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Proposed redistribution of provincial electoral districts on the basis of nodal regions Chalk, John Robert 1966

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A PROPOSED REDISTRIBUTION OF PROVINCIAL ELECTORAL DISTRICTS ON THE BASIS OF NODAL REGIONS by JOHN ROBERT CHALK B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Geography We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1966 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study, I further agree that permission., for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Geography The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date September 29. 1966 ABSTRACT Provincial electoral districts were f i r s t created in British Columbia in I869. At that time the criteria used to determine the ridings on jthe mainland were the existing mining division boundaries and on Vancouver Island the land district boundaries. Since 1869 many different sets of constituency boundaries have been used in the province. At a l l times the government has attempted to give the more settled areas the greatest number of electoral seats and yet provide each region of the province with legislative representation. Since electoral ridings were initiated, however, there has not been a stated policy by which jthe legislature has determined new constituency boundaries. In certain instances areal size has been the determining factor in deliniation, whereas in other cases electoral numbers were used. In 1965 the ratio of voting numbers between the largest constituency and the smallest was in excess of twenty-five votes to one. It was therefore selieved that a major revision of British Columbia's electoral boundaries was due. There are three major methods by which new political boundaries may se determined; these being representation by population, by area, and by :ommunity of interest. Each method has certain qualities and l i a b i l i t i e s . Representation by population is considered the best method of boundary delini-ation because the votes of a l l persons are then of equal weight. Since . . iv: British Columbia contains such an uneven population distribution many consti-tuencies created "by employing this principle would be too large in area to be served effectively by one representative. As well, many urban constituencies would be extremely small. Therefore the thesis concluded that this method of boundary determination was not suitable for British Columbia. Representation by area was not considered to be practical for many ridings would contain only a few hundred voters while others over one hundred thousand. Therefore, representation by community of interest appeared to be the best method of determining legislative constituency boundaries. In this system the under-populated areas of the province would have few electoral representatives. Using this method of deliniation each riding would contain i persons affected by similar problems and sharing common interests. Community of Interest regions were determined by isolating a l l territory which is primarily dependent upon a central settlement. Throughout [British Columbia large settlements exist which serve the economic and social jneeds of the surrounding urban and rural population. The thesis recommended I that such regions would make good provincial constituencies since the rural ;and urban areas would have equal interest in both local affairs and develop-| ment. To determine the sphere of influence surrounding each large settle-ment an examination of services provided by various sized communities was undertaken in order to determine which services were offered only by the larger nucleations. As this method of analysis was not applicable in the ! ! |Lower Mainland area a study of shopping patterns and community activities was i used as a basis for boundary determination. Each of these areas of common |interest became the basis for the recommended urban constituencies. ! As a potential political instrument the value of a new set of elec-i itoral boundaries lies in the result which its employment would achieve. i Using the 1963 provincial election statistics in the proposed constituencies, the results would have changed the political party representation in the leg-islature very l i t t l e . Therefore more equable districts could be_ adopted without a shift in political party strength. PREFACE In the preparation of this thesis many persons gave both valuable assistance and suggestions. Although a l l aid was appreciated greatly i t would he Impossible to mention by name each person who did give assistance. I do wish, however, to formally acknowledge and thank Dr. W. G. Hardwick, 'Dr. A. L. Farley and Dr. J. L. Robinson of the Department of Geography who, throughout the preparation of the work, were always willing to offer both encouragement and advice when problems arose. A l l of the research and much of the writing of this thesis was done prior to the creation and report of the Angus Commission on provincial •redistribution. Although the Commission has recommended new electoral boundaries for British Columbia and these have, in the main, been accepted and used by the legislature, (as of September 12, 1966) the thesis does not deal with them except in the appendix. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I CONSTITUENCY BOUNDARIES: REPRESENTATION BY POPULATION OR BY REGIONAL COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST 1 Views on Representation in Government 2 Boundary Determination in B r i t i s h Columbia. . . . 3 Previous Work by Geographers on P o l i t i c a l Regionalism 6 Nodal Regions as Applied to B r i t i s h Columbia. . . 9 Plan of the Thesis 10 II THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUENCY BOUNDARIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Primary Periods of Population Growth in i B r i t i s h Columbia ; The Pioneer Period (1871 - 1884) i The Period of Urban Emergence (1884 - 1894) The Period of Economic Expansion j (I894 - 1902) I The Pre-War and Fi r s t World War Period (1902 - 1918) The Inter-War Period and Second World War ! Period (1918 - 1946) j The Post World War II Period (1946 - 1966). I The Need for Constituency Reform ! 1. Inequalities in Representation I 2. The Movement of the Electorate Toward i Urban Areas j 3. Changes in Regional Interest 4. The Lack of Consistent Policy 11 11 11 14 15 15 24 31 31 31 35 35 36 III CONSTITUENCY REDISTRIBUTION - THE CASE FOR NODAL REGIONS BASED UPON COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST. . . 37 Redistribution was Overdue Methods Possible for Redistribution . . A. Representation by Population. . . B. Representation by Area. . . . . . C. Representation by Nodal Regions . Identification of Regions of Community of Interest 37 37 37 41 41 43 v i CHAPTER PAGE How Valid Functions are Determined 45 Methods of Analysis In Identifying Nodal Regions 46 The Questionnaire 46 Exceptional Areas of the Province 51 Unallocated Areas of the Province 51 Community of Interest in Metropolitan Areas . . 51 Problems in the Lower Mainland Area 51 The Greater Vancouver Ridings 53 Vancouver City 57 Victoria Ridings 62 The Province as a Whole 64 IV HYPOTHETICAL ELECTION RESULTS IN THE PROPOSED CONSTITUENCIES 67 Justification in Determining the Possible Electoral Pattern of the New Constituencies . 67 Calculation Problems in Single Member Ridings . 68 Calculation Problems in Multi-Member Ridings. . 69 Hypothetical Results for the Proposed Const ituenc ies 70 V CONCLUSIONS 76 Restatement of the Problem 76 Assessment of Deliniation Method 78 I POSTSCRIPT The Angus Royal Commission Activities . . . . 80 j BIBLIOGRAPHY 83 ; APPENDIX 1 The Questionnaire 88 APPENDIX 2 Settlements Used to Determine New Boundaries. 90 APPENDIX 3 Brief Submitted to the Provincial Redistribution Commission (Abridged). . . . 94 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Number of Registered Voters per Constituency in British Columbia: 1876 & 1884 13 II Number of Registered Voters per Constituency in British Columbia: 1890 16 III Number of Registered Voters per Constituency In British Columbia: 1894 & 1898 19 IV British Columbia Electoral Districts: 1902 & 1915. 22 V Number of Registered Voters per Constituency in British Columbia: 1928 28 VI Number of Registered Voters per Constituency in British Columbia: 1933 29 j VII Number of Registered Voters per Constituency ! in British Columbia: 1938 32 j VIII Number of Registered Voters per Constituency in British Columbia: 1945, 1952 & 1963 33 IX Hierarchy of Population Centres Found Within British Columbia: 1966 kk X Provincial Nodal Centres, Electoral Populations, and Proposed Constituency Names 50 XI Combined Nodal Centres, Electoral Populations, and Constituency Names 52 XII Number of Registered Voters by Proposed Constituency: Based on 1963 Provincial Electoral Data 65 XIII Hypothetical Winners of Proposed British Columbia Constituencies: Based on 1963 Electoral Statistics 71 XIV Hypothetical Total Votes Received by Candidates ^in Proposed Electoral Districts: Based on 1963 Electoral Data 73 LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE a B. C. Provincial Electoral Districts: l8&k . . . . IT b B. C. Provincial Electoral Districts: 1898 . . . . 21 c B. C. Provincial Electoral Districts: 1<?02 . . . . 23 d B. C. Provincial Electoral Districts: 1915 . . . . 25 e B. C. Provincial Electoral Districts: 1923 . . . . 27 f B. C. Provincial Electoral Districts: 1932 . . . . 30 g Derivation of Northern Ridings '48 1 British Columbia Proposed Electoral Ridings . . . . k$ 2 Lower Mainland Constituencies 5^ 3 Vancouver City 58 k Victoria Constituencies 63 CHAPTER I CONSTITUENCY BOUNDARIES: REPRESENTATION BY POPULATION OR BY REGIONAL COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST The delimitation of electoral d i s t r i c t boundaries i s a problem which has created continuing interest i n those parts of the world where demo-cratic governments function. Debate on the question was Intensified recently by a ruling of the United States* Supreme Court which stated that legislative representation in state assemblies must be on the basis of representation by population. Because of this continued concern found within democratic areas, electoral d i s t r i c t s must be devised and revised from time to time as popula-tion within administrative units expands and contracts at different rates from place to place. The government of Canada recently undertook a redistribution of • federal constituency boundaries, presenting to parliament a hew series of electoral d i s t r i c t s based on the data received in the 1961 census. A com-mission on redistricting, including members of the judiciary and lay appointments had been instructed to determine the new constituencies using as their criterion representation by population. In 1965 the province of B r i t i s h Columbia also established a Royal Commission for the purpose of constructing a new set of electoral boundaries for provincial representation. The boundaries recommended by this Commission were presented to the legislature in January 1966. New provincial ridings, 2 Incorporating many Commission recommendations were adopted i n 1966. Ho body of theory has been developed to determine or evaluate constituency boundaries i n Canada. In this study, therefore, the development Df a new series of constituency boundaries for the B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a -ture has been studied both to discover factors contributing to boundary decisions and also to suggest how a geographer, familiar with spatial theories and methods of areal analysis, could assist in answering the recurring ques-tion of how best to redistribute electoral d i s t r i c t s . B r i t i s h Columbia, like most other provinces in Canada, has an extremely uneven population distribution, with over seventy percent of the population l i v i n g in the two metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Victoria. The remainder are spread primarily through the valleys of the southern and central interior and along the southeast coast of Vancouver Island. If representation by population were adopted for legislative representation in B r i t i s h Columbia seventy percent of the provincial constituencies would have •;o be located within these two urban areas. This would mean that approximately ninety percent of the provincial area would be represented by only t h i r t y percent of the legislative representatives. Thus the area of many constitu-encies would be great. On the other hand, boundaries in effect before 1966 seriously under-represented the urban areas. Two issues are therefore raised by the problem of unequal population distribution, "Should representation by population be a public policy i n B r i t i s h Columbia?n and "What w i l l the con-stituency boundaries be?" Views on Representation i n Government Three differing opinions are advanced i n answer to the f i r s t question. One states that representation by population i s the ideal i n a democrat ic_society_and_must _be_strictly_adhered_to_as_each_personls—vote 3 must be of equal weight to a l l others. This i s the view of the United States Supreme Court and many prominent scientists including Gordon £. Baker and Paul T. David. 1 Other p o l i t i c a l scientists, In contrast, suggest that In areas of rapid population and economic change modification of this principle i s necessary so that these areas receive a clear voice i n the legislature before i t has theoretically been earned. o S t i l l other p o l i t i c a l scientists, among them Alfred De Grazia, suggest that where the population of a country or province i s distributed so unevenly that many constituencies would be very large i n size we either abandon the representation by population concept or in effect t e l l the groups of people l i v i n g i n the less populated areas that we are not Interes-ted i n their viewpoint. The many lesser populated regions of the province which would be incorporated into few electoral ridings -if representation by population were vised are viewed by scholars such as Dr. De Grazia as important enough to be given increased p o l i t i c a l representation although they are not as heavily populated as some urban constituencies. These rural regions might be described as "Communities of Interest." Boundary Determination i n B r i t i s h Columbia There i s no stated policy i n B r i t i s h Columbia concerning the method of deliniation which should be employed i n determining the boundaries of new ridings so as to Insure that i n a l l cases ridings w i l l have meaningful boun-daries. If the same method were employed as has been used recently by the federal electoral commission constituency boundaries might well be drawn arb i t r a r i l y wherever the correct population size had been accounted for, even , XA. Lewis, "One Man - One Vote," The Twentieth Century Fund, New York: 1962. 2lbid., 17-16. . k  i f the new constituency were to divide a settlement in half. In terms of numbers of voters, equable d i s t r i c t s would be demarcated but at the expense of a regional p o l i t i c a l voice. Throughout the province regions do exist i n which the electorate view themselves as distinct and believe they have particular ideas on local and provincial problems. If i t i s desirable, in certain areas of the pro-vince, to use less populated constituencies than would appear i f representa-tion by population were s t r i c t l y adhered to, then these should be carefully selected so that the views of those persons l i v i n g within these constitu-encies can be adequately voiced. In many instances the issue of l o c a l economic development and not provincial affairs i s paramount in the mind of the electorate. When repre-sentatives of a series of regionally-oriented constituencies are drawn together In the legislature these problems can be more adequately discussed. Northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia could serve as an example of what might be experienced i f representation by population were s t r i c t l y employed provincial 1y. In 1965 this area was over-represented in the legislature, electing two representatives although the t o t a l electoral population i s small. Were a constituency for this area devised solely on a representation by population basis, the periphery of Prince George would be included with the Peace River region and the Alaska Highway. The economy of the Peace River region is based mainly on agriculture (chiefly grains) and petroleum resources.- In contrast, the economy of the Prince George area i s oriented toward forest products. The Peace River region focuses on Dawson Creek, the central interior on Prince George. The problems and interests of the electorate within these two 5 areas may well be quite different; i t would seem more satisfactory to allow a representative of the Prince George area to voice opinion on regional and provincial problems from the l o c a l viewpoint exclusively rather than to have his opinions influenced by the viewpoints of the Peace River region. This would be true even i f the electoral numbers found within the two constituen-cies were somewhat different. The necessity of taking into consideration the Importance of regional views can be found throughout the province, and is not restricted solely to the regions cited above. When B r i t i s h Columbia entered confederation i n 1671, a set of electoral boundaries was created for provincial elections. These were not determined by using the representation by population criterion, although the philosophy was well known at the time, nor by considering "Communities of Interest." Constituencies were created by using the existing mining d i s t r i c t boundaries. Since that time major revisions have used provincial areas, such as the Okanagan, the Kootenays and the Cariboo as a guide to the allocation of legislative representation. It would seem, therefore, through tradition and current p o l i t i c a l opinion^ that the solution to the problem of constructing a new set of electoral d i s t r i c t s for the province l i e s not i n representation by population nor In the use of mining d i s t r i c t boundaries but rather by a careful and systematic analysis of the regions of community interest. Through such analysis electoral d i s t r i c t s could be devised i n which most of the electorate would be given the opportunity to elect persons who could vote on issues and ^Based on discussions with Mr. H. Vogel, Social Credit Member for Delta, Mr. H. Bruch, Social Credit Msimber for Esquimalt, and Hon. R. R. Loffmark, Social Credit Member for Vancouver-Point Grey and correspondence with Mr. L. Nimsick, New Democratic Party Member for Cranbrook, and Mr. R. Perrault, the provincial Liberal leader. 6 problems common to their region. Elected representatives could then speak as a voice for a l l persons involved in these matters. A study of community of interest at the scale necessary i n this study probably could not have been undertaken a decade ago. Regional interest would have been d i f f i c u l t to identify as many people liv e d in con-siderable isolation. Through marked improvement in the provincial highway system, the development of regional television stations, and the increasing v e r t i c a l integration of industry and trade have drawn these previously iso-lated hamlets into observable regional systems. Consequently regional capitals have also developed rapidly over the past ten years. Previous Work by Geographers on P o l i t i c a l Regionalism. Por many years geographers have speht considerable time i n the description and analysis of various types of regions. A search of the l i t e r -ature gives considerable evidence to validate this statement and suggests some operational hypotheses for study. In 1910 Vidal de l a Blache produced a scheme for the division of Prance into seventeen administrative divisions or regions.^ These were formed by grouping administrative departments around central towns. These towns he called Hoeuds - the nodes of economic concen-tration. He could identify the influence which these towns had over the country surrounding them and also the dependence which the urban centre had on i t s hinterland. This interdependence might better be termed mutual relationship. Since that time many geographers including Gilbert,5 1|P. Vidal de l a Blache, "Regions Francaises," Revue de Paris, XVII, 1910. ^E. W. Gilbert, "The Boundaries of Local Government Areas," Geographical Journal, 111:172-206, 19^6. c 7 . Smailes,^ and Dickinson,? working i n the United Kingdom, have attempted to improve on the method of distinguishing these areas of mutual relationship and have attempted to create regions of common interest from them. A l l these regions, focused on a central commercial core, are regions of interdependence because the urban area re l i e s on the surrounding rural area i n the same way as the hinterland relies on the ci t y . Vallaux 0 claimed that regional peculiarities in the mode of l i f e of an area Inevitably disappear owing to the improvement in communications and a r i s i n g standard of l i v i n g . He f e l t that regional peculiarities of thought, on the.other hand, should not be allowed to disappear. He believed regional thought must be protected above a l l . We might agree with Vallaux and argue that constituencies based on community of interest would best protect these regional peculiarities. Comments concerning this problem have also been made in the literature of p o l i t i c a l geography. Expression of interest in the examination and interpretation of geographic influences i n p o l i t i c a l elections s p e c i f i -c a l l y ^ a n d of geographic interpretations of p o l i t i c a l party strength i n urban *>A. E. Smailes, "The Analysis and Delimitation of Urban Fields," Geography, XXXII:151-6l, I9V7. TR. E. Dickinson, "The Regional Functions and Zones of Influence of Leeds and Bradford," Geography, XV:546-57, 1930. BC. Vallaux, "Les Aspirations Reglonalistes et l a Geographle," Mercure de France, VIII, 1928. 9E. Krebheil, "Geographic Influences in B r i t i s h Elections," Geographical Review, 2:ld9-97, 1916. J. K. Wright, "Voting Habits in the United States," Geographical  Review, 22:666-72, 1932. . Jean B i l l e t , "L'Expression Politique en Gresivaudan et Son Interpretation Geographique," Revue de Geographie Alpine, 46:97-128, 1958. 0 and rural areas can be noted. The analysis of current p o l i t i c a l boundaries and how they affect the economic and p o l i t i c a l policies of countries and provinces appears also to be well developed.1(^ It seems to the author^ however, that the work of the regional geographer i s more suitable to the question at hand. Very l i t t l e of the literature indicates a continuation of the work of Vidal de l a Blache 1 1 and G i l b e r t . 1 2 The relationship between nodal regions and constituency boundaries and the development of methods to' deter-mine valid electoral boundaries seems to have been overlooked by those geographers currently interested i n creating nodal systems. A small number of geographic studies have contributed to the methodology i n which spheres of influence of urban areas are identified. The studies of Smailes 1^ and of Odell 1^ are of particular importance as both l i s t v alid functions by which regions of primary influence surrounding urban centres were identified. The determination of nodal boundaries were based, in both cases, on an examination of urban functions offered to the surrounding countryside by the settlement under examination and by other centres of «T. V. Minghi, "Boundary Studies iii P o l i t i c a l Geography; A Review Ar t i c l e , " Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 53:407-48, 1963, ^ V i d a l de l a Blache, Op. c i t . G i l b e r t , Op. c i t . 13Smailes, Op. c i t . l^P. R. Odell, "The Hinterlands of Melton Mowbray and Coalville," Transactions of the Institute of B r i t i s h Geographers, 1957, PP. 175-90. similar size located around i t . 9. Nodal Regions as Applied to B r i t i s h Columbia In the province of B r i t i s h Columbia a study of mutual relationship between population centres and their hinterlands had not previously been undertaken. As the population i s so sparce throughout many areas of the pro-wince, the zones of influence identified are much larger than those described t)y either Smailes or Odell i n Britain, or by Berry and Garrison i n the United States.15 Because of the topography and population patterns i t was also evident that s t r i c t application of the Central P l a c e d theory of hexagonal nodal regions was not possible. It was believed by the author that the major population centres of the province did exert measurable economic and cultural influence over their hinterlands. To determine the extent of each hinterland the method of functional analysis used by both Smailes and Odell, by which regions of common interest could be identified, was adopted for this study. As observed in the above mentioned studies, the functions ultimately jised in the delimitation of the nodal regions were validated by determining jbhat the functions chosen for examination did in fact measure dependence on a node. Subsequently an investigation of provincial settlements was undertaken to determine the size of population resident within each of these regions of primary influence. Prom these findings the regions of Interdependence between the central urban core and i t s hinterland were constructed. !5B. J . L. Berry and W. L. Garrison, "The Functional Bases of the Central Place Hierarchy," Economic Geography, 34:145-54, 1956. Ghristaller, "Die Landische Siedlungsweise im Deutschen Reich," 7. Kohlhammer, Berlin: 1937. 10 Plan of the Thesis The basic structure of provincial constituencies prior to 1965 had emerged without any consistent policy framework. In Chapter II the changing pattern of constituencies are described and the underlying c r i t e r i a for their establishment discussed and c r i t i c i z e d . In Chapter III the concept of nodal regions i s advanced and a new constituency plan developed based upon new policies. In the following Chapter the voting results based upon the 1963 provincial election are compared between a new plan and the pattern that existed in January 1966. Finally i n a postscript the results of the 1966 Redistribution Act are summarized. CHAPTER II THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUENCY BOUNDARIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 'Primary Periods of Population Growth In B r i t i s h Columbia Electoral d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have undergone considerable change as the population of the province has grown and i t s distribution shifted. These boundary changes can be chronicled through an account of those Legislative Acts brought into law concerning redistribution of pro-vincial constituencies. Through this we can account for the emergence of the ipattern of constituencies as of January 1966 and uncover some of the c r i t e r i a used as a basis for redistribution. Six periods can be recognized i n which significant changes in population numbers and distribution required major revisions of electoral Acts. These periods include the Pioneer Period (1871 - 1884), the Period of Urban Emergence (1884 - 1894), the Period of Economic Expansion (1894 - 1902), the Pre-War and F i r s t World War Period (1902 - 1916), the Inter-War and Second World War Period (1918 - 1946), and the Post War jPeriod (1946 - 1966). The expansion and change in electoral d i s t r i c t s w i l l be discussed In terms of these above mentioned periods. The Pioneer Period; (1871 - 1884) The legislative assembly shall consist of twenty-five members to be elected as hereinfore provided, and for the purpose of returning such members the Colony shall be divided into twelve electoral d i s t r i c t s , the boundaries whereof shall, for the purpose of this Act, be those set forth i n the schedule hereto annexed marked A, each of which d i s t r i c t s 12 shall return the number of members assigned in the said schedule.17 Thus stated the Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia for 1869* making provision for the f i r s t set of electoral boundaries for B r i t i s h Columbia as a province of Canada, which she joined on July 20, 1871. In the i n i t i a l constituency distribution there were thirteen legislative representatives from the mainland of the province and twelve members from Vancouver Island, although at this time Vancouver Island had over one-half of the provincial electoral population. (Table I) Concessions were being made even at this early date to the large tracts of sparsely-populated land situated on the mainland and on northern Vancouver Island. Kootenay and Comox ridings had extremely small populations but were granted equal representation with more populated areas. Of the twenty-five constitu-encies created, those on the mainland, Cariboo, Lillooet, Yale, Kootenay, and New Westminster and Coast D i s t r i c t , ( a l l of the mainland except New Westminster City D i s t r i c t ) had similar boundaries to the mining d i s t r i c t boundaries as described by the Honourable Joseph W. Trutch in the "Mineral Ordinance Act, lBo^.""* The boundaries selected for Vancouver Island were determined according to previously settled land d i s t r i c t boundaries. In most cases these early ridings were multi-member ridings with each elector voting for more than one candidate. iTprovince of B r i t i s h Columbia, Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia, Section lVf, Victoria: Queen's Printer, I009. ^province of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette, Victoria: Queen's Printer, December 15, 1869. 13. TABLE I NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCY. IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: I676 & 1864 Cariboo Cassiar Comox Cowichan Ssquimalt Kootenay jLillooet Slanaimo Slew Westminster City New Westminster & Coast District Victoria Victoria City Yale 1676 446 voters 3 members 59 180 127 45 157 338 118 410 203 654 44l 3,378 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 _3 25 1684 526 voters 3 members 41 119 254 241 41 203 690 381 971 309 1,303 646 6,047 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 4 _3 25 14 Revisions to the above mentioned constituency boundaries took place as new regions of the province were opened to settlement and more populated areas increased their numbers. In the minor boundary revision of I878 Koot-enay and Cowichan d i s t r i c t s were each reduced to one member while Nanaimo d i -t r i c t received an additional representative, reflecting a growing population dictated by the expansion of the mining of coal at Nanaimo and Wellington. A new d i s t r i c t , Cassiar, was formed i n recognition of the newly initiated mining activity in the northwestern corner of the province. (Table i ) During the pioneer period the number of voters in the province almost doubled. This growth was predominantly in the urban areas of Victoria, Nanaimo and New Westminster. Reflecting this growth, New Westminster and Coast D i s t r i c t constituency was increased, i n 1884, from two members to three. The expansion of agricultural and forest activity allowed Cowichan Dist r i c t to regain i t s second legislative member. At this time the province was not attempting to create constituencies of equal electoral size for the urban areas of the lower mainland were greatly under-represented. The government concentrated on insuring each region of the province a voice i n legislative a f f a i r s . The Period of Urban Emergence: (1884 - 1894) During this ten year period the population increase continued to be primarily urban in nature, particularly following the incorporation of the City of Vancouver, the coastal railway terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Two Acts of the legislature, bringing about alterations in both the constituency boundaries and the t o t a l number of legislators, reflected this population growth. The Consolidation Act of lQ8&^ set forth clearly the 19p rovince of B r i t i s h Columbia, Statutes of the Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia, Chapter 22, Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1888. 15 boundaries of new constituencies and in the Constitution Act of 1690^° six new members were added to the legislative assembly, bringing the t o t a l to thirty-three. Two c i t i e s , Nanaimo and Vancouver, were given independent represen-tation, this placing them on an equal footing with New Westminster and Victoria, although the populations of the four c i t i e s were far from equal with Nanaimo running a poor fourth. Reflecting the beginning of the mining boom and subsequent population increase i n the Kootenays, the area was divided into two d i s t r i c t s , East Kootenay and West Kootenay. In addition resource development on the coast led to the establishment of two new d i s t r i c t s , Alberni riding being created because of the forest operation at the head of the Alberni Canal and the Islands constituency (comprising the Gulf Islands) formed when agricultural activity became important, particu-l a r l y on Salt spring Island i n the Fulford Harbour and Beaver Point areas. (Table II) The Period of Economic Expansion: (189k - 1902) The f i r s t complete revision of the original provincial constitu-encies was undertaken in I 8 9 4 through the passage of the "Legislative Electorates and Elections A c t . " 2 1 Although the t o t a l number of representa-tives remained at thirty-three, the Act provided for new constituencies and the s p l i t t i n g of many multi-member ridings into separate seats. Those ridings found in urban centres continued to be multi-member and were not decentralized. (Map a) 2 0 I b i d . , Chapter 7, 1890. 2 1 I b i d . , 1694. 16 TABLE II NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1890 Alberni 411 voters 2 Cariboo 374 3 Cassiar 6a 1 Comox 218 1 Cowichan 387 2 East Kootenay 314 1 Esquimalt 411 2 The Islands 166 1 Lillooet 242 2 Nanaimo 490 2 Nanaimo City 712 1 New Westminster City 1,367 1 Vancouver City 3,032 2 Victoria 416 2 Victoria City 3,668 4 West Kootenay 206 1 Westminster and Coast Dis t r i c t 1,928 3 Yale 1,494 _3 15,560 33 18 There i s evidence of gross inequality of voting power in the voters l i s t s of 1890 and 1894. (Tables II and III) The original constituencies of I876 gave concessions to several of the more remote constituencies but by 1890 ridings such as Esquimalt, North Victoria and South Nanaimo, quite urban in character, were over-represented for no apparent reason. No redistricting of these seats took plaee. In 1898 f i v e new seats were created. (Table III) Vancouver City received one new member i n recognition of the rapid population growth experienced i n that community, West Kootenay Dist r i c t was increased from two members to four, and East Kootenay was divided into North and South ridings. (Map b) At this time the population of the Kootenay area was growing very rapidly due to an expansion in silver mining activity in the Slocan-Sandon and Bossland-Ymir areas. The Pre-War and F i r s t World War Period: (1902 - 1918) In 1902 the use of certain large constituencies in which many members were elected to represent separate ridings within them (eg. West Kootenay Constituency which contained four separate ridings) was discontinued and thirty-four separate electoral d i s t r i c t s created. (Table IV) Only three constituencies, Vancouver City, Victoria City, and Cariboo elected more than one member.22 (Map c) Thus a definite effort was made to cu r t a i l the use of the multi-member riding so that each member could be responsible for a smaller area of the province and stop the overlapping of t e r r i t o r i a l re-sponsibility. 2 2 I b i d . , Chapter 58, 1902 Redistribution Act. 19 TABLE III NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: PER CONSTITUENCY 1894 & I898 1894 I898 Cariboo 456 voters 2 members 712 voters 2 members Cassiar -Stikine -Skeena 206 1 18 358 1 1 Comox 522 1 719 1 Cowichan - Alberni -Alberni -Cowichan 516 2 227 503 1 1 East Kootenay -North -South 625 1 622 436 1 1 Esquimalt 451 2 714 2 Lillooet-East -West 190 129 1 1 342 286 1 1 . Nanaimo City 974 1 1,365 1 New Westminster City 1,409 1 1,805 1 North Nanaimo 702 1 768 1 North Victoria 330 1 417 1 South Nanaimo 294 1 321 1 South Victoria 597 1 793 1 Vancouver City 3,790 3 5,954 4 Victoria City 4,533 4 5,557 4 West Kootenay-North -South -Nelson -Revelstoke -Rossland -Slocan 550 925 1 1 941 1,212 1,399 1,505 l 1 1 1 20 TABLE III (continued) 1894 1898 Westminster-Chilliwack 801 voters 1 member 823 voters 1 member -Delta 1,130 1 1,247 1 -Dewdney 795 1 911 I -Richmond 951 1 1,143 1 Yale-East 1,022 1 1,404 1 -Horth 693 1 1,314 1 -West 500 _1 620 _1 23,091 33 34,436 38 map b 22 TABLE IV BRITISH COLUMBIA ELECTORAL DISTRICTS: 1902 & 1915 1902 1915 Alberni 1 member 1 member At l l n 1 1 Cariboo 2 1 Chilliwack 1 1 Columbia 1 1 Comox 1 1 Cowichan 1 1 Cranbrook 1 1 Delta 1 1 Dewdney 1 1 Esquimalt 1 1 Fernie 1 1 Fort George - 1 Grand Forks 1 1 Greenwood 1 1 The Islands 1 1 Kamloops 1 1 Kaslo 1 1 Lillooet 1 1 Nanaimo City 1 1 Nelson City 1 1 Newcastle 1 1 New Westminster City 1 1 North Okanagan — 1 North Vancouver — 1 Okanagan 1 -Omineca - 1 Prince Rupert - 1 Revelstoke 1 1 Richmond 1 1 Rossland City ^ 1 1 Saanich 1 1 Similkameen 1 1 Skeena 1 — Slocan — 1 South Okanagan - 1 South Vancouver - 1 T r a i l — 1 Vancouver City 5 6 Victoria City k 4 Yale 1 1 Ymir JL tmmmmmm• 42 47 24 It was from this series of boundaries that the skeleton of the present-day ridings has come. Almost a l l constituency boundary changes occuring since that time have been minor or have resulted from the division of a large constituency into two or more smaller ridings. In 1915 another five seats were added, thus making a t o t a l of forty-seven legislative members,23 (Table IV) These changes included the division of Okanagan d i s t r i c t into North and South Okanagan, giving added representation to this newly important orchard area, a redefinition of Cariboo riding and the division of Skeena and one of the two former Cariboo seats into three new northern d i s t r i c t s , Cmineca, Fort George and Prince Rupert. With the exhaustion of mineral ore deposits i n sections of the Kootenays and the subsequent population decline, Ymir and Rossland City ridings were deleted and two new seats, Rossland Dis t r i c t and T r a i l , where smelter operations were carried out, were created. The Greater Vancouver area, which continued to experience a population growth unparalleled i n any other section of the province, was given three additional seats, South Vancouver, North Vancouver, and an added seat in Vancouver City D i s t r i c t . (Map d) It was then the leading city i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Inter-War Period and Second World War Period; (1918 - 1946) In 1923 the electoral d i s t r i c t s were again given minor revision with new seats being added through the division of larger constituencies 23lbid., Chapter 44, 1915 Constitution Act. 26 into more managable ones, and from the consolidation of existing d i s t r i c t s (primarily i n the Kootenays) vhere population growth continued to lag. (map e) By dividing up larger ridings, seats were given to Burnaby, Mackenzie, Salmon Arm, Creston and Skeena. Because the population of many parts of the province remained static, the ridings of Cowichan and Newcastle, Grand Forks and Greenwood, Rossland and T r a i l and Kaslo and Slocan were each combined, making four ridings rather than the previous eight. As mentioned above, the combining of seats i n the Kootenays, where the largest number of consolidations occured, was the result of the heavy population loss occuring with the collapse of the loc a l mining economy. (Table V) In 1932 consolidation again occurred, chiefly i n the Kootenays.24 At this time tne Peace River area received a member, f i n a l l y being separated from the Fort George riding. In 1929 the City of 'Vancouver extended i t s boundaries through amalgamation with peripheral municipalities to the south, l a 1932 the con-stituencies of Vancouver City, South Vancouver and Richmond-Point Grey were redrawn to reflect this amalgamation, becoming the ridings of Vancouver-Centre, Vancouver-East, Vancouver-Burrard, and Vancouver-Point Grey. These constituency boundaries have not been altered since this time. (Table VI and Map f ) In 1934 Columbia-Revelstoke was divided into two ridings, Columbia and Revelstoke because of the east-west transportation d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered in the riding. 25 24ibid., Constitution Act, Chapter 6, 1932. 2 5 l b i d . , Constitution Act, Chapter 15, 1934. 2b TABLE V NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS PER CONSTITIJENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1928 Albeml 3,144 voters A t l i n 1,815 Burnaby e,176 Cariboo 1,949 Chilliwack 6,321 Columbia 1,500 Comox 4,646 C owichan-Newcast le 5,577 Craribrook 4,560 Creston 2,til6 Delta 6,070 Dewdney 5,954 Esquimalt 3,858 Femie 3,406 Fort George 3,998 Grand Forks-Greenwood 1,845 The Islands 2,142 Kamloops 4,146 Kaslc—Slocan 2,915 Lillooet 2,891 Mackenzie 3,891 Nanaimo 4,595 Nelson 2,964 New Westminster 7,162 North Okanagan 4,971 North Vancouver 7,603 Omineca 1,794 Prince Rupert 3,663 Revelstoke 2,426 Richmond-Point Grey 13,395 Rossland-Trail 4,212 Saanieh 5,811 Salmon Arm 3,236 Slmllkameen 4,537 Skeena 2,125 South Okanagan 4,826 South Vancouver 8,630 Vancouver City (6 elected) 54,744 Victoria City (4 elected). 23,072 Yale 3,647 245,240 29 TABLE VI NUMBER OP REGISTERED VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1933 Alberni-Nanaimo 8,754 voters Atlin 1,829 Burnaby 16,195 Cariboo 2,601 Chilliwack 7,017 Columbia-Revelstoke 3,525 Comox 6,140 Cowichan-Neweastle 4,926 Craribrook 5,117 Delta 9,716 Dewdney 5,787 Esquimalt 4,942 Fernie 3,600 Fort George 3,419 Grand Forks-Greenwood 2,084 The Islands 2,403 Kamloops 5,340 Kaslo-Slocan 3,298 Lillooet 3,319 Mackenzie 7,352 Nelson-Cre st on 6,979 New Westminster 7,836 North Okanagan 6,200 North Vancouver 8,596 Omlneca 2,400 Peace River 3,415 Prince Rupert 3,833 Rossland-Trail 5,715 Saanich 7,509 Salmon Arm 3,686 Similkameen 5>319 Skeena 2,019 South Okanagan 5,593 Vancouver-Burrard (2 members) 30,720 Vancouver-Centre (2 members). 25,316 Vancouver-East (2 members) . 29>776 Vancouver-Point:Grey (3 members) 34,692 Victoria City (4 members) 24,o6o Yale 2,509 323,540 31 Because population growth was extensive only in certain areas of the province, there were but four boundary changes adopted i n 1938. (Table VII) Alberni-Nanaimo was returned to two ridings. Population growth in the Gulf Islands, rapid for many years, reached a standstill when the f r u i t industry was undermined by the dominance of the orchards of the Okanagan Valley. Subsequently the Islands riding was deleted and i t s area added to the new Nanaimo riding, changing the name to Nanaimo and the Islands. Oak Bay constituency, containing the municipality of Oak Bay, located on the eastern boundary of Victoria, was also created. —> The Post World War II Period: (19k6 - 1966) Since 1938 only four new constituencies have been created although the provincial population has almost t r i p l e d i n size. The bulk of this increase has occured i n the Greater Vancouver area. (Table VIII) In each case these new legislative ridings evolved either from s p l i t t i n g a con-stituency into two ridings (Peace River ridings being divided into North Peace River and South Peace River) or from constituencies previously electing a single member becoming a multi-member riding. These ridings are Delta, Burnaby and North Vancouver. These minor changes occured In 1955 and increased the number of elected representatives to fifty-two^T The Need for Constituency Reform 1. Inequalities in Representation: Since 1871 the number of con-stituencies In B r i t i s h Columbia has more than doubled, r i s i n g from the 26lbid., Constitution Act, Chapter 8, 1938. 27lbld., Constitution Act, Chapter 11, 1955. 32 TABLE VII NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1938 Alberni-Nanaimo 10,726 v At l i n 1,618 Burnaby 20,000 Cariboo 3,508 Chilliwack 8,722 Columbia 2,077 Comox 6,962 Cowichan-Neweastle 5,952 Cranbrook 5,01*8 Delta 13,584 Dewdney 6,016 Esquimalt 5,679 Fernie 3,552 Fort George 3,503 Grand Forks-Greenwood 2,218 The Islands 2,528 Kamloops 5,896 Kaslo-Slocan 3 ,U7 Lillooet 3,958 Mackenzie 7,660 Nels cm-Creston 7,447 New Westminster 10,706 North Okanagan 6,495 North Vancouver 11,536 Omineca 2,221 Peace River 3,490 Prince Rupert 3,672 Revelstoke y?:'•:: 2,276 Rossland-Trail 5,276 Saanich 8,587 Salmon Arm 4,009 Similkameen 6,575 Skeena 2,086 South Okanagan 6,571 Vancouver-Burrard (2 members) 34,547 Vancouver-Centre (2 members). 32,418 Vancouver-East (2 members ) 33,875 Vancouver-Point Grey (3 members) 40,977 Victoria City (4 members) 25,610 Yale 2,061 372,781 .33. TABLE VIII NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1945, 1952 & 1963 1945 1952 1963 Alberni 6,314 12,404 12,765 A t l i n 1,109 1,701 1,574 Burnaby 19,380 41,337 54,662 (2) Cariboo 3,508 8,000 11,154 Chilliwack 9,122 20,898 24,697 Columbia 1,745 3,031 4,712 Camox 10,733 20,395 24,477 Cowichan-Newcastle 9,200 14,820 14,761 Cranbrook 5,687 9,050 8,335 Delta 18,348 45,805 76,122 (2) Dewdney 13,117 27,4l6 38,638 Esquimalt 6,477 11,965 16,089 Femie 3,868 4,884 3,505 Fort George 4,176 9,296 14,066 Grand Forks-Greenwood 1,941 2,916 3,287 Kamloops 6,988 10,907 15,167 Kaslo-Slocan 2,815 4,429 3,559 T.mooet 3,551 5,933 6,319 Mackenzie 8,661 17,011 15,452 Nanaimo and the Islands 7,796 14,695 13,778 Nelson-Creston 8,081 12,236 12,125 New Westminster 13,203 20,857 20,294 North Okanagan 7,600 12,987 13,349 (2) North Vancouver 16,213 33,913 50,107 Oak Bay 7,535 10,303 13,936 Omlneca 2,528 5,514 5,426 Peace River 5,006 7,424 -North 5,459 -South 7,810 Prince Rupert 5,447 9,077 9,074 Revelstoke 2,872 3,549 3,704 Rossland-Trail 10,160 15,077 13,924 Saanich 13,084 23,061 29,719 Salmon Arm 3,461 5,851 6,361 Slmilkameen 8,942 15,043 13,656 Skeena 2,059 5,4ll 8,637 South Okanagan 8,159 16,586 17,714 Vancouver-Burrard 48,944 (2) 60,006 (2) 49,768 (2) Vancouver-Centre 21,156 (2) 47,633 (2) 36,132 (2) Vancouver-East 43,842 (2) 74,353 (2) 68,402 (2) Vanoouver-Point Grey 55,647 (3) 87,774 (3) 85,510 (3) Victoria City 25,914 (3) 35,632 (3) 32,780 (3) Yale 2,619 . 3,984 . 6,134 457,018 793,073 873,140 ( ) Denotes number of members elected i n riding. — — 34 . . . original twenty-five to fifty-two. In 1871 approximately one-half of the electorate lived in what may be termed the urban and suburban sections of the province — In the Victoria, Nanaimo and New Westminster City areas. These urban areas elected forty percent of the legislative body. As can be noted from Table I certain areas of the province were greatly over-represented because a conscious effort was made to insure that a l l sections of the pro-vince had a voice in formulating government policy. The highest ratio or diff e r e n t i a l of voting numbers in 1876, five years after the original con-stituencies had been established, was between Nanaimo and Kootenay, this being fifteen votes to one. By 1890 this ratio had risen to twenty votes to one. Four years later, through revision, i t was lowered to approximately ten votes to one. This would suggest that although the legislature agreed that i t was desirable that there should be a difference in voting numbers between some rural ridings and the c i t i e s , a ratio of twenty votes to one was too high. Between 1871 and 1938 there were frequent examinations of the voting numbers i n each constituency. Although there were seldom complete revisions with t o t a l l y new sets of boundaries created, areas which experi-enced a decline In population, or were growing at a rate in excess of other provincial areas were dealt with accordingly. Since 1938, however, this has not been the case. The years of World War II (1939 - 1945) were not con-sidered to be an opportune time for redistribution and so action by a redis-tribution committee could not have been expected u n t i l 1946. Since 1946 the idea of re-examination of constituency boundaries and voting numbers, when necessary, known to the province since i t s bi r t h , has been discontinued and l i t t l e or no effort was made to keep same balance of constituency voting numbers within the province. , . . _35 There were, i n 1965, fifteen constituencies in the province which have an electoral population of under 10,000. In contrast there were ten which had an electorate of over 25,000. As illustrated in Table VIII the problem was not one of having a few ridings out of balance but rather that most ridings did not represent the relative electoral number for which they were f i r s t created. It must be accepted that a l l ridings in the set of constituencies used in 1965 w i l l not have a similar number of voters because the population was extremely unevenly distributed throughout the province. The amount of area to be represented and community of interest are also important today, just as they were in 1871. However, by any yardstick, the ratio between Dewdney riding (38,638 voters) and A t l i n riding (1,57^ voters) was undesir-able. The ratio of voters of twenty-five to one, found i n 1965, was higher than any vote ratio had been before in the history of the province. 2. Movement of the Electorate Toward Urban Areas: As noted in the introduction, the movement of population into urban areas is a major trend throughout North America. This trend has created an urgency for changing the constituency boundaries in B r i t i s h Columbia. Since 1938 the population in sections of Vancouver City has doubled while growth in neigh-bouring municipalities has been more dramatic. In contrast population in some other parts of the province has remained relatively stable or has declined. Because of urbanization the boundaries existing in I 9 6 5 did not meet the needs of the province. 3. Changes in Regional Interest: Regional interest changes have also taken place since 1938. New transportation networks have been created and many groups of people were consequently forced to vote in constituencies 36 which did not reflect the r e a l i t i e s of contemporary communities of interest. The Gulf Islands were a case in point. In 1938 the Gulf Islands lost i t s representative i n the legislature and was placed within the newly created Nanaimo and the Islands constituency. The connection with Nanaimo during the I 9 6 0 ' s was very slight, i f existent at a l l . The Islands are, however, connected with both Saanich and Cowichan-Neweastle ridings by frequent ferry trips each day. Because of this connection the residents of the Islands identify themselves more closely with the problems and desires of people l i v i n g within these two ridings than with Nanaimo. k. The Lack of Consistent Policy: It i s clear from the account of constituency change that no consistent policies have been established. In early years mining d i s t r i c t s seemed appropriate for electoral d i s t r i c t s . In later years population shifts appear important. However, relative growth in population seems to have been more important than absolute growth. To create new, meaningful ridings, therefore, a completely new set of constituencies needed to be adopted, based on both the latest electoral population s t a t i s t i c s and on the areas of interest of this voting population. The solution could not come by adding seats to the present out-moded group of constituencies. CHAPTER III CONSTITUENCY REDISTRIBUTION - THE CASE FOR NODAL REGIONS BASED UPON COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST Redistribution Was Overdue Since major constituency redistribution had not been undertaken since 1936 and, as the ratio of voting numbers between the largest and smallest ridings exceeded twenty-five to one, i t was evident that redistribu-tion was indeed overdue. The question to be discussed i n this Chapter i s not simply "Does the province need a t o t a l constituency redistribution, yes or no?" but rather the associated question, "How can this redistribution best be achieved?" This Chapter assesses seme possible methods of constituency redistribution and then applies that which the author considers to be the most acceptable method to the B r i t i s h Columbia situation. Methods Possible for Redistribution There are three well known methods by which B r i t i s h Columbia could r e d i s t r i c t , each having certain merits and some l i a b i l i t i e s : l ) redistribu-tion on a population basis, 2) an areal basis, or 3) on a community of interest (regional) basis. These w i l l be assessed separately as to their possible use in B r i t i s h Columbia. A. Representation by Population: "Representation by Population" has been a r a l l y i n g c a l l i n democratic countries for several centuries. In the United States, as mentioned previously, the Supreme Court recently 38 required state redistricting so as to force the adoption of the representa-tion by population concept. Population as the sole criterion for constitu-ency boundary delimitation i s held by many to be the only f a i r measure of representation. It i s argued that a l l votes must carry equal weight with a l l other votes cast in any e l e c t i o n . ^ Probably the statement outlines a firm long term policy goal. However, in areas where population i s sparse, and the t o t a l area to be served by an elected representative i s large, problems of effective legislative representation w i l l be encountered. A conference of the Twentieth Century Fund held in New York City in 1962 stated that "It was the agreed concensus of the conferees that in the light of democratic principles, of history and of contemporary p o l i t i c a l theory, the only legitimate basis of representation in the state legislature i s people. One man's vote must be worth the same as another."29 The conference bulletin continued, "There i s talk, for example, of Area Representation. But areas do not vote; nor do trees. When a sparsely settled area i s given as many representatives as one much more populous, i t simply means that the people i n the sparse area have more representation. No matter how stated, i t i s the people who choose the representatives."3° The conference bulletin stated that rural areas should not be given equal representation with the more populous urban areas. The question of ^Canadian Federation of Mayors and Municipalities, "Representation by Population," The Listening Post, Vol. 22 Nos. 7 8c 10, July and October, 1962. """ 29A. Lewis, "One Man - One Vote," The Twentieth Century Fund, New York: 1962, p. 3.. 30lbld., p. 5. 39_ adequate representation i s , however, not mentioned in the report. This omission is unfortunate for when applied to B r i t i s h Columbia i t causes the other findings and recommendations to be challenged i n t o t a l . In their deliberations the conference apparently did not consider representation in such a large administrative area as B r i t i s h Columbia. If their findings were applied to this province one man would be asked to represent an area as large as the states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maryland and Pennsylvania combined. This would be an extremely d i f f i c u l t job. The population of the area may not be large but sound economic development of the area must be assisted by representatives with f i r s t hand knowledge of their local area. If more seats are given to Greater Vancouver areas at the expense of the rural areas, these rural sections of the province w i l l have l i t t l e say i n the development of their areas and resources. Another case that can be put forward against representation by population centres around representation of groups of people with common interests. In the United States there i s a Senate and i n the U.S.S.R. a House of Nationalities, created to offer representation to regions and minor-i t y groups as such. It could be argued that the Canadian Senate had the same function. Where just one legislature exists, some attempt should be made to permit regional and minority representation as a protection to them. Because of the large area each rural riding i n B r i t i s h Columbia would necessarily have by using representation by population, and also in view of the concept developed over time In B r i t i s h Columbia that »Q1 areas of the province must be given a strong voice in government regardless of popula-tion, one Vancouver newspaperman was led to state that "any attempt to enlarge 4o the area of northern ridings would ensure that their sparse voters got no representation at a l l . " 3 1 The problem apparent i n having one person represent a vast area containing a small population i s a serious one and i t has been considered by other interested persons In relation to other administrative units. Chief Justice E a r l Warren of the United States' Supreme Court stated that "many California counties are far more Important in the l i f e of the state than their population bears to the entire population of the state. It i s for this reason that I have never been in favour of redistricting their represen-tation in the (state) senate to a s t r i c t l y population basis."32 In a province changing as rapidly as B r i t i s h Columbia i t may also be necessary for residents of peripheral regions to have adequate representa-tion so that they can fore s t a l l concentration of economic activity i n the southwest comer of the province. The majority view could be a selfish view and not in the Interest of good long term provincial growth. The criticism then centres around representation. Toachleve managable constituencies which could be satisfactorily represented the theory of representation by population must be modified. In keeping with hist o r i c -a l l y developed concepts regarding provincial representation the idea of representation by population i n i t s s t r i c t sense must be rejected because B r i t i s h Columbia has never allowed an area of the province to be denied an adequate voice i n Victoria. 1964. 31Paddy Sherman, Victoria Comment, Vancouver Province, June 30, 32As quoted i n The Richmond Times-Dispatch, July 8, 1964, p. 16. kl B. Representation by Area: Using the criterion of representation by area rather than by electoral population constituency boundaries would be created so that each member of the legislature represented an equal quantity of provincial area, regardless of the number of voters l i v i n g within that area. Due to the uneven population distribution in the province, a series of d i s t r i c t s based upon the equal area criterion would insure that less than t h i r t y percent of the provincial electorate would elect in excess of ninety percent of the provincial legislature. Were this method put into effect, many constituencies in northern and southeastern sections of the province would contain less than five thousand persons whereas a Vancouver riding could well have an electorate i n excess of one hundred thousand voters. Clearly, due to the wide divergence found i n the present provincial popula-tion distribution, redistribution on a s t r i c t area! basis must be rejected. C. Representation by Nodal Regions: (Based upon Community of Interest) I f the loyalties and ideas of the communities found within an electoral d i s t r i c t of large areas are not similar then the elected l e g i s l a -tive member must also have conflicting loyalties and therefore cannot be a spokesman for the whole constituency but only for a section of i t . In B r i t i s h Columbia as in North America as a whole, the revolution i n transportation and communications has broken the isolation of the past for many communities. Smaller communities have become economically and socially connected to the larger population centres of the province and regional interdependence between these communities has been increased. Groups of villages and towns which focus upon regional c i t i e s can provide a useful unit for representation in the legislature. 42 This concept of communities of common interest (Nodal regions) was not foreign to the above mentioned Twentieth Century Fund conference on electoral representation. Dr. Alfred De Grazia, in a desenting voice, told the conference that "The Federalist papers, the United States Constitution, and indeed the prevailing doctrines and practices throughout history and around the world, incorporate and defend principles such as the representation of communities per se, the representation of interests of functional groups . . ., the interests of minorities and the interest of efficient administrations."33 Thus history and practicality side equally well with the idea of representation of communities of common interest as with the s t r i c t adherence to representation solely by electoral numbers. If the weighting process were simply one of ratio of urban voting numbers to rural voting numbers (such as that employed by the redistribution committee in the Province of Manitoba where the legislature prescribed that a specific number of rural votes would equal a certain number of urban votes) the constituencies would not necessarily have common ties or meaning. By using a regional approach based on population nodes to construct constituency boundaries, in which areas of common interest and interdependence are deter-mined, a singular voice may be raised by the electorate i n each of these new constituencies. Community of interest i n a large metropolitan area i s another problem which must be treated separately. It i s highly Important because marked economic and social divisions exist i n the urban areas. Offered as a solution to the problem of redistribution i n B r i t i s h Columbia, identification 33Lewis, Op. c i t . , p. 19. of regions of community of interest i s undertaken in the following pages, dealing f i r s t with the province as a whole excluding the lower Fraser Valley and southern Vancouver Island regions. Identification of Regions of Community of Interest. The concept of nodal regions based on community of interest, isolating a l l territory primarily dependent on one settlement, i s a simple concept. However the identification of the regions i s a d i f f i c u l t problem. Regions can be recognized by using common methods of geographic analysis. In the research methodology of this thesis the f i r s t step was the i d e n t i f i -cation of the hierarchy of central communities in the province by means of graphing the population totals for the largest c i t i e s i n the province. These central places act as the focus for rural and non-rural dispersed pop-ulations. By the use of Central Place Theory smaller centres are identified around larger c i t i e s . Vancouver i s clearly the primate centre of the province. (Table IX) Victoria, the second largest city, has a governmental function which serves the province as a whole. Victoria, along with sixteen other c i t i e s , acts as a focus of considerable importance but does not r i v a l Vancouver, (in Table IX each large population centre has been grouped with other centres of relatively similar size.) Assuming that the larger centres were nodes of regions i n which community of interest was present i t was necessary to delimit accurately the boundaries of the region which focused on the nodal centre; that i s , to identify the region where the primary sphere of influence occured. (That area where the influence of the centre was greater than the influence of any other centre of similar population size located in close proximity to i t . ) TABLE IX HIERARCHY OF POPULATION CENTRES FOUND WITHIN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1966 Group One: Vancouver (over 100,000 persons) Group Two: Victoria (9,000 to 55,000 persons) New Westminster North Vancouver White Rock Chilliwack Kamloops-North Kamloops Penticton Kelowna Vernon Rossland-Trail Nelson Prince George Dawson Creek Prince Rupert Powell River Nanaimo Alberni-Port Alberni Group Three: Port Moody (2,600 to 8,500 persons) Port Coquitlam Ladner Cloverdale Mission City Summerland-West Summerland Craribrook Kimberley-Marysville Fernie Revelstoke Quesnel Ocean Falls Duncan Campbell River Courtenay-Comox How Valid Functions Are Determined The dependence of the smaller provincial communities on the larger regional centres was measured by a variety of means. The various functions offered by each of the large population centres were identified and tabulated using the "Yellow Pages" of the telephone directory for each centre.3^ i t was recognized, following Central Place Theory, that certain services would be offered only in the large communities and would not be obtained in the less populated nucleatians. By means of functional analysis i t was then possible to isolate those services which appeared only i n centres of large population. Those functions found only i n the large regional centres depended upon the attraction of customers from a large surrounding area. Such functions were useful criterion for delimiting the primary region of influence of each of the large centres because rural persons had to travel there to avail themselves of the function. Those functions and services which, through analysis, proved significant only in the larger population centres included: 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 6 9 10 Radio Stations Hospitals Funeral Homes Bowling Alleys Optometrists Theatres Commercial Photographers Department Stores Daily Newspapers Dentists Functions which had a lower population threshold (the function might beifound in a less populated centre when serving a smaller, more isolated population) but were s t i l l highly selective i n their location 3^Telephone directories were supplied through the courtesy of B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company, Okanagan Telephone Company and Prince "Rupert^City^Telephones. _5 Included: 1) Banks 2) Liquor Stores 3) Medical Doctors k) Weekly Newspapers Methods of Analysis in Identifying Nodal Regions The Questionnaire. After the significant functions and occupations had been isolated, a mail questionnaire was designed to inquire of persons l i v i n g i n rural areas of the province where they shopped to satisfy many of these above l i s t e d needs or services and which regional information media they used on a regular basis. A pil o t questionnaire was developed and tested i n the East Kootenay area to determine which significant services were most frequently u t i l i z e d . These i n i t i a l returns showed that although a l l of the ten functions l i s t e d above were exclusive to large centres, many were not used often by the persons answering the questionnaire. Therefore the questions regarding bowling alleys, optometrists, dentists, commercial photographers, and department stores were deleted. In their place the four supplementary functions l i s t e d above, which had a somewhat lower population threshold, were added. With this correction, in almost a l l cases question-naire returns were completed i n f u l l . These functions were then incorporated into a questionnaire for general distribution to determine the population centre upon which persons in selected smaller communities throughout the province were dependent. (Appendix l ) The questionnaire was sent to postmasters in two hundred selected provincial communities, chiefly small nucleations which were located at a distance from the larger central nodes of population. Postmasters were used in the f i n a l questionnaire circulation because in the pilo t survey i t was found that their percentage return was considerably higher than the 47 percentage response from persons randomly chosen from l o c a l telephone directories. Those smaller settlements located within close proximity to a large centre were assumed to be dependent upon that node. To insure maximum r e l i a b i l i t y of the sample, the questionnaire was sent to many more post offices than deemed necessary to insure that a l l population centres of doubtful dependency xrould submit at least two replies. The proportion of questionnaires returned on the f i n a l questionnaire was in excess of seventy percent. The percentage of returns are not equally high throughout the pro-vince but even i n those areas of relatively low response, information was considered sufficient to allow nodal boundary determination. The record of questionnaire replies i s noted in Appendix 2. With the information supplied by postmasters i t was then possible to draw the boundaries of primary influence around each of the large centres of the province, excluding Greater Vancouver and Greater Victoria. Map g illustrates the method of determining the northern nodal boundaries of the province. Outside of the Vancouver and Victoria areas sixteen obvious nodal regions were identified. The electoral population within each of these regions was then calculated using the Statement of Votes from the 1963 pro-v i n c i a l election.35 These proposed constituencies were drawn on Map 1 and the populations noted in Table X, the r a t i o between the largest and smallest tributary area being two votes to one, well within the permissible range suggested in Chapter II. Certain areas of the province, however, were s t i l l unallocated. 35Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Statement of Votes, Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1964. map g PEACE RIVER \ STIKINE DERIVATION OF NORTHERN RIDINGS o Nodal Centres - Settlements Used And Associated Nodal Centre Federal Constituency < Boundary Proposed Provincial Constituency Boundary 40 _0 40 80 MILES Lowar Post to PEACE RIVER - STIKINE BRITISH COLUMBIA PROPOSED ELECTORAL RIDINGS RO-TABLE X PROVINCIAL NODAL CENTRES, ELECTORAL POPULATIONS, AND PROPOSED CONSTITUENCY NAMES Nodal Centre Electoral Population Proposed Name Chilliwack 20,455 East Fraser Valley Prince George 19,316 Nechako Kamloops-North Kamloops 16,722 Thompson Prince Rupert 18,535 Skeena Mission City 17,747 Harrison-Stave Rossland-Trail 16,754 Pend d*Oreille Nelson 15,589 Kootenay Penticton 15,455 South Okanagan Nanaimo 15,426 Malaspina Duncan 14,765 Cowichan Kelovna 14,74l Central Okanagan Alberni-Port Alberni 14,625 Island Central Campbell River-Courtenay 14,596 Strathcona Dawson Creek-Fort St. John 14,046 Peace River-Stikine Vernon 13,501 North Okanagan Que snel-Williams Lake 10,861 Cariboo 51 Exceptional Areas of the Province. In several parts of the province communities were found to he tributary to smaller centres than are within the permissible range for constituency organization. Rather than one city dominating a region, two or three smaller centres sometimes shared services for the tributary population. Two areas of the province f e l l within this category, these being Salmon Arm-Revelstoke, and Kimberley-Craribrook-Pernie. (Table XI) Boundaries were drawn around each area and the electoral population calculated. When the Interdependent regions of each of these above mentioned groups of centres were combined they also created electoral populations sufficiently large to form provincial constituencies. Unallocated Areas of the Province. The northern section of Vancouver Island, the central mainland coast and areas of the Coast and Cascade mountains were unallocated. These areas were found to be distinctive in that no nodal centre existed for the whole. Due to poorly developed transportation f a c i l i t i e s and the occurrence of primary resource industries the tributary areas of towns were small or the communities focused on the City of Vancouver. Por these reasons a compromise had to be made and three constituencies were identified and l i s t e d In Table XI. Community of Interest in Metropolitan Areas Problems in the Lower Mainland Area. The larger population centres of the lower Mainland area, (those over 2,000 population) did not lend themselves to an investigation such as that carried on throughout the rest of the province. Other methods had to be devised to determine urban and suburban boundaries. 52 Nodal Centre TABLE XI COMBINED NODAL CENTRES, ELECTORAL POPULATIONS AND CONSTITUENCY NAMES Electoral Population Proposed Constituency Name Salmon Arm-Revelstoke 10,743 Kimberley-Cranbrook-Fernie 13,8l0 Lillooet-Hope-Merritt-Princeton 10,348 Powell River-Gib scms-Squamish 14,529 Central Coast-Northern Vancouver Island 9,452 Columbia Crowsnest Fraser Sunshine Coast Mackenzie 53 :  Surrounding the City of Vancouver various incorporated municipali-t i e s provide l o c a l government and individually or in groups have previously elected representatives to the provincial legislature. The creation of new urban constituencies would require continued recognition of municipal inter-ests because municipal limits are boundaries of common Interest to those persons l i v i n g within the d i s t r i c t . Within the City of Vancouver i t s e l f , various distinct neighbourhoods have developed based upon shopping and community services, or sometimes upon economic and social groupings. In constructing ridings i n Vancouver and the surrounding municipalities, neighbourhood interests were taken into account when administrative boundaries had to be subdivided for constituency purposes. The Greater Vancouver Ridings. In 1965 the municipality of Burnaby had two legislative representatives in one multi-member riding, each Burnaby elector voting for two candidates. The electoral population l i v i n g within the municipality was sufficient to allow an additional legislative representative, increasing the t o t a l to three. Multi-member ridings have been rejected because they create a duplication of representation and also frequently subjugate the p o l i t i c a l wishes of a portion of the riding, ^dependent ridings have therefore been recommended. (Map 2) Burnaby i s a d i s t r i c t municipality, a fact which indicates i t s rural origins. Three incipient communities emerged, communities which s t i l l have meaning. The proposed North Burnaby constituency centres upon an old community on Hastings street immediately east of Vancouver. The improvement of Hastings street-Barnett highway, the Lougheed highway and associated north-south arteries have focused residents of the area on the North Burnaby i I .55 , commercial area, not only for shopping but also for secondary school and community events. The proposed East Burnaby riding centres on the old Edmonds community and the original Municipal Hall located at Edmonds street and Kingsway. The new West Burnaby riding represents a residential extension of southeastern Vancouver. The proposed constituencies are: East Burnaby 18,542 electors North Burnaby 19,24© electors West Burnaby 16,877 electors New Westminster riding, based on the present ci t y boundary, i s the only riding which would be identical i n both boundaries and electoral size to the present constituency. The electoral population would remain at the present figure of 20,294. (1963) The former constituency of North Vancouver consisted of the D i s t r i c t Municipality of North Vancouver, the City of North Vancouver, and the Municipality of West Vancouver. This constituency elected two l e g i s l a -tive members, each elector voting for two candidates. This area would also be increased to three independent ridings, these being: North Vancouver City-Capilano 16,576 electors North Vancouver Di s t r i c t 17,830 electors West Vancouver 15,697 electors The West Vancouver riding would follow the present municipal boundary, giving the municipality an independent representative for the f i r s t time. The North Vancouver Di s t r i c t riding would include a l l of the municipality with the exception of the Marine Driver commercial ribbon which is functionally integrated with the commercial focus of North Vancouver City. North Vancouver City-Capilano would include the whole of the City of North Vancouver and the Marine Drive ribbon development. 56 The Coquitlam area i s located in the present Dewdney riding. Due to the rapid increase i n suburban population i n the Municipality of Coquitlam, located at the western end of the riding, subdivision of Dewdney i s necessary. Two new ridings have been proposed, Coquitlam riding, containing essentially the suburban population of the old Dewdney riding, and Harrison-Stave, located at the eastern end of Dewdney and containing a more rural population. The electoral population of each riding would be: Coquitlam 20,tJ91 electors Harrison-Stave 17,747 electors The constituency formerly known as Delta which elected two repre-sentatives would be enlarged to four single member ridings, the boundaries of which are based on many factors. The proposed Richmond riding was deter-mined by placing together the islands found at the mouth of the Fraser River. Richmond riding i s now largely suburban, each year more farm land being relinquished to housing development. Many persons commute to Vancouver daily. Whalley riding would also be a suburban constituency, i t s boundaries again attempting to separate the highly populated suburban area just south of Hew Westminster from the surrounding area containing less pop-ulation. The proposed Delta and Fort Langley constituencies are primarily rural in character and contain the rest of the former Delta riding as well as a small portion of the former Chilliwack riding to the east. The boundary between Delta and Fort Langley was determined on the basis of freeway patterns, and the orientation of customers to the commercial centres of Ladner, White Rock, Cloverdale and Langley. Although primarily rural, l i k e the coast and mountain regions, some dissimilar areas had to be grouped together to provide ridings of acceptable size. The new Delta riding would 5_7_ Delta 21,471 electors Fort Langley 17,204 electors Richmond 20,54j electors Whalley 18,508 electors Vancouver City. The City of Vancouver has, because of incorpora-tion as a single unit by special act of the legislature, been divided into constituencies based primarily on neighbourhood, social and economic condi-tions, population numbers and growth potential. Well defined transportation lines also assisted in the drawing of the boundaries. Previously Vancouver elected nine legislative members from four multi-member ridings. It i s proposed to increase this number to thirteen single member ridings, thirteen being used as a division of the electoral population of the city by this number provides constituency electoral totals comparable to those found throughout the rest of the lower main!and area. (Map 3) These constituencies would be: Vancouver-Centre 17>34l electors Vancouver-Fraser View 17,203 electors Van couver-Granville 18,209 electors Vancouver-Hastings 17,866 electors Vaneouver-Kitsilano 19,019 electors Vancouver-Langara 19,120 electors Vancouver-Main 19,385 electors Vancouver-Marine 18,941 electors Vancouver-Musqueam 20,281 electors Vancouver-Renfrew 17,605 electors Vancouver-Shaughnessy 16,391 electors Vancouver-South Slope 19,322 electors Vancouver-Stanley 15,792 electors Vancouver i s divided economically and socially into two distinct sections, the dividing li n e running north-south at approximately Ontario street. West of this li n e family incomes are normally higher than $6,000 per year. Those employed i n the labour force are inclined to be i n managerial and professional positions, and the number of years of formal education received i s normally high, being junior matriculation or better. East of Ontario street incomes are usually below $6,000 per year, wage earners are frequently craftsmen, labourers or white collar workers, and the number of years of formal education received i s lower.36 The economic and social con-ditions mentioned above have created a difference in attitude between the eastern and western sections of the city and this was recognized prior to redistribution. Subsequently areas of the ci t y were dealt with in depth, the factors separating sub-regions of eastern and western Vancouver being enumerated below. Vancouver-Gentre was determined by using as i t s core the historic business centre of the c i t y . The riding i s largely industrial in nature and has within i t a community of persons who f a l l primarily into three categories being either Chinese and l i v i n g within the city's "Chinatown" area, transient or over 65 years of age. The number of one person households i n the riding i s very high and incomes are among the lowest in the c i t y . Being the centre of commerce and possessing a unique population grouping have contributed to making Centre a distinct p o l i t i c a l unit. Vancouver-Fraser View, located i n the southeastern corner of the city differs from the rest of eastern Vancouver in that Incomes within the riding are above the city average. The area i s commercially focused on east Kingsway and on Killarney Park. The riding contains a higher percentage of young families than surrounding sections of the city and at present i s the scene of a major housing development. 36L. 1. Bell> "Metropolitan Vancouver . . . An Overview for Social Planners," Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, 1965. A.cartographic portrayal of Dominion Bureau of Statistics data gathered in the 1961 census. 6o Vancouver-Granville contains a southern extension of the industrialization found i n Vancouver-Centre. It differs from the constitu-encies located around i t because much of the residential area i s run down or is deteriorating. The population is largely transient and composed of a large number of older persons. Incomes in the area are generally low. Vancouver-Hastings i s focused on the Hastings street business d i s t r i c t located between Nanaimo and Renfrew streets. Incomes in this riding are below average for the city with the work force highly concentrated in crafts and general labour. The constituency is unique in that It contains the Vancouver Italian community. Vancouver-Kitsilano riding contains one of the older residential d i s t r i c t s i n the ci t y and is centred on two commercial sites, west Broadway and 4th avenue, between Balsam and Arbutus streets. Incomes within this riding are normally lower than those found elsewhere in the western half of the c i t y . The houses are generally older but sections of the riding located near the seashore have given way to apartment blocks. The large, older houses have also given Kitsilano a more transient population than that i n adjacent ridings. Vancouver-Langara is centred on the commercial ribbon development running south on Cambie street. This development breaks down into three important areas, Oakridge, South Cambie and the south foot of Cambie street. These three commercial centres serve the needs of Langara residents. The eastern boundary of Langara i s Ontario street, which marks the transition to the higher income half of the c i t y . The southeastern section of the riding i s included through compromise. This i s an area of increasing industrial activity and those persons l i v i n g within this section of the riding are of a lower income group. 6 l Vancouver-Main, like Langara, i s centred on a commercial ribbon running north-south. Housing i s generally of a poorer standard than i s found in other Vancouver constituencies with the exception of Centre and Granville. Incomes are among the lowest i n the city and the population is highly tran-sient . Vancouver-Marine and Vancouver-Shaughnessy were considered together as numerous similarities exist between them. These ridings contain the highest percentage of managerial and professional persons in the city and also have the highest average incomes. Both ridings have Kerrisdale as a commercial core. The boundary drawn between these two ridings i s arbitrary and has been drawn simply to create two ridings from this one similar unit because the population i s too large to elect only one legislative member. Vancouver-Musqueam contains the University Endowment Lands and the commercial centres located on 10th avenue and on Dunbar street. The riding differs from Shaughnessy and Marine in that incomes of persons l i v i n g within Musqueam are generally lower and a higher percentage of older persons l i v e there. Vancouver-Renfrew, like the ridings of Hastings to the north and Fraser View to the south, contains a population of below average income. The riding has a high percentage of craftsmen and labourers. Renfrew differs from Hastings as i t i s ethnically more cosmopolitan and incomes are higher. It contains a less economically successful population than Fraser View. Vancouver-South Slope centres on the long established Fraser street business d i s t r i c t located between 4lst and 49th avenues. The income of the people within the riding i s average for the c i t y . The work force i s comprised largely of craftsmen. The riding i s a centre of the Vancouver German 6 2 community. Vancouver-Stanley i s focused on the commercial areas of Davie and Denman streets. The riding i s unique in that much of the population i s apartment dwelling and i n one person households. The electorate is made up largely of younger people (under 3 0 years of age) and persons over 6 5 years of age. Both groups are highly transient. Incomes are average and employ-ment i s largely in white collar jobs. In a l l cases the Vancouver constituencies attempt to bring together within each riding those persons who have most in common socially and economically. Because of the urban nature of a l l sections of the cit y , the lines separating constituencies are not as sharply defined as those drawn i n rural constituencies. They do, however, give various economic and social segments of the city a deserved voice in government similar to that provided for rural areas. Victoria Ridings. The City of Victoria, the bordering municipality of Oak Bay and urban sections of Saanich municipality have been divided into three ridings, again aided by residential and commercial areas and by current transportation routes. (Map h) The core of the proposed Oak Bay ridings i s the municipality of Oak Bay but also includes sections of Victoria City and Saanich which rely on services offered by Oak Bay businessmen. The new Victoria-Pandora riding incorporates much of the residential area of Victoria, including the F a i r f i e l d , Ross Bay and Rockland areas. Victoria-Harbour contains the central business d i s t r i c t of the city and the poorer residential area located to the north of the commercial core. The electoral population of these ridings would be: MAP 4 SCALE 6k Oak Bay l&,kkO electors Victoria-Harbour 20,179 electors Victoria-Pandora 19,807 electors In addition to these three proposed urban ridings, there are included two peripheral ridings, Saanich and the Islands (The Gulf Islands being included with Saanich for reasons stated on page 35) and Esquimalt-Renfrew. Within their boundaries there are both urban and rural populations. The electoral populations would be: Saanich and the Islands l£>900 electors Esquimalt-Renfrew 16,085 electors The Province as a Whole. The result of this process of delimita-tion of ridings achieves these purposes: 1. The t o t a l number of proposed legislative representatives i s f i f t y -one rather than the current fifty-two, thus t o t a l representation would remain at almost the same figure. 2. The electoral ratio between the number of voters in the largest and smallest ridings would be lowered to just over two to one, a far more desirable figure than the present twenty-five to one. 3. Persons included within each riding would have a maximum of common interests. Voters would not be cast together haphazardly. Frequently those ridings which are lowest i n electoral population are correspondingly large in area so that adequate representation s t i l l remains much more d i f f i c u l t to achieve than in the urban areas. (Table XII) Thus the objectives set out earlier, of giving a greater voice to the urban areas, would be attained without sacrificing the various viewpoints of the rural sections of the province. 65 TABLE XII NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS BY PROPOSED CONSTITUENCY: BASED ON 1963 PROVINCIAL ELECTORAL DATA Cariboo 10,66l electors Central Okanagan 14,741 Columbia 10,743 Coquitlam 20,691 Cowichan 14,765 Crowsnest 13,810 Delta 21,471 East Burnaby 18,542 East Fraser Valley 20,455 Esquimalt-Renfrew 16,085 Fort Langley 17,204 Fraser 10,346 Harris on-Stave 17,747 Island Central 14,625 Kootenay 15,589 Mackenzie 9,452 Malasplna 15,426 Nechako 19,316 New Westminster 20,294 North Burnaby 19,240 North Okanagan 13,501 North Vancouver City-Capilano 16,576 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 17,830 Oak Bay 18,444 Peace River-Stikine 14,046 Pend d*Oreille 16,754 Richmond 20,547 Saanich and the Islands 18,900 Skeena 18,535 South Okanagan 15,455 Strathcona 14,596 Sunshine Coast 14,529 Thompson 18,722 Vancouver-Centre 17,341 Vancouver-Fraser View 17,203 Vancouver-Granville 18,209 Vancouver-Hastings 17,866 Van couver-Kit Bllano 19,019 Vane ouver-Langara 19,120 Vancouver-Main 19,385 Vancouver-Marine 18,941 Vancouver-Musqueam 20,281 Vancouver-Renfrew 17,605 Vancouver-Shaughnessy 16,391 -Vancouver-South Slope 19,322 Vancouver-Stanley 18,792 Victoria-Harbour 20,179 Vict oria-Pandora 19,607 West Burnaby 16,877 West Vancouver 15,697 Whalley 18,506 66 In comparing the number of constituencies proposed for various areas of the province to the number in 19&5 the following areas would show declines: northern B r i t i s h Columbia from seven members to three; eastern B r i t i s h Columbia from eight to four; Central B r i t i s h Columbia from nine seats to eight; Vancouver Island from ten seats to nine. In contrast the number of representatives from Greater Vancouver would Increase sharply from 18 to 27. For the f i r s t time in the history of the province, electors i n Greater Van-couver would elect over one-half of the tot a l number of legislative represen-tatives. The outcry for greater urban representation would be answered and s t i l l the communities of interest of the interior and coastal regions would be well represented. As well, reasonably sized constituencies of f a i r l y equable voting numbers would have been established throughout the province. An area of possible contention i s the northern section of the province. If the government f e l t that the far north needed one more member, the general area of the current Ctaineca riding could be retained to give this region one additional representative. CHAPTER IV HYPOTHETICAL ELECTION RESULTS IN THE PROPOSED CONSTITUENCIES Justification In Determining the Possible Electoral Pattern of the New  Const ituencies It would he presumptuous indeed to expect any government to accept a new set of constituency boundaries for an electoral area, provincial or federal, without asking "What would be the result of an election i f these boundaries were employed rather than those presently in use?" If the pro-posed boundaries lead to a completely different provincial voting pattern to that presently found and especially i f i t appeared that the governing party were to be seriously challenged or even defeated at the polls, then the possibility of these new constituencies ever being adopted i s indeed slight. Any government, once elected, attempts to remain firmly in office. Therefore, with this thought in mind, a study of a new set of constituency boundaries must pose this important question "What would the result of the most recent provincial election have been i f these proposed boundaries were used Instead of the set presently employed?" It i s not unrealistic to assume that Implementation of this new set of boundaries could hinge largely on this question, regardless of how v a l i d and f a i r the new boundaries were to the provincial electorate. Although the calculated result of a hypothetical election using these proposed constituencies must be theoretical, the use of the s t a t i s t i c s 66 gathered p o l l by p o l l from the provincial election held in September, 1963 can indicate the number of legislative representatives each party would per-haps have elected. Calculation Problems in Single Member Hidings In the ridings i n which only one member of each p o l i t i c a l party stood for election the possibility of error i n declaring a winner would seem to be very low; such an error being possible where a highly regarded candi-date was elected largely due to personality rather than to p o l i t i c a l party a f f i l i a t i o n . In a few ridings the present member of the legislature i s extremely well regarded by voters of a l l p o l i t i c a l parties. If the riding he represents contains a small number of voters, then the popularity of the candidate when seeking election in a larger, new riding containing territory in which he has never previously stood for election may give him more votes than the number of votes received by the candidate who stood for election i n that p o l l in 1963. Each p o l i t i c a l party has this type of representative, examples being Mr. C y r i l Shelford of the Social Credit Party who represented the Omineca riding i n 1965, Mr. Leo Nimsiek of the New Democratic Party repre-senting the Cranbrook riding, and Mr. Harry McKay of the Liberal Party from the constituency of Pernie. Each man has a popular appeal to supporters of a l l p o l i t i c a l leanings. Each i s presently elected from a constituency which contains a small electorate. How each would fare in a larger constituency containing territory new to them i s a matter of speculation. It cannot be calculated accurately how many more votes each would receive in the new sections of these proposed ridings through their personal voter appeal. In calculating hypothetical election results based on the 69 proposed constituency boundaries, the number of votes credited to each candidate in the added polls of their new constituencies are the actual amounts received by other candidates of the same p o l i t i c a l party who ran for election at those polls during the provincial election of 1963. In most ridings, however, the choice of candidates appeared to be determined by p o l i t i c a l philosophy and l o c a l promises. Personality seemed tc play a lesser role than p o l i t i c a l party affiliation.37 For this reason a winner may be predicted for most ridings with considerable confidence. Calculation Problems i n Multi-Member Ridings In the case of the multi-member ridings located i n Vancouver, Victoria, Burnaby, North Vancouver and Delta the task of calculating a winner for each constituency was more d i f f i c u l t , especially where the major-it y of the winner was slight. Because each elector voted for more than one candidate there was some vote s p l i t t i n g by electors between p o l i t i c a l parties in evidence. The amount of vote s p l i t t i n g among party candidates could not be determined accurately with the exception of the constituency of Vancouver-Point Grey. In this riding one Liberal Party candidate received over 8,000 more votes than either of his fellow Liberal party candidates. In multi-member ridings, the highest number of votes received by any candidate of,the same p o l i t i c a l party was used as that parties' vote for that particular p o l l . As an example p o l l #1 of the present Delta riding i s also p o l l #1 of the proposed Richmond riding. In the 1963 provincial election two candidates ran for election on behalf of each p o l i t i c a l party. In p o l l #1 one Social ^Personal view of Mr. H. J. Bruch, M.L.A. Social Credit represen-tative for Esquimalt riding. 70 Credit party candidate received 237 votes, the other 225. The New Democratic Party votes were 227 222. Liberal Party votes were each 98. In calcula-ting the theoretical result of the proposed Richmond seat, 237 votes were tabulated for Social Credit, 227 for the New Democratic Party, and 98 for the Liberals. The standing in the provincial legislature by p o l i t i c a l party in 1965 was Social Credit 33 members, New Democratic Party Ik members, and Liberal Party 5 members. The Progressive Conservative Party and the Communist Party f a i l e d to elect any members. Hypothetical Results for the Proposed Constituencies The results of the 1963 provincial election were considered p o l l by po l l , as recorded in the provincial Statement of Votes,38 and f i t t e d into the proposed electoral d i s t r i c t s . The hypothetical election results, taking into account the qualifications outlined above, were: Social Credit Party 32 members, New Democratic Party Ik members, and Liberal Party 5 members. This would therefore mean that after a complete constituency revision of the pro-vince there was a net loss of one seat to the Social Credit Party. The New Democratic Party and the Liberal Party would each have remained at their present number of seats. The tabulation of results, riding by riding, i s found In Table XIII.39 38province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Statement of Votes, Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1964. 39As the number of votes received by two of the three Liberal Party candidates i n the present Vancouver-Point Grey constituency was much less than those received by the third candidate, the likelihood of the Liberal Party winning three seats in this section of Vancouver, as shown in Table XIII i s questionable. .71 TABLE XIII HYPOTHETICAL WINNERS OF PROPOSED BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSTITUENeiES: BASED ON 1963 ELECTORAL STATISTICS Cariboo Social Credit Central Okanagan Social Credit Columbia Social Credit Coquitlam New Democratic Party Cowichan New Democratic Party Crowsnest New Democratic Party Delta Social Credit East Burnaby New Democratic Party East Fraser Valley Social Credit Esquimalt-Renfrew Social Credit Fort Langley Social Credit Fraser Social Credit Harrison-Stave Social Credit Island Central New Democratic Party Kootenay Social Credit Mackenzie New Democratic Party Malaspina New Democratic Party Nechako Social Credit New Westminster New Democratic Party North Burnaby New Democratic Party North Okanagan Social Credit North Vancouver City-Capilano Social Credit North Vancouver Dis t r i c t Liberal Oak Bay Social Credit Peace River-Stikine Social Credit Pend d'Oreille Social Credit Richmond Social Credit Saanich and the Islands Social Credit Skeena Social Credit South Okanagan Social Credit Strathcona Social Credit Sunshine Coast New Democratic Party Thompson Social Credit Vancouver-Centre Social Credit Vancouver-Fraser View New Democratic Party Vancouver-Granville Social Credit Vancouver-Hast ings New Democratic Party Vancouver-Kit sllano Social Credit Vancouver-Langara Social Credit Vancouver-Main Social Credit Vancouver-Marine Liberal Vancouver-Musqueam Liberal Vane ouver-Renfrew New Democratic Party Vaneouver-Shaughnessy Liberal Vancouver-South Slope Social Credit Vancouver-Stanley Social Credit Victoria-Harbour Social Credit Victoria-Pandora Social Credit West Burnaby Social Credit West Vancouver Liberal Whalley New Democratic Party 72 The t o t a l number of seats in the proposed scheme is one less than the current 52 seats, this situation being by chance rather than design. According to the calculated result, by using these more equable constituency boundaries the present government, the Social Credit Party, would clearly have been in no danger of defeat or challenge at the p o l l s . Indeed employ-ment of the new boundaries would be to their advantage as many ridings which the Social Credit Party won by only a slight majority using the 19^ 5 con-stituency boundaries would have been decisive wins using the new boundaries. In the election of 1963, sixteen of the fifty-two ridings were won by margins of less than 500 votes. If the proposed constituency boundaries were used, this number would have dropped to only ten seats. (Table XIV) This greatly lessens the number of seats which give doubtful results. Thus by using these new boundaries narrow victories would have been far less common than they actually were, a desired feature i n any p o l i t i c a l contest. That the contests might have been more decisively won would seem to indicate that by creating more cohesive ridings, the electorate would be more united in their viewpoints than was hitherto the case. This could be a measure of the success of this system of constituency derivation. Because of the more equable voting numbers found i n the proposed constituencies, the theoretical election results in these new ridings indicates the broad basis of support which the present government enjoys throughout the province. Thus the government cannot Justifiably reject pro-v i n c i a l constituency redistribution in the belief that their support i s extremely local i n nature and found primarily in the areas presently represented by small constituencies. These hypothetical election results suggest that Social Credit support i s not solely in isolated pockets of the province. Much of their support i s received from areas which are currently -73 TABLE XIV HYPOTHETICAL TOTAL VOTES RECEIVED BY CANDIDATES IN PROPOSED ELECTORAL DISTRICTS: BASED ON 1963 ELECTORAL DATA Constituency s.c. N.D.P. Lib. Majority Cariboo 2,890 1,443 1,120 1,670 Central Okanagan 6,802 1,406 555 5,396 Columbia 3,015 2,198 729 817 Coquitlam 4,797 6,617 2,266 1,820 Cowichan 3,622 4,764 980 1,142 Crowsnest 2,841 3,639 2,169 798 Delta 6,778 4,823 1,458 1,755 East Burnaby 4,726 4,806 1,900 80 East Fraser Valley 7,822 2,377 1,924 5,445 E squimalt-Renfrew 4,741 2,659 1,327 2,082 Fort Langley 5,472 3,790 1,144 1,682 Fraser 2,543 2,428 1,079 113 Harrison-Stave 5,257 4,492 1,635 765 Island Central 4,064 4,421 — 357 Kootenay 4,783 2,982 1,781 1,801 Mackenzie 1,757 1,983 600 226 Malaspina 4,083 5,116 932 1,033 Nechako 6,751 2,321 1,365 4,430 New Westminster 4,574 4,913 2,26l 339 North Burnaby 4,810 5,485 1,898 675 North Okanagan 3,940 1,917 1,946 1,994 North Vancouver City-Capilano 4,454 2,464 4,068 386 North Vancouver Di s t r i c t 4,432 2,197 5,738 1,306 Oak Bay 5,286 1,080 4,949 337 -74 TABLE XIV (Cont'd) Constituency S.C. N.D.P. Lib. Majority Peace River-Stikine 5,454 1,337 1,368 4,086 Pend d'Oreille 5,851 3*266 1,743 2,585 Richmond 5,885 4,732 1,856 1,153 Saanich and the Islands 6,333 2,855 1,669 3,478 Skeena 5,190 3,818 2,151 1,372 South Okanagan 5,834 2,453 1,345 3,381 Stratheona 3,888 3,682 713 206 Sunshine Coast 3,688 3,912 2,121 224 Thompson 6,245 1,734 788 4,511 Vancouver-Centre 3,682 3,125 1,077 557 Vanoouver-Fraser View 4,322 5,011 1,100 689 Vane ouver-Granville 3,695 3,037 2,409 658-Vancouver-Hast Ings 3,869 5,291 966 1,422 Vancouver-Kitsilano 4,342 3,891 2,484 451 Vancouver-Langara 5,347 2,626 4,155 1,192 Vane ouver-Main 4,641 4,607 1,446 34 Vancouver-Marine 4,966 1,354 6,139 1,173 Vancouver-Musqueam 4>879 1,757 7,207 2,328 Vancouver-Renfrew 4,171 5,195 938 1,024 Vancouver-Shaughnessy 4,256 1,072 6,049 1,738 Vancouver-South Slope 5,428 4,658 1,619 770 Vancouver-Stanley 4,139 2,531 2,382 1,608 Victoria-Harbour 5,907 2,495 2,356 3,412 Victoria-Pandora 6,011 2,236 2,744 3,267 West Burnaby 4,774 4,108 1,826 666 West Vancouver 3,886 1,004 5,776 1,890 Whalley 4,360 4,728 1,088 368 Number of Candidates Elected (32) (14) (5) 75 under-represented by legislative members, such as i n Vancouver-Point Grey and Delta. Therefore the employment of more equable constituencies would show more clearly the actual measure of support which B r i t i s h Columbians do in fact have for the governing party. As for the electorate, the proposed boundaries would increase the value of their vote because the voting ratio would be drastically reduced. Each area would also be given a more specific voice in the direction of government. With the 1965 ratio of voting numbers in the province being in excess of twenty-five to one, some votes counted very l i t t l e . By using the proposed new boundaries this imbalance would be no longer in existence. The present government and the provincial electorate would both benefit from adopting new boundaries for each would have a clearer picture of the provin-c i a l voting pattern and of the areas of strong support for each p o l i t i c a l party. The w i l l of the voters of B r i t i s h Columbia could more easily be ascertained. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS Restatement of the Problem For many years B r i t i s h Columbia, like a l l of North America, has experienced a major population shift from rural to urban areas. Since the end of World War II B r i t i s h Columbia has also f e l t the pressure of a rapidly increasing population. Because of these two influences the 1965 legislative constituencies were out of date and no longer desirable as a vehicle to register the wishes of the electorate. The problem which this thesis attempts to solve i s "What criterion would be most suitable in determining new constituency boundaries for the province?" B r i t i s h Columbia i s represented by federal ridings based on the concept of representation by population. Although population i s very unevenly distributed, the criterion on which federal constituency boundaries are established Is accepted as reasonable because in the House of Commons the representatives elected from B r i t i s h Columbia discuss mainly questions concerning the welfare of the Dominion or of B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. On the provincial p o l i t i c a l scene the situation i s quite different. Members of the Legislative Assembly are expected to promote the viewpoints of their constituents and do discuss matters in terms of lo c a l p o l i t i c a l views. 77 As stated previously, i f representation by population were employed in B r i t i s h Columbia provincially, the majority of legislative members would come from Great Vancouver and Greater Victoria. It must be agreed that i t does not take a great number of representatives to put forth the viewpoint of these metropolitan areas. Most other areas of the province would be given only token, ineffective representation. In seeking a new pattern of representation in B r i t i s h Columbia one should not begin with the view of p i t t i n g one area of the province against another. If Greater Vancouver controlled the legislature by a wide margin the government would in effect be setting the large urban area against the remainder of the province. Provincial economic growth would give way to p o l i t i c a l disunity. In Chapter II an attempt was made to show that throughout the history of legislative representation i n this province there has been an attempt to give each area an opportunity to put forward i t s viewpoint force-f u l l y . This concept has not changed — either i n the minds of the electorate or i n the minds of p o l i t i c a l party leaders and legislative representatives. As there i s general agreement throughout the province that repre-sentation by population i s not acceptable the question i s really "How can each area of the province best be heard without creating the very large •ridings which "representation by population would adopt?" As an answer to this question, the author has recommended the principle of Nodality, creating areas of common interest throughout the province, and has attempted to mea-sure their function as possible constituencies. , .78 Assessment of Delinlation Method It would appear that the measurement of nodal regions i s a suitable method of determining p o l i t i c a l boundaries because the range of electoral riding size i s not extreme — being at most two and one-half votes to one. The proviso that i t i s particularly useful in an emerging economic and popu-lation area must be included. This functional analysis and boundary delimita-tion has not yet been attempted in areas where an even population distribution exists nor where a state of population equilibrium has been reached. Constituencies of common interest would give to each riding a sense of unity because each person within the constituency would be socially and economically linked with a l l other voters located in the same riding. If the t o t a l number of constituencies must be limited then the boundaries should be carefully chosen according to a meaningful criterion which give the electorate the possibility of expressing themselves. In the analysis of hypothetical electoral returns for the 1963 provincial election one possible clue as to the worth of the proposed method of delineation i s the fact that the number of close ridings — those where two parties could very possibly have won the constituency -— was greatly reduced. The analysis of the 1963 election results showed that generally the areas of lower income and labour supported the New Democratic Party. Upper and average income groups and white collar workers tended to support the Social Credit Party. Therefore in many present ridings, when these two groups were separated the desires of each group could more adequately be expressed. The boundaries devised may not be acceptable to a province or state which has only a small area. If the province of Prince Edward Island, with 79 i t s more even population distribution and much smaller area, were used for examination, perhaps representation by population would be a more satis-factory method of determining constituency boundaries. It would appear that i n determining boundaries for the purpose of p o l i t i c a l representation generally, that there i s no single principle by which, when applied, satisfactory boundaries are obtained. Economic, cultur-a l and p o l i t i c a l factors together mould the thoughts and actions of the population. Only when these factors are treated i n concert can meaningful and understandable boundaries be constructed. This treatment was used In the example of nodal regions serving as a basis for constituency boundaries in B r i t i s h Columbia. In this province this method appears to be an objective and satisfactory means of establishing p o l i t i c a l boundaries. Further studies may provide other examples to il l u s t r a t e this principle. It should be expected that B r i t i s h Columbia i s not unique in this regard. POSTSCRIPT The Angus Royal Commission Activities On August 5, 1965 the Honorable W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, appointed a Royal Commission to study the present electoral boundaries of the province. The Commission was instructed Make inquiry into and concerning the need, i f any, for amendment of the Constitution Act i n order to secure, by whatever definition of electoral d i s t r i c t s i s required, proper and effective representation of the people of a l l parts of the province in the Legislative Assembly and that in formulating the recommendations to be contained i n their report the Commission 1) take into account where feasible hi s t o r i c a l and regional claims for representation; 2) make their recommendations on the basis of a) that no electoral d i s t r i c t comprise fewer than 7*500 registered voters having regard to present population and apparent population trends to the year 1975, and b) that the Legislative Assembly comprise not fewer than forty-eight nor more than fifty-two members; and 3) give consideration to the provision of multiple member ridings of two members each in the metropolitan areas of Victoria and Vancouver and report their findings and recommendations to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council in accordance with the Act.1*-0 The chairman of this Royal Commission was Dr. H. P. Angus, assisted by the Chief Electoral Officer of the province, P. H. Hurley, and by the Deputy Chief Electoral Officer, K. L. Morton. This Commission held hearings throughout B r i t i s h Columbia and British Columbia Legislative Assembly, Order i n Council Ho. 2233, August 5, 1965. 81 invited interested persons i n each section of the province to put forward suggestions concerning a suitable constituency to serve their needs. In most cases the briefs submitted dealt only with the l o c a l area. Thus the Commission s t i l l had the task of attempting to f i t these l o c a l representations into a provincial pattern. At White Rock, B. C. on November 22, 1965, the author presented the findings put forth i n this thesis. (Appendix 3) The submission was warmly received by the Commission and the map of proposed constituencies as outlined by the report of the Commission has a striking similarity in many instances to the boundaries proposed In this t h e s i s . ^ This i s not to suggest that the Angus Commission accepted the maps submitted in this brief in t o t a l and simply Imitated them, for such i s not the case. The Commission found, through independent investigation, as was stated i n this thesis, that transportation patterns and economic act i v i t i e s were worthwhile guides for the determination of regions of common interest. The Commission often agreed with the findings outlined above and i t i s probable that this material was used as a guide to the boundary construction proposed by the Commission. During the provincial legislative session in 1966 the government brought into law a B i l l entitled "An Act to Amend the Constitution Act, ig66uh2 i n which i t legally set up new constituencies for the next provincial ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Legislative Assembly, Report of the Commission  of Inquiry into Redefinition of Electoral D i s t r i c t s , Under the Public Inquiries Act, Angus, H. F.; Hurley, F. H.j Morton, K. L.; Victoria: Queen's Printer, January, 1966. 42province of B r i t i s h Columbia, An Act to Amend the Constitution  Act, 1966, Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1965T 82 electioni The government did not adopt the recommendations of the Angus Commission in t o t a l . It deleted the recommended northern ridings of Northland, Omineca and Peace River and in their place retained the former ridings of Elorth Peace River, South Peace River, Omineca and A t l i n . As the terms of reference given to the Commission stated that no constituency of under 7,500 voters could he recommended, i t would seem that in maintaining the old northern ridings the government has hewed to the p o l i t i c a l pressure exerted by members of these northern ridings. The recommendation, of the Commission and of this study, that Vancouver and Victoria use single member ridings was also rejected. The Vancouver ridings, as outlined in the Royal Commission Report, were also deleted. This change would also seem to he p o l i t i c a l l y inspired. However, in spite of the p o l i t i c a l hand taken to the Angus Commission recommendations, in the main the newly adopted "boundaries are a vast improvement over those previously used in this province. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bracey, H. E. Social Provision In Rural Wiltshire. London: Methuen 8s Co. Ltd., 1932^  Christaller, W. Die Landische Siedlungsweise im Deutschen Reich. Berlin: W. Kohlhammer, 1937. Dickinson, R. E. City, Region and Regionalism. London: Methuen 8s Co. Ltd., 1947. Gilbert, E. W. "Geography and Regionalism," Geography in the 2 0 t h Century, London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., Chapter 15. Isard, Walter. Methods of Regional Analysis: An Introduction to Regional Science. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., I 9 6 0 . Kendall, P. L. Conflict and Mood. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free Press, 1954. Losch, A. The Economics of Location. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954. Payne, S. L. The Art of Asking Questions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 195TI Pounds, N. J. G. P o l i t i c a l Geography. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963. Sorrels Jr., F. E. A Study of the Central Place Hierarchy in North Central  Oklahoma. Stillwater: Oklahoma State University, I 9 6 I . B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT,  LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS B e l l , L. I. "Metropolitan Vancouver ... An Overview for Social Planners," Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Vancouver: 1965. Berry, B. J. L. and A. Pred. "Central Place Studies: A Bibliography of Theory and Applications," Bibliography Series No. 1 , Regional Science Research Institute, Philadelphia: 1 9 6 I . 8JI: Gotlund, S. "Bus Services, Hinterlands and the Location of Urban Settlements in Scania," Lund Studies in Geography Series B: Human  Geography, Lund, Sweden: 1951. Kane, E. "Umland Studies and Sector Analysis," Lund Studies in Geography,  Series B: Human Geography, Lund, Sweden: 1951. Mayfair, R. C. "Conformations of Service and Retail Activity. An Example in Lower Orders of An Urban Hierarchy i n a Lesser Developed Area," Proceedings of the I.G.U. Symposium in Urban Geography, Lund, Sweden: Nicholson, N. L. and R. T. Gajda. "Research Approaches to Economic Regionalisation in Canada, Methods of Economic Regionalisation," Proceeds  of the 2nd GeneralMeetlng of the Commission on Methods of Economic"  Regionalisation of the I.G.U., Geographia Polonica #4, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw: 1964. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette: 1869. Victoria: Queen's Printer, I 8 6 9 . Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Legislative Assembly. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Redefinition of Electoral Di s t r i c t s , under the Public Inquiries Act, Angus, H. F.; Hurley, F. H.; and Morton, K. L. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1966. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Statement of Votes, 1963. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 196k. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Victoria: Queen's Printer. The Questionnaire, Research Bulletin of the National Education Association, Vol. VIII No. 1 (1930), National Education Association, Washington. The Twentieth Century Fund, ed. A. Lewis. One Man - One Vote. New York: 1962. Ullman, E. L. "Economic Regionalization - Materials from the F i r s t General  Meeting of the Commission on Methods of Economic Regionalization," I.G.U. Dokument Geographia No. 1, Warsaw: 1961. Watanabe, Y. "The Trade Areas in the Central Part of Iwate Prefecture," Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Seventh Series, (Geography) ~ ~ : : — C. PERIODICALS Barros, E. deV. "Defining the Boundaries of a Brazilian Rural Community," Rural Sociology, 22:270-71, 1957. Berry, B. J . L. "A Method for Deriving Multi-Factor Uniform Regions," Przeglad Geograficzny, Polska Adademia Nauk, Instytut Geografii, Warsaw, XXXlll Ho. 2, 1961. 8 5 Berry, B. J. L. and W. L. Garrison. "The Functional Bases of the Central Place Hierarchy," Economic Geography, 34:145-54, 1958. B i l l e t , J. "L'Expression Politique en Gresivaudan et son Interpretation Geographique," Revue de Geographie Alpine, 46:97-128, 1958. [Bracey, H. E. "A Rural Component of Centrality Applied to Six Southern Counties of the United Kingdom," Economic Geography, 32:38-50, 1956. ©racey, H. E. "Towns as Rural Service Centres: An Index of Centrality with Special Reference to Somerset," Transactions of the Institute of B r i t i s h  Geographers, 19:95-105, 1953. (Broek, J. 0. M. "The Functions of Urban Areas," Professional Geographer, V No. 6:2-5, 1953. Brush, J. E. "The Hierarchy of Central Place in South West Wisconsin," Geographical Review, 43:380-402, 1953. Carruthers, I. "A Classification of Service Centres in England and Wales," Geographical Journal, 123:371-85, 1957. Clark, J. P. and F. C. Evans. "Distance to Nearest Neighbor as a Measure of Spatial Relations," Ecology, 35:445-53, 1954. Dickinson, R. E. "The Regional Functions and Zones of Influence of Leeds and Bradford," Geography, 15:548-57, 193Q. Duncan, J. S. "New Zealand Towns as Service Centres," New Zealand Geographer} 119-38, 1955. . Faweett, C. B. "Natural Divisions of England," Geographical Journal, 49:124-41, 1917. : Gilbert, E. W. "Practical Regionalism in England and Wales," Geographical  Journal, 94:29-44, 1939. Gilbert, E.W. "The Boundaries of Local Government Areas," Geographical Journal, 111:172-206, 1948. Gilbert, E.W. "The Idea of the Region," Geography, 46:157-74, i960. Green, F. H. W. "Notes on the Hierarchy of Central Places and Their Hinterlands," Economic Geography, 34:210-26, 1958. Green, F. H. W. "Urban Hinterlands in England and Wales: An Analysis of Bus Services," Geographical Journal, 116:64-88, 1950. Green, H. L. "Hinterland Boundaries of New York City and Boston in Southern New England," Economic Geography, 31:283-300, 1955. Gregory, C. L. "Advanced Techniques in the Deliniation of Rural Boundaries," Rural Sociology, 14:59-63, 1949. 86 Harris, C. "Methods of Research in Economic Regionalisation," Geographia  Polonica, Warsaw, #4, 1964. Jackson, W. A. D. "Whither P o l i t i c a l Geography," Annals of the Association  of American Geographers, 48:178-83, 1958. Kerma, E. A. "Regional Research - Emerging Concepts and Techniques in the Fiel d of Geography," Economic Geography, 29:189-97, 1953. Krebheil, E. "Geographic Influences in B r i t i s h Elections," Geographical  Review, 2:419-32, 19l6. The Listening Post. Newsletter of the Canadian Federation of Mayors and Municipalities, Montreal, 22:Nos. 9 & 10, 1962. Minghi, J. V. "Boundary Studies in P o l i t i c a l Geography: A Review A r t i c l e , " Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 53:407-48, 1963. Morgan, F. W. "Three Aspects of Regional Consciousness," Sociological  Review, 31:79-86, 1939. Odell, P. R. "The Hinterlands of Melton Mowbray and Coalville," Transactions  of the Institute of B r i t i s h Geographers, 175-90, 1957. Peake, H. J. E. "Geographical Aspects of Administrative Areas," Geography, 15:531-46; 1929. Philbrick, A. K. "Principles of Areal Functional Organization in Regional Human Geography," Economic Geography, 33:92-104, 1957. Prescott, J . R. V. "The Function and Methods of Electoral Geography," Annals  of the Association of American Geographers, 49:296-304, 1959. Roberts, M. C. and K. W. Rumage. "The Spatial Variations in Urban Left-Wing Voting in England and Wales, 1951^" Annals of the Association of American  Geographers, 55:l6l-75, 1965 • Sauer, C. "Geography and the Gerrymander," American P o l i t i c a l Science  Review, 12:403-26, 1916. Schultz, G. M. "Traffic Flow Maps," Professional Geographer, 13:18-19, 1961. Smailes, A. E. "The Analysis and Delimitation of Urban Fields," Geography, 32:151-61, 1947. Spelt, J . "Towns and Umlands: A Review A r t i c l e , " Economic Geography, 34:362-69, 1956. Vallaux, C. "Les Aspirations Regionalistes et l a Geographie," Mercure de  France, 8, 1925. Vidal de l a Blache, P. "Regions Francaise," Revue de Paris, 17:821-49, 1910. 87 . Wright, J . K. "Voting Habits in the United States," Geographical Review, 22:666-72, 1932. Zobler, L. "Decision Making in Regional Construction," Annals of the  Association of American Geographers, 4ti:l40-48, 19581 D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Grimmett, T. M. "Basis for Redistribution, Fact or Fancy," Unpublished Term Paper, Department of Geography, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. E. NEWSPAPERS [The Province (Vancouver), June 30, 1964. JRichmond (Virginia) Times-Dispatch, July 8, 1964. A P P E N D I X 1 The Questionnaire .89-Questionnaire Employed to Determine Nodal Regions of B. C : Please place in the space provided the name of the settlement where you receive each of these services. 1. We buy the majority of our groceries in 2. My Doctor lives in 3. My bank i s located in k. When the need arises, we usually go to hospital in 5. When listening to the radio we usually l i s t e n to the station in 6. People here usually buy their liquor at ' 7. Which Daily newspaper(s) do you subscribe to? 8. Which Weeklies do you subscribe to? 9. When we attend the movies we usually travel to 10. Funerals in this area are usually carried out by undertakers with offices in Thank you again far your time in assisting me with this information. A P P E N D I X Settlements Used t o Determine New Constituency Boundaries 9 1 Settlements Used to Determine New Constituency Boundaries: "(Classified According to 1 9 6 3 Federal Constituency in which located) Cariboo ( 7 7 $ t o t a l questionnaire return) Aleza Lake Lejac Barkerville Lower Post Bouchie Lake McBride Cecil Lake Marguerite Cinema Moberly Lake Clayhurst Montney Cornel Mills Moose Heights Crescent Spur Nithi River East Pine Nukko Lake Engen Pink Mountain Fort Fraser Red Pass Fort Nelson Sinclair Mills Fort St. James Summit Lake Fraser Lake Tete-Jaune-Cache Germahsen Landing Tupper Hixon Upper Fraser Hydraulic Valemount Keithley Creek Wonowon Lamming Mills Coast Capilano ( 6 6 $ return) B i l l i n g s Bay Redonda Bay Brem River Refuge Cove Lund Stuart Island Esquimalt-Saanich ( 8 3 $ return) Glen Lake Malahat Lagoon Saanichton Port Renfrew Shawnigan Lake Comox-Alberni ( 6 2 $ return) Ahousat Parks v i l l e Bamfield Port Neville Black Creek Provincial Cannery Blind Channel Qualicum Beach Blubber Bay Quathiaski Cove Bu l l Harbour Quatsino Coombs Read Island Esperanza Savary Island Estevan Point Simoom Sound Fanny Bay Sointula Holberg Sullivan Bay Jeune Landing Surge Narrows Kakawls Tahsis Kildonan Telegraph Cove 92 Camox-Alberni (continued) Kokish Kyu>quot Mansons Landing Minstrel Island Muchalat Kamloops ( 7 1 $ return) Alexis Creek Anglemont Avola Big Creek Big Lake Ranch Birch Island Birken Blue River Bridge Lake Brookemere Buffalo Creek Canim Lake Canoe Chinook Cove Clinton Copper Creek Criss Creek Darfield Dog Creek Douglas Lake Fawn (Lone Butte) Gosnell KLeena Kleene Kootenay East (66$ return) Athalmer Baynes Lake Canal Flats Canyon f^vscn jDonald Station Edgewater 'Fairmont Hot Springs JGrasmere Harrogate Kootenay West (6l$ return) Argenta Arrow Park Beaton Boswell Castlegar Thurlow Uclulet Whaletown Winter Harbour Lillooet Little Fort Lower Nicola Lytton McLeese Lake Mahood Falls Meldrum Creek Merritt Notch H i l l 100 Mile House Pavilion Quilchena Red Lake Redstone Salmon Arm Scotch Creek Seton Portage Soda Creek Spences Bridge Tappen Tatlayoko Lake Vavehby Walhachin Jaffray Kingsgate Lister Parson Radium Hot Springs Toby Creek Wardner Wycliffe Yank Kaslo Nakusp New Denver Queens Bay Renata 93 Kootenay West (continued) jcrawf ord Bay ,Crescent Valley iFerguson jGray Creek Howser Nanaimo (64$ return) Jchemainus Clo-oose Extension [Ganges 'Lady smith pkanagan-Boundary ( 5 7 $ return) Sandon Syringa Creek Ymir Paldi Pender Island South Pender Westholme Bankeir Beaverdell Fife jpkanagan-Revels toke (67$ return) Lrrowhead |Craigellachie Enderby Malakwa Skeena ( 7 0 $ return) Liyansh lAnahim Lake K t l i n Babine Burns Lake jcassiar piemretta Danskin Dorreen Endako (Grassy Plains Haysport Hazelton Houston Kitwanga Clemtu ; toricetown K e t t l e V a l l e y Princeton West Summerland Mara Mount Cartier Sicamous W i n f i e l d Noralee Gona River Ootsa Lake Perow Port Clements Queen Charlotte C i t y Quick Skidegate Smithers Streatham Stuie Takysie Lake Tatalrose Telegraph Creek T l e l l Usk W i s t a r i a T o t a l Questionnaire returns — 2 2 5 A P P E N D I X B r i e f Submitted to the P r o v i n c i a l Redistribution Commission ( Abridged ) 9 5 Brief Presented to the Provincial Redistribution Commission: (Abridged) White Rock, B. C. November 2 2 , 1 9 6 5 . Gentlemen: As a graduate student of the Department of Geography at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I have been preparing a Master of Arts thesis on the subject of a new set of provincial electoral boundaries for the pro-vince of B r i t i s h Columbia. While doing so I have learned much about the grouping of people in a l l parts of the province, the large economic communi-ties which are present, and of the aspirations of areal segments of the province. With your permission I should l i k e to share some of these findings with you and to present some of the conclusions which I have reached. Because the thesis being written deals with the province as a whole I wish to present this brief as a recommendation for provincial electoral boundary change and not as a recommendation for a regional change. Representation by population has been a r a l l y i n g cry in democratic countries for several centuries and I am sure that many submissions presented to you advocate this concept. Because of the heavy concentration of electoral population in the southwest corner of the province, the adoption of such a policy would, I believe, create an undesirable situation throughout the rest of the province. As the use of representation by population in boundary determination would create many rural ridings of large area, the government would not be insuring that these sparsely populated areas were effectively represented. One man cannot adequately represent a large area of the pro-vince be i t well populated or not. In an area changing as rapidly as i s Bri t i s h Columbia, i t would seem necessary as well that residents of peripheral regions be given adequate representation in order that they may fore s t a l l the : : 96 , continued concentration of economic development in the southwest corner of the province. The majority view may well he a selfish view and not in the interest of good long term provincial growth. The problem really centres around the method of drawing boundaries so as to achieve managable and meaningful constituencies. To achieve this representation by population must be modified but i t need not be lost sight of as i s at present the case in this province. An alternative method of aoundary delimitation which I f e e l i s worthy of your consideration is the concept of "Communities of Interest" and the subsequent identification of nodal regions. If the loyalties and ideas of the communities found within a large electoral d i s t r i c t are not similar then the elected legislative member must also have conflicting loyalties. He, therefore, cannot be a spokesman for the constituency as a whole but only for a part of i t . The revolution in transport and communication in North America has broken the isolation of the past for many communities. In this province many smaller communities have become connected to the larger population centres and regional interdependence between these communities has been affected. Such groups of villages and towns that focus upon regional c i t i e s could pro-vide a useful unit for representation i n the legislature. This concept of communities of common interest (Nodal regions) i s not new. In their defense, Dr. Alfred de Grazia, Professor of Government at New York University, has stated that "The Federalist papers, the United States Constitution, and indeed the prevailing doctrines and practices throughout history and around the world, incorporate and defend principles such as the 97 representation of communities per se, the representation of interests of functional groups . . . , the interests of minorities and the interest of efficient administration." Thus history and practicality side equally well with the idea of representation of communities of common Interest as with the s t r i c t adherence to representation by electoral numbers. The concept of nodal regions based upon communities of interest i s a simple idea. However, identification of the regions i s more d i f f i c u l t . As a f i r s t step to identification, the c i t i e s of the province must be ranked according to size. (Thesis Table IX) Assuming that the larger population centres are nodes of regions in which community of interest i s present i t i s then necessary to accurately delimit the boundaries of the region which focus on the nodal centre; that is to identify the region i n which the primary sphere of influence occured, that area of the province where people identified themselves more with the progress and happenings of one ci t y than of any other. It i s possible to draw a c i r c l e on a map to show the area which is under the primary influence of any city. The solution to this question of area of influence i s not a random process. It is possible to isolate those services which only appear in large population centres. By using the questionnaire method i t i s then possible to use these isolated functions to determine which population node each of the smaller communities use. Through functional analysis i t was found that the services best suited to this investigation included: Radio Stations, Hospi-t a l s , Funeral Homes, Bowling Alleys, Optometrists, Theatres, Commercial Photographers, Department Stores and Daily Newspapers. A questionnaire was devised using the above mentioned services and mailed to postmasters of two hundred selected provincial communities. The 98 proportion returned was i n excess of seventy percent. The return was not equally high throughout the province but even in those areas of relatively low response i t was f e l t boundaries could be accurately determined. The boundaries of primary influence around each of the large centres of the pro-vince, except greater Vancouver were then drawn. Sixteen nodal regions were identified. The electoral population within each was then calculated. (Thesis Table X) Certain areas of the province were found tributary to smaller centres than heretofore recognized. Rather than one ci t y dominating a region, two or three smaller centres shared services for the surrounding population. Five areas of the province f e l l within this category, three in the interior and two on the coast. Their electoral populations were also calculated. (Thesis Table XI) The heavily populated centre of Greater Vancouver did not lend i t s e l f to an investigation similar to that carried out elsewhere. Other methods of delimitation were therefore employed. Surrounding the City of Vancouver various Incorporated municipalities have provided l o c a l government for many years and singly or In groups they have been represented in the provincial legislature. The creation of new urban constituencies would require same recognition of municipal interests as municipal limits are boundaries of common interest to those persons l i v i n g within the d i s t r i c t . Where possible, the constituencies formulated should employ muni-cipal boundaries. Within the City of Vancouver various neighbourhoods have developed based upon shopping and community services; or sometimes social groupings. Neighbourhood Interest should be taken into account where munici-pal i t i e s or the c i t y must be subdivided for constituency purposes. 99 Using the techniques noted above municipalities and neighbourhoods which would be well suited to forming constituencies were identified. By chance fifty-one ridings were created. This i s one seat less than the number of constituencies presently in use. Were i t f e l t that fifty-two seats should be created, I would recommend that consideration be given to the creation of a riding midway between Prince George and Prince Rupert where the Omineca seat i s presently located. On examining the electoral totals for the constituencies which are here being presented you w i l l nouice that they easily f a l l within the terms of reference given at the commencement of these hearings. The largest con-stituency proposed would contain 20,891 voters, the smallest 9>^52; giving a ratio of less than 2-l/4 to one. (Thesis Table XII) Were these constituencies implemented, northern B r i t i s h Columbia would decline in number of ridings from seven to three, (four i f Omineca remained) eastern B r i t i s h Columbia from eight seats to four, Central B r i t i s h Columbia from nine seats to eight and Vancouver Island from ten seats to nine. In contrast the number of seats in Greater Vancouver would increase from eighteen to twenty-seven. The number of representatives given to the area outside the lower mainland must be reduced. By using the idea of "Communi-ti e s of Interest" those constituencies created would be meaningful. Believing that no government would accept a set of electoral boundaries which seriously challenged them at the polls, I have calculated the theoretical voting result in the proposed ridings using as a basis the 1963 electoral s t a t i s t i c s . The votes cast in the 1963 election were con-sidered p o l l by p o l l , and f i t t e d into the proposed series of boundaries. The result was Social Credit 31 seats, (32 i f Omineca were included) New . 10CL . Democratic Party 1 5 , and the Liberal Party 5 seats. When compared to the present Legislative standings there would be a net shift of only one seat, that going from the Social Credit Party to the New Democratic Party. In the voting analysis of these proposed constituencies i t was found that the number of seats won i n close contests declined. In 1 9 6 3 there were sixteen ridings in which the vote margin of the winner was less than 5 0 0 votes. If these new constituencies were used this number would have dropped to only nine. The last problem I wish to comment on i s that of multi-member ridings. Although this type of riding has been in existence since B r i t i s h Columbia in i t i a t e d representative government I f e e l that the use of them today is wrong. They occur when i t is f e l t by government that the affected population i s too large to be adequately represented by only one man. If this i s correct then two men working either separately or i n concert cannot f i l l this need. I believe that each riding should be represented by only one person so that the electorate can f a i r l y judge the member's competence. Gentlemen I have attempted to be brief as possible and yet not omit basic considerations. The boundaries presented to you have been consistently determined so that a l l ridings are v a l i d i n terms of "community interests." I respectfully submit to you that these boundaries and the method by which they were achieved be given careful consideration. Thank you for the opportunity of presenting this brief to you at this time. 

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