a i l and smoking Iron Horse. ^ The l a s t stanza i s delivered with a s t r a i n of wry humour. leave the security of "Mother B r i t a i n " for a marriage with  To  "Sam"  does not seem a very desirable prospect for Canada, even i f i t should mean economic s e c u r i t y . This p r e v a i l i n g sentiment of John Colgan i s expressed i n some of h i s other poems.  In "Farewell to the Observer" he says:  Two Sons of Mars prefer t h e i r claim, Who fought on many a f i e l d of fame And f o i l e d the Yankee Fenian scheme Of Annexation; And who would fight through f i r e and flame For Confederation. ^ But he seems to reach the peak of national fervor i n A Word i n Season. Shun the Tory, G r i t Who would blast our , With a secret God Himself i s love  and Fenian, young dominion plan, and union, •  kk  John C. Colgan, The Poems of John C. Colgan (Toronto, 1 8 7 3 ) ,  k5 Colgan, p.  12.  p.10.  67.  Serve Him best you can.  Think with love and veneration, How that grand Confederation Joined us a l l i n one; Practise Christian toleration, Every sect and c l a n .  Let the maple l e a f and beaver Be our union beadge forever, Peace our constant aim; Show our friends across the r i v e r We are free as they. Let them see there's no disunion In our happy young dominion, No i n t e s t i n e wars. Then a f i g f o r a l l t h e i r minions, And t h e i r s t r i p e s and s t a r s . Take a humble ploughman's warning Mind your business night and morning Let the world wag; Keep the lamp of freedom burning. Round our native f l a g . Such sentiments must have had a strong public appeal, and were probably as powerful i n influencing public opinion and national p o l i c y as were the e d i t o r i a l s of the day. Since any p o l i t i c a l fiasco was s u f f i c i e n t to c a l l f o r t h another poem, i t i s understandable that the "Great P a c i f i c Scandal" would not be passed up. The engineering problems entailed i n Colgan,  pp. 2 2 - 2 3 .  69.  constructing  a r a i l r o a d to the P a c i f i c c o a s t , p a l e d i n t o  insignificance  i n comparison w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l o b s t a c l e s to be overcome".  The work o f c o n s t r u c t i o n was to be a p r i v a t e  and two groups e n t e r e d  enterprise,  i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the c o n t r a c t .  One was  formed i n Toronto under the p r e s i d e n c y o f Senator D . L . Macpherson; the o t h e r was formed i n Monreal under S i r High A l l a n , the support o f American c a p i t a l i s t s . o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e s to power, construction  was s h o r t - l i v e d . set  I n o r d e r to ensure the  Allan contributed  But the s u c c e s s o f the  to  the  some  Conservatives  I n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the government  t o work to r e o r g a n i z e  return  s i n c e the L i b e r a l s were adverse  o f the proposed r a i l w a y ,  $350,000 f o r campaign f u n d s .  who e n l i s t e d  immediately  A l l a n ' s Company so t h a t the Toronto group  c o u l d be brought i n and American c o n t r o l e l i m i n a t e d , the L i b e r a l s s e i z e d upon the o p p o r t u n i t y i n the s e s s i o n o f 1873 to l a y charges o f bribery against  Macdonald.  Though he d e n i e d t h a t t h e r e was any  c o r r u p t b a r g a i n and t h a t such c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f money were s i m p l y normal p o l i t i c a l operations, censure  p u b l i c sentiment  was aroused and a v o t e o f  i n P a r l i a m e n t brought the f a l l o f the government.  L i b e r a l s took o f f i c e . were d e f e a t e d ,  The e l e c t i o n s  o f 1874 i n which the  were e x c i t e d l y d e s c r i b e d i n the "Globe'* as  Thermopylae o f Canadian v i r t u e . "  The Conservatives "the  70  "Alphonso S t i l l e t o ' s Poetization of the Incipient Stage of the Great P a c i f i c Scandal" i s an exemplification of public indignation and of outraged ''Canadian v i r t u e " .  Twenty-nine pages precede the  short excerpt included here:  " I t means that f o r p e l f The men who ruled Canada sought, and would place Our country i n debt, and themselves i n disgrace!"  ... Glad would I be To come, and to learn of the whole that transpired, Which causes Canadians thus, to have i r e d . And, f i r s t , may I t e l l you Canadians sought To b u i l d a great Railroad, v/hich by them was thought, Should run from A t l a n t i c , t h e i r boundary East, And reach the P a c i f i c , ere i t should have ceased. Macpherson declared, that Canadians should B u i l d a l l of the road i f they possibly could. ... These quasi-Canucks'doubtless thought the S i r Hugh? To b u i l d such a road were a sorrowful few. He, hence, had recourse to the land of the Stars, To help the slow coaches, give place to the cars. We only need prove that a Government few Would s e l l to Americans what they should keep Within t h e i r own f o l d for Canadian sheep. The problem of railways was c l o s e l y connected with a successful Confederation.  B r i t i s h Columbia had l a i d down the terms of a r a i l r o a d  47 Alphonzo S t i l l e t t o ' s Poetization of the Incipient Stage of the "Great P a c i f i c Scandal .', pamphlet, 29 pages(Montreal, 1874). 1  71.  as condition f o r joining Confederation.  But even the desire f o r  western settlement had not outweighed the growing h o s t i l i t y toward the project which the "Globe" attacked as "a rash and may be disastrous step at the d i c t a t i o n of a handful of people 2,500 miles  Lb away."  Obviously, such a lengthy poem as the one just quoted  shows that the average man was interested. One o f the longest poems, however, dealing with every aspect of Canadian l i f e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r era i s Canada F i r s t an Appeal to A l l Canadians.by A Toronto'Boy.  Some explanation of the Canada F i r s t  movement may be i n order here. In the seventies there arose the 'Canada F i r s t ' movement, whose object i t was to unite Canadians on a basis of moral idealism and c u l t u r a l fervour. I t s founder, William Foster, described i t as 'an i n t e l l e c t u a l movement', as a 'direct product, i n some measure of that higher culture which the u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges of our land are s t e a d i l y promoting', and for a few years i t enjoyed wide support. There was, then, recognition of the fact that a nation does not achieve greatness by a merely material expansion. Never before had Canadians been as ready as i n these f i r s t three decades a f t e r Confederation to welcome a native l i t e r a r y movement, and t h i s public responsiveness undoubtedly had something to do with the marked increase i n the quantity and q u a l i t y of l i t e r a t u r e during the period. 9 The poem i s divided into sections and i s p r i n t e d i n a 16 page pamphlet.  48 Edgar Mclnnis, Canada A - P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l History (Toronto,  1958), p. 329. 49  Desmond Pacey, Creative Writing i n Canada(Toronto, 1961), p. 36.  72.  The foUowing are a few excerpts pertinent to Canadian independence and  expansion. Let Eighteen-eighty, close Colonial l i f e , And Canada a nation now become! We court no b i t t e r f e e l i n g s , war, or s t r i f e , But we must have an Independent Home. A colony, a Nation ne'er can be And proud ambition r i s e s with our years, Our aim i s noble, ' t i s t h i s land to see A Greater B r i t a i n , founded without tears. The older nations of the earth may ask, "Why than, should Canada desire to change? Why cut the B r i t i s h cords? Why cease to bask In B r i t a i n ' s glorious sunshine? This seems strange?" Not stranger, than i n s t r i p l i n g grown a man, Thoughts, yearnings, r i s e , that urge him f a r to roam, 'Twas ever thus since f i r s t the world began; Strong natures seek an Independent Home. Thus, Canada a manly course would steer; To treat d i r e c t with nations now would choose; On equal footing meet them as t h e i r peer, Nor henceforth, r i g h t s and claims by proxy l o s e . Then grand To r a i s e a The f a u l t s W i l l shun,  Great B r i t a i n ! l e t t h i s son go free* new Republic to h i s name; and f o l l i e s of Columbia, he and r i s e to strength, to wealth and fame.  Such an appeal for complete independence from B r i t a i n i s evidence that i n d i v i d u a l Canadians were often f a r i n advance of t h e i r government's p o l i c i e s , since i t was not u n t i l the Halibut Treaty of 1923 that Canada was permitted to sign any document independently of B r i t a i n .  73.  The  appeal.continues: Nor Our We On  deem that Annexation i s involved; hearts on Independence, set are sure! love our home, as ours, and are resolved Independence, - Annexation's cure.  We cannot love the s o i l we never trod, Yet kindly think of our forefather's land; But Canada's our own; each lake, brook, sod, H i l l , vale, f a l l s , r i v e r , wood and rocky strand. A comparison with the freedom and prosperity of the United States i s more than mildly s a t i r i c : The question must be asked, -"What i s our age?" "Is the Republic elder of the:two?" At l e a s t ' t i s shown by History's true page, That Canada, though young, i s scarcely new. Yet see the contrast, and l e t B r i t a i n say Is she quite blameless of our low estate; On one side progress, wealth and powerful sway;. On ours - well - on the theme we won't d i l a t e . But monarchy has blame, and B r i t i s h gold Has flowed into our elder brother's hands What has our f e a l t y earned, when a l l i s told? It leaves us c h i l d - l i k e s t i l l i n swadding bands. Not to our lands have emigrants i n shoals, Flocked from the B r i t i s h I s l e s to swell our ranks; Of those we get some poor, infrequent doles; The best pass through, and leave no cash nor thanks.  This i s the general tenor of the poem, but one p a r t i c u l a r stanza i l l u s t r a t e s that the concept of independence within a Commonwealth  Ik.  under the Crown was not even embryonic. And casting o f f thy r u l e , with thy consent, We would i n peace, with mutual blessings part. Suggest no king - we'll choose a President As a Republic, we our race would s t a r t . Sections I I and I I I follow with approximately f i f t y - o n e stanzas r e l a t i n g Canada's g l o r i e s , natural beauty and  accomplishments,  followed by an appeal to change a l l the names of c i t i e s that are the same as those of the Old World.  The f i n a l stanza of t h i s section i s  humourously s a t i r i c : Go change thy name; no longer ape the GreatI Change a l l those names or dread the vain bird's doom, We must i n kindness thy f a l s e pride berate, Jack-daw, absurdly t a i l e d i n peacock's plume. The appeal f o r national poets i n Section IV only emphasizes the irony of the Canadian s i t u a t i o n - that there was no great poetry to be put at the service of such strong conviction. The Poets; of the Nation must appear! We want our ballads - none are written yet! Canadian l i l t s and songs, the youthful ear Ne'er hears when nurse or mother soothes her pet. A l l these sentiments are part of the "Canada F i r s t " campaign which the poet weaves throughout each section and with which he concludes the poem. Canada, f i r s t ! the feeble cry we hear; Despise i t not, the next s h a l l be a shout! A new-born nation s h a l l at once appear; Though feeble, i t s importance never doubt.  75  And now, with earnest, hopeful, warm appeal, To a l l Canadians, who t h e i r country p r i z e , We close t h i s e f f o r t for Canadian weal; UniteJ Combine! The Nation organize. Native and foreign-born, combine , unite! A": p a t r i o t i c stand s h a l l win our claim; E o l l up your numbers f o r the National f i g h t ; Let "The Dominion" j u s t i f y i t s name! ^0 1  I t may be that such a poem was more inspirational than would appear at the present day. For just as there are abuses which r e s i s t the zeal of reformers but which are amended at the f i r s t breath of laughter, so might an enthusiastic, p a t r i o t i c poem l i k e t h i s one, dispel the general apathy where many an e d i t o r i a l had f a i l e d . Some of the poems of t h i s type are, however, on a somewhat higher poetic plane.  The same love of country and desire for a united Canada  are there, but the tone i s more subdued.  One such poem i s Dominion  Day I d y l l : Time was when man to man we stood i n s t r i f e ; Sword clashed on sword, crimsoned with ghastly gore, And orphans mourned, and widows wailed t h e i r dead, While weeping earth strewed leaves her slaughtered children o'er.  50 Canada F i r s t an Appeal To A l l Canadians by A Toronto Boy, Pamphlet 16 pages(Toronto, 1880).  76  Long years have passed and smoothed those furrows down That rugged hands once raised to hide the s l a i n ; But now we b a t t l e on a bloodless f i e l d , And s t r i v e to b u i l d one mighty land from main to main. Our fathers b u i l d those monuments of stone, To t e l l what France had l o s t and England won; Their children we- l e t us a nobler r a i s e , Founded on land and sea - the f a i r e s t 'neath the sun. From Labrador to f a i r Vancouver's I s l e , From E r i e ' s shore, f a r as the Arctic; seas, One banner's folds waves o'er Canadian homes, One arm defends our rights.and guards our l i b e r t i e s .  ^  There i s evidence here of a more conscious a r t and of d i s c i p l i n e d emotion.  The uniformity of the abcb rhyme scheme and the iambic  pentameter l i n e i s r e l i e v e d by the f i n a l Alexandrine i n each stanza. The poem i s developed c h i e f l y by comparison and contrast, beginning with a scene of slaughter and mourning, and building up to the point of comparison between early Canada and the "now". The present struggle i s no l e s s r e a l though no longer bloody.  The f i r s t b a t t l e s were  fought with swords f o r the conquest of a country; those being fought now are by moral persuasion for the preservation of a nation. "Monuments of stone" bear witness to the valour of "our fathers", but " t h e i r c h i l d r e n " would b u i l d a "nobler" monument - a wide, free nation.  51 Rev. Duncan Anderson, Lays of Canada, and Other  1890), pp. 24-32.  Poems(Montreal,  77  Words are chosen with economy and judgment, and there i s evidence that the sound i s meant to be "an echo of the sense".  The  clashing swords are crimsoned, but, by implication, so are the leaves that f a l l i n autumn upon the graves of the dead - "While weeping earth strewed leaves her slaughtered c h i l d r e n o'er."  The melancholic mood  i s created not only by the pathetic f a l l a c y of the "weeping earth" but more e s p e c i a l l y by the long vowels- e's and o's, the connotations of "mourned" and "wailed" and by the Alexandrine.  The a l l i t e r a t i o n i n  "widows wailed .../While weeping earth strewed leaves..." adds emphasis, and seems to have come i n response to the poet's mood as a natural r e s u l t of s t r i v i n g a f t e r accurate expression. The t r a n s i t i o n to the present i s rather s k i l f u l l y executed not so much by the statement of the "long years" as by the reference to the l e v e l l i n g of the grave mounds.  Then the poem builds up to the  climactic statement - the monuments of stone have crumbled but the monument of a prosperous united nation w i l l not.  The f i n a l stanza  resolves the problem - a nation, i f i t i s to expand and endure, must be united under "one banner's f o l d s " and under one government.  "One  arm defends our r i g h t s and guards our l i b e r t i e s . " The comparative r e s t r a i n t of such a poem i s probably a more accurate expression of the general concern for Canadian unity than  78  i s the more boisterous effusion of much of the verse of t h i s time. This desire f o r a nation united i n heart as well as i n government i s r e i t e r a t e d i n various poems.  William Douw L i g h t h a l l has included  one i n h i s s e l e c t i o n of Canadian Poems and Lays: S h a l l we not have one race, shaping and welding the nation? Is not our country too broad for the schisms which shake petty lands? Yea, we s h a l l j o i n i n our might, and keep sacred our firm Federation, Shoulder to shoulder arrayed, hearts open to hearts, hands to hands.52 There are a number of "Anthems" and "Songs" i n a c o l l e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Sawney's L e t t e r s and Cariboo Rhymes.  "The New  Dominion"  serves as an example: Gt  land of the maple and beaver, we love To hear thy praises afar; Federation thy strength, Dominion thy name, Thou bright and new shining star; May wisdom, strength and power combine, To make thee a giant so grand, While from ocean to ocean thy empire extends, H a i l , Dominion, our own fatherland! Chorus H a i l , New Dominion, thou glorious and f r e e ! Soon may thy empire span from sea to sea! Dear Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Red River And Columbis a l l i e d with you, With Canada joined, say who can e'er sever A country and f l a g firm and true; Thy s i s t e r Columbia, whose resources are many, Would improve 'neath thy fostering hand, Then, say come with us, thou land of the West,  52 William Douw L i g h t h a l l , Canadian Poems and L a y s S e l e c t i o n s of Native verse(Montreal, From '85), p. 19.  79.  We'll make one great fatherland. 53 The c a j o l i n g attitude towards "Columbia" Contrasts with that of some of the p o l i t i c a l malcontents who would just as soon have excluded "Columbia" from Confederation as support the plan f o r the requested railroad. Al s e l e c t i o n of Confederation poems would not be complete without at least one of those dedicated to D'Arcy McGee.  The part he played  i n Confederation as one of i t s "Fathers" i s too well-known to need explanation. In Memoriam. D'Arcy McGee Well mayst thou, mourn, f a i r CanadaJ Well mays'st thy hot tears f a l l , As on h i s b i e r , with downcast eyes, thou spread'st the funeral p a l l ; For i n thy dear adopted son, there dwelt a mighty power To grapple with thy enemies i n danger's t r y i n g hour.  Yes!  loved McGee! though never more the music of thy voice S h a l l t h r i l l us with i t s melody and bid our hearts r e j o i c e ; Yet, under t h i s Dominion, long thy name s h a l l be a s p e l l 53  James Anderson, Sawney's Letters and Cariboo Rhymes, Words and Music by W. W. H i l l (Toronto, I 8 9 5 ) , p.  80  To children's c h i l d r e n through the land thy grand heart loved so w e l l . ^4 What greater t r i b u t e could be paid Confederation?.  Not only was i t  the theme of song and verse, but i t could claim the l o y a l t y and the l i f e of a man l i k e D'Arcy McGee. 54  H. S:. Battersby, Home L y r i c s (London, I 8 7 6 ) , 1 , 87-88..  81.  •CHAPTER V_- EVALUATION  The story of Confederation i s incontestably dramatic p e c u l i a r l y Canadian.  and  I t i s the story of how a handful of c o l o n i s t s  gradually worked out a solution to the problem of freedom and c o n t r o l . But, just what r e l a t i o n i s there between t h i s h i s t o r i c a l event and the poetic output of Canada during the period l 8 5 5 - l 8 8 0 ?  Desmond Pacey says:  "The r e l a t i o n between a society and i t s l i t e r a t u r e are hypothetical and obscure, and no simple arrangement of cause and effect can be discerned or proven.  Perhaps the nearest we can come to a formulation of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s to declare that a state of high excitement within the community, together with some powerful stimulus from outside, i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n the creation of a v i v i d and vigorous body of w r i t i n g . These conditions ... were present i n Canada as a whole during the f i r s t 55  years of her existence as a federated nation." Excluding such better-known post-Confederation.poets as B l i s s Carman, Charles G. D. Roberts, or Isabella Valency Crawford, as well as the French-Canadian poets, whose works f a l l outside the scope of t h i s thesis, what i s there to be said f o r the many " l i t t l e  poets"  whose verses found t h e i r way into the journals, newspapers, school texts and song books of Canada, and i n some cases, into the journals of  other lands.  Did they create a " v i v i d and vigorous body of w r i t i n g "  or were there extenuating circumstances which imposed constraint or 55  Desmond Pacey, Creative Writing i n Canada(Toronto, 1 9 6 l ) , P« 35*  82.  prevented the f u l l flowering of genius?  In a discussion of "The  S i x t i e s Group" i n Poetry i n Canada, R. E. Rashley says: I t was the misfortune of the pioneer poets that t h e i r world never r e a l i z e d i t s e l f i n a large u n i f i e d physical form, nor, as the chance of history f e l l , i n a s o c i a l or philosophical form. The• p h y s i c a l and commercial forces which created the settlements went on to destroy t h e i r importance. The colonies had not r e a l i z e d t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s as i n d i v i d u a l organizations before i t became apparent that the c o l o n i a l organizations were i n themselves inadequate to the defence and development of the areas which they could control and, i n 1867, a national concept was implemented. ... being a l a t e a r r i v a l i n the world, Canada i s not required to work out i t s own modulations from one movement to another. When one mode of expression has served i t s purpose there are models for the new e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e , ^o This i s one view of the "pioneer poets" which would imply that they were victims of t h e i r c o l o n i a l status.  I t also poses the question of  the i m i t a t i v e or derivative q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r poetry.  Before  considering the v a l i d i t y of these arguments, however, i t may be well to see what other opinions have been propounded. In Canada and I t s Provinces published i n 1913» there i s an estimate of Alexander McLachlan, c e r t a i n l y one of the most popular poets of h i s time: . . . McLachlan s love of men and of nature won him many admirers, but, while h i s verse appeals to the heart, every poem he penned has serious flaws due to a lack of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . Had he devoted much of the time he gave to composition to studying the masters of English verse, he might have achieved something r e a l l y f i n e i n poetry, but h i s work as i t stands i s commonplace and defective and adds nothing to Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , 1  56 R. E. Rashley, Poetry i n Canada:The F i r s t Three Steps(Toronto, 1958) p. 62. Quoted by permission of the publishers, The Ryerson Press.  83.  even though, from the great heart of the poet and the mind eager t o enjoy nature and t o cause others t o enjoy i t •with him, he w i l l continue t o f i n d readers among those who care much f o r f e e l i n g and l i t t l e f o r a r t . ->7 Interestingly enough,, the Reverend Hartley Dewart, i n h i s "Introductory Essay" t o Selections from Canadian Poets, written at the time McLachlan's poetry was being published, takes p r a c t i c a l l y the opposite view.  Writing about both Charles Sangster and  Alexander McLachlan,. Dewart says: Among those who have most courageously appealed to the reading public, and most l a r g e l y enriched the poetic l i t e r a t u r e of Canada', the f i r s t place -is due t o Charles Sangster. The r i c h ness and extent of h i s contributions, the o r i g i n a l i t y and desc r i p t i v e power he displays, the v a r i e t y of Canadian themes on which he has written with force and elegance, h i s passionate sympathy with the b e a u t i f u l i n Nature, and the chivalrous and manly patriotism which f i n d s an utterance i n h i s poems, f u l l y vindicate h i s claim to a higher place i n the regard of h i s "countrymen, than he has yet attained. Alexander McLachlan has also evinced that he possesses; i n a high degree the g i f t of song. In the opinion of many, he i s the sweetest and most intensely human of a l l our Canadian bards. In elaborate elegance and wealth of descriptive power, i n the success with which he has treated Canadian themes, and i n something of M i l t o n i c s t a t e l i n e s s and o r i g i n a l i t y of s t y l e , Sangster has c e r t a i n l y no equal i n t h i s country. But i n strong human sympathy, i n subtle appreciation of character, i n deep natural pathos, and i n those gushes of noble and manly f e e l i n g which awaken the responsive echoes of every true heart, McLachlan i s equally peerless. That they should be so l i t t l e known t o the reading public of Canada i s a matter of sincere regret. Taking into consideration the subtle delicacy of thought and elevation of style which distinguishes much of h i s poetry, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand why Sangster should be comparatively  Canada and I t s Provinces: A History of the Canadian People and Their I n s t i t u t i o n s By One Hundred Associates, ed. Adam Shortt, A.G.DoughtylToronto, I9I3J, XII, p.57I.  8k  unappreciated by the great mass of readers; but that the sentiments of sympathy with humanity i n a i l conditions, and the protests against every form of i n j u s t i c e and pretension, so simply and earnestly expressed i n McLachlan's poetry, should secure so few; admirers, i s a fact that, i n spite of a l l possible explanations, i s by no means c r e d i table to the taste or i n t e l l i g e n c e of Canada. 58 T h i s i s , obviously, unmitigated praise, without even a hint of the adverse c r i t i c i s m evident i n the l a t e r assessment. on t o say:  Dewart goes  "Enough, however, has already been achieved, t o be an  earnest of the better things f o r the future pledge . . . i t w i l l not always be Winter with Canadian poetry.  Should the soft Spring breath  of k i n d l y appreciation warm the c h i l l y atmosphere, flowers of greater luxuriance and beauty would soon blossom f o r t h , t o beautify and enr i c h our l i t e r a t u r e .  I f these anticipations are not r e a l i z e d , i t  i s not because there i s anything i n the country i t s e l f uncongenial to poetry."  ^  Nor can i t be alleged that Canada lacked discriminating c r i t i c s . A l l poetry was not necessarily l a b e l l e d "good" just because i t was Canadian.  The author of Leisure Hours, A Selection of Short Poems  came i n f o r some scathing commentary i n the J u l y 16, 1870 e d i t i o n of "Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News":  "The author of t h i s l i t t l e pamphlet  $8  Edward Hartley Dewart, "Introductory Essay", Selections from Canadian Poets(Montreal,l861+), p. XVII. ^  Dewart, p . XVII  85.  (38 pages) of weak and watery rhyme, t e l l s us i n h i s preface that the pieces' are the p e n c i l l i n g s of a minor.'  We are glad to learn t h i s ,  and sincerely t r u s t that when Mr. Lanigan reaches man's estate he w i l l devote himself to more useful employment than the j i n g l i n g of s i l l y sentences together to be c a l l e d Poems.  'When I was a c h i l d I spoke  as a c h i l d , 'etc., but babyhood i s i n t o l e r a b l e when i t o u t l i v e s the •teens'." What, then, would be the most-just appraisal of the poets of the l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century.  I t would seem that the early  twentieth century assessment i s already i m p l i c i t l y contained i n Dewart's lament - "so few admirers."  but the fact remains that " i t i s not  because there i s anything i n the country i t s e l f uncongenial to poetry", and confirms Rashley's statement  that the Canadian poets of t h i s era were  "victims of t h e i r c o l o n i a l s t a t u s . " This leads to the question of "imitation and derivation", and presents another aspect from which to evaluate these lesseB Canadian poets.  A number of considerations i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s question may be  proposed. F i r s t , should t h e i r poems be placed alongside those of t h e i r American contemporaries  - "weighed i n the balance, and found wanting"?  Or should they be considered i n reference to the beginnings of a  86  country?  What sort of p a t r i o t i c poetry(and p a t r i o t i c verse i s  seldom good verse) was being written i n American c o l o n i a l days? One i l l u s t r a t i o n may serve as an example.  Nearly one  hundred years, before Confederation, when America was emerging i n t o nationhood, P h i l i p Freneau wrote "To the Memory of the Brave Americans": At Eutaw Springs; the v a l i a n t died;; The limbs with dust are covered o'er Weep on, ye springs, your t e a r f u l t i d e ; How. many heroes are no morej. They saw, t h e i r injured country's woe;; The flaming town„ the wasted f i e l d ; Then rushed to meet the i n s u l t i n g foe; They took the spear - but l e f t the s h i e l d . Led by thy conquering genius, Greene, The Britons they compelled to f l y ; None" distant viewed the f a t a l p l a i n , None grieved, i n such a cause t o die But, l i k e the Parthian, famed of o l d , Who, f l y i n g , s t i l l t h e i r arrow; threw;, These routed Britons, f u l l as bold,  Setreated, and retreating slew. Now rest i n peace, our p a t r i o t band; Though f a r from nature's l i m i t s thrown, We. t r u s t they f i n d a happier land, . A brighter sunshine of t h e i r own.  60 The American Tradition i n L i t e r a t u r e , ed. iSculley Bradley et a l . (New; York, 1956), I,p. 308.  87.  As a p a t r i o t i c poem, t h i s has no more, probably l e s s t o commend i t f o r i n c l u s i o n i n an anthology than has "Dominion Day I d y l l * by Anderson.  Yet The American T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e has t h i s  to say f o r P h i l i p Freneau: Judged i n h i s own time by h i s p o l i t i c a l opponents! a s a "writer of wretched and insolent doggerel", an "incendiary journalist" , P h i l i p Freneau was.neverthel e s s our second important poet. His double role as poet and " p o l i t i c a l j o u r n a l i s t i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l age of the Revolution i s consistent with the contrad i c t i o n s of h i s poetry. Freneau was n e o - c l a s s i c a l by t r a i n i n g and taste yet romantic i n e s s e n t i a l s p i r i t . He was also at once a s a t i r i s t and s e n t i mentalist . . . a poet of Reason yet the celebrant of "lovely Fancy" . . . As a poet Freneau heralded American l i t e r a r y independence; h i s close observation of nature(before Bryant) distinguished h i s treatment of indigenous wild l i f e and other native American subjects. . . . Freneau d i d not e s t a b l i s h trends, but he represented q u a l i t i e s that were t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the next h a l f century. He has been c a l l e d the "Father of American Poetry" , and i t i s ultimately.in a h i s t o r i c a l estimate that Freneau i s important . . . he i s worthy of studyas a cross-section of an intensely s i g n i f i c a n t period i n our p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y rather than as an i n t r i n s i c a l l y wise p o l i t i c a l theorist or a profound creator of poetic beauty. 61 1  1  61 The American T r a d i t i o n , pp. 30U-306  88.  There i s no attemps here to apologize f o r P h i l i p Freneau.  He has  grown i n stature from h i s own day when he was considered only a "writer of wretched and insolent doggerel." He i s taken for what he i s - a t r a n s i t i o n a l poet - and as such he finds h i s place i n American literature. . On the contrary, i t i s regrettable that there has been a tendency for Canadian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s to downgrade the very poets who performed a comparable service for Canadian l i t e r a t u r e .  One of the chief  objections i s that t h e i r poetry shows the influence of the Romantic and V i c t o r i a n poets - Wordsworth, Byron, Tennyson.  To t h i s objection,  another early American poet, William Gullen Bryant, may serve as a refutation.  He i s considered the most revered spokesman of h i s age.  Yet, many of h i s poems, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s early ones, r e f l e c t the influence f i r s t of the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s , then of the "graveyard school" and f i n a l l y of the romanticists.  This has i n no way, however,  diminished h i s stature o* deprived, him of a permanent place i n the 1  h i s t o r y of American l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s encouraging to f i n d l a t e r , and even recent Canadian c r i t i c s and poets spurning the e a r l i e r i n f e r i o r i t y approach, and affirming that Canadian poetry of the l a t e nineteenth century and even that of the e a r l i e r L o y a l i s t period needs no apologies.  89  Ray Palmer Baker has t h i s to say: "Though the L o y a l i s t poets never achieved a r t i s t i c independence, several of them occasionally h i t upon l i n e s which are superior to those of a l l t h e i r except Freneau.  contemporaries  In s a t i r i c force and pathos they surpass the  achievements of t h e i r antagonists.  The most remarkable aspect of t h e i r  62 poetry i s a passionate love of t h e i r native land."  And  speaking  of Sangster, he says: "More s e n s i t i v e and more r i c h l y endowed, with s p i r i t u a l i n s i g h t , he occasionally reaches heights that the author of Evangeline and Hiawatha never achieves.  Lacking education and  opportunity f o r development, he i n e v i t a b l y f a l l s beneath the England poet i n scholarship and taste.  New  Nevertheless, i n a small way,  his place i n Canada corresponds with that of Longfellow i n the United States."  6  5  Again, such p r a i s e i s not for lack of p e r s p i c a c i t y .  Regarding  Sangster's volume The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay. Baker agrees with the C r i t e r i o n which c r i t i c i z e d i t adversely.  He says: "With rare good  sense, however, the C r i t e r i o n , standing apart from the majority of p e r i o d i c a l s , remarked that i f Sangster had burned three-quarters of the contents and printed the remainder, he would have had an excellent  62 Ray Palmer Baker, A, History of English-Canadian L i t e r a t u r e to the ConfederationCambridge, 1920), p. 179  63  Baker, p.  165.  90.  volume." A more recent c r i t i c a l assessment has been made i n the "Introduction Note" to Canadian Poems edited by Louis Budek and 1  Irving Layton: Enough poetry has been written i n Canada by now to permit the cutting of more than one swath through i t . Canadian poetry represents a recent and short branch of English poetry - the l i f e of Charles Mair spans almost the whole period, from 1838-192? - and i n general our poetry p a r a l l e l s the movement of B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e from Victorianism to the "modern p e r i o d . The weakness of l a t e nineteenth century poetry and the excesses of modern poetry are to be found i n Canada as well as elsewhere. We do not need to apologize f o r V i c t o r i a n moralism and sentimentality as a part i c u l a r Canadian vice i n the eighties and n i n e t i e s , nor for the l y r i c a l exhaustion which followed. . . * a l l these signs of the times e x i s t i n England and America as w e l l as i n Canada. . . . the reading and recognition of poets s t i l l follow n a t i o n a l l i n e s . ... But the domestic c u l t i v a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e i s s t i l l necessary. In the United States, American poets are mainly read; i n England, B r i t i s h poets. I f we are to have a l i t e r a r y l i f e i n Canada- we must pay attention to our own l i t e r a t u r e . The world w i l l of course s t e a l our Shakespeare ( i f we had one), but i t w i l l ignore our Herricks and our Lovelaces. °5 For the most part, Canadians have ignored t h e i r Herricks and t h e i r Lovelaces, or i n many cases have considered them only transplanted B r i t i s h e r s *  Baker contends;, on the contrary,  that, "Despite the large contribution of Scotland , . . the elements which have determined the progress of Canadian Literature  Baker, p.  160.  ' "Introductory Note", Canadian Poems 1850-1952, ed. Louis Dudek, Irving Layton.(Toronto, I9i>2), p. 20.  91.  have been d i s t i n c t i v e l y American."  He claims further::  Although the l i t e r a t u r e of Canada u n t i l the Confederation was that of the United States, and the background consequently i s the same, the p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s of the Dominion have obscured the issue. I t i s everywhere assumed as a matter of course that the foundations were l a i d by Englishmen. This assumption i s untenable: they were l a i d by men whom generations' i n the New World had made American i n habit and thought...Canada has never been a direct i n t e l l e c t u a l colony of England. U n t i l the Confederation the l i t e r a r y forces potent i n Massachusetts continued unimpaired i n the North. The l i t e r a t u r e of the United States was the l i t e r a t u r e of Canada.  6?  Ray Palmer Baker, i t would seem, did not consider t h i s as complimentary to Canadian L i t e r a t u r e for he goes on to say, " U n t i l I867 i t was American i n i t s lack of color, i t s lack of imagination, and i t s lack of a r t i s t r y .  Since then i t has been  68 Canadian." But i t i s n ' t so easy to dispose of a l l pre-Confederation and Confederation poetry. There may be some basis for Mr. Baker's assumptions i n regard to Canadian prose but the poems of t h i s era are Canadian i n thought and sentiment.  In spite of t h e i r  short-comings, they cannot be ignored for they are the emotional  66 Baker, p. 183.  67 Baker, pp. 183-184.  68 Baker, p.  I87.  92  response and reaction of Canadians to t h e i r native land. are  sincere attempts.to record the awe and admiration and l o y a l t y  f e l t f o r " t h i s f a i r Canada*"  They show to what extent the beauty  of the Canadian landscape and seascape are worthy of song. are  They  They  the f i r s t f a i n t beatings of the national heart of Canadian  poetry.  In a Canadian T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e i t i s to be hoped  that the "unsung" poets of the Confederation w i l l f i n d a place.  9 3 .  APPENDIX I  My Own Canadian Home  E.. G. .Nelson  Tho'  oth-er skies may  to  j  fair;  Morley  r Tho  1  be as bright, And  i V l r'  charms of oth-er  i- i  McLaughlin  oth-er lands as  fir  J'  J  climes i n - v i t e , My wand'ring foot-steps  3C there;. Yet  ¥  there i s one the peer of a l l , Be- neath bright heaven's  \ 1 dome;  Of  thee I sing, 0  j  J  hap-py  J land, My  ± own Ca-na-dian  This i s presumably an adaptation of the poem as written by G. W. Johnson, and was sung i n Canadian schools at l e a s t into the  1920*s.  home.  9*.  APPENDIX II The following poem by Andrew Spedon was too lengthy to be included i n the chapter on s p e c i f i c Confederation poems, but since i t exemplifies Canadian patriotism at i t s peak, i t i s here given i n full. Our New Dominion Canadian P a t r i o t i c Song A l l h a i l our New Dominion, Which spreads from sea to sea! A l l h a i l our glorious Union Of hearts both brave and free, On r i v e r s , vales, and mountains, On lakes and l o v e l y i s l e s , On forests, f i e l d s and fountains, The Queen of Nature smiles. Chorus:  Then shout the nation's chorus, And h a i l the UNION-DAY Three cheers f o r l o y a l Canada, Hip, h i p , hurra, hurra! Where stood the s e t t l e r ' s shanty, The s t a t e l y mansion stands, And f i e l d s adorned with plenty, Were hewn from forest lands. We send an i n v i t a t i o n , And h a i l with helping hand, Th* oppress*d of every nation, To t h i s , our happy land. Chorus - Then shout, e t c . We fondly love to cherish The name of fatherland, Whose g l o r i e s cannot perish, Like footmarks on the sand;  95.  Yet s t i l l i n kindred union, We proudly love to claim Our British-born Dominion, Besides, an honor•d name. Chorus - Then shout, e t c . No tyrant rules our nation, No slavery t a i n t s our s o i l ; But men of every s t a t i o n Are free-born sons of t o i l ; The f r u i t s of honest labor Adorn our f e r t i l e land, Each man's a brother-neighbor, Who helps with w i l l i n g hand. Chorus - Then shout, e t c . We w i l l , maintain our s t a t i o n , Yet s t r i v e to l i v e i n peace, With every other nation, In hopes that war may cease; But i n our country's danger United we s h a l l stand, To crush the foreign stranger, Who dares to touch our land. Then shout the nation's chorus, . And h a i l the UNION-DAY Three cheers f o r l o y a l Canada, Hip hip, hurra, hurra! Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!  1  Andrew Spedon, The Canadian Minstrel (Montreal,  I 8 7 O )  , pp. 8 - 9 .  96.  SELECTED CHECK LIST of Books of Canadian Poetry 1855  Anderson, Rev. Duncan.  - l880  Lays of Canada, and Other Poems, Montreal,  L o v e l l , 1890.  (BVaU)  Anonymous Canada F i r s t : Ah Appeal to A l l Canadians by A Toronto Hunter, Rose' and Co., 1880. (OTP)  Boy.  The Carrier's Poem. Dedicated to The Patrons, The Ottawa C i t i z e n (January 1, 1857). (OTP) O r i g i n a l L y r i c s by a Canadian Rhymer.  IE56.  (OTP)  Toronto, pub. by author,  Raise the Flag, and Other P a t r i o t i c Canadian Songs and Poems. Toronto, Rose, 1891.  (Brown U)  Arion (pseud), Alphonso S t i l l e t o ' s Poetization of the Incipient Stage of the Great P a c i f i c Scandal and of the Celebrated Speech of Lord D u f f e r i n i n Reply to a Health Toast at a Dinner Given by the Halifax Club.  Montreal, "Witness" P r i n t i n g House,  1874.  (Brown U) Awde, Robert, Jubilee, P a t r i o t i c , and Other Poems. Briggs, 1887. B., P.. J .  (BVaU)  P e n c i l l i n g s By the Way,  Chebucto.  By a Student Who  Montreal, John L o v e l l , 1868. Baldwyn, Augusta, Poems.  Toronto, William  during a Vacation V i s i t i n  i s a Native of Halifax.  P. J . B.  (Brown U)'?  Montreal, L o v e l l , 1859.  (BVaU) .  97.  Battersby, H. S.  Home L y r i c s .  London, Ward, Lock, and Tyler, 1876.  Warwick House, Paternoster Row, Bellmore, Euphemia, Book of Poems.  (Brown U)  Toronto, Dudley and Burns,  187k,  (Brown U) B l a i r , John J r . Poems Serious, Sentimental, P a t r i o t i c , and Humorous. St. Catherines, Ont., Meek, 1875.. Breckenridge, Rev. James, Poems. Breeze, James T.  (BVaU)  Toronto, Dredge, i 8 6 0 .  Memories of My Youth:  A, C o l l e c t i o n of Poems By  J . T. Breeze, Picton, C. W. Napanee, C. W., I865.  Pamphlets  The Miscellaneous Works of The  Canadian Poet, J . T. Breeze, B r o c k v i l l e .  The Fenian Raid11  The Queen's Own!  Napanee, 1866.  (OTP)  Dublin, McGee, i 8 6 0 .  Poems On The Events Of The  A. Legend of Niagara and Other  (BVaU)  L y r i c s , Songs and Sonnets. (BVaU)  (OKQ)  (QMSS)  Gartwright, Rev. Conway Edward, Lena.  Chandler, Amos Henry.  Montreal, I867.  Port Hope, " B r i t i s h Canadian" O f f i c e , 1866.  Canadian Poems.  and Co., 1880.  Wm.  The Great I n s t i t u t i o n of Our Country, A  Poem On The Grand Trunk Railway.  Poems.  Brockville,  (OTP)  The Dominion of Canada:  Hour.  William Kennedy,  (OTP)  O r i g i n a l Canadian L i t e r a t u r e :  O'Brien, 1868.  (OTP)  Toronto, Hunter, Rose  98.  Clement, Claude.  Thoughts i n Verse.  saw the Doings at Y  By Claude Clement and Others, Who  v i l l e . ( V i l i f i c a t i o n of Protestant Bishop who  seemed to be leaning towards Catholicism).  Toronto?  l855«  (Brown U) Colgan, John C.  The Poems of John C. Colgan.  and Co., l8?3.  (BVaU)  C u r r i e , Margaret G i l .  Gabriel West and Other Poems.  Cropley, 1866.  Eos;  An Epic of the Dawn, and Other Poems.  Regina, Leader Co., 1889.  (BVaU)  Aeneas MacDonell. Dominion Day, Caractacus, Malcolm  and Margaret.  Poems.  Ottawa, C. W.. M i t c h e l l , 1886.  Dewart, Rev. Edward Hartley.  L o v e l l , 1864. Songs of L i f e . Burns, 1869.  Layton.  With  Montreal, John  (BVaU) A C o l l e c t i o n of Poems.  Toronto, Dudley and  (BVaU)  Maple Leaves.  Daily Free Press, 1871. Dudek, Louis.  (NSHD)  Selections from Canadian Poets.  Occasional C r i t i c a l and Biographical Notes.  Drury, Susie.  Fredericton,  (BVaU)  Davin, Nicholas Flood.  Dawson, Rev.  Toronto, Hunter, Rose  By Susie D. (pseud). London, Ont., (OKQ)  Canadian Poems. .' 1850-1952. Toronto, Contact Press, 1952.  ed. Louis Dudek and (BVaU)  99  Dunn, Mrs. C. A. Fugitive Pieces. Edgar, James David.  This Canada of Ours, and Other Poems. Toronto,  -  Briggs, 1893. Elmore, Blanche. Fraser, John. 1870.  (BVaU) Poems.  Detroit, Wilson-Smith, ( 1 8 — ? ) .  A. Tale of the Sea, and Other Poems.  (OTP)  Montreal, Dawson,  (BVaU)  Gahan, James Joseph.  Canada.  Garvin, John William.  Quebec, P. G. DeLisle, l8?7.  Canadian Poets,  McClelland, 1916. Gay, James.  Woodstock, Ont., Author, l867« (BVaU)  ed. by  .  (OTP)  Toronto,  (BVaU)  Canada's Poet; Yours Always James Gay.  Poet Laureate of  Canada and Master of A l l Poets,...London, F i e l d and Tuer,  1884.  (BVaU) Gerrard, George.  The Consolation.  Co., 1881.  A Poem. Toronto, Hunter, Eose and  (BVaU)  Glendenning, Alexander. Press, 1871. Greaves, Arthur.  Rhymes. ...  V o l . 1.  London, Ont., Free  (OKQ) Bubbles From the Deep.  Dramatic and Personal. Harrison, Susie Frances.  Sonnets and Other Poems,  Philadelphia, Author, 1873.  The Canadian Birthday Book.  Seranus(pseud) Toronto, Blackett Eobinson, 1887. Haynes, James.  Poems.  (OTP)  Comp.  by  (BVaU)  Quebec, Hunter, Eose and Co., 1864.  (BVaU)  100.  Hayward, Mrs. Caroline. The Battles of the Crimea, with Other Poems. Port hope, Ansley, 18*55. Heavysege, Charles.  Jephthah's Daughter (and Twenty Sonnets).  Montreal, Dawson, 1865. The Owl.  (BVaU)  Montreal, 1864.  Herbert, Sarah. .  (BVaU)  (BVaU)  The Aeolian Harp; or Miscellaneous Poems.  Herbert and Mary E. Herbert.  Halifax, F u l l e r , 1857.  Houliston, George B. Poems. . . .  Three Rivers, Quebec.  By Sarah (BVaU)  1889?  (Brown U) Hunt, Robert.  The Canadian Colonists Welcome to His Royal Highness,  the Prince of Wales; or. New Acrostics.  Montreal, Becket, i860.  Johnson, George Washington. Kirby, William.  Songs to Old Tunes, with Thirty-nine  The U. E.  Niagara, "Mail," l859«  Maple Leaves.  (NSHD) Hamilton, Author, 1864.  A Tale of Upper Canada i n XII Cantos(Anon) (BVaU)  Knapp, M. Emma. L y r i c s of the Past, and Other Poems. McMillan, 1872. Laidlaw, Thomas.  (OTP)  Saint John,  (Brown U)  In the Long Ago; or The Days of the Cattle B e l l .  N. p., 18—?  (OTP)  Lanigan, George Thomas.  National Ballads of Canada.  Translated from the O r i g i n a l s by " A l l i d " ' (pseud). L o v e l l , I865.  (OTP)  Imitated and Montreal, John  101.  Lanigan, John Alphonsus.  Leisure Hours.  and Miscellaneous Scraps. (• 1st ed., 1869.) Lawson, Thomas.  2nd ed.  A- Selection of Short Poems Buffalo, Author,  (NSHD)  The P o e t i c a l Works of Thomas Lawson.  Halloway, 1888.  l8?0.  Halifax,  (NSHD)  Leprohon, Rosanna Eleanor (Mullins). Leprohon (Miss R. E. M u l l i n s ) .  The P o e t i c a l Works of Mrs. Montreal, John L o v e l l , l 8 8 l .  (BVaU) L i g h t h a l l , William Douw. Songs of the Great Dominion.  Voices from the  Forests and Waters, the Settlements and C i t i e s of Canada. and Ed. by  .  L i s t o n , James Knox.  London, Scott, 1889.  Selected  (BVaU)  Poetry for the Dominion of Canada.  Consisting of  Songs of the Canadian Winter, Songs of the Morning Stars, Shouts of the Sons of God, The Ahtemundane State. Stevenson, 1868. McBride, Robert.  Toronto, Adam  (OTP)  Poems S a t i r i c a l and Sentimental on Many Subjects  Connected With Canada. .London, Ont., Dawson, I869. McDougall, Margaret(Dixon). Pembroke (pseud). McGee, Thomas D'Arcy.  Verses and Rhymes by the Way.  Pembroke, M i t c h e l l , 1880.  (OTP) By Nora  (BVaU)  Canadian Ballads, and Occasional Verses.  Montreal, John L o v e l l .  I858.  (BVaU)  102.  The Poems of Thomas D'Arcy McGee. 1869.  New York, Sadlier and Co.,  (BVaU)  McLachlan, Alexander. and Adam, l 8 6 l . Lyrics.  The Emigrant, and Other Poems. (BVaU)  Toronto, Armour, 1858.  McLennan, William. Dawson, 1886"* Mair, Charles.  Toronto, Rollo  (BVaU)  Songs of Old Canada.  Translated by  . Montreal,  (BVaU)  Dreamland and Other Poems. Montreal, Dawson, 1868.  (BVaU) Matthews, Richard F. Poems.  London, Ont., Dawson, 1866.  M i l l s , Phebe A. Vesper Chimes. Murdoch, William. Murray, George. (NSHD)  Poems and Songs.  ( Deals with Dollard  Hunter, l 8 8 l .  Toronto, Copp Clark, 187"+.  1660)  (OKQ) By " S t e l l " —  Winnipeg, Manitoba Free Press, 1884. Poems.  M. A. N i c h o l l .  (BVaU)  By Nobody Knows Who  Forbes and Pittman, I857. Sangster, Charles.  (BVaU)  The Times, and Other Poems. Toronto,  Lays From the West.  Nobody Knows Who.  (BVaU)  Saint John, Barnes, i860.  How Canada Was Saved.  Newell, Rev. John Robert.  N i c h o l l , M. A.  Halifax, Macnab, l8?2.  (BVaU)  (pseud).  (BVaU)  Hesperus, and Other Poems and L y r i c s .  John L o v e l l , i860.  Southampton,  Montreal,  (BVaU)  The S t . Lawrence and the Saguenay, and Other Poems. Kingston,  103.  C r e i g h t o n and D u f f , 1856. Spedon,  Andrew.  (BVaU)  The Canadian M i n s t r e l .  W i l s o n , 1870.  (OTP)  M o n t r e a l , M i t c h e l l and  ioU.  Newspapers and P e r i o d i c a l s Canadian I l l u s t r a t e d News: J u l y 2 to December 31,  1870.  January 7 t o June 2li, I87I. J u l y I to December 30,  I87I.  January k to June 28,  1873.  January 5" t o June 29,  1878.  The Canadian Monthly and National Reviewi I872-I878. The Saturday Reader:  September 1865-March 1866, Montreal, W.B. Cordier and Co.  Other References Canada and I t s Provinces, ed. Toronto, 1913.  A. Shortt and A. Doughty.  22 v o l s .  Encyclopedia Canadiana. Ottawa, The Canadian Company Limited, 1958.. Klinck, C. F. and Matters, R. E. Canadian Anthology. Toronto, W. J . Gage and Company Limited, 1957. Mclnnis, Edgar. Canada, A P o l i t i c a l and Social History. Clarke, Irwin and Company Limited, 195b'. Pacey, Desmond. Creative Writing i n Canada. The Ryerson Press, I96T.  Toronto,  Toronto,  P e r c i v a l , W. P. Leading Canadian Poets. Toronto, The Ryerson Press, I9U0. Rashley, R. E. Poetry i n Canada: The F i r s t Three Steps. Toronto, The Ryerson Press, I9!>B.  105.  The American T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , ed. Sculley, Bradley et a l . New York, 1956.  

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